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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Decentralized branch Y.M.C.A. development in a local residential community : an analytical study of the… McComb, Donald Robert 1960

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DECENTRALIZED BRANCH Y.M.C.A. DEVELOPMENT IN A LOCAL RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY An A n a l y t i c a l Study o f t h e Fairmount and F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Y.M.C.A.*s i n the S o u t h - E a s t e r n S e c t i o n o f Vancouver  1944 t o I 9 6 0 ,  by DONALD ROBERT McCOMB  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e School o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o t h e standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  School o f S o c i a l Work  I960 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  In presenting the  this thesis i n partial fulfilment of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  I further  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s understood  that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f  SOCJ/}L  ifi>OKK-  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver S, Canada. Date  (f&D  financial  permission.  V  ABSTRACT The g e n e r a l s u b j e c t o f t h i s study i s the post war development o f the d e c e n t r a l i z e d YMCA:. the s p e c i f i c study i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e c t i o n o f Vancouver (two " l o c a l communities" i n . t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f Vancouver). The Fairmount YMCA, e s t a b l i s h e d i n i t i a l l y i n Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a , and the e x t e n s i o n o f *Y s e r v i c e s to become, i n I960, the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y . . Branch, a r e analyzed over a f o u r t e e n year p e r i o d . T  The study i s an h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o c e s s , and o f group work i n meeting t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y c i t i z e n s . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a g e n c y - a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as the p r i n c i p l e o f an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e r v i c e , through the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and c o n t r o l , i s c r i t i c a l l y a p p r a i s e d i n the l i g h t o f r e s u l t s . The r o l e o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, and the process o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n , i s analyzed through the use o f process r e c o r d ings. For t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA, as w e l l as f o r o t h e r Branches o f the Vancouver YMCA,.the study i n d i c a t e s t h a t the r o l e o f the YMCA i n the. r e s i d e n t i a l community i s to supplement p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n and o t h e r community services. The changing s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f the community, and the need f o r the YMCA to broaden and adapt " f a m i l y t y p e " s e r v i c e s , both demonstrate t h a t the YMCA,-as w e l l as o t h e r p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , w i l l need to r e t a i n a _ f l e x i b l e s t r u c t u r e o f o p e r a t i o n i f i t i s to r e t a i n the i n t e r e s t o f the people concerned i n v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Chapter  I  Community R e c r e a t i o n a l Needs: North American Experience*  Recreation defined. The v a l u e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r recreation. H i s t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s i n North America. P u b l i c and P r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n — areas o f respons i b i l i t y . , The growth and development o f t h e North American Y.M.C.A . . . . . . Chapter I I  R e c r e a t i o n Needs and S e r v i c e s i n Vancouver.  E a r l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . The " N o r r i e R e p o r t " o f 1945* P u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . The Vancouver YMCA d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n development p l a n s o f 1946 and 1951«.. D e s c r i p t i o n o f the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y community; needs w i t h r e f e r e n c e to recreation. Chapter I I I  M  The importance o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . School recreational f a c i l i t i e s . P a r k s , playgrounds and public recreation. Private efforts. The.Fraserview survey, 1954-55* Commercial r e c r e a t i o n . Social problems IV  V  67  L o c a l Community Y.M.C.A^ Development  Branch boundaries. E a r l y f a i l u r e (1944 t o 1954). The survey o f 1954* I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the survey. Programme expansion (1955 t o 195&). Local i d e n t i t y strengthened. Methods o f development-in the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y . YMCA, 1958" - I960 Chapter  41  Recreational F a c i l i t i e s i n the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Area  U954 to l  Chapter  1  106  The R o l e o f the Y.M.C.A. i n t h e L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l Community  The changing community. The YMCA i n the r e s i d e n t i a l community. YMCA d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n — p h i l o s o p h y and methods. General f i n d i n g s o f the study. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Vancouver YMCA. F u t u r e development o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y a r e a . . . . . . 162  iii Page Appendices: A. B.  Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e (December 1954)* B r i e f on Area Development, Fairmount YMCA  (May 1956).  C.  B r i e f on Board and Committee Development, Fairmount YMCA,,(January 1 9 5 7 ) . D. B r i e f on Building.Development, Fairmount YMCA (November-1957). E. . O b j e c t i v e s Chart, F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA (September 1 9 5 3 ) . .F. Area Programme C o u n c i l , F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y YMCA (October 1 9 5 9 ) . TABLES AMD CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a)  Tables  Table 1.  Some f a c t o r s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to p o p u l a t i o n . . •  28  Table 2 .  R a t i n g s o f branch e f f e c t i v e n e s s by type o f facility .  38  Table  3.  F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y N-Y Clubs 1955 to 1959 • • (b)  Charts  Fig.  1.  Map o f F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y and D i s t r i c t .  Fig.  2.  T o t a l Y e a r l y Membership o f the Fairmount . YMCA, 1947 — 1954  Fig.  3.  Fig. .4. 5.  . . .  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e diagram, F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA (January 1 9 5 5 , and, subsequent development). . . . . . . . . .  55 110  •  131  T o t a l y e a r l y membership, Fairmount YMCA,  1954 Fig.  142  - 1959  .,  Map o f F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y area, and a p i c t o r i a l diagram o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d YMCA •  145 165  iv (c)  Schedules Page  Schedule 1. Schedule 2.  Schedule 3«  O r i g i n a l and l a t e r boundaries o f the Fairmount IMCA (1945 t o i 9 6 0 ) . . . . .  108  F r a s e r v i e w l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g course f o r c o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s , February 9 , 1955 to March 16, 19-55  138  Programme expansion o f F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y IMCA (1955 to-I960)  144  vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I n a "grass r o o t s " development l i k e the F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y YMCA, there a r e many people who have c o n t r i b u t e d . The w r i t e r wishes t o extend h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o the people o f Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t , who, by t h e success o f t h e i r e f f o r t s , made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . To David T. Yard, the w r i t e r ' s s u p e r v i s o r d u r i n g the e a r l y years as the Fairmount YMCA E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y , and now the General S e c r e t a r y o f the Burnaby YMCA, the w r i t e r i s e s p e c i a l l y indebted. Mr. l a r d ' s v i s i o n o f the f a r r e a c h i n g p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f t h e l i m i t e d - f a c i l i t y YMCA, knowledge o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l methods, and encouragement, gave the w r i t e r a sense o f purpose. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended to Mrs. Dorothy L i n k l a t e r who made the o r i g i n a l i n q u i r y f o r YMCA s e r v i c e back i n 1953« . She has g i v e n c o u n t l e s s hours to,the F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y 'Y' and was t h e person r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of.-the YMCA i n t h i s area o f the c i t y . The Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA ( f o r m e r l y F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y P l a n n i n g Committee) and Committee members, p a r t i c u l a r l y Mr. C y r i l H. Ashdown, P r e s i d e n t o f the Fairmount YMCA, are. a l l , e x t e n d e d . t h e w r i t e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r d i r e c t i o n and knowledge about the community. A thank you i s a l s o extended to Dr. Leonard Marsh, o f the School o f S o c i a l Work a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, who, as f a c u l t y a d v i s o r gave v a l u a b l e suggestions to the p r e p a r a t i o n and content o f t h i s study*  VI1  DECENTRALIZED BRANCH Y.M.C.A. DEVELOPMENT IN A LOCAL RESIDENTIAL COMMUNITY An A n a l y t i c a l Study o f the Fairmount and F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Y.M.C.A. s i n the South-Eastern S e c t i o n o f Vancouver f  1944 t o I 9 6 0 .  Chapter -  11  I -  Community R e c r e a t i o n a l Meeds:  .  North American E x p e r i e n c e .  " I n a few y e a r s the p r o j e c t i s going t o have c o n s i d e r a b l e t r o u b l e w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f teenagers unless: somet h i n g i s done f o r them." Fairmount  TMCA was  T h i s was  a t y p i c a l comment when the  making i n q u i r i e s i n t o the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs  o f the F r a s e r v i e w Housing  a r e a i n Vancouver.  The  statement  r e p r e s e n t s a complexity o f community problems worthy o f study. To b e g i n w i t h , the  1  community c o n s c i o u s ' c i t i z e n s r e v e a l e d  through f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n t h a t they were c o n s i d e r i n g the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f t h e i r community.  These people were  g e n u i n e l y concerned w i t h growing p r e a d o l e s c e n t and  adolescent  p o p u l a t i o n , and the l a c k o f w e l l - p l a n n e d and o r g a n i z e d l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t y f o r t h e i r youth. approaching  the problem l e d to a number o f q u e s t i o n s t h a t need  to be answered. v a l u e s t h a t may experience?  T h e i r f e a r s and doubts i n  Some o f these q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e d :  What are the  be c o n t r i b u t e d through a good r e c r e a t i o n a l  What have been the t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s o f meeting  a community's r e c r e a t i o n a l needs?  Who  for providing recreational services? community o r geographic  should be r e s p o n s i b l e And,  how  does a modern  area r e c o g n i z e the need f o r , o r g a n i z e  and implement them? - R e c r e a t i o n has been d e f i n e d as: "... experience engaged i n e i t h e r alone o r w i t h o t h e r s f o r - i t s own sake and the g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n doing; as an  - 2  -  e x p r e s s i o n o f the i n n e r nature o f man, as the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f b a s i c human a p p e t i t e s , as a form o f l e i s u r e time experi e n c e i n which p h y s i c a l , mental o r s p i r i t u a l s a t i s f a c t i o n comes to an i n d i v i d u a l from p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c e r t a i n forms of a c t i v i t y . Expressed i n terms of a c t i v i t i e s , r e c r e a t i o n has been d e f i n e d as any a c t i v i t y which i s not c o n s c i o u s l y performed f o r the sake o f any reward beyond i t s e l f , to which we g i v e o u r s e l v e s i n our l e i s u r e time, which o f f e r s man an o u t l e t f o r h i s mastery, or i n which man engages because o f i n n e r d e s i r e and not because o f o u t e r compuls i o n . I n s h o r t , r e c r e a t i o n may be c o n s i d e r e d as any form o f l e i s u r e time experience o r a c t i v i t y i n which an i n d i v i d u a l engages from c h o i c e because o f the enjoyment and s a t i s f a c t i o n which i t b r i n g s d i r e c t l y to h i m . " 1  Applied  to modern l i v i n g , r e c r e a t i o n may  shapes o r forms.  be  seen to take many  P a s s i v e k i n d s o f a c t i v i t y ; watching t e l e -  v i s i o n , going to a movie, or j u s t p l a i n ' l o a f i n g * a l l may considered r e c r e a t i o n . a c t i v i t y ; i n d i v i d u a l and  The  more a c t i v e forms o f  team s p o r t s , v a r i o u s  physical  forms o f out-  door i n t e r e s t s such as camping; are o t h e r t y p e s o f activity.  be  recreational  C u l t u r a l o r c r e a t i v e pastimes, i n c l u d i n g music,  drama, f i n e a r t s , hobbies .and ..crafts, would a l s o be as i n v o l v i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s . a c t i v i t i e s t h a t may  lasting satisfaction,  whether they h e l p youngsters mature and  Recreational  They are a l l t y p e s o f  be pursued i n the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l e i s u r e  hours, but whether they c o n t r i b u t e  responsible  classified  grow up  as h e a l t h y  persons i s another i s s u e . Values  Today r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y  . i , B u t l e r . G.D.. I n t r o d u c t i o n to Community R e c r e a t i o n . McGraw H i l l Co., New'lork, 194V, p. tf. ' a  important.  R e c r e a t i o n has been commonly conceded as an o u t l e t  f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of happiness.  However, G.D.Butler has  emphasized the 'happiness i s e s s e n t i a l l y a by-product which can best be achieved i n a balanced l i f e along w i t h work, r e s t , l o v e and w o r s h i p . 1  G.B.  1  F i t z g e r a l d p o i n t s out i n h i s book,  Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r Recreation, "To rank r e c r e a t i o n as a s o c i a l movement i s to recognize i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to other human needs."  2  Recreation i n t h i s sense i s viewed as 'part  of the whole l i f e , having value i n the ' s a t i s f a c t i o n of 1  b a s i c human needs', h e l p i n g the formation of personal r e l a t i o n ships and the development of cooperative and c o l l a b o r a t i v e h a b i t s and j o i n t undertakings', a s s i s t i n g the i n d i v i d u a l i n •belonging, c o n t r i b u t i n g , and g a i n i n g p r e s t i g e from the group, 3  at other times breaking down s o c i a l b a r r i e r s * .  Fitzgerald  a l s o warns against 'the f a l l a c y of p u t t i n g r e c r e a t i o n forward as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r economic s e c u r i t y or emotional  stability'.^  The over emphasis placed upon r e c r e a t i o n movements has sometimes l e d to the misunderstanding for social i l l s —  t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s a panacea  notably, j u v e n i l e delinquency.  Consequent-  l y , r e c r e a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s are c o n s t a n t l y r e q u i r e d to analyze and i n t e r p r e t the r e l a t i o n of r e c r e a t i o n to the many s o c i a l problems of our s o c i e t y . • 1.  I b i d , p. 10.  2. F i t z g e r a l d . G.B..Community Organization f o r Recreation. A.L. Barnes Co., New York, 1949, p* 33. 3.  I b i d , p.  33.  4.  I b i d , p.  33.  There have been many f a c t o r s which have a f f e c t e d the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and the need f o r them. Urban development, changing home c o n d i t i o n s , i n c r e a s e d pace o f modern l i v i n g , unemployment, s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and mechanization in  i n d u s t r y , the g r e a t e r  span o f l i f e ,  s h o r t e r working hours,  commercial entertainment, the ready-made p l e a s u r e s a v a i l a b l e as t h e automobile, have a l l i n f l u e n c e d r e c r e a t i o n a l needs*  easily  current  As one source notes, "... the misuse o r  abuse o f l e i s u r e c a n and o f t e n does l e a d to s o c i a l p a t h o l o g y " .  1  D i s c u s s i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f Canadian youth, t h e Canadian Youth Commission recorded; "... A r e c u r r i n g theme i n y o u t h f u l d i s c u s s i o n s i s t h e q u e s t i o n o f where and how to spend spare time. R i g h t l y o r wrongly, thousands o f young people a r e a t a l o s s . Perhaps they should be expected t o c r e a t e i n t e r e s t i n g l e i s u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f t h e i r own ...." They added "... Our purpose is  simply  to r e c o r d t h a t there i s l i t t l e  hours, e s p e c i a l l y l i t t l e  to do i n l e i s u r e  t h a t young people would s e r i o u s l y c l a i m  2 worthwhile." The  f i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s i s i n the  i n f l u e n c e t h a t r e c r e a t i o n has upon the i n d i v i d u a l . l i s t s seven c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f r e c r e a t i o n , notably  Butler  to •physical  h e a l t h , mental h e a l t h , c h a r a c t e r development, community s o l i d a r ity,  morale, crime p r e v e n t i o n >  and p u b l i c s a f e t y . •  .'  However, he  .  1. B r i g h t b i l l , O.K., and Meyer. H.Q.. R e c r e a t i o n . H a l l I n c . , New York, 1 9 4 3 , p. 3»  Prentice  2. Canadian Youth Commission, Youth and R e c r e a t i o n (Volume 6 ) , Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, 1946, p. 4 1 .  r  concluded t h a t "the  c h i e f value of r e c r e a t i o n l i e s i n i t s  power t o e n r i c h the l i v e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s * ""*" R e l a t i n g  recrea-  t i o n to the impersonal and  complex a s p e c t s o f modern l i v i n g ,  L*R.  and  Slavson i n Recreation  the T o t a l P e r s o n a l i t y  states:  "Some o f the s e r v i c e s o f r e c r e a t i o n to the i n d i v i d u a l may  be  c l a s s i f i e d as those t h a t serve as complementary e x p e r i e n c e s , as h a v i n g compensatory v a l u e s , i o n , as p a t t e r n s  as s e r v i n g t o d i s c h a r g e aggress-  f o r r e g r e s s i o n , as escape from r e a l i t y ,  s a t i s f y i n g s o c i a l hunger, and  resources f o r s o l i t u d e * "  view o f the impersonal nature o f modern l i v i n g , man o u t l e t s f o r h i s b a s i c d r i v e s . "The  has  as In needed  p u r s u i t of r e c r e a t i o n a l  a c t i v i t i e s a l l o w s f o r more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways o f g r a t i f y i n g these b a s i c d r i v e s .  Many p a t t e r n s  of l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y  do  not i n c l u d e the i n d i v i d u a l as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the p r o c e s s because o f i t may  not be c o n s t r u c t i v e but  and  ' f a l l a c i o u s procedure  f o r i t means g i v i n g r e c r e a t i o n to people, r a t h e r than h e l p i n g them to get i t f o r themselves'*^  Recreation  as a P a r t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e  Recreation  may  p r o p e r l y be regarded as a p a r t o f  s o c i a l welfare services.  Professional specialists i n social  1* Butler.; G . D . I n t r o d u c t i o n to"Community McGraw-Hill Co., New York, 1949, p. 7 » . 2. Slauson, L.R., A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New 3*  ;  Recreation  Recreation, and T o t a l P e r s o n a l i t y , York, 194#, p. 10.  Fitzgerald, G.B.,  the  op.  cit.  f  p.  33*  f  - 6 work, group workers and caseworkers, have become c o n s c i o u s the f a c t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n may  serve as a p r e v e n t i v e o r  of  remedial  d e v i c e f o r the " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " o f the i n d i v i d u a l to v a r i o u s environmental  c o n d i t i o n s (both good and bad).  Historically,  the r o o t s o f i n d i v i d u a l o r group i n t e r e s t i n the w e l f a r e  of  the community go deep i n t o the p a s t , but p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y E n g l i s h and North American s o c i a l w e l f a r e developments have c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d each o t h e r .  S o c i a l move-  ments a d v o c a t i n g f a c t o r y reform, p u b l i c h e a l t h and  sanitation,  e d u c a t i o n a l schemes, workmen's compensation, v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , and ents.  so f o r t h , developed  on both c o n t i n -  The Charity. O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i e t y f i r s t formed i n England  i n 1869  f o l l o w e d i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i n the 1870's.  Fitz-  g e r a l d views the c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n movement as " ... r e p r e s e n t i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f community f o r c e s to meet community needs" and thus, "... the b e g i n n i n g s tion."  of community o r g a n i z a -  1  Two  separate developments o f importance i n e a r l y s o c i a l  work were the settlement house and community c e n t r e i d e a s .  The  settlement house i n v o l v e d the p r o v i s i o n o f s e r v i c e to the lower social classes.  E s t a b l i s h e d i n b l i g h t e d and  socially  dis-  o r g a n i z e d urban a r e a s , the settlement house endeavoured to r a i s e the moral o f the l o c a l community by h e l p i n g the r e s i d e n t s to r a l l y together and meet t h e i r common needs.  1.  I b i d , p. 48-49. • • • • •"  • .  The  settlement  1  - 7 house was  instrumental  i n h e l p i n g to o r g a n i z e  community c o u n c i l s  p a r t i c u l a r l y those o f a neighbourhood nature. house p h i l o s o p h y  "Settlement  w i t h i t s emphasis on l o c a l communities to  t h e i r problems had  much i n f l u e n c e on community  organization  through c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s , neighbourhood surveys, wide a c t i o n through f e d e r a t i o n o f s e t t l e m e n t s . " ^ r e c r e a t i o n was  not the prime purpose o f the  r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s were, and p a r t o f the settlement is  still  programme.  still  and  city-  Although  settlement  are today, an  Today the  solve  house, important  settlement  house  making an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to many communities  even though s h i f t o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s , emergence o f new  social  needs and  to change  o t h e r developments have caused s e t t l e m e n t s  t h e i r c h a r a c t e r more than once i n t h e i r h i s t o r y , to move from one  to another community, o r to c l o s e  Community O r g a n i z a t i o n  for  I n the b e g i n n i n g , U n i t e d S t a t e s was  entirely.  Recreation  the community c e n t r e movement i n the  r e l a t e d to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s c h o o l  build-  i n g s f o r community groups as w e l l a s f o r p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n services.  Community o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r r e c r e a t i o n has  been  d e f i n e d by F i t z g e r a l d as: "... The development and maintenance o f l e a d e r s h i p f a c i l i t i e s and programme o r s e r v i c e s t h a t w i l l promote optimum r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l the people o f a community. I t i n c l u d e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s among a l l the r e c r e a t i o n r e s o u r c e s o f a community t h a t w i l l assure c o o p e r a t i o n , c o o r d i n a t i o n , and community s o l i d a r i t y as a b a s i s f o r the o p p o r t u n i t i e s . I t means d e v e l o p i n g and  1.  I b i d . j p.  56  $ mm  m a i n t a i n i n g a s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s designed t o p r e s e n t r e s o u r c e s t o meet needs and,to e s t a b l i s h new r e s o u r c e s i f t h e i r need i s i n d i c a t e d . The  nature o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n has been d e s c r i b e d  many, d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s o f view.  As used i n community  t i o n i n s o c i a l work the term ^community a geographic e n t i t y .  1  from  organiza-  i m p l i e s much more than  I t may a l s o mean a community o f  i n t e r e s t o r f u n c t i o n c u t t i n g across geographical  l i n e s ...  l e i s u r e time a f f i l i a t i o n s may be w i t h people i n many d i f f e r e n t geographic communities ....  Thus, we a l s o f i n d a tendency f o r  s o c i a l a g e n c i e s t o be organized  around areas o f i n t e r e s t o r  need, w i t h many o f the l i n e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n b e i n g  'vertical  1  from one agency i n a l o c a l community to i t s s t a t e and n a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t e s and t o s i m i l a r programmes i n other communities, and not  ' h o r i z o n t a l ' to other types o f agencies i n the same c i t y . Years ago, Jesse F. S t e i n e r s t a t e d t h a t  'the r e a l meaning  o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n appears when i t i s looked  upon as an  e s s e n t i a l and c o n t i n u o u s p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s and not merel y as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e v i c e developed w i t h i n r e c e n t  years.  T h i s viewpoint sheds important l i g h t on c u r r e n t o p i n i o n s on community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s .  C.F. M c N e i l , i n d e f i n i n g  community o r g a n i z a t i o n p o i n t s out t h a t "... i t i s the p r o c e s s by which p e o p l e s o f communities, as i n d i v i d u a l c i t i z e n s o r as  1.  I b i d . , p. 2 2 . -  2. Murphy, C , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n M i f f l i n e Co., New York, 1954, p.. 9.  P r a c t i c e . Houghton-  3e - Steiner,, J . , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n . York, 1925, p. 330. . .  Centry Co., New  - 9 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f groups, j o i n together welfare  t o determine  social  needs, p l a n ways o f meeting them, and m o b i l i z e  the  M1  necessary  resources."  Community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e i s now method w i t h i n the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n . a p p l i e d only to r e c r e a t i o n o f course but the most r e l e v a n t f o r the present  an accepted  I t need not  be  the a p p l i c a t i o n s are  study.  Wilbur L.  Newstetter  b e l i e v e s the committee i s "...  the major s e t t i n g f o r community  o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e ..."  t h a t "the most important  and  o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker i s to enable by s h i p ' an,intergroup  p r o c e s s to take p l a c e . "  emphasizes t h a t the i n t e r g r o u p  leader-  Newstetter  p r o c e s s must "...  adjustment r e l a t i o n s between groups and o f the members and  'indirect  deal with  not the p e r s o n a l  "have a ' s e l e c t e d g o a l ' i n order f o r  achievement o f purpose i n t h i s p r o c e s s . "  skill  the  needs the  Other s c h o l a r s have  been h i g h l y c r i t i c a l o f Newstetter's p r o p o s a l s .  A r t h u r Dunham  views the r o l e o f thevcommunity o r g a n i z a t i o n worker as "... of c r e a t i v e leadership." as a "... . c r e a t i v e p a r t n e r  I n t h i s sense the worker i s v i s u a l i z e d and p a r t i c i p a n t i n the  o f o b j e c t i v e s as w e l l as .the expert organization."^  that  determination  i n the p r o c e s s o f community  * •  •  •  .>,  .-,  • .l"\r.i  '  rxKprw ••  1. M c N e i l , C.F., Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l Welfare * S o c i a l Work Tear Book, 1951 (New York, American A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers,-1951, p. 123* 2. Newstetter, W.L., "The S o c i a l Intergroup, Work P r o c e s s " , Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work. 1947, p.205. 3. Dunham, A r t h u r , "What i s the «Iob o f the Community Organi z a t i o n Worker." P r o c e e d i n g s o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, 1948, p. 168. - • :  r  10 -  Another viewpoint expressed by C.F. M c N e i l  describes  s e v e r a l methods w i t h i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e .  These  are:  con-  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p r o c e s s o f r e c o r d i n g , r e s e a r c h ,  s u l t a t i o n , group conference, committee o p e r a t i o n , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , m o b i l i z a t i o n , and n e g o t i a t i o n . ^ these approaches s t r e s s d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s organization process, the r e s o u r c e s  Although  o f t h e community  most o f these workers would agree t h a t  must be a p p l i e d to t h e development o f the  community i f p r o g r e s s i s t o be sound. Campbell Murphy has i n t r o d u c e d  a new concept, t h a t o f  the p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c r e t i o n t o be used by the community o r g a n i z a t i o n worker.  Professional d i s c r e t i o n i s described  as:  "... knowing when t o use which methods, and i n knowing * 2 through what groups t o work i n u s i n g t h e method s e l e c t e d . "  Murphy concludes t h a t ".•. the p r a c t i c e o f community  organiza-  t i o n i s the a r t o f i n v o l v i n g the community i n i t s own s o c i a l d e s t i n y , o f e n a b l i n g i t t o meet i t s needs as determined by itself.""^  L i k e the i n d i v i d u a l i n s o c i a l casework p r a c t i c e , o r  the group i n s o c i a l group work p r a c t i c e , t h e community i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e i s enabled t o s t a r t from where it  i s thought o f b e i n g d i f f e r e n t , i n having unique  character-  1. M c N e i l * C . F . j "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l W e l f a r e " S o c i a l Work Year Book ~1951 New York: American Assn. o f S o c i a l • W o r k e r S j 1951* p. 124-25. r  f  2. Murphy, C., Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e . HoughtonM i f f l i n Co., New. York, 1954, p. -2$T 3.  I b i d . . p. 20.  - 11  -  i s t i c s from o t h e r communities; and i t i s b e l i e v e d capable o f s o l v i n g i t s own  problems*  v  R e c r e a t i o n a l Resources L i k e other s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n has expanded i n r e c e n t decades to i n c l u d e a g r e a t number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f a p u b l i c and p r i v a t e nature. S t a t e s F i t z g e r a l d has i n t o s i x separate  periods*  The  f i r s t p e r i o d , from the c h a r i t y  by c o o p e r a t i o n between s o c i a l agencies,  and groups*  The  and  United  c l a s s i f i e d , the development o f r e c r e a t i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n movement to the f i r s t world war,  of settlements,  I n the  was  characterized  community programmes  the r i s e o f s t a t e and n a t i o n a l agencies  second p e r i o d , 1914-1#, represented  community  m o b i l i z a t i o n f o r emergency purposes and i n t e n s i f i e d the use community f a c i l i t i e s .  The National Recreation Association  formed i n t h i s p e r i o d . r e g i o n a l and  -  There was  was  a rise of c i t y , state,  n a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g groups i n the n i n e t e e n  the t h i r d phase i n the development o f r e c r e a t i o n . time, "...  of  twenties,  At  this  r e a l i z a t i o n came t h a t a l l groups and agencies  and  i n s t i t u t i o n s must p l a y a l a r g e r p a r t i n community l i f e than t h a t to which they had been a c c u s t o m e d . T h e twenties  saw  nineteen  the expansion o f the Community Chests and  and  the e v a l u a t i o n o f aims and  The  depression beginning  g r a d u a l l y under the New  i n 1929  Councils  o b j e c t i v e s o f many o r g a n i z a t i o n s * marked the f o u r t h p e r i o d ;  Deal i n n o v a t i o n s i n r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s  !• F i t z g e r a l d / G.B.. Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r A.I, Barnes Co., New York,.1949, p. 65.  Recreation.  - 12came t o f r u i t i o n .  F e d e r a l r e c r e a t i o n p r o j e c t s such as the  a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l s c r e a t e d by the Work P r o j e c t s  Administration  c o n t r i b u t e d t o c l o s e r p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o o p e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and s h a r i n g community needs, g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community r e c r e a t i o n , expansion o f l e g i s l a t i o n , and the development o f p r o f e s s i o n a l education- f o r r e c r e a t i o n i n the nineteen  thirties.  World War I I , the f i f t h p e r i o d ,  accentuated  need f o r the a p p l i c a t i o n o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n methods t o l o c a l and n a t i o n a l needs.  The American Red C r o s s and U n i t e d  S e r v i c e s O r g a n i z a t i o n enabled thousands o f c i t i z e n s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the war e f f o r t and thus, v o l u n t e e r e f f o r t s became more and more accepted welfare  i n r e c r e a t i o n and many o f the o t h e r  services.  social  The l o a n i n g o f s t a f f members o f the N a t i o n a l  R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n t o Government a g e n c i e s and t h e renewal o f community c o u n c i l s were o t h e r important i n f l u e n c e s o f the war  period.  The s i x t h and f i n a l p e r i o d , the p r e s e n t p o s t war  e r a , has continued  many o f the war-born s e r v i c e s .  I n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s , the s t a t e governments assumed some o f the cons u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s c a r r i e d on by the F e d e r a l Government d u r i n g the war.  C o - o r d i n a t i o n and j o i n t p l a n n i n g i n v o l v i n g the  d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s o f Government were c r e a t e d w i t h an emphasis on l o c a l needs.  One example o f t h i s t r e n d i s the growing  community c e n t r e movement, which has c h a r a c t e r i z e d Canada as w e l l as the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  F r e q u e n t l y . e s t a b l i s h e d as war  memorials, community c e n t r e s have been encouraged by m u n i c i p a l governments.  C o n t r o l over p o l i c y and programme has been u s u a l l y  - 13 l e f t i n t h e hands o f c i t i z e n groups, a s s i s t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained leaders. and  The degree o f j o i n t p l a n n i n g between p u b l i c  p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n agencies has v a r i e d from one geographic  a r e a t o another; the need f o r j o i n t p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  coopera-  t i o n i n meeting r e c r e a t i o n a l need remains as one o f the major concerns o f the p r e s e n t day. Public Recreation —  Areas o f R e s p o n s i b i l i t y  As w i t h o t h e r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n Canada, a l l governments — and  municipal,  p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l — h a v e become more  more i n v o l v e d w i t h r e c r e a t i o n .  by g r e a t e r  This s i t u a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d  t a x budgets a l l o t t e d t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , and a  g r e a t e r p u b l i c acceptance o f r e c r e a t i o n as an i n h e r e n t modern l i v i n g . joyable  part of  No l o n g e r does the p u r i t a n i c a l view t h a t en-  l e i s u r e i s e v i l p r e s e n t a f o r m i d a b l e stumbling b l o c k  to r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g , as i t d i d i n the p a s t .  The p u b l i c  agency's i n c r e a s i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n d i c a t e the r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t r e c r e a t i o n f u l f i l l s a b a s i c human need and has c o n s t r u c t i v e v a l u e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . The  entrance o f the p u b l i c agency i n r e c r e a t i o n has not  removed the p r i v a t e agency, f o r as F i t z g e r a l d notes "... communi t y recreation includes a l l recreation opportunities i n the community o f a p r i v a t e , v o l u n t a r y , character."  1.  /  existing  commercial, and p u b l i c  1  F i t z g e r a l d , G.B., p . 1 4 .  c  The  14  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f p u b l i c and  r e c r e a t i o n have been c l a s s i f i e d  p r i v a t e agencies i n  as:  "(1) Development and maintenance o f major r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , such as p a r k s , p l a y - f i e l d s , t e n n i s c o u r t s , swimming p o o l s and beaches, g o l f c o u r s e s , and p i c n i c a r e a s i s a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and one t h a t depends upon support from p u b l i c funds. (2) P r o v i s i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p , equipment, and s u p p l i e s f o r an i n c l u s i v e programme o f o r g a n i z e d r e c r e a t i o n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l the people i s a l s o the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f the p u b l i c agency and o r d i n a r i l y i s d i s c h a r g e d by the s c h o o l s and government r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s . (3) O r g a n i z i n g and m a i n t a i n i n g l e a d e r s h i p and p r o gramme s e r v i c e s , f o r s m a l l groups, some o f which may be s e l f - o r g a n i z e d and s e l f - d e t e r m i n e d i s a f u n c t i o n i n which p r i v a t e agencies are most conspicuous. They g i v e much a t t e n t i o n t o the group p r o c e s s and the i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s of. group members. Because they are not charged w i t h a s e r v i c e to a l l , p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s are i n a s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n to f u l f i l l t h i s f u n c t i o n . " 1  These c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are l a i d down as a standard f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l planning.  future  As many communities s t i l l do not have  adequate p u b l i c s e r v i c e s the p r i v a t e agency has  continued to  p r o v i d e s e r v i c e t h a t would otherwise be c o n s i d e r e d the  function  o f the p u b l i c agency. Where do the v a r i o u s v i n c i a l and service?  government l e v e l s , m u n i c i p a l ,  pro-  f e d e r a l , f i t i n t o the p a t t e r n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l  S t r o n g support i s g i v e n today to the b e l i e f t h a t  the  l o c a l community i t s e l f should remain as the c o n t r o l l i n g agent o f community r e c r e a t i o n .  Supporters o f t h i s argument b e l i e v e  a maximum degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y w i l l r e s u l t from such an arrange-  - 15 ment.  Consequently, the m u n i c i p a l government, h a v i n g a c l o s e r  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h l o c a l communities has remained as the a u t h o r i t y w i t h d i r e c t c o n t r o l over p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n .  The methods by  which the m u n i c i p a l government a d m i n i s t e r s the s e r v i c e may differ.  I n Canada, park boards, s c h o o l b o a r d s , and sometimes  r e c r e a t i o n commissions have been charged w i t h the main work. The  i n f l u e n c e o f the s t a t e and p r o v i n c i a l governments i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s  and Canada, r e s p e c t i v e l y , has i n c r e a s e d  the p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n .  with  Inter-dependence and  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f government have an important i n f l u e n c e on r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n s a t a l l l e v e l s . State o r P r o v i n c i a l a u t h o r i t i e s have been c r e a t e d  to stimulate  r e c r e a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g and to s t r e n g t h e n the e x i s t i n g community services.  Providing  f i n a n c i a l s e r v i c e s , studying  needs, d e v e l o p i n g a d v i s o r y  or consultative  recreational  channels,  holding  conferences f o r l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , promoting standards f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , s t i m u l a t i n g  recreation  i n r u r a l a r e a s , and developing methods o f r e c r u i t i n g p r o f e s s i o n a l workers are some o f the f u n c t i o n s which f a l l t o the  s t a t e o r p r o v i n c i a l governments. Federal  governments o f both U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada  are a f u r t h e r source o f a s s i s t a n c e  to l o c a l communities i n  developing r e c r e a t i o n a l services.  Many f e d e r a l a g e n c i e s ,  departments and d i v i s i o n s o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s ment are p r e s e n t l y  National  Govern-  involved with d i f f e r e n t aspects o f r e c r e a t i o n .  Numerous n a t i o n a l concerns such as p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s a l s o c l o s e l y  - 16 associated  w i t h f e d e r a l government f u n c t i o n s i n r e c r e a t i o n .  P r i v a t e Agency R e c r e a t i o n a l  Responsibility  With the advent o f i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n the p r i v a t e agency i n the l e i s u r e time f i e l d i s more and more stressing a specialized function.  P r i v a t e agencies,  because o f f l e x i b i l i t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  generally  a r e c o n t i n u i n g to  experiment and t o meet new needs a r i s i n g i n s o c i e t y .  With t h i s  changing r o l e p r i v a t e agencies have endeavoured to r a i s e t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e r a t h e r than n e c e s s a r i l y i n c r e a s i n g programme volume.  However, t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f more l e i s u r e time than  ever b e f o r e i s causing  p r i v a t e agencies to i n c r e a s e  of services accordingly.  the volume  The s e t t l e m e n t o r neighbourhood  houses are now g i v i n g emphasis to s e r v i n g the f a m i l y h i g h l y t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers.  through  Recreation,  group  work a c t i v i t i e s , and f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g a r e a more important a s p e c t o f s e t t l e m e n t house programme than ever b e f o r e .  The  Boys' Club movement has continued t o remain p r i m a r i l y an agency s e r v i n g boys between the ages o f e i g h t and e i g h t e e n even though e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n o f s e r v i n g the o l d e r age group has taken p l a c e i n c e r t a i n l o c a l Boys' C l u b s . as a f e a t u r e ated  T h i s agency a l s o  o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s l o c a t i n g mainly i n d e t e r i o r -  communities o f low socio-economic standing.  p r i v a t e agency s e r v i c e s are c o n t i n u i n g  Finally,  t o expand sometimes  through the c r e a t i o n o f new a g e n c i e s o r movements such as the L i t t l e League B a s e b a l l programme i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  Through a l l  these t r e n d s and o t h e r s the p r i v a t e agency today i s supplement-  - 17 i n g t h e p u b l i c agency, commercial r e c r e a t i o n and f a m i l y l e i s u r e time i n p r o v i d i n g  a community r e c r e a t i o n programme*  The .Origin o f t h e Young Mens The Y ,  I  Christian  1  Association*  i s one o f the o l d e s t and most u b i q u i t o u s o f a l l  private recreational organizations. p l a c e i n London, England i n 1844,  The b i r t h o f t h e YMCA took a movement l i k e many o t h e r s  emerging a t t h e time attempting t o o f f s e t the i d e a s and worst f e a t u r e o f urban and i n d u s t r i a l growth.  C i t i e s were over-  crowded and u n s a n i t a r y  providing  a_meagre and d u l l  existence  f o r young men r e q u i r e d  t o work l o n g and arduous hours o f l a b o u r .  W i t h i n t h i s environment i t was n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t  various  s o c i a l i l l s i n c l u d i n g e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g , gambling, and o t h e r forms o f v i c e were common o u t l e t s as a temporary r e l i e f from the drab l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s . group o f young men employed the need t o c r e a t e constructive  The founders o f t h e YMCA were a i n the t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y .  f o r themselves a g r e a t e r  social outlets.  They saw  opportunity f o r  Through l e c t u r e s ,  discussions,  p r a y e r meetings, and p u b l i c debates the founders endeavored t o stimulate  t h e i r own p e r s o n a l growth and m a t u r i t y .  was b o r n o u t o f the P r o t e s t a n t  The movement  Christian tradition involving  s e v e r a l denominations. "... While the v a l u e s and standards a c c e p t e d by George W i l l i a m s and h i s c o l l e a g u e s who formed the f i r s t YMCA were those c u r r e n t i n many P r o t e s t a n t c i r c l e s , the method,of winning men t o these was new. There was l i t t l e o f the f o r m a l i t y o f the Church, there was no adherence t o denomin* H e r e a f t e r the Young Mens' C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o i n the f o l l o w i n g terms: "YMCA", " A s s o c i a t i o n " and "Y".  - 18 a t i o n a l creeds o r dogmas, there was no c l e r g y o r t r a i n e d a u t h o r i t y t o d i r e c t t h i s work. T h e i r approach was r a t h e r , simple and a t t r a c t i v e , d i r e c t e d a t those w i t h whom the members worked, developed w i t h an eye both t o the g o s p e l they a c c e p t e d and the e v i l s which m i l i t a t e d a g a i n s t i t s acceptance and d i s s e m i n a t i o n . " 1  The A s s o c i a t i o n grew throughout the i n d u s t r i a l c e n t r e s of  England as a s e l f g o v e r n i n g , v o l u n t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n which  sought t o p r o v i d e i n t e r e s t i n g l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s a s a means o f l e a d i n g young men t o "the C h r i s t i a n way o f l i f e . " The e v a n g e l i c a l z e a l o f the founders o f t h e Y.M.C.A. was t h e m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n the spread o f t h e "Y" movement to  c o n t i n e n t a l Europe and t o the B r i t i s h North American  i n c e s i n 1851.  Prov-  The r e a s o n f o r the e x i s t e n c e o f t h e YMCA i n  North America was q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s English origin.  L i f e i n the predominantly r u r a l p o p u l a t e d  country was -regarded as ' d u l l ' and ' p r i m i t i v e ' . North American YMCA members appeared  The e a r l y  t o be i m p a t i e n t w i t h the  r o l e o f p a s s i v e r e c i p i e n t a l l o t t e d t o e n t h u s i a s t i c young l a y C h r i s t i a n s i n any one o f the major P r o t e s t a n t denominational Churches.  As i n England e a r l y members o f North  American  A s s o c i a t i o n s d i d n o t seek t o break away from the Church b u t r a t h e r t o seek o u t and share C h r i s t i a n standards and v a l u e s w i t h a group o f young men h o l d i n g s i m i l a r c o n v i c t i o n s .  The  sparse r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n p r e s e n t e d a , r e a l need f o r f e l l o w s h i p and e x p e r i e n c e s p r o v i d i n g r e s o u r c e s f o r e n r i c h i n g one's  1. Ross. M.G., The Y.M.C.A. i n Canada Toronto, 1951, p . 5. .. .  f  The Ryp-r^n  life.  P ^  g  Q  - 19  -  L i k e the e a r l y E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n s , the YMCA's i n Canada p r o v i d e d  r e a d i n g rooms, l i b r a r i e s and  as a means o f a t t r a c t i n g young men records  lecture series  to the movement.  t h a t i n t e r e s t i n being w e l l - i n f o r m e d ,  and  Ross  community  s e r v i c e , were the reasons f o r the o r i g i n a t i o n o f the Canadian IMCA. "... The fundamental d r i v e s which l e d to the i n i t i a t i o n o f the YMCA were ... the need f o r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a s i m i l a r age group whose members shared a common purpose, p r o v i d e d support and encouragement f o r each other i n the p u r s u i t o f t h i s purpose, were i n t e r e s t e d i n ' p r a c t i c a l C h r i s t i a n s e r v i c e ' , and were concerned w i t h s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s which might e n r i c h t h e i r l i v e s and, a t the same time, b r i g h t e n the l i f e o f the community. 1  The  Growth o f the Canadian Y.M.C.A. The  1851  —  f i r s t Canadian YMCA was  (1851  to  1945)  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Montreal i n  o n l y seven y e a r s a f t e r the i n i t i a t i o n i n London.  Many  o f the e a r l y Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w e d were t r a n s i e n t and u n s u c c e s s f u l .  U n l i k e England where A s s o c i a t i o n s grew out  o f an attempt to meet a s p e c i a l set o f needs f o r young Canadian YMCA's emphasized g e n e r a l mission  type,  evangelism o f the  men,  city  the conduct o f M i s s i o n Sunday s c h o o l s i n depressed  a r e a s , and v i s i t s to j a i l s and h o s p i t a l s .  Both Canadian and  E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n s drew from the e v a n g e l i c a l r e v i v a l o f t h e nineteenth The  century,  the f a c t o r s which moved them to a c t i o n .  e v a n g e l i c a l r e v i v a l o f the 1850's was  a deeply moving  f a i t h , based on B i b l e a u t h o r i t y r a t h e r than Church c o u n c i l s ,  1.  I b i d . . p.  9  - 20 and r e q u i r i n g t e s t i n g by p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n was a l s o g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by a development  i n the Hew York YMCA, i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  I n Albany i n 1866,  a t t h e e l e v e n t h annual convention o f t h e  American and Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n s , a p r o p o s a l was p u t f o r t h by Mr. Gephes Brannard, a layman, and Mr. Robert R. McBurney, the G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y , that "the YMCA should l i m i t a c t i v i t i e s t o C h r i s t i a n work f o r and by young men."  their This pro-  p o s a l f o r s p e c i f i c work by young men f o r young men was based upon a d e t a i l e d survey o f c o n d i t i o n s a f f e c t i n g t h e l i f e o f young men i n New York C i t y .  