Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Measuring the incidence of welfare problems : an exploratory examination of provincial social welfare… Koch, Wolfram Johannes 1960

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1960_A5 K6 M3.pdf [ 8.69MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105907.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105907-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105907-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105907-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105907-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105907-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105907-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105907-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105907.ris

Full Text

MEASURING  THE INCIDENCE OF W E L F A R E  PROBLEMS  An E x p l o r a t o r y E x a m i n a t i o n o f P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare S t a t i s t i c s , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951-1959.  by WOLFRAM JOHN KOCH  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  I960 The  University  of British  Columbia  In presenting the  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I further  copying of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver &*, Canada.  my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not  thesis  financial  permission.  - v i ABSTRACT  " S o c i a l W e l f a r e " i s o f g r e a t , and g r o w i n g , i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e m o d e r n w o r l d , and i t c o n s t a n t l y demands d e f i n i t i o n . Statistical r e s o u r c e s a r e needed (a) as a i d s i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f w e l f a r e p r o b l e m s , (b) t o d e t e r m i n e t h e n a t u r e and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f w e l f a r e n e e d s , a n d (-c) f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s a n d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and p l a n n i n g t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new s e r v i c e s . As a b a c k g r o u n d , t h e m a i n t y p e s a n d s o u r c e s o f w e l f a r e measurements a r e r e v i e w e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e i n c r e a s i n g volume o f s t u d i e s I n G r e a t B r i t a i n , t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada d u r i n g the present c e n t u r y . To f o c u s on t h e p r o b l e m o f a d e q u a t e p r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s , an e x p l o r a t o r y e x a m i n a t i o n i s made of. two m a j o r g r o u p s o f d a t a : ( a ) d e m o g r a p h i c d a t a f r o m t h e C e n s u s and r e l a t e d s o u r c e s ; ( b ) . t h e c u r r e n t s t a n d a r d m e a s u r e m e n t s o f the r e c i p i e n t s o f p r o v i n c i a l p u b l i c w e l f a r e services,., a b s t r a c t e d from t h e annual r e p o r t s of t h e Department o f S o c i a l Welfare o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The f i r s t g r o u p i n c l u d e s p o p u l a t i o n t r e n d s , a g e - c o m p o s i t i o n and f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n . The second group g i v e s p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the " c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m m e s " , t h e a g e d , s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e s , and provincial family services. T h e r e i s now a v a i l a b l e a l a r g e r b o d y o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c data than ever before,, but i t i s not being f u l l y u t i l i z e d f o r welfare i n t e r p r e t a t i o n or s o c i a l service planning. A serious b a r r i e r t o i n t e n s i v e a n a l y s i s on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s i s t h e lack of standardization of a set of regions covering the t o t a l g e o g r a p h i c a l area, (as between D e p a r t m e n t a l R e g i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s and c e n s u s d i s t r i c t s ) . V a r i a t i o n s I n r e p o r t i n g procedure and i n s u f f i c i e n t d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a a n d o f . components o r c a u s a l f a c t o r s i n dependency a r e t h e g r e a t e s t weaknesses i n e x i s t i n g m a t e r i a l s . O t h e r a r e a s o f w e l f a r e i n w h i c h new m e a s u r e m e n t s a s w e l l a s the c o - o r d i n a t i o n or m o d i f i c a t i o n of e x i s t i n g data are needed, are o n l y b r i e f l y i n d i c a t e d i n t h e present study. " W e l f a r e " , t o d a y , i s more I m p o r t a n t t h a n e v e r , and so i s w e l f a r e r e s e a r c h t h a t p r o v i d e s t h e base f o r t h e improvement o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s a n d c r e a t i o n o f new o n e s , t h r o u g h b r o a d , s t a t i s t i c a l measurements as w e l l as s p e c i a l c o u n t s and s t u d i e s .  -  ii  TABLE OP CONTENTS C h a p t e r 1.  The M e a s u r e m e n t o f W e l f a r e  P a  Developments c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h e need f o r r e s e a r c h . Measurement - an approach t o d e f i n i t i o n . P r i m a r y S o u r c e s of S t a t i s t i c s . Type o f s t u d y - w e l f a r e m e a s u r e m e n t : S o c i a l s u r v e y s . "Minimum b u d g e t " - m e a s u r e m e n t s o f i n c o m e d i s t r i b u t i o n . C e n s u s and r e l a t e d s t a t i s t i c s . Community x>relfare s t u d i e s . H o u s i n g a n d t o w n - p l a n n i n g . Scope a n d method o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . . . . . . . Chapter 2 .  Some B a s i c S o c i a l  g.  1  Data  U r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Selected demographic d a t a : P o p u l a t i o n g r o w t h and i t s components. The a g e d . H o u s e h o l d s a n d f a m i l i e s . Illegitimacy. Other demographic and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a r e p o r t e d . C h a p t e r 3-  The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e  Statistics  The D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e a n d i t s R e g i o n s . E x a m i n a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d p u b l i c i ^ e l f a r e d a t a : The c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes a n d t h e i r r e c i p i e n t s . S o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a on t h e a g e d . The S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e Programme. The F a m i l y S e r v i c e Programme . . . . C h a p t e r Ij..  Recent W e l f a r e Measurements - L i m i t a t i o n s and N e e d s .  C r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e d a t a e x a m i n e d : Need f o r a r e g i o n a l base - questions of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n . B a s i c social data. Public welfare s t a t i s t i c s . Other d a t a reported. The R e s e a r c h I n v e n t o r y o f Community W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s (1959) - a s t u d y r e l a t e d t o t h i s t h e s i s . Appendices: A.  Additional Statistical  B.  Bibliography.  Tables.  9k-  e  • • *  -  I l l  TABLES AND CHARTS I N THE TEXT (a) T a b l e s . Page T a b l e 1. Table 2.  P o p u l a t i o n Trends and F o r e c a s t s i n Canada and Two W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s .  33  Gross P o p u l a t i o n ; B r i t i s h Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r and C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . . . . .  31+  .  31+  T a b l e 3«  I m m i g r a t i o n t o Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  T a b l e Ij..  C r u d e B i r t h R a t e s ; C a n a d a and Two W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s  35  T a b l e 5«  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ;  1+0  Table 6 .  S e x a n d M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f P o p u l a t i o n 65 y e a r s and over; B r i t i s h Columbia  1+1  S e x and M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f P o p u l a t i o n 6 5 y e a r s and over; M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y of Vancouver  1+2  Table 7. Table 8.  .  C a n a d a and Two W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s  M a r r i a g e R a t e s and D i v o r c e R a t e s ; Canada a n d Two Western Provinces  1+6  T a b l e 9.  Households  1+6  Table 10.  H o u s e h o l d s b y Number o f F a m i l i e s ; M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y o f Vancouver. . . . . F a m i l i e s x ^ i t h One o r B o t h P a r e n t s a t Home; M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r and C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r .  Table 11. Table 12. Table 13.  b y Number o f F a m i l i e s ; B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a  1+7  F a m i l i e s w i t h One o r B o t h P a r e n t s a t Home; B r i t i s h Columbia  2+8  I l l e g i t i m a t e B i r t h s ; C a n a d a and Two W e s t e r n Provinces  50  T a b l e ll+. R e g i o n s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as Used b y t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; P o p u l a t i o n , and Some T r e n d s . . . . . . . . . . T a b l e 15 •  1+7  58  C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes; C a s e l o a d s a n d Comparative Rates  63  O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e a n d O l d Age S e c u r i t y S u p p l e m e n t a r y A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f R e c i p i e n t s  .  63  T a b l e 17a  C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes; C a s e l o a d s and Comparative Rates by Regions (Regions I , I I , I I I )  61+  T a b l e 17b  C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m m e s ; C a s e l o a d s and Comparative Rates by Regions (Regions IV - V I I )  65  Table 16.  -iv Page T a b l e 1 8 . New R e c i p i e n t s o f O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e .. Table 19.  .  A g e s a t W h i c h O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e Was G r a n t e d  Table 20. M a r i t a l  S t a t u s o f New R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA  .  T a b l e 2 1 . L i v i n g A r r a n g e m e n t s o f New R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA  .  .  68  .  .  68  .  .  72  .  .  73  T a b l e 2 2 . A c c o m m o d a t i o n o f New R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA T a b l e 2 3 . R e a l a n d P e r s o n a l P r o p e r t y o f Nex<r R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA  75  T a b l e 2I4.. D i s t r i b u t i o n o f OAA R e c i p i e n t s A c c o r d i n g t o Amount of A s s i s t a n c e Received  76  .  Table 25. S o c i a l Allowance; Caseloads  and C o m p a r a t i v e  Rates  78  T a b l e 26. F a m i l i e s and S i n g l e P e r s o n s i n R e c e i p t o f S o c i a l Allowance . . . T a b l e 2 7 . S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f R e c i p i e n t s b y R e g i o n  8l 82  T a b l e 2 8 a S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f R e c i p i e n t s a n d C o m p a r a t i v e R a t e s f o r R e g i o n s and S e l e c t e d M a j o r Centres ( I - I I I )  83  T a b l e 28b S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f R e c i p i e n t s a n d Comparative Rates f o r Regions and S e l e c t e d Major Centres (IV - VII)  8h.  T a b l e 2 9 . A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e and F a m i l y S e r v i c e monthly percentages during the year. . . . .  87  Table 30. A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Allowance; percentage i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e o v e r p r e c e d i n g month .  88  T a b l e 3 1 . F a m i l y S e r v i c e ; Number o f C a s e s a n d  .  Comparative  Rates  91  T a b l e 3 2 . F a m i l y S e r v i c e ; Number o f C a s e s p e r R e g i o n  .  .  93  (b) C h a r t s . Fig. 1 Fig. 2  Social 1958 Family 1958 -  A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f A p p l i c a n t s r»er m o n t h ; 1959 . . . . . . . . . . S e r v i c e ; Number o f C a s e s o p e n e d p e r M o n t h ; 1959  89  92  - v Page APPENDIX A.  Additional Statistical  Tables  Table 3 3 .  P o p u l a t i o n Trends and F o r e c a s t s i n Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s  Table 31+•  T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n and Number o f L i v e Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s  Births;  .  .  Table 35*.  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ;  Canada  Table 3 6 .  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ;  Alberta  Table 3 7 .  Age D i s t r i b u t i o n ;  B r i t i s h Columbia  Table 3 8 .  M a r r i a g e Rates and D i v o r c e R a t e s ; Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s . . .  .  119  . . .  .  120  .  121 122  .  .  123  .  121j_  - vii  -  AC MOWLEDGEMENT S  G r a t e f u l a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t i s made t o M r . M i c h a e l Wheeler  o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work f o r h i s  c o n s t a n t a d v i c e and guidance t h r o u g h a v a s t area of welfare research. due  S p e c i a l thanks a r e  t o Dr.Leonard Marsh o f the School o f S o c i a l  Work who g a v e s u c h i n v a l u a b l e h e l p a t a c r i t i c a l s t a g e a n d w i t h o u t whose s u p p o r t t h i s n o t have' b e e n  study would  completed.  To t h e L e o n a n d T h e a K o e r n e r F o u n d a t i o n we t e n d e r o u r t h a n k s f o r t h e r e s e a r c h g r a n t made available f o rthis  project.  CHAPTER. 1 THE MEASUREMENT OF WELFARE  D u r i n g t h e p a s t decades, t h e r e has been a growing  awareness among  s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f t h e need f o r d e v e l o p i n g methods and t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f w e l f a r e need, and f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f the present w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t h a t are meeting the need as I t i s e x p r e s s e d I n i t s v a r i o u s demands f o r s e r v i c e s . T h i s i  growing  c o n c e r n on t h e p a r t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n f i n d s i t s p a r a l l e l i n  the growing demand on the. p a r t o f many communities and t h e p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l f o r a c l e a r e r account  of the s o c i a l services, t h e i r  adequacy and t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Western s o c i e t y h a s , f o r some t i m e , enjoyed a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h l e v e l o f p r o s p e r i t y w h i c h has r e s u l t e d i n t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e  of the wide-  spread and s t a r k p o v e r t y w h i c h t y p i f i e d t h e e a r l i e r s t a g e s o f i n d u s t r ialism.  "A r i s i n g s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g and t h e development o f s o c i a l  s e r v i c e s have h e l p e d t h e mass o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o meet t h e i r b a s i c needs.  However, needs, though l e s s o b v i o u s , c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t and  a f f e c t many groups i n t h e community.  Economic d i s l o c a t i o n s and  s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v a r i o u s forms a r e evidence o f t h i s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e concept  o f "need" and t h e problem o f i d e n t i f y i n g need  have become more and more complex i n a s o c i e t y w h i c h has e x p e r i e n c e d deep s t r u c t u r a l changes d u r i n g t h e l a s t few g e n e r a t i o n s , and w h i c h i s s t i l l r a p i d l y changing  and h i g h l y m o b i l e .  I t i s one o f t h e purposes  o f r e s e a r c h t o i d e n t i f y - t h e w e l f a r e needs t h a t e x i s t i n t h e community, and t o determine  t h e b e s t ways o f m e e t i n g them.  - 2  -  J.E.Goodthorpe made- the statement t h a t "needs are  sociologically  1  i r r e l e v a n t , u n l e s s t h e y are known". s o c i a l w e l f a r e was  r e l a t i v e l y simple,: i f i t was  an e r a where p o v e r t y was e a r l y reformers  who  In  needed a t a l l d u r i n g  w i d e s p r e a d and o b v i o u s t o everyone.  s e t out d u r i n g the l a t e r p a r t of the  r e v o l u t i o n i n B r i t a i n and widespread poverty  O r i g i n a l l y , research  The  industrial  l a t e r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t o a t t a c k  and m i s e r y , s t r o v e t o meet needs as t h e y saw  Those needs weve b a s i c needs,, e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d and. o b v i o u s t o /  •  them. the  2  g r e a t e r p a r t o f the community. I n t h e words o f John S.Morgan., "the g r e a t p i o n e e r s have each d e s c r i b e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s an a r e a  of  human need and p r e s c r i b e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s , u s u a l l y on a s e r i e s o f i n t u i t i o n s o r assumptions of a v e r y p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r , methods o f m e e t i n g t h a t need w h i c h seemed t o them a p p r o p r i a t e  i n the l i g h t  of  t h e i r knowledge and o f the i n t a n g i b l e complex o f the s o c i a l f o r c e s 3 of t h e i r t i m e s " .  I n the C h a r i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n  Societies,"friendly  v i s i t o r s " , i n t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o h e l p the p o o r , began t h e use approach which was  of  an  e v e n t u a l l y t o become p a r t of the s o c i a l casework  method. I n the e a r l y d a y s , s o c i a l work was  c a r r i e d out f o r the most  p a r t by w e l l - i n t e n t i o n e d and d e d i c a t e d , b u t u n s k i l l e d , v o l u n t e e r s j and,  g e n e r a l l y , p o v e r t y was  hot  attacked w i t h systematic  planning,  but by the s p o r a d i c e f f o r t s of the v a r i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n s  dedicated  t o the a m e l i o r a t i o n o f poverty., down i n t o i t s elements and  Only g r a d u a l l y was  "poverty"  some o f the s o c i a l as w e l l as  broken  individual  causes o f " p o v e r t y " d i s t i n g u i s h e d ; r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i e n c e b o t h contributed to t h i s enlightenment. 1 Goodthorpe,J.E.; "An E x a m i n a t i o n o f the Concept o f Need"; The S o c i o l o g i c a l Review; V b l . l | . 2 ; . Sec. 1 0 ; p. 1 9 7 . 2 Morgan^ John S.; " R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l Work; A Frame o f R e f e r e n c e " ; S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l ; V o T . 3 0 , N0.I4.; 0 c t . . l 9 l | . 9 ; p p . l l j , 8 - l 5 1 f . 3 T b T d l p.Lh9.  As t h e p o p u l a t i o n  i n c r e a s e d and became more u r b a n i z e d  I t s s t r u c t u r e , more and more w e l f a r e  and complex i n  s e r v i c e s were developed t o meet  the i n c r e a s i n g needs o f t h e community.  A p r o l i f e r a t i o n of welfare  services., m o s t l y o f p r i v a t e , b u t a l s o I n c r e a s i n g l y o f p u b l i c  nature,  o c c u r r e d w h i c h , a t some p o i n t s , caused d u p l i c a t i o n , o v e r l a p p i n g and i n e f f i c i e n c y of s e r v i c e s .  The need f o r community p l a n n i n g  i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n " became a p p a r e n t .  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  s o c i a l w o r k e r began t o t a k e t h e p l a c e o f t h e v o l u n t e e r areas o f w e l f a r e . ,  o r "commun-  i n many v i t a l  Few methods and t e c h n i q u e s were developed and  a p p l i e d * and q u e s t i o n s  a r o s e as t o how e f f e c t i v e t h e s e methods were  i n m e e t i n g t h e c h a n g i n g needs o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e community. A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e c o l l e c t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c s and d a t a has become an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g o f s o c i a l  welfare  s e r v i c e s . S t a t i s t i c s now serve many f u n c t i o n s : (a) as t o o l s f o r measurement o f t h e w e l f a r e needs t h a t e x i s t i n t h e community, t h e i r l o c a t i o n , extent  and n a t u r e ;  the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  and (b) as a i d s i n t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f  and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s ,  the e x t e n t t o w h i e h t h e y a r e k e e p i n g pace w i t h t h e growth o r t h e s t r u c t u r a l changes t h a t a r e o c c u r r i n g i n t h e community* and s i m i l a r questions. Some p r o g r e s s c a n be o b s e r v e d . But " w e l f a r e " as a c o n c e p t , and as an a r e a o f a c t i v i t y , i s s t i l l l e s s u n d e r s t o o d and l e s s c l e a r l y  defined  t h a n t h e concept o f " h e a l t h " t o w h i c h i t i s p a r t l y r e l a t e d , and w i t h w h i c h i t i s o f t e n compared. W h i l e r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n s o f what c o n s t i t u t e s " p h y s i c a l * h e a l t h " o r " i l l n e s s " have e x i s t e d f o r some  time,  the d e f i n i t i o n s o f such c o n c e p t s , b a s i c t o w e l f a r e , as "need", "dependency", " w e l f a r e  s e r v i c e " e t c . a r e much l e s s c l e a r ; and t h e y  have undergone changes w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s r e f l e c t t h e c h a n g i n g scope and o b j e c t i v e s o f w e l f a r e .  W e l f a r e , as a human a c t i v i t y , has been  -k  -  growing and changing ever since the f i r s t concepts of " c h a r i t y " of the Middle Ages.  The forces that had the greatest impact on  w e l f a r e , however, were the i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and u r b a n i z a t i o n of the 1 9 t h century.  They deeply a f f e c t e d or even destroyed the t r a -  d i t i o n a l need-meeting i n s t i t u t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r  the extended or  k i n s h i p f a m i l y , the neighbourhood, the small town and the l o c a l church.  Industrialization  and u r b a n i z a t i o n thus created a new type  of s o c i e t y w i t h g r e a t l y Increased and d i v e r s i f i e d needs. Out of these changes i n the structure of s o c i e t y arose the need f o r a n a t i o n a l system of s o c i a l services t a k i n g over the functions of the t r a d i t i o n a l need-meeting i n s t i t u t i o n s . transformation  Education underwent t h i s  i n the l a t t e r h a l f of the nineteenth century. Devel-  opments i n p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , i n Canada at l e a s t , came much l a t e r and d i d not gain momentum u n t i l a f t e r World War I . S o c i a l S e c u r i t y , at l e a s t i n the o u t l i n e s of a n a t i o n a l income-maintenance programme, i s not more than f i f t e e n years o l d .  Welfare s e r v i c e s ,  over and above income-maintenance allowances and b e n e f i t s ,  operating  s o l e l y under p r i v a t e auspices on a l o c a l l e v e l , have been expanded greatly.  Today, the system of " s o c i a l s e r v i c e s " needs to be d i s t i n g -  uished as p u b l i c and p r i v a t e ;  f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l , l o c a l , volunteer,  e t c ; and there are many other ways of c l a s s i f y i n g them. In short, welfare has become an i n c r e a s i n g l y complex a c t i v i t y concerned w i t h many aspects of human and s o c i a l l i f e .  These i n c l u d e :  dependency, economic, m a t e r i a l and psycho-social; i l l n e s s , d i s a b i l i t y , and the needs f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ; ion and l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s ;  f a m i l y and c h i l d w e l f a r e ;  recreat-  housing; s p e c i a l areas of education  such as v o c a t i o n a l guidance, t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g ; f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g ; s o c i a l aspects of h e a l t h care; behaviour problems, delinquency, and crime.  -  5  -  T h i s enumeration not o n l y i l l u s t r a t e s the v a s t a r e a of c o n c e r n o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e , i t a l s o i n d i c a t e s areas i n which welfare  activities  o v e r l a p w i t h the a c t i v i t i e s of o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s , such as m e d i c i n e , education,  law,  and t o w n - p l a n n i n g .  T h i s p o i n t s t o the importance of  d e f i n i n g the n a t u r e of those needs and problems t h a t are the of w e l f a r e , because t h e y can be met welfare  services.  concern  best through the p r o v i s i o n of  I t a l s o c a l l s not o n l y f o r a d e f i n i t i o n of needs  and problems, but a l s o f o r d e f i n i t i o n of the s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s the w e l f a r e  services.  Measurement - an Approach t o One  approach t o d e f i n i t i o n i s measurement.  Definition In s o c i a l  welfare,  measurement f o r the purpose o f d e f i n i t i o n i s a p p l i e d i n two "areas":  of  main  (a) i n the " a r e a " o f problems and the p e o p l e t h a t are  ed by problems; and  affect-  (b) i n the " a r e a " of t h e s e r v i c e s t h a t are d e s i g n e d  tio h e l p p e o p l e meet t h e i r needs and d e a l w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s . Measurement p e r m i t s a c l e a r e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of needs and t h a t e x i s t i n t h e community.  I t h e l p s us t o a s s e s s t h e i r n a t u r e  t h e i r v a r i a b l e components, and t o map  t h e i r i n c i d e n c e and  E v e n t u a l l y , t h r o u g h m e a s u r i n g t h e s e phenomena and t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s and the c a u s a t i v e  circumstances,  problems  distribution. associated  the hope i s t o be a b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d  f a c t o r s and t o approach " p r e v e n t a t i v e l y " needs  problems xtfith w h i c h w e l f a r e  and  services deal.  Measurement o f t h e e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s i s an e s s e n t i a l b e g i n n i n g . forms the base f o r sound p l a n n i n g  It  i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e s e r v i c e s ,  i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n .and improvement of e x i s t i n g programmes, and the development of new  and  needed s e r v i c e s .  S t a t i s t i c s i n welfare  s e r v e t h e purpose not o n l y of d e f i n i n g the problems and  in research  s e r v i c e s , but  - 6 a l s o t h e i r scope and i n c i d e n c e , and the ways i n w h i c h t h e y  should  be m o d i f i e d . " D e f i n i t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , and development might be 1  c a l l e d the t h r e e D's  of w e l f a r e data"  .  A modern requirement  p e r i o d i c i n v e n t o r y o f w e l f a r e needs and s e r v i c e s .  is a  From the t e c h n i c a l  p o i n t o f view, the i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s are:what i s measured and can i t be i n t e r p r e t e d ?  From the community p o i n t o f v i e w ,  q u e s t i o n s a r e : are our w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s adequate and  how  the  appropriate?  The P r i m a r y Sources o f S t a t i s t i c s Welfare  s t a t i s t i c s may  o b t a i n e d from: o r may  be d e r i v e d from many s o u r c e s . They may  (a) s e p a r a t e and s p e c i a l l y u n d e r t a k e n  be  studies that  may  not be r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n b a s i c f i g u r e s such as the Census,  o r f r o m c o n t i n u i n g s e r i e s of d a t a , such as d e l i n q u e n c y o r i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e s ; and  (b) f r o m c o n t i n u o u s , s t a n d a r d i z e d s e t s of f i g u r e s t h a t are  collected.and reported at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s f o r c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h e d areas. S t a t i s t i c s b e l o n g i n g t o the l a t t e r group come from two b a s i c s o u r c e s : (a) the n a t i o n a l census,  and  (b) Government d e p a r t m e n t s . I n t h e  Census o f Canada, d a t a are r e p o r t e d e v e r y t e n y e a r s and, i n some i n s t a n c e s , every f i v e y e a r s .  The Census has developed f r o m a s i m p l e  count o f the p o p u l a t i o n t o a g r e a t n a t i o n a l survey t h a t c o l l e c t s r e p o r t s a g r e a t mass o f s o c i a l and economic d a t a .  and  It i s also linked  w i t h a growing number o f sample s u r v e y s , such as s u r v e y s i n the area of h o u s i n g .  S i n c e 191+5» a number o f Government departments have b e e n  d i r e c t l y concerned  w i t h w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . Most p u b l i s h r e g u l a r s t a t i s t '  i c s , and some u n d e r t a k e  t h e i r own p r o j e c t s o f r e s e a r c h . I n Canada, t h e  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s - ( D B S ) i s the body t h a t c o - o r d i n a t e s " 1 Quoted from: Dr.L.C.Marsh; S c h o o l o f S o c i a l . W o r k , B r i t T s h Columbia. . .,  U n i v e r s i t y of  most m a t e r i a l f r o m t h e s e two  7  -  •  sources.  In a d d i t i o n , i t undertakes  and c o l l a b o r a t e s I n a growing number o f s p e c i a l s u r v e y s and measure -•ments.  The  Census of I n s t i t u t i o n s (x^hlch i n c l u d e s orphanages, h o s p -  i t a l s , and p r i s o n s ) i s an i m p o r t a n t example o f t h i s a c t i v i t y . Dominion Department o f H e a l t h and W e l f a r e was  The  s e t up I n 191+5* i t has  c o - o r d i n a t e d a growing v a r i e t y o f w e l f a r e I n f o r m a t i o n .  Other D e p a r t -  ments concerned w i t h a c t i v i t i e s of w e l f a r e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n c l u d e the Department of C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n ; A f f a i r s ; the C e n t r a l - M o r t g a g e  the Department of  Veterans  and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ; the Department  of N o r t h e r n A f f a i r s ; the Department o f J u s t i c e .  An  outstanding  h i s t o r i c a l example o f government Involvement i n the assessment '"  and 1  measurement of w e l f a r e problems i s the " R o w e l l S i r o i s " Commission A l t h o u g h t h i s commission was  f o c u s s e d p a r t i c u l a r l y on the f i n a n c i a l  r e l a t i o n s o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, i t was compile  some o f the f i r s t  compelled  s t a n d a r d s t a t i s t i c s of w e l f a r e  expenditures;  s p e c i a l studies dealt w i t h h e a l t h , s o c i a l assistance, housing, employment.  to  and  The w e l f a r e s t u d i e s formed s p e c i a l appendices o f the  r e p o r t of the commission.  Some o f i t s m a t e r i a l s were b r o u g h t  up-to-  date i n s i m i l a r r e p o r t s o f the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Conference o n . P o s t war R e c o n s t r u c t i o n i n 191+5• In g e n e r a l , the t a s k o f the w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c i a n , nowadays, i s not much t h a t o f i n i t i a t i n g the c o l l e c t i n g of new  d a t a as of  scrutinizing  the c o n t e n t , d e f i n i t i o n , and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d a t a t h a t are able.  There i s , of c o u r s e , always room f o r new-data. The  other continuous  so  avail-  Census and  s t a t i s t i c s o f Government Departments make c l e a r t h a t  changes are always o c c u r r i n g , , a n d  a l s o , t h a t w e l f a r e problems and  w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s cannot be u n d e r s t o o d  a p a r t from the t o t a l community.  1 R o y a l Commission .on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l R e l a t i o n s ;  1938.  - 8 N e v e r t h e l e s s , s o c i a l s t a t i s t i c s are l e s s f a m i l i a r and l e s s i z e d t h a n , f o r i n s t a n c e , economic s t a t i s t i c s t o d a y .  standard-  Such concepts  as  "need", "problem", "dependency", " s e r v i c e " , are n o t c l e a r l y d e f i n e d ; the e x i s t i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are n o t u n i v e r s a l l y a c c e p t e d and such s u b t l e concepts  are d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e i n d e e d .  Lack o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of the  d e f i n i t i o n of the s t a t i s t i c a l u n i t , o f the use and l i m i t a t i o n s o f i n d e x - t y p e f i g u r e s , o f the " r e l a t i v i t y " o f s t a t i s t i c a l  designations  o f any s u b j e c t m a t t e r , are the most f r e q u e n t sources of e r r o r t h a t l i m i t the v a l i d i t y o f s t a t i s t i c a l measurements. may  Thus, s t a t i s t i c s  be m i s q u o t e d , m i s h a n d l e d and m i s i n t e r p r e t e d .  importance o f a t l e a s t elementary  T h i s p o i n t s t o the  t r a i n i n g i n the u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and  h a n d l i n g o f w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s w h i c h s h o u l d be a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l equipment of a l l s o c i a l The  workers.  e s s e n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y as the d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n  of welfare  s t a t i s t i c s i s the assessment o f t h e i r g e o g r a p h i c a l b a s e . A l l d a t a , whether t h e y r e p r e s e n t p u b l i c or p r i v a t e w e l f a r e s t a t i s t i c s ,  special  s t u d i e s o r c o n t i n u o u s measurements, are r e p o r t e d f o r one or more o f the f o l l o w i n g geographic (c) p r o v i n c i a l , may  a r e a s : (a) i n t e r n a t i o n a l ,  (d) r e g i o n a l and  (e) l o c a l .  (b) n a t i o n a l ,  On the l o c a l l e v e l ,  data  be r e p o r t e d f o r s u b d i v i s i o n s o f u r b a n and m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , f o r  census t r a c t s i n c i t i e s , and f o r d i s t r i c t s , neighbourhoods o r agency " c o n s t i t u e n c i e s " i n s t u d i e s o f a more s p e c i f i c n a t u r e .  The  present  study aims a t f o c u s s i n g a t t e n t i o n on the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l because of i t s s p e c i a l needs and d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The p r e r e q u i s i t e ' f o r adequate  p r o v i n c i a l a n a l y s i s i s a s t a n d a r d r e g i o n a l b a s e , and t h i s w i l l examined and i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g C h a p t e r s .  