UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An application of the critical incident technique to teaching Crawford, Douglas Gordon 1961

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AN  APPLICATION  OF T H E C R I T I C A L  TECHNIQUE  TO  INCIDENT  TEACHING  by  DOUGLAS B.A.,  University  A THESIS THE  GORDON  CRAWFORD  of British  SUBMITTED  Columbia,  IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT  REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E  MASTER  in  1957  OF  OF ARTS  t h eDepartment of PSYCHOLOGY  We  accept  required  this  thesis  as conforming  standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y  OF BRITISH  September, 1 9 6 1  COLUMBIA  t othe  OF  Tn p r e s e n t i n g  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y British  Columbia, I agree t h a t the  a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and  study.  of  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y I f u r t h e r agree t h a t  permission  f o r e x t e n s i v e copying o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may g r a n t e d by  the  Head o f my  I t i s understood t h a t  Department o r by h i s  s h a l l not  Department o f  Psychology  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada.  September.  representatives.  c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r  f i n a n c i a l gain  Date  be  1961.  Columbia,  written  permission.  ii  ABSTRACT  The of  the  purpose  Critical  specific  Determining  ing  as  evolved  university  to  the  the  given  'opinions'  Educing  ing  to  report  on  an  to u n i v e r s i t y  adaptation  teaching  with  for:  requirements"  of  university  d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e r  teach-  behavior  by  a  set  between  incidents,"  derived  from  of p r a c t i c a l  lecturers  i n the  and  information  supplementary  general  teaching information  experience;  recommendations  improvement  on  of  t h a t may  be  of  their university  teach-  practices.  source  of  "critical  fourth year  criterion  data.  incidents"  and  Arts  The  students  data  were  supplementary  were  employed  recorded  information  as  i n the  the  form  i n the  of  form  'opinions.'  Three  classifications  classifications based  were made  exclusively  o t h e r con t h e was  the  "critical  Volunteer  of  to  i t s usefulness  relationship  by  value  was  Technique  "critical  from  obtained  3.  study  students;  Studying  as  the  Incident  reference  1.  2.  of  reported  applied to  systematized gories.  on  the  of  were the  applied to critical  these  incidents,  descriptions of l e c t u r e r result  opinion  according  to  of  the  lecturer  information. a  progression  data. one  being  behaviors;  behaviors.  A l l these of  Two  more  data  the The  third  were  inclusive  cate-  i i i  Prom  the f i r s t  requirements"  were  dations'  based  A well  were  summary  of  as s u g g e s t i o n s  two  classifications,  evolved. on  these  In addition,  two the  lists  of  'practical  "critical recommen-  data.  implications f o r future  a n d c o n c l u s i o n s was  research  i n c l u d e d , as  possibilities.  iv  TABLE OP CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  Statement of the problem II  1 5  REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE M e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach . The c r i t i c a l Reliability  . . . . . .  i n c i d e n t technique  7  and v a l i d i t y of  student judgments III  5  THE APPLICATION  11+  OP THE CRITICAL  INCIDENT TECHNIQUE  18  P r e p a r a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n s and r e c o r d i n g forms  18  S e l e c t i o n of sample  21  Classification  23  of b e h a v i o r s .  D e r i v a t i o n of c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and recommendations IV  V  PI1DINGS AND DISCUSSION  29 32  E v a l u a t i o n of r e c o r d i n g forms  32  Adequacy o f sample  33  Classification  36  of behaviors  D e r i v a t i o n of c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s  59  P r a c t i c a l recommendations  75  SUMMARY OP CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  82  V  CHAPTER VI  PAGE SUMMARY OP STUDY  86  REFERENCES  90  APPENDICES  94  A  Instructions  95  B  C r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s , by f r e q u e n c y , under each c l a s s ( b e h a v i o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . . .  97  C r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s by f r e q u e n c y under each c l a s s ( r e s u l t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) . . . .  137  C D  G e n e r a l o p i n i o n s , by f r e q u e n c y , under each c l a s s  167  vi  LIST OP TABLES TABLE 1  PAGE T o t a l Number and P r o p o r t i o n o f Students E n r o l l e d 'in Courses  2  34  of Study  Observed and Expected Numbers o f Students E n r o l l e d i n Pour C a t e g o r i e s Assuming a it"  34  U n i f o r m D i s t r i b u t i o n i n the P o p u l a t i o n . . . . 3  T o t a l E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e B e h a v i o r s  '  *"  P a l l i n g W i t h i n Each Sub-area ( B e h a v i o r 37  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) . . . . . 4  T o t a l E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e  Behaviors  P a l l i n g W i t h i n Each Sub-area ( R e s u l t 38  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) 5  T o t a l Number o f C l a s s e s , S u b - c l a s s e s and B e h a v i o r s by Major and Sub-areas ( B e h a v i o r 45  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) . . . . . . . . . . . . 6  T o t a l Number o f C l a s s e s , S u b - c l a s s e s and B e h a v i o r s by Major and Sub-areas ( R e s u l t 4°  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme 7  T o t a l Number of C l a s s e s , S u b - c l a s s e s and B e h a v i o r s by Major and Sub-areas ( O p i n i o n 48  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) 8  T o t a l C r i t i c a l B e h a v i o r s and 'Loading' Score f o r E a c h C l a s s ( B e h a v i o r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme  ,  50  vii  TABLE 9  PAGE T o t a l E f f e c t i v e and I n e f f e c t i v e  Critical  B e h a v i o r s f o r Each C l a s s ( R e s u l t 51+  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme) 10  G e n e r a l O p i n i o n s , by Frequency, Under Each Sub-area  11  60  C r i t i c a l Requirements, by Frequency, Under E a c h Sub-area ( B e h a v i o r  Classifi-  c a t i o n Scheme) 12  62  C r i t i c a l Requirements, by Frequency, Under E a c h Sub-area ( R e s u l t C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Scheme . . .  68  viii  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  The w r i t e r would l i k e t o express h i s g r a t i t u d e to those i n d i v i d u a l s whose c o o p e r a t i o n made i t p o s s i b l e to accomplish t h i s study.  In particular,  thanks are  due t o Dr. E . I . S i g n o r i without whose continued I n t e r e s t and  generous  successfully  assistance this  study c o u l d n o t have been  completed.  In a d d i t i o n g r a t i t u d e  i s expressed t o o t h e r  members of the department who p r o v i d e d both source m a t e r i a l on the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique used i n t h i s study, and v a l u a b l e c o n s t r u c t i v e  criticism.  CHAPTER  I  INTRODUCTION  Statement of  the observation that  of l e c t u r e r dents  few  behaviors  which they  teaching  as  reported critical  capability they  there  A  survey  of their  attempting  i n judging  relative ideas  immunity  o f good  part  further  of e i t h e r  from  teaching,  and p a r c e l  good  o f the l i t e r a t u r e  or poor  indicated  t o use u n i v e r s i t y  to resolve the problem  that  students  of  student  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the i n s t r u c t i o n  states Riley  rest  stu-  lecturers.  the t o t a l  obligations  arose out  a n e c d o t a l l y by u n i v e r s i t y  a t t e m p t s , h a d b e e n made observers  study  seemed t o be a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n  described  receive, i ti s clear,  inescapable  This present  deemed a s e x a m p l e s  techniques.  Without  are  of the problem.  (1950, p p . 31-33), t h a t  upon t h e p r o f e s s o r i n r e t u r n f o r  criticism. of ideal  He a s s e r t s t h a t instructional  o f any t e a c h e r ' s  daily  a  his  student's  characteristics,  routine.  He  adds  that:  The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r o f e s s o r i a l awareness of student a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d i n s t r u c t i o n i s made a l l t h e g r e a t e r b y contemporary trends i n higher education. Higher educat i o n h a s come o u t i n t o t h e o p e n ; t h e new p r a g m a t i c demands, t h e f u n c t i o n a l a n d u t i l i t a r i a n c o n c e p t o f higher education, coupled with a heightened impersonali t y i n t h e c l a s s r o o m and h e t e r o g e n e i t y i n c l a s s composition, i n t e n s i f y t h e need f o r and d i f f i c u l t y o f c a t a l y z i n g student thinking.  2 I f . . . t h e p o p u l a r d e m o c r a t i c and p r a g m a t i c concept of a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n i s worth p u r s u i t , then student d e f i n i t i o n of the classroom s i t u a t i o n i s worth knowing... E i t h e r we c h a n g e o u r c o n c e p t o f h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n o r t h e p r o f e s s o r must i n c l u d e i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the classr o o m s i t u a t i o n h i s own r e f l e c t i o n a s s e e n i n t h e student's eyes.  (1956,  Buxton about  the  354)  P»  that while  of  student  ratings  whatever  v e r b a l defenses  college  teachers  them  really  can  cites  determiners  admits  the  be  indifferent  Brooklyn  College  study  1  what as  27)  is critical  teacher  effectiveness,  and  blames  culties  inherent  in defining  criterion  measures  attention  to  both  the  measure  emphasizes,  supported  need  should  be  - This L  pp. 108-123)  specifying  study  t o be  based He  and  ultimate  i s reported  kind  feels  adopted  employed.  insofar  as  of  to  his  i n the  and  of He  view.  area  on  of  diffi-  obtaining that  serious  decisions regarding  t o be  discusses  whL c h  He  few  think.  largely  adequately  demands  criterion  measures  intermediate,  for  problem  the  considerations.  immediate, the  or  of  support  research  competence.  obscure  very  students  i t s sterility  criteria  teacher  criterion  description  criterion he  the  of  have,  their  of  is  instruction...that  may  giving  p.  lyans  (1952,  to  of  much  and  These d e c i s i o n s ,  p o s s i b l e on  the  the  empirically  distinction  criteria  and  criterion  i n some d e t a i l  by  one  between  emphasizes attempts  Riley  (1956,  to  3  predict.  He  also  upon  rests  methods chosen  out that  the judgment  of obtaining i n the l i g h t  convenience. between direct  points  approach  would  criterion  behavior  illustrates  a means  of obtaining  a  Obtaining  data  direct  Technique.  approach,  An e s s e n t i a l support  to rating  primarily  evolved  the technique  rating  and assessment  of this  procedures,  procedures,  data.  The  of  relevant  i t was  ongoing  to  decided  Critical  technique  and a l t h o u g h  a s a means  choice  t o the outcome  data  level,  be  of  approach.  Flanagan's  feature  empirical  relative  criterion  specifically,  a  observations  the i n d i r e c t  effectiveness at the university  must  practical  involve  of criterion  be e x e m p l i f i e d by  behavior.  ing  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s and  measures  measure'  The a l t e r n a t e  usually available  o n e d e c i s i o n may  criterion  As  data  of technical  and i n d i r e c t  of 'criterion  of the researcher.  criterion  F o r example,  direct  the choice  teacht o use  Incident  i s to lend Flanagan  f o r objectifying  he h i m s e l f  states  that  (1954b):  The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e i s e s s e n t i a l l y a procedure f o r gathering c e r t a i n important f a c t s concerning behavior i n defined situations. I t should be emphasized that the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e does not c o n s i s t o f a s i n g l e r i g i d s e t o f r u l e s governing such data c o l l e c t i o n . R a t h e r i t should be thought o f as a f l e x i b l e s e t o f p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h must b e m o d i f i e d a n d a d a p t e d t o meet t h e s p e c i f i e d s i t u a t i o n a t hand.  He m e n t i o n s one s t u d y i n v o l v i n g a g e n e r a l i z e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of p u p i l b e h a v i o r which i n c l u d e d immediate criteria d a t a s u c h as " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f p u p i l i n t e r e s t . . . , " intermediate c r i t e r i o n d a t a , such as " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f a c c o m p l i s h m e n t upon c o m p l e t i o n o f p u p i l s exposure t o a p a r t i c u l a r t e a c h e r , " and u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i o n d a t a , such as " m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t a n d a c c o m p l i s h m e n t . . . . "  The  essential  below i n Chapter used of  study  university  teaching  Determining  ing  as e v o l v e d  university  given 3.  ing  the "'critical from  appraisal.  specific  are discussed  methods t h a t have  on a n a d a p t a t i o n  with  I t i s the  of this  reference  requirements"  been  intention  technique  to  to its usefulness f o r :  of university  the d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e r  the relationship  by " c r i t i c a l  as o p i n i o n s  Educing  value  technique  teach-  behavior  by  students;  Studying  obtained  o f teacher  to report  1.  of this  I I , as are the other  f o r the purpose  this  2.  features  between  incidents,"  derived  from  a set of practical  to lecturers  information  on  and s u p p l e m e n t a r y  general  information  experience;  recommendations  i n t h e improvement  teaching  t h a t may  be o f  of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y  teach-  practices.  It designed  i s t o be n o t e d to identify  on the b a s i s  purpose  to e l i c i t  be  of value  of  their  taken  to avoid  actually  The Arts  data  students,  among a  some  total  was n o t  them w i t h  Thus,  references being  that  would  the degree  precautions  made  that  were  would  instructors.  from  selected, as  students  poor  Bather i t s  recommendations  audience.  collected  were  o f 375  inquiry  judgments.  by acquainting  university  were who  practical  by t h e i r  any d i r e c t  identify  present  of student  to instructors  acceptance  this  f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n good and  instructors was  that  80 v o l u n t e e r  fourth  i s described  registered  i n the  below,  faculty.  year from  CHAPTER I I REVIEW OP THE  LITERATURE  M e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach.  "Reviews of the  methodological  approach to teacher a p p r a i s a l have been prepared by Beecher (19i+9) and Barr (19ij-8).  These summaries are concerned  i l y w i t h the study of elementary but Beecher, i n a d d i t i o n , reviews level.  As a r e s u l t  and  secondary  primar-  school teachers,  s e v e r a l s t u d i e s a t the c o l l e g e  of h i s survey, he l i s t s f i v e methods f o r  teacher a p p r a i s a l :  1. 2.  3.  k-  5.  S u p e r v i s o r s ' and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g f o r the most part assembled l i s t s of desirable q u a l i t i e s . Rating s c a l e s and o b s e r v a t i o n a l techniques. P r e d i c t i v e a p p r a i s a l of t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . S t u d i e s of p u p i l o p i n i o n and r e a c t i o n . D i a g n o s t i c and a n e c d o t a l methods. Current r a t i n g s c a l e s are c r i t i c i z e d by Travers  (1950)  as being i n v a l i d measures of teacher e f f e c t i v e n e s s , i n t h a t they are based upon v a r y i n g frequency and the teacher.  Smit (195D  of c o n t a c t between the  criticized  judgments of e d u c a t i o n a l experts  rater  a l l s t u d i e s based  or students o n l y .  on  In her  view there has been a l o s s o f v a l i d i t y of r e s u l t s because of the use  of u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e samples, a l a c k o f o b j e c t i v i t y i n  judgments, and s i t u a t i o n a l goals have been inadequately d e f i n e d for  the judges.  F u r t h e r , she pointed out, the manner i n which  6  the  data  are  presented report,  to  and  Completely  requested,  the  judges  limit  the  may  questions  meaningfulness  unstructured  generalizations.  Conversely,  instructions,  other  looked.  She  felt  in  goals  the  teaching  and  used  as  a  not  been  basis  reasons  variation  i n the  their  with  any  objectives.  in  r o l e s at  different  and  with  different  considerations  a c t i n g as  effectiveness,  he  concerning  patterns  the  employed  than  direct  their  that  they  social  and  to  there  characteristics  of  two  very  teachers  have  are  is a  the  wide  of  differences in  a d d i t i o n to  different these  study  of  teacher  paucity  of  knowledge  asked  of  the  defined,  there  characterize researchers  r e c o g n i t i o n of some  over-  descriptions  which  He  be  are  levels,  is a  behaviors  estimate  there  there  In  vague  evaluations.  First;  pupils.  to  overly  clearly  that  Second;  the  given  ineffective  deterrent  to  led  supply.  judgments"  underlying  teachers.  efforts  identify and  as  of  be  judges  they  f a c t o r s may  educational  alleged that  individuals  personal  a  are  assurance.  concepts  view,  judges)  and  instructions  f a c t o r s the  "equate  concluded  teaching  subjects,  i n her  should  (the  desireable teacher  to  and  information  important  effective  value  the  of  i f judges  order  371)  p.  why  described  of  situation  for  (I960,  Ryans important  that  kinds  questions,  specific  of  the  asked  the  "good"  major  teachers.  rather teachers,  patterns  of  7  With Teacher  this  i n mind,  Characteristics  tification  one o f t h e l i n e s  Study,  and d e s c r i p t i o n  chaired  b y Ryans,  of s p e c i f i c  dimensions  they  "'critical  incidents"  of teaching, or c r i t i c a l  elementary  The technique  and secondary  Critical  i n the i d e n -  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s and  the m a j o r  both  comprise,  of attack of the  consisted  of  collecting  behaviors, of  school teachers.  Incident Technique.  The c r i t i c a l  incident  (1954b) a s :  i s described by Flanagan  ...a s e t o f procedures f o r c o l l e c t i n g d i r e c t observat i o n s o f human b e h a v i o r . (A p r o c e d u r e ) f o r c o l l e c t i n g observed Incidents having s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e and meeting s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a . A n i n c i d e n t i s a n y o b s e r v a b l e human a c t i v i t y suffic i e n t l y complete i n i t s e l f t o p e r m i t i n f e r e n c e s and p r e d i c t i o n s t o b e made a b o u t t h e p e r s o n p e r f o r m i n g t h e act. To b e c r i t i c a l a n i n c i d e n t must o c c u r i n a s i t u a t i o n where t h e p u r p o s e o r i n t e n t o f t h e a c t seems f a i r l y c l e a r t o t h e o b s e r v e r and where i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y d e f i n i t e so as t o leave l i t t l e doubt concerning i t s effects.  He  formalized the c r i t i c a l  fined  technique  which  incident  write and to  are requested  The i n d i v i d u a l s  generally  down a l l o f t h e i n c i d e n t s  i n most  settings  participate  engaged  into  he d e s c r i b e d i n a n u m b e r  (1950, 1952a, 1954b, 1956c). incidents  approach  the range  usually  extends  i n the occupation.  a r e asked  that  they  whom  can think  those  He a s s u m e s ,  from  who  who  then,  or  about,  may  may b e  that  de-  articles  to report  of individuals beyond  of  a well  be  asked  directly  the observer  8  can as  recall  those  indicating  Thus, was  critical  effecient  i n the f i e l d  described  as  incidents  w h i c h may  or i n e f f i c i e n t  of teaching,  reflecting  good  be  characterized  performance  an example  i n that  o f an i n c i d e n t  or e f f e c t i v e  teaching  field. which  was  the  f o l l o w ! ng:  "'The l e c t u r e r e x p l a i n e d h i s l a t e n e s s was d u e t o t h e d i s t a n c e h e h a d t o come b e t w e e n l e c t u r e s . He was w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r q u e s t i o n s a f t e r t h e h o u r , s i n c e i t was t h e l a s t o f t h e a f t e r n o o n , and e x p r e s s e d a d e s i r e t o see students i n d i v i d u a l l y i n h i s o f f i c e t o discuss course m a t e r i a l a n d h e l p them g e t a s much a s p o s s i b l e o u t o f i t . " Another  incident  illustrating  ineffective  teaching  was:  "Due t o a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t o f t h e l e c t u r e r i n s p e c i f i c c o u r s e m a t e r i a l , he u s e d s p e c i a l t e r m s he a l o n e knew, he l e c t u r e d s o q u i c k l y t h a t t h e r e was n o t i m e t o g e t a n y t h i n g down, a n d g a v e n o c h a n c e t o a s k q u e s t i o n s . "  As  c a n be  seen,  "critical  procedure  essentially, number  behavioral more one from are  i n c i d e n t can contain  involved  i n using  to determine  of s p e c i f i c  begins which i n turn  by  this  a number  of  scrutinizing  technique i s ,  the observer's  incidents described;  extract  d e s c r i p t i o n s ; and i n d u c t i v e l y d e r i v e  inclusive  larity.  critical  behaviors."  The  the  each  with  categories  an u n c l a s s i f i e d  are derived classified  These  i n which  a number according  behaviors  to classify  number  a  of c r i t i c a l  progression Thus,  incidents,  behaviors  t o the degree  are the " s p e c i f i c  the d i s c r e t e  them.  of c r i t i c a l  which  of t h e i r  actions  reports  simi-  of the  of  9  i n d i v i d u a l " (1954°),  a n  ^ a r e , where p o s s i b l e , grouped  " ' c r i t i c a l requirements".  into  F l a n a g a n (1950) d e s c r i b e s the c r i t i c a l  requirements o f an a c t i v i t y as b e i n g those t h a t a r e c r u c i a l i n the sense t h a t t h e y have been f r e q u e n t l y observed t o make t h e d i f f e r e n c e between success and f a i l u r e  i n that a c t i v i t y .  In  o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s he l i s t s 5 s p e c i f i c c o n d i t i o n s t o be s a t i s f i e d : 1.  2. 3. 1+. 5.  ...that  actual  observations be made o f the on-the-  job a c t i v i t y and t h e p r o d u c t of such a c t i v i t y . The aims and o b j e c t i v e s of t h e a c t i v i t y must be known t o t h e o b s e r v e r . . . . The b a s i s f o r the s p e c i f i c judgments t o be made by the o b s e r v e r must be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d . . . . A l l o b s e r v e r s must have t h e same c r i t e r i a f o r making judgments.... The o b s e r v e r must be q u a l i f i e d t o make judgments r e g a r d i n g the a c t i v i t y observed.... . . . r e p o r t i n g (must be) a c c u r a t e . The p r i n c i p a l p r o blems here are those o f memory and communication. I t i s a l s o important that the observer's a t t e n t i o n be d i r e c t e d t o the e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f the b e h a v i o r b e i n g observed.  These c r i t i c a l  r e q u i r e m e n t s are t h e n p r o g r e s s i v e l y grouped  into  more i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s , termed, f o r the purposes o f t h i s c l a s s e s , sub-areas, and major a r e a s .  paper,  These s t e p s a r e i l l u s t r a t e d  i n d e t a i l i n Chapter I I I . For t h e purposes o f the e x t e n s i v e Teacher  Characteristics  Study (Syans, I 9 6 0 ) , the r e p o r t s of c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s were subm i t t e d by persons c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t e a c h i n g , and were based upon f i r s t - h a n d knowledge of a c t s o f t e a c h e r s i n s p e c i f i c situations.  The r e s e a r c h e r s d e f i n e d a " c r i t i c a l  i n c i d e n t " as:  ...any o b s e r v a b l e t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r o r a c t which might make t h e d i f f e r e n c e between success o r f a i l u r e i n some specified teaching s i t u a t i o n .  10  I n o r d e r t o f o r m a l i z e and s y s t e m a t i z e havior study  the c r i t i c a l  t h e a u t h o r s made u s e o f a C r i t i c a l  t e a c h e r be-  Incidents  b a s e d on t h e r e p o r t s o f F l a n a g a n  and h i s c o - w o r k e r s a t t h e  American I n s t i t u t e  (1954°)•  f o r Research  Blank  Each o b j e c t i v e des-  cription  of a specific  t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r was t r a n s c r i b e d t o a  separate  record card.  These c a r d s were s o r t e d and c l a s s i f i e d  into  appropriate categories i n five  steps:  1.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s i n each incident of teacher behavior reported; 2. d e r i v a t i o n o f a r o u g h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r the r e p o r t e d i n c i d e n t s t o f a c i l i t a t e o r d e r i n g of the d a t a ; 3. c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e a c h c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r i n t o one o f these c a t e g o r i e s ; [|_. d e r i v a t i o n o f a g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i v e statement c o v e r i n g each category; 5. . f i n a l r e f i n e m e n t of t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme a n d preparation o f g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the p r i n c i p a l c l a s s e s of t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s , (Ryans, I960,  The  p.  authors  elementary  81).  concluded  this p o r t i o n of their  and h i g h s c h o o l t e a c h e r s b y e m p h a s i z i n g  p l a c e d c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on the l i s t from the c o l l e c t i o n view,  of c r i t i c a l  that  of behaviors  teaching incidents.  they  derived In their  t h i s a p p r o a c h t o the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of  significant  teacher behaviors  f r e q u e n t l y employed procedure name t h e t r a i t s teachers. technique value  study of  was b a s i c a l l y  more s o u n d t h a n t h e  of asking educators  or others t o  o r q u a l i t i e s t h e y b e l i e v e t o be d e s i r a b l e f o r  They b e l i e v e d f u r t h e r t h a t t h e c r i t i c a l represented  an e f f o r t  judgments, t o o b j e c t i f y  t o determine  incidents  t h e b a s i s of  descriptions of teacher  behavior,  and p r o v i d e a n o p e r a t i o n a l f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e a s s e s s ment o f t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r  ( R y a n s , I960, p.  83).  11  The c r i t i c a l  i n c i d e n t technique has been a p p l i e d t o  many job areas i n the p a s t , as f o r example t o a i r l i n e (Gordon,  191+9) and d e n t i s t s (Wagner, 1950).  pilots  Stoyva (1956)  used i t w i t h a view t o p r o v i d i n g an e m p i r i c a l c r i t e r i o n of performance  o f the t r o l l e y - b u s operator's job.  DeVries (1957)  conducted s y s t e m a t i c and o b j e c t i v e study of t r a i n i n g needs i n the f i e l d found,  of r e a l e s t a t e s e l l i n g using t h i s technique.  i n a d d i t i o n t o i n f o r m a t i o n gleaned d i r e c t l y from  He critical  i n c i d e n t s as such, items of " g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n " p r o v i d e d supplementary to  i n f o r m a t i o n which proved t o be a u s e f u l adjunct  the c r i t i c a l Smit  i n c i d e n t technique.  (1952) s e l e c t e d t h i s procedure and adapted i t t o  i n v e s t i g a t e the requirements n e c e s s a r y f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l psychology courses.  Data d e r i v e d from f o u r d i f f e r e n t  groups, c o n s i s t i n g of b o t h students and i n s t r u c t o r s , were analyzed to determine t i o n a l reports.  i f d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d i n t h e i r observa-  As might be expected, she found:  . . . s u f f i c i e n t s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n judgments of c r i t i c a l n e s s and r e l e v a n c e of behavior between students and faculty.; t o warrant f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n concerning reasons f o r t h i s , and i t s e f f e c t s on s t u d i e s based on student or f a c u l t y n e v a l u a t i o n s a l o n e . She concluded that the requirements f o r e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g i n g e n e r a l psychology courses i n v o l v e more than s k i l l s to  the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l .  i z e d under f i v e headings as f o l l o w s :  necessary  Her f i n d i n g s are summar-  12  a)  Behaviors r e l a t e d to a i d i n g the i n d i v i d u a l student w i t h b o t h e d u c a t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l problems a r e critical to effectiveness.  b)  The i m p o r t a n c e was s t r e s s e d o f e n c o u r a g i n g students to t h i n k a s w e l l as memorize and a c c e p t , and t o e v a l u a t e t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e i r own a n d o t h e r s t h i n k ing. ,  c)  The r e c o g n i t i o n o f s t u d e n t n e e d s i n t h e c l a s s r o o m i n a d d i t i o n t o e x t e n d i n g a i d a f t e r c l a s s h o u r s was a c r i t i c a l area.  d)  The s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h e n e e d f o r t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n both e x p o s i t o r y and o t h e r c l a s s r o o m methods, and emphasized the need f o r i n s t r u c t o r s t o d e v e l o p t h e r e q u i s i t e s k i l l s i n other than l e c t u r i n g methods.  e)  A f u r t h e r problem area revealed i n her study i n cluded the n e c e s s i t y of h e l p i n g students t o c l a r i f y t h e i r aims and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  She  found  her  research,  tive  that  the value i n addition  to faculty  basis  objectively  same d i f f i c u l t y  judgments  of instruments  scale  i n which  32)  obtained.  He  contends  i n evaluating teaching  be  a very  asserts  i n their  and  informa-  forming  t o measure  from  the  teacher  quantitatively.  p.  cannot  derived  to providing instructive  e v a l u a t i n g the performance  value a  and  (1959,  Guthrie  Requirements  and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , l i e s  f o r the development  behavior  in  of Critical  one i s f a c e d  that  of violinists.  reduced  high  that  would  among  encountered  He p r o t e s t s  t o the reading  concensus  be  w i t h the  of points  observers  that:  . . . i f we d e f i n e a s c i e n t i f i c f a c t a s a s t a t e o r e v e n t so d e s c r i b e d t h a t a l l q u a l i f i e d observers w i l l accept the d e s c r i p t i o n , the d i f f e r e n c e between f a c t and v a l u e becomes a r e l a t i v e one.  that on  c a n be  13  He maintains that judgments are being continuously made about teaching performance by students, colleagues and by the teacher himself, but £he student observers have one advantage which colleagues do not share—they are present at the performance. However, Buxton (1956, p. 348) reports a factor analytic study by Guthrie indicating that impact of the Instructor on his student i s but one of three dimensions that are s i g n i f i c a n t in the t o t a l e v a l u a t i o n .  The other two are h i s impact on his  profession, by way of research and scholarly productivity, and his impact on his colleagues. It i s this f i r s t  'dimension',  then, the "impact  of the  instructor on his student" that was used as the source of c r i t e r i o n data for this study.  Unquestionably  the use of non-  trained student observers, i n the sense of their having no supervised training i n behavioral observation and assessment, inevitably led to considerable judgment variance.  Moreover,  their assessments were l i k e l y influenced by the casual nature of the observations and by biases r e s u l t i n g from c r i t e r i o n deficiency and contamination.  The l a t t e r l i k e l y contained  among i t s sources what Ryans (I960, p. 30) refers to as "opportunity bias", resulting from differences i n opportunity for production of behavior among d i f f e r e n t individuals being observed.  