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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A group living unit for drug addicts : an assessment of the narcotic drug addiction research and treatment… McCormick, Lindsay Laurier 1960

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A GROUP LIVING UNIT. FOR DRUG- ADDICTS: An assessment of. the N a r c o t i c Drug A d d i c t i o n Research and Treatment U n i t s a t Oa k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, 1956 - I960 by LINDSAY MCCORMICK Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree: o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School o f S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work School o f S o c i a l Work I960 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree th a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of S a e. /? ^  ty& ^  K The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date .Mrtlf s~ /?CO ABSTRACT Drug a d d i c t i o n has a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the c i t i z e n s of Vancouver, f o r i n t h i s c i t y alone there is.vroughly one t h i r d o f the. n a t i o n s drug addicts." This s o c i a l disease i s both widespread and t h r e a t e n i n g i n t h a t the number a f f l i c t e d has increased s t e a d i l y since the years o f World War I I . The t h e s i s begins w i t h a p r e l i m i n a r y review o f how drug a d d i c t i o n spread t o Canada and to what extent i t now e x i s t s . The e f f e c t of v a r i o u s drugs and the withdrawal process are described. An attempt i s made to show the c o s t s of a d d i c t i o n , and d i f f i c u l t i e s i n p o l i c i n g the t r a f f i c i n n a r c o t i c s . There i s some assessment of l e g i s l a t i o n governing the use of n a r c o t i c drugs. The c e n t r a l focus of the t h e s i s i s an e v a l u a t i o n o f the group l i v i n g u n i t s f o r treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f s e l e c t e d drug a d d i c t s w i t h i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n , known as; the "Panabode u n i t s . " Methods used i n e v a l u a t i n g the Panabode programs were many and v a r i e d . One of the most h e l p f u l was frequent v i s i t s to O a k a l l a and a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l phases o f program. Data a l s o came from r e p o r t s and t e x t s o f v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s ; i n the f i e l d , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the f i n d i n g s of the Senate Committee on T r a f f i c i n N a r c o t i c Drugs i n  Canada. 1955, and those o f the "Stevenson" Report, Drug A d d i c t i o n i n  B r i t i s h Columbia. 1956. At O a k a l l a , d i s c u s s i o n s were h e l d w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w i t h the s t a f f s o f both Panabode u n i t s , and vrith a d d i c t s themselves. Case f i l e s and a l l personal records were reviewed. D i s -cussions \irere a l s o h e l d w i t h v a r i o u s s t a f f members from the N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n Foundation, (Vancouver,) w i t h d o c t o r s , nurses and h o s p i t a l personnel who are f r e q u e n t l y i n contact w i t h some phase of a d d i c t i o n . Panabode programs are compared to other programs which e x i s t i n New York, and i n Lexington, Kentucky. I t i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t methods of t r e a t i n g drug a d d i c t i o n could be improved (a) by p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l and b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d s t a f f ; (b) by g i v i n g more i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n t o treatment; (c) by improving and i n c r e a s i n g f a c i l i t i e s and f o r a more s e l f contained program. The importance o f c a r e f u l discharge follow-up i s s t r e s s e d . I t i s argued t h a t the community i s not a t t a c k i n g the problem o f drug a d d i c t i o n on a broad enough f r o n t . Present treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s r e present only a dim, h a l f hearted response to a s o c i a l i l l n e s s t h a t i s now of alarming magnitude. F i n a l l y , l e g i s l a t i v e changes are suggested as a means of b r i n g i n g a d d i c t s out i n t o the open where they can be t r e a t e d as s i c k people and not as c r i m i n a l s . TABLE OF CONTENTS; Chapter 1 O r i g i n s and S o c i a l E f f e c t s o f Drug A d d i c t i o n Page Vancouver's mounting p u b l i c i n t e r e s t i n drug a d d i c t i o n . The e a r l y opium problem i n A s i a . The e a r l y use o f opium dn North America's west coast. The advent and use o f other drugs of a d d i c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The e f f e c t s o f v arious drugs on users'; Symptoms, d u r a t i o n and methods of withdrawal. 1 Chapter, 2 Prevalence. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and L e g a l Aspects Drug a d d i c t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f a d d i c t s , the a d d i c t as a person. A n a l y s i s of a d d i c t populations throughout Canada. B r i t i s h Columbia's t r a f f i c i n n a r c o t i c drugs. Costs of a d d i c t i o n . An assessment o f Canada's opium and n a r c o t i c drug act 21 Chapter 3 The Panabode U n i t f o r Male A d d i c t s L o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n o f b u i l d i n g s , property and f a c i l i t i e s . P h i l o s o p h y o f the Panabode u n i t . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and personnel. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . S e l e c t i o n f o r the Panabode program. P o l i c y and pro-cedure. Program. Dynamics o f the treatment process i n program. Follow-up of discharged a d d i c t s ; 41 Chapter 4 The Panabode U n i t f o r Female A d d i c t s L o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of u n i t and f a c i l i t i e s . Philosophy of the Panabode u n i t . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e and personnel. C l a s s i f i c a -t i o n . S e l e c t i o n f o r the Panabode program. P o l i c y and procedure. Program. Dynamics of the treatment process i n program. Follow-up of discharged a d d i c t s 66 Chapter 5. Program and P o l i c y ; Continuing Needs The Panabode u n i t s and f a c i l i t i e s . Treatment and program. Personnel. The process of s e l e c t i o n . L e g i s l a t i v e p r oposals. 82 Appendices:: A. Glossary B. B i b l i o g r a p h y -TABLES IN THE TEXT Table 1. T o t a l a d d i c t p o p u l a t i o n by province and by type, Canada, 1955 ... 26 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I wish to express my si n c e r e thanks and indebtedness to everyone whose i n t e r e s t and a c t i v e h e l p made the study p o s s i b l e . S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e i s extended to Joseph E. Clegg, o f f i c e r i n charge o f the Panabode u n i t a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n , and to the s t a f f of the male and female panabode u n i t s , f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and co-operation. I n p a r t i c u l a r I would l i k e to express my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Mr. Ad r i a n Marriage o f the' F a c u l t y o f the School of S o c i a l Work, f o r h i s encouragement, s t i m u l a t i o n and c r i t i c a l i n t e r e s t throughout the w r i t i n g o f the t h e s i s ; a l s o to Dr. Leonard C Marsh o f the F a c u l t y o f the School o f S o c i a l Work, f o r h i s guidance and suggestions. F i n a l l y , a s p e c i a l thanks to my wife who typed the t h e s i s and o f f e r e d her support and suggestions. / A GROUP LIVING' UNIT FOR DRUG ADDICTS An assessment of the Narcotic Drug Addiction Research and Treatment Units: at Oakalla Prison Farm, 1956 - I960 Chapter 1 ORIGINS AND SOCIAL EFFECTS OF DRUG ADDICTION In 1952, a committee of the Greater Vancouver Community Chest and C o u n c i l reviewed the problem of drug a d d i c t i o n i n Vancouver. The widespread prevalence o f n a r c o t i c a d d i c t i o n , and the damaging consequences t h a t such a d d i c t i o n i s b e l i e v e d t o have f o r the w e l l - b e i n g o f the community, had by t h i s time become o f wide p u b l i c concern i n t h i s c i t y . The work o f t h i s o r i g i n a l committee brought i n t o being a formal 1 r e s e a r c h team of experts composed of a p s y c h i a t r i s t , a p s y c h o l o g i s t , a s o c i a l worker, and an i n t e r n i s t . Through the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Federal and P r o v i n c i a l funds were made a v a i l a b l e f o r the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . As p a r t of i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n sponsoring t h i s study, the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia set up an a d v i s o r y Committee to oversee and a s s i s t the r e s e a r c h group. The study commenced i n March 1954-. The s e t t i n g f o r the study was O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm where a l a r g e group o f a d d i c t s were concentrated. The p r o j e c t i t s e l f was a survey o f the many aspects of drug a d d i c t i o n : s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p s y c h i a t r i c and h i s t o r i c a l . A l s o sought were general plans f o r the prevention and treatment o f drug a d d i c t i o n , c o n t r o l 1 This person was George H. Stevenson M.A., F.A.P.A.A., F.R.S.C., P s y c h i a t r i s t and d i r e c t o r o f the r e s e a r c h group. - 2 -o f i l l i c i t t r a f f i c k i n g i n drugs, and suggested t o p i c s f o r f u t u r e study. In June, 1956, a f t e r two years of extensive work and study, the r e s e a r c h group completed i t s p r o j e c t . The r e p o r t of t h i s group i s commonly known as "The Stevenson Report" and w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as such here-a f t e r i n t h i s t h e s i s . From i t s f i n d i n g s , evidence was submitted to the. S p e c i a l Senate Committee at t h a t time on the t r a f f i c o f N a r c o t i c Drugs 1 i n Canada. The group a l s o o f f e r e d c e r t a i n concrete proposals t o the o r i g i n a l committee from the Community Chest and C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g t h e i r proposed p i l o t centre f o r the treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of drug a d d i c t s . These pr o p o s a l s , i n the form o f a b r i e f , were submitted to the P r o v i n c i a l Government which saw f i t to vote funds f o r such a c e n t r e . Many t h i n g s came out of t h i s l engthy r e s e a r c h study. I t r e c e i v e d good press coverage and created much popular concern. To date however, the; most s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s o f t h i s study has been the . r e a l i z a t i o n o f two treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c e n t r e s : the N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n Foundation o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and the Research and Treatment u n i t s at O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm, known as the: Panabode u n i t s . The N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n Foundation became a treatment centre f o r s e l e c t e d p a t i e n t s i n December 1958. Through P r o v i n c i a l funds a b u i l d i n g was purchased a t 835 West 10th Avenue i n Vancouver, B.C.,. I t s program was f a t h e r e d by the knowledge t h a t many a d d i c t s p o i g n a n t l y 1 The s p e c i a l senate committee was appointed i n 1955 " t o enquire i n t o and r e p o r t upon the T r a f f i c i n N a r c o t i c Drugs i n Canada and problems r e l a t e d thereto."' - 3 -d e s i r e t o s t a y o f f n a r c o t i c s permanently and can do so i f t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l problems are t r e a t e d w i t h understanding and i f s u f f i c i e n t r e h a b i l i t a t i o n resources e x i s t f o r t h e i r r e - o r i e n t a t i o n i n t o s o c i e t y . The Foundation represents a three year p i l o t study which seeks t o shape t h i s broad concept i n t o f o u r o b j e c t i v e s - medical treatment of s e l e c t e d p a t i e n t s , t h e i r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , experimentation and r e s e a r c h i n t o new methods of treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and a program o f p u b l i c education i n the prevention of a d d i c t i o n . Dr. Robert H a l l i d a y , a p s y c h i a t r i s t , has been given charge o f the Foundation and i t s program.. H i s s t a f f now c o n s i s t s o f an adminis-t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t , a s e n i o r and two r e g u l a r s o c i a l workers, a p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e r a p i s t , two p s y c h i a t r i c nurses, a f u l l time cook, a janitor-watchman, a s e c r e t a r y and a stenographer. The Panabode u n i t s w i t h i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm were constructed i n 1956. These u n i t s , one f o r s e l e c t e d male a d d i c t s and one f o r s e l e c t e d female a d d i c t s , were the f i r s t n a r c o t i c r e s e a r c h and treatment u n i t s i n the p r o v i n c e . They are s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s segregated from the l a r g e r male and female j a i l u n i t s . Although t h e i r s i s l a r g e l y a separate a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , the Panabode u n i t s , are w i t h i n the O a k a l l a P r i s o n and so are governed to a l a r g e extent by the p o l i c y and procedure p e r t a i n i n g to the p r i s o n g e n e r a l l y . This i s a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g t h e i r treatment programs. The s u b j e c t matter which f o l l o w s w i l l d e a l b r i e f l y w i t h the A -background of drugs and drug a d d i c t i o n , as w e l l as i t s present prevalence i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n B r i t i s h Columbia. There w i l l be some d i s c u s s i o n of the drug a d d i c t h i m s e l f and h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . T r a f f i c k i n g i n n a r c o t i c s w i l l r e c e i v e some a t t e n t i o n and an attempt w i l l be made to i n d i c a t e some of the d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h which the p o l i c e have to cope i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o c o n t r o l the t r a f f i c i n n a r c o t i c s . There w i l l be a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the costs o f a d d i c t i o n to both the a d d i c t h i m s e l f and t o the s o c i e t y i n which he e x i s t s . This w i l l i n c l u d e the types o f crime i n which he i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d . F i n a l l y , an attempt w i l l be made t o assess c r i t -i c a l l y Canada's. Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act. Considerable a t t e n t i o n w i l l be given to the fo r e g o i n g aspects o f drug a d d i c t i o n . However, the primary focus o f t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be a d e s c r i p t i o n and e v a l u a t i o n o f the Panabode u n i t s a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm. The l o c a t i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of Panabode p r o p e r t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be o u t l i n e d . Some attempt w i l l be made t o s t a t e c l e a r l y the philosophy, goals and purposes o f the u n i t s . An e f f o r t w i l l be made to analyze the admin-i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f O a k a l l a as i t r e l a t e s to the Panabode u n i t s and t h e i r personnel. General c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be discussed as i t e x i s t s w i t h i n O a k a l l a and t h i s w i l l be fo l l o w e d by an examination o f the c r i t e r i a employed i n the s e l e c t i o n o f s u i t a b l e candidates f o r the Panabode t r e a t -ment programs. Both treatment programs w i l l be analyzed and evaluated. The importance o f c a r e f u l discharge follow-up w i l l then be discussed and f i n a l l y , there w i l l be an expression o f personal views and recommendations, re g a r d i n g the e n t i r e treatment program f o r both males and females.. I n o f f e r i n g these views and recommendations, i t i s hoped they - 5 -might c o n t r i b u t e i n some way to improve the treatment o f drug a d d i c t i o n a t the Panabode u n i t s . I t i s f u r t h e r hoped t h a t t h i s t h e s i s might make a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o anyone i n t e r e s t e d i n the search f o r more e f f e c t i v e means and methods o f t r e a t i n g drug a d d i c t i o n . THE EARLY OPIUM PROBLEM IN ASIA In the eighteenth and.nineteenth c e n t u r i e s , I n d i a produced great q u a n t i t i e s o f h i g h grade opium. Many Indians used t h i s drug f o r i t s p l e a s u r a b l e e f f e c t s as w e l l as f o r i t s medical values. In the absence of t r a i n e d p h y s i c i a n s , opium was a household remedy f o r a l l k i n d s of pains and aches, f o r the r e l i e f of dysentry, as- a supposed p r o p h y l a c t i c a g a i n s t m a l a r i a , and to ease the discomforts o f i n f a n t s and the aged. Opium was r a r e l y smoked i n I n d i a but. was u s u a l l y taken i n beverages or i n a s o l i d form. Only a f r a c t i o n of the opium produced i n I n d i a was consumed t h e r e , the l a r g e s t p o r t i o n being s o l d to China. China had grown opium i n small but i n c r e a s i n g amounts f o r many years. Nevertheless, Chinese p r e f e r r e d to smoke the b e t t e r q u a l i t y Indian opium, a h a b i t which they had learned w i t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f tobacco and the pipe from Formosa, where opium smoking probably o r i g -i n a t e d . The Chinese too used opium as a household remedy.. During much o f eighteenth and nineteenth c e n t u r i e s , a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f I n d i a was under the c o n t r o l o f Great B r i t a i n and her East Indian - 6 Company. Pro d u c t i o n o f opium was c o n t r o l l e d by the B r i t i s h and p r o f i t s from i t s s a l e ( c h i e f l y to China) helped g r e a t l y to. finance the Ind i a n economy and to provide p r o f i t s f o r the East Indian Company share h o l d e r s . China, though i t l a c k e d a strong c e n t r a l government, was an independent country and, despi t e great poverty, was s e l f contained and sought l i t t l e 1,2 trade vri.th other c o u n t r i e s . . / I t i s not known whether Indian l e a d e r s objected to the use of opium by her people, but o f f i c i a l China pr o t e s t e d v i g o r o u s l y to i t s use by Chinese c i t i z e n s . P r o t e s t s were based o s t e n s i b l y on i t s harmful e f f e c t s on Chinese u s e r s , but the Chinese Government feared the heavy economic d r a i n as they s o l d o n l y l i m i t e d q u a n t i t i e s o f t e a and s i l k i n exchange f o r opium and always had a l a r g e negative trade balance. Because opium was a l s o produced i n l i m i t e d q u a n t i t y i n China, i t was thought by many E n g l i s h t r a d e r s t h a t the o f f i c i a l Chinese p r o t e s t against opium use was an i n d i r e c t means of avo i d i n g imported opium i n favour of home-grown opium. E n g l i s h traders- n a t u r a l l y wanted to keep t h e i r Chinese market. They were aware t h a t opium was e a s i l y produced i n I n d i a and of a higher q u a l i t y than Chinese opium. They a l s o r e f u s e d to b e l i e v e t h a t China's o p p o s i t i o n to opium was: based on i t s a l l e g e d l y d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s on the people who used i t , but f e l t t h a t China's continued p r o t e s t s were l a r g e l y because o f economic 1 Fairbanks, J.K. "TRADE AND DIPLOMACY ON THE CHINA COAST" Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1953, V o l I 2 The Stevenson Report, 1956 - 7 -1 reasons. The Opium Wars between China and England r e s u l t e d . The wars betoeen these two Countries ended i n 1858 w i t h the Treaty of T i e n t s i n . China had to pay huge in d e m n i t i e s , was f o r c e d t o open a d d i t i o n a l p o r t s to European Countries and had to agree to admit opium as a l e g a l a r t i c l e o f trade. With t h i s development, the use o f opium became more pr e v a l e n t i n China. I t was estimated t h a t i n some provinces and c i t i e s , as much as 90 per cent of the people became opium smokers. W i t h i n England, p r o t e s t s began a g a i n s t the f o r c e f u l i m p o s i t i o n of opium on a l a r g e but v i r t u a l l y h e l p l e s s n a t i o n f o r the sake of p r o f i t s . I t was not u n t i l 1891, however, t h a t an anti-opium group i n the House o f Commons succeeded i n passing a r e s o l u t i o n t o the e f f e c t t h a t the system 2 by which Indian opium revenue v&s r a i s e d was m o r a l l y i n d e f e n s i b l e . A Royal Commission was e s t a b l i s h e d t o r e p o r t on the opium s i t u a t i o n i n I n d i a . I n v e s t i g a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out i n 1893 and 1894 and a m a j o r i t y r e p o r t was p r i n t e d i n 1895. 1 Before the outbreak of the Opium Wars, England had l o n g wanted China to open up her f o r e i g n trade r e s t r i c t i o n s and was g r a d u a l l y b r i n g i n g many pressures to bear on China. In p r o t e s t , China banned a l l i m p o r t a t i o n o f opium i n 1839 and destroyed a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f B r i t i s h owned opium sto r e d at Canton. This r e s u l t e d i n the Opium Wars which began i n 184.0 and ended i n 1858 w i t h the t r e a t y of T i e n t s i n . . 2 The Stevenson Report, 1956 - 8 -Accepted at face value, the report indicated that opium use in India was by no -.means. a national calamity. However, many people regarded the Commission report as; a piece of "whitewashing", and felt that emphasis had been placed on evidence which suited preconceived opinions with a parallel disregard for evidence by missionaries and others who felt that opium use had its. unfavourable aspects. The use of opium had already spread in Asia and in 1 9 0 3 a United States Senate Committee was established to .look into the problem in the Philippines. It seemed by this time that only Japan had no drug addiction problem. This va.s.. probably because i t had been a self contained nation for many centuries, having l i t t l e contact with other nations. Although opium was widely used in India, China and far Eastern countries in the nineteenth century, i t would seem, from the observations made by various authors, that only a small proportion of the population suffered serious ill-effects from its use. Davenport in "China from Within"5 gave the opinion that opium is much less damaging than is the use of alcohol. May in "Survey of Smoking Opium Conditions in the Far East" stated that in his opinion, opium was no., more abused than was the drinking of liquor and was indulged in for the same, reasons. Merril in "Japan and the Opium Menace" was of the opinion that the effects of opium vere generally more serious than those resulting from the use of alcohol. He also felt that the. use of opium led to more poverty and physical debility on the part of opium users. Despite the various differences of opinion as to the harmful effects of opium, the effects of its use generally on societies where i t was used openly and legally did not seem morbidly different from - 9 -the use of alcohol in our own country. Wide differences of opinion existed among both white people and orientals as to the actual harmful effects of the use of opium. Emotional biases might have played a large part in this difference of opinion. Missionaries, for example, considered opium smoking a terrible vice, whereas business men, white or oriental, often regarded i t as business men here regard whiskey in social intercourse. Many regarded the effects of alcohol as worse than those due to the use of opium. TEE EARLY USE OF OPIUM ON MORTH AMERICA'S WEST COAST Chinese first entered British Columbia from the United States when gold was discovered on the Fraser River in 1856. The Canadian Pacific Railway then brought many others from China for construction of the railroad line through British Columbia in the 1860's. By the early 1880's there were more than 10,000 Chinese in British Colimbia in a total population of 60,000. There were only 20,000 white persons, the remainder being native Indians. Opium came, with the Chinese to both the United States and British Columbia. In the United States, i t was a separate item of import from 18^0 and not even subject to import tax until 1842. In Canada, opium was admitted without customs duty until 1897. In both countries, legal recognition was given to opium for smoking and import taxes contributed - 10 -handsomely to the economy of both c o u n t r i e s . Opium i m p o r t a t i o n d i d hot end i n the United States u n t i l 1909. Canada's Opium Act o f 1908 o f f i c i a l l y ended l e g a l admission t o Canada of opium f o r smoking. However, smuggling of opium i n t o Canada then developed on a l a r g e s c a l e . Opium continued to enter Canada as f r e e l y as ever, perhaps even more so, as there was no duty to pay. P o l i c e l e f t anti-smuggling d u t i e s to Customs o f f i c i a l s and were unable to prosecute opium smokers as such because the smoking o f opium was not an offence under the 1908 A c t . Because of t h i s s i t u a t i o n a Royal Commission was set up i n 1910 "to i n -v e s t i g a t e a l l e g e d Chinese frauds and opium smuggling on the P a c i f i c Coast." I n 1911, on the recommendations of t h i s . Commission, the Opium Act was ammended to make the smoking of opium a punishable offence.