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Decentralized branch Y.M.C.A. development in a local residential community : an analytical study of the… McComb, Donald Robert 1960

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DECENTRALIZED BRANCH Y.M.C.A. DEVELOPMENT IN A LOCAL RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Fairmount and Fraserview-Killarney Y.M.C.A.*s i n the South-Eastern Section of Vancouver 1944 to I960, by DONALD ROBERT McCOMB Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l Fulfilment of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of Soc i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work School of So c i a l Work I960 The University of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree th a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of SOCJ/}L ifi>OKK-The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver S, Canada. Date (f&D V ABSTRACT The general subject of t h i s study i s the post war development of the decentralized YMCA:. the s p e c i f i c study i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r section of Vancouver (two " l o c a l communities" in.the south-eastern section of Vancouver). The Fairmount YMCA, established i n i t i a l l y i n Fairview-Mount Pleasant area, and the extension of *YT services to become, i n I960, the Fraserview-Killarney.. Branch, are analyzed over a fourteen year period. The study i s an h i s t o r i c a l analysis of community organization process, and of group work i n meeting the recreational needs of the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y c i t i z e n s . Decentralization of agency-administration as the p r i n c i p l e of an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d service, through the opportunity for l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and con t r o l , i s c r i t i c a l l y appraised i n the l i g h t of r e s u l t s . The r o l e of the professional worker, and the process of community organization for recreation, i s analyzed through the use of process record-ings. For the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA, as well as for other Branches of the Vancouver YMCA,.the study indicates that the r o l e of the YMCA i n the. r e s i d e n t i a l community i s to supplement public recreation and other community services. The changing s o c i a l structure of the community, and the need f o r the YMCA to broaden and adapt "family type" services, both demonstrate that the YMCA,-as well as other private agencies, w i l l need to r e t a i n a _ f l e x i b l e structure of operation i f i t i s to r e t a i n the in t e r e s t of the people concerned i n voluntary p a r t i c i p a t i o n . i i TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter I Community Recreational Needs: North American Experience* Recreation defined. The values of recrea-t i o n a l experiences. Community Organization for recreation. H i s t o r i c a l patterns i n North America. Public and Private recreation — areas of respon-s i b i l i t y . , The growth and development of the North American Y.M.C.A . . . . . . 1 Chapter II Recreation Needs and Services i n Vancouver. Ear l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . The "Norrie Report" of 1945* Public and private r e c r e a t i o n services. The Vancouver YMCA decentralization development plans of 1946 and 1951«.. Description of the Fraserview and Ki l l a r n e y community; needs with reference to recreation. 41 Chapter I I I Recreational F a c i l i t i e s i n the Fraserview-Killarney Area  U954 to l M The importance of s o c i a l services. School recreational f a c i l i t i e s . Parks, playgrounds and public recreation. Private e f f o r t s . The.Fraser-view survey, 1954-55* Commercial recreation. S o c i a l problems 67 Chapter IV Local Community Y.M.C.A^ Development Branch boundaries. Early f a i l u r e (1944 to 1954). The survey of 1954* Implications of the survey. Programme expansion (1955 to 195&). Local i d e n t i t y strengthened. Methods of development-in the Fraserview-Killarney. YMCA, 1958" - I960 106 Chapter V The Role of the Y.M.C.A. i n the Local Residential Community The changing community. The YMCA i n the r e s i d e n t i a l community. YMCA decentralization — philosophy and methods. General findings of the study. Implications f o r the Vancouver YMCA. Future development of the Fraserview-Killarney area. . . . . . 162 i i i Page Appendices: A. Survey Questionnaire (December 1954)* B. B r i e f on Area Development, Fairmount YMCA (May 1956). C. B r i e f on Board and Committee Development, Fairmount YMCA,,(January 1957) . D. B r i e f on Building.Development, Fairmount YMCA (November-1957). E. . Objectives Chart, Fraserview-Killarney YMCA (September 1953) . .F. Area Programme Council, Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA (October 1959). TABLES AMD CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables Table 1. Some factors i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to population. . • 28 Table 2 . Ratings of branch effectiveness by type of f a c i l i t y . 38 Table 3 . Fraserview-Killarney N-Y Clubs 1955 to 1959 • • 142 (b) Charts F i g . 1. Map of Fraserview-Killarney and D i s t r i c t . . . . 55 F i g . 2. Total Yearly Membership of the Fairmount . YMCA, 1947 — 1954 110 F i g . 3 . Administrative diagram, Fraserview-Killarney YMCA (January 1955, and, subsequent development). . . . . . . . . . • 131 F i g . .4 . Total yearly membership, Fairmount YMCA, 1954 - 1959 . , 145 F i g . 5 . Map of Fraserview-Killarney area, and a p i c t o r i a l diagram of a decentralized YMCA • 165 i v (c) Schedules Page Schedule 1. Or i g i n a l and l a t e r boundaries of the Fairmount IMCA (1945 to i960). . . . . 108 Schedule 2. Fraserview leadership t r a i n i n g course for colunteer leaders, February 9 , 1955 to March 16, 19-55 138 Schedule 3« Programme expansion of Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y IMCA (1955 to-I960) 144 vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS In a "grass roots" development l i k e the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA, there are many people who have contributed. The writer wishes to extend his appreciation to the people of Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y involved i n t h i s project, who, by the success of t h e i r e f f o r t s , made t h i s study possible. To David T. Yard, the writer's supervisor during the early years as the Fairmount YMCA Executive-Secretary, and now the General Secretary of the Burnaby YMCA, the writer i s especially indebted. Mr. lard's v i s i o n of the fa r reaching p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the l i m i t e d - f a c i l i t y YMCA, knowledge of organizational methods, and encouragement, gave the writer a sense of purpose. Appreciation i s also extended to Mrs. Dorothy Link-l a t e r who made the o r i g i n a l inquiry for YMCA service back i n 1953« . She has given countless hours to,the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y 'Y' and was the person responsible f o r the beginning of.-the YMCA i n t h i s area of the c i t y . The Board of Directors of the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA (formerly Fraserview-Killarney Planning Committee) and Committee members, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mr. C y r i l H. Ashdown, President of the Fairmount YMCA, are. all,extended.the writer's appreciation for t h e i r d i r e c t i o n and knowledge about the community. A thank you i s also extended to Dr. Leonard Marsh, of the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, who, as fac u l t y advisor gave valuable suggestions to the preparation and content of t h i s study* V I 1 DECENTRALIZED BRANCH Y.M.C.A. DEVELOPMENT IN A LOCAL RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY An A n a l y t i c a l Study of the Fairmount and Fraserview-Killarney Y.M.C.A.fs i n the South-Eastern Section of Vancouver 1944 to I 9 6 0 . Chapter I 11 - - . Community Recreational Meeds: North American Experience. "In a few years the project i s going to have considerable trouble with the increasing numbers of teenagers unless: some-thing i s done f o r them." This was a t y p i c a l comment when the Fairmount TMCA was making i n q u i r i e s into the rec r e a t i o n a l needs of the Fraserview Housing area i n Vancouver. The statement represents a complexity of community problems worthy of study. To begin with, the 1 community conscious' c i t i z e n s revealed through further discussion that they were considering the recreational needs of t h e i r community. These people were genuinely concerned with growing preadolescent and adolescent population, and the lack of well-planned and organized l e i s u r e -time a c t i v i t y f o r t h e i r youth. Their fears and doubts i n approaching the problem l e d to a number of questions that need to be answered. Some of these questions included: What are the values that may be contributed through a good recreational experience? What have been the t r a d i t i o n a l patterns of meeting a community's recreational needs? Who should be responsible f o r providing recreational services? And, how does a modern community or geographic area recognize the need f o r , organize and implement them? - Recreation has been defined as: "... experience engaged i n either alone or with others f o r - i t s own sake and the g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n doing; as an - 2 -expression of the inner nature of man, as the s a t i s f a c t i o n of basic human appetites, as a form of l e i s u r e time exper-ience i n which p h y s i c a l , mental or s p i r i t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n comes to an i n d i v i d u a l from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c e r t a i n forms of a c t i v i t y . Expressed i n terms of a c t i v i t i e s , recreation has been defined as any a c t i v i t y which i s not consciously performed f o r the sake of any reward beyond i t s e l f , to which we give ourselves i n our l e i s u r e time, which o f f e r s man an o u t l e t f o r h i s mastery, or i n which man engages because of inner desire and not because of outer compul-sion. In short, recreation may be considered as any form of l e i s u r e time experience or a c t i v i t y i n which an i n d i v i d u a l engages from choice because of the enjoyment and s a t i s f a c t i o n which i t brings d i r e c t l y to him." 1 Applied to modern l i v i n g , r ecreation may be seen to take many shapes or forms. Passive kinds of a c t i v i t y ; watching t e l e -v i s i o n , going to a movie, or just p l a i n 'loafing* a l l may be considered recreation. The more active forms of physical a c t i v i t y ; i n d i v i d u a l and team sports, various forms of out-door i n t e r e s t s such as camping; are other types of recreational a c t i v i t y . C u l t u r a l or creative pastimes, including music, drama, f i n e a r t s , hobbies .and ..crafts, would also be c l a s s i f i e d as involving r e c r e a t i o n a l experiences. They are a l l types of a c t i v i t i e s that may be pursued i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e i s u r e hours, but whether they contribute l a s t i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n , whether they help youngsters mature and grow up as healthy responsible persons i s another issue. Recreational Values Today recreational a c t i v i t i e s have become increasingly . i , B u t l e r . G.D.. Introduction to Community Recreation. McGraw H i l l Co., New'lork, 194V, p. tf. a ' important. Recreation has been commonly conceded as an outlet f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of happiness. However, G.D.Butler has emphasized the 'happiness i s e s s e n t i a l l y a by-product which can best be achieved i n a balanced l i f e along with work, r e s t , love and worship 1. 1 G.B. F i t z g e r a l d points out i n h i s book, Community Organization f o r Recreation, "To rank recreation as a s o c i a l movement i s to recognize i t s relationship to other human needs." 2 Recreation i n t h i s sense i s viewed as 'part of the whole l i f e 1 , having value i n the ' s a t i s f a c t i o n of basic human needs', helping the formation of personal r e l a t i o n -ships and the development of cooperative and collaborative habits and j o i n t undertakings', a s s i s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n •belonging, contributing, and gaining prestige from the group, 3 at other times breaking down s o c i a l b a r r i e r s * . F i t z g e r a l d also warns against 'the f a l l a c y of putting recreation forward as a substitute for economic security or emotional s t a b i l i t y ' . ^ The over emphasis placed upon recreation movements has some-times l e d to the misunderstanding that recreation i s a panacea for s o c i a l i l l s — notably, juvenile delinquency. Consequent-l y , r e c r e a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s are constantly required to analyze and i n t e r p r e t the r e l a t i o n of recreation to the many s o c i a l problems of our society. • 1. I b i d , p. 10 . 2. F i t z g e r a l d . G.B..Community Organization f o r Recreation. A.L. Barnes Co., New York, 1949, p* 33 . 3 . I b i d , p. 33 . 4 . I b i d , p. 33 . There have been many facto r s which have affected the a v a i l a b i l i t y of re c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and the need f o r them. Urban development, changing home conditions, increased pace of modern l i v i n g , unemployment, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and mechanization i n industry, the greater span of l i f e , shorter working hours, commercial entertainment, the ready-made pleasures e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e as the automobile, have a l l influenced current r e c r e a t i o n a l needs* As one source notes, "... the misuse or abuse of l e i s u r e can and often does lead to s o c i a l pathology". 1 Discussing r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of Canadian youth, the Canadian Youth Commission recorded; "... A recurring theme i n youthful discussions i s the question of where and how to spend spare time. Rightly or wrongly, thousands of young people are at a l o s s . Perhaps they should be expected to create i n t e r e s t i n g l e i s u r e opportunities of th e i r own ...." They added "... Our purpose i s simply to record that there i s l i t t l e to do i n l e i s u r e hours, e s p e c i a l l y l i t t l e that young people would seriously claim 2 worthwhile." The f i n a l consideration of rec r e a t i o n a l values i s i n the influence that recreation has upon the i n d i v i d u a l . Butler l i s t s seven contributions of recreation, notably to •physical health, mental health, character development, community s o l i d a r -i t y , morale, crime prevention and public safety. However, he > • .' . 1. B r i g h t b i l l , O.K., and Meyer. H.Q.. Recreation. Prentice H a l l Inc., New York, 1943, p. 3» 2. Canadian Youth Commission, Youth and Recreation r (Volume 6 ) , Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1946, p. 4 1 . concluded that "the chief value of recreation l i e s i n i t s power to enrich the l i v e s of i n d i v i d u a l s * ""*" Relating recrea-t i o n to the impersonal and complex aspects of modern l i v i n g , L*R. Slavson i n Recreation and the Total Personality states: "Some of the services of recreation to the i n d i v i d u a l may be c l a s s i f i e d as those that serve as complementary experiences, as having compensatory values, as serving to discharge aggress-ion, as patterns f o r regression, as escape from r e a l i t y , as s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l hunger, and resources f o r s o l i t u d e * " In view of the impersonal nature of modern l i v i n g , man has needed ou t l e t s f o r h i s basic drives. "The pursuit of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s allows f o r more s o c i a l l y acceptable ways of g r a t i f y -ing these basic drives. Many patterns of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y do not include the i n d i v i d u a l as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the process and because of i t may not be constructive but ' f a l l a c i o u s procedure f o r i t means givi n g recreation to people, rather than helping them to get i t f o r themselves'*^ Recreation as a Part of S o c i a l Welfare Recreation may properly be regarded as a part of the s o c i a l welfare services. Professional s p e c i a l i s t s i n s o c i a l 1* Butler.; G . D . I n t r o d u c t i o n to"Community Recreation f McGraw-Hill Co., New York, 1949, p. 7» . 2. Slauson, L.R., Recreation, and Total Personality, Association Press, New York, 194#, p. 10. 3* Fitzgerald, ;G.B., op. c i t . f p. 33* - 6 -work, group workers and caseworkers, have become conscious of the f a c t that recreation may serve as a preventive or remedial device f o r the " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " of the i n d i v i d u a l to various environmental conditions (both good and bad). H i s t o r i c a l l y , the roots of i n d i v i d u a l or group i n t e r e s t i n the welfare of the community go deep into the past, but p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the nineteenth century English and North American s o c i a l welfare developments have c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d each other. S o c i a l move-ments advocating factory reform, public health and sa n i t a t i o n , educational schemes, workmen's compensation, various categories of public assistance, and so f o r t h , developed on both contin-ents. The Charity. Organization Society f i r s t formed i n England i n 1869 followed i n the United States i n the 1870's. F i t z -gerald views the charity organization movement as " ... repre-senting an organization of community forces to meet community needs" and thus, "... the beginnings of community organiza-t i o n . " 1 Two separate developments of importance i n early s o c i a l work were the settlement house and community centre ideas. The settlement house involved the p r o v i s i o n of service to the lower s o c i a l classes. Established i n blighted and s o c i a l l y d i s -organized urban areas, the settlement house endeavoured to r a i s e the moral of the l o c a l community by helping the residents to r a l l y together and meet t h e i r common needs. The settlement 1. I b i d , p. 48-49. • • • • •" • . 1 - 7 -house was instrumental i n helping to organize community councils p a r t i c u l a r l y those of a neighbourhood nature. "Settlement house philosophy with i t s emphasis on l o c a l communities to solve t h e i r problems had much influence on community organization through coordinating councils, neighbourhood surveys, and c i t y -wide action through federation of settlements."^ Although recreation was not the prime purpose of the settlement house, rec r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were, and s t i l l are today, an important part of the settlement programme. Today the settlement house i s s t i l l making an important contribution to many communities even though s h i f t of n a t i o n a l i t i e s , emergence of new s o c i a l needs and other developments have caused settlements to change t h e i r character more than once i n t h e i r h i s t o r y , to move from one to another community, or to close e n t i r e l y . Community Organization f o r Recreation In the beginning, the community centre movement i n the United States was r e l a t e d to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of school b u i l d -ings f o r community groups as well as f o r public recreation services. Community organization f o r recreation has been defined by F i t z g e r a l d as: "... The development and maintenance of leadership f a c i l i t i e s and programme or services that w i l l promote optimum recreation opportunities f o r a l l the people of a community. I t includes r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a l l the recreation resources of a community that w i l l assure cooperation, coordination, and community s o l i d a r i t y as a basis f o r the opportunities. I t means developing and 1. I b i d . j p. 56 $ mm maintaining a structure that i s designed to present resources to meet needs and,to establish new resources i f t h e i r need i s indicated. The nature of community organization has been described from many, d i f f e r i n g points of view. As used i n community organiza-t i o n i n s o c i a l work the term ^community1 implies much more than a geographic e n t i t y . I t may also mean a community of i n t e r e s t or function c u t t i n g across geographical l i n e s ... l e i s u r e time a f f i l i a t i o n s may be with people i n many d i f f e r e n t geographic communities .... Thus, we also f i n d a tendency f o r s o c i a l agencies to be organized around areas of i n t e r e s t or need, with many of the l i n e s of association being ' v e r t i c a l 1 from one agency i n a l o c a l community to i t s state and national a f f i l i a t e s and to s i m i l a r programmes i n other communities, and not 'horizontal' to other types of agencies i n the same c i t y . Years ago, Jesse F. Steiner stated that 'the r e a l meaning of community organization appears when i t i s looked upon as an essen t i a l and continuous part of the s o c i a l process and not mere-l y as an administrative device developed within recent years. This viewpoint sheds important l i g h t on current opinions on community organization p r i n c i p l e s . C.F. McNeil, i n de f i n i n g community organization points out that "... i t i s the process by which peoples of communities, as i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s or as 1. I b i d . , p. 2 2 . -2. Murphy, C , Community Organization P r a c t i c e . Houghton-M i f f l i n e Co., New York, 1954, p.. 9. 3e - Steiner,, J . , Community Organization. Centry Co., New York, 1925, p. 330. . . - 9 -representatives of groups, j o i n together to determine s o c i a l welfare needs, plan ways of meeting them, and mobilize the M1 necessary resources." Community organization practice i s now an accepted method within the s o c i a l work profession. I t need not be applied only to recreation of course but the applications are the most relevant f o r the present study. Wilbur L. Newstetter believes the committee i s "... the major setting f o r community organization p r a c t i c e ..." and that "the most important s k i l l of the professional worker i s to enable by ' i n d i r e c t leader-ship' an,intergroup process to take place." Newstetter emphasizes that the intergroup process must "... deal with the adjustment r e l a t i o n s between groups and not the personal needs of the members and "have a 'selected goal' i n order f o r the achievement of purpose i n t h i s process." Other scholars have been highly c r i t i c a l of Newstetter's proposals. Arthur Dunham views the role of thevcommunity organization worker as "... that of creative leadership." In t h i s sense the worker i s v i s u a l i z e d as a "... .creative partner and p a r t i c i p a n t i n the determination of objectives as well as .the expert i n the process of community organization."^ * • • • .>, . - , • . l " \ r . i ' rxKprw •  1. McNeil, C.F., Community Organization f o r S o c i a l Welfare * Soc i a l Work Tear Book, 1951 (New York, American Association of S o c i a l Workers,-1951, p. 123* 2. Newstetter, W.L., "The S o c i a l Intergroup, Work Process", Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work. 1947, p.205. 3. Dunham, Arthur, "What i s the «Iob of the Community Organ-i z a t i o n Worker." Proceedings of the National Conference of S o c i a l Work, 1948, p. 168. - • :  r 10 -Another viewpoint expressed by C.F. McNeil describes several methods within community organization p r a c t i c e . These are: administrative and process of recording, research, con-s u l t a t i o n , group conference, committee operation, i n t e r p r e t a -t i o n , administration, mobilization, and negotiation.^ Although these approaches stress d i f f e r e n t aspects of the community organization process, most of these workers would agree that the resources must be applied to the development of the community i f progress i s to be sound. Campbell Murphy has introduced a new concept, that of the professional d i s c r e t i o n to be used by the community organization worker. Professional d i s c r e t i o n i s described as: "... knowing when to use which methods, and i n knowing * 2 through what groups to work i n using the method selected." Murphy concludes that ".•. the practice of community organiza-t i o n i s the a r t of involving the community i n i t s own s o c i a l destiny, of enabling i t to meet i t s needs as determined by i t s e l f . " " ^ Like the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i a l casework p r a c t i c e , or the group i n s o c i a l group work pra c t i c e , the community i n community organization practice i s enabled to s t a r t from where i t i s thought of being d i f f e r e n t , i n having unique character-1. McNeil* C.F . j "Community Organization f o r S o c i a l Welfare" S o c i a l Work Year Book r~1951 f New York: American Assn. of Social•WorkerS j 1951* p. 124-25. 2. Murphy, C., Community Organization P r a c t i c e . Houghton-M i f f l i n Co., New. York, 1954, p. -2$T 3. I b i d . . p. 20. - 11 -i s t i c s from other communities; and i t i s believed capable of solving i t s own problems* v Recreational Resources Like other s o c i a l services, the p r o v i s i o n of recreation has expanded i n recent decades to include a great number of organizations of a public and private nature. In the United States F i t z g e r a l d has c l a s s i f i e d , the development of recreation into s i x separate periods* The f i r s t period, from the c h a r i t y organization movement to the f i r s t world war, was characterized by cooperation between s o c i a l agencies, community programmes of settlements, and the r i s e of state and national agencies and groups* The second period, 1914-1#, represented community mobilization f o r emergency purposes and i n t e n s i f i e d the use of community f a c i l i t i e s . The -National Recreation Association was formed i n t h i s period. There was a r i s e of c i t y , state, regional and national planning groups i n the nineteen twenties, the t h i r d phase i n the development of recreation. At t h i s time, "... r e a l i z a t i o n came that a l l groups and agencies and i n s t i t u t i o n s must play a l a r g e r part i n community l i f e than that to which they had been a c c u s t o m e d . T h e nineteen twenties saw the expansion of the Community Chests and Councils and the evaluation of aims and objectives of many organizations* The depression beginning i n 1929 marked the fourth period; gradually under the New Deal innovations i n recreation services !• F i t z g e r a l d / G.B.. Community Organization f o r Recreation. A.I, Barnes Co., New York,.1949, p. 65 . - 12-came to f r u i t i o n . Federal recreation projects such as the advisory councils created by the Work Projects Administration contributed to closer public and private cooperation i n plann-ing and sharing community needs, greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community recreation, expansion of l e g i s l a t i o n , and the development of professional education- f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n the nineteen t h i r t i e s . World War I I , the f i f t h period, accentuated need f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n of community organization methods to l o c a l and national needs. The American Red Cross and United Services Organization enabled thousands of c i t i z e n s to p a r t i c i -pate i n the war e f f o r t and thus, volunteer e f f o r t s became more and more accepted i n recreation and many of the other s o c i a l welfare services. The loaning of s t a f f members of the National Recreation Association to Government agencies and the renewal of community councils were other important influences of the war period. The si x t h and f i n a l period, the present post war era, has continued many of the war-born services. In the United States, the state governments assumed some of the con-s u l t a t i v e services c a r r i e d on by the Federal Government during the war. Co-ordination and j o i n t planning involving the d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of Government were created with an emphasis on l o c a l needs. One example of t h i s trend i s the growing community centre movement, which has characterized Canada as well as the United States. Frequently.established as war memorials, community centres have been encouraged by municipal governments. Control over p o l i c y and programme has been usually - 13 -l e f t i n the hands of c i t i z e n groups, assisted by pro f e s s i o n a l l y trained leaders. The degree of j o i n t planning between public and private recreation agencies has varied from one geographic area to another; the need f o r j o i n t public and private coopera-t i o n i n meeting re c r e a t i o n a l need remains as one of the major concerns of the present day. Public Recreation — Areas of R e s p o n s i b i l i t y As with other welfare services i n Canada, a l l govern-ments — municipal, p r o v i n c i a l and fed e r a l — h a v e become more and more involved with recreation. This s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d by greater tax budgets a l l o t t e d to public recreation, and a greater public acceptance of recreation as an inherent part of modern l i v i n g . No longer does the p u r i t a n i c a l view that en-joyable l e i s u r e i s e v i l present a formidable stumbling block to recreational planning, as i t d i d i n the past. The public agency's increasing r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s indicate the recognition that recreation f u l f i l l s a basic human need and has construc-t i v e values f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . The entrance of the public agency i n recreation has not removed the private agency, f o r as F i t z g e r a l d notes "... commun-i t y recreation includes a l l recreation opportunities e x i s t i n g i n the community of a private, voluntary, commercial, and public character." 1 1. F i t z g e r a l d , G.B., p. 14. / c - 14 The r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of public and private agencies i n recreation have been c l a s s i f i e d as: "(1) Development and maintenance of major recreation f a c i l i t i e s , such as parks, play-fields, tennis courts, swimming pools and beaches, g o l f courses, and p i c n i c areas i s a public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and one that depends upon support from public funds. (2) Provision of leadership, equipment, and supplies f o r an i n c l u s i v e programme of organized recreation opportunities f o r a l l the people i s also the responsibi-l i t y of the public agency and o r d i n a r i l y i s discharged by the schools and government recreation a u t h o r i t i e s . (3) Organizing and maintaining leadership and pro-gramme services, f o r small groups, some of which may be self-organized and self-determined i s a function i n which private agencies are most conspicuous. They give much attention to the group process and the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of. group members. Because they are not charged with a service to a l l , private agencies are i n a strategic p o s i t i o n to f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n . " 1 These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are l a i d down as a standard f o r future recreational planning. As many communities s t i l l do not have adequate public services the private agency has continued to provide service that would otherwise be considered the function of the public agency. Where do the various government l e v e l s , municipal, pro-v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l , f i t into the pattern of recreational service? Strong support i s given today to the b e l i e f that the l o c a l community i t s e l f should remain as the c o n t r o l l i n g agent of community recreation. Supporters of t h i s argument believe a maximum degree of f l e x i b i l i t y w i l l r e s u l t from such an arrange-- 15 -ment. Consequently, the municipal government, having a closer association with l o c a l communities has remained as the authority with d i r e c t control over public recreation. The methods by which the municipal government administers the service may d i f f e r . In Canada, park boards, school boards, and sometimes recreation commissions have been charged with the main work. The influence of the state and p r o v i n c i a l governments i n the United States and Canada, respectively, has increased with the public recognition of recreation. Inter-dependence and in t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of government have an important influence on recreational plans at a l l l e v e l s . State or P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s have been created to stimulate recreational planning and to strengthen the e x i s t i n g community services. Providing f i n a n c i a l services, studying recreational needs, developing advisory or consultative channels, holding conferences f o r lay and professional people, promoting standards for r e c r e a t i o n a l services, stimulating recreation i n r u r a l areas, and developing methods of r e c r u i t i n g pro-f e s s i o n a l workers are some of the functions which f a l l to the state or p r o v i n c i a l governments. Federal governments of both United States and Canada are a further source of assistance to l o c a l communities i n developing recreational services. Many federal agencies, departments and d i v i s i o n s of the United States National Govern-ment are presently involved with d i f f e r e n t aspects of recreation. Numerous national concerns such as physical f i t n e s s also c l o s e l y - 16 -associated with f e d e r a l government functions i n recreation. Private Agency Recreational R e s p o n s i b i l i t y With the advent of increased public recreation the private agency i n the l e i s u r e time f i e l d i s more and more stressing a s p e c i a l i z e d function. Private agencies, generally because of f l e x i b i l i t y i n administration, are continuing to experiment and to meet new needs a r i s i n g i n society. With t h i s changing r o l e private agencies have endeavoured to raise the quality of service rather than necessarily increasing programme volume. However, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of more l e i s u r e time than ever before i s causing private agencies to increase the volume of services accordingly. The settlement or neighbourhood houses are now giving emphasis to serving the family through highly trained professional s o c i a l workers. Recreation, group work a c t i v i t i e s , and family counselling are a more important aspect of settlement house programme than ever before. The Boys' Club movement has continued to remain primarily an agency serving boys between the ages of eight and eighteen even though experimentation of serving the older age group has taken place i n c e r t a i n l o c a l Boys' Clubs. This agency also as a feature of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s l o c a t i n g mainly i n deterior-ated communities of low socio-economic standing. F i n a l l y , private agency services are continuing to expand sometimes through the creation of new agencies or movements such as the L i t t l e League Baseball programme i n recent years. Through a l l these trends and others the private agency today i s supplement-- 17 ing the public agency, commercial recreation and family l e i s u r e time i n providing a community recreation programme* The .Origin of the Young Mens1 C h r i s t i a n Association* The ,Y I i s one of the oldest and most ubiquitous of a l l private recreational organizations. The b i r t h of the YMCA took place i n London, England i n 1844, a movement l i k e many others emerging at the time attempting to o f f s e t the ideas and worst feature of urban and i n d u s t r i a l growth. C i t i e s were over-crowded and unsanitary providing a_meagre and d u l l existence f o r young men required to work long and arduous hours of labour. Within t h i s environment i t was not surprising that various s o c i a l i l l s i ncluding excessive drinking, gambling, and other forms of vice were common outlets as a temporary r e l i e f from the drab l i v i n g conditions. The founders of the YMCA were a group of young men employed i n the t e x t i l e industry. They saw the need to create f o r themselves a greater opportunity f o r constructive s o c i a l o u t l e t s . Through lectures, discussions, prayer meetings, and public debates the founders endeavored to stimulate t h e i r own personal growth and maturity. The movement was born out of the Protestant C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n i n v o l v i n g several denominations. "... While the values and standards accepted by George Williams and h i s colleagues who formed the f i r s t YMCA were those current i n many Protestant c i r c l e s , the method,of winning men to these was new. There was l i t t l e of the formality of the Church, there was no adherence to denomin-*Hereafter the Young Mens' C h r i s t i a n Association w i l l be referred to i n the following terms: "YMCA", "Association" and "Y". - 18 -at i o n a l creeds or dogmas, there was no clergy or trained authority to d i r e c t t h i s work. Their approach was rather, simple and a t t r a c t i v e , directed at those with whom the members worked, developed with an eye both to the gospel they accepted and the e v i l s which m i l i t a t e d against i t s acceptance and dissemination." 1 The Association grew throughout the i n d u s t r i a l centres of England as a selfgoverning, voluntary organization which sought to provide i n t e r e s t i n g l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s as a means of leading young men to "the C h r i s t i a n way of l i f e . " The evangelical zeal of the founders of the Y.M.C.A. was the motivating force i n the spread of the "Y" movement to continental Europe and to the B r i t i s h North American Prov-inces i n 1851. The reason f o r the existence of the YMCA i n North America was quite d i f f e r e n t from the Association's English o r i g i n . L i f e i n the predominantly r u r a l populated country was -regarded as ' d u l l ' and 'primitive'. The early North American YMCA members appeared to be impatient with the role of passive r e c i p i e n t a l l o t t e d to enthusiastic young lay Christians i n any one of the major Protestant denominational Churches. As i n England early members of North American Associations d i d not seek to break away from the Church but rather to seek out and share C h r i s t i a n standards and values with a group of young men holding s i m i l a r convictions. The sparse r u r a l population presented a,real need f o r fellowship and experiences providing resources f o r enriching one's l i f e . 1. Ross. M.G., The Y.M.C.A. i n Canada f The R y p - r ^ n P ^ g Q Toronto, 1951, p. 5. . . . - 19 -Like the early English Associations, the YMCA's i n Canada provided reading rooms, l i b r a r i e s and lecture series as a means of a t t r a c t i n g young men to the movement. Ross records that i n t e r e s t i n being well-informed, and community service, were the reasons f o r the o r i g i n a t i o n of the Canadian IMCA. "... The fundamental drives which led to the i n i t i a -t i o n of the YMCA were ... the need fo r association with a s i m i l a r age group whose members shared a common pur-pose, provided support and encouragement f o r each other i n the pursuit of t h i s purpose, were interested i n ' p r a c t i c a l C h r i s t i a n service', and were concerned with s o c i a l and educational a c t i v i t i e s which might enrich t h e i r l i v e s and, at the same time, brighten the l i f e of the community.1 The Growth of the Canadian Y.M.C.A. (1851 to 1945) The f i r s t Canadian YMCA was established i n Montreal i n 1851 — only seven years a f t e r the i n i t i a t i o n i n London. Many of the early Canadian Associations that followed were transient and unsuccessful. Unlike England where Associations grew out of an attempt to meet a s p e c i a l set of needs f o r young men, Canadian YMCA's emphasized general evangelism of the c i t y mission type, the conduct of Mission Sunday schools i n depressed areas, and v i s i t s to j a i l s and h o s p i t a l s . Both Canadian and English Associations drew from the evangelical r e v i v a l of the nineteenth century, the factors which moved them to action. The evangelical r e v i v a l of the 1850's was a deeply moving f a i t h , based on Bible authority rather than Church councils, 1. I b i d . . p. 9 - 20 and requiring testing by personal experience. The Canadian Association was also greatly influenced by a development i n the Hew York YMCA, i n the United States. In Albany i n 1866, at the eleventh annual convention of the American and Canadian Associations, a proposal was put fo r t h by Mr. Gephes Brannard, a layman, and Mr. Robert R. McBurney, the General Secretary, that "the YMCA should l i m i t t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s to C h r i s t i a n work f o r and by young men." This pro-posal for s p e c i f i c work by young men f o r young men was based upon a detailed survey of conditions a f f e c t i n g the l i f e of young men i n New York C i t y . Published i n 1866 i t showed: " . . . t h e prevalence of strangers, the ina t t e n t i o n of employers to the i n t e r e s t s of t h e i r employees, the low s a l a r i e s , the exclusiveness of society, the drab condition of boarding houses, the prevalence and un-fortunate e f f e c t s of gambling, drunkenness and pros-t i t u t i o n , the absence of young men from the churches, and the li m i t e d nature of any educational or c u l t u r a l opportunity."1 There was another most important influence i n the development of the North American YMCA a r i s i n g from the recommendation and that,was the YMCA bu i l d i n g planned by the New York Associa-t i o n . The type of bui l d i n g that was to be widely followed was comprehensive, well u n i f i e d and p r a c t i c a l , and contained a reception room, or lobby, reading room, l i b r a r y , recreation room, lounge, lecture room, gymnasium, baths, bowling a l l e y s , - 1. The Canadian YMCA Study Committee^ The Years Ahead, A Plan f o r the Canadian YMCA i n the Next Decade, The National Council of the YMCA».s of Canada, Toronto, 1945, p. 32-33. - 21 -numerous educational classrooms and an auditorium. The development of the Canadian YMCA cl o s e l y followed the general growth of the nation i n the period between 1871 and 1900* There was a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of Association work to meet p a r t i c u l a r needs of young men l i v i n g i n Canadian c i t i e s . Some of these s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s included physical education, adult education, camping, r e l i g i o u s education, student work, war services and work with r a i l r o a d men. A beginning was also made i n boys work although the philosophy of t h i s work did not follow u n t i l a l a t e r period. The influence of the YMCA i n the United States i n methods of work i n Canadian Associations p a r t i c u l a r l y i n achieving a degree of f l e x i b i l i t y permitted the pioneering of services to the above spe c i a l groupings. The Canadian YMCA Study.Committee, of 1945 noted: "... The purpose and method of the Association came to be accepted i n Canadian l i f e . It's.work was e f f e c -t i v e and widely supported. This l e d to greater s t a b i l i t y i n i t ' s work and more new l o c a l YMCA's were opened, buildings erected, and fewer YMCA's.lapsed or were discontinued." 