be  Considerations  o f time have d i c t a t e d the e x c l u s i o n of m e t r o p o l i t a n and c e n s u s - t r a c t a r e a s , because (a) d a t a f o r these areas are now  b e i n g amply p r o v i d e d '  - 9 as p a r t o f t h e Census, and (b) e x a m i n a t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f these a r e a s would l e a d t o and, indeed,, demand a s e r i e s o f v e r y d e t a i l e d studies i n themselves. Types o f Study: W e l f a r e Measurement. D u r i n g t h e p a s t e i g h t y y e a r s , s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t methods o f w e l f a r e measurement were d e v e l o p e d . They a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a g r a d u a l r e f i n i n g o f t h e purpose, t h e d e f i n i t i o n s and t h e methods u s e d . Today, t h e f i v e major t y p e s o f s t u d y , t h a t a r e concerned w i t h o r c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o s o c i a l w e l f a r e , can be d e s c r i b e d a s : (a) s o c i a l s u r v e y s ; (b) "minimum budget"  and r e l a t e d measurements o f d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  income; (c) s o c i a l measurements i n t h e Census and r e l a t e d  statistics;  (d) community w e l f a r e s t u d i e s ; and (e) h o u s i n g and town p l a n n i n g studies. (a) S o c i a l  Surveys:  The s o c i a l s u r v e y method has been w i d e l y used i n N o r t h America and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Great B r i t a i n . S o c i a l s u r v e y s , t h a t have d e v e l o p e d i n t o more and more s p e c i a l i z e d p r o j e c t s o f i n q u i r y and measurement, began as g r e a t d e s c r i p t i v e e f f o r t s d u r i n g the l a t e r p a r t o f the 1 9 t h century.  One o f the p i o n e e r s o f the survey movement was C h a r l e s  Booth who, i n 1886 began h i s i n q u i r y i n t o the c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s of. E a s t London.  T h i s study was g r e a t l y expanded and  e v e n t u a l l y covered t h e e n t i r e a r e a o f London.It was C h a r l e s Booth's aim t o a c h i e v e a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the f a m i l i e s o f London a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r socio-economic  s t a t u s i n r e l a t i o n to a given "poverty l i n e " .  F o r t h i s purpose, he used maps, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , c a s e - r e c o r d s , houseto-house  i n q u i r i e s , q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a great d e a l of d i r e c t  observ-  a t i o n , and elementary s t a t i s t i c a l c o m p i l a t i o n s . Booth c o n s i d e r e d , but r e j e c t e d t h e s o l e use o f t h e Census and o t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a as  - 10 "too of  quantitative".  things  poverty, He  as they  investigate  1  are"  .  arouse  how they  limited  to  (the  the  Interest  and the  aim as f o l l o w s :  whither  to  identification  conditions)  indicate  extent,  was " c o n f i n e d  Through  h i s principal  incidentally, very  His objective  he hoped.to  described  -  "I  came  they  or  very  occasionally,  .  This  statement  description  and d e s c r i p t i o n concern  have  to be,  are  the  not nor,  tending;  of  the  of  publi  undertaken  to  except  and only  to  has any comparison  a  been  2 made the  with  the past"  Booth  survey  conditions the  other  that ing  kind a  the  objects  labour and  I,  ment  (12)  with  the  Booth's  of measurement  (6)  crime.  changes T 2 3.  "the of  Booth,  survey  of  the  l i v i n g ;  social  social  point  Charles;  Life  i b i d ; p.5. T h e New S u r v e y  ;  of  of  for  p.5-  London  Life  public  assistance these i t  conditions of  .  Follow-  The  i s  hours  of travel  amenities  and  unemploy-  (10)  r e l i e f " ) ;  phenomena  and  was hoped  t o make  and Labour;  comparison  which w i l l  the People  of  London;  wide  included:  (5)  since h i s  up-  illustrated  ("poor-law  comparisons  and Labour  r e v . 1 9 0 2 ; ^ V o l I;,  (8)  and i n d u s t r i e s ;  survey,  and economic  wages,  (3)  to  figures  which  and overcrowding;  education;  original  starting  second  contrast  Survey  and future  of  the  time.  the Booth  this of  i n  of  questions  occupations (11)  past  i s  and t r e n d  a period  to bring  character  measuring  s t a t i s t i c a l  rents  (7)  the  this  indexes  over  with  Through measurement  findings work  house  health; (9)  of  cost  (2)  (J+)  recreation;  1887-1892;  comparison  study  time;  uses  was made  and p r a c t i c a l  and i t s treatment;  and  the  of  which  i n  conditions  attempt  and e a r n i n g s ;  of  one p o i n t  of  population;  mobility;  means  the  "welfare"  of  at  "cross-section"  of measurement  as a measure  area  (1)  exist  comparison  W o r l d War  range.of In  as they  permit  to-date  which was a  i l l u s t r a t e s  Charle  measure  day,  while  London;  Vol.1;  1930.  - 11  -  at the same time l a y i n g a f i r m f o u n d a t i o n 1 w i t h the r e s u l t s of f u t u r e s u r v e y s . "  f o r f o r w a r d comparisons  I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the f i r s t attempt t o a p p l y t o the s t u d y o f an e n t i r e community was  systematic  made i n P i t t s b u r g h . Under  the l e a d e r s h i p of P a u l K e l l o g g , a s t a f f of r e s e a r c h e r s a s p e c t s o f community l i f e , i n o r d e r t o a s c e r t a i n , how  examined many human w e l f a r e  had k e p t pace w i t h the economic development of the h i g h l y !  i z e d P i t t s b u r g h area.  The  methods  industrial-  f i n d i n g s of the P i t t s b u r g h Survey (19092  1911+) were p u b l i s h e d  i n s e v e r a l volumes,,  that indicate i n t h e i r  t i t l e s the xtfide range of t h e p r o j e c t and i t s a r e a s o f measurement: (1) The  Pittsburgh D i s t r i c t ;  (2) C i v i c F r o n t a g e ; (3) Wage-Earning  P i t t s b u r g h ; (1+) Women and the T r a d e s ; (5>) Homestead; (6) Households of a M i l l Town; (7) Work A c c i d e n t s The  S t e e l Workers.  The  P i t t s b u r g h Study was  and the Law;  Illinois  (1912+-1920), New  (1926), the l a t t e r b e i n g  and  (8)  the b l u e - p r i n t f o r a  number of p r o j e c t s i n o t h e r communities and r e g i o n s field,  The  such as  Y o r k ( 1 9 2 7 - 1 9 3 D , and  Spring-  Missouri  a more s p e c i a l i z e d i n q u i r y concerned w i t h  crime and the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of j u s t i c e . 3 A n o t h e r study of P i t t s b u r g h was f o c u s of t h i s p r o j e c t was e x i s t i n g welfare  u n d e r t a k e n d u r i n g the 1930's . The  d i r e c t e d towards the e x a m i n a t i o n of  the  s e r v i c e s w h i c h were, however, c o n s t a n t l y r e f l e c t e d  a g a i n s t the s o c i a l and economic f o r c e s of the community, because i t was  recognized  be a n a l y z e d  t h a t s o c i a l i>rork p r a c t i c e s and w e l f a r e  a p a r t from the s o c i a l and economic c o n d i t i o n s of  community and i t s p e o p l e . ___  s e r v i c e s cannot  Large-scale  use was  made of  the  statistics  i b i d ; p.2+ 2 The P i t t s b u r g h D i s t r i c t ; R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n ; 1909. 3 . K l e i n , P h i l i p & c o l l . A S o c i a l Study of P i t t s b u r g h ; Qommunity Problems and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s of P i t t s b u r g h and A l l e g h e n y County; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; New Y o r k ; 1938.  - 12  -  f o r measurements as t h a t i n c l u d e d :  (1) a r e a and p o p u l a t i o n ,  (2)  payrolls,  (3) the employed and unemployed, (Ij.) c y c l e s of b u s i n e s s  activity,  (5) r e n t s , (6) h o u s i n g c o n d i t i o n s , (7) e t h n i c  (8) age d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  distribution,  (9) income, (10) e x p e n d i t u r e s of f a m i l i e s ,  (11) a measurement o f t h e v a r i o u s  and  s o c i a l a g e n c i e s t h a t e x i s t e d i n the  community. W h i l e the survey method i s c o n t i n u e d  t o be used i n G r e a t B r i t a i n ,  the American scene i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d today r a t h e r by a g r e a t number of community w e l f a r e  studies, inquiries  t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  of a more s p e c i a l i z e d  nature,  l a t e r i n t h i s Chapter.  (b) "Minimum budget" s t u d i e s and r e l a t e d measurements of income d i s t r i b u t i o n : The  s t u d y of the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f income i s o f b a s i c importance f o r  the maintenance and p l a n n i n g  of adequate w e l f a r e programmes. A l t h o u g h  we have l i v e d i n a p e r i o d of r e l a t i v e l y f u l l employment and h i g h wages f o r some t i m e , unemployment, i r r e g u l a r broken f a m i l i e s , affecting provided  e a r n i n g s , v o c a t i o n a l inadequacy,  and c a t a s t r o p h i c i l l n e s s c o n t i n u e  t o be major problems  a g r e a t number of people and making them dependent on income from p u b l i c sources.  Even w i t h the e x i s t i n g  income-maintenance programmes ( p e n s i o n s ,  frame-work of  social security,  a s s i s t a n c e programmes, s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e , and unemployment the q u e s t i o n s  of the adequacy of the budget remains..  "minimum budget" and  "minimum s t a n d a r d "  compilations  maintenance of adequate a s s i s t a n c e programmes.  public insurance),  Therefore, are b a s i c t o  R e l a t e d t o the  the  facts  o f income d i s t r i b u t i o n , t h e y a l s o show the number of people i n need of a s s i s t a n c e , p e o p l e t h a t s u b s i s t on a budget w h i c h does not them an adequate s t a n d a r d  of l i v i n g and makes them  dependent on x^elfare r e s o u r c e s .  potentially  T h i s type o f measurement  was  secure  - 13  developed by B.S.Rowntree who,  -  d u r i n g the l a t e r p a r t o f the 1 9 t h  c e n t u r y , s t u d i e d the c o n d i t i o n s of the w o r k i n g c l a s s p o p u l a t i o n o f York, England.  Rowntree c o n s t r u c t e d a h y p o t h e t i c a l s t a n d a r d o f  minimum f a m i l y r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a t i n c l u d e d f o o d , r e n t , c l o t h i n g , h o u s e h o l d m a t e r i a l s and u t i l i t i e s .  Any f a m i l y whose budget c o u l d  not p r o v i d e f o r the minimum i n these items w a s . c l a s s i f i e d as below the "minimum s u b s i s t e n c e " i n " p r i m a r y p o v e r t y " .  living  Conditions  w h i c h reached the l e v e l of minimum s u b s i s t e n c e , but d i d not a l l o w for  any o t h e r e x p e n d i t u r e s were c l a s s i f i e d as "secondary p o v e r t y " .  T h i s type of " p o v e r t y - l i n e " s t u d y , p i o n e e r e d by Rowntree, was e x t e n s i v e l y a p p l i e d i n Great B r i t a i n and a l s o i n Canada and the United States.  A l t h o u g h economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s have changed,  these " p o v e r t y - l i n e " s t u d i e s are s t i l l f u l l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e .  Only  t h e i r emphasis has s h i f t e d w i t h the g e n e r a l d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f w i d e spread and a b j e c t p o v e r t y .  Today, w i t h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a number o f  income-maintenance programmes, the concern o f study and measurement i s the adequacy of the a l l o w a n c e s p r o v i d e d , and t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether t h e y s e c u r e the r e c i p i e n t a minimum s t a n d a r d and a minimum budget.  A f u r t h e r q u e s t i o n i s , what can be c o n s i d e r e d a minimum  s t a n d a r d and a minimum budget at t i m e s where the c o s t of l i v i n g i s f l u c t u a t i n g f r o m y e a r t o y e a r and a r e a t o a r e a . of  There are a number  i m p o r t a n t examples of s t u d i e s r e l a t i n g t o the a r e a of minimum  s t a n d a r d s and minimum budgets i n Canada. I n 1 9 3 9 , the Toronto 1 Welfare C o u n c i l c o m p i l e d a s t a n d a r d of a f a m i l y budget " c o v e r i n g a l l the items n e c e s s a r y t o ensure h e a l t h , r e a s o n a b l e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s 2 and g e n e r a l s e l f - r e s p e c t " . The f i n d i n g s were i n c o r p o r a t e d and 1 The C o s t s o f L i v i n g : Toronto W e l f a r e C o u n c i l ; 1939. ~ 2 Report: on S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada; p r e p a r e d by Dr.L.C .Marsh; K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , Ottawa; 1.91+3• p.20.  f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d i n t h e Report of S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r Canada p r e p a r e d by Dr.L.C.Marsh,  1  which compiled a " d e s i r a b l e  (I9I4.3),  living  minimum budget and r e s t r i c t e d a s s i s t a n c e minimum".  This report also'  i n c l u d e d a s t u d y o f the minimum s t a n d a r d s of s o c i a l  legislation,  employment and unemployment, p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t the u n i v e r s a l r i s k s of s i c k n e s s , i n v a l i d i t y , and o l d age, and the economic needs of t h e f a m i l y ( c h i l d r e n ' s a l l o w a n c e s , mothers' a l l o w a n c e s , s u r v i v o r s ' insurance).  An example o f t h i s type o f s t u d y i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s  the "Report on the Adequacy o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s i n t h e C i t y . o f Vancouver", completed i n 1958  f o r the Vancouver Community  2 Chest and C o u n c i l "~.  The purpose of t h i s r e p o r t was the  assessment  of a measure o f need o f t h o s e p e o p l e t h a t are c o n t i n u i n g t o r e c e i v e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n the C i t y of Vancouver, and t o a s c e r t a i n what c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d an adequate a s s i s t a n c e r a t e t h a t would secure t h e r e c i p i e n t a minimum s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g .  The r e p o r t i s a l s o n o t e -  worthy f o r i t s a t t e m p t s . t o c l a s s i f y the b r o a d causes o f f i n a n c i a l dependency w h i c h were g i v e n as (1)  physical disability,  (2)  mental 3  disability,  (3) unemployment, (I4.) l o s s of b r e a d w i n n e r , and (5)  These s t u d i e s e m p h a s i z i n g the concept o f "minimum budget"  age .  and  "minimum s t a n d a r d " i l l u s t r a t e t h e b a s i c importance of t h i s t y p e o f measurement f o r the maintenance  of adequate programmes t h a t p e r m i t  the r e c i p i e n t an adequate l e v e l o f l i v i n g .  1 ibid. 2 "The Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A l l o w a n c e s i n the C i t y of Vancouver"; Report t o - t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l ; Vancouver September 195BT 3 i b i d ; pp.5 - 8.  - 15  (c) Census and r e l a t e d W i t h an expanding  -  statistics:  scope t h a t nottf i n c l u d e s measurement o f many s o c i a l  and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , the Census i s assuming an i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t s o c i a l purpose.  Today, the Census c o n s t i t u t e s the major  source of s o c i a l and economic d a t a c o v e r i n g t h r e e " s o c i a l (a) p o p u l a t i o n (people counted as u n i t s ) ;  (b) f a m i l y and  (people as l i v i n g u n i t s ) combined w i t h h o u s i n g d a t a ; and working f o r c e .  dimensions": household (c) the  S t a t i s t i c s of p o p u l a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Include data  o f the volume o f the p o p u l a t i o n , sex, age d i s t r i b u t i o n , m a r i t a l  status,  r e l i g i o u s and e t h n i c d i s t r i b u t i o n , and l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g . Such d a t a have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the p l a n n i n g o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , because t h e y a s s i s t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the number and i n c i d e n c e o f groups t h a t are the p a r t i c u l a r c o n c e r n of v j e l f a r e , such as p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , school-aged c h i l d r e n , a d o l e s c e n t s , and the aged. on f a m i l y and h o u s e h o l d  The  data  i n d i c a t e the number and s i z e o f f a m i l i e s ,  t h e i r c o m p o s i t i o n , t y p e and s t a n d a r d o f accommodation as w e l l as the^ family earnings.  They a l l o w t h e assessment o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  l a r g e f a m i l i e s and f a m i l i e s w i t h low incomes.  The d a t a on h o u s i n g  have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s i n the areas o f r e c r e a t i o n and townplanning (slum-clearance).  D a t a on t h e w o r k i n g f o r c e g i v e the  o c c u p a t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e l a b o u r f o r c e , t h e employment s t a t u s as w e l l as the e a r n i n g s .  These are now. supplemented by e x t e n s i v e  m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d and r e p o r t e d by the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e , the Unemployment Insurance Commission as w e l l as s p e c i a l employment i n d e x e s computed by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . Such d a t a are o f g r e a t e s t importance f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g , i n p a r t i c u l a r i n the a r e a of S o c i a l Allowance  and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s t h a t are d e s i g n e d t o  meet the needs o f the t e m p o r a r i l y dependent, unemployed p e r s o n o r  - 16  -  family. Census d a t a are r e p o r t e d f o r v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c u n i t s , r a n g i n g f r o m the t o t a l , n a t i o n a l a r e a t o s u b - d i v i s i o n s and c e n s u s - t r a c t s .  The  l a t t e r t y p e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , are u s e f u l f o r w e l f a r e measurement, because t h e y a l l o w the measurement of the d i s t r i b u t i o n and  incidence  of c e r t a i n groups of people and of socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of significance f o r welfare planning.  D a t a f o r such r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l  areas become even more v a l u a b l e when u s e d as base o r comparison f o r agency d a t a , l o c a l d e l i n q u e n c y  or i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e s , or when t h e y  are compared f o r i n t e r c e n s a l p e r i o d s i n o r d e r t o determine the changes and t r e n d s t h a t have o c c u r r e d over t h e t i m e .  I n o t h e r words, Census  d a t a are most u s e f u l when t h e y l e n d themselves t o comparison w i t h data from other sources, i n p a r t i c u l a r welfare s t a t i s t i c s .  This  i m p l i e s , however, t h a t the g e o g r a p h i c areas o f r e p o r t i n g of the v a r i o u s s t a t i s t i c s must c o r r e s p o n d  t o the l a r g e s t p o s s i b l e e x t e n t ,  i f r e g i o n a l c o m p i l a t i o n s of d a t a from d i f f e r e n t sources  are t o be  made, and the g r e a t p o t e n t i a l of socio-economic i n f o r m a t i o n i n the Census i s t o be f u l l y u t i l i z e d .  The  contained  attempt t o c r e a t e base  areas f o r r e g i o n a l c o m p i l a t i o n s has been f o l l o w e d s u c c e s s f u l l y i n Saskatchewan, w h i l e , i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h i s problem has unsolved  t o t h i s day,  remained  c r e a t i n g almost i n s u r m o u n t a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  c o m p i l i n g b a s i c s o c i a l and economic d a t a on the p o p u l a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t Regions of t h e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e . (d) Community W e l f a r e  Studies:  Recent decades have seen an i n c r e a s i n g  number of community w e l f a r e s t u d i e s , many of them p r o j e c t s i n i t i a t e d by Community C h e s t s and C o u n c i l s . concerned w i t h s t u d i e s of how  These were i n i t i a l l y  mainly  t o c o - o r d i n a t e the m u l t i p l e , v o l u n t a r y  agencies.  Over the y e a r s , however, a g r a d u a l r e f i n i n g o f o b j e c t i v e s  and methods o c c u r r e d .  Today, many Chests and C o u n c i l s have e s t a b l -  i s h e d f u l l - s c a l e r e s e a r c h and s t a t i s t i c s d i v i s i o n s f o r the purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g the needs and problems t h a t e x i s t i n the community, and f o r e v a l u a t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s of t h e e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s as w e l l as the needs f o r new  services.  Thus, a t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s s e d on the  people i n the community as much as on the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d . T h e r e f o r e , community w e l f a r e s t u d i e s make l a r g e - s c a l e use o f the a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a m e a s u r i n g the s o c i a l and economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t o t a l community such as the Census and  related  s t a t i s t i c s , i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s the p r e v a l e n c e and i n c i d e n c e o f groups and people t h a t are i n a s t a t e o f a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l dependency, such as the aged, b r o k e n f a m i l i e s and the unemployed.  Such s t a t i s t i c s  are r e l a t e d t o and compared w i t h the d a t a of w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s f o r the purpose o f a s s e s s i n g the p o t e n t i a l need and the need t h a t i s expressed i n a demand f o r s e r v i c e , as w e l l as f o r e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s and a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e  services.  Most s t u d i e s have employed index-making as a major t e c h n i q u e f o r measuring w e l f a r e need and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , because o f the advantages of t h i s , t e c h n i q u e w h i c h l i e i n the r e l a t i v e l y , easy a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the d a t a needed.  The d a t a needed are a l s o i n e x p e n s i v e t o o b t a i n and,  g e n e r a l l y , are r e p o r t e d i n an e a s i l y u n d e r s t a n d a b l e be r e a d i l y used f o r index-making.  form, and t h e y  can  I n d e x i n g has been used as a t e c h n i q u e  i n community w e l f a r e s t u d i e s f o r many y e a r s .  D u r i n g World War  I.M.Rubinow c o n s t r u c t e d . a "Dependency Index" w h i c h was  I,  to e s t a b l i s h  the need f o r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f w e l f a r e d a t a i n d i c a t i n g the type and amount of s e r v i c e g i v e n i n the v a r i o u s areas o f Fex^ Y o r k over a number o f y e a r s .  The  " s o c i a l breakdown i n d e x " ,  - 18 developed  -  by B u e l l and Robinson, p r o j e c t e d a r a t e of " s o c i a l breakdown"  f o r Stamford, C o n n e c t i c u t , which, had the purpose to measure the of s o c i a l pathology  "extent  i n the community and the volume of b a s i c f a m i l y  1  disorganization"  .  The data f o r t h i s index were s e l e c t e d from the  of ( 1 ) mental d i s e a s e , (2) (5) neglect, (6)  mental d e f i c i e n c y , ( 3 )  d i v o r c e , and  crime,  (7) unemployability.  the nature of these d a t a p o i n t s to the apparent  of  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h i s  or known need manifested  The  data  i n s o c i a l break-  down or d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . L a t e r s t u d i e s are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h a t attempt t o overcome t h i s one-sided  delinquency  An examination  type of study on the p a t h o l o g i c a l s i d e of the community. o n l y r e f l e c t the expressed  (Ij.)  areas  approaches  orientation.  In 191+9, Bertram B l a c k c o n s t r u c t e d an index of r e l a t i v e need f o r  2 h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n the v a r i o u s boroughs of New  York .  B l a c k based h i s c h o i c e of s t a t i s t i c s on the assumption t h a t " i t appears l o g i c a l t h a t areas with more people  are areas of g r e a t e r need; but i t  a l s o appears l o g i c a l t h a t where there i s g r e a t e s t need, poorest h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s , g r e a t e s t i n c i d e n c e of delinquency, crime and s i m i l a r problems, there may be the g r e a t e s t need f o r h e a l t h and w e l f a r e 3  programmes."  T h i s assumption i s r e f l e c t e d i n the data used to  measure (a) p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n throughout d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . . The grouped i n t o f i v e a r e a s :  (1)  the c i t y , and  (b)  s t a t i s t i c s examined were  volume of p o p u l a t i o n ; (2). p o p u l a t i o n  1 " S o c i a l Breakdown: An O u t l i n e of Procedures f o r Compiling S o c i a l Data"; B u l l e t i n 1 3 7 ; Community Chests and C o u n c i l s of North America Inc.; New York; May 191+8; p.2. 2 Black, Bertram J . Our Welfare Needs: A Study of New York C i t y ; The G r e a t e r New York Fund; New York 191+9• 3 Black, B e r t r a m J . "The Use of S o c i a l and Economic Data i n Developing I n d i c e s of Need"; i n Moore, E s t h e r , M. The C l e v e l a n d Workshop i n R e t r o s p e c t ; Community Chests and C o u n c i l s of North America, i n c . New York; 191+9; p.20. :  - 19 characteristics; (5)  (3)  -  economic f a c t o r s ;  (I4.) v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s ;  and  s o c i a l pathology.  I n 195i4.« a s t u d y o f B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a was  completed under the  l e a d e r s h i p of M a r t i n W o l i n s t h a t was t o measure the w e l f a r e problems  I  and s e r v i c e s of the community . (1)  approach was u s e d :  In t h i s p r o j e c t , a f o u r - f o l d  the s o c i a l breakdown approach  (comparison by  census t r a c t s of the i n c i d e n c e o f h e a l t h and w e l f a r e problems; ) (2)  survey of a g e n c i e s ( t o measure t h e e x t e n t and n a t u r e o f w e l f a r e  problems and t h e e x t e n t of the s e r v i c e s d e s i g n e d t o meet them; ) (3)  survey of " a t t i t u d e s and knowledge" ( t o a s c e r t a i n community  awareness of problems and s e r v i c e s ) ; and  (I4.)  survey of agency c l i e n t s  (to a s s e s s the c o m p o s i t i o n of t h e w e l f a r e c l i e n t e l e ) . P a r a l l e l w i t h t h e development of t h i s t y p e of community w e l f a r e s t u d y , a new t y p e of study was 2  Research A s s o c i a t e s purpose  developed by B u e l l and Community  t h a t a n a l y z e d the t o t a l c a s e l o a d f o r t h e  of ' c r e a t i n g " t h e framework of a coherent program o f community 3  well-being"  .  Prom t h i s a n a l y s i s o f what amounts t o the t o t a l  w e l f a r e c a s e l o a d of t h e community, t h e e x i s t e n c e of the " m u l t i p l e - p r o b l e m f a m i l y " was u n d e r l i n e d i n a new way.  so-called I t was  brought  t o l i g h t t h a t a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f f a m i l i e s tend t o r e q u i r e a l a r g e share o f the e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  Thus, i n S t . P a u l , M i n n e s o t a ,  i t was found t h a t about 6 p e r c e n t of the f a m i l i e s were s u f f e r i n g from such a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of s e r i o u s problems t h a t t h e y absorbed more t h a n 50 p e r cent of the combined s e r v i c e s of the community. T h i s 1 W o l i n s , M a r t i n : W e l f a r e Problems and S e r v i c e s I n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a ; Berkeley C o u n c i l of S o c i a l Welfare; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s ; B e r k e l e y , C a l i f ; 1951)-. 2 B u e l l , B r a d l e y and A s s . Community P l a n n i n g f o r Human S e r v i c e s ; Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; New Y o r k ; 1 9 5 2 . 3 ibid; p.ix.  - 20  -  d i r e c t e d the f o c u s o f the study on b e t t e r d i a g n o s i s ,  appropriate  t r e a t m e n t and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , and g e n e r a l c o - o r d i n a t i o n  or  "concentrated  the  service".  Out  of the measurements and f i n d i n g s of  " S t . P a u l Study" grew the concept o f f a m i l y - c e n t r e d casework and c e n t r a l s c r e e n i n g agency (which c o u l d be a p p l i e d , e.g., p r o t e c t i o n or d e l i n q u e n c y s e r v i c e s ) . S t . P a u l , has  to a l l c h i l d  This concept, f i r s t a p p l i e d i n  s t i m u l a t e d a number of s i m i l a r p r o j e c t s of  s e r v i c e s i n o t h e r p a r t s of N o r t h A m e r i c a . C a l i f o r n i a , a general  the  welfare  I n San Mateo County,  purpose d i a g n o s t i c c l i n i c f o r a l l b e h a v i o u r  d i s o r d e r s and o t h e r w e l f a r e problems has been e s t a b l i s h e d , and d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t i s b e i n g watched w i t h great Edmonton, A l b e r t a , a s m a l l p r o j e c t c o n c e n t r a t i n g  interest.  this  In  on i n t e n s i v e t r e a t -  ment of twenty "problem f a m i l i e s " w i t h measuring the r e s u l t s o f t r e a t m e n t by r e s e a r c h methods was  i n i t i a t e d by the S o c i a l S e r v i c e  Department i n t h i s c i t y i n 1959*  I n Vancouver, the i d e a of a  ordinated  agency o f f e r i n g a l l s e r v i c e s needed by the m u l t i p l e -  problem f a m i l y i s now  being a c t i v e l y considered  "South Vancouver F a m i l y The  i n the s o - c a l l e d -  Service Project".  i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e developments towards i n t e n s i v e and  ordinated  co-  co-  s e r v i c e s l i e s i n t h e need f o r improved methods of c a s e -  r e c o r d i n g and  s t a t i s t i c s t h a t p e r m i t a more r e f i n e d and d e t a i l e d  a n a l y s i s of c a s e l o a d s f o r the purpose of deepening our knowledge about such i m p o r t a n t phenomena as the c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s and components of m u l t i p l e - p r o b l e m so t h a t the a p p r o p r i a t e  s i t u a t i o n s , dependency,  k i n d s of t r e a t m e n t and  the  indigency,  s e r v i c e s can  be  developed. (e) Housing and t o w n - p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s ; I n more r e c e n t y e a r s , h o u s i n g and  t o w n - p l a n n i n g s t u d i e s are g i v i n g  - 21 new impetus t o w e l f a r e measurements.  They are o f such  importance  f o r w e l f a r e and have so many I m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e y deserve mention.  T h i s i s r e a l l y a re-development,  f o r housing  special  ( i n t h e form  of s l u m - d i s t r i c t s t u d i e s , s l u m - c l e a r a n c e s u r v e y s , e t c . ) was one o f the o r i g i n a l spheres o f s o c i a l work a c t i v i t y . .  On the N o r t h  American  C o n t i n e n t , though, and i n Great B r i t a i n and Western Europe, t h e r e was  l i t t l e o r no a c t i v i t y d u r i n g t h e t w e n t i e s and t h i r t i e s . A  c o m p l e t e l y new phase o f i n t e r e s t has developed i n t h e f i f t i e s i n Canada, f i r s t w i t h h o u s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , then w i t h t h e needs f o r .public h o u s i n g , i n c l u d i n g s u b s i d i z e d h o u s i n g f o r o l d p e o p l e and l a r g e f a m i l i e s , and most r e c e n t l y "urban redevelopment"  (which  incorporates slum-clearance w i t h other kinds of c e n t r a l - a r e a r e b u i l d i n g i n many c i t i e s ) .  H i s t o r i c a l l y , t h i s development can be  p a r a l l e l e d t o t h e development o f employment and unemployment s t a t i s t i c s a f t e r 19i]-l«  B e f o r e t h i s d a t e , a l l d i s c u s s i o n s and  p l a n n i n g about unemployment, w h i c h was t h e v i t a l problem d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n , were f u n d a m e n t a l l y handicapped adequate measurements.  because o f t h e l a c k o f  A s i m i l a r dilemma e x i s t e d i n t h e a r e a o f  h o u s i n g u n t i l t h e Census began t o r e p o r t d a t a on t h e s t a n d a r d o f housing.  I n a d d i t i o n , a n i m p o r t a n t s e r i e s o f s t a t i s t i c s a r e now  c o m p i l e d a n n u a l l y by t h e C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n . P r o j e c t s o f u r b a n redevelopment throughout component.  and s l u m - c l e a r a n c e a r e now i n c r e a s i n g  Canada, and f o r t h e s e , h o u s i n g surveys a r e a r e q u i r e d An i n t e r e s t i n g example o f the l a t t e r , which has i m p o r t a n t  w e l f a r e i m p l i c a t i o n s , i s t h e Redevelopment Survey completed by t h e Vancouver C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i n 1957 — . 1 "The Vancouver Redevelopment Study"; p r e p a r e d b y the C i t y o f Vancouver P l a n n i n g Department f o r the Housing Research Committee; Vancouver, December 1 9 5 7 .  - 22 -  I n t h i s way, h o u s i n g h a s r e - e n t e r e d t h e a r e a o f w e l f a r e . at f i r s t  While,  s i g h t , i t seems t o be f o r e m o s t t h e c o n c e r n o f the town-  p l a n n e r , the s o c i a l worker has a v i t a l f u n c t i o n t o f u l f i l i n t h i s area.  Housing needs r a i s e many q u e s t i o n s such as measuring t h e  demand and s u p p l y o f h o u s i n g .  S l u m - c l e a r a n c e means u s u a l l y t h e  d i s p l a c e m e n t o f l a r g e , low-income f a m i l i e s , e l d e r l y people -and s i n g l e persons who a r e , g e n e r a l l y , i n an e c o n o m i c a l l y p r e c a r i o u s position.  F o r t h e s e p e o p l e , who a r e t h e s p e c i a l concern o f t h e  s o c i a l worker, the l o s s o f accommodation w h i c h , i f perhaps  sub-  s t a n d a r d , i s a t l e a s t cheap and xtfithin t h e i r f i n a n c i a l means, d i s p l a c e m e n t from t h e i r homes poses, a v e r y r e a l economic and p s y c h o logical threat.  T h i s b r i n g s t o t h e f o r e g r o u n d t h e g r e a t need f o r  l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s as much as the problem  o f the "minimum  budget", w h i c h has i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e q u e s t i o n s of a p p r o p r i a t e and low r e n t s , o r t h e need f o r s u b s i d i e s .  Selection  of t e n a n t s , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s a r e f u r t h e r areas i n w h i c h t h e s o c i a l worker can make a c o n t r i b u t i o n .  Housing  projects  themselves become a source o f new i n f o r m a t i o n , o f comprehensive  and  ramifying welfare experience.  They can be a f i r s t - r a t e base f o r 1 o b s e r v a t i o n o f w e l f a r e problems  The p l a n n i n g o f new developments,  on t h e u r b a n , r e g i o n a l o r r u r a l  l e v e l , i s another f a c t o r adding t o t h e need f o r more measurement material.  But t h e s e new p l a n n i n g a c t i v i t i e s and developments a r e  a l s o s u p p l y i n g some new s o u r c e s o f d a t a . Perhaps t h e most i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n o f these new t r e n d s i n t h e a r e a o f h o u s i n g , however, i s 1 As an example, r e f e r t o : Fromson, E, Hansom V., and Smith R. The L i t t l e Mountain Low-Rental Housing P r o j e c t ; A.Survey o f I t s Welfare I m p l i c a t i o n s ; Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s ; U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; 1959.  - 23  -  the need f o r c l o s e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the s o c i a l worker and planner  on the one hand, and between s o c i a l w e l f a r e d a t a  socio-economic d a t a ) and  (as w e l l as  s o c i a l p o l i c y on t h e o t h e r hand.  Scope and Method of t h e P r e s e n t The  the  purpose of t h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y C h a p t e r was  Study  t o i l l u s t r a t e the w i d e n i n g  scope of w e l f a r e , t h a t n e c e s s i t a t e s the c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of the of c o n c e r n and i s one  a c t i v i t y of w e l f a r e .  approach t o d e f i n i t i o n .  ment, now  I t was  areas  i n d i c a t e d t h a t measurement  The v a r i o u s t y p e s of w e l f a r e measure-  p o s s i b l e and n e c e s s a r y ,  are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by advances t h a t  have been made i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n the r e f i n i n g o f methods and  techniques.  To a l a r g e e x t e n t , t h e s e advances were made p o s s i b l e t h r o u g h the improvement of t h e s o u r c e s of s t a t i s t i c s t h a t are needed fox  steady  welfare  measurements, i n p a r t i c u l a r of the Canadian Census and, more r e c e n t l y , i n the development of s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s of a number of Government departments. A g a i n s t t h i s background, i t i s proposed t o i l l u s t r a t e a v a i l a b l e and needed s t a t i s t i c s r e q u i r e d f o r w e l f a r e measurement i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This requires focussing  on:  1. the i d e n t i f y i n g o f socio-economic d a t a t h a t are a v a i l a b l e or needed to p r o v i d e t h e base f o r s o c i a l planning. 2. the I d e n t i f y i n g of agency data t h a t are a v a i l a b l e or needed f o r a p p r a i s a l and e v a l u a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. S e l e c t e d d a t a from the Census and some o t h e r -sources f o r B r i t i s h Columbia and, where p o s s i b l e , f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver, are p r e s e n t e d  and d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 2.  of t i m e made i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e s t r i c t t h i s p r o j e c t t o an of d a t a of l a r g e l y s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , w h i l e i t was  Considerations examination  attempted to at  - 2h ~ l e a s t i n d i c a t e the o t h e r s o u r c e s of a v a i l a b l e s t a t i s t i c s f o r w e l f a r e measurement.  A group o f s p e c i f i c d a t a on p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are  t h e n a n a l y z e d i n Chapter 3*  For t h i s purpose, the s e r v i c e s t h a t are  d e s i g n e d t o meet needs a r i s i n g out o f f i n a n c i a l dependency, and w h i c h are p r o v i d e d by t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , were c h o s e n .  .The  i m p l i c a t i o n s f r o m t h i s e x p l o r a t i o n are drawn t o g e t h e r i n the c o n c l u d i n g Chapter.  - 25  CHAPTER  -  2  SOME BASIC SOCIAL DATA  I n a r e c e n t o f f i c i a l Yearbook, B r i t i s h Columbia i s d e s c r i b e d as follows. "The P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia l i e s almost e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the C o r d i l l e r a n R e g i o n o f Worth America and i s t r a v e r s e d from s o u t h t o n o r t h by t h r e e p r i n c i p a l ranges of mountains -the Rocky Mountains t o the e a s t , the Columbia and C a s s i a r Systems i n the i n t e r i o r and the Coast Range t o the w e s t . T h i s g r e a t mountainous p r o v i n c e , vrhich. i s 760 m i l e s from n o r t h t o s o u t h and averages more t h a n ij.00 m i l e s i n w i d t h , s u p p o r t s almost a l l of i t s p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e extreme s o u t h e r l y p o r t i o n . F o r t y p e r cent o f i t s 1,305,000 people l i v e i n the Vancouver Howe Sound a r e a , 180,000 l i v e i n the a d j o i n i n g Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and'another 200,000 i n the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f Vancouver I s l a n d . I n o t h e r words, t h r e e q u a r t e r s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ' s . p o p u l a t i o n l i v e i n about 5 per cent of i t s a r e a . " H a l f of the remainder are i n t h e s o u t h eastern corner. This Province i s h i g h l y i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , m a n u f a c t u r i n g r e p r e s e n t i n g almost h a l f o f the v a l u e of i t s o u t p u t . The P r o v i n c e ' s own g r e a t w e a l t h of n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s p r o v i d e the. raw m a t e r i a l and the power r e q u i r e ments f o r these i n d u s t r i e s ".1 S i n c e the f i r s t o f f i c i a l census was  t a k e n i n 1871,  B r i t i s h Columbia's  p o p u l a t i o n has i n c r e a s e d f o r t y t i m e s , f r o m s l i g h t l y over 36,000 ( i n c l u d i n g 26,000 I n d i a n s ) t o over 1.5  m i l l i o n s i n I960. I t i s o f  g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t , at a l l t i m e s , the s p e c t a c u l a r i n c r e a s e of the p o p u l a t i o n has been due t o i n - m i g r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e , the former f a c t o r e x c e e d i n g the l a t t e r by an a p p r e c i a b l e m a r g i n (see Table 1).  The  r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n growth has been accompan-  i e d by a h i g h r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . The  1 Canada 1956; p r e p a r e d by Canada Yearbook S e c t i o n , I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s ; Ottawa; 1956; p.12.  three  - 26  -  phenomena o f i n - m i g r a t i o n , u r b a n i z a t i o n and  industrialization  are  the b a s i c f e a t u r e s o f the development.of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . U r b a n i z a t i o n and Between 1951  and 1956,  Industrialization  Canada's r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by 3.1+  c e n t , w h i l e t h e u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n showed a g r o w t h of 2 1 . 5  per  T h i s p a t t e r n of urban growth c a n a l s o be o b s e r v e d , even t o  per  cent.  an  i n t e n s i f i e d degree, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where d u r i n g the same p e r i o d , the r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by 9 . 3 by 21+. 5 per c e n t .  per cent and the u r b a n p o p u l a t i o n  D u r i n g the p a s t g e n e r a t i o n , G r e a t e r  Vancouver  developed i n t o the t h i r d - l a r g e s t m e t r o p o l i t a n area i n Canada. Between 1951  and 1 9 5 6 ,  18.3  per cent.  the p o p u l a t i o n of M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i n c r e a s e d  by  T a b l e 2 g i v e s e v i d e n c e o f the h i g h , s u s t a i n e d r a t e  o f u r b a n g r o w t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e , where, at p r e s e n t  c l o s e to one  half  o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n t h e G r e a t e r Vancouver a r e a . I t must be n o t e d , i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t i n 1956, representing 9.0  per cent  Greater V i c t o r i a area.  a n o t h e r 125,1+1+7 p e r s o n s ,  of t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n the  Thus, i n t h i s y e a r , 5 6 . 5  p e r c e n t o f the  e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n l i v e d i n t h e two g r e a t urban c e n t e r s o f the T h i s p a t t e r n demonstrates a l l f e a t u r e s o f the p r o c e s s W h i l e the c e n t r a l c i t i e s e x p e r i e n c e (Vancouver) or an.almost stagnant  province.  of u r b a n i z a t i o n .  a d e c r e a s e d r a t e of growth  p o p u l a t i o n ( V i c t o r i a ) , the  surround-  i n g d i s t r i c t s w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a grow at an a l l the more r a p i d pace.  Burnaby ( p o p . 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 i n 1959)  i n g 1+0,000 i n 1959) seven y e a r s .  and Richmond  (pop.approach-  n e a r l y d o u b l e d t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the  I n the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a a r e a , S a a n i c h  past  Municipality  i n c r e a s e d i n p o p u l a t i o n f r o m 28,1+81 i n 1951+ t o 1+2,300 i n 1959  while  V i c t o r i a p r o p e r shows an i n c r e a s e of o n l y 3>000 p e r s o n s d u r i n g  the  same p e r i o d .  spilling  A n o t h e r p a t t e r n of the u r b a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , the  - 27  -  o v e r of t h e ^ p o p u l a t i o n beyond the b o u n d a r i e s  of the m e t r o p o l i t a n  a r e a i n t o the r u r a l c o u n t r y i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n the Vancouver-Lower Mainland  a r e a where t h e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the P r a s e r V a l l e y ( S u r r e y ,  Maple R i d g e , L a n g l e y )  are c h a n g i n g i n t h e i r c h a r a c t e r from r u r a l t o  1  suburban a r e a s  .  I t i s h i g h l y important  t o be aware of the magnitude  of these changes i n the g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n , i f the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n these r a p i d l y developing a r e t o keep pace w i t h the g r o w i n g p o p u l a t i o n . a mere i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n .  suburban a r e a s  These changes go beyond  Suburban areas have g e n e r a l l y a h i g h  p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n .  Thus, the c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e  p o t e n t i a l w e l f a r e c l i e n t e l e w i l l change w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g u r b a n i z a t i o n of a r u r a l a r e a .  At the same time the exodus of f a m i l i e s  w i t h c h i l d r e n from the c e n t r a l c i t y i s bound t o a f f e c t the of the p o p u l a t i o n r e m a i n i n g .  composition  This p a t t e r n i s r e f l e c t e d I n the  age  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i n the Vancouver a r e a , where Vancouver p r o p e r has  the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y p e o p l e  (see T a b l e  13).  W h i l e u r b a n g r o w t h i s most pronounced i n the south-west c o r n e r of the P r o v i n c e , a d r a m a t i c e x p a n s i o n has begun t o take p l a c e i n c e r t a i n p a r t s o f the i n t e r i o r of t h e P r o v i n c e , m a i n l y i n t h e n o r t h e r n h a l f of i t s p o p u l a t e d  area.  Rapid e c o n o m i c a l  development and Improved  communication f a c i l i t i e s have r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t i n f l u x o f  people,  w h i c h I s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e h i g h r a t e of growth of the l a r g e r c e n t r e s . W i t h i n t h e p a s t f i v e y e a r s , the p o p u l a t i o n of P r i n c e George i n c r e a s e d by almost two t h i r d s , f r o m i+,703 i n 1951+ e q u a l l y r a p i d expansion 1  t o over 1 2 , 0 0 0 i n 1 9 5 9 .  i s f o u n d i n the Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y where  f o r a c t u a l f i g u r e s , r e f e r t o Table  27  An  - 28  -  Dawson. Creek shows a p r e s e n t p o p u l a t i o n of over 1 0 , 0 0 0 as compared t o 3 , 5 8 9 i n 1951+.  The new  town o f K i t i m a t , a l s o l o c a t e d i n the  n o r t h e r n p a r t o f B r i t i s h Columbia, was 1958,  c r e a t e d i n around 1952.  9 , 6 7 6 p e r s o n s were l i v i n g i n t h i s new  community.  In  These r a p i d  changes have t h e i r deep i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g . The  i n f l u x of people  r e s u l t s not o n l y i n an i n c r e a s e d demand f o r  s e r v i c e s , but a l s o i n a change i n the c o m p o s i t i o n of. the w e l f a r e clientele.  Thus., the k i n d s of need t h a t emerge w i l l be  different.  F o r l o n g - t e r m p l a n n i n g , i t i s . a l s o e s s e n t i a l t o a s s e s s , whether t h i s p a t t e r n of r a p i d g r o w t h i n c e r t a i n a r e a s i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e i n future years. Accompanying and p a r t l y r e s u l t i n g i n r a p i d u r b a n g r o w t h i s the h i g h In 1951,  r a t e o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  o n l y 7«7  per  1  cent of the t o t a l male l a b o u r f o r c e o f 346,371+ agriculture.  were working  in  I n the t o t a l economic p i c t u r e of the P r o v i n c e , the h i g h  p r o p o r t i o n of p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s i s e v i d e n t .  Although  manufacturing  r e p r e s e n t s a l m o s t h a l f of B r i t i s h Columbia's i n d u s t r i a l o u t p u t ,  a  c o n s i d e r a b l e p e r c e n t a g e of the l a b o r f o r c e i s o c c u p i e d i n t h e b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s w h i c h are h i g h l y dependent on the economic c y c l e s o f t h e w o r l d market.  I n 1951,  2.18  p e r cent o f the male l a b o u r f o r c e were  o c c u p i e d i n m i n i n g , 5 « 5 3 i n l o g g i n g and 1.52 8..61  i n f i s h i n g . Another  p e r cent were x^orking i n c o n s t r u c t i o n w h i c h s t i l l shows marked •  seasonal f l u c t u a t i o n s .  Thus, the economic w e l f a r e and  s e c u r i t y of  almost one f i f t h of the male l a b o u r f o r c e i s h i g h l y dependent on t h e c y c l i c a l and s e a s o n a l changes o f t h e economy and the s t a b i l i t y of the b a s i c and r e l a t e d i n d u s t r i e s . ' 8 . 9 are u n s k i l l e d workers who 1  p e r c e n t of the male l a b o u r f o r c e  have i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f i n d i n g  D.B.S.; Census o f Canada;  1951.  and  - 29  remaining technology  -  i n employment i n an e r a o f i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and an economy w h i c h h a s , f o r a number of y e a r s  an o v e r s u p p l y o f l a b o u r .  B e i n g u n s k i l l e d , these l a b o u r e r s  and  experienced are  i n c r e a s i n g l y h a n d i c a p p e d i n competing on t h e l a b o u r market. T h e i r employment h i s t o r y i s o f t e n s p o r a d i c , and, e c o n o m i c a l l y ,  they  constantly l i v e i n a precarious state. The  o v e r a l l p i c t u r e o f t h e demographic and economic t r e n d s i n  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n t h e r e c e n t p a s t as w e l l as i n the f u t u r e , i s 1  a p t l y d e s c r i b e d by  J.T.Marshall:  "In the twenty y e a r s s i n c e t h e d e p r e s s i o n the p r o v i n c e has moved r a p i d l y i n the f u r t h e r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of i t s economy and the g r e a t e r u r b a n i z a t i o n of i t s p o p u l a t i o n . The l e v e l o f l i v i n g has r i s e n , e d u c a t i o n has been extended, and the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f women i n t h e . l a b o u r f o r c e has i n c r e a s e d t o an unprecedented degree. . So l o n g as the e x p a n s i o n o f economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o n t i n u e s , the volume of m i g r a t i o n t o B r i t i s h Columbia i s l i k e l y t o i n c r e a s e at a compounded r a t e . However, the r e l a t i v e importance of m i g r a t i o n to the t o t a l growth i s l i k e l y to decline s l i g h t l y . I n t h e p a s t , the smooth a b s o r p t i o n of a tremendous number of m i g r a n t s i n t o the economy has been p o s s i b l e l a r g e l y because o f the ' d e f i c i e n c y ' i n t h e most p r o d u c t i v e age group of the population. Within f i v e to ten years t h i s d e f i c i e n c y w i l l be. t a k e n c a r e of by s u r v i v o r s o f the l a r g e wartime and p o s t war 'baby c r o p s ' who w i l l be e n t e r i n g the l a b o r market i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers" 2 . The  short examination  o f the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t r e n d s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , a t t e m p t e d on the p r e c e d i n g  and  pages,  i n d i c a t e s the e x i s t e n c e of a number o f phenomena w h i c h have been d i s c u s s e d i n the l i g h t o f t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the e x i s t e n c e of w e l f a r e needs i n t h e f i r s t C h a p t e r .  We  observe a h i g h r a t e o f  p o p u l a t i o n growth, s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n the a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n , a h i g h r a t e o f m o b i l i t y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e as w e l l as a h i g h r a t e o f in-migration.  U r b a n i z a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n w i t h an emphasis  1 M a r s h a l l , J.T.; A C e n t u r y o f P o p u l a t i o n G-rowth I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h ; V o l . 5 0 , No.2; February 1 9 5 9 ; PP.6I4. - 7 0 . 2 i b i d ; pp.69 - 70.  - 30 -  on p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s a r e f u r t h e r f a c t o r s .  These changes and  phenomena must be u n d e r s t o o d , because t h e y a f f e c t t h e l i v e s o f a g r e a t many p e o p l e .  N e i t h e r c a n t h e s o c i a l problems t h a t a r i s e out o f  t h e s e changes and ways t o meet them be u n d e r s t o o d a p a r t f r o m t h e people i n v o l v e d .  T h e r e f o r e , t h e a n a l y s i s o f s o c i a l problems must be  based on an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e people and t h e i r needs.  Thus, we t u r n t o t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f b a s i c demographic  d a t a i n an attempt t o a s s e s s t h e number and p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e t h a t a r e a f f e c t e d by t h e changes, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and t h e i r  people socio-  economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S e l e c t e d Demographic D a t a . The m a i n s o u r c e f o r t h e demographic d a t a , d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s i s t h e Census o f Canada.  Chapter,  D a t a a r e g i v e n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia as a  whole and, where p o s s i b l e , s e p a r a t e l y f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y o f Vancouver. The d a t a p r e s e n t e d make no c l a i m f o r comprehensiveness.  They have  • been s e l e c t e d as i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e k i n d s o f d a t a w h i c h f o r m t h e base for research i n s o c i a l welfare. (1) P o p u l a t i o n Growth and I t s Components S i n c e t h e end o f World War I , t h e r a t e o f p o p u l a t i o n growth i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h a t o f any o t h e r p r o v i n c e i n Canada.  I t h a s a l s o g r e a t l y exceeded t h e r a t e o f groitfth  of Canada as a whole.. F o r t h e p e r i o d 1931 - 191+1, t h e n e t p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia was 1 7 . 8 p e r c e n t , v s . 10.9  p e r cent f o r Canada.  f i g u r e s a r e 1+2.5 p e r c e n t  F o r t h e p e r i o d 191+1 t o 195*1 > t h e comparative (B.C.) v s 2 1 . 8 p e r c e n t  (Canada), and f o r  the p e r i o d 1 9 5 1 t o 1 9 5 6 , t h e c o m p a r a t i v e f i g u r e s a r e 2 0 . 0 p e r c e n t (B.C)  - 31  -  v s . II4..8 per c e n t (Canada)., The  a c t u a l net Increase  and the p r e d i c t e d i n c r e a s e u n t i l 1 9 7 5 ,  as computed by the  Research C o u n c i l , are shown-on T a b l e 1. a continued  1956  of p o p u l a t i o n f o r the p e r i o d I9I4.I t o B.C.  This p r e d i c t i o n i n d i c a t e s  h i g h r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia,  though l e s s s p e c t a c u l a r t h a n d u r i n g the p a s t two decades. g r e a t importance i n - m i g r a t i o n has  i n the sustained :  The  h i g h r a t e of  p o p u l a t i o n growth i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d on T a b l e 1.  I t i s t o be  however,, t h a t s i n c e 191+1  the r a t e o f i n - m i g r a t i o n i s d e c l i n i n g  r e l a t i v e t o the n a t u r a l  Increase.  noted,  (a) The b i r t h r a t e The b i r t h r a t e has  i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y o v e r the p a s t twenty y e a r s  i s expected t o c o n t i n u e  and  to r i s e s l o w l y d u r i n g the next f i f t e e n y e a r s  (see T a b l e I4.). . I t h a s , however, c o n s i s t e n t l y remained below the average f o r Canada, w h i c h stood at 23.5 19hl-!+5, 27.14. f o r 19l|-6-50, 27.2  p e r thousand f o r the  f o r 1951,  and 28.0  period  1956.  for  B r i t i s h Columbia's b i r t h r a t e i s a l s o n o t i c e a b l y l o w e r t h a n t h a t o f the n e i g h b o u r i n g  province  of A l b e r t a .  Nevertheless,  i n c r e a s e of B r i t i s h Columbia's b i r t h r a t e has f o r the p l a n n i n g o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . t r e n d i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f p r e - s c h o o l the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ;  the  relative  important i m p l i c a t i o n s  I t i n d i c a t e s an i n c r e a s i n g and  school-aged c h i l d r e n w i t h i n  and, w i t h i n t h e n e x t t e n t o twenty y e a r s i t  w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of m a r r i a g e s and f o r m a t i o n families.  The h i g h e r b i r t h r a t e w i l l a l s o show i t s e f f e c t s i n the  growing number o f young persons e n t e r i n g the l a b o u r force.. (b) I m m i g r a t i o n I m m i g r a t i o n i s a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t element o f the t o t a l growth. Since the end o f W o r l d War  population  I I , when l a r g e - s c a l e  immigration  of  - 32  -  was resumed, B r i t i s h Columbia has been t h e p r e f e r r e d p r o v i n c e o f d e s t i n a t i o n f o r a great p r o p o r t i o n o f immigrants. number and percentage  Table 3 shows the  o f those immigrants whose p o i n t o f d e s t i n a t i o n  was g i v e n as " B r i t i s h Columbia" i n the r e c o r d s o f t h e Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n .  D u r i n g t h e y e a r 1957* a y e a r o f  p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h i m m i g r a t i o n , new r e s i d e n t s a r r i v i n g from and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and d e s t i n e d f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, for  overseas  accounted  1|1.9 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l i n c r e a s e o f 8 9 , 5 3 6 i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n  over t h e p r e c e d i n g y e a r . immigrants  I t appears t h a t t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f  a r e a b l e t o make a q u i c k economic adjustment t o t h e i r  new environment.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s group r e m a i n s v u l n e r a b l e t o t h e  economic h a z a r d s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t i m e s o f economic r e c e s s i o n . T h e i r immediate a b s o r p t i o n i n t o the l a b o u r f o r c e depends g r e a t l y on- a buoyant economy.  Thus, e s p e c i a l l y I n p e r i o d s of decreased  economic  and i n d u s t r i a l a c t i v i t y , t h e l i k e l i h o o d o f economic dependency i s h i g h e r f o r t h e immigrant t h a n f o r t h e l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t . The h i g h r a t e o f i m m i g r a t i o n a l s o has Important demand and s u p p l y i n h o u s i n g .  Immigration  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the remains a h i g h l y f l u c t u a t i n g  v a r i a b l e , however,, f o r xirtiich t r e n d s and p r e d i c t i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h , s i n c e t h e volume o f I m m i g r a t i o n depends on a g r e a t number of p o l i t i c a l  and economic f a c t o r s .  - 33 T a b l e 1:  YEAR  P o p u l a t i o n T r e n d s a n d F o r e c a s t s i n C a n a d a a n d Two W e s t e r n P r o v i n c e s . 191+1 - 1 9 7 5 .  A L B E R T A  C A N A D A  (a)  number  B  R I T I I3 H  p . c . number  number  p.c.  191+1  11,506,665  10.9  796,169  8.9  1951  H+,009,2+29  30.5  939,501  17.9  1956  16,081,791  11+.8  1,123,116  I960" 17,589,000  9.2+  p.c.  817,861 17.8  C  0. L U M B I J  elements o f increase natural net increase migr a t I on 33.2  66.8  1 , 1 6 5 , 2 1 0 1*2.5  33.6  66.2+  19.7  1,398,2+61+ 2 0 . 0  2+2.0  58.0  1,260,000  12.2  1 , 5 7 8 , 6 0 0 12.8  •-  1965  19,709,000  12.1  1,24.78,000  17.2  1 , 8 8 6 , 6 0 0 19.7  1970  22,125,000  12.3  1,731+, 000  21]..1  2,2i|i).,800 1 8 . 9  -  1975  25,071,000  13.3  2,01).3,000  17-8  2,673,800 16.0  —  D  (a) p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e s o v e r p r e c e d i n g C e n s u s . b f i g u r e s f o r I 9 6 0 - 1975 e s t i m a t e s b y t h e B.C.Research Table adapted from t h e f o l l o w i n g  Council.  sources:  (.1) D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s ; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1956. • (2) W a l d e n , C.C., U r q u h a r t A . I . a n d Gouge, J.W.; P o p u l a t i o n T r e n d s i n C a n a d a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a a n d S a s k a t c h e w a n ; B.C. R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ; V a n c o u v e r , B.C.; J a n u a r y 1957* (3) M a r s h a l l , J . T . , A C e n t u r y o f P o p u l a t i o n G r o w t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia; Canadian J o u r n a l o f P u b l i c H e a l t h ; V o l . 5 0 , No.2, F e b . 19^9; pp.62+-70. for  actual figures,  r e f e r t o Table 33, Appendix.  - 31+ -  Table 2:  YEAR  Gross P o p u l a t i o n B r i t i s h . Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and C i t y o f Vancouver; 191+1-1956; number and p e r c e n t a g e s of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n .  British  Columbia (a)  number  p.c.  191+1  817,861  1951 1956  Metropolitan  (b)  number  53.8  377,  1,165,210  Sk-k  1,398,46k  52.5  C i t y o f Vancouver  Vancouver p.c.  number  (b) p.c.  ' 1+6.32  275,353  33.7  530,728  1+5.6  ' 3l|4,833  > 29.6  665,017  1+7.5  365,81+1+  W  26.1  S o u r c e : D.B.S.; Census of Canada, 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . (a) p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n e x c l u d i n g M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver (b) p e r c e n t a g e o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f B.C. Table 3 *  1  I m m i g r a t i o n t o Canada and B r i t i s h Columbia p e r c e n t a g e of t o t a l i m m i g r a t i o n t o B r i t i s h Columbia; s e l e c t e d y e a r s 1.951 - 1 9 5 8 .  YEAR  CANADA number  BRITISH COLUMBIA number  p.c.  1951  19l+,391  11+, 391+  .7.1+  1955  109,91+6  11,570  10.5  1956  16!+, 857  17,812  10..8  1957  282,161).  37,528  13.3  1958  12l+,85l  13,1+00  10.8  1 immigrants a r r i v i n g i n Canada w i t h d e s t i n a t i o n g i v e n as P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia. S o u r c e : " I m m i g r a t i o n " ; p u b l . b y t h e Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n , 1 9 5 6 - 1 9 5 8 . Canada Yearbook 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 .  - 35  -  T a b l e i+: T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n a n d C r u d e B i r t h . R a t e s , C a n a d a , A l b e r t a a n d B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; 191+1 - 1956 ( a c t u a l f i g u r e s ) , a n d I 9 6 0 - 1975 ( e s t i m a t e s ) ; r a t e s p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . P 0 I U L A..T I 0 N  YEAR  5  . i  f  B I R T H  R A T E S  t  Alta.  B.C.  23.1+  23.6  18.1+  1,165,210  27.2  28.8  21+.1  1,123,116  1,398,1+61+  28.0  31.1  25.9  1,260,000  1,578,600  27.5  29.-8  26.0  Canada  Alta.  191+1  11,506,665  796,169  1951  lii,009,1+29  939,501  1956  16,081,791  I 9 6 0 " 17,588,000  B.C.  Canada  818,000  1965  19,709,000'  1,1+78,000  1,886,600  26.0  28.9  26.0  1970  22,125,000  1,71+3,000  2,21jJ+,800  26.2  .. 28.9  27.0  1975  25,071,000  2,01+3,000  2,673,800  27.5  29.8  28.5  a  .  estimated by B.C.Research C o u n c i l Table adapted from t h e folloxtfing  sources:  (1) (2) (3) (i+)  D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 191+1, 1 9 5 l , 1 9 5 6 . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia, V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , 1957. D.B.S.; V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s R e p o r t ; 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1956. W a l d e n , U r q u h a r t & Gouge; o p p . c i t .  for  a c t u a l f i g u r e s r e f e r t o T a b l e 3I+, A p p e n d i x .  1  - 36 (2) The  -  A g e - D i s t r i b u t i o n o f the P o p u l a t i o n  a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n i s shown i n a c t u a l f i g u r e s  f o r the p e r i o d 192+0 t o 1955 I960 t o 1975  9*n Table 5.  and i n e s t i m a t e d f i g u r e s f o r the y e a r s A steady d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f the  most p r o d u c t i v e age group (20  t o 65 y e a r s ) i s i n d i c a t e d u n t i l I960  f r o m w h i c h time on i t s p r o p o r t i o n i s expected t o r e m a i n at a f a i r l y c o n s t a n t 52 t o 53 p e r c e n t . T h i s f i g u r e i s s l i g h t l y h i g h e r f o r B r i t i s h Columbia than f o r Canada as a whole.  D u r i n g 1958,  this  age  11  group c o n s t i t u t e d 5l«8 per cent o f t h e . e n t i r e p o p u l a t i o n . The d e c l i n e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n of the p r o d u c t i v e age group of 20 t o 62+ y e a r s i s accompanied b y changes t o a v a r y i n g degree i n the o t h e r p o p u l a t i o n groups, the p r e - s c h o o l and school-aged c h i l d r e n , t h e a d o l e s c e n t s , and the aged.  These are the groups w i t h a h i g h  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g , because they a r e , e n t i r e l y o r i n p a r t , e c o n o m i c a l l y and s o c i a l l y dependent. The group.of p r e - s c h o o l and school-aged c h i l d r e n (0 - 12+ y e a r s ) shows a s p e c t a c u l a r i n c r e a s e f r o m 21.1 p e r cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 191+0 t o 28.8 u n t i l 1975  per cent i n 1955.  The  t r e n d i s expected t o c o n t i n u e  when i t i s e s t i m a t e d t o r e a c h 31«9  per cent. This p a t t e r n  i s . o f g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e , s i n c e t h i s age group i s i n g r e a t , need o f a number o f h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . . Adequate p l a n n i n g f o r s c h o o l s and o t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s as w e l l as r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s depends on t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the t r e n d s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s age group.  An assessment of t h e s e t r e n d s w i l l a l s o permit  measure o f p r e d i c t i o n as t o the number o f persons t h a t are  a  expected  to enter i n t o the labour f o r c e I n future years., age group 15  The 1  - 19 y e a r s  Canada Yearbook;  1959.  ( a d o l e s c e n t s ) decreased  from 8.5  p e r cent  - 37 i n 192+0 t o 6.2  -  per c e n t i n 1 9 5 5 and i s expected t o i n c r e a s e  g r a d u a l l y t o 8.2  per cent o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1975.  These  f i g u r e s are o f extreme importance f o r p l a n n i n g s i n c e t h i s group i s c l o s e t o e n t e r i n g or has a l r e a d y e n t e r e d the l a b o u r f o r c e . The  p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y people (65  8.1  p e r cent of the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 192+0 to 10.9  y e a r s and over) i n c r e a s e d from p e r cent i n  1955» and i s c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g Canada w h i c h stood a t 7»5  p e r cent i n 1958  figure for  (see Table 5 ) .  The  e x p e c t e d d e c l i n e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of the age group 65 y e a r s over t o 7*0  p e r cent i n 1975  Is noteworthy.  Nevertheless,  group w i l l c o n t i n u e t o f o r m a c o n s i d e r a b l e segment of the population.  The  and  this total  i n c r e a s e i n l i f e e x p e c t a n c y , improved m e d i c a l  and o t h e r f a c t o r s have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n the of p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s and  over.  care  proportion  T h i s i s a phenomenon o c c u r r i n g i n  most p a r t s of the Western W o r l d .  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, however,  the l a r g e number of e l d e r l y p e o p l e moving t o t h i s p r o v i n c e f o r t h e i r r e t i r e m e n t poses an a d d i t i o n a l c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r i n t h i s t r e n d . Thus, we can observe "a f a s t e r p r o g r e s s i n t h i s province than i n others. r a p i d l y due  The  of the a g i n g of t h e  o l d e r age groups expanded  p a r t l y t o the r e d u c t i o n o f m o r t a l i t y and p a r t l y t o a  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u x of e l d e r l y . m i g r a n t s . . .  I n the l a s t two  t h e r e f o r e , B r i t i s h Columbia showed a c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r of the age group 65  and over t h a n most o t h e r p r o v i n c e s "  M a r s h a l l , J.T.;  opp.clt.  p.67  census,  proportion  1  1  population  - 38  (3) E l d e r l y p e o p l e who,  -  D a t a on t h e Aged  i n t h e i r g r e a t m a j o r i t y , have l e f t t h e ' a c t i v e  l a b o u r f o r c e , r e p r e s e n t a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of t h e p o p u l a t i o n group w h i c h i s i n r e c e i p t o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . We i n our socio-economic  are aware o f the changes  s t r u c t u r e and our way o f l i f e t h a t have d e e p l y  a f f e c t e d the s e c u r i t y and h a p p i n e s s of many e l d e r l y p e o p l e . The for  need  s e r v i c e s f o r the aged goes beyond adequate f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e .  Great needs e x i s t i n the areas of m e d i c a l c a r e , h o u s i n g f o r the aged, e s p e c i a l l y f o r s i n g l e p e r s o n s , and r e c r e a t i o n a l and  leisure-time  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t b r e a k the l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n o f many aged p e o p l e . W h i l e the i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n o f the aged alone p o i n t s t o the i n c r e a s i n g need f o r s e r v i c e s , we have t o know more about the economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h i s group. l i v e , how  socio-  We must know where t h e aged  t h e y l i v e , what t h e i r r e s o u r c e s and what t h e i r needs a r e ,  so t h a t adequate s e r v i c e s can be developed w h i c h can meet t h e deficiencies i n their The  lives.  sex and m a r i t a l s t a t u s of p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s and o v e r f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and t h e C i t y of Vancouver are shown on T a b l e s 6 and 7« The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e an i n c r e a s e o f the age group 65 y e a r s and over w h i c h i s p r o p o r t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r i n the C i t y o f Vancouver t h a n i n B r i t i s h Columbia  as a whole. I n 1 9 5 6 ,  13-ij-  per cent of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the C i t y of Vancouver were over 65 y e a r s . T h i s compares t o 1 2 . 