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UBC Theses and Dissertations

British Columbia industrial conciliators : a study in role perception, performance, and conflict Currie, Ian Douglas 1961

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B R I T I S H .COLUMBIA INDUSTRIAL CONCILIATORS: A STUDY I N ROLE PERCEPTION, PERFORMANCE, AND CONFLICT b y IAN DOUGLAS CURRIE B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1958 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PA R T I A L FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OP MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A n t h r o p o l o g y a n d S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA J a n u a r y , 1961 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree th a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Anthropology and Sociology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 6% Canada. Date January 15th. 1961.  ABSTRACT C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , u p o n t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n o f w h i c h t h i s s t u d y f o c u s e s , a r e a p a r t o f t h e l e g a l m a c h i n e r y w h i c h h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d s i n c e 1937 b y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l e g i s l a t o r s a s a means o f a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e d i s p u t e s w h i c h a r i s e b e t w e e n l a b o u r a n d management p e r s o n n e l w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s i g n i n g o f new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e s e two p a r t i e s b e f o r e t h e s e p a r t i e s a t t e m p t t o s o l v e s u c h d i s p u t e s b y e m p l o y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f a s t r i k e a n d / o r a l o c k o u t . The p u r p o s e o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i s , t h u s , t o a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e l a b o u r a n d management p e r s o n n e l t o a c h i e v e a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h o u t e m p l o y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h e s t r i k e o r t h e l o c k o u t . C a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f two f a c t o r s — t h e w i d e l y -p u b l i c i z e d i n d u s t r i a l u n r e s t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a o f r e c e n t y e a r s , m a n i f e s t e d p r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e f o r m o f s t r i k e s a n d l o c k o u t s , a n d n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s i n w h i c h o p i n i o n s c r i t i c a l o f t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s were e x p r e s s e d — p r o m p t e d t h e a u t h o r t o embark u p o n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , t h e p u r p o s e o f w h i c h was t w o f o l d : f i r s t l y , a n d m o s t i m p o r t a n t l y , t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e , b y e m p l o y i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , w h e t h e r o r n o t — r e g a r d i n g t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d a s a p a r t o f t h e means, o r m a c h i n e r y , d e v i s e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s p e c i f i c e n d o f s e t t l i n g a c o l l e c t i v e - a g r e e m e n t d i s p u t e b e f o r e t h e p a r t i e s r e s o r t t o t h e s t r i k e o r t h e l o c k o u t — a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o r o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s m a c h i n e r y a r e i n e f f i c i e n t i n t h a t t h e y i n e f f e c t work a g a i n s t t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f i t s avowed p u r p o s e ; and, s e c o n d l y , t o a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s a n d outcome o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l when a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i s c o n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s . E x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t o r y i n t e r v i e w i n g w i t h e x p e r i e n c e d C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l p r o d u c e d a b o d y o f d a t a f r o m w h i c h , b y d i n t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e r e f l e c t i o n a l o n g s o c i o l o g i c a l l y -o r i e n t e d l i n e s , f o r t y - t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s were d e v e l o p e d a b o u t f o u r f u n d a m e n t a l t h e m e s . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s were s u b s e q u e n t l y s y n t h e s i z e d i n t o a more u n i f i e d a n a l y t i c c o n c e p t i o n b y r e c l a s s i f y i n g t hem i n t e r m s o f t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s : E x t e r n a l  F a c t o r s , I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s , a n d O t h e r - r o l e F a c t o r s . The h y p o t h e s e s were t e s t e d b y means o f a n e x t e n s i v e a n d d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a n d t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e s t i n g - t e c h n i q u e i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r I I I , a s i s t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s a m p l e , a n d t h e means b y w h i c h t h e s a m ple was s e l e c t e d . The t e s t i n g o f e a c h h y p o -t h e s i s i s t h e n d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s a r e s e t f o r t h , a n d some o f t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e s e r e s u l t s a r e c o n s i d e r e d . I n C h a p t e r I V , t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e t e s t s o f t h e h y p o t h e s e s a r e e x a m i n e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e t w o f o l d p u r p o s e o f t h e t h e s i s ( o u t l i n e d a h o v e ) : t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e t e s t s a r e s u m m a r i z e d , t h e c o n c l u s i o n s t o w h i c h t h e y g i v e r i s e a r e r e c a p i t u l a t e d b r i e f l y , a n d a n y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w h i c h seem i n d i c a t e d a r e p u t f o r w a r d . T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n a f i n a l s e c t i o n , a n d a n y g e n e r a l t r e n d s o f i n t e r e s t s u g g e s t e d b y a p a n o r a m i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l o f t h e d a t a a r e d e s c r i b e d a n d t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e d i s c u s s e d . T h e s e g e n e r a l t r e n d s a r e s u m m a r i z e d b r i e f l y b e l o w . The f i r s t i s t h a t a c c o m m o d a t i v e a n d n o r m a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n (two ways i n w h i c h , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m a n may c o n c e i v e h i s r o l e * ) a r e r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t i n t h a t t h e y a r e n o t o f t e n u s e d i n s e q u e n c e , a n d t h a t , o f t h e two, a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p r e f e r r e d u n d e r a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . A s e c o n d g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n i s t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s n o t a f a c t o r w h i c h e x e r c i s e s a n y i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . T h i r d , e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s seem more c l o s e l y t i e d t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e i r p a r t i e s a s a r e s u l t o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f two f a c t o r s : t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f e m p l o y e r s a s h a v i n g a g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o a m a r k e d l y u n f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t , a n d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e " s e c o n d a r y " t y p e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h e m p l o y e r s e n j o y w i t h t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s . F o u r t h , a n a c c u m u l a t i o n o f e v i d e n c e makes i t a p p a r e n t t h a t c h a i r m e n a r e somewhat more f a v o u r a b l y i n c l i n e d t o w a r d e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a s a r e s u l t o f a c o m b i n a t i o n o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s : f i r s t l y , a s y m p a t h y b a s e d u p o n s o c i a l -c l a s s a n d o c c u p a t i o n a l s i m i l a r i t i e s , w i t h a n a t t e n d a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s ; s e c o n d l y , a b e l i e f i n t h e g r e a t e r e c o n o m i c s e r i o u s n e s s , f o r a n e m p l o y e r , o f a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f a v o u r a b l e a w ard, a n d , t h i r d l y , t h e t e n d e n c y , a l l e g e d b y u n i o n n o m i n e e s , o f t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t g o v e r n m e n t t o a p p o i n t c h a i r m e n who t e n d t o be more f a v o u r a b l y i n c l i n e d t o w a r d e m p l o y e r s . I n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , t h e s e f a c t o r s ( t h a t i s , t h o s e m e n t i o n e d i n t h e f o u r t h g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n ) a r e t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s e s o f a f i f t h g e n e r a l phenomenon: a g e n e r a l i z e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , o n t h e p a r t o f u n i o n n o m i n e e s ( a n d , p r e s u m a b l y , u n i o n s ) , w i t h t h e way i n w h i c h t h e B o a r d s o p e r a t e . I n r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b r o u g h t t o l i g h t * See p a g e 18 f o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s e two ways b y t h e d a t a g a t h e r e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , e i g h t r e c o m -m e n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n made w h i c h , i t i s h o p e d , w o u l d a l t e r t h e p r e s e n t c o n c i l i a t i o n m a c h i n e r y i n s u c h a way a s t o r e n d e r i t more s a t i s f a c t o r y t o t h o s e whom i t s e r v e s ; t h e , f i r s t s e v e n o f t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a p p e a r o n p a g e s 2 2 2 -2 2 3 , a n d t h e e i g h t h on p a g e s 226 - 2 2 7 . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The r e s e a r c h d e s c r i h e d i n t h e p a g e s t o f o l l o w c o u l d n e v e r h a v e a t t a i n e d i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e were i t n o t f o r t h e a i d a n d i n t e r e s t o f c e r t a i n p e r s o n s t o whom t h e a u t h o r w i s h e s t o p a y t r i b u t e h e r e . D r . E . A. H. E o b s o n , u n d e r whose d i r e c t i o n t h i s t h e s i s was w r i t t e n , l a v i s h e d , i n t r u t h , a v e r i t a b l e w e a l t h o f i n s i g h t a n d s u g g e s t i o n u p o n i t , a s d i d D r . S. M. J a m i e s o n , whose a c u t e a n d s o p h i s t i c a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s p r o v i d e d , i n l a r g e m e a s u r e , t h e i n i t i a l c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k o f t h e t h e s i s , a n d , s u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e germ o f many h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h were u l t i m a t e l y t e s t e d . To t h e s e two men, a n d p a r t i c u l a r l y t o D r . R o b s o n , whose i n v e s t m e n t o f t i m e a n d t o i l f a r o u t -s t r i p p e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f h i s f o r m a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e n d e r a d e q u a t e a p p r e c i a t i o n w i t h i n t h e s t i l t e d c o n f i n e s o f a f o r m a l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t . To D a v i d Chapman o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f M a c h i n i s t s , a n d Mr. W. H. Morrow, b o t h o f whom, w i t h p e r f e c t aplomb a n d g r e a t g o o d c h e e r , s p e n t many g r u e l i n g h o u r s i n my p r e s e n c e , I w o u l d l i k e t o o f f e r t h a n k s , f o r t h e i r a i d p r o v e d i n d i s p e n s a b l e a t one s t a g e o f t h e t h e s i s , a s d i d t h a t o f J o h n D i e t r i c h , a n d P r o f e s s o r A. W. R. C a r r o t h e r s o f t h e F a c u l t y o f Law. W i t h o u t , o f c o u r s e , t h e s u f f e r a n c e o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l who c o m p l e t e d a r a t h e r f o r m i d a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l l e l s e w o u l d h a v e b e e n i n v a i n , a n d f o r what I know i t must h a v e c o s t them, I am g r a t e f u l . F i n a l l y , I must t h a n k my w i f e , M a r g a r e t , who p r o v i d e d t h a t p s y c h i c s u p p o r t w h i c h seems s o e s s e n t i a l a c a t a l y s t t o e n d e a v o u r s o f t h i s s o r t . TABLE OE CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I . THE PROBLEM 1 The C o n t e x t , G e n e s i s , a n d I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m The L e g a l C o n t e x t o f t h e P r o b l e m I I . THE HYPOTHESES 14-The H y p o t h e s i s - G r o u p i n g s a s T h e y E v o l v e d I n i t i a l l y P r e l i m i n a r y A s s u m p t i o n s R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s i n t o a More U n i f i e d A n a l y t i c C o n c e p t i o n E x t e r n a l F a c t o r s I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s O t h e r - r o l e F a c t o r s I I I , THE TESTING OF THE HYPOTHESES 6 5 The T e s t i n g T e c h n i q u e a n d t h e R a t i o n a l e f o r i t s S e l e c t i o n The Sample The T e s t i n g o f E a c h H y p o t h e s i s , t h e R e s u l t s o f t h e T e s t s , a n d t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e R e s u l t s M i s c e l l a n e o u s I n t r o d u c t o r y I n f o r m a t i o n E x t e r n a l F a c t o r s I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s O t h e r - r o l e F a c t o r s I V . SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS 178 E x t e r n a l F a c t o r s I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s O t h e r - r o l e F a c t o r s Some F i n a l O b s e r v a t i o n s BIBLIOGRAPHY 228 APPENDIX A. The T a b l e s APPENDIX B. The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y was t w o f o l d : f i r s t l y , a n d most i m p o r t a n t l y , t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e , b y e m p l o y i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , w h e t h e r o r n o t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ( a s t h e y a r e c o n s t i t u t e d a n d f u n c t i o n a t p r e s e n t u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t o f 1954-) j 1 i n e f f e c t work a g a i n s t t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h e i r avowed p u r p o s e ; a n d , s e c o n d l y , t o a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s a n d outcome o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l when a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i s c o n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s . I . The. C o n t e x t , G e n e s i s , a n d I m p o r t a n c e o f t h e P r o b l e m C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , u p o n t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n o f w h i c h t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y f o c u s e s , a r e a p a r t o f 2 t h e l e g a l m a c h i n e r y w h i c h h a s b e e n d e v e l o p e d s i n c e 1937 b y 1 L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t , C h a p t e r 17, 1954, S t a t u t e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 2 I n d u s t r i a l C o n c i l i a t i o n a n d A r b i t r a t i o n A c t , C h a p t e r 3 1 , 1937, S t a t u t e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , was t h e f i r s t o f s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n . 1 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s l e g i s l a t o r s a s a means o f a t t e m p t i n g t o s o l v e d i s p u t e s w h i c h a r i s e b e t w e e n l a b o u r a n d management p e r s o n n e l w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s i g n i n g o f new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e s e two p a r t i e s b e f o r e t h e s e p a r t i e s a t t e m p t t o s o l v e s u c h d i s p u t e s b y e m p l o y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f a s t r i k e a n d / o r a l o c k o u t . The p u r p o s e o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i s , t h u s , t o a t t e m p t t o p e r s u a d e l a b o u r a n d management p e r s o n n e l t o a c h i e v e a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h o u t e m p l o y i n g t h e t e c h n i q u e o f t h e s t r i k e o r t h e l o c k o u t . The l e g a l m a c h i n e r y o f c o n c i l i a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n t o d i s p u t e s a r i s i n g o v e r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f t h e t e r m s o f a new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . The s o l u t i o n p r o p o s e d t o t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s b y t h e p a r t i c u l a r C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i r d i s p u t e i s n o t b i n d i n g u p o n t h e p a r t i e s i n a n y way; t h a t i s , e a c h p a r t y t o t h e d i s p u t e may a c c e p t o r r e j e c t t h i s s o l u t i o n a s i t w i s h e s , a n d i t c a n be p u t i n t o e f f e c t o n l y i f b o t h o f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h e d i s p u t e a c c e p t i t . C o n c i l i a t i o n as a l e g a l t e c h n i q u e s h o u l d n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h a r b i t r a t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t f r e q u e n t l y i s ; a r b i t r a t i o n i s a l e g a l t e c h n i q u e w h i c h i s t h e u l t i m a t e means o f s e t t l i n g d i s p u t e s o r g r i e v a n c e s 3 C o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s a r e a g r e e m e n t s i n w r i t i n g b e t w e e n an e m p l o y e r o r an employers': o r g a n i z a t i o n a u t h o r i z e d b y t h e e m p l o y e r a n d a t r a d e - u n i o n , a n d s p e c i f y r a t e s o f p a y , h o u r s o f work, an d o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f employment. T h e i r p e r i o d o f t e n u r e i s g e n e r a l l y one y e a r , a n d , a f t e r t h e o l d c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t h a s e x p i r e d , a new one must be n e g o t i a t e d . which a r i s e between labour and management while a c o l l e c t i v e 4 agreement between them i s i n force; no stoppage of work may-be i n s t i t u t e d by e i t h e r party i n connection with such a dispute, and the d e c i s i o n reached by the a r b i t r a t i n g authority i s l e g a l l y binding upon both of the p a r t i e s . The l e g i s l a t i o n governing c o n c i l i a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been amended some s i x times since the I n d u s t r i a l  C o n c i l i a t i o n and A r b i t r a t i o n Act of 1937 was put into e f f e c t , but i t has remained unchanged from the time that the l e g i -s l a t i o n at present i n f o r c e — t h e Labour Relations Act of 1954—came int o e f f e c t on June 16th, 1954. For the period of 1955-1959 i n c l u s i v e (the only period f o r which s t a t i s t i c s are a v a i l a b l e which have exclusive reference to the functioning of the c o n c i l i a t i o n machinery under the Labour  Relations Act of 1954), 75 , or 11.4% 5 of the 659 labour 4 Such disputes w i l l be focused upon the l e g a l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of the provisions of the e x i s t i n g contract, one party claiming that, with respect to the matters i n dispute, these provisions are being adequately f u l f i l l e d , and the other party claiming that they are not. 5 To put i t i n f u l l e r perspective, t h i s f i g u r e represents 4-.5% of the t o t a l of 1,682 disputes a r i s i n g from the negotiation of a new c o l l e c t i v e agreement which occurred during the period of 1955-1959 i n c l u s i v e . ( I t i s assumed that a "dispute" e x i s t s when the two p a r t i e s are unable, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r own p r i v a t e negotiations, to agree upon a new c o l l e c t i v e agreement, and c a l l upon a C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r or a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board to a i d them i n t h e i r attempt to achieve a settlement.) ( A l l of these s t a t i s t i c s were derived from the reports of the Labour Relations Branch of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Labour, as contained i n . The Annual Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Labour f o r the years 1955-1959 i n c l u s i v e . ) disputes referred to Conciliation Boards during that time have ended i n strikes or lockouts in which a total of 1,872,412 man-days were lost to the economy of the province, and the Vancouver Public Library's f i l e of newspaper clippings indicates that at least seventeen newspaper articles 6 7 have appeared (seven i n The Province, and ten i n The Sun') i n which persons connected either with labour or with management have expressed opinions c r i t i c a l of the functioning of Conciliation Boards. Casual observation of these two factors—the widely-publicized industrial unrest i n B r i t i s h Columbia of recent years, manifested principally i n the form of strikes and lockouts (of which a precise s t a t i s t i c a l record i s given above), and newspaper arti c l e s in which opinions c r i t i c a l of the functioning of Conciliation Boards were expressed— prompted the author to consider, and, subsequently, to embark upon research the objectives of which have already been delineated: f i r s t l y , and most importantly, to attempt to determine, by employing sociological perspectives, whether or not certain aspects of the structure and operation of 6 The Province [Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada], November 21, 1956; March 24, 1956; January 19, 1957; March 25, 1958; February 10, 1959; July 7, 1959, and March 31, I960. 7 The Sun [Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada], September 27, 1957; October 17, 1957; December 16, 1958; March 26, 1958; two articles i n the issue of June 25, 1958; an undated clipping, probably from the summer of 1958; February 4, 1959; February 10, 1959; and March 30, I960. C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n e f f e c t work a g a i n s t t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h e i r avowed p u r p o s e — t h e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f t h e two p a r t i e s a n d h e n c e t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f a s t r i k e a n d / o r l o c k o u t ; a n d , s e c o n d l y , t o a t t e m p t t o d i s -c o v e r t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s and outcome o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l when a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i s c o n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s . T h u s , t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s , o n a g e n e r a l a n d i n c l u s i v e l e v e l o f e x p l a n a t i o n , an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n a n d outcome o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , and on a more s p e c i f i c a n d u t i l i t a r i a n l e v e l o f e x p l a n a t i o n , i s an e n d e a v o u r t o a s c e r t a i n w h e t h e r o r n o t — r e g a r d i n g t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d a s a p a r t o f t h e means, o r m a c h i n e r y , d e v i s e d t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e s p e c i f i c e n d o f s e t t l i n g a d i s p u t e a r i s i n g o v e r t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f a new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t b e f o r e t h e p a r t i e s r e s o r t t o t h e s t r i k e o r t h e l o c k o u t — a n y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o r o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s m a c h i n e r y a r e i n e f f i c i e n t i n t h a t t h e y i n e f f e c t w ork a g a i n s t t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f i t s avowed p u r p o s e . I n t h u s a t t e m p t i n g t o d i s c o v e r w h e t h e r o r n o t f l a w s e x i s t i n t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d as a m e c h a n i s m f o r p r e v e n t i n g s t r i k e s a n d l o c k o u t s , t h i s s t u d y 6 h a s no q u a r r e l w i t h t h o s e who may p o i n t o u t what t h e y c o n s i d e r t o he t h e p o s i t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f s t r i k e s a n d l o c k o u t s e i t h e r i n t h e a m e l i o r a t i o n o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s o r i n t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f r e a s o n a b l y s a t i s f a c t o r y o n e s . The r a t i o n a l e o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s as f o l l o w s : i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t t h e l a w r e g a r d s s t r i k e s a n d l o c k o u t s a s i n j u r i o u s t o t h e economy o f t h e p r o v i n c e a n d t h e r e f o r e t o be a v o i d e d i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e c u r e , t o t h i s e n d , t h e v o l u n t a r y c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s ; t h e l e g a l m a c h i n e r y d e s i g n e d t o h a n d l e d i s p u t e s a r i s i n g f r o m t h e n e g o t i a t i o n o f new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s h a s b e e n , p r e s u m a b l y , so c o n s t r u c t e d a s t o p r o v i d e c o n d i t i o n s r e g a r d e d b y i t s a r c h i t e c t s a s m a x i m a l l y f a v o u r a b l e t o t h e e n d o f v o l u n t a r y a g r e e m e n t , a n d , h e n c e , a v o i d a n c e o f s t r i k e s a n d l o c k o u t s ; t h i s r e s e a r c h d o e s n o t c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h t h e v a l i d i t y o r i n v a l i d i t y o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n o f t h e u n d e s i r a b l e a n d i n j u r i o u s n a t u r e o f s t r i k e s a n d l o c k o u t s , b u t , f o c u s i n g s o l e l y u p o n t h e l e g a l m e c h a n i s m o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d as a means t o t h e s p e c i f i c e n d o f p r e v e n t i n g c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t -n e g o t i a t i o n d i s p u t e s f r o m r e s u l t i n g i n s t r i k e s o r l o c k o u t s , a t t e m p t s t o t e s t , t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r means f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e n d . I I . The L e g a l C o n t e x t o f t h e P r o b l e m I n a t t e m p t i n g t o a c c o m p l i s h i t s t w o f o l d p u r p o s e , t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n s i t s e l f , i n c o n s i d e r a b l e d e t a i l , w i t h c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d , and, a s t h i s s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n a r e b r o a d l y d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e 1954 L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s  A c t , some k n o w l e d g e o f t h i s b o d y o f l a w , a s i t p e r t a i n s t o C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , i s o b v i o u s l y e s s e n t i a l t o an u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . W i t h i n t h r e e months a n d n o t l e s s t h a n two months b e f o r e t h e d a t e o f e x p i r y o f an e x i s t i n g c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , e i t h e r o f t h e p a r t i e s t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t ( t h a t i s , e i t h e r l a b o u r o r management) may b y n o t i c e r e q u i r e t h e o t h e r p a r t y t o b e g i n c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g . W i t h i n f i v e d a y s a f t e r t h e r e c e i p t o f t h i s n o t i c e , t h e t r a d e - u n i o n a n d e m p l o y e r , o r e m p l o y e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n , a s t h e c a s e may b e , must b e g i n t o b a r g a i n c o l l e c t i v e l y a n d a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a m u t u a l l y -a c c e p t a b l e r e n e w a l o r r e v i s i o n o f t h e o l d a g r e e m e n t , o r e l s e a new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . I f c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g h a s b e e n c o n t i n u e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y f o r a t l e a s t t e n d a y s , e i t h e r p a r t y may r e q u e s t t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r a p p o i n t a C o n c i l i a t i o n 8 The m a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n was t a k e n f r o m t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s A c t , C h a p t e r 17, 1954, p a g e s 9-19» S t a t u t e s o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 8 O f f i c e r t o c o n f e r w i t h t h e p a r t i e s t o a s s i s t them t o a c h i e v e a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . W i t h i n t e n d a y s o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r ' s a p p o i n t m e n t ( o r a l o n g e r p e r i o d , s h o u l d t h e p a r t i e s a g r e e u p o n i t ) , he must make a r e p o r t t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r , d e s c r i b i n g t h o s e m a t t e r s u p o n w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s h a v e a g r e e d ; t h o s e m a t t e r s u p o n w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o a g r e e , a n d h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s t o t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y o f q a p p o i n t i n g o r n o t a p p o i n t i n g a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d , J w h i c h w o u l d u n d e r t a k e f u r t h e r a t t e m p t s t o b r i n g a b o u t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s o v e r a new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t . S h o u l d t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r be u n a b l e t o b r i n g a b o u t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two p a r t i e s , a n d s h o u l d he c o n s i d e r i t i n a d v i s a b l e t o a p p o i n t a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d , he may make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a t t e r s i n d i s p u t e . T h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s may t h e n be s e n t t o t h e p a r t i e s , i n w h i c h c a s e t h e y h a v e t h e same f o r c e a n d e f f e c t ( s u b s e q u e n t l y d e s c r i b e d ) a s i f t h e y h a d b e e n made i n t h e r e p o r t o f a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . 9 F o r t h e p e r i o d o f 1955-1959 i n c l u s i v e , C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r s h a v e c o n s i d e r e d i t i n a d v i s a b l e t o a p p o i n t a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i n 155, o r 1 8 . 8 % o f t h e 812 d i s p u t e s w h i c h came u n d e r t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n , b u t i n w h i c h t h e y were u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t . ( T h e s e s t a t i s t i c s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s B r a n c h o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , a s c o n t a i n e d i n The A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r f o r t h e y e a r s 1955-1959 i n c l u s i v e . ) One o f t h e most e x p e r i e n c e d C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r s i n f o r m e d t h e a u t h o r , i n c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s was t h a t , i n t h e s e c a s e s , t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r i n v o l v e d f e l t t h a t h e h a d , t o no a v a i l , done a l l t h a t he f e l t a B o a r d w o u l d be a b l e t o do t o a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t , a n d t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a B o a r d w o u l d m e r e l y be a f u t i l e d u p l i c a t i o n o f e f f o r t . 9 When a C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r h a s b e e n u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two p a r t i e s o v e r t h e t e r m s o f a new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t , a n d recommends t h a t a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d be a p p o i n t e d t o p u r s u e t h i s t a s k , a n d / o r t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r f e e l s t h a t a B o a r d o u g h t t o be a p p o i n t e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e , t h e M i n i s t e r may a p p o i n t a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . The M i n i s t e r n o t i f i e s e a c h o f t h e p a r t i e s o f t h i s d e c i s i o n , a n d r e q u i r e s e a c h o f them, w i t h i n f i v e d a y s o f r e c e i v i n g t h e n o t i c e , t o n o m i n a t e one p e r s o n t o be a member o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . W i t h i n f i v e d a y s a f t e r t h e d a y on w h i c h t h e s e c o n d o f t h e s e two p e r s o n s i s a p p o i n t e d , t h e y must n o m i n a t e a t h i r d p e r s o n , a c c e p t a b l e t o e a c h , t o be t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . S h o u l d t h e two members o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d be u n a b l e t o a g r e e u p o n a m u t u a l l y -a c c e p t a b l e c h a i r m a n , t h e n t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r a p p o i n t s a c h a i r m a n . No p e r s o n may be a member o f a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d who, d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , h a s a n y p e c u n i a r y i n t e r e s t i n t h e m a t t e r s r e f e r r e d t o a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d ; o r who i s a c t i n g o r h a s , w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f s i x months p r e c e d i n g t h e d a t e o f h i s a p p o i n t m e n t , a c t e d i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f s o l i c i t o r , l e g a l a d v i s e r , c o u n s e l , o r p a i d a g e n t o f e i t h e r o f t h e p a r t i e s . E a c h member o f a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i s r e q u i r e d , b e f o r e s e r v i n g on t h e B o a r d , t o t a k e t h e f o l l o w i n g o a t h : I , , do s o l e m n l y s w e a r ( a f f i r m ) t h a t I w i l l f a i t h f u l l y , t r u l y , a n d i m p a r t i a l l y , t o t h e b e s t o f my k n o w l e d g e , s k i l l , a n d a b i l i t y , e x e c u t e a n d p e r f o r m t h e o f f i c e o f a member o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d a p p o i n t e d i n t h e m a t t e r o f t h e b e t w e e n a n d , a n d w i l l n o t , e x c e p t i n t h e d i s c h a r g e o f my d u t i e s , d i s c l o s e t o any p e r s o n a n y o f t h e e v i d e n c e o r o t h e r m a t t e r b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e s a i d C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . So h e l p me God. A C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d h a s t h e power o f summoning b e f o r e i t a n y w i t n e s s e s , a n d o f r e q u i r i n g them t o g i v e e v i d e n c e u n d e r o a t h , a n d t o p r o d u c e s u c h d o c u m e n t s a n d t h i n g s a s t h e B o a r d c o n s i d e r s r e l e v a n t t o a c o m p l e t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n a n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e m a t t e r s r e f e r r e d t o i t . I t g i v e s f u l l o p p o r t u n i t y t o a l l p a r t i e s t o p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e a n d make r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , a n d p e r m i t s o p p o s i n g p a r t i e s a d e q u a t e o p p o r t u n i t y t o c r o s s - e x a m i n e w i t n e s s e s c a l l e d b y t h e o t h e r p a r t y . I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e c h a i r m a n , t h e B o a r d b e g i n s i t s e n d e a v o u r t o b r i n g a b o u t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e m a t t e r s r e f e r r e d t o i t , t h e f i n a l s t e p i n t h i s p r o c e s s b e i n g t h e s u b m i s s i o n t o e a c h o f t h e p a r t i e s o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e B o a r d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e d i s p u t e ; t h e manner i n w h i c h t h i s i s accom-p l i s h e d i s d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . I n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n a n d t h e two n o m i n e e s c o m p o s i n g t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d a r e n o t u n a n i m o u s i n t h e i r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s , t h e m u t u a l l y a g r e e d - u p o n r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f a m a j o r i t y ( t h a t i s , o f a n y two) o f them c o n s t i t u t e s t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . The d e c i s i o n i s f o r w a r d e d t o t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r i n t h e f o r m o f a r e p o r t , a n d i f t h e d e c i s i o n was n o t u n a n i m o u s , t h e n a r e p o r t o f t h e f i n d i n g s a n d r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e m i n o r i t y member o f t h e B o a r d i s a l s o f o r w a r d e d . The M i n i s t e r t h e n s e n d s c o p i e s o f t h e r e p o r t t h a t c o n s t i t u t e s t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d t o t h e p a r t i e s . The d e c i s i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r o r t h e e m p l o y e r s , i f more t h a n one e m p l o y e r i s i n v o l v e d , a n d t h e e m p l o y e e s i n t h e u n i t a f f e c t e d a s t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d ( o r , i f i t was f e l t i n a d v i s a b l e t o a p p o i n t a B o a r d , t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r ) must be r e c e i v e d b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r w i t h i n e i g h t e e n d a y s o f t h e t i m e t h a t he m a i l e d t h e r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d t o t h e p a r t i e s i n v o l v e d . A t r a d e - u n i o n c a n n o t d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e a s t r i k e o f e m p l o y e e s , a n d no e m p l o y e e c a n s t r i k e , n o r c a n an e m p l o y e r d e c l a r e o r c a u s e a l o c k o u t o f h i s e m p l o y e e s , u n t i l t h e t r a d e - u n i o n a n d t h e e m p l o y e r , o r t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , h a v e b a r g a i n e d c o l l e c t i v e l y a n d f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e a m u t u a l l y -a c c e p t a b l e c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t ; a n d ( i f no B o a r d was c o n s t i t u t e d ) a C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r ' s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e b e e n s e n t t o t h e p a r t i e s , o r t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d h a s b e e n s e n t t o t h e p a r t i e s a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , an d t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e s e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h i s r e p o r t h a s b e e n s u b m i t t e d t o t h e e m p l o y e r ( o r , where t h e r e i s more t h a n one e m p l o y e r , t o a v o t e o f t h e e m p l o y e r s ) a n d t o a v o t e o f t h e e m p l o y e e s a f f e c t e d . I f t h e v o t e o f b o t h e m p l o y e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s i s i n f a v o u r o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r o r t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d , no e m p l o y e r may c a u s e a l o c k o u t , no e m p l o y e e s may s t r i k e , a n d no p e r s o n may d e c l a r e o r a u t h o r i z e a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t , a n d t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e O f f i c e r o r t h e r e p o r t w i l l c o n s t i t u t e t h e new c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h o s e m a t t e r s u p o n w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s h a d n o t p r e v i o u s l y a g r e e d . I f , h o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e employe who v o t e v o t e i n f a v o u r o f a s t r i k e , t h e n a s t r i k e may be put- i n t o e f f e c t , p r o v i d e d t h a t i t i s b e g u n d u r i n g t h e t h r e e months i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e d a t e on w h i c h t h e v o t e was t a k e n , a n d p r o v i d e d t h a t t h e e m p l o y e r h a s b e e n g i v e n w r i t t e n n o t i c e b y t h e t r a d e - u n i o n t h a t t h e e m p l o y e e s a r e g o i n g t o s t r i k e a n d f o r t y - e i g h t h o u r s h a v e e l a p s e d f r o m t h e t i m e t h i s n o t i c e was g i v e n . W i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a l o c k o u t u p o n e m p l o y e e s b y t h e i r e m p l o y e r , i f more t h a n one e m p l o y e r i s i n v o l v e d , no l o c k o u t may be e f f e c t e d u n t i l a s e c r e t b a l l o t o f a l l t h e e m p l o y e r s h a s b e e n t a k e n on t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r t o l o c k o u t o r n o t , a n d a m a j o r i t y a r e i n f a v o u r o f a l o c k o u t . A s i n t h e c a s e o f t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a s t r i k e b y a t r a d e - u n i o n , so w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f a l o c k o u t b y a n e m p l o y e r o r e m p l o y e r s : a n e m p l o y e r may commence a l o c k o u t o f h i s e m p l o y e e s o n l y d u r i n g t h e t h r e e m o nths i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e d a t e on w h i c h t h e v o t e was t a k e n , a n d o n l y p r o v i d e d t h a t he h a s g i v e n t h e t r a d e - u n i o n w r i t t e n n o t i c e t h a t he i s g o i n g t o e f f e c t a l o c k o u t a n d f o r t y - e i g h t h o u r s h a v e e l a p s e d f r o m t h e t i m e t h i s n o t i c e was g i v e n . The above m a t e r i a l c o n s t i t u t e s a n a c c o u n t , s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d f o r o u r p u r p o s e s , o f t h e s e q u e n c e an d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e l e g a l m a c h i n e r y w i t h i n w h i c h t h e m e c h a n i s m o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d o p e r a t e s . CHAPTER I I THE HYPOTHESES A s e r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y l e n g t h y d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h D r . J a m i e s o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m h i a p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i c i n f o r m a t i o n , o r "raw m a t e r i a l " f r o m w h i c h , b y d i n t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e r e f l e c t i o n a l o n g s o c i o l o g i c a l l y - o r i e n t e d l i n e s , t h e h y p o t h e s e s w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s d e s i g n e d t o t e s t were d e r i v e d . D r . J a m i e s o n was c o n s u l t e d b e c a u s e i t was f e l t t h a t , a s he i s a s c h o l a r , a s p e c i a l i s t i n l a b o u r e c o n o m i c s , a c o n c i l i a t o r " ^ o f c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e h o l d e r o f a g r a d u a t e d e g r e e i n S o c i o l o g y , he w o u l d be u n i q u e l y e q u i p p e d t o be s e n s i t i z e d t o p r e c i s e l y t h o s e s o r t s o f phenomena w h i c h w o u l d be o f p a r a m o u n t i n t e r e s t t o a s o c i o l o g y s t u d e n t a t t e m p t i n g a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d . o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . And t h i s p r o v e d , h a p p i l y , most e m p h a t i c a l l y t o be t h e c a s e . S u b s e q u e n t d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h s e v e r a l o t h e r e x p e r i -e n c e d c o n c i l i a t o r s r e s u l t e d i n t h e f u r t h e r r e f i n e m e n t o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , t o w h i c h r e f e r e n c e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n made i n C h a p t e r I , was t w o f o l d : f i r s t l y , a n d 10 T h a t i s , he h a s s e r v e d on a number o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . 14 most i m p o r t a n t l y , t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e , b y e m p l o y i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e s , w h e t h e r o r n o t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n e f f e c t w ork a g a i n s t t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h e i r avowed p u r p o s e ; and, s e c o n d l y , t o a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r t h e p r i n c i p a l c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n t h e p r o c e s s a n d outcome o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l when a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d i s c o n s t i t u t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s . Two g e n e r a l a n d a n t i p o d a l m e t h o d s o f a n a l y s i s were o p e n t o t h e a u t h o r i n h i s a t t e m p t t o s t u d y C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . One p o s s i b i l i t y was t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l number o f what were f e l t t o be s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o r phenomena, c o u l d be s e l e c t e d a n d s t u d i e d i n t e n s i v e l y — a l i m i t e d a r e a c o u l d be e x a m i n e d i n d e p t h ; t h e o t h e r p o s -s i b i l i t y was t h a t a s many a r e a s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n , o r phenomena, a s seemed a t a l l l i k e l y t o p r o v e o f a n y i n t e r e s t o r s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be e x a m i n e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y s u p e r f i c i a l a n d e x p l o r a t o r y m a n n e r — a b r o a d a r e a c o u l d be e x a m i n e d , b u t r e l a t i v e l y s h a l l o w l y . The t w o f o l d p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , • o u t l i n e d a b o v e , i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t t h e l a t t e r m e t h o d o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n was s e l e c t e d . