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Group work in an institution for young offenders : an analytical study of the introduction and development… Montpellier, Alfred Louis 1960

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GROUP WORK IN AN INSTITUTION  FOR YOUNG OFFENDERS  An A n a l y t i c a l S t u d y o f t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n a n d Development o f Group Work S e r v i c e s a t t h e Young O f f e n d e r s ' U n i t o f O a k a l l a P r i s o n  1951-1959 -  by ALFRED LOUIS MONTPELLIER  Thesis  Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  Accepted as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK  School  o f S o c i a l Work  I960 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  Farm,  In presenting the  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t freely  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I further  copying of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by the Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8\ Canada. Date  my  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not  thesis  financial  permission.  ii TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I - Group Work and Corrections Institutions (A) The youthful offender and his special needs. Institutions designed for him. The dichotomy of Treatment-Custody. Group work principles and contributions i n a corrections i n s t i t u t i o n . Method of Study, (B) I n i t i a l programme at the Young Offenders' Unit. Fig., 1: Sketch of a u n i t . Comparisons old and new. A c t i v i t i e s on an interest basis. A c t i v i t i e s as incentives. Definition of function and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of Staff r o l e s . Movement towards acceptance •  Page  1  Chapter II - Starting a Group Programme Establishing the function of the S t a f f . Struggles with the function. C l a r i f i c a t i o n of function. A c t i v i t i e s on an individual basis. A c t i v i t i e s on a group basis. Concept of Staff r o l e . Concept of acceptance  36  Chapter III - The Beginning of Socialization Placement problems; high status and low status i n unit groups. The unit group as a diagnostic and therapeutic t o o l . Group workCasework services. Routines and a c t i v i t i e s as tools i n diagnosis and treatment 61 Chapter IV - Working Together as Groups Relevant basic factors: The i n s t i t u t i o n setting; the unit groups; the function and role of Staff. Working together before working with others. Administrative techniques as tools i n i n t e r group relations. Inter-group relations as diagnostic and treatment devices. Teams and inter-group relations. Programme planning committee and c y c l i c a l nature of planning  78  Chapter V - Bridging the Gap between Prison and Community F a c i l i t i e s and equipment as ..bridges. A c t i v i t i e s as normal part of community l i f e . A c t i v i t i e s as exposure to non-delinquent behaviour. Non-delinquent groups and the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e process. Women as a normal part of the community  98  Chapter VI - Contributions and P o s s i b i l i t i e s Contributions of group work towards modification of delinquent behaviour. Setting, s t a f f , unit groups, and after-care; their bearing on the effectiveness of group r e h a b i l i t a t i v e e f f o r t s . Open institutions; expanded unit f a c i l i t i e s ; staff training i n social work; the community. Institutions and Groupings 117  i i i  Appendices:  A«  Job D e s c r i p t i o n f o r C o u n s e l l o r s *  B.  Glossary  C.  Bibliography.  o f Slang  Terms U s e d b y Inmat  iv  ABSTRACT  Youthful offenders are usually persons who are struggling with severe social and emotional problems; who are either isolates or associate mainly with anti-social persons| and as a consequence, cut themselves off, and are cut off from persons who could assist them to identify with more normal social goals and values. This thesis i s a descriptive analysis of a programme developed for such " c l i e n t s " , giving specific attention to the introduction of group work and related social work services at the Young Offenders' Unit, a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The original leisure-time programme hoped to gain the interest and cooperation of youthful offenders; instead, they withdrew into their housing units. In response to t h i s , a social group work service i s provided, and counsellors (both men and women) are assigned to work d i r e c t l y i n the housing units. The transitional aspects of such a programme, i n a correctional setting, presents peculiar problems; therefore, descriptive d e t a i l i s given i n order to highlight two major shifts i n focus: ( l ) The function of the counsellors; (2) The diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of a c t i v i t i e s , over and above their leisure-time value. The essential group work task of gaining the acceptance of delinquent youths i s analyzed, and specific examples are given which i l l u s t r a t e how group a c t i v i t i e s of a l l kinds provide the tools whereby counsellors observe, study, and diagnose the interaction i n each group and between groups. As a result, helpful roles emerge which make i t possible for counsellors to assist the groups and their individual members towards s o c i a l l y acceptable behaviour. Because the youthful offender w i l l eventually return to the community, the study points out how the delinquent i s able to gain a growing trust i n adults as he i d e n t i f i e s with his counsellor, and how this furthers his eventual integration into society. The kinds of a c t i v i t i e s which are helpful to this end are i l l u s t r a t e d . The study recognizes that segregation of youthful offenders i n a separate building, and assigning counsellors to work d i r e c t l y with groups, helps the delinquent to substitute patterns of mature s o c i a l relationships i n the place of immature, anti-social patterns of relationship. But the t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n of concrete and stone, with steel bars and gates poses serious limitations, i n that i t perpetuates, arid sometimes re-inforces the youthful offender's emotional i s o l a t i o n from the community. The concept of a more 'open type' i n s t i t u t i o n i s presented, as one answer to this problem, f a c i l i t a t i n g the whole process i n bridging the gap between the i n s t i t u t i o n and the community, after-care, etc. The need for trained s t a f f continues as an essential part of such a programme.  V  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  The help and support of my colleagues i n preparing and completing this thesis i s gratefully acknowledged. To Miss Anne Furness, and Mr. John Fornataro of the School of Social Work, my appreciation f o r their suggestions. I am especially grateful to Dr. Leonard Marsh, of the School of Social Work, for his valuable attention to content and method of the study.  CHAPTER I GROUP WORK AND  CORRECTIONS INSTITUTIONS  Jim Brown f i r s t came to the a t t e n t i o n of the school c o u n s e l l o r as a r e s u l t of misbehaviour i n school.. At home, J i m was  He was  eleven years o l d a t the  r e p o r t e d to be very j e a l o u s of a younger b r o t h e r , and  have a poor r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s f a t h e r . , The mother admitted a f r a i d of Jim, and i t was her.-  only when the f a t h e r was  Commenting on Jim's classroom  behaviour,  to was  a t home that J i m obeyed  However, the f a t h e r was away d u r i n g the week and was  weekends.  that she  time..  only home on  the school c o u n s e l l o r  observed t h a t , I n s c h o o l work J i m has to be pushed c o n s t a n t l y by the teachers. He n e c e s s i t a t e s three or. f o u r times as much a t t e n t i o n from the teacher as the average student. He i s extremely a c t i v e and r e s t l e s s , c o n t i n u a l l y t a l k i n g or d i s t u r b i n g the c l a s s i n g e n e r a l . When reprimanded, the standard procedure i s f o r Jim to deny e v e r y t h i n g . Teachers are of the o p i n i o n he d e l i b e r a t e l y "barbs" them. 1 This i s an account of J i m o u t s i d e of s c h o o l , from p a r t of  the  s c h o o l c o u n s e l l o r ' s record:: Among the other s t u d e n t s , Jim has a r e p u t a t i o n o f being a "bad egg", and the b e t t e r behaved youngsters do not a s s o c i a t e w i t h him. His companions are a l l students who are c o n t i n u a l l y i n t r o u b l e themselves. He i s l o o k e d on as a k i n d of l e a d e r of t h i s group. J i m i s extremely h o s t i l e towards younger c h i l d r e n . He pushes them around, and s t r i k e s them. He has been known to s p i t i n a youngster's face when he was p a s s i n g by, and to throw d i r t i n t h e i r eyes. F o l l o w i n g t h i s r e p o r t by the school c o u n s e l l o r , Jim was to the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , who commented that:: His vocabulary  was  e x c e l l e n t , and he t e s t e d i n the low  referred  superior  1 These, and other e x t r a c t s which f o l l o w , are from a c t u a l records known to the w r i t e r , but combined to g i v e a p i c t u r e of the t y p i c a l young offender.  -  2  -  group o f general i n t e l l i g e n c e . . Jim f e e l s i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t f o r him to f i n d someone i n whom he can c o n f i d e , and he f e e l s i n s e c u r e because of l a c k o f s t a t u s w i t h those who mean something to him. This f e e l i n g c e n t r e s mostly around h i s home s i t u a t i o n . He f e e l s t h a t he has d i f f i c u l t y i n g e t t i n g along w i t h o t h e r s . Unable to conform to the school s e t t i n g s , he i s f i n a l l y e x p e l l e d from s c h o o l when he i s 14 years o l d , as a r e s u l t of being drunk at a s c h o o l dance.= J i m a l o n g w i t h a number of other boys, had caused c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t u r b a n c e a t the school dance.  He was  e x p e l l e d , however, because he  been the most troublesome;; and furthermore, concerning a g i r l and a boy who  had  he had spread a " v i c i o u s s t o r y  were supposed to have had s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e " .  When seen by the P r i n c i p a l , he c r i e d a good d e a l , and f e a r e d t h a t people would t u r n a g a i n s t him.  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s , he ran away from home, and when  he d i d not r e t u r n the p o l i c e were contacted. and brought back home.  The parents-then  He was subsequently/ apprehended  decided  to send him  s c h o o l , and he was again e x p e l l e d f o r misbehaving.  to another  Along w i t h another  boy,  he s t o l e a c a r ; as a r e s u l t , he was a r r e s t e d and committed to the Boy's I n d u s t r i a l School;; but, a f t e r a s h o r t time t h e r e , he managed to escape. was again a r r e s t e d , a f t e r t h i s b r i e f p e r i o d of freedom.  He  From O a k a l l a P r i s o n  Farm he wrote the f o l l o w i n g l e t t e r to a f r i e n d : I guess you heard by now that I had escaped from B i s c o . A f t e r committing f i f t y - t w o crimes we were caught i n a hot c a r and were brought to the J u v e n i l e d e t e n t i o n Home, where we got i n t o a f i g h t w i t h f i v e o f the guards. We sent f o u r of them to the h o s p i t a l , they were s u f f e r i n g from burns, cuts and r u p t u r e . You t h i n k I got i t bad, you should see my two p a r t n e r s , they each got f i v e y e a r s . I o n l y got 2 y e a r s . Give my regards to the gang. J i m i s now  s i x t e e n years o l d .  about h i s a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour,  I n h i s l e t t e r to h i s f r i e n d he brags  but attempts to cover some o f h i s f e a r by a  r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n that h i s p a r t n e r i s worse o f f than he i s . At t h i s p o i n t , h i s d e l i n q u e n t o r i e n t a t i o n i s q u i t e pronounced, yet h i s sense of i s o l a t i o n  from the more normal groups i n the community i s actually a source of concern to him* Lots of guys I know down here are hypes and they are a l l right in my books, except when they start to talk you into your f i r s t f i x * That's when you got to start "playing the ass" for them;; wicked, stuff that.. Oh well, enough-of that for now.. Believe me when I get out I w i l l try to be good, but i t i s going to be pretty rough facing a l l those people up there.. The outstanding feature i n Jim's behaviour i s his i n a b i l i t y to conform, and this i s characteristic of the hardened juvenile delinquent.. D i f f i c u l t i e s i n his home, i n school, and in the community, are symptomatic of his c o n f l i c t with parents, and with parent substitutes; a l l are conflicts i n interpersonal relations.. One of the big problems i n trying to help suchi a young man,  i s the manner i n which he expresses his d i f f i c u l t i e s . .  His  •acting out* behaviour often leads to entanglements with the law, even i n cases where he may be receiving help from a social worker while he i s on probation.  Long before any re-edueation may  i n trouble with law enforcement authorities..  take effect, he i s once again; The vicious c i r c l e begins  with the youthful offender going from probation to Boy's industrial, school, and on to Oakalla Prison Farm., In B r i t i s h Columbia, approximately 600 young offenders between the ages of 16 and 21 were sentenced to Oakalla during 1959.  Jim i s typical of some three hundred of this number, 'the hard core'  of juvenile delinquents; the r e c i d i v i s t s who keep 'coming back'. Society demands protection from the anti-social behaviour of young men such as Jim; nevertheless, an overwhelming number of experts i n ;  the f i e l d of corrections believe that we must go beyond the purely detention aspects of protection, and that society i s only protected to, the extent that  - 4 the young offender i s given help to become a useful member of society.  2  In B r i t i s h Columbia, any boy under eighteen years of age i s considered a juvenile.- However, i f a youth i s fourteen years or over, he can be transferred to adult court, i f he commits an indictable offence;; for example, breaking and entering, or stealing a car.. Legally, therefore, a youth can be considered an adult;; but, emotionally, he may be no more than a c h i l d . Once he i s sentenced, he i s incarcerated i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , along with other adult offenders.. The; great majority of young offenders are i n what one writer has referred to as a "correctional twilight zone".  3  They are sent to adult institutions where they are apt to be singled out as "troublemakers"..  The i n s t i t u t i o n i s at a loss to know what  to do with them.. In the community they may have been referred to as "hoods" or "punks";; i n the i n s t i t u t i o n they are described as "gunzels" or "orangoutangs". The Young Offender - His Special Needs. Chronologically, the young offender may be anywhere from 16 to 21 years of age;, and he may be physically mature.- But, emotionally, he w i l l invariably be struggling.with problems that he was incapable of solving at an e a r l i e r stage i n his development.. Almost by d e f i n i t i o n , therefore, the young offender w i l l have a greater degree of d i f f i c u l t y i n solving the  2 Cooper, I.B., "The Drama of Youth in Our Criminal Courts," Federal Probation, March.1955, pp. 36-42. Fenton, N., "The Prison as a Therapeutic ommunity", Federal Probation, June, 1956, pp* 26-29. ~ - • c  3 Carr, Lowell, J . "Commitment of the Youthful Offender",, NPPA Journal, Volume 2., No..2., A p r i l 1956, p. 154.  problems which must be faced by a l l adolescents, i n developing to mature adults.. Adolescence i s a period of greatly accelerated physical change,, apparent to the adolescent, and to adults around him, a l l of which makes the adolescent more self-conscious. He i s attempting to identify himself as a person, to "emancipate" himself from his family, and to sort out possible vocational goals.. Powerful sexual drives bring into sharp focus his relationship with members of the opposite sex.. Having to conform to s o c i a l l y acceptable norms, i n a l l areas of his l i f e , requires a high frustration tolerance, yet this i s usually at a low ebb i n the adolescent. T.o help him i n his development, a youngster needs adult support, and, he r e l i e s on peer support.. At no period i s the individual influenced so much by others of his own age, as i n adolescence.  Some adolescents have  the support and encouragement of their parents; as a result, they have sufficient trust i n parent substitutes such as school teachers, church leaders, youth leaders i n clubs, etc., to accept some direction from them. This i s v i t a l l y necessary i n f a c i l i t a t i n g the adolescent's growth towards adulthood, p a r t i c u l a r l y at a time when - as i s typical today - there i s widespread change, and many c o n f l i c t s i n values.  In accepting such advice,  the "normal!' adolescent i s helped to meet his needs i n a manner that i s socially acceptable.  The less fortunate adolescent, who has not had the  love, support, and encouragement of his mother and father, due to family disorganization of one kind or another, finds i t much more d i f f i c u l t - and sometimes impossible - to co-operate with other adults, school teachers, youth leaders i n clubs, etc.. Like the more fortunate adolescent, he w i l l need to associate with his peers;; but, he w i l l tend to gravitate towardss others who are also finding i t d i f f i c u l t to relate to parent substitutes*  - 6, Deprived of their constructive help, he w i l l often respond to the destructive influences of aggressive, and hostile members of his own gang;; then,, because he finds satisfactions and meets his needs in a s o c i a l l y unacceptable manner, he isolates himself along with his gang, and thus become isolated from the more positive influences i n the community, and become members of anti-social or so-called "hoodlum gangs",. There are a number of factors that determine the degree of i s o l a t i o n that occurs in such gangs*  For example,  a gang that i s composed of members from ethnic group, w i l l tend to foster greater i s o l a t i o n than a gang who has a greater variety of ethnic groups* The impact of cultural value confusion of recent immigrants i s also an important factor which determines the degree of i s o l a t i o n * d i f f i c u l t y with the law, remember, inevitably binds-the  Getting into  individual closer  to his delinquent associates;; criminal a c t i v i t i e s become symbolic as a common denominator*  The adult criminal sub-culture plays an important role  in this respect, and one often finds youths who or an "Al Capone".  The "successful" criminal, therefore, becomes a hero,  an object of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . the adolescent,  admire a "John D i l l i n g e r "  A certain amount of criminal a c t i v i t i e s of  therefore, can be-seen as attempts in dealing with the  problems of "growing up"..  Herbert A.. Block and Arthur Niederhoffer have  developed this as a hypothesis in this form:: When adolescent youths, as i n our own society, find i t d i f f i c u l t to enter the adult status, for reasons of delay, s o c i a l or techn i c a l obstacles, or because of the lack of an orderly f a c i l i t a t i n g process, they w i l l often attempt to embrace the symbolic equivalents of the adult behaviour denied them. In this l a t t e r connection, we find that the youths denied the opportunities for f u l l mental, economic, and c i v i c a c t i v i t y may be apt to affect the superficial trappings of adult privilege.. Thus the adolescent drinking, sexual . escapades, wild automobile ridesj immature assertiveness, violent  - 7 reactions to parental restraints, protests against authority, and the other forms of intransigence that, to the youth at any rate, appear to he the prerogatives of the mature adults. 4 The street corner gang i s thus a substitute for normal family growth and "emancipation". It becomes cemented, however, by gang sessions of r i t u a l s , codes, and taboos.. As Block and Niedhoffer put i t , the "informal r i t u a l s of contemporary adolescent gangs are very similar to puberty r i t e s i n primitive society".. 5, Institutions Designed for Young Offenders How  does this apply to the young offender?  His sentence to a term  of imprisonment segregates him from normal society; but, young offenders have ;  already isolated themselves, and have been isolated by society.- In the i n s t i t u t i o n , the young offender does not remain by himself.. He meets some he has known "on the outside";; he meets others in the i n s t i t u t i o n . tunately he also meets older criminals who on him, and on his buddies*  Unfor-  can have a demoralizing effect  Gradually, informal aggregates of young offen-  ders are formed.. This has been well termed a Society of Captives, "where the particular pattern of social Interaction into which the inmate enters i s , in turn, part of a complex social system with i t s own norms, values, and methods of control;: any effort to reform the criminal which ignores this social system of the prison i s as f u t i l e as the labours of Sisyphus".  6  So, for the young offender, in the mass situation of the institution, his old delinquent patterns of behaviour, which o r i g i n a l l y brought him into d i f f i c u l t y with the law, now find new methods of expression in the prison environment.  4 Block H., and Niederhoffer, A., "Adolescent Behaviour and the Gang", The Journal of Social Therapy, Volume 3 Number 4, 1957. p> 178. 5_ Block H., and Niederhoffer A.. Ibid.  p. 178.  6 Sykes, Gresham, M. The Society of Captives. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1958. p. 134.  - 8 This i s the basic argument for special provisions for the young offender.  He should be i n a separate i n s t i t u t i o n , removed from the influence  of more sophisticated criminals.. The total population must be kept small, i f constructive work i s to be done.. 8  In an i n s t i t u t i o n that i s larger than  this writer suggests, the individual, l i t e r a l l y , "gets lost;." under such circumstances, i t i s impossible to carry out any individualization. This i s important so that intensive observation, study and diagnosis can be carried out.  The writer i s of the opinion that, since grouping  with h i s peers has such a powerful meaning f o r the adolescent,- an i n s t i t u t i o n for young offenders should provide f a c i l i t i e s for housing -in small groupssay, not more than ten to twelve youths i n a group..  Social workers s k i l l e d  in the use of group methods can provide basic group work service to these groups, with appropriate diagnostic and casework services i n order to study, diagnose, and plan, the rehabilitative process.  A group work service should  be one of the basic elements of total i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme.  However, an  i n s t i t u t i o n for young offenders must provide other resources i n the total program, such as, religious, medical, and psychiatric services.  Educational,  pre-vocational and vocational training should prepare the young offender to learn s k i l l s that w i l l enable him to earn his l i v i n g , once he i s released from the institution.. Release planning would be an important aspect of total programme, and this w i l l be discussed l a t e r i n this study..  The s t a f f -  ing of such an i n s t i t u t i o n i s an extremely important factor.. In particular,, there i s need for f l e x i b i l i t y and integrated teamwork on the part of a l l staff who must understand, as well as apply, the d i v e r s i f i e d method outlined,  8 Wagner, Albert C , "A Modern Institution Programme for the Youthful Offender", Federal Probation, pp. 20-24, March 1956. In this a r t i c l e he recommends a maximum population of 80 to 100.  i f the ongoing study, diagnosis, and treatment i s to bring some l i g h t into the "correctional twilight zone" i n which the young offender l i v e s . Dichotomy —  Treatment and Custody  The social worker who.provides a service for individuals, or groups, i n a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n , must be aware of the nature of such i n s t i t u t i o n s . . Traditionally r e s t r i c t i v e , correctional institutions are gradually accepting the need to reform their offenders. in the correctional i n s t i t u t i o n must accept two goals:  The social worker (a) custody,, and  (b) treatment.. Unfortunately, they may be conceived as conflict rather than complement:; The modern prison i s organized about a dichotomy of custody and treatment i n which there i s only minimal awareness of the ways in which custody may be a part of treatment and treatment a part of custody. Correctional workers tend to gravitate toward one of two extremes i n their attitudes toward the offender — a punitive extreme and a permissive extreme. 9 An example of this treatment —  custody dichotomy i s i l l u s t r a t e d  in a situation that developed at t b ^ Young Offenders' Unit (Y.O..U.), shortly after a group-based programme was introduced.  Since the boys sent to the  Y.O.U. were housed i n groups, the majority of the s t a f f , who had been recruited from the main prison at Oakalla, and whose background of experience was custodial, insisted that whenever these groups were to be moved i n the building they ought to be regimented i n twos.  That i s , when boys moved from  the units to and from work and training placements i n the Y.O.U., or, when they moved from units to the l i b r a r y , gym or outside area.  The two social  workers on staff argued that when boys were moved, they should move at their own pace; but, despite reasons that were advanced, concerning the undesirable 9< Nelson, Elmer K.,'"The Gulf Between Theory and Practice i n Corrections" Federal Probation, September, 1954.  p. 48  nature of regimentation, i t was not possible to effect a change i n this situation at this particular time.  However, once the boys were locked i n  their c e l l s at night, many continued to request to be l e t out i n order to go to the bathroom.  This made i t necessary for a member of s t a f f to enter the  unit, i n order to unlock the c e l l gate and l e t a boy out.  Numerous c a l l s  during the night resulted i n one, or more staff having to go into the l i v i n g quarters, to open c e l l s to l e t boys out.  After a time, this became a source  of annoyance to a number of staff members; the social workers, eager to throw l i g h t on the "regimentation problem", emphasized to the staff members, the right of the individual to some freedom of movement.. This gained favourable acceptance, and eventually a meeting was held, at which the social workers advanced the idea that there should be greater freedom of movement for  the boys; at night, c e l l s should be l e f t unlocked, so that i f a boy  wanted to go to the bathroom he could do so. This gained considerable support, but was resisted by some staff members, who argued that locked c e l l gates at night were a necessary l i m i t on the boys i n the housing units. There was general acceptance of the d e s i r a b i l i t y of lessening the regimentation i n the movement of groups, but only limited support f o r extending this to include unlocked c e l l s at night.  The social workers continued to urge  that less regimentation should include open c e l l s .  With continued pressure,  the administration accepted the proposition, and c e l l s were l e f t open at night; groups moved to and from the housing units together, but at their own pace.  The movement of groups to and from training areas worked out very  well.  However, i n the units where c e l l s were l e f t open, i n one unit, some-  time during the night, a few bars i n the washroom were cut, a l i t t l e at a  time, and covered over with black shoe polish to prevent detection during the day.  Eventually, access was gained to the outside of the Y.O.U., and  four boys escaped.. The fact that only four out of a total of thirteen boys escaped, probably prevented a complete cut-back in the limited gains that had been made. The situation had to be thoroughly aired at a staff meeting, and i t was only after this that there was recognition that, "custodial functions (which set l i m i t s on the a c t i v i t y of the delinquent), and treatment functions (which strengthens  the individual for more successful a c t i v i t y ) , are mutually  consistent aspects of the same process".  10  In the experience  some boys, saw the social workers as " f a i r y godmothers'? who  just related,  could do things,  for them. This attitude can be d i r e c t l y fostered and nurtured i n the minds of boys, by social workers, in their attempts to be helpful. This i s often exploited by boys, i f social workers are not able to appreciate and the contribution that experienced  accept  custodial staff are capable of making.  This i s not only important for social workers to learn, but i t i s important in bringing a l l the disciplines together that are necessary in a correctional institution* Group Work Principles and Contributions Social group work i s one of the basic methods employed by social workers, who at one time or another give services to individuals in groups. 11 The"guidelines" suggested by Gisela Konopka  are among the best which may  be u t i l i z e d to provide a basis for the ensuing analysis.. She has suggested ten basic group work principles: 1.  The function of the social group worker i s a helping  10  Nelson, Elmer K. Ibid. p. 50  11 Konopka, Gisela, "The Social Group Work Method: Its use i n the Correctional F i e l d " , Federal Probation, March 1956, p. 26.  or enabling function. 2. ' In determining his way of helping, the group worker uses the s c i e n t i f i c method:, fact finding (observation), analysis, diagnosis, treatment. 3. • The group worker must form purposeful relationships with group members., 4.  To form meaningful relationships, the group worker needs self-knowledge and d i s c i p l i n e i n relationship without the loss of warmth and spontaneity.  5.  People must be accepted without accepting a l l their behaviour*  6*  -It i s necessary to start "where the group i s " .  7.  The constructive use of limitations.  8.  Individualization.  9*  Use of "the interacting process".  10.  Understanding and conscious use of non-verbal as well as verbal material* Before proceeding to this, however, i t i s necessary to enlarge on  the .implications of group work principles for corrections institutions dealing with young offenders.. A concrete application of these principles forms the context of subsequent chapters of this study, (l)  The Helping or Enabling Function Central to a l l principles i s the worker's b e l i e f i n the worth of  each individual, and his right to manage his own l i f e .  Help given by the  worker i s based on the needs of the individual, as revealed i n a group, using the objectives, and values, of the profession of social work.- This^ implies that i n helping members of a group, the worker has many roles to play.  Gertrude Wilson points out that "the role, whatever i t may be, cannot  -.13  -  be f u l f i l l e d unless the participating individuals grant the status to the, worker"., 12  In other words, the worker i s . i n a position to help, only when  members of a group allow him to do so; f i r s t of a l l , therefore, the worker must gain acceptance from "his c l i e n t s " . condition.  This i s a d i f f i c u l t task under any  In a correction i n s t i t u t i o n individuals are confined against  their w i l l , and varying degrees of conformity are required.  Gaining the  acceptance and co-operation in such a setting can be a real challenge.  It is  not surprising that the entire environment of the i n s t i t u t i o n , i t s effeet on the individual, and the manner in which this can a s s i s t or hinder the "helping function" of the worker are receiving increasing attention. As one writer has put i t , I deem i t no mere coincidence that now, with the advent and the r i s i n g popularity of group treatment, attention should have become focused on what i s known as milieu therapy;; that i s , what the entire set-up and atmosphere of any particular locus does to the individual. Perhaps i t i s s l i g h t l y i r o n i c a l and paradoxical to speak of milieu therapy in an i n s t i t u t i o n devised so largely to be punishment. Yet i f the aim i s seen as treatment and reclamation instead of r e t a l i a t i o n , there i s a logic to some attention to the m i l i e u . 13 (2)  Observation, Analysis, Diagnosis and Treatment ' i  In carrying out his roles as a helper, the worker must use the s c i e n t i f i c method of observing the phenomenon, analyzing i t , and deciding what i t means, before he attempts to do something about i t .  The focus of the worker's atten-  tion i s on the kind, and quality of response that one member e l i c i t s from the 12 Wilson, Gertrude, "The Social Worker's Role in Group Situations". Brochure University of C a l i f o r n i a , Berkley, C a l i f . 13 Klapman, J . W., "Group Psychiatry, i n relation to correctional Psychiatry". The Journal-of Social Therapy, Volume 3, No. 4, 1957, p. 221.  other, and the kind and quality of response that the worker e l i c i t s from individual members, and the total membership*  This interaction occurs around  a c t i v i t i e s of one kind or another in 'real l i f e situations' that a group, and the worker find themselves i n . Observing what occurs, analyzing i t , deciding what i t means, and what the worker should do, w i l l of course be constantly changing as the group d e v e l o p s B e c a u s e of this change, the worker must carry out continuous diagnosis* "roles the worker may (3)  This in turn determines what constructive  fill.  Purposeful Relationships The worker meets with a group i n order to provide a service to that  group*. In corrections, Gisela Knopka identifies the purpose of s o c i a l group work as, the breaking up of delinquent patterns, for g r a t i f i c a t i o n through positive group associations, for emergence of leadership i n relation to constructive goals, for p a r t i c i pation in administrative questions so as to begin i d e n t i f i cation with a sanctioned i n s t i t u t i o n of society* 14 This i s of nuclear significance for i n s t i t u t i o n s that are responsible for the rehabilitation of the young offender..  It implies that  a worker ought to work directly with small groups as they carry out a variety of a c t i v i t i e s , for example, when a group s i t s down at a table to eat. a meal, or participates i n a sport, or hobby a c t i v i t y of various kinds.. Working directly with groups of young offenders i n this manner i s not the same as other methods which have been identified as "guided group i n eration", 14 Field"*  15  Knopka, G., "The Social Group Work Method:. Its use in the Correctional Federal Probation, March 1956, p* 29.  15 (a) Binkley, F. and McCorkle, R., "Applying the Principles of GroupTherapy in Corrections Institutions", Federal Probation, March I960, pp.. 36-40 (b); McCorkle, L». W., "Guided Group Interaction i n a CorrectionalSefeting", Int.- J r . Group Psychotherapy 4r pp. 199-203, 1954.,  - 15 or "group counselling"* vidual psychotherapy.  16  These methods are essentially based on i n d i -  "That i s , they assume that while group contacts of  certain kinds are necessary to individual cases of s y p h i l l i s and to some individual cases of criminality, both ailments can be "cured i n a c l i n i c , without reference to those groups.  17  One committee, which was organized  to study the problem of treatment concluded that, " i n the treatment of individuals our failure to take into account s u f f i c i e n t l y the patterns of group relationship may  thwart the best treatment endeavours."  18  Donald  R. Cressy's comments are likewise pertinents One serious limitation i s the sharp d i s t i n c t i o n which i s drawn between the therapy sessions and the remainder of the a c t i v i t i e s i n which inmates participate. Group therapy sessions rarely deal with "natural" groups i n prison, e.g., groups of men united by common interests and attitudes. Instead,, inmates are individually selected for participation on the basis of some t r a i t or characteristic such as offence, psychiatric diagnosis, or disciplinary reports, and the group sessions are.sharply defined as something distinct and d i f f e r ent from ordinary prison l i f e . 19 The organization of such "natural" groups of young offenders, and the attempt to provide them with social group work services i s one of the major concerns of this study. (4)  Self-knowledge, and Discipline, Warmth and Spontaneity The worker not only needs to understand the processes of group l i f e ;  he must also understand the dynamics of human behaviour, including his own 16 Fenton, H.., "Introduction to Group Counselling", Pamphlet published by The American Correctional Association, 135 E«. 15th St., New York 3, New York,  1958.  17 Cressy, Donald R.., "Contradictory Theories i n Correctional Group Therapy Programmes", Federal-Probation, June 1954, p. 20. 18 Chwart, J . , Harari, C , March 1958, pp.. 36-42. . 19  Weisman, I., "Why  Cressy,, Donald R.., l o c cit.. p* 24.  We F a i l " , Federal Probation,  - 16 behaviour*. In particular, how his own hinder his desire to be helpful*  attitude towards the offender  may  For example, his attitude towards certain  crimes that the young offender has committed; his attitude towards very host i l e behaviour, or overly dependent behaviour.  Since the youthful  offender  i s l i k e l y to voice b i t t e r and c r i t i c a l attitudes towards parents, teachers or clergymen; and, more than l i k e l y to be b i t t e r and c r i t i c a l of law  enforce-  ment agencies; the worker, as a parent substitute and a symbol of authority, i s a convenient target.  The worker, i n such a circumstance, i s unusually  susceptible to "distortions in perception".  20  The desire to "put  the  inmate straight", instead of "working through" i n such situtations can be p a r t i c u l a r l y tempting.  Although, this i s not restricted to corrections, i t  i s the intensity of the emotions, in a confined setting, that poses a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t problem for. the worker in corrections. very d i f f i c u l t y that poses a real challenge  to the worker in his attempts to  i  provide a service. (5)  Yet, i t i s this  Acceptance of People Acceptance of people does not imply l i k i n g them as well.  however, imply that the worker w i l l render a professional service.  It does, A medical  analogy i s useful, where the doctor or nurse provides a service despite unpleasant smells and sights. the young offender, who  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y pertinent in work with  i s often extremely sensitive to what he might i n t e r -  pret as "aloofness" on the part of the worker.  Wide differences in c u l t u r a l  background between a youth and a worker, can be a d i f f i c u l t barrier.  Com-  menting on this, one writer observes that* Youth find i t easier to identify with the currently popular 20; Goldsmith, A. 0., "The Therapist's View of the Delinquent, "Federal Probation, September 1959,, PP» 20-24.  - 17 starlet or with an E l v i s Presley* Note the dress, the coiffure, the mannerisms i n speech, and the dancing styles of youth.. The tragedy centers around the cold fact that youth cannot find . anyone more glamorous, more exciting, more appealing, among the teachers, the statesmen and p o l i t i c i a n s , the clergy, the scient i s t s that inhabit their world.. 21 (6)  Starting Where the Group Is This implies that the worker's role w i l l be determined on the basis  of the needs of a group at a particular stage i n i t s development.  Help given  to a group, therefore, w i l l be dependent on "the degree of a b i l i t y , and mental health of the group participants". 22  In working with young offenders  i t i s important, therefore, not to make demands beyond their capacity, nor to underrate their capacity*  Gertrude Wilson uses the term, "task-oriented  group" and "growth-oriented group", i n her discussion of the general purposes of groups.  The task-oriented group, as the term implies, i s organized for a  specific task which i s " i n the minds of the members, the appointing body (administration),, and the worker himself."  23 For example, i f a group, of  boys are given the job of thoroughly cleaning up their housing unit, the worker would transmit directly to the members of a group the job to be done, which needs to be completed i n a r e l a t i v e l y short period i n time.  The worker's  role would be different, i n this task-oriented period of the group's total l i f e , than during "growth-oriented periods"; for example, when a group starting "where i t i s " , attempts to develop s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l s so that i t may have a team i n order to play soccer of S o f t b a l l .  As Gertrude Wilson has pointed  21 Kvaraeeus, W. C , "Some Cultural Aspects of Delinquency", Federal Probation^ March, 1959, p. 11. - • 22 23  Wilson, Gertrude, l o c . C i t . P. 17 Wilson, Gertrude, L o c C i t . p. 20.  - 18 out,, "this d i s t i n c t i o n w i l l never be a pure or absolute one*  The difference  i n this regard i s , however, that the growth-oriented group has no obligation to accomplish a s p e c i f i c task*"  24  (7), Use of Limitations The members of any group have different interests and needs;; at times, participation w i l l require that a member of a group l i m i t his own interests, i n r e l a t i o n to the interests of other members i n the group* Many youths find i t unusually d i f f i c u l t to accept limitations,. However, limitations are inherent i n some a c t i v i t i e s that a group may undertake, for example, the rules of a game*. The worker has a responsibility, i n such situations, as a result of his on-going diagnosis of the needs of the individual, to provide through his own a c t i v i t y , necessary limitations. tion..of constructive  In corrections,, the applica-  limitations, i n relationship to the needs and interests  of a l l the members of a group, i s a continuous challenge to the worker. In the constructive  use of limitations i n a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n there i s  always a dual aspect*. The individual members of the group, their needs and interests; and, the extreme l i m i t i n g nature of the environment* (8)  Individualization While the worker attempts to understand each individual i n a group,  i t i s how the individual relates to others that i s of particular significance* He recognizes that human beings are social, beings, that they are interdependent and that we cannot understand an i n d i v i d ual separated from his human and physical environment. 25 The young offenders  1  group associations  are of special significance,  in the manner he relates to others i n a group;; significant to the worker i n 24  Wilson, Gertrude, Loc*. G i t . p. 19*  25  Knopka, G., Loc... Cit., p*. 25*  - 19 his -efforts to help individuals to relate constructively to others.  In this  process, the young offender has the opportunity to learn that his own rightsu and interests also include the rights and interests of others..  However, this  should not be reduced to an attitude of, "what i s good enough for a l l i s good enough for one".  Corrections institutions make i t almost impossible  to pro-  vide some privacy to the individuals.. Individuality i s l o s t i n uniform The individual i s given a number*  dress.  In some institutions, everyone does exactly  the same thing a l l day and every day*  Some inmates rebel at the monotony,  others become robot-like; they are often referred to as being i n s t i t u t i o n a l ized.  I t was,  no doubt, with this in mind that Bernstein commented that,  The man i n prison has many conditions imposed on him, but he might be helped to make his own decisions about jobs in p r i son, recreation, what to do after release and other matters. The point i s that the value system of social work requires this maximization of self-determination. 26 (9)  The Interacting Process The basis of interaction i n a group i s the " l i k e s " and. " d i s l i k e s "  of the individual members*  This implies responses between individuals i n a  group, and between sub-groups within a group.  In this process conflict i s  inevitable, which can be an important source of growth for the individualmembers of a group as they are helped to resolve such c o n f l i c t s *  I t i s of  great importance for the young offender to learn to solve problems with others, i n a construetive manner*  The interaction i n a group provides  him  •real l i f e situations' that he may  have been unable to solve;, or, that he  resolved in a destructive manner to himself and others.. Such situations provide the worker with inyaluable opportunities for diagnosis, and possible 26  Bernstein, Saul, "Self-determination!  of Values?"  King or i t i z e n i n the Realm c  Social Work, Volume 5, No. 1, January I960,"p. 8.  - 20 solution*  Gisela Knopka comments that,  As limited as our knowledge of dynamics i s , the one thing we know i s that the breakdown i s not exclusively in the intrapersonal area, but mostly in the interpersonal r e l a tionships, 27 (lO), Use of Verbal as Well as Non-verbal Material Individual members of a group express their needs and interest verbally and non-verbally»  Ihe_worker must, therefore, be aware of a l l the  members, as i t i s common for the less vocal to be l e f t i n i s o l a t i o n *  In  corrections this can be of particular importance, because some individuals: are t e r r i f i e d at the prospect of being incarcerated for a period of time* Such individuals may  display a great deal of dependency on the worker with  l i t t l e a b i l i t y to communicate verbally;; the use of such individuals as scapegoats i s p a r t i c u l a r l y common in institutions*. may  Other members of a group  lack s k i l l s and appear "dumb"*, This suggests that the worker must use a  wide range of media, some of which may  help certain individuals relate them-  selves to others* Method of Study The present study examines an attempt which was made to apply group work and related social work principles in a particular correctional i n s t i t u tion for young offenders, during the period February 1951, The Young Offenders  1  Unit, at Oakalla Prison Farm, was opened in 1951  attempt to meet the special needs of the youthful offender. October, 1959,  to October 1959*.  presenting  the opportunity  i n an  It was closed i n  of a review of eight years of  experience* It ..is important to remember that the most amenable class of youthful  27  Knopka, G*, Loc* Cit*. p:* 29*  offender would not be serving his sentence in Oakalla; i n other words, he would morelikely be placed on probation.  A l l youthful offenders sentenced  to Oakalla were screened by the C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Committee at Oakalla for possible placement in the 'Borstal' unit, New 'hard core.  1  Haven.  The remainder, the  of youthful offenders are the most l i k e l y to appear i n the Y.O.U.  Such boys present a wide-range of personality disturbances; from a research point of view, the Y.O.U. was experimental-a  testing ground i n the applica-  tion of group work services to an admittedly d i f f i c u l t group. The early stages of the programme, provided leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s for the youthful offender; this provides the background for the ensuing analysis of the steps by which an individual-based programme is altered to a . group-based approach*  The second Chapter then examines the function and  emergent roles of counsellors (both men and women), who work d i r e c t l y with the unit groups; as the counsellors, gain the acceptance of their groups, leisuretime a c t i v i t i e s become diagnostic and therapeutic tools.. Chapter three; focuses on the delinquent relationships within unit groups and the basis for such relationships, and how  the counsellors attempt to help the group-as-a-  whole and individual members modify such behaviour*  Chapter four introduces  another dimension to the diagnostic and therapeutic task of the counsellors, as unit groups participate with others in various sports a c t i v i t i e s ; as a result of the analysis, the value of certain sports a c t i v i t i e s i s discussed* This makes i t possible (in Chapter five) to examine the goal of r e h a b i l i t a tion, the fact that the youthful offender eventually returns to the community. How  can staff, f a c i l i t i e s , equipment, a c t i v i t i e s contribute to the offenders  integration into normal society?  A f i n a l Chapter evaluates the contributions  - 22 and limitations of group work i n corrections, as i l l u s t r a t e d by this special milieu* Group process records are u t i l i z e d throughout, •socialization' developments;:  to analyze the three  ( l ) The relationship-building role of the coun-  sellors with unit groups;, (2) relationships of the members i n the unit groupjs; (3) relationships between unit groups* The I n i t i a l Y.O.U... Programme Before 1951, adolescent offenders i n B.C. were segregated, to a considerable degree, i n Oakalla's West Wing*. Any of the younger inmates who expressed an interest i n improving themselves, became members of what was called the "star group".  During the morning and afternoon, some went to  school; others worked at various maintenance projects. There were a good, many, however, who did not appear to be interested i n doing anything* in the wing at Oakalla, they continually caused disturbances. upon as "troublemakers",  Furthermore,, They were looked  and were frequently the object of scorn from the older  prisoners, and some of the guards..  There was widespreas opinion that as. long  as they remained as a part of a larger group of prisoners, very l i t t l e of a constructive nature could be achieved..  In order to provide training for the  younger inmate a commission, set up by the Provincial Government to inquire into prison conditions generally, recommended that a l l young offenders between the ages of 16 and 23, who opportunity*  In February  could benefit from training, should be given thisj 0  f 1951,  and given a separate building.  the Young Offenders' Unit was opened and  The new unit provided a great contrast i n  comparison to the Oakalla setting*. Comparisons —  Old and  New  In Oakalla, young prisoners were housed, along with older inmates,  - 23 in a wing.. There are three such wings i n Oakalla*  A wing consists of a  long row of c e l l s which run down the centre of the wing*. Each row consists of 20 c e l l s placed back to back, a total of 40 c e l l s , which i s called a tier.  Tiers are then stacked one on top of the other to form 5 tiers, a  total of 200,cells i n a wing.. In the Y.O.U., the young offender lived in one of six housing areas called a unit; each unit consisted of thirteen c e l l s . (See  Figure l ) •-. -  - 24 -  O  (Space Used for recreatiorf)  .0)  =a  1*  r  H=HI  c - a i.>  Figure I :  Unit Area  ^ 1  - 25 When the young offender was i n Oakalla i t might be necessary, due to overcrowding, to be accomodated two i n a c e l l ; but, except for a t o i l e t bowl and washbowl with cold water tap, the c e l l was bare* their own cells.-  At the Y.O.U. a l l boys had  The population was limited to the number of c e l l s available,  a total of 78. Each c e l l at the Y.O.U. contained a bed, plus a small cupboard in which a boy could keep some personal effects.  Each unit had generous wash  room and shower f a c i l i t i e s with hot and cold water.  While he was in Oakalla,  the young offender was issued two woollen blankets and a pillow for his bed. He was given a metal cup, and a spoon with which to eat his meals.  At meal-  times, he had to stand i n a long line-up which f i l e d past a serving area where food was served on a divided cast iron tray. He then returned to his; c e l l where he was locked up to eat his meal.  Following this, he could either  read or write in his c e l l , play cards with his cellmate i f he had ona or go -to sleep.  Weather permitting, and at certain times, he could go out with  other inmates, young and old, to a small enclosed yard where limited a c t i v i t i e s were possible, such as walking, playing catch, kicking a soccer b a l l around, and the l i k e . In the Y.O.U., he was issued two sheets, a pillow and pillowease, blankets and a bedspread.-  The food was served on individual plates from a  central kitchen, and brought to each unit.  There, seated around a table  with others, he ate his meal with a knife, fork and spoon.. Following the i n e a i , each unit, which consisted of 13 boys, had the use of ping pong tables, cards, and other small games. A l l six units were also provided with a radio, a number of chairs, including a chesterfield, as well as one or two upholstered chairs.  The outside area at Y.O.U* provided ample space for S o f t b a l l , soccer*  and other such games.. During periods of inclement weather, he could use a  small inside gym, or a l i b r a r y area..  The response to the Y.O.U* setting, on  the part of the boys, was immediate and enthusiastic* Ihey were less r e s t r i c ted than they had been i n Oakalla* facilities*  There was more space with many more  They examined, and talked about the showers, the sheets, the  furniture i n the units, the radios, the knives, forks and spoons.  Comparisons  between a l l aspects of the old and the new were made. The young offender was now i n small groups, which resulted i n intense inter-change of opinions between the members*  Segregated i n their own unit with their peers, which meant that  they were removed from older prisoners made i t possible to attempt the rehab i l i t a t i o n of youthful offenders.. A c t i v i t i e s on an Interest Basis At the Y.O.U., from 8 a.m. to 12 noon, the individual boy had a choice of four one hour periods of educational instruction, and sports activi t i e s , or, one four hour period of vocational shop instruction.. From 1. p.m. to 5 p.m., he again had a choice of four one hour periods of educational and sports a c t i v i t i e s , or one four hour period of vocational shop: instruction* For a period of time, while individuals were being placed in various educational and vocational shop areas, boys who had not as yet been placed, went out and played s o f t b a l l or soccer; or, just went for walks i n the outside area.  Progressively, however, sports a c t i v i t i e s at these morning and afternoon  periods declined.  F i n a l l y , boys who were as yet unplaced  just remained i n  their units., Some of these boys did not appear to be interested i n anything;; others, maintained  that the Y.O..U* did not offer them courses they were  interested i n . Following supper, the hour between 6 and 7 p.m. was designated as a free  period to be spent i n the unit on a c t i v i t i e s that were approved- by the Director of the Y.O*U* At this time, boys i n the units could read or write i n their cells;; or, in the general area of the unit outside of the c e l l s * Ihey could take part i n games such as, table tennis, cards, chess,  checkers;;  or, s i t and l i s t e n to the radio, or talk to other boys.. Tor a time, they constructively occupied themselves;, but, inevitably the novelty of the f a c i l i t i e s became commonplace.  Arguments developed, fights broke out.. A number  of custodial o f f i c e r s who were responsible for supervising a l l units, by making the rounds, reported that discipline in the units was very poor*  In"  particular, they reported that some boys, in a number of units, were causing a great deal of trouble.  Furthermore, while some were active and took advan-  tage of games provided, or read, or did something "constructive", many boyswere openly c r i t i c a l of the Y.O.U., which was expressed i n insolence and unco-operativeness.  Increasingly, such reports brought about disciplinary  action.. Some boys had to be disciplined for using the games provided for gambling;; tobacco, and items, such as butter and dessert were used as stakes. A- number of "brews" were discovered, some as a result of seeing boys who appeared drunk.=  While i t was d i f f i c u l t to determine who was responsible for  making the "brew",;, there were a number of boys who were suspected of being 1  the "ring leaders" i n this, as well as other misbehaviours.  Disciplinary  action resulted i n a number of boys being confined to their c e l l s in the units;for one or two days and sometimes longer. From 7 u n t i l 9 p.m.•opportunities group a c t i v i t i e s , as they were called.-  were provided for hobby and other  These a c t i v i t i e s were organized in  the following manner.. Members of staff who were on-shift at this time, and who had s k i l l s , made up l i s t s of boys from a l l units who were interested in  - 28 taking part in a c t i v i t i e s that were being offered on a particular night.  Alii  of those interested would then proceed to the l i b r a r y or gym area where a c t i v i t i e s took place.  Hobby a c t i v i t i e s undertaken included, copperwork, leather-  craft, woodcarving, and modelcraft..  Included  in "group" a c t i v i t i e s were such  things as, gymnastics', weightlifting, f i r s t aid, and discussions on current events, and music; appreciation.  I n i t i a l l y , a number of boys were active in  these hobby and "group" a c t i v i t i e s , but continuity was d i f f i c u l t to maintain, partly due to the policy of rotation of staff members to different s h i f t s . At this period, about 12 or 15 boys of a total of some 60 boys were taking part in one or more hobby or "group" a c t i v i t i e s which were offered from 7 u n t i l 9 p.m.  The great .majority of boys, therefore," remained i n the units. .,  In effect, from 5 u n t i l 9:30'p.m., when boys were locked in their c e l l s , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l the boys were i n the units. direct supervision of members of s t a f f .  Here, they were not under the  Furthermore, going to and from the  unit i n order to take part in these hobby and "group" a c t i v i t i e s , resulted i n added d i f f i c u l t i e s in the u n i t s *  The more interested boys, over a period  of time, took from hobby areas tools and materials, and set up private hobbies i n their c e l l s *  This was particularly true of leatherwork.  Items made  were being bartered for tobacco and extra f.ood.- Within four months of Y.O.U. 's inception a l l a c t i v i t i e s outside the units v i r t u a l l y ceased.  Staff members  increasingly had to be concerned with arguments and fights; as well as other disturbances  that were occurring i n the units.  A c t i v i t i e s as Incentives  . .,  When the Y.O.U. was opened, and the younger men  were transferred to  the Unit, i t was assumed that i f opportunities were available for constructive  - 29 use of leisure time, the boys would take advantage of i t . .  Furthermore, a l l  of the hobby and "group." a c t i v i t i e s were offered as privileges, following the day's educational, work, and training programme.-  It i s not the concern of  this „study to discuss the development of this important part of a total r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program:,  28  but, the leisure time a c t i v i t i e s were a kind of  "frosting on the cake" which were calculated to provide some incentive for the boys to work hard and apply themselves, in the work, educational, and vocational areas of the Y . C U . l s programme*  F r i t z Redl and David Wineman i n  their book, Controls From Within, comments on this particular approach* Let us assume that, because they are so disturbed, the educator r e a l l y t r i e s to provide them with r i c h recreational opportunities and sufficient channels for "constructive fun". I f the-door i s open, they should step through, theoretically, and leave behind their, peculiar addiction to mischief, destruction, and many varieties of hostile vandalism. 29 In the  Y.O.U.  the provision of games i n the units, and opportunities  for hobbies and other a c t i v i t i e s seemed i n themselves, to create problems for many of the boys.  This reaction has been observed before:;  They simply do not react as we would want them to and some of them even get worse, because something about the very attempt to lure them out of their pathology makes their defences "work overtime"* 30. The d i f f i c u l t y that the  Y.O.UJ.  was experiencing i n i t s attempts to,  provide constructive leisure time a c t i v i t i e s was centered i n the units*  In  the units, boys were members of group,s with no direct supervision by s t a f f * They were " l e f t to their own devices."  In a.sense, the situation that existed  when these same youths were i n the community vfas transferred to the Y.O.U.  28 Clark, D..L., "Vocational Training and Its Role In the Rehabilitative Process", .M.S..W. Thesis,, U.B.C, 1954« 29" Redl, F. and Wineman, D*, Controls from Within, The Free Pressi, Glen-  coe, III., 1952, p.. 22-23* 30  I b i d . . — 24-25.  setting.  There was no one i n the units, who was able to a s s i s t i n the  development of positive a c t i v i t i e s ; ; therefore, the units responded to the essentially delinquent influences that emerged within each group,. more, the entire programme at the Y.O.U. was increasingly being by the attitude.of some members of s t a f f .  Further-  threatened  One staff member expressed this  feeling by saying that, "most of the inmates just don't appreciate what wa^ being done for them;; they should be • smartened-up*»  The implication was that  the Y.0..U.. should "get tough".. The administration, however, decided  that  since one major d i f f i c u l t y had to do with the groups i n the units, group-workers should be part of the s t a f f *  Two group.; workers were subsequently  recruited, and the challenge was presented to them to "go out to the Y.0.U* and see what you can do."  1  Definition of Function and C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Roles When a social worker i s employed by an agency, his function with that agency i s usually defined.  The mandate the workers were given by the  Y.O.Uo, was somewhat indefinite;; but, whether a worker's function i s clearly stated or not, however, he can only carry out his role as a group worker, i f he gains the acceptance of those to whom he w i l l be providing his professional services.,  The immediate task at the Y.O.U. was to get a better idea of the  function of the worker;; as well as to gain a measure of acceptance. Many of the boys at the Unit, could best be described as being "at loose ends"*  For a number of reasons, they were not taking any part i n the  educational or vocational training offered*  Following the morning and a f t e r -  noon clean-up; chores, the worker (who was given a l i s t of these boy's names) went with them to a hobby area*  Here, i t was planned, a number of a c t i v i t i e s  - 31 might be developed such as copperwork, woodearving, drawing, by exposing the members to materials and tools, and giving them some basic instruction. for  the time being, would establish some i n i t i a l roles.  This,  At this stage, the  workers were very conscious of the bars, and locked gates, and experienced some of the feelings of being locked up i n a certain area. their part, were very disgruntled. It was soon apparent  The boys, for  that many individuals  in this particular grouping did not " f i t i n " anywhere.. Some had already been disciplined for insolence and unco-operative behaviour;, others had been told that they would be returned to Oakalla i f their attitude did not improve. Usually,, i n these morning and afternoon sessions, there would be from twelve to f i f t e e n boys. at  This number did not necessarily arrive together  the beginning of any one session.  It was common for eight or nine to be  in attendance when hobby a c t i v i t y began at nine or one p.m., others to be brought into the area.  and then for  A few, perhaps three or four, were very  interested i n making some item with the materials and tools that were provided*  In any group, members u t i l i z e various ways of getting to know others.  Conversation for some, centered only on the hobby*  Boys asked for tools to  be passed to them; then they enquired from others and the worker, how about making some item.  to go  Others talked i n twos or threes, and seemed to want  to avoid getting involved i n anything.  Occasionally, they would look at  someone else who was busy making something.  Some displayed indifference to  the worker's presence, while others wanted to know i f he would be working steadily at the Y.O.U.. The worker talked with numerous individuals and got various responses.  Typically, they were f u l l of prison slang.  got 3 and a get up, then I ' l l be out of this place." time;; he doesn't be O.K.  talk very much."  "I've only  "Joe i s doing rough  " I f they would just get off my back, I'd  They're always bugging you about something; why don't they  just l e t you do your own time?"  " I f I hadn't been with that gang that night,  and got drunk, I wouldn't be i n here;: i t ' s a bum beef*" Kamloops —  me and my buddy —  "We  were going to  and we got tired of walking*. Me and my buddy  saw this car; we wired i t , and we had to kick i n a joint to get some gas* cops caught up to us, a few miles up the drag." but there ain't enough dummy.." six and a big butt*"  The  "The scoff here ain't bad,  "I wish I was short as Pete, I've s t i l l got  "Anybody got any weed?"  The constant use of slang  31  gave the worker an entry.. Although some members of the group were surprised he didn t know, there was always someone who would t e l l him i n great detail 1  what the terms did mean*. It proved to be the introduction to their world;; a kind of " l e t ' s see what h e ' l l think" attitude, was apparent, on the part of the boys;, they could use i t to "test out" the worker.. Movement Towards Acceptance During the f i r s t month or so, membership i n the groups changed daily; but, the a c t i v i t i e s gradually began to produce results..  A number of copper  pictures were completed, and these were hung i n the hobby area.  Some of the  makers asked i f they could be allowed to take their hobbywork and hang them in their c e l l s i n the unit..  Considerable satisfaction i n what they had  accomplished, and a certain sense of pleasure i n having accomplished something, was much i n evidence*  Other members of the group displayed very low  frustration l e v e l while working with materials*  If the material used, for  example, copper, did not respond the way some f e l t i t should, i t was quite often thrown to one side.  One or two boys appeared to be very unhappy and  moody, and with these, quarrels often broke out*. Some boys did not seem to 31. See appendixt  Glossary of terms.  - 33 mind being i n j a i l ; others f e l t they should have been placed on probation or received a suspended sentence.  Co-operation was limited.  Attempts by the  worker to involve them i n such tasks as clean-up, did not progress beyond individual willingness to help; usually the same boys volunteered for cleanup chores.  The worker's role during this period had o r i g i n a l l y been focused  on helping individuals to get started at making hobbies, through showing them "how to do i t " ; at the same time, the worker encouraged as many contacts between members of the group as possible by suggesting that a boy who had asked about "how to do something", obtain the necessary information from another boy who knew.  There v/as limited acceptance of the worker at this stage,  and only a l i t t l e progress could be made. A "break" came when one of the boys asked the worker i f he would come into a unit and eat with them.  This invitation was of course accepted.  One member of the group took the i n i t i a t i v e , and told the worker where to sit.  The food was brought to the table on individual plates by the kitchen  crew, the food being eaten with l i t t l e i f any conversation. boys ate quickly.  Generally, the  Some boys, when finished, went to their c e l l s , stretched  out on their beds and read or slept.  A few remained at the table and talked.  The general tone was that " a l l j a i l s are the same, but some are worse than others".  The Y.O.U.' was not bad, but there was not much to do. Most of the  complaints that the worker had heard e a r l i e r were repeated. It was two or three weeks before they began to "open up" i n the unit and i n the hobby area.  Complaints were aired, particularly concerning  work and vocational placement; this usually had reference to their b e l i e f that they were not learning anything.  Some bragged about the offences they  - 34 had committed, the g i r l s they had known, the p a r t i e s raised  the o l d complaint  they had been i n .  of b e i n g "bugged" by a p a r t i c u l a r  Some  s t a f f member, and  they asked the worker to do something about i t . For example, one inmate had been r e p o r t e d f o r swearing 32 days r e m i s s i o n  .  at a s t a f f member; as a r e s u l t , he had l o s t ,  i n Warden's Court.  He f e l t he should not have " l o s t  as the s t a f f member he swore a t was "on my back a l l the time, and got mad".  H o s t i l i t y such as expressed by t h i s boy  ineffective  10  s t a f f performance; o r , i t may  s t a f f f o r o r i g i n a l o b j e c t s of h o s t i l i t y .  time"  I.just  can be the r e s u l t  of  r e s u l t from a boy's s u b s t i t u t i o n Such a t t i t u d e s ,  can be  of  indicative  of a b a t t l e a g a i n s t change, which F r i t z Redl and David Wineman have analyzed from t h e i r s t u d i e s and grouped under f o u r main headings* 1. The b a t t l e w i t h t h e i r conscience — " S u r e I s t o l e but I r e a l l y needed i t . " 2. > 3.  4.  the  stuff  The search f o r delinquency support — "Gosh, how c o u l d I help h i t t i n g the guy, you know what a bad temper I have." A  d i r e c t defence a g a i n s t change — " I ' l l make them a c t l i k e those b a s t a r d cops. Then I can keep h a t i n g t h e i r g u t s . Then I'm safe a g a i n s t g i v i n g i n . " Mechanized warfare a g a i n s t change agents — "Blaming me because I'm a crook?" This makes us out to be i l l o g i c a l , s t u p i d and mean. 33'Such t a c t i c s have been l e a r n e d by the y o u t h f u l offender i n an  attempt to d e a l w i t h c o n f l i c t s t h a t are e s s e n t i a l l y a l relationships.  i n the area of i n t e r p e r s o n -  They were to become our d a i l y experience  o f f e n d e r i n the months ahead.  w i t h the y o u t h f u l  But by working d i r e c t l y w i t h s m a l l groups, a  32 A l l sentenced p r i s o n e r s are granted a r e d u c t i o n of t h e i r sentence on the b a s i s of 52 days f o r each year of sentence or p r o p o r t i o n t h e r e o f , s u b j e c t to continued good behaviour. 33  R e d l , F. and Wineman, D.,  Loc. C i t . pp. 19-20.  ... 35 group worker has the opportunity to help, solve these conflicts..  This i s the  most d i f f i c u l t service a social worker i s called upon to perform*  Everything  that has happened to these boys,, everything that i s happening to them i n the i n s t i t u t i o n i s " g r i s t for the m i l l " , but, the group worker, unlike some professional workers i n an institution, cannot remain isolated  from his c l i -  ents*. He i s not "protected" i n an office behind a desk, or can he avoid &, client because he i s "not suited for treatment". The group worker i s i n the front l i n e , where "the weighty issues of causation and cure of pathology stare us i n the face*"  34  34 Redl, F.-, and Wineman, D. Loc* Cit*. p. 25  CHAPTER 2 STARTING A GROUP PROGRAMME Establishing the Function of the Counsellors As already indicated, a start had been made in forming some relationship between the boys and s t a f f .  This had been possible through  contacts during hobby, sports, and other a c t i v i t i e s , and daily contacts i n the routine of the Y.O.U. A l l this, however, was an individuallybased relationship, and up to t h i 3 point, no s t a f f member, except for b r i e f periods of time during the mid-day meal, had spent any amount of time with groups of boys in the units. Furthermore, some administrative changes were made.  The work, educational, and trades training aspects of  total programme were assigned to the 7 - 3 called the Vocational programme.  p.m.  period.  This was  to be  The leisure time a c t i v i t i e s , such as  hobbies, sports, etc., were assigned to the 3 - 11 p.m.  period.  This was  to be called, the Socialization programme, or group-based programme. Six members of staff, called Counsellors,^ were to work with the six unit groups, each of which contained 13 boys.  They were to be inside  the units with a particular group of boys, instead of outside the units as had been the case. duty at 2:45 p.m.  In accordance with this plan, the counsellors came on They signed the daily register, picked up their unit  gate key from a custodial o f f i c e r , unlocked and locked the gate after them. "what do we  the unit gate, went into a unit,  The counsellor's immediate concern was  with,  do?"  1 This term w i l l be used to identify a member of staff who works i n a unit with a group of boys. For purposes of differentiation, a s t a f f member who has Social Work training w i l l be referred to as worker.  - 37 -  Essentially, this meant a need to c l a r i f y their function. worker who  was  The  i n charge of the group-based programme, had had one or two  meetings with the counsellors before they were assigned to unit groups. He had explained that these boys were in j a i l because they had not been able to l i v e i n society, and obey the accepted laws.  He emphasized that  a l l teenagers have some d i f f i c u l t i e s in sorting out their feelings towards authority figures. these boys who  This, i n many ways, would be much more d i f f i c u l t for  had been arrested, and were now held i n custody.  staff members represented  Since  authority figures, whatever our intentions and  hopes, a good deal of h o s t i l i t y towards members of staff was  to be expected.  The importance of setting l i m i t s in the unit groups, and being firm about such l i m i t s was  stressed, as one way  of being helpful to the unit members.  This was equally as important, as helping them to organize and develop collective a c t i v i t i e s .  There would, no doubt, be many problems; but,  the  best course would be to work these out as we went along. The worker in charge of the group-based programme had given some concrete information regarding what the counsellors might experience in the units; but, he had also stressed the use of s c i e n t i f i c method i n work with groups, that i s , observation, analysis, diagnosis and plan of action. was  the essence of the remarks made, that, "we  This  would work this out as we  went along". Struggles with the Function At the outset, the counsellors in the units displayed a wide variety of attitudes towards their groups.  Some counsellors appeared f r i g h t -  ened, and remained close to the wall facing their groups.  Others, spent a  great deal of time going out of the units, and back to the units on a number  - 38 of errands, such as getting a table tennis b a l l , a deck of playing .cards, writing paper, and numerous other items that boys requested.  Other  counsellors went into the units, sat down, and read a book, waiting perhaps, for some boy to ask for something.  Others, having been informed by  the  worker in charge of the programme that a written record of what went on in the group would be required, and that this should be done between.10 and 11 p.m.  after " l i g h t s out", p e r i o d i c a l l y made notes in a l i t t l e book while  in the units.  Other counsellors played cards, table tennis, and other such  games with members of their group, and generally circulated i n the unit, and talked with one youth and then another. was a new  At this stage, being in a unit,  experience for a l l the counsellors, and inevitably this would  have i t s effect on the boys for some time to come. Furthermore, since the work and training programme ended at 3 p.m.,  the period from 3 to 5  would continue to be a time when the boys relaxed.  p.m.  However, at a l a t e r  stage of the group programme, scheduled athletic games were introduced during the 3 to 5 p.m. At 5 p.m., adopted.  period. when the evening meal was served, a new procedure was  Formerly, food was brought into the units on individual plates,  and the meal was eaten seated at a table.  Now,  each unit in turn would be  responsible, on a group basis and in rotation, for preparing the evening meal.  The food was  served in bowls and on platters, and eaten "family  s t y l e " at long tables, 13 boys and their counsellor to a table, which were set up i n the guard walk area (see F i g . l ) . The Y.O.U. cook (who 7 - 3 p.m.  worked a  shift) prepared in advance, and l e f t in the oven, such dishes  as spaghetti and meat b a l l s , macaroni and cheese, meat loaves, and the l i k e , so that a unit would just have to b o i l potatoes and make the tea.  Unfor-  tunately, the kitchen area was very small, and the situation that developed  3?  -  -  3 9  was usually chaotic, Food was often l e f t i n the- oven too long, and some of i t got overcooked.  In such crowded quarters, the sharing of tasks between  thirteen boys became extremely d i f f i c u l t .  The more cooperative person  would 'pitch i n ' , and the less cooperative would throw pots and pans around. Numerous quarrels and fights erupted. and between counsellor and boys.  Conflicts developed between boys,  Once the serving of food to the unit groups  got under way, new d i f f i c u l t i e s were added.  Youths returning to the kitchen  area, after serving food to a particular unit, frequently came back i n a blustering mood.  Some of the receiving units accused the unit i n the kitchen  of not giving them a f a i r share of the food, and they were going to "get even" when i t was their turn to go into the kitchen; or, tonight's meal was not edible, and i t was  this unit's f a u l t .  This might be further coloured,  by the boy who returned to the kitchen, adding that the kitchen group had been accused of saving the best portions for themselves.  The counsellors  in the unit, on the other hand, preparing for the supper meal would i n v a r i ably notice at least-one of the boys, as soon as they were l e t out of the units, and before anybody was settled at the table, counting the number of pieces of butter, cake and other items of food, to make sure the unit had* not been short-changed.  