P u b l i s h e d i n 1866 i t showed:  " . . . t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f s t r a n g e r s , the i n a t t e n t i o n o f employers t o the i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r employees, the low s a l a r i e s , the e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f s o c i e t y , the drab c o n d i t i o n o f b o a r d i n g houses, the p r e v a l e n c e and unf o r t u n a t e e f f e c t s o f gambling, drunkenness and p r o s t i t u t i o n , the absence o f young men from the churches, and the l i m i t e d nature o f any e d u c a t i o n a l o r c u l t u r a l opportunity."1 There was another most important i n f l u e n c e i n the development o f the North American YMCA a r i s i n g from the recommendation and that,was the YMCA b u i l d i n g planned by t h e New York A s s o c i a tion.  The type o f b u i l d i n g t h a t was to be w i d e l y f o l l o w e d was  comprehensive, w e l l u n i f i e d and p r a c t i c a l , and c o n t a i n e d a r e c e p t i o n room, o r l o b b y , r e a d i n g room, l i b r a r y ,  recreation  room, lounge, l e c t u r e room, gymnasium, b a t h s , bowling a l l e y s ,  - 1. The Canadian YMCA Study Committee^ The Years Ahead, A P l a n f o r t h e Canadian YMCA i n the Next Decade, The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f the YMCA».s o f Canada, Toronto, 1945, p. 3 2 - 3 3 .  - 21  -  numerous e d u c a t i o n a l classrooms and an The  auditorium.  development o f the Canadian YMCA c l o s e l y  followed  the g e n e r a l growth o f the n a t i o n i n the p e r i o d between and  1900*  There was  a s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f A s s o c i a t i o n work to  meet p a r t i c u l a r needs o f young men Some o f these  l i v i n g i n Canadian c i t i e s .  s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s included p h y s i c a l education,  a d u l t education, war  1871  camping, r e l i g i o u s e d u c a t i o n ,  s e r v i c e s and work w i t h r a i l r o a d men.  made i n boys work although  the p h i l o s o p h y  follow u n t i l a l a t e r period.  The  student work,  A b e g i n n i n g was  also  o f t h i s work d i d not  i n f l u e n c e o f the YMCA i n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s i n methods o f work i n Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n a c h i e v i n g a degree o f f l e x i b i l i t y the p i o n e e r i n g o f s e r v i c e s to the above s p e c i a l The  Canadian YMCA Study.Committee, o f 1945  permitted groupings.  noted:  "... The purpose and method o f the A s s o c i a t i o n came to be accepted i n Canadian l i f e . It's.work was e f f e c t i v e and w i d e l y supported. T h i s l e d to g r e a t e r s t a b i l i t y i n i t ' s work and more new l o c a l YMCA's were opened, b u i l d i n g s e r e c t e d , and fewer YMCA's.lapsed or were discontinued." 1  From 1900  to 1924  a continued  as a symbol o f the YMCA movement was expansion.  growth i n YMCA b u i l d i n g s an accepted  An e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n o f work had  method o f  taken p l a c e  which made f o r g r e a t e r c l a r i t y o f purpose o f newer A s s o c i a t i o n s . The YMCA b u i l d i n g i s a c c r e d i t e d w i t h c r e a t i n g g r e a t e r p u b l i c understanding  1.  and  I b i d . , p.  support  39  f o r the YMCA.  At the same time the  22 b u i l d i n g development w i t h s e v e r a l departments made f o r elements o f a n i n s t i t u t i o n which was t o become l a r g e and impersonal i n character;  a f a c t o r which was t o become an adverse  to t h e . p i o n e e r i n g  s p i r i t o f t h e movement i n some  deterent  instances*  With the continued growth o f Canada, A s s o c i a t i o n saw t h e need f o r c r e a t i n g a n a t i o n a l body.  The Canadian  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f YMGA's i n Canada was c r e a t e d body.  leaders  as an a d v i s o r y  Laymen and employed o f f i c e r s , - c a l l e d " s e c r e t a r i e s " , were  eager f o r a n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y .  They were a l s o eager to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n meetings w i t h American A s s o c i a t i o n s  and t o  m a i n t a i n a c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h programme development t o t h e south.  The s i m i l a r i t y o f programme a c t i v i t i e s i n the two  c o u n t r i e s i s i n d i c a t i v e o f the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p and exchange o f i d e a s - a t f r a t e r n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and conventionsWar s e r v i c e s during_1914 and 1918 gave the YMCA an opportunity  o f extending i t s b u i l d i n g s and r e s o u r c e s t o the  military services.  Although a p u b l i c i n q u i r y of--YMCA war  s e r v i c e s , which was c a r r i e d o u t a t the i n s i s t e n c e o f A s s o c i a t i o n leaders, revealed subscribed returning  there had not been a misuse o f  funds, c r i t i c i s m o f t h e YMCA was v o i c e d by some s e r v i c e men p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d  to overcharging.  The War S e r v i c e r e p r e s e n t e d a l a r g e s c a l e o p e r a t i o n by a p r i v a t e r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t was to b r i n g about the Association's  f i r s t r e a l experience o f p u b l i c d i s f a v o u r .  This  circumstance was t o c a r r y f o r t h i n t o f o l l o w i n g decades and was heard as r e c e n t l y a s the C a p i t a l Fund D r i v e o f YMCA o f G r e a t e r  - 23 Vancouver i n 1 9 5 7 , more perhaps by A s s o c i a t i o n p e r s o n n e l who were cognizant  o f t h i s p e r i o d r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l p u b l i c *  " • . . D r . Gwen Pense expresses t h i s p o i n t o f view i n r e f e r r i n g t o a s i m i l a r and perhaps more widespread and p e r s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e i n the United States. Perhaps the b a s i c e r r o r , i f such i t was, c o n s i s t s i n attempting t o p l a y such a comprehensive r o l e . I t would seem i m p o s s i b l e f o r a P r o t e s t a n t r e l i g i o u s o r g a n i z a t i o n , even i n war time, t o a c t a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l the people. C i v i l i a n i n c h a r a c t e r as i t was, i t c o u l d not become a p u b l i c agency o r serve i n a p u b l i c c a p a c i t y without exposing i t s e l f t o the r e s e r v a t i o n s o r r e s i s t a n c e o f those who h e l d fundamental doubt a s t o i t ' s d i s i n t e r estedness; the f a c t t h a t 'the American A s s o c i a t i o n s encountered the same d i f f i c u l t y as the Canadian b u t i the B r i t i s h d i d not', l e n d s support t o t h i s . d e d u c t i o n . " Other YMCA programmes i n c l u d i n g an expanding boys* membership i n camping, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n Clubs;  a d u l t education  c l a s s e s ; and a p h y s i c a l  programme t h a t was t o p i o n e e r examples o f the tions*  c l a s s e s and H i Y education  t h i s f i e l d i n Canada; were  growing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s w i t h i n many A s s o c i a -  The Canadian YMCA was b a s i c a l l y an urban o r l a r g e  c i t y movement f o r there was l i t t l e The  success i n r u r a l  areas*  p e r i o d from 1921 t o 1945 i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  s e v e r a l changes i n Canadian l i f e  t h a t were t o a l t e r the YMCA*  The  r o a r i n g twenties,  the g r e a t d e p r e s s i o n ,  and r e c e n t World  War  c r e a t e d an unstable  The  A s s o c i a t i o n was r e q u i r e d t o d e a l e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h educa-  environment f o r the n a t i o n s '  youth.  t i o n a l t h e o r i e s c h a l l e n g i n g t r a d i t i o n a l concepts o f youth work where r i g i d measures o f d i s c i p l i n e r a t h e r than i n d i v i d u a l  1.  I b i d . , p. 44*  - 24 s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and s e l f - i n i t i a t i v e were encouraged.  YMCA  s e c r e t a r i e s were r e q u i r e d t o r a i s e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l  standards  and to re-examine work methods.  The new e d u c a t i o n f o s t e r e d  A s s o c i a t i o n l e a d e r s t o p l a c e g r e a t e r importance on the primary group and t o c r y s t a l i z e i d e a s on neighbourhood and s c h o o l clubs.  Changing community r e l a t i o n s w i t h the growth o f  Community Chest and Welfare  C o u n c i l s r e q u i r e d the YMCA t o f i n d  a d i s t i n c t i v e p l a c e i n broadening  community r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  Widespread i n t e r e s t i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s i n s t i t u t e s l e d the A s s o c i a t i o n t o i n i t i a t e programmes such as So-Ed which was to p r o v i d e a n o t i c e a b l e broadening  o f the i n t e l l e c t u a l  concerns  o f YMCA young a d u l t groups. I n the war p e r i o d b e g i n n i n g 1939 t h e YMCA shared  with  three other agencies i n p r o v i d i n g a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s t o men i n uniform.  Although  t h e r e were fewer programme i n n o v a t i o n s  and l e s s freedom f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n i n the 1939 t o 1945 war p e r i o d t h e r e was f a r l e s s r i s k to m a i n t a i n i n g p o s i t i v e t i o n s to the Canadian community.  rela-  The. number o f A s s o c i a t i o n s  d i d not increase r a p i d l y during t h i s period but: "... There was growth, however, a t a deeper l e v e l r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t e r c l e a r n e s s o f purpose, knowledge o f improved methods o f work and b e t t e r r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the community." 1  A s i g n i f i c a n t development d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , although u n s u c c e s s f u l , was the expansion  planned  largely  i n suburban a r e a s o f  - 25 l a r g e c i t i e s , s m a l l e r towns and the r u r a l community.. The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l employed f i v e f i e l d s t a f f members t o f a c i l i t a t e a programme o f planned expansion.  Two reasons have been  o f f e r e d t o e x p l a i n t h e f a i l u r e o f the p r o j e c t . few  communities were a p p r a i s e d  i n regard  To b e g i n w i t h ,  t o t h e i r a b i l i t y to  f i n a n c i a l l y support a p r i v a t e membership o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e the YMCA, secondly, the A s s o c i a t i o n s '  traditional building  were n o t . i n many cases adaptable t o the s o c i a l  services  conditions*  p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e suburban o r r u r a l community. " . . . T h e f i r s t attempts a t e x t e n s i o n i n t o suburban a r e a s merely used s c h o o l gymnasiums and swimming p o o l s to accomodate the mass p h y s i c a l programme c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the A s s o c i a t i o n . i n i t s c i t y b u i l d i n g s . Later developments, however, s u b s t i t u t e d some form of-group work. These have proved more s u c c e s s f u l . " 1  Trends i n Y.M.C.A. Work. 1945 t o I960. S i n c e the study by the Canadian YMCA the has  Association  continued t o adapt t o changing s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s  out Canada.  through-  The growth o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n and the acceptance  o f the p r i n c i p l e t h a t v a r i o u s government b o d i e s have a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o meet t h e needs o f c i t i z e n s i n l e i s u r e hours has  c o n t i n u e d the t r a n s f e r e n c e  sponsored by t h e YMCA.  of certain activities  previously  Also, a t the public, l e v e l the schools  have accepted a g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f educating t h e t o t a l p e r s o n and e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r programmes i n schools have, fore, increased  1.  i n c o n t e n t and volume.  I b i d . , p. 49•  there-  S p e c i a l youth groups  - 26 p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n t h e a r e a o f a t h l e t i c s such a s L i t t l e League B a s e b a l l have d i m i n i s h e d areas.  the need f o r YMCA s e r v i c e i n these -  Commercial r e c r e a t i o n , a l s o has continued  t o become  a w i d e l y supported e n t e r p r i s e i n the f i e l d o f music, drama, a r t , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s .  These trends and many o t h e r s  i n the l e i s u r e time h a b i t s o f people have r e q u i r e d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n t o re-examine on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s i t ' s p l a c e i n t h e modern community. I n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the changes t a k i n g p l a c e - i n modern life  the A s s o c i a t i o n through i t ' s N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l s both i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s and Canada and by l o c a l YMCA's have, conducted s e l f - s t u d i e s t o a s c e r t a i n the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f i t ' s programme services. welfare  I n a d d i t i o n , i n most l a r g e c i t i e s the YMCA through  councils i s a p a r t i c i p a n t i n s o c i a l planning i n  r e c r e a t i o n and w e l f a r e work.  t h a t has a b e a r i n g upon A s s o c i a t i o n  The i n f l u e n c e o f these s e l f - s t u d i e s upon A s s o c i a t i o n  work as w e l l a s the growth o f a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by other groups i n the community i s shown i n almost a l l departments o f YMCA's throughout the country.  G i r l s and women w i t h i n YMCA  memberships has g i v e n r i s e t o f a m i l y YMCA's and i n c r e a s e d r e l a t i o n s w i t h YWCA's. published and  I n Canada i n 1959 the Canadian YMCA  a r e p o r t on a YMCA Commission on YMCA-YWCA Relations.,'  f a m i l y YMCA's which endeavoured t o p r o v i d e  a f u t u r e basi3  T. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f YMCA's o f Canada. Report o f the YMCA Commission on YMCA-YWCA R e l a t i o n s and Family YMCA's. Toronto, 1 9 5 9 . ~  - 27 to n a t i o n a l p o l i c y r e g a r d i n g f u t u r e YMGA-YWCA working r e l a t i o n s . I n the U n i t e d S t a t e s a N a t i o n a l C o n s u l t a t i o n o f work w i t h f a m i l y and p u b l i c a t i o n o f programme g o a l s f o r work with f a m i l y was  published.  1  the  the  The i n f l u x o f p u b l i c p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  both through the s c h o o l s and community c e n t r e s and  the  antici-  pated f u t u r e growth o f these s e r v i c e s has and w i l l  continue  to c h a l l e n g e the need f o r e x t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s e r v i c e s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a r r i e d on by the YMCA.  Rather than e l i m i n a t i n g  A s s o c i a t i o n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , r e c r e a t i o n a l trends w i l l f o r g r e a t e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and  the p i o n e e r i n g o f new  by the Y's p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p e r s o n n e l .  allow  activities  YMCA•youth work  s e r v i c e s have a l s o encountered a need to s t r e s s 'purpose programme based upon e d u c a t i o n a l group work t h e o r i e s .  1  club  In t h i s  f i e l d the A s s o c i a t i o n i s p l a c i n g value on mass programmes, popular i n the p a s t , o n l y i n so f a r as they supplement the s m a l l e r s e l f - d e t e r m i n i n g group a c t i v i t i e s , where i n t e n s i v e l e a d e r s h i p brought about by a lower r a t i o o f members to group l e a d e r s c r e a t e s a more q u a l i t a t i v e programme. departments f o r m e r l y conducting  Young a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s have g i v e n  more emphasis to a combined s o c i a l and e d u c a t i o n a l programme probably b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by the So-Ed programme f i r s t operated by the Vancouver Y.M.C.A. The m u l t i p l e - s e r v i c e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the YMCA have  T. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f YMCA's o f the United S t a t e s , YMCA Working w i t h the Family , A.Report o f the N a t i o n a l Consult a t i o n , Ann Arbor, Michigan, U.S.A., March 10-11, I960. f  - 28 g e n e r a l l y been regarded by A s s o c i a t i o n p e r s o n n e l as an example o f a p i o n e e r i n g s p i r i t and f l e x i b i l i t y . men the YMCA has s i n c e branched group.  S t a r t i n g w i t h young  o u t t o serve n e a r l y every age  With t h e i n f l u x o f women and g i r l s i n t o the member-  s h i p , the e n t i r e f a m i l y i s now b e i n g accepted as members.  A  g r a d u a l l y l o w e r i n g age group i s a l s o noted i n the A s s o c i a t i o n membership.  A c t i v i t i e s a r e now sponsored by the YMCA i n  n e a r l y every phase o f l e i s u r e time endeavor.  These and o t h e r  t r e n d s have r e s u l t e d i n q u e s t i o n s about how e f f e c t i v e o r i n f l u e n t i a l . A s s o c i a t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e , when i t i s spread a wide a r e a .  over  A r e c e n t study has p r e s e n t e d f i n d i n g s which  l e n d support t o the concern o f some A s s o c i a t i o n l e a d e r s t h a t YMCA programmes a r e spread 'too t h i n a t t i t u d e s o f 'Y' members.  1  t o be i n f l u e n c i n g the  The t a b l e below i n d i c a t e s t h e p e r -  centage o f p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n YMCA programmes i s l e s s than t e n p e r cent which a p p l i e d t o young men 18 t o 29 an age group the YMCA i s supposed t o g i v e s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n : Table 1.  Some YMCA F a c t o r s i n Relationship to P o p u l a t i o n !  ( F i g u r e s shown below a r e the average as a group). Factors Members p e r 1 , 0 0 0 population loung Men members f o r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n Camp E n r o l l m e n t s p e r 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n Income p e r 1 , 0 0 0 population  f o r 25 independent YMCA's .  One Two Secretary Secretaries  Three Secretaries  88  56  50  5  6  6  6  10  7  #1,147.- ;  #1,752.  #1,413.  1. P i e r r e l , G.O., The New E x e c u t i v e i n the Smaller YMCA. A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 1 9 5 9 , P« 75*  - 29 The  A s s o c i a t i o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s t o launch i n t o new  programmes and to extend s e r v i c e s t o a wider age group o f b o t h sexes has presented a problem o f i d e n t i t y i n the community o r p u b l i c r e c o g n i t i o n o f a d i s t i n c t i v e YMCA purpose.  The  m u l t i p l e s e r v i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n i s being challenged  by an age o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n permeating throughout  Canadian s o c i e t y . The  C o n t i n u i t y and S e n s i t i v i t y o f the A s s o c i a t i o n The YMCA has c o n t i n u a l l y r e f l e c t e d the changing  o f Canadian s o c i e t y .  patterns  I t has been a keen f o l l o w e r o f new s o c i a l  i d e a s , i n a p p l i c a t i o n o f new a c t i v i t i e s and programmes. T h i s i s shown i n the l i b e r a l i z i n g o f the r e l i g i o u s emphasis o f t h e YMCA from t h e f i r s t t r a d i t i o n a l forms o f B i b l e study toward a broad and  l i b e r a l interpretation of Christian personality. "... What i s apparent i s t h a t t h e A s s o c i a t i o n d u r i n g i t ' s century o f o p e r a t i o n , has tended t o i n c o r p o r a t e i n t o i t i s ' i d e a ' o r 'purpose' o r d e f i n i t i o n o f ' C h r i s t i a n ' , such i d e a s values and a t t i t u d e s as were formed by YMCA l e a d e r s to be important o r s i g n i f i c a n t i n the c u l t u r e . o f Canada. The r e s u l t o f such i n c o r p o r a t i o n i s a g o a l and a method which many European YMCA l e a d e r s and others f i n d shocking and 'almost completely s e c u l a r ' . " t  1  The  c o n t i n u i t y o f t h e YMCA has been a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e  Association's  s e n s i t i v i t y t o community o p i n i o n .  New programmes  have been i n t r o d u c e d when i t was apparent they would be accepted by a p a r t o f the Canadian p u b l i c .  New methods based upon  1. Ross, M.G.. The YMCA i n Canada. The Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, 1951, p. 4 6 2 . •• • • ;  30progressive  educational  to f o l l o w 'progressive*  theories or at l e a s t a willingness i d e o l o g y was a c o n t i n u i n g  strength to the Association.  source o f  A r e c e p t i v e tendency o f the  A s s o c i a t i o n stems from the autonomy o f groups w i t h i n the YMCA i n c l u d i n g l o c a l boards, c l u b s and a c t i v i t i e s .  The expressed  i n t e r e s t o f young people was r e l i e d upon by A s s o c i a t i o n boards who were p r i m a r i l y businessmen c o n s e r v a t i v e by nature, b u t who r e c o g n i z e d approach.  the need f o r experimentation and f r e s h n e s s o f  The unique o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  a balance o f conservative been a c o n s i d e r a b l e  and p r o g r e s s i v e  provided  t e n d e n c i e s and has  source o f s t r e n g t h throughout t h e y e a r s .  "... There were other s t r e n g t h s i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ..•-the depth o f i t s l a y o r g a n i z a t i o n , the t e c h n i c a l "know-how" i n i t s y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n ; the f e e l i n g s o f confidence t h a t grew w i t h r a t h e r c o n s i s t a n t "success"; i t s r e l i a n c e on the c r i t e r i a o f "bigness" (which comp e l l e d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n p e r s i s t e n t l y t o seek ways and means o f expanding and thus t o develop a l e r t n e s s and a g g r e s s i v e n e s s ) ; t h e freedom and autonomy o f l o c a l YMCA and programme groups (such as H i Y, Y's Mens' e t c . , ) i n the A s s o c i a t i o n . A l l o f these f a c t o r s were i n f l u e n t i a l i n t h e growth and c o n t i n u i t y o f the Canadian YMCA." 1  Problems Emerging inline-YMCA Today An emerging problem o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n i n the present day  community i s a f a i l u r e t o a t t a i n a consensus o f o b j e c -  tives.  C o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n modern l i f e i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  o f the nature o f l i f e by scientists,, educators, s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , and t h e c l e r g y i s one f a c t o r p r e s e n t i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n o f developing  1 . I b i d . « p. 467.  d i f f i c u l t y to  a well defined objective.  A  - 31 changing r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f the YMCA i n becoming more closely-  a l l i e d with r e c r e a t i o n a l rather  -  and  w e l f a r e p l a n n i n g i n the  than a primary a l l e g i a n c e  to the C h r i s t i a n Church i s  a l s o a f a c t o r l i m i t i n g c l e a r g o a l s and ment.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n o f Roman C a t h o l i c s  a t the board and  t o the  d i r e c t i o n o f the moveand  Associa-  o r i g i n a l g o a l o f i n i t i a t i n g boys  "Prostestant C h r i s t i a n " f a i t h .  tor for increasing  This i s also a  and fac-  a vagueness o f g o a l s , when the i n t e r - f a i t h  o r C h r i s t i a n i z i n g r o l e o f the A s s o c i a t i o n As  Jews i n a c t i v i t i e s  committee l e v e l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n new  t i o n s , g r e a t l y a l t e r s the men  community  remains unanswered.  Ross r e l a t e s : "... I t i s d i f f i c u l t to secure some c l e a r consensus r e g a r d i n g primary o b j e c t i v e s of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n a h i g h l y complex s o c i e t y , but i f t h i s cannot be done f a i l u r e w i l l accentuate a l l o t h e r l e s s fundamental difficulties." 1  Of the u n r e s o l v e d problems o f the Canadian YMCA f a c i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n , others.  These are,  s e c r e t a r i a t who layman; and  two,  two  one,  main i s s u e s  the  stand out  over a l l  emergence o f an employed s t a f f or  have brought a d i f f e r i n g approach from  programme t h a t  challenge a  t r a d i t i o n a l dependence upon a comprehensive b u i l d i n g Association  P r i o r t o 1920,  1.  I b i d , p.  the  concepts of YMCA work g i v i n g emphasis to  neighbourhood d e c e n t r a l i z e d  successful  currently  471.  for  work. most s e c r e t a r i e s were r e c r u i t e d  from  - 32 b u s i n e s s men  -  among the membership*  secretaries differed l i t t l e  I n o u t l o o k the early-  from the laymen. . D u t i e s  s e c r e t a r y were performed i n areas such as: f i n a n c e , and  of  the  correspondence,  r e c o r d i n g meetings where the laymen were sometimes  l i m i t e d by a l a c k o f time.  However, as the number o f u n i v e r s i t y  graduates i n c r e a s e d w i t h s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g i n p h y s i c a l education,  s o c i a l work, or the s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , a t h e o r e t i c a l  as w e l l as p r a c t i c a l i n t e r e s t i n the A s s o c i a t i o n developed. F r i c t i o n between laymen and  o l d e r s e c r e t a r i e s and  the younger  s e c r e t a r i e s h o l d i n g a deep i n t e l l e c t u a l i n t e r e s t sometimes r e s u l t e d . . Despite  a f e a r o f deep t h i n k e r s ' w i t h i n the Assocf  i a t i o n , more and more young men  and  young women have j o i n e d  the A s s o c i a t i o n s t a f f w i t h u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g so t h a t a l e v e l o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i t i c a l o u t l o o k has The  increased.  impact o f the s e c r e t a r i a t upon the A s s o c i a t i o n i n  r e c e n t y e a r s has  sometimes r e l e g a t e d the l a y group to a super-  f i c i a l r o l e even though f i n a l a u t h o r i t y i s vested w i t h laymen. S t a f f groups may  answer questions  items d e a l t w i t h a t board and are g e n e r a l l y s e l e c t e d by  t h a t are as important  committee meetings where agendas  the s e c r e t a r i e s .  t r a i n i n g the s e c r e t a r y ' s o u t l o o k may layman's who decades.  may  as  Because o f s p e c i a l  be d i v e r g e n t  from the  become l e s s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e d than i n  previous  I n many i n s t a n c e s / s e c r e t a r i e s are r e q u i r e d to make  d e c i s i o n s and  g i v e l e a d e r s h i p when laymen are e i t h e r unconcerned  o r uneducated to the problems r e q u i r i n g d e c i s i o n s .  Many laymen  are r e l u c t a n t to d i s c u s s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s  - 33 f a c i n g t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e p r e s e n t time.  As Ross r e l a t e s ,  t h i s f a c t has an adverse e f f e c t upon u n i t y o f purpose w i t h i n the  Association "... b u t t h i s a c c e n t u a t e s the problem o f a c h i e v i n g a r e a l consensus about g o a l s and h e i g h t e n s the chances t h a t the s e c r e t a r i a l group ( o r , a t l e a s t , the younger group o f s e c r e t a r i e s ) w i l l s e t up o b j e c t i v e s f o r thems e l v e s t h a t are n e i t h e r understood nor accepted by o t h e r s i n the A s s o c i a t i o n " . 1  The  second problem f a c i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n i s r e l a t e d -  to the changing r o l e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s e c r e t a r y .  With t h e  e r e c t i o n o f t h e l a r g e b u i l d i n g YMCA i n i t i a t e d by t h e Mew York A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e YMCA became p r i m a r i l y a ' b u i l d i n g c e n t e r e d ' operation.  The energy o f YMCA p e r s o n n e l g r a d u a l l y was turned  toward a b u s i n e s s - l i k e o p e r a t i o n which i n many r e s p e c t s  pre-  sented an impersonal manner i n d e a l i n g w i t h young people. Membership income n e c e s s i t a t e d 'sell'  sponsoring programmes t h a t  the YMCA r e s u l t i n g i n a g r e a t e r percentage o f people  now j o i n the YMCA p r i m a r i l y t o use i t ' s s e r v i c e s .  A mass  membership r e q u i r e d a f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y t h a t i n a comprehens i v e YMCA has sometimes r e s u l t e d i n the m a i n t a i n i n g o f e s t a b l i s h e d programme p a t t e r n s  r a t h e r than p r o v i d i n g  activities  t h a t may be more meaningful t o young p e o p l e . I n c o n t r a s t t o the l a r g e b u i l d i n g YMCA a p a t t e r n o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d o r community work o r i g i n a t i n g i n the 1920's has emerged as an answer t o the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the newer sub-  !•  I b i d , p. 472  - 34 urban community. from s m a l l rented  C o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n o f YMCA f a c i l i t i e s  •non-equipment  1  o r • n o n - f a c i l i t y ' YMGA's e i t h e r  o r owned by the A s s o c i a t i o n t o a l i m i t e d a c t i v i t y b u i l d -  i n g have been used i n the e x t e n s i o n  o f the YMCA.  The c e n t r a l  i d e a o f t h e community approach i s t o b r i n g YMCA programme groups i n t o l o c a l neighbourhoods by u s i n g a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s such a s s c h o o l s ,  churches o r p r i v a t e homes without r e l y i n g  upon the YMCA b u i l d i n g .  YMCA t e c h n i q u e s , l e a d e r s h i p  and r e -  sources a r e i n t e g r a t e d i n t o community r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . As i n the p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t World War the s m a l l e r  A s s o c i a t i o n s who d e c e n t r a l i z e programmes through-  out the l o c a l a r e a have l a c k e d a YMCA i d e n t i t y i n c o n t r a s t  with  the comprehensive b u i l d i n g YMCA and i n some cases, have been h e a v i l y s u b s i d i z e d by Community Chest o r A s s o c i a t i o n funds. One  source has noted the A s s o c i a t i o n s  recognize  apparent i n a b i l i t y t o  the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f the community c e n t e r e d YMCA.  " . . . I n r e c e n t y e a r s there has been some honest r e c o g n i t i o n o f these problems there have been some c l e a n "breaks" w i t h t r a d i t i o n , and some courageous experimental work has begun w i t h "non-equipment community programmes", neighbourhood c l u b s , and s m a l l " l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g " and "programme" c e n t r e s . But some o f t h e p a t t e r n s s t r u c t u r e d i n the " l a r g e b u i l d i n g " e r a p e r s i s t w i t h g r e a t s t r e n g t h , and the s t a b i l i t y o f t h i s newer experimental work i s rendered d o u b t f u l by p e r s i s t e n c e o f the b e l i e f t h a t b u i l d i n g s , l e a d e r s h i p almost e x c l u s i v e l y by businessmen and l a r g e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s are t h e e s s e n t i a l a s p e c t s o f YMCA programme. These l a t t e r a r e suggested, were major f a c t o r s i n t h e success o f the YMCA i n the r a p i d l y growing Canadian c i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n i s whether these a r e not now f a c t o r s which r e s t r i c t and i n h i b i t A s s o c i a t i o n work a t some p o i n t s . . I n a day when g e n e r a l r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s and s e r v i c e s a r e m u l t i p l y i n g  -  35  r a p i d l y and when the more s e r i o u s a s p e c t s o f p e r s o n a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n are becoming more apparent, i t appears to some t h a t the A s s o c i a t i o n i s undergoing unusual d i f f i c u l t y (as a r e s u l t o f " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n " ) i n making a d a p t i o n s to a new s i t u a t i o n . " 1 The  E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Y.M.C.A. B u i l d i n g s Both the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l s o f Canada and  S t a t e s have conducted s t u d i e s and  r e p o r t s on  the  Association  methods o f extending i n t o the changing community. A s s o c i a t i o n s , notably  San F r a n c i s c o ,  United  Some l o c a l  have c a r r i e d out planned  i n s t i t u t i o n a l change to g i v e emphasis to newer phases o f A s s o c i a t i o n programme.  Other l o c a l YMCA's have implemented  p a r t i a l neighbourhood centered traditional  YMCA a c t i v i t i e s along  ' b u i l d i n g centered*  programme.  Still  with  other  A s s o c i a t i o n s remain e x c l u s i v e l y a l l i e d w i t h the l a r g e YMCA b u i l d i n g concept.  T h i s circumstance i l l u s t r a t e s there  can  be a g r e a t divergence w i t h i n the n a t i o n a l YMCA movement. a l s o p o i n t s out the degree to which the A s s o c i a t i o n  It  has  accepted newer concepts o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d YMCA programme i s difficult  to e s t a b l i s h a t t h i s time.  On  the b a s i s o f  1959  s t a t i s t i c s i t would appear community branches c o n s t i t u t e between t w e n t y - f i v e  to t h i r t y - f i v e percent  o f a l l YMCA '  branches. A study p u b l i s h e d  1.  I b i d , p. 469.  i n 1947  by the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l  of  ~  2. Sorenson, R., R e d e s i g n i n g Values f o r L i v i n g . A Case Study i n I n s t i t u t i o n a l Change, A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s . New York,  1955.  - 36 YMCA's o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s was a survey t o determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i s t r i c t branches w i t h v a r i o u s types o f buildings.  1  T h i s r e p o r t c l a s s i f i e d YMCA branches i n t o  three  categories: Type I (Non-Equipment) A r e n t e d quarter o r s m a l l YMCA used f o r o f f i c e headq u a r t e r s and l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g . Type I I ( A c t i v i t i e s b u i l d i n g ) T h i s type ranges a l l the way from s m a l l s o c i a l headq u a r t e r s , i n c l u d i n g o f f i c e s , club rooms, r e f e c t o r y and k i t c h e n e t t e f o r use o f s m a l l groups o n l y , to o f f i c e and c l u b headquarters w i t h l i m i t e d p h y s i c a l r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , such a s one a l l - p u r p o s e room t o be used f o r s o c i a l events, banquet s e r v i c e , and a t h l e t i c games, w i t h a l o c k e r and shower room ensemble. T h i s type i n c l u d e s a l l t h e shadings between Types I and I I I . Type I I I (Comprehensive B u i l d i n g ) W i l l have most o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : S o c i a l and o f f i c e headquarters w i t h J u n i o r and Senior Lounges, game room, general-purpose room, and an adequate a t h l e t i c d e p a r t ment i n c l u d i n g a gymnasium, swimming p o o l and l o c k e r rooms. T h i s type may a l s o have v a r i o u s enlargements and t r a d i t i o n s such as two gymnasiums, hand b a l l c o u r t s , h e a l t h s e r v i c e department, and food s e r v i c e equipment. These c o u l d be w i t h o r without d o r m i t o r i e s . One evaluated  hundred and twenty-five  l a r g e c i t y A s s o c i a t i o n s were  on the b a s i s o f e s t a b l i s h e d c r i t e r i a f o r branch  effectiveness.  V i s i t s by persons h a v i n g d i r e c t i n t e r v i e w s  branch p e r s o n n e l were guided by the f o l l o w i n g :  with  proportion of  IT De Marche D.F.. The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f YMCA Branches w i t h V a r i o u s Types o f B u i l d i n g s . A s s o c i a t i o n Press, New York, 1947. "™ ?  - 37 p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the branch  d i s t r i c t , p r o p o r t i o n o f regularly-  scheduled groups, number o f c l u b groups, volume o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to branch budget and number o f s t a f f ,  per-  centage o f teen-age and young a d u l t members, u t i l i z a t i o n o f community f a c i l i t i e s , c o o p e r a t i o n i n community p l a n n i n g i n c l u d i n g w e l f a r e c o u n c i l s , P.T.A.Vs, e t c . , and the amount of s u p p o r t i n g c o n s t i t u e n c y . Gn the b a s i s o f the above c r i t e r i a , the study the socio-economic  noted  r a t i n g o f a community d i d not determine  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f branch YMCA work.  S u c c e s s f u l YMCA work  can be c a r r i e d out i n communities r a n k i n g low by s o c i o economic f a c t o r s . . The l o c a t i o n o f t h e types o f YMCA b u i l d i n g s o f t h e study r e v e a l e d t h a t (a) comprehensive YMCA b u i l d i n g s were s e r v i n g o l d e r communities, (b) a c t i v i t y b u i l d i n g s served p r i m a r i l y newer and more economically f a v o u r a b l e  districts,  (c) and non-equipment branches were e s t a b l i s h e d i n the f r i n g e of  the c i t y i n newer a r e a s , and a l s o i n order  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t h e lower  socio-economic  districts  rating.  Among the f i n d i n g s o f the study were: 1. Branches w i t h comprehensive b u i l d i n g s seem t o f i n d g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n a d a p t i n g t o changing communities, and community needs than do the non-equipment and limited f a c i l i t i e s building. 2. Branches with o n l y a c t i v i t i e s f a c i l i t i e s (Type I I ) had the b e s t chance o f accomplishing e f f e c t i v e YMCA work as d e f i n e d by the c r i t e r i a o f the study.  - 3S Table 2.  Percentage o f T o t a l Number Branches i n Each F i f t h o f Branch E f f e c t i v e n e s s ^ Represented by Each Type o f Branch F a c i l i t y .  (Highest f i f t h  (5)  i n d i c a t e s h i g h e s t degree o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) . Fifths  1  2  3  4  %  %  %  %  15.  35.  21.1  15.  21.1  Type o f Facility  I II IH-a Ill-b  10.5 31.6 5.3 5.6  55.  100.  100.  Total -  20. 10.  :  .  30. 20. 100.  5  • - - High  % 6.2  56.2  26.3  ia.3 13.3  31.5  100.  100.  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s a n a l y s i s o f the f o u r types o f branch facilities, top  Type I I has the l a r g e s t percentage ( 5 6 . 2 ) i n the  f i f t h o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s . . On the o t h e r hand, the g r e a t e s t  percentage o f non-equipment (Type I) has the h i g h e s t p e r centage w i t h i n the middle f i f t h o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s .  Comprehen-  s i v e b u i l d i n g without d o r m i t o r i e s (Type I I I ) have the l a r g e s t percentage i n the upper middle f i f t h . o f Branches w i t h comprehensive  effectiveness.  f a c i l i t i e s with dormitories  I l l - b ) have the h i g h e s t percentage i n the lower middle and a l a r g e percentage i n the l o w e s t .  (Type fifth  The percentage a l s o  shows a c t i v i t i e s branches ( I I ) have a h i g h percentage f a l l i n g on the lowest f i f t h w h i l e non-equipment branches are the  1.  I b i d , p.  42.  - 39 l e a s t s u c c e s s f u l i n a c h i e v i n g the h i g h e s t degree o f e f f e c t i v e ness* Other s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g o f t h e study o f f e r s a pers p e c t i v e f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n a t the p r e s e n t time. . I n comparing the l i m i t e d b u i l d i n g branches comprehensive b u i l d i n g  ( I , and I I ) compared w i t h the  ( I l l - a and I l l - b ) the r e p o r t s t a t e d  "the non-equipment and l i m i t e d f a c i l i t i e s " b u i l d i n g seem to r e p r e s e n t a more e f f e c t i v e f o r c e f o r community i n t e g r a t i o n and o r g a n i z a t i o n , than do the branches w i t h comprehensive buildings.  Because i t was found t h a t Type I and I I b u i l d i n g s  more adequately served the c o n s t i t u e n c y they a r e i n t e n d e d t o serve the f o l l o w i n g recommendations were made: (a) That a branch with a s o c i a l - t y p e b u i l d i n g (II) be r e l a t e d t o the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s where people.live. T h i s type i s neighbourhood c e n t e r e d . (b) That the comprehensive-type b u i l d i n g I l l - a , I l l - b - b e r e l a t e d t o the b u s i n e s s or i n d u s t r i a l s e c t i o n s where men work. The purpose o f t h i s p r o p o s a l t o c e n t r e the community branch i n t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t w i t h a f o c u s upon dec e n t r a l i z e d programing  was put f o r t h when i t was noted t h e  YMCA had done an inadequate  job i n d e t e r m i n i n g the geographic  l o c a t i o n o f branches. The F a m i l y YMCA In  the t h i r t e e n y e a r s f o l l o w i n g t h i s study u n i f i e d  A s s o c i a t i o n purposes i n r e g a r d t o the e x t e n s i o n o f the movement  - 40 have not evolved.  S t a t e d purposes o r emphasis o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n sometimes appear to be more o f a statement o f words t h a n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e would d i s c l o s e . . Y e t the growth o f t h e YMGA i n newer communities has c r e a t e d i n n o v a t i o n s f o r the f u t u r e emphasis o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n .  YMCA work w i t h t h e  f a m i l y i s an i s s u e the A s s o c i a t i o n i s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o f a c e . The r a p i d r i s e i n f a m i l y memberships,  f a m i l y camping, f a m i l y  swimming, and many other programmes with the f a m i l y t h a t a l a r g e number o f A s s o c i a t i o n s a l r e a d y to a f a m i l y group.  emphasize s e r v i c e s  A new phase o f A s s o c i a t i o n experience, i t  i s probably not c l e a r l y thought out o r formulated YMCA's having f a m i l y c e n t e r e d i n strengthening  testify  programmes.  by many  The.YMCA c o n t r i b u t i o n  family l i f e , or i n e f f e c t i v e l y reaching  well-  d e f i n e d o b j e c t i v e s i n p r o v i d i n g f a m i l y e x p e r i e n c e s have not as y e t been f u l l y worked o u t by most  Associations.  Chapter I I R e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s i n Vancouver Vancouver's  l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s have c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d  the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s e x i s t i n g through the d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s o f the c i t y ' s h i s t o r y . Vancouver,  A t the time o f the f o r m a t i o n o f  the p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s o c i a l  interaction  i n a s m a l l town made f o r l e i s u r e time p a r t i c i p a t i o n through the f a m i l y group and the church, the e s t a b l i s h e d i n s t i t u t i o n s o f the time.  social  Extra curricular a c t i v i t i e s i n  p u b l i c s c h o o l s , o r g a n i z e d s p o r t s , and c u l t u r a l events, developed as the need a r o s e by members o f t h e community. The importance placed.upon l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s by c i v i c a u t h o r i t i e s and the i n h e r e n t p o l i t i c a l and community a t t i t u d e s toward o r g a n i z e d l e i s u r e was not g r e a t .  A natural  h a b i t a t o f sandy beaches, f o r e s t , l a k e s and streams, a l o n g w i t h a c l i m a t e encouraging an i n t e r e s t i n the outdoors h e l p e d to d i m i n i s h p u b l i c concern f o r agency  sponsored r e c r e a t i o n .  F u t u r e p l a n n i n g f o r community r e c r e a t i o n governed by an i n d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e o r a t l e a s t p l a c i n g r e c r e a t i o n a t a low l e v e l o f p r i o r i t y a l l o w e d one a s s e t , the beaches, t o depreci a t e to the p o i n t where c o n t a m i n a t i o n f r o m raw sewage has made the beaches u n s a n i t a r y f o r p u b l i c Vancouver  swimming.  took some forward s t e p s i n p l a n n i n g i n 1928 when  i t i n i t i a t e d the survey o f i t s w e l f a r e agencies which l e d to t h e Community Chest and Welfare C o u n c i l (combined  i n the Community  Chest and C o u n c i l s ) .  Through these p l a n n i n g b o d i e s o t h e r  s t u d i e s have been i n i t i a t e d from time to time i n regard to c h i l d w e l f a r e , p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , and o t h e r areas of w e l f a r e * In  view o f the r a p i d growth o f Vancouver, a survey o f group  work and r e c r e a t i o n was the survey  undertaken  i n 1945*  The purpose  (known as the " N o r r i e Report") was  of  t o a s s e s s the  c i t y ' s r e c r e a t i o n a l needs, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard to youth the e x i s t i n g agency s e r v i c e s i n the f i e l d recreation.  The  and  o f group work and  'Survey' a l s o p r o j e c t e d a p l a n f o r G r e a t e r  Vancouver which would:  (a) p r o v i d e a f o u n d a t i o n f o r p l a n n i n g ,  (b) c a l l a t t e n t i o n to the areas o f g r e a t e s t need, (c) guide agencies i n t h e i r expansion p l a n s , and  (d) serve as a guide  i n determining agency c l a i m s f o r support. The  survey i n 1945  was  conducted  the development of Vancouver. of  a t a v i t a l time i n  Wartime s e r v i c e s and the  effect  the d e p r e s s i o n i n the 1 9 3 0 ' s had s e r i o u s l y d e p l e t e d Van-  couver's agency sponsored group work and r e c r e a t i o n programme. Adjustment from wartime to peacetime  and an expanding  the 1 9 4 0 ' s and 1 9 5 0 ' s gave r e a l value to the f i n d i n g recommendations o f the 'Survey . 1  era i n and  C o o r d i n a t i o n o f group work  and r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n c r e a s e d standards o f personnel t r a i n i n g and e d u c a t i o n and methods o f agency q u a l i f i c a t i o n f o r Community Chest support, adequate f i n a n c i a l procedures  and  g r e a t e r v o l u n t e e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n were some o f the g e n e r a l recommendations t h a t were t o be f o l l o w e d up p r e c e d i n g the " N o r r i e Report".  On one recommendation o f key  significance,  - 43 which has not been accomplished a t t h i s time and which  affects  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l group work and r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s even today, was recommendation number seven which  stated:  "... That the Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n S e c t i o n o f the Welfare C o u n c i l g i v e l e a d e r s h i p to the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f neighbourhood c o o r d i n a t i v e c o u n c i l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s o f neighbourhoods o f the city. Welfare agencies should l e n d every support to the success o f such e n t e r p r i s e s . The purpose o f such c o u n c i l s would be t o promote l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l p l a n n i n g f o r the b e n e f i t o f neighbourhood c h i l d r e n and y o u t h . n l  The n e c e s s i t y o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e c o o p e r a t i o n i n p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g community r e c r e a t i o n was i n the p r o p o s a l t h a t a l l agencies encourage to become, i n e f f e c t , community c e n t r e s . p l a n n i n g the Report emphasized  emphasized  the p u b l i c s c h o o l s  I n l o n g range  the importance o f p u b l i c  r e c r e a t i o n p e r s o n n e l h a v i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the Community Chest and Welfare C o u n c i l , which was advocated as the l o g i c a l body to g i v e l e a d e r s h i p to neighbourhood p l a n n i n g . Since the Survey Report o f 1945, Vancouver has seen an expansion o f both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s .  In  many r e s p e c t s the Report has s e r v e d as a b l u e p r i n t f o r p r o g r e s s i n r a i s i n g the standards o f agency  services.  a g e n c i e s , f o r example, took s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p s to the employment o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l .  Many  encourage  Agencies a l s o were a b l e  1. N o r r i e . L.E.. Survey Report o f Group Work and Recrea- ' t i o n o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. Community Chest and Welfare C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., 1945, p. 8 7 .  - 44 to  -  conduct s e l f - s t u d i e s on the b a s i s o f the " N o r r i e R e p o r t "  and to p l a n ahead i n s e r v i n g the community.  The  decentrali-  z a t i o n o f YMCA s e r v i c e s r e s u l t e d i n the immediate f o l l o w i n g y e a r s o f the "Survey".  Another example was  the neighbourhood  house l a t e r involvement  i n a group work-case work p r o j e c t f o r  s t r e n g t h e n i n g t o t a l s e r v i c e s to the f a m i l y . However, i n many r e s p e c t s some o f the recommendations were d i s c a r d e d and a l t e r n a t i v e p l a n s were f o l l o w e d out.  In  regard t o p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n the Report s t r o n g l y endorsed the maximum degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n between the Vancouver Park School Boards i n p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . statement was pal  recorded  and The  s u p p o r t i n g the r e a s o n f o r t h i s p r i n c i -  as f o l l o w s : "... Both agencies are f i n a n c e d by the same people and.the f u l l e s t use o f f a c i l i t i e s o f both f o r p u b l i c purposes should be f a c i l i t a t e d by harmonious i n t e r agency understanding and c o o p e r a t i o n . " 1  The r e p o r t proceeded to examine the most e f f e c t i v e way v i d e community c e n t r e s f o r every neighbourhood.  to p r o -  Building  separate f a c i l i t i e s through neighbourhood r e s o u r c e s o r Parks Board f i n a n c e was  v i s u a l i z e d as too c o s t l y to support  v o l u n t a r y means.  P l a n n i n g and  fulfill  by  d e s i g n i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s to  the f u n c t i o n o f a p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r was  con-  cluded as the b e s t method o f l o c a l i z i n g p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s .  1. N o r r i e . L.E.. Survey Report o f Group Work and Recreat i o n o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., 1945, p. 17.  The  p r o p o s a l s o f the  'Survey' i n r e s p e c t  to p u b l i c  recreation  development have been r e j e c t e d f o r expanded p u b l i c  recreation  took q u i t e a d i f f e r e n t The  direction.  