UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An application of the critical incident technique to teaching Crawford, Douglas Gordon 1961

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AN APPLICATION OF THE CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE TO TEACHING by DOUGLAS GORDON CRAWFORD B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f PSYCHOLOGY We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1 9 6 1 Tn presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of P s y c h o l o g y  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date September. 1961. i i ABSTRACT The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o r e p o r t on a n a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e t o u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r : 1 . D e t e r m i n i n g t h e " c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " o f u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h -i n g as e v o l v e d f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r by u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ; 2 . S t u d y i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p b etween i n f o r m a t i o n on t e a c h i n g o b t a i n e d b y " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , " and s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n as ' o p i n i o n s ' d e r i v e d f r o m g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e ; 3. E d u c i n g a s e t o f p r a c t i c a l r ecommendations t h a t may b e o f v a l u e t o l e c t u r e r s i n t h e improvement o f t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h -i n g p r a c t i c e s . V o l u n t e e r f o u r t h y e a r A r t s s t u d e n t s were employed as t h e s o u r c e o f c r i t e r i o n d a t a . The d a t a were r e c o r d e d i n t h e f o r m o f " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s " and s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f o r m of ' o p i n i o n s . ' T h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were a p p l i e d t o t h e s e d a t a . Two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were made of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , one b e i n g b a s e d e x c l u s i v e l y on d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s ; t h e o t h e r con t h e r e p o r t e d r e s u l t o f t h e l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s . The t h i r d was a p p l i e d t o the o p i n i o n i n f o r m a t i o n . A l l t h e s e d a t a were s y s t e m a t i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o a p r o g r e s s i o n o f more i n c l u s i v e c a t e -g o r i e s . i i i Prom t h e f i r s t two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , two l i s t s o f " c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " were e v o l v e d . I n a d d i t i o n , t h e ' p r a c t i c a l recommen-d a t i o n s ' were b a s e d o n t h e s e d a t a . A summary o f i m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s was i n c l u d e d , as w e l l as s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h p o s s i b i l i t i e s . i v TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of the problem 1 I I REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE 5 Methodological approach . . . . . . . 5 The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique 7 R e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of student judgments 11+ I I I THE APPLICATION OP THE CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE 18 Preparation of i n s t r u c t i o n s and recording forms 18 S e l e c t i o n of sample 21 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of behaviors . 23 D e r i v a t i o n of c r i t i c a l requirements and recommendations 29 IV PI1DINGS AND DISCUSSION 32 E v a l u a t i o n of r e c o r d i n g forms 32 Adequacy of sample 33 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of behaviors 36 D e r i v a t i o n of c r i t i c a l requirements 59 P r a c t i c a l recommendations 75 V SUMMARY OP CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 82 V CHAPTER PAGE VI SUMMARY OP STUDY 86 REFERENCES 90 APPENDICES 94 A I n s t r u c t i o n s 95 B C r i t i c a l behaviors, by frequency, under each c l a s s (behavior c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . . . 97 C C r i t i c a l behaviors by frequency under each c l a s s ( r e s u l t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . . . . 1 3 7 D General opinions, by frequency, under each c l a s s 167 v i LIST OP TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 T o t a l Number and P r o p o r t i o n of Students E n r o l l e d 'in Courses of Study 34 2 Observed and Expected Numbers of Students E n r o l l e d i n Pour Categories Assuming a i t " Uniform D i s t r i b u t i o n i n the Population . . . . 34 3 T o t a l E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e Behaviors ' *" P a l l i n g W i t h i n Each Sub-area (Behavior C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) . . . . . 37 4 T o t a l E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e Behaviors P a l l i n g W i t h i n Each Sub-area (Result C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) 38 5 T o t a l Number of Classes, Sub-classes and Behaviors by Major and Sub-areas (Behavior C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 6 T o t a l Number of Classes, Sub-classes and Behaviors by Major and Sub-areas (Result C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme 4° 7 T o t a l Number of Classes, Sub-classes and Behaviors by Major and Sub-areas (Opinion C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) 48 8 T o t a l C r i t i c a l Behaviors and 'Loading' Score f o r Each Class (Behavior C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme , 50 v i i TABLE PAGE 9 T o t a l E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e C r i t i c a l Behaviors f o r Each Class (Result C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) 51+ 10 General Opinions, by Frequency, Under Each Sub-area 60 11 C r i t i c a l Requirements, by Frequency, Under Each Sub-area (Behavior C l a s s i f i -c a t i o n Scheme) 62 12 C r i t i c a l Requirements, by Frequency, Under Each Sub-area (Result C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme . . . 68 v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT The writer would l i k e to express his gratitude to those individuals whose cooperation made i t possible to accomplish this study. In p a r t i c u l a r , thanks are due to Dr. E. I. Signori without whose continued Interest and g e n e r o u s assistance t h i s study could not have been successfully completed. In addition gratitude is expressed to other members of the department who provided both source material on the c r i t i c a l incident technique used i n this study, and valuable constructive c r i t i c i s m . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION S t a t e m e n t o f the p r o b l e m . T h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y a r o s e out o f t h e o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t t h e r e seemed t o be a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s d e s c r i b e d a n e c d o t a l l y by u n i v e r s i t y s t u -d e n t s w h i c h t h e y deemed a s examples of e i t h e r good o r p o o r t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . A s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t few r e p o r t e d a t t e m p t s , had b e e n made t o use u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s as c r i t i c a l o b s e r v e r s o f t h e i r l e c t u r e r s . W i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f s t u d e n t c a p a b i l i t y i n j u d g i n g t h e t o t a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n t h e y r e c e i v e , i t i s c l e a r , s t a t e s R i l e y (1950, pp. 31-33), t h a t i n e s c a p a b l e o b l i g a t i o n s r e s t u p o n t h e p r o f e s s o r i n r e t u r n f o r h i s r e l a t i v e i mmunity f r o m c r i t i c i s m . He a s s e r t s t h a t a s t u d e n t ' s i d e a s o f good t e a c h i n g , o f i d e a l i n s t r u c t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , a r e p a r t and p a r c e l o f any t e a c h e r ' s d a i l y r o u t i n e . He adds f u r t h e r t h a t : The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o f e s s o r i a l a w a reness o f s t u d e n t a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d i n s t r u c t i o n i s made a l l t h e g r e a t e r by c o n t e m p o r a r y t r e n d s i n h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . H i g h e r e d u c a -t i o n has come o u t i n t o t h e open; t h e new p r a g m a t i c demands, t h e f u n c t i o n a l and u t i l i t a r i a n c o n c e p t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h a h e i g h t e n e d i m p e r s o n a l -i t y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and h e t e r o g e n e i t y i n c l a s s c o m p o s i t i o n , i n t e n s i f y t h e n e e d f o r and d i f f i c u l t y o f c a t a l y z i n g s t u d e n t t h i n k i n g . 2 I f . . . t h e p o p u l a r d e m o c r a t i c and p r a g m a t i c c o n c e p t o f a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n i s w o r t h p u r s u i t , t h e n s t u d e n t d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n i s w o r t h k n o w i n g . . . E i t h e r we change o u r c o n c e p t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o r t h e p r o f e s s o r must i n c l u d e i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c l a s s -room s i t u a t i o n h i s own r e f l e c t i o n as s e e n i n t h e s t u d e n t ' s e y e s . B u x t o n (1956, P» 354) a d m i t s t h a t w h i l e much i s o b s c u r e a b o u t the d e t e r m i n e r s of s t u d e n t r a t i n g s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . . . t h a t w h a t e v e r v e r b a l d e f e n s e s c o l l e g e t e a c h e r s may h a v e , v e r y f e w o f them can r e a l l y be i n d i f f e r e n t t o what t h e i r s t u d e n t s t h i n k . He c i t e s t h e B r o o k l y n C o l l e g e s t u d y 1 as g i v i n g s u p p o r t t o h i s v i e w . l y a n s (1952, p. 27) i s c r i t i c a l of r e s e a r c h i n t h e a r e a o f t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and b l a m e s i t s s t e r i l i t y l a r g e l y on d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n d e f i n i n g c r i t e r i a a d e q u a t e l y and o b t a i n i n g c r i t e r i o n measures o f t e a c h e r competence. He f e e l s t h a t s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n t o t h e c r i t e r i o n p r o b l e m demands d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g b o t h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c r i t e r i o n t o be a d o p t e d and t h e c r i t e r i o n measure o r measures t o be e m p l o y e d . These d e c i s i o n s , he e m p h a s i z e s , s h o u l d be b a s e d i n s o f a r as p o s s i b l e o n e m p i r i c a l l y s u p p o r t e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . He d i s c u s s e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n immediate, i n t e r m e d i a t e , a n d u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i a and e m p h a s i z e s the need f o r s p e c i f y i n g whL c h k i n d o f c r i t e r i o n one a t t e m p t s t o - L T h i s s t u d y i s r e p o r t e d i n some d e t a i l b y R i l e y (1956, pp. 108-123) 3 p r e d i c t . He p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e c h o i c e o f ' c r i t e r i o n measure' a l s o r e s t s upon the judgment o f t h e r e s e a r c h e r . The a l t e r n a t e methods o f o b t a i n i n g c r i t e r i o n d a t a u s u a l l y a v a i l a b l e must be c h o s e n i n t h e l i g h t o f t e c h n i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and p r a c t i c a l c o n v e n i e n c e . F o r example, one d e c i s i o n may i n v o l v e a c h o i c e b etween d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t m easures o f c r i t e r i o n d a t a . The d i r e c t a p p r o a c h would be e x e m p l i f i e d by o b s e r v a t i o n s o f o n g o i n g c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r . O b t a i n i n g d a t a r e l a t i v e t o the outcome o f c r i t e r i o n b e h a v i o r i l l u s t r a t e s t h e i n d i r e c t a p p r o a c h . As a means o f o b t a i n i n g c r i t e r i o n d a t a r e l e v a n t t o t e a c h -i n g e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , i t was d e c i d e d t o use a d i r e c t a p p r o a c h , s p e c i f i c a l l y , F l a n a g a n ' s C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e . An e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s t o l e n d e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t t o r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s , and a l t h o u g h F l a n a g a n p r i m a r i l y e v o l v e d t h e t e c h n i q u e a s a means f o r o b j e c t i f y i n g r a t i n g and a s s e s s m e n t p r o c e d u r e s , he h i m s e l f s t a t e s t h a t (1954b): The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a p r o c e d u r e f o r g a t h e r i n g c e r t a i n i m p o r t a n t f a c t s c o n c e r n -i n g b e h a v i o r i n d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be e m p h a s i z e d t h a t the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e does n o t c o n s i s t o f a s i n g l e r i g i d s e t o f r u l e s g o v e r n i n g s u c h d a t a c o l l e c t i o n . R a t h e r i t s h o u l d be t h o u g h t o f as a f l e x i b l e s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h must be m o d i f i e d and a d a p t e d t o meet t h e s p e c i f i e d s i t u a t i o n a t hand. He m e n t i o n s one s t u d y i n v o l v i n g a g e n e r a l i z e d c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n o f p u p i l b e h a v i o r w h i c h i n c l u d e d immediate c r i t e r i a d a t a s u c h as " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f p u p i l i n t e r e s t . . . , " i n t e r m e d i a t e c r i t e r i o n d a t a , s u c h as " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t upon c o m p l e t i o n o f p u p i l s e x p o s u r e t o a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r , " and u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n d a t a , s u c h as " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t and a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . . . . " The e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e s o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e a r e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w i n C h a p t e r I I , as a r e t h e o t h e r methods t h a t h a v e b e e n u s e d f o r the p u r p o s e o f t e a c h e r a p p r a i s a l . I t i s t h e i n t e n t i o n of t h i s s t u d y t o r e p o r t on a n a d a p t a t i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e t o u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o i t s u s e f u l n e s s f o r : 1. D e t e r m i n i n g t h e " ' c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s " o f u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h -i n g as e v o l v e d f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r b y u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ; 2. S t u d y i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n f o r m a t i o n on t e a c h i n g o b t a i n e d by " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , " and s u p p l e m e n t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n as o p i n i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m g e n e r a l e x p e r i e n c e ; 3. E d u c i n g a s e t o f p r a c t i c a l r e c ommendations t h a t may be o f v a l u e t o l e c t u r e r s i n t h e improvement of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h -i n g p r a c t i c e s . I t i s t o be n o t e d t h a t t h i s p r e s e n t i n q u i r y was n o t d e s i g n e d t o i d e n t i f y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n good a n d p o o r i n s t r u c t o r s o n t h e b a s i s o f s t u d e n t judgments. B a t h e r i t s p u r p o s e was t o e l i c i t some p r a c t i c a l r e c ommendations t h a t would be o f v a l u e t o i n s t r u c t o r s b y a c q u a i n t i n g them w i t h t h e d e g r e e o f t h e i r a c c e p t a n c e b y t h e i r a u d i e n c e . Thus, p r e c a u t i o n s were t a k e n t o a v o i d any d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s b e i n g made t h a t would a c t u a l l y i d e n t i f y u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t o r s . The d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f r o m 80 v o l u n t e e r f o u r t h y e a r A r t s s t u d e n t s , who were s e l e c t e d , a s i s d e s c r i b e d below, f r o m among a t o t a l o f 375 s t u d e n t s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e f a c u l t y . CHAPTER II REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE Methodological approach. "Reviews of the methodological approach to teacher appraisal have been prepared by Beecher (19i+9) and Barr (19ij-8). These summaries are concerned primar-i l y with the study of elementary and secondary school teachers, but Beecher, i n addition, reviews several studies at the college l e v e l . As a re s u l t of his survey, he l i s t s f i v e methods f o r teacher appraisal: Supervisors' and administrators' expectations representing for the most part assembled l i s t s of desirable q u a l i t i e s . Rating scales and observational techniques. Predictive appraisal of t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . Studies of p u p i l opinion and reaction. Diagnostic and anecdotal methods. Current rating scales are c r i t i c i z e d by Travers (1950) as being i n v a l i d measures of teacher effectiveness, i n that they are based upon varying frequency of contact between the r a t e r and the teacher. Smit (195D c r i t i c i z e d a l l studies based on judgments of educational experts or students only. In her view there has been a loss of v a l i d i t y of results because of the use of unrepresentative samples, a lack of o b j e c t i v i t y i n judgments, and s i t u a t i o n a l goals have been inadequately defined for the judges. Further, she pointed out, the manner i n which 1. 2 . 3 . k-5. 6 the d a t a a r e r e q u e s t e d , t h e q u e s t i o n s a s k e d and i n s t r u c t i o n s p r e s e n t e d t o j u d g e s may l i m i t the k i n d s o f f a c t o r s t h e j u d g e s r e p o r t , and t h e m e a n i n g f u l n e s s of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h e y s u p p l y . C o m p l e t e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d q u e s t i o n s , i n h e r v i e w , l e d t o vague g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . C o n v e r s e l y , i f j u d g e s a r e g i v e n o v e r l y s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n s , o t h e r i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s may be o v e r -l o o k e d . She f e l t t h a t i n o r d e r t o " e q u a t e judgments" t h e g o a l s o f the t e a c h i n g s i t u a t i o n s h o u l d be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , and u s e d as a b a s i s f o r t h e i r ( t h e j u d g e s ) e v a l u a t i o n s . Ryans ( I 9 6 0 , p. 371) c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e a r e two v e r y i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s why e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h e r s have n o t b e e n d e s c r i b e d w i t h any a s s u r a n c e . F i r s t ; t h e r e i s a wide v a r i a t i o n i n t h e v a l u e c o n c e p t s u n d e r l y i n g d e s c r i p t i o n s o f d e s i r e a b l e t e a c h i n g o b j e c t i v e s . S e c o n d ; t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t e a c h e r r o l e s a t d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l s , i n d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s , and w i t h d i f f e r e n t p u p i l s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a c t i n g as a d e t e r r e n t t o t h e s t u d y o f t e a c h e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , he a l l e g e d t h a t t h e r e i s a p a u c i t y o f knowledge c o n c e r n i n g t h e p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r s w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e i n d i v i d u a l s employed a s t e a c h e r s . He a s k e d r e s e a r c h e r s r a t h e r t h a n d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f "good" t e a c h e r s , t h a t t h e y i d e n t i f y and e s t i m a t e some o f t h e m a j o r p a t t e r n s o f p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t e a c h e r s . 7 W i t h t h i s i n mind, one o f t h e l i n e s o f a t t a c k o f t h e T e a c h e r C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s S t u d y , c h a i r e d b y Ryans, i n the i d e n -t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s and the m a j o r d i m e n s i o n s t h e y c o m p r i s e , c o n s i s t e d o f c o l l e c t i n g " ' c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s " o f t e a c h i n g , o r c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s , o f b o t h e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s . The C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t T e c h n i q u e . The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e i s d e s c r i b e d b y F l a n a g a n (1954b) a s : . . . a s e t o f p r o c e d u r e s f o r c o l l e c t i n g d i r e c t o b s e r v a -t i o n s o f human b e h a v i o r . (A p r o c e d u r e ) f o r c o l l e c t i n g o b s e r v e d I n c i d e n t s h a v i n g s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e a n d m e e t i n g s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a . An i n c i d e n t i s any o b s e r v a b l e human a c t i v i t y s u f f i -c i e n t l y c o m p l e t e i n i t s e l f t o p e r m i t i n f e r e n c e s and p r e d i c t i o n s t o be made a b o u t t h e p e r s o n p e r f o r m i n g t h e a c t . To be c r i t i c a l a n i n c i d e n t must o c c u r i n a s i t u a t i o n where t h e p u r p o s e or i n t e n t o f t h e a c t seems f a i r l y c l e a r t o t h e o b s e r v e r and where i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e so as t o l e a v e l i t t l e d o u b t c o n -c e r n i n g i t s e f f e c t s . He f o r m a l i z e d t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t a p p r o a c h i n t o a w e l l d e-f i n e d t e c h n i q u e w h i c h he d e s c r i b e d i n a number o f a r t i c l e s (1950, 1952a, 1954b, 1956c). The i n d i v i d u a l s f r o m whom i n c i d e n t s a r e r e q u e s t e d g e n e r a l l y a r e a s k e d t o r e p o r t o r w r i t e down a l l o f t h e i n c i d e n t s t h a t t h e y c a n t h i n k a b o u t , and i n most s e t t i n g s t h e r a n g e o f i n d i v i d u a l s who may be a s k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e u s u a l l y e x t e n d s beyond t h o s e who may be d i r e c t l y e ngaged i n t h e o c c u p a t i o n . He assumes, t h e n , t h a t t h e o b s e r v e r 8 c a n r e c a l l t h o s e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s w h i c h may be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i n d i c a t i n g e f f e c i e n t o r i n e f f i c i e n t p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h a t f i e l d . T hus, i n t h e f i e l d o f t e a c h i n g , a n example o f an i n c i d e n t w h i c h was d e s c r i b e d as r e f l e c t i n g good o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g was t h e f o l l o w ! ng: "'The l e c t u r e r e x p l a i n e d h i s l a t e n e s s was due t o t h e d i s -t a n c e he had t o come between l e c t u r e s . He was w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r q u e s t i o n s a f t e r t h e h o u r , s i n c e i t was t h e l a s t o f t h e a f t e r n o o n , and e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o see s t u d e n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y i n h i s o f f i c e t o d i s c u s s c o u r s e m a t e r i a l and h e l p them g e t as much as p o s s i b l e o u t o f i t . " A n o t h e r i n c i d e n t i l l u s t r a t i n g i n e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g was: "Due to a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t o f t h e l e c t u r e r i n s p e c i f i c c o u r s e m a t e r i a l , he u s e d s p e c i a l terms he a l o n e knew, he l e c t u r e d so q u i c k l y t h a t t h e r e was no time t o g e t a n y t h i n g down, and gave no chance t o a s k q u e s t i o n s . " As c a n be s e e n , e a c h c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t c a n c o n t a i n a number o f " c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s . " The p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d i n u s i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e i s , e s s e n t i a l l y , t o d e t e r m i n e b y s c r u t i n i z i n g t h e o b s e r v e r ' s r e p o r t s t h e number o f s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s d e s c r i b e d ; e x t r a c t the d i s c r e t e b e h a v i o r a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ; and i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e a p r o g r e s s i o n o f more i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s i n w h i c h t o c l a s s i f y them. Thus, one b e g i n s w i t h an u n c l a s s i f i e d number o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s , f r o m w h i c h a r e d e r i v e d a number o f c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h a r e i n t u r n c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o the d e g r e e o f t h e i r s i m i -l a r i t y . These b e h a v i o r s a r e t h e " s p e c i f i c a c t i o n s o f t h e 9 i n d i v i d u a l " (1954°), a n ^ are, where p o s s i b l e , grouped i n t o " ' c r i t i c a l requirements". Flanagan (1950) describes the c r i t i c a l requirements of an a c t i v i t y as being those that are c r u c i a l i n the sense that they have been f r e q u e n t l y observed to make the d i f f e r e n c e between success and f a i l u r e i n that a c t i v i t y . In order to e s t a b l i s h v a l i d c r i t i c a l requirements he l i s t s 5 s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s to be s a t i s f i e d : 1. ...that actual observations be made of the on-the-job a c t i v i t y and the product of such a c t i v i t y . 2. The aims and o b j e c t i v e s of the a c t i v i t y must be known to the observer.... 3. The basis f o r the s p e c i f i c judgments to be made by the observer must be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . . . . A l l obser-vers must have the same c r i t e r i a f o r making judgments.... 1+. The observer must be q u a l i f i e d t o make judgments regard-ing the a c t i v i t y observed.... 5. . . . r e p o r t i n g (must be) accurate. The p r i n c i p a l pro-blems here are those o f memory and communication. I t i s a l s o important that the observer's a t t e n t i o n be d i r e c t e d to the e s s e n t i a l aspects of the behavior being observed. These c r i t i c a l requirements are then p r o g r e s s i v e l y grouped i n t o more i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s , termed, f o r the purposes of t h i s paper, c l a s s e s , sub-areas, and major areas. These steps are i l l u s t r a t e d i n d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I . For the purposes of the extensive Teacher C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Study (Syans, I 9 6 0 ) , the reports of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were sub-mitted by persons c l o s e l y a ssociated with teaching, and were based upon f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of acts of teachers i n s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s . The researchers defined a " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t " as: ...any observable teacher behavior or act which might make the d i f f e r e n c e between success or f a i l u r e i n some s p e c i f i e d teaching s i t u a t i o n . 10 I n o r d e r to f o r m a l i z e and s y s t e m a t i z e the c r i t i c a l t e a c h e r be-h a v i o r study the a u t h o r s made use of a C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t s B l a n k based on the r e p o r t s of F l a n a g a n and h i s co-workers a t the American I n s t i t u t e f o r Rese a r c h (1954°)• Each o b j e c t i v e des-c r i p t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r was t r a n s c r i b e d t o a sepa r a t e r e c o r d c a r d . These ca r d s were s o r t e d and c l a s s i f i e d i n t o a p p r o p r i a t e c a t e g o r i e s i n f i v e s t e p s : 1. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s i n each i n c i d e n t of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r r e p o r t e d ; 2 . d e r i v a t i o n of a rough c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r the r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s t o f a c i l i t a t e o r d e r i n g of the d a t a ; 3. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of each c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r i n t o one o f these c a t e g o r i e s ; [|_. d e r i v a t i o n of a g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i v e statement c o v e r i n g each c a t e g o r y ; 5. . f i n a l r e f i n e m e n t of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme and p r e p a r a t i o n o f g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the p r i n c i p a l c l a s s e s of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s , (Ryans, I 9 6 0 , p. 81). The authors concluded t h i s p o r t i o n of t h e i r s tudy of eleme n t a r y and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s by e m p h a s i z i n g t h a t t h e y p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on the l i s t o f b e h a v i o r s d e r i v e d f r o m the c o l l e c t i o n of c r i t i c a l t e a c h i n g i n c i d e n t s . I n t h e i r view, t h i s a pproach t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of s i g n i f i c a n t t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s was b a s i c a l l y more sound than the f r e q u e n t l y employed procedure of a s k i n g e d u c a t o r s or o t h e r s t o name the t r a i t s o r q u a l i t i e s t h e y b e l i e v e t o be d e s i r a b l e f o r t e a c h e r s . They b e l i e v e d f u r t h e r t h a t the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t e c h n i q u e r e p r e s e n t e d an e f f o r t t o determine the b a s i s of v a l u e judgments, t o o b j e c t i f y d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r , and p r o v i d e an o p e r a t i o n a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r the a s s e s s -ment of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r (Ryans, I960, p. 83). 