1  per c e n t f o r M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and 1 0 . 8  c e n t f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e of e l d e r l y  per  persons  i n the c e n t r a l c i t y compared t o the s u r r o u n d i n g a r e a s i s t y p i c a l f o r the p a t t e r n o f u r b a n i z a t i o n where young f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n t e n d to  l e a v e the c e n t r a l c i t y and become e s t a b l i s h e d i n the suburban a r e a s .  - 39 An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h i s age group shows t h a t i n 1956 s l i g h t l y more t h a n one h a l f were m a r r i e d (52.3 p e r cent i n B.C. and 53«7 p e r cent i n Vancouver C i t y ) . Of t h e r e m a i n i n g p o r t i o n , 7«2+ p e r cent i n B.C. and 11.2  p e r cent I n Vancouver C i t y were s i n g l e men.  The h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f s i n g l e , u n a t t a c h e d men i n Vancouver i s n o t e worthy.  T h i s h o l d s a l s o t r u e o f t h e age group 65 y e a r s and over as  a whole which show t h e h i g h e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n the C i t y of Vancouver.  - kO -  .: 'it-,  T a b l e 51  YEAR  P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n b y S e l e c t e d Age Groups-;' C a n a d a , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; 19k0 - l.§55 ( a c t u a l p e r c e n t a g e s ) , a n d 1960-1975 ( e s t i m a t e s ' ) ; percentages of t o t a l population.  0 - l k years CANADA ALTA. B.C.  15 CANADA  - 19  years  6 5 y e a r s and 0v e r  20 •- 6 k ye.a r s  ALTA.  B.C.  CANADA  ALTA, : B.C.  i. CANADA  56.3 ": • 6 2 . 3  .  ALTA.  B.C.  6.5  k.9  8.1  5h.6! < 57.9 •  8J.0  7-1  10.k  52.8  52.3-: . 5k. 1  7.7  7.2  10.9  7.0  51.2  51. Oy" v 52.6  7 .8  7.1  10.0  8.5  8.0  50.8  50. ll ; 52.5  7.6  6.7  8.6  9.5  9.5  8.5  51.2  50.8,. , 5 2 . 9  7-k •  6.1+  7.5  8.9  9.1  8.2  51.8  51.3V • 5 2 . 9  7j.k  6.3  7.0  19k0  29.0  28.7  21.1  9.9  10.1  8.5  55.6  1950  29.6  30.2  25.2  7.7  8.1  6.3  .51f.7  1955  32.2  33.0  28.8  7.3  7.3  6.2  I960  33.2  3I4-.2  30.h  7.8  7.7  1965  32.7  3k.1  30.9  8.9  1970  31.9  33.2  31.1  1975  31.9  33.3  31.9  ;  ;  .'11  S o u r c e : Walden, U r q u h a r t & Gouge: P o p u l a t i o n Trends • i n Canada, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a and S a s k a t c h e w a n ; B.C. R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ; V a n c o u v e r ; January 1957. F o r a c t u a l f i g u r e s see T a b l e s 3 6 , 37? 3 8 , A p p e n d i x . '  s  !  -1+1 Table 6:  S e x and M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f P o p u l a t i o n 6 5 y e a r s and o v e r ; percentages of t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ; B r i t i s h . Columbia, 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 .  sex and m a r i t a l 19 status number total T M population Br ..Columbia P total population T 65 and over M P population 65 and over  1+1  p.c.  19 number  100.0 51.2 1+8.8  1,398,1+61+ 720,516 677,91+8  67,772 38,881+ 29,188  8.3 1+.8 3.5  126,137 69,959 56,178  10.8 6.0 1+.8  150,779 81,018 69,761  10.8 5.8 5.0  1.2 0.9 0.3  ll+,637 10,855 3,782  1.3 1.0 0.3  16,070 11,671 l+,399  1.1 0.8 0.3  2.1+ 0.8 1.6  37,801+ 12,1+01+ 25,1+00  3.2 1.1 2.1  1+7,658 11+, 723 32,935  3.1+  586 1+01+ 182  0.1  821+ 603 221  0.1  1+.6 2.1 2.5  61+, 552 26,997 37,555  1+.6  widowed:  M  T  20,890 7,1+27 13,1+63  T M P  198 ll+l 57  0.1  t o t a l popul a t i o n 6 5 and over l i v i n g T M without F spouse:  30,367 ll+,600 15,767  3.7 1.8 1.9  53,027 23,663 29,361+  1,231+  0.2  -  T M F  1 9 5 .6 number p.c.  1,165,120 596,961 568,21+9  9,279 7,032 2,21+7  t o t a l popul a t i o n 65 and over l i v i n g with spouse (married)  p.c.  100.0 53.2 1+6.8  T M P  divorced:  5 1  817,861 1+35,031 382,830  single:  P  -  36,171 23,165 13,006  —  1+.1+  2.8 1.6  73,110 1+6,296 26,811+  —  l.l 2.3  —  2.0 2.6  -  -  86,227 021 35,206  6.2 3.9 2.3  —  6.2. 3.9 2.3  100.0. 51.5 1+8.5  51+,  x t o t a l o f persons 65 y e a r s and over l e g a l l y s e p a r a t e d ( r e p o r t e d f o r 191+1 Census o n l y ) . S o u r c e : D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 191+1, 1 9 5 1 ,  1956.  - 1+2  -  T a b l e 7 : S e x and M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f P o p u l a t i o n 6 5 y e a r s a n d o v e r ; p e r c e n t a g e s o f t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n ; C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r 191+1, 1951, 1956 a n d M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r 1 9 5 6 . sex and marital status total population total population 65 y e a r s and o v e r  T M P  ,C I T Y 19 1+1 p.c. number 275,353 100.0 139,580 50.8 1+9.2 135,773  V A N 0 P C 0 U V S R 14ETR. VANCOUVER 19 5 6 19 5 6 1 9 5 1 p.c. number p.c. number number 31+l+,833 1 0 0 . 0 365,81+1+ 1 0 0 . 0 6 6 5 , 0 1 7 1 0 0 . 0 167,81+5 1+8.7 1 8 0 , 5 9 6 1+9.5 331,1+1+5 1+9.8 176,988 50.2 5 1 . 3 185,21+8 5 0 . 5 3 3 3 , 5 7 2 12.8 6.7 6.1  50,153 25,592 21+, 561  13.1+  l+.l  206 23,231 20,975  3,156 2,178 978  1.2 0.8 0.1+  ' 5,322 ' 3,670 1,652  1.5 1.1 0.1+  5,981 l+,ioi+ 1,877  1.5 1.1  T M P  8,062 2,1+07 5,655  3.0 0.9 2.1  11+, 1+68 1+,132 10,336  1+.2  17,321+ l+,632 12,692  T M P  50 31+ 16  0.1  2h,007 12,683 11,321+  1+.6  T M P  widowed:  divorced:  T• M P  8.7  1+2+,  6.9 6.5  80,257 1+1,278 38,979  12.1 6.2 5.9  population 65 and o v e r •• single:  total T population 65 and o v e r M P living without X spouse: total T population 65 and o v e r M living with P spouse (married)  11,268. 1+,619 6,61+9 509 12,205 7,71+0 1L,1+65  - •  221 77 20,011 7,91+6 12,065  0.1  -  1+.3 2.8 1.5  21+, 195 15,285 8,910 .  —  7.0 l+.li 2.6  1+.6 1.1 3.5  26,601 7,510 19,091  l+.o 1.1 2.9  0.1  23,61+8 8,9514 ll+,69l4  6.2 2.3 3.9  35,311+ . 13,529 21,785  -  -  -  26,595 16,638 9,957  7.2 1+.5 2.7  —  5.8 2.3 3.5  1.3 0.9 0.1+  31+3 218 125  0.1  11+1+  —  1+.3 1.7 2.6  1.2 3.0  0.1+  8,228 5,692 2,536  x t o t a l o f p e r s o n s 65 y e a r s a n d o v e r l e g a l l y i n 191+1 C e n s u s o n l y ) .  1+85 327 158  -  l+l+,9l+3 27,71+9 17,191+  separated  S o u r c e : D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 191+1, 1 9 5 1 ,  1956.  0.1  -  5.1+ 2.1 3-3 —  6.7 1+.2 2.5  (reported  - 1+3  -  (!(.) Data on t h e F a m i l y M a r r i a g e s and D i v o r c e s : The m a r r i a g e r a t e i s a f i r s t  ap-proximable  1 measure o f t h e r a t e o f f a m i l y growth  .  A d e c l i n e i n the m a r r i a g e  r a t e , shown i n T a b l e 8 , i s i n e v i d e n c e throughout Canada. I t i s n o t e d , however, t h a t t h e m a r r i a g e r a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia h a s remained s l i g h t l y h i g h e r t h a n t h e r a t e f o r Canada which, was 8 . 7 p e r thousand f o r the p e r i o d 1951  - 1955,  and 8 . 3 i n 1956.  In order t o  g a i n a more a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e of the r a t e o f f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n , t h e d a t a on t h e number o f f a m i l i e s w i t h c h i l d r e n would have t o be examined.  Such d a t a are i m p o r t a n t f o r a s s e s s i n g c e r t a i n w e l f a r e  needs, i n p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n ; they a l s o a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r planning i n the area of housing. The r i s i n g r a t e o f d i v o r c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia (see Table 8 ) w h i c h has been c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h above t h e average f o r Canada, i n d i c a t e s a weakening  i n the s t a b i l i t y of the f a m i l y .  W h i l e d i v o r c e must not  n e c e s s a r i l y i n c u r dependency, i t does r e p r e s e n t t h e s o c i a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f a f a m i l y and makes t h i s f a m i l y much more v u l n e r a b l e i n l a t e r crisis  situations.  Households and F a m i l i e s :  Households by number o f f a m i l i e s i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and the C i t y of Vancouver are g i v e n on T a b l e s 9 and 10. The f i g u r e s g i v e a measure of t h e p r o p o r t i o n of p e o p l e l i v i n g alone ( i n " n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s " ) and of o v e r c r o w d i n g ("households w i t h two and more f a m i l i e s " ) . S i n c e 191+1, t h e number o f n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s as w e l l as overcrowded  households  1 An a n n u a l c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e n e t f a m i l y f o r m a t i o n i s made j o i n t l y b y the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s and the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n .  -  -  1+1+  (see T a b l e 9 ) .  has d e c r e a s e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia  This indicates a  r e d u c t i o n i n the number of people l i v i n g a l o n e as w e l l as of o v e r crowding. A comparison o f t h e s e f i g u r e s w i t h the f i g u r e s f o r the C i t y of Vancouver (Table 10)  i n d i c a t e s o p p o s i t e t r e n d s f o r t h i s a r e a . The  number of n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s has r i s e n from 1 2 . 0 households  i n 191+1  to 19.3  per cent i n 1956,  per cent of a l l  w h i l e the  percentage  of h o u s e h o l d s w i t h two and more f a m i l i e s shows no a p p r e c i a b l e d e c l i n e s i n c e 191+1.  The f i g u r e s g i v e a more f a v o u r a b l e p i c t u r e f o r M e t r o -  p o l i t a n Vancouver where i n 1 9 5 6 , households  15.8  per cent l i v e d i n non-family  and 3.8 p e r cent i n m u l t i p l e - f a m i l y  households.  The f i g u r e s i n d i c a t e a h i g h e r i n c i d e n c e o f persons l i v i n g a l o n e , as w e l l as o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n overcrowded  homes i n the C i t y o f  Vancouver, and have i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g i n such a r e a s as adequate h o u s i n g and a d e q u a t e " s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s f o r the s i n g l e , u n a t t a c h e d F a m i l i e s w i t h one p a r e n t :  individual. The number o f f a m i l i e s w i t h one  d e c l i n e d from 10..0 p e r c e n t of a l l f a m i l i e s i n 191+1 i n 1956  (see T a b l e 1 2 ) .  Table 11  parent  t o 8.1+ p e r c e n t  indicates a similar decline f o r  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver and t h e C i t y of Vancouver.  I n the l a t t e r area,  however, t h e p r o p o r t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h one p a r e n t has always been r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e r and  s t o o d at 1 0 . 5  the t o t a l of the heads of one-parent  per cent i n 1956.  I n 1956,  families i n British  of  Columbia,  57«2 p e r c e n t were widowed, 31.0. p e r cent m a r r i e d and assumed s e p a r a t e d , and 11.8  p e r cent d i v o r c e d .  I n a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e - f o u r t h o f a l l one-parent  families i n British  Columbia, the r e m a i n i n g p a r e n t i s the mother; f o r the C i t y of Vancouver, the p r o p o r t i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r - f i f t h s . T h i s f i g u r e  - h$  -  has r a t h e r Important i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g , be assumed t h a t mothers;, who  s i n c e i t can  are heads o f one-parent f a m i l i e s , have  a g r e a t e r - t e n d e n c y t o r e m a i n a t home and support t h e i r f a m i l i e s on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , t h a n f a t h e r s o f one-parent f a m i l i e s , who attempt t o remain i n employment. the c o n c e n t r a t i o n  usually  Another i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i:s  of one-parent f a m i l i e s , e s p e c i a l l y f a m i l i e s w i t h  the mother as t h e head, i n the C i t y of Vancouver.  T h i s phenomenon  may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f the b e t t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Vancouver as w e l l as of t h e w i d e r range of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h i s city.  -  T a b l e 8:  YEAR  -  1+6  Rate o f R e g i s t e r e d M a r r i a g e s and D i v o r c e s ( p e r ' thousand p o p u l a t i o n ) ; Canada, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 .  marriages  BRITISH  ALBERTA  CANADA divorces  marriages  COLUMBIA  divorces  marriages  0.39  12.0  0.6  divorces  191+1  1G.6  0.21  10.6  1951  12.8  0.38  9.9  0.63  9.7  1.2  1956  8.3  0.38  8.9  0.61  8.1+  1.1  Source: Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ; DBS; V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ' R e p o r t ; 191+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1956. for  a c t u a l f i g u r e s r e f e r t o Table  Table 9:  Households  Households w i t h one f a m i l y  191+1  206,339  158,516  77.1+  1951  337,780  270,600  1956  392,1+03  316,395  Source:  number  35,Appendix.  b y Number o f F a m i l i e s ; B r i t i s h 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 .  Total number o f Households  YEAR  p.c.  1957.  H o u s e h o l d s xtfith two and m o r e families p.c. number  Columbia;  Non-family households • number  p.c.  7,293  3.5  1+0,530  19.6  80.1  13,780  l+.l  53,1+00  15.8  80.6  12,112  3.1  63,896  16.3  D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a ; 191+1, 1 9 5 1 ,  1956.  - i+7 Table 10:  H o u s e h o l d s b y Number o f F a m i l i e s ; C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1 9 k l - 1956, and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, 1956. C i t y o f Vancouver  YEAR  Total Number o f Households  Households w i t h one f a m i l y number  p.c.  Households w i t h two and more families number p.c.  191+1  73,779  61,56k  83.k  3,396  1951  101,330  78,665  77-7  6,125  1956  108,953  83,119  76.2  k,880  :  Non-family Households number  p.c.  k-6  8,819  12.0  6.0  16,51+0  16.3  1+.5  20,95k  19.3 .  30,305  15.8  M e t r o p o l i t a n Vane o u v e r 1956  192,00k  1 5 k , 1+51  80.1+  7,2k8  3.8  S o u r c e : D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 1 9 k l , 1 9 5 1 , Table 11:  Type o f Family  F a m i l i e s w i t h one o r b o t h p a r e n t s a t home; M e t r o p o l i t a n V a n c o u v e r , 1951 and 1 9 5 6 ; C i t y o f Vancouver, 1 9 k l and 1956.  METROPOLITAN 19 5 1 number  f a m i l i e s ¥ 2,397 w i t h one F 1 2 , 2 1 7 parent T 11+, 611+ a t home families with both parents 127,325 a t home:  1956.  p.c. 1.8 8.5 10.3  C I T Y OF VANCOUVER 1 9k . l 1.9 5 6  VANCOUVER 19 5 6 number  p.c.  2,591 12,1+78 15,069  1.5 7.3 8.8  number 1,376 7,220 8,596  : p.C . number 2.1 10.2 12.3  1,566 8,328 9,89k  p.c. •1.7 8.8  10.5 89.7  156,259  91.2  61,290  87.7  8k,573 89-5  Total Ll+1,939 number o f families:  100.0  171,296 100.00  69,886 100.00 9k,k67  S o u r c e : D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , 191+1,- 1 9 5 1 ,  1956.  100.00  - 1+8 -  Table 1 2 :  Type of Family  F a m i l i e s with one or b o t h Parents at Home; B r i t i s h Columbia; 191+1 - 1 9 5 6 .  19  1+1  number  19 • p.c.  5 1  1 9  5 6  number  p.c.  number  1.1  2,950  0.9  1+.1+  13,170  3.9  1,81+9  8,051  0.6 2.8  6,622  2,081  0.7. 1.9  1+21+ 1,911+  0.1 0.6  517 2,327  0.2 0.8  5,1+81+  1.8 7.8 9.6  5,629 22,586 28,215  1.8 6.6  p.c.  one parent at home: M  3,628  1.8  3,101+  F  12,276  6.2  13,031  head o f M family F m a r r i e d :•  x n.r. n.r.  -.  717 3,122  1.6  head of family widowed:  head of family divorced  M F  0.1+  Total M lf-,770 number o f F 1 5 , 3 9 8 families T •20,168 w i t h one parent:  2.2 7.8 10.0  23,300  families w i t h both parents at home:.  90.0  271,061  90.li..  317,788  91.6  100.00  299,81+5  100.00  31+6,003  100.00  177,081+.  T o t a l Numbei of F a m i l i e s j 1 9 7 , 2 5 2 1  28,781+  8.1+  *  x n.r.  not r e p o r t e d  Source: D.B..S.;. Census o f Canada; 191+1, 1951., 1 9 5 6 .  - 1+9  (5) C e r t a i n non-welfare  -  Illegitimacy  s t a t i s t i c s such as d a t a on crime r a t e s , j u v e n i l e  delinquency or i l l e g i t i m a c y ,  i n d i c a t e s i t u a t i o n s o f s o c i a l breakdown  o r e x i s t e n c e o f w e l f a r e problems; t h e y can be used t o measure t h e changing needs f o r s e r v i c e s .  As an i l l u s t r a t i o n t h e number o f  i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h s and t h e percentage  o f t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s i n Canada  and B r i t i s h Columbia i s g i v e n on T a b l e 13• the percentage  I t i s noteworthy,  o f i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h has remained r e l a t i v e l y  that constant  i n Canada d u r i n g t h e past 16 y e a r s , w h i l e i t has m a r k e d l y I n c r e a s e d by almost  o n e - t h i r d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  S i n c e i t i s w e l l known t o  the p e r s o n n e l o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , t h a t a g r e a t number o f u n m a r r i e d mothers come, f o r v a r i o u s p e r s o n a l r e a s o n s , and a t t r a c t e d by t h e b e t t e r s e r v i c e s and t h e anonymity o f the b i g c i t y , t o Vancouver t o g i v e t o an i l l e g i t i m a t e c h i l d , t h e h i g h r a t e o f i l l e g i t i m a c y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e v i t a l s t a t i s t i c s o f B r i t i s h Columbia cannot be c o n s i d e r e d w h o l l y as a s o c i a l problem I n h e r e n t i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the r i s i n g r a t e of i l l e g i t i m a t e  births  p o i n t s t o an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r , v a r i o u s s e r v i c e s f o r t h e unmarried mother and has a l s o v i t a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n t h e areas of foster-home placements and a d o p t i o n s .  - 50 -  Table 13:  Number o f I l l e g i t i m a t e B i r t h s " a n d p e r c e n t a g e o f T o t a l L i v e B i r t h s ; C a n a d a , A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h Columbia; 19^1 - 1 9 5 7 .  C A N A D A  YEAR  number  P.c  A L B E R T  A  B R I I' I S H C 0 L U M B I A  number  p.c.  number  p.c.  688  k.6  19kl  10,101  3.96  1951  lk,537  k.O  1,272  k-7  1,633  5.8  1956  17,510  3.9  1,67k  k.&  2,207  6vl  1957  18,629  3.8  1,810  5.1  2,k73  6.k  Source:  720  k.2  Canada Yearbook; 1 9 k l - 1 9 5 7  f o r a c t u a l number o f t o t a l l i v e b i r t h s r e f e r t o Table 3 k , A p p e n d i x Summary The  d a t a so f a r p r e s e n t e d  a r e o n l y a few i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f t h e s o c i a l  d a t a , a v a i l a b l e i n demographic s t a t i s t i c s ,  which could serve as the  b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r research i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e . Although the data examined a r e v e r y l i m i t e d i n range, t h e y p o i n t t o the e x i s t e n c e o f l a r g e groups o f p e o p l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , such as the aged and t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h one p a r e n t , t h a t c a n be presumed t o be  economically  v u l n e r a b l e , and t h u s i n a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l need o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . The  d a t a a l s o i l l u s t r a t e t h e h i g h and s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g r a t e o f such  phenomena as u r b a n i z a t i o n , m o b i l i t y , , d i v o r c e and i l l e g i t i m a c y . They f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f people i n a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l need o f s e r v i c e s i n t h e Vancouver a r e a . separate  A l t h o u g h , where p o s s i b l e ,  f i g u r e s were g i v e n f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver and t h e C i t y o f Vancouver, no attempt was made t o compare and  a n a l y z e Census d i v i s i o n s and s u b d i v i s i o n s as s e p a r a t e  areas,  since  - 51 1.  Census d i v i s i o n s and  -  s u b d i v i s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  g e n e r a l l y do not r e p r e s e n t approximately s o c i a l and economic a r e a s . 2. Census d i v i s i o n s and do not correspond  homogeneous  -  s u b d i v i s i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia  i n t h e i r boundaries  w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d  Regions of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare* of r e g i o n a l data i s t h e r e f o r e almost The  comparison  impossible.  l a t t e r p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n Chapter I4..  A comparative a n a l y s i s by Census t r a c t s and C i t y and M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver i s one  s u b d i v i s i o n s of Vancouver  of the most f e a s i b l e , but  not the purpose of t h i s thesis,, which i s meant to be  was  e x p l o r a t o r y on  a province-x^ide b a s i s . N e i t h e r d i d the w r i t e r exhaust the d a t a o b t a i n a b l e from the Census and other  sources.  A great number of socio-economic  data of h i g h  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e are g i v e n i n the Census on such areas as:  Any  1..  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and composition  2.  l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g of the  3.  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n according to  I4..  d i s t r i b u t i o n of p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to income;  5.  standard of  of f a m i l i e s ;  population; occupation;  housing;  comprehensive study of the socio-economic  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the p o p u l a t i o n would a l s o have to evaluate the s t a t i s t i c s on employment and unemployment p u b l i s h e d by the Dominion Bureau of  Statistics,  the Department of Labour, as w e l l as of the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e and the Unemployment Insurance mentioned agencies compile  and t h e i r l o c a l  on a monthly b a s i s , data  Commission.  The  two  o f f i c e s throughout the  on:  lastProvince  - 52 1. number o f persons employed, b u t l o o k i n g f o r o t h e r j o b s ; 2. number o f persons out o f work and l o o k i n g f o r j o b s ; 3. number o f persons i n r e c e i p t o f unemployment i n s u r a n c e ; [}.. number of persons i n r e c e i p t o f s e a s o n a l b e n e f i t s ; 5 . number o f persons r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e t h r o u g h the S p e c i a l Placement  Division.  Another source o f s i g n i f i c a n t d a t a a r e t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e Department  o f H e a l t h and o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h Committee o f  Vancouver.  These a g e n c i e s c o m p i l e such d a t a a s :  1. i n f a n t and m a t e r n a l d e a t h r a t e s ; 2. major causes o f d e a t h ; 3. i n c i d e n c e o f communicable  diseases;  1+. i n c i d e n c e o f major c a t a s t r o p h i c  illnesses;  5. r a t e s o f a d m i s s i o n t o m e n t a l h o s p i t a l s ; The d a t a on t h e l a s t two Items have p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e , s i n c e t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y major causes f o r s o c i a l and economic  breakdown.  An a n a l y s i s o f a l l t h e s e d a t a and t h e i r comparison w i t h each o t h e r would a s s i s t i n t h e development economic  o f a v a l i d p i c t u r e o f the s o c i o -  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n w h i c h would form t h e base f o r  planning i n s o c i a l welfare.  - 53  -  CHAPTER 3 THE  INTERPRETATION OF WELFARE STATISTICS Some P u b l i c W e l f a r e Examples.  A comparison  of Census d a t a w i t h t h e d a t a o f w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s p o i n t s  t o a major d i f f e r e n c e .  The purpose o f the Census can be d e s c r i b e d  as the p e r i o d i c c o l l e c t i o n of s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a f o r the assessment of t h e volume, t h e s t r u c t u r e and the socio-economic of the p o p u l a t i o n l i v i n g w i t h i n pre-determined  characteristics  geographic  areas  (Census d i v i s i o n s , s u b d i v i s i o n s and Census t r a c t s ) . C o l l e c t i o n  and  s t a t i s t i c a l p r e s e n t a t i o n of d a t a i s the p r i m a r y , i f not the s o l e purpose o f t h e Census. D a t a i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l w e l f a r e , however, are d e r i v e d m a i n l y as b y - p r o d u c t s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s . They are needed by a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e budget, w o r k - l o a d s requirements.  and  the  staff  Hence the emphasis i n agency s t a t i s t i c s on such d a t a  as the number of c a s e s , changes i n c a s e l o a d s o f the v a r i o u s programmes, on e x p e n d i t u r e s and o t h e r i t e m s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s i g n i f i c a n c e . G e n e r a l l y , agency s t a t i s t i c s t e l l v e r y l i t t l e needs t h e s e r v i c e s of t h e agency a r e t o meet.  about the people whose But v e r y much s h o u l d be  knoxim about the r e c i p i e n t s and c l i e n t s -where t h e y l i v e , how  they l i v e  and what t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r needs are t h a t make them dependent on a s s i s t a n c e - I f the w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are t o meet t h e w e l f a r e needs o f the c l i e n t s I n an adequate way. socio-economic  Agency s t a t i s t i c s t h a t do not  offer  d a t a o f t h e c l i e n t e l e a r e o f l i m i t e d use f o r w e l f a r e  research. Another f a c t o r l i m i t i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f agency s t a t i s t i c s i s the e x i s t e n c e of a l a r g e number o f w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , p r i v a t e and  public,  - 5k on the f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l and l o c a l l e v e l , each o f which p u b l i s h t h e i r own  s e r i e s o f s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a . These may  vary greatly i n t h e i r  d e f i n i t i o n s o f terms, o f the u n i t s counted, the p e r i o d s f o r w h i c h t h e y a r e r e p o r t e d as w e l l as the g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a s t o  Xirhich  t h e y are a p p l i c -  a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o remember, t h a t changes i n d i c a t e d i n the d a t a of a g e n c i e s are n o t o n l y e v i d e n c e of changes i n t h e compos i t i o n of the c l i e n t e l e ; t h e y may  a l s o r e f l e c t changes i n s o c i a l  legis-  l a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y and a v a i l a b i l i t y of f u n d s . B o t h the c o m p l e x i t y i n t h e s t r u c t u r e of our w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s as w e l l as t h e changes t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y o c c u r w i t h i n the s e r v i c e s i n f l u e n c e t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e and v a l i d i t y o f agency s t a t i s t i c s . .Agency s t a t i s t i c s , however, r e m a i n a s o u r c e o f p r i m a r y importance f o r r e s e a r c h , because t h e y can t e l l us something about people i n need; h o t about a l l people i n need, but about t h o s e t h a t have e x p r e s s e d t h e i r need f o r s e r v i c e s and are r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e of some k i n d . In a n a l y z i n g agency s t a t i s t i c s , the r e s e a r c h e r w i l l l o o k foremost f o r ansx^ers t o t h r e e , v e r y b a s i c q u e s t i o n s : 1.  How many people a r e b e i n g a i d e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n s ?  2. Where are t h e s e people l o c a t e d ? 3« What a r e the s i g n i f i c a n t  socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e people?  1  Chapter 3 p r e s e n t s an e x a m i n a t i o n of s e l e c t e d agency d a t a i n the l i g h t of t h e s e t h r e e q u e s t i o n s .  Data on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , p u b l i s h e d i n the  annual r e p o r t s o f the Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ,x^ere- chosen f o r the purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g the scope and the major t r e n d s of t h e problem of f i n a n c i a l dependency. Emphasis i s l a i d i n t h i s C h a p t e r upon t h e e x a m i n a t i o n and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d a t a on the p u b l i c a s s i s t ance programmes and on the f a m i l y s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by t h e Department o f 1 Somers,Herman M.,"Adequacy o f Data i n t h e F i e l d of P u b l i c A i d " ; J o u r n a l of t h e American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ; V o l . 3 6 ; Nbs.213-216 pp.ttl-90.  -  Social Welfare.  -  55  The c o n c l u d i n g C h a p t e r u n d e r t a k e s a . c r i t i c a l  d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e method o f r e p o r t i n g .  Where p o s s i b l e , d a t a a r e  p r e s e n t e d and d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y f o r the Regions of t h e Department and f o r major u r b a n c e n t r e s . are the y e a r s 1951  examined  The p e r i o d f o r which t h e d a t a a r e t o 1958  two Census c o u n t s were t a k e n (1951  inclusive.  During t h i s p e r i o d ,  and 1 9 5 6 ) ; and inhere p o s s i b l e ,  Census d a t a were used f o r comparison w i t h t h e agency d a t a (1)  examined.  The Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e and I t s Regions.  I n t h e y e a r of 191+6, t h e h e a l t h and x j e l f a r e s e r v i c e s of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia were amalgamated i n t o the Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e .  D u r i n g t h e same y e a r , a p o l i c y of d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  was  adopted and f i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s o f t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch o f t h e Department were c r e a t e d . the h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  The y e a r 1959  saw the s e p a r a t i o n of  The S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch became a  s e p a r a t e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e  x  again.  •During t h e p e r i o d f o r w h i c h t h e d a t a o f t h e D.S.W. are examined, tvro major changes t o o k p l a c e i n t h e r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n o f the In 1952,  Department.  R e g i o n V I was formed by s e p a r a t i o n from Region I I . I n  Region V I I was  1957,  c r e a t e d t h r o u g h d i v i s i o n of R e g i o n V i n t o V and V I I .  Today, we have t h e p i c t u r e of seven r e g i o n s w h i c h v a r y g r e a t l y i n g e o g r a p h i c a r e a , r a t e of i n c r e a s e and d e n s i t y of p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as i n t h e i r socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . "The whole of Region V I ( l o w e r p a r t o f F r a s e r V a l l e y ) , t h e S a a n i c h P e n i n s u l a r i n R e g i o n I , and t h e M u n i c i p a l i t y of Richmond i n Region I I show t h e g r e a t e s t i n c r e a s e and d e n s i t y  x  from h e r e o n r e f e r r e d t o as "D.S.W."  - 56 i n p o p u l a t i o n . F o r example, Richmond and S u r r e y , where there are s t i l l large.unoccupied areas o f l a n d , a r e r e p o r t e d t o have a d e n s i t y o f 700 p e r s o n s p e r square m i l e o f o c c u p i e d l a n d . These two m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e o t h e r m u n i c i p a l and u n o r g a n i z e d a r e a s i n t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y , have an average d e n s i t y o f 100 t o 125 persons p e r square m i l e . The S a a n i c h M u n i c i p a l i t y has about t w i c e t h i s d e n s i t y . I n c o n t r a s t , Regions I I I ( s o u t h c e n t r a l ) and Region IV ( s o u t h - e a s t e r n ) have o n l y a d e n s i t y o f two t o t e n persons p e r square m i l e . Region V ( l a r g e l y t h a t p o r t i o n n o r t h o f t h e Thompson R i v e r ) has about one p e r s o n p e r 2 square m i l e s , except P r i n c e G-eorge and P r i n c e Rupert w i t h one p e r s o n p e r square m i l e . Of t h e s e two n o r t h e r n c i t i e s , P r i n c e G e o r g e " i s t h e most r a p i d l y g r o w i n g community i n t h e n o r t h because o f i t s ' c r o s s - r o a d s ' p o s i t i o n . T h i s s p i l l i n g over o f people from the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s o f Vancouver and V i c t o r i a i n t o t h e n e i g h b o u r i n g r u r a l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (Richmond, S u r r e y and S a a n i c h ; t h e w r i t e r ) w i l l l i k e l y c o n t i n u e f o r some t i m e " 1 The e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e D.S.W. Regions f o r t h e Census y e a r s 1951,  and 1956, and f o r t h e y e a r 1958, i s shown on T a b l e l k . The  2  d a t a were c o m p i l e d from t h e p o p u l a t i o n d a t a f o r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s T h i s p a r t i c u l a r s o u r c e o f d a t a was used, because t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s of t h e p r o v i n c e a r e t h e o n l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a r e a s w h i c h l e n d themselves f o r comparison w i t h t h e D.S.W. R e g i o n s .  The t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e  g r e a t v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n volume o f t h e d i f f e r e n t  Regions  w h i c h ranged i n 1958 from k7,3k5 (Region V I I ) and 81,025 (Region V, the l a r g e s t o f a l l i n a r e a ) t o 699,5k0 (Region IT, i n c l u d e s V a n c o u v e r ) . A f u r t h e r phenomenon o f h i g h s i g n i f i c a n c e and i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r p l a n n i n g demonstrated on Table l k , i s t h e s u s t a i n e d h i g h r a t e o f increase i n p o p u l a t i o n of s e v e r a l Regions. show b y f a r the h i g h e s t r a t e o f i n c r e a s e .  The two n o r t h e r n Regions The p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e  a r e a o f R e g i o n V w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e f a s t d e v e l o p i n g communities o f P r i n c e George, and, l o c a t e d i n the Peace R i v e r C o u n t r y , Dawson Creek and F o r t S t . J o h n , i n c r e a s e d b y 97.0 p e r cent between 1951 and 1958. 1 Annual Report o f t h e S o c i a l W e l f a r e Branch o f t h e Department o f ~ H e a l t h ~ a n d W e l f a r e 195k? Queen's P r i n t e r ; V i c t o r i a , B.C..195k; P»9. 2 P o p u l a t i o n I n B r i t i s h Columbia b y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t and H e a l t h U n i t , E x c l u d i n g I n d i a n s , 1951, 1956 and 1958; Department o f H e a l t h , V i c t o r i a , B.C.; u n p u b l i s h e d . .  - 57  -  D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d , t h e p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t  area of  Region V I I i n w h i c h t h e new community o f K i t i m a t ( p o p u l a t i o n 9,676) i s l o c a t e d , i n c r e a s e d by 108.6 p e r c e n t .  