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Social worker and minister in welfare services : an exploratory study of inter-professional relationships. Skenfield, Alfreda 1960

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SOCIAL WORKER AND MINISTER IN WELFARE SERVICES An Exploratory Study of Inter-professional Relationships  by ALFREDA SKENFIELD  Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work  School of Social Work  I960 The University of British Columbia  In presenting the  this thesis i n partial fulfilment of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  I further  copying o f t h i s  thesis  f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  I t i s understood  that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  ^<^-c^ct^^^^1^  Department o f  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver S, Canada. Date  C^lLuJ'^2  /  c  /  J960  permission.  - ii -  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter 1.  Changing Relationships  The problem. Historical aspects. Distinctive Protestant attitudes. The church as pioneer. Conflict between church and social work. Why i s this subject important? Definitions. Common concerns. Differences. Scope of study . . . Chapter 2.  Areas of Common Concern  The institutional chaplaincy. The pastoral counsellor in the social agency. The church-sponsored social agency. The institutional church. The independent, religiously-oriented agency. Pastoral counselling. The lay volunteer movement, Areas of collaboration (research, co-operative activities). Professional education Chapter 3.  Practices and Attitudes Discovered in the Greater Vancouver Area  Questionnaire to social workers - need for greater mutual understanding and co-operation; professional training; problems better handled by ministers; ways of increasing mutual understanding; obstacles to effective co-operation; agency differences. Questionnaire to ministers - who replied; persons counselled by ministers; problems presented; relationship of church membership to problems; referrals to and from ministers; theological training; responsibility of the church to disturbed people; institutional chaplaincy; psychological and theological presuppositions. Interviews with ministers Chapter 4.  Final Considerations and Questions  Trends noted in attitudes and practices. Suggestions from social workers and ministers. Areas for further investigation . . Appendices: A. B. C.  Sample Questionnaire to Social Workers. Sample Questionnaire to Ministers with Covering Letter. Bibliography.  - iii -  TABLES IN THE TEXT Page Table A.  Table B.  Table C.  Table D.  Opinions of Social Workers: What Social Problems are Better Handled by Ministers than by Social Workers  47  Opinions of Social Workers: What Methods or Resources Would Increase Mutual Understanding Between Social Workers and Ministers  49  Suggestions of Social Workers: Co-operation and Understanding  How to Increase • • •  50  Opinions of Social Workers: Main Obstacles to Effective Co-operation  51  Suggestions of Social Workers: Other Obstacles to Co-operation  51  Table F.  Report of Ministers: Number of Persons Seen and Hours Spent in Counselling  55  Table G.  Report of Ministers: Problems for Which Counselling Provided Since September, 1959  56  Table H.  Report of Ministers: Referrals Made to.Other Resources Since September 1, 1959  57  Report of Ministers: Referrals Received from Other Resources Since September 1, 1959 .  58  Report of Ministers: Own Knowledge of Emotional Illness and Community Resources  59  Report of Ministers: Resources i n the Church to Prevent and Handle Mental and Emotional Problems . . . .  6l  Table E.  Table J.  Table K.  Table L.  Table M.  Opinions of Ministers:  Adequacy of These Resources  . .  62  >  ABSTRACT  This study was undertaken (a) to examine some areas where the activi t i e s of the social work profession and the ministry overlap, (b) to throw light on the attitudes of one profession toward the other and (c) to exemplify instances of collaboration. Because the subject i s very large and extensive, limits were set by confining i t to the relationships between social work agencies and ministers of Protestant denominations. After a brief discussion of the historical background of the subject, areas of common concern and areas of difference between the two disciplines are outlined. Examples are given of the role of the clergyman as an institutional chaplain, as a pastoral counsellor i n a social agency and as a counsellor in his own parish. Other areas in which the roles of the clergyman and social worker show similarities are found in the institutional church, the churchsponsored social agency and the independent, religiously-oriented agency. The lay volunteer movement in both church and social work i s given some attention. Research projects which relate to both fields, and special activities where there is active collaboration between social work and the ministry, are discussed. This section, which draws i t s material from Canada and the United States generally, concludes with some mention of the education of each profession in terms of what i t teaches; about the other. To gain information from social workers and ministers actually concerned with welfare matters in the Vancouver area, a questionnaire was sent out to both groups. The one to the clergy was organized by the Vancouver Council of Churches for a somewhat different purpose but i t s results were made available to the writer. As i t s focus was specifically on mental health, further opinions directly related to social work were secured by interviewing a small group of ministers. In the f i n a l chapter, the findings from the questions and from the literature are summarized. General implications are easier t° draw than specific directions for particular problems or kinds of collaboration.' The interest on the part of each profession in the work of the other i s clear; there Is also awareness of the contribution the other can make i n meeting individual'needs, and a desire for further understanding. The ministry i s found to be making more use of the resources offered by social work agencies than vice versa. Some suggestions are made arising from these findings and a number of areas for further investigation outlined.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  To Dr. Leonard Marsh of the School of Social Work, University of British Columbia, who gave the encouragement needed to pursue this topic i n the i n i t i a l stages and to Mr. Adrian Marriage, also of the School of Social Work, without whose help and constructive criticisms this study could not have been completed. To the Social Action Committee of the Vancouver Council of Churches and i t s Chairman, Rev. Robert S. Christie, who made available the results of their questionnaire to the ministers and the report compiled therefrom. To the clergymen and social workers who gave freely of their time to answer questionnaires or participate i n interviews.  SOCIAL WORKER AND MINISTER IN WELFARE SERVICES  CHAPTER 1  CHANGING RELATIONSHIPS  The Problem An ever-increasing number of individuals and families are today crying for help as they struggle with problems ranging from persistent, nagging worries to overwhelming crises.  Where they turn to seek the succour they need  depends largely on their previous experiences.  Many would turn to the family  doctorjothers to social agencies, although there i s s t i l l something of the savour of "charity" or "welfare" surrounding them. S t i l l others may think of a minister as a "helpful person" even though they have not been to a church for many years.  Have they chosen the best resource?  to the right one?  I f not, w i l l they be referred  Social workers do a good deal of thinking about referral to  other agencies, to doctors, psychiatrists or clinics. and the resources of the church i n this thinking?  Bo they include ministers  I f not, should they?  The  pastor, on the other hand, may not feel competent to deal with the problems presented to him.  Does he know where the troubled parishioner can get help or  does he take a "shot i n the dark?" This study i s being undertaken i n order to try to find out some of the answers to these questions and other related ones, such as the following. Relatives of a patient recently admitted  to mental hospital ply their minister  - 2 -  with questions about the meaning of the illness, what to do when the patient is discharged, whose fault is it?  The social worker has a client whose d i f f i -  culty seems to be mainly a religious one; who can supply the answers? The deaconess of a down-town church is constantly faced with serious social problems; does she have good communications with the agencies that serve these? A group of ministers believe that religious counsel should be offered to those in correctional institutions but are themselves inadequate to meet the situation; who can cope with it?  A social agency is concerned because local ministers do  not refer individuals and families u n t i l the situation has become acute; can this be remedied?  In order to see this matter i n perspective, let us look at  the background of the two professions - the ministry and social work - and the history of their relationships.  Historical Aspects Many of the broad aspects of social welfare had their roots i n the church in European and North American culture.  For centuries, education, care  of the sick, alms-giving and concern for the widow and fatherless were centered in the church.  Social welfare divorced from the church reached significant  proportions only with the advent of secular education and medical care, and the assumption by the state of responsibility for the indigent.  We read i n the  Social Work Yearbook: The fragmentation of the religious community occasioned by the Reformation made the dominance of the church as impracticable i n social work as i t came to be i n education. The mere factor of growth i n size and complexity of community l i f e had tended to make social services a community responsibility . . . (also) the secularization p£ the common l i f e loosened the hold of the church on social activities.  1. Johnson, F . Ernest e Villaume, William J . "Protestant Social Services." Social Work Yearbook, ed. Russell H. Kurtz, National Association of Social Workers, New York, 1957, p.422.  - 3 -  New types of specialized social agencies emerging about the beginning of the century were frequently begun by religious bodies although many were conceived and promoted by lay people who were active members of their individual churches.  Neighbourhood houses, child care centres, adoption agencies and many  other welfare programmes came into being as off-shoots, as i t were, of churches that were concerned with the need that faced them. The Roman Catholic church, for the most part, has continued the practise of maintaining such agencies under the direct control of the church.  The Jewish pattern i n many cities has  been to provide i t s own social services, too, although not as completely as the Roman Catholic. The Protestant picture has been very different.  I t i s partly because  of that difference that this study is being confined to the relationships between social work and the Protestant Church.  To explore the Catholic and Jewish  relationships, would necessitate different approaches.  And the scope of suchua  study would be beyond the bounds of what can be attempted here.  ti  Indeed, many  aspects of the Protestant scene w i l l have to be omitted.  Distinctive Protestant Attitudes Perhaps because Protestants were the majority group and because Protestant ethics and philosophy have had a great influence on the culture of the United States and non-French Canada, there was not the need to develop sectarian programmes. Even where the church has developed i t s own welfare i n stitutions, "Protestant social services are not, i n general, directed toward particular Protestant objectives."^  1 . Ibid, p.421.  - 4-  The article continues: The transfer of social work to secular control was...on the whole acceptable to the Protestant majority. This i s to say, the majority group did not feel a need for i t s own educational and social work , programs:; as aids in the preservation of a faith and a way of l i f e . A l i t t l e later another statement i s made along the same lines: ..,The Christian motive of Protestant church members tended to find i t s social expression through their professional and voluntary par„ ticipation i n activities and agencies conducted under secular auspices. The total situation, however, i s a very complex one.  The attitudes  of the various denominations toward social welfare are as varied as their theologies.  There is a group of churches whose theology compartmentalizes man  into mind, soul and body, which have l i t t l e interrelationship.  The church for  them exists only to save souls, and other matters, including social welfare, are largely extraneous.  Other denominations believe that much social welfare  practise should be directly under church auspices, while s t i l l others wish to turn over to secular bodies most of the formal responsibility for i t .  Since  1950 the literature shows an increasing trend on the part of the last two  3 groups toward a careful examination of the problem.  The Department of Social  Welfare of the National Council of the Churches of Christ i n the U.S.A. has been vocal i n this regard.^  Although most Canadian churches are not formally  included i n the Council, many of them make use of i t s publications and are i n 5  fluenceld by i t s studies. 1.  Ibid, p. 422  2.  Loc. c i t .  3.  See below, chapter I I , section 3.  4.  Hereafter this body w i l l be referred to as the National Council of Churches.  5. Some Canadian sects have an informal connection with the National Council through their American counterparts. Some branches of the Lutheran Church in Canada are o f f i c i a l l y part of the parent bodies i n the U.S.A. and, therefore, are members of the Council i f the parent bodies are members.  - 5 -  Volume I of the report prepared for the Cleveland Conference of 1955 on Churches and Social Welfare covers the historical bases of thirteen American denominations for participation i n social welfare and the theological presuppositions underlying them.  1  It also includes statements about the role of the  church i n social service; for instance, that of the Congregational Christian Church:"...It has been the policy of the denomination to encourage public 2 agencies to assume welfare and educational functions."  Some of the others be-  lieve that the church should be rather more active i n promoting i t s own welfare services.  A l l of these churches say unequivocally, however, that i t i s the  duty of the church actively to interest i t s e l f i n matters of social welfare. The Church as Pioneer In many cases, the job of the church i n social welfare has been that of the pioneer meeting needs as they arise.  Many a settlement house has been  started by a church, later to become completely separated or retaining only a vestige of the former connection.  At the present time, many churches  and establish housing units for senior citizens.  sponsor  Such projects may well become  the concern of government i n the future. As populations move and change, so do the functions of churches i n down-town or deteriorating neighbourhoods. This may result i n an increase or decrease of the social service functions of these churches.  In many parts of Western Canada, sects established residential  schools and hostels to meet the needs of children l i v i n g far from educational centres.  The provision of regular state-supported schools has made many of  1. Bachmann, E. Theodore, ed., The Activating Concern: Historical and Theological Bases, National Council of the Churches of Christ i n U.S.A., 1955 2.  Ibid.. p. 22  -  these residences superfluous.  6 -  In the United States, there have been extensive  efforts, many on an inter-denominational basis, to ameliorate the unsatisfactory social conditions of migrant workers. Speaking on this subject, Martha E l i o t , Chief of the Children's Bureau i n the United States, said, "Of a l l the groups who are reaching out to them I know of none that merits more praise than United Church Women."  1  The public welfare authorities are now, however, gradually  undertaking to meet the need. In British Columbia, various church groups and boards met many needs of the relocated Japanese during the war - needs that the government, which moved these people, did not see f i t to meet.  Unfortunate-  l y , some church-sponsored agencies and institutions cling to programmes which are now considered out-of-date and even harmful by modern social work standards, although they were once very progressive.  Conflict Between Church and Social Work With i t s tradition of centuries of welfare work, the church found i t d i f f i c u l t to accept the young "upstart", social work, with i t s emphasis on scientific method and, often, a seeming disregard of a l l that the church had done and was doing.  This conflict has been expressed by several writers, among  them the director of the Community Service Society of New York who says, "...The clergyman may feel - and I fear with justice many times - that when members of his flock come under the ministrations of a social agency, he and the church and the role they may well play i n the whole process  1 . E l i o t , Martha, "Putting Social Fission and Fusion to Work for Children." The Emerging Perspective: Response and Progress, ed. E. Theodore Bachmann, National Council of the Churches of Christ i n the U.S.A., 1 9 5 6 , p. 3 8 . Note: The United Church Women i s an inter-denominational organization i n the United States. It has no connection with the women of the United Church of Canada.  - 7 -  are overlooked or ignored." But he continues, "The social worker on his side may well feel that altogether too many of the clergy f a i l to reach out and learn.about what social agencies in their modern role really have to offer." 2  Another writer i n the same volume illuminates the complexities of the problem of co-operation when he shows that the basis of i t l i e s i n "fundamental and far3 reaching philosophical questions."  There are problems of semanticsj what i s  meant by "sin?" "permissiveness?" - problems of self-determination over against theological dogma - problems of points of view between minister and non-religious caseworker. There are no simple answers to the conflict.  We can only t r y to  point out here some current trends and a few suggestions for the future. Why i s This Subject Important? Firstly:  The complexity of the physical, psychological, spiritual  and social i l l s to which human beings are exposed to-day demands the s k i l l s and resources of a l l those engaged i n the helping professions. Gone are the days when the village doctor or minister could, unaided, deal with most of the local human welfare problems. Specialization and team work are the order of the day. Writing i n 1917, Mary Richmond quoted Hans Gross: "Only the sham knows everything. The trained man understands how l i t t l e the mind of any individual may grasp and how many must cooperate i n order to explain the very simplest thing."k There has been, for the most part, co-operation between psychiatry and social 1. Davies, Stanley,P., "The Churches and the Non-Sectarian Agencies, "Religion and Social Work". ed. F.Ernest Johnston, Harper e Brothers, New York, 1956, p.86. 2. Ibid, p. 87 3. Bigham, Thomas J., "Cooperation Between Ministers and Social Workers," Johnson, Ibid.. p. 142 4. Richmond, Mary, Social Diagnosis, Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1917, flyleaf.  - 8 -  work. The medical profession, including public health, i s more and more realizing the contribution that social work can bring to human problems. What about the pastor and t he social worker?  