Vancouver Board of Park Commissioners and  R e c r e a t i o n has  Public  remained the primary agency f o r the development  of public recreation.  The  Parks Board i s r e s p o n s i b l e  maintenance, improvements and  p l a n n i n g , as w e l l as  centres established  end  s i n c e the  o f World War  II.  f o r Park  community Park Board  s t a f f a l s o are employed f o r p u b l i c beaches, p u b l i c playgrounds, p u b l i c g o l f c o u r s e s , and park b u i l d i n g s . movement s h o r t l y a f t e r the war Vancouver c i t i z e n r y .  Many communities s t r u g g l e d centres.  Gradually  Dunbar.  c e n t r e s are a l s o planned i n K i n g c r e s t , arney P a r k ) , West End,  centres  Additional  South Vancouver  West P o i n t Grey.  gymnasium, club rooms, p r o f e s s i o n a l  k i t c h e n f a c i l i t i e s and  Kitsi-  (Kill-  F a l s e Creek, Mount P l e a s a n t , Grandview,  Renfrew-Norquay, South Gambie and  outdoor swimming  P r i v a t e group work and  organizations  public  offices,  r e c r e a t i o n agencies have a l s o  •Survey', s i x p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s youth s e r v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The  pools.  shown unprecedented expansion s i n c e 19A-5.  c r e a t i o n and  to r a i s e  i n Marpole, South Vancouver (Sunset),  l a n o , K e r r i s d a l e , H a s t i n g s E a s t , and  centres include  community c e n t r e  became a popular appeal to  funds necessary t o b e g i n p u b l i c were e s t a b l i s h e d  The  At the time o f  were l i s t e d as  the  private  T h i s f i g u r e excluded church r e -  not i n c l u d e d  I n I960 there, i s an a d d i t i o n of only one  i n the Community Chest. other agency, but  the  -46 s e r v i c e s , through added s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s , have r i s e n considerably.  Vancouver i s w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d by n a t i o n a l youth  s e r v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g the Boys Scouts, Boys C l u b s o f Canada, Y.M.C;. A., Y.W.C.A., G i r l Guides and the s e t t l e m e n t o r neighbourhood house movement.  L o c a l youth s e r v i n g a g e n c i e s  are n o n - e x i s t e n t w i t h i n the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s w i t h the proposed c o n v e r s i o n o f the Cedar Cottage Youth Club t o a neighbourhood house programme.  Church denominations sponsor  a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n churches where separate f a c i l i t i e s have been planned f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. I n accordance w i t h the " N o r r i e Report" p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s have r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r Vancouver.  The  D i v i s i o n , w i t h v o l u n t a r y p u b l i c agency r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , a c t s as a c l e a r i n g house o f problems coming t o the a t t e n t i o n o f member a g e n c i e s .  P l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n  s e r v i c e s and the promotion o f a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f r e c r e a t i o n and group work remains the c e n t r a l purpose o f t h e •Division". The Vancouver Y.M.C.A. The Vancouver Y.M.C.A. was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1886, two y e a r s a f t e r the c i t y was founded.  E a r l y programme o f the  Vancouver YMCA resembled 'Y» a c t i v i t i e s i n o t h e r l o c a l i t i e s and i n c l u d e d , B i b l e study, p r a y e r meetings, l e c t u r e and l i m i t e d amount o f youth work.  discussion  Early Association buildings  i n Vancouver were l o c a t e d on H a s t i n g s S t r e e t and l a t e r a t  - 47 Cambie.  The b u i l d i n g a t Cambie and Dunsmuir was i n e x i s t e n c e  from 1361 t o 1941 when a b u i l d i n g campaign i n 1920 f a i l e d as a r e s u l t o f a business recession.  Growth o f the Vancouver  YMCA was s e v e r e l y hampered as a r e s u l t and t h e Vancouver YMCA was not a b l e t o grow i n number and s i z e o f f a c i l i t y  to the  e x t e n t o f YMCA's i n o t h e r c i t i e s o f a comparable p o p u l a t i o n . The Vancouver YMCA o p e r a t e d one b u i l d i n g u n t i l 1947 when outpost o r community branches were e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  " N o r r i e R e p o r t " gave the impetus t o d e c e n t r a l i z e d YMCA service.  I t recommended:  "... That t h e YMCA and the YWCA d e c e n t r a l i z e and modify t h e i r group work s e r v i c e s t o serve a wider range o f community c e n t e r e d groups through a nonequipment type o f community programme. Such a p r o gramme would u t i l i z e the f a c i l i t y r e s o u r c e s o f the neighbourhoods, such a s s c h o o l s , churches, p a r k s , etc.." 1  I n October o f 1946 the Vancouver YMCA s e t up a P o l i c y P l a n n i n g Committee  t o l a y out a p l a n f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n i n  the f o l l o w i n g f i v e y e a r s .  The r e p o r t o f t h i s  committee  recommended: 1. "... t h a t we adopt t h e p o l i c y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g community e x t e n s i o n committees i n v a r i o u s s t r a t e g i c a r e a s i n the c i t y and employ an adequate s t a f f t o operate a neighbourhood c e n t e r e d programme o f group work." 2. "... P r i o r i t y i n s t a f f time, budget p r o v i s i o n and programme space should be g i v e n t o t h e develop-  1.  I b i d , p. 90  - 48 ment o f a strong programme o f purpose g r o u p s . " These two recommendations  1  were the main p r o p o s a l s which gave  d i r e c t i o n t o t h e p a t t e r n o f development t h a t has continued i n the Vancouver YMCA.  The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e  v a r i e d i n d i f f e r e n t communities and r e f l e c t e d d i f f e r e n t deg r e e s o f success.  The o b s e r v a t i o n  o f the " N o r r i e R e p o r t " t h a t  Vancouver's neighbourhoods were l a r g e and i n d i s t i n c t i v e , had a b e a r i n g upon t h e YMCA's knowledge a t t h e time i n l o c a t i n g community Branches. Within organized  a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d by 1 9 5 1 , the Vancouver YMCA,  as a Metropolitan  A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1 9 4 9 , had e s t a b l i s h e d  branches i n the f o l l o w i n g areas:  Fairmount Branch s e r v i n g  i n 1 9 4 7 , the Vancouver E a s t Branch  F a i r v i e w , Mount P l e a s a n t  s e r v i n g the e a s t e r n a r e a s o f the c i t y i n 1944, the West Vann  couver Branch s e r v i n g the West Vancouver m u n i c i p a l i t y i n 1946, and the Alma YMCA s e r v i n g West P o i n t Grey, Dunbar, K e r r i s d a l e and K i t s i l a n o i n 1949*  I n a l l these areas YMCA programmes  were adapted t o l o c a l community c o n d i t i o n s and centered  most  a c t i v i t i e s i n neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s . By 1950 the Vancouver YMCA, i n r e c o g n i z i n g growth becoming a ' M e t r o p o l i t a n ' committee t o c r i t i c a l l y o f the A s s o c i a t i o n .  since  type o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , s e t up a study  examine the o r g a n i z a t i o n and programme  Goals f o r f u t u r e growth and development  IT The YMCA o f Greater Vancouver, P o l i c y P l a n n i n g Committee, The Y i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. 1946, p . 4.  !  - 49 were l a i d down based upon the continued growth o f the A s s o c i a tion.  The Report, e n t i t l e d Second Century  Goals, endorsed t h e  main l i n e s o f development r e c o r d e d i n the 1946 Report. I n s u p p o r t i n g the p o l i c y o f developing Community Branches the r e p o r t s t a t e d : "... E x i s t i n g Branches should be made r e s p o n s i b l e f o r - a l a r g e geographic a r e a . " l T h i s p r o p o s a l was c o n t r a r y t o t h e N a t i o n a l a r t i c l e s , s t u d i e s , and books p u b l i s h e d by the IMCA which, f o r the most p a r t , supported a s m a l l e r , w e l l d e f i n e d , geographic  area.  The p r o -  p o s a l may, i n l a t e r a n a l y s i s , i n d i c a t e the Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n i n c e r t a i n branches s u f f e r e d because o f t h i s recommendation.  However, Second Century Goals p r o v i d e d a f o l i o w up o f  s p e c i a l ways programme s e r v i c e s i n a l a r g e M e t r o p o l i t a n YMCA c o u l d compliment each other i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g t h e b a s i c aims o f the YMCA. . A p a t t e r n o f YMCA s e r v i c e s was reviewed i n regard t o : 1.  A downtown comprehensive b u i l d i n g ,  2.  Community branch b u i l d i n g s ,  3.  Homes and neighbourhoods, and  4»  Summer and winter outdoor camping f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e .  A comprehensive review o f programme was undertaken t o p r o v i d e  T . M e t r o p o l i t a n YMCA o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, C e n t e n n i a l Study Committee, Second Century G o a l s . October 1951, p. 4 .  - 50 a foundation f o r leadership. " . . . T h e Committee would emphasize and u n d e r l i n e the~importance of s t r e n g t h e n i n g our group work p r o cesses i n a l l a s p e c t s o f the programme and would p o i n t out the need f o r a r e a l advance i n r e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s . T h i s should be regarded as t h e major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a l l s e c r e t a r i e s and a measure o f t h e i r success»"l Much o f t h i s study has not been accomplished Vancouver A s s o c i a t i o n to i 9 6 0 .  by t h e  A p p l i c a t i o n o f many o f the  i d e a s , f o r example, work w i t h parent committees o f neighbourhood c l u b groups, although agreed t o i n p r i n c i p l e by s e v e r a l branches,  has not been e x t e n s i v e l y implemented.  Some  programmes, because o f growing p a i n s o f the l o c a l YMCA's, have decreased i n number r a t h e r than i n c r e a s e d as p r o j e c t e d .  The  H i Y programme, which was to g a i n the b e n e f i t o f a . M e t r o p o l i tan  s t a f f persons' time, i s not a t the p r e s e n t time an over  a l l developed  p a t t e r n o f YMCA work to the degree e v i d e n t i n  other A s s o c i a t i o n s .  I n many i n s t a n c e s the l a c k o f p r o g r e s s  i n some areas o f the study a r e the r e s u l t o f Branch growth and development, s p e c i f i c a l l y , s t a f f l o a d s have l i m i t e d progress i n c e r t a i n areas.  sometimes  Then too, as Ross p o i n t s  out i n 'The YMCA i n Canada', Vancouver has employed young s e c r e t a r i e s sometimes t r a i n e d o u t s i d e the YMCA who have s e t goals f o r t h e i r respective Associations d i f f e r i n g r a d i c a l l y from accepted p a t t e r n s o f work o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n .  T.Ibid,  p. 5.  - 51 The  F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e v Areas W i t h i n the C i t y o f Vancouver there i s a s e c t i o n o f  l a n d a t t h e south e a s t e r n b o r d e r s t h a t has undergone a r a p i d expansion i n housing and p o p u l a t i o n War.  Gradually,  s i n c e t h e Second World  community i d e n t i t y w i t h s e c t i o n s o f t h i s  a r e a , u s u a l l y around a r t e r i a l t r a f f i c r o u t e s and b u s i n e s s d i s t r i c t s , has e v o l v e d .  Two o f these d i s t i n c t l o c a l a r e a s ,  or communities, the F r a s e r v i e w Housing P r o j e c t and the new K i l l a r n e y s u b d i v i s i o n , w i l l be a p p r a i s e d  i n t h i s study as an  example o f the s t r u c t u r e o f s e r v i c e s and s p e c i f i c a l l y the p a t t e r n o f growth o f a p r i v a t e r e l i g i o u s and r e c r e a t i o n a l agency —  The Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n .  The two  communities a r e important f o r t h e y w i l l demonstrate the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and f o r c e s shaping the modern post war community. For  the purpose o f t h i s study F r a s e r v i e w i s d e f i n e d as  t h a t s e c t i o n o f l a n d b o r d e r e d by 54th Avenue, Marine Argyle  and 55th Avenues, and V i v i a n D r i v e .  Drive,  An a r e a o f s l i g h t -  l y l e s s than one square m i l e on an i n c l i n e g r a d u a l l y  sloping  toward the south, F r a s e r v i e w was s e l e c t e d b y the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ,  an agency o f t h e F e d e r a l  Government, f o r a low r e n t a l housing s u b d i v i s i o n f o r r e t u r n i n g s e r v i c e men.  The purpose o f the p r o j e c t was t o a s s i s t  the adjustment o f the army, navy and a i r f o r c e v e t e r a n t o civilian life.  I t was a c o o p e r a t i v e  venture between the Muni-  c i p a l Government o f t h e C i t y o f Vancouver, who s e t a s i d e the l o t s , and the F e d e r a l Government who f i n a n c e d  the c o n s t r u c t i o n  - 52 o f t h e houses. few  As t h e area was l a r g e l y open l a n d , w i t h  very  e s t a b l i s h e d d w e l l i n g s , the p r o j e c t d i d not r e p r e s e n t a  problem o f r e s e t t l i n g and buying The  l a n d from p r i v a t e i n d i v i d u a l s .  degree o f community "we f e e l i n g " r e s u l t i n g from the  common background o f war s e r v i c e o f the i n h a b i t a n t s i s d i f f i c u l t t o determine.  As tenants o f the F e d e r a l Government, any  development i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h r e n t a l p o l i c y and r a t e s , o r , as arose i n 1 9 5 9 , t h e f u t u r e p l a n s t o s e l l housing  units,  serves as a most u n i f y i n g f o r c e o f community i n t e r e s t apparent to the o u t s i d e o b s e r v e r .  An i n t e r e s t i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s  stemming from a background o f wartime s e r v i c e s does not appear to be more g r e a t l y developed other communities.  than branches l o c a t e d i n  However, any common bond r e s u l t i n g from  s i m i l a r s e r v i c e background would probably remain l a t e n t except under times o f community s t r e s s such as a d e c l i n i n g economic s e c u r i t y . . U n l i k e v a r i o u s p a r t s o f Canada and U n i t e d S t a t e s Fraserview  does not appear to be a separate  e n t i t y a r i s i n g from t h e war s e r v i c e experiences  political  o f the  residents. At t h e p r e s e n t time the C e n t r a l Mortgage and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n continues t o operate the Fraserview p r o j e c t , c o l l e c t i n g monthly r e n t s and making c e r t a i n improvements. O f f i c i a l s o f the C o r p o r a t i o n a l s o conduct p e r i o d i c i n s p e c t i o n o f the housing u n i t s t o ensure the t e n a n t s a r e m a i n t a i n i n g the d w e l l i n g s adequately.  I n 1958 c u r r e n t r e s i d e n t s were  g i v e n t h e o p t i o n o f buying  t h e i r r e n t e d houses from the C o r -  - 53 p o r a t i o n or to continue r e n t i n g . tenants v i e w p o i n t , appears  The arrangements, from t h e  t o be.economical  c u r r e n t r e a l e s t a t e values*  on the b a s i s o f  Tenants w i s h i n g to buy are r e -  q u i r e d to have a down payment o f t e n per eent o f the a p p r a i s e d v a l u e determined by the C o r p o r a t i o n . a new  home owner was  period of f i v e years.  Under t h i s arrangement  not p e r m i t t e d to r e - s e l l  the home f o r a  R e n t i n g o f houses under continued  low  r e s t i s s t i l l a l l o w e d by the C o r p o r a t i o n and i t i s c o n c e i v a b l e t h i s arrangement w i l l have a g r e a t e r a f f e c t on the permanency o f the community.  Home owners w i l l normally have -  a g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n the improvement o f t h e i r p r o p e r t y . Tenants, who  v i s u a l i z e a l o n g term r e n t a l , w i l l continue w i t h  a view to g r e a t e r permanency a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n have reached m a t u r i t y and married or l e f t f o r p e r s o n a l reasons. p o i n t was  o u t l i n e d to the w r i t e r by a, Fraserview  Y.M.C.A. Board Member who  T h i s view-  Killarney  planned to continue as a tenant.  In  the year f o l l o w i n g the C o r p o r a t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n the w r i t e r n o t i c e d f i v e members o f the Y.M.C.A. Board moved from the area.  o f Management  The C o r p o r a t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n appeared  have h e l p e d some o f the r e s i d e n t s t o formulate housing p l a n s , t h a t , i f widespread  to  individual  over the community, w i l l  g r e a t l y a l t e r community a t t i t u d e s to s o c i a l s e r v i c e s .  In  e f f e c t , i t i s l o g i c a l to expect t h e i r demands w i l l i n c r e a s e . The  second community t o be i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study, .  K i l l a r n e y , has been g r a d u a l l y emerging throughout teen f i f t i e s .  the n i n e -  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to d e f i n e t h i s a r e a as i t  - 54 comprises an o l d e r e s t a b l i s h e d s e c t i o n t h a t has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been l i n k e d w i t h the Collingwood d i s t r i c t and a new s e c t i o n of  N.H.A. homes e r e c t e d i n patches where vacant l a n d has ex-  isted.  F o r the most p a r t , K i l l a r n e y Park s u b d i v i s i o n i s an  a r e a o f new housing u n i t s owned by the occupants and l a r g e l y f i n a n c e d by the N a t i o n a l Housing A c t .  F o r purposes o f . t h e  study, K i l l a r n e y w i l l be d e f i n e d as an a r e a o f Vancouver 4 5 t h Avenue t o t h e n o r t h , 5 4 t h Avenue and south-  bordered by:  e a s t Marine D r i v e t o the south, V i v i a n S t r e e t t o t h e west, and Boundary Road t o t h e e a s t . of  Vacant l a n d e x i s t i n g on t h e f r i n g e  t h i s a r e a may r e s u l t i n the e x t e n s i o n o f these b o r d e r s  southward.  The i n c r e a s e o f newer homes w i l l , i n a l l l i k e l i -  hood, a s s i s t t h e emergence o f community i d e n t i t y .  A p a r t and  a r e c e n t new h i g h s c h o o l named K i l l a r n e y , a f t e r the a r e a , w i l l a l s o r e s u l t i n the r e s i d e n t s becoming c o n s c i o u s o f K i l l a r n e y as a l o c a l community, p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t i n c t from the G o l l l n g vtood community to the n o r t h . The  sketch map, F i g u r e 1, o u t l i n e s the F r a s e r v i e w and  K i l l a r n e y areas.  The F r a s e r v i e w community, by the s p e c i a l i z e d  nature o f the development i s a more d i s t i n c t i v e a r e a .  The  K i l l a r n e y community i s important f o r purposes  study  of this  as t h e s e r v i c e s o f the Y.M.C.A. t o be examined have g r a d u a l l y been extended  t o a new home owned a r e a .  Patterns of health .  and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s w i l l probably i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s l a r g e l y r e s u l t i n g from v a r i a t i o n s w i t h i n these two communities. I n r e l a t i o n t o these d i f f e r e n c e s the Y.M.C*A. purchased l a n d  -  56  -  i n K i l l a r n e y f o r Branch headquarters  because i t was b e l i e v e d  by those r e s p o n s i b l e t h i s a r e a r e p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t e r degree o f permanency necessary l i k e the YMCA,  f o r the support o f an o r g a n i z a t i o n  I n a l a t e r s e c t i o n an a n a l y s i s o f t h i s  de-  c i s i o n w i l l be made. W i t h i n the area c o n s i d e r e d t o be South Vancouver, t h e r e are s e v e r a l communities c l o i s t e r e d around the main a r t e r i a l streets*  I n g e n e r a l , these communities are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by  the b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n s l o c a t e d along the main a r t e r i a l for residential t r a f f i c *  routes  E x i s t e n c e o f s e v e r a l community  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e some degree o f i d e n t i t y even though c o n s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p p i n g would take p l a c e i n r e g a r d t o : shopping p r e f e r e n c e , Church attendances, boundaries, New  s c h o o l and  polling  and the l e i s u r e time i n t e r e s t s o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  communities, l i k e Fraserview  and K i l l a r n e y , encounter the  i n f l u e n c e o f the l a r g e r community o f Vancouver more than o l d e r l o c a l a r e a s where community p a t t e r n s have been e s t a b l i s h e d over a l o n g e r term. b u s i n e s s concerns,  Recent d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f l a r g e  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n l a t t e r y e a r s , appears to  be e l i m i n a t i n g a number o f l o c a l s m a l l b u s i n e s s due  operations  to the r e s i d e n t s m o b i l i t y and the c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f  concentrated  shopping c e n t r e s .  Although  the h a b i t s o f the  urban d w e l l e r s change r a p i d l y , i t i s e v i d e n t c u r r e n t s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e s w i t h i n communities r e p r e s e n t e d by Fraserview K i l l a r n e y do not l e a d to a strong and f i r m l y f e e l i n g o f community i d e n t i t y .  and  entrenched  There are v a r i o u s  sociological  - 57 f o r c e s a t work i n F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y to o f f s e t the growth o f a s t r o n g community bond.  L o c a l communities o f l a r g e urban  c e n t r e s i n some r e s p e c t s are r e a d i l y submerged e s t s o f the t o t a l Vancouver community.  t o the i n t e r -  C i t y wide  cultural,  a t h l e t i c , p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l events are examples where the l o c a l a r e a may become a p a r t o f the t o t a l Vancouver community. Cross-community  i n t e r e s t r e s u l t i n g from:  business association, educational  previous  residence,  opportunities, etc., also  d i m i n i s h l o c a l community i d e n t i t y .  The young a d u l t parent  group o f Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y may be a f f e c t e d to a g r e a t e r degree t h a n r e s i d e n t s o f o l d e r more e s t a b l i s h e d communities. A comparison w i t h West Vancouver and Richmond, w e l l known Vancouver suburbs, i l l u s t r a t e s the d i f f e r i n g c a l i d e n t i t y o f communities. through c i v i c government,  psychologi-  Both West Vancouver and Richmond,  community j o u r n a l s , p u b l i c and p r i -  vate s e r v i c e s , e t c . , are more s e l f - c o n t a i n e d areas.  There i s  a g r e a t e r degree o f l o c a l management or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e r e f o r e , a r a l l y i n g , o f community i n t e r e s t .  Separation  b o d i e s o f water and b r i d g e s make West Vancouver and more t r u l y s e l f - c o n t a i n e d areas,  by  Richmond  or "bedroom type communities."  F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y and other  communities w i t h i n the  b o r d e r s o f the C i t y o f Vancouver do not i n d i c a t e the same degree o f s e p a r a t i o n from the mass o f the urban centre  and,  t h e r e f o r e , do not stand out to the same degree as d i s t i n c t i v e , psychological areas.  F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a l s o do not  indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t concentration  of ethnic minorities  - 53 w i t h i n t h e i r boundaries.  A l l the r a c i a l groupings would appear  to be r e p r e s e n t e d w i t h a predominance o f Anglo-saxon f a m i l i e s . Most f a m i l i e s would appear to be n a t i v e born Canadians w i t h a d i m i n i s h e d i n f l u e n c e o f customs from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s r e s u l t i n g . The extent o f c u l t u r a l c o n f l i c t a r i s i n g from r e c e n t  immigra-  t i o n o r l o n g term f a m i l i e s r e t a i n i n g h a b i t s and customs i s l e s s p r e v a l e n t and a s s i m i l a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s o f d i f f e r i n g backgrounds would appear to be g r e a t e r t h a n i n o l d e r  communities.  Newer communities, g e n e r a l l y , may be expected to compose a young p o p u l a t i o n , exception.  F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a r e no  The "General R e c r e a t i o n Survey", conducted by a  s p e c i a l committee o f the Group Work D i v i s i o n o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , d i s c l o s e d census d i s t r i c t s  t h i r t y s i x and  t h i r t y - s e v e n , c o n t a i n i n g F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y , have the l a r g e s t youth p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the C i t y o f Vancouver.  Regula-  t i o n s g o v e r n i n g the F r a s e r v i e w Housing P r o j e c t r e q u i r e a f a m i l y of four i n order to q u a l i f y f o r residence. and Housing o f f i c i a l s , i n 1 9 5 1 ,  Central  Mortgage  s a i d there was a n average o f  three c h i l d r e n to a f a m i l y , a much l a r g e r average than many o t h e r communities.  T h i s l a r g e youth p o p u l a t i o n has l e d a  good many people t o f o r e c a s t c o n s i d e r a b l e youth problems i n the f u t u r e . C o n s i s t e n t w i t h other newer communities, F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y f a m i l i e s a r e , f o r the most p a r t , i n t a c t .  The head  o f the household i s g e n e r a l l y i n h i s p r o d u c t i v e y e a r s , a f a c t o r which may h e l p t o o f f s e t t h e spread o f teenage a n t i -  - 59 -> s o c i a l behaviour. population,  Compared to o l d e r communities, a younger  i n a new  area, demonstrates g r e a t e r  enthusiasm  and i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . . T h i s i n t e r e s t i s p r o b a b l y a t i t s peak i n a community l i k e F r a s e r v i e w where there i s a l a r g e s c h o o l age New  population.  suburban communities g e n e r a l l y have a l a r g e  hetero-  geneous p o p u l a t i o n making up an area o f f a m i l i e s c o n t a i n i n g both parents.  At the  same time, there are few  senior  except where f a m i l i e s are c a r i n g f o r aged p a r e n t s .  citizens  Broken  homes ( t h a t i s , the absence o f one p a r e n t ) are a l s o found l e s s frequently. pointed  One  s t a f f p e r s o n o f a p r i v a t e s o c i a l agency  out t h a t the Fraserview r e s i d e n t s were more  responsive  to u s i n g c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s o f her agency because o f a d u r a t i o n o f p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and family kinship r e l a t i o n s .  short  possibly limited  T h i s impression  i s consistent with  the w r i t e r s experience where some r e s i d e n t s have shown a 1  d e s i r e to d i s c u s s f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s . Economic F e a t u r e s The  economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a new  i t y are very  c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the age  l i v i n g i n the community. have had  o f the working f o r c e  Young f a m i l i e s , f o r the most p a r t ,  l e s s time to accumulate f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s  s e t temporary setbacks t h a t a f a m i l y may i l l n e s s , or unemployment. . On i t y may  suburban commun-  be  to o f f -  encounter through  the other hand, economic  s a i d to i n c r e a s e as the o p p o r t u n i t y  stabil-  f o r promotion  - 60 and  s e n i o r i t y b r i n g about i n c r e a s e d  earnings and g r e a t e r job  security. I n t h e assessment o f F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y * s economic r e a t u r e s , the d i f f e r i n g backgrounds o f the two a r e a s may be expected t o r e f l e c t q u i t e d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f economic development. F r a s e r v i e w , a. l o w - r e n t a l h o u s i n g s u b d i v i s i o n , i s i n h a b i t e d l a r g e l y by lower-middle income wage e a r n e r s . and  u n s k i l l e d tradesmen, employed i n c o n s t r u c t i o n ,  manufacturing,, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and c i v i l  Skilled  lumbering,  s e r v i c e , would appear  to comprise the l a r g e s t o c c u p a t i o n a l  categories.  salesmen working as d r i v e r - s a l e s m e n ,  route  Commercial  salesmen, and s t o r e  c l e r k s , a l s o make up a l a r g e group i n t h e working f o r c e .  A  small number o f p r o f e s s i o n s and management p o s i t i o n s a r e a l s o represented  by i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e l o o k i n g toward F r a s e r v i e w  as a temporary p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e . The b u s i n e s s r e c e s s i o n o f 1957 i n d i c a t e d t h e v u l n e r a b i l i t y o f F r a s e r v i e w t o changes i n the b u s i n e s s c y c l e . employed i n primary i n d u s t r i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y the f i r s t the e f f e c t s o f a b u s i n e s s slump.  Workers to f e e l  Widespread unemployment  throughout F r a s e r v i e w i n 1957 was noted by school  officials  and P.T.A.'s d u r i n g t h e Christmas season. School o f i c i a l s have a l s o noted a high percentage o f mothers a r e a l s o working f u l l , o r p a r t time.  Although 'working  mothers* appear t o be an accepted t r e n d i n s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y , whether there i s f i n a n c i a l need o r not, i t may be assumed a  - 61 number o f F r a s e r v i e w  -  f a m i l i e s are depending upon the l a d y  o f the household to m a i n t a i n an accustomed standard o f l i v i n g . The removal o f the mother from the home d u r i n g the daytime hours has been w i d e l y condemned as a p r a c t i c e which may  en-  courage c h i l d n e g l e c t and r e s u l t i n b e h a v i o r problems i n l a t e r adolesence.„ The K i l l a r n e y community r e f l e c t s a g r e a t e r degree o f economic s t a b i l i t y .  As home owners, K i l l a r n e y f a m i l i e s have  accumulated s u f f i c i e n t a s s e t s to make a down payment on a house.  Occupational  c a t e g o r i e s o f the head o f the household  i n c l u d e p r o f e s s i o n a l , managerial,  small business  owners,  h i g h l y s k i l l e d technicians,,, commercial salesmen, e t c .  The  v a s t number o f f a m i l i e s o f K i l l a r n e y a r e a l s o probably  limited  i n t h e i r p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l means as a r e s u l t o f becoming r e c e n t home owners.  However, as mortgage payments become  s t a b i l i z e d i n time and expected  earning power i n c r e a s e s , i t i s to be  the p u r c h a s i n g a b i l i t y o f K i l l a r n e y w i l l r i s e  accord-  ingly. The b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n i n the V i c t o r i a D r i v e a r e a , bodering  the F r a s e r v i e w p r o j e c t on 54th Avenue, has remained  the o n l y suburban s t o r e s e c t i o n r e l a t e d to the community..  Fraserview  T h i s s e c t i o n o f s t o r e s i n c l u d e s a food c h a i n  market, a hardware s t o r e , a drug s t o r e , and dry c l e a n i n g establishment.  Two  s m a l l c o n f e c t i o n e r y s t o r e s are s i t u a t e d -  f u r t h e r south on V i c t o r i a D r i v e near the v i c i n i t y o f the Douglas Elementary School a t 6 l s t Avenue.  Immediately n o r t h ,  on  - 62 V i c t o r i a Drive, a small business  section including a coffee  b a r , c y c l e shop, barber and another i s situated.  Further s t i l l ,  shopping s e c t i o n a t 41st  small food c h a i n market •  to the n o r t h , a  concentrated  Avenue and V i c t o r i a D r i v e has  u a l l y i n c r e a s e d w i t h p o p u l a t i o n growth.  Although  grad-  s m a l l sub-  urban b u s i n e s s o u t l e t s have not i n c r e a s e d i n F r a s e r v i e w d i r e c t l y , a l a r g e super market was D r i v e and 5 0 t h Avenue i n 1959*  c o n s t r u c t e d on V i c t o r i a  A v a i l a b l e l a n d along  Victoria  D r i v e would i n d i c a t e f u t u r e b u s i n e s s growth p r o s p e c t s excellent.  In t h i s respect, i t i s l i k e l y business  are  personnel  w i l l come to r e c o g n i z e the c o n c e n t r a t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f the area w i l l warrant f u t u r e s t o r e expansion.  C e n t r a l Mortgage  and Housing C o r p o r a t i o n ' s d e c i s i o n to s e l l the d w e l l i n g s on a r e s t r i c t i v e b a s i s may  Fraserview  i n f l u e n c e more r a p i d  b u s i n e s s i n v e s t i g a t i o n based on a b e l i e f i n more community permanency. R e t a i l s t o r e s e s t a b l i s h e d i n the K i l l a r n e y area are mostly  '  s m a l l household purchase type s t o r e s , d o t t e d s p o r a d i -  c a l l y , along 4 5 t h Avenue, V i c t o r i a D r i v e extending  from> 3 3 r d  Avenue to 4 9 t h Avenue, and the Kingsway shopping s e c t i o n . These s t o r e s are probably p a t r o n i z e d r e g u l a r l y by inhabitants.  Killarney  For many housewives the l a c k o f r e t a i l  p a r t i c u l a r l y a supermarket i n the immediate new development, i s viewed as a g r e a t i n c o n v e n i e n c e .  shopping,  Killarney A future  b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n i s s e t a s i d e on 4 5 t h and K i l l a r n e y S t r e e t under C i t y o f Vancouver zoning r e g u l a t i o n s .  At the  present  time, development o f r e t a i l b u s i n e s s i s not e v i d e n t .  One  f a c t o r p r o b a b l y d i s c o u r a g i n g a r a p i d b u s i n e s s growth i s the i s o l a t i o n o f the area by heavy automobile way  t o the n o r t h .  t r a f f i c along Kings-  To date, b u s i n e s s e s t a b l i s h m e n t s have  probably b e l i e v e d future stores,need a concentrated population to ensure a p r o f i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n .  Continued housing c o n s t r u c -  t i o n , n o t a b l y a l a r g e s e c t i o n b o r d e r i n g the F r a s e r v i e w G o l f Course and south o f 54th Avenue, l e a d s to the p r e d i c t i o n t h a t r e t a i l b u s i n e s s w i l l view K i l l a r n e y as an e x c e l l e n t l o c a t i o n f o r f u t u r e shopping  facilities.  F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y are not r e p r e s e n t e d by i n d u s t r i e s w i t h i n the immediate boundaries.  Along the F r a s e r  R i v e r , on the south boundary, there e x i s t a number o f i n d u s t r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y l i g h t i n d u s t r y and lumbering.  The  M a c M i l l a n and B l o e d e l L i m i t e d s Plywood and Lumber D i v i s i o n s 1  are l o c a t e d i n t h i s v i c i n i t y . . Although not d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the two  these i n d u s t r i e s are  communities i t i s t o be  expected many employees o f these p l a n t s may i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to t h e i r work.  desire residence  The primary nature o f  these i n d u s t r i e s has not r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e r c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f other i n d u s t r i e s i n the a r e a . The f u t u r e economic p r o s p e c t s o f F r a s e r v i e w  and  K i l l a r n e y communities w i l l probably r e f l e c t more s t a b i l i t y and permanency as the area ages.  I f economic c o n d i t i o n s r e -  main on an upward t r e n d , a g r a d u a l l y aging p o p u l a t i o n w i l l demand more s e r v i c e s or modern conveniences.  More adequate  bus  s e r v i c e , g r e a t e r r e t a i l store o u t l e t s and  r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s , are but a few i n the immediate f u t u r e .  commercial  items t h a t may  be demanded  S e l f - c o n t a i n e d communities, w i t h  a l l the b u i l t - i n f e a t u r e s o f modern l i v i n g , appear to be accepted trend i n l o c a l  the  areas*  Housing I n b o t h F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y , the type o f housing i s s i n g l e family dwellings. are t o t a l l y absent. dence c o n s t r u c t e d  The  Apartments and b o a r d i n g houses  future p o s s i b i l i t y of multiple r e s i -  i n the area, or the c o n v e r s i o n  of established  houses to m u l t i p l e f a m i l y u n i t s , i s not l i k e l y .  Most  dwell-  i n g s are not s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e to warrant more than a  one  f a m i l y occupancy. The  F r a s e r v i e w Project-was planned to a l l e v i a t e  problems o f post war  housing w i t h s p e c i a l emphasis on  peace time adjustment o f the v e t e r a n . Housing development,, there was  the the  As a F e d e r a l Government  some degree o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r  use o f adequate m a t e r i a l s f o r the housing c o n s t r u c t i o n . and  three bedroom houses, o f a minimum f l o o r a r e a w i t h  or three b a s i c d e s i g n s , In d r i v i n g  are  and  two  spread throughout the p r o j e c t .  through the area a person i s g i v e n the  o f a housing p r o j e c t o f oneness, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e plain,  Two  s i m i l a r .dwellings,  impression  o f the  compact,  t h a t i s not unusual i n many o f  the newer mainland communities. There i s , i n most i n s t a n c e s , a h i g h l e v e l o f upkeep  and  - 65 i n d i v i d u a l landscaping w i t h Renfrew H e i g h t s ,  throughout the p r o j e c t .  which i s a l s o a low r e n t a l housing  p r o j e c t f o r r e t u r n i n g servicemen, Fraserview t a i n e d by the tenants.  i s w e l l main-  A c a s u a l d r i v e through the Renfrew  a r e a r e v e a l e d more p o o r l y maintained The  I n comparison  dwellings*  K i l l a r n e y community, as a l a t e r s u b d i v i s i o n , has  a g r e a t e r d i f f e r e n c e i n housing c o n s t r u c t i o n .  Sections  e r e c t e d by the same c o n t r a c t o r r e v e a l a s i m i l a r b a s i c  design,  a l t h o u g h houses i n t h e s u b - d i v i s i o n s remain s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t t o o f f s e t a common appearance.  Most d w e l l i n g s o f  newer c o n s t r u c t i o n a r e f i n a n c e d under the N a t i o n a l Housing Act r e g u l a t i o n s .  With r a p i d l y Increased  l a n d v a l u e s , the  - average d w e l l i n g i n K i l l a r n e y c o s t s probably #17,000.00 to #19,000.00 i n i 9 6 0 .  i n the realm o f  For f a m i l i e s d e s i r i n g a  home i n the Vancouver G i t y l i m i t s , who are a b l e to meet t h e f i n a n c i a l requirements, K i l l a r n e y i s undoubtedly an a t t r a c tive site.  W i t h i n t h e K i l l a r n e y area there e x i s t a number  o f o l d e r and s m a l l e r houses t h a t a r e , f o r t h e most p a r t , p o o r l y c o n s t r u c t e d and u n a t t r a c t i v e .  Many o f these  dwellings  w i l l be r e p l a c e d by new homes i n the f u t u r e as the b u i l d i n g value o f the o l d e r d w e l l i n g s i s q u i t e low. These o l d e r u n i t s were e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e  the area was p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  brought w i t h i n the boundaries o f the C i t y o f Vancouver. Improved r a p i d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n m o b i l i t y a r e the two main f a c t o r s e l i m i n a t i n g the former i s o l a t i o n o f the area from the r e s t o f the c i t y .  - 66 F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y r e p r e s e n t the outer f r i n g e s o u t h - e a s t e r n a r e a o f Vancouver, e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h the growth o f the C i t y s i n c e the end o f the Second World War.  These  communities a r e s i g n i f i c a n t as they r e p r e s e n t an a r e a r e f l e c t i n g the s h i f t o f the l a r g e c i t y ' s p o p u l a t i o n t o the o u t e r c i r c l e of the c i t y . centage  A young p o p u l a t i o n , w i t h the h i g h e s t p e r -  o f youth members i n the Vancouver area l i v i n g i n a  housing p r o j e c t and new s u b d i v i s i o n , have l a c k e d f a c i l i t i e s and s e r v i c e s as a r e s u l t o f inadequate p l a n n i n g f o r community stability.  Although m a t e r i a l wealth and- e a r n i n g power o f t h e  r e s i d e n t s i s not g r e a t , F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a r e not l i m i t e d i n human r e s o u r c e s i n meeting the needs o f the community.  The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s examine the implementation  o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s w i t h i n these a r e a s .  The p a r t i c u l a r  development o f t h e YMCA, a p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , w i l l be critically  examined i n r e s p e c t t o i t s purpose and r e l a t i o n  to other community  services.  Chapter I I I R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s i n the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Area Social  (1954 to 1960)  Facilities S o c i a l f a c i l i t i e s e x i s t i n g i n a community a r e t h e  means o f s o c i e t y i n h e l p i n g the f a m i l y t r a i n and teach c h i l d r e n about the accepted v a l u e system o f s o c i e t y .  The  s c h o o l , church, and r e c r e a t i o n a l c e n t r e , a s s i s t i n the p r o cess o f ' s o c i a l i z a t i o n ' by i n f o r m a l and formal ways.  With  the i n c r e a s e d pace o f modern l i v i n g , brought about by r a p i d t e c h n o l o g i c a l advance, i t i s e s s e n t i a l these areas communicate and cooperate i n p r o v i d i n g a c o n s i s t e n t approach i n meeting  the needs o f young p e o p l e . General community p l a n n i n g has many times shown an  o v e r - c o n c e r n f o r a l l e v i a t i n g immediate problems , r a t h e r than r e l a t i n g p l a n n i n g to l o n g range a s p e c t s o f community h e a l t h and w e l f a r e .  The s o c i a l s e r v i c e s o f e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , and  r e c r e a t i o n , p r o v i d e f o r the enrichment  o f human l i f e , b u t  u n f o r t u n a t e l y a t times i n community p l a n n i n g , have taken a secondary r o l e .  During the w r i t e r ' s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h F r a s e r -  view and K i l l a r n e y , t h e g r a d u a l development o f s o c i a l  services  has i l l u s t r a t e d inadequate p l a n n i n g by the a u t h o r i t i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the establishment o f the community.  R e s i d e n t s and  p e r s o n n e l o f s e r v i c i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s have f r e q u e n t l y expressed  - 68 concern over the s i z e o f t h e community youth p o p u l a t i o n , and the l a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l i z e d s e r v i c e s t h a t s t r e n g t h e n home t r a i n i n g i n the upbringing  o f c h i l d r e n . , I f t h e i r viewpoint  i s a t r u e i n d i c a t i o n , the emergence o f many community def i c i e n c i e s can be e x p e c t e d t o r e s u l t and i n c l u d e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , youth problems o f delinquency and m o r a l i t y .  On the other hand,  a l a c k o f s o c i a l s e r v i c e s e a r l y i n the h i s t o r y o f a community may p l a c e g r e a t e r demands on the f a m i l y t o g i v e a t t e n t i o n t o i t s younger members, and thus, a v o i d an overdependence upon outside resources of schools, organizations.  churches, and r e c r e a t i o n a l  Younger f a t h e r s can be g e n e r a l l y expected t o  assume a more a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n . offset a lack of social services. be  T h i s may  Such a p o p u l a t i o n  may a l s o  expected t o take a c t i o n i n s o l v i n g community problems o r  d e f i c i e n c i e s , even though c o n t r o l remains w i t h c e n t r a l i z e d authorities.  School and r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g  i n Vancouver, i l l u s t r a t e the l o c a l community  construction  residents  b e l i e v e they have l i t t l e v o i c e i n the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f these s e r v i c e s . . P u b l i c apathy toward the community i n which people r e s i d e , i s most d e f i n i t e l y interwoven w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y there i s f o r l o c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g facilities.  The growth o f v o l u n t e e r  their social  services i s , therefore,  r e l a t e d t o the degree o f l o c a l a u t h o r i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . School R e c r e a t i o n Educational  Facilities f a c i l i t i e s have undergone a r a p i d expansion  - 69 d u r i n g the p a s t decade.  At the o u t s e t , i n F r a s e r v i e w , S i r  James Douglas Elementary  School was  the only  elementary  s c h o o l w i t h i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y boundaries. modern u n i t to the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , e r e c t e d i n 1912, completed  i n 1951*  Annex was  c o n s t r u c t e d i n 1954*  A was  I n a d d i t i o n , S i r James Douglas School The t o t a l s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n  f o r S i r James Douglas School and Annex reached i t s peak i n 1956  when the number of c h i l d r e n i n grades one  1,717*  to seven  was  T h i s p e r i o d o f growth took p l a c e under an extreme  shortage o f t e a c h e r s when i t would be most d i f f i c u l t t o maint a i n t e a c h i n g standards.  The p u p i l s to each classroom very  l i k e l y were f a r above the recommended number. a t t e n t i o n , which was the elementary  r e q u i r e d by  s c h o o l average.  Individual  some c h i l d r e n was  a l s o below  An i n t e r v i e w w i t h a Metro-  p o l i t a n H e a l t h Nurse, who  served as home v i s i t o r f o r h e a l t h  and s o c i a l needs i n 1954,  r e v e a l e d the l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s i n  r e l a t i n g the s c h o o l to i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y needs. There are now,  i n I960,  F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a r e a . Avenue and E l l i o t t S t . , was September 1955*  f i v e elementary  s c h o o l s i n the  S i r K i n g s f o r d - S m i t h , a t 54th  c o n s t r u c t e d and i n o p e r a t i o n i n  T h i s s c h o o l r e l i e v e d the Douglas School o f  a number o f grade f o u r t o s i x students.  S i r Kingsford-Smith  a l s o serves an area b o r d e r i n g F r a s e r v i e w as w e l l as a s e c t i o n o f the F r a s e r v i e w P r o j e c t .  F a c i l i t i e s of Kingsford-Smith  School i n c l u d e classrooms, auditorium-gymnasium and a d i r t type s c h o o l ground used f o r playground  purposes*  70 I n K i l l a r n e y , C a p t a i n Cook S c h o o l , l o c a t e d a t 54th Avenue and Doman Road, serves a c o n t i n u i n g expanding s c h o o l population.  C a p t a i n Cook School has a p o p u l a t i o n o f 499  p u p i l s i n I960*  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an expansion  o f 210 students  s i n c e the s c h o o l began o p e r a t i n g three y e a r s ago, with grades one t o f i v e e n r o l l e d * The l a t e s t elementary s c h o o l , David  Oppenheimer,  f o r m e r l y the Douglas Annex, began o p e r a t i o n i n the F a l l o f  1959*  The completion  o f t h i s s c h o o l e s t a b l i s h e s three elemen-  t a r y s c h o o l s , S i r James Douglas, S i r Kingsford-Smith  and David  Oppenheimer, w i t h i n an a r e a l e s s than one square m i l e . Moberly Annex, s i t u a t e d on 6 l s t Avenue and A r g y l e S t r e e t , a l s o serves a s e c t i o n o f the western border o f F r a s e r v i e w b o r d e r i n g southern  slope  and t h e  community*  The s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n has not r e a c h e d a maximum number of  pupils at this point.  A s c h o o l board  s t a t i s t i c i a n reports  the s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n now i s a t a h i g h l e v e l i n t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l age range*  Expansion o f elementary s c h o o l popu-  l a t i o n w i l l a l s o r i s e i n e a s t e r n areas surrounding C a p t a i n Cook School* I n the i n i t i a l years o f t h e Fraserview P r o j e c t and K i l l a r n e y Community,  there was, i n comparison w i t h younger  c h i l d r e n , a s m a l l teen-age p o p u l a t i o n * f o r e , attended  Teen-age p u p i l s , t h e r e -  John O l i v e r and Gladstone  some c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from the area*  High S c h o o l s ,  both  P o p u l a t i o n o f both  - 71 these s c h o o l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y John O l i v e r , over a t e n year p e r i o d , was r a p i d l y expanding w i t h a predominance o f o v e r - l a r g e rooms*  class-  A t r e n d , noted i n the elementary s c h o o l s , o f l a r g e  classrooms  and a l a c k o f i n d i v i d u a l s c h o o l r e s o u r c e s , a l s o  a p p l i e d t o the secondary s c h o o l s .  Teenagers ( l i v i n g i n F r a s e r -  view and K i l l a r n e y ) were g r e a t l y inconvenienced d i s t a n c e and t r a v e l  by the  time.  With the g r a d u a l upswing i n teen-age p o p u l a t i o n , two h i g h s c h o o l s were c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y boundary.  I n the f a l l o f 1 9 5 7 , K i l l a r n e y High  S c h o o l , l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t to K i l l a r n e y Park a t K i l l a r n e y S t r e e t and 4 9 t h Avenue, was opened.  The next year saw the opening  o f David Thompson High S c h o o l , l o c a t e d a d j a c e n t to Gordon Park a t 55th Avenue and Commercial D r i v e .  These two secondary  s c h o o l s a r e c l o s e r , g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , than any other two Vancouver High S c h o o l s .  Both K i l l a r n e y and David Thompson a r e  l a r g e modern b u i l d i n g s w i t h classrooms  and gymnasium con-  structed f o r a large school population. From a community o r g a n i z a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t ,  the i n c r e a s e  i n e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s has c o n t r i b u t e d to the r e s o u r c e s o f the community.  E x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r s c h o o l sponsored a c t i v i t i e s  has, u n q u e s t i o n a b l y ,  i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group a c t i v i t i e s  f o r many o f the p u p i l s .  Opportunity  for individual attention  to withdrawn o r a g g r e s s i v e students i s l i k e l y to come about w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n s t a f f .  