Some boys, i n the unit group, would invariably take  too much food, so that by the time the food circulated, the last two or three.boys got l i t t l e , i f any food.  Arguments would occur, tempers would  be on edge, and requests to pass the bread or salt, with l i b e r a l quantities of profanity, resulted i n bread.and salt thrown from one boy to another. While some might look upon this as a joke, others would take offence; i f arguments flared, they would sometimes end i n a fight.  If a counsellor  supported one side or another, he v/as l i k e l y to aggravate  the situation.  The counsellor in attempting  to settle arguments, and get an equitable  sharing of the food, as well as somehow eating his own meal, had the added task of dealing with complaints about the quality and quantity of the food. In such situations, the counsellor was apt to be the focus of the group's hostile feelings; group s o l i d a r i t y often found expression in statements that, "next time they were i n the kitchen, they would get even with that so-and-so unit 4", or whatever unit happened to be i n the kitchen. Once the evening meal was eaten, one boy in rotation v/ould be responsible for clearing the table, cleaning i t , and sweeping the guard walk area, and returning the d i r t y dishes to the kitchen for washing. counsellor i n the kitchen would now  The  face the task of getting his group  organized in washing the dishes, pots and pans, putting a l l these items away, and f i n a l l y disposing of the garbage.  For the counsellor, at these  times, i t was a matter of just trying to survive.  On one occasion, during  the wash-up period in the kitchen, the worker had l e f t the kitchen area for a moment when a violent quarrel exploded in that area, he asked what was wrong, and was met by an overly-wrought boy holding a large carving knife in his hand, hollering profanities, and threatening to "stick the knife right through your gut".  Only the worker's a b i l i t y to identify with the  pressures and frustrations that this boy had been exposed to, talking quietly to him, u n t i l he put the knife down, prevented a serious situation from developing. In the evening, from 7 to 9 p.m.? of a c t i v i t i e s .  a unit had a choice of a number  Boys could play table tennis or cards, l i s t e n to the radio,  or write l e t t e r s , or perhaps l i e on their beds and read.  Weights for  weightlifting, and mats for tumbling were popular with some, and could be brought into the units.  Individuals could pursue such hobbies and  crafts  - 41 - •- '' . as leathercraft, eopper tooling, or aeroplane model building.  Weight-  l i f t i n g , usually brought a request that the counsellor get a tape measure to note the growing size of muscles which would be entered i n a book by a member of the weightlifting sub-group.  He would also keep a careful  record of the weightlifting a b i l i t y of this group.  In a l l units a number  of boys were interested i n playing cards, and,this i n general was the most favoured pastime.  Competing a c t i v i t i e s could easily bring conflict,_ however.  The card players, or -table tennis players,.or weightlifters, or those who wanted to read or write would complain about the loudness of the radio, or the choice of programme.  A great deal of abuse would be directed at a more  passive boy who had been ' l i v i n g ' the Lone Ranger's exploits and had turned up the volume so as not to miss a p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r i l l i n g episode. The more aggressive boys, joining i n chorus from a l l areas of a c t i v i t y i n the unit, demanded that he turn that 'goddam k i d stuff o f f .  Usually, some boys i n a  unit group wanted to leave the unit area between 7 and 9 p.m.,  and go to the  gym to play floor hockey, dodgeball, or other such a c t i v i t i e s .  Perhaps 3 or  4 might wish to go, the others wanting to remain i n the unit, and carry on with whatever they were doing. By the time the minority had argued with the majority about wanting to stay and 'do nothing' or that, "this group never went to the gym",  their original enthusiasm was apt to be dissipated.  common rebuttal takes the form of, "Why my way, you do.it your way."  should I do your time?"  A  " I ' l l do i t  The counsellor i n such situations, could easily  produce added d i f f i c u l t i e s i f he supported one side or the other i n such arguments.  Nevertheless, conversations can be developed i n the midst of  these exchanges, and between arguments and expression of interests of one kind or another the counsellor may be asked, "Why  do you work at the Y.O.U.?"  "Are you married?"  "What did you do before you came here?"  the ballgame l a s t Saturday?" Friday in New York?"  "Who  "Did you see  w i l l win the heavyweight fight next  "Have you been in trouble with the*law?"  The boys  were naturally curious to "get to know" the counsellors, and asking questions i s one way of finding out.  This i n turn provided an opening  for the counsellors to ask the boys some questions. Some inmates talked very l i t t l e , others were quite vocal.  Typical attitudes of some of the  members are that he believes Y.O.U. i s better than Bisco, and says i t s a good thing he came here.  People i n general he doesn't trust.  has no reason to trust them, although he trusts a few. probably rates highest i n his trust.  He feels, he  His g i r l - f r i e n d  He feels his sentence i s unjust, and  this makes him despondent when he sees other boys at Y.O.U. with shorter sentences for the same offence.  He i s not going to return home when  released, and believes i t was his father who sent him to Bisco, however, he doesn't know what to think, because his mother says she was the one who sent him there. Another boy says that, "the cops give him a 'rough time' a l l the time, and he i s planning ways of getting even.  Judges do not worry  him, but he feels his sentence i s too severe (two years less one day for ten charges of breaking and entering). "dicks".  He repeats over and over his hatred of  They told him i f he s p i l l e d everything, he would get off easy;  when he did, they 'gave him the works'.  He i n s i s t s he would never squeal  on his pals, but i f he had not told them about a l l the other offences he committed, he would only have been charged with one breaking and entering. He. said the detectives had referred to his gang as the "B.B.-gun bandits". He'll escape i f he gets the chance, and i s not worried about a job. he i s getting to be an expert i n "punching safes".  He says  Like the previous  informant, he i s 19 years old. Another boy brags about his gang.  "You've  - 43 heard of the Seventy-Two Club in Vancouver?  Well, I started that Club."  He fought the zoot suiters. He wore semi-rdrapes, and they, wore drapes. Although he started the club, he wasn't i n command —  he was second.  "It wouldn't do f o r a . l i t t l e guy l i k e me to be head of that number of guys."  This boy has an older half-brother he regards as a "sissy". "I'd  l i k e to get him into trouble." step-father.  He then goes on to-speak of mother and  "You know, my mother i s not true to my step-father.- She  fools around with a l l sorts of. guys, goes on drinking parties with them. If she was my wife I don't know what I'd do to her.  I could- t e l l you  things that went on at home that would make your hair c u r l . mother, but.what I'd do to her i f I, was her husband!" youngster.aged only f i f t e e n ,  I l i k e my  This from a  serving two years on four, charges of break-  ing and entering. At around.8:30 p.m. the unit that prepared the evening meal prepares- the evening refreshment.  The Y.O.U. cook baked cookies, cakes,;  or bread; peanut butter or jam would also be available to a l l units.  This  was accompanied by cocoa served out i n pots, one for each unit. The counsellor i n the kitchen at this time, had few d i f f i c u l t i e s , i n comparison with preparations for serving the- supper meal.  Perhaps the most prevalent  d i f f i c u l t y , was the tendency for the kitchen unit to provide toast for a few other units, causing repeated threats from the neglected units to "get even".  The. preparation and serving of the evening refreshment, however,  usually proceeds at a-much less hectic pace than did the preparation, serving and supervision of the supper meal, so that by 9:-30- the unit group who are i n the kitchen has completed i t s task and on returning to the unit prepares for bed and i s locked i n c e l l s for the night.  For the unit groups  -  44 -  not involved i n kitchen chores at.8:30 p.m., amount of scrambling  there was always a great .  for bread and peanut butter or jam; cookies, cakes,  or whatever food was available to the unit groups.  The p o s s i b i l i t y of  some boy taking more than h i s share was ever present, and arguments over this, frequently arose.  However, once this momentarily strained situation  had passed, the boys sat around and talked, or finished a card game they had been playing, or listened to the radio, and were apt to argue, once again, over the programme. The locking of c e l l s at 9*30 p.m. i s another occasion.for bringing out a l l manner of resistance from unit groups, a typical sequence i s as follows.  Some boys would choose to use the t o i l e t just at this time;  others sat on chairs and waited as long as.possible, and some might make a personal issue-of the counsellor's request  that they go into the c e l l s ,  by asking the. counsellor, ''if he thought he was big enough to put them i n their c e l l s " .  Others, just carried out washroom and t o i l e t routine and  went to their c e l l s .  Following lock-up of a l l inmates, counsellors,  received numerous requests.  Typical requests would involve the counsellor  getting someone a drink of water, getting tobacco and papers left.on a.chair, or i n the washroom, or he might be called over to an inmate's c e l l who wanted to be l e t out.to..go'to the washroom.  Such requests continued after  lights-out, at 10 p.m., during the time that counsellors were attempting to compile a record of the day's events. occurred at this time.  Furthermore, many disturbances  On one instance, someone had put something i n a  boy's bed, which turned out to be a f i s h head.  On many occasions  someone  would t e l l a joke, and this caused a round of laughter and hollering, u n t i l f i n a l l y the unit were told to "keep quiet".  This might result i n further  outbreaks, and abusive language towards the person who attempted to settle  _45  the unit.  At 11 p.m.  the s h i f t ended.  -  Commenting on this early stage of  the group programme one Custodial Officer remarked.  "The d i s c i p l i n e i s  no better than what i t was before this programme began, i n fact i t seems to be worse." C l a r i f i c a t i o n of Function To the members of staff who had been at the Y.O.U. during the period when no s t a f f member was with each unit group, the group-based programme seemed, as many put i t , "Just a case of doing things the hard way".  A staff member with no prior experience at the Y.O.U., could easily  understand this, because for the f i r s t month the group-based programme was in effect, the counsellors were exhausted. their own,  The unit groups had been on  with no member of staff in the units for a long enough period  of time, so that each group had developed i t s own leadership.  For some  boys in the groups, the a r r i v a l of the counsellors undoubtedly posed a threat.  Furthermore, to see counsellors, as symbols of authority, who were  not sure what to do, must have provided  the essentially negative  i n the groups with a situation that could be easily exploited.  leadership However,  the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the counsellor's function i n relation to certain routines, such as preparing meals, and the eating of food "family style", was urgently needed.  This would also provide a basis for discussing. ;group  work p r i n c i p l e s . At s t a f f meetings, the worker in charge of the programme, agreed that a group-based programme i n this setting, and with these p a r t i c u l a r groups, would be much more d i f f i c u l t than the individual approach that had been the practice.  The needs of this particular group were discussed to a  limited extent; but, i t was obvious that matters of routine and the urgent  - 46 problems.of what to do i n specific situations could determine the survival of the counsellors. Every conceivable aspect of the kitchen area, supper time routine, and unit area were discussed.  The c l a r i f i c a t i o n of routines  and establishing certain procedures became a major tool i n helping to c l a r i f y the function of the counsellors with their unit group. The Kitchen The kitchen area was too small, only 35' x 1 5 I n such a small area, the counsellors were faced with an impossible task, i n preparing the food, and serving i t to the units. an important  Food i n a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n i s  source of g r a t i f i c a t i o n , and ought to provide as pleasurable  an experience as possible.  This was an important matter to keep i n mind  when helping a group do an adequate job i n the kitchen area.  Each counsellor  must present these problems and solve them with his own group.  Counsellors  in the kitchen must make sure of an equitable sharing of food to. the units, and they were asked not to give certain jobs i n the kitchen to boys, who proved unable to do.such tasks.  For example, care should be taken to make  sure that boys who were responsible for setting out portions of food to the units should do exactly this, and to help those who couldn't do i t to reach the point where they would be able to do so.  In this way individual  differences are taken into account, and, boys are also helped to achieve a reasonable standard.  From subsequent staff meetings, the practice of  taking a l l members of the unit group into the kitchen was altered.  Only  3 or 4 boys were assigned to the f i n a l preparation and serving of food, while another 3 or 4 to do, on a rotation basis, the clean-up duties i n the kitchen area.  -  Preparation, Serving and Eating Meals The sharing of food "family style" proved almost hopeless i n some  - 47 units. boys.  In others, i t continued as a constant Why  source of trouble between  not, asked some counsellors, serve each person his own plate  of food, as had been done during the early .period at the Y.O.U.? i t was  This,  f e l t , would eliminate a l l the arguments and fights which inevitably  carried over into the unit groups following the meal.  This part of  programme was considered essential. Here was a ' l i f e situation' that involved a l l members of a unit group, and i t was an excellent tool in helping the boys to learn to share with others.  Such situations provide  opportunities of observing attitudes of the boys, which would gradually enable the counsellors to get to know the members of their groups.  One  of the counsellors wanted ,to know whether food should be taken off the plates, i f one boy took too much food? i t over with the unit group.  No,  was  the recommendation, talk  You w i l l find that many boys are. concerned  about not getting their share of food, and you can show that this becomes a group responsibility.  The counsellor as a representative of authority,  and an adult was discussed.  For a good number of boys, this would rep-  resent a different kind of adult, than they had perhaps known.  The  importance of " f a i r play", was emphasized i n such situations rather than a 'dog eat dog' attitude.  The counsellors reported that the only members  of the unit who appeared to be concerned about food, were those who were not getting their share, and they were usually the more withdrawn or lowerstatus members of the group.  Membership i n a group was discussed, and  how  the rights of one member of the group depend on his respect for the rights of others.  This would not occur overnight with these youngsters, but these  were goals that the counsellors should keep in mind, something that the group should be helped to achieve. discussed.  Intermediate steps towards this goal were  This might involve one boy taking turns in going out to the  - 48 table, before the group i s l e t out for supper, and doing some sharing of the food, at that time, under the supervision of the counsellor.  All  groups,, however, should be helped to meet the challenge of completely sharing the food "family style" when everybody i s seated at the table: when the group-as-a-whole r e a l l y do think of the other fellow.  Any youth who  persistently demonstrated lack of a b i l i t y in sharing food with others, be referred to the worker who  was  should  in charge of the programme.  Hobbies, Games on an Individual Basis Some counsellors were frankly surprised that they were able to get a c t i v i t i e s going i n the unit, at a l l ; others, expressed the opinion that many boys in the units did l i t t l e more than sleep or read.  Other counsellors  reported that when they attempted to get some of the boys to participate, they became quite hostile, and wanted to be l e f t alone.  A l l counsellors  reported the presence of a certain number of boys in a l l units, who to dominate a c t i v i t i e s .  tended  This was p a r t i c u l a r l y evident i n the hobbies that  were being made by a r e l a t i v e l y small number.  It had been the custom to  allow boys to have tools and material i n their own c e l l s , a practice that had originated earlier; but, other boys who  were interested or whose interest  might be developed, had d i f f i c u l t y in obtaining the necessary tools.  Further-  more, leather wallets, b e l t s , and the l i k e , were being bartered for tobacco and food.  Under such circumstances, an individual could exploit others, and  no doubt many quarrels and fights resulted because of this situation'. appeared to be a dilemma.  This  On the one hand, boys had been encouraged to share  a l l the f a c i l i t i e s ; but, some boys had control of tools which made this impossible.  In one unit, as an example, when the counsellor had attempted  to make tools available to a l l members of his group, one boy had boastfully  • • - 49 -  proclaimed, that, " I ' l l k i l l the f i r s t b  that comes near my  cell".  This was not only the resistance of one boy.  It was resistance that  was  supported by a number of boys in his unit, and by boys in other units.  It  i s partly a resistance against change, but, more important, i t i s an attempt to perpetuate an individual advantage at the expense of others. common situation that develops i n many i n s t i t u t i o n s .  This i s a  Gradually, a whole  constellation of individual advantages are seized by certain inmates, and these are protected by every expedient that comes to hand. can view this in one of two basic ways.  One,  An  administration  i t i s a "necessary" e v i l .  Disciplinary action may be taken against the more flagrant abuses; or, individuals in positions of p r i v i l e g e may be used to keep others i n l i n e . This inevitably ends with the i n s t i t u t i o n being "run by the inmates".  Such  an institution w i l l reflect a l l the delinquent values that, as an agency of society, i t i s supposed to oppose.  The second basic attitude that can be  held by the administration holds that, i t i s a "necessary" e v i l , only i f i t i s allowed to develop.  It develops because inmates have more than the bare  essentials of food, clothing and shelter, and because inmates are "crooks", "cunning", and can't be trusted, you give them nothing. results in the prisoner "just doing time", and may  This inevitably  result in f a i r l y well  organized disturbances against the administration, some of which can be 2 serious.  This, b r i e f l y , was  the situation that faced the group-based pro-  gramme at this stage i n i t s development. were involved.  Important Social Work principles  It was necessary to emphasize the rights of a l l individuals,  including the youth who  symbolized the resistance, and i t was necessary to  place adequate l i m i t s so that theory could be translated into practice. 2  Sykes, Gresham M.,  op. c i t . (see Chapter 5, in particular)  - 50 Hobbies, Games on a Group Basis The worker i n charge of the group-based programme explained the situation to the counsellors, and meetings were held with boys i n the unit groups.  It was explained that a l l hobby and craft tools and materials were  to be turned i n . Each unit would then be issued a share of tools and equipment, which would be placed in a box with the unit's number marked on i t . When counsellors arrived on s h i f t , they would simply pick up their unit box, and take i t into the unit.  Leather, copper and other supplies would  be issued to units from a l i s t made up by each counsellor.  A l l boys would  be allowed to keep one item of anything that was made, provided, made one item of equal value for the Y.O.U.  that they  The Y.O.U. would s e l l such  items, and with the funds, additional equipment and supplies would be purchased.  Every boy could pursue his own interest in hobbies, and games, but  the interests of others would have to be respected.  Furthermore, the efforts  of the individual would contribute towards providing items for his own use, as well as for the use of others. equipment.  Most of the boys handed i n tools and  A few boys resisted; one boy, as has already been mentioned,  refused to give up the tools and equipment he had i n his possession. worker i n charge of the programme had interviewed the interview he was not returned  to his, unit.  The  this boy, and following  The counsellor i n his unit,  and the worker, removed the boy's cupboard from his c e l l , and i n the presence of the boy, his personal belongings and Y.O.U. tools and equipment were sorted out.  The boy was understandably h o s t i l e , and remained aloof;  but, gradually he began to take part i n the sorting out process.  In a  corrections i n s t i t u t i o n i t i s often necessary to exercise the authority which i s vested i n the staff. of such authority.  This i s one example of the constructive use  -  ...  51  -  The working through of an i n d i v i d u a l - b a s e d approach to hobbies,  and games, to a group-based approach d i d not solve a l l problems, i t d i d however, e s t a b l i s h an important b a s i s which helped to c l a r i f y the f u n c t i o n of the c o u n s e l l o r s .  Some, f o r example, a g a i n r e f e r r e d to t h e i r l a c k of  s k i l l s i n hobbies and games.  This would have to be met  s e l l o r s some b a s i c hobby, c r a f t and game s k i l l s . s t a f f had  such s k i l l s , and  by teaching coun-  A number of persons on  taught them to others; i n d i v i d u a l s from the  community were a l s o brought i n to i n c r e a s e  the s k i l l s of s t a f f .  more, some boys i n a l l u n i t groups had a number of s k i l l s i n t h i s C o u n s e l l o r s helped such boys, teach t h e i r s k i l l s to o t h e r s . the boy  Furtherarea.  In t h i s  g i v e s of h i s s k i l l to o t h e r s ; he l e a r n s to share w i t h others  gets s a t i s f a c t i o n i n h e l p i n g o t h e r s .  S p e c i f i c examples o f the help  way, and given  by the c o u n s e l l o r s to t h e i r groups were c i t e d i n s t a f f meetings by the worker i n charge of the program. Three boys i n a u n i t wanted a f o u r t h f o r b r i d g e , but were not a b l e to r e c r u i t a f o u r t h member. The c o u n s e l l o r made the f o u r t h , but he only played u n t i l he saw another f e l l o w a n x i o u s l y watchi n g from a d i s t a n c e . The c o u n s e l l o r then moved out of the game, and asked another inmate f o r a game o f table t e n n i s . Following three or four games, the c o u n s e l l o r suggested a game of doubles, i n s t e a d of s i n g l e s . F i v e boys were eager to p l a y . This d i d not occur, but the c o u n s e l l o r suggested to one of the f i v e i n mates that perhaps they would a l l l i k e to see the wood c a r v i n g s t h a t some boys had made. They a l l proceeded to where others were c a r v i n g wood and compared work. Numerous " t i p s " on work i n wood were exchanged. From such examples, the c o u n s e l l o r s gained some i n s i g h t i n t o  the  concept that hobbies and games are not ends i n themselves, but are t o o l s that can be used to help boys w i t h i n a group to grow and  develop.  Concept of Role ,  A great d e a l of " s o r t i n g out" was  necessary before  the group-  - 52 based programme was  able to e s t a b l i s h a few necessary r o u t i n e s , and some of  these have been d i s c u s s e d .  Furthermore, once r o u t i n e s became more f a m i l i a r  to the c o u n s e l l o r s , they began to r e p o r t , on what was  going on i n the u n i t s .  This a f t e r n o o n I was informed t h a t there was m a t e r i a l a v a i l a b l e to r e b u i l d our t a b l e tennis t a b l e which was i n poor c o n d i t i o n . I mentioned t h i s to my group, and the m a j o r i t y of them agreed to r e p a i r the t a b l e a f t e r supper. Joe, one of the l e a d e r s , however, wanted to b u i l d a s m a l l magazine rack. I informed the group that once we had r e p a i r e d the t a b l e tennis t a b l e , I would get the m a t e r i a l to b u i l d a magazine r a c k . Joe then went to a l l the boys and t r i e d to persuade them not to r e p a i r the t a b l e , but d i d not succeed i n t h i s ; however, he went to h i s c e l l and sulked f o r most of the evening. He d i d make one e x i t , however, and brought out two tobacco cans to which he had attached a p i e c e of copper w i r e . He swung them around, and making a t e r r i f i c n o i s e , completely d i s r u p t e d the u n i t . I f Joe had co-operated w i t h me, and the others who were r e p a i r i n g the t a b l e , the u n i t would have run smoothly. However, he d i d h i s best to d i s r u p t , and he succeeded. Here i s another c o u n s e l l o r ' s u n i t r e p o r t : The u n i t group today was i n constant t u r m o i l as a r e s u l t of Tom's . a t t i t u d e . At v a r i o u s times he has used the f o l l o w i n g t a c t i c s t o ward c o u n s e l l o r : 1. 2. 3« 4.  C t i n u e d & very abusive language. The ' s i l e n t treatment' which would l a s t days. I c y s t a r e s and c o l d hard l o o k s . Go around t e l l i n g u n i t members how c o u n s e l l o r was supposed to be t r e a t i n g him, and s t i r up t r o u b l e . 5. C a l l the c o u n s e l l o r a l i a r , l a z y , e t c . 6. Attempt to get u n i t to g i v e c o u n s e l l o r the " s i l e n t treatment". 7. Refuse to co-operate v/ith the u n i t . an  o n  Tom w i l l s i t i n h i s c e l l and h o l l e r f o r the c o u n s e l l o r to come down and see what he wants. " He seldom goes out of h i s c e l l , and when he does i t i s u s u a l l y i n t o another's c e l l . He has yet to operate d e c e n t l y i n a group, and r e f u s e s to take p a r t i n a group l a r g e r than two. He seems to have a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on Jack (another n a t u r a l l e a d e r ) who i s h i s o n l y l o y a l s u p p o r t e r . If he can't get the c o u n s e l l o r to get the u n i t doing what he wants, he w i l l t a l k to Jack i n h i s c e l l and together they w i l l get the u n i t to do what Tom wanted to do. These records  are t y p i c a l of what was happening i n a l l u n i t s .  They are the k i n d of problems i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which the youth-  -  53  -  f u l l offender needs help i n solving.  However, to help boys i n solving such  d i f f i c u l t i e s requires the application of group work techniques.  Counsellors,  at this stage, had become familiar with routines. They were, you might say, familiar with what to do; but, they were just beginning to learn how  to do  it. In this chapter reference has been made to the function of the couns e l l o r ; but, "the person to whom the function i s assigned may  or may not  have the qualifications for the role-fulfillment required to perform the function."  3  Only a few members of staff, at any one time at the Y.O.U., 4  had formal training i n Social Work.  In providing a service to individuals  in groups, the worker, i n response to the needs of the group, plays a number of roles.  S p e c i f i c a l l y , he may at one time or another be a. sensitive l i s -  tener, or he v/ill be active i n helping i n solving a conflict that has developed between two boys.  He may give help to a boy who i s trying to learn  a s k i l l , or he may help a boy teach his s k i l l to another. the worker may  encourage a boy to seek other services, educational, or voca-  tional, or a particular boy may services.  In many instances  show the. need for casework or psychiatric  In such a situation the worker may undertake an individual inter-  view to help i n the r e f e r r a l ; using what understanding he has of the boy, as he behaves i n a group setting, to assist other services in their attempts at helping.  A l l of these instances suggest a number of roles that the worker  might play i n working with a group.  "At the same time that he i s participat-  ing in a group, he i s evaluating what he sees, hears, and feels of the total 3 Wilson, Gertrude, op.cit. p. 8. 4 In the f i n a l chapter, some conclusions are presented on what can reasonably be expected from s t a f f who are carefully selected, who receive in-service training, but who do not have formal training i n Social Work.  - 54 interaction;  The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and fulfillment of his various roles are 5  almost simultaneous.  Instantaneous thought and action are required."  Concept of Acceptance In a correctional setting, a counsellor with a group of boys i s a representative of authority and a parent substitute.  He can expect that  he w i l l be the recipient of a good deal of hostile feelings, simply because he i s handy; he i s the adult with the group.  Hostile feelings are projected  on him by members of the group, individually, and c o l l e c t i v e l y .  The experi-  ence of the counsellors i n the units and the records quoted earlier i n this chapter are typical of this fact.  The a b i l i t y to absorb h o s t i l i t y i s import-  ant i n the process of gaining acceptance from a group of youthful offenders. This does not mean that he should just be able "to take i t " . a b i l i t y to act purposefully i n response to the needs of boys.  It implies the Sometimes  hostile behaviour w i l l require the active limitation of a boy; for example, confined to his c e l l u n t i l he "cools o f f " . ignoring the hostile outburst.  At other times, i t may involve  In any case, gaining the acceptance of a unit  group i s essential i n providing a service to that group.  One of the d i f f i c u l -  ties i n helping untrained s t a f f with their groups, i s their desire to want to know what to do i n certain situations.  There i s a desire to solve group  problems, once and for a l l , and to do i t quickly.  Gradually, however, some  staff members learn that the solution to group problems i s a gradual  process;  that there are no "quick solutions;" that one must proceed by observing, studying, and diagnosing; as a result, roles emerge, which enable staff to 5  Wilson, Gertrude, op.cit. p. 11.  - 55 help members o f a u n i t group.  The f o l l o w i n g condensed sequence, r e p r e s e n t s  one worker's e x p e r i e n c e , t h a t was t y p i c a l o f o t h e r worker's experiences w i t h u n i t groups. V/hen the worker f i r s t came t o the Y.O.U., and was a s s i g n e d to work w i t h a group o f boys, who met as a hobby group, i t was n o t i c e d , t h a t the more withdrawn and p a s s i v e boys were f i r s t to t a l k to the worker.  They  were a l s o youths who appeared to have low s t a t u s i n the hobby group.  The  same sequence o c c u r r e d when the worker was a s s i g n e d to work w i t h a u n i t group. Furthermore, boys who were more a g g r e s s i v e , and o f t e n t i m e s openly h o s t i l e , would, a t v a r i o u s times, observe the worker very c a r e f u l l y .  F o r example,  when the worker was engaged i n d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the more p a s s i v e boys, there •, seemed to be, on the p a r t o f the more a g g r e s s i v e boy, a d e s i r e to f i n d out, not In  o n l y what was s a i d , but perhaps, i n a more s u b t l e way, how i t . was s a i d . e f f e c t , what was the worker's a t t i t u d e towards the requests and demands  made by the p a s s i v e boys.  At t h i s stage i n .the p r o c e s s o f acceptance, there  seemed to be, on the p a r t o f the a g g r e s s i v e boy, a d e s i r e to a v o i d the worker, not to spend too much time i n c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h him.  Similarly,  d u r i n g the p l a y i n g o f a game such as t a b l e t e n n i s , i t would q u i t e o f t e n be the case that the aggressive boy would be g r o s s l y u n f a i r to the p a s s i v e boy. of the  F o r example, he might be accused o f being s t u p i d , and t o l d to get out  the game and l e t someone e l s e p l a y .  At such times, i f the worker supported  p a s s i v e boy, the more a g g r e s s i v e boy might become q u i t e h o s t i l e , and  accuse the worker o f i n t e r f e r e n c e .  Other i n s t a n c e s o f t h i s o c c u r r e d when  a p a s s i v e boy was supported while t r y i n g to l i s t e n to a r a d i o program such as,  "Superman", "Mickey Mouse", and the l i k e .  Such a program appeared to  annoy the a g g r e s s i v e boy.  Attempts to get the group to d i s c u s s games,  r a d i o programs, e t c . , a t t h i s stage, would not succeed. boys would not wish to get i n v o l v e d i n such d i s c u s s i o n s . the a g g r e s s i v e boys would become more demanding. necessary  The  aggressive  However, g r a d u a l l y ,  At times when i t became  to i n t e r f e r e w i t h the a g g r e s s i v e boy he would be v e r y  argumentative.  This i s an important d i f f e r e n c e , f o r i t would provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n v o l v i n g other boys.  I n s t e a d of bogging down on p e r s o n a l i s s u e s , there  was  the b e g i n n i n g of a c a p a c i t y to see the i m p l i c a t i o n s on a group b a s i s ; t h a t i s , every c o n f l i c t i n v o l v e d other boys i n some way.  For example, one  day  at t h i s s t a g e , the group had returned from- p l a y i n g a game of s o f t b a l l , had been defeated by another u n i t .  One  and  of the a g g r e s s i v e boys announced  t h a t he was going to q u i t p l a y i n g , t h a t he had to p l a y the game a l l by himself.  Nobody was  g i v i n g him any h e l p .  He accused other boys of s t u p i d  m i s t a k e s , and t h a t the u n i t had l o s t d e s p i t e a n y t h i n g he could do.  He  was  p a r t i c u l a r l y h o s t i l e towards the p a s s i v e boys f o r not knowing a n y t h i n g .  The  group were able to d i s c u s s t h i s to a much g r e a t e r degree than would have been p o s s i b l e at an e a r l y stage.  The aggressive boy, who  was blaming  body, was able to see the need to h e l p the l e s s a b l e to p l a y , and blaming them a c t u a l l y r e s u l t e d i n more mistakes b e i n g made.  the case at an e a r l i e r * stage.  to be a d e f i n i t e sequence.  that  The worker  a b l e to be more h e l p f u l , because he had been given.more acceptance group than was  every-  by  was  the  I n t h i s process, there seemed  F i r s t of a l l the more p a s s i v e boys were eager  to t a l k w i t h the worker, and the a g g r e s s i v e boys remained a l o o f .  The  The a g g r e s s i v e boy seemed to "get to know" the worker through the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t was d e v e l o p i n g w i t h the more p a s s i v e boy.  I n essence,  their  - 57 a t t i t u d e seemed to be, "we don't want to become i n v o l v e d w i t h t h i s a d u l t -  y e t ; l e t ' s w a i t and see what he's l i k e f i r s t " .  " I f he- l i k e s them, h e ' l l  l i k e us; then, i t w i l l be s a f e . " One  w r i t e r , commenting on h i s experience i n group c o u n s e l l i n g  states that: The group s e t t i n g provides two e s s e n t i a l new t o o l s : a m o d i f i e d c l i e n t - w o r k e r r e l a t i o n s h i p and the a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f members to each o t h e r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p to the worker i s d i l u t e d i n a group s e t t i n g and a t the same time i s more o b j e c t i v e and r e a l i s t i c because the c l i e n t experiences the worker's response to others i n the group as w e l l as to h i m s e l f . 6 During the l a s t year that the Y.O.U. was i n o p e r a t i o n , a number of women were taken on s t a f f as c o u n s e l l o r s . the u n i t s w i t h groups o f boys.  The process  Some o f the women worked i n  o f acceptance w i t h a woman worker  i n the u n i t , f o l l o w s a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n which o b t a i n s w i t h a male worker. i s , acceptance by the more p a s s i v e boys, and through a g g r e s s i v e boy.  That  them to the more  However, because the v/orker i s a woman there are important  differences. The She to .At he  worker met the boys i n the u n i t f o r the f i r s t time today. i n t r o d u c e d h e r s e l f and, one o f the boys took i t upon h i m s e l f c a l l o f f the names o f each boy as he pointed him out to her. l o c k - u p , John was very anxious to h e l p with l o c k i n g up, and shut a l l the c e l l d o o r s . f o r the worker. I n i t i a l l y the boys f o l l o w a c u l t u r a l l y - a c c e p t e d p a t t e r n that one  should be p o l i t e to women.  Boys are i n t r o d u c e d , and give the worker help i n  c l o s i n g the c e l l doors a t lock-up condition.  time.  T h i s , however, i s o n l y a temporary  S h o r t l y a f t e r t h i s the u n i t want to know what the woman v/orker  i s l i k e , and she records t h a t : 6 Grunwald, H., "Group Counseling i n Combating Delinquency", P r o b a t i o n , December, 1958. p. 34.  Federal  - 58 The u n i t i s c o o l towards worker, but no one i s openly u n f r i e n d l y . I t i s f e l t that P a u l , a member o f the h i g h s t a t u s group, i s having d i f f i c u l t y f i n d i n g h i s p l a c e w i t h the worker. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h i s group, a. number of the weaker members i n the u n i t seem to be w a i t i n g f o r P a u l to g i v e a s i g n that i t ' s O.K. It i s f e l t that s e v e r a l o f the boys would be more f r i e n d l y , but do not wish to make a move. I n the f o l l o w i n g r e c o r d , the members of the group take the i n i t i a t i v e i n " t e s t i n g " the worker.  