-.. Even at t h i s p o i n t , evidence produced by commissions and v a r i o u s i n v e s t i g a t i n g committees d i d not r e v e a l t h a t opium was o b v i o u s l y harmful to many of the people xjho used i t , o r t h a t the smoking of i t by Chinese or white people caused appreciable harm t o s o c i e t y g e n e r a l l y . C e r t a i n l y , some Chinese and white people became i n t o x i c a t e d from the smoking o f opium, but t h i s i n t o x i c a t i o n was a much m i l d e r and l e s s dangerous type than t h a t produced by alc o h o l . . THE. ADVENT AND USE OF OTHER DRUGS OF ADDICTION IN BRITISH COLUMBIA The use o f cocaine began soon a f t e r opium smoking became p r o h i b i t e d . - 11 -For y e a r s , the drug problem as i t e x i s t e d i n Vancouver c o n s i s t e d of the use o f these two drugs. Over the years the p a t t e r n changed, however. By the beginning of World War I I , use of codeine and benzedrine began to appear on the scene. As the war continued, an acute shortage of n a r c o t i c drugs developed, r e s u l t i n g i n a tremendous i n c r e a s e i n the use of b a r b i t u r a t e s such as; nembutal, Seconal and l u m i n a l . B a r b i t u r a t e s are not l i s t e d under the Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act but are governed by the Food and Drugs; Act. Towards the end of World War I I p o l i c e i n Vancouver became aware t h a t a d d i c t s were u s i n g i n i n c r e a s i n g q u a n t i t i e s the drug known as h e r o i n . Today, almost without exception, t h i s i s the drug which i s c r e a t i n g the e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g number of n a r c o t i c a d d i c t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. This drug i s the opium d e r i v a t i v e w i t h the s t r o n g e s t h a b i t - f o r m i n g character-i s t i c s and i s the most i n s i d i o u s of the i l l i c i t n a r c o t i c s . THE EFFECT OF VARIOUS DRUGS ON USERS 1 The opiates: h o l d a s p e c i a l a t t r a c t i v e n e s s f o r drug a d d i c t s . This group i n c l u d e s morphine, h e r o i n and codeine and t h e i r p o p u l a r i t y l i e s p r i m a r i l y i n the s a t i s f a c t i o n they provide i n the need f o r peace and calm. A l l o p i a t e s soothe the nerves, reduce awareness o f p a i n and discomfort 1 See Glossary - 12 -and tend to wipe out mental c o n f l i c t and. the uncomfortable p a t h o l o g i c a l 1 s t r i v i n g s t h a t r e s u l t . Tensions produced by the s t r i v i n g s are r e l i e v e d and under the drug's i n f l u e n c e the n e u r o t i c or psychopathic p a t i e n t f e e l s f r e e , easy and contented, i n c o n t r a s t to h i s u s u a l anxious s t a t e . Prolonged use produces mental and p h y s i c a l l e t h a r g y and l o s s of ambition. The only pleasure l a t e r r e c e i v e d from the drug i s the pleasure i n r e l i e f from withdrawal symptoms. Frequently, the f i r s t dose of opium produces more 2 pleasure than any subsequent indulgence. Users appear to become hyper-s u g g e s t i b l e w h i l e a d d i c t e d . Those addi c t e d are o f t e n comparatively f r e e from signs o f d e t e r i o r a t i o n f o r years. When the a d d i c t ' s supply of o p i a t e s i s stopped, he becomes i l l w i t h p a i n , s u f f e r s from cramps, vom i t i n g , d i a r r h e a , s l e e p l e s s n e s s and p o s s i b l e death. Heroin, taken both hypodermically and by s n u f f i n g , has the g r e a t e s t 3 a d d i c t i o n a b i l i t y o f a l l o p i a t e s . I t s e f f e c t i n producing d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n p e r s o n a l i t y w i t h d i s r e g a r d f o r s o c i a l and moral values i s unsurpassed. Most a u t h o r i t i e s consider i t the most d i f f i c u l t of a l l a d d i c t i o n s to cure. Codiene has a d e f i n i t e though low grade a d d i c t i o n l i a b i l i t y . Both 1 Maurer, "The Argot o f the Underworld N a r c o t i c A d d i c t . " P a r t 1, American Speech. A p r i l 1936, pp 116 - 117 2 Kolb, L. "Drug A d d i c t i o n Among Women," United States E u b l i c Health  B u l l e t i n #211 1925, pA 3 Kolb, L. & Dumez, M. "Experimental A d d i c t i o n o f Animals to N a r c o t i c s , " P u b l i c H e a l t h Report #14.63: Washington, p 3.0 - 13 -d i l a u d i d and metopon have h i g h p h y s i c a l dependence and h a b i t u a t i o n 1 l i a b i l i t i e s . Demerol and methadone are s y n t h e t i c a n a l g e s i c s which are not c h e m i c a l l y r e l a t e d to morphine but are a d d i c t i n g . They possess con-s i d e r a b l e h a b i t u a t i o n l i a b i l i t y and a f t e r prolonged a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e i r a d d i c t s develop p h y s i c a l dependence on them. Cocaine i s , s t r i c t l y speaking, not a n a r c o t i c , nor does i t now c o n s t i t u t e ; a ma jorrldrug;: problem n u m e r i c a l l y even i n the United States;. I t produces a marked s t i m u l a t i o n , a sense of e x h i l a r a t i o n , euphoria and s e l f confidence, an increased f l o w o f ideas and a pressure of. speech and a c t i v i t y . During t h i s p e r i o d of s t i m u l a t i o n and a sense o f competency, there may be an a c t u a l increase i n c a p a c i t y f o r work. As the e f f e c t of the drug wears o f f , however, the a d d i c t f e e l s weak, depressed, r e s t l e s s , morose and i r r i t a b l e . The moral d e t e r i o r a t i o n of the cocaine a d d i c t i s even greater than t h a t of the morphine user and prospects o f a permanent cure are even l e s s f a v o r a b l e than i n the case of the: morphine a d d i c t . Withdrawal o f the drug i s . n o t accompanied by the p a i n f u l exper-iences and tendency t o c o l l a p s e o c c u r i n g i n the withdrawal of opium 3:. d e r i v a t i v e s . Marihuana, though not used s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n these p a r t s , i s o f major concern to p o l i c e drug d e t a i l s i n United States;. This drug i s 1 See Glossary 2 See G l o s s a r y 3 Noyes, A.P. Mgdern..Clinical P s y c h i a t r y . 4 t h ed., W.B. Saunders Companyj P h i l a d e l p h i a and London;. 1953, pp 515 - 516 - H -obtained from a species of hemp p l a n t grown throughout the vrorld i n both temperate and t r o p i c a l c l i m a t e s and i t s a c t i v e p r i n c i p l e i s an o i l . Users of marihuana u s u a l l y smoke i t i n the form o f c i g a r e t t e s commonly known as " r e e f e r s " . There would seem to be a good deal o f misinformation 1 r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t o f t h i s drug on i t s a d d i c t s . U n l i k e opium d e r i v a t -i v e s , marihuana does not create a b i o l o g i c a l dependence adcompanied by withdrawal symptoms and i t s use can be dis c o n t i n u e d without great d i f f i c u l t y . " I t does not l e a d to any p h y s i c a l , mental or moral degred-2 a t i o n even a f t e r prolonged use." . F o l l o w i n g marihuana i n h a l a t i o n , there soon e x i s t s a sense o f euphoria, i n c r e a s e d v o l u b i l i t y and psychomotor a c t i v i t y f o l l o w e d by a f e e l i n g o f calm and ple a s u r a b l e r e l a x a t i o n . The subject might sleep f o r s e v e r a l hours and upon awakening no longer f e e l e x h i l a r a t e d . Most users take marihuana to produce sensations comparable to those produced by a l c o h o l . I t i s a popular misconception t h a t use of marihuana l e a d s to c r i m i n a l h a b i t s . This o p i n i o n has not been sustained by a c t u a l experience and i t i s ; f u r t h e r pointed out t h a t " a l c o h o l causes i n f i n i t e l y more murders, rapes and crimes o f v i o l e n c e than do morphine, h e r o i n cocaine, 3 marihuana and a l l other drugs combined. 1 1 1 Kolb L. "Marijuana, " United States F u b l i c H e a l t h Service B u l l e t i n ( h e r e a f t e r r e f e r r e d to as U.S.P.H.S.) Washington, D.C. r e p r i n t # B-2575 2 Noyes, A.P. op. c i t . p 520 3 Noyes, A.P. op. c i t . p 521 - 15 -Recent years have seen a considerable increase not only in 1 acute., barbiturate intoxication but also in barbiturate addiction., The former accounts for about 25 per cent, of a l l deaths by acute poisoning admitted to general, hospitals,, and more deaths are caused by barbiturates, either accidently ingested or taken with suicidal intent, than, by any other poison. True barbiturate addiction Is • frequent and the sudden withdrawal", of the drug may be followed by abstinence symptoms such as convulsions and/or a psychotic reaction resembling the alcoholic delirium tremens. As with alcoholism and narcotic drug addiction, the important factor in.barbiturate addiction would: appear to be an underlying personality, difficulty. Individuals; with character disorders frequently begin the use of the drug in order to experience its intoxicating effect. Morphine addicts frequently use barbiturates when they are unable to secure morphine or when they wish to re-inforce the effect of that narcotic. Alcoholics frequently begin the use of barbiturates to relieve the tension following a period of heavy drinking and continue their use, often inducing toxic effects. Barbiturates depress brain oxidation so that the chronic barbiturate addict i's confused, often drowsy and depressed, sho\^ s poor judgement and impaired intellectual functioning with a regression of habits., He is often emotionally unstable, morose, quarrelsome, and, Noyes, A.P., op., cit. p 519 - 16 -i f i r r i t a t e d by raonor i n c i d e n t s or f a n c i e d i n s u l t s , may become a s s a u l t i v e . Some become h o s t i l e and develop m i l d paranoia., Extreme cases w i l l o f t e n f i n d a p a t i e n t r e g r e s s i n g to an i n f a n t i l e l e v e l where he has to be waited on, f e d , and nursed. U n l i k e the s i t u a t i o n w i t h n a r c o t i c drug a d d i c t i o n s , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the cases o f b a r b i t u r a t e 1 a d d i c t i o n r e s u l t from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by p h y s i c i a n s . With regard to drugs g e n e r a l l y and t h e i r p h y s i o l o g i c a l e f f e c t on us e r s , Dr. M i c h a e l J.. S a l i b a , J r . , a C a l i f o r n i a p h y s i c i a n who has made an extensive study o f the ph y s i o l o g y of a d d i c t i o n , d e s c ribes the sequence of events, i n t h i s ways "The t i n y p a r t i c l e s , c a l l e d N i s s l ' s granules, composing the b r a i n and s p i n a l nerve t i s s u e , normally r e c e i v e and send out impulses; from and to the ear s , eyes, nose, tongue, s k i n , the d i g e s t i v e , r e s p i r a t o r y and c i r c u l a t o r y systems, the muscles and bones. When a n a r c o t i c - f o r example, h e r o i n , the most v i c i o u s o f them a l l - begins to cover up these p a r t i c l e s , the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s a tremendous e x h i l a r a t i o n . The nerve impulses, which cause normal apprehensions are the f i r s t to be muted. Worries disappear; a ple a s a n t , warm, almost m y s t i c a l sensation sets i n - t e m p o r a r i l y . With continued use, the n a r c o t i c throws the whole sensory apparatus out of l i n e . P l e a s i n g perceptions are magnified, unpleasant ones diminished. An agreeable f i v e minutes seems l i k e an hour. Ordinary noises souiid l i k e music. Common sights; appear b e a u t i f u l . P l a i n odors and t a s t e s , even bad ones, become d e l i g h t f u l . 1 L«To the p o t e n t i a l a d d i c t the f i r s t three or four experiences of t h i s k i n d do not seem dangerous. But without knowing i t , he has a l r e a d y been 'hooked.• This i s what happens by the time he takes h i s second or t h i r d dose: as the n a r c o t i c covers over more and more n e r v e - t i s s u e p a r t i c l e s , the body's defense mechanisms go to work to re p l a c e them. The amount o f n a r c o t i c which muted, the o r i g i n a l number o f Kisslls granules- w i l l not cover the new p a r t i c l e s . The a d d i c t must take more drug to get the l i f t . H i s system keeps pace, manufacturing s t i l l more new t i s s u e i n b r a i n and spine. 1 I b i d , pp 519 - 520 - 17 "Soon the p o i n t o f no r e t u r n i s reached - w i t h s e v e r a l hundred times the normal number o f n e r v e - t i s s u e p a r t i c l e s i n the v i c t i m ' s b r a i n and s p i n a l cord. As l o n g as the t i s s u e remains covered by the n a r c o t i c , he i s happy. When i t i s not, s e v e r a l hundred times the normal number of nerve impulses reach the h e a r t , the lungs, the d i g e s t i v e and other systems. Under the t e r r i b l e bombardment he f e e l s as., though h i s head were about t o explode, h i s bones ache, h i s muscles jump u n c o n t r o l l a b l y . Intense vomiting and d i a r r h e a begin. The s l i g h t e s t sound i s deafening, the m i l d e s t l i g h t b l i n d i n g , the f a i n t e s t odor or t a s t e nauseating. Ants seem to be c r a w l i n g under h i s s k i n . "The agony o f an a d d i c t who stops or even cuts down h i s n a r c o t i c i n t a k e i s i n d e s c r i b a b l e . I t takes great courage to face t h i s t o r t u r e . I r o n i c a l l y , the body i t s e l f i s ready to be amazingly co-operative. W i t h i n f i v e days t o two weeks a f t e r the n a r c o t i c i s stopped, the system w i l l have e l i m i n a t e d the surplus N i s s l ' s . granules and be back t o n e a r l y normal. But the great m a j o r i t y of addicts, do not have the mental strength to r e s i s t and take the punishment o f the f i r s t days o f withdrawal." 1 SYMPTOMS, DURATION AND METHODS OF WITHDRAWAL Because i n B r i t i s h Columbia we are concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h o p i a t e s , and h e r o i n i n p a r t i c u l a r , d i s c u s s i o n o f withdrawal here w i l l d e al e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h persons addicted t o these drugs. As other drugs have been discussed ye have attempted to review b r i e f l y t h e i r abstinence symptoms. When o p i a t e s are a b r u p t l y withdrawn from an a d d i c t a d e f i n i t e t r a i n o f symptoms known as: abstinence or withdrawal symptoms appears. I f w i t h i n twelve to fourteen hours a f t e r the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f h e r o i n the dose i s not repeated, these withdrawal signs and symptoms are yawning, 1 Sondern, F.J., "This Problem o f N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n - L e t s Face i t Sensibly,"; Reader's Digest, P u b l i s h e d by Reader's Digest A s s o c i a t i o n (Canada) Montreal, P.Q. V o l 75, # 4 4 9 , Sept 1959, pp32 - 32 - 18 -l a c r i m a t i o n , r h i n o r r h e a , sneezing and p e r s p i r a t i o n . I n t h e i r moderate form these symptoms become more marked and tremor, anorexia, d i l a t e d p u p i l s and gooseflesh are added. About t h i r t y - s i x hours a f t e r the l a s t dose or " f i x , r marked withdrawal symptoms appear i n the form o f uncont-r o l l a b l e t w i t c h i n g of muscles, development of cramps i n the l e g s , abdomen and back and a r i s e i n body temperature. The a d d i c t becomes i n t e n s e l y r e s t l e s s , s u f f e r s from insomnia, w h i l e pulse and blood pressure r i s e . I n t h e i r severe form withdrawal symptoms i n c l u d e v o m i t i n g , d i a r r h e a and l o s s of weight. Acute signs and symptoms reach t h e i r height about f o u r t y -e i g h t hours a f t e r the l a s t dose of h e r o i n and remain a t t h i s height f o r seventy-two hours:. During the next f i v e t o ten days symptoms g r a d u a l l y subside.. As withdrawal symptoms develop the p a t i e n t becomes r e s t l e s s , p e s s i m i s t i c , s u r l y , f a u l t - f i n d i n g and i r r i t a b l e , and e x h i b i t s an unpleasant, i n c r e a s e d motor a c t i v i t y . He experiences marked s u b j e c t i v e f e e l i n g of weakness and considerable p r o s t r a t i o n u s u a l l y occurs. He may curse, c r y , be i m p u l s i v e l y d e s t r u c t i v e and make s u i c i d a l gestures. T Q a l a r g e extent, the i n t e n s i t y of withdrawal symptoms depends on the amount of the drug the p a t i e n t has been t a k i n g . To some degree the extent of the symp-toms can be c o n t r o l l e d by the p a t i e n t h i m s e l f . A p g j i e n t who appears comfortable during the p e r i o d o f withdrawal should be suspected o f access 1 to i l l i c i t drugs. 1 Hoyes, A.P. Modern C l i n i c a l P s y c h i a t r y , 4th ed., W.B. Saunders Company; P h i l a d e l p h i a and London; 1953 pp 515 - 516 - 19 -Withdrawal treatment i s the f i r s t phase of the o v e r - a l l t r e a t -ment, f o r the a d d i c t . Perhaps i t i s the e a s i e s t and the l e a s t important p a r t of the treatment program, but i t has to be c a r r i e d out before the longer and more d i f f i c u l t p a r t can begin. I t was the f e e l i n g of the Research Group on Drug A d d i c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia t h a t withdrawal treatment can be c a r r i e d out p r o p e r l y o n l y i n a secure environment. The person should not have t o be sentenced to j a i l i n order t o secure withdrawal treatment f o r h i s a d d i c t i o n . Nevertheless, the secure en-vironment would, prevent access t o n a r c o t i c s and probable discontinuance of treatment because of d i s t r e s s . There i s a need f o r s k i l l e d and competent n u r s i n g s e r v i c e s t o safeguard a g a i n s t s u i c i d e . Most of the f o r e g o i n g r e f e r s to the " c o l d t u r k e y " method o f withdrawal i n which the a d d i c t i s completely and suddenly cut o f f from h i s supply of drugs. This i s the q u i c k e s t form of withdrawal but i s probably the most d i f f i c u l t f o r the a d d i c t h i m s e l f . Another method of withdrawal i s the "gradual r e d u c t i o n " method. This i s a more humane form of withdrawal and the one having the l o n g e s t t r a d i t i o n . This form of withdrawal i s o f t e n used by a d d i c t s themselves. Down through the years, many drugs have been used as adjunct or replacement drugs i n therapy. Methadone and N a l l i n e are two which have been more e f f i c i e n t i n l a t t e r years. Researchers almost u n i v e r s a l l y condemn the "ambulatory" method of withdrawal. With t h i s method drugs are administered i n dec-r e a s i n g amounts but the a d d i c t remains ambulatory and comes t o a c l i n i c or centre f o r h i s decreasing doses. This method i s considered expensive - 20 -and cumbersome and i s rendered ad d i t i o n a l l y unsatisfactory because when the addict experiences any distress he almost invariably secures additional supplies from i l l i c i t sources for s e l f administration, and 1 his physician has therefore no r e a l control over treatment. 1 The Stevenson Report, 1956 Chapter I I PREVALENCE, CLASSIFICATION AND LEGAL ASPECTS Drug a d d i c t i o n i s p r e v a l e n t now i n a l l p a r t s of Canada but the problems of t h i s s o c i a l disease are most apparent i n the .Province of B r i t i s h Columbia and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c i t y o f Vancouver where more than one t h i r d of the country's drug a d d i c t s are b e l i e v e d to e x i s t . For t h i s reason there i s perhaps more a t t e n t i o n given t o Vancouver and the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia i n t h i s Chapter. DRUG ADDICTION, CLASSIFICATION OF ADDICTS, THE ADDICT AS A PERSON 1 The Expert Committee of the World Health O r g a n i z a t i o n on 1 The World Health O r g a n i z a t i o n i s a body w i t h i n the United Nations O r g a n i z a t i o n dedicated to the improvement of h e a l t h standards and p r a c t i c e s throughout the world. The f i r s t Assembly of the United Nations created the Commission on N a r c o t i c Drugs. This body i s engaged i n a great humanitarian e f f o r t to suppress the abuse of dangerous drugs and thereby reduce human misery. The N a r c o t i c Commission acts; by making use, on the one hand,.of the e f f e c t i v e means made a v a i l a b l e by s e v e r a l N a r c o t i c Conventions and, on the other hand, of p u b l i c o p i n i o n . Three i n t e r n a t i o n a l bodies are engaged i n t h i s work. The trade i n n a r c o t i c s i s watched over by the Permanent C e n t r a l Opium Board which meets semi-annually i n Geneva. Another i n t e r n a t i o n a l organ, the Supervisory Body, meets semi-annually t o review the estimates of a l l governments f o r medical needs. The Committee on Drug A d d i c t i o n of the World Health O r g a n i z a t i o n s i t s a n nually to review the f i e l d of newly discovered drugs to determine w h i c h . s h a l l be placed under i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l . The concerted i n t e r n a t i o n a l program i n the f i e l d of n a r c o t i c drugs i s d i r e c t e d towards the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s : a) Improving the n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e g i s l a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery i n the f i e l d of n a r c o t i c s ; b) Regulating n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l trade i n N a r c o t i c s ; c) C o - o r d i n a t i n g the e f f o r t s f o r treatment and e r a d i c a t i o n ' of drug addiction.. - 22 -drugs l i a b l e to produce a d d i c t i o n d e f i n e s drug a d d i c t i o n as "a s t a t e of p e r i o d i c or c h r o n i c i n t o x i c a t i o n , d e t r i m e n t a l to the i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i e t y , produced by the repeated consumption of a drug ( n a t u r a l or s y n t h e t i c ) . I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e : 1. An overpowering d e s i r e , or need (compulsion) to continue t a k i n g the drug and to o b t a i n i t by any means; 2. A tendency to i n c r e a s e the dose; 3. A p s y c h i c ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l ) and sometimes a p h y s i c a l dependence on the e f f e c t of the drug." 1 The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education s t a t e s "Drug a d d i c t -i o n e x i s t s when a person's behaviour and way of l i f e are determined by c h i s dependence on and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of n a r c o t i c drugs which are 2 harmful to him and hence to s o c i e t y . " G e n e r a l l y speaking, there are three types of a d d i c t s . F i r s t , there are those c a l l e d medical a d d i c t s . They have become addicted as a r e s u l t of medical c o n d i t i o n i n which drugs have been l e g i t i m a t e l y administered f o r the r e l i e f o f p a i n . Second, there are a number of persons known as p r o f e s s i o n a l a d d i c t s . They are medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s , nurses, d e n t i s t s and v e t i n a r i a n s , who, having access to them, have become addicted to drugs. The t h i r d group, and the one of most p u b l i c concern, c o n s i s t s of those who o b t a i n t h e i r supply from the i l l i c i t market; they are known as c r i m i n a l a d d i c t s . 