11 The c r i t i c a l incident technique has been applied to many job areas i n the past, as f o r example to a i r l i n e p i l o t s (Gordon, 191+9) and dentists (Wagner, 1950). Stoyva (1956) used i t with a view to providing an empirical c r i t e r i o n of performance of the trolley-bus operator's job. DeVries (1957) conducted systematic and objective study of training needs i n the f i e l d of r e a l estate s e l l i n g using t h i s technique. He found, i n addition to information gleaned d i r e c t l y from c r i t i c a l incidents as such, items of "general information" provided supplementary information which proved to be a useful adjunct to the c r i t i c a l incident technique. Smit (1952) selected t h i s procedure and adapted i t to investigate the requirements necessary for e f f e c t i v e teaching i n general psychology courses. Data derived from four d i f f e r e n t groups, consisting of both students and instructors, were analyzed to determine i f differences existed i n t h e i r observa-t i o n a l reports. As might be expected, she found: . . . s u f f i c i e n t s i g n i f i c a n t differences i n judgments of c r i t i c a l n e s s and relevance of behavior between students and faculty.; to warrant further investigation concerning reasons f o r t h i s , and i t s effects on studies based on student or facultynevaluations alone. She concluded that the requirements f o r ef f e c t i v e teaching i n general psychology courses involve more than s k i l l s necessary to the presentation of lecture material. Her findings are summar-ized under f i v e headings as follows: 12 a) B e h a v i o r s r e l a t e d to a i d i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t w i t h b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l p r o b l e m s a r e c r i t i c a l t o e f f e c t i v e n e s s . b) The i m p o r t a n c e was s t r e s s e d o f e n c o u r a g i n g s t u d e n t s t o t h i n k a s w e l l as memorize and a c c e p t , and t o e v a l u a t e t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e i r own and o t h e r s t h i n k -i n g . , c) The r e c o g n i t i o n o f s t u d e n t n e e d s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i n a d d i t i o n t o e x t e n d i n g a i d a f t e r c l a s s h o u r s was a c r i t i c a l a r e a . d) The s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h e n e e d f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n b o t h e x p o s i t o r y a n d o t h e r c l a s s r o o m methods, and e m p h a s i z e d t h e need f o r i n s t r u c t o r s t o d e v e l o p t h e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s i n o t h e r t h a n l e c t u r i n g methods. e) A f u r t h e r p r o b l e m a r e a r e v e a l e d i n h e r s t u d y i n -c l u d e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f h e l p i n g s t u d e n t s t o c l a r i f y t h e i r aims and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . She f o u n d t h a t t h e v a l u e o f C r i t i c a l R e q u i r e m e n t s d e r i v e d f r o m h e r r e s e a r c h , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i v e and i n f o r m a -t i v e t o f a c u l t y and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , l i e s i n t h e i r f o r m i n g t h e b a s i s f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f i n s t r u m e n t s t o measure t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r o b j e c t i v e l y and q u a n t i t a t i v e l y . G u t h r i e (1959, p. 32) c o n t e n d s t h a t one i s f a c e d w i t h the same d i f f i c u l t y i n e v a l u a t i n g t e a c h i n g t h a t would be e n c o u n t e r e d i n e v a l u a t i n g the p e r f o r m a n c e o f v i o l i n i s t s . He p r o t e s t s t h a t v a l u e judgments c a n n o t be r e d u c e d t o t h e r e a d i n g o f p o i n t s on a s c a l e i n w h i c h a v e r y h i g h c o n c e n s u s among o b s e r v e r s c a n be o b t a i n e d . He a s s e r t s t h a t : . . . i f we d e f i n e a s c i e n t i f i c f a c t as a s t a t e o r e v e n t so d e s c r i b e d t h a t a l l q u a l i f i e d o b s e r v e r s w i l l a c c e p t t h e d e s c r i p t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e b etween f a c t and v a l u e becomes a r e l a t i v e one. 13 He maintains that judgments are being continuously made about teaching performance by students, colleagues and by the teacher himself, but £he student observers have one advantage which colleagues do not share—they are present at the performance. However, Buxton (1956, p. 348) reports a factor analytic study by Guthrie indicating that impact of the Instructor on his student i s but one of three dimensions that are significant in the t o t a l e v a l u a t i o n . The other two are his impact on his profession, by way of research and scholarly productivity, and his impact on his colleagues. It is this f i r s t 'dimension', then, the "impact of the instructor on his student" that was used as the source of criterion data for this study. Unquestionably the use of non-trained student observers, in the sense of their having no supervised training in behavioral observation and assessment, inevitably led to considerable judgment variance. Moreover, their assessments were lik e l y influenced by the casual nature of the observations and by biases resulting from criterion deficiency and contamination. The latter l i k e l y contained among i t s sources what Ryans (I960, p. 30) refers to as "oppor-tunity bias", resulting from differences in opportunity for production of behavior among different individuals being observed. During a given time sample no situation may have occurred in which teacher »A' was able to demonstrate certain Ik c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t she (he) a c t u a l l y p o s s e s s e d . T h i s s o u r c e o f b i a s was m i n i m i z e d , however, i n t h i s i n q u i r y s i n c e o b s e r v e r s were n o t a s k e d t o r e c o r d l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s o v e r any p r e - p l a n n e d t i m e s c h e d u l e . I n d e e d , i t was assumed t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t s r e -p o r t e d were s e l e c t e d a t random f r o m the t o t a l b e h a v i o r a l r e p e r t o i r e o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r . However, a n o t h e r s o u r c e o f c r i t e r i o n c o n t a m i n a t i o n l i k e l y o p e r a t i n g was t h e v a r i o u s r a t i n g b i a s e s , s u c h as t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e " h a l o e f f e c t " . I n any e v e n t , w i t h o u t a t t e m p t i n g t o r e s o l v e t h e q u e s t i o n of t h e v a l i d i t y , a n d r e l i a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t j u d gments, i t does seem t o t h i s o b s e r v e r u n r e a l i s t i c and n a i v e t o assume, as does S m i t (1952), t h a t mere "knowledge"" o f c r i t e r i a upon w h i c h t o base judgments i s g o i n g t o e f f e c t " e q u i v a l e n c e " o f judgment. R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y o f S t u d e n t Judgments. W h i l e s t u d e n t e v a l u a t i o n s o f i n s t r u c t o r s have a h i g h d e g r e e o f f a c e v a l i d i t y , a t t e m p t s t o r e l a t e them t o o t h e r c r i t e r i a o f t e a c h i n g e x c e l l e n c e have been d i s a p p o i n t i n g . M c K e a c h i e and Solomon (1958) e s t a b l i s h e d as a c r i t e r i o n measure ' i n t e r e s t a r o u s a l ' . T h e i r d a t a d i d n o t i n d i c a t e a v e r y c o n s i s t e n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p between s t u d e n t r a t i n g s and s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t , as e v i -d e n c e d by s e l e c t i o n o f a d v a n c e d c o u r s e s g i v e n by the i n s t r u c t o r b e i n g r a t e d . R i l e y (1950> P» 28) a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t t h e c r u c i a l o b j e c t i o n t o t h e u s e o f s t u d e n t r a t i n g s has u s u a l l y c e n t e r e d a r o u n d t h e p r o b l e m o f r e l i a b i l i t y , i . e . , t h e a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s t o make u n b i a s e d , c o n s i s t e n t judgments o f a t e a c h e r ' s p e r f o r m a n c e . The l i t e r a t u r e d i r e c t s s p e c i f i c c r i t i c i s m a t s u c h d e m o g r a p h i c 15 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students as t h e i r age, academic success, and sex. The evidence that such demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of students a f f e c t s t h e i r e valuations i s c o n f l i c t i n g and incon-c l u s i v e . Remmers & E l l i o t (19^9) concluded t h a t grade, sex, and maturity ( i n terms of freshman or s e n i o r status) had no e f f e c t on r a t i n g s . However, graduate students, they found, rated t h e i r i n s t r u c t o r s higher than d i d undergraduates. Using a r e l a t i v e l y small sample of students to r a t e psychology i n s t r u c t o r s , Bendig (1952) d i f f e r e d w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s . He found that women were somewhat more c r i t i c a l than men of a male i n s t r u t o r , and advanced undergraduates more c r i t i c a l than beginners. He contended t h a t the nature of course content i s c r u c i a l i n determining the q u a l i t y of e v a l u a t i o n . Drucker & Remmers (195D presented t e n t a t i v e f i n d i n g s to support the view that r a t i n g s of i n s t r u c t o r s do not change w i t h the maturity of the r a t e r . I n d i c a t i o n s were that alumni ten years out of c o l l e g e agreed very c l o s e l y with current under-graduates as to what i n s t r u c t o r t r a i t s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n . Anikeef (1953) c a l c u l a t e d rank-order c o e f f i c i e n t s of c o r r e l a t i o n between the mean grade a number of i n s t r u c t o r s gave t h e i r students and the mean r a t i n g they r e c e i v e d from students, and found a cl o s e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n . He found 16 g r a d i n g l e n i e n c y c o r r e l a t e d h i g h e s t w i t h most r a t i n g s c o r e s on t h e f r e s hman-sophomore l e v e l , and l o w e s t on the j u n i o r - s e n i o r l e v e l . The low c o r r e l a t i o n f o u n d a t t h e l a t t e r l e v e l , he b e l i e v e d , c o u l d be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e more homogeneous g r o u p i n g r e s u l t i n g f r o m t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s i n o p e r a t i o n a t the l o w e r l e v e l s . A d i f f i c u l t r e s e a r c h p r o b l e m r e l a t e d t o m e r i t r a t i n g s and g r a d e e a r n e d i s d i s c u s s e d by B u x t o n (19^6, p. 352) . S i n c e , as he p o i n t s o u t , a g r a d e e a r n e d by a s t u d e n t i s e v a l u a t e d p a r t l y o r l a r g e l y i n terms o f e x p e c t a t i o n s , i t m i g h t be t h a t s t u d e n t s a c h i e v i n g "above", i n terms o f s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n o f a b i l i t y l e v e l , w ould r e g a r d t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n f a v o u r a b l y , and v i c e v e r s a . He r e p o r t e d G u t h r i e ' s f i n d i n g s t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l l y a b l e r s t u d e n t s , as d e f i n e d b y g r a d e - p o i n t a v e r a g e , do n o t g i v e h i g h e r r a t i n g s . Thus, i t was d e c i d e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e above, b o t h t o u s e s t u d e n t judgments a s b e i n g r e l e v a n t t o the e s t a b l i s h -ment o f one c r i t e r i o n o f l e c t u r e r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and t o u s e the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e t o a s s i s t i n t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e b e h a v i o r a l components o f t h e c r i t e r i o n . Of c o u r s e a n u n a v o i d a b l e c i r c u l a r i t y i s i n h e r e n t i n t h i s a p p r o a c h . T h a t i s , c r i t e r i o n m e a sures ( c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s ) c a n n o t be c h o s e n u n t i l d e c i s i o n s have been made r e g a r d i n g t h e n a t u r e o f the c r i t e r i o n ; and some of the judgments r e l a t i v e t o the c r i t e r i o n must r e m a i n t e n t a t i v e u n t i l r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e s o f t h e h y p o t h e s i z e d behav-i o r a l d i m e n s i o n s have been made. 17 I t was t h e a i m o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e n , t o i s o l a t e s i m p l e b e h a v i o r s o r " f i r s t - o r d e r b e h a v i o r d i m e n s i o n s " s u c h as p a r t i c u l a r m o t o r o r v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s o r c o m b i n a t i o n s o f b e h a v -i o r s o f v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c o m p l e x i t y , w h i c h m i g h t r e p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t o r s a l i e n t components o f e f f e c t i v e u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r i n g . I t seemed, f o r t h e r e a s o n s s t a t e d above, t h a t the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e was a d m i r a b l y s u i t e d f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . 18 CHAPTER I I I THE APPLICATION OP THE CRITICAL INCIDENT TECHNIQUE The s p e c i f i c a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h -n i q u e t o t h e p r o b l e m of the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f the c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r u n i v e r s i t y i n s t r u c t i o n a t the f o u r t h y e a r A r t s l e v e l i s d i s c u s s e d on the f o l l o x i n g p a g e s . The r e a s o n s f o r s e l e c t i n g t h i s t e c h n i q u e have been o u t l i n e d a b o v e . P r e p a r a t i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n s and R e c o r d i n g Forms. I t was d e c i d e d , b e c a u s e o f the l a r g e number o f a v a i l a b l e o b s e r v e r s , t o c o l l e c t the d a t a on a s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d r e c o r d f o r m , s e n t t o e a c h o b s e r v e r , r a t h e r t h a n b y a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t a c t e a c h s u b j e c t b y t e l e p h o n e , g a i n t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n , and i n s t r u c t them b o t h v e r b a l l y and b y w r i t t e n i n s t r u c t i o n s , the l a t t e r b e i n g s e n t w i t h t h e m a i l e d r e c o r d f o r m . I n c o m p o s i n g and p r e p a r i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s and r e c o r d i n g f o r m s , s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s have b e e n f o u n d t o e f f e c t t h e o b s e r v e r r e p o r t s . F i r s t , maximum c o o p e r a t i o n o f o b s e r v e r s c o u l d be a s s u r e d o n l y i f t h e a n o n y m i t y o f a l l p a r t i e s was p r o t e c t e d . The methods f o r t h i s s a f e g u a r d were e x p l a i n e d b o t h v e r b a l l y o v e r t h e t e l e p h o n e and i n t h e copy f o r m . S e c o n d , th e o b s e r v e r s must c l e a r l y u n d e r -s t a n d t h a t t h e d a t a b e i n g c o l l e c t e d i s b e h a v i o r a l , t h a t i s , t h e i m p o r t a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s an a c c u r a t e and c o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f what t h e p e r s o n b e i n g o b s e r v e d d i d . T h i s f e a t u r e was em-p h a s i z e d I n the i n s t r u c t i o n s b o t h b y a c o n c r e t e example, and 19 b y r e p e t i t i o n . R e s p o n d e n t s were a s k e d t o d e s c r i b e a c t u a l ex-p e r i e n c e s w h i c h i l l u s t r a t e good a n d p o o r l e c t u r e t e c h n i q u e ; t o t h i n k o f a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s o f b e h a v i o r o n t h e p a r t o f t h e i r l e c t u r e r t h a t a p p l i e s t o t h e e f f e c t i v e o r n o n - e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y o f a l e c t u r e ; t o d e s c r i b e e x a c t l y what t h e l e c t u r e r d i d . T h i r d , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e a r e a b e i n g o b s e r v e d must be c l e a r l y i n f r o n t o f t h e p e r s o n making j u d g m e n t s . I t was s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e s t u d e n t ' s o b s e r v a t i o n s s h o u l d be r e c o r d e d upon the b a s i s o f the r e s u l t o f an i n s t r u c t o r ' s a c t i o n i n r e f e r e n c e t o w h e t h e r t h e a c t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d e f f e c t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e l e c t u r e t e c h n i q u e . R e s p o n d e n t s were r e m i n d e d t h a t t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e g o o d n e s s o r p o o r n e s s o f t h e l e c t u r e was n o t t o be i n terms o f w h e t h e r t h e y were p e r s o n a l l y i m p r e s s e d b y t h e s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l b e i n g d e l i v e r e d , b u t s o l e l y i n t e r m s o f l e c t u r e p r o c e d u r e as m a n i -f e s t e d b y t h e i r l e c t u r e r . I n o r d e r t o c l a r i f y t h e s e p o i n t s , the o b s e r v e r s were as k e d t o i n c l u d e the r e a s o n s why t h e y c o n s i d e r e d t h e b e h a v i o r s e f f e c t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e . I t was hoped t h a t t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s would i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r o r n o t t h e judgments o f c r i t i c a l n e s s and r e l e v a n c e were made a c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o u t l i n e d a b o v e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e p r o b l e m s w h i c h a r e more o r l e s s s p e c i f i c t o t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i q u e , more g e n e r a l p r o b l e m s o f m o t i v a t i o n , b o t h immediate and c o n t i n u o u s , and t h e e s t a b l i s h -ment o f r a p p o r t had t o be c o n s i d e r e d . 20 In order to maximize the response-rate, the copy forms were enclosed i n stamped, addressed, return envelopes, and the respondents were assured of anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . However, i t was impossible to follow-up non-respondents unless each copy form had some i d e n t i f y i n g feature, which, of course, may have generated some suspicion that the enquiry was not confidential. Indeed, i t was necessary to send a follow-up request due to a poor i n i t i a l response. The copy forms consisted of four sheets of paper, 8|r" x li+", divided equally into twelve spaces approximately three inches i n depth. There were s i x spaces available f o r recording incidents related to good or eff e c t i v e lecture procedure, and s i x f o r the description of poor or in e f f e c t i v e procedures. The f i r s t page of the forms consisted of the instructions which can be found i n Appendix A. The l a s t page was headed 'Supplementary Information', where the respondent was asked to: ...please state your opinions regarding good and poor u n i v e r s i t y teaching as derived from your own experiences, but which you cannot relate to a spe c i f i c incident. This information i s designed to supplement the "incidents" material and should not be a mere restatement o f - i t . Try to avoid any reference to the incidents you have described while trying to form your opinions. These forms were mailed to 239 fourth year Arts students who had been successfully contacted, and who had agreed to 21 participate i n the study. The remaining 136 names had been called a minimum of four times, and f o r various reasons could not be reached. Each student was told, i n part, over the telephone:1 ...(the study) involves an analysis of lecture technique as demonstrated by your various lecturers in the courses you are taking yourself, or lecture behavior described to you by your fiiends.... After a period of approximately one month, those students who had faHed to send, i n t h e i r forms were sent a reminder. At the close of the academic session, or immediately thereafter, 97 forms had been returned, 80 of which contained useful mat-e r i a l . The response rate was l±.0,6%.^ Selection of the Sample. It was decided to c o l l e c t the c r i t i c a l incidents from students registered i n fourth year Arts since, because of their broad exposure to lecture s i t u a -tions, they would have the largest repertoire of incidents from which to draw. Further, i t was hoped that at this aca-demic l e v e l , the students would be able to report c r i t i c a l behaviors and t h e i r results which were based upon the goals of the teaching s i t u a t i o n , and be able to keep separate their ^Mosser (1958, pp. 178-180) discusses such variables contributing to the proportion of respondents replying to mailed questionnaires as: the nature of the population, the subject of the survey, i t s sponsorship and the success of interest arousal. He points out that "strenuous e f f o r t s " are usually needed to bring the response rate above about 30-1+0^. 22 opinions and report these on the Supplementary Information page provided for that purpose. Since the l i t e r a t u r e i s inconclusive concerning the eff e c t of demographic data on student ratings of i n s t r u c t o r s , as discussed above, and since course of study^" may In part determine the quality of student evaluation i t was necessary to see i f our sample was representative i n terms of course of study. By referring to the r e g i s t r a t i o n cards of a l l the fourth year Arts students, i t was possible to place each student into one of four categories on the basis of their indicated major or honours course. The Library of Congress scheme was used as a basis for this c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . • This scheme divides t r a d i t i o n a l courses of study into f i v e broad categories as follows: 1. Humanities. Includes Languages and Literature, Philosophy, and History. 2. Social Sciences. Includes Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, Anthropology, Sociology, Psychology, Geography, Commerce and Business Administration, Social Work, and Education. 3« Sciences. Includes Chemistry, Physics, Applied Science and related f i e l d s . b_. Biomedical. Includes the B i o l o g i c a l Sciences and Medicine. 5 . Pine Arts. Includes Pine and Applied Arts, Architecture and Planning, Music, Costume and Dance. Since the student respondents were requested to indicate t h e i r course of study on the copy form they returned, they too were k-See Bendig's findings, page 15 above. 23 s i m i l a r l y c l a s s i f i e d . U s i n g c h i s q u a r e , i t was p o s s i b l e t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e number of s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s o f s t u d y as i n d i c a t e d on t h e c o p y f o r m s was p r o p o r t i o n a t e t o the number s i m i l a r l y e n r o l l e d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n ( i . e . , f o u r t h y e a r A r t s s t u d e n t s ) . The numbers and p r o p o r t i o n s e n r o l l e d i n the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s a r e l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 below. The p o p u l a t i o n p r o p o r t i o n s , t h e n , were us e d t o d e r i v e the ' e x p e c t e d numbers', l i s t e d i n T a b l e 2 b e l o w ( s e e page 3I4) f o r t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f c h i s q u a r e . The v a l u e o b t a i n e d f o r the l a t t e r d i d n o t a p p r o a c h s i g n i f i c a n c e a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l , h ence t h e r e s p o n d e n t s l i k e l y were a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f f o u r t h y e a r A r t s s t u d e n t s i n t e r m s of t h e i r c o u r s e o f s t u d y . Due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y e n c o u n t e r e d o b t a i n i n g an a d e q u a t e sample s i z e i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o make u s e o f p o p u l a t i o n s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and t h e r e b y I n c r e a s e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n e s s and p r e c i s i o n o f t h e sample. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s . A f t e r a l l the i n c i d e n t s had b e e n g a t h e r e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o c l a s s i f y t h e i n c i d e n t s so d e s c r i b e d a c c o r d i n g t o a p r o g r e s s i o n o f more i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s , as was o u t l i n e d a b o v e . S i n c e i t was d e s i r e d t o have t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme d e v e l o p f r o m t h e d a t a r a t h e r t h a n f r o m any p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s o f the i n v e s t i g a t o r , t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was t o be b u i l t i n d u c t i v e l y , b e g i n n i n g w i t h the a c t u a l b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d by t h e o b s e r v e r s . 2 i | Three major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes were applied to the data. The f i r s t one was based solely on student descriptions of l e c turer behaviors. That i s , the progressively more inclusive categories of this scheme had only a behavioral basis. The second was based exclusively on the r e s u l t of the p a r t i c u l a r lecturer action described. Obviously, only those reports which included a r e s u l t (62% of the behaviors) were useful for this scheme. The t h i r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme was applied to data reported i n the form of general opinions, i n the main found on the Supplementary Information page of the copy form. These l a t t e r descriptions were exclusively reported i n the future imperative tense, and frequently took the form of a d i r e c t i v e either to the lecturer or to the classroom s i t u a t i o n . The f i r s t step i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the data was the i s o l a t i o n of c r i t i c a l behaviors from the c r i t i c a l incidents. As was i l l u s t r a t e d above, an incident frequently contained more than one c r i t i c a l behavior, hence the copy forms were read, and the behaviors underlined i n coloured p e n c i l . These behav-i o r s , along with t h e i r r e s u l t , i f any, were typed on 3"x 5>" cards. It was noted whether the actions described were speci-f i e d by the observers as being either e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e . A l l behaviors which were exactly alike or seemed to ref e r to the same kind of action were grouped together i n the same 'sub-class*. These sub-classes were stated i n terms as close to the o r i g i n a l behaviors as possible, and represent "the f i r s t 25 l e v e l of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n which covers c l o s e l y s i m i l a r s p e c i f i c behaviors" (1954b). The next step involved grouping the various sub-classes Into 'classes' and thence i n t o 'sub-areas'. These groupings were i n terms of g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the more elemental items subsumed under them. Thus, f o r example, each of the f o u r c l a s s e s : 1. use of blackboard 2. use of s l i d e s 3 . use of maps and charts k. d i s c r e t e references to use of a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques a l l subsumed d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e r behaviors which were capable of f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n i n t o sub-classes, such as was des-c r i b e d above. Further, these f o u r classes were a l l , i n t u r n , subsumed under the sub-area: Audio-Visual Techniques, one of the seven sub-areas comprising the major area: Teaching Methods. The f o l l o w i n g example of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was s e l e c t e d to i l l u s t r a t e the methods and d i f f i c u l t i e s i nvolved i n making the successive a b s t r a c t i o n s required by t h i s technique. While the v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme cannot be assessed by t h i s study, p o s s i b l e v a l i d a t i o n procedures are discussed i n Chapter IV. Example i l l u s t r a t i n g the placement of behaviors i n sub-c l a s s e s . Incident number 90 read as f o l l o w s : "'The l e c t u r e r mumbled and f a i l e d to look at the c l a s s as he l e c t u r e d . " 26 The b e h a v i o r s e x t r a c t e d were: 1. mumbled^ 2. f a i l e d t o l o o k a t c l a s s B e h a v i o r 1 was p l a c e d i n : s u b - c l a s s (d) spoke i n d i s t i n c t l y , mumbled; c l a s s 1 q u a l i t y o f v o i c e ; s u b - a r e a A The L e c t u r e Method; m a j o r a r e a A T e a c h i n g M e t h o d s . B e h a v i o r 2 was p l a c e d i n : s u b - c l a s s (b) does n o t f a c e c l a s s ; c l a s s 2 p o s i t i o n i n f r o n t o f c l a s s ; s u b - a r e a A Temperamental, Dynamic, & M o t i v a t i o n a l T r a i t s ; m a j o r a r e a B P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s . The s u b - c l a s s e s were d e f i n e d i n s p e c i f i c a l l y l i m i t i n g t e r m s , f o r example, "spoke i n d i s t i n c t l y , mumbled" i s i n terms o f w h e t h e r t h e i n d i v i d u a l d i d o r d i d n o t . Where no two r e -p o r t s o f a l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r were d e s c r i b e d i n e x a c t l y t h e same t e r m s , b u t w h i c h s a t i s f i e d the i n v e s t i g a t o r s t h a t t h e y i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d a l l u d e d t o a c l o s e l y s i m i l a r l e c t u r e r behav-i o r , t h e y were i n c l u d e d i n a m i s c e l l a n e o u s s u b - c l a s s . T h e s e c l o s e l y s i m i l a r e l e m e n t a l c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s l i s t e d as ' m i s c e l -l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s ' were i n c l u d e d as a n addend t o e a c h c l a s s , and a r e f o u n d i n A p p e n d i c e s B, C, and D. The f o l l o w i n g example i l l u s t r a t e s t h e k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r s t h a t a r e subsumed u n d e r sub-c l a s s e s termed ' m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s . ' 27 Example i l l u s t r a t i n g b e h a v i o r s subsumed u n d e r the s u b - c l a s s  " ' m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s " . " M i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use o f n o t e s ' 1 ^ subsumed t h e f o l l o w i n g s i x b e h a v i o r s : 1. r e t u r n e d t o o f f i c e t o r e t r i e v e n o t e s 2. d r o p p e d n o t e s on f l o o r , c l a s s w a i t e d u n t i l a l l p i c k e d up 3. s o u g h t f o r e x a c t q u o t e i n n o t e s , f a i l e d to f i n d i t f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o n o t e s a f t e r ad l i b 5 . c o n s u l t e d n o t e s when r e a l i z e d p r o o f i n c o r r e c t 6. d i c t a t e d n o t e s i f seemed n e c e s s a r y A n a t t e m p t was made t o i n c r e a s e t h e a c c u r a c y o f c a t e g o r -i z i n g " c l o s e l y s i m i l a r s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s " by s p r e a d i n g t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s o v e r a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e i n terms o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e d e g r e e of o p i n i o n a t i o n . T h a t i s , a c o n c r e t e ' c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r ' a t one p o l e , and an o p i n i o n a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n of a b e h a v i o r a t the o t h e r . F o r example: "The l e c t u r e r u s e d a c l a s s member t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t of c e n t r i -f u g a l f o r c e " i s a d e s c r i p t i o n i n terms o f c o n c r e t e l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r . "The l e c t u r e r f r e q u e n t l y u s e d members of t h e c l a s s