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Ladner, British Columbia : a case study in planning for the revitalization of the commercial district… Ala, Lawrence Gordon 1961

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LADNER, BRITISH COLUMBIA: A CASE STUDY IN PLANNING FOB THE REVITALIZATION OF THE COMMERCIAL DISTRICT IN AN ESTABLISHED, HITHERTO RURAL.COMMUNITY SUBJECTED TO EXPANDING METROPOLITAN GROWTH by LAWRENCE GORDON ALA A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR.THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS Members ef the Department of Community and Regional Planning THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1961. I In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives. It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be alloi-red without my written permission. ABSTRACT PROBLEM In recent years, many hitherto r u r a l communities have come under the influence of metropolitan urban expansion. The most detrimentally affected part of the r u r a l community has been the commercial d i s t r i c t . Many of these older, r u r a l -established, metropolitan-ecompassed, commercial d i s t r i c t s , due to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to adequately adapt themselves to serve the changing demands being made of them — with many of these same demands being supplied by new competition i n the form of planned shopping centres and the now more e a s i l y accessible metropolitan c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s — i n some cases have become, or are l i k e l y to become, commercial "slums". In many instances i t i s desirable to r e t a i n these s t r a t e g i c -a l l y located commercial d i s t r i c t s i n a stable and fu n c t i o n a l condition, f o r they not only provide a source of tax revenue, personal wage income, and investment income, but also pro-vide the only convenient customer service f o r a great variety of n e c e s s i t i e s . To date v i r t u a l l y no attention has been directed toward the improvement of these formerly r u r a l com-mercial d i s t r i c t s i n order that they may adequately perform necessary functions. Unless some d e f i n i t e steps are taken to achieve s t a b i l i t y , these d i s t r i c t s w i l l become blighted scars on the metropolitan landscape and w i l l eventually envelop i n decay an increasingly larger area. This study proposes one method to achieve t h i s s t a b i l i t y ahd rejuvenation. APPROACH - T n the l a s t decade some attention has been directed to-ward the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of older o u t l y i n g commercial d i s t r i c t s within c i t i e s . Even more recently attention has been directed toward the improvement of older commercial areas within, or near, c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s , and, at times, the whole cen-t r a l business d i s t r i c t . In general a dual approach has been used to achieve the desired s t a b i l i t y and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n . F i r s t the inherent assets of that p a r t i c u l a r commercial d i s t r i c t are c a p i t a l i z e d on; second, the p r i n c i p l e s and experience of the planned modern shopping centre are u t i l i z e d . This l a t t e r app-roach has been j u s t i f i e d on the grounds that planned shopping centres have been economically very successful, and that the success of the planned shopping centres has been one of the causes for the actual, or r e l a t i v e , decline of these commer-c i a l d i s t r i c t s . HYPOTHESIS It has been hypothesized i n t h i s study that, since the problems confronting the older r u r a l - e s t a b l i s h e d metropolitan encompassed d e c l i n i n g commercial d i s t r i c t s are b a s i c a l l y sim-i l a r i n manifestation, cause and e f f e c t to the problems f a c -ing the older urban-established o u t l y i n g commercial d i s t r i c t s within c i t i e s , the solutions proposed f o r outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s are applicable to r u r a l established commercial d i s t r i c t s . In order to demonstrate t h i s hypothesis, the declining, or imminently declining, commercial d i s t r i c t of Ladner, a small h i t h e r t o - r u r a l metropolitan-encompassed com-munity, was analyzed and replanned according to the proposed r e v i t a l i z a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s . FINDINGS Commercial d i s t r i c t r e v i t a l i z a t i o n i s achieved through a comprehensive, dynamic, and properly staged programme com-posed of three major elements; the organization, the research, and the plan. The organization i s responsible for the i n i t i a -t i o n and administration of the programme, and for the creation and implementation of the plan. The research deals with the-functional, planning, and a r c h i t e c t u r a l analysis of the d i s -t r i c t . The physical plan s t r i v e s f o r economic s t a b i l i t y , pleasantness, convenience, safety, and i n d i v i d u a l i t y . The plan achieves these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s through the use of the follow-ing p r i n c i p l e s : a conveniently accessible, d e f i n i t e , compact commercial nucleus composed of mutually compatible and mutu-a l l y b e n e f i c i a l a c t i v i t y - n u c l e i , which are i s o l a t e d and i n s u -lated from the non-compatible n u c l e i ; a r i n g road with an i n -t e r n a l c o l l a r of o f f - s t r e e t parking accommodation r e l a t e d to the a c t i v i t y n u c l e i ; pedestrian-vehicular movement separation where i t i s desirable for economic, aesthetic, or safety r e a -sons, through the creation of plazas, malls, and arcades; strong physical, functional, and v i s u a l unity; and a pleasant, varied, c o l o u r f u l , and e x c i t i n g d i s t r i c t , with some a t t r a c -t i v e unique q u a l i t y . APPROVED TABLE OF CONTENTS Page PREFACE . . . i i i LIST OF FIGURES v i i i LIST OF TABLES x LIST OF PLATES x i INTRODUCTION 1 PART I. OLDER ESTABLISHED OUTLYING COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS: THEIR PROBLEMS, CAUSES, .AND . IMPLICATIONS Chapter I. OLDER ESTABLISHED OUTLYING COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS: .AN ASSESSMENT OF THEIR PROBLEMS AND THEIR CAUSES . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Physical Features Showing the Occurrence of a Declining R e t a i l District.„ 15 Causes f o r the. Decline of Older Established Outlying Commercial D i s t r i c t s . 17 II. THE DECLINE OF OUTLYING COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS: AN .EXPLORATION OF THE EFFECT ON THE COMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Implications to a Community. 36 Some Older Established Commercial D i s t r i c t s Are.Worth Saving. 42 PART II. PLANNED SHOPPING CENTRES: A MODEL FOR A SUGGESTED REVITALIZATION PROGRAMME III. THE PLANNED SHOPPING CENTRE: AN ANALYSIS OF . THE.FACTORS. CONTRIBUTING TO ITS SUCCESS . . . 54 D e f i n i t i o n of the Planned Shopping Centre. 54 Reasons f o r the Success of the Planned Shopping Centre. 55 Process for the Establishment of the Planned Shopping Centre. 58 An.Evaluation of the Shopping Centre and i t s Success 78 The Adoption of Shopping Centre Concepts by . Established Commercial D i s t r i c t s . 82 Chapter Page IV. A PROGRAMME FOR THE REVITALIZATION OF THE OLDER ESTABLISHED OUTLYING COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS , . 86 Organization of the R e v i t a l i z a t i o n Programme 89 Organization 92 Research 95 Planning 96 Implementation 104 Conclusion 109 PART II I . THE COMMERCIAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE OF LADNER, B.C.: A CASE STUDY. V. HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF LADNER . 113 Geographic Situation of La drier 114 H i s t o r i c a l Development of Ladner 119 The Four Stages i n the Development of , Ladner*s Commercial Area. 126 P o l i t i c a l Organization 129 Residential Areas 129 Conclusion 131 i, VI. ANALYSIS OF DOWNTOWN LADNER . . 136 The Role of Ladner Central Business D i s t r i c t 137 Ful f i l l m e n t of the Central Business D i s t r i c t Roles 140 L i a b i l i t i e s of Downtown Ladner 148 Causes of Decline 167 Major physical Attributes of Downtown Ladner 170 Conclusion 173 VII. A REVITALIZATION PROGRAMME FOR DOWNTOWN LADNER 174 Organization 175 Research 183 Planning 194 Master Plan Implementation 215 Staging of Development 220 VIII. CONCLUSIONS 226 APPENDIX A: THE ADOPTION OF SHOPPING CENTRE CONCEPTS BY ESTABLISHED COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS . . . . . 231 APPENDIX B: SOURCE OF DETAILED INFORMATION FOR FIGURES 255 BIBLIOGRAPHY 261 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Follows .Page I. B.C. Lower Mainland: P o l i t i c a l Units and Main Physiographic Features . . . . 114 II. Geographic Situation of Ladner . . . . . . . . 114 III. Urban Settlement 1956: Travel Time-Distance from Vancouver C.B.D. . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 IV. Metropolitan Vancouver Outlying Commercial Areas H ? V. Early Development 119 VI. Location of C r i t i c a l Factors 121 VII. Major Vehicular Transportation A r t e r i e s as Related to Ladner i n 1960 128 VIII. Location of the Ladner Commercial D i s t r i c t Study 137 IX. Land Use 1960 137 X. Downtown Ladner 1880 and 1960 (and location of . photographs) . . . . . . . . . 138 XI. Major Deadening Areas 141 XII. Pedestrian Flow . 142 XIII. Pedestrian Flow 142 XIV. Vehicular-Oriented Uses 144 XV. Vehicular Flow 144 XVI. Built-Up Areas, 1960 151 XVII. On and Off Street Parking 153 XVIII. Parking U t i l i z a t i o n i n Downtown Ladner . . . . I 5 3 XIX. Street Area . . . 155 XX. Age of Buildings 156 XXI. Value of Improvements 1 6 1 XXII. Assessed Land Value 162 XXIII. Zoning, 1960 162 Figure Follows -Page XXIV. Land Ownership 171 XXV. Public U t i l i t i e s 172 XXVI. Site Area: Horizon Year 198 XXVII. Land Use: Master Plan . 205 XXVIII. Building Pattern .. . 220 XXIX. Land Subdivision Pattern 220 XXX. Acceptable Land Use, 1960 220 XXXI. Stage 1 220 XXXII. Stage 2 222 XXXIII. Stage 3 223 XXXIV. Stage 4 223 XXXV. Land Use: Master Plan 224 LIST OF TABLES Table Page I. Delta Population Growth 126 I I . Land and Floor Use i n Downtown Ladner, 1960 . . . 139 II I . Population growth of Downtown Ladner Trade Area . 187 TV. Various A c t i v i t i e s * Floor Area as a Percent of 190 To t a l Floor Area: Downtown Ladner V. 1960 and Horizon Tear Floor Area D i s t r i b u t i o n Among Various A c t i v i t i e s . . ...... . . . . . . i 9 7 VI. Downtown Ladner: Horizon Year Land A l l o c a t i o n and requirements 198 LIST OF PLATES Plate Follows Page I. Vacancy 142 II. Structures i n Disrepair . 144 III. Detrimental Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 IV Waterfront 159 V Assets 159 PREFACE This study on the s t a b i l i z a t i o n and r e v i t a l i z a t i o n of older established outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s had i t s o r i g i n during the summer of 1960 while I was employed as an assistant planner for Delta Municipality, a predominantly r u r a l municipality located i n Metopolitan Vancouver. Badically I was hired to do a study on the community of Ladner, which i s the major urban settlement within Delta Municipality. A reconnaissance survey of the community rev-ealed that a number of problems were p a r t i c u l a r l y prevalent i n the commercial d i s t r i c t . It appeared that a declining, or imminent d e c l i n i n g condition existed i n the commercial d i s t r i c t . The municipal planner, Mr. Robert Williams, f e l t that i t would be worth while to delve more deeply into the problems and the possible solutions f o r these problems. Since there had been a planning department i n the municipality f o r only a short while, and further since num-erous more pressing and serious problems were confronting the municipality, l i t t l e work had been done on the downtown d i s -t r i c t of Ladner. Accordingly, i t was necessary to s t a r t from "scratch" — the creation of suitable base maps, b u i l d i n g locations and property location maps, which were created prim-a r i l y from a "blown-up" a e r i a l photograph of Ladner, and the i v execution of surveys. Some of the required information -•- such as the age of buildings, location of u t i l i t i e s , assessed land and improvements, and planning proposals — was a v a i l a b l e from the municipal engineering building, assessment, and planning departments. But much of the pertinent Information had to be acquired through personal f i e l d surveys of the area. I was very fortunate, during the setting-up and execution of these f i e l d surveys, f o r the guidance and advice offered by Mr. Williams, without whose assistance I would never have managed to complete the necessary surveys, nor have reached adequate conclusions from the accumulated data. As a r e s u l t , a l l the maps and the information on downtown Ladner presented i n t h i s study were personally c o l l e c t e d , i l l u s t r a t e d , and analyzed. Appendix B gives the exact source of the maps pre-sented i n the report. Due to the scale of reproductions i n the report, a much reduced and s i m p l i f i e d form has been used as compared to the o r i g i n a l . In studying the l i t e r a t u r e concerned with s i m i l a r types of s i t u a t i o n s , I was impressed by the Urban Land I n s t i t -ute's and, i n p a r t i c u l a r the R.L. Nelson and F.T.Aschman, proposed solu t i o n for conservation and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of major commercial d i s t r i c t s . B a s i c a l l y t h i s s o l u t i o n was to apply c e r t a i n planned shopping centre p r i n c i p l e s to a d e c l i n i n g d i s t r i c t i n order to improve i t . With t h i s approach i n mind I then studied the l i t e r a t u r e on planned shopping centres. Several of these studies dealt with the advantages of downtown V commercial d i s t r i c t s , which I also studied. Based on an analysis of the l i t e r a t u r e dealing with planned shopping centres and the s t a b i l i z a t i o n of commercial d i s t r i c t s , and of the assets and l i a b i l i t i e s of older estab-l i s h e d outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s , I f e l t that only a f u l l y comprehensive approach, based on the concepts and experience of the "planned" and "unplanned" commercial d i s t r i c t s , would be appropriate f o r the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n programme. In other words, I f e l t that a r e v i t a l i z a t i o n and s t a b i l i z a t i o n program-me should be an e l e c t r i c , modern, r e a l i s t i c , comprehensive, and dynamic approach to the problem. As a r e s u l t of the summer's work on the downtown d i s -t r i c t of Ladner, I wished to delve deeper into the problems, the implications of the problems, and possible solutions of these problems f o r smaller commercial d i s t r i c t s , which are experiencing numerous problems due to the current urban ex-pansion of our metropolitan areas. The u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s problem for my Master's thesis appeared to be the most p r a c t i -c a l method to continue t h i s l i n e of exploration. But even t h i s avenue, due to the l i m i t a t i o n s of time during the aca-demic year, have proved to be inadequate f o r a t r u l y thorough and completely s a t i s f a c t o r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the problems, t h e i r implications, possible solutions, as w e l l as the a p p l i -cations of the proposed solutions. With these reservations i n mind, although there appears to be adequate evidence to support the f e a s i b i l i t y and effectiveness of the proposed r e -v i t a l i z a t i o n programme, I do f e e l that considerable more work v i should be conducted on t h i s important part of our environment and economy. It i s with sincere gratitude that I acknowledge the assistance that I have received from numerous sources through-out the past year and one-half, which have helped to make t h i s project a r e a l i t y . In p a r t i c u l a r I would l i k e to express my appreciation to Mr. Williams, Municipal Planner f o r Delta Municipality, who i n i t i a l l y proposed the study, extended invaluable assistance during the f i e l d work, aided i n the formulation of the r e v i t a l i z a t i o n programme, and kindly permitted me to use my summer work as the basis f o r my Master's t h e s i s . I would also l i k e to thank the Delta Municipal Council for having consented to the h i r i n g of a student summer planner, thereby enabling me to gain i n v a l u -able p r a c t i c a l planning experience and to obtain the f i e l d work f o r my th e s i s , as well as f o r t h e i r willingness to allow me to use my summer work f o r my t h e s i s . I would also l i k e to acknowledge my sincere gratitude to Professor Ira M. Robinson of the department of Community and Regional Planning whose active i n t e r e s t , invaluable councel, and constructive c r i t i c i s m enabled me to br i n g the study to i t s present stage of completion. Appreciation i s expressed to Dr. H. Peter Oberlander of the same department fo r h i s in t e r e s t and h i s a i d at the outset of the study, as well as f o r h i s det a i l e d observations concerning content and presentation of the material. F i n a l l y appreciation i s also extended to Miss M. Dwyer of the Fine Arts Library for her v i i assistance during the l i b r a r y research portion of the project, and to the numerous federal, state, metropolitan, c i t y and d i s t r i c t planning agencies whose assistance, encouragement and advice lent strength to my conviction concerning the u t i l i t y and approach of the study. INTRODUCTION Due to the current population explosion and the con-sequent urban expansion ~ aptly described as the " f l i g h t to the suburbs" ~ many hitherto rural communities have come under the urban influence of rapidly expanding metropolitan areas. Among the areas, that have been most seriously effected by this urban expansion, are the older established outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s and the formerly rural, com-mercial d i s t r i c t s — often the "central business d i s t r i c t " of a town or village — which have become an integral part of the larger, urbanized, metropolitan area. Many of these commercial d i s t r i c t s have become real problems — considering social, economic and aesthetic c r i t e r i a — whether Judged i n the community or larger metropolitan context, and, accord-ingly, require greater attention. To date, there has been l i t t l e consideration given to the problems of these formerly rural commercial d i s t r i c t s , which have come under an expanding urban influence. Accord-ingly there i s very l i t t l e research on the problems, the causes of the problems, the implications of the problems, and any possible solutions of the problems for this type of commercial d i s t r i c t . It i s fortunate, though, that these rural-established, recently urbanized commercial d i s t r i c t s are facing basically 2 the same problems, many of which have similar causes, as the older urban-established outlying major commercial d i s t r i c t s --which occur i n the middle belt areas of c i t i e s lying between the central business d i s t r i c t and the growing peripheral sec-tions. Recently there has been considerable thought given to the stabilizing and revit a l i z i n g of these declining, or imm-inently declining, outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s . Even more recently, the same basic approach has been used to improve commercial areas within the central business d i s t r i c t s , and even the whole central business d i s t r i c t s , of some of our major c i t i e s . In general the approach, that has been u t i l i z e d to achieve the desired stabilization and revitalization of these older established commercial d i s t r i c t s , has been two-pronged. One basic part of this approach has been to capitalize on the inherent physical assets of the older established commercial d i s t r i c t . The second part has been to apply some of the experience and basic concepts of the modern planned shopping centre. This latter aspect has been proposed on the ground that the concepts used by the planned shopping centre have been considered responsible for i t s phenomenal economic success, and, in addition, the actual success of the planned shopping centre has been partly at the expense of the older established outlying commercial d i s t r i c t . It has been hypothesized in this study that — since the problems of the rural-established commercial d i s t r i c t s , which have come under a direct metropolitan urban Influence, are quite similar i n cause and effect to the outlying com-mercial d i s t r i c t s within c i t i e s — those solutions proposed for outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s , are applicable to the rural-established metropolitan-encompassed type of commercial d i s t r i c t . In order to demonstrate this hypothesis Ladner. a small formerly rural town located within metropolitan Van-couver (in the south-west corner of British Columbia) i s examined as a case study. This study has been organized into three major parts. The f i r s t deals with outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s ; the second, deals with planned shopping centres, the documented use of planned shopping centre concepts and experience, and the proposed revitalization programme; and the third deals with the demonstration of the revitalization programme in downtown Ladner. In the f i r s t part, older established outlying com-mercial d i s t r i c t s are examined with particular emphasis on the problems that are confronting them, and the implications of these problems to the community, and, in particular, to the commercial d i s t r i c t . In recent years numerous serious problems have pre-sented themselves to these older established d i s t r i c t s , and, as a result, have seriously jeopardized their continued existence. Among the most serious of these problems have been: the absence of new businesses locating in the d i s t r i c t the exodus of local businesses from the commercial d i s t r i c t ; 4 the high rate of vacant buildings in the d i s t r i c t ; blight; and the declining business patronage. Experts in the real estate, r e t a i l , economic, and physical planning f i e l d s have propounded numerous reasons for these problems which include: the obsolescence of the ac t i v i t i e s , structures and business d i s t r i c t layout; incompatable mixture of a c t i v i t i e s ; poor access and circulation; steadfast retention of antiquated merchandising techniques; and competition from modern planned shopping centres. The decline, or imminent decline, of portions of the commercial d i s t r i c t at times have jeopardized the economic st a b i l i t y of not only the commercial d i s t r i c t but also the surrounding community. The unabated contaminating tendency of blight has detrimentally affected a continuously larger portion of the surrounding a c t i v i t i e s , and w i l l continue to do so, unless some positive steps are taken to halt this process. In some cases i t may not be desirable or feasible to improve the declining commercial d i s t r i c t . Any policy decision concerning the future role of the d i s t r i c t must be based upon a detailed analysis of the downtown d i s t r i c t , the surrounding influenced area, the situation of the d i s t r i c t within the metropolitan context, and the feasible a l t e r -natives open to the community for the use of the downtown di s t r i c t and the surrounding area. If i t i s concluded, as a policy decision, that the problem area i s to retain basic-a l l y i t s same functional character, a programme for the 5 revitalization of the d i s t r i c t must be ini t i a t e d . The second part of this study deals with an analysis of the modern planned shopping centre and the current, or pro-posed, use of planned shopping centre concepts. This i s done with a view to drawing from this experience certain concepts which have had some degree of applicability to the s t a b i l i z -ation of older established outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s , and, hence, which might be applicable to the revitalization of rural-established metropolitan encompassed commercial dis-t r i c t s as well. Since the modern planned shopping centres have been economically so successful, and, further, since there seems to be some evidence that shopping centres have i n fact been one of the main causes for the decline of many older esta-blished outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s , i t has appeared jus-t i f i e d to use the experience and concepts of the planned centres as the basis for the stabilization and revitalization of certain older established outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s and the whole, or a portion, of a few central business di s -t r i c t s . Based upon an analysis of planned shopping centres, of the u t i l i z a t i o n of the planned shopping centre experience and concepts in central business d i s t r i c t and outlying com-mercial d i s t r i c t stabilization, and of the u t i l i z a t i o n of the inherent attributes of outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s , i t i s f e l t that the most satisfactory revitalization programme for rural-established metropolitan-encompassed declining 6 commercial d i s t r i c t s would be a comprehensive approach. Such an approach would involve the use of shopping centre concepts and experience, city commercial d i s t r i c t s * experience and concepts, and the inherent assets of commercial d i s t r i c t s . Rural-established metropolitan-encompassed commercial d i s t r i c t stabilization and revitalization i s achieved through the use of a comprehensive, dynamic, and c r i t i c a l l y staged programme, which — based upon the principles and experience of planned shopping centres, urban redevelopment, ci t y com-mercial d i s t r i c t improvement, and current urban planning — i s composed of three major elements: organization, research, and planning. The organization, composed of individuals, a c t i v i t i e s , institutions, and organizations, i s responsible for the i n i t i a t i o n and management of the programme; the creation of the plan; and the Implementation of the programme. The research deals with the functional analysis, the planning analysis, and the architectural analysis of the d i s t r i c t . The preparation of the plan has as i t s goal the stabilization and revitalization of the formerly rural commercial d i s t r i c t . In order to achieve this major goal, the minor goals of econ-omic s t a b i l i t y , attractiveness, convenience, safety, pleasant-ness and individuality are established. These goals are achieved through the u t i l i z a t i o n of certain concepts, which include: a clearly defined, compact commercial d i s t r i c t com-posed of mutually compatable and mutually beneficial a c t i