The r o l e she p l a y s h e l p s boys to see  t h a t she i s an a c c e p t i n g person; they, i n turn, accept her. Tonight the group t a l k e d about the Hollywood v e r s i o n g i v e n the general p u b l i c r e g a r d i n g p r i s o n inmates, that they t h i n k the inmates i n here go around r e a l tough, k n i f i n g people, e t c . They wanted to know what the worker had thought about O a k a l l a before coming here. The worker r e p l i e d that she d i d n ' t know much about j a i l s u n t i l she came to the Y.O.U., but had read w r i t e - u p s by the Warden, and heard him speak to groups where he had asked f o r help from the community i n a c c e p t i n g the inmate back i n s o c i e t y f o l l o w i n g r e l e a s e . They were s u r p r i s e d that t h i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given to inmates. E a r l i e r t h i s evening, the u n i t , a t the s u g g e s t i o n o f the few h i g h e r s t a t u s inmates, decided to p l a y s h i p s and s a i l o r s . I n t h i s game they use mats, one inmate l i n k s arms around the w a i s t of inmate ahead to form a human p l a t f o r m ; f i v e inmates form t h i s p l a t f o r m , and o t h e r s i n the group, l e a p on the backs one a t a time, u n t i l f i v e are on the backs o f the group f o r m i n g the p l a t f o r m . The i d e a of the game i s to see which group f a l l s f i r s t ; those on top, by b e i n g rocked o f f , or those underneath by b e i n g "..squashed". The stronger inmates i n v a r i a b l y a l l on one team, and they jump on the backs of the weaker. The worker suggested they r o t a t e p o s i t i o n , and immediately P a u l s a i d he wouldn't c r a c k to worker. The whole u n i t acted as i f they had been b a d l y used and most of the u n i t went to s i t a t the f a r end of the u n i t ; i t appeared t h a t the C o u n s e l l o r was going to get the s i l e n t treatment. P a u l went and l a y down i n h i s c e l l . At l o c k up a few of the lower s t a t u s inmates spoke of the p r e s s u r e put on some inmates by o t h e r s , but they assured worker that i t d i d not occur i n t h i s u n i t . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g i n t h i s r e c o r d to note how  the process of  acceptance of the worker by the group, enables the worker to help the group-as-a-whole.  This f u r t h e r s the process of acceptance.  As an example,  - 59 i n the record j u s t quoted, P a u l , the boy whom the worker has  identified  as one of the more aggressive boys i n the u n i t , i s unable at t h i s time to accept l i m i t s t h a t the worker has evaluated as being necessary. response i s a f l a t : " I won't c r a c k to you".  His  However, he i s i n c r e a s i n g l y  a b l e to accept the worker, and h i s a t t i t u d e undergoes a change. Ken, a new' member i n the u n i t group was very p a s s i v e d u r i n g a dodgeball game t o n i g h t . P a u l kept h o l l e r i n g at him to throw the goddam b a l l . The v/orker spoke to P a u l l a t e r , alone, and asked him not to s i n g l e t h i s boy out; he was very embarrassed when P a u l h o l l e r e d at him. The v/orker p o i n t e d out that s i n c e Ken i s a new a r r i v a l i n the u n i t , P a u l should g i v e him a break. Although P a u l was q u i t e d e f e n s i v e , he seemed to a p p r e c i a t e the situation. Such a change.., r e s u l t s to a l a r g e extent through the boy  identifying  w i t h the v/orker, and the values she represents such as, f a i r p l a y and r i g h t s of o t h e r s .  Furthermore,  the  as a boy i d e n t i f i e s w i t h such v a l u e s he i n  t u r n helps o t h e r boys towards more acceptable forms of behaviour. The who the was  v/orker was impressed w i t h P a u l ' s e f f o r t to s i l e n c e Frank, was swearing at the t a b l e . Frank has very low s t a t u s i n group, and he responded immediately to P a u l ' s cue, t h i s done o n l y by a glance, and not i n any obvious manner. Sometimes acceptance  of the worker i n v o l v e s help i n s o l v i n g a  problem of one of the members of the group.  I n t h i s case, Frank's  poor  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the woman v/orker r e v e a l s a s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t w i t h women. Frank i s extremely unco-operative i n h i s a t t i t u d e . He i s very i n s o l e n t , and he r a r e l y speaks to worker. He j u s t g r u n t s . He appears to have a contemptuous a t t i t u d e to women, which he i n c r e a s i n g l y expresses i n h i s a t t i t u d e , but cannot v e r b a l i z e . "Tonight, a f t e r lock-up, the worker was handing out w r i t i n g paper, and Frank was l y i n g on h i s bed naked. He v/as aware that the worker was b r i n g i n g paper around, as he had requested some h i m s e l f . L a t e r , he stood up and leaned a g a i n s t the c e l l door, a g a i n v/ith no c l o t h e s on, as the worker came down and out of the u n i t . The v/orker f e e l s t h a t t h i s i n c i d e n t may be the opening needed to b r i n g some of h i s h o s t i l i t y to the s u r f a c e . " The worker p l a n s to have an i n t e r v i e w , and i f i n d i c a t e d , arrange  - 60 f o r a r e f e r r a l to the d o c t o r . Today the u n i t was very c o o l towards her when she came on duty, and i t was obvious a f t e r a few minutes that i t was over Frank's e x h i b i t i o n i s m . The worker overheard a remark t h a t opened up the d i s c u s s i o n . She reminded the group t h a t Frank had a p o l o g i z e d , but a p p a r e n t l y the i d e a had got around that he was going to go to o u t s i d e c o u r t . The worker s a i d that punishment was not i n v o l v e d , j u s t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of what was a c c e p t a b l e b e h a v i o u r . A f t e r supper a number of the inmates wanted to know why the worker had come to work a t Y.O.U., she r e p l i e d t h a t i t was because she was i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s k i n d o f work. P a u l gave a number o f reasons why he d i d n ' t t h i n k women should work i n . a u n i t , one, the inmates c o u l d n ' t run from shower to c e l l i f they f o r g o t t h e i r towels and two, they had to watch t h e i r swearing. Frank spends much more time out of h i s c e l l . The u n i t seems to r a l l y around him, and g i v e s him g r e a t e r support i n h i s attempts to mix w i t h o t h e r s . P a u l , the n a t u r a l l e a d e r i n the group, i s m i x i n g more w i t h a l l the members o f the group i n s t e a d of the few higher s t a t u s inmates. There i s a marked change i n h i s a t t i t u d e , he has much l e s s h o s t i l i t y than was the case a few months ago. This chapter has been concerned w i t h the f u n c t i o n of the c o u n s e l l o r s , and the emergence o f r o l e s , as groups a c c e p t the c o u n s e l l o r s .  Once a degree  of acceptance has been'achieved, a group i s no longer p r i m a r i l y concerned i n " t e s t i n g " the c o u n s e l l o r , i n t r y i n g to f i n d out what he or she i s l i k e . In a sense, the c o u n s e l l o r ' s a t t e n t i o n can now be more e f f e c t i v e l y d i r e c t e d on the i n t e r a c t i o n i n the u n i t group, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , the b a s i s o f the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the boys.  This i s the focus i n the next c h a p t e r .  CHAPTER  3  THE BEGINNING OF SOCIALIZATION The f i r s t chapter o f t h i s study d i s c u s s e d why some a d o l e s c e n t s behave i n a s o c i a l l y - a c c e p t a b l e manner, while o t h e r adolescents behave i n a s o c i a l l y - u n a c c e p t a b l e manner.  How some a d o l e s c e n t s are a b l e to  accept a d u l t s ; to i d e n t i f y w i t h the values they r e p r e s e n t ; to b e n e f i t from t h e i r example and s u g g e s t i o n s .  Other a d o l e s c e n t s are unable to  accept a d u l t s ; they do not i d e n t i f y w i t h the v a l u e s they r e p r e s e n t . I n s t e a d , there i s c l o s e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the v a l u e s o f other d e l i n q u e n t s . The d e l i n q u e n t , however, i s a b l e to p l a n w i t h o t h e r s .  There i s ample  evidence of t h i s , i n the d e t a i l s worked out, and the d e c i s i o n s made, prior  to a b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g , or s t e a l i n g a c a r , as examples.  In  such p l a n n i n g s , a few i n f l u e n t i a l l e a d e r s make the p l a n s , and the members o f the gang c a r r y out, or go a l o n g w i t h such d e c i s i o n s and p l a n s .  The  use o f the term s o c i a l i z a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , a p p l i e s to the process whereby a group v/orker h e l p s a group o f y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s to use t h e i r p l a n n i n g s k i l l s on a more democratic b a s i s , and f o r c o n s t r u c t i v e purposes. Knopka s t a t e s t h i s concept  Gisela  succinctly:  R e s i d e n t s i n i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l f i n d t h e i r way to each other somehow, but i t i s the task o f the group v/orker to help them do t h i s so warmth begins to f l o w i n s t e a d of h a t r e d . Hate breeds o n l y d e s p a i r o r new d e f i a n c e . 1 1 Knopka, G., Group Work i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , Whiteside, I n c . and W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, New York, N.Y., 1954, p. 288.  - 61 Placement  "Problems" An i m p o r t a n t p o i n t i n the d e v e l o p m e n t  i s d e c i d i n g who changes  o f a g r o u p programme  s h a l l be members o f a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t g r o u p , and  i n g r o u p i n g s may  be made.  The  how  o r i g i n a l g r o u p o f boys who  came  to t h e Y.O.U. f r o m t h e West Wing o f O a k a l l a were a s s i g n e d t o a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t , f o r a number o f r e a s o n s .  Some went t o a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t  t h e y had f r i e n d s i n t h a t u n i t , and were p l a c e d i n one u n i t b e c a u s e work programme; f o r e x a m p l e , motor mechanics  t h e y wanted to be  a t one p o i n t a l l t h o s e who  to another because  d e s i r a b l e f o r an i n m a t e  together.  Others,  t h e y were i n a c e r t a i n v o c a t i o n a l o r  were p l a c e d t o g e t h e r i n one u n i t .  moved f r o m one u n i t  because  had been i n  G r a d u a l l y , boys  were  a member o f s t a f f f e l t i t was  t o move; i t w o u l d remove him f r o m  "undesirable  i n f l u e n c e s " , o r , he w o u l d be a b l e t o b r i n g a d e s i r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n a particular unit. because  he was  A boy m i g h t be moved f r o m one u n i t  causing "trouble" i n a unit.  o f the group-based  to a n o t h e r u n i t  F o l l o w i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n  programme a t the Y.O.U., numerous r e q u e s t s to move  f r o m one u n i t to a n o t h e r c o n t i n u e d t o be made; s u c h r e q u e s t s c o u l d o r i g i n a t e from boys, or from s t a f f .  A boy c o u l d r e q u e s t t o be moved  o u t o f h i s u n i t g r o u p , o r , r e q u e s t t h a t a n o t h e r boy be moved i n t o h i s u n i t group.  I t was  e v i d e n t , t h a t some k i n d o f r o u t i n e was  necessary  i n o r d e r t o h a n d l e the numerous r e q u e s t s t o move t h a t were b e i n g made. F o l l o w i n g a number o f s t a f f m e e t i n g s , a t w h i c h t h i s v/as d i s c u s s e d , p o l i c y was  e s t a b l i s h e d , t h a t when a boy w a n t e d t o move f r o m one  g r o u p , the c o u n s e l l o r i n t h a t u n i t would s u b m i t a r e p o r t to the  the  unit worker  i n c h a r g e o f t h e programme, o u t l i n i n g the r e a s o n s a boy w a n t e d to move,  -  and  -  the c o u n s e l l o r ' s o p i n i o n s r e l a t i v e  to move. to  62  The  to t h e b o y ' s r e a s o n s  e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e r o u t i n e was  do a b o u t t h e r e q u e s t p r o v e d A boy may  group c h o i c e was  such s i t u a t i o n s .  p o w e r f u l " , and  possible.  The The  Some f e l t  c o u n s e l l o r s s u g g e s t e d a number o f  Such a s o l u t i o n  trouble.  t h a t a number o f b o y s were b u l l i e s ,  development i n comparison member o f s t a f f was  Other  and s h o u l d be  always  to what t h e • s i t u a t i o n had b e e n e a r l i e r ,  w o r k i n g d i r e c t l y v/ith a u n i t g r o u p .  l e a d e r s " . . I n c r e a s i n g l y , the c o u n s e l l o r s were h e l p e d  " p r o t e c t i o n " i n a u n i t , and why  was  d i d t h e y show t h a t s u c h was  e x i s t e d two m a i n s u b - g r o u p s .  One  "ring  to f o c u s t h e i r  t h i s n e c e s s a r y ; who the c a s e .  when no  At t h a t time,  was-"too i n f l u e n t i a l " i n a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t and why;  high status;  removed  This represented considerable  " c e r t a i n i n d i v i d u a l s " were s u s p e c t e d o f b e i n g " t r o u b l e m a k e r s " o r  and how  was  .Such c o n c l u s i o n s were a r r i v e d a t as a r e s u l t o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  made by the c o u n s e l l o r s i n the u n i t g r o u p s .  on who  solutions  A number o f c o u n s e l l o r s s u p p o r t e d  the Y.O.U.; no m a t t e r where t h e y m i g h t be p l a c e d t h e y w o u l d  cause  to  t h a t c e r t a i n b o y s i n t h e i r u n i t were " t o o  to move b e c a u s e the boy needed " p r o t e c t i o n " .  counsellors f e l t  amount  r e a s o n s g i v e n by boys f o r w a n t i n g  v i g o u r o u s l y o p p o s e d by o t h e r c o u n s e l l o r s .  from  s i x units a limited  s h o u l d be moved t o a n o t h e r u n i t .  a boy's r e q u e s t  problem.  w i s h to be w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r u n i t group f o r any  move were e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d . to  a s i m p l e m a t t e r ; b u t , what  to be a v e r y d i f f i c u l t  number o f r e a s o n s , and s i n c e t h e Y.O.U. had of  f o r wanting  who  needed  were t h e  In a l lunit  bullies,  groups.there  s u b - g r o u p c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d as  the o t h e r s u b - g r o u p had  low  attention  having  status.  H i g h s t a t u s o r l o w s t a t u s , i n a u n i t g r o u p , i s c o n f e r r e d on  an  i n d i v i d u a l f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . for  One o f t h e more i m p o r t a n t b a s e s  h i g h o r l o w s t a t u s has t o do w i t h  Offences i n v o l v i n g greater offences  involving little  the o f f e n c e  r i s k or s k i l l , r i s k or s k i l l .  command h i g h e r  status  how a r r e s t had b e e n a v o i d e d ,  how t h e p o l i c e had b e e n . . f o i l e d , was h e l d i n h i g h s t a t u s .  A boy's  a b i l i t y i n s p o r t s and games i s a n o t h e r b a s i s f o r h i g h s t a t u s . the h i g h e s t other  status i s given  o f the s i z e . o f t h e boy,  s k i l l e d u s e o f a s o r t o f t o t a l combat t e c h n i q u e ,  b o o t s and so o n , by some p h y s i c a l l y s m a l l e r b o y . status i s conferred or s k i l l . and  o n b o y s who c o m m i t t e d o f f e n c e s  Boys who d i d n o t g i v e a c o n v i n c i n g  On the o t h e r  fists,  hand, lov;  involving little  account o f t h e i r  risk  offences  e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h , the p o l i c e , or. t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t h e community  were a l s o h e l d i n lov; s t a t u s . is  Possibly  t o t h e boy who c a n p h y s i c a l l y o v e r p o w e r any  s i n g l e boy; t h i s i s n o t always a q u e s t i o n  i t might i n v o l v e  than  A y o u n g s t e r who c a n c o n v i n c i n g l y  t e l l how he h a s been " a r o u n d i n t h e w o r l d " ; and  t h a t a boy c o m m i t t e d .  A boy who l a c k s a b i l i t y i n s p o r t s and games  a l s o i n a p o s i t i o n o f low s t a t u s .  H i g h o r lov; s t a t u s i n a u n i t i s  o f t e n c o n f i r m e d , a s a r e s u l t o f an a r g u m e n t o v e r a p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e , one boy  challenges  a n o t h e r , and one o f them " b a c k s down".  over a challenge  T h i s may r e s u l t  to f i g h t i t . o u t , o r , i t may r e s u l t f r o m j u s t a v i o l e n t  a r g u m e n t e n d i n g i n m o c k i n g d e c i s i o n by one boy a t a n o t h e r , t h a t he d o e s n ' t know what he i s t a l k i n g a b o u t . larly by  noticeable  others  Conferring  i f t h i s was f o l l o w e d  i n the g r o u p .  The h i g h e r  higher  s t a t u s w o u l d be p a r t i c u -  by s u f f i c i e n t l a u g h t e r  s t a t u s boys i n a g r o u p c o u l d  d o m i n a t e some members o f the g r o u p , a n d many i n s t a n c e s by  counsellors.  or kidding thus  o f t h i s were  I t was n o t i c e d , f o r e x a m p l e , when c e r t a i n boys were  given  - 64 excluded from t a b l e t e n n i s , and c a r d 'games when the h i g h e r s t a t u s members wanted to use such f a c i l i t i e s .  C o n f l i c t s over the use o f the r a d i o were  common; w i t h numerous i n s t a n c e s o f s c o r n l e v e l l e d a t a low s t a t u s boy who was t r y i n g to l i s t e n to a p a r t i c u l a r broadcast and i n so doing, might t u r n the volume up to a l e v e l c o n s i d e r e d annoying by the h i g h e r s t a t u s group who might be p l a y i n g c a r d s .  At mealtimes,  food might be passed from one  end o f the t a b l e to the o t h e r and i n t h i s manner, pass up a number o f boys, f i n a l l y r e a c h i n g a p a r t i c u l a r h i g h s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l seated a t the end o f the t a b l e .  'Numerous i n s t a n c e s of the lower s t a t u s youths d o i n g  chores f o r the higher s t a t u s youths were recorded.  Under such  clean-up circumstances  a boy might request to l e a v e a u n i t , w i t h the b e l i e f t h a t he might be a b l e to get a l o n g b e t t e r i n another u n i t . wanted to leave h i s u n i t .  This was the reason g i v e n by C a r l who  The c o u n s e l l o r r e p o r t e d t h a t not o n l y d i d C a r l  wish to l e a v e ; b u t , t h a t o t h e r boys i n the u n i t wanted to get r i d o f him. The c o u n s e l l o r was encouraged to hold a meeting w i t h h i s u n i t group, and attempt  to help them s o l v e the impasse, t h a t had been reached.  I n t h i s case,  i t turned out that i f he had been a l l o w e d to move,, he p r o b a b l y would not have been a b l e to get a l o n g any b e t t e r i n another unit;>  C a r l , d u r i n g the  meeting h e l d by the group, was accused o f not washing o f t e n enough.  He  had an o b j e c t i o n a b l e h a b i t o f p l a c i n g h i s socks to a i r i n h i s c e l l , to the annoyance o f h i s neighbours. offended, had attempted  The- members o f the group, most d i r e c t l y  to "get even" w i t h him. R e l a t i o n s h i p s between C a r l  and other members o f the group had d e t e r i o r a t e d ; and i n e f f e c t , he had attempted  to solve t h i s p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t y by r u n n i n g away from i t .  In o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , some problems i n u n i t placement c o u l d be r e s o l v e d o n l y  gradually.  For example, i n - h e l p i n g a hoy who had l a c k of s k i l l s i n s p o r t s  a c t i v i t i e s , or i n cases of v i o l a t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r boy's r i g h t to use f a c i l i t i e s , such as games e t c . , i t was recommended t h a t the c o u n s e l l o r s i n t e r v e n e , so t h a t an equal share of a l l f a c i l i t i e s would g r a d u a l l y be achieved.  However, many boys had s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t s w i t h other boys, t h a t  had t h e i r beginnings o u t s i d e the Y.O.U.; a boy had "squealed" on another boy, or they had known one another a t " B i s c o " , and had settle.  'an o l d s c o r e ' to  With some of these boys i t v/as p o s s i b l e to d i s c u s s , i n a p r i v a t e  i n t e r v i e w , some of the o u t s t a n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between them, and some, r e c o n c i l l i a t i o n .  effect-  A number of boys, when i n t e r v i e w e d i n d i v i d u a l l y . o v e r  a d i f f i c u l t y they were e x p e r i e n c i n g i n a u n i t , became very u p s e t , and c r i e d a good d e a l , m a i n t a i n i n g they c o u l d n ' t d i s c u s s what d i f f i c u l t i e s they were having.  I t was c l e a r , t h a t i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r group, they were unable to  face the d i f f i c u l t i e s that c o n f r o n t e d them.  I n many of these cases, the  boy f e l t he c o u l d not. ' f i t i n ' anywhere, and sometimes the caseworker would arrange w i t h the Doctor a p e r i o d i n the h o s p i t a l , as a r e l i e f from group pressures such a boy was e x p e r i e n c i n g . Sometimes, support from the caseworker was  s u f f i c i e n t to enable a boy to muster s u f f i c i e n t courage  continue to persevere i n s o l v i n g problems he was having i n a group.  to It  was almost, as i f , the boy was u n c o n s c i o u s l y s a y i n g , . " i f you b e l i e v e I can do i t , then-I can do i t " . I n a t t e m p t i n g to s o l v e these c o n f l i c t s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t occur i n a u n i t , there i s no 'pat' s o l u t i o n ; n e i t h e r i s there an easy s o l u t i o n to the problems of where to p l a c e a'boy. O b s e r v a t i o n , study and d i a g n o s i s of each problem r e l a t i o n s h i p i s necessary. In t h i s process a c o u n s e l l o r must have s o c i a l work s k i l l s , f o r i t i n v o l v e s ,  - 66 as was d i s c u s s e d i n the l a s t c h a p t e r , the g a i n i n g o f acceptance u n i t group so t h a t r o l e s can emerge i n response  o f the  to the ongoing d i a g n o s i s  t h a t i s made. The  Group as a D i a g n o s t i c Tool , I n d i s c u s s i o n s i n v o l v i n g a group o f boys i n the u n i t s , the workers  o f t e n had the e x p e r i e n c e o f h e a r i n g from a p a s s i v e boy that he shouldn't be i n j a i l .  He had been w i t h a gang 'on the o u t s i d e ' and d i d n ' t know what  was b e i n g planned;  f i n a l l y , they had a l l been i n v o l v e d i n b r e a k i n g and  e n t e r i n g , , o r r i d i n g i n a c a r t h a t he d i d not know was s t o l e n , and they had been a r r e s t e d .  S i n c e he d i d not know what was b e i n g planned, t h e r e f o r e ,  he r e a l l y . w a s n ' t g u i l t y .  However, i t was necessary f o r him to belong  somewhere and to be r e l a t e d to a group of h i s p e e r s . his  The p e n a l t y p a i d f o r  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h an a n t i - s o c i a l gang was to be sentenced  to j a i l .  Such a boy p r o b a b l y was a m a r g i n a l member o f a d e l i n q u e n t gang, who had not thoroughly i n t e g r a t e d the d e l i n q u e n t values o f the gang.  Such a boy  was one o f the f i r s t to form a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r s . wanted to be p r o t e c t e d , some o f these,boys  were very dependent on the  c o u n s e l l o r s , wanting almost to a t t a c h themselves his  parents.  He  to them as a c h i l d to  On the other hand, the more a g g r e s s i v e boy d i d not appear  to have been a v i c t i m o f h i s gang.  "He had been caught, but so what?  v/as a reason f o r the o f f e n c e ; he needed the money." and s t o l e a c a r .  There  "He got t i r e d o f w a l k i n g  How e l s e c o u l d he and h i s p a l s get a g i r l ? " -  were always on h i s back anyway,.and wouldn't leave him a l o n e .  "The cops They always  came to h i s house, or stopped him i n the s t r e e t and asked him q u e s t i o n s . I f they b e l i e v e you a t h i e f , you might as w e l l be one."  The more a g g r e s s i v e  - 67  -  boy was d i s t r u s t f u l of the c o u n s e l l o r s , and remained a l o o f . acceptance  o n l y a f t e r i t was " s a f e " to do so.  He gave them  He had been r e j e c t e d so o f t e n  that he would not expose h i m s e l f a g a i n u n t i l he had some assurances, and  he  seemed to get such assurance by watching what happened between the c o u n s e l l o r s and the more p a s s i v e and low s t a t u s boys i n the u n i t group. The core of the s e r v i c e t h a t group work c o u l d o f f e r such a group of boys would i n v o l v e h e l p i n g the a g g r e s s i v e boy to l e a r n to use h i s n a t u r a l l e a d e r p o t e n t i a l constructively..  The p a s s i v e boy would need h e l p i n developing  h i s own a b i l i t i e s i n order to c o n t r i b u t e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y to the group. boys are to be helped to achieve such g o a l s , they need to develop adults.  If  trust'in  I n so doing, they i d e n t i f y w i t h the values of s o c i e t y that the !  c o u n s e l l o r s r e p r e s e n t ; and are helped to g i v e up d e l i n q u e n t v a l u e s . The Group as a Therapeutic Tool . T h e ' f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t s from group records i l l u s t r a t e how a worker helps boys towards a g r e a t e r t r u s t of a d u l t s .  How important values are  i n t r o d u c e d i n t o l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n s , and the slow, but g r a d u a l l e a r n i n g t h a t takes p l a c e . The s h a r i n g of food c o n t i n u e s to be a d i f f i c u l t problem f o r t h i s group. Tonight the worker attempted to e x p l a i n to the group that j u s t a-few weeks ago, they waited u n t i l a l l were seated and then the food was passed around. This seemed a b e t t e r method than j u s t r u s h i n g out and g r a b b i n g the«-food b e f o r e anyone e l s e had a chance to s i t down. A l o t of pros and cons were d i s c u s s e d and many of the weaker boys m a i n t a i n e d that they got a l l ' t h e food they wanted. The worker b e l i e v e s t h a t , a t t h i s time, i t w i l l not be d e s i r a b l e to g i v e too much support to the weaker members, so the worker s a i d t h a t f o r the time b e i n g each boy i n t u r n would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s h a r i n g the food, b e f o r e the u n i t went out to the t a b l e . I n a group r e c o r d a s h o r t time a f t e r t h i s , the worker comments t h a t :  68  -  -  The worker had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o n i g h t to p o i n t out to the u n i t t h a t , at times, food i s not evenly shared, and that a few end up w i t h no meat or very l i t t l e d e s s e r t . The d i s c u s s i o n then centered on why some boys take more than t h e i r share. There v/as o b v i o u s l y a l o t of f e e l i n g about t h i s , not o n l y by the weaker members, but the stronger members seemed to f e e l g u i l t y . The stronger members.were contemptuous of the o t h e r s . Fred, one of the h i g h s t a t u s members, of the group, expressed the f e e l i n g s of the s t r o n g e r members by s a y i n g , " I f they were too g u t l e s s to ask f o r food they c o u l d go w i t h o u t . " Food i s an important institution.  source of g r a t i f i c a t i o n i n a c o r r e c t i o n s  However, perhaps some a n x i e t i e s may  have been s t i r r e d  up  over what v/as i n t e r p r e t e d by F r e d as the worker's d e s i r e to r e s t r i c t , what to him, may  be an important  source of g r a t i f i c a t i o n .  The  v/orker  seems, to have t h i s i n mind when he t e l l s the group, "that perhaps they were a f r a i d they wouldn't get a share, so they r e a l l y took more without t h i n k i n g too much of the o t h e r s . "  The worker does not blame anyone, he  however g i v e s some i n s i g h t i n t o a group problem that may g r e a t e r understanding  help them to a  of the- r i g h t s of o t h e r s .  P a s s i v e boys i n a group o f t e n a c t as i f they have no r i g h t s . worker's a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y such a t t i t u d e s , and  The  to give h e l p , i s v/ell  i l l u s t r a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g r e c o r d : Fred's i n f l u e n c e on. some o f the weaker members of the group can be .very s u b t l e . Tonight, a f t e r l o c k - u p , f o r example, Tony h i n t e d to the worker that he would l i k e the windows open but to "ask Fred i f i t ' s O.K. by him to open the windows." The worker agreed w i t h Tony that the u n i t v/as s t u f f y and a few windows were opened. As f a r as Tony i s concerned i t i s c e r t a i n l y p o s s i b l e that on the o u t s i d e he may  be i n f l u e n c e d by' such a boy .as ^ r e d hy t a k i n g p a r t i n a n t i -  social activities.  To help such a boy as Tony make up h i s own mind i s an  important  goal.  treatment  He needs to g a i n a sense of' f e e l i n g more adequate,  - 69 and an important worker.  t o o l i n t h i s i s the d i r e c t support he r e c e i v e d by the  He a l s o needs to l e a r n to do t h i n g s . Hobbies, c r a f t s , games, and s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l kinds  help  boys to l e a r n s k i l l s , and as a r e s u l t , there i s an improvement i n t h e i r self-concept.  The use o f s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s as a t o o l i n t h i s process i s  i l l u s t r a t e d i n the worker's r e c o r d , c o n c e r n i n g Ken. Ken i s q u i t e p a s s i v e i n h i s u n i t group. Today when we v/ere o u t s i d e he d i d not take p a r t i n the soccer game, but stood on the s i d e l i n e s watching the other boys. The worker asked him i f he had ever played soccer and he r e p l i e d that he d i d n ' t l i k e the game. The worker asked i f he would l i k e to l e a r n the game, but he seemed r e l u c t a n t to want to t r y . I n t h i s day to day c o n t a c t w i t h the group, the worker comments that: Today Ken c o n f i d e d that he had played some s o c c e r ; b u t , he c o u l d only k i c k the b a l l w i t h h i s l e f t f o o t . He was a f r a i d other boys would laugh a t him. The worker wondered i f Ken was sure t h a t t h i s would happen; perhaps, he was more conscious o f i t h i m s e l f than other boys would be. A few days l a t e r the worker r e p o r t e d that Ken had f i n a l l y been w i l l i n g t o ^ t r y and p l a y soccer. Today Ken got i n t o a game o f s o c c e r f o r the f i r s t time, and no one n o t i c e d t h a t he k i c k e d the b a l l v/ith h i s l e f t f o o t . He played an i n c r e a s i n g l y good game and gained i n s t a t u s w i t h the other boys. Gradually as the worker c o n t i n u e s can n o t i c e evidences tively.  o f boys being helped  to work w i t h a u n i t group, we  to use t h e i r i n f l u e n c e c o n s t r u c -  This i n v o l v e s s u p p o r t i n g and l i m i t i n g boys a t c e r t a i n times,  c l a r i f y i n g i s s u e s f o r the u n i t , and so on. Fred, one o f the more a g r e s s i v e boys i n a u n i t had on many occasions used h i s i n f l u e n c e to dominate the group.  G r a d u a l l y he accepted  help from the worker, and we now see evidence  - 70 o f Fred's g r e a t e r a b i l i t y to use h i s i n f l u e n c e c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . At the time the u n i t group were to go out and p l a y soccer, Fred t o l d the v/orker he wasn't going to p l a y and when asked why not, he r e p l i e d t h a t he j u s t d i d n ' t want to go. When t h i s was i g n o r e d , he seemed s a t i s f i e d ; s h o r t l y a f t e r wards he v/as t e l l i n g the v/hole group to h u r r y up and get ready. Sometimes the v/orker's r o l e v / i l l c o n s i s t i n s a y i n g n o t h i n g , as i n the r e c o r d j u s t noted.  At other times, the worker g i v e s the group s t r o n g  d i r e c t i o n as i n the f o l l o w i n g i n s t a n c e : The u n i t v/ent to the s m a l l gym to p l a y d o d g e b a l l a f t e r supper. B e f o r e the game s t a r t e d , the worker t o l d the group that i f they d i d n ' t throw the b a l l as hard as they c o u l d , and a t the s t r o n g e r members a l s o , the u n i t v/buld go back to the u n i t . An e x c e l l e n t game f o l l o w e d w i t h the s t r o n g e r members h a v i n g to dodge e q u a l l y as much as the weaker members. The s e t t i n g o f d e f i n i t e l i m i t s i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and the group-as-a-whole. This evening the u n i t asked f o r a meeting to d i s c u s s clean-up chores, l a t e r on, the worker took the opport u n i t y o f d i s c u s s i n g time l i m i t s f o r being out. o f a u n i t . I f a boy overstayed h i s f i v e minutes, he would be c u t to two, then i f t h i s was abused he v/ould l o s e h i s v i s i t i n g f o r a week. To the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r , the n e c e s s i t y o f a c c e p t i n g c e r t a i n l i m i t s can be d i f f i c u l t ; y e t , t h i s i s an important  r e h a b i l i t a t i v e goal.  C l e a r - c u t , and d e f i n i t e l i m i t s a r e h e l p f u l i n t h i s l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . I n s e t t i n g l i m i t s , as done i n the r e c o r d j u s t quoted, f l e x i b i l i t y i s important. time.  This r e c o g n i z e s , t h a t l e a r n i n g l i m i t s , f o r some boys,  takes  Such methods o f s e t t i n g l i m i t s are e a s i e r f o r boys to accept,  r i g i d rules of l i m i t a t i o n . has now recognized  than  I t i s a l s o i n t e r e s t i n g , t h a t the u n i t group  the use o f a meeting as a medium o f d i s c u s s i n g group  problems, and so "the u n i t asked f o r a meeting." On many occasions a u n i t group w i l l want to determine i f the  - 7.1 worker can accept l i m i t s which are s e t by the i n s t i t u t i o n .  The  implica-  t i o n s of such " t e s t i n g " not o n l y i n v o l v e s the worker; but, the worker as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the i n s t i t u t i o n , and of s o c i e t y .  the i n s t i t u t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  The y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r ' s experience i n the community  have r e s u l t e d i n a b e l i e f t h a t people'are  dishonest.  I n the  may  following  r e c o r d the- worker not o n l y e s t a b l i s h e s l i m i t s ; but, a l s o takes a stand on a p r i n c i p l e of  honesty.  F o l l o w i n g supper the worker d i s c u s s e d w i t h the group the evidence of e x t r a food. The u n i t was t o l d that t h i s would not be condoned. Fred asked, "Couldn't you j u s t i g n o r e i t ? " The worker e x p l a i n e d the r u l e s of the Y.O.U. and that he could not condone such abuses. Nothing f u r t h e r was s a i d . I n f a c t , the worker f e l t that the boys judged the e x p l a n a t i o n f a i r and accepted i t . I n the e x c e r p t s from group process records j u s t quoted, we that a worker has helped  the more a g g r e s s i v e boys, as a r e s u l t of t h e i r  g r a n t i n g the worker i n c r e a s e d acceptance f o r them to accept necessary l i m i t s . begins  which i n t u r n makes i t p o s s i b l e  F i n a l l y , one a g g r e s s i v e boy,  Fred,  to e x e r c i s e c o n s t r u c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p i n t h i s group, and helps  group-as-a-whole. of s u p p o r t .  On  see  the  the other hand, the passive boys need a good d e a l  The worker i s c a r e f u l , however, not to over-support, w i t h -  out a t the same time g i v i n g d e f i n i t e h e l p i n encouraging  such boys to  be more a g g r e s s i v e and. h e l p them g a i n s k i l l s so t h a t they can an improvement i n s e l f - e s t e e m .  experience  T h i s , of course, i s i m p o r t a n t f o r a l l  boys; b u t , i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important f o r the p a s s i v e boy.  The  of a worker w i t h such a group of y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s i s of key  import-  ance.  Commenting on t h i s , one w r i t e r s t a t e s t h a t :  role  - 72 P r o b a b l y the g r e a t e s t s a t i s f a c t i o n t h a t the c h i l d can r e c e i v e i n the t r a i n i n g program i s l e a r n i n g to t r u s t adults. 1 Group work s e r v i c e s not only h e l p the i n d i v i d u a l members o f a group; b u t , they make p o s s i b l e h e l p , f o r an i n d i v i d u a l to seek other services.  F o r example, the s e r v i c e s o f a caseworker.  Many boys are  i n need o f i n t e n s i v e i n d i v i d u a l help that .cannot be g i v e n i n a group. I n such cases a worker can h e l p the youth r e c o g n i z e the need f o r more i n t e n s i v e h e l p and help i n the r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s . Group Work - Casework  Services  I n our a n a l y s i s o f the s t r u c t u r e o f a u n i t group a t the Y.O.U., the e x i s t e n c e o f two main sub-groups was p o i n t e d out.  The a g g r e s s i v e boy,  a member o f the higher s t a t u s sub-group who tends to dominate the t o t a l group, i s n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y aware o f h i s problems. o t h e r s , and to s t r i k e out a g a i n s t h i s environment.  He tends to blame The p a s s i v e boy, a  member o f the low s t a t u s sub-group who tends to be submissive and to w i t h draw i n the group, i s more aware of h i s problems.  He tends to blame him-  s e l f , and to i n t e r n a l i z e h i s c o n f l i c t s . Bob was a member o f the lov; s t a t u s sub-group i n h i s u n i t .  He  was very dependent on the worker, to such an e x t e n t , that soon a f t e r Bob had been p l a c e d , the worker recorded that he was f o l l o w i n g him around j u s t l i k e a s m a l l c h i l d , and t h a t he appeared to be t e r r i f i e d i n the group s e t ting.  Bob's behaviour was d i s c u s s e d w i t h the group work s u p e r v i s o r and a  r e f e r r a l was made to the caseworker.  E x c e r p t s from the case h i s t o r y  commented t h a t : 1 N o v i c k , A. " I n t e g r a t i n g the D e l i n q u e n t and H i s Community", F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , June 1956, p. 41.  - 73 Bob l e f t school i n Grade 8 a t the age o f s i x t e e n years because o f h i s r e f u s a l to take P h y s i c a l Ed. which v/as compulsory. H i s d i s c u s s i o n of h i s s c h o o l experience i n d i c a t e d that i t was a very unhappy one f o r him, and that he was very p o o r l y a d j u s t e d t h e r e . In s p e a k i n g of h i s f a m i l y , he c l e a r l y expresses a g r e a t • d e a l o f h o s t i l i t y to h i s f a t h e r , blaming him f o r b e i n g drunken and abusive to h i m s e l f and to h i s mother. He speaks a l s o of h i s p r e s e n t bad h e a l t h (although he i s not able to i n d i c a t e any o r g a n i c d i s a b i l i t y o r i l l n e s s ) , and r e l a t e s i t b i t t e r l y to the abuses he has had from h i s f a t h e r s i n c e he was very young. He speaks s e l f p i t y i n g l y o f t h i s s t a t e o f h e a l t h and i n d i c a t e s that i t w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be w i t h him f o r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e . I t seems c l e a r that he has needed to be i l l and s i c k l y i n order to be able to f u n c t i o n . D i s c u s s i n g h i s o f f e n c e , the boy shows signs o f a t e r r i f i c amount o f g u i l t and c o n f u s i o n . He s t r e s s e s h i s innocence and a l s o the t e r r i f i c s t r a i n that the p r o cedure has imposed on h i s h e a l t h . Regarding h i s h e t e r o s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , he emphasizes t h a t he has never had an i n t e r e s t i n g i r l s , seems to be a complete s o c i a l m i s f i t , f r i g h t e n e d to death of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h h i s p e e r s , and r a t i o n a l i z i n g r e g a r d i n g h i s d e s i r e to concentrate on matters which might be o f value f o r h i s f u t u r e to an extent which l e a v e s him no time f o r enjoyment. Bob needed help i n g e t t i n g some s a t i s f a c t i o n s other than from his  work.  