1 The Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t Education i s a p r i v a t e N a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n founded i n 1935. I t s purpose i s to make in f o r m a t i o n and •education, available... to. anyone whp„ se. e k s j . - i t T h e .Asspciat_ion.-is financed by P r o v i n c i a l Governments as w e l l as numerous p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies. 2 C i t i z e n s ' Forum "Should Drug Ad d i c t s Go To J a i l , ' ! . Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n  f o r A d u l t Education, 113 St. George S t . , Toronto O n t a r i o , Oct. 1959 1,2 Himmelsback and Small have pointed out that addiction to opium and similar drugs': embraces: three related but distinct phenomena:. 1. ) tolerance:, 2) physical dependence.-, and" 3) habituation.. Tolerance-means the diminishing effect of the same, dose: of the: drug when i t is. administered repeatedly over a period of. time. As a result i t is necessary to increase the dose to secure an effect equivalent to that of the original dose. Physical, dependence means an altered physiological state produced by the repeated administration of a drug over a long period of time with the result that the continued use of. the., drug is. necessary in order to prevent, the;, appearance of a characteristic group of symptoms knotm as an abstinence syndrome.. Habituation means, an emotional, or psychologic.; dependence on the drug because of the relief of tension and emotional discomfort which i t affords. - the need for its, euphoria-producing effect.. The largest group of addicts is composed of individuals with personality disorders who became addicted to drugs through contact and association with persons already addicted. Members of this:, group are usually emotionally immature, hostile, aggressive persons who take drugs in order to secure relief.from inner tension. They have few healthy resources: or interests and are motivated by immature drives for immediate goals. The addict-to-be finds in the drug a release from tension felt as 1. Small, L.F. & Himmelsback,C.K., "Studies on Drug Addiction" Supplement  138 to the Public Health Reports. U.S.P.H.S., Washington, 1938 2. Noyes, A.P.., Modern Clinical Psychiatry. 4th ed., W.B.. Saunders Companyj Philadelphia and Londonj 1953, pp 513 - 514 - 24 -a restless need for pleasurable or exotic senaations, the satisfaction of a; longing for artif i c i a l elation or peace.. Conscious discomfort is; elim-1 inated:, repressed drives: may be released and responsibility is evaded... In addition to the foregoing psychiatric views; of Noyes, there, is., considerable evidence that the;- addict-to-be has usually to be socialized into the addict culture before addiction can begin. In other words, addiction is by and large group induced, through association with other addicts-.. Also worth mentioning Is the fact that drug addiction is often just one. of a number of significant.symbols declaring and confirming member-ship of a criminal sub-culture., A second group consists of frankly neurotic persons; with anxiety,,, obsessive, compulsive or. psychophysiologic: symptoms which are relieved by drugs.. A third group consists of persons who in the course of physical illness received drugs over an extended period of time and after the termination of the: ailment continued their use. Probably,,, however, a l l persons who acquire addiction in this manner have some fundamental emotional problem which caused them to continue the use of drugs beyond the period of medical need. Many addicts were intemporate in the use of alcohol before they became addicted to drugs. In practically a l l addicts 2 their previous adjustment to l i f e was marginal or unsatisfactory.. 1 Noyes:, A.P., op. cit. p 513 2 Ibid., p 513 - 25 -ANALYSIS OF ADDICT POPULATIONS THROUGHOUT CANADA 1 Table 1 shows statistics, compiled in 1955 from the card index records maintained in the Division of Narcotic Control of the Department O f f National!Health and Welfare.. The: table reveals: for that year a known addict group in Canada of 3,212. Of this number there were: 333 professional 2 addicts, 515' medical addicts and 2,3.64- criminal addicts. Police in the large addict centres of Canada and particularly in Vancouver indicate that the;, incidence: of." addiction: has increased since compilation of the: afore-mentioned figures so it", can be; said that present figures will exceed those.; mentioned. The: 1955. Senate inquiry indicated that of the 2,364- criminal addicts, Montreal was known to have some 200, Toronto about 400 and Vancouver about 1100. The balance are in prisons and in such other Canadian cities as Halifax, N.S.,, Hamilton,Ont., Moose Jaw, Sask.., Calgary, Alta., to name a few. Neither race, intelligence, occupation nor religion appear to have any bearing on the physical proneness to addiction. The only common de-nominators known are the physical and chemical effects in the body, resulting from the use of drugs. 1 See table on page 26 Z For an explanation of the. different types of addicts please^ refer to page 22 - 26 -Table I Total Addict Population.By'Province and By Types ( Canada, 1955 ) Province Criminal Medical Professional Totals British Columbia ..... l , l o l 46. 38 1,185-141 32 20 193 45 11 23 79 14.8 12 16 176 655 188 127 970 2 119 13 34 260 171 77 508 12 31 16 59 Prince Edward Island •- - 4 2 6 1 1 2 - 1. 1 2 Totals 2,364 515. 333 3,212 Source:; Adapted from proceedings of the Special Senate Committee on the "Traffic in Narcotic Drugs in Canada,. The Senate of Canada,, 1955, p.475 - 27 -Because of l e g a l and moral s a n c t i o n s , a d d i c t s do not w i l l i n g l y r e v e a l t h e i r i d e n t i t y . Court and p r i s o n s t a t i s t i c s are t h e r e f o r e the main sources of i n f o r m a t i o n on a d d i c t i o n . I t must be remembered, however, t h a t the unconvicted always c o n s t i t u t e an u n d i s c l o s e d f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l number of a d d i c t s . This makes i t d i f f i c u l t to determine the true s t a t i s t i c a l s i t u a t i o n and r a t e o f i n c r e a s e . Concerned people f i n d t h a t they are d e a l i n g w i t h the c o n t r o l of a phenomenon whose p r o p o r t i o n s are not known w i t h accuracy. BRITISH COLUMBIA'S TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS Information from the - Royal Canadian Mounted P o l i c e and from Vancouver C i t y P o l i c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t most of the h e r o i n reaching the i l l i c i t market i n B r i t i s h Columbia o r i g i n a t e s i n Mexico. From here i t i s shipped to the Eastern United States and then t o E a s t e r n Canada to c i t i e s such as. Hamilton, Montreal, and Toronto. I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t some comes from the Eastern Mediterranean, and a l s o from the Peoples. Republic o f China v i a Hong Kong. Some enters Vancouver d i r e c t l y from the O r i e n t by sh i p and, because of the l a r g e Vancouver market, i t i s thought t h a t some now comes more d i r e c t l y from Mexico. The l a r g e r p o r t i o n , hoxrever, i s s t i l l b e l i e v e d to come to Vancouver from Eastern Canada. Heroin i s purchased i n Eastern Canada a t p r i c e s r anging from $500 to $600 per ounce and sometimes as much as t h i r t y ounces are purchased at a time. There are many means by which the h e r o i n i s then brought to Vancouver -planes, t r a i n s , automobiles and even by m a i l . Packages, or containers. 23 -are u s u a l l y camouflaged and brought i n by some person unknown to the p o l i c e . I n c i d e n t a l l y , the baggage of t r a v e l l e r s between p o i n t s i n Canada i s not sub j e c t to i n s p e c t i o n as i s the case when e n t e r i n g or l e a v i n g other c o u n t r i e s . Nevertheless, t r a f f i c k e r s go t o great lengths to disgmise and camouflage t h e i r shipments; o f drugs. This would i n c l u d e such ingenious methods as sending through the m a i l i n small p a r c e l s i n a talcum powder t i n , or hidden i n other types o f cosmetics. I t may be brought i n i n rubber c o n t a i n e r s concealed i n the gas tank o f a car or hidden i n the f a l s e bottom o f a s u i t c a s e or other baggage . When i t reaches Vancouver, h e r o i n i s turned over by the d i s t r i b u t o r to an a s s o c i a t e whose job u s u a l l y i s to pack i t i n capsules and " p l a n t " or hide i t i n v a r i o u s l o c a t i o n s throughout the c i t y , then g i v i n g these l o c a t i o n s to the d i s t r i b u t o r . When the a s s o c i a t e , known as the " p l a n t " man, begins p l a c i n g the h e r o i n capsules, he w i l l have w i t h him a white powdery sugar o f m i l k which resembles h e r o i n . He mixes one ounce of t h i s sugar o f m i l k w i t h one ounce o f h e r o i n , a d u l t e r a t i n g the drug to make up a two ounce mixture. A supply o f number f i v e c l e a r g e l a t i n capsules o b t a i n a b l e l e g a l l y a t any drug s t o r e , would be on hand i n t o which he would cap up the mixture. One ounce of t h i s mixture w i l l make or f i l l four hundred capsules, more or l e s s . Thus, from the o r i g i n a l ounce o f h e r o i n , 800 capsules of ad-u l t e r a t e d h e r o i n are obtained. The " p l a n t " man's next procedure i s to pack f i v e of these capsules i n t o a small o r d i n a r y rubber b a l l o o n , t y i n g the end of each b a l l o o n w i t h a s l i p knot. He then p l a c e s t e n or twenty of these balloons i n t o a rubber condom, t y i n g the end of the condom w i t h a s l i p knot. Next, h i s procedure i s to " p l a n t " or conceal these bundles - 29 -around the c i t y i n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s and at d e f i n i t e markers. The marker i s u s u a l l y a stop s i g n , f i r e hydrant, telephone pole, s t r e e t s i g n post, the corner of a garage, or even a c l o t h e s l i n e p ost. The s t r e e t address o f premises adjaecent t o the marker i s then w r i t t e n down, u s u a l l y 1 i n code form, and turned over to the d i s t r i b u t o r . The stage i s then set for. the next step i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n procedure. The d i s t r i b u t o r f i r s t mentioned i s now contacted by the "pedlars" or "pushers" f o r t h e i r supply to s e l l on the s t r e e t . On the s t r e e t i n Vancouver t h i s d i s t r i b u t o r u s u a l l y charges #2.00 a capsule to the s t r e e t p e d l a r or pusher. Thus, the o r i g i n a l ounce o f h e r o i n purchased f o r $600, and made up i n t o 800 capsules of a d u l t e r a t e d h e r o i n brings the d i s t r i b u t o r $1600, or a p r o f i t o f $1000. Handling 3 0 ounces at one time would b r i n g the d i s t r i b u t o r a r p r o f i t of $30,000 and i t i s known to p o l i c e t h a t i n some instances the h e r o i n i s a d u l t e r a t e d to a greater degree by the d i s t r i b u t o r than i n d i c a t e d here. The " p l a n t " man who does the o r i g i n a l capping up, w i l l u s u a l l y use a d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n each time he does t h i s work. P l a c e s most o f t e n used are auto courts or motels where there i s an i n s i d e p r i v a t e t o i l e t 1 M u l l i g a n , W.H. ( P o l i c e C h i e f f o r the c i t y o f Vancouver, 1947 - 1956) Disc u s s i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia's t r a f f i c i n N a r c o t i c Drugs has been adapted from Mr. Mulligan's, b r i e f t o the S p e c i a l Senate Committee on the T r a f f i c i n N a r c o t i c Drugs i n Canada, 1955, and i s contained i n the pub l i s h e d d e t a i l o f t h i s Committee under the Proceedings of the S p e c i a l Committee on the T r a f f i c i n N a r c o t i c Drugs i n Canada. Queens P r i n t e r s , Ottawa, 1955, pp.59 - 82 - 30 -i n t o which he "can f l u s h the drugs should he be s u r p r i s e d by the p o l i c e . When the s t r e e t pedlar or pusher contacts the d i s t r i b u t o r he pays over the money and i s then given the l o c a t i o n of one of the " p l a n t s " . He, will go there immediately, search f o r and recover the hidden drugs. The s t r e e t pedlar w i l l o f t e n go to some safe place h i m s e l f and s t i l l f u r t h e r d i l u t e the h e r o i n . As an i l l u s t r a t i o n , i f the s t r e e t pedlar buys 50 capsules, he would d i l u t e i t , again u s i n g sugar of mil k making 100 capsules from the 50 he purchased. This pedlar has pa i d the d i s t r i b u t o r $100 f o r h i s 50 capsules, and he now has 100 capsules of doubly a d u l t e r a t e d h e r o i n . This man then s e l l s t o the a d d i c t oh the s t r e e t a t an average p r i c e o f fou r d o l l a r s per capsule, r e a l i z i n g $4-00 or a p r o f i t of $300. The method used by the s t r e e t peddlar i s to put ten or twenty capsules i n a rubber container, place t h i s small bundle i n h i s mouth, and proceed to a beer parlour', c a f e , or pool room, there to await the drug-seeking a d d i c t s . The s t r e e t pedlar w i l l sometimes use a man known as a " s t e e r e r " , who walks around the v i c i n i t y \,rhere a d d i c t s congregate, t e l l i n g of the pedlar's whereabouts to any known a d d i c t s t h a t he meets. The s t r e e t p e d l a r proceeding to a l o c a t i o n such as those mentioned i s very c a r e f u l t o f i n d a seat f a c i n g the entrance, and he u s u a l l y s i t s w i t h h i s back a g a i n s t a x-jall. The drugs are i n h i s mouth and he w i l l swallow them immediately should he see a p o l i c e o f f i c e r e n t e r i n g the premises. When i t i s necessary f o r the pedlar t o swallow the drugs, as i t o f t e n i s , these people are adept o f t e n a t r e g u r g i t a t i n g them, and, being i n a - 31 -w a t e r t i g h t rubber c o n t a i n e r , the drugs are recovered undamaged. When a s t r e e t pedlar i s contacted by an a d d i c t he i s p a i d f o u r d o l l a r s and the a d d i c t then r e c e i v e s h i s capsule. A pedlar may even take the drug out of h i s mouth seated where he I s and pass i t to the a d d i c t . G e n e r a l l y , however, he w i l l go to a t o i l e t and l o c k h i m s e l f i n one of the c u b i c l e s then e x t r a c t i n g from h i s package the r e q u i r e d number of capsules. By t h i s p r e c a u t i o n he p r o t e c t s h i m s e l f from the p o l i c e , f o r should the p o l i c e endeavor to catch him at t h i s p o i n t by breaking i n t o the c u b i c l e , the pedlar.; w i l l immediately f l u s h the drugs down the t o i l e t and the p o l i c e would be compelled t o r e l e a s e him f o r l a c k of evidence. Having h i s capsules from the s t r e e t pedlar the a d d i c t immediately wraps them i n s i l v e r paper, and places them i n h i s mouth so t h a t he can swallow them i f checked by a p o l i c e o f f i c e r . L i k e the p e d l a r , he can recover the drugs i n t a c t a f t e r the o f f i c e r leaves should he have had to swallow, them. With the drugs the a d d i c t u s u a l l y proceeds to h i s room which i s probably l o c a t e d i n one of the cheaper h o t e l s or rooming houses. He w i l l look around c a r e f u l l y to make sure no p o l i c e o f f i c e r i s a w a i t i n g him. A f t e r checking h i s room, the a d d i c t w i l l p i c k up h i s p a r a p h e r n a l i a f o r u s i n g the drug. I t i s r a r e l y kept i n the room, but r a t h e r w i l l be hidden i n an adjaecent hallway, bathroom or t o i l e t . Returning to h i s room, he l o c k s and bolts, the door, sometimes even b a r r i c a d i n g i t w i t h c h a i r s or other furniture.'. The a d d i c t w i l l o f t e n w a i t f o r a short p e r i o d a f t e r t h i s step has been taken i n the event t h a t he has been fo l l o w e d by 32 -the p o l i c e , who might break i n the door i n an e f f o r t to cat c h him w i t h i n c r i m i n a t i n g evidence i n h i s possession. When s a t i s f i e d t h a t the coast i s c l e a r , the a d d i c t then prepares t o take h i s i n j e c t i o n o f drugs. There are only f i v e t o t e n minutes i n v o l v e d u s u a l l y i n pr e p a r i n g and c l e a n i n g up afterwards.. P a r a p h e r n a l i a u s u a l l y c o n s i s t of an o r d i n a r y teaspoon, a hypodermic needle, obtainable a t any drug s t o r e , a few drops of water 1 and matches, and an eyedropper. In recent years drug ped l a r s have r e s o r t e d f r e q u e n t l y to another method of g e t t i n g drugs to the a d d i c t on the s t r e e t . This method i s commonly known as the "mobile" method of d i s t r i b u t i o n . Several pedlars may j o i n f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g together. An a d d i c t wanting t o buy drugs phones a c e r t a i n pre-arranged number and the pedlar takes the order, at the sametime i n s t r u c t i n g the a d d i c t to v/ait on a p a r t i c u l a r corner. This corner w i l l u s u a l l y be i n a more i s o l a t e d area where there i s the l e a s t p o s s i b i l i t y of p o l i c e d e t e c t i o n . One or two men d r i v e around i n an automobile f o r the p e d l a r . They have drugs w i t h them and phone i n to the pe d l a r p e r i o d i c a l l y to r e c e i v e from him the l o c a t i o n o f w a i t i n g a d d i c t s . On r e c e i p t o f a l o c a t i o n , the men i n the car d r i v e there and p i c k up the a d d i c t almost i^ithout stopping the c a r . They d r i v e the a d d i c t around while the t r a n s a c t i o n i s t a k i n g p l a c e , then l e t him out q u i c k l y and d r i v e 2 on to another c o n t a c t . This type of pedlar u s u a l l y s e l l s a t a "wholesale" 1. M u l l i g a n , W.H. op. c i t . p 65 2. Loc. c i t . : ' r price, - f i v e capsules i n a balloon f o r f i f t e e n d o l l a r s , or sometimes three capsules for ten d o l l a r s . This method i s extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r the police as the pedlar keeps the windows up and car doors locked, and w i l l calmly swallow the rubber balloon of capsules while police are try i n g to break the windows and get into the car to seize the drugs before they disappear i n front of th e i r eyes. Making i t a d d i t i o n a l l y d i f f i c u l t for o f f i c e r s to follow i n the police car and surprise the peddlars i s the fact that they keep a sharp lookout, becoming very suspicious i f a car following them makes even two changes of direc t i o n to coincide with t h e i r own. From the foregoing accounts of methods used i n d i s t r i b u t i n g drugs and of precautions taken by those engaged i n t h e i r use and d i s t -r i b u t i o n , i t w i l l be obvious how d i f f i c u l t i t i s for the police to catch d i s t r i b u t o r s and addicts with incriminating evidence. COSTS OF ADDICTION When a person f i r s t becomes addicted he can get along vrith only one " f i x " a day using 1/8 grain, but i n time he finds that he not only needs a larger dose of drugs but needs i t more often, u n t i l he i s using one capsule to a i'fix." four times a day. This i s what the average addict i s estimated to use although i t has. been knoxm for addicts to use as many as f i f t e e n capsules a day or more. Such addiction would probably consist of four " f i x e s " a day, each of three capsules;. - 34 -Supposing the a d d i c t were able to buy h i s drugs a t the "wholesale" r a t e of three d o l l a r s per capsule, he would need a t l e a s t twelve d o l l a r s . • per day f o r drugs. To o b t a i n t h i s amount, the c r i m i n a l a d d i c t must s t e a l or o b t a i n by other i l l e g a l means a t l e a s t t h i r t y - s i x d o l l a r s worth of goods, as s t o l e n goods b r i n g only about 1/3 of t h e i r a c t u a l v a l u e when disposed o f through a "fence" o r r e c e i v e r o f s t o l e n goods. Vancouver has now i n excess o f twelve hundred c r i m i n a l a d d i c t s . I f the f i g u r e o f one thousand i s , used f o r the purpose of i l l u s t r a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g would be the cost of such c r i m i n a l a d d i c t i o n i n Vancouver. At twelve d o l l a r s per day each, t h i s would mean twelve thousand d o l l a r s per day cash to keep a l l s u p p l i e d , o r a t o t a l monthly average o f three hundred and s i x t y thousand d o l l a r s . To supply these one thousand a d d i c t s w i t h t h e i r d a i l y dosage f o r one year would c o s t approximatly f o u r and one h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . There i s . only one way f o r the a d d i c t s t o o b t a i n t h i s money and a cons e r v a t i v e estimate of the equivalent c o s t I n crime would 1 be ten m i l l i o n dollars.} With regard to t h i s s i t u a t i o n one can r e a d i l y appreciate the d i f f i c u l t t a s k c o n f r o n t i n g the p o l i c e . Not o n l y do they have to t r y and cope w i t h the problem o f d i s t r i b u t i o n and s a l e o f drugs, but they a l s o have to cope w i t h the crime committed by a d d i c t s i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to 1 M u l l i g a n W.H. op. c i t . p 66 - 35 -o b t a i n the money necessary t o support t h e i r h a b i t s . I t could be mentioned too t h a t the foregoing do not represent-a l l the costs d i r e c t l y r e s u l t i n g from the use of drugs. Consideration must a l s o be given t o the not i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l c o s t s of mai n t a i n i n g c o n v i c t e d a d d i c t s - i n i n s t i t u t i o n s . Another sometimes f o r g o t t e n expense i s the cost to p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies o f m a i n t a i n i n g the f a m i l i e s o f a d d i c t s who are s e r v i n g sentences. These represent only the f i n a n c i a l costs and do not r e v e a l c l e a r l y the human cost s o f uprooted homes. The sentence of a m a r i t a l p a r t n e r to p r i s o n f r e q u e n t l y s t r a i n s the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n - • s h i p beyond r e p a i r . Homes are o f t e n permanently broken and c h i l d r e n caught up i n such "nightmares" s u f f e r immeasurably from r e s u l t i n g d e p r i v a t i o n . The problem o f a d d i c t i o n as i t now e x i s t s i n Canada, i n v o l v e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , medical and l e g a l aspects. 