Community i d e n t i t y i s a l s o a s s i s t e d  by the placement o f s c h o o l s w i t h i n F r a s e r v i e w borders*  and K i l l a r n e y  - 72 At t h i s time, the s c h o o l s a r e the main p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s i n Fraserview  and K i l l a r n e y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e c r e a t i o n purposes*  The use o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes i s , t h e r e f o r e , v i t a l to the youth p o p u l a t i o n o f Fraserview communities*  and K i l l a r n e y  The use o f s c h o o l s by o u t s i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s  a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Vancouver School Board R e n t a l s Department, a c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r e s e r v i n g s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s on r e q u e s t by o r g a n i z a t i o n s who q u a l i f y as r e s p o n s i b l e community groups*  The Community Chest and C o u n c i l Group Work D i v i s i o n  R e c r e a t i o n Survey, e n t i t l e d , " P r o f i l e f o r P l a n n i n g " ,  noted  s e v e r a l d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the Vancouver School Board R e n t a l policy*  1  One s e c t i o n o f School Board r e n t a l p o l i c y a l l o w s an  organization a f f i l i a t e d  with the Community Chest and C o u n c i l  the use o f the s c h o o l gymnasium a t a reduced r a t e because o f the e d u c a t i o n a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l combination i n i t s programme* Other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , who b e l i e v e an e d u c a t i o n a l emphasis i s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i r s e r v i c e , a r e not r e c o g n i z e d by the School Board, a t l e a s t to q u a l i f y f o r s p e c i a l reduced r e n t a l r a t e s * More pressure  i s not p u t on the School Board to c l a r i f y  p o l i c y , and t h i s i s probably  this  due to the d e s i r e t o a v o i d  f r i c t i o n between complementary s e r v i c e s i n the community* Another n o t a t i o n o f the "Survey" was the d i s r e g a r d f o r community r e c r e a t i o n a l needs i n the p l a n n i n g and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s c h o o l  1* Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver A r e a , P r o f i l e f o r P l a n n i n g R e c r e a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s . Report o f a Committee o f the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n J u l y , 1959.  1 buildings.  - 73 I n t h i s connection  the "Survey" suggested t o o ,  t h a t i n s m a l l e r communities such as Burnaby, New Westminster, or Richmond, i t i s e a s i e r t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r l i a i s o n b e tween r e c r e a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t i e s (such as park boards) and s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , thus e n a b l i n g g r e a t e r use o f s c h o o l grounds and buildings.  The w r i t e r , a member o f t h e Survey Committee, b e -  l i e v e d t h i s n o t a t i o n was a p o l i t e way o f b r i n g i n g a t t e n t i o n to  the l a c k o f communication and c o o p e r a t i o n between the  Vancouver School and Park Boards.  As a r e s u l t , many Vancouver  s c h o o l s , a f t e r r e g u l a r s c h o o l hours, remain vacant auditorium-gymnasiam.  except i n  Other rooms, n o t a b l y a r t , music, home  economics and i n d u s t r i a l shops a r e l i t t l e  used i n community  r e c r e a t i o n throughout Vancouver s c h o o l s , except i n the f i e l d o f Night School  education.  Although the School Board p o l i c y i n g r a n t i n g community o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h e use o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s appears t o be c o o p e r a t i v e , the use o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s i n Vancouver, f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes, i s l i m i t e d .  A discrepancy  on the  e d u c a t i o n a l focus o f one o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h a l i m i t e d f e s s i o n a l s t a f f has a l r e a d y been noted.  pro-  The l a c k o f communi-  c a t i o n between the Vancouver School Board and Parks Board undoubtedly has l e d t o l i t t l e a n a l y s i s o f the use o f p u b l i c facilities.  The e f f e c t i v e use o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r the  needs o f r e s p e c t i v e Vancouver communities does not r e s u l t when s u p e r v i s i o n and a b i l i t y t o f i n a n c e a r e t h e governing f a c t o r s i n permitting outside r e n t a l s .  Under these r e g u l a t i o n s  - 74 i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r the r e a l community r e c r e a t i o n a l needs to be unmet, so f a r as the use o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s are To i l l u s t r a t e  —  concerned*  K i l l a r n e y High School i s the o n l y p u b l i c  b u i l d i n g i n the K i l l a r n e y community w i t h a gymnasium a u d i t o r i u m and numerous classrooms a v a i l a b l e f o r community r e c r e a t i o n , a t Below i s the 1959-1960 schedule o f  the time o f t h i s study.  o u t s i d e r e n t a l s o f the K i l l a r n e y High School gymnasium: Monday evening  - Clover Leaf basketball p r a c t i c e , s e n i o r men c i t y - w i d e League.  Tuesday evening  - Deitrich Collins basketball p r a c t i c e , s e n i o r men c i t y - w i d e League.  Wednesday evening  - F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA Badminton Club, men and women,,not l i m i t e d to persons from o u t s i d e community.  Thursday  - Reserved f o r h i g h s c h o o l basketb a l l practice.  evening  F r i d a y evening  - Reserved f o r s c h o o l use, c o n c e r t s , meetings, e t c .  Saturday morning  - Vacant, no r e n t a l s allowed.  Saturday a f t e r n o o n - Vacant, no r e n t a l s allowed. K i l l a r n e y r e s i d e n t s are undoubtedly b e n e f i t s from the s e r v i c e s l i s t e d above.  gaining certain Are they r e c e i v i n g  a broad enough community r e c r e a t i o n programme from the use o f this public building?  A w e l l rounded  community r e c r e a t i o n  programme would a l s o r e c o g n i z e the a d d i t i o n o f many n o n - p h y s i c a l activities,  i n c l u d i n g drama, music, hobbies and c r a f t s , a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n , study and d i s c u s s i o n groups.  A l l these  activities,  - 75  -  except when developed as an a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r schedule o f the school programmes, are not a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i c centre  i n the K i l l a r n e y area.  Members o f  any  city-wide  b a s k e t b a l l teams, such as C l o v e r L e a f s and D e i t r i c h - C o l l i n s , who  use K i l l a r n e y High S c h o o l on Monday and  not l o c a l community p a r t i c i p a n t s . gramme sponsored by  The  Tuesday n i g h t s ,  are  a d u l t badminton p r o -  the YMCA i s p r i m a r i l y an a c t i v i t y  w i t h i n the r e a l m o f p u b l i c agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  falling  In  short,  the o v e r a l l use o f t h i s p u b l i c b u i l d i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes i s g r o s s l y inadequate. The  c o s t o f r e n t i n g the Vancouver schools a l s o  the sponsorship o f community r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s .  influences Killarney  High S c h o o l gymnasium r e n t a l f e e f o r n o n - p r o f i t r e c r e a t i o n a l organizations six  i s 1300.00 f o r two  n i g h t s , o r $11.53 per n i g h t .  and  o n e - h a l f hours f o r twenty-  Although the  arrangements do not appear o v e r l y expensive,  financial  organizations  r e n t i n g space have the choice o f s u b s i d i z i n g the d i r e c t l y from t h e i r own  f i n a n c i a l resources,  activity  or s e t t i n g f e e s  designed to meet the expenses o f r e n t , equipment and  supervision.  L e a d e r s h i p f o r r e c r e a t i o n can no l o n g e r depend upon s k i l l e d volunteer  i n s t r u c t o r s or l e a d e r s . . People p o s s e s s i n g  ship experience and for t h e i r services. s c h o o l r e n t a l has  s k i l l u s u a l l y ask and The  r e c e i v e remuneration  i n c l u s i o n of leadership  made i t p r o h i b i t i v e f o r many  costs  the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y  YMCA was  and  organizations  to sponsor c e r t a i n d e s i r e d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . trate:  leader-  To  illus-  approached by a group  - 76 a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the C a p t a i n Cook Elementary  School P.T.A., t o  a s s i s t i n the sponsorship o f square dancing f o r teen-agers. The  dance group was endeavoring  become t o o o l d f o r a square  t o r e t a i n youngsters  who had  dance programme a t C a p t a i n Cook  S c h o o l . . A meeting was h e l d a t the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA, to e x p l o r e a c o o p e r a t i v e programme sponsored by the.YMCA and a d u l t square dance members.  A j o i n t committee formed, and  decided, a f t e r a f u l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f programme c o s t s , i n c l u d i n g f e e s t o square dance c a l l e r s and r e n t a l , t h e r e would not be s u f f i c i e n t response  to a teen-age square dance programme  t a k i n g p l a c e a t K i l l a r n e y High S c h o o l . The experience i l l u s t r a t e s o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s might be sponsored  under a more l i b e r a l f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y .  At l e a s t ,  r e s i d e n t s might be more w i l l i n g t o support r e c r e a t i o n p r o grammes i f a l e s s e r f e e was i n v o l v e d .  (More important, how-  ever, t h e r e may be a need f o r more l o c a l involvement p o l i c y o f g r a n t i n g the use o f s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s .  i n the  A centralized  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n without a d i r e c t l i a i s o n w i t h the community w i l l l a c k i n f o r m a t i o n about the needs o f the a r e a ) . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group i n a l o c a l community w i t h  support  from p r o f e s s i o n a l , p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n p e r s o n n e l , would g r e a t l y a i d the use o f p u b l i c s c h o o l s on a r e a l i s t i c community b a s i s .  I n t h i s connection a l s o , l o c a l  involvement  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y might a s s i s t l o c a l r e s i d e n t s to understand t h a t w e l l o r g a n i z e d and s u p e r v i s e d a c t i v i t i e s w i l l r e q u i r e adequate f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s .  A l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the r e c r e a -  - 77 t i o n a l f i e l d would g a i n the b e n e f i t s o f l o c a l p e r s o n n e l , who because o f more i n f o r m a t i o n , w i l l r e f l e c t g r e a t e r understanding o f problems p e r t a i n i n g to the use o f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s . w r i t e r ' s experience, the p u b l i c  I n the  s c h o o l o f f i c i a l s have c u r t a i l e d  l o c a l community i d e n t i t y w i t h p u b l i c s c h o o l s because they have coveted c o n t r o l and have c e n t r a l i z e d the p u b l i c s c h o o l tration.  I t i s important t o note i n comparison,  adminis-  many o t h e r  l a r g e Canadian and American c i t i e s have a more l i b e r a l  policy  on the use o f s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes*  In  some areas, s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s are planned f o r community as w e l l as f o r e d u c a t i o n a l purposes.  The "Survey" r e f e r r e d t o above,  noted a change i n B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y "..• c o u l d o n l y come about i f the government b o d i e s concurred, i . e . , P r o v i n c i a l Department o f E d u c a t i o n and Vancouver C i t y C o u n c i l broaden the area w i t h i n which the School Board p r e s e n t l y operates,." 1  Vancouver School grounds are u t i l i z e d by young people i n the a f t e r s c h o o l hours on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s .  Organizations,  w i s h i n g t o sponsor a t h l e t i c leagues o r o t h e r outdoor  activities,  are r e q u i r e d to r e c e i v e p e r m i s s i o n f r o m the School Board.  The  l e a s e arrangement f o r s c h o o l grounds i s an e f f e c t i v e t o o l f o r both t h e s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the sponsoring community organization.  The s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s a r e assured o f s u p e r v i s i o n  on s c h o o l grounds, and community groups a r e guaranteed i n t e r f e r e n c e w i t h r e g u l a r sponsored  1.  I b i d , p. 11  activities.  a minimum  In this  ~ 78 connection,  a l l the elementary s c h o o l s , n o t a b l y , S i r James  Douglas, S i r Kingsford-Smith,  Oppenheimer, Moberly Annex and  C a p t a i n Cook, have playgrounds a v a i l a b l e f o r i n f o r m a l p l a y and  organized  activity.  Both t h e h i g h s c h o o l s , David  and K i l l a r n e y a r e adjacent  Thompson  to p u b l i c parks, which i s not an  uncommon arrangement i n many p a r t s o f Vancouver. P r i v a t e s c h o o l development w i t h i n Fraserview and Killarney i s limited.  Corpus C h r i s t i C a t h o l i c s c h o o l , l o c a t e d  on Nanaimo S t r e e t between 47th and 49th Avenues, i s the o n l y p r i v a t e school established.  This school i s adjoining the  church grounds and has undergone g r a d u a l a d d i t i o n i n the s h o r t h i s t o r y o f the area.  F a c i l i t i e s o f t h i s s c h o o l and classroom  p o p u l a t i o n have a l s o i n c r e a s e d with the a d d i t i o n o f a new s c h o o l u n i t i n 1958.  At present  t h e Corpus C h r i s t i  facilities  i n c l u d e classrooms, gymnasium, h a l l and o f f i c e s . The  o n l y o t h e r s e r v i c e o f an e d u c a t i o n a l nature  pre-  s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e t o F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y r e s i d e n t s , i s the mobile L i b r a r y U n i t operated by the Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y . Residents  o f the two d i s t r i c t s a r e a b l e to use P u b l i c L i b r a r y  s e r v i c e s from t h i s u n i t on a weekly b a s i s .  I n view o f the  l a r g e s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , i t would seem apparent a P u b l i c L i b r a r y would be a d e f i n i t e community a s s e t .  Noting;-this..,  apparent need, one p u b l i c elementary s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l has made an e f f o r t , through the s c h o o l P.T.A., to have l a n d s e t a s i d e a t 54th Avenue and V i c t o r i a D r i v e , as a f u t u r e p u b l i c library  site.  - 79 P a r k s , Playgrounds, Approximately  and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n s i x t e e n a c r e s o f l a n d f o r parks and p l a y -  grounds was s e t a s i d e f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p l a n n i n g of  t h e F r a s e r v i e w Housing  project.  park, l o c a t e d a t approximately  U n t i l r e c e n t l y , o n l y one  60th Avenue and V i c t o r i a D r i v e ,  was g r a s s e d f o r o r g a n i z e d outdoor a c t i v i t y . . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s park a r e a i s a g r a s s e d s e c t i o n , an equipped playground o f swings and o t h e r i n f o r m a l p l a y equipment, and u n t i l  January  I960, a s m a l l c o n v e r t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d house t h a t served as a community c e n t r e .  The slope and s i z e , approximately  a c r e s , l i m i t s t h e use o f the s i t e f o r outdoor  four  competitive  s p o r t s except w i t h the grade s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n .  As an i n -  f o r m a l p l a y a r e a f o r c h i l d r e n o f the community, t h i s park has been w e l l populated any time weather c o n d i t i o n s permit  through-  out the y e a r . F r a s e r v i e w i s a l s o f o r t u n a t e i n having a s m a l l park, o r 'tot  l o t ' situated w i t h i n i t s borders.  Known as Humm Park,  t h i s s i t e i s completely s e t o f f from s t r e e t s o r l o c a l c a r traffic.  F o r p r e - s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n , i t i s a n i d e a l p l a y -  ground, because o f the s a f e p l a y i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  Humm Park  i s equipped w i t h sand boxes, j u n g l e gyms and o t h e r recommended equipment f o r the enjoyment o f younger c h i l d r e n . The major park w i t h i n F r a s e r v i e w i s B o b o l i n k Park, a ten  a c r e p l o t o f l a n d s i t u a t e d on the extreme e a s t e r n p a r t o f  the F r a s e r v i e w s u b d i v i s i o n . and o f l i t t l e playground  B o b o l i n k Park remained  bushland  v a l u e u n t i l 1 9 5 9 , when t h e Parks  - 80 Board  completed  l a n d s c a p i n g and g r a s s i n g .  A f i e l d house f o r  change f a c i l i t i e s , i n d i c a t e s Bobolink.Park w i l l be u t i l i z e d f o r youth and a d u l t a t h l e t i c  leagues.  Immediately n o r t h o f F r a s e r v i e w , and adjacent to the new D a v i d Thompson High S c h o o l , i s Gordon Park. . R e s t r i c t e d space a v a i l a b l e i n the F r a s e r v i e w and surrounding a r e a has r e s u l t e d i n a g r e a t e r demand f o r Gordon Park than p l a y i n g fields available.  L i k e many other Vancouver P a r k s , Gordon Park,  t e n a c r e s i n s i z e , i s a c e n t r e o f a c t i v i t y i n the summer months d u r i n g t h e s o f t b a l l and b a s e b a l l seasons. c l u d e s a f i e l d house f o r the convenience  T h i s Park a l s o i n of participants of  the v a r i o u s s p o r t s . A major r e s o u r c e f o r the r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y , as w e l l as Vancouver r e s i d e n t s gene r a l l y , i s t h e F r a s e r v i e w G o l f Course, l o c a t e d immediately o f the F r a s e r v i e w s u b d i v i s i o n .  Owned by t h e Vancouver Parks  Board, the F r a s e r v i e w G o l f Course i s a f u l l course*  east  s i z e eighteen hole  The l i b e r a l r a t e s l e v i e d b y the Parks Board  make i t  p o s s i b l e f o r a wide number o f people to p l a y g o l f a t F r a s e r view throughout  the year.  Residents o f Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y ,  moreoever, have a c l o s e access to g o l f i n g i n a p e r i o d when g o l f l a n d i n t h e Vancouver c i t y l i m i t s i s d i m i n i s h i n g due t o : i n c r e a s e d housing needs, the r i s i n g value o f l a n d , and Vancouver's i n a b i l i t y t o s e t a s i d e s u f f i c i e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l space.  From the  p s y c h o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f view, the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f open bush l a n d might be c o n s i d e r e d a d e f i n i t e community a s s e t *  - 31 Moving  eastwards to the K i l l a r n e y Park s u b d i v i s i o n , the  one.major park —  K i l l a r n e y Park —  i s b o r d e r e d by 4 5 t h and  4 9 t h Avenues, K e r r and K i l l a r n e y S t r e e t s *  A field  house,  l o c a t e d i n the middle o f the park on K e r r S t r e e t , i s a l s o used by t h e Collingwood Community A s s o c i a t i o n .  K i l l a r n e y Park,  l i k e Gordon Park, i s c o n s i d e r e d a major a t h l e t i c f i e l d f o r v a r i o u s c i t y - w i d e l e a g u e s . . L o c a l s p o r t s groups, such as Little  League B a s e b a l l and J u n i o r Soccer e t c . , a l s o c e n t r e  t h e i r programme a t K i l l a r n e y Park. . The northwestern p a r t o f t h i s park i s s t i l l undeveloped l a n d and appears to be boggy and undrained.  The K i l l a r n e y High S c h o o l , s i m i l a r to the David  Thompson High S c h o o l , was  e r e c t e d on the southwestern s i d e .  With the g r a d u a l growth o f t h i s a r e a , K i l l a r n e y . Park  will  p r o b a b l y i n c r e a s e i n importance as: a community r e c r e a t i o n a l resource. Indoor p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s  throughout the  southwestern p a r t o f Vancouver, as a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Parks B o a r d , a r e l i m i t e d . , A map  Vancouver  o f Vancouver community c e n t r e  zones, as compiled by the Group Work D i v i s i o n R e c r e a t i o n Survey, i n d i c a t e s a community c e n t r e i s planned f o r South  Vancouver.  The area o f the f u t u r e community c e n t r e i s boardered by K i n g s way, Boundary Road, Borden S t r e e t , Knight S t r e e t and 4 9 t h Avenue, V i c t o r i a D r i v e and the F r a s e r R i v e r . With the housing development  w i t h i n the south e a s t e r n  s e c t i o n s o f Vancouver, l o c a l r e s i d e n t s v i s u a l i z e d a need f o r recreation f a c i l i t i e s .  S h o r t l y a f t e r the Second World  War,  - 82  -  s e v e r a l Vancouver communities completed the b u i l d i n g community c e n t r e s planned d u r i n g Marpole, Sunset, K i t s i l a n o and buildings  established.  Centres followed. mained h i g h , and  the war  and  of  pre-war years*  K e r r i s d a l e were among the  Dunbar and  first  H a s t i n g s E a s t Community  P u b l i c demand f o r community c e n t r e s r e l o c a l c i t i z e n s v i s u a l i z e d these p u b l i c  as the answer to t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l , and  centres  sometimes r e l a t e d  problems, such as youth behaviour. The  Vancouver Parks Board, a n t i c i p a t i n g the demand f o r  public r e c r e a t i o n a l centres, place  d e c i d e d r i g h t from the  c e r t a i n r e s t r i c t i o n s on the  centres.  The  associations  p o l i c y was  by any  sum  o f $ 2 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , changed to  means a t t h e i r d i s p o s a l ,  p u b l i c s u b s c r i p t i o n or d o n a t i o n s . $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 was  o f these  adopted r e q u i r i n g l o c a l community  to r a i s e the  $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 i n 1958,  construction  s t a r t to  including  On b e i n g assured that  this  i n hand, the Parks Board agreed to match i t to  b r i n g the t o t a l to $ 3 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 , which would be a s t a r t towards the  t o t a l cost o f the p r o j e c t , the b a l a n c e o f the funds to  r a i s e d by a l o c a l improvement by-law. established  distance  and r e g u l a t i o n s and  The  be  Parks Board a l s o  between neighbouring community c e n t r e s  f o r the dimensions o f v a r i o u s  gymnasiam i n c l u d e d  i n the b u i l d i n g s .  The  o f the community c e n t r e development, o p e r a t i n g  rooms, o f f i c e s short  history  within this  p o l i c y , i n d i c a t e d , f o r a l a r g e p a r t , a d i v i s i o n o f Vancouver i n t o an e a s t e r n p a r t o f the  and western s e c t i o n .  Communities on the  c i t y , p o s s e s s i n g g r e a t e r economic wealth,  western  gradually  - 83  -  were s u c c e s s f u l i n meeting the Board's r e g u l a t i o n s .  The more  needy communities, i n the e a s t e r n h a l f o f the c i t y were not, f o r the most p a r t , s u c c e s s f u l i n p r o v i d i n g a centre f o r t h e i r community. Fraserview r e s i d e n t s were most eager t o have a community centre.  A l o c a l Community A s s o c i a t i o n was  organized s h o r t l y  a f t e r the f i r s t h a l f o f the s u b d i v i s i o n was  completed.  In  1954  the c o n s t r u c t i o n f i e l d house, l o c a t e d on the Park a t 60th Avenue and V i c t o r i a D r i v e , was  converted  f o r community  The Parks Board purchased the u n i t and a u t h o r i z e d the  use. local  Fraserview  Community A s s o c i a t i o n to arrange f o r bookings  scheduling  activities.  I n the ensuing y e a r s , the Fraserview  Community A s s o c i a -  t i o n attempted to g a i n a Community Centre f o r the Housing P r o j e c t .  To t h i s end,  One  sponsored to r a l l y  o b s t a c l e appeared insurmountable; as  a low r e n t a l housing a r e a , the community c o u l d not under the p r o p e r t y by-law. s i o n and d i m i n i s h e d I n 1957,  Fraserview  community fund r a i s i n g p r o j e c t s  and a l i m i t e d youth and a d u l t programme was community support.  and  qualify  Lack o f progress l e d to some d i s s e n -  community  support.  the three Community A s s o c i a t i o n s i n the South-  e a s t e r n a r e a , amalgamated i n t o the South Vancouver Community Association. Fraserview,  Associations represented and C o l l i n g w o o d - K i l l a r n e y .  were:  Victoria Drive,  Since j o i n i n g  together,  these groups have endeavoured to r a i s e the $15,000.00  necessary  f o r a l o c a l improvement by-law.  An o r g a n i z e d p u b l i c s u b s c r i p -  - 84 t i o n campaign was conducted i n t h e e a r l y summer o f 1959 as a d i r e c t appeal f o r l o c a l support.  I n 1959 a l s o , the Vancouver  Parks Board approved t h e p r o p o s a l  to e s t a b l i s h t h e f u t u r e  c e n t r e on K i l l a r n e y Park a t the corner bordered by 49th Avenue and Kerr Road.  The Parks Board noted i n i t s 1958 r e p o r t :  "..• The p r o g r e s s o f the Vancouver South d i s t r i c t (Zone N). and the Grandview d i s t r i c t (Zone G) i s b e i n g c a r e f u l l y - w a t c h e d as they move towards the p o i n t o f b e i n g ready to submit requests f o r l o c a l improvement by-laws f o r community centres.."! P u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , throughout the  southeastern  a r e a , has c o n s i s t e d o f l i m i t e d n e g o t i a t i o n between the Parks Board and the l o c a l Community A s s o c i a t i o n . , P r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n t h e shaping o f a f u t u r e r e c r e a t i o n p r o gramme, on a c o n s u l t a t i v e b a s i s , i s v i r t u a l l y  non-existent*  In the w r i t e r ' s experience i n t h i s a r e a , many persons appeared to b e l i e v e t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n needs c o u l d not, met  u n t i l a community c e n t r e was e s t a b l i s h e d .  i n any way, be An over-dependence  upon f a c i l i t i e s i s perhaps n o t unusual i n many communities. In regard  to F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y , two l a r g e secondary  s c h o o l s remain unused f o r a l a r g e p a r t o f the l e i s u r e time hours.  Recent by-laws i n other Vancouver communities i n 1958  and 1959 p r e s e n t e d t o the p u b l i c t o b u i l d or enlarge c e n t r e s , have been r e j e c t e d by p r o p e r t y  owners.  community  Although  v a r y i n g c o n d i t i o n s i n each community may e x p l a i n t h i s  recent  1. C o m m u n i t y ~ i r h e s t and C o u n c i l s -of the Greater Vancouver A r e a , P r o f i l e f o r P l a n n i n g R e c r e a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s . Report o f a Committee-of the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n S o c i a l P l a n n i n g S e c t i o n , J u l y , 1959, p. 16.  - 35  -  t r e n d to r e j e c t community c e n t r e s or improvements to e x i s t i n g c e n t r e s , i t may  demonstrate, i n p a r t , t h a t l o c a l r e s i d e n t s  are no l o n g e r a c c e p t i n g the community centre as the panacea f o r a l l t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l needs* The Vancouver Parks Board p l a n i n d e v e l o p i n g p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n the C i t y has focused upon the p r o v i s i o n of f a c i l i t i e s , b u i l t and a d m i n i s t e r e d by the Parks Board.  In  the p r o v i s i o n o f more p u b l i c parks, as a Parks Board o b j e c t i v e , the Vancouver School Board has been a s s i s t e d i n e r e c t i n g new s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s on, or adjacent t o , Park Board l a n d . both p u b l i c b o d i e s have r e f l e c t e d l i t t l e  However,  j o i n t planning i n  r e g a r d to b u i l d i n g s f o r a community r e c r e a t i o n programme.  As  a d u p l i c a t i o n , l a r g e schools and community c e n t r e s stand s i d e by s i d e , as i n K i t s i l a n o ; or i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y , as i n some other Vancouver communities.  School b u i l d i n g s , except f o r  gymnasium and the w e l l developed  f o r m a l i z e d Night School a d u l t  e d u c a t i o n programme, remain dark and diplomacy  deserted.  As the need f o r  i s most e v i d e n t , w i t n e s s the comments o f the Chest's''  R e c r e a t i o n Survey i n r e g a r d to i n t e r - o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  communica-  tion: "There appears to be a need f o r more e f f e c t i v e communication between some of the key o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community i n r e l a t i o n to matters p e r t a i n i n g to the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . For example when the Committee was g a t h e r i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department the School Board and Board o f Parks and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n there seemed to be some l a c k o f knowledge on the p a r t o f these o r g a n i z a t i o n s about each o t h e r s concerns and a c t i v i t i e s i n  - 36 the f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n . . I n a d d i t i o n the need was c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d f o r the Community Chest and o t h e r C o u n c i l s to have b e t t e r communication w i t h the major community s e r v i c e s and other p l a n n i n g o r g a n i z a tions. S p e c i f i c a l l y i n t h i s r e s p e c t there appears to be an immediate need f o r the a p p r o p r i a t e body o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s to be more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the C i t y P l a n n i n g Department i n the matters p e r t a i n i n g t o urban redevelopment. An apparent need was a l s o noted f o r more and b e t t e r communication between o r g a n i z a t i o n s on a l o c a l , community l e v e l i n p l a n n i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . " " Lack o f knowledge and adequate communication p o i n t up o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s t o Vancouver's p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s . R e s i d e n t s concerned w i t h r e c r e a t i o n , and t h i s i s b e i n g demons t r a t e d i n F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a t the p r e s e n t time, devote a l l t h e i r energy t o g a i n i n g a community c e n t r e .  With  guidance o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and e x p e r i e n c e d l a y p e r s o n n e l through c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s by t h e Parks Board and the Community Chest and Councils', o f f i c i a l s ,  a more encompassing community  r e c r e a t i o n programme would be implemented. i s a w e l l developed a q u a t i c pools that conceivably  One p r e s s i n g  need  programme I n covered swimming  c o u l d be b u i l t t o school b u i l d i n g s and  used as community p o o l s a t n i g h t s , week-ends and h o l i d a y periods. Private Efforts With a broader a p p l i c a t i o n o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n t o  1.  I b i d , p. 2 2 .  * I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to see t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n was emphasized by the " N o r r i e R e p o r t " i n 1945.  strongly  - 87 i n c l u d e p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s and  -  a greater  fessional leadership, representatives  emphasis upon p r o -  of private  organizations  would be a s s i s t e d to r e l a t e s e r v i c e s to the t o t a l needs o f community.  The  the  r e c e p t i o n o f p r i v a t e agency s e r v i c e s would  demonstrate more u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  community i d e n t i t y .  Early  i n the Vancouver YMCA's i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o the F r a s e r v i e w area,  c e r t a i n members o f the l o c a l Community  Association  appeared r e s e n t f u l and h o s t i l e to the YMCA. . C o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s have v a l u e i n overcoming a t t i t u d e s o f resentment a duplication of services.  In t h i s regard,  developments  w i t h i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a r e a have enabled a degree o f c o o p e r a t i o n view-Killarney  than p r e v i o u s l y .  and  Members o f the  greater Fraser-  YMCA Board o f Management, f o r example, took  p a r t i n d i r e c t canvas f o r the proposed South Vancouver Community A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1959.  O f f i c i a l s o f the l o c a l F r a s e r v i e w  Community A s s o c i a t i o n have asked f o r , and  continuously  l i s h e d , YMCA news i n t h e i r community paper, "The  pub-  Fraserview  Bulletin".~~ P r i v a t e group work and r e c r e a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a r e a s , have i n c r e a s e d and volume o f s e r v i c e , w i t h the g e n e r a l community.  serving  i n number,  development o f  the  I n view o f l i m i t e d p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n , the volume  o f p r i v a t e s e r v i c e t o the l e i s u r e time needs o f i n d i v i d u a l s i n F r a s e r v i e w and  K i l l a r n e y has probably been h i g h e r than  a c c e p t a b l e standards o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e f u n c t i o n i n the recreation f i e l d .  The  particular f l e x i b i l i t y  of c e r t a i n p r i v a t e  - as r e c r e a t i o n groups to adapt to the l o c a l many r e s i d e n t s , the m a j o r i t y  community has  i n the younger age  enabled  categories,  l e a r n , grow, and enjoy many p o s i t i v e experiences,  to  when b a s i c  p u b l i c s e r v i c e s are a t a minimum. Most communities, i n the o u t l y i n g p a r t o f the l a r g e urban c e n t r e , are f a v o u r e d w i t h a number o f youth s e r v i n g  organizations.  I n F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y the f o l l o w i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s  are  now  a c t i v e i n r e c r e a t i o n a l work: 1.  The Bov Scout A s s o c i a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g Wolf groups;.  Cub  The G i r l Guides A s s o c i a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g B r o w n i e s ) — a j o i n t l y sponsored programme. 2.  Y.M.C.A., F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y  Branch.  3.  Vancouver Boy's Club A s s o c i a t i o n Unit.  —Fraserview  Although p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s , the v a r i o u s Church denominations mid-week a c t i v i t i e s r e c r e a t i o n a l i n character. recreational  The  f o l l o w i n g Churches  activities:  1. . F r a s e r v i e w U n i t e d  Church  2. , S t . . Timothys' A n g l i c a n  Church  3»  Corpus C h r i s t i  C a t h o l i c Church  4«  F r a s e r v i e w A l l i a n c e Church  5*  Presbyterian  6.  Collingwood B a p t i s t  Association  are  provide  - 89  -  Parks and playgrounds, as o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y , are u t i l i z e d f o r l o c a l and city-wide a t h l e t i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  The  l a s t decade has witnessed the focus of community i n t e r e s t on s p e c i a l i z e d youth a t h l e t i c programmes, o f which, the best known i s L i t t l e League B a s e b a l l . ,The f o l l o w i n g sports are scheduled i n the l o c a l parks: 1.  Boys and Men  - Soccer, E n g l i s h rugby, Canadian f o o t b a l l , B a s e b a l l and S o f t b a l l .  2.  G i r l s and Women- S o f t b a l l and Grass hockey.  A b r i e f review of p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s f o l l o w s below: The Boy Scout movement i n Canada i s proving to be one of the more adaptive youth s e r v i c e s to l o c a l communities.  In  Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y , the Boy Scout packs proved to be the  e a r l i e s t youth o r g a n i z a t i o n to operate i n t h i s v i c i n i t y  of Vancouver.  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l procedure of sponsorship by a  church or school P.T.A. ensures the involvement o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s who are d i r e c t l y concerned with programme and l e a d e r ship.  A standardized programme i n c l u d i n g the r e a d i l y i d e n t i -  f i e d uniform also a s s i s t s a process o f l o c a l i z e d c o n t r o l , even though the use o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r Scout groups i s dependent upon a h i g h degree o f cooperation from other o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The c o o r d i n a t i o n of a l l Scout troops i n Vancouver i s through the Scout House, l o c a t e d on West Broadway.  Staff  members provide leadership t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t e s and other  - 90 r e s o u r c e s f o r l o c a l l a y committees.  S t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e the  Scout movement reaches p r i m a r i l y the p r e - a d o l e s c e n t and e a r l y a d o l e s c e n t , and a f t e r the e a r l y teen-age p e r i o d , i n t e r e s t i n S c o u t i n g appears t o wane, f o r s e n i o r teen-agers o f f i f t e e n y e a r s and over a r e seldom i n v o l v e d . in life,  After a certain period  s t a n d a r d i z e d o r regimented programmes, l i k e the Boy  Scout movement, have l e s s appeal to some young p e o p l e . The c o u n t e r p a r t o f the Boy Scouts A s s o c i a t i o n , the G i r l Guides A s s o c i a t i o n i s a l s o sponsoring a number o f groups i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y communities.  The same adminis-  t r a t i o n , and a s i m i l a r programme to the Scouts A s s o c i a t i o n r e f l e c t s a h i g h degree o f resemblance  between these two  programmes. Y.M.C.A. s e r v i c e s i n the S o u t h e a s t e r n p a r t o f Vancouver were i n i t i a t e d by the Vancouver  E a s t Branch YMCA i n 1 9 5 2 .  C h i l d r e n , a t t h a t t i m e , were r e c r u i t e d f o r a c i t y  camping  a c t i v i t y c e n t e r i n g around the Vancouver E a s t YMCA b u i l d i n g a t Commercial  D r i v e and Adanac S t r e e t .  Original  responsibility  f o r t h i s a r e a , however, had been a s s i g n e d t o the Fairmount Branch YMCA a t t h e time o f emergence o f the Vancouver YMCA as a M e t r o p o l i t a n A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1947*  I n 1 9 5 4 , a s m a l l Summer  Fun C l u b , o r C i t y Camp programme, was sponsored by the F a i r mount YMCA i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w Housing P r o j e c t .  A l o c a l parent  committee s e t up t h e f e e s t r u c t u r e and r e l a t e d p o l i c y matters w i t h the E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Fairmount Branch as d i r e c t o r .  91 L a t e r , i n October 1954,  -  a second year S o c i a l Work  student from t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, assigned to the-Fairmount Branch YMCA, was g i v e n a f i e l d placement o f i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t o f F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s to YMCA programme. and  A community survey, a l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g course  a d u l t committees r e s u l t e d i n a s m a l l number o f f r i e n d s h i p  groups, and an e n l a r g e d of 1955.  Summer Fun Club, d u r i n g the e a r l y p a r t  A r e s i d e n t i a l i n t e r e s t i n YMCA programmes grew  g r a d u a l l y and .the YMCA was a b l e t o i n c r e a s e s e r v i c e . 1955,  Late i n  a f u l l time YMCA p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, o r s e c r e t a r y , was  assigned  t o the F r a s e r v i e w and surrounding  area.  As a m u l t i p l e s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n , YMCA programmes i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y communities have v a r i e d t o i n c l u d e boys, g i r l s ,  co-educational  p h y s i c a l education,  and a d u l t groups.  camping, a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  Group work, and c o u n s e l l i n g  on a l i m i t e d degree a r e now o f f e r e d by t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Branch, YMCA.  I n 1958,  as a r e s u l t o f the Greater  YMCA B u i l d i n g Campaign h e l d i n 1957,  Vancouver  a l o t was purchased a t  49th Avenue and Kerr S t r e e t from the C i t y o f Vancouver. ference  o f a s m a l l cottage  i n 1958", f o r m e r l y  Trans-  used by the Alma  Branch YMCA, i s now used as the YMCA community headquarters. S e r v i c e s o f the 'Y' i n F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y have assumed a f a m i l y focus and a broadening p e r s p e c t i v e The the  f o r t h i s agency.  Vancouver Boys' Club A s s o c i a t i o n , an a f f i l i a t e o f  Boys' C l u b s o f Canada, i s the most r e c e n t p r i v a t e r e c r e a -  t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o sponsor a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the F r a s e r v i e w  area.  I n 1957,  a survey o f F r a s e r v i e w wascundertaken by  the  Western R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r o f the Boys' Clubs o f Canada. Following  t h i s survey, the Boys' Clubs A s s o c i a t i o n  the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f Greater approval  Vancouver f o r  to extend s e r v i c e s w i t h i n F r a s e r v i e w .  with t h i s request,  contacted  I n accordance  a Committee of the Group Work D i v i s i o n  was  formed to i n v e s t i g a t e the need f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n F r a s e r v i e w , which i n c l u d e d i n i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l  definition,  a  l a r g e surrounding area o f the F r a s e r v i e w Housing P r o j e c t . The request  Committee, attempting to complete a study o f  the  o f the Vancouver Boys' Clubs A s s o c i a t i o n to extend  s e r v i c e s , noted two  b a s i c problems i n l a u n c h i n g  the  study:  "The f i r s t i s the l a c k o f guidance and procedures f o r - a g e n c i e s to use when seeking to expand or develop new s e r v i c e s . These have not been e s t a b l i s h e d by the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s a t t h i s time. The second problem encountered by the committee i s a r e s u l t o f t h i s d e f i c i e n c y . The l a c k o f guidance on the p a r t o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s r e s u l t e d i n . i n s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n b e i n g s u p p l i e d by the Vancouver,Boys' Club f o r a proper e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e i r request". • - • T h i s comment r e s u l t e d i n a s e r i e s o f recommendations f o r the expansion o f p r i v a t e agency s e r v i c e s . i n respect  I t a l s o noted,  to the Boys' Club i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h a t more compre-  hensive m a t e r i a l should be  f u r n i s h e d by a p r i v a t e  organization  1. Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver, F r a s e r v i e w Study. A r e p o r t on r e c r e a t i o n S e r v i c e s i n the F r a s e r v i e w Area, March, 1957, p. 1.  - 93 i n p l a n n i n g new s e r v i c e s . "In making i t s r e q u e s t the Vancouver Boys' Club A s s o c i a t i o n presented a very good study to prove the need f o r r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w a r e a . However, the committee had d i f f i c u l t y s e c u r i n g adequate m a t e r i a l on t h e p l a n s o f the Vancouver Boys' Clubs Association. Community groups had d i f f e r e n t o p i n i o n s about the p r o p o s a l and the committee d i d not have adequate d e t a i l s . Although the committee met w i t h the Vancouver Boys' Club A s s o c i a t i o n and wrote r e q u e s t i n g a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t i l l not available. There i s vagueness about t h e s i z e o f the b u i l d i n g proposed, the o p e r a t i n g expenses r e q u i r e d , the type o f c a p i t a l campaign envisaged and the l o c a t i o n o f the c l u b . S i n c e a l l these f a c t o r s should be c o n s i d e r e d i n approving t h i s r e q u e s t , i t has been i m p o s s i b l e f o r the committee t o make c l e a r c u t recommend a t i o n s . A s o l u t i o n p r e d i c a t e d upon c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s has been suggested. However, t h e vagueness o f the r e quest has r e s u l t e d i n delay and c o n f u s i o n and has l i m i t e d the value o f the s t u d y . " 1  The Committee -was f o r t u n a t e i n having t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f a r e s e a r c h a d v i s o r , who o b t a i n e d m a t e r i a l from p r i v a t e and p u b l i c s o c i a l agencies t o a s s e s s :  the degree o f s o c i a l problems,  r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s , and r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e i n the area.  I n r e g a r d to r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s , the Committee's nota-  tion i s significant: "The Committee found a community i n which o r g a n i z e d groups a r e showing concern and i n i t i a t i v e i n o r g a n i z i n g a c t i v i t i e s and u s i n g e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s . They found an area which l a c k s r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s and which l a c k s facilities. They a l s o found t h a t the e f f o r t s o f the groups to o b t a i n s e r v i c e s a r e uncoordinated and t h e r e i s a l a c k o f o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g f o r the good o f t h e community. At t h i s time there i s evidence o f c o m p e t i t i o n and conf l i c t which c o u l d a f f e c t the morale o f the community. T h i s c o m p e t i t i o n and c o n f l i c t has made the t a s k o f t h e  1.  I b i d , p. 2.  94 Committee more d i f f i c u l t * I t p o i n t s up the need f o r more involvement o f Community groups i n the development o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s a t an e a r l y stage. I n F r a s e r v i e w c o n f l i c t o f i n t e r e s t s had a l r e a d y developed ^ and the committee found i t s e l f i n a d i f f i c u l t p o s i t i o n . " The a f t e r m a t h o f t h i s study was to c l a r i f y f o r a l l a g e n c i e s w i t h i n the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , procedure for  agency expansion.  I t noted and approved a l s o "the t r e n d  towards the assumption by p u b l i c agencies o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for  l a r g e r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s t o serve a l l c i t i z e n s o f  the community".  P r i v a t e agency s e r v i c e was regarded as h a v i n g  a s p e c i a l i z e d function,, " t o o f f er. an i n t e n s i v e group work programme", where "programme" i s r e l a t e d to the s o c i a l needs of  the a r e a s e r v e d by the p r i v a t e agency"* The committee recommended a Boys' Club o p e r a t i o n be  g r a n t e d on the f o l l o w i n g  conditions:  "(a) P r o v i d e d t h a t the l o c a t i o n be w i t h i n the - Fraserview-Housing a r e a and c l o s e to i t s centre. (b)  .(c) -  1.  That f a c i l i t i e s be such t h a t they be adequate to house a boys' club programme but not so as to Impede the development o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s * Such f a c i l i t i e s should not be o f the type t h a t p u b l i c b o d i e s have accepted as t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , i . e . , swimming p o o l and l a r g e gymnasium required f o r senior competitive sports* That the p o l i c y o f the Vancouver Boys' Clubs A s s o c i a t i o n , t h a t i s , to p r o v i d e a q u a l i t a t i v e programme to a l i m i t e d segment o f the p o p u l a t i o n , should be maintained i n t h i s a r e a , even though t h e r e be p r e s s u r e s to extend i t s s e r v i c e s to a wider s e c t i o n o f the p o p u l a t i o n .  I b i d , p. 1  -  95  The committee suggests t h a t i t i s not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a p r i v a t e agency supported by Chest funds to meet the t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n needs o f an a r e a , but to support and work w i t h those groups seeking to meet other needs through the e x t e n s i o n o f p u b l i c or o t h e r private s e r v i c e s . n l  U n t i l r e c e n t l y the Vancouver Boys' Clubs operated a F r a s e r v i e w U n i t from the converted Community Centre B u i l d i n g * ^ h i s b u i l d i n g burned down e a r l y i n January i 9 6 0 and,  except  f o r a gymnasium programme a t D a v i d Thompson High S c h o o l , t h i s has c u r t a i l e d the Boys'. Club o p e r a t i o n . Centre comprised  A c t i v i t i e s a t the  a hobby and c r a f t programme three days a week  f o r the p r e - a d o l e s c e n t age group.  A c t i v i t i e s o f f e r e d by  Boys' Club s i n c e the unit, opened i n 1953  included:  the  a softball  programme, t r a c k and f i e l d a c t i v i t i e s , camping a t Camp Potl a c h , and the hobby and c r a f t  shop.  The F r a s e r v i e w Boys' Club i s a d m i n i s t e r e d by a l o c a l Board o f Management comprising r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n the community.  ;  A t the p r e s e n t time, the D i r e c t o r o f the Kimount Boys'  C l u b , s e r v i n g the Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a o f Vancouver, i s a c t i n g as p a r t - t i m e D i r e c t o r o f the Fraserview. U n i t . . The Boys' Clubs were a l s o s u c c e s s f u l i n r e c e i v i n g a s e c t i o n o f park l a n d a t 61st Avenue and V i c t o r i a D r i v e from the Parks Board. A c a p i t a l campaign scheduled f o r 1961 f o r the F r a s e r v i e w Housing  area.  w i l l include a building  The e x t e n t o f the  o f the b u i l d i n g are not p r e s e n t l y known.  facilities  - 96 The Boys' C l u b , a s the l a t e s t agency t o serve F r a s e r view, brought about c o n s i d e r a b l e  public interest i n recreation  i n F r a s e r v i e w . . The f r i c t i o n noted by the survey committee was p r i m a r i l y between the F r a s e r v i e w Community Centre A s s o c i a t i o n and  the Vancouver Boys' Clubs A s s o c i a t i o n ,  In fact,  several  d i r e c t o r s o f the F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a t i o n l e f t t o j o i n t h e l o c a l Boys' Club. secretary  The w r i t e r , employed as t h e IMCA  s e r v i n g F r a s e r v i e w a t the time, f e l t t h i s  friction  was another example whereby r e s i d e n t s o f a Vancouver community were c o n f u s i n g one  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n and community r e c r e a t i o n as  and t h e same.  I n essence, many d i r e c t o r s o f the l o c a l  Community A s s o c i a t i o n b e l i e v e d a community centre would serve the t o t a l r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f t h e i r community. . E a r l i e r a defensive community.  r e a c t i o n had been encountered i n YMCA surveys o f the However, because the IMCA d i d n o t p l a n t o e s t a b l i s h  a large f a c i l i t y  i n the community, the degree o f f r i c t i o n  r e s u l t e d i n the Boys' Club development d i d n o t occur.  