v i -ties grouped into nuclei, which are i n themselves similarly grouped but are isolated and insulated from those activity 7 nuclei which are not compatable and beneficial; a ring road which clearly defines the d i s t r i c t and provides vehicular access to, and circulation amongst, the activity nuclei; access roads, which are safe, convenient, and non-detrimental to the a c t i v i t i e s adjoining them; a collar of off-street parking lots which are directly related to the requirements of the activity nuclei; pedestrian plazas, malls, and arcades, which permit pedestrian-vehicular movement separation where i t i s desirable for economic, r e t a i l , social, aesthetic, or safety reasons; strong physical, functional and visual unity and cohesion within the d i s t r i c t ; and a pleasant, varied, active, colourful, and exciting d i s t r i c t with a certain quality of uniqueness and attractiveness. The third part of the study deals with the analysis and the application of the revitalization programme to the downtown commercial d i s t r i c t of Ladner. Historically, the Ladner commercial d i s t r i c t f i r s t functioned as such in 1882, and i t achieved i t s present physical form in 1886. Since the latter date virtu a l l y no alteration has been made to i t s access or circulation accommodation. In addition a large proportion of the present commercial structures were erected prior to 1914, and, accordingly, were designed for conditions drastically different from those that exist today. It i s this use of antiquated f a c i l i t i e s , with l i t t l e or no alter-ation, in modern conditions that has created some of the d i s t r i c t s ' problems. This situation was aggravated when in 1958, a planned shopping centre was created at the edge of 8 the commercial d i s t r i c t . This added impetus to an already prevalent tendency for the "centre of trade and commerce" to move away from i t s original location on the water front, and leave behind the presumably poorly adapted commercial build-ings to f a l l into decay. This situation was further compli-cated when, i n 1959, Ladner was connected directly to, and became part of, Metropolitan Vancouver by means of a freeway system. Consequently, Ladner i s in the process of becoming another dormitory suburb for the large employment concen-trations within Vancouver and New Westminster. Not only has this freeway system brought with i t people and the f a c i l i t i e s to serve the people, but i t has provided the population of Ladner with fast convenient access to the major f a c i l i t i e s i n Metropolitan Vancouver. Accordingly, although Ladner*s pop-ulation has increased, the competition for the downtown com-mercial d i s t r i c t of Ladner has increased considerably, too, and this has aided the decline of the Ladner commercial di s -t r i c t . Although downtown Ladner does possess basically the same problems as the typical declining outlying commercial d i s t r i c t in a city, i t also possesses numerous natural a t t r i -butes. The main natural assets, which could have some bearing on the revitalization programme are: the lack of any feasible alternative commercial d i s t r i c t location; the large capital investment in and around downtown Ladner which i s dependent on i t s stable commercial status; the number of "good" com-mercial structures in the d i s t r i c t ; the large amount of vacant 9 land within, and around, downtown Ladner, much of which i s held i n large plots; the natural bodies of water adjoining the downtown d i s t r i c t ; the existing and potential natural f i s h -and pleasure-craft wharf f a c i l i t i e s i n downtown Ladner; the adjoining location of a new large passive and active recre-ation park; the location, or absence, of public u t i l i t i e s ; the location of large groups of old run-down residential struc-tures, often as • non-conforming uses; the vague, but natural, groupings of a c t i v i t i e s ; and the inevitable continued growth of Ladner and Delta Municipality. These natural attributes of downtown Ladner reveal that the d i s t r i c t i s worthy of salva-tion, and further that, when these attributes are considered in relation to the problems of the d i s t r i c t , a desirable and feasible revitalization programme — based primarily upon the experience and concepts of planned shopping centres, but also upon the exploitation of the inherent assets of the d i s t r i c t — can be created for downtown Ladner. The resultant dynamic plan for downtown Ladner creates an easily accessible, compact d i s t r i c t , which i s composed of a r e t a i l concentration focussed on a pedestrian plaza and mall, and enclosed by a ring road and a collar of parking lots; an entertainment concentration, which adjoins the waterfront development, the recreation area, and direct vehicular access and circulation; three service industry groupings — water ac-t i v i t y oriented, storage and transportation oriented, and private vehicular oriented — primarily related to access and circulation; an office concentration separated into government 10 and private operations; a system of pedestrian park-fingers, park-like walkways, and landscaped malls, which t i e together the required activity nuclei. Surrounding the downtown dis-t r i c t i s a collar of relatively high density residential accommodation, which can take advantage of the downtown fac-i l i t i e s , the circulation:ring road, and the downtown access roads. This plan — which has been based upon the natural assets, the degree of urgency concerning each problem, the available financial resources, the maximum immediate benefit from each introduced activity or f a c i l i t y , the anticipated rate of town and municipal growth, and the previously form-ulated revitalization concepts — has been developed, through the use of catalytic agents, and development or "police" con-trols, i n four major stages. The f i r s t stage primarily creates around the central plaza a dominant focus for the d i s t r i c t , but in addition, in i t i a t e s the entertainment con-centration. The second stage extends the exclusive pedestrian ways, and begins the office concentrations. The third stage completes the ring road. The fourth stage completes the access routes to the d i s t r i c t and the collar of higher density residential accommodation around the downtown d i s t r i c t . Since this i s a dynamic plan, each stage of development must, of necessity, re-assess the future development in the light of the then current experience and future prospects. Accordingly, although the "plan" i s a goal towards which future development can be directed, i t i s by no means f i n i t e , but rather a pro-I 11 gressively-evolving working guide for d i s t r i c t development. It i s f e l t that the i n i t i a l purpose of this report has been to a great extent accomplished i n that i t has dem-onstrated the po s s i b i l i t i e s for stabilizing and revit a l i z i n g older rural-established metropolitan-encompassed declining commercial d i s t r i c t s . This has been achieved through the application of a comprehensive method which better exploits the inherent attributes of the d i s t r i c t , together with the application of some principles, concepts, and experiences from modern planned shopping centres and commercial d i s t r i c t s that have been improved through the use of some planned shopping centre concepts and experience. PART ONE: OLDER ESTABLISHED OUTLYING COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS: THEIR PROBLEMS, CAUSES, AND IMPLICATIONS CHAPTER I OLDER ESTABLISHED OUTLYING COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS: AN ASSESSMENT OF THEIR PROBLEMS AND THEIR CAUSES. Metropolitan growth has made a great impact on many of our i n s t i t u t i o n s . Possibly the one i n s t i t u t i o n most seriou s l y affected has been that of r e t a i l i n g . Since the l a s t world war there has been much consideration and p u b l i c i t y given to the planning and development of the modern suburban shopping centre, and, even more recently, to the improvement of the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s of our major c i t i e s l y i n g within metropolitan areas. 3- The one type of commercial area that has been somewhat neglected i s the "older established out-l y i n g commercial d i s t r i c t " . These are the r e t a i l concen-t r a t i o n s occurring as the heart of the medium or smaller s i z e towns or v i l l a g e s within a metropolitan sphere of i n -fluence, or, i n the middle b e l t d i s t r i c t s l y i n g between down-town and the growing peripheral sections of the c i t y . As a r u l e , these concentrations "grew up" along major highways or streets r a d i a t i n g out from the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of the dominant c i t y i n the metropolis, and were usually located along these r a d i a l s at an i n t e r s e c t i o n with another major highway, or some break i n transportation. These older shopping or commercial d i s t r i c t s have 14 been a common casualty of the growth of Canadian and American c i t i e s . No sadder spectacle . . . can be found than that e x i s t i n g i n many of our c i t i e s where buildings formerly housing the heart of the r e t a i l section have been allowed to f a l l into decline, run down i n appearance, and presenting a sad, ugly picture of the prosperity of the community.2 Their ailments are generally considered to be the r e s u l t of the s h i f t s of population which accompanied the decay and d i l -apidation of the c i t i e s * older r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s , the movement of stable industry and commerce to the suburbs, and the new ease of access by means of the automobile, the super-highway, and the great bridges leading to the suburban per-iphery. This outward movement has been c a l l e d the "decentral-i z a t i o n trend** and i s usually considered as accompanying the " f l i g h t to the suburbs", at least i n the more recent years. Accordingly t h i s trend i s often c i t e d as the cause f o r the de c l i n i n g , or declined, condition that e x i s t s i n many of our older established outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s . On the other hand, ecologists have accounted f o r t h i s phenomenon, as men-tioned by Robert Ezra Park i n the book Human Communities, as due to the f a c t o r s of competition, dominance, and succession, which they contend have the overriding influence on the com-mercial areas. 3 The p r i n c i p l e of dominance, operating within the l i m i t s imposed by t e r r a i n and other natural features of the location, tends to determine the general e c o l o g i c a l pattern of the metropolis, and the functional r e l a t i o n s h i p between each of the d i f f e r e n t component parts of the metro-p o l i t a n area. This dominance i s i n d i r e c t l y responsible f o r 15 the phenomenon that ecologists c a l l "succession", which they consider i s the orderly sequence of changes through which a community passess in i t s development from a youthful to a mature entity. Although these trends may have been Important factors, they are certainly not a complete, nor an entirely s a t i s -factory explanation for the decline of these outlying com-mercial d i s t r i c t s . One important principle widely recognized by social scientists i s that our social institutions arise out of, and are modified i n accordance with, changes i n social needs. Our r e t a i l i n g institutions are a product of the environment within which they operate, and, accordingly, in order to survive they must f u l f i l l a useful or demanded service ~ that i s , they must change to satisfy the consumers* changing desires for necessities and luxuries. Physical Features Showing the Occurrence of a  Declining Retail District The visual characteristics that label an area as de-clining or declined have been described in various ways. Some writers label i t commercial "blight"; others c a l l i t com-mercial "decay"; while s t i l l others identify i t as commercial "slums". They are a l l describing the same phenomenon, a l -though each may be considering different degrees in the "run down" condition of the area. For the purpose of this paper a "declining", or "declined", commercial d i s t r i c t w i l l be con-sidered synonymous with these three other terms, differing possibly only in the degree of decline being considered in 16 that particular case. The causes of decline, decay, or blight may often be hidden, and therefore escape casual observation. Neverthe-less, the physical and external characteristics of decay are usually very apparent and real. Blight need not be just economic or social, for i t can take the visual form. The actual form and intensity that the decay takes depends on the stage of decline i n that particular area. Some evidence that decay i s present can be shown through the occurrence of the following conditions. 4 a) An intermixture of incompatible land uses. b) The frequent change of ownership or tenancy of structures. c) A large percentage of vacant structures, vacant land, storage areas, or other "dead" spaces. d) Marginal a c t i v i t i e s occupying land or rundown buildings. e) Commercial ac t i v i t i e s sprawled over a large area. f) Improper construction or maintenance of structures, fac-i l i t i e s , walks, or roadways, which have reached some stage of physical deterioration. g) Street congestion. h) Inadequate parking f a c i l i t i e s for employees or customers, and lack of loading f a c i l i t i e s . i ) Dangerous street intersections and dangerous access pro-visions to private property. j ) A large volume of through t r a f f i c traversing the commercial d i s t r i c t . k) Conflict between pedestrian and vehicular movement. 17 1) Inadequate public fa c i l i t i e s . m) Parking lots or other activity centres abutting residen-t i a l areas without proper screening for separation, n) Automobile "grave yards", o) Exposed used car lots. p) Unsightly advertising signs or "gimmicks". q) External display of merchandise around second hand stores. r) Litter on parks, rights-of-way, vacant land or even occupied land. The greater the variety, frequency, and intensity of the foregoing characteristics, the more imminent, or advanced is the decline of the district. Causes for the Decline of Older Established  Outlying Commercial Districts Basically the decline of older outlying commercial districts is due to a change in the general pattern of re-tailing which is a result of underlying economic and social forces. In addition to this basic element, there are certain specific factors applicable to outlying commercial districts which have contributed to their decline. The following para-graphs consider f i r s t the general and then the specific fon-tributing factors. Change in Retailing Consider f i r s t the economic and social background of many of the older established outlying commercial districts, many of these districts — their structures, layout, access and circulation pattern, and overall character — were 18 created when the average work-week ranged between 48 and 60 hours; when the average workers annual income seldom exceeded $1300;° when leisure time was virtually non-existent; when well over half of the labour force was employed in basic or production industries; 6 when cities "were extremely hetero-geneous entities composed of more or less culturally distinct, specially segregated sub-communities"7 and when the majority of the population resided in c i t i e s . 8 Today, well over half the employed population in the United States, with Canada enjoying a similar evolution, are occupied with service, not production, industries, and this gap is widening each day;9 the percent of professionals, office and technical workers will continue to rise while manual workers continue to decline; 1 0 the 40 hour week pre-vails, and the 35 hour week has become dominant in many locales; Saturdays and Sundays are generally work-free; a l -most every family owns at least one car, and during the next twenty years i t is estimated that the automobile population wil l increase at twice the rate that the human population increases;1'1, holidays and paid vacations are now the rule; presently about twenty percent of Canadian housewives, well over four times the percentage of twenty years ago, work out-side the home during the day, 1 2 and a much larger percentage are expected to enter the labour force during the I960's;13 higher levels of production have created higher levels of disposable income, which has been more evenly distributed among the population. 1 4 The working family's income in many 19 such areas now averages around $5,000 or more a year, 1 5 while the average suburban dweller's annual income is about $6,500;16 most North American families are home owners rather than renters, 1 7 and families are buying homes at a younger and younger age; 1 8 sixty percent of the metropolitan population lives in the suburbs,19 and the suburban population is in-creasing, often at a very low density, at over twice the rate that the city population is increasing; 2 0 freeways and major streets are being constructed through and to an increasingly larger area; modern refrigeration, which has enabled the longer storage of food, is present in ninety percent of the Canadian households, nearly double the percentage of a decade ago; 2 1 there has been a great increase in the percentage of the population being educated, and "better educated";22 there has been a definite reversal on the emphasis in education during the past two decades from the fundamental to the applied, or from the humanities to the more practical fields such as agriculture, engineering, commerce, and education; 2 3 there has been a great increase in births, the so called "baby boom" which began in 1940, reached a peak in 1947, "rose to a new high in 1951, and has continued to break records until very recently"; 2 4 the second world war initiated a pattern, which has shown a definite cumulative tendency since then, toward early or youthful marriages, and this ap-pears to have been accepted by most sections of the pop-ulation; 2 5 there has generally been an increased migration from rural areas and small towns to metropolitan areas which 2 0 has served, at an increasing rate i n recent years, to f a c i l i -tate the upward social mobility of those who are native to metropolitan urban l i f e ; 2 6 status has become "an autonomous motive and mode of l i f e " for the majority of the population; 2 7 within metropolitan areas there had been a " d r i f t towards standardization i n the direction indicated by mass media steriotypes of middle-class America • • • u n t i l by the f i f t i e s these impersonal controls threaten to destroy the very diversity that once made city l i f e a t t r a c t i v e " . 2 8 and now we have l e f t only the "superficial homogeneity of exposure and 2 9 response that characterizes much of city l i f e " ; now even the small town, which had long been an area of resistance to change, seems to have succumbed to the influence of urban 3 0 "mass society" and a l l i t entails. These and other factors have created new l i v i n g patterns, new buying patterns, and, above a l l , new shopping patterns. Since the last world war there has been a great i n -crease in the capacity for the production, of stable and luxury goods, but much of the distribution i s s t i l l conducted with the pre World War II system, and in a similar manner as prior to World War II, which has been essentially very inadequately adapted to the "modern way of l i f e " . Typical of this type of r e t a i l outlet i s the older established commercial d i s t r i c t . Following the end of World War II, there was a t r e -mendous outsurge of population into the suburban areas, bey-ond the limits of mass transit lines. This created an area 21 of very low density housing, which was only made possible by the use of the private automobile. The automobile became a transportation necessity for access not only to work, but also to shops. With the increased distance from the older estab-lished outlying commercial concentrations, travel to them be-came tedious and time consuming, and therefore undesirable. To f i l l the new demand, a "new type" of retail outlet was established — the planned one-stop drive-in shopping centre. This new retail outlet superimposed a new retail structure upon the patterns developed in the previous decades when the horse and buggy, suburban railway, and the tram car conveyed residents from their homes to the factories, offices, and shops, which were a l l generally located in the downtown area, and the later period when shopping was accomplished on foot at the outlying commercial districts located at the interchange points of transportation. The growth of the modern outlying shopping centre, which has adequate conven-ient parking, and a variety of stores located in a concen-tration within pleasant open surroundings, has provided at least presently, a satisfactory answer to the demands of the Canadian and American "shopper on wheels". The mere existence of the old, unattractive, cluttered, and congested outlying shopping districts, with poor faci l i t i e s to serve the cus-tomer whose demands for service has changed and increased, has repelled the populace from utilizing the services offered. The existence, in many cases, of any alternative is an attrac-tion. 2 2 The older established outlying commercial districts are finding i t very difficult to compete successfully with the modern "one-stop" "park-and-shop" planned retail centres, and are only now beginning to realize that the mere existence of these "super retail outlets" could precipitate the event-ual decline, of many of the older commercial areas. Too often the new centres compete for and get not only the market created by new growth in their own areas but gain as well many customers whose residences l i e within the geographic area of the older districts.*** This has had the effect in some areas of creating virtually "ghost centres" out of for-merly healthy commercial d i s t r i c t s . 3 2 This direct competition with the modern shopping centre has seriously affected num-erous older established outlying commercial d i s t r i c t s . 3 3 which, in many cases, are the central business districts of smaller satellite communities in metropolitan areas. 3 4 This is prob-ably due to the fact that the facilities of these older established commercial districts are often closely duplicated by the modern shopping centres. But the decline in the older established commercial areas need not be traced merely to a direct loss of patronage or revenue to a modern shopping centre, for there are many cases where the condition of the area and the revenue made by the activities indicate in them-selves the decline of that area. 3 5 Possibly a rather typical view of these modern shopping centres, as expressed by Norman Pearson in his prize winning essay, partly explains the change in patronage that i s taking place, and is so detrimentally 23 affecting the older retail areas, Although automobile transport has become the dominant means of movement, the newer shopping centres are adop-ting a compact form physically and psychologically suited to pedestrian shopping within covered colonnades or open garden walls. Significantly, the architecture reflects the almost classic simplicity, dignity, and humanity of the layouts, and i t is no exaggeration to suggest that in many Canadian towns these centres are the finest ex-amples of civic design in otherwise disappointing sub-urban landscape.36 It is quite evident that there has been a change in retailing since many of these older commercial district were established, and i t is equally clear that this change has detrimentally affected many of these older districts. But accompanying this change in retailing have been numerous other factors which have contributed to the decline. Some of these factors will now be considered. Specific Factors The symptoms of the decay and decline, or possibly the imminent decline, are easy to see, but they are seldom con-sidered as serious by the prople that notice them or by those people affected by them. This may be the reason that so l i t t l e is done in the way of recognizing the symptoms for what they are and applying proper corrective measures to the district. A retail district, which at one time may have been active and prosperous, may now show symptoms of deterioration. This declining condition may have been stimulated or aggra-vated by one or more factors. The population which constituted the original market 2 4 for the district may have moved away, with the result that the surrounding district now shelters avtivities deleterious to commercial activities. Examples of these detrimental activities could be manufacturing, warehousing, or storage grounds. There may s t i l l be residents within the surrounding area, but their income, and consequently their purchasing power, may be considerably lower than that of the previous population. This would accordingly require different types, and number of retail establishments. The commercial area may have failed to adapt itself to adequately satisfy the changing demands of the consumer. The actual physical design of the buildings, the inter-relationship of the buildings, the internal circulation, and the access to the area need to be adapted to suit modern con-ditions, which, in reality, means to suit the modern "cus-tomer on wheels". Many districts were planned for the pedestrian and for the horse and buggy, for daily shopping trips, and for the numerous small customer-waited-upon shops. Times have changed, but many areas have steadfastly retained their out-moded ideas. With bigger and better refrigerators, with widespread automobile ownership, and with a large number of housewives holding outside employment, family shopping is conducted on a once a week basis, which, when con-sidered with the numerous other factors already mentioned, has seriously affected shopping habits and requirements. A l l this means larger stores, new retailing methods and 25 services, convenient parking, and a host of other f a c i l i t i e s . Consider one vital element along, parking. It has been found that the patronage, and sales in value and volume, seriously decline with the greater distance of the parking space from a commercial establishment.37 With the increased use of the automobile, especially for shopping, this fact has played a vital role in the decline of the older established outlying commercial districts. The shopping district may have been the victim of a mass migration of a large portion of the retail activities from that district to another. These same retail activities may now be concentrated in a modern "one-stop" shopping centre which uses modern faci l i t i e s and marketing methods. The mere presence of bright, spacious, modern shopping fac-i l i t i e s with abundant parking accommodation may have lured the traditional customers away from the dingy, crowded, older established commercial district. Even though the older area is not necessarily "run-down", the contrast between the faci l i t i e s offered by these two retail outlets, offering essentially the same merchandise, may deprive