I n group process r e c o r d s , v/e note that Bob remained i s o l a t e d  from o t h e r s , a l t h o u g h he c l u n g almost c o n s t a n t l y to the worker.  Over a  p e r i o d o f time he was encouraged to 'play t a b l e t e n n i s w i t h the v/orker, and as h i s s k i l l improved he became w i l l i n g to p l a y w i t h other members of the group.  D u r i n g t h i s time, he needed p r o t e c t i o n from the s t r o n g e r  members of the group, v/ho tended to use Bob as a t a r g e t f o r t h e i r h o s t i l i t y . Although he was u n w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y i n some sport a c t i v i t i e s , such as f l o o r hockey, and s o c c e r , he v/as encouraged to r e l a t e to the group, as much as p o s s i b l e , by keeping score f o r the u n i t , and other such means o f r e d u c i n g some o f h i s . t e n d e n c i e s to i s o l a t e h i m s e l f and be r e j e c t e d by  - 74 the group.  He i n v i t e d some contempt from some of the hoys because o f h i s  s e l f - p i t y ; but,* h e l p i n g him to r e l a t e to the group, i n whatever manner p o s s i b l e , seems to have reduced some o f the scorn t h a t he was to e a r l i e r .  subjected  D u r i n g t h i s time Bob was seen on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s by the  caseworker who comments t h a t :  ~ ,  V/hen t h i s boy came to the I n s t i t u t i o n , he emphasized h i s f e e l i n g that h i s s c h o o l work was the be a l l and the end a l l as f a r as h i s a c t i v i t i e s here were concerned. We note t h a t he has been a b l e to move to a s u r p r i s i n g degree i n t o a c o m f o r t a b l e adjustment w i t h the o t h e r members o f h i s u n i t group. There has been a marked decrease i n h i s n e u r o t i c concern about h i s h e a l t h so that now he r a r e l y appears on s i c k parade. I t was f u r t h e r f e l t t h a t the acceptance he has r e c e i v e d here, has helped him s u b s t a n t i a l l y to d e a l w i t h the d e s t r u c t i v e degree o f g u i l t which he f e e l s because of the nature of h i s o f f e n c e . I t was r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h i s boy, a t t h i s stage, r e q u i r e s and responds to every poss i b l e g e s t u r e o f f r i e n d l i n e s s and acceptance from s t a f f members as w e l l as boys. Bob c o n t i n u e d to make good use of the group and casework s e r v i c e s t h a t were a v a i l a b l e to him and t h i s became most s i g n i f i c a n t l y demonstrated a t the Y.O.U. s p o r t s day.  Here, each group p a r t i c i p a t e d as a group i n  f i e l d and t r a c k events and s c o r i n g v/as done on a group b a s i s .  L i k e the  o t h e r boys, Bob took o f f h i s s h i r t , and s t r i p p e d to the w a i s t ; he took p a r t i n a l l the a c t i v i t i e s . i n h i s own a b i l i t i e s ;  This v/as the measure o f h i s growing b e l i e f  t h i s i n t u r n , was r e f l e c t e d i n h i s acceptance by  the u n i t group. The a g r e s s i v e boy, on the o t h e r hand, presents an extremely d i f f i c u l t problem of r e f e r r a l .  He tends to blame o t h e r s , and to want  to d i v e s t h i m s e l f o f any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s a c t i o n s .  I t i s always  the o t h e r boy's f a u l t or the worker's f a u l t , or s o c i e t y ' s f a u l t . was seen by the caseworker as a p a r t of i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w .  Jim  The case-  - 75 worker- comments i n Jim's f i l e that he was " b e l l i g e r e n t i n h i s a t t i t u d e t o wards, him, and r a t i o n a l i z e d h i s past experiences l a r g e l y i n an attempt to defend h i m s e l f : Speaking o f h i s s c h o o l experience, J i m reported t h a t he f i n i s h e d Grade 6; he attempted three times, but f a i l e d each time, to complete Grade 7- He f i n a l l y was e x p e l l e d f o r " f i g h t i n g w i t h the teacher" whom he f e e l s was c a u s i n g a l l the t r o u b l e . He i n d i c a t e s a g r e a t deal o f r e s e n t ment a g a i n s t the " o l d man," but a p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g t o wards mother. In  the u n i t group, the v/orker records t h a t J i m i s extremely  h o s t i l e and abusive, and that he c o n t i n u a l l y p i c k s on the weaker boys. L a s t n i g h t , a f i g h t broke out i n the u n i t between J i m and Bruce.  When  the v/orker i n t e r v e n e d to stop the f i g h t , J i m became very abusive, and was l o c k e d i n h i s c e l l to " c o o l o f f " .  He has attempted to provoke the  worker by making obscene g e s t u r e s , and he o f t e n makes t h r e a t s i m p l y i n g homosexual a c t i v i t y ' to a number o f boys.  The casev/orker continued to  see J i m and the f i l e e n t r y notes t h a t : I i n t e r v i e w e d J i m today concerning a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s he was e x p e r i e n c i n g a t work and i n the u n i t . He denied h a v i n g any p a r t i c u l a r t r o u b l e , and v/hen I asked about a f i g h t he r e p l i e d t h a t , "Oh, we were j u s t f o o l i n g around." When an attempt was made to d i s c u s s h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s i n the group he became very h o s t i l e , and accused me o f s a y i n g he was a "queer". At t h i s p o i n t I f e e l that the Y.O.U. has g i v e n him some i n c r e a s e d sense o f s e c u r i t y , and he has f e l t a g r e a t e r freedom to a c t out h i s n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s towards a d u l t s . F r i t z Redl and David Wineman i n t h e i r book " C o n t r o l s from W i t h i n , " r e f e r to the i n a b i l i t y o f such boys as J i m " h e l p l e s s l y caught up i n the unc o n t r o l l e d d i s c h a r g e o f a g g r e s s i v e d r i v e s and impulse e n e r g i e s . "  2  Redl F, and Wineman, D., " C o n t r o l s from W i t h i n " .  2  At the  - 76 same time however, "the selfsame ego, so unable to cope w i t h the impulses themselves,  suddenly,  w i t h an e x a s p e r a t i n g and amazing e f f i c i e n c y ,  per-  forms superhuman tasks i n defending impulse g r a t i f i c a t i o n a t a l l c o s t s . "  3  Timing o f a r e f e r r a l of such a boy as J i m to the caseworker i s i m p o r t a n t . A g r e a t deal o f working is  through, and "thawing" o f h o s t i l i t i e s i n a group  necessary. G r a d u a l l y through l i m i t s imposed by the other members o f a group,  p a r t i c u l a r l y the other a g g r e s s i v e boys, and the worker, a p r o g r e s s i v e l e s s e n i n g o f h o s t i l i t y may occur as the acceptance o f the worker, and h e l p g i v e n "gets through"  to such a boy as Jim.  f r a u g h t w i t h many d i f f i c u l t i e s .  I t i s however a l o n g p r o c e s s ,  At times Jim became so "out o f c o n t r o l "  t h a t he had to be l o c k e d i n h i s c e l l and t o l d he would have to remain there u n t i l he gave some assurance  he c o u l d behave i n a manner that p e r m i t t e d  o t h e r s to go about t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s i n the u n i t .  This seemed to h e l p .  I n s o f a r as r e f e r r a l to a caseworker i s concerned, i f a boy such as J i m i s referred  i n order that a "problem" be d e a l t v/ith, he may e i t h e r .deny  e v e r y t h i n g , r e f u s e to t a l k or become h o s t i l e and a c c u s i n g .  He l i t e r a l l y  f i g h t s a g a i n s t any change. A p a s s i v e boy such as^ Bob, has a symbolic r e l a t i o n s h i p  i n the u n i t and i n the community,  w i t h the more a g g r e s s i v e boy, such as J i m .  He b e l i e v e s he can get something from him. He has a s e c r e t a d m i r a t i o n f o r the a g g r e s s i v e behaviour  o f boys such as J i m .  E r i c Fromm p o i n t s  out that i n such a person there e x i s t s a powerful masochist  3  R e d l , F., and Wineman, D., I b i d p.  drive, which  - 77 " i s the attempt to get r i d of one's individual s e l f , to escape from free., 4 dom, and to look f o r security by attaching oneself to another  person."  The aggressive boy, such as Jim, exploits the weaker boy and has an overtly expressed contempt for the "weakness" he sees i n such a boy. Eric Fromm, in speaking of this relatedness, says that there i s a powerful  sadistic  drive which seeks "to have complete mastery over another person, to  5 'swallow' him, and to make him a helpless object of our w i l l . "  In  observing the aggressive boy and the passive boy in interaction i n a unit group, as soon as the passive boy became less withdrawing and more active, he became less of an object of scorn on the part of the more aggressive boy. A c t i v i t i e s of a l l kinds are important i n this process. In the next chapter we can observe how help i s given to a unit group, as i t participates with other groups i n inter-group a c t i v i t i e s .  4 p. 108 5  Fromm, Eric, "Man for Himself," Rinchart and Company, New York 1947 . Fromm, E., ibid p. 108  CHAPTER 4 WORKING TOGETHER AS GROUPS It i s generally agreed that an i n s t i t u t i o n for youthful offenders ought to provide opportunities for sports a c t i v i t i e s ; opportunities, when boys can "let off steam", and exercise vigourously i n the fresh a i r as they play such games as s o f t b a l l , soccer and f o o t b a l l .  At  such times, boys can get away from the greater confinement that exists, i n side the building.  They are helped to relieve tensions as they run, chase,  and catch others, as part of games, played on a large f i e l d . activities,  Sports  therefore, provide one of the main media for inter-group  participation.  The Y.O.U. had six unit groups, thirteen boys to a unit  group; this made i t possible to have six teams, which could take part i n any number of sports a c t i v i t i e s .  However, inter-group a c t i v i t i e s at the  Y.O.U. had to take into account three basic factorsi 2.  1. The setting;  The unit group; 3. The function of the Counsellors.  Each of theseo  factors was to effect in a particular way, the t o t a l working together as groups in the Y.O.U. The Setting The Y.O.U. had two areas where inter-group participation i n sports a c t i v i t i e s was possible.  A small gym with a low c e i l i n g which made  i t impossible to play such a game as basketball, or badminton; but, which lent i t s e l f to games such as, floor hockey, v o l l e y b a l l , or dodge b a l l .  An  outside f i e l d area of sufficient size, which made possible such games as s o f t b a l l , soccer, or f o o t b a l l . sports equipment.  The Y.O.U. had an adequate budget for  Prom i t s inception, therefore, the administration at the  Y.O.U. had not only recognized the importance of such f a c i l i t i e s as have  - 79 been mentioned; but, in  contrast  for  i t had  also provided  the n e c e s s a r y  t o many i n s t i t u t i o n s where t h e r e i s v e r y  sports a c t i v i t i e s .  what i t s h o u l d  I n many i n s t a n c e s , t h i s  be - p u n i s h m e n t a s a r e s u l t  K n o p k a commenting on  this,  states  funds.  little  was  opportunity  i s considered,  of committing  This  as  just  offences.  Gisela  that:  The y o u n g s t e r s w i t h whom we work i n i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r delinquents are c h i l d r e n , and t h e y n e e d t o f o r g e t a t t i m e s t h e i r own c o n f l i c t s and t h e i r c o n f l i c t s w i t h s o c i e t y . T h e r e i s no n e e d t o k e e p t h i s c o n s t a n t l y b e f o r e them. 1 The  Y.O.U. s e t t i n g ,  t h e i r u n i t s , and at  t o go  Unit  o r t o a s m a l l gym,  and  enjoy  themselves  Group During  the  Y.O.U., t h e r e had basis. but,  Usually,  took p l a c e  i n s p o r t s was  challenge  sports a c t i v i t i e s  on  t h e weekends.  Participation  encouraged.  One  such f a c i l i t i e s  facilities was  activity,  take  the  inter-group  with another u n i t ;  Following  unit could  i n sports a c t i v i t i e s  However, w i t h  to l i m i t e d  on an  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  a s w e l l as weekend i n t e r - g r o u p  another group t o a p a r t i c u l a r  voluntary.  t i m e programme a t  u n i t competed i n s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s  g r o u p - b a s e d programme, d a i l y ,  cipation  refuse.  e a r l y p e r i o d of the l e i s u r e  been only l i m i t e d one  most o f t h i s  of the  and  outside,  leave  games.  The  due  t h e r e f o r e , made i t p o s s i b l e f o r u n i t g r o u p s t o  parti-  the i n i t i a t i v e  and  which i t could accept  i n v o l v i n g any  two  units  was  s i x u n i t g r o u p s , i t soon became a p p a r e n t ,  that  of p l a y i n g f i e l d  of  necessary.  Therefore,  and  gym  on any  area, one  scheduling  day,  a  particular  1 Knopka* G i s e l a , Group Work i n t h e I n s t i t u t i o n W h i t e s i d e . W i l l i a m Morrow & Company, New Y o r k , N.Y. 1954. P. 226.  Inc.  or  -  80 -  unit would know i n advance, that at a certain time the inside gym, or the outside f i e l d was available.  I t was then l e f t to the counsellors to help  a unit group decide, on a majority vote basis, i f the unit wanted to use a f a c i l i t y , and which unit i t wanted to challenge.  A great number of con-  f l i c t s developed within unit groups, and between unit groups.  For example,  a particular unit might complain that i t was useless to compete, because i t couldn't win.  Since the basis of inter-group a c t i v i t y i n sports was  voluntary, a number of boys resented having to go out when a majority decided to challenge a particular unit.  Those who refused to go out had  to be locked i n c e l l s while the remainder l e f t the unit, due to the necess i t y of having constant supervision of boys.  Once on the f i e l d , some boys  would be eager to start the game; other boys appeared to have no interest in the game, and just wanted to s i t and watch.  The task of the umpire  was a particularly d i f f i c u l t one. In order to achieve as great an objectivity as possible, a boy from a unit not involved i n the game would act as umpire. On many occasions, i t became impossible to be objective. Here i s a counsellor's report of one such situation: This afternoon while on the b a l l f i e l d , Joe and Dick disagreed on Dick's decision. Joe and Dick began to argue, and soon Jack got into the argument. Insults flew freely with each boy daring the other to come over and back up his words. The counsellor attempted to mediate i n the d i f f i c u l t y ; but, Jack ran over and began to fight with Dick, the umpire. The fight was stopped; but, as soon as the game resumed, Dick ran up behind Jack and kicked him. The counsellor ran over and stood between the two boys, and after reprimanding both boys the game f i n a l l y got under way. It seems evident, that i n this c o n f l i c t between members of two teams, and a boy who i s the umpire, the boy who was the umpire could not accept the  - 81 criticism  of other  h o y s , and f e l t  restore h i s self-esteem. been p l a c e d t o do s o . report he  This  i t necessary  t o take d i r e c t a c t i o n t o  p a r t i c u l a r hoy, p o s s i b l y , should  i n a p o s i t i o n o f u m p i r i n g a game when he was n o t r e a l l y How a b o u t t h e u n i t s who p l a y e d  states that,  t h e game?  "when t h e g r o u p r e t u r n e d  w o u l d g e t t h a t goddam D i c k  The  t o the u n i t , Jack s a i d  ( t h e u m p i r e ) one way o r a n o t h e r .  p a r t i c i p a t i o n found e x p r e s s i o n f o r a u n i t group t o r e t u r n  One o f t h e more a g g r e s s i v e  time, that  The whole  Difficulties in  F o r example, i t was common  t h e u n i t would n o t h a v e l o s t t h e  boys m i g h t  sneeringly  r e m a r k , a t s u c h a.  i t w o u l d n ' t make any d i f f e r e n c e ; b e c a u s e , t h e u n i t h a d " t o o  many b a b i e s "  who were a f r a i d  i t was h i g h  counsellors strength,  ways.  that  t o i t s own u n i t f o l l o w i n g a game, a n d c o m p l a i n ,  i f a l l o f t h e members h a d p l a y e d ,  game.  that  i n other  able  counsellor's  u n i t b l a m e d D i c k f o r h a v i n g c a u s e d them t o l o s e t h e game."  that  n o t have  time t h a t  believed  that  a n d some u n i t  t o get out and p l a y .  Someone e l s e m i g h t a d d  a u n i t got r i d o f these "babies". there  should  A number o f  be a b e t t e r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p l a y e r  changes were made, t o e f f e c t a b e t t e r  balance.  However, t h e worker i n c h a r g e o f t h e g r o u p - b a s e d programme p o i n t e d o u t , that  other  unit  b a l a n c e was a c h i e v e d  stored  considerations  on t h e b a s i s  activity.  had t o be k e p t forsoftball,  of soccer,  To some c o u n s e l l o r s ,  On t h e o t h e r  some  t h e b a l a n c e w o u l d have t o be r e sports  s u c h a b a l a n c e between u n i t s seemed  very  from u n i t s as a r e s u l t o f winning  W i n n i n g a game b r o u g h t a b o u t a n i n o r d i n a t e amount o f  b r a g g i n g , w i t h d e r o g a t o r y remarks l e v e l l e d game.  I f , f o r example,  o r f l o o r h o c k e y , o r some o t h e r  i m p o r t a n t , due t o t h e extreme r e a c t i o n s o r l o s i n g a game.  i n mind.  hand, t h e u n i t  that  at the u n i t  lost,  often  t h a t had l o s t t h e  found  i t necessary to  blame t h e u m p i r e , t h e members o f t h e u n i t , o r t h e c o u n s e l l o r .  Thus, i n  - 82 inter-group a c t i v i t i e s ,  delinquent  get  t o t r y and make an  even, u n w i l l i n g n e s s  observed.  patterns  Many g r o u p s were o b v i o u s l y n o t  pation.  .  .  Working T o g e t h e r B e f o r e All  Working With  lost.  At  such a time,  a w i l l i n g n e s s to t r y again  beaten.  achieve groups. how  boys. and  chapter,  the  a l l g r o u p s c o n s i s t e d o f two  aggressive  b o y s , who  partici-  tended  at the  same r a t e .  i n sports a c t i v i t i e s T h i s was  evident  a greater a b i l i t y  to achieve  with  when a  to "take  when p o s s i b l y t h e w i n n i n g u n i t m i g h t  it," be  such a d e s i r a b l e a t t i t u d e ,  them t o work t o g e t h e r ,  Central to t h i s  last  develop  teams.  they  could  task, i s the problem of h e l p i n g a  group  a g r e a t e r degree of i n t e g r a t i o n than In the  prominently  for inter-group  others  t h e r e was  t h e c o u n s e l l o r would have t o h e l p others.  a l l were  Others  f o r both  However, i n h e l p i n g a u n i t  work w i t h  ready  u n i t g r o u p s a t t h e Y.O.U. d i d n o t  a g r e a t e r degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n  and  effort;  to  .  Some u n i t s were a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e w i t h  game was  o f blaming others, wanting  study  was  before  i n evidence  analyzed  the u n i t  i n most  unit  group s t r u c t u r e ;  m a j o r g r o u p s ; a s u b - g r o u p o f t h e more  t o d o m i n a t e a s u b - g r o u p o f t h e more p a s s i v e  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e more a g g r e s s i v e b o y s were g e n e r a l l y b e t t e r a t h l e t e s ,  welcomed c o m p e t i t i o n .  groups with  The  ability  to help  i n d i v i d u a l s i n both  the p a r t i c u l a r problem each p r e s e n t s ,  group towards g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n . worker uses o b s e r v a t i o n ,  study  and  will  In t h i s process,  we  therefore assist have s e e n how  t h e . n e e d s o f t h e g r o u p - a s - a - w h o l e a r e r e v e a l e d t o him.  t h i s process  takes  aggressive  and  a  However,  i n the meantime, many members o f t h e more  s u b - g r o u p were e a g e r t o compete w i t h  a number o f s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t s d e v e l o p members g e t b l a m e d f o r n o t  the  d i a g n o s i s , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e s t h e r o l e s he  w i l l p l a y as  time;  sub-  other u n i t s ;  w i t h i n a group.  participating;  this  The  when t h e y  more  passive  i n e v i t a b l y p r o d u c e s more  do,  - 83 anxiety, and heightens the c o n f l i c t between existing dependency on the more aggressive boy, and rebellion against them. other hand, finds a convenient more passive boy.  The more aggressive boy on the  a l i b i that j u s t i f i e s his persecution of the  Such rationalization helps to maintain his defensive  front; that i t i s the other fellow that i s to blame; that he has no part i n this process; and as a result, that the solution i s to get r i d of a l l "these babies". Helpful Administrative Techniques Limiting the area of choice of any one unit seemed to help the process of unit group integration. During the early stages of the groupbased, programme, i t was a matter of one unit deciding, on a majority vote basis, that i t would challenge another unit to a particular sports a c t i v i t y . Scheduling of times, when a unit knew that a particular area was available for i t s use, partly solved the problem.  However, many units had a great  deal of d i f f i c u l t y deciding whether to use, or not to use, the f a c i l i t y that was available to them.  Other units had d i f f i c u l t y i n deciding whether  to accept a challenge, or not to accept a challenge.  Some compulsory  scheduling of inter-unit sports a c t i v i t i e s was attempted.  On a particular  day, one unit was scheduled to play another unit, and the members of both unit groups were required to go out to the playing area.  When this  was  f i r s t introduced, some groups often sat around and refused to play s o f t b a l l or soccer.  Counsellors had to be helped to tolerate some misbehaviour;  but, gradually the resistance gave way because, of course, some boys were eager to play.  With a l l the members of the unit i n the playing area, boys  who had remained isolated i n the unit were now with their own group.  The  counsellors could encourage them to take part i n a game in a variety of ways.  - 84 For example, they eould encourage them to actively take part, since they were out on the f i e l d .  They could encourage them to involve themselves  and identify with the game by-keeping score, or play catch on the sidelines, or kick a b a l l around, and in other ways, familiarize themselves with a game. As long as boys remained in the units, in i s o l a t i o n , they could never be exposed to a game.  This was particularly important  for the more passive  boy, which might help him in his relations with the more aggressive  boy.  We have seen that the more passive boy needs to develop s k i l l s of his which can help him to gain a greater degree of self-esteem.  own,  Since r e l a t i o n -  ships between members of a group and inter-group relationships are dynamic, the counsellors were able to discover needs of members of their own groups through this method of exposure. Boys would often reveal the fact that they had never participated in sports a c t i v i t i e s "on the outside"; • > sometimes, as a result of lack of opportunity, sometimes, because of fear of f a i l u r e .  To provide help for  such boys, practice sessions were made available, when a group could go out on i t s own.  Under such conditions, free from the tensions of competition,  boys were able to increase their s k i l l s .  Boys who had l i t t l e s k i l l , could  learn without facing the pressures of having their lack of s k i l l s result in losing a game. During such practice sessions, i t would,also be easier.for the counsellors to help the more able players give help to the less able players. The Function of the Counsellors A counsellor who  i s able to help a group achieve a higher degree  of integration, results in a higher l e v e l of inter-group participation by that group.  Because this involves the counsellor in a number of roles, a  counsellor who had s o c i a l work training could help a group more towards  - 85 greater group integration than a counsellor who did not have the benefit of such training. However, whether a counsellor had social work training or not, when inter-group relationships are involved, he can be tempted to depart from his basic function, and assume less helpful roles, by a number of situations.  For example, i f a unit happens to be losing a game, arguments  can develop.between player of opposing teams.  Under such circumstances,  each unit counsellor must devote his major attention to his own group. P a r t i c u l a r l y , he should not interfere with another counsellor's unit group. Such interference inevitably prevokes considerable h o s t i l i t y .  I f both  counsellors maintain a group-as-a-whole relationship with their own unit groups, and by their attitude, emphasize f a i r play, and playing the game to the best of one's a b i l i t y , regardless of which unit i s winning, i t was usually possible for one counsellor to interfere successfully, for example, in an argument.  At such a time, a counsellor has a unique opportunity of  observing individual and group attitudes towards winning or losing, and attitudes that boys have towards one another.  Following the game, a  counsellor has an opportunity to help the individual member, as problems are related to the group-as-a-whole, and.its participation i n the game. It i s at such times that a counsellor has the opportunity of finding a possible solution to the d i f f i c u l t problem of placement of boys i n groups. Although there i s no "pat" answer to the problem, as to which boy ought to be i n what unit group;; by observation, study, and diagnosis, a counsellor may conclude that a particular boy's need to increase his s k i l l s , might better be achieved i n another group.  For example, a boy seems to have a  greater degree of acceptance i n another group, which might be revealed during inter-group participation i n sports a c t i v i t i e s .  Here i s a record of  - 86 sueh a situation: Today the worker noticed that Frank, who has not taken part in s o f t b a l l , began to play catch with E r i c . Worker has not noticed Frank showing an interest i n s o f t b a l l before this happened, and i t could be that he might learn i f he were i n the same unit as E r i c . This i s not to suggest that this would necessarily be the sole reason for a unit move; but, such information i s important  i n providing assistance to  the worker i n charge of a group-based programme when unit placements are being considered. Sports A c t i v i t i e s as Diagnostic and Therapeutic  Tools  At the Y.O.U., soccer and s o f t b a l l were the most popular a c t i v i ties played on the outside f i e l d .  Soccer was by far the most popular.  Soccer makes i t possible for a much greater participation by a l l boys i n a group regardless of their a b i l i t y .  In s o f t b a l l , there i s a much greater  need for s k i l l , and the lack of s k i l l of one player can obviously effect the whole course of the game.  In running and kicking the b a i l , there i s  opportunity for release of tensions and h o s t i l i t y .  Any one boy, can also  be i n the game, and at the same time, play a marginal role; that i s , he can run up and down the f i e l d , and can involve himself to the extent that opportunity and willingness to do so w i l l allow.  In playing soft-  b a l l , there i s a good deal of standing around and waiting. in the game, he i s more "on the spot-' as an individual.  I f a boy i s  He must be able  to catch and throw the b a l l straight, and be able to make quick and accurate decisions.  He has l i t t l e choice, as to whether he should, or  should not involve himself i n the play; once i n the game, the play i s forced on him.  The game of soccer therefore, was able to meet the needs  of the unit groups at the Y.O.U. to a greater extent than s o f t b a l l .  Soccer  - 87 provides outlets for the aggressive boy, and also permits the more passive boy to participate without the requirement of as much individual s k i l l as i s the case with s o f t b a l l . In the small gym area, the most popular sports a c t i v i t y was f l o o r hockey.  This game was f i r s t proposed by the worker i n charge of the  programme; but, i t was ruled out by the administration, largely as a result of the fear of what would happen during the game, in an area which was only 60 feet long by 20 feet wide.  Floor hockey, played i n a manner similar to  ice hockey, has two teams, each player has a stick four feet long and about one inch i n diameter.  Sticks are used to control a thick f e l t doughnut-  shaped puck about six inches in diameter.  The object of the game i s to  shoot the puck into the opposing team's goal.  What would happen, asked  the chief custodial o f f i c e r , i f a total of twenty-six inmates were placed in one area, twelve of them "armed with sticks"? The opportunities afforded a boy to "get even", or a whole unit to settle a score, seemed to assure maybe, perhaps, i t would result i n serious injury to boys, or counsellors. The worker i n charge of the group-based programme believed that this manto-man a c t i v i t y was needed; because, i t would provide s o c i a l l y  acceptable  outlet for pent-up feelings, which otherwise were being released i n less acceptable ways.  The worker was reasonably sure the game could be kept  within acceptable l i m i t s , and proposed that the counsellors referee the games, and enforce the rules.  The administration gave limited acceptance,  provided the worker i n charge of programme supervised a l l games.  Floor  hockey provided vigorous, man-to-man contacts, and was very popular with the more aggressive boys. sive boys.  However, the game was not popular with the more pas-  Floor hockey does not require many players, only f i v e boys on  a team; i t was possible i n such a game for a number of boys to remain as  — 88 spectators.  Pre-game tension was high.  Floor hockey, to a large extent,  involved players who were the more aggressive boys i n the units.  The more  passive boys could root for their team, and this provided another avenue towards group integration. Another popular game i n the small gym area was dodge b a l l . game has much i n common with soccer. the participants.  This  It allows a good deal of choice to  He can do a l o t of moving around, he can attempt to  catch the b a l l , dodge the b a l l , and i f he chooses, he can catch the b a l l and throw i t .  Dodge b a l l was often used by the counsellors to encourage  the more passive boy to throw the b a l l and h i t the more aggressive boy.  A  boy who i s f e a r f u l , who i s afraid he w i l l get hurt, who i s afraid to exert himself; this kind of a game helps him to play a more aggressive role, as part of the game.  From such experiences in games he can become more aggres-  sive i n other l i f e situations. Commenting on competitive games, Slavson-states that: Essential - for human a c t i v i t y . When r i v a l r y takes on the charact e r i s t i c s of competition, however, i t no longer i s energy producing. Negative effect results, for competition strains and overstimulates, creating anxieties and tension. 2 Soccer and dodge b a l l provide lots of a c t i v i t y which s a t i s f i e s the more aggressive boys.  The more passive boys are helped to face  competition with much less anxiety than i s the case with softball and floor hockey.  Yet a l l these games are useful tools i n the rehabilitation process.  Soccer and dodge b a l l provide a greater, degree of choice of action; actua l l y , provide moments when a boy can escape the a c t i v i t y that i s going on,  2 Slavson, S.E. Recreation and the Total Personality. Association Press, New York, N.Y. 1956. p. 91  - 89 while s t i l l being a part of the team.  Softball and floor hockey, however,  while very popular with the more aggressive boy can create a good deal of anxiety for him, as well as for the more passive boy.  These two games allow  l i t t l e freedom of choice; a boy has few, i f any moments of escape during a game; instead, the play i s constantly being forced on him, and he can become anxious i n attempting to meet the challenge.  The more aggressive boy  can meet this challenge quite adequately; but, the more passive boy often quits the game, or i s scolded out. Helping groups to play together i s therefore intimately related to helping them work together as a group.  Sports a c t i v i t i e s , as well as  other a c t i v i t i e s that might be selected for analysis, have diagnostic, cathartic, and therapeutic elements.  However, i t i s the goal i n program-  ming that i s important, and this has been c l e a r l y outlined by Redl and Wineman.  3  These authors use the term "mental hygiene approach to  programming," and state that: No matter which "goal" we have in mind in our programme planning, whether a given programme i s any good or not depends primarily on the question of whether i t achieves i t s goal without doing damage to the individual or the group involved in other respects. 4 Use of Y.O.U. Teams i n order to provide opportunities for the better players who were usually the more aggressive boys, a Y.O.U. team was organized which represented Y.O.U. in competition with "outside" teams.  Such a team provides  another technique of helping this sub-group, who are inclined to dominate  3 Redl F., and Wineman, D. Controls from Within, The Free Press Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1952. See i n particular Chapter 2. "Programming for Ego Support". . . . 4  Redl F., and Wineman, D.  Ibid  p. 85.  - 90 others, learn a greater degree of self-control.  Since this team repre-  sented Y.O.U., i t was stressed that athletic a b i l i t y and a reasonable standard of behaviour was necessary, i n order to be on the team. i s not an easy combination of c r i t e r i a to assess.  This  Since some of the most,  aggressive boys i n our i n s t i t u t i o n were also the best players, i t was necessary to recognize that their athletic a b i l i t y was an important source of status.  A reasonable standard of behaviour, must, therefore, be inter-  preted as reasonable, for a particular boy, at a particular stage i n his development.  The desire to produce a winning team can then be placed i n  proper-perspective.  I f a good relationship i s established be.tween the  counsellor-coach, and the team, good athletic a b i l i t y and a reasonable standard of behaviour, are useful c r i t e r i a that can help boys to exercise an increasingly greater degree of self-control.  Y.O.U. had two teams, a  s o f t b a l l team, and a soccer team; both teams played i n leagues i n the community. Programme Planning Committee The youthful offender needs to learn to make decisions with others, within a democratic frame of reference. Furthermore, by p a r t i c i pating in. decision-making i n matters that affect himself and others, boys are helped to identify with the administration; i n this manner, they can learn a new concept of authority, different from the one that i s usually held by them. , In a correctional i n s t i t u t i o n , the concept that a group of prisoners, who represent various groups within the i n s t i t u t i o n , might part i c i p a t e . i n some.areas of decision-making, i s a new concept, and i t has to be developed.  Some unit groups,., who have achieved a greater degree of inte-  gration, are better able, to have one of their group members represent them  - 91 at a programme planning committee; however, i f boys are to learn the meaning of self-determination, and what i t means to represent others, they need a structure that can give them such experience.  This formed the basis  for introducing a programme planning committee. , The group-based programme introduced Friday night movies at the Y.O.U. For a time, the selection of films was made by the worker in charge of programme.  This method of selection was then changed, to a,procedure of  sending a film catalogue, in rotation, to a l l of the unit groups, so that a particular group, with the help of a counsellor, could draw up a l i s t of films they would l i k e to view; from the l i s t s submitted, the most popular films would be booked.  From this method of selecting films, the concept of  meeting as a committee was introduced; each unit group was asked to elect one or two representatives who would take the l i s t of .film choices from each unit, and meet as a group to f i n a l i z e the l i s t of films to be booked. The function of this group, under the supervision of a group worker, was expanded to include a number of a c t i v i t i e s affecting a l l of the unit groups. From i t s inception, when the programme planning committee concerned i t s e l f with the choice of films, i t then progressed to discuss and plan such i n t e r group a c t i v i t i e s as table tennis tournaments, bridge and whist drives, soccer and softball tournaments, f i e l d and track events, and plans Christmas and New Years' programme.  for  Once the programme planning committee  began to meet regularly, i t needed a great deal of support i n order to keep the,focus of the youths on planning inter-group a c t i v i t i e s .  "Beef  sessions" were more attractive to them than discussing and planning interunit programme. the Y.O.U.  One consistent "beef" had to do with the food served at  To afford an opportunity for a l l groups to present their ideas  - 92 r e l a t i v e to the quality and quantity of food, a sub-committee was  estab-  lished which met with the chief custodial officer, whose responsibility i t was,  to purchase food stuffs.  Despite counsellors' efforts to effect demo-  c r a t i c representation from each, group, there was a tendency for delegates not to want to be elected. Volunteers for programme planning meetings proved to be the more successful method of obtaining delegates.  However,  whenever a "red hot issue" was to be discussed, such as a contested winner of a s o f t b a l l or soccer tournamentj a number of boys from each unit wanted to attend, and i t was usually the. more aggressive members of the unit groups.  Here i s an example of the committee " i n action".  Despite efforts  by some members to blame others, to make the workers appear to be unfair, a delegate to the committee come up with a suggestion which provided a solution to a d i f f i c u l t y that existed i n a l l units.  On one occasion, a  number of units had been penalized because they caused disturbances after lights-out.  