'Although a d d i c t s are seldom i n v o l v e d i n crimes of v i o l e n c e , they r e s o r t t o most other types of crime to o b t a i n money f o r drugs. A common form o f a d d i c t crime i s . t h e f t . I t i s u s u a l l y of a s h o p l i f t i n g nature although some a d d i c t s are adept a t prowl i n g h o t e l s and rooming-houses where they s t e a l money, c l o t h i n g and v a l u a b l e s o f s l e e p i n g or absent guests. A d d i c t s a l s o t u r n to b u r g l a r y f o r g e r y , strong-arming of drunken c i t i z e n s , holdups and p r o s t i t u t i o n . P r o s t i t u t i o n i s a l s o o f concern t o p u b l i c h e a l t h o f f i c i a l s because o f the spread o f venereal d i s e a s e , t u b e r c u l o s i s and other communicable disease. - 36 -AN ASSESSMENT OF CANADA'S OPIUM AND NARCOTIC DRUG ACT The Opium and Narcotic Drug Act was originally enacted in 1903 to end the legal sale of opium for smoking. Since that time i t has been periodically ammended to restrict or prohibit the sale of other narcotic and less dangerous drugs arid to regulate a system of licensing and control for the l i c i t use of these drugs for scientific and medical purposes. It has stated penalties for violations of the Act in its various parts. The enforcement of the: Opium and Narcotic Drug Act is the res-ponsibility of the Federal Government. The Royal Canadian Mounted Police seek to control the illegal importation and sale of narcotics;. The Department of Health and. Welfare through the Division of Narcotic Control, 1 is responsible for the legal importation and distribution of drugs. Barbiturate Drugs and their use is governed by the Food' and Drugs Act. While barbiturates can also cause addiction and greatly impair social functioning, this act will not be discussed here. A great number of addicts feel that the prohibited use of opiates, is an infringement of their rights, as a minority in a democracy. They claim to have just as much right to use heroin legally as others have to use alcohol. They regard heroin as a substitute which gives them greater 1 Kirkpatrick, A.M. "New Approach To Drug Problem Suggested1.', Reprinted from the Canadian Bar Journal,Vol. 2, No. 6, Nov. 1959 - 37 -comfort than does a l c o h o l . While t h i s view might have some s u p e r f i c i a l p l a u s i b i l i t y , i t must be remembered th a t the m a j o r i t y , through Parliament, must evaluate the r i g h t s of m i n o r i t e s as they r e l a t e to the general p u b l i c w e l f a r e . I n so doing, Government, not only i n Canada but i n most other c o u n t r i e s of the world, has decided t h a t h e r o i n and c e r t a i n other drugs should not be a v a i l a b l e f o r p r i v a t e use. C u r i o u s l y , the Opium, and N a r c o t i c Drug Act does not make i t an offence to be a drug user ( w i t h the exception of the smoking of opium.) 1 I t o n l y makes i t an offence to be i n possession of n a r c o t i c drugs. The Act does not seem t o be concerned as to why some people seek possession of n a r c o t i c drugs. The mandatory minimum sentence of s i x months f o r possession i m p l i e s a p e r i o d of "treatment" f o r the a d d i c t . However, I t i s worthy of note t h a t i n most Canadian p r i s o n s , there has been l i t t l e or no attempt at or f a c i l i t i e s f o r the treatment of a d d i c t i o n . I t i s a l s o r e a l i z e d by most c r i m i n o l o g i s t s and p e n o l o g i s t s t h a t a p r i s o n sentence should be a punishment of l a s t r e s o r t . s The p u n i t i v e f e a t u r e s of the Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act have become i n c r e a s i n g l y severe since 1908 when there were no laws p r o h i b i t i n g the use of opium f o r pleasure. I t i s not i n the p e n a l t i e s alone however t h a t the a d d i c t appears to be under a s p e c i a l d i s a b i l i t y . An example might be c i t e d i n the case of an i n d i v i d u a l found i n possession of s e v e r a l capsules of h e r o i n . He may be r e q u i r e d to prove t h a t he d i d not have these 1 See Glossary r e . " n a r c o t i c drugs" - 3 8 - -f o r the purpose of t r a f f i c k i n g . The onus i s . on him to prove h i s innocence of i n t e n t to t r a f f i c i n n a r c o t i c s . This i s v e r y much i n c o n t r a s t to the w e l l recognized p r i n c i p l e of B r i t i s h j u s t i c e by which a person i s deemed to be innocent u n t i l proved to the c o n t r a r y beyond a l l reasonable 1 doubt. A f u r t h e r hardship i n f l i c t e d on i n d i v i d u a l s c o n v i c t e d under the Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act has been t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to be considered f o r p a r o l e . For most types of c o n v i c t i o n a person undergoing sentence may be considered f o r a r e m i s s i o n i f he has served a s p e c i f i e d p o r t i o n of h i s sentence. However, the N a t i o n a l P a r o l e Board of the Department of J u s t i c e has u s u a l l y chosen to exclude persons convicted under the Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act from such c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Of l a t e , however, there has been some r e l e n t i n g i n t h i s regard although the a t t i t u d e tox^ards such offenders does., not appear much to: have changed. The present p u n i t i v e approach to drug a d d i c t i o n has not been an e f f e c t i v e d e t e r r e n t to the ad d i c t motivated by the need f o r drugs o r , f o r t h a t matter, to the non-addict dealer i n p u r s u i t o f s u b s t a n t i a l p r o f i t s . The i l l i c i t t r a f f i c has not been suppressed and n e i t h e r has the spread o f a d d i c t i o n been prevented. This i s not to suggest t h a t the law enforcement e f f o r t s to c o n t r o l a d d i c t i o n should not be continued i n order to c o n t a i n t h i s - s o c i a l p e r i l w i t h i n the smallestsscope. 1 The Stevenson Report, 1956 - 39 -That the a d d i c t h i m s e l f i s considered a c r i m i n a l i s a great p i t y f o r he r e a l l y represents a profound medical problem. I t does not f o l l o w however t h a t crime and the use of drugs are mutually e x c l u s i v e o f one another; they go v e r y much hand i n hand under present l e g i s l a t i o n . Regardless of the c r i m i n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s which may have l e d to the t a k i n g o f the drug, or the p r i o r delinquency which might have l e d to these ass-o c i a t i o n s , or of the subsequent c r i m i n a l i t y to maintain the h a b i t , the a d d i c t i s , i n a v e r y r e a l sense, a s i c k person and i n need of the h e l p of the medical p r o f e s s i o n i n co-operation w i t h v a r i o u s a d j u n c t i v e h e l p i n g p r o f e s s i o n s such as s o c i a l work and psychology. The a d d i c t i s i n the g r i p of a disease which has a p a t h o l o g i c a l e f f e c t on him beyond h i s power of c o n t r o l . In view of t h i s , i t i s a l s o arguable t h a t p e n a l t i e s f o r i l l e g a l p ossession of n a r c o t i c s are unreasonably severe when the a d d i c t i s found to be i n possession of r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll q u a n t i t i e s o f drugs f o r h i s . own' comfort and enjoyment. The purpose of t h i s p a r t of the Act i s to e r a d i c a t e the i l l e g a l t r a f f i c i n n a r c o t i c s . Where c o n v i c t i o n s are of a t r a f f i c k i n g , nature severe sentences are understandable. However, i f there are s p e c i a l circumstances i n connection w i t h any given case which might warrant a d i f f e r e n t approach, i t would seem d e s i r a b l e t h a t the c o u r t should be allowed d i s c r e t i o n a r y powers to suspend sentence or to impose a f i n e . At present magistrates have no a u t h o r i t y to do e i t h e r and must sentence the a d d i c t to at l e a s t the mandatory s i x month sentence. As aforementioned t h i s sentence i m p l i e s a p e r i o d of "treatment" which cannot p o s s i b l y be c a r r i e d out to any extent i n most Canadian p r i s o n s . - 4-0 -One further question i s posed by many who wonder why "medical" addicts (when t h e i r need for narcotics f o r medical reasons no longer exists) and, "professional" addicts should be given favoured treatment as compared with that given to the so cal l e d "criminal" addicts. I f add-i c t i o n i t s e l f i s the r e a l enemy and i l l e g a l possession of narcotics the assigned reason for l e g a l action, then both the "criminal" addict and the "professional" addict are i n exactly the same category after the l a t t e r ' s r i g h t to have narcotics for professional purposes has been suspended. Although i t i s not suggested that addicted physicians be sentenced to prison, i t i s suggested that the law deal with both i n the 1 same manner. 1 The Stevenson Report 1956 CHAPTER I I I THE PANABODE UNIT FOR MALE ADDICTS' In B r i t i s h Columbia, the f i r s t two treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n u n i t s f o r n a r c o t i c drug a d d i c t s were e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm i n 1956. I t was f e l t by those i n v o l v e d i n b r i n g i n g the u n i t s i n t o being t h a t any name i n c l u d i n g or making reference to drug a d d i c t i o n should be avoided l e s t there be i n c l i n a t i o n among those inmates s e l e c t e d f o r treatment to f e e l t h a t drug a d d i c t i o n was t h e i r o n l y problem. The name f i n a l l y decided upon f o r the u n i t s was Panabode. L i t e r a l l y , Panabode i s an a b i d i n g or d w e l l i n g place f o r a group w i t h a common bond or union. I n t h i s case, the common bond i s t h e i r drug a d d i c t i o n . LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF BUILDINGS, PROPERTY, FACILITIES W i t h i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n Farm the male Panabode u n i t i s l o c a t e d n o r t h o f the main j a i l between the former Young Offenders U n i t and the 1 Westgate u n i t . S t r u c t u r a l l y , the u n i t resembles a modern l o g cabin approximately the s i z e of a fou r bedroom home. The b u i l d i n g i s l o c a t e d near the f r o n t of approximately two acres o f Panabode proper$y a l l o f 1 The Westgate u n i t i s the top c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u n i t w i t h i n O a k a l l a P r i s o n and contains those inmates who are b e l i e v e d to be the best prospects f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - 4,2 . which i s segregated from the l a r g e r j a i l u n i t s . I t i s meant to accommodate no more than eleven male a d d i c t s at any one time. East o f the male Panabode i s an a s p h a l t surface on which there i s a l i n e d court where b a s k e t b a l l , t e n n i s , v o l l e y b a l l and such sports may be played. I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s hard surface i s l a r g e enough along the northern s i d e l i n e s of the court to a l l o w f o r such outdoor work p r o j e c t s as lawn t a b l e s , c h a i r s and c h i l d r e n ' s playhouses. Several of these p r o j e c t s might be.under c o n s t r u c t i o n a t one time without endangering games p a r t i c i p a n t s on the c o u r t s . Immediately behind the Panabode hut i s a small workshop which i s o n l y 16 f e e t by 30 f e e t . Power equipment i n the shop i n c l u d e d a t a b l e saw, a jig-saw, two sanders, a l a t h e , a j o i n t e r - p l a n e r and a d r i l l p r e s s . I n a d d i t i o n there i s an adequate supply of hand t o o l s . Work p r o j e c t s i n the shop i n c l u d e everything from s m a l l and simple c h i l d r e n ' s toys to a s h t r a y s , elaborate small t a b l e s and lamps. When the weather demands t h a t a l l panabode inmates work i n s i d e the work shop i t w i l l be obvious why c o n d i t i o n s are considered crowded and conducive to n e i t h e r good work nor good morale. I t has been encouraging news f o r both s t a f f and inmates to l e a r n r e c e n t l y t h a t they w i l l be allowed to b u i l d a cement basement f o r the work shop onto which i t w i l l be moved. I t i s understood t h a t t h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n w i l l commence immediately and w i l l a l l o w c o n s i d e r a b l y more room f o r t o o l s , equipment and s u p p l i e s , as w e l l as f o r improved working c o n d i t i o n s g e n e r a l l y . - A3 -Further behind the unit and the asphalt games surface is a small soccer field which continues part way behind the former Young Off-enders' Unit. This field is levelled off the side of the h i l l on which Oakalla Prison Farm is located so i t remains well drained. This field has been the property of the Young Offenders Unit but since that unit has ceased to exist as such, i t is reasonable to assume that the Panabode unit will have the use of the field. The Panabode poperty to the West and North of the soccer field has been cultivated and provides a very helpful gardening project during the spring and summer months. Inmates of the Panabode reportedly have taken considerable pride in their garden and last year contributed 4.000 pounds of vegetables for the Oakalla kitchen. The Panabode hut itself is an attractive modern building 25 feet wide and 60 feet long. An attractive and compact kitchen, 12 feet square, contains a modern electric stove and refrigerator. There is a large sink and adequate cupboard space which s t i l l allows for good lighting. The kitchen is located in the north-east corner of the building and contains a rear entrance to Panabode on the north side. A room the?same size and located next to the kitchen in the south-east corner of the building serves as an office. It contains a large office desk and chairs, a steel fil i n g cabinet, a large steel medicine and supply cabinet, cupboard space for stationery and other office supplies and book shelves with a small supply of selected literature and pamphlets for both staff and inmates. - AA -Immediately next to the. office and kitchen is-an L-shaped, room which serves as a dining room - living room area. Therea are additional magazine shelves in this room and adequate living room and dining room furnishings which include a combination radio-record player and a con-siderable supply of records. The front entrance into the Men's Panabode opens, into this room. The bathroom is located in the middle of the building on the north side. It has a shower, two toilets, and two wash basins. Directly opposite the:, bathroom but opening into the., living room area is another small glass: office. At present this; office is used mainly for the storage of small toy craft and such sports equipment as tennis balls and racquets, volleyballs, softballs, baseballs and gloves, and boxing gloves All told, there would appear to be an adequate supply and quality of sports equipment. Approximately half the Panabode hut is given to the:, dormitory. Each inmate has a semi private area with a: place for personal clothing and per-missible effects, his bed, a small writing desk and a lamp, ^hereiis^a third entrance in the middle of the West end of the. dormitory for emergency use only. Emergency fire fighting equipment is strategically located \ throughout•the entire building. - 45 -PHILOSOPHY OF THE.PANABODE UNIT The writer could not find in the policy mannual or in administrative memoranda where the philosophy or purposes of the Panabode:unit were act-ually spelled out. However, judging from observations and existing policy> i t would appear that the program is offered for selected male drug addicts who i t is felt are more accessible for rehabilitation and who are motivated to abstain from crime and the use of drugs:;; who i t is felt will benefit from the association, socialization and program offered by the Panabode unit and its staff. The program includes such features as: educational and informative films, guest speakers, religious services, counselling, educat-ional courses, work and recreational activities.. Through such program and activities, argument and entreaty are united in an effort to dissuade in-mates from the undesirable courses, of their past. Perhaps something further is remonstrated for the addicts when there is. set forth the danger and guilt, as; well as the consequences of continuing the same asocial and antisocial courses: of action which have led them to addiction and to prison. An attempt is made to give the inmate better insight into himself and his manner of functioning,and to provide him with a better outlook on and respect for society and his role as one of its members. As indicated above, education is made available to the inmate through correspondence courses... Some individual help is provided in this learning process al-though the unit does not have a qualified teacher at present. In addition to the foregoing, i t is popularly believed in the - 46 -community as well as in the prison itself, that a considerable. amount of research is being carried out in the Panabode unit. It, is somehow consid-ered that dynamically significant information is being gathered continu-ously; that new and improved methods of preventing and treating drug addiction are being sought and tested; that adequate and well trained staff under carefully planned supervision and direction are carrying out bold new experiments in never-ending search for some of the answers to the profoundly baffling problem of drug addictioni These views may not represent a very accurate assessment of the research that is., commonly thought to be carried outtwithin the Panabode unit. However, one is led: by political statements, newspaper reports and articles in correctional, sociological and social work journals, to believe that a considerable amount of research is being carried out. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE AND PERSONNEL The: administrative structure of the larger prison is reviewed here superficially because i t does have implications for the administration and personnel of the Panabode unit.. The senior administrative person within Oakalla is, of course, the warden. From the warden down, the adminisration is divided into two areas - treatment and custody. Next to the warden there-fore are the deputy warden of treatment and the deputy warden of custody. Each deputy warden is in charge of his respective area of either treatment or custody. -47-Next to the deputy wardens, continuing down the line of both treat-ment and custody, are the assistant deputies, the- senior correctional, o f f i -cers, and,the senior prison guards. Staff below;this level are known as. guards.. They may be temporary guards •or. serving their probationary period, of six months. There are five classifications of guards after they have: completed their probationary period of service and continue on permanent-staff. In all. areas of the prison other than in the Panabode. unit, the male guards wear prison uniforms.. There is secretarial, stenographic and switch-board staff serving both custodial and treatment officers.. In, addition there are book-keeping and business office staff but neither of these two staff groups have much to do with the Panabode unit.,. Within the Panabode unit the officer in charge is a social worker 1 with a Bachelor of Social Work degree. He is the only staff member required to wear a prison uniform.. Personnel under him, both treatment and custodial, wear a grey suit much like that which might be worn by any business man.. At present there is only one treatment person in the. Panabode other than the officer in charge of the unit and he has been developed from the ranks of custody. It is noted however that custodial personnel within the Panabode concern themselves to a considerable extent with treatment aspects of program. While this is. commendable in one respect, treatment personnel should have better qualifications, a diversified background and; training appropriate to the roles and responsibilities they are expected to assume. 1 The officer in charge, of the Ken's Panabode is Joseph E^Clegg. His rank in this capacity is that of Senior Prison Guard - /S -One o f the u n i t ' s ; former treatment personnel has r e c e n t l y been assigned t o the d u t i e s of the discharge follov;-up o f f i c e r . He i s . not a t r a i n e d s o c i a l worker although he does have two years o f u n i v e r s i t y educ-a t i o n towards a degree i n theology. In a d d i t i o n to the two treatment personnel there are three c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r s . A part-time p r i s o n psy-c h i a t r i s t i s o f f i c i a l d i r e c t o r o f the Panabode r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and research 1 2 u n i t but f u n c t i o n s l a r g e l y as a co n s u l t a n t . A medical Doctor, two p a r t -time d e n t i s t s and a p s y c h o l o g i s t are a l l q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l people on the s t a f f a t O a k a l l a and represent s i g n i f i c a n t s e r v i c e s , both d i r e c t and c o n s u l t a t i v e , f o r the Panabode s t a f f and inmates. CLASSIFICATION Rather than d i s c u s s the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process g e n e r a l l y , i t w i l l simply be discussed as i t e f f e c t s those a d d i c t s who might be s e l e c t e d f o r the Panabode treatment program. Perhaps c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a misnomer because drug a d d i c t s are not c l a s s i f i e d a t present; they are simply a l i o — 3 cated t o the east wing of O a k a l l a P r i s o n . 1 The p s y c h i a t r i s t who i s d i r e c t o r o f the Panabode Research and R e h a b i l i t -a t i o n u n i t i s ; D r . G.H. Stevenson. 2 The doctor i n charge o f the medical aspects of the p r i s o n and a l s o a q u a l i f i e d p s y c h i a t r i s t i s Dr. R.G.. Richmond. 3 For more d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n on " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n " , reference i s made to the t h e s i s of Beighton, Alan L. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the C r i m i n a l Offender. Master o f S o c i a l Work t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958 - 49 -Any person who i s convicted -under the Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act and sentenced to O a k a l l a i s a l l o c a t e d to the east wing o f the p r i s o n . Any person sentenced to O a k a l l a who i s a known drug user or who has had a previous c o n v i c t i o n under the Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act w i l l s i m i l a r l y be a l l o c a t e d t o the east wing r e g a r d l e s s of the nature of h i s present o f f e n s e . Any inmate can request withdrawal treatment and w i l l be sent-enced to east wing as w i l l any inmate, r e g a r d l e s s o f h i s o f f e n s e , who i s o b v i o u s l y undergoing withdrawal. The east wing u n i t of O a k a l l a P r i s o n i s composed of a hardened r e c i d i v a t i n g group o f inmates which i n c l u d e s the a d d i c t s s t a t e d above and a l s o those i n c o r r i g i b l e s who w i l l not f i t i n t o c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and program as o f f e r e d i n other u n i t s of the j a i l . SELECTION FOR THE PANABODE PROGRAM I t has been s t a t e d t h a t the east wing o f O a k a l l a p r i s o n contains a g e n e r a l l y hardened, r e s e n t f u l , r e c i d i v a t i n g group of inmates. There w i l l o c c a s i o n a l l y come before c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r s young inmates who have not been l o n g addicted t o n a r c o t i c drugs and who have not developed the c r i m i n a l tendencies so common to a l a r g e percentage o f addicted persons. Influenced by t h i s , t h e i r age, c o n v i c t i o n , l e n g t h o f sentence, the probat-i o n r e p o r t and other f a c t o r s , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f f i c e r s may sometimes judge t h a t an inmate otherwise destined f o r east wing u n i t may be a good prospect f o r the Panabode treatment program. Such cases w i l l be brought - 50 -to the a t t e n t i o n o f the o f f i c e r i n charge of the Panabode u n i t by both formal and i n f o r m a l methods. The treatment o f f i c e r s of the east wing w i l l sometimes be approached by inmates w i s h i n g to enter the Panabode. These o f f i c e r s may support such requests or may suggest other names as more s u i t a b l e . As p r o s p e c t i v e candidates come to the a t t e n t i o n of the o f f i c e r i n charge of the Panabode u n i t , they are interviewed by him and a b r i e f s o c i a l h i s t o r y taken. The inmates behavior, work, a t t i t u d e towards r e h a b i l i t -a t i o n and h i s estimated a b i l i t y t o reform are i n c l u d e d i n the h i s t o r y . When there i s about to be a vacancy i n the Panabode u n i t through discharge o f an inmate, s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s o f the most s u i t a b l e east wing candidates are discussed by the p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t and the o f f i c e r i n charge of the Panabode u n i t . The p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s e t t i n g up the program to be followed at the Panabode u n i t but the o f f i c e r i n charge of t h a t u n i t has considerable i n f l u e n c e as to which inmate i s s e l e c t e d . U s u a l l y , there i s agreement on which east, wing inmate should be s e l e c t e d and a j o i n t recommendation i s submitted to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f o r t h e i r stamp of approval. Where there i s disagreement between the p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t and the o f f i c e r i n charge o f Panabode, the d e c i s i o n i s u s u a l l y made by the Deputy Warden o f treatment. Upon t r a n s f e r to the Panabode u n i t the nev; group member i s i n t r o d -uced to the others and i s then o r i e n t e d to the u n i t . An e f f o r t i s made to - 51 -make the ne%j member f e e l welcome and as comfortable as p o s s i b l e during t h i s i n i t i a l p e r i o d . From the 'beginning of o r i e n t a t i o n however, new members are expected to show t h e i r m e t t l e . Many new p r i v i l e g e s and advantages are acquired but c o n s i d e r a b l y more i s expected of them i n r e t u r n . The l e n g t h of time an inmate may spend i n the Panabode u n i t w i l l depend on the l e n g t h of h i s sentence or the remaining p o r t i o n of i t , but i t i s not l i k e l y t h a t an inmate would be accepted i n t o the Panabode u n i t , p a r t i c u l a r l y on h i s f i r s t o f f e n s e , u n l e s s he could b e n e f i t from at l e a s t f o u r months of the program. A f t e r a f a i r t r i a l placement the new member who i s not f e l t to be capable of h e l p i n g h i m s e l f or-who i s unduly d i s r u p t i n g o f the group i s returned to the east wing. He i s given to understand from the beginning t h a t the program i s treatment o r i e n t e d and t h a t anything which does not c o n t r i b u t e to treatment w i l l not be t o l e r a t e d . POLIGY AND PROCEDURE Some o f the s p e c i f i e d p o l i c y and procedure o f the male Panabode i s d i s c u ssed here f o r the purpose of c l a r i f y i n g i n some degree the manner i n which the u n i t and i t s e n t i r e program are administered. FOOD - Meals are prepared by s e l e c t e d inmates. A l l food served ' i s good food and i s as w e l l prepared as i t would be i n the average home. S t a f f are expected t o partake of meals w i t h the inmate group while they are on t h e i r r e g u l a r s h i f t . CLOTHING - The inmate's c l o t h i n g and personal e f f e c t s are numbered and checked on h i s admission to O a k a l l a . These are not returned to him u n t i l h i s discharge from p r i s o n except on r a r e occasions. On admission to the Panabode u n i t each inmate i s provided w i t h a complete i s s u e of bedding and c l o t h i n g . This i s s u e i s inspected from time to time and each inmate i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the care of h i s own i s s u e . C l o t h i n g which has been issued but which can not be produced by the inmate i s d e a l t w i t h i n the Warden's c o u r t unless t h a t inmate i s o b v i o u s l y not g u i l t y o f the l o s s or damage to h i s i i s s u e . LAUNDRY - A l l d i r t y laundry i s conveyed to the main j a i l laundry at- 8 A.M. each Monday and i s picked up the same Monday afternoon. Inmates r e c e i v e the same cl o t h e s back again and are expected to use some acceptable i d e n t i f i c a t i o n system. .MAIL AND COMMUHICATIONS GENERAL - Inmate m a i l , incoming and outgoing, i s censored and recorded i n the i n d i v i d u a l r e p o r t book. Inmates are allowed to w r i t e four l e t t e r s each month but may r e c e i v e a l l outside m a i l sent to them. The main j a i l r u l e s apply a l s o to the. m a i l o f Panabode inmates i n thajs people i n the i n s t i t u t i o n may not be discussed nor may the a f f a i r s o f the i n s t i t u t i o n . A l l questionable or unacceptable m a t e r i a l i s c l e a r e d through the o f f i c e r i n charge of the u n i t . I t i s a Panabode r u l e t h a t a l l communications, r e q u i s i t i o n s , work orders on Panabode business, and a l l inmate requests be c l e a r e d through the o f f i c e r i n charge of the u n i t u n l e s s he i s on annual l e a v e , i n which case t h i s matter must be c l e a r e d through the senior c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r on the day s h i f t . I f communications are 53 -marked " c o n f i d e n t i a l 1 1 they are handled by the treatment o f f i c e r . Any communications marked " p r i v a t e " are the concern only o f the addressee. DRESS - S h i r t s must be tucked i n and buttoned t o , but not i n c l u d i n g the top button. Dress must be complete and neat i n a l l areas except the dormitory and the washroom. Shorts may be used i n sports and sun-bathing a c t i v i t i e s o nly. S h i r t s may be removed i n hot weather i n the r e a r work areas o n l y . SPORTS', - Inmate sports a c t i v i t i e s w i l l not i n v o l v e Panabode members w i t h inmates from Young Offender's U n i t or the East Wing u n i t . Panabode inmates may t r y out f o r Westgate teams which p l a y some of t h e i r games outside the p r i s o n . Westgate runs t h i s program and Panabode inmates and s t a f f may only attend the Westgate s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s under t h e i r d i r e c t i o n . The Westgate and the main p r i s o n f i e l d may be used but must f i r s t be c l e a r e d through the o f f i c e r i n charge of Westgate. There are to be no sports a c t i v i t i e s or conspicuous noise of any k i n d d u ring church parades on Sundays. CHURCH - I t i s the d e f i n i t e wish of the d i r e c t o r o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n - Dr. Stevenson t h a t a l l inmates attend" a weekly church s e r v i c e o f t h e i r own choice (there are o n l y a Roman C a t h o l i c and a P r o t e s t a n t s e r v i c e each Sunday.) This i s not compulsory but i s considered d e s i r a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l . Sports a c t i v i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g sunbathing, are not allowed during church s e r v i c e . Radio and other noise must a l s o be minimized during t h i s p e r i o d . .MEDICAL - A b r i e f r e p o r t i s to be made i n w r i t i n g of any i n j u r y to e i t h e r inmates or s t a f f . A l l medication i s s u p p l i e d by the p r i s o n doctor except f o r minor cuts or scratches. Inmates or s t a f f members nho - 5A -are injured should be reported promptly to the ho s p i t a l . Inmates receive a medical examination on admission to Oakalla and a statement i s made by the prison doctor as to the inmate's a b i l i t y to participate i n program, work and sports. There are no routine medical check-ups after the i n i t i a l one and further medical attention must be requested. When s p e c i a l i s t consultation or treatment i s advisable fhe inmate i s transferred to the Vancouver General Hospital. DENTAL - Inmates receive prophylactic dental attention from' dentists who v i s i t the j a i l twice weekly. F i l l i n g s and extractions are done at no cost to the inmate but dentures, bridgework and other than preventive or emergency dental attention must be paid for by the inmate or some responsible person. LIBRARY - Each inmate may borrow two books from the Westgate l i b r a r y . These may be exchanged for two other books. Some ind i v i d u a l selection of books and magazines i s made available through a check with the Westgate o f f i c e r i n charge of the l i b r a r y on each occasion that books are requested. NARCOTIC ADDICTION FOUNDATION - Any inmate interested i n residence at the Narcotic Addiction Foundation or i n the Foundations' after-care assistance i s to be reported to the o f f i c e r i n charge of the Panabode unit who w i l l submit a report to the Foundation. CUSTODY - The male Panabode group are to be supervised at a l l times and as often as possible inmates must be kept i n one group. The o f f i c e r i n charge of custody during a s h i f t i s responsible for the supervision and good custody of the uni^/as we l l as for the protection and safety of• v i s i t o r s . - 55 -Inmate misbehavior o f a. minor nature which does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e q u i r e Warden's Court proceedings has t o be handled immediately by the s t a f f member i n v o l v e d . The method used must have a tw o - f o l d purpose. F i r s t , c o n t r o l o f the s i t u a t i o n must be maintained. Secondly, any i n c i d e n t should be d e a l t w i t h so f a r as. p o s s i b l e i n a manner c o n t r i b u t i n g to the growth and understanding o f the misdemeanant. Therefore, i f an inmate i s misbehaving he should be immediately taken aside from the group and t o l d about i t i n a f a i r but f i r m manner. I f he continues t o misbehave, he i s again t o l d about i t and i s t o l d as w e l l t h a t i f he continues he i s p l a c i n g the s t a f f member i n a p o s i t i o n t h a t involves.no a l t e r n a t i v e but to take a c t i o n . This a c t i o n must always i n c l u d e submission o f an adequate r e p o r t on the i n c i d e n t to the o f f i c e r i n charge o f the u n i t . I f t h i s o f f i c e r i s present a t the time when a c t i o n must be taken, the inmate should be paraded before him. I f the sen i o r o f f i c e r i s not on duty, the i n c i d e n t should be discussed w i t h the o f f i c e r on duty i n charge o f custody f o r the u n i t . Unless warden's court appears necessary, the e r r i n g inmate i s reported to the o f f i c e r i n charge o f the u n i t who w i l l take the necessary a c t i o n . Where Warden's Court or i s o l a t i o n placement i s i n v o l v e d , the seni o r c u s t o d i a l o f f i c e r on duty presents the problem inmate to Warden's Court as soon as p o s s i b l e on the date o f the i n c i d e n t . I f the warden or deputies are not present the matter has to be brought before an a s s i s t a n t - 56 -deputy. I f no a s s i s t a n t deputies or higher o f f i c e r s are on duty, any i s -o l a t i o n placement i s done through the senior o f f i c e r on duty w i t h Warden's Court to f o l l o w as soon as p o s s i b l e . The e n t i r e group o f inmates must be supervised at a l l times. When the group r e t i r e s , p e r i o d i c checks must be made, but there must a l s o be a constant a l e r t n e s s maintained. In counting the inmate group a f t e r l i g h t s - o u t o f f i c e r s should make c e r t a i n t h a t i t i s an inmate they are counting and not a r o l l o f b l a n k e t s . Checks should be made f o r movement, bre a t h i n g and other signs of l i f e . While every e f f o r t i s to be made to cooperate w i t h treatment o f f i c e r s and program, custody i s the f i r s t concern of the u n i t . The o f f i c e r i n charge of custody makes the custody d e c i s i o n s and i s to remember t h a t the f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the e f f e c t i v e o p e r a t i o n of the u n i t f o r good custody, s e c u r i t y , s u p e r v i s i o n and s a f e t y . The inmate group should not be taken on errands about the grounds unless no other a l t e r n a t i v e i s f e a s i b l e . S t a f f should run errands alone as a general p r a c t i c e . JOINT INTERVIEWS - These are i n t e r v i e w s arranged iby the o f f i c e r i n charge of the Panabode u n i t w i t h a r e l a t i v e or a c l o s e f r i e n d o f the inmate. Such i n t e r v i e w s begin approximately three months before the contemplated discharge of the inmate. The inmate i s f i r s t i n t e r v i e w e d alone i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the j o i n t i n t e r v i e w and he s e l e c t s the person w i t h whom he hopes to have such i n t e r v i e w s . This person might be a w i f e a f a t h e r or a mother o r , i f no c l o s e r e l a t i v e s e x i s t , a c l o s e personal f r i e n d may be s e l e c t e d . The o f f i c e r i n charge of Panabode then has an o r i e n t a t i o n i n t e r v i e w w i t h the r e l a t i v e s e l e c t e d by the inmate preparing - 57 -t h a t person f o r the j o i n t i n t e r v i e w and the manner i n which i t i s to be conducted. A date i s then set f o r the j o i n t i n t e r v i e w . The inmate and r e l a t i v e then meet as arranged f o r an i n t e r v i e w i n which a s t a f f member i s a l s o present. The s t a f f member w i l l o n l y c o n t r i b u t e to the i n t e r v i e w i f he can make a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n or suggest subject matter t h a t should be discussed preparatory to the inmate's discharge. The s t a f f member may f i n d h i m s e l f f r e q u e n t l y i n a p o s i t i o n where he i s able to o f f e r v a l u a b l e counsel and advice which i s v e r y much appreciated by the i n t e r v i e w p a r t i c i p a n t s . Once these j o i n t i n t e r v i e w s have been set up they may then continue on a once-a-week b a s i s . A s t a f f member i s present at a l l arranged i n t e r v i e w s . OUTSIDE VISITORS - A l l outside v i s i t o r s must be c l e a r e d through the o f f i c e r i n charge of the! Panabode u n i t or the Deputy Warden o f Treatment or the p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t . Outside v i s i t o r s are to c l e a r e d i n and out of the gatehouse and escorted t o and from the p r i s o n ' s v i s i t i n g room. A l l such v i s i t s are recorded and f i l e d . THE OFFICE - The Panabode o f f i c e i s to be kept l o c k e d when not under d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n . I t i s out of bounds except by s p e c i a l permission. PHOTOGRAPHS - Photographs of f a m i l y or f r i e n d s are acceptable on shelves of the i n d i v i d u a l inmates c a b i n e t s . Other p i c t u r e s , pin-ups, or crude p i c t u r e s are not 'allowed on the w a l l of the hut although c e r t a i n p i c t u r e s may be c l e a r e d by the o f f i c e r i n charge o f the u n i t . - 58 -PROGRAM The Panabode group a r i s e each morning except Sunday, a t 7:00 A.M. They dress, t i d y t h e i r own p r i v a t e quarters and wash. B r e a k f a s t i s a t 7:3.0 A.M. The e n t i r e group spend the p e r i o d from 8:00 to 8:15 t i d y i n g and c l e a n i n g the Panabode hut. Work begins a t 8:15 A.M. and as a r u l e i s e i t h e r i n the woodwork shop or i n the garden. Woodwork p r o j e c t s are sojd t o s t a f f a t cost p l u s a small p r o f i t which goes towards the O a k a l l a Welfare Fund. This fund i s used g e n e r a l l y f o r the purchase of sports equipment and comforts f o r the inmates. There i s a f i f t e e n minute coffee break f o r the group a t 9:30 A.M. They then r e t u r n to t h e i r work p r o j e c t s u n t i l l u n c h time a t 11:30 A.M. One hour i s allowed f o r l u n c h . The group then c l e a n the hut and r e t u r n to the day's work p r o j e c t s . Each morning o f the week, Monday through Saturday, f o l l o w s i n the for e g o i n g manner except f o r such i n t e r r u p t i o n s as general clean-up or other p e r i o d i c p r o j e c t s or procedures. Work cont-inues each afternoon, Monday through F r i d a y , u n t i l the 15 minute t e a break at 3=00 P.M. F o l l o w i n g t e a break on Monday afternoons there i s a general d i s c u s s i o n group which may l a s t u n t i l supper a t 4:30 P.M. These d i s c u s s i o n s u s u a l l y concern matters of common i n t e r e s t to the group or t o p i c s o f cur r e n t p u b l i c i n t e r e s t . They are given focus and s u p e r v i s i o n by the o f f i c e r i n charge o f the Panabode u n i t or some treatment person designated by him... - 59 -During t h i s p e r i o d on Tuesday,.Thursday and F r i d a y afternoons there are educational f i l m s and d i s c u s s i o n s and. mental;'health f i l m s which are a l s o f o l l o w e d by d i s c u s s i o n . These too are supervised and conducted by the o f f i c e r i n charge of the Panabode or by some person designated by him. Each Wednesday afternoon f o l l o w i n g t e a break, the p r i s o n ' s F r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r v i s i t s the group and e i t h e r speaks to and w i t h the group or shows r e l i g i o u s films,- a f t e r which there i s general d i s c u s s i o n . R e l i g i o u s support i s a l s o extended to the group when on Tuesdays, the p r i s o n ' s C a t h o l i c padre v i s i t s to have l u n c h and a d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the group. Each day supper i s served a t 4:30 P.M. A f t e r supper t h e r e ' i s •general clean-up of the hut again and each day the time between 5:00 P.M.. and 6:00 P.M. i s f r e e time or may be given to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n sports a c t i v i t i e s . On Monday, Wednesday and F r i d a y evenings between the hours o f 6:00 and 9:00 the Panabode inmates share a gymnasium and hobby program w i t h the inmates from the Westgate u n i t . The group gives an hour and a h a l f to games and gymnastics f o r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . The other hour and a h a l f i s given to hobbies of the inmate's choice. These might i n c l u d e leatherwork, copperwork or other metal work, the s m a l l woodwork p r o j e c t s such as lamps, ashtrays or ornamentals. There i s a l s o a v e ry a c t i v e and enjoyable music group composed of those who p l a y m u s i c a l instruments. They p r a c t i c e i n - 60 -groups-and often make tape recordings of their arrangements. Tuesday and Thursday evenings.; between the; hours: of 6:00 and 7;: 30 the: group members: work on their education.. Each inmate is expected to take; at least one correspondence course while at the unit.. From 7:30 to: 8:30 P.M., on Tuesday evenings:there have been general discussion groups but this, period is about to be changed although i t is not settled as to what use i t will be put. Thursday evenings from 7:30 to 9*00 the^Panabode inmates use for their outside visitors program. Outside visitors.might be doctors, lawyers, politicians,dentists, business men and such. This program, aside from being informative for the inmates, has the purpose of subtly indoctrinating the group with some of the advantages of successful social adjustment., 1 The period from 9:00 to 10': 00 each evening is free time for the group but a l l are required to retire at 10:00 P.M., and are supposed to remain quiet after 10:20 P.M.. Saturday afternoons and Sundays are free time for the Panabode group., Rising on Sunday mornings is at 9:00. Catholic church services; are held at this hour and Protestant services are held later in the day. Only one Cath-olic and one Protestant church service is held each Sunday. Members from a l l j a i l units: attend these services i f they choose but attendance is usually very sparce. - 61 -There i s u s u a l l y a f e a t u r e moving p i c t u r e f o r the group every second Sunday afternoon.. Otherwise they can read, work at t h e i r hobbies, p a r t i c i p a t e i n sports a c t i v i t i e s or use t h i s f r e e time as they w i s h . Frequently, during the weekend f r e e time, there are j o i n t i n t e r -views f o r the inmates. These i n t e r v i e w s represent a step towards working w i t h the inmate's f a m i l y . In these j o i n t i n t e r v i e w s , a member of s t a f f , the inmate and an important r e l a t i v e , d i s c u s s problems, misunderstandings and areas which need concern and adjustment. I t i s u s u a l l y the inmate's w i f e or parents who are i n v o l v e d i n these j o i n t i n t e r v i e w s . Inmate sport a c t i v i t i e s do not i n v o l v e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h East Wing inmates although some a c t i v i t i e s are shared w i t h the Westgate inmates. Panabode inmates may t r y out f o r Westgate teams which p a r t i c i p a t e i n out-s i d e community games. Nearly a l l Westgate teams have Panabode inmates on t h e i r r o s t e r . Work,recreation and e d u c a t i o n a l program as scheduled i s mandatory f o r a l l inmates who are m e d i c a l l y able to p a r t i c i p a t e . The e n t i r e Pana-bode group must work or operate together as a group except on r a r e and c a r e f u l l y c l e a r e d occasions and the group must be supervised at a l l times. The way I n which inmates p a r t i c i p a t e i n program i s q u i t e important as i t r e f l e c t s the a t t i t u d e and i n t e n t i o n s they have regarding t h e i r f u t u r e . Each month two sets of r a t i n g s c a l e s are completed on each inmate i n order to provide an assessment of h i s e f f o r t s and progress d u r i n g the - 62 -month. One r a t i n g seale attempts to measure the inmate's conduct and interaction i n group a c t i v i t i e s . Components' of t h i s scale are: attitude towards authority, attitude towards other inmates, attitude towards s e l f improvement, attitude towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n , attitude towards respons-i b i l i t y , appearance and personal habits, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n group program, how group reacts to his presence. The other r a t i n g scale attempts to measure the inmates performance and attitude towards work. Components of th i s scale are: amount of work done, qua l i t y of work, guidance necessary, attitude towards r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , attitude towards authority, attitude towards other inmates, attitude towards s e l f improvement, attitude towards r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . Two s t a f f members complete each r a t i n g scale on the inmate and the average score i s determined for a more r e l i a b l e picture. Another factor which enters monthly ratings i s a simple statement completed by the inmate wherein he i s requested to -" L i s t the names of the three inmates of the Panabode (male) whom you would most prefer to work alongside, to attend hobby classes with and to s i t next to you at the meal table." 