During a given time sample no s i t u a t i o n may have  occurred i n which teacher »A' was able to demonstrate certain  Ik  characteristics of  bias  was  were n o t time  asked  were  repertoire criterion biases,  to  such  Indeed,  the  as  judgments  i s going  to  arousal'. tionship  being  by  The  relate  been  did not  student  selection  of  advanced  P»  28)  various  rating  effect".  In  of  the  seem  to  as  Smit  assume,  have them  a to  criterion a  of  to  high  of  criteria  McKeachie  measure  of and  'interest  consistent interest,  given  base  While  degree  other  very  to  judgment.  Judgments.  student  courses  does  upon which  Student  and  of  i t does  indicate  ratings  source  question  disappointing. a  re-  by  the  rela-  as  evi-  instructor  rated.  objection  to  to  pre-planned  judgments,  "equivalence"  of  observers  behavioral  the  the  source  incidents  "halo  criteria  instructors  e s t a b l i s h e d as  between  naive  Validity  attempts  Their data  Riley  around  and  e x c e l l e n c e have  (1958)  Solomon  denced  effect  the  resolve  "knowledge"" o f  evaluations of  teaching  to  any  another  o p e r a t i n g was  This  since  the  total  However,  student  and  that  the  associated with  unrealistic  validity,  assumed  likely  of  inquiry  actions over  random f r o m  attempting  Reliability  face  at  those  t h a t mere  student  i t was  possessed.  i n this  lecturer  reliability  observer  actually  instructor.  without  validity,and  (1952),  record  selected of  (he)  however,  contamination  event,  this  she  minimized,  schedule.  ported  any  that  the  to  (1950> the  use  problem  make u n b i a s e d , literature  of  of  acknowledged  student  ratings  reliability,  specific  has  i . e . , the  c o n s i s t e n t judgments  directs  that  of  criticism  a at  the  crucial  usually  centered  ability teacher's such  of  students  performance.  demographic  15 characteristics  o f s t u d e n t s as t h e i r age, academic s u c c e s s ,  and sex. The e v i d e n c e t h a t such demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s t u d e n t s a f f e c t s t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s i s c o n f l i c t i n g and i n c o n clusive.  Remmers & E l l i o t  concluded t h a t grade, sex,  (19^9)  and m a t u r i t y ( i n terms o f freshman e f f e c t on r a t i n g s .  or s e n i o r s t a t u s ) had no  However, graduate s t u d e n t s , they f o u n d ,  rated t h e i r instructors  h i g h e r than d i d undergraduates.  a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample o f s t u d e n t s t o r a t e p s y c h o l o g y t o r s , Bendig (1952) d i f f e r e d w i t h t h e i r f i n d i n g s . t h a t women were somewhat more c r i t i c a l tor,  and advanced  He contended  t h a n men  Using instruc  He found  of a male i n s t r u  undergraduates more c r i t i c a l than b e g i n n e r s .  t h a t the n a t u r e of course c o n t e n t i s c r u c i a l i n  d e t e r m i n i n g the q u a l i t y of e v a l u a t i o n . D r u c k e r & Remmers (195D p r e s e n t e d t e n t a t i v e to support the v i e w t h a t r a t i n g s o f i n s t r u c t o r s w i t h the m a t u r i t y of the r a t e r .  findings  do n o t change  I n d i c a t i o n s were t h a t alumni  t e n years out of c o l l e g e agreed v e r y c l o s e l y w i t h c u r r e n t undergraduates as to what i n s t r u c t o r t r a i t s were s i g n i f i c a n t i n the q u a l i t y of i n s t r u c t i o n . A n i k e e f (1953) c a l c u l a t e d  rank-order c o e f f i c i e n t s of  c o r r e l a t i o n between the mean grade a number of  instructors  gave t h e i r s t u d e n t s and the mean r a t i n g they r e c e i v e d from s t u d e n t s , and found a c l o s e p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n .  He found  16  grading the  leniency  correlated highest  freshman-sophomore  level.  The  low  correlation  believed, could  be  resulting  the  levels. and as  from A  he  points  partly  or  students ability and  do  Thus, use  ment the of  one  critical the  in  reported  i t was  tentative  of  lecturer  components  have  some  being  i n c i d e n t technique  decisions  the  until  (critical  dimensions  have  grouping  at  the  ratings  352).  p.  Since,  evaluated  i t might  be  that  favourably,  findings defined  to  by  suggest  grade-point  of  of  relevant  the to  above,  the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s , and  the  assist  i n  the  criterion. in this  behaviors) the  to  nature  Of  be of  course  the  an  That i s ,  chosen  until  criterion;  to  the  criterion  estimates  of  the  hypothesized  made.  use  derivation  approach.  cannot  both  establish-  relative  been  lower  s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n of  light  to  regarding  judgments reliable  as  i s inherent  b e e n made  of  he  merit  is  instruction  i n the  judgments as  measures  to  student  Guthrie's  level,  operation  (19^6,  on  junior-senior  homogeneous  related  a  scores  ratings.  decided  circularity  by  students,  of  in  Buxton  their  higher  criterion  more  i n terms  He  criterion  ioral  "above",  give  latter  the  the  of e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  regard  behavioral  unavoidable  and  terms  at  problem by  rating  on  the  earned  would  not  student  of  grade  generally abler  average,  to  a  largely  versa.  the  research  most  lowest  process  i s discussed  out,  level,  to  selection  achieving  vice  that  earned  and  found  attributed  difficult  grade  level,  with  must  remain  behav-  17  It simple  was  behaviors  particular iors  the  of  or  motor  varying  aim  of  this  present  "first-order  or verbal degrees  of  behavior  responses  or  salient  components  lecturing.  It  seemed,  f o r the  purpose.  incident  technique  was  of  then,  to  dimensions"  or combinations  complexity,  significant  critical  study,  which  might  effective  reasons  stated  admirably  isolate such of  as  behav-  represent  university above,  suited  for  that this  the  18  CHAPTER  THE  The nique  APPLICATION  specific  to the  Arts for  level  decided, collect  to  each  this  the  to  composing  several First, the  and  stand  important of  what  phasized  on  the a  of  the  being the  of  In  person the  was  both  Second,  being  accurate  observed  instructions  both  a  It  was  their  by  written record  and  recording  the  observer  could  form. forms,  reports.  be  assured  only  The  methods  for  over  the  must  complete This  sent  gain  clearly  concrete  under-  i s , the  description  feature  i f  telephone  i s behavioral, that  did. by  form,  mailed  and  It  observers,  interview.  the  observers  collected  record  with  verbally  the  Forms.  and  protected.  reasons  above.  verbally  effect  year  available  telephone,  instructions to  The  Recording of  tech-  critical  fourth  outlined  observers  explained  being  sent  incident  pages.  a personal  found  a l l parties  data  by  TECHNIQUE  the  the  prepared  them b o t h  have b e e n  were  been  of  at  l a r g e number  i n f o r m a t i o n i s an  the  have  s u b j e c t by  preparing  critical  folloxing  specially  each  copy f o r m .  that  the  cooperation  safeguard i n the  of  latter  variables  the  I n s t r u c t i o n s and  instruct  and  maximum  on  of  INCIDENT  instruction  r a t h e r than  the  anonymity  this  data  and  instructions, In  of  contact  cooperation,  CRITICAL  determination  technique  because  observer,  necessary  the  i s discussed  Preparation  to  of  for university  selecting  was  THE  application  problem  requirements  OP  III  was  em-  example,  and  19  by  repetition.  periences think  which  illustrate  of actual  lecturer of  Respondents  incidents  were good  asked and  to describe  poor lecture  of behavior  on  actual  technique;  the p a r t  of  a p p l i e s t o the e f f e c t i v e  or non-effective  a lecture;  t o d e s c r i b e e x a c t l y what  the l e c t u r e r  objectives o f the area being  front  of  the person  student's  making  observations  the  result  o f an  the  action  represented  of the l e c t u r e  were  asked  solely  was  i n terms  their  lecturer.  In  order  to  to i n c l u d e  would and  but  by  effective  that  p e r s o n a l l y impressed  delivered, fested  reminded  or  clarify  the  ineffective.  indicate  relevance  whether  I t was the  according  did.  the b a s i s to  lecture  i n terms  of  they  procedure  the  hoped  that  judgments to the  as  observers  considered  the  these of  the  of  technique. goodness  whether  subject material  points,  i n  whether  e v a l u a t i o n of the  the  Third,  clearly  i n reference  t o be  delivery  stressed that  upon  of l e c t u r e  why  or not  w e r e made  not  these  reasons  I t was  be  or ineffective  their  by  must  recorded  action  effective  or  they  be  instructor's  were  poorness  judgments.  should  Respondents  observed  to  their  that  the  ex-  being mani-  were  behaviors statements  criticalness  requirements  outlined  above.  In specific of  addition to  this  of rapport  these  particular  motivation, both  ment  to  had  problems  technique,  immediate t o be  which  and  more  a r e more general  continuous,  considered.  and  or  less  problems  the  establish-  20  In order t o maximize the response-rate, the copy forms were enclosed i n stamped, addressed, return envelopes, and the respondents were assured of anonymity and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . However, i t was impossible to follow-up non-respondents unless each copy form had some i d e n t i f y i n g f e a t u r e , which, of course, may have generated some s u s p i c i o n that the enquiry was not confidential.  Indeed, i t was necessary to send a follow-up  request due t o a poor i n i t i a l response. The copy forms consisted of f o u r sheets of paper, 8|r" x li+", divided e q u a l l y i n t o twelve spaces approximately three inches i n depth.  There were s i x spaces a v a i l a b l e f o r  recording i n c i d e n t s r e l a t e d to good or e f f e c t i v e l e c t u r e procedure, and s i x f o r the d e s c r i p t i o n of poor or i n e f f e c t i v e procedures.  The f i r s t page of the forms consisted of the  i n s t r u c t i o n s which can be found i n Appendix A.  The l a s t page  was headed 'Supplementary Information', where the respondent was asked t o : ...please state your opinions regarding good and poor u n i v e r s i t y teaching as derived from your own experiences, but which you cannot r e l a t e t o a s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t . This information i s designed to supplement the " i n c i d e n t s " m a t e r i a l and should not be a mere restatement o f - i t . Try t o avoid any reference to the i n c i d e n t s you have described while t r y i n g to form your opinions. These forms were mailed t o 239 f o u r t h year Arts students who had been s u c c e s s f u l l y contacted, and who had agreed to  21  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the study.  The remaining 136 names had been  c a l l e d a minimum of f o u r times, and f o r v a r i o u s reasons c o u l d not be reached. telephone:  Each student was  t o l d , i n p a r t , over the  1  ...(the study) i n v o l v e s an a n a l y s i s of l e c t u r e technique as demonstrated by your v a r i o u s l e c t u r e r s i n the courses you are t a k i n g y o u r s e l f , or l e c t u r e behavior d e s c r i b e d to you by your fiiends.... A f t e r a p e r i o d of approximately one month, those students who  had faHed to send, i n t h e i r forms were sent a reminder.  the c l o s e of the academic s e s s i o n , or immediately  At  thereafter,  97 forms had been r e t u r n e d , 80 of which contained u s e f u l material.  The response  r a t e was  S e l e c t i o n of the Sample.  l±.0,6%.^ I t was  decided to c o l l e c t  the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s from students r e g i s t e r e d i n f o u r t h y e a r A r t s s i n c e , because of t h e i r broad exposure  to l e c t u r e  situa-  t i o n s , they would have the l a r g e s t r e p e r t o i r e of i n c i d e n t s from which to draw. demic l e v e l ,  F u r t h e r , i t was  hoped that at t h i s aca-  the students would be able to r e p o r t c r i t i c a l  behaviors and t h e i r r e s u l t s which were based upon the g o a l s of the teaching s i t u a t i o n , and be a b l e t o keep separate  their  ^Mosser (1958, pp. 178-180) d i s c u s s e s such v a r i a b l e s c o n t r i b u t i n g to the p r o p o r t i o n of respondents r e p l y i n g to mailed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s as: the nature of the p o p u l a t i o n , the s u b j e c t of the survey, i t s sponsorship and the success of i n t e r e s t a r o u s a l . He p o i n t s out that "strenuous e f f o r t s " are u s u a l l y needed to b r i n g the response r a t e above about 30-1+0^.  22  opinions and r e p o r t these on the Supplementary Information page provided f o r that  purpose.  Since the l i t e r a t u r e i s i n c o n c l u s i v e concerning the effect  of demographic data on student r a t i n g s of i n s t r u c t o r s ,  as d i s c u s s e d above, and s i n c e course of study^" may In p a r t determine  the q u a l i t y of student e v a l u a t i o n i t was necessary  to see i f our sample was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n terms of course of study.  By r e f e r r i n g t o the r e g i s t r a t i o n cards of a l l the f o u r t h  year A r t s students, i t was p o s s i b l e t o place each student one  into  of f o u r c a t e g o r i e s on the b a s i s of t h e i r i n d i c a t e d major  or honours course.  The L i b r a r y of Congress  scheme was used  as a b a s i s f o r t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . • This scheme d i v i d e s t r a d i t i o n a l courses o f study  into  f i v e broad c a t e g o r i e s as f o l l o w s : 1.  Humanities. Includes Languages and L i t e r a t u r e , Philosophy, and H i s t o r y .  2.  S o c i a l S c i e n c e s . Includes Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , Anthropology, S o c i o l o g y , Psychology, Geography, Commerce and Business A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , S o c i a l Work, and E d u c a t i o n .  3«  S c i e n c e s . Includes Chemistry, and r e l a t e d f i e l d s .  b_.  Biomedical.  5.  Pine A r t s . Includes Pine and A p p l i e d A r t s , A r c h i t e c t u r e and Planning, Music, Costume and Dance.  P h y s i c s , A p p l i e d Science  Includes the B i o l o g i c a l Sciences and Medicine.  Since the student respondents were requested to i n d i c a t e  their  course of study on the copy form they r e t u r n e d , they too were  k-See Bendig's  f i n d i n g s , page 15 above.  23  similarly test  classified.  the hypothesis  the  various  was  proportionate  population proportions Table to  p a g e 3I4) for  the  hence  Due sample  enrolled  fourth year  precision  population proportions,  so  been  categories,  in  used  below (see  The v a l u e  obtained  a t the .05  level,  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of t h e i r  encountered  Increase  of behaviors.  i t was  necessary  to a  course  of  o b t a i n i n g an  of  study.  adequate  the representativeness  from  above.  scheme  any preconceived t o be  reported  After  a l l the  to classify  p r o g r e s s i o n o f more  outlined  than  behaviors  2  i n Table  significance  were  were  and  sample.  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  was  listed  i n terms  thereby  have  classification  i n the  The n u m b e r s  then,  of c h i square.  likely  according a s was  forms  n o t p o s s i b l e t o make u s e o f p o p u l a t i o n  of the  gathered,  described  actual  numbers',  students  and  students).  in  i n the v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s are l i s t e d  Classification had  Arts  d i d not approach  i t was  stratification and  similarly  to the d i f f i c u l t y  size  enrolled  t o t h e number  The  Arts  of students  on t h e c o p y  f o r the c a l c u l a t i o n  year  possible to  indicated  the respondents  fourth  t h e number  i t was  as  'expected  the l a t t e r  c h i square,  of study  enrolled  1 below.  derive  that  courses  (i.e.,  Using  develop  notions  built by  Since  i t was  from  the  incidents  inclusive desired to  the data  rather  of the i n v e s t i g a t o r ,  inductively,  the  incidents  observers.  beginning  the  with  the  2i|  Three major c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes were a p p l i e d to the data.  The f i r s t  one was based  of l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s . c a t e g o r i e s of t h i s second  was based  That i s , the p r o g r e s s i v e l y more i n c l u s i v e  scheme had only a b e h a v i o r a l b a s i s .  e x c l u s i v e l y on the r e s u l t  lecturer action described. which i n c l u d e d a r e s u l t for  s o l e l y on student d e s c r i p t i o n s  The  of the p a r t i c u l a r  Obviously, only those r e p o r t s  (62% of the b e h a v i o r s ) were u s e f u l  t h i s scheme. The  t h i r d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme was a p p l i e d t o data  r e p o r t e d i n the form of g e n e r a l o p i n i o n s , i n the main found on the Supplementary Information page of the copy form.  These  l a t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n s were e x c l u s i v e l y r e p o r t e d i n the f u t u r e imperative tense, and f r e q u e n t l y took the form e i t h e r to the l e c t u r e r or t o the classroom The  first  of a d i r e c t i v e  situation.  step i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the data was the  i s o l a t i o n of c r i t i c a l  behaviors from the c r i t i c a l  incidents.  As was i l l u s t r a t e d above, an i n c i d e n t f r e q u e n t l y contained more than one c r i t i c a l  behavior, hence the copy forms were read,  and the behaviors u n d e r l i n e d i n coloured p e n c i l .  These behav-  i o r s , along with t h e i r r e s u l t , i f any, were typed  on 3"x 5>"  cards.  I t was noted whether the a c t i o n s d e s c r i b e d were s p e c i -  f i e d by the observers as being e i t h e r e f f e c t i v e o r i n e f f e c t i v e . All  behaviors which were e x a c t l y a l i k e o r seemed to r e f e r to  the same k i n d of a c t i o n were grouped t o g e t h e r i n the same 'sub-class*. to  These s u b - c l a s s e s were s t a t e d i n terms as c l o s e  the o r i g i n a l behaviors as p o s s i b l e , and r e p r e s e n t "the f i r s t  25  l e v e l o f g e n e r a l i z a t i o n which covers c l o s e l y s i m i l a r  specific  (1954b).  behaviors" The  next s t e p i n v o l v e d g r o u p i n g  I n t o ' c l a s s e s ' and  the v a r i o u s  thence i n t o 'sub-areas'.  sub-classes  These  groupings  were i n terms of g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the more items subsumed under them.  elemental  Thus, f o r example, each of the f o u r  classes: 1. 2. 3.  use of b l a c k b o a r d use of s l i d e s use of maps and c h a r t s  k.  d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o use of a u d i o - v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s  a l l subsumed d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e r behaviors which were capable o f f u r t h e r d i v i s i o n i n t o s u b - c l a s s e s , such as was c r i b e d above.  F u r t h e r , these f o u r c l a s s e s were a l l ,  subsumed under the sub-area: the seven sub-areas c o m p r i s i n g The  i n turn,  A u d i o - V i s u a l Techniques, one the major a r e a :  Teaching  f o l l o w i n g example o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was  illustrate  des-  Methods.  s e l e c t e d to  the methods and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n making  s u c c e s s i v e a b s t r a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d by t h i s t e c h n i q u e .  of  While  v a l i d a t i o n of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme cannot be assessed  the the by  t h i s s t u d y , p o s s i b l e v a l i d a t i o n procedures are d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter IV. Example i l l u s t r a t i n g the placement o f b e h a v i o r s classes.  I n c i d e n t number 90 read as f o l l o w s :  "'The l e c t u r e r mumbled and f a i l e d to l o o k at c l a s s as he l e c t u r e d . "  the  i n sub-  26  The  behaviors  extracted  1.  mumbled^  2.  failed  Behavior  1 was  to  were:  look  placed  at  in:  sub-class (d) spoke i n d i s t i n c t l y , class 1 q u a l i t y of voice; sub-area A The L e c t u r e Method; major area A Teaching Methods. Behavior  2  was  placed  class  mumbled;  in:  sub-class (b) does n o t f a c e class; class 2 p o s i t i o n i n f r o n t of c l a s s ; sub-area A Temperamental, Dynamic, & M o t i v a t i o n a l major area B Personality Traits.  The terms, of  sub-classes  f o r example,  whether  the  ports  of a  same  terms,  in  they  but  which  were  included  laneous  references'  and  found  illustrates  d i d or d i d not.  termed  kinds  were  to a  Where  described  the  included B,  C,  of behaviors  'miscellaneous  limiting  is i n no  two  i n exactly  i n v e s t i g a t o r s that  closely  critical  i n Appendices  the  mumbled"  similar  i n a miscellaneous  elemental were  i n specifically  indistinctly,  satisfied  alluded  similar  classes  defined  l e c t u r e r behavior  closely  are  "spoke  individual  a l llikelihood  ior,  were  Traits;  sub-class.  behaviors as and  an  that  listed  addend  D.  The are  references.'  lecturer  rethe they behavThese  as  to each following  subsumed  terms  'miscelclass, example  under  sub-  27  Example  illustrating  "'miscellaneous  behaviors  5. 6.  An  attempt  "closely  descriptions  lecturer  relative  used  behavior.  a  demonstrations"  of  an a c t .  the  subsumed t h e  months  i t was  only  of opinionation with  classification  To  be f o u n d  was  categor-  scale i n  That  the effect  of concrete members  i s , a  opinionated  F o r example:  f r e q u e n t l y used  i t was  and an  to demonstrate  i s an example  However,  point  of o p i n i o n a t i o n .  i n terms  of  by s p r e a d i n g t h e  a five  a t the other.  member  "The l e c t u r e r  over  a t one p o l e ,  i s a description  in  degree  degree  behavior'  class  behaviors"  actions  of a b e h a v i o r  force"  several  1  to increase the accuracy  specific  of lecturer  'critical  abstraction  fugal  was made  similar  of t h e i r  concrete  t o use of notes' ^  returned t o office to retrieve notes dropped notes on f l o o r , c l a s s waited u n t i l a l l p i c k e d up sought f o r exact quote i n n o t e s , f a i l e d to f i n d i t f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o notes a f t e r ad l i b c o n s u l t e d n o t e s when r e a l i z e d p r o o f i n c o r r e c t d i c t a t e d n o t e s i f seemed n e c e s s a r y  3.  terms  references  s i x behaviors:  1. 2.  izing  the sub-class  references".  "Miscellaneous following  subsumed u n d e r  "The of  centri-  lecturer  of the c l a s s  of an opinionated a b s t r a c t i o n  found  that  after  possible to sort a 7% e r r o r ,  a time  lapse  behaviors  hence  this  i n A p p e n d i x B,  page  99,  as t o  phase  abandoned.  item 5(c)  of  of  28  I t was p o s s i b l e to group a l l o f t h e data  classified  s o l e l y i n terms of l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r i n t o two major a r e a s , namely, Teaching Methods, and P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s . I t was n o t i c e d t h a t on the b a s i s o f t h i s b e h a v i o r a l g r o u p i n g l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s were judged as e i t h e r e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e exaraplfi s o f t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e .  However, t h e r e s u l t s  of any one a c t i o n r e c e i v e d a wide range o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Hence, i t was d e c i d e d t o group b e h a v i o r s on the b a s i s of the s i m i l a r i t y o f the r e p o r t e d r e s u l t .  By t h i s means i t was hoped  to uncover b e h a v i o r a l t r e n d s which had s i m i l a r r e s u l t s .  Two  a d d i t i o n a l major areas were e l i c i t e d from t h i s second approach to t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , namely, Mastery Emotional The  of S u b j e c t M a t e r i a l and  Reactivity. kinds o f b e h a v i o r s subsumed under these v a r i o u s  major areas a r e d i s c u s s e d below i n Chapter No new major o r sub-areas  were e v o l v e d f r o m the c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n of the general opinion data. fewer sub-areas  IV, pages Ij.O-Ij-2.  Indeed, c o n s i d e r a b l y  were r e q u i r e d t o s a t i s f a c t o r i l y s y s t e m a t i z e  these r e p o r t s . F o r ease o f h a n d l i n g , when t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was comp l e t e , the i n f o r m a t i o n on each 3" x 5>" card was t r a n s p o s e d  onto  5" x 8"' cards w h i c h summarized c o n c i s e l y the major a r e a , suba r e a , c l a s s and s u b - c l a s s of each c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r . ate restatement  An a c c u r -  of the b e h a v i o r i t s e l f and i t s r e s u l t , i f any,  29  and whether i t was deemed e f f e c t i v e or i n e f f e c t i v e completed the data condensation. D e r i v a t i o n o f C r i t i c a l Requirements Two l i s t s  of c r i t i c a l  and Recommendations.  requirements were d e r i v e d , one f o r each of  the b e h a v i o r a l and r e s u l t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. consist  The l i s t s  of only s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r s , or o f " f i r s t - o r d e r behavior  dimensions,"  such as p a r t i c u l a r motor or v e r b a l responses and  combinations  of behaviors of v a r y i n g degrees  of complexity.  E l e m e n t a l b e h a v i o r s , l i s t e d as 'miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s , ' and found i n the Appendices critical  under each c l a s s , were not i n c l u d e d as  requirements, s i n c e one of the c r i t e r i a f o r acceptance  as a c r i t i c a l  requirement  i s that the behaviors must "have been  f r e q u e n t l y seen t o make the d i f f e r e n c e between success or f a i l u r e . . . . " I t was a r b i t r a r i l y decided t o i n c l u d e as c r i t i c a l either  two or more s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l  requirements  behaviors (behavior c l a s s i -  f i c a t i o n scheme), or two or more s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l behaviors having a common r e s u l t I t was found  ( r e s u l t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s scheme).  that v a r y i n g r e s u l t s were e l i c i t e d  i d e n t i c a l or very s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l  requirements.  from  With a view  to uncovering the broad trends i n the r e s u l t s ensuing from similar lecturer  behaviors, i t was decided t o d e r i v e a s e t of  recommendations based requirements.  on a grouping of c l o s e l y  similar  critical  F u r t h e r , i t would be p o s s i b l e t o determine  where  the c r i t i c a l requirements used as the b a s i s f o r these recommend a t i o n s occurred on the l i s t  of c r i t i c a l  requirements which was  30  developed  from  the  behavioral  every  critical  requirement  other  one,  list  The as  the  criteria f a r as  study  was  listed  'practical  f o r grouping practical,  f o r grouping  traces  of  the  following  the  derivation  example of  the  Hence,  by  12,  p.68  i n Table  recommendations'  closely  identical  lecturer  The  analysis.  similar  to  that  comparing with was  every  developed.  requirements  used  was,  throughout  the  behaviors.  illustrates results  this  grouping  accompanying  each  and recommen-  dation.  Example i l l u s t r a t i n g the g r o u p i n g o f c r i t i c a l requirements and t r a c i n g the d e r i v a t i o n o f r e s u l t s a c c o m p a n y i n g the recommendations. R e f e r r i n g to T a b l e 1 2 , p . 68, critical requirement #1 of major area"A., s u b - a r e a A., reads: "used  audio-visual  techniques,  class  The " 1 ( a ) " r e f e r s t o t h e c l a s s , and s u b - c l a s s o f t h i s b e h a v i o r f o u n d i n T a b l e 9 , p. 5 4 A s c a n be seen from Table 12, t h i s b e h a v i o r was considered e f f e c t i v e , and as i s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 9 , p. 54 under the e f f e c t i v e column of c l a s s 1, major area s u b - a r e a A., t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s b e h a v i o r r e a d : "aroused i n t e r e s t , boredom."  enthusiasm,  1(a)."  demonstrations  attention;  A.,  relieved  As c a n be n o t e d f r o m T a b l e 9 , t h e r e were a t o t a l o f 74 v a r i o u s b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d w h i c h e f f e c t e d this result. A p p e n d i x C, p . 1 3 7 l i s t s a l l o f t h e s e b e h a v i o r s u n d e r c l a s s 1 o f m a j o r a r e a A., sub-area A. d e f e r r i n g again to Table 12, i t c a n be s e e n t h a t c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t # 1 o f m a j o r a r e a B., sub-area A., a l s o r e a d s : "used  Ka)."  audio-visual  techniques,  class  demonstrations  31  T h i s b e h a v i o r was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e , a n d o n c e a g a i n b y r e f e r r i n g t o T a b l e 9, p . 5 6 , under t h e e f f e c t i v e c o l u m n o f c l a s s 1, m a j o r a r e a B., s u b a r e a A., t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s b e h a v i o r r e a d : " f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student with  material; material."  I n t h i s c a s e , t h e r e w e r e a t o t a l o f 73 b e h a v i o r s w h i c h l e d t o t h i s r e s u l t , and as a b o v e , t h e s e t o o a r e a l l l i s t e d i n A p p e n d i x C, p.150 u n d e r t h e e f f e c t i v e c o l u m n o f c l a s s 1, m a j o r a r e a B . , s u b a r e a A. S i m i l a r l y , from Table A., c l a s s #13 reads: -.."'used s l i d e s  12,  or p r a c t i c a l  major  area  C ,  demonstration  sub-area  2(c)."  T h i s b e h a v i o r was s u f f i c i e n t l y s i m i l a r t o t h e a b o v e two t o be i n c l u d e d a s c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s recommendation. The r e s u l t o f t h i s b e h a v i o r , a s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 9, P«57 u n d e r t h e e f f e c t i v e c o l u m n C , A., #2 r e a d s : "did  A analysis cussion  not  total  waste  o f 15  class  (saved  recommendations  and a r e l i s t e d of t h e i r  time  i n Chapter  implications.  time)."  were  gleaned  IV along  with  from  this  a short  dis  CHAPTER I V  FINDINGS  Evaluation total  number  chances  basis  ing  assist  hoped  in  the process  enquiry  that  particular  the  actual  that  observer's  of their  the reasons  effective  classification  It with  d i d make  classification  i n the  judgments  on t h e  actions.  statements judgments  behaviors  of the r e s u l t s w e r e made Smit  schemes  both  found  assisted" i n this  f o rconsidering  d i d not assist i n  behaviors.  possible a broader  accord-  (195D  "greatly  or ineffective  used  As m e n t i o n e d  I t was f o u n d  of the c r i t i c a l  a c t i o n s , and were  set of  whether  result,  placed  g i v e n by t h e o b s e r v e r  lecturer  a  their  62%> o f t h e  included a  been  classification.  data'  three  have  only  i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s .  'results  the  reported  making  of the c r i t i c a l  action  Since  of the i n s t r u c t o r s  i n determining  the results  Forms.  should  on t h e o b s e r v e r s  i t was  DISCUSSION  behaviors  stress  to the requirements  that  a  of c r i t i c a l  o f the r e s u l t  above, would  of Recording  a r e t h a t more  instructions  AND  analysis  However, of  critical  a s t h e b a s i s f o r one o f  of t h i s  study,  and t o d e r i v e  'recommendations'.  i s feasible  that  the f a i l u r e  descriptions of c r i t i c a l  due  to the f a i l u r e  for  the observers.  to clearly  behaviors establish  In addition,  since  to include may  have  'results' been  i n part  the s i t u a t i o n a l t h e r e may b e a  goals  disparity  33  between this  the  could  aims have  respondents justified" an  to and  whether  reported page  of  was  t o be  and  poor  specific  fact  that  (16.1$)  were  found  copy f o r m .  Perhaps  problem.  Moreover,  and  sample of  of  study.  above  the  of  to  of  f o u r t h year However,  1  of  a  actions  9.17  instructions critical  recalled  which more  could  not  deliberate  would  presence  of  as  have  page good to  a  structuring  of  the  to  the  correct  ameliorated  between  opinionated  this  related  incident  differences  behaviors  regarding be  was  Information  that  opinions  specifications  data a  on  this  this  concrete  page  critical  description  should  delineated.  