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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Progressive Conservative Party in British Columbia : some aspects of organization Black, Edwin Robert 1960

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THE PROG-RESSIVE CONSERVATIVE. PARTY Dl BRITISH COLUMBIAr SOME ASPECTS OP ORGANIZATION by Edwin Robert Black B.A., University of Western Ontario, 1951  A Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts; i n the Department '  of  Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1960  (i)  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study.  I further agree  that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may  be granted by the Head of my Depart-  ment or by his representatives, with the e x p l i c i t  exception  and reservation that no part of the material i n the thesis known as Appendix I, "The  Blue Book", and known as Appendix  I I , "The Drew Letter"', may  be reproduced i n any manner, i n  f u l l or i n part, without the express permission i n w r i t i n g of the holders of the copyrights f o r the material.  It is  understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. April  1960.  ABSTRACT  R e l a t i v e l y few  i n q u i r i e s have been made i n t o the  section-  a l l y - d e r i v e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . B r i t i s h Columbia P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y had  The  been e x h i b i -  t i n g s i g n s o f s t r e s s between f a c t i o n s i n t e r e s t e d i n a t t a i n i n g n a t i o n a l power and  those i n t e r e s t e d  i n p r o v i n c i a l government  objectives. The and  i n q u i r y , which r e l i e d c h i e f l y upon p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s  a c c o u n t s i n p e r i o d i c a l s , examined the  s a n s h i p i n B.C.  provincial politics.  o r g a n i z e d a l o n g p r o v i n c i a l l i n e s and, federal representatives, leader's control. was  P a r t y groups were when w o r k i n g toward e l e c t i n g  t h e y d i d so w h o l l y under the  U n t i l the  parti-  second w o r l d war  provincial  the n a t i o n a l  party  a c o n f e d e r a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s l o o s e l y l i n k e d across  the  top. As  the  beginnings of  an  important f o r c e  early thirties.  i n B.C.  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s d i e d  When n a t i o n a l  l e a d e r s attempted  during  reconstruction,  t h e y f o u n d p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n a c o a l i t i o n government dominated by ended, the and  the  Liberal Party.  Even a f t e r the  second w o r l d  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r r e f u s e d t o break w i t h the  c l u n g t o s o l e c o n t r o l o f a moribund p r o v i n c i a l  Attempts to r e v i v i f y the a s s o c i a t i o n c l a s h e s between the  f a i l e d and  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and  p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e brought i n t o the between the  p r o v i n c i a l and  f e d e r a l wings.  ii  the  Liberals  association.  personality  national  open a b i t t e r A new  war  leader's quarrel  federal  party  s t r u c t u r e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d the d i v i s i o n o f i n t e r e s t s and l a b o u r between f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l spheres. Acceptance  o f the changed  s t r u c t u r e came w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l group's r e a l i z a t i o n o f the e x t e n t o f the damage done by the q u a r r e l .  Two groups promote C o n s e r v a t i v e i n t e r e s t s i n B.C., the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l and the B.C. P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n . The C o u n c i l i s the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ' s c h i e f agent i n B.C. f o r f e d e r a l matters a l t h o u g h the a s s o c i a t i o n i s a l s o r e c o g n i z e d . The l a t t e r group, which i s l e f t f r e e t o pursue p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s , n o m i n a l l y c l a i m s but does n o t e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y i n f e d e r a l work. The  l e a d e r o f each group i s n o t a member o f the o t h e r group. The  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r e n j o y s much independence, a c c e p t s the d i v i s i o n and  seeks t o heal', the r u p t u r e . Important power was n o t v e s t e d i n  the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r ' s p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a l t h o u g h they p e r formed important  services.  A survey i n d i c a t e s more c o - o p e r a t i o n  e x i s t i n g a t the grass r o o t s l e v e l o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings than the l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s might suggest.  Public policy issues  have n o t d i v i d e d p a r t y members, l a r g e l y because i d e o l o g y i s n o t too i m p o r t a n t  i n the p a r t y a n d because t h e r e have been few p e r i o d s  when the p a r t y h e l d o f f i c e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y a t Otta?ra a n d V i c t o r i a . N a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e e l e c t i o n v i c t o r i e s eased f i n a n c i a l  diffi-  c u l t i e s f o r both groups a n d promoted r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . F e d e r a l i s m i n government and the d i v e r s i t y o f Canada's major r e g i o n s d e c i d e d the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e  iii  p a r t y u n t i l about the  second w o r l d war*?  Extra-parliamentary  p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were slow to d e v e l o p . The important i n t e r - s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and hood was  of f e e l i n g s of  nation-  a c c e l e r a t e d by u r b a n i z a t i o n , economic d e p r e s s i o n ,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l advances and  s o c i o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n . The  p a r t y t h a t used a C o n f e d e r a t i o n New  growth of  framework was  becoming  forms o f o r g a n i z a t i o n were needed t h a t r e c o g n i z e d  war,  political obsolete. the  socio-  l o g i c a l changes and were equipped to handle t e c h n i q u e s o f i n fluencing voters  i n the mass;. C o a l i t i o n government made the  even more n e c e s s a r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia  and,  t h e i r r e a l i z a t i o n i n some ways. The  B.C.  Conservative  appears t o be e v o l v i n g toward a new  type o f s t r u c t u r e t h a t  the c r u m b l i n g of s t r o n g s e c t i o n a l f e e l i n g .  perhaps,  changes  facilitated organization reflects  Many problems remain  to be examined, e s p e c i a l l y those i n v o l v e d i n the  inter-relation-  s h i p s of the v a r i o u s t y p e s o f e l e c t e d persons w i t h i n the f e d e r a l l y organized  political  party.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  I  Introduction  page  H i s t o r i c a l background CHAPTER  1 5  I I  Development CHAPTER  of Conflict  55  III  Contemporary o r g a n i z a t i o n  64  (i)  64  The F e d e r a l C o u n c i l  (ii)  The B . C . a s s o c i a t i o n  (iii)  Two C o n s e r v a t i v e  Organizations  72 76  CHAPTER I V Inter-Factional Relationships  80  (i)  81  F a c t i o n a l Leaders  (ii)  Membership a r t i c u l a t i o n  (iii) (iv)  Public Policy P a r t y Finance  95 105 109  CHAPTER V Conclusion  114  APPENDIX I  "The B l u e B o o k "  II III  The Drew L e t t e r Survey Form, Q u e s t i o n n a i r e  IV E l e c t i o n Returns  SOURCES"  132 145 149 150  153  CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n and H i s t o r i c a l Background  F e d e r a l c o u n t r i e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y new on the w o r l d stage but the success  o f s e v e r a l i n g o v e r n i n g and d e v e l o p i n g  t e r r i t o r i e s comprising  large  several disparate sections o f f e r s  f r u i t f u l a r e a s o f i n q u i r y f o r the student  o f government. Only  r e c e n t l y have c o u n t r i e s l i k e Canada and A u s t r a l i a s t a r t e d t o r e c e i v e c l o s e s c r u t i n y , i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o the much g r e a t e r interest America.  s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have shown i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f So many s i m i l a r i t i e s  a r e t h e r e between Canada and the  U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t attempts a r e sometimes made t o t r a n s f e r the f i n d i n g s o f American domestic s c h o l a r s h i p t o the Canadian scene, a procedure t h a t r e q u i r e s v e r y c a r e f u l h a n d l i n g i n view o f the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the c o n t i n e n t a l The  cousins.  p o l i t i c a l p a r t y a s i t operates i n European c o u n t r i e s and  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s has been f a i r l y t h o r o u g h l y  investigated a l -  though such i n q u i r y c a n n o t be c a l l e d complete so l o n g a s the s u b j e c t r e t a i n s i t s dynamic c h a r a c t e r . The p a r t y ' s r o l e i n d e f i n i n g acceptable  areas of p u b l i c controversy,  e d u c a t i n g the  c i t i z e n s t o these i s s u e s and, i n two-party c o u n t r i e s , o f f e r i n g the v o t e r s a n a l t e r n a t i v e government has been d i s c u s s e d i n many places.  Much l e s s u n d e r s t o o d i s the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y  i n a f e d e r a l country with a parliamentary u s u a l l y taken as a x i o m a t i c  1  operating  government. I t i s  t h a t major p a r t i e s i n N o r t h America  2,  a r e c h i e f l y o r g a n i z a t i o n s seeking power r a t h e r t h a n organs o f i d e o l o g y , a more s t r o n g l y e n t r e n c h e d a t t r i b u t e o f p a r t i e s i n many o l d e r n a t i o n s .  An  hypothesis  t h a t the f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l  p a r t y i n the Canadian model performs an a d d i t i o n a l and v i t a l i n h e l p i n g t o r e c o n c i l e s e c t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s l e d t o the  role  present  inquiry. F e d e r a l governments p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s s e e k i n g  to  encompass major l e v e l s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h u n u s u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s of organization.  H i s t o r i c a l l y t h e r e i s a p t t o be p h y s i c a l d i f f i -  c u l t i e s o f communication.  But even when geographic handicaps have  been overcome t h e r e remains the  s t r a t e g i c problem o f o p e r a t i n g  over a s e c t i o n a l l y - d i v i d e d f i e l d i n which s u c c e s s i n o n l y one i n two  p l a c e toward which a l l r e s o u r c e s  may  be  may  be won,  d i r e c t e d , but  or more d i r e c t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by the n a t i o n a l and  p r o v i n c i a l governments.  A t t a i n i n g power a t one  the  l e v e l frequently  l e a d s to d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h the h o l d e r o f power a t the o t h e r P r o v i n c i a l governments may  not  level.  be c o n t r o l l e d q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y  of  the n a t i o n a l p a r t y l e a d e r s by members o f the same p o l i t i c a l  party.  T h i s c r e a t e s a problem i n d i s c i p l i n e w h i c h i s compounded by  the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f some p a r t y members a c h i e v i n g independence o f  the  n a t i o n a l l e a d e r and u t i l i z i n g i t t o d i r e c t the a c t i v i t i e s o f  the  same p a r t y workers on whom the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r depends f o r f i e l d work.  A Canadian p a r t y s e e k i n g n a t i o n a l power i s f o r c e d to b r i d g e  the s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , o f f e r i n g a compromise o f r e g i o n a l c l a i m s t h a t may  render i t almost i d e o l o g i c a l l y n e u t r a l i n s e c t i o n a l p o l i t i c s .  3  These e o n s i d e r a t i o n s suggested a n i n q u i r y i n t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e  Party  i n w h i c h t h e r e appeared t o be i n t e r n a l s t r a i n s r e s u l t i n g from a c l a s h o f n a t i o n a l and s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , both seeking t o control i t .  D i r e c t l y - a p p l i c a b l e m a t e r i a l s f o r r e s e a r c h were n o t  e a s i l y d i s c o v e r e d . Only a few comprehensive s t u d i e s have been made o f Canadian n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s , and even fewer o f p a r t i e s opera1 t i n g w i t h i n one p r o v i n c e .  None o f these examined v e r y i n t e n s i v e l y  the problem under review here.  Only v e r y r e c e n t l y has a n a u t h o r i -  t a t i v e h i s t o r y o f B r i t i s h Columbia been w r i t t e n t h a t embraces the f i r s t half of this century.  2  The C o n s e r v a t i v e  organizations lack  documents a n d r e c o r d s ; n e i t h e r o f t h e two p a r t y o f f i c e s complete l i s t s  possessed  o f p a r t y s t a n d i n g s a f t e r e l e c t i o n s from 1905 t o the  p r e s e n t , and n e i t h e r was t h e r e a complete r e c o r d o f the names o f p a r t y l e a d e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the same p e r i o d . f i c i e n c i e s had t o be made good b e f o r e  These de-  the i n q u i r y c o u l d p r o c e e d  very f a r . I n consequence, c h i e f r e l i a n c e has n e c e s s a r i l y been p l a c e d on p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s a n d the f i l e s o f d a i l y newspapers and p o p u l a r p e r i o d i c a l s , w i t h a l l the a t t e n d a n t methods i m p l y .  handicaps t h a t such r e s e a r c h  Much o f the matter s t u d i e d i s s t r o n g l y c o l o r e d by  the p e r s o n a l involvement o f those  i n t e r v i e w e d . I m p a r t i a l assessment  o f the o v e r a l l s i t u a t i o n i s o f t e n i m p o s s i b l e  i f one has been a  1. The Canadian S o c i a l S c i e n c e C o u n c i l s e r i e s on A l b e r t a i s a n o t a b l e exception.':': ''• " ', ". .. ^ . -, — ' -} A study o f S o c i a l C r e d i t i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s b e i n g completed a t Wesleyan U n i v e r s i t y by Thomas Sandford. 2. M. A. Ormsby - B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y (Macmillans) 1958.  2;['••  :  ;;:  4  p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e main arena o r ofle o f t h e a n t a g o n i s t s ' supporters  a l t h o u g h such a p e r s o n c a n o f t e n f u r n i s h v a l u a b l e  i n f o r m a t i o n . I m p a r t i a l assessments might be made by p e r s o n s who have n o t been p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d b u t t h e y a r e u s u a l l y d e n i e d the knowledge on w h i c h assessments c a n be made.  I n d i s c u s s i n g f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , p o l i t i c a l p a r t y workers o f t e n suggest t h a t i n t r a - p a r t y c l a s h e s between l e a d e r s o r f a c t i o n s can be r e d u c e d t o p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s a n d n o t h i n g Challenging  such s u g g e s t i o n s -  a l t e r n a t i v e explanations  more.  requires i n d i c a t i o n of possible  o f such d i f f i c u l t i e s bdtween a d h e r e n t s  o f t h e same p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . I n s e e k i n g  such a l t e r n a t i v e s t h e  q u e s t i o n was reached: What a r e the i n f l u e n c e s o p e r a t i n g on a r e g i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t h a t may be t r a c e d t o t h e e v o l u t i o n of Canada a s a n a t i o n a l e n t i t y , and i n what way a r e t h e s e i n f l u e n c e s manifested ? impression  The s e a r c h f o r a n answer sometimes •„led t o t h e  t h a t a phantom was sought, many p e r s o n s were o f t h i s  o p i n i o n , b u t i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t some s o l i d substance has been g r a s p e d t h a t may c o n t r i b u t e i n some s m a l l measure toward f u r t h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f C a n a d i a n p a r t y p o l i t i c s . The d e d u c t i o n s t h a t a r e o f f e r e d a r e s o l e l y t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r and none o f t h e many p e r s o n s who so g e n e r o u s l y a s s i s t e d be. a t t r i b u t e d w i t h any o f t h e f a u l t s h e r e i n . .  should  5  The  p r o v i n c i a l executive  Conservative  o f the B r i t i s h Columbia  Progressive  A s s o c i a t i o n met a t Vernon on J u l y 17, 1954. A t t h a t  meeting the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r s u p p o r t e d a motion o f nonconfidence  i n George Drew, t h e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r o f the p a r t y . P o r  s e v e r a l hours angry debate f i l l e d t h e a i r , charges were h u r l e d f r e e l y and p e r s o n a l i t i e s s l a n d e r e d d u r i n g the p r o g r e s s  o f what  amounted t o a c i v i l war w i t h i n t h e p a r t y .  F i n a l l y a b a l l o t was  taken.  The p r o v i n c e ' s  The motion was approved 40 t o 24.  Conservative  members o f P a r l i a m e n t  three  jumped t o t h e i r f e e t a n d s t a l k -  e d from t h e room, f o l l o w e d by 21 s u p p o r t e r s ,  s e v e r a l o f them i n  t e a r s and a l l o f them enraged. D u r i n g the days, weeks a n d months t h a t f o l l o w e d , p a r t y members i n t h e p r o v i n c e two a n t a g o n i s t i c camps.  d e f i a n t l y ranged themselves i n t o  The p a r t y ' s b i t t e r i n t e r n a l s t r i f e was  exposed f o r a l l the v o t e r s t o see. discerned.  Conservative  The d i v i s i o n s were e a s i l y  On the one s i d e was Deane P i n l a y s o n , the p r o v i n c i a l  l e a d e r , most o f the e x e c u t i v e members o f t h e B.C. P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e J L s s o c i a t i o n , and p a r t o f the r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s ' executives.  On the o t h e r s i d e were t h e members o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  t h e Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s ,  and t h e o t h e r r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n  e x e c u t i v e s and members.  The lone C o n s e r v a t i v e  member o f the  L e g i s l a t u r e h e l d h i m s e l f a l o o f from the f r a y , l a t e r changing his  o f f i c i a l d e s i g n a t i o n t o t h a t o f independent. Newspaper r e p o r t s gave the i m p r e s s i o n  t h a t the c l a s h r e s u l t e d  from t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f George Drew a n d Deane F i n l a y s o n .  The  6 r  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ' s case was t h a t Mr. Drew was denying him h i s r i g h t s a s a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , and i n so d o i n g was b e h a v i n g dictatorially.  Many o f those  s u p p o r t i n g Mr. Drew d i d so  p a r t i a l l y on grounds t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l e x e c u t i v e had a c t e d u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y a n d was g r a v e l y i n j u r i n g the p a r t y i n t h e process.  C h i e f l y , however, they supported  Mr. Drew because  they d i d not w i s h t o r e l i n q u i s h t o a n unproven p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r a n d h i s f r i e n d s the f u l l c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r t y ' s f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B.C.,  a n o r g a n i z a t i o n b u i l t l a r g e l y through t h e  work o f a few s t a l w a r t s l i k e Leon Ladner a n d the t h r e e M.P.s: Howard Green, member f o r Vancouver-Quadra; E. Davie F u l t o n , Kamloops; a n d Mao.-Gen. George Pearkes, member f o r Saanich.  Esquimalt-  Those c l a i m i n g t h a t the problem c o u l d have been  r e s o l v e d but f o r Mr. Drew* s p e r s o n a l i t y i g n o r e t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Mr. Drew's B.C. s u p p o r t e r s who r e f u s e d t o g i v e up c o n t r o l over t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n . As a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e , t h e q u a r r e l h a d deep r o o t s ; some p a r t y members t r a c e d them t o t h e "Bowserites a n d t h e T u p p e r i t e s " , a r e f l e c t i o n o f one o f the e a r l i e s t d i v i s i o n s i n B.C. Conservative  r a n k s - supposedly between members p r i m a r i l y i n t e r -  e s t e d i n w i n n i n g power a t Ottawa a n d those p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h g a i n i n g power a t V i c t o r i a . S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t Tupper was t h e son o f a C o n s e r v a t i v e prime m i n i s t e r i n whose c a b i n e t he had h e l d o f f i c e i n h i s own r i g h t , a man who had won some n a t i o n a l s t a t u r e t h r o u g h s e r v i c e on a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l commission, a n d h a d r e t i r e d from n a t i o n a l  7  p o l i t i c s to l i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia at the turn of the century. While out of public o f f i c e , he continued his interest i n Conservative party fortunes.  Some persons believed he was assigned to  bolster B. C. organization f o r the election of M.P.s. Some also saw him as the eminence grise i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but t h i s he was not.  He may have wished f o r the role but he never attained i t .  There were two reasons, both of them fellow Conservatives.  The  more eminent was Richard Cartwright McBride, and the other was William John Bowser, called by his many enemies, " L i t t l e Caesar". Bowser manipulated the party apparatus i n B.C. f o r the f i r s t quarter of this century.  The opposition to Bowser's control  centred about Tupper, whence arose the appellations of "Bowserites and Tupperites. * 1  The credit- or blame - for the introduction of national party lines into provincial p o l i t i c s goes to McBride. U n t i l 1903 cabinets had been formed on a personal basis regardless of national party a f f i l i a t i o n s .  Ministries often included Liberals, Liberal-  Conservatives (as the Conservative party was then designated) and non-partisans. Because the r i s e of p o l i t i c a l parties i n Canada and i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been described elsewhere  only a brief out-  l i n e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l be attempted here.  5. Escott M. Reid, "The Rise of National Parties i n Canada," Papers and Proceedings of the Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science Associ a t i o n , IV (1952), 187-200. P. H. Underhill, "The Development of P o l i t i c a l Parties i n Canada," Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Review, XVI (Dec., 1955), 567-587. Eleanor S. Mercer, P o l i t i c a l Croups i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1885-1898, M.A. Thesis, History Department, U.B.C, 1937. Edith Dobie, "Some aspects of party history i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1871-1905", P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review, v o l . i , 1952 p.235-251.  8  Pro-Confederation associations which had been active i n the province waned after 1871.  A few became constituency organi-  zations supporting S i r John A. Macdonald. The importance of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway project was, however, apparently enough to ensure B r i t i s h Columbia's almost s o l i d support of the Liberal-Conservative party for many years.  The Liberals opposed  the railway and were i n great disfavour with l o y a l B r i t i s h  Coir-  umbians. Wot u n t i l 1889 was a Liberal r i d i n g association formed i n B.C.  During the early nineties, S i r W i l f r i d Laurier encour-  aged the growth of Liberal party feeling i n B r i t i s h Columbia and a loose provincial association was formed about 1894.  While  the Liberal-Conservatives had had numerous campaign organizations, these usually disappeared a f t e r elections.' Suggestions were made with increasing frequency during the nineties that Dondnion party lines should be introduced into provincial p o l i t i c s .  Such suggestions were not w e l l received.  The mood that prevailed i s suggested by this comment i n the Vancouver News-Advertiser on July  19,  1896:;  In our provincial a f f a i r s we want the most capable and best business men that we can get to accept a seat i n the Legislature and whether they hold Conservative or Liberal views i n federal a f f a i r s should cut no figure i n their selection. When the newly-formed Provincial L i b e r a l Association held a conference i n Vancouver i n 1897  i t was immediately c r i t i c i z e d  for what was said to be an attempt to introduce party l i n e s i n provincial matters. The federal election had been held the  9  year previously, i t was pointed out, and there was no cause for the L i t e r a l s to meet p r o v i n c i a l ^ .  The meeting passed a resolut-  ion proposing that party l i n e s be introduced i n provincial a f f a i r s . The resolution was repudiated the next day.  At Victoria the  Opposition to the government of Premier J.H. Turner continued to include Liberal-Conservatives and Conservatives working closely together.  Turner, seizing the offensive, declared his 4  government was "Conservative from top to bottom" but he f a i l e d to secure the support of his Conservative opponents. He next t r i e d to win the support of federal Liberals who opposed party p o l i t i c s i n the provincial sphere and c a l l e d an election i n 1898.  Turner's government group had maintained a strong organ-  i z a t i o n throughout the province and both Liberal and Conservative associations were determined to keep the Opposition united by r e f r aining from partisan p o l i t i c s during the election.  I t resulted  i n Turner securing only 18 of the 58 members as supporters.  He  was dismissed by the lieutenant-governor and Charles Semlin, the opposition leader, became premier. The Liberal-Conservatives held their f i r s t Vancouver convention i n 1898, resolved that party lines would be desirable provincially and encountered widespread newspaper opposition'.' The outcry was such that they postponed plans to organize provi n c i a l constituencies. At a meeting the next year the LiberalConservatives seriously considered, but did not actually adopt a motion to withdraw from any a c t i v i t y that might be linked to provincial p o l i t i c s . 4. Vancouver News-Advertiser, Nov. 28, 1897.  10  In 1899 Semlin*s government was defeated over a redistribution bill.  Joseph Martin, former attorney-general, formed a new govern-  ment on the understanding that he would c a l l an immediate election. Discussion had revived within Conservative ranks about the advisa b i l i t y of party lines i n B.C. p o l i t i c s , but the move was condemned i n the desire to keep opposition united to defeat the government for Martin appears to have been widely disliked.  Party groups  were most active i n Vancouver, however, and when the c i t y Liberal association decided to support the government, the Liberal-Conservatives decided as a body to oppose the government. A few other ridings ignored the provincial leaders wishes and ran party candidates resulting i n l i s t s f o r Government, Opposition, Liberal, Liberal-Conservative, Labour and Independent candidates for the 1900 elections.  Martin was defeated.  James Dunsmuir became premier.  A few months l a t e r , i n August, the Liberal-Conservatives assessed the election results. Although some straight Conservatives had been elected, the meeting concluded that what party efforts had been made outside of Vancouver had f a i l e d . Exceptionally strong organization had made the difference i n Vancouver. Once more a Conservative meeting decided the party should not be involved i n provincial a f f a i r s , as a similar Liberal group had also decided. For two years the federal organizations evinced l i t t l e interest i n the issue. In A p r i l 1902, however, a straight Liberal-Conservative won a provincial seat i n a Rossland byelection with the help of the Rossland d i s t r i c t association.  The  11  Liberal-Conservatives convened i n September i n Revelstoke, passed resolutions: backing participation i n provincial p o l i t i c s , drafted a provincial party constitution and asked M.L.A.s who were Liberal-Conservative i n federal a f f a i r s to work as a group i n the B.C. Legislative Assembly. Richard McBride's rise to eminence has been described by both Dr. M. A. Ormsby and Brian R. D. Smith.' The government had been i n the hands of E. 6-. Prior for only a short time before his defeat i n the Legislature over the Chimney "'•' 6 !  Creek a f f a i r .  McBride, the Leader of the Opposition, was summoned  by the lieutenant-governor. McBride apparently considered forming another c o a l i t i o n government but was swayed from this course by a number of considerations.  Most important seems to have been  a caucus of the Liberal-Conservative members of the legislature who reminded him of the Revelstoke convention's resolutions.  The  new ministry was frankly Conservative i n i t s makeup and McBride c&terinined to go to the country f o r a vote of confidence. The Liberal-Conservative association undertook to conduct the government's campaign. Some r i d i n g associations protested the imposition of federal lines into provincial p o l i t i c s and refused to-co-operate. McBride accordingly set up separate associations i n those ridings with the express aim of working i n the provincial f i e l d .  Federal election work was to be l e f t to  5. Ormsby - History - chap. 12 The People's Dick? Brian R. D. Smith, "Richard McBride" - Conservative Concepts, 1959. « Ormsby - History - chap. 12.  6  12;  the recalcitrant federal organizations. McBride apparently had the support of the new national Liberal-Conservative leader, Robert Laird Borden. Borden, took no part i n the campaign, and there i s no suggestion he would have taken part even i f there had not been aggrieved party feelings on the matter.  Several  members of Parliament campaigned actively while others refrained. The vagueness of p o l i t i c a l lines i n the legislature makes i t d i f f i c u l t to examine the partisan character of any new group of members. The 1905 election gave McBride a slight edge i n the Housej of the forty-two members, twenty-two were nominal LiberalGonservatives or Conservative and one had to be elected Speaker. Seventeen called themselves Liberals, two were Socialists and one Labour. The Liberal-Conservative annual meeting of 1904 congratulated the premier f o r his success i n introducing party lines and reorganized i t s e l f completely along provincial l i n e s . This basic structure has remained largely the same up to the present.  7  The introduction of party lines into B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s may be attributed partly to the carry-over of partisan feeling from the federal sphere, partly to the increasing migration to B.C. from eastern provinces of people accustomed to partisan provincial p o l i t i c s , but probably c h i e f l y to the growing i n a b i l i t y of the personality governments to cope with the province's changing  7. Superimposition of the Federal Council organization was an addition from without. I t i s dealt with below.  13  problems.  Had  a s u c c e s s i o n o f a b l e p r e m i e r s appeared a t  the  c o r r e c t time, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t c o a l i t i o n government would not have f a l l e n i n t o d i s r e p u t e as a n e f f i c i e n t means o f administration.  Another probable  i n f l u e n c e came from the  r e v i v i f y i n g o f b o t h n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s , the L i b e r a l through the i n f l u e n c e o f a b r i l l i a n t new Conservative  l e a d e r and  s u c c e s s , and  because o f i t s c r a s h i n g d e f e a t and  the  Liberal-  the r i s e  t o power  o f e n e r g e t i c young people f r e e from the t a i n t o f o l d - g u a r d i s m " . n  The  growth o f Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m i n B.C.  a l s o may  have  helped g  the p r o v i n c e  to a c c e p t  C o n s e r v a t i v e s who had  l e s s organized  i n B.C.  t h a n d i d p r o s p e c t i v e members of the  A l t h o u g h the o r i g i n a l b a s i s o f the  Liberal-  had been f e d e r a l , the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t o  a p r o v i n c i a l l y - o r i e n t e d body had ates.  lines.  sought e l e c t i o n t o the House o f Commons  support  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly. Conservatives  i n t r o d u c t i o n of n a t i o n a l p a r t y  repercussions  W i t h each e l e c t i o n they had  on f e d e r a l c a n d i d -  to patch together,  from the  p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s , an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t c o u l d embrace the work r e q u i r e d i n t h e much l a r g e r f e d e r a l r i d i n g . Once the e l e c t i o n was was  t h a t members who  over,  the patchwork f e l l a p a r t .  c o n s i s t e n t l y won  The  result  re-election federally  had  t o b u i l d p e r s o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t u s u a l l y were i n t i m a t e l y  9  c o n n e c t e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n .  8.  F e d e r a l candidates  who  Ormsby - H i s t o r y - p.329  9. Much o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n has been gleaned from a s e r i e s of p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Leon J . Ladner and D. A. MacGregor, former e d i t o r i a l w r i t e r f o r The Vancouver P r o v i n c e and a keen o b s e r v e r o f the p o l i t i c a l scene f o r many y e a r s .  14  l a c k e d such p e r s o n a l f o r c e s had a much more f o r m i d a b l e  task.  A t times the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n threw i t s e l f i n t o a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign but i t s e f f o r t s were weakened by i t s V i c t o r i a orientation.  T h i s i s not t o say t h a t powers i n the f e d e r a l  p a r t y were l a c k i n g i n f l u e n c e i n B.C. t h e y had,  party c i r c l e s .  but n o t o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t r o l .  S e n a t o r s and  ex-cabinet  Influence  Members o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  m i n i s t e r s such a s S i r C h a r l e s  Hibbert  Tupper were l a r g e personages, b u t t h e y d i d not o f t e n work a c t i v e l y i n the a s s o c i a t i o n t o which t h e y n o m i n a l l y They p r e f e r r e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e  belonged.  on-the p e r s o n a l machinery.  It  was  r a r e i n d e e d t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l , once s u c c e s s f u l i n the f e d e r a l field,  c o u l d be i n d u c e d t o p l a y a n a c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l r o l e .  A c c o r d between McBride and seems t o have o b t a i n e d D u r i n g h i s 1902 Conservative was  the f e d e r a l l e a d e r , R.L.  throughout the former's l e a d e r s h i p i n  w e s t e r n t o u r Borden had v i s i t e d the B.C.  c o n v e n t i o n a t R e v e l s t o k e and  h i s l e a d i n g the O p p o s i t i o n ) ^  The  f e d e r a l l e a d e r ' s views were,  T h i s a p p a r e n t l y was  the p a r t y o l d guard t o a s s e r t i t s a u t h o r i t y . the C o n s e r v a t i v e  Liberal-  (by v i r t u e o f  however, p a s s e d by and C h a r l e s W i l s o n , a p a r t y s t a l w a r t , e l e c t e d leader a t that time.  B.C.  o b s e r v e d t h a t McBride  the o b v i o u s c h o i c e f o r the p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p  b u i l d i n g up  Borden,  was  an attempt  by  McBride began  o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h the h e l p o f Robert  F r a n c i s Green and W i l l i a m John Bowser.  Bowser l a t e r assumed f u l l  10. R o b e r t L a i r d Borden - H i s Memoirs e d i t e d by Henry Borden (1930) v o l i p.90.  15  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y over o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B.C. l e a d e r s h i p was  I n 1906  McBride's  s e r i o u s l y c h a l l e n g e d by a combination  and W i l s o n , a i d e d by S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t Tupper who a l i e n a t e d by t h e K a i e n I s l a n d d i s p u t e . r e s i g n a t i o n was  o f Bowser had been  I n a d d i t i o n , Green's  demanded over the K a i e n I s l a n d case w h i c h the  o p p o s i t i o n represented as a r a i l w a y lands scandal. McBride's answer was  a j o u r n e y t o Ottawa t o e x t r a c t  •"Better Terms" f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. c a l l e d a conference  S i r W i l f r i d L a u r i e r had  o f the p r o v i n c e s t o c o n s i d e r t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the f e d e r a l government. was w e l l - p r e p a r e d and w e l l - p r e s e n t e d . it  s u f f e r e d f a r more t h a n any  to e a s t e r n manufacturing  The The  B.C.  financial  premier's  case  province claimed that  o t h e r s from the p r o t e c t i o n g i v e n  i n t e r e s t s , t h a t f e d e r a l p u b l i c works  were b u i l t everywhere e l s e , b u t not i n B.C., c o s t s were made u n u s u a l l y expensive  t h a t government  because o f g e o g r a p h i c a l con-  s i d e r a t i o n s , and t h a t the p r o v i n c e c o n t r i b u t e d f a r more t o f e d e r a l revenues t h a n i t r e c e i v e d .  F i x e d g r a n t s were outmoded,  he argued, and h e a l t h y upward adjustments were r e q u i r e d .  Laurier  a p p a r e n t l y was  unwill-  persuaded by some o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s and  i n g t o a l i e n a t e the v o t e r s o f a p r o v i n c e t h a t had, a l l L i b e r a l s a s t h e i r seven M.P.s. i n ten annual instalments.  He  i n 1904,  elected  o f f e r e d a g r a n t o f §1,000,000  T h i s McBride r e j e c t e d i n g r e a t i n d i g -  n a t i o n and went t o the p o l l s i n 1907.  He won  i n c r e a s e d support.  11  11. A u t h o r i t i e s v a r y on the p r e c i s e c o m p o s i t i o n o f the L e g i s l a t u r e . The most a c c e p t a b l e r e s u l t s seem t o be those g i v i n g the L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s twenty-seven s u p p o r t e r s , the L i b e r a l s twelve, and the;.Socialists three.  16  McBride carried his fight for better terms to Britain, a trip that was generally hailed as a success^  He returned i n time to  begin with some of his cabinet a series of trips throughout British Columbia i n whioh he eulogized Borden and helped!, to focus the population's anti-Oriental feelings.  A b i l l i n the  legislature which was thrown out by the Liberals at Ottawa, coupled with close liaison between Borden and McBride, helped to return five Liberal-Conservatives i n the 1908 federal election. Attorney-General Bowser was firmly wedded to McBride and devoted more and more of his talent to organization. Where McBride was charming and diplomatic, Bowser was blunt and often discourteous.  I f a party supporter needed putting off, i t was  Bowser that had to t e l l him no.  Over the years of McBride*s  prime ministry strong feelings grew up within the party.  If  you won what you wanted McBride's persuasive personality bound you close to the hierarchy and "Little Caesar* made i t clear who controlled things. request softly.  The attorney-general could not turn away a  A l l that he could not accede to, he considered  impertinent requests.  The party thus had i t s "ins* - Bowser's  hierarchy and i t s followers - and i t s "outs" - those who  lost  their fight for favours and were antagonized by Bowser. Railways schemes were revived i n British Columbia and McBride decided to make them an election issue i n 1909. The party "outs" included S i r Charles Hibbert Tupper, who had railway interests of his own.  Tupper denounced McBride*s  ^spendthrift* schemes but he carried l i t t l e organizational  17  influence a t this time and was apparently regarded by many as an Eastern intruder who did not understand B r i t i s h Columbia's problems. The tide of p o l i t i c a l favour set f u l l f o r the Conservatives i n 1909.  McBride was returned with thirty-seven  supporters, the opposition reduced to two Liberals and two Socialists.  Even the two Liberals were swept away i n 1912  and the Socialists held to two.  The year before,1911, Borden  had won a l l seven B r i t i s h Columbia seats i n t he Commons during his sweep to national power. One of the seven B.C. M.P.s was; a young member who had keenly observed the importance of party organization, H. H. Stevens, who l a t e r played a role that contributed to the Conservatives' overthrow. Borden and McBride were high i n each other's regard, and i t was probably this more than any other factor that accounts f o r their harmonious relations while each was i n office despite the B.C. premier's potential threat to Borden's leadership. 12 Borden's Memoirs  relate several instances between 1909 and 1911  when his national leadership was threatened with the succession of McBride a distinct p o s s i b i l i t y .  Before the election, i n 1911,  Borden sent t h i s message to McBride:: Last year's trouble revived. Am convinced that interests of party imperatively demand my retirement. Believe party would unanimously accept you as leader. National emergency absolutely demands your immediate affirmative response. Situation urgent. Reply necessary before Tuesday morning. 12. See v o l . i , p.287 and p.309.  18  The  n a t i o n a l emergency r e f e r r e d t o was  the N a v a l B i l l  and the L i b e r a l s ' R e c i p r o c i t y p r o p o s a l s . McBride was was  Apparently  debates before  a b l e t o r e f u s e Borden's r e q u e s t , the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r  p e t i t i o n e d by a l a r m e d members o f P a r l i a m e n t and remained i n  h i s post.  When Borden became prime m i n i s t e r he e x p e c t e d  McBride  15 to j o i n h i s cabinet t o remain where he  b u t the B r i t i s h Columbia p r e m i e r p r e f e r r e d was.  McBride l e f t the l e a d e r s h i p i n 1915 B r i t i s h Columbia's a g e n t - g e n e r a l . promptly  d e f e a t e d a t the p o l l s .  t o go t o England  as  Bowser became p r e m i e r and Before the 1916  was  e l e c t i o n the  number o f s e a t s i n the l e g i s l a t u r e had been r a i s e d t o f o r t y seven b u t o f t h i s t o t a l Bowser won  only nine.  Brewster l e d the L i b e r a l P a r t y i n t o o f f i c e w i t h supporters i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . i n g seat.  Harlan  C.  thirty-six  A S o c i a l i s t o c c u p i e d the remain-  Bowser had r e a p e d n o t o n l y the b i t t e r f r u i t o f economic  d i f f i c u l t i e s and o f the r e s u l t s o f h i s former c h i e f ' s o f t e n d i l a t o r y p o l i c i e s , b u t o f a l l the p e r s o n a l e n m i t i e s he had made 14 i n the p a r t y f o r y e a r s .  15. Borden - Memoirs - pp. 551-2. See a l s o Heath N. MacQuarrie "The F o r m a t i o n o f Borden s F i r s t Cabinet * - Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e v o l . 25 - No.l-Feb 1957 pp.90-104. 1  1  14. P a r t y o p i n i o n had been f u r t h e r a g g r a v a t e d when Bowser t o o k over the l e a d e r s h i p w i t h o u t c a l l i n g a c o n v e n t i o n . Tupper swung h i s support s o l i d l y t o the L i b e r a l s i d e and worked a c t i v e l y a g a i n s t Bowser i n the e l e c t i o n campaign.  19  A contemporary  o b s e r v e r made t h i s assessment  o f ¥. J . Bowser:.  A man o f dominating f o r c e o f c h a r a c t e r and marked a b i l i t y , h i s c o l d p e r s o n a l i t y and d i r e c t and e x p l i c i t manner o f e x p r e s s i o n was the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s o f t h a t o f McBride, and he c o u l d not c a p t u r e the p o p u l a r s u p p o r t . . . . . As O p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r ... Mr. Bowser o n l y succeeded i n f u r t h e r a n t a g o n i z i n g p o w e r f u l s e c t i o n s o f the public.- 1  5  D u r i n g Brewster's regime charges were made t h a t r a i l w a y  promoters  had c o n t r i b u t e d t o the campaign funds o f b o t h p a r t i e s . A member o f the L i b e r a l p a r t y , the s i x t h member f o r Vancouver C i t y , embarrassed the government by c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e f i r s t member,fM. AQ l a c d o n a l d , had r e c e i v e d a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f #25,000 f o r h i s p e r s o n a l campaign funds from the Canadian N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y . S t i l l a n o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n had t o be h e l d . D u r i n g the h e a r i n g s , s o r d i d d e t a i l s o f cont r i b u t i o n s t o t h e campaign funds o f b o t h p a r t i e s came t o l i g h t . . . .-^ Brewster was General.  f o r c e d t o a c c e p t the r e s i g n a t i o n o f h i s A t t o r n e y -  Promoters  o f the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n Railway were  i n v o l v e d i n a l a t e r case i n w h i c h i t was  said that  Bowser and a L i b e r a l , W i l l i a m S l o a n , had t a k e n money f o r 17 p o l i t i c a l campaigning.  While no v i s i b l e harm was  done t o  the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n by these charges, the malcontents g a i n e d f r e s h f u e l w i t h which t o f e e d t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s 15. B. A. M c K e l v i e - "B.C.'s New Oct. 1, 1928. p.30.  P r e m i e r " - Maclean's  Magazine  16. Ormsby - H i s t o r y - p.395 17. See: Bruce Ramsey, The P.G.E. S t o r y i n p r o c e s s o f p u b l i c a t i o n by M i t c h e l l P r e s s , Vancouver, c h a p . i i i . Mr. Ramsey g e n e r o u s l y p e r m i t t e d the w r i t e r the use o f h i s m a n u s c r i p t .  20  over Bowser's leadership. His opponents, however, were unable to make any headway.  