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Measuring the incidence of welfare problems : an exploratory examination of provincial social welfare… Koch, Wolfram Johannes 1960

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MEASURING THE INCIDENCE OF WELFARE PROBLEMS An E x p l o r a t o r y E x a m i n a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l W e l f a r e S t a t i s t i c s , B r i t i s h C o lumbia, 1951 -1959 . by WOLFRAM JOHN KOCH T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work A c c e p t e d as co n f o r m i n g t o th e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work I960 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree th a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver &*, Canada. - v i -ABSTRACT " S o c i a l W e l f a r e " i s o f g r e a t , and gr o w i n g , importance i n the modern w o r l d , and i t c o n s t a n t l y demands d e f i n i t i o n . S t a t i s t i c a l r e s o u r c e s are needed (a) as a i d s i n the d e f i n i t i o n of w e l f a r e p r o b l e m s , (b) t o determine the n a t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e l f a r e needs, and (-c) f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and p l a n n i n g the development of new s e r v i c e s . As a background, t h e main t y p e s and so u r c e s of w e l f a r e measurements a r e r e v i e w e d i n the l i g h t of t h e i n c r e a s i n g volume of s t u d i e s I n Gr e a t B r i t a i n , t he U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada d u r i n g the p r e s e n t c e n t u r y . To f o c u s on t h e problem o f adequate p r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s , an e x p l o r a t o r y e x a m i n a t i o n i s made of. two m ajor groups o f d a t a : (a) demographic d a t a f rom the Census and r e l a t e d s o u r c e s ; ( b ) . t h e c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d measurements o f the r e c i p i e n t s of p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c w e l f a r e services,., a b s t r a c t e d f r o m t h e an n u a l r e p o r t s of t h e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e o f the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. The f i r s t group i n c l u d e s p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s , a g e - c o m p o s i t i o n and f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n . The second group g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the " c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes", the aged, s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e s , and p r o v i n c i a l f a m i l y s e r v i c e s . There i s now a v a i l a b l e a l a r g e r body o f so c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , , b u t i t i s not b e i n g f u l l y u t i l i z e d f o r w e l f a r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or s o c i a l s e r v i c e p l a n n i n g . A s e r i o u s b a r r i e r t o i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s i s t h e l a c k o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f a s e t o f r e g i o n s c o v e r i n g the t o t a l g e o g r a p h i c a l area, (as between D e p a r t m e n t a l R e g i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s and census d i s t r i c t s ) . V a r i a t i o n s I n r e p o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e and i n s u f f i c i e n t development o f soci o - e c o n o m i c d a t a and o f . components o r c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n dependency are t h e g r e a t e s t weaknesses i n e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l s . Other area s o f w e l f a r e i n w h i c h new measurements as w e l l as the c o - o r d i n a t i o n or m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g d a t a are needed, are o n l y b r i e f l y i n d i c a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . " W e l f a r e " , t o d a y , i s more Important t h a n e v e r , and so i s w e l f a r e r e s e a r c h t h a t p r o v i d e s the base f o r the improvement o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and c r e a t i o n of new ones, t h r o u g h b r o a d , s t a t i s t i c a l measurements as w e l l as s p e c i a l c o u n t s and s t u d i e s . - i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter 1 . The Measurement o f W e l f a r e P ag. e Developments c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the need f o r r e s e a r c h . Measurement - an approach t o d e f i n i t i o n . P r i m a r y Sources of S t a t i s t i c s . Type o f st u d y - w e l f a r e measurement: S o c i a l s u r v e y s . "Minimum budget" - measurements of income d i s t r i b u t i o n . Census and r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s . Community x>relfare s t u d i e s . H o u s i n g and t o w n - p l a n n i n g . Scope and method o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . . . . . . . 1 C h a p t e r 2 . Some B a s i c S o c i a l D a t a U r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . S e l e c t e d demographic d a t a : P o p u l a t i o n growth and i t s components. The aged. Households and f a m i l i e s . I l l e g i t i m a c y . Other demographic and soci o - e c o n o m i c d a t a r e p o r t e d . Chap t e r 3- The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e S t a t i s t i c s The Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and i t s R e g i o n s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d p u b l i c i ^ e l f a r e d a t a : The c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes and t h e i r r e c i p i e n t s . Socio-economic d a t a on the aged. The S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e Programme. The F a m i l y S e r v i c e Programme . . . . Cha p t e r Ij.. Recent W e l f a r e Measurements - L i m i t a t i o n s C r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of the d a t a examined: Need f o r a r e g i o n a l base - q u e s t i o n s of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . B a s i c s o c i a l d a t a . P u b l i c w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s . Other d a t a r e p o r t e d . The Re s e a r c h I n v e n t o r y of Community W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s (1959) - a study r e l a t e d t o t h i s t h e s i s . 9k-A p p e n d i c e s : and Needs. A. A d d i t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c a l T a b l e s . B. B i b l i o g r a p h y . • • * - I l l TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) T a b l e s . Page Table 1 . P o p u l a t i o n Trends and F o r e c a s t s i n Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s . 33 T a b l e 2 . Gross P o p u l a t i o n ; B r i t i s h C o lumbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y o f Vancouver. . . . . 31+ T a b l e 3« I m m i g r a t i o n t o Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia . . 31+ T a b l e Ij.. Crude B i r t h R a t e s ; Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s 35 T a b l e 5« Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ; Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s 1+0 T a b l e 6 . Sex and M a r i t a l S t a t u s of P o p u l a t i o n 65 y e a r s and o v e r ; B r i t i s h Columbia 1+1 T a b l e 7 . Sex and M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f P o p u l a t i o n 65 y e a r s and o v e r ; M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y of Vancouver 1+2 T a b l e 8 . M a r r i a g e Rates and D i v o r c e R a t e s ; Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s 1+6 T a b l e 9. Households by Number o f F a m i l i e s ; B r i t i s h C olumbia 1+6 Tab l e 1 0 . Households by Number o f F a m i l i e s ; M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y o f Vancouver. . . . . 1+7 T a b l e 1 1 . F a m i l i e s x ^ i t h One o r B o t h P a r e n t s a t Home; M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y o f Vancouver . 1+7 T a b l e 1 2 . F a m i l i e s w i t h One o r B o t h P a r e n t s a t Home; B r i t i s h C olumbia 2+8 T a b l e 1 3 . I l l e g i t i m a t e B i r t h s ; Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s 50 T a b l e ll+. Regions o f B r i t i s h Columbia as Used by t h e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; P o p u l a t i o n , and Some T r e n d s . . . . . . . . . . 58 T a b l e 15 • C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes; C a s e l o a d s and Comparative Rates 63 T a b l e 16. O ld Age A s s i s t a n c e and O ld Age S e c u r i t y Supplementary A l l o w a n c e ; Number of R e c i p i e n t s . 63 T a b l e 17a C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes; C a s e l o a d s and Comparative Rates by Regions (Regions I , I I , I I I ) 61+ T a b l e 17b C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes; C a s e l o a d s and Comparative Rates by Regions (Regions IV - V I I ) 6 5 - i v Page T a b l e 18. New R e c i p i e n t s o f O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e .. . . . 68 T a b l e 1 9 . Ages a t Which O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e Was Gr a n t e d . . 68 T a b l e 20. M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f New R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA . . . 72 T a b l e 21. L i v i n g Arrangements o f New R e c i p i e n t s of OAA . . 73 T a b l e 22. Accommodation o f New R e c i p i e n t s of OAA T a b l e 2 3 . R e a l and P e r s o n a l P r o p e r t y o f Nex<r R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA 75 T a b l e 2I4.. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f OAA R e c i p i e n t s A c c o r d i n g t o Amount of A s s i s t a n c e R e c e i v e d . 76 T a b l e 2 5 . S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; C a s e l o a d s and Comparative Rates 78 T a b l e 26. F a m i l i e s and S i n g l e P e r s o n s i n R e c e i p t o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e . . . 8 l T a b l e 2 7 . S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number of R e c i p i e n t s by Region 82 Ta b l e 28a S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f R e c i p i e n t s and Comparative Rates f o r Regions and S e l e c t e d M a j o r C e n t r e s ( I - I I I ) 83 T a b l e 28b S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number of R e c i p i e n t s and Comparative Rates f o r Regions and S e l e c t e d M a j o r C e n t r e s (IV - V I I ) 8h. T a b l e 2 9 . A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e and F a m i l y S e r v i c e m o nthly p e r c e n t a g e s d u r i n g the y e a r . . . . . 87 T a b l e 3 0 . A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e o r de c r e a s e o v e r p r e c e d i n g month . . 88 T a b l e 31. F a m i l y S e r v i c e ; Number o f Cases and Comparative Rates 91 Ta b l e 3 2 . F a m i l y S e r v i c e ; Number o f Cases p e r Region . . 93 (b) C h a r t s . F i g . 1 S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number of A p p l i c a n t s r»er month; 1958 - 1959 . . . . . . . . . . 89 F i g . 2 F a m i l y S e r v i c e ; Number o f Cases opened p e r Month; 1958 - 1959 92 - v -Page APPENDIX A. A d d i t i o n a l S t a t i s t i c a l Tables Table 3 3 . P o p u l a t i o n Trends and Forecasts i n Canada and Two Western Provinces 119 Table 31+• T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n and Number of Live B i r t h s ; Canada and Two Western Provinces . . . 120 Table 35*. Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ; Canada . . . . . 121 Table 3 6 . Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ; A l b e r t a 122 Table 3 7 . Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ; B r i t i s h Columbia . . 123 Table 3 8 . Marriage Rates and Divorce Rates; Canada and Two Western Provinces . . . . 121j_ - v i i -AC MOWLEDGEMENT S G r a t e f u l acknowledgement i s made t o M r . M i c h a e l Wheeler of the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work f o r h i s c o n s t a n t a d v i c e and guidance t h r o u g h a v a s t a r e a o f w e l f a r e r e s e a r c h . S p e c i a l thanks a r e due t o Dr.Leonard Marsh o f the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work who gave such i n v a l u a b l e h e l p a t a c r i t i c a l s t a ge and w i t h o u t whose su p p o r t t h i s s t u d y would n o t have' been completed. To t h e Leon and Thea K o e r n e r F o u n d a t i o n we t e n d e r our thanks f o r t h e r e s e a r c h g r a n t made a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s p r o j e c t . CHAPTER. 1 THE MEASUREMENT OF WELFARE During the past decades, there has been a growing awareness among s o c i a l workers of the need f o r developing methods and techniques f o r determining the nature and extent of welfare need, and f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the present welfare s e r v i c e s t h a t are meeting the need as I t i s expressed In i t s v a r i o u s demands f o r s e r v i c e s . This i growing concern on the part of the p r o f e s s i o n f i n d s i t s p a r a l l e l i n the growing demand on the. p a r t of many communities and the p u b l i c i n general f o r a c l e a r e r account of the s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , t h e i r adequacy and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Western s o c i e t y has, f o r some time, enjoyed a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l of p r o s p e r i t y which has r e s u l t e d i n the disappearance of the wide-spread and s t a r k poverty which t y p i f i e d the e a r l i e r stages of i n d u s t r -i a l i s m . "A r i s i n g standard of l i v i n g and the development of s o c i a l s e r v i c e s have helped the mass of the p o p u l a t i o n to meet t h e i r b a s i c needs. However, needs, though l e s s obvious, continue to e x i s t and a f f e c t many groups i n the community. Economic d i s l o c a t i o n s and s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v a r i o u s forms are evidence of t h i s . Never-t h e l e s s , the concept of "need" and the problem of i d e n t i f y i n g need have become more and more complex i n a s o c i e t y which has experienced deep s t r u c t u r a l changes during the l a s t few generations, and which i s s t i l l r a p i d l y changing and h i g h l y mobile. I t i s one of the purposes of research to i d e n t i f y - the welfa r e needs that e x i s t i n the community, and to determine the best ways of meeting them. - 2 -J.E.Goodthorpe made- the statement that "needs are s o c i o l o g i c a l l y 1 i r r e l e v a n t , unless they are known". O r i g i n a l l y , r e s e a r c h In s o c i a l w e l f a r e was r e l a t i v e l y simple,: i f i t was needed at a l l during an era where poverty was widespread and obvious to everyone. The e a r l y reformers who set out during the l a t e r p a r t of the i n d u s t r i a l r e v o l u t i o n i n B r i t a i n and l a t e r i n the United S t a t e s , to a t t a c k widespread poverty and misery, strove to meet needs as they saw them. Those needs weve b a s i c needs,, e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and. obvious to the / • 2 g r e a t e r part of the community. In the words of John S.Morgan., "the great pioneers have each d e s c r i b e d f o r themselves an area of human need and p r e s c r i b e d f o r themselves, u s u a l l y on a s e r i e s of i n t u i t i o n s or assumptions of a very personal c h a r a c t e r , methods of meeting that need which seemed to them appropriate i n the l i g h t of t h e i r knowledge and of the i n t a n g i b l e complex of the s o c i a l f o r c e s 3 of t h e i r times". In the C h a r i t y Organization S o c i e t i e s , " f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r s " , i n t h e i r attempts to help the poor, began the use of an approach which was e v e n t u a l l y t o become p a r t of the s o c i a l casework method. In the e a r l y days, s o c i a l work was c a r r i e d out f o r the most part by w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d and dedicated, but u n s k i l l e d , v o l u n t e e r s j and, g e n e r a l l y , poverty was hot attacked w i t h systematic planning, but by the sporadic e f f o r t s of the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s dedicated to the a m e l i o r a t i o n of poverty., Only g r a d u a l l y was "poverty" broken down i n t o i t s elements and some of the s o c i a l as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l causes of "poverty" d i s t i n g u i s h e d ; research and experience both c o n t r i b u t e d to t h i s enlightenment. 1 Goodthorpe,J.E.; "An Examination of the Concept of Need"; The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review; Vbl.l | . 2 ; . Sec. 1 0 ; p. 1 9 7 . 2 Morgan^ John S.; "Research i n S o c i a l Work; A Frame of Reference"; S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l ; VoT . 3 0 , N0.I4.; 0 c t . . l 9 l | . 9 ; pp.llj , 8 - l 5 1 f . 3 T b T d l p.Lh9. As the p o p u l a t i o n increased and became more urbanized and complex i n I t s s t r u c t u r e , more and more welfar e s e r v i c e s were developed to meet the i n c r e a s i n g needs of the community. A p r o l i f e r a t i o n of we l f a r e services., mostly of p r i v a t e , but a l s o I n c r e a s i n g l y of p u b l i c nature, occurred which, at some p o i n t s , caused d u p l i c a t i o n , overlapping and i n e f f i c i e n c y of s e r v i c e s . The need f o r community planning or "commun-i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n " became apparent. At the same time, the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker began to take the place of the volunt e e r i n many v i t a l areas of we l f a r e . , Few methods and techniques were developed and ap p l i e d * and questions arose as to how e f f e c t i v e these methods were i n meeting the changing needs of the people i n the community. Accord-i n g l y , the c o l l e c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s t a t i s t i c s and data has become an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the proper f u n c t i o n i n g of s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . S t a t i s t i c s now serve many f u n c t i o n s : (a) as t o o l s f o r measurement of the welfar e needs that e x i s t i n the community, t h e i r l o c a t i o n , extent and nature; and (b) as aids i n the e v a l u a t i o n of the appropriateness and the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s , the extent to whieh they are keeping pace w i t h the growth or the s t r u c t u r a l changes that are o c c u r r i n g i n the community* and s i m i l a r questions. Some progress can be observed. But "welfare" as a concept, and as an area of a c t i v i t y , i s s t i l l l e s s understood and l e s s c l e a r l y d e f i n e d than the concept of " h e a l t h " to which i t i s p a r t l y r e l a t e d , and w i t h which i t i s o f t e n compared. While r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n s of what c o n s t i t u t e s "physical* h e a l t h " or " i l l n e s s " have e x i s t e d f o r some time, the d e f i n i t i o n s of such concepts, b a s i c t o w e l f a r e , as "need", "dependency", "welfare s e r v i c e " e t c . are much l e s s c l e a r ; and they have undergone changes which themselves r e f l e c t the changing scope and o b j e c t i v e s of w e l f a r e . Welfare, as a human a c t i v i t y , has been -k -growing and changing ever since the f i r s t concepts of "charity" of the Middle Ages. The forces that had the greatest impact on welfare, however, were the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and urbanization of the 19th century. They deeply affected or even destroyed the t r a -d i t i o n a l need-meeting i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the extended or kinship family, the neighbourhood, the small town and the l o c a l church. I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and urbanization thus created a new type of society with greatly Increased and d i v e r s i f i e d needs. Out of these changes i n the structure of society arose the need for a national system of s o c i a l services taking over the functions of the t r a d i t i o n a l need-meeting i n s t i t u t i o n s . Education underwent t h i s transformation i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century. Devel-opments i n public health services, i n Canada at l e a s t , came much l a t e r and did not gain momentum u n t i l after World War I. Social Security, at least i n the outlines of a national income-maintenance programme, i s not more than f i f t e e n years old. Welfare services, over and above income-maintenance allowances and benefits, operating so l e l y under private auspices on a l o c a l l e v e l , have been expanded greatly. Today, the system of " s o c i a l services" needs to be d i s t i n g -uished as public and private; f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , l o c a l , volunteer, etc; and there are many other ways of c l a s s i f y i n g them. In short, welfare has become an increasingly complex a c t i v i t y concern-ed with many aspects of human and s o c i a l l i f e . These include: dependency, economic, material and psycho-social; i l l n e s s , d i s a b i l i t y , and the needs for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; family and c h i l d welfare; recreat-ion and leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s ; housing; special areas of education such as vocational guidance, technical t r a i n i n g ; family counselling; s o c i a l aspects of health care; behaviour problems, delinquency, and crime. - 5 -This enumeration not only i l l u s t r a t e s the vast area of concern of s o c i a l w e l f a r e , i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s areas i n which welf a r e a c t i v i t i e s overlap w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s of other p r o f e s s i o n s , such as medicine, education, law, and town-planning. This p o i n t s to the importance of d e f i n i n g the nature of those needs and problems that are the concern of w e l f a r e , because they can be met best through the p r o v i s i o n of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . I t a l s o c a l l s not only f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of needs and problems, but a l s o f o r d e f i n i t i o n of the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s of the welfare s e r v i c e s . Measurement - an Approach to D e f i n i t i o n One approach to d e f i n i t i o n i s measurement. In s o c i a l w e l f a r e , measurement f o r the purpose of d e f i n i t i o n i s a p p l i e d i n two main "areas": (a) i n the "area" of problems and the people t h a t are a f f e c t -ed by problems; and (b) i n the "area" of the s e r v i c e s that are designed tio help people meet t h e i r needs and deal w i t h t h e i r problems. Measurement permits a c l e a r e r understanding of needs and problems that e x i s t i n the community. I t helps us to assess t h e i r nature and t h e i r v a r i a b l e components, and to map t h e i r incidence and d i s t r i b u t i o n . E v e n t u a l l y , through measuring these phenomena and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d c o n d i t i o n s and circumstances, the hope i s to be able to understand the causative f a c t o r s and to approach " p r e v e n t a t i v e l y " needs and problems xtfith which w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s d e a l . Measurement of the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s i s an e s s e n t i a l beginning. I t forms the base f o r sound plan n i n g i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the s e r v i c e s , i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n .and improvement of e x i s t i n g programmes, and i n the development of new needed s e r v i c e s . S t a t i s t i c s i n w e l f a r e research serve the purpose not only of d e f i n i n g the problems and s e r v i c e s , but - 6 -a l s o t h e i r scope and i n c i d e n c e , and the ways i n which they should be m o d i f i e d . " D e f i n i t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and development might be 1 c a l l e d the three D's of w e l f a r e data" . A modern requirement i s a p e r i o d i c i n v e n t o r y of w e l f a r e needs and s e r v i c e s . From the t e c h n i c a l p o i n t of view, the important questions are:what i s measured and how can i t be i n t e r p r e t e d ? From the community poin t of view, the questions are: are our w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s adequate and appropriate? The Primary Sources of S t a t i s t i c s Welfare s t a t i s t i c s may be d e r i v e d from many sources. They may be obtained from: (a) separate and s p e c i a l l y undertaken s t u d i e s t h a t may or may not be r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n b a s i c f i g u r e s such as the Census, or from c o n t i n u i n g s e r i e s of data, such as delinquency or i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e s ; and (b) from continuous, standardized sets of f i g u r e s that are c o l l e c t e d . a n d reported at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s f o r c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d areas. S t a t i s t i c s belonging t o the l a t t e r group come from two b a s i c sources: (a) the n a t i o n a l census, and (b) Government departments. In the Census of Canada, data are reported every t e n years and, i n some in s t a n c e s , every f i v e y e a r s . The Census has developed from a simple count of the p o p u l a t i o n t o a great n a t i o n a l survey t h a t c o l l e c t s and r e p o r t s a great mass of s o c i a l and economic data. I t i s a l s o l i n k e d w i t h a growing number of sample surveys, such as surveys i n the area of housing. Since 191+5» a number of Government departments have been d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h welfare s e r v i c e s . Most p u b l i s h r e g u l a r s t a t i s t ' i c s , and some undertake t h e i r own p r o j e c t s of research. In Canada, the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s - ( D B S ) i s the body that co-ordinates " 1 Quoted from: Dr.L.C.Marsh; School of Social.Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t T s h Columbia. . ., - 7 - • most m a t e r i a l from these two sources. In a d d i t i o n , i t undertakes and c o l l a b o r a t e s I n a growing number of s p e c i a l surveys and measure -•-ments. The Census of I n s t i t u t i o n s (x^hlch i n c l u d e s orphanages, hosp-i t a l s , and p r i s o n s ) i s an important example of t h i s a c t i v i t y . The Dominion Department of H e a l t h and Welfare was set up I n 191+5* i t has co-ordinated a growing v a r i e t y of w e l f a r e Information. Other Depart-ments concerned w i t h a c t i v i t i e s of welfare s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c l u d e the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration; the Department of Veterans A f f a i r s ; the Central-Mortgage and Housing Corporation; the Department of Northern A f f a i r s ; the Department of J u s t i c e . An outstanding h i s t o r i c a l example of government Involvement i n the assessment and ' " 1 measurement of welfare problems i s the "Rowell S i r o i s " Commission Although t h i s commission was focussed p a r t i c u l a r l y on the f i n a n c i a l r e l a t i o n s of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, i t was compelled to compile some of the f i r s t standard s t a t i s t i c s of w e l f a r e expenditures; s p e c i a l s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h h e a l t h , s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , housing, and employment. The w e l f a r e s t u d i e s formed s p e c i a l appendices of the report of the commission. Some of i t s m a t e r i a l s were brought up-to-date i n s i m i l a r r e p o r t s of the Dominion-Provincial Conference on.Post-war Reconstruction i n 191+5• In g e n e r a l , the task of the welfare s t a t i s t i c i a n , nowadays, i s not so much that of i n i t i a t i n g the c o l l e c t i n g of new data as of s c r u t i n i z i n g the content, d e f i n i t i o n , and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the data that are a v a i l -a b l e . There i s , of course, always room f o r new-data. The Census and other continuous s t a t i s t i c s of Government Departments make c l e a r t h a t changes are always occurring,,and a l s o , that welfare problems and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s cannot be understood apart from the t o t a l community. 