Sample.  incidents  Table  some  s u c c e s s f u l or  general  abstracted  clearly  r e p o r t s were  reached.  for  " l e d  Supplementary  be  incidents  that the  a more  Adequacy critical  rigid  critical  b e e n more  difficulty "his  the  the  It will  incident.  of  of  on  teaching  placement  have  151  for recording  w i t h more  incident  classroom,  considered  clarification  university  indicate  they  incident  the  used  the  i n the  result."  copy form  could  the  for  the  students  exacerbated  need  by  and  i n c l u d e whether  further  suggested  lecturers  further  unsuccessful  A  of  I t was  lecturer Arts  due  to  the  behavior  students the  requested shows  originally from  enrolled  practical  from  as  1  AND  a  2  to  stratified  in various  difficulties  many s t u d e n t s  p r o p o r t i o n of  TABLES  proposed  students  as  solicit random  courses  outlined could  enrolled  be  1  TABLE  T O T A L NUMBER AND P R O P O R T I O N OP S T U D E N T S I N COURSES OP S T U D Y  Course  4th  of Study  Year  Arts  %  ENROLLED  Sample  %  lk6  39.0  34  43.6  89  23.6  19  24.4  Sciences  83  22.2  19  24.4  Biomedical  57  15.2  Humanities Social  Sciences  375  TOTAL  •>"-Two r e s p o n d e n t s  failed  -  to indicate  TABLE  6  100  7.6  78-::-  course  100  of study.  2  OBSERVED AND E X P E C T E D NUMBERS E N R O L L E D I N POUR C A T E G O R I E S ASSUMING A UNIFORM D I S T R I B U T I O N IN THE P O P U L A T I O N  CATEGORIES ...  T T  Observed  Numbers  Expected  Numbers  Social  Humanities  Science  Science Biomedical  34.0  19.0  19.0  30.4  18.4  17.4  2 x= 3.46 -«-Chi s q u a r e  was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0.05  level.  Total  6.0  78  11.8  78  35  in  the various  courses  of study  students  and i n t h e sample.  expected  numbers  square.  As c a n be  to  reject  enrolled sample in  the n u l l  students effort  were  cannot  not  meet  that by  t o assess  operating  i n mind.  tolerated that  of the s t u d e n t  lecture ive  that  by t h e frame  or ineffective  this  of the f a c t  by the  similarly; enroiled r  assumed  of f o u r t h year However,  was e n t i r e l y  that laid  obtained  should  the resultant  noted  be v i e w e d  of t h i s  bias,  satisfactory.  data d i d  with  and  judged  each such  i n data c o u l d be  enquiry,  audience,  acceptance  no  conditions" alluded to  distortions  Lecturer actions  reflected  Arts  since  the incident  uncontrolled variables  of reference  that the  down b y F l a n a g a n ,  the " s p e c i f i c  enough  students  of the non-response  sample  observers—the  performance.  of  f o r each b e h a v i o r a l e v a l u a t i o n by  limitations  b y the above  the e f f e c t  that  the r e s u l t s  was f e l t  not large  as i n d i c a t e d  of study.  o f adequacy  respondent,  effected  was  t h e number  of study  course  that  i n view  i t i s not l i k e l y  It  obtained  and  to calculate c h i  i t c a n be t e n t a t i v e l y  of their  the c r i t e r i o n  h i m were  courses  Hence,  be c o n c l u d e d  Further,  c a t e g o r i e s used  that  of Arts  shows t h e o b s e r v e d  a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample  i n terms  was made  the population  i n p r o p o r t i o n t o t h e number  the population.  respondents  it  was  2  the value  hypothesis  i n the v a r i o u s  group  Table  f o r the f o u r seen,  i n both  present  namely, at  as e i t h e r  or rejection  by  each effectthis  36  audience.  These  actions  included not  but  personal-social  attributes,  and  12  critical  below as  ineffective  the  university  Classification understanding ized  i n the  that  which  is 3  from and  of  the  Tables was  the  [). s h o w  a  main  below  trends were  general  to  iors  are  These tion  reported  Tables  of  and  scheme,  as  was  that  Mais  (1956, p .  They  argue  H  3  of  of  i n the  data,  the  3  first  Table  at  of m a j o r  area  were  grouped  173)  as  an  3  an  summarfrom  the'sequence  into  and  sub-areas  two  Tables  i t s component  Teaching the  appropriate  ineffective  of  behav-  each major  result  major  (behavior  using  level.  a n d i|.  four major  A.,  order  detail.  area  effective  the  Arts  results  Thus,  specific  and  facilitate  i n reverse  b e h a v i o r a l and  above.  that:  to  i n c l u d e s the  includes  effective  them up.  11  i n Tables  order  more  the  the  of  methods,  f o u r t h year  each major  outlined  sub-areas  behaviors  f o r each  Table  Table  Looking 7  number  include both  schemes.  former,  the  total  listed  the  presented  the  teaching  In  in setting  delineation  The  at  of behaviors.  TABLES  sub-areas.  were  requirements  lecturing,  followed  more  and  only  areas  areas  of  classificaof  the  the  classification Methods,  d i s c u s s i o n of  area.  latter  scheme),  subsumed Justman  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l framework.  3  T A B L E  TOTAL EFFECTIVE AND INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS FALLING WITHIN EACH SUB-AREA (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR.-AREA: % EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  Area Total  Area Total  NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  2 0 . 9 7-7 9.1  158 58 69  A. B. C.  5 6 2 2  4 1 4 1  46 18 16  kl  D. E. F. G.  5 3 . 7  406  . . .  2 9 . 4  47  16.8  27  4 6 . 2  74  F i n a l Total Behaviors  480  A.  TEACHING METHODS  SUB-AREA L e c t u r e Method D i s c u s s i o n Method S e l e c t i o n and Emphasis of S u b j e c t M a t e r i a l S p e c i a l Methods A u d i o - V i s u a l Methods D i s c i p l i n e and C o n t r o l A p p r a i s a l Methods  NUMBER OF INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS 171 60  % INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  TOTAL  i  2 2 . 7 7 . 9 6.2  4 3 . 5 1 5 . 6 1 5 . 3  31 20 11 11  4 . 1 2 . 6  9 8 3 3  351  4 6 . 3  100.0  4 1 . 3  7 0 . 6  1 2 . 5  2 9 . 4  5 3 . 8  100.0  k7  MAJOR AREA: B. PERSONALITY TRAITS A. Temperamental, Dynamic 66 and M o t i v a t i o n a l T r a i t s B. A b i l i t i e s o r C o g n i t i v e 20 Traits  86  437  l.k l.k  . . . .  5 7 8 6  4  T A B L E  TOTAL EFFECTIVE I D INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS FALLING WITHIN EACH SUB-AREA (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR AREA: % EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  36.0 15.9 Area Total  51.9  •  NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  93 41  A. B.  Motivational State General A f f e c t i v e Reactions  MAJOR AREA:  53.2  75  A.  13.5  19  B.  66.7  94  24.1 17.0  27 19  41.1  1+6  A. B.  REACTIVITY  NUMBER OF I N EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  SUB-AREA  B.  C.  % INEFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  TOTAL  %  50 74  28.7  19.4  55.5 44.5  121+  48.1  100.0  I4.6  32.6  85.8  1  0.7  14.2  47  33.3  100.0  46 20  41.0 1-7.9  64.9 35.1  66  58.9  100.0  MASTERY OF SUBJECT MATERIAL  Learning, Correlating, C l a r i f y i n g , Reviewing Material Orientation  MAJOR AREA:  Area Total  EMOTIONAL  131+  •  Area Total  A.  TEACHING METHODS  P r e s e n t a t i o n of M a t e r i a l Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n  Lo CD  TABLE k (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: % EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  NUMBER OF EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  20.8  15  19.4  lk  Area Total  k0.2  D. ' PERSONALITY TRAITS  SUB-AREA  NUMBER OF I N "EFFECTIVE BEHAVIORS  % INEFFECTIVE BE HAVIORS  TOTAL %  2k  33.4  54.2  19  26.4  35.8  43  59.8  100.0  A. Temperatmental, Dynamic and' M o t i v ational Traits B. A b i l i t i e s o r Cog• nitive Traits  29  F i n a l T o t a l B e h a v i o r s 303  2  vO  E s s e n t i a l l y e v e r y t e a c h e r c r e a t e s h i s own t e a c h i n g method. I n terms o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and e x p e r i e n c e , the purposes and s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f i n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e s t u d e n t s he t e a c h e s , e a c h f o l l o w s t h e p r o c e d u r e s he judges s u i t a b l e , c h o o s i n g and a d a p t i n g a v a i l a b l e t e c h n i q u e s o r d e v i s i n g , w h e n n e c e s s a r y , new o n e s .  They  distinguish  between method and technique  as f o l l o w s :  ... A t e c h n i q u e i s t h e p r o c e d u r e o r d e v i c e through which a"teacher seeks t o accomplish wholly o r i n p a r t a s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t i o n a l purpose. T h e r e a r e many techniques—in lecture, discussion, questioning, e x p e r i m e n t a l demonstration, l a b o r a t o r y work, audiovisual presentation.... Every teacher necessarily e m p l o y s a n u m b e r o f t e c h n i q u e s , s e r i a l l y o r i n comb i n a t i o n , t h e i r c h o i c e and. m a n n e r o f u s e d e p e n d i n g upon h i s g e n e r a l method o f i n s t r u c t i o n . The l a t t e r i s a composite style or quality of teaching, a charact e r i s t i c mode o f i n s t r u c t i o n a l b e h a v i o r reflecting o n e ' s own v a l u e s a n d e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y . One's t e a c h i n g method i n f l u e n c e s n o t o n l y t h e c h o i c e o f t e c h n i q u e s and t h e manner of t h e i r u s e b u t a l s o g o a l s of i n s t r u c t i o n , s e l e c t i o n and emphasis o f s u b j e c t matter, and r e l a t i o n s h i p with students.  In  their  limited,  view there  Thus, under  the variety  each  being  of possible teaching  as many  the 7 sub-areas  were  variations  and  methods  as t h e r e  the kinds  i s un-  are teachers.  of behaviors  subsumed  as f o l l o w s :  A. The L e c t u r e Method. A l lbehaviors r e f e r r i n g to methods of i n t e r p r e t i n g , a n a l y z i n g , e x p l a i n i n g , d e f i n i n g , r e v i e w i n g and s u m m a r i z i n g , were i n c l u d e d in this sub-area. B. The D i s c u s s i o n M e t h o d . A l lbehaviors r e f e r r i n g t h e l e c t u r e r ' s r e a c t i o n s t o a n d i n t e r e s t s shown i n s t u d e n t ' s q u e s t i o n s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n g e n e r a l l y ; and t e c h n i q u e s u s e d t o p r o m o t e s t u d e n t - l e c t u r e r 'feed-back'.  to  kl  C. The S e l e c t i o n and Emphasis of Subject M a t e r i a l . A l l behaviors r e f e r r i n g to the s e l e c t i o n of and emphasis placed on the a c t u a l l e c t u r e content. D. S p e c i a l Methods. A l l behaviors r e f e r r i n g to t e a c h i n g methods d i s s i m i l a r to those of any other sub-area. E. A u d i o - V i s u a l Methods. A l l behaviors r e f e r r i n g to the use of supplementary t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s i n the form of audio-visual aids. P. M a i n t a i n i n g D i s c i p l i n e and C o n t r o l . A l l behaviors r e f e r r i n g to the h a n d l i n g of s t r e s s s i t u a t i o n s , and p r e s e r v i n g order under adverse classroom c o n d i t i o n s . Student A p p r a i s a l Methods. A l l behaviors which d e a l t with the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach to student assessment, i n terms of both assignments and term examinations.  G-.  The  l e c t u r e r behaviors subsumed under the two  major area B., (19^0,  sub-areas  of  P e r s o n a l i t y T r a i t s , were grouped u s i n g C a t t e l ' s  p. 3 5 ) framework.  classifying traits  He d e s c r i b e s a formal b a s i s f o r  i n t o the three ' m o d a l i t i e s ' of A b i l i t y ,  Temperament and Dynamic t r a i t s .  The Dynamic t r a i t s  include b a s i c d r i v e s , on the one  hand, and a c q u i r e d i n t e r e s t s ,  such as a t t i t u d e s , sentiments, formations, on the o t h e r .  complexes, superego and  They are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a r i s i n g from a s t i m u l u s s i t u a t i o n or i n c e n t i v e and to some g o a l , at which the a c t i o n ceases. then, as i n c e n t i v e v a r i e s . shown by how  or i n t e r e s t s  ego  behavior  directed  Performance v a r i e s ,  The A b i l i t i e s by c o n t r a s t , are  w e l l the person makes h i s way  Performance v a r i e s i n response  to the accepted g o a l s .  to changes i n complexity.  t h i r d m o d a l i t y , Temperament t r a i t s , by e x c l u s i o n , are  The  those  42  traits as,  which  high  strungedness,  The major  are unaffected  area  Material, Major Area  A., E m o t i o n a l  A.  motivational such  regards two  major  Reactivity,  f o r the l e c t u r e r .  i n Table  namely,  above.  i n references including  attention,  and other  behaviors  1  of Subject  responses,  a r o u s a l , and  I t subsumed  4>  a s was m e n t i o n e d  which resulted  admiration,  such  reactivity.  a n d B., M a s t e r y  affective  as i n t e r e s t  as r e s p e c t ,  listed  analysis  of various  states such  or complexity,  and e m o t i o n a l  areas  included a l l behaviors  feelings  sub-areas  energy,  out of the r e s u l t  made t o t h e g e n e r a t i o n  or  speed,  two a d d i t i o n a l  grew  by i n c e n t i v e  personal  grouped  into  as f o l l o w s :  A. M o t i v a t i o n a l S t a t e . A l l behaviors which r e s u l t e d i n g e n e r a t i n g i n t e r e s t , a t t e n t i o n , e n t h u s i a s m , and student arousal i n general. B. General Affective Reactions. A l l behaviors which r e s u l t e d i n g e n e r a t i n g f e e l i n g s s u c h as a d m i r a t i o n , respect;- warmth, f e a r , and p e r s o n a l r e g a r d s f o r t h e lecturer. Major Area made  B.  included a l l behaviors  to t h e l e a r n i n g ,  correlating,  subject  material or orienting  grouped  into  two s u b - a r e a s  which  resulted  clarifying,  the student.  i n references  and reviewing  I t subsumed  of  behaviors  as f o l l o w s :  A. Learning, C o r r e l a t i n g , C l a r i f y i n g , Reviewing Material. A l l behaviors which r e s u l t e d i n references t o the l e a r n i n g , correlating, c l a r i f y i n g , reviewing of subject material. B. O r i e n t a t i o n . A l l behaviors which r e s u l t e d i n r e f e r e n c e s made t o t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f p e r s p e c t i v e i n t e r m s o f b o t h a p a r t i c u l a r c o u r s e and i t s p l a n n e d scope, and a p p r e c i a t i n g the v a l u e of the course.  43  Since the t o t a l number of e f f e c t i v e and behaviors d e s c r i b e d was  ineffective  n e a r l y equal (see Table 3 ) ,  that student observers were capable  i t appears  of r e p o r t i n g both good o r  e f f e c t i v e , and poor, or i n e f f e c t i v e examples of l e c t u r e F u r t h e r , only 43 • 5$ of the b e h a v i o r s grouped  as  technique.  'Teaching Methods'  were judged to be d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e technique.  Hence,  a wide v a r i e t y of l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s were considered to be examples of good or poor t e a c h i n g p r a c t i c e s . s o c i a l a t t r i b u t e s l i s t e d as  They i n c l u d e d the p e r s o n a l -  'Personality T r a i t s . '  However,  these a c t i o n s made up a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n of the total  (17»5$)»  and would suggest  that while p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l  a t t r i b u t e s c o n t r i b u t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o the impact t a t i o n of a l e c t u r e , t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e may but not i s o l a t e d from,  of the presen-  be out-weighed by,  'Teaching Methods.'  Data d e r i v e d s o l e l y from the r e s u l t a n a l y s i s shows that the l a r g e s t number (44*2^) of l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s generated an  ' a f f e c t i v e ' response i n the audience.  Of these,  55*5$  r e s u l t e d i n changes i n the m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e of the observer. These r e s u l t s suggest  that students are keenly s e n s i t i v e t o  behaviors which arouse o r s t u l t i f y t h e i r i n t e r e s t .  Moreover,  i t would seem that i t i s not r a t i o n a l to assume t h a t a l l students are f u l l y motivated and  remain so during the l e c t u r e  E f f o r t s to generate enthusiasm,  and arouse  hour.  i n t e r e s t were r e c e i v e d  g r a t e f u l l y and c o n s i d e r e d to be good l e c t u r e  technique.  l i s t e d i n Table 4 suggest f u r t h e r that students are  Results  concerned  about and can c l e a r l y express vhat a s s i s t s or d e t r a c t s from the l e a r n i n g of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l .  kk L e c t u r e r a c t s r e s u l t i n g i n statements  about l e c t u r e r  p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s were a g a i n the l e a s t f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d (12. Tables 5> 6, and 7 p r o v i d e a q u a n t i t a t i v e summary of  the  d a t a of the t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a p p l i e d t o the d a t a of t h i s study.  Each sub-area  l i s t e d i n c l u d e s a.number of c l a s s e s w h i c h ,  TABLES 5, 6, 7 i n t u r n , are g e n e r a l i z e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of the b e h a v i o r s i n t h e i r sub-classes.  The l a t t e r c o n t a i n o n l y " f i r s t  grouped order"  a c t s , o r " e l e m e n t a l b e h a v i o r s , " w h i c h are l i s t e d i n Appendices B, C, and D r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r each of the three  classification  schemes. The  t o t a l number of c l a s s e s , s u b - c l a s s e s and  i s i n d i c a t e d i n the above t h r e e T a b l e s .  Thus, the f i n a l  as d e r i v e d from the b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s , the f i r s t t i o n scheme, were 917  behaviors  (1+80  behaviors totals  classifica-  deemed e f f e c t i v e ,  1+37  deemed i n e f f e c t i v e ) e x t r a c t e d from 595 i n c i d e n t s , p l a c e d i n 19l+ s u b - c l a s s e s , 55 c l a s s e s , 9 sub-areas and 2 major a r e a s . T o t a l s d e r i v e d f r o m the second c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme, the r e s u l t a n a l y s i s , were583 b e h a v i o r s  (303 judged  effective,  280 judged i n e f f e c t i v e ) e x t r a c t e d f r o m 595 i n c i d e n t s , p l a c e d i n 115  s u b - c l a s s e s , 1+3 c l a s s e s , 8 sub-areas and I4. major a r e a s .  45  TABLE 5 TOTAL NUMBER OP CLASSES, SUB-CLASSES AND BEHAVIORS BY MAJOR AND SUB-AREAS (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR AREA :  A.  SUB-AREA A. B. C. D. E. F. G.  CLASSES  L e c t u r e Method D i s c u s s i o n Method S e l e c t i o n and Emphasis of Subject M a t e r i a l S p e c i a l Methods A u d i o - V i s u a l Methods Discipline & Control A p p r a i s a l Methods  AREA TOTALS  MAJOR AREA: A. B.  B.  Temperamental, Dynamic and M o t i v a t i o n a l T r a i t s A b i l i t i e s or Cognitive Traits  AREA TOTALS"  FINAL TOTALS  TEACHING METHODS SUB-CLASSES  TOTAL BEHAVIORS  20 4  67 20  329 118  7 8 4 1 2  27 19 15 7 8  116 72 66 29 27  1+6  163  757  PERSONALITY TRAITS 6 3  23 8  113  9  31  160  55  194  917  47  k6 TABLE 6 TOTAL NUMBER OP CLASSES, SUB-CLASSES AND BEHAVIORS BY MAJOR AND SUB-AREAS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR AREA:  A.  SUB-AREA A. B.  CLASSES  M o t i v a t i o n a l State General A f f e c t i v e Reactions  AREA TOTALS  MAJOR AREA: A. B.  EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY  B.  2k  114-3  11  21  115  lk  lj-5  258  MASTERY OF SUBJECT MATERIAL  AREA TOTALS  A. B.  C.  P r e s e n t a t i o n of M a t e r i a l Student P a r t i c i p a t i o n  AREA TOTALS  TOTAL BEHAVIORS  3  Learning, C o r r e l a t i n g , C l a r i f y i n g , Reviewing Material 3 Orientation 3  MAJORS AREA:  SUB-CLASSES  20 5  121 20  25  lkl  TEACHING METHODS 11 3  2k 9  lk  33  73 39  112  kl  TABLE MAJOR A S E A :  D.  6  (CONT'D)  PERSONALITY  SUB-AREA  A. B.  T e m p e r a m e n t a l , D y n a m i c and Motivational Traits A b i l i t i e s or Cognitive Traits  AREA  PINAL  TOTALS  TOTALS  TRAITS  CLASSES  SUB-CLASSES  TOTAL BEHAVIORS  6  8  39  3  k  33  9  12  72  43  115  583  48  TABLE  7  T O T A L NUMBER OP C L A S S E S , S U B - C L A S S E S AND B E H A V I O R S B Y MAJOR AND S U B - A R E A S (OPINION C L A S S I F I C A T I O N SCHEME)  MAJOR  AREA:  A.  TEACHING  CLASSES  SUB-AREA  A. B. C. D. E. F.  METHODS  Lecture Method Discussion Method S p e c i a l Methods S e l e c t i o n and Emphasis of Material A p p r a i s a l Methods D i s c i p l i n e and C o n t r o l  8 2 4 Subject  APJ3A TOTALS  MAJOR A. B.  AREA:  B.  PERSONALITY  T e m p e r a m e n t a l , D y n a m i c and Motivational Traits A b i l i t i e s or Cognitive Traits  AREA  FINAL  TOTALS  TOTALS  TOTAL OPINIONS  3 1  32 12 14 6 6 3  21  73  3  TRAITS  2 3  18 15  5  33  26  106  49  106  opinions  opinions',  were  the t h i r d  and f i n a l  These  opinions  major  areas.  Since  state  general  opinions  was  placed  The  descriptive  'class'  statement  elemental  Indications of  idealized  of  'directives'  order  that  lecturers  Tables  of the l a r g e l y of which data  or teaching  8 and  9 list  a generalized descriptive  TABLES  The  'loading'  differences found -11  signifies  be  because to  class. that  reported  obtained  f o r this  f o r each  summarize  an  both  or lecture  D. concepts  the  form  setting.  classes, i n decreasing  listed were  was  f o r which  they  obtained  from  and i n e f f e c t i v e a  a  that  9  than  of  effective  (result  i t was  statement  and i n e f f e c t i v e  score  'difference score'  i n Table  such  the  behaviors  loading  ineffective  While  generalized  the e f f e c t i v e  the students  having  more  class.  class  references,  9  8,  a class  reported  identical  8 and  11  generalized  statement.  of e f f e c t i v e  were  sub-  i n Appendix  behaviors  i n Table  Thus,  there  the b e h a v i o r s  formulate  found  i n t h e number  f o r each  behaviors can  column,  a  methods, and t o o k  the i n d i v i d u a l  2  to  definitive  miscellaneous  the l e c t u r e r  of reported  asked  represents  are l i s t e d  and  incidents, i t  into  represents  applied.  sub-areas  to specific  then,  'general  scheme  specifically  responses  groupings,  this  an a n a l y s i s o f  classes, 8 were  their  t o o r about  of the f r e q u e n c y  provide  i n 26  not related  components  were  from  classification  respondents  not p o s s i b l e t o group  classes.  the  were  derived  to  analysis),  impossible adequately  behaviors,  the  50 TABLE 8 TOTAL CRITICAL BEHAVIORS AND 'LOADING' SCORE FOR EACH CLASS (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR A-REA: SUB-AREA: CLASS  1. 2. 3. 45. 6. 7. 8. 9.  10. 11. 12. 13. 15. 16. 17. 18.  19.  20.  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD (PRESENTATION, DELIVERY) TOTAL LOADING BEHAVIORS  q u a l i t y o f voice use of language speed o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o r d e r l i n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f pre sentat i o n use o f notes summarizing and r e v i e w use of u n u s u a l t e c h n i q u e s use of o u t l i n e s use o f o u t s i d e r e f e r e n c e s and a u t h o r ities reading, d i c t a t i n g lecture use o f c l a s s r o o m demonstration l e v e l o f l e c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n t o student discrete references to d e t a i l e d v s . g e n e r a l approach u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e time use o f r e p e t i t i o n c l a r i t y of p r e s e n t a t i o n i n t e g r a t i n g course m a t e r i a l use o f emphasis stayed on t o p i c discrete references to lecture technique ( p r e s e n t a t i o n , d e l i v e r y )  SUB<-AREA TOTAL SUB-AREA: I.  1. 2.  B.  -11 -24 - 4  45  - 1 - 6 9 12 12  21 20 17  10 - 9 7 -10  14 13 11 10  - 2 - 7 0 2 8 2 - 2  8 9 8 8 8 8 6  1  45  -13  329  26  22  16  14  THE DISCUSSION METHOD  REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION  w i l l i n g n e s s ; r e a d i n e s s t o answer o r acknowledge q u e s t i o n s or s u g g e s t i o n s d i s c r e t e r e a t i o n s t o student c o n t r i butions  - 2  24  -33  51  5l  TABLE 8 (CONT'D)  MA JOB  AREA:  SUB-AREA:  A. B.  TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D) THE DISCUSSION METHOD LOADING  CLASS II. 1. 2.  CONTROL OP OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION  promotion of d i s c u s s i o n and questions (from c l a s s ) l e c t u r e r i n i t i a t e d questions ( d i r e c t e d to c l a s s )  SUB-AREA TOTAL SUB-AREA: 1. 2. 3.  4. 5-  6. 7.  C.  r e l e v a n c y o f content use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and examples use of anecdotes - use o f p e r s o n a l experiences use o f w i t and humour . l e c t u r e r biases use of side i s s u e s growing out of course d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o s e l e c t i o n and ..emphasis  SUB-AREA:  3. i}.. 5. 6. 7. 8.  D.  32  5  11  - 2  118  -18 9 8  22 21 20  6 5  7  12 9 7  5  25  22  116  8 -11  12 11  1 - k - 3 k 1 lk  9 6 k 3 22  10  72  SPECIAL METHODS  a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r extra consultation taunting, b u l l y i n g , r i d i c u l i n g , h u m i l i a t i n g students personal i n t e r e s t i n students use of sarcasm regard f o r student a b i l i t y rearrangement of c l a s s members stimulates thinking d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i a l methods  SUB-AREA TOTAL  28  THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL  SUB--AREA TOTAL  1. 2.  TOTAL BEHAVIORS  5  52 TABLE 8 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA:  A.  SUB-AREA:  TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D) E.  AUDIO-VISUAL METHODS  CLASS  1. 2.  3.  k-  LOADING  use o f the b l a c k b o a r d use o f s l i d e s use o f maps and c h a r t s d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o use o f audiov i s u a l techniques  SUB-•AREA TOTAL  SUB-AREA:  1.  P.  SUB-AREA TOTAL  G.  2 7 1 16  3k  26  66  13 3 16  MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL  discrete references t o maintaining d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l  SUB-AREA:  TOTAL BEHAVIORS  7  29  7  29  STUDENT APPRAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES)  d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o examinations 11. 2.. d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o term assignments  5 0  15 12  SUB-AREA TOTAL  5  27  55  757  AREA TOTAL  53 TABLE 8 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  B.  PERSONALITY TRAITS  TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS  CLASS  1. 2. 3. 45. 6.  LOADING i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm f o r s u b j e c t p o s i t i o n i n f r o n t of the c l a s s punctuality (arriving at, leaving class ) habits ahd mannerisms conceding p e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s to temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s  SUB-AREA TOTAL  SUB-AREA:  1. 2. 3.  B.  TOTAL BEHAVIORS  0 -13  26  17  - 7 - 8 1  13 10 11  8  36  -19  113  ABILITIES OR. COGNITIVE TRAITS  a b i l i t y t o answer questions; specific abilities knowledge o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l preparedness  - 1 4 4  19 14 14  7  47  SUB-AREA TOTAL AREA. TOTAL  -12  160  PINAL TOTAL  43  917  51+  TABLE 9 TOTAL EFFECTIVE AND INEFFECTIVE CRITICAL BEHAVIORS FOR EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:. A. CLASS 1.  2.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  7l+  stimulates, motivates; provokes f u r t h e r readi n g and thinking; fosters a desire to work h a r d e r  19  2.  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  generated feelings o f b o r e d o m ; was dull, monotonous, t e d i o u s ; students l o s t interest  B.  generated f e e l i n g s of respect, admiration; g e n e r a l l y made a favourable impression  generation of c l a s s room ' a t m o s p h e r e '  50  50  93  SUB-AREA: 1.  EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY  MOTIVATIONAL STATE  1.  aroused interest, enthusiasm, attention; r e l i e v e d boredom  SUB-AREA TOTAL  A.  GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS 1.  11  2.  generated f e e l i n g s of resentment, irritation, dissatisfaction, d i s a p p o i n t m e n t , annoyance, antagonism, distaste; minimized "feed-back", i n s u l t i n g  31  generated f e e l i n g s of tension, distress, anxiety, frustration, embarrassment, rejection, fearfulness; generally lowered morale  27  55  TABLE 9 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA:  SUB-AREA: CLASS  3.  B.  A.  EMOTIONAL  GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS  EFFECTIVE generated f e e l i n g s o f confidence, appreciation, affection  TOTAL  8  5  generated f e e l i n g s o f pleasure; appealing  4  6.  helpful,  3  7.  generated f e e l i n g s o f immediacy w i t h l e c t u r e r  5.'  SUB-AREA TOTAL  AREA TOTAL  beneficial  CLASS  3.  generated sense o f achievement; generated feelings of personal value t o student  4-  REACTIVITY (CONT'D)  4.  (CONT'D)  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  loss o f f a i t h or c o n f i d e n c e i n and respect f o r lecturer was a d i s r u p t i n g i n fluence; disconcerting  11  5  2  k'l  13.4  74  124  56 TABLE 9 (CONT'D)  MAJOR A«EEA: SUB-AREA: CLASS  1.  2.  A.  EFFECTIVE  B.  MASTERY OP SIBJECT MATERIAL  LEARNING, CORRELATING, CLARIFYING, PREVIEWING MATERIAL TOTAL  1.  facilitated learning and c o r r e l a t i n g material; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student with material 73  facilitated material  SUB-AREA TOTAL  reviewing  2.  2  INEFFECTIVE detracted from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; generally u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o s t u d e n t ' s confusion  —  f a c i l i t a t e d gaining perspective, seeing m a t e r i a l from d i f f e r ent p o i n t s o f v i e w 11  TOTAL  46  —. 46  75 SUB-ARE A:  1.  CLASS  B.  ORIENTATION 1.  s t u d e n t s unsure o f what t o be covered  1  SUB-AREA TOTALS  19  1  AREA TOTAL  94  47  TABLE 9 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA: CLASS  EFFECTIVE  A. TOTAL  1.  maintained good classroom c o n t r o l  2.  d i d not waste c l a s s time (saved time)  6  3.  w e l l organized, orderly presentation  5  4«  conversational style  5.  easily  heard  SUB-AREA TOTAL  TEACHING- METHODS  PRESENTATION OF MATERIAL CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  1.  distracting  2.  difficult  3.  wasted c l a s s time  9  2  4.  d i f f i c u l t t o get good, w e l l organized notes  6  2  5.  m a t e r i a l missed  7  6.  class hurried  12  11  to f o l l o w  or l o s t  encourages student participation  B.  9  4  4.6  27  SUB-AREA: 1.  C.  STUDENT PARTICIPATION 1.  discourages queries  2.  discourages c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n or i n t e r action  19  student  11  9  SUB-AREA TOTAL  19  20  AREA TOTAL  46  66'  58 TABLE  MAJOR A R E A :  SUB-AREA:  CLASS  1.  2.  3.  8  seemed  2  sincere  FINAL  B.  TOTAL  2.  5  MOTIVATIONAL  INEFFECTIVE  seemed  TOTAL  insensitive  class's  3.  ABILITIES  seemed a l e r t , aware of problems and c o n t r o v e r s i a l subjects; evidence of good knowledge of material; interested i n work  TOTAL  AND  to 3  reaction  seemed l a z y , ested, blase  disinter3  m i s c e l l a n e o u s (unbaltanced, embittered, over-confident, afraid  15  TOTAL  TOTAL  TRAITS  DYNAMIC  CLASS  1.  miscellaneous (tactful, sensitive, f l e x i b l e , trustworthy)  SUB-AREA  PERSONALITY  TOTAL  took a p e r s o n a l interest i n students; considerate  SUB-AREA:  AREA  D.  (CONT'D)  TEMPERAMENTAL, TRAITS  EFFECTIVE  SUB-AREA  1.  A,  9  18  21+ OR C O G N I T I V E  TRAITS poor  11  1.  poorly prepared, planning  2.  generated the i m p r e s s i o n of incompetence 8  Ik  Ik  19  29  1+3  303  280  59  c l a s s e s are l i s t e d  s e p a r a t e l y as e f f e c t i v e  or i n e f f e c t i v e .  The  r e s u l t s l i s t e d i n these t a b l e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n with Table 11 arid 12 which f o l l o w below. Table 10 l i s t s the o p i n i o n s , found Information page. 'The  on the Supplementary  'miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s ' as d i s c u s s e d  above, are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix D.  Assuming that t h i s  data  TABLE 10 r e p r e s e n t s students concepts  of h i s ' i d e a l i z e d ' l e c t u r e r , a  summary of Table 10 suggests  the f o l l o w i n g :  be an i n d i v i d u a l who  l e c t u r e r should  "shows i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm",  a b i l i t y t o present h i s m a t e r i a l " , and to  The  "has  s h o u l d " d i r e c t the  lecture  the a b i l i t y l e v e l of h i s c l a s s . " D e r i v a t i o n of C r i t i c a l Requirements.  comprise  a list  of the  'critical  Tables 11 and  requirements'  t e a c h i n g as d e r i v e d from t h i s e n q u i r y .  