the older area of many customers, thereby jeopardizing the area due to the decreased revenue with which to properly maintain the area at the level where i t can retain adequate business. Once an area has lost some customers i t has.been found that they are very difficult to recapture. Similarly, once an area has lost customers, and, accordingly, some rev-enue, less money is allocated toward maintenance, modern-2 6 ization, advertisement, and so on. This process of steady decline takes on a cumulative tendency with the district suffering increasingly more as time passes, unless some definite steps are taken to halt i t , decline will continue until the area is virtually worthless, and, in fact, impos-sible to Improve without complete clearance. The retail district may have reached that stage of decline which can properly be called obsolescence. This con-dition signifies either that there is no longer a need for this type of district or for these types of activities in this particular locality, or, that the structure and f a c i l -ities are so antiquated as to be incapable of providing the demanded service, and are not economical to be modernized. Possibly one of the causes for the district to have reached this state of decline may have been due to the tardiness to maintain the area by those directly concerned. That is, the area has failed to be maintained to that degree which would retard its decline. There could be a number of reasons for this condition to have persisted: the relatively large number of property owners or tenants involved; the occurrence of absentee property owners; the inability of trustees to commit their property to action; the fear by the property owners or tenants of the cost that may be .involved; the indifference of the landlord or tenant who feels that '^ someone else will look after it'*; the fear that their prop-erty rights will be limited by a commitment to any coordinated effort; the ignorance by those concerned of the cause of the 27 decreasing revenue or patronage; the skepticism by those con-cerned that anything could be done to improve conditions, or at least that the cost involved would not be justified by the increased revenue or other benefits; that would be derived. There may have been an intrusion into the area of economically marginal activities, which occupy, at a low cost, vacated old and obsolete buildings that their operators are unwilling or financially incapable of ensuring adequate main-tenance and improvement. Real estate speculators have sometimes retained con-trol of land, which they refuse to improve since they expect to derive the greatest profit from i t that they can when, and only when, the demand due to the increased activity concen-trations in the centre of the city adequately raises the value of the land. Any revenue that they derive from the land needs to cover only the current expenses of retaining the land, and anything above that is profit. The real benefit to them will be derived from this land when i t is sold at a big "mark up" when the market conditions are "right". There may have been an influx of activities totally incompatible with the retail character existing in the area. The presence of these "foreign" activities has a tendency to destroy the retail character of the area, which is necessary in any successful shopping district. In addition the occur-rence of these foreign activities has a tendency to destroy the retail character of the area, which is necessary in any successful shopping district. In addition the occurrence of 2 8 these foreign activities spreads and disperses the retail area, producing the "dead" areas in the necessarily solid frontage of shops required for a successful shopping area. The lack of concentration and the breaks between the retail stores produce an area entirely unsatisfactory to the shop patrons. Improper zoning and other regulations, which allow un-desirable use to be made of certain sites and the mixture of totally incompatible, or possibly mutually detrimental, activities may be another contributing factor. This may have been caused by the lack of power or authority possessed by the municipal authorities. Another major reason for the decline of these districts suggested by the National Retail Merchants Association is the lack of active interest or promotion on the part of the activities located within the outlying commercial d i s t r i c t . 3 8 That there Is a problem facing many of these out-lying commercial districts, and, in fact, the whole community, as a result of the decline of the districts is apparent. A statement by the Urban Land Institute best sums up the causes of decline of older established commercial districts and the resulting effects. It results from neglect on the part of public officials to prevent or correct, and on the part of the responsible business interests and the organized community to pro-test; i t can be seen, and i t will inevitably be felt in the pocket books of these groups through the lowering of tax values of the community, market values of the home owners, and general loss of desirability and attractive-ness of the business community and the area generally. Where blight is present, slums are on their way.39 29 In the next chapter the implications for the affected community of the declining conditions of older established commercial d i s t r i c t s are considered. 30 References -'-For Example: Mall Street, Ottawa, Ont.; Houston, Texas; Fort Worth, Texas; Rochester, Minn.; Knoxville, Tenn.; Dayton, Ohio; Miami, Florida; Grand Rapids, Mich.; Salem, Ore.; Abilene, Texas. 2Richard Lawrence Nelson and Frederick T. Aschman, "Conservation and Rehabilitation of Major Shopping Districts", Urban Land Institute, Technical Bulletin No. 22, Feb. 1954, . p.4. 3Robert Ezra Park, Human Communities, The Free Press, Glencoe, 111., 1952, pp.145-158. 4"Blight — Suburban Style", Urban Land, Urban Land Institute, (May, 1955), p.4. Georges Potvin, "Commercial and Industrial Blight", Community Planning Review, Vol. IX, No. 1 (March 1959), pp. 2-7. "Robert H. Armstrong, "Changing Downtown Patterns", Urban Land, (Feb. 1957), p.l. . 6 Planning 1960, American Society of Planning Offic-ials, Chicago, 111., 1960, p.36. 7 Maurice R. Stein, The Eclipse of Community, Prince-ton University Press, Princeton, N.J., 1960, p.279. o Donald J. Bogue, Population Growth In Standard  Metropolitan Areas, 1900-1950. Washington. Housing and Home Finance Agency, 1951, p.19. 9Planning I960, p.37. 1 0 i b i d . 11James Rouse, "Will Downtown Face Up To The Future", Urban Land, Urban Land.Institute (Feb. 1957), p.3. 1 2"Frozen Foods in Canada", Bank of Nova Scotia,  Monthly Review, Toronto, (Nov. 1960), p.2. 1 3Planning 1960. p.36. 14W,R. Davidson, "Retailing — Some Significant Current Development", Appraisal Journal, (Jan. 1957), p.91. 15 Armstrong, Urban Land, Feb. 1957, p.l. 31 1 6 J . Ross McKeever, "Shopping Centers Restudied; Emerging Patterns and Practical Experience", Emerging Patterns Part I, Urban Land Institute, Technical Bulletin No, 30, p.3, 1 7William H. Whyte Jr., The Exploding Metropolis, The Editors of Fortune, Ooubleday .Anchor Books, Garden City, New York, 1958, p.ix. 1 8Plannlng 1960, p.7, ^Eugene J. Kelly, Shopping Centers: Locating Con- trolled Regional Centers, The Eno Foundation.for Highway Traffic Control, Saugatuck, Conn., 1956, p.44 . 2 0Hal Burton, The City Fights Back, Citadel Press, New York, 1954, p.42. 21Nbva Scotia, Monthly Review, p.3. 2 2Planning I960, pp.28-37. 2 3Wllliam H. Whyte, Jr., The Organization Man, Oouble-day Anchor Books, Garden City, New York, 1956, pp.86-110, 2 4Planning I960, p.27, 2 5Planning 1960, p,7. 26Seymour Martin Lipset and Relnhard Bendix, Social  Mobility in Industrial Society, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles, Calif., 1960, pp.203-226. 2 7Stein, The Eclipse . . . , p.284. 2 8Stein, The Eclipse . . . , p.279. 2 9Stein, The Eclipse . . . , p.43. 3 0Arthur J. Vidich and Joseph Bensman, Small Town in  Mass Society, Anchor Books, Ooubleday. and Co., Inc., New York, 1960. 31 See "New Thinking on Shopping Centers", A reprint from an article that was f i r s t published in the March 1953 issue of Architectural Forum. It was therein stated that in Chicago, 63rd and Halsted has suffered from blight and from the competition of Evergreen Plaza, which is located five miles away. S t i l l worse off is Lincoln-Village situated about five miles away. 3 2Nelson and Aschman, Urban Land Institute No, 22, p.6. 32 'Following are several examples. (1) The Central Avenue Commercial District in Minneapolis has declined, see "Central Avenue Commercial District", City of Minneapolis, Planning Commission, Publication.No. 119, (Nov. 1960). (2) "Planned Shopping Centers vs. Neighbourhood Shopping Areas", Business Research Center, College of Business Admin-istration, Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.7., April 1955. The college made a study of the impact from two shopping centres on an older major outlying commercial district of Syracuse. This study revealed that of the families inter-viewed, which currently shopped for groceries at the new centres, approximately one-half had previously purchased these goods in the older commercial district. (3) T.D. Ellsworth, Dolores Benjamin, and Herman Radoff, "Impact of Long Island Centres on Shopping Centres", Journal  of Retailing, vol.xxxiii, no. 3 (Fall 1957), p.216. That the introduction of three large centres on Long Island very seriously affected several older established commercial districts can be seen by this study. Of the shoppers inter-viewed before the centres opened between 30 and 37% patron-ized Hempstead, depending on the type of articles considered, whereas after the centres opened only between 14 and 21% patronized Hempstead. The same study showed that before the centres opened, between 11 and 15% patronized Jamaica, where-as after the centres opened only about 5% patronized i t . (4) Letters to the author from Thomas H. Roberts, Planning Director, Atlanta Region Metropolitan Planning Commission, Atlanta, Ga., Nov. 28, 1960, and from Alan E. Welty, Buckhead Planner, Atlanta, Ga., Dec. I960. Buckhead, an older outlying unplanned commercial area five miles from the Atlanta C.B.D., was going through the slow deterioration process of increasing traffic congestion; physical deterioration of structures; decreasing business patronage; stable business abandonment; and high vacancy rate. "The final blow to the area was the introduction of the larg-est regional shopping centre in the south east", which was completely disasterous to the business in that.area. 34"Shopping Centers and New York State's Retail Economy",.New York State Commerce Review, Vol. 12, no. 9, (Sept. 1958), p.9. This study was published by the Westchester County Planning Department, based upon a survey at the Cross County Centre in 1955 by the New York University School of Retailing, and showed that 23% of the persons at the centre formerly shop-ped at White Plains, 22% in Manhattan, 18% in Downtown Yonkers, 15% in the Bronx, 8% in Mount Vernon, 6% in New 33 Rochelie, and 8% elsewhere. 3 5Several examples of this situation are contained in the following. (1) "Shoppers Paradise", Springfield Chamber of Commerce, Springfield, Oregon, Aug. 1957, p.3. This revealed that "the symptoms of physical deterioration are evident in downtown Springfield. Some store buildings are empty, creating gaps in the pedestrian shopping pattern, with resulting loss of business confidence among the remaining merchants". Lack of adequate maintenance of many buildings is "deteriorating the shopping environment. Springfield's revenue is far less than other Oregon communities of com-parable population" varying between 65 and 73% of the comparable centres. (2) "Grand Rapids Approach to Revitalization", Downtown Development Committee, Grand Rapids, Mich., July 1960 Grand Rapids has found that some of the older established commercial areas "have declined to such a degree that they no longer bear the f u l l cost of necessary services". They feel that the "economic strength" of the area is "dependent" upon land taxes which are used to provide the necessary services". (3) Roy Wenzlick, "Adverse Trends in Older Shopping Dis-tricts", RealEstateAnalyst, (June 1957), pp.441-444. This annual study conducted on older shopping districts in Greater St. Louis has revealed that many of these "shopping districts have been developing symptoms of their approaching infirmity". The studies propose that the foremost signs of decline are the high rate of vacancy, the high rate of occupier turnover, and the "increasing percent of non retail uses". This study reveals that the vacancy has risen from 2.7%.in 1947 to 8,1% in 1956, "The foreshadowing continued decline is shown by the increasing percent in non retail uses which has risen from 10,1% in 1947 to 12.3% in 1956". They felt that the percent of occupier turnover is a fairly good indicator of the stability of a district. In these i t increased from 3% in 1947-48 to 12.5% in 1955-56. 36Norman Pearson, "Notes on the Development of the Shopping Centre", Journal of Town Planning Institute. London, England, vol, x l v i i i , no. 9, (Sept-Oct) 1957, p.231. 3 7J.J.T. Stegmaier, "Parking and its Relationship to Business", Urban Land, (May.1956), p.5. 3 8Victor Gruen and Larry Smith, Shopping Towns U.S.A., Reignhold Publishing Corp., N.Y., 1960, p.271, " . . . deterioration is blamed on different factors, as demonstrated by a polling of the members of the 34 National Retail Merchants Association. The results showed that 81.3% believed the principal reason for downtown's trouble to be lack of parking; 78.6% attribute i t to traffic congestion; 38.2% to antiquated buildings; 30.6% to poor public transportation; 27.3% to poor retail promotion; and 16.4% to the existence of slums around the downtown district". "Blight — Suburban Style". Urban Land, p.4. CHAPTER II THE DECLINE OF THE OUTLYING COMMERCIAL DISTRICT: AN EXPLORATION OF THE EFFECT ON THE COMMUNITY It was once stated that "commercial. Industrial and residential slums and blight mean economic disaster and strangulation" to an urban area. 1 In reality the costs to a municipality need to be considered in social as well as economic terms. It must be remembered that there are usually a great number of activities located within the older outlying com-mercial district, and that these activities have a very great impact on the surrounding area. Those commercial areas, further from the main metro-politan central business district, influence a considerably larger area than a commercial district of "similar size" nearer the metropolitan C.B.D. The district further out serves a greater variety of needs on an economic, social, recreational, and political basis — and therefore plays a relatively more important role — than would an outlying com-mercial district located nearer the metropolitan C.B.D. Although there wi l l be differences in the importance of the various implications to a community, the type of implications, which will result from the decline of the district are gen-36 orally common to a l l outlying commercial districts. The sub-sequent paragraphs enumerate some of the important implications to a community. Implications to a Community There will be a diminishing revenue for the activi-ties located in the area, which could be a result of the inefficient and/or incompatable mixture or grouping of activities or land uses, or possibly the Inefficient ped-estrian and vehicular access and circulation system. Waste in government financed institutions (rec-reational, educational, cultural, or political) — as a result of inadequate utilization of the fac i l i t i e s thereby increasing the per unit cost-benefit ration — could result from the decreasing magnetism of the fa c i l i t i e s themselves or the detrimental character of the surrounding activities, or inadequate access to the f a c i l i t i e s . Lower land value will result from the blight, due to a decreased demand for the land. Lower tax revenue can be a consequence of the lower land value and the resulting lower land and improvements assessment• The lower municipal assess-ment could detrimentally affect the municipality's credit position and borrowing power.3 A declining area may cease to provide adequate tax revenue to pay for the municipally provided services and fa c i l i t i e s . In such case other areas — probably residential and industrial — may be required to subsidize this com-mercial district, which at least potentially should be a 37 higher and more intense user of land, and therefore be in a better position to pay for its services and in addition to aid the less intense users of land — such as older residential areas. In such a case a strong stable commercial district is necessary not only to protect and encourage investment, but also to create programmes for preserving the surrounding residential stability. The surplus of tax revenue over cost to supply services in business districts is one of the keys to neighbourhood conservation since i t helps to pay for the all-important municipal services, which newly improved or older neighbourhoods demand but seldom i f ever pay for on a 4 self-supporting basis. Without this "subsidization" by the commercial district, the residential area may f a l l into decline and eventually become blighted. The blight will affect not only the number and type of "close-in" or "cap-tured" customers for the commercial district, but also the actual business structures and activities, which may eventu-ally be encompassed by the blight that originally started in the residential area. A declining commercial area can detrimentally affect the value of the surrounding residential land, and also, possibly, the abutting industrial, Institutional, recre-ational, and social land. As the blight becomes more pronounced with the pas-sage of time, commercial revenue, land value, land assess-ment, and tax revenue decrease. As a result of the smaller revenue, less money is allocated to the maintenance and 38 modernization of structures, which results in a decrease in business, revenue, and profit. Thus an even smaller prop-ortion of the already smaller revenue is allocated to the maintenance of the structure. (This may be due to the vain effort by the owner to obtain the same absolute profit as before the decline, which results in less money being avail-able for structural maintenance, improvement, and advert-ising.) This is a cumulative effect which results in the area declining at a faster and faster rate, and possibly en-compassing a larger and larger area. This will continue until some definite steps are taken to halt this trend. Similarly with the decreasing land value and the consequent decreasing municipal revenue, there may be a greater reluctance on the part of the government to Invest more money to maintain or modernize the facilities in the area. The streets and other ut i l i t i e s will become old, worn, and inefficient, thereby adding to the declining nature of the area. Blight will result in the impaired and uneconomic performance of the activities. This will lead to higher costs for services and products — privately and government controlled — which are provided locally. The inefficient character of many activities or services is often the result of the intermixture of the activities. 5 On the other hand, the area may cease to adequately provide the faci l i t i e s required by the citizens, thereby necessitating the local citizens to travel outside the area, and accordingly increase the per unit cost of these facilities, which had been, or 39 could be provided locally.6 The existence of a declining commercial area at times invites the creation of modern shopping center fa c i l i t i e s near its site. Thus, because an area was declining, i t attracts competition. This competition is becoming very efficient and effective in attracting the former "loyal" customers of older districts. The loss of these "loyal" customers has at times virtually reduced the commercial area to a "ghost" status, which accordingly causes the land value to plummet downward. The decline of an area creates a vicious cycle. In a declining commercial district, the healthy or "firm" activ-ities either leave the area or become blighted. The profit-able ventures are inhibited from entering the area. The attraction of outside capital for local investment is d i f f i -7 cult. The activities that remain in the area usually become stagnant, with a slow turnover and small revenue. This a l l means that fewer people are needed to operate the activities. The decreased employment seriously reduces the number of "captured" customers in the area, thereby decreasing the 8 revenue s t i l l further. The longer the trend is allowed to continue, the more difficult i t wi l l be to halt, and the less resources the private and public sectors wi l l have to allo-cate to the halting process. Blight does involve a social cost. There have been numerous attempts to measure the increased cost to a community due to the presence of a blighted, or possibly a slum, con-dition in the residential or commercial districts. 9 These 40 would include the higher social welfare costs, which are us-ually considerably higher in a declining or declined district* But in addition to these, there are the indirect social costs which cannot be measured. This could be that the presence of blight itself is distasteful or obnoxious to the senses. This aesthetic approach, although i t may also involve a real economic cost due to a loss in patronage and revenue, or lack of utilization, of the economic, social, recreational and government activities and fac i l i t i e s located in the area, does provide an added "sensory" cost to blight. This cost, although i t cannot be measured, i s very real to those who come in contact with the area. Blight need not be widespread nor very advanced to have its i l l effects on an area. One blighted structure can spread its detrimental effects to encompass the whole munic-ipality, and possibly, in time i f i t is allowed to continue unabated, an area much greater in size than the municipality. The presence of one blighted structure seriously deters the movement of customers past i t . Not only the structure with its run-down appearance, but also the character of the cus-tomers of the blighted activity seriously inhibit the move-ment of "prosperous" customers past the front of the struc-ture. If there is a "strong" commercial activity somewhere on one side of the blighted structure, the customers attrac-ted to i t will seldom venture past the blighted building to reach the other activities, which, although not blighted, do not possess the "magnetism" possessed by the strong 41 activity. A decline in patronage wil l tend to make the "weak-er" activity become s t i l l weaker, with the result that i t s revenue declines; less money can be allocated to structural maintenance; less business is attracted to the activity; the revenue declines s t i l l further. Accordingly, the once weak but unblighted activity declines until It finally be-comes blighted. Similarly the structures adjoining the blighted structure, although they may be on the side of the "strong" activity, or the attractor of business, will be deprived of some customers due to the detrimental con-dition of the neighbouring blighted building. Eventually this stable business establishment w i l l also become blighted. As the number of blighted structures increases, the power of it s detrimental effect increases. When en-ough buildings are blighted on one side of the street, their presence can deter some customers from frequenting the "firm" establishments on the other side of the street. Eventually they too w i l l become blighted. The usual "natural" process is for blight to begin in one part of the commercial district. The structures surrounding the blighted activity decline and become blighted. New activities locate as far away from the blighted part of the commercial district as possible, but usually main-tain physical contact with It in order to benefit from close proximity to the great variety of activities loc-ated within i t . This could develop into a ribbon com-42 mercial area, but varying in depth from facing onto a sin-gle street to facing onto several streets, with the healthy activities located at one end and the blighted structures at the other end. Blight tends to move along, encompas-sing more and more structures, which causes the "heart" of the commercial area, or the "100%" location to move continuously away from the declining area. The real prob-lem arises concerning what should be done with the blight-ed area. The local occupiers of the blighted structures, provided that the decline has been severe enough, are in no position to help themselves. The healthy commer-ci a l activities are far enough away to feel secure, and often f a i l to visualize the implications to themselves. If the decline or blight is not halted, i t will leave a path of useless structures and wasted land, which impose a definite l i a b i l i t y upon the whole community. Although the Individual symptoms of blight or de-cline may appear insignificant in themselves, the increased frequency, variety, and intensity of their occurrence can have a very great effect on the whole block, the whole street, the whole commercial district, or even the whole community. Some Older Established Commercial Districts  Are Worth Saving Although there are undoubtedly many commercial dis-tricts that can no longer serve any useful purpose as such, there exists many older outlying commercial districts that 43 f u l f i l l a very definitely useful purpose and, accordingly, they deserve greater attention than they are now receiving. Some are suffering from serious problems, but most of these problems are not insurmountable. There is the advantage that these older commercial districts possess a multitude of attributes — potential or partially utilized ~ which should weigh heavily when making any decision concerning the desirability to stabilize, to improve, to revitalize, or to rehabilitate the district. Many older outlying districts are well located, con-venient, and accessible to trading areas of relatively high-density population. In these districts there are large investments by property owners, by retailers, and also by the community. Such districts represent an Important element in the political, social, economic, employment, and tax bases of most of our metropolitan areas. Many of them, whether they are the central business district of a town or village, or one of the older outlying shopping districts, are well organized in the sense that they contain a wide diversity of store types with merchandise in broad style and price ranges. There is also the potential organization powers due to the combined ability of the numerous different types of business men, which range from retailing and advertising, to architecture and design, to real estate and finance, to law and politics. This is especially true since they a l l have one thing in common — their own interests, which are depen-dent upon the welfare of the commercial district and the 44 community as a whole. In any improvement project the required technical and professional capabilities should be able to be largely represented by these local businessmen. Some of the older outlying commercial districts poss-ess characteristics that make them worth saving, possible to save, and, in fact, necessary to save for the well being of the community. Numerous studies have been conducted on the merits of smaller central business districts and older out-lying commercial districts within a metropolitan sphere of influence. One of the most famous studies was conducted by CT. Jonassen of the Bureau of Business Research at Ohio State University. 