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e v e r i t a b l e n o n e x i s t e n c e o f e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , c o u p l e d w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e l y a p p a r e n t i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e i r f u n c t i o n i n i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y , n e c e s s i t a t e d a b r o a d , e x p l o r a t o r y , o r s u r v e y t y p e o f r e s e a r c h , i n o r d e r t h a t a s many a r e a s a s p o s s i b l e w o r t h y o f more i n t e n s i v e a n d d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n be u n c o v e r e d . The u s e o f t h i s a p p r o a c h n e c e s s i t a t e s t h a t t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e t e r m h y p o t h e s i s — u s e d i n t h e s t u d y b e c a u s e o f i t s t e r m i n o l o g i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e — b e c o n s i d e r a b l y q u a l i f i e d . The t e r m i s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e t o a s s e r t , when i t i s e m p l o y e d i n a n e m p i r i c a l s t u d y , most f r e q u e n t l y u s e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y " r i g o r o u s " manner a n d c o n t e x t : i t i s f r a m e d w i t h g r e a t c a r e a n d p r e c i s i o n , a n d f o r m u l a t e d o n t h e b a s i s o f r e l a t i v e l y e x t e n s i v e e x p l o r a t o r y e v i d e n c e , a n d i t i s n o t u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d l e g i t i m a t e t o u s e t h e d a t a b y means o f w h i c h i t i s t e s t e d , o r d a t a p o s s e s s e d a s a b y - p r o d u c t o f t h i s t e s t i n g , a s t h e b a s i s f o r r a t h e r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a n d u n r i g o r o u s s p e c u l a t i o n s . However, a s t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i s r e g a r d e d a s a n e x p l o r a t o r y o n e , t h e p r o p e r c o n c e r n o f w h i c h i s t o t u r n up a n y r e l a t i o n s h i p s o r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f i n t e r e s t i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , w h e t h e r u n e q u i v o c a l l y i n d i c a t e d o r m e r e l y t e n u o u s l y s u g g e s t e d , t h e w o r d h y p o t h e s i s i s t o be u s e d i n r a t h e r a c a v a l i e r f a s h i o n . To s a y t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o r p a t t e r n p o s t u l a t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r i s , on t h e b a s i s o f d e c i d e d l y i n c o n c l u s i v e e v i d e n c e , " p r o p o s e d , " o r " s u g g e s t e d f o r t h e s a k e o f e x p e r i m e n t , " " s p e c u l a t e d u p o n , " o r e v e n " g u e s s e d a t , " w o u l d more a c c u r a t e l y c o n v e y t h e s p i r i t o f t h e t e r m h y p o t h e s i s a s i t i s u s e d i n t h e p r e s e n t e n q u i r y , t h a n w o u l d i t s more p r e v a l e n t r i g o r o u s l y e m p i r i c a l f o r m . T h u s t h e r a t h e r s t e r n f o r m a l i s m a n d p r e c i s i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e h y p o -t h e s e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e p r e s e n t e d , w i l l , t h e r e a d e r i s f o r e w a r n e d , he c o n s i d e r a b l y i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e r a t h e r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c , s p e c u l a t i v e , a n d f l u i d manner i n w h i c h t h e d a t a r e l a t i n g t o them, w h e t h e r c a l l e d i n t o e x i s t e n c e a s a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e t e s t i n g o f s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s , o r e x i s t i n g m e r e l y a s a n u n f o r e s e e n b y - p r o d u c t o f t h e s e t e s t s , a r e d i s c u s s e d , I . The H y p o t h e s i s - G r o u p i n g s a s t h e y E v o l v e d I n i t i a l l y By a p r o c e s s o f r a m i f i c a t i o n a n d a c c r e t i o n , c o n s t e l l a t i o n s o f h y p o t h e s e s a r o s e a b o u t f o u r f u n d a m e n t a l t h e m e s , a n d two f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s e s , q u i t e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e s e f o u r g r o u p s o f h y p o t h e s e s , were f o r m u l a t e d a n d r e m a i n e d a s s i n g l e a n d s e p a r a t e e n t i t i e s . T h e s e themes an d t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d h y p o t h e s e s a r e s e t o u t b e l o w , a f t e r a b r i e f s t a t e m e n t o f a s s u m p t i o n s p r e l i m i n a r y t o many o f them. P r e l i m i n a r y A s s u m p t i o n s I t i s assumed t h a t t h e f a c t o r s o f s o c i a l b a c k -g r o u n d a n d s i t u a t i o n , v a l u e s , l o y a l t i e s , a n d c o v e r t commitments w i l l e x e r c i s e a m e a s u r a b l e a n d s o m e t i m e s a d e t e r m i n i n g i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g b e h a v i o u r a n d d e c i s i o n s o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l ( a n d i t w i l l t h e r e f o r e be one o b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s i g n i f i c a n t p r e s s u r e s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e a b o v e m e n t i o n e d b e h a v i o u r a n d d e c i s i o n s o f p e r s o n s s i t t i n g i n t h e t h r e e c a p a c i t i e s o f c h a i r m a n , u n i o n n o m i n e e , a n d e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e ) ; i t i s f e l t t h a t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f e a c h i s a f u n c t i o n o f how e a c h p e r c e i v e s h i s r o l e and t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r two B o a r d members. F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c e n t r a l theme o f H y p o t h e s i s - g r o u p Two b e l o w i s t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n may c o n c e i v e h i s r o l e i n two d i f f e r e n t ways, as t h a t o f " c o n c i l i a t o r p e r s e , " i n w h i c h c a s e he w o u l d a t t e m p t t o e f f e c t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two n o m i n e e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b y a c c o m m o d a t i v e 1 1 means ( t h a t i s , he w o u l d a t t e m p t t o g e t t h e l a b o u r a n d management n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t on a n y t e r m s w h i c h a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h o f them, r e g a r d l e s s o f what t h e c h a i r m a n h i m s e l f t h i n k s a b o u t t h e j u s t i c e o r d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e s e t e r m s ) , o r a s t h a t o f , f o r e x a m p l e , " w a t c h d o g o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t and/or, o f j u s t i c e , " i n w h i c h c a s e he w o u l d a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s b y n o r m a t i v e means ( t h a t i s , b y a s e t o f s t a n d a r d s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c h a i r m a n , w h i c h he c h o o s e s t o d e f i n e b y some n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d w h i c h he h o l d s , s u c h a s " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , " o r " a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t , " a n d b y r e f e r e n c e t o w h i c h t h e t e r m s o f t h e a g r e e m e n t a r e j u s t i f i e d ) . 11 F o r t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e - n o r m a t i v e d i c h o t o m y , I am i n d e b t e d t o t h e a r t i c l e " C o n c e p t s i n L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s , " b y P r o f e s s o r H. D. Woods, w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n P a t t e r n s o f I n d u s t r i a l D i s p u t e S e t t l e m e n t i n F i v e C a n a d i a n  I n d u s t r i e s ( p a g e s 1 - 2 1 ) , e d i t e d b y H. D. Woods, a n d p u b l i s h e d i n 1958 b y The I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C e n t r e , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l , Quebec; t h e c o n c e p t i o n was, h o w e v e r , a r r i v e d a t i n d e p e n d e n t l y . 19 H y p o t h e s i s - g r o u p One The common f a c t o r p r o v i d i n g t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s g r o u p i n g o f h y p o t h e s e s was t h a t o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e , o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e s , a n d s o c i a l s t a t u s a f f i l i a t i o n s , o n t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l . The c h a i r m a n , i t i s assumed, w h i l e o p e r a t i n g w i t h one o f t h e two t e c h n i q u e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , c a n b e h a v e i n one o f t h r e e p o s s i b l e ways o n a n y one B o a r d : i n a manner p r e -d o m i n a n t l y p r o - l a b o u r , i n w h i c h c a s e he w i l l t e n d t o f a v o u r t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r n o m inee o v e r t h a t o f t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e ; pro-management ( t h e r e v e r s e ) , o r i m p a r t i a l a n d o b j e c t i v e , f a v o u r i n g them e q u a l l y . H y p o t h e s i s l ( i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i m p a r t i a l  a n d o b j e c t i v e b e h a v i o u r o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n a n d w i t h  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e n o m i n e e s w i l l be f o u n d most f r e q u e n t l y i n  p e r s o n s r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e a c a d e m i c p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s w i l l be so a s a r e s u l t o f t h e t r a i n i n g i n t h e d i s i n t e r e s t e d a s s e s s m e n t o f e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e w h i c h a c a d e m i c i a n s r e c e i v e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f r e s e a r c h , a n d w h i c h c a p a c i t y i t i s f u r t h e r assumed t h e y w i l l , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , p o s s e s s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n p e r s o n s f r o m a n y o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n o r p r o f e s s i o n s e r v i n g on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . Two o b j e c t i o n s c a n , o f c o u r s e , i m m e d i a t e l y be p u t f o r w a r d t h a t w i l l c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y a n d r e l e v a n c e o f t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n s o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , w h i l e t h e y w i l l p r o b a b l y i n m o s t c a s e s be b a s e d i n l a r g e m e a s u r e o n t h e a s s e s s m e n t o f e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e , w i l l n o t s p r i n g d i r e c t l y a n d i n e x o r a b l y f r o m t h i s e v i d e n c e , b u t w i l l i n a d d i t i o n i n v o l v e t h e r e n d e r i n g o f v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s — a t a s k w h i c h w o u l d n o t , p r e s u m a b l y , be a i d e d b y t h e a c a d e m i c t r a i n i n g r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e . The s e c o n d i s t h a t a c a d e m i c i a n s a r e i n t e l l e c t u a l s p e c i a l i s t s , a n d , a s s p e c i a l i s t s a r e n o t o r i o u s l y c a p a b l e o f c o m p a r t m e n t a l i z i n g t h e i r k n o w l e d g e , i t i s l e g i t i m a t e t o o b j e c t t h a t c o m p e t e n c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d o f k n o w l e d g e w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y e x t e n d t o t h e p r o b l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e s e c o n d o f t h e s e o b j e c t i o n s , i t may be r e p l i e d t h a t , t o t h e b e s t o f t h e a u t h o r ' s k n o w l e d g e , t h e a c a d e m i c i a n s a p p o i n t e d a s c h a i r m e n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s a r e s e l e c t e d a t l e a s t i n p a r t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o m p e t e n c e i n a n a r e a o f k n o w l e d g e r e g a r d e d a s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p r o b l e m s c o n f r o n t i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , s u c h a s t h e f i e l d s o f e c o n o m i c s o r l a w . So f a r as t h e f i r s t o b j e c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , i t seems r e a s o n -a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e more s o p h i s t i c a t e d a n d k n o w l e d g e a b l e a n i n d i v i d u a l i s i n a n a r e a o f c o m p e t e n c e r e g a r d e d as r e l e v a n t t o a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d ' s c o n c e r n s , t h e more a d e q u a t e , p r a c t i c a b l e , r e s p e c t e d , a n d a c c e p t a b l e h i s v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h c o n c i l i a t i o n a r e l i k e l y t o be t o t h o s e i n v o l v e d i n i t . H y p o t h e s i s l ( i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t  r e t i r e d p e r s o n s who s e r v e o n C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s w i l l t e n d  t o h a v e a n a n t i - i n f l a t i o n a r y b i a s t h a t w i l l c a u s e them t o  o p p o s e a n y h u t r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l wage i n c r e a s e s f o r u n i o n s * I t i s a ssumed t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e r e t i r e d p e r s o n s f e e l , i n g e n e r a l , t h a t i f wages a r e i n c r e a s e d , t h e n p r i c e s a n d t h e g e n e r a l c o s t o f l i v i n g w i l l t e n d t o i n c r e a s e a l s o . S i n c e m o s t r e t i r e d p e r s o n s h a v e t o l i v e on a r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d i ncome w h i c h w o u l d become d e v a l u e d s h o u l d i n f l a t i o n o c c u r , i t i s assumed t h a t t h i s w i l l c a u s e them t o t e n d t o be a n t i - i n f l a t i o n a r y i n t h e manner h y p o t h e s i z e d a b o v e , a s a means o f p r o m o t i n g t h e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l g o o d . H y p o t h e s i s l ( i i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , w i t h  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f c h a i r m a n , t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  o f l a w y e r s w i t h t h e e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l v a l u e s o f  e m p l o y e r s , i n t h e s e n s e o f p e r c e i v i n g t h e n e c e s s i t y t o  p r o t e c t a m u t u a l i n t e r e s t , w i l l c a u s e t h e m a j o r i t y o f l a w y e r s  who s e r v e a s c h a i r m e n t o be r e l u c t a n t t o e x e r c i s e c o n c i l i a t o r y  p r e s s u r e u p o n e m p l o y e r s t h r o u g h t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e . I t i s assumed t h a t an i d e n t i t y o f p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e s w o u l d e x i s t b e c a u s e l a b o u r u n i o n s a n d t h e i r d e s i r e s t e n d t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s o c i a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l i d e a s , w h e r e a s l a w y e r s , b e i n g members o f a " f r e e p r o f e s s i o n " whose p r o -f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w o u l d be a l t e r e d u n d e r a more s o c i a l i s t i c p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m , t e n d t o i d e n t i f y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s w i t h t h e " f r e e e n t e r p r i s e " way o f l i f e w i t h w h i c h e m p l o y e r s a r e p e r h a p s e v e n more d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d t h a n t h e y . I t may, o f c o u r s e , he o b j e c t e d t h a t t h i s w i l l n o t be t h e c a s e , b e c a u s e o f t h e t r a i n i n g i n a m o r a l i t y w h i c h l a w y e r s r e c e i v e t h r o u g h b e i n g r e q u i r e d t o a r g u e f i r s t f o r t h e one a n d t h e n f o r t h e o t h e r s i d e o f a c a s e . I n t h e a u t h o r ' s v i e w , h o w e v e r , t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s t r a i n i n g c a n be a ssumed t o be r e l a t i v e l y n e g l i g i b l e when j u x t a p o s e d t o t h e enormous f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s t o be g a i n e d i n t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e b u s i n e s s community a s a c o r p o r a t i o n l a w y e r . H y p o t h e s i s l ( i v ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t l a w y e r s  who a p p e a r a s n o m i n e e s w i l l t e n d t o r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f  t h e two n o m i n e e s r e a c h i n g a p o s i t i o n o f a g r e e m e n t . E l a b o r a t e d somewhat, t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t l a w y e r s , who h a v e , i n t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n , a v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n c o n f l i c t , a n d a r e c o n d i t i o n e d t o t h e c o m b a t i v e . u s e o f s u c h c o u r t r o o m t e c h n i q u e s as t h a t o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , w i l l , a s n o m i n e e s o f e i t h e r . p a r t y , t e n d t o a r o u s e a n t a g o n i s m i n t h e n o m i n e e an d p e r s o n n e l o f t h e o t h e r p a r t y , a n d p e r h a p s a l s o — b u t i f s o t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t — i n t h e c h a i r m a n , a n d o b f u s c a t e t h e i s s u e s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e d i s p u t e b y t h e u s e o f s u c h t e c h n i q u e s , a n d w i l l t h u s t e n d t o r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e two n o m i n e e s r e a c h i n g a p o s i t i o n o f a g r e e m e n t . The o b f u s c a t i o n r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e w o u l d , i t i s f e l t , o c c u r t h r o u g h t h e l a w y e r ' s t e n d e n c y t o f a s t e n r e l a t i v e l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y u p o n e v e r y f a c t o r a n d t e c h n i c a l i t y , w h e t h e r m i n o r o r m a j o r , w h i c h he f e e l s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o t u r n i n a n y way t o h i s p a r t y ' s a d v a n t a g e , a t e c h n i q u e w h i c h , i t i s f e l t , w o u l d t h u s t e n d t o o b f u s c a t e t h e p r i n c i p a l i s s u e s i n d i s p u t e . t H y p o t h e s i s l ( v ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e  g r e a t e r t h e amount o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a c h a i r m a n  h a s h a d c h a i r i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be  h i s c h a n c e s o f a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two n o m i n e e s . H y p o t h e s i s l ( v i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e  g r e a t e r t h e amount o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a n o m i n e e  h a s h a d a s a n o minee on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t h e g r e a t e r  w i l l be h i s c h a n c e s o f r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . H y p o t h e s i s l ( v i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e  g r e a t e r t h e amount o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a n o m inee  h a s h a d a s a n o minee o n C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t h e g r e a t e r  h i s c h a n c e s e i t h e r o f g e t t i n g t h e c h a i r m a n t o s i g n . - w i t h h i m  i n a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , o r o f g e t t i n g a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t t h a t  i s t o h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . H y p o t h e s i s l ( v i i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i n  g e n e r a l , t h e more f a m i l i a r t h e c h a i r m a n i s w i t h t h e t r a d e  o r i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s p u t e , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be  h i s a b i l i t y t o g e t t h e two n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t , p r e s u m a b l y , t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l h a v e s u f f i c i e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s and t h e h i s t o r y o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s a n d c o l -l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t s i n t h e i n d u s t r y o r t r a d e i n v o l v e d t o m a x i m i z e h i s c h a n c e s o f a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two n o m i n e e s . H y p o t h e s i s l ( i x ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i n  g e n e r a l , t h e more f a m i l i a r a nominee i s w i t h t h e t r a d e o r  i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s p u t e , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be h i s  a b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s a n d w e l f a r e o f h i s p a r t y  b y b r i n g i n g a b o u t u n a n i m o u s o r m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s w h i c h t e n d  t o s u p p o r t t h e p o s i t i o n o f h i s p a r t y . T h i s w i l l be s o , i t i s assumed, b e c a u s e t h e n o m i n e e ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e t r a d e o r i n d u s t r y w i l l e n a b l e h i m t o c o n v i n c e t h e c h a i r m a n , a n d p e r h a p s t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e , t h a t t h e p a r t y he r e p r e s e n t s h a s t h e s t r o n g e r c a s e . H y p o t h e s i s l ( x ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i f t h e c h a i r m a n a n d one o f t h e n o m i n e e s b e l o n g t o t h e same  o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s , t h e y w i l l be more l i k e l y t o  r e a c h a g r e e m e n t more q u i c k l y t h a n i f t h e y b e l o n g e d t o  d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s e s . The a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t p e r s o n s c o m i n g f r o m t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s w i l l t e n d t o h a v e s i m i l a r e c o n o m i c a n d p o l i t i c a l s y m p a t h i e s , a n d t h a t t h e y w i l l , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , be more l i k e l y t o r e a c h a p o s i t i o n o f a g r e e m e n t more q u i c k l y t h a n i f t h e y b e l o n g e d t o d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s e s . 25 H y p o t h e s i s l ( x i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f  t h e c h a i r m a n a n d one o f t h e n o m i n e e s b e l o n g t o t h e same  o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s , t h e y w i l l , i f u n a n i m i t y i s  n o t a c h i e v e d , t e n d t o he more l i k e l y t o i s s u e t h e m a j o r i t y  r e p o r t t h a n t h e y w o u l d i f t h e y b e l o n g e d t o d i f f e r e n t  o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s e s . H y p o t h e s i s - g r o u p Two I n i t i a l a s s u m p t i o n s . The c e n t r a l theme l i n k i n g t o g e t h e r ' t h i s s e c o n d g r o u p o f h y p o t h e s e s i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t no u n i t a r y p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m a n e x i s t s — t h a t , i n d e e d , t h e r e a r e two d i s t i n c t a n d f r e q u e n t l y m u t u a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e r o l e - c o n c e p t i o n s . T h e s e may s u c c i n c t l y , i f , i n t h e f i r s t c a s e , somewhat c o l l o q u i a l l y , be l a b e l l e d t h e " w a t c h d o g o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t a n d / o r o f j u s t i c e , " o r n o r m a t i v e r o l e , a s o p p o s e d t o t h e " c o n c i l i a t o r p e r s e , " o r a c c o m m o d a t i v e r o l e . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n , f o r m u l a t e d a s a h y p o t h e s i s , c o n s t i t u t e s H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i ) b e l o w . [ T h r e e d i v e r s e h y p o t h e s e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e c h a i r m a n a n d t h e two n o m i n e e s , b u t n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e u n i f y i n g theme o f H y p o t h e s i s - g r o u p Two, were a l s o i n c l u d e d , more o r l e s s a r b i t r a r i l y , i n t h i s s e c t i o n . T h e s e a r e H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i ) , H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i ) , a n d H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i x ) . ] H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t two  d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d  c h a i r m a n e x i s t — t h e n o r m a t i v e r o l e , a n d t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e r o l e . A r e c a p i t u l a t i o n o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e s e two r o l e s w o u l d be i n o r d e r a t t h i s j u n c t u r e . The c h a i r m a n who c o n c e i v e s h i s r o l e a s a p r i m a r i l y n o r m a t i v e one w o u l d a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s b y n o r m a t i v e means ( t h a t i s , b y a s e t o f s t a n d a r d s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c h a i r m a n , w h i c h he c h o o s e s t o d e f i n e b y some n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d w h i c h he h o l d s , s u c h a s " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , " o r " a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t , " a n d b y r e f e r e n c e t o w h i c h t h e t e r m s o f a g r e e m e n t a r e j u s t i f i e d ) . The c h a i r m a n who c o n c e i v e s h i s r o l e a s a p r i m a r i l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e one w o u l d , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , e n d e a v o u r t o e f f e c t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b y a c c o m m o d a t i v e means ( t h a t i s , he w o u l d a t t e m p t t o g e t t h e l a b o u r a n d management n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t o n a n y t e r m s w h i c h a r e a c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h o f them, r e g a r d l e s s o f what t h e c h a i r m a n h i m s e l f t h i n k s a b o u t t h e j u s t i c e o r d e s i r a b i l i t y o f t h e s e t e r m s ) . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i i ) . A c h a i r m a n who p e r c e i v e s t h e  n o r m a t i v e r o l e a s i n c u m b e n t u p o n h i m w i l l , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , t e n d t o m a i n t a i n o r p e r h a p s w i d e n , r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c e , o r  e l i m i n a t e , t h e d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two  n o m i n e e s . I t i s assumed t h a t s u c h a c h a i r m a n w i l l i d e n t i f y what he p e r c e i v e s t o be t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t a n d / o r j u s t i c e a s b e i n g most c l o s e l y a k i n t o one o f t h r e e p o s s i b i l i t i e s : t h e u n i o n p o s i t i o n ; t h e e m p l o y e r p o s i t i o n , o r n e i t h e r — a n y one o f w h i c h a l t e r n a t i v e s ( a l t h o u g h t h e t h i r d c e r t a i n l y n o t n e c e s s a r i l y ) w o u l d , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , t e n d t o m a i n t a i n o r p e r h a p s w i d e n , r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c e , o r e l i m i n a t e , t h e d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two n o m i n e e s where t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e c h a i r m a n i s p e r c e i v e d b y one o f  t h e n o m i n e e s a s a n abandonment o f h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y a n d a  f a v o u r i n g o f t h e p a r t y a n d h e n c e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o t h e r  n o m i n e e . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a n o r m a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l a l w a y s be p e r c e i v e d b y one o f t h e n o m i n e e s a s a n abandonment o f h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y , e x c e p t where t h e c h a i r m a n ' s c o n c e p t i o n o f " a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t " o f t h e d i s p u t e c a u s e s h i m t o b e h a v e i n a way w h i c h i s v i e w e d b y e a c h o f t h e n o m i n e e s a s f a v o u r i n g e a c h o f t hem e q u a l l y , o r where he f e e l s t h a t t h e r e a c h i n g o f a n a g r e e m e n t — n o m a t t e r what t h e t e r m s o f t h a t a g r e e m e n t — a n d h e n c e t h e p r e v e n t i o n o f a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t , c o n s t i t u t e h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . T h e s e s i t u a t i o n s , i t i s f e l t , a r e t h e o n l y o n e s w h i c h w o u l d n o t i n v o l v e a p e r c e p t i o n o n t h e p a r t o f one o f t h e n o m i n e e s o f a n abandonment b y t h e c h a i r m a n o f h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y ; i t i s a ssumed t h a t s u c h " i m p a r t i a l " s i t u a t i o n s w i l l , w i t h a n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n , o c c u r much l e s s f r e q u e n t l y t h a n t h e o t h e r two p o s s i b i l i t i e s m e n t i o n e d — a p e r c e p t i o n , on t h e p a r t o f one o f t h e n o m i n e e s , t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n ' s p o s i t i o n i s more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h a t o f t h e o t h e r p a r t y , e i t h e r t h a t o f t h e u n i o n o r t h a t o f t h e e m p l o y e r . The n o m i nee who f e e l s t h a t t h e p o s i t i o n o f h i m s e l f a n d h i s p a r t y i s s u f f e r i n g a s a r e s u l t o f t h e c h a i r m a n ' s abandonment o f h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y 28 w i l l , i t i s assumed, f e e l t h a t t h e e x t e n t o f t h e abandonment o f h i s p o s i t i o n w h i c h h i s s i g n i n g a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t w i t h t h e o t h e r two w o u l d r e q u i r e w o u l d be t o o d e t r i m e n t a l t o t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s p a r t y t o p e r m i t h i m t o do i t , so t h a t t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two p a r t i e s w i l l b e , a n d h e n c e t h e d i s p u t e w i l l be, m a i n t a i n e d . I t c o u l d a c t u a l l y be w i d e n e d , n o t i n t h e s e n s e o f i n c r e a s i n g t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two p a r t i e s o n v a r i o u s p o i n t s i n d i s p u t e , b u t r a t h e r i n t h e s e n s e o f i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e d e s i r e o f one o f t h e n o m i n e e s t o r e m a i n adamant a s a r e s u l t o f h i s r e s e n t m e n t o f what he p e r c e i v e s t o be t h e i n j u s t i c e t o h i s p a r t y o f t h e c h a i r m a n ' s abandonment o f h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y i n f a v o u r o f t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i i i ) . The n o m i nee i n whose f a v o u r  t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e p e r c e i v e s t h e c h a i r m a n a s h a v i n g a b a n d o n e d  h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y w i l l , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , i f he p e r c e i v e s  h i s d e g r e e o f d e p e n d e n c e u p o n t h e d e s i r e s o f h i s p a r t y as  g r e a t , a n d i f t h e y h a v e g i v e n h i m r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e room i n  w h i c h t o c o m p r o m i s e , have h i s d e g r e e o f i n t r a n s i g e n c e  i n c r e a s e d b y t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n ; i f on t h e o t h e r  h a n d he h a s b e e n g i v e n a f a i r l y w i d e r a n g e o f p o s i t i o n s  w i t h i n w h i c h t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t , t h i s w i l l n o t be t h e c a s e . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i v ) . The n o r m a t i v e r o l e o f t h e  c h a i r m a n i s , i n s h o r t , h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be o f t e n — b u t n o t  a l w a y s , a s w i l l s u b s e q u e n t l y be s h o w n — i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e 29 t a s k o f g e t t i n g t h e n o m i n e e s t o come t o a g r e e m e n t . The " c o n c i l i a t o r p e r s e " i s , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , c o m m i t t e d "by h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s t a s k t o c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e j o b o f f i n d i n g a c o n c i l i a t o r y f o r m u l a a c c e p t a b l e t o b o t h o f t h e n o m i n e e s , a s w e l l a s a t t e m p t i n g t o i n f l u e n c e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f e a c h i n s u c h a way a s t o b r i n g e a c h c l o s e r t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e o t h e r ; s u c h c o n c e r n s a s " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , " " a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t , " e t c e t e r a , w i l l t h e n be f o r h i m — w h e n t h e i r e n d s a n d t h a t o f a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two n o m i n e e s c a n n o t be r e g a r d e d b y h i m a s s y n o n y m o u s — p e r i p h e r a l c o n c e r n s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v ) . The a n t i c i p a t i o n b y t h e n o m i n e e s  o f p u b l i c s u p p o r t o f t h e B o a r d r e p o r t b r i n g s p r e s s u r e , i t  i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , t o b e a r o n t h e n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e t o t h e  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t a n d h e n c e t o a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t . I t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e c o n c i l i a t i o n m a c h i n e r y a ssumes t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s r e l e v a n t t o t h e p a r t i e s , a n d h e n c e t o t h e n o m i n e e s , a s i t r e q u i r e s t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f a n i m p a r t i a l t h i r d p a r t y ( t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m a n ) , p u b l i c i z e s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e d i s p u t e , a n d r e q u i r e s t h a t a u n a n i m o u s o r a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t be i s s u e d , p r e s u m a b l y a t l e a s t i n p a r t on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s u c h r e p o r t s , w h i c h c o n s t i t u t e t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e B o a r d , w o u l d be s u p p o r t e d b y p u b l i c o p i n i o n . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f t h i s s u p p o r t w o u l d t h u s b r i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r o n t h e n o m i n e e s — b u t e s p e c i a l l y , i n t h e e v e n t o f a n i m p e n d i n g m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , o n t h e m i n o r i t y n o m i n e e — t o a g r e e 30 t o t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e r e p o r t , and, h e n c e , t o a •unanimous r e p o r t . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e  a r e two p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n s why p u b l i c o p i n i o n a c t s a s a  p r e s s u r e t o b r i n g t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s t o a g r e e m e n t , ( a ) One i s t h a t i f t h e e m p l o y e r s e l l s g o o d s o r s e r v i c e s  d i r e c t l y t o t h e p u b l i c , he d o e s n o t , i f he c a n a v o i d i t , want t o l o s e o r l e s s e n t h e g o o d - w i l l o f t h e p u b l i c t h r o u g h  t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t , ( b ) The o t h e r i s , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n s i g n i f i e s a p o t e n t i a l  s o u r c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d a l t e r o r e l i m i n a t e t h e  p r e s e n t c o n c i l i a t i o n m a c h i n e r y o n t h e g r o u n d s t h a t i t d o e s  n o t work w e l l e n o u g h , n o t b e i n g e f f i c i e n t e n o u g h i n g e t t i n g  t h e two p a r t i e s t o a g r e e , a n d r e p l a c e i t w i t h d i s p u t e - s e t t l i n g m a c h i n e r y w h i c h w o u l d r e s t r i c t s u c h c u r r e n t r i g h t s  a s t h e r i g h t o f u n i o n s a n d e m p l o y e r s t o b a r g a i n f r e e l y o v e r  wages a n d o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s o f employment, a n d t o s t r i k e o r  l o c k o u t s h o u l d t h i s b a r g a i n i n g p r o v e u n s u c c e s s f u l . A l e s s l i k e l y b u t n o n e t h e l e s s p o s s i b l e g o a l o f s u c h r e s t r i c t i v e a n d , p r e s u m a b l y , f e a r e d l e g i s l a t i o n w o u l d be some a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e w a g e - p r o f i t r a t i o i n f a v o u r o f one o f t h e p a r t i e s . S h o u l d a s u f f i c i e n t number o f i n d i v i d u a l s a n d / o r p r e s s u r e g r o u p s become a r o u s e d s u f f i c i e n t l y f r e q u e n t l y b y what t h e y c o n s i d e r e x a g g e r a t e d demands o r u n j u s t i f i e d i n t r a n s i g e n c e o n t h e p a r t o f l a b o u r a n d / o r management, p o i n t i n g t o t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f s t r i k e s o r l o c k o u t s c o s t l y t o t h e economy 31 and inconvenient to many persons not d i r e c t l y involved i n them, or should C o n c i l i a t i o n Board s i t t i n g s d i s c l o s e , i n the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board report, a wage-profit r a t i o which many persons or groups not d i r e c t l y involved would consider unjust, i t would he possible f o r these people or groups to brin g s u f f i c i e n t pressure to bear upon the p o l i t i c a l personnel representing them to bring some such l e g i s l a t i o n i n t o being. I t i s equally p o s s i b l e , of course, that l e g i s l a t o r s would, should they so perceive the circumstances, b r i n g such l e g i s l a t i o n into being on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . Hypothesis 2 ( v i i ) . I t i s . hypothesized, however, that the normative (as opposed to the accommodative) approach  on the part of the chairman w i l l be e f f e c t i v e ( i n the sense of bringing the two nominees int o agreement) only i n those  Industries or trades (which are large, of great importance to the en t i r e economy, and which are hence) r e l a t i v e l y  s e n s i t i v e to pu b l i c opinion. The reason f o r t h i s i s that only such i n d u s t r i e s or trades would, i t i s assumed, have s u f f i c i e n t cause to be apprehensive about r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n so that t h i s apprehension would outweigh t h e i r unwillingness to come to terms i n accord with the normative c r i t e r i a employed by the chairman, rather than i n accord " with terms the a c c e p t a b i l i t y of which depends only upon the r e l a t i v e d e s i r a b i l i t y of these terms from the point of view of the p a r t i e s alone. I t i s therefore, of course, also hypothesized that i n i n d u s t r i e s or trades unlike these, 32 w h i c h a r e t h e r e f o r e o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o n c e r n t o t h e p u b l i c , a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s t h e o n l y v a r i e t y t h a t i s l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t i v e i n t h e s e n s e o f p e r s u a d i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i n  c o n c i l i a t i o n c a s e s i n i n d u s t r i e s o r t r a d e s w h i c h a r e l a r g e , o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e e n t i r e economy, a n d w h i c h a r e  h e n c e r e l a t i v e l y s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n , t h e c h a i r m a n (who w i l l be u n d e r t h e s c r u t i n y o f t h e p u b l i c a n d / o r l e g i s l a t o r s ) w i l l a l m o s t i n e v i t a b l y p e r c e i v e h i s r o l e a s  r e q u i r i n g t h a t he show c o n c e r n f o r t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t b y  a c t i n g i n p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o r m a t i v e t e r m s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i x ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , h o w e v e r , t h e m a j o r i t y o f n o m i n e e s r e p r e s e n t i n g l a b o u r a n d management  i n v o l v e d i n i n d u s t r i e s v u l n e r a b l e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n ( a s d e f i n e d a b o v e ) w i l l a v o i d e x a g g e r a t e d p o s i t i o n s t o b e g i n w i t h , and- be r e l a t i v e l y w i l l i n g t o make m u t u a l c o n c e s s i o n s a s a  r e s u l t o f t h e i r a w a r e n e s s o f , a n d h e n c e t h e i r d e s i r e t o  a v o i d , t h e p o s s i b l e r e s t r i c t i v e i y l e g i s l a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s  o f p u b l i c w r a t h . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x ) . Where, h o w e v e r , a d i s p u t e i n  s u c h a n i n d u s t r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a h o s t i l e ( r a t h e r t h a n a c o n c i l i a t o r y ) a t t i t u d e , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t n o r m a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l be t h e  o n l y e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s 33 i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f , a n d p e r h a p s t o , a g r e e m e n t * The r a t i o n a l e u n d e r l y i n g t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h i s h o s t i l i t y w o u l d t e n d t o p r e c l u d e t h e c o m p r o m i s i n g abandonment o f t h e i r i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s w h i c h i s r e q u i r e d b y a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n , t h e s e a d a m a n t l y m a i n t a i n e d p o s i t i o n s b e i n g , i t i s assumed, t h e m o s t p r o b a b l e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s h o s t i l i t y . I t was n o t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , u n t i l a f t e r t h e f o r e -g o i n g r a t i o n a l e h a d b e e n t e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t i t s i l l o g i c a l i t y became a p p a r e n t t o t h e a u t h o r : a n abandonment o f i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s i s , o f c o u r s e , a b s o l u t e l y e s s e n t i a l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f b o t h n o r m a t i v e a n d a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n , a n d c a n n o t t h e r e f o r e be i n v o k e d t o e x p l a i n t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f t h e n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c o n t e x t . The h y p o t h e s i s i s n o n e t h e l e s s r e g a r d e d a s v a l i d , b u t f o r a d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n : t h e n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n i s r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e c o n c i l i a t o r y t e c h n i q u e a v a i l a b l e t o a c h a i r m a n where a d i s p u t e i n a n i n d u s t r y v u l n e r a b l e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y h o s t i l i t y b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s b e c a u s e , i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , i t w o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y an a t t e m p t on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n t o b r i n g t o b e a r t h e p r e s s u r e o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n a n d i t s p o t e n t i a l s a n c t i o n s , o r p o s s i b l y o f some o t h e r n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d , i n a n a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t . The a c c o m m o d a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n , h o w e v e r , w o u l d n o t r e g a r d 34 n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d s ( i n t h i s c a s e , most p r o b a b l y , o f c o u r s e , t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e d e s i r e o f t h e p u b l i c f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f e c o n o m i c s t a b i l i t y a n d f u l l employment w i t h o u t work s t o p p a g e s i n t h e i n d u s t r y ) as h a v i n g a l e g i t i -mate p l a c e i n , o r a s b e i n g r e l e v a n t t o , t h e a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s a n d t h e p a r t i e s , a n d w o u l d t h e r e f o r e h a v e t o r e l y t o a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n w o u l d t h e n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n u p o n t h e d e s i r e o f t h e n o m i n e e s a n d t h e p a r t i e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t a t t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t a g e . I t i s assumed t h a t , a t t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t a g e , t h e most p r o b a b l e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e h o s t i l i t y e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s w o u l d be a n u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o s h i f t f r o m i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s . T h u s , i n a b a r g a i n i n g s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g h o s t i l i t y i n a n i m p o r t a n t i n d u s t r y , t h e n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n i s r e g a r d e d a s b e i n g t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g t h e n o m i n e e s t o a b a n d o n t h e i r i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s a n d move i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f , o r p e r h a p s t o , a g r e e m e n t . To p u t f o r w a r d t h i s a s s e r t i o n i s n o t , h o w e v e r , t o d e c l a r e t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h w i l l a l w a y s , o r e v e n n e c e s s a r i l y v e r y f r e q u e n t l y , be e f f e c t i v e u n d e r t h e above c i r c u m s t a n c e s ; t h e m e a n i n g i n t e n d e d b y t h e p h r a s e " t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e " i s t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s r e g a r d e d a s t h e o n l y one w i t h a n y p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a  r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n t h e b a r g a i n i n g power o f t h e p a r t y  a n d t h e t y p e o f r o l e w h i c h a nominee w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t t h e 35 c h a i r m a n a d o p t . Where a f a i r l y m a r k e d s u p e r i o r i t y o f b a r g a i n i n g p ower i s p o s s e s s e d b y one o f t h e p a r t i e s ( i n t h e s e n s e o f i t s b e i n g b e t t e r a b l e t h a n t h e o t h e r t o w i t h s t a n d t h e e c o n o m i c c o s t s a n d l o s s e s i m p o s e d b y a s t r i k e o r l o c k -o u t ) , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e n o m inee r e p r e s e n t i n g t h i s p a r t y w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n a d o p t a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e a p p r o a c h , b e c a u s e , g i v e n s u p e r i o r b a r g a i n i n g p o w e r o n t h e p a r t o f one p a r t y a n d a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e m e t h o d o f c o n c i l i a t i o n , an a g r e e m e n t , s h o u l d i t be r e a c h e d b e t w e e n t h e two n o m i n e e s ( a t t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t a g e , o f c o u r s e ) , w i l l , p r e s u m a b l y , f a v o u r t h e n o m inee r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r t y w i t h t h e g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g power. C o n v e r s e l y . , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e n o m i n e e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r t y w i t h t h e l e s s e r b a r g a i n i n g power w i l l p r e f e r t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n t a k e a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h — i n o r d e r t h a t he be a b l e t o a t t e m p t t o i d e n t i f y t h e d e s i r e s o f h i s p a r t y w i t h w h a t e v e r n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i o n t h e c h a i r m a n a p p e a r s t o be u s i n g , a n d t h u s . p e r h a p s g a i n a B o a r d r e p o r t w h i c h i s more t o h i s p a r t y ' s a d v a n t a g e t h a n t o t h a t o f t h e o t h e r p a r t y . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e  p r e s s w i l l be p e r c e i v e d b y t h e n o m i n e e s a s t h e most s i g n i - f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e r o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e d i s p u t e , a n d  w i l l t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e f o r t h e n o m i n e e s a s o u r c e o f  p r e s s u r e t o w a r d a g r e e m e n t . . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , when a d i s p u t e h a s o c c u r r e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l community, and when "both n o m i n e e s a r e members o f t h a t community, b o t h  n o m i n e e s w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s a s r e q u i r i n g ; more  c o n c i l i a t o r y b e h a v i o u r t h a n w o u l d t h e i r u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . I t i s f e l t t h a t t h i s i s so b e c a u s e i t i s assumed t h a t s u c h n o m i n e e s w i l l be more s u s c e p t i b l e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n , b y v i r t u e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e i n d u s t r y o r t r a d e w i t h w h i c h t h e i r p a r t i e s a r e c o n n e c t e d a c c o u n t s f o r a l a r g e r p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e employment i n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l community t h a n i t w o u l d i n a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e c ommunity, a n d h e n c e e x a g g e r a t e d p o s i t i o n s a n d i n t r a n s i g e n c e w o u l d be more l i k e l y t o a r o u s e more p e o p l e t o w r a t h a n d p o s s i b l e l e g i s l a t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n , a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i v ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f  t h e t o n e w h i c h h a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f t h e two d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s i n t h e p a s t h a s b e e n one o f  h o s t i l i t y a n d / o r c o n t e m p t , t h e n n o m i n e e s w i l l be c h o s e n f o r  t h e i r t o u g h p a r t i s a n s h i p . I t i s assumed t h a t , where s u c h a b a r g a i n i n g h i s t o r y e x i s t s , n o m i n e e s w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r a s a f o r m o f w a r f a r e , t h e m o t i v e b e h i n d w h i c h i s a s much d e s i r e t o weaken t h e o t h e r g r o u p a s t o g a i n c o n c e s s i o n s f o r o n e ' s own g r o u p , a n d w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s as r e q u i r i n g t h a t t h e y c o n d u c t them a s s u c h . S u c h a s i t u a t i o n , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , p r e -c l u d e s t h e c h a i r m a n ' s u s e o f p r e d o m i n a n t l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e means o f g e t t i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h o r e v e n t o a p p r o a c h a g r e e m e n t , an d l e a v e s n o r m a t i v e m e t h o d s , r e n d e r e d p o w e r f u l b y t h e p r e s s u r e o f p u b l i c i n t e r e s t a n d o p i n i o n , t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e means o p e n t o t h e c h a i r m a n f o r t h e a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h i s t a s k . T h i s i s assumed t o be so f o r t h e same r e a s o n as i n H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x ) . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v ) . The f o r e g o i n g m a t e r i a l w i l l a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y h a v e c r e a t e d t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t n o r m a t i v e and a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s o f p e r s u a s i o n , a s d i r e c t e d a t t h e n o m i n e e s b y t h e c h a i r m a n , a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , b u t i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , where a c h a i r m a n i s u s i n g a  b a s i c a l l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e method, he w i l l a l m o s t a l w a y s b r i n g  t o b e a r , i n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r e s s u r e o f n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a ( i n o r d e r t o g e t t h e two t o a g r e e i n a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e r m s ) ; i t i s t h u s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i n a l l c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e t y p e , b o t h t h e n o m i n e e s a n d t h e c h a i r m a n a r e aware o f , a n d make u s e o f , n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e  s u s c e p t i b i l i t y w h i c h t h e c h a i r m a n d e m o n s t r a t e s t o w a r d t h e  b e h a v i o u r o f one nominee w i l l f o r c e t h e o t h e r nominee t o  b e h a v e t o w a r d t h e c h a i r m a n i n t h e same manner. T h i s w i l l o c c u r o n l y p r o v i d e d t h a t b o t h n o m i n e e s h a v e a d e s i r e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t — w h i c h i s t o s a y t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s t o be s u f f i c i e n t l y o p p o s e d so a s t o p r e c l u d e a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , b u t b o t h r e g a r d i t a s more o f a n a d v a n t a g e t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t ( b y r e a s o n o f t h e power i t u s u a l l y g r a n t s a s a b a r g a i n i n g l e v e r , b o t h i n i t s e l f a n d t h r o u g h t h e s u p p o r t o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n ) t h a n t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s a d a m a n t l y . S h o u l d t h i s d e s i r e e x i s t , t h e n , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e s u s c e p t i - • b i l i t y w h i c h t h e c h a i r m a n d e m o n s t r a t e s t o w a r d t h e b e h a v i o u r o f one n o m i n e e ( w h e t h e r t h i s b e h a v i o u r be p r e d o m i n a n t l y a g g r e s s i v e l y adamant, m a l l e a b l y r e a s o n a b l e , o r a n y t y p e o f b e h a v i o u r i n t e r m e d i a t e t o t h e s e more o r l e s s p o l a r t y p e s ) w i l l f o r c e t h e o t h e r nominee t o b e h a v e t o w a r d t h e c h a i r m a n i n t h e same manner. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a  c h a i r m a n w i l l b r i n g p r e s s u r e t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t t o b e a r  u p o n t h e n o m inee whose p a r t y h a s p r e s e n t e d t h e p o o r e r  e v i d e n c e , t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e s u p e r i o r e v i d e n c e . The " e v i d e n c e " m e n t i o n e d above h a s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p r a c t i c e o f e a c h p a r t y t o t h e d i s p u t e p r e s e n t i n g e v i d e n c e t o t h e B o a r d i n t h e f o r m o f a b r i e f i n s u p p o r t o f i t s p o s i t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e m a t t e r s i n d i s p u t e . I t i s assumed t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e q u a l i t y o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e two p a r t i e s w i l l d i f f e r , t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e i n f e r e n c e s drawn f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e f o l l o w l o g i c a l l y f r o m i t c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e c r i t e r i o n o f q u a l i t y . I t i s f u r t h e r assumed t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l , b e f o r e he h a s d e c i d e d o n t h e s u p e r i o r q u a l i t y o f . t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y one o f t h e p a r t i e s , d e t e r m i n e s a t i s f a c t o r i l y — m o s t p r o b a b l y t h r o u g h c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h i n d e p e n d e n t e x p e r t s s u c h as e c o n o m i s t s , s t a t i s t i c i a n s , a c c o u n t a n t s , e t c e t e r a — t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e d o e s n o t c o n s t i t u t e a f a l s i f i c a t i o n a n d / o r d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e f a c t s s u c h t h a t t h e d r a w i n g o f t h e a h o v e m e n t i o n e d i n f e r e n c e s f r o m i t i s i l l e g i t i m a t e l y f a c i l i t a t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , where a c h a i r m a n v i e w s h i s r o l e a s t h a t o f c o n c i l i a t o r b y  a c c o m m o d a t i v e means, he w i l l , where a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t d o e s  n o t seem l i k e l y t o m a t e r i a l i z e , d e c l a r e h i s i n t e n t i o n o f  s i g n i n g w i t h t h e adamant nominee s h o u l d a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t  n o t be f o r t h c o m i n g . F o r what i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o o c c u r , h o w e v e r , c e r t a i n q u a l i f y i n g c o n d i t i o n s — r e a l l y p a r t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s b u t r e c o r d e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r t h e s a k e o f c l a r i t y — must be met: t h e adamant nominee must r e p r e s e n t a p a r t y w h i c h h a s a m a r k e d p r e d o m i n a n c e o f b a r g a i n i n g power i n t h a t i t i s b e t t e r a b l e t h a n t h e o t h e r p a r t y t o w i t h s t a n d t h e e c o n o m i c c o s t s a n d l o s s e s i n v o l v e d i n a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t ; t h e o t h e r p a r t y must be r e p r e s e n t e d b y a more p l a s t i c n o m i n e e ; a n d t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l b e h a v e a s h y p o t h e s i z e d o n l y i f he i s n o t p r e v e n t e d f r o m d o i n g so b y s u c h n o r m a t i v e . c r i t e r i a a s t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e e v i d e n c e , p u b l i c o p i n i o n , t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t , e t c e t e r a — w h i c h i s , o f c o u r s e , u n l i k e l y i n t h a t , a s h a s b e e n s a i d , he i s a c h a i r m a n who i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e g e n e r a l i z a t i o n h y p o t h e s i z e d b e l o w s u b s e q u e n t t o H y p o t h e s i s 4 ( i ) f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : i f t h e c h a i r m a n d e c l a r e s h i s i n t e n t i o n t o s i g n w i t h t h e nominee w e a k e r i n b a r g a i n i n g p ower s h o u l d a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t n o t be f o r t h c o m i n g , he makes t h i s n o m i n e e a n d h i s p a r t y p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s a s more e q u a l i n b a r g a i n i n g power ( n o t , o f c o u r s e , i n t h e s e n s e o f m a k i n g them seem more e c o n o m i c a l l y a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e c o s t s a n d l o s s e s i n v o l v e d i n a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t , b u t i n t h e s e n s e o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e i r b a r -g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n b y s u p p o r t i n g t h e i r demands o r o f f e r s ) , a n d h e n c e makes a d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s more l i k e l y ; i f , h o w e v e r , he d e c l a r e s h i s i n t e n t i o n o f s i g n i n g w i t h t h e nominee w i t h t h e g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g power, t h i s w i l l s e r v e t o i n c r e a s e t h e p r e s s u r e o n t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e t o c a p i t u l a t e a n d s i g n a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t ( i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d i n r e t u r n f o r some m i n o r " f a c e - s a v i n g " c o n c e s s i o n f r o m t h e m a j o r i t y p a r t y ) . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a t t e r o f b a r g a i n i n g p o wer, h o w e v e r , i t i s n o t assumed t h a t i n e q u a l i t y o f i t e x i s t s i n a l l i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i x ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , when  t h e c h a i r m a n i s u n a b l e t o g e t t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e , he  w i l l more f r e q u e n t l y s i g i a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r  n o m i n e e f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . The p a r t i e s may h a v e b a r g a i n e d down f r o m t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n s , b u t be u n a b l e 12 F o r t h i s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n , t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e s e n t e n c e w h i c h r e a d s f r o m t h e b o t t o m o f page 49 t o t h e t o p o f p a g e 5 0 . t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t . The two p a r t i e s u s u a l l y . t a k e i n i t i a l l y e x t r e m e p o s i t i o n s i n w h i c h t h e u n i o n t y p i c a l l y a s k s f o r two o r t h r e e t i m e s what i t a c t u a l l y h o p e s t o g e t , a n d t h e e m p l o y e r t y p i c a l l y o f f e r s h a l f a s much as he a c t u a l l y e x p e c t s t o h a v e t o g i v e . When t h e two n o m i n e e s c a n n o t a g r e e o n a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , t h e y f r e q u e n t l y r e t u r n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e i r p a r t i e s p l e n t y o f b a r g a i n i n g room, a s t h e f i n a l b a r g a i n i n g ( t h a t i s , t h e b a r g a i n i n g t h a t o c c u r s a f t e r t h e r e p o r t h a s b e e n i s s u e d a n d r e j e c t e d b y one o r p e r h a p s b o t h o f t h e p a r t i e s ) g e n e r a l l y b e g i n s a t t h e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h e a c h n o minee t o o k i n t h e m a j o r i t y a n d m i n o r i t y r e p o r t s . I n s u c h a c a s e t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l more f r e q u e n t l y s i g n w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e , a s h i s i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n w i l l more f r e q u e n t l y be l e s s e x t r e m e t h a t t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e u n i o n . H y p o t h e s i s - g r o u p T h r e e The c o n j e c t u r e t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t two o f t h e members o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d a r e n o m i n a t e d b y t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s h a s a n e f f e c t on t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e i r r o l e s , a n d on t h e p r o c e s s o f a t t e m p t i n g t o g e t t h e two n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t , p r o v i d e s t h e theme on w h i c h t h e h y p o t h e s e s o f Group T h r e e a r e v a r i a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) ( a ) s u g g e s t s t h a t , a s n o m i n e e s , t h e y r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s a s , among o t h e r t h i n g s , c o m m u n i c a t o r s , a c o n c e p t i o n w h i c h * i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , i s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e i r r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t , a n d h e n c e i s s u i n g a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t ; H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) ( c ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y p e r c e i v e a n o b l i g a t i o n t o a c t , i n p a r t , a s p r o t e c t o r s o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p a r t i e s who n o m i n a t e d them, b e h a v i o u r w h i c h , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e i r r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t and w i l l t h u s t e n d t o r e s u l t i n t h e i s s u i n g o f a m a j o r i t y a n d a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t . H y p o t h e s i s 3(i)» I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f c o n c i l i a t i n g i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s b y means o f a  C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d , t h e t h r e e f a c t o r s ( a ) , ( b ) , a n d ( c ) , d e f i n e d b e l o w , a r e t h e t h r e e d e c i s i v e o n e s b e a r i n g u p o n t h e  outcome o f t h e c h a i r m a n ' s e f f o r t s t o g e t t h e two n o m i n e e s  t o a g r e e . T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e assumed t o a p p l y o n l y t o d i s p u t e s i n w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s e n t e r c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s w i t h t h e i n t e n t i o n o f r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t o r n o t d o i n g so on t h e b a s i s o f t h e c r i t e r i o n o f t h e i n t r i n s i c a c c e p t a b i l i t y o r n o n - a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e t e r m s o f f e r e d ; t h e y do n o t h a v e r e f e r e n c e t o d i s p u t e s i n w h i c h , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s t r i k e i s a c t u a l l y d e s i r e d b y t h e u n i o n o f f i c i a l s a s a means o f , f o r e x a m p l e , h e i g h t e n i n g t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e u n i o n , a n d a p p a r e n t l y d e m o n s t r a t i n g d r a m a t i c a l l y t h e v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e o f i t s r o l e i n w i n n i n g t h e d e s i r e s o f i t s members a g a i n s t management o p p o s i t i o n ; o r , p o s s i b l y , f o r e x a m p l e , i n w h i c h a s t r i k e w i t h a q u i c k s u r r e n d e r b y management t o a p o s i t i o n t h e y were i n r e a l i t y q u i t e p r e p a r e d t o g r a n t a l l a l o n g may a c t u a l l y be d e s i r e d b y management a s a means o f k e e p i n g t h e u n i o n c o n t r o l l e d a n d u n d i s g r u n t l e d b y , unknown t o i t , h e l p i n g i t t o a p p e a r s t r o n g a n d u n c o m p r o m i s i n g . I n s h o r t , t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a p p l y o n l y t o i n d u s t r i a l d i s p u t e s i n w h i c h t h e a v o i d a n c e o f a s t r i k e a n d / o r l o c k o u t t h r o u g h c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s i s a c t u a l l y a p o s s i b i l i t y . T h e y a r e assumed t o be o p e r a t i v e i n s u c h a way a s t o be- n e g a t i v e l y r e l a t e d , a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s b e i n g a c h i e v e d when f a c t o r s ( a ) a n d ( b ) a r e d o m i n a n t l y o p e r a t i v e , and n o t b e i n g a c h i e v e d when f a c t o r ( c ) i s d o m i n a n t l y o p e r a t i v e , i t b e i n g assumed f u r t h e r t h a t a l l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f ( b ) , a r e a l w a y s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y o p e r a t i v e i n a n y C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d e n d e a v o u r i n g t o c o n c i l i a t e t h e t y p e o f d i s p u t e i n d i c a t e d a b o v e . ( a ) ( H o l d i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d i n t e n s i t y o f t h e d i s p u t e c o n s t a n t ) i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e q u i r i n g , b y l a w , o f p a r t y - n o m i n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n  B o a r d i s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e g o a l o f g e t t i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s  t o a g r e e . The r e q u i r i n g o f p a r t y - n o m i n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s on t h e B o a r d g i v e s e a c h o f t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s d i r e c t a n d c o n s t a n t a c c e s s t o i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a n d v i c e - v e r s a , a n d g i v e s a s w e l l e a c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e d i r e c t a n d c o n s t a n t a c c e s s t o t h e o t h e r , a n d , h e n c e , g i v e s e a c h d i s p u t i n g p a r t y c o n s t a n t i n d i r e c t a c c e s s t o t h e o t h e r . T h i s , i t i s f e l t , i s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e g o a l o f g e t t i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e i n t h a t i t c a n make known t o e a c h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , i n a n a c c u r a t e way, 44 what t h e one i s w i l l i n g t o g r a n t , a n d what t h e o t h e r i s w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t , w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e a c h m a t t e r r e l e v a n t t o t h e d i s p u t e ; t h i s k n o w l e d g e i s v i e w e d a s t h e most i m p o r t a n t n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n t o r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t , d e f i n e d a s m a k i n g t h e two a h o v e m e n t i o n e d p o s i t i o n s synonymous. ( b ) ( H o l d i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d i n t e n s i t y o f t h e d i s p u t e c o n s t a n t ) i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t ( a s t h e n o m i n e e s w i l l he s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c a n d / o r p a r t y p e r s o n n e l s c r u t i n y a n d o p i n i o n o f t h e n o m i n e e s ' p o s i t i o n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s ) t h e p r e s e n c e o f p o s i t i o n s  s u g g e s t e d b y t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l be p e r c e i v e d b y t h e n o m i n e e s  a s p r o v i d i n g a v e n u e s o f r e t r e a t t o p o s i t i o n s c l o s e r t o  a g r e e m e n t f o r w h i c h n e i t h e r n o m inee w i l l a p p e a r t o b e a r a  p r e d o m i n a n c e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s w i l l t e n d t o r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e p a r t i e s c h a r g i n g t h e i r n o m i n e e s w i t h f a i l u r e t o c a r r y o u t s a t i s f a c t o r i l y t h e r o l e - b e h a v i o u r , p e r c e i v e d b y b o t h p a r t y a n d nominee a s l e g i t i m a t e a n d r e q u i r e d , o f p r o t e c t i n g t h e p a r t y ' s i n t e r e s t s . ( c ) ( H o l d i n g t h e n a t u r e a n d i n t e n s i t y o f t h e d i s p u t e c o n s t a n t ) i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e q u i r i n g , b y  l a w , o f p a r t y - n o m i n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s ( t h u s g i v i n g e a c h o f t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s d i r e c t a n d c o n s t a n t a c c e s s t o one member o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d ) i s a l s o d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o  t h e g o a l o f g e t t i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e o r t o l e s s e n  t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s b a s e d on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h i s l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o p e r a t e s t o m i n i m i z e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f n o m i n e e s b e i n g i m p a r t i a l — t h a t i s , v i e w i n g t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t y , i n t h e s e n s e o f t h e m a x i m a l m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n , a s b e i n g s e c o n d a r y t o t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e d i s p u t e — i t b e i n g f e l t t h a t t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t , t h o u g h n o t , o f c o u r s e , t h e o n l y , c r i t e r i o n o f t h e i r e l i g i b i l i t y f o r n o m i n a t i o n i s t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o t h e p r e s s u r e s b r o u g h t t o b e a r u p o n them, t h r o u g h t h i s a c c e s s , t o r e g a r d t h e i r p r i m a r y f u n c t i o n as t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t y , i n t h e s e n s e d e f i n e d a b o v e . H y p o t h e s i s 3(ii)« I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t e a c h  n o m i n e e w i l l u s e a t e c h n i q u e o f a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s much o f  w h i c h i s p a r t i s a n ( i n t h a t i t i s d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r t y he r e p r e s e n t s , a n d h e n c e h i s own p o s i t i o n , a n d weaken t h a t o f t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e ) . • H y p o t h e s i s 3(iii)» I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t e a c h  n o m i n e e w i l l p e r c e i v e h i s a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e a s c o n s i s t i n g  p r i n c i p a l l y i n t h e two f u n c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n H y p o t h e s i s  3 ( i ) ( a ) a n d 3 ( i ) ( c ) a b o v e . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s t h u s c o n j e c t u r e s t h a t e a c h n o minee w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e u p o n two m a i n t a s k s — t h a t o f a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d o u t what t h e o t h e r p a r t y i s r e a l l y w i l l i n g t o g r a n t o r t o a c c e p t w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o e a c h m a t t e r i n d i s p u t e ; a n d t h a t o f a t t e m p t i n g t o p r o t e c t , t o t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e e x t e n t , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p a r t y t h e y r e p r e s e n t , r e g a r d i n g t h i s a s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . H y p o t h e s i s 3(iv)« I t i s f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t  a n o m i n e e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n h i s r o l e o f n o m inee w i l l be  e v a l u a t e d b y t h e p a r t y w h i c h he r e p r e s e n t s i n t e r m s o f t h e  s k i l l w i t h w h i c h he manages t o p e r f o r m t h e two f u n c t i o n s  d e s c r i b e d i n 3 ( 1 ) ( a ) and 3 ( 1 ) ( c ) above ( w h i c h i s t o s a y t h a t i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e p a r t i e s , a l s o , w i l l c o n c e i v e o f t h e a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e o f t h e i r n ominee a s c o n s i s t i n g i n t h e s e two f u n c t i o n s ) , a n d t h a t t h i s w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a p r e s s u r e  t o w a r d a n o m i n e e ' s b e h a v i n g i n t h i s manner. H y p o t h e s i s 3(v)« I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , h o w e v e r  some n o m i n e e s w i l l show v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f i n d e p e n d e n c e o f  t h e p a r t i e s w h i c h t h e y r e p r e s e n t , a n d t h a t t h i s i n d e p e n d e n c e  when i t o c c u r s , w i l l a l m o s t a l w a y s be i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f  b e i n g more c o n c i l i a t o r y t h a n t h e i r p a r t i e s h a d i n d i c a t e d t o  t hem t h a t t h e y d e s i r e d t hem t o b e . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t i t i s assumed t h a t , i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y g i v e t h e m s e l v e s room i n w h i c h t o b a r g a i n a n d a r a n g e w i t h i n w h i c h t o a t t e m p t t o g a i n t h e most f a v o u r a b l e p o s s i b l e t e r m s o f a g r e e m e n t f o r t h e m s e l v e s , e a c h p a r t y w i l l h a v e t a k e n a n i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n w h i c h i s , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o what i t i s w i l l i n g t o g r a n t o r t o a c c e p t , e x a g g e r a t e d i n i t s f a v o u r . A c e r t a i n amount o f k n o w l e d g e on t h e p a r t o f one n o m inee o f what t h e p a r t y o f t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e i s r e a l l y w i l l i n g t o g r a n t o r t o a c c e p t i s g a i n e d b y e a c h nominee d u r i n g t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i t t i n g s t h r o u g h t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e f a c t o r d e s c r i b e d i n H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) ( a ) a b o v e . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h e c h a n c e s o f t h e p a r t y B n o m inee p e r c e i v i n g t h a t what p a r t y A i s w i l l i n g t o a g r e e t o f a l l s o u t s i d e t h e i n i t i a l r a n g e o f n e g o t i a t i n g p o s i t i o n s p r e p a r e d b y p a r t y B, i n s u c h a way a s t o be more a d v a n t a g e o u s t o p a r t y B t h a n t h e m o s t a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h a t i n i t i a l r a n g e , a r e e x t r e m e l y u n l i k e l y i n d e e d , w h e r e a s , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e a f o r e m e n t i o n e d h a p p e n i n g , t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e p a r t y B nominee p e r c e i v i n g t h a t what p a r t y A w i l l a g r e e t o f a l l s o u t s i d e o f p a r t y B's b a r g a i n i n g r a n g e i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f b e i n g l e s s a d v a n t a g e o u s t o p a r t y B t h a n t h e l e a s t a d v a n t a g e o u s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h i s r a n g e i s much g r e a t e r . T h e r e f o r e s i n c e we assume t h a t t h e p a r t y B n o m inee v i e w s h i s t a s k a s b e i n g ( i f i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a c c o m p l i s h w i t h o u t t h e e c o n o m i c p r e s s u r e o f a n a c t u a l s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t ) t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e p a r t y A n o m inee o n t e r m s w h i c h g i v e t h e maximum a d v a n t a g e t o p a r t y B w h i c h p a r t y A i s w i l l i n g t o g r a n t ( i t b e i n g , o f c o u r s e , b y d e f i n i t i o n n e c e s s a r y t o a g r e e m e n t t h a t p a r t y B be w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t t h i s p o s i t i o n o f p a r t y A ) , i t i s f a r more l i k e l y t h a t he w i l l show h i m s e l f t o be t o some e x t e n t i n d e p e n d e n t o f h i s p a r t y i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f b e i n g more c o n c i l i a t o r y b y r e d u c i n g h i s p a r t y ' s demands t h a n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f b e i n g l e s s so b y i n c r e a s i n g them. 48 H y p o t h e s i s 3(vi)« I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , s h o u l d a n o m i n e e i n d i c a t e s u c h c o n c i l i a t o r y i n d e p e n d e n c e  t o t h e c h a i r m a n , t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l a t t e m p t t o g e t t h e o t h e r  n o m inee t o compromise i n t h e same way; a n d t h a t , s h o u l d a  n o m i n e e i n d i c a t e s u c h c o n c i l i a t o r y i n d e p e n d e n c e t o t h e o t h e r  n o m i n e e , t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e w i l l t e n d t o show t h e same k i n d  o f c o n c i l i a t o r y i n d e p e n d e n c e h i m s e l f * H y p o t h e s i s - g r o u p F o u r T h e s e h y p o t h e s e s a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l i m i t a t i o n s t h a t t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o n c i l i -a t i o n B o a r d be a m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n p l a c e s u p o n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c h a i r m a n t o b r i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e m e n t . H y p o t h e s i s 4 ( i ) . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a w r e q u i r e s t h a t t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d h a n d down a d e c i s i o n w h i c h , i n t h e e v e n t o f i t s b e i n g u n a b l e t o a c h i e v e u n a n i m i t y , i s i s s u e d i n t h e f o r m o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , h a s a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t u p o n t h e p r o c e s s a n d outcome o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p r o c e e d i n g s w h i c h i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e g o a l o f a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two n o m i n e e s . ( I t i s assumed t h a t a l a c k o f u n a n i m i t y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e B o a r d r e p o r t w i l l u s u a l l y a n d p r o b a b l y a l m o s t a l w a y s i n v o l v e d i s a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e u n i o n a n d t h e management n o m i n e e s , a n d i t i s assumed f u r t h e r t h a t B o a r d s a r e a l m o s t n e v e r i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g u n a b l e t o a g r e e on a d e c i s i o n . ) I t i s t h e r e f o r e h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , 49 i n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e two n o m i n e e s a r e u n w i l l i n g t o a g r e e . t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e Board, he a  m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n p l a c e s l i m i t a t i o n s u p o n t h e a b i l i t y o f  t h e c h a i r m a n t o p u t p r e s s u r e u p o n t h e two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o  a g r e e . The p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e n o m i n e e s t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n , where u n a n i m i t y i s n o t a c h i e v e d , h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f i s s u i n g a d e c i s i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r e a c h n o minee t o p u t p r e s s u r e u p o n t h e c h a i r m a n t o come t o one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e i r o p p o s e d p o s i t i o n s . I t w o u l d seem t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n ' s a b i l i t y t o i n f l u e n c e e i t h e r o f t h e n o m i n e e s t o come n e a r e r t o h i s p o s i t i o n — w h i c h , i f he v i e w s t h e n a t u r e o f h i s t a s k a s b e i n g t o g e t them t o a g r e e on a c c o m m o d a t i v e g r o u n d s , we may assume t o be most f r e q u e n t l y a p o s i t i o n i n t e r m e d i a t e t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s , m e a n i n g o c c u p y i n g a p o s i t i o n a t some p o i n t b e t w e e n t h e s e p o s i t i o n s — i s a f u n c t i o n o f t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' s v i e w o f t h e r e l a t i v e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e c h a i r m a n ' s p o s i t i o n a n d t h e most t h a t t h e o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i s w i l l i n g t o c o n c e d e . Thus [ w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c o n t r a r y c a s e n o t e d i n H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i i ) ] , t h e n a r r o w e r t h e d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n t h e c h a i r m a n ' s v i e w an d t h a t o f n o m i n e e x, o r t h e more p l a s t i c n ominee x i s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o h i s own p o s i t i o n — i n t h e s e n s e o f b e i n g w i l l i n g t o com-p r o m i s e b y m o v i n g i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e c h a i r m a n ' s p o s i t i o n — t h e g r e a t e r t h e c h a n c e o f t h e c h a i r m a n b e i n g a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e nominee y_, s i n c e we assume t h a t , u n l e s s he h a s had an adamant, uncompromising p o l i c y which he i s w i l l i n g to follow d i c t a t e d to him by h i s party, there i s a desire on the part of each nominee to gain support f o r h i s party by signing the majority report with the chairman. Thus, the chairman's a b i l i t y to b r i n g pressure to bear upon the nominees to change t h e i r p o s i t i o n s i s greater where these p o s i t i o n s are l e s s adamant and more p l a s t i c — t h a t i s , i n those disputes which would, i n t r i n s i c a l l y , o f f e r the greater p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n c i l i a t i o n being achieved—but i n those disputes where the nominees are strongly entrenched and u n w i l l i n g to compromise (that i s , i n disputes where an uncompromising maintenance of t h e i r opposed p o s i t i o n s out-weighs, f o r the p a r t i e s , and hence f o r the nominees, the d e s i r a b i l i t y of i n c l u s i o n i n the majority report, should i t be necessary to choose between them), disputes o f f e r i n g l e s s p o s s i b i l i t y of c o n c i l i a t i o n , h i s a b i l i t y to do so i s weak, and thus h i s a b i l i t y to e f f e c t c o n c i l i a t i o n i s weak. The consequence of t h i s i s that the chairman i s frequently forced to sign a majority report which favours one side or the other, rather than being able to issue one d i s t i n c t l y i d e n t i f i a b l e as h i s , which expresses h i s own d e c i s i o n , a d e c i s i o n which, f o r reasons already put forward, i s very . . 13 l i k e l y to take a more intermediate p o s i t i o n . 13 Several experienced c o n c i l i a t o r s have t o l d the author (although the Labour Relations Act states s p e c i f i c a l l y that the d e c i s i o n of a majority of the members of the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board s h a l l be the d e c i s i o n of the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board) that, 51 H y p o t h e s i s 4 - ( i i ) . I t i s f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d  t h a t , s h o u l d t h e c h a i r m a n v i e w h i s r o l e a s t h a t o f  c o n c i l i a t o r b y n o r m a t i v e means, he w i l l (where t h e n o m i n e e s a r e adamant) be c a p a b l e o f e x e r t i n g e v e n l e s s p r e s s u r e  t o w a r d a g r e e m e n t t h a n t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e l y c o n c i l i a t o r y  c h a i r m a n ( f o r he w i l l s i m p l y be f o r c e d t o s i g n w i t h w h i c h e v e r p a r t y h a p p e n s t o be c l o s e r , i n h i s v i e w , t o t h e p o s i t i o n he f e e l s t h a t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , o r a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t — o r w h a t e v e r n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i o n he i s u s i n g — r e q u i r e s ) . The r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t where t h e n o m i n e e s a p p e a r t o be adamant, t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m a n h a s some c h a n c e o f m o v i n g them t o g e t h e r , t h r o u g h t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n t h e w e l f a r e p f t h e i r p a r t i e s , b e c a u s e he w i l l be l i k e l y t o a d v o c a t e a p o s i t i o n a p p r o x i m a t e l y midway b e t w e e n t h e p o s i t i o n s h e l d b y t h e n o m i n e e s , f o r t h e r e a s o n t h a t t h i s i s t h e one t h a t i s m o s t l i k e l y t o p r o d u c e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s a n d a n i m p r e s s i o n o n t h e i r p a r t o f h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y . A n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , i s , f o r r e a s o n s s h o u l d no two members o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d be a b l e t o a g r e e on t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h a t w i l l c o n s t i t u t e t h e r e p o r t a n d d e c i s i o n o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d , e a c h may s u b m i t a s e p a r a t e r e p o r t . T h e y a d d e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r d i d n o t a p p r o v e o f t h i s p r o c e d u r e b e c a u s e i t w o u l d a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y mean t h a t a n y o r a l l o f t h e t h r e e r e p o r t s w h i c h m i g h t be s u b m i t t e d b y t h e M i n i s t e r f o r a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n b y t h e p a r t i e s w o u l d be r e j e c t e d b y a t l e a s t one o f t h e p a r t i e s , a n d , i n t h e c a s e o f t h e c h a i r m a n ' s r e p o r t — t h i s b e i n g t h e one w h i c h w o u l d be most l i k e l y t o be s u b m i t t e d t o t h e p a r t i e s a s t h e r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d — r e j e c t i o n b y b o t h p a r t i e s w o u l d be v i r t u a l l y c e r t a i n , a s n e i t h e r o f t h e n o m i n e e s h a d f e l t h i m s e l f a b l e t o a p p r o v e t h i s r e p o r t b y s i g n i n g i t w i t h t h e c h a i r m a n . a l r e a d y p u t f o r w a r d , f a r more l i k e l y t o be v i e w e d b y one o f t h e p a r t i e s a s b i a s e d , t h u s p r e c l u d i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s . The p r o b a b l e r e s u l t o f n o r m a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n where n o m i n e e s a r e adamant i s , t h e n , t h a t t h e adamancy o f one n o m i nee w i l l be i n t e n s i f i e d b y what he p e r c e i v e s as t h e c h a i r m a n ' s b i a s , w h i c h w i l l , t h e n , p r e c l u d e t h e two n o m i n e e s s h i f t i n g t h e i r p o s i t i o n s c l o s e r t o a g r e e m e n t ( b e c a u s e what one n o m i nee r e g a r d s a s t h e n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n ' s b i a s a g a i n s t h i m w i l l c e r t a i n l y p r e c l u d e , u n d e r t h e c i r c u m -s t a n c e s o u t l i n e d , h i s c o m p r o m i s i n g i n a n y way, a n d t h e n o m i n e e s u p p o r t e d b y t h e n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n w i l l be u n l i k e l y t o c o m p r o m i s e w i t h o u t e x t r a c t i n g c o u n t e r b a l a n c i n g c o n c e s s i o n s f r o m t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e , b e c a u s e , i t w i l l be remembered, t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e o r i g i n a l adamancy o f t h e n o m i n e e s was a d e s i r e , s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e d e s i r e t o be i n on a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , t o m a i n t a i n t h e b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n o f e a c h p a r t y r e l a t i v e t o t h a t o f t h e o t h e r ) , and w i l l s i m p l y f o r c e t h e c h a i r m a n t o s i g n w i t h t h e n o m i nee c l o s e r t o t h e p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e d b y w h a t e v e r n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a he i s u s i n g — t h a t i s , w i t h t h e nominee r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r t y w h i c h t h e c h a i r m a n b e l i e v e s t o be more i n t h e r i g h t . H y p o t h e s i s F i v e I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n o r d e c i s i o n s  o f a n o t h e r o r o t h e r C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s w i l l i n f l u e n c e t h e d e c i s i o n o f a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d w h i c h i s i n s e s s i o n i n t h e 53 d i r e c t i o n o f i t s being; s i m i l a r t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e  c h a i r m a n a n d one o r b o t h o f t h e n o m i n e e s c o n c e r n e d p e r c e i v e  t h e two d i s p u t e s t o be c o m p a r a b l e . I t i s assumed, i n o t h e r w o r d s , t h a t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t p a t t e r n s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r v a r i o u s t r a d e s a n d i n d u s t r i e s b y C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , a n d t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , when a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t d i s p u t e a r i s e s i n t h e s e t r a d e s o r i n d u s t r i e s , o r i n t r a d e s o r i n d u s t r i e s r e g a r d e d a s c o m p a r a b l e , t h e r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n c i l i a t e t h i s d i s p u t e w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e p a t t e r n . H y p o t h e s i s S i x I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , a u n a n i m o u s  r e p o r t w i l l be more l i k e l y t o be a c c e p t e d b y b o t h o f t h e  d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s t h a n w i l l a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , w h i c h i s  l i k e l y t o be r e j e c t e d b y t h e m i n o r i t y p a r t y . T h i s i s assumed t o be so f o r t h r e e r e a s o n s . The f i r s t i s t h a t , p r e s u m a b l y , i f t h e p a r t y r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e nominee who s u b m i t s t h e m i n o r i t y r e p o r t h a d f e l t t h e m s e l v e s t o be i n a p o s i t i o n where t h e y c o u l d a g r e e w i t h t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s p u t f o r w a r d b y t h e c h a i r m a n and t h e nominee r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o t h e r p a r t y t o t h e d i s p u t e , t h e n t h e r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d w o u l d h a v e b e e n u n a n i m o u s . I t i s assumed ( f o r r e a s o n s m e n t i o n e d above i n H y p o t h e s i s - g r o u p F o u r ) t h a t when t h e two n o m i n e e s a r e u n a b l e t o come t o a g r e e m e n t on t h e i s s u e s i n d i s p u t e , t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l f r e q u e n t l y he f o r c e d t o s i g n a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t t h a t w i l l f a v o u r t h e p a r t y o f t h e nominee who s i g n s t h e r e p o r t w i t h h i m , a n d t h a t w i l l h e n c e he l i k e l y t o he u n a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e p a r t y o f t h e n o m i nee who s u b m i t t e d t h e m i n o r i t y r e p o r t . The s e c o n d i s t h a t i t i s assumed t h a t , a s i n t h e c a s e o f a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f e a c h o f t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s h a v e b e e n a b l e , i n c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p a r t i e s , t o f i n d a m u t u a l l y - s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n t o e a c h o f t h e i s s u e s i n d i s p u t e , i t i s e x t r e m e l y p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e p a r t i e s w i l l a g r e e t o t h e u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t . The t h i r d i s t h a t a p a r t y t h a t r e j e c t e d a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t w o u l d , i t i s f e l t , weaken i t s b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n b y a p p e a r i n g u n r e a s o n a b l y i n t r a n -s i g e n t , a n d t h i s f a c t o r , a d d e d t o t h a t m e n t i o n e d above o f t h e p r o b a b l e a c c e p t a b i l i t y , o w i n g t o t h e i r g e n e s i s , o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , i s assumed t o p r o d u c e i n t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s , a c c e p t a n c e o f a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t b y b o t h p a r t i e s . I I . R e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e H y p o t h e s e s i n t o a More U n i f i e d A n a l y t i c C o n c e p t i o n I t was f e l t t h a t t h e f o r e g o i n g h y p o t h e s e s c o u l d be s y n t h e s i z e d i n t o a more u n i f i e d a n a l y t i c c o n c e p t i o n b y — i n a d d i t i o n t o r e g a r d i n g them a l l as c o n c e r n e d w i t h f a c t o r s e x e r c i s i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e u p o n t h e p r o c e s s an d outcome o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l — c a t e g o r i z i n g them i n t e r m s o f t h e s o u r c e o f t h e f a c t o r . T h r e e c a t e g o r i e s a r e e n v i s a g e d . A. E x t e r n a l F a c t o r s . T h e s e c o n s i s t o f f a c t o r s h y p o t h e s i z e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n s a n d i n t e r -a c t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l ( a p a r t f r o m t h a t c l a s s o f f a c t o r s c i t e d i n c a t e g o r y C b e l o w ) t h a t o r i g i n a t e , a n d o p e r a t e f r o m , o u t s i d e t h e g r o u p ("the g r o u p " b e i n g t h e t h r e e - m a n C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d ) , i n c l u d i n g t h e l e g a l , o r i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e q u i r e m e n t s p e r t a i n i n g t o C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . B. I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s . T h e s e c o n s i s t o f f a c t o r s , h y p o t h e s i z e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n s a n d i n t e r -a c t i o n o f B o a r d p e r s o n n e l , t h a t o r i g i n a t e w i t h i n t h e g r o u p and o p e r a t e f r o m i n s i d e i t , a n d t h a t a r e d i s t i n c t f r o m t h a t c l a s s o f f a c t o r s c i t e d i n c a t e g o r y C b e l o w i n t h a t t h e a u t h o r i s u n a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h e i r o r i g i n i n a n y s p e c i f i c r o l e o r r o l e s a p a r t f r o m t h e r o l e , c u r r e n t l y o c c u p i e d b y t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s c a p a c i t y a s a p a r t i c u l a r C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d member. I t i s o b v i o u s , h o w e v e r , t h a t , a s some o f t h e b e h a v i o u r t r e a t e d i n t h e s e f a c t o r s — s u c h a s , f o r e x a m p l e , t h e n o r m a t i v e a n d a c c o m m o d a t i v e r o l e s o f t h e c h a i r m a n — w i l l s p r i n g i n l a r g e measure f r o m p r e d i s p o s i t i o n s b r o u g h t t o t h e B o a r d , i t c a n n o t , t h e r e f o r e , s t r i c t l y be r e g a r d e d a s o r i g i n a t i n g " w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . " However, as a n y p r e d i s -p o s i t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e f a c t o r s a r e t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m " e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s " i n t h a t t h e y o p e r a t e f r o m , and a r e 56 brought to the group by, the i n d i v i d u a l Board member, and are to be d i s t i n g u i s h e d from " o t h e r - r o l e f a c t o r s " i n t h a t they cannot be t i e d t o any s p e c i f i c r o l e other than t h a t c u r r e n t l y occupied by each i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a p a r t i c u l a r C o n c i l i a t i o n Board member, i t seems expedient to subsume such f a c t o r s under the r u b r i c of " i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s " . C. Ot h e r - r o l e F a c t o r s . These c o n s i s t of r o l e - " conceptions or other f a c t o r s r e l e v a n t to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s behaviour t h a t o r i g i n a t e i n r o l e s (other than h i s c u r r e n t r o l e as a p a r t i c u l a r member of the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board) which the i n d i v i d u a l occupies or has occupied, and which, i t i s hypo t h e s i z e d , are manifested i n the r o l e - c o n c e p t i o n s and behaviour of the i n d i v i d u a l C o n c i l i a t i o n Board member. A. E x t e r n a l F a c t o r s 1. P u b l i c Opinion a) The e f f e c t on the nominees of a n t i c i p a t i o n of i t s support f o r the r e p o r t of the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board [Hypothesis 2 ( v ) ] . b) S i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n t i a l as, .in the case of the employer who s e l l s goods or s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y to the p u b l i c , a response to the inconvenience of a s t r i k e or lo c k o u t [Hypothesis 2 ( v i ) ( a ) ] ; s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n t i a l as a source of p o t e n t i a l r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n [Hypothesis 2 ( v i ) ( b ) ] . c) , In r e l a t i o n to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the n o r m a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i i ) ] . d) I t s e f f e c t on t h e c h a i r m a n ' s r o l e -p e r c e p t i o n [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i i i ) ] . e ) I t s e f f e c t o n nominee r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e a v o i d a n c e o f e x a g g e r a t e d p o s i t i o n s [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i x ) ] . B a r g a i n i n g Power a) The e f f e c t o f p a r t y b a r g a i n i n g - p o w e r on nominee r o l e - p r e f e r e n c e w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c h a i r m a n [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i ) ] . b ) The e f f e c t o f t h e r e l a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g power o f t h e p a r t i e s on t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n where a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t i s n o t m a t e r i a l i z i n g [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i i ) ] . The e f f e c t o f a h i s t o r y o f h o s t i l e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s ( i n a n i n d u s t r y v u l n e r a b l e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n ) o n t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c h a i r m a n [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x ) ] . Nominee p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p r e s s , a n d i t s i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r b e h a v i o u r [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i i ) ] . The e f f e c t o f c ommunity s i z e o n nominee r o l e -p e r c e p t i o n s [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i i i ) ] . 