TABLES 11 and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. end o f e i t h e r requirement  They are l i s t e d i n  f a l l i n g towards the  must be viewed as more tenuous  than those o c c u r r i n g at the b e g i n n i n g s i n c e the l a t t e r are upon a l a r g e r number of l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s . each c r i t i c a l requirement  result  12  Those requirements list  12  of u n i v e r s i t y  order of d e c r e a s i n g frequency f o r both the b e h a v i o r a l and  ing  an  based  Immediately f o l l o w -  i s the number and l e t t e r of i t s  60 TABLE 10 GENERAL OPINIONS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH SUB-AREA  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS ' 1. 2. 3. k. 5.  TOTAL should should should manner should should  d i r e c t l e c t u r e at " a b i l i t y l e v e l " of c l a s s make use o f o u t l i n e s p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l i n as most i n t e r e s t i n g a as p o s s i b l e d i s t r i b u t e mimeographed m a t e r i a l be w e l l organized  1.  B.  THE DISCUSSION METHOD  should promote l e a d i n g questions, o r make time for discussion  1.  C.  SPECIAL METHODS  l e c t u r e r s should be i n s m a l l c l a s s e s  SUB-AREA TOTAL AREA TOTAL  k k  SUB-AREA TOTAL SUB-AREA:  3 2 2 15  SUB-A RE A TOTAL SUB-AREA:  5 3  k k 23  61  TABLE 10 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  B.  PERSONALITY TRAITS  TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS  CLASS 1.  TOTAL should show i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm  7  SUB-AREA TOTAL SUB-AREA: 1. 2. 3.  7  B.  ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS  should have knowledge of how, or a b i l i t y t o present m a t e r i a l should be prepared should have knowledge o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l  6 5 1+  SUB-AREA TOTAL  15"  AREA TOTAL  22  PINAL TOTAL  kS  62  TABLE 11 CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH SUB-AREA. (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS THE LECTURE METHOD  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS 1. 2. 3. 1+. 5.  read or f o l l o w e d t e x t , books 10(a) d i c t a t e d , read notes f o r whole hour 5(a) excessive speed, l a c k of pause 3(a) monotonous v o i c e 1(a) changes from t o p i c t o t o p i c , f o l l o w s no p a t t e r n , d i s o r g a n i z e d k(a) 6. spoke c l e a r l y , d i s t i n c t l y 1(b) 7. gave r e f e r e n c e s of a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t to l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l 9(a) 8. m a t e r i a l presented i n l o g i c a l , systematic order k(b) 9. gave summary of previous l e c t u r e 6(a) 10. s o f t , low, i n a u d i b l e v o i c e 1(c) 11. c l e a r 16(a) 12. emphasized important p o i n t s 18(a) 13. o u t l i n e s t o p i c s o f whole course 8(a) ll(.. paused, paced l e c t u r e , allowed time f o r n o t e - t a k i n g 3(b) l5« summarized or reviewed a t end of s e c t i o n , year, or end o f hour 6(b) 16. b r i n g s guest l e c t u r e r 7(a) 17. b r i n g s o u t s i d e , source m a t e r i a l i n t o c l a s s 9(b) 18. extended l e c t u r e o r course l k ( a ) 19. gives t o p i c s o f next l e c t u r e 8(b) 20. goes o f f on tangent, c i r c u m s c r i b e s p o i n t 19(a) 21. r e l a t e s more complicated m a t e r i a l t o simpler m a t e r i a l or to m a t e r i a l f a m i l i a r to student 17(a) 22. repeats d i f f i c u l t o r important m a t e r i a l 15(a) 23. = repeats m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y covered 15(b) 24. spoke i n d i s t i n c t l y , mumbled 1(d)  EFFECTIVE 2  11 9 10 7 8 5 5 5  INEFFECTIVE 11 12 12 12 11 1 1  5 5 I4. 3 k  1 I4. k  I4. k  1+ ij.  63  TABLE 11 (CONT'D)  MA JOB AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D)  THE LECTURE METHOD (CONT'D)  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31* 32. 33« 3l+. 35* 36. 37« 38. 39. 1+0. i|.l. 1+2. 1+3• 1+1+.  spoke l o u d l y 1(e) use o f er, ah 2(a) f a i l e d t o emphasize m a t e r i a l or t o d i s t i n g u i s h one t o p i c from another 18(b) incoherent, u n c l e a r 16(b) i n d i c a t e d m a t e r i a l t o be covered 8(c) l e c t u r e d i r e c t e d above l e v e l of most students 12(a) l e c t u r e d i r e c t e d to bottom l e v e l , or below i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y o f most students 12(b) made use o f demonstrations (equipment) 11(a) terms too complex 2(b) used ho notes 5(b) asked students t o take no notes 7(b) conducted tours 7 ( c ) constant r e p h r a s i n g 2 ( c ) halting, uncertain; stutters 1(f) leaves student w i t h something t o t h i n k about 7(d) moved c l a s s t o o f f i c e o r seminar room 7(e) presented a t moderate speed 3 ( c ) seldom summarized; d i d n o t review 6(c) spoke i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l v o i c e 1(g) stuck to p o i n t 19(b) SUB-AREA:  1. 2. 3. i+.  EFFECTIVE  B.  I4.  3  INEFFECTIVE  l\. 3 3 3 3  3 2 1 2 2  3 1 1 2 2  2 2  2 2  2  THE DISCUSSION METHOD  promoted, c r e a t e d , made use o f d i s c u s s i o n or c l a s s p a r t i c i p a t i o n I I 1(a) reacted w i t h r i d i c u l e , sarcasm, bel i t t l e m e n t I 2(a) ignored, discouraged, r e s t r i c t e d questions I 1(a) encourages and provokes questions from the c l a s s I I 1(b)  ll+ ll+ 11 9  6L  TABLE 11  MAJOR AREA: . SUB-AREA:  B.  (CONT'D)  A.  TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D)  THE DISCUSSION METHOD (CONT'D)  CRITICAL •REQUIREMENTS 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  welcomes suggestions, seems ready t o acknowledge student's questions I 1(b) d i s p l a y of h o s t i l i t y , anger, annoyance I 2lb) squelching students I 2(c) asked whole c l a s s questions I I 2(a) encourages debates a t important p o i n t s i n l e c t u r e I I 1(c) f a i l e d t o promote d i s c u s s i o n or questions I I 1(d) i n t e r r u p t i o n of student c o n t r i b u t i o n s I 2(d) SUB-AREA:  1. 2. 3. I4.. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 111. 15.  C.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  8  7  3 1  1 2  2  2  THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OF SUBJECT MATERIAL  i r r e l e v a n t , u n r e l a t e d , outdated, unimportant m a t e r i a l 1(a) used concrete examples 2(a) made g e n e r a l use of anecdotes or p e r s o n a l experiences 3(a) used personal experiences r e l a t e d to l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l 3(b) i n d i c a t e d b i a s e s 5(a) ' . • ^ • made use of examples and i l l u s t r a - ' t i o n s 2(b) r e l e v a n t , i n t e r e s t i n g i s s u e s 6(a) used anecdotes r e p e a t e d l y 3(c) used humour t o e s t a b l i s h p o i n t k(a) used jokes, element of humour l±(b) avoided i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l 1(b) emphasized simple m a t e r i a l 7(a) made no use of examples and i l l u s t r a tions 2(c) p r e s e n t a t i o n unbiased 5(b) textbook m a t e r i a l used, g i v e n no f u r t h e r treatment 7(b)  16  10 7 6 5 5 3 3 3 2  3  2 2  2 2  65 TABLE 11 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA:  SUB-AREA:  A.  D.  TEACHING METHODS (CONT'D)  SPECIAL. METHODS  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS  EFFECTIVE  1.  stays a f t e r hours to d i s c u s s p o i n t s , gives e x t r a s e s s i o n s 1(a) . 2." made g e n e r a l u s e o f s a r c a s m h(a) 3. " i n s i n u a t e s students s t u p i d o r t r e a t s students as i f s t u p i d 5(a) 4» made a g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e of t a u n t i n g , bullying, ridiculing, humiliating students 2(a) 5. requests p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w , g i v e s p r i v a t e advice outside the classroom  Kb)  indulged i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s (showed d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) 3(a) 7. leaves c l a s s with s t i m u l a t i n g thought 7(a) 8. rearranged c l a s s i n t o small groups 6(a) 9. refused a d d i t i o n a l h e l p , seldom stays a f t e r hours 1(c) 10. " seemed g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n students 3(b)  6  5 4 4  4  6.  SUB-AREA:  INEFFECTIVE  3 2 2 2 2>  E. AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES  1.  wrote i n d i s t i n c t l y on blackboard (poor q u a l i t y , s c r i b b l e d ) 1(a) 2. made use of motion p i c t u r e s 4(a) 3. wrote summary of t o p i c s f o r l e c t u r e , charted out where going i n l e c t u r e 1(b) 4» augments d i s c u s s i o n , i l l u s t r a t e s p o i n t s with s l i d e s 2(a) 5. made use o f p i c t o r a l m a t e r i a l 4(b) 6. made use o f r e c o r d i n g s 4 ( ° ) 7. made use o f s l i d e s 2(b) 8. wrote new or unusual terms on the " blackboard 1(c) 9. drew diagrams on the blackboard 1(d) 1§. spent long time w r i t i n g on blackboard Ke) 11. used l a r g e maps 3(a) 12. wrote I n a random f a s h i o n on the b l a c k board 1 ( f )  6  7  6 5 5 5 5 3 2 2  2 2  66  TABLE 1 1 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA:  SUB-AREA:  A.  TEACHING(CONT'D)  G-. STUDENT APPRAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES)  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS  1. 2.  METHODS  s p e c i a l preparation of students f o r exams 1 ( a ) gave l i s t o f work ahead o f t i m e 2 ( a )  EFFECTIVE  1 2  INEFFECTIVE  67  TABLE 11  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  B.  (CONT'D)  PERSONALITY TRAITS  TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS 1. 2. 3>» 4« 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14• 15.  i n t e r e s t e d and e n t h u s i a s t i c 1(a) seemed d i s i n t e r e s t e d , b o r e d ; l a c k s s p o n t a n e i t y 1(b) p a c i n g ; m o v i n g a b o u t 2(a) admitted u n c e r t a i n of a p o i n t , or l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n 5(a) a r r i v e s l a t e t o l e c t u r e 3(a) does n o t f a c e the c l a s s 2(b) f o r c e f u l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , dominant 6(a) f r i e n d l y , charming, p l e a s a n t 6(b) dogmatic 6(c) e x p l a i n s o r a p o l o g i z e s f o r l a t e n e s s 3(b) laughing, chuckling at subject material 4(a) l e a v e s c l a s s i m m e d i a t e l y a t b e l l 3(c) p l a g i a r i z e s s t u d e n t s c r i t i q u e s 5(b) s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , nervous 6(d) smoking 4(b)  SUB-AREA: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  EFFECTIVE  B.  INEFFECTIVE  13 13 7  2 5 "  .  4 4  3 8 8 1 3  3  3  1  2 2 2 1  ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE . TRAITS  f a m i l i a r w i t h s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l 2(a) well prepared (apparatus; to d e l i v e r l e c t u r e ) 3(a) unable to answer q u e s t i o n s ; u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a n s w e r s 1(a) u n f a m i l i a r with subject m a t e r i a l ; lack of i n f o r m a t i o n 2(b). unprepared, poorly prepared 3(b) answers questions without l o s i n g the t h r e a d o f t h e l e c t u r e 1(b)  9 9 5 5 5 2  68  TABLE 12 CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH SUB-AREA (RESULT CLASSIFICATION SCHEME)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  EMOTIONAL  REACTIVITY  MOTIVATIONAL STATE  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS 1. 2. 3.  k. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 34. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.  used a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques, class demonstrations 1(a) made u s e o f a n d / o r p r o v o k e d student c o n t r i b u t i o n s 1(b) r e f e r r e d t o , o r made u s e o f ' o u t s i d e ' issues o r m a t e r i a l 1(c) spoke i n a monotone 1(a) u s e d a n e c d o t e s , w i t , humour 1(d) read m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y from notes o r t e x t 1(b) appeared i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e s u b j e c t 1(e) showed l a c k o f i n t e r e s t o r e f f o r t 1 ( c ) a r r i v e d l a t e c o n s i s t e n t l y 1(d) closed lecture with tnought-provoking ideas; indicated interesting outside reading 2(a) over-emphasized t h e obvious 1(e) voice i n a u d i b l e , u n c l e a r , low 1 ( f ) answered student s a r c a s t i c a l l y 1(g) c o n d u c t e d t o u r s , on o r o f f campus 1 ( f ) d i s o r d e r l y p r e s e n t a t i o n 1(h) good knowledge o f m a t e r i a l 1(g) irrelevant digressions 1(1) related personal experiences l ( j ) sensed c l a s s ' s a t t i t u d e 1(h) shows i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t q u e r i e s 2 ( b ) spoke i n a c l e a r v o i c e l ( i )  SUB-AREA: 1. 2. 3.  B.  EFFECTIVE  15 10 7 7  5  5 3 3  3 3 2  2  2 2  2  2 2 2 2  GENERAL AFFECTIVE  s a r c a s t i c , r i d i c u l e d students; hyperc r i t i c a l 2(a) conceded o r admitted an e r r o r , o r u n c e r t a i n o f p o i n t 1(a) made a n e x t r a e f f o r t ( c o n d u c t e d e x t r a c l a s s e s , conducted t o u r s , gave the c a l l numbers o f b o o k s ) 3(a)  INEFFECTIVE  3  3  REACTIONS  69  TABLE 12 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. B.  EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY (CONT'D) GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS (CONT'D)  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS !{.. 5>. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  EFFECTIVE  made u s e o f o r s t i m u l a t e s s t u d e n t contributions 2(a) was d o g m a t i c 1 ( a ) indulged i n personalities 2(b) made d e r r o g a t o r y r e m a r k s a b o u t s t u d e n t s intelligence 4(a) poorly prepared, 2(c) squelched students ideas o r d i s c u s s i o n 1(b) used student c o n t r i b u t i o n s 4 ( ) a  INEFFECTIVE  3 3 2 2 2 2 2  70  TABLE 12  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  B.  (CONT'D)  MASTERY OP SUBJECT MATERIAL  LEARNING, CORRELATING, CLARIFYING, REVIEWING MATERIAL EFFECTIVE  CRITICAL ^REQUIREMENTS 1. 2. 3» 1|. 5« 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. II4.. 15. 16. 17.  used a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques demonstrations  2. 3.  20  made use o f and/or provoked student p a r t i c i p a t i o n 1(b) 8 e x p l a n a t i o n s c o n c i s e , and d e t a i l e d 1(c) 6 provided e r r o r - r i d d e n m a t e r i a l ( b l a c k hoard, prepared sheets) 1(a) paused to repeat important p o i n t s ; paced l e c t u r e 1(d) k r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l to more simple; drew a n a l o g i e s 1(e) 1+ rephrased i n d i f f e r e n t ways u n t i l p o i n t established 1(f) Ij. used humour 1(g) ij. c o n s t a n t l y r e p h r a s i n g ; stammering 1(b) manifested anger; b u l l i e d ; i n s i n u a t e d students s t u p i d 1(c) b l a t a n t l y suggested he was bored and/or unprepared 1(d) began w i t h broad overview.before s p e c i f i c i n v e s t i g a t i o n 1(h) 2 gave p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n to wrong answers on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l l ( i ) 2 i n c l u d e d extraneous m a t e r i a l 1(e) r e l a t e d own experiences l ( j ) 2 used s p e c i a l i z e d or advanced terms or techniques 1 ( f ) wordy 1(g) SUB-AREA:  1.  class  1(a)  B.  OSTENTATION  d i s t r i b u t e d l i s t s and/or provided t o p i c s f o r e n t i r e course; o u t l i n e s the e n t i r e course at beginning of term 2(a) demonstrated h i s b i a s e s , p o i n t s out other p o i n t s of view 1(a) i n v i t e d guest l e c t u r e r 1(b)  INEFFECTIVE  2 2  5>  3 3 2  2 2 2  71  TABLE 12 (CONT'D)  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  C.  TEACHING METHODS  PRESENTATION OP MATERIAL  CRITICAL REQUIREMENTS  1. 2. 3. k. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. li|.  moved about w h i l e l e c t u r i n g 1 ( a ) l e c t u r e d t o o f a s t , r e f u s e d t o s t o p 5(a) spoke monotonously 2(a)' admitted l a c k of knowledge o r p r e p a r a t i o n 2(a) a r b i t r a r i l y demanded s t u d e n t s answer, even i f o b v i o u s l y n o t prepared 3(a) gave t o p i c s t o be d i s c u s s e d ahead o f time 2(b) handled a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g s t u d e n t w i t h f i r m n e s s 1(a) jumped ahead o r back from t o p i c t o t o p i c 2(b) p o l i t e l y , but f i r m l y refused charity c o l l e c t i o n s d u r i n g l e c t u r e 1(b) p r e s e n t e d a b r i e f summary o f l a s t l e c t u r e 3(b) read sheets o f n o t e s o r d e f i n i t i o n s 3 ( b ) r e f u s e d t o admit o r threw out l a t e comers 1(c) used s l i d e s o r p r a c t i c a l demonstrations 2(c) wrote major t o p i c s t o be covered on the blackboard 3(a) ' SUB-AREA:  1. 2. 3. I}., 5. 6.  EFFECTIVE  B.  STUDENT  INEFFECTIVE  Ij. 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  2  2 2 2  PARTICIPATION  asked l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s o r made p r o v o c a t i v e comments 1(a) 5 immediate, s e r i o u s i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t s s u g g e s t i o n s o r q u e s t i o n s 1(b) If. r i d i c u l e d q u e s t i o n s o r answers 1(a) a p p o i n t e d group t o l e a d d i s c u s s i o n ; o r g a n i z e d seminars 1 ( c ) 3 d i c t a t e d from d e t a i l e d notes 2 ( a ) s a r c a s t i c , d i s c o u r t e o u s 2(b)  ij. 2 2  72  TABLE 12  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  D.  (CONT'D)  PERSONALITY TRAITS  TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS  C R I T I C A L REQUIREMENTS 1. 2.  gave personal assistance 1(a) requested student v i s i t him i n o f f i c e Kb)  AND  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  73  r e s p e c t i v e c l a s s and s u b - c l a s s f o r ease of c r o s s - c h e c k i n g  with  the Appendices. The  f o l l o w i n g summarizes and paraphrases the trends  made apparent from the l i s t  of c r i t i c a l requirements  listed  i n Table 11: Reading t e x t s , or notes; d i c t a t i n g , l e c t u r i n g e x c e s s i v e l y f a s t with no pause; l e c t u r i n g i n a monotonous v o i c e ; and changing from t o p i c t o t o p i c were judged as i n e f f e c t i v e procedures. Speaking c l e a r l y and d i s t i n c t l y ; p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l l o g i c a l l y , i n a systematic order; and p r o v i d i n g r e f e r e n c e s of a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l p e r t i n e n t to the l e c t u r e were a l l considered e f f e c t i v e t e c h niques. Promoting and making use of d i s c u s s i o n s or other kinds of student p a r t i c i p a t i o n was considered an e f f e c t i v e technique, as was provoking questions or suggestions from the c l a s s . Students appeared h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e to the l e c t u r e r ' s r e a c t i o n s to t h e i r e f f o r t s to p a r t i c i p a t e . R i d i c u l e , sarcasm, b e l i t t l e ment were a l l considered i n e f f e c t i v e l e c t u r e techniques. Students seemed to d e s i r e l e c t u r e r s to not only avoid the use of i r r e l e v a n t , u n r e l a t e d s u b j e c t mate r i a l , but a l s o to use p e r s o n a l anecdotes and experiences which were r e l a t e d to the l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l . F u r t h e r , the use of concrete examples was deemed an e f f e c t i v e technique. A l l manner of a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques were considered highly e f f e c t i v e . Poor w r i t i n g on the b l a c k board was not looked upon w i t h favour. An e n t h u s i a s t i c , seemingly i n t e r e s t e d , spontaneous, knowledgeable l e c t u r e r was considered t o be an e f f e c tive lecturer. On the b a s i s of the r e s u l t s of t h i s e n q u i r y , s t u dents do not seem to c o n s i d e r l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d with the h a n d l i n g of examinations and assignments as important components of u n i v e r s i t y teaching p r a c t i c e .  7k  The above l i s t  of c r i t i c a l  requirements as d e r i v e d from  the b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s uncovered a wide v a r i e t y o f student c o n c e p t i o n s of the l e c t u r e r ' s r o l e .  For example,  requirement B B 3 , ( i . e . , c r i t i c a l requirement #3,  critical l i s t e d under  Major Area B., sub-area B ) , "unable to answer q u e s t i o n s ; uns a t i s f a c t o r y answers", lecturer.  suggests omniscience i s e x p e c t e d of the  C r i t i c a l requirement AC 1 , " i r r e l e v a n t , u n r e l a t e d ,  o u t d a t e , u n i m p o r t a n t m a t e r i a l " judged as b e i n g used f o r l e c t u r e c o n t e n t suggests t h a t s t u d e n t s c o n c e p t i o n s of what s h o u l d be s e l e c t e d and s t r e s s e d as l e c t u r e c o n t e n t were a t odds w i t h those of the  lecturer.  While these are a d m i t t e d l y o n l y i s o l a t e d examples,  the  e x i s t e n c e of such m i s c o n c e p t i o n s i n g r a d u a t i n g s t u d e n t s , r e p r e s e n t s a s e r i o u s condemnation  of u n i v e r s i t y  lecturing  practices. The l i s t of recommendations were developed from g r o u p i n g s of  the c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s l i s t e d  i n Table 1 2 ( r e s u l t s  Each recommendation, l i s t e d below, i s f o l l o w e d by l e t t e r s and f i g u r e s r e f e r r i n g t o the l i s t  analysis).  identifying  of c r i t i c a l  require-  ments as d e r i v e d from t h e b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s (Table 1 1 ) . T h i s p e r m i t t e d an assessment  of the recommendations  c r i t i c a l n e s s • as d i s c u s s e d above. are  'relative  Under each recommendation  l i s t e d the r e s u l t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t , d e r i v e d as  i n d i c a t e d i n the i l l u s t r a t i o n above (page 3 0 ) .  Each r e s u l t  i s p r e f i x e d by i d e n t i f y i n g l e t t e r s and f i g u r e s of the requirement from which i t was d e r i v e d .  was  critical  L a s t l y , each r e s u l t i s  75 f o l l o w e d by the l e t t e r "E" or " I " i n d i c a t i n g whether i t was considered e f f e c t i v e  or i n e f f e c t i v e , and  the number of behaviors  reported which c o n t r i b u t e d to the p a r t i c u l a r The l i s t  result.  of recommendations are arranged  i n order of  d e c r e a s i n g frequency of the t o t a l number of c r i t i c a l from which they were evolved.  behaviors  They are f o l l o w e d by a b r i e f  comment. P r a c t i c a l Recommendations. 1.  Used a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques, c l a s s demonstrations a) b) c)  (A,E)  B.A. 1 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l (Er20) A.A. 1 aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom (E-15) C A . 13 d i d not waste c l a s s time (saved time) (E-2)  The uses made of a u d i o - v i s u a l methods as a t e a c h i n g method were d e s c r i b e d as being r e l a t i v e l y e f f e c t i v e (Table 8, p. 52 )• However, s i n c e n e a r l y as many i n e f f e c t i v e as e f f e c t i v e a c t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s 1. "use of the blackboard", and s i n c e the f i r s t ' c r i t i c a l requirement' l i s t e d i n Table 11, p. 65 > f o r t h i s sub-area i s "wrote i n d i s t i n c t l y on the blackboard (poor q u a l i t y , s c r i b b l e d ) " , then i n d i c a t i o n s are that blackboard work was not judged as being g e n e r a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . A l i s t of e f f e c t i v e and i n e f f e c t i v e uses of the blackboard can be found i n Appendix B, p. 125. The value of a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques seemed to l i e both i n t h e i r a i d i n g i n comprehension of the s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l , and i n arousing i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm. Of course, the onus i s on the l e c t u r e r t o decide when the e d u c a t i o n a l value of these devices has been s a c r i f i c e d f o r the p u r e l y entertainment v a l u e . While the r e l i e f of "boredom" can l i k e l y be achieved by the use of a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques, t h i s cannot be considered the e x c l u s i v e end f o r which they are chosen as a t e a c h i n g method. 2.  Made use of, provoked, showed i n t e r e s t i n student butions (A, B, #1, 9) a) b)  contri-  A.A. 2 aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom (E-10) B.A. 2 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l (E-8)  76  c) d)  A.B. k g e n e r a t i o n o f classroom "atmosphere" ( E - 3 ) A.B. 1 0 generated sense o f achievement; generated f e e l i n g s of p e r s o n a l worth to student ( E - 2 )  These kinds o f l e c t u r e r behaviors are subsumed e x c l u s i v e l y under sub-area B. The D i s c u s s i o n Method. Not only were these behaviors considered h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e ("Table 8 , p. 5 1 > H * 1 ) but a l s o were judged to generate i n t e r e s t and enthusiasm, and a i d i n mastery of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . Further, there i s a s u g g e s t i o n that an a t t i t u d e of i n t e r e s t i n student c o n t r i b u t i o n s a s s i s t s i n the g e n e r a t i o n of a d e s i r a b l e 'atmosphere' i n the classroom, and a s s i s t s i n b u i l d i n g ' s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ' i n the . student•audience. Ways of promoting d i s c u s s i o n and q u e s t i o n s from the c l a s s are l i s t e d i n Appendix B, p. 113, B, I I , 1 . 3. Answered student s a r c a s t i c a l l y ; h y p e r c r i t i c a l ; d e r r o g a t o r y comments; r i d i c u l e d questions or answers; s a r c a s t i c and d i s courteous; b u l l i e d ; i n s i n u a t e d students s t u p i d (A,B, # 2 ; A,D, # 3 , 4 ) a) b) c)  A.B. 1 generated f e e l i n g s of t e n s i o n , d i s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n , f e a r f u l n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y lowered morale ( 1 - 7 ) C B . 3 discourages student q u e r i e s (I-k) B.A. 1 0 d e t r a c t e d from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o students c o n f u s i o n ( 1 - 3 )  These kinds of l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s are'jreported both as Reactions to Audience P a r t i c i p a t i o n (A,B, I) and as behaviors included i n the sub-area S p e c i a l Methods ( d ) . I n d i c a t i o n s are that l e c t u r e r r e a c t i o n s to students e f f o r t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the l e c t u r e were judged as mainly i n e f f e c t i v e (Table 8 , p. 5 0 ' , B, I , 2 ) . The e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the v o l u n t a r y use of behaviors d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s recommendation, and which are d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n Appendix B, pp. 1 0 9 - 1 1 2 , i s beyond the scope of t h i s enquiry, However, that these a c t i o n s were judged as i n e f f e c t i v e and, on the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s , s e r i o u s l y d e t r a c t e d from optimum l e a r n i n g c o n d i t i o n s by generating s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s , a c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l by l e c t u r e r s o f t h e i r r e a c t i o n s to t h e i r audience i s s t r o n g l y suggested. k. #3,  Used anecdotes, k, 8 , 9 , 1 0 ) a) b) c)  wit, humour; r e l a t e d own experiences (A,C,  A.A. 5 aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom ( E - 7 ) B.A. 8 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student with m a t e r i a l (E~k) B.A. 1 5 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l ( E - 2 )  77  The s e l e c t i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n i n a l e c t u r e o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s and humour was c o n s i d e r e d t o be, i n the main, an e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e . Some i s o l a t e d e x c e p t i o n s a r e l i s t e d i n Appendix B, p. 116, under c l a s s e s 3 and !(. of sub-area C. A l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t a r o u s a l was the main r e p o r t e d r e s u l t of the use o f t h i s t e c h n i q u e , i n a d d i t i o n i t may have a s s i s t e d students t o grasp s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l . 5. Asked l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s ; made p r o v o c a t i v e comments; manif e s t s serious i n t e r e s t i n students suggestions o r questions (A, B, #k, 5) a) b) c)  C.B. 1 C.B. 2 C.B. 4  encourages s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (E-5) encourages s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (E-lj.) encourages s t u d e n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n (E-3)  The k i n d s of b e h a v i o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s recommendation are s i m i l a r t o those l i s t e d i n recommendation #2 above. As above, they were e x c l u s i v e l y subsumed u n d e r sub-area B. The D i s c u s s i o n Method. They too were judged to be h i g h l y e f f e c t i v e , but were c o n s i d e r e d t o r e s u l t e x c l u s i v e l y i n "encouraging student p a r t i c i p a t i o n . "' 6. D i s t r i b u t e d l i s t s of or o t h e r w i s e p r o v i d e d t o p i c s t o be covered (A,A, #13, 19, 29: A,E, #3: A , C #2) a) b) c)  B.B. 11 f a c i l i t a t e d p r e - r e a d i n g , o r p l a n n i n g time t o be spent on the course (E-8) C A . 6 d i d not waste c l a s s time (saved time) (E-2) C A . I k w e l l o r g a n i z e d , o r d e r l y p r e s e n t a t i o n (E-2)  As i s i n d i c a t e d , these a c t i o n s a r e l i s t e d u n d e r v a r i o u s sub-areas. Those i n c l u d e d i n sub-area A, are subsumed u n d e r C l a s s 8. "'use o f o u t l i n e s . ' " T h i s t e c h n i q u e was c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e (Table 8, p. %0, A.A. 8) Appendix B, p. 100, A. 8, i n d i c a t e s the k i n d s of t o p i c s p r o v i d e d . These r e s u l t s would suggest t h a t b e n e f i t i s d e r i v e d from these o u t l i n e s i n terms of a s s i s t i n g s t u d e n t s t o p l a n t h e i r time more e f f i c i e n t l y . 7. Spoke i n a monotone; i n d i s t i n c t l y ; i m p r o p e r l y (A,A, #14., 10, 2k, 38) a) b)  A.A. k generated f e e l i n g s o f boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, t e d i o u s ; s t u d e n t s l o s t i n t e r e s t (1-7) C A . 3 d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w (1-3)  A c t i o n s r e l a t e d t o v o i c e q u a l i t y were the most f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s ( o t h e r t h a n those l i s t e d as " d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s " ) . Moreover, r e s u l t s l i s t e d i n Table 8, p. 50, A.A. 1 suggest t h a t the q u a l i t y o f the l e c t u r e r ' s v o i c e was r e p o r t e d more o f t e n as b e i n g i n e f f e c t i v e . The s p e c i f i c ' q u a l i t i e s ' i n c l u d e d i n t h i s c l a s s are l i s t e d i n Appendix B, p. 97» under A.A. 1. I n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t a c l e a r , d i s t i n c t , l o u d speaking v o i c e has a d e c i d e d l y f a v o u r a b l e impact on the s t u d e n t audience. :  78  8. Read m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y f r o m n o t e s A . G . #15) a) b) c)  or t e x t  ( A . A . #1,  2:  A . A . 6 g e n e r a t e d f e e l i n g s of b o r e d o m ; was d u l l , monotonous t e d i o u s ; s t u d e n t s l o s t i n t e r e s t (1-6) C . A . 11 wasted c l a s s time (1-2) . C B . 15 discouraged c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n or i n t e r action (1-2)  T a b l e 11, p . 6 2 , l i s t s t h e b e h a v i o r s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n as f i r s t and s e c o n d o n t h e l i s t of ' c r i t i c a l requirements'. As c a n be s e e n t h e y were c o n s i d e r e d l a r g e l y i n e f f e c t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , and l e a d t o f e e l i n g s o f monotony and disinterest. As i s i n d i c a t e d i n C l a s s e s 5 . a n d 10 o f s u b - a r e a A , T a b l e 8, p . 50 , r e a d i n g f r o m e i t h e r n o t e s o r t e x t was c o n s i d e r e d , i n the m a i n , i n e f f e c t i v e . A p p e n d i x B , p . 10k, C l a s s 5 l i s t s o t h e r i n e f f e c t i v e "use o f n o t e s . " 9. R e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l t o more s i m p l e ; d r e w a n a l o g i e s ; r e p h r a s e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways u n t i l p o i n t e s t a b l i s h e d ( A , A . #21) a) b)  B . A . 6 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l (E-k) B . A . 7 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l (E-k)  The b e h a v i o r s a l l u d e d t o i n t h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n were i n c l u d e d , i n p a r t , i n r e q u i r e m e n t #21 o f s u b - a r e a A . , a s i n d i cated. T h e s e a c t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n C l a s s 17, "integrating c o u r s e m a t e r i a l " , as l i s t e d i n T a b l e 8, p . 