Their d i f f i c u l t i e s were compounded by the  focussing of a l l a t t e n t i o n on the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign of 1917.  For the Conservatives, i t was a matter of patriotism  that Borden be returned i n the f u l l e s t possible strength. Internal party differences were submerged f o r the campaign which r e s u l t e d i n the e l e c t i o n of a l l thirteen Conservative candidates. Part of the c r e d i t f o r t h i s achievement belongs to H. H. Stevens, whose a b i l i t y gained increasing notice i n party c i r c l e s , and to Simon Fraser Tolmie, son of a nineteenth century B. C. p u b l i c , figure:.- who became f e d e r a l Agriculture M i n i s t e r i n August 1919. By 1920 Bowser had been out of power four years and h i s grip on the party apparatus appeared to be loosening.  He was  challenged by young Conservatives,including many newly-returned from m i l i t a r y service, and by many i n the large contingent of Conservative members of Parliament.  Bowser fought a vigorous  campaign against Premier John Oliver, r a i s e d the Conservative 18 representation a t V i c t o r i a  and fought o f f h i s c r i t i c s . Those  M.P.s c r i t i c a l of Bowser had complaints based both on differences over organizational t a c t i c s and on personal antagonism. Opposition to Bowser began to fade seriously i n the face of three developments:: h i s enthusiastic attack on Oliver i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , the 1921 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign which cut the thirteen Conservative M.P.s to seven, and the r i s e of the P r o v i n c i a l Party. 18. Conservatives fourteen; L i b e r a l s twenty-six; Labour four; Independents three.  21  T h i s l a t t e r r e p r e s e n t e d a p r o t e s t movement t h a t was i n O n t a r i o and the Canadian West.  One  in full  swing  essential difference i n  i t s B r i t i s h . Columbia m a n i f e s t a t i o n i s t h a t the movement was c o n t r o l l e d by a g r i c u l t u r a l elements b u t by businessmen.  not  The  P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y began w i t h a f u s i o n between the U n i t e d Farmers o f B r i t i s h Columbia, d i s s a t i s f i e d v e t e r a n s , and Vancouver businessmen.  politically-minded  Foremost among these l a t t e r was  C h a r l e s H i b b e r t Tupper, t o g e t h e r w i t h d i s i l l u s i o n e d o f the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e camps.  Sir  supporters  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to  say  t o what e x t e n t d i s s a t i s f i e d Conservatives.made up the P r o v i n c i a l Party.  Tupper's i n f l u e n c e may  o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s was  be  overemphasized b u t the number  not i n c o n s i d e r a b l e .  The  group's c h i e f  c o m p l a i n t s were c o r r u p t i o n i n government, blamed e q u a l l y on b o t h p a r t i e s , h i g h t a x e s , inadequate  treatment  for soldiers  and  f a r m e r s , and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l l y - o w n e d P a c i f i c 19 Great Eastern Railway.  Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s had been angered  by the 1922  endorsement o f Bowser and many had  convention's  j o i n e d the P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y . c a l l e d The  The new  p a r t y p u b l i s h e d an  S e a r c h l i g h t which made such a s e r i e s o f  organ  charges  a g a i n s t the o l d l i n e p o l i t i c i a n s and a g a i n s t t h e government t h a t Premier  O l i v e r was  f o r c e d to a p p o i n t a commission of  e n q u i r y i n t o the a c c u s a t i o n s .  Maj.  - Gen. A. D. McRae, the  19. See Margaret A. Ormsby - "The U n i t e d Farmers of B r i t i s h Columbia, An a b o r t i v e t h i r d p a r t y movement" B. C. H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 14, 1950, pp. 53-75.  22  P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y ' s f i n a n c i e r and l e a d e r , had h a n d l e d about a f i g u r e o f #500,GOO supposed t o have been p a i d from p r o v i n c i a l f u n d s c o n t r o l l e d by the P.G.E. b o t h t o Bowser and t o O l i v e r ' s supporters.  S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t was  i n q u i r y b u t he was to  unable t o adduce any e v i d e n c e  the i n q u i r i n g commissioner.  testify.  c o u n s e l f o r McEae i n the acceptable  Bowser f l a t l y r e f u s e d t o  P r e m i e r O l i v e r r e b u t t e d a l l q u e s t i o n s w i t h such  skill  20 t h a t many answers were e l i c i t e d b u t no i n f o r m a t i o n .  Because  c e r t a i n r e c o r d s were burned, the P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y was  able to  c r e a t e an i m p r e s s i o n t h a t g r e a t c o r r u p t i o n e x i s t e d but  had  been c l e v e r l y camouflaged. The P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y campaign motto was and don't l e t Bowser i n e l e o t i o n s o f June 1924.  n :  "Put O l i v e r  out  , a s l o g a n that, b o r e f r u i t i n the Not  s e a t , but so d i d Bowser who  only d i d Premier O l i v e r l o s e h i s had h e l d h i s s e a t twenty-one y e a r s .  To the P r o v i n c i a l s c h a g r i n , however, McRae a l s o f a i l e d t o e l e c t i o n t o the l e g i s l a t u r e which was C o n s e r v a t i v e s , twenty-three  composed o f f o u r t e e n  Liberals, three P r o v i n c i a l Party  members, t h r e e S o c i a l i s t s , one The premier won  win  Labour and f o u r Independents.  a b y e l e c t i o n t o r e t u r n t o the house and  con-  t i n u e d t o r u l e , a s one C o n s e r v a t i v e p u t i t , "by the grace 21 G-od,  and the Labour P a r t y and  Conservative  the member f o r A l b e r n i . "  The  l e a d e r , angered by h i s d e f e a t and the d e f e c t i o n  o f many whom he f e l t s h o u l d have supported seek a n o t h e r  of  him,  refused to  s e a t and announced h i s r e t i r e m e n t from p o l i t i c s . '  20. The b e s t a c c o u n t i s i n Ramsey, The P.G.E.. S t o r y , Chapter V. 21, C i t e d i n , . " i . James Morton - Honest John O l i v e r - ( D e n t , T o r o n t o ) 1935, p.  198.  25  He was p r o v i s i o n a l l y succeeded as nominal leader of the party hy R. H. Pooley who  became Leader of the Opposition.  Although the e l e c t i o n had cut O l i v e r ' s support and kept Bowser out, i t had also administered the coup de grace to the 22 P r o v i n c i a l Party.  I t s membership faded away.  Some, l i k e McRae,  stole quietly back to the f o l d s of the Conservative Party.  The  farmer supporters withdrew to the wings of the U.F.B.C. and 25 eschewed p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n f o r a time.  Most prominent among the  Conservative members of Parliament at t h i s time were Hon. H. H.^ Stevens, Dr. S. P. Tolmie and L. J . Ladner, who had f i r s t e l e c t i o n to the Commons i n 1921.  Stevens was  i n the b a t t l e with King a t Ottawa.  won  c l o s e l y involved  Tolmie, another former cabinet  minister, became n a t i o n a l oranizer a f t e r the party's defeat i n 1921.  These f e d e r a l members ensured that B.C. Federal ridings  were well-organised but c o n t r o l of the party machinery was  held  f i r m l y by Bowser. A f t e r h i s "retirement"' i n 1924 he attempted to c o n t r o l the organization through close f r i e n d s and i t became evident that as long as Bowser was a l i v e he intended keeping h i s hand as f i r m l y on the party t h r o t t l e as possible. R. L. Maitland, who  became party president, t r i e d to steer a neutral course between  the Bowserites and the anti-Bowserites but t h i s s a t i s f i e d nobody. 22. S i r Charles Hibbert Tupper, f o r example, r e t i r e d from p o l i t i c a l l i f e as a r e s u l t . He died March 30, 1927. 23. Some a g r i c u l t u r a l groups supported the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and others the S o c i a l C r e d i t movement . See Ormsby - "The United Farmers" - B.C.H.Q. P.75  24  A l l i t d i d was  t o keep the f i e l d c l e a r f o r b a t t l e .  e l e c t i o n o f 1925 Columbia.  r e t u r n e d t e n C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.s  The f e d e r a l  from  British  D i s a f f e c t i o n w i t h Bowser g a t h e r e d about the l e a d e r -  s h i p o f some o f these f e d e r a l members. from Stevens and Tolmie, was  The  s t r o n g e s t M.P.  e v i d e n t l y Ladner.  Tolmie  apart  was  approached s e v e r a l times about assuming the l e a d e r s h i p but  he  24 r e j e c t e d e v e r y advance.  The p r o v i n c i a l government was  running  i n t o i n c r e a s i n g l y heavy weather over the P.G.E. r a i l w a y and economic s i t u a t i o n .  Mr.  the  Ladner s t a t e s :  I t was a b s o l u t e l y c e r t a i n t h a t the C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o u l d form the next p r o v i n c i a l government, p r o v i d e d t h e y had a s t r o n g l e a d e r . I t was a g r e a t chance. B i l l Bowser r e a l i z e d t h i s t o o and he c o u l d n ' t keep h i s hands o f f . The minute he saw t h e r e was a l o t o f support b u i l d i n g up f o r me, he s t a r t e d moving a g a i n . ^ 2  A l e a d e r s h i p c o n v e n t i o n was The  c a l l e d f o r November, 1926  i n t r i g u e began months b e f o r e .  There was  q u a r r e l l i n g over  method o f s e l e c t i n g each r i d i n g ' s d e l e g a t e s , and balloting.  The  d i s p u t e was  a t Kamloops.  on  d e t a i l e d and a c r i m o n i o u s .  the  convention Every twist  26 and t u r n was  r e p o r t e d i n the d a i l y p r e s s .  Charges were made t h a t  f e d e r a l members had u s e d t h e i r weight i n p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s t o secure t h e e l e c t i o n o f d e l e g a t e s p l e d g e d t o Bowser, who  e i t h e r t o Ladner o r  had d e c i d e d t o e n t e r the c o n t e s t .  Gangs f r o m  e i t h e r camp crowded c o n s t i t u e n c y meetings f o r the e l e c t i o n o f  24. McKelvie  - op. c i t . -  P.30.  25. Prom a c o n v e r s a t i o n between Mr.  Ladner and the w r i t e r , January  26. See d a i l y i s s u e s o f The Vancouver P r o v i n c e October, and November 1926.  d u r i n g September,  1960.  25  delegates.  C l a i m s o f " p a c k i n g " meetings w i t h non-members were  made by b o t h s i d e s . unpledged one  A number o f c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s s e n t  delegates.  Two  r i d i n g s s e n t double  s e t p l e d g e d t o Ladner and one t o Bowser.  sets of delegates, By a l l oounts the  d e l e g a t e s were e v e n l y s p l i t between the Ladner and the Bowser men. The b a t t l e was t h i s , f o r purposes feature.  not one a l o n g f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l l i n e s  and  o f t h i s i n q u i r y , i s i t s most noteworthy  R. H. P o o l e y , the C o n s e r v a t i v e Leader o f the O p p o s i t i o n ,  had d e c l i n e d t o r u n .  I n s t e a d , he l e d a group o f twelve o r t h i r t e e n  members o f the L e g i s l a t u r e i n a group t o Ladner, and p l e d g e d t h e i r s u p p o r t .  Ladner,  u r g e d him t o r u n  the member o f P a r l i a m e n t  had  the most i m p o r t a n t p r o v i n c i a l l y - b a s e d support he c o u l d have. Bowser, on the o t h e r hand, c l a i m e d important s u p p o r t e r s among those w i t h s t r o n g f e d e r a l c o n n e c t i o n s .  R a t h e r than r i s k  the  p o s s i b i l i t y o f a d e f e a t , he withdrew from the r a c e j u s t b e f o r e the Kamloops meeting.  He a s k e d b i s f o l l o w e r s t o v o t e i n s t e a d  f o r S e n a t o r J . D. T a y l o r . and ¥ . C. S h e l l y , who Finance.  was  Ladner*s committee i n c l u d e d Sen. McRae l a t e r t o become p r o v i n c i a l M i n i s t e r o f  Among h i s s u p p o r t e r s T a y l o r counted Bowser, W.  &.  McQuarrie,  and many o f the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s o f f i c e r s . The c o n v e n t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s were d r a m a t i c .  Eight ballots  were t a k e n w i t h o u t anyone b e i n g a b l e t o g a i n a simple m a j o r i t y . Ladner was  f a r i n the l e a d .  On the s e v e n t h b a l l o t he g a i n e d  v o t e s , o n l y s i x s h o r t o f the n e c e s s a r y m a j o r i t y .  T a y l o r was  517 never  26  a b l e t o g e t more than 218. Spencer and C. F. D a v i e .  Two  o t h e r c a n d i d a t e s were C o l . N e l s o n  N e i t h e r g a i n e d more t h a n twenty  votes  which were i m p o r t a n t o n l y i n s o f a r a s t h e y might have made the d i f f e r e n c e t o Ladner's p o s s i b l e v i c t o r y .  A f t e r the e i g h t h b a l l o t  and the p r o s p e c t o f e n d l e s s deadlock, a d i n n e r adjournment called.  Ladner met h i s committee.  support t o Simon F r a s e r T o l m i e .  They d e c i d e d t o o f f e r  He d e c l i n e d .  was their  Nevertheless  27 Ladner p r o p o s e d T o l m i e ' s name a p p r o v a l f i l l e d the h a l l .  from the p l a t f o r m and a r o a r o f  Tolmie a g a i n d e c l i n e d b u t P o o l e y and  o t h e r s e v e n t u a l l y p r e v a i l e d upon him t o a c c e p t a n o f f e r made by unanimous a p p r o v a l .  Some o b s e r v e r s c l a i m e d t h a t Bowser s a t  stubbornly i n h i s seat, r e f u s i n g to give h i s a p p r o v a l to Tolmie, b u t t h a t he was  e v e n t u a l l y dragged t o h i s f e e t and h e l d t h e r e by  friends. -Tolmie was  a most-acceptable c h o i c e t o the n a t i o n a l  Conserv-  a t i v e l e a d e r , A r t h u r Meighen, f o r whom he had worked as n a t i o n a l organizer.  T o l m i e ' s s e l e c t i o n had the advantage  of quieting  i n t e r n a l d i s p u t e s and o f s e c u r i n g the a p p a r e n t l y permanent r e t i r e m e n t o f Bowser.  Both Meighen and T o l m i e were f i g h t i n g  28 L i b e r a l governments,  and t h e i r views on p o l i c y were  i n a l l essential respects. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l matters.  N e i t h e r was  similar  t h e r e any d i f f e r e n c e i n  D u r i n g the t w e n t i e s , Tolmie had  largely  27. " . . . i t was Leon Ladner, who i f he p e r s i s t e d might have made the l e a d e r s h i p h i m s e l f , who p r o p o s e d t h a t the p a r t y r e f u s e t o a c c e p t Dr. T o l m i e ' s l a t e s t d e n i a l . . . . " - M c K e l v i e - op. c i t . p. 30 28. T o l m i e d i d n o t , a s many e x p e c t e d immediately r e s i g n h i s s e a t a t Ottawa t o seek a s e a t i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . Not u n t i l two y e a r s l a t e r when the then-Premier J . D. Maclean c a l l e d an e l e c t i o n d i d he q u i t Ottawa t o devote h i s time e x c l u s i v e l y to the B.C. scene.  27  c o n f i n e d h i s B.C. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t t o Vancouver I s l a n d w h i l e Stevens 1928  l o o k e d a f t e r t h e mainland.  When Tolmie won t h e  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n w i t h a r e i n v i g o r a t e d B.C. C o n s e r v a t i v e  A s s o c i a t i o n , he was a p p a r e n t l y c o n t e n t t o have-Stevens take matters  o u t o f h i s hands.  t h e f e d e r a l government — and t h e r a i l w a y l a n d s —  federal  The p r o v i n c e ' s main d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h " b e t t e r terms", r a i l w a y f r e i g h t r a t e s ,  h a d been v i g o r o u s l y b a t t l e d by O l i v e r  and Maclean, a n d w i t h some s u c c e s s .  The L i b e r a l s had f a i l e d t o  persuade K i n g t h a t he s h o u l d buy t h e P.C.E. b u t t h i s d i d n o t a r i s e a s a n important  i s s u e between t h e two C o n s e r v a t i v e admin-  i s t r a t i o n s that followed.  Even the r a i l w a y l a n d s i s s u e h a d been  l a r g e l y d e c i d e d b e f o r e K i n g ' s overthrow i n 1930.  The L i b e r a l s  had done much t o narrow t h e f i e l d o f p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e s between Tolmie a n d R. B. Bennett. A l t h o u g h R. B. Bennett c o u l d c l a i m t o be a w e s t e r n e r , h i s w e s t e r n campaign i n 1930 f a r e d worse than h a d t h a t o f Meighen i n 1926.  The f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from B.C. f e l l  the twelve e l e c t e d i n 1926 t o o n l y seven.  from  The r e a s o n f o r t h i s  d e c r e a s e d B.C. support o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i e s i s n o t c l e a r . who was one o f those e l i m i n a t e d from t h e scene,  Ladner,  says t h e L i b e r a l  campaigning was n o t o n l y much b e t t e r i n 1930 than i t had been i n 1926, b u t t h a t i t was r e l a t i v e l y more e f f e c t i v e i n B.C. than elsewhere.  28  Tolmie's incumbency a t V i c t o r i a marked the beginning of a long period of depression f o r the Conservative party i n B.C. Not f o r another seventeen years would the province send any greater Conservative representation to Ottawa.  Never since  have the Conservatives elected many more than one-third the  29 number of supporters Tolmie had i n 1928.  The depths of economic  and s o c i a l depression i n t o which B r i t i s h Columbia was had wide...reperotis:si-oWs:icU  plunged  Tolmie's government demonstrated an  ineptness and lack of imagination i n dealing with the s i t u a t i o n that was equalled by few other contemporaneous j u r i s d i c t i o n s . Vancouver businessmen, on whom the Conservative party had been greatly dependent, sent a delegation l e d by H. R. MacMillan which demanded a s p e c i a l commission of inquiry i n t o the whole operation of government.  Tolmie acceded to the demand.  The report of the  George Kidd commission made s t a r t l i n g reading, e s p e c i a l l y f o r party workers.  This group of prominent Conservative businessmen  30 i n s i s t e d that the province*s salvation l a y i n stringent economy. Suggestions made included reducing the amount of free education, eliminating the appropriation f o r the U n i v e r s i t y of B.C.,  cutting  the cabinet to s i x members and the l e g i s l a t u r e from forty-eight to twenty-eight members.  Conservatives had had t h e i r f a i t h already  greatly weakened by the f a i l u r e of orthodox remedies f o r the 29. 1928 returns: Conservatives t h i r t y - f i v e , Liberals twelve, Labour one. T o t a l f o r t y - e i g h t . 30. The province could be run on an annual budget of $6,000,000, instead of the $25,000,000 i t was using, the report said.  29  economic t r o u b l e s . T h i s committee's recommendations, a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t i n g the most i n f o r m e d t h i n k i n g i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y , came a s a s t u n n i n g blow. 1952  S h o r t l y a f t e r the r e p o r t was  p u b l i s h e d i n August  Tolmie p r o p o s e d f o r m i n g a U n i o n government w i t h the  Liberals  31 and a p p e a l e d  to h i s f o l l o w e r s f o r support.  Not  o n l y were the  L i b e r a l s adamantly opposed t o any c o a l i t i o n b u t the whole C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n seemed t o be opposed.  The  legislative  caucus opposed c o a l i t i o n but l a t e r approved i t r a t h e r than oppose the p r e m i e r .  T. D. P a t t u l l o , the Leader o f the O p p o s i t i o n , r e j e c t -  e d y e t a n o t h e r p r o p o s a l f o r u n i o n government i n the s p r i n g o f Tolmie, i n d e s p e r a t i o n , dragged out the l e g a l l i f e  o f the  1955.  legis-  l a t u r e t o the v e r y end b e f o r e c a l l i n g an e l e c t i o n f o r November The  C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n was  b a d l y s p l i t , a s was  1935.  the c a b i n e t .  The a s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e d e c i d e d i t w o u l d t a k e no p a r t i n the campaign and  t o l d the c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s t h e y were f r e e t o  s u p p o r t the premier, to  o r t o r u n c a n d i d a t e s under any l a b e l . To  add  the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y ' s woes i t s former l e a d e r r e f u s e d t o s t a y  retired.  T o l m i e ' s c a l l s f o r u n i o n government had  Bowser t h a t he r e - e n t e r e d p u b l i c l i f e , movement and began campaigning.  formed a  so i n c e n s e d  Nonpartisan  H i s death two weeks b e f o r e  the  e l e c t i o n removed t h i s group a s s e r i o u s contender a l t h o u g h i t managed t o e l e c t two members.  51. See  S l i g h t though t h i s accomplishment  Ormsby, H i s t o r y , pp. 4464449.  30'  might seem, i t was b e t t e r t h a n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e  showing.  Tolmie  52 was p e r s o n a l l y d e f e a t e d  a n d o n l y one s u p p o r t e r r u n n i n g under  h i s U n i o n i s t l a b e l was r e t u r n e d .  T h i s was R. H. P o o l e y ,  A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a n d once p a r t y House l e a d e r . was almost a s complete a s h a d been Brewster's C o n s e r v a t i v e s had l a s t been overthrown.  former  Pattullo's  triumph  i n 1916 when the  Opposed t o t h e t h i r t y -  f o u r L i b e r a l s s t o o d P o o l e y , f i v e Independents, one Labour, and seven members o f t h e newly-formed C o - o p e r a t i v e  Commonwealth  F e d e r a t i o n w h i c h formed t h e o f f i c i a l o p p o s i t i o n .  Further humili-  a t i o n was v i s i t e d on t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s d u r i n g the next two y e a r s . The  l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e r e s u l t i n g from t h e e x e c u t i v e ' s f r e e i n g  the r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r the 1955 campaign, c o u p l e d w i t h t h e depression and the e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s , s h a t t e r e d the p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n . A f t e r a few p o s t mortem meetings, t h e e x e c u t i v e had d i f f i c u l t i e s even summoning a quorum o f i t s own members.  McRae, who h a d been Bennett's  national organizer i n  1950 h a d r e c e i v e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l summons t o t h e Senate.  He  m a i n t a i n e d h i s heavy f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the p a r t y b u t p l a y e d v e r y l i t t l e p a r t p e r s o n a l l y i n t h e p a r t y work t h e r e a f t e r . The  l a s t v e s t i g e o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s t r e n g t h i n B.C. v a n i s h e d  just  b e f o r e the 1935 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign when H. H. Stevens b o l t e d t h e p a r t y a n d formed h i s own R e c o n s t r u c t i o n movement.  52. Tolmie r e t i r e d from a c t i v e d i r e c t i o n o f the p a r t y , s u f f e r e d s e v e r a l l o n g i l l n e s s e s , b u t r e - e n t e r e d t h e p o l i t i c a l scene b r i e f l y i n 1956 when he won r e - e l e c t i o n t o the House o f Commons i n a bye l e c t i o n . He d i e d October 15, 1957.  31  Conservatives  i n B r i t i s h Columbia were no more s t r o n g l y o r i e n t e d :  i n i d e o l o g y t h a n those elsewhere i n Canada b u t the t r i p l e to t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s —  shock  the p r o v i n c i a l K i d d r e p o r t , the P r i c e  Spreads I n q u i r y r e p o r t a n d R. B. Bennett's r a d i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n was  adequate excuse f o r d e s e r t i n g the p a r t y i n those h a r d  The  Conservatives  days.  i n 1926 had p o l l e d 56:oper c e n t o f B r i t i s h  Columbia's p o p u l a r v o t e .  T h i s sagged t o 49 p e r c e n t i n 1930  and plummeted t o 25 p e r c e n t a f t e r Steven's d e f e c t i o n .  53  Had  Stevens n o t b o l t e d t h e p a r t y , Bennett might have reaped many o f t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n P a r t y ' s votes, and a v o i d e d  defeat i n  34 1935.  The p a r t y i s s t i l l l i k e l y t o have been i n h a r d  s t a n c e s i n B.C.  The s u r v i v a l o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e  circum-  Party as a  v i t a l n a t i o n a l f o r c e would c e r t a i n l y have made much e a s i e r the party's r e v i v a l w i t h i n the province.  The 1935 e l e c t i o n had one  s l i g h t c o n s o l a t i o n f o r the T o r i e s i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e House o f Commons of a v e r y a b l e C o n s e r v a t i v e p l a y e d a key r o l e i n p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . who, from 1935 t o the p r e s e n t  member who l a t e r  T h i s was Howard G-reen  day ( i 9 6 0 ) has been a n M.P.,  first  f o r Vancouver South a n d t h e n i n the new Vancouver-Quadra r i d i n g . The  p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n wandered i n the w i l d e r n e s s o f  d e s p a i r f o r many y e a r s .  I t s p r e s i d e n t a f t e r 1934, Dr. F. P.  Patterson, a c t e d a s p a r t y l e a d e r .  On J u l y 1, 1936 he was f o r m a l l y  33. These f i g u r e s a r e most r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e i n J . R. W i l l i a m s , The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f Canada: 1920 - 49 (Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Durham, N.C.) 1956 pp. 164-L65. 34. The L i b e r a l v o t e was o n l y s l i g h t l y i n c r e a s e d i n 1935. The R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and C.C. P. p a r t i e s t o g e t h e r p o l l e d o n e - q u a r t e r o f the t o t a l b a l l o t s c a s t .  52  e l e c t e d l e a d e r a f t e r a r a t h e r l i s t l e s s campaign. former m i n i s t e r o f p u b l i c works, R o l f Bruhn, who  Tolmie's sat as  an  Independent, had been nominated f o r t h e l e a d e r s h i p but d e c l i n e d it.  He  e x p r e s s e d u n c e r t a i n t y whether p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p i n  the t r a d i t i o n a l f a s h i o n was P a t t e r s o n won  the b e s t way  the f i r s t b a l l o t w i t h 266  t o conduct o f the 589  The  runners-up were H e r b e r t Anscomb and R.  was  unable  i n 1956  h e l d by two former p r e m i e r s .  votes c a s t .  L. M a i t l a n d . P a t t e r s o n  t o w i n e l e c t i o n i n the Vancouver-Burrard  but the next y e a r he won  government.  by-election  Dewdney r i d i n g w h i c h had been  Seven o t h e r C o n s e r v a t i v e s s a t i n  the l e g i s l a t u r e w i t h him b u t the L i b e r a l s ' t h i r t y - o n e members were more t h a n enough t o support P a t t u l l o . i n February  1958.  Dr. P a t t e r s o n d i e d  T h i s time the p a r t y t u r n e d t o M a i t l a n d who  a b l e t o persuade Bruhn t o r e t u r n t o the f o l d . Conservative  T h i s kept  was  the  s t r e n g t h a t one member more t h a n the C.C.F. and  made M a i t l a n d Leader o f the O p p o s i t i o n s u c c e e d i n g P a t t e r s o n . R.  B. Bennett meanwhile had l e f t the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y  w h i c h c a s t about f o r a n a t i o n a l l e a d e r who e l e c t o r a l success. his  c o u l d b r i n g them  Dr. R. J . Manion s e t about t r y i n g t o r e p a i r  party* s i l l n e s s e s .  B e f o r e much c o u l d be accomplished,  either  by Manion n a t i o n a l l y o r by M a i t l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l y , the Second World War  had begun.  Dr. Manion a s k e d and a p p a r e n t l y e x p e c t e d  K i n g t o form a c o a l i t i o n government. extreme unpreparednes3 by Kings  He was  Mackenzie  caught i n a s t a t e o f  snap e l e c t i o n i n 1940.  The  party  55  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n B.C. sixteen.  The  dropped from f i v e t o f o u r o f the p o s s i b l e  Conservative  p o p u l a r v o t e had  doubled i n B. C.  but  55 t h i s d i d not compensate f o r the l o s s o f a s e a t .  Manion had  told  the v o t e r s t h a t i f e l e c t e d he would form a n a t i o n a l c o a l i t i o n government as B r i t a i n had done.  S i m i l a r suggestions  B r i t i s h Columbia soon a f t e r the war saw  began but  were made i n  the p r e m i e r , P a t t u l l o ,  no r e a s o n whatever f o r t a k i n g the C o n s e r v a t i v e s  i n t o h i s cabinet,  Some o f the L i b e r a l m i n i s t e r s were, however, growing  discontented  with t h e i r stubborn l e a d e r . The  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1941  chopped the L i b e r a l  from t h i r t y - o n e t o twenty-one; the C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o twelve and  r o s e from e i g h t  the C.C.F. d o u b l e d i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o  Fernie continued  t o r e t u r n Tom  U p h i l l , the  of a l l p a r t i e s .  The  C.C.F. r e j e c t e d the i d e a as d i d P a t t u l l o .  and i n s t a l l e d John H a r t who  w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e s .  from a number o f c a u s e s :  formed a j o i n t  ousted  administration  M a i t l a n d became A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l  Anscomb M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works.  h a r m f u l t o the war  refused  M a i t l a n d proposed a u n i o n c a b i n e t  L i b e r a l members, however, d i s a g r e e d w i t h t h e i r l e a d e r , him,  fourteen.  s i n g l e Labour member.  With h i s s t r e n g t h c u t below a m a j o r i t y , P a t t u l l o s t i l l t o form a c o a l i t i o n government.  The  the p a t r i o t i c one w h i c h s a i d i t was  e f f o r t t o have the c o u n t r y ' s  Conservative  and  c o a l i t i o n movement a r o s e  legislators div-  i d e d ; the L i b e r a l d e s i r e t o r e t a i n power, f o r they f e a r e d  55. W i l l i a m s ,  strength  r  a r t y , table  defeat  p.165  36. The c a l l s f o r c o a l i t i o n and the overthrow o f P a t t u l l o a r e d e s c r i b e d i n Ormsby, H i s t o r y , pp. 466-478.  34  without c o a l i t i o n and few wished to have another election so soon; and the Conservative hunger f o r office.  The coalition government  i s generally acknowledged to have "been most able during i t s early years.  CHAPTER I I  DEVELOPMENT OP CONFLICT  F o r m a t i o n o f the c o a l i t i o n government l a t e i n 1941 motion f o r c e s t h a t were t o d i s r u p t the C o n s e r v a t i v e many y e a r s .  An a p p a r e n t l y  set i n  party f o r  q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e d e c i s i o n t o form a  c o a l i t i o n government f o r the d u r a t i o n o f the war  resulted i n a  dilemma i n w h i c h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n a u n i t a r y c o u n t r y l i k e  the  i  U n i t e d Kingdom a r e  seldom i n v o l v e d on such a s c a l e .  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was  c a r r i e d on by p a r t y government, one  q u i r e d e x t r a o r d i n a r y powers t o p r o s e c u t e the war. u n u s u a l and  The  This  national  that reimposed  c h a f i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s on the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t i e s .  government's sudden i n v o l v e m e n t i n much l a r g e r e x p e n d i t u r e s g r e a t e r v e n t u r e s t h a n had  The and  e v e r been contemplated i n Canada gave  H i s Majesty's L o y a l Opposition  an even s t r i c t e r sense o f i t s  d u t i e s f o r i t f e a r e d the government might w e l l be c a r r i e d away by i t s power.  The  n a t i o n a l Conservatives,  r e c e n t l y badly-beaten  a t the p o l l s by the L i b e r a l s , found themselves i n Ottawa a t t a c k i n g p o l i c i e s that fellow-Conservatives  were f o r c e d t o d e f e n d a t V i c t o r i a *"  by r e a s o n o f t h e i r c o a l i t i o n w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . I n 1942 leader.  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s  convened t o choose a new  Most o f the B r i t i s h Columbia d e l e g a t e s  national  supported John  1. B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s may o c c a s i o n a l l y be embarrassed by members who w i n power i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b u t the r e l a t i v e degree o f power on e a c h s i d e i s such t h a t the problem i s o f s m a l l e r consequence t h a n a comparable Canadian s i t u a t i o n .  35  56  Bracken, b u t one o f them, Howard Green, e n t e r e d the l e a d e r s h i p r a c e a t the l a s t moment.  Green, however, c o l l a p s e d on the  form and withdrew from the c o n t e s t w h i c h Bracken won Among the d e f e a t e d c a n d i d a t e s was  Where t h e r e was  the t a s k was was  an e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z -  an e f f e c t i v e p r o v i n c i a l Conservative party,  e n t r u s t e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r .  weak, a s i n Quebec, a s p e c i a l o r g a n i z e r was  Columbia p r e s e n t e d an u n u s u a l problem. e x i s t e d and was  easily.  John D i e f e r i b a k e r .  Bracken r e a l i z e d h i s p r i m a r y need was ation.  Where the p a r t y named.  British  The p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n  a c t i v e b u t i t s l e a d e r s were a l l i n league  the p o l i t i c a l enemy.  plat-  What was worse, t h e y were under  c r i t i c i s m i n the l e g i s l a t u r e from the C.C.F. C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s i n B.C.  with  steady  T h i s meant the  were f r e q u e n t l y c a l l e d upon t o  p o l i c i e s o r i g i n a t e d o r s u p p o r t e d by the L i b e r a l s i n Ottawa. a c o a l i t i o n o f a l l p a r t i e s been formed many i s s u e s  defend Had  embarrassing  t o the p a r t y might n o t have been debated so p u b l i c l y . S i n c e H. H. Steven's r e s i g n a t i o n from the p a r t y i n 1954, o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B.C.  had been i n the hands o f a committee named  by the members o f P a r l i a m e n t and by C a n d i d a t e s . ^ n o t been e m i n e n t l y  T h i s method had  s u c c e s s f u l and Bracken a p p a r e n t l y d e c i d e d a  s t r o n g p e r s o n a l hand was s i n c e he was  federal  required.  He  chose Green f o r the t a s k  the l e a d i n g member from t h e p r o v i n c e .  Green a c c e p t e d  t h e j o b b u t h i s l o n g absences i n Ottawa made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r him  2. From i n t e r v i e w s w i t h L t . - C o l . C. C. M e r r i t t , V.C., Ladner, Q.C.  and L. J .  /  57  t o do t h e work he f e l t n e c e s s a r y . to a s s i s t .  He c a l l e d on Leon J . Ladner  M a i t l a n d a p p a r e n t l y f o u n d t h i s arrangement  distaste-  f u l b u t r e c o g n i z e d the d i f f i c u l t y i n which the p a r t y found  itself^ j  Thus Green a n d then Ladner became t h e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r * s p e r s o n a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n B.C. w i t h f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l matters.  P o l i c y was s e t by t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r a n d made known t o  the f a i t h f u l through t h e l e a d e r ' s p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . Not a l l C o n s e r v a t i v e s were happy about t h e c o a l i t i o n a r r a n g e ment.  Some contended t h e p a r t y would have won t h e next  election  e x c e p t f o r c o a l i t i o n w h i l e o t h e r s a r g u e d t h a t C o n s e r v a t i v e s were t r e a t e d u n f a i r l y i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c a b i n e t p o s t s and o t h e r government advantages. l a t t e r view.  There i s no evidence  t o support  this  E a r l y i n 1945 t h e Vancouver C e n t r e C o n s e r v a t i v e s  had a r g u e d t h a t t h e p a r t y s h o u l d l e a v e t h e c o a l i t i o n .  ^  I n defending  c o a l i t i o n , The Vancouver P r o v i n c e commented e d i t o r i a l l y on F e b r u a r y 4 t h a t the c o a l i t i o n had p r o v i d e d "very good government ™ the b e s t B.C. h a s e v e r h a d .  w  I t appears,  possibly  however, t h a t most o f  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s were c o n t e n t t o remain i n t h e c o a l i t i o n . M a i t l a n d a n d Anscomb a p p a r e n t l y f e l t t h a t , g i v e n a few y e a r s i n w h i c h t o u t i l i z e advantages d e r i v e d from p a r t i c i p a t i n g  i n govern-  ment, t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o b u i l d t h e p a r t y i n t o a s t r o n g f o r c e w h i c h c o u l d then s t r i k e o u t on i t s own a g a i n s t the L i b e r a l s . Maintenance o f t h e c o a l i t i o n depended on t h e two l e a d e r s , John H a r t and R. L . M a i t l a n d , who worked w e l l t o g e t h e r .  C r i t i c i s m o f the  58  c o a l i t i o n o n l y "began t o mount when the l e a d e r s h i p changed.  For  the most p a r t , those concerned w i t h C o n s e r v a t i v e f o r t u n e s n a t i o n a l l y kept t h e i r embarrassments t o themselves,  u n t i l a f t e r the  war  ended. When a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n was who  a n t i c i p a t e d i n 1945  Anscomb,  a c t e d f o r M a i t l a n d i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l matters a t t h i s  approached the n a t i o n a l p a r t y h e a d q u a r t e r s .  He was  Howard Green and t o l d t h a t Green would be i n charge campaign.  Anscomb d i d n o t take k i n d l y t o t h i s  M a i t l a n d , however, a c c e p t e d the d e c i s i o n a n d  time,  directed to o f the  federal  suggestion.  j o i n e d i n the  fight  t o e l e c t f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s w h i l e some o f h i s f e l l o w c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s h e l p e d i n the e l e c t i o n o f f e d e r a l L i b e r a l members o f Parliament.  The  B.C.  P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n wass  the medium t h r o u g h w h i c h the C o n s e r v a t i v e campaign group was up and f i n a n c e d .  There was,  o r i t y i n t h e matter.  The  set  however, no d i s p u t i n g Green's a u t h -  C o n s e r v a t i v e s e l e c t e d f i v e M.P.s, the  L i b e r a l s and C.C.P. f i v e e a c h a n d t h e r e was  one  independent.  The c o a l i t i o n government c a l l e d a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n i n October  1946.  A j o i n t p l a t f o r m was  drawn up by the L i b e r a l  and  C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s and a j o i n t campaign oonducted.  Campaign  funds were c o l l e c t e d by b o t h p a r t i e s f o r a common war  chest.  C a n d i d a t e s were chosen j o i n t l y , one L i b e r a l and one i n a r i d i n g l i k e Vancouver-Burrard  w h i l e compromises and  were r e a c h e d f o r single-member r i d i n g s . a t i o n s showed l i t t l e  Conservative  o r no enthusiasm  "saw-offs"  Some c o n s t i t u e n c y o r g a n i z -  f o r campaigning f o r the  39  e l e c t i o n of a c o a l i t i o n candidate of the opposite p o l i t i c a l party.  The Conservative members of Parliament, not surprisingly,  took l i t t l e or no part i n the p r o v i n c i a l campaign although they had worked f o r straight Conservative candidates before.  I  The ,  e l e c t i o n cut the Conservative strength i n the c o a l i t i o n from j twelve to eleven.  The L i b e r a l s added f i v e members to t h e i r  o r i g i n a l twenty-one.  The C.C.P. dropped from fourteen to ten.  Mr. U p h i l l again was the forty-eighth member o f the l e g i s l a t u r e . I n 1946 Maitland died.  Anscomb, who had become coalition  Finance Minister, won the party leadership with a convention v i c t o r y over 1. A. C. Bennett.  The vote was 519 - 188.  One of  the new leader's f i r s t demands was that the federal leader "recognize h i s r i g h t s " as leader of the Conservatives i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  He e s p e c i a l l y resented Green and Ladner.  Although  authoritative information i s lacking on the subject, Anscomb seems to have been t o l d that so long as the Conservatives were a l l i e d to the Liberals i n B.C. there could be no possible question of acceding to h i s demand. only reason.  This was probably the main but not the  The war had ended and much new blood entered the  party's rank and f i l e .  The new elements were not so s e c t i o n a l l y -  oriented as the older elements.  I n a d d i t i o n Anscomb was unpopular  with many i n the party and u n t i l he had proved himself a t the p o l l s , the f e d e r a l organization had no desire to h i t c h i t s B.C. prospects to such an uncertain c o n s t e l l a t i o n .  "He made a b i g show but i t  was l i k e a shooting star that f l a r e s up b r i l l i a n t l y —  and then  40  f i z z l e s out."  T h i s was t h e assessment one p a r t y member made  d u r i n g t h e course o f t h i s  inquiry.  When Byron I . Johnson succeeded H a r t a s L i b e r a l premier  the c o a l i t i o n * s i n s t a b i l i t y increased.  leader and  N e i t h e r Johnson  n o r Anscomb h a d c r e a t e d t h e c o a l i t i o n a n d b o t h f e l t they might be a b l e t o "go i t alone'' were i t n o t f o r t h e g r e a t t h r e a t t h e y saw was,  from t h e C.C.F. p a r t y . figuratively  Only t h i s k e p t them t o g e t h e r .  It  speaking, a d i v o r c e f o r e s t a l l e d by shotgun.  There was c o n s t a n t b i c k e r i n g . t h e y were e n t i t l e d t o a n o t h e r  The C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n s i s t e d t h a t senior cabinet post.  Anscomb h e l d  the f i n a n c e m i n i s t r y b u t t h e L i b e r a l s r e f u s e d , a f t e r  Maitland's  death, t o p e r m i t t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o have t h e a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l s h i p , w h i c h t h e y demanded.  A f t e r Johnson's advent t o power,  C o n s e r v a t i v e s such a s Green, Ladner a n d E . Davie F u l t o n , t h e  """j  young war v e t e r a n M.P. f o r Kamloops, e x p r e s s e d c o n c e r n t h a t t h e provincial  ^  C o n s e r v a t i v e s were f a l l i n g more a n d more under t h e sway  of the L i b e r a l s . be broken up.  They renewed e a r l i e r demands t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n  S t i l l a n o t h e r e l e c t i o n was f o u g h t by t h e c o a l i t i o n ,  however, a n d t h e balance  o f t h e House remained t h e same.  c o a l i t i o n campaign was conducted the C o n s e r v a t i v e s complained  The 1949  s i m i l a r l y t o t h a t o f 1946 a l t h o u g h  they r e c e i v e d t o o l i t t l e  the f r a m i n g o f t h e " j o i n t * * p l a t f o r m .  voice i n  Some c l a i m e d the p a r t y had  become o u t r i g h t s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e L i b e r a l s .  Most prominent o f  the C o n s e r v a t i v e o b j e c t o r s were those w i t h p r i m a r i l y n a t i o n a l interests.  5. December 29, 1947 a f t e r H a r t ' s R e s i g n a t i o n .  41  George Drew, f o r m e r l y p r e m i e r o f O n t a r i o , had become n a t i o n a l l e a d e r i n the w i n t e r o f 1948,  b u t d i d n o t h i n g t o change the  arrangement f o r f e d e r a l a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I n the  June f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1949  the f e d e r a l wing o f the p a r t y h i t (  4 the lowest p o i n t s i n c e 1904.  Only t h r e e o f the e i g h t e e n members  e l e c t e d were C o n s e r v a t i v e . and e l e v e n were L i b e r a l s .  Three were C.C.F., one was  On October 6,  Independent  I f any p r o o f were needed t h a t the  C o n s e r v a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n was c e r t a i n l y gave ample  )  i n bad  shape, the two  1949  ,  elections ^  demonstration.  1950  the P r o g r e s s i v e Conservatives!, convened  a t Vancouver t o a s s e s s the y e a r - o l d e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s and the  general  s i t u a t i o n . The  the  c o n v e n t i o n had the e f f e c t o f v e n t i n g p u b l i c l y  whole a r r a y o f g r i e v a n c e s t h a t had a r i s e n w i t h i n the p a r t y about i t s i n t e r n a l o p e r a t i o n . The key note f o r the 400  delegates  was  sounded by Gordon Cameron i n a n address, marking h i s r e t i r e m e n t as B.C.  a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t . " I now  f e e l t h a t my  term o f o f f i c e  has  been a t o t a l l o s s o f time and money," he s a i d . He e x p r e s s e d hope t h a t the next e x e c u t i v e c o u l d a c c o m p l i s h unable  t o but warned t h a t time was  r e s u l t s where he had been  f s t r u n n i n g out. " I t i s obvious  t h a t the l e a d e r o f our p a r t y i n B.C.  a  must g i v e more, a t t e n t i o n t o  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the a s s o c i a t i o n , o r g a n i z a t i o n and of the members o f the p a r t y . The  4.  A l l seven B.C.  welfare  c o n v e n t i o n must u n i f y the p a r t y .  members e l e c t e d i n 1904 were L i b e r a l s .  42  The  r e t i r i n g president  continued:  O r g a n i z a t i o n i n b o t h the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s has been c h a o t i c or n o t h i n g more than a d o g f i g h t . N e i t h e r group has c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h the o t h e r . Many w i l l say t h a t n o t h i n g has been done t o b u i l d up the p a r t y — but more t o dest r o y i t . T h i s d i s u n i t y can n e v e r make UB s t r o n g . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has had no r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r organization — o r any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y whatever. ^ / I n the p a s t few y e a r s t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n has been p h y s i c a l l y unable t o advance t h e cause o f the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n B.C. 5  Cameron s a i d he had a s k e d Drew t o v i s i t Vancouver f o r a meeting w i t h Anscomb. The  two  l e a d e r s met  i n Ottawa i n s t e a d . Drew  wrote Cameron, he s a i d , t e l l i n g him i t was  d e s i r a b l e t o have  one  o r g a n i z a t i o n t o d e a l w i t h b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l matters. t o l d the c o n v e n t i o n  t h a t a f t e r Anscomb r e t u r n e d from Ottawa  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r t o l d him  t h a t any p e r s o n a p p o i n t e d  the  t o work i n  the f e d e r a l f i e l d w o u l d f i r s t have t o be approved by h i m s e l f p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . "There was v i n c i a l appointee  must be  He  as  no d i s c u s s i o n a s t o whether the  pro-  s a t i s f a c t o r y to the f e d e r a l f i e l d . " A f t e r  t h i s n e g o t i a t i o n s c e a s e d a l t o g e t h e r between the f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . Cameron warned the  the  convention:  U n l e s s a u n i t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n i s brought about immediately, i t i s p o s s i b l e we s h a l l see the f o r m a t i o n o f a s e p a r a t e F e d e r a l P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C. c a r r y i n g w i t h i t the Young P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e Association — the f u t u r e l e a d e r s o f our p a r t y — and the Women's A s s o c i a t i o n , b o t h founded under f e d e r a l organization....  5. C i t e d i n The Vancouver P r o v i n c e ,  October 6,  1950.  45  Speaking o f c o a l i t i o n government: I do not see. how i t s h o u l d have a f f e c t e d our o r g a n i z a t i o n any more t h a n our L i b e r a l f r i e n d s have been impeded i n b u i l d i n g up t h e i r s . And, i n c i d e n t a l l y , we a r e a l l aware t h a t t h e y have been b u i l d i n g . ^ The  d i v i s i o n s between the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l groups  became an open i s s u e a t the c o n v e n t i o n when Whitworth Stanbury, a V i c t o r i a delegate, for  moved t h a t the agenda i n c l u d e a n e l e c t i o n  the p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p . An amendment v o i c e d c o n f i d e n c e  Anscomb and a v e r b a l f i g h t began. A young delegate S h i r l e y Dougen, t o l d the d e l e g a t e s  from T r a i l ,  t h a t Anscomb had  obviously  packed the meeting when c o n v e n t i o n d e l e g a t e s were b e i n g for  h e r r i d i n g . She  in  chosen  s a i d the young members would be l o y a l t o  l e a d e r "but he won't r e c o g n i z e  us." Her  remarks summed up  their  the  o p p o s i t i o n case f a i r l y w e l l : You can't t a l k l o y a l t y t o the p r e s e n t l e a d e r . He "7 d i s r e g a r d s the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , he d i s r e g a r d s \ the young p e o p l e , and a p p a r e n t l y d i s r e g a r d s the / p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . We want a man who w i l l c o - o p e r a t e w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n . We want a man who w i l l c a r r y on h i s d u t i e s as a l e a d e r and n o t as a dictator. ^ One  o f Anscomb*s defenders was  A l l a n Jf. McDonell, M.L.A. f o r  Vancouver C e n t r e who  s a i d the f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r was  p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r and  the  others  stood  greatest administrator  to denounce y o u t h f u l exuberance and  "the  i n B.C.  greatest " Many  demand l o y a l t y  be r e n d e r e d t o Anscomb. A. V i c t o r i a alderman, Waldo S k i l l i n g s , s a i d Anscomb was  most a b l e  on the p u b l i c p l a t f o r m but  that  l e a d e r s h i p r e q u i r e d more t h a n the a a b i l i t y t o speak and  to  f i n a n c e a department o f government. 6. i b i d .  7. The  Vancouver P r o v i n c e ,  October 7,  1950.  44 The l e a d e r f o r the p a s t f o u r y e a r s has come b e f o r e the e x e c u t i v e , has come b e f o r e us, and s a i d the o r g a n i z a t i o n has been making g r e a t s t r i d e s and t h a t i s an a b s o l u t e f a l s e h o o d . 8  These remarks by SikAlIings were echoed by o t h e r s and  rebutted  by the l e a d e r ' s f o l l o w e r s . A f t e r n i n e t y minutes o f such exchanges, Anscomb r o s e t o h i s f e e t , d e c l a r e d t h a t a v o t e o f  confidence  would be i n s u f f i c i e n t because h i s honesty had been a t t a c k e d r e s i g n e d the l e a d e r s h i p . He the next day and,  and  s a i d he would c o n t e s t the l e a d e r s h i p  through v i c t o r y , v i n d i c a t e h i s honor.  The  o p p o r t u n i t y had n o t been u n f o r e s e e n and a C o n s e r v a t i v e M.L.A., from the Okanagam, ¥ . A.C.  9  Bennett, r a l l i e d about h i m s e l f n e a r l y a l l  the m a l c o n t e n t s and the Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s , and s e t t o work t o 10 d e f e a t Anscomb. The  second day o f the c o n v e n t i o n a c o n t r o v e r s y broke out  a r e s o l u t i o n d e c l a r i n g t h a t a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the p a r t y was  over  B.C.  d e s i r a b l e . Those ranged a g a i n s t the motion i n c l u d e d  members and former members o f the House o f Commons w i t h the  exception  11 o f Ma j.-Gen. G-. C. Pearkes, T.C., a r g u e d t h a t one  o r g a n i z a t i o n was  the member f o r Nanaimo. e s s e n t i a l to e f f i c i e n t  He  operation  and endorsed the r e s o l u t i o n backed by Anscomb and h i s s u p p o r t e r s . 8. i b i d . S k i l l i n g s was among those who l a t e r broke aiway from the p a r t y t o support the S o c i a l C r e d i t group. 9. Bennett had f o u g h t Anscomb f o r the l e a d e r s h i p once b e f o r e , i n 1946. See above, p„ 59. See a l s o R. J . C o l l i n s - "The Remarkable: R i s e o f the S m i l i n g 'Cece' Bennett" - Macleans, February 15, 1955, p. 58 e t . seqj. 10. A few days b e f o r e the c o n v e n t i o n i t was c l a i m e d t h a t the L i b e r a l s e n a t o r , J . W. deB. F a r r i s , was the g u i d i n g s p i r i t o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e group t r y i n g t o depose Anscomb. T h i s charge was made by H. C P o o l e y , former a t t o r n e y - g e n e r a l . - The Vancouver Sun, September 25, 1950. 11. L a t e r M.P.  for  Esquimalt-Saanich.  45  Howard Green, the Vancouver-Quadra M.P.,  charged t h a t Anscomb  wanted t o c o n t r o l the e n t i r e C o n s e r v a t i v e  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the  12.  ..  provxnce — He  " i n o t h e r words, he w a n t e d t o be a  dictator."  contended t h a t the aims and i n t e r e s t s o f the p a r t y i n p r o v i n c i a l  and f e d e r a l f i e l d s i n B.C.  were w i d e l y  d i f f e r e n t because o f  p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n w i t h the L i b e r a l s . .  the  The problem o f f i g h t i n g  the L i b e r a l s i n n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s had no r e l a t i o n t o the problem o f c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h them i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d . E . Davie P u l t o n , the Kamloops M.P.,  supported  Green. Tlie p a r t y ' s t h i r d M.P.,  Pearkes.  r e j o i n e d t h a t h i s f e d e r a l r i d i n g o f Nanaimo had been q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l l y o r g a n i z e d a s a s i n g l e u n i t and he  saw  the p r i n c i p l e c o u l d not be extended throughout the Pulton.-  t o l d the meeting t h a t Anscomb was  not  no reason province.  giving a correct  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Drew*s a t t i t u d e i n the m a t t e r . I t was between b o t h a c t i v i t i e s g o i n g f o r w a r d  effect  federal organization  The b a t t l e t o c o n t r o l the a s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e  f o l l o w e d s i m i l a r lines;,' The P u l t o n and Pearkes who  w|s  p r e s i d e n c y was supported  won.  P u l t o n won  list  o f Anscomb c a n d i d a t e s who  12.  one  iespite  p a s s e d the r e s o l u t i o n g i v i n g the  o f a d e c r e e t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be no s e p a r a t e i n the p r o v i n c e .  the d i f f e r e n c e  i n partnership within  o r g a n i z a t i o n , and Anscomb d i r e c t i n g e v e r y t h i n g h i m s e l f , these v i e w s , the c o n v e n t i o n  why  a two-way f i g h t between  by the Anscomb group. Pearkes  the v i c e - p r e s i d e n c y , the o n l y s e r i o u s upset i n the c a r r i e d every  A charge l a t e r u s e d a g a i n s t Green.  other.post.  46  I n t h e l e a d e r s h i p campaign t h e o p p o s i t i o n t o Anscomb u s e d many o f the same c r i t i c i s m s o f the l e a d e r a s had t h e f e d e r a l group l e d by Howard Green. B e n n e t t s campaign was l e d by A. L. Bewley, 1  D a v i d Supper a n d Robert W. Bonner. They p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t  part  i n h a v i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n c a l l e d b u t l o s t some o f t h e i r s t r e n g t h through  the t a o t i c s o f c o n v e n t i o n p o l i t i c k i n g . They argued t h a t  Anscomb had turned!, the p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n i n t o a t i g h t l y - c o n t r o l l e d c l i q u e devoted  t o maintenance o f a p e r s o n a l Anscomb machine, one  t h a t was c o n t e n t t o s e e many c o n s t i t u e n c y groups c o n t r o l l e d by incompetent f r i e n d s , a n o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t was e n t i r e l y out o f t o u c h w i t h C o n s e r v a t i v e f e e l i n g a t the r i d i n g a n d p o l l i n g divisoo n l e v e l . They s a i d Anscomb's r u t h l e s s ; p u r g i n g had k e p t new  blood  from t h e e x e c u t i v e , t h a t the r u l i n g c l i q u e c o u l d t h i n k i n ho o t h e r terms t h a n c l i n g i n g t o power through a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e L i b e r a l s , r e g a r d l e s s o f the c o s t t o the p a r l y i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l strength and p u b l i c f a v o r ,  ighey demanded a complete b r e a k w i t h the p a s t  and a "new f a c e " f o r t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y . Anscomb's s u p p o r t e r s used a p p e a l s based on e x p e r i e n c e , l o y a l t y , t h e advantages o f c o a l i t i o n , the p e r i l s o f t r u s t i n g t o emotional youth and claims t h a t Bennett a n d h i s f o l l o w e r s were t r y i n g t o upset a working organization. Bennett's  f o r m a l speech a t t a c k e d Anscomb f o r h i s " d i c t a t o r i a l  a t t i t u d e " , f o r f a i l i n g t o organize the p a r t y and f o r p e r m i t t i n g the L i b e r a l s t o dominate the p a r t y . He brought up t h e i s s u e o f d i r e c t o r a t e s i n wine a n d brewing i n d u s t r i e s . Anscomb s h o u l d have g i v e n these up on becoming f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r b u t he r e f u s e d t o do so.  47  Bennett  s a i d t h i s f a i l u r e t o g i v e up d i r e c t o r a t e s was  irretrievably  13 harming the p u b l i c ' s i m p r e s s i o n o f the p a r t y . f o r l o y a l t y and c o - o p e r a t i o n , defended  Anscomb a p p e a l s  h i s personal a c t i v i t i e s  and s a i d he p l a n n e d a b i g r e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l campaign. He r e t u r n e d a s l e a d e r on a v o t e o f 450  t o 167.  was  Anscomb t h e n d e c l a r e d  h i s i n t e n t i o n o f s t a y i n g w i t h the c o a l i t i o n u n t i l the c u r r e n t l e g i s l a t u r e had r u n i t s c o u r s e . I f the p a r t y were t o p u l l  out  b e f o r e then, he s a i d , i t w o u l d be b r e a k i n g f a i t h w i t h the  people  who  had not v o t e d f o r p a r t y men  but f o r sound government c o a l i t i o n  supporters. C o n f u s i o n surrounds  the events o f the next few weeks.  the c l a i m s and a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t mounted on b o t h s i d e s t h i s can be d i s c e r n e d ?  Frank B a r k e r , the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z e r ,  Prom picture  was V  o r d e r e d t o l e a v e the s u i t e o f o f f i c e s a t B.C.  a s s o c i a t i o n head-  14 quarters.  He proposed  opening a s e p a r a t e o f f i c e elsewhere;  a s s o c i a t i o n w i r e d the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r opposing any  the  separate f e d e r a l  v'  o f f i c e s b e i n g opened and sought the d i s m i s s a l o f Barker " i n the 15 i n t e r e s t s o f harmony."  Separate  o f f i c e s were, however, opened  f o r Barker and the f e d e r a l group's a c t i v i t i e s . Newspapers r e p o r t e d t h a t Barker had been blamed f o r l e a d i n g the anti-Anscomb f o r c e s a t the c o n v e n t i o n . on whether Bennett's  Delegates to t h a t convention are s t i l l d i v i d e d , s u p p o r t e r s were o r g a n i z e d by Bewley o r  Barker  but the p o i n t i s academic. 13. Anscomb's s u p p o r t e r s c l a i m e d no one had d i s p u t e d these d i r e c t o r a t e s i n the e i g h t y e a r s b e f o r e and s a i d the i s s u e was s i m p l y a r e d h e r r i n g . 14. 815 West H a s t i n g s S t r e e t , Vancouver. 15. See the "Blue Book" - p. i i . Appendix I (below)  48  A c o n v e n t i o n o f Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s  i n January, 1951 i n d i c a t e d  the e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e i r sympathies l a y w i t h the f e d e r a l group. The  t r a d i t i o n a l i n v i t a t i o n t o the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was  extended, and d u r i n g t h e p r o c e e d i n g s  not  c r i t i c i s m o f Anscomb o c c u r r e d  so f r e q u e n t l y and vehemently t h a t o n l y P u l t o n ' s t h r e a t t o l e a v e the meeting stopped  the a t t a c k s . An e x e c u t i v e meeting o f the  a s s o c i a t i o n , h e l d the same day,  refused —  t o admit the Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s and Tupper, who  had  supported  f e d e r a l l e a d e r , Drew, met i n December 1951. assurances  on t e c h n i c a l grounds  o f f i c i a l representatives,  Bewley  Bennett the p r e v i o u s autumn.  The  the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e  o r had not, g i v e n Anscomb  concerning -  A f t e r the meeting Drew announced t h a t he  naming C e c i l C. M e r r i t t , V.C.,  former Vancouver B u r r a r d  a s h i s p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n B.C. mediating  the  _^  F u r t h e r q u a r r e l s r e s u l t e d l a t e r over what  Drew had,  jurisdiction.  —  i>  was M.P.,  w i t h the added t a s k o f  dispute.  I n January, 1952,  P r e m i e r Byron Johnson d i s m i s s e d Anscomb  a s f i n a n c e m i n i s t e r f o r what he termed a r r o g a n t c o n s t i t u t i o n a l government procedures  disregard of  i n r e l e a s i n g t o the  press  d e t a i l s o f a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l f i n a n c i a l agreement t h a t had been communicated t o the f u l l c a b i n e t .  The  c o a l i t i o n had  not  long  been i n d i f f i c u l t y because o f the Johnson-Anscomb a n t i p a t h y  and  the o c c a s i o n gave the p r e m i e r adequate excuse f o r b r e a k i n g i t up. Bennett, meanwhile, had become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h Anscomb's r u l e o f the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and more and more unhappy  49 with  the performance  criticizing  openly.  of  the  c o a l i t i o n g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h he w a s  He f i n a l l y  a dramatic  speech i n  the  followers,  a l l i e d himself with  eventually  e l e c t e d him as i t s  quit  the Conservative  legislature, the  Party  in  and w i t h a small group  Social Credit  League  of  which 17  leader  (after  the  election).  The S o c i a l G r e d i t e r s e m e r g e d f r o m t h e J u n e 1952 e l e c t i o n w i t h nineteen seats, Liberals with  six  seats.  provincial  the C.C.P. w i t h e i g h t e e n and the  Anscomb was d e f e a t e d p e r s o n a l l y  and  18 the Conservatives reduced to f o u r  members.  was f o r c e d t o r e s i g n a t a m e e t i n g i n  The p r o v i n c i a l  October a t which  leader  Fulton  19 succeeded Pearkes as p r e s i d e n t . the leadership  M e r r i t t was m e n t i o n e d  for  b u t t h e man g i v e n t h e b e s t c h a n c e was E. C.  former p u b l i c works m i n i s t e r .  C a r s o n was p p p u l a r w i t h n e a r l y a l l  declined interest  i n the  question wide  open.  r  s  o  i  l  party  members.  Grey M . L . A . , Reg.  the  MacDougall,  t h e l e a d e r s h i p when he t o o d i e d l e a v i n g The d i s p i r i t s d c o n v e n t i o n e l e c t e d a  Merritt  the  person  _ _ See C o l l i n s - o p . c i t . - p. 60 18. F o r a n a l y s i s see H . F . A n g u s - " N o t e o n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a E l e c t i o n i n J u n e 1952" i n The W e s t e r n P o l i t i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 5 ( D e c e m b e r 1952) p p . 858 - 591. 19. F u l t o n ,  it  will  j  coalition  l e a d e r s h i p and Carson d i e d b e f o r e  November c o n v e n t i o n . A V a n c o u v e r - P o i n t seemed d e s t i n e d f o r  a  A l t h o u g h n o t f a v o r e d b y some who  s a i d he h a d p e r m i t t e d Anscomb t o d o m i n a t e h i m d u r i n g t h e cabinet,  C  be r e c a l l e d ,  had been v i c e p r e s i d e n t  in  1951.  50  h i t h e r t o a l m o s t unknown, Deane D. P i n l a y s o n o f Nanaimo, who been an a s s o c i a t i o n v i c e - p r e s i d e n t and a s t r o n g Anscomb  supporter.  H i s o n l y o p p o s i t i o n came from a l a s t minute e n t r y , A.L. f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t o f the Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s who  had  had  Bewley,  helped  ' 20 spark the 1950  campaign f o r Bennett a g a i n s t Anscomb.  W i t h the change i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p t h e r e was a p p a r e n t change i n r e l a t i o n s between the f e d e r a l wing and provincial association.  Throughout 1955  no the  c o n v e r s a t i o n s and  letters  were exchanged i n w h i c h P i n l a y s o n sought t o have a l l C o n s e r v a t i v e o p e r a t i o n s i n B.C.  c h a n n e l l e d through the B.C.  the f e d e r a l group's separate Each o f f i c e m a i n t a i n e d s e p a r a t e spheres. The saw  the C o n s e r v a t i v e  offices closed.  a s s o c i a t i o n and Two  e l e c t i o n s occurred.  i t 3 own p a i d p e r s o n n e l working i n t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l campaign, w h i c h came f i r s t ,  l e g i s l a t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n reduced to  one  21 member. i t had won  The  f e d e r a l wing managed o n l y t o i r e t a i n the t h r e e  i n 1949,  those h e l d by Green, P u l t o n and P e a r k e s .  b o t h campaigns, the b a d l y - s p l i t p a r t y l a c k e d money and help.  The  s i t u a t i o n had  Representatives  seats; In  volunteer  d e t e r i o r a t e d from 1952;'s d e r e l i c t p o s i t i o n .  o f b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l camps worked  e a c h o t h e r ' s campaign: Bewley, who  had become Drew's B.C.  s e n t a t i v e , spoke on b e h a l f o f P i n l a y s o n and c a n d i d a t e s  on  repre-  i n two  or  20. I n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r Bewley s a i d he f e l t a t the time he d i d not have a chance a g a i n s t "the Anscomb-Pinlayson machine" but he f e l t t h e r e s h o u l d be a c o n t e s t o f some k i n d . 21. The s o l e C o n s e r v a t i v e Dr. L a r r y Giovando, l a t e r d i s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f from the p a r t y . See below - p. 53.  51  three other r i d i n g s ;  Finlayson ran  (unsuccessfully)  c a n d i d a t e w i t h the  f e d e r a l group's h e l p .  l a t e r that neither  group had  both claims. wanted but  a i d e d the  Certainly neither  t h a t was  as a  There were  o t h e r hut  recriminations  the f a c t s  group gave the h e l p the  probably impossible,  federal  belie  other  p h y s i c a l l y as w e l l  as  i n terms o f morale. After  the e l e c t i o n s , p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n  t o Drew renewing the  o f f i c i a l s wrote  r e q u e s t f o r a u n i t e d h e a d q u a r t e r s and  a  22 s i n g l e B.C.  organization.  made e f f o r t s t o r e s o l v e  the  The  national  q u e s t i o n as  o r g a n i z e r , R. A.  d i d the p r i n c i p a l s a t  meeting a f t e r the n a t i o n a l a n n u a l meeting i n March 1954. e f f o r t s came t o naught and association  f e e l i n g s worsened.  The  B.C.  would be  C r e d i t p r o y i n c i a l l y i f S o c i a l C r e d i t would not 25  l e f t to run  a g a i n s t the  Conservatives f e d e r a l l y .  association  approved a r e s o l u t i o n w h i c h s a i d , i n  See  These *  a c c u s e d Green o f h a v i n g o r d e r e d h i s o r g a n i z e r s ,  C r e d i t p a r t y t o the e f f e c t t h a t  a  provincial  the p r o v i n c i a l campaign, t o a r r a n g e a compromise w i t h the  22.  Bell,  I n A p r i l the  during  Social  Social  candidates  provincial  part:  Blue Book pp.15-16, i n Appendix I  25. F e d e r a l sympathizers h o t l y deny the c l a i m . They suggest i t a r o s e because many nominal p a r t y s u p p o r t e r s were w i l l i n g t o v o t e C o n s e r v a t i v e f e d e r a l l y but i n t e n d e d t o s u p p o r t the more dynamic and a g g r e s s i v e S o c i a l C r e d i t l e a d e r i n p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , and t h a t t h i s i n c l i n a t i o n was w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d by such s u p p o r t e r s .  52  I t has been brought to the attention of this Executive that i t i s proposed to divide the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia into three separate areas f o r the purpose of Federal organization, placing a Federal Member i n charge of each area. This Executive i s of the opinion that t h i s move i s merely a primary step toward dividing of the Conservative Association of B r i t i s h Columbia and the setting up of a separate Federal Organization, dominated as i n the past by Howard Green, without any obligation or responsibility to the Conservative Associ a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia. 24  I t went on to condemn any attempt to divide the party association and demanded once more that the federal offices be closed.  The  resolution was sent to Drew who replied with a strong defence 25 of Green.  The national leader wrote Finlayson that the prov-  i n c i a l leader could not expect to run the party's national organizational a f f a i r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and that, as i n the past, the federal leader would not attempt to interfere i n the 25 party's provincial a f f a i r s . The dispute came to a head at a meeting at Vernon on July 17V and culminated i n a motion of non-confidence i n the federal leader which was passed by a 40-24 vote and resulted i n the emotional 26 scene described at the beginning of t h i s inquiry. » Blue Book - pp. 18-19 25. "The Drew Letter" - appendix I I 24  26. p.5  55  A t the meeting P i n l a y s o n c h a r g e d the f e d e r a l l e a d e r w i t h s e c r e t d e a l i n g s , renewed the charges o f an attempted "saw-off" w i t h S o c i a l C r e d i t , and s a i d the f e d e r a l p a r t y l e a d e r s i n B.C. were "agents o f m a l i c e a n d m i s e r y . "  Pinlayson predicted a t the  meeting t h a t w i t h i n two y e a r s John D i e f e n b a k e r , M.P. A l b e r t , would be the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r . r e s o l u t i o n was  passed, the t h r e e B.C.  f o r Prince  A f t e r the non-confidence members o f P a r l i a m e n t and 27  twenty-one s u p p o r t e r s withdrew from the meeting. C o n s e r v a t i v e M.L.A., Dr. L a r r y Giovando, who  was  The o n l y n o t a t the  meeting, p u b l i c l y d i s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f from the p a r l y ,  changing  h i s d e s i g n a t i o n t o independent. Green and Drew announced t h a t a separate.) f e d e r a l Conserv a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n would be s e t up i n the p r o v i n c e t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l f e d e r a l p a r t y matters . Thorough r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was  p l a n n e d i n a l l f e d e r a l r i d i n g s t o ensure t h e i r  loyalty  t o the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r , and t o the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n .  I n the  days t h a t f o l l o w e d D i e f e n b a k e r i s s u e d s e v e r a l statements affirm-V i n g h i s l o y a l t y t o Drew and d i s c l a i m i n g any d e s i g n s on the l e a d e r s h i p so l o n g as Drew h e l d i t .  B i t t e r words were h u r l e d back  and f o r t h as f i r s t t h i s C o n s e r v a t i v e and t h e n a n o t h e r h e l d p r e s s conferences.  The newspapers d u r i n g the l a s t two weeks o f J u l y  27. Whenever the Vernon meeting i s mentioned, f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e d e l e g a t e s wax l o n g a n d e l o q u e n t l y about the domination o f the meeting by the P i n l a y s o n group which i s c h a r g e d w i t h u n p a r l i a m e n t a r y conduct and v i r t u a l l y gagging s u p p o r t e r s o f Drew.  54  reported  a l m o s t d a i l y i n c i d e n t s e v i d e n c i n g the  split.  group a p p a r e n t l y came o f f the worse i n the p u b l i c eye. o r i a l i n The  The An  federal edit-  Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , headed " S u i c i d e a t Vernon",  e x p r e s s e d a common view o f the  matter:  So f a r a s the p u b l i c knows, the v o t e a t Vernon was based on n o t h i n g but the charge t h a t George Drew and h i s f e d e r a l p a r t y s u p p o r t e r s were i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s . There was no major i s s u e o f p o l i c y . I t was s t r i c t l y a domes t i c row over the k i t c h e n s i n k . By r e s o l u t i o n George Drew stands condemned, not because he f a i l e d i n m a t t e r s o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y , but because he b u t t e d i n on Mr. F i n l a y s o n , the s e a t less, l e a d e r of a s e a t l e s s party. Throughout the p r o v i n c i a l and ations  the f i s s u r e r a n ,  i n c i d e n t was Finlayson  f e d e r a l constituency  c r e a t i n g an e v e r - w i d e n i n g g u l f .  organizrThe  u s u a l l y a r e s o l u t i o n v o i c i n g confidence i n e i t h e r  o r i n Drew'.  I n many c a s e s those who  r e s o l u t i o n withdrew from the  organization.  voted against  the  Sometimes they a p p e a l -  ed t o the p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l l e a d e r f o r h e l p i n s e t t i n g up new  group.  a  More o f t e n , however, the d i s s i d e n t members s i m p l y  q u i t a c t i v e p a r t y work.  P r e m i e r Bennett c l a i m e d l a r g e numbers o f  d i s a f f e c t e d C o n s e r v a t i v e s j o i n e d the S o c i a l C r e d i t "movement"'. I n August the f e d e r a l members began r e o r g a n i z i n g Pearkes s u p e r v i s e d  28.  The  i n earnest.  the work on Vancouver I s l a n d , F u l t o n  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , J u l y 20,  1954,  p".4.  that  in  55  the I n t e r i o r and Green t h a t i n the Lower M a i n l a n d ; autumn o f 1954  the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l was  under i t s a e g i s , a l l work was  By  formally constituted  c a r r i e d on.  Sporadic  but w i t h o u t e f f e c t . but  given  by the n a t i o n a l p r e s i d e n t , George Hees, M.P.  Toronto-Broadview.  Conservative  by  for  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n meetings were h e l d  O r g a n i z i n g went ahead i n the f e d e r a l sphere  the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n remained hamstrung and  I n March 1955  and  29  D e f i n i t e r e c o g n i t i o n o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l was Drew and  the  the o f f i c e r s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n p u b l i s h e d what was  little.  Progressive  l a t e r termed  "Blue Book" A F a c t u a l Documented Statement o f the P a r t y ' s P o s i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia and  did  the  Conservative  some o f the Reasons  50 f o r the M o t i o n o f No  C o n f i d e n c e i n the N a t i o n a l L e a d e r .  t r a c e d the d i f f i c u l t i e s b a c k t o 1942 by Bracken.  and Green's appointment  I t p r e s e n t e d a s e r i e s o f statements, l e t t e r s  parts of l e t t e r s purporting  t o show t h a t Green had  l e g a l l y - c o n s t i t u t e d a s s o c i a t i o n and n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s had  t h a t the two  the  successive  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y , a l t h o u g h n o t always con-  s i s t e n t l y , s u p p o r t e d Green i n an attempt t o d i v i d e the The  and  sought undue  power f o r h i m s e l f i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n o p p o s i t i o n t o  party.  This;  Conservative  "Blue Book" r e i t e r a t e d the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s c l a i m to  be  o n l y l e g a l a u t h o r i t y f o r the promotion o f C o n s e r v a t i s m i n the province  and a t t a c k e d  the f e d e r a l wing f o r s e t t i n g up the  Federal  29. A. L. Bewley e s t i m a t e d t h a t the new o r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d 90 p e r c e n t new work e f f e c t e d a f t e r the Vernon meeting. 50.  See Appendix I  56  Council. untrue  Many o f t h i s document's o b s e r v a t i o n s were a t t a c k e d a s  o r m i s l e a d i n g by f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s .  I t was a r g u e d  t h a t s e c t i o n s o f l e t t e r s a n d c o n v e r s a t i o n s were quoted b a d l y o u t of context.  The "Blue Book"', i f n o t h i n g e l s e , does document t h e  extent o f the breach. A t a q u a r t e r l y e x e c u t i v e meeting i n A p r i l ,  1955 the B.C.  a s s o c i a t i o n approved, by a 40-2 v o t e , a b r i e f t h a t charged t h e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p had a g r e e d  t o support S o c i a l C r e d i t i n the  p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d i n r e t u r n f o r support from S o c i a l G r e d i t e r s i n the f e d e r a l f i e l d .  Not o n l y d i d t h i s r e c e i v e t h e u s u a l  d e n i a l s from t h e f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r s b u t i t a l s o p r o voked a statement  from N o e l J . Murphy, p r e s i d e n t o f the B.C.  S o c i a l C r e d i t League:: The p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s must be so desperate f o r p u b l i c i t y t h a t t h e y w i l l use us a s a v e h i c l e t o b a c k b i t e t h e i r own f e d e r a l party. So o f t e n was t h i s c l a i m made by the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s t h a t c l o s e i n q u i r y was made i n t o i t . c i t e s two statements  Conservative The "Blue Book"  by C h i l l i w a c k c o n s t i t u e n c y e x e c u t i v e s who  c l a i m e d a f e d e r a l o r g a n i z e r had t o l d them about such a n a r r a n g e ment w i t h S o c i a l C r e d i t .  The o r g a n i z e r many times d e n i e d he had  e v e r made such a sugge s t i o n .  Had he done so a n d been exposed  i n t h i s way, i t seems r e a s o n a b l e  t o assume t h e e x p e d i e n t  w o u l d have been t o d i s c h a r g e him immediately.  31. The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , August 26, 1955.  course  T h i s was n o t done.  57  When q u e s t i o n e d , p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n members o f t e n r e f e r r e d to  the r e p o r t e d arrangement b u t had o n l y h e a r s a y evidence  the c o n t e n t i o n .  I t was  to  support  always d e n i e d by the f e d e r a l s u p p o r t e r s .  On l o g i c a l grounds i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d the p r o p o s i t i o n reasonable.  S o c i a l C r e d i t was  r e g a r d e d by the n a t i o n a l Con-  servative leaders as a h i g h l y s u c c e s s f u l party that threatened to  suborn t r a d i t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e groups o f s u p p o r t .  Social  C r e d i t had a s i z e a b l e number o f w e s t e r n members a t Ottawa and i t would have been most unwise f o r the C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o agree t o a n arrangement t h a t w o u l d p e r m i t a f o r m i d a b l e r i v a l p a r t y t o g a i n and h o l d c o n t r o l o f two properous  p r o v i n c e s , t o use a s a  s p r i n g b o a r d f o r the n a t i o n a l campaign t o w h i c h S o c i a l C r e d i t often referred.  The  f i x a t i o n w i t h w h i c h some p r o v i n c i a l  so  Conser-  v a t i v e s spoke o f the r e p o r t e d arrangement i s e x p l i c a b l e o n l y i n view o f t h e i r o f t - d e s p e r a t e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a d e s i r e t o v i n d i c a t e t h e i r own  s t a n d , and a need t o promote a misdemeanour s e r i o u s  enough t o c o n v i n c e the n a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s t h a t t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n B.C. were u n t r u s t w o r t h y . g i v e n t o the "Blue Book" —  The wide  circulation  i t went t o newspaper r e p o r t e r s , t o  r a d i o c o l u m n i s t s and t o members o f o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s  —  suggests the l e n g t h s t o w h i c h the p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s were p r e p a r e d t o go f o r s u p p o r t . In  May  1955  F i n l a y s o n attended a n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n executive  meeting a t Ottawa.  A f t e r f o u r hours o f debate a t t h e meeting, a  58  r e s o l u t i o n was  endorsed 59-31  t h a t approved f o r m a t i o n  of  the  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l and e n t r u s t i n g to i t a l l f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e m a t t e r s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. F i n l a y s o n who was  The  o n l y n e g a t i v e vote was  cast  by  withdrew from the meeting a f t e r a motion o f censure  p a s s e d on him.  Censure was  based on t h r e e p o i n t s :  Finlayson's  a t t a c k on Drew, the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n o f f o r m e r l y c o n f i d e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( i n the B.C.  l e a d e r ' s a t t a c k on t h r e e B.C.  a c t i o n had the important  "Blue Book") and  members o f P a r l i a m e n t .  the This  p u b l i c e f f e c t o f t r a n s f e r r i n g the  q u a r r e l from a s t r i c t l y p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r t o a n a t i o n a l one.  The  n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , i n demanding a b s o l u t e l o y a l t y o f the provi n c i a l u n i t s , was  prepared  t o go a s f a r a s n e c e s s a r y  t o ensure i t s  c o n t r o l over a l l f e d e r a l m a t t e r s . I n 1956  a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was  called.  The  a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d f i n d o n l y twenty-two c a n d i d a t e s f i f t y - t w o seats.  A l l twenty-two were b e a t e n .  provincial to contest  the  Soon a f t e r George  Drew r e s i g n e d the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p because o f h i s i n c r e a s i n g l y poor h e a l t h . sent delegates  Both t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l and the B.C. t o the n a t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n .  association  I n i t i a l l y the  cred-  e n t i a l s committee r e f u s e d t o c e r t i f y the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s d e l e g a t e s . A compromise was  r e a c h e d t h r o u g h the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f Leon Ladner,  the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l p r e s i d e n t who  had assumed the r o l e o f mediator,  l a d n e r backed the l e a d e r s h i p c a n d i d a c y f o r Donald F l e m i n g , M.P. ed Diefenbaker  who  won  of Fulton.  f o r Toronto-Eglinton. the  convention.  Green plumped  Finlayson  support-  59  Diefenbaker  d i d n o t support a B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n r e q u e s t t o  d i s s o l v e the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l but decided t o contest the expected f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n w i t h t h e e x i s t i n g arrangements i n B.C. case i t would be no time f o r a change; press i t s claims.  I n any  The a s s o c i a t i o n d i d n o t  On e l e c t i o n day B r i t i s h Columbia e l e c t e d seven  C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.s, t h e p a r t y ' s g r e a t e s t success i n a q u a r t e r century.  The n a t i o n a l s o e l e c t e d a m i n o r i t y C o n s e r v a t i v e  government w i t h D i e f e n b a k e r  as i t s l e a d e r .  During t h i s  election  campaign, P i n l a y s o n campaigned f o r f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e s t o a l i m i t ed extent.  H i s h e l p was n o t always a p p r e c i a t e d b u t i t was f o r t h -  coming n o n e t h e l e s s .  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l members a t t r i b u t e what  success  the C o n s e r v a t i v e s h a d i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1957 c h i e f l y t o t h e Diefenbaker issues.  i m p r e s s i o n on t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and t o n a t i o n a l  The F e d e r a l C o u n c i l ' s o r g a n i z i n g i s sometimes g i v e n  about 25 p e r c e n t o f t h e c r e d i t ; ' was,  The next e l e c t i o n —  March 1958  f o r t h e f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s c h i e f l y a c a s e o f success;  breeding success. set aside.  I n many B.C. r i d i n g s the o l d a n i m o s i t i e s were  The a s s o c i a t i o n s had g a i n e d new v i g o u r i n the i n t e r -  e l e c t i o n p e r i o d , a n d a l m o s t immeasurably more money and v o l u n t e e r h e l p was a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e campaign. . The v o t e r s e l e c t e d e i g h t e e n C o n s e r v a t i v e s from the twenty-two B.C. r i d i n g s .  The L i b e r a l a n d  S o c i a l C r e d i t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was e l i m i n a t e d . Both t h e 1957 a n d t h e 1958 campaign committee i n B.C. was o r g a n i z e d , a p p a r e n t l y on D i e f e n b a k e r ' s  o r d e r s , by a committee  —  60  r e p r e s e n t i n g b o t h f a c t i o n s i n the B.C. was  ' The  same committee  used f o r b o t h e l e c t i o n campaigns. The C o n s e r v a t i v e s had chosen a new  won  party.  nationally.  Was  n a t i o n a l l e a d e r and  had  the same t h i n g p o s s i b l e p r o v i n c i a l l y ?  number o f p e o p l e thought  so.  A  I n the f a c e o f such f e e l i n g F i n l a y s o n  d e c i d e d t o c a l l a l e a d e r s h i p c o n v e n t i o n t o t r y and c o n s o l i d a t e his  position.  Although  t h e y withdrew.  s e v e r a l persons e n t e r e d the r a c e  As the c o n v e n t i o n approached, Dr. Desmond KLdd  entered the l i s t s .  F i n l a y s o n and K i d d were seen i n f r i e n d l y  newspaper poses and some comment was convention.  initially  K i d d , however, was  younger members who  made about a  pre-arranged  v e r y p o p u l a r w i t h the p a r t y s 1  were enthused w i t h the i d e a t h a t change  might mean p r o g r e s s . D i e f e n b a k e r had o r d e r e d the members o f P a r l i a m e n t t o take no p a r t i n the c o n t e s t .  A l l e i g h t e e n main-  t a i n e d a d i s c r e e t d i s t a n c e from the c o n v e n t i o n .  Those most  a c t i v e i n campaigning f o r K i d d i n c l u d e d many who  had been  counted  55 i n the f e d e r a l wing i n e a r l i e r y e a r s i  Few  o f the f e d e r a l  sympathizers were found openly w o r k i n g f o r F i n l a y s o n . i s s u e o f d i v i d e d o r g a n i z a t i o n d i d not r i s e t o the  The  old  fore.  32. Co-chairmen were chosen: Ladner f o r the F e d e r a l feouncil, and A. C. D e s b r i s a y , f i n a n c i n g e x p e r t f o r the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . Ladner named t h r e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the group: John Pearkes, son o f the M.P. and s e c r e t a r y o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l ; Mary S o u t h i n , of the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l e x e c u t i v e , and F r e d F i e l d , chairman o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l f i n a n c e committee. Three were a l s o named t o t h e committee by D e s b r i s a y : I a n Pyper, Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s ' p r e s i d e n t ; Gowan Guest, a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t , and Frank D o r c h e s t e r , a s s o c iation treasurer. 33. K i d d ' s campaign on Vancouver I s l a n d , f o r example, was o r g a n i z e d by E r i c Charman o f the V i c t o r i a f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n .  61  The p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r p o i n t e d t o a b i g i n c r e a s e i n a s s o c i a t i o n a c t i v i t y . I n the p r e c e d i n g  s i x months,he s a i d , f o r t y - t w o  effective  c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s had been p u t i n t o o p e r a t i o n compared t o o n l y twelve counted i n A p r i l 1958. With c o - o p e r a t i o n from everyone i n t h e p a r t y success  c o u l d w e l l be e x p e c t e d . K i d d ' s a p p e a l was  based on h i s e x p e r t knowledge o f the p r o v i n c e a n d the advantages t o be a n t i c i p a t e d from a f r e s h approach.  F i n l a y s o n was  sustained  i n the l e a d e r s h i p by a margin o f o n l y e l e v e n v o t e s . The count was 350  t o 339. K i d d then p l e d g e d h i s immediate c o - o p e r a t i o n and t h a t  of h i s supporters. Assessing t h i s convention  r e s u l t i s d i f f i c u l t . A knowledge  o f p a r t y h i s t o r y l e a d s t o judgement i n terms o f the p a s t . Observ e r s w i t h l e n g t h y memories saw on each s i d e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l d i v i s i o n . But they a l s o saw on b o t h s i d e s a m a j o r i t y o f new people i n t h e p a r t y , i n d i v i d u a l s who had n o t been caught up i n t i m a t e l y i n t h e emotion and s t r i f e o f the days when Drew was n a t i o n a l 1 eader. A t t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n v e n t i o n  there a l s o  seemed t o be more t a l k o f n a t i o n a l i s s u e s t h a n had been u s u a l a t B.C.  conventions.  Since Diefenbaker's  two v i c t o r i e s , the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n  has found i t s e l f w i t h more funds a n d o t h e r r e s o u r c e s . F e d e r a l members of Parliament  have been a v a i l a b l e t o a d d r e s s p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u 54  ency  meetings  appointed  a n d a f u l l - t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t was  t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e which had l a c k e d a n o r g a n i z e r .  54. There a r e , o f course,  f a r more C o n s e r v a t i v e  t h e r e had been i n p r e v i o u s  years.  M.P.s today than  62  I t i s assumed on a l l s i d e s t h a t the new impetus and f i n a n c i a l support  has come from t h e p a r t y ' s n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s .  When  the B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t y convened a t H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s f o r i t s a n n u a l meeting i n October 1959, f o u r members o f P a r l i a m e n t t o o k a n a c t i v e p a r t . Two o t h e r M.P.s a t t e n d e d  the s e s s i o n s . The  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s a i d the theme o f the meeting was "our new-found 55 unity."  He p u t the case f r a n k l y  t h a t Diefenbaker  was t h e man  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e growth o f u n i t y , t h a t the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r had r e c o g n i z e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r i n a way t h a t t h e former n a t i o n a l l e a d e r had r e f u s e d t o do.  The meeting saw the I  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f n e a r l y two dozen p r o s p e c t i v e c a n d i d a t e s p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n e x p e c t e d i n 1960. A f u l l  f o r the  s l a t e of f i f t y - t w o  was a n t i c i p a t e d . F i n l a y s o n s a i d the f e d e r a l o f f i c e had promised "everything —  money, o r g a n i z e r s , e v e r y t h i n g " needed t o h e l p the  p a r t y i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n campaign. I t was e v i d e n t , however, t h a t n o t a l l the wounds had been h e a l e d . Two o f the p a r t y ' s t h r e e s e n i o r M.P.s were t o o busy i n t h e i r d u t i e s as c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s t o a t t e n d the meeting. The t h i r d s e n i o r M.P., F u l t o n o f Kamloops, was engaged i n a t h r e e - d a y B.C.  speaking  tour of  communities i n t h e same r e g i o n a s the meeting p l a c e o f t h e  p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . A l t h o u g h e x p e c t e d a t the two-day meeting, he never p u t i n a n appearance.  One o f the o t h e r p r i n c i p a l s i n the  f e d e r a l wing, Leon J . Ladner, d i d n o t a t t e n d the meeting. The r e a s o n he g i v e s i s t h a t he d i d n o t f e e l i t was h i s p l a c e a s p r e s i d e n t o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l a n d he w i s h e d t o a v o i d d o i n g a r y t h i n g t h a t might suggest t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l was i n t e r f e r i n g i n p r o v i n c i a l 55. I n a n i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e w r i t e r d u r i n g the meeting.  matters.  63  The annual  meeting r e - e l e c t e d M n s w o r t h a s p r e s i d e n t o f the 36  association.  