58 6. The e f f e c t o f t h e t o n e o f p a s t b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s on t h e t y p e o f n o m inee c h o s e n [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i v ) ] . 7. Use b y t h e c h a i r m a n o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e p a r t i e s a s a l e v e r t o a g r e e m e n t [ H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i ) ] . 8. H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) s t a t e s t h a t f a c t o r s ( a ) , ( b ) , and ( c ) ( c i t e d i n i t ) a r e t h e d e c i s i v e o n e s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e outcome o f t h e c h a i r m a n ' s e f f o r t s t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e two n o m i n e e s . As f a c t o r s ( a ) a n d ( c ) b e l o n g i n t h e " E x t e r n a l " c a t e g o r y , a n d f a c t o r ( b ) i n t h e " I n t e r n a l " c a t e g o r y , H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) i t s e l f i s c l a s s i f i a b l e i n i t s e n t i r e t y i n n e i t h e r o f t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s . F a c t o r s ( a ) a n d ( c ) a r e g i v e n b e l o w ; f a c t o r ( b ) i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e " I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s " c a t e g o r y w h i c h f o l l o w s t h e p r e s e n t s e c t i o n . a) The l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t y - n o m i n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e g o a l o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s i n t h a t i t r e s u l t s i n i n t e r - p a r t y c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e p o s i t i o n of- e a c h [ H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) ( a ) ] . c ) The l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t y - n o m i n a t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e g o a l o f n o m i n e e s r e a c h i n g o r a p p r o a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t i n t h a t i t i n t r o d u c e s t h e f a c t o r o f p a r t i s a n s h i p [ H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) ( c ) ] . 9. The e f f e c t o f n ominee p a r t i s a n s h i p o n h i s q u e s t i o n i n g - t e c h n i q u e [ H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i i ) ] . 1 0. The e f f e c t o f t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t y -a p p o i n t e d n o m i n e e s on nominee r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n [ H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i i i ) ] • 1 1 . P a r t y e v a l u a t i o n o f nominee p e r f o r m a n c e i n t e r m s o f t h e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d i n H y p o t h e s e s 3 ( i ) ( a ) a n d 3 ( i ) ( c ) a b o v e , and t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n o n nominee b e h a v i o u r [ H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i v ) ] . 12. The e f f e c t o f t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t o n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m a n t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s [ H y p o t h e s i s 4 ( i ) ] . 13. The e f f e c t o f t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s [ H y p o t h e s i s 4 ( i i ) ] . 14. The e f f e c t o f d e c i s i o n s o f o t h e r C o n c i l i a t i o n 60 Boards on the role-conceptions, behaviour, and deci s i o n of the personnel of an operating C o n c i l i a t i o n Board [Hypothesis F i v e ] . 15. Hypothesis S i x proposes that there i s a greater l i k e l i h o o d that a unanimous report w i l l be accepted by both p a r t i e s than w i l l a majority report, which i s l i k e l y to be rejected by the party whose nominee submitted a minority report; i t i s assumed that t h i s w i l l operate as a pressure upon the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board personnel to agree upon a unanimous report, because, presumably, they consider the most desirable f u l f i l m e n t of t h e i r r o l e s as being to produce a report s a t i s f a c t o r y t o , and hence accepted by, both p a r t i e s , and a -unanimous report usually stands the best chance of being so. Internal Factors 1. The existence of the normative and the accommodative ro l e s of the chairman [Hypothesis 2 ( i ) ] . 2. The e f f e c t of the normatively-oriented chairman on the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s of the two nominees [Hypothesis 2 ( i i ) ] . 61 3» The e f f e c t of the support of the normatively-oriented chairman on the r e l a t i v e intransigence of a nominee when he has been given l i t t l e bargaining room by h i s party, as opposed to when he has been given a good deal of bargaining room by h i s party [Hypothesis 2 ( i i i ) ] . 4. The r e l a t i v e i n a b i l i t y of the normatively-oriented chairman to achieve agreement between the nominees [Hypothesis 2 ( i v ) ] . 5. The use of normative c r i t e r i a by accommodatively-oriented chairmen [Hypothesis 2(xv)]. 6. The e f f e c t of the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of the chairman to the behaviour of nominee A on the behaviour of nominee B [Hypothesis 2 ( x v i ) ] . 7. The tendency f o r the chairman, i n the event that unanimity i s not achieved, to sign more frequently with the employer nominee [Hypothesis 2 ( x i x ) ] . 8. The chairman's p r o v i s i o n to the nominees of avenues of r e t r e a t to p o s i t i o n s c l o s e r to agreement [Hypothesis 3 ( i ) ( b ) ] . 9 . The d i r e c t i o n of nominee independence of party desires [Hypothesis 3 ( v ) ] . 62 10. The e f f e c t o f n o m inee i n d e p e n d e n c e o f p a r t y -d e s i r e s u p o n t h e c h a i r m a n a n d u p o n t h e o t h e r n ominee [ H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( v i ) ] . C. O t h e r - r o l e F a c t o r s 1. The e f f e c t o f t h e a c a d e m i c o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e u p o n t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y o f t h e c h a i r m a n [ H y p o t h e s i s l ( i ) ] . 2. The a n t i - u n i o n b i a s o f r e t i r e d p e r s o n s who s e r v e o n C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s [ H y p o t h e s i s l ( i i ) ] . 3 . The e f f e c t u p o n t h e i m p a r t i a l i t y o f l a w y e r -c h a i r m e n o f t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l a w y e r s w i t h t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c v a l u e s o f e m p l o y e r s [ H y p o t h e s i s l ( i i i ) ] . 4. The e f f e c t o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e o f t h e l a w y e r u p o n t h e a b i l i t y o f a l a w y e r - n o m i n e e t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m inee [ H y p o t h e s i s l ( i v ) ] . 5. The e f f e c t o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a s a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m a n o n a c h a i r m a n ' s a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s [ H y p o t h e s i s l ( v ) ] . 6. The e f f e c t o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a s a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d n o m i n e e o n a n o m i n e e ' s a b i l i t y to reach, agreement with the other nominee [Hypothesis l ( v i ) j . 7. The e f f e c t of previous experience as a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board nominee on a nominee's a b i l i t y to sign a Board report that i s to h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n [Hypothesis l ( v i i ) ] . 8. The e f f e c t of a chairman's f a m i l i a r i t y with the trade or industry involved i n the dispute (gained, presumably, as a r e s u l t of h i s involvement i n some ro l e other than that of chairman of an operating C o n c i l i a t i o n Board) upon h i s a b i l i t y to achieve agreement between the two nominees [Hypothesis l ( v i i i ) ] . 9 . The e f f e c t of a nominee's f a m i l i a r i t y with the trade or industry involved i n the dispute (gained, presumably, as a r e s u l t of h i s involvement i n some ro l e other than that of a nominee on an operating C o n c i l i a t i o n Board) upon h i s a b i l i t y to protect the i n t e r e s t s and welfare of h i s party [Hypothesis l ( i x ) ] . 10. The e f f e c t of the membership of a chairman and a nominee i n the same occupational and s o c i a l c lass upon the speed with which they are able to reach agreement [Hypothesis l ( x ) ] . 1 1 . The e f f e c t o f t h e membership o f a c h a i r m a n a n d a nominee i n t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s u p o n t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e i r i s s u i n g , s h o u l d u n a n i m i t y n o t be a c h i e v e d , t h e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t [ H y p o t h e s i s l ( x i ) ] . CHAPTER I I I THE TESTING OP THE HYPOTHESES I . The T e s t i n g T e c h n i q u e and t h e R a t i o n a l e f o r i t s S e l e c t i o n The t e s t i n g t e c h n i q u e w i t h t h e s t r o n g e s t i n i t i a l a p p e a l f o r t h e a u t h o r was t h a t o f t h e s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e ; q u e s t i o n s w o u l d he d e s i g n e d a s t e s t s o f e a c h h y p o t h e s i s , t h e s e w o u l d he a d m i n i s t e r e d t o e a c h s u b j e c t v e r b a l l y , a n d h i s r e s p o n s e s r e c o r d e d . The s t a n d a r d i z e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was r e g a r d e d i n i t i a l l y a s t h e i d e a l i n s t r u m e n t f o r t e s t i n g t h e f o r e g o i n g h y p o t h e s e s b e c a u s e i t was f e l t t h a t i t p o s s e s s e d t h r e e a d v a n t a g e s : e n g e n d e r i n g , t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t , t h e r a p p o r t i m p o s s i b l e i n m a i l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i t h e n c e , f i r s t l y , was l i k e l y t o r e d u c e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r e f u s a l s i n t h e s a m p l e , a s w e l l a s , s e c o n d l y , t o p r o m p t a " r i c h e r " r e s p o n s e t h a n c o u l d g e n e r a l l y be e x p e c t e d f r o m a m a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a n d , t h i r d l y , i t w o u l d y i e l d , t h r o u g h i t s s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , s t r i c t l y c o m p a r a b l e d a t a i m p o s s i b l e t o o b t a i n f r o m " o p e n - e n d e d " i n t e r v i e w s , w h i c h d e v e l o p i n a d i s c u r s i v e a n d r e l a t i v e l y u n p r e m e d i t a t e d manner. An i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e was d e v e l o p e d , a n d a d m i n i s t e r e d t o f i v e p e r s o n s who h a d s e r v e d n u m e r o u s t i m e s o n C o n c i l i a t i o n 65 66 J B o a r d s . T h i s was a n e x p l o r a t o r y v e n t u r e d e s i g n e d t o t e s t , on a v e r y c r u d e a n d g e n e r a l b u t , i t was h o p e d , i n f o r m a t i v e l e v e l , t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e k i n d o f r e a s o n i n g a n d a n a l y s i s w h i c h u n d e r l a y t h e h y p o t h e s e s , a s w e l l as t o a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e , i n a r a t h e r r u d i m e n t a r y f a s h i o n , t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c o m p l e t e l y p r e d e t e r m i n e d i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e a s a n i n s t r u m e n t f o r t e s t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s e s . I t became q u i c k l y a p p a r e n t t h a t i t was an i n s t r u m e n t u n s u i t e d t o i t s t a s k ; i n d e e d , i t p o s s e s s e d two d e f e c t s s u f f i c i e n t l y s e r i o u s t o p r e c l u d e i t s u s e . The f i r s t was t h a t t h e amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d o f e a c h r e s p o n d e n t i n o r d e r t h a t a p p r o x i -m a t e l y f o r t y h y p o t h e s e s be a d e q u a t e l y t e s t e d was so c o n s i d e r -a b l e t h a t , f o r e x a m p l e , e i g h t h o u r s was r e q u i r e d t o go t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e w i t h t h e one r e s p o n d e n t w i t h whom t h e a u t h o r c o m p l e t e d i t , a n d t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o a d m i n i s t e r p o r t i o n s o f i t t o t h e f o u r o t h e r r e s p o n d e n t s u s e d a t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e r e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t ' a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same amount o f t i m e w o u l d h a v e b e e n r e q u i r e d t o o b t a i n a c o m p l e t e r e s p o n s e t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e f r o m them. The s e c o n d d e f e c t was t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s showed i n a l l c a s e s a t e n d e n c y t o a n s w e r s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s i n a d i s c u r s i v e , a n e c d o t a l manner w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y d i d n o t p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n d e s i r e d . T h i s t e n d e n c y was, o f c o u r s e , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t i m e r e q u i r e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e s c h e d u l e , b u t i t was o b v i o u s l y i m p o s s i b l e e v e n t o a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t i t w i t h o u t t h e . l o s s o f t h e r a p p o r t e s s e n t i a l t o f r u i t f u l i n t e r v i e w i n g o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r t y p e i n v o l v e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e s e d e f e c t s i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s c h e d u l e . a s a r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t , t h e e x p l o r a t o r y i n t e r -v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e r e v i s i o n o f a number o f h y p o t h e s e s , t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f some, a n d t h e a d d i t i o n o f o t h e r s . Hence a d i f f e r e n t m e t h o d o f t e s t i n g t h e h y p o t h e s e s o b v i o u s l y h a d t o be f o u n d . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p e a r e d t o be t h e o n l y p r a c t i c a b l e m e t h o d o f o b t a i n i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d , c o m p a r a b l e d a t a f o r a l a r g e number o f h y p o t h e s e s f r o m r e s p o n d e n t s who were, i t was a ssumed, e x t r e m e l y b u s y a n d u n a b l e t o p r o v i d e a n i n t e r v i e w e r , e x c e p t p e r h a p s o v e r a p r o h i b i t i v e l y l o n g p e r i o d o f many weeks, w i t h t h e s u b s t a n t i a l amount o f t i m e t h a t w o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o c o n v e y t h e d e s i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . A q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t h e r e f o r e d e s i g n e d , a n d r e v i s e d s e v e r a l t i m e s u n t i l i t seemed r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y I t was t h e n s u b m i t t e d , a s a p r e - t e s t , t o two p e r s o n s who h a d s e r v e d on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , and t o a t h i r d , a C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r who h a d n e v e r h i m s e l f s e r v e d o n a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d b u t who h a d a v e r y e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e B o a r d s . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s p r e - t e s t p r o m p t e d t h e f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n o f some h y p o t h e s e s , a n d t h e a d d i t i o n o f some, as w e l l a s t h e r e v i s i o n o f a number o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h were ambiguous o r i n a d e q u a t e i n o t h e r r e s p e c t When c o m p l e t e d , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was f o r t y - f o u r p a g e s i n l e n g t h a n d c o n s i s t e d o f one h u n d r e d s i x t e e n q u e s t i o n s , s e v e r a l of them m u l t i p l e . I t was evident t h a t such a document would i n v o l v e s u f f i c i e n t work as to r e s u l t , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , i n a s u b s t a n t i a l sample l o s s from uncompleted q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . However, the o n l y way i n which i t c o u l d be shortened was t o abandon a l a r g e number of the c h e r i s h e d hypotheses; t h i s the author was u n w i l l i n g t o do, d e c i d i n g r a t h e r to gamble upon being able to persuade a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n 14 of the sample, t o complete i t as t o provide an adequate t e s t . I t was hoped t h a t l e a v i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h respondents f o r s e v e r a l weeks would enable them—busy as they were and l o n g as the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s — t o complete i t by working at i t - i n a piecemeal f a s h i o n , a few questions at a time. 14 The sense i n which the q u e s t i o n n a i r e " t e s t e d " the hypotheses r e q u i r e s q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n the p e j o r a t i v e d i r e c t i o n , as d i d the meaning of the term "hypothesis" before i t . As w i l l be r e c a l l e d , i t was decided t h a t e x p l o r a t o r y study on a broad f r o n t was t o be p r e f e r r e d t o study i n depth i n a few areas, i n order t h a t as much as p o s s i b l e of i n t e r e s t and s i g n i f i c a n c e be uncovered or suggested. What the • q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n e f f e c t d i d was to ask a number of persons who had had experience on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards whether or not the hypotheses made sense, or h e l d t r u e , i n the l i g h t of t h e i r own experience. This i s , of course, i n comparison w i t h more o b j e c t i v e and experimental techniques, a r a t h e r rudimentary way of t e s t i n g hypotheses, f o r i t d e a l s e n t i r e l y i n impressions or c o n c e p t i o n s — i n what people t h i n k i s the case. I t i s , i n the author's o p i n i o n , p e r f e c t l y a p p r o p r i a t e to an e x p l o r a t o r y study such as the present one, but the reader i s cautioned t h a t , w h i l e the data which i t p r o v i d e d are i n f o r m a t i v e and s u g g e s t i v e , they cannot be regarded as c o n s t i t u t i n g a r e l i a b l e o b j e c t i v e t e s t of the v a l i d i t y of the f o r e g o i n g hypotheses. Therefore g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s may be made, and c o n c l u s i o n s reached, onl y w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e c a u t i o n and t e n t a t i v e n e s s . A more r i g o r o u s t e s t i n g technique would be e s s e n t i a l . t o e s t a b l i s h i n g them w i t h any c e r t a i n t y . 69 A number o f o t h e r s t r a t e g e m s were a d o p t e d t o a t t e m p t t o m i n i m i z e t h e a n t i c i p a t e d sample l o s s . E v e r y i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e sample was t e l e p h o n e d p e r s o n a l l y and a d d r e s s e d a s f o l l o w s : My name i s I a n C u r r i e , Mr. . I'm a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y , and I'm d o i n g a n M.A. t h e s i s on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I was d i s c u s s i n g them w i t h Mr. F r a s e r 1 - ? a t t h e B. C. D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , a n d he s u g g e s t e d t h a t i f I were t o g e t i n t o u c h w i t h y o u , t h a t y o u m i g h t be w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s y o u r e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e B o a r d s w i t h me. E v e r y member o f t h e sample c o n t a c t e d b y phone t h e n a g r e e d t o d i s c u s s t h e B o a r d s w i t h me, b u t t h e v a s t m a j o r i t y went o n t o s a y e i t h e r t h a t t h e y were c o m p l e t e l y t i e d up a t p r e s e n t , a n d w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o g i v e me a n a p p o i n t m e n t u n t i l s e v e r a l d a y s o r e v e n weeks h e n c e , o r t h a t t h e y were e n t i r e l y p l e a s e d a n d w i l l i n g t o d i s c u s s t h e B o a r d s w i t h me, b u t were s o b u s y t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t a t p r e s e n t g i v e me a n a p p o i n t m e n t . I c o n t i n u e d : W e l l , I h a d assumed t h a t y o u ' d be p r e t t y b u s y , so t o make i t a s c o n v e n i e n t f o r y o u as I c a n I' v e s i m p l y w r i t t e n down a l l o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t I ' d l i k e y o u r comments a n d o p i n i o n s o n, an d i f I c o u l d j u s t d r o p t h a t o f f a t y o u r o f f i c e f o r y o u , I c o u l d j u s t l e a v e . i t w i t h y o u , a n d y o u c o u l d l o o k i t o v e r a t y o u r c o n v e n i e n c e and do i t b i t b y b i t w h e n e v e r y o u h a p p e n t o h a v e t h e t i m e . 15 Mr. W i l l i a m F r a s e r i s t h e C h i e f C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r a t t h e V a n c o u v e r o f f i c e o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B r a n c h o f t h e B. C. D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r . P u r e l y i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c e v i d e n c e s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t s t h a t he i s a man h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d b y b o t h l a b o u r a n d management i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . Every member of the sample contacted agreed to this.. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w i t h the name of the respondent on i t on a detachable t a g , as w e l l as the name, address, and telephone number of the author, along w i t h a statement i d e n t i f y i n g the document as being i n connection w i t h a t h e s i s on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards, was then d e l i v e r e d p e r s o n a l l y to the home or o f f i c e of each respondent. A f t e r a respondent had had the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n h i s p o s s e s s i o n f o r approximately two weeks, he was telephoned, and, i f he had not completed i t , was asked to suggest a date on which the author might again check w i t h him. Many respondents were telephoned f o u r or more times i n t h i s f a s h i o n . When q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed they were, i f p o s s i b l e , p i c k e d up p e r s o n a l l y . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d between J u l y 14th and J u l y 26th, and on August 22nd, a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r was w r i t t e n to each of the respondents who had not by t h a t date com-p l e t e d t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , u r g i n g them to t r y t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e by August 3 1 s t , as a f t e r t h a t date i t would not be p o s s i b l e to use i t f o r the t h e s i s . Thus, at every stage of the process of d i s t r i b u t i n g and c o l l e c t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , an attempt was made to maximize p e r s o n a l contact w i t h respondents, i n an e f f o r t to reduce the sample l o s s which, i t was assumed, would be occasioned by the l e n g t h and complexity of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I I . The Sample The sample was drawn f r o m a f i l e i n t h e V a n c o u v e r o f f i c e o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B r a n c h o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m h i a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r . T h i s f i l e r e c o r d e d t h e names, a d d r e s s e s , a n d p o s i t i o n on t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d ( t h a t i s , u n i o n n o m i n e e , e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e , o r c h a i r m a n ) o f a l l p e r s o n n e l who h a d s e r v e d on a l l o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s c o n s t i t u t e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b e t w e e n J a n u a r y o f 1 9 5 9 a n d June o f I960; t h e f i l e was n o t m a i n t a i n e d f a r t h e r b a c k t h a n one y e a r p r i o r t o t h e c u r r e n t y e a r b e c a u s e t h e V a n c o u v e r o f f i c e i s m e r e l y a b r a n c h o f f i c e , a n d a c o m p l e t e f i l e e x i s t s a t t h e h e a d o f f i c e i n V i c t o r i a . The names o f a l l o f t h e s e p e r s o n s who r e s i d e d i n t h e G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r a r e a c o n s t i t u t e d t h e s a m p l e . Two C o n c i l i a t i o n O f f i c e r s a n d two e x p e r i e n c e d C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d members a s s u r e d t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r t h a t t h i s sample i n c l u d e d t h e names o f v i r t u a l l y a l l t h e e x p e r i e n c e d c o n c i l i a t o r s who h a d s e r v e d on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n r e c e n t y e a r s , a n d t h e y augmented t h i s l i s t w i t h a f e w s u p p l e m e n t a r y names. The sample c o n s i s t e d o f one h u n d r e d t h i r t e e n p e r s o n s . Of t h e s e , i t p r o v e d i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t a c t f o u r t e e n d u r i n g t h e two-week p e r i o d i n w h i c h a t t e m p t s were made t o do s o , a b s e n c e f r o m t h e c i t y a s t h e r e s u l t o f v a c a t i o n s b e i n g t h e p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n ; one s t a t e d t h a t he h a d s e r v e d o n l y o n A r b i t r a t i o n B o a r d s a n d t h a t t h e r e c o r d s , i n i n c l u d i n g h i s name, were t h e r e f o r e i n e r r o r ; and seven s t a t e d t h a t they would he q u i t e w i l l i n g to d i s c u s s C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards w i t h the author, but t h a t , as they had served on only one Board, they doubted whether such l i m i t e d experience c o u l d r e s u l t i n i n f o r m a t i o n l i k e l y to prove u s e f u l , and f o r t h i s reason i t was decided not to ask them to serve as respondents This meant t h a t , of the o r i g i n a l one hundred t h i r t e e n p o t e n t i a l respondents, twenty-two were t o be dispensed w i t h , l e a v i n g a t o t a l of ninety-one persons to whom q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a c t u a l l y d e l i v e r e d . These ninety-one accounted f o r themselves i n the f o l l o w i n g way: two r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e incomplete on the grounds t h a t they were too busy t o complete i t ; one had never served on a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board, but o n l y on A r b i t r a t i o n Boards; two r e t u r n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e incomplete, without e x p l a n a t i o n ; f o u r s t a t e d t h a t they were too busy t o complete i t , and d i d not r e t u r n i t ; one d i e d before he had completed i t ; t h r e e , a f t e r examining the q u e s t i o n s , concluded t h a t t h e i r experience was i n s u f f i c i e n t to permit them to answer the questions (two had served on two Boards each, and the t h i r d on one Board); one had served o n l y on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards d e a l i n g w i t h d i s p u t e s i n v o l v i n g policemen and firemen, and, as the d e c i s i o n s of these Boards are l e g a l l y b i n d i n g (and t h e r e f o r e experience on them i s not comparable to experience on standard C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards), he f e l t , q u i t e c o r r e c t l y , t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h which he c o u l d supply me c o u l d not be 73 p e r t i n e n t t o my c o n c e r n s ; t w e n t y - n i n e s t a t e d , t h e l a s t t i m e t h a t t h e y were c o n t a c t e d b y t e l e p h o n e p r i o r t o A u g u s t 3 1 s t , e i t h e r t h a t t h e y h a d b e g u n i t a n d were i n t h e p r o c e s s o f a t t e m p t i n g t o c o m p l e t e i t a s r a p i d l y a s t h e i r f r e e t i m e w o u l d p e r m i t , o r t h a t t h e y w o u l d a t t e m p t t o b e g i n a n d c o m p l e t e i t a s s o o n as p o s s i b l e , b u t h a d n o t , b y A u g u s t 3 1 s t , a r r a n g e d f o r i t t o r e a c h me; and f o r t y - e i g h t were r e t u r n e d t o me c o m p l e t e d . The f o r e g o i n g i n f o r m a t i o n a p p e a r s i n T a b l e I a n d T a b l e I I b e l o w . TABLE I P o t e n t i a l Sample 113 No C o n t a c t 14 N e v e r s e r v e d on a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d 1 S e r v e d on o n l y one C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d 7 T o t a l L o s s f r o m P o t e n t i a l Sample 22 16 T h e s e e n t r i e s mean t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s a m ple was a c t u a l l y one h u n d r e d t e n , r a t h e r t h a n one h u n d r e d t h i r t e e n p e r s o n s , a s t h e y do n o t b e l o n g i n i t . 74 TABLE I I T o t a l D i s t r i b u t e d 91 (113 m i n u s 22) R e t u r n e d i n c o m p l e t e ; t o o b u s y t o c o m p l e t e i t l 9 2 N e v e r s e r v e d on a C o n c i l i a t i o n Boardl7 1 R e t u r n e d i n c o m p l e t e ; no e x p l a n a t i o n ^ O 2 U n r e t u r n e d ; t o o b u s y t o c o m p l e t e i t 4 D i e d b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g i t 1 I n s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r i e n c e t o c o m p l e t e i t 2 1 • 3 S e r v e d o n l y on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t h e d e c i s i o n s o f w h i c h were b i n d i n g l S ' 1 F a i l e d t o c o m p l e t e i t b y t h e d e a d l i n e 29 T o t a l L o s s f r o m A c t u a l Sample 43 T o t a l C o m p l e t e l y U s e a b l e Sample 48. . 17 T h e s e e n t r i e s mean t h a t t h e o r i g i n a l s a m p l e was a c t u a l l y one h u n d r e d t e n , r a t h e r t h a n one h u n d r e d t h i r t e e n p e r s o n s , a s t h e y do n o t b e l o n g i n i t . 18 L o c . c i t . 19 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s were t a b u l a t e d f o r t h o s e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e y h a d c o m p l e t e d , a n d t a b u l a t e d u n d e r t h e " N o n - r e s p o n s e " c a t e g o r y f o r t h o s e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e y d i d n o t h a v e c o m p l e t e d . 20 L o c . c i t . 21 L o c . c i t . 75 Of t h e f o r t y - e i g h t c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 22 r e t u r n e d , t w e n t y - o n e were f r o m men who h a d s e r v e d o n l y a s u n i o n n o m i n e e s ; t w e n t y - t w o were f r o m e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , 24-a n d f i v e were f r o m c h a i r m e n . I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e f a c t t h a t , o f t h e p o t e n t i a l s a m p le o f one h u n d r e d t e n c o n c i l i a t o r s , t h e a u t h o r o b t a i n e d c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s f r o m f o r t y - e i g h t , o r f o r t y - t h r e e p o i n t s i x p e r c e n t , b u t f a i l e d t o o b t a i n them f r o m s i x t y - t w o , o r f i f t y - t h r e e p o i n t f o u r p e r c e n t , i t i s l e g i t i m a t e t o q u e s t i o n t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 22 S e v e n r e s p o n d e n t s r e t u r n e d p a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s , a n d t h o s e q u e s t i o n s w h i c h t h e y a n s w e r e d were i n c l u d e d i n t h e t a b u l a t i o n s done on t h e f o r t y - e i g h t c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n -n a i r e s . 27) Of t h e t w e n t y - t w o e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , s e v e n t e e n h a d s e r v e d o n l y a s e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s ; one h a d s e r v e d t w i c e a s a c h a i r m a n , as w e l l ;as t w i c e a s a u n i o n n o m i n e e , b u t , a s he h a d s e r v e d s i x t y t i m e s a s a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e , he was c l a s s i f i e d a s s u c h ; one h a d s e r v e d f i v e t i m e s a s a u n i o n n o m i n e e , b u t , a s he h a d . s e r v e d s i x t i m e s a s a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e , he was c l a s s i f i e d — a d m i t t e d l y r a t h e r a r b i t r a r i l y — a s s u c h ; one h a d s e r v e d t e n t i m e s a s a c h a i r m a n , once a s a u n i o n n o m i n e e , a n d t e n t i m e s a s a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e , an d b e c a u s e , o f t h e l a w y e r s i n t h e o r i g i n a l sample o f one h u n d r e d t e n p e r s o n s , a l m o s t a l l who a p p e a r e d a s n o m i n e e s a p p e a r e d f o r e m p l o y e r s , i t was d e c i d e d , somewhat a r b i t r a r i l y , p e r h a p s , t o c l a s s i f y t h i s man, a l a w y e r , a s a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e ; an d one, w h i l e he h a d s e r v e d o n e " h u n d r e d t i m e s a s a u n i o n nominee a n d o n l y t h i r t y - f i v e t i m e s a s a n e m p l o y e r n o minee ( a s w e l l a s once a s a c h a i r m a n ) , was c l a s s i f i e d a s a n e m p l o y e r nominee b e c a u s e he h a s i n r e c e n t y e a r s s e r v e d a s a l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c o n s u l t a n t t o c e r t a i n f i r m s , and h i s sym--p a t h i e s a r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be w i t h e m p l o y e r s , i t b e i n g assumed t h a t he h a s n o t s e r v e d a s a u n i o n n o m inee s i n c e he became a l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s c o n s u l t a n t f o r management. 24- Of t h e f i v e c h a i r m e n , o n l y one h a d s e r v e d on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n any c a p a c i t y o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f c h a i r m a n . I n a d d i t i o n t o s e r v i n g s i x t y t i m e s as a c h a i r m a n , t h i s i n d i v i d u a l s e r v e d once a s a u n i o n n o m i n e e ; he was t h e r e f o r e c l a s s i f i e d a s a c h a i r m a n . c a n be c o n s i d e r e d t o a p p l y t o t h e r e s t o f t h e s a m p l e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t b a s i s u p o n w h i c h t o e s t a b l i s h t h e d e g r e e o f s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e two g r o u p s w o u l d seem t o be t h a t o f t h e r e l a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f e a c h g r o u p on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s b e i n g t h a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y a r e b a s e d e n t i r e l y u p o n t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f r e s p o n d e n t s on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . I f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e two g r o u p s i s h i g h l y s i m i l a r , o r i f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e " r e s p o n s e " g r o u p i s s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e " n o n - r e s p o n s e " g r o u p , t h e n c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d u p o n d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e f o r m e r c a n be a s s u m e d — w i t h , o f c o u r s e , some t i m o r o u s n e s s , f o r , o f c o u r s e , s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s o t h e r t h a n e x p e r i e n c e may w e l l , a l l u n b e k n o w n s t t o t h e a u t h o r , be i n v o l v e d — t o be e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e l a t t e r g r o u p . I f , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e " r e s p o n s e " g r o u p i s m a r k e d l y i n f e r i o r t o t h a t o f t h e " n o n - r e s p o n s e " g r o u p , t h e n t h i s w o u l d c l e a r l y n o t be t h e c a s e , a n d a n y c o n c l u s i o n s r e a c h e d w o u l d h a v e t o be c o n f i n e d t o t h e " r e s p o n s e " g r o u p . D a t a on t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e two g r o u p s was a v a i l a b l e o n l y f o r t h e p e r i o d e x t e n d i n g f r o m J a n u a r y , 1959 t o J u n e , I960, a n d f o r one h u n d r e d t h r e e o f t h e one h u n d r e d t e n p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d . The mean a n d t h e m e d i a n number o f B o a r d s u p o n w h i c h u n i o n n o m i n e e s , e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , a n d c h a i r m e n f r o m e a c h o f t h e two g r o u p s h a d s e r v e d , c o n s t i t u t e d t h e b a s i s o f c o m p a r i s o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n a p p e a r s i n T a b l e 111(a). TABLE III(a) COMPARISON OF THE EXPERIENCE OP THE RESPONSE AND THE NON-RESPONSE GROUPS' Response Group Non-response Group No. of Persons No. of Boards Mean No. of Boards Median No. of Boards No. of Persons No. of Boards Mean No. of Boards Median No. of Boards Union Nominees 20 52 2.6 2 26 64 2.5 2 Employer Nominees 21 50 2.4 1 25 48 1.9 1 Chairmen 4 24 6.0 6.5 7 40 5 .7 1 78 The d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e I I I ( a ) d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t , i n a l l c a s e s , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p e r s o n s who c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e q u a l s o r e x c e e d s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h o s e who d i d n o t , a n d i t may t h e r e f o r e be c o n c l u d e d , w i t h , a s h a s b e e n r e m a r k e d , some t i m o r o u s n e s s , t h a t c o n -c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s may be c o n s i d e r e d a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e e n t i r e s a m p l e . The r e l a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e o f u n i o n n o m i n e e s , e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , and c h a i r m e n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e 1 1 1 ( b ) b e l o w . The c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n d e r i v e d f r o m p a r t i a l l y c o m p l e t e d a s w e l l as c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h o s e who have s e r v e d on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n more t h a n one c a p a c i t y i s c o u n t e d i n e a c h c a t e g o r y . TABLE 1 1 1 ( b ) U n i o n N o minees E m p l o y e r Nominees C h a i r m e n Mean Number o f B o a r d s 18.8 15-1 17.5 M e d i a n Number o f B o a r d s 10 .0 6 . 0 6 . 0 (N=27) (N=23) ( N = l l ) The d a t a show t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s a r e , i n g e n e r a l , more e x p e r i e n c e d t h a n e i t h e r e m p l o y e r . n o m i n e e s o r c h a i r m e n . I I I . The T e s t i n g o f E a c h H y p o t h e s i s , t h e R e s u l t s o f t h e T e s t s , a n d t h e I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e R e s u l t s M i s c e l l a n e o u s I n t r o d u c t o r y I n f o r m a t i o n A l l t h e q u e s t i o n s u s e d t o t e s t t h e h y p o t h e s e s c a n "be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x B, w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a c o p y o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l l o f t h e d a t a f r o m f o r c e d - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s c a n be. f o u n d i n t h e t a b l e s , p r o v i d e d i n A p p e n d i x A. Where a n y t h i n g o f i n t e r e s t o r s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be d e r i v e d f r o m comments a p p e n d e d t o f o r c e d - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s b y r e s p o n d e n t s , o r f r o m o p e n - e n d e d q u e s t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e i s made t o t h i s . Where f a i r l y m a r k e d c l e a v a g e s o f o p i n i o n b e t w e e n u n i o n n o m i n e e s , e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , and c h a i r m e n o c c u r , t h e y a r e d i s c u s s e d . The q u e s t i o n s b y means o f w h i c h e a c h h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d , a s w e l l a s t h e t a b l e s i n w h i c h t h e d a t a p e r t a i n i n g to- e a c h h y p o t h e s i s a r e c o n t a i n e d , a p p e a r i n b r a c k e t s i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f i r s t r e f e r e n c e , i n t h e t e x t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , t o e a c h h y p o t h e s i s . I n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m q u e s t i o n s a n s w e r e d i n t e r m s o f a n o r d i n a l s c a l e , a " c h i - s q u a r e b y i n s p e c t i o n " t e c h n i q u e was e m p l o y e d : t h e p e r c e n t a g e r e s p o n s e o b t a i n e d f o r t h e two c a t e g o r i e s a t one e n d o f t h e s c a l e was s i m p l y c o m p a r e d t o t h a t o b t a i n e d f o r t h e two c a t e g o r i e s a t t h e o t h e r e n d . One l a s t m a t t e r o f g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i s t h a t , i n most c a s e s , q u e s t i o n s p u t t o r e s p o n d e n t s a b o u t t h e b e h a v i o u r o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l were p h r a s e d i n g e n e r a l t e r m s . R e s p o n d e n t s w e r e , a s a r u l e , n o t a s k e d how u n i o n o r how e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s w o u l d be l i k e l y t o r e a c t t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n , b u t r a t h e r how n o m i n e e s , i n g e n e r a l , w o u l d be l i k e l y t o r e a c t . I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d f r o m s u c h q u e r i e s c o u l d be o p e n t o a m b iguous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , i n that i t may not be c l e a r , when the question i s general, whether, f o r example, union nominees are responding on the basis of t h e i r perceptions of t h e i r own behaviour, t h e i r perceptions of the behaviour of employer nominees, or both. Where a question i s phrased i n general terms, and no cleavage of opinion i s apparent between the responses of union and of employer nominees, the author f e e l s that these responses may be i n t e r p r e t e d as being applicable to nominees i n general (provided, of course, that comments do not indicate other-wise). Where, however, responses to such a general question demonstrate that a s i g n i f i c a n t cleavage of opinion e x i s t s between union and employer nominees, i t has generally been assumed (again provided that comments-do not indicate other-wise) that each group i s r e f e r r i n g p r i n c i p a l l y to the behaviour of i t s own nominees. I t i s perhaps true that the p o s s i b i l i t y of such ambiguities a r i s i n g could have been eliminated by the phraseology of the questions; t h i s s o l u t i o n was r e j e c t e d , however, on the grounds that i t would have rendered p r o h i b i t i v e l y complicated a questionnaire that was already verging upon such a state. A. External Factors I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d that, i n Chapter I I , a number of hypotheses—twenty-two, to be exact—were r e c l a s s i f i e d under the r u b r i c of External Factors. Each of these w i l l be discussed i n turn below. 