1 2 3 To give inmates incentive for better achievment, a s l i d i n g scale of pay has been established on the basis of t h e i r scores. Attitudes, performance and interaction with the group are measured and f i n a l scores take into account the individual's capacity and any exceptional improvement. Those with a t o t a l score between 80 and 100 per cent receive 300 per day; those with a score between 65 to 79 per cent receive 200 per day; and those with a score anywhere from 0 to 6A per cent receive 100 a day. - 63 -DYNAMICS O F T H E TREATMENT P R O C E S S IN P R O G R A M The general purposes and treatment goals of the Panabode u n i t have o n l y been presumed i n a general way by the w r i t e r as i t could not be found w i t h i n the p r i s o n t h a t they were c l e a r l y s t a t e d . Nevertheless, an attempt i s made here to describe b r i e f l y the extent to which program embodies and f u l f i l l s the treatment goals which were presumed. I t seems-to be expected by those i n v o l v e d i n the treatment program t h a t f i l m s on mental h e a l t h s u b j e c t s , attendance at r e l i g i o u s s e r v i c e s , t a l k s from and d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h outside v i s i t o r s o f s t a t u r e i n the community - a l l help to create an uneasiness i n the inmate w i t h regard to h i s a s o c i a l and a n t o s o c i a l behavior i n c l u d i n g h i s problem of drug . a d d i c t i o n . I t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t segregated group l i v i n g and constant a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h each other gives the group a sense of i d e n t i t y and ' u n i t y permeated by a health y m o t i v a t i o n t o r e f r a i n from the use of drugs and to become u s e f u l and c o n t r i b u t i n g members of s o c i e t y . Program i s designed to engender t h i s m o t i v a t i o n by p r o v i d i n g the oppor t u n i t y and f a c i l i t i e s f o r inmates to acquire new knowledge, a b i l i t i e s and s k i l l s through e d u c a t i o n a l , work and hobby c l a s s e s . These phases o f program are a l l designed t o improve the inmates a b i l i t y to c o n t r i b u t e to s o c i e t y i n a p o s i t i v e way and t o g a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n s therefrom. - u -FOLLOW-UP OF DISCHARGED ADDICTS The male Panabode u n i t had one person who functioned as a post-discharge follow-up o f f i c e r . He was q u a l i f i e d i n t h a t he had a B.S.W. degree but only worked i n t h i s c a p a c i t y f o r s i x months. With the exception of t h i s s i x month p e r i o d , the Panabode u n i t has provided no follow-up care or a t t e n t i o n f o r i t s discharged inmates since the program's i n c e p t i o n i n 1956. As of March I 9 6 0 , however, the u n i t again has a discharge f o l l o w -up o f f i c e r . He has been developed from the c t i s t o d i a l s t a f f o f the male Panabode, has worked as a treatment person i n th a t u n i t and now has taken on the d u t i e s o f discharge f o l l o w - u p . The d u t i e s i n v o l v e d i n h i s p o s i t i o n do not appear to be very w e l l o u t l i n e d y e t , and one gets the impression t h a t he i s l e f t considerable freedom as to which follow-up d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s he should assume. At the present time t h i s o f f i c e r i s speaking to school students, s e r v i c e clubs and pr o s p e c t i v e employers throughout the Lower Mainland. I t i s t h i s w r i t e r ' s , impression t h a t these t a l k s are an attempt to inform the p u b l i c o f the problems w i t h which the addicted person i s faced on h i s d i s -charge from p r i s o n . These problems might i n c l u d e r e j e c t i o n , condemnation, l i t t l e chance to l o c a t e g a i n f u l employment, no one to t u r n to f o r acceptance, f r i e n d s h i p and concern but former a s s o c i a t e s and c r i m i n a l s who can only i n f l u e n c e him i n r e t u r n i n g to h i s former h a b i t s o f crime and a d d i c t i o n . There i s much despair f o r many a d d i c t s during the f i r s t days 65 -f o l l o w i n g t h e i r discharge from p r i s o n . In c l a r i f y i n g f o r p u b l i c groups the s i t u a t i o n o f the discharged a d d i c t from p r i s o n , the follow-up o f f i c e r i s a l s o making a concerned appeal to them to accept these persons f o r employment, to accept them s o c i a l l y and i n c l u d e them i n h e a l t h y a c t i v i t i e s , to h elp them through the many d i f f i c u l t i e s which e x i s t and a r i s e f o r them f o l l o w i n g discharge from p r i s o n . The follow-up o f f i c e r a l s o concerns h i m s e l f w i t h f i n d i n g s u i t a b l e and s a t i s f y i n g jobs f o r discharged a d d i c t s . When there i s no c l o s e f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e who can a s s i s t , the follow-up o f f i c e r must a l s o be concerned w i t h f i n d i n g a s u i t a b l e place f o r the discharged a d d i c t to l i v e . The f r i e n d s h i p , h elp and concern o f f e r e d a d d i c t s d u r i n g the e a r l y days f o l l o w i n g r e l e a s e from p r i s o n can do much to support, motivate and encourage them i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n and might provide them w i t h enough s e c u r i t y and s a t i s f a c t i o n to enable them to avoid the use of drugs. In a s u p e r f i c i a l manner, the foregoing represents t h i s w r i t e r ' s impression, o f the main d u t i e s , concerns and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f the Panabode's discharge follow-up o f f i c e r . CHAPTER IV THE PANABODE UNIT FOR FEMALES The Panabode Unit for Females w i l l be discussed i n much the same manner as was the unit f o r males. Because of the s i m i l a r i t i e s that do exist between the two units, more brevity i s given to the discussion of the female unit. LOCATION AND DESCRIPTION OF UNIT, PROPERTY, FACILITIES B u i l t i n 1956, at the same time that the male unit was b u i l t , the female Panabode i s located only a few feet d i r e c t l y west from the main Women's T a i l . The 'Women's J a i l i t s e l f i s located i n the south eastern sector of Oakalla Prison Farm approximately 80 yards from the Men's J a i l . The Female Panabode i s the same size as the male unit and i s s t r u c t u r a l l y s i m i l a r i n a l l respects so f a r as this writer could determine. A possible exception i s that there i s s l i g h t l y more privacy i n the dormitory area of the Women's Panabode, with indi v i d u a l cubicles being separated to the c e i l i n g whereas the male cubicles are only divided to a height of f i v e feet, leaving the upper portion of the dorm-i t o r y clear. Because of t h i s one might get the impression that the dormitory i s not as large i n the female unit. The Women's Panabode i s able to accommodate only ten addicts compared to the eleven which the' male unit accommodates. An automatic washer and dryer and a power sewing machine occupy i n the women's unit the area which would otherwise accommodate another inmate cubicle. In the women's unit, the room used as the o f f i c e i s the central glassed-in room near the unit's main entrance. Furnishings are similar to those of the male Panabode unit. - 67 -While one would not be c r i t i c a l of the cleanliness and tidiness of the men's unit, i t i s not so well kept and cheerful as the women's unit. The reason f o r this could probably be reduced to "the woman's touch" which adds considerably to the atmosphere i n the women's unit. I t i s perhaps d i f f i c u l t to break down t h i s difference between the two units but some of the writer's observations regarding the female unit concerned i t s brighter and more cheerful curtains, the greater d e t a i l given to every aspect of the cleaning, the well kept f l o o r s , the better preparation of meals, the spray of flowers, and the more orderly appearance of the unit while maintaining a relaxed l i v e d - i n or home-like atmosphere. Other than the unit i t s e l f , the female Panabode does not have much additional property as does the male unit. A lawn which i s a few feet wider than the building i t s e l f and approximately f i f t y feet i n length i s bordered with some shrubbery and flowers and a l l t h i s i s kept up by the unit's inmates. For recreational purposes the female Panabode has the use of the main b a l l f i e l d immediately west of the unit and also uses another f i e l d south of the Women's j a i l to play b a l l , grass hockey and such f i e l d games. In addition to these two areas, the Panabode women have the use of the gymnasium i n the Vomen's J a i l and also share the use of the men's larger gymnasium. There i s an asphalt badminton and volley-b a l l court immediately north of the Women's J a i l and the female Panabode also shares the use of t h i s court when weather permits. - 68 -PHILOSOPHY OF THE PANABODE UNIT The philosophy, goals and purposes of the female Panabode are not s p e l l e d out as was the case i n the male Panabode. Although the women's program i s more d i v e r s i f i e d than i s the wen's, the female Panabode i t s e l f does not have the s t a f f t h a t the male un i t does. This i s probably due t o the f a c t t h a t on the female si d e , Panabode inmates have a great d e a l more i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the other inmates of the Women's J a i l than Panabode inmates on the male s i d e have with those of the Men's J a i l . Female Panabode inmates take h a i r d r e s s i n g , school correspondence courses and home nursing s i d e by si d e w i t h the other inmates of the Women's J a i l . Most r e c r e a t i o n i s a l s o c a r r i e d out together w i t h inmates of the Women's J a i l . The amount of i n t e r a c t i o n between the female inmates of Panabode and those of the main "Women's J a i l makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o separate the philosophy, goals and purposes of the two u n i t s s i n c e they are so i n t e r t w i n e d . I n a gene r a l way, however, one might say tha t the philosophy, goate and purposes of the female Panabode are somewhat s i m i l a r t o those of the male u n i t . There i s no s o c i a l worker on the female Panabode s t a f f and the p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t does not provide much i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n to inmates. One i s i n c l i n e d to assume th e r e f o r e that there i s not the same opp o r t u n i t y f o r female panabode inmates to gain i n s i g h t , self-awareness and guidance t o face the f u t u r e . - 69 -One would expect a p i l o t p r o j e c t l i k e the Panabode unit's to in c l u d e i n i t s purpose something of s i g n i f i c a n t r e s e a r c h valu e . However, i n f o r m a t i o n on i n d i v i d u a l inmates of the female Panabode i s sparce, as i s r e c o r d i n g on t h e i r progress and development while at the u n i t . While there would appear t o be a b e t t e r e f f o r t on the p a r t of female Panabode s t a f f t o keep t r a c k of discharged inmates and t o determine whether or not they are again using drugs, l i t t l e e l s e i s recorded that would be of r e a l r e s e a r c h value. ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE AND PERSONNEL Perhaps the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n the Women's J a i l does not have the same significance f o r the female Panabode that i t does i n the male Panabode. The person i n charge of the Women's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e a t Oa k a l l a P r i s o n i s the Sen i o r Matron. Her rank would correspond to t h a t of the A s s i s t a n t Deputy Warden on the male s i d e . Because of her p o s i t i o n , she has t o concern h e r s e l f w i t h both the treatment and the c u s t o d i a l aspects of c o r r e c t i o n s . She i s d i r e c t l y r e s p o n s i b l e to the Warden of the male p r i s o n i n the performance of her f u n c t i o n . There i s only one s t a f f member per s h i f t i n the female Panabode or a t o t a l of three personnel. Only the afternoon s h i f t Matron i s considered a "treatment" person as she i s i n charge of the u n i t ' s group a c t i v i t i e s . During the day, the Panabode matron i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the s e n i o r matron of the Women's J a i l . I n t u r n , each Panabode s h i f t - 70 -matron i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o the a c t i n g Senior P r i s o n Matron f o r the corresponding s h i f t . While the p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t i s a l s o D i r e c t o r of the female Panabode R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Research U n i t , he does not v;ork as c l o s e l y w i t h the female u n i t as he does w i t h the male u n i t . The reasons f o r t h i s may be many and v a r i e d but as a r e s u l t the u n i t r e c e i v e s much of i t s d i r e c t i o n from the Senior P r i s o n Matron and r a t h e r than t a k i n g on a separate and unique purpose and program, i t i s more l i k e an a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t y of the Women's J a i l . I n defence o f the t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s o f f e r e d to the female Panabode inmates, i t should be mentioned t h a t the persons conducting the courses i n h a i r d r e s s i n g , school correspondence courses and home nursi n g are a l l q u a l i f i e d . For c e r t i f i c a t i o n , examinations may be w r i t t e n e i t h e r w i t h i n the p r i s o n or outside on completion of t h e i r courses. The inmates and s t a f f of the female Panabode have the same access as the male Panabode t o the d i r e c t and c o n s u l t a t i v e s e r v i c e s of the P r i s o n ' s medical d o c t o r , d e n t i s t s and p s y c h o l o g i s t . The discharge follow-up o f f i c e r from the male Panabode has been a c t i n g i n the has not been follow-up car w i t h regard t same c a p a c i t y yith the women's u n i t s i n c e March, I960. He as a c t i v e w i t h the discharged inmates of the female Panabode as he has w i t h the males, However, before March I960, there was no e or a t t e n t i o n f o r these discharged persons so h i s r o l e o the female Panabode at l e a s t represents a step forward. - 71 -CLASSIFICATION The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n process, as i t i s b e l i e v e d t o e x i s t w i t h i n the Voraen's J a i l a t O a k a l l a P r i s o n , w i l l be described here i n only a s u p e r f i c i a l manner and w i t h the purpose of o u t l i n i n g how e v e n t u a l l y an inmate may be s e l e c t e d f o r the p a r t i c u l a r program of the female Panabode u n i t . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s a c o n t i n u i n g process based on observation and study of t h e i n d i v i d u a l and aiming at the d i a g n o s i s of her delinquency or maladjustment and the p r e s c r i p t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s which i t i s hoped w i l l l e a d t o her r e h a b i l i t a t i o n . The female p o p u l a t i o n of O a k a l l a P r i s o n has v a r i e d between 80 and 120 inmates i n recent years. For a p r i s o n t h i s s i z e , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l v e r y much depend on the nature of the p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n at any one time. I n a d d i t i o n , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n must be r e l a t e d t o the program and f a c i l i t i e s of an i n s t i t u t i o n . G e n e r a l l y speaking, program at the female s e c t i o n of Oakalla i s d i v i d e d i n t o two areas\ the v o c a t i o n a l and work program.and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and group l i v i n g program. The v o c a t i o n a l a.nd work program i s that program which takes place each Monday through Saturday, between the hours of 7:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. The "teams" and " c l a s s e s " of t h i s p a r t of the program include maintenance, carpentry, sewing and mending, oc c u p a t i o n a l therapy, k i t c h e n , laundry, cosmetology, power sewing, home nur s i n g and school (correspondence courses). Members from various c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s phase of the program, both - 72 -add i c t e d and non-addicted persons of v a r y i n g age groups, backgrounds and delinquency records. However, f o r the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and group l i v i n g aspects of the program, c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s more i n evidence and, at present, i s organized i n the f o l l o w i n g manners Huts 1, 2 & 3 .- ' (separate cottage u n i t s ) For the use of r u r a l and n a t i v e g i r l s w i t h short commitals of up t o s i x months and w i t h the main problem of a l c o h o l i s m . Cottage "D" Cottage "E" Group 3 Group U Group 6 Group 7 Group 8 For non-addicted g i r l s who are f i r s t offenders at O a k a l l a and who are considered t o be good custody r i s k s and more a c e e s l b l e t o reform. For young f i r s t offenders to O a k a l l a . They have a h i s t o r y of delinquency and u s u a l l y have been f o r m e r l y i n the G i r l ' s I n d u s t r i a l School. Drug a d d i c t s i n t h e i r e a r l y twenties considered more a c c e s s i b l e to reform. l e s s reformable and older confirmed drug a d d i c t s . They are a r e c i d i v a t i n g group w i t h some deviants but are g e n e r a l l y an a c t i v e group. This i s the admission group and would includ e those i n d i v i d u a l s f o r o r i e n t a t i o n t o the j a i l and program, those i n d i v i d u a l s i s o l a t e d f o r misbehavior or other reasons, those a w a i t i n g t r i a l or t r a n s f e r t o Kingston P e n i t e n t i a r y , suspensions* from other groups f o r poor behavior and persons who are i l l or r e c e i v i n g medical treatment. 'This group c o n s i s t s of older women addic t s and on the whole i s a r a t h e r i n a c t i v e group. This group c o n s i s t s of younger a d d i c t s and other non-addicted persons who are considered to be more a c c e s i b l e t o reform. - 73 -These groups remain separated from one another during the socialization and'group living phase of their program except for recreation periods, when some groups will combine their recreational activities with those of another group. SELECTION FOR PANABODE PROGRAM From the foregoing discussion of classification, i t will be seen that there are addicted persons in each of groups 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8. It will also be seen that the groups where there is more likely to be positive motivation and concern for rehabilitation will be groups 3, 6, and 8. This does not always follow, however, as people do sometimes change their attitude, outlook and behavior. Occasionally, individuals who at one time were most inaccessible, defiant, hostile and generally difficult to control, may mellow somewhat, change their attitude and outlook and become well motivated to reform and to refrain from the use of drugs. The door must always be left open for such persons through continuous and objective evaluation and classification or reclassification. Certain staff members, in carrying out the continuous task of evaluating the inmate's behavior, work habits, attitudes and outlook, will bring to the attention of the senior prison matron the names of individuals who might, in their opinion, be suitable candidates for the Panabode unit. Some of the staff who might be involved in this regard would be the Classification Officers, the various group matrons, the Padre or the Priest and the Matron in charge of custody. - 7 A -It is understood that suitable candidates for Panabode receive psychological tests and that they are also seen by the prison psychiatrist for his evaluation of their attitudes, motivation and general suitability for the Panabode unit. His recommendations are returned to the senior prison matron who makes the final decision as to which individuals should be transferred to the Panabode unit. The Panabode matron does not takepart in the selection of individuals for the Panabode program. It is difficult to determine the actual care and detail that is given to the task of selecting suitable candidates for the Panabode pro-gram but in a general and superficial manner, the foregoing represents the selection process for the female Panabode as i t is understood to be carried out at this time. It should be remembered too that at times such as the present, when the total female prison population is only 8/+, i t may be difficult to select out of this number, 10 girls who would be suitable for the Panabode unit. r 75 -POLICY, AND PROCEDURE P o l i c y and procedure i s not s p e l l e d out s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the female Panabcde. However, most of the r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o the main j a i l apply here, and a l l procedures must be i n l i n e w i t h the p o l i c y and p r a c t i c e s of good custody. Because there are no s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s and procedures f o r the Panabode u n i t , p e r t i n e n t p o l i c y w i l l not be discussed here, but w i l l be included or r e f l e c t e d i n the s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s on program. PROGRAM Under C l a s s i f i c a t i o n , i t was..;.mentioned that the Program w i t h i n the Women's J a i l was d i v i d e d i n t o two areas. This a l s o p e r t a i n s t o the Panabode u n i t as i n many respects t h i s u n i t f u n c t i o n s l i k e the other groups i n the Vomen's J a i l . The two areas of program are the v o c a t i o n a l and work program and the s o c i a l i z a t i o n and group l i v i n g program. The former program takes place d a i l y , Monday through Saturday, between the hours of 8s00 a.m. and 3s00 p.m. The l a t t e r program takes place g e n e r a l l y from 3:00 p.m. t o 8:30 p.m. d a i l y and on the week-ends. For the v o c a t i o n a l and work phase of the Panabode program the group i s d i v i d e d i n t o three s e c t i o n s . One i s composed of those i n d i v i d u a l s who are t a k i n g supervised school correspondence courses. Any course may be taken t h a t i s o f f e r e d by the Province's High School Correspondence Course D i v i s i o n but the courses most o f t e n taken are t y p i n g , shorthand., bookkeeping and E n g l i s h . The school program i s under the d i r e c t i o n of a q u a l i f i e d school teacher and examinations may be w r i t t e n i n a l l courses f o r c e r t i f i c a t i o n . - 76 -As i n d i c a t e d e a r l i e r i n the t h e s i s , i n d i v i d u a l s from a l l areas of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the "women1s J a i l may attend the same school program. However, s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n t h i s group i s kept to a minimum. A sepond Panabode s e c t i o n i s composed of those i n d i v i d u a l s who wish t o attend the v a r i o u s work departments. At present these work or v o c a t i o n a l areas c o n s i s t of carpentry, sewing and mending, oc c u p a t i o n a l therapy, cosmetology, power sewing and home nursing. Q u a l i f i e d v o c a t i o n a l s t a f f d i r e c t these work programs and many i n d i v i d u a l s a t t a i n a degree of advanced p r o f i c i e n c y i n one or more of these work areas d u r i n g t h e i r s t a y i n p r i s o n . The t h i r d group i s u s u a l l y made up of three i n d i v i d u a l s %^ ho remain a t the Panabode d u r i n g the hours of the v o c a t i o n a l 1 and work program and concern themselves w i t h k i t c h e n d u t i e s and preparing meals, the laundry needs of the u n i t , and the housekeeping and home making aspects of the u n i t . The three i n d i v i d u a l s who remain i n the Panabode t o care f o r the aforementioned areas u s u a l l y r o t a t e on a weekly basis to assume i n tu r n the three areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g w i l l i n d i c a t e the d a i l y r o u t i n e at the Panabode U n i t d u r i n g the v o c a t i o n a l and work phase of the program: 7:00 a.m. Everyone must be at the- breakfast t a b l e but f o r those who are i l l . G i r l s may have th a r h a i r i n p i n c u r l s o n l y i f wearing a bandanna. 7:30 a.m. Dishes are washed and the ki t c h e n l e f t t i d y . 8:00 a.m. The v o c a t i o n and work program commences. Students go t o the p r i s o n ' s school b u i l d i n g , other g i r l s go t o t h e i r v a r i o u s work departments. G i r l s who remain i n the Panabode begin t h e i r d u t i e s of maintenance, laundry and k i t c h e n . A l l these d u t i e s are supervised by the day-s h i f t Panabode matron. - 77 -KIT CHEN DUTIES -Meals are planned and menus kept. Cupboards, sink, r e f r i g e r a t o r and stove are cleared. The r e f r i g e r a t o r i s de f r o s t e d each Monday and the cooking commences at t h i s time. 9:30.a.m. Nourishment i s served t o the e n t i r e Panabode group which r e t u r n s to the u n i t f o r a 15 minute break at t h i s time. Supplies.from the main b u i l d i n g are checked f o l l o w i n g t h i s . 11:30 a.m. Lunch i s served f o r the group. Grace i s s a i d by the k i t c h e n g i r l . 12 :00 a.m. Lunch dishes are washed and garbage p a i l s are emptied and scrubbed with d i s i n f e c t a n t . 12 :30 pirn. Supper vegetables and dessert s are prepared. The f l o o r i s washed and waxed, i f necessary. The k i t c h e n must be t i d y by 3:00 p.m. HOUSEKEEPING AND HOME-MAKING DUTIES 7 :30 a.m. Break f a s t t a b l e i s c l e a r e d and wiped. 8:00 a.m. The f l o o r s o f the A c t i v i t y Room and o f f i c e s are swept and p o l i s h e d and are scrubbed and waxed on Saturdays. F u r n i t u r e i s dusted and. windows kept clean. Sewing d u t i e s are a l s o c a r r i e d out during t h i s time. 11:15 a.m. Table i s set f o r lunch. 