1 Royal Commission .on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s ; 1938. - 8 -Nevertheless, s o c i a l s t a t i s t i c s are l e s s f a m i l i a r and l e s s standard-i z e d than, f o r i n s t a n c e , economic s t a t i s t i c s today. Such concepts as "need", "problem", "dependency", " s e r v i c e " , are not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ; the e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are not u n i v e r s a l l y accepted and such s u b t l e concepts are d i f f i c u l t to define indeed. Lack of understanding of the d e f i n i t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t , of the use and l i m i t a t i o n s of index-type f i g u r e s , of the " r e l a t i v i t y " of s t a t i s t i c a l d esignations of any subject matter, are the most frequent sources of e r r o r t h a t l i m i t the v a l i d i t y of s t a t i s t i c a l measurements. Thus, s t a t i s t i c s may be misquoted, mishandled and m i s i n t e r p r e t e d . This p o i n t s to the importance of at l e a s t elementary t r a i n i n g i n the understanding and h a n d l i n g of welfare s t a t i s t i c s which should be a necessary part of the p r o f e s s i o n a l equipment of a l l s o c i a l workers. The e s s e n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y as the d e t a i l e d examination of w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s i s the assessment of t h e i r geographical base. A l l data, whether they represent p u b l i c or p r i v a t e welfare s t a t i s t i c s , s p e c i a l s t u d i e s or continuous measurements, are reported f o r one or more of the f o l l o w i n g geographic areas: (a) i n t e r n a t i o n a l , (b) n a t i o n a l , (c) p r o v i n c i a l , (d) r e g i o n a l and (e) l o c a l . On the l o c a l l e v e l , data may be reported f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s of urban and m e t r o p o l i t a n areas, f o r census t r a c t s i n c i t i e s , and f o r d i s t r i c t s , neighbourhoods or agency " c o n s t i t u e n c i e s " i n s t u d i e s of a more s p e c i f i c nature. The present study aims at f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l because of i t s s p e c i a l needs and d i f f i c u l t i e s . The p r e r e q u i s i t e ' f o r adequate p r o v i n c i a l a n a l y s i s i s a standard r e g i o n a l base, and t h i s w i l l be examined and i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g Chapters. Considerations of time have d i c t a t e d the e x c l u s i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n and c e n s u s - t r a c t areas, because (a) data f o r these areas are now being amply provided ' - 9 -as part of the Census, and (b) examination and a n a l y s i s of these areas would l e a d to and, indeed,, demand a s e r i e s of very d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s i n themselves. Types of Study: Welfare Measurement. During the past e i g h t y years, s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t methods of welf a r e measurement were developed. They are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a gradual r e f i n i n g of the purpose, the d e f i n i t i o n s and the methods used. Today, the f i v e major types of study, that are concerned w i t h or c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to s o c i a l w e l f a r e , can be described as: (a) s o c i a l surveys; (b) "minimum budget" and r e l a t e d measurements of d i s t r i b u t i o n of income; (c) s o c i a l measurements i n the Census and r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s ; (d) community welfare s t u d i e s ; and (e) housing and town planning s t u d i e s . (a) S o c i a l Surveys: The s o c i a l survey method has been w i d e l y used i n North America and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Great B r i t a i n . S o c i a l surveys, that have developed i n t o more and more s p e c i a l i z e d p r o j e c t s of i n q u i r y and measurement, began as great d e s c r i p t i v e e f f o r t s during the l a t e r p a r t of the 19th century. One of the pioneers of the survey movement was Charles Booth who, i n 1886 began h i s i n q u i r y i n t o the c o n d i t i o n s of the working c l a s s of. East London. This study was g r e a t l y expanded and e v e n t u a l l y covered the e n t i r e area of London.It was Charles Booth's aim t o achieve a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the f a m i l i e s of London according to t h e i r socio-economic s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n to a given "poverty l i n e " . For t h i s purpose, he used maps, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , case-records, house-to-house i n q u i r i e s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a great deal of d i r e c t observ-a t i o n , and elementary s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . Booth considered, but r e j e c t e d the sole use of the Census and other s t a t i s t i c a l data as - 10 -" t o o q u a n t i t a t i v e " . H i s o b j e c t i v e w a s " c o n f i n e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n 1 o f t h i n g s a s t h e y a r e " . T h r o u g h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n a n d d e s c r i p t i o n o f p o v e r t y , h e h o p e d . t o a r o u s e t h e I n t e r e s t a n d t h e c o n c e r n o f t h e p u b l i H e d e s c r i b e d h i s p r i n c i p a l a i m a s f o l l o w s : " I h a v e n o t u n d e r t a k e n t o i n v e s t i g a t e h o w t h e y ( t h e c o n d i t i o n s ) c a m e t o b e , n o r , e x c e p t i n c i d e n t a l l y , t o i n d i c a t e w h i t h e r t h e y a r e t e n d i n g ; a n d o n l y t o a v e r y l i m i t e d e x t e n t , o r v e r y o c c a s i o n a l l y , h a s a n y c o m p a r i s o n b e e n 2 m a d e w i t h t h e p a s t " . T h i s s t a t e m e n t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e B o o t h s u r v e y w h i c h w a s a " c r o s s - s e c t i o n " s t u d y m e a s u r i n g t h e c o n d i t i o n s a s t h e y e x i s t a t o n e p o i n t i n t i m e ; t h i s i s i n c o n t r a s t t o t h e o t h e r k i n d o f m e a s u r e m e n t w h i c h u s e s i n d e x e s a n d t r e n d f i g u r e s t h a t p e r m i t a c o m p a r i s o n o f c o n d i t i o n s o v e r a p e r i o d o f t i m e . F o l l o w -i n g W o r l d W a r I , t h e a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o b r i n g t h e B o o t h S u r v e y u p -t o - d a t e a s a m e a s u r e o f c o m p a r i s o n w i t h p a s t a n d f u t u r e . T h e w i d e r a n g e . o f " w e l f a r e " a n d p r a c t i c a l s t a t i s t i c a l q u e s t i o n s i s i l l u s t r a t e d I n t h e o b j e c t s o f m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h i s s e c o n d s u r v e y w h i c h i n c l u d e d : (1) a r e a o f p o p u l a t i o n ; (2) c o s t o f l i v i n g ; (3) w a g e s , h o u r s o f l a b o u r a n d e a r n i n g s ; (J+) h o u s e r e n t s a n d o v e r c r o w d i n g ; (5) t r a v e l a n d m o b i l i t y ; (6) h e a l t h ; (7) e d u c a t i o n ; (8) p u b l i c a m e n i t i e s a n d m e a n s o f r e c r e a t i o n ; (9) o c c u p a t i o n s a n d i n d u s t r i e s ; (10) u n e m p l o y -m e n t a n d i t s t r e a t m e n t ; (11) s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ( " p o o r - l a w r e l i e f " ) ; a n d (12) c r i m e . T h r o u g h m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e s e p h e n o m e n a a n d c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h e o r i g i n a l s u r v e y , i t w a s h o p e d t o m a k e C h a r l e B o o t h ' s w o r k " t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r c o m p a r i s o n s w h i c h w i l l m e a s u r e t h e c h a n g e s o f s o c i a l a n d e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s s i n c e h i s d a y , w h i l e T B o o t h , C h a r l e s ; L i f e a n d L a b o u r o f t h e P e o p l e o f L o n d o n ; 1 8 8 7 - 1 8 9 2 ; r e v . 1 9 0 2 ; ; ^ V o l I ; , p . 5 -2 i b i d ; p . 5 . 3 . T h e N e w S u r v e y o f L o n d o n L i f e a n d L a b o u r ; L o n d o n ; V o l . 1 ; 1 9 3 0 . - 11 -at the same time l a y i n g a f i r m foundation f o r forward comparisons 1 w i t h the r e s u l t s of f u t u r e surveys." In the United S t a t e s , the f i r s t attempt to apply systematic methods to the study of an e n t i r e community was made i n P i t t s b u r g h . Under the l e a d e r s h i p of Paul K e l l o g g , a s t a f f of researchers examined many aspects of community l i f e , i n order to a s c e r t a i n , how human welfare had ! kept pace w i t h the economic development of the h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l -i z e d P i t t s b u r g h area. The f i n d i n g s of the P i t t s b u r g h Survey (1909-2 1911+) were published i n s e v e r a l volumes,, th a t i n d i c a t e i n t h e i r t i t l e s the xtfide range of the p r o j e c t and i t s areas of measurement: (1) The P i t t s b u r g h D i s t r i c t ; (2) C i v i c Frontage; (3) Wage-Earning P i t t s b u r g h ; (1+) Women and the Trades; (5>) Homestead; (6) The Households of a M i l l Town; (7) Work Accidents and the Law; and (8) The S t e e l Workers. The P i t t s b u r g h Study was the b l u e - p r i n t f o r a number of p r o j e c t s i n other communities and regions such as S p r i n g -f i e l d , I l l i n o i s (1912+-1920), New York (1927-193D, and M i s s o u r i (1926), the l a t t e r being a more s p e c i a l i z e d i n q u i r y concerned w i t h crime and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e . 3 Another study of P i t t s b u r g h was undertaken during the 1930's . The focus of t h i s p r o j e c t was d i r e c t e d towards the examination of the e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s which were, however, c o n s t a n t l y r e f l e c t e d against the s o c i a l and economic f o r c e s of the community, because i t was recognized that s o c i a l i>rork p r a c t i c e s and welfare s e r v i c e s cannot be analyzed apart from the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of the community and i t s people. Large-scale use was made of s t a t i s t i c s _ _ _ i b i d ; p.2+ 2 The P i t t s b u r g h D i s t r i c t ; R u s s e l l Sage Foundation; 1909. 3 . K l e i n , P h i l i p & c o l l . A S o c i a l Study of P i t t s b u r g h ; Qommunity Problems and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s of P i t t s b u r g h and Allegheny  County; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press; New York; 1938. - 12 -f o r measurements as that i n c l u d e d : (1) area and p o p u l a t i o n , (2) p a y r o l l s , (3) the employed and unemployed, (Ij.) c y c l e s of business a c t i v i t y , (5) r e n t s , (6) housing c o n d i t i o n s , (7) e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , (8) age d i s t r i b u t i o n , (9) income, (10) expenditures of f a m i l i e s , and (11) a measurement of the v a r i o u s s o c i a l agencies t h a t e x i s t e d i n the community. While the survey method i s continued to be used i n Great B r i t a i n , the American scene i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d today r a t h e r by a great number of community welfare s t u d i e s , i n q u i r i e s of a more s p e c i a l i z e d nature, that w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n t h i s Chapter. (b) "Minimum budget" s t u d i e s and r e l a t e d  measurements of income d i s t r i b u t i o n : The study of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of income i s of b a s i c importance f o r the maintenance and planning of adequate welfare programmes. Although we have l i v e d i n a p e r i o d of r e l a t i v e l y f u l l employment and h i g h wages f o r some time, unemployment, i r r e g u l a r earnings, v o c a t i o n a l inadequacy, broken f a m i l i e s , and c a t a s t r o p h i c i l l n e s s continue to be major problems a f f e c t i n g a great number of people and making them dependent on income provided from p u b l i c sources. Even w i t h the e x i s t i n g frame-work of income-maintenance programmes (pensions, s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programmes, s o c i a l allowance, and unemployment ins u r a n c e ) , the questions of the adequacy of the budget remains.. Therefore, "minimum budget" and "minimum standard" compilations are b a s i c to the maintenance of adequate a s s i s t a n c e programmes. Related to the f a c t s of income d i s t r i b u t i o n , they a l s o show the number of people i n need of a s s i s t a n c e , people that s u b s i s t on a budget which does not secure them an adequate standard of l i v i n g and makes them p o t e n t i a l l y dependent on x^elfare resources. This type of measurement was - 13 -developed by B.S.Rowntree who, d u r i n g the l a t e r part of the 19th century, s t u d i e d the c o n d i t i o n s of the working c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n of York, England. Rowntree constructed a h y p o t h e t i c a l standard of minimum f a m i l y requirements that i n c l u d e d food, r e n t , c l o t h i n g , household m a t e r i a l s and u t i l i t i e s . Any f a m i l y whose budget could not provide f o r the minimum i n these items w a s . c l a s s i f i e d as l i v i n g below the "minimum subsistence" i n "primary poverty". Conditions which reached the l e v e l of minimum subsistence, but d i d not allow f o r any other expenditures were c l a s s i f i e d as "secondary poverty". This type of " p o v e r t y - l i n e " study, pioneered by Rowntree, was e x t e n s i v e l y a p p l i e d i n Great B r i t a i n and a l s o i n Canada and the United S t a t e s . Although economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s have changed, these " p o v e r t y - l i n e " s t u d i e s are s t i l l f u l l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Only t h e i r emphasis has s h i f t e d w i t h the general disappearance of wide-spread and abject poverty. Today, w i t h the existence of a number of income-maintenance programmes, the concern of study and measurement i s the adequacy of the allowances provided, and the question of whether they secure the r e c i p i e n t a minimum standard and a minimum budget. A f u r t h e r question i s , what can be considered a minimum standard and a minimum budget at times where the cost of l i v i n g i s f l u c t u a t i n g from year t o year and area to area. There are a number of important examples of s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g to the area of minimum standards and minimum budgets i n Canada. In 1 9 3 9 , the Toronto 1 Welfare C o u n c i l compiled a standard of a f a m i l y budget "covering a l l the items necessary t o ensure h e a l t h , reasonable l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s 2 and general s e l f - r e s p e c t " . The f i n d i n g s were incorporated and 1 The Costs of L i v i n g : Toronto Welfare C o u n c i l ; 1939. ~ 2 Report: on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada; prepared by Dr.L.C .Marsh; King's P r i n t e r , Ottawa; 1.91+3• p.20. f u r t h e r developed i n the Report of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada (I9I4.3), 1 prepared by Dr.L.C.Marsh, which compiled a " d e s i r a b l e l i v i n g minimum budget and r e s t r i c t e d a s s i s t a n c e minimum". This report a l s o ' i n c l u d e d a study of the minimum standards of s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , employment and unemployment, p r o t e c t i o n against the u n i v e r s a l r i s k s of s i c k n e s s , i n v a l i d i t y , and o l d age, and the economic needs of the f a m i l y ( c h i l d r e n ' s allowances, mothers' allowances, s u r v i v o r s ' i n s u r a n c e ) . An example of t h i s type of study i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s the "Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Allowances i n the C i t y . o f Vancouver", completed i n 1958 f o r the Vancouver Community 2 Chest and C o u n c i l "~. The purpose of t h i s report was the assessment of a measure of need of those people that are c o n t i n u i n g to r e c e i v e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the C i t y of Vancouver, and to a s c e r t a i n what could be considered an adequate a s s i s t a n c e r a t e that would secure the r e c i p i e n t a minimum standard of l i v i n g . The report i s a l s o note-worthy f o r i t s attempts.to c l a s s i f y the broad causes of f i n a n c i a l dependency which were given as (1) p h y s i c a l d i s a b i l i t y , (2) mental 3 d i s a b i l i t y , (3) unemployment, (I4.) l o s s of breadwinner, and (5) age . These studi e s emphasizing the concept of "minimum budget" and "minimum standard" i l l u s t r a t e the b a s i c importance of t h i s type of measurement f o r the maintenance of adequate programmes that permit the r e c i p i e n t an adequate l e v e l of l i v i n g . 1 i b i d . 2 "The Adequacy of S o c i a l A s sistance Allowances i n the C i t y of Vancouver"; Report to-the Community Chest and C o u n c i l ; Vancouver September 195BT 3 i b i d ; pp .5 - 8. - 15 -(c) Census and r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s : With an expanding scope t h a t nottf i n c l u d e s measurement of many s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the Census i s assuming an i n c r e a s i n g l y important s o c i a l purpose. Today, the Census c o n s t i t u t e s the major source of s o c i a l and economic data covering three " s o c i a l dimensions": (a) p o p u l a t i o n (people counted as u n i t s ) ; (b) f a m i l y and household (people as l i v i n g u n i t s ) combined w i t h housing data; and (c) the working f o r c e . S t a t i s t i c s of p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Include data of the volume of the p o p u l a t i o n , sex, age d i s t r i b u t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , and l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g . Such data have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the planning of welfare s e r v i c e s , because they a s s i s t i n determining the number and incidence of groups that are the p a r t i c u l a r concern of v j e l f a r e , such as pre-school c h i l d r e n , school-aged c h i l d r e n , adolescents, and the aged. The data on f a m i l y and household i n d i c a t e the number and s i z e of f a m i l i e s , t h e i r composition, type and standard of accommodation as w e l l as the^ f a m i l y earnings. They allow the assessment of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of la r g e f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s w i t h low incomes. The data on housing have important i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the areas of r e c r e a t i o n and town-planning (slum-clearance). Data on the working f o r c e give the oc c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the labour f o r c e , the employment status as w e l l as the earnings. These are now. supplemented by extensive m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d and reported by the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , the Unemployment Insurance Commission as w e l l as s p e c i a l employment indexes computed by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Such data are of greatest importance f o r welfare p l a n n i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the area of S o c i a l Allowance and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s that are designed to meet the needs of the t e m p o r a r i l y dependent, unemployed person or - 16 -f a m i l y . Census data are reported f o r v a r i o u s geographic u n i t s , ranging from the t o t a l , n a t i o n a l area to s u b - d i v i s i o n s and c e n s u s - t r a c t s . The l a t t e r types, i n p a r t i c u l a r , are u s e f u l f o r welfare measurement, because they a l l o w the measurement of the d i s t r i b u t i o n and incidence of c e r t a i n groups of people and of socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r welfare planning. Data f o r such r e l a t i v e l y small areas become even more valuable when used as base or comparison f o r agency data, l o c a l delinquency or i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e s , or when they are compared f o r i n t e r c e n s a l periods i n order to determine the changes and trends that have occurred over the time. In other words, Census data are most u s e f u l when they lend themselves to comparison w i t h data from other sources, i n p a r t i c u l a r welfare s t a t i s t i c s . This i m p l i e s , however, that the geographic areas of r e p o r t i n g of the v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c s must correspond to the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e extent, i f r e g i o n a l compilations of data from d i f f e r e n t sources are to be made, and the great p o t e n t i a l of socio-economic i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n the Census i s to be f u l l y u t i l i z e d . The attempt to create base areas f o r r e g i o n a l compilations has been f o l l o w e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n Saskatchewan, w h i l e , i n B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s problem has remained unsolved to t h i s day, c r e a t i n g almost insurmountable d i f f i c u l t i e s i n compiling b a s i c s o c i a l and economic data on the p o p u l a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t Regions of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. (d) Community Welfare S t u d i e s : Recent decades have seen an i n c r e a s i n g number of community welfare s t u d i e s , many of them p r o j e c t s i n i t i a t e d by Community Chests and C o u n c i l s . These were i n i t i a l l y mainly concerned w i t h s t u d i e s of how to co-ordinate the m u l t i p l e , v o l u n t a r y agencies. Over the y e a r s , however, a gradual r e f i n i n g of o b j e c t i v e s and methods occurred. Today, many Chests and Councils have e s t a b l -i s hed f u l l - s c a l e research and s t a t i s t i c s d i v i s i o n s f o r the purpose of determining the needs and problems that e x i s t i n the community, and f o r e v a l u a t i n g the appropriateness of the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s as w e l l as the needs f o r new s e r v i c e s . Thus, a t t e n t i o n i s focussed on the people i n the community as much as on the welfare s e r v i c e s provided. Therefore, community welfare studies make l a r g e - s c a l e use of the a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l data measuring the s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t -e r i s t i c s of the t o t a l community such as the Census and r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s , i n order to assess the prevalence and incidence of groups and people that are i n a s t a t e of a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l dependency, such as the aged, broken f a m i l i e s and the unemployed. Such s t a t i s t i c s are r e l a t e d to and compared w i t h the data of welfare agencies f o r the purpose of assessing the p o t e n t i a l need and the need that i s expressed i n a demand f o r s e r v i c e , as w e l l as f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and appropriateness of the e x i s t i n g welfare s e r v i c e s . Most studies have employed index-making as a major technique f o r measuring welfare need and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , because of the advantages of t h i s , technique which l i e i n the r e l a t i v e l y , easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the data needed. The data needed are a l s o inexpensive to o b t a i n and, g e n e r a l l y , are reported i n an e a s i l y understandable form, and they can be r e a d i l y used f o r index-making. Indexing has been used as a technique i n community welfare s t u d i e s f o r many years. During World War I, I.M.Rubinow constructed.a "Dependency Index" which was to e s t a b l i s h the need f o r welfare s e r v i c e s through an a n a l y s i s of welfare data i n d i c a t i n g the type and amount of s e r v i c e given i n the v a r i o u s areas of Fex^ York over a number of years. The " s o c i a l breakdown index", - 18 -developed by Buell and Robinson, projected a rate of " s o c i a l breakdown" fo r Stamford, Connecticut, which, had the purpose to measure the "extent of s o c i a l pathology i n the community and the volume of basic family 1 disorganization" . The data f o r t h i s index were selected from the areas of ( 1 ) mental disease, (2) mental deficiency, ( 3 ) crime, (Ij.) delinquency ( 5 ) neglect, ( 6 ) divorce, and ( 7 ) unemployability. An examination of the nature of these data points to the apparent concentration of t h i s type of study on the pathological side of the community. The data only r e f l e c t the expressed or known need manifested i n s o c i a l break-down or disorganization. Later studies are characterized by approaches that attempt to overcome t h i s one-sided orientation. In 191+9, Bertram Black constructed an index of r e l a t i v e need f o r 2 health and welfare services i n the various boroughs of New York . Black based h i s choice of s t a t i s t i c s on the assumption that " i t appears l o g i c a l that areas with more people are areas of greater need; but i t also appears l o g i c a l that where there i s greatest need, poorest health conditions, greatest incidence of delinquency, crime and s i m i l a r problems, there may be the greatest need f o r health and welfare 3 programmes." This assumption i s r e f l e c t e d i n the data used to measure (a) population d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout the c i t y , and (b) d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l disorganization.. The s t a t i s t i c s examined were grouped into f i v e areas: (1) volume of population; (2). population 1 "Social Breakdown: An Outline of Procedures f o r Compiling Social Data"; B u l l e t i n 1 3 7 ; Community Chests and Councils of North America Inc.; New York; May 191+8; p.2. 2 Black, Bertram J . Our Welfare Needs: A Study of New York City; The Greater New York Fund; New York 191+9• : 3 Black, B e r t r a m J . "The Use of Social and Economic Data i n Developing Indices of Need"; i n Moore, Esther, M. The Cleveland  Workshop i n Retrospect; Community Chests and Councils of North America, i n c . New York; 191+9; p.20. - 19 -c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; (3) economic f a c t o r s ; (I4.) v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s ; and (5) s o c i a l pathology. In 195i4.« a study of Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a was completed under the l e a d e r s h i p of M a r t i n Wolins t h a t was t o measure the welfare problems I and s e r v i c e s of the community . In t h i s p r o j e c t , a f o u r - f o l d approach was used: (1) the s o c i a l breakdown approach (comparison by census t r a c t s of the incidence of h e a l t h and welfare problems; ) (2) survey of agencies (to measure the extent and nature of welfare problems and the extent of the s e r v i c e s designed to meet them; ) (3) survey of " a t t i t u d e s and knowledge" (to a s c e r t a i n community awareness of problems and s e r v i c e s ) ; and (I4.) survey of agency c l i e n t s (to assess the composition of the welfare c l i e n t e l e ) . P a r a l l e l w i t h the development of t h i s type of community welfare study, a new type of study was developed by B u e l l and Community 2 Research Associates that analyzed the t o t a l caseload f o r the purpose of ' c r e a t i n g " t h e framework of a coherent program of community 3 w e l l - b e i n g " . Prom t h i s a n a l y s i s of what amounts to the t o t a l w elfare caseload of the community, the existence of the s o - c a l l e d "multiple-problem f a m i l y " was u n d e r l i n e d i n a new way. I t was brought to l i g h t t hat a small p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s tend to r e q u i r e a l a r g e share of the e x i s t i n g welfare s e r v i c e s . Thus, i n St.Paul,Minnesota, i t was found that about 6 per cent of the f a m i l i e s were s u f f e r i n g from such a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s e r i o u s problems that they absorbed more than 50 per cent of the combined s e r v i c e s of the community. This 1 Wolins, M a r t i n : Welfare Problems and Services In Berkeley, C a l i f o r n i a ; Berkeley C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Welfare; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press; Berkeley, C a l i f ; 1951)-. 2 B u e l l , Bradley and Ass. Community Planning f o r Human S e r v i c e s ; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press; New York; 1 9 5 2 . 3 i b i d ; p . i x . - 20 -d i r e c t e d the focus of the study on b e t t e r d i a g n o s i s , appropriate treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , and general c o - o r d i n a t i o n or "concentrated s e r v i c e " . Out of the measurements and f i n d i n g s of the "St.Paul Study" grew the concept of f a m i l y - c e n t r e d casework and the c e n t r a l screening agency (which could be a p p l i e d , e.g., to a l l c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n or delinquency s e r v i c e s ) . This concept, f i r s t a p p l i e d i n S t . P a u l , has stimulated a number of s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s of welfare s e r v i c e s i n other p a r t s of North America. In San Mateo County, C a l i f o r n i a , a general purpose d i a g n o s t i c c l i n i c f o r a l l behaviour d i s o r d e r s and other w e l f a r e problems has been e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h i s demonstration p r o j e c t i s being watched w i t h great i n t e r e s t . In Edmonton, A l b e r t a , a s m a l l p r o j e c t c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i n t e n s i v e t r e a t -ment of twenty "problem f a m i l i e s " w i t h measuring the r e s u l t s of treatment by res e a r c h methods was i n i t i a t e d by the S o c i a l Service Department i n t h i s c i t y i n 1959* In Vancouver, the i d e a of a co-ordinated agency o f f e r i n g a l l s e r v i c e s needed by the m u l t i p l e -problem f a m i l y i s now being a c t i v e l y considered i n the s o - c a l l e d -"South Vancouver Family Service P r o j e c t " . The i m p l i c a t i o n of these developments towards i n t e n s i v e and co-ordinated s e r v i c e s l i e s i n the need f o r improved methods of case-r e c o r d i n g and s t a t i s t i c s t h a t permit a more r e f i n e d and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of caseloads f o r the purpose of deepening our knowledge about such important phenomena as the causative f a c t o r s and the components of multiple-problem s i t u a t i o n s , dependency, indigency, so that the appropriate kinds of treatment and s e r v i c e s can be developed. (e) Housing and town-planning s t u d i e s ; In more recent years, housing and town-planning stud i e s are g i v i n g - 21 -new impetus to welfare measurements. They are of such importance f o r w e l f a r e and have so many I m p l i c a t i o n s that they deserve s p e c i a l mention. This i s r e a l l y a re-development, f o r housing ( i n the form of s l u m - d i s t r i c t s t u d i e s , slum-clearance surveys, etc.) was one of the o r i g i n a l spheres of s o c i a l work a c t i v i t y . . On the North American Continent, though, and i n Great B r i t a i n and Western Europe, there was l i t t l e or no a c t i v i t y during the twenties and t h i r t i e s . A completely new phase of i n t e r e s t has developed i n the f i f t i e s i n Canada, f i r s t w i t h housing l e g i s l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , then with the needs f o r .public housing, i n c l u d i n g s u b s i d i z e d housing f o r o l d people and l a r g e f a m i l i e s , and most r e c e n t l y "urban redevelopment" (which in c o r p o r a t e s slum-clearance w i t h other kinds of c e n t r a l - a r e a r e b u i l d i n g i n many c i t i e s ) . H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h i s development can be p a r a l l e l e d t o the development of employment and unemployment s t a t i s t i c s a f t e r 19i]-l« Before t h i s date, a l l d i s c u s s i o n s and planning about unemployment, which was the v i t a l problem during the depression, were fundamentally handicapped because of the l a c k of adequate measurements. A s i m i l a r dilemma e x i s t e d i n the area of housing u n t i l the Census began to report data on the standard of housing. In a d d i t i o n , an important s e r i e s of s t a t i s t i c s are now compiled annually by the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation. P r o j e c t s of urban redevelopment and slum-clearance are now i n c r e a s i n g throughout Canada, and f o r these, housing surveys are a r e q u i r e d component. An i n t e r e s t i n g example of the l a t t e r , which has important welfare i m p l i c a t i o n s , i s the Redevelopment Survey completed by the Vancouver C i t y Planning Department i n 1957 — . 