1. P u b l i c O p i n i o n ( a ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 31-32; T a b l e s I V - V I I ] c o n c e r n e d , i t s e l f w i t h t h e e f f e c t on t h e n o m i n e e s o f a n t i c i -p a t i o n o f t h e s u p p o r t o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n f o r t h e r e p o r t o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . I t was f e l t t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n w o u l d t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e B o a r d r e p o r t , a n d t h a t t h i s w o u l d b r i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r on t h e n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e t o t h e r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d , an d h e n c e t o a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , i t b e i n g assumed t h a t f a i l u r e t o do s o w o u l d r e s u l t i n a r e d u c t i o n o f p u b l i c s y m p a t h y f o r t h e d i s s e n t i n g p a r t y . The d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e I V s u g g e s t t h a t t h e s i g n i n g o f a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t i s seen,, b y a m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s , a s g i v i n g a p a r t y more p u b l i c s y m p a t h y t h a n i f t h e y h a d s i g n e d a m a t j o r i t y r e p o r t , b u t , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e m a j o r i t y ( a s may be s e e n f r o m T a b l e V ) , t h i s d o e s n o t v e r y f r e q u e n t l y make n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t t h e y o u g h t t o a g r e e t o a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t . T h i s r e s u l t d o e s n o t u p h o l d t h e h y p o t h e s i s . F u r t h e r , t h e s i g n i n g o f a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t a p p e a r s t o p r o c u r e a p a r t y l e s s p u b l i c s y m p a t h y t h a n i f t h e y h a d s i g n e d a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t ( s e e T a b l e V I ) b u t t h e d a t a f r o m T a b l e V I I i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s w i l l n o t p e r s u a d e a nominee who i s g o i n g t o be i n t h e m i n o r i t y p o s i t i o n t o a l t e r h i s p o s i t i o n s u f f i c i e n t l y t o be i n on a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , a f i n d i n g w h i c h d o e s n o t s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s . The d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e V s u g g e s t t h a t a n o m i n ee who i s i n a p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g a b l e t o s i g n a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t w i t h t h e c h a i r m a n may, o n o c c a s i o n , be w i l l i n g t o s h i f t h i s p o s i t i o n somewhat i n o r d e r t o make t h e r e p o r t a u n a n i m o u s one b e c a u s e o f h i s a w a r e n e s s t h a t t h i s w i l l u s u a l l y g i v e h i s p a r t y g r e a t e r p u b l i c s y m p a t h y t h a n w i l l t h e s i g n i n g o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t . (Comments s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s i s l i k e l y t o be t h e c a s e o n l y i f t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two p a r t i e s a r e f a i r l y c l o s e . ) On t h e o t h e r h a n d , h o w e v e r , a nominee who i s g o i n g t o be i n a p o s i t i o n o f . s u b m i t t i n g a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t w i l l n o t be p e r s u a d e d t o a l t e r h i s p o s i t i o n b y h i s a w a r e n e s s o f t h e r e d u c t i o n i n p u b l i c s y m p a t h y t h a t a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h a m a j o r i t y o r a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , w i l l p r o d u c e . T a b l e s V I , a n d V I I i n d i c a t e t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s f e e l , somewhat more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s , t h a t t h e s i g n i n g o f a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t w i l l r e s u l t i n a l o s s o f p u b l i c s y m p athy, an d t h a t e m p l o y e r s a r e more w i l l i n g t o a l t e r t h e i r p o s i t i o n a s a r e s u l t o f t h i s . I t seems, t h e n , t h a t e m p l o y e r s a r e more d e p e n d e n t u p o n p u b l i c g o o d - w i l l , more s e n s i t i v e t o a l o s s p f p u b l i c s y m pathy, an d more l i k e l y t o a l t e r t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n o r d e r t o a v o i d s u b m i t t i n g a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t , t h a n a r e u n i o n s . However, a s may be s e e n f r o m T a b l e V I I , a m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s do n o t f e e l t h i s way. I n summation, t h e n , i t may be c o n c l u d e d t h a t , w h i l e c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e c e i v e d some s u p p o r t , i t must, i n t h e m a i n , be r e j e c t e d . ( b ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 3 3 - 3 7 ; T a b l e s V I I I - X I ] a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e r e were two m a i n r e a s o n s t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n a c t e d a s a p r e s s u r e on t h e p a r t i e s t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t , t h e f i r s t , H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i ) ( a ) , b e i n g t h a t , i f t h e e m p l o y e r s e l l s g o o d s o r s e r v i c e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e p u b l i c , he d o e s n o t w i s h t o l o s e o r l e s s e n p u b l i c g o o d - w i l l b y a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t , a n d t h e s e c o n d , H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i ) ( b ) , b e i n g t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s a p o t e n t i a l s o u r c e o f unwelcome l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h w o u l d a l t e r t h e p r e s e n t -c o n c i l i a t i o n m a c h i n e r y . T a b l e V I I I p r o v i d e s some s u p p o r t f o r t h e f i r s t o f t h e above r e a s o n s , w i t h 38% s u p p o r t i n g i t , a n e q u a l number d e c l a r i n g t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n i s n o t a p r e s s u r e f o r a g r e e m e n t a t t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t a g e , a n d 1 6 % a v e r r i n g t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n was a p r e s s u r e t o a g r e e m e n t a t t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t a g e , b u t f o r a d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n . The s e c o n d r e a s o n was d e c i s i v e l y d e f e a t e d , as may be s e e n f r o m T a b l e I X . The d a t a o f T a b l e X f i r m l y r e j e c t t h e i d e a t h a t n o m i n e e s and t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the- a t t i t u d e s a n d s t a t e m e n t s o f l e g i s l a t o r s i n a n e f f o r t t o a v o i d r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n . An e n q u i r y a s t o what, i f a n y , l e g i s l a t i v e a l t e r a t i o n s o f t h e p r e s e n t c o n c i l i a t i o n m a c h i n e r y l a b o u r a n d management w o u l d p r e f e r t o a v o i d , r e v e a l e d no p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s o n b o t h s i d e s t o t h e u n d e s i r a b i l i t y o f c o m p u l s o r y a r b i t r a t i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e w i s h t o a v o i d s u c h l e g i s l a t i o n made t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s , a n d h e n c e t h e n o m i n e e s , more w i l l i n g . t o l o w e r t h e i r demands on one a n o t h e r a n d more w i l l i n g t o c o m p r o m i s e i n an e f f o r t t o k e e p t h e p r e s e n t c o n c i l i a t i o n m a c h i n e r y b y r e d u c i n g t h e number o f t i m e s i t f a i l s t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e s . The r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , shown i n T a b l e X I , d e m o n s t r a t e s c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t t h i s i s a r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . E m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e more c l o s e l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e p r o b l e m , f e e l more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n a c t s a s a p r e s s u r e t o a g r e e m e n t b e c a u s e t h e i n c o n v e n i e n c e o f a s t r i k e o r l o c k o u t c o u l d b r i n g a b o u t a l o s s o f p u b l i c g o o d - w i l l . A f u r t h e r c l e a v a g e o f i n t e r e s t , b u t one f o r w h i c h no e x p l a n a t i i h a s s u g g e s t e d i t s e l f t o t h e a u t h o r , i s t h a t , w h i l e n o m i n e e s f r o m b o t h s i d e s f e e l t h a t t h e w i s h t o a v o i d new c o n c i l i a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n i s n o t a f a c t o r t h a t makes t h e p a r t i e s more w i l l i n g t o c o m p r o m i s e , e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s seem t o f e e l , more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s , t h a t i t i s n o t a f a c t o r ( s e e T a b l e X I ) . T h u s , i n summation, H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i ) ( a ) — t h a t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r e s s u r e t o a g r e e m e n t e x e r t e d b y a n e m p l o y e r ' s d e s i r e n o t t o l o s e p u b l i c g o o d - w i l l — r e c e i v e d some s u p p o r t , t h o u g h n o t o u t r i g h t c o n f i r m a t i o n ; H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i ) ( b ) — t h a t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e p r e s s u r e t o a g r e e m e n t e x e r t e d b y unwelcome l e g i s l a t i o n e n g e n d e r e d b y p u b l i c o p i n i o n — w a s d e c i s i v e l y r e j e c t e d . C o n s i d e r i n g Hypothesis 2 ( v i ) as a u n i t , then, i t i s c l e a r t h a t i t cannot he granted acceptance. (c) Hypothesis 2 ( v i i ) [Questions 49-51; Tables X I I - XVII] concerned i t s e l f w i t h p u b l i c o p i n i o n as i t r e l a t e d to the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the n o r m a t i v e l y -o r i e n t e d chairman. I t was f e l t t h a t the normative approach on the p a r t of the chairman c o u l d be e f f e c t i v e o n l y i n those i n d u s t r i e s or t r a d e s which were l a r g e , of great importance t o the e n t i r e economy, and hence s e n s i t i v e to p u b l i c o p i n i o n , because t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y would serve t o persuade them to go along w i t h the normative chairman i n order t o a v o i d p u b l i c wrath and p o s s i b l e l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s not claimed t h a t the normative technique w i l l be more s u c c e s s f u l than the accommodative under such circumstances, but merely t h a t i t w i l l be capable of succeeding at a l l o n l y under such circumstances. Table X I I i n d i c a t e s q u i t e d e f i n i t e l y t h a t the more important an i n d u s t r y or trade i n v o l v e d i n a d i s p u t e i s t o the economy of the p r o v i n c e , the more s e n s i t i v e the union and the employer w i l l be t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n . However, Table X I I I shows t h a t t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y cannot, i n the m a j o r i t y of cases, be a t t r i b u t e d t o any t h r e a t of unwelcome l e g i s l a t i o n a r i s i n g from the f a i l u r e of the p a r t i e s to s e t t l e these d i s p u t e s . Tables XIV and XVI g i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , respondents' o p i n i o n s as to which type of c h a i r m a n i s l i k e l y t o be more e f f e c t i v e when t h e i n d u s t r y i s s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n , and when i t i s n o t . C o m p a r i s o n shows t h a t t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e method i s o v e r -w h e l m i n g l y p r e f e r r e d i n e a c h c a s e , b u t t h a t s u p p o r t f o r t h e n o r m a t i v e m ethod g o e s up ( f r o m 12.7% t o 2 0 . 0 % ) , a n d f o r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e , down ( f r o m 63.6% t o 5 0 . 9 % ) , when t h e i n d u s t r y i s s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n . T h i s w o u l d seem t o p r o v i d e some s u p p o r t f o r the. h y p o t h e s i s , a l t h o u g h t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e a d m i t t e d l y t o o s m a l l t o p e r m i t o f a n y b o l d d e c l a r a t i o n s , a n d i t o f f e r s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s , a l s o p u t f o r w a r d i n C h a p t e r I I a s a n a d j u n c t to. t h e above h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t i n i n d u s t r i e s o f r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e c o n c e r n t o t h e p u b l i c , a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s t h e o n l y v a r i e t y t h a t i s l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t i v e . T a b l e s XV" a n d X V I I g i v e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , r e s p o n d e n t s ' o p i n i o n s as t o t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e m e t h o d t h e y s e l e c t a s b e i n g t h e b e s t i n a n i n d u s t r y s e n s i t i v e , a n d i n a n i n d u s t r y n o t e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e , t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n . H e r e , t h e number e v a l u a t i n g t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e method ( M e t h o d B) as t h e s u p e r i o r one i s a m a r k e d m a j o r i t y f o r b o t h t y p e s o f i n d u s t r y , b u t t h i s m a j o r i t y i n c r e a s e s s u b s t a n t i a l l y when t h e i n d u s t r y i s one o f l i t t l e c o n c e r n t o t h e p u b l i c , a n d h e n c e n o t s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Were o u r h y p o t h e s i s c o r r e c t , we w o u l d e x p e c t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e t o be c o u n t e r p o i s e d b y a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f v o t e s f o r t h e g r e a t e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f n o r m a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n ( M e t h o d A) where t h e i n d u s t r y i s s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n , a n d a d e c r e a s e i n t h e s e v o t e s when i t i s n o t . T h i s i s i n f a c t t h e c a s e : a s m a l l d i f -f e r e n c e ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6%) s u p p o r t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s . I n summation, t h e n , t h e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s o v e r w h e l m i n g l y p r e f e r r e d , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i n d u s t r y t o t h e economy a n d t h e p u b l i c , a f i n d i n g w h i c h c o n f i r m s t h e a d j u n c t h y p o -t h e s i s , r e f e r r e d t o a b o v e , t h a t i n a n i n d u s t r y o f r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o n c e r n t o t h e p u b l i c , a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s t h e o n l y v a r i e t y l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t i v e . So f a r a s o u r p r i n c i p a l h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e d a t a do t e n d t o s u p p o r t a c o n c l u s i o n t h a t n o r m a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n h a s a g r e a t e r c h a n c e o f b e i n g e f f e c t i v e i n an i n d u s t r y t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t a n d h e n c e s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n , b u t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e t o p e r m i t t h i s t o be o t h e r t h a n t h e most t e n t a t i v e o f c o n c l u s i o n s . As f o r t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h e d a t a s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e s e n s i t i v i t y o f a n i n d u s t r y t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n seemed t o p a r a l l e l i t s i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e economy, b u t i t was c l e a r l y n o t t h e c a s e t h a t t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y was c a u s e d b y a f e a r o f r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n c i l i a t i o n p r o c e d u r e s ( d ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( v i i i ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 52-53; T a b l e s X V I I I - X I X ] f o c u s e d u p o n t h e e f f e c t o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n on t h e c h a i r m a n ' s r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n , h y p o t h e s i z i n g t h a t , where t h e d i s p u t e o c c u r r e d i n a l a r g e i n d u s t r y o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e economy, a n d one, h e n c e , r e l a t i v e l y s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n , t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n w o u l d p e r c e i v e h i s r o l e as r e q u i r i n g t h a t he show c o n c e r n f o r t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t b y a c t i n g i n p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o r m a t i v e t e r m s . The d a t a g i v e n i n T a b l e X V I I I c o n f i r m t h a t c h a i r m e n i n v o l v e d i n s u c h a d i s p u t e a r e p e r c e i v e d a s f e e l i n g t h e m s e l v e s t o be u n d e r o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . ( E m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s seem t o f e e l somewhat more s t r o n g l y a b o u t t h i s t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s , p o s s i b l y b e c a u s e " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t " may be u s e d b y e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a s a b a s i s f o r a r g u i n g a g a i n s t i n c r e a s e s . i n l a b o u r c o s t s . ) T a b l e X I X p r e s e n t s t h e r e s u l t s o f a q u e s t i o n i n q u i r i n g a s t o w h i c h o f t h e two b a s i c t y p e s o f c h a i r m a n - b e h a v i o u r a c h a i r m a n i n v o l v e d i n s u c h a d i s p u t e i s most l i k e l y t o a d o p t . The a c c o m m o d a t i v e m e t h o d ( M e t h o d B) r e c e i v e d 36.4-% o f t h e v o t e , as c o m p a r e d t o 3 0 . 9 % f o r t h e n o r m a t i v e m e t h o d ( M e t h o d A) a n d a n o n -r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 32.7%. T h u s , w h i l e a s u b s t a n t i a l l y h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s a v e r r e d t h a t c h a i r m e n w o u l d f e e l a n o b l i g a t i o n t o p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t t h a n t h o s e who d e c l a r e d t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e v o t e was a l m o s t e q u a l l y d i v i d e d on t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h e t h e r c h a i r m e n w o u l d i n f a c t b e h a v e n o r m a t i v e l y — w h i c h i s t h e m e thod t h e a u t h o r e n v i s a g e d a s t h e one t h a t w o u l d p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y , c o u p l e d w i t h an u n u s u a l l y h i g h n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e , a s w e l l a s t h e s u p p o r t o f a m a r k e d l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c h a i r m e n t h a n o f n o m i n e e s f o r t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , s u g g e s t t h a t n o m i n e e s do p e r c e i v e t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e m ethod w i l l b e t t e r p r o t e c t t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , b u t t h a t , n o n e t h e l e s s , t h e y do n o t l i k e i t a n d a r e h e n c e u n w i l l i n g t o v o t e f o r i t . I n summation, t h e n , t h e d a t a a r e , i n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , s u f f i c i e n t l y e q u i v o c a l t o p r e c l u d e a n y c o n f i d e n t a s s e r t i o n o f t h e a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . ( e ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i x ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 5 4 - 5 5 ; T a b l e s XX - X X I ] was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n on nominee r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n , so f a r a s t h e a v o i d a n c e o f e x a g g e r a t e d b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s , a n d w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o m p r o m i s e , a r e c o n c e r n e d . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f n o m i n e e s who r e p r e s e n t e d l a b o u r o r management g r o u p s i n v o l v e d i n an i n d u s t r y s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n w o u l d a v o i d e x a g g e r a t e d i n i t i a l b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s a n d be r e l a t i v e l y w i l l i n g t o make m u t u a l c o n c e s s i o n s a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r d e s i r e t o a v o i d t h e p o s s i b l e r e s t r i c t i v e l y l e g i -s l a t i v e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f p u b l i c w r a t h . P r e v i o u s d a t a h a v e a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t t h e f a c t o r o f a d v e r s e p u b l i c o p i n i o n r e s u l t i n g i n unwelcome l e g i s l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a o f c o n c i l i a t i o n i s n o t one t h a t e x e r c i s e s a n y a p p r e c i a b l e i n f l u e n c e . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e two c a t e g o r i e s a t e a c h e n d o f t h e s c a l e ( t h a t i s , o f t h e " u s u a l l y - o f t e n " and " v e r y r a r e l y - n e v e r " c a t e g o r i e s ) i n T a b l e XX i n d i c a t e s t h a t more r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h a t n o m i n e e s f r o m s u c h a n i n d u s t r y do n o t , a s a r u l e , make t h e i r demands a n d o f f e r s l e s s e x t r e m e on t h i s a c c o u n t t h a n s u p p o r t t h e o t h e r e n d o f t h e s c a l e . However, t h e m a r g i n h e l d b y t h e more s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d o p i n i o n on t h i s p o i n t i s n o t g r e a t , w h i c h l e n d s some s u p p o r t t o a h y p o t h e s i s t h a t must, i n t h e m a i n , be r e j e c t e d . T a b l e X X I d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t t h e f a c t t h a t n o m i n e e s come f r o m s u c h a n i n d u s t r y w i l l , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e g r e a t e r number (36.4-% v e r s u s 23.6%) c a u s e them t o be more w i l l i n g t o c o m promise t h a n t h e y w o u l d be o t h e r w i s e . The h y p o t h e s i s i s t h u s i n p a r t c o n f i r m e d a n d i n p a r t r e j e c t e d . A g e n e r a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e d a t a r e l a t i n g t o t h e f i v e f o r e g o i n g h y p o t h e s e s w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t , a l t h o u g h s e v e r a l f a c e t s o f t h e s e h y p o t h e s e s r e c e i v e d some s u p p o r t , p u b l i c o p i n i o n d o e s n o t , i n t h e m a i n ( w i t h — a l t h o u g h t h i s was n o t t e s t e d — t h e p r o b a b l e e x c e p t i o n o f p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s ) , a p p e a r t o be a c a u s a l f a c t o r o f a n y g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . 2. B a r g a i n i n g Power ( a ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 57-60; T a b l e s X X I I - XXV] c o n c e r n e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f p a r t y b a r g a i n i n g power o n nominee r o l e - p r e f e r e n c e w i t h r e f e r e n c e - t o t h e c h a i r m a n . I t was h e l d t h a t , where a n ominee r e p r e s e n t e d a p a r t y w i t h f a i r l y m a r k e d s u p e r i o r i t y o f b a r g a i n i n g power, t h e nominee w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n a d o p t an a c c o m m o d a t i v e a p p r o a c h , a n d t h a t , c o n v e r s e l y , a nominee r e p r e s e n t i n g a p a r t y w i t h t h e l e s s e r b a r g a i n i n g p ower w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n a d o p t a n o r m a t i v e a p p r o a c h . T a b l e X X I I I shows t h a t , when t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r t y w i t h t h e s t r o n g e r b a r g a i n i n g power, 52.7% o f t h e n o m i n e e s p r e f e r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e a p p r o a c h , a s a g a i n s t 21.8% f o r t h e n o r m a t i v e , w h e r e a s , as T a b l e XXV i n d i c a t e s , when t h e y a r e r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e p a r t y w i t h t h e w e a k e r b a r g a i n i n g power, t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e m e t h o d r e c e i v e s 4 0 . 0 % o f t h e v o t e , a s a g a i n s t 27.3% f o r t h e n o r m a t i v e . A l t h o u g h c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d h a v e r e q u i r e d t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e r e c e i v e t h e g r e a t e r amount o f s u p p o r t , i n T a b l e XXV, t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s h i f t — a l b e i t a r a t h e r s m a l l o n e — i s i n . t h e d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d b y t h e h y p o t h e s i s d o e s g i v e i t a s m a l l m easure o f s u p p o r t . F u r t h e r , s e v e r a l r e s p o n s e s t o a q u e s t i o n a s k i n g r e s p o n d e n t s why t h e y w o u l d f a v o u r t h e t e c h n i q u e t h e y c h o s e u n d e r e a c h o f t h e two c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d s u p p o r t t h e e n t i r e h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e s h i f t o f o p i n i o n i s n o t p r o p o r t i o n a l . M o v i n g f r o m T a b l e X X I I I t o T a b l e XXV, M e t h o d B ( t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e ) d r o p s b y 12.7%, w h i l e M e t h o d A ( t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e ) g a i n s b y o n l y 5«5%, a d i s c r e p a n c y o f 7.2%. A l t h o u g h t h e s m a l l n e s s o f t h e q u a n t i t i e s i n v o l v e d p r e c l u d . e s any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n s , t h i s s u g g e s t s t o t h e a u t h o r t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t , when a nominee r e p r e -s e n t s t h e w e a k e r p a r t y , he d o e s n o t want t o s h i f t f r o m a p u r e l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e a l l t h e way t o a p u r e l y n o r m a t i v e one, b u t m e r e l y t o a c o m b i n a t i o n o f b o t h t e c h n i q u e s The e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , s o l e a n a s t o p e r m i t t h i s t o be no more t h a n a t e n t a t i v e s p e c u l a t i o n . T a b l e X X I I I p o i n t s up a n i n t r i g u i n g d i f f e r e n c e o f o p i n i o n . I t a p p e a r s t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s who h a v e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d , on a B o a r d , a p a r t y w i t h g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g power, p r e f e r a n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n t o a m a r k e d l y g r e a t e r e x t e n t t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s who h a v e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d a p a r t y w i t h g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g power. However, b o t h u n i o n a n d e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s who h a v e r e p r e s e n t e d , o n a B o a r d , a p a r t y w i t h s u p e r i o r b a r g a i n i n g power seem t o a g r e e t h a t t h e y p r e f e r a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m a n . A l t h o u g h i t i s p u r e l y a s p e c u l a t i o n , t h i s may mean t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s who h a v e n e v e r b e e n i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f c o n f r o n t i n g a n o r m a t i v e l y -o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n when t h e y p o s s e s s s u p e r i o r b a r g a i n i n g p ower f e e l ( a l t h o u g h t h e i r u n i o n c o u n t e r p a r t s do n o t f e e l t h a t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s w o u l d be c a p a b l e o f t h e same t h i n g ) t h a t t h e y w o u l d be a b l e t o sway s u c h a c h a i r m a n i n t h e i r d i r e c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s who h a v e r e p r e -s e n t e d a p a r t y w i t h t h e g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g power p r e f e r a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m e n may, t h e n , mean e i t h e r t h a t t h e y h a v e n o t e n c o u n t e r e d c h a i r m e n o f t h e n o r m a t i v e t y p e , o r t h a t t h e y f o u n d t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m a n more t o t h e i r a d v a n t a g e A f u r t h e r v a r i a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t i s t h a t , i n T a b l e XXV, more e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s 93 i n d i c a t e d a p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n . T h i s i s t h e l o g i c a l a n s w e r , w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s a c t u a l l y c o r r e c t , and t h e d i s c r e p a n c y c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e p r o b a b l e h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t o f e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . I n summation, t h e n , t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e c e i v e s o n l y a s m a l l m easure o f s u p p o r t , a n d must t h e r e f o r e be r e j e c t e d . ( b ) H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i i ) [ Q u e s t i o n 71; T a b l e s XXVI -X X V I I ] f o c u s e s u p o n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e r e l a t i v e b a r g a i n i n g p o wer o f t h e p a r t i e s o n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e l y -o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n where a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t i s n o t m a t e r i a l i z i n g . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e s u f -f i c i e n t l y c o m p l e x t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t be r e c a p i t u l a t e d h e r e ( t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l on H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i i ) i n C h a p t e r I I ) , where a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t i s n o t m a t e r i a l i z i n g , a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m a n w i l l d e c l a r e h i s i n t e n t i o n o f s i g n i n g a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t w i t h t h e nominee w i t h t h e g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g power s h o u l d a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t n o t be f o r t h c o m i n g . Q u e s t i o n 7 1(a) s t a t e d t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ( r e f e r r e d t o as " c o n d i t i o n s " a b o v e ) and a s k e d r e s p o n d e n t s t o g i v e t h e i r o p i n i o n s a s t o t h e n o m inee w i t h w h i c h t h e c h a i r m a n w o u l d be more l i k e l y t o s a y he w o u l d h a v e t o s i g n . The r e s p o n s e s t o t h i s q u e s t i o n , g i v e n i n T a b l e XXVI, i n d i c a t e t h a t , o f t h o s e who r e s p o n d e d t o one o f t h e two c h o i c e s p r o v i d e d , a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r number (4-0.0% v e r s u s 16.4-%) f e l t t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n w o u l d i n d i c a t e h i s i n t e n t i o n t o s i g n w i t h t h e nominee w i t h t h e g r e a t e r b a r g a i n i n g p o w e r . A l t h o u g h t h i s w o u l d seem t o c o n f i r m t h e h y p o t h e s i s , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o n o t e t h a t t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e v o t e (4-3.6%) f e l l i n t o t h e n o n - r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r y . The comments o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e m a j o r i t y o f them f e l t t h a t t h e b a r g a i n i n g power o f t h e p a r t i e s was a n i r r e l e v a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m a n , b e c a u s e t h e y f e l t t h a t he o u g h t t o d e c i d e b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s , s h o u l d t h i s be n e c e s s a r y , s o l e l y o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e B o a r d . The f a c t t h a t a l l f o u r o f t h e c h a i r m e n who commented e x p r e s s e d t h i s v i e w a n d t h a t none o f t h e c h a i r m e n i n t h e s a mple s u p p o r t e d t h e h y p o t h e s i s p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t i t . T h u s , a l t h o u g h t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e c e i v e s a g r e a t d e a l o f s u p p o r t , a n e q u a l l y l a r g e b o d y o f o p i n i o n r e j e c t s i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , t o o , t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s somewhat more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s , a n d t h a t , f u r t h e r , t h e n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e o f u n i o n n o m i n e e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n i s t w i c e t h a t o f e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . To e n t e r once a g a i n t h e r e a l m o f s p e c u l a t i o n , t h i s c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d t o mean t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s a r e more a p p r e h e n s i v e a b o u t s u f f e r i n g a s t h e r e s u l t o f s u c h a s i t u a t i o n — a n d t h e r e s p o n s e o f t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s may i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y h a v e some b a s i s i n f a c t f o r t h e s e i m p u t e d f e a r s . Were t h i s t h e c a s e , t h e n i t w o u l d seem, f r o m t h e d a t a i n T a b l e X X V I , t h a t c h a i r m e n ' i n f a c t do what t h e h y p o t h e s i s s u g g e s t e d , h u t a r e u n w i l l i n g t o a d m i t i t . Q u e s t i o n 7 1(h) p r e s e n t s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s ( s e e H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i i i ) i n C h a p t e r I I , o r Q u e s t i o n 7 1(h) i n A p p e n d i x B) and a s k s t h e n o m i n e e s w h e t h e r , i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , a c h a i r m a n w o u l d g e n e r a l l y b e h a v e i n t h i s way. O p i n i o n a t e a c h e n d o f t h e s c a l e i s e v e n l y d i v i d e d , ' w i t h 23.6% f e e l i n g t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h a i r m e n w o u l d , i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , b e h a v e i n t h i s way, a n d 23.7% f e e l i n g t h a t v e r y few o r no c h a i r m e n w o u l d so b e h a v e . T h u s , w h i l e 4 0 . 0 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s , o n l y 23.6% f e e l t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f c h a i r m e n i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n w o u l d b e h a v e i n t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d way a s a r e s u l t o f t h e r a t i o n a l e p u t f o r w a r d b y t h e a u t h o r . T h u s , s u p p o r t f o r t h i s r a t i o n a l e d e f i n i t e l y e x i s t s , b u t n o t i n a n y s u b s t a n t i a l q u a n t i t y . 3 . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x ) [ Q u e s t i o n 56; T a b l e s X X V I I I -XXX] was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f a h i s t o r y o f h o s t i l e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s ( i n a n i n d u s t r y s e n s i t i v e t o p u b l i c o p i n i o n ) on t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c h a i r m a n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , where a d i s p u t e i n s u c h a n i n d u s t r y i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a h o s t i l e ( r a t h e r t h a n a c o n c i l i a t o r y ) a t t i t u d e , n o r m a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t y o n t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l be t h e o n l y e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g the two nominees i n the d i r e c t i o n of, or perhaps to, agreement. Table XXVIII gives the response to a question which, a f t e r o u t l i n i n g the above circumstances, asks respondents which of the two types of chairmen would be the l e s s e f f e c t i v e . 4-5.4% f e l t that the normative type would be the l e s s e f f e c t i v e , while 34.5% regarded the accommodative type as the l e s s e f f e c t i v e . In terms, then, simply of the allegiance of the greater number of votes, the hypothesis must therefore be rejected, but i t should be noted that i n Table LXXI, which gives the r e s u l t s of a query as to which type of chairman i s , i n general, the more e f f e c t i v e i n getting the two nominees to agree, the normative approach receives 12.7% of the vote (as compared to 34.5% i n Table XXVIII) and the accommodative approach receives 60.0% (as compared to 45.4% i n Table XXVIII). The f a c t that the normative approach gains 21.8% i n the above circumstances, while the accommodative technique loses 14.6%, provides considerable support f o r the hypothesis, but not enough to constitute outright confirmation. Table XXIX gives the response to a query as to how e f f e c t i v e , i n such a dispute, the respondent f e e l s the type of chairman's behaviour which he selected as being l e s s e f f e c t i v e would be. I f , i n Table XXIX, we lump, f o r each "method", the percentages i n the two " e f f e c t i v e " c e l l s , and i n the two " i n e f f e c t i v e " c e l l s , and then compare these percentages, we see that, f o r e f f e c t i v e n e s s as well as i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , both methods receive p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l scores. This means that the gap which existed between the two i n Table LXXI has been dramatically reduced, which adds fur t h e r support to the hypothesis. Thus, although the hypo-t h e s i s i s not confirmed i n the sense that a markedly greater number of respondents favour the normative technique than do not, i t has received rather s u b s t a n t i a l support. Question 56(c) asked respondents i f they f e l t that, i n such a dispute, the type of chairman-behaviour they chose as l e s s e f f e c t i v e would not, as a r u l e , be successful i n getting the two nominees to reach agreement, to please indicate why they f e l t i t would not be succe s s f u l . Table XXX shows the r e s u l t s of t h i s query. For t h i s manifestation of the r a t i o n a l e of the hypothesis to be supported (see Chapter I I , Hypothesis 2(x)), i t would be necessary that a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater number of persons se l e c t Method B (the accommodative technique) as being the l e s s e f f e c t i v e one, and that, of these, a s i g n i f i c a n t l y large number indicate that i t would not be successful because nominees subjected to i t would refuse to abandon t h e i r i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s . I t i s obvious from the table that t h i s does not prove to be the case. A l l i n a l l , then, the hypothesis received a good deal of support, but not enough to c l e a r l y confirm i t . 4-. Hypothesis 2 ( x i i ) [Questions 62-63; Tables XXXI - XXXII] focused upon nominee perception of the p r e s s , a n d t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h i s on t h e i r b e h a v i o u r . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e p r e s s w o u l d be p e r c e i v e d b y t h e n o m i n e e s as t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e r o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e d i s p u t e , a n d w o u l d t h e r e f o r e c o n s t i t u t e f o r t h e n o m i n e e s a s o u r c e o f p r e s s u r e t o w a r d a g r e e m e n t . T a b l e XXXI shows t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h r e s p o n d e n t s t h i n k n o m i n e e s t e n d t o r e g a r d t h e p r e s s a s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e r o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e d i s p u t e . N e a r l y t w i c e a s many n o m i n e e s (40.0% v e r s u s 21.8%) f e e l t h i s i s t r u e o f most o r a l l n o m i n e e s as f e e l i t i s t r u e o f few o r n o n e , a n d t h i s f i r s t p o r t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s may be r e g a r d e d a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y t r u e . T a b l e X X X I I d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t t h e p r e s s i s a s o u r c e o f p r e s s u r e on them t o w a r d t h e i r r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t . T h i s , t h e p r i n c i p a l p o r t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s , i s d e c i s i v e l y d e f e a t e d b y a s c o r e o f 9«1% v e r s u s 4 3 . 6 % . A number o f p e r s o n s commented t h a t t h e p r e s s w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a p r e s s u r e s o m e t i m e s , b u t o n l y when t h e d i s p u t e was a v e r y i m p o r t a n t o n e — p r e s u m a b l y t o t h e economy, a n d , i n r e t r o s p e c t , t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e d i s p u t e s h o u l d h a v e b e e n i n c l u d e d e x p l i c i t l y i n t h e q u e s t i o n s . I t was i m p l i e d , i n t h a t t h e a u t h o r assumed t h a t t h e p r e s s c o u l d n o t be a n i n f l u e n c e , o r a p r e s s u r e t o w a r d a g r e e m e n t , u n l e s s i t i n t e r -e s t e d i t s e l f i n t h e d i s p u t e t o t h e e x t e n t o f w r i t i n g a b o u t i t , a n d p r e s u m a b l y i t w o u l d do t h i s o n l y i n t h e c a s e o f d i s p u t e s i t c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t t o t h e economy. However, t h e f a c t t h a t t h i s was n o t s t a t e d e x p l i c i t l y c o u l d h a v e c o n f u s e d a number o f r e s p o n d e n t s , a n d i n d e e d , s e v e r a l comments s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t may h a v e c o n f u s e d a f e w r e s p o n d e n t s . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e s p o n s e t o Q u e s t i o n 62 ( T a b l e X X X I ) , h o w e v e r , i n d i c a t e s f a i r l y c l e a r l y , i n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s u n d e r s t o o d t h e q u e s t i o n as t h e a u t h o r i n t e n d e d t h e y s h o u l d . I n s u m m a t i o n , t h e n , a l t h o u g h n o m i n e e s seem t o a g r e e t h a t t h e p r e s s i s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e r o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n a b o u t t h e d i s p u t e , t h i s d o e s n o t , as a r u l e , mean t h a t t h e p r e s s c o n s t i t u t e s a p r e s s u r e on t h e n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t , and t h e h y p o -t h e s i s c a n n o t be a c c e p t e d . 5. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i i i ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 64—65; T a b l e s X X X I I I - X X X I V ] c o n s i d e r e d t h e e f f e c t o f c o m m u n i t y s i z e o n nominee r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n s . I t was h e l d t h a t , when a d i s p u t e h a s o c c u r r e d i n a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l c o m m u n i t y , and when b o t h n o m i n e e s a r e members o f t h a t c o m m u n i t y , b o t h n o m i n e e s w i l l p e r c e i v e t h e i r r o l e s as r e q u i r i n g more c o n c i l i a t o r y b e h a v i o u r t h a n w o u l d t h e i r u r b a n c o u n t e r p a r t s . Q u e s t i o n 64-(a) p r e s e n t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n and a s k s r e s p o n d e n t s f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s o n how o f t e n i t w o u l d be t r u e . The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e X X X I I I , c l e a r l y c o n f i r m t h e h y p o t h e s i s b y a s c o r e o f 4-5.5% v e r s u s 19*9%. A m a r k e d c l e a v a g e o f o p i n i o n e x i s t s , h o w e v e r , i n t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s much more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , make l i b e r a l 100 use, on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards, of the argument that the o l d agreement should he maintained, or one as close as possible to i t adopted, i n order that the p u b l i c not s u f f e r by v i r t u e of the p r i c e increases that wage increases w i l l necessitate, or s u f f e r the serious d i s r u p t i o n of a s t r i k e , whereas unions are, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , steeled against such arguments and strongly u n w i l l i n g to weaken t h e i r cases by granting such arguments legitimate status. Those who f e l t that the hypothesis was, i n general, true, were asked to indicate why. Their comments supported, by and large, the r a t i o n a l e f o r the h y p o t h e s i s — t h a t nominees would be more l i k e l y to reach agreement because the industry concerned would, i n a small community, account f o r a l a r g e r percentage of the employment than would be l i k e l y i n a r e l a t i v e l y large community, and p u b l i c opinion i n the com-munity would therefore exert a considerable pressure f o r agreement. An e f f o r t was made, by means of Question 65, to determine whether, when an i n d u s t r i a l dispute i n a small community comes before a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board, the nominees are u s u a l l y residents or non-residents of the community. As can be seen from Table XXXIV, the response was a rather mixed one; i t appears that Boards i n such communities do not, with any great frequency, have both nominees from the community. Several f a c t o r s suggest that sometimes a mixed case, i n which the employer nominee w i l l be a resident of the community, an d t h e u n i o n n o m inee a n o n - r e s i d e n t , o c c u r s : a number o f comments a t t e s t e d t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n , b u t no m e n t i o n was made o f t h e c o n v e r s e p o s s i b i l i t y , a n d more e m p l o y e r t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s f e l t t h a t t h e two n o m i n e e s were u s u a l l y r e s i d e n t s , w h e r e a s more u n i o n t h a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s f e l t t h a t t h e two n o m i n e e s were u s u a l l y n o n - r e s i d e n t s T h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n s s u g g e s t that., when a " m i x e d " c a s e o c c u r s , i t c o n s i s t s n e a r l y a l w a y s o f a r e s i d e n t e m p l o y e r nominee a n d a n o n - r e s i d e n t u n i o n n o m i n e e . W h e t h e r o r n o t a r e s i d e n t n o m i n e e , when f a c e d w i t h a n o n - r e s i d e n t c o u n t e r p a r t , w o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o t h e p r e s s u r e s w i t h w h i c h t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , i s c o n c e r n e d , must r e m a i n a m y s t e r y . I t seems most p r o b a b l e t o t h e a u t h o r t h a t t h e same p r e s s u r e s w o u l d b e a r u pon t h e r e s i d e n t n o m i n e e , b u t t h a t t h e i r e f f e c t u p o n h i m , a n d u p o n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s e s o f t h e B o a r d , w o u l d be much r e d u c e d . I n summation, w h i l e t h e h y p o t h e s i s a p p e a r s t o o p e r a t e when t h e c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i s i t e t o i t o c c u r , i t seems e v i d e n t t h a t t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a r e n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y f r e q u e n t . 6. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i v ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 66-67; T a b l e s XXXV - XXXVI] c o n s i d e r e d t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t o n e o f p a s t b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s on t h e t y p e o f nominee c h o s e n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i f t h e t o n e w h i c h h a s c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h e b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e two d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s i n 102 the past has been one of h o s t i l i t y and/or contempt, then nominees w i l l be chosen f o r t h e i r tough p a r t i s a n s h i p . Given such a b a r g a i n i n g h i s t o r y , and such nominees, i t was f e l t t h a t b a r g a i n i n g r e l a t i o n s would be conducted by the nominees as a form of warfare, the motive behind which was as much d e s i r e to weaken the other group as i t was to g a i n concessions f o r one's own group. Question 66 o u t l i n e d these circumstances and asked whether or not such a "warfare" concept would p r e v a i l under them. The r e s u l t s of t h i s query, given i n Table XXXV, supported the h y p o t h e s i s , i n d i c a t i n g t h a t , i n the o p i n i o n of the m a j o r i t y , t h i s concept would indeed p r e v a i l under these circumstances. Employer nominees support t h i s i d e a more s t r o n g l y , however, than do union nominees, a s i t u a t i o n which, i n the author's o p i n i o n , probably means t h a t employer nominees are more prone t o behave i n t h i s way. Table XXXVI g i v e s the r e s u l t s of a q u e s t i o n a s k i n g f o r respondents' o p i n i o n s as t o how l i k e l y the p a r t i e s are, when t h e i r past b a r g a i n i n g has i n v o l v e d a good d e a l of h o s t i l i t y and contempt, to p i c k nominees who w i l l f e e l i t t h e i r duty to be f a i r l y uncompromising. The r e s u l t s give the hypothesis s t r o n g support. The t a b l e shows t h a t employer nominees support the h y p o t h e s i s more s t r o n g l y than do union nominees, which may be construed t o mean t h a t t h i s behaviour i s more t y p i c a l of employer nominees. 7. Hypothesis 2*(xvii)''' [Questions 69-70; Tables XXXVII - XXXVIII] d e a l t w i t h the use by the chairman 103 of the q u a l i t y of the evidence presented by the p a r t i e s as a lever to agreement. I t was hypothesized that a chairman would bring pressure to achieve agreement to bear upon the nominee whose party has presented the poorer evidence, through the use of the superior evidence. Table XXXVII gives the r e s u l t s of an enquiry as to how frequently, i n disputes before C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards, one side presents evidence that i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y superior to the evidence presented by the other side. The response indicates that t h i s i s the case the majority of the time. Table XXXVIII indicates that, when t h i s i s the case, chairmen w i l l u s u a l l y use the better evidence to t r y to persuade the nominee representing the party with the poorer evidence to change his p o s i t i o n and come t o , or nearer t o , agreement with the other nominee. Employer nominees seem to be l i e v e , somewhat more strongly than do union nominees, that t h i s w i l l be the case. This could mean that t h i s i s more l i k e l y to be so i f the superior evidence i s possessed by the employer, but t h i s i s merely, i t should be understood, a speculation. In summation, then, the data indicate that the hypothesis should be accepted. 8. Hypothesis 3 ( i ) stated that factors (a), (b) and (c) ( c i t e d i n i t ) were the decisive ones determining the outcome of the chairman's e f f o r t s to achieve agreement between the two nominees. As factors (a) and (c) were included i n the "External" category, they w i l l be dealt with below; f a c t o r (b) was c l a s s i f i e d i n the "Internal" category, and w i l l therefore be discussed i n that section. A d e c i s i o n about the e n t i r e hypothesis w i l l be reached a f t e r f a c t o r (b) has been discussed. (a) [Questions 7 3 - 7 6 ; Tables XXXIX - XLII] held that the l e g a l requirement of party-nominated representatives i s functional, to the goal of agreement between the nominees i n that i t r e s u l t s i n i n t e r - p a r t y communication with reference to the p o s i t i o n of each. I t can hence make known to each nominee what the other i s w i l l i n g to grant or accept i n each matter i n dispute. This knowledge was viewed, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , as the most important necessary condition to reaching agreement. Nominees agreed, by a great majority, that nominees and t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s generally communicated with each other d i r e c t l y and frequently from the time of the nominee's appointment u n t i l the Board issues i t s report (see Table XXXIX). A s u b s t a n t i a l majority also agreed (see Table XL) that t h i s communication tended, generally, to increase the chances of the two nominees reaching agreement. Respondents were asked f o r t h e i r opinions as to how often i t was necessary f o r each nominee to have a f a i r l y accurate picture of what the other nominee i s r e a l l y w i l l i n g to grant or to accept so f a r as each matter being disputed i s concerned, before the two nominees can reach agreement. The r e s u l t s , given i n Table XLI, confirm overwhelmingly the idea that t h i s knowledge i s u s u a l l y 105 n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e a g r e e m e n t c a n be r e a c h e d . T a b l e X L I I d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h a t t h i s k n o w l e d g e i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t c o n d i t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t . H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) ( a ) t h u s a p p e a r s t o be d e c i s i v e l y c o n f i r m e d . ( c ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 79-84-; T a b l e s X L I I I - X L V I I ] h e l d t h a t t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f p a r t y - n o m i n a t e d r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s was d y s f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e g o a l o f n o m i n e e s r e a c h i n g o r a p p r o a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t i n t h a t i t i n t r o d u c e d t h e f a c t o r o f p a r t i s a n s h i p . Q u e s t i o n s 79 a n d 80 a s k e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w h e t h e r o r n o t e m p l o y e r s , a n d w h e t h e r o r n o t u n i o n s , t e n d t o c h o o s e n o m i n e e s who w i l l be p a r t i s a n a n d r e g a r d t h e i r j o b a s one where t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t y i s more i m p o r t a n t t h a n r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . T a b l e s X L I I I a n d X L I V i n d i c a t e , b y a m a r k e d m a j o r i t y , t h a t b o t h do s o . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , w h i l e b o t h f e e l , t o t h e same e x t e n t , t h a t u n i o n s do s o , more u n i o n t h a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t e m p l o y e r s do s o . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e more r e l u c t a n t t h a n a r e u n i o n n o m i n e e s t o a d m i t t o t h i s . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d ( Q u e s t i o n 81) i f t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e r e were n o m i n e e s who were s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e w e l f a r e a n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t i e s , a n d , i f s o , t o s t a t e what t h e y t h o u g h t t h e m a i n r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s y m p a t h y w e r e . The commonest appears to be membership i n the same economic community as one's nominator, which gives one personal knowledge of, and sympathy with, the problems of one's nominator. Table XLVII gives the results of a question asking nominees whether they thought that, i f a nominee were not paid by his parjy for his services as a nominee, that he would tend to be less partisan, and less an advocate of his party's welfare and interests. The results indicate that payment (meaning payment in addition to expenses) i s not an i n f l u e n t i a l factor so far as partisanship i s con-cerned, and comments appended to the question indicate that i t i s not a factor because i t rarely occurs: union nominees, the comments indicate, are never paid (the higher union non-response rate lends this conclusion further support), and, of the employer nominees, only lawyers and industrial relations consultants appear to be paid. The fact that a greater number of employer nominees feel that, i f employer nominees were not paid, they would be less partisan, i s probably attributable to the employer nominees who are lawyers and industrial relations consultants. Respondents were also asked i f a party i s generally able to get i t s nominee to do what the party wants on the Conciliation Board. The data, given i n Table XLV, indicate that this i s usually the case. The composite picture which emerges would seem to 1 0 7 support the hypothesis. However, a d i r e c t question as to whether i t i s better, f o r e f f e c t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n , i f nominees are i m p a r t i a l , or p a r t i s a n (that i s , advocates of t h e i r p a r t i e s ) , was regarded as a necessary t e s t of the hypothesis, and Table XLVI gives the r e s u l t s , showing, s u r p r i s i n g l y enough that, by a small margin, more respondents fe e l , that p a r t i s a n nominees provide more e f f e c t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n than f e e l that i m p a r t i a l nominees do. Comments suggest the reason i s that, when the nominees are p a r t i s a n , and serving as advocates of t h e i r p a r t i e s , more information p e r t a i n i n g to the dispute i s l i k e l y to be brought, by both sides, to the a t t e n t i o n of the Board, which i s more l i k e l y to produce a s a t i s f a c t o r y com-promise, as well as a Board that both p a r t i e s can t r u s t . This information d i r e c t l y contravenes the hypothesis. However, almost as many persons (36.4% versus 43.6%) favoured i m p a r t i a l nominees f o r the most e f f e c t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n because they f e l t that such nominees would adhere to the evidence more r e a d i l y , and reach unanimous decisions more easily,which t presumably (at l e a s t i n the opinion of t h i s group of respondents), would u s u a l l y be accepted by the disputing p a r t i e s . In terms of a simple majority of the vote, then, the hypothesis i s correct i n s t a t i n g that partisanship, r e s u l t i n g i n a high degree of c o n t r o l of the nominees by t h e i r p a r t i e s , p r e v a i l s , and, i n terms of the single response-category r e c e i v i n g the greatest support, i n c o r r e c t i n s t a t i n g t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t s i n l e s s e f f e c t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n t h a n w o u l d o c c u r were t h e n o m i n e e s i m p a r t i a l . However, t h e f a c t t h a t a s u b s t a n t i a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e p r e v a i l i n g p a r t i s a n s h i p o f n o m i n e e s b y i n d i c a t i n g t h a t i m p a r t i a l n o m i n e e s w o u l d r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n , o f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t t o t h e h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t , w h i l e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s d i v i d e t h e i r v o t e s e v e n l y b e t w e e n i m p a r t i a l i t y a n d p a r t i s a n s h i p , t w i c e a s many u n i o n n o m i n e e s f a v o u r p a r t i s a n s h i p as f a v o u r i m p a r t i a l i t y . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t u n i o n s t e n d t o r e g a r d t h e m s e l v e s a s a n e m b a t t l e d g r o u p who f e e l t h a t t h e i r d e s i r e s a r e u n l i k e l y t o be met on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s u n l e s s t h e y e n l i s t t h e s e r v i c e s o f a n ominee who w i l l r e p r e s e n t them a s an a d v o c a t e . F a c t o r s 3 ( i ) ( a ) and 3 ( i ) ( c ) have b e e n d e a l t w i t h a b o v e , b u t t h e t h i r d a n d f i n a l f a c t o r o f t h e t h r e e , 3 ( i ) ( b ) , must be d e a l t w i t h b e l o w i n t h e I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s s e c t i o n , i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r w h i c h t h e h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n i t s e n t i r e t y . 9. H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i i ) [ Q u e s t i o n 85; T a b l e X L V I I I ] f o c u s e d u p o n t h e e f f e c t o f n ominee p a r t i s a n s h i p u p o n h i s q u e s t i o n i n g t e c h n i q u e . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t n o m i n e e s w o u l d u s e a t e c h n i q u e o f a s k i n g q u e s t i o n s much o f w h i c h was p a r t i s a n i n t h a t i t was d e s i g n e d t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r t y t h e n o m i n e e r e p r e s e n t s , a n d h e n c e h i s own p o s i t i o n , and weaken t h a t of the other nominee and h i s p a r t y . The h y p o t h e s i s was s t a t e d i n the form of a q u e s t i o n , and Table XLVIII records the response. As i s apparent from the t a b l e , the h y p o t h e s i s i s overwhelmingly confirmed, which p r o v i d e s f u r t h e r evidence of the p a r t i s a n a t t i t u d e s and behaviour of most nominees. 10. . The e f f e c t of the l e g a l requirement of p a r t y - a p p o i n t e d nominees on nominee r o l e - p e r c e p t i o n was the concern of Hypothesis 3 ( i i i ) [Questions 86-88; Tables XLIX -L I I ] . I t was hypothesized t h a t each nominee would p e r c e i v e h i s a p p r o p r i a t e r o l e as c o n s i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y i n the two f u n c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d i n Hypotheses 3 ( i ) (a) and 3 ( i ) (c) a b o v e — t h a t i s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i n attempting t o f i n d out what the other p a r t y i s r e a l l y w i l l i n g to grant or to accept, and i n attempting t o p r o t e c t , to the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e e x t e n t , the i n t e r e s t s of the p a r t y he r e p r e s e n t s . A q u e s t i o n which i n c o r p o r a t e d the t a s k d e s c r i b e d i n 3 ( i ) (c) prompted the response recorded i n Table XLIX, from which i t i s c l e a r t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of nominees perform t h i s t a s k . Question 86(b) and Table L i n d i c a t e t h a t more respondents r e g a r d i t as the most important p a r t of a nominee's job than h o l d any other s i n g l e o p i n i o n of those o f f e r e d on the s c a l e , and the b u l k of the remaining respondents r e g a r d i t as q u i t e important. This p o r t i o n of Hypothesis 3 ( i i i ) can thus be regarded as confirmed. The data given i n Table L may suggest, to a s m a l l e x t e n t , t h a t 110 r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l a c c o m p l i s h m e n t o f t h i s t a s k i s more i m p o r t a n t t o e m p l o y e r s t h a n i t i s t o u n i o n s , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s p e r c e i v e t h a t an a g r e e m e n t t h a t was t o o much i n f a v o u r o f t h e u n i o n c o u l d d r i v e an e m p l o y e r o u t o f b u s i n e s s , w h e r e a s u n i o n s a r e n o t f a c e d w i t h s o d r a s t i c a s a n c t i o n s h o u l d a n a g r e e m e n t be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t e n d e d t o f a v o u r t h e e m p l o y e r . The t a s k d e s c r i b e d i n H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i ) ( a ) above was p r e s e n t e d t o r e s p o n d e n t s i n q u e s t i o n f o r m , w i t h t h e r e s u l t s r e c o r d e d i n T a b l e L I , An o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y d e c l a r e d t h a t n o m i n e e s a t t e m p t e d t o g e t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , a n d T a b l e L I I i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s r e g a r d e d a s a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e n o m i n e e ' s j o b . U n i o n n o m i n e e s f e l t , f a r more s t r o n g l y t h a n d i d e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , t h a t t h i s was t h e most i m p o r t a n t j o b o f t h e n o m i n e e . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t t h i s v a r i a t i o n i n o p i n i o n i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e r a t h e r f r e q u e n t u n i o n a l l e g a t i o n s t h a t e m p l o y e r s a r e u n w i l l i n g t o p l a c e t h e i r r e a l e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n b e f o r e t h e B o a r d — t h a t t h e y a r e , i n s h o r t , s e c r e t i v e and d i s h o n e s t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e e c o n o m i c e v i d e n c e w h i c h t h e y p r e s e n t i n t h e i r b r i e f s t o t h e B o a r d , and t h a t u n i o n s t h e r e f o r e c o n s i d e r t h e ob-t a i n i n g o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s t o what t h e o t h e r p a r t y i s r e a l l y w i l l i n g t o s e t t l e f o r more i m p o r t a n t t h a n do e m p l o y e r s . Q u e s t i o n 88 r e q u e s t e d t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s l i s t , a nd r a n k i n o r d e r o f i m p o r t a n c e , t h e t a s k s w h i c h , i n t h e i r I l l o p i n i o n , most p a r t i e s f e e l t h a t t h e i r n o m i nee s h o u l d , i f p o s s i b l e , p e r f o r m when he r e p r e s e n t s them on a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s q u e s t i o n was t h a t i f t h e two t a s k s w i t h w h i c h t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d a r e r a n k e d f i r s t and s e c o n d i n i m p o r t a n c e more o f t e n t h a n a r e a n y o t h e r t a s k s w h i c h a r e r a n k e d , t h e n n o m i n e e s w o u l d , a s t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e q u i r e s , c o n s i d e r t h e s e a s t h e i r p r i n c i p a l , o r most i m p o r t a n t , t a s k s i n t h e i r r o l e as n o m i n e e s . The t a s k r e f e r r e d t o i n 3 ( i ) ( c ) r e c e i v e d t h e most r a n k i n g s i n f i r s t a n d s e c o n d p o s i t i o n o f i m p o r t a n c e , and t h a t r e f e r r e d t o i n 3 ( i ) ( a ) r e c e i v e d t h e s e c o n d g r e a t e s t number o f r a n k i n g s i n f i r s t a n d s e c o n d p o s i t i o n , t h u s c o n f i r m i n g t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a s s e m b l e d a b o v e d e m o n s t r a t e s t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s h a v e b e e n s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t i t s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d . 11. P a r t y e v a l u a t i o n o f n o m i n e e p e r f o r m a n c e i n t e r m s o f t h e f a c t o r s d e s c r i b e d i n H y p o t h e s e s 3 ( i ) ( a ) a n d 3 ( i ) ( c ) a b o v e , and t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s e v a l u a t i o n on nominee b e h a v i o u r , i s t h e f o c u s o f H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i v ) [ Q u e s t i o n 89; T a b l e s L I U - L I V ] . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t a n o m i n e e ' s p e r f o r m a n c e w o u l d be e v a l u a t e d b y t h e p a r t y he r e p r e s e n t s i n t e r m s o f t h e s k i l l w i t h w h i c h he manages t o p e r f o r m t h e s e two f u n c t i o n s , a n d t h a t t h i s w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a p r e s s u r e 112 t o w a r d a n o m i n e e ' s b e h a v i n g i n t h i s manner. R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d w h e t h e r t h e y t h o u g h t t h a t p a r t i e s g e n e r a l l y t e n d t o j u d g e t h e s k i l l o f t h e i r n ominee i n t e r m s o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h he s u c c e e d s i n c a r r y i n g o u t t h e s e t a s k s . The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e L I I I , i n d i c a t e , b y a l a r g e m a j o r i t y , t h a t p a r t i e s do s o . 'A q u e s t i o n a s t o w h e t h e r p a r t i e s who t e n d t o j u d g e t h e s k i l l o f t h e i r n o m i n e e s i n t h i s way b r i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r on them t o c o n c e r n t h e m s e l v e s m a i n l y w i t h t h e s e t a s k s p r o d u c e d t h e r e s u l t s shown i n T a b l e L I V ; a g a i n , a m a j o r i t y a g r e e t h a t p a r t i e s do s o . Comments s u g g e s t t h a t p a r t i e s e x p e c t t h e i r nominee t o b e h a v e i n t h i s way w i t h o u t i t b e i n g n e c e s s a r y f o r them t o b r i n g p r e s s u r e t o b e a r u p o n h i m t o do s o , b e c a u s e t h e y t e n d t o s e l e c t a n o m inee whom t h e y f e e l w i l l a g r e e w i t h t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . T h i s may e x p l a i n why t h e m a j o r i t y o p i n i o n i n T a b l e L I V i s somewhat r e d u c e d c o m pared t o t h a t i n T a b l e L I I I . A t a n y r a t e , t h e r e s u l t s s e t f o r t h i n t h e s e two t a b l e s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d be a c c e p t e d . A r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g d i s p a r i t y i n o p i n i o n a p p e a r s i n T a b l e L I V : more e m p l o y e r t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s a p p e a r a t t h e " a l l - m a j o r i t y " e n d o f t h e s c a l e . T h i s c o u l d m e a n — a l t h o u g h , a d m i t t e d l y , t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e — t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e s u b j e c t e d , b y t h e i r p a r t i e s , t o more p r e s s u r e t o p e r f o r m t h e s e t a s k s t h a n a r e u n i o n n o m i n e e s . T h i s c l e a v a g e w o u l d seem t o be c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h a t n o t e d i n T a b l e L i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h H y p o t h e s i s 3 ( i i i ) , where i t was s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e t a s k o f g e t t i n g t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e s e t t l e m e n t f o r o n e ' s p a r t y seems t o be r e g a r d e d more i n t e n s e l y b y e m p l o y e r s as an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f t h e n o m i n e e ' s j o b , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s e v e r e h a n d i c a p w h i c h a t o o u n f a v o u r a b l e a g r e e m e n t c o u l d i m p o s e u p o n a n e m p l o y e r . 12. H y p o t h e s i s 4-(i) [ Q u e s t i o n s 99-102; T a b l e s L V -L I X ] was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c h a i r m a n t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t i n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e two n o m i n e e s a r e u n w i l l i n g t o a g r e e , t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e B o a r d be a m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n p l a c e s l i m i t a t i o n s u p o n t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e c h a i r m a n t o p u t p r e s s u r e u p o n t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e . B e c a u s e t h e c h a i r m a n h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , where u n a n i m i t y i s n o t a c h i e v e d , o f i s s u i n g a d e c i s i o n i n t h e f o r m o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , i t i s p o s s i b l e , p r e s u m a b l y , f o r e a c h nominee t o p u t p r e s s u r e u p o n t h e c h a i r m a n t o come t o one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e i r o p p o s e d p o s i t i o n s i f t h e y r e m a i n r e l a t i v e l y f a r a p a r t a n d adamant, i n w h i c h c a s e he c a n n o t u s e t h e i r d e s i r e t o be i n on a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t t o p l a y one a g a i n s t t h e o t h e r a n d t h u s g e t tliem t o s h i f t n e a r e r t o one a n o t h e r . The a s s u m p t i o n t h a t n o m i n e e s who a r e f a r a p a r t a n d adamant w i l l p u t p r e s s u r e on a c h a i r m a n t o come t o one o r t h e o t h e r o f t h e i r o p p o s e d p o s i t i o n s i s b a s e d on t h e f u r t h e r a s s u m p t i o n t h a t n o m i n e e s , i n g e n e r a l , w o u l d p r e f e r t o s i g n a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t w i t h t h e c h a i r m a n r a t h e r t h a n t o s u b m i t a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n was p h r a s e d i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f w h i c h a p p e a r i n T a b l e LV; t h e a s s u m p t i o n i s c o n f i r m e d b y a n o v e r w h e l m i n g l y m a j o r i t y . Comments i n d i c a t e t h a t a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t i s r e g a r d e d as more d e s i r a b l e t h a n a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t b e c a u s e i t t e n d s t o e s t a b l i s h . t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e B o a r d ( t h a t i s , one nominee a n d a p r e s u m a b l y i m p a r t i a l c h a i r m a n ) c o n s i d e r one p r i n c i p a l t o be r i g h t f u l l y a s k i n g c o n c e s s i o n s , w h i c h h a s t h e e f f e c t o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e " m a j o r i t y " p a r t y w h i l e m a k i n g t h a t o f t h e " m i n o r i t y " p a r t y l o o k weak. R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o s u p p o s e t h a t a c h a i r m a n h a s t r i e d t o g e t t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e b u t t h a t t h e n o m i n e e s , b e c a u s e o f t h e i r c o n c e r n f o r t h e w e l f a r e a n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r t i e s , f e e l t h a t i t i s t h e i r , d u t y t o h o l d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s f i r m l y , a n d have so f a r r e f u s e d t o c o m p r o m i s e . How f r e q u e n t l y do c h a i r m e n g e n e r a l l y s u c c e e d i n g e t t i n g two n o m i n e e s i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n t o a g r e e ? N o minees' o p i n i o n s on t h i s q u e s t i o n a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e L V I ; a s u b s t a n t i a l l y g r e a t e r number o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , a c h a i r m a n s e l d o m s u c c e e d s i n a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t t h a n f e e l t h a t he u s u a l l y d o e s s u c c e e d . What c a n a c h a i r m a n do, i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , t o t.ry t o g e t t h e n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e ? Many s u g g e s t i o n s a r e made, b u t i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e o n l y ones upon w h i c h more t h a n one o r two p e r s o n s agree are n o t s o l u t i o n s w h i c h l e a d t o u n a n i m i t y a t a l l : s i x p e r s o n s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n c o u l d t a k e a p o s i t i o n i n t e r m e d i a t e t o t h o s e o f t h e nominees, i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s what he t h i n k s i s a f a i r s e t t l e m e n t , and ask them w h i c h one w i l l go a l o n g w i t h him, and u s u a l l y one w i l l ; t e n s u g g e s t e d t h a t he s h o u l d s i g n a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t w i t h t h e nominee whose p o s i t i o n i s c l o s e s t t o h i s own t h i n k i n g , and s i x s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h r e e m i n o r i t y r e p o r t s he s u b m i t t e d . These t h r e e were the o n l y p r o f f e r e d s o l u t i o n s w h i c h r e c e i v e d any p a r t i c u l a r s u p p o r t , and, o f c o u r s e , none a r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h e q u e s t i o n because t h e y do n o t r e s u l t i n agreement between t h e nominees. T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e t h a t a c h a i r m a n c a n do t o a c h i e v e agreement under s u c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s . R espondents who f e l t t h a t a c h a i r m a n f a c e d w i t h two nominees who are r e f u s i n g t o compromise would n o t u s u a l l y have much chance o f g e t t i n g t h e two nominees t o agree were a s k e d whether t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i r adamancy was t h a t t h e y w i s h t o p r o t e c t t h e b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e i r p a r t y more t h a n t h e y w i s h t o g e t i n on a unanimous o r a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , w h i c h would p r o b a b l y r e q u i r e a change i n t h i s b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n . The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e L V I I , i n d i c a t e t h a t a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y b e l i e v e t h i s t o be t h e r e a s o n most o f t h e t i m e . The f a c t t h a t more employer nominees t h a n u n i o n nominees f e l t t h a t t h i s was a l m o s t always t h e r e a s o n s u g g e s t s 116 once again—although, once again, too, the difference i s s m a l l — t h a t employer nominees are somewhat more c l o s e l y t i e d to the wishes of t h e i r party than are union.nominees. A large majority of nominees (61.8% versus 9.1%) f e l t that when the nominees are u n w i l l i n g to compromise, a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board i s not able to do much to s e t t l e a dispute between two p a r t i e s (see Table LVIII), and, furt h e r , a marked majority (56.4% versus 9*1%) ind i c a t e d that, when the nominees are u n w i l l i n g to compromise, the accommodative chairman i s forced, the majority of the time, to sign a majority report which favours one side or the other (see Table LIX). In summation, then, i t appears that, when disputing p a r t i e s consider i t e s s e n t i a l that t h e i r bargaining p o s i t i o n be maintained with a l o t of bargaining room, the usual desire of nominees to achieve unanimous or majority awards, and hence to compromise, becomes secondary to t h i s requirement, and nominees hold adamantly p o s i t i o n s that are f a r apart. This s i t u a t i o n as a rule renders an accommodative chairman r e l a t i v e l y helpless to bring about agreement between them, and he w i l l simply be forced to sign a report which markedly favours one side or the other, and hence w i l l be quite u n l i k e l y to s e t t l e the dispute. The hypothesis must hence be regarded as confirmed. 13. Hypothesis 4 ( i i ) [Question 103; Table LX] c o n c e r n e d i t s e l f w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s . I t was h y p o -t h e s i z e d t h a t , s h o u l d t h e c h a i r m a n v i e w h i s r o l e a s t h a t o f c o n c i l i a t o r b y n o r m a t i v e means, he w i l l , where t h e s i t u a t i o n a l r e a d y d e s c r i b e d i n H y p o t h e s i s 4-(i) above a r i s e s ( t h a t i s , where t h e n o m i n e e s a r e adamant, and f a r a p a r t ) be c a p a b l e o f e x e r t i n g e v e n l e s s p r e s s u r e t o w a r d a g r e e m e n t t h a n t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e l y c o n c i l i a t o r y c h a i r m a n , f o r he w i l l s i m p l y be f o r c e d , f o r r e a s o n s a l r e a d y o u t l i n e d i n C h a p t e r I I , t o s i g n w i t h w h i c h e v e r p a r t y h a p p e n s t o be c l o s e r , i n h i s v i e w , t o t h e p o s i t i o n he f e e l s t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , o r a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t — o r w h a t e v e r n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i o n he i s u s i n g — r e q u i r e s . The c i r c u m s t a n c e s , a n d t h e c o n c i l i a t o r y t e c h n i q u e o f t h e c h a i r m a n , h a v i n g b e e n o u t l i n e d , r e s p o n d e n t s were q u e r i e d a s t o w h e t h e r s u c h a c h a i r m a n , i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , w o u l d s i m p l y be f o r c e d t o s i g n w i t h w h i c h e v e r nominee he f e e l s i s c l o s e r t o t h e p o s i t i o n r e q u i r e d b y t h e s t a n d a r d he i s a p p l y i n g t o t h e d i s p u t e . T a b l e LX shows t h a t a m a r k e d l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n (60.0% v e r s u s 7-2%) s u p p o r t t h e h y p o -t h e s i s , and i t may t h e r e f o r e be a c c e p t e d . 14. The e f f e c t o f d e c i s i o n s o f o t h e r C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s on t h e r o l e - c o n c e p t i o n s , b e h a v i o u r , and d e c i s i o n o f t h e p e r s o n n e l o f an o p e r a t i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c o n s t i t u t e s t h e f o c u s o f H y p o t h e s i s F i v e [ Q u e s t i o n s 104 - 1 0 5 ; T a b l e L X I ] a n d i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t p a t t e r n s w i l l be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r v a r i o u s t r a d e s and i n d u s t r i e s b y C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , a n d t h a t , t h e r e f o r e , when a c o l l e c t i v e a g r e e m e n t d i s p u t e a r i s e s i n t h e s e t r a d e s o r i n d u s t r i e s , o r i n t r a d e s o r i n d u s t r i e s r e g a r d e d a s c o m p a r a b l e , t h e r e p o r t o f t h e B o a r d a t t e m p t i n g t o c o n c i l i a t e t h i s d i s p u t e w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f s i m i l a r i t y t o t h e p a t t e r n . How f r e q u e n t l y a r e d e c i s i o n s o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e d e c i s i o n s o f a p r e v i o u s C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d o r B o a r d s ? The d a t a s u p p l i e d b y T a b l e L X I i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s so m a r k e d l y more o f t e n t h a n n o t ( 4 0 . 0 % v e r s u s 1 0 . 8 % ) . R e s p o n d e n t s who f e l t t h a t t h e d e c i s i o n s o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s were e v e r i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e d e c i s i o n s o f p r e v i o u s C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s were a s k e d what t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s i n f l u e n c e w e r e . By a n o v e r -w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y , r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r e was one r e a s o n : a p a t t e r n h a d b e e n b u i l t up i n t h e i n d u s t r y o r i n a s i m i l a r i n d u s t r y b y p r e v i o u s C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , a n d s u b s e q u e n t B o a r d s t e n d t o f o l l o w t h i s p a t t e r n b e c a u s e , i f t h e y do s o , t h e i r d e c i s i o n h a s a g o od c h a n c e o f b e i n g a c c e p t e d b y b o t h p a r t i e s . The h y p o t h e s i s i s t h u s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d . 15. H y p o t h e s i s S i x [ Q u e s t i o n s 106-107; T a b l e s L X I I - L X I I I ] p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t w i l l be a c c e p t e d b y b o t h p a r t i e s t h a n w i l l a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t , w h i c h i s l i k e l y t o be r e j e c t e d b y t h e p a r t y whose nominee s u b m i t t e d a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was f o r m u l a t e d and t e s t e d b e c a u s e i t s e r v e s t o j u s t i f y t h e i n c l u s i o n o f c e r t a i n o t h e r h y p o t h e s e s . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t one o f t h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e s o f t h e t h e s i s was t o a t t e m p t t o d i s c o v e r f a c t o r s p r e s e n t i n t h e s t r u c t u r e a n d o p e r a t i o n o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s w h i c h a r e i n e f f i c i e n t i n t h a t t h e y t e n d t o work a g a i n s t t h e avowed p u r p o s e o f t h e B o a r d — t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e p a r t i e s . A l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s — s u c h a s t h e l e g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n a n d o f p a r t y s e l e c t i o n o f n o m i n e e s , a n d t h e u s e o f t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e o f c o n c i l i a t i o n — t e n d t o l e a d , i t h a s b e e n h y p o t h e s i z e d , t o a l a c k o f a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s and h e n c e t o a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t . B u t t h e c h a r g e o f i n e f f i c i e n c y c a n o n l y be l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e s e f a c t o r s - i f : It i s e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s a r e r e l a t i v e l y u n l i k e l y , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t s , t o r e s u l t i n a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s . H y p o t h e s i s S i x s e r v e s a s t h e t e s t o f t h i s . I t h a s b e e n c l a s s i f i e d a s a n E x t e r n a l F a c t o r on t h e b a s i s o f t h e a s s u m p t i o n — f o r m u l a t e d as a n a f t e r t h o u g h t ( i n o r d e r t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s m i g h t be c l a s s i f i a b l e i n one o f t h e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ) a n d t h e r e f o r e n o t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t e s t e d i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e — t h a t i t w i l l o p e r a t e a s a p r e s s u r e u p o n t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d p e r s o n n e l t o a g r e e u p o n a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , b e c a u s e , p r e s u m a b l y , t h e y c o n s i d e r t h e ( 120 most d e s i r a b l e f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e i r r o l e s a s b e i n g t o p r o d u c e , where p o s s i b l e , a r e p o r t s a t i s f a c t o r y t o , a n d h e n c e a c c e p t e d b y, b o t h p a r t i e s , and a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d , u s u a l l y s t a n d s t h e b e s t c h a n c e o f b e i n g s o . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d i f , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t i s more l i k e l y t o be a c c e p t e d b y b o t h o f t h e d i s p u t i n g p a r t i e s t h a n i s a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t . The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e L X I I , i n d i c a t e , b y a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y (72.8% v e r s u s 1.8%), t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e . The a u t h o r t h e n i n q u i r e d as t o w h e t h e r o r n o t a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t w i l l u s u a l l y be r e j e c t e d b y t h e m i n o r i t y p a r t y . T a b l e L X I I I d e m o n s t r a t e s , a g a i n b y a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y , t h a t t h i s i s t h e c a s e . The h y p o t h e s i s may h e n c e be c o n s i d e r e d c o n f i r m e d . The f a c t t h a t f a r more e m p l o y e r t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s i n d i -c a t e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t w o u l d u s u a l l y be r e j e c t e d b y t h e m i n o r i t y p a r t y p r o b a b l y means t h a t e m p l o y e r s a r e much more l i k e l y t o r e j e c t a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s i g n e d b y t h e u n i o n n o m i nee t h a n a r e u n i o n s l i k e l y t o r e j e c t a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s i g n e d b y t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t e m p l o y e r s p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s a s b e i n g more v u l n e r a b l e t o u n f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t s , and t i e s i n w i t h p r e v i o u s e v i d e n c e o f a s i m i l a r s o r t . The r e c u r r e n c e o f s i m i l a r e v i d e n c e on t h i s p o i n t r e n d e r s r e a s o n a b l e t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t e m p l o y e r s p e r c e i v e t h e m s e l v e s as b e i n g more v u l n e r a b l e t o u n f a v o u r a b l e r e p o r t s t h a n do u n i o n s , a n d t h a t f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h e y b i n d , more 121 c l o s e l y t h a n do u n i o n s , t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e i r n o m i n e e s t o t h e i r own w i s h e s , a s w e l l as show a g r e a t e r r e l u c t a n c e t h a n do u n i o n s t o a c c e p t a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s i g n e d b y t h e nominee o f t h e i r a d v e r s a r y . B. I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t , i n C h a p t e r I I , a number o f h y p o t h e s e s — t e n , t o be e x a c t . ; — w e r e r e c l a s s i f i e d u n d e r t h e r u b r i c o f I n t e r n a l F a c t o r s . E a c h o f t h e s e w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t u r n b e l o w . 1. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 3 9 - 4 0 ; T a b l e s L X I V -LXV] p u t f o r w a r d t h e i d e a t h a t two d i s t i n c t c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e r o l e o f C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m a n e x i s t — t h e n o r m a t i v e r o l e ( r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e as M e t h o d A ) , and t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e r o l e ( r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s M e t h o d B ) . The c h a i r m a n who c o n c e i v e s h i s r o l e a s a p r i m a r i l y n o r m a t i v e one w o u l d a t t e m p t t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s b y n o r m a t i v e means ( t h a t i s , b y a s e t o f s t a n d a r d s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e c h a i r m a n , w h i c h he c h o o s e s t o d e f i n e b y some n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d w h i c h he h o l d s , s u c h a s " t h e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t , " o r " a j u s t s e t t l e m e n t , " a n d b y r e f e r e n c e t o w h i c h t h e t e r m s o f a g r e e m e n t a r e j u s t i f i e d ) . The c h a i r m a n who c o n c e i v e s h i s r o l e a s a p r i m a r i l y accom-m o d a t i v e one w o u l d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , e n d e a v o u r t o . e f f e c t a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s p r e d o m i n a n t l y b y a c c o m m o d a t i v e means ( t h a t i s , he w o u l d a t t e m p t t o g e t t h e l a b o u r a n d management nominees to reach agreement on any terms which are acceptable to both of them, regardless of what the chairman himself thinks about the j u s t i c e or d e s i r a b i l i t y of these terms). Question 3 9 described two basic approaches to the job of t r y i n g to get the two nominees to agree which could be used by chairmen—Method A (the normative technique) and Method B (the accommodative technique), and asked respondent how frequently they thought these methods were used by C o n c i l i a t i o n Board chairmen. The r e s u l t s , given i n Tables LXIV and LXV, indicate that, when required to choose between the two polar types, respondents indicate that the accommodative method i s used a good deal more frequently than i s the normative". However, an examination of both tables, as well as of the comments appended by respondents to Question 3 9 , does suggest to some extent that the accommodative method i s the one with which most chairmen begin t h e i r attempt to e f f e c t c o n c i l i a t i o n , but that they resort to the normative when nominees remain u n w i l l i n g to reach agreement under the accommodative technique. I t i s further suggested that the chairman w i l l most commonly derive h i s normative standards, or c r i t e r i a f o r judging which party i s more i n the r i g h t , and which more i n the wrong, from the evidence presented before the Board; more r a r e l y , however, comments suggest, the chairman does come to the Board with preconceived normative standards with r e f e r e n c e t o t h e d i s p u t e . The e n t i r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s p o n s e i n T a b l e L X I V s i g n i f i e s t h a t more e m p l o y e r t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e i s u s e d r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t l y ; why t h i s s h o u l d be so i s n o t c l e a r . A l l i n a l l , t h e n , t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e two m e t h o d s o f c o n c i l i a t i o n e x i s t a p p e a r s c o n f i r m e d , w i t h a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n p e r c e i v e d as t h e commoner. Comments s u g g e s t , h o w e v e r , t h a t o f t e n i n a n e f f o r t t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t , a c h a i r m a n w i l l e m p l o y b o t h m e t h o d s , i n s e q u e n c e , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e same d i s p u t e . I t seems most r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e — a l t h o u g h t h e e v i d e n c e i s n o t e x t e n s i v e — t h a t a c h a i r m a n w o u l d most f r e q u e n t l y e m p l o y a c c o m m o d a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n f i r s t , a n d , s h o u l d i t - f a i l , t h e n n o r m a t i v e c o n c i l i a t i o n . A g a i n , i t seems most r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e — a l t h o u g h , a g a i n , t h e e v i d e n c e i s s c a n t y — t h a t a c h a i r m a n w o u l d most o f t e n d e r i v e h i s n o r m a t i v e s t a n d a r d , a n d h i s j u d g e m e n t o f w h i c h p a r t y i s more i n t h e r i g h t , and w h i c h more i n t h e w rong, f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d t o t h e B o a r d b y t h e p a r t i e s . 2. The e f f e c t o f t h e n o r m a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n on t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two n o m i n e e s was t h e c o n -c e r n o f H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i i ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 41-45; T a b l e s L X V I -L X V I I I ] . A c h a i r m a n who p e r c e i v e s t h e n o r m a t i v e r o l e a s i n c u m b e n t u p o n h i m w i l l , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d , t e n d t o m a i n t a i n o r p e r h a p s w i d e n , r a t h e r t h a n r e d u c e , o r e l i m i n a t e , 124-t h e d i s t a n c e s e p a r a t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two n o m i n e e s , b e c a u s e s u c h a c h a i r m a n w i l l be p e r c e i v e d , b y one o f t h e n o m i n e e s , a s b i a s e d . The r a t h e r i n v o l v e d r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s w i l l n o t be r e c a p i t u l a t e d h e r e ; t h e r e a d e r i s r e f e r r e d t o C h a p t e r I I . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d how, i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , n o m i n e e s f e e l a b o u t t h e n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e ( s e e T a b l e L X V I ) t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t , w i t h s u c h a c h a i r m a n , one o r b o t h o f t h e n o m i n e e s w o u l d f e e l t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n was b i a s e d , a n d a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e , i n t u r n , b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was t h e nominee whose p a r t y t h e c h a i r m a n j u d g e d t o be more i n t h e wrong who w o u l d p e r c e i v e t h e c h a i r m a n a s b i a s e d . Comments i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , where b o t h n o m i n e e s f e l t t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n was b i a s e d , t h e n o m inee whose p a r t y h a d b e e n a d j u d g e d more i n t h e r i g h t w o u l d n e v e r a d m i t t h a t he f e l t t h e c h a i r m a n was b i a s e d i n h i s f a v o u r . The h i g h n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e i s a t t r i b u t e d b y t h e a u t h o r t o t h e r a t h e r c o m p l e x and a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n . I f one o f t h e n o m i n e e s f e e l s t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n i s b i a s e d , what a r e t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s ? The r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n ( Q u e s t i o n 4-2) was v i r t u a l l y u n a n i m o u s : t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a g r e e m e n t b e i n g r e a c h e d b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s w o u l d be d e s t r o y e d . I n a n e f f o r t t o o b t a i n f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e e f f e c t , on c o n c i l i a t i o n , o f p e r c e i v e d b i a s i n t h e c h a i r m a n , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d ( i n Q u e s t i o n 43), what, g e n e r a l l y , a r e t h e c l u e s b y w h i c h a nominee d e t e r m i n e d w h e t h e r o r n o t a c h a i r m a n i s b i a s e d . T h r e e p r i n c i p a l " c l u e s " were a p p a r e n t : o v e r t s t a t e m e n t s o f o p i n i o n on t h e p a r t o f a c h a i r m a n ; a c h a i r m a n ' s h a b i t o f a r g u i n g a g a i n s t a n o m i n e e r a t h e r t h a n l i s t e n i n g t o h i m , a n d a d i f f e r e n t i a l a t t i t u d e , on t h e p a r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n , t o w a r d t h e e v i d e n c e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e two p a r t i e s — g o i n g , i n t h e one c a s e , b e y o n d i t i n f a v o u r o f t h e p a r t y p r e s e n t i n g i t , a n d , i n t h e o t h e r , i g n o r i n g o r a r g u i n g a g a i n s t i t . I n r e s p o n s e t o a q u e s t i o n as t o how o f t e n t h e y f e l t t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e w o u l d be u n s u c c e s s f u l i n g e t t i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e , r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d , i n T a b l e L X V I I , b y a s c o r e o f 5^.5% v e r s u s 7.2%, t h a t s u c h a c h a i r m a n w o u l d u s u a l l y be u n s u c c e s s f u l . Nominees were n e x t p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e r a t i o n a l e b e h i n d t h e b e l i e f t h a t a n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e w o u l d a c t u a l l y t e n d t o w i d e n t h e d i s -p u t e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t w o u l d d e c r e a s e r a t h e r t h a n i n c r e a s e t h e c h a n c e s o f a g r e e m e n t b e i n g r e a c h e d b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s , an d were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e how f r e q u e n t l y t h e y f e l t t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e w o u l d h a v e t h i s e f f e c t . The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e L X V I I I , show t h a t a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f n o m i n e e s (54.5% v e r s u s 14.5%) b e l i e v e t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e w i l l u s u a l l y have t h e p r e d i c t e d e f f e c t . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a c c u m u l a t e d above o f f e r s f a i r l y s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s c o r r e c t a n d s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e he a c c e p t e d . 3. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i i i ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 4-6-4-7; T a b l e s L X I X - LXX] f o c u s e d u p o n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e n o r m a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n on t h e r e l a t i v e i n t r a n s i g e n c e o f a nominee when he h a s b e e n g i v e n l i t t l e b a r g a i n i n g room b y h i s p a r t y , as o p p o s e d t o when he h a s b e e n g i v e n a g o o d d e a l o f b a r g a i n i n g room b y h i s p a r t y . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e nominee i n whose f a v o u r t h e o t h e r n o m inee p e r c e i v e s t h e c h a i r m a n as h a v i n g a b a n d o n e d h i s i m p a r t i a l i t y w i l l , i f he p e r c e i v e s h i s d e g r e e o f d e p e n d e n c e u p o n t h e d e s i r e s o f h i s p a r t y as g r e a t , a n d i f t h e y h a v e g i v e n h i m r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e room i n w h i c h t o c o m p r o m i s e , h a v e h i s d e g r e e o f i n t r a n s i g e n c e i n c r e a s e d b y t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n ( t h i s i s t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s ) ; i f on t h e o t h e r h a n d , he h a s b e e n g i v e n a f a i r l y w i d e r a n g e o f p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n w h i c h t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t , t h i s w i l l n o t be t h e c a s e ( t h i s i s t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s ) . The c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s were d e s c r i b e d , a n d r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t h e i r o p i n i o n a s t o w h e t h e r , i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n w o u l d i n c r e a s e , d e c r e a s e , o r h a v e no e f f e c t u p o n t h e r i g i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e nominee w o u l d h o l d t o h i s p o s i t i o n . The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e L X I X , show t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s g i v e n a good d e a l more s u p p o r t t h a n a r e a n y o f t h e o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d , b u t i t i s n o t , i n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , g r e a t e n o u g h t o c o n s t i t u t e c o n -f i r m a t i o n o f t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s somewhat more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s , w h i c h a d d s f u r t h e r t o t h e m o u n t i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e more c l o s e l y t i e d t h a n a r e u n i o n n o m i n e e s t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p a r t y t h e y r e p r e s e n t . The r a t h e r h i g h n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e i s a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e h i g h l y a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n and, i n d e e d , some o f t h e comments a p p e n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n s u p p o r t t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n . The c i r c u m s t a n c e s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e s e c o n d s e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s were d e s c r i b e d , a n d , a g a i n , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d f o r t h e i r o p i n i o n s a s t o w h e t h e r , i n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e c h a i r m a n w o u l d i n c r e a s e , d e c r e a s e , o r h a v e no e f f e c t u p o n t h e r i g i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e nominee w o u l d h o l d t o h i s p o s i t i o n . The r e s u l t s ( s e e T a b l e LXX) a r e , i n d e e d , d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e o b t a i n e d i n T a b l e L X I X : s u p p o r t f o r " i n c r e a s e " d r o p s , and t h a t f o r " d e c r e a s e " i n c r e a s e s t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e v o t e f o r e a c h becomes i d e n t i c a l , and t h a t f o r "have no e f f e c t " r e m a i n s t h e same. W h i l e t h i s s h i f t d o e s p r o v i d e some s u p p o r t f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s , i t i s n o t c o n s i d e r e d m a r k e d e n o u g h t o c o n s t i t u t e c o n f i r m a t i o n . A g a i n , more e m p l o y e r t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e r i g i d i t y w i t h w h i c h t h e nominee h e l d h i s p o s i t i o n w o u l d be i n c r e a s e d , p r o v i d i n g s t i l l f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e 128 o f t h e g r e a t e r p a r t y - d e p e n d e n c e , o f e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . The h i g h n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e i s a g a i n a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e h i g h l y a b s t r a c t n a t u r e o f t h e q u e s t i o n and, a g a i n , t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s s u p p o r t e d b y comments t o t h a t e f f e c t . I n summation, t h e n , b o t h s e c t i o n s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s r e c e i v e d some s u p p o r t , b u t s u p p o r t t h a t was, i n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , i n s u f f i c i e n t t o j u s t i f y i t s a c c e p t a n c e . 4. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( i v ) [ Q u e s t i o n 48; T a b l e s L X X I -L X X I I ] was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e i n a b i l i t y o f t h e n o r m a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d c h a i r m a n t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e r o l e o f t h e c h a i r m a n i s o f t e n i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h e t a s k o f g e t t i n g t h e n o m i n e e s t o come t o a g r e e m e n t . W h i c h o f t h e two b a s i c t y p e s o f a p p r o a c h u s e d b y c h a i r m e n i s , i n g e n e r a l , more e f f e c t i v e i n g e t t i n g t h e two n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e , a n d i s s u e a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t ? T a b l e L X X I shows t h a t a v e r y m a r k e d l y g r e a t e r number (60.0% v e r s u s 12.7%) f a v o u r t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e , a l t h o u g h , a g a i n , a number o f comments s u g g e s t e d t h a t b o t h methods s h o u l d be u s e d . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d why t h e y t h o u g h t t h e m e t h o d t h e y h a d s e l e c t e d was t h e b e t t e r o f t h e two. A g a i n , s e v e r a l commented t h a t t h e y f e l t b o t h methods s h o u l d be u s e d . The g i s t o f t h e r e a s o n s s u p p l i e d b y t h e few who s u p p o r t e d t h e n o r m a t i v e method was t h a t j u s t i c e — w h a t was r i g h t a n d f a i r — w a s t o be p r e f e r r e d t o " a g r e e m e n t a t a l l c o s t s " . T h o s e who s u p p o r t e d t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t was f a r more l i k e l y t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s b e c a u s e , u n d e r i t , t h e c h a i r m a n i s v i e w e d a s a n i m p a r t i a l man a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d a median-p o s i t i o n u p o n w h i c h b o t h c a n v o l u n t a r i l y a g r e e , r a t h e r t h a n a t t e m p t i n g t o impose u p o n them t h e s e t t l e m e n t w h i c h he f e e l s i s r i g h t . S e v e r a l p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a g r e e m e n t , n o t j u s t i c e , was t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e B o a r d , a n d t h a t , f u r t h e r , i f t h e two n o m i n e e s a r e w i l l i n g t o a g r e e t o a p a r t i c u l a r s e t t l e m e n t , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n f o r t h e c h a i r m a n t o f e e l i t I s u n j u s t ; s e v e r a l f e l t t h a t , u n d e r t h e n o r m a t i v e method, one n o m inee w o u l d f e e l t h e c h a i r m a n was b i a s e d a g a i n s t h i m a n d w o u l d t h e r e f o r e n o t a g r e e t o a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t . A q u e r y as t o how much more e f f e c t i v e was t h e method o f t h e i r c h o i c e t h a n t h e o t h e r m e t h o d p r o d u c e d t h e r e s u l t s g i v e n i n T a b l e L X X I I , w h i c h i n d i c a t e r a t h e r c l e a r l y t h a t t h e a c c o m m o d a t i v e method i s r e g a r d e d a s f a r more e f f e c t i v e i n a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s , a n d b y a f a r g r e a t e r number o f r e s p o n d e n t s , t h a n i s t h e n o r m a t i v e . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r e c e d i n g e v i d e n c e l e a d s r a t h e r f o r c i b l y t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e n o r m a t i v e method i s r e g a r d e d as a r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t i v e m e thod o f a t t e m p t i n g t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s , a n d i t t h e r e f o r e seems r e a s o n a b l e t o e x t r a p o l a t e t h a t i t i s o f t e n i n c o m -p a t i b l e w i t h t h e t a s k o f g e t t i n g t h e n o m i n e e s t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t ; t h e h y p o t h e s i s may t h u s be a c c e p t e d . 130 5 . H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v ) [ Q u e s t i o n 61; T a b l e s L X X I I I -L X X I V ] was concerned, w i t h t h e u s e o f n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a b y a c c o m m o d a t i v e l y - o r i e n t e d c h a i r m e n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , where a c h a i r m a n i s u s i n g a b a s i c a l l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e method, he w i l l a l m o s t a l w a y s b r i n g t o b e a r , i n a d d i t i o n , t h e p r e s s u r e o f n o r m a t i v e c r i t e r i a , i n o r d e r t o t r y t o g e t t h e two t o a g r e e i n a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e r m s . I t i s assumed t h a t t h i s w i l l be t h e c a s e where a p u r e l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e h a s a l r e a d y b e e n u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t r i e d b y t h e c h a i r m a n . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o r -m a t i v e c h a i r m a n e m p l o y i n g a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e a l s o be i n v e s t i g a t e d , a l t h o u g h i t was r e g a r d e d as l o g i c a l l y u n l i k e l y . W i t h t h e l a t t e r o b j e c t i n v i e w , t h e n , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t h e i r o p i n i o n s on how f r e q u e n t l y a c h a i r m a n m a i n l y u s i n g a n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e w o u l d p r o b a b l y a l s o u s e a c c o m m o d a t i v e . c o n c i l i a t i o n . The r e s u l t s , g i v e n i n T a b l e L X X I I I , seem r a t h e r i n c o n c l u s i v e i n t h a t o p i n i o n i s r a t h e r e v e n l y d i v i d e d b e t w e e n t h e two e n d s o f t h e s c a l e , a n d t h e r e i s a h i g h n o n -r e s p o n s e r a t e . The most p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f b o t h o f t h e s e f a c t o r s i s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t , t h e l o g i c a l u n l i k e l i h o o d o f a p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m a n t u r n i n g t o a c c o m m o d a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s a f t e r n o r m a t i v e methods h a v e n o t s u c c e e d e d i n a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t . F u r t h e r , e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , i t a p p e a r s , f e e l , more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s , t h a t p r e d o m i n a n t l y n o r m a t i v e c h a i r m e n w o u l d f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y a l s o e m p l o y 1 3 1 a c c o m m o d a t i v e m e t h o d s . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s c l e a v a g e r e m a i n s u n c l e a r . How f r e q u e n t l y w o u l d a p r e d o m i n a n t l y a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m a n p r o b a b l y a l s o e m p l o y n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s ? T a b l e L X X I V shows, t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s r e j e c t (more s t r o n g l y t h a n t h e y r e j e c t e d t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e r e v e r s e s i t u a t i o n i n T a b l e L X X I I I ) t h e i d e a t h a t a n a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m a n w i l l e m p l o y n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s w i t h a n y f r e q u e n c y ( a l t h o u g h , a g a i n , s e v e r a l p e r s o n s commented t h a t b o t h w o u l d be u s e d ) . The h y p o t h e s i s c a n n o t , c l e a r l y , be a c c e p t e d . T h i s w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t , a s w o u l d t h e r e s u l t s o f T a b l e L X X I I I , t h a t t h e two t e c h n i q u e s a r e more m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e t h a n h a s h e r e t o f o r e b e e n s u p p o s e d . The f a r h i g h e r u n i o n n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e p r o b a b l y a c c o u n t s , i n T a b l e L XXIV, f o r t h e a p p a r e n t l y s t r o n g e r f e e l i n g o f e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s t h a t a c c o m m o d a t i v e c h a i r m e n w o u l d n o t be l i k e l y t o u s e n o r m a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s . Why what seems t o be t h e more l o g i c a l l y p l a u s i b l e s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d p r o d u c e a g r e a t e r d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n t h e n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e s o f u n i o n a n d e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s i s n o t a t a l l c l e a r . 6. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x v i ) [ Q u e s t i o n 68; T a b l e s LXXV -L X X V I ] i n t e r e s t e d i t s e l f i n t h e e f f e c t o f t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y o f t h e c h a i r m a n t o t h e b e h a v i o u r o f n o m inee A on t h e b e h a v i o u r o f nominee B. I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y w h i c h t h e c h a i r m a n d e m o n s t r a t e s t o w a r d t h e b e h a v i o u r o f one 132 nominee w i l l f o r c e t h e o t h e r nominee t o b e h a v e t o w a r d t h e c h a i r m a n i n t h e same manner. I f a c h a i r m a n seems t o be i n f l u e n c e d i n f a v o u r o f a nominee b e c a u s e o f t h e n o m i n e e ' s u s e o f a n a g g r e s s i v e , u n c o m p r o m i s i n g b a r g a i n i n g a t t i t u d e , w i l l t h i s be l i k e l y , i n g e n e r a l , t o p e r s u a d e t h e o t h e r nominee t o a d o p t a s i m i l a r b a r g a i n i n g a t t i t u d e ? T a b l e LXXV d e m o n s t r a t e s , b y a s c o r e o f 4 9 . 1 % v e r s u s 1 8 . 2 % , t h a t t h i s i s l i k e l y t o be t h e c a s e . I f , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a c h a i r m a n seems t o be i n f l u e n c e d i n f a v o u r o f a nominee b e c a u s e o f t h e n o m i n e e 1 s u s e o f a c o m p r o m i s i n g a n d c o n c e s s i o n - m a k i n g b a r g a i n i n g a t t i t u d e , w i l l t h i s be l i k e l y , i n g e n e r a l , t o p e r s u a d e t h e o t h e r nominee t o a d o p t a s i m i l a r b a r g a i n i n g a t t i t u d e ? T a b l e L X X V I shows, b y a v o t e o f 4 7 . 2 % v e r s u s 1 6 . 3 % , t h a t t h i s , a l s o , w i l l be t h e c a s e . I n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , t h e n , t h e h y p o t h e s i s may be a c c e p t e d . Two r a t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g d i v e r g e n c e s o f o p i n i o n w o u l d seem t o w a r r a n t d i s c u s s i o n . T a b l e LXXV shows t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s b e l i e v e , more s t r o n g l y t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s , t h a t , i f a c h a i r m a n seems i n f l u e n c e d i n f a v o u r o f a nominee b y t h e n o m i n e e ' s u s e o f a n a g g r e s s i v e , u n c o m p r o m i s i n g b a r g a i n i n g a t t i t u d e , t h i s w i l l p e r s u a d e t h e o t h e r nominee t o do t h e same, w h e r e a s T a b l e L X X V I i n d i c a t e s t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s b e l i e v e , more s t r o n g l y t h a n do e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , t h a t i f t h e c h a i r m a n i s i n f l u e n c e d i n f a v o u r o f a nominee b e c a u s e o f t h e n o m i n e e ' s u s e o f a c o m p r o m i s i n g b a r g a i n i n g a t t i t u d e , t h i s w i l l p e r s u a d e t h e o t h e r nominee t o do t h e same. I t seems most p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e s e r e s u l t s mean t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e more w i l l i n g t o be t o u g h a n d r e l a t i v e l y u n c o m p r o m i s i n g , ahd a r e more s u c c e s s f u l when t h e y a r e , t h a n a r e u n i o n n o m i n e e s , w h e r e a s u n i o n n o m i n e e s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r e more w i l l i n g t o c o m p r o m i s e , a n d a r e more s u c c e s s f u l when t h e y do s o . 7. H y p o t h e s i s 2 ( x i x ) [ Q u e s t i o n 72; T a b l e s L X X V I I -L X X V I I I ] c o n c e n t r a t e d u p o n t h e t e n d e n c y f o r t h e c h a i r m a n , i n t h e e v e n t t h a t u n a n i m i t y i s n o t a c h i e v e d , t o s i g n more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l , when he c a n n o t g e t t h e n o m i n e e s t o a g r e e , s i g n more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e , i s r e c a p i t u l a t e d b r i e f l y b e l o w . I t i s assumed t h a t , i n o r d e r t o a l l o w t h e m s e l v e s p l e n t y o f b a r g a i n i n g room, t h e n o m i n e e s w i l l t a k e , i n i t i a l l y , r e l a t i v e l y e x t r e m e b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s , b u t t h a t t h e u n i o n p o s i t i o n t e n d s more o f t e n t o be t h e more e x t r e m e o f t h e two. S h o u l d t h e two n o m i n e e s be u n a b l e t o a g r e e , t h e y w i l l f r e q u e n t l y r e t u r n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e i r p a r t i e s a s much b a r g a i n i n g room as p o s s i b l e . A s t h e i n i t i a l b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e r n o m inee i s more f r e -q u e n t l y t h e l e s s e x t r e m e o f t h e two, t h e c h a i r m a n w i l l , t h e n , where t h i s s i t u a t i o n o c c u r s , more f r e q u e n t l y s i g n w i t h h i m . 134-The c i r c u m s t a n c e s were o u t l i n e d i n t h e f o r m o f a h y p o t h e t i c a l a n d anonymous q u o t a t i o n , and r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e a b o u t how f r e q u e n t l y , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , do n o m i n e e s , when t h e y c a n n o t a g r e e on a u n a n i m o u s r e p o r t , r e t u r n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n s — t h a t i s , more o r l e s s t o t h e p o s i t i o n s w h i c h t h e y f i r s t h e l d when t h e y b e g a n t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g on t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d , T a b l e L X X V I I shows t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t t h i s h a p p e n s more o f t e n t h a n h o t . Comments s u g g e s t t h a t a c h a i r m a n w i l l o f t e n a t t h i s p o i n t o f f e r a p o s i t i o n w h i c h he f e e l s t o be a f a i r one, a n d i n v i t e one o f t h e n o m i n e e s t o j o i n h i m ; some r e s p o n d e n t s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s m e thod was o f t e n s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g a r e l a t i v e l y m o d e r a t e m a j o r i t y r e p o r t b e c a u s e o f t e n one o f t h e n o m i n e e s w o u l d be s u f f i c i e n t l y t e m p t e d b y t h e p r o s p e c t o f a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t t o s h i f t f r o m h i s e x t r e m e p o s i t i o n t o t h e more i n t e r m e d i a t e one p r o p o s e d b y t h e c h a i r m a n . However, we c e r t a i n l y c a n n o t i n f e r , f r o m T a b l e L X X V I I , t h a t t h i s i s t h e u s u a l outcome o f s u c h a s i t u a t i o n . The f a c t t h a t more e m p l o y e r t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t t h e s h i f t t o i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n s o c c u r s f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t s t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e more a n x i o u s t o p r o t e c t t h e b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s o f t h e i r p a r t i e s , a f i n d i n g w h i c h t i e s i n w i t h p r e v i o u s e v i d e n c e o f t h e g r e a t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s o n t h e w i s h e s o f t h e i r p a r t i e s . When t h e two n o m i n e e s c a n n o t a g r e e , a n d r e t u r n t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l p o s i t i o n s , w i t h w h i c h nominee w i l l t h e c h a i r m a n , a s a r u l e , g e n e r a l l y s i g n ? The r e s p o n s e t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e L X X V I I I : 25.4% f e l t he w o u l d g e n e r a l l y s i g n w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e ; none f e l t he w o u l d u s u a l l y s i g n w i t h t h e u n i o n n o m i n e e , a n d 74.5% r e f u s e d t o make e i t h e r c h o i c e . Comments f r o m n o n - r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e m s e l v e s u n a b l e t o g e n e r a l i z e a b o u t t h e m a t t e r , a s i t w o u l d d e p e n d on t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s — t h e c h a i r m a n w o u l d s i g n w i t h t h e one who t o o k , i n h i s o p i n i o n , t h e most r e a s o n a b l e p o s i t i o n ; f u r t h e r , o n l y two o f t h o s e who d i d r e s p o n d e x p l a i n e d t h e i r a n s w e r i n t e r m s o f t h e r a t i o n a l e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . On t h e o t h e r hand, a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f T a b l e L X X V I I I d o e s s u g g e s t t h a t c h a i r m e n do more o f t e n s i g n w i t h t h e e m p l o y e r nominee ( t h e comments o f u n i o n n o m i n e e s who d i d r e s p o n d s u p p o r t : t h i s ) , b u t t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o a d m i t t h i s . I n summation, t h e n , t h e most p r o b a b l e i n t e r p r e t -a t i o n w o u l d seem t o be t h a t c h a i r m e n do s i g n somewhat more f r e q u e n t l y w i t h e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e t h e y p e r c e i v e t h e e c o n o m i c c o n s e q u e n c e s o f a n a ward f a v o u r i n g t h e o t h e r s i d e as b e i n g f a r more s e r i o u s f o r an e m p l o y e r t h a n f o r a u n i o n , i n t h a t t h e y p r o b a b l y f e e l t h a t s u c h an a w ard, were t h e e m p l o y e r f o r c e d t o a c c e p t i t , c o u l d a c t u a l l y e i t h e r p u t h i m o u t o f b u s i n e s s , o r e l s e h a v e somewhat l e s s d r a s t i c , b u t n o n e t h e l e s s s e r i o u s l y d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s . The e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t t h i s c o n t e n t i o n i s n o t , h o w e v e r , d e c i s i v e l y s t r o n g , so t h a t no d e f i n i t e j u d g e m e n t a s t o t h e a c c e p t a n c e or r e j e c t i o n of the hypothesis may be reached. 8 . Hypothesis 3 ( i ) (b) [Questions 77-78; Tables LXXTX - LXXXII] was' concerned with the chairman's p r o v i s i o n to the nominees of avenues of r e t r e a t to p o s i t i o n s c l o s e r to agreement. I t was hypothesized that (as the nominees w i l l be s e n s i t i v e to p u b l i c and/or party personnel s c r u t i n y and opinion of the nominees' p o s i t i o n s throughout the c o n c i l i a t i o n proceedings) the presence of p o s i t i o n s suggested by the chairman w i l l be perceived by the nominees as providing avenues of r e t r e a t to p o s i t i o n s c l o s e r to agreement f o r which neither nominee w i l l appear to bear a predominance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . It was f e l t that t h i s would tend to reduce the l i k e l i h o o d of the p a r t i e s charging t h e i r nominees with f a i l u r e to carry out the task of p r o t e c t i n g the party's i n t e r e s t s . Table LXXXIX demonstrates that, by an overwhelming majority, respondents f e e l that nominees are s e n s i t i v e to the opinions which t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s have about what they do on the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board, whereas Table LXXX indi c a t e s that most respondents f e e l that r e l a t i v e l y few nominees are s e n s i t i v e to the opinions which the p u b l i c have about what they do on the C o n c i l i a t i o n Board—of course t h i s i s probably both because nominees do not consider that p u b l i c opinion i s , i n most cases, relevant to the dispute, and also because (as some comments indicated) the p u b l i c do not as a r u l e 137 have the o p p o r t u n i t y of knowing much of what i s o c c u r r i n g on the Boards, which are u s u a l l y conducted p r i v a t e l y — although newspapers do sometimes r e p o r t on the"progress of a Board. Table LXXX shows t h a t employer nominees are somewhat l e s s s e n s i t i v e to p u b l i c o p i n i o n of what they do on the Board than are union nominees—perhaps because a n t i - u n i o n p u b l i c i t y and f e e l i n g seems commoner than anti-employer p u b l i c i t y . At f i r s t glance, t h i s would seem to c o n t r a d i c t the f i n d i n g s of Tables VI and V I I , which i n d i c a t e d t h a t employers were more s e n s i t i v e to a l o s s of p u b l i c sympathy, through the issuance of a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t , than were unions. However, i t seems reasonable to suppose t h a t employers simply -f e e l t h a t , w h i l e a m i n o r i t y r e p o r t may be r a t h e r l i k e l y t o r e s u l t i n a l o s s of p u b l i c sympathy, the behaviour of t h e i r nominee on the Board w i l l n o t . Question 78(a) suggested t h a t p o s s i b l y i t would be somewhat embarrassing f o r a nominee to r e t r e a t from a p o s i t i o n which he has a l r e a d y t r i e d t o j u s t i f y before the chairman, the other nominee, and the p u b l i c , and asks whether nominees use new b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s suggested by the chairman as a way of coming c l o s e r to agreement without " l o s i n g f a c e " before the other nominee. Table LXXI sug-gests t h a t t h i s i s a r a t h e r common phenomenon. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t employer nominees seem t o f e e l t h a t they do t h i s r a t h e r more o f t e n than do union nominees— which c o u l d mean t h a t chairmen are somewhat more sympathetic 1 3 8 t o e m p l o y e r s t h a n t h e y a r e t o u n i o n s i n t h a t t h e y s u g g e s t more b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s w h i c h e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e w i l l i n g t o u s e . T h i s w o u l d seem l o g i c a l i f we assume t h a t c h a i r m e n v i e w a p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f a v o u r a b l e a w a r d as b e i n g more e c o n o m i c a l l y s e r i o u s f o r an e m p l o y e r , a n d a l s o t i e s i n w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f T a b l e LXXVIII, w h i c h s u g g e s t e d t h a t , where a g r e e m e n t c a n n o t be r e a c h e d , c h a i r m e n more f r e q u e n t l y s i g n w i t h e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e how a n o m i n e e , when he s u g g e s t s t o h i s p a r t y t h a t t h e y a d o p t a more c o m p r o m i s i n g p o s i t i o n , u s u a l l y j u s t i f i e s h i s s u g g e s t i o n and a v o i d s b e i n g a c c u s e d b y them o f " s e l l i n g o u t " — t h a t i s , o f n o t t r y i n g h a r d e n o u g h t o p r o t e c t t h e w e l f a r e a n d i n t e r e s t s o f h i s p a r t y . R e s p o n s e s t.o a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n as t o w h e t h e r n o m i n e e s w o u l d a t t e m p t t o j u s t i f y s u c h a s u g g e s t i o n b y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e more c o m p r o m i s i n g p o s i t i o n i s n o t t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n , b u t was made b y t h e c h a i r m a n , g e t s a r a t h e r m i x e d r e s p o n s e ( s e e T a b l e LXXXII); i t seems c l e a r , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s t e c h n i q u e , w h i l e i t i s b y no means a l w a y s u s e d , i s r e l a t i v e l y common. A c l e a v a g e o f some i n t e r e s t a p p e a r s : t h e d a t a s u g g e s t t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s f i n d t h i s m e thod more e f f e c t i v e , o r d e s i r a b l e , a n d u s e i t more o f t e n , t h a n do u n i o n n o m i n e e s — w h i c h w o u l d , i t seems, p r o v i d e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e o f t h e g r e a t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s on t h e w i s h e s o f t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s . Comments i n d i c a t e t h a t a s u g g e s t i o n t o t a k e a more c o m p r o m i s i n g p o s i t i o n w o u l d u s u a l l y be j u s t i f i e d e i t h e r on t h e g r o u n d s 139 that i t would give the party a bargaining advantage, or on the grounds that i t would probably r e s u l t i n a settlement. A l l i n a l l , then, the hypothesis i s given a good deal of support, although c e r t a i n l y not enough to constitute outright confirmation. The greater w i l l i n g n e s s , noted above, of employer nominees to j u s t i f y suggestions to t h e i r p a r t i e s f o r a change of p o s i t i o n on the grounds that they were made by the chairman, as well as accumulating evidence of the greater dependence of employer nominees upon the wishes of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s , have been a t t r i b u t e d thus f a r to perceptions of the greater economic seriousness, f o r an employer, of an unfavourable C o n c i l i a t i o n Board award. While t h i s prof-fered causal f a c t o r i s s t i l l regarded as i n f l u e n t i a l , a reconsideration of the accumulation of evidence mentioned strongly suggests to the author that another, and rather more i n f l u e n t i a l causal f a c t o r , i s operating i n conjunction with that already advanced. It seems reasonable to propose, on the basis of the evidence mentioned, that employer nominees tend to see themselves as being involved i n a contractual, or secondary, r e l a t i o n s h i p with t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s , f o r whom they are therefore agents, whereas union nominees appear to view themselves as belonging to the same group as t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s , and therefore as having a more "primary" sort of r e l a t i o n s h i p with the p a r t i e s they r e p r e s e n t — t h e y a r e members o f t h e g r o u p r a t h e r t h a n a g e n t s f o r i t . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s o f t h e f o r t y - e i g h t n o m i n e e s f r o m whom d a t a was o b t a i n e d o f f e r s s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h i s i d e a : o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r u n i o n n o m i n e e s i n v o l v e d , t w e n t y a r e members o f , a s w e l l a s o f f i c e r s o f , l a b o u r u n i o n s , a n d two m o r e — a l a b o u r e c o n o m i s t e m p l o y e d f u l l - t i m e b y u n i o n s t o do r e s e a r c h f o r them, and t h e e d i t o r o f a C.C.F. ( t h e C a n a d i a n s o c i a l i s t p a r t y ) n e w s p a p e r — m a d e a p p a r e n t t o t h e a u t h o r s t r o n g m o r a l a n d p o l i t i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n s w i t h l a b o u r u n i o n s , a n d , f i n a l l y , none o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r r e c e i v e a n y m o n e t a r y c o m p e n s a t i o n , o t h e r t h a n e x p e n s e s , f o r s e r v i n g on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s a s n o m i n e e s o f v a r i o u s l a b o u r u n i o n s ; on t h e o t h e r h a n d , no l e s s t h a n t w e l v e o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s i n v o l v e d ( s e v e n l a w y e r s a n d f i v e members o f i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s f i r m s ) a r e s i m p l y p a i d a g e n t s o f t h e e m p l o y e r s whom t h e y r e p r e s e n t . I t i s t r u e t h a t t w e l v e o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r a r e e x e c u t i v e s , b u t , w h i l e i t seems o b v i o u s t h a t u n i o n members w i l l be drawn t o g e t h e r , i n a r a t h e r " p r i m a r y " manner, b y t h e i r m u t u a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e h i s t o r y a n d v a l u e s o f t h e u n i o n movement, e m p l o y e r s a n d e x e c u t i v e s w i l l , i t i s f e l t , r e l a t e t o one a n o t h e r i n a somewhat more i m p e r s o n a l manner, o c c a s i o n e d i n l a r g e m e a s u r e b y t h e r a t h e r s t r o n g l y c o m p e t i t i v e n a t u r e o f commerce and i n d u s t r y . One's f i r s t i m p r e s s i o n c o u l d w e l l be t h a t t h i s c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s w o u l d r e s u l t i n t h e s t r o n g e r p r e s s u r e t o d e p e n d e n c e u p o n the wishes of one's p a r t y b e i n g brought t o bear upon the union, r a t h e r than upon the employer, nominees. However, i t i s the author's view t h a t , because union nominees can view themselves as "members of the group", they can f e e l more secure i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to the p a r t i e s they represent because they are t h e r e f o r e l e s s l i k e l y to be suspected, or accused, of not p r o p e r l y p r o t e c t i n g the i n t e r e s t s of the p a r t i c u l a r p a r t y they represent should they decide t o i n i t i a t e suggestions or a c t i o n on t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Employer nominees, on the other h a n d — because they can more, o f t e n regard themselves e i t h e r as merely h i r e d agents of the p a r t y they r e p r e s e n t , o r , as i n the case of e x e c u t i v e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s engaged i n a somewhat more impersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the p a r t y represented than would be l i k e l y to be p o s s i b l e f o r union nominees.;—are, i n the author's view, s u b j e c t e d t o a much st r o n g e r pressure not t o take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n i t i a t i n g s uggestions, or a c t i o n , themselves, because to do so would be much more l i k e l y to render them v u l n e r a b l e to accusations of f a i l u r e t o p r o t e c t the p a r t y i n t e r e s t . A f u r t h e r p i e c e of evidence which appears to support these ideas i s the f a c t t h a t , c o n s i s t e n t l y , f a r more union than employer nominees are w i l l i n g t o present t h e i r o p i n i o n s on the f o r c e d - c h o i c e q u e s t i o n s , or e l a b o r a t i o n s of t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to them, i n the form of comments appended t o these q u e s t i o n s — w h i c h suggests t h a t union nominees f e e l much l e s s t r e p i d a t i o n about d i s c u s s i n g f r e e l y t h e i r r o l e i n connection w i t h , and 142 t h e i r f e e l i n g s toward, C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards. It w i l l he r e c a l l e d , to r e t u r n once again to the hypothesis, that Hypothesis 3 ( i ) consisted of three separate hypothesized f a c t o r s — 3 ( i ) ( a ) , 3 ( i ) ( b ) and 3 ( i ) ( c ) — w h i c h together constituted the hypothesis, which stated that these three f a c t o r s were the decisive ones determining the outcome of the chairman's e f f o r t s to achieve agreement between the nominees. Now that a l l three of these sub-hypotheses have been tested, the entire hypothesis may be discussed as a u n i t . To r e c a p i t u l a t e the three sub-hypotheses b r i e f l y , 3 ( i ) (a) held that the l e g a l requirement of party-nominated representatives i s f u n c t i o n a l to the goal of agreement between the nominees i n that i t r e s u l t s i n i n t e r - p a r t y communication and hence i n a knowledge of what the other party i s r e a l l y w i l l i n g to s e t t l e for—knowledge which was viewed as the most important necessary condition f o r reaching agreement. 3 ( i ) (c) proposed that t h i s l e g a l requirement of party-nominated representatives was also dysfunctional to the goal of reaching or approaching agreement i n that i t introduced the f a c t o r of partisanship, and, of course, 3 ( i ) (b) hypothesized that the presence of p o s i t i o n s sug-gested by the chairman w i l l be perceived by the nominees as providing avenues of r e t r e a t to p o s i t i o n s c l o s e r to agreement f o r which neither nominee w i l l appear to bear a predominance of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3 ( i ) ( a ) was accepted. 3 ( i ) ( c ) , although i t accumulated.considerable support, d i d not obtain enough 14-3 t o warrant i t s acceptance, and 3 ( i ) ( b ) s u f f e r e d the same f a t e . Hypothesis 3(1) cannot, then, as a u n i t , he accepted. 9. Hypothesis 3(v) [Questions 90-93; Tables LXXXIII - LXXXVTI] focused upon the d i r e c t i o n of nominee independence of p a r t y d e s i r e s . I t was hypothesized t h a t some nominees w i l l show v a r y i n g degrees of independence of the p a r t i e s which they r e p r e s e n t , and t h a t t h i s independence, when i t occurs, w i l l almost always be i n the d i r e c t i o n of being more c o n c i l i a t o r y than t h e i r p a r t i e s had i n d i c a t e d t o them t h a t they d e s i r e d them t o be. Table LXXXIII shows f a i r l y c l e a r l y t h a t most nominees n e g o t i a t e f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y w i t h the chairman and the other nominee on the b a s i s of a b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n which i s p r e t t y w e l l e x a c t l y the one which the nominee's p a r t y has i n d i c a t e d t o him t h a t they want him to use. Question 90 (b) put the converse: how f r e q u e n t l y do nominees n e g o t i a t e w i t h the chairman and the other nominee on the b a s i s of a b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n which i s d i f f e r e n t i n some ways from the one which the nominee's p a r t y has i n d i c a t e d to him t h a t they want him to use? The r e s u l t s , g iven i n Table LXXXIV, show t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t e l y does occur. I t seems reasonable to suppose t h a t the di s c r e p a n c y between the two t a b l e s ( t h e o r e t i c a l l y the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of each should reverse t h a t of the other) may have been caused e i t h e r by a somewhat ambiguous phrase i n each q u e s t i o n ("pretty well exactly" i n Question 90 (a); " i n some ways" i n Question 90 (b), or by the s u g g e s t i b i l i t y of respondents, or by a combination of both. A number of comments suggest that nominee dependence upon, and independence of, party desires so f a r as bargaining p o s i t i o n i s concerned are not mutually exclusive, but that (at l e a s t on occasion), nominees w i l l begin bargaining by s t i c k i n g p r e t t y well exactly to the p o s i t i o n s provided by t h e i r p a r t i e s , and w i l l l a t e r , i n an e f f o r t to achieve agreement, become somewhat more f l e x i b l e on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e . An i n t e r e s t i n g difference of opinion makes i t s e l f apparent: both of the tables suggest that employer nominees are more c l o s e l y t i e d to the wishes of t h e i r party than are union nominees—an observation which t i e s i n with a large accumulation of evidence to the same e f f e c t . Those respondents who f e l t that a nominee ever negotiates on a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board with a bargaining p o s i t i o n d i f f e r e n t i n some ways from the one or ones that h i s party have ind i c a t e d to him that they want him to use, were asked to indicate i n what way t h i s bargaining p o s i t i o n of the nominee himself would d i f f e r from that which h i s party has t o l d him they want him to use. The r e s u l t s of t h i s query are given i n Table LXXXV, from which i t seems f a i r l y c l e a r t h i s p o s i t i o n of the nominee himself u s u a l l y d i f f e r s from that of his party i n that i t i s more compromising. However, the non-response rate i s very high—4-1.8%. This, i t seems 14-5 c l e a r , i s what a c c o u n t s f o r t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n o p i n i o n t h a t a r e e v i d e n t i n t h e t a b l e , b u t why s h o u l d t h e u n i o n n o n -r e s p o n s e r a t e be more t h a n t w i c e t h a t o f t h e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s ? M o s t o f t h o s e who gave a r e a s o n f o r t h e i r n o n -r e s p o n s e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y f e l t t h e q u e s t i o n was t o o a b s t r a c t t o p e r m i t o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n — i t w o u l d d e p e n d u p o n t h e p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e c a s e — b u t , a g a i n , why s h o u l d t w i c e as many u n i o n as e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s f e e l t h i s way? I n g e n e r a l , i t seems m o s t p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e n o n -r e s p o n s e r a t e i s h i g h b e c a u s e n o m i n e e s know t h a t , when t h e i r b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n d o e s d i f f e r f r o m t h a t w h i c h t h e i r p a r t i e s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h e y want u s e d , i t w i l l d i f f e r i n t h a t i t w i l l be more c o m p r o m i s i n g ( t h e f a c t t h a t , o f t h o s e who r e s p o n d e d , o v e r f i v e t i m e s as many i n d i c a t e d t h a t i t w o u l d be more r a t h e r t h a n l e s s c o m p r o m i s i n g , s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h i s ) , b u t t h a t b o t h u n i o n a n d e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s a r e somewhat u n w i l l i n g t o a d m i t t h i s , b e c a u s e i t s u g g e s t s a l a c k o f a l l e g i a n c e t o o n e ' s p a r t y . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y a n d i n d e p e n d e n c e o f u n i o n n o m i n e e s was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e s e n s e o f s e c u r i t y a n d t r u s t p r o v i d e d b y t h e p r i m a r y n a t u r e o f t h e b o n d w h i c h t h e y e n j o y e d w i t h t h e i r p a r t i e s , and a t f i r s t g l a n c e t h e i r g r e a t e r n o n - r e s p o n s e r a t e seems i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h i s r a t i o n a l e . I t seems most r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h i s g r e a t e r i n d e p e n d e n c e d o e s r e s u l t i n t h e i r t a k i n g , more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n s more c o m p r o m i s i n g 146 than those which t h e i r p a r t i e s have i n d i c a t e d t h a t they would p r e f e r , hut t h a t the ve r y primary hond which makes t h i s p o s s i b l e generates i n union nominees such a g'ehse of l o y a l t y t o the unions they r e p r e s e n t t h a t they are unable to appear to be l e t t i n g down t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s by a d m i t t i n g t h a t they do not always f o l l o w t h e i r wishes (although the p a t t e r n of t h e i r responses, over many q u e s t i o n s , has a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t they are f a r l e s s dependent upon the wishes of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s than are employer nominees); the s o l u t i o n to t h i s c o n f l i c t has e v i d e n t l y l a i n , f o r them, i n a r e f u s a l to respond t o the q u e s t i o n . Two more questions o f f e r f u r t h e r evidence of the ex i s t e n c e of frequent d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n on the terms of b a r g a i n i n g and settlement between nominees and t h e i r p a r t i e s . Table LXXXVI suggests t h a t nominees q u i t e f r e q u e n t l y f e e l a c o n f l i c t between what they t h i n k t h e i r p a r t y wants, and what the nominees t h i n k would get a settlement of the d i s p u t e , whereas Table LXXXVTI i n d i c a t e s t h a t , some-what l e s s f r e q u e n t l y than i n Table LXXXVI, nominees f e e l a c o n f l i c t between what they t h i n k t h e i r p a r t y wants, and what the nominees t h i n k should be the b a s i s of a settl e m e n t . Again, the data i n both t a b l e s s t r o n g l y suggest t h a t employer nominees are more c l o s e l y t i e d to the wishes of t h e i r p a r t i e s than are union nominees. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t , i n both t a b l e s , a much hi g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of chairmen than of employer or union nominees i n d i c a t e d t h a t nominees f e l t the c o n f l i c t s suggested, which means that chairmen perceive nominees as heing more dependent upon the wishes of t h e i r p a r t i e s than the nominees perceive themselves. A f u r t h e r cleavage of i n t e r e s t i s that f a r more nominees ind i c a t e d ( i n Table LXXXVI) that they f e l t a c o n f l i c t between what they thought t h e i r party wanted and what the nominees thought would get a settlement of the dispute, than i n d i c a t e d ( i n Table LXXXVII) that they f e l t a c o n f l i c t between what they thought t h e i r party wanted and what the nominees thought should be the basis of a settlement. This means that nominees are much more w i l l i n g to admit to a difference with t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s over an expediential matter—what would get a settlement of the d i s p u t e — t h a n over a normative m a t t e r — what should be the basis of a settlement. I t seems obvious that t h i s i s because the "condemnation" involved i n the admission of such a difference i s , of course, much stronger i n the l a t t e r case. In summation, then, the evidence offered above seems s u f f i c i e n t to warrant the tentative acceptance of the hypothesis. 1 0 . Hypothesis 3 ( v i ) [Questions 9 4 - 9 5 ; Tables LXXXVIII - LXXXIX] was devoted to the e f f e c t of nominee independence of party desires upon the chairman and upon the other nominee. It was hypothesized that, should a nominee indicate such c o n c i l i a t o r y independence to the 14-8 chairman, the chairman w i l l attempt to get the other nominee to compromise i n the same way; and that, should a nominee indicate such c o n c i l i a t o r y independence to the other nominee, the other nominee w i l l tend to show the same kind of con-c i l i a t o r y independence himself. Table LXXXVIII presents the r e s u l t s of a query as to whether, i f a nominee indicates to the chairman that he i s more w i l l i n g to compromise than h i s party appears to be, the chairman w i l l be l i k e l y , as a r e s u l t of t h i s , to t r y to persuade the other nominee to compromise i n the same way. C l e a r l y , respondents f e e l that chairmen would, as a r u l e , behave i n such a way i n such a s i t u a t i o n . Employer nominees seem to f e e l , more strongly than do union nominees, that chairmen would usually behave i n such a way, which could mean that employer nominees have a higher opinion of chairmen—an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n which t i e s i n with previous speculations i n connection with Tables LXXVIII and LXXXI that chairmen are somewhat more sympathetic to employers and employer nominees. I f a nominee indicates to the other nominee that he i s more w i l l i n g to compromise than h i s party appears to be, w i l l the other nominee be l i k e l y to attempt to compromise i n the same way? Table LXXXIX shows a rather mixed response to t h i s question: obviously, t h i s does occur f a i r l y often, but not with the frequency predicted by the hypothesis. The data suggest that employer nominees would he somewhat le s s l i k e l y than would union nominees to behave i n t h i s way— furt h e r evidence that employer nominees are more c l o s e l y t i e d to the wishes of t h e i r p r i n c i p a l s . In summation, then, the f i r s t s e c t i o n of the hypothesis may be accepted, but the second—while i t d i d receive a good deal of s u p p o r t — d i d not receive enough to in d i c a t e that what i s hypothesized generally p r e v a i l s . C. Other-role Factors In Chapter I I , i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , eleven hypotheses were r e c l a s s i f i e d under the r u b r i c of Other-role  Factors; these w i l l be discussed i n turn below. 1. Hypothesis l ( i ) [Question 7; Table XC] was concerned with the e f f e c t of the academic occupational r o l e upon the i m p a r t i a l i t y of the chairman. It was hypothesized that i m p a r t i a l and objective behaviour on the part of the chairman and with reference to the nominees w i l l be found most frequently i n persons r e c r u i t e d from the academic profes s i o n . Respondents were asked to l i s t only the occupations or professions of the chairmen who chaired the C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards on which they have served, or, i f they have always served as chairmen themselves, they were asked to l i s t the occupations or professions of other chairmen whose work as chairmen they have heard something about. They were then asked to rank these chairmen f o r i m p a r t i a l i t y by p l a c i n g numerals a f t e r the occupations and professions l i s t e d . Table XC presents those occupations or professions which were ranked as "most i m p a r t i a l " by one or more respondents, together with the percentage of respondents who ranked each of these occupations or professions as "most i m p a r t i a l " . As u n i v e r s i t y professors receive the greatest number of "most i m p a r t i a l " rankings, the hypothesis must be accepted. 2. Hypothesis l ( i i ) [Question 9; Table XCI] focused upon an imputed anti-union bias on the part of r e t i r e d persons. It was hypothesized that r e t i r e d persons who serve on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards w i l l tend to have an a n t i - i n f l a t i o n a r y bias that w i l l cause them to oppose any but r e l a t i v e l y small wage increases f o r unions. The following hypothetical and anonymous quotation purported to preser.t the g i s t of the opinions of some of the persons with whom the author had discussed C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards: Most of the r e t i r e d persons who serve on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards f e e l , i n general, that i f wages are increased, then p r i c e s and the general cost of l i v i n g w i l l tend to increase a l s o . Since most r e t i r e d persons l i v e on a r e l a t i v e l y f i x e d income, the majority of them f e e l that unions should be granted only the smallest possible wage increases. Respondents were asked to indicate about how many of the 151 r e t i r e d persons who serve on Conciliation"Boards d i d they think t h i s was true of, i n general? The r e s u l t s , given i n Table XCI, suggest that t h i s does occur to some extent, but by no means often enough to warrant the acceptance of the hypothesis. So f a r as divergences of opinion are concerned, the question suggests that unions are discriminated against by r e t i r e d persons on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards, and, of course, union nominees are rather more w i l l i n g to agree to t h i s than are employer nominees, who are scarc e l y w i l l i n g to agree to i t at a l l . 5 , The e f f e c t upon the i m p a r t i a l i t y of lawyer-chairmen of the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of lawyers with the p o l i t i c a l and economic values of employers was the concern of Hypothesis l ( i i i ) [Questions 10-13; Tables XCII - XCVIJ. It was hypo-thesized that, with reference to the p o s i t i o n of chairman, the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of lawyers with the economic and p o l i t i c a l values of employers, i n the sense of perceiving the necessity to protect a mutual i n t e r e s t , w i l l cause the majority of lawyers who serve as chairmen to be re l u c t a n t to exercise c o n c i l i a t o r y pressure upon employers through the employer nominee. (Of course, as i t i s frequently asserted, and apparently with considerable j u s t i f i c a t i o n , that u n i v e r s i t y professors of law are notable f o r t h e i r l i b e r a l views and t h e i r readiness to attack the establishment 152 on b e h a l f o f e m b a t t l e d u n d e r d o g s , t h i s h y p o t h e s i s s h o u l d have been f o r m u l a t e d t o a p p l y s o l e l y t o l a w y e r s i n p r i v a t e p r a c t i c e . ) Q u e s t i o n 10 s t a t e d t h a t i t had been s u g g e s t e d t o the a u t h o r by some p e o p l e t h a t C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m e n who are l a w y e r s t e n d , i n g e n e r a l , t o g e t a l o n g b e t t e r w i t h employer nominees t h a n t h e y do w i t h u n i o n nominees. Respondents were a s k e d t o g i v e t h e i r o p i n i o n s as t o a p p r o x i -m a t e l y how many C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m e n who are l a w y e r s t h i s i s t r u e o f . As T a b l e X C I I i n d i c a t e s , o p i n i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y e v e n l y d i v i d e d , w i t h about one t h i r d o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l i n g t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o f most l a w y e r - c h a i r m e n . The q u e s t i o n does i m p l y t h a t l a w y e r - c h a i r m e n t e n d t o d i s -c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t u n i o n nominees, and t h e r e f o r e i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t n e a r l y t w i c e as many u n i o n as em p l o y e r nominees f e e l t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o f most s u c h c h a i r m e n . Would i t be g e n e r a l l y t r u e t o s a y t h a t l a w y e r s t e n d t o have economic and p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s w h i c h a r e more s i m i l a r t o t h o s e o f em p l o y e r s t h a n t h e y a re t o tho s e o f employees? T a b l e X C I I I shows t h a t o v e r t h r e e t i m e s as many r e s p o n d e n t s f e e l t h i s i s so as f e e l i t i s n o t . The o p i n i o n s o f e m p loyer and u n i o n nominees are v e r y s i m i l a r on t h i s p o i n t , b u t i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t s i x o f t h e seven c h a i r m e n v o t e d " y e s " , and none "no". T h i s s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y o f o p i n i o n on the p a r t o f c h a i r m e n i s f e l t 153 simply to be a function of the f a c t that f i v e of the seven are lawyers. Those who indicated that they f e l t that lawyers generally tend to have economic and p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s which are more s i m i l a r to those of employers than they are to those of employees were asked whether t h i s tends to make most lawyers, when they serve as the chairman of a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board, somewhat reluctant to bring pressure to bear on the employer nominee to a l t e r h i s p o s i t i o n . Table XCIV gives the r e s u l t s — a r e l a t i v e l y even d i v i s i o n of opinion, with only about one quarter of the respondents i n d i c a t i n g that they f e l t t h i s was true of most such chairmen. As the question suggests that employer nominees are favoured by lawyer-chairmen, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that the union nominee and employer nominee percentage-responses represent almost exact reversals of one another: of the union nominees, 4-1.6% believe that t h i s i s true of most or a l l lawyer-chairmen, while 12.5% believe i t i s true of few or none of them; of the employer nominees, 8.3% believe i t i s true of most or a l l lawyer-chairmen, while 41.6% believe i t i s true of few or none, of them. The non-response rate on t h i s question i s of i n t e r e s t because that of union nominees i s twice the size of that of employer nominees. Four of the f i v e non-response employer nominees were so c l a s s i f i e d because they had given a w r i t t e n response which was u n c l a s s i f i a b l e i n terms of the forced-choice categories. 154 Only two of the nine "non-response" union nominees, on the other hand, had responded i n a similar way—the other seven had not responded in any way. This suggests to the author that these seven union nominees probably do not feel that they are discriminated against by lawyer-chairmen, but that they perhaps do fe e l somewhat resentful and discriminated against as a result of their experiences on Conciliation Boards in general , are therefore unwilling to admit to their true feelings about lawyer-chairmen, and have solved this conflict by simply choosing to ignore the question. About how many lawyers serve on Conciliation Boards as chairmen? Table XCV suggests that "quite a few" do. Table XCVI indicates that over twice as many respondents feel that lawyers tend to make "good" or "excellent" chairmen as feel they make "not especially good" or "poor" chairmen. Some informative differences of opinion arise in connection with these two questions. Prom Table XCV, we may see that approximately twice as many union as employer nominees feel that "quite a few" lawyers serve as chairmen, and the data contained i n Table XCVI make i t clear that employer nominees have a far higher regard for lawyer-chairmen than do union nominees. These two discrepancies strongly suggest that union nominees tend to dislike and distrust lawyers as chairmen; comments indicate that union nominees have two principal reasons for this: they f e e l that the economic interests of lawyers tend to l i e with employers, and that 155 l a w y e r s - w i l l t h e r e f o r e he s y m p a t h e t i c t o e m p l o y e r s , and t h e y d i s l i k e a p e r c e i v e d t e n d e n c y f o r l a w y e r s t o a d o p t an a p p r o a c h t h a t c o n c e n t r a t e s on l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s a n d t h e r e f o r e i n h i b i t s f r e e b a r g a i n i n g . ( S e v e r a l comments e x c e p t e d l a w y e r - c h a i r m e n i n t h e a c a d e m i c p r o f e s s i o n f r o m s u c h c h a r g e s , ) B u t t h e r e i s a f u r t h e r p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t w h i c h seems i m p l i c i t i n t h e s e d a t a : t h e f a c t t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s o b v i o u s l y l i k e l a w y e r - c h a i r m e n much l e s s t h a n do e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , and, f u r t h e r , p e r c e i v e f a r more o f them as s e r v i n g on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t h a n do e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s w o u l d seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s l i k e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s l e s s t h a n do e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e f o r e g o i n g e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s f a i r l y c l e a r l y t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s , c o n s i d e r e d a s a g r o u p , a r e o f a r a t h e r m i x e d o p i n i o n : t h e y n e i t h e r f i r m l y a c c e p t n o r f i r m l y r e j e c t t h e h y p o t h e s i s , t h e r e a s o n b e i n g t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e h y p o t h e s i s , a l t h o u g h n o t s t r o n g l y , w h e r e a s e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s t e n d t o r e j e c t t h e h y p o t h e s i s , a l t h o u g h n o t s t r o n g l y . The most p r o b a b l e c o n c l u s i o n w o u l d seem t o b e , t h e n , t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s t r u e o f some l a w y e r - c h a i r m e n . C e r t a i n l y , i t i s c l e a r t h a t e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , i n g e n e r a l , t h i n k l a w y e r s make good c h a i r m e n , w h e r e a s u n i o n n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o f o n l y some l a w y e r s , a c o n c l u s i o n w h i c h w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e i d e a t h a t some l a w y e r - c h a i r m e n i n t h e p a s t h a v e p r o b a b l y b e e n b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f e m p l o y e r s , w h i l e i t d o e s n o t seem l i k e l y t h a t a n y h a v e b e e n b i a s e d i n f a v o u r o f u n i o n s . 4. H y p o t h e s i s l ( i v ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 14-19; T a b l e s X G V I I - C I I ] was d e v o t e d t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l r o l e o f t h e l a w y e r u p o n t h e a b i l i t y o f a l a w y e r - n o m i n e e t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . I t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t l a w y e r s who a p p e a r a s n o m i n e e s w i l l t e n d t o r e d u c e t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f t h e two n o m i n e e s r e a c h i n g a p o s i t i o n o f a g r e e m e n t ( b e c a u s e i t i s f e l t t h a t l a w y e r s , c o n d i t i o n e d t o t h e c o m b a t a t i v e u s e o f t h e c o u r t r o o m t e c h n i q u e o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , w i l l , a s n o m i n e e s , a n t a g o n i z e , t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f i t , t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e , and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e c h a i r m a n , and, f u r t h e r , t h a t , b e c a u s e t h e y a r e c o n d i t i o n e d t o l e g a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g a n d t h e r e l a t i v e l y i n d i s c r i m i n a t e u s e o f e v e r y f a c t o r a n d t e c h n i c a l i t y , w h e t h e r m a j o r o r m i n o r , b y w h i c h t h e y c a n s u p p o r t t h e i r p a r t y ' s c a s e , l a w y e r -n o m i n e e s w i l l t e n d t o o b f u s c a t e t h e i s s u e s s i g n i f i c a n t t o t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e d i s p u t e ) . T a b l e X C V I I shows t h a t , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f a m a r k e d m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s , " q u i t e a f e w " l a w y e r s s e r v e on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s as n o m i n e e s — b u t , comments ( a s w e l l a s e v i d e n c e s u b s e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o ) i n d i c a t e , a l m o s t e n t i r e l y a s e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . Q u e s t i o n 15 s t a t e d t h a t some o f t h e p e r s o n s w i t h whom t h e a u t h o r h a d d i s c u s s e d C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s f e l t t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , l a w y e r s who s e r v e on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s a s n o m i n e e s t e n d t o u s e t h e same k i n d o f a p p r o a c h t h a t t h e y a r e u s e d t o u s i n g i n t h e i r j o b s as l a w y e r s — s u c h as c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , l e g a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g , a n d t h e u s e o f many t e c h n i c a l i t i e s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r c a s e . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e a b o u t how many o f t h e l a w y e r s who s e r v e on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s a s n o m i n e e s t h e y f e l t t h i s was t r u e o f . T a b l e X C V I I I s u g g e s t s t h a t t h i s i s , more o f t e n t h a n n o t , t r u e o f s u c h l a w y e r s . F a r more u n i o n t h a n e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o f most s u c h l a w y e r s . S e v e r a l p e r s o n s commented t h a t t h i s i s t r u e o n l y o f l a w y e r s who h a v e h a d l i t t l e o r no e x p e r i e n c e on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , b e c a u s e t h e y s o o n l e a r n t h a t c h a i r m e n do n o t a p p r e c i a t e s u c h b e h a v i o u r . How f r e q u e n t l y d o e s t h i s a p p r o a c h , when i t i s u s e d b y l a w y e r s who s e r v e as n o m i n e e s on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t e n d t o a n t a g o n i z e somewhat t h e n o m inee r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e o t h e r s i d e ? T a b l e XCIX shows t h a t , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f a d e f i n i t e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s , i t w o u l d u s u a l l y h a v e t h i s e f f e c t ( a n d w o u l d n o t , comments s u g g e s t e d , o n l y i f t h e o t h e r nominee were a l s o a l a w y e r ) . U n i o n a n d e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s show no c l e a v a g e o f o p i n i o n on t h i s p o i n t . Does t h i s a p p r o a c h , when i t i s u s e d b y l a w y e r s who s e r v e as n o m i n e e s on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t e n d t o a n t a g o n i z e , some-what, t h e c h a i r m a n ? T a b l e C d e m o n s t r a t e s — a s was p r e d i c t e d b y t h e h y p o t h e s i s — t h a t i t o f t e n d o e s a n t a g o n i z e t h e c h a i r m a n , b u t t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t t h a t i t d o e s t h e o t h e r nominee. A markedly greater number of employer than union nominees f e l t that t h i s approach by lawyer-nominees would u s u a l l y antagonize the chairman. It seems almost c e r t a i n that the reason f o r t h i s i n t e r e s t i n g discrepancy is. that, as lawyers very frequently serve as employer nominees, but 25 almost never serve as union nominees, y more employer nominees w i l l , n a t u r a l l y , r e a l i z e that t h i s sort of behaviour tends to antagonize.the chairman (provided, comments once again s t i p u l a t e d , that the chairman i s not a lawyer; i f he, too, i s a lawyer, then he w i l l not be antagonized). Does t h i s approach, when i t is' used by lawyers who serve as nominees on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards, tend to sidetrack the Board onto i r r e l e v a n t or minor issues? As Table CI ind i c a t e s , opinion i s somewhat scattered on t h i s point, but i t does seem apparent that t h i s does occur with some f r e -quency. (Several comments in d i c a t e d that a competent c h a i r -man would not permit t h i s to happen.) More union than employer nominees f e e l that t h i s i s r e l a t i v e l y often the c a s e — a cleavage which i s probably explained by the f a c t 25 Of the twenty-four union nominees from whom the author obtained completed or partially-completed questionnaires, twenty were union representatives or business agents, two were s t a t i s t i c i a n s employed e n t i r e l y by unions, one was an economist employed e n t i r e l y by unions, and one was an employee of the C.C.F. party; none were lawyers. Of the twenty-four employer nominees from whom the author obtained completed or partially-completed questionnaires, twelve were business executives, f i v e were management consultants, and seven were  lawyers.' 159 t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s a r e a l m o s t n e v e r l a w y e r s , w h e r e a s t h e y o f t e n f a c e a n e m p l o y e r nominee who i s a l a w y e r . F i n a l l y , r e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t h e i r o p i n i o n a s t o w h e t h e r o r n o t l a w y e r - n o m i n e e s who u s e t h i s a p p r o a c h h a v e l e s s c h a n c e t h a n o t h e r n o m i n e e s o f g e t t i n g c l o s e t o , o r r e a c h i n g , a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r members o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d . A s T a b l e C I I d e m o n s t r a t e s , a m a r k e d m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s i s g e n e r a l l y t r u e . On t h i s p o i n t n o m i n e e s f r o m b o t h s i d e s a r e p r e t t y much i n a g r e e m e n t ; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , h o w e v e r , t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f c h a i r m e n f e l t t h a t t h i s w o u l d n o t g e n e r a l l y be t h e c a s e . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e f i v e o f t h e s e v e n c h a i r m e n i n v o l v e d a r e l a w y e r s . So f a r as t h e o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e n , what p i c t u r e a r i s e s f r o m t h e f o r e g o i n g e v i d e n c e ? I t i s c l e a r t h a t l a w y e r s o f t e n s e r v e on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s as e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s ; t h a t many, b u t b y no means a l l o f t h e s e u s e t h e " l a w y e r - a p p r o a c h " r e f e r r e d t o ; t h a t t h i s d e f i n i t e l y d o e s a n t a g o n i z e t h e o t h e r n o minee ( p r e s u m a b l y u s u a l l y t h e u n i o n n o m i n e e ) , and t h e c h a i r m a n somewhat l e s s . T h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s " a p p r o a c h " d o e s , s o m e t i m e s , s i d e t r a c k t h e B o a r d o n t o i r r e l e v a n t o r m i n o r i s s u e s , b u t t h i s d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t i s much l e s s common t h a n t h a t o f a n t a g o n i s m on t h e p a r t o f t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . I t d o e s , a l s o , i seem c l e a r t h a t t h o s e l a w y e r - n o m i n e e s who u s e t h i s p a r t i c u l a r " l a w y e r - a p p r o a c h " ( o f c r o s s - e x a m i n a t i o n , l e g a l i s t i c t h i n k i n g , a n d t h e u s e o f many t e c h n i c a l i t i e s i n s u p p o r t o f t h e i r c a s e ) h a v e l e s s c h a n c e o f r e a c h i n g o r a p p r o a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . The h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d t h e r e f o r e a p p e a r , b y a n d l a r g e , t o be c o n f i r m e d . N o m i n e e s f r o m b o t h s i d e s a g r e e t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s i s c o r r e c t f o r l a w y e r s who u s e t h e a p p r o a c h r e f e r r e d t o ; t h e y d i s a g r e e o n l y on t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h i t i s a c t u a l l y u s e d , w i t h u n i o n n o m i n e e s p e r -c e i v i n g i t as i n r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t u s e b y l a w y e r - n o m i n e e s ( p r e s u m a b l y b y e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s who a r e l a w y e r s ) and e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s p e r c e i v i n g i t a s i n r e l a t i v e l y i n f r e q u e n t u s e b y l a w y e r - n o m i n e e s ( p r e s u m a b l y b y t h e i r own l a w y e r -n o m i n e e s ) . T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , u n d e r s t a n d a b l e , as u n i o n s a p p a r e n t l y a l m o s t n e v e r e m p l o y l a w y e r - n o m i n e e s , w h e r e a s e m p l o y e r s r a t h e r f r e q u e n t l y d o . T h o s e c l e a v a g e s o f o p i n i o n w h i c h a r o s e w o u l d seem t o be a f u n c t i o n o f t h e f a c t t h a t l a w y e r s s e r v e a l m o s t a l w a y s a s e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s , b u t t h e y a l s o c o n s t i t u t e a f u r t h e r p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e o f t h e g r e a t e r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n o f u n i o n n o m i n e e s w i t h C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s . 5. H y p o t h e s i s l ( v ) [ Q u e s t i o n 20; T a b l e C I I I ] was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e as a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m a n on a c h a i r m a n ' s a b i l i t y t o a c h i e v e a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e n o m i n e e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e amount o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a c h a i r m a n h a s h a d c h a i r i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be h i s c h a n c e s o f a c h i e v i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n t h e 1 6 1 two nominees. The hypothesis was phrased i n the form of a question, and Table CTII gives the r e s u l t s . In the opinion of a very marked majority of respondents ( 7 6 . 4 % versus 1 . 8 % ) , the hypothesis u s u a l l y holds true (provided, some comments suggest, that he has remained an i m p a r t i a l chairman). The hypothesis may thus be accepted. The table contains an i n t e r e s t i n g difference of opinion: 8 7 . 5 % of the employer nominees—as opposed to 6 6 . 7 % of the union nominees—feel that experience u s u a l l y increases a chairman's chances of achieving agreement between the nominees. Obviously, then, more employer nominees have a:higher opinion of the value of experience f o r a chairman's c o n c i l i a t o r y a b i l i t y . This may t i e i n with previous evidence suggesting that chairmen more often s i g n with employer nominees when agreement cannot be reached; i f t h i s i s so, i t may tend to give union nominees le s s f a i t h than employer nominees i n the chairman's i m p a r t i a l i t y . Several persons with whom^the author discussed C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards in d i c a t e d that, most of the time, the two nominees are unable to agree on a mutually-satisfactory chairman, with the r e s u l t that the chairman must be appointed by the M i n i s t e r of Labour —who, i t was suggested, had a 2 6 Of the 6 5 0 disputes which were r e f e r r e d to C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards during the period of 1955-1959 i n c l u s i v e , and f o r which t h i s information i s a v a i l a b l e , i n 2 0 2 , or J l . 1 % of them, the nominees were able to agree upon a mutually-acceptable chairman, and i n 4 4 8 , or 6 8 . 9 % of them, they could not.agree t e n d e n c y , u n d e r t h e S o c i a l C r e d i t g o v e r n m e n t ( a c o n s e r -v a t i v e , " f r e e - e n t e r p r i s e " C a n a d i a n p a r t y ) , t o a p p o i n t p r o - e m p l o y e r , a n t i - l a b o u r c h a i r m e n . I f t h i s a l l e g a t i o n h a s a n y f o u n d a t i o n i n f a c t , i t c o u l d a c c o u n t f o r t h e r a t h e r m o d e s t e n t h u s i a s m shown f o r e x p e r i e n c e d c h a i r m e n b y u n i o n n o m i n e e s . 6. H y p o t h e s i s l ( v i ) [ Q u e s t i o n 21; T a b l e C I V ] f o c u s e d u p o n t h e e f f e c t o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e a s a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d nominee o n a n o m i n e e ' s a b i l i t y t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e r t h e amount o f p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e t h a t a nominee h a s h a d a s a nominee on C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be h i s c h a n c e s o f r e a c h i n g a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e o t h e r n o m i n e e . The h y p o t h e s i s was p h r a s e d i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n , t h e r e s u l t s o f w h i c h a p p e a r i n T a b l e C I V . A m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t , i n t h e i r o p i n i o n , i t w o u l d u s u a l l y h o l d t r u e — a f i n d i n g w h i c h , i n t h e a u t h o r ' s v i e w , w a r r a n t s t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e s i z e o f t h e m a j o r i t y , i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h a t o b t a i n e d i n T a b l e C I I I w i t h r e f e r e n c e u p o n a c h a i r m a n and i t was n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r t o a p p o i n t one. ( T h e s e s t a t i s t i c s were d e r i v e d f r o m t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e L a b o u r R e l a t i o n s B r a n c h o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r , a s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o u r f o r t h e y e a r s 1 9 5 5 - 1 9 5 9 i n c l u s i v e . ) to the previous hypothesis ( i n response to the question "Do you think i t would generally he true that the greater the amount of previous experience that a chairman has had c h a i r i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards, the greater w i l l be h i s chances of achieving agreement between the two nominees?") i s s t r i k i n g l y reduced. This i s probably because, as a r e s u l t of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a rtisanship, a nominee's competence w i l l , presumably, protect h i s party's i n t e r e s t at the expense of, to a c e r t a i n extent, the achievement of agreement with the other nominee. 7. The e f f e c t of previous experience as a C o n c i l i a t i o n Board nominee on a nominee's a b i l i t y to sign a Board report that i s to h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n was the concern of Hypothesis l ( v i i ) [Question 22; Table CV]. I t was hypo-thesized that the greater the amount of previous experience that a nominee has had as a nominee on C o n c i l i a t i o n Boards, the greater h i s chances e i t h e r of getting the chairman to sign with him i n a majority report, or of getting a unanimous report that i s to h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . The hypothesis was phrased i n the form of a question, and the r e s u l t s , given i n Table CV, show that a majority of respondents (58.2% versus 14.5%) f e e l that i t would u s u a l l y hold true. In the author's opinion t h i s j u s t i f i e s the acceptance of the hypothesis. 8. Hypothesis l ( v i i i ) [Questions 23-24; Tables CVI - CVII] concentrated upon the e f f e c t of a chairman's f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the trade or i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e d i n the d i s p u t e (gained, presumably, as a r e s u l t of h i s involvement i n some r o l e other than t h a t of chairman of an o p e r a t i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n Board) upon h i s a b i l i t y t o achieve agreement between the two nominees. I t was hypothesized t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , the more f a m i l i a r the chairman i s w i t h the trade or i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e d i n the d i s p u t e , the g r e a t e r w i l l be h i s a b i l i t y t o get the two nominees to reach agreement. Would i t be g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t the more f a m i l i a r the chairman i s w i t h the trade or i n d u s t r y i n which the d i s p u t e has o c c u r r e d , the g r e a t e r w i l l be h i s a b i l i t y t o get the two nominees to reach agreement? Table CVI i n d i c a t e s , by a score of 67.2% versus 3*6%, t h a t t h i s i s u s u a l l y the case. Because i t seemed almost e q u a l l y reasonable t h a t the opposite c o u l d be t r u e , respondents were next asked whether or not they thought i t was g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t i f a chairman knows n o t h i n g about the trade or i n d u s t r y i n which the d i s p u t e has o c c u r r e d , then he w i l l have fewer preconceived i d e a s , and w i l l hence be more i m p a r t i a l and b e t t e r able to get the two nominees to agree than i f he knew a l o t about t h i s i n d u s t r y or t r a d e . Presumably, as the statements represent opposite v i e w p o i n t s , the percentages i n Tables CVI and CVII should have been, p r e t t y w e l l , r e v e r s a l s of each other. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , lumping the two top and the two bottom c a t e g o r i e s , and i n c l u d i n g the "sometimes" category separately, Table CVII should have read, roughly, from top to bottom, 3.6%,.. 23.6%, and 67.2%. Instead, i t reads 7.2%, 43 .6%, and 4-3.6%. This means that the percentage-response i n the top two categories has doubled, although i t i s s t i l l small, and, therefore, "roughly" the same. But the middle, or "sometimes" category has picked up 23.6% of the respondents at the expense of the two bottom categories. This s h i f t of opinion has, obviously, been caused by the rather persuasive r a t i o n a l e which was incorporated into Question 24, and the f a c t that, despite t h i s r a t i o n a l e , the second p o s s i b i l i t y i s nonetheless regarded as untrue more often than not would seem to warrant the conclusion that the hypothesis i s c o r r e c t . Table CVII contains an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n i n opinion: i t appears that employer nominees are somewhat more i n disagreement with the a n t i t h e s i s of the hypothesis than are union nominees. This, i t seems reasonable to speculate, i s probably because employer nominees are rather more apprehensive about what a chairman who knows nothing about the industry could do to t h e i r p a r t i e s , f e e l i n g that, i f the union nominee managed to persuade the chairman to sign a report that was considerably out of l i n e (and, presumably, i f the chairman knows nothing about the industry, h i s chances of doing so are much greater), t h i s would probably s u b s t a n t i a l l y increase the l i k e l i h o o d that an 166 e m p l o y e r w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y h a v e t o a c c e p t a r e p o r t w h i c h w o u l d h a v e d r a s t i c c o n s e q u e n c e s f o r h i m . e c o n o m i c a l l y . 9 . H y p o t h e s i s l ( i x ) [ Q u e s t i o n 25; T a b l e CVIII] was d e v o t e d t o t h e e f f e c t o f a n o m i n e e ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e t r a d e o r i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s p u t e ( g a i n e d , p r e s u m a b l y , a s a r e s u l t o f h i s i n v o l v e m e n t i n some r o l e o t h e r t h a n t h a t o f a nominee on an o p e r a t i n g C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d ) u p o n h i s a b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s and w e l f a r e o f h i s p a r t y . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t , i n g e n e r a l , t h e more f a m i l i a r a nominee i s w i t h t h e t r a d e o r i n d u s t r y i n v o l v e d i n t h e d i s p u t e , t h e g r e a t e r w i l l be h i s a b i l i t y t o p r o t e c t t h e i n t e r e s t s and w e l f a r e o f h i s p a r t y b y b r i n g i n g a b o u t u n a n i m o u s o r m a j o r i t y r e p o r t s w h i c h t e n d t o s u p p o r t t h e p o s i t i o n o f h i s p a r t y . The h y p o t h e s i s was p h r a s e d i n t h e f o r m o f a q u e s t i o n , t h e r e s p o n s e t o w h i c h a p p e a r s i n T a b l e C V I I I . R e s p o n d e n t s i n d i c a t e , b y a v e r y m a r k e d m a j o r i t y (78.1% v e r s u s 3.6%) t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p d e s c r i b e d i n t h e h y p o -t h e s i s w o u l d u s u a l l y h o l d t r u e . The h y p o t h e s i s must t h e r e f o r e be c o n s i d e r e d c o n f i r m e d . 10. H y p o t h e s i s l ( x ) [ Q u e s t i o n s 26 - 2 7 ; T a b l e s C I X - C X I ] was c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e e f f e c t o f t h e membership o f a c h a i r m a n a n d a nominee i n t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s u p o n t h e s p e e d w i t h w h i c h t h e y a r e a b l e t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t 16? i f t h e c h a i r m a n a n d one o f t h e n o m i n e e s b e l o n g t o t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s , t h e y w i l l be more l i k e l y t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t more q u i c k l y t h a n i f t h e y b e l o n g e d t o d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l a n d s o c i a l c l a s s e s ( b e c a u s e , i t was assumed, t h e y w i l l t e n d t o h a v e s i m i l a r e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l s y m p a t h i e s ) . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o g i v e t h e i r o p i n i o n as t o a p p r o x i m a t e l y how f r e q u e n t l y C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s c o n s i s t i n g o f a c h a i r m a n and one n o m inee who a r e b o t h b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l men ( e i t h e r e m p l o y e d o r r e t i r e d ) , a n d one n o m inee who i s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l a b o u r movement, o c c u r . The r e s u l t s a r e p r o v i d e d i n T a b l e CIX, w h i c h shows t h a t , i n t h e o p i n i o n o f an o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s (85.5% v e r s u s 1 . 8 % ) , t h i s i s u s u a l l y t h e c a s e . A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e p e r c e n t a g e - r e s p o n s e s i n T a b l e C I X shows t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s f e e l t h i s i s t h e c a s e f a r more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n do e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . The most p r o b a b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s t h a t t h e r e a r e a v e r y few p e r s o n s who h a v e s e r v e d a s c h a i r m e n (two, t o t h e a u t h o r ' s k n o w l e d g e ) who h a v e b e e n c o n n e c t e d i n t h e p a s t w i t h t h e l a b o u r movement. E m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s p r o b a b l y h a d t h e s e i n m i n d when t h e y r e s p o n d e d t o t h e q u e s t i o n . C o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h s e v e r a l u n i o n n o m i n e e s on t h e s u b j e c t o f c h a i r m e n who h a v e h a d a l a b o u r b a c k g r o u n d s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t e d , h o w e v e r , t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t o n l y l a b o u r men whose s y m p a t h i e s now l i e p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h management w i l l be made ( p r e s u m a b l y 168 as t h e r e s u l t o f a n a p p o i n t m e n t b y t h e M i n i s t e r o f L a b o u r ) C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d c h a i r m e n — a n d , i n d e e d , t h e f a c t t h a t one of. t h e two c h a i r m e n m e n t i o n e d now f u n s a n i n d u s t r i a l r e l a t i o n s f i r m c a t e r i n g t o e m p l o y e r s , a n d e v i d e n c e d , on h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , s t r o n g l y p r o - e m p l o y e r s e n t i m e n t s , w o u l d c e r t a i n l y seem t o p r o v i d e t h i s v i e w w i t h some s u p p o r t . T h u s , i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o s u p p o s e t h a t , w h i l e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s c o n s i d e r s u c h c h a i r m e n t o be " c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l a b o u r movement", u n i o n n o m i n e e s do n o t , b e c a u s e t h e y f e e l t h a t t h e s y m p a t h i e s o f s u c h c h a i r m e n no l o n g e r l i e w i t h l a b o u r , a n d c l a s s i f y them w i t h " b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l men" on t h i s b a s i s . H e n c e , u n i o n ' n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t B o a r d s o f t h e c o m p o s i t i o n d e s c r i b e d o c c u r f a r more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n do e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . On a C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d l i k e t h e one d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , w o u l d i t g e n e r a l l y be t r u e t h a t t h e c h a i r m a n a n d t h e n o m i nee who a r e b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l men w o u l d be more l i k e l y t o r e a c h a g r e e m e n t more q u i c k l y t h a n w o u l d t h e c h a i r m a n a n d t h e nominee c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e l a b o u r movement? The r e s u l t s o f t h i s q u e r y , g i v e n i n T a b l e CX, s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s i s f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y t h e c a s e . S u r p r i s i n g l y e nough, t h e two g r o u p s o f n o m i n e e s seem t o be p r e t t y much i n a g r e e m e n t on t h i s p o i n t . I n o r d e r t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s be t e s t e d as f u l l y a s p o s s i b l e , r e s p o n d e n t s were now a s k e d t o i n d i c a t e a b o u t how f r e q u e n t l y t h e y f e l t t h a t C o n c i l i a t i o n . B o a r d s c o n -s i s t i n g o f a c h a i r m a n and one n o m i n e e who a r e b o t h c o n -n e c t e d w i t h t h e l a b o u r movement ( e i t h e r e m p l o y e d o r r e t i r e d ) , a n d one n o m inee who i s a b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l man ( l i k e a l a w y e r ) , o c c u r . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n q u i r y a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e © X I . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h e p e r c e n t a g e - r e s p o n s e s i n T a b l e s C I X and CXI s h o u l d be a p p r o x i m a t e r e v e r s a l s o f one a n o t h e r . The f a c t t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e , a p p a r e n t l y as a r e s u l t o f t h e s u g g e s t i b i l i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s , c o u l d c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e v a l i d i t y o f some o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d b y t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e employed.. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , i n T a b l e C X I , a d i s p a r i t y i n o p i n i o n w h i c h p a r a l l e l s t h a t a p p a r e n t i n T a b l e CIX: e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s f e e l t h a t B o a r d s composed o f a c h a i r m a n and one nominee o f a l a b o u r b a c k -g r o u n d , a n d one nominee o f b u s i n e s s o r p r o f e s s i o n a l b a c k -g r o u n d , o c c u r c o n s i d e r a b l y more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n u n i o n n o m i n e e s f e e l t h e y d o . I n t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n , t h e e x p l a n a t i o n a d d u c e d above i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a s i m i l a r d i s c r e p a n c y i n T a b l e C I X i s e q u a l l y a p p l i c a b l e i n t h i s c a s e . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o p r o p o s e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e s e two d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n p e r c e p t i o n c o n s t i t u t e f u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t u n i o n n o m i n e e s a r e more d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h C o n c i l i a t i o n B o a r d s t h a n a r e e m p l o y e r n o m i n e e s . As w i l l be a p p a r e n t f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n o f Q u e s t i o n 2 7 ( a ) , Q u e s t i o n 2 7(b) was i n c o r r e c t l y p h r a s e d : i t s h o u l d h a v e i n q u i r e d a s t o w h e t h e r i t w o u l d g e n e r a l l y be true that the chairman and the nominee who are connected with the labour movement would be more l i k e l y to reach agreement more quickly than would the chairman and the nominee who i s a business or p r o f e s s i o n a l man, but, instead, i t was, mistakenly, simply a r e p e t i t i o n of Question 26(b), which i s described above i n connection with Table CX. Thus, unfortunately, nothing f u r t h e r was learned about t h i s second type of Board-In summation, then, i t appears that the type of Board described by the hypothesis—but one i n which a pr o f e s s i o n a l man or businessman, rather than a man with a labour background, i s chairman—does occur with very great frequency, and that i t appears, with some frequency, to have the e f f e c t predicted by the hypothesis—but, only, apparently, to the advantage of employers.. At the same time, of course, the f a c t o r of s u g g e s t i b i l i t y would seem to be s u f f i c i e n t l y evident to cast some measure of doubt upon the data obtained by the questionnaire with reference to t h i s hypothesis. In the author's opinion, the hypothesis should therefore be granted only tentative acceptance. 11. The e f f e c t of the membership of a chairman and a nominee i n the same occupational and s o c i a l c l a s s upon the l i k e l i h o o d of t h e i r i s s u i n g , should unanimity not be achieved, the majority report, was the focus of Hypothesis l ( x i ) [Questions 28-29; Tables CXII - CXIII]. I t was 171 hypothesized t h a t i f the chairman and one of the nominees belong to the same o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l c l a s s , they w i l l , i f unanimity i s not achieved, tend to be more l i k e l y to i s s u e the m a j o r i t y r e p o r t than they would i f they belonged to d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Respondents were asked t o suppose t h a t the chairman and one of the nominees are both business or p r o f e s s i o n a l men, and t h a t the other nominee i s connected w i t h the labour movement. With su