1 0 Among other things, this study of three metropolitan areas revealed that the strength of the older outlying commercial districts was a result of the fact that the "selection of goods is larger; the prices are cheaper; several errands can be run on one trip", a l l of which worked against its main competitor — the modern shopping center. A study conducted by the Business Executives Research Committee of the Southern Methodist University revealed that the older commercial areas were important for six main reasons; (1) a center of employment, (2) a dominant retail centre, (3) an important office building center, (4) a finan-ci a l and entertainment centre, (5) a residential concen-tration, (6) an important tax revenue source. As a whole the older outlying commercial areas have the same attributes as the main metropolitan central business districts, being only 4 5 on a smaller scale, and having the different attributes of the area vary in relative importance depending on the par-ticular type of community.11 A report on the conservation of older commercial districts enumerated several advantages of these areas, in-12 eluding:* (1) They are usually well situated and possess established customers. There is no gamble that the site is properly s i t -uated for that has already been revealed. (2) The location of the district is often on the four quad-rants of a major intersection which offers ideal vehicular access from several directions. ( 3 ) The older district is usually astride a major mass transit route which enables the customers to obtain access by means of public, as well as private, transportation. (4) The established locale and market has led to the ability of older districts to stock greater varieties and qualities of goods than the modern shopping centers. The Alevizos and Beckwith study revealed that the greatest attractions of the older outlying commercial areas were the variety of activities therein located, which per-mitted several errands to be performed during one trip, and the variety of merchandise handled by the retail activities located in the area. 1 3 Richard Nelson has carried these findings further by demonstrating how the laws of mutual compatibility and cumulative attraction work.14 He propounds that the strength 46 of the outlying commercial areas lies in the variety of the activities located in the area, and, even more so, in the number of similar activities located in close proximity within an area, which is not detrimentally effected by the surrounding different activities. It must be remembered that retailing is only one function of the older outlying commercial district — there are also office facilities, personal services (legal, spec-ialized, medical, investment), recreational and cultural facilities, business services, (finance, engineering, real estate), government, and transportation services. A l l of these will become more important as time passes and the ser-vice activity employment will become a larger percentage of the total employment. In addition to these activities, there are often the manu-facturing industries, which can range in size and importance from the "home industry" to the large heavy manufacturing establishments. They a l l have a place in our various out-lying commercial districts and need to be taken into account, Sound public policy in preserving these areas which are so vital to the tax basis of the metropolis and to the economics of the region demand that adequate attention be given to these other functions in addition to that of retailing. The new form of commercial area — the modern one-stop shopping centre — which is currently so popular and economically successful, generally does not supply the variety of services that the older outlying commercial areas are 47 f u l f i l l i n g . The distance, at least in time i f not in miles, to those few areas that are adequately strong in order to retain permanent facilities is increasing. This makes their services readily accessible to a smaller percentage of the total population as time passes. The decline of the older commercial districts, due to structural deficiencies or obsolescence, shopping centre competition, or a number of other factors, will result in a very serious void in the supply of services required and demanded by the public. Un-less adequate remedial steps are taken concerning those areas, which i t is feasible and desirable to revitalize or stabil-ize, a more drastic measure will be required in order to re-place the accommodation of those facilities not available to the general public. In addition to the loss of direct services required by the public, there are numerous indirect services provided or stimulated by the older outlying commercial area. These would include the attraction of stable activities, which would provide increased employment; increased captive market; increased available spending money via wages; increased demand for housing to accommodate the new employees; increased revenue by means of land and business taxes; increased stabi-lization of income in the various public and private activi-ties located in the area; Increased availability of money and leadership to a community. These are just some of the results which can be pro-duced by having a stable and attractive outlying commercial 43 area — everyone benefits. No areas can remain stable in-definitely without a conscious effort being made continually to maintain this stability. Without this stability and attractiveness, the opposite results named above will occur. It is decidedly much easier and economically more desirable to maintain an area's stability than to "bring back" a declining or unstable area once again to a firm basis. But in either case certain definite steps need to be taken in order to allow the public to derive the maximum benefit from a commercial district. If these steps are not taken the area can, of itself, seriously jeopardize the welfare of the whole community. In addition to the possible negative approach just mentioned — that i f adequate steps are not taken the "de-cline" will seriously affect the whole community, or that i f the proper steps are taken the whole area will benefit — there are other factors to consider. Large investments have been made in the area by both the public and private sectors of the economy. These investments would be seriously affected by any decline in the commercial district, and this would decidedly affect the whole community. The mere presence of these large investments in the area should be an indication of the interest in the welfare of the area by both the private and public sectors of the area. Although some of the struc-tures and facilities may be amortized and therefore have satisfied the financial demands of the owners, there will be some that have not yet accomplished this. These structures 49 and facilities — public or private — which are not fully amortized will suffer in economic terms from the decline of the area. In addition there is the consideration of the functions currently performed by the district. If the dis-trict i s allowed to decline, numerous persons and activities will suffer service-wise. When faced with the realization of the possible fate of the area, including their investments and services, those con-cerned would be more cooperative, and perhaps even anxious, concerning the implementation of any steps required to improve the area. This might be considered one of the human-economic attributes of the area. The other attributes have already been mentioned: the physical characteristics of the site and situation; the characteristics of the activities; the various types of bases the area represents; the loss of important services; and the characteristics of the potential organizations and cooper-ation. All of these would seem to indicate that the poten-t i a l stabilization or revitalization of many older commercial areas is quite feasible, and, in fact, desirable and necess-ary. It would have to be remembered, though, that any policy concerning the stabilization or revitalization of the area would have to be based upon a detailed analysis of the area itself, the surrounding area being influenced by the area, and the alternatives open to the community for the use of both the actual and the surrounding area, in order to provide the general public with the maximum security and the maximum 50 benefit from the land concerned. The following chapter deals with an analysis of the planned shopping centre, with a view to deriving from i t a method for the revitalization and stabilization of older declining commercial districts. 51 References 1McFarland, "The Challenge of Urban Renewal", Urban Land Institute, Technical Bulletin No. 34 (Dec. 1958); p.15. R.L. Nelson and Frederick T. Aschman, Real Estate  and City Planning, Princeton Hall, 1957, pp.23-3X The functions of the area will range from purely local in character to regional in extent. In reality there will be a great number of superimposed "influenced areas", depending on the activity considered. Some of the important activities located in some of the outlying commercial areas are employ-ment, commerce, manufacturing, transportation, political, social, financial, cultural, etc. o Georges Potvin, "Commercial and Industrial Blight", Community Planning Review, vol. IX No.l (March 1959), p.5.. 4R.L. Nelson and Frederick T. Aschman, "Conservation and Rehabilitation of Major Shopping Districts", Urban Land  Institute, Technical Bulletin No. 22 (Feb. 1954), p.4. "Demonstration of the importance of outlying shopping districts can be found in studies of the Chicago Planning Commission. In Chicago the major districts outside 'the Loop' do an annual business of over a billion dollars, they, employ 60,000 people and pay annual wages of over $133,000,000. Assessed valuation of these districts i s established at over $200,000,000. Needless to say tax revenues from both central and outlying districts are more than sufficient to pay for services rendered to the district." 5 ' William H. Ludlow, Urban Redevelopment: Problems  and Practices. Coleman Woodbury, editor, Univ. of Chicago Press, 1955, p. 171. 6Potvin, Community Planning Review, vol. IX No.l (March 1959), p.5. 7Ibid . 8 * Alan M. Voorhees, "Shopping Habits and Travel Patt-erns", Urban Land Institute, Technical Bulletin No. 24 (March 1955), pp.1.and 10. 9 McFarland, Urban Land Institute No. 34, p.16. 10C.T. Jonassen, Downtown Versus Suburban Shopping:  Measurement of Consumer Practices and Attitudes in Columbus,  Ohio, Bureau of Business Research, The Ohio State University, 1955, p.59. 52 111'The Future Role of the Central Business District", Business Executives Research Committee, Southern Methodist. University, Dallas, Texas. 12 Nelson and Aschman, Urban Land Institute No. 22, p.7. 1 3J.P. Alevizos and A.E. Beckwith, "Downtown Dilemma", Harvard Business Review, (Jan.-Feb., 1954) p.115. "Richard Nelson, The Selection of Retail Locations, T.W. Dodge, Corp., New York, 1955, pp.57-7a PART TWO: PLANNED SHOPPING CENTRES: A MODEL FOR A SUGGESTED REVITALIZATION PROGRAMME CHAPTER III THE PLANNED SHOPPING CENTRE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO ITS SUCCESS Since modern planned suburban shopping centres, gen-erally, have been so economically successful, and further, since there seems to be some evidence that planned shopping centres have, in fact, been one of the major causes for the decline, or possible imminent decline, of the older establish-ed outlying commercial districts, i t would appear valid to draw upon their experience and to utilize some of their con-cepts for the revitalization or stabilization of the older established outlying commercial districts. Accordingly this chapter will be devoted to an analysis of the modern planned shopping centre; the factors responsible for its success; and, the application that has been made of these concepts to various established commercial districts; with a view to deriving those concepts which generally would be applicable for the revitalization or stabilization of older established outlying commercial districts. Definition of the Planned Shopping Centre In most cases i t would be possible to define the successful shopping centre, whatever its type or status, as an organized suburban spatial grouping of balanced and varied 5 5 commercial establishments planned, developed, managed and controlled as a unit, with adequate off-street parking pro-vided as an integral part of the unit within the site and functionally related in location and size to the type of shops and trade area. Generally such a centre is directly related in its character, location, size, and type of shops to the existing, and potential, population income of the trading area i t serves. The fundamental characteristic of the centre is its emphasis on charm and pleasant experience for the whole family's typical weekly shopping trip, although generally those characteristics that appeal to women dominate throughout the centre. There are three major types of planned shopping centresl: the neighbourhood centre; the community centre; and the regional centre. Although there are other differences, the basic variation in these three types lies in their size, which is determined by the area served, and which in turn determines the kind and variety of activities included. Reasons for the Success of the  Planned Shopping Centre" Generally in any consideration of the planned shop-ping centres, there has been a preoccupation by planners, engineers, architects, and the public with physical aspects (layout, location, and appearance, and conveniences), but the one real justification for a planned centre's existence and success has been its dependence on the economics of the situation. The most beautiful shopping centre may go bank-56 rupt or become "blighted" i f the financial base upon which i t rests is unsound. One of the main reasons for the success of most planned shopping centres has been due to the thorough investigation of the actual and potential market area. Probably basic to the research that has aided the modern centre has been the idea to provide the customer with "what he wants and likes", in a manner that pleases him, and not, as has been the practice in the past, with merely pro-viding the articles and facilities he actually needed, quite indifferent to his comfort or preferences. Retailing is approached from the view point of the maximum benefit for the shopping centre as a whole, not just for each individual activity, and, accordingly, the activities are chosen, grouped and interrelated with the various fac i l i t i e s in order to achieve this "over-all" optimum benefit. Foremost among the development criteria used in the creation of a centre is the occurrence and popularity of the private automobile. The automobile has given the shopper freedom, and has made possible the new pattern of urban growth out into the suburbs. It was "suburbia" that created the i n i t i a l demand for shopping centres. Accordingly i t has been necessary to provide accommodation for the automobile in conjunction with the marketing faci l i t i e s in the new centre. The mere provision of parking space is not adequate, for i t must be conveniently and strategically located in relation to certain key activities. There is also the consideration that the number of shopping trips by automobile in any residential 57 area is directly related to automobile ownership in that o area. These factors have had a considerable bearing on the amount of parking space considered necessary, and the relative importance of providing special pedestrian access to the centre. There have been several good studies conducted to analyze the shopper and the various type of retail concen-trations. CT. Jonassen in studying the consumer found that for the shopping centre the most important advantage was that i t was nearer home, the next most important was easy parking, and the third was that people considered that suburban stores kept more convenient hours.3 The Portland Downtown Study agreed with Jonassen*s f i r s t and second shopping centre advantages, but found that the third was not having to dress up to go shopping. The fourth reason was that the shopping centres kept more con-venient hours, which was followed by cheap parking and the open, free and casual atmosphere in a shopping centre. The next advantage was the friendly courteous atmosphere and then the clean modern stores. The Alevizos and Beckwith study on shopper attitudes found that "access and comfort" were the factors which con-tributed most to the success of the modern shopping centre." They produced another finding that children can be more easily taken shopping to the shopping centres, and that this was a factor which affected a l l income groups. Some addition-a l principles concerning retailing are that: shoppers move 58 toward, rather than away from the most dominant commercial concentration; shoppers will not go through one trading con-centration to reach another with equal fa c i l i t i e s ; shoppers tend to patronize the nearest concentration with equal fac i l i t i e s ; and shoppers tend to follow traditional movement g patterns. The enterprising and progressive developers have realized the importance of these and other factors, and have allowed them to dictate the location, size, character, and type of centre to be built. This to some extent removes from the realm of speculation the number, size, variety, and type of activities that should be located in a new centre. Process for the Establishment of the  Planned Shopping Centre Initial Organization Shopping centre developers (initiators of shopping centre ventures) are basically entrepreneurs, who, relying on their s k i l l and ingenuity, and that of their professionals whom they retain, and backed by their financial resources, seek to convert comparatively low priced real estate into extremely valuable assets — namely the planned shopping centre. In order to achieve his goal profitably, the developer must have an effective organization. The de-veloper's organization is usually controlled, at least for the larger centres, by a full-time general manager. The organization in most cases, will include an economist, an architect, a corporation lawyer, a lease lawyer, a public 59 relations man, an engineer, a contractor, etc. The general manager will be the representative of the developer on this group of professionals, who as a group will form the "planning team" • The staff for the organization will have to be adap-ted to the type of centre being considered. The staff com-position and size will vary according to the size of the centre and its elaborateness and character. In order to create a successful shopping centre, the i n i t i a l working team should consist of at least three perman-7 ent members; the developer as the initiating force, the economist or real estate consultant to establish the economic basis and operational methods, and the architect or planner to create the planning concept which gives the project physical shape and form. The architect's and planner's organization must be closely connected with a strong planning and architectural department, a store-design group, men ex-perienced in traffic planning, economics, landscaping, cost estimating, and graphic design, in addition to complete engineering devisions. The real estate or economic con-sultants organization should include researchers and stati-sticians, market analysts, merchandising planners, financing experts, leasing specialists, and men experienced in store operations and real estate management. Although some members of their organizations may be permanent, many will be temporary, such as leasing managers, real estate brokers, lawyers (corporation, lease and tax), 60 surveyors, market researchers, contractors, mechanical, electrical, and structural engineers, so i l experts, foun-dation experts, landscape architects, traffic engineers, goods handling experts, estimators, and so on. Basically a shopping centre project is a matter of team work, and, accordingly a l l the specialists should be closely coordin-ated in their work by the shopping centre manager with the technical assistance of the economist and the planner in order to achieve the optimum results. Economic Analysis An elaborate study of the district i s the basic preparatory step in shopping centre development.8 This study usually covers population data by census tract (or the smallest land division for which statistics are available), estimates of the location of the present and future population density and characteristics (Including age, Income, family size, number of spending units, occ-upation, shopping habits, customs, and the like), acc-essibility and circulation studies (street adequacy, driv-ing time on the streets to the residential concentrations), estimates of how far people wi l l travel for each kind of merchandise, traffic density at different times of day and distance from existing and potential competition, as well as the customer attraction power of the compet-ition. The developers usually hire consultants to carry out these surveys. The measurements of the area's potentialities for 61 trade and the possible growth, is a necessary preliminary step to considering the feasibility of the shopping centre venture. This information is absolutely necessary in gauging the location, size, type, quality, and character of the centre, which will meet the potentials of the trade area that can be tapped, in order to achieve the maximum u t i l i z -ation of the available potentials. Site Evaluation The selection of the site is a crucial factor influencing the success of any shopping centre. Accordingly the site selection should be based upon the information ob-tained from the completed preliminary analysis of the area. There is fairly common agreement among shopping 9 centre experts concerning site selection and evaluation. There are certain requirements that should be met in the site finally selected. The site must be located in the gen- . eral area established as most desirable by the economic surveys, which approach the problem primarily from a business potential criteria, but there are other important factors also to be considered. The area should be owned or control-led by the developer, or at least i t s acquisition must be feasible. This includes the factor that the cost of the land must be in keeping with the overall economic consideration (such as the type of centre, competition, risk, etc.). An-other important factor is that the existing zoning and other municipal regulations, must permit the usage of the site for shopping centre purposes. Numerous developers have lately 62 been proposing tbat in order for the land cost to be economic, i t must be in a zone for a lower use, and only zoned com-mercial after the land is purchased. The site must be large enough to allow for the construction of adequate facilities in order to meet the sales potential of the area* This would include space for future expansion, resulting from future population growth and increased demand. Many of these factors do depend upon the design and size of the centre, the activities i t will encompass, the transportation character-istics of the customers, etc., a l l of which must be based upon the economic analysis of the area. The shape of the site must be such that advantageous, economic planning is feasible. The land should be in one piece, free from inter-vening roadways, rights-of-way, easements, major waterways, or other factors that could break up the continuity of the development. The physical characteristics of the land must permit advantageous planning and economic construction. The surrounding road pattern and the accessibility to the area must allow for the f u l l utilization of the vis i b i l i t y of the shopping centre structure, and, especially, of the car parking lot, from the major thoroughfares. One factor that has been cri t i c a l in the past and continues to be an influence is the possibility of intercepting trade on its way to a traditional commercial concentration. Since people tend to go In traditional directions to shops the inter-ception of the flow of trade is vital for any new centre. Another factor which could have some influence, i s the 63 reputation of the immediate area. (Is the location prominent and well known, or is i t obscure? Is i t associated in people's minds with something pleasant/or unpleasant? Is i t surrounded or cut off by an area through which people hesitate to pass?) The foregoing are among the most cri t i c a l in site selection and evaluation. Site Planning Following the site selection, the tenants, espec-iall y the key tenants around which the centre will be built, are selected and negotiations are entered into. It is necessary to establish the requirements of each major tenant and to a lesser degree the minor tenants, in order that maximum utilization is achieved from the centre, and that few alterations will have to be made. When the developers know the principal tenants, they can proceed with the architectural arrangements and draw up the site plan. Site planning 1 0 calls for laying out the site in order to achieve the basic features which distin-guish the planned shopping centre, physically, from other commercial areas. There are several main allocations of land on the site. Basic to any site planning, these considerations must be kept in mind: the space for structures (retail, service, recreation, and social); automobile storage areas (for cus-tomers, and for employees); vehicular access and circulation (for customer and service vehicles); pedestrian areas (for access and circulation, for shopping and for liesure, for 64 adults and for children); public transportation (mass transit and taxis); buffer areas; and reserve areas (to allow for expansion). The actual allocation of space for these and other uses must be guided by certain c r i t i c a l planning criteria. Adherence to these criteria is absolutely necessary in order to achieve the highest feasible productivity from the land considering the long-run consequences. They would include: to protect the surrounding areas against blight, and, in fact, enhance i t ; to protect, and enhance, the site against blight; to expose the various activities to the maximum pedestrian movement, where desirable; to arrange the activities in order to provide maximum compactness, mutual compatability, and cumulative attraction; to separate vehicular and pedestrian movement; to create the most simple, safe, adequate, comfortable, convenient, and pleasant environment for shoppers and merchants (considering driving, parking, shopping, relaxing, and servicing); to achieve orderliness, harmony, beauty, gaiety, and tranquility; and to create, more than just a commercial foci, but in addition a centre for social, commercial, service and recreation purposes. There are various overall concepts for the basic planned shopping centre patterns among which the following have achieved some prominance during the last