5 0 , of s u b - a r e a A . A l l s u c h b e h a v i o r s r e p o r t e d were c o n s i d e r e d e f f e c t i v e , a n d a r e l i s t e d i n d e t a i l i n A p p e n d i x B , p . lOlp u n d e r C l a s s 17. 1  10.  Gave p e r s o n a l a) b) c)  attention; personal  assistance  ( A . D . #5,  10);  B . A . 13 f a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g m a t e r i a l ; c l a r i f i e d ; f a m i l i a r i z e d student w i t h m a t e r i a l (E-2) D.A. 1 took a personal i n t e r e s t i n students; c o n s i d e r a t e (E-2) D.A. 2 took a personal i n t e r e s t i n students; c o n s i d e r a t e (E-2)  These a c t i o n s were i n c l u d e d u n d e r s u b - a r e a D . Special M e t h o d s , , and were subsumed u n d e r c l a s s e s 1 and 3« Staying b e h i n d a f t e r c l a s s o r a s k i n g f o r a p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w were c o n - • sidered e f f e c t i v e techniques, but " i n d u l g i n g i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s ( s h o w i n g d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ) " was deemed i n e f f e c t i v e (see A p p e n d i x B , p . 120, C l a s s e s 1 and 3») A l t h o u g h f e w r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d , as i s s h o w n , t h i s k i n d o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t seemed t o g e n e r a t e a favourable i m p r e s s i o n of the l e c t u r e r as a p e r s o n .  79  11. Conceded o r admitted an e r r o r ; admitted l a c k of knowledge or p r e p a r a t i o n (B.A. #k) a) b)  A.B. 2 generated f e e l i n g s of r e s p e c t , admiration; g e n e r a l l y made a favourable impression ( E - 3 ) C A . 1+ d i d n o t waste c l a s s time (saved time) ( E - 2 )  The admission of f a l l i b i l i t y was not e n t i r e l y considered an e f f e c t i v e technique (Table 11, p. 6 7 , B.A. #k). However, on the b a s i s of those r e p o r t s i n c l u d i n g a r e s u l t , the l e c t u r e r was g e n e r a l l y respected f o r so doing, and i f nothing e l s e , c l a s s time was saved, as r e p o r t e d above. 12. Made an e x t r a e f f o r t (conducted e x t r a c l a s s e s , t o u r s , gave c a l l number of books) (A.D. #1) a) b)  A.B. 3 generated f e e l i n g s of confidence, a p p r e c i a t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , absence of f e a r ( E - 3 ) A.A. Ik aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom ( E - 2 )  Behaviors i n d i c a t i n g " e x t r a e f f o r t " were a l s o subsumed under sub-area D, S p e c i a l Methods as were the behaviors i n c l u d e d i n recommendation #10 above. However, the a c t i o n s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s recommendation (#12) are r e p o r t e d as generating favourable a f f e c t i v e r e a c t i o n s i n . t h e respondents, r a t h e r than e v a l u a t i o n s of the l e c t u r e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y , as was the case i n #10. 13.  Disorderly presentation a) b)  (A.A. #5)  C A . 8 d i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w (1-2) A.A. 15 generated f e e l i n g s of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, t e d i o u s , students l o s t i n t e r e s t (1-2)  The only c r i t i c a l requirement l i s t e d w h i c h included t h i s kind o f behavior was requirement #5, l i s t e d under sub-area A (Table 11, p. 62). As c a n be seen, t h i s method of p r e s e n t a t i o n was considered i n e f f e c t i v e . " O r d e r l i n e s s and O r g a n i z a t i o n of p r e s e n t a t i o n ' i s l i s t e d as sharing with "use of notes" the f o u r t h p o s i t i o n i n the l i s t of c r i t i c a l behaviors (Table 8, p. 5 0 . As i s i n d i c a t e d i n t h i s Table, the number of i n e f f e c t i v e and e f f e c t i v e behaviors reported are e s s e n t i a l l y the same. So few r e s u l t s were r e p o r t e d that no c o n c l u s i o n s can be drawn i n t h i s regard. n  Lk.  Included a)  i r r e l e v a n t d i g r e s s i o n s ; extraneous m a t e r i a l  ( A . C #1)  B.A. LL Detracted from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o students c o n f u s i o n (1-2)  80  b)  A.A. 17 generated f e e l i n g s of boredom; was monotonous, t e d i o u s ; students l o s t i n t e r e s t  dull, (1-2)  The use of i r r e l e v a n t , outdated m a t e r i a l was c o n s i d e r e d , as would be expected, i n e f f e c t i v e (Table 8, p. 5l> C 1). Examples of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l considered t o be r e l e v a n t and i r r e l e v a n t are l i s t e d i n Appendix B, pp. 115 and 117 under c l a s s e s 1 and 6. That content r e l e v a n c y i s an important c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the student audience was suggested by the f a c t that the l a r g e s t number of behaviors were grouped under t h i s category f o r the sub-area C (Table 8, p. 5l> C l a s s 1). F u r t h e r , by f a r the l a r g e s t number of behaviors r e p o r t e d were judged as ineffective. Chances are that i f the reasons f o r i n t r o d u c i n g or s e l e c t i n g course content were i n d i c a t e d by the l e c t u r e r , some of the c o n f u s i o n , as suggested by the above r e s u l t s , could be a m e l i o r a t e d . 15. Poorly prepared, admitted was (B.B. #5) a) b)  bored and/or unprepared  B.A. 11 d e t r a c t e d from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; added to students c o n f u s i o n (1-2) A.B. 8 generated f e e l i n g s of t e n s i o n , d i s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n , f e a r f u l n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y lowered morale (1-2)  While some of the behaviors i n c l u d e d i n t h i s recommendat i o n overlap those of recommendation #11 above, the l a t t e r described temperamental, dynamic or m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s , while the b e h a v i o r s of t h i s recommendation are d e s c r i p t i v e of a b i l i t y traits. An unprepared or p o o r l y prepared l e c t u r e r was not considered e f f e c t i v e . The above l i s t to uncover  broad  of recommendations was  an attempt,  trends i n the r e s u l t s of c l o s e l y  then,  similar  l e c t u r e r behaviors which, when viewed  i n d i v i d u a l l y l e d to a wide  range  of the d i s s i m i l a r i t y of  of r e s u l t s .  A d e t a i l e d account  both the r e s u l t s and behaviors i s r e p o r t e d i n Appendices C.  B and  These f i n d i n g s l i k e l y r e f l e c t the f a c t that the d i s s i m i l i t u d e  of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n attached to i n s t r u c t o r behavior i s a product of not only the p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s of the i n s t r u c t o r  and  that of the members of h i s audience, but a l s o t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r aims of the i n s t r u c t o r and those of the students are not mutually  81  understood. The v a l u e and uniqueness.rif the above l i s t of recommend a t i o n s l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t they are n o t mere l i s t i n g s of c r i t i c a l b e h a v i o r s , or groups of b e h a v i o r s , b u t a r e based on g r o u p i n g s of c l o s e l y s i m i l a r c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s ,  and i n d i c a t e  the s p e c i f i c r e a c t i o n s generated by these r e q u i r e m e n t s .  Further,  i t was p o s s i b l e t o r e l a t e the b e h a v i o r a l component of the recommendation t o the b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s d a t a , and t h e r e b y g a i n an index of i t s ' r e l a t i v e Although  criticalness.'  the recommendations a r e s u b j e c t t o the l i m i t a -  t i o n s imposed by the d a t a , i t i s hoped t h a t they may serve n o t as a b s o l u t e p r e s c r i p t i o n s f o r t e a c h i n g , b u t as a b a s i s f o r hypotheses f o r m u l a t i o n i n a more i d e a l  context.  82  CHAPTER VL. SUMMARY OP CONCLUSIONS AND  1.  IMPLICATIONS  Student observers proved capable of reporting lecturer  actions as representing  examples of both good, or e f f e c t i v e ,  and poor, or i n e f f e c t i v e lecture practices. procedure was  That lecture  judged to include areas other than s t r i c t l y  "lecture techniques" i s noteworthy.  What a lecturer has r e l e -  gated to the preconscious, or r a t i o n a l l y deems incidental to lecturing i s noticed and  seems to considerably  influence  the  •learning climate' of the lecture setting. 2.  Behaviors associated with 'Teaching Methods' were the most  frequently reported. cal s k i l l s and  These are, i n the main, s t r i c t l y  can be taught and  learned.  The onus i s on the  individual lecturer to ensure t h e i r mastery. the c r i t e r i a  Regardless of  one uses to define lecturer effectiveness,  certainly, and  obviously,  those i n t e r f e r i n g with learning  would be universally rejected.  This would imply the rejec-  t i o n of certain lecturer personality attributes and methods as revealed by this study.  techniques that are detrimental Lecturers  teaching  Hence, future research i s  indicated to uncover both the personality t r a i t s and  3.  techni-  teaching  to e f f e c t i v e university lecturing.  cannot take for granted 'wired-in'  motivation.  Students are keenly aware of actions which generate or detract  83 from i n t e r e s t - a r o u s a l .  F u r t h e r , students have c l e a r n o t i o n s  of behaviors which a s s i s t i n or d e t r a c t from l e a r n i n g the subject material. k.  Supplementary Information g i v e n as o p i n i o n s d e r i v e d from  g e n e r a l experience d i d not augment the i n c i d e n t data. hypothesized that t h i s data represented the student's l e c t u r e r or l e c t u r e s e t t i n g .  It  was  idealized  The use, by the observers, of  the Supplementary Information page of the copy form f o r the r e c o r d i n g of c r i t i c a l rigid  i n c i d e n t s , p o i n t e d out the need f o r more  and c l e a r i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r placement of the Moreover, i t was  felt  that many of the recorded  i n c i d e n t s x^rere 'contaminated' v a r y i n g degrees  was  critical  by e v a l u a t i v e r e f e r e n c e s , and  of a b s t r a c t i o n .  Although e f f o r t s to s c a l e  b e h a v i o r a l r e p o r t s on the b a s i s of 'degrees proved  incidents.  of o p i n i o n a t i o n '  a b o r t i v e , i f such an o p e r a t i o n had been p o s s i b l e , i t  felt  that c l a s s i f i c a t i o n would have been made more p r e c i s e ,  hence more r e l i a b l e . 5.  Suggestions  of s e r i o u s misconceptions  on the part of students  both as to the l e c t u r e r ' s r o l e and aims i n the classroom, what should be s e l e c t e d and  s t r e s s e d as l e c t u r e content by  s t r o n g l y Indicated a need f o r a c r i t i c a l l e c t u r e r s and  students concepts  and him,  a p p r a i s a l of both  of the nature and  aims of the  p r o f e s s i o n of u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h i n g . 6.  While  a wide v a r i e t y of r e a c t i o n s were g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d  with r e p o r t s of s p e c i f i c l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s , some g e n e r a l trends  8k  i n audience r e a c t i o n were f o r t h c o m i n g from, an a n a l y s i s o f the recommendations which grew out of t h i s study.  The f o l l o w i n g  summarizes and p a r a p h r a s e s the recommendations: a)  The u s e o f a u d i o - v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s ; showing an i n t e r e s t i n and p r o v o k i n g student c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; u s i n g w i t , humour, and anecdotes; making an " e x t r a e f f o r t " ; were a l l judged t o be e f f e c t i v e i n g e n e r a t i n g s t u d e n t i n t e r e s t and attention.  b)  Answering or r e a c t i n g t o s t u d e n t ' s answers o r contributions s a r c a s t i c a l l y ; r i d i c u l i n g ; being h y p e r c r i t i c a l and g e n e r a l l y d e r r o g a t o r y , not o n l y g e n e r a t e d f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y and p r e c i p i t a t e d d i s t r e s s r e a c t i o n s i n the s t u d e n t a u d i e n c e , b u t d e t r a c t e d from the ' l e a r n i n g environment' by m i n i m i z i n g s t u d e n t - l e c t u r e r 'feed-back', and caused f e e l i n g s o f c o n f u s i o n , making " l e a r n i n g more d i f f i c u l t " .  c)  Speaking material material feelings  d)  The use o f a u d i o - v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s ; u s i n g and showing an i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; making use of w i t , humour and anecdotes; r e l a t ing d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l t o the more f a m i l i a r , and u s i n g a n a l o g i e s ; a l l f a c i l i t a t e d s t u d e n t mastery of the s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l .  i n a monotone, o r i n d i s t i n c t l y ; r e a d i n g f r o m notes or t e x t s ; p r e s e n t i n g the i n a d i s o r g a n i z e d manner; a l l l e d t o of tedium,' boredom, and d i s i n t e r e s t .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t b e h a v i o r s which l e d t o i n t e r e s t arousal the m a t e r i a l " . derrogatory  were g e n e r a l l y a l s o judged t o a i d i n " l e a r n i n g Moreover, i n d i c a t i o n s were t h a t a s a r c a s t i c ,  reaction,-  to students e f f o r t s to contribute  lecture a c t u a l l y detracted I n t h i s regard ing  to the  from o r h i n d e r e d the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s .  Hook (19k6, p. 172) a s s e r t s t h a t "whatever  i s , i t s h o u l d not be an o b s t r u c t i o n to l e a r n i n g . "  teach-  85  I t was grew out  of t h i s enquiry might  formulation 7.  The  hoped that the p r a c t i c a l recommendations which  for future  serve  as a b a s i s f o r  research.  c r i t i c a l requirements d e r i v e d from t h i s data  as "component dimensions" i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n behaviors  of e f f e c t i v e u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r i n g .  as a b a s i s from which to define c r i t e r i a a s s i s t i n developing  hypothesis  of  could  serve  criteria  They could act  o b j e c t i v e l y , and  v e h i c l e s f o r o b t a i n i n g c r i t e r i o n measures  of l e c t u r e r competence. Moreover, the exhaustive dimensions" and  elemental  the form of 'miscellaneous  list  behaviors  of " f i r s t - o r d e r listed  behavior  i n the Appendices i n  r e f e r e n c e s ' , c'could provide  the  basis  f o r a g l o s s a r y of terms d e s c r i b i n g l e c t u r e r a c t i o n s f o r a classroom  o b s e r v a t i o n record form.  the d e s c r i p t i o n of the b e h a v i o r a l iveness  at the u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l .  The  l a t t e r could a s s i s t i n  components of teacher  effect-  86  CHAPTER Vir. SUMMARY OP STUDY  I t was t h e purpose of t h i s e n q u i r y t o r e p o r t on an a d a p t a t i o n of the C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique t o u n i v e r s i t y teaching with s p e c i f i c reference to i t s usefulness f o r : 1.  Determining  t h e " c r i t i c a l requirements"  of u n i v e r s i t y  t e a c h i n g as e v o l v e d from the d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r by u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s ; 2.  Studying  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between i n f o r m a t i o n on t e a c h i n g  o b t a i n e d by " c r i t i c a l  i n c i d e n t s " , and supplementary i n f o r m a t i o n  g i v e n as ' o p i n i o n s ' d e r i v e d from g e n e r a l 3.  experience;  E d u c i n g a s e t of p r a c t i c a l recommendations t h a t may be o f  v a l u e t o l e c t u r e r s i n the improvement o f t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y teaching p r a c t i c e s . There was found t o be a p a u c i t y of r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l versity level.  approach t o t e a c h e r a p p r a i s a l a t t h e u n i -  For the purposes of t h i s s t u d y , the more  f r e q u e n t l y employed procedure o f a s k i n g e d u c a t o r s ,  specially  t r a i n e d o b s e r v e r s , o r o t h e r s t o name d e s i r a b l e t e a c h i n g was r e j e c t e d .  Rather,  audience as the source  i t was d e c i d e d  traits  t o employ the student  of c r i t e r i o n data f o r t h i s s t u d y .  The  procedure chosen was t h e C r i t i c a l I n c i d e n t Technique, s i n c e I t r e p r e s e n t s an e f f o r t t o o b j e c t i f y d e s c r i p t i o n s of b e h a v i o r , and thereby p r o v i d e an o p e r a t i o n a l frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r b e h a v i o r a l  87  appraisal.  I t was emphasized t h a t no attempt  was to be made to  i d e n t i f y f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a c t i o n good and poor i n s t r u c t o r s on the b a s i s of student judgments a l o n e .  P r e c a u t i o n s were  taken to avoid any d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s b e i n g made that would actually identify university S p e c i a l l y prepared  instructors.  r e c o r d forms were provided f o r 2 3 9  f o u r t h year A r t s students who had agreed study.  to participate  i n the  U s e f u l data were contained i n 8 0 of the 9 7 forms which  were returned.  The data were recorded  i n c i d e n t s , " and supplementary  i n the form of " c r i t i c a l  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the form of  'opinions.' Three c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s were a p p l i e d to these data. f i r s t was based  The  e x c l u s i v e l y on d e s c r i p t i o n s of l e c t u r e r  behaviors, that i s , a b e h a v i o r a l a n a l y s i s ; the second  on the  reported r e s u l t of the l e c t u r e r ' s a c t i o n s ; the t h i r d on an a n a l y s i s of opinions as d e r i v e d from g e n e r a l experiences. These data were a l l systematized according to a p r o g r e s s i o n of more i n c l u s i v e c a t e g o r i e s . Prom the f i r s t two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , cal  requirements"  were e v o l v e d .  two l i s t s of " c r i t i -  I t was observed  that a wide  d i s s i m i l a r i t y of. r e s u l t s ensued from c l o s e l y s i m i l a r requirements.  critical  Hence, p r a c t i c a l recommendations were developed  from t h i s data w i t h a view to uncovering broad r e s u l t s of c l o s e l y s i m i l a r l e c t u r e r b e h a v i o r s . t i o n s were summarized as f o l l o w s :  trends i n the The recommenda-  88  a)'  The use o f a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques; showing an i n t e r e s t i n and provoking student c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; u s i n g wit, humour, and anecdotes; making an " e x t r a e f f o r t " ; were a l l judged to be e f f e c t i v e i n generating student i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n .  b)  Answering or r e a c t i n g to student's answers or c o n t r i b u t i o n s s a r c a s t i c a l l y ; r i d i c u l i n g ; being hyperc r i t i c a l and g e n e r a l l y d e r r o g a t o r y , not o n l y generated f e e l i n g s of a n x i e t y and p r e c i p i t a t e d d i s t r e s s r e d actions i n the student audience, but d e t r a c t e d from the ' l e a r n i n g environment' by m i n i m i z i n g studentl e c t u r e r 'feed-back', and caused f e e l i n g s of conf u s i o n , making " l e a r n i n g more d i f f i c u l t . "  c)  Speaking material material feelings  d)  The use of a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques; u s i n g and -showing an i n t e r e s t i n student c o n t r i b u t i o n s ; making use of w i t , humour and anecdotes; r e l a t ing d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l to the more f a m i l i a r , and u s i n g a n a l o g i e s ; a l l f a c i l i t a t e d student mastery of the s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l .  s  The  i n a monotone, or i n d i s t i n c t l y ; reading from notes or t e x t s ; p r e s e n t i n g the i n a d i s o r g a n i z e d manner; a l l l e d to of tedium, boredom, ahd d i s i n t e r e s t .  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the supplementary  i n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d by  the o p i n i o n data d i d not augment the i n c i d e n t data. hypothesized that they may notions of u n i v e r s i t y  It  was  have represented students' ' i d e a l i z e d '  lecturing.  I m p l i c a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s gained from t h i s e n q u i r y we re: 1.  Students proved  capable  of r e p o r t i n g b o t h good and poor  instances of l e c t u r e p r a c t i c e . aware of a c t i o n s which generated  Moreover, they seemed e s p e c i a l l y or d e t r a c t e d from  interest  a r o u s a l , or a s s i s t e d i n or d e t r a c t e d from l e a r n i n g the s u b j e c t material.  89  2.  While a c t i o n s d e s c r i b i n g 'Teaching  Methods' were the most  f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d , l e c t u r e procedure was areas  other than s t r i c t l y  these f i n d i n g s , i t was  judged to  ' l e c t u r e technique'.  Include  On the b a s i s of  suggested t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h might-  uncover both p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and  teaching techniques  that  were i n d i c a t e d by t h i s enquiry as being d e t r i m e n t a l t o e f f e c t ive  u n i v e r s i t y teaching.  3.  A need was  shown f o r d e v i s i n g a means of minimizing  ' o p i n i o n a t i o n ' of c r i t i c a l k.  incidents.  One  approach was  Findings which a l l u d e d to the e x i s t e n c e  ceptions  concerning  the suggested.  of s e r i o u s miscon-  the r o l e and aims of l e c t u r e r s i n the  room, p o i n t e d to the need f o r a c r i t i c a l  class-  assessment of both  students' and l e c t u r e r s ' concepts of u n i v e r s i t y t e a c h i n g . 5.  The  critical  requirements d e r i v e d from t h i s data could a c t  as the b a s i s from which to d e f i n e c r i t e r i a behaviors tive university lecturing. order behavior data, and  Specifically,  dimensions" gleaned  the l i s t  of e f f e c -  of " f i r s t -  from the c r i t i c a l  Incident  l i s t e d i n the Appendices i n the form of p a r t i c u l a r  motor or v e r b a l responses,  could provide  the b a s i s f o r a  g l o s s a r y of terms i n the development of v e h i c l e s f o r o b t a i n i n g c r i t e r i o n measures of l e c t u r e r competence. 6.  I t was  hoped t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h might make use  recommendations which grew out of t h i s study f o r formulation.  of the  hypothesis  R E F E R E N C E S  91 'REFERENCES  American I n s t i t u t e f o r Research: A r e p o r t of three years of experience. P i t t s b u r g h : Amer. I n s t , f o r Res., Sept. 1950, A n i k e e f f , A.M. F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g student f a c u l t y members. J . a p p l . Psychol.  e v a l u a t i o n of c o l l e g e  1953, 37, 458-1+59.  B a r r , A.S. The measurement and p r e d i c t i o n of teaching a summary of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . J . Exp. Educ., 191+8,  efficiency,  16, 203-283*  Beecher, D.E.. The e v a l u a t i o n of t e a c h i n g , backgrounds and concepts. Syracuse: Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y Press, 19k9. Bendig, A.W. A p r e l i m i n a r y study of the e f f e c t of academic l e v e l , sex, and course v a r i a b l e s on student r a t i n g s of psychology i n s t r u c t o r s . J . Psychol.,  1952, 54* 21-26.  Bendig, A.W. An i n v e r t e d f a c t o r a n a l y s i s study of studentr a t e d i n t r o d u c t o r y psychology i n s t r u c t o r s . J . Exp. Educ.,  1953, 21, 333-336.  Buxton, C.E. New York:  College teaching: a p s y c h o l o g i s t ' s view. Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1956.  C a t t e l , R.B. P e r s o n a l i t y : a systematic t h e o r e t i c a l and f a c t u a l study. New York: McGraw H i l l , 1950. DeVries, A.G. A study of t r a i n i n g needs i n the s e l l i n g of r e a l e s t a t e through the use of the c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique. Unpublished Masters T h e s i s , Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. Drucher, A.J., and Remmers, H.H. Do alumni and students d i f f e r i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards i n s t r u c t o r s ? J . Ed. Psychol.,  1951, 42, 129-11+3  Flanagan, J.C. The c r i t i c a l requirements approach to e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s . School and S o c i e t y , 1950,  321-32k.  71,  Flanagan, J.C. The c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t technique i n the study of i n d i v i d u a l s i n Modern E d u c a t i o n a l Problems: Report of the Seventeenth E d u c a t i o n a l Conference, New York C i t y , Oct. p u b l i s h e d by American C o u n c i l on Educ a t i o n , pp. 61-70 ( a ) .  30-31, 1952,  Flanagan,  J.C.  The c r i t i c a l  1954, 51, 327-358 (b).  i n c i d e n t technique.  Psych. B u l l . , .  92  REFERENCES (CONT'D)  Flanagan, J.C. The e v a l u a t i o n of methods i n a p p l i e d psychology and the problem of c r i t e r i a . Occupational Psychology, 1956, 30,. l - 9 ( c ) . Gordon, T. The a i r l i n e p i l o t ' s j o b . 33, 122-131. •  J. appl. Psychol.,  G u t h r i e , E.R. The s t a t e u n i v e r s i t y : U n i v . of Washington, 1959.  i t s f u n c t i o n and i t s f u t u r e .  Hook, S. 1924-6.  E d u c a t i o n f o r modern man.  New York:  1949,  D i a l Press,  Juatman, J . and Mais, W.A. College teaching: i t s practice and i t s p o t e n t i a l . New Y o r k : Harper & B r o s . , 1956. McKeachie, W. Teaching t i p s : a guide book f o r the b e g i n n i n g c o l l e g e t e a c h e r . Ann A r b o r , Mich.: George Wahr P u b l i s h i n g Co., 1956. McKeachie, W.J. and Solomon, D. Student r a t i n g s of I n s t r u c t o r s : a v a l i d i t y s t u d y . J . of Ed. Res., 1958, 51, 379-382. Moser, C.A. Survey methods i n s o c i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n . W i l l i a m Heinemann L t d . , 1958.  London:  Remmers, H.H. and E l l i o t , D.N. The I n d i a n a c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y s t a f f - e v a l u a t i o n program. S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , 1949, 70, 168-171. R i l e y , J.W., e t a l . The student l o o k s a t h i s t e a c h e r , an e n q u i r y i n t o the i m p l i c a t i o n s of student r a t i n g s a t the c o l l e g e l e v e l . New Brunsx^ick, New J e r s e y : Rutgers V. P r e s s , 1950. Ryans, D.G. and Wandt, E. A f a c t o r a n a l y s i s o f observed t e a c h e r b e h a v i o r s i n the secondary s c h o o l : a s t u d y of c r i t e r i o n d a t a . Ed. and P s y c h o l . Meas., 1952, 12, 574-586. Ryans, D.G. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of teachers: t h e i r d e s c r i p t i o n , comparison, and a p p r a i s a l . Menasha, W i s c o n s i n : George Banata Co., I960. S m i t , Jo Anne, A study of the c r i t i c a l requirements f o r i n s t r u c t o r s of g e n e r a l psychology courses. Unpublished PhD T h e s i s , U n i v . o f P i t t s b u r g h , 1951.  93  JEFERENCES  (CONT'D)  Smit, Jo Anne A study of the c r i t i c a l requirements f o r i n s t r u c t o r s of general psychology courses. Univ. of P i t t s . B u l l . , 1952, k 8 , 2 7 9 - 2 8 L . Stoyva, J.M. C r i t i c a l Requirements of T r o l l e y - B u s Operator's .job. Unpublished Masters T h e s i s , Univ. of B r i t i s h Columbia, Travers, R. A p p r a i s a l o f the t e a c h i n g of the c o l l e g e J . Higher Ed., 195*0, 2 1 , k l - k 2 .  faculty.  Wagner, R.F. C r i t i c a l requirements f o r d e n t i s t s . J . a p p l . P s y c h o l . , 1950, 3 4 , 190-192.  A P P E N D I C E S  95  APPENDIX A INSTRUCTIONS You are being asked to take p a r t i n a study designed to a r r i v e at c r i t e r i a by which the q u a l i t y of u n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r s may be improved. S p e c i f i c a l l y , you are being asked to p r o v i d e us with a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of the important or c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s of behavior which you p e r s o n a l l y would i d e n t i f y with good and poor l e c t u r i n g . We, then, are a s k i n g you to describe a c t u a l experiences, whether your own, or someone e l s e ' s , which to you i l l u s t r a t e good and poor l e c t u r e technique. An example, say p e r t a i n i n g to bus d r i v i n g , may i l l u s t r a t e the point more c l e a r l y . An i n c i d e n t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good bus d r i v i n g might be that the operator l e f t h i s bus to guide a b l i n d man a c r o s s a busy s t r e e t , or t h a t he knew the name of the s t r e e t you were l o o k i n g f o r . These examples represent a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s of behavior which are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good bus d r i v i n g . On the o t h e r hand, such i n c i d e n t s as the bus d r i v e r t r y i n g t o beat the red l i g h t , or having undue d i f f i c u l t y i n r e p l a c i n g a t r o l l e y pole, or braking suddenly at each stop, describe poor bus d r i v i n g . Please n o t i c e t h a t i n these examples, i n c i d e n t s appear that r e l a t e to s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r . You are to t h i n k about any a c t u a l i n c i d e n t s of behavior on the p a r t of your l e c t u r e r that a p p l i e s to the e f f e c t i v e or non e f f e c t i v e d e l i v e r y o f a lecture. Please keep i n mind t h a t your e v a l u a t i o n of the goodness or poorness of the l e c t u r e i s not to be i n terms of whether you p e r s o n a l l y are impressed by the s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l being d e l i v e r e d , but s o l e l y i n terms of l e c t u r e procedure as manifested by your l e c t u r e r . Some things  to be  kept i n mind when d e s c r i b i n g  incidents  are:1. 2.  Since t h i s study has a c o n s t r u c t i v e purpose i t i s requested that the name of the i n s t r u c t o r i n v o l v e d not be given. Describe the circumstances that l e d up to the i n c i d e n t , and r e f e r to the person i n v o l v e d anonymously as "the lecturer" . Describe e x a c t l y what the l e c t u r e r d i d . Do you c o n s i d e r h i s a c t i o n j u s t i f i e d ? ' Why? Did the i n c i d e n t l e a d to a s u c c e s s f u l or an u n s u c c e s s f u l result? What was the r e s u l t ? 1  3. [).. 5. 6.  96  APPENDIX A (CONT'D)  Some f i n a l p o i n t s : 1. 2. 3»  k. 5. 6. 7.  A l l information i s confidential. I n no way w i l l your name be mentioned o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any of the i n f o r m a t i o n you s u p p l y . Do not d i s c u s s any q u e s t i o n s o r i n f o r m a t i o n you g i v e w i t h o t h e r s , s i n c e t h e y might be i n t e r v i e w e d l a t e r and any knowledge o f what i s b e i n g asked b e f o r e the i n t e r v i e w w i l l e f f e c t t h e study a d v e r s e l y . Please w r i t e l e g i b l y . I f you have any q u e s t i o n s p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o ask them. I f you w i s h t o g e t i n t o u c h w i t h me p l e a s e leave a message at Alma 3180-R. I t might be a h e l p i n remembering i n c i d e n t s i f you s t a r t to t h i n k about the most r e c e n t good o r poor l e c t u r e s you have a t t e n d e d . P l e a s e i n d i c a t e whether the i n c i d e n t o c c u r r e d i n a l a b o r a t o r y or a l e c t u r e .  97  APPENDIX B CRITICAL BEHAVIORS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH CLASS (BEHAVIOR CLASSIFICATION) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. A.  TEACHING METHODS •  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Q u a l i t y of V o i c e  a) b) c) d) e) f) 'g) h)  monotonous v o i c e spoke c l e a r l y , d i s t i n c t l y s o f t , low, i n a u d i b l e v o i c e spoke i n d i s t i n c t l y , mumbled spoke l o u d l y halting, uncertain; stutters spoke i n c o n v e r s a t i o n a l v o i c e miscellaneous references t o voice quality - emphasis on e v e r y word - decreases i n volume p r o g r e s s i v e l y  CLASS TOTAL 2.  