1 From 1900 to 1924 a continued growth i n YMCA buildings as a symbol of the YMCA movement was an accepted method of expansion. An established pattern of work had taken place which made f o r greater c l a r i t y of purpose of newer Associations. The YMCA bu i l d i n g i s accredited with creating greater public understanding and support f o r the YMCA. At the same time the 1. I b i d . , p. 39 22 bui l d i n g development with several departments made f o r elements of an i n s t i t u t i o n which was to become large and impersonal i n character; a fa c t o r which was to become an adverse deterent to the.pioneering s p i r i t of the movement i n some instances* With the continued growth of Canada, Association leaders saw the need f o r creating a national body. The Canadian National Council of YMGA's i n Canada was created as an advisory body. Laymen and employed officers,- c a l l e d "secretaries", were eager f o r a national i d e n t i t y . They were also eager to pa r t i c i p a t e i n meetings with American Associations and to maintain a close l i a i s o n with programme development to the south. The s i m i l a r i t y of programme a c t i v i t i e s i n the two countries i s i n d i c a t i v e of the close r e l a t i o n s h i p and exchange of ideas-at f r a t e r n a l conferences and conventions-War services during_1914 and 1918 gave the YMCA an opportunity of extending i t s buildings and resources to the m i l i t a r y services. Although a public inquiry of--YMCA war services, which was ca r r i e d out at the insistence of Associa-t i o n leaders, revealed there had not been a misuse of subscribed funds, c r i t i c i s m of the YMCA was voiced by some returning service men p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to overcharging. The War Service represented a large scale operation by a private r e l i g i o u s organization that was to bring about the Association's f i r s t r e a l experience of public disfavour. This circumstance was to carry f o r t h into following decades and was heard as recently as the Cap i t a l Fund Drive of YMCA of Greater - 23 Vancouver i n 1957, more perhaps by Association personnel who were cognizant of t h i s period rather than the general public* "•..Dr. Gwen Pense expresses t h i s point of view i n r e f e r r i n g to a sim i l a r and perhaps more widespread and persistent attitude i n the United States. Perhaps the basic error, i f such i t was, consists i n attempting to play such a comprehensive r o l e . I t would seem impossible f o r a Protestant r e l i g i o u s organization, even i n war time, to act as representative of a l l the people. C i v i l i a n i n character as i t was, i t could not become a public agency or serve i n a public capacity without exposing i t s e l f to the reservations or resistance of those who held fundamental doubt as to i t ' s d i s i n t e r -estedness; the f a c t that 'the American Associations encountered the same d i f f i c u l t y as the Canadian buti the B r i t i s h d i d not', lends support to this.deduction." Other YMCA programmes including an expanding boys* membership i n camping, physical education classes and Hi Y Clubs; adult education classes; and a physical education programme that was to pioneer t h i s f i e l d i n Canada; were examples of the growing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s within many Associa-tions* The Canadian YMCA was b a s i c a l l y an urban or large c i t y movement f o r there was l i t t l e success i n r u r a l areas* The period from 1921 to 1945 i s characterized by several changes i n Canadian l i f e that were to a l t e r the YMCA* The roaring twenties, the great depression, and recent World War created an unstable environment f o r the nations' youth. The Association was required to deal e f f e c t i v e l y with educa-t i o n a l theories challenging t r a d i t i o n a l concepts of youth work where r i g i d measures of d i s c i p l i n e rather than i n d i v i d u a l 1. I b i d . , p. 44* - 24 s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - i n i t i a t i v e were encouraged. YMCA secretaries were required to ra i s e t h e i r educational standards and to re-examine work methods. The new education fostered Association leaders to place greater importance on the primary group and to c r y s t a l i z e ideas on neighbourhood and school clubs. Changing community r e l a t i o n s with the growth of Community Chest and Welfare Councils required the YMCA to f i n d a d i s t i n c t i v e place i n broadening community r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Widespread i n t e r e s t i n public a f f a i r s i n s t i t u t e s l e d the Association to i n i t i a t e programmes such as So-Ed which was to provide a noticeable broadening of the i n t e l l e c t u a l concerns of YMCA young adult groups. I n the war period beginning 1939 the YMCA shared with three other agencies i n providing a u x i l i a r y services to men i n uniform. Although there were fewer programme innovations and l e s s freedom f o r the Association i n the 1939 to 1945 war period there was f a r l e s s r i s k to maintaining p o s i t i v e r e l a -tions to the Canadian community. The. number of Associations did not increase r a p i d l y during t h i s period but: "... There was growth, however, at a deeper l e v e l r e s u l t i n g i n greater clearness of purpose, knowledge of improved methods of work and better r e l a t i o n s within the community."1 A s i g n i f i c a n t development during t h i s period, although l a r g e l y unsuccessful, was the expansion planned i n suburban areas of - 25 -large c i t i e s , smaller towns and the r u r a l community.. The National Council employed f i v e f i e l d s t a f f members to f a c i l i -tate a programme of planned expansion. Two reasons have been offered to explain the f a i l u r e of the project. To begin with, few communities were appraised i n regard to t h e i r a b i l i t y to f i n a n c i a l l y support a private membership organization l i k e the YMCA, secondly, the Associations' t r a d i t i o n a l b u i l d i n g services were not.in many cases adaptable to the s o c i a l conditions* pertaining to the suburban or r u r a l community. "...The f i r s t attempts at extension into suburban areas merely used school gymnasiums and swimming pools to accomodate the mass physical programme characteris-t i c of the Association.in i t s c i t y buildings. Later developments, however, substituted some form of-group work. These have proved more s u c c e s s f u l . " 1 Trends i n Y.M.C.A. Work. 1945 to I960. Since the study by the Canadian YMCA the Association has continued to adapt to changing s o c i a l conditions through-out Canada. The growth of public recreation and the acceptance of the p r i n c i p l e that various government bodies have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to meet the needs of c i t i z e n s i n l e i s u r e hours has continued the transference of c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s previously sponsored by the YMCA. Also, at the public, l e v e l the schools have accepted a greater r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of educating the t o t a l person and extra c u r r i c u l a r programmes i n schools have, there-fore, increased i n content and volume. Special youth groups 1. I b i d . , p. 49• - 26 -p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n the area of a t h l e t i c s such as L i t t l e League Baseball have diminished the need f o r YMCA service i n these -areas. Commercial recreation, also has continued to become a widely supported enterprise i n the f i e l d of music, drama, a r t , and professional sports. These trends and many others i n the l e i s u r e time habits of people have required the Association to re-examine on a continuing basis i t ' s place i n the modern community. In recognition of the changes taking p l a c e - i n modern l i f e the Association through i t ' s National Councils both i n the United States and Canada and by l o c a l YMCA's have, conducted se l f - s t u d i e s to ascertain the effectiveness of i t ' s programme services. In addition, i n most large c i t i e s the YMCA through welfare councils i s a pa r t i c i p a n t i n s o c i a l planning i n recreation and welfare that has a bearing upon Association work. The influence of these s e l f - s t u d i e s upon Association work as well as the growth of a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by other groups i n the community i s shown i n almost a l l departments of YMCA's throughout the country. G i r l s and women within YMCA memberships has given r i s e to family YMCA's and increased r e l a t i o n s with YWCA's. In Canada i n 1959 the Canadian YMCA published a report on a YMCA Commission on YMCA-YWCA Relations.,' and family YMCA's which endeavoured to provide a future basi3 T. National Council of YMCA's of Canada. Report of the  YMCA Commission on YMCA-YWCA Relations and Family YMCA's. Toronto, 1959. ~ - 27 -to national p o l i c y regarding future YMGA-YWCA working r e l a t i o n s . In the United States a National Consultation of work with the family and p u b l i c a t i o n of programme goals f o r work with the family was published. 1 The i n f l u x of public physical education both through the schools and community centres and the a n t i c i -pated future growth of these services has and w i l l continue to challenge the need f o r extensive physical education services t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r r i e d on by the YMCA. Rather than eliminating Association physical education, recreational trends w i l l allow f o r greater s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and the pioneering of new a c t i v i t i e s by the Y's physical education personnel. YMCA•youth work services have also encountered a need to stress 'purpose 1 club programme based upon educational group work theories. In t h i s f i e l d the Association i s placing value on mass programmes, popular i n the past, only i n so f a r as they supplement the smaller self-determining group a c t i v i t i e s , where intensive leadership brought about by a lower r a t i o of members to group leaders creates a more q u a l i t a t i v e programme. Young adult departments formerly conducting educational classes have given more emphasis to a combined s o c i a l and educational programme probably best exemplified by the So-Ed programme f i r s t operated by the Vancouver Y.M.C.A. The multiple-service c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the YMCA have T. National Council of YMCA's of the United States, YMCA Working with the Family f, A.Report of the National Consul-t a t i o n , Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A., March 10-11, I960. - 28 -generally been regarded by Association personnel as an example of a pioneering s p i r i t and f l e x i b i l i t y . S t a r t i n g with young men the YMCA has since branched out to serve nearly every age group. With the i n f l u x of women and g i r l s i n t o the member-ship, the entire family i s now being accepted as members. A gradually lowering age group i s also noted i n the Association membership. A c t i v i t i e s are now sponsored by the YMCA i n nearly every phase of l e i s u r e time endeavor. These and other trends have resulted i n questions about how e f f e c t i v e or i n f l u e n t i a l . Association services are, when i t i s spread over a wide area. A recent study has presented findings which lend support to the concern of some Association leaders that YMCA programmes are spread 'too t h i n 1 to be influencing the attitudes of 'Y' members. The table below indicates the per-centage of population p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n YMCA programmes i s l e s s than ten per cent which applied to young men 18 to 29 an age group the YMCA i s supposed to give special attention: Table 1. Some YMCA Factors i n Relationship to Population! (Figures shown below are the average f o r 25 independent YMCA's as a group). . Factors One Two Three Secretary Secretaries Secretaries Members per 1 ,000 population 88 56 50 loung Men members for 1,000 population 5 6 6 Camp Enrollments per 6 10 1,000 population 7 Income per 1 ,000 population #1,147.- ; #1,752. #1,413. 1. P i e r r e l , G.O., The New Executive i n the Smaller YMCA. Association Press, New York, 1959, P« 75* - 29 The Association's willingness to launch into new programmes and to extend services to a wider age group of both sexes has presented a problem of i d e n t i t y i n the community or public recognition of a d i s t i n c t i v e YMCA purpose. The multiple serving c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Association i s being challenged by an age of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n permeating throughout Canadian society. The Continuity and S e n s i t i v i t y of the Association The YMCA has continually r e f l e c t e d the changing patterns of Canadian society. I t has been a keen follower of new s o c i a l ideas, i n ap p l i c a t i o n of new a c t i v i t i e s and programmes. This i s shown i n the l i b e r a l i z i n g of the r e l i g i o u s emphasis of the YMCA from the f i r s t t r a d i t i o n a l forms of Bi b l e study toward a broad and l i b e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of C h r i s t i a n personality. "... What i s apparent i s that the Association during i t ' s century of operation, has tended to incorporate into i t i s 'idea' or 'purpose' or d e f i n i t i o n of 'Christian', such ideas t values and attitudes as were formed by YMCA leaders to be important or s i g n i f i c a n t i n the culture.of Canada. The r e s u l t of such incorporation i s a goal and a method which many European YMCA leaders and others f i n d shocking and 'almost completely se c u l a r ' . " 1 The continuity of the YMCA has been attributed to the Association's s e n s i t i v i t y to community opinion. New programmes have been introduced when i t was apparent they would be accepted by a part of the Canadian public. New methods based upon 1. Ross, M.G.. The YMCA i n Canada. The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1951, p. 462. ; • • • • 3 0 -progressive educational theories or at l e a s t a willingness to follow 'progressive* ideology was a continuing source of strength to the Association. A receptive tendency of the Association stems from the autonomy of groups within the YMCA including l o c a l boards, clubs and a c t i v i t i e s . The expressed i n t e r e s t of young people was r e l i e d upon by Association boards who were primarily businessmen conservative by nature, but who recognized the need f o r experimentation and freshness of approach. The unique organization of the Association provided a balance of conservative and progressive tendencies and has been a considerable source of strength throughout the years. "... There were other strengths i n the Association ..•-the depth of i t s l a y organization, the techn i c a l "know-how" i n i t s years of operation; the fe e l i n g s of confidence that grew with rather consistant "success"; i t s r eliance on the c r i t e r i a of "bigness" (which com-pel l e d the Association p e r s i s t e n t l y to seek ways and means of expanding and thus to develop alertness and aggressiveness); the freedom and autonomy of l o c a l YMCA and programme groups (such as Hi Y, Y's Mens' etc.,) i n the Association. A l l of these factors were i n f l u e n t i a l i n the growth and continuity of the Canadian YMCA."1 Problems Emerging inline-YMCA Today An emerging problem of the Association i n the present day community i s a f a i l u r e to a t t a i n a consensus of objec-t i v e s . Contradictions i n modern l i f e i n the interpretations of the nature of l i f e by scientists,, educators, s o c i a l scien-t i s t s , and the clergy i s one factor presenting d i f f i c u l t y to the Association of developing a well defined objective. A 1 . I b i d . « p. 467. - 31 -changing rela t i o n s h i p of the YMCA i n becoming more closely-a l l i e d with r e c r e a t i o n a l and welfare planning i n the community rather than a primary allegiance to the C h r i s t i a n Church i s also a factor l i m i t i n g clear goals and d i r e c t i o n of the move-ment. P a r t i c i p a t i o n of Roman Catholics and Jews i n a c t i v i t i e s at the board and committee l e v e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n new Associa-tions, greatly a l t e r s the o r i g i n a l goal of i n i t i a t i n g boys and men to the "Prostestant C h r i s t i a n " f a i t h . This i s also a fac-t o r f o r increasing a vagueness of goals, when the i n t e r - f a i t h or C h r i s t i a n i z i n g r o l e of the Association remains unanswered. As Ross r e l a t e s : "... I t i s d i f f i c u l t to secure some clea r consensus regarding primary objectives of the Association i n a highly complex society, but i f t h i s cannot be done f a i l u r e w i l l accentuate a l l other l e s s fundamental d i f f i c u l t i e s . " 1 Of the unresolved problems of the Canadian YMCA currently facing the Association, two main issues stand out over a l l others. These are, one, the emergence of an employed s t a f f or s e c r e t a r i a t who have brought a d i f f e r i n g approach from the layman; and two, concepts of YMCA work gi v i n g emphasis to neighbourhood decentralized programme that challenge a t r a d i t i o n a l dependence upon a comprehensive b u i l d i n g for successful Association work. P r i o r to 1920, most secretaries were re c r u i t e d from 1. Ibid, p. 471 . - 32 -business men among the membership* In outlook the early-secretaries d i f f e r e d l i t t l e from the laymen. . Duties of the secretary were performed i n areas such as: correspondence, finance, and recording meetings where the laymen were sometimes l i m i t e d by a lack of time. However, as the number of u n i v e r s i t y graduates increased with s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n physical education, s o c i a l work, or the s o c i a l sciences, a t h e o r e t i c a l as well as p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the Association developed. F r i c t i o n between laymen and older secretaries and the younger secretaries holding a deep i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t sometimes resulted. . Despite a fear of fdeep thinkers' within the Assoc-i a t i o n , more and more young men and young women have joined the Association s t a f f with university t r a i n i n g so that a l e v e l of professional c r i t i c a l outlook has increased. The impact of the s e c r e t a r i a t upon the Association i n recent years has sometimes relegated the lay group to a super-f i c i a l r o le even though f i n a l authority i s vested with laymen. S t a f f groups may answer questions that are as important as items dealt with at board and committee meetings where agendas are generally selected by the secretaries. Because of special t r a i n i n g the secretary's outlook may be divergent from the layman's who may become l e s s intimately involved than i n previous decades. In many instances/ secretaries are required to make decisions and give leadership when laymen are e i t h e r unconcerned or uneducated to the problems requiring decisions. Many laymen are reluctant to discuss the philosophical or t h e o r e t i c a l issues - 33 facing the Association at the present time. As Ross r e l a t e s , t h i s f a c t has an adverse e f f e c t upon unity of purpose within the Association "... but t h i s accentuates the problem of achieving a r e a l consensus about goals and heightens the chances that the s e c r e t a r i a l group (or, at l e a s t , the younger group of secretaries) w i l l set up objectives f o r them-selves that are neither understood nor accepted by others i n the As s o c i a t i o n " . 1 The second problem facing the Association i s r e l a t e d -to the changing r o l e of the professional secretary. With the erection of the large b u i l d i n g YMCA i n i t i a t e d by the Mew York Association, the YMCA became primarily a 'building centered' operation. The energy of YMCA personnel gradually was turned toward a business-like operation which i n many respects pre-sented an impersonal manner i n dealing with young people. Membership income necessitated sponsoring programmes that ' s e l l ' the YMCA r e s u l t i n g i n a greater percentage of people now j o i n the YMCA primarily to use i t ' s services. A mass membership required a f i n a n c i a l security that i n a comprehen-sive YMCA has sometimes resulted i n the maintaining of established programme patterns rather than providing a c t i v i t i e s that may be more meaningful to young people. In contrast to the large b u i l d i n g YMCA a pattern of decentralized or community work o r i g i n a t i n g i n the 1920's has emerged as an answer t o the s o c i a l conditions of the newer sub-!• Ibid, p. 472 - 34 urban community. Considerable v a r i a t i o n of YMCA f a c i l i t i e s from small •non-equipment1 or • n o n - f a c i l i t y ' YMGA's either rented or owned by the Association to a l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y b u i l d -ing have been used i n the extension of the YMCA. The central idea of the community approach i s to bring YMCA programme groups into l o c a l neighbourhoods by using available resources such as schools, churches or private homes without r e l y i n g upon the YMCA bu i l d i n g . YMCA techniques, leadership and re -sources are integrated i n t o community recreational services. As i n the period immediately following the f i r s t World War the smaller Associations who decentralize programmes through-out the l o c a l area have lacked a YMCA i d e n t i t y i n contrast with the comprehensive b u i l d i n g YMCA and i n some cases, have been heavily subsidized by Community Chest or Association funds. One source has noted the A s s o c i a t i o n s apparent i n a b i l i t y to recognize the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the community centered YMCA. " . . . I n recent years there has been some honest recognition of these problems there have been some clean "breaks" with t r a d i t i o n , and some courageous experimental work has begun with "non-equipment community programmes", neighbourhood clubs, and small "leadership t r a i n i n g " and "programme" centres. But some of the patterns structured i n the "large b u i l d i n g " era p e r s i s t with great strength, and the s t a b i l i t y of t h i s newer experimental work i s rendered doubtful by persistence of the b e l i e f that buildings, leadership almost exclusively by businessmen and large recreational services are the esse n t i a l aspects of YMCA programme. These l a t t e r are suggested, were major fact o r s i n the success of the YMCA i n the rapid-l y growing Canadian c i t i e s . The question i s whether these are not now factors which r e s t r i c t and i n h i b i t Association work at some points.. In a day when general recreation agencies and services are multiplying - 35 r a p i d l y and when the more serious aspects of personal disorganization are becoming more apparent, i t appears to some that the Association i s undergoing unusual d i f f i c u l t y (as a r e s u l t of " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n " ) i n making adaptions to a new situation."1 The Effectiveness of Y.M.C.A. Buildings Both the National Councils of Canada and the United States have conducted studies and reports on Association methods of extending into the changing community. Some l o c a l Associations, notably San Francisco, have car r i e d out planned i n s t i t u t i o n a l change to give emphasis to newer phases of Association programme. Other l o c a l YMCA's have implemented p a r t i a l neighbourhood centered YMCA a c t i v i t i e s along with t r a d i t i o n a l 'building centered* programme. S t i l l other Associations remain exclusively a l l i e d with the large YMCA bu i l d i n g concept. This circumstance i l l u s t r a t e s there can be a great divergence within the national YMCA movement. I t also points out the degree to which the Association has accepted newer concepts of decentralized YMCA programme i s d i f f i c u l t to establish at t h i s time. On the basis of 1959 s t a t i s t i c s i t would appear community branches constitute between twenty-five to t h i r t y - f i v e percent of a l l YMCA ' branches. A study published i n 1947 by the National Council of 1. I b i d , p. 469. ~ 2. Sorenson, R., Redesigning Values f o r L i v i n g . A Case Study i n I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change, Association Press. New York, 1955. - 36 -YMCA's of the United States was a survey to determine the effectiveness of d i s t r i c t branches with various types of b u i l d i n g s . 1 This report c l a s s i f i e d YMCA branches i n t o three categories: Type I (Non-Equipment) A rented quarter or small YMCA used fo r o f f i c e head-quarters and leadership t r a i n i n g . Type II ( A c t i v i t i e s building) This type ranges a l l the way from small s o c i a l head-quarters, including o f f i c e s , club rooms, refectory and kitchenette f o r use of small groups only, to o f f i c e and club headquarters with l i m i t e d physical recreation f a c i l i t i e s , such as one all-purpose room to be used f o r s o c i a l events, banquet service, and a t h l e t i c games, with a locker and shower room ensemble. This type i n -cludes a l l the shadings between Types I and I I I . Type I I I (Comprehensive Building) W i l l have most of the following: Social and o f f i c e headquarters with Junior and Senior Lounges, game room, general-purpose room, and an adequate a t h l e t i c depart-ment including a gymnasium, swimming pool and locker rooms. This type may also have various enlargements and t r a d i t i o n s such as two gymnasiums, hand b a l l courts, health service department, and food service equipment. These could be with or without dormitories. One hundred and twenty-five large c i t y Associations were evaluated on the basis of established c r i t e r i a f o r branch effectiveness. V i s i t s by persons having d i r e c t interviews with branch personnel were guided by the following: proportion of IT De Marche ? D.F.. The Relative Effectiveness of YMCA Branches with Various Types o f Buildings. Association Press, New York, 1947. "™ - 37 -population within the branch d i s t r i c t , proportion of regularly-scheduled groups, number of club groups, volume of p a r t i c i p a -t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to branch budget and number of s t a f f , per-centage of teen-age and young adult members, u t i l i z a t i o n of community f a c i l i t i e s , cooperation i n community planning including welfare councils, P.T.A.Vs, etc., and the amount of supporting constituency. Gn the basis of the above c r i t e r i a , the study noted the socio-economic r a t i n g of a community did not determine the effectiveness of branch YMCA work. Successful YMCA work can be c a r r i e d out i n communities ranking low by socio-economic f a c t o r s . . The l o c a t i o n of the types of YMCA buildings of the study revealed that (a) comprehensive YMCA buildings were serving older communities, (b) a c t i v i t y buildings served primarily newer and more economically favourable d i s t r i c t s , (c) and non-equipment branches were established i n the fringe of the c i t y i n newer areas, and also i n order d i s t r i c t s characterized by the lower socio-economic r a t i n g . Among the findings of the study were: 1. Branches with comprehensive buildings seem to fi n d greater d i f f i c u l t y i n adapting to changing communi-ties, and community needs than do the non-equipment and li m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s b u i l d i n g . 2. Branches with only a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t i e s (Type II) had the best chance of accomplishing e f f e c t i v e YMCA work as defined by the c r i t e r i a of the study. - 3S -Table 2. Percentage of Total Number Branches i n Each F i f t h of Branch Effectiveness ^ Represented by Each Type of Branch F a c i l i t y . (Highest f i f t h (5) indicates highest degree of effectiveness). F i f t h s Type of 1 2 3 4 5 F a c i l i t y • - - High % % % % % I 10.5 15. 35 . 21.1 6.2 II 31.6 20. 30. 26.3 56.2 I H - a 5.3 10. : . 15. 21.1 ia.3 I l l - b 5.6 55. 20. 31.5 13.3 Total - 100. 100. 100. 100. 100. According to t h i s analysis of the four types of branch f a c i l i t i e s , Type II has the largest percentage (56.2) i n the top f i f t h of effectiveness. . On the other hand, the greatest percentage of non-equipment (Type I) has the highest per-centage within the middle f i f t h of effectiveness. Comprehen-sive b u i l d i n g without dormitories (Type III) have the lar g e s t percentage i n the upper middle f i f t h . o f effectiveness. Branches with comprehensive f a c i l i t i e s with dormitories (Type I l l - b ) have the highest percentage i n the lower middle f i f t h and a large percentage i n the lowest. The percentage also shows a c t i v i t i e s branches (II) have a high percentage f a l l i n g on the lowest f i f t h while non-equipment branches are the 1. Ibid, p. 4 2 . - 39 -l e a s t successful i n achieving the highest degree of e f f e c t i v e -ness* Other s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g of the study o f f e r s a per-spective for the Association at the present time. . In comparing the l i m i t e d b u i l d i n g branches (I, and II) compared with the comprehensive b u i l d i n g ( I l l - a and I l l - b ) the report stated "the non-equipment and l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s " b u i l d ing seem to represent a more e f f e c t i v e force f o r community i n t e g r a t i o n and organization, than do the branches with comprehensive buildings. Because i t was found that Type I and II buildings more adequately served the constituency they are intended to serve the following recommendations were made: (a) That a branch with a social-type b u i l d i n g (II) be r e l a t e d to the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s where people.live. This type i s neighbourhood centered. (b) That the comprehensive-type building I l l - a , I l l - b - b e r e l a t e d to the business or i n d u s t r i a l sections where men work. The purpose of t h i s proposal to centre the community branch i n the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t with a focus upon de-cent r a l i z e d programing was put f o r t h when i t was noted the YMCA had done an inadequate job i n determining the geographic l o c a t i o n of branches. The Family YMCA In the th i r t e e n years following t h i s study u n i f i e d Association purposes i n regard to the extension of the movement - 40 have not evolved. Stated purposes or emphasis of the Association sometimes appear to be more of a statement of words than actual practice would d i s c l o s e . . Yet the growth of the YMGA i n newer communities has created innovations f o r the future emphasis of the Association. YMCA work with the family i s an issue the Association i s just beginning to face. The rapid r i s e i n family memberships, family camping, family swimming, and many other programmes with the family t e s t i f y that a large number of Associations already emphasize services to a family group. A new phase of Association experience, i t i s probably not c l e a r l y thought out or formulated by many YMCA's having familycentered programmes. The.YMCA contribution i n strengthening family l i f e , or i n e f f e c t i v e l y reaching w e l l -defined objectives i n providing family experiences have not as yet been f u l l y worked out by most Associations. Chapter II Recreation Services i n Vancouver Vancouver's l e i s u r e time services have c l o s e l y followed the s o c i a l conditions e x i s t i n g through the d i f f e r e n t periods of the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y . At the time of the formation of Vancouver, the personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n a small town made f o r l e i s u r e time p a r t i c i p a t i o n through the family group and the church, the established s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s of the time. Extra c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n public schools, organized sports, and c u l t u r a l events, developed as the need arose by members of the community. The importance placed.upon l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s by c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s and the inherent p o l i t i c a l and community attitudes toward organized l e i s u r e was not great. A natural habitat of sandy beaches, f o r e s t , lakes and streams, along with a climate encouraging an i n t e r e s t i n the outdoors helped to diminish public concern f o r agency sponsored recreation. Future planning f o r community recreation governed by an i n -d i f f e r e n t attitude or at l e a s t placing recreation at a low l e v e l of p r i o r i t y allowed one asset, the beaches, to deprec-i a t e to the point where contamination from raw sewage has made the beaches unsanitary f o r public swimming. Vancouver took some forward steps i n planning i n 1928 when i t i n i t i a t e d the survey of i t s welfare agencies which led to the Community Chest and Welfare Council (combined i n the Community Chest and Councils). Through these planning bodies other studies have been i n i t i a t e d from time to time i n regard to c h i l d welfare, public assistance, and other areas of welfare* In view of the rapid growth of Vancouver, a survey of group work and recreation was undertaken i n 1945* The purpose of the survey (known as the "Norrie Report") was to assess the c i t y ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to youth and the e x i s t i n g agency services i n the f i e l d of group work and recreation. The 'Survey' also projected a plan f o r Greater Vancouver which would: (a) provide a foundation f o r planning, (b) c a l l attention to the areas of greatest need, (c) guide agencies i n t h e i r expansion plans, and (d) serve as a guide i n determining agency claims f o r support. The survey i n 1945 was conducted at a v i t a l time i n the development of Vancouver. Wartime services and the e f f e c t of the depression i n the 1930 's had seriously depleted Van-couver's agency sponsored group work and recreation programme. Adjustment from wartime to peacetime and an expanding era i n the 1 9 4 0 's and 1950 's gave r e a l value to the f i n d i n g and recommendations of the 'Survey 1. Coordination of group work and recreation services increased standards of personnel t r a i n i n g and education and methods of agency q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r Community Chest support, adequate f i n a n c i a l procedures and greater volunteer p a r t i c i p a t i o n were some of the general recommendations that were to be followed up preceding the "Norrie Report". On one recommendation of key s i g n i f i c a n c e , - 43 -which has not been accomplished at t h i s time and which a f f e c t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l group work and recreation agencies even today, was recommendation number seven which stated: "... That the Group Work and Recreation Section of the Welfare Council give leadership to the organization of neighbourhood coordinative councils representative of the constructive forces of neighbourhoods of the c i t y . Welfare agencies should lend every support to the success of such enterprises. The purpose of such councils would be to promote l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l planning f o r the benefit of neighbourhood ch i l d r e n and y o u t h . n l The necessity of public and private cooperation i n planning and coordinating community recreation was emphasized i n the proposal that a l l agencies encourage the public schools to become, i n e f f e c t , community centres. In long range planning the Report emphasized the importance of public recreation personnel having representation on the Community Chest and Welfare Council, which was advocated as the l o g i c a l body to give leadership to neighbourhood planning. Since the Survey Report of 1945, Vancouver has seen an expansion of both public and private recreation agencies. In many respects the Report has served as a blue p r i n t f o r pro-gress i n r a i s i n g the standards of agency services. Many agencies, f o r example, took s i g n i f i c a n t steps to encourage the employment of trained personnel. Agencies also were able 1. Norrie. L.E.. Survey Report of Group Work and Recrea- ' t i o n of Greater Vancouver. Community Chest and Welfare Council of Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., 1945, p. 87. - 44 -to conduct s e l f - s t u d i e s on the basis of the "Norrie Report" and to plan ahead i n serving the community. The d e c e n t r a l i -zation of YMCA services resulted i n the immediate following years of the "Survey". Another example was the neighbourhood house l a t e r involvement i n a group work-case work project f o r strengthening t o t a l services to the family. However, i n many respects some of the recommendations were discarded and a l t e r n a t i v e plans were followed out. In regard to public recreation the Report strongly endorsed the maximum degree of cooperation between the Vancouver Park and School Boards i n providing public recreation services. The statement was recorded supporting the reason f o r t h i s p r i n c i -pal as follows: "... Both agencies are financed by the same people and.the f u l l e s t use of f a c i l i t i e s of both f o r public purposes should be f a c i l i t a t e d by harmonious i n t e r -agency understanding and cooperation." 1 The report proceeded to examine the most e f f e c t i v e way to pro-vide community centres f o r every neighbourhood. Building separate f a c i l i t i e s through neighbourhood resources or Parks Board finance was v i s u a l i z e d as too c o s t l y to support by voluntary means. Planning and designing school buildings to f u l f i l l the function of a public recreation center was con-cluded as the best method of l o c a l i z i n g public f a c i l i t i e s . 1. Norrie. L.E.. Survey Report of Group Work and Recrea-t i o n of Greater Vancouver. Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., 1945, p. 17. The proposals of the 'Survey' i n respect to public recreation development have been rejected f o r expanded public recreation took quite a d i f f e r e n t d i r e c t i o n . The Vancouver Board of Park Commissioners and Public Recreation has remained the primary agency for the development of public recreation. The Parks Board i s responsible f o r Park maintenance, improvements and planning, as w e l l as community centres established since the end of World War I I . Park Board s t a f f also are employed f o r public beaches, public playgrounds, public g o l f courses, and park buildings. The community centre movement shortly a f t e r the war became a popular appeal to Vancouver c i t i z e n r y . Many communities struggled to r a i s e funds necessary to begin public centres. Gradually centres were established i n Marpole, South Vancouver (Sunset), K i t s i -lano, Kerrisdale, Hastings East, and Dunbar. Additional centres are also planned i n Kingcrest, South Vancouver ( K i l l -arney Park), West End, False Creek, Mount Pleasant, Grandview, Renfrew-Norquay, South Gambie and West Point Grey. The public centres include gymnasium, club rooms, professional o f f i c e s , kitchen f a c i l i t i e s and outdoor swimming pools. Private group work and recreation agencies have also shown unprecedented expansion since 19A-5. At the time of the •Survey', s i x private organizations were l i s t e d as private youth serving organizations. This figure excluded church r e -creation and organizations not included i n the Community Chest. In I960 there, i s an addition of only one other agency, but the -46 -services, through added s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s , have r i s e n con-siderably. Vancouver i s well represented by national youth serving organizations including the Boys Scouts, Boys Clubs of Canada, Y.M.C;. A., Y.W.C.A., G i r l Guides and the settlement or neighbourhood house movement. Local youth serving agencies are non-existent within the Community Chest and Councils with the proposed conversion of the Cedar Cottage Youth Club to a neighbourhood house programme. Church denominations sponsor a wide var i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n churches where separate f a c i l i t i e s have been planned f o r recr e a t i o n a l purposes. In accordance with the "Norrie Report" private agencies have representation on the Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver. The Di v i s i o n , with voluntary public agency representation, acts as a c l e a r i n g house of problems coming to the attention of member agencies. Planning and coordination of recreation services and the promotion of a better understanding of recrea-t i o n and group work remains the central purpose of the •Division". The Vancouver Y.M.C.A. The Vancouver Y.M.C.A. was established i n 1886, two years a f t e r the c i t y was founded. Early programme of the Vancouver YMCA resembled 'Y» a c t i v i t i e s i n other l o c a l i t i e s and included, B i b l e study, prayer meetings, lecture discussion and l i m i t e d amount of youth work. Ear l y Association buildings i n Vancouver were located on Hastings Street and l a t e r at - 47 Cambie. The bu i l d i n g at Cambie and Dunsmuir was i n existence from 1361 to 1941 when a b u i l d i n g campaign i n 1920 f a i l e d as a r e s u l t of a business recession. Growth of the Vancouver YMCA was severely hampered as a r e s u l t and the Vancouver YMCA was not able to grow i n number and size of f a c i l i t y to the extent of YMCA's i n other c i t i e s of a comparable population. The Vancouver YMCA operated one b u i l d i n g u n t i l 1947 when outpost or community branches were established. The "Norrie Report" gave the impetus to decentralized YMCA service. I t recommended: "... That the YMCA and the YWCA decentralize and modify t h e i r group work services to serve a wider range of community centered groups through a non-equipment type of community programme. Such a pro-gramme would u t i l i z e the f a c i l i t y resources of the neighbourhoods, such as schools, churches, parks, etc.." 1 In October of 1946 the Vancouver YMCA set up a Po l i c y Planning Committee to lay out a plan f o r the Association i n the following f i v e years. The report of t h i s committee recommended: 1. "... that we adopt the po l i c y of establishing community extension committees i n various st r a t e g i c areas i n the c i t y and employ an adequate s t a f f to operate a neighbourhood centered programme of group work." 2. "... P r i o r i t y i n s t a f f time, budget prov i s i o n and programme space should be given to the develop-1. Ibid, p. 90 - 48 -ment of a strong programme of purpose groups." 1 These two recommendations were the main proposals which gave d i r e c t i o n to the pattern of development that has continued i n the Vancouver YMCA. The ap p l i c a t i o n of t h i s p r i n c i p l e varied i n d i f f e r e n t communities and r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t de-grees of success. The observation of the "Norrie Report" that Vancouver's neighbourhoods were large and i n d i s t i n c t i v e , had a bearing upon the YMCA's knowledge at the time i n lo c a t i n g community Branches. Within a f i v e year period by 1951, the Vancouver YMCA, organized as a Metropolitan Association i n 1949, had established branches i n the following areas: Fairmount Branch serving Fairview, Mount Pleasant i n 1947, the Vancouver East Branch serving the eastern areas of the c i t y i n 1944, the West Van-n couver Branch serving the West Vancouver municipality i n 1946, and the Alma YMCA serving West Point Grey, Dunbar, Kerrisdale and K i t s i l a n o i n 1949* In a l l these areas YMCA programmes were adapted to l o c a l community conditions and centered most a c t i v i t i e s i n neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s . By 1950 the Vancouver YMCA, i n recognizing growth since becoming a 'Metropolitan' type of organization, set up a study committee to c r i t i c a l l y examine the organization and programme of the Association. Goals f o r future growth and development IT The YMCA of Greater Vancouver, P o l i c y Planning ! Committee, The Y i n Greater Vancouver. 1946, p. 4. - 49 -were l a i d down based upon the continued growth of the Associa-t i o n . The Report, e n t i t l e d Second Century Goals, endorsed the main l i n e s of development recorded i n the 1946 Report. In supporting the pol i c y of developing Community Branches the report stated: "... E x i s t i n g Branches should be made responsible for-a large geographic area."l This proposal was contrary to the National a r t i c l e s , studies, and books published by the IMCA which, f o r the most part, supported a smaller, well defined, geographic area. The pro-posal may, i n l a t e r analysis, indicate the Vancouver Associa-t i o n i n c e r t a i n branches suffered because of t h i s recommenda-ti o n . However, Second Century Goals provided a foliow up of spe c i a l ways programme services i n a large Metropolitan YMCA could compliment each other i n accomplishing the basic aims of the YMCA. . A pattern of YMCA services was reviewed i n regard to: 1. A downtown comprehensive b u i l d i n g , 2. Community branch buildings, 3. Homes and neighbourhoods, and 4» Summer and winter outdoor camping f a c i l i t i e s and service. A comprehensive review of programme was undertaken to provide T . M e t r o p o l i t a n YMCA of Greater Vancouver, Centennial Study Committee, Second Century Goals. October 1951, p. 4. - 50 -a foundation f o r leadership. "...The Committee would emphasize and underline the~importance of strengthening our group work pro-cesses i n a l l aspects of the programme and would point out the need f o r a r e a l advance i n r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g volunteer leaders. This should be regarded as the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l secre-t a r i e s and a measure of th e i r success»"l Much of t h i s study has not been accomplished by the Vancouver Association to i960. Application of many of the ideas, f o r example, work with parent committees of neigh-bourhood club groups, although agreed to i n p r i n c i p l e by several branches, has not been extensively implemented. Some programmes, because of growing pains of the l o c a l YMCA's, have decreased i n number rather than increased as projected. The Hi Y programme, which was to gain the benefit of a.Metropoli-tan s t a f f persons' time, i s not at the present time an over a l l developed pattern of YMCA work to the degree evident i n other Associations. In many instances the lack of progress i n some areas of the study are the r e s u l t of Branch growth and development, s p e c i f i c a l l y , s t a f f loads have sometimes l i m i t e d progress i n c e r t a i n areas. Then too, as Ross points out i n 'The YMCA i n Canada', Vancouver has employed young secretaries sometimes trained outside the YMCA who have set goals f o r t h e i r respective Associations d i f f e r i n g r a d i c a l l y from accepted patterns of work of the Association. T . I b i d , p. 5. - 51 -The Fraserview and K i l l a r n e v Areas Within the C i t y of Vancouver there i s a section of land at the south eastern borders that has undergone a r a p i d expansion i n housing and population since the Second World War. Gradually, community i d e n t i t y with sections of t h i s area, usually around a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c routes and business d i s t r i c t s , has evolved. Two of these d i s t i n c t l o c a l areas, or communities, the Fraserview Housing Project and the new Ki l l a r n e y subdivision, w i l l be appraised i n t h i s study as an example of the structure of services and s p e c i f i c a l l y the pattern of growth of a private r e l i g i o u s and recre a t i o n a l agency — The Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association. The two communities are important for they w i l l demonstrate the s o c i a l conditions and forces shaping the modern post war community. For the purpose of t h i s study Fraserview i s defined as that section of land bordered by 54th Avenue, Marine Drive, Argyle and 55th Avenues, and Vivian Drive. An area of s l i g h t -l y l e s s than one square mile on an i n c l i n e gradually sloping toward the south, Fraserview was selected by the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation, an agency of the Federal Government, f o r a low r e n t a l housing subdivision f o r r e t u r n -ing service men. The purpose of the project was to a s s i s t the adjustment of the army, navy and a i r force veteran to c i v i l i a n l i f e . I t was a cooperative venture between the Muni-c i p a l Government of the City of Vancouver, who set aside the l o t s , and the Federal Government who financed the construction - 52 -of the houses. As the area was l a r g e l y open land, with very few established dwellings, the project d i d not represent a problem of r e s e t t l i n g and buying land from private i n d i v i d u a l s . The degree of community "we f e e l i n g " r e s u l t i n g from the common background of war service of the inhabitants i s d i f f i -c u l t to determine. As tenants of the Federal Government, any development i n connection with r e n t a l p o l i c y and r a t e s , or, as arose i n 1959, the future plans to s e l l housing u n i t s , serves as a most unifying force of community i n t e r e s t apparent to the outside observer. An in t e r e s t i n organizations stemming from a background of wartime services does not appear to be more greatly developed than branches located i n other communities. However, any common bond r e s u l t i n g from sim i l a r service background would probably remain lat e n t ex-cept under times of community stress such as a declining economic security. . Unlike various parts of Canada and United States Fraserview does not appear to be a separate p o l i t i c a l e n t i t y a r i s i n g from the war service experiences of the residents. At the present time the Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation continues to operate the Fraserview project, c o l l e c t i n g monthly rents and making ce r t a i n improvements. O f f i c i a l s of the Corporation also conduct periodic inspection of the housing units to ensure the tenants are maintaining the dwellings adequately. In 1958 current residents were given the option of buying t h e i r rented houses from the Cor-- 53 -poration or to continue renting. The arrangements, from the tenants viewpoint, appears to be.economical on the basis of current r e a l estate values* Tenants wishing to buy are r e -quired to have a down payment of ten per eent of the appraised value determined by the Corporation. Under th i s arrangement a new home owner was not permitted to r e - s e l l the home f o r a period of f i v e years. Renting of houses under continued low r e s t i s s t i l l allowed by the Corporation and i t i s conceiv-able t h i s arrangement w i l l have a greater a f f e c t on the permanency of the community. Home owners w i l l normally have -a greater i n t e r e s t i n the improvement of t h e i r property. Tenants, who v i s u a l i z e a long term r e n t a l , w i l l continue with a view to greater permanency a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n have reached maturity and married or l e f t f o r personal reasons. This view-point was outlined to the writer by a, Fraserview K i l l a r n e y Y.M.C.A. Board Member who planned to continue as a tenant. In the year following the Corporation's decision the w r i t e r noticed f i v e members of the Y.M.C.A. Board of Management moved from the area. The Corporation's decision appeared to have helped some of the residents to formulate i n d i v i d u a l housing plans, that, i f widespread over the community, w i l l greatly a l t e r community attitudes to s o c i a l services. In e f f e c t , i t i s l o g i c a l to expect t h e i r demands w i l l increase. The second community to be involved i n t h i s study, . K i l l a r n e y , has been gradually emerging throughout the nine-teen f i f t i e s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to define t h i s area as i t - 54 -comprises an older established section that has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been linke d with the Collingwood d i s t r i c t and a new section of N.H.A. homes erected i n patches where vacant land has ex-i s t e d . For the most part, K i l l a r n e y Park subdivision i s an area of new housing units owned by the occupants and l a r g e l y financed by the National Housing Act. For purposes of.the study, K i l l a r n e y w i l l be defined as an area of Vancouver bordered by: 45th Avenue to the north, 54th Avenue and south-east Marine Drive to the south, V i v i a n Street to the west, and Boundary Road to the east. Vacant land e x i s t i n g on the fringe of t h i s area may r e s u l t i n the extension of these borders southward. The increase of newer homes w i l l , i n a l l l i k e l i -hood, a s s i s t the emergence of community i d e n t i t y . A part and a recent new high school named K i l l a r n e y , a f t e r the area, w i l l also r e s u l t i n the residents becoming conscious of K i l l a r n e y as a l o c a l community, p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t from the G o l l l n g -vtood community to the north. The sketch map, Figure 1, o u t l i n e s the Fraserview and Ki l l a r n e y areas. The Fraserview community, by the spe c i a l i z e d nature of the development i s a more d i s t i n c t i v e area. The Ki l l a r n e y community i s important f o r purposes of t h i s study as the services of the Y.M.C.A. to be examined have gradually been extended to a new home owned area. Patterns of health . and welfare services w i l l probably indicate c e r t a i n differences l a r g e l y r e s u l t i n g from variations within these two communities. In r e l a t i o n to these differences the Y.M.C*A. purchased land - 56 -i n K i l l a r n e y f o r Branch headquarters because i t was believed by those responsible t h i s area represented a greater degree of permanency necessary f o r the support of an organization l i k e the YMCA, In a l a t e r section an analysis of t h i s de-c i s i o n w i l l be made. Within the area considered to be South Vancouver, there are several communities c l o i s t e r e d around the main a r t e r i a l streets* In general, these communities are distinguished by the business sections located along the main a r t e r i a l routes fo r r e s i d e n t i a l t r a f f i c * Existence of several community associations indicate some degree of i d e n t i t y even though considerable overlapping would take place i n regard to: shopping preference, Church attendances, school and p o l l i n g boundaries, and the l e i s u r e time i n t e r e s t s of the population. New communities, l i k e Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , encounter the influence of the l a r g e r community of Vancouver more than older l o c a l areas where community patterns have been estab-l i s h e d over a longer term. Recent decentralization of large business concerns, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a t t e r years, appears to be eliminating a number of l o c a l small business operations due to the residents mobility and the close proximity of concentrated shopping centres. Although the habits of the urban dwellers change r a p i d l y , i t i s evident current s o c i a l influences within communities represented by Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y do not lead to a strong and f i r m l y entrenched f e e l i n g of community i d e n t i t y . There are various s o c i o l o g i c a l - 57 -forces at work i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y to o f f s e t the growth of a strong community bond. Local communities of large urban centres i n some respects are r e a d i l y submerged to the i n t e r -ests of the t o t a l Vancouver community. C i t y wide c u l t u r a l , a t h l e t i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l events are examples where the l o c a l area may become a part of the t o t a l Vancouver community. Cross-community i n t e r e s t r e s u l t i n g from: previous residence, business association, educational opportunities, etc., also diminish l o c a l community i d e n t i t y . The young adult parent group of Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y may be affected to a greater degree than residents of older more established communities. A comparison with West Vancouver and Richmond, well known Vancouver suburbs, i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r i n g psychologi-c a l i d e n t i t y of communities. Both West Vancouver and Richmond, through c i v i c government, community journals, public and p r i -vate services, etc., are more self-contained areas. There i s a greater degree of l o c a l management or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and therefore, a r a l l y i n g , of community i n t e r e s t . Separation by bodies of water and bridges make West Vancouver and Richmond more t r u l y self-contained areas, or "bedroom type communities." Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y and other communities within the borders of the C i t y of Vancouver do not indicate the same de-gree of separation from the mass of the urban centre and, therefore, do not stand out to the same degree as d i s t i n c t i v e , psychological areas. Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y also do not indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t concentration of ethnic minorities - 53 -within t h e i r boundaries. A l l the r a c i a l groupings would appear to be represented with a predominance of Anglo-saxon f a m i l i e s . Most f a m i l i e s would appear to be native born Canadians with a diminished influence of customs from other countries r e s u l t i n g . The extent of c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g from recent immigra-t i o n or long term families r e t a i n i n g habits and customs i s l e s s prevalent and as s i m i l a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s of d i f f e r i n g back-grounds would appear to be greater than i n older communities. Newer communities, generally, may be expected to com-pose a young population, Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y are no exception. The "General Recreation Survey", conducted by a spec i a l committee of the Group Work D i v i s i o n of the Community Chest and Councils, disclosed census d i s t r i c t s t h i r t y s i x and thirty-seven, containing Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , have the largest youth population within the Ci t y of Vancouver. Regula-tions governing the Fraserview Housing Project require a family of four i n order to qualify f o r residence. Central Mortgage and Housing o f f i c i a l s , i n 1951, said there was an average of three c h i l d r e n to a family, a much larger average than many other communities. This large youth population has l e d a good many people to forecast considerable youth problems i n the future. Consistent with other newer communities, Fraserview and Ki l l a r n e y f a m i l i e s are, f o r the most part, i n t a c t . The head of the household i s generally i n h i s productive years, a factor which may help to o f f s e t the spread of teenage a n t i -- 59 -> s o c i a l behaviour. Compared to older communities, a younger population, i n a new area, demonstrates greater enthusiasm and i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . . This i n t e r e s t i s probably at i t s peak i n a community l i k e Fraserview where there i s a large school age population. New suburban communities generally have a large hetero-geneous population making up an area of f a m i l i e s containing both parents. At the same time, there are few senior c i t i z e n s except where f a m i l i e s are caring for aged parents. Broken homes (that i s , the absence of one parent) are also found l e s s frequently. One s t a f f person of a private s o c i a l agency pointed out that the Fraserview residents were more responsive to using counselling services of her agency because of a short duration of parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and possibly l i m i t e d family kinship r e l a t i o n s . This impression i s consistent with the w r i t e r 1 s experience where some residents have shown a desire to discuss family r e l a t i o n s . Economic Features The economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a new suburban commun-i t y are very c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the age of the working force l i v i n g i n the community. Young f a m i l i e s , for the most part, have had l e s s time to accumulate f i n a n c i a l resources to o f f -set temporary setbacks that a family may encounter through i l l n e s s , or unemployment. . On the other hand, economic s t a b i l -i t y may be said to increase as the opportunity f o r promotion - 60 -and s e n i o r i t y bring about increased earnings and greater job security. In the assessment of Fraserview and Killarney* s economic reatures, the d i f f e r i n g backgrounds of the two areas may be expected to r e f l e c t quite d i f f e r e n t patterns of economic development. Fraserview, a. low-rental housing subdivision, i s i n -habited l a r g e l y by lower-middle income wage earners. S k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d tradesmen, employed i n construction, lumbering, manufacturing,, transportation and c i v i l service, would appear to comprise the largest occupational categories. Commercial salesmen working as driver-salesmen, route salesmen, and store cl e r k s , also make up a large group i n the working force. A small number of professions and management positions are also represented by i n d i v i d u a l s who are looking toward Fraserview as a temporary place of residence. The business recession of 1957 indicated the vulner-a b i l i t y of Fraserview to changes i n the business cycle. Workers employed i n primary i n d u s t r i e s are generally the f i r s t to f e e l the e f f e c t s of a business slump. Widespread unemployment throughout Fraserview i n 1957 was noted by school o f f i c i a l s and P.T.A.'s during the Christmas season. School o f i c i a l s have also noted a high percentage of mothers are also working f u l l , or part time. Although 'working mothers* appear to be an accepted trend i n society generally, whether there i s f i n a n c i a l need or not, i t may be assumed a - 61 -number of Fraserview f a m i l i e s are depending upon the lady of the household to maintain an accustomed standard of l i v i n g . The removal of the mother from the home during the daytime hours has been widely condemned as a practice which may en-courage c h i l d neglect and r e s u l t i n behavior problems i n l a t e r adolesence.„ The K i l l a r n e y community r e f l e c t s a greater degree of economic s t a b i l i t y . As home owners, K i l l a r n e y f a m i l i e s have accumulated s u f f i c i e n t assets to make a down payment on a house. Occupational categories of the head of the household include professional, managerial, small business owners, highly s k i l l e d technicians,,, commercial salesmen, etc. The vast number of f a m i l i e s of K i l l a r n e y are also probably l i m i t e d i n t h e i r present f i n a n c i a l means as a r e s u l t of becoming r e -cent home owners. However, as mortgage payments become s t a b i l i z e d i n time and earning power increases, i t i s to be expected the purchasing a b i l i t y of K i l l a r n e y w i l l r i s e accord-i n g l y . The business section i n the V i c t o r i a Drive area, bodering the Fraserview project on 54th Avenue, has remained the only suburban store section r e l a t e d to the Fraserview community.. This section of stores includes a food chain market, a hardware store, a drug store, and dry cleaning establishment. Two small confectionery stores are situated -further south on V i c t o r i a Drive near the v i c i n i t y of the Douglas Elementary School at 6 l s t Avenue. Immediately north, on - 62 -V i c t o r i a Drive, a small business section including a coffee bar, cycle shop, barber and another small food chain market • i s situated. Further s t i l l , to the north, a concentrated shopping section at 41st Avenue and V i c t o r i a Drive has grad-u a l l y increased with population growth. Although small sub-urban business outlets have not increased i n Fraserview d i r e c t l y , a large super market was constructed on V i c t o r i a Drive and 50th Avenue i n 1959* Available land along V i c t o r i a Drive would indicate future business growth prospects are excellent. In t h i s respect, i t i s l i k e l y business personnel w i l l come to recognize the concentrated population of the area w i l l warrant future store expansion. Central Mortgage and Housing Corporation's decision to s e l l the Fraserview dwellings on a r e s t r i c t i v e basis may influence more rapid business i n v e s t i g a t i o n based on a b e l i e f i n more community permanency. R e t a i l stores established i n the K i l l a r n e y area are ' mostly small household purchase type stores, dotted sporadi-c a l l y , along 45th Avenue, V i c t o r i a Drive extending from> 33rd Avenue to 4 9 t h Avenue, and the Kingsway shopping section. These stores are probably patronized r e g u l a r l y by K i l l a r n e y inhabitants. For many housewives the lack of r e t a i l shopping, p a r t i c u l a r l y a supermarket i n the immediate new K i l l a r n e y development, i s viewed as a great inconvenience. A future business section i s set aside on 4 5 t h and K i l l a r n e y Street under C i t y of Vancouver zoning regulations. At the present time, development of r e t a i l business i s not evident. One factor probably discouraging a rapid business growth i s the i s o l a t i o n of the area by heavy automobile t r a f f i c along Kings-way to the north. To date, business establishments have probably believed future stores,need a concentrated population to ensure a p r o f i t a b l e operation. Continued housing construc-t i o n , notably a large section bordering the Fraserview Golf Course and south of 54th Avenue, leads to the p r e d i c t i o n that r e t a i l business w i l l view K i l l a r n e y as an excellent l o c a t i o n f o r future shopping f a c i l i t i e s . Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y are not represented by i n -dustries within the immediate boundaries. Along the Fraser River, on the south boundary, there e x i s t a number of i n d u s t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y l i g h t industry and lumbering. The MacMillan and Bloedel Limited 1s Plywood and Lumber Divisions are located i n t h i s v i c i n i t y . . Although these i n d u s t r i e s are not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the two communities i t i s to be expected many employees of these plants may desire residence i n close proximity to t h e i r work. The primary nature of these i n d u s t r i e s has not r e s u l t e d i n larger concentration of other i n d u s t r i e s i n the area. The future economic prospects of Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y communities w i l l probably r e f l e c t more s t a b i l i t y and permanency as the area ages. I f economic conditions r e -main on an upward trend, a gradually aging population w i l l demand more services or modern conveniences. More adequate bus service, greater r e t a i l store outlets and commercial recreation centres, are but a few items that may be demanded i n the immediate future. Self-contained communities, with a l l the b u i l t - i n features of modern l i v i n g , appear to be the accepted trend i n l o c a l areas* Housing In both Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , the type of housing i s single family dwellings. Apartments and boarding houses are t o t a l l y absent. The future p o s s i b i l i t y of multiple r e s i -dence constructed i n the area, or the conversion of established houses to multiple family u n i t s , i s not l i k e l y . Most dwell-ings are not s u f f i c i e n t l y large to warrant more than a one family occupancy. The Fraserview Project-was planned to a l l e v i a t e the problems of post war housing with special emphasis on the peace time adjustment of the veteran. As a Federal Government Housing development,, there was some degree of protection f o r use of adequate materials f o r the housing construction. Two and three bedroom houses, of a minimum f l o o r area with two or three basic designs, are spread throughout the project. In d r i v i n g through the area a person i s given the impression of a housing project of oneness, representative of the compact, p l a i n , and s i m i l a r .dwellings, that i s not unusual i n many of the newer mainland communities. There i s , i n most instances, a high l e v e l of upkeep and - 65 -i n d i v i d u a l landscaping throughout the project. In comparison with Renfrew Heights, which i s also a low r e n t a l housing project f o r returning servicemen, Fraserview i s w e l l main-tained by the tenants. A casual drive through the Renfrew area revealed more poorly maintained dwellings* The K i l l a r n e y community, as a l a t e r subdivision, has a greater difference i n housing construction. Sections erected by the same contractor reveal a similar basic design, although houses i n the sub-divisions remain s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t to o f f s e t a common appearance. Most dwellings of newer construction are financed under the National Housing Act regulations. With r a p i d l y Increased land values, the - average dwelling i n K i l l a r n e y costs probably i n the realm of #17,000.00 to #19,000.00 i n i 9 6 0 . For families desiring a home i n the Vancouver Gity l i m i t s , who are able to meet the f i n a n c i a l requirements, K i l l a r n e y i s undoubtedly an a t t r a c -t i v e s i t e . Within the K i l l a r n e y area there ex i s t a number of older and smaller houses that are, for the most part, poorly constructed and unattractive. Many of these dwellings w i l l be replaced by new homes i n the future as the bu i l d i n g value of the older dwellings i s quite low. These older units were established before the area was psychologically brought within the boundaries of the City of Vancouver. Improved r a p i d transportation and population mobility are the two main fact o r s eliminating the former i s o l a t i o n of the area from the rest of the c i t y . - 66 -Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y represent the outer fringe south-eastern area of Vancouver, established with the growth of the C i t y since the end of the Second World War. These communities are s i g n i f i c a n t as they represent an area r e f l e c t -ing the s h i f t of the large c i t y ' s population to the outer c i r c l e of the c i t y . A young population, with the highest per-centage of youth members i n the Vancouver area l i v i n g i n a housing project and new subdivision, have lacked f a c i l i t i e s and services as a r e s u l t of inadequate planning for community s t a b i l i t y . Although material wealth and- earning power of the residents i s not great, Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y are not l i m i t e d i n human resources i n meeting the needs of the community. The following chapters examine the implementation of r e c r e a t i o n a l services within these areas. The p a r t i c u l a r development of the YMCA, a private organization, w i l l be c r i t i c a l l y examined i n respect to i t s purpose and r e l a t i o n to other community services. Chapter III Recreational F a c i l i t i e s i n the  Fraserview-Killarney Area (1954 to 1960) So c i a l F a c i l i t i e s S o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t i n g i n a community are the means of society i n helping the family t r a i n and teach ch i l d r e n about the accepted value system of society. The school, church, and rec r e a t i o n a l centre, a s s i s t i n the pro-cess of ' s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' by informal and formal ways. With the increased pace of modern l i v i n g , brought about by rapid technological advance, i t i s e s s e n t i a l these areas communi-cate and cooperate i n providing a consistent approach i n meeting the needs of young people. General community planning has many times shown an over-concern for a l l e v i a t i n g immediate problems , rather than r e l a t i n g planning to long range aspects of community health and welfare. The s o c i a l services of education, health, and recreation, provide f o r the enrichment of human l i f e , but unfortunately at times i n community planning, have taken a secondary r o l e . During the writer's association with Fraser-view and K i l l a r n e y , the gradual development of s o c i a l services has i l l u s t r a t e d inadequate planning by the aut h o r i t i e s r e s -ponsible f o r the establishment of the community. Residents and personnel of servicing organizations have frequently expressed - 68 -concern over the size of the community youth population, and the lack of i n d i v i d u a l i z e d services that strengthen home tr a i n i n g i n the upbringing of children. , I f t h e i r viewpoint i s a true i n d i c a t i o n , the emergence of many community de-f i c i e n c i e s can be expected to r e s u l t and include, i n p a r t i c u l a r , youth problems of delinquency and morality. On the other hand, a lack of s o c i a l services early i n the h i s t o r y of a community may place greater demands on the family to give attention to i t s younger members, and thus, avoid an overdependence upon outside resources of schools, churches, and recre a t i o n a l organizations. Younger fathers can be generally expected to assume a more active i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r children. This may o f f s e t a lack of s o c i a l services. Such a population may also be expected to take action i n solving community problems or d e f i c i e n c i e s , even though control remains with centralized a u t h o r i t i e s . School and rec r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g construction i n Vancouver, i l l u s t r a t e the l o c a l community residents believe they have l i t t l e voice i n the establishment of these services. . Public apathy toward the community i n which people res i d e , i s most d e f i n i t e l y interwoven with the opportunity there i s f o r l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n maintaining t h e i r s o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s . The growth of volunteer services i s , therefore, r e l a t e d to the degree of l o c a l authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . School Recreation F a c i l i t i e s Educational f a c i l i t i e s have undergone a rapid expansion - 69 -during the past decade. At the outset, i n Fraserview, S i r James Douglas Elementary School was the only elementary school within the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y boundaries. A modern unit to the school bu i l d i n g , erected i n 1912, was completed i n 1951* In addition, S i r James Douglas School Annex was constructed i n 1954* The t o t a l school population for S i r James Douglas School and Annex reached i t s peak i n 1956 when the number of c h i l d r e n i n grades one to seven was 1,717* This period of growth took place under an extreme shortage of teachers when i t would be most d i f f i c u l t to main-t a i n teaching standards. The pupils to each classroom very l i k e l y were f a r above the recommended number. Individual attention, which was required by some children was also below the elementary school average. An interview with a Metro-p o l i t a n Health Nurse, who served as home v i s i t o r for health and s o c i a l needs i n 1954, revealed the lack of resources i n r e l a t i n g the school to i n d i v i d u a l family needs. There are now, i n I 9 6 0 , f i v e elementary schools i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y area. S i r Kingsford-Smith, at 54th Avenue and E l l i o t t St., was constructed and i n operation i n September 1955* This school r e l i e v e d the Douglas School of a number of grade four to s i x students. S i r Kingsford-Smith also serves an area bordering Fraserview as well as a section of the Fraserview Project. F a c i l i t i e s of Kingsford-Smith School include classrooms, auditorium-gymnasium and a d i r t type school ground used f o r playground purposes* 70 -In K i l l a r n e y , Captain Cook School, located at 54th Avenue and Doman Road, serves a continuing expanding school population. Captain Cook School has a population of 499 pupils i n I960* This represents an expansion of 210 students since the school began operating three years ago, with grades one to f i v e enrolled* The l a t e s t elementary school, David Oppenheimer, formerly the Douglas Annex, began operation i n the F a l l of 1959* The completion of t h i s school establishes three elemen-tary schools, S i r James Douglas, S i r Kingsford-Smith and David Oppenheimer, within an area l e s s than one square mile. Moberly Annex, situated on 6 l s t Avenue and Argyle Street, also serves a section of the western border of Fraserview and the bordering southern slope community* The school population has not reached a maximum number of p u p i l s at t h i s point. A school board s t a t i s t i c i a n reports the school population now i s at a high l e v e l i n the junior high school age range* Expansion of elementary school popu-l a t i o n w i l l also r i s e i n eastern areas surrounding Captain Cook School* In the i n i t i a l years of the Fraserview Project and Ki l l a r n e y Community, there was, i n comparison with younger children, a small teen-age population* Teen-age p u p i l s , there-fore, attended John O l i v e r and Gladstone High Schools, both some considerable distance from the area* Population of both - 71 -these schools, p a r t i c u l a r l y John O l i v e r , over a ten year period, was ra p i d l y expanding with a predominance of over-large c l a s s -rooms* A trend, noted i n the elementary schools, of large classrooms and a lack of i n d i v i d u a l school resources, also applied to the secondary schools. Teenagers ( l i v i n g i n Fraser-view and Kill a r n e y ) were greatly inconvenienced by the distance and t r a v e l time. With the gradual upswing i n teen-age population, two high schools were constructed within the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y boundary. In the f a l l of 1957, K i l l a r n e y High School, located adjacent to K i l l a r n e y Park at K i l l a r n e y Street and 4 9 t h Avenue, was opened. The next year saw the opening of David Thompson High School, located adjacent to Gordon Park at 55th Avenue and Commercial Drive. These two secondary schools are clos e r , geographically, than any other two Van-couver High Schools. Both K i l l a r n e y and David Thompson are large modern buildings with classrooms and gymnasium con-structed f o r a large school population. From a community organizational viewpoint, the increase i n educational f a c i l i t i e s has contributed to the resources of the community. E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r school sponsored a c t i v i t i e s has, unquestionably, increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group a c t i v i t i e s f o r many o f the pupils. Opportunity for i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n to withdrawn or aggressive students i s l i k e l y to come about with an increase i n s t a f f . Community i d e n t i t y i s also a s s i s t e d by the placement of schools within Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y borders* - 72 -At t h i s time, the schools are the main public f a c i l i t i e s i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y available for r e c r e a t i o n purposes* The use of public schools f o r recreational purposes i s , there-fore, v i t a l to the youth population of Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y communities* The use of schools by outside organizations i s administered by the Vancouver School Board Rentals Department, a centralized administration, reserving school buildings on request by organizations who q u a l i f y as responsible community groups* The Community Chest and Council Group Work D i v i s i o n Recreation Survey, e n t i t l e d , " P r o f i l e f o r Planning", noted several discrepancies i n the Vancouver School Board Rental p o l i c y * 1 One section of School Board r e n t a l p o l i c y allows an organization a f f i l i a t e d with the Community Chest and Council the use of the school gymnasium at a reduced rate because o f the educational and recreational combination i n i t s programme* Other organizations, who believe an educational emphasis i s included i n t h e i r service, are not recognized by the School Board, at l e a s t to qual i f y f o r special reduced r e n t a l rates* More pressure i s not put on the School Board to c l a r i f y t h i s p o l i c y , and t h i s i s probably due to the desire to avoid f r i c t i o n between complementary services i n the community* Another notation of the "Survey" was the disregard for community rec r e a t i o n a l needs i n the planning and construction of school 1* Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver Area, P r o f i l e for Planning Recreational Services. Report of a Committee of the Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n S o c i a l Planning Section July, 1959. 