that  Although  l i t t l e guidance to mold community a t t i t u d e s toward r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s had been forthcoming, c e r t a i n members o f the community did  appear to demonstrate an understanding o f p u b l i c and p r i -  vate r e c r e a t i o n t r e n d s , when they o b j e c t e d i z a t i o n s e t t i n g up an e l a b o r a t e  t o a p r i v a t e organ-  community f a c i l i t y  to meet the  needs o f boys between the ages o f e i g h t and e i g h t e e n .  These  same members regarded the p u b l i c centre as b e i n g broader i n age  groupings s e r v e d , l i t e r a l l y  the t o t a l community  and  i n c l u d e d a g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n i n a c t i v i t y groups*  population  - 97  -  S i n c e the survey committee r e p o r t , a more c o o p e r a t i v e atmosphere has r e s u l t e d w i t h i n the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a .  The  Boys' Club use o f the s m a l l , converted F r a s e r v i e w Community Centre i s a l r e a d y noted.  The amalgamation o f l o c a l  community  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t o the South Vancouver Community A s s o c i a t i o n , and subsequent  p l a n n i n g o f a b u i l d i n g i n the K i l l a r n e y  Park  a r e a , has probably a s s i s t e d supporters o f b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s to envisage the complementary a s p e c t s o f t h e i r s e r v i c e s .  The  p r o c e s s o f s t u d y , which by n e c e s s i t y , r e s u l t e d i n more communic a t i o n s between r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o had a p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e on e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e s .  The low degree  l o c a l c o o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s , noted by the Chest i n the w r i t e r ' s experience has not undergone any  of  committee,  significant  advance s i n c e the r e p o r t . Church r e c r e a t i o n , although v a r y i n g w i t h i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y important. f a c i l i t i e s i n r e g a r d t o the Boy i s noted above.  denominations,  C o o p e r a t i o n i n the use o f  Scout and G i r l Guide a c t i v i t i e s  Churches, p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a r g e r denomina-  t i o n s have a r e c r e a t i o n a l programme p l a n c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g s o f the Church.  At the  present time none o f the Churches have w e l l developed ties for recreational  facili-  purposes.  The F r a s e r v i e w U n i t e d Church, l o c a t e d a t Upland  and  V i c t o r i a D r i v e , i s a one s t o r y b u i l d i n g where the basement s e c t i o n i s used f o r Sunday School c l a s s e s and mid-week r e c r e a t i o n programme. , A c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d e , C.G.I.T., E x p l o r e r s ,  - 9# Tyros and H i C.  As the f i r s t l a r g e Church denomination, t h e  F r a s e r v i e w U n i t e d Church c o n t i n u e s to be w i d e l y used by the community.  The F r a s e r v i e w H i C. programme e n r o l l e d a l a r g e  youth group u n t i l an i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l the behaviour r e s u l t e d i n a d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the a c t i v i t y , , T h i s programme s e r v e d to i l l u s t r a t e the_growing number o f teen-age members o f the community who w i l l r e q u i r e more than the accepted youth s e r v i c e s i n o r d e r to be reached by youth a g e n c i e s , St, Timothy's A n g l i c a n Church. f o r m e r l y S t , Lukes P a r i s h H a l l , i s l o c a t e d a t A r g y l e S t r e e t immediately south o f 54th Avenue.  Renovations i n t h i s b u i l d i n g are n e a r i n g completion.  Youth and a d u l t groups w i l l i n c r e a s e i n number as the b u i l d i n g becomes more s u i t a b l e .  A n g l i c a n youth programme i n c l u d e s a  p r e - d e l i n q u e n t gang l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f the H i C. youth group.  Cub, Scout, Brownie, and Guide  groups a r e a l s o sponsored w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n Church b u i l d i n g . A young peoples group and v a r i o u s a d u l t a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the mid-week schedule. Corpus C h r i s t i C a t h o l i c Church, o p e r a t e s r e c r e a t i o n a l programme through the C a t h o l i c Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n , whose head o f f i c e i s l o c a t e d a t the C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s B u i l d i n g i n cent r a l Vancouver.  The l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by  Corpus C h r i s t i Church, l i k e the o t h e r Church have a r e l i g i o u s emphasis.  denominations,  With the expansion o f f a c i l i t i e s  i t i s expected C.Y.O. a c t i v i t i e s w i l l a l s o  increase.  Other Churches p r o v i d i n g l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s i n  -  99  Fraserview and-Killarney i n c l u d e :  Fraserview P r e s b y t e r i a n ,  F r a s e r v i e w A l l i a n c e , Fraserview Covenant, and, K i l l a r n e y B a p t i s t , Commercial R e c r e a t i o n Movie t h e a t r e s , bowling a l l e y s , b i l l i a r d h a l l s , l a r g e commercial h a l l s f o r dancing, e t c . , are non-existent w i t h i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y communities.  Immediately n o r t h  o f the area, on south V i c t o r i a . D r i v e , a bowling and establishment i s a v a i l a b l e .  billiard  A movie house, popular b e f o r e  the advent o f t e l e v i s i o n , i s no l o n g e r i n o p e r a t i o n .  As a  p a r t o f the southern s l o p e , F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y a r e s i t u a t e d i n an e x c e l l e n t area f o r t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n . major p a r t o f the p o p u l a t i o n now  The  l o c a t e d i n the F r a s e r v i e w  and  K i l l a r n e y e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n c e a f t e r the p e r i o d when l o c a l movie t h e a t r e s were popular and w e l l attended. t r a v e l convenience  Today, i n c r e a s e d  to o t h e r p a r t s of Vancouver has  probably  decreased the need f o r l o c a l commercial o u t l e t s . . Although l a n d i s a v a i l a b l e , i t i s u n l i k e l y a p p r e c i a b l e commercial e n t e r p r i s e w i l l take p l a c e w i t h i n the two Attendance  communities i n the f u t u r e .  at l a r g e downtown t h e a t r e s , s p o r t i n g events,  music and drama a c t i v i t i e s and r e l a t e d programmes, has i n l a t t e r years.  The l a r g e commercial sponsored  risen  events p r o v i d e  a degree o f excitement and glamour probably not found i n l o c a l community events.  The  extent o f commercial e v e n t s , such  p r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t s , has i n c r e a s e d s p e c t a t o r i n t e r e s t . not n e c e s s a r i l y brought  as I t has  about i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  a t h l e t i c s or a s s i s t e d p u b l i c understanding o f the v a l u e s  - 100 inherent  i n t a k i n g an a c t i v e p a r t i n a t h l e t i c or s p o r t i n g  activities. cluded  l e t , f o r purposes o f the study, i t may be con-  t h a t people l i v i n g i n the l a r g e urban c i t y o f Vancouver  have shown an i n c r e a s e d and  response to commercial r e c r e a t i o n ,  t h i s form o f p u b l i c media has a g r e a t e r  ever b e f o r e .  Today, concern r e g a r d i n g  influence  the n e g a t i v e  than  influence  o f commercial r e c r e a t i o n has changed from a moral c r i t i c i s m to an a t t i t u d e o f concern f o r the p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h o f p e o p l e , who o n l y spectate  and do not p a r t i c i p a t e .  E n t e r p r i s e s operated f o r p r i v a t e p r o f i t have a l s o been questioned by p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l p e r s o n n e l f o r l a c k i n g p o s i t i v e and c o n s t r u c t i v e ment o f people.  value f o r the growth and develop-  P r o f e s s i o n a l s p o r t , f o r i n s t a n c e , has p l a c e d  an emphasis upon f i n a n c i a l success r a t h e r than t h e v a l u e o f sportsmanship and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Passive  forms o f r e c r e a t i o n w i t h i n the home s e t t i n g  have a l s o shown a r i s e i n importance.  The e x c e l l e n t  o f t e l e v i s i o n i n F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y e x p l a i n s number o f f a m i l i e s owning t e l e v i s i o n s e t s .  reception  the h i g h  The f u l l value o f  t e l e v i s i o n has n o t , a t t h i s p o i n t , been determined; n e g a t i v e and  p o s i t i v e i n f l u e n c e s o f t e l e v i s i o n a l s o have not been con-  clusively established.  The r e t a i n i n g o f f a m i l y members w i t h i n  the home f o r l o n g e r p e r i o d s  appears to be a d e f i n i t e c o n t r i -  b u t i o n made by t e l e v i s i o n .  H i F i r e c o r d i n g and r a d i o  also  continue to b e a p a r t o f home r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . The  more a c t i v e forms o f home r e c r e a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g  - 101  -  gardening, l a n d s c a p i n g , home improvements, known as y o u r s e l f , a l s o occupy a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f time.  'do-itAlthough  a low r e n t a l area, where i t might be p o s s i b l e f o r r e s i d e n t s to assume a l e s s e r i n t e r e s t i n the home, F r a s e r v i e w  families  appear to be t a k i n g a normal i n t e r e s t i n home improvement. Lawns and vegetable gardens appear to be as numerous as i n o t h e r communities o f s i m i l a r economic  circumstance.  R e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s o u t s i d e o f the community i n " B r i t i s h Columbia's Evergreen Playground" s k i i n g , b o a t i n g and swimming.  include:  camping,  The B r i t i s h Columbia P r o v i n c i a l  Government's e r e c t i o n o f camping s i t e s ' h a s been one i n f l u e n c e to i n c r e a s e p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ,  Fraserview  and K i l l a r n e y r e s i d e n t s , b e i n g o f younger age than many other Vancouver comminities,  i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d p a r t i c i p a t e to a  g r e a t e r extent i n f a m i l y camping and r e c r e a t i o n a l The  activities.  establishment o f more p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e c r e a -  t i o n throughout  the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia can a l s o be  seen to have a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the family unit i n recreation. S o c i a l Problems The i n c i d e n c e o f youth and a d u l t b e h a v i o r problems i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y communities are not a t the p r e s e n t time o f a h i g h percentage.  V o l u n t a r y case work agencies  i n d i c a t e a l a r g e r number o f cases i n the F r a s e r v i e w  Housing  P r o j e c t than i n the surrounding K i l l a r n e y and South V i c t o r i a areas.  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a g e n c i e s , such as the F a m i l y S e r v i c e  - 102  -  A s s o c i a t i o n , p o i n t out, however, t h a t a d e n s i t y o f cases p e r t a i n i n g to an a r e a may deterioration. voluntary  not n e c e s s a r i l y i n d i c a t e  social  P e r t a i n i n g to F r a s e r v i e w , the l a r g e number o f  cases may  i n d i c a t e the r e a d i n e s s  accept agency s e r v i c e s due  to age  and  of residents  maturity  as w e l l as  p o s s i b l e l a c k o f k i n s h i p r e s o u r c e u s u a l l y sought out a s s i s t a n c e by the average The has  to a  for  family.  p a t t e r n o f growth o f the F r a s e r v i e w Housing P r o j e c t  r e s u l t e d i n many s e r v i c e p e r s o n n e l i n c l u d i n g :  church, w e l f a r e agency, c o r r e c t i o n a l agency and  school,  recreational  o f f i c i a l s to p r e d i c t f u t u r e community-wide youth problems.  A  young d e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d a r e a l a c k i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s i s r e garded as s u f f i c i e n t evidence f o r the f u t u r e m a n i f e s t a t i o n f u t u r e d e v i a n t behaviour by  the youth p o p u l a t i o n .  o f f i c i a l s a t the p r e s e n t time would appear to be p o s i t i o n to gauge the community s t r e n g t h s Secondary school o f f i c i a l s , i n t e r v i e w e d  and  of  School i n the  best  weaknesses.  by the w r i t e r , were  q u i t e d e f i n i t e i n drawing a l i n e o f d i s t i n c t i o n between the F r a s e r v i e w Housing P r o j e c t and t a i n i n g the far  surrounding communities, main-  former's percentage o f behaviour problem c h i l d r e n  surpassed an average t o t a l o f a community.  more p r e v e n t i v e  type s e r v i c e s was  The  need f o r  an e a r l y community concern  l e a d i n g to the growth o f r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s .  T h i s development  i s p a r t l y out o f f e a r t h a t an unserved youth p o p u l a t i o n r e s u l t i n widespread community gangs. Boys' Club A s s o c i a t i o n was  would  A g i t a t i o n f o r the Vancouver  d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to a l l e v i a t i n g  p o t e n t i a l problem o f youth gangs.  A Community Centre was  a seen  - 103 by the l o c a l Community A s s o c i a t i o n d i r e c t o r a t e as "a p l a c e to keep the young people o f f the s t r e e t " . supporters  Many o f the Y.M.C.A.  v i s u a l i z e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Y.M.C.A. a c t i v i t i e s as  an answer to youth l e a d e r s h i p needs.  The l o c a l r e s i d e n t s  r e l a t i n g s o c i a l problems to r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s p o i n t e d o u t the need f o r a g e n c i e s t o c o n s i d e r a f a m i l y f o c u s w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of basic services including family counselling.  The F r a s e r v i e w  Study by t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l s noted t h e l a c k o f c o n s t r u c t i v e youth a c t i v i t y and the p o s s i b i l i t y o f f u t u r e problems among c h i l d r e n which may l a t e r manifest themselves i n a number o f ways. The  basic planning  o f the F r a s e r v i e w area  demonstrated  a d i s r e g a r d f o r the p r o v i s i o n o f a s o c i a l l y h e a l t h f u l e n v i r o n ment.  The need t o house r e t u r n i n g v e t e r a n s would s eem t o have  taken precedence over the way accommodation would a s s i s t t h e r e t u r n i n g man and h i s f a m i l y ' s adjustment.  Y e t , d e s p i t e the  apparent s h o r t comings o f the F r a s e r v i e w s u b d i v i s i o n ' s p h y s i c a l environment, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was p l a c e d upon the f a m i l y t o seek o u t l e i s u r e time and other s o c i a l s e r v i c e s . . The very absence o f f a c i l i t i e s and s p e c i a l i z e d p e r s o n n e l may have r e s u l t e d i n more i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l y f u l n e s s and independence i n meeting f a m i l y needs. dependence upon community f a c i l i t i e s  Too g r e a t a  sometimes may l e a d t o a  l a c k o f f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and i n t e r e s t i n the v a r i o u s o f d i f f e r e n t members o f the f a m i l y .  resource-  activities  To a degree, the absence  o f normal s o c i a l s e r v i c e s c r e a t e d , i n some i n s t a n c e s ,  greater  - 104 f a m i l y involvement i n meeting the needs o f i t s members. Response to o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g a f a m i l y focus would appear to i n d i c a t e concern f o r the f a m i l y as a u n i t by many p a r e n t s and t h e f u t u r e s e r v i c e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s be based upon s e r v i n g the t o t a l f a m i l y group. w i l l be noted i n the f o l l o w i n g The  should  Such a t r e n d  chapter.  p r o f e s s i o n a l worker,' i n d e a l i n g w i t h the r e c r e a t i o n a l  c o n d i t i o n s o f F r a s e r v i e w , was f a c e d with a r e a l  challenge.  Communication and c o o p e r a t i o n was a t a minimum.  The  opportunity  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p l a n t o b r i n g about i n c r e a s e d p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s f o r F r a s e r v i e w was not g i v e n support b y the a i d o f c o n s u l t a t i v e p e r s o n n e l . the p l a n n i n g  , An avenue f o r d e a l i n g w i t h  o f community r e c r e a t i o n , was r e s t r i c t e d to a  centralized authority.  I n t h i s regard  the m a j o r i t y o f c i t i z e n s  o f the l o c a l community were g i v e n a l i m i t e d o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e and l e a r n about t h e needs o f t h e i r community. For the p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n , moving i n t o a new d i s t r i c t r e q u i r e d a survey to a s c e r t a i n the proper areas o f s e r v i c e . The  p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, i n h e l p i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n serve the  community, was r e q u i r e d t o g i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n r e g a r d types o f programme meeting s p e c i a l need. personnel,  Education of l o c a l  to understand the need f o r a p r i v a t e agency p e r -  s p e c t i v e and the n e c e s s i t y o f c o o p e r a t i o n  with other  groups, was a l s o an e s s e n t i a l p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e . creased  t o the  community  Through i n -  u n d e r s t a n d i n g , the d e s i r e o f community r e s i d e n t s t o  take p a r t . i n v o l u n t a r y  e f f o r t would r i s e a c c o r d i n g l y .  The  - 105  -  s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, i n d e a l i n g w i t h community apathy, f e a r o f the unknown, and group c o n f l i c t , was  to r e l a t e the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t success was  f o l l o w i n g chapter w i l l o u t l i n e the methods and u t i l i z e d to stimulate  possible. techniques  l o c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n serving  needs o f the community.  the  The  Chapter IV L o c a l Community YMCA Development Fairmount Branch Boundaries The Community Chest and C o u n c i l s and l o c a l  citizens  l i v i n g w i t h i n t h e Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t p a r t o f Vancouver, many o f whom were Y.M.C.A. members o f the downtown b u i l d i n g , r e q u e s t e d t h e YMCA to g i v e s e r v i c e i n t h i s a r e a i n 1944*  One  year l a t e r , t h e Community Chest Survey, o r " N o r r i e R e p o r t " , d e s c r i b e d Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t as a needy s o c i a l a r e a i n Vancouver. ing  The YMCA began s e r v i c e to t h i s community by employ-  a r e t u r n i n g war v e t e r a n who had a background i n 'Y' work  i n Vancouver p r i o r t o the war. the  O f f i c e space, a t the f r o n t o f  s t a f f member's home, s e r v e d as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f t h e  Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t YMCA h e a d q u a r t e r s , l a t e r t o be known as. the Fairmount Branch Y.M.C.A. The o r i g i n a l boundaries o f the Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t Y.M.C.A. E x t e n s i o n encompassed a r e s i d e n t i a l type o f community of long duration. the  C e n t e r i n g p r i m a r i l y i n the Main s t r e e t a r e a ,  Branch p e r s o n n e l envisaged s e r v i c e t o s e v e r a l  neighbourhood  a r e a s . . I n 1951.. Second Century G o a l s , a r e p o r t o f t h e Cent e n n i a l Study Committee o f t h e Vancouver=YMCA, advocated communi t y branches were to serve a broad a r e a o f Vancouver.  Fairmount  boundaries were extended eastward t o i n c l u d e the s o u t h - e a s t e r n p a r t o f Vancouver. the  T h i s study w i l l f o c u s upon t h e growth o f  F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA, e s t a b l i s h e d o r i g i n a l l y a s an  - 107 outpost o f the Fairmount YMCA, and the r e l a t i o n s h i p s evident i n the process o f development.. A d e f i n i t i o n o f the geographic boundaries i n 1944, 1951 and I960 i s shown i n Schedule 1. I n the f i r s t year o f operation the, Fairview-Mount Pleasant extension appeared t o make some progress as an e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the community. , A Management Committee o f twenty a d u l t s , a l l members o f the, YMCA and r e s i d e n t s i n the d i s t r i c t , was. organized.  Sub-committees i n  regard t o programme, f i n a n c e , a d u l t education and a s p e c i a l teen-age p r o j e c t met under Board s u p e r v i s i o n . . The 'Y' extens i o n a l s o shared i n g i v i n g l e a d e r s h i p t o the formation o f a Community C o u n c i l .  S i x Phalanx c l u b s , e n r o l l i n g 75 young men,  were looked upon as a main resource f o r l e a d e r s . One problem emerging i n the f i r s t year and continuing throughout the h i s t o r y o f Fairmount Branch YMCA was the constant change o f o f f i c e headquarters.  The use o f a secretary's  p r i v a t e home (during the f i r s t year) was regarded as an i n adequate arrangement.  Subsequent headquarters f o r the o p e r a t i o n  have been a s e c t i o n o f the o l d west wing o f the General H o s p i t a l , Douglas Park P a v i l i o n , the B.C. F i r and Cedar Lumber Co.,Ltd., and store f r o n t o f f i c e a t 1 4 t h Avenue and Main S t r e e t . A 'Y's Men's Club, beginning i n 1948, was a c t i v e u n t i l 1950 i n t r y i n g t o l o c a t e a s u i t a b l e YMCA centre a t 1 4 t h and Main, on a piece o f property l e a s e d from the c i t y .  However, the i n a b i l i t y  to r a i s e the necessary funds r e s u l t e d i n the e x p i r a t i o n o f the lease and purchase o f the property f o r commercial purposes.  -•io& -  Schedule 1«  Direction  O r i g i n a l and L a t e r B o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Fairmount WmTVI^5^tb^9MT7  1945  . Original Boundary  1951  Boundary  I960  Boundary Fairmount .. YMCA  I960  Boundary FraserviewKillarney »Y»  North  F a l s e Greek  F a l s e Creek - and, Kingsway  Sixteenth Avenue  Kingsway  East  Glen Drive  Boundary Rd  Fraser St.  Boundary Rd.  South-  Twenty-fifth Avenue  West  Granville Street  Fraser River  Fraser River  Fraser River  Granville Street  Granville Street  Fraser Street  -  109  I n the e a r l y y e a r s , the Fairmount IMCA was s e r v i n g boys and men,  able, i n  t o develop a f a i r l y e x t e n s i v e programme*  Boys' club work, i n c l u d i n g :  N-Y,  H i I , physical education  c l a s s e s i n churches, Phalanx,.Y's Men f o r young a d u l t s , mass c o - e d u c a t i o n a l teen-age programmes o r g a n i z e d through Teen Towns, and a l a r g e boys' s o f t b a l l programme were important c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the community. . S m a l l c i t y camp a c t i v i t i e s , , c a l l e d Summer Fun C l u b s , a p e r i o d o f YMCA Camp Howdy, w i n t e r camping on Mount H o l l y b u r n , a l s o i n d i c a t e d community r e s p o n s e . The Fairmount Branch, to a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , was a b l e t o use the  r C e n t r a l YMCA f o r Branch events or as p a r t i c i p a n t s o f c i t y - w i d e YMCA programmes. By 1954,  however, i t was  e v i d e n t the Fairmount Branch  was not meeting w i t h s u c c e s s , and q u e s t i o n s about the f u t u r e o f the Branch came from many q u a r t e r s .  The a t t i t u d e o f a  l o n g term Board member p o i n t e d out the r e a l i t y o f the s i t u a tion.  I n a r e p o r t t o the Board of, D i r e c t o r s , he  stated:  "... As we are p r e s e n t l y s i t u a t e d , to endeavour to g e t - p a r e n t i n t e r e s t , on which we must r e l y , and t o develop from t h a t a group o f d i r e c t o r s , i s i n my o p i n i o n almost h o p e l e s s . I n the l i m i t e d time I have to g i v e r e a l thought to these t h i n g s , I have come to the f i r m c o n c l u s i o n t h a t we are a t a dead end o p e r a t i n g as we a r e . P e r s o n a l l y , I do not wish t o c o n t i n u e on as a d i r e c t o r , o f Fairmount ''I', f e e l i n g my e f f o r t s would be to no c o n s t r u c t i v e end.P T h i s D i r e c t o r a l s o noted the a r e a o f p o t e n t i a l YMCA programme  Tl A l e t t e r r e a d t o the Board, January 2 l s t , Fairmount IMCA d i r e c t o r a t t h a t time»  1954,  by  - 110 -  4oo  )  i  0  y mi  /?vf  mi  /no  m  nst /?ss im  Years  FffZ  fair mount  YttCA  Afernbership,  *  7^ta I  /9</-7 To  /?W  Fairmount YMCA, Annual S t a t i s t i c a l R e p o r t s . 1947-1954. *  was  w e l l served by  H i  the Vancouver Boys* Club A s s o c i a t i o n  through club u n i t s a t K i v i e w , Kimount, and Kivan. a. survey o f the s i t u a t i o n and  He  requested  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the t r a n s f e r  o f the Branch to the south V i c t o r i a D r i v e a r e a i n the o f the F r a s e r v i e w  vicinity  area.  The volume o f Branch s e r v i c e s would c e r t a i n l y  support  the above d i r e c t o r ' s a n a l y s i s o f the Fairmount Branch s i t u a t i o n i n 1954*  Branch s t a t i s t i c s over the p e r i o d 1947  shown i n F i g u r e 2 , E a r l y F a i l u r e s . 1944  are  109)•  (page -  to 1954  1954.  What were the reasons f o r the apparent f a i l u r e o f Branch to e s t a b l i s h a f o u n d a t i o n w i t h i n the community? complete a p p r a i s a l o f the s i t u a t i o n was  never made by  this As  a  the  A s s o c i a t i o n , the e v a l u a t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s i s based upon p e r s o n a l impressions emphasis, and  as recorded by  s e c r e t a r i e s , a n a l y s i s o f programme  s o c i a l f o r c e s a t work w i t h i n the community. , I t  i s evident t h a t the r e a s o n f o r a weak YMCA o p e r a t i o n , a t t h i s time, l a y w i t h i n the Vancouver YMCA i t s e l f and t i o n s w i t h i n the Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t The Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t  i n social  community*  community, as d e f i n e d  the b o u n d a r i e s e s t a b l i s h e d by the YMCA i n 1945,  undergoing, i n the p o s t war  by  contain a  s e c t i o n o f the o l d e s t housing u n i t s i n Vancouver. was  condi-  The  area  y e a r s , a t r a n s i t i o n from an  e s t a b l i s h e d r e s i d e n t i a l community to an i n d u s t r i a l development of multiple dwellings.  C o n v e r s i o n o f the o l d e r l a r g e houses  and the e r e c t i o n o f new sition.  apartment b l o c k s , i n d i c a t e d t h i s t r a n -  The r e s u l t o f the housing t r a n s i t i o n g r e a t l y a l t e r e d  the p o p u l a t i o n . without  112  S i n g l e t e n a n t s , and young married  couples  f a m i l i e s , moved i n t o the m u l t i p l e - t y p e d w e l l i n g s .  S e n i o r c i t i z e n s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d a l a r g e group.. Young f a m i l i e s , w i t h c h i l d r e n , except  f o r an i n f l u x o f New-Canadian f a m i l i e s ,  were moving to the suburban f r i n g e s e c t i o n s o f Vancouver.  With  i n d u s t r i a l development t a k i n g p l a c e i n the F a l s e Creek a r e a , and w i t h commercial e n t e r p r i s e emerging throughout, F a i r v i e w Mount P l e a s a n t , i n r e a l i t y , had become i d e n t i f i e d with c e n t r e o f the c i t y . P l e a s a n t Branch 177  the  Today, i n I 9 6 0 , o t h e r than the Mount o f the Canadian L e g i o n which i n c l u d e s a  l a r g e number o f s e n i o r c i t i z e n s , t h e r e does not appear t o be a s t r o n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l i d e n t i t y o f the c u r r e n t r e s i d e n t s to a Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t community.  Other reasons  given for  the l a c k o f success can be c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the changing community s t r u c t u r e of F a i r v i e w Mount P l e a s a n t from 1944  to  1954. The  " N o r r i e Report" o f 1945,  i n recommending s e r v i c e  to the Fairview-Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a , noted o n l y 2.38%  o f the  p o p u l a t i o n were r e c e i v i n g group work and r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s from s o c i a l agencies.  Based upon t h i s f a c t the  survey  r e p o r t saw  a l a r g e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r community s e r v i c e .  the survey  s t r e s s e d the importance o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r i d e n t i t y  purposes, p o i n t i n g out that:.  However,  - 113; "... The agency attempting t h i s work should develop a p h y s i c a l p l a n t , but use i t as a t o o l to serve a wide a r e a o f community c e n t e r e d groups and a c t i v i t i e s over a wide age and i n t e r e s t r a n g e . " 1  U n f o r t u n a t e l y f o r the s u p p o r t e r s o f the Fairmount IMC A, they were never a b l e to l o c a t e the Branch o f f i c e w i t h any degree o f permanency.  The many moves o f the o f f i c e i n the e a r l y y e a r s  p r o b a b l y made i t d i f f i c u l t  to r e g i s t e r members, o r f o r people  l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a t o become aware o f the YMGA i n the community. Attempts by the Fairmount Y's Men's Club t o s o l v e t h i s problem were u n s u c c e s s f u l and a l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y b u i l d i n g planned f o r the  community was never f o l l o w e d up a f t e r the Y's Men Club  disbanded i n 1950. The p o l i c y and g o a l s o f the Fairmount Branch YMCA, s e t down i n 1 9 4 5 ,  appear to be sound and r e l a t e d to c u r r e n t t r e n d s  i n community YMCA work.. A managing Board o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , a Y's Men Club disbanded a f t e r the nucleus o f the group had moved from the a r e a .  Board members a l s o moved from the a r e a ,  and (as an attempt to a l l e v i a t e the problem) other d i r e c t o r s were drawn from people s e r v i n g t h e community i n a b u s i n e s s o r professional capacity.  By 1954 o n l y a s m a l l number o f d i r e c -  t o r s were a c t i v e , and a s the m a j o r i t y o f them l i v e d o u t s i d e the  community, the Fairmount YMCA d i d not have the support o f  local citizens.  ~ of of  A t a Board meeting on A p r i l 2 5 t h , 1 9 5 0 , the  N o r r i e . L. E... Survey Report o f Groupwork ahd^Re^r^aTion G r e a t e r Vancouver, t h e Community Chest and Welfare C o u n c i l s G r e a t e r Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C., 1 9 4 5 , P* 92  114 E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y , i n a r e p o r t t o the Board s t a t e d : "One o f the weaknesses i n the p a s t has been l e a d e r s h i p i n the Board o f D i r e c t o r s " . 1  T h i s problem never has been s o l v e d and remains as a c u r r e n t d i f f i c u l t y o f the Fairmount YMCA i n redevelopment p l a n n i n g s i n c e establishment  o f the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA as a  separate Branch i n t h e S p r i n g o f I960.  - I n e f f e c t i v e board  l e a d e r s h i p may be a t t r i b u t e d t o the d e c r e a s i n g number o f young men a v a i l a b l e f o r 'Y* work i n . an..unsettied community. Rapid p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f turnover would a l s o appear t o be a f a c t o r i n Branch, i n s t a b i l i t y .  Between 1947 and 1954 t h e r e  were f i v e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r i e s employed by the Branch.  Most  o f these s e c r e t a r i e s were r e c e n t U n i v e r s i t y graduates who had been appointed  to t h e i r  f i r s t YMCA s t a f f p o s i t i o n .  q u e s t i o n a b l e whether these men possessed  sufficient  It is experience  to handle a j o b , where a minimum amount o f s u p e r v i s i o n was g i v e n by t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n s t a f f and l i t t l e expected  from a weak D i r e c t o r a t e .  support c o u l d be  Two o f the three new s t a f f  members were t r a i n e d o u t s i d e the YMCA and had very  little  o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n t h e p h i l o s o p h y o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d YMCA work.  As a r e s u l t ,  they p r o b a b l y  about t h e methods and techniques  d i d n o t have a c o n v i c t i o n involved.  The remaining new  - 1. Summary o f O b s e r v a t i o n s , a Report t o Fairmount YMCA by the E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y , board o f D i r e c t o r s , A p r i l 25,,. 1950.  - 115 s e c r e t a r y was t r a i n e d i n p h y s i c a l education.  He found l i m i t e d  f a c i l i t y work, sometimes i n p o o r l y equipped and inadequate communitiy f a c i l i t i e s ,  from a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  f r u s t r a t i n g and u n r e l a t e d  to h i s t r a i n i n g .  employment he r e q u e s t e d a t r a n s f e r .  viewpoint,  A f t e r a few months  S t a f f turnover  encourage membership growth i n the A s s o c i a t i o n .  d i d not  Members would  become f a m i l i a r with the h a b i t s and p e r s o n a l i t y o f one s e c r e t a r y o n l y t o have a d i s r u p t i o n on the appointment o f a new secretary.  C o n t i n u i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p a t the  staff level did  not a s s i s t the Branch a d o p t i o n o f goals f o r b u i l d i n g the Fairmount YMGA.  I t i s l i k e l y , a l s o , t h a t the s e c r e t a r i e s h e l d  d i f f e r i n g opinions man  on programme p h i l o s o p h y .  Today, only one  o f the f i r s t f i v e s e c r e t a r i e s has remained i n t h e YMCA as  a p r o f e s s i o n a l worker. By 1 9 5 4 , s e r i o u s questions  had been r a i s e d about the  f u t u r e o f the Fairmount YMCA; what had s t a r t e d as a n e x c e l l e n t b a s i s o f community type YMCA had d e t e r i o r a t e d to a fragment a r y and i n e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n .  Apathy among the Board o f  D i r e c t o r s was apparent, community i n t e r e s t i n t h e YMCA was a t a low l e v e l .  Programme groups were s m a l l i n number and spor-  a d i c a l l y attended.  As a r e s u l t , the Fairmount YMCA, i n the  S p r i n g o f 1 9 5 4 , was on the verge o f b e i n g  discontinued.  A changing community s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , an e q u a l l y changing  population,  and d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h i n the l e a d e r s h i p o f the  Fairmount YMCA, c o n t r i b u t e d to t h e g r a d u a l effectiveness.  I t i s evident  d e c l i n e o f Branch  the low membership r a t i o and  - 116 -  d e c l i n i n g board and committee i n t e r e s t remained f o r a f o u r year period (as i s shown i n Figure 2).  During t h i s i n t e r v a l  there was l i t t l e i n d i c a t i o n the 'Metropolitan  1  YMGA, i n a  p o s i t i o n to make an o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n , gave e f f e c t i v e superv i s i o n and a n a l y s i s t o t h i s needy and d i f f i c u l t area. I n a t e n year p e r i o d , the Vancouver YMCA moved very q u i c k l y , i n adapting to an extension o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d operation.  From one c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g the A s s o c i a t i o n grew to a  'Metropolitan* YMCA encompassing an a d d i t i o n a l four community Branches.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , by comparison, to note other  p r i v a t e l e i s u r e - t i m e s e r v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , w i t h i n the Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , have not expanded area s e r v i c e s as r a p i d l y as the YMCA.  The growth o f the YMCA i n the new community  adopted a r e v o l u t i o n a r y concept o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f a c t i v i t i e s throughout " l o c a l neighbourhoods".  This development  could not take place i n an i n s t i t u t i o n l i k e the YMCA without r e s i s t a n c e , f o r only a few members were f a m i l i a r with community 'Y* programme.  P u b l i c knowledge about the YMCA over the past  three decades, moreover, was molded by the l a r g e b u i l d i n g o p e r a t i o n , which remained a secure symbol t o 'Y* supporters. Although the Vancouver *Y* showed a w i l l i n g n e s s t o change and adapt t o "neighbourhood-centered'' programmes i n p o l i c y s t a t e ments, i t i s evident the l i m i t e d awareness o f *Y* l e a d e r s , both l a y and p r o f e s s i o n a l , c u r t a i l e d ( i n s i t u a t i o n s l i k e the Fairmount YMCA) the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y . The appointment o f Junior S e c r e t a r i e s t o the Fairmount  - 117 Branch, i s one example o f a l a c k o f A s s o c i a t i o n awareness t o the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t h i s a r e a .  U n d e r g i r d i n g the IMCA's  problem i n t h e Fairmount Branch was the i n s u f f i c i e n t  social  d a t a a v a i l a b l e i n r e g a r d t o Vancouver's l a r g e s o c i a l a r e a s which the " N o r r i e Report"  stated required revision.  The Fairmount IMCA p e r i o d o f f a i l u r e i s an important t e s t o f the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the Vancouver IMCA's p o l i c y o f decentralization.  Was t h e r e evidence o f " i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a -  t i o n " i n the Vancouver IMCA, s i m i l a r t o t h e o b s e r v a t i o n r e c o r d e d by Murray Ross, i n r e g a r d t o t h e Canadian movement i n The IMCA i n Canada? ( d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter  I).  The r e l a t i o n -  s h i p o f the community branch YMCA's, as r e p r e s e n t e d by the Fairmount YMCA and the C e n t r a l IMCA, would be a s i g n i f i c a n t s u b j e c t f o r f u r t h e r study.  The C e n t r a l Branch IMCA r e p r e s e n t s  " b i g n e s s " and " s u c c e s s " , b u t , does i t h e l p o r h i n d e r the Vancouver YMCA's p o l i c y o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n ? The f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f these questions p e r t a i n t o the A s s o c i a t i o n l e a d e r s h i p ' s understandings  o f the f u l l r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f  d e c e n t r a l i z e d work and the c o n f l i c t s e v i d e n t i n the p r e s e n t p r a c t i c e i n I960, o f s u p p o r t i n g growth and development o f a C e n t r a l YMCA and community branches.  The C e n t r a l IMCA Boys'  Department's c u r r e n t sponsorship o f purpose groups, i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l l y popular and w e l l attended p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n programme,.is an example o f c o n f l i c t w i t h Community Branch programmes.  D e c e n t r a l i z e d group a c t i v i t i e s  and the C e n t r a l Branch's attempt t o serve the t o t a l c i t y  area  - 118 may  be a d u p l i c a t i o n o f s t a f f and r e s o u r c e s .  The e x i s t e n c e  1  o f c o n t r a d i c t o r y , o r c o n f l i c t i n g methods o f programming b y YMGA Branches,  does not l e a d t o a u n i t y o f purpose and t h i s  r e q u i r e s t h e c a r e f u l study o f t h e Vancouver XMCA i n order t o a v o i d the emergence o f problem areas i n the f u t u r e . New Beginnings i n t h e Fraserview, Area D u r i n g the dilemma o f 1954 Fairmount  on whether t o continue the  YMCA, t h e r e emerged a spark o f hope t h a t o f f e r e d an  a l t e r n a t i v e t o c l o s i n g t h e Branch. boundaries o f Fairmount /were g r a d u a l l y emerging.  W i t h i n the l a r g e geographic  YMGA s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t i v e During 1953,  communities  numerous r e q u e s t s f o r  YMCA a c t i v i t i e s were r e c e i v e d by parents l i v i n g i n one o f t h e newer communities w i t h i n Fairmount F r a s e r v i e w Housing  Subdivision.  YMCA boundaries — t h e  I n response  to these r e q u e s t s  a committee was s e t up t o survey the F r a s e r v i e w need f o r YMGA s e r v i c e .  T h i s committee comprised  community's the General  S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Vancouver YMCA, the E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f the Fairmount  YMGA, and a M e t r o p o l i t a n Board member.  D u r i n g 1954  the E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y continued t o spend  a l i m i t e d time i n s e r v i n g the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a .  Interviews  w i t h s e r v i c i n g p e r s o n n e l a t Schools and Churches were  conducted.  T T N o r r i e . L.E... Survey Report o f Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n o f G r e a t e r Vancouver^ Community Chests and C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver, 1945* ( T h i s r e p o r t recommended the Vancouver YMCA r e o r i e n t i t s b o y s -work t o a community c e n t e r e d programme i n , the n a t u r a l s e t t i n g where the environment touches people i n a more fundamental way). 1  - 119  -  A q u e s t i o n n a i r e on r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s was  g i v e n to Grade  S i x p u p i l s a t S i r James Douglas Elementary School 1954*  in April,  I n a d d i t i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the Fraserview  A s s o c i a t i o n was  Community  c a r r i e d on as a means o f c o o p e r a t i n g  with  l o c a l groups a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the community* D u r i n g the summer o f t h a t year, sponsored two experimental  the Fairmount IMCA  a c t i v i t i e s i n Fraserview* s o f t b a l l programme was  I n May  Feather  Softball  Three teams, i f s u f f i c i e n t coaches would have been  a v a i l a b l e , might have been organized*  I n August a summer f u n  programme, c e n t e r i n g a t S i r James Douglas School held*  June, an  o f f e r e d , with f o r t y boys  t u r n i n g out f o r a team entered i n the Red League*  and  ground,  was  Although a s m a l l programme, i t was w e l l supported by  p a r e n t s , who Executive  formed a committee to a s s i s t the Fairmount Branch  Secretary*  T h i s p e r i o d served  to i n t r o d u c e the IMCA i n t o F r a s e r -  view community and an example o f IMCA programmes was to a s m a l l number o f r e s i d e n t s . , Impressions o f the i t s socio-economic s t r u c t u r e and p o t e n t i a l support community s e r v i c e s , were r e l a t e d by t h e recorded  interview.  year and one  T h i s was  first  h i s general  h a l f o f n e g o t i a t i o n and  demonstrated community,  for  secretary i n a  impression  after a  programming:  "... The former s e c r e t a r y d e s c r i b e d the e x i s t i n g community s e r v i c e s as b e i n g h i g h l y d i s o r g a n i z e d . He a l s o d i d not r e g a r d the community of having a s t r o n g s o c i a l o r economic s t r u c t u r e . On t h e whole he cons i d e r e d the people to be a p a t h e t i c to o r g a n i z i n g  - 120 themselves. I n t h i s r e s p e c t t h e F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a t i o n was n o t t i e d too c l o s e l y t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e community's r e s i d e n t s . n l  This i n i t i a l  stage was governed b y a c a u t i o u s  approach.  A  s e c r e t a r y ' s r e p o r t to the Board o f D i r e c t o r s , A p r i l 1 9 5 4 , i n a prepared statement on p r o g r e s s t o d a t e , e x e m p l i f i e s the YMCA's p o s i t i o n : "... I n February t h e G e n e r a l - S e c r e t a r y and I had a l o n g d i s c u s s i o n , and we concluded t h a t we had to know what t h e boys and g i r l s were doing now, what s p o r t s and c l u b s , e t c . , they took p a r t i n . We f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t we must not o v e r l a p e x i s t i n g s e r v i c e s and programme and cause antagonism.. We should only o f f e r programme i n a r e a s where none e x i s t s , o r where o t h e r sponsors request o u r help o r wish us to take over. The  existence  o f a l o c a l community a s s o c i a t i o n ,  established  f o r the main purpose o f a c q u i r i n g a p u b l i c community  centre,  g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e YMCA's p o l i c y toward development i n the F r a s e r v i e w area.  The F r a s e r v i e w Community  Association,  a l o c a l c i t i z e n group, without the support o f c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s from p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o f f i c i a l s , c o u l d not be expected to show a n a p p r e c i a t i o n o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s . . The YMGA was a l s o aware t h a t more information  was needed b e f o r e proceeding w i t h an a g g r e s s i v e  approach to i n i t i a t i n g YMCA programme s e r v i c e s i n the a r e a .  1. I n t e r v i e w o f a former E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y YMCA h e l d October 1 9 , 1954. 2.  o f Fairmount  Report on F r a s e r v i e w , r e c o r d e d A p r i l , 1954.  - 121 The YMCA, d u r i n g the F a l l o f 1 9 5 4 , underwent a s t a f f realignment  i n s e v e r a l branches and departments.  I n Septem-  b e r o f 1 9 5 4 , the E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y o f Alma YMCA was t r a n s f e r r e d t o the Fairmount YMCA i n the c a p a c i t y o f E x e c u t i v e Secretary.  The Fairmount YMCA E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y was  a p p o i n t e d Youth D i v i s i o n S e c r e t a r y a t the C e n t r a l YMCA.  A  s m a l l number o f d i r e c t o r s were a c t i v e on the Fairmount. YMCA Board a t t h e time o f the s t a f f change. The to  suggest  new E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y ' s f i r s t concrete step was a t r a n s f e r o f the Fairmount YMCA o f f i c e , l o c a t e d  at 1 4 t h Avenue and Main S t r e e t , t o Cambie and 25th Avenue. The E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y , i n a u g u r a t i n g the new p o s i t i o n , encouraged the move on the b a s i s the Branch needed t o sever i t ' s connections w i t h p a s t f a i l u r e . , Moving t o Cambie, and f o c u s i n g the o p e r a t i o n i n t h e South Cambie d i s t r i c t , would enable a new s t a r t f o r the Branch.  Even a t t h i s e a r l y date,  however, F r a s e r v i e w was regarded.as a p o s s i b l e Branch headquarters* "... The S e c r e t a r y drew the a t t e n t i o n o f the Board to the r e p o r t b e f o r e them and there was c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s c u s s i o n r e g a r d i n g the.proposed a l l o c a t i o n o f the Branch i n t h e Cambie community. D u r i n g t h i s d i s c u s s i o n F r a s e r v i e w was.mentioned as another p o s s i b i l i t y i n terms o f moving the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t r e , b u t i t was f e l t t h a t i n such a move we would be l o c a l i z i n g the work o f the Branch. "•*•  IT  Minutes. Fairmount YMCA Board: o f D i r e c t o r s , SeptemFer  9 t h , 1954.  - •.  , - -  -  ..  - 122 S e v e r a l d i r e c t o r s were i n f a v o u r o f the F r a s e r v i e w  district  as a c e n t r e o f o p e r a t i o n , b u t they were i n f l u e n c e d by the E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y ' s f i r m c o n v i c t i o n t h a t more i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o the F r a s e r v i e w  community's  socio-economic  s t r u c t u r e , r e c e p t i v e n e s s t o agency s e r v i c e s , and a c t i v i t i e s sponsored by other o r g a n i z a t i o n s , be a s c e r t a i n e d by the YMCA. The E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y h e l d the viewpoint view community, as a low r e n t a l housing  that the Fraser-  subdivision, could  q u i t e p o s s i b l y be a t r a n s i t o r y a r e a , and t h e r e f o r e , an u n s t a b l e f o c a l p o i n t f o r an o r g a n i z a t i o n l i k e the YMGA.  The  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the Branch would be ' l o c a l i z i n g ' i t s e l f on the b a s i s o f a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h , i s a sound procedure f o r the development o f a community YMCA.  1  The Survey o f 1954. The i n i t i a l c o n t a c t with the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a i n 1953 and 1 9 5 4 , i n d i c a t e d t h e need f o r an area survey o f F r a s e r v i e w f o r YMCA purposes.  A f t e r a survey, YMGA programmes c o u l d be  b e t t e r a d a p t e d to the needs o f t h e community.  The o p p o r t u n i t y  o f implementing the YMCA's p o l i c y o f conducting  a survey,  p r i o r t o programme, was c r e a t e d i n the E a l l o f 1 9 5 4 , w i t h the assignment o f a second year student i n the School o f S o c i a l Work a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The student's  assignment was to explore the neighbourhood, conduct i n t e r v i e w s ,  1. . De Marche . D.. The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f YMCA Branches with V a r i o u s Types o f B u i l d i n g s , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1947, Recommendation number 10, p. 5 6 .  - 123 l o c a t e people i n t e r e s t e d i n the YMCA, survey t h e p r e s e n t r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and a s s i s t i n the development o f l o c a l committee i n support o f a.YMCA programme i n the f u t u r e * S u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e student was p r o v i d e d by t h e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f the Fairmount  YMCA.  The Fairmount Board o f  D i r e c t o r s were to oversee the p r o j e c t and r e c e i v e progress r e p o r t s on t h e development. The f i r s t t a s k f a c i n g t h e student i n a c c e p t i n g the assignment, was to become f a m i l i a r with the o r g a n i z a t i o n and programme o f the YMCA.  Although a p a r t i c i p a n t o f the Vancouver  YMCA d u r i n g boys' programme i n the e a r l y 1 9 4 0 ' s , the student had l i t t l e r e c e n t a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the YMCA.  Previous contact  had been i n the C e n t r a l YMCA, a t t h a t time, the o n l y YMCA i n Vancouver, and l i k e most people, t h e student had a good d e a l of  q u e s t i o n about a YMCA o p e r a t i n g from a s t o r e - f r o n t , o r o t h e r  limited f a c i l i t y .  Moreover, t h e d i s t a n c e between the F r a s e r -  view a r e a and the Branch a d m i n i s t r a t i v e headquarters  a t 25th  Avenue and Cambie S t r e e t , appeared awkward f o r e f f e c t i v e  field  work. However, assigned r e a d i n g by t h e E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y h e l p e d t o acquaint the student with YMCA g o a l s , methods o f work, and programme emphasis.  L o c a l m a t e r i a l on n o n - f a c i l i t y  work, p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e p o r t s o f 1946 and 1 9 5 1 , were benef i c i a l , along w i t h the i n i t i a l s u p e r v i s o r y s e s s i o n with the s u p e r v i s o r , i n c l a r i f y i n g the o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t l a y ahead i n the f i e l d work assignment.  