Region V I (Lower P r a s e r  V a l l e y , M u n i c i p a l i t y of Surrey) ranks t h i r d r a t e of p o p u l a t i o n increase new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s  (1+7.5 p e r c e n t ) .  among t h e Regions i n t h e The f o r m a t i o n o f two  (VI and V I I ) d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1951  -  1957 appears as one consequence o f t h e r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c e r t a i n a r e a s o f B r i t i s h Columbia.. S i n c e t h e a r e a s o f t h e Regions o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e do n o t c o r r e s p o n d  w i t h t h e a r e a s o f t h e Census d i v i s i o n s and sub-  d i v i s i o n s , a comparison o f d a t a from these two sources f o r B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole. can be o b t a i n e d  Therefore,  i s only possible  very l i t t l e  information  about t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e  p o p u l a t i o n of the v a r i o u s Regions.  Only where w e l f a r e  statistics  are g i v e n f o r s i n g l e m u n i c i p a l i t i e s (such as f o r S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ) , Census d a t a can be used f o r comparison.  o  - 58 T a b l e 11+:  Regions of B r i t i s h Columbia'as used b y Departments o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; e s t i m a t e d p o p u l a t i o n and Some T r e n d s ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 .  1951 number  l 9 5 6. number  Region I  208,577  21+8,609  Region I I  659,116  635,696  Region H i  109,661j.  126,682  Region IV  89,261  Region V  63,915  REGION  Region V I Region V I ]  Total:  -  1115,1+70) (22,710)  1,130,533  p.c. increase o v e r 1951 19.2  19 5 8 number  p.c. increase o v e r 1951  265,806  27.1+  699,51+0  9.1  15.6  137,300  25.1  97,1+13  7.3  103,1+99  15.9  106,399  66.1+  81,025  ~ 2k..0(-)  11+6,1+80  '(26/7).  (1+0,169)  (1+3.8)  1,361,279  -  3.5(-)  20.0  170,050 1+7,31+5  l , 5 o l + , 565  1+7.5 (108.6)  33.1  d Total Population British 1,165,210 1,51+1+, 000 1,398,1+61+ Columbia r S o u r c e : • P o p u l a t i o n o f R e g i o n s c o m p i l e d 1f r o m : P o p u l a t i on i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t and H e a l t h U n i t , e x c l u d i n g I n d i a n s , 1951, 1956, 1958; Dept.of H e a l t h , V i c t o r i a (unpubl.) Notes: "a d e c r e a s e due t o f o r m a t i o n o f R e g i o n V I i n 1952 o u t o f p a r t o f Region I . b d e c r e a s e due t o f o r m a t i o n o f R e g i o n V I I i n 1957 o u t o f p a r t o f R e g i o n V. £.figures g i v e n i n b r a c k e t s p r e s e n t t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e a r e a b e f o r e R e g i o n was formed.. d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n e s t i m a t e d r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n and t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia r e s u l t s from t h e f a c t t h a t ' I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n r e s i d i n g on I n d i a n R e s e r v e s and a s m a l l number "of people l i v i n g i n unorganized t e r r i t o r y are not included i n t h e f i g u r e s on p o p u l a t i o n o f S c h o o l D i s t r i c t s .  -  -  - 59  -  (2) Data on t h e c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes and t h e i r r e c i p i e n t s . The d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s a r e a o f w e l f a r e s e r v i c e l e n d themselves t o t h e measurement recipients.  of t h e number and g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the  They a l s o o f f e r a l i m i t e d amount o f socio-economic  i n f o r m a t i o n on the group o f new  recipients.  (a) The number and d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c i p i e n t s : T a b l e 15 shows the t o t a l c a s e l o a d of Old Age A s s i s t a n c e (persons e l i g i b l e between t h e ages 65 t o 69 y e a r s ) , Old Age Supplementary A l l o w a n c e  Security  (persons e l i g i b l e 70 y e a r s and o v e r ) ,  D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e and B l i n d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e . A l l f o u r programmes  are b a s e d on a means t e s t and have r a t h e r  stringent  e l i g i b i l i t y r e q u i r e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g t h e economic s t a t u s o f t h e applicant.  Thus, t h e y can be a c c e p t e d as a measure of. economic need  that e x i s t s f o r the a p p l i c a n t or r e c i p i e n t . O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e (OAA) was i n t r o d u c e d as a p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programme i n 1 9 5 2 . granted.  D u r i n g t h i s y e a r , 7 , 7 8 8 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r OAA were  D u r i n g t h e folloxtfing y e a r s , the number o f r e c i p i e n t s  r e a c h e d i t s peak i n 1951+ 8,302 i n 1957. 1957,  (10,062) and t h e n d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y t o  T h i s t r e n d may have i t s cause i n the f a c t t h a t by  a l l o f the i n i t i a l 7 , 7 8 8 a p p l i c a n t s o f the y e a r 1952 had been  t r a n s f e r r e d t o O l d Age S e c u r i t y  ( f i v e y e a r s i s t h e maximum l e n g t h of  time d u r i n g xtfhich a p e r s o n i s e n t i t l e d t o r e c e i v e OAA).  1958  a s m a l l i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f persons i n r e c e i p t o f OAA. t h e Census y e a r o f 1 9 5 6 ,  shows During  8 , 8 5 3 persons r e p r e s e n t i n g 16.1+ p e r c e n t o f  the p o p u l a t i o n between 6 5 and 69 y e a r s o f age were OAA D u r i n g the p e r i o d 1952 t o 1 9 5 6 ,  recipients.  the t o t a l number of r e c i p i e n t s  i n c r e a s e d by 1 3 . 8 p e r c e n t , w h i l e t h e p r o p o r t i o n of the e n t i r e 6 5 t o  - 60 69  age g r o u p r e m a i n e d  l a t i o n . This relative v a r i e t y of f a c t o r s ,  -  at a constant 10.8 i n c r e a s e o f OAA  per cent of the t o t a l  r e c i p i e n t s i s p r o b a b l y due  s u c h as an i n c r e a s i n g  awareness  i n c r e a s e may  also reflect  age g r o u p .  r o l e which t h i s  last,  be d e t e r m i n e d .  I t c o u l d a l s o be  maximum i n c o m e l i m i t s  security  c e r t a i n l y v e r y grave, f a c t o r might p l a y ,  (1956  The  Without f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , the cannot  e x p e c t e d t h a t the upward r e v i s i o n  of  and 1 9 5 7 ) , w h i c h made a g r e a t e r number o f  p e o p l e e l i g i b l e f o r a p a r t i a l a l l o w a n c e , w o u l d be i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f r e c i p i e n t s . indicate  persons  improved w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  a d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f t h e economic  and s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y o f t h i s  to a  o f t h e programme,  a c h a n g e i n a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h i s programme b y t h e e l i g i b l e as w e l l as b y t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c and  popu-  r e f l e c t e d i n an  H o w e v e r , T a b l e 15  does n o t  s u c h a n u p w a r d sxtfing f o l l o w i n g t h e c h a n g e i n t h e  income  regulations. The number o f r e c i p i e n t s o f O l d Age  S e c u r i t y Supplementary  (OASSA) i n c r e a s e d b y 3.h p e r c e n t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1955  Allowance  - 1957-  This  i n c r e a s e r e f l e c t s t h e t r a n s f e r o f a g r e a t e r number o f p e r s o n s f r o m t o O l d Age  S e c u r i t y t h a t h a d b e e n i n r e c e i p t o f OAA  p e r i o d o f f i v e y e a r s ( r e f e r t o T a b l e s 10  and 1 1 ) .  c e n t o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 70 y e a r s and o v e r  OAA  f o r t h e maximum  I n 1956,  29.8  per  (96,701) were r e c e i v i n g  OASSA. B e t w e e n 1951  and 1 9 5 6 ,  t h e number o f p e r s o n s i n r e c e i p t  i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y from a r a t e of 252.6 per thousand y e a r s and o v e r t o a r a t e o f 2 7 2 . 9 i n 1956 T a b l e 15  o r OASSA  p o p u l a t i o n 65  (see T a b l e 1 6 ) .  a l s o g i v e s t h e number o f r e c i p i e n t s o f D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s '  Allowance i n 1955  o f OAA  (DPA)  and  and B l i n d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e  shows a m a r k e d i n c r e a s e  (BPA).  DPA  was i n t r o d u c e d  i n t h e number o f r e c i p i e n t s  t h e f i r s t two y e a r s o f i t s e x i s t e n c e w h i c h i s p r o b a b l y an  within  indication  - 61  of  -  t h e I n c r e a s i n g awareness o f t h i s programme by t h e p u b l i c . The  c o n t i n u i n g i n c r e a s e d u r i n g 1957 and 1958 appears t o be a r e f l e c t i o n of  a l i b e r a l i z i n g of e l i g i b i l i t y requirements e a r l y i n 1958.  The marked drop of r e c i p i e n t s o f BPA (see T a b l e 15)  i n 1952 s h o u l d  be due t o a t r a n s f e r o f a l a r g e number o f p e r s o n s t o OAA a f t e r d u c t i o n o f the l a t t e r programme. T h i s i s a r a t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  introfactor  w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t i n 1 9 5 2 , more t h a n h a l f of a l l r e c i p i e n t s o f BPA were e l d e r l y persons (65 y e a r s and o l d e r ) . The t o t a l number o f r e c i p i e n t s of t h e s e f o u r programmes, of which t h e r e c i p i e n t s of DPA and BPA r e p r e s e n t e d I4..9 p e r c e n t , r e a c h e d a peak i n 1953 a f t e r t h e OAA programme had become f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d . S i n c e t h a t y e a r , t h e number has d e c l i n e d s t e a d i l y u n t i l 1958 when 2 8 . 0 persons i n e v e r y 1 , 0 0 0 persons i n B r i t i s h Columbia were i n r e c e i p t of one of t h e s e f o u r a s s i s t a n c e programmes. The attempt t o determine t h e r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e of known c a s e s of dependency due t o age, d i s a b i l i t y , o r b l i n d n e s s i n the v a r i o u s Regions i s i l l u s t r a t e d on T a b l e 1 7 .  Such an u n d e r t a k i n g i s s e r i o u s l y  h a n d i c a p p e d , s i n c e , u n t i l r e c e n t l y , most Regions d i d not r e p o r t d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s on t h e number o f r e c i p i e n t s o f t h e v a r i o u s a s s i s t a n c e programmes.  I n some R e g i o n a l r e p o r t s , no f i g u r e s were g i v e n a t a l l ;  o t h e r r e p o r t s were c o n f i n e d t o e s t i m a t e s o r p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l caseload. Since 1956, the  a l l Regions have r e p o r t e d s e p a r a t e f i g u r e s f o r  d i f f e r e n t programmes, b u t o n l y i n the l a s t a n n u a l r e p o r t  (1958),  available  a u n i f o r m system o f r e p o r t i n g t h e s e d a t a i s used.  C o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e t r e n d -for t h e P r o v i n c e as a whole, a l l Regions except two show a d e c l i n e i n t h e r a t e o f r e c i p i e n t s . Region V ( t h e n o r t h e r n p a r t o f t h e P r o v i n c e ) shows a marked i n c r e a s e ; f o r Region I I I  - 62 (south-central/Okanagan)  the r a t e has remained c o n s t a n t .  Regions I  (Vancouver I s l a n d ) , I I I ( s o u t h - c e n t r a l ) and V I (Lower P r a s e r V a l l e y ) have the h i g h e s t r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s .  W i t h i n these Regions such  areas  as G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a (Region I ) , the Okanagan V a l l e y (Region I I I ) and the s o u t h e r n p a r t o f the Lower M a i n l a n d  (Region VI) are l o c a t e d . They  are known as p r e f e r r e d r e s i d e n c e o f e l d e r l y The  people.  two n o r t h e r n Regions (V and V I I ) have t h e l o w e s t r a t e o f r e c i p i e n t s  w h i c h appears t o be a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r young stage of economic development. 20.1+  Region V I I has a r a t e o f 10.2  p e r 1,000  population.  p.c. of i t s p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s i n K i t i m a t ( p o p u l a t i o n 9,676), a  newly c r e a t e d i n d u s t r i a l community w i t h o u t p r a c t i c a l l y any people.  elderly  T h i s phenomenon i n t h e a g e - d i s t r i b u t i o n i s t y p i c a l f o r areas  t h a t are e n t e r i n g a stage o f r a p i d economic development, and i s perhaps v a l i d f o r the e n t i r e n o r t h e r n p a r t of the P r o v i n c e w h i c h i s e x p e r i e n c i n g a g r e a t i n f l u x o f young a b l e - b o d i e d people who f o l l o w the employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s . A n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r the lower r a t e o f r e c i p i e n t s i n the two n o r t h e r n r e g i o n s may p r o p o r t i o n o f I n d i a n s i n t h i s a r e a who ( r e c i p i e n t s o f t h i s programme account number of r e c i p i e n t s ) .  be 'the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h  are not e l i g i b l e f o r 0ASSA f o r 76.2  p.c. -of the  total  However, t h e f a s t r i s i n g r a t e o f r e c i p i e n t s  i n Region V, w h i c h has a l s o the g r e a t e s t p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e o f a l l R e g i o n s , p o i n t s t o the need f o r f o l l o w i n g c l o s e l y t h e development i n t h i s a r e a i n o r d e r t o ensure the m a i n t a i n i n g - o f adequate s e r v i c e s .  - 63  Table If?:  Programme OAA  b  OASSA a DPA  1951  31,983  -  C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e P r o g r a m m e s ( O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e , O l d Age S e c u r i t y S u p p l e m e n t a r y A l l o w a n c j e , D i s a b l e d P e r s o n s ' A l l o w a n c e a n d B l i n d Persons,';'. A l l o w a n c e ) ; T o t a l C a s e l o a d a s a t M a r c h 3 1 s t and Comparative Rates; .1951-1958. -,,VV 1952  1953  1951+ .  7,788  9,628  10,062  31,81+6  33,1+37  31,638  c  661  BPA T o t a l No. of cases  32,61+1+  Total Population Brit.Columbia 1,1,65,210 Rate p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t 1 on -j 2 8 . 1  1955  9,21+0 31,797  K959 % 5 i  1+32  1+39  1+1+0  39,970  1+3,1+97  1+2,139  1+1,621+  1,205,000  1,21+8,000 31+.8  3$;1+91+  11+7  336  32.0  8^853  1+^757  1 / 2 9 5 , 0 0 0 1,31+2,000 i , 3 9 | ; l + 6 1 + 32.1+  3b, 5  31.5  S o u r c e : D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s 1951 -1$'5>8. V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; rate.--,per 1,000 added. . Notes a o n l y a s s i s t a n c e programme e x i s t i n g f o r a g e d u n t i l : ' ; 1 9 5 l ("Old Age P e n s i o n " ) . . < b i n t r o d u c e d i n 1952 • c i n t r o d u c e d i n 1955 :  :  Table 16:  v.*  O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e a n d O l d Age S e c u r i t y Supplementary A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f R e c i p i e n t s a n d R a t e per ;I',000 p e r s o n s a g e d 65 a n d o v e r ; 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . v\, f  ;  YEAR  total population 65 y e a r s and over  1951  126,137  1956  150,779  r a t e p e r l,0 6p number o f recipients p e r s o n s 6 5 #£-s.+ (OAA and*OASSA) ;  3,1,983  j l+l,3l(-7  252.6  '%  272.9  S o u r c e : D e p t . o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1 9 5 1 , 1956 D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a ; 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . ••'  - 6k Table 17A:  C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes (OAA, OASSA, DPA, B P A ) ; C a s e l o a d s as a t March 3 1 s t b y R e g i o n s , and Comparative R a t e s p e r 1 , 0 0 0 P o p u l a t i o n ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . R e g i o n s '.  1951  Regions  -  1952  1953  i95k  II,  3: n  1955  1956  1957  1958  l,k78 6,582 19 8k  1,377 6,5n 138 79  l,2k3 6,k73 165 81  1,317 6,kl7 235 90  8,10k 2k8,609  7,962  8,059 265,806  Region 1 OAA OASSA DPA BPA  n.r. n.r.  Total Cases  208,577  Total  1,273 1,557 6,622 6,610  i,5ok 6,k5k  69  79  7,96k 8,263  8,037  •69  8,163  population rate Region OAA OASSA DPA BPA  32.k  11 n.r.  n.r. n.r.  n.r. n.r.  n.r.  n.r.  n.r.  Total Cases  659,116  Total  population rate  -  k,797 k,063 13,808 13,72k 20 x X  3,913 lk,303 378  18,605 17,807  18,59k 635,693  -  - _n. r .I , k 0 8 n . r . 3,8k7 n.r.  -  109,66k  n.r.  5,255  1,015 3,nk " 7k k,203  982 3,067 21 70 k,iko  Population rate  519 X  X  19,959  •-  -  3Q,8k5 30,110  not reported number o f c a s e s o f BPA i n c l u d e d  3,565 15,300 591 279 19,735 699,0kO 27.6  992 3,153 130 62  k,337 126,685  922 3,175 157 71 k,325  32.1  T o t a l Cases Forxtfard: n.r. x  3,915  29.8  Region I I I OAA OASSA n.r. DPA BPA n.r. Total Cases:  Total  30.6  31,035 32,2k6  892 3,23k 18k 81 k,391 137,300 32.1 32,185  i n 0AJ\ c a s e s TABLE CONTINUED  - 65 T a b l e 17B; C a t e g o r i c a l A s s i s t a n c e Programmes (OAA, OASSA, DPA, B P A ) ; Caseloads a t March 31st by Regions and Comparative Rates p e r 1 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . R e g i o n s I V , V, V I , V I I ' Region  1952  1951  1953  1951+  1956  1955  Region IV n.r. n.r. OAA 3,11+0 689 2,235 n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r. n.r. OASSA 2,329 DPA 119 n.r. n.r. n.r. . n.r. BPA n.r. 51 T o t a l Cases j 3 , 1 6 8 i Total i Population 89,261 I 97,1+13 rate ! 31.7 Region V ! 522 1+78 OAA 532 305 ! 1+33' 1,1+07 1,1+03 OASSA 1 , 3 5 8 1,136 j 1 , 3 5 7 757 1 DPA 31+ 62 n.r. BPA 27 ! 65 67 95 T o t a l Cases : i 1,14.68 i 1,855 1,898 2 , 0 0 7 | 2,051+ Total ! I Population 63,915 | | - |l06,l+80 rate 19.3 Region V I OAA i+,838 5 , 0 1 0 | 5 , 1 1 0 1+,1+1+3 1+,731 OASSA DPA 37 | 161 BPA X X X x 1 X T o t a l Cases 2+,83« 5,01+7 I 5,271 i+,l+l+3 ! k-,731 ' 115,1+70 Total 1 jll+6,1+80 i Population j rate ! 35-7 Region V I I OAA R e g i o n V:[I c r e a t e d i n 1957 ( f o r m e r l y i n c l uded i n OASSA R e g i o n V) DPA BPA T o t a l Cases Total - (1+0,169) P o p u l a t i o n (22,710) rate •-  - 1  mm  >  mm  Total:  30,81+5  1  -  Source:  mm  1958  582 2,339 107 52 3,080  592 2,330 127 1+2 3,091 L03,l+99 29.7  1+98 1,351 59 97 2,005  366 819  33 1+9  1,267 81,025 25.2  i1,086 .3,903 169 70 5,228  1,108 l+,086 211 67  5,1+72  170,050 32.3 175 523  31+  50 782  ^+7,31+5  10.a  10,1+93 10,313; 10,612  T o t a l Casesj: T o t a l Casesj carried forward Grand  I  t -I  1957  -  Dept.  i • f  -  -  30,110  -  3 1 , 0 3 5 32,21+6 3 2 , 1 8 5 1+1,528 4.2,559:  o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s 1951  x i n c l u d e d i n c a s e s o f 0AA/0ASSA  32,185  - 1958.  - 66  -  (b) The socio-economic d a t a about t h e r e c i p i e n t s a v a i l a b l e i n the Annual R e p o r t s . On t h e p r e c e d i n g pages, t h e attempt was made t o answer t h e b a s i c q u e s t i o n s o f "how many p e o p l e are i n r e c e i p t o f t h e c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes" and "where do these people l i v e " .  An  e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e Annual R e p o r t s of t h e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e r e v e a l s a r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y o r even absence of i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e socio-economic  s t a t u s of the r e c i p i e n t s .  Such d a t a a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the e x t e n t and t h e n a t u r e o f needs t h a t e x i s t among the r e c i p i e n t s , as w e l l as f o r the e v a l u a t i o n of t h e adequacy of t h e programmes i n m e e t i n g t h e r e c i p i e n t s ' needs. The Annual R e p o r t s o f f e r a l i m i t e d number o f socio-economic the r e c i p i e n t s o f OAA, DPA and BPA.  d a t a on  As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h e  m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e , d a t a on r e c i p i e n t s o f OAA w i l l be d i s c u s s e d on the f o l l o w i n g pages.  Socio-economic  d a t a a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e group  of new r e c i p i e n t s o n l y , b u t c a n be a c c e p t e d as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and s i g n i f i c a n t t o a l a r g e e x t e n t f o r t h e e n t i r e group of OAA r e c i p i e n t s , s i n c e t h e c l i e n t e l e o f t h i s programme i s more homogeneous than any o t h e r group i n r e c e i p t o f a w e l f a r e s e r v i c e .  perhaps  The p e r i o d f o r  w h i c h t h e d a t a are examined are t h e y e a r s 1 9 5 4 , 1956 and 1 9 5 8 . F o r 1 9 5 6 , comparison  of t h e d a t a w i t h Census d a t a i s made, wherever  possible. The number-: ••of' new r e c i p i e n t s ;  During 1956, 2,079 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r  OAA were g r a n t e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  This f i g u r e represents a rate  of 3 8 . 9 p e r thousand p o p u l a t i o n e l i g i b l e f o r t h i s programme (65 - 69 y e a r s o f a g e ) . D u r i n g 195k> t h e number of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r OAA g r a n t e d was c o n s i d e r a b l y h i g h e r ; a s m a l l i n c r e a s e i s e v i d e n t again. i n t h e y e a r 1958 ( r e f e r t o Table  18).  - 67  -  The age d i s t r i b u t i o n of new r e c i p i e n t s ; the  The ages of r e c i p i e n t s a t  d a t e o f g r a n t i n g a s s i s t a n c e a r e shown on T a b l e 19* A p p r o x i m a t e l y  one h a l f became OAA r e c i p i e n t s a t r e a c h i n g t h e age of e l i g i b i l i t y , (65 y e a r s ) .  The remainder i s d i s t r i b u t e d over t h e y e a r s 6 6 t o 6 9  w i t h t h e p r o p o r t i o n d e c r e a s i n g w i t h advancing age ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 . 0 p . c . a t t h e age o f 6 9 ) . of m u l t i p l e n a t u r e . economic  The reasons f o r t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n a r e  They may be found i n changes i n the s o c i o -  s t a t u s (death o f spouse, changes o r l o s s o f r e a l and  p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y ) and changes i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s which had made t h e p e r s o n n o t Immediately e l i g i b l e f o r OAA a t r e a c h i n g t h e age o f 6 5 years.  Other reasons may be a change i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e p e r s o n  towards a c c e p t i n g p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , unawareness o f b e i n g e l i g i b l e for to  OAA when the p e r s o n r e a c h e d t h e age o f e l i g i b i l i t y , o r i n a b i l i t y p r o v i d e adequate p r o o f o f age.  The l a s t r e a s o n , i n p a r t i c u l a r ,  appears t o p l a y ara.ajo r > r o l e ,in t h e d e l a y o f g r a n t i n g OAA t o f o r e i g n b o r n persons and p o i n t s t o t h e need f o r an extended  publicity  campaign e n c o u r a g i n g e l d e r l y p e r s o n s t o secure adequate p r o o f o f age x w e l l b e f o r e they become 6 5 y e a r s o l d .  , x t h i s i m p r e s s i o n was g a i n e d by t h e w r i t e r t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l experience.  - 68 -  Table 18:  New R e c i p i e n t s o f O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e ; Number and r a t e p e r 1 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s aged 65 t o 6 9 ; 1951+, 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 .  YEAR  new recipients  population 65-69 y r s .  195k  2,793  -  1956  2,079  1958  2,123  rate per 1000 p e r s o n s 6 5 - 69  -  5k,078  38.9  S o u r c e : Dept.of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . D.B.S. Census o f Canada 1 9 5 6 . Table 1 9 : 19  Ages a t w h i c h O l d Age A s s i s t a n c e g r a n t e d ; 195k> 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 . 1956  5 k  Age  Number  65  1,377  k9-30  66  kl9  15.00  67  365  68 69 Total  p.c.  Number  19 p.c.  was  5- 8  Number  p.c.  53.5k  1,021  k8.Q9  319  15.3k  378  17.80  13.07  26k  12.69  269  12.67  37k  13.39  197  9.k8  256  12.05  258  9.2k  186  8.95  199  9.39  2,793  100.00  2,079  100.00  .2,123  100.00  1,113  S o u r c e : D e p t . o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual R e p o r t s , 1 9 5 k , 1956, 1958.  - 69 The m a r i t a l s t a t u s of new  -  recipients:  The enormous d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e  d i s t r i b u t i o n of the m a r i t a l s t a t u s of OAA t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n 65  r e c i p i e n t s compared w i t h the  - 69 y e a r s , that shows a much h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of Between 195k  persons m a r r i e d , i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table 20. the percentage o f new  r e c i p i e n t s who  kO.82 p.c. to 38.73 p.c. group w i t h the t o t a l 65  and  were m a r r i e d , d e c l i n e d  A comparison  of the m a r i t a l  1958,  from  status of t h i s  - 69 age group, g i v e n i n the 1956  Census,  i n d i c a t e s also a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e , widowed and d i v o r c e d persons among the OAA  recipients.  T h i s seems to imply a g r e a t e r  economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y of the e l d e r l y persons s i n g l e or without t h a t r e s u l t s i n a h i g h e r r a t e of f i n a n c i a l dependency.  spouse,  A further  i m p l i c a t i o n of these f i n d i n g s i s the g r e a t need of t h i s group f o r a v a r i e t y of s e r v i c e s f o r unattached, e l d e r l y persons  i n the areas of  adequate f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , housing f o r the s i n g l e , aged person, care during i l l n e s s , r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and any other type of a c t i v i t y t h a t breaks the i s o l a t i o n of ,the l o n e l y e l d e r l y person. L i v i n g arrangements of new  recipients:  The extent of l o n e l i n e s s among  the aged, which has such f a r - r e a c h i n g economic and i s a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d on Table 21. t h i r d was  l i v i n g alone  Of a l l new  (35*59 p.c.)  i n 1956.  social  implications,  r e c i p i e n t s , more than  one-  T h i s f i g u r e can, to a  c e r t a i n measure, be compared w i t h the p r o p o r t i o n of "non-family househ o l d s " g i v e n i n the Census, which i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the number of s i n g l e , unattached i n d i v i d u a l s .  In 1956,  16.3  p.c. of a l l households  i n B r i t i s h Columbia were "non-family households. But 35.59 p.c. of a l l new  OAA  r e c i p i e n t s were l i v i n g i n "non-family households". A  unfavourable p i c t u r e i s obtained by comparison h o l d s having two  similarly  of the number of house-  and more f a m i l i e s , w i t h the number of new  recipients  t h a t l i v e i n the homes of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , r e l a t i v e s or other people.  - 70 In 1 9 5 6 ,  23.67 p . c  of a l l new  -  r e c i p i e n t s l i v e d i n such  households.  Although no d e t a i l e d data are a v a i l a b l e , i t can be assumed that i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of cases, both spouses l i v e i n the home of * another f a m i l y , thus c r e a t i n g a household c o n t a i n i n g more t h a n one c o n j u g a l family.  In 1 9 5 6 ,  3.1  p.c. of a l l households  in British  Columbia  contained more than one f a m i l y , w h i l e 2 3 . 6 7 p.c. of a l l new l i v e d i n households  recipients  of other p e o p l e .  Accommodations of new  recipients:  Another measure of the extent of  dependency of the e l d e r l y person can be d e r i v e d from Table 2 2 , i n d i c a t e s t h a t o n l y s l i g h t l y more than h a l f of a l l new enjoy independence  1958.  The p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s  shows a small d e c l i n e from 5 8 . 2 8 p.c. In 195'+ In 1 9 5 6 ,  recipients  i n t h e i r l i v i n g accommodation by owning t h e i r  home, or r e n t i n g a house or a s u i t e . group  which  own  latter  t o 5 7 * 5 0 p.c. i n  2 3 . 0 h p.c. l i v e d i n the homes of t h e i r c h i l d r e n or  -  r e l a t i v e s , were b o a r d i n g , or l i v e d In b o a r d i n g homes or i n s t i t u t i o n s . I t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o a r r i v e at c o n c l u s i o n s about the adequacy ofaccommodations of t h i s group. does enjoy a v a r y i n g degree other people.  But i t can be assumed that the m a j o r i t y  of s o c i a l c o n t a c t by v i r t u e of l i v i n g w i t h  Most of those r e c i p i e n t s l i v i n g i n housekeeping  or  s l e e p i n g rooms (19.1+6 p.c.) however, experience probably a great d e a l of l o n e l i n e s s and  social  isolation. Tables 23 and 21+ g i v e some  The economic s t a t u s of nei^ r e c i p i e n t s : data about the economic s t a t u s of new  recipients.  has no r e a l or p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y whatsoever. have p r o p e r t y i n the v a l u e up t o $ 5 0 0 . 0 0 . e l d e r l y people attempt t h e i r f u n e r a l expenses.  At l e a s t one h a l f  Approximately 75  p.c.  I t i s w e l l known t h a t most  to put a few hundred  d o l l a r s aside f o r covering  I f t h i s f a c t o r i s taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , i t  can be s a i d t h a t p r a c t i c a l l y 75 p.c. o f the new  r e c i p i e n t s have no  - 71  f i n a n c i a l r e s e r v e s at a l l . g i v e the OAA  -  N e i t h e r do the l i m i t e d r a t e s of a s s i s t a n c e  r e c i p i e n t s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s a v i n g s .  Thus, a g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people l i v i n g on OAA  are most  v u l n e r a b l e t o any c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s , such as i l l n e s s , the need to change r e s i d e n c e  or i n c r e a s e s i n the c o s t of l i v i n g .  t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of OAA p u b l i c funds and  services.  This i m p l i e s  r e c i p i e n t s i s e n t i r e l y dependent on  A f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n i s the need f o r a  v a r i e t y of h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d and e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e s e r v i c e s t h a t h e l p the e l d e r l y p e r s o n m a i n t a i n a decent s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g and m a s t e r s i t u a t i o n s of economic and s i t u a t i o n of the OAA  social stress.  The p r e c a r i o u s economic  r e c i p i e n t s i s also i l l u s t r a t e d  on Table 2k w h i c h  shows t h a t , i n s p i t e of v e r y s t r i n g e n t r e g u l a t i o n s , t h a t a l l o w o n l y a m i n i m a l income o u t s i d e the p e n s i o n , r e c i p i e n t s ( 8 5 . 1 1 p.c. amount of a s s i s t a n c e .  i n 1958)  an i n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of  are becoming e l i g i b l e  f o r the maximum  - 72  Table 2 0 :  Marital Status married  M a r i t a l S t a t u s o f New R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA; 195k,  l,lk0  1956,  1958.  19 5 6  1 9 5 k  numb e i  -  p.c.  number  19 5 8 p.c.  t o t a l population  65 - 6 9 - 1 9 5 6 .  number p.c.  number  k0.82  811+  39.15  822  38.73  36,71+2  68.0  330  15.5k  5,585  10.k  21.10  8,506  15.7  2,850  5.3  single  39k  lk.ll  283  13.61  widoxtfs  633  22.66  k73  22.75  widowers  202  7.23  lkk  6.93  13k  6.31  separated  385  13.78  327  15.73  3k5  16.25  39  l.kO  38  1.83  kk  2.07  395  2,793 100.00  2,079  100.00 2,123 100.00  5k,078  divorced  Total  Source:  Dept. o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; 1958. a  p.c.  0.6  100.00  Annual R e p o r t s , 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 ,  D.B.S.; Census o f Canada, 1 9 5 6 .  included i n "married".  -  a  - 73 -  Table 2 1 :  L i v i n g Arrangements o f New R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA; 1951*-, 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 .  1 9 5  Living  number  Arrangement  1 9  k. p.c.  5 6  number  1 9  p.c.  5 8  number  p.c.  l i v i n g alone:  969  31+.69  71+0  35.59  7224.  31+.10  w i t h spouse:  887  31.76  62+0  30.78  697  32,83  w i t h spouse & children:  228  8.16  159  7.65  108  5.18  with  2j.ll  II4..72  296  I2j..2h  224.7  11.63  91  3.26  111  5.3ii.  112  5.21  132  1+.72  85  24-.09  124-3  6.73  in public institutions:  2+8  1.72  29  I.24.O  724-  3.24-8  in private institutions:  27  0.97  10  0.91  18  O.824.  2,079  100.00  2,123  children:  with other relatives: with  others:  Total:  2,793  100.00  1 Source:  Dept. o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; 1956, 1958.  A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 19524-,  100.00  - 71+. - •  Table 22: Accommodations o f New R e c i p i e n t s o f OAA; 195k, 1956, 1958.  19  Type o f  5 k  19 5 8  19 5 6  A.c c ommod at i on  number  p.c.  number  i n own house:  1,102  39.1+5  823  39.59  866  kO.79  p.c.  number  p.c.  i n r e n t e d house:  376  13.1*5.  252  12.12  187  8.80  in children's home:  kll  lk.72  289  13.90  238  11.2k  i n home o f other r e l a t i v e :  68  2.1+3  51  2.1+5  78  3.67  boarding:  91  3.26  66  3.17  70  3.29  i n housekeeping room:  397  lk..21  310  ik-91  3k7  16.3k  i n s i n g l e room (eating o u t ) :  109  3.90  89  k.28  66  3.12  i n rented  150  5.38  139  6.69  168  7.91  I n b o a r d i n g home : l k  0.50  12  0.58  12  0.56  in  2.69  k8  2.31  91  k.28  100.00  2,079  100.00  2,123  100.00  suite:  institution:  Total: Source:  75  D e p t . o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual R e p o r t s , 1 9 5 k , 1 9 5 6 , 1 9 5 8 .  Table 23: Heal and Personal Property of New Recipients of OAA; 1954, 1956, 1958,  Value of Property  1  9  real property amount p.c.  5  1  4  9  5  6  L  9  5  8  personal property real pi•operty personal property real property personal property p.c. p.c. amount p.c. amount | p.c. amountj p.c. amount amount :  60.66 1,050  1,704  61.00  1,450  51.92  1,273  61.22  1,031  49.58  1,288  $1 - 8250  44  1.58  787  28.18  26  1.25  570  27.41  13  0.61  479  22.56  $251-4500  151  5.41  233  8.34  59  2.84  8.32  43  2.05  200  7.17  104  3.72  92  5.39  44  2.07  §751-$1000  193  6.91  74  2.65  101  4.43 4.86  185 120  8.74  1501-1750  173 112 71  3.43  3.06  84  3.95  $1001-51500  9.45.  65  3.04  249  11.98  66  3.18  6.12  91  4.28  $1501-42000  264 102  65 130  3.65  38  1.36  118  5.68  30  1.44  131  6.17  50  $2000 and up  135  4.83  22  0.79  161  7.74  26  1.25  409  19.26  64  2.35 3.02  2,793 100.00  2,793  2,123 100.00 2,123  100.00  $ 0  Total:  100.00  2,079 100.00  2,079 100.00  Source: Dept.of Social Welfare; Annual Reports, 1954, 1956, 1958.  49.45  5.65  -76 T a b l e 24:  -  D i s t r i b u t i o n o f OAA R e c i p i e n t s A c c o r d i n g t o Amount o f A s s i s t a n c e R e c e i v e d ; 1954, 1956, 1958-  °- •  1954  1956  a  amount o f assistance($>)  p.c.  p.c.  1958  b  amount o f assistance($)  p.c.  83.75  82.99  35 - 39.99  3.90  3.98  50 - 54-99  4.15  30 - 34-99  1.81  3.86  1+5 - 1+9-99  3.25  25 - 29.99  2.82  2.76  l+o  1+4.99  1.95  20 - 24.99  1.81  1.88  35 - 39.99  1.1+9  1+.03  1+.53  30  -  31+.99  I.44  25  -  29.99  1.15  20  -  24.99  0.76  l+o  less  than  19.99 -  -  -  -  -  55  85.11  -  l e s s than  19.99  Total  100.00  S o u r c e : Dept..of  100.00  —  S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual  1954, 1956,  1958.  