1 - 73 -buil d i n g s . In t h i s connection the "Survey" suggested too, that i n smaller communities such as Burnaby, New Westminster, or Richmond, i t i s easier to es t a b l i s h a closer l i a i s o n be-tween recr e a t i o n a l authorities (such as park boards) and school a u t h o r i t i e s , thus enabling greater use of school grounds and buildings. The writer, a member of the Survey Committee, be-l i e v e d t h i s notation was a p o l i t e way of bringing attention to the lack of communication and cooperation between the Vancouver School and Park Boards. As a r e s u l t , many Vancouver schools, a f t e r regular school hours, remain vacant except i n auditorium-gymnasiam. Other rooms, notably a r t , music, home economics and i n d u s t r i a l shops are l i t t l e used i n community recreation throughout Vancouver schools, except i n the f i e l d of Night School education. Although the School Board p o l i c y i n granting community organizations the use of school f a c i l i t i e s appears to be cooperative, the use of school f a c i l i t i e s i n Vancouver, f o r rec r e a t i o n a l purposes, i s l i m i t e d . A discrepancy on the educational focus of one organization with a l i m i t e d pro-f e s s i o n a l s t a f f has already been noted. The lack of communi-cation between the Vancouver School Board and Parks Board undoubtedly has l e d to l i t t l e analysis of the use of public f a c i l i t i e s . The e f f e c t i v e use of school f a c i l i t i e s for the needs of respective Vancouver communities does not r e s u l t when supervision and a b i l i t y to finance are the governing factors i n permitting outside rentals. Under these regulations - 74 -i t i s possible f o r the r e a l community recreational needs to be unmet, so far as the use of school buildings are concerned* To i l l u s t r a t e — K i l l a r n e y High School i s the only public b u i l d i n g i n the K i l l a r n e y community with a gymnasium auditorium and numerous classrooms available f o r community recreation, at the time of t h i s study. Below i s the 1959-1960 schedule of outside r e n t a l s of the K i l l a r n e y High School gymnasium: Monday evening - Clover Leaf basketball p r a c t i c e , senior men city-wide League. Tuesday evening - D e i t r i c h C o l l i n s basketball p r a c t i c e , senior men city-wide League. Wednesday evening - Fraserview-Killarney YMCA Badmin-ton Club, men and women,,not l i m i t e d to persons from outside community. Thursday evening - Reserved f o r high school basket-b a l l p r a c t i c e . Friday evening - Reserved f o r school use, concerts, meetings, etc. Saturday morning - Vacant, no rentals allowed. Saturday afternoon - Vacant, no rentals allowed. K i l l a r n e y residents are undoubtedly gaining c e r t a i n benefits from the services l i s t e d above. Are they receiving a broad enough community recreation programme from the use of t h i s public building? A well rounded community recreation programme would also recognize the addition of many non-physical a c t i v i t i e s , including drama, music, hobbies and c r a f t s , adult education, study and discussion groups. A l l these a c t i v i t i e s , - 75 -except when developed as an a c t i v i t y within the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r schedule of the school programmes, are not available i n any public centre i n the K i l l a r n e y area. Members of city-wide basketball teams, such as Clover Leafs and D e i t r i c h - C o l l i n s , who use K i l l a r n e y High School on Monday and Tuesday nights, are not l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a n t s . The adult badminton pro-gramme sponsored by the YMCA i s primarily an a c t i v i t y f a l l i n g within the realm of public agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . In short, the o v e r a l l use of t h i s public b u i l d i n g for r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes i s grossly inadequate. The cost of r e n t i n g the Vancouver schools also influences the sponsorship of community recreation a c t i v i t i e s . K i l l a r n e y High School gymnasium r e n t a l fee f o r non-profit r e c r e a t i o n a l organizations i s 1300.00 for two and one-half hours for twenty-six nights, or $11.53 per night. Although the f i n a n c i a l arrangements do not appear overly expensive, organizations renting space have the choice of subsidizing the a c t i v i t y d i r e c t l y from t h e i r own f i n a n c i a l resources, or setting fees designed to meet the expenses of rent, equipment and supervision. Leadership f o r recreation can no longer depend upon s k i l l e d volunteer i n s t r u c t o r s or leaders. . People possessing leader-ship experience and s k i l l usually ask and receive remuneration fo r t h e i r services. The i n c l u s i o n of leadership costs and school r e n t a l has made i t p r o h i b i t i v e f o r many organizations to sponsor c e r t a i n desired recreational a c t i v i t i e s . To i l l u s -t r a t e : the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA was approached by a group - 76 -a f f i l i a t e d with the Captain Cook Elementary School P.T.A., to a s s i s t i n the sponsorship of square dancing f o r teen-agers. The dance group was endeavoring to r e t a i n youngsters who had become too o l d f o r a square dance programme at Captain Cook School. . A meeting was held at the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA, to explore a cooperative programme sponsored by the.YMCA and adult square dance members. A j o i n t committee formed, and decided, a f t e r a f u l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of programme costs, i n -cluding fees to square dance c a l l e r s and r e n t a l , there would not be s u f f i c i e n t response to a teen-age square dance programme taking place at K i l l a r n e y High School. The experience i l l u s t r a t e s other a c t i v i t i e s might be sponsored under a more l i b e r a l f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y . At l e a s t , residents might be more w i l l i n g to support recreation pro-grammes i f a lesser fee was involved. (More important, how-ever, there may be a need f o r more l o c a l involvement i n the po l i c y of granting the use of school buildings. A cen t r a l i z e d administration without a d i r e c t l i a i s o n with the community w i l l lack information about the needs of the area). A representative group i n a l o c a l community with support from pr o f e s s i o n a l , public and private recreation personnel, would greatly a i d the use of public schools on a r e a l i s t i c community basis. In t h i s connection also, l o c a l involvement and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y might a s s i s t l o c a l residents to understand that well organized and supervised a c t i v i t i e s w i l l require adequate f i n a n c i a l resources. A l l organizations i n the recrea-- 77 -t i o n a l f i e l d would gain the benefits of l o c a l personnel, who because of more information, w i l l r e f l e c t greater understanding of problems pertaining to the use of public buildings. In the writer's experience, the public school o f f i c i a l s have c u r t a i l e d l o c a l community i d e n t i t y with public schools because they have coveted control and have centralized the public school adminis-t r a t i o n . I t i s important to note i n comparison, many other large Canadian and American c i t i e s have a more l i b e r a l p o l i c y on the use of school f a c i l i t i e s f o r rec r e a t i o n a l purposes* In some areas, school buildings are planned f o r community as well as f o r educational purposes. The "Survey" r e f e r r e d to above, noted a change i n B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y "..• could only come about i f the government bodies concurred, i . e . , P r o v i n c i a l Department of Education and Vancouver C i t y Council broaden the area within which the School Board presently operates,." 1 Vancouver School grounds are u t i l i z e d by young people i n the afte r school hours on an informal basis. Organizations, wishing to sponsor a t h l e t i c leagues or other outdoor a c t i v i t i e s , are required to receive permission from the School Board. The lease arrangement f o r school grounds i s an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r both the school administration and the sponsoring community organization. The school a u t h o r i t i e s are assured of supervision on school grounds, and community groups are guaranteed a minimum interference with regular sponsored a c t i v i t i e s . In t h i s 1. Ibid, p. 11 ~ 78 -connection, a l l the elementary schools, notably, S i r James Douglas, S i r Kingsford-Smith, Oppenheimer, Moberly Annex and Captain Cook, have playgrounds available for informal play and organized a c t i v i t y . Both the high schools, David Thompson and K i l l a r n e y are adjacent to public parks, which i s not an uncommon arrangement i n many parts of Vancouver. Private school development within Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y i s l i m i t e d . Corpus C h r i s t i Catholic school, located on Nanaimo Street between 47th and 49th Avenues, i s the only private school established. This school i s adjoining the church grounds and has undergone gradual addition i n the short h i s t o r y of the area. F a c i l i t i e s of t h i s school and classroom population have also increased with the addition of a new school unit i n 1958. At present the Corpus C h r i s t i f a c i l i t i e s include classrooms, gymnasium, h a l l and o f f i c e s . The only other service of an educational nature pre-sently available to Fraserview-Killarney r e s i d e n t s , i s the mobile Library Unit operated by the Vancouver Public Library. Residents of the two d i s t r i c t s are able to use Public Library services from t h i s u n i t on a weekly b a s i s . In view of the large school population, i t would seem apparent a Public Library would be a d e f i n i t e community asset. Noting;-this.., apparent need, one public elementary school p r i n c i p a l has made an e f f o r t , through the school P.T.A., to have land set aside at 54th Avenue and V i c t o r i a Drive, as a future public l i b r a r y s i t e . - 79 Parks, Playgrounds, and Public Recreation Approximately sixteen acres of land f o r parks and play-grounds was set aside f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n the planning of the Fraserview Housing project. U n t i l recently, only one park, located at approximately 60th Avenue and V i c t o r i a Drive, was grassed for organized outdoor a c t i v i t y . . Included i n t h i s park area i s a grassed section, an equipped playground of swings and other informal play equipment, and u n t i l January I960, a small converted construction f i e l d house that served as a community centre. The slope and s i z e , approximately four acres, l i m i t s the use of the s i t e for outdoor competitive sports except with the grade school age children. As an i n -formal play area f o r children of the community, t h i s park has been well populated any time weather conditions permit through-out the year. Fraserview i s also fortunate i n having a small park, or 'tot l o t ' situated within i t s borders. Known as Humm Park, t h i s s i t e i s completely set o f f from streets or l o c a l car t r a f f i c . For pre-school age children, i t i s an i d e a l play-ground, because of the safe playing conditions. Humm Park i s equipped with sand boxes, jungle gyms and other recommended equipment f o r the enjoyment of younger children. The major park within Fraserview i s Bobolink Park, a ten acre p l o t of land situated on the extreme eastern part of the Fraserview subdivision. Bobolink Park remained bushland and of l i t t l e playground value u n t i l 1959, when the Parks - 80 -Board completed landscaping and grassing. A f i e l d house f o r change f a c i l i t i e s , indicates Bobolink.Park w i l l be u t i l i z e d f o r youth and adult a t h l e t i c leagues. Immediately north of Fraserview, and adjacent to the new David Thompson High School, i s Gordon Park. . Restricted space avai l a b l e i n the Fraserview and surrounding area has resul t e d i n a greater demand for Gordon Park than playing f i e l d s a v a i l a b l e . Like many other Vancouver Parks, Gordon Park, ten acres i n s i z e , i s a centre of a c t i v i t y i n the summer months during the s o f t b a l l and baseball seasons. This Park also i n -cludes a f i e l d house for the convenience of pa r t i c i p a n t s of the various sports. A major resource f o r the re c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s of the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , as well as Vancouver residents gen-e r a l l y , i s the Fraserview Golf Course, located immediately east of the Fraserview subdivision. Owned by the Vancouver Parks Board, the Fraserview Golf Course i s a f u l l size eighteen hole course* The l i b e r a l rates l e v i e d by the Parks Board make i t possible f o r a wide number of people to play g o l f at Fraser-view throughout the year. Residents of Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , moreoever, have a close access to g o l f i n g i n a period when g o l f land i n the Vancouver c i t y l i m i t s i s diminishing due to: i n -creased housing needs, the r i s i n g value of land, and Vancouver's i n a b i l i t y to set aside s u f f i c i e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l space. From the psychological point of view, the a v a i l a b i l i t y of open bush land might be considered a d e f i n i t e community asset* - 31 -Moving eastwards to the K i l l a r n e y Park subdivision, the one.major park — K i l l a r n e y Park — i s bordered by 45th and 4 9 t h Avenues, Kerr and K i l l a r n e y Streets* A f i e l d house, located i n the middle of the park on Kerr Street, i s also used by the Collingwood Community Association. K i l l a r n e y Park, l i k e Gordon Park, i s considered a major a t h l e t i c f i e l d f o r various city-wide leagues.. Local sports groups, such as L i t t l e League Baseball and Junior Soccer etc., also centre t h e i r programme at K i l l a r n e y Park. . The northwestern part of t h i s park i s s t i l l undeveloped land and appears to be boggy and undrained. The K i l l a r n e y High School, similar to the David Thompson High School, was erected on the southwestern side. With the gradual growth of t h i s area, Killarney. Park w i l l probably increase i n importance as: a community re c r e a t i o n a l resource. Indoor public r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s throughout the southwestern part of Vancouver, as administered by the Vancouver Parks Board, are l i m i t e d . , A map of Vancouver community centre zones, as compiled by the Group Work D i v i s i o n Recreation Sur-vey, indicates a community centre i s planned f o r South Vancouver. The area of the future community centre i s boardered by Kings-way, Boundary Road, Borden Street, Knight Street and 4 9 t h Avenue, V i c t o r i a Drive and the Fraser River. With the housing development within the south eastern sections of Vancouver, l o c a l residents v i s u a l i z e d a need f o r recre a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . Shortly a f t e r the Second World War, - 82 -several Vancouver communities completed the b u i l d i n g of community centres planned during the war and pre-war years* Marpole, Sunset, K i t s i l a n o and Kerrisdale were among the f i r s t b u ildings established. Dunbar and Hastings East Community Centres followed. Public demand for community centres r e -mained high, and l o c a l c i t i z e n s v i s u a l i z e d these public centres as the answer to t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l , and sometimes r e l a t e d problems, such as youth behaviour. The Vancouver Parks Board, a n t i c i p a t i n g the demand for public r e c r e a t i o n a l centres, decided r i g h t from the s t a r t to place c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on the construction of these centres. The p o l i c y was adopted req u i r i n g l o c a l community associations to r a i s e the sum of $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , changed to $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 i n 1958, by any means at t h e i r disposal, including public subscription or donations. On being assured that t h i s $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 was i n hand, the Parks Board agreed to match i t to bring the t o t a l to $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , which would be a s t a r t towards the t o t a l cost of the project, the balance of the funds to be r a i s e d by a l o c a l improvement by-law. The Parks Board also established distance between neighbouring community centres and regulations f o r the dimensions of various rooms, o f f i c e s and gymnasiam included i n the buildings. The short history of the community centre development, operating within t h i s p o l i c y , indicated, for a large part, a d i v i s i o n of Vancouver into an eastern and western section. Communities on the western part of the c i t y , possessing greater economic wealth, gradually - 83 -were successful i n meeting the Board's regulations. The more needy communities, i n the eastern h a l f of the c i t y were not, f o r the most part, successful i n providing a centre for t h e i r community. Fraserview residents were most eager to have a community centre. A l o c a l Community Association was organized shortly a f t e r the f i r s t h a l f of the subdivision was completed. In 1954 the construction f i e l d house, located on the Park at 60th Avenue and V i c t o r i a Drive, was converted for community use. The Parks Board purchased the u n i t and authorized the l o c a l Fraserview Community Association to arrange for bookings and scheduling a c t i v i t i e s . In the ensuing years, the Fraserview Community Associa-t i o n attempted to gain a Community Centre f o r the Fraserview Housing Project. To t h i s end, community fund r a i s i n g projects and a l i m i t e d youth and adult programme was sponsored to r a l l y community support. One obstacle appeared insurmountable; as a low r e n t a l housing area, the community could not q u a l i f y under the property by-law. Lack of progress l e d to some dissen-sion and diminished community support. In 1957, the three Community Associations i n the South-eastern area, amalgamated into the South Vancouver Community Association. Associations represented were: V i c t o r i a Drive, Fraserview, and Collingwood-Killarney. Since j o i n i n g together, these groups have endeavoured to rai s e the $15,000.00 necessary f o r a l o c a l improvement by-law. An organized public subscrip-- 84 -t i o n campaign was conducted i n the early summer of 1959 as a di r e c t appeal for l o c a l support. In 1959 also, the Vancouver Parks Board approved the proposal to establish the future centre on K i l l a r n e y Park at the corner bordered by 49th Avenue and Kerr Road. The Parks Board noted i n i t s 1958 report: "..• The progress of the Vancouver South d i s t r i c t (Zone N). and the Grandview d i s t r i c t (Zone G) i s being carefully-watched as they move towards the point of being ready to submit requests for l o c a l improvement by-laws for community centres.."! Public r e c r e a t i o n services, throughout the southeastern area, has consisted of l i m i t e d negotiation between the Parks Board and the l o c a l Community Association. , Professional r e -creation services i n the shaping of a future recreation pro-gramme, on a consultative basis, i s v i r t u a l l y non-existent* In the writer's experience i n t h i s area, many persons appeared to believe t h e i r recreation needs could not, i n any way, be met u n t i l a community centre was established. An over-dependence upon f a c i l i t i e s i s perhaps not unusual i n many communities. In regard to Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , two large secondary schools remain unused for a large part of the l e i s u r e time hours. Recent by-laws i n other Vancouver communities i n 1958 and 1959 presented to the public to b u i l d or enlarge community centres, have been r e j e c t e d by property owners. Although varying conditions i n each community may explain t h i s recent 1. Community~irhest and Councils -of the Greater Vancouver Area, P r o f i l e for Planning Recreational Services. Report of a Committee-of the Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n S o c i a l Planning Section, July, 1959, p. 16. - 35 -trend to r e j e c t community centres or improvements to existing centres, i t may demonstrate, i n part, that l o c a l residents are no longer accepting the community centre as the panacea for a l l t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l needs* The Vancouver Parks Board plan i n developing public recr e a t i o n i n the C i t y has focused upon the provision of f a c i l i t i e s , b u i l t and administered by the Parks Board. In the p r o v i s i o n of more public parks, as a Parks Board objective, the Vancouver School Board has been assisted i n erecting new school buildings on, or adjacent to, Park Board land. However, both public bodies have r e f l e c t e d l i t t l e j o i n t planning i n regard to buildings for a community recreation programme. As a duplication, large schools and community centres stand side by side, as i n K i t s i l a n o ; or i n close proximity, as i n some other Vancouver communities. School buildings, except f o r gymnasium and the well developed formalized Night School adult education programme, remain dark and deserted. As the need f o r diplomacy i s most evident, witness the comments of the Chest's'' Recreation Survey i n regard to inter-organizational communica-ti o n : "There appears to be a need f o r more e f f e c t i v e communication between some of the key organizations i n the community i n r e l a t i o n to matters pertaining to the p r o v i s i o n of recreation services. For example when the Committee was gathering information from the C i t y Planning Department the School Board and Board of Parks and Public Recreation there seemed to be some lack of knowledge on the part of these organiza-tions about each others concerns and a c t i v i t i e s i n - 36 -the f i e l d of recreation. . In addition the need was c l e a r l y indicated f o r the Community Chest and other Councils to have better communication with the major community services and other planning organiza-tions. S p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s respect there appears to be an immediate need f o r the appropriate body of the Community Chest and Councils to be more clos e l y r e-la t e d to the City Planning Department i n the matters pertaining to urban redevelopment. An apparent need was also noted for more and better communication between organizations on a l o c a l , community l e v e l i n planning f o r recreation services."" Lack of knowledge and adequate communication point up other l i m i t a t i o n s to Vancouver's public recreation services. Residents concerned with recreation, and t h i s i s being demon-strated i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y at the present time, devote a l l t h e i r energy to gaining a community centre. With guidance of professional and experienced lay personnel through consultative services by the Parks Board and the Community Chest and Councils', o f f i c i a l s , a more encompassing community recreation programme would be implemented. One pressing need i s a well developed aquatic programme In covered swimming pools that conceivably could be b u i l t to school buildings and used as community pools at nights, week-ends and holiday periods. Private E f f o r t s With a broader a p p l i c a t i o n of public recreation to 1. Ibid, p. 22. * I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see t h i s observation was strongly emphasized by the "Norrie Report" i n 1945. - 87 -include public f a c i l i t i e s and a greater emphasis upon pro-f e s s i o n a l leadership, representatives of private organizations would be a s s i s t e d to r e l a t e services to the t o t a l needs of the community. The reception of private agency services would demonstrate more understanding and community i d e n t i t y . Early i n the Vancouver YMCA's in v e s t i g a t i o n into the Fraserview area, c e r t a i n members of the l o c a l Community Association appeared r e s e n t f u l and h o s t i l e to the YMCA. . Consultative services have value i n overcoming attitudes of resentment and a d u p l i c a t i o n of services. In t h i s regard, developments within the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y area have enabled a greater degree of cooperation than previously. Members of the Fraser-view-Killarney YMCA Board of Management, f o r example, took part i n d i r e c t canvas f o r the proposed South Vancouver Community Association i n 1959. O f f i c i a l s of the l o c a l Fraserview Community Association have asked f o r , and continuously pub-l i s h e d , YMCA news i n t h e i r community paper, "The Fraserview B u l l e t i n " . ~ ~ Private group work and recreation organizations, serving the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y areas, have increased i n number, and volume of service, with the general development of the community. In view of l i m i t e d public recreation, the volume of private service to the l e i s u r e time needs of i n d i v i d u a l s i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y has probably been higher than acceptable standards of public and private function i n the r e c r e a t i o n f i e l d . The p a r t i c u l a r f l e x i b i l i t y of c e r t a i n private - as -recreation groups to adapt to the l o c a l community has enabled many residents, the majority i n the younger age categories, to learn, grow, and enjoy many p o s i t i v e experiences, when basic public services are at a minimum. Most communities, i n the outlying part of the large urban centre, are favoured with a number of youth serving organizations. In Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y the following organizations are now active i n r e c r e a t i o n a l work: 1. The Bov Scout Association (including Wolf Cub groups;. The G i r l Guides Association (including Brownies)— a j o i n t l y sponsored programme. 2. Y.M.C.A., Fraserview-Killarney Branch. 3. Vancouver Boy's Club Association — F r a s e r v i e w Unit. Although primarily concerned with r e l i g i o u s services, the various Church denominations mid-week a c t i v i t i e s are r e c r e a t i o n a l i n character. The following Churches provide recreational a c t i v i t i e s : 1. . Fraserview United Church 2. , St. . Timothys' Anglican Church 3» Corpus C h r i s t i Catholic Church 4« Fraserview A l l i a n c e Church 5* Presbyterian Association 6. Collingwood Baptist - 89 -Parks and playgrounds, as outlined previously, are u t i l i z e d f o r l o c a l and city-wide a t h l e t i c organizations. The l a s t decade has witnessed the focus of community int e r e s t on specialized youth a t h l e t i c programmes, of which, the best known i s L i t t l e League Baseball. ,The following sports are scheduled i n the l o c a l parks: 1. Boys and Men - Soccer, English rugby, Canadian f o o t b a l l , Baseball and S o f t b a l l . 2 . G i r l s and Women- S o f t b a l l and Grass hockey. A b r i e f review of private recreational services follows below: The Boy Scout movement i n Canada i s proving to be one of the more adaptive youth services to l o c a l communities. In Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , the Boy Scout packs proved to be the e a r l i e s t youth organization to operate i n t h i s v i c i n i t y of Vancouver. Organizational procedure of sponsorship by a church or school P.T.A. ensures the involvement of l o c a l residents who are d i r e c t l y concerned with programme and leader-ship. A standardized programme including the rea d i l y i d e n t i -f i e d uniform also a s s i s t s a process of l o c a l i z e d control, even though the use of f a c i l i t i e s for Scout groups i s dependent upon a high degree of cooperation from other organizations. The coordination of a l l Scout troops i n Vancouver i s through the Scout House, located on West Broadway. Sta f f members provide leadership t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s and other - 90 -resources for l o c a l lay committees. S t a t i s t i c s indicate the Scout movement reaches primarily the pre-adolescent and e a r l y adolescent, and after the ear l y teen-age period, i n t e r e s t i n Scouting appears to wane, fo r senior teen-agers of f i f t e e n years and over are seldom involved. After a c e r t a i n period i n l i f e , standardized or regimented programmes, l i k e the Boy Scout movement, have l e s s appeal to some young people. The counterpart of the Boy Scouts Association, the G i r l Guides Association i s also sponsoring a number of groups i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y communities. The same adminis-t r a t i o n , and a s i m i l a r programme to the Scouts Association r e f l e c t s a high degree of resemblance between these two programmes. Y.M.C.A. services i n the Southeastern part of Vancouver were i n i t i a t e d by the Vancouver East Branch YMCA i n 1952. Children, at that time, were r e c r u i t e d for a c i t y camping a c t i v i t y centering around the Vancouver East YMCA bui l d i n g at Commercial Drive and Adanac Street. O r i g i n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h i s area, however, had been assigned to the Fairmount Branch YMCA at the time of emergence of the Vancouver YMCA as a Metropolitan Association i n 1947* In 1954, a small Summer Fun Club, or Ci t y Camp programme, was sponsored by the F a i r -mount YMCA i n the Fraserview Housing Project. A l o c a l parent committee set up the fee structure and r e l a t e d p o l i c y matters with the Executive-Secretary of the Fairmount Branch as d i r e c t o r . 91 -Later, i n October 1954, a second year S o c i a l Work student from the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, assigned to the-Fairmount Branch YMCA, was given a f i e l d placement of inv e s t i g a t i n g the i n t e r e s t of Fraserview residents to YMCA programme. A community survey, a leadership training course and adult committees resulted i n a small number of friendship groups, and an enlarged Summer Fun Club, during the early part of 1955. A r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n YMCA programmes grew gradually and .the YMCA was able to increase service. Late i n 1955, a f u l l time YMCA professional worker, or secretary, was assigned to the Fraserview and surrounding area. As a multiple service organization, YMCA programmes i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y communities have v a r i e d to include boys, g i r l s , co-educational and adult groups. Group work, physical education, camping, adult education and counselling on a l i m i t e d degree are now offered by the Fraserview-Killarney Branch, YMCA. In 1958, as a r e s u l t of the Greater Vancouver YMCA Bui l d i n g Campaign held i n 1957, a l o t was purchased at 49th Avenue and Kerr Street from the Ci t y of Vancouver. Trans-ference of a small cottage i n 1958", formerly used by the Alma Branch YMCA, i s now used as the YMCA community headquarters. Services of the 'Y' i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y have assumed a family focus and a broadening perspective f o r t h i s agency. The Vancouver Boys' Club Association, an a f f i l i a t e of the Boys' Clubs of Canada, i s the most recent private recrea-t i o n organization to sponsor a c t i v i t i e s within the Fraserview area. In 1957, a survey of Fraserview wascundertaken by the Western Regional Director of the Boys' Clubs of Canada. Following t h i s survey, the Boys' Clubs Association contacted the Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver for approval to extend services within Fraserview. In accordance with t h i s request, a Committee of the Group Work D i v i s i o n was formed to investigate the need for r e c r e a t i o n a l services i n Fraserview, which included i n i t s geographical d e f i n i t i o n , a large surrounding area of the Fraserview Housing Project. The Committee, attempting to complete a study of the request of the Vancouver Boys' Clubs Association to extend services, noted two basic problems i n launching the study: "The f i r s t i s the lack of guidance and procedures for-agencies to use when seeking to expand or develop new services. These have not been established by the Community Chest and Councils at t h i s time. The second problem encountered by the committee i s a r e s u l t of t h i s deficiency. The lack of guidance on the part of the Community Chest and Councils resulted in. i n s u f f i c i e n t information being supplied by the Vancouver,Boys' Club f o r a proper evaluation of t h e i r request". • - • This comment resulted i n a series of recommendations f o r the expansion of private agency services. I t also noted, i n respect to the Boys' Club i n v e s t i g a t i o n , that more compre-hensive material should be furnished by a private organization 1. Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver, Fraserview Study. A report on recreation Services i n the Fraserview Area, March, 1957, p. 1. - 93 -i n planning new services. "In making i t s request the Vancouver Boys' Club Association presented a very good study to prove the need f o r recreation services i n the Fraserview area. However, the committee had d i f f i c u l t y securing adequate material on the plans of the Vancouver Boys' Clubs Association. Community groups had d i f f e r e n t opinions about the proposal and the committee did not have adequate d e t a i l s . Although the committee met with the Vancouver Boys' Club Association and wrote requesting additional information t h i s information i s s t i l l not avai l a b l e . There i s vagueness about the size of the bu i l d i n g proposed, the operating expenses required, the type of c a p i t a l campaign envisaged and the l o c a -t i o n of the club. Since a l l these factors should be considered i n approving t h i s request, i t has been impossible f o r the committee to make clear cut recommen-dations. A solut i o n predicated upon ce r t a i n conditions has been suggested. However, the vagueness of the r e -quest has r e s u l t e d i n delay and confusion and has li m i t e d the value of the study." 1 The Committee -was fortunate i n having the assistance of a research advisor, who obtained material from private and public s o c i a l agencies to assess: the degree of s o c i a l problems, recreation f a c i l i t i e s , and rela t e d services available i n the area. In regard to recreation services, the Committee's nota-t i o n i s s i g n i f i c a n t : "The Committee found a community i n which organized groups are showing concern and i n i t i a t i v e i n organizing a c t i v i t i e s and using e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . They found an area which lacks recreation services and which lacks f a c i l i t i e s . They also found that the e f f o r t s of the groups to obtain services are uncoordinated and there i s a lack of o v e r a l l planning f o r the good of the community. At t h i s time there i s evidence of competition and con-f l i c t which could a f f e c t the morale of the community. This competition and c o n f l i c t has made the task of the 1. I b i d , p. 2. 94 Committee more d i f f i c u l t * I t points up the need f o r more involvement of Community groups i n the develop-ment of recreation services at an early stage. In Fraserview c o n f l i c t of i n t e r e s t s had already developed ^ and the committee found i t s e l f i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . " The aftermath of t h i s study was to c l a r i f y f o r a l l agencies within the Community Chest and Councils, procedure fo r agency expansion. I t noted and approved also "the trend towards the assumption by public agencies of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l arger r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s to serve a l l c i t i z e n s of the community". Private agency service was regarded as having a s p e c i a l i z e d function,, "to o f f er. an intensive group work programme", where "programme" i s r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l needs of the area served by the private agency"* The committee recommended a Boys' Club operation be granted on the following conditions: "(a) Provided that the l o c a t i o n be within the - Fraserview-Housing area and close to i t s centre. (b) That f a c i l i t i e s be such that they be adequate to house a boys' club programme but not so as to Impede the development of public f a c i l i t i e s * Such f a c i l i t i e s should not be of the type that public bodies have accepted as t h e i r responsi-b i l i t y , i . e . , swimming pool and large gymnasium required f o r senior competitive sports* .(c) That the p o l i c y of the Vancouver Boys' Clubs - Association, that i s , to provide a q u a l i t a t i v e programme to a l i m i t e d segment of the population, should be maintained i n t h i s area, even though there be pressures to extend i t s services to a wider section of the population. 