The group worker called a meeting of the programme planning  committee to discuss t h i s . had complained  The more aggressive members i n the unit groups  the most about the. disciplinary action that had been taken,  and they attended this particular meeting, " i n force".  Some delegates to  the meeting, argued that the disciplinary action taken against the units was unfair; that noise occurred as a result of someone t e l l i n g a joke, and that everybody, naturally, had laughed.  Others, maintained that a few  boys i n the unit were restless, and as a result of not being able, to sleep, they talked; why should a l l be penalized -because of the few?  The  group worker c l a r i f i e d the policy, that this misbehaviour had to do with unit groups, and. that i t v/as up to each group to deal with these problems. This brought the familiar response that "everybody i n j a i l does his own  time"; and, "why don't you penalize those who make the noise"?  The  group worker replied that he would not ask the counsellors to spy on the units i n an attempt to catch the responsible boys.  He expressed the idea  that this was a chance for boys to use their influence in their own units to help solve this problem.  Some members of the committee f e l t that this  was the counsellor's job, and i f he couldn't find out who was responsible for the noise, a l l of the group should not be penalized.  One  delegate,  however, suggested that i f crystal sets were provided, the boys i n the units would have something to do after lights out, and up u n t i l the time they f e l l asleep.  The group worker agreed to present  their request to  the administration; but, he would only agree to this on a group basis; that i s , the committee were suggesting  that a l l members of a unit group  would benefit by having crystal sets, therefore, the group-as-a-whole would have to agree to accept the responsibility that after lights out, they would settle down and be quiet.  He asked that the delegates from  the unit groups discuss i t with their own groups on that basis.  Agree-  ment on this particular group problem was reached, and crystal sets and earphones were obtained for the use of the unit groups after l i g h t s out. A number of other achievements made possible by the programme planning committee were recorded by a group work student, who worked with the programme planning committee as a f i e l d work placement.  After meet-  ing with this group for six months, he commented that: As the group began to f e e l , and were made to f e e l that they were recognized as a group within the Y.O.U., they began to make their meetings "beef sessions" rather than sessions for constructive planning and making recommendations. However, the programme planning committee during the time that I worked with them, and i n our f i n a l evaluation, f e l t that they had . helped to bring about:  - 94 1.  Several tournaments (table tennis, whist and bridge, and soccer.)  2.  The incorporation of the unit groups ideas i n Christmas programme.  3.  The establishment of a Y.O.U. newspaper and the publishing of three editions.  4.  Special features, jazz appreciation night, and a school for umpires and referees.  An i n s t i t u t i o n programme planning committee i s not only able to help iri;the organization of a c t i v i t i e s , there i s also the important carryover to other areas within the i n s t i t u t i o n . Gisela Knopka comments on this aspect of a programme planning committee that, They (planning groups) also f u l f i l l a purpose by improving the climate of the i n s t i t u t i o n . Human beings have different and more positive feelings i f they participate i n a common endeavour. The youngster who feels that he has some say about some aspect of i n s t i t u t i o n a l l i v i n g w i l l be much more w i l l i n g to accept decisions that have to be made without his consent. 5 A programme planning committee i s an extremely d i f f i c u l t area in a correctional setting, to develop and sustain.  Unit groups send to  such meetings individuals who reflect the unit's attitudes, not only towards what i s being discussed, but what results the committee produces. Whenever an important issue affecting the boys' welfare was to be d i s cussed, the higher status members of the unit would either attend the committee's meetings, or they would t e l l their unit delegates what to say. No matter how clearly the function of such a committee was explained, certain techniques had to be adopted to make sure programme planning committee survived, as one method, whereby democratic concepts could be  5  Knopkaj Gisela = l o c . c i t . p. 220  learned i n practice.  A l l counsellors had to be briefed at staff meetings  concerning what went on, so that delegates would accurately interpret what was said.  Counsellors were also asked to encourage a l l members of  the unit group to attend, on a rotation basis.  Delegates to the programme  planning committee tested the staff member who met with them i n an extremely direct manner. an authority figure.  He was the representative of the i n s t i t u t i o n and  No matter how clearly he stated the function of  such a committee, a l l aspects of the l i f e of the boys i n the Y.O.U. would sooner or l a t e r be brought up by some delegate.  Experience with such a  committee suggests that results are very important.  I t i s , therefore,  considered basic that the staff member who meets with such a group has authority to do things; i f the responsibility of meeting with such a group i s delegated, there must be concrete evidence that authority to make decisions has also been delegated.  It i s obvious that a number of requests by  delegates concerning many aspects of the l i f e of boys i n the Y.O.U. were impossible to meet; however, such requests cannot be ruled out as not the function of this committee; on the contrary, explanation and c l a r i f i c a t i o n of such requests i s necessary.  The decision to set up a programme planning  council implies the desire, on the part of the i n s t i t u t i o n , to receive suggestions from such a committee, relative to planning i n the area of inter-group a c t i v i t y .  Gradually, the delegates w i l l test the genuineness  of this desire by asking a question that might appear to be irrelevant. One such example i s i l l u s t r a t e d , when one of the unit delegates commented that, " i f the Y.O.U. trusts boys, why i s a counsellor always with the group?"  Why i s there always someone watching you, as though you couldn't  be trusted?" Reasons for such practices have to be given.  The facts of  escapes, and consequences of adding further sentence to hoys who do escape, given i n a b r i e f forthright manner fosters constructive attitudes to the facts of an escape.  The programme planning committee, or whatever  such a committee might be called, that attempts to discuss and plan a c t i v i t i e s for more than one unit group seems to develop along lines similar to that which occurs i n a unit.  The more passive boys are perhaps sent as  delegates i n order to determine the attitudes of the staff member who i s delegated to work with such a committee.  When important issues arise, a  unit group may send a more aggressive member of the group, or i t may caref u l l y instruct a delegate what to say.  Although no records of the programme  planning committee were kept over a s u f f i c i e n t l y long period of time to follow the development, the next stage may well be that more of the aggressive boys, the leaders i n the unit groups, would attend the meetings. This might correspond with the emergence of such leaders i n the groups, or i t may not be related; i t i s suggested, however, that a similar kind of testing that occurs i n the units, also occurs i n programme planning groups. C y c l i c a l Nature of Planning Due to the fact that, the Y.O.U. population i s transient i n nature, a certain "cycle i n planning" with such a programme committee i s indicated.  For example, certain aspects of overall programme may be devel-  oped as a result of meeting the needs and interests of a particular group of boys.  However, there w i l l always come a time when the process whereby  this has been achieved i s not appreciated by a l l of the unit groups. this condition obtains, i t i s necessary to start a l l over again. this may only involve discussing the process whereby a certain  When  Sometimes  development  has been possible; at other times, i t w i l l necessitate an actual cut back i n programme, and again working through with the unit groups involved, so that achievements  i n programme development can actually be experienced.  Unless this i s recognized a stage i n development can be reached where everyone takes "things f o r granted", under such conditions the programme planning committee becomes unproductive.  CHAPTER 5 BRIDGING THE  he  leaves  Facilities  GAP  BETWEEN PRISON AND  For  every youthful  the  Young O f f e n d e r ' s  and  offender, Unit  a c t i v i t i e s can be  and  the  t i m e comes s o o n e r o r l a t e r  "goes b a c k t o t h e  introduced,  programme, t h a t w i l l h e l p  the  community; f a c i l i t i e s  a c t i v i t i e s t h a t he  John s t u f f " ; real  and  or, f a c i l i t i e s  s e n s e o f i s o l a t i o n he  the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r rehabilitative We  needs.  as  youthful offender  and so  COMMUNITY  may  a c t i v i t i e s that  acutely f e e l s .  an  community".  integral  part  of  i n his return to  the  have c o n s i d e r e d can h e l p  These a r e  G i s e l a Knopka comments on  when  him the  "square  overcome kinds  this  of  aspect  the "bridges"  of  the  task:  are not  talking  about s u g a r - c o a t i n g  institutional l i f e .  We  a r e n o t t a l k i n g a b o u t " f r i l l s " t o make l i f e " s o f t " compared t o what i t i s on t h e o u t s i d e . We a r e n o t s e n t i m e n t a l i s t s . As g r o u p w o r k e r s we a r e p u t t i n g demands on human b e i n g s w h e r e v e r t h e y a r e by a s k i n g them n o t t o s i m p l y do. what we t e l l them b u t t o l e a r n t o l i v e i n s i t u a t i o n s which demand r e s p o n s i b l e b e h a v i o u r . The  youthful offender  spent a c o n s i d e r a b l e  p e r i o d o f time i n  1 the  2 Y.O.U. separate  M o v i n g t h e s e boys o u t b u i l d i n g and  g a i n i n g v o c a t i o n a l and  Main G a o l p o p u l a t i o n  t h e r e , p r o v i d i n g them w i t h work s k i l l s ,  use  o f l e i s u r e - t i m e , was  gap  between t h e  in itself,  community and  the  c o n t r a s t t o what i s u s u a l l y t h e 1 2  of the  as  the  and  into  opportunity  w e l l as o p p o r t u n i t y  for  of  constructive  a tremendous advance i n b r i d g i n g  youthful  offender.  case f o r the  This  young o f f e n d e r  Knopka, G., op. c i t . . p . 289 E i g h t e e n months i s an a v e r a g e s e n t e n c e f o r t h i s  is in who  group.  a  the  stark is  sent  t o p r i s o n f o r p u n i s h m e n t ; and he  has  very  n a t u r e ; the widened.  little gap  When t h e  a p a r t of the  W h i l e he  having knives,  his  community and  living  f o r k s and  cell,  he  had  F o r h i s bed,  spread.  he  usual cance.  provided  p r i s o n uniform; t h i s , Visits  could  be  of across  f i n e metal screen  before  implies  i t is built  institution  the  small  were e n c o u r a g e d , and  can  and  the  total  equipped.  units.  and  suit,  instead  visits  were h e l d  i s done, t h e  very  r e c e i v e boys a f t e r t h e The  carryover  of  take d i s c i p l i n a r y  w e l l make t h e  task  o f an  area  waiting  i n s t r u c t o r , who  i s to  difficult.-  to another i s a well-known  of  For  a c t i o n t o keep p e o p l e " i n  m e a l i n a c l a s s s i t u a t i o n , much more  e m o t i o n s f r o m one  or  design  by  may  across  c a r e f u l l y planned  i s obtained  while waiting,  others  a glass  example, i n most c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s f o o d  line"  the  signifi-  w e l l as  staff.  need t o  a  of  important  o f b o y s and  The  In  personal  way  long line-ups.  by  mealtimes;  pillow slip,  s e t t i n g n e e d s t o be  i n the  cell,  jails.  Unless t h i s  t h r o w many b l o c k s  at  keep h i s  a more i s o l a t i n g b a r r i e r , s u c h as  that  commu-  a more n o r m a l l i v i n g s i t u a t i o n .  wore a c i v i l i a n  common i n  which  lessened  games i n t h e  could  sheets,  i n the  Y.O.U. was  f o r many b o y s , c o u l d have an  which i s q u i t e  further  i n a barred  f r o m members o f h i s f a m i l y , h i s f r i e n d s , as  h e l p f u l t o him  This  to  sleep  cups f o r h i s use  and  with  A l l such items c o n t r i b u t e d  a table instead  an  and  c u p b o a r d i n w h i c h he was  i s , therefore,  young o f f e n d e r  community, and  spoons, p l a t e s  a clothes  constructive  e q u i p p e d w i t h some i t e m s  d i d have t o l i v e b e h i n d b a r s and i n the  of a  attitude,  i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s , i s undergoing  c o n d i t i o n o f the  From i t s i n c e p t i o n , t h e Y.O.U. s t a f f  who  himself  tables, chairs, chesterfield, radio,  effects. bed  of l e a r n i n g anything  Y.O.U. opened, i t was  differences i n l i v i n g  and,  a n a t u r a l consequence o f t h i s  T h i s p u n i s h m e n t c o n c e p t , and  would be  the  opportunity  between t h e  marked c h a n g e .  nity.  as  in  - 100 phenomenon i n correctional i n s t i t u t i o n s .  In the Y . O . U . , small groups of  hoys went out to a table and ate their meals adjacent to their u n i t s . was "brought to the table by the kitchen crew, thus avoiding the  n  Pood  evils"  inherent i n mass feeding of i n d i v i d u a l s . The entire atmosphere of an i n s t i t u t i o n can change, as a result of using pleasing colour combinations on walls and c e i l i n g s .  This was  p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable at Y . O . U . , when p e r i o d i c a l l y , the whole inside of the building was re-painted, using a different colour combination.  It i s  important that furniture be p r a c t i c a l ; that i t can stand-up under the impact of a boy who might jump on a chesterfield.  Boys need some leeway,  without having to face interference of a staff member who must constantly remind boys to be careful with furniture, chairs, etc. hobby and craft material w i l l be destroyed by a boy.  In some instances This can occur when  he becomes frustrated, because the material w i l l not respond i n the way he desires.  This i s not to suggest that destruction and waste i s condoned on  the basis of a boy expressing himself; but, a certain amount of destruction may be necessary as he learns to accept limitations that are inherent i n a l l hobby and craft materials.  This w i l l have an important implication for  the group worker i n budget planning for a group-based programme.  One writer,  commenting on f a c i l i t i e s and equipment for the kind of rehabilitative task envolved, states that: It i s therefore important that the amount and type of materials available and the budget for them are direetly proportionate to the specific c l i n i c a l task, not to the average customs of budget committees or material producing firms. 3 3  Redl, P . , and Wineman, D . , op. c i t . . p. 46.  - 101 Activities  a s a Normal P a r t o f Community  Living  S p o r t s , games, h o b b y s and c r a f t t o one a n o t h e r  i n a group; t h e values  g a i n s t a t u s and a g r e a t e r ities  can help  activities  can h e l p boys  o f such a c t i v i t i e s ,  self-esteem,  relate  i n h e l p i n g boys  have a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d .  l e s s e n t h e sense o f i s o l a t i o n f e l t  Activ-  by a l l y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s .  Furthermore, a c t i v i t i e s  c a n be i n t r o d u c e d ,  t h a t t h e y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r may  have c o n s i d e r e d  John*' a c t i v i t i e s .  I n h e l p i n g him t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n  "square  s u c h a c t i v i t i e s , he i s i n e f f e c t h e l p e d through such  to r e l a t e  twice part  and  Soon a f t e r  o f programme.  p a s t i m e f o r a l l b o y s "on t h e  t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e g r o u p - b a s e d programme, a  a month s h o w i n g o f a n e n t e r t a i n m e n t  group.  groups  activities.  Going t o t h e movies i s a p o p u l a r outside".  to non-criminal  film  G o i n g swimming i s a n o t h e r  The programme p l a n n i n g  following a request  was s c h e d u l e d popular  as an i n t e g r a l  a c t i v i t y f o r t h i s age  committee h a d a s k e d i f t h i s  would be p o s s i b l e ,  made t o t h e Warden a t O a k a l l a , p e r m i s s i o n  was g i v e n  t o t h e u n i t g r o u p s a t Y.O.U. t o go swimming a t t h e west end o f D e e r l a k e , which forms t h e N o r t h - E a s t Christmas real  boundary o f O a k a l l a  and New Y e a r p r o v i d e  property.  the i n s t i t u t i o n a l  c h a l l e n g e , i f some o f t h e " o u t s i d e " h o l i d a y s p i r i t  P r e p a r a t i o n f o r Christmas giving  a list ;  o f t h e items  began e a r l y i n November.  worker w i t h a  i s t o be  Mimeographed  captured. sheets,  t h a t c o u l d be s e n t i n t o Y.O.U., were made  a v a i l a b l e t o boys f o r m a i l i n g t o r e l a t i v e s  and f r i e n d s .  such f a v o u r i t e s a t Christmas  c a n d i e s , mandarin oranges,  eookies,  and t h e l i k e .  t i m e as n u t s ,  F o r b o y s who were n o t l i k e l y  The l i s t  cakes,  t o g e t a p a r c e l , about  20% o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , p a r c e l s were made up b y a good f r i e n d through the auspices  included  o f t h e Y.O.U.,  o f t h e South Vancouver S o f t b a l l & Soccer A s s o c i a t i o n ;  - 102 in  which  l e a g u e , t h e Y.O.U. was  good d e a l o f s h a r i n g , by r e c e i v e a p a r c e l , was t r e e s and  t h o s e who  d e c o r a t i o n s , complete as a c o n s e q u e n c e ,  in  noticeably  was  n i g h t , "anything goes".  setting,  since  Hew  Year's Eve  were p r o v i d e d f o r  a great deal of h o s t i l i t y  ean be  The n o r m a l r e a c t i o n on t h e p a r t  c a n be  a  s e r v e d by particularly  expected.  o f boys t o  and r e s e n t m e n t ;  Activities,  planned,  hostility.  was  i n t r o d u c e d t h r o u g h t h e u s e o f f o o d and  soft  as a r e s u l t , b o y s would end t h e e v e n i n g , f e e l i n g t h e y had had f u n .  for  can a l s o  c o n t r i b u t e t o s e t t l i n g boys who  example, a t m i d n i g h t t h e l i g h t s  with h o l l e r i n g , pounding  w o u l d make t h e r o u n d s  of a l l units,  them a "Happy New  to  Year".  down, and by 1»00  a l l was  and h o o t i n g .  T h i s i s i n marked  t h e b e d l a m t h a t u s u a l l y b r e a k s o u t i n most j a i l s ,  little  i n t e r r u p t i o n up u n t i l  Activities  as an E x p o s u r e  3*00 o r 4J00  to Non-Delinquent  w i t h the law.  Behaviour  was  counsellors wishing would  contrast  and  continues with  s u c h as May  24th, J u l y 1 s t  Behaviour  September 1 s t a r e o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d r u n k e n e s s , difficulties  drinks;  a.m.  To t h e y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r , h o l i d a y s  further  The  Year  t h e Young O f f e n d e r s ' U n i t  quiet.  A  become o v e r l y - e x c i t e d ;  s h a k i n g hands w i t h t h e boys and  Following this, a.m.,  may  were t u r n e d on, and t h e New  g r e e t e d by t h e y o u t h s  settle  result,  q u i z z e s , s i n g - s o n g , and s m a l l games, p r o v i d e d t h i n g s t o d o .  measure o f f e s t i v i t y  staff  one  New  as a  carefully  c a n p r o v i d e some measure o f s a t i s f a c t i o n whieh t e n d s t o r e d u c e  of  Christmas  s o c i e t y approves, that f o r t h i s  c a n be a s o u r c e o f u n u s u a l b i t t e r n e s s ,  Films, unit  Christmas  t h e gloom s u r r o u n d i n g the s p e n d i n g o f  staff.  a  d i d not  d i s p e r s e d by t h e t i m e C h r i s t m a s d i n n e r was  time i n a j a i l  Y e a r ' s Eve  r e c e i v e d p a r c e l s w i t h b o y s who  with s t r i n g s of l i g h t s ,  members o f Young O f f e n d e r s ' U n i t difficult  Furthermore,  g e n e r a l l y i n evidence i n a l l u n i t groups.  each group; jail  a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member.  which  and  o f t e n ends up i n  G r a d u a l l y , i t became a Y.O.U. t r a d i t i o n  - 103 to  have a f i e l d  and t r a c k meet on h o l i d a y s .  d u c e d , i t was v i e w e d a s " s q u a r e  When t h e i d e a was f i r s t  John s t u f f " .  D i s c u s s i o n and p l a n n i n g ,  i n v o l v i n g t h e b o y s t h r o u g h t h e i r programme p l a n n i n g reduce defensiveness. with  a total  Track  and f i e l d  broadjump, h i g h  committee, h e l p e d t o  meets were p l a n n e d  1 0 0 y d . dash, r u n n i n g  of six activities:  jump, d i s c u s t h r o w i n g ,  on a g r o u p b a s i s ,  broadjump,  and s h o t p u t t .  standing  The a c t i v i t i e s  numbered one t o s i x , and t h e s i x u n i t g r o u p s t o o k t h e i r p l a c e s w i t h counsellors,  according  t o t h e numbered e v e n t s .  a group, i n each event, obtained  until  a l l u n i t s h a d made t h e r o u n d s .  score  i n each o f t h e s i x e v e n t s  To h e l p make a t r a c k and f i e l d  p o s s i b l e , m u s i c was p r o v i d e d  scores  cream b a r s ,  dixie  c u p s , and s o f t  t h a t developed,  mation, that while  only a very  This introduces  . The  were p r e s e n t e d  d r i n k s were p r o v i d e d  on s u c h o c c a s i o n s ,  The  confiri n the  community e n t e r p r i s e . o f t h e meaning o f a  .  h o l i d a y programmes n e v e r f a i l e d  to surprise.  s u r p r i s e d t h a t s u c h programmes were o f f e r e d - a t t h e Y.O.U. s u r p r i s e d t h a t they  to a l l boys.  was s u f f i c i e n t  s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h i s  .  with  system.  p a r t i n such events  t h e y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r t o a new c o n c e p t  community.  obtained  day a s f e s t i v e an o c c a s i o n as  f e w boys h a d t a k e n  community, a l l b o y s d e r i v e d r e a l  derived basic satisfactions  The boys were They were  f r o m s u c h programmes,  some i n s t a n c e s m i g h t be remembered a s unhappy t i m e s  Oftentimes  and r e c o r d e d .  b y a r e c o r d p l a y e r and p u b l i c a d d r e s s  t o t a l "we f e e l i n g "  in  Total  and s e c o n d p l a c i n g u n i t s were awarded a p r i z e ; b o y s who  and s e c o n d h i g h e s t  a ribbon.  Ice  their  b y e a c h member o f a g r o u p were added, and when t h i s was d i v i d e d b y  first  first  were  They t h e n p a r t i c i p a t e d , a s  t h e number o f b o y s i n a g r o u p , a g r o u p a v e r a g e was o b t a i n e d The  intro-  that  "on t h e o u t s i d e " .  a b o y would m e n t i o n , i n a g r o u p , t h a t he was v e r y unhappy a t  the prospect  o f having  t o spend Christmas  " l o c k e d up"; a s a r e s u l t ,  another  - 104 y o u t h m i g h t r e a s s u r e him w i l l be of  trees,  and  that  " t h i n g s a t Y.O.U. a r e n o t had";  l i g h t s , and  l o t s to e a t .  he has  arrived.  F o r t h e 15  d e p r i v a t i o n s i n the  t o 19 y e a r o l d y o u t h  a cake on h i s b i r t h d a y o r n o t , does n o t  d e a l o f c o n c e r n on h i s p a r t . b a k e d f o r one's b i r t h d a y was looked forward All  lives  needs "on did  you  do  m i g h t be: or,  y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s , f o r one  reason or another,  a chance o f meeting  t h e o u t s i d e " i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e way. i n your "Oh,  f o r a great cake  a l l boys  spare time  when you  a t t e n d the c o n c e r t .  their  were i n t h e community?  t o t h e Y.O.U., and  attentive  p l a y e d , a t t h e end  selection,  o f each  the l i k e ,  just  as t h e y had  overtones  o f mocking t h i s  heard  to the  one  "square heard  on t h e r a d i o ,  Non-delinquent  the R e h a b i l i t a t i v e  Contacts with non-delinquent t h e community a r e i m p o r t a n t ; with the p r i n c i p l e ,  While  the q u a r t e t bravos,  There  and  were  John s t u f f " , o f c o u r s e ; b u t , t h e y b e h a v e d  i n a manner t h a t t h e y had Groups and  shouted  on t h e r a d i o .  invited  event.  chamber m u s i c t h a t  do  occasion, a  a l l o f t h e b o y s were  t h e y c l a p p e d and  audiences  answer  particular".  About t w e n t y b o y s t u r n e d o u t f o r t h i s  t h e y were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y  What  c o f f e e shop";  o r , " I d i d n ' t do a n y t h i n g i n On  out  leisure-time  The  t h i s or that  to a c t i v i t i e s therefore, i s necessary. invited  have missed  When boys were a s k e d :  n o t h i n g much, I j u s t hung a r o u n d  q u a r t e t was  t o do  cause  whether  t o h a v i n g a cake b a k e d f o r t h e i r b i r t h d a y s .  A wide e x p o s u r e  from  seem t o be  an a c c e p t e d p a r t o f programme, and  " I went t o t h e show o f t e n " ;  string  i n t h e community,  However, a t t h e Y.O.U. r e q u e s t s t o have a  on many a c t i v i t i e s t h a t m i g h t a f f o r d  has  there  a l l o f t h e boys a t t h e Y.O.U. were o f t e n r e v e a l e d a t t i m e s when a b o y ' s  birthdate  to  The  that  felt  was  proper.  Process  g r o u p s o f a d o l e s c e n t s , and  because,  that,  and  o t h e r groups  p a r t o f the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e  " i f a reformee  i s t o abandon  task  attitudes,  - 105 motives,  and o v e r t b e h a v i o u r  must be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o  p a t t e r n s w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d u n d e s i r a b l e , he  a g r o u p which p r e s e n t s  h i m w i t h , and s u p p o r t s  new  4 a t t i t u d e s , motives, difficult  and b e h a v i o u r  task f a c i n g  i n t e g r a t i o n with The  patterns".  a y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r , and t h e s o o n e r t h e p r o c e s s o f  "normal" group b e g i n s ,  t h e g r e a t e r t h e chance o f s u c c e s s .  use o f volunteers i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y  much o f t h e work o f s o c i a l a g e n c i e s of  T h i s i s p e r h a p s t h e most  the volunteer.  f a m i l i a r t o group  would n o t b e p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t  I n t h e community, t h e y n o t o n l y work d i r e c t l y  workers; the help  with  groups,  t h e y a c t u a l l y make i t p o s s i b l e f o r a n a g e n c y t o o f f e r a w i d e r r a n g e o f activities  due t o t h e i r  institution,  skills  a relationship  they provide with  i m p o s s i b l e t o do.  cruited,  the r u l e s  h e l p them d e v e l o p  Volunteers  s t e p s c a n be  committee was h e l p e d  d u r i n g a game. their  were o b t a i n e d  skills  Y.O.U. s o f t b a l l  t h i s process o f  t o s e t up a s c h o o l f o r  i n these  areas,  were r e -  and s o c c e r , and, how t o  were made a v a i l a b l e t o u n i t s  i n weightlifting,  t o t e a c h hobby and c r a f t  t a b l e t e n n i s , and c h e s s .  skills  such  as  leatherwork,  One v o l u n t e e r was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r d e v e l o p i n g a  and s o c c e r team.  teams, one team was i n v i t e d Oressey,  Volunteers  difficult  taken.  as w e l l as v o l u n t e e r s s k i l l e d  w o o d c a r v i n g , and c o p p e r c r a f t .  4  To f a c i l i t a t e  i n order to discuss the r u l e s of s o f t b a l l  interpret to  programme p l a n n i n g  Referees,  way; p e r h a p s  an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r t o f o r m  i n t e g r a t i o n , a number o f c o n c r e t e  umpires.  In a correctional  a d u l t s i n s o c i e t y - e x a c t l y what t h e y h a d f o u n d  do, and i n many c a s e s  The  and k n o w l e d g e .  v o l u n t e e r s n o t o n l y c o n t r i b u t e t o programme i n t h i s  more i m p o r t a n t ,  to  special  Sue t o h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h  a number o f o u t s i d e  i n t o p l a y , and i n t u r n , Y.O.U. teams were  D o n a l d . , o p . c i t . , p . 26  granted  - 106 p e r m i s s i o n by t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ' s  Department t o p l a y o f t h e " o u t s i d e " .  It  that year  w i l l be o f i n t e r e s t  t o p o i n t out,  went " o u t s i d e " d u r i n g s p r i n g , summer and f a l l a month, and no b o y on t h e team e v e r time, ball  this  aspect  a f t e r year,  months on an a v e r a g e o f t w i c e  a t t e m p t e d an e s c a p e .  o f programme became f i r m l y  and s o c c e r l e a g u e ,  Games were p l a y e d a t v a r i o u s p a r k s  a r e a , a s w e l l a s . a t t h e Y.O.U.  A l l o f these  Over a p e r i o d o f  e s t a b l i s h e d , and a Y.O.U. s o f t -  and s o c c e r team j o i n e d an o u t s i d e s o f t b a l l  w i t h o t h e r teams..  t h e Y.O.U. teams  i n the Greater  Such c o n t a c t s  n o r m a l g r o u p s o f a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e community a r e i m p o r t a n t ;  with  because, p a r t  t a s k h a s t o do w i t h r e m o v i n g t h e "sense o f i s o l a t i o n "  t h a t e x i s t s between a g r o u p o f a d o l e s c e n t s  who do n o t behave i n a s o c i a l l y -  a c c e p t a b l e manner, and a g r o u p o f a d o l e s c e n t s Before  Vancouver  " o u t s i d e " teams, c o n s i s t e d o f  b o y s i n t h e same age g r o u p as t h e boys f r o m Y.O.U.  of the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e  and competed  who do - t h e " s q u a r e  a game was t o be p l a y e d w i t h one o f t h e s e g r o u p s , e i t h e r  Johns".  a t Y.O.U.  o r i n t h e community, i t was common f o r t h e b o y s a t Y.O.U. t o wonder " i f t h e s e guys j u s t The  come i n t o l o o k a t u s ? "  youthful offender r e a l l y  w r i t e r has p o i n t e d out,  such  o r , " I wonder what t h e y ' l l be l i k e ? "  wants t o know: W i l l  they  accept us?  As one  g r o u p s c a n be h e l p f u l i n p r o v i d i n g " p o s i t i v e  c o n t a c t s w i t h g r o u p s which w i l l  directly  or i n d i r e c t l y  implant  i n the  5 prisoner  the a n t i c r i m i n a l values As  offered, At  i s t h e case  i n other areas  t h e r e i s a shortage, o f persons  t h e Y.O.U., t h e y  contributed their  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r boys t o r e l a t e  5  of the larger  Gressey,  society."  where g r o u p work s e r v i c e s a r e who w i l l  skills,  p . 22  services.  as w e l l as p r o v i d e d a n  t o them as p e r s o n s  D o n a l d R., b p • c i t . ,  volunteer their  who came f r o m t h e  - 107 community; b u t , t h e r e  was a n o t i c e a b l e l a c k o f t h e boys i d e n t i f y i n g  p e r s o n s as a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s . indicates  However, t h i s  liable  t o be a s k e d t o do f a v o u r s ;  items i n from t h e " o u t s i d e " .  The v o l u n t e e r  p o s i t i o n i f such matters a r e not d i s c u s s e d responsibilities,  i n using volunteers.  c a n be p l a c e d with him b e f o r e  of this  t a s k must be e x p l a i n e d  A particularly who have n o n e .  to the volunteer,  T h i s i s an a r e a  Security  i s more s u c c e s s f u l when t h e v o l u n t e e r  by a few v o l u n t e e r s  o f common i n t e r e s t .  a t one t i m e ;  s u c h commoners, v i s i t s  i n order  also  The  t o a v o i d an  o r , t h e y h a d some o t h e r continued  t o boys  who u n d e r t o o k t h i s i s able  s a t i s f a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e v o l u n t e e r  As  task,  a b o y where lived i n  common b a s i s o f i n t e r e s t ;  over a considerable  o f Community  to v i s i t  P e r h a p s boy and v o l u n t e e r ,  consideration, therefore, i s that there  Women a s a Normal F a c t  on t h a t a c c o u n t .  of p o t e n t i a l service f o r the volunteer.  visiting  basic  hand.  g r e a t need e x i s t s i n p r o v i d i n g v i s i t o r s  o f some e x p e r i e n c e  some a r e a  difficult  f e e l i n g t h a t he i s an o u t s i d e r .  a result  i s an a r e a  in a  A l l s t a f f have a l e g a l o b l i g a t i o n  e s c a p e s , and c l o s e s u p e r v i s i o n i s n e c e s s a r y  unnecessarily heightened  there  f o r example, t o b r i n g  t h a t a r e a p a r t o f working i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l s e t t i n g ,  a challenge  to prevent nature  c a n l e a d t o d i f f i c u l t y , , and  t h e need f o r c a r e f u l o r i e n t a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e v o l u n t e e r .  He i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  present  such  should  period of time.  with  The  be a b a s i c f o r m u t u a l  and t h e b o y .  Living  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e x f a c t o r i n p r i s o n l i f e i s o n l y b e g i n n i n g t o be o p e n l y d i s c u s s e d . U n t i l r e c e n t l y t h e p r o b l e m was s c r e e n e d f r o m t h e p u b l i c eye w i t h p r u d i s h e v a s i v e n e s s ; e v e n now, i t i s r e c o g n i z e d i n many p r i s o n s o n l y i n t h e n e g a t i v e f a s h i o n o f random  - 108 r e p r e s s i o n a n d r o u t i n e p u n i s h m e n t , o r by t r y i n g with r i d i c u l e o r d e c i s i o n * 6 F o r t h e young o f f e n d e r i n h i s t e e n s , to provide him in may  him w i t h  i t i s of basic  o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o form r e l a t i o n s h i p s with  i n h i s psycho-sexual such a s e t t i n g  t o brush  development.  women t o h e l p sex o u t l e t s  F o r many i n d i v i d u a l s  n o t be t o o damaging; f o r o t h e r s , i t m i g h t w e l l f o s t e r run the r i s k  importance  The m a j o r i t y o f boys f i n d  as Y.0«U. through masturbation.  s o l i t u d e r a t h e r than  i t away  of heterosexual  a retreat  courtship.  exploitation  little  segregation  t h a t c a n be a s e r i o u s p r o b l e m i n a g a o l s e t t i n g o f prisoners i s carried  out.  Y.O.U. h o m o s e x u a l i t y i s a l w a y s a p o s s i b i l i t y ;  In a setting  but,  d y n a m i c , and t h r o u g h c a s e w o r k , and t h e i n c l u s i o n  difficulty  so t h a t h i s e n f o r c e d  was a v i s i t Criminology  i n Canada.  had  on a h e t e r o s e x u a l  The i n i t i a l  w  a first"  rela-  i n institutions  step i n t h i s  pioneering  made b y a g r o u p o f men and women s t u d e n t s a t U.B.C.  women were t a k e n  Following this  on Y.O.U. s t a f f .  programme; one as a cook, t h e o t h e r in  s e x u a l developments i s  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f women as s t a f f members a t t h e Y.O.U. who  f o r youthful offenders  of f i v e  such as t h e  s e c l u s i o n f r o m women w i l l n o t be a n a d d e d  worked d i r e c t l y w i t h g r o u p s o f boys r e p r e s e n t s  taking  where  when he e v e n t u a l l y r e t u r n s t o t h e community. The  venture  prevents  o f women i n programme t h e  b o y s ' i n t e r e s t s a n d d r i v e s c a n be a s s i s t e d t o f o c u s tionship,  t o sex  As f a r a s  h o m o s e x u a l i t y i s c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e m o v a l o f boys f r o m t h e o l d e r men brutal  this  successful f i e l d  who were trip,  a total  Two women worked i n t h e V o c a t i o n a l  as a s c h o o l t e a c h e r .  T h r e e women worked  t h e g r o u p - b a s e d programme; one o f t h e women i n t h i s p a r t o f t h e programme training  6  i n social  Block,  Herbert  work.  A., " S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s  o f C o n f i n e m e n t Toward  D e v i a t i o n " , The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l T h e r a p y , V o l . 1, No. 3 , A p r i l  Sexual  1955, p . 112  - 109 The of  interest  field  trip,  made by t h e s t u d e n t g r o u p ,  and s p e c u l a t i o n on t h e p a r t  of the youths.  p r o c e s s r e c o r d o f what t r a n s p i r e d i n one u n i t The from  boys'  enthusiastic  r e a c t i o n to the proposed  to f e a r f u l .  a g g r e s s i v e boys i n t h e group and p l a n s were d i s c u s s e d . They would r e a l l y change o f c l o t h e s , The  group  There  visit  went t h e f u l l  c l e a n bedspreads,  took charge.  He c a l l e d  A number  Requests  as much money as p o s s i b l e .  On t h e day t h e f i e l d  and t h e b o y s were " s p i c and s p a n " .  cards,  c h e c k e r s , monopoly and t h e l i k e ,  placed  a generous  boys attempted the u n i t ;  bowl o f c a n d y .  to r e l i e v e  " a t our b e s t " .  T h i s was  trip  later  could afford  were s u b m i t t e d .  There  they agreed  was t o o c c u r , t h e u n i t  on was  Two t a b l e s , f o r s u c h games a s  were s e t o u t .  On e a c h  table  was  The t e n s i o n was c o n s i d e r a b l e , and many  t h e i r m o u n t i n g a n x i e t i e s by w a l k i n g up and down  w h i l e some a s k e d i f t h e y l o o k e d okay; o t h e r s wondered i f t h e u n i t  l o o k e d okay*  A number  o f b o y s were c o n c e r n e d  a t what t h e y s h o u l d do i f t h e y  met someone t h e y knew on t h e " o u t s i d e " ; o t h e r s a s k e d when t h e y a r r i v e d ,  and many seemed t o f o r g e t  c o n c e r n i n g c a r d , c h e c k e r , monopoly and t a b l e i n t e n t i o n s o f dancing with the g i r l s * desirability to  meeting,  and a few e x t r a t o p l a c e o v e r t h e t a b l e s *  was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n c e r n o v e r what t h e y s h o u l d buy; f i n a l l y ,  spotless,  -  o f boys asked f o r a c l e a n  t o t a k e money o u t o f p e r s o n a l a c c o u n t s  p u r c h a s i n g some c a n d y .  range  a unit  c h a n g e d by t h e boys t o a maximum o f 25 c e n t s f r o m a l l t h o s e who it*  group  down, one o f t h e more  was a g r e a t d e s i r e t o a p p e a r  c l e a n up t h e u n i t .  decided to c o l l e c t  Here i s a  group.  Once t h e y h a d s e t t l e d literally  created a great deal  o f such a v i s i t ;  see what an ''inmate"  maybe,  looked l i k e .  Others  what t h e y s h o u l d do  a l l t h e p l a n s t h e y h a d made t e n n i s games, a s w e l l as t h e i r e x p r e s s e d doubt  as t o t h e  t h e U.B.C. s t u d e n t s were j u s t c u r i o u s T h e i r s p e c u l a t i o n s were  interrupted  - 110 when one for  a final  beds. had  boy  announced:  "They're  here!"  l o o k i n t h e m i r r o r : some went i n t o  F i v e men  and  five  assumed t h e r o l e  t o boys and  o f p l a n n e r , now  cells  became t h e h o s t .  