I f they are continuing to work i n isolation  from each other, much s k i l l may be lost, for each i s trained to help human need. Secondly: "the whole mahi"  There i s today a growing emphasis on studying and treating  Psychiatrists are concerned with the social environment of  their patients more and more; many doctors want to know about their patients  1  thoughts and feelings; the minister realizes that more than spiritual counselling i s necessary for a parishioner who i s severely emotionally disturbed. More slowly has there grown up a recognition of the importance of man's spiritual needs. Because of the scientific emphases of medicine and psychiatry, these disciplines have tended to discount any suggestions that man has a s p i r i t .  Soc-  i a l work has looked to these two for much of the direction of i t s thinking and, consequently, has also discounted, or just ignored, the matter of spiritual values.  A lawyer, active in social welfare, says:  "The alienation of chtfch and social work may be attributed i n large measure.to the fact that training for social work i n the established schools...is tied to those social sciences that claim l i t t l e connection with religious philosophy."1 It i s a cardinal assumption i n this study that man has deep spiritual needs. He can be treated as a whole only as these needs are taken into account. Two quotations from social workers bear out this belief: ...Spiritual needs of the individual must also be recognized, understood, and respected. They must be seen as distinct needs and they must also be seen in relation to other human needs.2  1. Weil, Frank L., "Cooperation of Church and Social Work," The Social Welfare Forum, National Conference of Social Work, 1949, Columbia University Press, New York, 1950, p. 126. 2. Towle, Charlotte, Common Human Needs, National Association of Social Workers, New York, 1957, (original publication 1945), p. 8.  - 9-  And this from the Director of the School of Social Work at the University of Tennessee: We have long recognized the dangers of super-imposing our own values on the people who.turn to us for help, of exploiting the defenceless even i n the area of something of great potential value to them..But...have we really understood and accepted a responsibility for understanding the •spiritual aridity', the sense of emptiness and f u t i l i t y , or the fears and sense of inadequacy which i n many cases may arise from an absence of religious faith, or failure to understand and use the resources of religion?1 If this premise i s accepted, then to ignore the s k i l l s of the clergyman and the body of knowledge built up over the ages by the church would be foolish and wasteful.  Those especially trained to be religious advisors can and must be  the ones to help with spiritual problems.  To divide any person's problems into  "spiritual" and "non-spiritual" i s , of course, impossible, just as physical and emotional d i f f i c u l t i e s cannot be completely separated.  But an awareness of  needs beyond the physical and emotional realms helps the doctor, psychiatrist or social worker see more accurately the place of the pastor. Gf course the converse i s true.  The minister must recognize the nec-  cessity for skilled treatment of mental and emotional illnesses and the s k i l l required i n handling social problems. Thirdly:  I t i s realized that many personal and family difficulties  have their roots i n the social conditions i n which we l i v e .  To effect changes  which w i l l give each child the opportunity to grow up i n a wholesome environment necessitates the working together of every person, group and organization which has a concern for the well-being of a l l individuals.  Social work and social  action have always gone hand i n hand. There are periods when the latter has  1. Spencer, Sue W., "Religion and Spiritual Values i n Social Casework Practice," Social Casework, vol. 38 (Dec. 1957) p. 525.  - 10 -  been lacking i n vigour but there i s surely no social worker who i s not daily reminded of the need for great improvement i n social welfare.  The voice of the  Protestant church has often been weak, partly because of the conservatism and drag of large institutions. completely silent.  Itf;has always been divided. But i t has never been  When i t has been slow to denounce social evils, i t s con-  science has generally been very uneasy. Co-operation between the social work profession and the church at this level i s often indirect; representatives from both act on various committees and organizations which are tackling certain social problems. Again, the active participant in the community organization may be the dependable supporter of his local church and thus the two institutions are brought together i n another way.  Definitions The term "Protestant" i s being used to mean a l l Christian churches other than the Roman Catholic. The scope of the study, however, is mainly confined to those denominations which show some interest i n social welfare and which have boards or departments dealing with i t .  Many of these are included in the  Canadian Council of Churches which has eleven participating groups - Anglican, Baptist Federation, Church of Christ (Disciples), Evangelical United Brethren, Greek Orthodox, Presbyterian, Reformed Episcopal, Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic, Salvation Army, Society of Friends and the United Church of Canada, with the United Lutheran Church in America i n friendly relations.  Most of the counterparts  of these sects are included in the National Council of Churches.  There are  smaller churches which may be very interested i n social services but which are not included i n either of these councils. The situation cannot be clearly stated, either, i n respect to the Vancouver Council of Churches. I t includes much the  - 11 -  same group as the Canadian Council but i s not formally structured. A certain small sect may be represented at one time and not at another. Sometimes this depends on the individual minister or congregation. ship would probably be admitted.  Any church seeking member-  Always within the Baptist group there are sub-  groups with very different doctrines.  Some would wish to be a part of the local  and Canadian Councilsj others would not. The term "social worker" i s used here i n i t s broad sense to include not only those persons who are eligible for membership i n the provincial or national association of social workers or the equivalent i n the United States, but also many persons holding social work positions i n social agencies who not have these qualifications.  do  "Social Work" i s used to mean the activities of  social workers within the structure of a social agency or in a secondary setting such as a hospital, j a i l , etc. Social agencies and social work activities are as diverse and as diff i c u l t to categorize as the Protestant communions. There are the formally structured ones which are often part of a community chest or of a government department of welfare, but many are independently operated or connected with religious groups. That the church and social work touch each other at certain points w i l l become more evident as we consider the subject further.  Common Concerns Both social work and the church desire to create opportunities for healthy human development. Social workers may forget the influence of the church i n providing close and warm fellowship so necessary in impersonal urban l i f e ; they may forget the therapeutic effects of the sacraments on troubled lives. Ministers often are unaware that modern social agencies do far more to meet  - 12 -  human need than the mere dispensing of financial assistance.  Caseworkers may  seldom hear of the family that has been tided over a period of unemployment through the use of a special fund which the church o f f i c i a l s keep for such purposes or of the hours spent by the minister and a volunteer youth worker to help a delinquent boy.  It i s not unknown for a welfare agency to refer a needy  family to a church for help until the public assistance cheque i s issued.  On  the other hand, probably most clergymen have, at one time or another, referred an unmarried mother to an agency for the support that can be given her i n planning for her child. Undoubtedly the areas of overlapping may increase as clergy study more about the art of counselling.  The same thing w i l l happen i f welfare agencies  become more aware of spiritual needs on the part of their clients.  Difficulties  in referral are bound to occur. The minister may want to make a referral but learns of the long waiting l i s t at the family agency.  In the social work f i e l d ,  a caseworker i n a hospital may find a patient who i s spiritually confused and who has no church a f f i l i a t i o n and no chaplain i s available.  Finding a pastor who  is qualified to aid the patient without increasing other anxieties may not be easy.  Some of the methods of collaboration which have been tried w i l l be dis-  cussed i n the next chapter. One concern which both social work and the church consider to be very important i s the achievement and preservation of healthy family l i f e . with this goes an equally strong emphasis on the welfare of children.  Along Speaking  on this subject, one of the participants i n the well-known Whitehouse Conference said, "In spite of...shortcomings, however, i t seems to be true that among social institutions, churches and synagogues rank high i n promoting a sense of "belonging" through their efforts to bring children and young people into  - 13 -  the fellowship and to surround them with a sense of real community." Social workers may underestimate the importance of this "belonging" i n the lives of children - a feeling which may remain with the individual a l l his l i f e .  Differences  2 There are also fundamental differences which must be recognized.  A  social worker follows a definite method - case work, group work or community organization - within an agency or institution, and under supervision.  He i s  usually i n a working relationship with other social workers or other professional persons.  The minister's task may involve him i n personal counselling, i n con-  tact with groups of different ages and composition and i n work with committees, boards, etc. In fact, he may i n turn assume roles similar to those of case worker, group worker and community organizer a l l within one job. He i s usually not, however, i n a permanent working relationship with other professional people. 1. Witmer, Helen L. e Kotinsky, Ruth, eds., Personality i n tte-Haking - The Fact Finding Report of the Midcentury Whitehouse Conference on Children and Youth. Harper e Bros., New York, 1952, p. 222. 2. Several of the ideas i n this section have been found i n articles by Seward Hiltner, Faculty Member of the Federated Theological Faculty, University of Chicago, whose name i s prominent i n literature dealing with inter-professional co-operation. See "Tension and Mutual Support Among the Helping Professions," Social Service Review, vol. 31 (Dec. 19575 pp. 377-389. Here Dr. Hiltner develops the interesting concept of the "Village Green" - that area of human need which i s a sort of common ground outside the,narrow focus of each profession and on which each i s apt to claim a preserve. Tensions arise from various sources - ignorance, bad experiences, cynicism regarding the work of the other, or support on a level of superiority feelings. Support without a good understanding of the other's s k i l l s i s not enough because i t i s not built on a sound basis. With a better understanding of each other's language, an acceptance of value assumptions of the other, willingness to face points of difference and to accept necessary tensions, the co-operation can be secured which w i l l best meet the needs of people. " A l l static views of mutual support, as something once and for a l l achieved must be put aside as undesirable as well as impossible. (p.382) The way to proper mutual support i s to go as far as possible i n discussion of the nature of the Village Green, "that aspect of each profession s responsibility that transcends i t s own focus and function." (p. 386)  1  1  - 14 -  In some sects he may have some direction from a superior but in others he may work alone much of the time. His role of preacher with a message to proclaim sets him i n a special category which i s foreign to any role of the social worker. Indeed the latter is always on the alert not to impose values on the client. Another difference i s that the clergyman may see his parishioner i n a counselling session about a family c r i s i s on Friday, find him i n the pew oh Sunday and at the Men's Club banquet on Monday. This situation rarely occurs with the social worker and his c l i e n t s .  1  The minister has no difficulty, usually, i n finding a basis for his -2 social concern.  He may be troubled by psychoanalytic theory but the literature  shows numerous attempts to meet conflicts between i t and religion.  Social work-  ers may have more difficulty i n integrating their religious beliefs with professional values.  This was recognized at the Cleveland Conference by one of the  speakers: Protestants are notoriously hesitant to identify themselves as churchmen in their secular vocations lest they f a l l into an error of exclusiveness which they deplore i n any religious or other group. By avoiding this danger, we tend to f a l l into the other, a repudiation of the source of much of the motivation and power which i s available i n a culture indoctrinated through and through with Christian attitudes.3 Dr. Keith-Lucas, a professor of social work, has made a bold attempt to reconcile religious and social work beliefs i n a recent article.^" He considers many of  1. How possible i s i t for the clergyman to maintain this balance? One writer believes the closeness of the counselling relationship w i l l cause the parishioner to absent himself from church or avoid public encounters with the clergyman. This i s a possibility which must be considered i f counselling increases. Naegele, Kaspar D., "Clergymen, Teachers and Psychiatrists: A Study i n Roles and Socialization," Canadian Journal of Economics e Political Science, vol. 22 (Feb.1956), pp.46-62. 2.  See below, p. 63  3. Horton, Mildred McAfee, "Change and the Church", Bachmann, The Emerging Perspective, p. 46. 4. Keith-Lucas, Alan, "Some Notes on Theology and Social Work," Social Casework, vol. 41 (Feb.1960) pp.87-91.  - 15 -  the central beliefs of orthodox Christianity and shows that they are not only compatible with social work concepts but that the two are actually saying the same things at times - a fact which we can see only i f we are willing to try to understand the real meaning behind the different terminology.  He also finds  relevance to social work practise i n theology. He admits that the reconciliation i s not easy but believes that i t must be attempted by social workers whose religion i s v i t a l .  Scope of the Study Some attempt w i l l now be made to look at existing conditions.  It was  not possible to gather extensive data about areas of collaboration between social workers and Protestant ministers but examples w i l l be cited which, i t i s believed, show current tendencies.  Some effort w i l l be made to answer the  questions raised earlier by looking more closely at the situation i n one community. Questionnaires  and interviews were used to obtain data from social  workers and clergymen. From the replies received, we w i l l try to ascertain whether social workers make referrals to ministers and, i f so, for what sorts of-problems:, whether they see any need for closer co-operation; what suggestions they have to offer regarding working relationships with the clergy.  Indi-  cations of the attitude of the clergy toward social and emotional problems w i l l be sought, as well as their understanding of the role of the social worker. Finally, the implications of the results w i l l be examined and areas for further exploration outlined.  CHAPTER II  AREAS OF COMMON CONCERN  1. The Institutional Chaplaincy The term "chaplain" here refers to a clergyman who i s appointed to serve i n an institutional setting such as a general hospital, mental hospital, correctional institution or treatment centre for disturbed children. It may be argued that a study of the chaplaincy (the qualifying word "institutional" w i l l be omitted from now on) i s a matter for a theological dissertation rather than a social work paper. Any detailed study should, i t i s true, f a l l into the province of the seminary student but some reference should be made to i t here.  Both chaplain and institutional social worker are dealing  with human problems and needs and there is a real necessity for some c l a r i f i c a tion of areas of service. In many instances, only one of the two professions is represented i n the institution.  The greater the understanding each has of  the other f i e l d of knowledge, the better w i l l he be able to locate and use i t s services on the "outside."  Frequently the minister has had a place i n the i n -  stitution for a much longer time than the social worker, though with poorly defined functions. There may be the same mutual distrust as exists at times i n the community and which we have already mentioned.  - 17 -  As early as 1925 some clergy saw the need for more highly skilled chaplains and Dr. Anton T. Boisen initiated a programme to meet this need. Since then, the Council for Clinical Training, Inc., has trained more than 2,000 persons in the United States, (probably including some Canadians who  had  no other resources for obtaining this s k i l l and knowledge.) During the war, padres found themselves unprepared to meet the needs of the troops. of inadequacy greatly increased the demand for c l i n i c a l training.  This sense A second  organization, The Institute of Pastoral Care, Inc., founded i n 1944, i s doing the same sort of thing as the Council.  Some seventy centres of training are  now operating in the United States under the auspices of these two bodies, giving this special education to'small groups of clergy for periods of six weeks to twelve months. It i s known that a course of this kind was offered i n Toronto i n 1959 at the General Hospital and the Toronto Psychiatric Hospital in which several denominations co-operated. The staff included doctors, nurses, psychiat r i s t s , professors, social workers and ministers. Standards of c l i n i c a l pastoral education were adopted by the National Conference on C l i n i c a l Pastoral Training i n 1953.  Among them is this one: "A  continuing concern for an integration of psychological, ethical and theological theory with practical understanding of the dynamics of personality and f a c i l i t y i n inter-personal relations."^ Another requirement for the student chaplain is that he learn "how to work cooperatively with representatives of other profess2 ions and to u t i l i z e community resources." 1. "Standards for Clinical Pastoral Education," adopted by the National Conference on Clinical Pastoral Training, October 13, 1953. (A mimeographed brochure obtainable through the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the U.S.A.) 2. Brochure published by the Covincil for Clinical Training, Inc. New York, (undated).  - 18 -  The number of trained chaplains f a l l s far short of the need. The picture today i s , therefore, a varied one.  There are institutional chaplains  who are given the job because they are too old for a pastorate, or because they do not f i t i n anywhere else, and there are others who are well trained and who have a well-defined role on the professional staff of the organization. In between are many who have learned on the job and who perform a valuable service based on their rich experience. The Function of the Chaplain i n the Institution: 1.  To conduct services of worship for the inmates  1  and to make the sacra-  ments of the church available to them. 2.  To provide a link with the community through referrals to local pastors when an inmate i s discharged.  3.  To counsel the inmate on spiritual problems at the request of his relatives, upon referral from other professional staff members or at his own request.  4. To provide religious education where needed. 5.  