1. Ib i d , p. 1 - 95 The committee suggests that i t i s not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a private agency supported by Chest funds to meet the t o t a l recreation needs of an area, but to support and work with those groups seeking to meet other needs through the extension of public or other private s e r v i c e s . n l U n t i l r e c e n t l y the Vancouver Boys' Clubs operated a Fraserview Unit from the converted Community Centre Building* ^ h i s b u i l d i n g burned down early i n January i 9 6 0 and, except for a gymnasium programme at David Thompson High School, t h i s has c u r t a i l e d the Boys'. Club operation. A c t i v i t i e s at the Centre comprised a hobby and c r a f t programme three days a week for the pre-adolescent age group. A c t i v i t i e s offered by the Boys' Club since the unit, opened i n 1953 included: a s o f t b a l l programme, track and f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s , camping at Camp Pot-lach, and the hobby and c r a f t shop. The Fraserview Boys' Club i s administered by a l o c a l Board of Management comprising residents l i v i n g i n the commun-i t y . ; A t the present time, the Director of the Kimount Boys' Club, serving the Mount Pleasant area of Vancouver, i s acting as part-time Director of the Fraserview. Unit. . The Boys' Clubs were also successful i n receiving a section of park land at 61st Avenue and V i c t o r i a Drive from the Parks Board. A c a p i t a l campaign scheduled f o r 1961 w i l l include a b u i l d i n g f o r the Fraserview Housing area. The extent of the f a c i l i t i e s of the b u i l d i n g are not presently known. - 96 -The Boys' Club, as the l a t e s t agency to serve Fraser-view, brought about considerable public i n t e r e s t i n recreation i n Fraserview. . The f r i c t i o n noted by the survey committee was prim a r i l y between the Fraserview Community Centre Association and the Vancouver Boys' Clubs Association, In f a c t , several directors of the Fraserview Community Association l e f t to j o i n the l o c a l Boys' Club. The writer, employed as the IMCA secretary serving Fraserview at the time, f e l t t h i s f r i c t i o n was another example whereby residents of a Vancouver community were confusing public recreation and community recreation as one and the same. In essence, many dir e c t o r s of the l o c a l Community Association believed a community centre would serve the t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n a l needs of t h e i r community. . E a r l i e r a defensive reaction had been encountered i n YMCA surveys of the community. However, because the IMCA did not plan to e s t a b l i s h a large f a c i l i t y i n the community, the degree of f r i c t i o n that resulted i n the Boys' Club development did not occur. Although l i t t l e guidance to mold community attitudes toward recreation services had been forthcoming, c e r t a i n members of the community did appear to demonstrate an understanding of public and p r i -vate recreation trends, when they objected to a private organ-i z a t i o n setting up an elaborate community f a c i l i t y to meet the needs of boys between the ages of eight and eighteen. These same members regarded the public centre as being broader i n age groupings served, l i t e r a l l y the t o t a l community population and included a greater v a r i a t i o n i n a c t i v i t y groups* - 97 -Since the survey committee report, a more cooperative atmosphere has resulted within the Fraserview area. The Boys' Club use of the small, converted Fraserview Community Centre i s already noted. The amalgamation of l o c a l community associations into the South Vancouver Community Association, and subsequent planning of a b u i l d i n g i n the K i l l a r n e y Park area, has probably a s s i s t e d supporters of both organizations to envisage the complementary aspects of t h e i r services. The process of study, which by necessity, resulted i n more communi-cations between representatives of organizations also had a p o s i t i v e influence on e x i s t i n g a t t itudes. The low degree of l o c a l coordination of services, noted by the Chest committee, i n the writer's experience has not undergone any s i g n i f i c a n t advance since the report. Church recreation, although varying with denominations, i s becoming increasingly important. Cooperation i n the use of f a c i l i t i e s i n regard to the Boy Scout and G i r l Guide a c t i v i t i e s i s noted above. Churches, p a r t i c u l a r l y the larger denomina-tions have a recr e a t i o n a l programme plan c l o s e l y a l l i e d with the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s teachings of the Church. At the present time none of the Churches have well developed f a c i l i -t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. The Fraserview United Church, located at Upland and V i c t o r i a Drive, i s a one story b u i l d i n g where the basement section i s used f o r Sunday School classes and mid-week recrea-t i o n programme. , A c t i v i t i e s include, C.G.I.T., Explorers, - 9# -Tyros and Hi C. As the f i r s t large Church denomination, the Fraserview United Church continues to be widely used by the community. The Fraserview Hi C. programme enrolled a large youth group u n t i l an i n a b i l i t y to control the behaviour re-sulted i n a discontinuation of the a c t i v i t y , , This programme served to i l l u s t r a t e the_growing number of teen-age members of the community who w i l l require more than the accepted youth services i n order to be reached by youth agencies, St, Timothy's Anglican Church. formerly St, Lukes Parish H a l l , i s located at Argyle Street immediately south of 54th Avenue. Renovations i n t h i s b u i l d i n g are nearing completion. Youth and adult groups w i l l increase i n number as the bu i l d i n g becomes more sui t a b l e . Anglican youth programme includes a pre-delinquent gang l a r g e l y responsible f o r the di s i n t e g r a t i o n of the Hi C. youth group. Cub, Scout, Brownie, and Guide groups are also sponsored within the Anglican Church b u i l d i n g . A young peoples group and various adult a c t i v i t i e s are included i n the mid-week schedule. Corpus C h r i s t i Catholic Church, operates recreational programme through the Catholic Youth Organization, whose head o f f i c e i s located at the Catholic C h a r i t i e s B u i l d i n g i n cen-t r a l Vancouver. The l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by Corpus C h r i s t i Church, l i k e the other Church denominations, have a r e l i g i o u s emphasis. With the expansion of f a c i l i t i e s i t i s expected C.Y.O. a c t i v i t i e s w i l l also increase. Other Churches providing l e i s u r e time services i n - 99 Fraserview and-Killarney include: Fraserview Presbyterian, Fraserview A l l i a n c e , Fraserview Covenant, and, K i l l a r n e y Baptist, Commercial Recreation Movie theatres, bowling a l l e y s , b i l l i a r d h a l l s , large commercial h a l l s f o r dancing, etc., are non-existent within the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y communities. Immediately north of the area, on south V i c t o r i a . D r i v e , a bowling and b i l l i a r d establishment i s a v a i l a b l e . A movie house, popular before the advent of t e l e v i s i o n , i s no longer i n operation. As a part of the southern slope, Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y are situated i n an excellent area for t e l e v i s i o n reception. The major part of the population now located i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y established residence a f t e r the period when l o c a l movie theatres were popular and well attended. Today, increased t r a v e l convenience to other parts of Vancouver has probably decreased the need f o r l o c a l commercial out l e t s . . Although land i s ava i l a b l e , i t i s u n l i k e l y appreciable commercial enter-p r i s e w i l l take place within the two communities i n the future. Attendance at large downtown theatres, sporting events, music and drama a c t i v i t i e s and re l a t e d programmes, has r i s e n i n l a t t e r years. The large commercial sponsored events provide a degree of excitement and glamour probably not found i n l o c a l community events. The extent of commercial events, such as professional sports, has increased spectator i n t e r e s t . I t has not necessarily brought about increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a t h l e t i c s or assisted public understanding of the values - 100 -inherent i n taking an active part i n a t h l e t i c or sporting a c t i v i t i e s . l e t , f o r purposes of the study, i t may be con-cluded that people l i v i n g i n the large urban c i t y of Vancouver have shown an increased response to commercial recreation, and t h i s form of public media has a greater influence than ever before. Today, concern regarding the negative influence of commercial recreation has changed from a moral c r i t i c i s m to an attitude of concern f o r the physical and mental health of people, who only spectate and do not p a r t i c i p a t e . Enterprises operated f o r private p r o f i t have also been questioned by professional r e c r e a t i o n a l personnel for lacking p o s i t i v e and constructive value f o r the growth and develop-ment of people. Professional sport, for instance, has placed an emphasis upon f i n a n c i a l success rather than the value of sportsmanship and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Passive forms of recreation within the home setting have also shown a r i s e i n importance. The excellent reception of t e l e v i s i o n i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y explains the high number of families owning t e l e v i s i o n sets. The f u l l value of t e l e v i s i o n has not, at t h i s point, been determined; negative and p o s i t i v e influences of t e l e v i s i o n also have not been con-c l u s i v e l y established. The re t a i n i n g of family members within the home f o r longer periods appears to be a d e f i n i t e c o n t r i -bution made by t e l e v i s i o n . Hi F i recording and radio also continue to be a part of home recreational a c t i v i t i e s . The more active forms of home recreation, including - 101 -gardening, landscaping, home improvements, known as 'do-it-y o u r s e l f , also occupy a greater proportion of time. Although a low r e n t a l area, where i t might be possible f o r residents to assume a le s s e r i n t e r e s t i n the home, Fraserview f a m i l i e s appear to be taking a normal i n t e r e s t i n home improvement. Lawns and vegetable gardens appear to be as numerous as i n other communities of s i m i l a r economic circumstance. Recreational a c t i v i t i e s outside of the community i n " B r i t i s h Columbia's Evergreen Playground" include: camping, s k i i n g , boating and swimming. The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l Government's erection of camping sites'has been one influence to increase public i n t e r e s t i n outdoor recreation, Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y residents, being of younger age than many other Vancouver comminities, i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d p a r t i c i p a t e to a greater extent i n family camping and recreational a c t i v i t i e s . The establishment of more public f a c i l i t i e s f o r recrea-t i o n throughout the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia can also be seen to have a d i r e c t influence on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the family unit i n recreation. S o c i a l Problems The incidence of youth and adult behavior problems i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y communities are not at the present time of a high percentage. Voluntary case work agencies indicate a larger number of cases i n the Fraserview Housing Project than i n the surrounding K i l l a r n e y and South V i c t o r i a areas. Representatives of agencies, such as the Family Service - 102 -Association, point out, however, that a density of cases per-tai n i n g to an area may not necessarily indicate s o c i a l deterioration. Pertaining to Fraserview, the large number of voluntary cases may indicate the readiness of residents to accept agency services due to age and maturity as well as a possible lack of kinship resource usually sought out for assistance by the average family. The pattern of growth of the Fraserview Housing Project has resulted i n many service personnel including: school, church, welfare agency, correctional agency and r e c r e a t i o n a l o f f i c i a l s to predict future community-wide youth problems. A young densely populated area lacking s o c i a l services i s re-garded as s u f f i c i e n t evidence f o r the future manifestation of future deviant behaviour by the youth population. School o f f i c i a l s at the present time would appear to be i n the best p o s i t i o n to gauge the community strengths and weaknesses. Secondary school o f f i c i a l s , interviewed by the writer, were quite d e f i n i t e i n drawing a l i n e of d i s t i n c t i o n between the Fraserview Housing Project and surrounding communities, main-tain i n g the former's percentage of behaviour problem childre n f a r surpassed an average t o t a l of a community. The need fo r more preventive type services was an early community concern leading to the growth of recreation services. This development i s p a r t l y out of fear that an unserved youth population would r e s u l t i n widespread community gangs. A g i t a t i o n for the Vancouver Boys' Club Association was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a l l e v i a t i n g a p o t e n t i a l problem of youth gangs. A Community Centre was seen - 103 by the l o c a l Community Association directorate as "a place to keep the young people o f f the str e e t " . Many of the Y.M.C.A. supporters v i s u a l i z e d the t r a d i t i o n a l Y.M.C.A. a c t i v i t i e s as an answer to youth leadership needs. The l o c a l residents r e l a t i n g s o c i a l problems to recreation services pointed out the need fo r agencies to consider a family focus with the provi s i o n of basic services including family counselling. The Fraserview Study by the Community Chest and Councils noted the lack of constructive youth a c t i v i t y and the p o s s i b i l i t y of future problems among chi l d r e n which may l a t e r manifest themselves i n a number of ways. The basic planning of the Fraserview area demonstrated a disregard f o r the provi s i o n of a s o c i a l l y h e a l t h f u l environ-ment. The need to house returning veterans would s eem to have taken precedence over the way accommodation would a s s i s t the returning man and h i s family's adjustment. Yet, despite the apparent short comings of the Fraserview subdivision's physical environment, i t i s quite possible more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was placed upon the family to seek out l e i s u r e time and other s o c i a l services. . The very absence of f a c i l i t i e s and spe c i a l i z e d personnel may have resu l t e d i n more i n d i v i d u a l family resource-fulness and independence i n meeting family needs. Too great a dependence upon community f a c i l i t i e s sometimes may lead to a lack of family s o l i d a r i t y and in t e r e s t i n the various a c t i v i t i e s of d i f f e r e n t members of the family. To a degree, the absence of normal s o c i a l services created, i n some instances, greater - 104 -family involvement i n meeting the needs of i t s members. Response to organizations o f f e r i n g a family focus would appear to indicate concern f o r the family as a unit by many parents and the future services of recreational organizations should be based upon serving the t o t a l family group. Such a trend w i l l be noted i n the following chapter. The professional worker,' i n dealing with the recre a t i o n a l conditions of Fraserview, was faced with a r e a l challenge. Communication and cooperation was at a minimum. The opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a plan to bring about increased public recreation services f o r Fraserview was not given support by the a i d of consultative personnel. , An avenue f o r dealing with the planning of community r e c r e a t i o n , was r e s t r i c t e d to a centr a l i z e d authority. In t h i s regard the majority of c i t i z e n s of the l o c a l community were given a l i m i t e d opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e and l e a r n about the needs of t h e i r community. For the private organization, moving in t o a new d i s t r i c t required a survey to ascertain the proper areas of service. The professional worker, i n helping the organization serve the community, was required to give leadership i n regard to the types of programme meeting sp e c i a l need. Education of l o c a l personnel, to understand the need for a private agency per-spective and the necessity of cooperation with other community groups, was also an e s s e n t i a l professional r o l e . Through i n -creased understanding, the desire of community residents to take p a r t . i n voluntary e f f o r t would r i s e accordingly. The - 105 -s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e of the professional worker, i n dealing with community apathy, fear of the unknown, and group c o n f l i c t , was to r e l a t e the conviction that success was possible. The following chapter w i l l outline the methods and techniques u t i l i z e d to stimulate l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n serving the needs of the community. Chapter IV Local Community YMCA Development Fairmount Branch Boundaries The Community Chest and Councils and l o c a l c i t i z e n s l i v i n g within the Fairview-Mount Pleasant part of Vancouver, many of whom were Y.M.C.A. members of the downtown b u i l d i n g , requested the YMCA to give service i n t h i s area i n 1944* One year l a t e r , the Community Chest Survey, or "Norrie Report", described Fairview-Mount Pleasant as a needy s o c i a l area i n Vancouver. The YMCA began service to t h i s community by employ-ing a returning war veteran who had a background i n 'Y' work i n Vancouver p r i o r to the war. O f f i c e space, at the front of the s t a f f member's home, served as the s t a r t i n g point of the Fairview-Mount Pleasant YMCA headquarters, l a t e r to be known as. the Fairmount Branch Y.M.C.A. The o r i g i n a l boundaries of the Fairview-Mount Pleasant Y.M.C.A. Extension encompassed a r e s i d e n t i a l type of community of long duration. Centering primarily i n the Main s t r e e t area, the Branch personnel envisaged service to several neighbourhood areas. . In 1951.. Second Century Goals, a report of the Cen-te n n i a l Study Committee of the Vancouver=YMCA, advocated commun-i t y branches were to serve a broad area of Vancouver. Fairmount boundaries were extended eastward to include the south-eastern part of Vancouver. This study w i l l focus upon the growth of the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA, established o r i g i n a l l y as an - 107 -outpost of the Fairmount YMCA, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s evident i n the process of development.. A d e f i n i t i o n of the geographic boundaries i n 1944, 1951 and I960 i s shown i n Schedule 1. In the f i r s t year of operation the, Fairview-Mount Pleasant extension appeared to make some progress as an ef f e c t i v e service organization i n the community. , A Manage-ment Committee of twenty adults, a l l members of the, YMCA and residents i n the d i s t r i c t , was. organized. Sub-committees i n regard to programme, finance, adult education and a special teen-age project met under Board supervision. . The 'Y' exten-sion also shared i n giving leadership to the formation of a Community Council. Six Phalanx clubs, e n r o l l i n g 75 young men, were looked upon as a main resource for leaders. One problem emerging i n the f i r s t year and continuing throughout the h i s t o r y of Fairmount Branch YMCA was the con-stant change of o f f i c e headquarters. The use of a secretary's private home (during the f i r s t year) was regarded as an i n -adequate arrangement. Subsequent headquarters for the operation have been a section of the o l d west wing of the General Ho s p i t a l , Douglas Park P a v i l i o n , the B.C. F i r and Cedar Lumber Co.,Ltd., and store front o f f i c e at 14th Avenue and Main Street. A 'Y's Men's Club, beginning i n 1948, was active u n t i l 1950 i n try i n g to locate a suitable YMCA centre at 14th and Main, on a piece of property leased from the c i t y . However, the i n a b i l i t y to r a i s e the necessary funds resulted i n the expiration of the lease and purchase of the property f o r commercial purposes. -•io& -Schedule 1« O r i g i n a l and L a t e r Boundaries o f the  Fairmount WmTVI^5^tb^9MT7 D i r e c t i o n 1945 . O r i g i n a l Boundary 1951 Boundary I960 Boundary Fairmount .. YMCA I960 Boundary Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y »Y» North F a l s e Greek F a l s e Creek - and, Kingsway S i x t e e n t h Avenue Kingsway East Glen D r i v e Boundary Rd Fra s e r S t . Boundary Rd. South- T w e n t y - f i f t h Avenue Fra s e r R i v e r F r a s e r R i v e r F r a s e r R i v e r West G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t F r a s e r S t r e e t - 109 In the e a r l y years, the Fairmount IMCA was able, i n serving boys and men, to develop a f a i r l y extensive programme* Boys' club work, including: N-Y, Hi I , physical education classes i n churches, Phalanx,.Y's Men for young adults, mass co-educational teen-age programmes organized through Teen Towns, and a large boys' s o f t b a l l programme were important contributions to the community. . Small c i t y camp a c t i v i t i e s , , c a l l e d Summer Fun Clubs, a period of YMCA Camp Howdy, winter camping on Mount Hollyburn, also indicated community response. The Fairmount Branch, to a l i m i t e d extent, was able to use the r Central YMCA for Branch events or as pa r t i c i p a n t s of city-wide YMCA programmes. By 1954, however, i t was evident the Fairmount Branch was not meeting with success, and questions about the future of the Branch came from many quarters. The attitude of a long term Board member pointed out the r e a l i t y of the s i t u a -t i o n . In a report to the Board of, Directors, he stated: "... As we are presently situated, to endeavour to get-parent i n t e r e s t , on which we must r e l y , and to develop from that a group of d i r e c t o r s , i s i n my opinion almost hopeless. In the l i m i t e d time I have to give r e a l thought to these things, I have come to the f i r m conclusion that we are at a dead end operat-ing as we are. Personally, I do not wish to continue on as a director, of Fairmount ''I', f e e l i n g my e f f o r t s would be to no constructive end.P This Director also noted the area of p o t e n t i a l YMCA programme Tl A l e t t e r read to the Board, January 2 l s t , 1954, by Fairmount IMCA director at that time» - 110 -4oo i 0 ) y mi /?vf mi /no m Y e a r s nst /?ss im FffZ f a i r m o u n t Y t t C A 7 ^ t a I A f e r n b e r s h i p , /9</-7 To /?W * Fairmount YMCA, Annual S t a t i s t i c a l Reports. 1947-1954. * - H i was well served by the Vancouver Boys* Club Association through club units at Kiview, Kimount, and Kivan. He requested a. survey of the s i t u a t i o n and consideration of the transfer of the Branch to the south V i c t o r i a Drive area i n the v i c i n i t y of the Fraserview area. The volume of Branch services would c e r t a i n l y support the above direct o r ' s analysis of the Fairmount Branch s i t u a t i o n i n 1954* Branch s t a t i s t i c s over the period 1947 to 1954 are shown i n Figure 2 , (page 109)• Early F a i l u r e s . 1944 - 1954. What were the reasons f o r the apparent f a i l u r e of t h i s Branch to e s t a b l i s h a foundation within the community? As a complete appraisal of the s i t u a t i o n was never made by the Association, the evaluation that follows i s based upon personal impressions as recorded by secretaries, analysis of programme emphasis, and s o c i a l forces at work within the community. , I t i s evident that the reason for a weak YMCA operation, at t h i s time, l a y within the Vancouver YMCA i t s e l f and i n s o c i a l condi-tions within the Fairview-Mount Pleasant community* The Fairview-Mount Pleasant community, as defined by the boundaries established by the YMCA i n 1945, contain a section of the oldest housing units i n Vancouver. The area was undergoing, i n the post war years, a t r a n s i t i o n from an established r e s i d e n t i a l community to an i n d u s t r i a l development of multiple dwellings. Conversion of the older large houses - 112 and the erection of new apartment blocks, indicated t h i s tran-s i t i o n . The r e s u l t of the housing t r a n s i t i o n greatly altered the population. Single tenants, and young married couples without f a m i l i e s , moved into the multiple-type dwellings. Senior c i t i z e n s also represented a large group.. Young f a m i l i e s , with c h i l d r e n , except for an i n f l u x of New-Canadian f a m i l i e s , were moving to the suburban fringe sections of Vancouver. With i n d u s t r i a l development taking place i n the False Creek area, and with commercial enterprise emerging throughout, Fairview-Mount Pleasant, i n r e a l i t y , had become i d e n t i f i e d with the centre of the c i t y . Today, i n I 9 6 0 , other than the Mount Pleasant Branch 177 of the Canadian Legion which includes a large number of senior c i t i z e n s , there does not appear to be a strong psychological i d e n t i t y of the current residents to a Fairview-Mount Pleasant community. Other reasons given for the lack of success can be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the changing community structure of Fairview Mount Pleasant from 1944 to 1954. The "Norrie Report" of 1945, i n recommending service to the Fairview-Mount Pleasant area, noted only 2.38% of the population were receiving group work and recreational a c t i v i -t i e s from s o c i a l agencies. Based upon t h i s f a c t the survey report saw a large opportunity for community service. However, the survey stressed the importance of f a c i l i t i e s for i d e n t i t y purposes, pointing out that:. - 113; -"... The agency attempting t h i s work should develop a physical plant, but use i t as a to o l to serve a wide area of community centered groups and a c t i v i t i e s over a wide age and i n t e r e s t range." 1 Unfortunately f o r the supporters of the Fairmount IMC A, they were never able to locate the Branch o f f i c e with any degree of permanency. The many moves of the o f f i c e i n the early years probably made i t d i f f i c u l t to r e g i s t e r members, or for people l i v i n g i n the area to become aware of the YMGA i n the community. Attempts by the Fairmount Y's Men's Club to solve t h i s problem were unsuccessful and a l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y building planned f o r the community was never followed up a f t e r the Y's Men Club disbanded i n 1950. The p o l i c y and goals of the Fairmount Branch YMCA, set down i n 1945, appear to be sound and r e l a t e d to current trends i n community YMCA work.. A managing Board of l o c a l r esidents, a Y's Men Club disbanded a f t e r the nucleus of the group had moved from the area. Board members also moved from the area, and (as an attempt to a l l e v i a t e the problem) other di r e c t o r s were drawn from people serving the community i n a business or professional capacity. By 1954 only a small number of d i r e c -tors were ac t i v e , and as the majority of them l i v e d outside the community, the Fairmount YMCA did not have the support of l o c a l c i t i z e n s . At a Board meeting on A p r i l 2 5 t h , 1950, the ~ Norrie. L. E... Survey Report of Groupwork ahd^Re^r^aTion of Greater Vancouver, the Community Chest and Welfare Councils of Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., 1945, P* 92 114 Executive Secretary, i n a report to the Board stated: "One of the weaknesses i n the past has been leader-ship i n the Board of D i r e c t o r s " . 1 This problem never has been solved and remains as a current d i f f i c u l t y of the Fairmount YMCA i n redevelopment planning since establishment of the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA as a separate Branch i n the Spring of I960. -Ineffective board leadership may be a t t r i b u t e d to the decreasing number of young men av a i l a b l e f o r 'Y* work i n . an..unsettied community. Rapid professional s t a f f turnover would also appear to be a factor i n Branch, i n s t a b i l i t y . Between 1947 and 1954 there were f i v e Executive Secretaries employed by the Branch. Most of these secretaries were recent University graduates who had been appointed to t h e i r f i r s t YMCA s t a f f p o s i t i o n . I t i s questionable whether these men possessed s u f f i c i e n t experience to handle a job, where a minimum amount of supervision was given by the Metropolitan s t a f f and l i t t l e support could be expected from a weak Directorate. Two of the three new s t a f f members were trained outside the YMCA and had very l i t t l e opportunity to l e a r n the philosophy of decentralized YMCA work. As a r e s u l t , they probably did not have a conviction about the methods and techniques involved. The remaining new - 1. Summary of Observations, a Report to Fairmount YMCA by the Executive-Secretary, board of Direct o r s , A p r i l 25,,. 1950. - 115 -secretary was trained i n physical education. He found l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y work, sometimes i n poorly equipped and inadequate communitiy f a c i l i t i e s , from a physical education viewpoint, f r u s t r a t i n g and unrelated to h i s t r a i n i n g . After a few months employment he requested a transfer. S t a f f turnover did not encourage membership growth i n the Association. Members would become f a m i l i a r with the habits and personality of one secre-tary only to have a disruption on the appointment of a new secretary. Continuity of leadership at the s t a f f l e v e l d i d not a s s i s t the Branch adoption of goals f o r b u i l d i n g the Fairmount YMGA. I t i s l i k e l y , a lso, that the secretaries held d i f f e r i n g opinions on programme philosophy. Today, only one man of the f i r s t f i v e secretaries has remained i n the YMCA as a professional worker. By 1954, serious questions had been r a i s e d about the future of the Fairmount YMCA; what had started as an excellent basis of community type YMCA had deteriorated to a fragmen-tary and i n e f f e c t i v e operation. Apathy among the Board of Directors was apparent, community i n t e r e s t i n the YMCA was at a low l e v e l . Programme groups were small i n number and spor-a d i c a l l y attended. As a r e s u l t , the Fairmount YMCA, i n the Spring of 1954, was on the verge of being discontinued. A changing community s o c i a l structure, an equally chang-ing population, and d e f i c i e n c i e s within the leadership of the Fairmount YMCA, contributed to the gradual decline of Branch effectiveness. I t i s evident the low membership r a t i o and - 116 -d e c l i n i n g board and committee i n t e r e s t remained for a four year period (as i s shown i n Figure 2). During t h i s i n t e r v a l there was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n the 'Metropolitan 1 YMGA, i n a p o s i t i o n to make an objective evaluation, gave ef f e c t i v e super-v i s i o n and analysis to t h i s needy and d i f f i c u l t area. In a ten year period, the Vancouver YMCA moved very quickly, i n adapting to an extension or decentralized oper-ation. From one central b u i l d i n g the Association grew to a 'Metropolitan* YMCA encompassing an additional four community Branches. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , by comparison, to note other private leisure-time serving organizations, w i t h i n the Community Chest and Councils, have not expanded area services as rapi d l y as the YMCA. The growth of the YMCA i n the new community adopted a revolutionary concept of decentralization of a c t i v -i t i e s throughout " l o c a l neighbourhoods". This development could not take place i n an i n s t i t u t i o n l i k e the YMCA without resistance, f o r only a few members were f a m i l i a r with community 'Y* programme. Public knowledge about the YMCA over the past three decades, moreover, was molded by the large b u i l d i n g operation, which remained a secure symbol to 'Y* supporters. Although the Vancouver *Y* showed a willingness to change and adapt to "neighbourhood-centered'' programmes i n p o l i c y state-ments, i t i s evident the l i m i t e d awareness of *Y* leaders, both lay and professional, c u r t a i l e d (in situations l i k e the Fairmount YMCA) the a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y . The appointment of Junior Secretaries to the Fairmount - 117 -Branch, i s one example of a lack of Association awareness to the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h i s area. Undergirding the IMCA's problem i n the Fairmount Branch was the i n s u f f i c i e n t s o c i a l data a v a i l a b l e i n regard to Vancouver's large s o c i a l areas which the "Norrie Report" stated required r e v i s i o n . The Fairmount IMCA period of f a i l u r e i s an important test of the a p p l i c a t i o n of the Vancouver IMCA's p o l i c y of decentralization. Was there evidence of " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a -t i o n " i n the Vancouver IMCA, si m i l a r to the observation recorded by Murray Ross, i n regard to the Canadian movement i n The IMCA i n Canada? (discussed i n Chapter I ) . The r e l a t i o n -ship of the community branch YMCA's, as represented by the Fairmount YMCA and the Central IMCA, would be a s i g n i f i c a n t subject f o r further study. The Central Branch IMCA represents "bigness" and "success", but, does i t help or hinder the Van-couver YMCA's po l i c y of decentralization? The further implications of these questions p e r t a i n to the Association leadership's understandings of the f u l l r amifications of decentralized work and the c o n f l i c t s evident i n the present p r a c t i c e i n I960, of supporting growth and development of a Central YMCA and community branches. The Central IMCA Boys' Department's current sponsorship o f purpose groups, i n connection with the t r a d i t i o n a l l y popular and well attended physical education programme,.is an example of c o n f l i c t with Community Branch programmes. Decentralized group a c t i v i t i e s and the Central Branch's attempt to serve the t o t a l c i t y area - 118 -may be a dupl i c a t i o n of s t a f f and resources. 1 The existence of contradictory, or c o n f l i c t i n g methods of programming b y YMGA Branches, does not lead to a unity of purpose and t h i s requires the c a r e f u l study of the Vancouver XMCA i n order to avoid the emergence of problem areas i n the future. New Beginnings i n the Fraserview, Area During the dilemma of 1954 on whether to continue the Fairmount YMCA, there emerged a spark of hope that offered an alt e r n a t i v e to closing the Branch. Within the large geographic boundaries of Fairmount YMGA several d i s t i n c t i v e communities /were gradually emerging. During 1953, numerous requests for YMCA a c t i v i t i e s were received by parents l i v i n g i n one of the newer communities within Fairmount YMCA boundaries — the Fraserview Housing Subdivision. In response to these requests a committee was set up to survey the Fraserview community's need for YMGA service. This committee comprised the General Secretary of the Vancouver YMCA, the Executive Secretary of the Fairmount YMGA, and a Metropolitan Board member. During 1954 the Executive-Secretary continued to spend a l i m i t e d time i n serving the Fraserview area. Interviews with ser v i c i n g personnel at Schools and Churches were conducted. T T Norrie. L.E... Survey Report of Group Work and Recreation  of Greater Vancouver^ Community Chests and Councils of Greater Vancouver, 1945* (This report recommended the Vancouver YMCA reor i e n t i t s boys 1 -work to a community centered programme i n , the natural s e t t i n g where the environment touches people i n a more fundamental way). - 119 -A questionnaire on r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s was given to Grade Six pupils at S i r James Douglas Elementary School i n A p r i l , 1954* In addition, negotiation with the Fraserview Community Association was c a r r i e d on as a means of cooperating with l o c a l groups already established i n the community* During the summer of that year, the Fairmount IMCA sponsored two a c t i v i t i e s i n Fraserview* In May and June, an experimental s o f t b a l l programme was offered, with f o r t y boys turning out f o r a team entered i n the Red Feather S o f t b a l l League* Three teams, i f s u f f i c i e n t coaches would have been a v a i l a b l e , might have been organized* In August a summer fun programme, centering at S i r James Douglas School ground, was held* Although a small programme, i t was w e l l supported by parents, who formed a committee to a s s i s t the Fairmount Branch Executive Secretary* This period served to introduce the IMCA into Fraser-view community and an example of IMCA programmes was demonstrated to a small number of residents. , Impressions of the community, i t s socio-economic structure and p o t e n t i a l support f o r community services, were rel a t e d by the f i r s t secretary i n a recorded interview. This was h i s general impression a f t e r a year and one h a l f of negotiation and programming: "... The former secretary described the e x i s t i n g community services as being highly disorganized. He also d i d not regard the community of having a strong s o c i a l or economic structure. On the whole he con-sidered the people to be apathetic to organizing - 120 -themselves. In t h i s respect the Fraserview Community Association was not t i e d too clos e l y to the majority of the community's r e s i d e n t s . n l This i n i t i a l stage was governed by a cautious approach. A secretary's report to the Board of Directors, A p r i l 1954, i n a prepared statement on progress t o date, exemplifies the YMCA's pos i t i o n : "... In February the General-Secretary and I had a long discussion, and we concluded that we had to know what the boys and g i r l s were doing now, what sports and clubs, e t c . , they took part i n . We f e e l strongly that we must not overlap e x i s t i n g services and pro-gramme and cause antagonism.. We should only o f f e r programme i n areas where none e x i s t s , or where other sponsors request our help or wish us to take over. The existence of a l o c a l community association, established f o r the main purpose of acquiring a public community centre, greatly influenced the YMCA's p o l i c y toward development i n the Fraserview area. The Fraserview Community Association, a l o c a l c i t i z e n group, without the support of consultative services from public recreation o f f i c i a l s , could not be expected to show an appreciation of public and private r e c r e a t i o n a l services. . The YMGA was also aware that more information was needed before proceeding with an aggressive approach to i n i t i a t i n g YMCA programme services i n the area. 1. Interview of a former Executive Secretary of Fairmount YMCA held October 1 9 , 1954. 2. Report on Fraserview, recorded A p r i l , 1954. - 121 -The YMCA, during the F a l l of 1954, underwent a s t a f f realignment i n several branches and departments. In Septem-ber of 1954, the Executive-Secretary of Alma YMCA was trans-f e r r e d to the Fairmount YMCA i n the capacity of Executive-Secretary. The Fairmount YMCA Executive-Secretary was appointed Youth D i v i s i o n Secretary at the Central YMCA. A small number of di r e c t o r s were active on the Fairmount. YMCA Board at the time of the s t a f f change. The new Executive-Secretary's f i r s t concrete step was to suggest a transfer of the Fairmount YMCA o f f i c e , located at 14th Avenue and Main Street, to Cambie and 25th Avenue. The Executive-Secretary, inaugurating the new p o s i t i o n , en-couraged the move on the basis the Branch needed to sever i t ' s connections with past f a i l u r e . , Moving to Cambie, and focusing the operation i n the South Cambie d i s t r i c t , would enable a new s t a r t f o r the Branch. Even at thi s early date, however, Fraserview was regarded.as a possible Branch head-quarters* "... The Secretary drew the attention of the Board to the report before them and there was considerable discussion regarding the.proposed a l l o c a t i o n of the Branch i n the Cambie community. During t h i s discussion Fraserview was.mentioned as another p o s s i b i l i t y i n terms of moving the administrative centre, but i t was f e l t that i n such a move we would be l o c a l i z i n g the work of the Branch. "•*• IT Minutes. Fairmount YMCA Board: of Direct o r s , SeptemFer 9 t h , 1954. - •. , - - - .. - 122 -Several directors were i n favour of the Fraserview d i s t r i c t as a centre of operation, but they were influenced by the Executive-Secretary's f i r m conviction that more information with regard to the Fraserview community's socio-economic structure, receptiveness to agency services, and a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by other organizations, be ascertained by the YMCA. The Executive-Secretary held the viewpoint that the Fraser-view community, as a low re n t a l housing subdivision, could quite possibly be a tra n s i t o r y area, and therefore, an unstable f o c a l point f o r an organization l i k e the YMGA. The suggestion that the Branch would be ' l o c a l i z i n g ' i t s e l f on the basis of available research, i s a sound procedure f o r the development of a community YMCA.1 The Survey of 1954. The i n i t i a l contact with the Fraserview area i n 1953 and 1954, indicated the need f o r an area survey of Fraserview f o r YMCA purposes. After a survey, YMGA programmes could be of implementing the YMCA's p o l i c y of conducting a survey, p r i o r to programme, was created i n the E a l l of 1954, with the assignment of a second year student i n the School of So c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The student's assignment was to explore the neighbourhood, conduct interviews, better adapted to the needs of the community. The opportunity 1. . De Marche . D.. The Relative Effectiveness of YMCA  Branches with Various Types of Buildings, Association Press, New York, 1947, Recommendation number 10, p. 56. - 123 -locate people interested i n the YMCA, survey the present r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and a s s i s t i n the development of l o c a l committee i n support of a.YMCA programme i n the future* Supervision of the student was provided by the Executive-Secretary of the Fairmount YMCA. The Fairmount Board of Directors were to oversee the project and receive progress reports on the development. The f i r s t task facing the student i n accepting the assignment, was to become f a m i l i a r with the organization and programme of the YMCA. Although a pa r t i c i p a n t of the Vancouver YMCA during boys' programme i n the early 1940 's, the student had l i t t l e recent association with the YMCA. Previous contact had been i n the Central YMCA, at that time, the only YMCA i n Vancouver, and l i k e most people, the student had a good deal of question about a YMCA operating from a store-front, or other l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y . Moreover, the distance between the Fraser-view area and the Branch administrative headquarters at 25th Avenue and Cambie Street, appeared awkward f o r e f f e c t i v e f i e l d work. However, assigned reading by the Executive Secretary helped to acquaint the student with YMCA goals, methods of work, and programme emphasis. Local material on n o n - f a c i l i t y work, p a r t i c u l a r l y the reports of 1946 and 1951, were bene-f i c i a l , along with the i n i t i a l supervisory session with the supervisor, i n c l a r i f y i n g the opportunities that l a y ahead i n the f i e l d work assignment. In the l a t t e r sense, discussions - 124 pn the philosophy of decentralized programming with the super-v i s o r , enabled the student to understand some of the basic concepts of YMCA work. Home centered clubs .