1 "The Vancouver Redevelopment Study"; prepared by the C i t y of Vancouver Planning Department f o r the Housing Research Committee; Vancouver, December 1 9 5 7 . - 22 -In t h i s way, housing has re-entered the area of w e l f a r e . While, at f i r s t s i g h t , i t seems to be foremost the concern of the town-planner, the s o c i a l worker has a v i t a l f u n c t i o n to f u l f i l i n t h i s area. Housing needs r a i s e many questions such as measuring the demand and supply of housing. Slum-clearance means u s u a l l y the displacement of l a r g e , low-income f a m i l i e s , e l d e r l y people -and s i n g l e persons who are, g e n e r a l l y , i n an economically p r e c a r i o u s p o s i t i o n . For these people, who are the s p e c i a l concern of the s o c i a l worker, the l o s s of accommodation which, i f perhaps sub-standard, i s at l e a s t cheap and xtfithin t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means, displacement from t h e i r homes poses, a ve r y r e a l economic and psycho-l o g i c a l t h r e a t . This brings t o the foreground the great need f o r l o w - r e n t a l housing p r o j e c t s as much as the problem of the "minimum budget", which has important i m p l i c a t i o n s regarding the questions of appropriate and low r e n t s , or the need f o r s u b s i d i e s . S e l e c t i o n of tenants, a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of housing p r o j e c t s are f u r t h e r areas i n which the s o c i a l worker can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n . Housing p r o j e c t s themselves become a source of new i n f o r m a t i o n , of comprehensive and ra m i f y i n g welfare experience. They can be a f i r s t - r a t e base f o r 1 observation of welfa r e problems The planning of new developments, on the urban, r e g i o n a l or r u r a l l e v e l , i s another f a c t o r adding t o the need f o r more measurement m a t e r i a l . But these new planning a c t i v i t i e s and developments are al s o supplying some new sources of data. Perhaps the most important i m p l i c a t i o n of these new trends i n the area of housing, however, i s 1 As an example, r e f e r t o : Fromson, E, Hansom V., and Smith R. The L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental Housing P r o j e c t ; A.Survey of I t s Welfare I m p l i c a t i o n s ; Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis; U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia; 1959. - 23 -the need f o r c l o s e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the s o c i a l worker and the planner on the one hand, and between s o c i a l welfare data (as w e l l as socio-economic data) and s o c i a l p o l i c y on the other hand. Scope and Method of the Present Study The purpose of t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y Chapter was t o i l l u s t r a t e the widening scope of w e l f a r e , that n e c e s s i t a t e s the c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the areas of concern and a c t i v i t y of w e l f a r e . I t was i n d i c a t e d that measurement i s one approach to d e f i n i t i o n . The v a r i o u s types of welfare measure-ment, now p o s s i b l e and necessary, are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by advances that have been made i n recent years i n the r e f i n i n g of methods and techniques. To a l a r g e e x t e n t , these advances were made p o s s i b l e through the steady improvement of the sources of s t a t i s t i c s that are needed fox welfare measurements, i n p a r t i c u l a r of the Canadian Census and, more r e c e n t l y , i n the development of s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s of a number of Government departments. Against t h i s background, i t i s proposed to i l l u s t r a t e a v a i l a b l e and needed s t a t i s t i c s r e q u i r e d f o r welfare measurement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This r e q u i r e s f o c u s s i n g on: 1. the i d e n t i f y i n g of socio-economic data t h a t are a v a i l a b l e or needed to provide the base f o r s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . 2. the I d e n t i f y i n g of agency data that are a v a i l a b l e or needed f o r a p p r a i s a l and e v a l u a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g welfare s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Selected data from the Census and some other -sources f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and, where p o s s i b l e , f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver, are presented and discussed i n Chapter 2. Considerations of time made i t necessary to r e s t r i c t t h i s p r o j e c t to an examination of data of l a r g e l y s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , while i t was attempted to at - 2h ~ l e a s t i n d i c a t e the other sources of a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s f o r welfare measurement. A group of s p e c i f i c data on p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are then analyzed i n Chapter 3* For t h i s purpose, the s e r v i c e s t h a t are designed t o meet needs a r i s i n g out of f i n a n c i a l dependency, and which are provided by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, were chosen. .The i m p l i c a t i o n s from t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n are drawn together i n the concluding Chapter. - 25 -CHAPTER 2 SOME BASIC SOCIAL DATA In a recent o f f i c i a l Yearbook, B r i t i s h Columbia i s described as f o l l o w s . "The Province of B r i t i s h Columbia l i e s almost e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the C o r d i l l e r a n Region of Worth America and i s t r a v e r s e d from south to n o r t h by three p r i n c i p a l ranges of mountains -the Rocky Mountains to the east, the Columbia and C a s s i a r Systems i n the i n t e r i o r and the Coast Range t o the west. This great mountainous province, vrhich. i s 760 m i l e s from n o r t h to south and averages more than ij.00 m i l e s i n width, supports almost a l l of i t s p o p u l a t i o n i n the extreme so u t h e r l y p o r t i o n . F o r t y per cent of i t s 1,305,000 people l i v e i n the Vancouver -Howe Sound area, 180,000 l i v e i n the a d j o i n i n g Lower Fraser V a l l e y and'another 200,000 i n the southern part of Vancouver I s l a n d . In other words, three quarters of B r i t i s h Columbia's.population l i v e i n about 5 per cent of i t s area. "Half of the remainder are i n the south-eastern corner. This Province i s h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , manufacturing r e p r e s e n t i n g almost h a l f of the value of i t s output. The Province's own great wealth of n a t u r a l resources provide the. raw m a t e r i a l and the power r e q u i r e -ments f o r these i n d u s t r i e s " . 1 Since the f i r s t o f f i c i a l census was taken i n 1871, B r i t i s h Columbia's p o p u l a t i o n has increased f o r t y times, from s l i g h t l y over 36,000 ( i n c l u d i n g 26,000 Indians) to over 1.5 m i l l i o n s i n I960. I t i s of great s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t , at a l l times, the s p e c t a c u l a r increase of the p o p u l a t i o n has been due t o i n - m i g r a t i o n r a t h e r than n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e , the former f a c t o r exceeding the l a t t e r by an appreciable margin (see Table 1 ) . The r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth has been accompan-i e d by a h i g h r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The three 1 Canada 1956; prepared by Canada Yearbook S e c t i o n , Information Services D i v i s i o n , Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ; Ottawa; 1956; p.12. - 26 -phenomena of i n - m i g r a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n are the b a s i c f e a t u r e s of the development.of B r i t i s h Columbia. U r b a n i z a t i o n and I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n Between 1951 and 1 9 5 6 , Canada's r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n increased by 3.1+ per cent, w h i l e the urban p o p u l a t i o n showed a growth of 2 1 . 5 per c e n t . This p a t t e r n of urban growth can a l s o be observed, even to an i n t e n s i f i e d degree, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n increased by 9 . 3 per cent and the urban population by 21+. 5 per cent. During the past generation, Greater Vancouver developed i n t o the t h i r d - l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n Canada. Between 1951 and 1 9 5 6 , the p o p u l a t i o n of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver increased by 1 8 . 3 per cent. Table 2 gives evidence of the h i g h , sustained r a t e of urban growth i n the province, where, at present close to one h a l f of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n the Greater Vancouver area. I t must be noted, i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t i n 1 9 5 6 , another 125,1+1+7 persons, re p r e s e n t i n g 9 . 0 per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area. Thus, i n t h i s year, 5 6 . 5 per cent of the e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n the two great urban centers of the province. This p a t t e r n demonstrates a l l f e a t u r e s of the process of u r b a n i z a t i o n . While the c e n t r a l c i t i e s experience a decreased r a t e of growth (Vancouver) or an.almost stagnant p o p u l a t i o n ( V i c t o r i a ) , the surround-i n g d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area grow at an a l l the more r a p i d pace. Burnaby (pop.1 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n 1959) and Richmond (pop.approach-i n g 1+0,000 i n 1959) n e a r l y doubled t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the past seven years. In the Greater V i c t o r i a area, Saanich M u n i c i p a l i t y increased i n p o p u l a t i o n from 28,1+81 i n 1951+ to 1+2,300 i n 1959 while V i c t o r i a proper shows an increase of only 3>000 persons during the same p e r i o d . Another p a t t e r n of the u r b a n i z a t i o n process, the s p i l l i n g - 27 -over of the^population beyond the boundaries of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n t o the r u r a l country i s t a k i n g place i n the Vancouver-Lower Mainland area where the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Praser V a l l e y (Surrey, Maple Ridge, Langley) are changing i n t h e i r character from r u r a l t o 1 suburban areas . I t i s h i g h l y important to be aware of the magnitude of these changes i n the geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n , i f the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n these r a p i d l y developing suburban areas are to keep pace w i t h the growing p o p u l a t i o n . These changes go beyond a mere increase of p o p u l a t i o n . Suburban areas have g e n e r a l l y a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n . Thus, the composition of the p o t e n t i a l w e l f a r e c l i e n t e l e w i l l change w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g urban-i z a t i o n of a r u r a l area. At the same time the exodus of f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n from the c e n t r a l c i t y i s bound to a f f e c t the composition of the p o p u l a t i o n remaining. This p a t t e r n i s r e f l e c t e d In the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the Vancouver area, where Vancouver proper has the highest p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people (see Table 1 3 ) . While urban growth i s most pronounced i n the south-west corner of the Province, a dramatic expansion has begun to take place i n c e r t a i n p a r t s of the i n t e r i o r of the P r o v i n c e , mainly i n the northern h a l f of i t s populated area. Rapid economical development and Improved communication f a c i l i t i e s have r e s u l t e d i n a great i n f l u x of people, which I s r e f l e c t e d i n the h i g h r a t e of growth of the l a r g e r centres. W i t h i n the past f i v e years, the p o p u l a t i o n of P r i n c e George increased by almost two t h i r d s , from i+,703 i n 1951+ to over 1 2 , 0 0 0 i n 1 9 5 9 . An e q u a l l y r a p i d expansion i s found i n the Peace R i v e r Country where 1 f o r a c t u a l f i g u r e s , r e f e r to Table 27 - 28 -Dawson. Creek shows a present p o p u l a t i o n of over 1 0 , 0 0 0 as compared to 3 , 5 8 9 i n 1951+. The new town of K i t i m a t , a l s o l o c a t e d i n the northern p a r t of B r i t i s h Columbia, was created i n around 1 9 5 2 . In 1 9 5 8 , 9 , 6 7 6 persons were l i v i n g i n t h i s new community. These r a p i d changes have t h e i r deep i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l welfare p l a n n i n g . The i n f l u x of people r e s u l t s not only i n an increased demand f o r s e r v i c e s , but also i n a change i n the composition of. the welfare c l i e n t e l e . Thus., the kinds of need that emerge w i l l be d i f f e r e n t . For long-term p l a n n i n g , i t i s . a l s o e s s e n t i a l t o assess, whether t h i s p a t t e r n of r a p i d growth i n c e r t a i n areas i s l i k e l y to continue i n f u t u r e years. Accompanying and p a r t l y r e s u l t i n g i n r a p i d urban growth i s the h i g h r a t e of i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. In 1 9 5 1 , only 7«7 per 1 cent of the t o t a l male labour f o r c e of 346,371+ were working i n a g r i c u l t u r e . In the t o t a l economic p i c t u r e of the Province, the h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of primary i n d u s t r i e s i s evident. Although manufacturing represents almost h a l f of B r i t i s h Columbia's i n d u s t r i a l output, a considerable percentage of the l a b o r f o r c e i s occupied i n the b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s which are h i g h l y dependent on the economic c y c l e s of the world market. In 1 9 5 1 , 2 . 1 8 per cent of the male labour f o r c e were occupied i n mining, 5 «53 i n l o g g i n g and 1 .52 i n f i s h i n g . Another 8 . .61 per cent were x^orking i n c o n s t r u c t i o n which s t i l l shows marked • seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s . Thus, the economic welfare and s e c u r i t y of almost one f i f t h of the male labour f o r c e i s h i g h l y dependent on the c y c l i c a l and seasonal changes of the economy and the s t a b i l i t y of the b a s i c and r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s . ' 8 . 9 per cent of the male labour f o r c e are u n s k i l l e d workers who have i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n d i n g and 1 D.B.S.; Census o f Canada; 1 9 5 1 . - 29 -remaining i n employment i n an era of i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and technology and an economy which has, f o r a number of years experienced an oversupply of labour. Being u n s k i l l e d , these labourers are i n c r e a s i n g l y handicapped i n competing on the labour market. Their employment h i s t o r y i s o f t e n s p o r a d i c , and, economically, they c o n s t a n t l y l i v e i n a precarious s t a t e . The o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the demographic and economic trends i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i n the recent past as w e l l as i n the f u t u r e , i s 1 a p t l y described by J.T.Marshall: "In the twenty years since the depression the province has moved r a p i d l y i n the f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of i t s economy and the g r e a t e r u r b a n i z a t i o n of i t s p o p u l a t i o n . The l e v e l of l i v i n g has r i s e n , education has been extended, and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of women i n the. labour f o r c e has increased t o an unprecedented degree. . So long as the expansion of economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s continues, the volume of m i g r a t i o n to B r i t i s h Columbia i s l i k e l y t o increase at a compounded r a t e . However, the r e l a t i v e importance of m i g r a t i o n to the t o t a l growth i s l i k e l y to d e c l i n e s l i g h t l y . In the past, the smooth absorption of a tremendous number of migrants i n t o the economy has been p o s s i b l e l a r g e l y because of the ' d e f i c i e n c y ' i n the most productive age group of the p o p u l a t i o n . W i t h i n f i v e to ten years t h i s d e f i c i e n c y w i l l be. taken care of by s u r v i v o r s of the l a r g e wartime and post war 'baby crops' who w i l l be e n t e r i n g the l a b o r market i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers" 2 . The short examination of the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and trends i n B r i t i s h Columbia, attempted on the preceding pages, i n d i c a t e s the existence of a number of phenomena which have been discussed i n the l i g h t of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the existence of w e l f a r e needs i n the f i r s t Chapter. We observe a h i g h r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth, s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n , a h i g h r a t e of m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the province as w e l l as a h i g h r a t e of i n - m i g r a t i o n . U r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w i t h an emphasis 1 M a r s h a l l , J.T.; A Century of P o p u l a t i o n G-rowth In B r i t i s h  Columbia; Canadian Journal of P u b l i c H e a l t h ; V o l . 5 0 , No.2; February 1 9 5 9 ; PP.6I4. - 7 0 . 2 i b i d ; pp . 6 9 - 7 0 . - 30 -on primary i n d u s t r i e s are f u r t h e r f a c t o r s . These changes and phenomena must be understood, because they a f f e c t the l i v e s of a great many people. Neither can the s o c i a l problems that a r i s e out of these changes and ways to meet them be understood apart from the people i n v o l v e d . Therefore, the a n a l y s i s of s o c i a l problems must be based on an understanding of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these people and t h e i r needs. Thus, we turn to the examination of b a s i c demographic data i n an attempt t o assess the number and p r o p o r t i o n of those people that are a f f e c t e d by the changes, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e i r s o c i o -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S elected Demographic Data. The main source f o r the demographic data, discussed i n t h i s Chapter, i s the Census of Canada. Data are given f o r B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole and, where p o s s i b l e , s e p a r a t e l y f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver. The data presented make no c l a i m f o r comprehensiveness. They have • been s e l e c t e d as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the kinds of data which form the base f o r research i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e . (1) Population Growth and I t s Components Since the end of World War I , the r a t e of po p u l a t i o n growth i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r than that of any other province i n Canada. I t has al s o g r e a t l y exceeded the rat e of groitfth of Canada as a whole.. For the p e r i o d 1931 - 191+1, the net per cent increase of p o p u l a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia was 1 7 . 8 per cent, v s . 1 0 . 9 per cent f o r Canada. For the p e r i o d 191+1 to 195*1 > the comparative f i g u r e s are 1+2.5 per cent (B.C.) vs 2 1 . 8 per cent (Canada), and f o r the p e r i o d 1951 to 1 9 5 6 , the comparative f i g u r e s are 2 0 . 0 per cent (B.C) - 31 -vs. II4..8 per cent (Canada)., The a c t u a l net Increase of p o p u l a t i o n f o r the p e r i o d I9I4.I to 1956 and the p r e d i c t e d increase u n t i l 1 9 7 5 , as computed by the B.C. Research C o u n c i l , are shown-on Table 1. This p r e d i c t i o n i n d i c a t e s a continued h i g h r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n increase f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, though l e s s spectacular than during the past two decades. The great importance i n - m i g r a t i o n has i n t h e : s u s t a i n e d h i g h r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n growth i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d on Table 1. I t i s to be noted, however,, that since 191+1 the r a t e of i n - m i g r a t i o n i s d e c l i n i n g r e l a t i v e to the n a t u r a l Increase. (a) The b i r t h r a t e The b i r t h r a t e has increased s t e a d i l y over the past twenty years and i s expected to continue to r i s e s l o w l y d u r i n g the next f i f t e e n years (see Table I4.). . I t has, however, c o n s i s t e n t l y remained below the average f o r Canada, which stood at 23.5 per thousand f o r the p e r i o d 19hl-!+5, 27.14. f o r 19l|-6-50, 27.2 f o r 1951, and 28 .0 f o r 1956. B r i t i s h Columbia's b i r t h r a t e i s also n o t i c e a b l y lower than that of the neighbouring province of A l b e r t a . Nevertheless, the r e l a t i v e i n c rease of B r i t i s h Columbia's b i r t h r a t e has important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the planning of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . I t i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g trend i n the p r o p o r t i o n of pre-school and school-aged c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ; and, w i t h i n the next ten to twenty years i t w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of marriages and formation of f a m i l i e s . The higher b i r t h r a t e w i l l a l s o show i t s e f f e c t s i n the growing number of young persons e n t e r i n g the labour force.. (b) Immigration Immigration i s another important element of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n growth. Since the end of World War I I , when l a r g e - s c a l e immigration - 32 -was resumed, B r i t i s h Columbia has been the p r e f e r r e d province of d e s t i n a t i o n f o r a great p r o p o r t i o n of immigrants. Table 3 shows the number and percentage of those immigrants whose point of d e s t i n a t i o n was gi v e n as " B r i t i s h Columbia" i n the records of the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration. During the year 1957* a year o f p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h immigration, new r e s i d e n t s a r r i v i n g from overseas and the United States and destined f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, accounted f o r 1|1.9 per cent of the t o t a l increase of 8 9 , 5 3 6 i n the population over the preceding year. I t appears that the great m a j o r i t y of immigrants are able t o make a quick economic adjustment to t h e i r new environment. Nevertheless, t h i s group remains vulnerable to the economic hazards, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n times of economic r e c e s s i o n . Their immediate absorption i n t o the labour f o r c e depends g r e a t l y on- a buoyant economy. Thus, e s p e c i a l l y I n periods of decreased economic and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , the l i k e l i h o o d of economic dependency i s higher f o r the immigrant than f o r the l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t . The h i g h rate of immigration a l s o has Important I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the demand and supply i n housing. Immigration remains a h i g h l y f l u c t u a t i n g v a r i a b l e , however,, f o r xirtiich trends and p r e d i c t i o n s are d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h , since the volume of Immigration depends on a great number of p o l i t i c a l and economic f a c t o r s . - 33 -T a b l e 1 : P o p u l a t i o n Trends and F o r e c a s t s i n Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s . 191+1 - 1 9 7 5 . Y E A R C A N A D A A L B E R T A B R I T I I 3 H C 0. L U M B I J number (a) p.c. number p.c. number p.c. elements of i n c r e a s e n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e n e t m i g r -at I on 191+1 1 1 , 5 0 6 , 6 6 5 1 0 . 9 7 9 6 , 1 6 9 8 . 9 8 1 7 , 8 6 1 1 7 . 8 3 3 . 2 6 6 . 8 1951 H+,009,2+29 3 0 . 5 9 3 9 , 5 0 1 1 7 . 9 1 , 1 6 5 , 2 1 0 1*2.5 3 3 . 6 66.2+ 1956 1 6 , 0 8 1 , 7 9 1 11+.8 1 , 1 2 3 , 1 1 6 1 9 . 7 1,398,2+61+ 2 0 . 0 2+2.0 5 8 . 0 D I 9 6 0 " 1 7 , 5 8 9 , 0 0 0 9.2+ 1 , 2 6 0 , 0 0 0 1 2 . 2 1 , 5 7 8 , 6 0 0 1 2 . 8 - -1965 1 9 , 7 0 9 , 0 0 0 1 2 . 1 1 ,24.78,000 1 7 . 2 1 , 8 8 6 , 6 0 0 1 9 . 7 • - -1970 2 2 , 1 2 5 , 0 0 0 1 2 . 3 1,731+, 000 21]..1 2,2i|i) . ,800 1 8 . 9 -1975 2 5 , 0 7 1 , 0 0 0 1 3 . 3 2,01).3,000 17-8 2 , 6 7 3 , 8 0 0 1 6 . 0 — (a) p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e s o ver p r e c e d i n g Census. b f i g u r e s f o r I 9 6 0 - 1975 e s t i m a t e s by the B.C.Research C o u n c i l . T a b l e adapted f r o m the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s : (.1) Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s ; Census o f Canada, 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . • (2) Walden, C.C., U r q u h a r t A . I . and Gouge, J.W.; P o p u l a t i o n Trends  i n Canada, B r i t i s h C o lumbia, A l b e r t a and Saskatchewan; B.C. Rese a r c h C o u n c i l ; Vancouver, B.C.; J a n u a r y 1957* (3) M a r s h a l l , J.T., A Ce n t u r y of P o p u l a t i o n Growth i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a ; Canadian J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h ; V o l . 5 0 , No.2, Feb. 19^9; pp.62+-70. f o r a c t u a l f i g u r e s , r e f e r t o Ta b l e 3 3 , Appendix. - 31+ -Table 2: Gross P o p u l a t i o n B r i t i s h . Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y of Vancouver; 191+1-1956; number and percentages of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . YEAR B r i t i s h Columbia M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver C i t y of Vancouver number (a) p.c. number (b) p.c. number (b) p.c. 191+1 8 1 7 , 8 6 1 5 3 . 8 3 7 7 , W ' 1+6.32 2 7 5 , 3 5 3 3 3 . 7 1951 1 , 1 6 5 , 2 1 0 Sk-k 5 3 0 , 7 2 8 1+5.6 ' 3 l |4 ,833 > 2 9 . 6 1956 1 , 3 9 8 , 4 6 k 5 2 . 5 6 6 5 , 0 1 7 1+7.5 365,81+1+ 2 6 . 1 Source: D.B.S.; Census of Canada, 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . (a) percentage of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n e x c l u d i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver (b) percentage of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of B.C. 1 Table 3 * Immigration to Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia percentage of t o t a l immigration to B r i t i s h Columbia; s e l e c t e d years 1.951 - 1 9 5 8 . YEAR CANADA BRITISH COLUMBIA number number p.c. 1951 19l+,391 11+, 391+ .7.1+ 1955 109,91+6 1 1 , 5 7 0 1 0 . 5 1956 16!+, 857 1 7 , 8 1 2 10..8 1957 282,161). 3 7 , 5 2 8 1 3 . 3 1958 12l+,85l 13,1+00 1 0 . 8 1 immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada w i t h d e s t i n a t i o n given as Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. Source: "Immigration"; p u b l . by the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigration, 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 5 8 . Canada Yearbook 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . - 35 -T a b l e i+: T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n and Crude B i r t h . R a t e s , Canada, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; 191+1 - 1956 ( a c t u a l f i g u r e s ) , and I960 - 1975 ( e s t i m a t e s ) ; r a t e s p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . YEAR P 0 I 5 U L A..T I 0 N . f B I R T H R A T E S Canada A l t a . i t B.C. Canada A l t a . B.C. 191+1 11 , 5 0 6 , 6 6 5 796,169 818,000 23.1+ 23.6 18.1+ 1951 lii,0 0 9 ,1+ 2 9 9 3 9 , 5 0 1 1 , 1 6 5,210 27.2 28 . 8 21+.1 1956 16,081,791 1 , 123,116 1,398,1+61+ 28.0 31.1 25.9 I 9 6 0 " 1 7 , 5 8 8,000 1,260,000 1 , 5 7 8,600 2 7 . 5 29.-8 26.0 1965 1 9 , 7 0 9 , 0 0 0 ' 1,1+78,000 1 , 8 8 6,600 26.0 28.9 26.0 1970 22 , 1 2 5,000 1,71+3,000 2,21jJ+,800 26.2 .. 28.9 27.0 1975 25,071,000 2,01+3,000 2,673,800 2 7 . 5 . 29.8 28 . 5 a e s t i m a t e d by B.C.Research C o u n c i l T a b l e adapted from t h e f o l l o x t f i n g s o u r c e s : (1) D.B.S.; Census o f Canada, 191+1, 1 9 5 l , 1 9 5 6 . (2) P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 5 7 . (3) D.B.S.; V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s R e p o r t ; 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . (i+) Walden, U r q u h a r t & Gouge; o p p . c i t . f o r a c t u a l f i g u r e s r e f e r t o T a b l e 3I+, Appendix. 1 - 36 -(2) A g e - D i s t r i b u t i o n of the P o p u l a t i o n The a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i s shown i n a c t u a l f i g u r e s f o r the p e r i o d 192+0 t o 1955 and i n estimated f i g u r e s f o r the years I960 to 1975 9*n Table 5 . A steady d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the most productive age group (20 t o 65 years) i s i n d i c a t e d u n t i l I960 from which time on i t s p r o p o r t i o n i s expected t o remain at a f a i r l y constant 52 to 53 per cent. This f i g u r e i s s l i g h t l y higher f o r B r i t i s h Columbia than f o r Canada as a whole. During 1958, t h i s age 11 group c o n s t i t u t e d 5l«8 per cent of t h e . e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . The d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the productive age group of 20 to 62+ years i s accompanied by changes to a v a r y i n g degree i n the other p o p u l a t i o n groups, the pre-school and school-aged c h i l d r e n , the adolescents, and the aged. These are the groups w i t h a h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r welfare p l a n n i n g , because they are, e n t i r e l y or i n p a r t , economically and s o c i a l l y dependent. The group.of pre-school and school-aged c h i l d r e n (0 - 12+ years) shows a s p e c t a c u l a r increase from 21.1 per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 191+0 to 28 .8 per cent i n 1955. The trend i s expected t o continue u n t i l 1975 when i t i s estimated t o reach 31«9 per cent. This p a t t e r n i s . of great s i g n i f i c a n c e , since t h i s age group i s i n great, need of a number of h e a l t h and welfare s e r v i c e s . . Adequate planning f o r schools and other educational f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s depends on the understanding of the trends i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s age group. An assessment of these trends w i l l a l s o permit a measure of p r e d i c t i o n as to the number of persons that are expected to enter i n t o the labour f o r c e I n f u t u r e y e a r s . , The age group 15 - 19 years (adolescents) decreased from 8.5 per cent 1 Canada Yearbook; 1959. - 37 -i n 192+0 to 6.2 per cent i n 1 9 5 5 and i s expected to increase g r a d u a l l y to 8.2 per cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1975. These f i g u r e s are of extreme importance f o r planning since t h i s group i s c l o s e to e n t e r i n g or has already entered the labour f o r c e . The p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people (65 years and over) increased from 8.1 p e r cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 192+0 to 10.9 per cent i n 1955» and i s considerably higher than the corresponding f i g u r e f o r Canada which stood at 7»5 per cent i n 1958 (see Table 5 ) . The expected d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the age group 65 years and over t o 7*0 per cent i n 1975 Is noteworthy. Nevertheless, t h i s group w i l l continue t o form a considerable segment of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . The increase i n l i f e expectancy, improved medical care and other f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d to the increase i n the p r o p o r t i o n of persons 65 years and over. This i s a phenomenon oc c u r r i n g i n most parts of the Western World. In B r i t i s h Columbia, however, the l a r g e number of e l d e r l y people moving to t h i s province f o r t h e i r retirement poses an a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s t r e n d . Thus, we can observe "a f a s t e r progress of the aging of the p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s province than i n others. The o l d e r age groups expanded r a p i d l y due p a r t l y to the r e d u c t i o n of m o r t a l i t y and p a r t l y to a considerable i n f l u x of e l d e r l y . m i g r a n t s . . . In the l a s t two census, t h e r e f o r e , B r i t i s h Columbia showed a c o n s i d e r a b l y higher p r o p o r t i o n 1 of the age group 65 and over than most other provinces " 1 M a r s h a l l , J.T.; o p p . c l t . p.67 - 38 -(3) Data on the Aged E l d e r l y people who, i n t h e i r great m a j o r i t y , have l e f t t h e ' a c t i v e labour f o r c e , represent a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of the population group which i s i n r e c e i p t of p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . We are aware of the changes i n our socio-economic s t r u c t u r e and our way of l i f e t h a t have deeply a f f e c t e d the s e c u r i t y and happiness of many e l d e r l y people. The need f o r s e r v i c e s f o r the aged goes beyond adequate f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . Great needs e x i s t i n the areas of medical care, housing f o r the aged, e s p e c i a l l y f o r s i n g l e persons, and r e c r e a t i o n a l and l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t break the l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n of many aged people. While the increase i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the aged alone p o i n t s t o the i n c r e a s i n g need f o r s e r v i c e s , we have to know more about the s o c i o -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s group. We must know where the aged l i v e , how they l i v e , what t h e i r resources and what t h e i r needs are, so that adequate s e r v i c e s can be developed which can meet the d e f i c i e n c i e s i n t h e i r l i v e s . The sex and m a r i t a l status of persons 65 years and over f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver are shown on Tables 6 and 7« The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e an increase of the age group 65 years and over which i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y higher i n the C i t y of Vancouver than i n B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. In 1 9 5 6 , 13-ij-per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver were over 65 years. This compares to 1 2 . 