i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n s " i s an example o f an o p i n i o n a t e d a b s t r a c t i o n o f an a c t . However, i t was f o u n d t h a t a f t e r a time l a p s e o f s e v e r a l months i t was o n l y p o s s i b l e t o s o r t b e h a v i o r s as t o d e g r e e o f o p i n i o n a t i o n w i t h a 7% e r r o r , hence t h i s phase o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was abandoned. To be f o u n d i n A p p e n d i x B, page 99, i t e m 5 ( c ) 28 I t was p o s s i b l e to group a l l of the data c l a s s i f i e d s o l e l y i n terms of l e c t u r e r behavior i n t o two major areas, namely, Teaching Methods, and P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s . I t was n o t i c e d that on the b a s i s of t h i s b e h a v i o r a l grouping l e c t u r e r actions were judged as e i t h e r e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e exaraplfi s of teaching p r a c t i c e . However, the r e s u l t s of any one a c t i o n received a wide range of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Hence, i t was decided to group behaviors on the b a s i s of the s i m i l a r i t y of the reported r e s u l t . By t h i s means i t was hoped to uncover b e h a v i o r a l trends which had s i m i l a r r e s u l t s . Two a d d i t i o n a l major areas were e l i c i t e d from t h i s second approach to the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , namely, Mastery of Subject M a t e r i a l and Emotional R e a c t i v i t y . The kinds of behaviors subsumed under these various major areas are discussed below i n Chapter IV, pages Ij.O-Ij-2. No new major or sub-areas were evolved from the c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n of the general opinion data. Indeed, considerably fewer sub-areas were required t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y systematize these r e p o r t s . For ease of handling, when the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was com-p l e t e , the information on each 3" x 5>" card was transposed onto 5" x 8"' cards which summarized c o n c i s e l y the major area, sub-area, c l a s s and sub-class of each c r i t i c a l behavior. An accur-ate restatement of the behavior i t s e l f and i t s r e s u l t , i f any, 2 9 and whether i t was deemed e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e completed the data condensation. Derivation of C r i t i c a l Requirements and Recommendations. Two l i s t s of c r i t i c a l requirements were derived, one for each of the behavioral and result c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. The l i s t s consist of only s p e c i f i c behaviors, or of " f i r s t - o r d e r behavior dimensions," such as p a r t i c u l a r motor or verbal responses and combinations of behaviors of varying degrees of complexity. Elemental behaviors, l i s t e d as 'miscellaneous references,' and found i n the Appendices under each class, were not included as c r i t i c a l requirements, since one of the c r i t e r i a f o r acceptance as a c r i t i c a l requirement i s that the behaviors must "have been frequently seen to make the difference between success or f a i l u r e . . . . " It was a r b i t r a r i l y decided to include as c r i t i c a l requirements eithe r two or more si m i l a r c r i t i c a l behaviors (behavior c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n scheme), or two or more sim i l a r c r i t i c a l behaviors having a common result (result c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s scheme). It was found that varying results were e l i c i t e d from i d e n t i c a l or very similar c r i t i c a l requirements. With a view to uncovering the broad trends i n the results ensuing from si m i l a r l e c t u r e r behaviors, i t was decided to derive a set of recommendations based on a grouping of closely similar c r i t i c a l requirements. Further, i t would be possible to determine where the c r i t i c a l requirements used as the basis for these recommen-dations occurred on the l i s t of c r i t i c a l requirements which was 30 d e v e l o p e d f r o m t h e b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s . Hence, by c o m p a r i n g e v e r y c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t l i s t e d i n T a b l e 1 2 , p.68 w i t h e v e r y o t h e r one, the l i s t o f ' p r a c t i c a l r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ' was d e v e l o p e d . The c r i t e r i a f o r g r o u p i n g t h e c l o s e l y s i m i l a r r e q u i r e m e n t s was, as f a r as was p r a c t i c a l , i d e n t i c a l t o t h a t u s e d t h r o u g h o u t the s t u d y f o r g r o u p i n g l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s . The f o l l o w i n g example i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s g r o u p i n g and t r a c e s t h e d e r i v a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s a c c o m p a n y i n g e a c h recommen-d a t i o n . Example i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e g r o u p i n g o f c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s  and t r a c i n g the d e r i v a t i o n o f r e s u l t s a c c o m p a n y i n g the recommen-d a t i o n s . R e f e r r i n g to T a b l e 1 2 , p. 68, c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t # 1 o f m a j o r a r e a " A . , s u b - a r e a A., r e a d s : " u s e d a u d i o - v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s , c l a s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s 1 ( a ) . " The " 1 ( a ) " r e f e r s t o t h e c l a s s , and s u b - c l a s s o f t h i s b e h a v i o r f o u n d i n T a b l e 9 , p. 5 4 As c a n be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 1 2 , t h i s b e h a v i o r was c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e , and as i s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 9 , p. 5 4 u n d e r t h e e f f e c t i v e column o f c l a s s 1 , m a j o r a r e a A., s u b - a r e a A., the r e s u l t s o f t h i s b e h a v i o r r e a d : " a r o u s e d i n t e r e s t , e n t h u s i a s m , a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom." As c a n be n o t e d f r o m T a b l e 9 , t h e r e were a t o t a l o f 7 4 v a r i o u s b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d w h i c h e f f e c t e d t h i s r e s u l t . A p p e n d i x C, p. 1 3 7 l i s t s a l l of t h e s e b e h a v i o r s u n d e r c l a s s 1 o f m a j o r a r e a A., s u b - a r e a A. d e f e r r i n g a g a i n t o T a b l e 1 2 , i t c a n be s e e n t h a t c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t # 1 o f m a j o r a r e a B., s u b - a r e a A., a l s o r e a d s : " u s e d a u d i o - v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s , c l a s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s K a ) . " 31 T h i s b e h a v i o r was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e , and once a g a i n b y r e f e r r i n g to T a b l e 9 , p. 5 6 , u n d e r t h e e f f e c t i v e column o f c l a s s 1, m a j o r a r e a B., sub-a r e a A., t h e r e s u l t s of t h i s b e h a v i o r r e a d : " f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d s t u d e n t w i t h m a t e r i a l . " I n t h i s c a s e , t h e r e were a t o t a l o f 73 b e h a v i o r s w h i c h l e d t o t h i s r e s u l t , and as a b o v e , t h e s e t o o a r e a l l l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x C, p.150 u n d e r t h e e f f e c t i v e c o l u m n o f c l a s s 1, m a j o r a r e a B., sub-a r e a A. S i m i l a r l y , f r o m T a b l e 12, m a j o r a r e a C , s u b - a r e a A., c l a s s #13 r e a d s : -.."'used s l i d e s o r p r a c t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n 2 ( c ) . " T h i s b e h a v i o r was s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t o t h e above two t o be i n c l u d e d as c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s recommenda-t i o n . The r e s u l t of t h i s b e h a v i o r , a s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 9, P«57 u n d e r t h e e f f e c t i v e c olumn C , A., #2 r e a d s : " d i d n o t waste c l a s s t i m e ( s a v e d t i m e ) . " A t o t a l of 15 recommendations were g l e a n e d f r o m t h i s a n a l y s i s and a r e l i s t e d i n C h a p t e r I V a l o n g w i t h a s h o r t d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s . CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION E v a l u a t i o n o f R e c o r d i n g Forms. S i n c e o n l y 62%> o f t h e t o t a l number o f c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d i n c l u d e d a r e s u l t , c h a n c e s a r e t h a t more s t r e s s s h o u l d have b e e n p l a c e d i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s on t h e o b s e r v e r s making t h e i r judgments on t h e b a s i s o f the r e s u l t o f t h e i n s t r u c t o r s a c t i o n s . As m e n t i o n e d above, i t was hoped t h a t o b s e r v e r ' s s t a t e m e n t s of the r e s u l t s w o u l d a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h e t h e r judgments were made a c c o r d -i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s . S m i t ( 195D f o u n d t h a t t h e r e s u l t s of t h e c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s " g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d " i n the p r o c e s s o f t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . I t was f o u n d i n t h i s e n q u i r y t h a t t h e r e a s o n s g i v e n by t h e o b s e r v e r f o r c o n s i d e r i n g a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i o n e f f e c t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e d i d n o t a s s i s t i n the a c t u a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s . However, ' r e s u l t s d a t a ' d i d make p o s s i b l e a b r o a d e r a n a l y s i s o f c r i t i c a l l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s , and were us e d b o t h as the b a s i s f o r one o f the t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes o f t h i s s t u d y , and t o d e r i v e a s e t o f 'recommendations'. I t i s f e a s i b l e t h a t t h e f a i l u r e t o i n c l u d e ' r e s u l t s ' w i t h d e s c r i p t i o n s o f c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s may have b e e n i n p a r t due t o the f a i l u r e t o c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h the s i t u a t i o n a l g o a l s f o r t h e o b s e r v e r s . I n a d d i t i o n , s i n c e t h e r e may be a d i s p a r i t y 33 between the aims o f l e c t u r e r s and s t u d e n t s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m , t h i s c o u l d have f u r t h e r e x a c e r b a t e d t h e d i f f i c u l t y f o r some r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n c l u d e w hether t h e y c o n s i d e r e d " h i s a c t i o n s j u s t i f i e d " and w h e t h e r t h e i n c i d e n t " l e d t o a s u c c e s s f u l or an u n s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t . " A f u r t h e r n e e d f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n of i n s t r u c t i o n s was s u g g e s t e d by the f a c t t h a t 151 o f the 9.17 c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d (16.1$) were f o u n d on the S u p p l e m e n t a r y I n f o r m a t i o n page of t h e copy f o r m . I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t t h i s page was t o be u s e d f o r r e c o r d i n g g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s r e g a r d i n g good and p o o r u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h i n g w h i c h c o u l d n o t be r e l a t e d t o a s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t . P e r h a p s more d e l i b e r a t e s t r u c t u r i n g o f t h e c o p y f o r m w i t h more r i g i d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s as t o t h e c o r r e c t p l a c e m e n t o f c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s would have a m e l i o r a t e d t h i s p r o b l e m . M o r e o v e r , th e p r e s e n c e o f i n c i d e n t d a t a on t h i s page c o u l d i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b etween a c o n c r e t e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t and a more a b s t r a c t e d o p i n i o n a t e d d e s c r i p t i o n s h o u l d have b e e n more c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d . A d e q u a c y o f Sample. I t was o r i g i n a l l y p r o p o s e d t o s o l i c i t c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s of l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r f r o m a s t r a t i f i e d random sample of f o u r t h y e a r A r t s s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n v a r i o u s c o u r s e s o f s t u d y . However, due t o t h e p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s o u t l i n e d above r e p o r t s were r e q u e s t e d f r o m as many s t u d e n t s as c o u l d be r e a c h e d . T a b l e 1 shows the p r o p o r t i o n o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d TABLES 1 AND 2 TABLE 1 TOTAL NUMBER AND PROPORTION OP STUDENTS ENROLLED IN COURSES OP STUDY C o u r s e o f S t u d y 4th Y e a r A r t s % Sample % H u m a n i t i e s lk6 39.0 34 43.6 S o c i a l S c i e n c e s 89 23.6 19 24.4 S c i e n c e s 83 22.2 19 24.4 B i o m e d i c a l 57 15.2 6 7.6 TOTAL 375 - 100 78-::- 100 •>"-Two r e s p o n d e n t s f a i l e d t o i n d i c a t e c o u r s e o f s t u d y . TABLE 2 OBSERVED AND EXPECTED NUMBERS ENROLLED IN POUR CATEGORIES ASSUMING A UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION IN THE POPULATION CATEGORIES T T ... S o c i a l H u m a n i t i e s S c i e n c e S c i e n c e B i o m e d i c a l T o t a l 34.0 19 . 0 19 . 0 6.0 78 30.4 18.4 17.4 11.8 78 2 x= 3.46 O b s e r v e d Numbers  E x p e c t e d Numbers -«-Chi s q u a r e was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05 l e v e l . 35 i n t h e v a r i o u s c o u r s e s of s t u d y i n b o t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f A r t s s t u d e n t s and i n t h e sample. T a b l e 2 shows t h e o b s e r v e d and e x p e c t e d numbers f o r t h e f o u r c a t e g o r i e s u s e d t o c a l c u l a t e c h i s q u a r e . As can be seen, the v a l u e o b t a i n e d was n o t l a r g e enough t o r e j e c t t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e number o f s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n the v a r i o u s c o u r s e s o f s t u d y as i n d i c a t e d b y t h e sample g r o u p was i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e number s i m i l a r l y ; r e n r o i l e d i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . Hence, i t c a n be t e n t a t i v e l y assumed t h a t t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f f o u r t h y e a r A r t s s t u d e n t s i n terms o f t h e i r c o u r s e o f s t u d y . However, s i n c e no e f f o r t was made t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t o f t h e n o n - r e s p o n s e b i a s , i t c a n n o t be c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h i s sample was e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . F u r t h e r , i n v i e w of the f a c t t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t d a t a d i d n o t meet the c r i t e r i o n o f a d e q u a c y l a i d down b y F l a n a g a n , and t h a t i t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t t h e " s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s " a l l u d e d t o by h i m were o p e r a t i n g f o r e a c h b e h a v i o r a l e v a l u a t i o n by e a c h r e s p o n d e n t , the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d s h o u l d be v i e w e d w i t h s u c h l i m i t a t i o n s i n mind. I t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e s u l t a n t d i s t o r t i o n s i n d a t a e f f e c t e d b y t h e above n o t e d u n c o n t r o l l e d v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be t o l e r a t e d by t h e frame o f r e f e r e n c e o f t h i s e n q u i r y , namely, t h a t of the s t u d e n t o b s e r v e r s — t h e a u d i e n c e , p r e s e n t a t e a c h l e c t u r e p e r f o r m a n c e . L e c t u r e r a c t i o n s j u d g e d a s e i t h e r e f f e c t -i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e r e f l e c t e d a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n b y t h i s 36 a u d i e n c e . These a c t i o n s i n c l u d e d n o t o n l y t e a c h i n g methods, b u t p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s , and were l i s t e d i n T a b l e s 11 and 12 b e l o w as t h e c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s o f e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r i n g , a t t h e f o u r t h y e a r A r t s l e v e l . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f b e h a v i o r s . I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e a n u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e m a i n t r e n d s i n the d a t a , the r e s u l t s summar-i z e d i n t h e T a b l e s b e l o w were p r e s e n t e d i n r e v e r s e o r d e r f r o m t h a t w h i c h was followed i n s e t t i n g them up. Thus, the'sequence i s f r o m the more g e n e r a l t o t h e more s p e c i f i c d e t a i l . T a b l e s 3 and [). show a d e l i n e a t i o n o f e a c h m a j o r a r e a i n t o i t s component TABLES 3 and i|. s u b - a r e a s . The t o t a l number o f e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v -i o r s a r e r e p o r t e d f o r e a c h of t h e s u b - a r e a s o f e a c h m a j o r a r e a . These T a b l e s i n c l u d e b o t h t h e b e h a v i o r a l and r e s u l t c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n schemes. T a b l e 3 i n c l u d e s the two m a j o r a r e a s o f t h e f o r m e r , a n d T a b l e H i n c l u d e s the f o u r m a j o r a r e a s o f t h e l a t t e r scheme, as was o u t l i n e d a b o v e . L o o k i n g f i r s t a t T a b l e 3 ( b e h a v i o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c h e m e ) , t h e 7 s u b - a r e a s of m a j o r a r e a A., T e a c h i n g Methods, subsumed b e h a v i o r s t h a t were g r o u p e d u s i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n of J u s t m a n and M a i s (1956, p. 173) as an a p p r o p r i a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework. They a r g u e t h a t : T A B L E 3 TOTAL EFFECTIVE AND INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS FALLING WITHIN EACH SUB-AREA (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR.-AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS % EFFECT-IVE BEHAVIORS NUMBER OF EFFECT-IVE BEHAVIORS SUB-AREA NUMBER OF INEF-FECTIVE BEHAVIORS % INEFFECT-IVE BEHAVIORS TOTAL i 2 0 . 9 1 5 8 A. Lecture Method 1 7 1 2 2 . 7 4 3 . 5 7 - 7 5 8 B. D i s c u s s i o n Method 6 0 7 . 9 1 5 . 6 9 . 1 6 9 C. S e l e c t i o n and Emphasis of Subject M a t e r i a l k7 6 . 2 1 5 . 3 5 - 4 kl D. S p e c i a l Methods 3 1 4 . 1 9 . 5 6 . 1 4 6 E. Au d i o - V i s u a l Methods 2 0 2 . 6 8 . 7 2 . 4 1 8 F. D i s c i p l i n e and C o n t r o l 1 1 l . k 3 . 8 2 . 1 1 6 G. A p p r a i s a l Methods 1 1 l . k 3 . 6 Area T o t a l 5 3 . 7 4 0 6 3 5 1 4 6 . 3 1 0 0 . 0 MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS 2 9 . 4 1 6 . 8 4 7 2 7 A. Temperamental, Dynamic and M o t i v a t i o n a l T r a i t s B. A b i l i t i e s o r Co g n i t i v e T r a i t s 6 6 2 0 4 1 . 3 1 2 . 5 7 0 . 6 2 9 . 4 Area T o t a l 4 6 . 2 7 4 8 6 5 3 . 8 1 0 0 . 0 F i n a l T o t a l Behaviors 4 8 0 4 3 7 T A B L E 4 TOTAL EFFECTIVE I D INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS FALLING WITHIN EACH SUB-AREA (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY % EFFECT-IVE BEHAVIORS NUMBER OF EFFECT-IVE BEHAVIORS NUMBER OF IN- % INEFFECT-SUB-AREA EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS IVE BEHAVIORS TOTAL % 36.0 15.9 • 93 41 A. B. M o t i v a t i o n a l State 50 General A f f e c t i v e 74 Reactions 19.4 28 .7 55.5 44.5 Area T o t a l 51.9 131+ 121+ 48.1 100.0 • MAJOR AREA: B. MASTERY OF SUBJECT MATERIAL 53.2 13.5 75 19 A. B. Learning, C o r r e l a t i n g , I4.6 C l a r i f y i n g , Reviewing M a t e r i a l O r i e n t a t i o n 1 32.6 0.7 85.8 14.2 Area T o t a l 66.7 94 47 33.3 100.0 MAJOR AREA: C. TEACHING METHODS 24.1 17.0 27 19 A. B. P r e s e n t a t i o n of M a t e r i a l 46 Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n 20 41.0 1-7.9 64.9 35.1 Area T o t a l 41.1 1+6 66 58.9 100.0 Lo CD TABLE k (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: D. ' PERSONALITY TRAITS % EFFECT- NUMBER OF EFFECT- NUMBER OF IN- % INEFFECT- TOTAL IVE BEHAVIORS IVE BEHAVIORS SUB-AREA "EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS IVE BE HAVIORS % 20.8 19.4 15 lk A. Temperatmental, Dynamic and' Motiv-a t i o n a l T r a i t s B. A b i l i t i e s or Cog-• n i t i v e T r a i t s 2k 19 33.4 26 .4 54.2 35.8 Area T o t a l k0.2 29 43 59.8 100.0 F i n a l T o t a l Behaviors 303 2 vO E s s e n t i a l l y e v e r y t e a c h e r c r e a t e s h i s own t e a c h i n g method. I n terms o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and e x p e r i e n c e , t h e p u r p o s e s and s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f i n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e s t u d e n t s he t e a c h e s , e a c h f o l l o w s t h e p r o c e d u r e s he j u d g e s s u i t a b l e , c h o o s i n g and a d a p t i n g a v a i l a b l e t e c h -n i q u e s o r d e v i s i n g , when n e c e s s a r y , new o n e s . They d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n method and t e c h n i q u e as f o l l o w s : ... A t e c h n i q u e i s t h e p r o c e d u r e o r d e v i c e t h r o u g h w h i c h a " t e a c h e r s e e k s t o a c c o m p l i s h w h o l l y o r i n p a r t a s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l p u r p o s e . T h e r e a r e many t e c h n i q u e s — i n l e c t u r e , d i s c u s s i o n , q u e s t i o n i n g , e x p e r i m e n t a l demonstration, laboratory work, audio-v i s u a l p r e s e n t a t i o n . . . . E v e r y t e a c h e r n e c e s s a r i l y employs a number o f t e c h n i q u e s , s e r i a l l y o r i n com-b i n a t i o n , t h e i r c h o i c e and. manner o f use d e p e n d i n g u p o n h i s g e n e r a l method o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The l a t t e r i s a c o m p o s i t e s t y l e o r q u a l i t y o f t e a c h i n g , a c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r r e f l e c t i n g one's own v a l u e s and e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . One's t e a c h i n g method i n f l u e n c e s n o t o n l y t h e c h o i c e o f t e c h n i q u e s and t h e manner of t h e i r u s e b u t a l s o g o a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , s e l e c t i o n and emphasis o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h s t u d e n t s . I n t h e i r v i e w t h e v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e t e a c h i n g methods i s u n -l i m i t e d , t h e r e b e i n g as many v a r i a t i o n s as t h e r e a r e t e a c h e r s . Thus, t h e 7 s u b - a r e a s and the k i n d s o f b e h a v i o r s subsumed u n d e r e a c h were as f o l l o w s : A. The L e c t u r e Method. A l l b e h a v i o r s r e f e r r i n g t o methods of i n t e r p r e t i n g , a n a l y z i n g , e x p l a i n i n g , d e f i n i n g , r e v i e w i n g and s u m m a r i z i n g , were i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s u b - a r e a . B. The D i s c u s s i o n Method. A l l b e h a v i o r s r e f e r r i n g t o the l e c t u r e r ' s r e a c t i o n s t o and i n t e r e s t s shown i n s t u d e n t ' s q u e s t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n g e n e r a l l y ; and t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o promote s t u d e n t - l e c t u r e r ' f e e d - b a c k ' . kl C. The Selection and Emphasis of Subject Material. A l l behaviors r e f e r r i n g to the s e l e c t i o n of and emphasis placed on the actual lecture content. D. Special Methods. A l l behaviors r e f e r r i n g to teaching methods d i s s i m i l a r to those of any other sub-area. E. Audio-Visual Methods. A l l behaviors r e f e r r i n g to the use of supplementary teaching devices i n the form of audio-visual aids. P. Maintaining D i s c i p l i n e and Control. A l l behaviors referr i n g to the handling of stress situations, and preserving order under adverse classroom conditions. G-. Student A p p r a i s a l Methods. A l l behaviors which dealt with the methodological approach to student assessment, i n terms of both assignments and term examinations. The lecturer behaviors subsumed under the two sub-areas of major area B., Personality T r a i t s , were grouped using Cattel's ( 1 9 ^ 0 , p. 3 5 ) framework. He describes a formal basis for c l a s s i f y i n g t r a i t s into the three 'modalities' of A b i l i t y , Temperament and Dynamic t r a i t s . The Dynamic t r a i t s or interests include basic drives, on the one hand, and acquired i n t e r e s t s , such as attitudes, sentiments, complexes, superego and ego formations, on the other. They are characterized by behavior arising from a stimulus s i t u a t i o n or incentive and directed to some goal, at which the action ceases. Performance varies, then, as incentive varies. The A b i l i t i e s by contrast, are shown by how well the person makes his way to the accepted goals. Performance varies i n response to changes i n complexity. The third modality, Temperament t r a i t s , by exclusion, are those 42 t r a i t s w h i c h a r e u n a f f e c t e d by i n c e n t i v e o r c o m p l e x i t y , s u c h a s , h i g h s t r u n g e d n e s s , s p e e d , e n e r g y , and e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i v i t y . The two a d d i t i o n a l m a j o r a r e a s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 4> n a m e l y , 1 m a j o r a r e a A., E m o t i o n a l R e a c t i v i t y , and B., M a s t e r y o f S u b j e c t  M a t e r i a l , grew o u t o f the r e s u l t a n a l y s i s as was m e n t i o n e d a b o v e . M a j o r A r e a A. i n c l u d e d a l l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n o f v a r i o u s a f f e c t i v e r e s p o n s e s , i n c l u d i n g m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s s u c h as i n t e r e s t a r o u s a l , and a t t e n t i o n , o r s u c h f e e l i n g s as r e s p e c t , a d m i r a t i o n , and o t h e r p e r s o n a l r e g a r d s f o r t h e l e c t u r e r . I t subsumed b e h a v i o r s g r o u p e d i n t o two s u b - a r e a s a s f o l l o w s : A. M o t i v a t i o n a l S t a t e . A l l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n g e n e r a t i n g i n t e r e s t , a t t e n t i o n , e n t h u s i a s m , and s t u d e n t a r o u s a l i n g e n e r a l . B. G e n e r a l A f f e c t i v e R e a c t i o n s . A l l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n g e n e r a t i n g f e e l i n g s s u c h as a d m i r a t i o n , r e s p e c t ; - warmth, f e a r , and p e r s o n a l r e g a r d s f o r the l e c t u r e r . M a j o r A r e a B. i n c l u d e d a l l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n r e f e r e n c e s made to t h e l e a r n i n g , c o r r e l a t i n g , c l a r i f y i n g , a nd r e v i e w i n g o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l o r o r i e n t i n g t h e s t u d e n t . I t subsumed b e h a v i o r s g r o u p e d i n t o two s u b - a r e a s as f o l l o w s : A. L e a r n i n g , C o r r e l a t i n g , C l a r i f y i n g , R e v i e w i n g M a t e r i a l . A l l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e l e a r n i n g , c o r r e l a t i n g , c l a r i f y i n g , r e v i e w i n g o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . B. O r i e n t a t i o n . A l l b e h a v i o r s w h i c h r e s u l t e d i n r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e i n terms o f b o t h a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e and i t s p l a n n e d s c o p e , and a p p r e c i a t i n g t h e v a l u e of t h e c o u r s e . 43 Since the t o t a l number of e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e behaviors described was nearly equal (see Table 3 ) , i t appears that student observers were capable of reporting both good or e f f e c t i v e , and poor, or i n e f f e c t i v e examples of lecture technique. Further, only 43 • 5$ of the behaviors grouped as 'Teaching Methods' were judged to be descriptions of lecture technique. Hence, a wide variety of lecturer actions were considered to be examples of good or poor teaching practices. They included the personal-s o c i a l attributes l i s t e d as 'Personality T r a i t s . ' However, these actions made up a r e l a t i v e l y small proportion of the t o t a l (17»5$)» and would suggest that while personal-social attributes contribute s i g n i f i c a n t l y to the impact of the presen-tati o n of a lecture, t h e i r significance may be out-weighed by, but not isolated from, 'Teaching Methods.' Data derived solely from the r e s u l t analysis shows that the largest number (44*2^) of lecturer actions generated an 'affective' response i n the audience. Of these, 55*5$ resulted i n changes i n the motivational state of the observer. These results suggest that students are keenly sensitive to behaviors which arouse or s t u l t i f y t h e i r i n t e r e s t . Moreover, i t would seem that i t i s not r a t i o n a l to assume that a l l students are f u l l y motivated and remain so during the lecture hour. E f f o r t s to generate enthusiasm, and arouse interest were received g r a t e f u l l y and considered to be good lecture technique. Results l i s t e d i n Table 4 suggest further that students are concerned about and can c l e a r l y express vhat a s s i s t s or detracts from the learning of subject material. kk Lecturer acts r e s u l t i n g i n statements about l e c t u r e r p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were again the l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y reported (12. Tables 5> 6, and 7 provide a q u a n t i t a t i v e summary of the data of the three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a p p l i e d to the data of t h i s study. Each sub-area l i s t e d includes a.number of classes which, TABLES 5, 6, 7 i n t u r n , are g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the behaviors grouped i n t h e i r sub-classes. The l a t t e r c o n t a i n only " f i r s t order" a c t s , or "elemental behaviors," which are l i s t e d i n Appendices B, C, and D r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r each of the three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. The t o t a l number of c l a s s e s , sub-classes and behaviors i s i n d i c a t e d i n the above three Tables. Thus, the f i n a l t o t a l s as derived from the b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s , the f i r s t c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n scheme, were 917 behaviors (1+80 deemed e f f e c t i v e , 1+37 deemed i n e f f e c t i v e ) e x tracted from 595 i n c i d e n t s , placed i n 19l+ sub-classes, 55 c l a s s e s , 9 sub-areas and 2 major areas. Totals derived from the second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, the r e s u l t a n a l y s i s , were583 behaviors (303 judged e f f e c t i v e , 280 judged i n e f f e c t i v e ) e x tracted from 595 i n c i d e n t s , placed i n 115 sub-classes, 1+3 c l a s s e s , 8 sub-areas and I4. major areas. 