(N-Y), extensive use of community f a c i l i t i e s , portable equipment, the emphasis on leadership rather than f a c i l i t i e s , f l e x i b i l i t y of adminis-t r a t i o n , etc., were ideas introduced by the supervisor. . Although i t took the course of the year's assignment, and i n some instances i n l a t e r experiences, the student became aware of the YMCA's community approach, s u f f i c i e n t knowledge was passed on f o r the student to proceed with the assignment. From October to the end of December interviews were conducted with s e r v i c i n g personnel, including a;;school p r i n c i p a l , ministers, a former YMCA secretary working i n the-Fraserview d i s t r i c t , and various key people who were active i n the Fraser-view community. Of these people, the p r i n c i p a l of S i r James Douglas School, and a housewife, a former Board member of the Vancouver East YMCA-YWCA, were contacted on a regular basis. Information about the community was gathered mainly from these two people, and action on the project was influenced by the i r response to the student's i n q u i r i e s . Interviews were also held with: the President of the Fraserview Community Associa-t i o n , the President of the Sir. James Douglas Elementary School P.T.A., and the minister of Fraserview United Church. A l l the people interviewed gave impressions about the community and assis t e d i n the formulation of the methods employed i n proceed-ing with the YMCA project. - 125 During the interviews, the student was impressed with the apparent c o n f l i c t or unfriendly atmosphere that appeared to e x i s t . In conference with the President of the Fraserview Community Association the student recorded: ".. • The apparent atmosphere of. the Association and-individual Association members attitude to out-side organizations l i k e the YMCA moving into the area i s quite n e g a t i v e . n l Also i n an interview with the school p r i n c i p a l , the student wrote: ".. • Gn Thursday, the worker was i n v i t e d into the school p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . The p r i n c i p a l expressed h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the questionnaire. However, he also had a number of questions as to the YMCA's function i n the Fraserview d i s t r i c t , explaining that he was quite concerned about recent t a l k of an active YMCA supporter i n the area. Apparently the p r i n c i p a l i n a recent discussion was given the impression that the YMCA v i s u a l i z e d taking over the provision of rec r e a t i o n a l services i n the d i s t r i c t . The worker answered the p r i n c i p a l ' s i n q u i r i e s by o u t l i n i n g the steps taken to date.. I t was explained that the YMCA saw i t s e l f as only one source f o r helping to meet the need i n the area. Further, the worker pointed out the need for cooperation and, i n t h i s connection, the 'Y' was endeavouring to gain the reaction of active groups i n the community. The p r i n c i p a l agreed with with the worker's viewpoint seemingly he was p a r t i c u -l a r l y impressed-with the idea of the YMCA being only one source i n the provision of future programmes. I t was apparent that community attitudes of many people active 1. Process Record, Interview with the President, Fraser-view. Community Association, October aytn, i y ^ . ~ 2. Process Record. Interview with the P r i n c i p a l . S i r James Douglas. Elementary School". November 25th. 1954. . - 126 i n the area were not receptive to new services. At t h i s time, the student was not aware of any s p e c i f i c incidents that caused the atmosphere o f reticence, p a r t i c u l a r l y evident by members of the Fraserview Community Association* In the f i r s t few months, the student was able to make l i t t l e contact with members of the Community Association. Letters were sent to the Community Association o f f e r i n g assistance with r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , or to exchange ideas f o r further working r e l a t i o n s with the two organizations i n meeting re c r e a t i o n a l needs of the community. However, no communication was received from the members of the Community Association. In t h i s connection i t should be noted the Community Association was a l o c a l group of voluntary c i t i z e n s who were endeavouring to secure a community centre f o r t h e i r d i s t r i c t . Any private agency services were probably regarded as a threat to t h e i r objective. As they did not have consul-t a t i v e services from the Vancouver Parks Board or a l o c a l community coordinating council a f f i l i a t e d with the Community Chest and Councils to turn to, they turned inward and became 'ingrown' and unresponsive to other community serv i c i n g groups* The YMCA, fo r i t ' s part, was endeavouring to a s s i s t the Fraserview Community Association assume a coordinating r o l e i n regard to community services. The purpose of the YMCA representative, at th i s point, was to c l a r i f y the role of the YMCA i n the community. P a r t i c u l a r l y , the student saw the need to explain that the YMCA did not have immediate plans to locate - 127 a b u i l d i n g i n the area. Unfortunately, members of the Fraser-view Community Association had associated the YMCA with the type o f bu i l d i n g at the Central 'Y'. They had no awareness of the community type YMCA and apparently believed the YMCA would become a large b u i l d i n g operation once i t became successfully established i n the community. The s i t u a t i o n was a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n upon the structure of community recre a t i o n i n Vancouver, at that time. Professional services through public recreation were unavailable to l o c a l communities, and people on l o c a l associations were, therefore, not educated or oriented to the differences of public and private recreation services. Clearance by the YMCA with the Community Chest and Councils Group Work D i v i s i o n Executive-Secretary had been undertaken by telephone during the F a l l of 1954« However, the D i v i s i o n was not able to give e f f e c t i v e counsel on l o c a l recreational development, c h i e f l y as a r e s u l t of a lack of administrative structure to enable l o c a l planning. Without a period of study and research, the Division, p r imarily dominated by s t a f f members of s o c i a l agencies, could not mobilize to a s s i s t e f f e c t i v e l o c a l coordination. .The YMCA, -not having d i r e c t communication with the Fraserview Community Association, was unable to outline i t ' s methods of work i n a l o c a l community. In th i s respect, more e f f e c t i v e YMCA public r e l a t i o n s about the community type of operation might have overcome some of the resistance. However, at t h i s point i n the YMCA's investigations, most of the people - 123 -contacted knew the YMCA as a bui l d i n g centered operation and they found i t d i f f i c u l t to conceive of the YMCA as anything else but a b u i l d i n g . Members of the Association, with l i t t l e advice or counsel, regarded the YMCA i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t with t h e i r purpose of gaining a public community centre for Fraser-view. The existence of p o t e n t i a l l y h o s t i l e attitudes toward the YMCA influenced a decision to conduct a t r a i n i n g programme for the community. This decision was ar r i v e d at midway through the interviewing period by the supervisor and student, or YMCA s t a f f . A t r a i n i n g course f o r recreational volunteers a f f i l i a t e d with any community organization was envisaged as one method of eliminating b a r r i e r s to future working r e l a t i o n s between a l l organizations i n the community. Through personal contact and ideas suggested i n the course, the YMGA s t a f f also expected a number of future YMCA leaders would r e s u l t * However, the need f o r searching out leadership and fa c t u a l f i e l d work information, required the YMCA to continue regular negotiation with indiv i d u a l s able to a s s i s t the project. The school p r i n c i p a l saw his r o l e of providing the resources of the school. A questionnaire on recre a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s was given to the grade s i x pupils at S i r James Douglas School on December 2nd, 1954. The findings of the questionnaire were ci r c u l a t e d at l a t e r committee meetings and reported to the Fairmount Board of Directors* The questionnaire was a valuable tool i n showing the need for r e c r e a t i o n a l services to an age - 129 -group (9 to 12 years) which the IMCA was prepared to service, (see Appendix A). The early negotiation i n Fraserview revealed one person f i r m l y convinced the IMCA had programme a c t i v i t i e s f i l l i n g the needs of the community. The housewife, formerly referred to, was a former Board member at the Vancouver East IMCA-IWCA, so therefore had an understanding of the organization and was prepared to give her time for IMCA work. An active person i n the Fraserview d i s t r i c t , she knew the community well and was able to encourage other people to volunteer f o r work. In addition,she had confidence i n h e r s e l f , the organization and i t ' s programmes, and an aggressive a b i l i t y to 'follow through' on objectives. Her aggressiveness sometimes l e d to f r i c t i o n and misunderstanding and the need f o r the student to c l a r i f y objectives to other people. l e t the energy she put forth on the project, while she remained i n the background, influenced the i n i t i a l development of IMCA i n t e r e s t i n the community. By January 1955, a general l e t t e r to parents and community contacts,, undertaken by the student and housewife, set the scene f o r the formation of a IMCA committee i n Fraser-view. A general l e t t e r to parents of s o f t b a l l and summer fun members, and parents of grade f i v e and s i x children, for a meeting on January 3rd, 1955, was c i r c u l a t e d . In addi t i o n , the student telephoned over one hundred fa m i l i e s p r i o r to the meeting* This meeting was well attended and provided the ground work for the course of action undertaken. An agenda, planned - 130 -by the YMGA s t a f f , was an e f f e c t i v e t o o l enabling an appraisal of the rec r e a t i o n s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n Fraserview. The agenda enclosed was a guideline to community needs of various age groups and services now sponsored. Information about YMCA community small group a c t i v i t i e s was given by the Executive-Secretary. The previous experience of the housewife proved h e l p f u l i n emphasizing the importance of t r a i n i n g , p r i o r to undertaking volunteer leadership. At the close of the meeting, a committee of f i v e was drawn up to proceed with implementing YMCA services i n Fraserview. The meeting also proved to be the beginning of shared leadership and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . .As the YMCA did not own f a c i l i t i e s i n Fraserview and possessed a l i m i t e d leadership resource, i t was l o g i c a l f o r committee members to accept the suggestion, stressed by the former YMCA Board member, to operate a leadership t r a i n i n g course. The committee, known as the Fraserview YMCA Planning Committee, held several meetings i n conjunction with the developing fY f a c t i v i t i e s . A number of s p e c i f i c jobs were drawn up to f a c i l i t a t e committee development, (see Figure 3). These included: chairman; secretary treasurer} representative to Fairmount YMCA Board of Directors; chairman, leadership t r a i n i n g committee; chairman, group development committee; and representative to the Community Association. The student was to act as coordinator o f the t r a i n i n g course and to follow up resource leaders for the sessions outlined. The leadership t r a i n i n g course took place from Wednesday, 131 -/\$5oCir*Tit>rA 0TH6* CO-oR\>-T LkAPCRS i X 7 T T T f(?rtSWv/£W Connu^irr Yfir/* of o r Y/ncA RE s o u r c e s - f.£Af>£fUtttf rtfiTGflAlS ere. J>J*S:<:T-©R5 ft<^ 3 A4rn\¥\ist*A.'tiif* C h a c f --for "the Frd$*?rview C p*G^**ei "for th<? f>-Co*+r*KK\Xeq ^ T a n . »2., (^rf-) - 132 -February 9th to March 16th, 1955* Thirty adults and teen-agers took part i n the programme which took place at the Fraserview Community Association b u i l d i n g , . Local members of the committee, also active i n the. Fraserview Community Associa-t i o n , undertook to negotiate the use of the h a l l , , Several professional recreational personnel including: s t a f f members of Vancouver YMCA, University l e c t u r e r s , members of other s o c i a l agencies drawn from the f i e l d of physical education and s o c i a l work, provided course leadership. Sessions were planned on a lecture-discussion or panel discussion basis to f a c i l i t a t e the involvement of course members, A number of new people, not active i n community leadership, took part i n the course along with active persons i n various community organizations. Unfortunately, i t was not successful i n r e -c r u i t i n g c e r t a i n members i n community service who most needed to examine t h e i r volunteer leadership motivations. At the close of the course, neighbourhood YMCA clubs were organized. Two male members and one lady recruited small club groups which met i n the leaders' basements. An organiza-t i o n a l meeting was held and several other course graduates indicated an in t e r e s t to begin club leadership as soon as boys' and g i r l s ' groups were located. The development of programme moved the project to a new phase. Community attitudes had been gauged, YMCA community services had been outlined, and interested c i t i z e n s had been mobilized to action. An analysis of the factors inherent i n - 133 -t h i s 'exploration' stage i s important i n assessing the p r i n -c i p l e s or methods used by YMGA personnel i n approaching the Fraserview community. What methods helped b u i l d for the future? What inadequacies resulted that presented problems i n later stages? Implications of the Survey The group work student placement i n an area development i n the University of B r i t i s h Columbia School of Soc i a l Work has not been widely implemented. In assessing the re s u l t s of the YMCA's survey of Fraserview i t should be recognized c e r t a i n advantages and disadvantages pertain to the assignment of a student on the project. To begin with, the student was not an experienced pro-f e s s i o n a l worker i n community organization. His experience had been l i m i t e d to group work within a b u i l d i n g centered operation of another agency. Knowledge about YMCA had to be learned while proceeding with the assignment and, therefore, the Fraserview survey was conducted by a student while under-going t r a i n i n g . On the other hand, as a student assignment, there was greater attention given to sett i n g objectives and compiling information about Fraserview than i s often done when f u l l time agency workers are assigned s i m i l a r tasks. Regular super-v i s i o n brought about a focus on process and perhaps a greater s e n s i t i v i t y to exis t i n g attitudes i n the Fraserview community. As i t turned out, aft e r a b r i e f period of 'give and take' with - 134 -the supervisor, the f i e l d worker became convinced of the value of the programme services of a community YMCA, The assignment, i n e f f e c t , became a team work approach — t h e student follow-ing out the assignment of interviewing people i n the community, coordinating the t r a i n i n g course, and becoming knowledgeable about general s o c i a l conditions of the Fraserview area. The supervisor gave active support to the assignment, when required, as the following excerpt from the student's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the f i r s t Fraserview Planning Committee would t e s t i f y : "... The Supervisor's outline of the N-Y Club helped to point out the merits of a YMCA service to the pre-adolescent age group, . When c a l l e d upon, the Supervisor gave the group some knowledge of resources of_the YMCA i n a community type programme."! A more active r o l e was assumed by the supervisor as the assign-ment progressed. This f a c i l i t a t e d the Fraserview survey as well as the working r e l a t i o n s between supervisor and student. .For many of the people serving on the YMCA committee, the experience was new. There were important contributions made i n th i s phase of the development that encouraged l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The agency's use of c i r c u l a t e d minutes to a l l committee members, meeting reminders, notices, business agenda, and clearances with chairman and other members making reports by the professional s t a f f , were well received by the committee. Techniques introduced by the professional s t a f f were invaluable 1. Process recording. January 3 r d , 1955* 1 - 135 -i n stimulating, e f f e c t i v e communication among the committee members. I t was also evident that these members were think-ing about the project, as was apparent i n the r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r the leadership t r a i n i n g course, for most of the par t i c i p a n t s of the course were contacted personally. The entrance of Fairmount YMCA Board personnel was an important step i n bringing about the committee's knowledge and awareness of the YMCA. Board members, by early p a r t i c i p a -t i o n , gave the Fraserview committee support and recognition f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s . The committee members regarded the Board of Directors of the Fairmount YMCA as a group able to give guidance and assistance when i t was needed. On the other hand, the Board members, by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an active ongoing pro-j e c t , were given a ' l i f t ' from the fr u s t r a t i o n s of recent years at the Branch. At the f i r s t parent meeting, the student interpreted the Board members' r o l e , thus: ' "... He gave a valuable contribution to the meeting. As a lay YMCA representative the board member's p a r t i -c i p a t i o n around the area of assessing need and determin-ing the YMCA function i n the community i n l i g h t of the need was p a r t i c u l a r l y valuable. He also gave d i r e c t i o n i n the methods by which the meeting might set up a committee And l a t e r at the meeting of January 2 6 t h , 1955: "... The attendance of the two Board representatives was-an i n d i c a t i o n of the Fraserview Committee's stiraula-1. . Process recording. January 3 r d , 1955. - 136 -t i o n of i n t e r e s t within the Fairmount YMCA Board* Although o f f i c i a l recognition was not forthcoming at the l a s t Board Meeting, the discussion i n the committee meeting brought out the used for o f f i c i a l agency recognition* On a p o s i t i v e basis the Board members expressed genuine s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the Committee's work* One board member's r e f e r r a l to the community as being 'a wonderful-place to begin work of the committee's--nature' also helped to give recognition of the committee's-value both to the community and the agency*.*fl Involvement of the Fairmount YMCA Board members came as a r e s u l t of the supervisor's emphasis on the Fraserview survey by including the project on Board meeting agenda and written reports submitted by the student. The sincere i n t e r e s t of ce r t a i n d i r e c t o r s also must be acknowledged, as was shown l a t e r , when one director became a c t i v e l y involved i n the Fraserview YMCA Committee. As a guiding p r i n c i p l e the YMCA s t a f f focused upon the l e v e l of community organization and i d e n t i t y indicated by the residents. Every e f f o r t was made to appraise steps i n develop-ment that would break down any exi s t i n g unfriendly attitudes. The e f f e c t i v e resources of the YMCA were ascertained as pro-f e s s i o n a l personnel, programme equipment, agency prestige, and a v a i l a b i l i t y of leadership materials. Local personnel were given an opportunity of d i r e c t i n g the project i n the early stages. . Starting with one or two people, shared leadership took place with the committee. Members of the committee, i n turn, attracted neighbours and friends to the leadership 1. Process recording, January 26th, 1955* t - 137 -t r a i n i n g course. The project then grew through the i n t e r e s t of people* Buildings and other material resources followed* Local r esidents were mobilized to deal with the needs of th e i r community. The pattern of development was also con-s i s t e n t with the YMCA's philosophy of membership r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and control* The leadership t r a i n i n g course outline (Schedule 2) i s l i s t e d on page 133* The course was designed to increase community awareness of the importance of leadership, professional and volunteer, i n community recreation.. A t r a i n i n g programme was new to Fraserview, f o r other organizations serving Fraserview did not employ p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s t a f f members. The YMCA was, therefore, able to render a community service while a t the same time increasing the i n t e r e s t of l o c a l residents i n the YMCA* P a r t i c i p a t i o n through group discussion and the use of evaluation s l i p s were techniques u t i l i z e d to measure member inte r e s t * The end of the Fraserview Leadership Training Course i n March, coincided with the end of the student f i e l d placement, and community contacts were then maintained by the Executive-Secretary* Three leaders became active with small neighbour-hood clubs sponsored by the. Fairmount YMCA.. Other leaders waited u n t i l the F a l l before proceeding with clubs* In time, many of the course re g i s t r a n t s became more active i n other organizations. The Chairman of the Fraserview YMCA Planning - 138 Schedule 2 . Fraserview Leadership Training  Course for Volunteer Leaders February 9, to March 16, 1955. Sponsored by: Fraserview YMCA Planning Committee, an a f f i l i a t e of. the..Fairmount Branch YMCA. Held i n : Areas of Study; Fraserview Community Association Centre. 1. The Role of the Leader — The s o c i a l , emotional and physical development of boys and g i r l s , eight to twelve years and thirteen to f i f t e e n years. The leader or counsellor's r o l e i n working with these age groupings. F i l m — "Leaders for Leisure" — to i l l u s t r a t e the importance of community recreational leadership. 2» Democratic Group Organization — Group p a r t i c i p a t i o n < through self-determining and self-governing group structure. YMCA methods as applied i n the neigh-bourhood club (N-Y) programme. 3« Group Games — The value of group games with small groups. 4» What Different Groups.Contribute and Expect from Recreational Experiences •— Panel discussion involving ~ moderator, parent volunteer group leader and pro-fessional s t a f f member of an agency. The session brought out the d i f f e r e n t perspective of each and how they must work together to e f f e c t i v e l y support youth a c t i v i t i e s . 5» . Arts and Crafts — Demonstration and practice i n various hobbies and c r a f t s . The value of these a c t i v i t i e s for a l l the members of the group* 6. Kinds of Groups — Panel discussion on the values of team sports and friendship groups., I l l u s t r a t i o n of differences, the values of each. • 7» Evaluation and Summary of the Course. - 139 -Committee became a Vice-President of the Fraserview Community Association* Developments within the community leadership enabled greater sharing of ideas and willingness to work to-gether. This d i d not happen over night but was a gradual process. The Fraserview Community Association, for example, scheduled a meeting to coordinate community wide events. A clea r i n g house of a l l community events was set up through the Fraserview Community Association b u l l e t i n . Although the meeting did not proceed to the point where dup l i c a t i o n of services or unmet needs were examined, i t was a step i n the d i r e c t i o n of an increased willingness to cooperate* At t h i s time, i t seems apparent the Fraserview Community Association, as an organization l i m i t e d e n t i r e l y to l o c a l residents, did not possess the knowledge or leadership within i t ' s ranks to assume a coordinating role* The one organization having leadership to give d i r e c t i o n to such a development — the YMCA — was involved i n moving into a phase of programme bui l d i n g to j u s t i f y i t ' s existence. The l i m i t e d s t a f f s i t u a t i o n at the YMCA did not f a c i l i t a t e the 'Y' becoming involved over and above p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any j o i n t meetings of community planning, i n which i t was i n v i t e d to attend. In t h i s regard, i t i s questionable, both from the point of view of an agency and a community, that a private l e i s u r e time organization be responsible for r e c r e a t i o n a l planning at the l o c a l community l e v e l * Recognizing the growth of l e i s u r e time services as s i g n i f i c a n t , the s i t u a t i o n i s a further r e f l e c t i o n of the lack of structure within Vancouver's recr e a t i o n a l structure to - 140 -f a c i l i t a t e guidance to l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and planning* The public recreation a u t h o r i t i e s , the Vancouver Board of Park Commissioners and Public Recreation, and private agency-planning authority, the Vancouver,Community Chest and Councils, were not equipped i n a cen t r a l i z e d administration to e f f e c t i v e -l y deal with t h i s kind of l o c a l community need* Programme Expansion t May, 19.55 to October, 1953 The completion of the leadership t r a i n i n g course saw the YMCA adopt a more aggressive p o l i c y toward the Fraser-view area. Survey material had disclosed a need f o r additional recr e a t i o n a l services, and a f t e r the study, the YMCA was con-vinced of the long range pote n t i a l of the Fraserview and surrounding area* On May 1 s t , 1955, the student who had conducted the survey, was employed as the second s t a f f member of the F a i r -mount Branch YMCA* The duties of the new Branch Secretary were primarily focused upon establishing additional programme i n Fraserview. Programme a c t i v i t i e s remained for the next three years the emphasis of the Fraserview YMCA development* The Growth of Programme N-Y Clubs — boys and g i r l s , eight to fourteen years* The YMCA neighbourhood club programme, N-Y, was the i n i t i a l type of fY T programme introduced to the Fraserview area. A small friendship group programme, N-Y Clubs proved to r e a d i l y adapt to the community* Club meetings were held i n basements, -,141 -l i v i n g rooms, or garages. Parent sponsoring committees were organized i n support of many clubs and also ensured the YMCA leader and s t a f f an opportunity of increased contact with parents. The l a t t e r , i n turn, became more f a m i l i a r with the YMCA and, i n many instances, gave volunteer help to the various 'Y' projects. N-Y clubs were organized i n d i f f e r e n t parts of Fraser-view, wherever requests f o r groups and leadership could be brought together. The emphasis upon N-Y was f o r two main pur-poses: f i r s t l y , i t was a small group a c t i v i t y for youngsters growing up i n a densely populated area with the mass structure of school, church, and community, the predominant environment; secondly, i t served an age group lacking services who would remain a large section of the t o t a l population of Fraserview i n the immediate years ahead. The YMCA had not previously sponsored neighbourhood club a c t i v i t i e s f o r g i r l s . However, as .local YMCA committee -members favoured sponsoring g i r l s ' clubs, a number of g i r l s ' groups were organized. The i n i t i a l step of broadening per-spective i n serving g i r l s , rather than l i m i t i n g the a c t i v i t y to boys, provided the future pattern of YMCA programmes that extended to a family YMCA type of membership l a t e r . Among the f i r s t group programmes sponsored by the YMCA, the neighbour-hood club programme (N-Y) has remained a major programme emphasis. 142 -Table 3* Fraserview-Killarney N-Y Clubs Year Boys G i r l s Total 1955 2 2 4 1956 2 2 4 1957 4 4 3 1953 4 4 3 1959 4 5 9 Summer Fun Club or City Gamp. The f i r s t Summer Fun Club i n Fraserview took place i n August, 1954, with twenty-two g i r l s and boys enrolled. A parent committee was recruited to support, what was generally regarded as, an experimental programme. Summing up the response, the Summer Fun Director for the 1954 programme stated: "... In spite of our varied e f f o r t s only 22 boys and-girls registered (12 boys and 10 g i r l s ) . This was a disappointing response to the work involved. We f e e l that the main r eason for t hi s was the lack of f a m i l i a r i t y with YMCA programme among the children and parents." 2 The f i r s t major assignment of the newly acquired s t a f f member i n May, 1955, was to determine, along with the Fraser-view Planning Committee, the need for a Summer Fun Club. ~ I. Executive-Secretary's Programme Reports. Fairmount YMCA, 1955 to 1959. - . 2 . Summer Fun Report. Fairmount YMCA, August 2nd to 2 7 t h , 1954, p. 1. - 143 -Planning meetings, Intensive p u b l i c i t y , and a teen-age leader-ship t r a i n i n g course, were c a r r i e d out p r i o r to the programme. An enrollment of f i f t y - s i x boys and forty-eight g i r l s was far greater than anticipated. The popularity of the programme was attri b u t e d to the increased awareness of the YMCA and the reasonable fee of the programme. In the following years, Summer Fun has remained as a concentrated programme i n the Fraserview area. I t has i n -dicated a varying demand, with l e s s e r numbers enrolled a f t e r the peak years o f 1955 and 1956 — the l a t t e r year, s i x t y - s i x boys and forty-seven g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t e d . Various factors account f o r declining attendance i n following years and include: the recession i n 1957, and increased programme fee, and greater family p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n tent camping throughout B r i t i s h Columbia. Summer Fun with emphasis upon small groups, each having a teen-age counsellor, remains an important a c t i v i t y i n Fraserview to the present time. The neighbourhood club a c t i v i t i e s and Summer Fun pro-grammes established YMCA a c t i v i t i e s i n Fraserview. Later developments grew out of the community needs, r e l a t e d by boys, g i r l s , and parents involved i n these a c t i v i t i e s . (see Schedule 3 , page 1 4 4 ) . A further r e f l e c t i o n of the growth of Fraser-view K i l l a r n e y 'Y1 programme i s shown, (Figure 4 , page 145) , i n d i c a t i n g the t o t a l membership of the Fairmount TY T from 1954 to 1959* - 144 Schedule 3» Programme Expansion of Fraserview-K i l l a r h e y YMCA (1955"to 1960.' Date A c t i v i t y Age and Sex October 1955 Badminton Men and Women 18 years and up October 1955 Badminton Boys and G i r l s 13 to 16 years October 1955 Swimming Boys 8 to 13 years August 1956 Camping (Camp Howdy) G i r l s 8 to 13 years October 1956 Two Gym classes (Separate Divisions) Boys and G i r l s 8 to 13 years October 1956 Stamp Clubs Boys 8 to 13 years May 1956 Two Beginners Soft-B a l l Leagues Boys and G i r l s 8 to 13 years September 1957 Bowling Leagues Boys and G i r l s 13 to 16 years January 1953 Teen Club Groups Boys and G i r l s 14 to 18 years January 1953 Grass Hockey Boys 8 to 13 years March 1958 Car Clubs Boys 16 to 20 years October 1953 V o l l e y b a l l Men and Women 18 years .and up. January 1959 Swimming G i r l s 8 to 13 years July, August 1959 Day Gamp Boys 8 to 13 years I1SS 'K6 /9S7 Y e a r s ins Fif1* The Total r\e^\be«r-yKip o f -f-^e * Fairmount YMCA, Annual S t a t i s t i c a l Reports. 1954-1959* (In 1959 Fraserview-Killarney membership was 434 and South Cambie was 179, i n d i c a t i n g increase i s primarily i n Fraserview-Killarney). - 146 -Local Identity Strengthened. 1958 to I960 During the expansion of Fraserview YMCA programme, beginning i n 1955, i t was evident the administrative structure was not able to keep pace. In f a c t , meetings of the YMCA Planning Committee were les s e f f e c t i v e than at the time of the student f i e l d placement. A c t i v i t i e s decentralized throughout Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , however, brought a number of d i f f e r -ent parents i n contact with the YMCA. Various committees were organized to coordinate, plan, and support programme groups. For the most part, spontaneous development and enthusiasm was retained i n t h i s development. Short term committees, emerg-ing from seasonal a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e the beginners s o f t b a l l leagues for boys and g i r l s , were excellent examples of r a l l y -ing community support i n a relaxed informal environment. These e f f o r t s remained i s o l a t e d and uncoordinated. Meetings of the Fraserview YMCA Planning Committee, held every two months, tvere not s u f f i c i e n t to stimulate an i d e n t i t y with the YMCA beyond the programme l e v e l , with the exception of a small number of people, most of whom were o r i g i n a l members. In a sense, the continued a f f i l i a t i o n of several of these o r i g i n a l members did provide some degree of coordinated think-ing, but i t was not s u f f i c i e n t to b u i l d strong YMCA i d e n t i t y . In scheduling meetings of the Planning Committee, i t was evident the lack of YMCA o f f i c e space i n the area made i t d i f f i c u l t to maintain continuity of regular meetings. . Recog-nizing a weak committee structure, the Fairmount YMCA Board - 147 -and s t a f f set about to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . Paramount i n t h e i r concern was the knowledge the Fairmount Branch, or Fraserview area, would receive l i t t l e recognition by the Metropolitan Board of Governors u n t i l an e f f e c t i v e body was organized to adequately represent the Fraserview IMCA member-ship. Five years l a t e r , the Fraserview-Killarney Branch IMCA became a separate and autonomous Branch of the Vancouver IMCA. Today, i n I960, a Board of Directors of twenty-six men and women, govern the a f f a i r s of the 'I' membership i n the south-eastern part of the C i t y of Vancouver. In a d d i t i o n , the following standing committees: membership, buil d i n g , pro-gramme, and executive, involve additional men and women i n coordinating the a f f a i r s of the Branch. At the time of t h i s w r i t i n g , the Fraserview-Killarney IMCA i s conducting a programme survey of ' I ' programme to determine the effectiveness of d i f f e r e n t types of a c t i v i t i e s . Professional personnel, including teachers, a doctor, l o c a l business men and board members, are involved i n t h i s project, to further spread and a s s i s t lay r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , to increase s t a f f p r oductivity, and to assess the value of ' I ' a c t i v i t i e s . A leader's fellowship and t r a i n -ing programme i s scheduled twice a month throughout the year and concluded with an annual recognition banquet. Special events, including a F a l l F a i r , are now conducted to r a i s e additional funds f o r programme purposes. O f f i c e and steno-graphic services, r e g i s t r a t i o n of members, periodic a c t i v i t y - 143; -c l i n i c s , and regular supervisory conferences with volunteer leaders, i l l u s t r a t e there has been progress i n the community's support of the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA* The growth and development o f the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA can be at t r i b u t e d to the readiness of the people l i v i n g i n the south-eastern section of Vancouver to respond w i l l i n g l y and e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to YMCA a c t i v i t i e s . The 'Y' f o r i t ' s part also revealed a number of techniques, or methods, that brought about the establishment of a seventh Branch of the Vancouver YMCA i n March, I960. There follows a review of these methods: 1. Planned Decentralization In 1955 and 1957, development b r i e f s were presented by the YMCA Executive-Secretary to Fairmount YMCA Board of Direc-tors. These reports were designed to f a c i l i t a t e growth of the YMCA and to present ways and means of overcoming current problems. I t was a technique devised by the s t a f f to give Board members, and other laymen-who volunteered time and energy, a picture of goals for the future. Material contained i n these papers stressed the need f o r planning and evaluation i n regard to: (a) area development by use of the Area - ~ Council, (see Appendix B). (b) board and committee recruitment to - establish administrative support to programme, (see Appendix C). - 149 -(c) the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e headquarters and - the type of b u i l d i n g following the YMCA Capital Fund Drive i n 1957* (See Appen- * dix D). Regional development i n the Fraserview area was given p r i o r -i t y , a factor which influenced l a t e r decisions to increase YMCA effectiveness i n the Fraserview and surrounding area. 2. C a p i t a l Campaign, 1957 In 1957, the YMCA of Greater Vancouver conducted a drive for funds to improve and expand i t s f a c i l i t i e s . Fraser-view 'Y1 members, as th e i r part of the campaign, organized a canvass of current f a m i l i e s involved i n YMCA a c t i v i t i e s * The eff e c t of the mobilization to expand the YMCA operation i n Vancouver, l e d many 'Y1 supporters i n Fraserview to ask whether t h e i r area would be considered. Representatives to the F a i r -mount YMCA Board from Fraserview, pointed out the concern and requested favourable consideration f o r property and b u i l d i n g development i n the Fraserview area. The brief, r e l a t e d to bu i l d i n g planning,.(see Appendix D) stressed the importance of di v i d i n g the Fairmount YMCA area into two d i v i s i o n s . After discussion over several Fairmount YMCA Board meetings a decision to favour j o i n t development was reached. Promotion and active support mobilized during the campaign was c a r r i e d f o r t h when important decisions were made. A s p e c i f i c task had provided the spark to increase parental involvement. Programme a c t i v i -t i e s sponsored i n the Fraserview area had engendered an i n t e r e s t - 15© -i n the IMCA that became more vocal when residents saw there was a p o s s i b i l i t y of increased service through the l o c a t i o n of a b u i l d i n g i n the i r area. 3* Fraserview Representation on the Fairmount YMCA Board Negotiation f o r property points up another valuable practice that encouraged the growth of the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA. Since the inception of the Fraserview Planning Committee, two members of the Committee were appointed to the Fairmount YMCA Board of Directors. This arrangement assisted communication between the Board and the Planning Committee. Board members were given information and insight into the needs of the Fraserview area. The Fraserview representatives were given greater awareness about the YMCA's method of opera-t i o n and assistance on e f f e c t i v e business-like procedure during meetings. In the formative stages, and during the f i r s t three years of the Fraserview YMCA project, the small number of di r e c t o r s of the Fairmount YMCA gave mature and sound counsel to the Fraserview development. Containing primarily senior business personnel, with considerable exper-ience i n business and community a f f a i r s , the Fairmount Board of Directors was i n fa c t an advisory body to the Fraserview YMCA development. Support for Fraserview YMCA a c t i v i t i e s and c r i t i c a l examination of issues enabled a balance of conservatism and new and progressive ideas. Contrary to any misconception that may be held i n the Vancouver YMCA, the Fairmount Board of Directors was not a 'rubber stamp' of s t a f f ideas presented - 151 -during the period 1955 to i 9 6 0 when i t was instrumental i n supervising the Fraserview YMCA Extension, .4, The Role of Lay Supervision During 1955 to 1957, the YMCA, i n i t ' s Fraserview development, was not successful i n securing a resident as chairman of the Fraserview YMCA Planning Committee. Local 'Y' supporters were- either too inexperienced or dependent upon the YMCA s t a f f member to give leadership of t h i s nature. Plans to a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem were set down i n a b r i e f submitted to the Fairmount Board i n January, 1957, (see Appendix C) a f t e r which the President of the Branch agreed to chair Fraserview Committee meetings on a temporary b a s i s . After s l i g h t l y over one year t h i s arrangement was discontinued when the Chairman of the Fraserview YMCA boys' soft b a l l league accepted the Chairmanship of the Planning Committee.. The Board President, however, remained with the Committee i n an advisory capacity and become more informed about Fraserview needs and i n t e r e s t s . .Later, at the time of the establishment of the Fraserview Board of Management, the, President of the. Fairmount YMCA, gave e f f e c t i v e leadership to the setting up and management of committee meetings. This type of assistance was the f i r s t a p p l i c a t i o n of a layman supervising laymen i n the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA. Supervision of t h i s nature also encouraged more people to assume responsible positions within the Board of Management. I t also enabled the YMCA Secretary to give -152 -attention to other areas of work., At th i s w r i t i n g , the trans-ference of c e r t a i n s t a f f functions to laymen i s being implemented i n connection with the Programme.Survey, (see Appendix F ) . I t i s l i k e l y greater involvement of laymen and spontaneous programme w i l l a s s i s t s t a f f productivity and a spreading of YMCA in t e r e s t i n the community. I t w i l l , however, require c a r e f u l appraisal i n regard to the quality of super-v i s i o n and the r e l a t i o n of the professional s t a f f i n the process. 5. Local Chairmanship In October, 1957, a l o c a l c i t i z e n assumed the chairman-ship of the Fraserview YMGA Planning Committee. Closer con-tact between other members of the committee and the chairman was brought about by t h i s arrangement.. As i t turned out, the for t h r i g h t aggressiveness of the new chairman increased the confidence of people working on behalf of YMCA a c t i v i t i e s i n Fraserview. Chairman of s p e c i a l , or standing committees, as well as general coinmittee-member willingness to volunteer f o r s p e c i f i c duties, was greatly aided by the existence of a community leader. 