0.70  100.00 Reports  a Maximum amount o f a s s i s t a n c e I n 1954 and 1956  $40.00  b Maximum amount o f a s s i s t a n c e i n 1958  $55*00  - 77 (3) Data on S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e x S o c i a l Allowance,  more t h a n any o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e  programme, r e f l e c t s  i n the movement o f i t s c a s e l o a d the l e v e l o f p r o s p e r i t y and economic s t a b i l i t y o f the c o u n t r y .  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the number o f persons i n  r e c e i p t o f SA was c o m p a r a t i v e l y low d u r i n g  the y e a r s 1952 t o 195*4-  w h i c h was a p e r i o d o f r e l a t i v e p r o s p e r i t y and h i g h economic a c t i v i t y . The  d e c l i n e i n the economic a c t i v i t y o f the p r o v i n c e i s r e f l e c t e d i n  the  sharply Increasing  r a t e o f p e r s o n s r e c e i v i n g SA d u r i n g the  period  1955 t o 1958 (see Table 2 5 ) . The  drop i n the number o f cases and r e c i p i e n t s between the y e a r s 1956  and  1957, i n d i c a t e d on T a b l e 25, does not r e f l e c t a genuine d e c l i n e ,  but  i s due t o a change I n the method o f c o m p i l i n g  1956,  "the c a s e l o a d f i g u r e s show the t o t a l o f f a m i l y u n i t s and shared  services was  statistics. Until  1  . I n J a n u a r y 1957, the method o f c o m p i l i n g  caseload  statistics  changed, so t h a t f o r the y e a r 1957 the c a s e l o a d f i g u r e s denote  o n l y the f a m i l y u n i t s and(or) i n d i v i d u a l s - t h a t i s , cases - and do not  include  shared s e r v i c e s .  i n t o t a l case-load." during  2  T h i s change accounts f o r the  The marked i n c r e a s e  decrease ;  i n . the number o f r e c i p i e n t s  1958 I s p r o b a b l y a r e f l e c t i o n o f the changes i n p o l i c y and  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s f o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the "Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e  Federal  Programme" o f 1956. I n 1958, the r a t e o f  r e c i p i e n t s o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e was 11+.7 p e r s o n s per thousand  population  as compared t o 12.8 per thousand i n 1957* Between the Census y e a r s 1951 and 1956, the r a t e o f f a m i l i e s on SA i n c r e a s e d  from 10.1  per  x f r o m hereon r e f e r r e d . t o a s "SA" 1 f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v i n g "shared s e r v i c e s " , e.g. SA and F a m i l y S e r v i c e , were c o u n t e d as two c a s e s . 2 A n n u a l R e p o r t , 1957? p . 9 .  - 78 thousand f a m i l i e s t o 1 0 . 8 .  -  D u r i n g the same p e r i o d the r a t e of. s i n g l e  i n d i v i d u a l s on SA i n c r e a s e d even more s h a r p l y from 1+7«7 per thousand s i n g l e persons 20 t o 6 5 y e a r s of age t o 60.2 ( r e f e r t o Table 2 6 ) . Table 2 5 t  fEAR  Heads of Families  S o c i a l Allowance; Caseload, Number, and D i s t r i b u t i o n of R e c i p i e n t s and Rates p e r 1 , 0 0 0 p o p u l a t i o n ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 .  Depend- S i n g l e Recipents ients  Number Number of r e c i p - of ients Cases  Total R a t e ' Population Cases Recip B. C. -ients  L951  3,068  6,878  7,1+28  17,37k  10,k96  1,165,210  lk.8  8.5  L952  2,870  6,615  .6,176  15,661  9,01+6  1,205,000  13.0  7.5  1953  2,855  6,886  5,535  15,276  8,390  l,2k8,000  12.2  6.7  195k  3,327  8,252  5,908  17,1+87  9,235  1,295,000  12.3  6.5  1955  3,688  9,1+75  7,372  20,535  11,060  l,3k2,000  15.2  8.2  1956  3,730  9,761  6,31+6  19,837  10,076  l,398,k6k  lk.l  7.2  1957  3,695  9,397  6,029  19,121  9,72k~ l , k 8 7 , Q 0 0  12.8  6.5  1958  i+, 281+  11,1+91+  6,857  22,635  l,5k2,000  ik-7  7.3  Source: a  ll,lkl  Dept.of S o c i a l Welfare; Annual Reports, 195k»  1956, 1958.  In January 1 9 5 7 , the methods of c o m p i l i n g caseload. s t a t i s t i c s was changed, which accounts f o r the decrease i n " t o t a l number of cases" during t h i s y e a r ; ( r e f e r to page 2 0 )  - 79 The  -  r e g i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of SA r e c i p i e n t s :  I n c o n t r a s t t o the i n c o m p l e t e d a t a on the c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes, the Annual R e p o r t s of the DSW  have g i v e n f o r a l l y e a r s  d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s on the number of SA r e c i p i e n t s f o r the e n t i r e P r o v i n c e , the Regions, and f o r u r b a n c e n t r e s and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . These d a t a p e r m i t a c o m p a r a t i v e study of the i n c i d e n c e  of  SA  r e c i p i e n t s i n the v a r i o u s Regions and p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s ; and w i t h a f l u c t u a t i n g o r p e r s i s t e n t l y h i g h r a t e of SA cases can  areas be  identified. T a b l e 27 g i v e s the number of SA r e c i p i e n t s f o r the Regions of DSW.  On T a b l e 2 8 ,  the  the d a t a are f u r t h e r b r o k e n down i n t o numbers and  r a t e s f o r s e l e c t e d m a j o r c e n t r e s w i t h i n the Regions except two  ( I I and  seven R e g i o n s .  All  IV) show an i n c r e a s e i n the r a t e of  r e c i p i e n t s d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1951  to 1958.  'Regions I and  SA  I I have  by f a r the l o w e s t r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s . W i t h i n Region I , the economica l l y r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e community of V i c t o r i a i s l o c a t e d . The m a j o r i t y of the r e s i d e n t s of Region I I l i v e i n the G r e a t e r a r e a . The  f a c t t h a t the l a t t e r Region has  great  Vancouver  the l o w e s t r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s  seems t o i n d i c a t e r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n an economy w h i c h i s based p r e d o m i n a n t l y on secondary m a n u f a c t u r i n g service industries.  The  and  r e l a t i v e absence of such i n d u s t r i e s i n the  o t h e r Regions of the P r o v i n c e w h i c h are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a i n d u s t r y s t r u c t u r e (lumbering,  m i n i n g , f i s h i n g ) , as w e l l as  onethe  r e l a t i v e absence of the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s found i n t h e l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s of Regions I and  I I , makes the p o p u l a t i o n o f l a r g e p a r t s  of  the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e t o the economic c y c l e s of the c o u n t r y  and t h e w o r l d market.  T h i s extreme dependence  on economic s t a b i l i t y i s s t r i k i n g l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e h i g h r a t e of SA r e c i p i e n t s i n Region V I I d u r i n g 1958,  when b o t h t h e f i s h i n g  industry  - 80  -  ( P r i n c e Rupert) and the aluminum s m e l t e r i n g  (Kitimat) experienced  a sharp d e c l i n e .  Region V has  the second h i g h e s t  r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s  i n the P r o v i n c e .  T h i s a r e a i s s t i l l s p a r s e l y p o p u l a t e d , and i t s few  i n d u s t r i e s o f f e r r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a ( r e f e r t o T a b l e s 8 and 9 ) .  rapidly increasing population i l l u s t r a t i o n of a o n e - i n d u s t r y population  Another  community, where the p r o s p e r i t y of  the  i s t i e d to the s t a b i l i t y of the major i n d u s t r y , i s the  C i t y of T r a i l .  D u r i n g 1956,  a p e r i o d of d e c l i n e i n the r a t e of  SA  r e c i p i e n t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s i n the C i t y o f T r a i l was  up by one t h i r d compared t o 1951+•  The h i g h r a t e of SA r e c i p i e n t s i s a l s o remarkable i n the  suburban  areas o f the Lower M a i n l a n d w h i c h have a r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g but l i t t l e l o c a l i n d u s t r y .  F o r reasons of cheaper l i v i n g  a number of unemployed or e c o n o m i c a l l y  population,  conditions,  i n s e c u r e persons and f a m i l i e s  l e a v e Vancouver f o r these suburban a r e a s , where the c o s t of l i v i n g i s lower.  But t h i s a l s o means t h a t t h e y move t o d i s t r i c t s where l e s s  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t , and from where t h e y are l e s s able compete f o r the j o b a v a i l a b l e i n Vancouver. Vancouver C i t y ( r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s 11.5  Thus, compared t o  per thousand i n 1 9 5 6 ) ,  of SA r e c i p i e n t s i n S u r r e y ( 2 k . 6  f i n d a concentration  The  comparatively  h i g h r a t e i n New  we  per thousand)  Maple Ridge ( 1 9 . 8 ) and C h i l l i w a c k ( C i t y and Township 1 9 . 5 thousand).  to  per  Westminster i s a l s o  noteworthy. Other c e n t r e s w i t h a h i g h r a t e of SA r e c i p i e n t s are l o c a t e d x ^ i t h i n the Regions I I I , and  IV, w i t h Kamloops h a v i n g the h i g h e s t r a t e i n  B r i t i s h Columbia ( 3 0 . 1  i n 1 9 5 6 ) . W i t h i n Regions V and V I I ,  centers  w i t h a h i g h r a t e of r e c i p i e n t s are Dawson Creek ( 1 9 . 2 ) P r i n c e George ( 2 1 . 2 ) , and P r i n c e Rupert  (23.9).  - 81  T a b l e 26:  -  Number a n d R a t e s o f F a m i l i e s , a n d S i n g l e Persons i n Receipt of S o c i a l Allowance; 1951  a n d 1956.  S I N G L E  F A M I L I E S YEAR  a  P E R S O N S b  total number  persons on SA  rate  total number  families on SA  rate  1951  299,845  3,068  10.1  123,102  7,428  60.2  1956  346,003  3,730  10.8  132,717  6,346  47.7  Source:  D e p t . o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; A n n u a l R e p o r t s , 1951, 1956. D.B.S.; C e n s u s o f C a n a d a ; 1951, 1956.  a  r a t e p e r 1,000  families  b  r a t e p e r 1,000  s i n g l e p e r s o n s aged 20 - 65  - 82 T a b l e 27;  S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number o f R e c i p i e n t s p e r Region, and Rates p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n ; 1951-1958. 1951 - 1954  REGIONS  19 5 1 number r a t e  19 5 2 number r a t e  19 5 3 number r a t e  1 9 5 4 number r a t e  2,416  11.4  1,966  -  2,488  -  2,478  -  II  9,405  11,5  8,553  -  6,282"  -  6,282  " III  2,343  21.5  2,054  -  2,047  -  2,194  -  IV  1,979  21.8  1,865  -  1,837  -  1,834  -  v  1,231  19.7  1,223  -  1,274  -  1,747  -  VI  -  -  -  1,869  -  2,511  -  " VII  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  12.2  17,478  12.3  Region I "  " 11  Total  17,374  14.8  15,661  -  13.0  15,276  1955 - 1958 REGIONS  1 9 5 5 number r a t e  19 5 6 number r a t e  19 5 7 number r a t e  Region I  2,478  -  2,658  10.6  2,649  II  8,540  -  6,870  11.0  6,336  "III  2,475  - .  2,540  20.1  2,555  IV  2,154  -  2,318  23.2  2,077  V  2,171  -  2,366  22.2  VI  2,717  -  3,085  21.0  _  —  «  " VII Total:  20,535  15.2  19,837  3,361  12.8  -  7,773  10.8  3,006  21.9  2,063  20.2  .1,491""  -  1,491  24.7  3,364  -  3,703  21.8  649  -  972  32.1  22,635  14.7  19,121  14.1  19 5 8 number rate  12.8  ,  Source: Dept.of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual R e p o r t s , 1951 - 1958. a A change i n r e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s accounts f o r d e c l i n e i n number o f recipients, b ditto -  —  - 83 Table 28a; .Social Allowance; Number of Recipients per Region and Selected Major Centres, and Comparative Rates per 1,000 Population; 1951^1956. Regions I. II. I l l  ^Regions & Major Centres  1 9  5  1  4  total number of population recipients  rate  9  5  1 9  6  5  8  total ; number oi? rate total number rate populatii mof populatio p. recipien'ts recipients  Region I Saanicli Nanaimo Victoria Remaining Area  28,481 7,196 51,331 121,569  232 140 761 1,283  7.9 19.6 9.9 10.5  39,358 159 12,705 205 54,584 615 141,962 1,679  4.0 16.2 11.1 8,2  42,300 203 4.7 13,800 264 18.7 54,584 993 16.2 150,122 1,901 12.6  Total:  208,577  2,416  11.4  248,609 2,658  10.6  265,806 3,361 12.8  58,376 28,639 .119,186 .344,833 92,612  815 579 284 4,843 1,105  13.9 20.3 14.8 14.0 3.2.2  585 83,745 31,665 539 25,978 237 365,844 4,437 128,461 1,071  7.1 17.2 9.0 11.5 8.4  95,000 708 7.0 35,000 412 11.6 34,000 351 10.2 386,000 4,873 12.7 149,540 1,429 9.4  543,646  7,626  13.7  635,693 6,870  11.0  699,540 7,773 10.8  8,099 8,517 10,548 7,822 74,658  173 135 173 191 1,671  20.8 16.2 16.3 24.8 21.7  9,096 275 9,181 124 189 11,894 8,998 77 87,516 1,875  30.1 13.6 15.9 8.5 20.7  2,343  21.5  126,685 2,540  20.1  Region II Burnaby New Westm'r Richmond Vancouver Remaining  kre&: Total:  Region III Kamloops Kelowna Penticton Vernon Remaining Area: Total:  109,664  10,000 236 9,181 109 217 11,894 9,500 125 96,725 2,329  23.6 11.0 18.3 13.1 24.2  137,300 3,006 21.9  TABLE CONTINUED  - 84 Table 28b:  Social Allowance; Number of Recipients per Region and Selected Major Centres, and Comparative Rates per 1,000 population; 1951-1956 Regions IV, V. VI, VII  1 9 5 4 Regions & Major number total Centres population of recipients  1 9 rate  total populatior  /9 5 8  5 6 rate number of recipients  rate number total populatic>n of recipieiits  Region IV Cranbrook Nelson Trail Remaining Area:  3,621 6,772 11,430 67,438  41 95 80 1,763  4,562 9.8 14.3 7,226 7.0 11,395 26.4 74,230  108 145 122 1,943  11.9 10.3 10.6 25.2  4,562 7,500 11,400 80,037  131 135 132 1,665  28.8 16.9 11.3 25.5  Total:  89,261  1,979  21.8 97,413  2,318  23.2 103,499  2,063  20.2  %  Regions V and VII a *•  Dawson Creek Prince George Prince Rupert Remaining Area Total:  3,589  74  19.2  7,531  148  19.2  10,000  134  13.4  4,703  95  20.0 10,563  213  21.2  12,000  235  19.9  8,546  114  252  23.9  11,000  287  28.7  47,077  948  13.7 10,498 19.9 77,602  1,753  22.8  95,370  1,973  20.8  63,915  1,231  19.7 106,194  2,366  22.2 128,370  2,629  20.5  Region VI Chilli waclsr ' 19,340 Maple Ridge 9,891 Surrey33,670 Remaining 52,569 Area Total:  115,470  222  11.5  23,647  465  19.5  24,165  454  18.9  95 777 685  9.5 23.3 13.0  12,502 49,366 60,965  247 1,227 1,146  19.8 24.6 19.6  15,000 287 55,000 1,162 75,885 1,800  19.1 22.8 22.4  15.3 146,480  3,085  21.C  170,050 3,703  21.8  1,779  Source: Dept. of Social Welfare; Annual Reports, 1954, 1956, 1958. a For better comparison, Regions V and VII are treated as one unit for 1958. b_ (City and Township)  - 85  -  The c h r o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i n a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l During  1957,  t h e R e s e a r c h and S t a t i s t i c s  to p u b l i s h monthly s t a t i s t i c s , a p p l i c a t i o n f o r SA c a n b e Tables  Allowance:  S e c t i o n o f t h e DSW b e g a n  from which the trends  i n new  compiled.  29 a n d 30 g i v e t h e number o f new a p p l i c a t i o n s b y m o n t h f o r  a two y e a r p e r i o d  (1958  applications during  - 1 9 5 9 ) • T a b l e 29 shows t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f  a g i v e n month as percentage o f t h e t o t a l  number  T a b l e 30 shows t h e  of a p p l i c a t i o n s r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e y e a r .  p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e o f t h e number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s o v e r On F i g u r e 1 t h e same phenomenon i s p r e s e n t e d  ^he p r e c e d i n g  month.  graphically.  The F i g u r e  y e a r p e r i o d . The f i r s t 1958,  when 1 0 . 6  sharp r i s e i n a p p l i c a t i o n s occurred  an i n c r e a s e o f 8 8 . 8 p . c . o v e r t h e p r e v i o u s  of seasonal  among t h e m t h e m a j o r s t r i k e f o r t h i s dramatic  This  month.  b e n e f i t s as w e l l a s a number o f s t r i k e s , i n t h e s h i p p i n g i n d u s t r y , seem t o a c c o u n t  i n c r e a s e a t a p e r i o d o f t h e y e a r when t h e economy  i s e x p e c t e d t o go I n t o f u l l  swing.  The m o n t h o f A u g u s t 1958  a n o t i c e a b l e d r o p i n t h e number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s , o n l y t o b e by  i n July  p . c . o f a l l a p p l i c a t i o n s o f 1958 w e r e r e c e i v e d .  r i s e represented The e x h a u s t i o n  i n d i c a t e s f o u r peaks d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e two-  shows followed  a n o t h e r p e r i o d o f i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f a p p l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g t h e  fall  and e a r l y w i n t e r  September - December). higher  (I4.6.O p . c . o f t h e t o t a l d u r i n g t h e m o n t h s A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n , b u t c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a much  d u r i n g F e b r u a r y and M a r c h 1959, May  i n 1959.  r a t e of a p p l i c a t i o n s , occurred  A f t e r a marked d e c l i n e  a sharp i n c r e a s e t o o k place  ( 3 6 . 9 p . c . o v e r A p r i l ) , p o s s i b l y due t o t h e e x h a u s t i o n  b e n e f i t s o f a number o f a p p l i c a n t s . (17.9 entire  p.c.) again  the remainder of t h e year,  of  seasonal  The m a r k e d i n c r e a s e i n J u l y  s h o u l d be due t o a m a j o r s t r i k e  economy o f t h e P r o v i n c e  during  (strike  that affected the  i n t h e lumber i n d u s t r i e s ) . F o r  o n l y A u g u s t a n d December show a d e c l i n e .  - 86  -  Thus, o n l y f i v e months of the y e a r show a drop i n a p p l i c a t i o n s . T h i s p o i n t s t o a d e t e r i o r a t i o n of t h e economic s i t u a t i o n w h i c h i s a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n the f a c t t h a t t h e t o t a l p e r c e n t a g e i n c r e a s e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s d u r i n g 1959' was  h i g h e r than the t o t a l d e c r e a s e and  stood  f a r above the i n c r e a s e t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s y e a r . T h i s development i m p l i e s t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l s e a s o n a l p a t t e r n o f h i g h r a t e s of SA a p p l i c a t i o n s coming i n d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e w i n t e r , and few a p p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g made d u r i n g the p e r i o d of h i g h economic a c t i v i t y i n s p r i n g and summer, h o l d s no l o n g e r t r u e .  It indicates  t h a t unemployment i s becoming a c h r o n i c phenomenon, w h i c h makes a l a r g e segment of t h e w o r k i n g  p o p u l a t i o n h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e , and  dependent on p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  A comparison of the d a t a w i t h  employment and unemployment s t a t i s t i c s would p r o b a b l y v e r i f y significant  trend.  thus  this  -  Table 2 9 :  Social  -  A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Allowance and Family S e r v i c e ; number and monthly percentage of t o t a l number of a p p l i c a t i o n s p e r y e a r ; 1958 & 1 9 5 9 •  19  MONTH  87  5 8  Allowance  19 5 9 Family S e r v i c e number  S o c i a l Allowar [ce number  Family Service p.c. number p.c.  number  p.c.  January  1,563  6.0  190  9-3  3,k53  9.0  19k  9.k  February  1,38k  5.2  170  8.3  2,926  7.6  208  10.0  March  1,326  5.6  168  8.3  2,513  6.5  163  7-9  April .  1,.582  6.0  lk5  7.1  2,637  6.8  186  9.0  May  l,k72  5.7  173  8.k  3,612  9-k  17k  8.5  June  i,k5k  5.5  Ik5  7.1  2,800  7.3  192  9.3  July  2,7kl  10.6  205  10.0  3,303  8.6  178  8.6  August  2,k2k  9.k  17k  8.k  2,927  7.5  173  8.5  Septembe r  2,531  9.7  191  9.3  3,108  8.0  Ikl  6.9  October  2,879  11.1  208  10.0  3,376  8.7  136  6.7  November  3,259  12.6  158  7.7  k,191  10.9  165  8.0  December  3,261  12.6  120  6.0  3,758  9-7  lk8  7.2  Total:  25,876  100.00  2,0k7  P• • c  100.00  38,60k  100.00 2,058 100.00 •  Source: Monthly S t a t i s t i c s ;  R e s e a r c h and S t a t i s t i c s  Department o f S o c i a l Welfare; 1 9 5 8 , 1 9 5 9 .  Section;  - 88 Table 30?  A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ; Number and percentage i n c r e a s e o r decrease o f p r e c e d i n g month; 1958 and 1959.  1 MONTH  95 8 p .c.  number  -  p.c.  5.9 (-)18.2  11.0 1+.2  2,513  (-M4.1  (+) 4 - 9  7.0  2,637 3,612  (+)36.9  1..2  2,800  (-)22.5  3,303  (+)17-9  2,927  (-)n,4  February  1,38k.  (->  March  1,326  (- )  April  1,582  (+:i 1 9 . 0  May  1,14-72  June  1,454  July  2,714-1  (+>) 88.8  August  2,14.214.  ( - ')  September  2,531  11.6  October  (+: 4-4 2,879 (+: 13.8  November  3,259  (+; 13.2  December  3,261  (+,  25,876  number  (+)  1,563  Total:  9 59  3,l(-53 2,926  January-  i  1  0.06  -  3,108 3,376  (+)  6.2  (+)  8.6  4,191  (+)24.1  3,758  (-)10.3  38,601+  -  S o u r c e : Monthly S t a t i s t i c s ; Research and S t a t i s t i c s S e c t i o n ; Dept. o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; 1958, 1959.  "umber o f A p p l i c a t i o n s T o r S o c i a l r e c e i v e d monthly; 195& _ T O K O  1 200  1—I—I—h-H  AIIOVJ  -195G- —  1—I—I—I—I—h  JAI\T F2B r A J l A P R I-I'.Y J u l ; J U L AUG 34F  ance  j-—  OCT ICCV DI  —-1959  —I  —  1 t  1 h  I  I  1  1 f«  " F E B L m A F R H A T JUI7 J U L AUG S E ? OCT I-IOV D3C  - 90 k'  Data on Family  Service  In the Annual Report of 1 9 5 8 , Family  S e r v i c e i s d e s c r i b e d as "an  a l l - i n c l u s i v e term c o v e r i n g a l l those s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g casework, which are g i v e n t o f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s whether o r not they a r e 1 i n r e c e i p t of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . "  While a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r  f a m i l y s e r v i c e are no i n d i c a t i o n or measure of immediate economic need, t h e y are an i n d i c a t i o n o f p o t e n t i a l or a c t u a l s o c i a l i z a t i o n vrhich may, i n time, r e s u l t  disorgan-  I n the economic dependency of the  e n t i r e f a m i l y o r one or more o f i t s members. Table 1958  31 shows the number o f f a m i l y cases d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1951 t o and g i v e s the r a t e s per thousand f a m i l i e s f o r the Census y e a r s .  T h i s r a t e i n c r e a s e d from 3 . 2 i n 1 9 5 1 t o h . 8 i n 1 9 5 6 . The d e c l i n e i n the number o f cases d u r i n g 1 9 5 7 , i n d i c a t e d i n the s t a t i s t i c s of the Department, should  be a r e f l e c t i o n o f the change i n the r e p o r t i n g  system (see page 7 7 ) « continued Table  I t i s noted, however, t h a t t h i s t r e n d has  i n 1958.  32 g i v e s the number of Family  S e r v i c e cases by Region. The r a t e  of cases p e r thousand f a m i l i e s could not be determined, s i n c e the t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s p e r Region i s not a v a i l a b l e . The number of Family  S e r v i c e cases opened monthly d u r i n g the p e r i o d  January 1958 t o December 1959 i s g i v e n on Table  2 9 . The graphic  p r e s e n t a t i o n on F i g u r e I I i n d i c a t e s a r a t h e r e r r a t i c p a t t e r n t h a t does not allow any c o n c l u s i o n s  as to the causes o r f a c t o r s i n v o l v e d i n the  r a p i d f l u c t u a t i o n s i n the number o f a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e r v i c e .  1  Annual Report 1 9 5 8 ; p. 0 - 3 8  - 91 A v a i l a b i l i t y of s t a f f may have an i n f l u e n c e on t h i s p a t t e r n . But no data are a v a i l a b l e determining the p o s s i b l e r o l e of t h i s f a c t o r . I t should be noted, however, t h a t i n b o t h years the number of a p p l i c a t i o n s d e c l i n e d towards the end of the year, r e a c h i n g i t s lowest p o i n t i n . December, o n l y t o be f o l l o w e d by a sharp upswing i n January.  Table 31»  Family S e r v i c e ; Number o f Cases and Rates per 1,000 f a m i l i e s ; 1951  1951  YEAR  Family Serv. Cases 1,278 T o t a l number of f a m i l i e s  B.C.  299,8k5  1952  1953  l,3ifl  1A38  -  -  195ft  -  -  1958.  1955 .  1956'  1957  1958  1,728  l,6k0  l,i|43  1,296  -  -  -  3k6,003  Rate p e r  1,000  families  h.8  3.2  Source:  Dept. of S o c i a l Welfare;  Annual  D.B.S.; Census of Canada; 1951,  Reports; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 . 1956.  92 -  T o  ¥  0 cv  0  en cv  1  O CV CV  1 O  fH  CV  I  0 0  cv  r  0 CN H  T  o '03 rH  1  0  !>  rH  ~1  O VO H  r  „  1  O  O  r-l  rH  • 1  O cn H  1  O  <\> fH  I  O rH H  o o H  - 93 T a b l e 3 2 : F a m i l y S e r v i c e ; Number o f Cases p e r R e g i o n ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 .  R E G 1.0 N  YEAR I  11  III  TOTAL  IV  V  VI  1951  n.r.  n.r..  n.r.  n.r.  n.r.  -  1952  218  n.r.  n.r.  n.r.  2k5  212  1953  219  n.r.  n.r.  25k  2k3  218  195k  27k  287  271  210  2k2  1955  275  303  305  n.r.  1956  259  312  313  1957  229  335  1958  165  306  Source:  Dept.of  VII  -  1,278 1,31+1  276  -  1,51+5  323  333  -  1,728  173  330  2kk  -  1,631  272  167  23k  206  -  1,1+1+3  251  lk3  160  180  91  1,296  1,1+38  S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; Annual R e p o r t s ; 1951 - 1 9 5 8 .  Summary Three b a s i c q u e s t i o n s were posed a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s Chapter, t o w h i c h answers were sought i n t h e s t a t i s t i c s g i v e n i n t h e annual r e p o r t s of t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e .  The m a t e r i a l examined i n d i c a t e d  a number o f weaknesses i n t h e method o f r e p o r t i n g d a t a .  I t was found  t h a t o n l y r e c e n t l y , a s t a n d a r d system o f r e p o r t i n g i d e n t i c a l s t a t i s t i c s was adopted by t h e Regions. insufficient information.  The s t u d y f u r t h e r . r e v e a l e d a r e a s o f In particular,the relative  absence o f  s o c i a l and economic d a t a on r e c i p i e n t s o f programmes as w e l l as r e g i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s was n o t e d .  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e f i n d i n g s f o r  w e l f a r e r e s e a r c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g Chapter.  -  91+  -  CHAPTER k RECENT WELFARE MEASUREMENTS L i m i t a t i o n s and Needs. Hardly  any doubt e x i s t s t h a t more s t a t i s t i c s and more r e s e a r c h a r e  needed, i f o u r w e l f a r e  s e r v i c e s are t o be extended a p p r o p r i a t e l y and  improved i n t h e i r q u a l i t y .  The need f o r more s t a t i s t i c s and more  r e s e a r c h would be a c c e p t e d by t h o s e p e o p l e who r e g a r d t h e scope and the q u a l i t y o f t h e e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s as u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , as by those who b e l i e v e t h a t s u f f i c i e n t p r o t e c t i o n t h r o u g h w e l f a r e  services i s  o f f e r e d t o t h e c i t i z e n o f t o d a y ; i t w o u l d be g r a n t e d by t h o s e people who p o s t u l a t e t h a t more money s h o u l d be spent on w e l f a r e , as by t h o s e who c l a i m t h a t Canada has gone t o o f a r a l r e a d y on " t h e road t o t h e welfare  state".  But how c a n such c o n t r o v e r s i e s be conducted i n a  r e a s o n a b l e and f r u i t f u l way,, as l o n g as t h e r e I s no adequate measurement m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e , i . e . s u f f i c i e n t s t a t i s t i c s I  Thus,, t h e  i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c as w e l l as t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l  - doctors,  t e a c h e r s , l a w y e r s , t o w n - p l a n n e r s as much as s o c i a l w o r k e r s - have a v i t a l i n t e r e s t I n t h e development o f more r e s e a r c h t h a t ' w i l l make a t e s t o f t h e need f o r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , o f t h e i r q u a l i t y and t h e i r effectiveness, possible. The need f o r such r e s e a r c h and t h e v i t a l r o l e i t has assumed i n 1  s o c i a l w e l f a r e and i n s o c i a l work i s s t a t e d by A l f r e d J.Kahn: "Research i s a major i n s t r u m e n t of a c c o u n t a b i l i t y i n t h i s decade of t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y . E v a l u a t i o n s o f accomplishment u l t i m a t e l y r e q u i r e r e s e a r c h o p e r a t i o n i f t h e r e i s t o be some assurance o f o b j e c t i v i t y and o f some degree o f p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t s e r v i c e and r e s u l t s a r e t r u l y r e l a t e d ; t h e r e a l p r o f e s s i o n cannot f o r e g o r e s e a r c h . T h i s remains t h e case when t h e consumer o f t h e s e r v i c e o r those xtfho meet t h e budgets 1 Kahn, A l f r e d J . ; " F a c i l i t a t i n g S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h " ; S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review; V o l . 3 0 , N o . 3 ; S e p t . 1 9 5 6 ; pp.331-31+6.  -  95  -  have c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e programme and i n t h e p r o c e s s , as w e l l as i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c data, as t o t h e v a l u e o f the e f f o r t s . I n an e a r l i e r e r a the p r o f e s s i o n c o u l d j u s t i f y i t s e l f hy i t s i n t e n t i o n s and i t s a c t i v i t i e s ; t o d a y we have t h e r i g h t t o ask f o r s y s t e m a t i c v a l i d a t i o n o f t h e p r o c e s s by w h i c h s e r v i c e i s undertaken." 1 2 David French,  w i t h h i s f i v e "canons" i s mapping out t h e b a s i c  steps  the e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h , c a l l e d f o r b y A l f r e d J.Kahn, must t a k e : 1. i d e n t i f y t h e g o a l s sought; 2. a n a l y z e t h e problem t o w h i c h s o c i a l work i s d i r e c t e d ; 3 . d e s c r i b e and s t a n d a r d i z e t h e a c t i v i t y or service; ft. measure t h e degree o f change; 5 . determine the cause and e f f e c t relationship. Such p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h , aiming  at i n t e n s i v e or extensive e v a l u -  a t i o n i s f a r ahead o f t h e "good h o u s e k e e p i n g " o f s t a t i s t i c s t h a t are c o l l e c t e d as p a r t of t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e s s .  I t r e q u i r e s as an  e s s e n t i a l base a b r o a d framework of b a s i c measurements o f the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n and i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o f t h e areas where t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s most v u l n e r a b l e t o economic and s o c i a l s t r e s s , where p r e s e n t  loads  of dependency are g r e a t e s t , and o f what t h e most common t y p e s o f dependency a r e . The p r e s e n t  s t u d y , t h a t a t t e m p t s t o e x p l o r e the s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e  f o r w e l f a r e measurements i n B r i t i s h Columbia, h a s been c o n f i n e d t o the p r o v i n c e as a " w e l f a r e base" f o r s p e c i a l r e a s o n s . L i m i t a t i o n s o f time d i c t a t e d r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the s t a t i s t i c s t o be examined. The p r o v i n c e was chosen as t h e a r e a o f e x p l o r a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l , because i t was f e l t t h a t , w h i l e n a t i o n a l and l o c a l s t u d i e s o f many k i n d s have been completed I n r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t numbers,  province-wide  s t u d i e s are f a r l e s s common. Y e t t h e p r o v i n c e s o f Canada are s t i l l 1 i b i d ; p.331 'Z F r e n c h , D a v i d ; M e a s u r i n g R e s u l t s I n S o c i a l Work; Chapter IV. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; New York;" 1952.  - 96  the major and most i m p o r t a n t  -  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s of many b a s i c w e l f a r e  s e r v i c e s , i n s p i t e of the g r e a t e x p a n s i o n  i n national welfare-legis-  l a t i o n t h a t has t a k e n p l a c e over the p a s t t e n o r twenty y e a r s . Thus, the p r o v i n c e s and  such p r o v i n c i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s as can be  are the l o g i c a l g e o g r a p h i c a l reference.  developed,  areas f o r w h i c h o v e r a l l d a t a must have  A f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the type of s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l  t h a t has t o be developed  f o r w e l f a r e measurements and r e s e a r c h , i s t h e  i n c r e a s i n g t r e n d , e s p e c i a l l y i n w e l f a r e m a t t e r s , of p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and l a r g e r c i t i e s inhere more and more o f t h e important  s e r v i c e s are becoming c o n c e n t r a t e d .  The need f o r comparable  p r o v i n c i a l s t a t i s t i c s has e x i s t e d e v e r s i n c e w e l f a r e programmes have been d e v e l o p e d  on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s .  I n the wake o f these n a t i o n a l  programmes, the p r o v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s were extended i n many a r e a s , more s o c i a l w o r k e r s were employed, improved f a c i l i t i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d . I n -some p r o v i n c e s , r e s e a r c h d i v i s i o n s were added t o the Departments x of Welfare  ; but b a s i c measurement i n x^elfare has n o t a b l y l a g g e d i n  comparison t o these advances.  T h i s l a g becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y apparent  when the developments o f r e s e a r c h i n w e l f a r e are compared w i t h t h e f i e l d of h e a l t h w h i c h has e x p e r i e n c e d expansion  d u r i n g the p a s t two  a s i m i l a r , i f not a g r e a t e r ,  decades.  H e a l t h measurements seem t o  have kept pace to a much g r e a t e r e x t e n t w i t h the development of h e a l t h s e r v i c e s . By t r a d i t i o n , r e s e a r c h has always been an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f medicine,  and t h i s t r a d i t i o n was  t r a n s f e r r e d t o the f i e l d o f p u b l i c  h e a l t h i n w h i c h the m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n p l a y s a v i t a l l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . There i s a l s o no doubt t h a t t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c e x p r e s s e s much more a p p r o v a l o f " h e a l t h " t h a n of " w e l f a r e " . w i d e l y accepted  Thus, r e s e a r c h i s much more  as an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the s e r v i c e i n h e a l t h t h a n i n  w e l f a r e . A n o t h e r f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the major r o l e o f r e s e a r c h i n x B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1952;  Saskatchewan i n  1959.  - 97 this f i e l d  i s the f a c t  b a s i c a l l y concerned illnesses.  that p u b l i c h e a l t h and epidemiology are  x^ith. the i n c i d e n c e o f d i s e a s e and c e r t a i n  Such programmes as t u b e r c u l o s i s c o n t r o l are c o n s t a n t l y  guided' by measurements of chest X-rays  and other d i a g n o s t i c data,  number of cases, of p a t i e n t s h o s p i t a l i z e d and d i s c h a r g e d and other data.  S i m i l a r measurements are maintained  venereal disease cases.  of p o l i o m y e l i t i s and  I t i s t r u e , perhaps, t h a t p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s  and d i s e a s e lend themselves b e t t e r t o measurement than phenomena i n w e l f a r e  such  as " p s y c h o - s o c i a l dependency", or " s o c i a l  d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n " , f o r which no c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and accepted norms exist.