4 5 TABLE 5 TOTAL NUMBER OP CLASSES, SUB-CLASSES AND BEHAVIORS BY MAJOR AND SUB-AREAS (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR AREA : A. TEACHING METHODS TOTAL SUB-AREA CLASSES SUB-CLASSES BEHAVIORS A. Lecture Method 20 67 329 B. D i s c u s s i o n Method 4 20 118 C. S e l e c t i o n and Emphasis of Subject M a t e r i a l 7 27 116 D. S p e c i a l Methods 8 19 72 E. Audio-Visual Methods 4 15 66 F. D i s c i p l i n e & Co n t r o l 1 7 29 G. A p p r a i s a l Methods 2 8 27 AREA TOTALS 1+6 163 757 MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS A. Temperamental, Dynamic and M o t i v a t i o n a l T r a i t s 6 23 113 B. A b i l i t i e s or Cognitive T r a i t s 3 8 47 AREA TOTALS" 9 31 160 FINAL TOTALS 55 194 917 k6 TABLE 6 TOTAL NUMBER OP CLASSES, SUB-CLASSES AND BEHAV-IORS BY MAJOR AND SUB-AREAS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY TOTAL SUB-AREA CLASSES SUB-CLASSES BEHAVIORS A. M o t i v a t i o n a l State B. General A f f e c t i v e Reactions 3 11 2k 21 114-3 115 AREA TOTALS lk lj-5 258 MAJOR AREA: B. MASTERY OF SUBJECT MATERIAL A. Learning, C o r r e l a t i n g , C l a r i f y i n g , Reviewing Mat-e r i a l 3 B. O r i e n t a t i o n 3 20 5 121 20 AREA TOTALS 25 l k l MAJORS AREA: C. TEACHING METHODS A. Presentation of M a t e r i a l 11 B. Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n 3 2k 9 73 39 AREA TOTALS lk 33 112 kl TABLE 6 (CONT'D) MAJOR ASEA: D. PERSONALITY TRAITS TOTAL SUB-AREA CLASSES SUB-CLASSES BEHAVIORS A. Temperamental, Dynamic and 6 8 39 M o t i v a t i o n a l T r a i t s B. A b i l i t i e s o r C o g n i t i v e T r a i t s 3 k 33 AREA TOTALS 9 12 72 PINAL TOTALS 43 115 583 48 TABLE 7 TOTAL NUMBER OP CLASSES, SUB-CLASSES AND BEHAVIORS BY MAJOR AND SUB-AREAS (OPINION CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS TOTAL SUB-AREA CLASSES OPINIONS A. L e c t u r e Method 8 32 B. D i s c u s s i o n Method 2 12 C. S p e c i a l Methods 4 14 D. S e l e c t i o n and E m p h a s i s of S u b j e c t 3 6 M a t e r i a l E . A p p r a i s a l Methods 3 6 F. D i s c i p l i n e and C o n t r o l 1 3 APJ3A TOTALS 21 73 MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS A. T e m p e r a m e n t a l , Dynamic and 2 18 M o t i v a t i o n a l T r a i t s B. A b i l i t i e s o r C o g n i t i v e T r a i t s 3 15 AREA TOTALS 5 33 FINAL TOTALS 26 106 49 106 o p i n i o n s were d e r i v e d f r o m an a n a l y s i s o f ' g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s ' , the t h i r d and f i n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme a p p l i e d . These o p i n i o n s were p l a c e d i n 26 c l a s s e s , 8 s u b - a r e a s and 2 m a j o r a r e a s . S i n c e r e s p o n d e n t s were s p e c i f i c a l l y a s k e d t o s t a t e g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s n o t r e l a t e d t o s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o g r o u p t h e i r r e s p o n s e s i n t o d e f i n i t i v e s u b -c l a s s e s . The ' c l a s s ' g r o u p i n g s , t h e n , r e p r e s e n t s a g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t o f the l a r g e l y m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s , t h e e l e m e n t a l components of w h i c h a r e l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x D. I n d i c a t i o n s were t h a t t h i s d a t a r e p r e s e n t s t h e s t u d e n t s c o n c e p t s o f i d e a l i z e d l e c t u r e r s o r t e a c h i n g methods, and t o o k t h e f o r m o f ' d i r e c t i v e s ' t o o r a b o u t t h e l e c t u r e r o r l e c t u r e s e t t i n g . T a b l e s 8 and 9 l i s t t h e i n d i v i d u a l c l a s s e s , i n d e c r e a s i n g o r d e r of t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e p o r t e d b e h a v i o r s f o r w h i c h t h e y p r o v i d e a g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t . TABLES 8 and 9 The ' l o a d i n g ' column, f o u n d i n T a b l e 8, was o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e number o f e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r s f o u n d f o r e a c h c l a s s . T h u s , a c l a s s h a v i n g a l o a d i n g s c o r e o f -11 s i g n i f i e s t h a t t h e r e were 11 more i n e f f e c t i v e t h a n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d f o r t h i s c l a s s . W h i l e a ' d i f f e r e n c e s c o r e ' c a n be o b t a i n e d f o r e a c h c l a s s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 9 ( r e s u l t a n a l y s i s ) , b e c a u s e the b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d were s u c h t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o f o r m u l a t e a n i d e n t i c a l g e n e r a l i z e d s t a t e m e n t to a d e q u a t e l y summarize b o t h t h e e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e b e h a v i o r s , t h e 50 TABLE 8 TOTAL CRITICAL BEHAVIORS AND 'LOADING' SCORE FOR EACH CLASS (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR A-RE A: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. CLASS THE LECTURE METHOD (PRESENTATION, LOADING DELIVERY) TOTAL BEHAVIORS 1. q u a l i t y of voice -11 45 2. use of language -24 26 3. speed of pr e s e n t a t i o n - 4 22 4- o r d e r l i n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n of pre sentat i o n - 1 21 5. use of notes - 6 20 6. summarizing and review 9 17 7. use of unusual techniques 12 16 8. use of o u t l i n e s 12 14 9. use of outside references and author-i t i e s 10 14 10. reading, d i c t a t i n g l e c t u r e - 9 13 11. use of classroom demonstration 7 11 12. l e v e l of l e c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n to student -10 10 13. d i s c r e t e references to d e t a i l e d vs. general approach - 2 8 u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e time - 7 9 15. use of r e p e t i t i o n 0 8 16. c l a r i t y of pr e s e n t a t i o n 2 8 17. i n t e g r a t i n g course m a t e r i a l 8 8 18. use of emphasis 2 8 19. stayed on t o p i c - 2 6 20. d i s c r e t e references to l e c t u r e technique ( p r e s e n t a t i o n , d e l i v e r y ) 1 45 SUB< -AREA TOTAL -13 329 SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD I. REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION 1. w i l l i n g n e s s ; readiness to answer or acknowledge questions or suggestions - 2 24 2. d i s c r e t e r e a t i o n s to student c o n t r i -butions -33 51 TABLE 8 (CONT'D) 5 l MA JOB AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D) SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD TOTAL LOADING BEHAVIORS CLASS II . CONTROL OP OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION 1. promotion of discussion and questions (from class) 2. lecturer i n i t i a t e d questions (directed to class) 28 5 32 11 SUB-AREA TOTAL - 2 118 SUB-AREA: C. THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL 1. relevancy of content -18 22 2 . use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and examples 9 21 3 . use of anecdotes - use of personal 8 20 experiences 4 . use of wit and humour 6 12 5- . lecturer biases 5 9 6. use of side issues growing out of course 7 7 7. discrete references to selection and 5 25 ..emphasis SUB--AREA TOTAL 22 116 SUB-AREA: D. SPECIAL METHODS 1. a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r extra consultation 2 . taunting, b u l l y i n g , r i d i c u l i n g , humiliating students 3 . personal interest i n students i}.. use of sarcasm 5 . regard f o r student a b i l i t y 6. rearrangement of class members 7. stimulates thinking 8 . discrete reference to s p e c i a l methods 8 12 -11 11 1 9 - k 6 - 3 5 k k 1 3 lk 22 SUB-AREA TOTAL 10 72 52 TABLE 8 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D) SUB-AREA: E. AUDIO-VISUAL METHODS CLASS LOADING TOTAL BEHAVIORS 1. 2. 3. k-use of the blackboard 2 use o f s l i d e s 7 use o f maps and cha r t s 1 d i s c r e t e references to use of audio- 16 v i s u a l techniques 3k 13 3 16 SUB-•AREA TOTAL 26 66 SUB-AREA: P. MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL 1. d i s c r e t e references to maintaining 7 d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l 29 SUB-AREA TOTAL 7 29 SUB-AREA: G. STUDENT APPRAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES) 11. 2.. d i s c r e t e references to examinations 5 d i s c r e t e references to term assignments 0 15 12 SUB-AREA TOTAL 5 27 AREA TOTAL 55 757 53 TABLE 8 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS TOTAL CLASS LOADING BEHAVIORS 1. interest and enthusiasm f o r subject 0 26 2. position i n front of the class -13 17 3. punctuality (arriving at, leaving class ) - 7 13 4- habits ahd mannerisms - 8 10 5. conceding personal limitations 1 11 6. discrete references to temperamental, dynamic and motivational t r a i t s 8 36 SUB-AREA TOTAL -19 113 SUB-AREA: B. ABILITIES OR. COGNITIVE TRAITS 1. a b i l i t y to answer questions; s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s - 1 19 2. knowledge of subject material 4 14 3. preparedness 4 14 SUB-AREA TOTAL 7 47 AREA . TOTAL -12 160 PINAL TOTAL 43 917 51+ TABLE 9 TOTAL EFFECTIVE AND INEFFECTIVE CRITICAL BEHAVIORS FOR EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY SUB-AREA:. A. MOTIVATIONAL STATE CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1 . a r o u s e d i n t e r e s t , e n t h u s i a s m , a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom 7l+ 2. s t i m u l a t e s , m o t i v a t e s ; p r o v o k e s f u r t h e r r e a d -i n g and t h i n k i n g ; f o s t e r s a d e s i r e t o work h a r d e r 19 1. g e n e r a t e d f e e l i n g s o f boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, t e d i o u s ; s t u d e n t s l o s t i n t e r e s t 50 SUB-AREA TOTAL 93 50 SUB-AREA: B. GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS 1. g e n e r a t e d f e e l i n g s o f r e s p e c t , a d m i r a t i o n ; g e n e r a l l y made a f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n 2. g e n e r a t i o n o f c l a s s -room 'atmosphere' 11 1. g e n e r a t e d f e e l i n g s o f r e s e n t m e n t , i r r i t a -t i o n , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , annoy-a n c e , a n t a g o n i s m , d i s t a s t e ; m i n i m i z e d " f e e d - b a c k " , i n s u l t i n g 31 2. g e n e r a t e d f e e l i n g s o f t e n s i o n , d i s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , f r u s t r a t i o n , e m b a r r a s s m e n t , r e j e c -t i o n , f e a r f u l n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y l o w e r e d m o r a l e 27 55 TABLE 9 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY (CONT'D) SUB-AREA: B. GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 3. generated f e e l i n g s o f confidence, a p p r e c i a -t i o n , a f f e c t i o n 8 3. l o s s o f f a i t h or confidence i n and res p e c t f o r l e c t u r e r 11 4- generated sense of achievement; generated f e e l i n g s of p e r s o n a l value to student 5 4. was a d i s r u p t i n g i n -f l u e n c e ; d i s c o n c e r t i n g 5 5.' generated f e e l i n g s o f ple a s u r e ; a p p e a l i n g 4 6. h e l p f u l , b e n e f i c i a l 3 7. generated f e e l i n g s o f immediacy w i t h l e c t u r e r 2 SUB-AREA TOTAL k'l 74 AREA TOTAL 13.4 124 56 TABLE 9 (CONT'D) MAJOR A«EEA: B. MASTERY OP SIBJECT MATERIAL SUB-AREA: A. LEARNING, CORRELATING, CLARIFYING, PREVIEWING MATERIAL CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l 73 1. detracted from l e a r n -ing; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added to student's confusion 46 2. f a c i l i t a t e d reviewing m a t e r i a l 2 2. — —. SUB-AREA TOTAL 75 46 SUB-ARE A: B. ORIENTATION 1. f a c i l i t a t e d gaining p e r s p e c t i v e , seeing m a t e r i a l from d i f f e r -ent p o i n t s of view 11 1. students unsure of what to be covered 1 SUB-AREA TOTALS 19 1 AREA TOTAL 94 47 TABLE 9 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: C. TEACHING- METHODS SUB-AREA: A. PRESENTATION OF MATERIAL CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. maintained good classroom control 12 1. d i s t r a c t i n g 11 2. did not waste class time (saved time) 6 2. d i f f i c u l t to follow 9 3 . well organized, orderly presentation 5 3 . wasted class time 9 4« conversational style 2 4 . d i f f i c u l t to get good, well organized notes 6 5 . e a s i l y heard 2 5 . 6. material missed or l o s t 7 class hurried 4 SUB-AREA TOTAL 27 4.6 SUB-AREA: B. STUDENT PARTICIPATION 1. encourages student p a r t i c i p a t i o n 19 1. 2. discourages student queries 11 discourages class discussion or i n t e r -action 9 SUB-AREA TOTAL 19 20 AREA TOTAL 46 66' 58 TABLE 9 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: D. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A, CLASS E F F E C T I V E TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. t o o k a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t s ; c o n s i d e r a t e 8 2. seemed s i n c e r e 2 3. m i s c e l l a n e o u s ( t a c t -f u l , s e n s i t i v e , f l e x i b l e , t r u s t w o r t h y ) 5 1. seemed i n s e n s i t i v e t o c l a s s ' s r e a c t i o n 3 2. seemed l a z y , d i s i n t e r -e s t e d , b l a s e 3 3. m i s c e l l a n e o u s (unbalt-a n c e d , e m b i t t e r e d , o v e r - c o n f i d e n t , a f r a i d 18 SUB-AREA TOTAL 15 21+ SUB-AREA: B. A B I L I T I E S OR COGNITIVE TRAITS 1. 1. seemed a l e r t , aware o f p r o b l e m s a n d c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b -j e c t s ; e v i d e n c e o f good knowledge o f m a t e r i a l ; i n t e r e s t e d i n work Ik 2. p o o r l y p r e p a r e d , p o o r p l a n n i n g 11 g e n e r a t e d the i m p r e s s i o n o f i n c o m p e t e n c e 8 SUB-AREA TOTAL Ik 19 AREA TOTAL 29 1+3 FINAL TOTAL 303 280 59 classes are l i s t e d separately as e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e . The results l i s t e d i n these tables w i l l be discussed i n conjunction with Table 11 arid 12 which follow below. Table 10 l i s t s the opinions, found on the Supplementary Information page. 'The 'miscellaneous references' as discussed above, are included i n Appendix D. Assuming that t h i s data TABLE 10 represents students concepts of his 'idealized' lecturer, a summary of Table 10 suggests the following: The l e c t u r e r should be an individual who "shows interest and enthusiasm", "has an a b i l i t y to present his material", and should"direct the lecture to the a b i l i t y l e v e l of his class." Derivation of C r i t i c a l Requirements. Tables 11 and 12 comprise a l i s t of the ' c r i t i c a l requirements' of u n i v e r s i t y teaching as derived from this enquiry. They are l i s t e d i n order of decreasing frequency for both the behavioral and r e s u l t TABLES 11 and 12 c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. Those requirements f a l l i n g towards the end of e i t h e r requirement l i s t must be viewed as more tenuous than those occurring at the beginning since the l a t t e r are based upon a larger number of lecturer behaviors. Immediately follow-ing each c r i t i c a l requirement i s the number and l e t t e r of i t s 60 TABLE 10 GENERAL OPINIONS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH SUB-AREA MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS TOTAL ' 1. should direct lecture at " a b i l i t y l e v e l " of class 2. should make use of outlines 3. should present material i n as most interesting a manner as possible k. should d i s t r i b u t e mimeographed material 5. should be well organized 5 3 3 2 2 SUB-A RE A TOTAL 15 SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD 1. should promote leading questions, or make time f o r discussion k SUB-AREA TOTAL k SUB-AREA: C. SPECIAL METHODS 1. lecturers should be i n small classes k SUB-AREA TOTAL k AREA TOTAL 23 61 TABLE 10 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS CLASS TOTAL 1. should show interest and enthusiasm 7 SUB-AREA TOTAL 7 SUB-AREA: B. ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS 1. should have knowledge of how, or a b i l i t y to present material 6 2. should be prepared 5 3. should have knowledge of subject material 1+ SUB-AREA TOTAL 15" AREA TOTAL 22 PINAL TOTAL kS 62 TABLE 11 CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH SUB-AREA. (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. read or followed text, books 10(a) 2 11 2. dictated, read notes f o r whole hour 5(a) 12 3. excessive speed, lack of pause 3(a) 12 1+. monotonous voice 1(a) 12 5. changes from topic to topic, follows no pattern, disorganized k(a) 11 6. spoke c l e a r l y , d i s t i n c t l y 1(b) 11 7. gave references of available material pertinent to lecture material 9(a) 9 1 8. material presented i n l o g i c a l , systematic order k(b) 10 9. gave summary of previous lecture 6(a) 7 1 10. soft, low, inaudible voice 1(c) 8 11. clear 16(a) 5 12. emphasized important points 18(a) 5 13. outlines topics of whole course 8(a) 5 ll(.. paused, paced lecture, allowed time for note-taking 3(b) 5 l5« summarized or reviewed at end of section, year, or end of hour 6(b) 5 16. brings guest l e c t u r e r 7(a) I4. 17. brings outside, source material into class 9(b) 3 1 18. extended lecture or course lk(a) I4. 19. gives topics of next lecture 8(b) k 20. goes off on tangent, circumscribes point 19(a) k 21. relates more complicated material to simpler material or to material f a m i l i a r I4. to student 17(a) 22. repeats d i f f i c u l t or important material 15(a) k 23. = repeats material already covered 15(b) 1+ 24. spoke i n d i s t i n c t l y , mumbled 1(d) ij. 63 TABLE 11 (CONT'D) MA JOB AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D) SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD (CONT'D) CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 25. spoke loudly 1(e) I4. 26. use of er, ah 2(a) l\. 27. f a i l e d to emphasize material or to distinguish one topic from another 18(b) 3 28. incoherent, unclear 16(b) 3 2 9 . indicated material to be covered 8(c) 3 30. lecture directed above l e v e l of most students 12(a) 3 31* lecture directed to bottom l e v e l , or below i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity of most students 12(b) 3 32. made use of demonstrations (equipment) 11(a) 3 33« terms too complex 2(b) 3 3l+. used ho notes 5(b) 2 1 35* asked students to take no notes 7(b) 1 1 36. conducted tours 7(c) 2 37« constant rephrasing 2(c) 2 38. halting, uncertain; stutters 1(f) 2 39. leaves student with something to think 2 about 7(d) 1+0. moved class to of f i c e or seminar room 7(e) 2 i|.l. presented at moderate speed 3(c) 2 1+2. seldom summarized; did not review 6(c) 2 1+3• spoke i n conversational voice 1(g) 2 1+1+. stuck to point 19(b) 2 SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD 1. promoted, created, made use of d i s -cussion or class p a r t i c i p a t i o n II 1(a) ll+ 2. reacted with r i d i c u l e , sarcasm, be-littlemen t I 2(a) ll+ 3 . ignored, discouraged, r e s t r i c t e d questions I 1(a) 11 i+. encourages and provokes questions from the class II 1(b) 9 6L TABLE 11 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D) . SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD (CONT'D) CRITICAL •REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 5 . welcomes suggestions, seems ready to acknowledge student's questions I 1(b) 8 6. display of h o s t i l i t y , anger, annoyance I 2 l b ) 7 7. squelching students I 2(c) 3 8. asked whole class questions II 2(a) 1 1 9. encourages debates at important points i n lecture II 1(c) 2 10. f a i l e d to promote discussion or questions II 1(d) 2 11. interruption of student contributions I 2(d) 2 SUB-AREA: C. THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OF SUBJECT MATERIAL 1. irre l e v a n t , unrelated, outdated, unimportant material 1(a) 16 2. used concrete examples 2(a) 10 3. made general use of anecdotes or personal experiences 3(a) 7 I4.. used personal experiences related 6 to lecture material 3(b) 5 . indicated biases 5(a) ' . • ^  • 5 6. made use of examples and i l l u s t r a - ' tions 2(b) 5 7. relevant, inte r e s t i n g issues 6(a) 3 8. used anecdotes repeatedly 3(c) 3 9. used humour to es t a b l i s h point k(a) 3 10. used jokes, element of humour l±(b) 3 11. avoided ir r e l e v a n t material 1(b) 2 12. emphasized simple material 7(a) 2 13. made no use of examples and i l l u s t r a -tions 2(c) 2 111. presentation unbiased 5(b) 2 15. textbook material used, given no further treatment 7(b) 2 65 TABLE 11 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D) SUB-AREA: D. SPECIAL. METHODS CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. stays a f t e r hours to discuss points, gives extra sessions 1(a) 6 . 2." made g e n e r a l u s e of s a r c a s m h(a) 5 3. " insinuates students stupid or treats students as i f stupid 5(a) 4 4» made a general practice of taunting, bullying, r i d i c u l i n g , humiliating students 2(a) 4 5 . requests private interview, gives private advice outside the classroom K b ) 4 6. indulged i n personalities (showed discrimination) 3(a) 3 7. leaves class with stimulating thought 7(a) 2 8. rearranged class i n t o small groups 6(a) 2 9. refused additional help, seldom stays after hours 1(c) 2 10. " seemed genuinely interested i n students 3(b) 2> SUB-AREA: E. AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES 1. wrote i n d i s t i n c t l y on blackboard (poor quality, scribbled) 1(a) 7 2. made use of motion pictures 4(a) 6 3. wrote summary of topics f o r lecture, charted out where going i n lecture 1(b) 6 4» augments discussion, i l l u s t r a t e s points with s l i d e s 2(a) 5 5 . made use of p i c t o r a l material 4(b) 5 6. made use of recordings 4 ( ° ) 5 7. made use of slides 2(b) 5 8. wrote new or unusual terms on the " blackboard 1(c) 3 9. drew diagrams on the blackboard 1(d) 2 1§. spent long time writing on blackboard K e ) 2 11. used large maps 3(a) 2 12. wrote In a random fashion on the black-board 1(f) 2 66 TABLE 11 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING- METHODS (CONT'D) SUB-AREA: G-. STUDENT APPRAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES) CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s f o r exams 1 ( a ) 1 2. gave l i s t o f work ahead o f t i m e 2 ( a ) 2 67 TABLE 11 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVA-TIONAL TRAITS CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. i n t e r e s t e d and e n t h u s i a s t i c 1(a) 13 2. seemed d i s i n t e r e s t e d , b o r e d ; l a c k s s p o n t a n e i t y 1(b) 13 3>» p a c i n g ; moving a b o u t 2(a) 2 7 4« a d m i t t e d u n c e r t a i n o f a p o i n t , o r l a c k o f p r e p a r a t i o n 5(a) 5 . 3 5. a r r i v e s l a t e t o l e c t u r e 3(a) " 8 6 . does n o t f a c e t h e c l a s s 2(b) 8 7 . f o r c e f u l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , dominant 6 ( a ) 4 1 8 . f r i e n d l y , c h a r m i n g , p l e a s a n t 6 ( b ) 4 9 . d o g m a t i c 6 ( c ) 3 10. e x p l a i n s o r a p o l o g i z e s f o r l a t e n e s s 3(b) 3 11. l a u g h i n g , c h u c k l i n g a t s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l 4(a) 3 12. l e a v e s c l a s s i m m e d i a t e l y a t b e l l 3 ( c ) 2 13. p l a g i a r i z e s s t u d e n t s c r i t i q u e s 5(b) 2 14• s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , n e r v o u s 6(d) 2 15. smoking 4(b) 1 1 SUB-AREA: B. ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE . TRAITS 1. f a m i l i a r w i t h s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l 2(a) 9 2. w e l l p r e p a r e d ( a p p a r a t u s ; t o d e l i v e r l e c t u r e ) 3(a) 9 3. u n a b l e t o answer q u e s t i o n s ; u n s a t i s f a c t o r y answers 1(a) 5 4. u n f a m i l i a r w i t h s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l ; l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n 2(b). 5 5. u n p r e p a r e d , p o o r l y p r e p a r e d 3(b) 5 6 . answers q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h e t h r e a d o f t h e l e c t u r e 1(b) 2 68 TABLE 12 CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH SUB-AREA (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY SUB-AREA: A. MOTIVATIONAL STATE CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. 2. 3 . k. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 34. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 1. 2. 3 . u s e d a u d i o - v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s , c l a s s d e m o n s t r a t i o n s 1(a) 15 made u s e o f a n d / o r p r o v o k e d s t u d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s 1(b) 10 r e f e r r e d t o , o r made use o f ' o u t s i d e ' i s s u e s o r m a t e r i a l 1(c) 7 spoke i n a monotone 1(a) u s e d a n e c d o t e s , w i t , humour 1(d) 7 r e a d m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y f r o m n o t e s o r t e x t 1(b) a p p e a r e d i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t 1(e) 5 showed l a c k o f i n t e r e s t o r e f f o r t 1(c) a r r i v e d l a t e c o n s i s t e n t l y 1(d) c l o s e d l e c t u r e w i t h t n o u g h t - p r o v o k i n g i d e a s ; i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n g o u t s i d e r e a d i n g 2(a) 3 o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d t h e o b v i o u s 1(e) v o i c e i n a u d i b l e , u n c l e a r , low 1 ( f ) answered s t u d e n t s a r c a s t i c a l l y 1(g) c o n d u c t e d t o u r s , on o r o f f campus 1 ( f ) 2 d i s o r d e r l y p r e s e n t a t i o n 1(h) good knowledge o f m a t e r i a l 1(g) 2 i r r e l e v a n t d i g r e s s i o n s 1(1) r e l a t e d p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s l ( j ) 2 s e n s e d c l a s s ' s a t t i t u d e 1(h) 2 shows i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t q u e r i e s 2(b) 2 spoke i n a c l e a r v o i c e l ( i ) 2 SUB-AREA: B. GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS s a r c a s t i c , r i d i c u l e d s t u d e n t s ; h y p e r -c r i t i c a l 2(a) co n c e d e d o r a d m i t t e d a n e r r o r , o r u n c e r t a i n o f p o i n t 1(a) 3 made an e x t r a e f f o r t ( c o n d u c t e d e x t r a c l a s s e s , c o n d u c t e d t o u r s , gave t h e c a l l numbers o f b o o k s ) 3(a) 3 5 3 3 3 2 2 2 69 TABLE 12 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY (CONT'D) SUB-AREA: B. GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS (CONT'D) CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE !{.. made u s e o f o r s t i m u l a t e s s t u d e n t c o n t r i -b u t i o n s 2 ( a ) 3 5>. was d o g m a t i c 1 ( a ) 3 6. i n d u l g e d i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s 2 ( b ) 2 7. made d e r r o g a t o r y r e m a r k s a b o u t s t u d e n t s i n t e l l i g e n c e 4 ( a ) 2 8. p o o r l y p r e p a r e d , 2 ( c ) 2 9. s q u e l c h e d s t u d e n t s i d e a s o r d i s c u s s i o n 1 (b) 2 10. u s e d s t u d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s 4 ( a ) 2 70 TABLE 12 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. MASTERY OP SUBJECT MATERIAL SUB-AREA: A. LEARNING, CORRELATING, CLARIFYING, REVIEWING MATERIAL CRITICAL ^ REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. used audio-visual techniques class demonstrations 1(a) 20 2. made use of and/or provoked student p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1(b) 8 3» explanations concise, and detailed 1(c) 6 1|. provided error-ridden material (black-hoard, prepared sheets) 1(a) 5> 5« paused to repeat important points; paced lecture 1(d) k 6. related d i f f i c u l t material to more simple; drew analogies 1(e) 1+ 7. rephrased i n d i f f e r e n t ways u n t i l point established 1(f) Ij. 8. used humour 1(g) ij. 9. constantly rephrasing; stammering 1(b) 3 10. manifested anger; b u l l i e d ; insinuated students stupid 1(c) 3 11. blatantly suggested he was bored and/or unprepared 1(d) 2 12. began with broad overview.before s p e c i f i c investigation 1(h) 2 13. gave personal attention to wrong answers on written material l ( i ) 2 II4.. included extraneous material 1(e) 2 15. related own experiences l ( j ) 2 16. used specialized or advanced terms or techniques 1(f) 2 17. wordy 1(g) 2 SUB-AREA: B. OSTENTATION 1. distributed l i s t s and/or provided topics f o r entire course; outlines the entire course at beginning of term 2(a) 2. demonstrated his biases, points out other points of view 1(a) 3 . invited guest lecturer 1(b) 2 2 71 TABLE 12 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: C. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. PRESENTATION OP MATERIAL CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. moved about while l e c t u r i n g 1(a) Ij. 2. l e c t u r e d too f a s t , refused to stop 5(a) 3 3 . spoke monotonously 2(a)' 3 k. admitted l a c k of knowledge or pr e p a r a t i o n 2(a) 2 5 . a r b i t r a r i l y demanded students answer, even i f obviously not prepared 3(a) 2 6. gave t o p i c s to be discussed ahead of time 2(b) 2 7. handled a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g student w i t h firmness 1(a) 2 8. jumped ahead or back from t o p i c to t o p i c 2(b) 2 9. p o l i t e l y , but f i r m l y refused c h a r i t y c o l l e c t i o n s during l e c t u r e 1(b) 2 10. presented a b r i e f summary of l a s t l e c t u r e 3(b) 2 11. read sheets of notes or d e f i n i t i o n s 3(b) 2 12. refused to admit or threw out l a t e -comers 1(c) 2 13. used s l i d e s or p r a c t i c a l demonstrations 2(c) 2 l i | . wrote major t o p i c s to be covered on the blackboard 3(a) ' 2 SUB-AREA: B. STUDENT PARTICIPATION 1. asked leading questions o r made provoca-t i v e comments 1(a) 5 2. immediate, serious i n t e r e s t i n students suggestions or questions 1(b) If. 3 . r i d i c u l e d questions or answers 1(a) ij. I}., appointed group to lead d i s c u s s i o n ; organized seminars 1(c) 3 5 . d i c t a t e d from d e t a i l e d notes 2(a) 2 6. s a r c a s t i c , discourteous 2(b) 2 7 2 TABLE 12 (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: D. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. gave personal assistance 1(a) 2. requested student v i s i t him in office Kb) 73 respective class and sub-class for ease of cross-checking with the Appendices. The following summarizes and paraphrases the trends made apparent from the l i s t of c r i t i c a l requirements l i s t e d i n Table 11: Reading texts, or notes; d i c t a t i n g , lecturing excessively fast with no pause; lec t u r i n g i n a monotonous voice; and changing from topic to topic were judged as i n e f f e c t i v e procedures. Speaking c l e a r l y and d i s t i n c t l y ; presenting material l o g i c a l l y , i n a systematic order; and providing references of available material pertinent to the lecture were a l l considered e f f e c t i v e tech-niques. Promoting and making use of discussions or other kinds of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n was considered an eff e c t i v e technique, as was provoking questions or suggestions from the c l a s s . Students appeared highly sensitive to the lecturer's reactions to t h e i r e f f o r t s to p a r t i c i p a t e . Ridicule, sarcasm, b e l i t t l e -ment were a l l considered i n e f f e c t i v e lecture tech-niques. Students seemed to desire lecturers to not only avoid the use of irre l e v a n t , unrelated subject mat-e r i a l , but also to use personal anecdotes and experiences which were related to the lecture material. Further, the use of concrete examples was deemed an e f f e c t i v e technique. A l l manner of audio-visual techniques were con-sidered highly e f f e c t i v e . Poor writing on the black-board was not looked upon with favour. An enthusiastic, seemingly interested, spontaneous, knowledgeable lecturer was considered to be an ef f e c -tive lecturer. On the basis of the results of this enquiry, stu-dents do not seem to consider lecturer actions associated with the handling of examinations and assignments as important components of univer s i t y teaching practice. 