6. Branch Headquarters Established After the completion of the YMGA Capital Fund Campaign i n 1957, the Fairmount Branch YMCA was a l l o c a t e d $60,000.00 fo r the establishment of a new b u i l d i n g or buildings. I t remained for the Fairmount YMCA Board of Directors to ascertain - 153 -the expenditure of these funds, subject to the approval of the Metropolitan.Board of Governors. (See Appendix D). Follow-ing several months of negotiation with the Ci t y of Vancouver, a l o t at 49th Avenue and Kerr Road was purchased and transfer of a cottage, formerly headquarters f o r the Alma YMCA, to the new s i t e was completed. Possession of the cottage was made possible when labour and management s t r i f e i n the bu i l d i n g trades i n 1958, held up the construction of the new Alma YMCA. The completion of the Fraserview-Killarney headquarters cost s l i g h t l y more than $20,000.00 and l e f t #40,000.00 f o r b u i l d i n g development i n the Fairmount-South Cambie area. I t also marked the entrance of the YMCA into the K i l l a r n e y d i s t r i c t , a subdivision immediately east of Fraserview. Hence, the Extension became known as the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA Extension. Location i n t h i s area was considered to be excellent. The headquarters were placed adjacent to a public park, a high school, and close to public transportation. On a long term b a s i s , the Fairmount Board of Directors, Fraserview Planning Committee and Fairmount s t a f f , regarded the s i t e as an e x c e l l -ent s i t e , even though the b u i l d i n g was placed approximately one mile east of Fraserview. Service to Fraserview and Ki l l a r n e y was considered p r a c t i c a l i n the long range future. Although not a pretentious b u i l d i n g , YMCA supporters i n Fraserview were able to see concrete r e s u l t s f o r the i r e f f o r t s . Work p a r t i e s , coordinated by the Men's Bui l d i n g Committee, involving adults and teen-age members, were held to make - 154 -improvements to the cottage. Fund r a i s i n g e f f o r t s to purchase supplies r a l l i e d membership support. An i d e n t i t y point was established that improved s t a f f working conditions and pro-vided a meeting point f o r adult committees. The problem ahead was to consolidate the spread of programme and i s o l a t e d committee structure. 7. Objectives Chart. 1958. Growth and expansion required the Fraserview YMCA Board of Management to follow a plan of development f o r the future. Enthusiasm and energy, put f o r t h p r i o r to the b u i l d -ing, might e a s i l y have been l o s t without d i r e c t i o n and con-side r a t i o n of goals for the future. In September, 1953, the Chairman of the Board of Management and Fairmount YMCA Executive-Secretary, and the recently employed Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y Extension Secretary, met to l a y out a plan of development for 1953-1959* A memorandum report by the new secretary e n t i t l e d "Objectives Chart, Fraserview-Killarney YMCA", emphasized the need to consolidate and strengthen Board and Committee structures. (Appendix E). Despite elements of over-committee structure, the number of proposed committees appeared to be too large for a YMGA operation of i t ' s s i z e . 1 The Objectives Chart helped to educate Board members on the need for planning ahead and sett i n g p r i o r i t i e s . In al t e r a t i o n s made since the Chart was presented i n October, 1953, the 1. P e r r e l , G.O., The New Executive i n the Smaller YMCA. Association Press, New.York, 1959, see section on Span of Control, p. 36. - 15/5 -number of standing committees lias been c u r t a i l e d to avoid a trend of Board members serving on several committees. This s i t u a t i o n was evident immediately following the Chart. As a follow up of planned development, the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA i s now, i n I960, studying programme effectiveness through the Programme Survey previously mentioned. The Five Year Plan instigated by the Metropolitan Board i n 1959, has also a s s i s t e d Fraserview-Killarney Directors to examine the future needs of the Branch* 8. S t a f f Continuity Over the course of s i x years, 1954 to I 9 6 0 , there have been four YMCA employed o f f i c e r s , or secretaries, involved i n the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA. In the i n i t i a l stages an experienced Secretary i n community YMCA work was instrumental i n g iving e f f e c t i v e leadership through the supervision of a student f i e l d worker. The l a t t e r , while undergoing t r a i n i n g , became convinced of the value of n o n - f a c i l i t y YMCA work and followed the f i e l d placement by accepting a p o s i t i o n with the YMCA. The duties of the new p o s i t i o n primarily focused upon the Fraserview area. After two years of d i r e c t programme super-v i s i o n i n Fraserview, t h i s Secretary was appointed Executive-Secretary of the Fairmount YMCA. Two secretaries followed i n the capacity of Fraserview YMCA Extension-Secretary and respon-s i b l e to the Fairmount YMCA Executive-Secretary. In March, I 9 6 0 , t h i s arrangement was precluded with the separation of the - 156 ~ Fraserview-Killarney YMCA from the Fairmount YMCA, and the appointment of the Fraserview Extension-Secretary as the new Branch Executive. Continuity of s t a f f leadership to t h i s YMCA development was provided through the involvement of one YMCA employed o f f i c e r from the early beginnings of 1954 to i 9 6 0 . This arrangement has allowed f o r some degree of permanency and s t a f f consistency i n working with laymen. A l l have applied enthusiasm and made d e f i n i t e s p e c i f i c contributions to the development. They have also encouraged greater lay p a r t i c i -pation. Some mistakes must be attributed to t h e i r inexperience e.g., both Executive-Secretary and Fraserview Extension-Secre-tary f a i l e d to recognize elements of over-developed committee structure i n the Objective Chart f o r 1958. With an expanding YMCA, both i n terms of programme and administration, there can be l i t t l e doubt throughout t h i s period the s t a f f load was spread over too wide an area. Beginning secretaries i n the course of 1957 and 1958 required o r i e n t a t i o n to the job and a period to become f a m i l i a r with t h e i r s p e c i f i c areas of r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y . Supervision of both men by the Executive-Secretary on a regular weekly basis was necessary, both for the development of the i n d i v i d u a l secretary, and for the con-tinued effectiveness of YMCA programmes i n Fraserview and Ki l l a r n e y . I t i s doubtful, also, that the Executive-Secretary was able to give s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f leadership when h i s assign-ment included r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for two d i s t i n c t undeveloped YMCA - 157 -areas, i n regard to Board and Committee structure, programme, and supervisory duties. A combination of young inexperienced s t a f f and weak administrative structure may have hindered the development of the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA at c e r t a i n stages. At the same time, t h i s observation i s not made without recog-n i z i n g there has been growth i n quantity and quality i n the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA development, which must be att r i b u t e d i n part to the contribution of the i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f members. In recent years the National Council of YMCA's i n Canada has proposed more experienced YMCA secret a r i e s , having a background i n extension work, be r e l a t e d to new YMCA commun-i t y extensions. This suggestion i s made i n recognition of the number of d i f f e r e n t duties involved i n new YMCA's development. Community YMCA work requires a s t a f f member to employ varying s k i l l s of administration, group work, and community organiza-t i o n i n following out the demands of the job. More experienced personnel are also l i k e l y to be well oriented to t r a d i t i o n a l YMCA programmes as well as possessing s k i l l i n l o c a t i n g the need fo r new and d i f f e r e n t programmes. Recommendations or studies at the National Council are pertinent f o r l o c a l Assoc-i a t i o n s , and although recent national b u l l e t i n s have hinted at assigning more experienced secretaries to newer job assignments i n communities, many l o c a l Associations have not taken concrete steps. In t h i s connection, a r e v i s i o n of present job c l a s s i f i -cation, or setting up a new job category i n the National Council Personnel P o l i c y , would be necessary to a s s i s t l o c a l Associa-- 158 -tions to take action. At the present time, job r a t i n g s i n regard to s a l a r i e s are heavily weighted i n regard to such fact o r s as: the size of budget, number of s t a f f supervised, si z e of physical plant, etc., which generally favour secre-t a r i e s placed i n "building-centered" operations. I t i s un-l i k e l y experienced personnel w i l l be attracted into community IMCA extension positions u n t i l incentives, including improved salary conditions, are adopted by l o c a l Associations. Perhaps t h i s observation i s a further implication of " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a -t i o n " and apparent low l e v e l o f awareness of IMCA p o l i c y makers toward decentralized ' I ' work. There i s one other problem r e l a t e d to the assignment of secretaries to outpost or suburban IMCA's. A main source of IMCA professional workers are students enrolled i n the IMCA Fellowship-Secretaries Training Programme. Under t h i s plan, University undergraduate students are assigned to IMCA Branches, or Departments, f o r t r a i n i n g or experience i n IMCA work. As a large "Metropolitan" type IMCA, the Vancouver ' I ' has conducted a fellowship t r a i n i n g programme for a long period of time. However, u n t i l 1959, the budget f o r fellowship secretaries was included i n the budgets of respective Branches. Here again, the large Central IMCA, through i t s various departments, was able to include funds for fellowship secretaries whereas, the newer outlying community Branches were generally unable to include fellowship t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r budgets. Consequently, the majority of Fellowship-Secretaries have been located i n - 159 'building-centered' operations over the past ten years. As a r e s u l t , very few Fellowship-Secretaries have had an opportunity of working with s t a f f members who have conviction about the importance of decentralized YMCA work. In recent p r a c t i c e , the two Secretaries involved i n the i n i t i a l development of the Fraserview-Killarney and Renfrew YMCA's received t h e i r pro-f e s s i o n a l education and t r a i n i n g i n the School of So c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. However, i n 1959, the Metropolitan administration undertook the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a l l funds a l l o t t e d f o r fellowship t r a i n i n g . Under t h i s arrange-ment i t w i l l now be possible to broaden the tr a i n i n g of poten-t i a l secretaries i n the d i f f e r e n t phases of YMCA work. Experience i n 'building-centered' and 'community-centered' work w i l l a s s i s t fellowship secretaries to see the t o t a l implica-tions of YMCA work as we l l as to encourage greater s t a f f unity of purpose through a varied background. In Summary In a new f i e l d of work the future f o r the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA remains bright. The willingness of the YMGA to proceed i n accordance with the desires of the l o c a l r e s i -dents, to o f f e r membership services to women and g i r l s , as well as men and boys, to become i n e f f e c t , a "family type YMCA" i s also s i g n i f i c a n t i n the 'Y's growth i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y areas. As a family service, however, the Branch w i l l be required to prove t h i s idea and demonstrate i t s a b i l i t y to serve the needs of the t o t a l family. The methods of - 160 -development which have been u t i l i z e d i n the expansion of the Branch centre represented by the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA, c l e a r l y indicate the value of t r a i n i n g , administrative analysis, and an educational r o l e i n programme a c t i v i t y i n the i n i t i a l stages. Committee structure did not come to the fore u n t i l l a t e r , and i s now undergoing strengthening. The pattern of development of other Vancouver community Branch YMCA's undoubtedly c a l l s for comparative analysis. ,In a study comparable to t h i s one, by Mr.A.G.Cue, the i n i t i a l committee structure indicates the v a r i a t i o n of approach i n Vancouver YMCA community branches. 1 The growth of the Renfrew Branch YMCA, serving the north-eastern sections of Vancouver, would provide another i n t e r e s t i n g comparison. As a f i r s t approximation, i t would seem that the Renfrew YMCA was able to emphasize board and committee structure at the outset, with the development of programme groups following. Starting one year l a t e r , the Renfrew YMCA became an o f f i c i a l Branch of the Vancouver YMCA one year e a r l i e r than the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA. Two concrete advantages suggest themselves; f i r s t , the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e headquarters i n the area; second, the assignment of a YMCA secretary a f t e r two years previous experience i n • I ' work, who has remained with the Renfrew Branch over the four year period of i t s h i s t o r y . ' However, more complete study would be required before a conclusive IT Cue. A.G. t.Decentralized Programme Development i n a  Community Branch. YMCA. Master of Soc i a l Work Thesis. Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia., I960., Chapter IV, Section (b) Board and Committee. • . . - -- 161 -judgment could be made i n the comparison of the two Branches. The major purpose of the present study, which i s to document i n the l i g h t of "community development" p r i n c i p l e s the .story of one p a r t i c u l a r branch, c e r t a i n l y reinforces recognition of the d i f f e r e n t i a l approach. Not only are the methods of ex-pansion suited to each community, d i f f e r e n t , where there are d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l conditions and needs, but the influences at work on the 'I* branch are unique to each community. Chapter V The Role of the Y.M.C.A. i n the Local Residential Community The Changing Residential Community The post war r e s i d e n t i a l community, an example of a r a p i d l y changing s o c i a l environment, i s a new area i n large c i t i e s generally lacking the s t a b i l i t y of t r a d i t i o n and f o l k l o r e which bring about community i d e n t i t y . Young families l i v i n g i n these new communities, share common problems and i n t e r e s t s . A neighbourhood or psychological i d e n t i t y develops through the s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t of c h i l d rearing, control of finances, job security, etc. Services to these new areas, i n view of inadequate planning, seldom are s u f f i c i e n t to meet the needs of the residents. Recreational outlets, i n the form of play space or supervised programmes, are among the l a t t e r services made available to the population. Fraser-view and K i l l a r n e y serve to i l l u s t r a t e a community of intensive s o c i a l needs a r i s i n g a f t e r there has been ah absence of planning. Today, the North American population has more time fo r l e i s u r e than ever before. In some instances, s o c i a l problems have a r i s e n because c e r t a i n groups or i n d i v i d u a l s have f a i l e d to make adequate use of t h e i r l e i s u r e . National concern for health and physical f i t n e s s r e l a t e d to the amount of emphasis placed upon physical f i t n e s s , acknowledge there i s a diminish-j 163 -ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n active forms of recreation for a large percentage of our population. This i s only one problem emerging from the high standard of l i v i n g Canadians enjoy. Another pattern of community i n t e r a c t i o n , the existence of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n every phase of modern l i f e , has sometimes undermined our democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s . One source has made the following observation i n regard to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary associations: "We generally no longer govern our voluntary associations: we simply j o i n them, pay our dues, and l e t experts run them. As a r e s u l t we have l e s s and l e s s opportunity for acquiring experiences that are es s e n t i a l for e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n democratic government. " , i While more l e i s u r e has been a v a i l a b l e , i t i s doubtful that an opportunity to l e a r n the value of democratic group experience has also increased. The methods employed by organizations i n the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i e l d not only have an important influence on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s , but also on the opportunity f o r democratic experience as a way of l i f e . The Y.M.C.A. i n the Residential Community The YMCA has by t r a d i t i o n followed the prevalent s o c i a l attitude toward the provision of recreation. During the erec-t i o n of large c i t i e s , when the c i t y centre was the 'hub' of 1. Blau, P., Bureaucracy i n Modern Society. Random House, New York, U.S.A., 1949, p. 11?. - 164 -the urban area, the YMCA established centralized branches with comprehensive f a c i l i t i e s . These buildings were popular and well attended. Today, since the end of the Second World War, large c i t i e s have undergone rapid change and a trend toward a decentralized regional development. New r e s i d e n t i a l communit-ies have been planned, constructed, and inhabited i n a short period of time. The YMCA, as a l l other private i n s t i t u t i o n s , has been required to examine and reappraise i t s r o l e i n meeting t h i s change. Another important influence upon the YMCA i s the i n -creasing number of organizations o f f e r i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . Public recreation w i l l continue to increase i t s impact upon the Vancouver community. Special youth organiza-tions now exist to provide a c t i v i t i e s of a specia l i z e d nature. The YMCA's former monopoly on the recreational f i e l d i s now converted to that of a shared pa r t i c i p a n t i n meeting the needs of the community. Limited f i n a n c i a l resources, and a changing pattern of recreation, requires a continuing YMCA s e l f -appraisal and a re-examination of objectives. The Fraserview-Killarney YMCA i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n of one method the Association has devised to change with the changing community. Many of the t r a d i t i o n a l strengths of the YMCA, however, have been retained i n the newer methods of work. Programme extending from a l i m i t e d - f a c i l i t y i s decentralized throughout a community, or communities, (see Figure 5), where-ever leadership and space i s made ava i l a b l e . - 166 -The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and control for these a c t i v i t i e s , however, remain i n the hands of YMCA members. Because there i s a l i m i t e d b u i l d i n g , the existence of a c t i v i t i e s are depen-dent upon membership supervision, resourcefulness, and co-operation with community groups. A close working rela t i o n s h i p of a community 'Y1 l i k e the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA to other groups i n the community i s e s s e n t i a l for e f f e c t i v e service. Programme a c t i v i t i e s meeting i n private homes, schools, and churches, come under the surveillance of many people. This helps to r a i s e leadership standards and also give people a personal knowledge about the l o c a l 'Y'. In connection with community r e l a t i o n s , i t i s s i g n i f i -cant that development of a decentralized Y.M.C.A. i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y area has not hindered the future growth of public recreation or private l e i s u r e time services. The Fraserview-Killarney YMCA i s , i n e f f e c t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l change brought about by the decisions of l o c a l l a y men and women, with the guidance of professional s t a f f to meet recog-nized l e i s u r e time needs of the area. The r o l e of the professional s t a f f member, i n t h i s regard, i s to help laymen to provide services to unrecognized needs. In t h i s way, Board and committee members also become adept i n detecting new needs. General Findings of the Study 1. .The Norrie Report, a survey on the group work and recreation services i n 1945, noted the s o c i a l areas of Vancouver were too large to i s o l a t e and analyze s o c i a l data. S o c i a l - 167 areas revised to conform with smaller units of census t r a c t s were v i s u a l i z e d as a means of dealing with neighbourhoods and l o c a l planning. The report suggested Vancouver would greatly aid l o c a l development i f forty-two to f o r t y - s i x s o c i a l areas were created. The story of the Fairmount YMCA i s a further r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s need, .As private organizations l i k e the YMCA have l i m i t e d research resources, they are frequently unable to foresee operational problems based upon changes taking place i n the community. I t i s evident that a more c l e a r l y defined neighbourhood would have assisted the YMCA to locate the Fairmount Branch YMCA on a more permanent basis. The Fraser-view and K i l l a r n e y areas of the City of Vancouver w i l l also require r e v i s i o n to a s s i s t l o c a l community planning, 2, There i s a need for the creation of a l o c a l co-ordinating c o u n c i l , or councils, i n the Fraserview and Ki l l a r n e y communities. Communication between organizations serving the area i s infrequent and generally of a s u p e r f i c i a l nature. Cooperation and understanding of the d i f f e r e n t agencies w i l l not r e s u l t u n t i l they are brought together at the l o c a l l e v e l . The "Survey" i n 1945, also pointed out the need f o r coordinating councils, suggesting the Community Chest and Councils should give leadership to t h i s end. In the writer's experience, the cent r a l i z e d avenue of s o c i a l planning and coordination through the Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n - 16s of the Community Chest and Councils does not activate l o c a l planning. I t i s quite possible the Recreation and Group Work D i v i s i o n , by f a c i l i t a t i n g l o c a l development, would greatly a i d the acceptance of the Community Chest by members of the r e s i d e n t i a l community. Opportunity f o r making decisions and taking a c t i o n w i l l stimulate greater community i n t e r e s t . In view of the s i g n i f i c a n t advance i n public recreation services i t i s essential that Park Board personnel be involved i n l o c a l community coordinating Councils. For the YMCA and other private agencies, the l o c a l council would help to c l a r i f y t h e i r r o l e i n the community as well as stimulating the par-t i c i p a t i o n of the l o c a l c i t i z e n . 3. There i s evidence that a more l i b e r a l use of school buildings i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y would greatly a i d the rec r e a t i o n a l needs of the community. School buildings, except for the gymnasium-auditorium, are vacant during the evenings, and i t i s evident that the r e n t a l of gymnasiums requires care-f u l analysis. Based on t h i s study, i t i s doubtful that the School Board Rentals Department i s an e f f e c t i v e method of regulating the use of school f a c i l i t i e s f o r the.-maximum benefit of the community. Local c i t i z e n s should have an opportunity to a s s i s t i n governing the community use of these f a c i l i t i e s . As i t i s now organized, i t i s evident, i n the writer's experience, the residents believe they are powerless to e f f e c t a change. The r e s u l t of school r e n t a l p o l i c y , at the present time, - 169 -although cooperatively administered, discourages greater community i n t e r e s t i n the school centre, 4, School Board and Park Board communication i n the future planning of public recreation f a c i l i t i e s i n Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y i s most necessary f o r an economical approach to public recreation programmes. At the present time, the South Vancouver Community Association i s taking part i n the East Sid Community Centre Coordinating Council as a means of extending public f a c i l i t i e s i n the south-eastern, and other eastern sections, of Vancouver. In the review of public f a c i l i t i e s i n the area surveyed i n th i s study, the p r a c t i c a l method of furthering public r e c r e a t i o n i s to use school buildings as public centres. Both David Thompson and K i l l a r n e y schools could be major public centres with the elementary schools serving as more l o c a l i z e d buildings. The construction of swimming pools adjacent to the high schools o f f e r s the best opportunity for a well rounded public recreation programme. As the "Norrie Report" noted i n 1945, a l t e r n a t i v e s , including the erection of separate f a c i l i t i e s , i s more expensive f i n -a n c i a l l y and a p o t e n t i a l duplication of f a c i l i t i e s . Vancouver public recreation services, since 1945, have proven to be expensive. In some cases, community centres are a duplication of school buildings that are too l i t t l e used for recreation purposes. - 170 -5. Private agencies also have an important r o l e to play i n the community use of public f a c i l i t i e s . The type of programme of a private organization should not be i n competi-t i o n with recognized public agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Support to public recreation development i n the l o c a l community i s also necessary i n r a i s i n g the importance of recreation i n the minds of the residents. In t h i s way, i t i s l i k e l y the private' organization, l i k e the l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y YMCA, would receive further consideration i n sponsoring a c t i v i t i e s i n public f a c i l i t i e s , including schools, community centres, and public swimming pools. Increased opportunity of l o c a l manage-ment w i l l encourage greater p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l areas of community recreation. Implication of the Study for the Y.M.C.A. 1. The study of the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA, indicates the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the Association 1s programme from a li m i t e d f a c i l i t y i s an e f f e c t i v e method of accomplishing Association objectives. A major advantage of the l i m i t e d -f a c i l i t y YMCA, i l l u s t r a t e d i n the growth of the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y 'Y', i s the f l e x i b i l i t y of administration i n adapting to the community. The avoidance of depending upon the YMCA bui l d i n g enables the l i m i t e d - f a c i l i t y YMCA to meet new needs a r i s i n g i n an ever changing environment. The decentralized YMCA's adapt a b i l i t y to the l o c a l community i s also consistent with the function of a private organization i n the health and welfare f i e l d . - 171 2. The development of F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA through s m a l l , purpose club a c t i v i t i e s , i l l u s t r a t e s the YMCA i s able to s t a r t i n t e n s i v e group work or q u a l i t a t i v e programme e a r l y i n a new YMCA.1 The neighbourhood club (N-Y) groups were valuable i n f o c u s i n g parent i n t e r e s t on s p e c i f i c a c t i v i t i e s i n the neighbourhood. From an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o i n t of view, the N-Y programme proved t o be a s t a r t i n g p o i n t of a d u l t i n t e r e s t that extended to the broad l e v e l o f Board and committe work l a t e r . I n t h i s regard, the YMCA Secretary should provide e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n o u t l i n i n g the programme and r e l a t i n g i t to the t o t a l environment of th e community. 3. The 'Metropolitan' YMCA should study the i m p l i c a t i o n s of outpost development from e s t a b l i s h e d YMCA branches. This study shows there have been c e r t a i n d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h i n the present means of expanding YMCA s e r v i c e s . The Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA grew as an' extension of the Fairmount YMCA. A f t e r s i x y e a r s , i n which the resources of the Fairmount YMCA were g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d to meet the demands of the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y area, the remaining Fairmount YMCA area, i n I960, r e q u i r e s a b a s i c redevelopment. The Fairmount constituency, p r i m a r i l y i n the South Cambie and.Oakridge d i s t r i c t s , has 1. Cue, A.G., D e c e n t r a l i z e d Programme Development i n a  Community Branch YMCA. Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , the Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I 9 6 0 , Chapter I I I , s e c t i o n B, "Purpose Programmes". There i s a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f YMCA small group .programme. -- 172 -received emphasis of board and s t a f f since the separation of the Branch areas l a t e i n 1959» Planned development, sim i l a r to the methods u t i l i z e d i n the Fraserview-Killarney area, i s now being -implemented i n t h i s area. In comparison, i t i s in t e r e s t i n g to observe the one other Vancouver Branch YMCA, Vancouver East, also responsible for an outpost development, the Renfrew Branch, i s also i n need of r e v i s i o n . , The Van-couver YMCA's current plan i s a gradual amalgamation of the Renfrew and Vancouver East Branches. The Metropolitan IMCA of Vancouver should, therefore, study the alt e r n a t i v e s to extension of the 'Y' i n the Greater Vancouver area. The l i m i t e d number of s t a f f members employed i n Vancouver Branches, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the Fairmount Branch i n t h i s study, questions the f e a s a b i l i t y of the present p o l i c y . Local Branch r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the growth of the Association has proven to be f l e x i b l e and r e l a t e d to the s p e c i f i c needs at the l o c a l area. However, there are other methods of extension that would r e t a i n l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e . One al t e r n a t i v e approach through the Extension Committee of the Metropolitan Board of Governors, would enable experienced and w e l l informed YMCA laymen to give supervision to l o c a l development. Consultative services and the evaluation of new projects through the Metro-p o l i t a n administration i s a l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e to the present arrangement. At the National Council meeting of the YMCA's of Canada, at Hamilton i n i 9 6 0 , the National Council Extension Committee suggested Metropolitan YMCA's should take a major - 173 -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for YMCA expansion i n neighbouring communities. Based upon th i s study, i t i s apparent the Vancouver YMCA's po l i c y of emphasis upon decentralized service i s i n keeping with the s h i f t of the population to the outer part of the c i t y . However, t h i s study also shows the Vancouver YMCA's methods of extension require study and possible change. Local. Branches w i l l not be able to investigate the newer areas of the lower mainland, or even the unserved areas of Vancouver. I f the Vancouver 'Y' i s interested i n developing YMCA's i n surround-ing communities of North Vancouver, Richmond, Surrey and Coquitlam, p r i o r i t y w i l l be given to extension before the l e i s u r e time habits of outlying communities become well established. Consideration of f i n a n c i a l resources, e f f i c i e n c y of present operations, and qua l i t a t i v e programmes, a l l r e a l questions that must be answered i n extension, can be e f f e c t i v e -l y ascertained and th e i r solutions found, i f the Association adopts a long range dedication to the p r i n c i p l e of continued decentralization. 4. The YMCA has employed professional s o c i a l workers i n the development of most of i t s community branches i n Vancouver. Both the more recent YMCA Branches i n Vancouver, Fraserview-Killarney and Renfrew, were staffed i n the develop-ment phase by secretaries trained i n the School of S o c i a l Work at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The generic approach to the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare by the School, prepares i n -dividuals to practice i n a broad f i e l d with t r a i n i n g i n admin-- 174 -i s t r a t i o n , s u p e r v i s i o n , c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d g r o u p w o r k . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e i n f l u x o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t o t h e V a n c o u v e r Y M C A m a y b e a f a c t o r i n t h e s m a l l n u m b e r o f t r a d i t i o n a l p u r p o s e c l u b a c t i v i t i e s i n s o m e p r o g r a m m e s , s u c h a s : H i * Y ' , P h a l a n x , a n d ' Y ' s ' M e n i n t h e V a n c o u v e r A s s o c -i a t i o n . T h e V a n c o u v e r Y M C A s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , s e t u p a n o r i e n t a t i o n p r o g r a m m e , i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o n t r a d i t i o n a l a n d s p e c i f i c Y M C A p r o g r a m m e s , f o r b e g i n n i n g s t a f f m e m b e r s . A s t h e o n l y U n i v e r s i t y i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e V a n c o u v e r Y M C A s h o u l d l o o k t o w a r d t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f a c u l t i e s o f s o c i a l w o r k , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , n e w l y s e t u p r e c r e a t i o n c o u r s e , a n d r e l a t e d d e p a r t m e n t s , a s a m a i n s o u r c e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s , b u t r e c o g n i z e t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w i l l n o t g r a d u a t e i n d i v i d u a l s f u l l y c o n -v e r s e n t w i t h s p e c i f i c Y M C A m e t h o d s o r t y p e s o f p r o g r a m m e . T h e F u t u r e D e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Y . M . C V A . 1. T h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t o l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s t h r o u g h a r e a c o u n c i l s s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d b y t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , B r a n c h b o u n d a r i e s i n c l u d e s e v e r a l l o c a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s w h i c h p r o v i d e a n u c l e u s o r i d e n t i t y p o i n t f o r r e g i o n a l d e v e l o p -m e n t . T h e s e a r e a c o u n c i l s c o u l d b e r e l a t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t B r a n c h B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . 2. T h e f a m i l y m e m b e r s h i p i s a n e x c e l l e n t b a s i s o f g r o w t h - 175 -i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area. Services of the Branch to the family-should be strengthened by: (a) h i r i n g a g i r l s ' work secretary to provide a balance to boys' services, (b) establishing closer l i a i s o n with casework agencies to seek out counselling services, (c) sponsoring a family type a c t i v i t y of camp-ing, gym, etc., to f a c i l i t a t e an i n t e r e s t i n f amily a c t i v i t i e s . 3. In a large youth population area there i s need for an adequate leadership base. Lay r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r leader-ship t r a i n i n g i s important i n promoting and explaining the i n t r i n s i c values of a sound leadership experience. A board member, or experienced leader, should assume a shared res-p o n s i b i l i t y with the Secretary for the Branch leadership programme. 4»- The neighbourhood club (N-Y) a c t i v i t i e s should be continued and other purpose groups, or clubs i n the advanced ages, including Hi 'Y', Phalanx and Y's Men, be added as the Branch becomes consolidated, through the addition of s t a f f and membership support. Interest and mass a c t i v i t y programmes should be regarded as a means of expanding the purpose group a c t i v i t i e s by d i v i d i n g summer fun clubs and gymnasium groups into smaller units . 5« The growing teen-age population i n Fraserview and Ki l l a r n e y w i l l present a challenge i n the future. The Fraser-- 176 -view-Killarney YMCA i n meeting t h i s challenge should begin to prepare ways and means of giving teen-age programme greater p r i o r i t y . A leadership workshop for volunteers working with teen-age groups i s an e f f e c t i v e s t a r t i n g point. 6. Leadership c l i n i c s and tra i n i n g workshops, to i n -crease the r a t i o of members to group leaders, as w e l l as the leadership s k i l l s and understanding of leaders, i s an excellent method of r a i s i n g the standards of 'Y' programmes. Board members should endeavour to s ee the job load of secretaries i s not r e s t r i c t i v e upon the time available for leadership t r a i n -ing. As a community-service organization, the Fraserview-K i l l a r n e y YMCA should be prepared to sponsor, or make av a i l a b l e , c e r t a i n leadership programmes for other neighbourhood organ-i z a t i o n s . 7. , The YMCA membership committee i n 'personalizing' the YMCA service should set up an interview team to inform new members and parents about the YMCA, the additional a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , and the fee structure of the Branch. In turn, YMCA committee members would be assisted to know more about the inter e s t s and needs of the community. I t i s a consistent step with the accepted pattern i n the Fraserview-Killarney 'Y', of providing a c t i v i t i e s through the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of residents of the community. 8. A Board Training I n s t i t u t e i n a new area i s necessary - 177 -the Board members knowledge about the YMCA, In t h i s connec-t i o n , the •Metropolitan' Board should be considered a resource for the education of Fraserview-Killarney Board members. 9, F i n a l l y , the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA should r e t a i n f l e x i b i l i t y to meet new needs as they a r i s e . , Tra-d i t i o n a l l y the YMCA has pioneered new a c t i v i t i e s , some of which were l a t e r taken over by other organizations. P a r t i c i -pation i n community councils, and other means of cooperative endeavor, should be regarded as an esse n t i a l part of the Fraserview-Killarney YMCA service. Conclusion In 1951, i n the conclusion of his book, The YMCA i n Canada, Murray Ross wrote: "... One of the strengths of the YMCA, has been its-aggressive nature...• The YMCA has.lost many of the t r a d i t i o n a l outlets f o r t h i s aggressive s p i r i t . Community Chests run a f i n a n c i a l campaign and subsidize YMCA services; the YMCA i s now located i n a l l major c i t i e s and apparently few others can be occupied; growing recr e a t i o n a l and welfare agencies l i m i t the expansion of some Association services; and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of new.lines of work i n -u n i v e r s i t i e s ^ schools, or even the armed services appear quite l i m i t e d . I t i s cl e a r , therefore, that i f the Association- i s to r e t a i n i t s aggressive character, i t must discover new and challenging t a s k s " . 1 The challenge for the YMCA i n the future growth of the 1. Ross, M.G., The YMCA i n Canada. Ryerson Press, Toronto 1951, p. 473. •" " 3 — --178 Association w i l l be to achieve an i d e n t i t y d i f f e r i n g from the past. Since the notation above, the IMCA has developed a pattern of decentralized work, l a r g e l y from within the ranks of the movement, that i s consistent with the needs brought about by a changing s o c i a l structure and the t r a d i -t i o n a l aggressive outlook of the IMCA. Community conditions r e f l e c t the adaption of new IMCA innovations, including family IMCA's. I t now remains fo r the Association to acceler-ate t h i s change i n order to increase public awareness of the evolution taking place within the IMCA. F a i l u r e to do so, w i l l l i m i t the r o l e of t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i n the future. - 179 -APPENDICES - 180 -APPENDIX A Survey Questionnaire^December 1954) - 181 APPENDIX A . RECREATION ACTIVITIES AND INTERESTS, SIR JAMES DOUGLAS SCHOOL - - GRADE V, VI BOYS. NAME .. . . . .. . AGE ...... . . .GRADE . . . . . . . ADDRESS 1. ARE YOU A MEMBER OF ANY CLUBS? YES . . . NO . . . . . . IF YES, PLEASE CHECK (/) BELOW j Name of Club, A c t i v i t y eto. Meeting P l a c e Cubs .. Scouts • . • . . . . ... • • Churches (Please give name) L i t t l e League B a s e b a l l . • • • . L i t t l e League Soccer • ... • • « • Y.M.C.A. . . . . . . . . . . . . J u n i o r Forest Wardens . . . . • . Others (Please give the exact names) 2. WOULD YOU BE INTERESTED IN TAKING PART IN HOBBY '• BROGRAMS SPONSORED BY THE Y.M.C.A.? YES.... NO....: IF YES? NUMBER FIVE HOBBIES YOU LIKE BEST IN THE ORDER OF YOUPv FAVOURITE: C o l l e c t i o n s Carving & M o d e l l i n g A r t Musio .