I n the l a t t e r sense, d i s c u s s i o n s  - 124 pn the p h i l o s o p h y o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d programming w i t h the superv i s o r , enabled the student t o understand concepts o f YMCA work.  some o f the b a s i c  Home c e n t e r e d c l u b s .(N-Y), e x t e n s i v e  use o f community f a c i l i t i e s , p o r t a b l e equipment, the emphasis on l e a d e r s h i p r a t h e r than f a c i l i t i e s , f l e x i b i l i t y  o f adminis-  t r a t i o n , e t c . , were i d e a s i n t r o d u c e d by t h e s u p e r v i s o r . . Although i t took t h e course o f t h e year's assignment, and i n some i n s t a n c e s i n l a t e r e x p e r i e n c e s , the student became aware o f the YMCA's community approach,  s u f f i c i e n t knowledge was passed  on f o r the student t o proceed w i t h the assignment. From October t o t h e end o f December i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h s e r v i c i n g p e r s o n n e l , i n c l u d i n g a;;school p r i n c i p a l , m i n i s t e r s , a former YMCA s e c r e t a r y working i n the-Fraserview d i s t r i c t , and v a r i o u s key people who were a c t i v e i n the F r a s e r view community.  Of these p e o p l e , the p r i n c i p a l o f S i r James  Douglas S c h o o l , and a housewife,  a former Board member o f the  Vancouver E a s t YMCA-YWCA, were c o n t a c t e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . I n f o r m a t i o n about t h e community was gathered mainly from  these  two people, and a c t i o n on the p r o j e c t was i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r response  to t h e student's i n q u i r i e s .  held with:  I n t e r v i e w s were a l s o  t h e P r e s i d e n t o f the F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a -  t i o n , the P r e s i d e n t o f the Sir. James Douglas Elementary P.T.A., and the m i n i s t e r o f F r a s e r v i e w U n i t e d Church.  School A l l the  people i n t e r v i e w e d gave impressions about the community and a s s i s t e d i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f the methods employed i n proceeding  w i t h the YMCA p r o j e c t .  - 125 During t h e i n t e r v i e w s , the s t u d e n t was impressed the apparent to  exist.  c o n f l i c t o r u n f r i e n d l y atmosphere t h a t  with  appeared  I n conference w i t h the P r e s i d e n t o f the F r a s e r v i e w  Community A s s o c i a t i o n the student r e c o r d e d : ".. • The apparent atmosphere of. the A s s o c i a t i o n a n d - i n d i v i d u a l A s s o c i a t i o n members a t t i t u d e t o outs i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e the YMCA moving i n t o the area i s quite n e g a t i v e . n l  A l s o i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h the s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , the student wrote: ".. • Gn Thursday, the worker was i n v i t e d i n t o the school p r i n c i p a l ' s o f f i c e . The p r i n c i p a l expressed h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . However, he a l s o had a number o f q u e s t i o n s as t o the YMCA's f u n c t i o n i n the Fraserview d i s t r i c t , explaining that he was q u i t e concerned about r e c e n t t a l k o f an a c t i v e YMCA supporter i n the a r e a . A p p a r e n t l y t h e p r i n c i p a l i n a r e c e n t d i s c u s s i o n was g i v e n the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the YMCA v i s u a l i z e d t a k i n g over the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s i n the d i s t r i c t . The worker answered t h e p r i n c i p a l ' s i n q u i r i e s by o u t l i n i n g t h e s t e p s taken to date.. I t was e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e YMCA saw i t s e l f as o n l y one source f o r h e l p i n g t o meet the need i n t h e a r e a . F u r t h e r , the worker p o i n t e d out the need f o r c o o p e r a t i o n and, i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , t h e 'Y' was endeavouring to g a i n t h e r e a c t i o n o f a c t i v e groups i n the community. The p r i n c i p a l agreed w i t h w i t h the worker's viewpoint seemingly he was p a r t i c u l a r l y impressed-with t h e i d e a o f the YMCA b e i n g o n l y one source i n the p r o v i s i o n o f f u t u r e programmes. I t was apparent  t h a t community a t t i t u d e s o f many people  active  1. P r o c e s s Record, I n t e r v i e w w i t h the P r e s i d e n t , F r a s e r view. Community A s s o c i a t i o n , October aytn, i y ^ . ~ 2. Process Record. I n t e r v i e w w i t h the P r i n c i p a l . S i r James Douglas. Elementary School". November 25th. 1954. .  - 126 i n the a r e a were not r e c e p t i v e the  to new s e r v i c e s .  At t h i s time,  student was not aware o f any s p e c i f i c i n c i d e n t s t h a t  caused  the atmosphere o f r e t i c e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i d e n t by members o f the F r a s e r v i e w Community  Association*  I n the f i r s t few months, t h e student was able t o make little  c o n t a c t w i t h members o f the Community  Association.  L e t t e r s were sent to the Community A s s o c i a t i o n o f f e r i n g a s s i s t a n c e w i t h r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , o r t o exchange i d e a s f o r f u r t h e r working r e l a t i o n s w i t h the two o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n meeting r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f the community.  However, no  communication was r e c e i v e d from the members o f t h e Community Association.  I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n i t should be noted the  Community A s s o c i a t i o n was a l o c a l group o f v o l u n t a r y who were endeavouring t o secure a community c e n t r e district.  citizens  for their  Any p r i v a t e agency s e r v i c e s were p r o b a b l y regarded  as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r o b j e c t i v e .  As they d i d not have c o n s u l -  t a t i v e s e r v i c e s from the Vancouver Parks B o a r d o r a l o c a l community c o o r d i n a t i n g Chest and C o u n c i l s  c o u n c i l a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the Community  t o t u r n t o , they t u r n e d inward and became  'ingrown' and unresponsive t o o t h e r community s e r v i c i n g groups* The  YMCA, f o r i t ' s p a r t , was endeavouring to a s s i s t  the F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a t i o n assume a r o l e i n regard representative,  to community s e r v i c e s .  coordinating  The purpose o f t h e YMCA  a t t h i s p o i n t , was to c l a r i f y the r o l e o f the  YMCA i n the community.  P a r t i c u l a r l y , the student saw the need  to e x p l a i n t h a t t h e YMCA d i d not have immediate p l a n s to l o c a t e  - 127 a b u i l d i n g i n the a r e a .  Unfortunately,  members o f the F r a s e r -  view Community A s s o c i a t i o n had a s s o c i a t e d the YMCA w i t h t h e type o f b u i l d i n g a t t h e C e n t r a l  'Y'.  They had no awareness  o f t h e community type YMCA and a p p a r e n t l y  b e l i e v e d the YMCA  would become a l a r g e b u i l d i n g o p e r a t i o n once i t became s u c c e s s f u l l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n the community. The  s i t u a t i o n was a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n upon the s t r u c t u r e  o f community r e c r e a t i o n i n Vancouver, a t that time.  Professional  s e r v i c e s through p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n were u n a v a i l a b l e  to l o c a l  communities, and people on l o c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s were, t h e r e f o r e , not educated o r o r i e n t e d to the d i f f e r e n c e s o f p u b l i c and private recreation services.  C l e a r a n c e by the YMCA w i t h the  Community Chest and C o u n c i l s Group Work D i v i s i o n E x e c u t i v e Secretary 1954« counsel  had been undertaken by telephone d u r i n g the F a l l o f  However, the D i v i s i o n was not a b l e t o g i v e e f f e c t i v e on l o c a l r e c r e a t i o n a l development, c h i e f l y as a r e s u l t  o f a l a c k o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e t o enable l o c a l Without a p e r i o d o f study and r e s e a r c h ,  the D i v i s i o n , p r i m a r i l y  dominated by s t a f f members o f s o c i a l agencies, mobilize to a s s i s t e f f e c t i v e l o c a l  planning.  c o u l d not  coordination.  .The YMCA, -not h a v i n g d i r e c t communication with t h e F r a s e r v i e w Community A s s o c i a t i o n , was unable t o o u t l i n e i t ' s methods o f work i n a l o c a l community.  I n t h i s r e s p e c t , more  e f f e c t i v e YMCA p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s about t h e community type o f o p e r a t i o n might have overcome some o f the r e s i s t a n c e .  However,  a t t h i s p o i n t i n the YMCA's i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , most o f t h e people  - 123 c o n t a c t e d knew t h e YMCA as a b u i l d i n g c e n t e r e d o p e r a t i o n and they found  i t d i f f i c u l t t o conceive o f the YMCA as anything  else but a b u i l d i n g .  Members o f the A s s o c i a t i o n , with  a d v i c e or c o u n s e l , regarded  little  the YMCA i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t  with  t h e i r purpose o f g a i n i n g a p u b l i c community c e n t r e f o r F r a s e r view. The  e x i s t e n c e o f p o t e n t i a l l y h o s t i l e a t t i t u d e s toward  the YMCA i n f l u e n c e d a d e c i s i o n t o conduct a t r a i n i n g programme f o r t h e community.  T h i s d e c i s i o n was a r r i v e d a t midway through  the i n t e r v i e w i n g p e r i o d by the s u p e r v i s o r and student, o r YMCA staff.  A t r a i n i n g course f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l v o l u n t e e r s  w i t h any community o r g a n i z a t i o n was envisaged  affiliated  as one method o f  e l i m i n a t i n g b a r r i e r s t o f u t u r e working r e l a t i o n s between a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e community. i d e a s suggested  Through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t and  i n t h e course, the YMGA s t a f f a l s o expected a  number o f f u t u r e YMCA l e a d e r s would r e s u l t * However, t h e need f o r s e a r c h i n g out l e a d e r s h i p and f a c t u a l f i e l d work i n f o r m a t i o n , r e q u i r e d the YMCA to continue r e g u l a r n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s a b l e to a s s i s t the p r o j e c t . The  s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l saw h i s r o l e o f p r o v i d i n g the r e s o u r c e s  o f the s c h o o l .  A q u e s t i o n n a i r e on r e c r e a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s was  g i v e n t o the grade s i x p u p i l s a t S i r James Douglas School on December 2nd,  1954.  The f i n d i n g s o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were  c i r c u l a t e d a t l a t e r committee meetings and r e p o r t e d t o the Fairmount Board o f D i r e c t o r s *  The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a v a l u a b l e  t o o l i n showing the need f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o a n age  - 129 group (9 to 12 y e a r s ) which the IMCA was prepared t o s e r v i c e , (see  Appendix A ) . The  e a r l y n e g o t i a t i o n i n F r a s e r v i e w r e v e a l e d one person  f i r m l y convinced the IMCA had programme a c t i v i t i e s f i l l i n g the needs o f the community.  The housewife,  formerly referred t o ,  was a former Board member a t the Vancouver E a s t IMCA-IWCA, so t h e r e f o r e had an understanding o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n and was prepared to g i v e her time f o r IMCA work. i n the Fraserview d i s t r i c t ,  An a c t i v e p e r s o n  she knew the community w e l l and  was able to encourage o t h e r people to v o l u n t e e r f o r work.  In  a d d i t i o n , s h e had c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r s e l f , the o r g a n i z a t i o n and it's  programmes, and an a g g r e s s i v e a b i l i t y to ' f o l l o w  on o b j e c t i v e s .  through'  Her a g g r e s s i v e n e s s sometimes l e d to f r i c t i o n  and misunderstanding and the need f o r the student t o c l a r i f y o b j e c t i v e s t o o t h e r people.  l e t the energy  the p r o j e c t , w h i l e she remained the i n i t i a l  she p u t f o r t h on  i n the background, i n f l u e n c e d  development o f IMCA i n t e r e s t i n t h e community.  By January 1955, a g e n e r a l l e t t e r to p a r e n t s and community contacts,, undertaken by the student and housewife, set  the scene f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f a IMCA committee i n F r a s e r -  view.  A g e n e r a l l e t t e r to p a r e n t s o f s o f t b a l l and summer f u n  members, and p a r e n t s o f grade f i v e and s i x c h i l d r e n , f o r a meeting  on January  3rd, 1955, was c i r c u l a t e d .  In addition,  the student telephoned over one hundred f a m i l i e s p r i o r to t h e meeting* T h i s meeting was w e l l attended and p r o v i d e d the ground work f o r the course o f a c t i o n undertaken.  An agenda, planned  - 130 by the YMGA s t a f f , was an e f f e c t i v e t o o l e n a b l i n g an a p p r a i s a l o f the r e c r e a t i o n s i t u a t i o n e x i s t i n g i n Fraserview.  The  agenda e n c l o s e d was a g u i d e l i n e t o community needs o f v a r i o u s age groups and s e r v i c e s now sponsored.  I n f o r m a t i o n about YMCA  community s m a l l group a c t i v i t i e s was g i v e n by t h e E x e c u t i v e Secretary.  The p r e v i o u s experience o f t h e housewife proved  h e l p f u l i n emphasizing the importance o f t r a i n i n g , p r i o r t o undertaking  volunteer leadership.  A t the c l o s e o f the meeting,  a committee o f f i v e was drawn up t o proceed w i t h implementing YMCA s e r v i c e s i n F r a s e r v i e w .  The meeting a l s o proved t o be  the b e g i n n i n g o f shared l e a d e r s h i p and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . .As the YMCA d i d not own f a c i l i t i e s i n F r a s e r v i e w and possessed  a l i m i t e d l e a d e r s h i p r e s o u r c e , i t was l o g i c a l f o r  committee members t o a c c e p t t h e s u g g e s t i o n , s t r e s s e d by the former YMCA Board member, t o operate course.  a leadership training  The committee, known as t h e Fraserview YMCA P l a n n i n g  Committee, h e l d s e v e r a l meetings i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the developing  f  Y  f  activities.  A number o f s p e c i f i c jobs were  drawn up t o f a c i l i t a t e committee development, These i n c l u d e d :  (see F i g u r e 3 ) .  chairman; s e c r e t a r y t r e a s u r e r } r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  to Fairmount YMCA Board o f D i r e c t o r s ; chairman, l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g committee; chairman, group development committee; and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o t h e Community A s s o c i a t i o n .  The student was  to a c t as c o o r d i n a t o r o f the t r a i n i n g course and to f o l l o w up r e s o u r c e l e a d e r s f o r the s e s s i o n s o u t l i n e d . The l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g course took p l a c e from Wednesday,  131 -  Yfir/* of  /\$5oCir*Tit>rA  or 0TH6* CO-oR\>-  Y/ncA R E s o u r c e s  -  f.£Af>£fUtttf rtfiTGflAlS  ere.  T  LkAPCRS  X  i  J>J*S:<:T-©R5  7TTT f(?rtSWv/£W  ft<^  3  Connu^irr  A4rn\¥\ist*A.'tiif*  C p*G^**ei  Chacf  --for "the Frd$*?rview  "for th<? f>Co*+r*KK\Xeq  ^ T a n . »2., ( ^ r f - )  - 132 -  February 9th to March 16th, 1955*  T h i r t y a d u l t s and teen-  agers took p a r t i n the programme which took place a t the Fraserview Community A s s o c i a t i o n b u i l d i n g , . L o c a l members o f the committee, a l s o a c t i v e i n the. Fraserview Community Associat i o n , undertook t o negotiate the use of the h a l l , , Several p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r e a t i o n a l personnel i n c l u d i n g :  s t a f f members  of Vancouver YMCA, U n i v e r s i t y l e c t u r e r s , members o f other s o c i a l agencies drawn from the f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l work, provided course l e a d e r s h i p .  education  Sessions were  planned on a l e c t u r e - d i s c u s s i o n or panel d i s c u s s i o n b a s i s to f a c i l i t a t e the involvement o f course members,  A number o f  new people, not a c t i v e i n community l e a d e r s h i p , took p a r t i n the course along w i t h a c t i v e persons i n various community organizations.  Unfortunately, i t was not s u c c e s s f u l i n r e -  c r u i t i n g c e r t a i n members i n community s e r v i c e who most needed to examine t h e i r volunteer leadership  motivations.  At the close o f the course, neighbourhood YMCA clubs were organized.  Two male members and one lady r e c r u i t e d small  club groups which met i n the leaders' basements.  An organiza-  t i o n a l meeting was held and s e v e r a l other course graduates i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t t o begin club l e a d e r s h i p as soon as boys' and g i r l s ' groups were l o c a t e d . The development o f programme moved the p r o j e c t to a new phase.  Community a t t i t u d e s had been gauged, YMCA community  s e r v i c e s had been o u t l i n e d , and i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s had been m o b i l i z e d to a c t i o n .  An a n a l y s i s o f the f a c t o r s inherent i n  - 133 this  ' e x p l o r a t i o n ' stage i s important i n a s s e s s i n g the p r i n -  c i p l e s o r methods used by YMGA p e r s o n n e l i n approaching the F r a s e r v i e w community. future?  What methods h e l p e d b u i l d f o r the  What inadequacies r e s u l t e d t h a t p r e s e n t e d problems  i n l a t e r stages? I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e Survey The group work student placement i n a n area development i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia School o f S o c i a l Work has not been w i d e l y implemented.  I n a s s e s s i n g the r e s u l t s o f the  YMCA's survey o f F r a s e r v i e w i t should be r e c o g n i z e d c e r t a i n advantages and disadvantages p e r t a i n t o t h e assignment o f a student on the p r o j e c t . To b e g i n w i t h , the s t u d e n t was not a n experienced p r o f e s s i o n a l worker i n community o r g a n i z a t i o n .  H i s experience  had been l i m i t e d t o group work w i t h i n a b u i l d i n g c e n t e r e d o p e r a t i o n o f another agency.  Knowledge about YMCA had t o be  l e a r n e d w h i l e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h the assignment and, t h e r e f o r e , the F r a s e r v i e w survey was conducted by a student w h i l e undergoing  training. On the other hand, as a student assignment, t h e r e was  g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o s e t t i n g o b j e c t i v e s and c o m p i l i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about F r a s e r v i e w than i s o f t e n done when f u l l time agency workers a r e a s s i g n e d s i m i l a r t a s k s .  Regular  super-  v i s i o n brought about a focus on process and perhaps a g r e a t e r s e n s i t i v i t y t o e x i s t i n g a t t i t u d e s i n t h e Fraserview  community.  As i t turned o u t , a f t e r a b r i e f p e r i o d o f 'give and take' with  - 134  -  the s u p e r v i s o r , the f i e l d worker became convinced o f the value o f the programme s e r v i c e s o f a community YMCA, i n e f f e c t , became a team work approach — t h e  The assignment,  student follow-  i n g out the assignment o f i n t e r v i e w i n g people i n the community, c o o r d i n a t i n g the t r a i n i n g course, and becoming knowledgeable about g e n e r a l s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a .  The  s u p e r v i s o r gave a c t i v e support to the assignment, when r e q u i r e d , as the f o l l o w i n g excerpt from the student's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the f i r s t F r a s e r v i e w P l a n n i n g Committee would t e s t i f y : "... The S u p e r v i s o r ' s o u t l i n e of the N-Y Club h e l p e d to p o i n t out the m e r i t s o f a YMCA s e r v i c e to the p r e a d o l e s c e n t age group, . When c a l l e d upon, the S u p e r v i s o r gave the group some knowledge o f r e s o u r c e s o f _ t h e YMCA i n a community type programme."! A more a c t i v e r o l e was ment p r o g r e s s e d .  assumed by the s u p e r v i s o r as the a s s i g n -  T h i s f a c i l i t a t e d the F r a s e r v i e w survey a s  w e l l as the working r e l a t i o n s between s u p e r v i s o r and  student.  .For many o f the people s e r v i n g on the YMCA committee, the experience was  new.  There were important c o n t r i b u t i o n s  made i n t h i s phase o f the development t h a t encouraged l o c a l participation.  The agency's use o f c i r c u l a t e d minutes to a l l  committee members, meeting reminders, n o t i c e s , b u s i n e s s agenda, and  c l e a r a n c e s w i t h chairman and other members making r e p o r t s  by the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , were w e l l r e c e i v e d by the committee. Techniques  1.  i n t r o d u c e d by  the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f were i n v a l u a b l e  P r o c e s s r e c o r d i n g . January  3rd,  1955*  1 - 135 i n s t i m u l a t i n g , e f f e c t i v e communication among the committee members.  I t was a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t these members were t h i n k -  i n g about the p r o j e c t , as was apparent i n the r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g c o u r s e , f o r most o f the p a r t i c i p a n t s o f the course were c o n t a c t e d p e r s o n a l l y . The entrance o f Fairmount YMCA Board p e r s o n n e l was an important step i n b r i n g i n g about the committee's and awareness o f the YMCA.  Board members, by e a r l y  t i o n , gave the F r a s e r v i e w committee for their efforts.  knowledge  The committee  participa-  support and r e c o g n i t i o n  members regarded the Board  o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h e Fairmount YMCA as a group a b l e t o g i v e guidance and a s s i s t a n c e when i t was needed.  On t h e o t h e r hand,  the Board members, by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n an a c t i v e ongoing p r o j e c t , were g i v e n a ' l i f t ' f r o m the f r u s t r a t i o n s o f r e c e n t y e a r s a t the Branch. A t t h e f i r s t p a r e n t meeting, the s t u d e n t i n t e r p r e t e d the Board members' r o l e , thus: ' "... He gave a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the meeting. As a l a y YMCA r e p r e s e n t a t i v e the board member's p a r t i c i p a t i o n around t h e a r e a o f a s s e s s i n g need and determini n g the YMCA f u n c t i o n i n the community i n l i g h t o f the need was p a r t i c u l a r l y v a l u a b l e . He a l s o gave d i r e c t i o n i n t h e methods by which the meeting might s e t up a committee And l a t e r a t the meeting o f January 2 6 t h , 1955: "... The attendance o f the two Board r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s was-an i n d i c a t i o n o f the F r a s e r v i e w Committee's s t i r a u l a -  1.  . P r o c e s s r e c o r d i n g . January 3 r d , 1955.  - 136 t i o n o f i n t e r e s t w i t h i n the Fairmount YMCA Board* Although o f f i c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n was not forthcoming at the l a s t Board Meeting, t h e d i s c u s s i o n i n the committee meeting brought out the used f o r o f f i c i a l agency r e c o g n i t i o n * On a p o s i t i v e b a s i s the Board members expressed genuine s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e Committee's work* One board member's r e f e r r a l t o the community as b e i n g 'a wonderful-place t o b e g i n work o f t h e committee's--nature' a l s o h e l p e d to g i v e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e committee's-value b o t h t o the community and t h e agency*.* fl  Involvement  o f the Fairmount YMCA Board members came as a  r e s u l t o f the s u p e r v i s o r ' s emphasis on t h e F r a s e r v i e w survey by i n c l u d i n g the p r o j e c t on Board meeting agenda and w r i t t e n r e p o r t s submitted by the student.  The s i n c e r e i n t e r e s t o f  c e r t a i n d i r e c t o r s a l s o must be acknowledged, as was shown l a t e r , when one d i r e c t o r became a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA Committee. As a g u i d i n g p r i n c i p l e the YMCA s t a f f f o c u s e d upon the l e v e l o f community o r g a n i z a t i o n and i d e n t i t y i n d i c a t e d by the residents.  E v e r y e f f o r t was made t o a p p r a i s e steps i n develop-  ment t h a t would break down any e x i s t i n g u n f r i e n d l y  attitudes.  The e f f e c t i v e r e s o u r c e s o f the YMCA were a s c e r t a i n e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l , programme equipment, agency p r e s t i g e , and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f leadership materials.  L o c a l p e r s o n n e l were  g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y o f d i r e c t i n g the p r o j e c t i n the e a r l y s t a g e s . . S t a r t i n g w i t h one o r two people, shared l e a d e r s h i p took p l a c e with t h e committee.  Members o f the committee, i n  t u r n , a t t r a c t e d neighbours and f r i e n d s t o the l e a d e r s h i p  1.  Process r e c o r d i n g , January 26th, 1955*  t  - 137 t r a i n i n g course. o f people*  The p r o j e c t then grew through the i n t e r e s t  B u i l d i n g s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s f o l l o w e d *  L o c a l r e s i d e n t s were m o b i l i z e d to d e a l with t h e needs o f t h e i r community.  The p a t t e r n o f development was a l s o  con-  s i s t e n t w i t h the YMCA's p h i l o s o p h y o f membership r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  control* The l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g course o u t l i n e  (Schedule 2) i s  l i s t e d on page 133* The course was designed t o i n c r e a s e community awareness o f t h e importance  o f l e a d e r s h i p , p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r ,  i n community r e c r e a t i o n . . A t r a i n i n g programme was new t o Fraserview, f o r other o r g a n i z a t i o n s s e r v i n g F r a s e r v i e w d i d not employ p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f members.  The YMCA was,  t h e r e f o r e , a b l e t o render a community s e r v i c e w h i l e a t the same time i n c r e a s i n g the i n t e r e s t o f l o c a l r e s i d e n t s i n the YMCA*  P a r t i c i p a t i o n through group d i s c u s s i o n and t h e use o f  e v a l u a t i o n s l i p s were techniques u t i l i z e d t o measure member interest* The end o f the F r a s e r v i e w L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Course i n March, c o i n c i d e d w i t h the end o f the student f i e l d placement, and community c o n t a c t s were then maintained by the E x e c u t i v e Secretary*  Three l e a d e r s became a c t i v e with s m a l l  hood c l u b s sponsored by the. Fairmount  neighbour-  YMCA.. Other l e a d e r s  waited u n t i l the F a l l b e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g w i t h c l u b s *  I n time,  many o f the course r e g i s t r a n t s became more a c t i v e i n o t h e r organizations.  The Chairman o f the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA P l a n n i n g  - 138 Schedule 2 .  Fraserview Leadership T r a i n i n g Course f o r Volunteer Leaders February 9, to March 16, 1955.  Sponsored by:  Fraserview YMCA Planning Committee, an a f f i l i a t e of. the..Fairmount Branch YMCA.  Held i n :  Fraserview Community A s s o c i a t i o n Centre.  Areas of Study; 1.  The Role o f the Leader — The s o c i a l , emotional and p h y s i c a l development o f boys and g i r l s , e i g h t to twelve years and t h i r t e e n to f i f t e e n years. The leader o r c o u n s e l l o r ' s r o l e i n working w i t h these age groupings. F i l m — "Leaders f o r L e i s u r e " — t o i l l u s t r a t e the importance o f community r e c r e a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p .  2»  Democratic Group O r g a n i z a t i o n — Group p a r t i c i p a t i o n < through s e l f - d e t e r m i n i n g and s e l f - g o v e r n i n g group s t r u c t u r e . YMCA methods as a p p l i e d i n the neighbourhood club (N-Y) programme.  3«  Group Games —  4»  What D i f f e r e n t Groups.Contribute and Expect from R e c r e a t i o n a l Experiences •— Panel d i s c u s s i o n i n v o l v i n g ~ moderator, parent volunteer group leader and prof e s s i o n a l s t a f f member o f an agency. The s e s s i o n brought out the d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e o f each and how they must work together t o e f f e c t i v e l y support youth a c t i v i t i e s .  The value o f group games with small groups.  5» . A r t s and C r a f t s — Demonstration and p r a c t i c e i n various hobbies and c r a f t s . The value o f these a c t i v i t i e s f o r a l l the members o f the group* 6.  Kinds o f Groups — Panel d i s c u s s i o n on the values o f team sports and f r i e n d s h i p groups., I l l u s t r a t i o n o f d i f f e r e n c e s , the values o f each. •  7»  E v a l u a t i o n and Summary o f the Course.  - 139 Committee became a V i c e - P r e s i d e n t o f the F r a s e r v i e w Association*  Developments w i t h i n the community l e a d e r s h i p  enabled g r e a t e r gether.  Community  s h a r i n g o f i d e a s and w i l l i n g n e s s t o work t o -  T h i s d i d not happen over n i g h t b u t was a g r a d u a l  process.  The Fraserview  Community A s s o c i a t i o n , f o r example,  scheduled  a meeting t o c o o r d i n a t e  community wide events.  A  c l e a r i n g house o f a l l community events was set up through the Fraserview  Community A s s o c i a t i o n b u l l e t i n .  Although the  meeting d i d not proceed t o t h e p o i n t where d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s o r unmet needs were examined, i t was a step i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a n i n c r e a s e d w i l l i n g n e s s t o cooperate* At t h i s time, i t seems apparent the F r a s e r v i e w  Community  A s s o c i a t i o n , a s an o r g a n i z a t i o n l i m i t e d e n t i r e l y t o l o c a l r e s i d e n t s , d i d n o t possess the knowledge o r l e a d e r s h i p i t ' s ranks t o assume a c o o r d i n a t i n g r o l e * having  within  The one o r g a n i z a t i o n  l e a d e r s h i p t o g i v e d i r e c t i o n t o such a development  the YMCA —  —  was i n v o l v e d i n moving i n t o a phase o f programme  b u i l d i n g to j u s t i f y i t ' s existence.  The l i m i t e d s t a f f s i t u a t i o n  a t the YMCA d i d n o t f a c i l i t a t e the 'Y' becoming i n v o l v e d over and  above p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n any j o i n t meetings o f community  planning,  i n which i t was i n v i t e d t o a t t e n d .  In this  regard,  i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e , both from t h e p o i n t o f view o f an agency and a community, t h a t a p r i v a t e l e i s u r e time o r g a n i z a t i o n be responsible for r e c r e a t i o n a l planning level*  Recognizing  a t the l o c a l  community  the growth o f l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s as  s i g n i f i c a n t , t h e s i t u a t i o n i s a f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n o f the l a c k o f s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n Vancouver's r e c r e a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e to  - 140 f a c i l i t a t e guidance t o l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and p l a n n i n g *  The  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s , the Vancouver Board o f Park Commissioners and P u b l i c R e c r e a t i o n , and p r i v a t e agencyp l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y , the Vancouver,Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , were not equipped i n a c e n t r a l i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o e f f e c t i v e l y d e a l w i t h t h i s k i n d o f l o c a l community need* Programme E x p a n s i o n  May, 19.55 t o October, 1953  t  The completion  o f the l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g course saw  the YMCA adopt a more a g g r e s s i v e p o l i c y toward the F r a s e r view area.  Survey m a t e r i a l had d i s c l o s e d a need f o r a d d i t i o n a l  r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and a f t e r the s t u d y , t h e YMCA was conv i n c e d o f the l o n g range p o t e n t i a l o f the F r a s e r v i e w and surrounding  area*  On May 1 s t , 1 9 5 5 , the student who had conducted the survey, was employed a s t h e second s t a f f member o f the F a i r mount Branch YMCA*  The d u t i e s o f the new Branch S e c r e t a r y  were p r i m a r i l y f o c u s e d upon e s t a b l i s h i n g a d d i t i o n a l programme i n Fraserview.  Programme a c t i v i t i e s remained f o r the next  t h r e e y e a r s t h e emphasis o f t h e Fraserview The  YMCA development*  Growth o f Programme N-Y Clubs —  boys and g i r l s , e i g h t t o f o u r t e e n years*  The YMCA neighbourhood club programme, N-Y, was the i n i t i a l type o f Y f  T  programme i n t r o d u c e d t o the Fraserview  area.  A  s m a l l f r i e n d s h i p group programme, N-Y Clubs proved t o r e a d i l y adapt t o t h e community*  Club meetings were h e l d i n basements,  -,141 l i v i n g rooms, o r garages.  Parent  sponsoring committees were  o r g a n i z e d i n support o f many c l u b s and a l s o ensured  the YMCA  l e a d e r and s t a f f an o p p o r t u n i t y o f i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t w i t h parents.  The l a t t e r , i n t u r n , became more f a m i l i a r  w i t h the  YMCA and,  i n many i n s t a n c e s , gave v o l u n t e e r h e l p to the v a r i o u s  'Y' p r o j e c t s . N-Y c l u b s were o r g a n i z e d i n d i f f e r e n t  parts of Fraser-  view, wherever r e q u e s t s f o r groups and l e a d e r s h i p c o u l d be brought t o g e t h e r . poses:  The emphasis upon N-Y was f o r two main pur-  f i r s t l y , i t was a s m a l l group a c t i v i t y  f o r youngsters  growing up i n a densely populated a r e a w i t h the mass s t r u c t u r e o f s c h o o l , church, and community, the predominant environment; secondly, i t served an age group l a c k i n g s e r v i c e s who would remain a l a r g e s e c t i o n o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f F r a s e r v i e w i n the immediate years ahead. The YMCA had n o t p r e v i o u s l y sponsored club a c t i v i t i e s f o r g i r l s . -members favoured  However, as . l o c a l YMCA committee  sponsoring g i r l s '  groups were o r g a n i z e d .  neighbourhood  The i n i t i a l  c l u b s , a number o f g i r l s ' step o f broadening  s p e c t i v e i n s e r v i n g g i r l s , r a t h e r than l i m i t i n g  per-  the a c t i v i t y  to boys, p r o v i d e d t h e f u t u r e p a t t e r n o f YMCA programmes t h a t extended to a f a m i l y YMCA type o f membership l a t e r .  Among the  f i r s t group programmes sponsored by the YMCA, the neighbourhood club programme (N-Y) has remained a major programme emphasis.  142 Table 3*  -  F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y N-Y Clubs  Year  Boys  Girls  Total  1955  2  2  4  1956  2  2  4  1957  4  4  3  1953  4  4  3  1959  4  5  9  Summer Fun Club o r C i t y Gamp.  The f i r s t Summer Fun  Club i n F r a s e r v i e w took p l a c e i n August, 1 9 5 4 , with twentytwo g i r l s and boys e n r o l l e d . to  support, what was g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d e d as, an experimental  programme. for  A parent committee was r e c r u i t e d  Summing up the response, the Summer Fun D i r e c t o r  t h e 1954 programme s t a t e d : "... I n s p i t e o f our v a r i e d e f f o r t s o n l y 22 boys a n d - g i r l s r e g i s t e r e d (12 boys and 10 g i r l s ) . This was a d i s a p p o i n t i n g response to the work i n v o l v e d . We f e e l t h a t the main r eason f o r t h i s was the l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y with YMCA programme among the c h i l d r e n and p a r e n t s . " 2  The f i r s t major assignment o f the newly a c q u i r e d s t a f f member i n May, 1 9 5 5 , was to determine,  along w i t h the F r a s e r -  view P l a n n i n g Committee, the need f o r a Summer Fun C l u b .  ~ I . E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y ' s Programme R e p o r t s . YMCA, 1955 to 1 9 5 9 . - . 2.  Summer Fun Report. Fairmount  2 7 t h , 1 9 5 4 , p. 1.  Fairmount  YMCA, August 2nd to  - 143 Planning  meetings, I n t e n s i v e p u b l i c i t y , and a teen-age l e a d e r -  s h i p t r a i n i n g c o u r s e , were c a r r i e d o u t p r i o r to the programme. An enrollment o f f i f t y - s i x boys and f o r t y - e i g h t g i r l s was f a r g r e a t e r than a n t i c i p a t e d .  The p o p u l a r i t y o f the programme was  a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i n c r e a s e d awareness o f the YMCA and the r e a s o n a b l e f e e o f t h e programme. I n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r s , Summer Fun has remained as a concentrated  programme i n the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a .  I t has i n -  d i c a t e d a v a r y i n g demand, w i t h l e s s e r numbers e n r o l l e d a f t e r the peak y e a r s o f 1955 and 1956 —  the l a t t e r y e a r ,  boys and f o r t y - s e v e n g i r l s p a r t i c i p a t e d .  Various  sixty-six  factors  account f o r d e c l i n i n g attendance i n f o l l o w i n g y e a r s and i n c l u d e : the r e c e s s i o n i n 1 9 5 7 , and i n c r e a s e d programme f e e , and g r e a t e r f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t e n t camping throughout B r i t i s h Columbia.  Summer Fun w i t h emphasis upon small groups, each  h a v i n g a teen-age c o u n s e l l o r , remains an important a c t i v i t y i n F r a s e r v i e w to t h e p r e s e n t The  time.  neighbourhood club a c t i v i t i e s and Summer Fun p r o -  grammes e s t a b l i s h e d YMCA a c t i v i t i e s i n F r a s e r v i e w .  Later  developments grew out o f the community needs, r e l a t e d by boys, g i r l s , and p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d i n these a c t i v i t i e s . 3,  page 1 4 4 ) .  (see Schedule  A f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n o f the growth o f F r a s e r -  view K i l l a r n e y 'Y  1  programme i s shown, (Figure 4 , page 1 4 5 ) ,  i n d i c a t i n g the t o t a l membership o f t h e Fairmount Y T  to 1959*  T  from 1954  - 144 Schedule  3»  Programme Expansion o f F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r h e y YMCA (1955"to 1960.'  Age and Sex  Activity  Date October  1955  Badminton  Men and Women 18 y e a r s and up  October  1955  Badminton  Boys and G i r l s 13 to 16 y e a r s  October  1955  Swimming  Boys 8 t o 13 y e a r s  August  1956  Camping (Camp Howdy)  Girls 8 t o 13 y e a r s  October  1956  Two Gym c l a s s e s (Separate D i v i s i o n s )  Boys and G i r l s 8 to 13 y e a r s  October  1956  Stamp Clubs  Boys 8 to 13 y e a r s  May  1956  Two Beginners B a l l Leagues  September 1957  Soft-  Boys and G i r l s 8 t o 13 y e a r s  Bowling Leagues  Boys and G i r l s 13 t o 16 y e a r s  January  1953  Teen Club Groups  Boys and G i r l s 14 t o 18 years  January  1953  Grass Hockey  Boys 8 to 13 y e a r s  March  1958  Car Clubs  Boys 16 t o 20 y e a r s  October  1953  Volleyball  Men and Women 18 years .and up.  January  1959  Swimming  Girls 8 t o 13 y e a r s  July, August  1959  Day Gamp  Boys 8 t o 13 y e a r s  I1SS  'K6  /9S7  ins  Years  Fif * 1  T h e T o t a l r\e^\be«r-yKip o f -f-^e  * Fairmount YMCA, Annual S t a t i s t i c a l R e p o r t s . 19541959* ( I n 1959 F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y membership was 434 and South Cambie was 179, i n d i c a t i n g i n c r e a s e i s primarily i n Fraserview-Killarney).  - 146 L o c a l I d e n t i t y Strengthened.  1958 t o I960  During the expansion o f F r a s e r v i e w YMCA programme, b e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 5 5 , i t was e v i d e n t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e was  not a b l e to keep pace.  I n f a c t , meetings o f the YMCA  P l a n n i n g Committee were l e s s e f f e c t i v e than a t the time o f the student f i e l d placement.  A c t i v i t i e s d e c e n t r a l i z e d throughout  F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y , however, brought ent p a r e n t s i n c o n t a c t with the YMCA.  a number o f d i f f e r -  V a r i o u s committees were  o r g a n i z e d to c o o r d i n a t e , p l a n , and support programme  groups.  F o r the most p a r t , spontaneous development and enthusiasm was r e t a i n e d i n t h i s development.  Short term committees, emerg-  i n g from seasonal a c t i v i t i e s , l i k e the b e g i n n e r s  softball  leagues f o r boys and g i r l s , were e x c e l l e n t examples o f r a l l y i n g community support i n a r e l a x e d i n f o r m a l environment. These e f f o r t s remained i s o l a t e d and uncoordinated. Meetings o f the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA P l a n n i n g Committee, h e l d every two months, tvere n o t s u f f i c i e n t to s t i m u l a t e an i d e n t i t y w i t h the YMCA beyond the programme l e v e l , with the e x c e p t i o n o f a s m a l l number o f p e o p l e , most o f whom were o r i g i n a l members. I n a sense, the continued a f f i l i a t i o n o f s e v e r a l o f these o r i g i n a l members d i d p r o v i d e some degree o f c o o r d i n a t e d t h i n k i n g , b u t i t was n o t s u f f i c i e n t to b u i l d s t r o n g YMCA i d e n t i t y . I n s c h e d u l i n g meetings o f the P l a n n i n g Committee, i t was e v i d e n t the l a c k o f YMCA o f f i c e space i n the area made i t d i f f i c u l t t o maintain c o n t i n u i t y o f r e g u l a r meetings. n i z i n g a weak committee s t r u c t u r e , the Fairmount  . Recog-  YMCA Board  - 147  -  and s t a f f s e t about to r e c t i f y the s i t u a t i o n . t h e i r concern was  Paramount i n  the knowledge the Fairmount Branch,  or  F r a s e r v i e w a r e a , would r e c e i v e l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Board o f Governors  u n t i l an e f f e c t i v e body  was  o r g a n i z e d to adequately r e p r e s e n t the F r a s e r v i e w IMCA membership. F i v e y e a r s l a t e r , the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Branch IMCA became a separate and autonomous Branch o f the Vancouver IMCA. Today, i n I960, a Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f twenty-six men  and  women, govern the a f f a i r s o f the ' I ' membership i n the southe a s t e r n p a r t o f the C i t y of Vancouver. f o l l o w i n g s t a n d i n g committees:  I n a d d i t i o n , the  membership, b u i l d i n g , p r o -  gramme, and e x e c u t i v e , i n v o l v e a d d i t i o n a l men c o o r d i n a t i n g the a f f a i r s o f the Branch.  and women i n  At the time o f t h i s  w r i t i n g , the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y IMCA i s conducting a programme survey o f ' I ' programme to determine d i f f e r e n t types o f a c t i v i t i e s .  the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f  Professional personnel, including  t e a c h e r s , a d o c t o r , l o c a l b u s i n e s s men  and board members, are  i n v o l v e d i n t h i s p r o j e c t , to f u r t h e r spread and a s s i s t l a y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , to i n c r e a s e s t a f f p r o d u c t i v i t y , and to assess the value o f ' I ' a c t i v i t i e s .  A l e a d e r ' s f e l l o w s h i p and  i n g programme i s scheduled twice a month throughout and concluded with an annual r e c o g n i t i o n banquet. events, i n c l u d i n g a F a l l F a i r , are now  conducted  a d d i t i o n a l funds f o r programme purposes.  train-  the year Special  to r a i s e  O f f i c e and  g r a p h i c s e r v i c e s , r e g i s t r a t i o n o f members, p e r i o d i c  stenoactivity  - 143; c l i n i c s , and r e g u l a r s u p e r v i s o r y conferences with v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s , i l l u s t r a t e there has been p r o g r e s s i n t h e community's support o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA* The growth and development o f the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA can be a t t r i b u t e d t o the r e a d i n e s s o f t h e people i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n s e c t i o n o f Vancouver t o respond and  e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to YMCA a c t i v i t i e s .  living willingly  The 'Y' f o r i t ' s  p a r t a l s o r e v e a l e d a number o f t e c h n i q u e s , or methods, t h a t brought about t h e establishment o f a seventh Branch o f the Vancouver YMCA i n March, I960. There f o l l o w s a review o f these methods: 1.  Planned D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n I n 1955 and 1957, development b r i e f s were p r e s e n t e d by  the YMCA E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y t o Fairmount YMCA Board o f D i r e c tors.  These r e p o r t s were designed t o f a c i l i t a t e growth o f the  YMCA and to p r e s e n t ways and means o f overcoming c u r r e n t problems.  I t was a technique  d e v i s e d by t h e s t a f f to g i v e  Board members, and other laymen-who v o l u n t e e r e d time and energy, a p i c t u r e o f g o a l s f o r the f u t u r e .  M a t e r i a l contained  i n these papers s t r e s s e d the need f o r p l a n n i n g and e v a l u a t i o n i n regard t o : (a) - ~  a r e a development by use o f the Area C o u n c i l , (see Appendix B ) .  (b) -  board and committee r e c r u i t m e n t t o e s t a b l i s h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support t o programme, (see Appendix C ) .  - 149 (c) -  the l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e headquarters and the type o f b u i l d i n g f o l l o w i n g the YMCA C a p i t a l Fund D r i v e i n 1957* (See Appen- * dix D).  R e g i o n a l development i n the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a was g i v e n p r i o r i t y , a f a c t o r which i n f l u e n c e d l a t e r d e c i s i o n s to i n c r e a s e YMCA e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n the F r a s e r v i e w and surrounding a r e a . 2.  C a p i t a l Campaign, 1957 In 1 9 5 7 , t h e YMCA o f Greater Vancouver conducted a  d r i v e f o r funds t o improve and expand i t s f a c i l i t i e s . view 'Y  1  Fraser-  members, as t h e i r p a r t o f t h e campaign, o r g a n i z e d a  canvass o f c u r r e n t f a m i l i e s i n v o l v e d i n YMCA a c t i v i t i e s *  The  e f f e c t o f the m o b i l i z a t i o n t o expand the YMCA o p e r a t i o n i n Vancouver, l e d many 'Y  1  s u p p o r t e r s i n F r a s e r v i e w t o ask whether  t h e i r a r e a would be c o n s i d e r e d .  R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o the F a i r -  mount YMCA Board from F r a s e r v i e w , p o i n t e d out the concern and r e q u e s t e d f a v o u r a b l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r p r o p e r t y and b u i l d i n g development i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w a r e a .  The b r i e f , r e l a t e d t o  b u i l d i n g planning,.(see Appendix D) s t r e s s e d t h e importance o f d i v i d i n g the Fairmount  YMCA area i n t o two d i v i s i o n s .  d i s c u s s i o n over s e v e r a l Fairmount to  After  YMCA Board meetings a d e c i s i o n  f a v o u r j o i n t development was reached.  Promotion and a c t i v e  support m o b i l i z e d d u r i n g the campaign was c a r r i e d f o r t h when important d e c i s i o n s were made. the spark  A s p e c i f i c t a s k had p r o v i d e d  to i n c r e a s e p a r e n t a l involvement.  t i e s sponsored  Programme a c t i v i -  i n the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a had engendered an i n t e r e s t  - 15© i n the IMCA t h a t became more v o c a l when r e s i d e n t s saw there was  a p o s s i b i l i t y o f i n c r e a s e d s e r v i c e through the l o c a t i o n  of a b u i l d i n g i n their area.  3*  Fraserview Representation  on the Fairmount YMCA Board  N e g o t i a t i o n f o r p r o p e r t y p o i n t s up another p r a c t i c e t h a t encouraged the growth o f the K i l l a r n e y YMCA.  valuable  Fraserview-  S i n c e the i n c e p t i o n o f the Fraserview  Committee, two members o f the Committee were appointed Fairmount YMCA Board o f D i r e c t o r s .  Planning t o the  T h i s arrangement a s s i s t e d  communication between the Board and the P l a n n i n g  Committee.  Board members were g i v e n i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s i g h t i n t o the needs o f the F r a s e r v i e w  area.  The Fraserview r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  were g i v e n g r e a t e r awareness about the YMCA's method o f operat i o n and a s s i s t a n c e o n e f f e c t i v e b u s i n e s s - l i k e procedure d u r i n g meetings. first  I n the f o r m a t i v e  stages, and d u r i n g the  three y e a r s o f the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA p r o j e c t , the s m a l l  number o f d i r e c t o r s o f the Fairmount YMCA gave mature and sound c o u n s e l t o the Fraserview  development.  Containing  p r i m a r i l y s e n i o r b u s i n e s s p e r s o n n e l , with c o n s i d e r a b l e experi e n c e i n b u s i n e s s and community a f f a i r s , t h e Fairmount Board o f D i r e c t o r s was i n f a c t an a d v i s o r y body t o the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA development. critical  Support f o r F r a s e r v i e w YMCA a c t i v i t i e s and  examination  o f i s s u e s enabled a balance o f c o n s e r v a t i s m  and new and p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s .  C o n t r a r y t o any misconception  t h a t may be h e l d i n the Vancouver YMCA, the Fairmount Board o f D i r e c t o r s was not a 'rubber  stamp' o f s t a f f i d e a s  presented  - 151 d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1955 t o i 9 6 0 when i t was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n s u p e r v i s i n g the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA E x t e n s i o n , .4,  The Role o f Lay S u p e r v i s i o n During 1955 t o 1 9 5 7 , the YMCA, i n i t ' s F r a s e r v i e w  development, was not s u c c e s s f u l i n s e c u r i n g a r e s i d e n t as chairman o f the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA P l a n n i n g Committee.  L o c a l 'Y'  s u p p o r t e r s were- e i t h e r too i n e x p e r i e n c e d o r dependent upon the YMCA s t a f f member t o g i v e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h i s n a t u r e .  Plans to  a l l e v i a t e t h i s problem were s e t down i n a b r i e f submitted t o the Fairmount Board i n January, 1957, (see Appendix C) a f t e r which the P r e s i d e n t o f the Branch agreed t o c h a i r F r a s e r v i e w Committee meetings on a temporary  basis.  