1 per cent f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and 1 0 . 8 per cent f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. This h i g h e r incidence of e l d e r l y persons i n the c e n t r a l c i t y compared to the surrounding areas i s t y p i c a l f o r the p a t t e r n of u r b a n i z a t i o n where young f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n tend to leave the c e n t r a l c i t y and become e s t a b l i s h e d i n the suburban areas. - 39 -An examination of the m a r i t a l status of t h i s age group shows t h a t i n 1956 s l i g h t l y more than one h a l f were married (52.3 per cent i n B.C. and 53«7 per cent i n Vancouver C i t y ) . Of the remaining p o r t i o n , 7«2+ per cent i n B.C. and 11.2 per cent In Vancouver C i t y were s i n g l e men. The h i g h e r incidence of s i n g l e , unattached men i n Vancouver i s note-worthy. This holds also true of the age group 65 years and over as a whole which show the highest c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the C i t y of Vancouver. - kO - .: 'it-, T a b l e 51 P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n by S e l e c t e d Age Groups-;' Canada, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; 19k0 - l.§55 ( a c t u a l p e r c e n t a g e s ) , and 1960-1975 ( e s t i m a t e s ' ) ; p e r c e n t a g e s o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . YEAR 0 - l k y e a r s 15 - 19 y e a r s 20 • - 6 k ye. a r s 6 5 y e a r s and 0 v e r CANADA ALTA. B.C. CANADA ALTA. B.C. CANADA ALTA, : B.C. i. CANADA ALTA. B.C. 19k0 2 9 . 0 28 .7 21.1 9 . 9 10.1 8.5 55.6 56.3 ;": • 62 .3 . 6 . 5 k.9 8 . 1 1950 29.6 30.2 25.2 7.7 8.1 6 .3 .51f.7 5 h . 6 ! < 57.9 • 8J.0 7-1 10 .k 1955 32.2 33.0 28 .8 7.3 7.3 6 .2 52 .8 52.3-: ;. 5k. 1 7.7 7.2 10.9 I960 33.2 3I4-.2 3 0 . h 7.8 7.7 7 .0 51.2 51. Oy" v 52 .6 7!.8 7.1 10.0 1965 32.7 3k.1 30.9 8.9 8.5 8.0 50.8 50. ll ; 52.5 7 .6 6 . 7 8.6 1970 31.9 33.2 31.1 9 .5 9 .5 8.5 51.2 50.8,. , 52.9 7-k • 6.1+ 7.5 1975 31.9 33.3 31.9 8.9 9 .1 8 . 2 51.8 51.3V • 52.9 .'11 7j.k 6 . 3 7.0 S o u r c e : Walden, Urquhart & Gouge: P o p u l a t i o n Trends • i n Canada, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a and  Saskatchewan; B.C. R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ; Vancouver; J a n u a r y 1957. F o r a c t u a l f i g u r e s see T a b l e s 3 6 , 37? 3 8 , Appendix. 's -1+1 -T a b l e 6: Sex and M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f P o p u l a t i o n 65 y e a r s and o v e r ; p e r c e n t a g e s o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ; B r i t i s h . C o lumbia, 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 . sex and m a r i t a l 1 9 1+1 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 .6 status number p.c. number p.c. number p.c. t o t a l T 817,861 1 0 0 . 0 1,165,120 1 0 0 . 0 1,398,1+61+ 100.0. p o p u l a t i o n M 1+35,031 5 3 . 2 596,961 5 1 . 2 720,516 5 1 . 5 Br ..Columbia P 382 , 8 3 0 1+6.8 568,21+9 1+8.8 677,91+8 1+8.5 t o t a l p o p u lation T 67 , 7 7 2 8 . 3 126 , 137 10 . 8 1 5 0 , 7 7 9 1 0 . 8 65 and over M 38,881+ 1+.8 69 , 9 5 9 6 . 0 81,018 5 . 8 P 29 , 1 8 8 3 . 5 56,178 1+.8 69,761 5 . 0 p o p u l a t i o n 65 and over T 9 , 2 7 9 1 .2 ll+,637 1 .3 1 6 , 0 7 0 1.1 s i n g l e : M 7 , 0 3 2 0 . 9 1 0 , 8 5 5 1 . 0 11,671 0 . 8 P 2,21+7 0 . 3 3,782 0 . 3 l+,399 0 . 3 T 2 0 , 8 9 0 2.1+ 37,801+ 3 . 2 1+7,658 3.1+ widowed: M 7,1+27 0 . 8 12,1+01+ 1.1 11+, 723 l . l P 13,1+63 1.6 25,1+00 2 . 1 32,935 2 . 3 T 198 0 . 1 586 0 . 1 821+ 0 . 1 d i v o r c e d : M ll+l - 1+01+ - 603 -P 57 — 182 — 221 — t o t a l popu-l a t i o n 65 and over l i v i n g T 30,367 3 . 7 5 3 , 0 2 7 1+.6 61+, 552 1+.6 without M ll+,600 1 .8 2 3 , 6 6 3 2 . 1 2 6 , 9 9 7 2 . 0 spouse: F 1 5 , 7 6 7 1 .9 29,361+ 2 . 5 3 7 , 5 5 5 2 . 6 1,231+ 0 . 2 - — - -t o t a l popu-8 6 , 2 2 7 l a t i o n 65 T 3 6 , 1 7 1 1+.1+ 7 3 , 1 1 0 6 . 2 . 6 . 2 and over M 2 3 , 1 6 5 2 . 8 1+6,296 3 . 9 51+, 021 3 . 9 l i v i n g w i t h F 13,006 1.6 26,811+ 2 . 3 35,206 2 . 3 spouse (married) x t o t a l of persons 65 years and over l e g a l l y separated (reported f o r 191+1 Census o n l y ) . S o u r c e : D.B.S.; Census o f Canada, 191+1, 1951 , 1 9 5 6 . - 1+2 -T a b l e 7: Sex and M a r i t a l S t a t u s of P o p u l a t i o n 65 y e a r s and o v e r ; p e r c e n t a g e s o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ; C i t y of Vancouver 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1956 and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver 1 9 5 6 . sex and ,C I T Y 0 P V A N C 0 U V S R 1 4ETR. VANCOUVER m a r i t a l s t a t u s 1 9 1+1 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 6 number p.c. number p.c. number p.c. number t o t a l T 275 ,353 1 0 0 . 0 31+l+,833 1 0 0 . 0 365,81+1+ 1 0 0 . 0 665 , 0 1 7 1 0 0 . 0 p o p u l a t i o n M 1 3 9 , 5 8 0 5 0 . 8 167,81+5 1+8.7 180 ,596 1+9.5 331,1+1+5 1+9.8 P 135 ,773 1+9.2 176 ,988 5 1 .3 185,21+8 5 0 . 5 333 , 5 7 2 5 0 . 2 t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n T • 2h , 0 0 7 8.7 1+2+, 206 1 2 . 8 5 0 , 1 5 3 13.1+ 80 , 2 5 7 1 2 . 1 65 y e a r s M 12 ,683 1+.6 2 3 , 2 3 1 6.7 2 5 , 5 9 2 6 . 9 1+1,278 6 . 2 and o v e r P 11,321+ l+.l 2 0 , 975 6 . 1 21+, 561 6 . 5 3 8 ,979 5 .9 p o p u l a t i o n 65 and over • • T 3 , 1 5 6 1 .2 ' 5 , 3 2 2 1 .5 5 , 9 8 1 1 .5 8,228 1 .3 s i n g l e : M 2 , 1 7 8 0.8 ' 3 , 6 7 0 1.1 l+,ioi+ 1.1 5,692 0 .9 P 978 0.1+ 1 ,652 0.1+ 1 ,877 0.1+ 2,536 0.1+ T 8,062 3 .0 11+, 1+68 1+.2 17,321+ 1+.6 26,601 l+.o widowed: M 2,1+07 0.9 1+,132 1 .2 l+,632 1.1 7 , 5 1 0 1.1 P 5,655 2 . 1 10 ,336 3 .0 12 ,692 3 .5 1 9 , 0 9 1 2.9 T 50 0 . 1 221 0 . 1 31+3 0 . 1 1+85 0 . 1 d i v o r c e d : M 31+ - • 11+1+ 218 - 327 -P 16 — 77 — 125 158 t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n T 1 1 ,268 . 1+.3 2 0 , 0 1 1 5.8 23,61+8 6 . 2 35,311+ . 5.1+ 65 and over M 1+,619 1 .7 7,91+6 2 . 3 8,9514 2 . 3 1 3 , 5 2 9 2 . 1 l i v i n g P 6,61+9 2.6 1 2 , 0 6 5 3.5 ll+,69l4 3.9 2 1 ,785 3-3 w i t h o u t spouse: X 509 0 . 1 - — - - - — t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n T 1 2 , 2 0 5 1+.3 21+, 195 7.0 26,595 7.2 l+l+,9l+3 6 .7 65 and o v e r M 7,71+0 2.8 1 5 , 2 8 5 l+.li 16,638 1+.5 27,71+9 1+.2 l i v i n g w i t h P 1L,1+65 1 .5 8 , 9 1 0 . 2 . 6 9,957 2.7 17,191+ 2.5 spouse ( m a r r i e d ) x t o t a l of p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s and over l e g a l l y s e p a r a t e d ( r e p o r t e d i n 191+1 Census o n l y ) . S o u r c e : D.B.S.; Census o f Canada, 191+1, 1951 , 1 9 5 6 . - 1+3 -(!(.) Data on the Family Marriages and Divorces: The marriage r a t e i s a f i r s t ap-proximable 1 measure of the r a t e of f a m i l y growth . A d e c l i n e i n the marriage r a t e , shown i n Table 8 , i s i n evidence throughout Canada. I t i s noted, however, that the marriage r a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia has remained s l i g h t l y h i gher than the r a t e f o r Canada which, was 8 .7 per thousand f o r the p e r i o d 1951 - 1955, and 8 . 3 i n 1956. In order t o gain a more accurate p i c t u r e of the rat e of f a m i l y formation, the data on the number of f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n would have to be examined. Such data are important f o r assessing c e r t a i n w e l f a r e needs, i n p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n ; they also are necessary f o r planning i n the area of housing. The r i s i n g r a t e of divorce s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (see Table 8 ) which has been c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h above the average f o r Canada, i n d i c a t e s a weakening i n the s t a b i l i t y of the f a m i l y . While divorce must not n e c e s s a r i l y i n c u r dependency, i t does represent the s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r -a t i o n of a f a m i l y and makes t h i s f a m i l y much more vuln e r a b l e i n l a t e r c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s . Households and F a m i l i e s : Households by number of f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver are g i v e n on Tables 9 and 10. The f i g u r e s give a measure of the p r o p o r t i o n of people l i v i n g alone ( i n "non-family households") and of overcrowding ("households w i t h two and more f a m i l i e s " ) . Since 191+1, the number of non-family households as w e l l as overcrowded households 1 An annual computation of the net f a m i l y formation i s made j o i n t l y by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s and the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing Corporation. - 1+1+ -has decreased i n B r i t i s h Columbia (see Table 9 ) . This i n d i c a t e s a r e d u c t i o n i n the number of people l i v i n g alone as w e l l as of over-crowding. A comparison of these f i g u r e s w i t h the f i g u r e s f o r the C i t y of Vancouver (Table 10) i n d i c a t e s opposite trends f o r t h i s area. The number of non-family households has r i s e n from 1 2 . 0 per cent of a l l households i n 191+1 to 1 9 . 3 per cent i n 1 9 5 6 , w h i l e the percentage of households w i t h two and more f a m i l i e s shows no appreciable d e c l i n e since 191+1. The f i g u r e s give a more favourable p i c t u r e f o r Metro-p o l i t a n Vancouver where i n 1 9 5 6 , 15.8 per cent l i v e d i n non-family households and 3.8 per cent i n m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y households. The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a higher incidence of persons l i v i n g alone, as w e l l as of f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n overcrowded homes i n the C i t y of Vancouver, and have important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r w e l f a r e planning i n such areas as adequate housing and adequate"social a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s f o r the s i n g l e , unattached i n d i v i d u a l . F a m i l i e s w i t h one parent: The number of f a m i l i e s w i t h one parent d e c l i n e d from 10..0 per cent of a l l f a m i l i e s i n 191+1 to 8.1+ per cent i n 1956 (see Table 1 2 ) . Table 11 i n d i c a t e s a s i m i l a r d e c l i n e f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver. In the l a t t e r area, however, the p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h one parent has always been r e l a t i v e l y h i gher and stood at 1 0 . 5 per cent i n 1 9 5 6 . In 1 9 5 6 , of the t o t a l of the heads of one-parent f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 57«2 per cent were widowed, 31 .0 . per cent married and assumed separated, and 11.8 per cent d i v o r c e d . In approximately three - f o u r t h of a l l one-parent f a m i l i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the remaining parent i s the mother; f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, the p r o p o r t i o n i s approximately f o u r - f i f t h s . This f i g u r e - h$ -has r a t h e r Important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r welfare p l a n n i n g , since i t can be assumed that mothers;, who are heads of one-parent f a m i l i e s , have a greater-tendency to remain at home and support t h e i r f a m i l i e s on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , than f a t h e r s of one-parent f a m i l i e s , who u s u a l l y attempt to remain i n employment. Another important c o n s i d e r a t i o n i:s the c o n c e n t r a t i o n of one-parent f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y f a m i l i e s w i t h the mother as the head, i n the C i t y of Vancouver. This phenomenon may be a r e f l e c t i o n of the b e t t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Vancouver as w e l l as of the wider range of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s c i t y . - 1+6 -T a b l e 8: Rate of R e g i s t e r e d M a r r i a g e s and D i v o r c e s ( p e r ' thousand p o p u l a t i o n ) ; Canada, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 . YEAR CANADA ALBERTA BRITISH COLUMBIA m a r r i a g e s d i v o r c e s m a r r i a g e s d i v o r c e s m a r r i a g e s d i v o r c e s 191+1 1G.6 0.21 1 0 . 6 0 . 3 9 1 2 . 0 0 . 6 1951 1 2 . 8 0 . 3 8 9 . 9 0 . 6 3 9 . 7 1 .2 1956 8 . 3 0 . 3 8 8 . 9 0.61 8.1+ 1.1 S o u r c e : P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ; 1 9 5 7 . DBS; V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ' R e p o r t ; 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . f o r a c t u a l f i g u r e s r e f e r t o T a b l e 3 5 , A p p e n d i x . T a b l e 9 : Households by Number o f F a m i l i e s ; B r i t i s h C olumbia; 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 . YEAR T o t a l number o f Households Households one f a m i l y w i t h Households xtfith two and more f a m i l i e s N o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s number p.c. number p.c. • number p.c. 191+1 2 0 6 , 3 3 9 158,516 77.1+ 7 , 2 9 3 3 . 5 1+0,530 1 9 . 6 1951 3 3 7 , 7 8 0 2 7 0 , 6 0 0 8 0 . 1 1 3 , 7 8 0 l+.l 53,1+00 1 5 . 8 1956 392,1+03 3 1 6 , 3 9 5 8 0 . 6 12 ,112 3 . 1 6 3 , 8 9 6 1 6 . 3 S o u r c e : D.B.S.; Census o f Canada; 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . - i+7 -T a b l e 1 0 : Households by Number o f F a m i l i e s ; C i t y of Vancouver, 1 9 k l - 1 9 5 6 , and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 1 9 5 6 . C i t y o f Vancouver YEAR T o t a l Number o f Households Households w i t h one f a m i l y Households w i t h two and more f a m i l i e s N o n - f a m i l y Households number p.c. number p.c. number p.c. 191+1 1951 1956 7 3 , 7 7 9 1 0 1 , 3 3 0 1 0 8 , 9 5 3 61 , 5 6 k 7 8 , 6 6 5 8 3 , 1 1 9 8 3 . k 77-7 7 6 . 2 3,396 6 , 1 2 5 k , 8 8 0 k - 6 : 6 . 0 1+.5 8 , 8 1 9 16,51+0 2 0 , 9 5 k 12 . 0 16 . 3 1 9 . 3 . 1956 1 9 2 , 0 0 k 1 5 k , 1+51 Metropo 80.1+ l i t a n Vane 7 , 2 k 8 ouver 3 . 8 3 0 , 3 0 5 1 5 . 8 S o u r c e : D.B.S.; Census o f Canada, 1 9 k l , 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . T a b l e 1 1 : F a m i l i e s w i t h one o r b o t h p a r e n t s at home; M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 1951 and 1 9 5 6 ; C i t y o f Vancouver, 1 9 k l and 1 9 5 6 . Type o f METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER CITY OF VANCOUVER F a m i l y 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 6 1 9 k . l 1.9 5 6 number p.c. number p.c. number : p.C . number p.c. f a m i l i e s ¥ w i t h one F p a r e n t T at home f a m i l i e s w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s a t home: 2 , 3 9 7 1 2 , 2 1 7 11+, 611+ 1 2 7 , 3 2 5 1 .8 8 . 5 1 0 . 3 8 9 . 7 2 , 5 9 1 12,1+78 1 5 , 0 6 9 1 5 6 , 2 5 9 1 .5 7 . 3 8 . 8 9 1 . 2 1 ,376 7 , 2 2 0 8 , 5 9 6 6 1 , 2 9 0 2 . 1 1 0 . 2 1 2 . 3 8 7 . 7 1 ,566 8 , 3 2 8 9 , 8 9 k 8 k , 5 7 3 •1.7 8 . 8 1 0 . 5 8 9 - 5 T o t a l number o f f a m i l i e s : Ll+1,939 1 0 0 . 0 1 7 1 , 2 9 6 1 0 0 . 0 0 6 9 , 8 8 6 1 0 0 . 0 0 9 k , k 6 7 1 0 0 . 0 0 Source: D.B.S.; Census o f Canada, 191+1,- 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . - 1+8 -Table 1 2 : Families with one or both Parents at Home; B r i t i s h Columbia; 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 . Type of Family 1 9 1+1 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 6 number • p.c. number p.c. number p.c. one parent at home: head of M family widowed: F 3 , 6 2 8 1 2 , 2 7 6 1 .8 6 . 2 3,101+ 1 3 , 0 3 1 1 . 1 1+.1+ 2 , 9 5 0 1 3 , 1 7 0 0 . 9 3 . 9 head of M family F married :• x n.r. n.r. -. 1,81+9 8 , 0 5 1 0 . 6 2 . 8 2 , 0 8 1 6 , 6 2 2 0.7. 1 .9 head of M family F divorced 717 3 , 1 2 2 0.1+ 1.6 1+21+ 1 ,911+ 0 . 1 0 . 6 517 2 , 3 2 7 0 . 2 0 . 8 Total M number of F fami l i e s T with one parent: l f-,770 1 5 , 3 9 8 • 2 0 , 1 6 8 2 . 2 7 . 8 1 0 . 0 5,1+81+ 2 3 , 3 0 0 28 ,781+ 1 .8 7 . 8 9 . 6 5 , 6 2 9 2 2 , 5 8 6 2 8 , 2 1 5 1 .8 6 . 6 8.1+ f a m i l i e s with both parents at home:. 177,081+. 9 0 . 0 2 7 1 , 0 6 1 9 0 . l i . . 3 1 7 , 7 8 8 9 1 . 6 Total Numbei of Families j 1 * 197,252 1 0 0 . 0 0 299,81+5 1 0 0 . 0 0 31+6,003 1 0 0 . 0 0 x n.r. not reported Source: D.B..S.;. Census of Canada; 191+1, 1951., 1 9 5 6 . - 1+9 -( 5 ) I l l e g i t i m a c y C e r t a i n non-welfare s t a t i s t i c s such as data on crime r a t e s , j u v e n i l e delinquency or i l l e g i t i m a c y , i n d i c a t e s i t u a t i o n s of s o c i a l breakdown or ex i s t e n c e of welfare problems; they can be used to measure the changing needs f o r s e r v i c e s . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n the number of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s and the percentage of t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s i n Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia i s given on Table 13• I t i s noteworthy, that the percentage of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h has remained r e l a t i v e l y constant i n Canada duri n g the past 16 years, w h i l e i t has markedly Increased by almost o n e - t h i r d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Since i t i s w e l l known to the personnel of s o c i a l w elfare agencies, that a great number of unmarried mothers come, f o r various personal reasons, and a t t r a c t e d by the b e t t e r s e r v i c e s and the anonymity of the b i g c i t y , to Vancouver to give to an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , the h i g h r a t e of i l l e g i t i m a c y r e f l e c t e d i n the v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s of B r i t i s h Columbia cannot be considered wholly as a s o c i a l problem Inherent i n the po p u l a t i o n of the province. Nevertheless, the r i s i n g r a t e of i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s p o i n t s to an i n c r e a s i n g need for, v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s f o r the unmarried mother and has a l s o v i t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the areas of foster-home placements and adoptions. - 50 -Table 13: Number of I l l e g i t i m a t e B i r t h s " a n d percentage of T o t a l L i v e B i r t h s ; Canada,Alberta and B r i t i s h Columbia; 19^1 - 1 9 5 7 . YEAR C A N A D A A L B E R T A B R I I C 0 L U ' I S H M B I A number P . c number p.c. number p.c. 1 9 k l 1 0 , 1 0 1 3.96 720 k .2 688 k .6 1951 lk , 5 3 7 k.O 1 ,272 k-7 1 ,633 5 . 8 1956 1 7 , 5 1 0 3.9 1 , 6 7 k k.& 2 , 2 0 7 6vl 1957 1 8 , 6 2 9 3 . 8 1 , 8 1 0 5 . 1 2 , k 7 3 6.k Source: Canada Yearbook; 1 9 k l - 1 9 5 7 f o r a c t u a l number of t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s r e f e r to Table 3 k ,Appendix Summary The data so f a r presented are only a few i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the s o c i a l data, a v a i l a b l e i n demographic s t a t i s t i c s , which could serve as the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r research i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e . Although the data examined are very l i m i t e d i n range, they point t o the existence of l a r g e groups of people i n B r i t i s h Columbia, such as the aged and the f a m i l i e s w i t h one parent, that can be presumed to be economically vulnerable, and thus i n a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l need of welfare s e r v i c e s . The data also i l l u s t r a t e the h i g h and s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of such phenomena as u r b a n i z a t i o n , m o b i l i t y , , divorce and i l l e g i t i m a c y . They f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e the co n c e n t r a t i o n of people i n a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l need of s e r v i c e s i n the Vancouver area. Although, where p o s s i b l e , separate f i g u r e s were given f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver, no attempt was made to compare and analyze Census d i v i s i o n s and s u b d i v i s i o n s as separate areas, since - 51 -1 . Census d i v i s i o n s and subdivisions i n B r i t i s h Columbia generally do not represent approximately homogeneous s o c i a l and economic areas. -2. Census d i v i s i o n s and subdivisions i n B r i t i s h Columbia do not correspond i n t h e i r boundaries with the established Regions of the Department of Social Welfare* comparison of regional data i s therefore almost impossible. The l a t t e r point w i l l be discussed i n greater d e t a i l i n Chapter I4.. A comparative analysis by Census t r a c t s and subdivisions of Vancouver Ci t y and Metropolitan Vancouver i s one of the most f e a s i b l e , but was not the purpose of t h i s thesis,, which i s meant to be exploratory on a province-x^ide basis. Neither did the writer exhaust the data obtainable from the Census and other sources. A great number of socio-economic data of high significance for s o c i a l welfare are given i n the Census on such areas as: 1.. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and composition of f a m i l i e s ; 2. l e v e l of schooling of the population; 3 . d i s t r i b u t i o n of population according to occupation; I4.. d i s t r i b u t i o n of population according to income; 5 . standard of housing; Any comprehensive study of the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the population would also have to evaluate the s t a t i s t i c s on employ-ment and unemployment published by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , the Department of Labour, as well as of the National Employment Service and the Unemployment Insurance Commission. The two l a s t -mentioned agencies and t h e i r l o c a l o f f i c e s throughout the Province compile on a monthly basis, data on: - 52 -1. number of persons employed, but l o o k i n g f o r other j o b s ; 2. number of persons out of work and l o o k i n g f o r j o b s ; 3. number of persons i n r e c e i p t of unemployment insurance; [}.. number of persons i n r e c e i p t of seasonal b e n e f i t s ; 5. number of persons r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e through the S p e c i a l Placement D i v i s i o n . Another source of s i g n i f i c a n t data are the s t a t i s t i c s of the Department of Health and of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Committee of Vancouver. These agencies compile such data as: 1. i n f a n t and maternal death r a t e s ; 2. major causes of death; 3. incidence of communicable d i s e a s e s ; 1+. incidence of major c a t a s t r o p h i c i l l n e s s e s ; 5. r a t e s of admission to mental h o s p i t a l s ; The data on the l a s t two Items have p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e , since they are f r e q u e n t l y major causes f o r s o c i a l and economic breakdown. An a n a l y s i s of a l l these data and t h e i r comparison w i t h each other would a s s i s t i n the development of a v a l i d p i c t u r e of the s o c i o -economic s t r u c t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n which would form the base f o r planning i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e . - 53 -CHAPTER 3 THE INTERPRETATION OF WELFARE STATISTICS Some P u b l i c Welfare Examples. A comparison of Census data w i t h the data of welfare agencies p o i n t s to a major d i f f e r e n c e . The purpose of the Census can be described as the p e r i o d i c c o l l e c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l data f o r the assessment of the volume, the s t r u c t u r e and the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g w i t h i n pre-determined geographic areas (Census d i v i s i o n s , s u b d i v i s i o n s and Census t r a c t s ) . C o l l e c t i o n and s t a t i s t i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of data i s the primary, i f not the sole purpose of the Census. Data i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l w e l f a r e , however, are d e r i v e d mainly as by-products of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process. They are needed by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r determining the budget, work-loads and s t a f f requirements. Hence the emphasis i n agency s t a t i s t i c s on such data as the number of cases, changes i n caseloads of the v a r i o u s programmes, on expenditures and other items of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . G e n e r a l l y , agency s t a t i s t i c s t e l l v e r y l i t t l e about the people whose needs the s e r v i c e s of the agency are t o meet. But very much should be knoxim about the r e c i p i e n t s and c l i e n t s -where they l i v e , how they l i v e and what t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs are that make them dependent on a s s i s t a n c e - I f the welfare s e r v i c e s are t o meet the welfare needs of the c l i e n t s I n an adequate way. Agency s t a t i s t i c s t h a t do not o f f e r socio-economic data of the c l i e n t e l e are of l i m i t e d use f o r welfare research. Another f a c t o r l i m i t i n g the u s e f u l n e s s of agency s t a t i s t i c s i s the existence of a l a r g e number of we l f a r e agencies, p r i v a t e and p u b l i c , - 5k -on the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l , each of which p u b l i s h t h e i r own s e r i e s of s t a t i s t i c a l data. These may vary g r e a t l y i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s of terms, of the u n i t s counted, the periods f o r which they are reported as w e l l as the geographical areas to X i r h i c h they are a p p l i c -a b l e . Furthermore, i t i s important t o remember, th a t changes i n d i c a t e d i n the data of agencies are not only evidence of changes i n the compo-s i t i o n of the c l i e n t e l e ; they may also r e f l e c t changes i n s o c i a l l e g i s -l a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y and a v a i l a b i l i t y of funds. Both the complexity i n the s t r u c t u r e of our w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s as w e l l as the changes th a t c o n t i n u a l l y occur w i t h i n the s e r v i c e s i n f l u e n c e the s i g n i f i c a n c e and v a l i d i t y of agency s t a t i s t i c s . .Agency s t a t i s t i c s , however, remain a source of primary importance f o r research, because they can t e l l us something about people i n need; hot about a l l people i n need, but about those t h a t have expressed t h e i r need f o r s e r v i c e s and are r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e of some k i n d . In analyzing agency s t a t i s t i c s , the researcher w i l l l ook foremost f o r ansx^ers t o t h r e e , very b a s i c questions: 1 . How many people are being aided through p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n s ? 2. Where are these people located? 3« What are the s i g n i f i c a n t socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these people? 1 Chapter 3 presents an examination of s e l e c t e d agency data i n the l i g h t of these three questions. Data on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , p u blished i n the annual r e p o r t s of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare ,x^ere- chosen f o r the purpose of determining the scope and the major trends of the problem of f i n a n c i a l dependency. Emphasis i s l a i d i n t h i s Chapter upon the examination and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data on the p u b l i c a s s i s t -ance programmes and on the f a m i l y s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by the Department of 1 Somers,Herman M.,"Adequacy of Data i n the F i e l d of P u b l i c A i d " ; J o u r n a l of the American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ; V o l . 3 6 ; Nbs .213-216 p p . t t l - 9 0 . - 5 5 -S o c i a l Welfare. The concluding Chapter undertakes a . c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n of the method of r e p o r t i n g . Where p o s s i b l e , data are presented and discussed s e p a r a t e l y f o r the Regions of the Department and f o r major urban c e n t r e s . The p e r i o d f o r which the data are examined are the years 1951 to 1958 i n c l u s i v e . During t h i s p e r i o d , two Census counts were taken (1951 and 1 9 5 6 ) ; and inhere p o s s i b l e , Census data were used f o r comparison w i t h the agency data examined. (1) The Department of S o c i a l Welfare and I t s Regions.  In the year of 191+6, the h e a l t h and xjelfare s e r v i c e s of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia were amalgamated i n t o the Department of Health and Welfare. During the same year, a p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n was adopted and f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e regions of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department were c r e a t e d . The year 1959 saw the s e p a r a t i o n of the h e a l t h and welfare s e r v i c e s . The S o c i a l Welfare Branch became a x separate Department of S o c i a l Welfare again. •During the p e r i o d f o r which the data o f the D.S.W. are examined, tvro major changes took place i n the r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n of the Department. In 1 9 5 2 , Region VI was formed by s e p a r a t i o n from Region I I . In 1 9 5 7 , Region V I I was created through d i v i s i o n of Region V i n t o V and V I I . Today, we have the p i c t u r e of seven regions which vary g r e a t l y i n geographic area, r a t e of increase and d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as i n t h e i r socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . "The whole of Region VI (lower part of Fraser V a l l e y ) , the Saanich P e n i n s u l a r i n Region I , and the M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond i n Region I I show the greatest increase and d e n s i t y x from hereon r e f e r r e d t o as "D.S.W." - 56 -i n p o p u l a t i o n . For example, Richmond and Surrey, where there are s t i l l large.unoccupied areas of la n d , are reported to have a de n s i t y of 700 persons per square m i l e of occupied l a n d . These two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , together w i t h the other m u n i c i p a l and unorganized areas i n the Lower Fraser V a l l e y , have an average d e n s i t y of 100 to 125 persons per square m i l e . The Saanich M u n i c i p a l i t y has about twice t h i s d e n s i t y . I n c o n t r a s t , Regions I I I (south c e n t r a l ) and Region IV (south-eastern) have only a d e n s i t y of two t o t e n persons per square m i l e . Region V ( l a r g e l y that p o r t i o n n o r t h of the Thompson River) has about one person per 2 square m i l e s , except Pr i n c e G-eorge and Pr i n c e Rupert w i t h one person per square m i l e . Of these two northern c i t i e s , P r i n c e George"is the most r a p i d l y growing community i n the nort h because of i t s 'cross-roads' p o s i t i o n . This s p i l l i n g over of people from the m e t r o p o l i t a n areas of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a i n t o the neighbouring r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (Richmond, Surrey and Saanich; the w r i t e r ) w i l l l i k e l y continue f o r some time" 1 The estimated p o p u l a t i o n of the D.S.W. Regions f o r the Census years 1951, and 1956, and f o r the year 1958, i s shown on Table l k . The 2 data were compiled from the p o p u l a t i o n data f o r school d i s t r i c t s This p a r t i c u l a r source of data was used, because the school d i s t r i c t s of the province are the only a d m i n i s t r a t i v e areas which lend themselves f o r comparison w i t h the D.S.W. Regions. The t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s the great v a r i a t i o n s i n the po p u l a t i o n volume of the d i f f e r e n t Regions which ranged i n 1958 from k7,3k5 (Region VII) and 81,025 (Region V, the l a r g e s t of a l l i n area) to 699,5k0 (Region IT, i n c l u d e s Vancouver). A f u r t h e r phenomenon of h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e and important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r planning demonstrated on Table l k , i s the sustained h i g h r a t e of increase i n p o p u l a t i o n of s e v e r a l Regions. The two northern Regions show by f a r the highest r a t e of i n c r e a s e . The pop u l a t i o n w i t h i n the area of Region V which i n c l u d e s the f a s t developing communities of Prin c e George, and, l o c a t e d i n the Peace R i v e r Country, Dawson Creek and F o r t St.John, increased by 97.0 per cent between 1951 and 1958. 