7k The above l i s t of c r i t i c a l requirements as derived from the b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s uncovered a wide v a r i e t y of student conceptions of the l e c t u r e r ' s r o l e . For example, c r i t i c a l requirement B B 3 , ( i . e . , c r i t i c a l requirement #3, l i s t e d under Major Area B., sub-area B), "unable to answer questions; un-s a t i s f a c t o r y answers", suggests omniscience i s expected of the l e c t u r e r . C r i t i c a l requirement AC 1 , " i r r e l e v a n t , u n r e l a t e d , outdate, unimportant m a t e r i a l " judged as being used f o r l e c t u r e content suggests that students conceptions of what should be select e d and stressed as l e c t u r e content were at odds w i t h those of the l e c t u r e r . While these are admittedly only i s o l a t e d examples, the existence of such misconceptions i n graduating students, represents a serious condemnation of u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r i n g p r a c t i c e s . The l i s t of recommendations were developed from groupings of the c r i t i c a l requirements l i s t e d i n Table 1 2 ( r e s u l t s a n a l y s i s ) . Each recommendation, l i s t e d below, i s f o l l o w e d by i d e n t i f y i n g l e t t e r s and f i g u r e s r e f e r r i n g to the l i s t of c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e -ments as d e r i v e d from the b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s (Table 1 1 ) . This permitted an assessment of the recommendations ' r e l a t i v e c r i t i c a l n e s s • as discussed above. Under each recommendation are l i s t e d the r e s u l t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , derived as was i n d i c a t e d i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n above (page 3 0 ) . Each r e s u l t i s p r e f i x e d by i d e n t i f y i n g l e t t e r s and f i g u r e s of the c r i t i c a l requirement from which i t was d e r i v e d . L a s t l y , each r e s u l t i s 75 followed by the l e t t e r "E" or " I " indicating whether i t was considered e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e , and the number of behaviors reported which contributed to the p a r t i c u l a r r e s u l t . The l i s t of recommendations are arranged i n order of decreasing frequency of the t o t a l number of c r i t i c a l behaviors from which they were evolved. They are followed by a b r i e f comment. Pr a c t i c a l Recommendations. 1. Used audio-visual techniques, class demonstrations (A,E) a) B.A. 1 f a c i l i t a t e d learning and cor r e l a t i n g material; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student with material (Er20) b) A.A. 1 aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, attention; relieved boredom (E-15) c) CA. 13 did not waste class time (saved time) (E-2) The uses made of audio-visual methods as a teaching method were described as being r e l a t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e (Table 8, p. 52 )• However, since nearly as many i n e f f e c t i v e as e f f e c t i v e actions were described for class 1. "use of the blackboard", and since the f i r s t ' c r i t i c a l requirement' l i s t e d i n Table 11, p. 65 > f o r this sub-area i s "wrote i n d i s t i n c t l y on the blackboard (poor quality, scribbled)", then indications are that blackboard work was not judged as being generally s a t i s f a c t o r y . A l i s t of ef f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e uses of the blackboard can be found in Appendix B, p. 125. The value of audio-visual techniques seemed to l i e both i n their aiding i n comprehension of the subject material, and i n arousing interest and enthusiasm. Of course, the onus i s on the l e c t u r e r to decide when the educational value of these devices has been s a c r i f i c e d f o r the purely entertainment value. While the r e l i e f of "boredom" can l i k e l y be achieved by the use of audio-visual techniques, t h i s cannot be considered the exclusive end for which they are chosen as a teaching method. 2. Made use of, provoked, showed intere s t i n student c o n t r i -butions (A, B, #1, 9) a) A.A. 2 aroused interest, enthusiasm, attention; relieved boredom (E-10) b) B.A. 2 f a c i l i t a t e d learning and c o r r e l a t i n g material; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student with material (E-8) 7 6 c) A.B. k generation of classroom "atmosphere" (E - 3 ) d) A.B. 1 0 generated sense of achievement; generated feelings of personal worth to student (E - 2 ) These kinds of lecturer behaviors are subsumed exclusively under sub-area B. The Discussion Method. Not only were these behaviors considered highly eff e c t i v e ("Table 8 , p. 5 1 > H* 1 ) but also were judged to generate i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm, and aid i n mastery of subject material. Further, there i s a suggestion that an attitude of interest i n student contributions assists i n the generation of a desirable 'atmosphere' i n the classroom, and as s i s t s i n building 'self-confidence' i n the . student•audience. Ways of promoting discussion and questions from the class are l i s t e d i n Appendix B, p. 113, B, II, 1 . 3 . Answered student s a r c a s t i c a l l y ; h y p e r c r i t i c a l ; derrogatory comments; r i d i c u l e d questions or answers; sarcastic and d i s -courteous; b u l l i e d ; insinuated students stupid (A,B, # 2 ; A,D, #3,4) a) A.B. 1 generated feelings of tension, d i s t r e s s , anxiety, f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n , fearfulness; generally lowered morale ( 1 - 7 ) b) C B . 3 discourages student queries (I-k) c) B.A. 1 0 detracted from learning; made learning d i f f i -c u l t ; generally unsatisfactory; made no contribution; added to students confusion ( 1 - 3 ) These kinds of lecturer actions are'jreported both as Reactions to Audience P a r t i c i p a t i o n (A,B, I) and as behaviors included i n the sub-area Special Methods (d). Indications are that lecturer reactions to students e f f o r t s to participate i n the lecture were judged as mainly i n e f f e c t i v e (Table 8 , p. 5 0 ' , B, I, 2 ) . The explanation for the voluntary use of behaviors described i n this recommendation, and which are described i n more d e t a i l i n Appendix B, pp. 1 0 9 - 1 1 2 , i s beyond the scope of this enquiry, However, that these actions were judged as inef f e c t i v e and, on the basis of these results, seriously detracted from optimum learning conditions by generating stress reactions, a c r i t i c a l appraisal by lecturers of t h e i r reactions to their audience i s strongly suggested. k. Used anecdotes, wit, humour; related own experiences (A,C, # 3 , k, 8 , 9 , 1 0 ) a) A.A. 5 aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, attention; relieved boredom (E - 7 ) b) B.A. 8 f a c i l i t a t e d learning and correlating material; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student with material (E~k) c) B.A. 1 5 facilitated learning and correlating material; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student with material (E - 2 ) 77 The s e l e c t i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a l e c t u r e of personal experiences and humour was considered to be, i n the main, an e f f e c t i v e technique. Some i s o l a t e d exceptions are l i s t e d i n Appendix B, p. 116, under c l a s s e s 3 and !(. of sub-area C. Although i n t e r e s t arousal was the main reported r e s u l t of the use of t h i s technique, i n a d d i t i o n i t may have a s s i s t e d students to grasp subject m a t e r i a l . 5. Asked l e a d i n g questions; made provocative comments; mani-f e s t s serious i n t e r e s t i n students suggestions or questions (A, B, #k, 5) a) C.B. 1 encourages student p a r t i c i p a t i o n (E-5) b) C.B. 2 encourages student p a r t i c i p a t i o n (E-lj.) c) C.B. 4 encourages student p a r t i c i p a t i o n (E-3) The kinds of behaviors included i n t h i s recommendation are s i m i l a r t o those l i s t e d i n recommendation #2 above. As above, they were e x c l u s i v e l y subsumed under sub-area B. The D i s c u s s i o n  Method. They too were judged to be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e , but were considered to r e s u l t e x c l u s i v e l y i n "encouraging student p a r t i -c i p a t i o n . "' 6. D i s t r i b u t e d l i s t s of or otherwise provided t o p i c s to be covered (A,A, #13, 19, 29: A,E, #3: A,C #2) a) B.B. 11 f a c i l i t a t e d pre-reading, or planning time to be spent on the course (E-8) b) CA. 6 d i d not waste c l a s s time (saved time) (E-2) c) CA. Ik w e l l organized, o r d e r l y p r e s e n t a t i o n (E-2) As i s i n d i c a t e d , these actions are l i s t e d under various sub-areas. Those i n c l u d e d i n sub-area A, are subsumed under Class 8. "'use of outlines.'" This technique was considered e f f e c t i v e (Table 8, p. %0, A.A. 8) Appendix B, p. 100, A. 8, i n d i c a t e s the kinds of t o p i c s provided. These r e s u l t s would suggest that b e n e f i t i s derived from these o u t l i n e s i n terms of a s s i s t i n g students to plan t h e i r time more e f f i c i e n t l y . 7. Spoke i n a monotone; i n d i s t i n c t l y ; improperly (A,A, #14., 10, 2k, 38) a) A.A. k generated f e e l i n g s of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, tediou s ; students l o s t i n t e r e s t (1-7) b) C A . 3 d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w (1-3) Actions r e l a t e d to voice q u a l i t y were the most f r e q u e n t l y reported l e c t u r e r behaviors (other than those l i s t e d as " d i s c r e t e references " ) . Moreover, r e s u l t s l i s t e d i n Table : 8, p. 50, A.A. 1 suggest that the q u a l i t y of the l e c t u r e r ' s voice was reported more o f t e n as being i n e f f e c t i v e . The s p e c i f i c ' q u a l i t i e s ' included i n t h i s c l a s s are l i s t e d i n Appendix B, p. 97» under A.A. 1. I n d i c a t i o n s are that a c l e a r , d i s t i n c t , loud speaking voice has a decidedly favourable impact on the student audience. 78 8. Read m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y f r o m n o t e s o r t e x t ( A . A . #1, 2: A . G . #15) a) A . A . 6 g e n e r a t e d f e e l i n g s of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous t e d i o u s ; s t u d e n t s l o s t i n t e r e s t (1-6) b) C . A . 11 wasted c l a s s t ime (1-2) c) . C B . 15 d i s c o u r a g e d c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n o r i n t e r -a c t i o n (1-2) T a b l e 11, p . 6 2 , l i s t s t h e b e h a v i o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n as f i r s t and s e c o n d on t h e l i s t of ' c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ' . As c a n be seen t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , and l e a d t o f e e l i n g s of monotony and d i s i n t e r e s t . As i s i n d i c a t e d i n C l a s s e s 5 . a n d 10 o f s u b - a r e a A , T a b l e 8, p . 50 , r e a d i n g f r o m e i t h e r n o t e s o r t e x t was c o n -s i d e r e d , i n the m a i n , i n e f f e c t i v e . A p p e n d i x B , p . 10k, C l a s s 5 l i s t s o t h e r i n e f f e c t i v e "use o f n o t e s . " 9. R e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l t o more s i m p l e ; drew a n a l o g i e s ; r e p h r a s e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways u n t i l p o i n t e s t a b l i s h e d ( A , A . #21) a) B . A . 6 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d s t u d e n t w i t h m a t e r i a l ( E - k ) b) B . A . 7 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d s t u d e n t w i t h m a t e r i a l ( E - k ) The b e h a v i o r s a l l u d e d t o i n t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n were i n c l u d e d , i n p a r t , i n r e q u i r e m e n t #21 o f s u b - a r e a A . , as i n d i -c a t e d . These a c t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n C l a s s 17, " i n t e g r a t i n g c o u r s e m a t e r i a l " 1 , as l i s t e d i n T a b l e 8, p . 5 0 , of s u b - a r e a A . A l l s u c h b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d were c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e , and a r e l i s t e d i n d e t a i l i n A p p e n d i x B , p . lOlp u n d e r C l a s s 17. 10. Gave p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n ; p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e ( A . D . #5, 10); a) B . A . 13 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d s t u d e n t w i t h m a t e r i a l (E-2) b) D . A . 1 t o o k a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t s ; c o n s i d e r a t e (E-2) c) D . A . 2 t o o k a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t s ; c o n s i d e r a t e (E-2) These a c t i o n s were i n c l u d e d u n d e r s u b - a r e a D. S p e c i a l  Methods , , and were subsumed u n d e r c l a s s e s 1 and 3« S t a y i n g b e h i n d a f t e r c l a s s o r a s k i n g f o r a p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w were c o n - • s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , b u t " i n d u l g i n g i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s ( s h o w i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) " was deemed i n e f f e c t i v e (see A p p e n d i x B , p . 120, C l a s s e s 1 and 3») A l t h o u g h few r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d , as i s shown, t h i s k i n d o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t seemed t o g e n e r a t e a f a v o u r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e l e c t u r e r a s a p e r s o n . 79 11. Conceded or admitted an error; admitted lack of knowledge or preparation (B.A. #k) a) A.B. 2 generated feelings of respect, admiration; generally made a favourable impression (E-3) b) CA. 1+ did not waste class time (saved time) (E-2) The admission of f a l l i b i l i t y was not e n t i r e l y considered an e f f e c t i v e technique (Table 11, p. 6 7 , B.A. #k). However, on the basis of those reports including a res u l t , the l e c t u r e r was generally respected f o r so doing, and i f nothing else, class time was saved, as reported above. 12. Made an extra e f f o r t (conducted extra classes, tours, gave c a l l number of books) (A.D. #1) a) A.B. 3 generated feelings of confidence, appreciation, af f e c t i o n , absence of fear (E-3) b) A.A. Ik aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, attention; relieved boredom (E-2) Behaviors i n d i c a t i n g "extra e f f o r t " were also subsumed under sub-area D, Special Methods as were the behaviors included i n recommendation #10 above. However, the actions included i n t h i s recommendation (#12) are reported as generating favour-able affective reactions in.the respondents, rather than evalua-tions of the lecturer's personality, as was the case i n #10. 13. Disorderly presentation (A.A. #5) a) CA. 8 d i f f i c u l t to follow (1-2) b) A.A. 15 generated feelings of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, tedious, students l o s t i n t e r e s t (1-2) The only c r i t i c a l requirement listedwhich included t h i s kind of behavior was requirement #5, l i s t e d under sub-area A (Table 11, p. 62). As can be seen, this method of presentation was considered i n e f f e c t i v e . "Orderliness and Organization of presentation n' i s l i s t e d as sharing with "use of notes" the fourth p o s i t i o n i n the l i s t of c r i t i c a l behaviors (Table 8, p. 5 0 . As i s indicated i n t h i s Table, the number of i n e f f e c t i v e and effective behaviors reported are e s s e n t i a l l y the same. So few results were reported that no conclusions can be drawn i n this regard. Lk. Included i r r e l e v a n t digressions; extraneous material (A.C #1) a) B.A. LL Detracted from learning; made learning d i f f i -c u l t ; generally unsatisfactory; made no contribution; added to students confusion (1-2) 80 b) A.A. 17 generated feelings of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, tedious; students l o s t interest (1-2) The use of irrelevant, outdated material was considered, as would be expected, i n e f f e c t i v e (Table 8, p. 5l> C 1). Examples of subject material considered to be relevant and irrelevant are l i s t e d i n Appendix B, pp. 115 and 117 under classes 1 and 6. That content relevancy i s an important consideration to the student audience was suggested by the f a c t that the largest number of behaviors were grouped under this category for the sub-area C (Table 8, p. 5l> Class 1). Further, by f a r the largest number of behaviors reported were judged as i n e f f e c t i v e . Chances are that i f the reasons f o r introducing or selecting course content were indicated by the lecturer, some of the confusion, as suggested by the above res u l t s , could be ameliorated. 15. Poorly prepared, admitted was bored and/or unprepared (B.B. #5) a) B.A. 11 detracted from learning; made learning d i f f -i c u l t ; generally unsatisfactory; made no contributions; added to students confusion (1-2) b) A.B. 8 generated feelings of tension, d i s t r e s s , anxiety, f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, reject i o n , fearfulness; generally lowered morale (1-2) While some of the behaviors included i n this recommenda-t i o n overlap those of recommendation #11 above, the l a t t e r described temperamental, dynamic or motivational t r a i t s , while the behaviors of t h i s recommendation are descriptive of a b i l i t y t r a i t s . An unprepared or poorly prepared lecturer was not considered e f f e c t i v e . The above l i s t of recommendations was an attempt, then, to uncover broad trends i n the results of closely similar lecturer behaviors which, when viewed i n d i v i d u a l l y led to a wide range of r e s u l t s . A detailed account of the d i s s i m i l a r i t y of both the results and behaviors i s reported i n Appendices B and C. These findings l i k e l y r e f l e c t the f a c t that the d i s s i m i l i t u d e of interpretation attached to instructor behavior i s a product of not only the personality attributes of the i n s t r u c t o r and that of the members of his audience, but also that the p a r t i c u l a r aims of the instructor and those of the students are not mutually 81 understood. The value and uniqueness.rif the above l i s t of recommen-dations l i e s i n the f a c t that they are not mere l i s t i n g s of c r i t i c a l behaviors, or groups of behaviors, but are based on groupings of c l o s e l y s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l requirements, and i n d i c a t e the s p e c i f i c r e a c t i o n s generated by these requirements. Further, i t was p o s s i b l e to r e l a t e the b e h a v i o r a l component of the recommendation to the b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s data, and thereby gain an index of i t s ' r e l a t i v e c r i t i c a l n e s s . ' Although the recommendations are subject to the l i m i t a -t i o n s imposed by the data, i t i s hoped th a t they may serve not as absolute p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r teaching, but as a b a s i s f o r hypotheses f o r m u l a t i o n i n a more i d e a l context. 82 CHAPTER VL. SUMMARY OP CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS 1. Student observers proved capable of reporting lecturer actions as representing examples of both good, or effective, and poor, or ineffective lecture practices. That lecture procedure was judged to include areas other than s t r i c t l y "lecture techniques" is noteworthy. What a lecturer has rele-gated to the preconscious, or rationally deems incidental to lecturing is noticed and seems to considerably influence the •learning climate' of the lecture setting. 2. Behaviors associated with 'Teaching Methods' were the most frequently reported. These are, in the main, s t r i c t l y techni-cal s k i l l s and can be taught and learned. The onus is on the individual lecturer to ensure their mastery. Regardless of the criteria one uses to define lecturer effectiveness, certainly, and obviously, those interfering with learning would be universally rejected. This would imply the rejec-tion of certain lecturer personality attributes and teaching methods as revealed by this study. Hence, future research is indicated to uncover both the personality traits and teaching techniques that are detrimental to effective university lecturing. 3. Lecturers cannot take for granted 'wired-in' motivation. Students are keenly aware of actions which generate or detract 83 from interest-arousal. Further, students have clear notions of behaviors which a s s i s t i n or detract from learning the sub-ject material. k. Supplementary Information given as opinions derived from general experience did not augment the incident data. It was hypothesized that t h i s data represented the student's ide a l i z e d lecturer or lecture setting. The use, by the observers, of the Supplementary Information page of the copy form for the recording of c r i t i c a l incidents, pointed out the need f o r more r i g i d and cl e a r instructions f o r placement of the incidents. Moreover, i t was f e l t that many of the recorded c r i t i c a l incidents x^ rere 'contaminated' by evaluative references, and varying degrees of abstraction. Although e f f o r t s to scale behavioral reports on the basis of 'degrees of opinionation' proved abortive, i f such an operation had been possible, i t was f e l t that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would have been made more precise, hence more r e l i a b l e . 5. Suggestions of serious misconceptions on the part of students both as to the lecturer's role and aims i n the classroom, and what should be selected and stressed as lecture content by him, strongly Indicated a need f o r a c r i t i c a l appraisal of both lecturers and students concepts of the nature and aims of the profession of univ e r s i t y teaching. 6. While a wide variety of reactions were generally associated with reports of s p e c i f i c l e cturer actions, some general trends 8k i n audience r e a c t i o n were forthcoming from, an a n a l y s i s of the recommendations which grew out of t h i s study. The f o l l o w i n g summarizes and paraphrases the recommendations: a) The use of a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques; showing an i n t e r e s t i n and provoking student c o n t r i -b u t ions; using w i t , humour, and anecdotes; making an " e x t r a e f f o r t " ; were a l l judged to be e f f e c t i v e i n generating student i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n . b) Answering or r e a c t i n g to student's answers or c o n t r i b u t i o n s s a r c a s t i c a l l y ; r i d i c u l i n g ; being h y p e r c r i t i c a l and g e n e r a l l y derrogatory, not only generated f e e l i n g s of anxi e t y and p r e c i p i t a t e d d i s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s i n the student audience, but detracted from the 'lea r n i n g environment' by minimizing s t u d e n t - l e c t u r e r 'feed-back', and caused f e e l i n g s of confusion, making " l e a r n i n g more d i f f i c u l t " . c) Speaking i n a monotone, or i n d i s t i n c t l y ; reading m a t e r i a l from notes or t e x t s ; presenting the m a t e r i a l i n a di s o r g a n i z e d manner; a l l l e d to f e e l i n g s of tedium,' boredom, and d i s i n t e r e s t . d) The use of a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques; u s i n g and showing an i n t e r e s t i n student c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; making use of w i t , humour and anecdotes; r e l a t -ing d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l to the more f a m i l i a r , and using analogies; a l l f a c i l i t a t e d student mastery of the subject m a t e r i a l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that behaviors which l e d to i n t e r e s t arousal were g e n e r a l l y a l s o judged to a i d i n " l e a r n i n g the m a t e r i a l " . Moreover, i n d i c a t i o n s were that a s a r c a s t i c , derrogatory reaction,- to students e f f o r t s to contr i b u t e to the l e c t u r e a c t u a l l y detracted from or hindered the l e a r n i n g process. In t h i s regard Hook (19k6, p. 172) a s s e r t s that "whatever teach-ing i s , i t should not be an o b s t r u c t i o n to l e a r n i n g . " 85 It was hoped that the p r a c t i c a l recommendations which grew out of this enquiry might serve as a basis f o r hypothesis formulation for future research. 7. The c r i t i c a l requirements derived from this data could serve as "component dimensions" in the determination of c r i t e r i a behaviors of ef f e c t i v e u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r i n g . They could act as a basis from which to define c r i t e r i a objectively, and a s s i s t i n developing vehicles f o r obtaining c r i t e r i o n measures of l e c t u r e r competence. Moreover, the exhaustive l i s t of " f i r s t - o r d e r behavior dimensions" and elemental behaviors l i s t e d i n the Appendices i n the form of 'miscellaneous references', c'could provide the basis for a glossary of terms describing l e c t u r e r actions f o r a classroom observation record form. The l a t t e r could a s s i s t i n the description of the behavioral components of teacher e f f e c t -iveness at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l . 86 CHAPTER Vir. SUMMARY OP STUDY I t was the purpose of t h i s enquiry to report on an adaptation of the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique to u n i v e r s i t y teaching with s p e c i f i c reference to i t s usefulness f o r : 1. Determining the " c r i t i c a l requirements" of u n i v e r s i t y teaching as evolved from the d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e r behavior by u n i v e r s i t y students; 2. Studying the r e l a t i o n s h i p between information on teaching obtained by " c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s " , and supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n given as 'opinions' derived from general experience; 3. Educing a set of p r a c t i c a l recommendations that may be of value t o l e c t u r e r s i n the improvement of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y teaching p r a c t i c e s . There was found t o be a pa u c i t y of research r e l a t e d to the methodological approach to teacher a p p r a i s a l at the u n i -v e r s i t y l e v e l . For the purposes of t h i s study, the more fr e q u e n t l y employed procedure of asking educators, s p e c i a l l y t r a i n e d observers, or others to name d e s i r a b l e teaching t r a i t s was r e j e c t e d . Rather, i t was decided to employ the student audience as the source of c r i t e r i o n data f o r t h i s study. The procedure chosen was the C r i t i c a l Incident Technique, since I t represents an e f f o r t t o o b j e c t i f y d e s c r i p t i o n s of behavior, and thereby provide an o p e r a t i o n a l frame of reference f o r b e h a v i o r a l 8 7 appraisal. It was emphasized that no attempt was to be made to id e n t i f y f o r administrative action good and poor instructors on the basis of student judgments alone. Precautions were taken to avoid any di r e c t references being made that would act u a l l y i d e n t i f y university i n s t r u c t o r s . Specially prepared record forms were provided f o r 2 3 9 fourth year Arts students who had agreed to participate i n the study. Useful data were contained i n 8 0 of the 9 7 forms which were returned. The data were recorded i n the form of " c r i t i c a l incidents," and supplementary information i n the form of 'opinions.' Three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were applied to these data. The f i r s t was based exclusively on descriptions of lec t u r e r behaviors, that i s , a behavioral analysis; the second on the reported result of the lecturer's actions; the t h i r d on an analysis of opinions as derived from general experiences. These data were a l l systematized according to a progression of more inclusive categories. Prom the f i r s t two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , two l i s t s of " c r i t i -cal requirements" were evolved. It was observed that a wide d i s s i m i l a r i t y of. results ensued from cl o s e l y s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l requirements. Hence, p r a c t i c a l recommendations were developed from t h i s data with a view to uncovering broad trends i n the results of cl o s e l y s i m i l a r lecturer behaviors. The recommenda-tions were summarized as follows: 8 8 a) ' The use of audio-visual techniques; showing an interest i n and provoking student c o n t r i -butions; using wit, humour, and anecdotes; making an "extra e f f o r t " ; were a l l judged to be e f f e c -tive i n generating student interest and attention. b) Answering or reacting to student's answers or contributions s a r c a s t i c a l l y ; r i d i c u l i n g ; being hyper-c r i t i c a l and generally derrogatory, not only generated feelings of anxiety and precipitated distress red-actions i n the student audience, but detracted from the 'learning environment' by minimizing student-lecturer 'feed-back', and caused feelings of con-fusion, making "learning more d i f f i c u l t . " c) Speaking in a monotone, or i n d i s t i n c t l y ; reading material from notes or texts; presenting the material i n a disorganized manner; a l l led to feelings of tedium, boredom, ahd d i s i n t e r e s t . ds) The use of audio-visual techniques; using and -showing an inter e s t i n student contributions; making use of wit, humour and anecdotes; r e l a t -ing d i f f i c u l t material to the more fam i l i a r , and using analogies; a l l f a c i l i t a t e d student mastery of the subject material. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the supplementary information provided by the opinion data did not augment the incident data. It was hypothesized that they may have represented students' 'idealized' notions of university lecturing. Implications and conclusions gained from this enquiry we re: 1. Students proved capable of reporting both good and poor instances of lecture practice. Moreover, they seemed e s p e c i a l l y aware of actions which generated or detracted from i n t e r e s t arousal, or assisted i n or detracted from learning the subject material. 89 2. While actions describing 'Teaching Methods' were the most frequently reported, lecture procedure was judged to Include areas other than s t r i c t l y 'lecture technique'. On the basis of these findings, i t was suggested that future research might-uncover both personality t r a i t s and teaching techniques that were indicated by t h i s enquiry as being detrimental to e f f e c t -ive u niversity teaching. 3. A need was shown fo r devising a means of minimizing the 'opinionation' of c r i t i c a l incidents. One approach was suggested. k. Findings which alluded to the existence of serious miscon-ceptions concerning the role and aims of lecturers in the c l a s s -room, pointed to the need f o r a c r i t i c a l assessment of both students' and l e c t u r e r s ' concepts of university teaching. 5. The c r i t i c a l requirements derived from this data could act as the basis from which to define c r i t e r i a behaviors of e f f e c -tive university lecturing. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the l i s t of " f i r s t -order behavior dimensions" gleaned from the c r i t i c a l Incident data, and l i s t e d i n the Appendices i n the form of p a r t i c u l a r motor or verbal responses, could provide the basis for a glossary of terms i n the development of vehicles for obtaining c r i t e r i o n measures of lecturer competence. 