decade. The "strip" centre is the most common type of centre. It is a straight line of stores often tied together visually 65 by a canopy. Architecturally this type of centre may not be much different from the store buildings in established shopping districts, except that this centre was planned as a unit to perform a coordinated function and will have a substantial amount of convenient, free, off-street parking. To obtain the maximum benefit from i t , the most magnetic activities should be located at either end of the strip, with the lesser stores lying in between. T n e "L" centre is an adaptation of the strip centre in order to shorten the length of the "strip". It consists of two "strips", each perpendicular to a main street and parallel to another intersecting street. The main business attractor should be located at the corner of the "L", and the next two important attractors should be at the end of either arm of the "L". This design is particularly ideal for a site located at two important intersecting streets. The "U" centre, a further adaptation of the "L" type centre, is particularly well suited for a rectangular or square shaped site, especially where the site faces onto a single road frontage. The natural key locations in this type of centre are at its centre and at the ends of the legs. The "cluster" or "hub" centre is a group of buildings advantageously arranged around the key business attractor, and surrounded by open space. Separating the various activities are pedestrian-ways or courts. This pattern frequently lends itself to the development of "specialty" 66 malls. A l l pedestrians are drawn past the smaller stores, along the radiating pedestrian malls, to the key business establishment, thereby allowing a l l activities to benefit from the attractive power of the key activity. There appears to be a definite trend toward adopting the "mall design" for the larger shopping centres. This type appears favoured due to its compactness, simplicity, overall economy and greater merchandising impact. Accompany-ing this trend is the tendency toward greater emphasis on the appearance and styling of the shopping centres. This seems to have been brought out in the detail that is being introduced into the centres, as well as the elimination of any "rear", or unattractive, side to the centre, for now a l l sides are treated as the front. Possibly i t should be just mentioned here that as a result of the impact and success of the suburban shopping centres, a new type of downtown retail district, or unit, seems to be emerging. This new "design" for downtown appears to be patterned from the larger regional suburban shopping centres, and can be seen in such examples as the Victor Gruen plan for Fort Worth, Texas, or the Charles Blessing plan for Detroit, Michigan, in which main downtown streets are trans-formed into pedestrian malls, with a l l the characteristics associated with them, and adequately convenient parking is provided at the commercial fringes, as well as Incorporating numerous other "centre" characteristics. Some of these proposals will be considered in more detail toward the end 67 of this chapter The "mall" centre is in reality two strip , centres placed face-to-face, with a pedestrian mall between them. It corresponds to a street for backward and forward pedestrian movement and shopping, except in the mall there is no inter-ference by vehicles. It is usually characterized by two large business attractions (often department stores) facing each other from either end of the mall (which should not exceed a total distance of 600 or 700 feet). Many of the larger stores have a double "front" with shop windows and entrances onto the parking lot, as well as onto the pedestrian mall. It creates an atmosphere which women like, and also offers space for outdoor displays and special events useful in the promotion or advertisement of a centre. The mall contains various attractive architectural features, landscaping, floral displays, which are condusive to casual strolling, thereby making the mall a powerful customer attractor in large centres. If a centre is to capitalize fully on "impulse" buying and to gain customer loyalty, i t has to have attractions which make the shoppers enjoy being there. The mall has been con-sidered the ultimate in shopper convenience and amenities. From the merchandising point of view i t creates the greatest foot traffic past the most stores, for with the mall there should be no such thing as a 100% corner or a good side of the street, and accordingly i t is likely to result in the highest business volume and the highest rentals. There are several problems which uniquely confront 68 the mall type of centre. Since the mall type centre is oriented inwards onto the mall, its outer extremities facing the surrounding parking lot and streets may become neglected or unattractive. Due to improper planning, truck deliveries to service the centre may cause a certain amount of incom-patible mixing of vehicles, which is definitely undesirable. Because the key activities are located adjacent to the parking lot, i t is possible for customers to enter these stores and to leave them without ever having been exposed to the other smaller activities facing the mall. This emphasizes the importance of putting the second key activity at the opposite end of the mall, thereby creating a strong back and forth movement of shoppers past the smaller shops on the mall. It is strongly felt by shopping centre experts that the mall type of centre should never be used unless there are at least two strong shopper generators. There is also the important problem concerning the size and character of the mall. Its purpose is to create as much continuity of shopping from one end of the mall to the other, as well as to produce impulse buying across the mall. The most effective width for retailing would be about twenty five feet, but the congestion from such a narrow mall would destroy its effectiveness in creating a pleasant shopping environment. The amenities, such as benches, trees, fountains, flowers, and play areas, should be located in the mall, which necessi-tates a desirable mall width of about eighty feet. In reality a compromise is usually worked out which results in a width 69 of from forty to sixty feet. There have been some successful mall centres with a mall width of up to one hundred feet, but some have been failures too. The "strip", the "L", and the "mall" designed centres account for about eighty-eight percent of a l l the centres built. Of this the strip alone accounts for about forty percent of a l l planned centres, while the "L" and the "mall" * 11 each account for about twenty-four percent. In addition to the general planning principles, the main land allocation, and the basic centre patterns, there are certain specific factors that must be taken into account in site planning. Parking: Parking space is one of the most c r i t i c a l factors. The Urban Land Institute, among others, feels that for the average planned centre a minimum ratio of three square feet for parking, pick-up, waiting, and circulation on the site is required for each square foot of gross floor area in the centre. 1 2 Some shopping centre specialists are now advocating a ratio of four to one, which they feel will be adequate for some years to come, but even this will eventually be inadequate due to the increased automobile ownership and usage. Consideration must also be given to employee parking which should be located in that portion of the parking lot which is the most inconvenient and inaccess-ible for shoppers. Because these stated ratios are given as rules-of-thumb, they will vary according to the character of the trade area and the private automobile utilization habits 70 of the customers. There are certain other concepts concerning the location and the layout of the parking lot. A l l of the parking should be in front of the stores, thereby making i t a l l visible from the streets. In the "mall" or "hub" centre parking should be on a l l sides, in a sense, making a l l sides of the centre the "front". "Rear", "alley", "ramp" or "roof" parking should be avoided since women dislike the thought of possible awkward maneuvering, or the uncertainty of any space being available. The maximum distance from the outer edge of the parking lot to the nearest store should be six hundred feet, but preferably within three hundred feet. The front lots should be designed to hold, i f possible, the typical weekly peak, and the rear or auxilliary lots would only be used for the larger seasonal peaks. The aisles would be laid out so as. to produce a simple natural flow for the customer until he finds a space, with no necessity to "back-track". The stalls should be of adequate size and angle depending on the character of the area and the par-ticular local parking habits. The store fronts should be visible from the car lots. Safe and convenient access to, and circulation within, the site are also c r i t i c a l factors in the site layout. The Urban Land Institute states that with a three to one parking-gross building area ratio, about sixteen percent of the total area of the site should be allocated to pedes-1 3 trians, plantings, and service.* This percentage would 71 decrease by about two percent with a four-to-one parking ratio. Architectural Design • ^ The design of shopping centres is intimately connected with the site planning and the selection of tenants. Accord-ingly most of the factors already considered will have to be taken into account in the centre's design. Victor Gruen in his book Shopping Towns U.S.A. emphasizes that the dominant architectural characteristic of the planned shopping centre is i t s unity, but that there are other factors to be considered as well: The centre is the expression of a rare occurrence of our free enterprise economy — the banding together of individual businesses in cooperative fashion with the aim of creating greater commercial effectiveness through unified endeavour. In order to succeed in giving proper recognition to this fact, i t i s important that the indivldualistics and expressions of the participants not be suppressed but, on the contrary encouraged. It i s , however, equally important that a strong common denominator be created to tie the individual enterprises into a homo-geneous unit. These two aims appear divergent, but skilful planning and design can reconcile them harmoniously.14 There are various architectural devices that can be used to achieve the unity desired, such as structural solutions, exterior unity, centre-wide features, and so on, just as there are devices for bringing out the individuality of some of the component activities of the centre, but they wi l l not be specifically considered, due to the limitations on this paper. In addition there are two main considerations yet to be made which will affect the design of the centre architectural features. Types of Activities: The location, size, type and number of 72 the key or dominant activities will be c r i t i c a l in arriving at the general overall design but there are the smaller or "weaker" activities which will be Important in the actual detail of the centre's design. The service shops, such as barber and beauty shops, and possibly the post office, should be located in a l l shopper's goods centres. A great proportion of the shoppers* trips include these activities and accordingly they are com-1 5 patible with the other activities. ** There are certain considerations to be made concerning their location. Both service shops and retail establishments wi l l lose business i f a patron must walk or drive across a parking lot separa-ting them. As there is l i t t l e "impulse" buying in the service shops they should not be located in a high pedestrian traffic area, but rather in an obscure or out of the way place, such as a basement, rear of the store, or a second floor. Their patrons generally park for a considerable length of time, and, accordingly, they should be located in relation to adequate parking in order that their custom-ers do not use parking in positions more economically used for retail stores. Doctors' and other professionals* offices are not compatible with ret a i l shopping, for people who v i s i t these offices seldom do other shopping at the same time or vice versa. There is accordingly l i t t l e mutual benefit between these offices and shops. Because of the low turnover in office-patrons* car-stalls, separate parking space should 73 be provided for these activities. These offices should not be located in the centre, but preferably in a separate group-ing such as in a clinic or office block, with adequate separate parking space. Entertainment facilities, such as movie theatres or bowling alleys, are not compatible in store groupings. These facilities compete with retail activities for parking during the evening shopping hours. If these types of facilities are to be included they must be physically separated with adequate parking provided specifically for them. Special fac i l i t i e s for such activities as farmers'  produce markets, or children's play areas are very definitely compatible with the other shops. They have been found to be very valuable as pulling or attracting forces for the whole centre. 1 6 Special Shopping Centre Features: In shopping centres i t is necessary to replace the often strong emotional ties, some-times associated with older shopping areas, with "glamour" or "excitement", as well as convenience and pleasant surround-ings. The latter is supplied through the provision of adequate eating facilities, rest rooms, children's play areas, seats or benches, and other amenities, which will make the area pleasant and convenient. Glamour is supplied by bright new store fronts and facilities, fountains, ponds, art, contest, murals, statues, flowers, trees, and music piped throughout the centre. These are not extras, as is often considered,, for they are needed to replace the ingrown 74 habits and emotions which often attach the customers to the older shopping areas. There are certain features that are important in shopping centre design and need to be given special notice. These would include canopies, landscaping, offsets, signs, and buffer zones. Of a l l the centre-vide conveniences for shopper com-fort which are built into shopping centres, the canopy, or covered walk is the most common. Over 90% of the shopping centres use this unifying and convenience device — either cantilevered from the building wall or supported by free 17 standing columns. These covered walkways are very desira-ble in shopping centres, for they promote shoppiag in a l l weather, and generally help to make shopping more enjoyable. Landscaping with well-placed seasonal plantings or floral displays greatly adds to the general public appeal. Trees should also be Included in parking lots to Improve the black barren lots. The enhancement of the centres through the use of trees and flowers i s intangible and can hardly be traced to the sales volume, and yet It can affect the quality and permanence of customer loyalty. Offset or recessed store frontages have been found to be definite barriers to store business. With offsets in the building frontage there are a number of projections which block the view, or insets which escape notice — accordingly business suffers from this architectural device. Although signs are an essential part of a shopping 75 centre their use must be restrained and controlled for the lasting success of the centre. Signs are essential to inform the public and to identify the merchant and his product, but they must be pleasing as a group or as part of the whole environment. It has been generally agreed that the design, size, style, location, and colour illumination must be con-trolled by the centre management. Buffer zones between the shopping centre and the adjacent uses are important items in making up the design of the centre. The adjacent residential area should be in-sulated against any adverse effect of the commercial use upon the residential values, or possibly the buffer may be used to shield the centre from some adverse effect of the adjacent activities, such as industry, run down residential or commercial areas. A buffer strip, heavily follaged, of at least twenty feet should be provided. If this is not practical a masonry wall, solid fence, or narrow but dense foliage planting should be provided. The buffer zone should be treated as part of the overall landscape, and accordingly incorporated into the centre's design. Operation and Management of the Shopping Centre With the completion of the leasing programme, the process of shopping centre management becomes relatively routine. It evolves the collection of rents; record keeping; structural and property maintenance; policing and the control of signs; initiation and stimulation of the merchant's assoc-iation; arrangement for group advertising; and, the one 76 vitally important problem -—shopping centre promotion.18 Since a shopping centre is a "going concern", i t must constantly be promoted. A new centre is a facili t y in competition with established facilities elsewhere to which people have become long accustomed to patronize. To change the customer's buying;habits requires a constant and aggressive promotional campaign. A centre must provide the equivalent to the "dollar day" and sales of the established commercial areas, as well as create social and ceremonial events matching those which have been in existence through the years in the older commercial districts. This not, how-ever, a function which the owner can afford by himself, nor can a manager perform i t without the solid cooperation and support of the tenants. One basic characteristic of the integrated shopping centre i s the cooperation of a l l the tenants with each other and with the owners in following policies favourable to the centre as a whole. Many of these policies would have been discussed prior to the signing of the leases. A joint promotion policy is usually found desirable and a merchants* association (an association composed of a l l the merchants in the centre), possibly even with compulsory participation and financial contribution, may be formed for this purpose. In the experience of the Community Builders Council, a merchants1 association is absolutely necessary - id for the successful operation of a centre of any size.* This i organization should employ, either on a f u l l or part time 77 basis, a man to handle the promotions, the cooperative,adver-t i s i n g programmes, and the l i k e . The merchants* association has been found to be 21 effective through various ways. It can handle the adver-tisement by means of the local or nearby city newspapers, or possibly even issue i t s own paper. It can encourage common-night late openings, and the referral of customers to the proper store i n the centre for their purchases. It may employ a hospitality hostess to c a l l on new-comers and invite.them to the centre. It promotes cooperation between the merchants especially for seasonal events and decorations, such as Christmas. It can build up good w i l l in the community by actively participating i n c i v i c projects, such as charity drives. It may promote various a c t i v i t i e s , such as art craft or cooking displays i n shop windows, or children's parties, such as Halloween. It may i n i t i a t e or sponsor a permanent or part time children's "playland" or baby s i t t i n g depart-ment, which could attract customers. Perhaps the most impor-tant functions i t performs i s the enforcement of parking regulations, and the control of advertisement, especially window posters. It has been found that the extra.services are great assets for increasing the " p u l l " of the centre or for i n -creasing i t s trading area. For example, although there may be l i t t l e revenue from such services as cheque cashing or collecting the payments on household u t i l i t i e s , these do regularly bring people into the centre, and i t has been found 78 that people are spontaneous purchasers, with about half the people that enter; an establishment buying something before leaving. Another type of service that has been a well rec-eived and fruitful drawing attraction i s the "kiddieland", nurseries and playgrounds. In some cases these activities not only attract customers, but also become quite profit-able ventures in themselves. Might openings are considered especially important in shopping centres, because of the prevalence of family shopping. Stores may be open three or four nights a week and may find i t advisable not to open until noon. The bulk of the week*s business, however, tends to be done from Thursday through Saturday afternoon. There are various other devices that have been used to attract customers to the shopping centre, such as car shows, circuses, free "coke and hot-dogs", beauty con-tests, animal or boat shows, movie stars, contests, dances, and so on. These are less commonly applied for general promotion, but appear to have been used extensively for the initial; promotion of a centre. An Evaluation of the Shopping Centre  and its Success The foregoing considered certain basic character-istics which appear to be responsible for the success of the modern planned shopping centre. These can be summarized as follows: 79 (1) The shopping centre is an attractive building group plan-ned and constructed as an architectural and merchantile unit. (2) It is planned and based on careful research of the shop-ping potential; an analysis of existing commercial faci l i t i e s and their adequacy and deficiencies; and a detailed analysis of the consumer (his or her needs, preferences, weaknesses, and habits). (3) Simple and convenient vehicular, and pedestrian, access is provided to the shopping centre. (4) The centre i s constructed on a site suited for the pur-pose by Its location, shape, size, and physical character-istics. (5) The centre provides adequate, convenient, strategically located,high quality, free customer parking with a simple free-flowing circulatory system of roads, completely separ-ated from .service vehicles. (6) There Is a pre-consideratioa of merchandising with insis-tence on a balance between the size, number, and type of stores, in order to achieve mutual compatibility and mutual benefit, and an interplay of pedestrian traffic between them. The major customer attractions (magnetic individual activi-ties, or groups of activities that are magnetic due to this grouping) are utilized in such a manner as to allow the centre as a whole to benefit from their attractive qualities. (7) There is advertisement and sign control, which offers variety without confusion, colour without garishness, and gaiety without vulgarity. Advertisement serves a definite 80 purpose but i t must be in keeping with the whole character of the centre. (8) Adequate provisions must be made for future expansion to accommodate increased floor space demand. (9) The centre should be integrated and harmonious with the surrounding residential area. It should adequately screen and protect'the adjoining residential area from the shops and parking by means of a landscaped buffer strip. (10) The centre must provide an agreeableness in surroundings that lends an atmosphere for shopping in comfort, convenience and safety — a l l weather shopping and walking protection by canopies and arcades; air conditioning; parcel pick-up stations; landscaping; foot and vehicular traffic separation; and artistic and aesthetic qualities — characteristics not associated with the usual commercial area. (11) Special services, and activities, often of no direct remunerative value, are offered to attract and to retain cus-tomer loyalty. Such attractions would range from children's playgrounds, and nurseries to cheque cashing and payment of household utility b i l l s ; from display of local artcrafts or baking to special parties for children (Halloween) and adults ("old time dances"). These must go so far as to offer social possibilities more attractive than the bargains in ret a i l merchandising offered by the larger established districts, as well as to break old habits and ties to other districts. Gordon Stedman, in a Ph.D. thesis on shopping centres, mentioned that 81 FFrom ancient times until quite recently, the people in a .region used to shop in one central market place which, at the same time, served as a meeting place where they could get together, discuss, relax, enjoy themselves, learn to know their neighbours, and develop a general feeling for their community. An important aspect of l i f e has been lost, in the breaking up of the social functions, but we cannot restore i t simply by trying to turn back the clock. Our concept of a mercantile centre is an attempt to restore some of the Old World (and Old America) market place atmosphere in our modern surroundings,21 (12) Due to the competitive nature of the enterprise, the es-tablished shopping habits, and the natural antipathy toward new comers and new enterprises, a continuously aggressive, progressive, and ingenious promotion campaign must be con-ducted to ensure the success of any centre. It is vital that the managers of a l l the activities cooperate with, and actively support, such a campaign, preferably through an organization such as a merchants* association. . Although these features are common to successful shop-ping centres, each element must be translated to f i t the con-ditions and circumstances peculiar to the climate, geography,, culture, economy and shopping habits of the locality. The interpretations, adaptations and improvements for these basic features are what must be dealt with in planning, developing and operating a successful shopping centre. The basic reason for the success of the shopping centres has been that a l l as-pects — design, operation, promotion, and services offered — have been considered and Implemented from the viewpoint of ben-efit for the entire centre, and not for just the various indiv-iduals making up the centre. Whether this unity has been forced upon the various activities by the promoter or circumstances 82 is not cr i t i c a l for i t does exist, and i t has generally proved to be successful considering the long-run economics of the centre as a whole. The Adoption of Shopping Centre Concepts . by Established Commercial Districts During the last few years there have been numerous examples of plans for the improvement of the established com-mercial districts based upon the experience gained in the planning of modern shopping centres. Some of these plans are s t i l l in the speculative stage; others have been officially accepted or adopted as policy; s t i l l others have actually been carried out, in their entirety or with some modification. The areas affected have varied from a portion of a block to an area encompassing the whole central business district of a major city. The actual comprehensiveness of the approach has varied too, from the half hearted "promotional gimmicks" to the "downtown shopping centre" encompassing a l l the a t t r i -butes of the planned suburban shopping centre as well as those attributed characteristic of the downtown areas. The actual results have varied considerably too, but generally they tend to lend support to the theory that the more comprehensive the adoption of the planned shopping centre concepts, the more successful will be the result. 