To help i n the interpretation to the community of the work of the i n s t i tution through professional associations, personal contacts, etc.  6. To co-operate with the other professional staff i n the total treatment plan for the inmates. It i s not the function of the chaplain to take over a l l spiritual care of those inmates who have had a good relationship with their own minister wherever i t i s possible for the latter to v i s i t .  His services might, however, very well be  1. The term "inmate" i s used herein simply to obviate the use of several others - "patient", "offender", "disturbed child" - which may a l l be referred to at once.  - 19 -  needed to interpret to the pastor some things about the inmate's problems and what the institution i s trying to do for him.  The Chaplain i n the Correctional Institution The function of professional staff in correctional institutions is at present in a state of flux.  As the warden is the f i n a l authority, the status  of psychiatrist, psychologist, social worker or chaplain depends largely on his conception of their role.  This adds confusion to the d i f f i c u l t i e s already men-  tioned i n clarifying the function of the chaplain and the social worker. It would seem that this i s a matter which w i l l have to be worked out in each i n s t i tution at present tthough one would assume that, in time, professional bodies w i l l bring more clarity to i t .  In some literature one sees the role of the  chaplain defined i n terms which sound very much like the role of the caseworker. Even the c l i n i c a l l y trained chaplain does not usually have the knowledge and s k i l l for this and so bad practice and bad feeling may result i f this activity is carried on. One might surmise from the literature that the chaplain i s often appointed to the institution through pressures from religious bodies and may  be  unwelcome to the administration - more or less so than other professionals. However, two experts In the f i e l d of criminology say, "...At best he (the chaplain) can offer to the prisoner a kind of acceptance and a possibility for growth beyond the potential of any other member of the prison staff."" " 1  And  these same men acknowledge the need for trained psychiatric and social work staff.  They go on to say that only c l i n i c a l l y trained chaplains should receive  1. Barnes, Harry E. and Teeters, Negley K., New Horizons i n Criminology. •• Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1959 (copyright 1945), p. 495*  - 20 -  state support.  Other writers have stressed the need for research and pilot  projects in this area.  1  The Chaplain i n the General Hospital The situation here i s a l i t t l e different from that of the prison chaplain because the professional roles are clearly defined for the medical and nursing groups. That of the social worker i s also more firmly established than in the correctional institution.  The sight of the clergyman i n the general hos-  p i t a l i s common because visitation of the sick has always been a part of the pastoral duties.  The new type of chaplain, especially trained i n working with  other disciplines and having more than the usual knowledge of human growth and behaviour, i s relatively rare.  Possibly the advance of psychosomatic medicine  has had more than a l i t t l e to do with the realization that there i s a very real place for the right chaplain in ministering to the sick. Texas Medical Center's new building to house i t s Institute of Religion i s an example of the developing interest.  Here, doctors, nurses and ministers each learn how they can work to2  gether to help the sick.  In Mental Hospitals Psychiatrists and ministers have had sharp differences of belief, especially over psychoanalytic concepts, which have aroused tension and perhaps even hostility.  The trained chaplain would, i n his preparation, necessarily  1. Kannewischer, Rev. A.E., "The Role of the Protestant Chaplain i n Correctional Institutions," American Journal of Corrections, vol. 19 (Jan.-Feb.1957) pp.12 e 27-30. 2. "The Healing Team," Time, vol. 74 (December 14, 1959) Canadian Edition, p. 80.  - 21 -  have come to terms with these differences.  A medical centre such as the one  mentioned above would, one expects, help medical men gain more understanding of theological concepts as they relate to mental disturbances. The great dangers involved i n untrained people attempting to counsel the mentally i l l , particularly in religious terms, means that chaplains w i l l have to demonstrate their usefulness and co-operativeness to the medical and social work professions before they are accepted as "one of the team" i n mental hospitals.  In Institutions for Children While these institutions are s t i l l very much a part of welfare work in the United States and, to a certain extent, i n eastern Canada, there are relatively few of them i n western Canada. Many of those which s t i l l exist grew up under church auspices.  The children were frequently under the theoretical  guidance of local pastors or a minister was superintendent of the home.  Now,  a l i t t l e more attention is being paid to the role of the chaplain i n such i n stitutions, especially those newer ones for emotionally disturbed children. Here, more than ever, the chaplain must be completely in accord with the total treatment programme of the agency. A recent article i n "Child Welfare" assigns a very helpful, creative and unique role to the chaplain i n such a treatment institution.  1  He may give the child such a significant experience of worship,  among other things,, that i t i s carried over into his l i f e after discharge and thus help him to find a place in the fellowship of the parish church.  1. Allaman, Richard, "The C l i n i c a l l y Trained Chaplain i n the Child-Care Institution," and Murdoch, John G. e Nordstrom, Clayton E., "Further Examination of the Chaplain's Role," vol. 39 (Jan. I960) pp. 6-11.  - 22 -  The Chaplain i n Other Institutions Part-time or full-time chaplains are often assigned to church-sponsored homes for the aged, for unmarried mothers, T.B. Sanitoriums, etc. In a local situation, a minister i s conducting discussion groups for girls i n a maternity home. In a Lutheran maternity home i n Minnesota: ...Significant results are being demonstrated through close teamwork of chaplain, caseworker, and nurse... .Where guilt, anxiety, and host i l i t y are present, redemptive religious faith with i t s restorative , power i s offered through individual pastoral care and group worship.  2. The Pastoral Counsellor i n the Social Agency The "non-institutional chaplain" i s the subject of this section. He i s appointed to a certain community agency by the board or administration. As the clients of the agency have access to ordinary services of worship, i t i s not the duty of the counsellor to conduct these.  His function i s similar to  that of the chaplain, however, i n that he counsels with the clients about spirits; ual matters and i s a link between them and the local church. The only known example of this role i s that of the counsellor i n agencies treating alcoholism. It i s probable that the importance of religion in the Alcoholics Anonymous programme led to experimentation with i t s use i n other organizations dealing with the same problem. The Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia i n Vancouver had a Protestant counsellor on i t s staff for  Lv Whiting, Henry J., "Current Emphases i n Casework under Religious Auspices: Integration of Casework and other Programmes," Social Welfare Forum 1951, National Conference of Social Work, Columbia University Press, New York, p. 217.  - 23 -  one-half day every two weeks. Budget restrictions made i t necessary to terminate this service i n 1958 but i t s resumption i s hoped for soon. The agency found the services of the minister most helpful.  He was considered to be a member of  the clinic team. There was no d i f f i c u l t y with over-lapping of duties between him and the social worker becuase any confusion i n this respect was dealt; .with on a case by case basis. At f i r s t there was some opinion that the presence of a pastoral counsellor would cause clients to shun the agency but no proof of this was found; rather, his inclusion i n the staff was considered to be a forward step.  (He was chosen for the Foundation by the Council of Churches as one  of the pastors most suitable for the job.) The main duties of this counsellor were twofold.  He held group dis-  cussions bi-monthly with a different group present each time.  In these sessions  they explored together ways i n which help can be obtained from God through prayer.  Most of the clients entered enthusiastically into the discussions and  several asked for personal interviews afterwards. A full-time, c l i n i c a l l y trained counsellor i s part of the therapeutic community i n the Georgia (U.S.A.) Commission on Alcoholism.  He i s known as the  Director of Religious Therapy. This agency i s , incidentally, being used as a training centre for other clergymen or theological students and was the f i r s t such centre i n the f i e l d of alcoholism i n the country. A sort of "unattached" chaplain working i n the welfare f i e l d i s the Port Chaplain with special responsibilities for immigrants. nomination provides this service i n port cities.  More than one de-  - 24 -  3. The Church-Sponsored Social Agency This type of agency i s far more common i n the United States than in Canada. In the local situation, the main examples of such agencies are homes for unmarried mothers, hostels for single men and women, services for the aged.and immigrants, and kindergartens.  In other parts of Canada, churches operate, i n  addition to the above, day care centres for children, homes for normal and disturbed children, institutions for delinquent women, neighbourhood houses, missions to seamen, service centres for immigrants, etc. The American picture has been quite thoroughly studied in the report prepared for the 1955 National Conference on Churches and Social Welfare.  1  Agencies, including hospitals, sponsored by twenty-two denominations (grouping the Lutheran and the Presbyterian bodies as one denomination each) were evaluated under many headings - financing, relation to the sponsoring church, numbers of trained social workers employed, types of services rendered, persons served, expansion programmes, year of establishment and others. A total of 2783 agencies was surveyed i n part and more details were secured for groups varying from 362 to 978.  This study comprising 214 pages cannot be summarized i n a few words.  It may be said, however, that many of these churches are looking closely at their social agencies and the standards that prevail i n them. Many of them are trying to keep up with the times with regard to personnel and methods of operation.  Of  1,641 social workers employed, 675 had degrees from accredited schools of social work and were employed i n 451 agencies.  Nevertheless, the social work functions  1. Clayton, Horace R. and Nishi, Setsuko Matsunaga, The Changing .Scene;, Current Trends and Issues. National Council of the Churches of Christ i n the U.S.A., 1958.  - 25 -  of the agencies were quite inadequately staffed i n many instances, although the percentage of trained workers was no lower than that of the general average i n social agencies i n the United States.  The matter of community chest financing  of church-sponsored agencies i s tabulated and discussed i n the report along with the related questions of the degree of church control and the religious character of the services offered.  A large programme of expansion was indicated which does  not suggest any anticipated withdrawal from the f i e l d . ^ As far as i s known, no such survey of Canadian church-sponsored agencies i s available although each sect would have much of the pertinent data at i t s headquarters.  Nor i s sufficient literature available to obtain even a sug-  gestion of trends at the present time.  If hospitals and homes for the aged are  included, more than one denomination sponsors a vigorous programme of welfare services i n Canada with no thought of retreat.  I t i s noted i n one annual report  of the United Church that a few institutions which had been purely custodial are  2 moving toward treatment programmes - notably some children's homes.  Also the  Warrendale Anglican home for g i r l s i n Ontario i s well-known as a treatment centre  -3 and i s supported i n part by the Toronto Community Chest. It has been said that many churches are carefully examining their social service structure.  They do not seem to be at a l l sure what to do about  1; This i s a very different picture from that drawn i n 1935 when a study revealed, ".. .The church's part i n welfare services as such i s so diminishing that the question i s seriously raised.whether the church w i l l not cease to occupy any considerable place i n this f i e l d . . . . " Douglass, H. Paul and Brunner, Edmund de S., The Protestant Church as a Social Institution. Harper and Brothers, New York,1935. 2. United Church of Canada, Board of Evangelism and Social Service, 33rd Annual Report, Darkness or Dawn. Toronto, 1958. 3. "Institutions and Pastoral Care i n the Dioceses, " The Bulletin.Council of Social Service, The Church of England i n Canada, November 15, 1952, Toronto.  - 26 -  i t , however. No one can say to what extent they should operate their own agencies. In those cases where the agency has very l i t t l e connection with the church and equally l i t t l e religious involvement i n regard to the programme, one wonders just how the church views the purpose of that agency, especially i f there are nonsectarian organizations f u l f i l l i n g similar functions. Perhaps the funds that go into i t could be better used in a pioneer project which i s being neglected by the community. One can appreciate and applaud the desire of Protestants to avoid creating services which, by their denominational character, exclude large segments of the community.  On the other hand, there may well be a place for social i n -  stitutions which include spiritual values without becoming narrow and exclusive. This i s not easy to achieve but i t warrants some experiment. Henry Whiting, Executive Secretary of the Lutheran Welfare Society of Minnesota, has something to say which i s pertinent: It does not follow that a l l casework must be under religious auspices, but such a setting, we believe, offers fuller opportunity for integrating the dynamics of religion into the helping and healing therapies....It would seem that this integration...can best be c l i n i c a l l y explored and developed i n an agency under religious auspices.1  4. The Institutional Church This term i s used to mean a church, usually i n a down-town or deteriorating district, which carries on something of a social service programme of i t s own i n addition to the usual activities of a parish church.  Frequently  i t i s supported i n part by other local congregations of the same denomination  1. Op.cit.. p. 216.  - 27 -  or:i>y %he denominational headquarters.  In many Canadain cities such churches  have sought to give special ministrations to immigrants and often this has been so important a part of the programme that the church has been knownas "The Church of A l l Nations" or " A l l People's Mission." In some denominations, the institutional church has accepted a sort of "welfare" role given I t by other local churches.  To i t , the more prosperous churches may send the transient  needing a meal or the new immigrant family seeking fellowship.  Giving of mater-  i a l aid i s perhaps more usual i n this sort of church than i n others. The programme may include a summer camp for the "under-privileged," a clothing exchange, a "soup kitchen", clubs and recreational activities of a l l varieties, day nursery or kindergarten f a c i l i t i e s .  Frequently the membership f a l l s into two classes -  those from the local population and those who have moved farther away but remain active i n the institutional church and provide much of i t s leadership. This type of church i s exemplified i n Vancouver by First United Church, and, to an extent, ;bySt. James Anglican."'" The structure and activities of the 2 former formed the theme of a previous social work thesis.  In 1953, this same  church made a further investigation to determine social conditions i n the area  3 and to plan i t s own programme i n the light of the facts obtained.  The report  included summaries by social agencies operating i n the area of the needs of the community as seen by these agencies. At that time, the church was already ex1. F i r s t United operates a summer camp, Welfare Industries, other language public worship, recreational activities. St. James has fewer services of this sort but does a special work with unemployed men. Both churches work closely with the social service agencies of the community. 2. Morrow, Henry M. , The Community Services of First United Church. Master of Social Work thesis, University of British Columbia, 1948. .3. Steiman;, Boris, Progress Report of First United Church Survey. Vancouver, B.C., January, 1953.  - 28 -  paneling i t s activities.  The United Church British Columbia Conference i s at  present engaged i n another review of that fast-changing inner-city area i n relation to the work and plans of F i r s t United and i t s "satellites", (two small missions belonging to the same pastoral charge.) The imminent implementation of the long-planned slum clearance project by the city makes this a necessity.  1  St. James Church i s also reviewing i t s role i n the light of the action of the city which w i l l make the area less residential and more industrial. In reviewing the work of the institutional church, one thinks almost inevitably of the Salvation Army whose whole religious programme i s inter-woven with i t s social services.  I t employs i t s own social workers and sponsors many  agencies - hostels, homes for unmarried mothers, etc., - as well as i t s chaplaincy and r e l i e f services.  A complete study of i t s welfare activities could  form another separate project. It may be noted i n passing that institutional churches of various denominations sometimes become involved i n wider social issues. In times of low employment, for instance, they have brought to the attention of the community the plight of homeless men who have not the qualifications for public assistance, and have provided the only shelter there was for these men until the local authorities took steps to ameliorate their condition. Some of these churches have social workers or community workers on their staffs.  Rarely i n Canada do they have social work training although this  i s very much desired. As one minister expressed i t , "A social worker's salary is far higher than mine!"  1. Compare with the study made i n Winnipeg, section 8 of this chapter.  - 29 -  It can be seen that the institutional church i s bringing the benefits of religion into areas where i t i s sorely needed. These churches were found to be very conscious of the need to be constantly re-evaluating their own roles. There is always the danger of them becoming just another agency and forgetting their unique purpose of bringing man into a consciousness of his relationship to God.  5. The Independent. Religiously-Oriented Agency Into this category f a l l particularly the "Missions", whose work is primarily with transient, homeless or delinquent men and boys. While Christiani t y holds a central place i n the guiding principles of the organization, i t i s often not affiliated with any church but has i t s own board.  If Vancouver's  Central City Mission is taken as an example, there i s no assistance from the Community Chest or from the City. Probably most missions prefer this independence. The 50th Anniversary brochure of Central City Mission contains letters of congratualation and appreciation from many local churches or denominational bodies.  