After slightly  over  one year t h i s arrangement was d i s c o n t i n u e d when the Chairman o f the F r a s e r v i e w YMCA boys' Chairmanship  s o f t b a l l league accepted the  o f the P l a n n i n g Committee.. The Board P r e s i d e n t ,  however, remained  w i t h the Committee i n an a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y  and become more informed about F r a s e r v i e w needs and i n t e r e s t s . .Later, a t the time o f the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w Board  o f Management, the, P r e s i d e n t o f the. Fairmount YMCA, gave  e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p to the s e t t i n g up and management o f committee meetings.  T h i s type o f a s s i s t a n c e was the f i r s t  a p p l i c a t i o n o f a layman s u p e r v i s i n g laymen i n the F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y YMCA.  S u p e r v i s i o n o f t h i s nature a l s o  encouraged  more people t o assume r e s p o n s i b l e p o s i t i o n s w i t h i n the Board o f Management.  I t a l s o enabled t h e YMCA S e c r e t a r y to g i v e  -152  -  a t t e n t i o n t o o t h e r areas o f work., A t t h i s w r i t i n g , the t r a n s f e r e n c e o f c e r t a i n s t a f f f u n c t i o n s t o laymen i s b e i n g implemented  i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e Programme.Survey, (see  Appendix F ) .  I t i s l i k e l y g r e a t e r involvement o f laymen and  spontaneous programme w i l l a s s i s t s t a f f p r o d u c t i v i t y and a s p r e a d i n g o f YMCA i n t e r e s t i n the community.  I t w i l l , however,  r e q u i r e c a r e f u l a p p r a i s a l i n r e g a r d to the q u a l i t y o f superv i s i o n and the r e l a t i o n o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n the process. 5.  L o c a l Chairmanship I n October, 1957, a l o c a l c i t i z e n assumed the chairman-  s h i p o f the F r a s e r v i e w YMGA P l a n n i n g Committee.  C l o s e r con-  t a c t between o t h e r members o f t h e committee and the chairman was brought about by t h i s arrangement.. As i t t u r n e d o u t , the f o r t h r i g h t a g g r e s s i v e n e s s o f the new chairman i n c r e a s e d the c o n f i d e n c e o f people working on b e h a l f o f YMCA a c t i v i t i e s i n Fraserview.  Chairman o f s p e c i a l , o r s t a n d i n g committees, as  w e l l as g e n e r a l coinmittee-member  w i l l i n g n e s s to v o l u n t e e r f o r  s p e c i f i c d u t i e s , was g r e a t l y a i d e d by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a community l e a d e r . 6.  Branch Headquarters E s t a b l i s h e d A f t e r the completion o f the YMGA C a p i t a l Fund Campaign  i n 1 9 5 7 , the Fairmount Branch YMCA was a l l o c a t e d $60,000.00 f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new b u i l d i n g o r b u i l d i n g s .  It  remained f o r the Fairmount YMCA Board o f D i r e c t o r s t o a s c e r t a i n  - 153 the expenditure o f these funds, s u b j e c t to the a p p r o v a l o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n . B o a r d o f Governors.  (See Appendix D).  Follow-  i n g s e v e r a l months o f n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h the C i t y o f Vancouver, a l o t a t 49th Avenue and Kerr Road was purchased o f a c o t t a g e , f o r m e r l y headquarters new s i t e was completed.  and t r a n s f e r  f o r the Alma YMCA, t o the  P o s s e s s i o n o f the cottage was made  p o s s i b l e when l a b o u r and management s t r i f e i n t h e b u i l d i n g t r a d e s i n 1958, h e l d up the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e new Alma YMCA. The completion o f the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y headquarters  cost  s l i g h t l y more than $20,000.00 and l e f t #40,000.00 f o r b u i l d i n g development i n the Fairmount-South  Cambie a r e a .  I t also  marked the entrance o f the YMCA i n t o the K i l l a r n e y a s u b d i v i s i o n immediately  east o f F r a s e r v i e w .  district,  Hence, the  E x t e n s i o n became known a s the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA Extension.  L o c a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a was c o n s i d e r e d t o be e x c e l l e n t .  The headquarters  were p l a c e d a d j a c e n t to a p u b l i c park, a h i g h  s c h o o l , and c l o s e to p u b l i c t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . On a l o n g term b a s i s , the Fairmount  Board o f D i r e c t o r s , Fraserview P l a n n i n g  Committee and Fairmount s t a f f , regarded  the s i t e as an e x c e l l -  ent s i t e , even though the b u i l d i n g was p l a c e d one m i l e e a s t o f Fraserview.  approximately  S e r v i c e to F r a s e r v i e w and  K i l l a r n e y was c o n s i d e r e d p r a c t i c a l i n the l o n g range f u t u r e . Although not a p r e t e n t i o u s b u i l d i n g , YMCA s u p p o r t e r s i n F r a s e r v i e w were able t o see concrete r e s u l t s f o r t h e i r  efforts.  Work p a r t i e s , c o o r d i n a t e d by the Men's B u i l d i n g Committee, i n v o l v i n g a d u l t s and teen-age members, were h e l d t o make  - 154 improvements t o t h e c o t t a g e .  Fund r a i s i n g e f f o r t s t o purchase  s u p p l i e s r a l l i e d membership support.  An i d e n t i t y p o i n t was  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t improved s t a f f working c o n d i t i o n s and p r o v i d e d a meeting p o i n t f o r a d u l t committees.  The problem  ahead was t o c o n s o l i d a t e the spread o f programme and i s o l a t e d committee s t r u c t u r e . 7.  O b j e c t i v e s C h a r t . 1958. Growth and expansion  r e q u i r e d the Fraserview YMCA  Board o f Management to f o l l o w a p l a n o f development f o r the future.  Enthusiasm and energy, put f o r t h p r i o r to the b u i l d -  i n g , might e a s i l y have been l o s t without s i d e r a t i o n o f goals f o r the future.  d i r e c t i o n and con-  I n September, 1953, the  Chairman o f the Board o f Management and Fairmount YMCA E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y , and the r e c e n t l y employed  Fraserview-  K i l l a r n e y E x t e n s i o n S e c r e t a r y , met to l a y out a p l a n o f development f o r 1953-1959*  A memorandum r e p o r t by the new  secretary e n t i t l e d "Objectives Chart, Fraserview-Killarney YMCA", emphasized the need t o c o n s o l i d a t e and s t r e n g t h e n Board and Committee s t r u c t u r e s .  (Appendix E ) .  D e s p i t e elements o f  over-committee s t r u c t u r e , the number o f proposed committees appeared to be too l a r g e f o r a YMGA o p e r a t i o n o f i t ' s s i z e .  1  The O b j e c t i v e s Chart h e l p e d t o educate Board members on the need f o r p l a n n i n g ahead and s e t t i n g p r i o r i t i e s . made s i n c e the Chart was presented  In alterations  i n October, 1 9 5 3 , the  1. P e r r e l , G.O., The New E x e c u t i v e i n t h e Smaller YMCA. A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New.York, 1 9 5 9 , see s e c t i o n on Span o f C o n t r o l , p. 36.  - 15/5 number of standing committees lias been c u r t a i l e d t o a v o i d a t r e n d o f Board members s e r v i n g on s e v e r a l committees. s i t u a t i o n was e v i d e n t immediately f o l l o w up o f planned  This  f o l l o w i n g the Chart. As a  development, the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y  YMCA i s now, i n I960, s t u d y i n g programme e f f e c t i v e n e s s through the Programme Survey p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  The F i v e Year P l a n  i n s t i g a t e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Board i n 1 9 5 9 , has a l s o a s s i s t e d F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y D i r e c t o r s t o examine the f u t u r e needs o f the Branch* 8.  Staff Continuity Over the course o f s i x y e a r s , 1954 to I 9 6 0 , there have  been f o u r YMCA employed o f f i c e r s , o r s e c r e t a r i e s , i n v o l v e d i n the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA. experienced  I n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s an  S e c r e t a r y i n community YMCA work was i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n g i v i n g e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p through the s u p e r v i s i o n o f a student  f i e l d worker.  The l a t t e r , w h i l e undergoing  training,  became convinced o f the v a l u e o f n o n - f a c i l i t y YMCA work and f o l l o w e d t h e f i e l d placement by a c c e p t i n g a p o s i t i o n w i t h the YMCA.  The d u t i e s o f the new p o s i t i o n p r i m a r i l y focused upon  the F r a s e r v i e w a r e a .  A f t e r two years o f d i r e c t programme  v i s i o n i n Fraserview,  t h i s S e c r e t a r y was appointed  S e c r e t a r y o f the Fairmount YMCA.  super-  Executive-  Two s e c r e t a r i e s f o l l o w e d i n  the c a p a c i t y o f F r a s e r v i e w YMCA E x t e n s i o n - S e c r e t a r y s i b l e to the Fairmount YMCA E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y .  and respon-  I n March, I 9 6 0 ,  t h i s arrangement was p r e c l u d e d w i t h t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f the  - 156 ~ F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA from the Fairmount YMCA, and the appointment o f the F r a s e r v i e w new  E x t e n s i o n - S e c r e t a r y a s the  Branch E x e c u t i v e . C o n t i n u i t y o f s t a f f l e a d e r s h i p to t h i s YMCA development  was  p r o v i d e d through t h e involvement  o f f i c e r from t h e e a r l y b e g i n n i n g s  o f one YMCA employed  o f 1954 t o i 9 6 0 .  This  arrangement has allowed f o r some degree o f permanency and s t a f f c o n s i s t e n c y i n working w i t h laymen.  A l l have a p p l i e d  enthusiasm and made d e f i n i t e s p e c i f i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the development. pation.  They have a l s o encouraged g r e a t e r l a y p a r t i c i -  Some mistakes must be a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r  e.g., both E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y and F r a s e r v i e w  Extension-Secre-  t a r y f a i l e d to r e c o g n i z e elements o f over-developed s t r u c t u r e i n t h e O b j e c t i v e Chart f o r 1958.  inexperience  committee  With an expanding  YMCA, both i n terms o f programme and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e r e can be l i t t l e doubt throughout t h i s p e r i o d the s t a f f l o a d was spread over t o o wide an area.  Beginning  s e c r e t a r i e s i n the  course o f 1957 and 1958 r e q u i r e d o r i e n t a t i o n t o the job and a p e r i o d t o become f a m i l i a r with t h e i r s p e c i f i c areas o f r e s ponsibility.  S u p e r v i s i o n o f both men by the E x e c u t i v e -  S e c r e t a r y on a r e g u l a r weekly b a s i s was necessary, both f o r the development o f the i n d i v i d u a l s e c r e t a r y , and f o r the cont i n u e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f YMCA programmes i n F r a s e r v i e w and Killarney. was  I t i s d o u b t f u l , a l s o , t h a t the E x e c u t i v e - S e c r e t a r y  a b l e t o g i v e s u f f i c i e n t s t a f f l e a d e r s h i p when h i s a s s i g n -  ment i n c l u d e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r two d i s t i n c t undeveloped YMCA  - 157 areas, i n regard and s u p e r v i s o r y  t o Board and Committee s t r u c t u r e , programme, duties.  A combination o f young  inexperienced  s t a f f and weak a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e may have h i n d e r e d the development o f the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA a t c e r t a i n stages. At the same time, t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n i s not made w i t h o u t  recog-  n i z i n g there has been growth i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y i n the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA development, which must be a t t r i b u t e d i n p a r t t o the c o n t r i b u t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s t a f f members. I n r e c e n t years  the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f YMCA's i n  Canada has proposed more experienced  YMCA s e c r e t a r i e s , having  a background i n e x t e n s i o n work, be r e l a t e d to new YMCA community  extensions.  T h i s suggestion  i s made i n r e c o g n i t i o n o f the  number o f d i f f e r e n t d u t i e s i n v o l v e d i n new YMCA's development. Community YMCA work r e q u i r e s a s t a f f member t o employ v a r y i n g s k i l l s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , group work, and community  organiza-  t i o n i n f o l l o w i n g out t h e demands o f the j o b .  experienced  personnel  More  a r e a l s o l i k e l y to be w e l l o r i e n t e d to t r a d i t i o n a l  YMCA programmes as w e l l a s p o s s e s s i n g  s k i l l i n l o c a t i n g the  need f o r new and d i f f e r e n t programmes.  Recommendations o r  s t u d i e s a t the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l a r e p e r t i n e n t f o r l o c a l A s s o c i a t i o n s , and although r e c e n t n a t i o n a l b u l l e t i n s have h i n t e d a t a s s i g n i n g more experienced  s e c r e t a r i e s t o newer job assignments  i n communities, many l o c a l A s s o c i a t i o n s have not taken steps.  I n t h i s connection,  a r e v i s i o n o f present  c a t i o n , o r s e t t i n g up a new job category Personnel  concrete  job c l a s s i f i -  i n the N a t i o n a l  P o l i c y , would be necessary t o a s s i s t l o c a l  Council  Associa-  - 158 t i o n s to take a c t i o n . regard  -  At the p r e s e n t  time, job r a t i n g s i n  to s a l a r i e s are h e a v i l y weighted i n r e g a r d  f a c t o r s as:  the s i z e o f budget, number o f s t a f f  to such supervised,  s i z e o f p h y s i c a l p l a n t , e t c . , which g e n e r a l l y favour t a r i e s placed i n "building-centered"  operations.  secre-  I t i s un-  l i k e l y experienced p e r s o n n e l w i l l be a t t r a c t e d i n t o community IMCA e x t e n s i o n  p o s i t i o n s u n t i l i n c e n t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g improved  s a l a r y c o n d i t i o n s , are adopted by l o c a l A s s o c i a t i o n s . t h i s observation t i o n " and  i s a f u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n of  Perhaps  "institutionaliza-  apparent low l e v e l o f awareness of IMCA p o l i c y makers  toward d e c e n t r a l i z e d ' I ' work. There i s one  o t h e r problem r e l a t e d to the  o f s e c r e t a r i e s to o u t p o s t o r suburban IMCA's.  assignment  A main source  o f IMCA p r o f e s s i o n a l workers are students e n r o l l e d i n the IMCA Fellowship-Secretaries  T r a i n i n g Programme.  Under t h i s  U n i v e r s i t y undergraduate students are assigned  plan,  to IMCA Branches,  or Departments, f o r t r a i n i n g or experience i n IMCA work. large "Metropolitan"  type IMCA, the Vancouver ' I ' has  As  a  conducted  a f e l l o w s h i p t r a i n i n g programme f o r a l o n g p e r i o d o f time. However, u n t i l 1959,  the budget f o r f e l l o w s h i p s e c r e t a r i e s  i n c l u d e d i n the budgets o f r e s p e c t i v e Branches.  Here  was  again,  the l a r g e C e n t r a l IMCA, through i t s v a r i o u s departments,  was  a b l e to i n c l u d e funds f o r f e l l o w s h i p s e c r e t a r i e s whereas, the newer o u t l y i n g community Branches were g e n e r a l l y unable to i n c l u d e f e l l o w s h i p t r a i n i n g i n t h e i r budgets. the m a j o r i t y  of Fellowship-Secretaries  Consequently,  have been l o c a t e d i n  - 159 'building-centered'  operations  over the p a s t t e n y e a r s .  r e s u l t , very few F e l l o w s h i p - S e c r e t a r i e s  As a  have had an o p p o r t u n i t y  o f working with s t a f f members who have c o n v i c t i o n about the importance o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d YMCA work. two  I n r e c e n t p r a c t i c e , the  S e c r e t a r i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e i n i t i a l development o f the  Fraserview-Killarney f e s s i o n a l education  and Renfrew YMCA's r e c e i v e d t h e i r  and t r a i n i n g i n the School o f S o c i a l Work  a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Metropolitan  pro-  However, i n 1 9 5 9 , the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n undertook the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f  a l l funds a l l o t t e d f o r f e l l o w s h i p t r a i n i n g .  Under t h i s a r r a n g e -  ment i t w i l l now be p o s s i b l e t o broaden the t r a i n i n g o f potential  s e c r e t a r i e s i n the d i f f e r e n t phases o f YMCA work.  Experience i n 'building-centered'  and 'community-centered' work  w i l l a s s i s t f e l l o w s h i p s e c r e t a r i e s t o see the t o t a l  implica-  t i o n s o f YMCA work as w e l l a s t o encourage g r e a t e r s t a f f u n i t y o f purpose through a v a r i e d background. I n Summary I n a new f i e l d o f work the f u t u r e f o r the F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y YMCA remains b r i g h t .  The w i l l i n g n e s s o f the YMGA  to proceed i n accordance w i t h the d e s i r e s o f the l o c a l  resi-  dents, to o f f e r membership s e r v i c e s to women and g i r l s , as w e l l as men and boys, to become i n e f f e c t , a " f a m i l y type YMCA" i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t i n the 'Y's growth i n the F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y areas.  As a f a m i l y s e r v i c e , however, the Branch  w i l l be r e q u i r e d to prove t h i s i d e a and demonstrate i t s a b i l i t y to serve  the needs o f t h e t o t a l f a m i l y .  The methods o f  - 160 development which have been u t i l i z e d i n the expansion o f the  Branch c e n t r e r e p r e s e n t e d by the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y  YMCA, c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the v a l u e o f t r a i n i n g ,  administrative  a n a l y s i s , and an e d u c a t i o n a l r o l e i n programme a c t i v i t y i n the initial  stages.  Committee s t r u c t u r e d i d not come t o the f o r e  u n t i l l a t e r , and i s now undergoing s t r e n g t h e n i n g . The p a t t e r n o f development  o f o t h e r Vancouver  community  Branch YMCA's undoubtedly c a l l s f o r comparative a n a l y s i s . ,In a study comparable t o t h i s one, by Mr.A.G.Cue, the i n i t i a l committee  s t r u c t u r e i n d i c a t e s the v a r i a t i o n o f approach i n  Vancouver YMCA community b r a n c h e s .  1  The growth o f the Renfrew  Branch YMCA, s e r v i n g the n o r t h - e a s t e r n s e c t i o n s o f Vancouver, would p r o v i d e another i n t e r e s t i n g comparison.  As a f i r s t  approximation, i t would seem that the Renfrew YMCA was a b l e to  emphasize board and committee  w i t h the development  structure a t the outset,  o f programme groups f o l l o w i n g .  Starting  one year l a t e r , the Renfrew YMCA became an o f f i c i a l Branch o f the  Vancouver YMCA one year e a r l i e r than the F r a s e r v i e w -  K i l l a r n e y YMCA. first, the  Two c o n c r e t e advantages suggest themselves;  the l o c a t i o n o f o f f i c e headquarters i n t h e area; second,  assignment o f a YMCA s e c r e t a r y a f t e r two y e a r s p r e v i o u s  experience i n • I ' work, who has remained w i t h the Renfrew Branch over the four year p e r i o d o f i t s h i s t o r y . ' However, more complete study would be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e a c o n c l u s i v e  I T Cue. A . G . . D e c e n t r a l i z e d Programme Development i n a Community Branch. YMCA. Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s . U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia., I960., Chapter IV, S e c t i o n (b) Board and Committee. • .. . -t  - 161 judgment  could be made i n the comparison o f the two Branches.  The major purpose o f the p r e s e n t study, which i s to document i n the l i g h t o f "community development" p r i n c i p l e s the .story o f one p a r t i c u l a r branch, c e r t a i n l y r e i n f o r c e s r e c o g n i t i o n o f the d i f f e r e n t i a l approach.  Not only a r e the methods o f ex-  p a n s i o n s u i t e d to each community, d i f f e r e n t , where there a r e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s and needs, b u t the i n f l u e n c e s a t work on the ' I * branch a r e unique t o each community.  Chapter V The R o l e o f the Y.M.C.A. i n the L o c a l R e s i d e n t i a l Community The  Changing R e s i d e n t i a l Community The  p o s t war  r e s i d e n t i a l community, an example o f a  r a p i d l y changing s o c i a l environment, i s a new  area i n l a r g e  c i t i e s g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g the s t a b i l i t y o f t r a d i t i o n and f o l k l o r e which b r i n g about community i d e n t i t y . l i v i n g i n these new interests.  Young f a m i l i e s  communities, share common problems  A neighbourhood or p s y c h o l o g i c a l  and  i d e n t i t y develops  through the s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t o f c h i l d r e a r i n g , c o n t r o l o f finances,  job s e c u r i t y , e t c .  Services  i n view o f inadequate p l a n n i n g , meet the needs o f the r e s i d e n t s .  to these new  seldom are  sufficient  Recreational  the form o f p l a y space or s u p e r v i s e d  areas, to  outlets, i n  programmes, are among  the l a t t e r s e r v i c e s made a v a i l a b l e to the p o p u l a t i o n .  Fraser-  view and K i l l a r n e y serve t o i l l u s t r a t e a community o f i n t e n s i v e s o c i a l needs a r i s i n g a f t e r there has been ah absence o f  planning.  Today, the North American p o p u l a t i o n l e i s u r e than ever b e f o r e .  has  I n some i n s t a n c e s ,  more time f o r  s o c i a l problems  have a r i s e n because c e r t a i n groups o r i n d i v i d u a l s have f a i l e d to make adequate use o f t h e i r l e i s u r e .  National  concern f o r  h e a l t h and p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s r e l a t e d to the amount o f emphasis p l a c e d upon p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , acknowledge there  j  is a  diminish-  163 ing  -  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v e forms o f r e c r e a t i o n f o r a l a r g e  percentage o f our p o p u l a t i o n .  T h i s i s only one problem  emerging from the high standard o f l i v i n g Canadians  enjoy.  Another p a t t e r n o f community i n t e r a c t i o n , the e x i s t e n c e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n every phase o f modern l i f e , has sometimes undermined our democratic  institutions.  One source has made  the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n i n r e g a r d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n voluntary associations: "We g e n e r a l l y no l o n g e r govern our v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s : we simply j o i n them, pay our dues, and l e t experts r u n them. As a r e s u l t we have l e s s and l e s s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a c q u i r i n g experiences t h a t are e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n democratic government. " , i While more l e i s u r e has been a v a i l a b l e , i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t an o p p o r t u n i t y to l e a r n the v a l u e o f democratic has a l s o i n c r e a s e d .  group  experience  The methods employed by o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n  the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i e l d not o n l y have an important  influence  on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s , b u t a l s o on the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r democratic  experience  as a way o f l i f e .  The Y.M.C.A. i n the R e s i d e n t i a l Community The YMCA has by t r a d i t i o n f o l l o w e d the p r e v a l e n t a t t i t u d e toward the p r o v i s i o n o f r e c r e a t i o n .  During  social  the e r e c -  t i o n o f l a r g e c i t i e s , when the c i t y c e n t r e was the 'hub' o f  1. B l a u , P., Bureaucracy i n Modern S o c i e t y . Random House, New York, U.S.A., 1 9 4 9 , p. 1 1 ? .  - 164 the urban a r e a ,  the YMCA e s t a b l i s h e d c e n t r a l i z e d branches w i t h  comprehensive f a c i l i t i e s . w e l l attended.  These b u i l d i n g s were popular and  Today, s i n c e the end o f the Second World War,  l a r g e c i t i e s have undergone r a p i d change and a t r e n d d e c e n t r a l i z e d r e g i o n a l development. i e s have been planned, c o n s t r u c t e d , p e r i o d o f time.  toward a  New r e s i d e n t i a l communitand i n h a b i t e d i n a s h o r t  The YMCA, a s a l l o t h e r p r i v a t e  has been r e q u i r e d t o examine and r e a p p r a i s e  institutions,  i t s role i n  meeting t h i s change. Another important i n f l u e n c e upon the YMCA i s the i n c r e a s i n g number o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s activities.  offering recreational  P u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n w i l l continue t o i n c r e a s e i t s  impact upon t h e Vancouver community.  S p e c i a l youth  organiza-  t i o n s now e x i s t t o p r o v i d e a c t i v i t i e s o f a s p e c i a l i z e d nature. The  YMCA's former monopoly on the r e c r e a t i o n a l f i e l d i s now  converted t o t h a t o f a shared p a r t i c i p a n t i n meeting the needs o f t h e community.  Limited  f i n a n c i a l resources,  pattern o f recreation, requires a continuing  and a changing  YMCA s e l f -  a p p r a i s a l and a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f o b j e c t i v e s . The one  Fraserview-Killarney  YMCA i s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f  method t h e A s s o c i a t i o n has d e v i s e d  changing community.  to change with t h e  Many o f the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r e n g t h s  o f the  YMCA, however, have been r e t a i n e d i n t h e newer methods o f work. Programme extending from a l i m i t e d - f a c i l i t y i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d throughout a community, o r communities, (see F i g u r e ever l e a d e r s h i p  and space i s made a v a i l a b l e .  5 ) , where-  - 166 The  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  -  c o n t r o l f o r these a c t i v i t i e s ,  however, remain i n the hands o f YMCA members. i s a l i m i t e d b u i l d i n g , the e x i s t e n c e  Because there  o f a c t i v i t i e s are depen-  dent upon membership s u p e r v i s i o n , r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s , operation  w i t h community groups.  o f a community 'Y  1  and  co-  A c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s h i p  l i k e the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y  YMCA to o t h e r  groups i n the community i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e . Programme a c t i v i t i e s meeting i n p r i v a t e homes, s c h o o l s , churches, come under the  s u r v e i l l a n c e o f many people.  h e l p s to r a i s e l e a d e r s h i p  standards and  p e r s o n a l knowledge about the l o c a l  and This  a l s o g i v e people a  'Y'.  I n c o n n e c t i o n with community r e l a t i o n s , i t i s s i g n i f i cant t h a t development o f a d e c e n t r a l i z e d Y.M.C.A. i n the F r a s e r v i e w and  K i l l a r n e y a r e a has  not h i n d e r e d the  future  growth o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n or p r i v a t e l e i s u r e time s e r v i c e s . The  Fraserview-Killarney  change brought about by  YMCA i s , i n e f f e c t , i n s t i t u t i o n a l the d e c i s i o n s o f l o c a l l a y men  women, w i t h the guidance o f p r o f e s s i o n a l n i z e d l e i s u r e time needs o f the a r e a . professional  s t a f f to meet r e c o g -  The  role of  the  s t a f f member, i n t h i s r e g a r d , i s t o h e l p laymen  to p r o v i d e s e r v i c e s to unrecognized needs. and  I n t h i s way,  committee members a l s o become adept i n d e t e c t i n g  General F i n d i n g s 1.  .The  o f the  new  Board needs.  Study  N o r r i e Report, a survey on the group work  r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s i n 1945, were t o o  and  l a r g e to i s o l a t e and  noted the  and  s o c i a l areas o f Vancouver  a n a l y z e s o c i a l data.  Social  - 167 areas r e v i s e d to conform with s m a l l e r u n i t s o f census t r a c t s were v i s u a l i z e d as a means o f d e a l i n g w i t h neighbourhoods and l o c a l planning.  The r e p o r t suggested Vancouver would g r e a t l y  a i d l o c a l development i f forty-two  to f o r t y - s i x s o c i a l areas  were c r e a t e d . The  s t o r y o f the Fairmount YMCA i s a f u r t h e r r e f l e c t i o n  o f t h i s need, .As p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s l i k e the YMCA have l i m i t e d research resources,  they are f r e q u e n t l y unable t o  foresee o p e r a t i o n a l problems based upon changes t a k i n g p l a c e i n the community.  I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t a more c l e a r l y  defined  neighbourhood would have a s s i s t e d the YMCA to l o c a t e the Fairmount Branch YMCA on a more permanent b a s i s .  The F r a s e r -  view and K i l l a r n e y areas o f the C i t y o f Vancouver w i l l r e q u i r e r e v i s i o n to a s s i s t l o c a l community 2,  also  planning,  There i s a need f o r the c r e a t i o n o f a l o c a l c o -  o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l , or c o u n c i l s , i n the Fraserview and K i l l a r n e y communities.  Communication between o r g a n i z a t i o n s  s e r v i n g the a r e a i s i n f r e q u e n t and g e n e r a l l y o f a s u p e r f i c i a l nature.  Cooperation  and understanding o f t h e d i f f e r e n t  a g e n c i e s w i l l not r e s u l t u n t i l they a r e brought together a t the l o c a l l e v e l .  The "Survey" i n 1945, a l s o p o i n t e d out the  need f o r c o o r d i n a t i n g c o u n c i l s , suggesting  the Community Chest  and C o u n c i l s should g i v e l e a d e r s h i p t o t h i s end. w r i t e r ' s experience, and  I n the  the c e n t r a l i z e d avenue o f s o c i a l  planning  c o o r d i n a t i o n through the R e c r e a t i o n and Group Work D i v i s i o n  o f the Community Chest and planning.  16s  C o u n c i l s does not a c t i v a t e l o c a l  I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e the R e c r e a t i o n  and Group Work  D i v i s i o n , by f a c i l i t a t i n g l o c a l development, would g r e a t l y a i d the acceptance o f the Community Chest by members o f r e s i d e n t i a l community.  the  O p p o r t u n i t y f o r making d e c i s i o n s  and  t a k i n g a c t i o n w i l l s t i m u l a t e g r e a t e r community i n t e r e s t .  In  view o f the  s i g n i f i c a n t advance i n p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n s e r v i c e s  i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t Park Board p e r s o n n e l be i n v o l v e d i n l o c a l community c o o r d i n a t i n g C o u n c i l s . p r i v a t e agencies,  For  the YMCA and  the l o c a l c o u n c i l would help  to  other  clarify  t h e i r r o l e i n the community as w e l l a s s t i m u l a t i n g the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f the l o c a l 3.  citizen.  There i s evidence t h a t a more l i b e r a l use o f  school  b u i l d i n g s i n F r a s e r v i e w and K i l l a r n e y would g r e a t l y a i d the r e c r e a t i o n a l needs o f the community.  School b u i l d i n g s , except  f o r the gymnasium-auditorium, are vacant d u r i n g and  i t i s evident  f u l analysis.  the  evenings,  t h a t the r e n t a l o f gymnasiums r e q u i r e s  Based on t h i s study, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t  carethe  School Board R e n t a l s Department i s an e f f e c t i v e method o f r e g u l a t i n g the use  of school f a c i l i t i e s f o r the.-maximum b e n e f i t  o f the community.  L o c a l c i t i z e n s should have an o p p o r t u n i t y  a s s i s t i n governing the community use o f these f a c i l i t i e s . it  i s now  organized,  As  i t i s evident, i n the w r i t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e ,  the r e s i d e n t s b e l i e v e they are powerless to e f f e c t a change. The  to  r e s u l t o f s c h o o l r e n t a l p o l i c y , at t h e present  time,  - 169 although c o o p e r a t i v e l y  administered, discourages  community i n t e r e s t i n the school 4,  centre,  School Board and Park Board communication i n the  future planning o f public recreation f a c i l i t i e s and  greater  i n Fraserview  K i l l a r n e y i s most necessary f o r an economical approach t o  p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n programmes.  At t h e present time, the South  Vancouver Community A s s o c i a t i o n Community Centre C o o r d i n a t i n g public f a c i l i t i e s  i s t a k i n g p a r t i n the E a s t S i d  Council  as a means o f extending  i n t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n , and other  s e c t i o n s , o f Vancouver.  I n the r e v i e w o f p u b l i c  eastern facilities  i n the area surveyed i n t h i s study, the p r a c t i c a l method o f f u r t h e r i n g p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i s to use school b u i l d i n g s as public centres.  Both David Thompson and K i l l a r n e y s c h o o l s  c o u l d be major p u b l i c c e n t r e s w i t h t h e elementary s c h o o l s s e r v i n g as more l o c a l i z e d b u i l d i n g s .  The c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  swimming p o o l s adjacent to the h i g h s c h o o l s o f f e r s the b e s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a w e l l rounded p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n As the  the " N o r r i e R e p o r t " noted i n 1945, e r e c t i o n o f separate f a c i l i t i e s ,  programme.  alternatives, including i s more expensive  a n c i a l l y and a p o t e n t i a l d u p l i c a t i o n o f f a c i l i t i e s . public recreation expensive.  s e r v i c e s , s i n c e 1945,  Vancouver  have proven to be  I n some cases, community c e n t r e s a r e a d u p l i c a t i o n  o f school b u i l d i n g s t h a t a r e too l i t t l e purposes.  fin-  used f o r r e c r e a t i o n  - 170 5.  P r i v a t e agencies a l s o have an important r o l e t o  p l a y i n the community use o f p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s . programme o f a p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n t i o n with r e c o g n i z e d  The type o f  should not be i n competi-  p u b l i c agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  Support  to p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n development i n the l o c a l community i s a l s o necessary i n r a i s i n g the importance o f r e c r e a t i o n i n the minds o f the r e s i d e n t s . private' o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  l i k e the l i m i t e d f a c i l i t y YMCA, would  receive further consideration public f a c i l i t i e s ,  I n t h i s way, i t i s l i k e l y the  i n sponsoring a c t i v i t i e s i n  including schools,  p u b l i c swimming p o o l s .  community c e n t r e s , and  Increased o p p o r t u n i t y  o f l o c a l manage-  ment w i l l encourage g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l a r e a s o f community r e c r e a t i o n . I m p l i c a t i o n o f the Study f o r the Y.M.C.A. 1.  The study o f t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y  the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the A s s o c i a t i o n s 1  limited f a c i l i t y  YMCA, i n d i c a t e s  programme from a  i s an e f f e c t i v e method o f accomplishing  Association objectives.  A major advantage o f the l i m i t e d -  f a c i l i t y YMCA, i l l u s t r a t e d i n the growth o f the F r a s e r v i e w Killarney  'Y', i s the f l e x i b i l i t y  to the community.  of administration  i n adapting  The avoidance o f depending upon the YMCA  b u i l d i n g enables the l i m i t e d - f a c i l i t y YMCA to meet new needs a r i s i n g i n an ever changing environment.  The d e c e n t r a l i z e d  YMCA's a d a p t a b i l i t y t o the l o c a l community i s a l s o  consistent  w i t h the f u n c t i o n o f a p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the h e a l t h and welfare  field.  - 171  2.  The development o f F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA t h r o u g h  s m a l l , purpose c l u b a c t i v i t i e s , i l l u s t r a t e s the YMCA i s a b l e t o s t a r t i n t e n s i v e group work o r q u a l i t a t i v e programme e a r l y i n a new YMCA.  1  The neighbourhood c l u b (N-Y) groups were  v a l u a b l e i n f o c u s i n g p a r e n t i n t e r e s t on s p e c i f i c i n t h e neighbourhood.  activities  From an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w ,  the N-Y programme p r o v e d t o be a s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f a d u l t i n t e r e s t t h a t extended t o t h e b r o a d l e v e l o f B o a r d and committe work l a t e r .  I n t h i s r e g a r d , the YMCA S e c r e t a r y s h o u l d p r o v i d e  e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n o u t l i n i n g t h e programme and r e l a t i n g i t t o t h e t o t a l environment o f t h e community. 3.  The ' M e t r o p o l i t a n ' YMCA s h o u l d s t u d y t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s  o f o u t p o s t development  f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d YMCA b r a n c h e s .  This  study shows t h e r e have b e e n c e r t a i n d e f i c i e n c i e s w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t means o f expanding YMCA s e r v i c e s .  The F r a s e r v i e w -  K i l l a r n e y YMCA grew a s an' e x t e n s i o n o f t h e F a i r m o u n t YMCA. A f t e r s i x y e a r s , i n which the r e s o u r c e s o f the F a i r m o u n t YMCA were g r a d u a l l y i n c r e a s e d t o meet t h e demands o f the F r a s e r v i e w K i l l a r n e y a r e a , t h e r e m a i n i n g F a i r m o u n t YMCA a r e a , i n I960, r e q u i r e s a b a s i c redevelopment.  The Fairmount c o n s t i t u e n c y ,  p r i m a r i l y i n the South Cambie and.Oakridge d i s t r i c t s , has  1. Cue, A.G., D e c e n t r a l i z e d Programme Development i n a Community B r a n c h YMCA. M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I 9 6 0 , Chapter I I I , s e c t i o n B, "Purpose Programmes". There i s a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f YMCA s m a l l group .programme. -  - 172 r e c e i v e d emphasis o f board and s t a f f s i n c e the s e p a r a t i o n o f the Branch areas l a t e i n 1959»  Planned development, s i m i l a r  to the methods u t i l i z e d i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y a r e a , i s now b e i n g -implemented i n t h i s area.  I n comparison, i t i s  i n t e r e s t i n g to observe the one other Vancouver Branch YMCA, Vancouver E a s t , a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r an outpost  development,  the Renfrew Branch, i s a l s o i n need o f r e v i s i o n . , The Vancouver YMCA's c u r r e n t p l a n i s a g r a d u a l amalgamation o f the Renfrew and Vancouver E a s t Branches. The M e t r o p o l i t a n IMCA o f Vancouver s h o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , study  the a l t e r n a t i v e s t o e x t e n s i o n o f t h e 'Y' i n the Greater  Vancouver area.  The l i m i t e d number o f s t a f f members employed  i n Vancouver Branches, as i l l u s t r a t e d by the Fairmount Branch i n t h i s study,  questions  the f e a s a b i l i t y o f the present  policy.  L o c a l Branch r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the growth o f the A s s o c i a t i o n has proven to be f l e x i b l e and r e l a t e d to the s p e c i f i c needs a t the l o c a l a r e a .  However, t h e r e a r e other methods o f e x t e n s i o n  t h a t would r e t a i n l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e .  One a l t e r n a t i v e approach  through the E x t e n s i o n Committee o f the M e t r o p o l i t a n Board o f Governors, would enable experienced  and w e l l informed  laymen to g i v e s u p e r v i s i o n t o l o c a l development.  YMCA  Consultative  s e r v i c e s and t h e e v a l u a t i o n o f new p r o j e c t s through the Metrop o l i t a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i s a l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i v e to the present arrangement.  A t the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l meeting o f t h e YMCA's o f  Canada, a t Hamilton i n i 9 6 0 , the N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l  Extension  Committee suggested M e t r o p o l i t a n YMCA's should take a major  - 173 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r YMCA expansion i n neighbouring communities. Based upon t h i s study, i t i s apparent the Vancouver YMCA's p o l i c y o f emphasis upon d e c e n t r a l i z e d s e r v i c e i s i n keeping with the s h i f t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n to the outer p a r t o f the c i t y . However, t h i s study a l s o shows the Vancouver YMCA's methods o f e x t e n s i o n r e q u i r e study and p o s s i b l e change.  Local. Branches  w i l l not be able to i n v e s t i g a t e the newer areas o f the lower mainland, o r even the unserved a r e a s o f Vancouver.  I f the  Vancouver 'Y' i s i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g YMCA's i n s u r r o u n d i n g communities o f North Vancouver, Richmond, Surrey and Coquitlam, p r i o r i t y w i l l be g i v e n to e x t e n s i o n b e f o r e t h e l e i s u r e time h a b i t s o f o u t l y i n g communities become w e l l established.  Consideration of f i n a n c i a l resources,  efficiency  o f p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n s , and q u a l i t a t i v e programmes, a l l  real  questions t h a t must be answered i n e x t e n s i o n , can be e f f e c t i v e l y a s c e r t a i n e d and t h e i r s o l u t i o n s found, i f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n adopts a l o n g range d e d i c a t i o n to the p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u e d decentralization.  4.  The YMCA has employed p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers  i n t h e development o f most o f i t s community branches i n Vancouver.  Both the more r e c e n t YMCA Branches i n Vancouver,  F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y and Renfrew, were s t a f f e d i n t h e d e v e l o p ment phase by s e c r e t a r i e s t r a i n e d i n the School o f S o c i a l Work a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The g e n e r i c approach  to the f i e l d o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e by the S c h o o l , p r e p a r e s i n d i v i d u a l s to p r a c t i c e i n a broad f i e l d w i t h t r a i n i n g i n admin-  - 174 i s t r a t i o n , work. the  On  supervision, the  other  Vancouver  traditional as:  YMCA  Hi  *Y',  iation.  The  orientation  community  hand,  the  may b e  purpose  club  Phalanx,  a  ' Y ' s '  YMCA  programme,in  the  University  Vancouver Columbia set  up  f a c u l t i e s  of  B r i t i s h  versent  The  should  recreation  source of  YMCA  1.  The  the  Branch  which  provide  ment.  These  Branch Board  2.  boundaries a  nucleus  area of  The  or  Vancouver set  such  Assoc-  up  an  on t r a d i t i o n a l  staff  members.  but  of  As  recognize  the  of  as  of  be  Board  Directors. local  point  for  could  be  related  membership  i s  an  to  main  con-  programme.  should  several  a  f u l l y  administration  of  newly  University  individuals types  the  B r i t i s h  departments,  or  and  B r i t i s h Columbia,  identity  councils  of  programmes,  councils  include  into  number  Fraserview-Killarney  decentralization area  workers  University  graduate  the  group  physical education,  methods  Fraserview-Killarney  time,  the  the  work,  not  of  through  i n  and r e l a t e d  s p e c i f i c YMCA  Development  some  of  and  small  i n  training  toward  workers,  w i l l  the  beginning  social  social  therefore,  Province  look  course,  Columbia  neighbourhoods by  the  professional  with  Future  of  Men  service  of  i n  should,  YMCA p r o g r a m m e s , f o r i n  influx  factor  specific only  organization,  a c t i v i t i e s  and  Vancouver  -  Y.M.CVA. into  local  investigated At  the  present  neighbourhoods regional the  develop-  present  Directors.  family  excellent basis  of  growth  - 175 i n a r e s i d e n t i a l area.  S e r v i c e s o f the Branch to the family-  should be strengthened by: (a)  h i r i n g a g i r l s ' work s e c r e t a r y to p r o v i d e a balance to boys' s e r v i c e s ,  (b)  e s t a b l i s h i n g c l o s e r l i a i s o n w i t h casework agencies to seek o u t c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s ,  (c)  sponsoring a f a m i l y type a c t i v i t y o f campi n g , gym, e t c . , to f a c i l i t a t e an i n t e r e s t in family activities.  3.  I n a l a r g e youth p o p u l a t i o n a r e a there i s need f o r  an adequate l e a d e r s h i p base. ship t r a i n i n g i s important  Lay r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r l e a d e r -  i n promoting and e x p l a i n i n g the  i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s o f a sound l e a d e r s h i p experience.  A board  member, o r e x p e r i e n c e d l e a d e r , should assume a shared r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h the S e c r e t a r y f o r the Branch l e a d e r s h i p programme. 4»-  The neighbourhood club (N-Y) a c t i v i t i e s should be  c o n t i n u e d and o t h e r purpose groups, o r c l u b s i n the advanced ages, i n c l u d i n g H i 'Y', Phalanx and Y's Men, be added as the Branch becomes c o n s o l i d a t e d , through and membership support.  the a d d i t i o n o f s t a f f  I n t e r e s t and mass a c t i v i t y programmes  should be r e g a r d e d as a means o f expanding the purpose group a c t i v i t i e s by d i v i d i n g summer f u n c l u b s and gymnasium groups into smaller u n i t s . 5«  The growing teen-age p o p u l a t i o n i n F r a s e r v i e w and  K i l l a r n e y w i l l p r e s e n t a c h a l l e n g e i n the f u t u r e .  The F r a s e r -  - 176 v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA i n meeting t h i s c h a l l e n g e  should b e g i n t o  prepare ways and means of g i v i n g teen-age programme g r e a t e r priority.  A l e a d e r s h i p workshop f o r v o l u n t e e r s  working w i t h  teen-age groups i s an e f f e c t i v e s t a r t i n g p o i n t . 6. crease  Leadership c l i n i c s and t r a i n i n g workshops, t o i n -  the r a t i o o f members to group l e a d e r s , as w e l l as the  leadership  s k i l l s and understanding o f l e a d e r s , i s an e x c e l l e n t  method o f r a i s i n g the s t a n d a r d s o f 'Y' programmes. members should  Board  endeavour to s ee the job l o a d o f s e c r e t a r i e s i s  not r e s t r i c t i v e upon the time a v a i l a b l e f o r l e a d e r s h i p ing.  train-  As a community-service o r g a n i z a t i o n , the F r a s e r v i e w -  K i l l a r n e y YMCA should be prepared to sponsor, o r make a v a i l a b l e , c e r t a i n l e a d e r s h i p programmes f o r other neighbourhood organizations. 7. , The YMCA membership committee i n ' p e r s o n a l i z i n g ' the YMCA s e r v i c e should  set up an i n t e r v i e w  team t o i n f o r m new  members and parents about the YMCA, the a d d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e , and the f e e s t r u c t u r e o f the Branch.  I n t u r n , YMCA  committee members would be a s s i s t e d t o know more about the i n t e r e s t s and needs o f the community.  I t i s a consistent  w i t h the accepted p a t t e r n i n the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y  step  'Y', o f  p r o v i d i n g a c t i v i t i e s through the p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f r e s i d e n t s o f the  community. 8.  A Board T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u t e i n a new area i s necessary  - 177 the Board members knowledge about the YMCA,  I n t h i s connec-  t i o n , the • M e t r o p o l i t a n ' Board should be considered for  the e d u c a t i o n 9,  o f F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y Board members.  F i n a l l y , t h e F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA  retain flexibility  a resource  should  t o meet new needs as they a r i s e . , T r a -  d i t i o n a l l y the YMCA has pioneered  new a c t i v i t i e s ,  some o f  which were l a t e r taken over by other o r g a n i z a t i o n s .  Partici-  p a t i o n i n community c o u n c i l s , and other means o f c o o p e r a t i v e endeavor, should be r e g a r d e d a s a n e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA s e r v i c e . Conclusion I n 1 9 5 1 , i n the c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s book, The YMCA i n Canada, Murray Ross wrote: "... One o f t h e s t r e n g t h s o f t h e YMCA, has been i t s - a g g r e s s i v e nature...• The YMCA h a s . l o s t many o f the t r a d i t i o n a l o u t l e t s f o r t h i s a g g r e s s i v e spirit. Community Chests r u n a f i n a n c i a l campaign and s u b s i d i z e YMCA s e r v i c e s ; the YMCA i s now l o c a t e d i n a l l major c i t i e s and apparently few others can be occupied; growing r e c r e a t i o n a l and w e l f a r e agencies l i m i t the expansion o f some A s s o c i a t i o n s e r v i c e s ; and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f new.lines o f work i n u n i v e r s i t i e s ^ s c h o o l s , o r even the armed s e r v i c e s appear q u i t e l i m i t e d . I t i s c l e a r , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t i f the A s s o c i a t i o n - i s t o r e t a i n i t s a g g r e s s i v e c h a r a c t e r , i t must d i s c o v e r new and c h a l l e n g i n g tasks". 1  The  1951,  1.  challenge  f o r the YMCA i n t h e f u t u r e growth o f the  Ross, M.G., The YMCA i n Canada. Ryerson P r e s s , p. 4 7 3 . •" "3 — -  Toronto  -178 A s s o c i a t i o n w i l l be the p a s t .  Since  to achieve an i d e n t i t y d i f f e r i n g  the n o t a t i o n above, the IMCA has  from  developed  a p a t t e r n o f d e c e n t r a l i z e d work, l a r g e l y from w i t h i n  the  ranks o f the movement, t h a t i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the needs brought about by a changing s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and t i o n a l aggressive  o u t l o o k o f the IMCA.  r e f l e c t the adaption f a m i l y IMCA's.  o f new  I t now  Community  IMCA i n n o v a t i o n s ,  the  tradi-  conditions  including  remains f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n to a c c e l e r -  ate t h i s change i n order t o i n c r e a s e p u b l i c awareness o f e v o l u t i o n t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n the IMCA.  F a i l u r e to do  w i l l l i m i t the r o l e o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i n the  future.  