11 :30 a.m. Lunch f o r the e n t i r e group, 12 :00 a.m. The t a b l e i s cl e a r e d and wiped. Help i s given i n washing the dishes and the k i t c h e n must be t i d y by 12 :30 p.m. 12:30 p.m. The group returns t o sc h o o l and v o c a t i o n a l classes and housekeeper commences sewing u n t i l 2 :30 p.m. 2:30 p.m. F l o o r s are mopped, ash t r a y s emptied and washed and the room l e f t t i d y f o r 3 :00 p.m. LAUNDRY DUTIES 8:00 a.m. The laundry worker works through t o 2 :30 p.m. but f o r the morning nourishment and lunch breaks. She does the unit's laundry and i r o n i n g . A l l clothes must be put away by 2:30 p.m. ' and the washer and dryer are t o be cleaned and a i r e d a f t e r use. - 78 -DORMITORY ROUTINE 7:30 a.m. Cubicles are mopped and dusted and ash t r a y s emptied and cleaned, Beds are n e a t l y made ( h o s p i t a l s t y l e ) and no cloth e s are l e f t around. One blanket may be l e f t f o l d e d at the f o o t o f the bed. 6-8 p.m. F r i d a y s - Each g i r l s cleans her c u b i c l e , scrubs the f l o o r , waxes and p o l i s h e s . Cubicle and w a l l s are a l s o dusted and mi r r o r s and windows cleaned. 10:00 a.m. Saturdays - The e n t i r e dormitory i s prepared f o r i n s p e c t i o n . Drawers and cupboards are t i d i e d and cleaned. G i r l s are not supposed t o l o i t e r i n the dormitory a f t e r c l e a n i n g i s f i n i s h e d . 12:30 p.m. Dormitory I n s p e c t i o n Bathroom - Bathroom f l o o r i s washed w i t h d i s i n f e c t a n t each Saturday, or more o f t e n i f needed. I t i s swept and p o l i s h e d every day. Garbage i s emptied and burned outside. T o i l e t s and basins are washed w i t h d i s i n f e c t a n t each day, as i s the shower. Towels are f o l d e d n e a t l y . Other a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g are not supposed to be l e f t i n the bathroom* The bathroom i s a l s o inspected each Saturday but i s always kept t i d y and clean by the g i r l s . T h i s i s supervised by the Panabode matron. .. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n and group l i v i n g p a r t of the program i s that program which takes place between the hours of 3*00 p.m. and 8:30 p.m. d a i l y , Monday through F r i d a y , and on week-ends. I t i s the only p a r t of the program which i s unique t o the Panabode. Even i n t h i s area of the program there i s consid e r a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h other groups from the Women1 s J a i l . On Tuesday evenings there are "Legion of Mary" meetings w i t h Father Corcoran f o r the Roman C a t h o l i c g i r l s and a P r o t e s t a n t f i l m or d i s c u s s i o n w i t h the P r o t e s t a n t Chaplain. I n d i v i d u a l s from any or a l l o f the other groups w i t h i n the Women's J a i l might a l s o be found at these s e s s i o n s . - 79 -I n the hours from 7 :00 p.m. t o 9 :00 p.m. there i s a mental h e a l t h f i l m and d i s c u s s i o n once a i^eek. This d i s c u s s i o n i s f o r the e n t i r e Panabode group and i s conducted by the Panabode treatment matron on the afternoon s h i f t . Two days a week, from 3:00 p.m. t o 10:30 or from 6 :00 to 7 :00 p.m. there i s badminton i n the "Women's gymnasium. This a c t i v i t y i s only f o r the Panabode group,-On F r i d a y evenings from 7 :00 p.m. t o 9":30 p.m. there i s a F i r s t A i d Course, p r o f i c i e n c y i n which may be c r e d i t e d towards S t . John's Ambulence C e r t i f i c a t i o n . Other i n d i v i d u a l s from the Women's J a i l might a l s o be t a k i n g t h i s course. S o f t b a l l , other f i e l d games and occupational therapy are f i t t e d i n t o the other f r e e hours of program i n a f l e x i b l e way yhlle u t i l i z i n g the program time as such. Saturday afternoons are f r e e .'.'time f o r the g i r l s . On Sundays, b r e a k f a s t i s a t 9 :00 a.m. Roman C a t h o l i c s e r v i c e s are at 9:30 a.m. and a Pr o t e s t a n t s e r v i c e i s a t Is30 p.m. From 3 :30 p.m. t o 5:00 p.m. there i s l e t t e r w r i t i n g and a f t e r 6 :00 p.m. there i s u s u a l l y outside entertainment which the e n t i r e male and female p r i s o n enjoy i n a segregated manner i n the Men's gymnasium, which a l s o serves as the p r i s o n ' s main auditorium. M a i l and communications g e n e r a l l y are d e a l t w i t h i n the same manner i n the Women's Panabode as i n the Men's. Medical and d e n t a l a t t e n t i o n i s a l s o the same as that i n the male u n i t . There i s a f a i r l y w e l l stocked l i b r a r y i n the Women's J a i l from which Panabode inmates can s e l e c t d e s i r e d reading. J o i n t i n t e r v i e w s and outside v i s i t o r s are d e a l t w i t h i n the same manner as i n the male s e c t i o n . - 80 -As w i t h the male Panabode inmates, there i s a s l i d i n g s c a l e of pay fo r female Panabode inmates based on t h e i r a t t i t u d e s , performance and i n t e r a c t i o n i n groups. The r a t e of pay decided upon i s not a r r i v e d at i n the same manner as i t i s i n the male u n i t but simply depends on the a t t i t u d e and observations of the group matron or matrons who have charge of the i n d i v i d u a l i n program. DYNAMICS OF THE TREATMENT PROCESS IN PROGRAM Gen e r a l l y speaking, the same th i n g s can be s a i d of the dynamics of treatment i n the Women's Panabode as was s a i d of them i n the Men's i m i t . l The Women's u n i t i s not segregated t o the same extent, however, and t h e i r sense of i d e n t i t y and u n i t y does not seem so strong as a r e s u l t . The work phase of program f o r inmates o f the Women's Panabode i s much more d i v e r s i f i e d and i s more i n c l i n e d to create i n c e n t i v e than i s the men's. Q u a l i f i e d v o c a t i o n a l and e d u c a t i o n a l s t a f f place many d e s i r a b l e goals and achievements w e l l w i t h i n reach of those who are w e l l motivated. I t i s remembered^ however, t h a t when one t a l k s of the work program f o r the Women's Panabode, one i s r e a l l y t a l k i n g about the program of the Women's J a i l i n which the female Panabode inmates p a r t i c i p a t e . Lack of personnel and f a c i l i t i e s i n the Women's Panabode prevents t h a t u n i t from c a r r y i n g on a segregated program of i t s own. FOLLOW-UP OF DISCHARGED ADDICTS I t i s understood t h a t the person newly appointed to the p o s i t i o n of Discharge Follow-up O f f i c e r f o r the.male Panabode w i l l be assuming the same r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the female Panabode. I t should be noted, however, that the female Panabode has not had a discharge follow-up o f f i c e r s i n c e the uni t T O n\ i - i — r - r - n . •_. _ / o - 81 -came i n t o being i n 1956. As the w r i t e r ' s impressions of t h i s O f f i c e r ' s d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s 1 have a l r e a d y been given i n Chapter I I I , they w i l l not be d e a l t w i t h f u r t h e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The w r i t e r would hope, however, t h a t the f o l l o w -up o f f i c e r might be able t o spend some time each week i n the female Panabode v/here he can become more than s u p e r f i c i a l l y acquainted w i t h p r o s p e c t i v e r e h a b i l i t e e s and where they can l e a r n to regard him as a meaningful f i g u r e and h e l p f u l resource to them. 1. SeeChapter I I I , Pages 64 and 65. CHAPTER V. PROGRAM AND POLICY:. CONTINUING NEEDS There i s perhaps a special relevancy and urgency to studies the nature of t h i s thesis. The writer makes t h i s observation i n the r e a l i z -ation that the Panabode units within Oakalla Prison Farm represent two of but three treatment f a c i l i t i e s i n the entire Province of B r i t i s h Columbia through which an attempt is:made to cope with the present drug addiction problem! The male and female Panabode units together can only accommodate a maximum of 21 addicts at any one time and i t i s believed that the number of addicts active i n treatment at the Narcotic Addiction Foundation i n Vancouver could not greatly exceed t h i s number. These three treatment centres with a l l t h e i r l i m i t a t i o n s of s t a f f , funds and f a c i l i t i e s cannot possibly cope r e a l i s t i c a l l y with the problems of an addicted pop-u l a t i o n u n o f f i c i a l l y estimated to be between 1500 and 20001 I t i s time that Vancouver and the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia started thinking and acting i n broader terms than such p i l o t projects. THE PANABODE UNITS AND FACILITIES The fact that the Panabode units are located within the confines of a correctional setting places many obstacles i n the way of treatment - 33 -and i t s p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s . This i s p r i n c i p a l l y because the primary concern i n such s e t t i n g s must be f o r custody, but the f a c t t h a t inmates are cut o f f almost completely from any i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the community and sometimes b i t t e r l y r e s e n t t h i s , i n t e r f e r e s c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h the a t t a i n -ment of treatment goals. The male Panabode i s b e t t e r l o c a t e d than i s the female u n i t . I t i s b e t t e r segregated from the male p r i s o n and has more property and f a c -i l i t i e s f o r Panabode program and a c t i v i t i e s . This enables male Panabode inmates to c a r r y out more work and a c t i v i t y without contact w i t h other u n i t s of the main g a i l . This w r i t e r i s : not c r i t i c a l of the i n t e r a c t i o n t h a t does e x i s t i n s p o r t s , gymnasium and hobby c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s between the male Panabode inmates and those o f the Westgate u n i t . At the same time Some of these a c t i v i t i e s could be c a r r i e d out s e p a r a t e l y i f the male Panabode had more room and f a c i l i t i e s . Perhaps when a f u l l basement i s constructed under the present workshop there may be room f o r m a t e r i a l and hobby c r a f t i n the Panabode b u i l d i n g s and perhaps a separate p e r i o d i n the main gymnasium could be arranged f o r the Panabode group. I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y advocated however t h a t the Panabode inmates remain segregated from the Westgate u n i t i n sp o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . The female Panabode u n i t has no a d d i t i o n a l property, b u i l d i n g s • or f a c i l i t i e s other than the u n i t i t s e l f . I t i s l o c a t e d so near to the Women's J a i l and there i s so much i n t e r a c t i o n between i t s inmates and those o f the Women's J a i l t h a t i t might almost be considered another f a c i l i t y of - S'4 -1 the Women's J a i l . The program of the female Panabode revealed the extent of association between Panabode inmates and those of the Women's J a i l . I t i s f e l t by the writer that program i s quite good within the Women's J a i l and i f funds w i l l not allow for q u a l i f i e d s t a f f and adequate f a c i l -i t i e s , for a well rounded and segregated female Panabode program, then by necessity and not by choice there must be interaction between the two buildings. I t might f a i r l y be said however that the present degree of interaction between the Women's J a i l and the Panabode unit tends to undermine the advantages of the more segregated phases of the Panabode program. 2 The kitchen of the Women's Panabode faces out over the east wing of the Men's J a i l . I t i s suggested that a t a l l t r e l l i s with l e a f y vines or some evergreen trees should be placed along the north border of Women's Panabode property to prevent window writing.and other forms of communication between the unit and the east \jing of the Men's J a i l . TREATMENT AND PROGRAM I t was noted i n e a r l i e r chapters that the philosophy, goals and purposes of the Panabode units were not stated. I t would seem to be a helpful guide for the s t a f f i f these matters could be c l e a r l y stated -1 See chapter IV, pp. 75 - 80 -2 See chapter I I I , pp. 48,49, for a discussion of Oakalla's East Wing - 8§ -i n a general way at l e a s t . I t does not seem p o s s i b l e t h a t one could ever evaluate the e f f i c i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a treatment program without f i r s t knowing the treatment goals. Even general treatment goals could be elaborated upon a f t e r c a r e f u l assessment ( p s y c h o l o g i c a l , s o c i a l , p s y c h i a t r i c and medical) of each inmate, when an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d treatment p l a n could be s t a t e d and embarked upon, t a k i n g i n t o account the p a r t i c u l a r needs, c a p a c i t i e s and a s p i r a t i o n s of each inmate. These too should be c a r e f u l l y s p e l l e d out i n r e c o r d i n g and, i f necessary, changed f o r a co n t i n u i n g and p e r t i n e n t treatment focus. At present a l l "treatment" f o r the a d d i c t accrues from the s o c i a l -i z a t i o n and group l i v i n g aspects o f the program. However, i f we b e l i e v e 1 what we have s a i d e a r l i e r about a d d i c t s i t does not seem l i k e l y t h a t the ad d i c t w i l l r e s o l v e h i s own p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y problems t o any great extent i n a treatment program which Is o n l y group o r i e n t e d . During h i s stay i n the Panabode un i t , _ program may help the a d d i c t to get along b e t t e r w i t h o t h e r s , to be more t o l e r a n t perhaps and to f u n c t i o n c o - o p e r a t i v e l y w i t h i n the group, but i t does not provide him w i t h the help he needs,to r e s o l v e h i s own p a r t i c u l a r p e r s o n a l i t y problems. He i s " l e f t hanging on the fence" I n t h a t he has very seldom had the opp o r t u n i t y or the help t o r e s o l v e any of h i s , personal problems. As a r e s u l t , he i s very much the same person w i t h the same b a s i c problems and a t t i t u d e s on. discharge t h a t he had when he came to p r i s o n . I t i s the x./riter's impression that t h i s i s due i n p a r t to the f a c t t h a t the emphasis i s . on "the group as a whole" w i t h l i t t l e i f any opp o r t u n i t y f o r the i n d i v i d u a l t o ' g a i n I n s i g h t and 1 See chapter 1 1 , pp. 23 ,24 , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f three general groups, or. types o f persons who become add i c t e d . - 86 -understanding of h i m s e l f . Were such help and advice r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e , i t i s b e l i e v e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l would use i t more f r e q u e n t l y and e v : e f f e c t i v e l y . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t a great many drug a d d i c t s do not respond very w e l l to psychotherapy. For them, Bocus on the group as a whole might be more e f f e c t i v e . I t would seem however t h a t there are times when a l l or most a d d i c t s would not o n l y respond to psychotherapy but would very much appreciate some i n d i v i d u a l a t t e n t i o n and help w i t h personal problems. This would demand the s e r v i c e s of both a f u l l time p s y c h i a t r i s t and an a l e r t and s e n s i t i v e S o c i a l ' Worker. These two persons should be f r e e to o f f e r t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e s e r v i c e s and not be t i e d up w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . The f o r e g o i n g a p p l i e s to both the male and the female u n i t s where t h e r e . i s very l i m i t e d o p portunity f o r I n d i v i d u a l inmates t o gain p s y c h i a t r i c or s o c i a l work h e l p . There i s no s o c i a l worker on the female Panabode s t a f f and some inmates of t h i s u n i t serve t h e i r time and are discharged without ever seeing the p s y c h i a t r i s t . This i s not n e c e s s a r i l y a c r i t i c i s m o f the p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t because t h i s w r i t e r i s not aware o f a l l the demands made o f t h i s person. I t i s , however, a c r i t i c i s m of the program. I t i s the w r i t e r s impression too t h a t the research aspects of the program are being neglected. There i s need f o r c l o s e r d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n of t h i s phase of the u n i t ' s f u n c t i o n i n g . I t would seem t h a t the concern or focus of r e s e a r c h i n such a p i l o t p r o j e c t as the Panabode, should be p r i m a r i l y i n one of two areas; a) E i t h e r t h a t o f attempting to show c l e a r l y what the d i f f i c u l t i e s , problems and needs would be i n a l a r g e r - 87 -community treatment and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n u n i t f o r drug addicts,- or, b) t h a t of attempting to show j u s t what can be accomplished w i t h i d e a l personnel, f a c i l i t i e s and program. I t i s argued t h a t research i n the Panabode u n i t s i s not making a s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to e i t h e r of these areas. I t would be h e l p f u l f o r i n s t a n c e , to know how many persons had passed through the Fanabode programs and whether or not they have returned to the use of drugs. Even i f they have returned to the use of drugs, i t would be h e l p f u l to know how l o n g they had abstained and f o r what expressed reasons they returned to the use of drugs. Strangely enough, the Panabode u n i t s d i d not even r e t a i n a nominal l i s t of the persons who had passed through t h e i r treatment program. Such a l i s t has now been prepared from the memory of the o f f i c e r s who have been i n charge of the u n i t however i t Is not known i f t h i s l i s t i s complete. But f o r a few exceptions, none of the discharged a d d i c t s has been contacted or heard from f o l l o w i n g h i s discharge unless he was returned to p r i s o n f o r another o f f e n s e . I t i s to be. hoped that.the newly appointed follow-up o f f i c e r may be of help i n t h i s regard. Again p e r s o n a l i t i e s are not n e c e s s a r i l y c r i t i c i z e d here as shortage o f s t a f f and inadequately t r a i n e d personnel may not be able to do the d e s i r e d job e f f e c t i v e l y . Nevertheless there are r e a l short comings i n the area of r e s e a r c h . The group l i v i n g and .-..-socialization aspects o f program appear to f u n c t i o n q u i t e w e l l i n both u n i t s and the w r i t e r was t r u l y impressed w i t h the amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d i s c u s s i o n s . These d i s c u s s i o n s r e v e a l e d a great deal about the character, a t t i t u d e s and outlook of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I t might be w e l l to record i n more d e t a i l and i n a w e l l focussed manner - 38 -the a d d i c t s progress as observed i n group d i s c u s s i o n s . There i s not enough care and d e t a i l given to t h i s matter at present. The work program c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y of woodwork f o r the men and i n the w i n t e r months t h i s phase of program i s c a r r i e d out i n very crowded quarters which are n e i t h e r good for. the q u a l i t y of work nor:for the morale of the group. I t i s hoped t h a t expanded f a c i l i t i e s w i l l help t h i s s i t -u a t i o n but there i s s t i l l a great need to broaden the work program to i n c l u d e p r o j e c t s and c r a f t s other than woodworking. PERSONNEL The person i n charge of the Panabode f o r males i s a "senior p r i s o n guard". Although he i s the only s o c i a l \jorker mn e i t h e r the male or the female u n i t , he i s the o n l y one who wears the uniform of a p r i s o n guard. This i n i t s e l f e r e c t s b a r r i e r s to communication and good working r e l a t i o n -ships as: there i s a strong tendency throughout the p r i s o n f o r inmates, to a l i g n themselves i n a u n i t e d manner against s t a f f . The uniform represents " s t a f f " r a t h e r than concerned treatment personnel. I t i s considered t h a t as the o n l y s o c i a l worker i n e i t h e r u n i t , the Panabode senior p r i s o n guard has too many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c u s t o d i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , to do an e f f e c t i v e job of s o c i a l work. I t i s suggested t h a t i f there i s only going to be one s o c i a l worker on the Panabode s t a f f , he might b e t t e r assume treatment d u t i e s , the p r e p a r a t i o n of inmates f o r discharge back to the community and gener-a l l y , the d u t i e s now assumed by the u n i t ' s discharge follow-up o f f i c e r , who i s not a s o c i a l worker. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e and c u s t o d i a l d u t i e s of the - 89 -u n i t s could then be assumed by some other c u s t o d i a l or treatment person. I f given adequate d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n , such a person would not need to have re s e a r c h t r a i n i n g although t h i s would be d e s i r a b l e . There i s need f o r more and b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d treatment personnel. Present male s t a f f who are i n v o l v e d i n treatment must be commended f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s and t h e i r p u r s u i t o f f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g and q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . C u s t o d i a l s t a f f should be encouraged t o take v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g which would more adequately prepare them to supervise and guide work p r o j e c t s . While the observation might be n e i t h e r accurate nor'a matter o f much concern, the w r i t e r i n h i s many v i s i t s , to O a k a l l a P r i s o n thought he could detect the existence o f a c e r t a i n degree o f - c o n f l i c t between " c u s t o d i a l s t a f f " and "treatment s t a f f . " Though t h i s i s not evident to the same extent i n the Panabode u n i t s i t would seem t h a t i n a p r i s o n , good program must go hand i n hand w i t h good c u s t o d i a l measures and p r a c t i c e s . There i s a v a l i d place f o r both, and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n should concern i t s e l f w i t h any c o n f l i c t t h a t does 'exist between the two segments o f s t a f f . With regard to the Panabode f o r female a d d i c t s i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t there i s only one s t a f f member per s h i f t i n t h i s u n i t and on l y one of t h i s s t a f f o f three can be considered a treatment person. Program and i n t e r a c t i o n o f the female Panabode u n i t i s so i n t e r t w i n e d w i t h t h a t of the Women's J a i l t h a t the u n i t at present i s l i t t l e more than an a d d i t i o n a l f a c i l i t y and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the Women's J a i l . Here again the w r i t e r would suggest t h a t the s t a f f o f the Women's Panabode needs more d i r e c t i o n and guidance from both the p r i s o n p s y c h i a t r i s t and from the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - 9 0 -r of the Women's J a i l . I t i s considered too that the unit i s i n need d?f the services of a. s o c i a l caseworker. I t i s - a l s o suggested, that there be some exchange of s t a f f between the male and the female u n i t s . I t i s believed that the presence of a female s t a f f member i n the male Panabode would cut down on the bad language of both inmates and s t a f f and that i t would add considerably to the a t -mosphere of the unit while affording inmates the opportunity of interacting with a-female figure. I t would be desirable also for female inmates, to be afforded the opportunity of interaction \ri.th a desirable male figu r e . I t i s further suggested that exchange of s t a f f between the two units would afford each u n i t maximum opportunity to benefit from positive aspects of the other u n i t . At present there would appear to be certain shortcomings i n communication between the two u n i t s . Each unit has features and i n f o r -mation which could, be used to benefit and better the functions: of the other. The duties and re s p o n s i b i l i t i e s : of the discharge follow-up o f f i c e r could well involve the most important aspects of treatment. He attempts to return the:- addict to an outside l i v i n g and work si t u a t i o n which is:: s a t i s f y i n g and as-, void of unnecessary stresses, as possible. The writer would suggest that t h i s o f f i c e r should be a q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l worker and that he spend a considerable portion of his time i n the Panabode units. He:, should be able to of f e r sound casework help to addicts -. He should be a f a m i l i a r figure to a l l Panabode inmates^ p a r t i c u l a r l y those who are pre-paring for discharge. He i s the inmates:.' l i a i s o n between the prison and the community. As such he must be able to f i n d and create good employment and l i v i n g situations f o r the addict on h i s return to the community.. He-must be able to recognize and resolve family and interpersonal problems; - 91 -which w i l l reduce t o a minimum s t r e s s e s of "the s i t u a t i o n to which the a d d i c t w i l l be r e t u r n i n g . His job would be very c h a l l e n g i n g , f u l l o f p i t f a l l s , set backs and f a i l u r e s , but the s a t i s f a c t i o n s of working through a s u c c e s s f u l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n would indeed be great. THE PROCESS OF SELECTION Undoubtedly there already e x i s t ; c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n of s u i t a b l e candidates f o r the Panabode treatment programs. However, these c r i t e r i a appear to be r a t h e r nebulous. I t i s suggested t h a t consid-erable a t t e n t i o n should be given to the s e t t i n g up of c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n , as.there would appear t o be some danger at present t h a t the s e l e c t i o n process allows too much freedom f o r sympathetic i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h those a d d i c t s who should not be exposed to the i n f l u e n c e of the hardened and c y n i c a l r e c i d i v i s t s of the east wing. ( I t w i l l be r e c a l l e d t h a t i n Oa k a l l a , a l l addicted inmates, whether or not they are con v i c t e d under the Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act, are a l l o c a t e d to the east wing o f the p r i s o n unless they are s u i t a b l e f o r and can be accommodated i n the Panabode u n i t . ) The w r i t e r questions the m o t i v a t i o n t h a t prompts some east wing inmates to request t r a n s f e r to the Panabode u n i t . By comparison w i t h the Panabode u n i t , the east wing.Is a morbid, r i g i d l y c o n t r o l l e d u n i t l a c k i n g much o f the program, l i b e r t i e s and comforts of the. Panabode. I t i s considered t h a t some east wing inmates have no h e a l t h i e r a motive than t h a t i t would be much b e t t e r f o r them i f they could do t h e i r p r i s o n time, or as much of - 92 -i t as; p o s s i b l e , i n the Panabode u n i t . I t w i l l be obvious t h a t the foregoing r e f e r s to the s i t u a t i o n i n the Men's J a i l . There would not be the same degree o f spurious m o t i v a t i o n i n the: Women's J a i l . By comparison w i t h the Men's J a i l the Women's: i s very c l e a n , b r i g h t and c h e e r f u l and there would be l i t t l e other than the d e s i r e to a v a i l themselves: o f the Panabode treatment program to motivate the ad d i c t s to seek placement I n t h a t u n i t . This i s not to say t h a t s e l e c t i o n i s more c a r e f u l l y and a p p r o p r i a t e l y c a r r i e d out f o r the Women's Panabode as there i s probably more s u b j e c t i v e involvement i n the female s e l e c t i o n process than there i s on the male s i d e . Before c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n can be set up there w i l l need to be. a c a r e f u l d e s c r i p t i o n o f the treatment goalsw: IQnly when t h i s i s accomplished can c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n be e s t a b l i s h e d s i n c e the two are of n e c e s s i t y very much r e l a t e d . I t i s acknowledged t h a t , should treatment goals and c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n be c a r e f u l l y s p e l l e d out, there would s t i l l be a need f o r judgement as to which prospective candidate(s) would best f i t i n w i t h the c u r r e n t Panabode group. The charac t e r o f the group w i l l o f course change w i t h changes i n i t s membership. I t i s observed t h a t the treatment program f o r addicted persons in Lexington, Kentucky, a f t e r years o f c a r e f u l r e s e a r c h and study, has worked out a systematized and e f f e c t i v e s et o f c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n . I t i s not n e c e s s a r i l y suggested t h a t the same c r i t e r i a could or should be used i n s e l e c t i o n f o r the Panabode programs. The Lexington c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n do c o n t a i n much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n , however, which could be a l t e r e d or otherwise used i n s e t t i n g up systematic c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n related to the p a r t i c u l a r treatment goals of the Fanabode u n i t s . LEGISLATIVE PROPOSALS: There:-:are ••aiianyyr&asons why we should re-assess the lawa which have been established i n Canada to cope with our problems of drug addiction. The mos^.obvious reason for doing so is.; that these laws: have not been effective i n c u r t a i l i n g addiction. Indeed, t h i s . s o c i a l menace has• cont-inued to spread alarmingly, p a r t i c u l a r l y here i n Vancouver. Sooner or l a t e r vie must also admit to ourselves: that the best-efforts; of our police: departments,have f a i l e d to prevent a steady flow of i l l i c i t narcotics; to addicts: and that prison sentences, even severe sentences, have not d i s -couraged addicted persons, from resuming t h e i r use of narcotic drugs'. Present l e g i s l a t i o n has created a ruthless, f l o u r i s h i n g and prosperous black marketj a black market which stoops;to adulterating pure drugs with such substances, as; nescafe, abrasive cleansers:, epsom s a l t s , as; well as. the more common sugars of milk. Because of the severe: penalties;: involved i n t r a f f i c k i n g , i l l i c i t drugs are very expensive. To support his.habit the drug addict must inevitably resort to crime. In the c i t y of Vancouver.it has been estimated that as: much as 8 5 per cent of a l l 1 crime i s committed by addicts;. A;.brief look at: s t a t i s t i c s ; reveals that •1 Mulligan, W.H.. op. c i t . . pp 59 -82; i n the men's.section of Oakalla the proportion of addicts: i n j a i l at any-one time has varied i n the l a s t two yeats; between 16'and 30 per cent. During the same period the proportion of addicts., i n the female section has: varied between 50 and 62'per cent. There are at. present roughly three male convictions for every female conviction. The important feature, stressed here i s ; that Vancouver's large addict colony of unemployed and; delinquent people must surely cost the c i t i z e n a large annual sum of money i n stolen goods, police and court proceedings, and maintenance i n prison. I t i s proposed that the Federal Government should be urged to modify the.Opium and Narcotic Drug Act to permit the provinces, (at l e a s t the. province o f , B r i t i s h Columbia,)' freedom to administer:narcotic drugs: to users: through medical prescriptions. This would place the problem of drug'addiction i n the hands of the medical profession where I t i s sugg-ested i t belongs, rather than leaving i t with the various: law; enforcement agencies;. With or without the foregoing proposal the Government of the: Province of B r i t i s h Columbia should also be urged to authorize payment to hospitals,for the withdrawal treatment of addicts and for s e t t i n g up rehab-i l i t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s ; • I t i s ; suggested that these two developments: would bring drug addicts out into the open where they could be counted and.then treated as; sick persons rather than criminals. Apart from the: very l i m i t e d treatment resources, of prison and the Narcotic Addiction Foundation, there i s ; ab-solutely no resource or place of refuge for. an addict who seeks withdrawal helpi regardless of h i s motivation., - . 95 -It is ludicrous for a community to affirm its- concern with the problems; of drug addiction and yet allow l i t t l e or no avenue to rehabilitation other than through imprisonment!' Drug addiction must be attacked on a broad front with tthe best available resotirces we have. This, attack must involve vigorous and well informed people from a l l levels of community and up through provincial'arid Federal'governments. Until this happens we can undoubtedly expect to have with us an ever-worsening problem of addiction. It is; frightening, however, to think that the problem has to become even greater and more widespread before some broad measures will be taken for its resolution. Should legislation ever permit the administration of narcotic drugs to users;through medical prescription, the;.medical profession would , ha^ e; to assure that every conceivable means, is: employed to induce userss to give up drugs and fully to rehabilitate themselves. For those cases; who will not give up the use of drugs; or invariably return to their use, pure narcotic drugs should be available and in sufficient quantity so that there; would not be a nedd to resort to black market. For such persons/drugs; other than heroin should be used whenever possible to help them to function at as; high a.level of efficiency as:possible while avoiding withdrawal symptoms. This matter would be a medical concern. Further reasons .for the legalized prescription of narcotic drugs '.. are: 1) ' Making'drugs legally available would remove much of the present intrigue and glamour from their use particularly among the criminal element. Some addicts.; to whom I have spoken have also stated, that, having used drugs, they resent the l e g a l prohibition and become the more determined to get drugs. A similar phenomenon was observable i n the.. days of alcohol prohibition. , Z) I t i s a personal b e l i e f that far fewer new addicts-, would be created should drugs become l e g a l i z e d as there would not exist the same need to create new addicts. Fev. addicted persons would encourage others . to', use drugs simply for the sake of creating addiction, and open medical advice and attention would be available whenever there' might be a need for the use of drugs. -3)* The cost of l e g a l l y available drugs could be nominal and the addict' could e a s i l y support a modest habit from his wages.; The addict would not be i n constant turmoil with the police nor would he be sent to j a i l f o r his addiction. 5) Not being arrested and involved in.lengthy j a i l sentences, the addict could work more steadily, advance i n his work and maintain himself and his-family i n comparative r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . 6) Pure drugs would not be so detrimental to the user as. would black market drugs, adulterated as.they are.. 7) The addict maintains;; that he is--less danger under the influence:, of heroin than he or other people are:under the influence <f alcohol. Under the influence of heroin he states that he only wants to be quiet and re-laxed, whereas;the alcohol user i s . l i k e l y to be aggressive, quarrelsome and dangerous., 8) There should be trememdous; reduction i n the rate of crime, - 9 7 -since much crime at present i s as a r e s u l t of drug addiction. I t might also be mentioned here that the deleterious effects: of narcotic drugs, on the indiv i d u a l user and on society generally, are a matter of some controversy. I t i s ; commonly claimed that the habitual use of narcotics:;has unfavourable effects, on both the i n d i v i d u a l and on society, but these effects:; have almost c e r t a i n l y been exaggerated by the opponents of the use of narcotics. Compared with alcohol the deleterious effects;, of the opium derivatives are probably q u a l i t a t i v e l y and quantit-a t i v e l y l e s s than those of alcohol. I t i s ; common knowledge too that f a r more murders, rapes and other crimes of violence arise from the use of alcohol than from the use. of a l l other narcotic drugs combined! In t h e i r habit-forming propensities, and i n the narrow margin of safety between s o c i a l use and addiction, the opium group is:more hazardous than.alcohol. In a l l other respects, however, alcohol would appear to be more dangerous;, of the two. There would be some obvious d i f f i c u l t i e s , and d e t a i l s to be resolved before; e f f e c t i n g any plan for the l e g a l prescription of drugs. For instance, i f such a plan were t r i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia or even i n Canada as a whole, drug addicts would come from other parts where l e g a l sale did not exi s t and. would.bring with them additional problems. Also there: i s . the p o s s i b i l i t y that l e g a l sale of drugs i n B r i t i s h Columbia or Canada could create a serious.black'market problem across the l i n e i n U.S.A. where sale of drugs . i s not l e g a l . . - 9.8 -Any p l a n f o r dispensing drugs through p h y s i c i a n s would have to be ve r y c a r e f u l l y worked out.to ensure the accomplishment o f i t s o b j e c t i v e s ; o r i n t e n t . I t is:.- h a s t i l y added t h a t such a p l a n would not mean t h a t the use o f drugs, should be condonedI On the contrary; i t should o n l y mean t h a t we are t r y i n g to b r i n g a d d i c t s out i n t o the open where every resource should be made a v a i l a b l e i n h e l p i n g them to withdraw and r e f r a i n from the use o f drugs. The l e g a l s a l e o f drugs through medical p r e s c r i p t i o n should cut down s u b s t a n t i a l l y on the r a t e o f crime to say nothing o f the c o s t o f ma i n t a i n i n g a d d i c t s i n p r i s o n s , o f t e n supporting t h e i r f a m i l i e s : i n the meantime. Should Parliament be w i l l i n g to permit the l e g a l s a l e o f narcotics:: i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t would probably have to forego i t s : o b l i g a t i o n s i n the U n i t e d Nations p a c t s ? t o which Canada i s a s i g n a t o r y and i n which Canada and the other s i g n a t o r i e s are pledged to f i g h t drug a d d i c t i o n . I t i s possible, t h a t Canada might s t i l l adhere to i t s . U n i ted Nations commitments:, and y e t t r y out new. methods o f managing i t s . ; own a d d i c t i o n problem. The methods proposed, however, do appear to be i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n to Canada's i n t e r n a t i o n a l commitments. Whatever methods are employed to cope w i t h our drug, a d d i c t i o n problems, there i s an urgent need f o r a vigorous a t t a c k on a broad f r o n t i f we are ever to make more than token gestures^towards the problems s o l u t i o n . Concerned and knowledgeable people must face t h i s : problem and make an energetic ." and determined, e f f o r t to de a l w i t h i t r e a l i s t i c a l l y . Meanwhile, every unhappy, d i s p l a c e d and bewildered drug a d d i c t i s a l i v i n g reproach and challenge to.us.. - 99 -Appendix A... - GLOSSARY Narcotic - comes from a Greek word meaning to be numb. By en-largement, a narcotic drug i s a chemical substance which has the power to produce torpor, stupor, sleepiness, unconsciousness, and anxiety, fear and worry. Opiate - This word comes: from the word "opium", and o r i g i n a l l y meant a preparation containing opium which would relieve, pain and induce sleep. The term i s used today for any substance that induces, sleep, quiet or inaction.. Analgesic. - This word refers to any chemical substance whose, chief action i s the r e l i e f of physical pain. Habit forming drug - The Expert Committee on Drug Addiction of the World Health Organization distinguishes, between a habit forming drug and an addiction producing drug. I t defines a habit-forming drug as. "... one which i s or may be taken repeatedly without the production of a l l the characteristics outlined i n the d e f i n i t i o n of addiction, and which i s not generally considered to be detrimental to the ind i v i d u a l and to society. "•' Drug Addiction - as defined by the Expert Committee on Drugs; Liable to Produce Addiction of the World Health Organization, ".... i s a state of periodic or chronic i n t o x i c a t i o n , detrimental to the ind i v i d u a l and to society, produced by the repeated consumption of a drug (natural or synthetic.) I t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s incldde:. (1) Ah overpowering desire, or need (compulsion) to continue talcing the drug and to obtain i t by any means; (2) A tendency to increase the dose; (3) A psychic (psychological) and sometimes a physical dependence on the effect of the drug." Drugs of Addiction - The term "drug addiction" emphasizes the "overpowering desire or need", (compulsion), obtaining i t "by any means"', and detrimental to the i n d i v i d u a l and to the society. Any drugs having the above named characteristics are considered to be drugs of addiction. Some drugs have been considered more dangerous to the individual and to society than have others. Various international conventions have been set up to regulate narcotic drugs by permitting the growth and manufacture only of quantities s u f f i c i e n t to s a t i s f y s c i e n t i f i c and medical purposes. The United Nations Economic and Social Council has, as one of its;; sub-d i v i s i o n s , a Commission on Narcotic Drugs, which i s the governing body for International Regulation of Narcotic Drugs., Synthetic Drugs - These are drugs having opiate q u a l i t i e s , which are maufactured from other chemical substances., and are not the d i r e c t r e s u l t of plant c u l t i v a t i o n as are the other three groups - the opium group, the cannabis group and cocaine. New synthetics are constantly being - 100 -produced and t h e i r c o n t r o l by i n t e r n a t i o n a l convention has been an exceedingly d i f f i c u l t t a s k , as each new drug has to be t e s t e d f o r i t s a d d i c t i v e p r o p e r t i e s . However, o n l y two s y n t h e t i c o p i a t e s are o f impor-tance at the present time from the standpoint o f a d d i c t i o n . They are p e t h i d i n e (demerolX and methadone. The l i t e r , because of i t s : m i l d e r , a d d i c t i n g q u a l i t i e s , i s o f t e n used t e m p o r a r i l y i n the withdrawal treatment of persons addicted to morphine or h e r o i n . Other drugs - Alcohol, b a r b i t u r a t e s and benzedrine — these are not i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y c o n t r o l l e d even though the b a n e f u l e f f e c t s of a l c o h o l aire both q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y g r e a t l y i n excess of those produced by other drugs. — 101. -SPECIFIC BIBLIOGRAPHY Citizens'Forum - "Should Drug A d d i c t s Go To J a i l ? ' " , Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n  For Adult.Education, 113.St. George S t . , -Toronto, Ont., Oct. 1959 Committee on N a r c o t i c s , Community Chest and Cou n c i l o f Greater Vancouver, "Drug A d d i c t i o n i n Canada:. The Problem and i t s . S o l u t i o n . " , Reprinted from The Vancouver P r o v i n c e . . J u l y 30 , 1952" C o u n c i l on Mental H e a l t h , "Report on N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n " , Reprinted from the Journa l o f the American M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 105, Nov. 30 , Dec. 7 , Dec. 1A, 1957 de Quincey, T^, Confessions o f an E n g l i s h Opium Eat e r , -J..J.. L i t t l e and Ives: Co., N.Y. 1932> Dunlpson, J . , "The Menace o f Narcotics-:to the C h i l d r e n o f New York", N.Y.C., Welfare Council o f N.Y..C.., 1951 Himmelsbach, C., "Comments on Drug A d d i c t i o n " , Hygeia, May 194-7 Huxley, A., The Doors o f Pe r c e p t i o n , C l a r k e , Ifcwin & Co., Toronto,1954-Jones, Reg, "The T w i l i g h t World o f Drug Addiction";, About Town, Vancouver, B.C., Nov., 1953 J o s i e , G., A. Report on Drug A d d i c t i o n i n Canada. Ottawa, Dept. o f Health and Welfare, 194-8 . K i r k p a t r i c k , A.M., "New Approach to Drug Problem Suggested", The Canadian  Bar J o u r n a l . V o l . 2 , No. 6, Nov., 195.9 Kolb, L., "Drug A d d i c t i o n Among Women", United S t a t e s : P u b l i c Health B u l l e t i n , #211, 1925. Kolb, L., "Marijuana", United States P u b l i c H e a l t h B u l l e t i n . Washington, D..C.., 1925: - 102 -Kolb, L. & Himmelsbach, C., " C l i n i c a l Studies o f Drug A d d i c t i o n " , Washington, . P u b l i c Health Report , rfl28 (Supplement) 193.8 Lindesmith, A., "Opiate A d d i c t i o n " , The P r i n c i p e a Press, Evanston, 111., 194-6 Maurer, D.W., "The Argot o f the Underworld N a r c o t i c A d d i c t " , P a r t I , American Speech, A p r i l , 1936 May, H.L., "Survey o f Opium Smoking Conditions i n the Far E ast"> Foreign  P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1927/ Small, L.F. & Himmelsbach, C.K., "Studies on Drug A d d i c t i o n " , Supplement  138 to the P u b l i c Health Reports, United States P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i c e , Washington, 1938 Sondern, F.J., "This Problem o f N a r c o t i c A d d i c t i o n : Let's Face I t S e n s i b l y " , Reader's-Digest, Montreal, P.Q. V o l . 75, #449, Sept., 1959 Stevens, A.:, "Make Dope L e g a l " , Harpers Magazine, Nov., 1952 Tobin, J . , Drug A d d i c t i o n : The Role o f S o c i a l Work i n I t s Recognition and  Treatment. Master of S o c i a l Work Thesis, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1952: The Canadian L e g i s l a t u r e , The Opium and N a r c o t i c Drug Act,Canada. 1929, w i t h Aramendments to 1954-, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa The N a r c o t i c Drug Research Team, Drug A d d i c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1956 (Not published) The S p e c i a l Senate Committee, Proceedings o f the S p e c i a l Committee on the T r a f f i c i n N a r c o t i c Drugs i n Canada. Queens P r i n t e r s , Ottawa, 1955 - 1 0 2 -GENERAL. BIBLIOGRAPHY Beighton, A.L., C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the C r i m i n a l Offender, Master of S o c i a l Work Th e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958 Fairbanks, J.K., Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast', Harvard U n i v e r s i t y -P r e s s , 1953:, V o l . I I s b e l , H. & Vogel,- V., "The A d d i c t i o n L i a b i l i t y o f Methadone", American • J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , June, 1949 Kolb, L. & Dumezj M., "Experimental A d d i c t i o n o f Animals to Narcotics.", P u b l i c Health- Report, #1463.:,. Washington, 1931 Lindesmith, A., "A S o c i o l o g i c a l Theory of Drug A d d i c t i o n , " American  J o u r n a l o f Sociol o g y , Jan. 1938 M e r r i l , F .J., Japan and the Opium Menace"1, Foreign P o l i c y A s s o c i a t i o n , 194-2 Murtagh, J.M. & H a r r i s , S.., Cast the F i r s t Stone, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Montreal, P,.Q.., 195.8' Noyes, A.P., Modern C l i n i c a l . P s y c h i a t r y , 4-th ed., W.B.. Saunders Company;: P h i l a d e l p h i a and London; 1953i Pescor, M., "A. S t a t i s t i c a l A n a l y s i s o f the C l i n i c a l Records o f H o s p i t a l i z e d Drug Addicts;", Washington, P u b l i c Health Report. Supplement #14-3:, 1943: Subcommittee on N a r c o t i c s ^ Report to the House Committee on Ways, and Means, " I l l i c i t T r a f f i c i n N a r c o t i c s , B a r b i t u r a t e s and Amphetamines; i n the United States J' Washington, 1956 T a y l o r , Norman, F l i g h t From R e a l i t y , D u e l l , Sloane & Pearce, N.Y.. 1949 T h e , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Anti-Opium A s s o c i a t i o n , The War Against Opium. T i e n t s i n P r e s s , 1922 

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