& Drama; Stamp .... A i r p l a n e s Finger " S i n g i n g . . . . Matchbox.. • Clay ...... P a i n t i n g . . . Dancing..;.. I n s e c t . . . . ; P l a s t e r P a r i s . . . . . Drawing..,. Plays....... S h e l l ..... Woodwork......... Mapping.... P l a y i n g an " O t h e r s . . . . Soap Carving...,. Puppets.... Instrument.., ........... Others • Paper Maohe Others ........... ., Other.,...., ... - 182 « • WOULD YOU BE INTERESTED IN TAKING PART IN SPORTS PROGRAMS SPONSORED BY THE Y.M.C.A.? YES ...NO TEAM SPORTS INDIVIDUAL SPORTS Soccer Hockey ......Swimming .Boxing.... .Other.... Rugby Lacrosse... . . S k i i n g , W r e s t l i n g . . . . . . . . . . . . F o o t b a l l . . . . O t h e r s . . . . . . F i s h i n g Bowling . B a s e b a l l B i k i n g . . I c e s k a t i n g . . . . . . . . . . . S o f t b a l l H i k i n g R o l l e r s k a t i n g B a s k e t b a l l P i n g Pong.... E x p l o r i n g Handball .............. Badminton,.., Golf V o l l e y b a l l Track * Horseback R i d i n g . . • • • WLT TIMES BELOW WOULD YOU BE ABLE TO ATTEND?MARK BY CHECK(t/j WEEKDAYS Afternoon(3 - 5 P.M.) Evening (6 ~ 8 P.M) Monday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tuesday , . • • . • Wednesday . • Thursday . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F r i d a y ,. WTraKflND Morning ( 9 - 1 2 ) Afternoon (1 - 3 ) Saturday DO YOU HAVE L FAMILY MEMBERSHIP IN.vTHE FRASERVIEW COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION? YES NO SOME RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN TO GRADE VI ..STUDENTS BOYS AND GIRLS,AT SIR JAMES DOUGLAS SCHOOL DE6 2,1954 General Information: The questionnaire was c i r c u l a t e d f o r two main purposes, a) , to determine the extent of r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y f o r p r e -adolescent c h i l d r e n i n the Fraserview d i s t r i c t and, b) to f i n d out where the hoys and g i r l s were going f o r r e c r e -a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y ; . ; ;-: : ,' The .results.'of t h i s questionnaire might a l s o be useful., i n planning'or s e t t i n g up a c r a f t program or an inter-house type of sports league. c., ; r.' ' • The-.questionnaire r e v e a l e d that approximately 50$ of the boys - and g i r l s * were not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n organized group pro-grams. The ques.tionnaire was f i l l e d out. by 94 boys and g i r l s . {.49 g i r l s and .55: boys); V / v ' G i r l s Club A c t i v i t i e s ' • S l i g h t l y more than 50$ of the g i r l s s a i d they were not members of any c l u b s . , - G i r l : Guides' and v a r i o u s church groups .were the two main o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l programs to the g i r l s . • <•'•]•. ^ - ' ^ . V - - - .. •- . '•^.i .x.C ' :.<.,i'/~}L:::'.". ..' ;.: Hobby I n t e r e s t s :';. ,.: r ' : ' ; - " - ^ : c : . . : ' '•'•:,'..';;.:; The m a j o r i t y of gi r l ' s ' s t a t e d they uould be i n t e r e s t e d i n a hobby type of program. Drama, Daneing,Singing, Drawing, Puppi, „ Clay M o d e l l i n g , and Soap Carving. Sports I n t e r e s t s Nearly ovory g i r l i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n somo type of a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y . Horseback . r i d i n g , swimming,ice s k a t i n g , v o l l e y b a l l , s k i i n g , 'bowling, and r o l l e r s k a t i n g were l i s t e d as tho most popular s p o r t s . Boys Club . l o t i y i t y Approximately o n o - t h i r d o f the boys d i d not belong to •• any sponsored group a c t i v i t y . Other boys were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n only-.seasonal a'otivi t i e s such as b a s e b a l l or soccer. Cubs and Scouts, Church clubs and ic agues f o r b a s e b a l l and soccer-wore the main r e c r e a t i o n a l : g r o u p s . : Hobby I n t e r e s t s 1 ' '-: Approximately 60$ of the boys l i s t e d an i n t e r e s t i n hobby a o t i v i t y , Model B u i l d i n g , Woodwork, stamp c o l l e c t i n g . Clay M o d e l l i n g , Drawing, P l a y i n g a musical instnument and ' puppetry being the most popular, - : '-y • Sports I n t e r e s t s .'^  ---^V Horseback r i d i n g , swimming,, s k i i i n g , ' f i s h i n g , hockey, socoer, rugby, and b a s e b a l l .were l i s t e d most f r e q u e n t l y as main a t h l e t i c i n t e r e s t . 1 E v e r y boy l i s t e d a l i k i n g f o r one a o t i v i t y i n t h i s category. - 184 -APPENDIX B B r i e f on Area Development/ Fairmount YMGA (May 1956) APPENDIX B. R e g a r d i n g the Development o f the F a i r m o u n t Branch Y.M.D.A. I n t r o d u c t i o n Over the p a s t two y e a r s the Fairmount B r a n c h , YMCA has c o n t i n u e d t o f u n c t i o n as a n o n - f a c i l i t y o r d e c e n t r a l i s e d YMCA. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s e r v i c e has b e e n - m a i n t a i n e d i n the o r i g i n a l F a i r m o u n t Y.M.C .A . a r e a s , n o t a b l y Main and Cambie S t r e e t * A t the same time e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s have been dev e l o p e d i n F r a s e r v i e w , South Main, South Cambie, 25th and Oak and Shaugh-n e s s y t h r o u g h St„ John's A n g l i c a n C h urch. W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e t r e n d s , i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o Siote many communities w i t h i n the g e o g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s o f the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. (Boundary Road-East, G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t - W e s t , F a l s e Creek and Kingsway-North and t h e F r a s e r R i v e r - S o u t h ) r e m a i n u n i n v e s t i g a t e d , as t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n Y.M.C.A., programs. The purpose o f t h i s ' p a ' i e r i s t o s e t down p r e s e n t t r e n d s and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Fairmount Y.M.C.A.With e x t e n s i o n an e n l a r g e d membership, f r o m 125 t o t a l members i n 1954 t o 250 p a i d members and a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150 u n p a i d members i n 1955, has p r e s -ented' c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t p e r t a i n t o b o t h program and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . As one example the s p r e a d i n g out of program groups has not f o s t e r e d the development o f a c e n t r a l -i z e d boys' work committee as i s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e i n a b u i l d i n g -c e n t e r e d Y.M.C.A. I t would appear t h a t the g r e a t e s t need o f the ' Fairmount B r a n c h a t the p r e s e n t time i s l a y i n g out a p l a n f o r c o n s o l i d a t i n g p r e s e n t groups and p r o v i d i n g a p l a n f o r f u t u r e e x t e n s i o n * P r o p o s e d P l a n o f O r g a n i z a t i o n The f o l l o w i n g groups t o be a c t i v e i n p l a n n i n g program end i n f l u e n c i n g p o l i c y o f the Fairmount Y.M.C.A... L. A r e a C o u n c i l s o r P l a n n i n g Committees. 2 0 P a r e n t S p o n s o r i n g Committee 3. Gym C e n t e r e d Committees,. . 4 C Hobby and C r a f t S p e c i a l Committees. : 5.. A d u l t and Teen-Age L e a d e r s h i p Corps.. The- A r e a C o u n c i l The A r e a C o u n c i l w i t h i n the Y.M.C.A. i s not new and has been s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented i n o t h e r Canadian and Amerban c i t i e s . I n Canada, M o n t r e a l has c a r r i e d out an e x p e r i m e n t where the. A r e a . C o u n c i l p l a n increased^'the volume o f groups and " a l s o the. 4^b#'^03| <- ;spons.oring..adult and l e a d e r s h i p committees* The Area, C o u n c i l ; : i s :.a. method. o f - d i v i d i n g Y. M. C . A . s e r v i c e s on a r e g i o n a l b a s i s u s u a l l y . ' c o m p r i s i n g n a t u r a l communities. Fairmount ;'^M|0-.A...services:• -in;'the'. F r a s e r v i e w community has c o n t a i n e d ' .elements o f the A r e a C o u n c i l i d e a . V" ;'" ;The A r e a C o u n c i l i s composed of. c i t i z e n s r e s i d i n g i r , the community'-who a r e k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e work o f the YMCA* I t i s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d by members o f t h e p a r e n t s p o n s o r i n g comm-i t t e e s , s p e c i a l c l u b groups, s p e c i a l program committees, and l e a d e r s h i p groups t h a t may e x i s t i n the community. I t i s a means o f p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e o v e r a l l YMCA a c t i v i t y i n a g i v e n community a l o n g w i t h the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . These committees v a r y as t o t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s - some may meet f o u r tiroes a y e a r , o t h e r s t h r o u g h - s the volume of s e r v i c e may congregate once a month. The importance of the Area C o u n c i l i s that i t helps to co-ordinate program i n a' given community while at the same time encouraging c i t i z e n s to come f o r t h and he a pa r t of the Y.M.C.A. movement. In some instances Area C o u n c i l s have taken r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the f i n a n -c i a l campaigns of the Branch. Under the Area Council are the following: groups: Parent Sponsoring Committees The Parent Sponsoring Committee i s an idea that i s not new to t h i s Branch f o r i t has been w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d w i t h our present groups; however t h i s r e p o r t would suggest that i n areas where the n a t u r a l f a m i l y i s i n t a c t , N-Y Clubs not be i n i t i a t e d u n l e s s a parent sponsoring committee i s organized p r i o r to the formation of the group. The parent sponsoring, committees are the contact t h a t a Y.M.C.A. may encourage f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n on planning and p o l i c y making. . Gym Centered Committees At the present, the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. has had three programs e x i s t i n g i n the sohool f a c i l i t i e s . . I t i s f u r t h e r proposed t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l step be taken to develop gym centered committees comprising parents whose youngsters are members of the program. T h i s , as w i t h the parent sponsoring committee, i s a means of g a i n i n g f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n plan n i n g program and i n v o l v i n g more people i n our branch s e r v i c e . Leadership T r a i n i n g and Ongoing Group S u p e r v i s i o n Recognizing the need f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n r e c r e a t i o n , an emphasis of our f u r t h e r development should be i n the area of t r a i n i n g l e a d e r s h i p . At times t h i s may n e c e s s i t a t e a comm-u n i t y s e r v i c e to p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s of other o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as those of the Y.M.C.A. I t i s a l s o proposed that under u n i t C o u n c i l s every e f f o r t i s taken to develop ad u l t and teen-age l e a d e r s h i p corps. Leadership groups c o u l d meet r e g u l a r l y w i t h the Secretary as a means of s u p e r v i s i o n and a l s o as a means of ongoing t r a i n i n g . I n summary, l e a d e r s h i p may be seen as the key to our o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n . F a c i l i t i e s As has been done i n p r a c t i c e , the f a c i l i t i e s used by. the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. would continue to be schools, homes, churches and other small spaces a v a i l a b l e i n the community. I n t h i s type of ope r a t i o n i t w i l l be seen that our c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g l o c a t i o n would be l a r g e l y f o r s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , board and committee meetings and other s p e c i a l pro** grams. This i s i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the u n i t c o u n c i l idea as cont r a s t e d w i t h a l a r g e b u i l d i n g comprising a gymnasium and swimming p o o l . I t would appear i n t h i s area that i n view of the development of p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n Vancouver and the recommend-at i o n s that have been made re g a r d i n g the r o l e of p r i v a t e agen-c i e s , t h i s type of f a c i l i t y would be in'keeping w i t h the present trends of r e c r e a t i o n today. - 187 s R e l a t i o n to Board of D i r g c t o r s The o v e r a l l value of s e t t i n g up a branch p l a n such as that described above would be seen through the a t t r a c t i o n of new persons on the l e v e l of parent sponsoring committee to u n i t o o u n c i l s to Board of D i r e c t o r s . Gradually i t would be expected that persons would be able to serve, w i t h the Board of D i r e c t o r s i n the area o f standing committees such as s u s t a i n i n g membership, World S e r v i c e , Executive and Finance, and p o s s i b l y general program. Summary^ At the present time there are s e v e r a l communities r e c e i v i n g Y.M,C.A. s e r v i c e where t h i s p l a n could be e f f e c t e d . These inc l u d e on the western side Oak S t r e e t and the c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n of Cambie on the s i t e of the Faimaount o f f i c e , t o the east the Main S t r e e t area, the South Main Street area around 63rd Avenue and Fraserview and surrounding communities. I t would seem these communities, or areas, would be a s t a r t i n g p o i n t of f u r t h e r developing u n i t c o u n c i l s . Other communities i n the near o r d i s t a n t f u t u r e t h a t might be i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r u n i t c o u n c i l Y.M.CA.'s are F r a s e r S t r e e t , O o l l i n g w o o d - K i l l a r n e y , South .0ambie-41st Avenue and r e - o r g a n i z i n g i n the False Creek area. This r e p o r t r e s p e c t f u l l y submitted. Fairmount Y.M.C.A. S t a f f , May, 1956. - 1$$ -APPENDIX C B r i e f on Board and Committee Development,  Fairmount YMCA. (January 1957). APPENDIX 0. SUGGESTED PLAN OF DEVELOPMENT IN THE FAIRMOUNT BRANCH, Y.M.C.A.-1 9 5 7. M a t e r i a l contained i n t h i s paper i s a follow-up of the b r i e f "development o f the "Fairmount Branch, Y . M . C . A . " presented to the,Board of D i r e c t o r s i n the Spring of 1956. This paper w:\lX deal p r i m a r i l y w i t h the planning and trends i n regard to the Fairmount Board of D i r e c t o r s , i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and development f o r 1957. There are c e r t a i n assumptions on whifeh t h i s repoirt i s based. These may be o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : (a) Trends i n program s e r v i c e s d u r i n g the past two years have e s t a b l i s h e d the need f o r the k i n d o f program groups and community s e r v i c e as' c a r r i e d on by t h i s community branch Y . M . C . A , _ (b ) The growth o f t h i s program, both i n terms of q u a l i t y and volume, now r e q u i r e s greater a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support and the i n v o l v i n g of more parents of members and. other laymen i n oui-vast geographic community who are i n t e r e s t e d i n the work of the Y . M . C . A . . (c) The development of ' Y T program i n u n i n v e s t i g a t e d areas w i l l be most s u c c e s s f u l when there i s a j o i n t e f f o r t and i n v o l v -i n g of laymen through Board r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the profess," i o n a l s t a f f . ' '(d) This community branch, Y . Mi " C.A must- take i n t o account the community trends i n regard to l e i s u r e t i n s s e r v i c e s ; i e . the r o l e of schools, churches, community centrers and other p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, cooperation w i t h these groups should not mean a watering down of the Y . M . C . A . app-roach to the- community or d i m i n i s h i n g of a vigorous and aggressive outlook: (e) I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the general development of. the Branch, ,: i s suggested that p r i o r i t i e s be set up i n regard to areas c-i work contained, w i t h i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of the Board o-D i r e c t o r s . I t i s further suggested that the emphasis of 1-1;; Fairmount Branch during the year 1957 w i l l be toward b u i l d i r . a greater i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h i s community branch through a d m i n i s t r a t i v e channels and tha t e f f o r t s w i l l be made to at l e a s t maintain the volume and q u a l i t y of program as w e l l as the extent of l e a d e r s h i p a t I t s present s t a t u s . O u t l i n e of P o t e n t i a l Board Areas of Service (Not n e c e s s a r i l y l i s t e d by p r i o r i t y . ) As i s general p r a c t i c e , the p o s i t i o n s of P r e s i d e n t , V i c e -P r e s i d e n t and Treasurer would be continued and there i s no f u r t h e r need f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f these. M e t r o p o l i t a n Re pres o n t a t i o n - The community branches such as Fairmount are p r e s e n t l y allowed two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to the M e t r o p o l i t a n Board of Governors. This i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at monthly luncheon meetings as w e l l as on the Executive and Finance Committee, and Personnel Committee• i s a d i v i s i o n of dutie s w i l l be la- .-gely up to the Board members e l e c t e d to these p o s i t i o n s , perhaps o r g a n i z a t i o n here w i l l depend upon the s i t u a t i o n each year,. Fraserview Extension Committee - The i n i t i a l development of t h e Y.M.C.A. program i n Fraserview was f o s t e r e d by the involvement o f laymen on a Planning Committee. Sin©e that tine e f f o r t s have been undertaken t o maintain t h i s committee 'with o n l y f a i r success, i s r e l a t e d to p o i n t (c) i n the previous s e c t i o n , t h i s i l l u s t r a t e s the n e e d f o r a j o i n t Board-Professional'involvement at l e a s t u n t i l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - of Y.M.C.A. s e r v i c e s i n an area has been w e l l dev-eloped--by/parents and other .Interested.people.in the community. As Fraserview i s our l a r g e s t a r e a of -service, i n terms of program volume,, t h i s committee should be high on the p r i o r i t y , l i s t . ' The dut i e s of'.aoBcard member:.would include c h a i r i n g four meeting.s of our Planning Committee during t h e year, maintaining some contact with- the Secretary or other personnel regarding program, and other matters p e r t a i n i n g to the community, and r e p o r t i n g to the Board of D i r e c t o r s each month on t h i s area of s e r v i c e . Leadership T r a i n i n g - The need f o r a person r e l a t e d to l e a d e r -ship i s perhpas best i l l u s t r a t e d by the general la ck of an adequate-l e a d e r s h i p recruitment, s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g at t h i s community branch* Following are some of the du t i e s 'that a person r e l a t e d t o le a d e r s h i p might, assume: _ •/'•.'::>-<(a') :..Seek;ing:".b.ut .leader ss '^'-rj^.i^y - : .•• /.-.• .' (b) -A'ssisting -ih- : the!training;;of leaders'-.recruited.' Uutrs v('c'') i R e c o g ^ l t i o n - o f ' l e a d e r s > who-') have achieved- the-'vset standard-Again ; t h i s • area= o f r e s p o n s i b i l l t y p r o v i d e s an opportunity d f " j o i n t Inv-olvementxih -'which-'laym&hiWho - has- had a'-.,good-volunteer- exper-ience Cb'uld-'.do";>much*in'.'selling-1 the worthiness ' a f t h i s - f a c e t of bbmmunityr;s,erviGe:'..Hi h';;.1. r... v ; i ) l .^)po;,,-l v.y.r-\, ••;.}.o \> ."-<.'•' Membership .- The -.basic s purpose ofr.the;- membership., s e c t i o n .would, be to forr.ula.te 'a..'nenber.shi'pYpbliay cover l;h£.Val ! a g e s a n d sexes, a l s o s u s t a i n i n g , f-r.nily,,. etc.. ' 'It., i s " important.: to', p o i n t out here that pur ..'member s^^^^ a wide range, both i n terms of-Vage.^*and i n terns- o f the.:.servXce.'to.,wpnenVah;d g i r l s . Other d u t i e r ihyplye.d would,.inplud^.-mr.ki.ngvtoown''' the.;pro'gram and- f a c i l i t i e s of theYcomnuhity-: Y.M^CA a membership", form f o r o f f i c e purposes, and the. r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o the general Y.M.C.A.Metropolitan Vancouver services..andthe Y.M.C.A. novbment t o t a l l y . . Ganp Conriittee (Howdy) - This Branch i s granted a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o the 'Camp 1 Howdy -Comhi11ee. The du t i e s i n v o l v e d here are not great - perhaps two or three .meetings- oohderning'-'Camp matters and re p r e s e n t i n g p a r t i c u l a r Camp i n t e r e s t s o f the Fairmount• Branch Y i M . C . 1 . An example '- the use o f - t h e questionnaire as c i r c u l a t e d a t the ehd of the 195'6 Camp session at Howdy, - 191 M e t r o p o l i t a n Program Committee Representation - With the recent establishment of a M e t r o p o l i t a n Program Committee, t h i s Branch w i l l be c a l l e d upon to give i t s views i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l Vancouver Y.M.C.A. program p o l i c y , i s t h i s i s an ongoing; committee,, one person r e p r e s e n t i n g the Branch at these meetings would provide c o n t i n u i t y . An example of the work here i n c l u d e s assessment and e v a l u a t i o n o f pub l i s h e d m a t e r i a l at the N a t i o n a l or L o c a l l e v e l and i t s r e l a t i o n to the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. program s e r v i c e . P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s - The purpose of the P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Committee w i l l be to p l a n , c o r r e l a t e and evaluate a public: r e l a t i o n s pro-gram, f o r the Branch. Methods of op e r a t i o n might i n c l u d e a review of the present p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , seeking out ue thods of i n t e r p r e t i n g the work, ensuring the f u l l use o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n news-papers and p e r i o d i c a l s , e x p l o r i n g s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s fear p u b l i c a t i o n and seeing t h a t a proper Y.M.C.A. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n th© community i s e s t a b l i s h e d . World S e r v i c e -The importance of World Service today need not be po i n t e d out. Perhaps our c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the area of World Service would be the o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f developing a World Service program throughout our general membership, h e l p i n g develop membership awareness-of the world community. Duties i n v o l v e d i n the World S e r v i c e would be seeking out program t o o l s f o r developing World S e r v i c e and perhaps b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the World Service Committee o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n . B u i l d i n g Committee - The purpose of the B u i l d i n g Committee would be to p l a n and i n i t i a t e a c t i o n to secure b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s , both owned and re n t e d by the Branch. Perhaps t h i s i s a most impor-t a n t area i n view of our campaign plans f o r 1957, t h a t we adequate! t e l y seek out and a s c e r t a i n a sound l o c a t i o n fo>r the Y.M.C .A .head-quarters f o r the next decade. Program Committee — There w i l l be the need for var i o u s Program Committees o r a General Program Committee a t some time i n the ' f u t u r e . These program s e c t i o n s might in c l u d e a committee on boys 1 w o r k , g i r l s ' and women's work, p h y s i c a l education, young a d u l t , an! a committee on s p e c i a l i z e d youth s e r v i c e s , e.g. s e r v i c e s t o custum car clubs or other groups not coming w i t h i n the usual Y.M.C.A. program. As an i l l u s t r a t i o n of what one Program Committee's job might be, l e t us l i s t the Boys' Work Committee., The purpose o f the Boys' Work Committee has been described:- To a s o e r t a i n the needs of the boys i n the community up t o , and including, high school age, and to formulate p o l i c y and a c t i v a t e programs to meet these needs w i t h i n a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . Some of the methods of o p e r a t i o n would concern l o c a t i o n o f groups of boys, the adaption o f Y.M.C.A. program to boy needs, and a clo s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h other committ-ees and personnel r e l a t e d to boys' work, i . e . l e a d e r s h i p committee and s t u d y i n g ma t e r i a l p u b l i s h e d at the N a t i o n a l or L o c a l I s v c l on Boys' Work standards. I t may be: seen t h a t the Boys' Work and other s p e c i a l i z e d program areas would be represented on a program c o o r d i n a t i n g cami-i t t e e . Summary - The above m a t e r i a l may appear as a monumental task i n view of the s i z e of our present Board of D i r e c t o r s . There i s c e r t a i n l y no e f f o r t t o make t h i s appear so', except to point out the p o t e n t i a l areas we may some day achieve i n our o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n . There may be o p p o r t u n i t i e s of i n v o l v i n g other persons i f i t i s c l e a r l y p o i n t e d out where the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. needs l i e . i n order to ga i n t h e i r time and e f f o r t . - 192 APPENDIX D fxBir-ief on B u i l d i n g Development,  Fairmount YMGA. (November 1957) s 193 s APPENDIX D. Regarding Now F a c i l i t i e s for the Fairmount Branch, Y.M.C.A. I . Purpose The purpose of t h i s paper i s to present c e r t a i n ideas regarding steps t h a t might ho taken i n the"development of the Fairmount Branch Y.M.C.A. With the completion of the C a p i t a l Fund Drive near, c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n need now he given to the type of f a c i l i t y which w i l l best i n s u r e f u t u r e Y.M.C .A . s e r v i c e s throughout the Fairmount Branch c o n s t i t u e n c y . A review of the Branch's curre n t o p e r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s t r u c t u r e , program, member- . sh i p , r e l a t i o n to the community, e t c . , w i l l a l s o be discussed as they are r e l a t e d to f a c i l i t y development. I I . Fairmount Y.M.C.A.Today The Fairmount Y.M.C.A., organized i n 1947, was designed to b r i n g Y.M.C.A. programs i n t o the r e s d i e n t i a l community. As a c t i v i t i e s are conducted i n v a r i e d f a c i l i t i e s such as p r i v a t e homes, schools, churches, e t c . , the Branch i s best described as a n o n - f a c i l i t y Y.M.C.A. This i m p l i e s that very l i t t l e of the t o t t l program i s c a r r i e d on and dependent upon the Y.M.C.A. b u i l d i n g i t s e l f even though extensive program resources and equipment may be i n c l u d e d i n the o p e r a t i o n . Since the t r a n s f e r of the headquarters to Cambie Street i n 1954 the volume of a c t i v i t i e s at Fairmount have expanded to n e a r l y three times the 1954 t o t a l . The i n i t i a t i o n of programs i n Fraserview has seen a gradual increase i n Y.M.C.A.membership u n t i l there are now over three hundred members on Y.M.C .A .group • r o s t e r sheets r e p r e s e n t i n g approximately 250 f a m i l i e s . South Cambie program,although not as l a r g e as Fraserview, has every p o t e n t i a l o f i n c r e a s i n g when more emphasis i s placed on t h i s a r ^ This o p i n i o n i s based on a l a c k of r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e presentl; provided i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . During the l a s t two years the response to Y.M.C.A. a c t i v i t i e s by youngsters, and the. i n t e r e s t shown by parents, i n South Cambie ha s been keen and e n t h u s i a s t i c . The major reason Y.M-C.A. membership i s not greater i n South Cambie i s due to the s t a f f ' s i n a b i l i t y to spend the time necessary f o r the development of community contacts e s s e n t i a l f o r the growth of program s e r v i c e s . I t i s important to emphasize also t h a t Y..M;, C.A. membership has grown i n Fraserview despite the absence of Y..M.C.A. f a c i l i t i e s i n any form i n t h a t immediate area. A store f r o n t or small o f f i c e space would have g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d more i d e n t i t y w i t h the Y.M.C.A.on the pa r t of Fraserview r e s i d e n t s . In s h ort, the Fairmount Y.M.C.A.,established i n the Mount Pleasant area o r i g i n a l l y , has developed an extension pro-gram i n the Fraserview d i s t r i c t ' w h i c h has outgrown the o l d e r d i s t r i c t i n Y.M.C.A. membership,, As the geographic distance c l e a r l y p o i n t s out that there i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between the two communitiesj current Branch planning' i s based on the eventual separation of Fraserview from the Fairmount Branch a l t o g e t h e r . The establishment of the Fraserview P l a n n i n g Committee and s p e c i a l program committees i n support of a c t i v i t y groups i s the main method now i n e f f e c t to b r i n g about t h i s s e p a r a t i o n . However, i t i s questionable that the Y.M.C.A. oan a f f o r d to wait much longer i n maintaining t h i s present approach. The south east s e c t i o n of Vancouver i s very/ new and although the r e c r e a t i o n -a l p a t t e r n - i s not w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , i t w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t to penetrate t h i s area as time passes on. In t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , i t i s not a case of e i t h e r p l a c i n g a b u i l d i n g i n one a rea and not the other, but r a t h e r l a y i n g down a p l a n that encompasses both d i s t r i c t s . I I I . Proposed P l a n of Development There are now two main a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of new f a c i l i t i e s i n the Fairmount Branch: these are - ( 1 ) a c e n t r a l u n i t designed to serve the t o t a l area, and' (2 ) two s m a l l -er u n i t s encompassing property f o r Hater expansion. TISB former p l a n i s i n keeping w i t h the type of f a c i l i t y described i n the campaign l i t e r a t u r e t h i s s p r i n g . The second suggestion 7i/ould mean the development of two community branches from p r i v a t e house type of u n i t s , w i t h a view to expansion to a more elaborate f a c i l i t y at a l a t e r date. V a r i a t i o n s of these plans could a l s o be proposed, but i n essence they would c o n t a i n elements of e i t h e r a c e n t r a l o p e r a t i o n now or a p l a n f o r l a t e r separation i n t o two u n i t s . - The second suggestion i s favoured by t h i s w r i t e r because of the f o l l o w i n g reasons: 1. The Fairmount Y.M.C.A. i s not as yet f i r m l y entrenched i n the community. The present o p e r a t i o n has a h i s t o r y o f only throe years, dating to the t r a n s f e r to Cambie S t r e e t . 2 . The demand f o r a Y.M.C.A. must be engendered w i t h i n l o c a l areas such as South Cambie and Fraserview before' p l a n n i n g ' that suggests a degree of permanency (a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g u n i t ) be decided upon. I t i s a w e l l known f a c t t h a t s h i f t s i n community c o n d i t i o n s may render a r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g i n t o a 'hollow s h e l l ' w i t h l i t t l e a c t i v i t y i f the long range s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s are not c a r e f u l l y examined. The e f f e c t of . i n d u s t r i a l development at the Vancouver East Branch i s one example. 3. The l o c a t i o n o f a Y.M.C.A. should depend upon the i n t e r e s t of the community when r e s i d e n t s are prepared "to work f o r long range o b j e c t i v e s such as a new b u i l d i n g . Although neither Fraserview or South Cambie have reached t h i s l e v e l of community i n t e r e s t , both areas are capable of becoming S O J -p a r t l y because of the l a c k of s e r v i c e s by other o r g a n i z a t i o n ' at the present time. 4. The p o p u l a t i o n i n the geographic boundaries of the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. has grown c o n s i d e r a b l y since the end of the War. Fraserview, Southern Slope, C o l l i n g w o o d - K i l l a r n e y and sections . of South Cambie d i s t r i c t have a l l been constructed since 1 9 4 5 R This factor i n d i c a t e s i t i s how u n r e a l i s t i c f o r one Branch Y.M.C .A. to serve adequately. 5. From an economic p o i n t of view the purchase of property i n the two areas w i t h small housing u n i t s as Branch headquarters oan probably be obtained at a l e s s e r cost than c o n s t r u c t i n g one u n i t . In terms o f the t o t a l needs of Vancouver i t might be p o s s i b l e for. funds p r e v i o u s l y arranged f o r Fairmount purposes to be t r a n s f e r r e d elsewhere. The development of the Alma Y.M.C.A. over the past s e v e r a l years i s evidence that a community can be expected to support a Y.M.C.A. op e r a t i n g from t h i s type of b u i l d i n g . - 195 s 6 . Two small u n i t s w i l l r e q u i r e the recruitment of more s e c r e t a r i e s at the executive and program l e v e l . This w i l l b r i n g about problems i n regard to the ope r a t i n g cost which may be o f f s e t by a more s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g C e n t r a l Y.M.C J , a goal of the Campaign d r i v e . However, the need f o r Y.M.C.A. s t a f f to explore new areas and ol d e r communities not p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i s , i n t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the number one p r i o r i t y of the Vancouver Y.M.C.A. i n promoting ' Y'' work I n the suburban community. 7. Although the Y.M.C .A. i s not b a s i c a l l y i n competition w i t h other r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t i s important f o r the YiM.CA. to become i n v o l v e d i n newer communities before r e c r e a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s are e s t a b l i s h e d . This does not mean the Y.M.C.A. w i l l compete w i t h the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n or other p r i v a t e groups, but r a t h e r there w i l l be more oppor-t u n i t y to provide programs because of the de s i r e f o r them by the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The s p e c i a l i z e d types of ' Y T pro-grams working through smaller groups on a q u a l i t y b a s i s would.remain the prime f u n c t i o n of the community Y.M.C.A. i n any case. 8. The pl a n to r e - d i v i d e the Fairmount Y.M.C .A, i n t o two u n i t s would appear to be a more f l e x i b l e and dynamic approach. , There are at the present time too many unanswered questions i n regard to the communities w i t h i n the Fairmount s e c t i o n of Vancouver. The trends of other o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the o b j e o t i v e s of the Parks Board and the Community Chest and Coun c i l are u n c e r t a i n . A coordinated approach to Vancouver's r e c r e a t i o n a l needs i s not as yet i n e f f e c t . C o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r d i r e c t i o n to the newer communities i s not h i g h l y developed by e i t h e r the Parks Board or Community Chest and C o u n c i l . This circumstance makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s to e s t a b l i s h a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e i n the • community. The Y.M.C.A. i n Vancouver has only r e c e n t l y taken steps to remedy'a p o l i c y that has not f o s t e r e d community •"' i n t e r e s t i n the Y.M.C.A. Perhaps t h i s i s p a r t l y because we .;. ourselves have not understood our r o l e i n the community. The supporters of the Fairmount Y.M.C .A. , moreover, have possibly-' encountered t h i s d i f f i c u l t y more than other areas i n view of the weak foundation throughout the b r i e f ten year h i s t o r y of Fairmount. IV. Summary Thi s paper i s w r i t t e n w i t h an eye to the futu r e ?;hich t h i s w r i t e r b e l i e v e s can be a b r i g h t one f o r Fairmount TY'. The b a s i c argument contained h e r e i n i s the b e l i e f t h a t the develop-ment of two small housing u n i t s f o r Branch headquarters i s a r e q u i r e d step based on the unique s i t u a t i o n o f the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. at the present time. This paper r e s p e c t f u l l y submitted. Don McComb, Executive Secretary, Fairmount Y.M.C.A. - 196 ~ APPENDIX E Objectives Chart, Fraserview-Kill arnev -YMGA 1 (September 197 APPENDIX E. OBJECTIVES CHART - ERASERVTEW-KILLARNEY Purpose- To c o n s o l i d a t e and d i r e c t e f f o r t s of the Board of Management f o r the greatest b e n e f i t to the community. Assumptions - (1) That membership and need f o r program w i l l continue to i n c r e a s e . (S) That the geographical area of program and membership w i l l i n c r e a s e . (3) That the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y E x t e n s i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be an autonomous or separate Branch; (4) To meet these developments, we must concentrat on : (a) Leadership. -(b) Program. (c) Board and Committee o r g a n i z a t i o n . Leadership:- That r e c r u i t i n g , t r a i n i n g and r e c o g n i t i o n of l e a d e r s be seen as a necessary goal i n the d e v e l -opment of program. (1) R e c r u i t i n g - That l e a d e r s h i p be r e c r u i t e d f o r program where Board and Committee members are now i n v o l v e d , and that le adership be r e c r u i t e d before f u t u r e a c t i v i t i e s are s t a r t e d . (2) T r a i n i n g - That a l e a d e r s ' f e l l o w s h i p be organized f o r (a) Clearance of program, (b) Fellowship and i d e n t i t y . (c) T r a i n i n g . (3) R e c o g n i t i o n - That r e c o g n i t i o n be seen as a great f a c t o r i n good l e a d e r s h i p , and that steps be taken f o r greater l e a d e r s h i p recog-n i t i o n . Such a p l a n would allo w Board and s t a f f to spend more time on development and c o - o r d i n a t i o n and provide a means of b r i n g i n g i n new membership on a l e a d e r s h i p l e v e l . Program:- l m T q s t u d y a n d develop a f a m i l y Y.M.C.A. approach to program. 2. To develop more j u n i o r Car Clubs through j o i n t B.C.H.R.A., Y.M.C.A.sponsorship. 3. . To i n v e s t i g a t e teenage program needs and develop a c c o r d i n g l y , 4. To study and determine geographical p r i o r i t i e s as to development of program. Board & Committee Organization - I n order to be prepared f o r (and a s s i s t i n b r i n g i n g about) autonomy of t h i s E x t e n s i o n , c e r t a i n steps must be taken: 1. The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Board of Management be set up as per the attached c h a r t . 2. The Board be set up as a planning and c o o r d i n a t i n g tcdy, 3. The B u i l d i n g , Program,Leader shi p , Finance aid Teen Council Committees be set up by December, 1958. 4. The p o s s i b i l i t y of Board development and education be i n v e s t i g a t e d . ORGANIZATION - FRASERVIEW-KILLARNEY BRANCH Y. M. C. A. IVIETROPOLITAN BOARD OF GOVERNORS FAIRMOUNT BRANCH BOARD OF DIRECTORS FRA SER VIEW-KTT ,T, A RNE Y BOARD OF MANAGEMENT . Leader-ship World Service Finance Publicity Teen c o u n c i l Fund R a i s i n g Exec-u t i v e Member-ship ;.« H S p e c i a l HAVE - 5 FUND RAISING MEMBERSHIP PUBLICITY NEED - 7 More BUILDING PROGRAM LEADERSHIP WORLD SERVICE FINANCE TEEN COUNCIL EXECUTIVE - 199 APPENDIX F Area Programme Council .Is Fraserview-Killarney YMCA (October 1959) - 20G APPENDIX F. Subject: "Use of the Area Program C o u n c i l . " Thesis: Method: (1) Laymen can c a r r y more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than they are p r e s e n t l y c a r r y i n g . (2) Areas that are now Secretary r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be handled j u s t as* e f f e c t i v e l y by laymen - t h i s i s the idea of laymen c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e i r i n d i v i & a l s k i l l s . (3) The Secretary i s a resource person o n l y - he i s not "M i s t e r Y.M.C .A ."-nor i s he a program l e a d e r . See blackboard -(1) Board has on i t Chairmen of a l l area c o u n c i l s . (2) The Area C o u n c i l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r complete o p e r a t i o n of program i n t h e i r area. (3) Functions t h a t are of a c o l l e c t i v e nature are under the j u r i s d i c t i o n of the Board, e.g., l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , club c o u n c i l s , standing committees. The key: The Council becomes a Task Committee, u s i n g l o c a l r e s -ources f o r l e a d e r s h i p , and l e a d e r s h i p s u p e r v i s i o n , e.g. - School P. E. teacher supervises and t r a i n s gym i n s t r u c t o r s on a volunteer b a s i s , e.g. -Former adu l t N-Y club l e a d e r s supervise N-Y club l e a d e r s . Grass-roots method used - parents i n v o l v e d extensively-The advantages: (1) Greater involvement o f laymen - leads to greater i d e n t i t y . |2) Greater Secretary p r o d u c t i v i t y . ,3) More members served. The problem: Can t h i s method be as q u a l i t a t i v e as one i n v o l v -i n g Secretary-supervised leaders? MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE -AREA COUNCIL #1. WORLD - SERVICE COMMITTEE BOARD i PROGRAM COMMITTEE-r AREA COUNCIL #2 AREA COUNCIL # 3 BUILDING COMMITTEE "HI Y COUNCIL LEADERS TRAINING h N-Y COUNCIL ETC. - 201 -Bibliography  Works Cited and Sources Consulted 1. Blau, Peter M.. 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