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , h e a l t h and x\relfare have many c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n common. There are many p a r a l l e l s I n t h e r o l e r e s e a r c h p l a y s i n h e a l t h , and the r o l e i t c o u l d and should p l a y i n w e l f a r e , and these should be brought f a r more x^idely and e f f e c t i v e l y Into use. In t h i s e x p l o r a t o r y examination  of s t a t i s t i c s f o r w e l f a r e measurement,  o n l y l i m i t e d m a t e r i a l s c o u l d be reviewed an o v e r a l l p r o v i n c i a l d e s c r i p t i o n . i n subject matter,  i n t h i s f i r s t approach t o  A comparable study,of wider scope  though more l i m i t e d i n g e o g r a p h i c a l area 1  (Greater Vancouver) d e a l s w i t h s i m i l a r problems . Some o f i t s c o n c l u s i o n s , of relevance to t h i s study, a r e r e f e r r e d t o at the end of t h i s The  Chapter.  Need f o r a R e g i o n a l Base - Need f o r S t a n d a r d i z a t i o n  In the preceding c h a p t e r s , the great wealth o f d a t a f o r w e l f a r e measurement a v a i l a b l e i n the Census and the s t a t i s t i c s of v a r i o u s government departments was i n d i c a t e d and, i n p a r t ,  statistically  1 Crawford, R.N., Dewalt, L.W., Esau, E . I . , and Gent leman,G.E.: A Research Inventory of Community Welfare S e r v i c e s ; ( B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver. 1 9 5 9 ) ; Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s ; U n i v e r s i t y o f t s r i t i s n Columbia; 1 9 5 9 .  - 98 presented.  But t h i s examination  a l s o made i t c l e a r , that at the  present time, where widely d i f f e r i n g g e o g r a p h i c a l areas f o r r e p o r t ing  d a t a are used by the departments, the l a r g e body of a v a i l a b l e  s t a t i s t i c s cannot be used to i t s f u l l p o t e n t i a l f o r w e l f a r e measurement and r e s e a r c h . The Department o f S o c i a l Welfare has developed for  a system of Regions  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes as have other departments, such as the  Department of H e a l t h  ( h e a l t h u n i t s ) , the Department of E d u c a t i o n  (school d i s t r i c t s ) and the N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e and Unemployment Insurance vital  the  Commission (a system of l o c a l o f f i c e s ) . For  s t a t i s t i c s , the d i v i s i o n s and s u b d i v i s i o n s of the Census are  used as " s t a t i s t i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n a r e a s " .  The  s i z e of the  and the great d i f f e r e n c e s i n the socio-economic  Province  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of  the v a r i o u s areas of p o p u l a t i o n c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia are major reasons f o r the need of r e g i o n a l d i v i s i o n s .  The v a l u e and  importance of r e g i o n a l comparisons i n w e l f a r e measurements has been i l l u s t r a t e d .  the  already  While s i n g l e f i g u r e s f o r the "province as a whole"  are necessary f o r comparison w i t h other p r o v i n c e s and the e s t a b l i s h i n g of  o v e r a l l t r e n d s , they f a i l  to g i v e an i n d i c a t i o n of the  d i f f e r e n c e s between the v a r i o u s r e g i o n s , and  relative  of the i n c i d e n c e of  major problems and needs. Thus, two major areas of immediate concern f o r w e l f a r e r e s e a r c h i n B r i t i s h Columbia emerge: (1) the need f o r d e v e l o p i n g from the e x i s t i n g Census d i v i s i o n s s u b - d i v i s i o n s new  areas of approximately homogeneous s o c i a l  and and  economic s t r u c t u r e that c o u l d serve as "base areas" f o r the measurement of such demographic and socio-economic that have s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r welfare p l a n n i n g .  characteristics  - 99 (2)  -  the need f o r developing Regions of the Department Welfare  t h a t correspond w i t h the boundaries  of S o c i a l  of these  "base  areas". The achievement of these two o b j e c t i v e s would provide the b a s i s f o r the c o l l e c t i o n o f u s e f u l demographic and socio-economic  data and  agency s t a t i s t i c s f o r the measurement of w e l f a r e problems and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a g a i n s t the background of the s o c i a l and economic s t r u c t u r e of the p o p u l a t i o n as a whole w i t h i n these  "base a r e a s " .  Purposeful  and v a l i d measurement and r e s e a r c h w^ould become p o s s i b l e . A system of s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g i o n s of r e p o r t i n g would r e s u l t i n a c o - o r d i n a t e d c o l l e c t i n g and r e p o r t i n g of a l l s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s would permit the development of a body of :  i n t e g r a t e d i n f o r m a t i o n showing the s o c i a l and economic  characteristics  of each r e g i o n , which x^ould then be r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l k i n d s of measurement i n w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , , employment, i n d u s t r y and other fields.  T h e r e f o r e , the primary need at the present  time appears to  be a great e f f o r t of c o l l a b o r a t i o n between those p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l departments and agencies t h a t are r e p o r t i n g s t a t i s t i c s , to c r e a t e new  standard base areas of measurement.  The c o - o p e r a t i o n of  the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s would a l s o have t o be e n l i s t e d f o r the a d a p t a t i o n o f the Census d i v i s i o n s and s u b d i v i s i o n s to these x areas.  Through such an e f f o r t , , data could be brought together  f o r each r e g i o n on the age d i s t r i b u t i o n , families,  school population,working  s i z e and composition  of  force, elderly population,  x T h i s problem of s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of area boundaries f o r adminis t r a t i v e and s t a t i s t i c a l purposes i s b e i n g s u c c e s s f u l l y attacked In the Province of Saskatchewan, f o l l o w i n g the recommendations of the Royal Commission on " A g r i c u l t u r e and R u r a l . L i f e i n Saskatchewan", the s o - c a l l e d Baker Commission (195/4.).  - 100  -  o c c u p a t i o n a l and income d i s t r i b u t i o n , housing,, d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n and i m m i g r a n t s , h o u s i n g , and o t h e r Items.  the e x t e n t of u r b a n i z a t i o n  Such d a t a would p e r m i t t o e s t a b l i s h the s o c i o -  economic l e v e l of each r e g i o n ; they c o u l d serve as base f o r p l a n n i n g i n w e l f a r e , h e a l t h , education, housing  and i n d u s t r i a l developments.  The B a s i c S o c i a l D a t a Examined, i n t h i s Study Because of the l i m i t e d scope of t h i s s t u d y , o n l y r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d be  examined.  few  They were s e l e c t e d m a i n l y f r o m t h e  Census, because the Census s t i l l c o n s t i t u t e s the major source  of  b a s i c p o p u l a t i o n measurements and socio-economic d a t a . The  d a t a examined i n d i c a t e a r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e i n B r i t i s h  Columbia w h i c h i s based on i n - m i g r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n on n a t u r a l increase.  T h i s i n c r e a s e i s accompanied by an i n c r e a s i n g r a t e of  urbanization.  At p r e s e n t , n e a r l y one h a l f of the t o t a l  l i v e s i n the G r e a t e r Vancouver and Lower M a i n l a n d  population  area which manifests  a l l t y p i c a l f e a t u r e s of u r b a n i z a t i o n w i t h the decreased g r o w t h of the c e n t r a l c i t y , the i n c r e a s e d r a t e of growth of the suburban m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the s p i l l i n g over of the p o p u l a t i o n i n t o the n e i g h b o u r ing r u r a l areas.  A n o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s t r e n d , the exodus  of young f a m i l i e s from the c e n t r a l c i t y area which r e s u l t s i n an i n c r e a s e i n the p r o p o r t i o n of e l d e r l y people,, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s of a l l these developments i n h e r e n t i n u r b a n i z a t i o n f o r w e l f a r e were a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d .  The  examination  planning  of the p a t t e r n of growth  w i t h i n t h e P r o v i n c e p o i n t e d t o a s i m i l a r development, though on a s m a l l e r s c a l e , i n the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a a r e a .  The  rapid population  i n c r e a s e i n c e r t a i n areas of B r i t i s h Columbia, e s p e c i a l l y i n the P r i n c e George a r e a and i n the Peace R i v e r Country was  also noted.  - 101  -  I m m i g r a t i o n f r o m o v e r s e a s a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was f o u n d t o be a n important element  of p o p u l a t i o n growth.  I t was f e l t  that this  a r e a where much more i s n e e d e d i n d e t a i l e d m e a s u r e m e n t s and  i s an  statistics, x  s i n c e immigrants are a group of p a r t i c u l a r concern t o w e l f a r e . It  i s q u i t e apparent t h a t i n p e r i o d s o f d e c r e a s e d economic  activity,  immigrants have p a r t i c u l a r problems t o e s t a b l i s h themselves i n t h e i r new e n v i r o n m e n t .  I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i t m i g h t be c o n s i d e r e d t h a t  t h e r e a r e two k i n d s o f " i m m i g r a n t s " ; t h o s e who come f r o m a n o v e r s e a s c o u n t r y and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , a n d t h o s e m o v i n g f r o m o t h e r p a r t s o f Canada t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  Y e t , we do n o t know e n o u g h , how g r e a t  and how x i r i d e s p r e a d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  are w i t h which t h i s  e s p e c i a l l y the immigrant o f a d i f f e r e n t  group,  ethnic background, has t o  cope. The  e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e age d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n I n d i c a t e d a  p r o p o r t i o n o f e l d e r l y p e o p l e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a xtfhich i s much h i g h e r than i n a l l other Canadian p r o v i n c e s .  The c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f e l d e r l y  p e o p l e i n t h e tx^ro m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s , e s p e c i a l l y i n V a n c o u v e r and V i c t o r i a C i t y , was a l s o n o t e d .  City  I t was f u r t h e r shown t h a t t h e  p r o p o r t i o n o f w i d o w e d o r s i n g l e e l d e r l y p e r s o n s was h i g h e s t i n t h e C i t y of Vancouver.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g , t h e  need f o r a l l k i n d s o f s e r v i c e s f o r t h e aged, are  and t h e n e e d f o r h o u s i n g ,  clear.  D a t a on h o u s e h o l d s and f a m i l i e s i n d i c a t e d t h e r e l a t i v e l y h i g h p e r c e n t age o f " n o n - f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d s " a s w e l l  as " h o u s e h o l d s w i t h two a n d  more f a m i l i e s " i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . The f o r m e r c a n be a c c e p t e d a s x An MSW T h e s i s , c o m p l e t e d i n 1959 r e p r e s e n t s a s t u d y i n t h i s a r e a ; Damm, E v a , M e n t a l I l l n e s s and M i g r a t i o n S t r e s s ; an a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y o f a c o m p a r a t i v e g r o u p o f German i m m i g r a n t s and C a n a d i a n - b o r n p a t i e n t s , h o s p i t a l i z e d at t h e Crease C l i n i c of P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e d i c i n e , Essondale, B.C. 1953-1958; M a s t e r o f S o c i a l '.•Work'. T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959.  - 102  -  a measure of the p r o p o r t i o n of s i n g l e , unattached  persons; the  latter  i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the p r o p o r t i o n of overcrowded households.  Both  phenomena have important  and  housing.  i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r planning i n welfare  Data on the composition  of f a m i l i e s r e v e a l a f a c t not  g e n e r a l l y known, namely, a c o n c e n t r a t i o n of f a m i l i e s w i t h one  parent  i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n area e s p e c i a l l y i n Vancouver C i t y . The  i l l e g i t i m a c y r a t e i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s the h i g h e s t i n Canada  (with the e x c e p t i o n of the Yukon and the North-West T e r r i t o r i e s ) . T h i s phenomenon i s of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g , since s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to t h i s problem c o n s t i t u t e a major p a r t of the c h i l d w e l f a r e programme. of unmarried  The  s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l t h a t a g r e a t number  mothers come from other p a r t s of Canada, or even other  c o u n t r i e s , to B r i t i s h Columbia x-jhere they give b i r t h to an mate c h i l d .  The  illegiti-  a v a i l a b l e measurements, however, do not g i v e i n f o r m -  a t i o n about the a c t u a l i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h r a t e of the " e s t a b l i s h e d p o p u l a t i o n " of the Although  Province.  the range of s t a t i s t i c s examined i n Chapter  2 was  very  l i m i t e d , the e x i s t e n c e of l a r g e groups of people \-iho are the p a r t i c u l a r concern of w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g was  r e v e a l e d . Such  groups are the aged, f a m i l i e s w i t h one parent, immigrants, mothers.  unmarried  A l l measurements agree In i n d i c a t i n g a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h  p r o p o r t i o n of the working f o r c e as occupied i n b a s i c i n d u s t r i e s ,  and  t h i s i s important because of the s p e c i a l economic v u l n e r a b i l i t y of . t h i s group.  The  data examined i n d i c a t e a h i g h and s t i l l i n c r e a s i n g  r a t e of u r b a n i z a t i o n , m o b i l i t y , d i v o r c e , and i l l e g i t i m a c y , phenomena of great An examination subdivisions  all  significance f o r welfare planning.  of Census d a t a on the b a s i s of Census d i v i s i o n s was  not attempted f o r reasons  and  of l i m i t e d time; but  also  - 103 because these  a r e a s do n o t l e n d t h e m s e l v e s  f o rcomparison  s t a t i s t i c s r e p o r t e d b y t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e .  with Some  r e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s t e c h n i c a l p r o b l e m must be f o u n d . A l t h o u g h o n l y some b a s i c s o c i a l d a t a c o u l d be e x a m i n e d , r e f e r e n c e was made t o o t h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e C e n s u s , and o t h e r  i m p o r t a n t t y p e s o f d a t a and t h e i r s o u r c e s , such as t h e D o m i n i o n Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , t h e Department o f Labour, S e r v i c e a n d t h e Unemployment I n s u r a n c e H e a l t h were enumerated.  Commission,the Department o f  M e n t i o n w a s a l s o made of t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  s p e c i a l studies undertaken The  t h e N a t i o n a l Employment  by v a r i o u s departments  and a g e n c i e s .  development o f a s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g i o n a l base f o r t h e r e p o r t i n g o f  statistics present system  o f a l l these departments  s i t u a t i o n , where almost  remains  as a major need.  every department uses  o f r e g i o n s , p r e s e n t s an insurmountable  studies, which  The  a different  barrier f o r regional  are a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r e f f e c t i v e p l a n n i n g , n o t alone  in welfare. Public Welfare  Statistics  As i n t h e a r e a o f b a s i c s o c i a l d a t a , a c o m p r e h e n s i v e  examination of  p u b l i c x ^ e l f a r e d a t a was n o t p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e o f l i m i t a t i o n s The  of time.  p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e programmes, t h a t m a i n l y d e a l w i t h needs  arising  o u t o f economic d e p e n d e n c y w e r e s e l e c t e d f o r e x a m i n a t i o n , b e c a u s e  they  c o n s t i t u t e a m a j o r p a r t o f t h e w e l f a r e s e r v i c e and r e a c h t h e g r e a t e s t number o f p e o p l e . The  s t a t i s t i c s w e r e e x a m i n e d f o r d a t a t h e y m i g h t p r o v i d e o n t h e number  of cases o f f i n a n c i a l and  dependency, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n  on t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  i n t i m e and a r e a ,  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e c i p i e n t s t h a t c o u l d  - 101+  -  be compared w i t h the socio-economic population.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the t o t a l  They were analyzed by programme, on a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s  and, where p o s s i b l e , on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s . g r e a t l y handicapped  The  was  by the p a u c i t y o f r e g i o n a l data i n the Annual  Reports, that r a r e l y go beyond a simple count p r a c t i c a l l y no  l a t t e r attempt  of cases and  offer  s o c i a l and economic data on the p o p u l a t i o n of t h e  Regions. (a) The No  l a c k of r e g i o n a l data  accurate p o p u l a t i o n counts are a v a i l a b l e f o r the d i f f e r e n t  of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare.  In the annual r e p o r t s , the  estimated p o p u l a t i o n i s g i v e n f o r some Regions; are o f f e r e d at a l l .  w i t h the Census c o m p i l a t i o n areas, i t appears  compile  f o r o t h e r s , no  Since the Regional boundaries  the exact p o p u l a t i o n of each Region.  Regions  do not  data  correspond  impossible to a s c e r t a i n  The w r i t e r has attempted  to  an approximate p o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e f o r each Region from the  a v a i l a b l e p o p u l a t i o n data of the School D i s t r i c t s of B r i t i s h Columbia f o r 1951*  1956  and 1 9 5 8 .  But no  demographic or socio-economic  c o u l d be o b t a i n e d f o r the Regions.  data  Thus, at the present time, i t i s  impossible t o b r i n g t o g e t h e r the e s s e n t i a l d a t a needed t o assess the scope and prevalence of w e l f a r e problems i n each Region. T h i s i s w e l l known to Departmental  personnel.  The Annual Report f o r 1 9 5 k ,  for  example, s t a t e d , t h a t " u n t i l such time as the r e g i o n a l .boundaries can be a l t e r e d to correspond w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d census areas or a l t e r n a t e 'base' areas, i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to p r o v i d e adequate estimates of p o p u l a t i o n , and t h e r e f o r e , of i n c i d e n c e of s o c i a l breakdown" 1 o The  Report  on the "Study of S t a t i s t i c a l Methods"—  completed  in  1956,  1 Annual Report 1 9 5 k ; DSW; o p . c i t . , p.11 1 "Study of S t a t i s t i c a l Methods; F a r t I I ; The Recording and R e p o r t i n g of S t a t i s t i c s ; Department of H e a l t h and Welfare, S o c i a l Welfare Branch; V i c t o r i a , B.C.; December 1 9 5 6 .  - 105  -  s e r i o u s l y q u e s t i o n e d the f e a s i b i l i t y of the e x i s t i n g r e g i o n a l administrative units. has become not merely  "The  problem of r e g i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s .  . . .  an a r i t h m e t i c e x e r c i s e but r a t h e r has become  a problem very c l o s e l y a l l i e d to the b i g g e r problem of the f e a s i b i l i t y  1  of the present r e g i o n as the proper u n i t of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n " . (b) The methods of r e p o r t i n g w e l f a r e d a t a ; I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r w e l f a r e research Three b a s i c r e s e a r c h questions have been posed (Chapter 3 ) , f o r which answers were sought  i n the s t a t i s t i c s of the Department of S o c i a l  Welfare: 1. How  many people are b e i n g a i d e d through p u b l i c p r o v i s i o n s ?  2. Where do these people  live?  3. What are t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l and economic characteristics?. The  data t o be examined were s e l e c t e d from three areas of s e r v i c e :  c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes, s o c i a l allowance It was  and f a m i l y s e r v i c e .  found t h a t no u n i f o r m method of r e p o r t i n g has been adopted  the d i f f e r e n t s e r v i c e s .  Thus, while some v a l i d answers could be  found r e l a t i v e t o the q u e s t i o n s one i n answering services  for  and two,  d a t a that would a s s i s t  q u e s t i o n t h r e e were o n l y a v a i l a b l e f o r one group of  ( c a t e g o r i c a l a s s i s t a n c e programmes). Data o f t h i s kind are  s i m i l a r t o the s o c i a l and  economic i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t i s c o l l e c t e d by  the Census; they are indeed o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as "case census of recipients".  Such m a t e r i a l would c o n t a i n data on the age  of r e c i p i e n t s , sex and m a r i t a l s t a t u s , f a m i l y s i z e and  distribution  composition,  type of accommodation, and d i s t r i b u t i o n of occupation, income and property.  The  data would permit the measuring of the  social  economic l e v e l o f r e c i p i e n t s of w e l f a r e programmes, and 1  ibid,  p.69  and  t h i s c o u l d be  - 106 compared w i t h t h e s o c i a l  and e c o n o m i c l e v e l  Such measurements w o u l d r e v e a l undetected, of people  of the t o t a l population.  s p e c i a l n e e d s t h a t may o t h e r w i s e go  s u c h as m a r g i n a l i n c o m e , i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g ,  living  alone. A study of the occupational structure of  s o c i a l alloxtfance r e c i p i e n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , w o u l d a l s o h a v e significance f o r understanding unemployed- p e r s o n . great importance  s p e c i a l needs  the problem  wider  of t h e able-bodied  The d e t e c t i o n o f s p e c i a l n e e d s o f r e c i p i e n t s i s o f  f o r I n t r o d u c i n g needed m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n t h e e x i s t i n g  s e r v i c e s o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f new a u x i l i a r y of the socio-economic  services.  The  comparison  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s group w i t h the t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n x^ould a l s o a l l o w some m e a s u r e m e n t o f t h e g r e a t e r i n t e n s i t y o f c e r t a i n n e e d s and p r o b l e m s among t h e r e c i p i e n t s . may s e r v e t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  m e a s u r e m e n t s o f new r e c i p i e n t s o f O l d Age  A s s i s t a n c e t h a t were e x a m i n e d I n C h a p t e r among t h i s group, a m a r k e d l y  A s an e x a m p l e  3'  The s t a t i s t i c s r e v e a l e d  higher percentage  o f p e r s o n s widowe'd, o r  s i n g l e and l i v i n g u n a t t a c h e d , t h a n among t h e t o t a l g r o u p o f e l d e r l y people.  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e income l e v e l  o f new  recipients  i n d i c a t e d t h a t a m a j o r p r o p o r t i o n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 5 p . c . ) l i v e s on a m a r g i n a l budget; whatsoever.  more t h a n h a l f o f t h e new r e c i p i e n t s h a v e no s a v i n g s  A l l t h e s e f i n d i n g s have most i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  t h e w e l f a r e programmes d e s i g n e d f o r t h i s g r o u p .  Needs i n t h e a r e a o f  a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g a r e i n d i c a t e d a s much a s s e r v i c e s t h a t h e l p p e o p l e b r e a k t h e i r l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n . l e v e l o f many r e c i p i e n t s  stresses the v i t a l  elderly  The m a r g i n a l i n c o m e importance  of a u x i l i a r y  s e r v i c e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n h e a l t h and m e d i c a l c a r e , t h a t a r e needed t o h e l p t h e r e c i p i e n t cope w i t h any s i t u a t i o n o f c r i s i s , , o r s o c i a l and economic s t r e s s .  I t raises,  l a s t not l e a s t , the q u e s t i o n of the  adequacy o f the p r e s e n t a l l o w a n c e  and t h e n e e d t o e x a m i n e t h i s  problem.  - 107  -  Thus, s o c i o - e c o n o m i c d a t a about r e c i p i e n t s are e s s e n t i a l t o o l s f o r ' evaluating the n e e d s f o r new intensive  q u a l i t y of present services.  s t u d i e s and  They a r e  The  a great  though l a r g e l y unused, i n the m o s t a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s and pensioners.  D a t a on  the  programmes  deal of m a t e r i a l i s already socio-economic data that  OASSA, DPA,  could provide  d a t a on t h e  t h e number o f "new  permit the  figure Includes  t h u s , has  Census d a t a ,  i t c a n be  e n t i r e year.  years.  total population  of the  r e c i p i e n t s -of t h e v a r i o u s  programmes u n t i l a few  made.  r e p o r t i n g s u c h d a t a was  a c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e number o f  with  these age  significant  r e c i p i e n t s , since  d e t a i l e d f i g u r e s on t h e  31st,  number o f  eligible  however, to determine  report  be  as  These d a t a  Through comparison  number o f R e g i o n s d i d n o t  now  "number  at March  d e t e r m i n e d what p e r c e n t a g e o r r a t i o  a u n i f o r m method of  the  of  count i s p o s s i b l e  i n t h e movement o f t h e  a p p l i c a n t s over the  I t i s almost impossible,  R e g i o n s , and  of  " c a s e s i n pay"  A more a c c u r a t e  c h a n g e s i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e  19^8  on  only l i m i t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e ,  r e c i p i e n t s " w i t h i n the  r e c i p i e n t s c o n s t i t u t e of the group.  found  t h i s group  t o t a l number o f " r e c i p i e n t s " as  e s t a b l i s h i n g of trends  r e c i p i e n t s and  For  the Annual Reports give  except f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes.  and  can be  a u s e f u l base f o r s p e c i a l  programmes.  BPA), This  " p e n d i n g c a s e s " and  through the  available,  type.  o f c a s e s " as a t M a r c h 3 1 s t . w e l l as  cause-effect  need f o r such s t u d i e s a p p l i e s t o a l l  categorical assistance (OAA,  the  periodical re-inspection reports  Such i n f o r m a t i o n  studies of t h i s  detecting  a l s o a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r more  measurements d e a l i n g w i t h  r e l a t i o n s h i p of problems. a r e a s o f s e r v i c e , and  s e r v i c e s as w e l l as f o r  a  numbers o f  y e a r s ago.  Only i n  adopted by a l l  r e c i p i e n t s by  Region  can  - 108 The  Annual  t h e new  Reports  -  o f f e r a l i m i t e d number o f s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  r e c i p i e n t s o f OAA,  DPA  and BPA.  data  on  These d a t a r e p r e s e n t a s t e p  i n the d i r e c t i o n of d e v e l o p i n g a "census"  of public assistance  r e c i p i e n t s , t h a t c a n be u s e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n  and m e a s u r e m e n t x ^ i t h t h e  d a t a o f t h e C e n s u s o f C a n a d a , i . e . w i t h d a t a on t h e p o p u l a t i o n as whole.  Such d a t a are e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l f o r a s s e s s i n g the i n t e n s i t y  c e r t a i n , n e e d s and p r o b l e m s among t h e r e c i p i e n t s and the p o p u l a t i o n . Annual  a  Reports  significant  A l t h o u g h the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  f o r new  c e r t a i n groups  of  data are g i v e n i n t h e  r e c i p i e n t s o n l y , t h e y c a n be  for a l lrecipients  of  accepted  as  of.OAA, s i n c e t h i s g r o u p c a n be  t o be more homogeneous i n i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a n a n y  other  assumed  segment  of the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n . Data  on S o c i a l A l l o x j a n c e :  The  programme do n o t i n c l u d e any except  statistics  socio-economic  a breakdown of the c l i e n t e l e i n t o  "dependents"  and  of the S o c i a l  "single recipients".  Allowance  d a t a on t h e  "heads o f  recipients  families",  T h i s p o i n t s t o a v i t a l gap  in  d a t a n e e d e d f o r t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f a programme t h a t h a s b e e n g r e a t l y extended  i n i t s s c o p e d u r i n g t h e r e c e n t y e a r s and i s . d e s i g n e d t o meet,  the needs of persons l a r g e l y persons .programmes.  The  from  almost  a l l segments o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ,  t h a t are not e l i g i b l e  f o r any o f t h e o t h e r a s s i s t a n c e  d a t a r e p o r t e d a r e t o o l i m i t e d t o p e r m i t any  ment o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s and  a d e q u a c y o f t h e programme; n o r a r e  d a t a a v a i l a b l e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e c o m p o s i t i o n and o f t h e SA c l i e n t e l e .  Any  assess-  attempt  to c o l l e c t  the  characteristics  significant  socio-  e c o n o m i c d a t a on SA r e c i p i e n t s i s , o f c o u r s e , i n f i n i t e l y more t h a n on OAA and c h a n g i n g by  recipients.  The  difficult  SA c l i e n t e l e c o n s t i t u t e s a h i g h l y  group of a v e r y heterogeneous  any  nature. While  OAA  mobile  recipients  and l a r g e , a r e r e m a i n i n g on a s s i s t a n c e f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s , a s s i s t a n c e  - 109 to SA a p p l i c a n t s i s g e n e r a l l y of a much more temporary, term n a t u r e .  Hence the extreme d i f f i c u l t i e s  short-  i n obtaining v a l i d  measurements o f t h e socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s N e v e r t h e l e s s , g a i n i n g more knowledge about the people who  group. are  a p p l y i n g f o r SA must be one of the major o b j e c t i v e s of w e l f a r e research.  I f we want to appraise the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s and the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the programme, we  require pertinent  data that  enables us t o understand some of the causes that make people dependent  on SA.  We must attempt to e s t a b l i s h , whether there are  other reasons f o r the economic dependency o f the SA a p p l i c a n t s than merely l a c k of j o b s , and what the nature of such reasons might I t i s a l s o e s s e n t i a l to determine  be.  the average p e r i o d of time f o r  which SA r e c i p i e n t s remain on a s s i s t a n c e , and whether the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d meet the needs the c l i e n t s are e x p r e s s i n g .  Data that would  h e l p us f i n d answers to such v i t a l q u e s t i o n s are not a v a i l a b l e i n x the Annual Reports on the SA programme. For s e v e r a l y e a r s the number of SA r e c i p i e n t s has been r e p o r t e d by Region and m u n i c i p a l o f f i c e . The d a t a g i v e n permit the measurement of the c h r o n o l o g i c a l and g e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e c i p i e n t s ; the r e l a t i v e i n c i d e n c e of economic breakdown that r e s u l t s i n f i n a n c i a l dependency can be measured.  The e v a l u a t i o n of these  f i g u r e s , attempted i n Chapter 3, i n d i c a t e d a number o f areas w i t h p e r s i s t e n t l y h i g h r a t e s of s o c i a l allowance r e c i p i e n t s ; the most important ones are l o c a t e d i n the suburban  areas o f the Lower  Mainland and i n the o n e - i n d u s t r y d i s t r i c t s and communities  of the  I n t e r i o r , as i n the Okanagan ( f r u i t - p i c k i n g ) , the Peace R i v e r country and the P r i n c e George and P r i n c e Rupert area (lumbering, ;V But the Report on the "Adequacy of S o c i a l Allowance Rates"; r e f e r r e d to s e v e r a l times i n t h i s study, i s a most u s e f u l document d e a l i n g w i t h such problems f o r the •. are a of Vancouver C i t y .  - 110 mining, f i s h i n g ) . The  monthly s t a t i s t i c s , c o m p i l e d b y • t h e Research and S t a t i s t i c s  S e c t i o n o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e s i n c e 1957, u s e f u l source f o r measurements of-many k i n d s .  a r e a most  I n t h i s study  (Chapter 3) t h e y were used f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l bution of a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r S o c i a l Allowance. these d a t a r e v e a l e d  distri-  The e x a m i n a t i o n o f  a r i s i n g r a t e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s s i n c e 1958 w h i c h  appears t o i m p l y t h a t t h e p a t t e r n of t h e post-war y e a r s which was t y p i f i e d by seasonal unemployment r e s u l t i n g i n a h i g h number o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e a p p l i c a t i o n s i n e a r l y w i n t e r and a r e d u c t i o n of t h e number of r e c i p i e n t s during existent.  s p r i n g and summer t o a minimum, i s no l o n g e r  I t was p o i n t e d o u t , t h a t a v a l i d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e f i g u r e s  would r e q u i r e comparison w i t h . t h e  s t a t i s t i c s o f N a t i o n a l Employment  S e r v i c e and t h e Unemployment I n s u r a n c e Commission. Data o f Family  Service;  The d a t a on t h i s s e r v i c e a r e very l i m i t e d  and do n o t go beyond the r e p o r t i n g o f the number o f c a s e s f o r t h e Province  and f o r each R e g i o n .  Data on t h e socio-economic s t a t u s o f  the f a m i l i e s r e c e i v i n g s e r v i c e s are n o t g i v e n .  N e i t h e r a r e the t y p e s  of problems i n d i c a t e d t h a t b r i n g f a m i l i e s t o t h e agency.  I t must be  remembered t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o c l a s s i f y such problems I n t h e absence o f any agreed-upon s t a n d a r d s .  However, b e t t e r knowledge about  the n a t u r e and t h e scope of t h e most commonly o c c u r r i n g problems causing  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n f a m i l y r e l a t l o n s h i p s , and a l s o b e t t e r knowledge  about t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a p p r a i s i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the s e r v i c e o f f e r e d . D a t a on C h i l d W e l f a r e :  No attempt was made t o examine d a t a on C h i l d  Welfare Services i n the Province,  a f t e r i t was r e a l i s e d t h a t t h e  - Ill s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e i n the Annual Reports v e r y b a s i c r e s e a r c h purposes.  