Many of the churches of the community give: annual donations, and  clergymen are among the members of the board. Like the institutional church, the mission i s often looked upon by churches in more favoured districts as doing a needed job for them. (And one which they are glad to avoid?) The Vancouver mission we have mentioned has as i t s main avenue of work i t s central hostel where r e l i e f , shelter and food are provided as well as some recreation. In the recent period of high unemployment, i t has co-ordinated i t s efforts with other organizations serving needy men.  A few years ago a Youth Residence was  - 30 -  purchased and staffed with house-parents. Early i n 1959, this work with youth was augmented by the addition of a ranch at Haney, B.C.  The objective of this  "1 mission i s stated as, "The betterment of the entire man in body, mind and soul. Many of the missions in Canada and the United States (and a few elsewhere) are a f f i l i a t e d with the International Union of Gospel Missions which was organized i n 1913 and now has about 250 a f f i l i a t e s .  Each mission i s independent  but the Union "does maintain certain standards... in order to further the interest 2 of the work and to increase the respect and support of people of the churches." The missions in the Union are never thought of as substitutes for the church but are often defined as agents of the church.  Some do not undertake the welfare  activities outlined above; others extend them to provide employment i n an af3 f i l i a t e d Welfare or Goodwill Industry.  6. Pastoral Counselling There i s a total religious l i f e of the parishioner to be drawn j ; upon; and there i s the total power of Christianity to be offered — i t s searching ethical scrutiny; i t s gospel of forgiveness; the fellowship of the Church; the purgation and aspiration of prayer; the affirmation of psychosomatic wholeness within the self....The function of pastoral counselling i s not to pipe faith and strength into a parishioner from the outside, but to provide a situation i n which his existing or latent  1. Central City Mission, 1908-1958: 50 Years of Serivce. Central City Mission, Vancouver 4, B.C. (a pamphlet). 2. Tippett, Ernest A., ed., Directory. International Union of Gospel Missions, Bridgeport, 1, Conn, (undated). 3. Paul, William E., The Romance of Rescue, Osterhus Publishing House, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1959 ( f i r s t printing 1946). Note: In Vancouver, none of the missions, as far as i s known, are a f f i l i a t e d with welfare industries though First United Church does operate one.  - 31  -  accessibility to the saving power of God can be deepened and clarified. Therefore, permissive, individual-centered counselling i s not simply a technique....It can reflect...respect for the freedom of man and hope for the redemption of man.l The literature indicates that seminaries are becoming more and more concerned about equipping their students for the art of pastoral counselling.  Along with  this s k i l l , the minister needs to know in what situations his counselling i s adequate and when and where referral to someone else should be made. Among the many books on the subject of pastoral counselling should be noted a recent 2 Canadian publication, "Pastoral Counselling for Mental Health."  This manual  for clergymen covers a wide range of topics competently, though in a purely secular manner. The bibliography i s large and varied. The extent to which ministers engage i n counselling w i l l be dealth with i n greater measure in the next chapter. We may say here that the amount depends largely on the interest and aptitude of the individual pastor, and on the time he has to devote to i t . Some churches engage an assistant minister to do just this work or to relieve the minister of other duties so that he devote more time to counselling.  may  Probably this arrangement would be more com-  mon were there more ordained men and women available.  In one eastern American  city, a group of clergymen of different denominations worked together on this problem, setting up a central place for counselling and taking turns manning i t . A few congregations have engaged the services of psychotherapists who work with the minister. The type of counselling again varies with the s k i l l , understanding and training of the. clergyman. Unfortunately, there are some who dabble in 1. Roberts, David E., "Concluding Reflections," The Church and Mental Health, ed. Paul B. Maves, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1953, p. 274. 2. Laycock, Samuel R., The Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1958.  - 32 -  situations too complex for any but highly trained specialists.  There are  others who wish they had more discernment in separating the severe illness from the more easily managed problem.  1  We may speak again of the over-lapping of professional interests. Distinctive lines can never be drawn i n this phase of the helping professions. Counselling i s done by public health nurse, social worker, doctor and psychiatrist.  Just as there are cases which may be handled by the psychotherapist or  the social worker equally well, so do minister and social worker find themselves treading the same ground at times.  There i s increased specialization on the  one hand and a blurring of roles on the other.  Another comment of Dr. Hiltner's  seems applicable here: Dynamic knowledge on which a l l counselling and psychotherapy are based is much closer to being the village green than a private lot....Maintaining the proper distinctiveness of one's profession no longer implies that every tool or bit of knowledge gne uses must be considered the exclusive property of that profession. Special sorts of counselling have been tried.  One thinks of the  Mission to the Suicides in London, England, begun by an Anglican priest and now including 'social workers and others on the staff.  Locally, the radio pro-  gramme, "The Pastor's Study", has sought to give counsel to distressed persons who telephoned the studio.  Frequently the pastor in charge of the broadcast  referred the client to a social agency.  1. See below, p.59 2. Hiltner, Seward, "The Role of the Clergyman as a Counsellor," Social Work in the Current Scene, National Conference of Social Work, Columbia University Press, New York, 1950, p. 373.  - 33 -  7. The Lay Volunteer Movement This century has seen a vast increase i n social service projects carried on by the efforts of volunteer church members both within and without the church.  It would be impossible to measure the amount of service given to  social agencies by volunteers who are also active church members. Within the organizations of the church, a multitude of activities are constantly being undertaken which could f a l l within the broad scope of social welfare - a men's club raises funds and supplies much of the labour to erect a boys' camp; a women's society provides many of the material needs of a children's institution; a mixed group operates a social club for elderly persons.  In the recreational  sphere, the church's contribution is often unnoticed but, staffed for the most part by volunteers, i t has tremendous scope. Its (the church's) more highly organized groups for women, young people, boys and g i r l s , realize many, i f not most, of the values found i n the organizations undertaken for similar age groups i n the name of social work.l More recently, one would add men's groups to this l i s t . The great lack i n this area, especially i n the work with youth, i s sufficiently skilled leadership.  In spite of great training schemes for volun-  teer leaders, there are never enough. The programme of the study group of a women's society in a local congregation might not appear to do anything more than skim the surface of social problems and the projects developed to meet these same problems are often feeble but the continued effort of  countless small groups has produced a large body  of women who are much more alert to the social situation than they would otherwise be and their activities have a real impact.  1. Douglass and Brunner, Op. c i t . . p. 188.  - 34 -  Further mention w i l l be made later of the role of the social worker as a volunteer i n the local church."'"  8. Areas of Collaboration Research In several Canadian cities, surveys of the churches i n down-town, or inner-city, areas have been made. The one completed i n Winnipeg by the Presbyo  tery of the United Church of Canada i n 1958 i s an example.  Many topics were  included i n this study - the services offered by the individual churches in the area; the proportion of membership coming from the district surrounding these churches compared to that from a distance; the changes taking place or predicted in the locality; the needs of the residents i n the parishes which might be considered the responsibility of the church; the extent to which the churches were or were not meeting these needs.  The recommendation was made that an inner-city  welfare council be appointed as a committee of Presbytery with a permanent secretary, among whose duties would be that of co-ordinating the efforts of these churches with social agencies.  (It i s understood by the writer that this recom-  mendation was carried out.) Two other recommendations are of interest here: That the Welfare Council be asked to arrange area meetings embracing ^ social workers and clergy to discuss common problems of social welfare../ and 1. See below p. 71 2. Report of the Down Town Survey Committee of Winnipeg Presbytery, June 18,1958. 3. Ibid.. p. 11  - 35 -  That the Inner-City Council work closely with the School of Social Work at the University of Manitoba with a view to co-ordinating the research projects of senior social work students with our needs for surveys of specific community areas.1 (Actually the School of Social Work did take an active part i n preparing material which was used i n the report.) It was noted i n the report that the Anglican Church was pursuing a down-town survey about the same time. While there was some co-operation, i t seems regrettable that each denomination must carry out i t s own survey, possibly with much over-lapping, but this i s a not infrequent occurrence. In the f i e l d of research, another example i s the study of church2 sponsored agencies already mentioned.  3 A third i s "The Churches of Exploding Suburbia"  which i s an inves-  tigation similar to the one i n Winnipeg except that the area studied was of a very different socio-economic structure and the study was made by an interdenominational body and included almost a l l the churches and synagogues i n the area. It deals with many matters not related directly to social services but does have a large section covering the role of the minister i n personal a nd social problems, the social service activities of the local congregations, pastoral counselling, and referrals to social agencies.  This same body which made the  study published an attractively illustrated, informative and well-organized directory of welfare services for the use of the churches.  I t i s called a....  "problem-centered directory!" 1. Ibid.. p. 12. 2. Gayton and Nishi, op. c i t . 3. Church Welfare Bureau, Council of Churches of Greater Houston, The Churches of Exploding Suburbia: A Study of the Social Welfare Problems and Resources i n the Churches of Southwest Houston. Houston, Texas, Nov.l, 1958.  -36 -  An examination of the social work content of seminary curricula is currently being made by the McCormick Theological Seminary of Chicago, under the sponsorship of the National Council of Churches.  1  No recent inquiries have been discovered which compare with the scope and detail of that done by Douglass and Brunner for the Institute of Social and Religious Research i n 1935. The preface of their book states that this was 2 only one of forty-eight research projects. Only one example was found of research initiated by a social agency and this was of a general nature and was completed i n 1945.  Statistics were  kept of the number and nature of referrals made by a group of ministers to a 3 family and child agency i n St. Louis over a three year period. Generalized statements about the attitude of the churches toward research and the amount carried out by various sects are found i n the preparatory study&r the Cleveland Conference of 1955.^ These statements were obtained directly from the thirteen denominations which were questioned. Three statements did not mention research but the other ten showed concern and nine had active projects to report. The examples given are only a few of what i s undoubtedly a growing f i e l d of research. 1. Administrative Assistant of the Dept. of Social Welfare, Division of Christian Life and Work, National Council of the Churches of Christ i n the United States of America, New York, Letter to the writer, Nov. 5, 1959. 2. Op. c i t . . Preface V. 3. Baldwin, Ruth M., "The Minister and the Social Worker," The Family, vol. 26 (June 1945) pp. 149-154. 4. Bachmann, The Activating Concern.  - 37 -  Co-operative Activities In 1952 the Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies of New York reported on a demonstration workshop which was organized to try to answer the following questions: Should churches and welfare agencies be 'natural partners'? Do social workers and ministers understand each other? Can the person in need be helped by more cooperation between ministers and social workers? ^ Do laymen have a special role i n fostering this cooperation? Sample cases were discussed as well as the roles of the two professions.  2 'Pointers Toward Cooperation' were drawn up,  and the workshop was evaluated.  Similar to this workshop but extending over a much longer period was the "Institute on Church and Social Welfare Services" initiated i n Vancouver in September 1950 through the interest and efforts of a few persons. The Canadian Association of Social Workers and the Vancouver Council of Churches became the sponsoring bodies.  A membership of about twenty-six (changing from  time to time i n personnel) held monthly meetings for nearly seven years. Clergy, social workers and a few lay church members made up the group.  Cases were dis-  cussed, papers presented by individuals within or without the group, statements prepared and panel discussions held "to bring the work of the institute to other clergymen and social workers i n the community, as well as to theological and  3 social work students."  The presence in the group of the then Director of the  School of Social Work at the University of British Columbia brought the question of professional education into the centre of the discussions at times. An ad1. Federation of Protestant Welfare Agencies, Inc., Cooperation Between Churches and Welfare Agencies: Report of a Demonstration Workshop. New York, September 1952, p. 3. 2. Ibid..p. 11. 3. Bradley, Eleanor J., "A Venture Towards Understanding," The Social Worker, vol. 19 (December 1951) p. 23.  - 38 -  visory panel was formed of clergy and social workers which could be called on by either group for consultation i n d i f f i c u l t problems. The minutes, to which this writer has had access, show time after time the benefit that was derived through personal contact with members of the other discipline and through the programmes of the Institute which led to greater mutual understanding. "The Changing Scene" t e l l s of the many types of meetings between social work representatives and churches i n the United States, l i s t i n g examples.  1  Many  of these have grown out of efforts of councils of churches both at the local and state level.  In the case of 200 such councils, there i s a paid worker which  makes the situation very different from that prevailing in most parts of Canada. Here the local councils must carry out their activities through the exertions of already heavily burdened pastors or lay persons. On a different level, the Church Conference of Social Work, as an associate group of the National Conference of Social Welfare, has been held annually since about 1930.  It i s "a co-operative and supplementary body to the  National Conference of Social Work, expressing the peculiar concern of the 2 churches in the f i e l d . " Paul B. Maves writes about the Department of Social Welfare of the Council of Churches i n Washington, D.C., which provides "comprehensive information about hundreds of social agencies and other resources of the city" and sends ministers monthly news sheets with articles on special social needs and resources. 1. Cayton and Nishi, op. c i t . , pp. 92-111. 2. Ibid., p. 154. 3. Maves, Paul B., "Securing More Adequate F a c i l i t i e s i n the Local Community," The Church and Mental Health, Maves, p. 222.  r  39 -  Mention was made i n an article of a Protestant chaplain collaborating i n the writing of a "Primer of Short-term Group Counselling" for a detention home - the Youth Study Centre of Philadelphia - but no other aspects of his role were discussed.''" On the local scene there i s some formal collaboration between the Community Chest and Council and church groups.  There i s a standing committee  (of the Community Council) on recreational and educational needs of the aged which i s made up of representatives from the Community Council, the Vancouver Council of Churches, neighbourhood houses, professional groups and others. The purpose of this committee i s to promote projects which w i l l meet the needs of the aged i n this f i e l d .  One service which the committee i s presently undertak-  ing i s the preparation of a directory of services which are available to the aged through the churches, community centres and elsewhere. In the summer of 1959, the Vancouver Community Council co-operated with an o f f i c i a l of the Canadian Lutheran Council who was making a study of the local welfare services i n order to establish a national welfare policy for that church.  At the moment i t i s co-operating i n the project of the United Church 2  previously mentioned.  The church asked the council to take part i n the survey  and the latter's responsibility w i l l be to stimulate participation by the social agencies of the community. Certainly efforts at collaboration seem to be increasing, especially those initiated by religious groups, but, on the whole, they are sporadic at the local level i f they exist outside the framework of a particular structure such as the chaplaincy or the institutional church. 1. Sharp, E. Preston, "Group Counselling in a Short-term Institution," Federal Probation, vol. 23 (Sept. 1959) p. 9. 2. See above p. 28, chap. 2, sec. 4.  - 40 -  9. Professional Education It was not possible to make a comprehensive survey of the two fields of education as related to one another but some indications can be given of current practices.  It i s not known when the results w i l l be available of the study  previously mentioned concerning social work content of seminary courses.  1  They  w i l l be of interest to anyone who i s concerned about the relationships between the two professions.  k  At Union College (United Church of Canada) on the campus of the University of British Columbia the students receive some background lectures by a member of the faculty about common concerns of the church and social work. Representatives from three or four social agencies speak to the students each year and one f i e l d t r i p i s arranged.  During his three years at the college,  each student hears a report on the provincial welfare services and one on the Vancouver Community Council.  Students are encouraged to do their special third  year project i n the f i e l d of social welfare. A l l this i s i n addition to the courses i n pastoral counselling which are given by a faculty member with special training i n psychology. The curriculum at the Anglican College, on the same campus, i s i n a state of flux because of a recent complete turnover in staff.  There i s , however,  a real interest i n seeing that the students have some orientation to social agencies.  They /are given some direct contact with agencies and, i f any student  has a special interest along this line, he i s encouraged to follow i t up. are also the courses in pastoral theology.  1. See above p. 36.  