AV few months l a t e r , P i n l a y s o n and M n s w o r t h responded  t o an i n v i t a t i o n from l a d n e r and a t t e n d e d q u a r t e r l y meeting. I t was  the f i r s t  the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l ' s  time the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r or  p r e s i d e n t had ever been p r e s e n t a t a C o u n c i l meeting. The was  reason  t o c o - o r d i n a t e c o - o p e r a t i o n f o r the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n  campaign which was  anticipated.  T h i s development i n d i c a t e d a  degree o f r e c o n c i l i a t i o n a t the e x e c u t i v e l e v e l g r e a t e r than  had  been i n d i c a t e d p u b l i c l y . Both Ladner and F i n l a y s o n say the C o u n c i l meeting proceded smoothly w i t h no d i f f i c u l t i e s . The  provincial  l e a d e r d i d not a n t i c i p a t e a t t e n d i n g C o u n c i l meetings r e g u l a r l y but 57 o n l y "as the need a r i s e s . "  36. D e t a i l s o f F i n l a y s o n ' s c o - o p e r a t i o n speech and the e l e c t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s a r e i n The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , October 26, 1959 and i n the Vancouver Sun, October 26, 1959. 37. I n t e r v i e w w i t h the w r i t e r , February,  1960.  28,  CHAPTER III  Contemporary O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the  Matters  of Progressive Conservative  a r e h a n d l e d by two  o r g a n i z a t i o n s : those  Party  party interest i n  B.C.  r e l a t i n g t o the problem  o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the House o f Commons a r e d e a l t w i t h a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by the B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n c i l o f the  Progressive  C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada; those r e l a t i n g t o  represent-  a t i o n i n t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly a t V i c t o r i a are the c o n c e r n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e  Association.  The  f i r s t group i s commonly c a l l e d the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l , the second the B.C.  association.  The  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l i s  s t r a i g h t - f o r w a r d i n o u t l i n i n g the o b j e c t s which i t does, i n f a c t , pursue, and i n d e s c r i b i n g i t s de f a c t o j u r i s d i c t i o n . t u t i o n o f the B.C.  The  consti-  a s s o c i a t i o n i s not as h e l p f u l i n t h i s r e s p e c t  f o r i t s d e s c r i p t i o n o f powers and i n t e r e s t s do not  correspond  p r e c i s e l y t o the a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n .  ( i ) The  Federal Council  The F e d e r a l C o u n c i l grew out o f the c i r c u m s t a n c e s Vernon meeting o f the e x e c u t i v e o f the B.C. 1954.  of  the  association i n July  That meeting p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n e x p r e s s i n g l a c k o f  confidence  i n the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r , whereupon the t h r e e  members o f P a r l i a m e n t , a t i v e i n B.C.,  the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r ' s p e r s o n a l  Conservative represent-  and twenty sympathizers announced t h e i r w i t h d r a w a l  64  65  from the a s s o c i a t i o n and, subsequently,  t h e i r i n t e n t i o n to create  a new o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r f e d e r a l purposes. A f t e r p r e l i m i n a r y o r g a n i z i n g by the f e d e r a l members d u r i n g the e n s u i n g  summer a n d autumn, The B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n c i l o f  the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e on December 11, 1954.  A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada was  organized!  The c o n s t i t u t i o n says t h e o b j e c t s o f t h e  group a r e : 2. To promote and advance the p r i n c i p l e s , p o l i c i e s a n d i n t e r e s t s o f the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f Canada a n d t o secure the e l e c t i o n o f P r o g r e s s i v e Conservative c a n d i d a t e s t o t h e House o f Commons. 3. To a i d and a d v i s e members o f t h e House o f Commons a n d t o a s s i s t i n the p r o m o t i o n o f w i s e p o l i c i e s a n d sound l e g i s l a t i o n . 4. To o r g a n i z e a n d a s s i s t i n o r g a n i z i n g and c a r r y i n g on F e d e r a l P r o g r e s s i v e Cons e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n s and Clubs i n each F e d e r a l c o n s t i t u e n c y w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columb i a on a membership b a s i s a n d t o c o - o r d i n a t e their activities. F u l l a u t h o r i t y i n a l l f e d e r a l matters i s claimed f o r the C o u n c i l : 15. The C o u n c i l s h a l l have a n d e x e r c i s e under the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada s o l e and e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n o v e r a l l Federal Progressive Conservative Associations and p o l i c i e s w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, a n d s h a l l have t h e s o l e power t o a p p o i n t e x e c u t i v e members from B r i t i s h Columb i a o f thegProgressive Conservative A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada.  1. A r t i c l e s o f t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l c o n s t i t u t i o n , mimeographed, on f i l e i n the C o u n c i l ' s o f f i c e s i n t h e Vancouver B l o c k . 2.  ibid.  66  The  C o u n c i l thus, i n d i r e c t l y , bases i t s c l a i m t o  on i t s r e c o g n i t i o n by the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n o f the W i t h o u t such r e c o g n i t i o n and the C o u n c i l would have few which to e x e r c i s e  legitimacy party.  the concomitant e x c l u s i v e powers,  o r no  sanctions  the c l a i m e d j u r i s d i c t i o n .  the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s t a k e n t o be  at i t s disposal with Such r e c o g n i t i o n  concurrent with that  by of  the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r a t whose b e h e s t the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n usually The  operates.^ C o u n c i l membership comprises two  general  groups:  a d m i t t e d t o membership by r e a s o n o f n a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n and s e n t a t i v e s o f c e r t a i n groups s p e c i f i c a l l y r e c o g n i z e d The  repre-  by the  f i r s t group i n c l u d e s members o f P a r l i a m e n t , s e n a t o r s ,  executive  those  and  o f f i c e r s o f the n a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n  l i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I n the  second group a r e a  from each f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , t h r e e  Progressive  the Women's P r o g r e s s i v e Organizations  who  representative  from the Young P r o g r e s s -  i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia, one U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.  Council.  C o n s e r v a t i v e C l u b and  from three  the from  C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  mentioned i n t h i s second group send  representatives.  5. E x a m i n a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the p a r t y i s beyond, the sphere o f t h i s i n q u i r y . F o r a g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y on the r e l a t i o n s o f the l e a d e r and the a s s o c i a t i o n , two works a r e recommended: J . R. W i l l i a m s , The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n Canada, 1920-1949 (Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Durham, N o r t h C a r o l i n a 1956) John L e d e r l e , The N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the L i b e r a l and Conserv a t i v e P a r t i e s ~ o f Canada ( U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n , u n p u b l i s h e d PhD, dissertation 1942)  (  67  to  the c o u n c i l o n l y i f t h e c o u n c i l s p e c i f i c a l l y a c c o r d s  n i t i o n w h i c h may be withdrawn a t any t i m e .  This assures  them r e c o g the c o u n c i l  t h a t f a c t i o n s out o f sympathy w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g view o f the c o u n c i l need n o t be t o l e r a t e d .  The c o u n c i l does n o t s p e c i f y  any procedure f o r g r a n t i n g o r w i t h d r a w i n g r e c o g n i t i o n t o such groups. I n a d d i t i o n t o the two g e n e r a l groups, membership i s a c c o r d e d t o the chairmen o f any committees t h a t may be s t r u c k by the C o u n c i l i f those chairmen a r e n o t n o r m a l l y C o u n c i l members.  While ex-  e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s o f the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y members o f the c o u n c i l i f t h e y l i v e i n B.C., e x e c u t i v e members o f the a s s o c i a t i o n l i v i n g i n B.C. a r e n o t C o u n c i l members u n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y e l e c t e d by the C o u n c i l .  T h i s ensures t h a t the  P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada w i l l have, i f n o t a modicum o f c o n t r o l over t h e C o u n c i l , a t l e a s t f u l l on the c o u n c i l ' s a c t i v i t i e s .  The p e r m i s s i v e  information  election of national  e x e c u t i v e members means t h a t the C o u n c i l , which might be unable to p r e v e n t  the B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n ' s n o m i n a t i o n o f members t o the  n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e , a t l e a s t does n o t have t o a c c e p t  those  as C o u n c i l members u n l e s s they a l s o w i n n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e The  people office.  C o u n c i l membership may be i n c r e a s e d by such o t h e r persons  as i t may w i s h t o a p p o i n t ,  so long:.as n o t more t h a n t e n such  4 appointments a r e made a t one t i m e . a good d e a l o f f l e x i b i l i t y .  This clause  gives the C o u n c i l  I t c o u l d be t h e means by w h i c h the  C o u n c i l would e n l i s t o u t s i d e C o n s e r v a t i v e s  i f r e l a t i o n s between  4. Number 5 ( j ) F e d e r a l C o u n c i l c o n s t i t u t i o n , l o c . c i t .  68  the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l and the B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n became u n u s u a l l y amicable,  o r t h e need f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n u n u s u a l l y p r e s s i n g .  the same way, persons o u t s i d e the p a r t y c o u l d be e n l i s t e d . figure ten i s interesting.  In The  The t o t a l member s h i p o f t h e C o u n c i l  c o u l d , t h e o r e t i c a l l y , be a s h i g h a s e i g h t y , depending on the number o f n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e members f o r B.C. who might be  6ommittee chairmen n o t otherwise members o f the c o u n c i l  appointed,  and assuming no s p e c i a l appointments through the c l a u s e under discussion.  I n p r a c t i c e , the C o u n c i l r a r e l y musters more than 5  f o r t y members, a n d t e n i s a quorum.  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l members  p r o f e s s the p o s s i b i l i t y was n o t contemplated b u t t h e s p e c i a l appointment o f t e n members a t a time c o u l d e a s i l y r e n d e r one f a c t i o n ' s temporary m a j o r i t y a more permanent one by r e i n f o r c e ment a t s u c c e s s i v e The  meetings.  C o u n c i l e l e c t s the u s u a l s e t o f o f f i c e r s a t an annual  meeting t o be h e l d i n December o r J a n u a r y .  Besides  t h e immed-  i a t e past president, president, v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , secretary and t r e a s u r e r , f i v e e x e c u t i v e members a r e e l e c t e d by a n i f r o m t h e membership o f t h e C o u n c i l . Conservative  To t h i s e x e c u t i v e a r e added t h e  members o f the House o f Commons who s i t f o r the  p r o v i n c e a n d such honourary o f f i c e r s a s t h e C o u n c i l may e l e c t .  5.  Clause  number 8, F e d e r a l C o u n c i l C o n s t i t u t i o n , l o c . c i t .  69  13. The o f f i c e r s s h a l l be a Board o f Management w i t h a l l the powers o f the members o f t h e C o u n c i l b u t t h e i r a c t i o n s a n d d e c i s i o n s s h a l l be s u b j e c t t o review by the C o u n c i l . The o f f i c e r s may meet t o g e t h e r f o r the d i s p a t c h o f b u s i n e s s , a d j o u r n and otherwise r e g u l a t e t h e i r meetings a s they t h i n k f i t . ' 14. The C o u n c i l a n d the o f f i c e r s may c r e a t e a n d a p p o i n t such committees a s they deem f i t . ^ Each member o f t h e C o u n c i l a n d each o f f i c e r h o l d s u n t i l h i s o r her successor i s e l e c t e d o r appointed.  office No c o n s t i t u -  t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n i s made f o r t h e d e l i b e r a t e removal o f persons from membership o r e x e c u t i v e  office.  C o u n c i l members suggest  they would be f r e e t o do so i n t h e o r d i n a r y course  of business.  I t would,however, appear t h a t i n some c a s e s the c o n s t i t u t i o n would! 7 r e q u i r e amendment t o terminate The  the membership o f c e r t a i n p e r s o n s .  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l p r o v i d e s the f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s  w i t h the o n l y d i r e c t l i n k t o t h e n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e . A l t h o u g h some changes were contemplated i n the n a t i o n a l organi z a t i o n , when the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l was o r g a n i z e d a c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n had no r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a t t h e a n n u a l n a t i o n a l meeting i f i t had not e l e c t e d a Progressive Conservative Parliament.  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p strengthened  member o f  the F e d e r a l  Council's  a c t u a l a n d p o t e n t i a l c o n t r o l over t h e f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s .  6. F e d e r a l C o u n c i l C o n s t i t u t i o n . 7. "Amendments t o t h i s c o n s t i t u t i o n may be made by a t w o - t h i r d s m a j o r i t y v o t e o f the members o f the C o u n c i l p r e s e n t a t any a n n u a l meeting o r g e n e r a l meeting o r a t any s p e c i a l meeting c a l l e d f o r t h a t purpose, w i t h o u t any p r i o r n o t i c e . " C l a u s e 16. C o n s t i t u t i o n .  70  The  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l i s n o t unique i n the n a t i o n a l scheme o f  Progressive  Conservative organization,  r e c e i v e d no acknowledgement e i t h e r by o r by 1959  a consideration the  that  has  system's opponents,  the p o p u l a r p r e s s i n d i s c u s s i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e a f f a i r s . the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z e r , A l l i s t e r G r o s a r t ,  gave the  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l the f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e o f n a t i o n a l i n the p r o v i n c e s . sees t h r e e  Quebec has  In  B.C.  organization  a f e d e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h over-  r e g i o n a l ( f e d e r a l ) a s s o c i a t i o n s and more t h a n seventy-  f i v e r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , most o f them f a i r l y new.  Manitoba  o r g a n i z e d on a s t r o n g f e d e r a l r i d i n g b a s i s a f t e r a  coalition  p r o v i n c i a l government had  was  r e s u l t e d i n the a t r o p h y o f many Con-  s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s .  The  s e p a r a t e f e d e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s t o be m a i n t a i n e d i n Manitoba u n t i l the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e b u i l t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y the two  f i e l d s o f work d i v i d e d under one  c o u n c i l was Grosart  jurisdiction.  p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t e d and u s u a l l y unnecessary.  obtain i n Ontario,  strong  t h a t s e p a r a t e f e d e r a l organT h i s s i t u a t i o n was  Nova S c o t i a and New  Brunswick.  believed  izer  Q  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l i n B r i t i s h Columbia employs a p a i d  who  to  There were  p r o v i n c i a l b u t no f e d e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Saskatchewan and The  federal  contemplated f o r Newfoundland but has n o t been o r g a n i z e d .  emphasized t h a t no problems r e s u l t e d wherever a  i z a t i o n was  A  and  Alberta. organ-  works t o improve the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f C o n s e r v a t i v e groups  8. I n i t i a l l y , Frank B a r k e r , a s s i s t e d by J o h n Fox; from 1955 t o mid1956, F r e d Waterhouse, from mid-1956 t o the p r e s e n t ; C..J. Holms, a f o r m e r o r g a n i z e r f o r the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n who was among those b r e a k i n g away from the a s s o c i a t i o n a t the Vernon meeting.  71  seeking  the e l e c t i o n o f c a n d i d a t e s  t o the House o f Commons.  The  C o u n c i l maintains an o f f i c e w i t h p a i d s e c r e t a r i a l help which i s engaged i n l i a i s o n work between the n a t i o n a l a n d t h e r i d i n g associations,  between the members a n d r i d i n g s , and groups; seek-  ing their assistance.  I t a l s o h e l p s t o produce and d i s t r i b u t e p a r t y  l i t e r a t u r e a n d works w i t h such f e d e r a l l y - o r g a n i z e d groups a s t h e Young C o n s e r v a t i v e s , The  t h e u n i v e r s i t y c l u b a n d the women's group?  d i r e c t i o n o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l has remained i n the same  hands from i t s i n c e p t i o n i n 1954 t o t h e p r e s e n t .  Leon J . Ladner,  g Q.C., has been p r e s i d e n t , a n d John Pearkes  i t s secretary.  The  n a t i o n a l l e a d e r ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , A . L. Bewley, Q.C., was a member o f the C o u n c i l u n t i l A p r i l 1956 when he r e t i r e d from p o l i t i c a l life.  Since  then l a d n e r has been the f e d e r a l l e a d e r ' s  representative as w e l l as C o u n c i l  personal  president.  As might be e x p e c t e d , the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the two f e d e r a l e l e o t i o n campaigns s i n c e t h e C o u n c i l ' s i n i t i a t i o n has been under i t s supervision.  E l e c t i o n campaigns a r e d i r e c t e d by s p e c i a l groups!'  the N a t i o n a l Campaign Committee and, i n B.C., t h e B r i t i s h Columbia Progressive  Conservative  Campaign Committee.  T h i s l a t t e r group,  a l t h o u g h under the a e g i s o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l a n d o f i t s s p e c i a l campaign f i n a n c e committee, r e p r e s e n t e d  two  Conservative  o r g a n i z a t i o n s . . Co-chairmen o f t h e campaign committee were Ladner ,  9. Son o f t h e member f o r E s q u i m a l t - S a a n i c h ,  Maj.-Gen. &. V. Pearkes, V.C.  72  and A. C. D e s b r i s a y , l o n g known a s the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n ' s finance  director.^  ( i i ) The B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n  The  B r i t i s h Columbia P r o g r e s s i v e  Conservative  Association  o p e r a t e s under a c o n s t i t u t i o n adopted a t a n a n n u a l meeting h e l d i n Vancouver, October 18, 1952, w i t h c e r t a i n minor amendments adopted by t h e a n n u a l meeting h e l d a t H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s i n October 1959.  The a s s o c i a t i o n t a k e s a s i t s o b j e c t s  t h e promotion  o f i n t e r e s t i n Canadian a n d B.C. p o l i t i c s a n d government, maintenance o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y p r i n c i p l e s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d d i r e c t i o n o f p a r t y c l u b s , a s s o c i a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s a n d o f t h e p a r t y ' s g e n e r a l work i n the p r o v i n c e ,  and t o s e c u r e the e l e c t i o n o f  c a n d i d a t e s t o t h e L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly a n d t o t h e House o f Commons. The  a s s o c i a t i o n a s s e r t s i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n over a n d s u p e r i o r i t y t o ,  a l l p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l Conservative r i d i n g or  constituency  organizations  whose c o n s t i t u t i o n s have been approved by t h e  association.  The B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n c o n s t i t u t i o n c l a i m s  C o n s e r v a t i v e groups w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e  that a l l  a r e t o submit t h e i r  c o n s t i t u t i o n s a n d themselves t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s a u t h o r i t y . association's  o f f i c e r s a r e empowered, s u b j e c t  The  t o t h e l a t e r con-  f i r m a t i o n o r amendment o f the a n n u a l meeting, t o take such s t e p s as t h e y deem n e c e s s a r y t o t h e p a r l y ' s b e s t disputes arise.  10.  or question Procedural  i n t e r e s t s where any  o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f any o r g a n i z a t i o n  d e t a i l s f o r the v a r i o u s  Committee members l i s t e d i n f o o t n o t e  groups a r e s p e c i f i e d .  32.  75  Membership i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n i s extended t o t h e n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l Conservative p a r t y l e a d e r s , p r i v y  councillors,  s e n a t o r s a n d members o f P a r l i a m e n t and o f the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly who support the p a r t y , p a r t y c a n d i d a t e s d e f e a t e d i n t h e l a s t p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l general elections  , t o the a s s o c i a t i o n " s  e x e c u t i v e s a n d honourary members, t o t h e p r e s i d e n t s o f f e d e r a l 12 and p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g o r c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s  , a n d t o one  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e from e a c h Young P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d by the a s s o c i a t i o n . Where members a r e e l e c t e d t o the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e , another  o r d i n a r y membership  i s g r a n t e d t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o r group w h i c h t h a t e x e c u t i v e member r e p r e s e n t e d .  Membership i s r e t a i n e d so l o n g a s q u a l i f y -  i n g s t a t u s i s h e l d i n t h e s u b o r d i n a t e groups, o r u n t i l  successors,  are appointed o r e l e c t e d ^ P r o v i s i o n i s . made f o r t h e e x p u l s i o n o f members who a c t i n a manner " p r e j u d i c i a l t o t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y " . Reasonable n o t i c e o f i n t e n t i o n t o e x p e l a n d a chance t o s t a t e a defence i s g r a n t e d .  -  A t w o - t h i r d s v o t e o f those p r e s e n t a t a  r e g u l a r l y convened meeting o f the a s s o c i a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d f o r 15 expulsion.  P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r a n n u a l meetings o f t h e membership,  11. P r o v i d i n g , however, t h a t membership p a s s e s t o any new c a n d i d a t e s nominated f o r t h e r i d i n g f o r a f o r t h c o m i n g e l e c t i o n . 12. Where t h e r e i s no r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , a C o n s e r v a t i v e member s i t t i n g f o r t h e r i d i n g , o r a d e f e a t e d c a n d i d a t e , o r the B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t may a p p o i n t a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e member. 15. No e x p u l s i o n s a r e on r e c o r d .  74  for  o t h e r s p e c i a l meetings a t the c a l l o f t h e p r e s i d e n t o r t h e  executive.  P r o x i e s a r e n o t p e r m i t t e d a l t h o u g h temporary s u b s t i t u t e s  may be a p p o i n t e d by l o c a l o r r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s where t h e r e g u l a r member i s unable  to attend.  There i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r c a l l i n g  a g e n e r a l meeting by p e t i t i o n o f the members. of  A quorum c o n s i s t s ,  f o r t y members. The e x e c u t i v e i s charged w i t h c a r r y i n g o u t the o b j e c t s o f  the a s s o c i a t i o n , c o n d u c t i n g i t s management a n d d i s c i p l i n e .  Its  members meet q u a r t e r l y , a r e e l i g i b l e f o r r e - e l e c t i o n t o t h e e x e c u t i v e i n t h e next y e a r r e g a r d l e s s o f any change i n t h e i r o u t s i d e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r membership.  I f f i f t e e n members o f the  e x e c u t i v e p e t i t i o n f o r a meeting, t h e p r e s i d e n t i s t o convene such a meeting.  I f he f a i l s t o convene a meeting, i t may be  h e l d by t h e p e t i t i o n e r s i n any c a s e .  Twenty members c o n s t i t u t e  a quorum. The  e x e c u t i v e c o n s i s t s o f t h e o f f i c e r s , t h e immediate p a s t  p r e s i d e n t , the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r a n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , a l l C o n s e r v a t i v e members o f t h e House o f Commons o r o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e , one man a n d one woman f o r each f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n a n d one member f o r each member o f the l e g i s l a t u r e t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l 14 constituency elects  , t h r e e Young P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s a n d  one member each from the Primrose  C l u b , the B.C. P r o g r e s s i v e  C o n s e r v a t i v e Women's A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e V i c t o r i a Women's P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n , a s w e l l a s honorary  members o f the  14. i . e . ; t h r e e members f o r a multi-member r i d i n g l i k e VancouverP o i n t Grey, making a t o t a l o f f i f t y - t w o f o r t h e f o r t y - t w o r i d i n g s .  75  a s s o c i a t i o n (who The  have no v o t i n g r i g h t s on the  executive).  o f f i c e r s o f the a s s o c i a t i o n a r e e l e c t e d a t the a n n u a l  meeting, convene a t  the p r e s i d e n t ! s  c a l l , a c t as a board of  management v e s t e d w i t h a l l the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s powers, a r e t o review by the e x e c u t i v e  and  the a s s o c i a t i o n , and  from among members i n good s t a n d i n g i n c i a l riding association.  o f any  B.C.  may  subject be  elected  f e d e r a l or p r o v -  F i v e o f f i c e r s c o n s t i t u t e a quorum.  There i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r meetings by p e t i t i o n o f the  officers. 15  The  o f f i c e r s chosen a r e a p r e s i d e n t ,  s e c r e t a r y , a t r e a s u r e r and e l e c t i o n o f the is  three vice-presidents,  six directors.  a  P r o v i s i o n i s made f o r  o f f i c e r s so t h a t each o f seven geographic  regions  represented.^ The  a s s o c i a t i o n v e s t s i t s supreme a u t h o r i t y i n the  w h i c h may  be  summoned by a t h r e e - f i f t h s v o t e a t a g e n e r a l  o f the a s s o c i a t i o n o r by  the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ,  o f f i c e r s a t the  o r on h i s death o r r e s i g n a t i o n .  members o f the a s s o c i a t i o n a r e c o n v e n t i o n d e l e g a t e s . p r o v i n c i a l constituency  meeting request All  Each  a s s o c i a t i o n e l e c t s t e n d e l e g a t e s f o r each  M.L.A. t h a t the c o n s t i t u e n c y  i s e n t i t l e d to e l e c t .  a r e e l e c t e d i n l i k e number.  The  prescribes  convention  B.C.  Alternates  association constitution  the r u l e s o f procedure a t such c o n v e n t i o n s , atr.which  one  hundred d e l e g a t e s c o n s t i t u t e a quorum.  15.  The  t h i r d vice-president  i s to be a woman.  16. The r e g i o n s : N o r t h e r n ^ C o a s t a l , N o r t h e r n I n t e r i o r , E a s t e r n I n t e r i o r , Southern I n t e r i o r , F r a s e r V a l l e y , Vancouver I s l a n d , S o u t h e r n C o a s t a l .  76  Amendments t o the c o n s t i t u t i o n may he made w i t h o u t n o t i c e by a two-thirds vote a t a convention,  o r , on s i x weeks n o t i c e , a t  a g e n e r a l o r s p e c i a l meeting o f the a s s o c i a t i o n . The  B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n m a i n t a i n s i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s  i n a suite  17 o f o f f i c e s i n Vancouver.  P a i d s e c r e t a r i a l h e l p i s p r o v i d e d as  w e l l as a f u l l - t i m e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t .  There i s no  full-  time p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r as such. ( i i i ) Two C o n s e r v a t i v e  Organizations?  E x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i c t i o n over f e d e r a l matters i s c l a i m e d by b o t h the B r i t i s h Columbia C o u n c i l o f the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada ( t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l ) and by the B r i t i s h Columbia P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n . Council exercises that jurisdiction.  Only the F e d e r a l  The C o n s e r v a t i v e members  o f ithe House o f Commons do a l l t h e i r l i a i s o n work, i n s o f a r a s i t i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d , t h r o u g h the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l o f f i c e and not through  the B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n h e a d q u a r t e r s .  The F e d e r a l C o u n c i l  i s ; r e c o g n i z e d as supreme i n i t s f i e l d b o t h by the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r and by the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n ' s e x e c u t i v e ? The most s t r i k i n g t h i n g about the C o u n c i l ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s t h a t every important  C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y group i s r e p r e s e n t e d on  i t e x c e p t t h e B.C. p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n a n d the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . A t t h i s w r i t i n g the q u e s t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f members o f the l e g i s l a t u r e on t h e C o u n c i l i s academic f o r t h e r e a r e no C o n s e r v a t i v e 17. A t 815 H a s t i n g s S t r e e t West.  77  supporters  i n the Assembly.  There i s , however, no s p e c i f i c  p r o v i s i o n f o r such p o s s i b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the C o u n c i l . omission  o f such i m p o r t a n t  groups w i t h i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e  r e f l e c t s the h i s t o r i c a l circumstances i z a t i o n o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l .  The party-  w h i c h l e d t o the organ-  Such c i r c u m s t a n c e s  r e f l e c t e d i n the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l ' s r i g i d  are l s o a  c o n t r o l o f the groups  to w h i c h i t w i l l a c c o r d membership r e p r e s e n t a t i o n .  There i s no  q u e s t i o n about the C o u n c i l b e i n g a n o l i g a r c h i c s t r u c t u r e , t h a t i t i s : a n d perhaps o f n e c e s s i t y .  P e r u s a l o f annual l i s t s o f o f f i c e r s  o f t h e B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n r e v e a l s more a p p a r e n t changes.  However,  the o f f i c e s a r e h e l d l a r g e l y by the same group o f p e r s o n s w i t h only o c c a s i o n a l a d d i t i o n s and e l i m i n a t i o n s .  The B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n  cannot c l a i m t o be much more d e m o c r a t i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t h a n i s the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l . One gauge t h a t i s sometimes u s e f u l i n a s s e s s i n g such organi z a t i o n s i s the amount o f power g i v e n m i n o r i t i e s t o c h a l l e n g e decisions of the majority.  T h i s , on e x e c u t i v e b o d i e s , u s u a l l y  l i e s i n the r i g h t t o demand by p e t i t i o n a n d t o r e c e i v e meetings t o a i r t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s .  general  S e c t i o n 7 o f the F e d e r a l Council's  c o n s t i t u t i o n says t h e C o u n c i l s h a l l meet a t the c a l l o f t h e p r e s i d e n t , ;,or i n t h e e v e n t o f t h e n e g l e c t o r r e f u s a l o f t h e p r e s i d e n t - t o c a l l a meeting, t h e n a t the r e q u e s t members o f t h e C o u n c i l .  o f f i v e o r more  W h i l e there i s no p r o v i s i o n f o r meetings:  o f t h e o f f i c e r s by p e t i t i o n o f a c e r t a i n number o f o f f i c e r s , the r e q u i r e m e n t o f o n l y f i v e members t o demand a g e n e r a l meeting wouldl seem adequate s a f e q u a r d  t h a t m i n o r i t y elements c a n be h e a r d .  The  78  B.C. association i s a much larger group and, while executive members can p e t i t i o n f o r a meeting of the executive, neither dissident o f f i c e r s , nor dissident general members can secure meetings of their bodies on petition.  As the officers' and  general meetings are the important ones i n this group, some such protection would seem necessary i f the democratic organi z a t i o n of the group i s to have substance.  The B.C. association  says i t s supreme authority i s the party convention.  Overwhelming  weight i n such a convention i s given to provincial constituency associations who receive greatly augmented representation to the relative detriment of other groups such as federal r i d i n g associations.  I n some cases, as w i l l be shown l a t e r , many of the same  people within one d i s t r i c t are active i n both provincial and federal work. There remains, however, such a division of interest — i f not emotion  that many persons work exclusively to the further-  ance of Conservatism i n only one of the two spheres.  It is  d i f f i c u l t to see how a convention, so constituted, can be deemed t r u l y representative of a l l Progressive Conservatives i n the province.  I t i s notable that neither a general meeting of the party,  nor even a convention, can be called unless either the officers or the provincial leader give consent.  Some c r i t i c s suggested  privately during the annual general meeting i n 1959 that the regional representation required on the association executive would be only a facade, and that i t might be capable of use by  79  the leading officers to enhance their own control. This situation could arise i f the provincial party organization was notably weak i n particular regions, some of which are sparsely settled, or i f leaders from particular regions could be brought within the personal control of any seeking to elaborate their own interests within the party hierarchy. An element of great f l e x i b i l i t y has been noted i n the Federal Council structure. This could be put to a number of uses; the enhancement of personal or factional control, the possible overthrow of control i f a temporary majority could be obtained (because only a small quorum i s required), or to assist i n the gradual improvement of relations between the two bodies.  This latter possibility would likely involve appointment  to the Federal Council of individuals whose previous interest has been exclusively provincial i n nature and whose smypathies have been wholly engrossed by the B.C. provincial association and i t s work. How this element of f l e x i b i l i t y i s used i n the Federal Council depends entirely on the intentions of the Council's officers.'  •••  CHAPTER I V  Inter-Factional Party Relationships  W i t h i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y p o l i t i c a l p a r t y such a s the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h e r e may  be c o n t a c t between  c o n s t i t u e n t elements a t a number o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s ,  the  contact  p o i n t s b e i n g determined l a r g e l y by s t r u c t u r e , p e r s o n a l i t y and the v a g a r i e s o f e l e c t i o n s . l a r g e i n any  The  q u e s t i o n o f p e r s o n a l i t y looms  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the problem, i f o n l y because i t may  appear t o be the e a s i e s t t o examine.  And where p o l i t i c s  hinges  more on p e r s o n a l i t y t h a n on i d e o l o g y , as i n Canada, i t i s not uncommon t o a t t r i b u t e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o n t a c t between groups t o the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the nominal l e a d e r s . o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n B.C.  Whenever t h e s t r u c t u r e  i s d i s c u s s e d , much emphasis:  i s u s u a l l y p l a c e d on the p e r s o n a l i t i e s o f Howard Green, member o? Parliament  f o r Vancouver-Quadra, and o f H e r b e r t Anscomb, one-time  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o f the B.C. antagonism o r any  Conservative party.  I t i s not  o t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between these two persons  w h i c h the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s based.  on  That d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n r e s t s  c h i e f l y on a fundamental d i f f e r e n c e i n o b j e c t i v e between  two  groups o f p e o p l e , n o m i n a l l y b e a r i n g the same p a r t y l a b e l .  The  o b j e c t i v e i s not s i m p l y the advancement o f "Conservatism"  within  the p r o v i n c e . and h o l d i n g i t ,  T h i s i s a minor aim. i n two  The  major one i s w i n n i n g power,  d i f f e r e n t and o f t e n opposed p o l i t i c a l  80  spheres.  81  D e t e r m i n i n g t h e b e s t method o f a c h i e v i n g a n o b j e c t i v e i s t h e task of leaders.  When t h e l e a d e r s have d i f f e r e n t o b j e c t i v e s , i t  cannot be s u r p r i s i n g i f t h e y advocate d i f f e r e n t methods.  ( i ) F a c t i o n a l Leaders  The  p a r t y l e a d e r ' s p o s i t i o n i s one e s t a b l i s h e d a n d s a n c t i o n -  ed by p a r t y t r a d i t i o n s .  I t i s mentioned i n the B.G. a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  c o n s t i t u t i o n only w i t h reference  t o h i s h o l d i n g o f f i c e on the  v a r i o u s boards a n d t h e summoning o f c o n v e n t i o n s .  Nowhere does  the c o n s t i t u t i o n s p e c i f y the l e a d e r ' s r i g h t s a n d o b l i g a t i o n s . Nor  does i t mention r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f r i g h t and o b l i g a t i o n between  a s s o c i a t i o n members a n d t h e l e a d e r .  I f t h e B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o n e were examined i t would appear t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n presidency  was by f a r the more i m p o r t a n t o f f i c e i n s t e a d o f  being an administrative p o s i t i o n .  The p a r t y l e a d e r i s u s u a l l y  a l l - p o w e r f u l and the a s s o c i a t i o n executive  i s h i s e x e c u t i v e arm.  There i s some c o n f l i c t between the c o n s e r v a t i v e  idea that the  a s s o c i a t i o n e x i s t s t o s e r v i c e the l e a d e r ' s needs, and a democratic n o t i o n t h a t the l e a d e r i s merely the p a r t y s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e 1  can be changed a t the whim o f the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s members. be n o t e d t h a t when t h e r e  i s t o be a change i n the p a r t y  who  I t may leadership  t h i s change i s n o t e f f e c t e d by the B.C. p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n , b u t by a much w i d e r group summoned by b u t s u p e r i o r t o t h e a s s o c i a t i o n . This i s the party  convention.  82  I t i s r e a l l y o n l y t o the c o n v e n t i o n i s answerable and,  t h a t the p a r t y  i f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y p e r m i t s , a B.C.  leader party  leader  can u s u a l l y make h i m s e l f independent even o f the c o n v e n t i o n . B.C.  Conservative  p a r t y l e a d e r has been f o r c e d t o r e s i g n by a c t i o n  of a convention.  Two  l e a d e r ^ Anscomb and P i n l a y s o n , gave conven-  t i o n s o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o choose a n o t h e r l e a d e r , but the confirmed The  No  conventiona  them b o t h .  Conservatives  i n B r i t i s h Columbia have not chosen a l a r g e  number o f l e a d e r s s i n c e p a r t y l i n e s were i n t r o d u c e d i n p r o v i n c i a l politics.  R i c h a r d McBride was  the f i r s t  (1904-1915), f o l l o w e d  by W i l l i a m Bowser (1915-1924) , Simon F r a s e r Tolmie Frank P o r t e r Patterson  (1936-1958) , R o y a l L e t h i n g t o n  (1938-1946),  H e r b e r t Anscomb (1946-1952:) and D. D.  (1952  The  -  ).  depended on how no who  (1926-1954),  Pinlayson  l e a d e r ' s power w i t h i n the p a r t y has  w e l l he has  f a r e d w i t h the v o t e r s .  Maitland  always  McBride f a c e d  s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e s because he h e l d the p r e m i e r s h i p .  Bowser,  had a l s o been p r e m i e r and McBride's c h i e f a i d e i n p a r t y  f a c e d no  s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e s u n t i l t h r e e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s showed  the d i s f a v o u r i n w h i c h v o t e r s h e l d him. government was leadership.  defeated.  The  o n l y B.C.  Conservative  de f a c t o l e a d e r .  l e a d e r s who  faced a  o p p o s i t i o n i n the  p o s t appears t o have been vacant  t h e p r e s i d e n t , was  Tolmie r e t i r e d a f t e r h i s  P a t t e r s o n d i e d soon a f t e r w i n n i n g the  1. R. H. P o o l e y l e d the C o n s e r v a t i v e from 1924 t o 1928. 2. The  matters,  from 1924  division  legislature  t o 1956.  Patterson,  85  of ranks along federal-provincial interest lines have been the last three, Maitland, Anscomb and Pinlayson. McBride held office eight years i n British Columbia before the national leader, R. L. Borden won office.  McBride began his  "Better Terms" fight with the federal government (or rather, renewed B.C.'s struggle) before a sympathetic Conservative government had regained national power. McBride had temporarily resolved the only significant issues between the two governments by 1911.  Control of the provincial Conservative association was.  his because he had built i t , with the assistance of Bowser and R. P. Green. Members of Parliament called on and received their help i n putting together federal organizations that operated only during the campaign.  Borden and McBride were friends and  the national leader relied on the B.C. premier to keep him informed on the state of the local p o l i t i c a l fences,  After McBride  retired Bowser was able to maintain the relationship, although to a more limited degree because of Borden's increasing preoccupation with the war effort.  The relations of Borden's  successor, Arthur Meighen, with Bowser have escaped notice. The succession of Tolmie to the leadership i n B.C., and eventually to the premiership reconciled party factions as he brought to the task the knowledge and relationships he had built while a national party organizer.  Good relations existed between Bennett and Tolmie,  although both men were soon engrossed i n economic concerns that  84  dwarfed o r even o b l i t e r a t e d the p o l i t i c a l i s s u e s . d u r i n g the n i n e t e e n and  t h i r t i e s h i t such a low ebb  f e d e r a l l y t h a t no problems between the two  Party  fortunes  both p r o v i n c i a l l y i n t e r e s t s were  evident. I n 1942  two  developments, c o n j o i n e d , b o t h c o n n e c t e d w i t h  attempts t o r e v i v e par-ty o r g a n i z a t i o n . was  The  first  M a i t l a n d * s d e c i s i o n t o j o i n the L i b e r a l s i n a  government.  Apart  development coalition  from o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , M a i t l a n d  thought  c o a l i t i o n would h e l p p r o t e c t the p a r t y from the v o t e r s l o n g enough to permit strengthening second development was s h i p and new  the p a r t y ' s i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e . the n a t i o n a l p a r t y ' s s e a r c h f o r new  methods t h a t c o u l d win power.  An  often  The leader-  neglected  f a c t o r t h a t grew s t e a d i l y more i m p o r t a n t from 1942; onward i s the development o f the n a t i o n a l p a r t y from a n e x t r e m e l y l o o s e  confed-  e r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s toward a more o r g a n i c n a t i o n a l s t r u c ture that could f i g h t a n a t i o n a l b a t t l e . A student  o f Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n n o t e d o f  the s i t u a t i o n i n 1941-42: The n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s has but l i t t l e c o n t r o l over the autonomous o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e s . ... N a t u r a l l y t h e r e a r e s t r o n g r e a s o n s f o r mutual c o - o p e r a t i o n , but we must n o t f o r g e t t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l party organizations are p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o v i n c i a l parliamentary e l e c t i o n s and o n l y s e c o n d a r i l y i n the n a t i o n a l c a u s e . At times t h e y may a c t u a l l y be d i v e r t e d by p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s t o downrigh^ o p p o s i t i o n t o the n a t i o n a l party organization.  5. L e d e r l e , N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n ,  p.202  85  T h i s l a s t remark i s presumed t o stem from the case o f Ontario  p r e m i e r , M i t c h e l l Hepburn, a L i b e r a l who  the  frequently  c l a s h e d w i t h the n a t i o n a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r , Prime M i n i s t e r W. Mackenzie K i n g .  