t o a game.  cocoa  and  i n s e r v i n g the guests  students l e f t , Others  hours  t a l k e d about  cake was  was  t h e r e seemed t o be  that  The  who invited  talked  copper-  a number o f out  of  their  i n the  once a g a i n  t a k e n by t h e g r o u p h o s t .  t h a t had  were  Some j u s t  the students spent s e r v e d , and  their  boy  as l e a t h e r w o r k ,  a great deal of r e l i e f  the g i r l s  bathroom  l a y on  Students  Some boys d i d n o t v e n t u r e  d u r i n g t h e whole o f t h e two  Before the students l e f t ,  boys.  a boy  the  and  G r a d u a l l y , as t h e e v e n i n g p r o g r e s s e d ,  t h e women f o r a d a n c e .  initiative  cells  i n the u n i t .  were shown o b j e c t s o f hobby work s u c h  or woodcraft.  boys asked  their  women s t u d e n t s a r r i v e d  t o t a k e p a r t i n a game, o r t h e y i n v i t e d  tooling,  Some b o y s went i n t o  the  After  the  on t h e p a r t o f some  been i n the u n i t .  The m a j o r i t y  o f t h e boys wanted t o know when t h e s t u d e n t s would r e t u r n f o r a n o t h e r In. a s t a f f m e e t i n g , opinion that seemed l o s t place  such and  f o l l o w i n g the f i r s t  a visit  just  appeared  visit,  the  The  f o r others,  d a n c i n g t h a t had  i n a number o f u n i t s r e v e a l e d t h a t many b o y s d i d n ' t know how F o l l o w i n g the f i r s t  such v i s i t s  were u n d e r t a k e n ,  j u s t mentioned.  After  C r i m i n o l o g y c o u r s e , and  activity  visits  when t h i s  to  of visit  i n Criminology at U.B.C, the  s t u d e n t s were h e l d , and much more joint  The  thorough  p l a n n i n g s e s s i o n s p o i n t e d out  s t u d e n t g r o u p s t o come p r e p a r e d t o i n i t i a t e  seemed n e c e s s a r y .  dance.  c o n t i n u e d over a p e r i o d o f t h r e e months.  F o r example,. t h e s e  the need f o r v i s i t i n g  taken  s t u d e n t s f r o m U . B . C , a number  were i n a u g u r a t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  field  the  they  which f o l l o w e d a s i m i l a r p a t t e r n to t h e  between s t a f f members and  planning resulted.  by  d i s c u s s i o n s with the l e c t u r e r  a s e r i e s : o f weekly v i s i t s  Meetings  visit  visit.  counsellors expressed  good f o r some b o y s ;  d i d n ' t know what t o do.  unit.  some  s t u d e n t group c o u l d t h e r e f o r e  - Ill function as resource persons; i n this way, students took the lead i n starting sing-songs, square dances, and various games. A number of students brought i n their own hobby projects, such as photo albums, stamp collections, and record albums.  The student v i s i t s , planned as a university f i e l d t r i p ,  undoubtedly made i t much easier f o r women to move into the unit groups.  As  counsellors; both staff and boys had gotten used to the idea of women, as a part of programme. Weekly v i s i t s by students were continued for a t o t a l of three months.  At each v i s i t , a l l formed into small groups, with each group going,  into one of the units.  However, the f i n a l v i s i t was planned differently,  and many of i t s aspects reflected a more normal community s e t t i n g . and l i b r a r y were set out as places f o r a c t i v i t i e s . possible to dance i n the gym,  The  gym  This would make i t  and i n the l i b r a r y , a number of games were •;•  available such as, table tennis, cards, checkers, etc. After the students arrived, a representative from each group who had been going to the units during the weekly v i s i t s , proceeded to the unit, and accompanied the boys to the gym or l i b r a r y .  Here, the t o t a l Y.O.U. population were free to  wander from one area to. the other, and take part i n whatever a c t i v i t y they «• chose.  Refreshments, such as sandwiches, cakes, celery, pickles, etc. were  brought i n by the students; ice cream, soft drinks, and coffee were provided by the Y.O.U.,-and a l l food was served buffet s t y l e .  * * .  It was pointed out earlier, that during the f i r s t v i s i t made by the students, a large number of boys did not know how to dance. to do something about t h i s .  We decided  Miss Joe Spieer, a social worker, was contacted,  and she, along with s i x other women workers, came out to the Y.O.U. to discuss dancing lessons.  We were not sure how to go about the teaching of  - 112 b a s i c dance s t e p s , b u t , t h a t the group s h o u l d a maximum number.  b e c a u s e boys would p r o b a b l y  be  The  c o u n s e l l o r s were i n f o r m e d  were i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g d a n c i n g  all  six units.  Three major areas  and  "jive",  latin  t h i r t y boys put a b o u t how  much d a n c i n g  n o t i c e a b l e from the who  had  put  the  library  were t o be  dance r o u t i n e s .  t h e i r names on  T h e r e was  much d a n c i n g  o n l y a few  they.were going  and  a  from,  fox  deal of  T h i s was  boys i n the u n i t s .  Gf  t w e l v e boys d e c i d e d  trot, boys,  bragging  particularly  the  thirty  boys  t o come down t o  A record player provided  b o y s who  the  Some boys went ahead and had  as  list  made up  waltz,  a great  t o do.  part i n this a c t i v i t y .  women t o dance; b u t ,  l e s s o n s was the  agreed  a g r e e d on  o f our p l a n s ,  covered!  a p p r o p r i a t e music f o r the t h r e e b a s i c s t e p s . the  i t was  of a t o t a l of seventy-eight  some boys were g o i n g  t h e i r names on t h e l i s t , to take  Qut  the l i s t .  more a g g r e s s i v e  shy,  A t o t a l o f t e n b o y s was  kept s m a l l .  o f a l l b o y s who  and  be  asked  b e e n most v o c a l , a b o u t  t o d o , . c a m e down t o t h e :  library.  Most  how  of-these  b o y s , d e s p i t e some encouragement f r o m t h e  women, r e f u s e d t o d a n c e .  They  sat.  danced.  boys,  and  criticized  the  few  a p p e a r e d most g e n u i n e l y lasted  a b o u t two  dance, with b o y s who It  was  only  as  the  and  obviously f e a r f u l .  Following  indicated,  as  a few  wanted t o l e a r n .  tended to monopolize the The  The  need to f o c u s  i t a p p e a r e d t h a t i t was  was  to dance.  on  session  contact  with  e v a l u a t i o n s e s s i o n was  women; w h i l e  others,  l e s s o n s , as  were  such,  a.matter o f time b e f o r e  s u g g e s t e d by  a  held.  Some b o y s knew s o m e t h i n g  dancing  only  The  i t became j u s t  this first  c o u l d dance would a p p e a r a t a l l . A plan f o r teaching  more p a s s i v e  a c t i v i t y progressed,  participating.  obvious that only  who  and  p r e s u m a b l y wanted t o l e a r n t o d a n c e , an  about d a n c i n g ,  those  g o t up  i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g how  h o u r s , and a few  who  just  • one  o f the  was only  * , , women, w h i c h  - 113 proved  very  successful*  A particular  dance r o u t i n e would be c h o s e n , f o r  example, t h e w a l t z ; b o y s would l i n e . u p b e h i n d boy.  t h e women, one woman t o e a c h  The w a l t z s t e p w o u l d be d e m o n s t r a t e d by each woman, w i t h a b o y  following her.  Once t h e g r o u p h a d gone t h e l e n g t h o f t h e room, each b o y  would p r a c t i c e w i t h h i s p a r t n e r on t h e r e t u r n . could, i n this cover  way, be r e p e a t e d  the waltz, the f o x t r o t ,  proved  t o be v e r y  effective.  a s o f t e n as p r o v e d "jive",  and l a t i n  At the f i r s t  mannerisms o f c e r t a i n b o y s when d a n c i n g ;  over  a n d so o n , t o  dance r o u t i n e s .  attitudes,  f o r example, t h e way t o h o l d a  aspects  o f dancing,  c o u l d now be d e a l t w i t h .  a s i x week p e r i o d , a n d a t o t a l  T h i s method  way o f d e a l i n g w i t h a number o f  how t o a s k a woman f o r a dance, a n d so o n .  method.just d e s c r i b e d , a l l o f these t o do w i t h  necessary,  s e s s i o n h e l d , t h e r e had n o t been  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e r o u t i n e , an e f f e c t i v e  woman when d a n c i n g ;  Each b a s i c dance r o u t i n e  of forty  With t h e  w h i c h h a v e s o much  D a n c i n g l e s s o n s now c o n t i n u e d  different  b o y s were g i v e n  dance  instruction. All  teenagers  members o f t h e o p p o s i t e such r e l a t i o n s h i p  need o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s s e x , a n d t h e most i m p o r t a n t  i s dancing.  activity  that  facilitates  In. t h e Y.O.U. t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f boys  d i d n ' t know how t o d a n c e , a n d t h e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t were p r o v i d e d , very l i m i t e d , is  necessary.  suggested  a much g r e a t e r d e v e l o p m e n t i n t h i s  F u r t h e r m o r e , many boys have u n r e s o l v e d  own m o t h e r s , and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o h e l p them w i t h s u c h be p r o v i d e d  through  with  the inclusion  a r e a o f programme,  conflicts conflicts,  o f women i n programme.-  though  with  their  can only  W h i l e t h e Y.O.U.  d i d , f o r a p e r i o d o f t i m e , \ h a v e women c o u n s e l l o r s w i t h t h e u n i t g r o u p s ; t h e more i n f o r m a l a c t i v i t i e s , an i m p o r t a n t  contrast.  when t h e s t u d e n t  group v i s i t e d  the unit,  provided  The women i n t h i s g r o u p , were f r o m t h e o u t s i d e ;  - 114 therefore,  t h e y were n o t  women o f t h e distance, informal A  student group i n c o n v e r s a t i o n ,  p o s s i b l y w o n d e r i n g i f i t was activities  considerably  s u c h as  authority figures.  the  provide  while others  !'safe" t o  Y.O.U., i s v i t a l l y  necessary.  The  as  well  the  boys.  The  a t t i t u d e s of  looked  Such  so.  to get  Some b o y s b e l i e v e d  women i n a j a i l .  i t was  Some f e l t  S t a f f can  Others i d e n t i f i e d  cooks.  In  okay; b u t ,  Some b o y s f e l t  that  women a r e  around they had  a greater  desire  t h e y were more c a r e f u l o f t h e i r  there  were some t h i n g s  you  t o be  appearance.  would t a l k t o  survey  with family,  or g i r l f r i e n d ,  T h e s e same b o y s f e l t  t h e y would t a l k t o men  said that  "personal  a b o u t . j o b s , and  (father) gives The  you  practical  following  advice  excerpts,  worked w i t h u n i t g r o u p s a t t h e possible help  to boys.  can on  go  to f o r advice,  jobs,  work, and  from p r o c e s s r e c o r d s  Y.O.U., g i v e  Soon a f t e r one  w r i t t e n by  was  worker  like.  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e  woman c o u n s e l l o r  that  (mother),  w h i l e male  the  swear;  work a n d . t h e  who  you  when  problems".  as  who  was  personal  T h e r e . i s e v i d e n c e h e r e o f boys a s s o c i a t i n g a woman worker and  not  Some b o y s b e l i e v e d  like.-  understands,  school  from boys  a g e n t l e m a n , and  and  the  find  nurses,  a woman a b o u t , s u c h as  m a t t e r s h a v i n g t o do  that  girlfriends.  s p e a k f o r a l l b o y s , and  also,  o f women  i t made them  more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n  they could  use  t h e y were s u r p r i s e d t o  t h a t i t wasn't a good i d e a ,  some c a s e s ,  the  c o n c e r n i n g women w o r k i n g a t  c e r t a i n r o l e s as o k a y f o r women, s u c h as  possible.  one  a  relatively  informal  1  or  from  provide.resistance,  do s " h a r d time' ; i t r e m i n d e d them o f t h e i r m o t h e r s , o r t h e i r  teachers,  on  the  t o know women.  r e s i s t a n c e to  some b o y s i n an  made, d i s c l o s e d a v a r i e t y o f o p i n i o n s  Y.O.U.  engaged  expanded number o f women w o r k i n g i n c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  such a s e t t i n g , however, i s c o n s i d e r a b l e .  was  do  excellent opportunities  in  as  Some b o y s e a g e r l y  women areas  assigned  to  who of work  - 115 in  a u n i t , she commented  that:  J o s e p h was v e r y n e g a t i v e when c o u n s e l l o r i n f o r m e d t h e g r o u p s h e would be t h e r e g u l a r c o u n s e l l o r i n t h e u n i t . He became l e s s h o s t i l e when we t a l k e d a b o u t i t f u r t h e r ; however, w i t h r a t h e r d i r e f o r e b o d i n g , he s a i d : I t changes a u n i t when a woman i s on, and g r a v e l y s h o o k h i s h e a d . Following not  discuss  women.  t h i s , J o s e p h r e q u e s t e d a move t o a n o t h e r u n i t .  h i s r e a s o n s f o r making t h e r e q u e s t ,  H i s request  t o have a woman c o u n s e l l o r  opportunities  e x c e p t t o s a y he d i d n ' t  like  t o move was g r a n t e d .  A number o f b o y s were a b l e like  He would  for helping  to discuss  i n their unit.  t h e i r r e a s o n s why t h e y Such d i s c u s s i o n s  didn't  can provide  boys.  A f t e r a long conversation with Harry concerning h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s women, he was u n a b l e t o go any f u r t h e r t h a n t o s a y t h a t h e was a l w a y s I n t r o u b l e a t B r a n n o n L a k e , and he f e l t t h a t t h i s was c a u s e d b y women. L a r r y , i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n on women c o u n s e l l o r s t o n i g h t , s a i d he f e l t a l l women were c u n n i n g , s c h e m i n g , a n d o u t t o g e t a man's money. Subsequent r e c o r d s c o n c e r n on t h e p a r t  by women c o u n s e l l o r ' s , r e p o r t  o f some b o y s i n u n i t  other  areas o f  groups.  A number o f b o y s t o n i g h t i n o u r d i s c u s s i o n , were v e r y e a g e r t o l e a r n t h e f u n c t i o n o f women c o u n s e l l o r s a t t h e Y.O.U. Many b o y s f e l t i t was okay t o have o l d e r women i n t h e u n i t , b u t n o t y o u n g e r women. T h i s , i t was b e l i e v e d , would be " t o o t e m p t i n g " f o r them, a n d i t would make them do " r o u g h t i m e " . They a l s o . s a i d t h a t women c o u n s e l l o r s s h o u l d n o t walk up t o t h e m a i n gym w i t h a u n i t group because " f e l l o w s i n O a k a l l a l a u g h a t u s " . Some b o y s f o r m a s t r o n g if  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h women, and become u p s e t  t h e y b e l i e v e a woman c o u n s e l l o r ' s p l a c e m e n t i n a g r o u p may o n l y be t e m p o r a r y . P e t e r was q u i t e u p s e t w h i l e c o u n s e l l o r was i n t h e k i t c h e n t o n i g h t and M r . K. r e l i e v e d i n t h e u n i t . When s h e r e t u r n e d he wanted t o know why t h a t man was h e r e ? A r e y o u g o i n g t o be o u t o f t h i s u n i t ? C o u n s e l l o r e x p l a i n e d t h a t s h e was n o t b e i n g moved o u t ; s h e h a d j u s t been d o i n g t h e u s u a l t o u r o f duty i n t h e k i t c h e n . Increasingly  one  as a u n i t grants  a c c e p t a n c e t o a woman  o f t h e most i m p o r t a n t r o l e ' s she p l a y s  i s i n g i v i n g help  counsellor, t o boys i n  - 116 t h e i r psycho-sexual  development.  T o n i g h t about h a l f t h e g r o u p were s e a t e d w i t h t h e worker a t one end o f t h e u n i t , and t h e d i s c u s s i o n r a n g e d o v e r a wide f i e l d , and i n c l u d e d l o v e , m a r r i a g e , h a v i n g c h i l d r e n , as w e l l as m a s t u r b a t i o n , and h o m o s e x u a l i t y . They f o u n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s a t t i m e s , and needed a g r e a t d e a l o f s u p p o r t . Most o f t h e b o y s were c o n c e r n e d about how d i f f i c u l t i t would be t o f i n d a d e c e n t g i r l b e c a u s e o f t h e i r p a s t . The worker s a i d i t would be d i f f i c u l t , and t h a t t h e y would have t o p r o v e t h e m s e l v e s . She t o l d them t h a t t h e i m p o r t a n t t h i n g was what t h e y d i d w i t h t h e i r l i v e s f r o m now on; t h a t t h e i r d i f f i c u l t i e s and p a s t e x p e r i e n c e , c o u l d , i f t h e y l e a r n e d f r o m them, make them b e t t e r , more w o r t h w h i l e p e r s o n s t h a n t h e y m i g h t o t h e r w i s e have b e e n . Garl a s k e d i f I w o u l d l e t my d a u g h t e r go o u t w i t h them. I r e p l i e d t h a t i t would depend on how t h e y b e h a v e d , and i f t h e y t r e a t e d my d a u g h t e r w i t h t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n I ' d e x p e c t o f any man. The d i s c u s s i o n f o l l o w e d t h i s p a t t e r n with the boys t e l l i n g the worker how t i m e s have changed s i n c e she was a t e e n a g e r .  CHAPTER VI CONTRIBUTIONS AND POSSIBILITIES Throughout t h i s study, the focus has been on the s o c i a l  relation-  s h i p o f the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r .  The gang, which i s important to a l l a d o l e s -  c e n t s , i s o f s p e c i a l importance  to a d o l e s c e n t s because they f e e l i n s e c u r e  and who a r e deprived i n many ways.  The gang, by p r o v i d i n g group s o l i d a r i t y ,  to i t s members, b o l s t e r s t h e i r egos and g i v e s them a measure of s e c u r i t y . Gang a s s o c i a t i o n s , which r e s u l t i n a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour, i s o l a t e members of the gang from s o c i e t y .  I n t h i s way, deprived members are f u r t h e r de-  p r i v e d , and the r e s u l t s show up i n poor s c h o o l performance, l a c k o f v o c a t i o n a l g o a l s , poor work performance, d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h the lav/, a r r e s t and p r o b a t i o n , . prison  sentences. ' What c o n t r i b u t i o n can group work make to a l l these b u i l t - i n  C l e a r l y i t cannot hope to meet a l l the needs of d e p r i v e d youngsters.  handicaps? Never-  t h e l e s s , the a d o l e s c e n t youth, once he i s i n an i n s t i t u t i o n , seeks out a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s , somehow.  I t i s the task of the group v/orker to understand  the dynamics o f such a s s o c i a t i o n s , and through the a p p l i c a t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e methods, to e f f e c t the p u r p o s e f u l s t r u c t u r i n g of s m a l l groups so t h a t "warmth begins to f l o w i n s t e a d o f hatred"."''  Working d i r e c t l y v/ith small groupings,  a v/orker i s s t r a t e g i c a l l y placed to p l a y a number of h e l p f u l r o l e s .  I h i s may  i n v o l v e help i n l e a r n i n g to l i v e and share w i t h o t h e r s ; o r , help i n g a i n i n g a g r e a t e r f e e l i n g o f adequacy through p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s of v a r i o u s kinds.  F e a r s , resentments,,and h o s t i l i t i e s are v e n t i l a t e d i n the group l i v i n g  environment.  Furthermore,' boys not o n l y experience the support of the v/orker  1 Knopka, G., Group Work i n the I n s t i t u t i o n , W h i t e s i d e , I n c . , and W i l l i a m Morrow & Company, New York, 1954; p. 288.  - 118  -  d i r e c t l y , but experience the worker's support of other boys as w e l l . t h i s way,  In  a number of areas are made a v a i l a b l e to the i n d i v i d u a l , which  helps him i n m o d i f y i n g h i s behaviour.  A  s  the needs of members are r e v e a l e d  he can h e l p the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r to use a v a i l a b l e i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s . In  t h i s p r o c e s s , the y o u t h f u l offender i d e n t i f i e s w i t h a worker; and  worker h e l p s the youth to move to c o n s t r u c t i v e " s o c i a l i z a t i o n " — someone who  to being  f e e l s he has a p l a c e and a p a r t i n the community, r a t h e r than  being i s o l a t e d from i t . offender.  the  This i s a very d i f f i c u l t task f o r the y o u t h f u l  On the other hand, i n .helping him, a worker performs one of the  most d i f f i c u l t s e r v i c e any s o c i a l worker has to undertake. worker must d e a l d i r e c t l y w i t h a l l a s p e c t s of the youth's  A correctional former l i f e i n  the community,, h i s p r e s e n t l i f e at the i n s t i t u t i o n , and h i s l i f e i n the f u t u r e when he i s r e l e a s e d .  The p r e s s u r e on the worker to provide  "the  answers" can be very g r e a t ; yet he knows that the answers must come u l t i mately from the boy h i m s e l f , whatever h e l p the worker and others can g i v e him.  The worker needs a great amount o f understanding so that some of the  pent-up b i t t e r n e s s , f e a r s , and h o s t i l i t i e s are expressed; a l s o , so t h a t a c c u s a t i o n s and d i s t o r t i o n s have a chance to be seen a g a i n s t a growing awareness o f r e a l i t y . G e n e r a l l y , the b i t t e r n e s s , f e a r s and h o s t i l i t i e s , and the accusat i o n s and d i s t o r t i o n s of the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r are p r o j e c t e d on to four main areas: (4)  (l)  Society.  The t o t a l environment.  (2).  The u n i t group.  A few t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e s w i l l e x p l a i n these  (3)  The  staff.  further.  Don says t h a t he can't stand b e i n g locked i n h i s c e l l at n i g h t ; that sometimes, he " f e e l s l i k e he w i l l choke". l o c k s bothered him f o r a l o n g time:  He says t h a t the bars  and  "No .matter how you l o o k at i t , t h i s  p l a c e i s j u s t a j a i l ; l o o k at a l l the c o n c r e t e and  steel."  - 119 Ted d i s l i k e s h i s c o u n s e l l o r .  "He's always h o l l e r i n g a t me, and  expects me to jump when he t e l l s me to do something."  Ted f e e l s that, some  days, you can joke and " k i d " w i t h the c o u n s e l l o r ; b u t , o t h e r days, he a c t s l i k e a policeman.  " I never know where I stand v/ith him."  P e t e r f i n d s i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to spend s i x hours or so w i t h a group o f o t h e r boys i n a u n i t . "Why do I have to do another guy's time? When I'm on the s t r e e t , I don't have to take a vote i f I want to do somet h i n g ; I j u s t go ahead and do i t . " "You expect me to r e h a b i l i t a t e myself? How can I , when I have to l i v e w i t h a bunch o f bugs?" J a c k says he has no p l a c e to go when he i s r e l e a s e d . l i v e a t home, even i f the o l d man asked me - and he won't." to see the o l d man.or the o l d l a d y a g a i n . to my t r i a l . "  " I never want  They d i d n ' t even bother to come  "I've been w i t h the w e l f a r e f o r three y e a r s ; but I haven't  seen my worker s i n c e I've been here.  How do they expect me to go s t r a i g h t  i f they don't care what happens to me?" cerned about f i n d i n g work. mechanics;  " I wouldn't  ^ h i s p a r t i c u l a r boy i s a l s o con-  He has developed some u s e f u l s k i l l s i n motor  b u t , he i s a t a l o s s to know how to put t h i s s k i l l  body wants to h i r e a ' j a i l b i r d ' .  to use. "No-  I f I don't get a j o b , and I have n o t h i n g  to do, I ' l l j u s t d r i f t back to the o l d gang a g a i n ; maybe, the best t h i n g to do i s to go up-country and l i v e by myself, somehow." A c o u n s e l l o r working w i t h a u n i t group cannot a v o i d encountering these a t t i t u d e s and r e a c t i o n s . under such circumstances?  How e f f e c t i v e can group work s e r v i c e s be.  I n p a r t i c u l a r , what i s the proper c o n c l u s i o n to  be drawn about the Y.O.U., where these were experimented v/ith f o r e i g h t y e a r s ? What might be done to make such a s e r v i c e more g e n e r a l l y a v a i l a b l e and more effective?  sr-  120 -  The S e t t i n g Dr. P.A.H. Baan, f o r e n s i c p s y c h i a t r i s t from U t r e c h t , H o l l a n d , speaking a t the Canadian Congress o f C o r r e c t i o n s i n Vancouver a t the end of May, 1959,  was emphatic i n p o i n t i n g out t h a t r e c i d i v a t i n g c r i m i n a l s are  not normal persons.  I n H o l l a n d , a c c o r d i n g l y , the term " d i m i n i s h e d  respon-  2 sibility" audience  i s a p p l i e d to t h i s group o f o f f e n d e r s .  Dr. Baan reminded h i s  t h a t , "due to good p a r e n t s , good environmental  c i r c u m s t a n c e s , good  s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s " , i t was "normal people" who were seated i n t h i s a u d i torium l i s t e n i n g to him.  However, "there i s the c r i m i n a l " , s a i d Dr. Baan,  and he asked: Should we c l u t c h them? I t h i n k the b a s i s o f our c u l t u r e i s a C h r i s t i a n b a s i s . • Other r e l i g i o n s a l s o have as t h e i r b a s i s t h a t you should not c l u t c h ; that you should open your arms to meet these people v/ho are on the other s i d e , not b y - c l u t c h i n g , g r a s p i n g , s e i z i n g , c a t c h i n g , but by having them i n a community, i n a k i n d o f p s y c h o t h e r a p e u t i c community. I don't b e l i e v e we need a p r i s o n . 3 The m a j o r i t y o f boys a t the Y.O.U. would c e r t a i n l y approximate a state of "diminished r e s p o n s i b i l i t y " or, l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The major-  i t y of boys a t the Y.O.U. have been r e c i d i v i s t s f o r a' number o f y e a r s . a g g r e s s i v e boy,  The  furthermore, f e e l s he c o u l d n ' t a v o i d doing what he d i d ; he  blames others f o r h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s .  The more p a s s i v e boy f e e l s t h a t he i s  the v i c t i m o f o t h e r s , u s u a l l y the more a g g r e s s i v e boys; they were respons i b l e ; he d i d n ' t know what was going on.  I n between these two extremes,  there were a few boys a t Y.O.U. who could be c o n s i d e r e d "normal". a very d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e .  They had  They f e l t they had done "wrong", and they q u i t e  2 This term i s a p p l i e d to a group o f o f f e n d e r s v/ho commit a c t s impuls i v e l y , r a t h e r than knowing what i s r i g h t and wrong. 3 Baan, P.A.H., "What K i n g o f P r i s o n s Do We Need?" An unpublished paper g i v e n a t the Canadian Congress o f C o r r e c t i o n s , May, 1959, Vancouver, B. C.  - 121 emphatically stated:  "never a g a i n " ,  ^ o r t h i s group o f "normal" o f f e n d e r s  Dr. Baan recommended t h a t : Normal people don't need p r i s o n s . They are punished enough by the d e t e c t i o n . v/arning s u f f i c e s many; a c o n d i t i o n a l sentence i s s u f f i c i e n t f o r o t h e r s . 4 A  The Y.O.U. s e t t i n g v/ith c e l l s , b a r s , and concrete " c l u t c h i n g " , "grabbing",  w a l l s suggests t h i s  and " s e i z i n g " a s p e c t that Dr. Baan t a l k e d about.  Furthermore, the youth i s i s o l a t e d from the community i n such a s e t t i n g ; h i s i s o l a t i o n i s even more complete from the presence o f armed guards i n the immediate area o f O a k a l l a .  T h i s , i n e f f e c t , helps to m a i n t a i n  the v/idespread  a t t i t u d e o f s o c i e t y t h a t the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r should be kept "out o f s i g h t , and out o f mind".  This a t t i t u d e , and the e f f e c t on youths c o n s t i t u t e s , i n the  w r i t e r ' s ovpinion, an almost insurmountable b a r r i e r to an e f f e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t a t i o n programme, no matter how s k i l l f u l l y conceived  i t might be.  A d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f s e t t i n g i s needed to what i s i n e x i s t e n c e a t the present  time, and i t must be a s m a l l s e t t i n g .  of Y.O.U. brought out here a r e a p p a r e n t l y of 1959,  I n any case the l e s s o n s  not y e t taken to h e a r t .  I n October  the Y.O.U. was c l o s e d , and the Department o f C o r r e c t i o n s decided  a l l o f the boys a t Y.O.U. c o u l d be sent to Haney.  that  Following this decision,  the 69 youths a t the Y.O.U. were seen by C e n t r a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a t O a k a l l a , and 35 boys were c l a s s i f i e d as " s u i t a b l e f o r t r a i n i n g " a t Haney. i n g 34 boys had to be absorbed i n the g e n e r a l O a k a l l a p o p u l a t i o n . as workable o r a p p r o p r i a t e as i t sounds?  Baan, P.A.H.  ibid.  Is this  Four months f o l l o w i n g t h e i r p l a c e -  ment a t Haney, f i v e boys have been r e t u r n e d 4  The remain-  to O a k a l l a , and the reasons g i v e n  - 122 i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g : associated."  " P o s s i b l e homosexuality  - a t l e a s t a l l problems  " I s an o u t c a s t , .ideas on sex abnormal, comes under a t t a c k  from other inmates, and t h e r e f o r e cannot p a r t i c i p a t e i n programme." w i t h others and has negative i n f l u e n c e - no c o n s c i e n c e . " of programme, h o s t i l e and negative i n f l u e n c e . " d r i v e , negative a t t i t u d e and i n f l u e n c e . "  "Fights  "Beyond the scope  " F i g h t s w i t h o t h e r s ; no  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t  these  boys would have to be returned; because, i n the t y p i c a l l y l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n , the problems presented by such i n d i v i d u a l s do not come to a  person-to-person  contact i n a group s i t u a t i o n , which would r e v e a l the s p e c i f i c nature o f the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l problem. What i s needed, i s a much more open s e t t i n g ; b u i l t o f m a t e r i a l s t h a t do not convey the i s o l a t i n g f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t e e l and concrete, and which makes p o s s i b l e the use o f groupings f o r t h e r a p e u t i c purposes.-  Such  an i n s t i t u t i o n should not be c o n s t r u c t e d f a r from c e n t r e s o f p o p u l a t i o n . not o n l y makes i t d i f f i c u l t to r e c r u i t s t a f f persons; i t perpetuates  This  as a n a t u r a l consequence,  t h i s "out o f s i g h t , out o f mind" m e n t a l i t y .  Youthful  offenders  grow up i n the community, become "problems" i n the community, and must event u a l l y r e t u r n to the community; p a r t o f the s o l u t i o n i n v o l v e s as c l o s e a cont a c t w i t h the community as p o s s i b l e .  I t was the v e r d i c t o f experience  a t the  Y.O.U., however, that many boys need to be p r o t e c t e d from t h e i r own impulses to escape.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true d u r i n g the i n i t i a l stages i n the rehab-  i l i t a t i v e process, as w e l l as a t c e r t a i n periods o f s t r e s s i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s that a boy may be e x p e r i e n c i n g from w i t h i n , and without  the Y.O.U.^  5 F o r a more d e t a i l e d account o f such f a c t o r s , see: L o v i n g , W.S.; Stockw e l l , F.E.; Dobbins, D.A., " F a c t o r s A s s o c i a t e d w i t h Escape Behaviour o f P r i s o n Inmates," F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , September 1959, pp. 49-51.  - 123 I t would be necessary, t h e r e f o r e ,  to p r o v i d e f o r g r e a t e r  s e c t i o n of an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s ; to a c o n s i d e r a b l e ness" i n any  but,  degree by c l o s e supervision of s t a f f .  security i n a  t h i s can be achieved The  degree of "open-  c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l depends, to a l a r g e extent,  p u b l i c ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to support such a v e n t u r e .  on  the  However, from what we know  of the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r ' s needs, the p r o t e c t i o n of boys, from an impulse to run away, should come from s t a f f — bars and  concrete —  human resources; r a t h e r  m a t e r i a l resources.  than from i r o n  I t i s from human beings that boys  must e v e n t u a l l y l e a r n to accept l i m i t a t i o n s . i  Staff  The Y.O.U., from i t s b e g i n n i n g had r e c r u i t i n g trained s t a f f . tutions.  This i s a problem shared by a l l correctiona.1  For a l o n g time, p u b l i c and  youthful offender,  has  a great d e a l of d i f f i c u l t y i n insti-  government i n d i f f e r e n c e towards the  r e s u l t e d i n lov; s a l a r i e s and u n a t t r a c t i v e working con-  d i t i o n s f o r s t a f f ; as a consequence a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n i s i n a very u n f a v o u r a b l e p o s i t i o n i n a t t e m p t i n g to r e c r u i t a share of the s o c i a l workers a v a i l a b l e , who  are always i n great demand.  Departments of c o r r e c t i o n s ,  have o f t e n f a i l e d to p r o v i d e dynamic l e a d e r s h i p  who  i n s o l v i n g the problem of a  shortage of t r a i n e d s t a f f , must bear a good part of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s i t u a t i o n that has  e x i s t e d , and s t i l l e x i s t s .  The p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l work  must a l s o bear p a r t of t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , f o r i t has, i g n o r e d the f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n s .  the  to a l a r g e  extent,  A number of w r i t e r s ^ have p o i n t e d  to  the  misunderstandings over what the s o c i a l worker ought to do i n c o r r e c t i o n s ; whether s o c i a l work can be p r a c t i c e d i n an " a u t h o r i t y s e t t i n g " ; a c c u s a t i o n s 6 See Studt, S., "The C o n t r i b u t i o n of C o r r e c t i o n a l P r a c t i c e to S o c i a l Work Theory and E d u c a t i o n " , S o c i a l Casework, June 1956. A l s o , Johnson, K.D., "The Role of S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n i n P r e p a r i n g P e r s o n n e l f o r the C o r r e c t i o n s F i e l d " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , Sept. 1958, pp. 54-58.  - 124  -  on the p a r t of employers that d i a g n o s t i c and  treatment procedures, suggested  by s o c i a l workers, were " i d e a l i s t i c " , " m o l l y c o d d l i n g " , and would r e s u l t i n "chaos" i f put i n t o p r a c t i c e .  Such misunderstandings have not always e x i s t e d .  For example, E l l i o t Studt's comments c o n c e r n i n g  t h i s problem i n the U.S.  are  pertinent. I t i s important to remember that t h i s sense of d i f f e r e n c e and c o n f l i c t between s o c i a l work and c o r r e c t i o n s i n the U n i t e d States d i d not begin to be expressed i n w r i t i n g u n t i l the 1920's. Up u n t i l that time c o r r e c t i o n s were c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t of the main stream of s o c i a l work. 7 Studt goes on to s t a t e that " p r i s o n reform and c o r r e c t i o n a l casework 8 found a major, place i n the c u r r i c u l a of the f i r s t s c h o o l of s o c i a l work." Recently,  there has been a renev/ed i n t e r e s t i n the f i e l d of c o r r e c t i o n s by  schools of s o c i a l work and s o c i a l workers a l i k e . One w r i t e r s t a t e s t h a t : C o r r e c t i o n s must be r e s t o r e d to s o c i a l v/ork, both because i t i s an important aspect of the p r o f e s s i o n s s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , which has been ignored i n recent y e a r s , and because i t can be a source of c o n s i d e r a b l e s t r e n g t h to s o c i a l work. 9 1  I n " r e s t o r i n g c o r r e c t i o n s to s o c i a l work", one of the fundamental problems f a c i n g workers i s how  to i n t e g r a t e a s e r v i c e , whether casework or  group work, so t h a t i s e f f e c t i v e .  In t h e - m a j o r i t y of i n s t i t u t i o n s , s o c i a l  work remains i s o l a t e d from the whole; w i t h the r e s u l t , that an ever widening s p l i t develops between the treatment f u n c t i o n of a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n , which are i n process of development, and  the c u s t o d i a l f u n c t i o n s of the  i n s t i t u t i o n , which are i t s t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s .  How  d i d the Y.O.U. a v o i d  such a s i t u a t i o n ? 7 S t u d t , E., "'Casework i n the C o r r e c t i o n a l F i e l d " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , September, 1954, p. 20. 8 S t u d t , E., i b i d . p. 20 9 Johnson, K.D., "The Role of S o c i a l Work Education in- P r e p a r i n g P e r s o n n e l f o r the C o r r e c t i o n s F i e l d " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , September 1956, p. 55.  - 125 The Y.O.U. developed under the d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f a Warden who i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker.  I n order  to e f f e c t the i n t e -  g r a t i o n o f treatment and c u s t o d i a l f u n c t i o n s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s o f the Y.O.U. v/as s e t up on a d u a l b a s i s .  That i s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the Y.O.U. v/as  shared by a s t a f f member t r a i n e d i n s o c i a l work and a s t a f f member whose background was c u s t o d i a l . designated  The s t a f f member t r a i n e d i n s o c i a l work v/as  as the s e n i o r member who c o u l d o v e r r u l e  the c u s t o d i a l s t a f f member;  but, i n a c t u a l p r a c t i c e , disagreements over p o l i c y were r e f e r r e d to the Warden for  f i n a l decision.  based programme. counterpart,  A s i m i l a r dual a d m i n i s t r a t i o n was s e t up f o r the group-  The worker i n charge of t h i s programme had a c u s t o d i a l  and both s t a f f members concerned themselves w i t h the o p e r a t i o n  of the group-based programme.  As i n the top a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a t Y.O.U., the  worker i n charge o f group-based programme v/as designated v/hile he could o v e r r u l e h i s c u s t o d i a l c o u n t e r p a r t ,  as the s e n i o r person;  i n actual practice, dis-  agreements were r e f e r r e d to the Y.O.U. a.dministra.tion f o r f i n a l d e c i s i o n . With such a dual a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , the d i f f i c u l t problems that a r i s e i n the day to day o p e r a t i o n o f the i n s t i t u t i o n , the establishment of p o l i c y , e t c . , i n c r e a s i n g l y r e f l e c t both s o c i a l work and c u s t o d i a l t h i n k i n g , because they a r e j o i n t p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s .  This i s sound group work p r a c t i c e ,  since i t recognizes  that the best chance of r e s o l v i n g problems i s by being  d i r e c t l y involved.  This i s i n c o n t r a s t to what o f t e n occurs i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l  i n s t i t u t i o n , where s o c i a l workers make suggestions,  and propose c e r t a i n  changes, v/ithout h a v i n g the a u t h o r i t y to put these suggestions and proposals i n t o p r a c t i c e , o r f o r that m a t t e r , h a v i n g to bear some of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y if  things go wrong. .Mistakes are made, and some can be s e r i o u s m i s t a k e s ,  which r e s u l t i n escapes.  