6 . It was hoped that future research might make use of the recommendations which grew out of this study f o r hypothesis formulation. R E F E R E N C E S 91 'REFERENCES American Institute f o r Research: A report of three years of  experience. Pittsburgh: Amer. Inst, f o r Res., Sept. 1950, Anikeeff, A.M. Factors a f f e c t i n g student evaluation of college faculty members. J. appl. Psychol. 1953, 37, 458-1+59. Barr, A.S. The measurement and prediction of teaching e f f i c i e n c y , a summary of investigations. J. Exp. Educ., 191+8, 16, 203-283* Beecher, D.E.. The evaluation of teaching, backgrounds and  concepts. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 19k9. Bendig, A.W. A preliminary study of the eff e c t of academic l e v e l , sex, and course variables on student ratings of psychology instructors. J. Psychol., 1952, 54* 21-26. Bendig, A.W. An inverted factor analysis study of student-rated introductory psychology instructors. J. Exp. Educ., 1953, 21, 333-336. Buxton, C.E. College teaching: a psychologist's view. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1956. Catte l , R.B. Personality: a systematic theoretical and fac t u a l  study. New York: McGraw H i l l , 1950. DeVries, A.G. A study of training needs i n the s e l l i n g of  re a l estate through the use of the c r i t i c a l incident  technique. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. Drucher, A.J., and Remmers, H.H. Do alumni and students d i f f e r i n t h e i r attitudes towards instructors? J. Ed. Psychol., 1951, 42, 129-11+3 Flanagan, J.C. The c r i t i c a l requirements approach to educational objectives. School and Society, 1950, 71, 321-32k. Flanagan, J.C. The c r i t i c a l incident technique i n the study of individuals i n Modern Educational Problems: Report of the Seventeenth Educational Conference, New York C i t y , Oct. 30-31, 1952, published by American Council on Edu-cation, pp. 61-70 (a). Flanagan, J.C. The c r i t i c a l incident technique. Psych. B u l l . , . 1954, 51, 327-358 (b). 92 REFERENCES (CONT'D) Flanagan, J.C. The e v a l u a t i o n of methods i n a p p l i e d psychology and the problem of c r i t e r i a . Occupational Psychology, 1956, 30,. l - 9 ( c ) . Gordon, T. The a i r l i n e p i l o t ' s job. J. appl. Psychol., 1949, 33, 122-131. • Gut h r i e , E.R. The sta t e u n i v e r s i t y : i t s f u n c t i o n and i t s f u t u r e . Univ. of Washington, 1959. Hook, S. Education f o r modern man. New York: D i a l Press, 1924-6. Juatman, J. and Mais, W.A. College teaching: i t s p r a c t i c e  and i t s p o t e n t i a l . New York: Harper & Bros., 1956. McKeachie, W. Teaching t i p s : a guide book f o r the beginning  col l e g e teacher. Ann Arbor, Mich.: George Wahr P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1956. McKeachie, W.J. and Solomon, D. Student r a t i n g s of I n s t r u c t o r s : a v a l i d i t y study. J . of Ed. Res., 1958, 51, 379-382. Moser, C.A. Survey methods i n s o c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . London: W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1958. Remmers, H.H. and E l l i o t , D.N. The Indiana college and u n i -v e r s i t y s t a f f - e v a l u a t i o n program. School and S o c i e t y , 1949, 70, 168-171. R i l e y , J.W., et a l . The student looks at h i s teacher, an enquiry i n t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s of student r a t i n g s at the  college l e v e l . New Brunsx^ick, New Jersey: Rutgers V. Press, 1950. Ryans, D.G. and Wandt, E. A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s of observed teacher behaviors i n the secondary school: a study of c r i t e r i o n data. Ed. and Psychol. Meas., 1952, 12, 574-586. Ryans, D.G. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of teachers: t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n ,  comparison, and a p p r a i s a l . Menasha, Wisconsin: George Banata Co., I960. Smit, Jo Anne, A study of the c r i t i c a l requirements f o r  i n s t r u c t o r s of general psychology courses. Unpublished PhD Thesis, Univ. of P i t t s b u r g h , 1951. 93 JEFERENCES (CONT'D) Smit, Jo Anne A study of the c r i t i c a l requirements f o r instructors of general psychology courses. Univ. of P i t t s .  B u l l . , 1952, k 8 , 2 7 9-28L. Stoyva, J.M. C r i t i c a l Requirements of Trolley-Bus Operator's  .job. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, Travers, R. Appraisal of the teaching of the college f a c u l t y . J. Higher Ed., 195*0, 21 , k l - k 2 . Wagner, R.F. C r i t i c a l requirements f o r dentists. J. appl.  Psychol., 1950, 34, 190-192. A P P E N D I C E S 95 APPENDIX A INSTRUCTIONS You are being asked to take part i n a study designed to arrive at c r i t e r i a by which the q u a l i t y of u n i v e r s i t y lecturers may be improved. S p e c i f i c a l l y , you are being asked to provide us with a written description of the important or c r i t i c a l incidents of behavior which you personally would i d e n t i f y with good and poor lecturing. We, then, are asking you to describe actual experiences, whether your own, or someone else's, which to you i l l u s t r a t e good and poor lecture technique. An example, say pertaining to bus driving, may i l l u s -trate the point more c l e a r l y . An incident associated with good bus driving might be that the operator l e f t his bus to guide a b l i n d man across a busy street, or that he knew the name of the street you were looking f o r . These examples rep-resent actual incidents of behavior which are associated with good bus driving. On the other hand, such incidents as the bus driver trying to beat the red l i g h t , or having undue d i f f i c u l t y i n replacing a t r o l l e y pole, or braking suddenly at each stop, describe poor bus driving. Please notice that i n these examples, incidents appear that relate to s p e c i f i c behavior. You are to think about any actual incidents of behavior on the part of your l e c t u r e r that applies to the e f f e c t i v e or non e f f e c t i v e delivery of a lecture. Please keep i n mind that your evaluation of the goodness or poorness of the lecture i s not to be i n terms of whether you personally are impressed by the subject material being delivered, but s o l e l y i n terms of lecture procedure as manifested by your lecturer. Some things to be kept i n mind when describing incidents are:-1. Since this study has a constructive purpose i t i s requested that the name of the instructor involved not be given. 2 . Describe the circumstances that led up to the incident, and refer to the person involved anonymously as "the lecturer" 1. 3 . Describe exactly what the lecturer did. [).. Do you consider h i s action justified?' Why? 5. Did the incident lead to a successful or an unsuccessful result? 6. What was the result? 96 APPENDIX A (CONT'D) Some f i n a l p o i n t s : -1. A l l information i s c o n f i d e n t i a l . 2. In no way w i l l your name be mentioned or associated with any of the information you supply. 3» Do not discuss any questions o r information you give with others, since they might be interviewed l a t e r and any knowledge of what i s being asked before the i n t e r v i e w w i l l e f f e c t the study adversely. k. Please w r i t e l e g i b l y . 5 . I f you have any questions please f e e l f r e e to ask them. I f you wish to get i n touch w i t h me please leave a message at Alma 3180-R. 6 . I t might be a help i n remembering i n c i d e n t s i f you s t a r t to t h i n k about the most recent good o r poor l e c t u r e s you have attended. 7. Please i n d i c a t e whether the i n c i d e n t occurred i n a l a b o r a -t o r y or a l e c t u r e . 97 APPENDIX B CRITICAL BEHAVIORS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH CLASS (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS • SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. Q u a l i t y of Voice a) monotonous voice b) spoke c l e a r l y , d i s t i n c t l y 11 c) s o f t , low, i n a u d i b l e voice d) spoke i n d i s t i n c t l y , mumbled e) spoke l o u d l y k f ) h a l t i n g , u n c e r t a i n ; s t u t t e r s 'g) spoke i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l voice 2 h) miscellaneous references to voice q u a l i t y - emphasis on every word - decreases i n volume p r o g r e s s i v e l y 12 8 1 1 CLASS TOTAL 17 28 2. Use of language a) use of er, ah b) terms too complex c) constant rephrasing d) miscellaneous references to use of stereotyped phrases - frequent use of phrase, " I think"' - overworks p a r t i c u l a r phrases - overworked work "important" - c o n t i n u a l r e p e t i t i v e use of pet word - uses such phrases as; "a simple d e r i v a t i v e ; a naive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " - r e p e t i t i v e use of phrase "don't ; : p h i l o s o p h i z e " - frequent use of repetitive phrases e) miscellaneous references to d i c t i o n - used bad grammar - couldn't speak E n g l i s h properly - doesn't f i n i s h sentences - poor command of E n g l i s h 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 98 APPENDIX B1(CONT'D) -MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS E F F E C T I V E INEFFECTIVE f ) miscellaneous references t o pronu n c i a t i o n - poor attempt pronouncing word 1 - spoke i n f o r e i g n accent 1 - read t e x t w i t h mediocre accent 1 g) miscellaneous references to q u a l i t y and choice of words - spontaneous phrasing 1 - pauses to p i c k out s p e c i f i c words 1 - used d i f f e r e n t language than the textbook 1 CLASS TOTAL 1 2£ 3. Speed of p r e s e n t a t i o n a) excessive speed, l a c k of pause 12 b) paused, paced l e c t u r e , allowed time f o r note-taking 5 c) presented at moderate speed 2 d) miscellaneous references to speed of p r e s e n t a t i o n - purposely raced through s e c t i o n that the t e x t covered w e l l 1 - went r a p i d l y from beginning of hour 1 - covered m a t e r i a l r a p i d l y 1 CLASS TOTAL 9 13 k. Orderliness and o r g a n i z a t i o n of pr e s e n t a t i o n a) changes from t o p i c to t o p i c , f o l l o w s no p a t t e r n , disorganized 11 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE k. Orderliness and organization of presentation (cont'd) b) material presented i n l o g i c a l , systematic order 10 CLASS TOTAL 10 11 12 jp. Use of notes a) dictated, read notes f o r whole hour b) used no notes 2 c) miscellaneous references to use of notes - returned to o f f i c e to retrieve notes 1 - dropped* notes on f l o o r , class waited u n t i l a l l picked up 1 - sought for exact quote i n notes, f a i l e d to find i t 1 - forced to return to notes a f t e r ad l i b 1 - consulted notes when realized proof incorrect 1 - dictated notes i f seemed necessary CLASS TOTAL 7 13 6. Summarizing and review a) gave summary of previous lecture 7 1 b) summarized or reviewed at end of section, year or end of hour 5 c) seldom summarized; didn't review 2 100 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS 6. Summarizing and review (cont'd) d) miscellaneous references to summarizing and reviewing - provided an organized summary - p e r s i s t e d i n summarizing, r a t h e r than d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c problem EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE CLASS TOTAL 13 k 7. Use of unusual techniques a) brings guest l e c t u r e r b) asked students to take no notes c) conducted tours d) leaves student w i t h something to t h i n k about e) moved c l a s s to o f f i c e or seminar room f ) miscellaneous references to unusual techniques - used c l a s s member as p r i n c i p a l piece of apparatus i n demonstration - used f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s names to stand f o r p o i n t s on a t r i a n g l e when d i s -cussing t r igonometric f u n c t i o n s - used "shocking", e x t r a o r d i n a r y phrases - conducts c l a s s as study group k i 2 2 2 1 1 CLASS TOTAL Ik 8. Use of o u t l i n e s a) o u t l i n e s t o p i c s of whole course b) gives t o p i c s of next l e c t u r e c) i n d i c a t e d m a t e r i a l to be covered 5 k 3 101 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS 8 . ' Use of o u t l i n e s (cont'd) d) miscellaneous references to use of ou t l i n e s - followed given outline - f a i l e d to f o l l o w o u t l i n e EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE CLASS TOTAL 13 9 . Use of outside references and a u t h o r i t i e s a) gave references of a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t to l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l 9 b) brings ou t s i d e , source m a t e r i a l i n t o c l a s s 3 1 1 CLASS TOTAL ' 12 10. Reading, d i c t a t i n g l e c t u r e a) read or followed t e x t , books 11 CLASS TOTAL 11 11. Use of classroom demonstration a) made use o f demonstrations (equipment) 3 b) miscellaneous references to use of s p e c i f i c kinds of demonstrations - p r a c t i c a l demonstration of equipment 1 - performed experiments i n c l a s s 1 - demonstrated l a b . technique 1 102 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 11. Use of classroom demonstration (cont'd) b) miscellaneous references to use of s p e c i f i c kinds of demonstrations - used a c t u a l equipment to demonstrate p r i n t making 1 - used chemicals to augment v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n 1 - used mercury hammer to i l l u s t r a t e e f f e c t s of low temperature 1 - demonstration poor 1 - experiments i n c l a s s f a i l e d 1 CLASS TOTAL 9 2 12. Level of l e c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n to student a b i l i t y a) l e c t u r e d i r e c t e d above l e v e l of most students b) l e c t u r e d i r e c t e d to bottom l e v e l , or below i n t e l l e c t u a l capacity of most students c) miscellaneous references to l e v e l of le c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n to student's a b i l i t y - takes f o r granted student remembers work of previous years - treated students as beginners - assumes c l a s s knows as much as he does - assumes terms understood 3 3 1 1 1 1 CLASS TOTAL 0 10 103 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 13. D i s c r e t e references to d e t a i l e d vs. general approach a) miscellaneous references to point by point p r e s e n t a t i o n - gave d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of f a c t s and apparatus 1 - p r e s e n t a t i o n point by point 1 - each point enlarged upon 1 - too much d e t a i l stressed 1 - undue emphasis or a n a l y s i s on one aspect of m a t e r i a l 1 b) miscellaneous references t o general approach - h a b i t u a l l y examined general problems 1 - broad coverage before d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s 1 - spoke i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s 1 CLASS TOTAL 3 5 l k . U t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e time a) extended l e c t u r e or course k b) miscellaneous references to s t a r t i n g time of l e c t u r e - begins immediately a f t e r b e l l 1 - begins before c l a s s s i l e n t 1 - waits 1-1-g- minutes a f t e r b e l l 1 c) miscellaneous references to u t i l i z a -t i o n of a v a i l a b l e time - gave no reason f o r f i n i s h i n g l e c t u r e e a r l y 1 - t r i e s to cover too l a r g e a f i e l d i n time a v a i l a b l e 1 CLASS TOTAL 1 8 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD 10k CLASS l5« Use of r e p e t i t i o n a) repeats d i f f i c u l t or important m a t e r i a l b) repeats m a t e r i a l already covered EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE CLASS TOTAL 16. C l a r i t y of pr e s e n t a t i o n a) c l e a r b' Incoherent, u n c l e a r 5 3 CLASS TOTAL 17. I n t e g r a t i n g course m a t e r i a l a) r e l a t e s more complicated m a t e r i a l to simpler m a t e r i a l or to m a t e r i a l f a m i l i a r to student k b) miscellaneous references to e f f o r t s to i n t e g r a t e course m a t e r i a l - one statement r e l a t e d to r e s t of course 1 - l i n k s various phases of course i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the bas i c problem 1 - gave a l l events l e a d i n g up t o t o p i c 1 - unemotional a p p r a i s a l of s i t u a t i o n using previous m a t e r i a l 1 CLASS TOTAL 8 0 i o 5 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS 18. Use of emphasis a) emphasized important points b) f a i l e d to emphasize m a t e r i a l or to d i s t i n g u i s h one t o p i c from another EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 5 CLASS TOTAL 19. Stayed on t o p i c a) goes o f f on tangent, circumscribes point b) stuck to point CLASS TOTAL 20. D i s c r e t e references to l e c t u r e technique (presentation and d e l i v e r y ) a) miscellaneous references to presenta-t i o n and d e l i v e r y - used new f a c t s and new approach when answering the query of student who had missed the point 1 - present w i t h zest 1 - keeps l e c t u r e s f r e s h and a l i v e 1 - informal d e l i v e r y 1 - present l o g i c a l , sound arguments 1 - read passage wi t h s i n c e r i t y and emotion 1 - course arranged such that student aware of m a t e r i a l to be covered each day, but not aware who would be c a l l e d on t o answer 1 - pra i s e d work before c r i t i c a l l y e v a l u a t i n g i t 1 - b u i l t up c u r i o s i t y , and a n t i c i p a t i o n by able d e s c r i p t i o n of an event, then showed the movie 1 106 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 20. D i s c r e t e references to l e c t u r e technique ( p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y ) (cont'd.) a) miscellaneous references to presen-t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y (cont'd) - avoided changing mind about s t a t e -ments and demonstrations 1 - r e v i s e d o l d m a t e r i a l whenever encountered, l e f t nothing f o r granted 1 - allow student to f i l l i n by study 1 - presented i n f r i e n d l y manner 1 - presents m a t e r i a l i n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d f a s h i o n 1 - prec i s e 1 - the seemingly rote "'pouring out of material"' day a f t e r monotonous day 1 - l e c t u r e r i s l i k e a tape recorder; turned on at beginning, turned o f f at end 1 - presented m a t e r i a l d r y l y 1 - exceedingly wordy 1 - overly r a m i f i e d h i s po i n t since most informat i o n i n t e x t 1 - gave d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n at r a p i d pace f o r $0 minutes 1 - skimmed important m a t e r i a l a f t e r being stuck i n e a r l i e r p a r t of l e c t u r e 1 - u n f a m i l i a r words not explained or sp e l l e d 1 - cancelled k l e c t u r e s i n a row w i t h no n o t i f i c a t i o n of any kind to student 1 - f i l l e d w i t h s o l i l o q u i e s 1 - covered only the h i g h l i g h t s of course 1 - too intense d e l i v e r y 1 1 0 7 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 2 0 . D i s c r e t e references to l e c t u r e technique ( p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y ) (cont'd) b) miscellaneous references to d i s -t r i b u t i o n of mimeographed subject m a t e r i a l - d i s t r i b u t e d l i s t of l e c t u r e t o p i c s 1 - d i s t r i b u t e d poems he wished read 1 - d i s t r i b u t e d complicated subject m a t e r i a l 1 - d i s t r i b u t e d study o u t l i n e 1 - d i s t r i b u t e d a l i s t of d e f i n i t i o n s , read f o r whole hour 1 - d i s t r i b u t e d two sets of m a t e r i a l , the f i r s t s e t i n c o r r e c t 1 c) miscellaneous references t o s p e c i f i c l e c t u r e r e r r o r s - s t a r t e d proof, began a f a i n , made another e r r o r 1 - discovered mistake a f t e r long d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of problem 1 - frequent erasures of e r r o r r i d d e n diagram 1 - erased work when stuck on proof 1 - corrected s e l f regarding matter dis -r cussed i n previous l e c t u r e s . 1 d) miscellaneous references to attempts at r e l a t i n g course m a t e r i a l - attempts to i n t e g r a t e m a t e r i a l w i t h other r e l e v a n t courses 1 - t i e d i n course m a t e r i a l w i t h p o l i -t i c a l occurrences 1 - analyzed PTA meeting which f i t t e d w e l l i n t o the course m a t e r i a l under d i s c u s s i o n 1 - explained what subject taught meant to our s o c i e t y , what i t w i l l mean to the student, why he chose the f i e l d 1 108 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A- TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 20. discrete references to lecture technique (presentation and delivery) (cont'd) e) miscellaneous references to s p e c i f i c forms of carelessness - l e f t out simpler steps in derivation 1 - of a complicated formula - began new material before completing l a s t days' work 1 - explained points i n perfunctory manner 1 CLASS TOTAL 23 22 SUB-AREA TOTAL 158 173 109 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD I. REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. w i l l i n g n e s s ; readiness to answer or acknowledge questions or sugges-t i o n s a) ignored, discouraged, r e s t r i c t e d questions 11 b) welcomes suggestions, seems ready to acknowledge student's questions 8 c) miscellaneous references to w i l l i n g -ness; readiness to answer or acknow-ledge questions or suggestions - sketches answer on blackboard In response to student's query 1 - reached i n t o h i s pocket and thr u s t change found t h e r e i n i n t o amazed student's hand f o r asking p a r t i c -u l a r l y i n t e l l i g e n t question 1 - i n response to question and h i s i n a b i l i t y to answer same, began reas-oning and t h i n k i n g such that students could f o l l o w 1 - asked f o r question, got one, unable to solve 1 - response to question was "Uh" and a smile 1 CLASS TOTAL 11 13 2. d i s c r e t e r e a c t i o n s to student c o n t r i b u t i o n s a) reacted w i t h r i d i c u l e , sarcasm, be-l i t t l e m e n t l k b) d i s p l a y of h o s t i l i t y , anger, annoy-ance 7 c) squelching students 3 d) i n t e r r u p t i o n of student c o n t r i b u t i o n s 2 e) miscellaneous r e a c t i o n s to student c o n t r i b u t i o n s - p o l i t e l y apologized f o r asking student to comment on a book a f t e r student r e p l i e d he hadn't read same 1 110 . APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD I. REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 2. d i s c r e t e r e a c t i o n s to student c o n t r i b u t i o n s (cont'd) e) miscellaneous r e a c t i o n s to student c o n t r i b u t i o n s (cont'd) - admitted some students arguments were v a l i d objections to own theory 1 - f l a t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d student's objec-t i o n to h i s p o i n t , and pointed out student had b e t t e r t h i n k along h i s l i n e s i f he wanted t o pass 1 - assuming s u p e r i o r when questioned on debatable p o i n t 1 - j o k i n g l y handles student's question, o f f e r s no ex p l a n a t i o n 1 - l a c o n i c a l l y r e p l i e s to query, " w e l l " 1 - discourteous of student's opinion when s p e c i f i c a l l y asked f o r 1 - treated questions i n a condescending manne r 1 - asked students i f they couldn't take a joke i n response to t h e i r not sharing h i s amusement 1 - suggested that since no apparent con-cern was shown over the death of one of the members, i t showed a l a c k of s e n s i b i l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y 1 - t o l d student who complained he wasn't speaking loud enough to move c l o s e r 1 - a f t e r asking students i f f o l l o w i n g , and r e c e i v i n g no response, r e p l i e s , "Oh w e l l , not important anyway". 1 - l e c t u r e r s a i d , '"Oh w e l l , i t i s n ' t very important anyway" when student f a i l e d to give meaningful comments about a poem j u s t rendered by l e c t u r e r 1 - tended t o disagree w i t h student's questions which disagreed w i t h approved i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of work under d i s c u s s i o n 1 I l l APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD I. 'REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 2 . discrete reactions to student c o n t r i -butions (cont'd) f) miscellaneous reactions to poor ques-tions from students - c r i t i c i z e s students questions lacking forethought 1 - responded with no der i s i o n to what was considered to be a pointless student question 1 - patient to a f a u l t with students questions and locates kernel of know-ledge among the most innane questions 1 - pointed out inconsistencies i n or subtly rephrased an irrelevant or obscure question 1. - cleverly incorporates stupid student's question into his answer such that errors i n question eliminated 1 - indulged student's i r r e l e v a n t questions 1 - spoke to students about wasting time when asking pointless question 1 - c r i t i c i z e d students ideas and grammar when he attempted to j u s t i f y his statement 1 g) miscellaneous references to asking for j u s t i f i c a t i o n of statements from students - insinuated students believed one authority to be i n f a l l i b l e since he quoted one authority against the other 1 - asked students to substantiate his point, then acted as moderator while students had vigorous discussion 1 112 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A . TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: B . THE DISCUSSION METHOD I.. REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 2. discrete reactions to student c o n t r i -butions (cont'd) g) miscellaneous references to asking f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n of statements from students (cont'd) - asked where students got information regarding influence of environment on development of prostitute 1 CLASS TOTAL 9 1+2-113 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA : ' B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD II". CONTROL OP OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. promotion of d i s c u s s i o n and questions (from c l a s s ) a) promoted, created, made use of d i s -cussion or c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n l k b) encourages and provokes questions from the c l a s s 9 c) encourages debates a t important points i n l e c t u r e 2 d) f a i l e d to promote d i s c u s s i o n or questions 2 e) miscellaneous references t o l e c t u r e r promoting questions and d i s c u s s i o n - c a l l s f o r impromptu d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r each new t o p i c 1 - asked f o r student opinions on contro-v e r s i a l m a t e r i a l 1 - i n v i t e s d i s c u s s i o n by asking f o r general d e f i n i t i o n s of a b s t r a c t ideas 1 - handles m a t e r i a l as i f i t were important enough-:.to s u s t a i n contro-versy 1 - d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of points r a i s e d , f o l l o w i n g a general survey 1 CLASS TOTAL 30 2. Lecturer i n i t i a t e d questions ( d i r e c t e d to c l a s s ) a) asked whole c l a s s questions 1 b) miscellaneous references to s p e c i f i c r e c i p i e n t s of l e c t u r e r ' s questions - c a l l e d on student by name 1 - frequent and unexpected questioning of student by name 1 - d i r e c t s questions to student w i t h s p e c i a l knowledge 1 111+ APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD I I . CONTROL OP OPPORTUNITLESFOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 2 . L e c t u r e r I n i t i a t e d questions ( d i r e c t e d to c l a s s ) (cont'd) b) miscellaneous references t o s p e c i f i c r e c i p i e n t s of l e c t u r e r ' s questions (cont 'dO' - c a l l e d out seat number and demanded answer 1 - c a l l e d repeatedly on students who never had t h e i r assignments f i n i s h e d 1 c) miscellaneous references to kinds of questions d i r e c t e d to students - asked questions leading t o d i s c u s s i o n 1 - d i r e c t questions 1 - leading questions 1 - r h e t o r i c a l questions 1 CLASS TOTAL 8 3 SUB-AREA: TOTAL 58 60 115 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR A2EA: • A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: C. THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL CLASS 1 . Relevancy of content EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE a) i r r e l e v a n t , u n r e l a t e d , outdated, unimportant m a t e r i a l b) avoided i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l c) miscellaneous references to content relevance - paraded own views - inappropriate s t o r i e s about mental i l l n e s s - overemphasized sex - too much time on background m a t e r i a l 1 6 1 1 1 CLASS TOTAL 2 0 2 . Use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and examples a) used concrete examples b) made use of examples and i l l u s t r a t i o n s c) made no use of examples and i l l u s -t r a t i o n s d) miscellaneous references to use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and examples - used poor examples - used examples from t e x t unknown to students - exaggerated examples - too much time spent i l l u s t r a t i n g 1 0 5 1 1 1 CLASS TOTAL 15 3. Use of anecdotes—use of personal experiences a) made general use of anecdotes o r per-sonal experiences b) used personal experiences r e l a t e d to l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l 7 6 1 1 6 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MA JOE AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: C. THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 3. Use of anecdotes—use of personal experiences (cont'd) c) used anecdotes repeatedly 3 d) miscellaneous references to use of anecdotes and personal experiences - r e l a t e s amusing i n c i d e n t s 1 - s t o r i e s seemed to have no ending 1 - experiences were un r e l a t e d to t o p i c 1 - discussed own c o l l e g e years i n d e t a i l 1 CLASS TOTAL l k 6 l i . Use of wit and humour a) used humour t o e s t a b l i s h p o i n t 3 b) used jokes, element of humour 3 c) pokes fun at m a t e r i a l 1 1 d) miscellaneous references as to use of wit and humour - no sense o f humour 1 - used ";unhumourous" joke to e s t a b l i s h point 1 - used i r o n i c humour 1 - used c o l l e g e l e v e l humour 1 CLASS TOTAL 9 3 5 . L e c t u r e r biases a) i n d i c a t e d biases 5 b) p r e s e n t a t i o n unbiased 2 117 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: C. THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 5. Lecturer biases (cont'd)-c) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r bias - allowed bias to influence allotment of class time 1 - taught debatable subject i n one-sided manner 1 CLASS TOTAL 7 2 6. Use of side issues growing out of course '"'a) relevant, Interesting issues 3 b) miscellaneous references to side issues - compared conditions i n other parts of world with those i n Canada 1 - concerned about i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e i n our society 1 - discussed current p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n 1 - discussed Suez Crises 1 CLASS TOTAL 7 0 7. Discrete references to selection and emphasis of subject material a) emphasized simple material 2 b) textbook material used, given no further treatment 2 c) miscellaneous references to attempts to deal with material i n a frank, honest manner - explained d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by experimenter i n discovering drug 1 1 1 8 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: C. THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 7. D i s c r e t e references to s e l e c t i o n and emphasis of subject m a t e r i a l (cont'd) c) miscellaneous references to attempts to deal with m a t e r i a l i n a frank, honest manner (cont'd) - reviewed problems - i n p r o f e s s i o n a l work stemming from the course m a t e r i a l 1 - admitted f o r c e of student's objec-t i o n , rephrased 1 - made point of mentioning point admitted didn't know l a s t day 1 - asked student to accept h i s concept since i t was the most u s e f u l f o r c l a s s ' s purpose 1 - made