The  observation  L.  might a p p l y w i t h a l m o s t e q u a l  v a l i d i t y t o the l a t e r s i t u a t i o n o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  J . R. W i l l i a m s ,  i n h i s study o f The  o f Canada 1920-1949, says t h a t i n 1942  Conservative  the P r o g r e s s i v e  v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canada f o r the f i r s t  Party  Conser-  time began f u n c t i o n -  4 ing  between e l e c t i o n s .  Other w r i t e r s have commented on Canada's 5  l a c k of developed extra-parliamentary  party organization.  Bracken's i n s i s t e n c e , the n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n became a t h r o u g h which i n c r e a s i n g c e n t r a l c o n t r o l was  asserted  Under  force  over  p r e v i o u s l y c o m p l e t e l y autonomous p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . a s p e c t o f Canadian p a r t y l i f e has a t t e n t i o n by  students of p o l i t i c s .  received comparatively  This: little  I t would be u s e f u l to have  t r a c e d the p r o b a b l e c o n n e c t i o n between the i z e d p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n and  the  growth o f a c e n t r a l -  the i n c r e a s e i n importance o f  the  n a t i o n a l government r e l a t i v e t o the p r o v i n c i a l governments. O p i n i o n i s d i v i d e d on the a t t i t u d e t a k e n by R. toward the  designation  a t i v e i n B. C.  4. p. I l l e t . :  L.  o f Howard Green as the p e r s o n a l  o f the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r , John Bracken.  seq.  5. See below, Chapter  ¥  Maitland representThe  provincial  86 a s s o c i a t i o n many y e a r s l a t e r p u b l i s h e d i n i t s "Blue statement by a C o n s e r v a t i v e M a i t l a n d had  t o l d him he had  Book" a  M.L.A., A l l a n J . McDonell, who  said  o b j e c t e d t o the arrangement p l a c i n g  f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n p r e p a r a t i o n s w h o l l y i n Green's hands. T h i s statement has not been s u s c e p t i b l e o f s u b s t a n t i a t i o n by any source and has been d e n i e d by M a i t l a n d ' s widow. a t t i t u d e toward the matter was  other  Maitland's  c o n s i d e r e d important;  he and  Green  were b e l i e v e d t o be q u i t e f r i e n d l y and M a i t l a n d had a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l f o l l o w i n g i n the a s s o c i a t i o n , support  t h a t was  claimed  by  Later provincial leaders. I t now ly,  a p p e a r s t h a t M a i t l a n d was  persuaded, even i f r e l u c t a n t -  of the n e c e s s i t y o f a d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r w h i l e the p a r t y M a i t l a n d was  in  c o a l i t i o n w i t h the L i b e r a l s .  to  f a c e t h i s problem and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Green does not  appear t o have been u n c o n g e n i a l . A t t e m p t i n g had  opposed the arrangement was  association's position v i s a v i s  designed  the f i r s t  was  leader  t o show t h a t M a i t l a n d  to s t r e n g t h e n the  B.C.  the f e d e r a l stand, f o l l o w i n g  the open c l a s h a t Vernon. S e s p i t e the c o n v e n t i o n c h a l l e n g e from W. 1946,  A. C. Bennett i n  Anscomb succeeded t o the l e a d e r s h i p almost a u t o m a t i c a l l y  on M a i t l a n d ' s d e a t h by v i r t u e o f h i s obvious a b i l i t y and e x p e r i ence compared t o o t h e r M.L.A.s. A number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s  threatened  6. The F e d e r a l C o u n c i l o f f i c e has on i t s f i l e s - a copy o f a l e t t e r g i v e n by Mrs. M a i t l a n d t o the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z e r i n 1955 a f t e r she had d e n i e d the t u r h o f the c l a i m p u b l i s h e d i n the "Blue Book".  87  his authority.  He was participating, and insisted on doing so,  i n coalition government long after the ostensible reason for 7 xts being had ended. . Anscomb demanded unswerving loyalty which only a close group of friends would deliver. He became increasingly isolated from changes i n rank-and-file feeling i n the party.  The Anscomb clique that resulted was resented by  many newcomers to party ranks as well as by the party faithful who were not among the chosen. As a member of the coalition cabinet Anscomb was not disposed to agree to the necessity of reforms i n government, nor was he disposed to attribute the party's weakness federally to an atrophied provincial organization for which he was responsible.  I f these were conditions flowing  i n toto from personality attributes, then the party leader's d i f f i c u l t i e s with the party's federal wing at this time did indeed result from personality incompatibilities. Tracing these difficulties wholly to matters of personality tends to obscure changes taking place i n the p o l i t i c a l substructure. Anscomb wanted to revert to an organizational structure more appropriate to an earlier period i n the Dominion's development, and, i n particular, more appropriate to a different provincial politi c a l situation. A number of events co-incided at this time: coalition i n B.C., a division of labor and jurisdiction for the 7. The war ended i n August 1945. The Coalition lasted u n t i l early 1952.  88  p a r t y ' s two the  spheres o f ^ a c t i v i t y , a major war and the advent o f  " p o s i t i v e s t a t e * which c a t a l y z e d the c o u n t r y ' s t r a n s i t i o n  from a c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s i n t o the e a r l y stages of a f e d e r a l i z e d n a t i o n a l s t a t e .  The f i r s t c i r c u m s t a n c e ,  c o a l i t i o n , "brought a l t e r a t i o n s i n the p a r t y ' s s t r u c t u r e  that  would have been n e c e s s i t a t e d i n any case by the t r a n s i t i o n i n national l i f e .  Personality differences i n B r i t i s h  Columbia  made a c c e p t a n c e o f the a l t e r a t i o n s a more tempestuous p r o c e s s t h a n i t might otherwise have been. The p r e s e n t p a r t y l e a d e r took over amid t h i s p r o c e s s . the  Prom  f o r m e r l e a d e r he i n h e r i t e d s i t u a t i o n s and a t t i t u d e s t h a t  moulded h i s course a s much a s he moulded them.  Pinlayson also  assumed power d u r i n g the s l i d e t o the n a d i r o f the p a r  ty's  f o r t u n e s b o t h i n the f e d e r a l and i n the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s . was  little  He was  There  he c o u l d have done t o p r e v e n t s u c h depths b e i n g r e a c h e d .  a young man,  owing h i s p o s i t i o n t o the p a r ty's " o l d guard"  b u t aware o f the young p e o p l e ' s hopes and a m b i t i o n s .  On  gaining  the  l e a d e r s h i p , he c o u l d have a s s e r t e d h i s independence  who  brought him t o power and b u i l t h i s support on the young p e o p l e  and a f r e s h p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . to  Por a new  party leader certain  f a c e a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n almost immediately,  would have been incomparably d i f f i c u l t .  o f those  t h i s course  E l e c t i o n r e s u l t s suggest  he might j u s t a s w e l l have t a k e n t h i s c o u r s e , but an u n u s u a l amount of  courage would have been r e q u i r e d t o a n t i c i p a t e and i g n o r e such  s h a t t e r i n g d e f e a t s i n hopes o f b e t t e r t h i n g s i n the f u t u r e .  89  F i n l a y s o n chose i n s t e a d t o b u i l d on the s i t u a t i o n he  inherited.  T h i s l e d t o the p u b l i c debacle a t Vernon i n 1954 which a more a s t u t e o r more e x p e r i e n c e d p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r would  undoubtedly  have a v o i d e d even i f the changes t h a t t h i s s i g n i f i e d c o u l d n o t have been evaded.  P e a c e f u l t r a n s i t i o n from the prewar s t r u c t u r e s  had been a c h i e v e d i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , w i t h the work d i v i d e d between s e p a r a t e hands and o f f i c e s , b u t the e m o t i o n a l consequences o f a sharp, p u b l i c b r e a k a s Vernon were a v e r t e d elsewhere. i n g the p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o f some y e a r s i n o f f i c e home t o F i n l a y s o n the r e a l i t i e s o f h i s p o s i t i o n .  I t was  such  Experiencbrought obvious  t h a t i n s i s t i n g on the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ' s " r i g h t s " t o s u p e r v i s e the f e d e r a l f i e l d would g a i n him n o t h i n g . s t a n d i n g w i t h the f e d e r a l w i n g was T h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g was  A c h i e v i n g an under-  the o n l y p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e open.  f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e c o o l i n g o f p a s s i o n s  f i r e d by the Vernon meeting, by the w i t h d r a w a l from p a r t y l i f e o f . c e r t a i n persons who  i n s i s t e d on the c l a i m s o f e i t h e r f a c t i o n ,  by the change i n the p a r t y ' s n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p . things,  u n d e r s t a n d i n g was  Despite  these  o n l y a c h i e v e d on the b a s i s o f de  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the s t a t u s quo as i t r e l a t e d t o d i v i s i o n o f d i c t i o n , w h i c h was The  and  facto juris-  i n no w i s e a l t e r e d by p e r s o n a l i t y changes.  d e s i g n a t i o n o f a p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the n a t i o n a l  l e a d e r began w i t h John Bracken, was  c o n t i n u e d by George Drew and  n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d by John D i e f e n b a k e r .  I t i s surprising,  a f t e r h a v i n g r e a d and h e a r d many d e n u n c i a t i o n s o f the p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , t o f i n d t h a t the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s themselves  attach  90  such r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e importance t o t h e p o s t t h a t t h e y a r e unable t o r e c a l l d e f i n i t e l y who had the t a s k d u r i n g what y e a r s . Howard Green was the f i r s t p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e by a n a t i o n a l l e a d e r .  designated  H i s d u t i e s were l a r g e l y performed, however ,  by Leon J . Ladner except i n time o f e l e c t i o n campaigning.  In  December 1951 L t . - C o l . C. C. I . M e r r i t t , V.C., was named by George Drew a s h i s p e r s o n a l e m i s s a r y i n B.C. t o whom a l l f e d e r a l p a r t y m a t t e r s s h o u l d be r e f e r r e d . A. L e s l i e Bewley assumed t h e t a s k . a c t i v e through these y e a r s .  I n t h e l a t e s p r i n g o f 1953 Ladner remained i n t e r m i t t e n t l y  When t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l was f o r m a l -  i z e d i n December 1954 i t chose Ladner a s p r e s i d e n t  although  Bewley s t i l l worked a s Drew's r e p r e s e n t a t i v e u n t i l A p r i l 1956. Drew d i d n o t name a n o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a n d n e i t h e r d i d D i e f e n b a k e r who succeeded Drew i n t h e w i n t e r The  p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s d u t i e s have always been v a g u e l y  d e f i n e d a n d h i s powers, i f any, C r i t i c s claimed power.  o f 1956.  even more v a g u e l y u n d e r s t o o d .  t h a t Howard Green had been g i v e n  There i s no s u g g e s t i o n  dictatorial  t h a t M e r r i t t e v e r employed such  powers o r sought t o , a n d Bewley, w h i l e a n a g g r e s s i v e  personality,  seldom presumed t o be doing more t h a n c a r r y i n g o u t i n s t r u c t i o n s from t h e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r .  M e r r i t t , Bewley and Ladner have a l l  Q agreed  t h a t t h e p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n was t h a t o f f u n n e l i n g  information i n both d i r e c t i o n s .  reliable  From t h e time o f t h e c o a l i t i o n  government i n B.C., t h e n a t i o n a l leadersv.were.nevercconvinced  8. I n s e p a r a t e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the w r i t e r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y a n i n t e r v i e w c o u l d n o t be a r r a n g e d w i t h Mr. Green.  91  t h a t enough credence c o u l d be p l a c e d i n s i t u a t i o n a l assessments made by p e o p l e w o r k i n g c l o s e l y w i t h the l i b e r a l p a r t y , a n o r g a n i z a t i o n l o n g accustomed t o c o - o p e r a t i n g w h i c h the C o n s e r v a t i v e s  w i t h the L i b e r a l s ,  this  informational  Formation of  supersede the p e r s o n a l  work i n i t i a l l y f o r i t was and  p r i m a r i l y to f i l l  t h a t p e r s o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were named.  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l d i d not  by  were opposing i n the n a t i o n a l s p h e r e .  I t would appear t h a t i t was gap  or  the  representative's  more concerned w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n a l work  l e s s with d i v i n a t i o n of popular f e e l i n g .  As  :  the  C o u n c i l l a r g e l y completed i t s a s s o c i a t i o n a l work, a  Federal structure  r e s u l t e d whibh c o u l d assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the f e d e r a l representative.  T h i s was  facilitated  the s t r u c t u r e i n a p e r s o n who  by v e s t i n g s u p e r v i s i o n  had p r e v i o u s l y a c t e d as a  of  personal  repre s e n t a t i v e . ^ I n a n o t h e r Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , the L i b e r a l , the  federal  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s have o f t e n been the p a r t y ' s e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s i n provinces parties.  governed by m i n i s t r i e s o f d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l  Where c o n t r o l o f a p r o v i n c e  i s v e s t e d i n the same  p o l i t i c a l p a r l y empowered n a t i o n a l l y , the p r o v i n c i a l p r e m i e r n e a r l y always dominated the p a r t y p r o v i n c i a l l y .  Conservative  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s have n o t f i g u r e d l a r g e i n the p a r t y i n The  c h i e f r e a s o n i s t h a t t h e r e have been so few When S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t  o f f i c e and had  Tupper came t o B.C.,  B.C.  o f them. he was  out  o n l y the i n f l u e n c e d e r i v i n g from p e r s o n a l i t y  9. L. J . Ladner, C o u n c i l  president.  has  of and  92;  p r e s t i g e . Putting himself i n t o opposition to a Conservative  p r e m i e r c o s t him whatever i m p o r t a n t power he  have w i e l d e d i n the p r o v i n c e . was  Martin  He was  might  Borden's c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r f o r  Burrell, a well-respected  man  B.C.  and p e r s o n a l l y p o p u l a r .  not, however, g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the mechanics of  p a r t y and was  d e v o t e d t o h i s duties; a t Ottawa. He  w i t h McBride's o r g a n i z e r , hands a l t h o u g h he was  C o u n c i l i n 1911 parliamentary  and  well  do a l l  sworn t o the  the f e d e r a l m i n i s t r y i n 1920  Privy  t o become  l i b r a r i a n a t Ottawa.  Simon F r a s e r Tolmie and and  got a l o n g  always w i l l i n g t o make speeches and  left  the  Bowser, and g e n e r a l l y l e f t t h i n g s i n h i s  he c o u l d t o a s s i s t i f c a l l e d upon. B u r r e l l was  i n 1919  successful  1920  H. H.  Stevens e n t e r e d  r e s p e c t i v e l y . K i n g ' s 1921  the f e d e r a l c a b i n e t  v i c t o r y k e p t them out  o f o f f i c e u n t i l Tolmie won  the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p and  B.C.  u n t i l Meighen e n t e r e d  e l e c t i o n i n 1928,  and  Bennett's  the  cabinet  10 in  1950.  Tolmie was  so l i t t l e  c o n c e r n e d about the B.C..  party  o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t he r e t a i n e d h i s s e a t i n the Commons f o r two between 1926  and  1928.  A f t e r the Bowser f o r c e s had  l a c k o f c o n t r o l i n 1926, in  B.C.  Stevens and  Ladner's p e r s o n a l  n a t i o n a l v i c t o r y , c o s t him  demonstrated t h e i r  Ladner d i r e c t e d  d e f e a t i n 1950,  organization  when the p a r t y  most o f h i s i n f l u e n c e and  dominant. I n these y e a r s the a s s o c i a t i o n was  left  b o t h p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l f i e l d s , the p a r t y was no  won Stevens  effective chiefly i n  the immediate p r e - e l e c t i o n p e r i o d s . W i t h C o n s e r v a t i v e  t h a t t h e r e was  years  success i n  p r o s p e r o u s enough  q u a r r e l over the d i v i s i o n o f s p o i l s and  power.  10. W i t h the e x c e p t i o n t h a t Stevens and Tolmie were members o f Meighen's s h o r t - l i v e d "shadow" c a b i n e t i n 1926.  95  Tolmie* s d e f e a t a n d Stevens' r e s i g n a t i o n wrecked t h e p a r t y . Grote S t i r l i n g who was sworn t o t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l t o r e p l a c e Stevens i n 1954- i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o have been a s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n man a n d d i d n o t e x e r c i s e t o o much i n f l u e n c e .  The p a r t y was out o f power  u n t i l 1942 when i t formed a c o a l i t i o n government w i t h t h e L i b e r a l s d o m i n a t i n g . There were no f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e  cabinet ministers  f o r a l m o s t a q u a r t e r o f a c e n t u r y . The m i n o r i t y v i c t o r y o f the f e d e r a l Conservatives  i n 1957 brought t h r e e B r i t i s h Columbia  M.P.s  i n t o t h e c a b i n e t , Howard Green, George Pearkes and E . Davie F u l t o n . Green and F u l t o n had been e s p e c i a l l y concerned w i t h a s s e r t i n g the independence o f the f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y i n B.C., a s has been demonstrated. T h e i r a c c e s s i o n t o power i n 1957 gave them enhanced power b u t they were f o r c e d t o employ i t from a g r e a t e r  distance  t h a n t h i t h e r t o a n d were, f o r p r a c t i c a l purposes, removed from t h e immediate i n t r a - p a r t y s t r u g g l e s f o r l o n g p e r i o d s o f t i m e . I n any case, by t h i s time a l l r e a l l c h a l l e n g e t o the d i v i s i o n o f j u r i s d i c t i o n had ceased and t h e a c c e s s i o n o f Green, F u l t o n and Pearkes; t o the c a b i n e t had t h e f u r t h e r e f f e c t o f s q u e l c h i n g any l i k e l i h o o d of the c h a l l e n g e b e i n g r e v i v e d . s e n i o r m i n i s t e r merely c o n f i r m e d ,  Green's s t a t u r e a s  Diefenbaker's  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e  dominant p o s i t i o n he h a d assumed i n .the p r o v i n c e . I n t h e s i x t y y e a r s encompassed by t h i s study C o n s e r v a t i v e s  have  h e l d f e d e r a l c a b i n e t p o s t s f o r o n l y e i g h t e e n years.. D u r i n g h a l f t h a t time the C o n s e r v a t i v e s  a l s o h e l d power i n the p r o v i n c i a l  government a n d were f r e e o f e f f e c t i v e domination by f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s .  94  This leaves three 1916  t o 1921,  s h o r t p e r i o d s t o d i s c u s s . D u r i n g the  first,  Bowser's p e r s o n a l i t y e n s u r e d h i s c o n t r o l over the  p a r t y a p p a r a t u s i n w h i c h the m i n i s t e r , B u r r e l l , was i n t e r e s t e d . Prom 1955  t o 1955  t h e r e was  no  not o v e r l y i  organization l e f t  w h i c h c o n t r o l c o u l d he e x e r c i s e d . By the time f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s were back on the scene — wing had a s s e r t e d i t s c o n t r o l over i t s own  1957  —  Conservative  the f e d e r a l  a f f a i r s . Since  the f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s have been p r e o c c u p i e d  The  1957  with national  a f f a i r s a l t h o u g h i t i s e x p e c t e d they w i l l keep a w a t c h f u l the e l e c t i o n a p p a r a t u s .  over  eye  over  most i m p o r t a n t p a r t y event i n B r i t i s h  Columbia s i n c e the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1957  and  1958  The  was  the  p r o v i n c i a l leadership convention  l a t e i n 1958.  national leader  i n s t r u c t e d members o f p a r l i a m e n t  not t o p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n  the c o n t e s t between Deane P i n l a y s o n and Dr. Desmond K i d d . I t i s w i d e l y b e l i e v e d w i t h i n p a r t y c i r c l e s , however, t h a t Kidd's d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y from o p p o s i t i o n t o F i n l a y s o n t h a t was the c o n v e n t i o n , probably Pulton. been no  by s e v e r a l members o f P a r l i a m e n t  and  support  l e d , outside  t h a t i t was  d i r e c t e d by the f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r o f J u s t i c e , E. Davie W i t h the c o n f i r m a t i o n o f F i n l a y s o n suggestion  as leader, there  o f f u r t h e r attempts by f e d e r a l c a b i n e t  t o i n f l u e n c e a f f a i r s i n the p r o v i n c i a l sphere.  has  ministers  Indeed, t h e r e  been e v i d e n c e o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s i n g  has support  from elements w i t h i n the p a r t y t h a t were f o r m e r l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d , a s  11. The n a t i o n a l l e a d e r ' s n o n r - p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r d e r cannot be documented but i s so f r e e l y d i s c u s s e d i n p a r t y c i r c l e s as t o l e a v e l i t t l e doubt t h a t i t was i s s u e d . S i m i l a r l y w i t h the r o l e p l a y e d by F u l t o n .  95  a s l a r g e l y f e d e r a l i n sympathy. Members o f p a r l i a m e n t  have begun  t o a s s i s t c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s p r e p a r i n g f o r the n e x t provincial election.  None o f the t h r e e f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s i s  e x p e c t e d t o p l a y an a c t i v e r o l e i n the p r o v i n c i a l campaign. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h i s s p r i n g s from t h e n a t i o n a l l e a d e r ' s d e s i r e t o keep t h e two spheres o f C o n s e r v a t i v e no o t h e r r e a s o n  p o l i t i c s separated,  i f for  than t o a v o i d the p o s s i b i l i t y o f an embarrassing  charge t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l government was a t t e m p t i n g  to interfere  i n a n i n t e r n a l matter a f f e c t i n g a s o v e r e i g n p r o v i n c i a l government.  ( i i ) Membership  Articulation  When t h e sound and f u r y o f the p a r t y l e a d e r ' s q u a r r e l s d i e away a n d the c a s t o f the f a c t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s seems t o have been set, another aspect  o f a r t i c u l a t i o n remains t o be examined. T h i s  concerns t h e r a n k - a n d - f i l e , the nuts a n d b o l t s o f the p a r t y machinery w h i c h the l e a d e r s s t r i v e t o c o n t r o l . I f the c o n s t i t u e n c y e x e c u t i v e s a n d t h e i r members s h o u l d r e f u s e t o a c c e p t  their  leader's  d e c i s i o n a f t e r q u a r r e l s such a s those d e s c r i b e d , then the c r y s t a l l i z i n g o f p o s i t i o n s means n o t h i n g . How has t h e d i v i s i o n between p a r t y l e a d e r s a f f e c t e d the p a r t y membership  ? I t i s on t h i s ; answer t h a t  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l  depend.  There i s no doubt t h a t t h e d i s p u t e s between l e a d e r s o f the p r o v i n c i a l , a s s o c i a t i o n a n d the f e d e r a l c o u n c i l l e d t o r u p t u r e d r e l a t i o n s throughout the p a r t y s t r u c t u r e . T h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n the t h r e e e l e c t i o n campaigns o f 1952 a n d 1955. The v o l u n t e e r  staff  working i n t h e 1952 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was the s m a l l e s t s i n c e the  96  campaigns of the middle t h i r t i e s .  P e o p l e who  formerly  l a b o r e d f o r the p a r t y went t o work f o r the new o r g a n i z a t i o n which boasted Conservatives.  The  Social Credit  the h e l p and e x p e r i e n c e  of many a b l e  S o c i a l C r e d i t v i c t o r y and t h e e n s u i n g  l e a d e r s h i p b a t t l e a l i e n a t e d even more C o n s e r v a t i v e Case a f t e r case was  had  provincial  supporters.  f o u n d i n the e l e c t i o n campaign o f 1953  where  c o n s t i t u e n c y o r g a n i z a t i o n s were unable to p e r f o r m even the most minimal s e r v i c e s f o r c a n d i d a t e s .  The  same s i t u a t i o n  d u r i n g the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign i n 1955 that, i f anything, workers. a few  even l e s s h e l p was  w i t h the q u a l i f i c a i i on  a v a i l a b l e to the f e d e r a l  Some of them had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l campaign  months e r l i e r . The a  h e l p t h a t might have been e x p e c t e d  r e c i p r o c a l l y from the p r o v i n c i a l workers was the B.C.  obtained  too discouraged, by  e l e c t i o n r e t u r n s t o do much more t h a n s i t back and w i s h  t h e i r f e d e r a l cousins w e l l .  The  inter-fac'tional bickering  h d a  a l s o a l i e n a t e d many from the f e d e r a l group. Some l i g h t might be thrown on the q u e s t i o n of membership support f o r each wing d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d by a y e a r l y system o f membership i n p a r t y o f f i c e s , ^uch r e c o r d s  records do n o t  exist.  C u r r e n t membership r e c o r d s , w h i c h were made a v a i l a b l e > were not e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l i n t h i s connection. and the B.C. r e l y on the  a s s o c i a t i o n use same sources  Both the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l  l a r g e l y the same m a i l i n g l i s t s  f o r t h e i r membership r o l l s . T h i s may  and be  some i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the d i v i s i o n of f e e l i n g i s not as deep as p o p u l a r l y supposed. An a g g r i e v e d and v o c a l c o n s t i t u e n c y (who  b e l o n g s to the B.C.  executive  a s s o c i a t i o n ) might w e l l d e c l a r e h i s  97  o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s o r t h a t l e a d e r ' s t a c t i c s b u t t h i s does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t he i s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e f e e l i n g o f a l l t h e members o f h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n . That f e e l i n g i s d i f f i c u l t to  gauge even a s i t e x i s t s today, l e t a l o n e as i t e x i s t e d a t some  p o i n t i n the p a s t . Both t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l o f f i c e and t h e B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e c l a i m the p a r t y has a B.C. membership o f e i g h t t o t e n thousand persons  who pay a n n u a l dues o f about one d o l l a r . The o n l y  real  d i f f e r e n c e i n the two o f f i c e s ' membership r e c o r d s i s t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n a l s o has l i s t s o f p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s while listed.  constituency  t h e F e d e r a l C o u n c i l has f e d e r a l r i d i n g  Throughout t h i s i n q u i r y p a r t y o f f i c i a l s  officers  stressed that  the upper l e v e l q u a r r e l s seemed t o have no v i s i b l e e f f e c t on the g e n e r a l p a r t y l o y a l t y o f many members. These statements were difficult  t o s u b s t a n t i a t e b u t , pending any p r o o f t o the c o n t r a r y ,  i t i s reasonable continued probably the  t o assume t h a t l a r g e numbers o f p a r t y members  t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n b o t h f a c e t s o f the party* s work and r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r p a t t i p a t i o n i n the disputes t o d e p l o r i n g  divisions. An attempt was made t o a s s e s s t h e contemporary s i t u a t i o n . A  s h o r t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was sent t o the p r e s i d e n t s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s and, where t h e r e were none, t o p e r s o n s  12 performing  similar functions.  A d d r e s s e s were s u p p l i e d by t h e  B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n and the l e t t e r s m a i l e d b e f o r e question o f suggestions  t h e r e c o u l d be any  g o i n g out from the p r o v i n c i a l  office.  12. N e a r l y e v e r y case where t h i s o c c u r r e d , t h e r e s p o n s i b l e p e r s o n t u r n e d o u t t o be a member o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f e d e r a l r i d i n g gro up.  I  98  A l l forty-two way.  p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s were canvassed i n t h i s  A corresponding  p l a n n e d but was was  survey  o f the twenty-two f e d e r a l r i d i n g s was  not c a r r i e d out because a s i m i l a r l i s t  not made a v a i l a b l e . The  o f names  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l o f f i c e undertook t o  q u e s t i o n i t s r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s about j o i n t membership p r o v i s i o n s . Answers r e c e i v e d by the f e d e r a l o f f i c e were i n c o n c l u s i v e o r , a t b e s t , c o n s i s t e d of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t the c a n v a s s e d p e r s o n already r e p l i e d to a s i m i l a r questionnaire.  The  had  constituency  p r e s i d e n t s were chosen as b e i n g the most r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the p a r t y ' s w o r k e r s . I f i t c o u l d be  shown t h a t the g r e a t e r number o f  these p e o p l e were a c t i v e l y e n g g e d i n promoting a  candidates  Conservative  f o r b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s , t h e n a  h i g h degree o f u n i t y might be  deduced.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e -  15 t u r n e d f o r twenty-seven of the f o r t y - t w o c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , w i t h accompanying l e t t e r s . Only a few t o a l l the q u e s t i o n s . I n f o r m a t i o n  some  respondents f a i l e d t o r e p l y  i s thus; a v a i l a b l e f o r 64  per  c e n t o f the c o n s t i t u e n c i e s . A s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t s were, a s k e d t o respond y e s  o r no t o the  q u e s t i o n "Are you a c t i v e i n the f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n i n y o u r area?" "Do  A l l but one  r e p l i e d a f f i r m a t i v e l y . They were a l s o a s k e d  you h o l d a f e d e r a l r i d i n g executive p o s t ? " F i f t e e n r e p l i e d  and e l e v e n no.  Some o f those r e p l y i n g n e g t i v e l y added t h a t a  had r e c e n t l y h e l d a f e d e r a l r i d i n g p o s t . Response t o t h e s e questions 13. The  yes  they two  seems t o i n d i c a t e a f a i r l y h i g h degree o f a r t i c u l a t i o n  l e t t e r and  q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i l l be f o u n d i n the appendix.  99  between o f f i c e r s o f the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d  organi-  z a t i o n s . While such p e o p l e might f e e l an o b l i g a t i o n t o r e p l y a f f i r m a t i v e l y t o the q u e s t i o n about t h e i r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f e d e r a l work, the i n d i c a t i o n l a t e r t h a t more t h a n f i f t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n t s work as f e d e r a l executives tial  g i v e s w e i g h t t o the a s s e r t i o n s t h a t t h e r e i s  substan-  co-operation. Data showing the degree: o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l party-  a f f a i r s by f e d e r a l r i d i n g p r e s i d e n t s would be  equally interesting.  A l l such o f f i c e r s a r e g r a n t e d membership i n the B.C.  provincial  14 association  but  t h i s does n o t ensure t h e i r a c t i v e s u p p o r t  in  c o n s t i t u e n c y l e v e l w o r k f o r the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n . Some p a r t y members have suggested t h a t a f e e l i n g o f " g r a d u a t i o n " e x i s t s i n a few  r i d i n g s ; a p p r e n t i c e s h i p i s spent i n p r o v i n c i a l work and  then one  p a s s e s up the l a d d e r t o the f e d e r a l work. I n d i v i d u a l s i n  the p a r t y l o n g enough t o become f e d e r a l r i d i n g p r e s i d e n t s , however, u s u a l l y p r o f e s s t h a t b o t h phases o f p a r t y work b e n e f i t from s t r o n g provincial organization.  I t would seem r e a s o n a b l e  t o assume t h a t  f e d e r a l r i d i n g p r e s i d e n t s would s t r i v e f o r p r o v i n c i a l s u c c e s s most c s e s , even i f not t o q u i t e the a  f e d e r a l work i s supported The  survey's  t h i r d and  in  same degree i n w h i c h t h e i r  by p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c y f o u r t h questions  officers.  sought t o determine  the degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f e d e r a l a f f a i r s by members of  the  p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Respondents were a s k e d t o 1&.  See above, p.  73.  100  estimate  the percentage of the membership a c t i v e i n f e d e r a l r i d i n g  work. T h e i r answers were c o l o r e d t o some e x t e n t by the  question  f o l l o w i n g w h i c h a s k e d whether membership i n the p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i tuency a s s o c i a t i o n a u t o m a t i S a l l y corresponding  f e d e r a l a s s o c i a t i o n . I n f i f t e e n o f the  constituencies represented o b t a i n s and  c o n f e r r e d membership i n the twenty-seven  by r e p l i e s d u a l membership of t h i s s o r t  twelve o f the p r e s i d e n t s p u t t h e i r membership's a c t i v i t y  f e d e r a l l y a t 90 t o 100  per c e n t . E i g h t of these twelve c o n s t i t u e n c i e s  had d u a l membership arrangements, i n w h i c h c s e s i t i s p o s s i b l e a  the word " a c t i v e " was  i n t e r p r e t e d r a t h e r more l o o s e l y than had  anticipated. Five constituencies reported from 25 down t o 5 per c e n t .  been  p a r t i c i p a t i o n ranging  Four were i n the b r a c k e t  25 t o 49  per  cent and f o u r o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n the 50 t o 75 p e r c e n t range.. Two  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s r e p o r t e d o n l y t h a t t h e i r members were a c t i v e  d u r i n g f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaigns. Two  o f the f i v e c o n s t i t u e n c i e s r e p o r t i n g the l o w e s t degree o f  participation i n federal a f f a i r s  ( i . e . 5 t o 25 p e r c e n t ) a l s o  r e p o r t e d d u a l membership arrangements. Of the f o u r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s i n the  second group (25 t o 49 p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n ) , two  had  memberships. Three o f the f o u r c o n s t i t u e n c i e s r e p o r t i n g 50 t o p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n had  d u a l memberships. One  must be  dual 75  cautious  about drawing too g e n e r a l a c o n c l u s i o n from the f i g u r e s . They  do  show, however,  could  reasonable  grounds on  which party organizers  q u e s t i o n whether much i s a c c o m p l i s h e d w i t h a d u a l membership arrangement, o f w h i c h the  survey shows f i f t e e n c a s e s . Two  f i f t e e n o c c u r i n a r e a s o f below 25 p e r c e n t  joint  of  the  participation,  101  another  two  i n a r e a s o f below 50 p e r c e n t and t h r e e i n the 50  to  75 p e r c e n t range. True, e i g h t d u a l membership arrangements were supposed to r e s u l t i n 100 p e r c e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o r c l o s e t o i t , but i t i s t o be wondered how  many respondents  equated " c t i v e  par-  a  t i c i p a t i o n " w i t h the e s s e n t i a l l y p a s s i v e a c t of h o l d i n g members h i p i n such c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  I t seems p l a u s i b l e , however, t h a t  the survey o f f e r s some support f o r an o p i n i o n h e l d by p a r t y workers t h a t about 50 p e r c e n t o f the p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u e n c y members p l a y an a c t i v e p a r t i n the f e d e r a l f i e l d as w e l l , and p o s s i b l y even more d u r i n g e l e c t i o n campaigns.  I t may  be q u e s t i o n e d whether  the most o p t i m i s t i c p a r t y workers c o u l d hope f o r v e r y much b e t t e r i n a c o u n t r y w h i c h o f f e r s two p o l i t i c a l l y - i n t e r e s t e d may  d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n s i n w h i c h the  travel.  As a second p a r t of ithe f o u r t h q u e s t i o n , respondents asked t o s t a t e whether any o t h e r than automatic  were  c o - o p e r a t i v e membership arrangements,  d u a l i t y , e x i s t e d between the f e d e r a l  and  15 p r o v i n c i a l groups and, responses  i f so, t o d e s c r i b e them.  t o t h i s query. Two  There were f o u r  d e s c r i b e d arrangements i n w h i c h member-  s h i p s were s o l d a t a l o c a l , r e g i o n a l or m u n i c i p a l a s s o c i a t i o n l e v e l . I n one  case, but not t h e o t h e r , l o c a l membership e n t i t l e s  one  a u t o m a t i c a l l y t o f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n memberships. I n these two  cases, the s e n i o r a s s o c i a t i o n s l e v y , i f they  25 p e r c e n t each o f the one responses  d o l l a r membership f e e . The  i n d i c a t e d attempts were b e i n g made to p u t  15. None had been e x p e c t e d  wish,  other  two  primary  from the f i f t e e n d u a l membership a r e a s .  102  membership on a l o c a l u n i t base w i t h members a u t o m a t i c a l l y becoming members o f the p r o v i n c i a l and  federal riding  associations  as w e l l . There are a number o f v a r i a t i o n s o f t h i s membership form i n c o n s t i t u e n c i e s t h a t were not r e p r e s e n t e d questionnaire.  by responses t o  the  Most o f t h e s e r e q u i r e a l l members t o e n r o l on  the  l o c a l l e v e l w i t h p a r t o f t h e i r dues g o i n g t o the s e n i o r b o d i e s ; some cases membership to the  in  senior bodies i s a v a i l a b l e a t a  reduced r a t e t o those b e l o n g i n g  t o the l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s .  Several  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s s t r e s s ; the l o c a l or p o l l l e v e l membership but p e r m i t d i r e c t membership i n the p r o v i n c i a l or f e d e r a l  also  constituency  association. Marginal  comments made on s i x r e p l i e s t o the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t , whatever the  f o r m a l arrangements, a f f a i r s i n b o t h  spheres were l a r g e l y o r g a n i z e d s i t u a t i o n was An  and  r u n by the  o n l y suggested i n what are  urban c o n s t i t u e n c y  questionnaires  same p e r s o n s . T h i s .  essentially rural  areas.  s u c h as V a n c o u v e r - B u r r a r d i n w h i c h f e d e r a l  and p r o v i n c i a l M d i n g a b o u n d a r i e s a r e a l m o s t p r e c i s e l y t h e  same  may  e x h i b i t the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . W i t h the l i k e l i h o o d o f more p e o p l e b e i n g a v a i l a b l e i n urban a r e a s f o r p o l i t i c a l work, d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r i s more l i k e l y t o o c c u r i n a n u r b a n area one,  q u i t e a p a r t from a l l o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i n t e r e s t s i n the two provincial.  than i n a  o f the  rural  varying  d i f f e r e n t spheres o f a c t i v i t y , f e d e r a l a n d  103  The questionnaire asked, one subjective question: Some people think that national and p r o v i n c i a l Conservative spheres should be kept s t r i c t l y separated to achieve greatest e f f i c i e n c y . Others think that a l l Conservative party members should work f o r the party i n both f e d e r a l and provinc i a l f i e l d s . T/ould you state your views below (briefly) ? Some respondents contended themselves simply with  underscoring  the question's second sentence, or by w r i t i n g short phrases such as "Best to work i n both f i e l d s . "  Others elaborated views that  Conservatism should be advanced by a l l party workers, regardless of nominal attachment to t h i s or that wing and regardless of past differences.  One person wrote:  Present arrangement of separate p r o v i n c i a l and federal has caused a grea-t deal of trouble and hard f e e l i n g . Lack of top f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l executive co-operation has cost us thousands of members. Another said he f e l t j o i n t e f f o r t s were desirable, that i n his: constituency " a l l members a c t i v e i n the p r o v i n c i a l sphere are also a:.*ctive i n the f e d e r a l , but the reverse does not hold true. Some of our f e d e r a l members are s t i l l Socfed p r o v i n c i a l l y . " One president from Vancouver Island, i n making  a  case f o r f u l l co-  operation said that i n s i s t i n g on keeping the f i e l d s separated was tantamount to putting B r i t i s h Columbia ahead of Canada i n one's interests.  Another Vancouver Island view was t h i s one:  P r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s should shoulder r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for party e f f i c i e n c y . Federal o f f i c e r s should expect free co-operation leading up to a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n — p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s being set aside f o r the time being — i n an a l l - o u t f e d e r a l e f f o r t . Federal backing i n a l l p r o v i n c i a l elections should be r e l i e d on.  104  The  p r e s i d e n t of y e t a n o t h e r c o n s t i t u e n c y , one  r u r a l , made these  predominently  observations:  The need f o r g r e a t e r l i a i s o n between p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s has been doubly apparent s i n c e Anscomb d e f e a t e d Bennett f o r p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p . The r i f t o f t h a t i y was widened when F i n l a y s o n def e a t e d Bewley a t a l a t e r c o n v e n t i o n and was still a p p a r e n t t o many o f us when F i n l a y s o n won hj a s m a l l margin over Desmond K i d d . a  Most t h i n k i n g C o n s e r v a t i v e s t h a t I know r e a l i z e t h a t the problems o f t h a t day were not f a c e d up to i n a p r o p e r manner w i t h r e s u l t a n t f r i c t i o n between F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . F i n l a y s o n was c h u c k e d o u t a t Ottawa when he c a l l e d f o r the r e s i g n a t i o n o f Drew. The p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n had a core o f d i e h a r d s t h a t f o s t e r e d the r i f t and the f e d e r a l s were p r e t t y b i t t e r over the p r o v i n c i a l a t t i t u d e . I f we a r e s t i l l going t o t r y and decide who was r i g h t and who was wrong t h e r e cannot be p r o p e r l i a i s o n . The f e d e r a l l a n d s l i d e i n 56 (sic] p r a c t i c a l l y e l i m i n a t e d p r o v i n c i a l arguments so perhaps they were wrong i n g r e a t p a r t , but u n t i l someone on the f e d e r a l s i d e makes a move t o cement C o n s e r v a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t o a u n i t under a mutual p l a n , and t h i s p l a n w i l l have t o a l l o w f r e e dom by p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s to f u n c t i o n w i t h o u t d i c t a t i o n , t h e r e w i l l be l i t t l e progress: made i n s o l i d i f y i n g the Cons e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n Canada, and those o f us who t r y to p l e a s e both can o n l y end up d i s p l e a s i n g one o f them. -  I f e e l the f e d e r a l s i d e can a f f o r d t o be generous i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n and t r i e d i n my own r i d i n g t o g e t b o t h on one p l a t f o r m w i t h o u t much s u c c e s s . The exp e c t e d e l e c t i o n o f f e r s an e x c e l l e n t chance f o r the f e d e r a l s t o get b e h i n d the p r o v i n c i a l c a n d i d a t e s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the p a s t and r e s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s e f f e c t w i l l go f o r w a r d from t h i s r i d i n g t o our a n n u a l meeting t o be h e l d i n F e b r u a r y . What was ws a  felt  the e x t e n t  suggested any  t o be  s u r p r i s i n g about the answers t o t h i s  of the s o l i d a r i t y o f f e e l i n g . Not reasonable  question  one w r i t e r  grounds e x i s t e d f o r k e e p i n g the  two  105  l e v e l s o f p a r t y work s e p a r a t e d . P r e s i d e n t s o f a l l twenty-seven c o n s t i t u e n c i e s were unanimous i n a w i s h t o see a l l . C o n s e r v a t i v e s w o r k i n g c l o s e l y t o g e t h e r . S e v e r a l p o i n t e d out t h a t geographic d i f f i c u l t i e s and  the l a c k o f c o i n c i d e n c e i n f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c e 1  r i d i n g b o u n d a r i e s made some d i v i s i o n s i n e v i t a b l e but, w h i l e  this  was  of  acknowledged, d i v i s i o n was  those  never thought d e s i r a b l e . Two  r e p l y i n g w i t h s i m i l a r views i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r p r i m a r y  i n t e r e s t was  i n the f e d e r a l sphere but t h i s d i d not a l t e r  views on the m a t t e r .  T h i s u n a n i m i t y may  be a t t r i b u t e d i n l a r g e  measure t o w i d e s p r e a d f e e l i n g t h a t r e c e n t p a r t y d i v i s i o n s caused g r e a t harm and  their  had  t h a t t h e r e f o r e the c l o s e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n  p o s s i b l e i s most d e s i r a b l e .  I t i s possible that a similar  survey  c a r r i e d out i n a n o t h e r case where the p a r t y had not been wracked by f a c t i o n a l d i s p u t e s t h a t the t e n o r o f t h e answers would v a r y from t h a t e v i d e n c e d  here.  