4 For a detailed consideration of various examples of the improvement of established commercial districts based on principles or concepts similar to those of the planned shop-ping centre, see Appendix A. 83 The next chapter will discuss a proposed stabilization and revitalization programme, which has been based upon the problems confronting the outlying commercial districts; the concepts and experience of the planned shopping centres; and the experience of established commercial districts which have utilized the concepts of the planned shopping centres. 84 References ! j . Ross McKeever, "Shopping Centres Re-Studies: Emerging Patterns and Practical Experience", Urban Land  Institute, Technical Bulletin No. 30, Part.I, p.9. 2Ibid, p.19. 3C.T. Jonassen, Downtown Versus Suburban Shopping:  Measurement of.Consumer Practices and Attitudes in Columbus,  Ohio, Bureau of Business Research. The Ohio State University. 1955, p.58. 4 "Downtown: The Shoppers' Viewpoint", No.2, Portland Downtown Study, Portland Planning Board, Portland, Oregon, 1959, p.14. 5J.P. Alevizos and A.W. Beckwith, "Downtown Dilemma", Harvard Business Review, (Jan-Feb, 1954) p. 115. 6R.L. Nelson and Frederick T. Aschman, "Conservation and Rehabilitation of Major Shopping Districts", Urban Land  Institute, Technical Bulletin No. 22, (Feb. 1954), p.13. 'Victor Gruen and Larry Smith, Shopping Towns U.S.A., ReinhoId Publishing Corporation, New York, 1960, pp.65-67 . 8 Richard L. Nelson, The Selection of Retail Loc- ations. F.W. Dodge Corporation, New York, I960, pp.183-233. 9Nelson, pp.9-56. The Community Builders Handbook. Urban Land Institute, Community Builders Council, Washington, D.C, .1956, pp. 140-152. Gruen and Smith, pp. 38-45. "Shopping Centers and New York State's Retail Economy", New York State Commerce Review. Vol. 12, No. 9 (Sept..1958), 10Gruen and Smith, pp.74-131. New York State Commerce Review, Vol. 12, No. 9, p.3. Nelson, pp.235-267. The Community Builders Handbook, pp.153-183. McKeever, Urban Land Institute, No. 30, Part I, pp.10, 27, 28,42,46. p. 56. 85 1 1Ibid, p.28 . 1 2The Community Builders . . . ., p. 175. 1 3 I b i d . 14Gruen and Smith, p. 140. 1 5Nelson, p.244. *6McKeever, urban Land Institute, No. 30, Part I, 1 7 Ibid, p.54. 1 8Ibid, pp.67-6a Nelson, pp.269-282. New York State Commerce Review, Vo. 12, No. 9, p.6. The Community Builders . . . , pp.211-229. Gruen and Smith, pp.251-256. 19McKeever, urban Land Institute, No. 30, Part I, P.68. 20"Merchant Association Activities in Shopping Centres", Business Service Bulletin, No. 47, Small Business Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, (July, 1954). 21Gordon H. Stedman, "The Rise of Shopping Centres", Journal of Retailing, Spring, 1955, p. 13. (This article was based on Stedman*s Ph.D. thesis at Syracuse University). CHAPTER IV A PROGRAMME FOR THE REVITALIZATION OF OLDER ESTABLISHED COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS The previous chapters have illustrated the problems, and their causes, that are confronting many of our older established outlying commercial districts. In addition, the far reaching detrimental implications to the community have been considered; the importance to retain certain older outlying commercial districts in basically the same functional character has been proposed; and the feasibility of accom-plishing this last proposal through the exploitation of the inherent advantageous characteristics has been concluded. The actual method, that has been proposed to accom-plish this objective of the stabilization and revitalization of declining, or imminent declining, outlying commercial districts, is a comprehensive programme modelled on the concepts and experience of the planned shopping centre. The "centre" concepts have been modified in order to satisfy adequately the characteristic differences that exist in out-lying commercial districts, as opposed to planned shopping centres, and to benefit the most from the experience of other established commercial districts which have used concepts similar to those of the planned centres. 87 The real problem is to transform the established commercial districts into that which they ought to be instead of trying to make people like them as they are. Some out-lying commercial districts can play a very v i t a l role in the lives of the people due to their current fulfilment of some relatively unique functions. These functions must be ret-ained and the general district must be improved in order that i t can once again play a dynamic part in the lives of the people within the community. There is a definite need for vision, vigour, and determination in creating a programme for the stabilization and revitalization of established commercial districts. James Rouse's feeling about the city i s quite appropriate to any established commercial district. Downtown must be made beautiful as well as convenient. We must give the heart of our city a soul — spaces in which people can drift, relax, smile, contemplate, and enjoy the living, working, shopping for which they are there. 1 In fact Rouse's idea of what the commercial area should be like seems to approximate what planned shopping centres are attempting to create. The urban Land Institute once stated that an estab-lished commercial district should be transformed into . . . a glorified shopping centre ~ i f such can be con-ceived — capable of having a l l those fa c i l i t i e s that are making a shopping centre an attractive place to do business. The following suggestions are made: immed-iately proceed to eliminate drabness, unsightliness, and,shabbiness — facelifting structurally good but unattractive buildings where feasible. See that ad-equate parking is provided and is made secure for the future. Seek dramatic action whether this be by con-struction of major new buildings, or by other means devised . . . 2 88 The revitalization concept envisages transforming the established commercial district in such a manner as to make i t more beneficial to the area as a whole. This would entail removing those obsolete and detrimental characteristics and activities; making more effective the natural assets of the area; and Injecting those characteristics or faci l i t i e s which would be beneficial to the area. The problems with a l l their ramifications, that face declining older established commercial districts, would require a multi-factor approach. In particular the most successful planned shopping centres being those based upon a comprehensive approach. There are numerous examples pf the folly to attempt similar feats without such a comprehen-sive approach. This can be demonstrated not only in the "partially planned" modern shopping centres that have "gone bankrupt", but also in the cases where certain aspects of the planned centre have been seized as devices to improve an area. The success of such ventures is questionable, and even where the venture may have been partially successful, i t is dubious whether the success was due to the use of the "borrowed" shopping centre concepts. The necessity of the comprehensive approach can further be demonstrated by the success of the areas that have used the comprehensive planned centre approach, either in North America or in Europe, as well as by the plans for established commercial districts proposed by men knowledgeable in the planned shopping centre and commercial field, such as Victor Gruen, Larry Smith, 89 Richard Nelson and Frederick Aschman. Organization of the Revitalization Programme The comprehensive revitalization programme suggested herein involves four interrelated key elements: organization; research; planning; and implementation. There are various differences in the detail by which these key elements can be grouped in order to create the comprehensive programme. In the discussion which follows, an over-all view of the approach to organizing a revitalization programme is presented f i r s t , then each of the separate elements is examined in turn. Initially some person, group of persons, institution, or organization must recognize that the current situation i s not adequate and that something should be done to improve i t . Accordingly, in order to improve the situation a "preliminary" organization must be formed, unless an adequate organization is already in existence. Although i t s character could vary considerably, some form or organization is common to any approach to the revitalization programme. The "organization" might be created, which could be representa-tive of Just the businessmen, or could include the municipal government, or could also include some representation from the adjacent residential community, and so on. Whatever the actual type of "preliminary" organization, i t must con-duct adequate research in order to discover the real problems, the significance of the problems, and i t must propose general alternative tentative solutions to these problems. The research can be conducted by various means. The 90 most elementary method is for the i n i t i a l organization to conduct the research itself. This is the approach that the Chestnut H i l l organization in Philadelphia, Pennsilvania, "3 has taken. Another method would be to get the local gov-ernment to conduct the research through the use of i t s per-manent professional staff — the lawyer, planner, engineer, assessor, building and sanitary inspectors, police, and so on. Another method would be for the organization to hire outside consultants to make the study and the recommendations. S t i l l another method would be some combination of these three. Once the research findings and the general tentative, recommendations have been made, some positive steps must be taken in order to implement the recommendations, unless of ... course the recommendations propose that no action be taken, or the i n i t i a l organization feels that the findings do not justify any action. But i f positive action is to be taken some form of "working" organization is necessary. The "working" organization could take a great variety of forms. The form to some extent would depend upon the gravity of the situation, and upon the elaborateness of the tentative proposed solutions. The simplest form would be for each individual owner or occupier to agree informally that any improvement of, or alteration to, his establishment would confirm to the proposed "general tentative plans". A more , formal organization might be created with limited financial support from the local real estate interests — that is financial contributions would be made by a l l persons having 91 some real property Interest in the business district. An organization which could achieve more "creative" results would be a "corporate body" — similar to a private company — which could possess a great variety of powers, depending upon i t s financial support or character, and upon i t s author-ized powers, from the real estate interests and the govern-ment. The local municipal government's role could take a variety of forms. It could take a passive role parallel to each of the above organizations, "agreeing" not to do any-thing contrary to the organization's goal. Or i t could take an active and dynamic role parallel to any of the above organizations, thereby using its powers to try to implement the "plan". Or i t could be one of the "real estate interests" within any of the organizations, and take a role comparable to the other members but relative to i t s "interest" in the district. On the other hand the municipal government could create a separate corporate body with or without local real estate Interests representation in order to conduct the pro-gramme. The actual form r of "working" organization would vary according to the "work" to be accomplished and according to the characteristics of the district and i t s residents. Depending on how detailed and comprehensive the "in-i t i a l " organization's "general tentative recommendations" were, relative to the problems confronting the district, i t is possible that more research might be required and a more comprehensive and detailed programme be created for the area. 92 Once again either of the three "pure" forms or a combined form of research might be required. The final recommen-dations based upon the final research, would contain a pro-gramme for the area, which would entail a plan, a method to implement the plan (including the staging), and the type of current organization required for the programme, thereby taking into account the dynamic and continually evolving character of the programme. Organization The outstanding advantage of planned shopping cen-tres is a unified organization, which is primarily inter-ested in the welfare of the commercial area as a whole. It is only through such an organization that common objectives can be established; plans for achieving these objectives can be formulated; and the implementation of these plans i s made possible. The planned centre has an advantage in that i n i t i a l l y i t is a one man organization — the developer -r who owns or controls a l l the land, and who can accordingly act quickly, decisively, and efficiently. But even this one-man organization, in order to successfully implement a l l the plans, must be expanded into a larger organization with better representation of special inter-ests. The approach taken for a revitalization organization should be based upon those lines used by a planned shopping centre development, with one exception. This exception would be the replacement of a developer with a large and varied 93 group of business men, consisting of owners, interested brok-ers or other real estate interested persons, tenants who have a long-term locational stake, the municipality, and possibly other government organizations, as well as the local muni-cipal planner. Whatever the method is that stimulates the interest in the area, there must be some mutual agreement concerning the problems facing the commercial district; the necessity or desirability to remedy the current situation; and the desir-ability of some coordinated effort in order to agree on and implement the necessary improvement measures. Once these factors have been agreed on, these inter-ested men and organizations would, as a consequence thereof, organize into a "real estate interests' association", com-parable in structure, organization, and purpose to an amal-gamation of the planned shopping centre "developer" and 'merchants* association". Since these are a l l "business men", they would a l l realize the advantages of tackling problems in a "business-like manner", and accordingly should agree that the proper approach to a situation such as this would be along the lines of a business venture, rather than a chamber of commerce. For such a venture to be successful i t must be realized that i t has to be adequately financed and appropriately staffed, just as any successful business venture must be. The real essence of such an organization must be an "invest-ment approach" in which the property Interests will act 94 jointly to meet these normal business problems caused by obsolescence, depreciation, and changing times. The initiating organization must be adapted to f i t the programme being attempted, and the working staff's size and composition wil l vary according to the size and con-plexity of the revitalization programme. The staff organ-ization should be comparable to that of a planned shopping centre, for not only is the investment concerned at least comparable, but also the factors involved are far more com-plicated. Accordingly in order to safeguard the interest of a l l concerned an adequate — type, quality, and size of — technical staff must be chosen. The bare minimum members that should be considered would include a real estate econ-omist, a physical planner, an architect, a traffic engineer, and a lawyer. In addition to this core team i t is desirable, but may not be possible due to the scale of the operation and the finances available, to have a market analyst, c i v i l engineer, financier, store designer, a landscape- architect, and a general contractor. Depending on the complexities and detail required i t may be found that several of these activities can be accomplished by one professional, thereby achieving greater economy. It wi l l also be obvious that many of these professionals will be already current residents or business occupiers in the average established commercial: dis-t r i c t — such as an engineer, lawyer, financier, real estate man, contractor, and possibly even an architect or planner. 9 5 This "real estate interests* association" has at times been proposed as three separate, but cooperating and interlocked, agencies to cover merchandising, planning, and capital improvements.4 The merchandising would be similar to the "merchants association" in the shopping centre, dealing with seasonal promotions, cooperative decorations, group advertising, uniform late night opening, special group activities, etc. The physical planning of the district would be carried out in conjunction with merchandising and would entail zoning, and parking regulations, municipal participation in such things as street lighting, offstreet parking, and u t i l i t i e s , as well as the more detailed technical aspects such as research, planning, and architecture. The capital improvements agency would be interested ; in raising finances. It could be the cooperative financing : of improvements and facilities through the creation of a corporation whereby a l l real estate interests would buy shares and become members. There is also the consideration that funds could be raised by assessment whereby a l l members would contribute, based upon an assessed value of their property, or possibly according to the benefit they would derive. The decisions concerning "assessment" or "benefit" would be made by an outside expert hired by the group, who would have to abide by the majority decisions. Research Just as in a planned shopping centre development 96 there is the need in a revitalization project for an early thorough research programme to be conducted. A l l the sub-sequent steps for a revitalization programme must be based upon this research work. Among other things that must be based on this research are the current and potential defic-iencies and attributes of the established commercial district; the variety, type, size, and number of various activities required at present and in the future; the method to achieve the maximum utilization of these activities and fa c i l i t i e s based upon the current, and, possibly, future, local s i t -uation. The research techniques wil l cover such factors as blight analysis, market and activities analysis, land use analysis, vehicular and pedestrian movement analysis, buying habits analysis, priority of problems, and architectural analysis. In each case i t is important to realize that the techniques in new development are not necessarily the same as In revitalization. Due to the technical nature, relative novelty of the techniques, and their Importance to the success of the project, a competent analyst must be carefully chosen — quite probably a research consultant. A l l the research will be used in a comprehensive fashion to form the basis for improvement plans or proposals. Planning Land Allocation In the stabilization or revitalization of established commercial districts, the site is already "given". The 97 actual delimitation of the core or area of intense activity and study must be based upon the research conducted. Once this core of intense activity has been tentatively decided upon, there are various general allocations of the land to be considered. The actual amount of current and future gross floor area (for retail, service, recreation, social and governmental activities) must be arrived at. Based on these areas the required amount of parking space and vehicular circulation area must be made. In addition to these main land allocations accommodation must be made for pedestrian areas (for access and circulation, shopping and liesure, and for adults and children) as v e i l as for buffer areas, and reserve areas to allow for future expansion ~ just as would be done in any well planned shopping centre. It would, in fact, be desirable to set as a goal those land allocations and ratios that have been established for planned centres, since much of their success i s directly a result of these factors, but bearing in mind the inherent differences in policy, goals, purpose, and character between "planned" and "unplanned" commercial concentrations. Site Planning Principles The aetual allocation of the required areas for each of the main land uses should be guided by certain desirable site planning concepts. These concepts are methods to ensure the continuous maximum productivity from the land, based upon the welfare of the whole community. These, site and other, planning principles must be such as to eliminate 98 the problems that already exist in the older established commercial areas, and to create a healthy vigorous self-perpetuating environment for prosperous and beneficial ac-tiv i t i e s . (1) A ring road w i l l surround the commercial district. This should allow through traffic to by-pass the area without ad-versely affecting i t . It would also facilitate convenient accessibility to a l l parts of the commercial district. This ring road would provide certain well-defined, visible, and permanent limits to the commercial district, thereby cre-ating a more unified and concentrated commercial district, which could be considered the one "true community centre" for the area, which would not shift i t s location. This ring road would also form part of a buffer zone encircling the commercial area and a l l those activities pertaining to i t , and thereby protecting the adjoining area from any pos-sible deleterious effects from the presence of this com-mercial concentration. The ring road would provide acces-s i b i l i t y to a desirable high density residential area en-circling the commercial area which would provide a larger walk-in trade area beneficial to the district, just as a larger population would enable a greater variety of activi-ties to be represented in the district and thereby i t could provide a better service to the district. The presence of a ring road and a buffer zone would make i t possible for residential areas to be near-in to the commercial area and yet suffer no i l l effects. The ring road would also provide 99 good access to activities catering to vehicles or to activi-ties requiring good access to bring in raw materials or take out finished products. (2) In conjunction with the ring road should be a buffer zone, composed of a wide open space covered with foliage, a stone, stucco or wooden fence, a thick wall of foliage, or possibly transitional activities. This zone is to protect the adjoin-ing residential areas from the commercial area, and to protect the commercial activities from the deleterious effect of other activities, such as industry, warehousing etc. (3) Convenient access for vehicles should be provided by connecting this ring road with a l l major vehicular traffic routes, thereby facilitating adequate convenient access, but this traffic should not be allowed to pass through adjoining residential areas in such a manner as to detrimentally affect i t . There should also be convenient safe pedestrian access to the commercial district from the various resident-i a l concentrations. (4) A collar of parking lots should be located within the ring road, separating the commercial area from the ring road, but easily visible from the access roads. In addition the commercial areas must be easily visible from the parking lots. The actual location and amount of parking would be directly related to the need of the various activities. (5) The vehicular oriented activities, or those activities which generate large volumes of vehicular traffic, and in 100 fact, cater to "vehicular customers" should be grouped, ad-jacent to the ring road, according to their mutual compat-i b i l i t y and benefit, and to take advantage of the principles of cumulative attraction. This group of activities would not be allowed to be located among the pedestrian oriented activities. (6) The pedestrian oriented activities, or those activities such as stores which cater to persons on foot, should be grouped according to mutual compatibility and mutual benefit in order to take advantage of the principle of cumulative attraction, economy of scale, and to facilitate the inter-action of people or goods, where desirable, between the various activities. These various groupings of activities, should be grouped according to their compatibility and mutual benefit, thereby creating a compact Interlocking central core of mutually beneficial activities. The actual location of these activities and their groupings would be such as to benefit most from the individual, or group of activities, which have the greatest attraction to customers, thereby benefiting those activities which do not have this attraction, as well as the centre as a whole. Those activities which are best separate from pedestrians, or in fact not compatible with pedestrian oriented activities, or main core activities, but are desirable downtown, would be grouped according to their own mutual compatibility and benefit, but they would be isolated and Insulated from the main core of activities by some sort of buffer zone. The greater the number and 101 variety of activities and the number of people employed, within the established district, the greater wi l l be the benefit derived by a l l the activities concerned, provided the process i s planned. (7) A pedestrian mall and/or a pedestrian arcade, should be located in such a manner as to join various activity and parking concentrations, or possibly wholly within some activity concentration, where the volume of pedestrian traffic flow warrants, or Is desirable for, complete separation of pedestrian and vehicular movement to assure the free and safe movement of either or both. Architectural Planning Principles. The actual architectural solutions are probably some of the most difficult. In addition to achieving the proper relationship between the old and the new; the replacement of the undesirable with the desirable; the creation of order out of disorder, the architect must be realistic, and bear in mind what is practical, as well as what are the most feasible steps that can be taken, and, in the proper sequ-ence, in order to achieve the desired end. He must analyze and solve the various problems of incohesion, hazards, eye-sores, and lack of amenities, and then to replace them a l l with sound functional relationships, convenience and attrac-tiveness. Any architectural solution must take into account the problems existing in the older established commercial district; the assets existing in this older district which should be 102 enhanced and fully utilized; those architectural features of the planned centre that are desirable to incorporate into the district; and the possibility of developing, the individ-uality of the area, through the Introduction of something entirely different. The bulletin "Conservation and Rehabilitation of Major Shopping Districts" proposes that The architectural analysis is the detailed examination of the existing district in comparison with a hypothetical "perfect center" so that no opportunity is overlooked for inforporating into the old district