There  - 41 -  A noteworthy innovation has been made i n Connecticut where the Institute of Church and Community was established by Hartford Seminary Foundation i n conjunction with the University of Connecticut. Students l i v e on the Seminary campus during the entire three year period.  The f i r s t year consists of religious  and sociological subjects taken at the Seminary. The courses of the second and third years are those of the School of Social Work at the University, plus a weekly seminar at the theological school to relate the professional instruction to Christian beliefs.  Students receive a f u l l y accredited Master of Social Work  degree from the University and a certificate i n Church and Community from the Seminary Foundation.  It i s believed that a similar course i s offered at the  University of Chicago. A l l the accredited non-denominational social work schools i n Canada have methods courses which teach the student to deal with problems of referral and of collaboration with other disciplines, including the ministry.  The d i -  rector of the School of Social Work at McGill University, Montreal, described a plan for discussion between the staff of the school and the Faculty of Divinity on the subject of values, a matter about which the school i s exercised at present. He added,  "-'S-'  "There i s a f a i r l y frequent expression on the part of our staff of the need for a better working relationship between clergy and social workers and this, I think, can be accepted as evidence that the former group of professional people i s important to the most effective functioning of social workers."1 From the Toronto School came this statement, "Our students often express keen interest i n the relationship between their religion and social work, and faculty i s agreed that the question should be discussed wherever relevant, i n any course, rather than i n a separate course."2 1. Moore, John J.O., letter to the writer, February 3, I960. 2. Govan, Elizabeth S.L., letter to the writer, January 27, I960.  - 42 -  The same school participates i n a course on the Church Worker and Social Work given to the Anglican, Presbyterian and United Church Training Schools for Women Church Workers. That portion of the curriculum study of the Council on Social Work Education concerned with social welfare services has given very l i t t l e attention to the subject of inter-professional relations or to social institutions."'' The volume on values and ethics states that, when schools of social work were surveyed about their curriculum, they were asked i f they discussed the basic be2 l i e f s of the three major religious groups.  The answers received are not given  but the trends they revealed are, ore assumes, incorporated with other data. There i s also a discussion of the difficulties facing students i n situations where there are deep differences of belief.  In such instances i t i s necessary  for the student of social work to be able to determine whether the problem can be met on the level of generally accepted codes of behaviour or whether i t i s rooted i n one of the differing points of view which are "essentially irreconcil3 able,"  - namely, the belief i n supernatural bases for conduct or the belief  that human experience alone determines values.  The author goes no further i n  suggesting how the student i s to be helped to meet the situation i f i t f a l l s i n the latter category. It would seem f a i r to say i n summary that the relationships between the clergy and social work are given about as much (or as l i t t l e ) attention i n social work education as are those with teachers or public health nurses, a l 1 . Weissman, Irving, Social Welfare Policy and Services i n Social Work Education. Council on Social Work Education, New York, 1 9 5 9 2. Pumphrey, Muriel W., The Teaching of Values and Ethics i n Social Work Education, Council of Social Work Education, New York, 1 9 5 9 , Appendix B. 3 . Ibid.. p. 83.  - 43 -  though questions involving religious attitudes may receive special considerations. The statement of the director of the School of Social Work at the University of Manitoba would be the case i n any non-denominational school: ...There i s probably more emphasis of collaboration with medical and psychiatric personnel than there i s with any other single group.^ The opinions of local social workers and ministers on this subject w i l l be shown in the next chapter.  1. Mann, Helen, letter to the writer, February 1, i960.  CHAPTER III  PRACTISES AND ATTITUDES DISCOVERED IN THE GREATER VANCOUVER AREA  Sample surveys were conducted by means of questionnaires and interviews. A questionnaire^" was distributed in three social agencies - a private family agency; a public agency which deals not only with child and family diff i c u l t i e s but also with financial assistance; the social service department of a hospital.  Its purpose was to e l i c i t information about certain opinions, at-  titudes and practices of the workers.  The agencies were chosen to represent  broad areas of social work in greater Vancouver. It had been the writer's plan to distribute another questionnaire among representative clergymen.  It was discovered, however, that the Vancouver  Council of Churches was in the process of doing this and i t was thought unlikely that the ministers would answer two of them.  (The poor returns from the Council's  questionnaire validated this.) The Council had been asked to present a brief to the American Psychiatric Association, which had been retained by the Government of British Columbia to study mental health f a c i l i t i e s in the province. The questionnaire which was sent out at the end of December, 1959,  was the method  o  used to gather material for this brief, 1. See Appendix A. 2. See Appendix B.  and the writer was permitted to use the  - 45 -  material thus gathered. Although many of the Council's questions were related to social work in a general way, i t s focus was on the f i e l d of mental health.  In order to gain  more information about the opinions of the clergy on social agencies and social workers, a small number of interviews were held with a diverse group of ministers.  1. Questionnaire to Social Workers Thirty-three questionnaires were returned - almost 100$ of the nonsupervisory social work personnel of the three agencies.  It i s realized that  this i s a very small sample of social workers and that the results can only indicate trends and attitudes.  The results are analyzed below in the order of  the questions asked. Need for Greater Mutual Understanding and Cooperation Between Social Workers and Ministers: Only 4 of the workers thought there was no need f o r this.  One of  these explained that he did not see any relation between the two fields.  He  added: "Religious and moral problems are handled quite differently by these disciplines."  Nor did he think there are problems which can be better treated  by ministers than by social workers.  Two of the 4 restricted themselves to  religious problems or matters of dogma and ritual as those better l e f t to the clergy. Professional Training: Almost three-quarters reported no orientation to the work of the clergy  - 46 -  in the f i e l d of individual and family counselling and no part of their training acquainted them with ways i n which they and the clergy could work together on specific cases.  The same number, however, had learned from experience ways of  working together. One-half of those who had had no such orientation thought there was a need for some. Referrals: Questions 3, 4 and 5 dealt with this topic.  Twenty-three workers had  referred clients to ministers but only 12 had done so i n 1959-  The numbers re-  ferred ranged from 1 to 15, or an average of 3.7 per worker referring.  As the  figure of 15 was the only one over 6, the worker who made that many referrals is unusual i n this respect. A more r e a l i s t i c average i s obtained by omitting his reply, and the figure of 2.5 referrals for 11 workers i s reached.  We  may  conclude that roughly one-third of the social workers refer clients to a pastor less than once a year and one-third refer- from 2 to 3 a year. do not make such referrals. ters; 2 did not.  The remainder  Seventeen reported good co-operation from the minis-  The ministers' practices in reporting back to the agency were  equally divided between "seldom" and "usually" with only two checking "never". Fifteen workers have had, at one time or another, continuing co-operation with a member of the clergy i n a specific case. this situation.  The same number have never experienced  One could recall from 5 to 10 instances of this and 2 had had  over 10 experiences. In summary i t may be said that, since two-thirds of the social workers have referred cases to ministers at some time, they have, or have had, a belief i n the worth-whileness of the practise.  Not a l l were satisfied with the co-opera-  tion received; 2 were negative about i t , and 4 failed to answer. The number of referrals i s small and so i s the number of cases involving continuing mutual  - 47-  participation.  The number of referrals from  the clergy i s almost equally small  although more workers were involved in transactions going i n this direction than in those going the other  way.  Problems Better Handled by Ministers: Four of the agency people do not believe there are any, but only one of these was among the group seeing no need for greater mutual co-operation. The specific types of situations which workers thought should come within the province of the minister are l i s t e d in the following table. TABLE A.  Opinions of Social Workers: What Social Problems are Better Handled by Ministers than by Social Workers. (Survey Area: Vancouver, i960) Problems  Number of Replies  "Spiritual" or "religious" (undefined) Feelings of guilt (including those centered on religious values); religious conflict involving dogma or r i t u a l  11 ....  Fears concerning illness and death  17 6  Need of the acceptance and support of the fellowship of the church . . . . . . . . . . Need for increased sense of personal worth Any problems (including family d i f f i c u l t i e s specifically) where the religious a f f i l i a t i o n has meaning or where the individual has more confidence in the minister than in the."worker . . . .  5  Where the strong, supportive relationship of the minister i s needed  2  Where the authority of the minister has meaning  3  Immigrant ethnic groups where language i s a problem  1  Need of strength to meet daily demands  1  To be determined on a case by case basis Need for spiritual values or a purpose in l i f e  2 2  TOTAL Source:  . . . i :  4 2  56  Questionnaire sent to sample group of social workers by the writer.  1. Subsequent tables i n Section 1 of this chapter are a l l drawn from material received from the same questionnaire.  - 48 -  The implication;-;of these answers i s that the group of social workers questioned definitely believe that there are specific spiritual problems which should be met by ministers, although these are, i n many cases undefined.  The  large group who mentioned d i f f i c u l t i e s of guilt or conflict have touched on an area which i s very close to the territory i n which their own profession operates. One can see further questions emerging: Can the boundaries of the two disciplines be clear-cut?  What does the social worker do about the client who i s torn by  such conflicts but whose a f f i l i a t i o n i s with a church which has r i g i d doctrines i n the area of the conflict?  Does the social worker know who is the most quali-  fied minister to help with the problem i f the client has no church affiliation? It i s rather surprising that more mention was not made of problems relating to illness, age and death as ministers have traditionally been called on i n these crisis-producing situations.  Possibly the reason i s that workers out-  side hospital settings do not come into as close a relationship with these problems as with some others. One of the non-hospital personnel who mentioned this item works with the aged. One wonders about the suggestion, "The use of church authority i n persuading clients to more constructive behaviour," which -appears to be a negation of social work teaching about the use of authority. How May Mutual Understanding be Increased? The social workers were asked to give their opinions about the usefulness of certain specified devices. Then they were asked to give their own suggests ions.  The replies are tabulated below:  - 49 -  TABLE B.  Opinions of Social Workers: What Methods or Resources Would Increase Mutual Understanding Between Social Workers and Ministers. B  C  8  14  7  29  Study groups dealing with common problems and the s k i l l s and training of each groups  7  14  8  29  A liaison person with knowledge i n both fields (e.g. some cities have a Church Welfare Bureau or Secretary functioning within the Council of Churches.)  4  15  8  27  Individual social workers who are church members acting as resource or interpretive persons within their own church.  5  14  10  29  24  57  33  114  Suggested Methods Occasional workshops to discuss common  TOTALS A = Very effective;  A  ,  Total  B = Worth developing; C = Doubtful Value  Two of the 33 persons did not complete this section.  Almost a l l of  the 31 respondents checked one item in each section, the average being 3.7 items checked.' There i s no significant difference i n the weight given the various methods except that there i s slightly more doubt that No. 4 i s of value. This could arise from the fear that the individual church might exploit the social worker as a sort of unpaid worker within the church.  One answer made  this fear explicit. Regarding the above question and the following one presented i n Table C, this notation was made on one reply, "I don't feel that i t would make much sense to answer this page i f question 1 i s answered no."  One other person  followed the same course without explanation. The others who answered No. 1 i n the negative were not as consistent; they checked part of Table A as being "worth trying."  - 50 -  TABLE C.  Suggestions of Social Workers: How to Increase Co-operation and Understanding.  Understanding arising from discussion on a case by case basis ......  7  Sharing of certain aspects of cases rather than a l l or none basis of referral  1  Appointment of one resource person i n each major agency who would help ministers with referrals, resources, etc  1  Clearer interpretation of goals and functions of one or both professions  2  Co-operation of both i n community development . . . .  1  Social workers should know the clergy i n their own districts - both workers and ministers need knowledge of community resources  5  Orientation to the work of the other discipline at University or elsewhere - some joint training. .  2  Encourage ministers who are eligible to join B.C. Association of Social Workers  1  Need to differentiate between community work and pastoral counselling. TOTAL  .  1 21  Sixteen respondents had no suggestions. In summary, the general opinion of those who did offer further sug7 gestions was that the individual worker could promote mutual understanding by the interpretation given to pastors as they consulted together on cases or as they worked together i n community projects. the community.  Both need a working knowledge of  One person thought i t would be helpful i f social workers had  spot maps or directories of churches and clergymen, and i f ministers a l l had directories of agencies. One worker noted that, i f there i s confusion between  - 51 -  the two professions about the roles of each, the clients feel confusion, frustration and anxiety. Obstacles to Effective Go-operation; The workers were asked to check a prepared l i s t of possible hindrances and then to add their own suggestions. The results are found i n Tables D and E. TABLE D.  Opinions of Social Workers: Main Obstacles to Effective Co-operation.  Lack of mutual understanding of function Reluctance to "hand over" cases  24  ....  9  Doubt of the other's s k i l l Pressure of work  9  Client or parishioner's reluctance  7  Other  11  TOTAL  78  TABLE E.  1.  18  Suggestions of Social Workers: Obstacles to Co-operation.  Other  The two fields are not related - religious and moral problems handled quite differently by the two professions.  2. .Lack of importance attached to religion by families. 3.  Most of cases who could use a minister aren't affiliated with a church.  4.  Church often out-of-date and out-of-touch with today's problems.  5.  Clergy bewildered by plethora of agencies and use only the most familiar. Communication between clergy and social worker not established early enough i n the case. Confidentiality restricts sharing of cases. (2)  6. 7. 8.  Frequently ministers assume that social workers have no understanding of spiritual values and therefore hesitate to ask for their help. They also seem to be disillusioned, almost judgmental, i f every social worker i s not a practising Christian or Jew.  ~ 52 =  9.  Inability of either to share i n a helping relationship largely due to a l l or nothing attitude.  10.  Planning and working through the referral and transfer.  11.  Lack of knowledge of community resources.  Agency Differences: There were few significant differences i n the replies received from the three agencies. A l l of the hospital workers saw a need for greater mutual understanding and co-operation, a l l had made referrals to ministers, a l l thought there were problems better handled by the clergy.  The only two reports of poor  co-operation from the clergy came, however, from this group, and two of them did not answer this question.  The hospital group also registered more emphasis  on lack of understanding being the chief hindrance to co-operation.  One of  these workers noted that perhaps fewer referrals were made to ministers because of the presence of chaplains i n the hospital who would probably see the patient automatically.  The public agency group put much more emphasis on pressure of  work as an obstruction to understanding and joint planning.  This i s understand-  able as this agency i s less able to limit intake than the others.  It was no-  ticed that the public welfare workers were much less inclined to rate any of Table B as "very effective".  They gave far fewer suggestions of their own than  the other groups. The largest percentage of people answering "no" to the f i r s t question came from the family agency.  - 53 -  2. Questionnaire to Ministers The questionnaire was distributed to about 300 Protestant clergymen. The exact number sent out by the Council cannot be determined because some denominations attended to their own mailing but i t was in the neighbourhood of 225.  A further 60 to 75 were distributed to members of the Evangelical Minis-  t e r i a l Association of Vancouver and district.  Of the 42 replies received,  approximately 38 came from those affiliated with the Council.  (Without speaking  to the individual ministers, i t i s impossible to ascertain positively to which group some of the congregations belong.) This i s a small number of replies on which to base conclusions and so, as with the social workers, approximate trends only can be shown. On the surface i t would seem that few of the clergy are i n terested i n the matter and yet i t i s known that some who have publicly expressed considerable interest in social and emotional problems did not complete the questionnaire.  Time was definitely a factor as a good deal of work was needed  to report at a l l accurately and only two weeks was given for replies. Some of the questions were considered irrelevant to this study and are omitted entirely.  I t i s unfortunate that some points were phrased in such a  manner as to lead to diversity of interpretation. data from which to draw some conclusions.  There were, however, sufficient  (In no case did a l l 42 replies deal  with every question so the total number of answers i s given i n each instance.) Analysis of Replies i n Terms of Denominations. Districts and  Congregations:  Fifteen replies were from United Church of Canada, clergy, one of whom was a f i e l d secretary without a regular pastoral charge. Replies from Anglicans comprised 12 more of the total.  