1 Annual Report of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch of the Department o f ~ Health~and Welfare 195k? Queen's P r i n t e r ; V i c t o r i a , B.C..195k; P»9. 2 P o p u l a t i o n In B r i t i s h Columbia by School D i s t r i c t and Hea l t h U n i t , E x c l u d i n g Indians, 1951, 1956 and 1958; Department of Health, V i c t o r i a , B.C.; unpublished. . - 57 -During the same p e r i o d , the p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the present area of Region V I I i n which the new community of K i t i m a t (population 9,676) i s l o c a t e d , increased by 108.6 per cent. Region VI (Lower Praser V a l l e y , M u n i c i p a l i t y of Surrey) ranks t h i r d among the Regions i n the r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n increase (1+7.5 per c e n t ) . The formation of two new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e regions (VI and VII) during the p e r i o d 1951 -1957 appears as one consequence of the r a p i d increase of po p u l a t i o n i n c e r t a i n areas of B r i t i s h Columbia.. Since the areas of the Regions of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare do not correspond w i t h the areas of the Census d i v i s i o n s and sub-d i v i s i o n s , a comparison of data from these two sources i s only p o s s i b l e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. Therefore, very l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n can be obtained about the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the po p u l a t i o n of the va r i o u s Regions. Only where welfare s t a t i s t i c s are given f o r s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (such as f o r S o c i a l Allowance), Census data can be used f o r comparison. o - 58 -T a b l e 11+: Regions of B r i t i s h Columbia'as used by Departments of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n and Some Tre n d s ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . REGION 1951 l 9 5 6 . 1 9 5 8 number number p.c. i n c r e a s e o v er 1951 number p.c. i n c r e a s e over 1951 Region I 208,577 21+8,609 1 9 . 2 265 ,806 27.1+ Region I I 659,116 635,696 - 3 . 5 ( - ) 699,51+0 9 . 1 Region H i 109 ,661j . 126,682 1 5 .6 137 , 3 0 0 2 5 .1 Region IV 89,261 97,1+13 7.3 103,1+99 1 5 .9 Region V 6 3 , 9 1 5 106,399 66.1+ 8 1 , 0 2 5 ~ 2 k . .0(-) Region V I 1115,1+70) 11+6,1+80 '(26/7). 1 7 0 , 0 5 0 1+7.5 Region V I ] (22,710) (1+0,169) (1+3.8) 1+7,31+5 (108.6) T o t a l : 1 , 1 3 0 ,533 1 ,361 , 2 7 9 2 0 . 0 l , 5 o l + , 565 33.1 d T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n B r i t i s h C o lumbia 1 , 1 6 5 ,210 r 1,398,1+61+ - 1,51+1+, 000 -Source : • P o p u l a t i o n o f Regions c o m p i l e d 1 from: P o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o lumbia by S c h o o l D i s t r i c t and H e a l t h U n i t , e x c l u d i n g  I n d i a n s , 1951 , 1 956 , 1958; Dept.of H e a l t h , V i c t o r i a (unpubl.) N o t e s : "a d e c r e a s e due t o f o r m a t i o n of Reg i o n V I i n 1952 out of p a r t o f Region I . b decrease due t o f o r m a t i o n o f Reg i o n V I I i n 1957 out of p a r t o f Region V. £.figures g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s p r e s e n t the p o p u l a t i o n i n the a r e a b e f o r e Region was formed.. d the d i f f e r e n c e i n e s t i m a t e d r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n and t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C olumbia r e s u l t s f r om t h e f a c t t h a t ' I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g on I n d i a n R eserves and a s m a l l number "of pe o p l e l i v i n g i n u n o r g a n i z e d t e r r i t o r y are not i n c l u d e d i n t h e f i g u r e s on p o p u l a t i o n of S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s . - 59 -(2) Data on the c a t e g o r i c a l a s sistance programmes and t h e i r r e c i p i e n t s .  The data a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s area of welfare s e r v i c e l e n d themselves to the measurement of the number and geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r e c i p i e n t s . They a l s o o f f e r a l i m i t e d amount of socio-economic i n f o r m a t i o n on the group of new r e c i p i e n t s . (a) The number and d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c i p i e n t s : Table 15 shows the t o t a l caseload of Old Age Assistance (persons e l i g i b l e between the ages 65 t o 69 y e a r s ) , Old Age S e c u r i t y Supplementary Allowance (persons e l i g i b l e 70 years and o v e r ) , D i s a b l e d Persons' Allowance and B l i n d Persons' Allowance. A l l f o u r programmes are based on a means t e s t and have rather s t r i n g e n t e l i g i b i l i t y requirements regarding the economic sta t u s of the a p p l i c a n t . Thus, they can be accepted as a measure of. economic need that e x i s t s f o r the a p p l i c a n t or r e c i p i e n t . Old Age As s i s t a n c e (OAA) was introduced as a p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programme i n 1 9 5 2 . During t h i s year, 7 , 7 8 8 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r OAA were granted. During the folloxtfing years, the number of r e c i p i e n t s reached i t s peak i n 1951+ (10,062) and then d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y to 8 , 3 0 2 i n 1 9 5 7 . This trend may have i t s cause i n the f a c t that by 1 9 5 7 , a l l of the i n i t i a l 7 , 7 8 8 a p p l i c a n t s of the year 1952 had been t r a n s f e r r e d t o Old Age S e c u r i t y ( f i v e years i s the maximum length of time during xtfhich a person i s e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e OAA). 1958 shows a small increase i n the number of persons i n r e c e i p t of OAA. During the Census year of 1 9 5 6 , 8 , 8 5 3 persons r e p r e s e n t i n g 16.1+ per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n between 6 5 and 69 years of age were OAA r e c i p i e n t s . During the pe r i o d 1952 to 1 9 5 6 , the t o t a l number of r e c i p i e n t s i n c r e a s e d by 1 3 . 8 per cent, while the p r o p o r t i o n of the e n t i r e 65 to - 60 -69 age group remained a t a c o n s t a n t 10 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l popu-l a t i o n . T h i s r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e o f OAA r e c i p i e n t s i s p r o b a b l y due t o a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s , such as an i n c r e a s i n g awareness o f t h e programme, a change i n a t t i t u d e towards t h i s programme by t h e e l i g i b l e p e r s o n s as w e l l as by the g e n e r a l p u b l i c and improved w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . The i n c r e a s e may a l s o r e f l e c t a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the economic s e c u r i t y and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s age group. W i t h o u t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , the r o l e w h i c h t h i s l a s t , c e r t a i n l y v e r y g r a v e , f a c t o r might p l a y , cannot be d e t e r m i n e d . I t c o u l d a l s o be e x p e c t e d t h a t the upward r e v i s i o n of maximum income l i m i t s (1956 and 1 9 5 7 ) , w h i c h made a g r e a t e r number o f p e o p l e e l i g i b l e f o r a p a r t i a l a l l o w a n c e , would be r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s e i n the number o f r e c i p i e n t s . However, T a b l e 15 does not i n d i c a t e such an upward sxtfing f o l l o w i n g the change i n the income r e g u l a t i o n s . The number of r e c i p i e n t s of O l d Age S e c u r i t y Supplementary A l l o w a n c e (OASSA) i n c r e a s e d by 3.h p e r c e n t d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1955 - 1957- T h i s i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t s t h e t r a n s f e r o f a g r e a t e r number of p e r s o n s f r o m OAA t o O l d Age S e c u r i t y t h a t had been i n r e c e i p t o f OAA f o r t h e maximum p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s ( r e f e r t o T a b l e s 10 and 1 1 ) . I n 1 9 5 6 , 2 9 . 8 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 70 y e a r s and over ( 9 6 , 7 0 1 ) were r e c e i v i n g OASSA. Between 1951 and 1 9 5 6 , the number o f p e r s o n s i n r e c e i p t o f OAA o r OASSA i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y f r o m a r a t e o f 2 5 2 . 6 p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n 65 y e a r s and o v e r t o a r a t e o f 2 7 2 . 9 i n 1956 (see T a b l e 1 6 ) . T a b l e 15 a l s o g i v e s the number of r e c i p i e n t s o f D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e (DPA) and B l i n d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e (BPA). DPA was i n t r o d u c e d i n 1955 and shows a marked i n c r e a s e i n t h e number of r e c i p i e n t s w i t h i n the f i r s t two y e a r s o f i t s e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y an i n d i c a t i o n - 61 -of the Inc r e a s i n g awareness of t h i s programme by the p u b l i c . The con t i n u i n g increase during 1957 and 1958 appears to be a r e f l e c t i o n of a l i b e r a l i z i n g of e l i g i b i l i t y requirements e a r l y i n 1 9 5 8 . The marked drop of r e c i p i e n t s of BPA (see Table 15) i n 1952 should be due to a t r a n s f e r of a l a r g e number of persons to OAA a f t e r i n t r o -d u c t i o n of the l a t t e r programme. This i s a r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r which i n d i c a t e s that i n 1 9 5 2 , more than h a l f of a l l r e c i p i e n t s of BPA were e l d e r l y persons (65 years and o l d e r ) . The t o t a l number of r e c i p i e n t s of these four programmes, of which the r e c i p i e n t s of DPA and BPA represented I4..9 per cent, reached a peak i n 1953 a f t e r the OAA programme had become f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . Since that year, the number has d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y u n t i l 1958 when 2 8 . 0 persons i n every 1 , 0 0 0 persons i n B r i t i s h Columbia were i n r e c e i p t of one of these four assistance programmes. The attempt to determine the r e l a t i v e incidence of known cases of dependency due to age, d i s a b i l i t y , or b l i n d n e s s i n the v a r i o u s Regions i s i l l u s t r a t e d on Table 1 7 . Such an undertaking i s s e r i o u s l y handicapped, s i n c e , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , most Regions d i d not r e p o r t d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s on the number of r e c i p i e n t s of the v a r i o u s a s s i s t a n c e programmes. In some Regional r e p o r t s , no f i g u r e s were given at a l l ; other r e p o r t s were confined t o estimates or percentages of the t o t a l caseload. Since 1 9 5 6 , a l l Regions have reported separate f i g u r e s f o r the d i f f e r e n t programmes, but only i n the l a s t annual report a v a i l a b l e ( 1 9 5 8 ) , a uniform system of r e p o r t i n g these data i s used. Corresponding to the trend -for the Province as a whole, a l l Regions except two show a d e c l i n e i n the r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s . Region V (the northern part of the Province) shows a marked i n c r e a s e ; f o r Region I I I - 62 -(south-central/Okanagan) the r a t e has remained constant. Regions I (Vancouver I s l a n d ) , I I I (south-central) and VI (Lower Praser V a l l e y ) have the highest r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s . W i t h i n these Regions such areas as Greater V i c t o r i a (Region I ) , the Okanagan V a l l e y (Region I I I ) and the southern part of the Lower Mainland (Region VI) are l o c a t e d . They are known as p r e f e r r e d residence of e l d e r l y people. The two northern Regions (V and VII) have the lowest r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s which appears to be a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r young stage of economic development. Region V I I has a r a t e of 10.2 per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . 20.1+ p.c. of i t s p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n K i t i m a t (population 9,676), a newly created i n d u s t r i a l community without p r a c t i c a l l y any e l d e r l y people. This phenomenon i n the a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t y p i c a l f o r areas that are e n t e r i n g a stage of r a p i d economic development, and i s perhaps v a l i d f o r the e n t i r e n o r t h e r n p a r t of the Province which i s experiencing a great i n f l u x of young able-bodied people who f o l l o w the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . Another reason f o r the lower r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s i n the two northern regions may be 'the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of Indians i n t h i s area who are not e l i g i b l e f o r 0ASSA ( r e c i p i e n t s of t h i s programme account f o r 76.2 p.c. -of the t o t a l number of r e c i p i e n t s ) . However, the f a s t r i s i n g r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s i n Region V, which has a l s o the greatest p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e of a l l Regions, p o i n t s to the need f o r f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y the development i n t h i s area i n order t o ensure the maintaining-of adequate s e r v i c e s . - 63 -T a b l e If?: C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes (Old Age A s s i s t a n c e , Old Age S e c u r i t y Supplementary Allowancje, D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e and B l i n d Persons,';'. A l l o w a n c e ) ; T o t a l C a s e l o a d as at March 3 1 s t and Comparative R a t e s ; . 1 9 5 1 - 1 9 5 8 . -,,VV Programme OAA b OASSA a DPA c BPA T o t a l No. of c a s e s T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n B r i t . C o l -umbia 1,1,65,210 Rate p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t 1 on -j 28.1 1951 3 1 , 9 8 3 661 32,61+1+ 1952 7 , 7 8 8 31,81+6 336 3 9 , 9 7 0 1 , 2 0 5 , 0 0 0 3 2 . 0 1953 9,628 33,1+37 1+32 1+3,1+97 1 ,21+8,000 31+.8 1951+ . 1 0 , 0 6 2 3 1 , 6 3 8 1+39 1+2,139 1 / 2 9 5 , 0 0 0 32.1+ 1955 9,21+0 31,797 11+7 1+1+0 1+1,621+ 1,31+2,000 31.5 8^853 3$;1+91+ K 9 5 9 % 5 i 1+^757 i , 39| ; l+61+ 3b, 5 S o u r c e : Department o f S o c i a l Welfare;; A n n u a l R e p o r t s 1951 -1$'5>8. V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o lumbia; rate.--,per 1 , 0 0 0 added. :. a o n l y a s s i s t a n c e programme e x i s t i n g f o r aged u n t i l : : ' ; 1 9 5 l ("Old Age P e n s i o n " ) . . < b i n t r o d u c e d i n 1952 • c i n t r o d u c e d i n 1955 Notes v.* T a b l e 1 6 : O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e and O l d Age S e c u r i t y Supplementary A l l o w a n c e ; Number of R e c i p i e n t s and Rate per f;I',000 p e r s o n s aged 65 and o v e r ; 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . v\,; YEAR t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 65 y e a r s and over number o f r e c i p i e n t s (OAA and*OASSA) r a t e p e r l,0 ;6p per s o n s 6 5 #£-s.+ 1951 126 , 1 3 7 3,1,983 2 5 2 . 6 ' % 1956 1 5 0 , 7 7 9 j l+l,3l(-7 2 7 2 . 9 S o u r c e : Dept.of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1 9 5 1 , 1956 D.B.S.; Census o f Canada; 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . ••' - 6k -T a b l e 17A: C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes (OAA, OASSA, DPA, BPA); Ca s e l o a d s as a t March 3 1 s t by R e g i o n s , and Comparative Rates p e r 1 , 0 0 0 P o p u l a t i o n ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . Regions '. I I , 3 :n Regions 1951 1952 1953 i95k 1955 1956 1957 1958 Region 1 OAA OASSA n . r . DPA BPA n . r . 1,273 6 ,622 •69 1,557 6 ,610 69 i , 5 o k 6,k5k 79 l , k 7 8 6,582 19 8k 1,377 6 , 5 n 138 79 l , 2 k 3 6,k73 165 81 1,317 6 ,k l7 235 90 T o t a l Cases T o t a l 208,577 p o p u l a t i o n r a t e 7,96k 8,263 8,037 8,163 8,10k 2k8,609 32.k 7,962 8,059 265,806 30.6 R e g i o n 11 OAA OASSA n . r . DPA BPA n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . k,797 13,808 x k ,063 13,72k 20 X 3,913 l k , 3 0 3 378 X 3,915 519 X 3,565 15,300 591 279 T o t a l Cases T o t a l 659,116 p o p u l a t i o n r a t e - -18,605 17,807 18,59k 635,693 29.8 19,959 19,735 699,0kO 27.6 Region I I I OAA OASSA n . r . DPA BPA n . r . - _n. r . n . r . n . r . I , k 0 8 3,8k7 n . r . 1,015 3 , n k " 7k 982 3,067 21 70 992 3,153 130 62 922 3,175 157 71 892 3,23k 18k 81 T o t a l C ases: T o t a l 109,66k P o p u l a t i o n r a t e - 5,255 k ,203 k,iko k,337 126,685 32.1 k ,325 k,391 137,300 32.1 T o t a l Cases Forxtfard: • - - 3Q,8k5 30,110 31,035 32,2k6 32,185 n . r . n o t r e p o r t e d x number of ca s e s o f BPA i n c l u d e d i n 0AJ\ ca s e s TABLE CONTINUED - 65 -T a b l e 17B; C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes (OAA, OASSA, DPA, BPA); Ca s e l o a d s a t March 3 1 s t by Regions and Comparative Rates p e r 1 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . Regions IV, V, V I , V I I ' Region 1951 1952 1953 1951+ 1955 1956 1957 1958 Region IV OAA OASSA DPA BPA n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . 2 , 2 3 5 n . r . n . r . . 3,11+0 n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . n . r . 689 2,329 119 51 582 2,339 107 52 592 2 , 3 3 0 127 1+2 T o t a l Cases T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n r a t e 89,261 i i ! -- j 3,168 - I 97,1+13 - 1 3 1 . 7 3,080 3,091 L03,l+99 2 9 . 7 Region V OAA OASSA DPA BPA 757 n . r . ! 305 ! 1+33' 1,136 j 1 ,357 27 ! 65 1+78 1 ,358 62 532 1,1+07 1 67 522 1,1+03 31+ 95 1+98 1 , 3 5 1 59 97 366 819 33 1+9 T o t a l Cases T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n r a t e : - i 1,14.68 i 1 , 8 5 5 ! I 6 3 , 9 1 5 | - | mm > mm I mm 1,898 2 , 0 0 7 | 2,051+ t - |l06,l+80 - I 1 9 . 3 2 , 0 0 5 1,267 81 , 0 2 5 25.2 Region V I OAA OASSA DPA BPA -1+,1+1+3 X 1+,731 X i+,838 X 5,010 | 5,110 37 | 161 x 1 X i1,086 . 3 , 9 0 3 169 70 1 , 1 0 8 l+,086 211 67 T o t a l Cases T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n r a t e 115,1+70 i+,l+l+3 ! k-,731 ' 1 i j 2+,83« 5,01+7 I 5,271 - jll+6,1+80 - ! 3 5 - 7 5 , 2 2 8 5,1+72 170 , 0 5 0 3 2 . 3 R e g i o n V I I OAA OASSA DPA BPA Region V: [I c r e a t e d i n 1957 ( f o r m e r l y i n c l u Region ded i n V) 175 523 31+ 50 T o t a l Cases T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n r a t e ( 2 2 , 7 1 0 ) - •-- (1+0,169) 782 ^+7,31+5 1 0 .a T o t a l Casesj: T o t a l Casesj c a r r i e d f o r w a r d 1 30,81+5 30,110 10,1+93 31 , 0 3 5 10,313; 10,612 32,21+6 3 2 , 1 8 5 Grand T o t a l : - - i -• f - - 1+1,528 4.2,559: 3 2 , 1 8 5 S o u r c e : Dept. o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual R e p o r t s 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . x i n c l u d e d i n ca s e s o f 0AA/0ASSA - 66 -(b) The socio-economic data about the r e c i p i e n t s a v a i l a b l e i n  the Annual Reports. On the preceding pages, the attempt was made to answer the b a s i c questions of "how many people are i n r e c e i p t of the c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes" and "where do these people l i v e " . An examination of the Annual Reports of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare r e v e a l s a r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y or even absence of i n f o r m a t i o n about the socio-economic status of the r e c i p i e n t s . Such data are e s s e n t i a l f o r the understanding of the extent and the nature of needs that e x i s t among the r e c i p i e n t s , as w e l l as f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of the adequacy of the programmes i n meeting the r e c i p i e n t s ' needs. The Annual Reports o f f e r a l i m i t e d number of socio-economic data on the r e c i p i e n t s of OAA, DPA and BPA. As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e , data on r e c i p i e n t s of OAA w i l l be discussed on the f o l l o w i n g pages. Socio-economic data are a v a i l a b l e f o r the group of new r e c i p i e n t s only, but can be accepted as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t to a l a r g e extent f o r the e n t i r e group of OAA r e c i p i e n t s , since the c l i e n t e l e of t h i s programme i s more homogeneous than perhaps any other group i n r e c e i p t of a welfare s e r v i c e . The p e r i o d f o r which the data are examined are the years 1954, 1956 and 1 9 5 8 . For 1 9 5 6 , comparison of the data w i t h Census data i s made, wherever p o s s i b l e . The number-: ••of' new r e c i p i e n t s ; During 1 9 5 6 , 2 , 0 7 9 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r OAA were granted i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This f i g u r e represents a r a t e of 3 8 . 9 per thousand p o p u l a t i o n e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s programme (65 - 69 years of age). During 195k> the number of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r OAA granted was con s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r ; a small increase i s evident again. i n the year 1958 ( r e f e r to Table 1 8 ) . - 67 -The age d i s t r i b u t i o n of new r e c i p i e n t s ; The ages of r e c i p i e n t s at the date of gran t i n g a s s i s t a n c e are shown on Table 19* Approximately one h a l f became OAA r e c i p i e n t s at reaching the age of e l i g i b i l i t y , ( 65 y e a r s ) . The remainder i s d i s t r i b u t e d over the years 66 to 6 9 w i t h the p r o p o r t i o n decreasing w i t h advancing age (approximately 1 0 . 0 p.c. at the age of 6 9 ) . The reasons f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n are of m u l t i p l e nature. They may be found i n changes i n the s o c i o -economic status (death of spouse, changes or l o s s of r e a l and personal property) and changes i n circumstances which had made the person not Immediately e l i g i b l e f o r OAA at reaching the age of 6 5 years. Other reasons may be a change i n the a t t i t u d e of the person towards accepting p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , unawareness of being e l i g i b l e f o r OAA when the person reached the age of e l i g i b i l i t y , or i n a b i l i t y to provide adequate proof of age. The l a s t reason, i n p a r t i c u l a r , appears to p l a y a ra.aj or > r o l e ,in the delay of g r a n t i n g OAA to f o r e i g n -born persons and p o i n t s t o the need f o r an extended p u b l i c i t y campaign encouraging e l d e r l y persons to secure adequate proof of age x w e l l before they become 6 5 years o l d . , x t h i s impression was gained by the w r i t e r through personal experience. - 68 -Table 18: New R e c i p i e n t s of Old Age A s s i s t a n c e ; Number and r a t e per 1 , 0 0 0 persons aged 65 to 6 9 ; 1951+, 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . YEAR new r e c i p i e n t s p o p u l a t i o n 65-69 y r s . ra t e per 1000 persons 6 5 - 69 195k 2 , 7 9 3 - -1956 2 , 0 7 9 5 k , 0 7 8 3 8 . 9 1958 2 , 1 2 3 Source: Dept.of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . D.B.S. Census of Canada 1 9 5 6 . Table 1 9 : Ages at which Old Age Assistance was granted; 195k> 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . 1 9 5 k 1956 1 9 5- 8 Age Number p.c. Number p.c. Number p.c. 65 1 ,377 k 9 - 3 0 1,113 5 3 . 5 k 1 , 0 2 1 k 8 . Q 9 66 k l 9 1 5 . 0 0 319 1 5 . 3 k 378 17.80 67 365 1 3 . 0 7 26k 1 2 . 6 9 269 1 2 . 6 7 68 37k 1 3 . 3 9 197 9 . k 8 256 1 2 . 0 5 69 258 9 . 2 k 186 8 . 9 5 199 9 . 3 9 T o t a l 2 , 7 9 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 0 7 9 1 0 0 . 0 0 . 2 , 1 2 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 Source: Dept.of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports , 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . - 69 -The marital status of new r e c i p i e n t s : The enormous difference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the marital status of OAA recipients compared with the t o t a l population 65 - 69 years, that shows a much higher proportion of persons married, i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 20. Between 195k and 1958, the percentage of new recipi e n t s who were married, declined from kO.82 p.c. to 38.73 p.c. A comparison of the marital status of t h i s group with the t o t a l 65 - 69 age group, given i n the 1956 Census, indicates also a higher proportion of single, widowed and divorced persons among the OAA r e c i p i e n t s . This seems to imply a greater economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the e l d e r l y persons single or without spouse, that r e s u l t s i n a higher rate of f i n a n c i a l dependency. A further implication of these findings i s the great need of t h i s group f o r a v a r i e t y of services f o r unattached, e l d e r l y persons i n the areas of adequate f i n a n c i a l assistance, housing for the single, aged person, care during i l l n e s s , recreational services, and any other type of a c t i v i t y that breaks the i s o l a t i o n of ,the lonely elderly person. Li v i n g arrangements of new r e c i p i e n t s : The extent of loneliness among the aged, which has such far-reaching economic and s o c i a l implications, i s also i l l u s t r a t e d on Table 21. Of a l l new r e c i p i e n t s , more than one-t h i r d was l i v i n g alone (35*59 p.c.) i n 1956. This figure can, to a c e r t a i n measure, be compared with the proportion of "non-family house-holds" given i n the Census, which i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the number of single, unattached i n d i v i d u a l s . In 1956, 16 .3 p.c. of a l l households i n B r i t i s h Columbia were "non-family households. But 35.59 p.c. of a l l new OAA r e c i p i e n t s were l i v i n g i n "non-family households". A s i m i l a r l y unfavourable picture i s obtained by comparison of the number of house-holds having two and more fa m i l i e s , with the number of new recipients that l i v e i n the homes of t h e i r children, r e l a t i v e s or other people. - 70 -In 1 9 5 6 , 23.67 p . c of a l l new r e c i p i e n t s l i v e d i n such households. Although no detailed data are available, i t can be assumed that i n a considerable number of cases, both spouses l i v e i n the home of * another family, thus creating a household containing more than one conjugal family. In 1 9 5 6 , 3 . 1 p.c. of a l l households i n B r i t i s h Columbia contained more than one family, while 2 3 . 6 7 p.c. of a l l new recipients l i v e d i n households of other people. Accommodations of new r e c i p i e n t s : Another measure of the extent of dependency of the e l d e r l y person can be derived from Table 2 2 , which indicates that only s l i g h t l y more than h a l f of a l l new recipients enjoy independence i n t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation by owning t h e i r own home, or renting a house or a s u i t e . The proportion of this l a t t e r group shows a small decline from 5 8 . 2 8 p.c. In 195'+ to 57*50 p.c. i n 1 9 5 8 . In 1 9 5 6 , 2 3 . 0 h p.c. l i v e d i n the homes of t h e i r children or -r e l a t i v e s , were boarding, or l i v e d In boarding homes or i n s t i t u t i o n s . It i s impossible to arrive at conclusions about the adequacy of-accommodations of th i s group. But i t can be assumed that the majority does enjoy a varying degree of s o c i a l contact by v i r t u e of l i v i n g with other people. Most of those r e c i p i e n t s l i v i n g i n housekeeping or sleeping rooms (19.1+6 p.c.) however, experience probably a great deal of loneliness and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n . The economic status of nei^ r e c i p i e n t s : Tables 23 and 21+ give some data about the economic status of new r e c i p i e n t s . At least one h a l f has no r e a l or personal property whatsoever. Approximately 75 p.c. have property i n the value up to $ 5 0 0 . 0 0 . It i s well known that most el d e r l y people attempt to put a few hundred d o l l a r s aside for covering t h e i r funeral expenses. If t h i s f a c t o r i s taken into consideration, i t can be said that p r a c t i c a l l y 75 p.c. of the new recipients have no - 71 -f i n a n c i a l reserves at a l l . N e i t h e r do the l i m i t e d r a t e s of a s s i s t a n c e give the OAA r e c i p i e n t s an opportunity to increase t h e i r s a v i n g s . Thus, a great p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people l i v i n g on OAA are most vulnerable t o any c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , such as i l l n e s s , the need to change residence or increases i n the c o s t of l i v i n g . This i m p l i e s that the vast m a j o r i t y of OAA r e c i p i e n t s i s e n t i r e l y dependent on p u b l i c funds and s e r v i c e s . A f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n i s the need f o r a v a r i e t y of h i g h l y developed and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e s e r v i c e s t h a t help the e l d e r l y person maintain a decent standard of l i v i n g and master s i t u a t i o n s of economic and s o c i a l s t r e s s . The precarious economic s i t u a t i o n of the OAA r e c i p i e n t s i s also i l l u s t r a t e d on Table 2k which shows t h a t , i n s p i t e of very s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , that allow only a minimal income outside the pension, an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of r e c i p i e n t s ( 8 5 . 1 1 p.c. i n 1958) are becoming e l i g i b l e f o r the maximum amount of a s s i s t a n c e . - 72 -Table 2 0 : M a r i t a l Status of New Re c i p i e n t s of OAA; 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . M a r i t a l 1 9 5 k 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 8 t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 65 - 69 - 1 9 5 6 . Status numb e i p.c. number p.c. number p.c. number p.c. married l , l k 0 k0.82 811+ 3 9 . 1 5 822 3 8 . 7 3 36,71+2 6 8 . 0 s i n g l e 39k l k . l l 283 13.61 330 1 5 . 5 k 5 , 5 8 5 1 0 .k widoxtfs 633 2 2 . 6 6 k73 2 2 . 7 5 2 1 . 1 0 8 , 5 0 6 1 5 . 7 widowers 202 7 . 2 3 l k k 6 . 9 3 13k 6 . 3 1 2 , 8 5 0 5 . 3 separated 385 1 3 . 7 8 327 1 5 . 7 3 3k5 16 .25 a -divorced 39 l.kO 38 1 . 8 3 kk 2 . 0 7 395 0 . 6 T o t a l 2 , 7 9 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 0 7 9 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 1 2 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 5 k , 0 7 8 1 0 0 . 