use of classroom s i t u a t i o n . t o demonstrate t a c t to students 1 - d i d not pad m a t e r i a l 1 - discussed d i f f i c u l t i e s teaching course 1 d) miscellaneous references t o s e l e c t i o n and emphasis of subject m a t e r i a l - d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n of point i n . grammar 1 - proves one over i n f i n i t y doesn't equal two by using i t to prove that one equals two • 1 - f i l l e d out poor speech with s o l i d i n formation 1 - changed symbols In course of s i n g l e proof 1 e) miscellaneous references to use of " f a v o u r i t e m a t e r i a l " as content ' — r e a d m a t e r i a l prepared when he was a student 1 ,T d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e time on f a v o u r i t e m a t e r i a l 1 - gave d e t a i l s of own research 1 - harps on own s p e c i a l i t y 1 1 1 9 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: C. THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D) CIASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 7. Discrete references to sel e c t i o n and emphasis of subject material f) miscellaneous references to use of factual material - used facts to show derivation of theory - showed where opinions made poor use of the facts - supported statements by i n s u f f i c i e n t facts g) miscellaneous references to use of textbook - c r i t i c i z e d text, yet held class responsible - selected the best textbook 1 1 1 1 1 CLASS TOTAL SUB-AREA TOTAL 69 kl 120 A P P E N D I X B (CONT'D) M A J O R AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: D. SPECIAL METHODS CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. A v a i l a b i l i t y f o r e x t r a c o n s u l t a t i o n a) stays a f t e r hours to discuss p o i n t s , gives e x t r a sessions 6 b) requests p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w , gives p r i v a t e advice outside classroom k c) refused a d d i t i o n a l h e l p , seldom stays a f t e r hours 2 CLASS TOTAL 10 2 2. Taunting, b u l l y i n g , r i d i c u l i n g , h u m i l i a -t i n g students a) made a general p r a c t i c e of tau n t i n g , b u l l y i n g , r i d i c u l i n g , h u m i l i a t i n g .students k b) miscellaneous references to use of taunti n g , b u l l y i n g , r i d i c u l i n g , h u m i l i a t i n g students - takes shyest student to f r o n t of room and t o r t u r e s them l i k e k i d with bug on end of p i n 1 - used name of student to make remarks about h i s poor showing, student wasn't present 1 - r e f e r r e d to students by name I n order to embarrass them 1 - s i n g l i n g out one student f o r u n f a i r c r i t i c i s m i n f r o n t of whole c l a s s 1 - c a l l e d student to f r o n t of c l a s s and demanded reason f o r l a t e n e s s 1 - spoke har s h l y to a s s i s t a n t i n that he was unable to comment on exam papers j u s t r e f e r r e d to 1 - presumed to amuse c l a s s by making fun of c l a s s member 1 CLASS TOTAL 0 11 121 APPENDIX B ('CONT'D) MA JO® AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: D. SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 3- Personal i n t e r e s t In students a) indulged i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s (showed d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) 3 b) seemed genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n students 2 c) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s personal i n t e r e s t i n students - gave encouragement '1 - made e f f o r t to know each student separately 1 - c a l l e d student by name 1 - l a c k of i n t e r e s t f o r student's c o n t r i b u t i o n w i t h student f e l t was 1 of general I n t e r e s t CLASS TOTAL $ k k. Use of sarcasm a) made general use of sarcasm £ b) miscellaneous references to use of sarcasm - no sarcasm or i r o n y 1 CLASS TOTAL 1 5 5 . Regard f o r student a b i l i t y a) i n s i n u a t e s students s t u p i d or t r e a t s students as i f stupid k 122 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A." TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: D. SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 5 . Regard f o r student a b i l i t y b) miscellaneous references t o regard f o r student's a b i l i t y - regards students as mature, i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , not Dick and Jane 1 CLASS TOTAL 1 k 6. Rearrangement of c l a s s members a) rearranged c l a s s i n t o s m a l l groups 2 b) miscellaneous references t o c l a s s rearrangements - arranged students i n c i r c l e and present paper which was discussed by the group 1 - assigned seminars on c e r t a i n days i n place of usual essay 1 CLASS TOTAL ij. 0 7. Stimulates t h i n k i n g a) leaves c l a s s with s t i m u l a t i n g thought 2 b) miscellaneous references to s t i m u l a t -ing thought - doesn't encourage c l a s s to t h i n k 1 CLASS TOTAL 2 1 123 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: wTEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: D. SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 8. D i s c r e t e references to s p e c i a l methods a) miscellaneous references to use of s p e c i a l methods - asked each student to use the word " c l a s s i c " i n sentence, d i s c u s s i o n followed.and meaning was f u r t h e r narrowed such that her use of word c l a r i f i e d 1 - appointment of another c l a s s member to read a report to be d e l i v e r e d by cl a s s member, and t o c r i t i c i z e i t when d e l i v e r e d 1 - organized debating team to deal w i t h t o p i c during one l e c t u r e period 1 - student asked t o prepare and present formal argument - r e f u t e d by l e c t u r e r 1 - appoints group t o conduct p a r t of c l a s s 1 - student board work 1 - l e c t u r e r asked each student to wri t e one answer on the board which were gone through i n t u r n 1 - l e c t u r e r hunted up s l i d e student u s i n g , discovered a r t i f a c t t h e r e i n , adjusted mark 1 - l e c t u r e r had student present papers and debate them 1 - each c l a s s member assigned t o p i c to disc u s s on character i n play, or s t r u c t u r e , e t c . 1 - l e c t u r e r asked c l a s s f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s of course and i t s content and accepted suggestions 1 - greets c l a s s with smile and "good morning", and ends by thanking them f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s 1 - introduced c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o i n t s 1 - l e c t u r e r r e q u i r e d students to read aloud 1 12k APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: D. SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 8. D i s c r e t e (cont'd) reference to s p e c i a l methods b) miscellaneous references t o use of p r a c t i c e e x ercise and problem s o l v i n g - aids i n organizing t h i n k i n g ; shows i n t e r e s t i n students who put greater e f f o r t i n t o course 1 - l e c t u r e r asked student to do problems i n c l a s s on t h e i r own 1 - assigned l a r g e amount of research work to the students, c l a s s time used t o have students report f i n d i n g s - d i f f i c u l t points I n computation l e f t to student as an exercise - l e c t u r e r asked students to look up and f i n i s h theorem had been d i s c u s s i n g i n a general way i n c l a s s c) miscellaneous references to e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r methods f o r prompting s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with students - l e c t u r e r arranged a party and purely r e c r e a t i o n a l f i e l d t r i p 1 - formed a club 1 - students i n v i t e d f o r dinner 1 1 1 CLASS TOTAL 18 k SUB-AREA TOTAL k l 31 125 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: -"E. AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. Use of the blackboard a) wrote i n d i s t i n c t l y on blackboard (poor q u a l i t y , s c r i b b l e d ) 7 b) wrote summary of t o p i c s f o r l e c t u r e , charted out where going i n l e c t u r e 6 c) wrote new or unusual terms on blackboard 3 d) drew diagrams on blackboard 2 e) spent long time w r i t i n g on blackboard 2 f ) wrote i n a random f a s h i o n on b l a c k -board 2 g) miscellaneous references to use of blackboard - asked student to put p r e v i o u s l y prepared problem on the board 1 - p r e s e n t a t i o n of greater p o r t i o n of l e c t u r e on the blackboard 1 - augmented board work w i t h s u f f i c i e n t a d d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l to make m a t e r i a l comprehensible 1 - used blackboard f o r p u t t i n g down equations, augmenting verbal d e s c r i p t i o n 1 - used blackboard to s t r e s s points 1 - used blackboard to define terms and derive formula 1 - drew p u r p o s e f u l l y i n c o r r e c t diagram on board, asked students to c o r r e c t 1 - accompanies blackboard work with v e r b a l d e s c r i p t i o n 1 - wrote plan of lab on board and added to i t during the l e c t u r e 1 - didn't w r i t e on blackboard 1 - erased equations before students can copy 1 - doesn't make use of board t o e x p l a i n d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l 1 CLASS TOTAL 18 16 126 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: E. AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 2. Use of s l i d e s a) augments d i s c u s s i o n , i l l u s t r a t e s p o i n t s with s l i d e s b) made use of s l i d e s c) miscellaneous use of s l i d e s - photographed textbook and showed on s l i d e s - f i l l e d i n great many l e c t u r e s w i t h s l i d e s - a l l l e c t u r e time taken up wi t h 5 5 1 1 1 CLASS TOTAL 10 3 3 . Use of maps and cha r t s a) used large maps b) miscellaneous references t o use of maps and charts - used chart which couldn't be seen from the t h i r d row 2 1 CLASS TOTAL 2 1 k. D i s c r e t e references to use o f audio-v i s u a l techniques a) made use of motion p i c t u r e s b) made use of p i c t o r a l m a t e r i a l c) made use of recordings 6 5 5 CLASS TOTAL 16 0 SUB-A1EA TOTAL 46 20 127 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOB AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: P. MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. D i s c r e t e references to maintaining d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l a) miscellaneous references t o the handling of student induced d i s t r a c t i o n s - asked student not to smoke i n a quiet voice i - asked student to leave i n p o l i t e , f i r m f a s h i o n 1 - handled a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g remarks with patience but firmness 1 - asked garrolous student i f he would l i k e t o complete the l e c t u r e 1 - removed f a i n t e d student from exam q u i c k l y 1 - never allow p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l s to dominate 1 - allows student t o harangue on t o p i c unrelated 1 b) miscellaneous references to the hand l i n g of l a t e a r r i v a l s - i n s i s t s on p u n c t u a l i t y i n attendance, handing i n work, e t c . 1 - refused t o admit l a t e student 1 - threw student out f o r coming l a t e 1 - frequent ordering out of l a t e students 1 - upbraids c l a s s of 200 f o r lateness of S% 1 c) miscellaneous references to the main-t a i n i n g of d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l - discourages e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y t 1 - demonstrated no d i s c i p l i n e 1 - arranged i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order 1 - unjust l e v y i n g of demerits f o r un t i d y lab tables 1 -- demanded students wait a f t e r b e l l 1 12'8 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: P. MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE l i Discrete references to maintaining d i s c i p l i n e and control (cont'd) d) miscellaneous references to c o n t r o l l i n g noise - walked out after reprimanding student for noise and getting no res u l t - turned off "hood" i n chemistry - stated anyone wishing to talk would be asked to leave e) miscellaneous references to standards of work expected - used threats at beginning of term concerning quality of work expected - demands s p e c i f i c standard - informed class they had to work harder, set up own school performance as standard - condemned class for sloppy work f) miscellaneous references to attendance - stated didn't care i f came or not, wouldn't take attendance - takes attendance - announced the r a t i o of attendance to non-attendance would determine the number of passes and f a i l u r e s g) miscellaneous references to charity collections - rejected right to i n t e r f e r e in c l a s s -room to make c o l l e c t i o n since d i d not have authority from administration - refused to allow student campaigners for charity 1 1 1 1 1 1 SUB-AREA: TOTAL 18 11 1 2 9 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR A'REA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: G. STUDENT APPRAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1 . Examinations a) s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n of student f o r exams 1 2 b) miscellaneous references to ki n d of quizes and t e s t s - i n d i v i d u a l exams to point out areas of d i f f i c u l t y i n each student 1 - gave t e s t a t end of each month 1 - i n t e r m i t t e n t review questions 1 - general quiz on t o p i c s to be discussed 1 c) miscellaneous references to handling exam r e s u l t s - rank ordered r e s u l t s 1 - posted r e s u l t s w i t h i n week 1 - read out r e s u l t s by name 1 d) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r expectations on exams - required understanding rather than memory 1 - asked questions on which the l e a s t amount of time had been spent 1 - expects verbatim notes back on exams 1 e) miscellaneous references to marking - explained each e r r o r to I n d i v i d u a l students 1 - marked w i t h personal comment 1 CLASS TOTAL 1 0 $ 2 . Assignments a) gave l i s t of work ahead of time b) miscellaneous references to the handling of essays - asks f o r small essays r a t h e r than term essays 130 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAD! A UCA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: G. STUDENT APP:HAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 2. Assignments (cont'd) b) miscellaneous references to the handling of essays (cont'd) - approves student essay top i c before written 1 - essays handed <mt i n class time, then went on with regular work 1 - emphasis on layout rather than content 1 - gave poor mark for essay that disagreed with lecturer's interpretation, but agreed with the author 1 - announced ad hoc the value of an essay 1 - rewrote essay to conform to own wording 1 c) miscellaneous references to term assign-ments - assigned areas related to work under discussion 1 - demands cover a l l o t e d reading 1 - demanded long grammar exercises 1 CLASS TOTAL 6 6 SUB-A1EA TOTAL 16 11 AREA TOTAL k06 351 131 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC, AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. I n t e r e s t and enthusiasm f o r subject a) i n t e r e s t e d and e n t h u s i a s t i c 13 b) seemed d i s i n t e r e s t e d , bored; la c k s spontaneity 13 CLASS TOTAL 13 13 2. P o s i t i o n i n f r o n t of the c l a s s a) pacing; moving about 2 7 b) does not face c l a s s 8 _^ CLASS TOTAL 2 1$ 3. P u n c t u a l i t y ( a r r i v i n g a t , l e a v i n g c l a s s ) a) a r r i v e s l a t e to l e c t u r e 8 b) explains or apologizes f o r la t e n e s s 3 c) leaves c l a s s immediately at b e l l 2 CLASS TOTAL 3 10 k. Habits and mannerisms a) laughing, chuckling at subject m a t e r i a l 3 b) smoking 1 1 c) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s mannerisms - annoying h a b i t s (pacing, f l i c k i n g notes, c l e a r i n g throat) 1 132 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MA JOE AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC, AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE k. Habits and mannerisms (cont'd) c) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s mannerisms (cont'd) - stretched and yawns 1 - obnoxious remarks 1 - read paper before c l a s s 1 - p u l l e d at h a i r on l e g 1 CLASS TOTAL 1 9 5 . Conceding personal l i m i t a t i o n s a) admitted u n c e r t a i n of a p o i n t , or l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n 5 3 b) p l a g i a r i z e s student's c r i t i q u e s 2 c) pointed out d i f f i c u l t i e s experiencing with d i f f i c u l t p o r t i o n of the work 1 CLASS TOTAL 6. D i s c r e t e references to temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s a) f o r c e f u l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , dominant k 1 b) f r i e n d l y , charming, pleasant lj-c) dogmatic 3 d) s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , nervous 2 e) miscellaneous references to tempera-mental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s - coloured and laughed at ambiguous statement 1 - p a t i e n t 1 - devoted to research 1 - s i n c e r i t y of tone 1 133 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC, AND . MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 6. D i s c r e t e references to temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s (cont'd) e) miscellaneous references to tempera-mental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s '(cont' d) - l a c k of personal egotism 1 - no imagination 1 - s t e r n , s u l k y , s t i f f demeanor 1 f ) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s concern f o r student's f e e l i n g s - followed student's suggestion con-cerning how to present m a t e r i a l 1 - asked i f speaking loud enough 1 - knows how student f e e l s about course 1 - sensed c l a s s a t t i t u d e , stopped and explained 1 - keeps student's needs i n other course i n mind 1 g) miscellaneous references to the personal expression of l e c t u r e r ' s opinions - expressed o p i n i o n only a f t e r c l a s s opinion tapped by vote 1 - committed h i m s e l f to s p e c i f i c opinion 1 - used strong opinions 1 - t o l d c l a s s h i s opinion was the only one that counted 1 h) miscellaneous references t o l e c t u r e r ' s appearance - neat 1 - female l e c t u r e r wearing excessive make-up, loud c l o t h i n g 1 i ) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards inadequate f a c i l i t i e s - condemns l i b r a r y system here 1 - t e l l s students to "make out with what they have" 1 134 APPENDLX B (CONT'D) MA JO® AREA: B. PERS ON AL ITY TRAITS SUB-AREA:- A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 6, D i s c r e t e references to temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s (cont'd) j) miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s prejudices - lack of prejudices i allowed f r e e indulgence of h i s prejudices 1 1 CLASS TOTAL 22 14 SUB-AREA TOTAL 47 66 135 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: B". ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 1. A b i l i t y t o answer questions a) unable to answer questions; u n s a t i s f a c t o r y answers 5 b) answers questions without l o s i n g the thread of the l e c t u r e 2 c) miscellaneous references to manner of answering questions - with a l a c r i t y 1 - b r i e f l y 1 - i n g e n e r a l i t i e s 1 - d i s c r i m i n a t i n g r e p l y 1 - longwinded 1 - many f a l s e s t a r t s 1 - f a i l s to understand student's point of view 1 - confused when questioned 1 d) miscellaneous references to s p e c i f i c a b i l i t i e s - l e c t u r e r l i k e d p u b l i c speaker 1 - was able t o command student a t t e n t i o n 1 - had a b i l i t y to make student l i k e him as a person 1 - i n a b i l i t y to put over joke 1 CLASS TOTAL 9 10 2. Knowledge of subject m a t e r i a l a) f a m i l i a r w i t h subject m a t e r i a l b) u n f a m i l i a r with subject m a t e r i a l ; l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n CLASS TOTAL 9 136 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: B. ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE 3 . Preparedness a) w e l l prepared (apparatus; to de-l i v e r l e c t u r e ) b ) unprepared, poorly prepared 9 $ CLASS TOTAL 9 5 SUB-AREA TOTAL 27 20 AREA TOTAL 71+ 86 PINAL TOTAL k80 1+37 APPENDIX C CRITICAL BEHAVIORS BY FREQUENCY UNDER EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY SUB-AREA: A. MOTIVATIONAL STATE CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, atten-tion; r e l i e v e d boredom 1. a) b) c) d) e) f) S) h) I) J) k) used audio-visual techniques, class demonstrations made use of and/or provoked student contributions referred to, or made use of 'outside' issues or material used anecdotes, wit, humour appeared interested i n the subject conducted tours, on or off campus good knowledge of material sensed class's attitude spoke i n a clear voice related personal miscellaneous - moved class to - set time aside experi ences o f f i c e 15 10 7 7 5 2 2 2 2 2 every two weeks to discuss previous two weeks material gave word of advice outside class assigned areas to student which were related to t o p i c under discussion digressed on points of general intere st a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j ) Generated feelings of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, tedious; students l o s t Interest spoke In a monotone 7 read material d i r e c t l y from notes or text 6 showed a lack of Interest or e f f o r t 5 arrived late consistently 3 over-emphasized the obvious 3 voice inaudible, unclear, low 2 answered student s a r c a s t i c a l l y 2 disorderly presentation 2 irrelevant digressions 2 miscellaneous - overworked word "important" - Indulged student's i r r e l e v a n t questions - repeats most of previous lecture as background f o r l e c t u r e - presents material point by point - uses phrases such as; "a simple derivative; a naive interpre-tation" - used bad grammar APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CRITICAL BEHAVIORS BY FREQUENCY UNDER EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY SUB-AREA: A. MOTIVATIONAL STATE (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom (cont'd) k) miscellaneous (cont'd) - lectured, very r a p i d l y from beginning of hour - avoided i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l - proved one over i n f i n i t y doesnt equal zero by using i t t o prove that one equals two - read passage w i t h s i n c e r i t y and emotion - l e c t u r e notes r e g u l a r l y supple-mented with good i l l u s t r a t i o n s - spontaneously and i n t e r e s t i n g l y phrased - set procedure f o r d e a l i n g w i t h c o n t r o v e r s i a l m a t e r i a l - gives f a c t s , case f o r each s i d e , q u e stion p e r i o d , opinions discussed - keeps l e c t u r e f r e s h and a l i v e - a b i l i t y to answer a l l questions without d e v i a t i n g from l e c t u r e content - asked g e n e r a l questions ( s m a l l c l a s s ) - asked r h e t o r i c a l questions (l a r g e c l a s s ) 1. Generated f e e l i n g s of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, tedious; students l o s t i n t e r e s t (cont'd) j ) miscellaneous (cont'd) - l a c k of e f f o r t to make a d u l l course more i n t e r e s t i n g . - repeatedly derided students - l a c k s spontaneity and d r i v e - spent f o r t y minutes espounding on areas unrelated to demonstra-t i o n set-up - d i d not look at the c l a s s - dropped notes on f l o o r ; c l a s s waited u n t i l a l l picked up - t o l d students that they shouldn't have to be catered to w i t h p r e t t i e d -up m a t e r i a l , and r e c i t e d dogmatic m a t e r i a l from the t e x t - paced back and f o r t h - no sense of humour - photographed the t e x t book and showed on s l i d e s - annoying h a b i t s (pacing, f l i c k i n g pages of notes, c o n t i n u a l l y c l e a r i n g t h r o a t ) - wrote pouring out of m a t e r i a l day a f t e r monotonous day Lo CO APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CRITICAL BEHAVIORS BY FREQUENCY UNDER EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY SUB-AREA: A. ' MOTIVATIONAL STATE (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom (cont'd) k) miscellaneous (cont'd) - f r i e n d l y a t t i t u d e . - r e l a t e s m a t e r i a l to previous learned m a t e r i a l - f o r c e f u l , p e r s o n a l i t y , and degree of p r e p a r a t i o n - an i n d i v i d u a l i s t CLASS TOTAL 7k 5,0. 2. S t i m u l a t e s , motivates; provokes f u r t h e r reading and t h i n k i n g ; f o s t e r s a d e s i r e to work harder a) closed l e c t u r e w i t h thought provoking ideas; i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n g outside reading b) shows i n t e r e s t i n student queries 3 2 i—1 Lo v O APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2. S t i m u l a t e s , motivates; provokes f u r t h e r reading and t h i n k i n g ; f o s t e r s a d e s i r e to work harder (cont'd) c) miscellaneous - genuine personal i n t e r e s t i n students - gave problem demonstrating theory j u s t d i s c u s s e d - attempts to l i n k the various phases of the course i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f the b a s i c problem - made an e f f o r t to draw the cl a s s i n t o d i s c u s s i o n - committed himself to a s p e c i f i c o p i n i o n - answered i n g e n e r a l i t i e s , a l l o w i n g the student to f i l l i n the d e t a i l s - r e f e r r e d t o the f a c t t h a t he was l e c t u r i n g ' o f f the c u f f , and suggested that t h i s was. how w e l l they should know the subject - made use o f student board work - course was arranged such that the student was aware of m a t e r i a l to be covered each day, but not aware who would be c a l l e d upon to answer - purposely raced through a s e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l the textbook covered ^ p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l o APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2. S t i m u l a t e s , m o t i v a t e s ; p r o v o k e s f u r t h e r r e a d i n g and t h i n k i n g ' ; f o s t e r s a d e s i r e t o work h a r d e r c) m i s c e l l a n e o u s ( c o n t ' d ) - a r r a n g e d a p a r t y and p u r e l y r e c r e a t i o n a l f i e l d t r i p - r a n k o r d e r e d exam r e s u l t s - went out o f h i s way t o i n f o r m the c l a s s t h a t he would be l a t e - used s t r o n g t a l k and t h r e a t s a t the b e g i n n i n g of the term con-c e r n i n g the q u a l i t y o f work e x p e c t e d — — CLASS TOTAL 19 . - T — SUB-AREA TOTAL 93 . 5> (-1 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY SUB-AREA: B. GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Generated f e e l i n g s of res p e c t , admir-a t i o n ; g e n e r a l l y made a favourable impression a) conceded o r admitted an e r r o r , or u n c e r t a i n of p o i n t 3 b) miscellaneous - manifested personal b r i l l i a n c e - f r i e n d l y - presented l o g i c a l , sound argument - a b i l i t y to answer queries without l o s i n g the thread of the l e c t u r e - apologized p o l i t e l y f o r asking a student to comment on m a t e r i a l f o r which he was unprepared - p a t i e n t w i t h student questions - dominant, d i r e c t - i n s i s t s on p u n c t u a l i t y i n attendance, assignments. 