A n o t h e r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n might be  t h a t p a r t y workers s u b s c r i b e t o a view t h a t problems o f government i n b o t h n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l spheres a r e n o t d i f f e r e n t party t a c t i c s are required. represent a s o p h i s t i c a t i o n i n viewpoint  so d i s s i m i l a r t h a t  T h i s l a t t e r , however, above t h a t w h i c h may  expected o f p o l i t i c a l workers i n the f i e l d and  t h a t the i d e a  r e a c t i o n from p a s t q u a r r e l s i s the more l i k e l y  explanation.  may be of  ( i i i ) Public Policy When the i n q u i r y began i t was  assumed t h a t any d i f f e r e n c e s  between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups would be e v i d e n t i n the determination  of p a r t y v i e w p o i n t s  r e l a t i n g to desirable public p o l i c y .  106  The c o n c e r n o f each group w i t h a s p e c t s o f governmental l i f e have p o t e n t i a l i t y o f c o n f l i c t s between them was  that  expected to r e s u l t  i n the promotion o f d i s s i m i l a r v i e w p o i n t s r e l a t i n g t o p r e f e r r e d government a c t i o n . Grounds f o r such e x p e c t a t i o n may  be f o u n d i n  the o r i g i n s o f the f e d e r a l system i t s e l f which r e p r e s e n t a  series  o f compromises between s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and between those i n t e r e s t s and n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a s t h e y come i n t o b e i n g . I t was, i n matters o f p u b l i c p o l i c y t h a t the l e a s t d i s c o r d was P a r t y workers a c c o u n t f o r t h i s l a c k o f c o n f l i c t i n g v i e w p o i n t s w i t h a g l i b r e p l y t h a t whatever  however, found . policy  t h e i r i n t e r n a l disputes  a l l p a r t y members a r e u n i t e d i n w i s h i n g t o advance  "Conservatism".  There have been many e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f the p a r t y  1*3 system  b u t , s o f a r a s B r i t i s h Columbia  and the C o n s e r v a t i v e s a r e  concerned,Lord Bryce's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t " P a r t y seems t o e x i s t f o r i t s own  sake" seems t o be a l m o s t as adequate a n e x p l a n a t i o n as can  be deduced. by B.C. terms —  The p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f "Conservatism" a s e x p r e s s e d  p a r t y workers has been so d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e i n c o n s i s t e n t and t h e r e f o r e i n c a p a b l e o f a n a l y s i s —  t o seek a n o t h e r answer.In  B r i t i s h Columbia  t h a t one i s f o r c e d  t h e P r o g r e s s i v e Conser-  v a t i v e P a r t y d i r e c t s i t s p o l i c y more toward the w i n n i n g o f power t h a n toward the promotion o f a developed d o c t r i n e o f government.  16. See, f o r example, D. V. Smiley - "The Two-Party System and One-Party Dominance i n the L i b e r a l Democratic S t a t e " - The Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , Y o l . XXXY, no. 3, August 1958, pp. 512-322.  107  The  determination  of. C o n s e r v a t i v e  o f p a r t y p o l i c y i s one  o f the  prerogatives  l e a d e r s . A n n u a l meetings o f p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n s  o f t e n debate i s s u e s o f p u b l i c concern and r e p o r t t h e i r views i n the  form o f r e s o l u t i o n s . W h i l e such r e s o l u t i o n s u s u a l l y i m p l y  they would be put i n t o e f f e c t by a C o n s e r v a t i v e  government, i f  e l e c t e d , they a r e c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the p a r t y as h a v i n g more than an i n f o r m a t i v e n a t u r e  little  f o r the p a r t y l e a d e r . They  a l s o b e a r some propaganda v a l u e f o r the v o t e r s and o u t l e t f o r the f e e l i n g s of v o c a l p a r t y members. the prime m i n i s t e r i n p a r l i a m e n t a r y  that  serve a s  The  may an  p r e s t i g e of  c o u n t r i e s has been such t h a t  most r i g h t wing p a r t i e s acknowledge they c a n do no more t h a n make 17 suggestions  to t h e i r l e a d e r s .  This p r a c t i c e obtains i n B r i t i s h  Columbia not o n l y w i t h r e s o l u t i o n s but w i t h e l e c t i o n p l a t f o r m s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r w h i c h r e s t s almost e n t i r e l y on the l e a d e r . The  party  p a r t y ' s o n l y c o n t r o l over i t s p u b l i c p o l i c y a<s i t  i s expounded by the l e a d e r i s t o dismiss, him  from o f f i c e i f i t  can. T h i s the C o n s e r v a t i v e although  p a r t y had not done i n B r i t i s h Columbia 18 the L i b e r a l s have.  A c o n f l i c t i n the p o l i c i e s of the n a t i o n a l and the  provincial  l e a d e r i s p o s s i b l e but u n l i k e l y i f each l e a d e r m a i n t a i n s  his policy  d e c l a r a t i o n s w i t h i n the governmental sphere w h i c h concerns  him.'  17. The case i s , of course, d i f f e r e n t f o r l e f t - w i n g p a r t i e s such as those i n A u s t r a l i a and the U n i t e d Kingdom. 18. The L i b e r a l s were a b l e t o d i s m i s s P r e m i e r P a t t u l l o who t o form a c o a l i t i o n m i n i s t r y .  refused  108 D i s c o r d w o u l d be l i k e l y i f a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r w.ere f r e q u e n t l y t o i n s i s t t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government must take c e r t a i n a c t i o n s , o r the n a t i o n a l p a r t y l e a d e r made pronouncements t h a t might be judged t o impinge on p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s .  While c o n c u r r e n t  fields of juris-  d i c t i o n might a l s o o f f e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r i n t r a - p a r t y d i f f e r e n c e s on p a r t y , such d i f f e r e n c e s have n o t o f t e n o c c u r r e d i n the Conserv a t i v e case.  Natural resource  development t h a t i n v o l v e d the  f e d e r a l government a s w e l l a s the p r o v i n c i a l c o u l d p e r m i t of p o l i c y withina party —  clashes  development o f h y d r o - e l e c t r i c i t y on a n  i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r suggests a n example — i s u s u a l l y a s t u t e enough t o f o r m u l a t e the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and so a v o i d s  b u t the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r  p o l i c y i n conjunction with  such d i f f i c u l t y . P o l i c y  d i f f e r e n c e s between a p r o v i n c i a l premier a n d a f e d e r a l prime m i n i s t e r have developed even where they adhere t o t h e same p o l i t i c a l p a r t y , b u t the c o i n c i d e n c e simultaneously  o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e  party holding  office  i n Ottawa a n d V i c t o r i a has been so r a r e t h a t t r o u b l e 19  o f t h i s nature  has n o t a f f l i c t e d the B r i t i s h Columbia  I t appears probable  Conservatives.  t h a t o n l y when the same p a r t y h o l d s  office  n a t i o n a l l y a n d p r o v i n c i a l l y i s t h e r e much chance o f p u b l i c p o l i c y becoming a n important The  d i v i s i v e f a c t o r w i t h i n the p a r t y .  l a c k o f p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p u b l i c sphere was  t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a s a s u g g e s t i o n p o l i c y i s important  o f the  i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e  considered  s l i g h t extent t o which  p a r t y i n Canada. T h i s i s  u s u a l l y t h e case w i t h p a r t i e s t h a t t r y t o b r i d g e s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . T h i s l a c k o f any p o l i c y o r i d e o l o g i c a l c o n f l i c t may be borne i n mind 19. Simultaneous o f f i c e - h o l d i n g o c c u r r e d o n l y twice i n the p a s t s i x t y y e a r s , and both d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f u n a n t i c i p a t e d s t r a i n : immediately b e f o r e and d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f the f i r s t w o r l d war, a n d d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f the economic d e p r e s s i o n o f the t h i r t i e s .  109  when c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n t o the c o u n t r y ' s s e c t i o n a l p o l i t i c s and  the p a r t y ' s b e g i n n i n g  construction of non-sectional  20 or n a t i o n a l o r g a n i s a t i o n .  Any  e v o l u t i o n o f the p a r t y from an  a l l i a n c e of v a r i o u s s e c t i b n a l i n t e r e s t s i n t o one  based on  different,  i n t r a - s e c t i o n a l l i n e s (such a s economic c l a s s e s ) might w e l l b r i n g about such changes t h a t would make p u b l i c p o l i c y c o n f l i c t more l i k e l y between n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s . Such s p e c u l a t i o n , however, must f i n d more s o l i d ground than i s here a v a i l a b l e b e f o r e d e f i n i t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be  (iv)  Only a l i t t l e  drawn.  Party f i n n c e a  l i g h t can be thrown on the s u b j e c t of p a r t y  f i n a n c e as i t r e l a t e s t o the B r i t i s h Columbia C o n s e r v a t i v e s . i n f o r m a t i o n as has been g l e a n e d has come from p e o p l e i n the in  a p o s i t i o n t o know the f a c t s but who  p e r m i t use  felt  o f t h e i r names as a source.  financing, l i t t l e v e r y , v e r y few  party  themselves unable t o  Of the p a r t y ' s day-to-day  can be l e a r n e d and i t may  i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the p a r t y  whence i t a r i s e s .  Such  s a f e l y be a s s e r t e d t h a t hasre any  d e f i n i t e odea  S p e c u l a t i o n by p a r t y workers i s t h e same as t h a t  by p e o p l e o u t s i d e the p a r t y :  a few  l a r g e companies a r e presumed  to  c o n t r i b u t e t o a l l major p a r t i e s but  to  very l i t t l e  such c o n t r i b u t i o n s amount  between e l e c t i o n s . I n any  c a s e , the p a r t y ' s  needs a r e r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t u n t i l a major campaign must be  20. I n the c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r  of t h i s i n q u i r y .  financial fought.  110  C h i e f c o s t s t o the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y between e l e c t i o n i s t h e o f f i c e r e n t a t the h e a d q u a r t e r s and time s t a f f members. as s t e n o g r a p h i c  s u p p l i e s and m a i l i n g , and i s not p a i d .  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h conventions The  expenses, a l t h o u g h  and  t r a v e l l i n g expenses o f  Expenses t h a t a r i s e i n  annual meetings a r e met  F e d e r a l C o u n c i l has  roughly  similar  on  an  office  on a s m a l l e r s c a l e , and the f i n a n c i n g of the  o r g a n i z e r * s work. O f f i c e r s o f the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l a r e not The  full-  There i s , i n a d d i t i o n , such i n c i d e n t a l c o s t s  the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r who  ad. hoc b a s i s .  the s a l a r i e s o f the two  salaried.  p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n ' s expenses f o r maintenance purposes a r e  wholly  met  by c o n t r i b u t i o n s r a i s e d by the p a r t y i n B r i t i s h  Columbia.  So too w i t h the F e d e r a l C o u n c i l , a l t h o u g h a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n la s e x i s t e d i n p a r t y c i r c l e s t h a t the C o u n c i l ' s work was  at  least  p a r t i a l l y f i n a n c e d by funds sent from Ottawa or T o r o n t o . E l e c t i o n campaign funds are a d i f f e r e n t matter.  The a s s o c i a t i o n  has f o u n d the funds a v a i l a b l e t o i t f o r f i g h t i n g e l e c t i o n s v r i e d a  g r e a t l y as the p o l i t i c a l f o r t u n e s s m i l e d or scowled upon the  party.  Money f o r e l e c t i o n s i s r a i s e d i n t h r e e ways: by the c e n t r a l f i n a n c e committee s e t up by the B.C.  a s s o c i a t i o n e x e c u t i v e , by the  o f c o n s t i t u e n c y committeemen, and by the c a n d i d a t e s  efforts  themselves,  e i t h e r from t h e i r p e r s o n a l funds or t h e i r f r i e n d s . F o r a major e l e c t i o n campaign such as the one p l a n n e d f o r the 1960 perhaps t w o - t h i r d s  election,  o f the t o t a l amount r a i s e d w i l l come through  the  e f f o r t s o f the c e n t r a l f i n a n c e committee o f the a s s o c i a t i o n .  The  t o t a l amount spent depends, o f course,  c o n s t i t u e n c i e s t o be c o n t e s t e d  on the number o f  so f i g u r e s w i l l be p r e s e n t e d  on  Hi  the  b a s i s o f money spent p e r candidate::. .  17hile c o s t s v a r y g r e a t l y  between d i f f e r e n t u r b a n c o n s t i t u e n c i e s and between r u r a l c o n s t i t u e n c i e s , a n average o f a b o u t $5,000 was the  1952 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n campaign.  spent per candidate f o r The f i g u r e f e l l t o f1,000  p e r c a n d i d a t e f o r the n e x t y e a r ' s p r o v i n c i a l campaign, c h i e f l y because  the p a r t y ' s d i s m a l showing i n 1952  made i t i m p o s s i b l e t o  r a i s e any more money. Spending p e r c a n d i d a t e i n 1956 l e s s t h a n $200 e c h f o r the twenty-two a  candidates.  amounted e t o y The  reversal  i n the p a r t y ' s f o r t u n e s i n the f e d e r a l f i e l d has b r o u g h t commens u r a t e g a i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y f i n a n c i e r s f o r t o t a l for  the 1960  spending  campaign i s a n t i c i p a t e d a t a b o u t |5,000 f o r each o f  f i f t y - t w o candidates.  I t s h o u l d be emphasized  t h a t these are  average f i g u r e s , t h a t t h e y t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t money r a i s e d from a l l . s o u r c e s , and t h a t t h e y c o v e r a l l forms o f e x p e n d i t u r e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e l e c t i o n campaigning.  The amount' o f money b e i n g made a v a i l -  a b l e t o t h e B.C. a s s o c i a t i o n t h r o u g h f e d e r a l p a r t y c h a n n e l s c o u l d n o t be d e t e r m i n e d a l t h o u g h i t was  u n d e r s t o o d i t w o u l d amount t o  something more s u b s t a n t i a l t h a n a t o k e n c o n t r i b u t i o n , and t h a t i t might a l s o depend on t h e amount o f f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t t h e a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d f i n d by i t s e l f . I f I t f o u n d wide enough s u p p o r t t o r a i s e f u n d s e a s i l y , i t was i m p l i e d , t h e n f e d e r a l h e l p might be a l i t t l e more generous  t h a n w o u l d be the case i f the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d 21  n o t f i n d such e v i d e n c e o f s o l i d b a c k i n g .  21. T h i s d e s p i t e t h e o b v i o u s f a c t t h a t , g i v e n wide f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n w o u l d have l e s s need o f a i d .  112 L e s s i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e on f i n a n c i n g f e d e r a l p a r t y campaigns i n B r i t i s h Columbia. One  o f those d i r e c t l y  involved  i n spending of c e n t r a l campaign funds a s s e r t e d t h a t the major p a r t o f the e l e c t i o n funds had and  t h a t t h e r e was  Conservative  no  t o be r a i s e d w i t h i n the  t r u t h t o the p o p u l a r  campaign was  province,  assertions that a  mounted i n B r i t i s h Columbia o n l y  with  the a i d of money from E a s t e r n Canada. Examples were g i v e n f o r the 1949  campaign, w h i c h was  a t i o n campaign committee and l i a i s o n o f f i c e r , and  f i n a n c e d i n p a r t by the B.C.  i n p a r t by the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s 1  f o r the 1953  e l e c t i o n w h i c h was  f i n a n c e d through the f e d e r a l l i a i s o n o f f i c e r . The t e s t i n g twenty-two r i d i n g s was  $200,000, but  between t h i s and |140,000 which was w h i c h to make a r e s p e c t a b l e butions according  assoc-  impression  t a r g e t f o r con-  the sum  considered  wholly  spent  was  the minimum w i t h  on the v o t e r s . C o n t r i -  from E a s t e r n Canada never amounted t o more t h a n $40,000 t o the i n f o r m a n t  whose f i g u r e s were not  contradicted  by o t h e r s w i t h whom they were d i s c u s s e d . Most o f the c o s t s were p a i d by c a n d i d a t e s , campaign fund. No  r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s , and by the c e n t r a l  i n f o r m a t i o n was  a v a i l a b l e on the 1957  and  1958  campaign c o s t s , w h i c h were f i n a n c e d by the j o i n t committee described earlier. has  The  been quoted as  party's national director, A l l i s t e r  G-rosart,  saying  The C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n 1957 had spent l e s s t h a n h a l f as much money as they had done i n 1955. 1957 was s t r i c t l y a ' s h o e - s t r i n g e l e c t i o n and 1958 had been a l i t t l e b e t t e r , bujjj^even l e s s had been spent t h a n i n 1955. 1  s o  22.  I n Canadian P o l i t i c s (Mount A l l i s o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s S a c k v i l l e , N.B.) 1959. p. 29.  -  113  The  i n d i v i d u a l p a r t y member's f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s  v a l u e d , n o t f o r t h e i r b e n e f i t t o the head o f f i c e , but as o f the p a r t y worker's i n t e r e s t retained within  i n the p a r t y .  The  are  evidence  dues money i s  the r i d i n g s or c o n s t i t u e n c i e s f o r work on the  l e v e l or the purchase of p a r t y l i t e r a t u r e and  local  distributing i t .  The  o r d i n a r y c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f the p a r t y worker never reaches the head o f f i c e s and  thus has  not been a f a c t o r i n the  s t r u g g l e s f o r conir o l  t h a t have t a k e n p l a c e . I f the p a r t y workers had c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the work o f the l e a d e r s '  made a  significant  offices, i t i s possible  more t a n g i b l e e v i d e n c e o f "grass r o o t s " f e e l i n g on the d i v i s i o n s would have been e v i d e n c e d .  Those c o n n e c t e d w i t h d i r e c t i n g the  a c t i v i t i e s o f the p r o v i n c i a l and  f e d e r a l wings suggest t h a t  d i v i s i o n s were a g g r a v a t e d d u r i n g the most c r i t i c a l y e a r s o f 1951  t o 1956,  the strife,  by a s t e a d i l y d e c l i n i n g f l o w o f c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o  p a r t y ' s work. The  more s u c c e s s f u l the p a r t y appears t o be,  the  the  g r e a t e r the amount o f money i t can r a i s e f o r e l e c t i o n campaigning. The a c c e s s i o n t o o f f i c e o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y e a s e d f i n a n c i a l difficulties  f o r b o t h groups and h e l p e d t o c o n t r i b u t e  the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h a t i s t a k i n g  place.  somewhat t o  CHAPTER V Conclusion  P r o m u l g a t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h America A c t i n 1867 brought together  i n t o one p o l i t y s e c t i o n s t h a t e x h i b i t e d marked d i f f e r e n c e s  i n ethnic origin, r e l i g i o n , Geographic d i s t a n c e s  s o c i a l a n d economic o r i e n t a t i o n .  so i n c r e a s e d d i f f i c u l t i e s  o f government  t h a t o f themselves t h e y would have r e q u i r e d some form o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v o l u t i o n . P o r t e c h n o l o g i c a l reasons a l o n e S i r John A. Macdonald's w i s h f o r a c l o s e l e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n might have been impossible  to achieve.  Had the d i s t a n c e s been overcome, t h e r e would  have remained t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g some p o l i t i c a l machine t h a t c o u l d have made a l e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n work. The d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n p u t t i n g t o g e t h e r  even temporary support t o b r i n g  about a l o o s e f e d e r a l u n i o n suggests t h e t r o u b l e Macdonald would have had i n t r y i n g t o w e l d i n t e r e s t s i n t o t h a t c l o s e r u n i t y t h a t l e g i s l a t i v e u n i o n would have  required.  A. R. M. Lower a n d o t h e r w r i t e r s have p o i n t e d  out t h a t Con-  f e d e r a t i o n was l a r g e l y i n s p i r e d by t h e f e a r posed b y a s t r o n g United  States, c o n t i n e n t a l f o r c e s working through mechanical  advances, s e r i o u s economic and p o l i t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , and a vague sense o f h a v i n g a common B r i t i s h N o r t h American h e r i t a g e . I f the provinces had  t h a t made up Canada d u r i n g  the e i g h t e e n  seventies  t h e s e t h i n g s i n common, t h e y had a s many d i f f e r e n c e s . Each  province  had b o a s t e d o f a s e p a r a t e i d e n t i t y t h a t a n t e d a t e d t h e  Confederation,  a separate p o l i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e  114  during which the  115  the c o l o n y had r u l e d i t s e l f i n some measure, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the Red R i v e r c o l o n y , T h  e  most s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e "between the  p r o v i n c e s was t h a t o f language. The French-Canadians, a conquered p e o p l e , were f i e r c e l y proud o f t h e i r language and determined t o preserve  i t from t h e i r b a s t i o n i n Quebec. The  r e s i d e n t s of the other provinces  English-speaking  saw no r e a s o n why the F r e n c h  should  not be a s s i m i l a t e d i n terms o f language and, f o r the most p a r t , s t u b b o r n l y r e f u s e d t o l e a r n French.  The r e l i g i o u s complexion o f  the s e c t i o n s d i f f e r e d a s w e l l . Quebec n o t o n l y was the N o r t h American c a t h e d r a l o f Roman C a t h o l i c i s m b u t h e r b i s h o p s  fostered  an ultramontanism t h a t s e t t h e i r a d h e r e n t s a p a r t from the E n g l i s h speaking Roman C a t h o l i c s from I r e l a n d and o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e U n i t e d Kingdom.  The A n g l i c a n i s m  o f the Ma r i times c o n t r a s t e d w i t h  t h a t o f O n t a r i o w h i c h was g i v i n g way t o the P r o t e s t a n t s e c t s which, g e n e r a l l y - s p e a k i n g , were i n the vanguard o f the a n t i - R o m i s h f a c t i o n o f t h e Orange Lodge. The  social life  o f the P a c i f i c Coast was a c u r i o u s mixture o f  E n g l i s h s o c i e t y t r a n s p o r t e d t o a new w o r l d  e x i s t i n g a l m o s t s i d e by  s i d e w i t h the w e s t e r n f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y t h a t marked the American mid-West. O n t a r i o was more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  Scottish-American  s o c i a l mores w i t h a n admixture o f i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n c l a s s e s and a yeoman f a r m i n g  community. The M a r i t i m e r s were p r o u d o f t h e i r  o l d e r s o c i e t y , based l a r g e l y on f i s h i n g , industry, while  s h i p b u i l d i n g and the timber  the Quebecois c l u n g t o t h e sharp d i v i s i o n s t h a t  reminded European v i s i t o r s o f f e u d a l t i m e s , w i t h  the e x c e p t i o n o f  M o n t r e a l w h i c h was the new n a t i o n ' s f i n a n c i a l c e n t r e , the h e a r t o f  116  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s p e c u l a t i o n a n d new commercial v e n t u r e s ,  just as  Toronto was becoming the n a t i o n ' s f i r s t i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e .  The  economic d i v i s i o n s were no l e s s c l e a r l y drawn than the s o c i a l , and p r o b a b l y were e a s i e r t o d i s c e r n .  Nova S c o t i a and New Brunswick  saw  t h e i r h i n t e r l a n d d i r e c t l y t o the west a n d south f o r New  was  a most c o n v e n i e n t  England  t r a d i n g c e n t r e f o r t h e i r goods and t h e West  I n d i e s made H a l i f a x one o f t h e w o r l d ' s major s h i p p i n g c e n t r e s o f the  day. The f i s h e r i e s t u r n e d M a r i t i m e r s ' e y e s  seaward, t o the  markets i n B r i t a i n a n d t o t h e i r r i v a l s i n New England.  The lumber  i n d u s t r y depended h e a v i l y on s a i l i n g s h i p s a n d the "day o f wind and s a i l " was f a s t coming t o a n end.  M a r i t i m e r s wanted p r o t e c t b n  f o r t h e i r f i s h e r i e s and markets f o r t h e i r t i m b e r w h i c h Upper and Lower Canada had i n abundance.  F o r h e r p a r t , Quebec was n e a r l y  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t e c o n o m i c a l l y so l o n g a s the S t . Lawrence t r a d e remained s t r o n g .  O n t a r i o , however, c r i e d l o u d l y f o r p r o t e c t i o n  f o r h e r i n f a n t i n d u s t r i e s a f t e r the homeland had d e c l a r e d f o r f r e e t r a d e a n d made p l a i n h e r l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n overseas c o l o n i e s . The p r a i r i e s e x i s t e d on a f u r t r a d e economy i n c r e a s i n g l y  threatened  by the slow growth o f s e t t l e r s a g r i c u l t u r e w h i c h e a r l y found need o f e x p o r t markets. rence  As O n t a r i o ' s economy was t i e d t o the S t . Law-  system so Manitoba's depended g r e a t l y on the southward connec-  t i o n u n t i l t h e Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y was b u i l t and i t s e f f e c t took s e v e r a l y e a r s t o make i t s e l f f e l t . was  The P a c i f i c C o a s t  colony  f a r from the o t h e r s and d e v e l o p i n g a n economy b a s e d on markets  t h a t must be sought t o t h e south a n d t o t h e f a r west over v a s t ocean s t r e t c h e s . G r e a t r e s o u r c e s t h e r e were b u t g r e a t d i f f i c u l t i e s were  117  hindering  t h e i r development, t i m b e r , c o a l , f i s h e r i e s ,  these t h e p r o v i n c e other provinces  had i n abundance and l i t t l e  gold,  i n common w i t h  o f Canada. Her mountainous t e r r a i n posed s p e c i a l  problems o f government, problems t h a t were the p r o v i n c e ' s  ever-  r e c u r r i n g c o m p l a i n t a t ©ttawa. B r i t i s h ColumbiaSs u n i o n w i t h Canada was a l m o s t w h o l l y n e g a t i v e  i n t h a t i t was l a r g e l y a s a  r e a c t i o n t o the t h r e a t of American envelopment. Each s e c t i o n o f Canada was d i f f e r e n t a n d u s u a l l y p r o u d o f i t . T h i s s e c t i o n a l i s m d i c t a t e d t h e form o f government, a s many a b l e w r i t e r s have shownj. and, i t may be suggested, the form o f government combined w i t h the s e c t i o n a l i s m d i c t a t e d the form t h a t s u c c e s s f u l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s would take. She r e t e n t i o n o f import a n t powers by the p r o v i n c e s governments o f f e r e d c o n t i n u e d  meant t h a t w i n n i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e i r inducement t o p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s  w h i c h had o p e r a t e d w i t h i n the s e p a r a t e c o l o n i e s , t o c o n t i n u e t o seek the f a v o r s o f p r o v i n c i a l v o t e r s . S o c i a l f a c t o r s appear t o have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s " and  s o c i e t y remained p r o v i n c i a l i n c h a r a c t e r l o n g a f t e r Confeder-  ation.  A c o a l i t i o n o f s e c t i o n a l p a r t i e s e n a b l e d Macdonald a n d  George Brown t o a c h i e v e C o n f e d e r a t i o n ;  t o develop i t w o u l d r e q u i r e  f u r t h e r c o a l i t i o n s . I t was Macdonald's g r e a t t a l e n t a s a comp r o m i s e r t h a t e n a b l e d him t o p u t t o g e t h e r representing  endless  combinations  the s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s and keep the l o o s e  o f c o l o n i e s on the t r a c k toward e v e n t u a l  assortment  nationhood. A n a t i o n a l  sentiment d i d n o t e x i s t t h a t was s t r o n g enough f o r a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t o be b u i l t on t h a t f o u n d a t i o n  a l o n e a n d , u n t i l i t came,the  118  s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s were the o n l y f o u n d a t i o n s on which a  successful  p o l i t i c a l p a r t y c o u l d he b u i l t .  first  Thus i t was  t h a t i n the  s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f Canada's nationhood, p a r t y s t r u c t u r e s  tended  t o be s e r i e s o f p a r a l l e l v e r t i c a l s e c t o r s , l o o s e l y connected across: the t o p . One Canadian w r i t e r has suggested t h a t , next t o f o r m i n g governments, the most important f u n c t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i s : t h a t o f a d j u s t i n g the c o n f l i c t i n g c l a i m s o f r e l i g i o u s , r a c i a l , o c c u p a t i o n a l and s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n the s o c i e t y so as t o secure s u f f i c i e n t j u p p o r t t o c o n s t i t u t e an e f f e c t i v e government. Canadian  governments have been concerned w i t h the economic i s s u e  o f r e s o u r c e s development t o an almost u n p a r a l l e l e d degree. T h i s has brought  i n t o sharp f o c u s the d i f f e r e n t economic c l a i m s o f  the c o u n t r y ' s f o u r c h i e f s e c t i o n s : the M a r i t i m e s , O n t a r i o and Quebec, the P r a i r i e s and B r i t i s h Columbia.  Cultural, racial  r e l i g i o u s i s s u e s have been o f e q u a l importance s t r u g g l e s , a l t h o u g h they may  i n the  sectional  be assuming somewhat l e s s e r  cance i n the p r e s e n t day. V. 0. Key,  and  signifi-  s p e a k i n g o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  makes a comment t h a t a p p l i e s w i t h e q u a l v a l i d i t y t o Canadian  politics:  A s e c t i o n a l p o l i t i c s commonly i n v o l v e s a s h a r p e n i n g o f i n t e r e s t s and a t t i t u d e s by p e o p l e s o f a l l s o r t s i n a major geographic r e g i o n a g a i n s t a s i m i l a r c l u s t e r i n g of i n t e r e s t and a t t i t u d e s o f the people o f another region.2  1. J . Murray Beck - "The P a r t y System i n Nova S c o t i a " , Canadian J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e (C.J.E.P.S.) v o l XX p. 2. V. 0. Key, J r . — P o l i t i c s , P a r t i e s a n d P r e s s u r e Groups, (T. Y. C r o w e l l , New Y o r k ) f o u r t h e d i t i o n (1958) p. 225.  525  119  I t was  amid such a c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s t h a t p a r t y p o l i t i c s began  i n B r i t i s h Columbia,',  o r t h i r t y y e a r s the s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t had  dominated the p o l i t i c a l scene, almost to the  total exclusion  n a t i o n a l p a r t y l i n e s . P r o v i n c i a l governments were formed on  of the  b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l i t i e s chosen from a f a i r l y homogenous group. government by p e r s o n a l i t y c o u l d not h i n t e r l a n d which d e s t r o y e d  the  s u r v i v e the development o f  economic i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n  I n t r a p r o v i n c i a l s e c t i o n a l i s m t h a t thus came i n t o  b e i n g n e c e s s i t a t e d p o l i t i c a l groups t h a t c o u l d b r i d g e i n t e r e s t s . The  the  o l d c o l o n i a l m i l i e u and r e s u l t e d i n  i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f s o c i a l and the p r o v i n c e .  But  r i s i n g o f one  the  varying  s u c c e s s f u l c o a l i t i o n of i n t e r e s t s  f o r c e d the o p p o s i t i o n t o emulate i t . These p r o v i n c i a l combinations assumed n a t i o n a l p a r t y p o l i t i c a l l a b e l s , a l t h o u g h not w i t h o u t some d i f f i c u l t i e s . x  o  a c h i e v e any  s u c c e s s p r o v i n c i a l l y a p a r t y had  a compromise t h a t was  w o r k a b l e , . T h i s was  to evolve  no mean t s k and a  no. wonder t h a t f e d e r a l p a r t y l e a d e r s p r e f e r r e d t o r e l y on  such  i t is the  5  e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l party structures  r a t h e r t h a n b u i l d a new  fif compromises t h a t would i n t u r n become p a r t o f a i n t e r e s t s - b r i d g e i f the f e d e r a l l e a d e r was s i t u a t i o n obtained  t o win  series;  higher',  office.  This  i n Canada a s l o n g as s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s p r e -  dominated. S e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s were by f a r the most ones, t h e y had a n t e d a t e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n resembled a n a r t i f i c i a l v i n e n u r t u r e d  significant  w h i l e the n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t i n a faraway hothouse. I t  5. Por example: "Borden had always b e l i e v e d t h a t s u c c e s s i n the Dominion f i e l d must be b u i l t on a f o u n d a t i o n of s t r o n g p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s . " H. N. MacQuarrie - "The F o r m a t i o n o f Borden's F i r s t C a b i n e t " - C J . E . P . S . - Vol x x i i i , F e b r u a r y , 1957. p. 92.  120  c o u l d t h r i v e o n l y a s i t drew n u r t u r e from a l l s e c t i o n s a n d cont r i b u t e d to each i n t u r n .  But when economic c o n c e n t r a t i o n and  s o c i a l p a r t i c u l a r i s m b e g i n s t o weaken, t h e whole p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e i s a f f e c t e d . I t seems e q u a l l y t r u e o f Canada a s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t "the s e c t i o n a l f o u n d a t i o n o f p a r t i e s f o r h a l f 4 a c e n t u r y have been e r o d i n g . "  The r e a s o n s a r e many and v r i e d : a  i n d u s t r i a l i s m , u r b a n i z a t i o n , economic d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n ,  immigration,  t e c h n o l o g i c a l a dvance i n t r a n s p o r t a n d communications. D.  .  Brogan says the r e s u l t i s t h a t the spread o f i n t e r e s t s a l l over the c o u n t r y n a t i o n a l i z e s many i n t e r e s t s , u n i t e s p r o d u c e r s o r consumers a l l over t h e Union, b r e a k i n g down not merely s t a t e b a r r i e r s , b u t the much more important r e g i o n a l b a r r i e r s . ^ Economic u n i f i c a t i o n o f a c o u n t r y i s measurable,by s t a t i s t i c s which show t h e i n c r e a s e i n i n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l f l o w o f goods and produce,by r e g i o n a l economic i n d i c a t o r s showing t h e n a t i o n a l c o n n e c t i o n s o f branch p l a n t s , and by the v e r y s p r e a d o f one r e g i o n s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e products t o other regions.  While more d i f f i c u l t t o  measure, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l u n i f i c a t i o n a n d admixing i f n o t g r e a t e r importance.  i s o f equal  Some d e g r e e o f t h e changes i n Canada  were suggested by the Report  o f t h e R o y a l Commission on the A r t s ,  L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s . The growth o f n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , and o f n a t i o n a l l y o r g a n i z e d l a b o r unions has had p r o f o u n d e f f e c t s , a s has ihe i n c r e a s i n g m o b i l i t y o f the  4. Key - P o l i t i c s - p . 251 5. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o American P o l i t i c s (Hamilton, London) 1954,p. 93. See. a l s o Hugh A. Bone i n American P o l i t i c s a n d the P a r t y System (continued  p,12l)  121 p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t i n g i n h i g h i n t e r - r e g i o n a l m i g r a t i o n , -^ome o f these i n d i c a t o r s may  be f o u n d i n p o p u l a t i o n c h a r t s whose f i g u r e s  a l s o suggest what i s p o s s i b l y one  o f the most p o t e n t f o r c e s i n  the process, o f Canada's change from r u r a l s e c t i o n a l i s m t o growing nationhood, t h a t i s , the u r b a n i z a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . three^quarters  In  o f the Canadian p e o p l e l i v e d i n r u r a l a r e a s ,  remainder i n urban c e n t r e s . Twenty y e a r s  1901 the  l a t e r the p o p u l a t i o n  e v e n l y d i v i d e d between r u r a l and urban a r e a s and by 1956  was  two-  7 t h i r d s l i v e d i n the c i t y . loosely-cmnnected  Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s based  s e c t i o n a l groupings found t h e i r a l r e a d y  t a s k v a s t l y more c o m p l i c a t e d  difficult  as the cement of s e c t i o n a l i s m s l o w l y  began t o crumble. Measures a s s o c i a t e d w i t h two w o r l d wars the economic d e p r e s s i o n  on  and  o f the n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s a c c e l e r a t e d the  breakdown o f r e g i o n a l i s m . C o u p l e d w i t h t h i s "a new n a t i o n a l i s m i s a r i s i n g w h i c h may  Canadian  t e n d t o b l u n t the edges of the 8  p r e v i o u s l y s h a r p l y - d e f i n e d economic and r e l i g i o u s s e c t i o n a l i s m " , ^he  problems p o l i t i c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s f a c e d i n aceomc....  themselves t o changed c i r c u m s t a n c e s  were brought i n t o s h a r p e r  . j focus  (5) "The o l d s e c t i o n a l i s m i s b e i n g broken down by the r i s e o f i n d u s t r i a l i s m the i m m i g r a t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g the wars, the s p r e a d o f l a b o r unionism and the i n c r e a s i n g l y h i g h l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n . " p. 19. 6. See diagram "Trend Towards Urban L i f e " i n A. R. M. Lower C o l o n y t o N a t i o n , (Longmans Green - T o r o n t o ) 1947. p. 335. 7. Canada Y e a r Book 1957/58 (Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa) chart, p.  121.  8. G. L. - "The P a t t e r n o f Canadian P o l i t i c s " - World Today v o l . x, A p r i l 1954, p. 172. The "edges" have p r o b a b l y been b l u n t e d much more t h a n t h i s w r i t e r s u g g e s t s .  122  as the process  o f change a c c e l e r a t e d a n d i t s  effects  P r o f e s s o r J . R. M a l l o r y o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y useful analysis: & rural  democratic  suggests  structure prevailed  the f i r s t w o r l d war wherein every township, m i l a g e pushed i t s duties,  natural leaders  to the fore  the dominant p o l i t i c a l  organization.  accumulated.  role for  or  this  before county  i n a s s u m i n g , among  other  t h e i r area i n the  party  Such c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o u n d t h e p r o v i n c i a l  party  a s s o c i a t i o n f a i r l y w e l l a d a p t e d t o t h e t a s k a t h a n d . The c h a n g e t o u r b n l i v i n g , however, a  h a s n e c e s s i t a t e d mass t e c h n i q u e s  p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n because t h e r e i s between the p o l i t i c a l l y tuents  on whose b e h a l f  zation.  less and less  i n t e r e s t e d or  direct  contact  " m i l i t a n t " and the  consti-  they presumably r u n the l o c a l p a r t y  S u c h mass t e c h n i q u e s r e q u i r e  of  organi-  greater centralization  and  9 greater e f f i c i e n c y from the party  association.  While the Conservative P a r t y ' s n a t i o n a l Grosart,  director,  Allister  i n d i c a t e s he a g r e e s w i t h t h i s a s a f a i r l y v a l i d  o f t h e modern p r o b l e m , be t o o h e a v i l y  picture  t h e example o f t h e r u r a l democracy need n o t  d e p e n d e d u p o n . The r i s e  o f new p o l i t i c a l  groups  with  w h i c h p a r t i e s m u s t d e a l t h r c u g h new t e c h n i q u e s i s , h o w e v e r ,  most  important.  early  this  If  century,  likely  Canada h a s e c o n o m i c c l a s s e s t h e y w e r e , u n t i l geographically  d e t e r m i n e d , w h e r e a s now t h e y a r e  t o be d e t e r m i n e d b y f u n c t i o n w h i c h i g n o r e s  d e l i n e a t i o n s . When s e c t i o n s no l o n g e r 9.  CTtftfr'fft  ~ Canadian P o l i t i c s ,  pp.  more  geographic  serve as the c h i e f 26-7.  in  unifying  123 element i n a growing country,  one must t u r n t o these  s o c i a l changes  f o r e n l i g h t e n m e n t , ^he s o c i a l u n i f y i n g group f o r the modern p o l i tician  may w e l l t u r n out t o be a n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n .  A number o f o b s e r v e r s extra-parliamentary  have commented on t h e slow growth o f  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada. H e r b e r t  F. Q u i n n  suggests t h a t the reason l i e s i n the l e a d e r * s need t o d r a f t p o l i t i c a l programs a c c e p t a b l e  t o a wide v a r i e t y o f s e c t i o n a l  i n t e r e s t s . He f e e l s t h a t a s t r o n g e x t r a - p a r l i a m e n t a r y  group "would  undoubtedly attempt t o d i c t a t e p o l i c y and draw up a d e f i n i t e  pro-  gram t o which he would be a s k e d t o conform.""^ I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o suggests t h a t the slow d i s s o l u t i o n o f s t r o n g s e c t i o n a l i s m would m i t i g a t e a l e a d e r s r e l u c t a n c e t o a s s i s t t h e growth o f such 1  extra-parliamentary  groups. A u s t i n Ranney and Willmore  f i n d that n a t i o n a l party extra-parliamentary  Kendall  groups have t a k e n  a l o n g time t o develop i n Canada, which l a g s behind  o t h e r demo-  11 cratic countries i n this respect.  They observe t h a t i n t h e  U n i t e d S t a t e s the f e d e r a l form o f government has emphasized the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f p a r t i e s because t h e r e i s l i t t l e f e d e r a l law r e l a t i n g to t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s .  The American p r i m a r y system f o r  nominations a l s o s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e s t h i s d e c e n t r a l i z i n g t r e n d for to  t h e p r i m a r i e s make i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t f o r n a t i o n a l p a r t y i n t e r v e n e d e c i s i v e l y i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of local  leaders  candidates.  10. I n "The R o l e o f The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n Recent Canadian P o l i t i c s " , P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 68, No. 3 (1955) p . 417. 11. Democracy and t h e American P a r t y System (Harcourt B r a c e ) , 1956. p . 107. These w r i t e r s : suggest t h a t l a c k o f such development i s a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t f u l l self-government has n o t y e t been a t t a i n e d . More adequate documentation would seem r e q u i r e d .  124  Not  o n l y does Canada l a c k a p r i m a r y system o f nominations, thus  p e r m i t t i n g the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r more leeway i n i n f l u e n c i n g l o c a l candidatures,  but laws r e g u l a t i n g n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n a c t i v i t y  n a t i o n a l l y - e n a c t e d i n c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to Canadian p a r t y workers may  are  the American c a s e .  w e l l be i n f l u e n c e d by the example  o f the American system and even a f f e c t e d by the s p i r i t p a r t y independence w h i c h t h i s f o s t e r s but l a c k i n g the t i o n a l framework t o go w i t h t h a t system the way  of l o c a l institu-  i s easier i n  Canada f o r some c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the p a r t y machinery used f o r national elections. J . R. W i l l i a m s 1941 and  f i n d s t h a t i t was  t h a t the n a t i o n a l C o n s e r v a t i v e continuing force.  n o t u n t i l a f t e r November,  a s s o c i a t i o n became  an a c t i v e  A meeting i n t h a t month o r d e r e d a  survey  t h a t showed a decade o f o n l y i n t e r m i t t e n t work on  organization  and p u b l i c i t y t h a t had  party.  caused heavy damage t o the  Under R. B. Bennett, a l l l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l m o s t d i s a p p e a r e d e x c e p t where i t was kept a l i v e by i n d i v i d u a l members i n the House o f Commons. ^  Reorganization  began l a t e i n 1942  e l e c t i o n a s n a t i o n a l l e a d e r . One o f Howard Green t o improve the  by John Bracken a f t e r h i s o f h i s s t e p s was  t h e appointment  B r i t i s h Columbia s i t u a t i o n , i n  w h i c h p a r t y l e a d e r s were i n a c o a l i t i o n government w i t h the L i b e r a l s . The  b a s i c r e a s o n f o r the c o a l i t i o n was  the f e a r f e l t by b o t h p a r t i e s  t h a t t o r i s k an e l e c t i o n i n d i v i d u a l l y would p r o b a b l y mean the v i c t o r y o f the C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n , p o i n t s out the 12. W i l l i a m s  s o r r y s t a t e o f the p a r t y ' s  - The  Conservative  P a r t y - p.  a reason that  organization i n 117.  B.C.  125  Green e v i d e n t l y f e l t o b l i g e d t o b u i l d a f r e s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  "'hy d i d n o t t h e r e b u i l d i n g take  t h e form o f s t r e n g t h e n -  i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n ? A s u r f a c e r e a s o n may be found i n the s l i g h t embarrassment t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n caused the n a t i o n a l p a r t y a t t h i s time ( d u r i n g t h e war).  