0 0 Source: Dept. of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports, 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . D.B.S.; Census of Canada, 1 9 5 6 . a i n c l u d e d i n "married". - 73 -Table 2 1 : L i v i n g Arrangements of New R e c i p i e n t s of OAA; 1951*-, 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . L i v i n g 1 9 5 k. 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 8 Arrangement number p.c. number p.c. number p.c. l i v i n g alone: 969 31+.69 71+0 3 5 . 5 9 7224. 31+.10 w i t h spouse: 887 3 1 . 7 6 62+0 3 0 . 7 8 697 3 2 , 8 3 w i t h spouse & c h i l d r e n : 228 8 . 1 6 159 7 . 6 5 108 5 . 1 8 w i t h c h i l d r e n : 2j.ll II4..72 296 I2j . .2h 224.7 1 1 . 6 3 w i t h other r e l a t i v e s : 91 3 . 2 6 111 5 .3 i i . 112 5 . 2 1 w i t h o t h e r s : 132 1+.72 85 24-.09 124-3 6 . 7 3 i n p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n s : 2+8 1 .72 29 I.24.O 724- 3.24-8 i n p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s : 27 0 . 9 7 10 0 . 9 1 18 O.824. T o t a l : 2 , 7 9 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 0 7 9 1 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 1 2 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 Source: Dept. of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports, 19524-, 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . - 71+. - • Table 22: Accommodations of New R e c i p i e n t s of OAA; 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . Type of 1 9 5 k 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 8 A.c c ommod at i on number p.c. number p.c. number p.c. i n own house: 1 , 102 39.1+5 823 3 9 . 5 9 866 kO .79 i n rented house: 376 13.1*5. 252 12.12 187 8 . 8 0 i n c h i l d r e n ' s home: k l l l k . 7 2 289 1 3 . 9 0 238 1 1 . 2 k i n home of other r e l a t i v e : 68 2.1+3 51 2.1+5 78 3 . 6 7 boarding: 91 3.26 66 3 . 1 7 70 3 . 2 9 i n housekeeping room: 397 l k . . 2 1 310 i k - 9 1 3k7 16 . 3 k i n s i n g l e room (eating o u t ) : 109 3.90 89 k . 2 8 66 3 . 1 2 i n rented s u i t e : 150 5 . 3 8 139 6 . 6 9 168 7 . 9 1 In boarding home : l k 0 . 5 0 12 0 . 5 8 12 0 . 5 6 i n i n s t i t u t i o n : 75 2 . 6 9 k 8 2 . 3 1 91 k.28 T o t a l : 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 0 7 9 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 1 2 3 1 0 0 . 0 0 Source: Dept.of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports, 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . Table 23: Heal and Personal Property of New Recipients of OAA; 1954, 1956, 1958, Value of Property 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 6 L 9 5 8 real property personal property real pi •operty personal property real property personal property amount p.c. amount p.c. amount p.c. amount | p.c. : amountj p.c. amount p.c. $ 0 1,704 61.00 1,450 51.92 1,273 61.22 1,031 49.58 1,288 60.66 1,050 49.45 $1 - 8250 44 1.58 787 28.18 26 1.25 570 27.41 13 0.61 479 22.56 $251-4500 151 5.41 233 8.34 59 2.84 173 8.32 43 2.05 185 8.74 1501-1750 200 7.17 104 3.72 92 4.43 112 5.39 44 2.07 120 5.65 §751-$1000 193 6.91 74 2.65 101 4.86 71 3.43 65 3.06 84 3.95 $1001-51500 264 9.45. 65 3.04 249 11.98 66 3.18 130 6.12 91 4.28 $1501-42000 102 3.65 38 1.36 118 5.68 30 1.44 131 6.17 50 2.35 $2000 and up 135 4.83 22 0.79 161 7.74 26 1.25 409 19.26 64 3.02 Total: 2,793 100.00 2,793 100.00 2,079 100.00 2,079 100.00 2,123 100.00 2,123 100.00 Source: Dept.of Social Welfare; Annual Reports, 1954, 1956, 1958. -76 -T a b l e 24: D i s t r i b u t i o n o f OAA R e c i p i e n t s A c c o r d i n g to Amount of A s s i s t a n c e R e c e i v e d ; 1954, 1956, 1958-°- • 1954 a 1956 1958 b amount o f assistance($>) p.c. p.c. amount o f a s s i s t a n c e ( $ ) p.c. l+o 83.75 82.99 55 85.11 35 - 39.99 3.90 3.98 50 - 54-99 4.15 30 - 34-99 1.81 3.86 1+5 - 1+9-99 3.25 25 - 29.99 2 . 8 2 2.76 l+o - 1+4.99 1.95 20 - 24.99 1.81 1.88 35 - 39.99 1.1+9 l e s s t h a n 19.99 1+.03 1+.53 30 - 31+.99 I . 4 4 - - - 25 - 2 9 . 9 9 1.15 - - - 20 - 24.99 0.76 l e s s t h a n 19.99 0.70 T o t a l 100.00 100.00 — 100.00 S o u r c e : Dept..of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual R e p o r t s 1954, 1956, 1958. a Maximum amount o f a s s i s t a n c e I n 1954 and 1956 $40.00 b Maximum amount o f a s s i s t a n c e i n 1958 $55*00 - 77 -(3) Data on S o c i a l Allowance x S o c i a l Allowance, more than any other a s s i s t a n c e programme, r e f l e c t s i n the movement of i t s caseload the l e v e l of p r o s p e r i t y and economic s t a b i l i t y of the country. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the number of persons i n r e c e i p t of SA was comparatively low during the years 1952 to 195*4-which was a p e r i o d of r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y and h i g h economic a c t i v i t y . The d e c l i n e i n the economic a c t i v i t y of the province i s r e f l e c t e d i n the sharply I n c r e a s i n g r a t e of persons r e c e i v i n g SA during the p e r i o d 1955 t o 1958 (see Table 25) . The drop i n the number of cases and r e c i p i e n t s between the years 1956 and 1957, i n d i c a t e d on Table 25, does not r e f l e c t a genuine d e c l i n e , but i s due to a change I n the method of compiling s t a t i s t i c s . U n t i l 1956, "the caseload f i g u r e s show the t o t a l of f a m i l y u n i t s and shared 1 s e r v i c e s . In January 1957, the method of compiling caseload s t a t i s t i c s was changed, so that f o r the year 1957 the caseload f i g u r e s denote only the f a m i l y u n i t s and(or) i n d i v i d u a l s -that i s , cases - and do not i n c l u d e shared s e r v i c e s . This change accounts f o r the decrease 2 ; i n t o t a l case-load." The marked increase i n . the number of r e c i p i e n t s during 1958 I s probably a r e f l e c t i o n of the changes i n p o l i c y and ad m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s f o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the F e d e r a l "Unemployment Assistance Programme" of 1956. In 1958, the r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s of S o c i a l Allowance was 11+.7 persons per thousand population as compared t o 12.8 per thousand i n 1957* Between the Census years 1951 and 1956, the r a t e of f a m i l i e s on SA increased from 10.1 per x from hereon r e f e r r e d . t o as "SA" 1 f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v i n g "shared s e r v i c e s " , e.g. SA and Family S e r v i c e , were counted as two cases. 2 Annual Report, 1957? p.9. - 78 -thousand fa m i l i e s to 1 0 . 8 . During the same period the rate of. single individuals on SA increased even more sharply from 1+7«7 per thousand single persons 20 to 65 years of age to 60.2 (refer to Table 26). Table 2 5t Social Allowance; Caseload, Number, and D i s t r i b u t i o n of Recipients and Rates per 1 , 0 0 0 population; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . fEAR Heads of Families Depend-ents Single Recip-ients Number of r e c i p -ients Number of Cases Total Population B. C. R a t e ' Cases Recip -ients L951 3 , 0 6 8 6 , 8 7 8 7,1+28 17 , 3 7 k 1 0 , k 9 6 1 , 1 6 5 , 2 1 0 lk.8 8 . 5 L952 2 , 8 7 0 6 , 6 1 5 .6,176 15,661 9,01+6 1 , 2 0 5 , 0 0 0 1 3 . 0 7 . 5 1953 2 , 8 5 5 6 , 8 8 6 5 , 5 3 5 1 5 , 2 7 6 8 , 3 9 0 l , 2 k 8 , 0 0 0 1 2 . 2 6 . 7 195k 3 ,327 8 , 2 5 2 5 , 9 0 8 17,1+87 9 , 2 3 5 1 , 2 9 5 , 0 0 0 12 . 3 6 . 5 1955 3 , 6 8 8 9,1+75 7 , 3 7 2 2 0 , 5 3 5 1 1 , 0 6 0 l , 3 k 2 , 0 0 0 1 5 . 2 8 . 2 1956 3 , 7 3 0 9 , 7 6 1 6,31+6 1 9 , 8 3 7 1 0 , 0 7 6 l , 3 9 8 , k 6 k l k . l 7 . 2 1957 3 , 6 9 5 9 , 3 9 7 6 , 0 2 9 1 9 , 1 2 1 9 ,72k~ l , k 8 7 , Q 0 0 1 2 . 8 6 . 5 1958 i+, 281+ 11,1+91+ 6 , 8 5 7 2 2 , 6 3 5 l l , l k l l , 5 k 2 , 0 0 0 i k - 7 7 . 3 Source: Dept.of Social Welfare; Annual Reports, 195k» 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . a In January 1 9 5 7 , the methods of compiling caseload. s t a t i s t i c s was changed, which accounts f o r the decrease i n " t o t a l number of cases" during t h i s year; (refer to page 20) - 79 -The r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of SA r e c i p i e n t s : In contrast to the incomplete data on the c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes, the Annual Reports of the DSW have given f o r a l l years d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s on the number of SA r e c i p i e n t s f o r the e n t i r e Province, the Regions, and f o r urban centres and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . These data permit a comparative study of the incidence of SA r e c i p i e n t s i n the v a r i o u s Regions and p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s ; and areas w i t h a f l u c t u a t i n g or p e r s i s t e n t l y h i g h r a t e of SA cases can be i d e n t i f i e d . Table 27 gives the number of SA r e c i p i e n t s f o r the Regions of the DSW. On Table 2 8 , the data are f u r t h e r broken down i n t o numbers and r a t e s f o r s e l e c t e d major centres w i t h i n the seven Regions. A l l Regions except two ( I I and IV) show an increase i n the r a t e of SA r e c i p i e n t s d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1951 to 1 9 5 8 . 'Regions I and I I have by f a r the lowest rate of r e c i p i e n t s . W i t h i n Region I , the economic-a l l y r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e community of V i c t o r i a i s l o c a t e d . The great m a j o r i t y of the r e s i d e n t s of Region I I l i v e i n the Greater Vancouver area. The f a c t t h a t the l a t t e r Region has the lowest r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s seems to i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n an economy which i s based predominantly on secondary manufacturing and s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s . The r e l a t i v e absence of such i n d u s t r i e s i n the other Regions of the Province which are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a one-i n d u s t r y s t r u c t u r e (lumbering, mining, f i s h i n g ) , as w e l l as the r e l a t i v e absence of the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s found i n the large urban centres of Regions I and I I , makes the p o p u l a t i o n of large p a r t s of the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia h i g h l y vulnerable to the economic c y c l e s of the country and the world market. This extreme dependence on economic s t a b i l i t y i s s t r i k i n g l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n the h i g h rate of SA r e c i p i e n t s i n Region V I I during 1 9 5 8 , when both the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y - 80 -(Prince Rupert) and the aluminum smeltering (Kitimat) experienced a sharp d e c l i n e . Region V has the second highest r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s i n the P r o v i n c e . This area i s s t i l l s p a r s e l y populated, and i t s few i n d u s t r i e s o f f e r r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n ( r e f e r to Tables 8 and 9 ) . Another i l l u s t r a t i o n of a one-industry community, where the p r o s p e r i t y of the p o p u l a t i o n i s t i e d to the s t a b i l i t y of the major i n d u s t r y , i s the C i t y of T r a i l . During 1 9 5 6 , a p e r i o d of d e c l i n e i n the r a t e of SA r e c i p i e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the rate of r e c i p i e n t s i n the C i t y of T r a i l was up by one t h i r d compared to 1951+• The h i g h r a t e of SA r e c i p i e n t s i s a l s o remarkable i n the suburban areas of the Lower Mainland which have a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n , but l i t t l e l o c a l i n d u s t r y . For reasons of cheaper l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s , a number of unemployed or economically insecure persons and f a m i l i e s leave Vancouver f o r these suburban areas, where the cost of l i v i n g i s lower. But t h i s a l s o means that they move to d i s t r i c t s where l e s s employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t , and from where they are l e s s able to compete f o r the job a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver. Thus, compared to Vancouver C i t y (rate of r e c i p i e n t s 1 1 . 5 per thousand i n 1 9 5 6 ) , we f i n d a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of SA r e c i p i e n t s i n Surrey ( 2 k . 6 per thousand) Maple Ridge ( 1 9 . 8 ) and C h i l l i w a c k ( C i t y and Township 1 9 . 5 per thousand). The comparatively h i g h r a t e i n New Westminster i s a l s o noteworthy. Other centres w i t h a h i g h r a t e of SA r e c i p i e n t s are l o c a t e d x^ithin the Regions I I I , and IV, w i t h Kamloops having the highest r a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia ( 3 0 . 1 i n 1 9 5 6 ) . W i t h i n Regions V and V I I , centers w i t h a h i g h r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s are Dawson Creek ( 1 9 . 2 ) P r i n c e George ( 2 1 . 2 ) , and Prince Rupert ( 2 3 . 9 ) . - 81 -T a b l e 26: Number and Rates o f F a m i l i e s , and S i n g l e P e r s o n s i n R e c e i p t o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; 1951 and 1956. YEAR F A M I L I E S S I N G L E P E R S O N S t o t a l number f a m i l i e s on SA a r a t e t o t a l number persons on SA b r a t e 1951 1956 299,845 346,003 3,068 3,730 10.1 10.8 123,102 132,717 7,428 6,346 60 . 2 47.7 S o u r c e : Dept. of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual R e p o r t s , 1951, 1956. D.B.S.; Census of Canada; 1951, 1956. a r a t e p e r 1,000 f a m i l i e s b r a t e p e r 1,000 s i n g l e p e r s o n s aged 20 - 65 - 82 -Table 27; S o c i a l Allowance; Number of Re c i p i e n t s per Region, and Rates per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n ; 1951-1958. 1951 - 1954 REGIONS 1 9 5 1 1 9 5 2 1 9 5 3 1 9 5 4 number r a t e number r a t e number ra t e number ra t e Region I 2,416 11.4 1,966 - 2,488 - 2,478 -" I I 9,405 11,5 8,553 - 6,282" - 6,282 -" I I I 2,343 21.5 2,054 - 2,047 - 2,194 -IV 1,979 21.8 1,865 - 1,837 - 1,834 -" v 1,231 19.7 1,223 - 1,274 - 1,747 -11 VI - - - - 1,869 - 2,511 -" V I I - - - - - - -T o t a l 17,374 14.8 15,661 13.0 15,276 12.2 17,478 12.3 1955 - 1958 REGIONS 1 9 5 5 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 7 1 9 5 8 number r a t e number r a t e number ra t e number r a t e Region I 2,478 - 2,658 10.6 2,649 3,361 12.8 I I 8,540 - 6,870 11.0 6,336 - 7,773 10.8 " I I I 2,475 - . 2,540 20.1 2,555 - 3,006 21.9 IV 2,154 - 2,318 23.2 2,077 - 2,063 20.2 V 2,171 - 2,366 22.2 .1,491"" - 1,491 24.7 « VI 2,717 - 3,085 21.0 3,364 - 3,703 21.8 " V I I _ — 649 - 972 32.1 T o t a l : 20,535 15.2 19,837 14.1 , 19,121 12.8 22,635 14.7 Source: Dept.of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports, 1951 - 1958. a A change i n r e g i o n a l boundaries accounts f o r dec l i n e i n number of — r e c i p i e n t s , b - d i t t o -- 83 -Table 28a; .Social Allowance; Number of Recipients per Region and Selected Major Centres, and Comparative Rates per 1,000 Population; 1951^1956. Regions I. II. I l l R^egions & Major Centres 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 6 1 9 5 8 total population number of recipients rate total populatio ; number oi p. recipien' ? rate ts total populatii number mof recip-ients rate Region I Saanicli Nanaimo Victoria Remaining Area 28,481 7,196 51,331 121,569 232 140 761 1,283 7.9 19.6 9.9 10.5 39,358 12,705 54,584 141,962 159 205 615 1,679 4.0 16.2 11.1 8,2 42,300 13,800 54,584 150,122 203 264 993 1,901 4.7 18.7 16.2 12.6 Total: 208,577 2,416 11.4 248,609 2,658 10.6 265,806 3,361 12.8 Region II Burnaby New Westm'r Richmond Vancouver Remaining kre&: 58,376 28,639 .119,186 .344,833 92,612 815 579 284 4,843 1,105 13.9 20.3 14.8 14.0 3.2.2 83,745 31,665 25,978 365,844 128,461 585 539 237 4,437 1,071 7.1 17.2 9.0 11.5 8.4 95,000 35,000 34,000 386,000 149,540 708 412 351 4,873 1,429 7.0 11.6 10.2 12.7 9.4 Total: 543,646 7,626 13.7 635,693 6,870 11.0 699,540 7,773 10.8 Region III Kamloops Kelowna Penticton Vernon Remaining Area: 8,099 8,517 10,548 7,822 74,658 173 135 173 191 1,671 20.8 16.2 16.3 24.8 21.7 9,096 9,181 11,894 8,998 87,516 275 124 189 77 1,875 30.1 13.6 15.9 8.5 20.7 10,000 9,181 11,894 9,500 96,725 236 109 217 125 2,329 23.6 11.0 18.3 13.1 24.2 Total: 109,664 2,343 21.5 126,685 2,540 20.1 137,300 3,006 21.9 TABLE CONTINUED - 84 -Table 28b: Social Allowance; Number of Recipients per Region and Selected Major Centres, and Comparative Rates per 1,000 population; 1951-1956 Regions IV, V. VI, VII Regions & Major Centres 1 9 5 4 1 9 5 6 / 9 5 8 total population number of recipients rate total populatior number of recipients rate total populatic number >n of recipiei rate its Region IV Cranbrook Nelson Trail Remaining Area: 3,621 6,772 11,430 67,438 41 95 80 1,763 9.8 14.3 7.0 26.4 4,562 7,226 11,395 74,230 108 145 122 1,943 11.9 10.3 10.6 25.2 4,562 7,500 11,400 80,037 131 % 135 132 1,665 28.8 16.9 11.3 25.5 Total: 89,261 1,979 21.8 97,413 2,318 23.2 103,499 2,063 20.2 Regions V and VII a *• Dawson Creek Prince George Prince Rupert Remaining Area 3,589 4,703 8,546 47,077 74 95 114 948 19.2 20.0 13.7 19.9 7,531 10,563 10,498 77,602 148 213 252 1,753 19.2 21.2 23.9 22.8 10,000 12,000 11,000 95,370 134 235 287 1,973 13.4 19.9 28.7 20.8 Total: 63,915 1,231 19.7 106,194 2,366 22.2 128,370 2,629 20.5 Region VI Chilli waclsr Maple Ridge Surrey-Remaining Area ' 19,340 9,891 33,670 52,569 222 95 777 685 11.5 9.5 23.3 13.0 23,647 12,502 49,366 60,965 465 247 1,227 1,146 19.5 19.8 24.6 19.6 24,165 15,000 55,000 75,885 454 287 1,162 1,800 18.9 19.1 22.8 22.4 Total: 115,470 1,779 15.3 146,480 3,085 21.C 170,050 3,703 21.8 Source: Dept. of Social Welfare; Annual Reports, 1954, 1956, 1958. a For better comparison, Regions V and VII are treated as one unit for 1958. b_ (City and Township) - 85 -The c h r o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i n a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e : D u r i n g 1 9 5 7 , t h e R e s e a r c h and S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n o f the DSW began t o p u b l i s h m o n t h l y s t a t i s t i c s , f r o m w h i c h t h e t r e n d s i n new a p p l i c a t i o n f o r SA can be c o m p i l e d . T a b l e s 29 and 30 g i v e t h e number o f new a p p l i c a t i o n s by month f o r a two y e a r p e r i o d (1958 - 1 9 5 9 )• Ta b l e 29 shows the p r o p o r t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g a g i v e n month as p e r c e n t a g e of t h e t o t a l number of a p p l i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e y e a r . T a b l e 30 shows the pe r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e o f the number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s o ver ^he p r e c e d i n g month. On F i g u r e 1 t h e same phenomenon i s p r e s e n t e d g r a p h i c a l l y . The F i g u r e i n d i c a t e s f o u r peaks d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e two-y e a r p e r i o d . The f i r s t s h a r p r i s e i n a p p l i c a t i o n s o c c u r r e d i n J u l y 1 9 5 8 , when 1 0 . 6 p.c. o f a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s of 1958 were r e c e i v e d . T h i s r i s e r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e of 8 8 . 8 p.c. over the p r e v i o u s month. The e x h a u s t i o n o f s e a s o n a l b e n e f i t s as w e l l as a number of s t r i k e s , among them t h e major s t r i k e i n t h e s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y , seem t o account f o r t h i s d r a m a t i c i n c r e a s e at a p e r i o d o f the y e a r when the economy i s e x p e c t e d t o go I n t o f u l l s w ing. The month o f August 1958 shows a n o t i c e a b l e drop i n t h e number of a p p l i c a t i o n s , o n l y t o be f o l l o w e d by a n o t h e r p e r i o d of i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f a p p l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e f a l l and e a r l y w i n t e r (I4.6.O p.c. o f the t o t a l d u r i n g t h e months September - December). A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , b u t c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a much h i g h e r r a t e of a p p l i c a t i o n s , o c c u r r e d i n 1 9 5 9 . A f t e r a marked d e c l i n e d u r i n g F e b r u a r y and March 1 9 5 9 , a sharp i n c r e a s e t o o k p l a c e d u r i n g May ( 3 6 . 9 p.c. o v e r A p r i l ) , p o s s i b l y due t o the e x h a u s t i o n o f s e a s o n a l b e n e f i t s of a number o f a p p l i c a n t s . The marked i n c r e a s e i n J u l y ( 1 7 . 9 p.c.) a g a i n s h o u l d be due t o a major s t r i k e t h a t a f f e c t e d t h e e n t i r e economy o f t h e P r o v i n c e ( s t r i k e i n t h e lumber i n d u s t r i e s ) . F o r the r e m a i n d e r of t h e y e a r , o n l y August and December show a d e c l i n e . - 86 -Thus, only f i v e months of the year show a drop i n a p p l i c a t i o n s . This p o i n t s to a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the economic s i t u a t i o n which i s also i n d i c a t e d i n the f a c t that the t o t a l percentage increase of a p p l i c a t i o n s during 1959' was higher than the t o t a l decrease and stood f a r above the increase that occurred d u r i n g the previous year. This development i m p l i e s t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l seasonal p a t t e r n of h i g h r a t e s of SA a p p l i c a t i o n s coming i n d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t of the w i n t e r , and few a p p l i c a t i o n s being made durin g the p e r i o d of h i g h economic a c t i v i t y i n spring and summer, holds no longer t r u e . I t i n d i c a t e s that unemployment i s becoming a chronic phenomenon, which makes a l a r g e segment of the working p o p u l a t i o n h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e , and thus dependent on p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . A comparison of the data w i t h employment and unemployment s t a t i s t i c s would probably v e r i f y t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t trend. - 8 7 -Table 2 9 : Applications f o r Social Allowance and Family Service; number and monthly percentage of t o t a l number of applications per year; 1958 & 1959• MONTH 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 Social Allowance Family Service Social Allowar [ce Family Service number p.c. number P • c • number p.c. number p.c. January 1 ,563 6 . 0 190 9-3 3 , k 5 3 9 . 0 19k 9.k February 1,38k 5 . 2 170 8 . 3 2 , 9 2 6 7 . 6 208 1 0 . 0 March 1 ,326 5 . 6 168 8 . 3 2 ,513 6 . 5 163 7-9 A p r i l . 1,.582 6 . 0 l k 5 7 . 1 2 , 6 3 7 6 . 8 186 9 . 0 May l , k 7 2 5 . 7 173 8.k 3,612 9-k 17k 8 . 5 June i , k 5 k 5 . 5 Ik5 7 . 1 2 , 8 0 0 7 . 3 192 9 . 3 July 2 , 7 k l 1 0 . 6 205 1 0 . 0 3 , 3 0 3 8 . 6 178 8 . 6 August 2 , k 2 k 9.k 17k 8.k 2 , 9 2 7 7 . 5 173 8 . 5 Septembe r 2 , 5 3 1 9 . 7 191 9 . 3 3 , 1 0 8 8 . 0 I k l 6 . 9 October 2 , 8 7 9 1 1 . 1 208 1 0 . 0 3 ,376 8 . 7 136 6 . 7 November 3 , 2 5 9 1 2 . 6 158 7 . 7 k , 1 9 1 1 0 . 9 165 8 . 0 December 3,261 1 2 . 6 120 6 . 0 3 , 7 5 8 9-7 l k 8 7 . 2 T o t a l : 2 5 , 8 7 6 1 0 0 . 0 0 2 , 0 k 7 1 0 0 . 0 0 38,60k 1 0 0 . 0 0 • 2 , 0 5 8 1 0 0 . 0 0 S o u r c e : M o n t h l y S t a t i s t i c s ; R e s e a r c h and S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n ; Department of Social Welfare; 1 9 5 8 , 1 9 5 9 . - 88 -Table 30? A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Allowance; Number and percentage increase or decrease of preceding month; 1958 and 1959. 1 9 5 8 1 9 5 9 MONTH number p .c. number p.c. January- 1,563 - 3,l(-53 (+) 5.9 February 1,38k. (-> 11.0 2,926 (-)18.2 March 1,326 ( - ) 1+.2 2,513 ( - M 4 . 1 A p r i l 1,582 (+: i 1 9 . 0 2,637 (+) 4-9 May 1,14-72 i 7.0 3,612 (+)36.9 June 1,454 1..2 2,800 (-)22.5 J u l y 2,714-1 (+> ) 88.8 3,303 (+)17-9 August 2,14.214. ( - ' ) 11.6 2,927 (-)n,4 September 2,531 (+: 4-4 3,108 (+) 6.2 October 2,879 (+: 13.8 3,376 (+) 8.6 November 3,259 (+; 13.2 4,191 (+)24.1 December 3,261 (+, 0.06 3,758 (-)10.3 T o t a l : 25,876 - 38,601+ -Source: Monthly S t a t i s t i c s ; Research and S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n ; Dept. of S o c i a l Welfare; 1958, 1959. 1 200 "umber of A p p l i c a t i o n s Tor S o c i a l A I I O V J ance re c e i v e d monthly; 195& _ T O K O -195G- — j - — 1 — I — I — h - H 1 — I — I— I— I — h — - 1 9 5 9 — —I 1 t 1 h I I 1 1 f« JAI\T F2B rAJl APR I-I'.Y J u l ; J U L AUG 34F OCT ICCV DI "FEBLm A F R H A T JUI7 J U L AUG S E ? OCT I-IOV D3C - 90 -k' Data on Family Service In the Annual Report of 1 9 5 8 , Family Service i s described as "an a l l - i n c l u s i v e term covering a l l those services, including casework, which are given to families and individuals whether or not they are 1 i n receipt of f i n a n c i a l assistance." While applications f o r family service are no i n d i c a t i o n or measure of immediate economic need, they are an i n d i c a t i o n of p o t e n t i a l or actual s o c i a l disorgan-i z a t i o n vrhich may, i n time, result In the economic dependency of the entire family or one or more of i t s members. Table 31 shows the number of family cases during the period 1951 to 1958 and gives the rates per thousand families f o r the Census years. This rate increased from 3 . 2 i n 1951 to h . 8 i n 1 9 5 6 . The decline i n the number of cases during 1 9 5 7 , indicated i n the s t a t i s t i c s of the Department, should be a r e f l e c t i o n of the change i n the reporting system (see page 77)« It i s noted, however, that t h i s trend has continued i n 1 9 5 8 . Table 32 gives the number of Family Service cases by Region. The rate of cases per thousand f a m i l i e s could not be determined, since the t o t a l number of fam i l i e s per Region i s not av a i l a b l e . The number of Family Service cases opened monthly during the period January 1958 to December 1959 i s given on Table 2 9 . The graphic presentation on Figure II indicates a rather e r r a t i c pattern that does not allow any conclusions as to the causes or factors involved i n the rapid f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the number of applications for service. 1 Annual Report 1 9 5 8 ; p. 0 - 3 8 - 91 -A v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a f f may have an influence on t h i s pattern. But no data are available determining the possible role of t h i s f a c t o r . It should be noted, however, that i n both years the number of applications declined towards the end of the year, reaching i t s lowest point in. December, only to be followed by a sharp upswing i n January. Table 31» Family Service; Number of Cases and Rates per 1,000 f a m i l i e s ; 1951 - 1958. YEAR 1951 1952 1953 195ft 1955 . 1956' 1957 1958 Family Serv. Cases 1,278 l , 3 i f l 1A38 1,728 l,6k0 l,i|43 1,296 Total number of f a m i l i e s B.C. 299,8k5 Rate per 1,000 f a m i l i e s 3.2 - - - - 3k6,003 h.8 - -Source: Dept. of Soc i a l Welfare; Annual Reports; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . D.B.S.; Census of Canada; 1951, 1956. 92 -T ¥ 1 1 I r o 0 0 O O 0 0 e n CV f H 0 C N c v c v CV CV c v H T o '03 r H 1 ~ 1 r „ 1 • 1 1 I 0 O O O O O O !> V O c n <\> rH rH H r-l rH H fH H o o H - 93 Table 3 2 : Family S e r v i c e ; Number of Cases per Region; 1951 - 1958. YEAR R E G 1.0 N TOTAL I 11 I I I IV V VI V I I 1951 n.r. n.r.. n.r. n.r. n.r. - - 1,278 1952 218 n.r. n.r. n.r. 2k5 212 - 1,31+1 1953 219 n.r. n.r. 25k 2k3 218 - 1,1+38 195k 27k 287 271 210 2k2 276 - 1,51+5 1955 275 303 305 n.r. 323 333 - 1,728 1956 259 312 313 173 330 2kk - 1,631 1957 229 335 272 167 23k 206 - 1,1+1+3 1958 165 306 251 l k 3 160 180 91 1,296 Source: Dept.of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports; 1951 - 1958. Summary Three b a s i c questions were posed at the beginning of t h i s Chapter, to which answers were sought i n the s t a t i s t i c s given i n the annual r e p o r t s of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. The m a t e r i a l examined i n d i c a t e d a number of weaknesses i n the method of r e p o r t i n g data. I t was found that only r e c e n t l y , a standard system of r e p o r t i n g i d e n t i c a l s t a t i s t i c s was adopted by the Regions. The study f u r t h e r . r e v e a l e d areas of i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e l a t i v e absence of s o c i a l and economic data on r e c i p i e n t s of programmes as w e l l as r e g i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s was noted. The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the f i n d i n g s f o r welfare research w i l l be di s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n the concluding Chapter. - 91+ -CHAPTER k RECENT WELFARE MEASUREMENTS L i m i t a t i o n s and Needs. Hardly any doubt e x i s t s that more s t a t i s t i c s and more research are needed, i f our welfare s e r v i c e s are to be extended a p p r o p r i a t e l y and improved i n t h e i r q u a l i t y . The need f o r more s t a t i s t i c s and more research would be accepted by those people who regard the scope and the q u a l i t y of the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , as by those who b e l i e v e that s u f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n through welf a r e s e r v i c e s i s o f f e r e d to the c i t i z e n of today; i t would be granted by those people who p o s t u l a t e that more money should be spent on w e l f a r e , as by those who c l a i m t h a t Canada has gone too f a r already on "the road to the welfare s t a t e " . But how can such c o n t r o v e r s i e s be conducted i n a reasonable and f r u i t f u l way,, as long as there I s no adequate measure-ment m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e , i . e . s u f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c s I Thus,, the i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c as w e l l as the p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel - doctors, teachers, lawyers, town-planners as much as s o c i a l workers - have a v i t a l i n t e r e s t I n the development of more research t h a t ' w i l l make a t e s t of the need f o r welfare s e r v i c e s , of t h e i r q u a l i t y and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s , p o s s i b l e . The need f o r such research and the v i t a l r o l e i t has assumed i n 1 s o c i a l welfare and i n s o c i a l work i s s t a t e d by A l f r e d J.Kahn: "Research i s a major instrument of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n t h i s decade of the 20th century. Evaluations of accomplishment u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e r e s e a r c h o p e r a t i o n i f there i s t o be some assurance of o b j e c t i v i t y and of some degree of p r o b a b i l i t y that s e r v i c e and r e s u l t s are t r u l y r e l a t e d ; the r e a l p r o f e s s i o n cannot forego research. This remains the case when the consumer of the s e r v i c e or those xtfho meet the budgets 1 Kahn, A l f r e d J . ; " F a c i l i t a t i n g S o c i a l Work Research"; S o c i a l Service Review; Vol.3 0 ,No.3 ; Sept. 1 9 5 6 ; pp.331-31+6. - 9 5 -have confidence i n the programme and i n the process, as w e l l as i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c data, as t o the value of the e f f o r t s . In an e a r l i e r era the p r o f e s s i o n could j u s t i f y i t s e l f hy i t s i n t e n t i o n s and i t s a c t i v i t i e s ; today we have the r i g h t to ask f o r systematic v a l i d a t i o n of the process by which s e r v i c e i s undertaken." 