the  so,  - 179 -  APPENDICES  - 180  -  APPENDIX A Survey Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ^ D e c e m b e r  1954)  - 181 APPENDIX A . RECREATION ACTIVITIES AND INTERESTS, SIR JAMES DOUGLAS SCHOOL - GRADE V, V I BOYS. NAME  .. . . . .. . AGE ...... . . .GRADE  . . . . . . .  ADDRESS 1.  ARE YOU A MEMBER OF ANY CLUBS?  YES . . . NO . . . . . .  I F YES, PLEASE CHECK (/) BELOW j Name o f C l u b , A c t i v i t y e t o .  Meeting  Cubs Scouts  Place ..  • . • . . . . ... •  •  Churches ( P l e a s e g i v e name)  L i t t l e League B a s e b a l l . • •  • .  L i t t l e League Soccer  « •  • ... • •  Y.M.C.A. . . . . . . . . . .  . .  J u n i o r F o r e s t Wardens . . . .  • .  O t h e r s ( P l e a s e g i v e the e x a c t names)  2.  WOULD YOU BE INTERESTED I N TAKING PART I N HOBBY '• BROGRAMS SPONSORED BY THE Y.M.C.A.? YES.... NO....: I F YES? NUMBER FIVE HOBBIES YOU LIKE BEST I N THE ORDER OF YOUPv FAVOURITE: Collections Carving & Modelling A r t Musio .& Drama; Stamp .... Matchbox.. • Insect....; S h e l l ..... Others.... ........... ...........  Airplanes C l a y ...... PlasterParis..... Woodwork......... Soap C a r v i n g . . . , . Others • .,  Finger " Singing.... P a i n t i n g . . . Dancing..;.. Drawing..,. P l a y s . . . . . . . Mapping.... P l a y i n g an " Puppets.... Instrument.., P a p e r Maohe O t h e r s Other.,...., ...  - 182 « • WOULD YOU BE INTERESTED I N TAKING PART I N SPORTS PROGRAMS SPONSORED BY THE Y.M.C.A.? YES ...NO TEAM SPORTS  INDIVIDUAL SPORTS  Soccer  Hockey ......Swimming  . B o x i n g . . . . .Other....  Rugby  Lacrosse... ..Skiing ,  Wrestling............  Football....Others......Fishing  Bowling  .  Baseball  Biking.  .Iceskating...........  Softball  Hiking  Basketball  P i n g Pong.... E x p l o r i n g  Rollerskating  H a n d b a l l .............. Badminton,.., G o l f Volleyball  WLT  Track *  Horseback R i d i n g . . • • •  TIMES BELOW WOULD YOU BE ABLE TO ATTEND?MARK BY CHECK(t/j  WEEKDAYS  A f t e r n o o n ( 3 - 5 P.M.) E v e n i n g  Monday  . . . . . . . . .  Tuesday  (6 ~ 8 P.M) . . . . . . .  ,.  • •. •  Wednesday .  •  Thursday . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .  F r i d a y ,. WTraKflND  Morning  ( 9-12 )  A f t e r n o o n (1 - 3 )  Saturday DO YOU HAVE L FAMILY MEMBERSHIP IN.vTHE FRASERVIEW COMMUNITY ASSOCIATION? YES NO  SOME RESULTS OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE GIVEN TO GRADE VI ..STUDENTS BOYS AND GIRLS,AT SIR JAMES DOUGLAS SCHOOL DE6 2,1954 General I n f o r m a t i o n : The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c i r c u l a t e d f o r two main p u r p o s e s , a) , t o determine t h e e x t e n t o f r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y f o r p r e a d o l e s c e n t c h i l d r e n i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w d i s t r i c t and, b) t o f i n d o u t where t h e hoys and g i r l s were g o i n g f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l activity;.; -: : ,' The .results.'of t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e might a l s o be u s e f u l . , i n p l a n n i n g ' o r s e t t i n g up a c r a f t program o r an i n t e r - h o u s e type o f s p o r t s l e a g u e . c., .' ' • ;  r  ;  The-.questionnaire r e v e a l e d t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 50$ o f t h e boys - and g i r l s * were n o t p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n o r g a n i z e d group p r o grams. The ques.tionnaire was f i l l e d out. by 94 boys and g i r l s . {.49 g i r l s and .55: b o y s ) ; V/v' G i r l s Club A c t i v i t i e s ' • S l i g h t l y more t h a n 50$ o f t h e g i r l s s a i d t h e y were n o t members o f any c l u b s . , - G i r l Guides' and v a r i o u s c h u r c h groups .were t h e two main o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f f e r i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l programs :  to the g i r l s .  <•'•]•. ^ - ' ^ . V - - - .. •-.'•^.i.x.C ' :.<.,i'/~ L: :'.". ..'  •  }  :  Hobby I n t e r e s t s :';. ,.: ' ' -"-^:c:.. ' '•'•:,'..';;.:; The m a j o r i t y o f g i r l ' s ' s t a t e d they u o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n a hobby type o f program. Drama, D a n e i n g , S i n g i n g , Drawing, Puppi, „ C l a y M o d e l l i n g , and Soap C a r v i n g . .:  ;  r  :  ;  :  Sports Interests N e a r l y ovory g i r l i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n somo type o f a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t y . Horseback . r i d i n g , s w i m m i n g , i c e s k a t i n g , v o l l e y b a l l , s k i i n g , 'bowling, and r o l l e r s k a t i n g were l i s t e d as t h o most p o p u l a r s p o r t s . Boys Club . l o t i y i t y A p p r o x i m a t e l y o n o - t h i r d o f t h e boys d i d n o t b e l o n g t o •• any sponsored group a c t i v i t y . Other boys were p a r t i c i p a n t s i n only-.seasonal a ' o t i v i t i e s such a s b a s e b a l l o r s o c c e r . Cubs and S c o u t s , Church c l u b s and ic agues f o r b a s e b a l l and soccer-wore t h e main r e c r e a t i o n a l : g r o u p s . Hobby I n t e r e s t s ' 'A p p r o x i m a t e l y 60$ o f t h e boys l i s t e d a n i n t e r e s t i n hobby a o t i v i t y , Model B u i l d i n g , Woodwork, stamp c o l l e c t i n g . C l a y M o d e l l i n g , Drawing, P l a y i n g a m u s i c a l instnument and ' puppetry b e i n g t h e most p o p u l a r , : '-y • Sports Interests .'^ ---^V Horseback r i d i n g , swimming,, s k i i i n g , ' f i s h i n g , hockey, s o c o e r , r u g b y , and b a s e b a l l .were l i s t e d most f r e q u e n t l y a s main a t h l e t i c i n t e r e s t . E v e r y boy l i s t e d a l i k i n g f o r one a o t i v i t y i n t h i s category. 1  :  :  1  - 184 -  APPENDIX B B r i e f on Area Development/ Fairmount YMGA (May  1956)  APPENDIX  B.  R e g a r d i n g t h e Development o f t h e F a i r m o u n t Branch  Y.M.D.A.  Introduction O v e r t h e p a s t two y e a r s t h e F a i r m o u n t B r a n c h , YMCA has c o n t i n u e d t o f u n c t i o n a s a n o n - f a c i l i t y o r d e c e n t r a l i s e d YMCA. D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , s e r v i c e h a s b e e n - m a i n t a i n e d i n t h e o r i g i n a l F a i r m o u n t Y.M.C .A . a r e a s , n o t a b l y M a i n a n d Cambie S t r e e t * A t t h e same t i m e e x t e n s i o n s e r v i c e s h a v e b e e n d e v e l o p e d i n Fraserview, South M a i n , S o u t h C a m b i e , 2 5 t h a n d Oak a n d S h a u g h n e s s y t h r o u g h St„ J o h n ' s A n g l i c a n C h u r c h . W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g t h e s e t r e n d s , i t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o Siote many c o m m u n i t i e s w i t h i n t h e g e o g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e F a i r m o u n t Y.M.C.A. (Boundary Road-East, G r a n v i l l e S t r e e t - W e s t , F a l s e Creek and Kingsway-North and t h e Fraser River-South) remain uninvestigated, a s t o t h e i r i n t e r e s t i n Y.M.C.A., p r o g r a m s . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s ' p a ' i e r i s t o s e t down p r e s e n t t r e n d s a n d s t r u c t u r e o f t h e F a i r m o u n t Y.M.C.A.With e x t e n s i o n a n e n l a r g e d m e m b e r s h i p , f r o m 1 2 5 t o t a l members i n 1 9 5 4 t o 250 p a i d members a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 5 0 u n p a i d members i n 1 9 5 5 , h a s p r e s ented' c e r t a i n d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t p e r t a i n t o b o t h program and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A s one example the s p r e a d i n g o u t of program groups h a s n o t f o s t e r e d t h e development o f a c e n t r a l i z e d boys' work committee a s i s s t a n d a r d p r a c t i c e i n a b u i l d i n g c e n t e r e d Y.M.C.A. I t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t n e e d o f t h e ' Fairmount Branch a t t h e p r e s e n t time i s l a y i n g o u t a p l a n f o r c o n s o l i d a t i n g p r e s e n t groups and p r o v i d i n g a p l a n f o r f u t u r e extension* Proposed P l a n o f Organization The f o l l o w i n g g r o u p s t o b e a c t i v e i n p l a n n i n g p r o g r a m e n d i n f l u e n c i n g p o l i c y o f t h e F a i r m o u n t Y.M.C.A... L. A r e a C o u n c i l s o r P l a n n i n g Committees. 2 P a r e n t S p o n s o r i n g Committee 3. Gym C e n t e r e d Committees,. . 4 Hobby a n d C r a f t S p e c i a l Committees. 5.. A d u l t a n d Teen-Age L e a d e r s h i p C o r p s . . The- A r e a C o u n c i l 0  C  :  The A r e a C o u n c i l w i t h i n t h e Y.M.C.A. i s n o t new a n d has been s u c c e s s f u l l y implemented i n o t h e r C a n a d i a n and Amerban c i t i e s . I n Canada, M o n t r e a l h a s c a r r i e d o u t an e x p e r i m e n t where the. A r e a . C o u n c i l p l a n i n c r e a s e d ^ ' t h e v o l u m e o f g r o u p s a n d " a l s o the. 4 ^ b # ' ^ 0 3 | - s p o n s . o r i n g . . a d u l t a n d l e a d e r s h i p c o m m i t t e e s * The Area, C o u n c i l ; : i s :.a. m e t h o d . o f - d i v i d i n g Y. M. C . A . s e r v i c e s o n a r e g i o n a l b a s i s usually.'comprising n a t u r a l communities. Fairmount ;'^M|0-.A...services • -in;'the'. F r a s e r v i e w c o m m u n i t y h a s c o n t a i n e d ' .elements o f t h e A r e a C o u n c i l i d e a . V" '" ;The A r e a C o u n c i l i s c o m p o s e d o f . c i t i z e n s r e s i d i n g i r , the community'-who a r e k e e n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e w o r k o f t h e YMCA* I t i s a l s o r e p r e s e n t e d b y members o f t h e p a r e n t s p o n s o r i n g commi t t e e s , s p e c i a l club groups, s p e c i a l program committees, and l e a d e r s h i p g r o u p s t h a t may e x i s t i n t h e c o m m u n i t y . I t i s a means o f p l a n n i n g a n d c o o r d i n a t i n g t h e o v e r a l l YMCA a c t i v i t y i n a g i v e n community a l o n g w i t h t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f . These c o m m i t t e e s v a r y a s t o t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s - some may meet f o u r tiroes a y e a r , o t h e r s t h r o u g h <  ;  :  ;  -  s  the volume o f s e r v i c e may congregate once a month. The importance o f the A r e a C o u n c i l i s t h a t i t h e l p s t o c o - o r d i n a t e program i n a' g i v e n community w h i l e a t t h e same time e n c o u r a g i n g c i t i z e n s t o come f o r t h and he a p a r t o f the Y.M.C.A. movement. I n some i n s t a n c e s A r e a C o u n c i l s have t a k e n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e f i n a n c i a l campaigns o f t h e B r a n c h . Under the A r e a C o u n c i l a r e t h e f o l l o w i n g : groups: P a r e n t S p o n s o r i n g Committees The P a r e n t S p o n s o r i n g Committee i s an i d e a t h a t i s n o t new t o t h i s Branch f o r i t h a s been w i d e l y p r a c t i c e d w i t h o u r p r e s e n t groups; however t h i s r e p o r t would suggest t h a t i n a r e a s where t h e n a t u r a l f a m i l y i s i n t a c t , N-Y C l u b s not be i n i t i a t e d u n l e s s a p a r e n t s p o n s o r i n g committee i s o r g a n i z e d p r i o r t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e group. The p a r e n t sponsoring, committees a r e t h e c o n t a c t t h a t a Y.M.C.A. may encourage f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n on p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y making. . Gym C e n t e r e d Committees A t t h e p r e s e n t , t h e Fairmount Y.M.C.A. h a s h a d t h r e e programs e x i s t i n g i n t h e sohool f a c i l i t i e s . . I t i s f u r t h e r p r o p o s e d t h a t an o r g a n i z a t i o n a l step be t a k e n t o develop gym c e n t e r e d committees c o m p r i s i n g p a r e n t s whose y o u n g s t e r s a r e members o f t h e program. T h i s , as w i t h t h e p a r e n t s p o n s o r i n g committee, i s a means o f g a i n i n g f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e i n p l a n n i n g program and i n v o l v i n g more people i n our b r a n c h s e r v i c e . Leadership  T r a i n i n g and Ongoing Group S u p e r v i s i o n R e c o g n i z i n g t h e need f o r l e a d e r s h i p i n r e c r e a t i o n , an emphasis o f o u r f u r t h e r development s h o u l d be i n t h e a r e a o f t r a i n i n g l e a d e r s h i p . A t t i m e s t h i s may n e c e s s i t a t e a commu n i t y s e r v i c e t o p o t e n t i a l l e a d e r s o f other o r g a n i z a t i o n s a s w e l l a s those o f t h e Y.M.C.A. I t i s a l s o proposed t h a t under u n i t C o u n c i l s e v e r y e f f o r t i s t a k e n t o develop a d u l t and t e e n age l e a d e r s h i p c o r p s . L e a d e r s h i p groups c o u l d meet r e g u l a r l y w i t h the S e c r e t a r y as a means o f s u p e r v i s i o n and a l s o a s a means o f ongoing t r a i n i n g . I n summary, l e a d e r s h i p may be seen as t h e k e y t o our o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r a l p a t t e r n . Facilities  As h a s been done i n p r a c t i c e , t h e f a c i l i t i e s u s e d by. the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. would c o n t i n u e t o be s c h o o l s , homes, c h u r c h e s and o t h e r s m a l l spaces a v a i l a b l e i n t h e community. I n t h i s type o f o p e r a t i o n i t w i l l be seen t h a t o u r c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g l o c a t i o n would be l a r g e l y f o r s o c i a l r e c r e a t i o n , l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , b o a r d and committee meetings and o t h e r s p e c i a l pro** grams. T h i s i s i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the u n i t c o u n c i l i d e a a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a l a r g e b u i l d i n g c o m p r i s i n g a gymnasium and swimming p o o l . I t would appear i n t h i s a r e a t h a t i n view o f t h e development o f p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n i n Vancouver and the recommenda t i o n s t h a t have been made r e g a r d i n g t h e r o l e o f p r i v a t e agenc i e s , t h i s t y p e o f f a c i l i t y would be i n ' k e e p i n g w i t h t h e p r e s e n t trends o f r e c r e a t i o n today.  - 187 s  R e l a t i o n t o Board o f D i r g c t o r s The o v e r a l l v a l u e o f s e t t i n g up a branch p l a n such as t h a t d e s c r i b e d above would be seen t h r o u g h t h e a t t r a c t i o n o f new p e r s o n s on the l e v e l o f p a r e n t s p o n s o r i n g committee t o u n i t o o u n c i l s t o B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . G r a d u a l l y i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t p e r s o n s would be a b l e t o serve, w i t h t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s i n the a r e a o f s t a n d i n g committees such a s s u s t a i n i n g membership, W o r l d S e r v i c e , E x e c u t i v e and F i n a n c e , and p o s s i b l y g e n e r a l program. Summary^ A t t h e p r e s e n t time t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l communities r e c e i v i n g Y.M,C.A. s e r v i c e where t h i s p l a n c o u l d be e f f e c t e d . These i n c l u d e on the w e s t e r n s i d e Oak S t r e e t and the c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n o f Cambie on t h e s i t e o f t h e Faimaount o f f i c e , t o t h e e a s t the M a i n S t r e e t a r e a , the South Main S t r e e t a r e a around 63rd Avenue and F r a s e r v i e w and s u r r o u n d i n g communities. I t would seem these communities, o r a r e a s , would be a s t a r t i n g p o i n t o f f u r t h e r d e v e l o p i n g u n i t c o u n c i l s . Other communities i n t h e near o r d i s t a n t f u t u r e t h a t might be i n v e s t i g a t e d f o r u n i t c o u n c i l Y.M.CA.'s a r e F r a s e r S t r e e t , O o l l i n g w o o d - K i l l a r n e y , South .0ambie-41st Avenue and r e - o r g a n i z i n g i n t h e F a l s e Creek a r e a . This report r e s p e c t f u l l y submitted. F a i r m o u n t Y.M.C.A. S t a f f , May, 1956.  - 1$$  -  APPENDIX C B r i e f on Board and Committee  Development,  Fairmount YMCA. (January 1957).  APPENDIX  0.  SUGGESTED PLAN OF DEVELOPMENT I N THE FAIRMOUNT BRANCH, Y.M.C.A.1 9 5 7. M a t e r i a l c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s paper i s a f o l l o w - u p o f t h e b r i e f "development o f the "Fairmount Branch, Y . M . C . A . " p r e s e n t e d to t h e , B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s i n t h e S p r i n g o f 1956. T h i s paper w:\lX d e a l p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e p l a n n i n g and t r e n d s i n r e g a r d t o the Fairmount B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s , i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n and development f o r 1957. There a r e c e r t a i n assumptions on whifeh t h i s repoirt i s b a s e d . These may be o u t l i n e d as f o l l o w s : (a) Trends i n program s e r v i c e s d u r i n g t h e p a s t two y e a r s have e s t a b l i s h e d the need f o r t h e k i n d o f program groups and community s e r v i c e as' c a r r i e d on by t h i s community branch Y.M.C.A, _  (b ) The growth o f t h i s program, both i n terms o f q u a l i t y and volume, now r e q u i r e s g r e a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e support and t h e i n v o l v i n g o f more p a r e n t s o f members and. o t h e r laymen i n ouiv a s t g e o g r a p h i c community who a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e work o f the  Y.M.C.A.  .  (c) The development o f ' Y program i n u n i n v e s t i g a t e d a r e a s w i l l be most s u c c e s s f u l when t h e r e i s a j o i n t e f f o r t and i n v o l v i n g o f laymen through B o a r d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and the profess," ional staff.' '(d) T h i s community branch, Y . M i " C . A must- take i n t o account the community t r e n d s i n r e g a r d t o l e i s u r e t i n s s e r v i c e s ; i e . the r o l e o f s c h o o l s , c h u r c h e s , community c e n t r e r s and o t h e r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . However, c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h these groups s h o u l d n o t mean a w a t e r i n g down o f t h e Y . M . C . A . appr o a c h t o the- community o r d i m i n i s h i n g o f a v i g o r o u s and aggressive outlook: (e) I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l development o f . the B r a n c h , i s suggested t h a t p r i o r i t i e s be s e t up i n r e g a r d t o a r e a s c-i work c o n t a i n e d , w i t h i n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the B o a r d oD i r e c t o r s . I t i s f u r t h e r suggested t h a t the emphasis o f 1-1;; Fairmount Branch d u r i n g t h e y e a r 1957 w i l l b e toward b u i l d i r . a g r e a t e r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h i s community branch t h r o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c h a n n e l s and t h a t e f f o r t s w i l l b e made t o a t l e a s t m a i n t a i n t h e volume and q u a l i t y o f program a s w e l l a s the e x t e n t o f l e a d e r s h i p a t I t s p r e s e n t s t a t u s . T  ,:  O u t l i n e o f P o t e n t i a l Board A r e a s o f S e r v i c e (Not n e c e s s a r i l y l i s t e d by p r i o r i t y . ) As i s g e n e r a l p r a c t i c e , t h e p o s i t i o n s o f P r e s i d e n t , V i c e P r e s i d e n t and T r e a s u r e r would be c o n t i n u e d and t h e r e i s no f u r t h e r need f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e .  M e t r o p o l i t a n Re p r e s o n t a t i o n - The community b r a n c h e s such a s Fairmount a r e p r e s e n t l y a l l o w e d two r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Board o f Governors. This i n c l u d e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at m o n t h l y l u n c h e o n m e e t i n g s as w e l l a s on t h e E x e c u t i v e and F i n a n c e Committee, and P e r s o n n e l Committee• i s a d i v i s i o n o f d u t i e s w i l l be la-.-gely up t o t h e Board members e l e c t e d t o t h e s e p o s i t i o n s , perhaps o r g a n i z a t i o n here w i l l depend upon t h e s i t u a t i o n each year,. F r a s e r v i e w E x t e n s i o n Committee - The i n i t i a l development o f t h e Y.M.C.A. program i n F r a s e r v i e w was f o s t e r e d by t h e i n v o l v e m e n t o f laymen on a P l a n n i n g Committee. Sin©e t h a t t i n e e f f o r t s have been u n d e r t a k e n t o m a i n t a i n t h i s committee 'with o n l y f a i r s u c c e s s , i s r e l a t e d to p o i n t ( c ) i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , t h i s i l l u s t r a t e s t h e need f o r a j o i n t Board-Professional'involvement at least u n t i l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n - o f Y.M.C.A. s e r v i c e s i n a n a r e a has been w e l l developed--by/parents and o t h e r . I n t e r e s t e d . p e o p l e . i n t h e community. As F r a s e r v i e w i s o u r l a r g e s t a r e a o f -service, i n terms o f program volume,, t h i s committee s h o u l d be h i g h on t h e p r i o r i t y , l i s t . ' The d u t i e s of'.aoBcard member:.would i n c l u d e c h a i r i n g f o u r meeting.s o f our P l a n n i n g Committee d u r i n g t h e y e a r , m a i n t a i n i n g some c o n t a c t with- t h e S e c r e t a r y o r o t h e r p e r s o n n e l r e g a r d i n g program, and o t h e r m a t t e r s p e r t a i n i n g t o the community, and r e p o r t i n g t o t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s each month on t h i s a r e a o f s e r v i c e .  L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g - The need f o r a p e r s o n r e l a t e d t o l e a d e r s h i p i s perhpas b e s t i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e g e n e r a l la ck o f an adequatel e a d e r s h i p r e c r u i t m e n t , s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g a t t h i s community b r a n c h * F o l l o w i n g a r e some o f t h e d u t i e s 'that a p e r s o n r e l a t e d t o l e a d e r s h i p might, assume: _ •/'•.':>-<(a') ..Seek ing:".b.ut .leaderss '^'-rj^.i^y - : .•• /.-.• .' (b) - A ' s s i s t i n g -ih- t h e ! t r a i n i n g ; ; o f leaders'-.recruited.' U u t r s v('c'') i R e c o g ^ l t i o n - o f ' l e a d e r s > who-') have a c h i e v e d - the-'vset standardA g a i n t h i s • area= o f r e s p o n s i b i l l t y p r o v i d e s a n o p p o r t u n i t y d f " j o i n t Inv-olvementxih -'which-'laym&hiWho - has- had a'-.,good-volunteer- e x p e r i e n c e Cb'uld-'.do" >much*in'.'selling- the w o r t h i n e s s ' a f t h i s - f a c e t o f :  :  ;  :  ;  ;  1  bbmmunityr;s erviGe:'..Hi h';;.. r... v ; i ) l ,  1  ^.)po;,,-l v.y.r-\, ••;.}.o  \>  ."-<.'•  Membership .- The -.basic purpose ofr.the - membership., s e c t i o n .would, be to forr.ula.te 'a..'nenber.shi'pYpbliay cover l;h£.Val ! a g e s a n d sexes, a l s o s u s t a i n i n g , f-r.nily,,. etc.. ' 'It., is" important.: to', p o i n t o u t here t h a t p u r ..'member s^^^^ a wide range, b o t h i n terms of-Vage.^*and i n t e r n s - o f the.:.servXce.'to.,wpnenVah;d g i r l s . Other d u t i e r ihyplye.d would,.inplud^.-mr.ki.ngvtoown''' the.;pro'gram and- f a c i l i t i e s o f theYcomnuhity-: Y.M^CA a membership", f o r m f o r o f f i c e p u r p o s e s , and the. r e l a t i o n s h i p , t o t h e g e n e r a l Y . M . C . A . M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver s e r v i c e s . . a n d t h e Y.M.C.A. novbment t o t a l l y . . s  ;  Ganp C o n r i i t t e e (Howdy) - T h i s Branch i s g r a n t e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o t h e 'Camp Howdy -Comhi11ee. The d u t i e s i n v o l v e d here a r e n o t g r e a t - p e r h a p s two o r t h r e e .meetings- oohderning'-'Camp m a t t e r s and r e p r e s e n t i n g p a r t i c u l a r Camp i n t e r e s t s o f t h e Fairmount• Branch Y i M . C . 1 . An example '- t h e u s e o f - t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a s c i r c u l a t e d a t t h e ehd o f t h e 195'6 Camp s e s s i o n a t Howdy, 1  - 191  M e t r o p o l i t a n Program Committee R e p r e s e n t a t i o n - W i t h t h e r e c e n t establishment o f a Metropolitan Program Committee, t h i s B r a n c h w i l l be c a l l e d upon t o g i v e i t s v i e w s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l Vancouver Y.M.C.A. program p o l i c y , i s t h i s i s an ongoing; committee,, one p e r s o n r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e B r a n c h a t t h e s e m e e t i n g s would p r o v i d e c o n t i n u i t y . An example o f t h e work here i n c l u d e s assessment and e v a l u a t i o n o f p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l a t the N a t i o n a l o r L o c a l l e v e l and i t s r e l a t i o n t o t h e Fairmount Y.M.C.A. program s e r v i c e . P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s - The purpose o f t h e P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s Committee w i l l be t o p l a n , c o r r e l a t e and e v a l u a t e a public: r e l a t i o n s p r o gram, f o r the B r a n c h . Methods o f o p e r a t i o n might i n c l u d e a r e v i e w o f t h e p r e s e n t p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , s e e k i n g o u t ue t h o d s o f i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e work, e n s u r i n g t h e f u l l use o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n newsp a p e r s and p e r i o d i c a l s , e x p l o r i n g s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s fear p u b l i c a t i o n and s e e i n g t h a t a p r o p e r Y.M.C.A. i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n th© community i s established. W o r l d S e r v i c e -The importance o f W o r l d S e r v i c e t o d a y need n o t be p o i n t e d o u t . P e r h a p s o u r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the area o f W o r l d Service would be t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f d e v e l o p i n g a W o r l d S e r v i c e program t h r o u g h o u t o u r g e n e r a l membership, h e l p i n g d e v e l o p membership awareness-of t h e w o r l d community. D u t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e W o r l d S e r v i c e w o u l d be s e e k i n g o u t program t o o l s f o r d e v e l o p i n g W o r l d S e r v i c e and p e r h a p s b e i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i v e on the W o r l d S e r v i c e Committee o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n p l a n . B u i l d i n g Committee - The purpose o f t h e B u i l d i n g Committee would be t o p l a n a n d i n i t i a t e a c t i o n t o s e c u r e b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s , b o t h owned and r e n t e d by t h e B r a n c h . P e r h a p s t h i s i s a most import a n t a r e a i n view o f o u r campaign p l a n s f o r 1957, t h a t we a d e q u a t e ! t e l y seek o u t a n d a s c e r t a i n a sound l o c a t i o n fo>r t h e Y.M.C .A .headq u a r t e r s f o r t h e n e x t decade. Program Committee — There w i l l be t h e need f o r v a r i o u s Program Committees o r a G e n e r a l Program Committee a t some time i n the ' f u t u r e . These program s e c t i o n s might i n c l u d e a committee on b o y s w o r k , g i r l s ' a n d women's work, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , young a d u l t , an! a committee on s p e c i a l i z e d y o u t h s e r v i c e s , e.g. s e r v i c e s t o custum c a r c l u b s o r o t h e r groups n o t coming w i t h i n the u s u a l Y.M.C.A. program. A s an i l l u s t r a t i o n o f what one Program Committee's j o b might be, l e t u s l i s t t h e Boys' Work Committee., The purpose o f t h e Boys' Work Committee h a s been d e s c r i b e d : - To a s o e r t a i n t h e needs o f t h e boys i n the community up t o , and i n c l u d i n g , h i g h s c h o o l age, and t o f o r m u l a t e p o l i c y and a c t i v a t e programs t o meet t h e s e needs w i t h i n a v a i l a b l e r e s o u r c e s . Some o f t h e methods o f o p e r a t i o n would c o n c e r n l o c a t i o n o f groups o f b o y s , t h e a d a p t i o n o f Y.M.C.A. program t o boy needs, a n d a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h o t h e r committees and p e r s o n n e l r e l a t e d t o boys' work, i . e . l e a d e r s h i p committee and s t u d y i n g ma t e r i a l p u b l i s h e d a t t h e N a t i o n a l or L o c a l I s v c l on Boys' Work s t a n d a r d s . I t may be: seen t h a t t h e Boys' Work and o t h e r s p e c i a l i z e d program a r e a s w o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d on a program c o o r d i n a t i n g camiittee. Summary - The above m a t e r i a l may appear a s a monumental t a s k i n v i e w o f t h e s i z e o f o u r p r e s e n t B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s . There i s c e r t a i n l y no e f f o r t t o make t h i s appear so', e x c e p t t o p o i n t o u t the p o t e n t i a l a r e a s we may some day a c h i e v e i n o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p l a n . There may be o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f i n v o l v i n g o t h e r p e r s o n s i f i t i s c l e a r l y p o i n t e d out where the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. needs l i e . i n o r d e r t o g a i n t h e i r t i m e and e f f o r t . 1  - 192  APPENDIX D fxBir-ief on B u i l d i n g Development, Fairmount YMGA. (November  1957)  s  193  APPENDIX  s D.  R e g a r d i n g Now F a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e F a i r m o u n t Branch, Y.M.C.A. I.  Purpose  The purpose o f t h i s paper i s t o p r e s e n t c e r t a i n i d e a s r e g a r d i n g s t e p s t h a t might ho t a k e n i n the"development o f t h e Fairmount B r a n c h Y.M.C.A. W i t h t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the C a p i t a l Fund D r i v e n e a r , c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n need now he g i v e n t o t h e type o f f a c i l i t y which w i l l b e s t i n s u r e f u t u r e Y.M.C .A . s e r v i c e s throughout the Fairmount Branch c o n s t i t u e n c y . A r e v i e w o f t h e Branch's c u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g s t r u c t u r e , program, member- . s h i p , r e l a t i o n t o t h e community, e t c . , w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d as t h e y are r e l a t e d t o f a c i l i t y development. II.  Fairmount Y.M.C.A.Today  The Fairmount Y.M.C.A., o r g a n i z e d i n 1947, was d e s i g n e d to b r i n g Y.M.C.A. programs i n t o the r e s d i e n t i a l community. As a c t i v i t i e s a r e conducted i n v a r i e d f a c i l i t i e s such as p r i v a t e homes, s c h o o l s , churches, e t c . , t h e Branch i s b e s t d e s c r i b e d a s a n o n - f a c i l i t y Y.M.C.A. T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t v e r y l i t t l e o f t h e t o t t l program i s c a r r i e d on and dependent upon the Y.M.C.A. b u i l d i n g i t s e l f even though e x t e n s i v e program r e s o u r c e s and equipment may be i n c l u d e d i n the o p e r a t i o n . S i n c e t h e t r a n s f e r o f t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s t o Cambie S t r e e t i n 1954 t h e volume o f a c t i v i t i e s a t Fairmount have expanded t o n e a r l y t h r e e t i m e s t h e 1954 t o t a l . The i n i t i a t i o n o f programs i n F r a s e r v i e w h a s seen a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n Y.M.C.A.membership u n t i l t h e r e a r e now over t h r e e hundred members on Y.M.C .A .group • r o s t e r s h e e t s r e p r e s e n t i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y 250 f a m i l i e s . South Cambie program,although n o t a s l a r g e as F r a s e r v i e w , h a s e v e r y p o t e n t i a l o f i n c r e a s i n g when more emphasis i s p l a c e d on t h i s a r ^ T h i s o p i n i o n i s b a s e d on a l a c k o f r e c r e a t i o n a l s e r v i c e p r e s e n t l ; p r o v i d e d i n t h i s d i s t r i c t . During t h e l a s t two y e a r s the response to Y.M.C.A. a c t i v i t i e s by y o u n g s t e r s , and the. i n t e r e s t shown by p a r e n t s , i n South Cambie h a s been keen and e n t h u s i a s t i c . The m a j o r r e a s o n Y.M-C.A. membership i s not g r e a t e r i n South Cambie i s due t o t h e s t a f f ' s i n a b i l i t y t o spend the time n e c e s s a r y f o r the development of community c o n t a c t s e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e growth o f program s e r v i c e s . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o emphasize a l s o t h a t Y..M, C.A. membership h a s grown i n F r a s e r v i e w d e s p i t e t h e absence o f Y..M.C.A. f a c i l i t i e s i n any form i n t h a t immediate a r e a . A s t o r e f r o n t o r s m a l l o f f i c e space would have g r e a t l y a s s i s t e d more i d e n t i t y w i t h t h e Y.M.C.A.on t h e p a r t o f F r a s e r v i e w r e s i d e n t s . I n s h o r t , t h e Fairmount Y.M.C.A.,established i n the Mount P l e a s a n t a r e a o r i g i n a l l y , h a s developed an e x t e n s i o n p r o gram i n t h e F r a s e r v i e w d i s t r i c t ' w h i c h has outgrown t h e o l d e r d i s t r i c t i n Y.M.C.A. membership,, As t h e geographic d i s t a n c e c l e a r l y p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e l a t i o n between the two communitiesj c u r r e n t Branch p l a n n i n g ' i s b a s e d on t h e e v e n t u a l s e p a r a t i o n o f F r a s e r v i e w from the Fairmount B r a n c h a l t o g e t h e r . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the F r a s e r v i e w P l a n n i n g Committee and s p e c i a l program committees i n support o f a c t i v i t y groups i s t h e main method now i n e f f e c t t o b r i n g about t h i s s e p a r a t i o n . ;  However, i t i s q u e s t i o n a b l e t h a t t h e Y.M.C.A. oan a f f o r d t o w a i t much l o n g e r i n m a i n t a i n i n g t h i s p r e s e n t a p p r o a c h . The s o u t h e a s t s e c t i o n o f Vancouver i s very/ new and a l t h o u g h t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l p a t t e r n - i s n o t w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , i t w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o p e n e t r a t e t h i s a r e a a s t i m e passes o n . I n t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , i t i s n o t a case o f e i t h e r p l a c i n g a b u i l d i n g i n one a r e a and not t h e o t h e r , b u t r a t h e r l a y i n g down a p l a n t h a t encompasses b o t h d i s t r i c t s . III.  P r o p o s e d P l a n o f Development  There a r e now two main a l t e r n a t i v e s i n the p r o v i s i o n of new f a c i l i t i e s i n t h e Fairmount B r a n c h : t h e s e a r e - ( 1 ) a c e n t r a l u n i t d e s i g n e d t o serve t h e t o t a l a r e a , a n d ' ( 2 ) two s m a l l er u n i t s encompassing p r o p e r t y f o r Hater e x p a n s i o n . TISB former p l a n i s i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e type o f f a c i l i t y d e s c r i b e d i n t h e campaign l i t e r a t u r e t h i s s p r i n g . The second s u g g e s t i o n 7i/ould mean the development o f two community branches f r o m p r i v a t e house type o f u n i t s , w i t h a v i e w t o e x p a n s i o n t o a more e l a b o r a t e f a c i l i t y a t a l a t e r date. V a r i a t i o n s o f these plans could a l s o be proposed, b u t i n essence t h e y would c o n t a i n elements o f e i t h e r a c e n t r a l o p e r a t i o n now o r a p l a n f o r l a t e r s e p a r a t i o n i n t o two units. - The second s u g g e s t i o n i s f a v o u r e d by t h i s w r i t e r because o f t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s : 1. The Fairmount Y.M.C.A. i s n o t a s y e t f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e community. The p r e s e n t o p e r a t i o n h a s a h i s t o r y o f o n l y t h r o e y e a r s , d a t i n g t o t h e t r a n s f e r t o Cambie S t r e e t . 2. The demand f o r a Y.M.C.A. must be engendered w i t h i n l o c a l a r e a s such a s South Cambie and F r a s e r v i e w before' p l a n n i n g ' t h a t suggests a degree o f permanency (a s i n g l e b u i l d i n g u n i t ) be d e c i d e d upon. I t i s a w e l l known f a c t t h a t s h i f t s i n community c o n d i t i o n s may r e n d e r a r e c r e a t i o n a l b u i l d i n g i n t o a 'hollow s h e l l ' w i t h l i t t l e a c t i v i t y i f the l o n g range s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t c a r e f u l l y examined. The e f f e c t o f . i n d u s t r i a l development a t t h e Vancouver E a s t Branch i s one example. 3. The l o c a t i o n o f a Y.M.C.A. s h o u l d depend upon t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e community when r e s i d e n t s a r e p r e p a r e d "to work f o r l o n g range o b j e c t i v e s such a s a new b u i l d i n g . A l t h o u g h neither F r a s e r v i e w o r South Cambie have r e a c h e d t h i s l e v e l o f community i n t e r e s t , both a r e a s a r e c a p a b l e o f becoming S O J p a r t l y because o f the l a c k o f s e r v i c e s by o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n ' at t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . 4. The p o p u l a t i o n i n the g e o g r a p h i c b o u n d a r i e s o f t h e Fairmount Y.M.C.A. h a s grown c o n s i d e r a b l y s i n c e t h e end o f the War. F r a s e r v i e w , Southern S l o p e , C o l l i n g w o o d - K i l l a r n e y and sections . o f South Cambie d i s t r i c t have a l l been c o n s t r u c t e d s i n c e 1 9 4 5 T h i s f a c t o r i n d i c a t e s i t i s how u n r e a l i s t i c f o r one Branch Y.M.C .A. t o serve a d e q u a t e l y . 5. From an economic p o i n t o f view t h e purchase o f p r o p e r t y i n the two a r e a s w i t h s m a l l h o u s i n g u n i t s a s Branch h e a d q u a r t e r s oan p r o b a b l y be o b t a i n e d a t a l e s s e r c o s t t h a n c o n s t r u c t i n g one u n i t . I n terms o f t h e t o t a l needs o f Vancouver i t might be p o s s i b l e for. funds p r e v i o u s l y a r r a n g e d f o r F a i r m o u n t purposes t o be t r a n s f e r r e d e l s e w h e r e . The development o f the Alma Y.M.C.A. over t h e p a s t s e v e r a l y e a r s i s e v i d e n c e t h a t a community c a n be e x p e c t e d t o s u p p o r t a Y.M.C.A. o p e r a t i n g from t h i s type o f b u i l d i n g . R  - 195 s 6.  Two s m a l l u n i t s w i l l r e q u i r e t h e r e c r u i t m e n t o f more s e c r e t a r i e s a t t h e e x e c u t i v e and program l e v e l . T h i s w i l l b r i n g about problems i n r e g a r d t o t h e o p e r a t i n g c o s t which may be o f f s e t by a more s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g C e n t r a l Y.M.C J , a g o a l o f t h e Campaign d r i v e . However, the need f o r Y.M.C.A. s t a f f t o e x p l o r e new a r e a s and o l d e r communities n o t p r e v i o u s l y i n v e s t i g a t e d i s , i n t h i s w r i t e r ' s o p i n i o n , the number one p r i o r i t y o f t h e Vancouver Y.M.C.A. i n p r o m o t i n g ' Y'' work I n t h e suburban community. 7. A l t h o u g h t h e Y.M.C .A. i s n o t b a s i c a l l y i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h other r e c r e a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , i t i s important f o r the Y i M . C A . t o become i n v o l v e d i n newer communities b e f o r e r e c r e a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s does n o t mean the Y.M.C.A. w i l l compete w i t h the p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n o r o t h e r p r i v a t e groups, b u t r a t h e r t h e r e w i l l be more opport u n i t y t o p r o v i d e programs because o f the d e s i r e f o r them by t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s . The s p e c i a l i z e d t y p e s o f ' Y p r o grams w o r k i n g through s m a l l e r groups on a q u a l i t y b a s i s would.remain t h e prime f u n c t i o n o f t h e community Y.M.C.A. i n any c a s e . 8. The p l a n t o r e - d i v i d e the Fairmount Y.M.C.A, i n t o two u n i t s would appear t o be a more f l e x i b l e and dynamic a p p r o a c h . , There a r e a t t h e p r e s e n t time t o o many unanswered q u e s t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o t h e communities w i t h i n t h e Fairmount s e c t i o n o f Vancouver. The t r e n d s o f o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c l u d i n g t h e o b j e o t i v e s o f the P a r k s B o a r d and t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l a r e u n c e r t a i n . A c o o r d i n a t e d approach t o Vancouver's r e c r e a t i o n a l needs i s n o t as y e t i n e f f e c t . C o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s f o r d i r e c t i o n t o t h e newer communities i s n o t h i g h l y developed by e i t h e r t h e P a r k s Board o r Community Chest and C o u n c i l . T h i s c i r c u m s t a n c e makes i t d i f f i c u l t f o r p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h a c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r o l e i n the • community. The Y.M.C.A. i n Vancouver has o n l y r e c e n t l y t a k e n s t e p s t o remedy'a p o l i c y t h a t h a s n o t f o s t e r e d community •"' i n t e r e s t i n t h e Y.M.C.A. Perhaps t h i s i s p a r t l y because we .;. o u r s e l v e s have n o t u n d e r s t o o d o u r r o l e i n t h e community. The s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e Fairmount Y . M . C . A . , moreover, have p o s s i b l y - ' encountered t h i s d i f f i c u l t y more than o t h e r a r e a s i n v i e w o f t h e weak f o u n d a t i o n throughout t h e b r i e f t e n y e a r h i s t o r y of Fairmount. I V . Summary T  T h i s paper i s w r i t t e n w i t h an eye t o t h e f u t u r e ?;hich t h i s w r i t e r b e l i e v e s can be a b r i g h t one f o r Fairmount Y ' . The b a s i c argument c o n t a i n e d h e r e i n i s t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e development o f two s m a l l h o u s i n g u n i t s f o r Branch h e a d q u a r t e r s i s a r e q u i r e d step based on the u n i q u e s i t u a t i o n o f the Fairmount Y.M.C.A. a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e . T  T h i s paper r e s p e c t f u l l y  submitted.  Don McComb, Executive Secretary, Fairmount Y.M.C.A.  - 196  ~  APPENDIX E O b j e c t i v e s C h a r t , F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l arnev -YMGA  1  (September  197 APPENDIX  E.  OBJECTIVES CHART - ERASERVTEW-KILLARNEY Purpose-  To c o n s o l i d a t e and d i r e c t e f f o r t s o f the B o a r d o f Management f o r the g r e a t e s t b e n e f i t to the community.  Assumptions -  (1) That membership and need f o r program w i l l continue t o i n c r e a s e . (S) That the g e o g r a p h i c a l area o f program and membership w i l l i n c r e a s e . (3) That the F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y E x t e n s i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be an autonomous or separate Branch; (4) To meet these developments, we must c o n c e n t r a t on : (a) L e a d e r s h i p . -(b) Program. (c) Board and Committee o r g a n i z a t i o n . Leadership:That r e c r u i t i n g , t r a i n i n g and r e c o g n i t i o n o f l e a d e r s be seen as a n e c e s s a r y g o a l i n the d e v e l opment o f program. (1) R e c r u i t i n g - That l e a d e r s h i p be r e c r u i t e d f o r program where Board and Committee members are now i n v o l v e d , and t h a t le a d e r s h i p be r e c r u i t e d b e f o r e f u t u r e a c t i v i t i e s are s t a r t e d . (2) T r a i n i n g - That a l e a d e r s ' f e l l o w s h i p be o r g a n i z e d f o r (a) C l e a r a n c e o f program, (b) F e l l o w s h i p and i d e n t i t y . (c) T r a i n i n g . (3) R e c o g n i t i o n - That r e c o g n i t i o n be seen as a g r e a t f a c t o r i n good l e a d e r s h i p , and t h a t s t e p s be t a k e n f o r g r e a t e r l e a d e r s h i p r e c o g nition. Such a p l a n would a l l o w Board and s t a f f t o spend more time on development and c o - o r d i n a t i o n and p r o v i d e a means o f b r i n g i n g i n new membership on a l e a d e r s h i p level. Program:d e v e l o p a f a m i l y Y.M.C.A. approach t o program. 2. To develop more j u n i o r Car Clubs t h r o u g h j o i n t B.C.H.R.A., Y.M.C.A.sponsorship. 3. . To i n v e s t i g a t e teenage program needs and develop accordingly, 4. To s t u d y and determine g e o g r a p h i c a l p r i o r i t i e s as t o development o f program. B o a r d & Committee O r g a n i z a t i o n - I n o r d e r t o be p r e p a r e d f o r (and a s s i s t i n b r i n g i n g about) autonomy o f t h i s E x t e n s i o n , c e r t a i n s t e p s must be t a k e n : 1. The o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the B o a r d o f Management be s e t up as per the a t t a c h e d c h a r t . 2. The Board be s e t up as a p l a n n i n g and c o o r d i n a t i n g tcdy, 3. The B u i l d i n g , Program,Leader s h i p , F i n a n c e aid Teen C o u n c i l Committees be set up by December, 1958. 4. The p o s s i b i l i t y o f B o a r d development and e d u c a t i o n be investigated. l m  T q  s  t  u  d  y  a n d  ORGANIZATION  -  FRASERVIEW-KILLARNEY  BRANCH Y. M. C. A.  IVIETROPOLITAN BOARD OF GOVERNORS FAIRMOUNT BRANCH BOARD OF DIRECTORS FRA SER VIEW-KTT ,T, A RNE Y BOARD OF MANAGEMENT . ;.«  H  Leader- World ship Service  HAVE -  5  FUND RAISING MEMBERSHIP PUBLICITY  Finance  Publicity  Teen council  Fund Raising  NEED -  Executive  7  More  BUILDING PROGRAM LEADERSHIP WORLD SERVICE FINANCE TEEN COUNCIL EXECUTIVE  Membership Special  - 199  APPENDIX F Area Programme C o u n c i l .I F r a s e r v i e w - K i l l a r n e y YMCA s  (October 1959)  - 20G  APPENDIX  F.  Subject:  "Use o f t h e A r e a Program C o u n c i l . "  Thesis:  (1) Laymen can c a r r y more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y than t h e y are p r e s e n t l y c a r r y i n g . (2) A r e a s t h a t a r e now S e c r e t a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be h a n d l e d j u s t as* e f f e c t i v e l y b y laymen - t h i s i s the i d e a o f laymen c o n t r i b u t i n g t h e i r i n d i v i & a l skills. (3) The S e c r e t a r y i s a r e s o u r c e p e r s o n o n l y - he i s not " M i s t e r Y.M.C .A ."-nor i s he a program l e a d e r .  Method:  See b l a c k b o a r d (1) B o a r d has on i t Chairmen o f a l l a r e a c o u n c i l s . (2) The A r e a C o u n c i l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r complete o p e r a t i o n o f program i n t h e i r a r e a . (3) F u n c t i o n s t h a t a r e o f a c o l l e c t i v e n a t u r e a r e under the j u r i s d i c t i o n o f t h e B o a r d , e.g., l e a d e r s h i p t r a i n i n g , c l u b c o u n c i l s , s t a n d i n g committees.  The key:  The C o u n c i l becomes a Task Committee, u s i n g l o c a l r e s o u r c e s f o r l e a d e r s h i p , and l e a d e r s h i p s u p e r v i s i o n , e.g. - School P. E. t e a c h e r s u p e r v i s e s and t r a i n s gym i n s t r u c t o r s on a v o l u n t e e r b a s i s , e.g. -Former a d u l t N-Y c l u b l e a d e r s s u p e r v i s e N-Y c l u b l e a d e r s .  The  The  G r a s s - r o o t s method u s e d - p a r e n t s i n v o l v e d e x t e n s i v e l y a d v a n t a g e s : (1) G r e a t e r i n v o l v e m e n t o f laymen - l e a d s t o greater i d e n t i t y . |2) G r e a t e r S e c r e t a r y p r o d u c t i v i t y . ,3) More members s e r v e d . problem:  Can t h i s method be as q u a l i t a t i v e as one i n v o l v ing Secretary-supervised leaders? BOARD  WORLD MEMBERSHIP COMMITTEE - - SERVICE COMMITTEE  i  PROGRAM COMMITTEE-  r  AREA COUNCIL #1.  AREA COUNCIL #2  BUILDING COMMITTEE "HI  AREA COUNCIL # 3  Y COUNCIL  LEADERS TRAINING h N-Y COUNCIL ETC.  - 201  -  Bibliography Works C i t e d and Sources  Consulted  1.  B l a u , P e t e r M.. Bureaucracy i n Modern S o c i e t y , Random House, New York, 1949*  2.  B r i g h t b i l l , C.K. and Moyer, H.O., H a l l Inc.,,New York, 1 9 4 3 . '  3.  B u t l e r , F.D.., I n t r o d u c t i o n to Community R e c r e a t i o n , McGraw-Hill Co., New York, 1949.  4.  Canadian Youth Commission, Youth and R e c r e a t i o n ^ . (Volume 6 ) , Ryerson P r e s s , Toronto, 1946.  5.  De Marche, D.F.., The R e l a t i v e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f YMCA Branches with V a r i o u s Types o f B u i l d i n g s A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 1947.  Recreation. Prentice-  f  6.  Dunham, A., "What i s the Job o f the Community O r g a n i z a t i o n • Worker?" -Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S o c i a l Work, 1 9 4 8 . " ~ ' .  7.  F i t z g e r a l d , G.B., Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r R e c r e a t i o n . - A.L. Barnes Co. ,. New York, 1949. J  8.  Hopkins, C. Howard. H i s t o r y o f the YMCA i n North America. A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 1951. ...  9.  M c N e i l , C.F., "Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l S o c i a l Work Yearbook. New York, 1951.  Welfare,"  10.  Murphy, C , Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e . HoughtonM i f f l i n Co., New York, 1954.  11.  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f YMCA's o f Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s o f America, 1959, YMCA,Year Book and O f f i c i a l R o s t e r s . A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 1959.  12.  Newstetter, W.L., "The S o c i a l Intergroup Work P r o c e s s , " Proceedings o f the N a t i o n a l Conference o f S.o c i a l Work. j — • . .  13*  N o r r i e , L.E. and o t h e r s S u r v e y Report o f Group Work and R e c r e a t i o n o f G r e a t e r Vancouver. The Community Chest and C o u n c i l s o f Greater Vancouver, 1945.  - 202 14.  Pierrel, G.O., The Mew Executive i n the Smaller YMCA. Association Press, New York, 1959•  15.  Ross, M.G., The YMCA .in. Canada, The Ryerson Press, . Toronto, 1 9 5 1 .  16.  Slavson, L.R. ^Recreation, and the Total Personality, McGraw-Hill Co., New York, 1949.  17.-  Sorenson, R., and Dimock, H.S., Redesigning Education i n Values, A Case Study i n Institutional Change, Association.Press, New York, 1955*  .18.  Stiener, J . , Community >Organization, Century Co., New York, 1925.  19-  The Canadian YMCA Study Committee, The Years Ahead. • A Plan for the.Canadian YMCA i n the Next Decade, The National Council of YMCA's of Canada,.Toronto, 1945.  ,  Unpublished Manuscripts 20.  Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver, Fraserview Study, A Report on Recreation Services i n the Fraserview Area, March 1957.  21.  Community Chest and Councils of Greater Vancouver, Profile for Planning Recreational Services, Report of a Committee of the Recreation and--Group Work Social Planning Section, July, 1959.  22.  Cue, A.G,., Decentralized Programme Development i n a . Community Branch YMCA. Social Work Thesis the f  University of British Columbia, I960. 23. .Fairmount Branch YMCA, Minutes, 1947-1960. 24.  Fairmount Branch YMCA, Programme Reports. 1947-1960.  25.  Fairmount Branch YMCA, Yearly Statistical Reports. 1947-  26.  Metropolitan YMCA of Greater Vancouver, Centennial Study • Committee. Second .Century Goals. October 1 9 5 1 .  27.  National Councils of the YMCA's.of Canada, Report of the ' YMCA Commission on YMCA Relations and Family YMCA'si Toronto, 1959. ~ ~ —-»  1959.  - 203 28.  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l s o f t h e YMCA's o f U n i t e d S t a t e s , ^YMCA Working with the F a m i l y . A Report o f the N a t i o n a l C o n s u l t a t i o n , - A n n Arbor, M i c h i g a n , March 10-11, I960.  29.  P r o c e s s Recordings and I n t e r v i e w s . Student 195%  Survey,  30. . The YMCA o f Greater Vancouver, P o l i c y P l a n n i n g Committee, . The 'Y.' i n G r e a t e r Vancouver. 1946. .  

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