the benefits of ex-perience and new ideas which mark modern shopping centre design,5 The architectural solutions must be directly related to the character and type of activities which will he encom-passed in the district, as well as the land allocation and site planning principles. Basically the architectural treat-ment must be used to create the dominant feeling that this i s truly a pleasant "one stop" centre — considering both the variety of activities and the visual unity. But in addition to the unity or cohesion of the physical environment there must be present the individuality, variety, excitement and competition of numerous separate activity entities. Accord-ingly, there are certain things that must be accomplished by the architect. (1) The centre must be designed with a strong unifying  element, such as a canopy extending the length of the com-mercial street; an attractive landscaped pedestrian mall common to a l l the shops; removal of vehicles, spot detrac-103 tions or blight, such as shabby news stands, refuse,unsightly service yards, and other forms of blight, which might break the visual unity of the centre; removal of vacant lots, gaps or spaces between buildings; coordinated redesign of building facades including the common height of buildings to produce visual cohesion; remodeling monotonous, ugly fronts and rears of activities in such a manner as to achieve a coordinated unified attractive grouping; redesign fronts in such a manner as to improve the offset and recessed store frontages; signs should be designed to be attractive, noticeable, unobtrusive, and informing but they should a l l have some strong element in common which blends in with the whole commercial area; a common bright, attractive street light system; definite visual external limits should be provided for the commercial area, possibly by roads, fence, vegetation buffer zones, or possibly by some buildings. (2) The centre should be composed of a variety of individual  activities which produce an air of competition and excite-ment. There should be no monotony or "sameness" to the area, but rather a great variety of activities which make i t a pleasant and exciting place for people to come for shopping, liesure, recreation, social activities, and so on. This is partly produced by the large variety of activities located in the centre, but i t should be noticeable in the variety of store fronts, window displays, outdoor displays, signs, and so on, in addition there are the non commercial aspects which lend to this atmosphere, such as children's play areas, 104 fountains, landscaping, murals, and possibly even smaller plazas and arcades. Another attraction that could add to the uniqueness and excitement of the area is an open-air produce market. (3) The area must be pleasant with various services and amenities provided for the customer or visitor such as sooth-ing music, adequate Indoor and outdoor eating facilities, restrooms, benches, attractive landscaped areas, postal and telephone facilities, etc. (4) The architect, in conjunction with a retail>expert, should provide methods for grouping activities where i t is desirable. This could be around smaller courts, along arcades which cut through the block on routes leading to car parking or resi-dential areas, or by introducing interior passageways joining adjacent stores. Implementat ion The power for implementation of the revitalization programme rests with a variety of organizations and individ-uals. No one group would have the ability to adequately Implement such a plan. In reality i t would require the leadership of the local government, and the cooperation of the private individual citizen; the private individual as a businessman in the commercial district, the various real estate interests in the commercial area, as well as some organization or group of organizations to deal with the con-tinuous on-going process of revitalization and stabilization which involves the three-fold aspects already considered: 105 merchandising; physical planning of the district; and capital improvements (or finance for, and implementation of, major as-pects of the programme). For any truly successful revitaliza-tion scheme these three aspects must be intimately coordinated or accomplished by a single body. There are various methods that a suitable organization of the programme could be carried out. The Initial planning or-ganization would conduct the merchandising as well as the f i n -ancing and major implementation work as a private cooperative effort, or possibly as a private corporation. These are quite different approaches. Another approach would be that a cooper-ative effort would carry out the planning and merchandising, while a corporate body would conduct the capital works. S t i l l another method would be for the cooperative body to initiate the process and to be represented on the corporate body, but to be intimately connected with only the merchandising app-roach. And so in reality there are basically two different approaches: one based on a completely cooperative association dealing with the revitalization process; another based on a completely corporate body dealing with this process; in addit-ion, there are those which are graduations between these two. There i s one alternative method for the implentation of the revitalization programme. The local government might take a more active and direct role in the whole process. It could initiate and control certain key elements, as well as use its other powers to aid in the realization of those, asp-ects requiring private participation. This approach would 106 require that a real estate interests* association works rather intimately with the local government. The governmen-tal body might conduct i t s portion of the programme as either a typical municipal operation or a government corporation set up specifically for this programme. The following paragraphs will deal with three basic-ally different roles: the government role; the private role; and the corporate role. It must be emphasized that for satis-factory revitalization no one body or approach is adequate, but rather a l l the tools for implementation must be used and accordingly a variety of approaches may be the most satis-factory method for implementation. THE GOVERNMENT ROLE The local government must establish its public policy so as to complement the plan for the established district. In addition to the regular public works that would ordinarily be done, and could now be directed towards implementing the programme, the government should use every available tool to aid in the implementation of this revitalization programme. The government has the right of eminent domain, i f necessary, to acquire street rights-of-way and/or to assemble fragmented land parcels owned by numerous persons for development in the public or private interest. These are included in the mun-icipal act, and might be used for the creation of new streets; road exchange;creation of pedestrian malls from former streets; close off former streets no longer adequately u t i l -ized; improving street safety and public health; as well as 107 replatting private and public land parcels. Other devices controlled by the government are the zoning and building ordinances, which could be used to aid in programme implem-entation. Possibly the greatest aid that the local government could give for Implementation of a revitalization programme would be in the form of leadership, guidance and assistance from the local planner, and other municipal departments, such as legal, engineering, and building. THE PRIVATE ROLE The individuals must actively support, and in a l l private improvements must comply with, the revitalization pro-gramme, which has been agreed upon by the commercial district association or representatives. They must willingly improve, modernize or rehabilitate their Individual structures and sites, and this must be done in accordance with a mutually acceptable design theme.6 Many older districts have been successfully revitalized or stabilized through cooperative 7 action of the various individuals. This has at times been called the benefit assessment approach. Under this system the owners of property in a defined area agree to an assess-ment (usually on the basis of so many dollars per front foot). This money is spent on improvements such as malls, promen-ades, parking lots, pedestrian plazas, and the like, a l l of which will .be used by the customers to the benefit of a l l the property owners. A l l private work done by individuals within this area would be done in accordance with the master plan or programme for revitalization. Under this approach a l l 108 agreements are between private Individuals. The actual com-position of the cooperative group, to be practical, should be identical to the real estate Interests' association. THE CORPORATE ROLE Another method for the implementation of the revital-ization programme is through the formation of a corporation, usually non-profit, into which a l l real estate is placed for a mutual action and benefit. One outstanding example of such a private citizens* corporation is the Market Square Mall project in Knoxvilie, Tennessee.9 The corporation that is created should establish as its one goal the revitalization of the area. The corporation would be formed, qualified to buy, se l l , rent, pledge, mortgage and otherwise handle real estate. A l l types of stock would be issued for public sale. It would be authorized to enter into leases with owners of strategic pieces of property. Rental rates could be based on current net yields and factors which might influence the value of the property. As an inducement to enter into a lease, the property owner would be issued certain shares of common stock at a nominal price on some basis commensurate with the value of his property. A board of directors would be formed, which would in turn hire a trained executive to conduct the corporation's business. The corporation would develop detailed project plans and would implement these plans as opportunities arose by borrowing money, mortgaging property, and/or selling stock to provide equity capital. The corporation would purchase property where desirable or 109 necessary instead of leasing. It would be empowered to invest in assets other than real estate in order to give com-plete freedom of action. The entire operating process of the corporation would be keyed to the implementation of the general revitalization programme. It would serve to provide the sense of unity needed in such a project as this. Conclusion By means of an analysis of the planned shopping centre; the concepts responsible for i t s success; the use that has been made of these concepts in established com-mercial districts; the foregoing programme has been prop-osed for the revitalization of established outlying commer-ci a l districts. It has been hypothesized in this study that, since the problems confronting the older rural-established metro-politan-encompassed declining commercial districts are basically similar in manifestation, cause, and effect to the problems facing the older urban-established outlying commercial districts within cities, the solutions proposed for outlying commercial districts are applicable to rural established commercial districts. In order to demonstrate this hypothesis, the declining, or imminently declining, commercial district of Ladner, a small hitherto-rural metro-politan-encompassed community, was analized and replanned according to the proposed revitalization principles. The following three chapters will deal with the case study dem-onstrating the use of the revitalization programme on a 110 typical declining (or imminently declining) older rural-established, metropolitan-urban-encompassed commercial dis-tri c t , which is confronted with problems similar to those facing the urban established outlying commercial districts. The f i r s t chapter deals with the history and background of the district; the next chapter deals with the analysis of the commercial district; and the last chapter deals with the proposed revitalization programme for the district. I l l References 1James W. Rouse, "Will Downtown Face Up to the Future", Urban Land, (Feb. 1957) p.5. J. Ross McKeever, "Shopping Centres Re-studied: Emerging Patterns and Practical experience", Urban Land  Institute, Technical Bulletin No. 3D, Part I, p.15, 3 Personal Correspondence With The Author, Mrs. E. Bathgate, The Chestnut H i l l Development Group, Philadelphia, Pa. 4R.L. Nelson and FrederickT. Aschman, "Conservation and Rehabilitation of Major Shopping Districts", Urban Land  Institute, Technical Bulletin, No. 22 (Feb. 1954), p.32. 5Ibid, p.20. g -Personal Correspondence, Chestnut H i l l . . . . 7Aubrey C. Couch, "Knoxvllle*s Promenade", The  Tennessee Planner, (Oct-Dec. 1960) p.49. 8"Buckhead", City of Atlanta Planning Department, Atlanta, Georgia, (Dec. 1960) pp.28-29. o Couch, The Tennessee Planner, (Oct.-Dec. 1960), p. 51. "Knoxville's Planned Shopping Centre In Business District", Toledo Blade, Toledo, Ohio, Ouly 17, 1960), p.37. PART III: THE COMMERCIAL AREA OF THE VILLAGE OF LADNER, B.C. : A CASE STUDY CHAPTER V HISTORY AND BACKGROUND OF LADNER The revitalization or stabilization programme for outlying commercial areas set out in the previous chapters wi l l be demonstrated on an older established, formerly rural, community which has come under the urbanizing influence of a growing metropolitan area. The rural-turned-urban com-munity is the village of Ladner. British Columbia. It is felt that the application of the revitalization and stabilization principles, which have been proposed for outlying commercial districts, can legitimately and success-fully be applied to an older established formerly rural com-munity, which has recently and quite suddenly, come under the urbanizing or at least suburbanizlng influence of a growing metropolitan area. The justification for applying these principles to such a district is based upon the simi-larity in the problems facing these established commercial districts, be they outlying or rural-turned-urban districts. The next chapter will deal with the problems confronting such an area, thereby drawing a comparison between the out-lying and the rural-turned-urban districts, while the chapter following that will demonstrate the use of the revitalization or stabilization principles. 114 This chapter will set out the geographic site and situation, and the historic evolution, of the community of Ladner, with particular emphasis on the downtown commercial district, and describe some of its political, residential and other characteristics. Geographic Situation of Ladner Ladner i s a settlement of about 3,000 people located on the north western edge of the District Municipality of Delta, (see Figures I and II). Delta is situated in the extreme south-western corner of the mainland of B.C. On the west i t is bounded by the Straight of Georgia, on the south by the 49th parallel of the North Latitude, which is the united States-Canadian border, on the east by Surrey Municipality, and on the north the boundary follows the south arm and main channel of the Fraser River. Ladner is within one-half hour driving time of either the Vancouver Central Business District or the New Westminster Central Business District, the two main commercial concentrations within Metro-politan Vancouver. Characteristically New Westminster has been oriented to serve the population to the east, while Van-couver has served the rest of Metropolitan Vancouver, until 1959 when they were joined to Vancouver by the Deas Island Tunnel, Ladner and in fact the whole population of Delta had been served, for other than goods supplied by the local stores, primarily through New Westminster. Presently nearly a l l items that cannot be purchased in Ladner, as well as many goods that can be purchased there, are secured through the GEOGRAPHIC::3IUUATION. OF LADNER. 115 Vancouver ret a i l outlets. The settlement of ladner is located on the south bank of the Fraser River, near its mouth, on the low lying deltaic river deposits. Although this settlement is unincorporated and has no legal status, i t serves as the administrative centre for the rurally organized District Municipality of Delta. Delta Municipality, with a population in 1956 of about eight thousand or one and one-third percent of the Vancouver Metropolitan population, contains an area of sixty-six square miles, composed of fertile agricultural soil , peat bog, rolling tree covered rocky upland, river and ocean islands, and water covered land, as well as partly submerged "banks" and deltaic river deposits. Most of Delta was formed from the s i l t deposits of the Fraser River caused by its reduced flow on encountering the Pacific Ocean. This secretion is s t i l l continuing at a rate of several feet per year. It is probable that some day Delta Municipality wi l l extend con-siderably further out Into the Strait of Georgia. Immediately to the north of Delta exists the Munici-pality of Richmond. Richmond separates Delta from the City of Vancouver. Since World War II Richmond has assumed the role of a dormitory suburb for people who mainly work within Vancouver. The increasing demand for residential space has not been confined to merely the southern part of Metropolitan Vancouver, but, on the contrary, has extended settlement and commuting high up the slopes of the North Shore mountains as far west as Horseshoe Bay and as far east as Port 116 Coquitlam (compare Figures I and III). With many of the better and more reasonable sites taken up, settlement has begun to move southward. Until 1958 this movement was noticeable through New Westminster into north Delta and north-west Surrey, the beginning of which can be seen in the map showing Urban Settlement in 1956 (Figure III). Following the construction of the Richmond Throughway and the Deas Island Tunnel in 1959 settlement began to more into southern Richmond and north western Delta, generally in the vicinity of Ladner. The years following this construction have had a great impact upon the small settlement of Ladner, which had formerly been a typically Isolated, quiet, rural community. Within the settlement of Ladner there has been some minor attempts to conform to new and different demands being made upon i t by this relatively large influx of residents. It is this influx of predominantly urban people, with urban habits and demands, which has instigated great economic and social changes in this older community. The default of the district to better adapt itself in order to satisfy these new demands, which may be due to the inability to change or possibly the failure to recognize a change in the demand, has only now begun to affect the area, but i t could become a more serious problem in the future. The actual problems confronting the commercial area wi l l be considered in detail in the following chapter. Although the population of Ladner has increased URBAN SETTLEMENT 1956 TRAVEL TIME-DISTANCE FROM VANCOUVER CBO FIGURE I I I 117 considerably and will likely continue to do so, due to the Improved connections to the main employment, commercial, social and recreation centre in Metropolitan Vancouver — namely, the Vancouver Central Business District — the actual proportion of the total local Ladner residents* expenditure, which is made within the Ladner Commercial Area, has declined. There are numerous causes for this: the dominance of new residents from the Vancouver urban area; the improved access to Vancouver; a larger percent of the residents are employed in Vancouver; the larger variety of activities located in Vancouver, as opposed to the large number of commercial areas with few activities (see Figure IV); the inability of the older area to provide the type and quality of service being demanded by the new resi-dents, as well as their provision elsewhere, etc. This phenomena with some of its ramifications will be considered later in more detail. Ladner has been a rural community based upon agri-culture and fishing ever since the f i r s t settlement took place at the mouth of the Fraser River. Recently there has been a radical change in its economic and social structure, due to the Introduction of industrial and suburban develop-ment within and around i t . Numerous factors have caused the introduction of new elements into the Ladner situation In addition to providing access to the main centre of Metropolitan Vancouver, Ladner and its environs have many attractions, which have resulted in the introduction of METHOPOLIT\N VANCOUVER OUTLYING COMMERCIAL AREAS FIGURE I V v 118 industrial and suburban development. The most obvious advan-tage is abundance of cheap land, as compared with prices elsewhere within equal distance of the Vancouver C.B.D. (see Figure III). The land is flat, free from trees or other building obstructions, thereby making i t easy to subdivide, to build on and to s e l l . Ladner has a low rainfall (36") compared with Vancouver (59") or the north shore (with 125" at Capilano), and accordingly Ladner has considerably more sunshine than the urban areas to the north. Ladner is in a location which provides the fastest and most convenient access to Vancouver, to Victoria, up the Fraser Valley, or south to the United States (see Figure II). In addition, there are numerous other attractions to people such as low taxes, being separated from the smoke and congestion of the urban areas, the proximity of green space and recreation areas for swimming, fishing, boating, hunting, etc. Due to the extensive coverage of such elements as rough topography, peat-bog, and newly formed deltaic depos-it s , and of the fertile agricultural land which is occupied by large commercial farms, only small "patches" of satis-factory land was available for an alternative use, and accordingly settlements i n i t i a l l y acquired a relatively concentrated nucleated form. These concentrations provide the focal point for numerous activities. Ladner has developed as the largest concentration and consequently has become the main commercial, political, social and recreation centre for Delta Municipality. Ladner, an unincorporated settlement 119 has no finite boundaries, and is merely an organic entity ending at the point that "urban settlement" ends or where the local residents consider the outer limits of "Ladner" to be. Historical Development of Ladner The site for the settlement of Ladner was selected in 1868. According to Gordon Taylor, who has recently studied the historical development of Ladner, Two considerations governed the selection; f i r s t , the possibility of escape via the river should the local Indian population prove warlike, and second, the junction of Chilukthan Slough and the river provided a landing place for river boats to bring supplies and passengers to the area.3 But the actual i n i t i a l selection was prompted, not by the need for a settlement, but rather as the choice for a home-stead. The delta was lush, fertile, stoneless, agricultural land with trees only along the rivers or sloughs, which were of a somewhat higher elevation, and accordingly better drained and more suitable for such growth. The rest of the delta land was covered by grass as t a l l as a man's shoulders. This was ideal agricultural land. In 1868 two brothers, William and Thomas Ladner each filed claims for land at the mouth of Chilukthan Slough. William Ladner's claim of 593 acres was south-west of the slough, while Thomas Ladner*s claim of 650 acres was north east of the slough, (see Figure V). The settlement and development of these claims marked the f i r s t effective u t i l -ization of land near the present site of Ladner.4 In order to combat the one real problem of the area 120 — the annual flooding of the Fraser River's delta lowlands ~ farmers in the area erected individual dyking systems around their parcels of land. The f i r s t dyke to be constructed in Delta was by William Ladner around a few acres that are now part of the village of Ladner. The actual site for the present settlement of Ladner was determined in 1882 when Donald Chisholm purchased eight acres of land from William Ladner (see Figure V). Chisholm constructed a general store and a hotel on this land. Originally the store was located on a wharf at the north end of Elliott Street, but later i t was moved to a location adjacent to his hotel, which occupied a site presently cov-ered by the Delta Community Hall. This settlement, called at the time Ladner's Landing due to the docking provisions originally provided by William Ladner, grew up in response to the profitable fishing indus-try on the Fraser River. The fi r s t salmon cannery on the Fraser River was constructed at Annleville in 1870. This was the real beginning of the commercial salmon industry on the Fraser River. Salmon canneries soon began to spring up a l l along the Fraser River from New Westminster to the Straight of Georgia. The f i r s t cannery located in the Ladner area was constructed in 1878 on Thomas Ladner's property at the junc-tion of Chilukthan Slough and the River but on the east side of the slough (see Figure V). This cannery soon was followed by several other canneries in the Ladner area. It was not until the canneries were established that the f i r s t store 121 was opened In the settlement, the next activity was the open-ing of a post office (which was 7 years prior to one being located in Vancouver). A l l that now remains of the f i r s t can-nery are a few rotting piles, which serve as a monument to this early industrial enterprise. Currently they are used for nothing more than a mooring place for boats. A centen-nial booklet mentions that "no other industry in Delta has rivalled the importance of fish canning". During the peak year of 1890 over 2000 people were employed in Delta Canner-5 les, with about half the number employed in Ladner. Gordon Taylor feels that " i t is unlikely that any single industry will ever again be as important" to Delta and to Ladner.6 Ladner prospered as a fish canning settlement until 1910. When the fish canneries closed down after 1913 the town went into a decline. The future of Ladner then became closely tied to the prosperity of the farming industry. Its principle business was as a supply centre for the agricultural activities — primarily farming but later to some extent the processing and canning of agricultural products (see Figure VI for location of an existing plant). Nearly a l l the residents of Ladner were connected In one way or another with this function of servicing the agricultural activities. One of the main problems for the farmers has been flooding. By 1894 the Individual dyking system generally used by farmers proved inadequate due to an extremely high freshet which broke the dykes and completely flooded the land. The municipality of Delta undertook a coordinated dyking LOCATION OF CRITICAL FACTORS FIGURE VI 122 effort along Boundary Bay (the south easterly coast of Delta) and along the south bank of the Fraser River down past the 7 settlement of Ladner. These dykes have remained to the present and are a dominant and characteristic landmark of Delta and of Ladner (see Figure VI). The fishing industry is s t i l l important to Ladner, and has remained an integral part of it s economy and character. Along the water front there are many small wharves and floats which serve as mooring places for numerous fishing boats. Nets and fishing equipment sheds are part of the physical appearance of the settlement. Small houses, some built on piles extending over the water, have been constructed outside the protection of dykes. These provide the homes for many fishermen. The more substantial homes have been erected inside the dyke. The main fishing settlement of Ladner is at the extreme western end of the settlement along the water front (see Figure VI). Although methods of fishing have changed consider-ably since its peak in 1890, and the Industry has never fully recovered from the decline in 1910, i t is s t i l l very important. The 1951 Census of Canada reported a total of 288 fishermen resident in Delta (with 255 owning their own boats) or about one person in 9 in Delta directly dependent upon income from fishing. 