1. Generated f e e l i n g s of resentment, i r r i t a t i o n , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , d i s -appointment, annoyance, antagonism, d i s t a s t e ; minimized "feed-back", i n s u l t i n g . a) was dogmatic 3 b) squelched students' ideas or d i s c u s s i o n 2 c) . miscellaneous - c o n t i n u a l r e p e t i t i v e use of pet word - pronounced s t r i c t n e s s - c u r t mannerisms - obnoxious remarks - l e c t u r i n g below the i n t e l l e c -t u a l l e v e l of students - takes attendance, i n s i s t s on no gum-chewing, t a l k i n g - spends more time i l l u s t r a t i n g than s t a t i n g points - r e f e r r e d t o psychotics as "crazy" - i n s i n u a t e d student b e l i e v e d one a u t h o r i t y against the other - a r r i v e d two to f i v e minutes l a t e each day - arranged students i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order - t o l d student who complained that he wasn't speaking loud enough to move c l o s e r i - 1 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS . EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Generated f e e l i n g s of resentment, i r r i t a t i o n , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , d i s -appointment, annoyance, antagonism, d i s t a s t e ; minimized "feed-back", i n s u l t i n g (cont'd) c) miscellaneous•(cont'd) - announced that the r a t i o of attendance to non-attendance would determine the number of passes and f a i l u r e s - looks through notes f o r exact quote, unable t o f i n d i t - repeatedly mentioned t r i p e , f i l m s seen - allowed students to harangue on u n r e l a t e d t o p i c s - disagreed with students' questions which disagreed w i t h approved I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the work under dis cussion - r i d i c u l e d student who responded to h i s request f o r t r a n s l a t i o n of expression - asked c l a s s i f they couldn't take a joke i n response t o t h e i r not shar-ing h i s amusement - spent a l l h i s time condemning the l i b r a r y system here, and lauded h i s own u n i v e r s i t y ' s system - asked c l a s s what he was going t o d i s -cuss, since he had f a i l e d t o b r i n g any m a t e r i a l -p-L O APPENDIX G (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS TOTAL 11 2. Generation of classroom 'atmosphere' a) made use of or stimulates student c ont r i bu t i ons 3 b) miscellaneous - strides up and down between the a i i l e s - undiscriminating, f r i e n d l y , sincere attitude 1. Generated feelings of resentment, i r r i t a t i o n , d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n , d i s -appointment, annoyance, antagonism, distaste ; minimized "feed-back", i n s u l t i n g (cont'd) c) miscellaneous (cont'd) - said that he f a i l e d to do his home Tro rk - extended the lecture ten minutes i n order to complete a proof - told stories that seemed to have no ending - emphasis on nearly every word - assigned a large amount of research work to the students, and used class time to report the findings 31 2. Generated feelings of tension, d i s -tress, anxiety, f r u s t r a t i o n , em-barrassment, r e j e c t i o n fearfulness; generally lowered morale a) s a r c a s t i c , r i d i c u l e d students; h y p e r c r i t i c a l 7 b) indulged in personalities 2 c) poorly prepared 2 APPENDIX G (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2. Generation o f classroom 'atmosphere' (cont'd) b) miscellaneous (cont'd) - greets the c l a s s w i t h a smile and "good morning"', ends by thanking them f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n - smoked during the l e c t u r e - explained what the s u b j e c t meant to s o c i e t y , what i t w i l l mean to the student, why he chose the f i e l d as a p r o f e s s i o n - Introduced c o n t r o v e r s i a l p o i n t s 2. Generated f e e l i n g s of t e n s i o n , d i s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n f e a r f u l -ness; g e n e r a l l y lowered morale (cont'd) d) miscellaneous - refused to-answer questions by l o o k i n g away or beginning t o l e c t u r e again - overworks p a r t i c u l a r phrases - used d i f f e r e n t language than t e x t - begins l o u d l y , then decreases u n t i l b a r e l y audible - l e c t u r e s above the l e v e l of most of the s tudents - circumscribes the p o i n t -^demanded long grammar e x e r c i s e s - c a l l e d student to the f r o n t of the c l a s s and demanded a reason f o r lateness - defends the author's p o i n t of view whether s e n s i b l e or not--puts down the student's c r i t i c i s m — l a t e r makes the same c r i t i c i s m - elements of chauvanlsm - a f t e r a lengthy discourse on i r r e l e v a n t i s s u e s , the c l a s s was forced to work overtime - discusses t r i v i a - discussed own c o l l e g e years i n some d e t a i l - a r r i v e s l a t e f APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2. Generated f e e l i n g s of t e n s i o n , d i s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n f e a r f u l -ness; g e n e r a l l y lowered morale (cont'd) d) miscellaneous (cont'd) - f i r s t out of the c l a s s at the end of the p e r i o d - r e p e t i t i v e l y i n t e r r u p t e d student d e l i v e r y of assignment CLASS TOTAL 27 3 . Generated f e e l i n g s of confidence, a p p r e c i a t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , absence of f e a r a) made an e x t r a e f f o r t (conducted e x t r a c l a s s e s , conducted t o u r s , gave the c a l l numbers of books) b) miscellaneous - mentioned next day's t o p i c at end of l e c t u r e - d i d not deride student f o r what seemed to be a p o i n t l e s s question - used h i s own f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n to i l l u s t r a t e a l e c t u r e p o i n t 3 . Loss of f a i t h or confidence i n and respect f o r l e c t u r e r a) miscellaneous - frequent use of the phrase, " I think" - s a r c a s t i c - spoke harshly to h i s a s s i s t a n t when the l a t t e r was unable to comment on exam papers - laughs at h i s own joke - i n a b i l i t y to put over joke - used tawdry humour to poke fun at important p r i n c i p l e 4=-c^  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 3 . Generated f e e l i n g s of confidence, a p p r e c i a t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , absence of f e a r (cont'd) b) miscellaneous (cont'd) - ax^are of i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l of c l a s s - reviewed l a s t day's l e c t u r e before going on 3 . Loss of f a i t h , or confidence i n respect f o r l e c t u r e r (cont'd) and a) miscellaneous (cont'd) - s t r e s s e d too much d e t a i l - l i t e r a l l y read h i s notes page by page - passes o f f questions w i t h , "I'm j u s t coming to that" - returned to h i s o f f i c e i n order t o r e t r i e v e a page of his notes - unable to answer a s t r a i g h t forward que s t i o n CLASS TOTAL 8 11 k. Generated a sense of achievement; generated f e e l i n g s of personal value to student a) used student c o n t r i b u t i o n s b) miscellaneous - d i s t r i b u t e d sample exam ques-t i o n s s e v e r a l weeks before the end of the term, allowed a dis-c u s s i o n of them - approves essay t o p i c before w r i t t e n k. Was a d i s r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e ; d i s -c o n c e r ting a) made derrogatory remarks about student's i n t e l l i g e n c e c b) miscellaneous - essays handed out i n c l a s s time, some d i s c u s s i o n of them, then went on with regular work - returned to h i s notes a f t e r walking away from i n order to ad l i b - burst i n t o u n c o n t r o l l a b l e l a u g h t e r at Dryden's w i t -P" CLASS TOTAL 1+ 5 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 5 . Generated f e e l i n g s of plea s u r e ; appealing a) miscellaneous - used c o l l e g e l e v e l humour - used a p r u d i s h sense of humour, r e l e v a n t to l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l - wove elements of personal experience i n t o l e c t u r e content - used a c l a s s member as p r i n c i p a l piece of apparatus i n a demon-s t r a t i o n CLASS TOTAL k 6. H e l p f u l , b e n e f i c i a l a) miscellaneous - i n t e r - d i s p e r s e d the m a t e r i a l w i t h anecdotes - broke up the c l a s s i n t o groups, each group prepared a d i s c u s s i o n f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n - summarized at the beginning of the hour the m a t e r i a l proposed to cover CLASS TOTAL 3 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 7 . Generated f e e l i n g s of immediacy w i t h l e c t u r e a) miscellaneous - read excerpts from p e r i o d i c a l s - takes time t o ansx^er questions CLASS TOTAL 2 — SUB-AREA TOTAL Ik AUSA TOTAL 1 3 L 124 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. MASTERY OP SUBJECT MATERIAL SUB-AREA: A. LEARNING, CORRELATING, CLARIFYING, REVIEWING MATERIAL CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. F a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l a) used a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques 20 b) encouraged student p a r t i c i p a t i o n 8 a) c) explanations concise, and d e t a i l e d 6 d) paused to repeat important p o i n t s ; k b) paced l e c t u r e c) e) r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l t o more simple; drew analogies k d) f ) rephrased i n d i f f e r e n t ways u n t i l p oint e s t a b l i s h e d • k e) g) used humour k f ) h) began w i t h broad overview before s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n 2 s ) i ) gave personal a t t e n t i o n to wrong h) answers on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l 2 j ) r e l a t e d own experiences 2 k) miscellaneous gave b r i e f summary of previous l e c t u r e at beginning of each l e c t u r e asked student to accept h i s p o i n t of view since l e c t u r e r b e l i e v e d most u s e f u l f o r the purposes of the c l a s s gave references gave p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s w e l l organized thoroughly prepared a b i l i t y t o command students' a t t e n t i o n 1. Detracted from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y un-s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o student's c o n f u s i o n provided e r r o r - r i d d e n m a t e r i a l (blackboard, prepared sheets) 5> c o n s t a n t l y rephrasing; stammering 3 manifested anger; b u l l i e d ; i n -sinuated students s t u p i d 3 b l a t a n t l y suggested he was bored and/or unprepared 2 included extraneous m a t e r i a l 2 used s p e c i a l i z e d or advance terms or techniques 2 wordy 2 miscellaneous - l e c t u r e d so q u i c k l y no time to get anything down - b i t t e r sarcasm - c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d student while t a l k i n g - i n s u f f i c i e n t l y informed; couldn't give help - arrogant manner on being i n t e r -rupted by question - answered query u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; didn't substantiate h i s view i n response t o student challenge APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE '•TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL F a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l (cont'd) k) miscellaneous (cont'd) - p u b l i c speaking a b i l i t y - arranged f i e l d t r i p s and e x p e r i -ments - mentioned i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e -l i g h t s without d e t r a c t i n g from the s u b j e c t - t i e d i n course m a t e r i a l w i t h a c t u a l happenings i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government - b u i l t up c u r i o s i t y , and a n t i c i p a t i o n by able d e s c r i p t i o n of an event - gave t e s t s at end o f each month - small essays r a t h e r than term essay - formed a club - e n t h u s i a s t i c - demands cover a l l o t e d reading 1. Detracted from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y un-s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o student's confusion (cont'd) h) miscellaneous (cont'd) - c r i t i c i z e d t e x t m e r c i l e s s l y , yet held c l a s s responsible f o r i t ; own point of view o f t e n c o n f l i c t e d there-w i t h - gave no chance to ask quest i o n s ; none of m a t e r i a l i n t e x t - goes off on tangent from o r i g i n a l t o p i c - began to speak before c l a s s was s i l e n t - wrote plan of l a b . on board and added to i t during the l e c t u r e - f a i l e d to d i s t i n g u i s h when one t o p i c f i n i s h e d and new one begun - read t e x t w i t h mediocre accent and d e l i v e r y - response to question was, "Uh" and a smile - summarized work, rather than d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c problems - spoke i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s (example) - gave d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n at r a p i d pace f o r f?0 minutes - d i f f i c u l t points i n computation l e f t to students as an e x e r c i s e - refused a d d i t i o n a l help f o r students making u n s a t i s f a c t o r y progress accord-ing to t h e i r own standards APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Detracted from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added to student's confusion (cont'd) h) miscellaneous (cont'd) - f i l l e d i n many l e c t u r e s w i t h s l i d e s - gave poor mark f o r work t h a t d i s -agrees with l e c t u r e r s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - read notes and wrote on blackboard w i t h back to cl a s s - gave d e t a i l s of own re s e a r c h - t a l k s and w r i t e s too q u i c k l y - takes f o r granted student remembers a l l work of previous years - used advanced techniques t o f a c i l i t a t e s o l u t i o n of problem - emphasis on layout r a t h e r than on content of term essays CLASS TOTAL 73 £6 2 . F a c i l i t a t e d reviewing m a t e r i a l a) miscellaneous - gave b r i e f summary of term work at completion of s e c t i o n - f o l l o w s p r e s c r i b e d t e x t — — — CLASS TOTAL 2 — SUB-AREA TOTAL 75 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: B. MASTERY OP SUBJECT MATERIAL SUB-AREA: B. ORIE NTATION CLASS • » EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. F a c i l i t a t e d g a i n i n g p e r s p e c t i v e , 1. Students unsure of what t o be covered seeing m a t e r i a l from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view a) Miscellaneous - does not f o l l o w given o u t l i n e a) demonstrated h i s b i a s e s , points out other p o i n t s of view 2 b) i n v i t e d guest l e c t u r e r 2 c) miscellaneous - reviewed problems d e a l i n g w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l work stemming from the course - attempts to i n t e g r a t e m a t e r i a l w i t h other r e l e v a n t courses - h a b i t u a l reference to m a t e r i a l of previous l e c t u r e before beginning - d i r e c t s questions to students w i t h s p e c i a l knowledge (knows i n t e r e s t of each student) - discourages e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t y - places o u t l i n e of l e c t u r e on the board - pokes f u n at " f r i g h t e n i n g m a t e r i a l " CLASS TOTAL 11 1 APPENDIX'B (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2. Facilitated pre-reading, or planning time to be spent on the course a) distributed l i s t s of provided topics for entire course; outlines entire course at beginning of term the . 8 — - — CLASS TOTAL 8 — SUB-ABEA TOTAL 19 1 AREA TOTAL 9k 47 Vn. -F=-SUB . MAJOR -AREA: APPENDIX C (CONT'D) AREA: C. TEACHING A. .PRESENTATION OP ME THODS MATERIAL CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Maintained good classroom control a) handled attention-getting student with firmness b) p o l i t e l y , but f i r m l y refused charity c o l l e c t i o n s during lecture c) refused to admit or threw out l a t e -comers d) miscellaneous - asked student to stop smoking q u i e t l y - didn't interrupt the lecture - turned off ";hood"' i n chemistry - removed a f a i n t i n g student from the examination - apologized for lateness - asked student to leave the room fir m l y but p o l i t e l y - walked out after getting no results from reprimanding students because of noise 1. D i s t r a c t i n g a) moved about while l e c t u r i n g b) miscellaneous - inappropriate mannerisms - female wearing excessive make-up, loud clothing - habit of saying "uh" every phrase or so - presumed to amuse class by making fun of class member - self-conscious and nervous - presented material dryly - presented material straight from book CLASS TOTAL 12 11 v n APPENDIX G (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2. D i d not waste c l a s s time (saved time) a) admitted l a c k of knowledge or p r e p a r a t i o n 2 b) gave t o p i c s to be dis c u s s e d ahead of time 2 c) used s l i d e s or p r a c t i c a l demon-s t r a t i o n s 2 2. D i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w a) spoke monotonously b) jumped ahead or back from t o p i c c) miscellaneous - speaks monotonously - too speedy - quoted e x t e n s i v e l y from source l i t e r a t u r e - t a l k s while working at the black-board 3 2 CLASS TOTAL 6 3. W e l l organized, o r d e r l y p r e s e n t a t i o n ; c o n t i n u i t y of m a t e r i a l a) wrote major t o p i c s to be covered on blackboard 2 b) presented a b r i e f summary of l a s t l e c t u r e 2 c) worked out problems before l e c t u r e 1 3. Wasted c l a s s time a) b) c) a r b i t r a r i l y demanded students answer, even i f obviously not prepared 2 read sheets of notes o r d e f i n i t i o n s 2 miscellaneous - incapable of answering q u e s t i o n without long d e l i b e r a t i o n - changed symbols i n the course of a s i n g l e proof - s a i d , n;make out w i t h what you've got" - never used a note during the course of a l e c t u r e - asked the whole c l a s s q u e s t i o n s , not i n d i v i d u a l s CLASS TOTAL 5 9 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL k. Conversational s t y l e a) miscellaneous - f a m i l i a r w i t h m a t e r i a l - n a t u r a l i n t e r e s t i n subject CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL lav- D i f f i c u l t to get good, w e l l organized notes a) miscellaneous - repeated t o p i c already covered - too much chaff - conducts the cl a s s as a study group - reads notes - l e c t u r e d too q u i c k l y o r t r i e d t o cover too much - t o p i c s discussed i n random f a s h i o n CLASS TOTAL 5 . E a s i l y heard a) miscellaneous - voice loud and c l e a r - spoke c l e a r l y and c o n c i s e l y 5 . M a t e r i a l missed or l o s t refused to stop terms on the a) l e c t u r e d too f a s t , b) miscellaneous - refused to put new board when asked - begins immediately a f t e r the b e l l - without attempting to get c l a s s ' s a t t e n t i o n - a r r i v e s l a t e , prolongs l e c t u r e past buzzer CLASS TOTAL 2 •(• vn APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 6. Class h u r r i e d a) miscellaneous - spends d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e time on f a v o u r i t e subject - t r i e d i n v a i n to prove an argument - l e f t out the simpler steps i n d e r i v a t i o n of a complicated formula - used a l l hour w r i t i n g formula on board CLASS TOTAL _ k SUB-AREA TOTAL 2 7 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: C. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: B. STUDENT PARTICIPATION CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Encourages s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n a) asked l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s o r made p r o v o c a t i v e comments b) immediate, s e r i o u s i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t s u g g e s t i o n s or q u e s t i o n s c) a p p o i n t e d group t o l e a d d i s c u s s i o n ; o r g a n i z e d seminars d) m i s c e l l a n e o u s - d e f i n e d and gave a few examples of what b e l i e f s a r e , d r a w i n g a few examples f r o m h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s - mimeographed a l i s t o f poems he w i s h e d r e a d by a c e r t a i n date - a p p o i n t e d a n o t h e r c l a s s member t o read and c r i t i c i z e a r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by a n o t h e r s t u d e n t - moved t o s e m i n a r room e x p r e s s e d h i s d e s i r e t o have s t u d e n t s smoke i f t h e y w i s h e d - c r i t i c i z e d s t u d e n t ' s q u e s t i o n s l a c k i n g f o r e t h o u g h t -masked f o r g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f a b s t r a c t Ideas - encouraged s t u d e n t s t o ask q u e s t i o n s 1. D i s c o u r a g e d s t u d e n t q u e r i e s 5" k 3 a) r i d i c u l e d q u e s t i o n s b) m i s c e l l a n e o u s - spoke to s t u d e n t a c l a s s time when as l e s s q u e s t i o n - used s t u d e n t as a as he wa'lked back - i g n o r e s s t u d e n t wi - l a c o n i c a l l y r e p l i e - answers q u e s t i o n s - l e a v e s c l a s s Immed - t r e a t e d q u e s t i o n s descending manner o r answers bout w a s t i n g k i n g p o i n t -p i v o t p o i n t and f o r t h t h hand up s t o q u e s t i o n l o n g w i n d e d l y i a t e l y a t b e l l i n a con-CLASS TOTAL 19 11 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2 . Discouraged class d i s c u s s i o n or i n t e r a c t i o n a) d i c t a t e d from d e t a i l e d notes 2 b) s a r c a s t i c , discourteous 2 c) miscellaneous - stated anyone wishing to t a l k would be asked t o leave the room - didn't welcome questions or i n t e r r u p t i o n s - j o k i n g l y handled student ques-t i o n , o f f e r e d no e x p l a n a t i o n - f r e e indulgence of admitted p r e j u d i c e s - ignored questions that d i d not immediately f a l l w i t h i n the scope of h i s a t t e n t i o n CLASS TOTAL — 9 SUB-AREA TOTAL 1 9 2 0 AREA TOTAL k 6 6 6 o^  o APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: D. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVA-TIONAL TRAITS CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. took a personal i n t e r e s t i n students; considerate a) gave personal a s s i s t a n c e b) requested student v i s i t him i n o f f i c e c) miscellaneous - gave twelve e x t r a c l a s s e s - i n v i t e d the student f o r dinner - c a l l e d on students by name to ask questions - gave encouragement 2 2 1. Seemed i n s e n s i t i v e to c l a s s ' s r e a c t i o n a) miscellaneous - c o n s i s t e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n of p o i n t s from h i s own a s s o c i a t i o n s and experience - f o l l o w e d the t e x t too c l o s e l y - wrote i l l e g i b l y on the blackboard, and erased CLASS TOTAL 8 2. Seemed s i n c e r e a) miscellaneous - explained h i s l a t e n e s s - pointed out t h a t he was w i l l i n g to c o n s i d e r any questions a f t e r the hour 2. Seemed l a z y , d i s i n t e r e s t e d , b lase a) miscellaneous - m a t e r i a l taken from the t e x t and given no f u r t h e r treatment - stated that he didn't care i f the students came o r not--he wouldn't take any attendance - required student t o read aloud CLASS TOTAL 2 3 APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL.. 3 . Miscellaneous ( t r a c t f u l , s ensitive, f l e x i b l e , trustworthy) a) miscellaneous - acted as a moderator while students had a vigorous discussion - appeared embarrassed and laughed when class laughed at what was a recognizably ambiguous statement - asked student to see him p r i v a t e l y when interrupted by an i r r e l e v a n t question - lack of prejudice - praised work f i r s t before c r i t i c a l l y evaluating i t CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 3 . Miscellaneous (unbalanced, embittered, over-confIdent, afraid) a) miscellaneous - treatment of students as complete ignorants - referred to mentally i l l as "those crazy people" - spices lecture with inappropriate st o r i e s about mental I l l n e s s - read the morning paper before class - told the class that his opinion was the only one that counted i n his class - continually harping on outdated material and defeated proposals - ignored students' raised hands - looked at the student insinuating that he was stupid - takes the shyest student to the front of the class and tortures him l i k e a kid with a bug on the end of a pin - dictates the lecture so that students can copy every word - re-wrote student essays to conform to his own wording - smoked i n a room wherein r e s t r i c t i o n s were posted - unable to give a s a t i s f a c t o r y explan-ation to the class's challenge of the v a l i d i t y of s t a t i s t i c s - gave a hurried and garbled account - ignored student who had prepared H ahead c^  rv> APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 3. Miscellaneous ^unbalanced, embittered, over-confident, a f r a i d ) (cont'd) — — — a) miscellaneous (cont'd) - Informed the clas s that they had to work harder and set up h i s own performance i n school as a standard - Is l i k e a tape r e c o r d e r , turned on at the beginning, turned o f f at the end - stated i t was unnecessary t o copy l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l i n t o notes CLASS TOTAL 5 18 SUB-A-REA TOTAL 15 214-APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: D. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: B. ABILITY TRAITS CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 1. Seemed a l e r t , aware of problems and c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s ; evidence of good knowledge of m a t e r i a l ; i n t e r e s t e d i n work a) miscellaneous - explained d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i -menter had when d i s c u s s i n g a drug - presented m a t e r i a l w i t h zest - discussed current p o l i t i c a l happenings - asked f o r questions from the c l a s s - i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t approaches, and c l e a r l y showed where h i s own biases are - showed where opinions made poor use of the f a c t s - f i l l e d out a poor speech w i t h s o l i d i n f o r m a t i o n - admitted the v a l i d i t y of some student's arguments - used f a c t s to show how the theory had been d e r i v e d - handled the m a t e r i a l as i f i t were important enough to s u s t a i n con-toversy and d i s c u s s i o n - c l e a r , u n h u r r i e d p r e s e n t a t i o n - used no notes - widely read 1. P o o r l y prepared, poor planning a) miscellaneous - r e g u l a r f a i l u r e s of classroom experiments - ran out of time f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of tables that one-quarter of time had been spent p u t t i n g on board - spends undue l e n g t h of time at the beginning of the year, n e c e s s i t a t i n g two extra sessions at the end of the year - i n using a f i l m p r o j e c t o r f i l m t o r n , lamp burnt out, no operator or sub-s t i t u t e machine - read f o r e i g n language no v e l xvith no a d d i t i o n a l comment - rambled and repeated himself - discovered a mistake a f t e r lengthy, d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n - asked f o r a question, got one, unable to solve - gave no reasons f o r f i n i s h i n g a l e c t u r e f i f t e e n minutes e a r l y - made many f a l s e s t a r t s and many long periods of s i l e n c e when answering - t r i e s t o f i l l i n the l e c t u r e w i t h i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE ' .. TOTAL 1. Seemed a l e r t , aware of problems and c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s ; evidence of good knowledge of m a t e r i a l ; i n t e r e s t e d In work (cont'd) a) miscellaneous (cont'd) - makes a point of mentioning the p o i n t t h a t he di d n ' t know l a s t day CLASS TOTAL Ik 11 2. Generated the impression of incom-petence a) f i l l e d i n gaps i n l e c t u r e w i t h "uhs" 2 b) miscellaneous - couldn't answer question from the text - apologized f o r not having b i b l i o g r a p h y prepared - made a poor attempt at pronounc-ing the word ' e n a n t i o t r o p i c ' - r e p e t i t i v e use of the phrase, "don't p h i l o s o p h i z e " o^  Ln APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CLASS EFFECTIVE TOTAL CLASS INEFFECTIVE TOTAL 2. Generated the impression of incompetence (cont'd) h) miscellaneous (cont'd) - s a i d "Oh, w e l l , i t i s n ' t v ery important anyway", when student f a i l e d to give meaningful com-ments about a poem - demonstrated no d i s c i p l i n e CLASS TOTAL — 8 SUB-AREA TOTAL 19 AREA TOTAL 29 43 ON O^  167 APPENDIX D GENERAL OPINIONS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH CLASS MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: A. THE LECTURE METHOD (CONDUCT, PRESENTATION AND DELIVERY) CLASS TOTAL 1. should d i r e c t l e c t u r e at " a b i l i t y l e v e l " of c l a s s £ 2. should make use of o u t l i n e s 3 3. should present m a t e r i a l i n as most i n t e r e s t i n g manner a s p o s s i b l e 3 k. should d i s t r i b u t e mimeographed m a t e r i a l 2 5 . should be w e l l organized 2 6. miscellaneous items r e l a t e d to voice q u a l i t y - p i t c h and i n t e n s i t y should be v a r i e d - should be taught e l o c u t i o n - should be a p u b l i c speaker -" d e l i v e r y should be i n simple, c o n v e r s a t i o n a l v o i c e 7« miscellaneous references r e l a t e d to speed of pre s e n t a t i o n - should not speak too f a s t - should give student time to get a l l points down 8. miscellaneous references to the l e c t u r e method - o r a t o r i c a l powers may be of advantage i n q u a l i t y of teaching - should o r i e n t course to education per se ra t h e r than examinations and c r e d i t - h i s t o r y can be taught i n s t o r y form - l e c t u r e should c o n s i s t of an i n f o r m a l speech rather than reading of notes - i l l u s t r a t i o n s are u s e f u l I n moderation - l e c t u r e r s from England tend to condense the steps i n t h e i r proofs - should repeat p a r t i c u l a r l y important points - textbook should not be followed as I f gospel - l e c t u r e r should d i r e c t student to other references i f t e x t i n s u f f i c i e n t - l e c t u r e r should leave questions i n student's mind as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g pat answers - l e c t u r e courses g e n e r a l l y an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y method of teaching SUB-AREA TOTAL 32 168 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: B. THE DISCUSSION METHOD CLASS TOTAL 1. should promote l e a d i n g questions, or make time f o r d i s c u s s i o n k 2. miscellaneous references to the expression of student preferences f o r d i s c u s s i o n - d i s c u s s i o n groups e x c e l l e n t - cl a s s d i s c u s s i o n and student thoughts should enter l e c t u r e s - remember c l a s s e s i n which d i s c u s s i o n s held - should be more i n t e r a c t i o n between l e c t u r e r and s tud e nt - p r e f e r d i s c u s s i o n to l e c t u r e s - l e c t u r e should c o n s i s t of d i s c u s s i o n a t which l e c t u r e r i s leader or moderator - l e c t u r e s should consist of a guiding and d i s c u s s i o n pe r i od - d i s c u s s i o n s should occur i n small groups where can be held p r o f i t a b l y SUB-AREA TOTAL 12 SUB-AREA: C. SPECIAL METHODS 1. l e c t u r e s should be I n small classes k 2. miscellaneous references r e l a t e d t o treatment of students - l e c t u r e r should use common courtesy and under-stand ing - shouldn't t r e a t students as i f high school students, i . e . , t r y to get a l l students through t h e i r courses 3. miscellaneous references r e l a t e d t o use of f i e l d t r i p s - should go on f i e l d t r i p s to r e l a t e d concerns o f f campus - should arrange f i e l d t r i p s k. miscellaneous references to s p e c i a l methods - psychology courses could have been more i n t e r e s t i n g w ith the i n t r o d u c t i o n of v i s u a l aids 169 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) M A J O R AREA: A. TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: C. SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D) CLASS TOTAL k. miscellaneous references to special methods (cont'd) - guest lecturers add to a lecture i f they talk on subjects appropriate to the subject - should use tape recorder i f only going to lecture - lectures should be i n the form of seminars - should arrange appointments to see students i f requested, and keep same - professor of l i t e r a t u r e should be able to act 1. miscellaneous items related to biased content - should try as f a r as possible i n beginning years not to colour material - should n o t i f y students i f value judgments being made - o b j e c t i v i t y often nonsense 2. miscellaneous items related to use of humour - no continual tone of humour unless l e c t u r e r can avoid detracting from lecture material - should have a dry sense of humour, but not l e t i t i nterfere with the progress of the lecture 3. miscellaneous references to the s e l e c t i o n and emphasis of subject material - should inform students, especially i n the s o c i a l sciences what i s yet to be learned SUB-AREA TOTAL lk SUB-AREA: D. SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL SUB-AREA TOTAL 6 170 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: A. "TEACHING METHODS SUB-AREA: E. ,APPRAISAL METHODS CLASS TOTAL 1. miscellaneous references r e l a t e d to essays - emphasis i n A r t s courses should be on term essays - essays should not be handed back without w r i t t e n comment 2. miscellaneous references r e l a t e d to use of formal examinations - should provide prepared exam questions - should f i n d out how students are r e a c t i n g to l e c t u r e r s by some means other than exams and make adjustments a c c o r d i n g l y 3. miscellaneous references r e l a t e d t o term assignments - assignments should be of such a nature that o r i g i n a l thought and l o g i c i s r e q u i r e d - assignments should reduce the number of topics such that independent i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h i n k i n g < could be r e a l i z e d SUB-AREA TOTAL SUB-AREA: P. DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL 1. miscellaneous references to d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l - l e c t u r e r should not concern themselves with absences and homework - cl a s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should be de-emphasized - pronounced s t r i c t n e s s has no place i n u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g SUB-AREA TOTAL 3 AREA TOTAL 171 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) MAJOR AFEA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS SUB-AREA: A. TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVA-TIONAL TRAITS CLASS 1. should show i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm 2. miscellaneous references to temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s - should t r y to stimulate the group and put enthusiasm i n t o h i s words - l e c t u r e r s p e r s o n a l i t y should s u i t the students; student b e n e f i t s most i f such i s the case - l e c t u r e r s are i n t e r e s t i n g , w e l l Informed people with an a b i l i t y t o teach, but not l a c k i n g i n human f r a i l t i e s - students often choose courses according to the t e s t i m o n i a l s of a b i l i t y and technique of the l e c t u r e r s - q u a l i t y of l e c t u r e r s should be stressed by the u n i v e r s i t y - should be an i n d i v i d u a l i s t - most of the c o n f l i c t s between student and l e c t u r e r are because of p e r s o n a l i t y clashes - good l e c t u r e r s make the course, not the subject materi a l - l e c t u r e r should enjoy teaching - should admit ignorance of subject and not attempt to cover up w i t h sarcasm - should demonstrate i n i t i a t i v e SUB-AREA TOTAL 18 SUB-AREA: B. ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS 1. should have knowledge of how, or a b i l i t y to present m a t e r i a l 6 2. should be prepared 5 3 . should have knowledge of subject m a t e r i a l k SUB-AREA TOTAL 15 AREA TOTAL 33 PINAL TOTAL 10.6 TOTAL 7 

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