1 2 David French, w i t h h i s f i v e "canons" i s mapping out the b a s i c steps the e v a l u a t i v e research, c a l l e d f o r by A l f r e d J.Kahn, must take: 1. i d e n t i f y the goals sought; 2. analyze the problem t o which s o c i a l work i s d i r e c t e d ; 3 . describe and standardize the a c t i v i t y or s e r v i c e ; ft. measure the degree of change; 5 . determine the cause and e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p . Such p r o f e s s i o n a l research, aiming at i n t e n s i v e or extensive e v a l u -a t i o n i s f a r ahead of the "good housekeeping" of s t a t i s t i c s t h a t are c o l l e c t e d as part of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e process. I t r e q u i r e s as an e s s e n t i a l base a broad framework of b a s i c measurements of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , of the areas where the po p u l a t i o n i s most vu l n e r a b l e t o economic and s o c i a l s t r e s s , where present loads of dependency are g r e a t e s t , and of what the most common types of dependency are. The present study, that attempts to explore the s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e f o r welfare measurements i n B r i t i s h Columbia, has been confined to the province as a "welfare base" f o r s p e c i a l reasons. L i m i t a t i o n s of time d i c t a t e d r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the s t a t i s t i c s t o be examined. The province was chosen as the area of e x p l o r a t i o n of m a t e r i a l , because i t was f e l t t h a t , w h i l e n a t i o n a l and l o c a l s t u d i e s of many kinds have been completed In r e l a t i v e l y g r eat numbers, province-wide s t u d i e s are f a r l e s s common. Yet the provinces of Canada are s t i l l 1 i b i d ; p.331 'Z French, David; Measuring Results In S o c i a l Work; Chapter IV. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press; New York;" 1952. - 96 -the major and most important a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of many b a s i c welfare s e r v i c e s , i n s p i t e of the great expansion i n n a t i o n a l w e l f a r e - l e g i s -l a t i o n that has taken place over the past ten or twenty years. Thus, the provinces and such p r o v i n c i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s as can be developed, are the l o g i c a l geographical areas f o r which o v e r a l l data must have ref e r e n c e . A f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the type of s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l that has t o be developed f o r welfare measurements and research, i s the i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d , e s p e c i a l l y i n welfare matters, of p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and l a r g e r c i t i e s inhere more and more of the important s e r v i c e s are becoming concentrated. The need f o r comparable p r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s has e x i s t e d ever since welfare programmes have been developed on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . In the wake of these n a t i o n a l programmes, the p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s were extended i n many areas, more s o c i a l workers were employed, improved f a c i l i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d . In -some prov i n c e s , research d i v i s i o n s were added to the Departments x of Welfare ; but b a s i c measurement i n x^elfare has n o t a b l y lagged i n comparison to these advances. This l a g becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent when the developments of research i n w e l f a r e are compared w i t h the f i e l d of h e a l t h which has experienced a s i m i l a r , i f not a g r e a t e r , expansion during the past two decades. Health measurements seem to have kept pace to a much g r e a t e r extent w i t h the development of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . By t r a d i t i o n , research has always been an i n t e g r a l p a r t of medicine, and t h i s t r a d i t i o n was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the f i e l d of p u b l i c h e a l t h i n which the medical p r o f e s s i o n plays a v i t a l l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . There i s a l s o no doubt that the general p u b l i c expresses much more approval of " h e a l t h " than of "welfare". Thus, research i s much more wi d e l y accepted as an e s s e n t i a l part of the s e r v i c e i n h e a l t h than i n w e l f a r e . Another f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the major r o l e of research i n x B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1952; Saskatchewan i n 1 9 5 9 . - 97 -t h i s f i e l d i s the fact that public health and epidemiology are b a s i c a l l y concerned x^ith. the incidence of disease and ce r t a i n i l l n e s s e s . Such programmes as tuberculosis control are constantly guided' by measurements of chest X-rays and other diagnostic data, number of cases, of patients h o s p i t a l i z e d and discharged and other data. Similar measurements are maintained of po l i o m y e l i t i s and venereal disease cases. It i s true, perhaps, that physical i l l n e s s and disease lend themselves better to measurement than such phenomena i n welfare as "psycho-social dependency", or " s o c i a l disorganization", for which no c l e a r l y defined and accepted norms e x i s t . Nevertheless, health and x\relfare have many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common. There are many p a r a l l e l s In the role research plays i n health, and the role i t could and should play i n welfare, and these should be brought f a r more x^idely and e f f e c t i v e l y Into use. In t h i s exploratory examination of s t a t i s t i c s f o r welfare measurement, only limited materials could be reviewed i n this f i r s t approach to an o v e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l description. A comparable study,of wider scope i n subject matter, though more l i m i t e d i n geographical area 1 (Greater Vancouver) deals with similar problems . Some of i t s conclusions, of relevance to t h i s study, are referred to at the end of t h i s Chapter. The Need f o r a Regional Base - Need f o r Standardization In the preceding chapters, the great wealth of data f o r welfare measurement available i n the Census and the s t a t i s t i c s of various government departments was indicated and, i n part, s t a t i s t i c a l l y 1 Crawford, R.N., Dewalt, L.W., Esau, E.I., and Gent leman,G.E.: A Research Inventory of Community Welfare S e r v i c e s ; ( B r i t i s h Columbia  and Vancouver. 1 9 5 9 ) ; Master of So c i a l Work Thesis; University of ts r i t i s n Columbia; 1 9 5 9 . - 98 -presented. But t h i s examination also made i t c l e a r , that at the present time, where widely d i f f e r i n g geographical areas f o r report-ing data are used by the departments, the large body of available s t a t i s t i c s cannot be used to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l f o r welfare measure-ment and research. The Department of Social Welfare has developed a system of Regions fo r administrative purposes as have other departments, such as the Department of Health (health u n i t s ) , the Department of Education (school d i s t r i c t s ) and the National Employment Service and the Unemployment Insurance Commission (a system of l o c a l o f f i c e s ) . For v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s , the d i v i s i o n s and subdivisions of the Census are used as " s t a t i s t i c a l p ublication areas". The size of the Province and the great differences i n the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the various areas of population concentration i n B r i t i s h Columbia are major reasons f o r the need of regional d i v i s i o n s . The value and the importance of regional comparisons i n welfare measurements has already been i l l u s t r a t e d . While single figures for the "province as a whole" are necessary f o r comparison with other provinces and the establishing of o v e r a l l trends, they f a i l to give an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i v e differences between the various regions, and of the incidence of major problems and needs. Thus, two major areas of immediate concern f o r welfare research i n B r i t i s h Columbia emerge: (1) the need f o r developing from the e x i s t i n g Census d i v i s i o n s and sub-divisions new areas of approximately homogeneous s o c i a l and economic structure that could serve as "base areas" f o r the measurement of such demographic and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s that have significance for welfare planning. - 99 -(2) the need f o r developing Regions of the Department of Social Welfare that correspond with the boundaries of these "base areas". The achievement of these two objectives would provide the basis f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of useful demographic and socio-economic data and agency s t a t i s t i c s f o r the measurement of welfare problems and welfare services against the background of the s o c i a l and economic structure of the population as a whole within these "base areas". Purposeful and v a l i d measurement and research w^ould become possible. A system of standardized regions of reporting would r e s u l t i n a co-ordinated c o l l e c t i n g and reporting of a l l s t a t i s t i c a l material i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This would permit the development :of a body of integrated information showing the s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each region, which x^ould then be r e a d i l y available f o r a l l kinds of measurement i n welfare, health,, employment, industry and other f i e l d s . Therefore, the primary need at the present time appears to be a great e f f o r t of collaboration between those p r o v i n c i a l and federal departments and agencies that are reporting s t a t i s t i c s , to create new standard base areas of measurement. The co-operation of the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s would also have to be e n l i s t e d for the adaptation of the Census d i v i s i o n s and subdivisions to these x areas. Through such an effort,, data could be brought together fo r each region on the age d i s t r i b u t i o n , size and composition o f fam i l i e s , school population,working force, elderly population, x This problem of standardization of area boundaries for admini-s t r a t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l purposes i s being successfully attacked In the Province of Saskatchewan, following the recommendations of the Royal Commission on "Agriculture and Rural.Life i n Saskatchewan", the so-called Baker Commission (195/4.). - 100 -occupational and income d i s t r i b u t i o n , housing,, d i s t r i b u t i o n of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n and immigrants, housing, the extent of u r b a n i z a t i o n and other Items. Such data would permit to e s t a b l i s h the s o c i o -economic l e v e l of each r e g i o n ; they could serve as base f o r planning i n w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , education, housing and i n d u s t r i a l developments. The Basic S o c i a l Data Examined, i n t h i s Study Because of the l i m i t e d scope of t h i s study, only r e l a t i v e l y few s t a t i s t i c s could be examined. They were s e l e c t e d mainly from the Census, because the Census s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s the major source of b a s i c p o p u l a t i o n measurements and socio-economic data. The data examined i n d i c a t e a r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n increase i n B r i t i s h Columbia which i s based on i n - m i g r a t i o n r a t h e r than on n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e . This increase i s accompanied by an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n . At present, n e a r l y one h a l f of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n the Greater Vancouver and Lower Mainland area which manifests a l l t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s of u r b a n i z a t i o n w i t h the decreased growth of the c e n t r a l c i t y , the increased r a t e of growth of the suburban m u n i c i -p a l i t i e s and the s p i l l i n g over of the population i n to the neighbour-i n g r u r a l areas. Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s t r e n d , the exodus of young f a m i l i e s from the c e n t r a l c i t y area which r e s u l t s i n an increase i n the p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people,, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a l l these developments inherent i n u r b a n i z a t i o n f o r welfare planning were a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d . The examination of the p a t t e r n of growth w i t h i n the Province pointed to a s i m i l a r development, though on a smaller s c a l e , i n the Greater V i c t o r i a area. The r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n increase i n c e r t a i n areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, e s p e c i a l l y i n the P r i n c e George area and i n the Peace Ri v e r Country was also noted. - 101 -I m m i g r a t i o n f r o m o v e r s e a s and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was found t o be an i m p o r t a n t element of p o p u l a t i o n growth. I t was f e l t t h a t t h i s i s an a r e a where much more i s needed i n d e t a i l e d measurements and s t a t i s t i c s , x s i n c e i m m i g r a n t s are a group of p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n t o w e l f a r e . I t i s q u i t e apparent t h a t i n p e r i o d s o f d e c r e a s e d economic a c t i v i t y , i m m i g r a n t s have p a r t i c u l a r problems t o e s t a b l i s h t hemselves i n t h e i r new environment. I n B r i t i s h C o lumbia, i t might be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e r e are two k i n d s of " i m m i g r a n t s " ; t h o s e who come from an o v e r s e a s c o u n t r y and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , and t h o s e moving from o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada t o B r i t i s h C o lumbia. Y e t , we do not know enough, how g r e a t and how xiridespread the d i f f i c u l t i e s are w i t h which t h i s group, e s p e c i a l l y the immigrant o f a d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c background, has t o cope. The e x a m i n a t i o n of the age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n I n d i c a t e d a p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia xtfhich i s much h i g h e r t h a n i n a l l o t h e r Canadian p r o v i n c e s . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e l d e r l y p eople i n the tx^ro m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Vancouver C i t y and V i c t o r i a C i t y , was a l s o n o t e d . I t was f u r t h e r shown t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n o f widowed o r s i n g l e e l d e r l y p e r s o n s was h i g h e s t i n the C i t y of Vancouver. The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g , the need f o r a l l k i n d s o f s e r v i c e s f o r the aged, and t h e need f o r h o u s i n g , are c l e a r . D a t a on h o u s e h o l d s and f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e d the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t -age o f " n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s " as w e l l as "households w i t h two and more f a m i l i e s " i n the C i t y of Vancouver. The forme r can be a c c e p t e d as x An MSW T h e s i s , completed i n 1959 r e p r e s e n t s a s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a ; Damm, Eva, M e n t a l I l l n e s s and M i g r a t i o n S t r e s s ; an a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y o f a c o m p a r a t i v e group o f German immi g r a n t s and Canadian-born p a t i e n t s , h o s p i t a l i z e d at t h e Crease C l i n i c o f P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e d i c i n e , E s s o n d a l e , B.C. 1953-1958; M a s t e r o f S o c i a l '.•Work'. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1959. - 102 -a measure of the proportion of single, unattached persons; the l a t t e r i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the proportion of overcrowded households. Both phenomena have important implications f o r planning i n welfare and housing. Data on the composition of families reveal a fact not generally known, namely, a concentration of families with one parent i n the metropolitan area e s p e c i a l l y i n Vancouver Cit y . The i l l e g i t i m a c y rate i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s the highest i n Canada (with the exception of the Yukon and the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s ) . This phenomenon i s of p a r t i c u l a r significance f o r welfare planning, since services related to t h i s problem constitute a major part of the c h i l d welfare programme. The s t a t i s t i c s reveal that a great number of unmarried mothers come from other parts of Canada, or even other countries, to B r i t i s h Columbia x-jhere they give b i r t h to an i l l e g i t i -mate c h i l d . The available measurements, however, do not give inform-ation about the actual i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h rate of the "established population" of the Province. Although the range of s t a t i s t i c s examined i n Chapter 2 was very li m i t e d , the existence of large groups of people \-iho are the p a r t i c u l a r concern of welfare services and welfare planning was revealed. Such groups are the aged, fa m i l i e s with one parent, immigrants, unmarried mothers. A l l measurements agree In i n d i c a t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y high proportion of the working force as occupied i n basic industries, and t h i s i s important because of the special economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y of . t h i s group. The data examined indicate a high and s t i l l increasing rate of urbanization, mobility, divorce, and i l l e g i t i m a c y , a l l phenomena of great significance f o r welfare planning. An examination of Census data on the basis of Census d i v i s i o n s and subdivisions was not attempted f o r reasons of l i m i t e d time; but also - 103 -because t h e s e areas do not l e n d t h e m s e l v e s f o r comparison w i t h s t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t e d by t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Some r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i c a l p r o blem must be f o u n d . A l t h o u g h o n l y some b a s i c s o c i a l d a t a c o u l d be examined, r e f e r e n c e was made t o o t h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e Census, and o t h e r i m p o r t a n t t y p e s o f d a t a and t h e i r s o u r c e s , such as the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , t he Department of Labour, t h e N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e and the Unemployment I n s u r a n c e Commission,the Department o f H e a l t h were enumerated. M e n t i o n was a l s o made of the importance o f s p e c i a l s t u d i e s u n d e r t a k e n by v a r i o u s departments and a g e n c i e s . The development o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g i o n a l base f o r t h e r e p o r t i n g of s t a t i s t i c s o f a l l t h e s e departments r e m a i n s as a major need. The p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , where almost e v e r y department us e s a d i f f e r e n t system o f r e g i o n s , p r e s e n t s an i n s u r m o u n t a b l e b a r r i e r f o r r e g i o n a l s t u d i e s , w h i c h are a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g , n o t al o n e i n w e l f a r e . P u b l i c W e l f a r e S t a t i s t i c s As i n the a r e a o f b a s i c s o c i a l d a t a , a comprehensive e x a m i n a t i o n o f p u b l i c x ^ e l f a r e d a t a was not p o s s i b l e because of l i m i t a t i o n s of t i m e . The p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programmes, t h a t m a i n l y d e a l w i t h needs a r i s i n g out o f economic dependency were s e l e c t e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , because t h e y c o n s t i t u t e a major p a r t o f t h e w e l f a r e s e r v i c e and r e a c h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f p e o p l e . The s t a t i s t i c s were examined f o r d a t a they might p r o v i d e on t h e number of c a s e s o f f i n a n c i a l dependency, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n ti m e and a r e a , and on t h e soc i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e c i p i e n t s t h a t c o u l d - 101+ -be compared with the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t o t a l population. They were analyzed by programme, on a p r o v i n c i a l basis and, where possible, on a regional b a s i s . The l a t t e r attempt was greatly handicapped by the paucity of regional data i n the Annual Reports, that r a r e l y go beyond a simple count of cases and o f f e r p r a c t i c a l l y no s o c i a l and economic data on the population of the Regions. (a) The lack of regional data No accurate population counts are available f o r the d i f f e r e n t Regions of the Department of Social Welfare. In the annual reports, the estimated population i s given f o r some Regions; for others, no data are offered at a l l . Since the Regional boundaries do not correspond with the Census compilation areas, i t appears impossible to ascertain the exact population of each Region. The writer has attempted to compile an approximate population figure f o r each Region from the available population data of the School D i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia for 1951* 1956 and 1 9 5 8 . But no demographic or socio-economic data could be obtained f o r the Regions. Thus, at the present time, i t i s impossible to bring together the es s e n t i a l data needed to assess the scope and prevalence of welfare problems i n each Region. This i s well known to Departmental personnel. The Annual Report for 1 9 5 k , for example, stated, that " u n t i l such time as the regional .boundaries can be altered to correspond with the established census areas or alternate 'base' areas, i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to provide adequate estimates of population, and therefore, of incidence of s o c i a l breakdown" 1 o The Report on the "Study of S t a t i s t i c a l Methods"— completed i n 1 9 5 6 , 1 Annual Report 1 9 5 k ; DSW; op.cit., p.11 1 "Study of S t a t i s t i c a l Methods; Fart I I ; The Recording and Reporting of S t a t i s t i c s ; Department of Health and Welfare, Social Welfare Branch; V i c t o r i a , B.C.; December 1 9 5 6 . - 105 -seriously questioned the f e a s i b i l i t y of the e x i s t i n g regional administrative u n i t s . "The problem of regional s t a t i s t i c s . . . . has become not merely an arithmetic exercise but rather has become a problem very c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the bigger problem of the f e a s i b i l i t y 1 of the present region as the proper unit of administration" . (b) The methods of reporting welfare data; Implications f o r welfare research Three basic research questions have been posed (Chapter 3), f o r which answers were sought i n the s t a t i s t i c s of the Department of Social Welfare: 1. How many people are being aided through public provisions? 2. Where do these people l i v e ? 3. What are t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l and economic characteristics?. The data to be examined were selected from three areas of service: categorical assistance programmes, s o c i a l allowance and family service. It was found that no uniform method of reporting has been adopted for the d i f f e r e n t services. Thus, while some v a l i d answers could be found r e l a t i v e to the questions one and two, data that would a s s i s t i n answering question three were only available f o r one group of services (categorical assistance programmes). Data of t h i s kind are similar to the s o c i a l and economic information that i s c o l l e c t e d by the Census; they are indeed often referred to as "case census of r e c i p i e n t s " . Such material would contain data on the age d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c i p i e n t s , sex and marital status, family size and composition, type of accommodation, and d i s t r i b u t i o n of occupation, income and property. The data would permit the measuring of the social and economic l e v e l of r e c i p i e n t s of welfare programmes, and this could be 1 i b i d , p.69 - 106 -compared w i t h the s o c i a l and economic l e v e l o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . Such measurements would r e v e a l s p e c i a l needs t h a t may o t h e r w i s e go u n d e t e c t e d , such as m a r g i n a l income, i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g , s p e c i a l needs of p e o p l e l i v i n g a l o n e . A s t u d y of the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i a l alloxtfance r e c i p i e n t s , f o r example, would a l s o have w i d e r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the pr o b l e m of t h e a b l e - b o d i e d unemployed- p e r s o n . The d e t e c t i o n o f s p e c i a l needs o f r e c i p i e n t s i s of g r e a t importance f o r I n t r o d u c i n g needed m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s o r the c r e a t i o n of new a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s . The comparison of t h e socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s group w i t h the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n x^ould a l s o a l l o w some measurement of the g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y o f c e r t a i n needs and problems among the r e c i p i e n t s . As an example may ser v e the socio-economic measurements o f new r e c i p i e n t s o f O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e t h a t were examined I n Ch a p t e r 3' The s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l e d among t h i s group, a m a r k e d l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f per s o n s widowe'd, o r s i n g l e and l i v i n g u n a t t a c h e d , t h a n among t h e t o t a l group of e l d e r l y p e o p l e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the income l e v e l o f new r e c i p i e n t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t a major p r o p o r t i o n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 85 p.c.) l i v e s on a m a r g i n a l budget; more th a n h a l f of the new r e c i p i e n t s have no s a v i n g s whatsoever. A l l t h e s e f i n d i n g s have most i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the w e l f a r e programmes d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s group. Needs i n t h e a r e a of adequate h o u s i n g a r e i n d i c a t e d as much as s e r v i c e s t h a t h e l p e l d e r l y p e o p l e b r e a k t h e i r l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . The m a r g i n a l income l e v e l o f many r e c i p i e n t s s t r e s s e s the v i t a l i m portance of a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n h e a l t h and m e d i c a l c a r e , t h a t are needed t o h e l p t h e r e c i p i e n t cope w i t h any s i t u a t i o n o f c r i s i s , , o r s o c i a l and economic s t r e s s . I t r a i s e s , l a s t not l e a s t , the q u e s t i o n of the adequacy o f the p r e s e n t a l l o w a n c e and t h e need t o examine t h i s problem. - 107 -Thus, so c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a about r e c i p i e n t s are e s s e n t i a l t o o l s f o r ' e v a l u a t i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f p r e s e n t s e r v i c e s as w e l l as f o r d e t e c t i n g needs f o r new s e r v i c e s . They are a l s o a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r more i n t e n s i v e s t u d i e s and measurements d e a l i n g w i t h t h e c a u s e - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p roblems. The need f o r such s t u d i e s a p p l i e s t o a l l a r e a s of s e r v i c e , and a g r e a t d e a l o f m a t e r i a l i s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e , though l a r g e l y unused, i n t h e s o cio-economic d a t a t h a t can be found on most a p p l i c a t i o n forms and p e r i o d i c a l r e - i n s p e c t i o n r e p o r t s o f p e n s i o n e r s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d p r o v i d e a u s e f u l base f o r s p e c i a l s t u d i e s o f t h i s t y p e . D a t a on the c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes. For t h i s group of programmes (OAA, OASSA, DPA, BPA), t h e A nnual R e p o r t s g i v e t h e "number o f c a s e s " as a t March 3 1 s t . T h i s f i g u r e I n c l u d e s "cases i n pay" as w e l l as "pending c a s e s " and t h u s , has o n l y l i m i t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e , e x c ept f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . A more a c c u r a t e count i s p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h th e d a t a on t h e t o t a l number of " r e c i p i e n t s " as at March 3 1 s t , and t h e number o f "new r e c i p i e n t s " w i t h i n t h e e n t i r e y e a r . These d a t a p e r m i t t h e e s t a b l i s h i n g o f t r e n d s i n the movement of the number of r e c i p i e n t s and a p p l i c a n t s o v e r the y e a r s . Through comparison w i t h Census d a t a , i t can be d e t e r m i n e d what p e r c e n t a g e or r a t i o t h e s e r e c i p i e n t s c o n s t i t u t e o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the e l i g i b l e age group. I t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e , however, to determine s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of the r e c i p i e n t s , s i n c e a number o f Regions d i d not r e p o r t d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s on t h e numbers of r e c i p i e n t s -of t h e v a r i o u s programmes u n t i l a few y e a r s ago. Only i n 19^8 a u n i f o r m method of r e p o r t i n g such d a t a was adopted by a l l R e g i o n s , and a comparison o f the number of r e c i p i e n t s by R egion can now be made. - 108 -The Annual R e p o r t s o f f e r a l i m i t e d number o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a on the new r e c i p i e n t s of OAA, DPA and BPA. These d a t a r e p r e s e n t a s t e p i n the d i r e c t i o n o f d e v e l o p i n g a "census" o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t s , t h a t can be used f o r comparison and measurement x ^ i t h the d a t a of t h e Census of Canada, i . e . w i t h d a t a on t h e p o p u l a t i o n as a whole. Such d a t a are e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l f o r a s s e s s i n g the i n t e n s i t y o f c e r t a i n , n e e d s and problems among the r e c i p i e n t s and c e r t a i n groups o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . A l t h o u g h the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a are g i v e n i n t h e Annual R e p o r t s f o r new r e c i p i e n t s o n l y , t h e y c a n be a c c e p t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a l l r e c i p i e n t s of.OAA, s i n c e t h i s group c a n be assumed t o be more homogeneous i n i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a n any o t h e r segment o f the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . D a t a on S o c i a l A l l o x j a n c e : The s t a t i s t i c s o f the S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e programme do n o t i n c l u d e any s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a on t h e r e c i p i e n t s e x c ept a breakdown of the c l i e n t e l e i n t o "heads o f f a m i l i e s " , "dependents" and " s i n g l e r e c i p i e n t s " . T h i s p o i n t s to a v i t a l gap i n d a t a needed f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a programme t h a t has been g r e a t l y extended i n i