Among these was one from Cloverdale which can  scarcely be considered in the greater Vancouver area at present.  The five  - 54 -  Presbyterian replies included the Mt. Lehman and Bradner charge and also Abbotsford - a rural area and a small town. Baptists accounted for 5 returns, Free Methodist and Christian Reformed one each, and 3 Salvation Army. One Baptist was in Cloverdale and two of the Salvation Army were completely outside the lower Fraser Valley (Powell River and Vernon). A l l were included i n the f i n a l tabulations in order to give as wide a representation as possible. No complete analysis was made of the socio-economic-cultural  items.  It should be noted, however, that there was great variation in the composition of the congregations.  Two had a large percentage of university students; a  few were reported to be from 75 to 100$ i n the upper-middle-class with high economic status; two contained large groups of recent immigrants; two included 40 to 50$ retired persons; several congregations were 90$ or over working class; five claimed to have over 10$ l i v i n g at subsistence level. a l l given by the ministers.  These figures were  Even though the terms are not at a l l precise, i t  can be seen that there were great differences in class. Persons Counselled by Ministers: The questionnaire used the term "emotional illness" without defining i t and, in the same section, asked about "problems", l i s t i n g several which do not necessarily involve emotional illness i n i t s narrow sense. Moreover, the term "counselling" was undefined.  One clergyman stated that he took the question  to include only problems of some proportions and so he omitted regular pre-marital counselling which others doubtless did include.  - 55 -  TABLE F.  Report of Ministers: Number of Persons Seen and Hours Spent in Counselling. (Survey Area, Greater Vancouver; January I960)  'Counselling Sessions  Number of Replies  Total  'Range  Persons seen last month.  270  0-30  6.75  40  Persons seen since Sept. 1959  925  0-100  23.1  40  Hours last month  484  0-100  Hours since Sept. 1959 Source:  1746  0.350  Average  2 12.4 3  44.8  2  39 39  Questionnaire circulated to Protestant ministers by the Vancouver Council of Churches.  The average time spent with each person i s 1.5 hours when calculated on the figures for one month and 1.6 hours when calculated on the (revised) figures for the period since September 1959.  This proximity would seem to validate  the figures to a certain extent.  Problems for Which Counselling was Provided As can be seen from the next table, there could be a good deal of overlapping i n this l i s t as no definitions of terms was made. It must be remembered that a number of these counselling sessions would be for those who wished the minister to perform their marriage ceremony. 1. See page 53 l o r a more detailed explanation of the survey area. 2. The last two averages were weighted by one reply i n which a minister said he had spent 100 hours with 2 persons and 350 hours with 18 persons. As this was exceptional, revised averages were computed without his reply. These were 10.1 and 36.7 respectively. 3. Omitting the same reply, the range was 0-170. 4. Subsequent tables i n this section are a l l drawn from the same source.  L 56 -  TABLE G.  Report of Ministers: Problems for Which Counselling Provided Since September 1959. Types of Problems  Numbers  Personal Courtship e Marriage Vocational e Financial Alcoholism Delinquency Threatened Divorce Family Of Old Age Nervous or Emotional Illness Drug Addiction Threatened Suicide Emotional (connected with physical illness)  200 203 62 56 21 38 58 81 95 2 10 58  Other: Unmarried Mothers, Foreign Language e Customs, Personal Faith (no numbers given). Thirty-four ministers reported giving an average of 26 problems per pastor. For most part, the replies listed one problem per person counselled, but there were a few who gave as many as 5 problems per person.  Relationship Between Church Membership and Problems In an attempt to discover whether those who came to the clergy for counselling were active i n the church or not, the ministers were asked to state whether most of the persons with problems were members, adherents or others and whether they were active participants inthe church programme or not. As some gave percentages and some put check marks, no exact data could be secured. It i s clear, however, that the vast majority of the problems were found among inactive participants even though some of them would be nominal members. Only a very few of the clergy found a large proportion of the problems among the membership whereas 22 out of 40 found none among members. "Others" (those who hear about the minister from friends, radio broadcasts, other sources) accounted for  - 57 -  a majority of the problems i n at least 12 replies. These relationships give rise to some interesting questions. Do church members who are active participants, in the l i f e of the church have fewer of the problems listed than those who are inactive?  Or do those members who do have problems consult someone other than  their own pastors? A very different type of investigation would be needed to try to answer these questions.  Referrals from Ministers: TABLE H.  Report of Ministers: Referrals Made to Other Resources Since Sept.l, 1959.  Referrals to:  Number Made  23  59 28  Doctor Lawyer Nurse  73 1  Other (a)  16  Social agency  TOTAL  Number of ministers referring.  177  17 17 1 8 »...  (a) "Other" included mental hospital, psychoanalyst, police and more unnamed. Nine clergy made no referrals at a l l , leaving 33 who did. The average was 5.5 referrals from each of the latter group.  The largest number were made to agen-  cies but we have no way of knowing to what agencies or for what purposes.  The  ministers were asked i f the referrals helped. Eighteen answered in the affirmative, one in the negative, 5 gave a qualified "Yes", and 3 did not know. They were asked whether they experienced any difficulties i n collaborating with the other persons.  Twenty-eight replied i n the negative; 6 i n the affirmative.  One  was concerned about the low rates of social assistance and the inadequate staff  at the provincial mental hospital. Another found agencies slow because of lack of staff.  A third said that agencies and medical personnel were ...more than 11  slow to share information and so hinder the work of the minister." of the high cost of psychiatric services.  One spoke  Six spoke highly of the  co-operation  received.  Referrals to Ministers; TABLE J.  Report of Ministers: Referrals Received From Other Resources Since Sept. 1. 1959.  Referrals From:  Number Rec'd.  Number of ministers receiving.  Doctor  21  12  Lawyer  12  6  Social agency  14  Nurse  35 3  Clinic  10  3 3  Employer  10  4  Friend  84  21  TOTAL  175 •  Eleven of the clergy received no referrals at a l l .  Those who did receive some  averaged 6.1 each. We see that the largest group of referrals comes through friends.  From one comment, i t i s believed that some of these were for weddings.  The largest group of professional referrals came from social agencies with the doctor second.  It would be helpful for this study to know why they were referred  but we do not have this information.  - 59 -  Theological Training Twelve clergy out of 41 said they had received training i n the art of counselling emotionally i l l persons.  That there was some ambiguity i n the ques-  tion i s shown by one man's comment, "How i l l ? "  It seemed that some considered  their courses i n pastoral psychology sufficient for an affirmative answer while others did not.  Twenty-nine answered this question with a straight "No."  few had training i n counselling i n another discipline.  A  Three had had some i n -  struction i n casework - two from the Salvation Army and one Christian Reformed. Nine indicated instruction i n psychological counselling, one adding the notation "B.A. i n Psychology."  Two men had training as Army Chaplains, another with the  Naval Medical Services and one i n Juvenile Court work. TABLE K.  Report of Ministers: Own Knowledge of Emotional Illness and Community Resources Yes  "Can you identify people whose sickness requires special help?"  19  12 !  9  2  42  "Do you know how doctors, social workers, other professionals, are equipped to meet the needs of emotionally i l l people?"  24  11  5  2  42  "Do you know the community resources for treatment and rehabilitation of the emotionally i l l ?  26  8  7  1  42  (a) N.A.:  No  Some  N.A. (a)  Questions about Emotional Disturbances  Total  Not answered.  Table K shows that almost half of the ministers believe they can identify problems needing special help and more than half are sure they know the community resources and the ways i n which other disciplines operate to meet special needs. The number who admit their ignorance i s about one-quarter of the total.  They were asked  whether this knowledge was acquired by theological training or personal study.  - 60 -  None said solely by the former; 23 gained i t from their own study and 13 from a combination of both.  One mentioned his Army training and two acquired some  of this knowledge from undergraduate studies. One wonders i f these men know as much as some think they do about the processes of social work in view of the replies given i n the personal interviews (sec.3). Dates of ordination ranged from 1921 to 1958. Of those who completed their training before 1940, only one-sixth had received training i n the art of counselling the emotionally i l l .  The group ordained since 1940 were more evenly  divided - 9 had received this specialized training and 12 had not. pressed a desire for more knowledge i n this f i e l d .  Many ex-  One man was "thoroughly  dissatisfied" with his college training.  Responsibility of the Church Toward Disturbed People; Resources to Meet Their Needs; Preventive Efforts. The answers to three different questions i n this area over-lapped and they are being grouped together here.  Twenty-eight....pastors  stated definitely  that they were interested i n the counselling and healing services of the church and 12 more emphasized their interest.  (Two did not answer.) A significant  number, however, were equally definite that this interest should not detract from the f u l l scope of the pastoral ministry. Thirty said that the church has a definite responsibility i n the area; the other twelve did not answer the question specifically but further comments of several indicated that they agree with the majority.  One-third regretted their own inadequacy in this f i e l d .  Several were  dissatisfied with their own training and suggested that more c l i n i c a l training be available or that they be given the opportunity to participate i n further courses and workshops, in related fields.  One man stressed that the "...deepest  weakness in Protestant church activity" i s the lack of specialized ministers;  - 61 -  even i n large churches there is seldom any diversification of function; each minister i s too isolated from the others.  Five were concerned that there be  more co-operation between a l l professions working with these problems.  Two  suggested greater psychiatric resources for the churches, and another mentioned a need for more chaplains i n mental hospitals and penal institutions. Other suggestions included more pastoral visiting to detect emotional problems, a far greater effort by laymen to help and befriend the mentally disturbed, specially trained pastors and laymen to work with immigrants (this from a church with a considerable immigrant population), more directed opportunity for the church to help. The pastors were asked what resources their churches had to offer to people having a mental or emotional problem, and whether these were adequate. An additional question was asked about the activities of the church to help prevent emotional disturbance. The two sets of answers were very similar and are amalgamated i n the table below. TABLE L.  Report of Ministers: Resources i n the Church to Prevent and Handle Mental s Emotional Problems.  Pastoral ministry - including counselling The "Means of Grace" - sacraments, worship, faith, prayer - bring release from guilt, fear, etc., special services to bring healing power of Christ to those in need Christian fellowship - an influence toward emotional stability Group activities - discourage isolation, provide fellowship, give opportunities for service Preaching Christian education - school for parents, premarital counselling, instruction of young Help destitute Lectures to parish priests Special f a c i l i t i e s for the aged Doctor i n the congregation Referral No answer TOTAL  16  13 6 6 7 5 1 1 1 2 3 l± 65  - 62 -  Some of the ministers seemed to be thinking i n terms of acute illness when they indicated no resources.  A few of the comments point up particular opinions:  "Most of the problems have had a spiritual background and were met with spiritual help." "We have a group of very skilled and sound people just to be friends and keep contact. A weekly gathering for the lonely." "The principle resource I guess would be me and I'm not adequate'." "Denomination has three mental institutions i n the U.S.A. but none yet i n Canada." "We have a fellowship group for persons discharged from mental hospital." "Ministers should have enough training to recognize psychoses and know when to refer. A l l psychiatrists and social workers should be i n touch with the church and refer those whose problem i s fundamentally religious." "I make i t a practice of establishing personal contacts for emotionally disturbed people so that they can receive the warmth of friendship they need as well as spiritual guidance." A few answers mentioned particular services rendered by the denomination as a whole.  These were:  An itinerant ministry to immigrant and ethnic groups i n their own language. Home for Senior Citizens. Welfare services i n a down-town church. Five church hospitals i n British Columbia which "do more than simply treat physical needs." TABLE M.  Opinions of Ministers: The Adequacy of These Resources. Adequate Inadequate Moderately adequate . Adequate i f f u l l y developed. . . No answer Depends on definition of the task of the church  3 9 6 1 21  TOTAL  41  1  One reason for the small number of answers may be the wording of the question which combined this item with a question about the nature of the resources available.  Certainly there i s no sign of complacency about the situation.  - 63 -  Institutional Chaplaincy Only two of the ministers completing the questionnaire were themselves part-time chaplains, one at a home for senior citizens and the other with a hospital, the Legion and the m i l i t i a .  The clergymen did not know very much about  the work of their own denominations i n this f i e l d and gave a variety of answers. There i s nothing to be gained by l i s t i n g their statements here as formation could be obtained through denominational headquarters.  correct i n Evidently the  clergy are not particularly concerned about this f i e l d of endeavour.  Psychological and Theological Presuppositions Which Underly Counselling. This question brought forth detailed replies with great variations among them. Some quotations from these replies w i l l show the general tenor, of the thinking of the ministers. "The Christian Church must by i t s very calling and nature always be interested and willing to help." (This idea was expressed fourteen times.) "Faith i s indispensable to health." "I am convinced that i n the last analysis these disturbances have as a root wrong relations with God." (Nine times.) "The Christian concepts of love, mercy, trust ... are the therapeutic means by which the mentally or emotionally disturbed can find a way out." "Man i s a unity.... He must be healthy mentally and emotionally to be healthy spiritually." (Ten stressed the importance of seeing "the whole man')• "Christian faith offers comfort, guidance, freedom from guilt, adjustment to ultimate reality leading to peace.... Gives l i f e meaning." "Christ i s able to bring spiritual, mental and physical healing. I believe also i n co-operation to the fullest with doctors, psychiatrists and a l l approved scientific means."  - 6 4 -  " A l l healing comes from God whether based on Faith or on dedicated s k i l l s , knowledge - or on both." "God wills health." "The emotionally disturbed can be helped greatly by establishing for them primary personal contacts i n an environment of Christian love." "There needs to be greater awareness on the part of both the medical profession and the churches of their limitations as well as (their) prerogatives."' "The church must show an interest because individuals w i l l come to the church for help and not go elsewhere." (This from a doctor who collaborated with his pastor in preparation of the reply." "We underestimate the therapeutic effect of a Communion Service, a simple prayer, some particularly relevant words of Scripture committed to memory and the love and concern of a Christian congregation, or the presence of the Holy Spirit in a service of worship, yet a l l of these tools are at the disposal of the alert and sensitive minister of the Gospel." "There is a need..ifor ministers to revitalize the ancient office of the cure of souls'. We are not psychotherapists, amateur or professional... .We are ministers of God's grace to men....This does not mean that we are justified i n being psychologically Illiterate. It means that our function as ministers to people's souls i s not i n competition with, but rather complementary to the work of the physician and the psychologist...." 1  It i s interesting that there was not as much emphasis on the i n f l u ence the church can have for good mental and emotional health as one might have expected.  It i s quite possible that this i s because the clergy see the  primary function of the church as that of bringing man into a right relationship with God, to which a l l other values are incidental. Or i t might be because they, i n common with many other professionals, think i n terms of mental illness rather than of mental health and f a i l to note those everyday resources which preserve good health.  Certainly there would be psychological bases  for the statements that were made about the fellowship of the church exerting a positive influence for mental and emotional health, or the preventive aspects  - 65 -  which the church gives i n providing a deep purpose i n l i f e . Although many of the ministers were definite that they did not want to become specialists, yet there were a few who showed such an interest i n their role of counsellor that one might see i n this a trend toward the church making a much greater effort in this area in the future. The questionnaire was, of course, slanted toward the f i e l d of mental health but many of the comments are relevant for social work in other settings. It i s obvious that the ministers see many problems which are i n their province rather than in that of any other discipline.  Many express the belief that right  relationships with God are fundamental to health of body, mind and emotions. The need of the s k i l l s and knowledge of other professions, however, i s explicit or implicit i n many statements. What their opinions about the s k i l l s and knowledge of the social worker are, i s the question which i s not answered here.  3. Interviews With Ministers In order to explore a l i t t l e more this matter of the attitudes of the clergy specifically to social v/ork, a small number of interviews (six) were held with a diverse group of ministers. A l l of the six were of different denominations. An attempt was made to cover the different types of districts i n the city.  They were confined to  the city i t s e l f because the range of social services available i s greater and more accessable than in the suburbs.  