11  12 8  k 2 1 1  17  28  Use of language a) b) c) d)  use o f e r , ah terms t o o complex constant rephrasing m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o u s e of s t e r e o t y p e d phrases - f r e q u e n t use o f phrase, " I think"' - overworks p a r t i c u l a r phrases - overworked work " i m p o r t a n t " - c o n t i n u a l r e p e t i t i v e use o f p e t word - uses such phrases a s ; "a s i m p l e d e r i v a t i v e ; a naive i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " - r e p e t i t i v e u s e o f phrase "don't philosophize" - f r e q u e n t use o f repetitive phrases miscellaneous references to d i c t i o n - used bad grammar - c o u l d n ' t speak E n g l i s h p r o p e r l y - doesn't f i n i s h sentences - poor command o f E n g l i s h  3 2 1 1 1 1  ;:  e)  1 1 1 1 1 1  98  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) 1  MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS f)  g)  EFFECTIVE  miscellaneous references t o pronunciation - poor attempt pronouncing word - spoke i n f o r e i g n accent - read t e x t w i t h mediocre accent miscellaneous references t o q u a l i t y and c h o i c e o f words - spontaneous p h r a s i n g - pauses t o p i c k out s p e c i f i c words - used d i f f e r e n t language than the textbook  CLASS TOTAL 3.  1 1 1 1  1 1  1  2£  Speed o f p r e s e n t a t i o n a) b) c) d)  e x c e s s i v e speed, l a c k o f pause paused, paced l e c t u r e , a l l o w e d time f o r note-taking presented a t moderate speed m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o speed of p r e s e n t a t i o n - p u r p o s e l y raced t h r o u g h s e c t i o n t h a t the t e x t covered w e l l - went r a p i d l y f r o m b e g i n n i n g o f hour - covered m a t e r i a l r a p i d l y  CLASS TOTAL k.  INEFFECTIVE  12 5 2  1 1  9  1  13  O r d e r l i n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n of presentation a)  changes from t o p i c t o t o p i c , f o l l o w s no p a t t e r n , d i s o r g a n i z e d  11  APPENDIX B MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  (CONT'D)  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS k.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  O r d e r l i n e s s and o r g a n i z a t i o n of p r e s e n t a t i o n (cont'd)  b)  m a t e r i a l presented i n l o g i c a l , systematic order  CLASS TOTAL jp.  10  11  Use of notes  a) b) c)  d i c t a t e d , read notes f o r whole hour used no notes miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s t o use of notes - returned t o o f f i c e t o r e t r i e v e notes - dropped* notes on f l o o r , c l a s s waited u n t i l a l l p i c k e d up - sought f o r exact quote i n notes, f a i l e d to f i n d i t - f o r c e d t o r e t u r n t o notes a f t e r ad l i b - consulted notes when r e a l i z e d p r o o f incorrect - d i c t a t e d notes i f seemed necessary  CLASS TOTAL 6.  10  2  12  1 1 1 1 1  7  13  7  1  Summarizing and review  a) b) c)  gave summary o f p r e v i o u s l e c t u r e summarized o r reviewed at end of s e c t i o n , year o r end of hour seldom summarized; d i d n ' t review  5 2  100 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS 6.  EFFECTIVE  Summarizing and r e v i e w d)  (cont'd)  miscellaneous references t o summarizing and r e v i e w i n g - p r o v i d e d an o r g a n i z e d summary - p e r s i s t e d i n summarizing, r a t h e r than d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c problem  13  CLASS TOTAL 7.  Use o f u n u s u a l  a) b) c) d) e) f)  techniques  b r i n g s guest l e c t u r e r asked s t u d e n t s t o take no notes conducted t o u r s l e a v e s s t u d e n t w i t h something t o t h i n k about moved c l a s s t o o f f i c e o r seminar room miscellaneous references t o unusual techniques - used c l a s s member as p r i n c i p a l p i e c e of apparatus i n d e m o n s t r a t i o n - used f o o t b a l l p l a y e r s names t o s t a n d f o r p o i n t s on a t r i a n g l e when d i s cussing trigonometric functions - used " s h o c k i n g " , e x t r a o r d i n a r y phrases - conducts c l a s s as study group  CLASS TOTAL 8.  k i  2 2 2  1 1 Ik  Use o f o u t l i n e s a) b) c)  INEFFECTIVE  o u t l i n e s t o p i c s o f whole course g i v e s t o p i c s o f next l e c t u r e i n d i c a t e d m a t e r i a l t o be covered  5  k  3  k  101 APPENDIX B MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  (CONT'D)  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS  8.' d)  EFFECTIVE  Use o f o u t l i n e s  INEFFECTIVE  (cont'd)  m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use o f outlines - followed g i v e n  outline  - failed tofollow outline  CLASS TOTAL  9.  13  Use o f o u t s i d e r e f e r e n c e s and a u t h o r i t i e s a) b)  gave r e f e r e n c e s of a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l pertinent tolecture material b r i n g s o u t s i d e , source m a t e r i a l i n t o class  CLASS TOTAL '  10. a)  9 3  12  Reading, d i c t a t i n g l e c t u r e  11  read or f o l l o w e d t e x t , books  11  CLASS TOTAL  11. a) b)  1 1  Use o f c l a s s r o o m d e m o n s t r a t i o n made u s e o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n s (equipment) miscellaneous references t o use o f s p e c i f i c kinds of demonstrations - p r a c t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n of equipment - performed experiments i n c l a s s - demonstrated l a b . t e c h n i q u e  3 1 1 1  102  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS 11. b)  EFFECTIVE Use o f c l a s s r o o m d e m o n s t r a t i o n  (cont'd)  m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use of s p e c i f i c kinds o f demonstrations - used a c t u a l equipment t o demonstrate p r i n t making - used c h e m i c a l s t o augment v e r b a l description - used mercury hammer t o i l l u s t r a t e e f f e c t s of l o w temperature - d e m o n s t r a t i o n poor - experiments i n c l a s s f a i l e d  CLASS TOTAL 12. a) b) c)  INEFFECTIVE  1 1 1  9  1 1  2  Level of lecture i n r e l a t i o n t o student a b i l i t y l e c t u r e d i r e c t e d above l e v e l o f most students l e c t u r e d i r e c t e d t o bottom l e v e l , o r below i n t e l l e c t u a l c a p a c i t y o f most students miscellaneous references t o l e v e l of l e c t u r e i n r e l a t i o n to s t u d e n t ' s ability - takes f o r g r a n t e d student remembers work of p r e v i o u s years - t r e a t e d s t u d e n t s as b e g i n n e r s - assumes c l a s s knows as much as he does - assumes terms understood  CLASS TOTAL  3 3  1 1 1 1  0  10  103  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS 13.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Discrete references to detailed vs. g e n e r a l approach  a)  b)  miscellaneous references to point by p o i n t p r e s e n t a t i o n - gave d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f f a c t s and apparatus - p r e s e n t a t i o n p o i n t by p o i n t - each p o i n t e n l a r g e d upon - t o o much d e t a i l s t r e s s e d - undue emphasis o r a n a l y s i s on one aspect of m a t e r i a l miscellaneous references t o general approach - h a b i t u a l l y examined g e n e r a l problems - broad coverage before d e t a i l e d analysis - spoke i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s  U t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e a) b)  c)  1 1 1  1  5  time  extended l e c t u r e o r course miscellaneous references to s t a r t i n g time of l e c t u r e - begins immediately a f t e r b e l l - begins b e f o r e c l a s s s i l e n t - w a i t s 1-1-g- minutes a f t e r b e l l miscellaneous references t o u t i l i z a t i o n of a v a i l a b l e time - gave no reason f o r f i n i s h i n g lecture early - t r i e s t o c o v e r too l a r g e a f i e l d i n time a v a i l a b l e  CLASS TOTAL  1 1 1  3  CLASS TOTAL lk.  1  k 1  1 1  1 1 1  8  10k  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS l5« a) b)  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Use o f r e p e t i t i o n repeats d i f f i c u l t o r i m p o r t a n t material r e p e a t s m a t e r i a l a l r e a d y covered  CLASS TOTAL 16. a) b'  C l a r i t y of p r e s e n t a t i o n clear Incoherent,  unclear  5  3  CLASS TOTAL 17. a) b)  I n t e g r a t i n g course m a t e r i a l r e l a t e s more c o m p l i c a t e d m a t e r i a l t o s i m p l e r m a t e r i a l or t o m a t e r i a l f a m i l i a r t o student miscellaneous references t o e f f o r t s to i n t e g r a t e course m a t e r i a l - one statement r e l a t e d t o r e s t of course - l i n k s v a r i o u s phases o f course i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n of the b a s i c problem - gave a l l events l e a d i n g up t o t o p i c - unemotional a p p r a i s a l of s i t u a t i o n using previous m a t e r i a l  CLASS TOTAL  k  1 1 1 1  8  0  io5  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS 18. a) b)  EFFECTIVE Use o f emphasis emphasized i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s f a i l e d t o emphasize m a t e r i a l o r t o d i s t i n g u i s h one t o p i c f r o m another  5  CLASS TOTAL 19. a) b)  Stayed on t o p i c goes o f f on t a n g e n t , point stuck to point  circumscribes  CLASS TOTAL 20. a)  D i s c r e t e references to l e c t u r e technique ( p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y ) miscellaneous references to presentat i o n and d e l i v e r y - used new f a c t s and new approach when answering the query o f s t u d e n t who had missed t h e p o i n t - present with zest - keeps l e c t u r e s f r e s h and a l i v e - informal d e l i v e r y - p r e s e n t l o g i c a l , sound arguments - read passage w i t h s i n c e r i t y and emotion - course arranged such that s t u d e n t aware o f m a t e r i a l t o be covered each day, b u t n o t aware who would be c a l l e d on t o answer - p r a i s e d work b e f o r e c r i t i c a l l y evaluating i t - b u i l t up c u r i o s i t y , and a n t i c i p a t i o n by a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n o f an event, then showed the movie  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1  INEFFECTIVE  106  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS 20.  a)  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Discrete references t o l e c t u r e technique ( p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y ) (cont'd.) miscellaneous references t o present a t i o n and d e l i v e r y (cont'd) - avoided changing mind about s t a t e ments and d e m o n s t r a t i o n s - r e v i s e d o l d m a t e r i a l whenever encountered, l e f t n o t h i n g f o r granted - a l l o w s t u d e n t t o f i l l i n by study - p r e s e n t e d i n f r i e n d l y manner - presents m a t e r i a l i n s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d fashion - precise - the seemingly r o t e "'pouring out o f m a t e r i a l " ' day a f t e r monotonous day - l e c t u r e r i s l i k e a tape r e c o r d e r ; turned on a t b e g i n n i n g , turned o f f at end - presented m a t e r i a l d r y l y - e x c e e d i n g l y wordy - o v e r l y r a m i f i e d h i s p o i n t s i n c e most information i n text - gave d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a t r a p i d pace f o r $0 m i n u t e s - skimmed i m p o r t a n t m a t e r i a l a f t e r b e i n g s t u c k i n e a r l i e r p a r t of l e c t u r e - u n f a m i l i a r words n o t e x p l a i n e d o r spelled - c a n c e l l e d k l e c t u r e s i n a row w i t h no n o t i f i c a t i o n o f any k i n d t o s t u d e n t - f i l l e d with s o l i l o q u i e s - covered o n l y t h e h i g h l i g h t s o f course - too i n t e n s e d e l i v e r y  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  107  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA: A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD  CLASS 20.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Discrete references to lecture t e c h n i q u e ( p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y ) (cont'd)  b)  miscellaneous references t o d i s t r i b u t i o n o f mimeographed s u b j e c t material - d i s t r i b u t e d l i s t of l e c t u r e t o p i c s - d i s t r i b u t e d poems he wished r e a d - d i s t r i b u t e d complicated subject material - d i s t r i b u t e d study o u t l i n e - d i s t r i b u t e d a l i s t of d e f i n i t i o n s , read f o r whole hour - d i s t r i b u t e d two s e t s o f m a t e r i a l , the f i r s t s e t i n c o r r e c t c) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i f i c lecturer errors - s t a r t e d p r o o f , began a f a i n , made another e r r o r - d i s c o v e r e d mistake a f t e r l o n g d e t a i l e d p r e s e n t a t i o n of problem - frequent erasures of e r r o r r i d d e n diagram - erased work when s t u c k on p r o o f - c o r r e c t e d s e l f r e g a r d i n g m a t t e r dis-r cussed i n p r e v i o u s l e c t u r e s . d) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o attempts at r e l a t i n g course m a t e r i a l - attempts t o i n t e g r a t e m a t e r i a l w i t h o t h e r r e l e v a n t courses - t i e d i n course m a t e r i a l w i t h p o l i t i c a l occurrences - a n a l y z e d PTA meeting which f i t t e d w e l l i n t o the course m a t e r i a l under discussion - e x p l a i n e d what s u b j e c t taught meant to o u r s o c i e t y , what i t w i l l mean t o the s t u d e n t , why he chose t h e f i e l d  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  108  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS  A-  A.  TEACHING METHODS THE LECTURE METHOD  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  20.  d i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s to l e c t u r e technique ( p r e s e n t a t i o n and d e l i v e r y ) (cont'd) e) miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i f i c forms of c a r e l e s s n e s s - l e f t out s i m p l e r s t e p s i n d e r i v a t i o n - o f a complicated formula - began new m a t e r i a l b e f o r e completing l a s t days' work - e x p l a i n e d p o i n t s i n p e r f u n c t o r y manner  CLASS TOTAL SUB-AREA TOTAL  1  1 1  23  22  158  173  109  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA: I.  A.  B.  TEACHING METHODS  THE DISCUSSION METHOD  REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  w i l l i n g n e s s ; r e a d i n e s s t o answer o r acknowledge q u e s t i o n s o r suggestions a) b) c)  ignored, discouraged, r e s t r i c t e d questions welcomes s u g g e s t i o n s , seems ready t o acknowledge s t u d e n t ' s q u e s t i o n s 8 miscellaneous references to w i l l i n g ness; r e a d i n e s s t o answer o r acknowledge q u e s t i o n s o r s u g g e s t i o n s - s k e t c h e s answer on b l a c k b o a r d I n response t o s t u d e n t ' s query 1 - reached i n t o h i s pocket and t h r u s t change found t h e r e i n i n t o amazed s t u d e n t ' s hand f o r a s k i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e l l i g e n t question 1 - i n response t o q u e s t i o n and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o answer same, began r e a s oning and t h i n k i n g such t h a t s t u d e n t s could f o l l o w 1 - asked f o r q u e s t i o n , g o t one, unable to s o l v e - response t o q u e s t i o n was "Uh" and a smile  CLASS TOTAL 2.  11  11  1 1  13  d i s c r e t e r e a c t i o n s to student contributions a) b) c) d) e)  r e a c t e d w i t h r i d i c u l e , sarcasm, belittlement d i s p l a y o f h o s t i l i t y , anger, annoyance squelching students i n t e r r u p t i o n of student c o n t r i b u t i o n s m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e a c t i o n s t o student contributions - p o l i t e l y apologized f o r asking s t u d e n t t o comment on a book a f t e r s t u d e n t r e p l i e d he hadn't read same 1  lk 7 3 2  110  . APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA: I.  CLASS 2.  A. B.  TEACHING METHODS  THE DISCUSSION METHOD  REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION (CONT'D)  EFFECTIVE  d i s c r e t e r e a c t i o n s t o student c o n t r i b u t i o n s (cont'd) e) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e a c t i o n s t o s t u d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s (cont'd) - admitted some s t u d e n t s arguments were v a l i d o b j e c t i o n s t o own t h e o r y 1 - f l a t l y c o n t r a d i c t e d student's object i o n t o h i s p o i n t , and p o i n t e d out student had b e t t e r t h i n k a l o n g h i s l i n e s i f he wanted t o pass - assuming s u p e r i o r when q u e s t i o n e d on debatable p o i n t - j o k i n g l y handles s t u d e n t ' s q u e s t i o n , o f f e r s no e x p l a n a t i o n - l a c o n i c a l l y r e p l i e s t o query, " w e l l " - d i s c o u r t e o u s o f s t u d e n t ' s o p i n i o n when s p e c i f i c a l l y asked f o r - t r e a t e d q u e s t i o n s i n a condescending manne r - asked s t u d e n t s i f they c o u l d n ' t take a joke i n response t o t h e i r n o t s h a r i n g h i s amusement - suggested t h a t s i n c e no apparent conc e r n was shown over t h e d e a t h o f one of t h e members, i t showed a l a c k o f s e n s i b i l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y - t o l d s t u d e n t who complained he wasn't speaking l o u d enough t o move c l o s e r - a f t e r a s k i n g s t u d e n t s i f f o l l o w i n g , and r e c e i v i n g no response, r e p l i e s , "Oh w e l l , n o t i m p o r t a n t anyway". - l e c t u r e r s a i d , '"Oh w e l l , i t i s n ' t v e r y i m p o r t a n t anyway" when s t u d e n t f a i l e d to g i v e m e a n i n g f u l comments about a poem j u s t rendered by l e c t u r e r - tended t o d i s a g r e e w i t h s t u d e n t ' s q u e s t i o n s which d i s a g r e e d w i t h approved i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f work under d i s c u s s i o n  INEFFECTIVE  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1  1 1  Ill  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA: I.  A.  B.  TEACHING METHODS  THE DISCUSSION METHOD  'REACTIONS TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION (CONT'D)  CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE  d i s c r e t e r e a c t i o n s to student butions (cont'd) f)  g)  INEFFECTIVE  contri-  miscellaneous r e a c t i o n s t o poor quest i o n s from students - c r i t i c i z e s students questions l a c k i n g forethought - responded with no d e r i s i o n to what was considered t o be a p o i n t l e s s student q u e s t i o n - p a t i e n t to a f a u l t w i t h students questions and l o c a t e s k e r n e l of knowledge among the most innane questions - pointed out i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n or s u b t l y rephrased an i r r e l e v a n t or obscure q u e s t i o n - c l e v e r l y i n c o r p o r a t e s s t u p i d student's q u e s t i o n i n t o h i s answer such that errors i n question eliminated - indulged student's i r r e l e v a n t questions - spoke to students about wasting time when a s k i n g p o i n t l e s s q u e s t i o n - c r i t i c i z e d students i d e a s and grammar when he attempted t o j u s t i f y h i s statement  1 1 1 1. 1  miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s t o a s k i n g f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n of statements from students - i n s i n u a t e d students b e l i e v e d one a u t h o r i t y to be i n f a l l i b l e s i n c e he quoted one a u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t the other - asked students to s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s p o i n t , then acted as moderator while students had v i g o r o u s d i s c u s s i o n 1  1 1 1  1  112  APPENDIX B MAJOR A R E A : SUB-AREA: I..  REACTIONS  A. B.  (CONT'D)  TEACHING METHODS THE DISCUSSION METHOD  TO AUDIENCE PARTICIPATION  CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE  d i s c r e t e r e a c t i o n s to student b u t i o n s (cont'd) g)  CLASS  (CONT'D)  INEFFECTIVE  contri-  miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to asking f o r j u s t i f i c a t i o n of statements from students (cont'd) - asked where students got i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g i n f l u e n c e of environment on development o f p r o s t i t u t e  1  TOTAL  9  1+2-  113  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA:  A.  SUB-AREA : ' B. II".  TEACHING METHODS THE DISCUSSION METHOD  CONTROL OP OPPORTUNITIES FOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  promotion of d i s c u s s i o n and q u e s t i o n s (from c l a s s ) a) b) c) d) e)  promoted, c r e a t e d , made use o f d i s cussion or class p a r t i c i p a t i o n l encourages and provokes q u e s t i o n s from the c l a s s encourages debates a t i m p o r t a n t points i n lecture f a i l e d t o promote d i s c u s s i o n o r questions miscellaneous references t o l e c t u r e r promoting q u e s t i o n s and d i s c u s s i o n - c a l l s f o r impromptu d i s c u s s i o n a f t e r each new t o p i c - asked f o r student o p i n i o n s on c o n t r o versial material - i n v i t e s d i s c u s s i o n by asking f o r general d e f i n i t i o n s of a b s t r a c t ideas - handles m a t e r i a l as i f i t were important enough-:.to s u s t a i n c o n t r o versy - d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of points r a i s e d , f o l l o w i n g a general survey  Lecturer i n i t i a t e d questions to c l a s s ) a) b)  9 2 2  1 1 1 1 1  30  CLASS TOTAL 2.  k  (directed  asked whole c l a s s q u e s t i o n s miscellaneous references to s p e c i f i c r e c i p i e n t s of l e c t u r e r ' s q u e s t i o n s - c a l l e d on s t u d e n t by name - f r e q u e n t and unexpected q u e s t i o n i n g of s t u d e n t by name - d i r e c t s questions t o student w i t h s p e c i a l knowledge  1 1 1 1  111+  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA: II.  A. B.  TEACHING METHODS THE DISCUSSION METHOD  CONTROL OP OPPORTUNITLESFOR STUDENT PARTICIPATION (CONT'D)  CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE  Lecturer I n i t i a t e d questions to c l a s s ) (cont'd) b)  c)  (directed  miscellaneous references t o s p e c i f i c r e c i p i e n t s of l e c t u r e r ' s q u e s t i o n s (cont'dO' - c a l l e d o u t s e a t number and demanded answer - c a l l e d r e p e a t e d l y on s t u d e n t s who never had t h e i r assignments f i n i s h e d m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o k i n d s of questions d i r e c t e d to students - asked q u e s t i o n s l e a d i n g t o d i s c u s s i o n - d i r e c t questions - leading questions - r h e t o r i c a l questions  CLASS TOTAL SUB-AREA: TOTAL  INEFFECTIVE  1 1 1 1 1 1  8  3  58  60  115  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR A2EA: • A. SUB-AREA:  C.  TEACHING METHODS THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Relevancy o f c o n t e n t a) b) c)  i r r e l e v a n t , u n r e l a t e d , outdated, unimportant m a t e r i a l avoided i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o content relevance - paraded own views - i n a p p r o p r i a t e s t o r i e s about m e n t a l illness - overemphasized sex - t o o much time o n background m a t e r i a l  16  1 1 1  CLASS TOTAL 2.  20  Use of i l l u s t r a t i o n s and examples  a) b) c) d)  used c o n c r e t e examples made use o f examples and i l l u s t r a t i o n s made no use o f examples and i l l u s trations m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s and examples - used poor examples - used examples from t e x t unknown t o students - exaggerated examples - too much time spent i l l u s t r a t i n g  CLASS TOTAL 3.  Use of a n e c d o t e s — u s e experiences a) b)  10  5  1 1 1  15  of personal  made g e n e r a l use o f anecdotes o r personal experiences used p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s r e l a t e d to lecture material  7 6  116  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MA JOE AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. C.  TEACHING METHODS THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D)  CLASS 3.  EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE  Use of a n e c d o t e s — u s e of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s (cont'd) c) d)  used anecdotes r e p e a t e d l y m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use of anecdotes and p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s - r e l a t e s amusing i n c i d e n t s - s t o r i e s seemed t o have no ending - e x p e r i e n c e s were u n r e l a t e d t o t o p i c - d i s c u s s e d own c o l l e g e years i n d e t a i l  CLASS TOTAL li.  3 1  1 1 1  lk  6  3 3 1  1  Use o f w i t and humour a) b) c) d)  used humour t o e s t a b l i s h p o i n t used j o k e s , element o f humour pokes f u n a t m a t e r i a l m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s as to use of w i t and humour - no sense o f humour - used " unhumourous" joke t o e s t a b l i s h point - used i r o n i c humour - used c o l l e g e l e v e l humour  1  ;  CLASS TOTAL 5.  1 1  9  Lecturer biases a) b)  indicated biases p r e s e n t a t i o n unbiased  5 2  1  3  117  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. C.  TEACHING METHODS  THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D)  CLASS 5.  EFFECTIVE  Lecturer biases c)  (cont'd)-  miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to l e c t u r e r bias - allowed b i a s t o i n f l u e n c e allotment of c l a s s time - taught debatable subject i n onesided manner  CLASS TOTAL 6.  INEFFECTIVE  1 1  7  2  Use o f side issues growing out of course  '"'a) b)  relevant, Interesting issues miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s t o side issues - compared c o n d i t i o n s i n other p a r t s of world w i t h those i n Canada - concerned about i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i f e i n our s o c i e t y - discussed current p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n - d i s c u s s e d Suez C r i s e s  1 1 1 1  7  0  emphasized simple m a t e r i a l textbook m a t e r i a l used, given no f u r t h e r treatment miscellaneous references to attempts to d e a l with m a t e r i a l i n a frank, honest manner - e x p l a i n e d d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by experimenter i n d i s c o v e r i n g drug 1  2  CLASS TOTAL 7.  3  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s to s e l e c t i o n and emphasis o f subject m a t e r i a l a) b) c)  2  118  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. C.  TEACHING METHODS THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D)  CLASS 7.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o s e l e c t i o n and emphasis of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l (cont'd) c) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o attempts to d e a l w i t h m a t e r i a l i n a f r a n k , honest manner (cont'd) - reviewed problems - i n p r o f e s s i o n a l work stemming from the course material - a d m i t t e d f o r c e of s t u d e n t ' s o b j e c t i o n , rephrased - made p o i n t of m e n t i o n i n g p o i n t a d m i t t e d d i d n ' t know l a s t day - asked s t u d e n t t o accept h i s concept s i n c e i t was the most u s e f u l f o r c l a s s ' s purpose - made use of c l a s s r o o m s i t u a t i o n . t o demonstrate t a c t t o s t u d e n t s - d i d not pad m a t e r i a l - d i s c u s s e d d i f f i c u l t i e s t e a c h i n g course d) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o s e l e c t i o n and emphasis of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l - detailed explanation of point i n . grammar - proves one o v e r i n f i n i t y doesn't e q u a l two by u s i n g i t t o prove t h a t one e q u a l s two • - f i l l e d out poor speech w i t h s o l i d information - changed symbols I n course o f s i n g l e proof e) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use of " f a v o u r i t e m a t e r i a l " as c o n t e n t ' — r e a d m a t e r i a l prepared when he was a student ,T d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e time on f a v o u r i t e material - gave d e t a i l s of own r e s e a r c h - harps on own s p e c i a l i t y  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1  119  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. C.  TEACHING METHODS THE SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL (CONT'D)  CIASS 7.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o s e l e c t i o n and emphasis of subject m a t e r i a l f) g) -  miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s t o use of factual material used f a c t s t o show d e r i v a t i o n of theory showed where opinions made poor use o f the f a c t s supported statements by i n s u f f i c i e n t facts miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to use o f textbook c r i t i c i z e d t e x t , yet held class responsible s e l e c t e d t h e best textbook  1 1 1  1  1  CLASS TOTAL SUB-AREA TOTAL  69  kl  120 B (CONT'D)  APPENDIX MAJOR  AREA:  SUB-AREA:  A.  D.  TEACHING METHODS  SPECIAL METHODS  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  A v a i l a b i l i t y f o r extra a) b) c)  consultation  stays a f t e r hours t o d i s c u s s p o i n t s , gives extra sessions requests p r i v a t e i n t e r v i e w , gives p r i v a t e advice outside classroom r e f u s e d a d d i t i o n a l h e l p , seldom s t a y s a f t e r hours  CLASS TOTAL 2.  Taunting, b u l l y i n g , r i d i c u l i n g , t i n g students a) b)  6 k 2  10  2  humilia-  made a g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e o f t a u n t i n g , bullying, ridiculing, humiliating .students m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o u s e of taunting, b u l l y i n g , r i d i c u l i n g , h u m i l i a t i n g students - takes s h y e s t s t u d e n t t o f r o n t o f room and t o r t u r e s them l i k e k i d w i t h bug on end of p i n - used name o f s t u d e n t t o make remarks about h i s poor showing, s t u d e n t wasn't present - r e f e r r e d t o s t u d e n t s by name I n o r d e r to embarrass them - s i n g l i n g o u t one s t u d e n t f o r u n f a i r c r i t i c i s m i n f r o n t of whole c l a s s - c a l l e d s t u d e n t t o f r o n t of c l a s s and demanded r e a s o n f o r l a t e n e s s - spoke h a r s h l y t o a s s i s t a n t i n t h a t he was u n a b l e t o comment on exam papers just referred to - presumed t o amuse c l a s s by making f u n of c l a s s member  CLASS TOTAL  INEFFECTIVE  k  1 1 1 1 1 1 1  0  11  121  APPENDIX B ('CONT'D) MA JO® AREA: SUB-AREA:  D.  A.  TEACHING METHODS  SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D)  CLASS 3-  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Personal i n t e r e s t I n students a) b) c)  i n d u l g e d i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s (showed discrimination) seemed g e n u i n e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n students miscellaneous references t o l e c t u r e r ' s personal i n t e r e s t i n students - gave encouragement - made e f f o r t t o know e a c h s t u d e n t separately - c a l l e d student b y name - l a c k of i n t e r e s t f o r s t u d e n t ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n w i t h student f e l t was of g e n e r a l I n t e r e s t  2 '1 1 1 1  $  CLASS TOTAL k.  3  k  Use o f sarcasm a) b)  made g e n e r a l use of sarcasm m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use o f sarcasm - no sarcasm o r i r o n y  CLASS TOTAL 5.  Regard f o r s t u d e n t a)  £ 1  1  5  ability  i n s i n u a t e s s t u d e n t s s t u p i d or t r e a t s s t u d e n t s as i f s t u p i d  k  122  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  D.  A." TEACHING METHODS SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D)  CLASS 5.  EFFECTIVE  Regard f o r s t u d e n t b)  ability  miscellaneous references t o regard f o r student's a b i l i t y - r e g a r d s s t u d e n t s a s mature, i n t e l l i g e n t i n d i v i d u a l s , not Dick and Jane  CLASS TOTAL 6.  INEFFECTIVE  1  1  k  Rearrangement o f c l a s s members  a) b)  r e a r r a n g e d c l a s s i n t o s m a l l groups miscellaneous references t o class rearrangements - arranged students i n c i r c l e and p r e s e n t paper which was d i s c u s s e d by t h e group - a s s i g n e d seminars on c e r t a i n days i n p l a c e o f u s u a l essay  CLASS TOTAL 7. a) b)  2  1 1  ij.  0  Stimulates thinking l e a v e s c l a s s w i t h s t i m u l a t i n g thought miscellaneous references to stimulati n g thought - doesn't  CLASS TOTAL  2  encourage c l a s s t o t h i n k  1  2  1  123  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: TEACHING METHODS w  SUB-AREA:  CLASS 8.  D.  SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D)  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i a l methods a)  m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use of s p e c i a l methods - asked e a c h s t u d e n t to use t h e word " c l a s s i c " i n sentence, d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w e d . a n d meaning was f u r t h e r narrowed such t h a t h e r use o f word clarified 1 - appointment o f another c l a s s member to read a r e p o r t t o be d e l i v e r e d by c l a s s member, and t o c r i t i c i z e i t when d e l i v e r e d 1 - o r g a n i z e d d e b a t i n g team t o d e a l w i t h t o p i c d u r i n g one l e c t u r e p e r i o d 1 - student asked t o prepare and p r e s e n t f o r m a l argument - r e f u t e d by lecturer 1 - a p p o i n t s group t o conduct p a r t o f class 1 - s t u d e n t board work 1 - l e c t u r e r asked each s t u d e n t t o w r i t e one answer on the board which were gone t h r o u g h i n t u r n 1 - l e c t u r e r hunted up s l i d e s t u d e n t using, discovered a r t i f a c t therein, a d j u s t e d mark 1 - l e c t u r e r had s t u d e n t p r e s e n t papers and debate them 1 - each c l a s s member a s s i g n e d t o p i c t o d i s c u s s on c h a r a c t e r i n p l a y , o r structure, etc. 1 - l e c t u r e r asked c l a s s f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m s of course and i t s c o n t e n t and accepted s u g g e s t i o n s 1 - g r e e t s c l a s s w i t h s m i l e and "good morning", and ends by t h a n k i n g them for t h e i r attentions 1 - introduced controversial points 1 - l e c t u r e r r e q u i r e d s t u d e n t s t o read aloud  1  12k  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS 8.  TEACHING METHODS D.  SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D)  EFFECTIVE  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i a l methods (cont'd) b) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use of p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e and problem s o l v i n g - a i d s i n o r g a n i z i n g t h i n k i n g ; shows i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t s who p u t g r e a t e r e f f o r t i n t o course 1 - l e c t u r e r asked s t u d e n t t o do problems i n c l a s s on t h e i r own 1 - a s s i g n e d l a r g e amount o f r e s e a r c h work to the s t u d e n t s , c l a s s time used t o have s t u d e n t s r e p o r t f i n d i n g s - d i f f i c u l t p o i n t s I n computation l e f t to student as an e x e r c i s e - l e c t u r e r asked s t u d e n t s t o l o o k up and f i n i s h theorem had been d i s c u s s i n g i n a g e n e r a l way i n c l a s s c) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r methods f o r prompting s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with students - l e c t u r e r arranged a p a r t y and p u r e l y recreational f i e l d t r i p 1 - formed a c l u b 1 - students i n v i t e d f o r dinner 1  INEFFECTIVE  1 1  CLASS TOTAL  18  k  SUB-AREA TOTAL  kl  31  125  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA:  A.  SUB-AREA: -"E.  CLASS 1.  TEACHING METHODS AUDIO-VISUAL  TECHNIQUES  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Use o f the b l a c k b o a r d a) b) c) d) e) f) g)  wrote i n d i s t i n c t l y on b l a c k b o a r d (poor q u a l i t y , s c r i b b l e d ) wrote summary o f t o p i c s f o r l e c t u r e , c h a r t e d out where g o i n g i n l e c t u r e wrote new o r u n u s u a l terms on blackboard drew diagrams on b l a c k b o a r d spent l o n g time w r i t i n g on b l a c k b o a r d wrote i n a random f a s h i o n on b l a c k board m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use o f blackboard - asked s t u d e n t t o put p r e v i o u s l y prepared problem on the board - p r e s e n t a t i o n of g r e a t e r p o r t i o n of l e c t u r e on t h e b l a c k b o a r d - augmented board work w i t h s u f f i c i e n t a d d i t i o n a l w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l t o make m a t e r i a l comprehensible - used b l a c k b o a r d f o r p u t t i n g down e q u a t i o n s , augmenting v e r b a l description - used b l a c k b o a r d t o s t r e s s p o i n t s - used b l a c k b o a r d t o d e f i n e terms and d e r i v e f o r m u l a - drew p u r p o s e f u l l y i n c o r r e c t d i a g r a m on board, asked s t u d e n t s t o c o r r e c t - accompanies b l a c k b o a r d work w i t h verbal description - wrote p l a n of l a b on board and added to i t d u r i n g the l e c t u r e - d i d n ' t w r i t e on b l a c k b o a r d - erased e q u a t i o n s b e f o r e s t u d e n t s can copy - doesn't make u s e o f board t o e x p l a i n difficult material  CLASS TOTAL  7 6 3 2  2 2  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  18  16  126  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR  AREA:  SUB-AREA:  A.  E.  TEACHING METHODS  AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES (CONT'D)  CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE  Use o f s l i d e s a) b) c)  augments d i s c u s s i o n , i l l u s t r a t e s p o i n t s with slides made use of s l i d e s m i s c e l l a n e o u s use o f s l i d e s - photographed textbook and showed on slides - f i l l e d i n g r e a t many l e c t u r e s w i t h slides - a l l l e c t u r e time taken up w i t h  CLASS TOTAL 3.  1 1 1  10  3  Use o f maps and c h a r t s a) b)  used l a r g e maps m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o use of maps and c h a r t s - used c h a r t w h i c h c o u l d n ' t be seen from the t h i r d row  CLASS TOTAL k.  5 5  2  1  2  1  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o use o f a u d i o v i s u a l techniques a) b) c)  made use o f motion p i c t u r e s made use o f p i c t o r a l m a t e r i a l made u s e o f r e c o r d i n g s  6  5 5  CLASS TOTAL  16  0  SUB-A1EA TOTAL  46  20  127 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOB AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. P.  TEACHING METHODS  MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Discrete references t o maintaining d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l a)  miscellaneous references t o the h a n d l i n g o f s t u d e n t induced d i s t r a c t i o n s - asked s t u d e n t n o t t o smoke i n a quiet voice i - asked student t o l e a v e i n p o l i t e , firm fashion 1 - handled a t t e n t i o n g e t t i n g remarks with patience but firmness 1 - asked g a r r o l o u s s t u d e n t i f he would l i k e t o complete the l e c t u r e 1 - removed f a i n t e d s t u d e n t from exam quickly 1 - never a l l o w p s e u d o - i n t e l l e c t u a l s to dominate 1 - a l l o w s s t u d e n t t o harangue o n t o p i c unrelated b) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e h a n d l i n g of l a t e a r r i v a l s - i n s i s t s on p u n c t u a l i t y i n a t t e n d a n c e , handing i n work, e t c . 1 - r e f u s e d t o admit l a t e s t u d e n t 1 - threw s t u d e n t out f o r coming l a t e 1 - frequent ordering out of l a t e students - u p b r a i d s c l a s s o f 200 f o r l a t e n e s s of S% c) m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o the maint a i n i n g o f d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l - discourages e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r activity 1 - demonstrated no d i s c i p l i n e - arranged i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r - u n j u s t l e v y i n g of d e m e r i t s f o r untidy lab tables -- demanded s t u d e n t s w a i t a f t e r b e l l t  1  1  1  1 1 1 1  12'8  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  P.  A.  TEACHING METHODS MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL (CONT'D)  CLASS li  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s to m a i n t a i n i n g d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l (cont'd) d)  e)  f)  g)  miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to c o n t r o l l i n g noise - walked out a f t e r reprimanding student f o r noise and g e t t i n g no r e s u l t - turned o f f "hood" i n chemistry - stated anyone wishing to t a l k would be asked to leave miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to standards of work expected - used t h r e a t s at beginning of term concerning q u a l i t y of work expected - demands s p e c i f i c standard - informed c l a s s they had to work harder, set up own school performance as standard - condemned c l a s s f o r sloppy work miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to attendance - stated d i d n ' t care i f came or not, wouldn't take attendance - takes attendance - announced the r a t i o of attendance to non-attendance would determine the number of passes and f a i l u r e s miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to c h a r i t y collections - r e j e c t e d r i g h t to i n t e r f e r e i n c l a s s room to make c o l l e c t i o n s i n c e d i d n o t have a u t h o r i t y from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - r e f u s e d to a l l o w student campaigners for charity  SUB-AREA: TOTAL  1 1  1 1 1 1  18  11  1 2 9  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR A'REA: SUB-AREA:  A. TEACHING METHODS  G.  STUDENT APPRAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES)  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Examinations a) b)  c)  d)  e)  s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n o f student f o r  exams  miscellaneous references to kind of q u i z e s and t e s t s - i n d i v i d u a l exams t o p o i n t out areas o f d i f f i c u l t y i n each student - gave t e s t a t end o f each month - i n t e r m i t t e n t review questions - g e n e r a l q u i z on t o p i c s t o be discussed miscellaneous references to handling exam r e s u l t s - rank ordered r e s u l t s - p o s t e d r e s u l t s w i t h i n week - read out r e s u l t s by name m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s to l e c t u r e r e x p e c t a t i o n s on exams - r e q u i r e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g r a t h e r than memory - asked q u e s t i o n s on which the l e a s t amount o f time had been spent - expects v e r b a t i m notes back on exams m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o marking - e x p l a i n e d each e r r o r t o I n d i v i d u a l students - marked w i t h p e r s o n a l comment  CLASS TOTAL 2.  Assignments a) b)  gave l i s t o f work ahead o f time miscellaneous references t o the h a n d l i n g o f essays - asks f o r s m a l l essays r a t h e r t h a n term essays  1  2  1 1 1 1 1 1  1  1 1 1 1 1  1 0  $  130  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAD! A UCA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS 2.  c)  G.  TEACHING METHODS STUDENT APP:HAISAL METHODS (LECTURE ASSIGNMENTS, EXAMS, QUIZES)  EFFECTIVE  Assignments b)  A.  (cont'd)  miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to t h e handling of essays (cont'd) - approves student essay t o p i c b e f o r e written - essays handed <mt i n c l a s s time, then went on with r e g u l a r work - emphasis on layout r a t h e r than content - gave poor mark f o r essay t h a t d i s a g r e e d with l e c t u r e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , but agreed w i t h t h e author - announced ad hoc the value of an essay - rewrote essay t o conform to own wording m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o term a s s i g n ments - assigned areas r e l a t e d t o work under discussion - demands cover a l l o t e d reading - demanded long grammar e x e r c i s e s  CLASS TOTAL SUB-A1EA TOTAL AREA TOTAL  INEFFECTIVE  1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1  1  6  6  16  11  k06  351  131  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  B.  A.  PERSONALITY TRAITS TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC, AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE INEFFECTIVE  I n t e r e s t and e n t h u s i a s m f o r s u b j e c t a) b)  13  i n t e r e s t e d and e n t h u s i a s t i c seemed d i s i n t e r e s t e d , b o r e d ; lacks spontaneity  13  CLASS TOTAL 2.  13  13  2  7 8  P o s i t i o n i n f r o n t of the c l a s s  a) b)  p a c i n g ; moving about does not f a c e c l a s s  _^  CLASS TOTAL 3.  Punctuality a) b) c)  2 (arriving at, leaving  class)  arrives late to lecture explains or apologizes f o r lateness l e a v e s c l a s s immediately a t b e l l  CLASS TOTAL k. a) b) c)  1$  3  8 2  3  10  1  3 1  H a b i t s and mannerisms laughing, chuckling at subject material smoking miscellaneous references to lecturer's mannerisms - annoying h a b i t s ( p a c i n g , f l i c k i n g notes, c l e a r i n g throat)  1  132  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MA JOE AREA: SUB-AREA:  B.  A.  PERSONALITY TRAITS TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC, AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS (CONT'D)  CLASS k.  EFFECTIVE  H a b i t s and mannerisms c)  (cont'd)  miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s mannerisms (cont'd) - s t r e t c h e d and yawns - obnoxious remarks - read p a p e r b e f o r e c l a s s - p u l l e d a t h a i r on l e g  CLASS TOTAL 5.  INEFFECTIVE  1 1 1 1  1  9  5  3 2  Conceding p e r s o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s a)  admitted u n c e r t a i n of a p o i n t , o r l a c k of p r e p a r a t i o n p l a g i a r i z e s student's c r i t i q u e s p o i n t e d out d i f f i c u l t i e s e x p e r i e n c i n g w i t h d i f f i c u l t p o r t i o n o f t h e work  b) c)  1  CLASS TOTAL 6.  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s  a) b) c) d) e)  f o r c e f u l , a u t h o r i t a r i a n , dominant k f r i e n d l y , charming, p l e a s a n t ljdogmatic s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , nervous m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s - c o l o u r e d and laughed a t ambiguous statement 1 - patient 1 - devoted t o r e s e a r c h 1 - s i n c e r i t y of tone 1  1 3 2  133  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS  6.  B.  A.  PERSONALITY TRAITS  TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC, AND . MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS (CONT'D)  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s (cont'd) e)  f)  g)  h)  i)  m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s '(cont' d) - l a c k of p e r s o n a l e g o t i s m - no i m a g i n a t i o n - s t e r n , s u l k y , s t i f f demeanor miscellaneous references t o l e c t u r e r ' s concern f o r s t u d e n t ' s f e e l i n g s - f o l l o w e d s t u d e n t ' s s u g g e s t i o n conc e r n i n g how t o p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l - asked i f s p e a k i n g l o u d enough - knows how s t u d e n t f e e l s about course - sensed c l a s s a t t i t u d e , stopped and e x p l a i n e d - keeps s t u d e n t ' s needs i n o t h e r course i n mind m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s to t h e personal expression of l e c t u r e r ' s opinions - expressed o p i n i o n o n l y a f t e r c l a s s o p i n i o n tapped by v o t e - committed h i m s e l f t o s p e c i f i c o p i n i o n - used s t r o n g o p i n i o n s - t o l d c l a s s h i s o p i n i o n was the o n l y one t h a t counted miscellaneous references t o l e c t u r e r ' s appearance - neat - female l e c t u r e r wearing e x c e s s i v e make-up, l o u d c l o t h i n g miscellaneous references t o l e c t u r e r ' s a t t i t u d e towards inadequate f a c i l i t i e s - condemns l i b r a r y system here - t e l l s students t o "make out w i t h what they have"  1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1  1 1  1 1  1 1 1 1  134  APPENDLX B (CONT'D) MA JO®  AREA:  B.  SUB-AREA:- A.  CLASS 6,  PERS ON AL ITY TRAITS TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS (CONT'D)  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  D i s c r e t e r e f e r e n c e s t o temperamental, dynamic and m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s (cont'd) j)  miscellaneous references to l e c t u r e r ' s prejudices - lack of prejudices i a l l o w e d f r e e indulgence of h i s prejudices  1 1  CLASS TOTAL  22  14  SUB-AREA TOTAL  47  66  135 APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  B.  B".  PERSONALITY TRAITS ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  A b i l i t y t o answer q u e s t i o n s a) b) c)  d)  unable t o answer q u e s t i o n s ; u n s a t i s f a c t o r y answers answers q u e s t i o n s w i t h o u t l o s i n g the t h r e a d o f the l e c t u r e m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o manner of answering q u e s t i o n s - with a l a c r i t y - briefly - i ngeneralities - discriminating reply - longwinded - many f a l s e s t a r t s - f a i l s t o understand s t u d e n t ' s p o i n t of view - confused when q u e s t i o n e d miscellaneous references t o s p e c i f i c abilities - l e c t u r e r l i k e d p u b l i c speaker - was a b l e t o command s t u d e n t attention - had a b i l i t y t o make student l i k e him as a p e r s o n - i n a b i l i t y t o put over joke  CLASS TOTAL 2.  5 2 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1  9  Knowledge o f s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l a) b)  f a m i l i a r with subject material unfamiliar with subject material; lack of information  CLASS TOTAL  1 1  9  1  10  136  APPENDIX B (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  B. B.  PERSONALITY TRAITS  ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS (CONT'D)  CLASS 3.  EFFECTIVE  INEFFECTIVE  Preparedness a) b)  w e l l p r e p a r e d ( a p p a r a t u s ; t o del i v e r lecture) unprepared, p o o r l y p r e p a r e d  9  $  9  5  SUB-AREA TOTAL  27  20  AREA TOTAL  71+  86  CLASS TOTAL  PINAL TOTAL  k80  1+37  APPENDIX  C  CRITICAL BEHAVIORS BY FREQUENCY UNDER EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA: CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  A. A.  EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY MOTIVATIONAL STATE  TOTAL  Aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom a) b) c) d) e) f) S) h) I) J) k)  used a u d i o - v i s u a l techniques, c l a s s demonstrations 15 made use o f and/or provoked 10 student c o n t r i b u t i o n s r e f e r r e d to, o r made use of 'outside' i s s u e s o r m a t e r i a l 7 used anecdotes, w i t , humour 7 appeared i n t e r e s t e d i n the s u b j e c t 5 conducted t o u r s , on or o f f campus 2 good knowledge of m a t e r i a l 2 sensed c l a s s ' s a t t i t u d e 2 spoke i n a c l e a r v o i c e 2 r e l a t e d personal experi ences 2 miscellaneous - moved c l a s s to o f f i c e - set time a s i d e every two weeks t o d i s c u s s p r e v i o u s two weeks m a t e r i a l gave word of advice o u t s i d e c l a s s assigned areas to student which were r e l a t e d to t o p i c under discussion d i g r e s s e d on p o i n t s of g e n e r a l intere st  CLASS 1.  a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s of boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, t e d i o u s ; students l o s t I n t e r e s t spoke In a monotone 7 read m a t e r i a l d i r e c t l y from notes or t e x t 6 showed a l a c k of I n t e r e s t or effort 5 arrived late consistently 3 over-emphasized the obvious 3 v o i c e i n a u d i b l e , u n c l e a r , low 2 answered student s a r c a s t i c a l l y 2 disorderly presentation 2 irrelevant digressions 2 miscellaneous - overworked word "important" - Indulged student's i r r e l e v a n t questions - repeats most of previous l e c t u r e as background f o r l e c t u r e - presents m a t e r i a l p o i n t by p o i n t - uses phrases such as; "a simple d e r i v a t i v e ; a naive i n t e r p r e tation" - used bad grammar  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CRITICAL BEHAVIORS BY FREQUENCY UNDER EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION)  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  MAJOR AREA:  A.  EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY  SUB-AREA:  A.  MOTIVATIONAL STATE (CONT'D)  TOTAL  Aroused i n t e r e s t , enthusiasm, a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom (cont'd) k) m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - l e c t u r e d , v e r y r a p i d l y from b e g i n n i n g of hour - avoided i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l - proved one o v e r i n f i n i t y doesnt e q u a l z e r o by u s i n g i t t o prove t h a t one e q u a l s two - read passage w i t h s i n c e r i t y and emotion - l e c t u r e notes r e g u l a r l y s u p p l e mented w i t h good i l l u s t r a t i o n s - s p o n t a n e o u s l y and i n t e r e s t i n g l y phrased - s e t procedure f o r d e a l i n g w i t h controversial m a t e r i a l - gives f a c t s , case f o r each s i d e , q u e s t i o n period, opinions discussed - keeps l e c t u r e f r e s h and a l i v e - a b i l i t y to answer a l l q u e s t i o n s without d e v i a t i n g from l e c t u r e content - asked g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s ( s m a l l class) - asked r h e t o r i c a l q u e s t i o n s ( l a r g e class)  CLASS 1.  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s o f boredom; was d u l l , monotonous, t e d i o u s ; s t u d e n t s l o s t i n t e r e s t (cont'd) j ) m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - l a c k of e f f o r t t o make a d u l l course more i n t e r e s t i n g . - repeatedly derided students - l a c k s s p o n t a n e i t y and d r i v e - spent f o r t y minutes espounding on areas u n r e l a t e d t o demonstrat i o n set-up - d i d not l o o k at the c l a s s - dropped n o t e s on f l o o r ; c l a s s w a i t e d u n t i l a l l p i c k e d up - t o l d students t h a t they shouldn't have t o be c a t e r e d t o w i t h p r e t t i e d up m a t e r i a l , and r e c i t e d dogmatic m a t e r i a l f r o m the t e x t - paced back and f o r t h - no sense of humour - photographed the t e x t book and showed on s l i d e s - annoying h a b i t s ( p a c i n g , f l i c k i n g pages of n o t e s , c o n t i n u a l l y c l e a r i n g throat) - wrote p o u r i n g out of m a t e r i a l day a f t e r monotonous day Lo CO  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) CRITICAL BEHAVIORS BY FREQUENCY UNDER EACH CLASS (RESULT CLASSIFICATION) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  A.  EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY  A. ' MOTIVATIONAL STATE (CONT'D)  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Aroused i n t e r e s t , e n t h u s i a s m , a t t e n t i o n ; r e l i e v e d boredom (cont'd) k) m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - friendly attitude. - r e l a t e s material to previous learned m a t e r i a l - f o r c e f u l , p e r s o n a l i t y , and degree o f p r e p a r a t i o n - an i n d i v i d u a l i s t  CLASS TOTAL 2.  7k  5,0.  S t i m u l a t e s , m o t i v a t e s ; provokes f u r t h e r r e a d i n g and t h i n k i n g ; f o s t e r s a d e s i r e t o work h a r d e r  a) c l o s e d l e c t u r e w i t h t h o u g h t provoking ideas; i n d i c a t e d i n t e r e s t i n g outside reading b) shows i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t queries  3  2  i—  1  Lo vO  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  S t i m u l a t e s , m o t i v a t e s ; provokes f u r t h e r r e a d i n g and t h i n k i n g ; f o s t e r s a d e s i r e t o work h a r d e r (cont'd) c)  miscellaneous - genuine p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n students - gave p r o b l e m d e m o n s t r a t i n g theory j u s t d i s c u s s e d - attempts t o l i n k the v a r i o u s phases o f the c o u r s e i n t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f the b a s i c problem - made an e f f o r t t o draw t h e class into discussion - committed h i m s e l f t o a specific opinion - answered i n g e n e r a l i t i e s , a l l o w i n g the student t o f i l l i n the d e t a i l s - r e f e r r e d t o the f a c t t h a t he was l e c t u r i n g ' o f f the c u f f , and s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s was. how w e l l t h e y s h o u l d know the subject - made u s e o f s t u d e n t board work - course was a r r a n g e d such t h a t the s t u d e n t was aware of m a t e r i a l t o be covered each day, but n o t aware who would be c a l l e d upon t o answer - purposely raced through a s e c t i o n of m a t e r i a l t h e t e x t b o o k covered particularly well  ^ o  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Stimulates, motivates; provokes f u r t h e r r e a d i n g and t h i n k i n g ' ; f o s t e r s a d e s i r e t o work h a r d e r c)  miscellaneous (cont'd) - a r r a n g e d a p a r t y and p u r e l y recreational field trip - r a n k o r d e r e d exam r e s u l t s - w e n t o u t o f h i s way t o i n f o r m t h e c l a s s t h a t he w o u l d be l a t e - u s e d s t r o n g t a l k and t h r e a t s a t the b e g i n n i n g of the term conc e r n i n g the q u a l i t y o f work expected  —  —  CLASS TOTAL  19  .  SUB-AREA TOTAL  93  . 5>  - T —  (-  1  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  A. B.  b)  GENERAL AFFECTIVE REACTIONS  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s of r e s p e c t , admira t i o n ; g e n e r a l l y made a f a v o u r a b l e impression a)  EMOTIONAL REACTIVITY  conceded o r a d m i t t e d an e r r o r , o r u n c e r t a i n of p o i n t 3 miscellaneous - manifested personal b r i l l i a n c e - friendly - p r e s e n t e d l o g i c a l , sound argument - a b i l i t y t o answer q u e r i e s w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h e t h r e a d o f the l e c t u r e - apologized p o l i t e l y f o r asking a s t u d e n t t o comment on m a t e r i a l f o r which he was unprepared - p a t i e n t w i t h student questions - dominant, d i r e c t - i n s i s t s on p u n c t u a l i t y i n a t t e n d a n c e , assignments.  CLASS 1.  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s o f resentment, irritation, dissatisfaction, disappointment, annoyance, antagonism, d i s t a s t e ; minimized "feed-back", insulting. a) b)  was dogmatic 3 squelched s t u d e n t s ' i d e a s o r discussion 2 c) . m i s c e l l a n e o u s - c o n t i n u a l r e p e t i t i v e use o f pet word - pronounced s t r i c t n e s s - c u r t mannerisms - obnoxious remarks - l e c t u r i n g below t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l of s t u d e n t s - t a k e s a t t e n d a n c e , i n s i s t s on no gum-chewing, t a l k i n g - spends more time i l l u s t r a t i n g than s t a t i n g p o i n t s - r e f e r r e d t o p s y c h o t i c s as " c r a z y " - i n s i n u a t e d student b e l i e v e d one a u t h o r i t y against the other - a r r i v e d two t o f i v e m i n u t e s l a t e each day - arranged s t u d e n t s i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order - t o l d s t u d e n t who c o m p l a i n e d t h a t he wasn't s p e a k i n g l o u d enough t o move c l o s e r  i-  1  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS .  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS 1.  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s o f r e s e n t m e n t , irritation, dissatisfaction, disappointment, annoyance, antagonism, d i s t a s t e ; minimized "feed-back", i n s u l t i n g (cont'd) c) m i s c e l l a n e o u s • ( c o n t ' d ) - announced t h a t the r a t i o of attendance t o non-attendance would determine the number o f passes and f a i l u r e s - l o o k s through n o t e s f o r e x a c t quote, unable t o f i n d i t - r e p e a t e d l y mentioned t r i p e , f i l m s seen - a l l o w e d s t u d e n t s t o harangue on unrelated topics - disagreed with students' questions w h i c h d i s a g r e e d w i t h approved I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the work under dis cussion - r i d i c u l e d student who responded to h i s r e q u e s t f o r t r a n s l a t i o n of expression - asked c l a s s i f t h e y c o u l d n ' t t a k e a joke i n response t o t h e i r n o t s h a r i n g h i s amusement - spent a l l h i s time condemning the l i b r a r y system here, and l a u d e d h i s own u n i v e r s i t y ' s system - asked c l a s s what he was g o i n g t o d i s c u s s , s i n c e he had f a i l e d t o b r i n g any m a t e r i a l -pL O  APPENDIX G (CONT'D)  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS 1.  CLASS TOTAL 2.  G e n e r a t i o n of c l a s s r o o m a) b)  INEFFECTIVE  Generated f e e l i n g s o f resentment, irritation, dissatisfaction, disappointment, annoyance, antagonism, d i s t a s t e ; minimized "feed-back", i n s u l t i n g (cont'd) c) m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - s a i d t h a t he f a i l e d t o do h i s home Tro r k - extended the l e c t u r e t e n minutes i n o r d e r t o complete a p r o o f - t o l d s t o r i e s t h a t seemed t o have no ending - emphasis on n e a r l y every word - assigned a l a r g e amount of r e s e a r c h work t o the students, and used c l a s s time t o r e p o r t the f i n d i n g s  31  11 2.  'atmosphere'  made use o f or s t i m u l a t e s student c ont r i bu t i ons miscellaneous - s t r i d e s up and down between the aiiles - undiscriminating, friendly, sincere attitude  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s o f t e n s i o n , d i s t r e s s , a n x i e t y , f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n f e a r f u l n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y lowered morale  3 a) b) c)  s a r c a s t i c , r i d i c u l e d students; hypercritical indulged i n p e r s o n a l i t i e s p o o r l y prepared  7 2 2  APPENDIX G (CONT'D)  CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  G e n e r a t i o n o f c l a s s r o o m 'atmosphere' (cont'd) b) m i s c e l l a n e o u s ( c o n t ' d ) - g r e e t s the c l a s s w i t h a s m i l e and "good morning"', ends by t h a n k i n g them f o r t h e i r a t t e n t i o n - smoked d u r i n g the l e c t u r e - e x p l a i n e d what the s u b j e c t meant to s o c i e t y , what i t w i l l mean to the s t u d e n t , why he chose the f i e l d as a p r o f e s s i o n - Introduced c o n t r o v e r s i a l points  CLASS 2.  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s of t e n s i o n , distress, anxiety, f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n f e a r f u l n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y lowered m o r a l e (cont'd) d) miscellaneous - r e f u s e d to-answer q u e s t i o n s by l o o k i n g away or b e g i n n i n g t o lecture again - overworks p a r t i c u l a r p h r a s e s - used d i f f e r e n t language t h a n text - begins l o u d l y , then decreases u n t i l barely audible - l e c t u r e s above the l e v e l of most of the s tudents - c i r c u m s c r i b e s the p o i n t -^demanded l o n g grammar e x e r c i s e s - c a l l e d s t u d e n t to the f r o n t o f the c l a s s and demanded a r e a s o n for lateness - defends the a u t h o r ' s p o i n t o f v i e w whether s e n s i b l e o r n o t - puts down the s t u d e n t ' s c r i t i c i s m — l a t e r makes the same c r i t i c i s m - elements of chauvanlsm - a f t e r a l e n g t h y d i s c o u r s e on i r r e l e v a n t i s s u e s , the c l a s s was f o r c e d t o work overtime - discusses t r i v i a - d i s c u s s e d own c o l l e g e y e a r s i n some d e t a i l - arrives late  f  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS 2.  INEFFECTIVE Generated f e e l i n g s of t e n s i o n , d i s t r e s s , anxiety, f r u s t r a t i o n , embarrassment, r e j e c t i o n f e a r f u l n e s s ; g e n e r a l l y lowered morale (cont'd)  d)  m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - f i r s t o u t of t h e c l a s s a t the end of the p e r i o d - r e p e t i t i v e l y interrupted student d e l i v e r y of assignment  CLASS TOTAL 3.  Generated f e e l i n g s of c o n f i d e n c e , a p p r e c i a t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , absence of fear a) b)  made an e x t r a e f f o r t (conducted e x t r a c l a s s e s , conducted t o u r s , gave the c a l l numbers of books) miscellaneous - mentioned n e x t day's t o p i c a t end of l e c t u r e - d i d n o t d e r i d e s t u d e n t f o r what seemed t o be a p o i n t l e s s q u e s t i o n - used h i s own f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n t o i l l u s t r a t e a lecture point  TOTAL  27 3.  Loss o f f a i t h or c o n f i d e n c e i n and respect f o r l e c t u r e r a)  miscellaneous - f r e q u e n t use o f the p h r a s e , " I think" - sarcastic - spoke h a r s h l y t o h i s a s s i s t a n t when the l a t t e r was u n a b l e t o comment on exam papers - l a u g h s a t h i s own j o k e - i n a b i l i t y t o put o v e r j o k e - u s e d tawdry humour t o poke f u n at important p r i n c i p l e 4=-  c^  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  EFFECTIVE  CLASS 3.  TOTAL  3.  Generated f e e l i n g s o f c o n f i d e n c e , a p p r e c i a t i o n , a f f e c t i o n , absence of f e a r ( c o n t ' d ) b)  TOTAL  m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - s t r e s s e d t o o much d e t a i l - l i t e r a l l y read h i s notes page b y page - passes o f f q u e s t i o n s w i t h , "I'm j u s t coming to t h a t " - returned to h i s o f f i c e i n order t o r e t r i e v e a page o f h i s n o t e s - unable t o answer a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d que s t i o n  8  Generated a sense o f achievement; generated f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l value t o student a) b)  INEFFECTIVE Loss o f f a i t h , o r c o n f i d e n c e i n and r e s p e c t f o r l e c t u r e r (cont'd)  a)  m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - ax^are o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l of class - r e v i e w e d l a s t day's l e c t u r e b e f o r e g o i n g on  CLASS TOTAL k.  