t s scope d u r i n g t h e r e c e n t y e a r s and i s . d e s i g n e d t o meet, the needs of p e r s o n s from almost a l l segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , l a r g e l y p e r s o n s t h a t are not e l i g i b l e f o r any of the o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e .programmes. The d a t a r e p o r t e d are t o o l i m i t e d t o p e r m i t any a s s e s s -ment of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and adequacy of the programme; n o r are any d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the c o m p o s i t i o n and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the SA c l i e n t e l e . Any attempt t o c o l l e c t s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i o -economic d a t a on SA r e c i p i e n t s i s , o f c o u r s e , i n f i n i t e l y more d i f f i c u l t t h a n on OAA r e c i p i e n t s . The SA c l i e n t e l e c o n s t i t u t e s a h i g h l y m o b i l e and c h a n g i n g group of a v e r y heterogeneous n a t u r e . W h i l e OAA r e c i p i e n t s by and l a r g e , are r e m a i n i n g on a s s i s t a n c e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , a s s i s t a n c e - 109 -to SA applicants i s generally of a much more temporary, short-term nature. Hence the extreme d i f f i c u l t i e s i n obtaining v a l i d measurements of the socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s group. Nevertheless, gaining more knowledge about the people who are applying f o r SA must be one of the major objectives of welfare research. If we want to appraise the appropriateness and the effectiveness of the programme, we require pertinent data that enables us to understand some of the causes that make people dependent on SA. We must attempt to esta b l i s h , whether there are other reasons f o r the economic dependency of the SA applicants than merely lack of jobs, and what the nature of such reasons might be. It i s also e s s e n t i a l to determine the average period of time f o r which SA re c i p i e n t s remain on assistance, and whether the services offered meet the needs the c l i e n t s are expressing. Data that would help us f i n d answers to such v i t a l questions are not available i n x the Annual Reports on the SA programme. For several years the number of SA recipie n t s has been reported by Region and municipal o f f i c e . The data given permit the measurement of the chronological and geographical d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c i p i e n t s ; the r e l a t i v e incidence of economic breakdown that r e s u l t s i n f i n a n c i a l dependency can be measured. The evaluation of these figur e s , attempted i n Chapter 3, indicated a number of areas with p e r s i s t e n t l y high rates of s o c i a l allowance r e c i p i e n t s ; the most important ones are located i n the suburban areas of the Lower Mainland and i n the one-industry d i s t r i c t s and communities of the I n t e r i o r , as i n the Okanagan ( f r u i t - p i c k i n g ) , the Peace River country and the Prince George and Prince Rupert area (lumbering, ; V But the Report on the "Adequacy of Social Allowance Rates"; referred to several times i n t h i s study, i s a most useful document dealing with such problems for the •. are a of Vancouver C i t y . - 110 -mining, f i s h i n g ) . The monthly s t a t i s t i c s , compiled by•the Research and S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare since 1957, are a most u s e f u l source f o r measurements of-many k i n d s . In t h i s study (Chapter 3) they were used f o r assessing the c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i s t r i -b u t i o n of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Allowance. The examination of these data revealed a r i s i n g r a t e of a p p l i c a t i o n s since 1958 which appears to imply t h a t the p a t t e r n of the post-war years which was t y p i f i e d by seasonal unemployment r e s u l t i n g i n a h i g h number of s o c i a l allowance a p p l i c a t i o n s i n e a r l y w i n t e r and a r e d u c t i o n of the number of r e c i p i e n t s during s p r i n g and summer to a minimum, i s no longer e x i s t e n t . I t was pointed out, that a v a l i d a n a l y s i s of these f i g u r e s would r e q u i r e comparison with.the s t a t i s t i c s of N a t i o n a l Employment Service and the Unemployment Insurance Commission. Data of Family S e r v i c e ; The data on t h i s s e r v i c e are very l i m i t e d and do not go beyond the r e p o r t i n g of the number of cases f o r the Province and f o r each Region. Data on the socio-economic st a t u s of the f a m i l i e s r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s are not given. Neither are the types of problems i n d i c a t e d that b r i n g f a m i l i e s to the agency. I t must be remembered that i t i s d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y such problems In the absence of any agreed-upon standards. However, b e t t e r knowledge about the nature and the scope of the most commonly oc c u r r i n g problems causing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f a m i l y r e l a t l o n s h i p s , and a l s o b e t t e r knowledge about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of these f a m i l i e s i s necessary f o r appraising the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the ser v i c e o f f e r e d . Data on C h i l d Welfare: No attempt was made t o examine data on C h i l d Welfare Services i n the Province, a f t e r i t was r e a l i s e d that the - I l l -s t a t i s t i c s available i n the Annual Reports are too l i m i t e d f o r even very basic research purposes. Furthermore, since 1956 the Annual Reports no longer include data about the children i n care of the three Ghildrens' Aid Societies i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The s t a t i s t i c s of these private agencies, however, vary to an extent i n the type of data given and the method of reporting, which r e s u l t s i n almost t o t a l loss of completeness, c l a r i t y and uniformity of data. Even such basic counts as the t o t a l number of children i n care of the Superintendent of Child Welfare and the Childrens' Aid Societies and the l e g a l status of these childr e n can be obtained only with great d i f f i c u l t y from the records of the agencies concerned. Other data available i n the Annual Reports: Further s t a t i s t i c s given i n the annual reports, but not examined i n t h i s study, are available f o r the Medical Services D i v i s i o n that maintains a programme of paying the costs of needy persons f o r medical, dental and o p t i c a l care, drugs, and transportation to treatment f a c i l i t i e s . S t a t i s t i c s are also reported by the In d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys, the Ind u s t r i a l School for G i r l s , and the P r o v i n c i a l Home f o r the Aged and Infirm i n Kamloops. Reports are provided about the private welfare i n s t i t u t i o n s supervised and licensed by the Welfare Institutions Board and about the S o c i a l Service Department of the D i v i s i o n of Tuberculosis Control, the l a t t e r being of a lar g e l y d escriptive nature. Some Further Needs The primary need revealed by the examination of public welfare data fo r B r i t i s h Columbia i s the need f o r more regional s t a t i s t i c s ; data about the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each Region, the s o c i a l and economic l e v e l of Its population as well as data about welfare - 112 -programmes and r e c i p i e n t s . I t seems i m p e r a t i v e f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g and w e l f a r e measurement, t h a t t h e s i z e o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f each R e g i o n and t h e changes i n the s i z e are d e t e r m i n e d . F o r t h e purpose of t h i s s t u d y , t h e w r i t e r a t t e m p t e d t o e s t a b l i s h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f each Region t h r o u g h t h e c o m p i l a t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f t h e P r o v i n c e . The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o l l e c t i n g s o c i o -economic d a t a f o r each R e g i o n from t h e m a t e r i a l of the Census and o t h e r s o u r c e s t h a t w i l l r e m a i n i n e x i s t e n c e as l o n g as the b o u n d a r i e s o f the Regions do not c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d Census d i v i s i o n s and s u b - d i v i s i o n s and t h e o t h e r r e p o r t i n g a r e a s , was p o i n t e d out'. The e f f o r t o f c r e a t i n g "base a r e a s " f o r measurement used by the Census and a l l Government departments r e p o r t i n g s t a t i s t i c s was s t r e s s e d as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s x f o r a l l k i n d s o f measurement . I t seems, however, e n t i r e l y f e a s i b l e t o c o l l e c t s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a from the Census and o t h e r s t a t i s t i c s a t l e a s t f o r t h e major c e n t r e s w i t h i n each R e g i o n . I n the absence of s t a t i s t i c s , c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e p o p t i l a t l o n o f a R e g i o n , d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d i e s would a l s o be u s e f u l ; such s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been g i v e n i n t h e Annual R e p o r t s by c e r t a i n R e g i o n s . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the Annual R e p o r t s o v e r the p a s t decade i n d i c a t e s s u c c e s s f u l . e f f o r t s t o s t a n d a r d i z e the r e p o r t i n g o f r e g i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s . I n the l a s t r e p o r t a v a i l a b l e (1958), almost i d e n t i c a l t y p e s o f s t a t i s t i c s are r e p o r t e d by a l l R e g i o n s , and t h i s g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e s c o m p a r a t i v e measurements. x A change o f R e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h Census d i v i s i o n s or p o s s i b l e f u t u r e "base a r e a s " was one of the recommendations of the Report on "The R e c o r d i n g and R e p o r t i n g of S t a t i s t i c s " , p r e p a r e d f o r the D e p a r t -ment o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e I n 1 9 5 6 ; (see page 1 0 k ) . - 113 -The r e l a t i v e absence of socio-economic data about r e c i p i e n t s was discussed i n Chapters 3 and I4.. I t i s perhaps worth mentioning again, that much of t h i s type of m a t e r i a l i s already a v a i l a b l e on a p p l i c a t i o n forms, r e - i n s p e c t i o n forms and other r e p o r t s , and i t i s i n d i c a t e d that the major e f f o r t s i n the area of socio-economic data should l i e i n the e x t r a c t i o n of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from these sources and i n b r i n g i n g i t together i n t o a form x-jhich lends i t s e l f f o r measurements. Another need revealed by the examination of s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s the need f o r more s p e c i a l counts and s t u d i e s , x^hich deal not only w i t h the extent of a problem, but al s o w i t h the people a f f l i c t e d and the p o s s i b l e causes of the problem. An example of t h i s type of study i s the Report on the "Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowances" to which reference was made i n Chapter 1 . The need f o r s t u d i e s of the immigrant popu-l a t i o n and the extent of unmarried motherhood i n the Province has already been pointed out. Another area of study appears to be the problem of the persons unemployable or d i f f i c u l t to place i n j o b s . This i s an area of i n c r e a s i n g concern that demands s p e c i a l studies and s p e c i a l counts. We need to knox-j much more about the people that are p h y s i c a l l y or mentally handicapped, that have only l i m i t e d education or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Counts of the number of these people and stud i e s of the nature of t h e i r handicap are e s s e n t i a l f o r the planning i n welfa r e ( r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , s h e l t e r e d workshops), h e a l t h ( p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ) , and education ( p r o v i s i o n of adequate and appropriate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s ) . No doubt, a great wealth of data and i n f o r m a t i o n could be e x t r a c t e d from records and a p p l i c a t i o n forms kept by the agencies t h a t are d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s group. They form an important source and a v a l u a b l e supplement f o r such s p e c i a l counts and stud i e s as should be undertaken f o r more i n t e n s i v e measurement of - 114 -w e l f a r e needs - o f e x i s t i n g problems on the one hand, and the e v a l u a t i o n o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s on the o t h e r . 1 The R e s e a r c h I n v e n t o r y o f Community W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s A l a r g e body o f demographic and s o c i o - economic d a t a , i n the Census and i n t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f the d i f f e r e n t government departments, n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l , now e x i s t s . The i n c r e a s i n g number of s p e c i a l s t u d i e s adds c o n s t a n t l y t o our r e s o u r c e s . One o f t h e s e a " r e s e a r c h i n v e n t o r y o f community w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s " f o r Vancouver, r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r I n t h i s C h a p t e r , d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l m e n t i o n , as an attempt to b u i l d the n e c e s s a r y framework f o r the h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t , but complex q u e s t i o n o f "what are t h e a r e a s of community w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s where r e s e a r c h i s 2 most needed and most l i k e l y t o be v a l u a b l e ? " A l t h o u g h l i m i t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y t o the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a , i t s f i n d i n g s and recommendations have much w i d e r s i g n i f i c a n c e ; i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s have a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o many areas of w e l f a r e I n B r i t i s h Columbia. The t h r e e major a r e a s of c o n c e r n of t h e s t u d y a r e : (a) an i n v e n t o r y of t h e e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s and s e r v i c e s ; (b) an assessment of t h e i r c u r r e n t p r o blems; and (c) an attempt t o d etermine w e l f a r e needs ( " p r i o r i t i e s " ) and p r o v i s i o n a l r e s e a r c h needs. Pour k i n d s o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , m a i n t a i n e d i n G r e a t e r Vancouver and, i n p a r t , i n B r i t i s h Columbia, were reviex-jed and c r i t i c a l l y examined: ( l ) income-maintenance programmes and s o c i a l s e c u r i t y ; (2) p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s , e.g., f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g and c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n ; (3) r e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s ; a n d (4) c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s ( d e l i n q u e n c y and crime p r e v e n t i o n programmes). 1 C r a w f o r d R.N., Dewalt,L.W., E s a u , E . I . , and Gentleman,G.E.: A R e s e a r c h I n v e n t o r y o f Community W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s ( B r i t i s h Columbia  and Vancouver 1 9 5 9); M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s ; U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia; 1 9 5 9 . 2 i b i d ; p . v i i . - 115 -The s t u d y d i s c u s s e s and i l l u s t r a t e s t h e s t r a t e g i c i m p o r t a n c e of unemployment i n s u r a n c e and s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as the means o f income-maintenance f o r a l a r g e segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , who a r e'not e l i g i b l e f o r o t h e r ( c a t e g o r i c a l ) a s s i s t a n c e programmes. Unemployment, l o s s o f b r e a d w i n n e r , d i s a b i l i t y , and c h r o n i c i l l n e s s , a re s t i l l m ajor causes of f i n a n c i a l dependency among the p a r t of the p o p u l a t i o n t h a t b e l o n g s g e n e r a l l y t o t h e p r o d u c t i v e age-group (20 t o 65 y e a r s ) . The f o l l o w i n g were i n d i c a t e d as s p e c i a l problem a r e a s : (a) p r o l o n g e d unemployment; (b) I n e l i g i b i l i t y f o r , or e x h a u s t i o n of unemployment i n s u r a n c e b e n e f i t s ; (c) b u d g e t a r y problems f o r t h e s i n g l e , u n a t t a c h e d p e r s o n c o n t i n u i n g on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; (d) economic and s o c i a l s t r a i n s on f a m i l i e s w i t h one p a r e n t ; (e) l o s s o f c a p a c i t y t o work b e f o r e r e a c h i n g the age o f e l i g i b i l i t y f o r o l d age a s s i s t a n c e ; and ( f ) t h e impact of l o s s o f income on f a m i l y s t r e n g t h and m o r a l e . Because o f m a r g i n a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s , most i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s on a s s i s t a n c e are u n a b l e t o cope w i t h even minor c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s - , and t h i s makes them h i g h l y dependent on a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s ; such s e r v i c e s may be p a r t of t h e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e programme (e. g . h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ) , o r t h e y may be p r o v i d e d by v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as t h e S a l v a t i o n Army. The s t u d y r e v e a l e d s h o r t a g e s and i n a d e q u a c i e s i n t h i s a r e a , f o r example i n r e s o u r c e s f o r b o a r d i n g and n u r s i n g homes, homemaker and housekeeper s e r v i c e s , and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e f o r " e x c e p t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s " . An a n a l y s i s of c r i m e and. d e l i n q u e n c y d a t a r e v e a l e d wide d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n d e f i n i t i o n s , c o u r t , m a g i s t r a t e and p o l i c e p r a c t i c e s , as w e l l as g e n e r a l l y I n s u f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c s , w h i c h make an a c c u r a t e assessment of t h e scope o f the d e l i n q u e n c y problem i n Vancouver i m p o s s i b l e . Suggested as a r e a s i n need of r e s e a r c h were: ( l ) p r e v e n t i o n ; '- 116 -(2) p o l i c e s e r v i c e s ; (3) h o s t e l s f o r p r o b a t i o n e r s and p a r o l e e s ; (k) d e t e n t i o n ; (5) t r a n s f e r a d u l t c o u r t s ; (6) s p e c i a l q u e s t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o p r o b a t i o n ; (7) l e n g t h of s e n t e n c e s ; (8) e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t r e a t m e n t programmes; (9) use o f c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r " c o n t r o l l e d r e s e a r c h " ; and (10) s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n p r o c e d u r e i n c o l l e c t -i n g and r e p o r t i n g s t a t i s t i c s . The l a t t e r p o i n t i s o f c r u c i a l i m p o r t a n c e , s i n c e the. e x i s t i n g d a t a are i n a d e q u a t e f o r the k i n d s o f r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n d i c a t e d . I t was found t h a t much o f the d a t a now c o l l e c t e d " s e r v e s t o e x p l a i n and e v a l u a t e s e r v i c e s t h a t are o f f e r e d and as arguments f o r b u d g e t a r y I n c r e a s e s , and . . . as s u c h , i t b e a r s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d a t a r e c o r d e d by o t h e r a g e n c i e s " . The s t u d y adds, s i g n i f i c a n t l y , . . . "The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f x^hat d a t a 1 t o r e c o r d i s i n i t s e l f a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . " I n the a r e a of h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s , i t was f o u n d t h a t the major d e f i c i e n c i e s e x i s t e d i n s e r v i c e s f o r the aged, the h a n d i c a p p e d and the c h r o n i c a l l y i l l . H o s p i t a l beds ( g e n e r a l and p s y c h i a t r i c ) are o c c u p i e d by a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f p a t i e n t s t h a t c o u l d be b e t t e r c a r e d f o r i n n u r s i n g o r b o a r d i n g homes. I n a d d i t i o n , many more c h r o n i c a l l y 111 p e r s o n s c o u l d be c a r e d f o r i n t h e i r own homes, i f t h e e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d i n t h e home ( m e d i c a l , home-making) would be expanded. Expanded t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s o u t s i d e the G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a would reduce the need f o r many 111 p e r s o n s t o be h o s p i t a l i z e d I n Vancouver, and t h u s make f o r h o s p i t a l beds a v a i l a b l e . I t i s t o be i n d i c a t e d t h a t D r . C a s s i d y ' s s u r v e y of h e a l t h c a r e s e r v i c e s 2 i n 19kk has n o t been r e p e a t e d a l t h o u g h 16 y e a r s have now gone by . J i b i d p.278 2 C a s s i d y , H.M., P u b l i c H e a l t h and W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n i n Canada; Ryerson P r e s s ; T o r o n t o ; 19k£.-- 117 -A g r e a t many improvements have t a k e n p l a c e however, because o f i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n and i n c r e a s e d l i f e - e x p e c t a n c y ( " i n c r e a s e d a g e i n g " ) , many needs and problems t h a t ' were d e f i n e d i n t h i s s u r v e y c o u l d n o t be a p p r e c i a b l y r e d u c e d . T h i s s t u d y u n d e r l i n e s a g a i n what i s now the g r o w i n g number and the g rowing c o m p l e x i t y o f s e r v i c e s r e p e a t e d l y u s e d , and makes the need f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n a v i t a l i s s u e i n w e l f a r e , n o t o n l y f o r a v o i d i n g d u p l i c a t i o n and o v e r l a p p i n g , b u t because "the whole concept of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n i m p l i e s t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l a v a i l a b l e community 1 r e s o u r c e s t o a c h i e v e s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l t s " . . The need f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n has been r e c o g n i z e d by the p e r s o n n e l of most a g e n c i e s i n t h e Vancouver a r e a . Pour major o b s t a c l e s t o a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h i s t a s k are i n d i c a t e d i n t h e s t u d y : (1) gaps and l i m i t a t i o n s i n e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s ; (2) s h o r t a g e of t i m e , i . e . t o o h i g h c a s e l o a d s ; (3) s t a f f s h o r t a g e s ; and (ij.) " l a c k of c o - o p e r a t i o n " . The r e c o r d s o f most a g e n c i e s are mentioned as a major r e s o u r c e , w h i c h i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o be u t i l i z e d f o r s t u d i e s c o n c e r n e d w i t h problems o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n . T h e - i S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n o f t h e Vancouver Community Chest and C o u n c i l i s p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s a r e a by p r o m o t i n g and c o n d u c t i n g a number o f c o - o p e r a t i v e , i n t e r a g e n c y s t u d i e s . The t h r e e b r o a d a r e a s where x^el f a r e r e s e a r c h i s most needed, are summed up a s : (a) the f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e s e r v i c e s ; (b) the groups n e g l e c t e d by t h e e x i s t i n g Xirelfare programmes; and (c) f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d o r need f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s . The p r e s e n t s t u d y , e q u a l l y w i t h the o t h e r s t u d i e s mentioned, h i g h l i g h t s the e x i s t e n c e o f l a r g e groups among the p o p u l a t i o n t h a t a r e p a r t i a l l y o r t o t a l l y dependent on t h e x^elfare s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d i n 1 C r a w f o r d , Dewalt,Esau & Gentleman; op. c i t . p .2b9 - 118 -the community. Despite' g r e a t l y expanded and d i v e r s i f i e d s e r v i c e s , a number of unmet needs a r i s i n g from gaps, d e f i c i e n c i e s , i n e f f e c t i v e -ness, or inappropriateness i n the s e r v i c e s offered,, remain i n evidence. One of the summary paragraphs i n the l o c a l "Inventory" may w e l l be repeated to round up the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the present one: "Increasing concern i s being shown by the p u b l i c about the adequacy and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i t s welfare programs. This i s a welcome development, but i f the concern i s t o i s s u e i n appropriate a c t i o n i t must be supported by as wide a knowledge as p o s s i b l e of a l l r e l e v a n t f a c t s . Too o f t e n the concern i s no more than a t r a n s i e n t emotion, q u i c k l y aroused and as q u i c k l y e x t i n g u i s h e d . C l i e n t s and p a t i e n t s at the r e c e i v i n g end of the s e r v i c e s are w e l l aware of d e f i c i e n c i e s i n programs and \<re would do i\rell to give more a t t e n t i o n to how the s e r v i c e s appear to them. We should expect t h e i r point of view, however, to be l i m i t e d to those problems of most immediate concern to them. S o c i a l agencies and t h e i r personnel, i n t h e i r r o l e as mediators between s e r v i c e s and c l i e n t s , are i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y w e l f a r e problems and needs. . . I t i s not suggested that they are - or even should be -the a r b i t e r s of s o c i a l need; " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " are j u s t as capable of adopting the p a r t i c u l a r ! s t viewpoint; moreover, t h e i r v o i c e , i t must be remembered, i s only one of many i n the making of s o c i a l p o l i c y . I d e a l l y , a study . . . should i n c l u d e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a number of groups, l a y as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l . " 1 This study has opened up the area of "Welfare Measurement" on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s . I t Is a v i t a l one f o r Canada, and i t w i l l not be improved without "the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a number of groups, l a y as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l " . T i b i d ; pp .293 - 29ft A P P E N D I X - 119 -Table 33' Population Trends and Forecasts i n Canada and Two Western Provinces. 1914-1 - 1975. Y E A R C A N A D A A L B E R T A . B: R I T 1 S H C 0 L U M B 1 A number (a) p.c. number p.c. number p.c. elements of increase • natural increase net migration 191+1 11,506,665 1,129,869 769,169 64,564 1 "817,861 123,598 41,100 82,498 1951 11+, 009,1+29 3,502,771+ 939,501 143,342 1,165,210 347,349 116,527 230,822 1956 16,081,791 2,072 ,362 1,123,116 • 184 ,615 1^398,464 233,254 98,006 135,248 I960 ~ 17,589,000 1,507,209 1,260,000 136 ,-8S4 1,578,600 180,136 - -1965 19,709,000 2,120,000 1,1+78,000 .. 218,000 1,:886,600 308,000 - -1970 22,125,000 2,1+16,000 1,71+3,000 ;356,000 2,:244,800 358,000 - -1975 25,071,000 2,91+6,000 2,043 ,000 309,000 2 ,673,ooo 429,000 (a) increases over preceding Census. 2 f i g u r e s f o r I960 - 1975 estimates by B.C.Research Council Table adapted from the following sources: t , 1) D . B . S . ; Census of Canada, 1941, 1951, 1956 2) Walden, C.C.,Urquhart, A . I . & Gouge, J . W . ; opp.cit., 3) M a r s h a l l , J . T . opp.cit. - 120 -Table 3I4.; Total Population and Number of Live B i r t h s ; Canada, Alberta and B r i t i s h .Columbia; 191+1 - 1956 YEAR C A N A D A A L B E R T A BRITISH COLUMBIA t o t a l pop. bi r t h s t o t a l pot. births t o t a l pop. bir t h s • I9I1.I 11,506,665 255,317. 796,169 17,308 818,000 i 15,038 1951 124., 009,24.29 380,101 939,501 27,003 1,165,210 28,077 1956 16,081,791 24-50,739 1,123,116 31+, 951 L,398,24.624-. 36 , 2 h l Table adapted from the following sources: (1) DBS;. Census of Canada, I9I4.I, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . (2) Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 5 7 . (3) D.B.S." V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s Report; 19J+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . * - 121 -Table 35. Population D i s t r i b u t i o n by Selected Age Groups; Canada; 19k0 - 1955 (actual figures) and I960 -1975 (estimates); (figures i n thousands). YEAR A G E G R O U P S t o t a l population o-ik y r s . 15-19 y r s . 20-6I4. yrs. 65 yrs.and over 19k0 11,36k.k 3,17k.k 1,129.3 6,316.9 7k3.8 1950 13,711.8 k,062.6 1,056.7 7,5oo.k 1,092.1 1955 15,573.0 5,013.1 1,128.7 8,227.8 1,203.k I960 17,586.0 5,832.5 1,382.6 9,002.0 1,369.8 • 1965 19,708.6 6,k55.3 1,751.1 io,ook.i I ,k98.1 1970 22,125.k 7,05k-5 2,095.1 11,337.2 1,.638.6 1975 25,070.8 8,00k.9 2,237.1 12,981.7 l , 8 k 7 . 1 Source: Walden, Urquhart & Gouge; opp.cit. - I 2 2 r -Table 36: .Population D i s t r i b u t i o n by Selected Age Groups; Alberta; 19k0 - 1955 (actual figures) and I960 to 1975 (estimates); (figures i n thousands). YEAR Total population A G E G R 0 U P s 0-lk y r s . 15-19 y r s . 20-6k y r s . 65 yrs.and over 19k0 790.0 227.2 80.0 kk3.9 38.9 1950 913.0 275.8 73.7 k98. k 6k.k 1955 1,966.0 352. k 77.8 '559.6 76.2 I960 1,260.5 1+31.5 96.8 6k2.8 89.k 1965 1,1+77.9 50k. 5 125.7 7k8.9 98.8 1970 1,73k.2 577.3 16k.k 881.k 111.1 1975 2,0k3.2 680.8 185.5 l,0k9.0 127.9 Source: Walden, Urquhart and Gouge; opp.cit. - 123 -Table 3 7 ; Population D i s t r i b u t i o n by Selected Age Groups; B r i t i s h Columbia; I9k0 - 1955 (actual figures) and I960 - 1975 (estimates); (figures i n thousands). YEAR Total A G E G R O U P S Population O-II4. y r s . 15-19 yrs. 2 0 - 6 k y r s . 65 yrs.anc over — — — — — 19k0 8 0 5 . 0 1 7 0 . k 67.9 501.8 6 k . 9 1950 1 , 1 3 7 . 0 288 . 2 7 1 . 5 6 5 8 . 2 119.1 1955 1 , 3 0 6 . 0 2 7 6 . 3 80 . 8 7 0 6 . 1 l k 2 . 8 I960 1 , 5 7 8 . 6 k79.k 1 1 0 . 9 8 2 9 . 7 1 5 8 . 6 1965 1 , 8 8 6 . 6 5 8 2 . 7 150.7 9 9 0 . 2 163.0 1970 2 , 2 k 2 . 8 6 9 8 . 8 1 8 9 . 8 1 , 1 8 7 . 6 168.6 1975 2 , 6 7 3 . 8 8 5 1 . 9 2 1 9 . 2 l , k l 6 . 5 1 8 6 . 2 Source: Walden, Urquhart & Gouge; opp.cit. - 12k -Table 38: Number of Registered Marriages and Divorces i n Canada; A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a ; 19kl-2956; ( t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n thousands). YEAR ( 3 A N A D P L A L B E R 1 A BR.COLUMBIA popu- marriages divorces popu- marriages divorce s pop.marriages d i v -l a t i o n l a t i o n orces 19kl 11,36k»k 12k,526 2,k61 796.3 8,k70 311 818.0 9,828 563 1951 lk , 0 0 9.k 128,230 5,263 939.5 9,305 589 1,165.2 11,37k 1,39k 1956 16,081.8 132,713 5,996 1,123.] 9,965 685 1,398.5 11,680 l£k3 Source: Province of B r i t i s h Columbia; V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ; 1957. DBSI V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s Report; 19k l , 1951, 1956. - 125 -BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL REFERENCES Baur, Edward, J a c k s o n : " S t a t i s t i c a l Indexes o f t h e S o c i a l A s p e c t o f Communities".; S o c i a l F o r c e s , Vol. 3 3 , No.1; October 1954i pp .64 - 75 B l a c k , B e r t r a m , J . : "The Use of S o c i a l and Economic Data i n Deve l o p i n g . . 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