The districts included the heart of the  most deteriorated area; a middle class apartment district containing many elderly persons; an old established working and lower middle class area; a working class, semi-deteriorated district; a mixed area of apartments in converted  - 66 -  dwellings and f a i r l y expensive new homes. It was found, however, that in four cases the congregation came from a very wide area because there were few churches of the exact type or sect i n the city, or because the people had moved farther out but kept up the connection with their original church.  The social strata of  the congregation, i n such instances, did not accord with the makeup of the neighbourhood. These clergy were ones who had not answered the Council of Churches' questionnaire. As i n the questionnaire replies, a wide diversity of attitude and practice was found.  The down-town church, with a staff of four clergymen, con-  siders co-operation with agencies to be part of i t s function.  Though the mem-  bership comes largely from outside the immediate environs, the problems of the local population and transients are constantly being brought to the doors of the church.  Referrals are frequently made to child and family agencies, services  for alcoholics and drug addicts, public welfare offices and others. On the whole good co-operation has been received from agencies especially i f the clergyman takes time to interpret the role of the church i n the particular situation. The man interviewed at this church was certain that many ministers know l i t t l e about the function of social agencies.  Among the membership here i s a group of  workers who have done a great deal to interpret their professional concepts and policies to their pastors. At the other extreme was the minister who does considerable counselling on a variety of difficulties but whose only contact with agencies i s through one case worker who i s a church member. This worker occasionally refers people to the pastor and he consults her but rarely makes a referral.  (This man and  his assistant have had a great increase i n counselling during the last year because of a special type of broadcast.)  He thought that referrals should be made  - 67 -  on the basis of the person, not the problem. If an individual has no religious background, then he is better to go to an agency; otherwise the church can be of more help. Another clergyman, new to this city, had had some unfortuante experiences with social work in an eastern city.  As a result he had not referred  parishioners to agencies though he did make use of a professional marriage counsellor.  He believed that people who come to him with problems had no faith  in the young women workers at the local family agency. He found agencies helpf u l with financial d i f f i c u l t i e s only. Like those who answered the questionnaire, the majority of the ministers interviewed stressed the danger of the church becoming too specialized. They emphasized i t s unique spiritual function and stated that i t should leave matters of severe emotional and mental disturbance to the medical profession. One man believed that the lack of "professionalism" i n the church provided a much greater f l e x i b i l i t y than more circumscribed agency procedure.  There was  a spontaneous expression of the need to refer to and co-operate with the medical men but, except for the down-town church and one other, a lack of awareness of the function and role of social workers was noticeable.  They a l l thought, how-  ever, that some method of bringing social workers; and the clergy to a better understanding of one another would be salutary. the fundamentalist,  The two pastors who were of  evangelistic group had least belief in the value of social  work in solving personal and family problems. One pastor insists on a minimum of three hours pre-marital counselling for a l l couples wishing him to perform their marriage ceremony. Another does not do any of this at present although he i s planning to give each couple a booklet on the subject i n the future.  The remainder f e l l in between these two  - 68 -  extremes. This appears to be purely a personal decision as there i s nothing apparent i n the doctrine of the sects which would lead to this difference. One congregation has relatively few social or emotional problems but the minister and some of his people are concerned about the social evils around them. Through preaching, study groups and panel discussions, efforts are being made to enlighten the membership and to help them see their own responsibilities in the f i e l d of social action. A special booklet, written locally for the whole denomination, i s the basis of study.  1  Another minister had done his bit toward  reform by helping to found a child welfare agency in the areawhere he lived until recently. Most of the men had not had special training for counselling but had done reading and studying on the subject and thought i t to be important. These few interviews confirm several points which were emphasized i n the questionnaire.  In addition they indicate confusion about the role of the  social worker, a willingness to learn more, l i t t l e referral back and forth between themselves and agencies.  The greatest aid to better understanding came  from social workers in the congregations who interpreted social work to the ministers.  1. Black, William G., The Church and Social Problems. A Publication of the Baptist Federation of Canada, (undated).  CHAPTER  IV  FINAL CONSIDERATIONS AND QUESTIONS  It i s f u l l y realized that the replies received from both clergy and social workers about co-operative endeavours may be "surface" answers which would not always coincide with what the person would actually do i f presented with such situations. There may well be underlying hostilities which have not been touched upon'. Taking the data at their face value, however, we can see some patterns emerging.  Trends We have seen a tremendous disparity i n attitude, practice and point of view - a l l the way from the inclusion of a minister on a treatment team to a belief that the two professions of social work and the ministry are unrelated. In so far as the limited data have validity, we may say that there i s a definite desire on the part of both to enlarge their understanding, each of the other. The majority of the social workers were aware of borderline situations where the s k i l l s of their profession and those of the ministry could both be of value. The ministers, while not wanting to become specialists outside their own domain, showed that they also endeavour to cope with many situations which are on the boundaries of both disciplines.  Each indicated a willingness to co-operate with  - 70 -  the other profession. There was, however, considerable ignorance of the s k i l l s and duties of the other. When Mr. Morrow made his study in 1948, he said, "Since...1927 there has been l i t t l e material published dealing with the question of the church and social work."  1  While the literature cannot be called extensive at present, s t i l l  there is a considerable amount available.  This could well indicate a growing  interest i n the subject. More of the literature which was discovered by this writer came from church sources than from social work. Theological education i s bringing the two disciplines closer together in a direct way as students learn about agency purposes and characteristics. Indirectly, the greater emphasis on pastoral counselling and c l i n i c a l training will increase contact between them. As ministers gain more knowledge of human behaviour, they w i l l be l i k e l y to recognize severe personal or social disturbances in those who come to them for help and, hopefully, w i l l be reaching out to other resources for these needy ones. Social workers should be ready to answer that outreach without "snatching" the case and ignoring the source of referral. Hopefully, too, the better training which the theological students receive w i l l help them to see what case workers and group workers are trying to accomplish i n their work. Very few examples have been found of churches setting up specific counselling services staffed by specially trained ministers. There are some, however, and i f they increase i n number, social workers need to be aware of them and willing to co-operate.  One would hope that ministers would initiate this  sort of programme only after carefully thinking through what particular contri-  1. Morrow, op. c i t . . appendix A.  - 71 -  butions i t could make and how i t might f i t i n with other community resources.  Suggestions from Social Workers and Ministers In the questionnaire, social workers made suggestions about ways of increasing understanding, some of which are well worth enlarging upon.  One-  third were doubtful of the value of individual social workers acting as resource or interpretive persons within their own churches and yet this was found, i n several instances, to be the means by which pastors gained some comprehension of the scope of social work. Social workers who are church people need to make an extra effort to integrate their social work knowledge and their religious beliefs and to do a b i t of missionary work in seeing that their own minister is aware of what s k i l l s social work can offer.  I f , as the questionnaire replies  indicated, more understanding comes about as a result of discussion on a case by case basis, social workers who care about the place of religion i n the lives of their clients, should take time to make referrals to clergymen wherever practicable, making sure that the latter understands what the agency has been trying to do for the particular clients. We have noted that church welfare councils have prepared directories of welfare services in certain communities.  No mention has been found of churches  working on a co-operative basis to provide social agencies and others with a directory of religious resources with the exception of the small part they play in the project described previously." " I f one church has the leadership to 1  specialize i n a vigorous teenage programme, another puts particular emphasis on work with the aged, another has special study groups and a fourth promotes prayer groups, then the community should know about these.  Perhaps sectarian  rivalry and shortage of staff have been the biggest obstacles to any such effort. 1. See above p. 39  -12-  Or i t may be that the churches (justifiably) feel that this would involve them in a professionalism and a competition of which they want no part.  However, a  directory of churches and clergymen, as was suggested by one social worker, need not warrant these criticisms and could perform a useful service. The social workers who were questioned showed a good deal of interest in the suggestion that study groups or occasional workshops could increase understanding between themselves and the clergy. the same lines i n many instances.  The latter also thought along  As the clergy seem to be much more aware of  the rblesland:competencies of the doctor and psychiatrist than of the social worker, perhaps joint meetings of a l l these disciplines would provide more i n i t i a l interest than two-party conclaves. Many more references have been found to medical (including psychiatric)-clerical comings together than to social work-ministerial contacts. I f there is a natural interest here, i t had best be capitalized on i n the manner suggested.  The Social Workers' Association, the  Council of Churches, the Community Chest and Council - any one of these might initiate such projects. The value of a liaison person i n a church welfare bureau has been mentioned but, i n many communities^ must wait upon a sense of need and the wherewithal (financial and i n personnel) to meet i t . There i s no indication whatever that social workers or agencies or councils of social agencies would have any interest i n providing any comparable position to direct people to religious resources. Perhaps one reason would be the one already mentioned that the churches themselves do not have a compilation of these resources. But primarily, one would suspect lack of interest and low-priority on the part of the social workers to be the main reason.  - 73  -  Areas for Further Investigation The previous brief discussion of institutions, organizations and activities i n which social work and the ministry collaborate has merely opened up areas where much more investigation could profitably be made. As both soc i a l workers and chaplains become more numerous i n institutions, the necessity of defining areas of function w i l l become more pressing. At present there seem to be few, i f any, c l i n i c a l l y trained chaplains i n the province of British Columbia and this makes the question somewhat theoretical.  Some of the local  chaplains, however, have undoubtedly learned much through experience and could contribute a great deal to a study of their role.  The same problem of defini-  tion of function or role must occur i f social workers are employed on church staffs or clergymen i n agencies.  We have seen that this was worked through  satisfactorily i n the case of the pastoral counsellor with the Alcoholism Foundation but the methods and criteria used are not known. Material for a study of professional roles might also be obtainable from social workers i n eastern Canada who are, i n a few cases, employed i n churches and church-sponsored agencies. The writer has not been able to discover data about the church-sponsored agencies i n Canada with reference to such subjects as number, type, degree of control by religious authorities or religious content of programme. Here i s a f r u i t f u l area for study. functions.  It was noted that some of these are changing their  Is this a general trend?  What are the relationships between these  agencies and community chests and to public welfare?  Have the sponsoring de-  nominations really thought through the purpose of their welfare agencies?  The  extent to which trained social workers are members of staffs would also be a significant piece of information for such an investigation.  -  74 -  The work of the institutional churches and missions i s an important part of the l i f e of certain sections of Vancouver. The study made of one of these in relation to social work i s out-of-date when one considers the changes which are taking place and which are proposed for the districts where they operate.  1  These churches probably work more closely with social problems and social agencies than any other religious bodies i n the city.  A study of their present  efforts and an evaluation of the results would be most useful. This could include one or more of the following: Salvation Army institutions, First United Church and i t s a f f i l i a t e s , St. James Anglican Church, Central City Mission and i t s youth projects, Union Gospel Mission and others.  It might be possible for  the School of Social Work to establish some lines of communication with the major denominations or with the Council of Churches so that students could cooperate i n study projects as was done i n Winnipeg. Policies and practices of inter-referral and case by case collaboration between clergy and social agencies can bear much more attention than was given here; also the opinions of ministers about social work. To obtain more comprehensive results, a method would have to be devised which would bring forth the views of more clergymen.  It i s quite possible that a greater number would  answer a briefer and simpler questionnaire.  That of the Council of Churches  called for considerable work with a very short time to complete i t .  Many minis-  ters do not keep records of the information desired and therefore found that the task of completing the questionnaire would take an undue proportion of their time.  Some preparation for the reception of a questionnaire could be made  through denominational structures such as the local presbytery or diocesan officials.  Timing i s also important.  1. Morrow, op. c i t .  Many ministers are required to prepare  - 75 -  yearly statistics for their sect i n January and this month i s also a usual time for local annual meetings involving more statistics.  Indeed, one pastor stated  that this did havel.a lottto do with the lack of response to the Council's questionnaire.  A larger number of personal interviews, however, may yet be the best  method of securing data needed, and of bringing out the negative responses. Another f i e l d of investigation i s that concerning the recreational, social and "character-building" activities of the parish church.  What place do  they have in preventing social problems or as rehabilitative forces? How do they compare with non-sectarian programmes of a similar nature?  Such a study  could limit the f i e l d to such groups as youth or ethnic units or specific geographical districts. Many a cry i s heard that the church does not take the stands i t should on matters of social concern.  Or the opposite - that i t has no business "med-  dling" i n controversial matters.  What part i t does take on our national and  local scene i n regard to social action i s of interest to social workers and social agencies and would be worthy of extended consideration.  Even broader i s  the world-wide welfare programme of the church which provides a vast f i e l d for study, much of i t on an inter-denominational basis. Some work has been done on the matter of examining theological terminology and dogma i n the light of social work concepts.  One such examination  has been described." " A further study of this matter together with i t s converse 1  the meaning of social work values and concepts to theologians - would be of great benefit to those of either discipline who wish to understand the other better. A f i n a l area which, i f examined, would provide information most useful to agencies, i s more remotely related to our general theme. It i s that of the 1. Keith-Lucas, op. c i t .  - 76 -  image held by different publics of social work and social workers.  One of those  publics would be members of other disciplines or clergymen in particular.  Another  aspect of the same problem is that of public opinion about the relative helpfulness of the different socializing professions when social problems arise. This was attempted i n the f i e l d of mental health and juvenile delinquency in Louisville, Kentucky.  1  The popular misconceptions discovered in that study were most pertin-  ent to the work of the psychiatrist.  If social workers had these kinds of data  concerning their own profession, they would be i n a better position to know how to work with the clergy and other professions.  If, for example, i t were known  that a majority of the populace held the opinion that the minister was more knowledgeable in matters of marital counselling than social workers or that the minister would keep confidences to a greater extent than caseworkers, the social work profession could try to correct misapprehensions and would be better able to build up a more realistic public image.  In most instances, the church i s putting much less emphasis on doctrinal matters than i t did i n the early part of the century.  For a time i t  seemed to be conceding the f i e l d of personal and social problems to the scient i f i c expert, showing particular deference to the s k i l l of the doctor and the psychiatrist.  Now,  i f the majority opinions discovered in this study are a  true guide, i t i s re-asserting i t s ancient function of the "cure of souls" and Its belief i n the therapeutic effect of the ministrations of religion, not in . opposition to scientific s k i l l s but in partnership, giving of i t s unique know-  1. Woodward, Julian L., "Changing Ideas on Mental Illness and i t s Treatment," Mental Health and Mental Disorder, ed. Arnold Rose, W. W. Norton, New York, 1955, pp. A82-500.  - 77 -  ledge and faith.  We must note, however, that this therapy i s seldom seen as a  direct function of the church but rather as the outcome of i t s central purpose of assisting man to become rightly related to the ultimate reality, God.  With  this focus, the scope of the work of the church has broadened to include the l i f e of the individual as a whole.  