Later on,violent personality  c l a s h e s o c c u r r e d w h i c h a l s o h e l p e d t o obscure t h e more reason w h i c h r e s t i n the o b s o l e t e n e s s  important  of the o l d a l l i a n c e of  p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y groups on w h i c h l e a d e r s l i k e Borden had r e l i e d . The  t r a d i t i o n a l machine a s r e p r e s e n t e d by t h e o l d p r o v i n c i a l  a s s o c i a t i o n ' s c l i q u e was a n t i q u e and q u i t e i n c a p a b l e o f r e a c h i n g the urban masses. The o r g a n i z a t i o n the C o n s e r v a t i v e s  required i f  they were t o r e g a i n power had t o r e - e s t a b l i s h c o n t a c t w i t h t h e country's  c h a n g i n g s o c i e t y , t a k i n g c o g n i s a n c e o f the new t r a n s -  s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s on w h i c h i t would b u i l d i n s t e a d o f upon t h e former v e r t i c a l p r o v i n c i a l p a r o c h i a l i s m s . S e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a r e s t i l l important  i n Canadian p o l i t i c s b u t the " h o r i z o n t a l " o r  n o n - s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s t h a t denote, a s w e l l , a growing f e e l i n g of n a t i o n a l i s m , demand i n c r e a s i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n .  Whether the  r i s e o f more a n d more n o n - s e c t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s i n the c o u n t r y i s c o r r e l a t i v e t o a growth i n n a t i o n a l i s m  forms i n t e r e s t i n g  specula-  t i o n but i s beyond the scope o f the p r e s e n t i n q u i r y . While the new C o n s e r v a t i v e  p a r t y i s thus r e a c h i n g more a n d more  t o the masses, t h i s i s n o t t o say t h a t i t c a n be c a l l e d a mass p a r t y i n Maurice Duverger's sense. The p a r t y i s s t i l l governed by cadres  o r e l i t e s and any i d e a t h a t i m p o r t a n t  d e c i s i o n s a r e made  126  f r e q u e n t l y or c o n t i n u o u s l y through the a r t i c u l a t i o n o f the  party  branches i s l i t t l e more t h a n f i c t i o n . The l o c u s of power, as r e c e n t B r i t i s h s c h o l a r s h i p has emphasized and a s Duverger concedes, remains i n the p a r l i a m e n t a r y p a r t i e s as opposed to the e x t e r n a l mass p a r t i e s . The  reference i s to a B r i t i s h case but i t i s e q u a l l y u s e f u l here.  I n a d d u c i n g a h i g h degree o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n f o r the B r i t i s h p a r t i e s , Ranney and K e n d a l l suggest t h a t i t i s l i n k e d t o the degree o f c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d over l o c a l government and r e g i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by the n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s .  They f e e l t h a t such a c e n t r a l  p a r t y system, i f developed i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , might w e l l mean 14 "the end o f the r e a l i t y i f not o f the form of f e d e r a l i s m . Before  such an i s s u e c o u l d be d e c i d e d  n  some c l o s e r c o r r e l a t i o n must  be shown between the d e t a i l e d form of government o r g a n i z a t i o n and the d e t a i l e d form o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n .  While t h i s i n q u i r y has  suggested t h a t Canada's s e c t i o n a l p o l i t i c s d u r i n g the l a s t a c t e d i n combination w i t h determine the n a t u r e  century  the f e d e r a l governmental form adopted t o  o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , i t has not been  shown t h a t the p a r t y form determines t h e f o r m of government. Much f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s s u b j e c t w i l l be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e s u g g e s t i o n by Ranney and K e n d a l l above can be a c c e p t e d w i t h  the  full  equanimity. 13. Leon D. E p s t e i n - " B r i t i s h Mass P a r t i e s Compared w i t h American P a r t i e s " - P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 71, p. 14. Democracy - p.530.  101.  127 Recent t r e n d s i n d i c a t e Can da i s g e t t i n g more and more a  government i n a b s o l u t e terms and t h a t the f e d e r a l government is  gaining  i n c r e a s i n g power r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f the p r o v i n c i a l  governments. J . A. C o r r y f i n d s s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the attempts of the b u s i n e s s e l i t e s t o g a i n i n c r e a s i n g i n f l u e n c e i n the f e d e r a l sphere. Such people b e i n g , he b e l i e v e s ,  the  leaders  o f o p i n i o n a r e l i k e l y to t i p the f e d e r a l balance d e c i s i v e l y i n Ottawa's  favor.  ... i t i s h a r d t o see how s t a t e governments and n a t i o n a l governments can c o n t i n u e t o be g e n u i n e l y c o - o r d i n a t e a u t h o r i t i e s . I n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l law the s t a t e s may l o n g c o n t i n u e t o be c o - o r d i n a t e , but p o l i t i c a l l y they a r e l i k e l y t o s i n k t o a subordinate p o s i t i o n . ^ Even i f t h e c i t i z e n s ' demands s h o u l d swing the b a l a n c e i n f a v o r temporarily the  o f the p r o v i n c i a l governments because t h e y  control  sphere i n which s e r v i c e s may be most h e a v i l y demanded  services  such a s h e a l t h , e d u c a t i o n and highways —  —  the f e d e r a l  government seems c e r t a i n o f e v e n t u a l dominance by reason o f i t s greater  f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s which would have t o be employed t o  p r o v i d e any l a r g e  scale service increases.  P o l i t i c a l parties  be expected t o o r i e n t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n s  may  along  those l i n e s most l i k e l y t o maximize t h e i r chances f o r w i e l d i n g d e c i s i v e power. I f they do, and t h e r e seems l i t t l e  doubt t h a t  would f i n d s u f f i c i e n t reasons, then the long-term  organizational  pattern the  o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i s l i k e l y  they  t o be one i n which  h o r i z o n t a l or i n t r a - s e c t i o n a l l i n e s are l i k e l y  t o be o f the  most impoi-tance. - » 5  E v o l v i n g Canadian Federalism London, 1958. p . 114.  (Duke U n i v e r s i t y - C a m b r i d g e P r e s s )  128  I t has "been suggested t h a t p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e s have n o t been important f a c t o r s i n the s t r u g g l e s t h a t r e n t the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y i n B.C. The v e r y n a t u r e o f s e c t i o n a l p o l i t i c s , however, tends to preclude  p u b l i c p o l i c y - m a k i n g a s a major f u n c t i o n o f the p a r t y  which t e n d s t o c o n c e n t r a t e  i n s t e a d on w i n n i n g e l e c t i o n s . Many o f  the p u b l i c p o l i c y i s s u e s w i t h w h i c h n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s might be concerned l i e w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s ; the i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f c o n t r o l l i n g a l l such governments i n o r d e r t o e f f e c t such p o l i c i e s makes any q u e s t i o n  o f p o l i c y - m a k i n g i n those spheres  a u s e l e s s e x e r c i s e . M a t t e r s w i t h i n f e d e r a l government  jurisdiction  have s t i l l enough d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n a l c o l o r a t i o n s t h a t p u b l i c p o l i c y making i n those a r e a s i s a t i c k l i s h t a s k , be e s p e c i a l l y r i s k y a n d o f dubious v a l u e as the C o n s e r v a t i v e s The  nation's  to a party i n opposition,  were f o r so many y e a r s .  changing p o l i t i c a l c h a r a c t e r n e c e s s i t a t e d change  i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e The  one t h a t would  party's  L i b e r a l party, posing  c h a r a c t e r i f i t hoped t o r e g a i n  as the n a t i o n ' s  office.  s a v i o r from s e v e r a l e v i l s ,  e n j o y e d t h e p e r q u i s i t e s o f power and c o u l d w e l l a f f o r d t o make whatever a l t e r a t i o n s o f s t r u c t u r e t h a t seemed n e c e s s a r y and i n a piecemeal f a s h i o n .  E v e n t u a l l y , however, the L i b e r a l p a r t y  fell  b e h i n d the changes and was r e p l a c e d by the v o t e r s . E v o l u t i o n on a f o r c e d s c a l e was i m p e r a t i v e very  f o r the Conservative  party f o r i t s  s u r v i v a l depended on g e t t i n g i n t o harmony w i t h t h e new  p a t t e r n o f the n a t i o n ' s p o l i t i c a l h e a r t b e a t  which was r e s p o n d i n g  t o m a t u r a t i o n p r o c e s s e s o f s o c i a l and economic development.  129  I f an o r g a n i c , n o n - s e c t i o n a l p a r t y i s what i s r e q u i r e d t o  win  n a t i o n a l power i n Canada today, t h a t type o f p a r t y c o u l d not come i n t o b e i n g u n t i l the c o u n t r y was of n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g had organization — n a t i o n a l body —  ready f o r i t ,  been a c h i e v e d .  Only then c o u l d a n a t i o n a l  i n s o f a r as the C o n s e r v a t i v e be  u n t i l some degree  p a r t y today i s a  superimposed on the o l d s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s  what seems t o have been happening Columbia d u r i n g the p a s t  to the C o n s e r v a t i v e s  seventeen y e a r s a l t h o u g h  in British  i t i s doubtful  whether many P a r t y workers would have c o n s i d e r e d i t i n such terms. That t h i s s u p e r i m p o s i t i o n produced b i t t e r d i s p u t e s waged i n p u b l i c i s probably  due  t o the p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t were i n v o l v e d a f t e r  the  death o f the pre-war l e a d e r . But f o r t h i s c l a s h o f p e r s o n a l i t y it  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t some v a r i a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l s t r u c t u r e  might have been a c h i e v e d  t h a t would have p e r m i t t e d the f e d e r a l -  p r o v i n c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f l a b o r and a u t h o r i t y t h a t was i n any c a s e ,  one  t h a t would have a v o i d e d  attained  the i n t r a - p a r t y b a t t l i n g  i n p u b l i c t h a t d i d the p a r t y i n c a l c u l a b l e harm.  Regardless  outward form o f the s o l u t i o n , however, a s s o c i a t i o n a l change n e c e s s i t a t e d . I t c o u l d have been put o f f o n l y a t the  o f the was  likely  chance o f the p a r t y ' s t o t a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . I t may  be n o t e d t h a t s i m i l a r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f l a b o u r  o r g a n i z a t i o n has  occurred i n other p a r t y groupings.  The  p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s maintained separate Vancouver o f f i c e s f o r f e d e r a l a n d c l o s e d one  of them a p p a r e n t l y ,  and  Liberal completely  p r o v i n c i a l work and  c h i e f l y because of economic t r o u b l e s  which f o l l o w e d the p a r t y ' s d e f e a t i n a n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n campaign.  130  Both the C o n s e r v a t i v e  and  L i b e r a l p a r t i e s i n O n t a r i o have d i v i d e d  t h e i r spheres of a c t i v i t y w h i l e d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e s and  the L i b e r a l s i n Quebec have used  o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o c a r r y out work i n i t s  d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s . More i n q u i r y i n t o e t h e r  f e d e r a l parliamentary  p a r t i e s might p r o v i d e u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n . O p p o s i t i o n to an entrenched p a r t y h i e r a r c h y seems t o a l l y i t s e l f w i t h t h a t wing of the p a r t y —  f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l  w h i c h has l e a s t c o n t r o l over the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l a p p a r a t u s .  — A  party  t h a t h o l d s power n a t i o n a l l y and not p r o v i n c i a l l y i s l i k e l y t o f i n d i t s n a t i o n a l elements dominating the p r o v i n c i a l wing, and v i c e v e r s a should the p a r t y h o l d o f f i c e p r o v i n c i a l l y but not  federally.  Domination o f a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a p p a r a t u s h i n g e s l a r g e l y p e r s o n a l i t y where the p a r t y h o l d s power i n b o t h spheres, n e i t h e r sphere, s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, a  on or i n  6onservative  premier has always tended to dominate the p a r t y i n such doublepower C a s e s . I n q u i r y i n t o a s i t u a t i o n under today's changed cumstances might w e l l l e a d to d i f f e r e n t c o n c l u s i o n s ,  cir-  especially  where there would be the p o s s i b i l i t y o f c l a s h e s between  powerful  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s ( f e d e r a l ) r e s i d e n t i n a p r o v i n c e and a premier o f the  same p a r t y .  The whole q u e s t i o n o f power by any  group w i t h i n a f e d e r a l  p a r t y has not been c l o s e l y s t u d i e d i n a p a r l i a m e n t a r y What a r e the power ? How  context.  s a n c t i o n s a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r uses when he i s out are  those  s a n c t i o n s a p p l i e d and what i s t h e i r  e f f e c t on the p a r t y ' s f e d e r a l wing? The  of  relative  same q u e s t i o n s a r i s e  with  131  r e s p e c t t o t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t y l e a d e r * s c o n t r o l s over p a r t y members p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n w i n n i n g and k e e p i n g c o n t r o l o f p r o v i n c i a l governments. D i f f i c u l t t o examine b u t o f some importance t o the study o f government a r e the s o u r c e s  o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t y funds. A r e c o n -  t r i b u t o r s t o p a r t i e s i n s i t u a t i o n s l i k e the C o n s e r v a t i v e has encountered a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e d i r e c t l y the b i f u r c a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y machinery ?  I t may be found, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t as the  n a t i o n a l government comes t o e x e r c i s e , even i n d i r e c t l y , more i n f l u e n c e over the d i s p o s a l o f n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n a p r o v i n c e ' s boundaries t h a t business  c o n t r i b u t o r s might weight the s c a l e s i n  f a v o r o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y ' s wing. Other q u e s t i o n s d u r i n g t h e course  that arise  o f such a study have i n c l u d e d : the e f f e c t o f  i n t e r n a l p a r t y d i v i s i o n on the v o t e r , the r e l a t i v e p r e s t i g e o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r s ( i n and out o f o f f i c e ) a n d f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , a n d the p r e s t i g e s i t u a t i o n s i n v o l v e d w i t h members o f the l e g i s l a t u r e and members o f t h e House o f Commons i n the d i f f e r e n t circumstances  o f one group, but n o t the o t h e r , h o l d i n g c o n t r o l o f  a government, o r o f both c o n t r o l l i n g governments contemporaneously; and  the p o t e n t i a l i t y o f p u b l i c p o l i c y c l a s h e s when the same p a r t y  c o n t r o l s b o t h n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments.  T h a t these and  s t i l l f u r t h e r questions appear a f t e r such a n i n q u i r y , s t i l l uns o l v e d , i s perhaps i n e v i t a b l e . I n t r y i n g thus t o s t r i k e a match i n a s m a l l c o r n e r o f the abyss o f i g n o r a n c e ,  the i n v e s t i g a t o r can  hope o n l y t h a t the darkness may be l i g h t e n e d a l i t t l e o t h e r s may f i n d the t r u e  path.  more t h a t  APPENDIX I  "The Blue Book"  The material following hereafter i n this appendix may not be reproduced or copied, i n whole or i n part, without the written permission of the holders of the copyright, the British Columbia Progressive Conservative Association.  152  153  To understand the difficulties confronting the Conservative Party in the Province of British Columbia—both Provincially and Federally—one must delve into the past.  A Factual Documented Statement of the Conservative Party's Position in British Columbia and some of the Reasons for the Motion of No Confidence in the National Leader  Since the party first appeared in British Columbia it has operated on the principle that the Conservative Party is indivisible. Since the inception of Party politics in British Columbia the affairs of the Conservative Party, both Federal and Provincial, have been under the authority and direction of the British Columbia Conservative Association. This Association, until the present difficulties arose, worked in close harmony and co-operation with all Federal and Prow incial Leaders. The Constitution of the Conservative party in British Columbia provides, as follows: "(1) The name of the Association is the "British Columbia Progressive Conservative Association," hereinafter called "the Association"'.  OBJECTS  MARCH. 1955  Published by the Officers of the British C " ' " " * ^ Progressive Conservative Association 1  "(2) (c) to organize and assist in organizing and carrying on Progressive Conservative Clubs, Associations and S o c i e t i e s throughout British Columbia. (d) to direct general organization work of the Progressive Conservative Party in British Columbia. (e) to promote and advance the principles, policies and interests of the Progressive Conservative Party and to secure the election of Progressive Conservative candidates to the Dominion Mouse (if Commons and Provincial Legislature." "(4) (a) Provincial District Associations and Federal Associations shall be organized under the authority of and be subordinate to this Association and in order to be entitled to elect members to this Association and to be recognized by it must have a Constitution approved by this Association." From the foregoing it will be clear that the British Columbia Conservative Association provides the means of operating a united party embracing both federal and provincial interests. The fact that Members of the  i  154  MEMBER'S STATEMENT L e g i s l a t u r e a n dM e m b e r s o f P a r l i a m e n t h a v e s e r v e d Having contested on behalf of the Conservative Party two a s P r e s i d e n t s a n d o f f i c e r s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n o v e r t h e federal elections—one in 1935 and another in 1940, and having represented the party in three provincial elections, and through vcars and assisted in drawing up the Constitution of my association over a long term of years with the organization, the Association, indicates that the British Columbia I have a very clear knowledge of the manner in which our organization has carried on. Association was accepted as the governing body. Until and previous to that no doubt, 1 9 4 2 t h e p a r t v f u n c t i o n e d e f f e c t i v e l y a n d h a r Since m o n 1924, i o tou my s l knowledge, y the British Columbia Conservative Association was the only u n d e r t h i s p r i n c i p l e . \ through which nominations of candidates was made and body election campaigns carried on, both federally and provincially. In that vear, Mr. Howard Green. Member of ParThere was no dissension at any time as between federal and provincial election machinery or the carrying on of organization liament for Vancouver South, contested the National between elections and at election time. Leadership of the Conservative Party and was defeatI Early in the session of the Provincial Legislature in 1946 ed liv Mr. John Bracken. Later Mr. Bracken and Mr. Mr. Pat Maitland. then Conservative Provincial Leader, sent to me a note by a page, upon which he had written: "When G r e e n c o n s u m a t c d a n a r r a n g e m e n t p l a c i n g M r . G r e e n the Mouse rises can you come to my office?" and on reading in charge of federal affairs in British Columbia. The the note I nodded my assent to Mr. Maitland. When the plan was designed to alter the former method of conHouse rose 1 immediately went to his office. After discussing briefly some things that had transpired in the House that ducting nartv affairs; it would split the party in British afternoon, Mr. Maitland said: Columbia and result in the formation of a federal "Do you know anything about my trouble with Green"? wing under Green's control. and I answered: "1 only know that you have trouble—I details". Whereupon Mr. Maitland said:  At that time the party in B.C. was in coalition, this being used as an explanation for the contemplated action. Mr. Maitland. then the Provincial Leader in British Columbia, opposed the plan because it was unc o n s t i t u t i o n a la n d u n d e m o c r a t i c , a n d b e c a u s e h e f o r e saw it would result in the deplorable situation prevailing today. I n r.'45, w h e n a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n b e c a m e i and notwithstanding the fact the party was in coalition. Mr. Maitland followed the practice he and previous Provincial Leaders had adopted of getting the party machinery in motion to nominate candidates to contest t h e e l e c t i o n .H e s o u g h t M r . G r e e n ' s a s s i s t a n c e , a d v i c e and co-operation, but in reply he was advised by Mr. Green that he. (Green) would be handling the p a r t y ' s c a m p a i g n i nB r i t i s h C o l u m b w o u l d | a n e w o r d e r o f t h i n g s . M r t o c o n s i d e r a s f i n a l t h i s d e c i s i o n e n u G r e e n a n d i n s i s t e do n m e e t i n g M r . B r a c k e n . T h i s h e subsequently did at which time Mr. Bracken confirmed the private arrangement made with Mr. Green. )  e  Shortly after this election Mr. Maitland A member of the Conservative wi l a t u r e ,a n d a c l o s ef r i e n do f M r this period states that Mr. Maitland o p p o s e d t < >t h e B r a c k  died.  ng in the L . M a i t l a n d was very e n - G r e  m m i n e n t ,  "When the Federal House rose last year and it was i|uitc apparent that they were going to name an election date I waited until Mr. Green had been home for three weeks, which I thought would give him time to catch up on his local affairs, and 1 telephoned him and suggested that he and I had better K'et together and have a talk because it was necessary that we start the organization rolling in the province. Mr. Green tiroposed a delay saying lie was very busy and had some things to catch up with so 1 undertook to telephone him some time later. In about two weeks I phoned him again and again Mr. Green was reluctant to name a time for our conversation. I phoned him again drawing his attention to the fact the time was rolling by and it was essential we get the British Columbia Conservative Association throughout the province into the campaign, whereupon Mr. Green said: "That will not be necessary because I am going to handle our party's campaign in British Columbia." Mr. Maitland then said: "I do not understand just what you mean and we should get together and h e r ethis and , 1 suceeded in getting him to make an appointdiscuss dment." r e f u s e d !  i a a n dt h a t t . M a i t l a n n c i a t e d b y M r . ]  don't know the  I  When we got together Mr. Green pointed out to me that Mr. Bracken had directed him to take charge of all of the nominations and the conduct of the campaign in British Columbia and that he proposed to do that and was intent upon naming a committee of Vancouverites with whom he could consult. Mr. Maitland said that he objected to the whole procedure  egisand was unwilling to r.ccept that arrangement as final and that out of the arguments which then ensued came an arrange.r e p o r t i n go n ment for Mr. Green and Mr. Maitland to meet with Mr. much Bracken upon his arrival in Vancouver and each one would e n a r r a n g m e e n t . ' j  135  present his views. Mr. Maitland stated that this meeting was held in Mr. Brackens room in Hotel Vancouver—each presented his argument and Mr. Bracken, after giving consideration to them made this definite statement— Mr. Maitland, I have decided that Mr. Green is to look after the federal campaign for me in British Columbia.'' Mr. Maitland and I discussed the implications of M r . Green's actions and Mr. Maitland's last words to me were: "I wanted you to know this." Mr. Maitland died within a week after this interview. (Signed) " A L L A N J. M c D O N E L L " .  In 1940, following the death of Mr. Maitland, a Leadership convention was held to elect anew Provincial Leader in British Columbia. At this convention Mr. Anscomb defeated W. A. C. Bennett, the other aspirant to the office of Leader of the Conservative Party. After Mr. Anscomb's election he immediately undertook to implement an intensive integrated program of organization throughout the province, notwithstanding the fact the provincial wing of the party was in coalition,lie wrote to Mr. Bracken advising him of his desire to stimulate organization. In reply he was requested to contact Howard Green, Mr. Bracken's "lieutenant" in British Columbia. He, therefore, wrote Green requesting his co-operation in organizing and unifying the party in the province. He invited him to serve on an Advisory Committee responsible to the B.C. Association. INVITATION T O G R E E N October 27th, 1946  "My dear Howard:  "When at our convention in June last, the members elected me the leader of our party in British Columbia, I realized full well that it carried with it not only a great responsibility but a tremendous work load if we are to succeed as we should do in the political life of the province. "Since file convention. I have been endeavoring to get a foundation laid on which we could proceed to build the party. It has been a somewhat difficult task, but I think I am now at the stage where a start in actual development can be made. "With this object in view, I write to ask if you would be prepared to serve on an Advisory Committee, whose function w i l l be to give me the benefit of advice and guidance in all matters of major policy in the party's activities. Others who I ™ ' K »° join this special Advisory Committee are listed below. Would you be good enough to let me know at once if you ngare willing to act, as I would like to arrange the first m e '°,? Thursday or Friday next, the 31st a s k  , £V  n  E k ?  p l a c e  o  n  — 4 —  Mr. Green replied declining to serve on this committee.  GREEN DECLINES  October 29th, 1946 "Dear Herb: "I acknowledge receipt of your letter of the 27th. As Mr. Bracken pointed out in his letter to you of August 1st replying to yours of July 23rd, he has placed on me ever since his election as National Leader the responsibility of looking after federal activities in British Columbia. I do not think it would be wise to act also on your Special Advisory Committee, which I take it will assume responsibility for activities within our provincial sphere. "I would suggest that you give me a call when you come to Vancouver, and that we then arrange for you and Merritt and myself to have a talk about the whole situation. I shall be very glad to co-operate with you to strengthen the party. " W i t h kindest personal, regards."  Mr. Anscomb then wrote again stating the committee was holding its first meeting on October 31st, 1946.  NOTICE OF MEETING "My dear Howard: "Very many thanks for your letter of the 29th to hand this A.M. I am sorry that you do not feel that you should act on my Advisory Committee. " W h e n elected leader of our party in British Columbia. I naturally, as leader, assumed the responsibility for all our activities within that area, and I certainly do not propose to divide it. The object of my suggested Committee as outlined was to give me advice and guidance in the affairs of our party in the province for all purposes. It is my wish and duty to make our party strong, so that no matter what may come or from what quarter, we shall be ready to accept the test. "I appreciate very much the contents of the last paragraph of your letter, and I know of no better way in which you could assist in that work than as an active associate with our other friends who are gathering together for that purpose. It is hardly necessary for me to say that I shall be very glad to chat with Colonel Merritt and yourself at any time. " W e are holding our first meeting of the Advisory Committee tomorrow, Thursday, 31st of October, at the headquarters. " V e r y kindest regards." "H. ANSCOMB"  On December 20th, M r . Green replied setting forth his proposals for operating a divided party.  GREEN REPLIES December 20th, 1946 "Dear Herb: "Some days ago I had a letter from Bill Jones, with which he enclosed a copy of a letter received from M r . J. R.  136  Pyper of Kamloops, and explained that he was also sending a copy to you. "In reply, I have sent him a copy of the memorandum which I forward you herewith, setting out a plan for cooperation and organization between the Provincial and Federal branches of the Party. "As you will sec, it is along the lines proposed to you by Merritt and myself during the discussion in my office on November 20th. "Wishing you the compliments of the season," and so on.  GREEN PROPOSALS "1. Anscomb and Green, as Mr. Bracken's Deputy in B . C . to recognize the sole responsibility of each in his respective sphere, consequently the sole power to make decisions proper to the chief executive of the party in that sphere. "2. Each may appoint his own Advisory Committee or not as he sees tit. "3. Each to have such paid staff as he linds necessary, and under his sole direction. "4. In view of unity of Party organization in many respects, arrangements to be made for closest co-ordination of organizational effort in each sphere and to this end. (a) Anscomb and Green to meet frequently to discuss plans and to arrange views on subjects of Anscoinb interest. (This of course being impossible with Green in Ottawa and Anscomb in Victoria). I think that should he generally. (b) Financial men to co-operate tm their jobs and to assist each other where possible, (c) Paid organizers to co-operate and assist each other, (d) In some areas, one local man shall work in both spheres, (e) Anscomb and Green shall each appoint two men to a Co-ordinating Committee whose job will be to advise them upon ways and means of co-operation. They shall meet monthly or at call of cither Anscomb or Green."  a t t a G g c G s  Mr. Anscomb indicated the proposals were not cceptable because they were contrary to the Constitui o n a n d i m p r a c t i c a b l e .H e b e l i e v e d t h e y w o u l d have he effect of perpetuating the division in the party— state of affairs he wished to end. He wrote to Mr. reen inviting him to reconsider his position. He sugested that Mr. Green take the Chairmanship oi the ommittee and appoint to the committee people of Mr reen's choice in whatever number he desired, and ufficient to give Mr. Green's group a majority. ANSCOMB RENEWS INVITATION  .... i ii . January 17, 1947 My dear Howard: • " . . '. " « » « r 20<h arrived just at Christmas time and I have not been able to answer it until now, due to a very busy period indeed when it arrived, and I left right after the New Year for the east and only returned this morning. I had hoped to answer you enroute cast, but that was not possible. Y o  u r  c  e r  o  f  D c  m ,  — 6 —  "The proposals contained in your enclosure are that there should be two" Conservative Parties in British Columbia. I am sure on reflection you will understand that I could not possibly assent to such a condition. In my view, the Conservative Party in British Columbia is one and indivisible, and our success federally, as well as Provincially, depends on the maintenance of that position. M r . Bracken was elected as leader of the Conservative Party in Canada at a convention attended by Conservatives throughout Canada, who were interested in Provincial as well as Federal politics, some of the delegates being Provincial Members. "I was elected as leader of the Conservative Party in British Columbia at a Convention attended by Federal as well as Provincial members. At an Annual Meeting of the British Columbia Conservative Association some years ago, you then being a Federal Member, were elected President of the Association. A t the Convention at which I was elected leader, General Pearkes, a Federal Member, was elected Vice-President of the Association. At that Convention, under the constitution, Federal constituencies as well as Provincial constituencies were represented. A l l the above is provided for in the constitution. "The Constitution refers to the leader of the Conservative Party for the time being in British Columbia. It does not provide for two. Your proposal for a double organization is contrary to the provisions of the constitution, which indicates the objects of the British Columbia Progressive Conservative Association under which the convention was held, especially —these are quotations from the constitution. "1. T o promote and develop a general interest in Canadian and British Columbia politics and Government." "2. T o organize and to assist in organizing and carrying on Conservative Clubs, Associations or Societies throughout British Columbia." "3. T o direct general organizational work of the Progressive Conservative Party in British Columbia." "4. T o promote and advance the principles, policies and interests of the Progressive Conservative Party and to secure the election of the Progressive Conservative candidates to the Provincial Legislature and the Dominion House of Commons." "You will note the references to general interest in Canadian and British Columbia politics and government, and general organization work, to secure the election of Progressive Conservative candidates to the Provincial Legislature and the Dominion House of Commons. The proposals that you make would have the effect of dividing the party, which at any period in its history would be bad. "The effect of such suggestions would, at the same time, double the expense of organization and create possibilities of very definite conflict. You will remember that after you declined to join my Advisory Committee or have anything to do with it, I had a further meeting with you at which Colonel Merritt was present. After an extended discussion. Colonel Merritt suggested he felt you should be joint Chairman with me of the  — 7—  \  157  Mr. Drew at first failedto appreciate the value and significance of the proposals advanced through Mr. Anscomb. It was not until after the National election in 1949, when the party dropped from 65 to 42 seats, that Mr. Drew appreciated the necessity of a unified organization in British Columbia. He explained he had reconsidered the whole matter and concurred with Mr. A n s c o m b ' sv i e w t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d b eo n He wrote to Gordon Cameron, the then President of the British Columbia association, to this effect, sending Mr. Anscomb a copy of the correspondence.  Committee. I stated that while I did not agree with the suggestion, I would go further than he asked and promptly suggested any of the following, to all of which you declined to agree. "1. That you be Chairman of the Advisory Committee." "2. That you add to the numbers of the existing committee to the point that you have a majority on it with yourself as chairman." "3. That if you desired or thought advisable that we form a sub-committee to deal with Federal problems, with yourself as chairman, on the understanding that the main committee be kept fully advised of the work that the sub-committee was doing.''  0  t  DREW AGREES TO ONE ASSOCIATION January 12th, 1950 "My dear Herb: "I am enclosing a copy of the letter I have sent to Gordon Cameron for your information, which I wrote to him after our conversation today. I do feel perhaps, because of the pressure of other circumstances, we may not have fully understood each other when we discussed these things on earlier occasions. But I am very glad to know that we now have a clear picture of what we agree would be the most satisfactory type of organization.  "I am sure you will agree that to be effective we must go forward as a united party in British Columbia, so that we may deal with every problem as it develops, be it federal or provincial, and to ensure the success of that aim we must all work together as one unit. It is hardly necessary for me to say that I shall be glad to implement the suggestions I outlined to you in your own office, and as recorded above, and all the members of our committee will be glad of your presence and advice in the work we are undertaking. "With every good wish."  "Best regards."  "Yours sincerely", Mr. Green again declined stating that, in his "GEORGE DREW". opinion, Anscomb had taken the position that Anscomb should dictate all affairs in the Province. Mr. COPY OF PART OF DREW LETTER TO Anscomb made afurther effort to unify the party GORDON CAMERON by inviting to become members of the committee "My dear Gordon: certain persons who were members of Mr. Green's "Herb Anscomb and I had the opportunity for a very satispersonal committee. factory discussion of our views on organization, and I find that we are in agreement on the desirability of a single organConcerning t h i s p e r i o d , a n d a t ap a r t y convention ization. . . . "to deal with both federal and provincial matters in October 1950. General Pearkes vigorously defended it would seem that the problem is not one of procedure, but Mr. Anscomb's action in his efforts to unify the party rather of details of how the plan would be worked out." s a y i n g : "I d o n o t b e l i e v e i t i s p r a c t i c a l t o o r g a n i z e o n At Mr. Anscomb's request, he stated he would a f e d e r a l b a s i s . . . I p e r s o n a l l y h a v e h a d n o t ah l si o na d gv bi s ue Mt r . G r e e n t h a t h e a g r e e d w i t h Anscomb c o - o p e r a t i o nf r o m M r . A n s c o m b . N e v e r a t a n y t i m e h a s there should be "a single organization to deal with h e a t t e m p t e dt od i c t a t et om e . . .I h a v eh a dt h eb e n e f i t both federal and provincial matters in B.C." of his advice but never his dictation." > If the National Leader advised Mr. Green of his Hecause Mr. Green insisted that he have sole cond e c i s i o n h e i g n o r e d i t b e c a u s e t h e f e d e r trol of federal affairs in British Columbia, without tinued its disruptive activities which later developed reference to the B.C. Association, all efforts to promote into an internal plot to end Mr. Anscomb's leadership unity were thwarted, and frictionincreased. Confusion ' i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M e m b e r s o ft h i s f prevailed. »» carried on an active campaign throughout the province to malign and discredit the Provincial leader. In 1948 George Drew succeeded to the National False and trumped-up charges were used. Mr. Leadership and once again Mr. Anscomb renewed his Anscomb successfully refuted these charges to the efforts to end the growing strife between the party satisfactionof the 1950 convention which again conorganization and the small but noisy rump group firmed his leadership. Serious damage was inflicted fosteredby Mr. Green. 1  138  u i i C  p n n o  on the party. The charges were widely publicized the press resulting in undermining public confidence the party and in the Leader of the party in British lumbia. Following upon this a convention was held at which 620 delegates representing all sections of the province, by an overwhelming majority, passed the following resolutions:  He wired the National Leader requesting his cooperation to end party strife and advised against maintaining two associations. PEARKES WIRES DREW  Vancouver, B.C. October 28fh, 1950.  J  " 1 . ORGANIZATION:  Hon. George Drew, M . P . Leader, Progressive Conservative Party, Ottawa, Ont. "Convention passed resolution that Provincial and Federal organizations in British Columbia must be merged into one to insure efficiency and economy—stop—officers of association meeting today Vancouver feel essential all activities be centred around association's offices eight fifteen West Hastings St.,— stop—Deplore press statement given by of intention to open separate federal offices elsewhere—stop—Accommodation available all Conservative activities in association's offices —stop—Imperative that separate federal offices be not opened as indicated in press—stop—However, in order to insure harmony and co-operation essential cease to be employed by party—stop—Can assure you that all Federal activities can be maintained through me—stop—Urge your early visit to confer with me and my officers."  WHEREAS duplication of work and acertain amount of confusion exists through the fact 1 that there is now afederal organization and a Provincial organization working within the framework of the British Columbia Progressive Conservative Association, AND WHEREAS, i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o fe f f i c i e n c y and economy these two organizational branches should be merged into one, T H E R E F O R E t h i sC o n v e n t i o n g o e s o n r e c o r d as favouring this change and that the Executive " G E O R G E R. P E A R K E S " o ft h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a President B.C. Conservative Association. tive Association be empowered to take all The resolutionand wire were ignored. necessary steps to have it effected." A separate federal office was opened in which the "2. PAID E M P L O Y E E S : rump group continued its rebellious and unconstituWHEREAS the Executive of the British Coltional activities,in respect to which General Pearkes, umbia Progressive Conservative Association at that time President of the British Columbia Proi st h eg o v e r n i n gb o d yo ft h eA s s o c i a t i o na n d a s gressive Conservative Association, had this to say in a such is responsible for the organization of the letterto the Association officesecretary, dated Novemparty within the province of British Columbia, ber 3, 1950. T H E R E F O R E B E I T R E S O L V E D t h a ta l l " Ih a v ej u s t r e c e i v e d y o u r l e t t e r i n f paid employees of the party be appointed by about the "rebel office" having been opened in the and responsible to the Executive and report Vancouver Block. This I very much regret and if directly to the Executive upon their activities they are forming anything in the nature of a when called upon to do so and to the Executive separate Association with a secretary of their own of the respective District Associations whom . i tw i l l d o G e o r g e D r e w a n d t h e p a r t y f e they report on." j ' ' m u c hh a r m . " The general membership believed that inasmuch | A n d i n a l e t t e r t o t h eN a t i o n a l L e a d e r , N a s t h e s e r e s o l u t i o n s c a m e f r o m a C o n v e n t i o n of 2t 0 th h ,e 1 9 5 0 , w h i l e s e r v i n g a s P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B . C . party they surely would be binding upon everyone H A s s o c i a t i o n , G e n e r a l P e a concerned. tional Leader and stated the only solution to disG e n e r a l P e a r k e s w a s e l e c t e d P r e s i h da r me o n n y t l of a y t ht r o h u g eh t h e B . C . A s s o c i a t i o n . BritishColumbia Progressive Conservative Association by the same Convention which passed the resolutions PEARKES ADVISES DREW referred to above in the hope that he might be able to "Letter from General Pearkes to National Leader is writassist in implementing the resolutions. ten in part below in reply to letter from him dated November t  — IC —  — 11 —  o r  d e o v r  139  18th, 1950, addressed to General Pearkes. " . . . "I h a v e your letter of lHth November, in which you discuss tile position o f our party's organization in British Columbia, I am pleased to note your comment that "nothing that has happened limits the possibility of devising a plan for effective co-operation between those responsible for national and provincial organization within the framework of the British Columbia Association." That the basis of co-operation be within the framework o f the association is precisely the procedure decided upon at the recent convention. "Earlier in your l e t t e r you mention, however, that "new offices (federal) were obtained and the work is being carried on in exactly t h e same way as before." Reference is also made to " A local c o m m i t t e e which handled national activities for so l o n g . " These points are, of course, the crux of the whole matter. The v e r y facts that separate offices are set up when it has been repeatedly slated that facilities are available at the association's headquarters, the work is being carried on in exactly the same w a y as before and that a committee, outside t h e sphere o f t h e association, continues to 'handle national activities. K t n l l i f i e s co-operation, continues the duplication of effort and causes friction.  both federally and provincial attention again to the rift which who are particularly interes p e r s i s t i n k e e p i (referring to the organizer e r u m p g r o u p ) g o i n g a r o u n d m y o p e n l y k n o c k i n g M r . A n s c o m b , p a r a g i n g s t a t e m e n t s a b o u t m y s I D  ly, not to have c asmall group of ted in federal aff n g u p. . . a n d ngaged by the fe c o n s t i t u e n c yn o t b u t a l s o m a k i n g e l f . "  alled those airs, Id o n deral o n l y d i s -  M r . A n s c o m b w a s d e f e a t e d i n t h eP r o v i n c i a tion and resigned his leadership of the party. P C t b l D  I n t h e F a l l o f 1 9 5 2 . E . D a v i e resident of the Conservative Association olumbia and presided over the leadership o r e p l a c e M r . A n s c o m b . T h e e l e c t i o n w a s y D. D. Finlayson and L. Bewley, Green's a y s o n w a s e l e c t e d a n d B e w l e y l a t e r b e rew's personal representative in British  F u l t o n w a of British convention c o n t e s t e d aide. Finc a m e M r . Columbia.  The National Leader invited the newly-elected Provincial Leader to Ottawa to discuss with him matters concerning the party.  "If a solution t o present difficulties is to be found, I am convinced that it must be within the spirit of the resolution passed nt t h e convention dealing with organization . . . " " G . R. P E A R K E S " .  