are too l i m i t e d f o r even  Furthermore,  s i n c e 1956  the Annual  Reports no l o n g e r i n c l u d e d a t a about the c h i l d r e n i n care of the three G h i l d r e n s ' A i d S o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. of  The  statistics  these p r i v a t e agencies, however, v a r y to an extent i n the type of  data given and the method of r e p o r t i n g , which r e s u l t s i n almost l o s s of completeness,  c l a r i t y and u n i f o r m i t y of data.  counts as the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n care of the of  C h i l d Welfare  Even such b a s i c Superintendent  and the C h i l d r e n s ' A i d S o c i e t i e s and the  s t a t u s of these c h i l d r e n can be obtained only w i t h great from the r e c o r d s of the agencies  total  legal difficulty  concerned.  Other data a v a i l a b l e i n the Annual Reports:  Further  statistics  g i v e n i n the annual r e p o r t s , but not examined i n t h i s study,  are  a v a i l a b l e f o r the M e d i c a l S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n t h a t m a i n t a i n s a programme of paying the c o s t s of needy persons f o r m e d i c a l , d e n t a l and o p t i c a l c a r e , drugs, and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to treatment  facilities.  S t a t i s t i c s are a l s o r e p o r t e d by the I n d u s t r i a l School f o r Boys, the I n d u s t r i a l School f o r G i r l s ,  and the P r o v i n c i a l Home f o r the Aged and  I n f i r m i n Kamloops.  are p r o v i d e d about the p r i v a t e w e l f a r e  institutions Board  Reports  s u p e r v i s e d and l i c e n s e d by the Welfare  Institutions  and about the S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department of the D i v i s i o n o f  T u b e r c u l o s i s C o n t r o l , the l a t t e r being of a l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e n a t u r e .  Some F u r t h e r Needs The primary need r e v e a l e d by the examination for  of p u b l i c w e l f a r e d a t a  B r i t i s h Columbia i s the need f o r more r e g i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s ;  about the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of each Region,  the s o c i a l  data  and  economic l e v e l of I t s p o p u l a t i o n as w e l l as data about w e l f a r e  - 112 programmes and r e c i p i e n t s .  I t seems i m p e r a t i v e f o r w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g  and w e l f a r e m e a s u r e m e n t , t h a t t h e R e g i o n and t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e of  this  -  s i z e o f the p o p u l a t i o n o f  s i z e are determined.  study, the w r i t e r attempted  each  For the  purpose  to e s t a b l i s h the p o p u l a t i o n of  each Region t h r o u g h the c o m p i l a t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n o f the s c h o o l districts  of the Province.  The  difficulties i n collecting  socio-  economic d a t a f o r each R e g i o n from t h e m a t e r i a l of the Census o t h e r s o u r c e s t h a t w i l l r e m a i n i n e x i s t e n c e as l o n g as t h e of  the Regions  boundaries  do n o t c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h e d C e n s u s  divisions  and  s u b - d i v i s i o n s and t h e o t h e r r e p o r t i n g  The  e f f o r t o f c r e a t i n g "base a r e a s " f o r measurement u s e d b y the Census  and a l l Government d e p a r t m e n t s  reporting statistics  a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r the f u l l u t i l i z a t i o n x for  a l l k i n d s o f measurement .  to  collect  socio-economic  at  least  of  statistics,  f o r the major  s t u d i e s would  a r e a s , was  and  p o i n t e d out'.  was  stressed  of the a v a i l a b l e  statistics  I t seems, h o w e v e r , e n t i r e l y  d a t a f r o m t h e C e n s u s and  c e n t r e s w i t h i n each Region.  other  feasible  statistics  I n the absence  c o v e r i n g the e n t i r e p o p t i l a t l o n o f a Region, a l s o be u s e f u l ;  as  descriptive  such s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been g i v e n i n the Annual  Reports by  certain  Regions. An e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e A n n u a l  Reports over the p a s t decade  indicates  s u c c e s s f u l . e f f o r t s t o s t a n d a r d i z e the r e p o r t i n g of r e g i o n a l In  the l a s t  report available  statistics  are r e p o r t e d by  comparative  measurements.  (1958), a l m o s t  statistics.  i d e n t i c a l types of  a l l R e g i o n s , and t h i s g r e a t l y  facilitates  x A change o f R e g i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g w i t h Census d i v i s i o n s or p o s s i b l e f u t u r e "base a r e a s " was one o f t h e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e R e p o r t on "The R e c o r d i n g and R e p o r t i n g o f S t a t i s t i c s " , p r e p a r e d f o r t h e D e p a r t ment o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e I n 1 9 5 6 ; ( s e e page 10k).  - 113  -  The r e l a t i v e absence o f socio-economic d a t a about r e c i p i e n t s was d i s c u s s e d i n Chapters 3 and I4..  I t i s perhaps worth m e n t i o n i n g a g a i n ,  t h a t much o f t h i s type o f m a t e r i a l i s a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e on a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m s , r e - i n s p e c t i o n forms and o t h e r r e p o r t s , and i t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the  major e f f o r t s i n t h e a r e a o f socio-economic d a t a s h o u l d l i e i n  the  e x t r a c t i o n o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e s e s o u r c e s and i n b r i n g i n g  i t t o g e t h e r i n t o a form x-jhich l e n d s i t s e l f f o r measurements. Another need r e v e a l e d by t h e e x a m i n a t i o n o f s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l i s the  need f o r more s p e c i a l counts and s t u d i e s , x^hich d e a l n o t o n l y w i t h  the  e x t e n t o f a problem, but a l s o w i t h the people a f f l i c t e d and the  p o s s i b l e causes o f t h e problem. the  An example o f t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y i s  Report on t h e "Adequacy o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e s " t o which r e f e r e n c e  was made i n Chapter 1 .  The need f o r s t u d i e s o f the immigrant popu-  l a t i o n and the e x t e n t o f u n m a r r i e d motherhood i n the P r o v i n c e has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d o u t .  Another a r e a o f study appears t o be t h e  problem o f t h e persons unemployable  or d i f f i c u l t t o p l a c e i n j o b s .  T h i s i s an a r e a o f i n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n t h a t demands s p e c i a l and s p e c i a l c o u n t s . are  studies  We need t o knox-j much more about the people t h a t  p h y s i c a l l y o r m e n t a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d , t h a t have o n l y l i m i t e d  education or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g .  Counts o f t h e number o f t h e s e people  and s t u d i e s o f the n a t u r e o f t h e i r h a n d i c a p a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r the planning i n w e l f a r e ( r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , s h e l t e r e d workshops), h e a l t h ( p h y s i c a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n ) , and e d u c a t i o n ( p r o v i s i o n o f adequate and appropriate t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s ) .  No doubt, a g r e a t w e a l t h o f d a t a  and i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be e x t r a c t e d from r e c o r d s and a p p l i c a t i o n forms kept by t h e a g e n c i e s t h a t a r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h i s group. They form an i m p o r t a n t source and a v a l u a b l e supplement f o r such s p e c i a l c o u n t s and s t u d i e s as s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n f o r more i n t e n s i v e measurement of  - 114 welfare  -  n e e d s - o f e x i s t i n g p r o b l e m s on t h e  evaluation  o f e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s on t h e  one  h a n d , and  the  other. 1  The  R e s e a r c h I n v e n t o r y o f Community W e l f a r e  A l a r g e b o d y o f d e m o g r a p h i c and i n the and  statistics  of  p r o v i n c i a l , now  adds c o n s t a n t l y  Services  s o c i o - economic d a t a , i n  exists.  t o our  The  resources.  i n c r e a s i n g number o f One  m o s t n e e d e d and geographically  a r e a s of community w e l f a r e m o s t l i k e l y t o be  t o the  studies  inventory  attempt to b u i l d  n e c e s s a r y f r a m e w o r k f o r the h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t , b u t the  special  s e r v i c e s " f o r Vancouver, r e f e r r e d to e a r l i e r an  complex  and  national  of these a "research  t h i s C h a p t e r , d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l m e n t i o n , as  "what a r e  Census  the d i f f e r e n t government d e p a r t m e n t s ,  of community w e l f a r e  of  the  In  the  question  s e r v i c e s where r e s e a r c h 2  valuable?"  is  Although l i m i t e d  Greater Vancouver area,  i t s findings  and  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e much w i d e r s i g n i f i c a n c e ; i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s h a v e applicability The  three  of the  In B r i t i s h  major areas of c o n c e r n of the  e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s and  p r o b l e m s ; and and  t o many a r e a s o f w e l f a r e  study are:  services;  (b)  needs.  Pour kinds  m a i n t a i n e d i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r and, w e r e reviex-jed and  critically  and  social  s e c u r i t y ; (2)  and  child protection;  (4)  correctional services  (3)  personal  (delinquency  current  services,  in British  Columbia,  ( l ) i n c o m e - m a i n t e n a n c e programmes  s e r v i c e s , e.g.,  recreation  inventory  needs ( " p r i o r i t i e s " )  of welfare  i n part,  examined:  (a) an  an a s s e s s m e n t of t h e i r  ( c ) an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e w e l f a r e  p r o v i s i o n a l research  Columbia.  and  family  counselling  leisure-time activities;and  and  crime prevention  programmes).  1 C r a w f o r d R.N., D e w a l t , L . W . , E s a u , E . I . , and G e n t l e m a n , G . E . : A R e s e a r c h I n v e n t o r y o f Community W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s ( B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r 1 9 5 9 ) ; M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s ; U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia; 1959. 2 ibid; p.vii.  - 115 The  study  discusses  and  unemployment i n s u r a n c e  -  i l l u s t r a t e s the and  social  s t r a t e g i c importance  a s s i s t a n c e a s t h e means o f  m a i n t e n a n c e f o r a l a r g e segment o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , who e l i g i b l e f o r other  and  chronic  income-  are'not  ( c a t e g o r i c a l ) a s s i s t a n c e programmes.  l o s s of breadwinner, d i s a b i l i t y ,  of  illness,  Unemployment,  are  still  major  c a u s e s o f f i n a n c i a l d e p e n d e n c y among t h e p a r t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n belongs g e n e r a l l y to the  productive  f o l l o w i n g were i n d i c a t e d as unemployment; insurance  and  reaching  the  age  parent;  prolonged  of e l i g i b i l i t y  assistance  s e r v i c e s may  o f unemployment s i n g l e , unattached  (d) e c o n o m i c and  p a r t of the  s e r v i c e s ) , o r t h e y may S a l v a t i o n Army.  be  social  provided  The  f o r o l d age  assistance;  and  morale.  even m i n o r c r i s i s s i t u a t i o n s - ,  study  auxiliary  s e r v i c e s ; such  a s s i s t a n c e programme ( e . g .  health  by v o l u n t a r y  such  revealed  a r e a , f o r example i n r e s o u r c e s  homemaker and  social  r a t e s , m o s t i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s  are u n a b l e t o cope w i t h  be  The  (e) l o s s o f c a p a c i t y t o w o r k  t h i s makes t h e m h i g h l y d e p e n d e n t on  in this  (a)  i m p a c t o f l o s s o f i n c o m e on f a m i l y s t r e n g t h and  assistance  as t h e  years).  f o r , or exhaustion  on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ;  Because of m a r g i n a l on  t o 65  b e n e f i t s ; (c) b u d g e t a r y problems f o r the  s t r a i n s on f a m i l i e s w i t h one  (f) the  (20  s p e c i a l problem areas:  (b) I n e l i g i b i l i t y  person continuing  before  age-group  that  organizations  s h o r t a g e s and  f o r boarding  h o u s e k e e p e r s e r v i c e s , and  financial  and  inadequacies nursing  assistance  homes,  for  "exceptional situations".  An  a n a l y s i s o f c r i m e and. d e l i n q u e n c y  in definitions,  court, magistrate  generally Insufficient of the  scope o f the  and  data  r e v e a l e d wide  p o l i c e p r a c t i c e s , as w e l l  s t a t i s t i c s , w h i c h make an a c c u r a t e  delinquency  discrepancies  problem i n Vancouver  S u g g e s t e d as a r e a s i n n e e d o f r e s e a r c h w e r e :  as  assessment  impossible.  (l) prevention;  '- 116 (3)  (2) p o l i c e s e r v i c e s ; (k) d e t e n t i o n ; relating  (5)  t r e a t m e n t programmes;  and  courts;  (7) l e n g t h (9) u s e  "controlled research"; ing  hostels f o r probationers  transfer adult  to probation;  -  and  projects indicated.  collected and  The  l a t t e r point  I t was  to record In the  is in itself  evaluate  chronically i l l .  o c c u p i e d by cared  for i n nursing  other  agencies".  in  19kk  o f x^hat d a t a  found that  the  major  aged, the handicapped  (general  and  psychiatric)  not  J  ibid  2  Cassidy,  and are  better  cared  i n the  f o r i n t h e i r own home ( m e d i c a l ,  homes, i f  home-making)  outside  the  persons to  Greater be  t h u s make f o r h o s p i t a l b e d s a v a i l a b l e .  i n d i c a t e d t h a t D r . C a s s i d y ' s s u r v e y of h e a l t h c a r e  has  now  offered  as s u c h , i t  Expanded t r e a t m e n t f a c i l i t i e s  h o s p i t a l i z e d I n V a n c o u v e r , and i s t o be 2  are  ...  V a n c o u v e r a r e a w o u l d r e d u c e t h e n e e d f o r many 111  It  of  o r b o a r d i n g homes. I n a d d i t i o n , many more  p e r s o n s c o u l d be  expanded.  kinds  number o f p a t i e n t s t h a t c o u l d be  e x i s t i n g services provided  w o u l d be  and  s e r v i c e s , i t was  H o s p i t a l beds  a considerable  c h r o n i c a l l y 111 the  services that  determination 1 project."  d e f i c i e n c i e s e x i s t e d i n s e r v i c e s f o r the the  collect-  crucial  . . . "The  a research  area of h e a l t h care  i s of  of  for  f o u n d t h a t much o f t h e d a t a  r e l a t i o n s h i p t o d a t a r e c o r d e d by  study adds, s i g n i f i c a n t l y ,  (8) e f f e c t i v e n e s s  inadequate f o r the  as a r g u m e n t s f o r b u d g e t a r y I n c r e a s e s ,  The  questions  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n procedure i n  " s e r v e s t o e x p l a i n and  bears l i t t l e  special  of s e n t e n c e s ;  i m p o r t a n c e , s i n c e the. e x i s t i n g d a t a a r e research  parolees;  of c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s  (10)  reporting statistics.  (6)  and  b e e n r e p e a t e d a l t h o u g h 16 y e a r s h a v e now  gone  services by.  p.278  Ryerson Press;  H.M.,  Public Health  T o r o n t o ; 19k£.-  and  Welfare Organization  i n Canada;  - 117  -  A g r e a t many i m p r o v e m e n t s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e increasing population  and  increased  life-expectancy  ageing"),  many n e e d s and  p r o b l e m s t h a t ' were d e f i n e d  c o u l d not  be  reduced.  This  appreciably  study underlines  growing complexity co-ordination and  a g a i n w h a t i s now  of  overlapping,  but  survey  only f o r avoiding  whole concept of  i m p l i e s the best p o s s i b l e u t i l i z a t i o n  in this  the  u s e d , and makes t h e n e e d f o r  issue i n welfare,not because "the  ("increased  t h e g r o w i n g number and  services repeatedly  a vital  of  duplication  rehabilitation  of a l l a v a i l a b l e community  1 resources has  to achieve successful results". .  been recognized  by  the  area.  Pour major o b s t a c l e s  i n the  study:  (1)  g a p s and  shortage of time,  (3)  caseloads;  The  records  interagency The  p r o m o t i n g and  (2)  shortages;  utilized  and mentioned  for  The-iSocial Planning  Council  i s providing  studies Section  leadership  co-operative,  studies.  as:  services;  (b) t h e g r o u p s n e g l e c t e d  (a) t h e  f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g the  (c) f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d The  h i g h l i g h t s the  present  i s most needed,  existence  the  e x i s t i n g Xirelfare p r o g r a m m e s ;  by t h e  or need f o r c o - o r d i n a t i o n  of l a r g e groups  are  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  study, e q u a l l y w i t h the  are p a r t i a l l y or t o t a l l y 1  t o be  t h r e e broad areas where x^elfare r e s e a r c h  services.  staff  c o n d u c t i n g a number o f  summed up  and  indicated  o f most a g e n c i e s are  which i s j u s t beginning  o f t h e V a n c o u v e r Community C h e s t a n d area by  Vancouver  limitations in existing services;  concerned w i t h problems of c o - o r d i n a t i o n .  in this  co-ordination  t h i s task are  to accomplishing  i . e . too h i g h  a major resource,  need f o r  p e r s o n n e l of most a g e n c i e s i n the  (ij.) " l a c k o f c o - o p e r a t i o n " . as  The  other  of  studies  among t h e p o p u l a t i o n  d e p e n d e n t on t h e  C r a w f o r d , D e w a l t , E s a u & G e n t l e m a n ; op.  mentioned, that  x^elfare s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d c i t . p.2b9  in  -  the community.  118  -  Despite' g r e a t l y expanded and  d i v e r s i f i e d services,  a number of unmet needs a r i s i n g f r o m g a p s , d e f i c i e n c i e s , i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s , or i n a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s One  of the  i n the s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d , , remain i n e v i d e n c e .  summary paragraphs i n the l o c a l " I n v e n t o r y " may  r e p e a t e d t o r o u n d up the i m p l i c a t i o n s of the p r e s e n t  well  be  one:  " I n c r e a s i n g c o n c e r n i s b e i n g shown by the p u b l i c about t h e adequacy and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of i t s w e l f a r e programs. T h i s i s a welcome development, but i f the c o n c e r n i s t o i s s u e i n a p p r o p r i a t e a c t i o n i t must be s u p p o r t e d by as wide a knowledge as p o s s i b l e of a l l r e l e v a n t f a c t s . Too o f t e n the c o n c e r n i s no more t h a n a t r a n s i e n t emotion, q u i c k l y aroused and as quickly extinguished. C l i e n t s and p a t i e n t s at the r e c e i v i n g end of the s e r v i c e s are w e l l aware of d e f i c i e n c i e s i n programs and \<re w o u l d do i\rell t o g i v e more a t t e n t i o n t o how the s e r v i c e s appear t o them. We s h o u l d expect t h e i r p o i n t of v i e w , however, t o be l i m i t e d t o those problems of most immediate c o n c e r n t o them. S o c i a l a g e n c i e s and t h e i r p e r s o n n e l , i n t h e i r r o l e as m e d i a t o r s between s e r v i c e s and c l i e n t s , are i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n t o i d e n t i f y w e l f a r e problems and needs. . . I t i s not suggested t h a t t h e y are - or even should be the a r b i t e r s of s o c i a l need; " p r o f e s s i o n a l s " are j u s t as c a p a b l e of a d o p t i n g the p a r t i c u l a r ! s t v i e w p o i n t ; moreover, t h e i r v o i c e , i t must be remembered, i s o n l y one of many i n the making of s o c i a l p o l i c y . I d e a l l y , a study . . . s h o u l d i n c l u d e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a number of groups, l a y as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l . " 1 T h i s s t u d y has  opened up the a r e a of "Welfare Measurement" on  provincial basis.  I t I s a v i t a l one  improved w i t h o u t "the as  i b i d ; pp.293  -  i t w i l l not  be  c o n t r i b u t i o n of a number of groups, l a y as w e l l  professional".  T  f o r Canada, and  a  29ft  APPENDIX  - 119  Table 33'  YEAR  P o p u l a t i o n Trends and F o r e c a s t s i n Canada and Two Western P r o v i n c e s . 1914-1 - 1975.  C A N A D A  number  -  A L B E R T  p.c.  (a) number  A  B: R I T 1 S H  .  number  p.c.  C 0 L UM B  p.c.  1 A elements of i n c r e a s e natural increase  •  net migration  "817,861  123,598  41,100  82,498  143,342  1,165,210  347,349  116,527  230,822  1,123,116  • 184,615  1^398,464  233,254  98,006  135,248  1,507,209  1,260,000  136 ,-8S4  1,578,600  180,136  -  19,709,000  2,120,000  1,1+78,000  .. 218,000  1, 886,600  308,000  -  1970  22,125,000  2,1+16,000  1,71+3,000  ;356,000  2,:244,800  358,000  -  1975  25,071,000  2,91+6,000  2,043,000  309,000  2,673,ooo  429,000  191+1  11,506,665  1,129,869  769,169  64,564  1951  11+, 009,1+29  3,502,771+  939,501  1956  16,081,791  2,072,362  I960 ~  17,589,000  1965  (a) 2  i n c r e a s e s over preceding f i g u r e s f o r I960 - 1975  Table  1  :  Census. estimates by B.C.Research C o u n c i l  adapted from the f o l l o w i n g s o u r c e s :  t  1) D . B . S . ; Census o f Canada, 1941, 1951, 1956 2) Walden, C.C.,Urquhart, A . I . & Gouge, J . W . ; opp.cit., 3) M a r s h a l l , J . T . o p p . c i t .  ,  -  - 120 Table 3I4.;  YEAR  T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n and Number of L i v e B i r t h s ; Canada, A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h .Columbia; 191+1 - 1956  A L B E R T A  C A N A D A t o t a l pop.  births  I9I1.I  11,506,665  1951  124., 009,24.29 380,101  1956  16,081,791  255,317.  24-50,739  Table adapted  t o t a l pot.  BRITISH  births  COLUMBIA  t o t a l pop.  i  births •  15,038  796,169  17,308  818,000  939,501  27,003  1,165,210  28,077  L,398,24.624-.  36,2hl  1,123,116  31+,  from t h e f o l l o w i n g  951  sources:  (1) DBS;. Census of Canada, I9I4.I, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . (2) Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ,  1957.  (3) D.B.S." V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s Report; 19J+1, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 . *  - 121 Table 35.  P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n by S e l e c t e d Age Groups; Canada; 19k0 - 1955 ( a c t u a l f i g u r e s ) and I960 1975 ( e s t i m a t e s ) ; ( f i g u r e s i n thousands).  A G E total population  o-ik y r s .  G R O U P S 20-6I4. y r s . 15-19 y r s .  19k0  11,36k.k  3,17k.k  1,129.3  6,316.9  7k3.8  1950  13,711.8  k,062.6  1,056.7  7,5oo.k  1,092.1  1955  15,573.0  5,013.1  1,128.7  8,227.8  1,203.k  I960  17,586.0  5,832.5  1,382.6  9,002.0  1,369.8 •  1965  19,708.6  6,k55.3  1,751.1  io,ook.i  I,k98.1  1970  22,125.k  7,05k-5  2,095.1  11,337.2  1,.638.6  1975  25,070.8  8,00k.9  2,237.1  12,981.7  l,8k7.1  YEAR  Source:  Walden, Urquhart & Gouge; o p p . c i t .  65 yrs.and over  -  I22r-  Table 36: .Population D i s t r i b u t i o n by S e l e c t e d Age Groups; A l b e r t a ; 19k0 - 1955 ( a c t u a l f i g u r e s ) and I960 t o 1975 ( e s t i m a t e s ) ; ( f i g u r e s i n thousands).  YEAR  Total population  A G E 0-lk y r s .  G R 0 U P s  15-19 y r s .  20-6k y r s .  65 yrs.and over  19k0  790.0  227.2  80.0  kk3.9  38.9  1950  913.0  275.8  73.7  k98. k  6k.k  1955  1,966.0  352. k  77.8  '559.6  76.2  I960  1,260.5  1+31.5  96.8  6k2.8  89.k  1965  1,1+77.9  50k. 5  125.7  7k8.9  98.8  1970  1,73k.2  577.3  16k.k  881.k  111.1  1975  2,0k3.2  680.8  185.5  Source:  l,0k9.0  Walden, Urquhart and Gouge; o p p . c i t .  127.9  - 123 Table 3 7 ;  P o p u l a t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n by S e l e c t e d Age Groups; B r i t i s h Columbia; I 9 k 0 - 1955 ( a c t u a l f i g u r e s ) and I960 - 1975 ( e s t i m a t e s ) ; ( f i g u r e s i n thousands). AGE  Total Population  YEAR  —  —  —  —  O-II4. y r s .  G R O U P S 15-19 y r s .  20-6k y r s .  6 5 yrs.anc over  —  170. k  67.9  501.8  6k. 9  1,137.0  288.2  71.5  658.2  119.1  1955  1,306.0  276.3  80.8  706.1  lk2.8  I960  1,578.6  k79.k  110.9  829.7  158.6  1965  1,886.6  582.7  150.7  990.2  163.0  1970  2,2k2.8  698.8  189.8  1,187.6  168.6  1975  2,673.8  851.9  219.2  l,kl6.5  186.2  19k0  805.0  1950  Source:  Walden, Urquhart & Gouge; o p p . c i t .  - 12k T a b l e 3 8 : Number o f R e g i s t e r e d M a r r i a g e s and D i v o r c e s i n Canada; A l b e r t a and B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a ; 19kl-2956; ( t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n t h o u s a n d s ) .  ( 3A  YEAR population  A L B E R 1 A  N A D PL  BR.COLUMBIA  m a r r i a g e s d i v o r c e s popu- m a r r i a g e s d i v o r c e s pop.marriages d i v lation orces  19kl 11,36k»k  12k,526  2,k61  796.3  8,k70  311  1951 l k , 0 0 9 . k  128,230  5,263  939.5  9,305  589  1,165.2 11,37k 1,39k  1956 16,081.8  132,713  5,996  1,123.]  9,965  685  1,398.5 11,680 l£k3  818.0  9,828  Source: P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia; V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s ; 1957. DBSI V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s R e p o r t ; 1 9 k l , 1951, 1956.  563  - 125  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY GENERAL REFERENCES Baur, Edward, J a c k s o n : " S t a t i s t i c a l Indexes of t h e S o c i a l A s p e c t o f Communities".; S o c i a l F o r c e s , V o l . 3 3 , No.1; O c t o b e r 1954i  pp.64 -  75  B l a c k , B e r t r a m , J . : "The Use o f S o c i a l and E c o n o m i c D a t a i n D e v e l o p i n g . . I n d i c e s o f Need"; i n Use o f R e s e a r c h T e c h n i q u e s i n D e t e r m i n i n g Need f o r H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s ; Report o f W o r k s h o p , C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , J u n e 10 and 11, 1949! Community C h e s t s and C o u n c i l s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , I n c . ; New Y o r k ; 1949• B u e l l , B r a d l e y , and R o b i n s o n , R e g i n a l d : "A C o m p o s i t e R a t e o f S o c i a l Breakdown"; American J o u r n a l of S o c i o l o g y , V o l . 4 5 ,  May 1940;  pp.887 - "597.  B u r g e s s , E.W.: "Basic S o c i a l Data"; i n Smith & White, Ah E x p e r i m e n t ' i n S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h ; U n i v e r s i t y C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 111; 1929; pp.47 -66. F r e n c h , . - D a v i d : M e a s u r i n g R e s u l t s i n S o c i a l Work; U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; New Y o r k ; 1952.  Chicago: of  Columbia  Goodthorpe, J.E.: "An E x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e C o n c e p t o f Need"; The S o c i o l o g i c a l R e v i e w ; V o l . 4 2 , S e c . 1 0 ; pp.179 - 199. K a h n , A l f r e d , J . : " F a c i l i t a t i n g S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h " ; S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w ; V o l . 3 0 , No.3; S e p t e m b e r 1956; pp.331-346. M o o r e , E s t h e r , M.: "The C l e v e l a n d W o r k s h o p i n R e t r o s p e c t " ; i n Use o f R e s e a r c h T e c h n i q u e s i n D e t e r m i n i n g t h e Need f o r H e a l t h and W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s ; R e p o r t o f W o r k s h o p , C l e v e l a n d , O h i o , J u n e 10 a n d 11, 1949; Community C h e s t s and C o u n c i l s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , I n c . ; New Y o r k , 1949. M o r g a n , J o h n S.: " R e s e a r c h i n S o c i a l Work; A Frame o f R e f e r e n c e " S o c i a l Work J o u r n a l ; V o l . 3 0 , No.4; Oct.1949; pp.148 154* " S o c i a l B r e a k d o w n : An O u t l i n e o f P r o c e d u r e s f o r C o m p i l i n g S o c i a l D a t a " ; B u l l e t i n 137; Community C h e s t s and C o u n c i l s o f N o r t h A m e r i c a , I n c : New-York, May, 1948. Somers, Herman:."Adequacy o f D a t a i n t h e F i e l d o f P u b l i c A i d " ; J o u r n a l of the American S t a t i s t i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ; No.36; 1941? pp.81 - 90. W i l e n s k y , H a r o l d and L e b e a u x , C h a r l e s , N.: I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y a n d S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n ; New Y o r k ; 1958. Wyman, G e o r g e K . , . M a c N e i l , D o u g l a s , H., and M c C a s l i n , J o h n : " " R e s e a r c h and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . . . T h e i r I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p " ; Bulletin; A m e r i c a n P u b l i c W e l f a r e A s s o c i a t i o n ; Chicago,111.no y ear.  - 126 Y o u n g , P a u l i n e : S c i e n t i f i c S o c i a l S u r v e y s and R e s e a r c h ; ' 3 r d e d . P r e n t i c e H a l l , New Y o r k ; 1 9 5 6 . B . S P E C I F I C REFERENCES "Background f o r P l a n n i n g " ; Research Department, W e l f a r e C o u n c i l o f M e t r o p o l i t a n L o s A n g e l e s ; P u b l . N o . 5 ; L o s A n g e l e s , . J a n . 191+9. B l a c k , B e r t r a m , J . : Our W e l f a r e N e e d s : A S t u d y o f New Y o r k The G r e a t e r New Y o r k F u n d ; New Y o r k ; 191+9. Booth, Charles: L i f e 1902.  and L a b o u r  of t h e P e o p l e o f London;  B u e l l , B r a d l e y a n d A s s : Community P l a n n i n g f o r Human C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s ; New Y o r k , 1 9 5 2 .  City; r e v . ed;  Services;  C a s s l d y , H.M.: P u b l i c H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n I n Canada; R y e r s o n s P r e s s , T o r o n t o ; 191+5• K l e i n , P h i l i p a n d C o l l : A S o c i a l - S t u d y o f P i t t s b u r g h ; Community Problems and S o c i a l S e r v i c e s o f P i t t s b u r g h and A l l e g h e n y County; C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , New Y o r k ; 1 9 3 o . M a r s h , D r . L e o n a r d C.: R e p o r t o n S o c i a l S e c u r i t y f o r C a n a d a ; K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , O t t a w a ; 191+3• "The  New S u r v e y o f L o n d o n L i f e  and Labour;  London;1930.  K e l l o g g , P a u l & A s s . : The P i t t s b u r g h D i s t r i c t ; . F o u n d a t i o n ; New Y o r k , 1 9 0 9 .  Russell  Sage  Shevky, E s h r e f , and W i l l i a m s , M a r i l y n : The S o c i a l A r e a s o f L o s Angeles; U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , f o r t h e Haynes F o u n d a t i o n ; B e r k e l e y , C a l i f . ; I9I+8. Wolins, Martin: W e l f a r e Problems and S e r v i c e s I n B e r k e l e y , C a l i f ornia; B e r k e l e y C o u n c i l o f S o c i a l Welfare and School o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e ; U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y ; Nov.l951+« C. S P E C I F I C  REFERENCES FOR B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  "The A d e q u a c y o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e s i n t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r " ; R e p o r t t o t h e Community C h e s t a n d C o u n c i l ; V a n c o u v e r , S e p t . 1 9 5 8 . C r a w f o r d , R.N., D e w a l t , L.W., E s a u , E . I . a n d G e n t l e m a n , G.E.: A R e s e a r c h I n v e n t o r y o f Community W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s ; ( B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a and V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959.  1959);  M.S.W.Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y o f  Damm, E v a : M e n t a l I l l n e s s a n d M i g r a t i o n S t r e s s ; an a n a l y t i c a l s t u d y o f a c o m p a r a t i v e g r o u p o f German i m m i g r a n t s and C a n a d i a n - b o r n p a t i e n t s , h o s p i t a l i z e d at t h e Crease C l i n i c of P s y c h o l o g i c a l M e d i c i n e , E s s o n d a l e , B.C., 1 9 5 3 - 1 9 5 8 ; M . S . W . T h e s i s , S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, V a n c o u v e r , 1959*  - 127  -  Evans, Maureen: L i v i n g on a M a r g i n a l Budget; A D e s c r i p t i v e o f S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e a n d M o t h e r ' s A l l o w a n c e F a m i l i e s ; M.S.W.Thesis; U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; Vancouver, 1953• F r o m s o n , E,. H a n s o n V., and S m i t h R. : The L i t t l e M o u n t a i n H o u s i n g P r o j e c t ; A Survey of I t s Welfare I m p l i c a t i o n s ; M.S.W.The s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver; 1959. M a r s h a l l , J . T . : "A C e n t u r y o f P o p u l a t i o n G r o w t h i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " ; Canadian J o u r n a l of P u b l i c Health; V o l . 5 0 , No.2, F e b r u a r y 1 9 5 9 ; pp.614- - 7 0 . S t u d y o f S t a t i s t i c a l M e t h o d s ; P a r t I I : "The R e c o r d i n g and R e p o r t i n g o f S t a t i s t i c s " ; D e p a r t m e n t of H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e , . S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h ; V i c t o r i a , B.C.; December, 1 9 5 6 . "The V a n c o u v e r R e d e v e l o p m e n t S t u d y " ; p r e p a r e d b y t h e C i t y o f V a n c o u v e r P l a n n i n g Department f o r t h e H o u s i n g R e s e a r c h Committee; V a n c o u v e r , December 1957* D  '  STATISTICAL  SOURCES  C e n s u s o f C a n a d a ; 1 9 3 1 , .I9I4.I, 1 9 5 1 , 1 9 5 6 ; D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s ; Queen's P r i n t e r , O t t a w a . The C a n a d a Y e a r b o o k ; B u r e a u of S t a t i s t i c s ;  Information Services Section; Queen's P r i n t e r , O t t a w a .  Dominion  Canada 1956; p r e p a r e d b y t h e Canada Yearbook S e c t i o n , I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n , D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s ; Queen's P r i n t e r ; Ottax^a. "Immigration"; B u l l e t i n , p u b l i s h e d a n n u a l l y b y the : Department o f C i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n ; Ottawa. r  A n n u a l R e p o r t s 1951 - 1 9 5 8 ; D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e , S o c i a l W e l f a r e B r a n c h ; Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a . " P o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t and H e a l t h E x c l u d i n g I n d i a n s ; 1951, 1956, 1 9 5 8 " ; Department o f H e a l t h ; V i c t o r i a , B.C.; u n p u b l .  Unit,  V i t a l S t a t i s t i c s o f t h e Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia; 86th Report f o r t h e Year 1957; D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h a n d W e l f a r e ; Queen's P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , B.C..; 1 9 5 9 . W a l d e n , C.C., U r q u h a r t , A . I . a n d Gouge, J.W.: P o p u l a t i o n T r e n d s i n C a n a d a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a and S a s k a t c h e w a n ; B . C . R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l ; V a n c o u v e r , B.C.; J a n u a r y 1 9 5 7 .  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105907/manifest

Comment

Related Items