But to truly f u l f i l this role, the church  needs to enter more wholeheartedly into i t ; to prepare i t s priests more adequately for the task. There i s no need to mention the vastness of the need. To meet i t demands the f u l l dedication of ministers and laymen alike. The social work profession has swung to many different foci during i t s short l i f e .  After drawing much of i t s early nourishment from the church, i t  chose another path i n another direction. are  Now, i f the indications found herein  again true, i t i s beginning to feel a loss of something important.  This i s  not yet sufficiently marked to warrant definite lines of effort but i t does c a l l for determination on the part of those social workers who feel the concern to think through their own position carefully and clearly and to express i t where i t can make some imprint.  To say that clients have spiritual needs and then to  ignore them creates an inner conflict which w i l l mar the worker's professional activities. The coming together of clergy and social workers, possibly in the company of the doctor and psychiatrist, for the purpose of knowing each other is one of the answers to the many questions posed herein.  That there are many  settings i n which this can be, and i s being done, i s apparent.  I f each group  makes the most of these and creates other opportunities wherever possible, the tentative approaches to each other w i l l become a continuous intermingling with resultant understanding, acceptance and sharing of s k i l l s to the ultimate benef i t of the individual who i s crying for help.  APPENDIX A THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School of Social Work "COOPERATION BETWEEN SOCIAL WORKERS AND MINISTERS" I am seeking your views and experience in this important area as part of my study of relationships between social work agencies and Protestant clergy in Vancouver. I am obtaining information from ministers but I am sure you will agree i t is essential to assess this against the experience of practicing social workers. To keep the study within workable limits, i t was necessary to Qonfine i t to Protestant clergy on the one hand and to two or three agencies on the other. Many thanks for your help, (Ess) Alfreda Skenfield (M.S.W. Student)  1.  Is there a need for greater mutual understanding and cooperation between social workers and ministers?  2.  Yes  No  a. Did your own social work training include any orientation to the work of the clergy in the field of individual and family counselling? b.  Yes  No  Did your training acquaint you with ways in which social workers and clergy could work together on specific cases? Yes  No  c.  Have you learned from experience ways of working together?  Yes  No  d.  If (a) and (b) are answered "No", was there a need for such orientation? Yes No  3.  a. Have you ever referred any individuals or families to ministers? No  4.  Did you receive good cooperation?  c.  Did the ministers  •  Yes  report back? Never . . . .  No . . . . Seldom  Usually  Do you recall specific cases where there has been continuing cooperation between yourself None  1 to 5  5 to 10  Did ministers refer families or individuals to you in 1959? Never times  6.  Approximately how many in 1959?  b.  and a minister? 5.  Yes . . . . . . . . .  more than 10 . . A few  More than 10 times  In your opinion, are there certain types of problems or situations that are better handled by a minister than by a social worker? Yes kinds of problems or situations.  No  Please specify the  - 79 -  7.  a. What are your views on the f o l l o w i n g methods or resources?  A 1.  Occasional workshops to d i s c u s s mutual problems  2.  Study groups d e a l i n g with mutual problems and the  B  C  s k i l l s and t r a i n i n g of each group  3. A l i a i s o n person with knowledge i n both f i e l d s (eg. some c i t i e s have a Church Welfare Bureau or Secret a r y f u n c t i o n i n g w i t h i n the C o u n c i l of Churches)  4. I n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l workers who are church members a c t i n g as resource or i n t e r p r e t i v e persons w i t h i n t h e i r own church  A b.  8.  Very e f f e c t i v e  B - Worth Developing  C - Doubtful value  Have you any other suggestions f o r i n c r e a s i n g cooperation and understanding?  What are the main blocks to e f f e c t i v e cooperation? Lack of mutual understanding of f u n c t i o n ? . . Reluctance t o "hand over" cases? Doubt of the o t h e r s s k i l l ? 1  Pressure of work? C l i e n t or p a r i s h i o n e r ' s r e l u c t a n c e ? Other  (please s p e c i f y )  . . . .  APPENDIX B VANCOUVER COUNCIL OF CHURCHES Q u e s t i o n n a i r e re Vancouver's Mental H e a l t h Needs and Resources As Seen and Served by the P r o t e s t a n t Churches  Dear S i r : As you may know, the American P s y c h i a t r i c A s s o c i a t i o n has been r e t a i n e d by the Mental H e a l t h Branch of the Department of H e a l t h S e r v i c e s and H o s p i t a l I n s u r a n c e , P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h Columbia, t o assess the needs and r e s o u r c e s of our P r o v i n c e i n regard t o mental health. Dr. Matthew Ross of the APA who i s c o n d u c t i n g the survey, i s d e s i r o u s »f a s c e r t a i n i n g what the Churches may be doing on mental h e a l t h problems. Dr. A. E. Davidson, Deputy M i n i s t e r of Mental H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , when r e f e r r i n g t h i s request f o r i n f o r m a t i o n t o the Vancouver C o u n c i l of Churches, quoted Dr. Ross as f o l l o w s : " I s there someone i n t e r e s t e d i n the s u b j e c t of r e l i g i o n and p s y c h i a t r y who can send us h i s ideas i n r e l a t i o n t o the s i t u a t i o n i n B. C. Perhaps some m i n i s t e r i a l groups c o u l d be i n v i t e d by you t o submit b r i e f s on the s u b j e c t of p a s t o r a l c o u n s e l l i n g ? " This q u e s t i o n n a i r e has been designed to a s c e r t a i n both the needs and resources as seen by the c l e r g y and other i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s of Vancouver. You are i n v i t e d t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I f you have had experience i n d e a l i n g w i t h problems of mental h e a l t h s u f f i c i e n t ' t h a t you f e e l i n c l i n e d t o append a f u r t h e r statement, t h i s would be most welcome. As i t i s the wish of the C o u n c i l t o c o l l a t e these r e p l i e s f o r Dr. Ross by mid-February n e x t , you are asked to r e t u r n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t o g e t h e r w i t h other m a t e r i a l you may wish t o send, by January 15th, I960. Return t o :  Rev. Robert S. C h r i s t i e Chairman, S o c i a l A c t i o n Committee Vancouver C o u n c i l of Churches 505 Dunsmuir S t r e e t Vancouver 2, B. C.  Thank you f o r your i n t e r e s t and c o o p e r a t i o n . Yours s i n c e r e l y , Robert S. C h r i s t i e , Chairman, S o c i a l A c t i o n Committee Vancouver C o u n c i l of Churches  - 81 MENTAL HEALTH SURVEY FOR VANCOUVER COUNCIL OF CHURtHES Question 1 :  G e n e r a l Questions. (a) S i z e of c o n g r e g a t i o n . l ) A d u l t membership attendance .  2) Church attendance  3) Sunday School  (b) S o c i o - e c o n o m i c - c u l t u r a l c o m p o s i t i o n of c o n g r e g a t i o n . g i v e percentages.  Please  1) C l a s s : Upper Middle , Lower Middle , Working; , Unemployed 2) Economic S t a t u s : High , Medium , Low , Subsistence^ 3) E t h n i c Group: B r i t i s h born , European born , Asiatic born , Canadian born . 4) E d u c a t i o n : Grade s c h o o l , High s c h o o l , University Vocational . 5 ) Language used i n the home: (A) E n g l i s h , Other(state), (B) What percentage do not speak E n g l i s h f l u e n t l y _ (c) Does your c o n g r e g a t i o n come p r i n c i p a l l y from the d i s t r i c t i n which the church i s s i t u a t e d ? Question 2:  Problems c o n f r o n t i n g the m i n i s t e r . (a) Time devoted t o problems- of e m o t i o n a l i l l n e s s . 1) How many persons seen f o r c o u n s e l l i n g l a s t month? Since September 1 s t , 1959? . 2) How many hours devoted t o c o u n s e l l i n g l a s t month? Since September 1 s t , 1959? • 3) What k i n d of problems f o r which c o u n s e l l i n g provided? Give numbers s i n c e September 1 s t , 1959. ( l ) P e r s o n a l problems (8) Problems of o l d age_ (2) C o u r t s h i p & Marriage (9) Nervous or emotional (3) V o c a t i o n a l & f i n a n c i a l illness_ problems (10) Drug A d d i c t i o n _ (4) A l c o h o l i s m ( l l ) Threatened S u i c i d e (5) Delinquency (12) Emotional problems connected (6) Threatened d i v o r c e with physical i l l n e s s (7) Family problems (13) Other ( s t a t e ) (b) Are most of the problems you see amongst: l ) Members , Adherents , Others_ 2) A c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s , Inactive participants_ (c) How many persons d i d you r e f e r t o any o f the f o l l o w i n g resources s i n c e September 1 s t , 1959? Family doctor lawyer social agency nurse other . D i d i t help? (d) Did you experience d i f f i c u l t i e s i n c o l l a b o r a t i n g w i t h any of them? Specify.  - 82 - 2 Question 3:  Re:  Theological Training.  (a) Did you r e c e i v e t r a i n i n g i n the a r t of c o u n s e l l i n g e m o t i o n a l l y i l l persons? Yes No . Has i t proved t o be adequate i n terms of the demands placed on you i n the p a s t o r a t e ? Yes , No . (b) D i d you r e c e i v e s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n c o u n s e l l i n g i n another d i s c i p l i n e ? Psychology , Casework , Other (c) Are you i n p o s s e s s i o n of the f o l l o w i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ? 1) How t o i d e n t i f y people whose s i c k n e s s r e q u i r e s s p e c i a l help? Yes , No . 2) How d o c t o r s , s o c i a l workers, and other p r o f e s s i o n a l s are equipped to meet the needs of e m o t i o n a l l y i l l people? Yes , No . 3) The resources i n your community f o r the treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the e m o t i o n a l l y i l l and how they can be used? Yes , No . (d) Was the above i n f o r m a t i o n a c q u i r e d by t h e o l o g i c a l t r a i n i n g ? P e r s o n a l study . Question 4:  Resources i n the church t o d e a l with people having a mental or emotional problem. (a) What are the p r i n c i p a l resources your church has t o o f f e r ? Are they adequate?  (b) How many persons were r e f e r r e d t o you by the f o l l o w i n g s i n c e September 1 s t , 1959? Family doctor lawyer s o c i a l agency nurse clinic employer friend . (c) Does your denomination i n B.C. engage i n the work of i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a p l a i n c y ? Yes , No . Where? Describe To what extent?  Part-time  , Half-time  (d) Are you an i n s t i t u t i o n a l c h a p l a i n ? Time devoted: P a r t - t i m e , Half-time  , Full-time , Full-time  (e) What does your church do to help prevent emotional  Have you suggestions f o r improving present  disturbances?  efforts?  ( f ) Does your church or denomination i n B.C. c a r r y on any s p e c i f i c program or programs of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f o r m e n t a l l y or e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d people? Of what nature and extent?  ,  - S3 - 3 Question 5:  Has the church a b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y towards meeting the needs and a l l e v i a t i n g the problems of the e m o t i o n a l l y and m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d w i t h i n i t s boundaries? On what grounds? Would you care t o provide a g e n e r a l statement of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s and aims which u n d e r l i e the c o u n s e l l i n g and h e a l i n g s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by your church? (Please w r i t e on the back or use separate s h e e t ) .  Are you i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s f i e l d of endeavour?  To what extent?  We a p p r e c i a t e t h a t i t has taken much time and thought to complete t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n e x p r e s s i n g thanks f o r these e f f o r t s , we a l s o wish t o give you o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n d i c a t e whether you would l i k e t o r e c e i v e a copy of the f i n d i n g s . Yes , No . Church: P i l l e d i n by: R e l a t i o n s h i p t o Church Year of o r d i n a t i o n ( i f m i n i s t e r )  This q u e s t i o n n a i r e should bo returned not l a t e r than January 15th, I960, t o the office of: Rev. Robert S. C h r i s t i e Chairman, S o c i a l A c t i o n Committee Vancouver C o u n c i l of Churches 505 Dunsmuir S t r e e t Vancouver 2, B. C.  — 84 **  APPENDIX C  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Bachmann, E. Theodore. The Activating; Concern: Historical and Theological Bases. Churches and Social Welfare, vol. 1. National Council of the Churches of Christ i n the U.S.A., 1956. Bachmann, E. Theodore. The Emerging Perspective: Response and Progress. Churches and Social Welfare, vol. 3.(Proceedings of the 1st Conference on the Churches and Social Welfare.) National Council of the Churches of Christ i n the U.S.A., 1956. Barnes, Harry E. and Teeters, Negley K. New Horizons i n Criminology. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J., 1959 (copyright 1945). Black, William G. The Church and Social Problems. A Publication of the Baptist Federation of Canada (circa 1959). Boisen, Anton. The Exploration of the Inner World: A Study of Mental Disorder and Religious Experience. Willett, Clark e Co., New York e Chicago, 1936. Cayton, Horace R. and Nishi, Setsuko Matsunaga. The Changing Scene: Current Trends and Issues. Churches and Social Welfare, vol. 2. National Council of the Churches of Christ In the U.S.A., 1955. Darkness or Dawn. 33rd Annual Report 1958. The Board of Evangelism and Social Service, The United Church of Canada, Toronto. Douglass, H. Paul and Brunner, Edmund de S. The Protestant Church as a Social Institution. (For the Institute of Social and Religious Research). Harper and Brothers, New York, 1935. This book i s one of a series produced by the Institute. Johnson, F. Ernest, ed. Religion and Social Work. The Institute for Religious and Social Studies, 1956. (Distributed by Harper and Brothers, New York.) Laycock, Samuel, R. Pastoral Counselling for Mental Health. (Prepared Under the Auspices of the Canadian Mental Health Association.) Ryerson Press, Toronto, 1958. Contains a good bibliography. Lutheran Health e Welfare Annual. 1959. Lutheran Welfare Conference in America, New York. Maves, Faul B., ed. The Church and Mental Health. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1953. This book has an excellent bibliography on the same subject.  - 85 -  Pumphry, Muriel W. The Teaching of Values and Ethics i n Social Work Education. Council on Social Work Education, New York, 1959- (Boehm, Werner.W., Director and Coordinator, A Pro.ject Report of the Curriculum Study, vol. 13.) Richmond, Mary. Social Diagnosis. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1917. Roberts, David E. Psychotherapy and a Christian View of Man. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York, 1951. Towle, Charlotte. Common Human Needs. National Association of Social Workers, New York, 1957 (original publication 1945). Weissman, Irving S. Social Welfare Policy and Services i n Social Work Education. Council on Social Work Education, New York, 1959. (Boehm, Werner W., Director and Coordinator, A Pro.ject Report of the Curriculum Study, vol. 12.) Witmer, Helen L. e Kotinsky, Ruth, eds. Personality i n the Making: The Fact Finding Report of the Midcentury Whitehouse Conference on Children and Youth. Harper and Brothers, New York, 1952.  Articles Allaman, Richard. "The C l i n i c a l l y Trained Chaplain i n the Child-Care Institution." Child Welfare, vol. 39 (January I960) pp. 6 - 8 . Baldwin, Ruth M. "The Minister and the Social Worker." (June 1945) PP. 149-154.  The Family, vol. 26  Biestek, Felix P. "Religion and Social Casework." The Social Welfare Forum. National Conference of Social Work, 1956. Columbia University Press, New York, 1956, pp. 86-95. Bigham, Thomas J. "Co-operation Between Ministers and Social Workers." Religion and Social Work, ed. F. Ernest Johnson, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1956, pp. 141-154. Bradley, Eleanor J. "A Venture Towards Understanding." vol. 19 (December 1951) pp. 21-23.  The Social Worker,  Cockerill, Eleanor. "Interdependency of the Professions i n Helping People." The Social Welfare Forum. National Conference of Social Work, 1953. Columbia University Press, New York, 1953, pp. 137-147. Davies, Stanley P. "The Churches and the Non-Sectarian Agencies." Religion and Social Work, ed. F. Ernest Johnson, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1956, pp. 81-95.  - 86 -  E l i o t , Martha. " P u t t i n g S o c i a l F i s t i o n and Fusion to Work f o r C h i l d r e n . " The Emerging Perspective: Response and Progress, ed. E. Theodore Bachmann, National Council of the Churches of C h r i s t i n the U.S.A., 1956, pp. 35-40. Gourlay, Margaret T. " C h r i s t i a n E t h i c s and S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e . " S o c i a l Welfare and the Preservation o f Human Values, (Anniversary Papers o f the School of S o c i a l Work of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia), ed. W i l l i a m G. Dixon, J.M.Dent and Sons (Canada.) L t d . and the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1957, pp. 82-84. Harrison, Shelby M. " R e l i g i o n and S o c i a l Work: Perspectives and Common Denominators." S o c i a l Work i n the Current Scene. Selected Papers, National Conference o f S o c i a l Work, 1949. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1950, pp. 32-45. "The Healing Team."  Time, v o l . 74 (December 14, 1959 - Canadian e d i t i o n ) p.80.  H i l t n e r , Seward. "Tension and Mutual Support Among the Helping Professions." S o c i a l Service Review, v o l . 31 (December 1957) pp. 377-389. H i l t n e r , Seward. "The Role of the Clergyman as a Counselor." S o c i a l Work i n the Current Scene 1950. Selected Papers, N a t i o n a l Conference of S o c i a l Work. Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, New York, 1950, pp. 369-377. Horton, Mildred McAfee. "Change and the Church." The Emerging Perspective: Response and Progress, ed. E. Theodore Bachmann, National Council of the Churches of C h r i s t i n the U.S.A., 1956, pp. 44-46. " I n s t i t u t i o n s and P a s t o r a l Care i n the Dioceses." The B u l l e t i n . Council of S o c i a l S e r v i c e , The Church of England i n Canada, Toronto, November 15, 1952. Johnson, F. Ernest and Villaume, W i l l i a m J . "Protestant S o c i a l Services." S o c i a l 'Work Year Book, ed. R u s s e l l H. Kurtz. National A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New York, 1957, pp. 421-431. Kahn, Marion. "Some Observations on the Role of R e l i g i o n i n I l l n e s s . " Work, v o l . 3, ( J u l y 1958) pp. 83-89.  Social  Kannewischer, Rev. A.E. "The Role of the Protestant Chaplain i n C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s . " American Journal o f Corrections, v o l . 19 (January-February 1957) pp. 12 e 27-30. Keith-Lucas, Alan. "Some Notes on Theology and S o c i a l Work." v o l . 41 (February I960) pp. 87-91. Keith-Lucas, Alan. pp. 236-238.  S o c i a l Casework,  Reader's Comments, S o c i a l Casework, v o l . 39 ( A p r i l 1958)  Lea, Nora. "The Church as a Partner i n S o c i a l Welfare." on S o c i a l Work, 1956, Ottawa, pp. 68-69.  Canadian Conference  MacRae, Robert H. "New Knowledge - Consequences for People." Social Welfare Forum 1959. National Conference on Social Welfare. Columbia UniversityPress, New York, 1959, pp. 3-13. Maves, Paul B. 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