CLASS  11  k.  Was a d i s r u p t i n g i n f l u e n c e ; concerting a)  used s t u d e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s miscellaneous - d i s t r i b u t e d sample exam quest i o n s s e v e r a l weeks b e f o r e t h e end o f the term, a l l o w e d a d i s c u s s i o n of them - approves essay t o p i c b e f o r e written  b)  dis-  made d e r r o g a t o r y remarks about student's i n t e l l i g e n c e c miscellaneous - essays handed out i n c l a s s t i m e , some d i s c u s s i o n o f them, t h e n went on w i t h r e g u l a r work - r e t u r n e d to h i s notes a f t e r w a l k i n g away from i n o r d e r t o ad lib - burst into uncontrollable laughter a t Dryden's w i t -P"  CLASS TOTAL  1+  5  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS 5.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s o f p l e a s u r e ; appealing a) m i s c e l l a n e o u s - used c o l l e g e l e v e l humour - used a p r u d i s h sense o f humour, relevant to lecture material - wove elements of p e r s o n a l experience i n t o l e c t u r e content - used a c l a s s member as p r i n c i p a l p i e c e of a p p a r a t u s i n a demonstration  CLASS TOTAL 6.  Helpful,  k beneficial  a) m i s c e l l a n e o u s - i n t e r - d i s p e r s e d the m a t e r i a l w i t h anecdotes - broke up the c l a s s i n t o groups, each group p r e p a r e d a d i s c u s s i o n for presentation - summarized a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the hour the m a t e r i a l proposed t o c o v e r CLASS TOTAL  3  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  APPENDIX  CLASS 7.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  C (CONT'D)  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Generated f e e l i n g s o f immediacy w i t h lecture a)  miscellaneous - read e x c e r p t s f r o m p e r i o d i c a l s - takes t i m e t o ansx^er q u e s t i o n s  CLASS TOTAL  2  Ik  SUB-AREA TOTAL AUSA TOTAL  —  13L  124  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS 1.  a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j)  k)  B. A.  EFFECTIVE  MASTERY OP SUBJECT MATERIAL LEARNING, CORRELATING, CLARIFYING, REVIEWING MATERIAL  TOTAL  F a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g material; c l a r i f i e d ; familiarized student w i t h m a t e r i a l 20 used a u d i o - v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s 8 encouraged student p a r t i c i p a t i o n 6 e x p l a n a t i o n s c o n c i s e , and d e t a i l e d paused t o r e p e a t i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s ; paced l e c t u r e k r e l a t e d d i f f i c u l t m a t e r i a l t o more s i m p l e ; drew a n a l o g i e s k r e p h r a s e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways u n t i l point established • k used humour k began w i t h broad o v e r v i e w b e f o r e 2 specific investigation gave p e r s o n a l a t t e n t i o n t o wrong 2 answers on w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l 2 r e l a t e d own e x p e r i e n c e s miscellaneous gave b r i e f summary of p r e v i o u s l e c t u r e a t b e g i n n i n g of each l e c t u r e asked student t o a c c e p t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w s i n c e l e c t u r e r b e l i e v e d most u s e f u l f o r t h e purposes o f the c l a s s gave r e f e r e n c e s gave p r a c t i c e e x e r c i s e s w e l l organized thoroughly prepared a b i l i t y t o command s t u d e n t s ' a t t e n t i o n  CLASS 1.  a) b) c) d) e) f) s)  h)  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  D e t r a c t e d from l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y uns a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o s t u d e n t ' s c o n f u s i o n provided e r r o r - r i d d e n m a t e r i a l ( b l a c k b o a r d , prepared s h e e t s ) 5> c o n s t a n t l y r e p h r a s i n g ; stammering 3 m a n i f e s t e d anger; b u l l i e d ; i n sinuated students s t u p i d 3 b l a t a n t l y suggested he was bored and/or unprepared 2 i n c l u d e d extraneous m a t e r i a l 2 used s p e c i a l i z e d o r advance terms or t e c h n i q u e s 2 wordy 2 miscellaneous - l e c t u r e d so q u i c k l y no time t o get a n y t h i n g down - b i t t e r sarcasm - c o n t i n u a l l y i n t e r r u p t e d student while t a l k i n g - i n s u f f i c i e n t l y informed; couldn't g i v e help - a r r o g a n t manner on b e i n g i n t e r r u p t e d by q u e s t i o n - answered query u n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y ; didn't substantiate h i s view i n response t o student c h a l l e n g e  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  '•TOTAL  F a c i l i t a t e d l e a r n i n g and c o r r e l a t i n g material; c l a r i f i e d ; familiarized student w i t h m a t e r i a l (cont'd) k)  miscellaneous (cont'd) - p u b l i c speaking a b i l i t y - a r r a n g e d f i e l d t r i p s and e x p e r i ments - mentioned i n t e r e s t i n g s i d e l i g h t s without d e t r a c t i n g from the s u b j e c t - t i e d i n course m a t e r i a l w i t h a c t u a l happenings i n the P r o v i n c i a l Government - b u i l t up c u r i o s i t y , and a n t i c i p a t i o n by a b l e d e s c r i p t i o n of an event - gave t e s t s at end o f each month - small essays r a t h e r than term essay - formed a c l u b - enthusiastic - demands c o v e r a l l o t e d r e a d i n g  CLASS 1.  h)  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  D e t r a c t e d f r o m l e a r n i n g ; made l e a r n i n g d i f f i c u l t ; g e n e r a l l y uns a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o s t u d e n t ' s c o n f u s i o n ( c o n t ' d ) m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - c r i t i c i z e d text mercilessly, yet h e l d c l a s s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i t ; own p o i n t of v i e w o f t e n c o n f l i c t e d t h e r e with - gave no chance t o a s k q u e s t i o n s ; none o f m a t e r i a l i n t e x t - goes o f f on tangent from o r i g i n a l topic - began t o speak b e f o r e c l a s s was silent - wrote p l a n of l a b . on b o a r d and added t o i t d u r i n g the l e c t u r e - f a i l e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h when one t o p i c f i n i s h e d and new one begun - read t e x t w i t h mediocre a c c e n t and delivery - response t o q u e s t i o n was, "Uh" and a smile - summarized work, r a t h e r t h a n d e a l i n g w i t h s p e c i f i c problems - spoke i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s (example) - gave d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n a t r a p i d pace f o r f?0 minutes - d i f f i c u l t points i n computation l e f t t o s t u d e n t s as an e x e r c i s e - refused a d d i t i o n a l help f o r students making u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p r o g r e s s accordi n g t o t h e i r own s t a n d a r d s  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS 1.  h)  CLASS TOTAL 2.  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  D e t r a c t e d from l e a r n i n g ; made learning d i f f i c u l t ; generally u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ; made no c o n t r i b u t i o n ; added t o s t u d e n t ' s c o n f u s i o n ( c o n t ' d ) m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - f i l l e d i n many l e c t u r e s w i t h s l i d e s - gave poor mark f o r work t h a t d i s agrees w i t h l e c t u r e r s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - read notes and wrote on b l a c k b o a r d w i t h back t o c l a s s - gave d e t a i l s o f own r e s e a r c h - t a l k s and w r i t e s t o o q u i c k l y - t a k e s f o r g r a n t e d s t u d e n t remembers a l l work of p r e v i o u s y e a r s - used advanced t e c h n i q u e s t o f a c i l i t a t e s o l u t i o n of problem - emphasis on l a y o u t r a t h e r t h a n on c o n t e n t o f term essays £6  73  F a c i l i t a t e d reviewing m a t e r i a l a)  miscellaneous - gave b r i e f summary o f term work a t c o m p l e t i o n of s e c t i o n - follows prescribed text  CLASS TOTAL SUB-AREA TOTAL  —  2 75  —  —  —  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA:  B.  MASTERY OP SUBJECT MATERIAL  SUB-AREA:  CLASS • 1.  »  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  F a c i l i t a t e d gaining perspective, seeing m a t e r i a l from d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view a) b) c)  demonstrated h i s b i a s e s , p o i n t s out o t h e r p o i n t s of view 2 i n v i t e d guest l e c t u r e r 2 miscellaneous - reviewed problems d e a l i n g w i t h p r o f e s s i o n a l work stemming f r o m the c o u r s e - attempts t o i n t e g r a t e m a t e r i a l w i t h other r e l e v a n t courses - h a b i t u a l reference to m a t e r i a l of p r e v i o u s l e c t u r e b e f o r e beginning - d i r e c t s questions to students w i t h s p e c i a l knowledge (knows i n t e r e s t of each s t u d e n t ) - discourages e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r activity - p l a c e s o u t l i n e o f l e c t u r e on the board - pokes f u n a t " f r i g h t e n i n g m a t e r i a l "  CLASS TOTAL  11  B.  ORIE NTATION  CLASS 1.  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  S t u d e n t s unsure o f what t o be c o v e r e d a)  Miscellaneous - does not f o l l o w g i v e n  outline  1  APPENDIX'B CLASS 2.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  (CONT'D)  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  F a c i l i t a t e d pre-reading, or planning time to be spent on the course a)  d i s t r i b u t e d l i s t s of provided topics f o r entire course; outlines the entire course at beginning of term 8  CLASS TOTAL  8  .  —  -  —  —  SUB-ABEA TOTAL  19  1  AREA TOTAL  9k  47  Vn. -F=-  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) .. MAJORAREA: SUB -AREA:  EFFECTIVE  CLASS 1.  Maintained a)  b) c) d)  good classroom  A.  TEACHING ME THODS  .PRESENTATION OP MATERIAL  TOTAL  CLASS 1.  control  a) b)  handled a t t e n t i o n - g e t t i n g student with firmness p o l i t e l y , but f i r m l y r e f u s e d c h a r i t y c o l l e c t i o n s during lecture r e f u s e d t o admit or threw out l a t e comers miscellaneous - asked student to stop smoking q u i e t l y - d i d n ' t i n t e r r u p t the lecture - turned o f f " hood"' i n chemistry - removed a f a i n t i n g student from the examination - apologized f o r lateness - asked student t o leave the room f i r m l y but p o l i t e l y - walked out a f t e r g e t t i n g no r e s u l t s from reprimanding students because of n o i s e ;  CLASS TOTAL  C.  12  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Distracting moved about while l e c t u r i n g miscellaneous - i n a p p r o p r i a t e mannerisms - female wearing e x c e s s i v e make-up, loud c l o t h i n g - habit of saying "uh" every phrase o r so - presumed t o amuse c l a s s by making f u n of c l a s s member - s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and nervous - presented m a t e r i a l d r y l y - presented m a t e r i a l s t r a i g h t from book  11  vn  APPENDIX G (CONT'D)  EFFECTIVE  CLASS 2.  D i d not waste c l a s s t i m e (saved a) b) c)  TOTAL time)  a d m i t t e d l a c k o f knowledge o r preparation 2 gave t o p i c s t o be d i s c u s s e d ahead of time 2 used s l i d e s o r p r a c t i c a l demonstrations 2  CLASS TOTAL 3.  b) c)  2.  TOTAL  D i f f i c u l t to f o l l o w a) b) c)  spoke monotonously jumped ahead o r back from t o p i c miscellaneous - speaks monotonously - t o o speedy - quoted e x t e n s i v e l y from source literature - t a l k s w h i l e working a t t h e b l a c k board  3 2  6  3.  Well organized, orderly presentation; continuity of material a)  INEFFECTIVE  CLASS  wrote major t o p i c s t o be covered on b l a c k b o a r d 2 p r e s e n t e d a b r i e f summary of l a s t lecture 2 worked o u t problems b e f o r e l e c t u r e 1  Wasted c l a s s time a) b) c)  a r b i t r a r i l y demanded s t u d e n t s answer, even i f o b v i o u s l y n o t prepared 2 r e a d sheets o f notes o r d e f i n i t i o n s 2 miscellaneous - i n c a p a b l e o f answering q u e s t i o n without long d e l i b e r a t i o n - changed symbols i n the c o u r s e o f a s i n g l e proof - s a i d , make out w i t h what you've got" - never u s e d a note d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of a l e c t u r e - asked the whole c l a s s q u e s t i o n s , not i n d i v i d u a l s n;  CLASS TOTAL  5  9  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS k.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  lav- D i f f i c u l t t o g e t good, w e l l o r g a n i z e d notes  Conversational style a)  CLASS  miscellaneous - familiar with material - natural interest i n subject  a)  miscellaneous - repeated t o p i c a l r e a d y covered - t o o much c h a f f - conducts t h e c l a s s as a s t u d y group - reads notes - l e c t u r e d too q u i c k l y o r t r i e d t o c o v e r t o o much - t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d i n random f a s h i o n  CLASS TOTAL 5.  Easily a)  5.  heard  a) b)  miscellaneous - v o i c e l o u d and c l e a r - spoke c l e a r l y and c o n c i s e l y  CLASS TOTAL  M a t e r i a l missed o r l o s t  2  l e c t u r e d too f a s t , r e f u s e d t o s t o p miscellaneous - r e f u s e d t o put new terms on t h e b o a r d when asked - begins immediately a f t e r the b e l l - without attempting to get c l a s s ' s attention - a r r i v e s l a t e , prolongs l e c t u r e past buzzer  •(•  vn  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS 6.  _  SUB-AREA TOTAL  27  TOTAL  Class hurried a)  CLASS TOTAL  INEFFECTIVE  miscellaneous - spends d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e time on f a v o u r i t e s u b j e c t - t r i e d i n v a i n t o prove an argument - l e f t out t h e s i m p l e r s t e p s i n derivation of a complicated formula - used a l l hour w r i t i n g f o r m u l a on board  k  APPENDIX C MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  EFFECTIVE  CLASS 1.  Encourages student a) b) c) d)  B.  TEACHING METHODS  STUDENT P A R T I C I P A T I O N  TOTAL  CLASS 1.  participation  a s k e d l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s o r made p r o v o c a t i v e comments immediate, s e r i o u s i n t e r e s t i n student s u g g e s t i o n s or q u e s t i o n s appointed group t o l e a d d i s c u s s i o n ; organized seminars miscellaneous - d e f i n e d and gave a f e w e x a m p l e s of what b e l i e f s a r e , d r a w i n g a few e x a m p l e s f r o m h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s - m i m e o g r a p h e d a l i s t o f poems he wished read by a c e r t a i n date - a p p o i n t e d a n o t h e r c l a s s member t o r e a d and c r i t i c i z e a r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by a n o t h e r s t u d e n t - moved t o s e m i n a r room e x p r e s s e d h i s d e s i r e t o have s t u d e n t s smoke i f they wished - c r i t i c i z e d student's questions lacking forethought -masked f o r g e n e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f a b s t r a c t Ideas - encouraged s t u d e n t s t o ask q u e s t i o n s  CLASS TOTAL  C.  (CONT'D)  5"  k 3  19  INEFFECTIVE  Discouraged a) b)  student  TOTAL queries  r i d i c u l e d q u e s t i o n s or answers miscellaneous - spoke t o s t u d e n t ab o u t w a s t i n g c l a s s t i m e when as k i n g p o i n t less question - u s e d s t u d e n t as a p i v o t p o i n t as he wa'lked b a c k a n d f o r t h - i g n o r e s s t u d e n t w i t h h a n d up - l a c o n i c a l l y r e p l i es t o q u e s t i o n - answers q u e s t i o n s l o n g w i n d e d l y - l e a v e s c l a s s Immed i a t e l y a t b e l l - t r e a t e d q u e s t i o n s i n a cond e s c e n d i n g manner  11  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS 2.  Discouraged interaction a) b) c)  CLASS TOTAL  —  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  class d i s c u s s i o n or  d i c t a t e d from d e t a i l e d notes 2 sarcastic, discourteous 2 miscellaneous - s t a t e d anyone w i s h i n g t o t a l k would be asked t o l e a v e t h e room - d i d n ' t welcome q u e s t i o n s o r interruptions - j o k i n g l y handled s t u d e n t quest i o n , o f f e r e d no e x p l a n a t i o n - f r e e i n d u l g e n c e of a d m i t t e d prejudices - ignored questions t h a t d i d n o t immediately f a l l w i t h i n t h e scope o f h i s a t t e n t i o n  9  SUB-AREA TOTAL  19  20  AREA TOTAL  k6  66  o^ o  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  EFFECTIVE  CLASS 1.  A.  TOTAL  c)  gave p e r s o n a l a s s i s t a n c e r e q u e s t e d s t u d e n t v i s i t him in office miscellaneous - gave t w e l v e e x t r a c l a s s e s - i n v i t e d the s t u d e n t f o r d i n n e r - c a l l e d on s t u d e n t s by name t o ask q u e s t i o n s - gave encouragement  CLASS TOTAL 2.  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  Seemed i n s e n s i t i v e t o c l a s s ' s reaction a)  2  miscellaneous - c o n s i s t e n t i l l u s t r a t i o n of p o i n t s from h i s own a s s o c i a t i o n s and experience - f o l l o w e d the t e x t too c l o s e l y - wrote i l l e g i b l y on t h e b l a c k b o a r d , and e r a s e d  8 2.  miscellaneous - explained h i s lateness - p o i n t e d out t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o c o n s i d e r any q u e s t i o n s a f t e r the h o u r  CLASS TOTAL  TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS  2  Seemed s i n c e r e a)  PERSONALITY TRAITS  1.  took a p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t i n s t u d e n t s ; considerate  a) b)  D.  Seemed l a z y , d i s i n t e r e s t e d , b l a s e a)  2  miscellaneous - m a t e r i a l t a k e n from t h e t e x t and g i v e n no f u r t h e r treatment - s t a t e d t h a t he d i d n ' t care i f the s t u d e n t s came o r not--he wouldn't take any attendance - r e q u i r e d student t o read a l o u d  3  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS 3.  EFFECTIVE  Miscellaneous ( t r a c t f u l , f l e x i b l e , trustworthy) a)  TOTAL.. sensitive,  miscellaneous - acted as a moderator while students had a v i g o r o u s d i s c u s s i o n - appeared embarrassed and laughed when c l a s s laughed a t what was a r e c o g n i z a b l y ambiguous statement - asked student t o see him p r i v a t e l y when i n t e r r u p t e d by an i r r e l e v a n t question - l a c k of p r e j u d i c e - p r a i s e d work f i r s t before c r i t i c a l l y evaluating i t  CLASS 3.  INEFFECTIVE M i s c e l l a n e o u s (unbalanced, over-confIdent, a f r a i d )  a)  TOTAL embittered,  miscellaneous - treatment o f students as complete ignorants - r e f e r r e d t o m e n t a l l y i l l as "those c r a z y people" - spices lecture with inappropriate s t o r i e s about mental I l l n e s s - read the morning paper b e f o r e c l a s s - t o l d the c l a s s that h i s o p i n i o n was the o n l y one that counted i n h i s c l a s s - c o n t i n u a l l y harping on outdated m a t e r i a l and defeated p r o p o s a l s - ignored students' r a i s e d hands - looked a t the student i n s i n u a t i n g that he was s t u p i d - takes the shyest student t o the f r o n t of the c l a s s and t o r t u r e s him l i k e a k i d w i t h a bug on the end of a p i n - d i c t a t e s the l e c t u r e s o t h a t students can copy every word - re-wrote student essays t o conform t o his own wording - smoked i n a room wherein r e s t r i c t i o n s were posted - unable to give a s a t i s f a c t o r y explana t i o n t o the c l a s s ' s c h a l l e n g e o f the v a l i d i t y of s t a t i s t i c s - gave a h u r r i e d and g a r b l e d account - ignored student who had prepared ahead c^ rv> H  APPENDIX C  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  (CONT'D)  CLASS  3. a) —  CLASS TOTAL SUB-A-REA TOTAL  —  —  INEFFECTIVE  TOTAL  M i s c e l l a n e o u s ^unbalanced, e m b i t t e r e d , o v e r - c o n f i d e n t , a f r a i d ) (cont'd) m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - Informed the c l a s s t h a t they had t o work h a r d e r and s e t up h i s own performance i n s c h o o l as a s t a n d a r d - I s l i k e a tape r e c o r d e r , t u r n e d on a t the b e g i n n i n g , t u r n e d o f f a t the end - s t a t e d i t was unnecessary t o copy l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l i n t o notes  5  18  15  214-  APPENDIX C (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  D. B.  TOTAL  Seemed a l e r t , aware of problems and c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s ; evidence of good knowledge of m a t e r i a l ; i n t e r e s t e d i n work a)  miscellaneous - explained d i f f i c u l t i e s experimenter had when d i s c u s s i n g a drug - presented m a t e r i a l with zest - discussed current p o l i t i c a l happenings - asked f o r q u e s t i o n s f r o m the c l a s s - i n d i c a t e d d i f f e r e n t approaches, and c l e a r l y showed where h i s own b i a s e s are - showed where o p i n i o n s made poor use of the f a c t s - f i l l e d out a p o o r speech w i t h solid information - admitted the v a l i d i t y o f some s t u d e n t ' s arguments - used f a c t s to show how the t h e o r y had been d e r i v e d - handled the m a t e r i a l as i f i t were i m p o r t a n t enough t o s u s t a i n cont o v e r s y and d i s c u s s i o n - clear, unhurried presentation - used no notes - widely read  PERSONALITY TRAITS ABILITY TRAITS  CLASS 1.  INEFFECTIVE P o o r l y prepared,  a)  TOTAL  poor p l a n n i n g  miscellaneous - r e g u l a r f a i l u r e s of c l a s s r o o m experiments - r a n out of time f o r the d i s c u s s i o n of t a b l e s t h a t o n e - q u a r t e r of t i m e had been spent p u t t i n g on b o a r d - spends undue l e n g t h o f time a t the b e g i n n i n g of the y e a r , n e c e s s i t a t i n g two e x t r a s e s s i o n s a t the end o f the year - i n using a f i l m p r o j e c t o r f i l m t o r n , lamp b u r n t out, no o p e r a t o r o r subs t i t u t e machine - r e a d f o r e i g n language n o v e l xvith no a d d i t i o n a l comment - rambled and repeated h i m s e l f - d i s c o v e r e d a mistake a f t e r l e n g t h y , detailed presentation - asked f o r a q u e s t i o n , got one, unable to s o l v e - gave no reasons f o r f i n i s h i n g a l e c t u r e f i f t e e n minutes e a r l y - made many f a l s e s t a r t s and many l o n g p e r i o d s of s i l e n c e when answering - t r i e s t o f i l l i n the l e c t u r e w i t h irrelevant material  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS 1.  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS  INEFFECTIVE  ' ..  TOTAL  Seemed a l e r t , aware o f problems and c o n t r o v e r s i a l s u b j e c t s ; e v i d e n c e of good knowledge of m a t e r i a l ; i n t e r e s t e d I n work (cont'd) a)  miscellaneous (cont'd) - makes a p o i n t of m e n t i o n i n g the p o i n t t h a t he d i d n ' t know l a s t day  CLASS TOTAL  Ik  11 2.  Generated the i m p r e s s i o n petence a) b)  o f incom-  f i l l e d i n gaps i n l e c t u r e w i t h "uhs" miscellaneous - c o u l d n ' t answer q u e s t i o n f r o m the t e x t - a p o l o g i z e d f o r not h a v i n g b i b l i o g r a p h y prepared - made a p o o r attempt a t pronounci n g the word ' e n a n t i o t r o p i c ' - r e p e t i t i v e use o f t h e p h r a s e , "don't p h i l o s o p h i z e "  2  o^  Ln  APPENDIX C (CONT'D)  CLASS  EFFECTIVE  TOTAL  CLASS 2.  —  SUB-AREA TOTAL AREA TOTAL  TOTAL  Generated t h e i m p r e s s i o n of incompetence (cont'd) h)  CLASS TOTAL  INEFFECTIVE  m i s c e l l a n e o u s (cont'd) - s a i d "Oh, w e l l , i t i s n ' t v e r y i m p o r t a n t anyway", when s t u d e n t f a i l e d t o g i v e m e a n i n g f u l comments about a poem - demonstrated no d i s c i p l i n e  8 19  29  43  ON O^  167  APPENDIX D GENERAL OPINIONS, BY FREQUENCY, UNDER EACH CLASS MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  A.  TEACHING METHODS  THE LECTURE METHOD (CONDUCT, PRESENTATION AND DELIVERY)  CLASS 1. 2. 3. k. 5. 6.  7«  8.  TOTAL should d i r e c t l e c t u r e a t " a b i l i t y l e v e l " of c l a s s should make u s e o f o u t l i n e s should p r e s e n t m a t e r i a l i n as most i n t e r e s t i n g  £ 3  manner a s p o s s i b l e  should d i s t r i b u t e mimeographed m a t e r i a l should be w e l l o r g a n i z e d m i s c e l l a n e o u s items r e l a t e d to v o i c e q u a l i t y - p i t c h and i n t e n s i t y s h o u l d be v a r i e d - should be taught e l o c u t i o n - should be a p u b l i c speaker -" d e l i v e r y should be i n s i m p l e , c o n v e r s a t i o n a l v o i c e m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o speed of presentation - should n o t speak t o o f a s t - should g i v e student time t o g e t a l l p o i n t s down m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s to the l e c t u r e method - o r a t o r i c a l powers may be of advantage i n q u a l i t y of t e a c h i n g - should o r i e n t course t o e d u c a t i o n p e r se r a t h e r than examinations and c r e d i t - h i s t o r y c a n be taught i n s t o r y f o r m - l e c t u r e should c o n s i s t of an i n f o r m a l speech r a t h e r t h a n r e a d i n g of notes - i l l u s t r a t i o n s are u s e f u l I n moderation - l e c t u r e r s from England tend t o condense the steps i n t h e i r p r o o f s - should r e p e a t p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t p o i n t s - t e x t b o o k should n o t be f o l l o w e d as I f g o s p e l - l e c t u r e r should d i r e c t student t o o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s i f text insufficient - l e c t u r e r should l e a v e q u e s t i o n s i n s t u d e n t ' s mind as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g pat answers - l e c t u r e courses g e n e r a l l y an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y method of t e a c h i n g  SUB-AREA TOTAL  32  3  2 2  168 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A.  B.  TEACHING METHODS  THE DISCUSSION METHOD  CLASS 1. 2.  TOTAL  should promote l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s , or make time for d i s c u s s i o n m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o the e x p r e s s i o n o f student p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i s c u s s i o n - d i s c u s s i o n groups e x c e l l e n t - c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n and s t u d e n t thoughts should enter l e c t u r e s - remember c l a s s e s i n which d i s c u s s i o n s h e l d - should be more i n t e r a c t i o n between l e c t u r e r and s tud e nt - p r e f e r d i s c u s s i o n to l e c t u r e s - l e c t u r e should c o n s i s t o f d i s c u s s i o n a t w h i c h l e c t u r e r i s l e a d e r o r moderator - l e c t u r e s should c o n s i s t of a g u i d i n g and d i s c u s s i o n pe r i od - d i s c u s s i o n s should o c c u r i n s m a l l groups where can be h e l d p r o f i t a b l y  SUB-AREA TOTAL  12  SUB-AREA: 1. 2.  3.  k.  k  C.  SPECIAL METHODS  l e c t u r e s should be I n s m a l l c l a s s e s m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o treatment of s t u d e n t s - l e c t u r e r should u s e common c o u r t e s y and understand i n g - s h o u l d n ' t t r e a t students a s i f h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , i . e . , t r y t o g e t a l l s t u d e n t s through t h e i r courses m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o use of f i e l d trips - should go on f i e l d t r i p s t o r e l a t e d concerns o f f campus - should arrange f i e l d t r i p s m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o s p e c i a l methods - p s y c h o l o g y courses c o u l d have been more i n t e r e s t i n g w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f v i s u a l a i d s  k  169 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) M A J O R  AREA:  SUB-AREA:  A. C.  TEACHING METHODS  SPECIAL METHODS (CONT'D)  TOTAL  CLASS k.  miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to s p e c i a l methods (cont'd) - guest l e c t u r e r s add t o a l e c t u r e i f they t a l k on s u b j e c t s a p p r o p r i a t e to the s u b j e c t - should use tape r e c o r d e r i f only going t o lecture - l e c t u r e s should be i n t h e form of seminars - should arrange appointments t o see students i f requested, and keep same - p r o f e s s o r o f l i t e r a t u r e should be able t o a c t  SUB-AREA TOTAL  lk  SUB-AREA: 1.  2.  3.  D. SELECTION AND EMPHASIS OP SUBJECT MATERIAL  miscellaneous items r e l a t e d to biased content - should t r y as f a r as p o s s i b l e i n beginning years not t o c o l o u r m a t e r i a l - should n o t i f y students i f value judgments b e i n g made - o b j e c t i v i t y o f t e n nonsense miscellaneous items r e l a t e d to use of humour - no c o n t i n u a l tone o f humour u n l e s s l e c t u r e r can avoid d e t r a c t i n g from l e c t u r e m a t e r i a l - should have a d r y sense of humour, but not l e t i t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the progress of the l e c t u r e miscellaneous r e f e r e n c e s to the s e l e c t i o n and emphasis of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l - should inform students, e s p e c i a l l y i n the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s what i s y e t t o be learned  SUB-AREA TOTAL  6  170 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) MAJOR AREA: SUB-AREA:  A. "TEACHING METHODS E. ,APPRAISAL METHODS  CLASS 1.  2.  3.  TOTAL  m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o essays - emphasis i n A r t s courses should be on term essays - essays s h o u l d n o t be handed back without w r i t t e n comment m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o use o f f o r m a l examinations - should p r o v i d e prepared exam q u e s t i o n s - should f i n d out how students a r e r e a c t i n g t o l e c t u r e r s by some means o t h e r t h a n exams and make adjustments a c c o r d i n g l y m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o term assignments - assignments s h o u l d be o f such a nature t h a t o r i g i n a l thought and l o g i c i s r e q u i r e d - assignments should reduce t h e number o f t o p i c s such t h a t independent i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h i n k i n g < could be r e a l i z e d  SUB-AREA TOTAL  SUB-AREA: 1.  P.  DISCIPLINE AND CONTROL  m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s to d i s c i p l i n e and c o n t r o l - l e c t u r e r should n o t concern themselves w i t h absences and homework - c l a s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should be de-emphasized - pronounced s t r i c t n e s s has no p l a c e i n u n i v e r s i t y setting  SUB-AREA TOTAL AREA TOTAL  3  171 APPENDIX D (CONT'D) MAJOR AFEA: SUB-AREA:  A.  B.  PERSONALITY TRAITS  TEMPERAMENTAL, DYNAMIC AND MOTIVATIONAL TRAITS  TOTAL  CLASS 1. 2.  should show i n t e r e s t and e n t h u s i a s m m i s c e l l a n e o u s r e f e r e n c e s t o temperamental, dynamic a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l t r a i t s - should t r y t o s t i m u l a t e t h e group and put enthusiasm i n t o h i s words - l e c t u r e r s p e r s o n a l i t y should s u i t the students; student b e n e f i t s most i f such i s the case - l e c t u r e r s are i n t e r e s t i n g , w e l l Informed people w i t h an a b i l i t y t o t e a c h , b u t not l a c k i n g i n human f r a i l t i e s - s t u d e n t s o f t e n choose courses a c c o r d i n g t o the t e s t i m o n i a l s of a b i l i t y and t e c h n i q u e of the lecturers - q u a l i t y of l e c t u r e r s should be s t r e s s e d by the university - should be an i n d i v i d u a l i s t - most o f t h e c o n f l i c t s between s t u d e n t and l e c t u r e r a r e because o f p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h e s - good l e c t u r e r s make the c o u r s e , not the s u b j e c t materi a l - l e c t u r e r should e n j o y t e a c h i n g - should admit i g n o r a n c e of s u b j e c t and n o t attempt to cover up w i t h sarcasm - should demonstrate i n i t i a t i v e  18  SUB-AREA TOTAL  SUB-AREA: 1. 2. 3.  7  B.  ABILITIES OR COGNITIVE TRAITS  should have knowledge o f how, or a b i l i t y t o p r e s e n t material should be prepared should have knowledge of s u b j e c t m a t e r i a l  6 5  k  SUB-AREA TOTAL  15  AREA TOTAL  33  PINAL TOTAL  10.6  

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