The study e a r l i e r mentioned an escape which v/as  - 126 made by four boys, as a r e s u l t o f an e r r o r i n judgment on the p a r t o f the workers a t the Y.O.U.  However, due to the.support given by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  a t O a k a l l a , such a mistake r e s u l t e d i n g a i n i n g experience, mistake that c o u l d have ended a group work experiment.  r a t h e r than a  Following.such  mis-  takes, c u s t o d i a l o r i e n t a t e d groups o f s t a f f members and socia.l v/ork o r i e n t e d groups, can behave i n a manner which i s l a r g e l y d e f e n s i v e , as each group The group v/orker i s i n a  attempts to b o l s t e r i t s own l o s s o f p r e s t i g e . s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n to h e l p , i f he r e c o g n i z e s then g i v e l i m i t e d acceptance, and f i n a l l y ,  t h a t - a l l groups w i l l t e s t ,  will  that h e l p f u l r o l e s v / i l l emerge.  The p o i n t being, however, that t h i s process takes time and cannot be rushed. V/hile the i n t e g r a t i o n o f s o c i a l v/ork and c u s t o d i a l f u n c t i o n s were i n the process o f b e i n g v/orked through a t the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l , couns e l l o r s i n the u n i t s were s t r u g g l i n g w i t h a s i m i l a r problem o f t e s t i n g by t h e i r group, g a i n i n g the acceptance o f t h e i r groups, and s o r t i n g out t h e i r roles.  I n t h i s most d i f f i c u l t task, c o u n s e l l o r s need group v/ork s k i l l s .  Before the l i m i t e d , amount o f t r a i n i n g that was p o s s i b l e took e f f e c t , some c o u n s e l l o r s q u i t ; o t h e r s were helped to leave the Y.O.U. because they v/ere not s u i t e d to the work.  Many mistakes were made.  F o r example, the worker  i n charge o f the group-based programme, o f t e n f a i l e d to a p p r e c i a t e f i c u l t i e s i n some u n i t groups; c o u n s e l l o r s v/ere p l a c e d i n groups sufficient  the d i f without  training. While the o r i g i n a l j o b d e s c r i p t i o n f o r c o u n s e l l o r s , s p e c i f i e d that  t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work was a b a s i c requirement, t h i s had to be modified due to.the i n a b i l i t y to r e c r u i t such s t a f f members. who  C o u n s e l l o r s were r e c r u i t e d  had at l e a s t high school g r a d u a t i o n , who had some experience  i n working  — 127  -  w i t h groups i n the community, and who were i n t e r e s t e d i n t a k i n g f u r t h e r training."^  Since the group-based  programme operated from 3 to 11  p.m.,  a number of s t a f f members took advantage of t h e i r t i m e - o f f d u r i n g the morning  and e a r l y a f t e r n o o n to a t t e n d courses i n the School of S o c i a l V/ork.  s t a f f members proved v a l u a b l e i n h e l p i n g to t r a i n o t h e r s t a f f members.  Such Their  growing experience and knowledge made i t p o s s i b l e , to p l a c e new members of s t a f f i n u n i t groups w i t h them, and thus give new on-the-job. o r i e n t a t i o n .  s t a f f members a p e r i o d of  F o l l o w i n g t h i s p e r i o d of o r i e n t a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l  s t a f f c o n f e r e n c e s , u s i n g group process r e c o r d s , and r e g u l a r . s t a f f provided the b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g i n group v/ork.  meetings,  C a r e f u l placement  a c o u n s e l l o r i n a u n i t , which would not p r e s e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  beyond the  c a p a b i l i t i e s of the c o u n s e l l o r , i s sound i n theory; but, i n p r a c t i c e , i t i s almost i m p o s s i b l e to a c h i e v e . One degree of d i f f i c u l t y  An  s i x u n i t s were i n f a c t v e r y d i f f i c u l t .  a c t u a l l y had much to do v/ith the s k i l l of the  c o u n s e l l o r and how he p e r c e i v e d " d i f f i c u l t i e s " ,  and v/hat he d i d about them.  Process r e c o r d s w r i t t e n by c o u n s e l l o r s i n d i c a t e that group v/ork s k i l l s are necessary i f a measure of acceptance from a u n i t group i s to be achieved; i f a c o u n s e l l o r " i s to proceed f u r t h e r , so t h a t h e l p f u l , t h e r a p e u t i c r o l e s emerge, then group v/ork s k i l l s are e s s e n t i a l .  They can, of course, be taught i n p a r t  by d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of c o u n s e l l o r s by a group worker i n i n d i v i d u a l c o n f e r ences and at s t a f f meetings, and by l e a r n i n g on-the-job through placement new s t a f f w i t h experienced s t a f f .  of  A more thorough-going system of r e c r u i t i n g  and t r a i n i n g s t a f f v/as necessary at the Y.O.U. while f i e l d t r i p s by student  10  See appendix  A.  -128  -  groups i s an e x c e l l e n t method o f a c q u a i n t i n g p o t e n t i a l s t a f f v/ith c o r r e c t i o n s , any i n s t i t u t i o n needs help i n d e v e l o p i n g i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g which ought to be one of the f u n c t i o n s of a c e n t r a l c o r r e c t i o n s department. E l l i o t Studt has suggested  the use o f seminar-type  I n t h i s task  d i s c u s s i o n s g i v e n by a  " f a c u l t y member who i s known to be a thoroughly competent p r a c t i t i o n e r i n the f i e l d . S u c h a person c o u l d serve the needs o f a number o f i n s t i tutions.  This not o n l y would a s s i s t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a p a r t n e r s h i p between  a School o f S o c i a l Work and c o r r e c t i o n s i n s t i t u t i o n s ; b u t , s t a f f members would more e a s i l y i d e n t i f y v/ith such a person, than one who has not had direct field  experience.  For a l o n g time, p u b l i c and governmental i n d i f f e r e n c e towards y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r s , p l u s poor v/orking c o n d i t i o n s and low s a l a r i e s f o r c o r r e c t i o n a l workers, have h i n d e r e d the r e c r u i t m e n t o f s u i t a b l e s t a f f .  An  awakening p u b l i c and more concern on the p a r t o f governments has r e c e n t l y r e s u l t e d i n a p p o i n t i n g a number c f s o c i a l workers i n s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n c o r r e c t i o n s , and t h i s i s an encouraging f o r c o r r e c t i o n a l workers have a l s o i n c r e a s e d . done.  Itis still  trend.  Salary scales  However, much remains to be  the case, as E l l i o t Studt has s t a t e d , t h a t :  With a l l that i s a t stake i n the treatment of young human b e i n g s , there.are o r d i n a r i l y l e s s t r a i n i n g requirements f o r those who are expected to a l t e r the conduct tendencies.of d e l i n q u e n t s than there are f o r those who t r e a t s i c k c a t t l e .  12  Accommodation and F a c i l i t i e s The boys a t the Y.O.U. spent n e a r l y s i x hours together i n a r e l a 11 S t u d t , E., "School Programme f o r C o r r e c t i o n a l P e r s o n n e l " , NPPA J o u r n a l , V o l . 2 No. 3, J u l y 1956, p. 230. 12 S t u d t , E., i b i d . p. 232.  - 129 t i v e l y s m a l l , area.  -  Such l o n g p e r i o d s of time are very demanding f o r boy's  and c o u n s e l l o r s a l i k e .  Whenever a group went o u t s i d e , or went to the l i b -  r a r y a r e a , or gym area., they moved as a group.  P a r t of the s o l u t i o n to t h i s ,  l i e s i n p r o v i d i n g a l a r g e r u n i t . a r e a , w i t h one or two rooms a d j o i n i n g the main l i v i n g area.  This would make i t p o s s i b l e f o r group members to.wander  from one a r e a to another.  J u d i c i o u s placement of c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s , i n  each of these areas, could be worked out; f o r example, i n the main l i v i n g area p r o v i s i o n c o u l d be ma.de f o r l i s t e n i n g to the r a d i o , r e a d i n g or w r i t i n g , and other q u i e t a c t i v i t i e s .  An a d j o i n i n g room c o u l d be devoted  to games of  v a r i o u s k i n d s , such as," t a b l e t e n n i s , cards, c h e c k e r s , d a r t s and so on; while another room, c o u l d be devoted  to hobbies and c r a f t s .  The t o t a l u n i t area  would, t h e r e f o r e , o f f e r a choice of a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h o u t too g r e a t an i n t e r ference of one a c t i v i t y v/ith another; a l s o , i t v/ould a v o i d the cramming of a c t i v i t i e s i n t o one s m a l l area. In  the absence of such an i d e a l arrangement, the Y.O.U. e x p e r i -  mented i n ways to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r boys to l e a v e t h e i r u n i t groups from time to time, i n order to pursue a c t i v i t i e s that were of i n t e r e s t to some members, r e g a r d l e s s of the t o t a l group i n t e r e s t ; i n t h i s way, boys from a number of u n i t s came together to f o l l o w a m u s i c a l i n t e r e s t , a hobby i n t e r e s t , or take p a r t I n a d i s c u s s i o n group; g r a d u a l l y , three n i g h t s a week were set a s i d e when i n t e r e s t groups met.  Boys who  i n t e r e s t groups went to the gym,  where a v a r i e t y gym  T h i s represented an expanded dimension  were not i n t e r e s t e d i n any of the programme was o f f e r e d .  f o r boys as w e l l as c o u n s e l l o r s . Under  such a system, a l l c o u n s e l l o r s had a u n i t group, and  three n i g h t s a week, each  c o u n s e l l o r took over an i n t e r e s t group. Placement of boys i n groups i s a process t h a t needs a good d e a l more study.  While Y.O.U. adhered to the p r i n c i p l e t h a t allowed boys a choice  -  13Q<of u n i t , the problem can o n l y be solved as needs of boys are r e v e a l e d and . d i s c u s s e d , and boys are helped them.  to make c h o i c e s that are c o n s t r u c t i v e , f o r  At the Y.O.U., we had a group of boys who  v/ere w i t h i n a c l o s e age  range; but, there i s a great d e a l of d i f f e r e n c e between an 18 year o l d p a s s i v e boy, and one v/ho i s very a g g r e s s i v e . boys i n a u n i t i s i m p o r t a n t .  The proper b a l a n c i n g of such  One method that proved u s e f u l , i n t h i s s o r t i n g -  out p r o c e s s , v/as the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a r e c e p t i o n u n i t . at Y.O.U. went to a r e c e p t i o n u n i t .  A l l boys r e c e i v e d  There, they could be observed  attempt to s o r t out the a g g r e s s i v e boy and  the passive boy.  i n an  Furthermore,  i t gave a p a r t i c u l a r boy a chance to get to know the o t h e r u n i t groups, and helped him i n making a c h o i c e of u n i t he wanted to l i v e i n .  However, some-  times i t o c c u r r e d , that vacancies d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e i n the r e g u l a r u n i t s f o r q u i t e some time, due circumstance,  to no r e l e a s e of boys from Y.O.U.v; under such a  the r e c e p t i o n u n i t would develop a degree of " w e - f e e l i n g " ,  and boys would be r e l u c t a n t to move v/hen a vacancy o c c u r r e d i n a r e g u l a r unit.  The best r e s u l t s v/ere obtained v/hen boys were p l a c e d i n a r e g u l a r  u n i t , from the r e c e p t i o n u n i t , not more than three weeks f o l l o w i n g t h e i r a r r i v a l a t the Y.O.U. After-Care Once a boy i s sentenced  there i s a g r e a t tendency to f o r g e t him  when he i s p l a c e d i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n .  However, many boys have  had c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t a c t s v/ith s o c i a l v/orkers i n v a r i o u s agencies  that have  provided a casework s e r v i c e to the youth, and sometimes to h i s f a m i l y .  Be-  cause he i s b e i n g looked a f t e r , so to speak, there i s very l i t t l e " f o l l o w through" by workers i n s o c i a l agencies w h i l e the youth i s i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l institution.  I t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y important  t h a t a l l h e l p f u l community con-  - 131 t a c t s be i n i t i a t e d or maintained  -  while the i n d i v i d u a l i s i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l  At.the Y.O.U. an attempt v/as made to provide as much c o n t i n u i t y  institution.  between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and boys as p o s s i b l e .  A l l boys who v/ere to be con-  s i d e r e d f o r p a r o l e v/ere i n t e r v i e w e d by a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r .  Furthermore,  c o n s u l t a t i o n s v/ere held between p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r and s t a f f members, concerning the progress a boy had made. I t i s i n t h i s way probably, that group work s e r v i c e s can make t h e i r 1' best c o n t r i b u t i o n i n a s s e s s i n g a youth's r e a d i n e s s f o r r e l e a s e . has suggested f i v e main c r i t e r i a f o r t h i s important  examination.  What i s the deeper m o t i v a t i o n f o r committing t i o n o f motive i s o f t e n r e v e a l e d i n a u n i t group.  G i s e l a Knopka  a crime? Some i n d i c a -  F o r example, some boys, i n  order to g a i n a g r e a t e r f e e l i n g o f adequacy, w i l l do favours f o r other boys . r e g a r d l e s s of the consequences to- themselves.  This p a r a l l e l s the same be-  h a v i o u r i n the community where a boy goes along w i t h o t h e r s , seemingly the v i c t i m o f h i s d e s i r e to belong, r e g a r d l e s s o f the r e s u l t s . What i s the m o t i v a t i o n f o r changed behaviour?  I n a u n i t group,  c o u n s e l l o r s can observe some boys v/ho are l a r g e l y motivated because of f e a r of o t h e r s .  Some boys show g u i l t f o r having committed o f f e n c e s , o t h e r s seem  to d i s p l a y no g u i l t f e e l i n g s . u s u a l p a t t e r n s o f behaviour,  Some boys d i s p l a y a growing a b i l i t y to change as a r e s u l t o f a grov/ing r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  c o u n s e l l o r , other boys show l i t t l e a b i l i t y a l o n g t h i s l i n e . What i s the b a s i c a t t i t u d e towards others? that develops 13  The k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p  between boys and between boys and c o u n s e l l o r i s d i r e c t l y open  Knopka, G., Loc c i t . p. 256 - 258.  — 132 A t t i t u d e s o f wanting to e x p l o i t others are r e a d i l y seen, as  to o b s e r v a t i o n .  are tendencies towards s u b m i s s i o n . What i s the c a p a c i t y f o r a c c e p t i n g reasonable l i m i t s ?  Some boys  i n a u n i t group can accept l i m i t a t i o n s s e t by a c o u n s e l l o r ; b u t , there i s l i t t l e acceptance  o f the r i g h t s o f o t h e r boys.  Other boys need c o n s t a n t  s u p e r v i s i o n , o t h e r s need only l i m i t e d s u p e r v i s i o n . e x e r c i s e i n n e r - c o n t r o l can be observed  A growing c a p a c i t y to  i n the i n t e r - a c t i o n that occurs i n  a group. What i s h i s a t t i t u d e towards h i m s e l f ? a n y t h i n g , as w e l l as exaggerated  F e e l i n g s o f not b e i n g worth  f e e l i n g s o f one's own a b i l i t y are o f t e n re-,  v e a l e d by boys i n a group s e t t i n g .  Furthermore,  g r a d u a l improvement i n a  boy's a b i l i t y to accept help i n changing such a t t i t u d e s are open to d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n by a c o u n s e l l o r . Using such questions as g u i d e s , a c o u n s e l l o r can evaluate progress t h a t a boy has made. a basic question —  Group workers would thus be a b l e to help i n answering i s the boy showing a growing a b i l i t y to accept h e l p when  he needs i t , and, to what extent are the o l d d e l i n q u e n t p a t t e r n s o f behaviour no l o n g e r s a t i s f y i n g to him? Nothing i s c l e a r e r from the experience reviewed  than the i m p o r t -  ance of remembering t h a t the y o u t h f u l o f f e n d e r tends to be i s o l a t e d from the community, and o f t a k i n g concrete steps to reduce t h i s sense o f i s o l a t i o n . The boys who are the s u b j e c t of t h i s study c o n t i n u a l l y expressed of i s o l a t i o n .  t h i s sense  I t o f t e n took the form o f a concern about g e t t i n g a j o b .  Some expressed f e a r o f g o i n g out to l o o k f o r a job; o t h e r s v/ere w o r r i e d t h a t they d i d n ' t know how to go about i t .  This can provide a group v/orker w i t h  the o p p o r t u n i t y to s e t up s p e c i a l groups concerned  w i t h the problems o f  - 133 release.  -  Members of the group can p r a c t i c e a c t u a l ways of a p p l y i n g f o r a  j o b , and i n other ways r e c e i v e help i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r r e l e a s e . and  Employers  l a b o u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s could serve as a d v i s o r y committees concerned with  the content of t r a i n i n g courses, which would be r e a l i s t i c a l l y  and help to decide the kinds of t r a i n i n g  h e l p f u l f o r boys l o o k i n g f o r employment.  I n t e r e s t i n the y o u t h f u l offender i s f o s t e r e d i n t h i s way,  and  this i n turn  can help i n e s t a b l i s h i n g contacts between boys and a p o t e n t i a l employer. I n s t i t u t i o n s and  Groupings  Once an i n d i v i d u a l i s sentenced to an i n s t i t u t i o n i t i s i n e v i t a b l e that he enters i n t o a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r s .  What k i n d of a s s o c i a t i o n s ?  What e f f e c t do such a s s o c i a t i o n s have on him?  Our  f a i l u r e to take the p r i s o n  community i n t o account has r e s u l t e d i n our i n s t i t u t i o n s p e r p e t u a t i n g c r i m i n a l s u b - c u l t u r e ; i n f a c t , our i n s t i t u t i o n s provide new  recruits.  the  a steady stream of  S o c i a l group work has an important c o n t r i b u t i o n to make i n  our u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the dynamics of such groupings, and u s i n g t h i s unders t a n d i n g so that groupings become cons t r u e t i v e . i n s t e a d of d e s t r u c t i v e . Furthermore, the group worker adds another dimension to the treatment team, as he makes a v a i l a b l e the i n s i g h t gained from h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , d i a g n o s i s of the i n t e r - a c t i o n process w i t h i n groups.  study,  and  However, to put  the  knowledge v/e have i n t o p r a c t i c e , we w i l l need s m a l l e r i n s t i t u t i o n s where c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s are p o s s i b l e , i n the p l a c e of l a r g e i n s t i t u t i o n s where such r e l a t i o n s h i p s are i m p o s s i b l e . w i l l group w i t h o t h e r s . culture values  We  The  can ignore  challenge i s c l e a r .  Men  i n prison  t h i s f a c t , and a l l o w the c r i m i n a l sub-  to v/ork towards the f u r t h e r d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l ;  or,  we can accept t h i s f a c t and p u r p o s e f u l l y s t r u c t u r e , v/ork v/ith, and change the c r i m i n a l sub-culture values  towards the a m e l i o r a t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l .  then v / i l l our i n s t i t u t i o n s be t r u l y p l a c e s i n which to grow.  Only  Appendix A Job Specification of a Counsellor i n a Youth Corrections Unit  Under direction this employee implements the institution's group program within a unit housing 13 boys. He provides, leadership to the unit i n i t s afternoon-evening a c t i v i t i e s , attempting thereby to promote the group's acceptance of social goals and of democratic group relationships. He exercises custodial control over the unit. The youths are young offenders who display immaturity and personality d i f f i c u l t i e s by indulging i n law violation and other serious forms of misbehaviour. This officer i s responsible to a Senior Correctional O f f i c e r . Nature of Work: The practice of social group work i n this setting d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that employed by the majority of group work agencies i n the community, and therefore requires personnel who are able to adapt their knowledge and s k i l l s to the needs of offenders i n a correctional setting. The youth, characteristic of this institution's population, has lacked i n his home and/or community, a normally healthy association with adults who represent the social values of the larger community. He has tended either to be isolated from others or has attempted to cope with his severe social and emotional problems by identifying himself with a social or anti-social people. In consequence he attains adolescence lacking the normal s o c i a l goals and values of emotionally healthy adolescents. In attempting to socialize the offender i t becomes necessary to expose him to experiences which are calculated to introduce objectives and values which are s o c i a l , and these are i n i t i a l l y strange and even repugnant to him. This a c t i v i t y requires of the s t a f f a more directive approach than i s customary i n social group work. The employee i s under the necessity of i n i t i a t i n g a c t i v i t y and of setting the stage for s p e c i f i c relationships which are designed to expose the offenders to an experience i n democratic group relationships. Since this sort of group association i s generally foreign to their experience the i n i t i a t i v e must be provided i n considerable measure from outside the inmate group. In place of random a c t i v i t y for the sake of consuming leisure time, the group i s focussed toward specific objectives;  Appendix  A  - 2 -  namely, t h e s o c i a l r e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e g r o u p as a whole and o f i t s i n d i v i d u a l members. These a r e ends t o w a r d w h i c h t h e g r o u p worker i n t h i s s e t t i n g c o n s c i o u s l y h e l p s t h e g r o u p t o move by h i s own a c t i v e i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t o t a l s t r u c t u r e and a c t i v i t y o f t h e g r o u p . E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s work i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f p a t t e r n s o f mature s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , c o n s i s t e n t w i t h s o c i a l g o a l s o f t h e community, i n t h e p l a c e o f p r e v i o u s immature, a n t i - s o c i a l p a t t e r n s o f r e l a t i o n s h i p . The l e v e l o f a c h i e v e m e n t a t t a i n e d by a y o u t h i n t h i s a r e a o f h i s p r o g r a m can be r e g a r d e d as t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t s i n g l e c r i t e r i o n i n e v a l u a t i n g h i s r e a d i n e s s f o r d i s c h a r g e and h i s g e n e r a l p r o g n o s i s . The employee o f t h i s c l a s s works as a g r o u p w o r k e r w i t h a g r o u p o f t h i r t e e n b o y s f o r who'se s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m a c t i v i t y and s u p e r v i s i o n he i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e . He i n s t r u c t s h i s g r o u p i n v a r i o u s a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s , games and h o b b i e s and i n v o l v e s t h e e n t i r e g r o u p i n program p a r t i c i p a t i o n . He shares i n t h e s u p e r v i s o r y and e s c o r t d u t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e movement and o v e r s i g h t o f more t h a n one u n i t o f y o u t h s who a r e j o i n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n or o u t s i d e o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . T h i s o f f i c e r s u p e r v i s e s h i s u n i t ' s use o f s p e c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s s u c h as t h e l i b r a r y and gymnasium e q u i p m e n t . He r e a d s a l l l e t t e r s w r i t t e n by members o f h i s u n i t f o r p u r p o s e s o f c e n s o r s h i p and f o r w h a t e v e r i n s i g h t t h e c o n t e n t s may yield i n t o t h e c u r r e n t c o n c e r n s and a t t i t u d e s o f t h e y o u t h s . He s h a r e s i n and s u p e r v i s e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f meals and s n a c k s d u r i n g h i s s h i f t , e n c o u r a g i n g i n the group, a standard o f c o n d u c t c o n s i s t e n t w i t h mature s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e community. T h i s o f f i c e r a c t i v e l y i n t e r v e n e s i n i s s u e s which a r i s e between members o f h i s g r o u p . He a c t s n o t s i m p l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a c h i e v i n g a c q u i e s c e n c e and c o n f o r m i t y b u t p r i m a r i l y w i t h a v i e w t o a s s i s t i n g t h e members o f t h e g r o u p to d i s c o v e r a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e s o l u t i o n to t h e i r i s s u e s . He u s e s i n c i d e n t s o f h o s t i l i t y and o t h e r s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r as a means o f f o c u s s i n g t h e g r o u p ' s t h o u g h t f u l a t t e n t i o n upon t h e u n d e r l y i n g dynamics o f s u c h b e h a v i o u r w i t h a v i e w t o a i d i n g t h e g r o u p t o d e v e l o p i n s i g h t and more s o c i a l v/ays o f c o p i n g w i t h p e r s o n a l and g r o u p p r e s s u r e s . He s t i m u l a t e s d i s c u s s i o n a r o u n d s u b j e c t s w h i c h a r e o f p e r t i n e n c e and c o n c e r n t o members o f t h e g r o u p , e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e s u b j e c t s , w h i c h may p r o v i d e i n c r e a s e d s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g and an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f common s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s and r e q u i r e m e n t s i n a d e m o c r a t i c community. As an a i d t o s u c h a p r o c e s s he u t i l i z e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e group and t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f i t s members.  Appendix  - 3 -  A  T h i s o f f i c e r c o n t r o l s t h e movement o f hoys f r o m h i s u n i t t o any o t h e r p a r t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . He r e f e r s hoys f o r p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g o r f o r d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n when t h e s i t u a t i o n demands measures w h i c h a r e o u t s i d e o f t h e competence o r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e o f f i c e r . He p r e p a r e s r e g u l a r r e p o r t s on t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e u n i t , a s s e s s i n g t h e g r o u p ' s p r o b l e m s and p r o g r e s s and d r a w i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r r o l e s p l a y e d by i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e g r o u p . He recommends changes o f program and o f g r o u p c o m p o s i t i o n when s u c h changes a p p e a r t o o f f e r g r e a t e r o p p o r t u n i t y f o r more e f f e c t i v e p r o g r a m . T h i s o f f i c e r assumes c o m p l e t e c u s t o d i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s g r o u p t h r o u g h o u t t h e s h i f t , and t a k e s w h a t e v e r p r e c a u t i o n a r y measures a r e n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f effective security controls. He p e r f o r m s r e l a t e d d u t i e s as required. Knowledge. A b i l i t i e s  and  Skills!  D e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y t o work e f f e c t i v e l y and harmoni o u s l y w i t h groups o f p e o p l e ; s k i l l i n winning the c o n f i d e n c e o f o t h e r s by p r o v i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n t h e g r o u p . Knowledge of a t h l e t i c a c t i v i t i e s s u f f i c i e n t to p r o v i d e guidance to a group h a v i n g no more t h a n e l e m e n t a r y knowledge o f t h e a c t i v i t y . F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h one o r more l e i s u r e t i m e h o b b i e s and an a b i l i t y t o communicate h i s knowledge s i m p l y and c l e a r l y . A w o r k i n g knowledge o f t h e dynamics o f i n d i v i d u a l and o f g r o u p behaviour, e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s a n t i - s o c i a l manifestations. A b i l i t y t o u t i l i z e g r o u p p r o c e s s e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f an i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e g r o u p , and t o m a i n t a i n t h e p r i m a r y w o r k i n g f o v u s upon t h e g r o u p w h i l e b e i n g c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l needs o f i t s members. Marked a b i l i t y t o c a p i t a l i z e on o b j e c t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h i n t h e g r o u p as a b a s i s f o r e x p o s i n g t h e g r o u p t o i d e a s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s which c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e s o c i a l m a t u r a t i o n o f t h e members o f t h e g r o u p . S k i l l i n s t i m u l a t i n g r e l e v a n t d i s c u s s i o n and i n a s s i s t i n g t h e g r o u p t o p u r s u e i t s t h i n k i n g i n c o n s i s t e n t and c o n s t r u c t i v e patterns. A b i l i t y t o make r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e a p p r a i s a l s o f i n d i v i d u a l s and o f g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; a b i l i t y t o p r e p a r e concise, salient reports. A good w o r k i n g knowledge o f t h e e l e m e n t s o f good s e c u r i t y and an a b i l i t y t o e n s u r e t h e o b s e r v a n c e o f e f f e c t i v e s e c u r i t y m e a s u r e s , w h i l e a t t h e same t i m e i m p l e m e n t i n g sound group work methods c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e program's o b j e c t i v e o f socialization. A b i l i t y t o make sound, q u i c k d e c i s i o n s and t o a c t t h e r e o n . S k i l l i n f o s t e r i n g c o n s t r u c t i v e team r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and i n p r o m p t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s among i n m a t e s which t e n d t o r e s u l t i n g r o w i n g s e l f - r e s p e c t f o r e a c h member o f t h e g r o u p .  Appendix A  - 4 -  Personal Qualities: A genuine interest i n people and a capacity to work with a group of people as an entity, while being aware of the individuals comprising i t . Considerable capacity to absorb hostile and aggressive behaviour; a capacity for objectivity about the behaviour of others, especially as i t i s directed towards him. Persistent and patient, with an a b i l i t y to be f l e x i b l e . Good judgment i n assessing the meaning of objective situations and i n determining a course of action. Emotional maturity and strength; a warm sense of humour. Poise and personal comfort i n the constructive use of authority. High standard of personal i n t e g r i t y . Experience and Training: Completion of senior matriculation (or the equivalent of the B.C. Senior Matriculation) plus successful completion of courses concerning the dynamics of individual and of group behaviour. These courses should be those offered by an agency of recognized standing; e.g., a University, a s o c i a l agency, or a course of training leading to the professional practice of teaching, personnel work or related f i e l d s . Successful candidates f o r this class should be w i l l i n g to pursue further studies, at the i n s t i t u t i o n or at a University of recognized standing, pertaining to the principles and methods of therapeutic social group work. Several years of paid or voluntary work with groups of young persons, preferrably those displaying behaviour problems.  Appendix B  G l o s s a r y o f S l a n g Terms u s e d by Inmates  B e v e r a g e made as a r e s u l t o f m i x i n g f r u i t , s u g a r , b r e a d t o g e t h e r w i t h water; i f l e f t l o n g enough, t h e m i x t u r e d e v e l o p s a f a i r l y high alcohol content.  Brew  Bug, Bugging  Bum  Word u s e d b y boys t o d e n o t e a n o t h e r boy who i s d i s t u r b e d . I t c o n v e n i e n t l y t r a n s f o r m s an o r d e r o r r e q u e s t i n t o 'nagging' by r e f e r r i n g t o s t a f f members' r e q u e s t i n g a.boy t o do something, t o f i n i s h a job, e t c .  beef  C o n v i c t e d o f an o f f e n c e one i s n o t g u i l t y o f committing; o r , accused o f d o i n g something o f w h i c h one i s i n n o c e n t .  Drag  The  Dummy  Bread. Term a l s o u s e d t o be q u i e t .  Hot c a r  Stolen  Hypes  Persons  Joint  A store,-shop, building, e t c . In reference to an a r e a w h e r e i n an o f f e n c e was committed: 'Kicking-in a joint'.  Rough  time  main s t r e e t  Short  Sentence  big  butt  addicted to drugs.  S t a t e o f mind as a r e s u l t o f worry; as a c o n s e q u e n c e , days seem l o n g e r t h a n t h e y n o r m a l l y would b e . Pood.  and a  a s , 'dummy-up', meaning  automobile.  Scoff  Six  i n t h e community r e f e r r e d t o .  soon  to expire.  S i x months and a p a r t o f a n o t h e r before sentence e x p i r e s .  month  T h r e e and a  get-up  Weed  Three  days and one n i g h t , b e f o r e b e i n g r e l e a s e d ,  Pine-cut  tobacco.  Appendix C Bibliography  S p e c i f i c References - Text  Books  Fromm, E., Man F o r H i m s e l f , R i n e h a r t and Company, New Y o r k , 1947. Knopka, G., Group Work i n t h e I n s t i t u t i o n , W h i t e s i d e I n c . , and W i l l i a m Morrow and Company, New Y o r k , 1954. R e d l , F., and Wineman, D., C o n t r o l s f r o m W i t h i n , The F r e e P r e s s , G l e n c o e , 111., 1952. S l a v s o n , S.R., R e c r e a t i o n and t h e T o t a l P e r s o n a l i t y , A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s , New York, 1956. S y k e s , G.M., The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P r i n c e t o n , N.J., 1958. General Bloch,  Reference - Text  Books  H.A.,  and N i e d e r h o f f e r , A., The Gang, P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , New Y o r k , 1958. B l o c h , H.A., and F l y n n , F.T., D e l i n q u e n c y : The J u v e n i l e O f f e n d e r i n A m e r i c a Today, Random H o u s e , ' I n c . , New Y o r k , 1956. S a l i s b u r y , H.E., The Shook-Up G e n e r a t i o n , H a r p e r , New Y o r k , 1958. S u l l i v a n , H.S., The I n t e r p e r s o n a l T h e o r y o f P s y c h i a t r y , W.W. N o r t o n and Company, New Y o r k , 1953. Specific  References - J o u r n a l s , Pamphlets, Brochures  Bernstein,  S., " S e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n : K i n g or C i t i z e n i n t h e Realm o f V a l u e s ? " S o c i a l Work, V o l . 5, No. 1, J a n u a r y , I 9 6 0 , pp 3-8. B i n k l e y , F., and M c K o r k l e , R., " A p p l y i n g t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f Group T h e r a p y i n t h e C o r r e c t i o n s I n s t i t u t i o n , " F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , March, 1950, pp 36-?40. B l o c h , H., and N i e d e r h o f f e r , A., " A d o l e s c e n t B e h a v i o u r and t h e Gang", The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l T h e r a p y , V o l . 3, No. 4, 1957, p p . 174-179. B l o c h , H., " S o c i a l P r e s s u r e s o f C o n f i n e m e n t t o w a r d S e x u a l D e v i a t i o n " , The J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l T h e r a p y , V o l . 1, No. 3, A p r i l , 1955, p p . 112-125. C a r r , L . J . , "Commitment o f t h e Y o u t h f u l O f f e n d e r " , NPPA J o u r n a l , V o l . 2, No. 2, A p r i l , 1956, pp. 152-162. Chwart, J . , H a r a r i , C , Weisman, I . , "Why We F a i l " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , March, 1958, p p . 36-42. C o o p e r , I.B., "The Drama o f Y o u t h i n Our C r i m i n a l C o u r t s " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , M a r c h , 1955, pp. 36-42. C r e s s e y , D.R., " C o n t r a d i c t o r y T h e o r i e s i n C o r r e c t i o n a l Group T h e r a p y P r o g r a m s " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , J u n e , 1954, p p . 20-26. F e n t o n , N., " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Group C o u n s e l l i n g " , P a m p h l e t , p u b l i s h e d by t h e A m e r i c a n C o r r e c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1958. F e n t o n , N., "The P r i s o n as a T h e r a p e u t i c Community", F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , J u n e , 1956, p p . 26-29. G o l d s m i t h , A.O., "The T h e r a p i s t ' s View o f t h e September, 1959, pp..20-24.  Delinquent",  Federal  Probation,  Appendix C  - 2-  Grunwold, H., "Group Counselling i n Combatting Delinquency", Federal Probation, December, 1958, pp. 32-36. . Johnson, D.D., "The Role of Social Work Education i n Preparing Personnel f o r the Corrections F i e l d " , Federal Probation, September, 1956, pp. 54-58. Klapman, G., "Group Psychiatry i n Relation to Correctional Psychiatry," The Journal of Social Therapy, Vol. 3, No. 4, 1957, pp. 211-224. Knopka, G., "The Social Group Work Method: Its Use i n the Correctional F i e l d " Federal Probation, March, 1956, pp. 25-30. Kvaraceus, W.C, "Cultural Aspects of Delinquency", Federal Probation, March, 1959,. pp. 8-12. Loving, W.S., Stockwell, F.E., Dobbins, D.A., "Factors Associated with Escape Behaviour of Prison Inmates", Federal Probation, September, 1959, pp59-6l McKorkle, L.W., "Guided Group Interaction i n Correctional Work", American Sociological Review, 16 August, 1951, pp. 460-461. Nelson, E.K., "The Gulf Between Theory and Practice i n Corrections", Federal Probation, September, 1954, pp. 48-50. Novick, A., "Integrating the Delinquent and His Community", Federal Probation, June,1956, pp. 38-43. Studt, E., "The Contribution of Correctional Practice to Social Work Theory and Education", Social Casework, Vol. 37, No. 1, June, 1956, pp. 263-269. "Casework.in the Correctional F i e l d , " Federal Probation, September, 1954, pp. 19-26. "School Program for Correctional Personnel", NPPA Journal, Vol. 2, No. 3, July, 1956, pp. 226-232, Wagner, A., "A Modern Institutional Program for the Youthful Offender," Federal Probation, March, 1956, pp. 20-24. Wilson, G., "The Social Worker's Role i n Group Situations", Brochure, University of California, Berkley, C a l i f . General References - Journals, Pamphlets, Brochures Bloch, H., "Crime Causations Research and Its Application", Federal Probation, March, 1957, pp. 11-20. Clark, D.L., "Vocational Training and Its Role i n the Rehabilitation Process, MSW Thesis, 1954. Cutcher, A.C., "Group Methods i n a Treatment Home for G i r l s " , MSW Thesis, 1958. Meeker, B., "The Social Worker and the Correctional Field",•Federal Probation , September, 1957,.„ pp. 32-42. Menninger, W.C, "The Therapy' of Friendship", Federal Probation, June, 1957, pp. 41-46.. Spicer, J.L., "Recreation i n the Authoritarian Setting", MSW Thesis, 1945.  

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