At ameeting of the Executive of the B.C. Associas t , 1 9 5 1 , t h t ei o n i n A p r i l 1 9 5 3 , F i n l a y s o n s a i d a b o u t h i s d i s c u s s i o n s with the National Leader: "I advised the National Leader if the motions passed by the Convention were ww a s p e r s a g a i n m a d e put into practice we could rebuild the party in British h e p r o b l e m s Columbia and restore peace. Mr. Drew was in favour of the one-party organization and referred me to his National Organizer to discuss the details of how this m i g h t b e d o n e . " "In my discussion with the National Organizer I S e v e r a l p r o m i n e n t C o n s e r v a t i v e s c o n c e r n e d a b o u t w a s t h e s t a t e of a f f a i r s s o u g h t a p r i v a t e m e e t i n g w i tf o hl l o w e d t h e g e n e r a l t h e m e o f t h e r e s o l u t i o n s . H e my D r e w at w h i c h t h e y t r i e d to c o n v i n c e h i m o f t h s u e b s t a n t i a l l y i n a g r e e m e n t . I w a s e n c o u r a g e d b y talks in Ottawa and feel that we can bring about w i s d o m of c o - o p e r a t i n g w i t h t h e B . C . A s s o c i a t i o n b y c a r r y i n g out the s p i r i t a n d l e t t e r o f t h e C o n v e u nn i ft i c i a t oi o nn . " r e s o l u t i o n s . H e was w a r n e d b y t h e s e f r i e n d s h i s f a i l u r e Mr. Fulton, who has been elected President of the s o to do w o u l d h a r m h i m p e r s o n a l l y , i \ a n d a l B . s C . o A ts s ho c i e a t i o n i n O c t o b e r o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r , a t party. Once again he refused to act. | t h e l a s tm o m e n t f l e wo u t f r o m O t t a w a t oc h a i rt e xecutive meeting. In the Spring of 1952 aProvincial election was anMr. Fulton sat next to the Provincial Leader and nounced. In commenting on an event that he thought heard his above report to the Executive. After the w a s h a r m f u l t o u n i t y , G e n e r a l P e a r k e s , i n al e t t e r t o meeting had adjourned he informed the Provincial [lis Vice-President, dated March 27th, 1952, stated: immediately ". . . i t c a l l s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h L e e fa d e er d a ed i s r c u sa s i lo n o tr o o -k p l a c e a t O t t a w a prior to his decision to attend the Executive meeting, ganization is determined to work independently when at which it was decided to abstain from taking action w e a r e j u s t e n t e r i n g o n ap r o v i n c i a l c a m p a i g n . I t w o u l d to implement the two convention resolutions. certainly have been in the best interests of the party  A t the a n n u a l m e e t i n g o n D e c e m b e r 1 members again requested the said resolutions of the 1950 c o n v e n t i o n b e a c t e d u p o n . M r . D r e s o n a l l y p r e s e n t at t h i s m e e t i n g . H e w a a c q u a i n t e d i n a f o r c e f u l m a n n e r w i t h t which, by this time, had become aggravated and seriously threatened the future of the party in British C o l u m b i a . H e e v a d e d t a k i n g a n y d e c i s i v e a c t i o n .  (  — 1 2—  — 13 —  140  The matter, therefore,was for the time being left suspense. In June aProvincial Election took place followed by a Federal election in August the same year of 1953. During these campaigns two groups of organizers were in the field—one employed by the B.C. Association and the other employed by the federal wing, w h i c h w a s s t i l lo p e r a t i n g . T h e r e w a s n o l i a i s o n b e tween the two. While the Leader of the Party and the Provincial organizers were encouraging the Constituency presidents to field candidates, the federal organizer(s) were discouraging the running of provincial candidates. An example of this is shown.  I "blew up" at his proposal and said, "as President of Chilliwack Provincial Constituency it is my duty to field a candidate."  in  During the Provincial Election Campaign of 1953, M r . John Fox, Federal Organizer, who said he was acting as a special representative for Mr. George Drew, called upon me at my place of business in Chilliwack and invited me to go to dinner with him. This I did. While having dinner, and in the presence of another person, he asked me if we were going to run a candidate in Chilliwack Provincial Constituency in the campaign. I said we were going to run a candidate. "Do you think you have a chance of winning?" he asked. I said, regardless of whether we have or not, I believe we should run a candidate. Mr. Fox then said he had just come from the New Westminster Constituency and they were not going to run a candidate. He explained that if we would do the same as New Westminster, and not oppose the Social Credit Provincially, the Social Credit would support us Federally. "You should consider that part of it," Fox said. "J. P. R O B E R T S O N , " Past President, Chilliwack Provincial Constituency, 1953. Prior to the Provincial Election Campaign of June 10th, 1953, I received a phone call from a man who identified himself as John Fox, Conservative Federal Organizer for B . C . After telling me who he was he asked me if my Constituency was going to run a Conservative candidate in the Provincial election coming up.  It then occurred to me I should try to find out who was behind this plot to discourage the running of a Provincial Candidate in our area, so I invited Mr. Fox to come to see me. My reaction to his scheme was so violent I think I must have scared him off because he never came to see me. (Signed) D O U G . T A Y L O R . President, Chilliwack Provincial Constituency, 1953. Past President Fraser Valley Federal Riding Ass'n.  !  The a n dw h sitting in 1949  party fa i l e i nt members, to 66,426  red h e th in  badly in the Provincial election F e d e r a l e l e c t i o n i t r e t u r n e total vote dropped from 128,620 1953.  Following the elections,the Officers of the Asso tion held a meeting on September 21st, 1953, and t o t h e N a t i o n a l L e a d e r an e w s e t o f p r o p o s a l s , i n w i t h t h e C o n v e n t i o n r e s o l u t i o n s w h i c h t h e y f e l t ,i f into force, would enable the rebuilding of the part  ciasent line put y.  N E W S E T O F P R O P O S A L S B Y B.C. A S S O C I A T I O N September 21st,  1953  "Dear George: "On behalf of the Officers of the B.C. Association, I enclose herewith a copy of proposals agreed to by the officers in relation to the establishment of one office in British Columbia to conduct the affairs of the association. These proposals are submitted to you in the hope that they will meet with your assent and approval and that such assent and approval will be committed to the officers of the B.C. Association in time to present to the annual meeting which is being held on Saturday, October 10th next. "The officers are of the opinion that if these proposals can be instituted there is no reason why the work of the association cannot progress in greater measure than it has done during the past number of years. The majority of the members of the association throughout British Columbia are indeed anxious arid longing for one organization of Conservative people because they are of the opinion that it is only by such unity that our cause can be advanced." " W i t h kindest personal regards". "Yours sincerely" "TOM McDONALD".  The Constituency organization had not yet nominated but I said "Yes", it was my intention to see that we did. Fox then said, "There is no chance of you winning." " W e have decided to support the Social Credit Party Provincially and they are going to support us Federally, so it would be wise of you if you do not run anyone," he said. (Fox did not say who the "we" referred to but I took it he meant the people in charge of Federal affairs in B.C.)  In order that the affairs of this party in British Columbia may be carried on in accordance with its constitution and to assure a maximum of co-operation between the Provincial and Federal Leaders and between all Conservatives in the Province, the following recommendations are placed before  — 14 —  — 15 —  PROPOSALS FOR OPERATION AND ORGANIZATION  141  the officers of the Association for their consideration. When accepted by the officers as presented or amended, i t is t h e i n tention they should then be forwarded t o M r . Drew f o r his consideration—and finally placed before the Annual Meeting for its consideration and approval. 1. The elected Officers of the B . C . Progressive Conservative Association, hereafter referred to as the "Board" shall function as a Board of Management, as outlined in the Constitution, to conduct the affairs of the Conservative Party i n British Columbia and shall be responsible to the membership of the association and the Leaders Provincial and Federal. 2. The Board may make recommendations with respect t o policy and the conduct of campaigns but these matters remain the perogative of the Leaders in their respective spheres. 3. The Board shall hire and fire the staff employed by the association including the Field men but no Field man shall be employed or discharged without first being approved by Provincial and Federal Leaders. In the event that objection is raised to action recommended by the Board the Leader or Leaders shall state objection in writing and they shall have the power to veto. Field men shall be known as Progressive Conservative Party Field men and not designed as Provincial or Federal. 4. All Party activities shall be conducted from one office known as Party Headquarters in British Columbia. 5. Operational expenses shall be shared equally by National Headquarters and Party Headquarters in British Columbia. A budget shall be prepared for submission t o both Leaders from year to year setting forth estimated operational expenses. 6. It is not the intention to limit the authority or privilege of the Leaders of this Party but rather to complement them in development of strong and active Constituency and Riding Associations for the purpose of assisting in the selection and election of candidates to the Legislature and to Parliament. It is desirable to establish the closest liaison between the Party organization and the National Leader and National Headquarters in order that an effective and lasting organization may be built in British Columbia commencing from the date of the 1953 Annual Meeting.  Mr. Drew acknowledged the proposals, comment, in aletter to the President dated 1st. 1953. DREW ACKNOWLEDGES „ Dear T o m :  without October  PROPOSALS October 1st,  1953  "This will acknowledge your letter enclosing proposals discussed at a meeting of Officers of your association. I am very glad to have this information and will look forward t o having further reports of your activities preparatory to your meeting on October 10th. "With warmest personal good wishes and great appreciation of all that you have done, believe me." "Sincerely yours," "GEORGE DREW."  — 16—  The annual meeting of the party was set for O c t o b e r 1 0 t h .T h e P r o v i n c i a lL e a d e r w h o h a d c o r r e s ponded with the National Leader urging him to support the principles of the one party organization, received aletter dated October 6th, 1953, from the National Leader, which said, in part: " I e x p r e s s e d m y b e l i e fs o m e t i m e a g o t h a t t h e N a tional and Provincial organizations should share equally the cost of maintaining the British Columbia Progressive Conservative Headquarters. Iam most anxious that this be the arrangement and I assure you that it will be carried out so far as the National Organization is concerned." "I am convinced that we are in entire agreement in principle and that there will be no difficulty about working out any of the details." T h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g w a s a d v i s e d b y t h e P r o v i n c i a l der that Mr. Drew would co-operate and that a nd basis of organization would materialize. In the ence of any objection to any of the proposals or presentation of any views by Mr. Drew, theofficers the Association continued their efforts to build a ited party. B u t i n 1 9 5 4 , t h e f e d e r a l o f f i c e w a s s t i l lb e i n g m a i n tained by the federal rump group. The National Organizer wired Mr. Drew's personal representative on the 21st of January, 1954, to carry out the National Leader's instructions.  Le so ab th of un  a u s e  NATIONAL ORGANIZER'S WIRE 1954, Jan. 21. P . M . 12:46 "Ottawa, Ont. "A. L . Bewley/Bewley, Kidd and Chambers "736 Granville St., Vancouver, B . C . " "Imperative all outstanding matters relating joint maintenance office for general purposes National and Provincial Organizations be finally settled forthwith—stop—Such settlement must be in full conformity with position stated Drew letter October Sixth to read to annual meeting from which position no departure can be tolerated—stop—All here greatly disturbed by misunderstandings which appear to be occurring and by suggestion that indirect means being adopted to circumvent clear purpose October Sixth letter—stop—Possibility further misunderstandings allegations impeaching integrity good faith Ottawa must be removed immediately—stop— Please send me detailed report soon as possible." "R. A. B E L L " .  These  instructions were —  17  not carried out. —  142  A t the A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y in C a n a d a held in O t t a w a on M a r c h 1954, i n a final effort to find sonic way to u n i f y the party, it w a s a g r e e d a m o n g the delegates f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a that a m e e t i n g s h o u l d be held in V a n c o u v e r d u r i n g the E a s t e r Recess to try to get on a practical basis of o r g a n i z a t i o n , so l o n g under discussion. T h i s m e e t i n g w a s h e l d o n A p r i l 22nd. 1954. and was attended by M a j o r - G e n e r a l Pearkes, M r . G r e e n , the Provincial Leader, M r . D r e w ' s personal representative and other interested parties. It was presided over by the P r e s i d e n t of the H.C. Association, M r . T o m M c D o n a l d . M r . Green and M r . D r e w ' s personal representative s h o w e d n o serious interest in the meeting. M r . G r e e n w o u l d not accept the views expressed in the N a t i o n a l L e a d e r ' s letter of O c t o b e r 6th. l').\3. and w i t h d r e w f r o m the m e e t i n g . T h e m e e t i n g adjourned w i t h o u t a c c o m p l i s h i n g a n y thing. T w o days later, on A p r i l 24th. at an E x e c u t i v e m e e t i n g of the association held in V i c t o r i a , a r e s o l u tion was passed p o i n t i n g out that the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Progressive C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d n o l o n g e r tolerate the o b s t r u c t i o n , interference and d i v i s i o n that bad been so l o n g endured by the m e m b e r s h i p of the party, and with such h a r m f u l consequences. This resolution was sent to the N a t i o n a l L e a d e r . E X E C U T I V E R E S O L U T I O N A P R I L 24 "It lias lieen brought 1 " the attention of this Executive that it is proposed to divide tin- Province of British Columbia into three separate areas for the purpose of federal organization, placing a Federal Member in charge of each area. " 1 his Executive is of the opinion that this move is merely a primary step toward dividing of the Conservative Association of British Columbia and the setting up of a separate Federal Organization, dominated as in tile past by Howard Green, without any obligation or responsibility to the Conservative Association oi British Columbia. "Therefore be it resolved that the National Leader and National President be advised that the British Columbia Conservative Association absolutely opposes any attempted move of this nature and will not tolerate setting up of any unauthoriz.ed organization. "And further, the B.C. Conservative Association will not tolerate any obstruction, deviation or interference with the association by any Federal Member.  of the Federal Leader to the Conservative Association of British Columbia and the Provincial Leader, in particular in reference to the National Leader's Letter of October 6th, 1953, addressed to the Provincial Leader. " A n d further be it resolved that this Executive demands that the Progressive Conservative National Headquarters in the Vancouver Block, Vancouver, B.C., be closed forthwith." O n J u n e 9 t h he wrote to the P r o v i n c i a l L e a d e r . C o p i e s of this p e r s o n a l letter to the L e a d e r of the P a r t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were m i m e o g r a p h e d a n d d i s t r i b u t e d to the press by M r . D r e w ' s personal representative. T h e r e l e v a n t parts in connection w i t h M r . D r e w ' s attitude t o w a r d s the party in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h h a d l a b o u r e d a n d suffered so m u c h in its desire to p r o m o t e the p a r t y a n d also to help h i m , are as f o l l o w s : " T h e effort n o w b e i n g made to create the i m p r e s s i o n that there was an u n d e r s t a n d i n g that the N a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be u n d e r the c o n t r o l of the P r o v i n c i a l Officers is w i t h o u t f o u n d a t i o n of a n y k i n d and was never c o n s i d e r e d . If the h a n d l i n g of N a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , c h o o s i n g of candidates a n d details of that k i n d w e r e u n d e r p r o v i n c i a l officials in every p r o v ince w e w o u l d have a completely B a l k a n i z e d party." I n this p a r a g r a p h the N a t i o n a l L e a d e r denies the existence of a C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g the fact that he agreed w i t h the p r e v i o u s L e a d e r a n d the present Leader to place federal affairs in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h i n the f r a m e w o r k of the a s s o c i a t i o n , he reversed his expressed views in this p a r a g r a p h referred to above. H e totally ignores the wishes of a large c o n v e n t i o n and the resolutions that h a v e been q u o t e d . H e denies the right of the m e m b e r s h i p to direct its o w n affairs and to criticize actions of a n y of the C o n s e r v a t i v e M e m b e r s of P a r l i a m e n t . In a n o t h e r p a r a g r a p h from this letter of June 9th, 1954, he h a d this to say : " W e shall proceed to carry on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the federal r i d i n g s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i t h such assistance a n d office a c c o m m o d a t i o n as we deem advisable for that p u r p o s e . "  " A n d further Mr. Howard Green has indicated to the Provincial Leader that he refuses to be bound by commitments  T h e people of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were told in these t w o p a r a g r a p h s the N a t i o n a l L e a d e r wished to continue  — 18 —  — 19 —  145  t h e a b o r t i v e a n d d i s a s t r o u s o r g a n i z i n g m e t h o d s o f t " h W ee a r ea g r e e d t h a t f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i ti sn e c e s s a r y ,t o r e s t recent past. Even after the National Leader had taken within our ranks in British Columbia, and our. joint this final stand, the Provincial President and Provine f f o r t s w i l l b e d i r e c t e d t ot h a t e n d . " cial Leader continued in their efforts to find some way of resolving the problem. They met the National Mr. Hees excused himself to make a phone call. P r e s i d e n t o n J u n e 2 2 n d a n d s o u g h t h i s a s s i s t a n c e . H e On his return a few minutes later he informed the said he could do nothing in view of the National LeadProvincial Leader he was compelled to disassociate er's stand. himself from the joint statement which he had proposed should be issued.The statement, therefore, was After years of frustration, after failing in every not issued. means including the changing of leadership in the province and the changing of presidents; after promises T h e m e m b e r s w h o h a v e r e m a i n e d l o y a lt o t h e C o n of co-operation that were never kept, after dismemberservative Party of British Columbia believe there is a ment of the party and what appeared to be a deliberate definite need for a means to express Conservative effort to emasculate the party so it could no longer be thought and opinion in this province. The only way a factor in provincial politics, the Executive decided that this can be done is through the maintenance of a upon drastic action. It moved a motion of no confidence strong, effectiveand united party organization. There in the National Leader on July 17th. is no question that there is a difference of opinion as to how such organization can be built and maintained. The National Leader proceeded with his plans to One opinion is,and this is the opinion of the National operate a separate federal group, responsible only to Leader and the rump group in British Columbia, that him. The appointment of an Executive Council, headed you simply need to appoint someone with full power by Mr. Green, was announced and this continues to and authority to act, or not act, as he pleases. In such a function until this day. It has no following of any method as this there is no restraint,guidance or conaccount. Every Federal Riding in British Columbia tinuity. This is the method that the National Leader that has voted upon the matter has refused to join the has attempted to force upon the membership in British Council and still, therefore, remains a part of the ConColumbia, so far as the federal aspect is concerned. servative Association of British Columbia. T w o m o n t h s a f t e rt h e n o n - c o n f i d e n c em o t i o n w a s The second opinion is the one held by the vast passed, Mr. Hees, visited the Province of British majority of the party members in British Columbia. Columbia in his official capacity as National President This envisages a constitution for the orderly conduct and under the aegis of the new Federal Council. He of party affairs and provision of the means for consaw first hand the impossible state of affairsthen pretinuity of purpose and effort.It permits order, in that vailing. provision is made for good management, proper direction and restraint. The President of the Party in British Columbia Authority exists for only one system. Common and the Provincial Leader met wth Mr. Hees. As a sense indicates it is the only one that offers any hope result of this meeting all three agreed to bend their efforts towards restoring harmony. It was felt a joint of progress and success, and that is the one advocated statement for publication to this effect would brighten b y t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A s s o c i a t i o n , a n d c o m m e n d e d an otherwise gloomy picture.Here is the statement: to the National Leader by General Pearkes when he was president of the Association. "Following a meeting between Mr. Deane FinlayThose who persistin ignoring the lessons contained son, the Leader of the Conservative Party in British in this Brief and seek for personal or other advantage C o l u m b i a , M r . T h o m a s M c D o n a l d , t h e P r e s i d e n t o f — e i t h e r r e a l o ri m a g i n a r y — t h e c o n t the Conservative Party in British Columbia, and Mr. G e o r g e H e e s , M . P . , t h eN a t i o n a l P r e s i d e n t o f t h e t h e p a r t y , m u s t a c c e p t t h e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e final alienation from the party of the remaining loyal Conservative Association of Canada, the following Conservatives. Such a result would have a detrimental statement was prepared. — 20 —  —  21  —  144  a t d p  nd per hrougho estruct roperly  haps ut Ca ion of mobil  a nad th ize  disastr a. The e only Conser  ous effect on Conservatism resultof this will be complete body that can rightfully and vatism in thought and action.  All of this respectfully submitted the British Columbia Association. Dated at Vancouver, The  B.C., March,  by the Officers of 1955.  B.C. Conservative Association. Secretary.  APPENDIX I I  THE  DREW LETTER OTTAWA, June 9, 1954*  Mr.  Deane D.  Finlayson,  Dear Deane: Your l e t t e r o f May 27 u n f o r t u n a t e l y l e a v e s me w i t h no c h o i c e but t o withdraw w i t h o u t r e s e r v a t i o n the p r o p o s a l made t o you i n my l e t t e r o f Oct 6, 1955, f o r the j o i n t maintenance o f an o f f i c e f o r the g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s o f n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . That p r o p o s a l was based on a p e r f e c t l y c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g between us as t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , , which you have now r e j e c t e d . The e x t r a o r d i n a r y r e s o l u t i o n which accompanied y o u r e a r l i e r l e t t e r o f May 6 was so c o m p l e t e l y c o n t r a r y t o the a s s u r a n c e s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n which y o u r l e t t e r c o n t a i n e d , t h a t I d e l a y e d my r e p l y to t h a t l e t t e r u n t i l I c o u l d make e n q u i r i e s about what had happened a t V i c t o r i a where the r e s o l u t i o n was p a s s e d . I even went so f a r as t o hope t h a t , a f t e r f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n , you might d i s a s s o c i a t e y o u r s e l f from the i n e x c u s a b l e a t t a c k i n t h a t r e s o l u t i o n on one o f the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d members o f the House o f Commons, whose l o n g and d i s t i n g u i s h e d p u b l i c s e r v i c e commands r e s p e c t i n e v e r y p a r t o f Canada. I n s t e a d o f e x p r e s s i n g any d i s a p p r o v a l o f the r e s o l u t i o n , y o u r l e t t e r o f May 27 i n d i c a t e s t h a t y o u have, i n f a c t , been g i v i n g i t w i d e s p r e a d d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r reasons which are e n t i r e l y beyond my understanding. When y o u suggest t h a t t h e r e i s a l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n our p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, I must r e c a l l t h a t , as soon as you were chosen p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , I a s k e d you t o come t o Ottawa t o meet our f e d e r a l members:establish c o n t a c t w i t h n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s , and d i s c u s s the b a s i s on which we c o u l d e s t a b l i s h the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e measure of c o - o p e r a t i o n . P r o v i s i o n was made f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and other expenses, not o n l y i n Ottawa but a l s o i n Toronto, where I a r r a n g e d t h a t you meet the Prime M i n i s t e r of O n t a r i o , some of the members o f h i s c a b i n e t , the p r e s i d e n t o f the O n t a r i o a s s o c i a t i o n and the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of our n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the p r o v i n c e . That was f o r the purpose of l e t t i n g you see how the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s were c a r r i e d on i n complete c o - o p e r a t i o n . 145  146 You found t h a t i n O n t a r i o , where our j o i n t a c t i v i t i e s have met w i t h a s u b s t a n t i a l measure o f success f o r some y e a r s , the d i r e c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i s e n t i r e l y under n a t i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s , w h i l e the d i r e c t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i s e n t i r e l y under p r o v i n c i a l h e a d q u a r t e r s . You f o u n d t h a t the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e s , as w e l l as the o f f i c i a l s o c c u p y i n g them, worked i n complete and e f f e c t i v e harmony. You e x p r e s s e d y o u r s e l f as b e i n g g r e a t l y impressed and e n t i r e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h a t arrangement. U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e r e seemed t o be no u n c e r t a i n t y about the a c c e p t a n c e o f t h a t v e r y s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. You were w e l l aware t h a t C o l o n e l C e c i l M e r r i t t , Y.C., and h i s a s s i s t a n t , Mr. Les. Bewley, r e p r e s e n t e d me and the n a t i o n a l organization. You e x p r e s s e d s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h a t arrangement. The attempt to work out a s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n f o r the use of one o f f i c e , t o be a v a i l a b l e f o r b o t h n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , a t no time i m p l i e d the handing over of any measure o f i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y by the n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The e f f o r t now b e i n g made t o c r e a t e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t there was an u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia w o u l d be under the c o n t r o l of p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c e r s , i s w i t h o u t founda t i o n o f any k i n d and was never c o n s i d e r e d . I f the h a n d l i n g of n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , the c h o i c e o f c a n d i d a t e s , and d e t a i l s of t h a t k i n d were under p r o v i n c i a l o f f i c i a l s i n e v e r y p r o v i n c e , we would have a c o m p l e t e l y B a l k a n i z e d p a r t y . 1  The N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n would be a head w i t h no body. I t i s n e i t h e r w i t h i n my power, nor the power any other n a t i o n a l l e a d e r t o withdraw the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n over the f e d e r a l r i d i n g s i n any p a r t o f Canada. I can o n l y r e p e a t what I e x p l a i n e d t o you p e r s o n a l l y . While I was l e a d e r o f the p a r t y i n O n t a r i o and p r e m i e r o f t h a t p r o v i n c e , I never a t any time sought, nor would I have a c c e p t e d , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the d i r e c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n any r i d i n g i n O n t a r i o . S i n c e I came t o Ottawa, the s i t u a t i o n has been e x a c t l y the same. A l t h o u g h L e s l i e F r o s t and I have been l i f e l o n g f r i e n d s , were f o r y e a r s v e r y c l o s e c o l l e a g u e s i n the government of O n t a r i o , and see each other f r e q u e n t l y , he has a t no time assumed any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , our c o - o p e r a t i o n has been c l o s e and e f f e c t i v e , as you saw when you v i s i t e d Ottawa and T o r o n t o . I had hoped t h a t was the k i n d of c o - o p e r a t i o n we were g o i n g t o be a b l e t o e s t a b l i s h i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Now may I r e f e r t o the o b j e c t i o n r a i s e d to the p r o p o s a l t h a t our three f e d e r a l members from B r i t i s h Columbia should survey the  147  p r o v i n c e and make recommendations f o r a n e f f e c t i v e p l a n under which the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f e d e r a l r i d i n g s i n B r i t i s h Columbia c o u l d be c a r r i e d out. That p r o p o s a l was; d i s c u s s e d i n Ottawa. You approved of i t . I n any event, I s h o u l d t h i n k t h a t e v e r y C o n s e r v a t i v e i n B r i t i s h Columbia would welcome the f a c t t h a t we have t h r e e e x t r e m e l y capable members, who have demonstrated t h e i r knowledge of s u c c e s s f u l campaigning by g e t t i n g e l e c t e d r e g u l a r l y and a r e ready t o use t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e f o r the g e n e r a l advantage of our p a r t y a t t h i s time. Any s u g g e s t i o n t h a t they a r e not i n t e r e s t e d i n the p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia, or t h a t they a r e out o f sympathy w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n , i s answered by t h e i r r e c o r d . Howard Green,^George Pearkes and D a v i d P u l t o n a r e a l l p a s t - p r e s i d e n t s of the B r i t i s h Columbia a s s o c i a t i o n . What b e t t e r evidence c o u l d t h e r e be o f t h e i r sympathy w i t h and u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the a c t i v i t i e s of t h a t a s s o c i a t i o n ? Howard Green has been e l e c t e d i n f i v e s u c c e s s i v e e l e c t i o n s , George Pearkes i n t h r e e , and D a v i d F u l t o n i n t h r e e . That i s a combination o f e x p e r i e n c e o f immense v a l u e t o our p a r t y . Moreover, they r e p r e sent t h r e e d i s t i n c t l y d i f f e r e n t a r e a s , and, t h e r e f o r e , have s p e c i a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s between the t h r e e of them t o c a r r y out a combined survey of the f e d e r a l r i d i n g s i n the p r o v i n c e . I do not know what lias produced t h i s new and u t t e r l y u n r e a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of. the r e l a t i o n s h i p between n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s which was e x p r e s s e d i n the r e s o l u t i o n . As I a l r e a d y p o i n t e d out, you i n d i c a t e d y o u r s a t i s f a c t i o n ;with the s i t u a t i o n i n Ontario. You were e q u a l l y c l e a r on t h i s p o i n t when I saw you a t the meeting o f the A l b e r t a a s s o c i a t i o n i n Edmonton i n F e b r u a r y . Whatever the r e a s o n may be f o r the changed a t t i t u d e , I can o n l y e x p r e s s my v e r y s t r o n g o b j e c t i o n t o the unwarranted i m p u t a t i o n a g a i n s t the good f a i t h o f an o u t s t a n d i n g Canadian, whose r e p u t a t i o n i n e v e r y p a r t o f the c o u n t r y should be a source of p r i d e t o the people of h i s own p r o v i n c e . Howard Green commands the r e s p e c t o f e v e r y Member o f the House of Commons, as I am sure he a l s o does o f the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f the people o f B r i t i s h Columbia, who have f o l l o w e d f o r y e a r s h i s u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s on b e h a l f of h i s own p r o v i n c e , as w e l l as the c o n s t i t u e n c y w h i c h has e x p r e s s e d i t s conf i d e n c e i n him f o r so many y e a r s . We s h a l l p r o c e e d t o c a r r y on the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f e d e r a l r i d i n g s i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h such a s s i s t a n c e and o f f i c e accommodation a s we deem a d v i s a b l e f o r t h a t purpose. I n c a r r y i n g out our o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s , t h e r e w i l l be no doubt about our p o s i t i o n i r i r e g a r d to the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y , any more than t h e r e w i l l be i n r e g a r d to the L i b e r a l P a r t y o r the S o c i a l i s t Party. I n y o u r - p r e s e n c e , I have made my own p o s i t i o n and the p o s i t i o n o f our .party abundantly c l e a r on t h a t s u b j e c t , a t  148  p u b l i c meetings and i n p r e s s i n t e r v i e w s  on d i f f e r e n t  occasions.  The course I now f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o take i n d i c a t e s no l a c k o f i n t e r e s t i n y o u r s u c c e s s , n o r does i t change i n any way the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . I t simply r e c o g n i z e s the f a c t t h a t n o t h i n g w i l l be g a i n e d by f u r t h e r e f f o r t s t o use one o f f i c e f o r n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l a c t i v i t i e s i n view o f the p o s i t i o n y o u have taken. We must p r o c e e d w i t h our own o r g a n i z a t i o n . We hope t h a t what we do w i l l h e l p y o u i n b u i l d i n g up the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I w i s h y o u w e l l and most e a r n e s t l y hope f o r the s u c c e s s f u l outcome o f y o u r e f f o r t s .  Yours s i n c e r e l y , George Drew.  149 APPENDIX I I I Survey form and  l e t t e r used i n q u e s t i o n n a i r e  Dear S i r o r Madam: I am c o n d u c t i n g a study of the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia under the s u p e r v i s i o n o f the Department o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The i n q u i r y i s aimed a t throwing f u r t h e r l i g h t on the o p e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s w i t h i n the Canadian form o f government. Your name has been s u p p l i e d by the P r o v i n c i a l Leader, Deane F i n l a y s o n , and the p a r t y s t a f f a s s i s t a n t , Robert Anderson. They have been most h e l p f u l i n the r e s e a r c h thus f a r . I f , w i t h i n the next few days, you c o u l d p o s s i b l y spare the few moments r e q u i r e d , your assistance c n a l s o f u r t h e r t h i s p r o j e c t . a  There a r e s e v e r a l q u e s t i o n s a t the bottom o f t h i s l e t t e r . I f you c o u l d mark the a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e and r e t u r n t h i s i n the e n c l o s e d stamped e n v e l o p e , I s h o u l d be most g r a t e f u l . Any comments you might c a r e t o make on the t o p i c would be most welcome. Thank y o u f o r your a s s i s t a n c e . t  E. R.  r  u  l  y  >  Black  1. Are y o u a c t i v e i n the f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n i n y o u r a r e a ?. YES NO (please 2. Do you h o l d a f e d e r a l r i d i n g e x e c u t i v e c i r c l e one) post ? YES NO 3. P l e a s e e s t i m a t e the p r o p o r t i o n o f y o u r membership a c t i v e i n f e d e r a l r i d i n g work • % 4. Are y o u r p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g members a u t o m a t i c a l l y members o f the f e d e r a l r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n ? .... I f not, do any c o - o p e r a t i v e membership arrangements e x i s t between the two groups. Please describe b r i e f l y . 5. Some p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e spheres s h o u l d be k e p t s t r i c t l y s e p a r a t e d t o a c h i e v e g r e a t e s t e f f i c i e n c y . Others t h i n k t h a t a l l C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y members s h o u l d work f o r the p a r t y i n b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d s . Would you s t a t e y o u r views below briefly ?  riding  APPENDIX IV B.C.  Election  R e l i a b l e f i g u r e s showing the  Returns  s t a n d i n g s of each p o l i t i c a l  p a r t y a f t e r e l e c t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a r e the whole p e r i o d  studied,  s t a n d a r d sources a r e  1903  - 1958.  not a v a i l a b l e  for  S t a t i s t i c s given i n  the  e s p e c i a l l y u n r e l i a b l e , and  d i c t o r y , f o r e l e c t i o n s held during  often  contra-  the f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s .  This  i s due  i n p a r t t o the  looser-drawn p a r t y l i n e s o f the p e r i o d  t o the  o c c a s i o n a l p r a c t i c e of members c a l l i n g themselves independent  for  campaign purposes but  one  o f the  returning  g i v i n g t h e i r f u l l support otherwise  leading parties. o f f i c e r s to include  showing p a r t y v o t i n g has  and  The  l a t e r p r a c t i c e by  i n the  introduced  to  election  o f f i c i a l returns more r e l i a b i l i t y  figures into  the  records. The  f i g u r e s p r e s e n t e d i n the  tables following represent  i n v e s t i g a t o r ' s best e f f o r t s a t r e c o n c i l i n g c o n t r a d i c t o r y  the  and  in-  complete f i g u r e s found i n these s o u r c e s : The  Canadian P a r l i a m e n t a r y Guide,  The  Canadian Almanac,  •ghe Canadian jjnnual Review, The  Canada Year Book,  The  Vancouver d a i l y newspapers, T h e - P r o v i n c e and  These a b b r e v i a t i o n s (LIB), S o c i a l i s t  have been used: C o n s e r v a t i v e  The  Sun.  (CON), L i b e r a l  (SOC), C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n  Independent (IND), S o c i a l C r e d i t  ( S . C . ) , Labor (LAB),  (PROG-), R e c o n s t r u c t i o n (RECON), and  (CCF),  Progressive  T o t a l (TOT). L i b e r a l and  s e r v a t i v e members a r e r e c o r d e d simply as C o a l i t i o n i n B.C.  in  Con1949.  151.  PROVINCIAL ELECTIONS; IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 1905 - 1956  CON. IND  S.C.  LAB  TOT  LEADER  DATE  CON  LIB  SOC. CCF  1903  22  17  2  1907/  27  12  3  42  McBride  1909  58  2  2  42  McBride  1912  40  0  2  42: McBride  1916  9  37  1  47  Bowser  1920  14  26  4  47  Bowser  1924  14  23  1  48  Bowser  1928  35  12  1  48  Tolmie;  1  3 3  7  *  42: McBride  1933  1**  34  7  5  1  48  Tolmie  1937  8  31  7  1  1  48  Patterson  1941  12  -21  14  1  48  Maitland  1945  1 1 — -26  10  1  48  Maitland  1949  39  1  48  Anscomb  _ —~  7  1  1952  4  6  18  19  1  48  Anscomb  1955  1  4  14  28  1  48  Finlayson  1956  0  2  10  59  1  52: F i n l a y s o n  * Includes :  three P r o v i n c i a l Party  ** Tolmie U n i o n i s t :  152  FEDERAL PARTY REPRESENTATION FOR BRITISH COLUMBIA 1904 - 1958  DATE  CON  1904  LIB  CCF  PROG, RECON:  S.C.  IND  TOTAL  7  7  2  7  1908  5  1911  7  7  1917  13  15  1921  7  3  1925  10  1926  2  1  13  3  1  14  12  1  1  14.  1930  7  5  2  14  1935  5  6  5  1  16  1940  4  10  1  1  16  1945  5  5  5  1  16  1949  3  11  5  1  18  1953  3  8  7  4  22:  1957  7  2  7  6  22  1958  18  4  1  22:  SOURCES BOOKS  Hugh. A. Bone - A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c s and the Party System (McGraw-Hill, New York)  1949.  Henry Borden (ed.) - Robert Laid Borden: His Memoirs, 1938. G. ¥. Brown (ed.) - Canada -The United Nations Series; (Univ. Calif..) 1954. D. ¥. Brogan - An Introduction to American P o l i t i c s (Hamish Hamilton, London) 1954. James Bryce - The American Commonwealth, 2 vols., 1914. James Bryce - Modern Democracies, v o l . i . ,  1921.  H. HcD. Clokie - Canadian Government and P o l i t i c s (Longmans, Toronto) 1944 .  Canada Year Book 1957/58 (Queen's Printer)  J . A. Corry - Democratic Government and P o l i t i c s (Univ.Toronto), Second e d i t . 1951 Donald Creighton - Dominion of the North, (Macmillans, Toronto) 1957. R. MacG. Dawson - The Government of Canada (Univ. Toronto) Third e d i t . 1957. F. ¥. Howay - B r i t i s h Columbia: The Making of a Province, 1928. J . H. Irving - The S o c i a l Credit Movement i n Alberta (Univ.Toronto) 1950 '. V. 0. Key, J r . - P o l i t i c s , Parties a n d Pressure Groups [Crowell, New YorkJ~Fourth e d i t . A. R. M. Lower e_t. a l . -  1958.  Evolving Canadian Federalism, (Duke Univ., Durham, N.C.) 1958.  A. R. M. Lower - Canadians i n the Making, (Longmans Green, Toronto) 1958. A. R. M. Lower - Colony to Nation (Longmans Green, Toronto) 1946.  154 Edgar Mclnnis - Canada: A P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l History (Rinehart, New York) Eighth e d i t . 1958 Robert Michaels - P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s (Free Press-Glencoe,Ill.) James Morton - Honest John O l i v e r (Toronto)  1958  1953.  ¥. L. Morton - The Progressive Party of Canada (U»iv.Toronto) 1950. Sigmund Neumann, ed.,- Modern P o l i t i c a l Parties (Univ.Chicago) 1956. Frederic A. Ogg and P. 0. Ray - Introduction to American Government (Appleton-Century, New York) 1942. Margaret A. Ormsby - B r i t i s h Columbia: A History (M cmillans, Toronto) 1958. a  S i r Joseph; Pope - Public Servant: The Memoirs of S i r Joseph Pope edited and completed by Maurice Pope (Oxford, Toronto) I960. Austin Ranney and Willmore Kendall - Democracy and the American Party System (Harcourt Brace, New York) 1956 E. 0. S. S c h o l e f i e l d and F. ¥. Howay — B r i t i s h Columbia: From the E a r l i e s t Time to the Present 1914. E. 0. S. S c h o l e f i e l d and R. E. Gosnell - B r i t i s h Columbia, Sixty Years of Progress  1913.  L. G. Thomas - The L i b e r a l Party i n Alberta (Univ.Toronto)  1959.  F. M. ^atkins, J . R. Mallory, e t . a l . - Canadian P o l i t i c s (Mount A l l i s o n Univ., S a c k v i l l e , N.BT) 1959 K.C.¥heare - Federal Government (Oxford, Toronto) Third e d i t . J . R. ¥illiams - The Conservative Party of Canada 1920 - 1949 (Duke Univ., Durham N.C.) 1956.  1953.  MANUSCRIPTS John Lederle - The National Organization of the L i b e r a l and Conservative P a r t i e s of Canada Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n (Univ. Michigan Library, Ann' Arbor, Mich.) 1942 Bruce Ramsey - The P.G.B.. Story In process of p u b l i c a t i o n by M i t c h e l l Press, Vancouver. A p r i l 1960 ARTICLES The Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science i s r e f e r r e d to throughout as C.J.E.P.S. H. F. Angus - "Note on the B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t i o n i n June 1952" The Western P o l i t i c a l Quarterly, v o l . 5 pp858-591 H. F. Angus - "The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t i o n of June C.J.E.P.S. xviii p518  1952"  155 J . Murray Beck - "The Party System i n Nova S c o t i a " C.J..E.P.S. xx: 525 Robert C o l l i n s - "The Remarkable Rise of Smiling Cece Bennett" Macleans lxviii 25 Edith Dobie - "Some Aspects of Party History i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1871-1905" P a c i f i c H i s t o r i c a l Review i No. 2 255 Edith Dobie - "Party History i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1905 - 1953" P a c i f i c Northwest Quarterly xxvii 153 H. S. Perns - "The New Course i n Canadian P o l i t i c s " P o l i t i c a l Quarterly xxix 114 Eugene Porsey - "The B r i t i s h Columbia E l e c t i o n , A Comment" C.J.E.P.S. xix 518 G-. L. -"The Pattern of Canadian P o l i t i c s " World Today x,172 K. A. MacKlrdey - " f e d e r a l i z a t i o n of the A u s t r a l i a n Cabinet 1903 - 1939" C.J.E.P.S. xxiii 216 K. A  #  MacKlrdey - "Problems of Adjustment i n Nation C..J.E.P.S. xx. 27  H. N. MacQuarrie - "The Formation of Borden* s F i r s t C.J.EP.S. xxiii 90 B. A. McKelvie Macleans  Building"  Cabinet"  - . " " ^ r i t i s h Columbia's NeWGEremier" October 1, 1928 10  S. Muller - "Massive A l t e r n a t i o n i n Canadian P o l i t i c s " Foreign A f f a i r s xxix 114 Herbert F. Quinn - "The Role of the L i b e r a l Party i n Recent Canadian P o l i t i c s " P o l i t i c a l Science Quarterly lxviii No. 5 M. A. Ormsby - "^he United Farmers of B r i t i s h Columbia An Abortive T h i r d Party Movement" B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly xvii 53  156  Escott Reid - "The Rise of the National Party System i n Canada" Proceedings of the Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science Association 1932 D. C. Rowat- - "Recent Developments i n Canadian Federalism" C.J.E.P..S. xviii 1 W. N. Sage - "Federal P a r t i e s and P r o v i n c i a l P o l i t i c a l Groups i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1871 - 1903" B r i t i s h Columbia H i s t o r i c a l Quarterly, xii 151 F. R. Scott - "The Special Nature of Canadian Federalism" C.J.E.P.S. x i i i 13 D. V. Smiley - "The Two-Party System and One-Party Dominance i n the Liberal-Democratic State" C.J..E.P.S. xxiv 312 Brian R. D. Smith - " S i r Richard-McBride" Conservative Concepts (University of B.C.) 1959 F. H. U n d e r h i l l - "The Canadian Party System i n Transition" C.J.E.P.S.  ix  500  PERIODICALS The Vancouver Province ( d a i l y newspaper) The Vancouver Sun ( d a i l y newspaper) The Vancouver News-Advertiser The Canadian Annual Review  ( defunct d a i l y newspaper)  annual volumes 1903 - 1938  ifflTERvTEWS  Far too many persons have been of assistance that t h e i r help can be adequately acknowledged, "-"ome devoted hours and some only a few minutes to answering the i n v e s t i g a t o r i s questions. The following, however, have been e s p e c i a l l y h e l p f u l : Alan Ainsworth, Robert Anderson, A. L e s l i e Bewley, Deane Finlayson, D. A. McGregor, L. J . Ladner, Robert Maitland, G. C. McCallum, Jean Mclnnis, C. C. I. Merritt, E. B. l e t c a l f e , E r i c Ramsden, Bruce Ramsey.  

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