8 The next most important single act-ivity is farming. In the same census year 353 residents of Delta were classified as farmer-operators.9 It is interesting to note that the total farm population, which decreased from 123 2,174 la 1931 to 1,755 in 1941, thereby following the general pattern in the province, during these ten years, reversed this trend and Increased to 1,831 In 1951.10 The dominant centre for both these Delta activities has been in Ladner and in its immediate environs. Historically the development of the Municipality pf Delta and Ladner, have been closely interwoven with the two major resources of the area — the land and the river. This has already been partly shown through the influences of fish-ing and agriculture on the economy of the area. Accordingly, the early settlers were equally at home on the land as on the water. These natural resources have served as the basis for another activity, namely transportation. Early transportation was based on water, horse, and foot. The early settlers sought land along the natural water ways — rivers, sloughs, and the ocean --which served as natural transportation routes. As settlement moved inland, roads became a necessity. Until 1881 water was the only reliable transportation means for produce, supplies and people. At this time i t was a common occurrence for people to row from Ladner to New Westminster. In 1881, Ladner was connected to the outside by the Ladner Trunk Road, which was surfaced with corduroy, to Scott Road and thence to the south bank of the Fraser River opposite New Westminster. By 1890 the present pattern of roads had been completed. But as land transportation improved, especially with the introduction of motor vehicles, the river altered Its 124 position as a benefactor to an impediment to transportation. In 1873 a government wharf was constructed at Ladner (or rather at Ladner*s Landing as i t was called until 1903). From this time on Ladner was a regular port of call for the river boats which were stately side-or stern-wheelers with a shallow draught —much like the famous Mississippi River Boats. These boats moved up and down the Fraser River. They would come up Canoe Pass into Ladner, and then directly up the river to New Westminster. It must be remembered that Ladner at that time was not cut off from the main Fraser river channel by the Ladner Marsh as i t is today. In 1883 there was a twice weekly steamer service from Victoria via Ladner to New Westminster. The waterways Joining Ladner to the main channel of the river continue to s i l t in. Currently Ladner Reach is Impassable except for smaller craft, and only the channel via Canoe Pass to the south-west is of adequate depth for the numerous fishing boats and pleasure craft of various sizes that utilize the sheltered docking f a c i l i -ties near Ladner. The possibility of a bridge over the Fraser River at Ladner in order to provide a direct link with Vancouver has long been a major desire of the Ladner and Delta population, but i t reached its culmination just prior to World War I. In 1910 the Delta Board of Trade presented a petition with a l i s t of signatures to the Municipal Council requesting a bridge across the Fraser River. Although no recorded action was taken on this petition, ferry service was provided across 125 the Fraser River in 1912 joining Ladner to Steveston. At this time i t was a forty-five minute boat trip. At Steveston connections could be made with the British Columbia Electric Railway Company's tram to Vancouver, which was by now the dominant centre in the Lower Mainland. By 1933 the ferry landing was moved from its site, where Massey's Machine Shop is presently located, to a location outside the settlement of Ladner at the end of the "Ferry Road". Shortly after World War II a group of Delta residents began to press once again for a bridge. The exchange of ideas evolved into their proposal for a tunnel under the river. This post-war movement received a great impetus in 1948 with the creation of the Lower Fraser River Crossing Improvement Association. Due to the "lobying" of this association and the provincial government's interest in a direct access route to the United States, the Provincial Government announced in 1956 that a tunnel would be constructed under the Fraser River between Lulu Island and Deas Island, which is separ-ated from Delta by only a narrow shallow channel. This tunnel was completed in 1959. Thus began a new era for Ladner. Generally speaking there have been four stages to the development of Ladner, especially its commercial district. This is partly reflected in the population growth of Delta Municipality as a whole. Although the growth of Ladner did not exactly parallel the growth of the municipality en toto there is enough similarity to show the four main stages of development. The following is a table showing the growth 126 of Delta. TABLE I DELTA POPULATION GROWTH11 STAGE YEAR DELTA POPULATION INCREASE PER ANNUM. PERCENT I 1897 500 1903 2000 50.0 II 1911 2500 3.0 1921 2839 1.3 1931 3709 3.0 1941 4287 1.6 III 1951 6701 5.8 1956 8752 6.1 IV 1958 n.a. n.a. The Four Stages^ln the Development of  Ladner*s Commercial Area, The fir s t stage in the development of Ladner covered the i n i t i a l period of settlement which occurred from 1868, or possibly 1882, to about 1910. The i n i t i a l period was characterized by its growth from a single farm, to a hamlets with only one general store and a hotel, and then to a village with 46 commercial, service, and professional establishments. By 1910 Ladner had acquired its current gen-eral form of settlement and activities. In fact many of the business structures in use then are s t i l l in service. Delta Street had become the main commercial avenue of Ladner. Until about 1910 Ladner had prospered, mainly due to the fish can-ning activity located within the settlement, but the decline of this activity resulted in a decrease in the growth of Ladner and an increased reliance upon the surrounding agri-127 cultural activities. The settlement of Ladner remained virtually static from 1914 to 1926. The main feature of this second stage then took place. This was the subdivision in 1926 of the 500 acre Thomas Ladner farm into the one- and two-acre holdings that s t i l l exist today. It is characteristic of this area that the land provides the household with some rev-enue through the sale of chickens, gardens, or small fruits. The settlement that ensued subsequently became known as Delta Manor (see Figures V and VI). Probably the most significant alteration in the commercial pattern of Ladner during this period was the replacement of the livery stables and other activities associated with horse drawn vehicles by automo-bile service stations and other activities generally assoc-iated with the private automobile. Several of the current automobile-oriented activities were initiated during this period and have survived with l i t t l e alteration to this day. The third phase in the growth of Ladner was from 1927 until 1958. An R.C.A.F. station was opened three miles east of Ladner in 1942. This resulted In a sudden influx of population which strained the then commercial capacity of Ladner. This military establishment has remained in opera-tion more or less constantly since then. Ladner underwent a period of rapid commercial expansion in this third phase of growth. A new hotel, theatre, federal building and two blocks of stores were added to the commercial district in addition to the remodelling and renovation of several older 128 buildings. The fourth and last stage in the development of Ladner occurred with the anticipated opening, and during the con-struction of the Deas Island Tunnel which linked a predom-inantly agricultural and rural area to the expanding indus-t r i a l and urban settlements north of the main channel of the Fraser River. Overnight Ladner has become, or at least is becoming, another dormitory suburb of the major activity centres within Metropolitan Vancouver. The most significant change in the settlement has, been its widespread residential expansion — at times referred to as urban or suburban "sprawl" — at the outer edges of the established residential area. This has occurred mainly to the east and to a lesser extent to the south of the Ladner commercial area (see Figure VI). Although the residential area has more than doubled, a large proportion of these residential lots appear to have been purchased merely for speculation. But, in addition, there has been a great influx of people seeking permanent residential accommodation, and i t appears that this trend will continue. The most significant change in the commercial district has been the introduction of a planned "one stop" shopping centre at one end of the now elongated commercial area (see Figure VII). It is also significant that many new commercial buildings, have been constructed and some of the older build-ings repaired in that part of the commercial area nearest to the planned shopping centre. 129 Accompanying this trend has been the obvious deter-ioration of commercial activities and structures in that part of the commercial district furthest from the planned shopping centre, which corresponds to the location of the fir s t commercial activities in Ladner — in other words near the water front (Compare figures V and VII). Political Organization Delta Municipality was incorporated as a rural munic-ipality in 1879, and William Ladner was elected the f i r s t Reeve. In 1883 Ladner, although an'.unincorporated village, became the seat of local municipal government. The f i r s t municipal hall was erected on the present site of the munic-ipal storage shed. Under the current system local authority is vested in a Reeve and six councillors each of whom is elected for a two year term of office. Within the provincial context Delta forms part of Delta Riding which is repre-sented in the House of Commons in Ottawa by one member. Delta was included within the limits of the Census Metropolitan Area of Vancouver for the f i r s t time in 1956 Census (see Figure I). Residential Areas The Main Settlement The main . • .settlement . . . is a pretty l i t t l e village, and contains churches, stores, hotels, black-smith shops, butcher shops, town hall, saw mill, barber shop, saddle and shoe shop, etc. . • • To anyone seek-ing a home, with land of exceeding richness, no more inviting spot can be found . . • v 1 2 Although this was written nearly seventy years ago by 130 a writer visiting the settlement, his description and comm-ents could almost have been made today. The older residen-t i a l area is indeed a pretty l i t t l e community, reminiscent of many older southern Ontario towns. The most noticeable characteristic of this area is its appearance of greenness, cleanliness, freedom and yet entire unity. The various characteristics tend to create an atmosphere of unity and neighbourliness, and yet retain the individuality of the resi-dences. This residential area does possess a certain unique small town charm that appears to be almost entirely lacking in the Lower Mainland, and is most certainly not found in the cities or most modern suburbs. The lots are large with well-kept green lawns separating the houses. The privacy of the dwellers has further been enhanced by the abundance of the trees ranging from the t a l l stately elm to the low thick rose bush. These trees appear to tie the whole residential^ community together by providing a common denominator for the area, as well as providing almost an "umbrella-1 over i t . Gaiety and li f e has been provided by the great variety and texture of dwellings, as well as the floral beds interspersed amongst the lawns, houses, orchards and trees. "China Town" Another historic aspect which lends character to Ladner that must be considered is the Chinese settlement (see Figure VI). The position of the Chinese appears to have changed l i t t l e from 1912 when Henry J. Boam wrote 131 About the l i t t l e town of Ladner, the chief landing-place of the Delta, live numerous Chinamen, whose main source of income is a small plot of ground of anything from 1 to 10 acres in extent . . . Beyond the circle of Orientals the farmers hold sway.13 Another writer, J.H. Grant, further described this settlement at about the same time, although i t could apply just as well today. "Everything about them, from the straggling fence of pickets gnarled yellow workers, bespeak the Orient." 1 4 The Chinese community is confined to the western corner of the older settled part of Ladner. The Chinese population has altered very l i t t l e in the last half century, but there has been a tendency towards larger garden plots. The Fishing Community Another community that appears to exist, at least to some extent, completely isolated from the other residential areas is the fishing community (see Figure YI). Historically the residents nearer the Ladner commercial area were a l l associated with servicing the population. The fishermen's desire for cheap land near docking facilities resulted in their congregating on land divided into small plots with l i t t l e interest in amenities, such as trees, or space for gardening. They were primarily interested in fishing. This historic factor has hardened into a social and physical barrier between this group and the other residents in the village. Conclusion Mr. Gordon Taylor in his book Delta's Century of  Progress concluded with some comments on Delta, which are 132 certainly applicable to Ladner. As British Columbia's second century begins to unfold, Delta stands on the threshold of continuing change. The Delta of today is a far different place from that settled by the early residents. The Delta of tomorrow will be a vastly different community from what i t is now. The signs of immediate change are a l l around — the Deas Island Tunnel, the'industrial plants, at Annacis Island, the mushrooming subdivisions to the north, east and south. The effect of these impending changes oh the l i f e of Delta is hard to gauge. At this time i t is possible only to say that they have very important ramifications on the l i f e of the municipality. Changing times are exciting times. Decisions must be made and plans formulated for the future. The people of Delta in 1958 can determine to a large extent what the Delta of the future will be like. Theirs is the task, theirs is the responsibility. 1 5 It has already been noted that the commercial area and in fact much of the whole settlement was formed prior to the Introduction of the automobile, as well as a l l the other technological and social changes that have accompanied the impact of the "modern way of l i f e " upon the Lower Mainland and, in particular, upon Ladner and its commercial area. The downtown district — the activities and their accommod-ation, the physical relationships, vehicular-pedestrian access and circulation, and so on — was created for con-ditions considerably different than currently prevail. Perhaps i t would have been several years before the problems would have been noticed had i t not been for the introduction of a direct means of access to the main centre in the Lower Mainland, which now makes i t feasible for new people to reside in the area and commute to the more industrialized areas of the Metropolitan area. The introduction of 133 excellent highways throughout the municipality has further facilitated this trend. The construction of a direct highway through Delta providing the most convenient link between the united States and Vancouver, as well as the provision of another highway across Delta to a ferry landing providing the most convenient link between Victoria and Vancouver, have a l l aided this trend. These latter two aspects have created a corridor out of Delta funnelling large numbers of cars through i t . This has acquainted and familiarized more people with Delta and in particular with Ladner which adjoins these corridors (see Figure VII). It appears likely that this in-migration trend will continue, possibly at an accelerated rate, as the other resi- • dential areas nearer the Vancouver C.B.D. f i l l up and as the potentialities of Ladner become appreciated. Accordingly, although this sudden influx of people and change in con-ditions has already brought many difficulties to the settle-ment, the problems likely will be compounded in the future. The most seriously effected aspect of the community most likely will be the commercial district, due not only to its relatively inflexible character, but also to the advanced state of some problems already present in the district. Planning should be used now to lessen the hardships and to allow proper servicing of, and adequate utilization by, the public. The f i r s t step for any such planning to take place requires a complete analysis of the situation of the commercial area of Ladner, considering its problems, their 134 causes, and its natural assets. These wil l be considered in the next chapter. 135 References AFor the purpose of identification, Ladner is referred to as a "settlement", "community", or "village". These terms have no legal meaning or connotation as used here. 2Regional Industrial Index of B.C., 1957 edition; Resources of Industrial Development, Trade, and Commerce, Victoria, B.C., 1957. 3Gordon D. Taylor, "Land Utilization of the Lowlands Area of Delta Municipality", M.A. Thesis, University of B.C., 1950, p.72. 4Gordon D. Taylor, DeIta *s Century of Progress, Kerfoot-Holmes Printing Ltd., Cloverdale, 1958, p.17. NOTE: The only two thorough written works on the Ladner area are those cited in references 2 and 3 above. The majority of the information for this chapter has been drawn from these two works. 5Taylor, Delta's Century . . . . p.54. 6Taylor, Delta's Century . . . , p.54. 7Taylor, 'Land Utilization of the . , . ", M.A. Thesis, University of B.C., 1950, p.73. 8Taylor, Delta's Century . . . , p.39. 9Taylor, Delta's Century . . . , p.39. 1 0Taylor, Delta's Century . . . , p.40. ^Taylor, Delta's Century . . . , p.71. ^R.T. Williams, British Columbia Directory, Victoria, B.C., 1892, p.186. l3Henry J. Boam, British Columbia, Its History,  People, Commerce, Industries, and Resources, Sells Ltd., London, England, 1912, p.276. 1 4J.H. Grant, written in 1911, but published in the Ladner Optimist 75th Anniversary Issue, (Wed. Nov. 10, 1954), pT3^ _ , 1 5Taylor, Delta's Century . . . , p.93. CHAPTER VI ANALYSIS OF DOWNTOWN LADNER Basic to the study of the Ladner central business dis-trict — i t s l i a b i l i t i e s , assets, requirements, and potential-ities — is the physical delineation of the commercial dis-t r i c t . Basically the core is the area where most of the contiguous central business district activities are located. The type of central business district activities would dep-end upon the character of the district or the role that i t currently plays, or possibly the role that i t will play in the future. It serves l i t t l e purpose to delineate the current district, i f the district w i l l change in the future as the result of a change In the role that i t plays. Just as we must consider the present situation in order to plan for the future, we must consider the future to adequately and comprehensively plan for the present. Therefore the basic preliminary step, in order to delineate the area, i s a statement of policy concerning the desired character or function of the future district and an analysis of the present role of the district. Based upon an analysis of the historical development of Ladner and Delta Municipality, the situation of Ladner within Metropolitan Vancouver, the probable future develop-137 merit of the district and the physical site and character of the settlement of Ladner, i t is felt that the Ladner central business district will probably perform essentially the same function, or roles, that i t does at the moment. How-ever there possibly could be some extension of these current roles, depending, of course, on the development that i s allowed to take place in the central business district and the surrounding settlement. Accordingly, the central business district must be analyzed in order to determine what the role of the district presently i s ; how adequately the district is performing this role; i f there i s an improper or inadequate performance of the role; what is causing this phenomenon; what the assets of the district are; what alternatives are open to the area; and what proposals should be made in order to alleviate or improve this current situation. The present chapter is de-voted to the analysis, while the next chapter will contain any necessary proposals for the Ladner central business district. The Role of Ladner Central Business District One method to determine the role that Ladner plays in the l i f e of the municipality would be to determine either the amount of land, or the amount of floor area, devoted to the various activities. This analysis would have to be based upon a certain specifically considered land area. Based on a visual examination of the Land Use 1960 (see Figure IX) map, the area devoted predominantly to activities that could be FIGURE IX 138 considered "downtown" in character, which would accordingly exclude residential or vacant land, would contain the area shown by "Downtown Ladner 1960 (see Figure X). Since there is such a large amount of vacant land within the visually delineated downtown district, i t is more realistic to con-sider the actual floor area devoted to the various types of activities in order to arrive at the character or roles of the district. Table II shows the floor area distribution among the various activities. An analysis of Table II reveals that although the Ladner central business district i s predominently a retail commercial centre (about one third of the floor area i s devoted to this type of activity), i t is also very impor-tant as a service industrial centre, with over one-quarter of the district's floor area devoted to this use. Next in importance are the social and entertainment activities which occupy about fifteen percent of the total floor area. Concerning the office, real estate, and financial activities, although there is relatively a small amount of floor space devoted to these uses, the space is used quite intensively, and accordingly is no real indication of their relative im-portance. The actual relative importance of these office activities, directly or indirectly, to the central business district i s very difficult to ascertain. The municipal hall is another fairly Important activity, which will, in a l l probability increase in relative importance as the population of Delta Municipality continues to grow. FIGURE X 139 TABLE II LAND AND FLOOR USE IN DOWNTOWN LADNER, I960. (1) Total area under consideration 1,503,000 sq. f t Street area 462,300 sq. f t . 31% Usable area . . . . 1,040,700 69 (2) Total Usable Area 1,040,700 sq. f t . Ground floor area . . 227,991 sq. f t . 28% Off-street parking . 117,320 11 Vacant land 635,490 61 (3) Ground Floor Area 227,991 sq. f t . Service Industries* . . 26% Residential . . . . . . 13 Vacant Buildings . . . 4 Municipal ball • • • • 1 Total Non CBD Uses • 44% Retail uses2. . . . . . 33% Special CBD uses . . . 15 Office uses 4 Public f a c i l i t i e s 5 . . . 3 Hotel • . 1 Total Compatible CBD Uses . 56% NOTES: (1) Service industries: include predominantly vehicular orien-ted activities, such as lumber yards, service stations, warehouse and storage, water and truck transportation, light 140 industries, blacksmiths, garages, etc. (2) Retail Uses: include the various food stores, liquor stores, clothing, household goods and variety stores, and the various personal service activities, such as barber shops, beauty parlours, laundries, doctors, dentists, etc. (3) Special CBD Uses: include such activities as theatres, beer parlours, cafes, recreation fac i l i t i e s , fraternal organ-izations, clubs, public halls, etc. (4) Office Uses: Include financial, real estate, and general office uses. (5) Public Facilities: Include such uses as police, fire pro-tection, telephone, post office, and library. In summing up, the Ladner central business district can be considered predominantly a retail centre and, only slightly less, a service-industrial, and entertainment centre. Sub-servient to these three major roles, is its Importance as a financial, and public and private office centre. It is now necessary to consider the ability of the district to adequate-ly f u l f i l l these various roles. Fulfillment of the Central Business District Roles  Retailing Centre Consumer purchases at retail activities are made by pedestrians. Although there is a strong tendency to use automobiles in order to reach the retail district, and accordingly vehicular access and accommodation must be pro-vided, the actual purchases must be conducted by people on foot, and, therefore, the area must be primarily oriented 141 toward the pedestrian. In addition, in order to tie the retai l activities together i t is desirable that movement bet-ween the activities can easily and safely be accomplished on foot. Unless the reta i l activities are tied together the nec-essarily strong i n i t i a l cumulative attraction of customers wi l l not exist. There are certain activities, which-are mutually com-patible, and, in fact, mutually beneficial, which should be grouped together, whereas there are activities which are mutually incompatible and possibly even mutually detrimental or harmful, which should be isolated from activities that they might harm, but should be grouped with activities that would benefit from their proximity. The Major Deadening Areas map (see Figure XI) i l l u s -trates the street frontage that i s devoted to mutually com-patible or beneficial retail, or CBD, activities, as well as the street frontage that is devoted to activities detrimental to r e t a i l uses. The detrimental street-frontage-activities take the form of activities which are not beneficial to retail uses, such as activities that are oriented to vehicular trade — service stations, garages, lumber yards, used car sales lots, black smiths, trucking offices, bulk storage, etc. — or activities that use up street frontage but do not attract customers who would utilize the retail activities, such as government offices, fire halls, churches, vacant land, or residential accommodation, or activities that are run-down in appearance, marginal operators, which handle merchandise, MAJOR DEADENING AREAS LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y MUTUALLY BENEFICIAL AND DETRIMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN LADNER CBD DETRIMENTAL OR DEAD STREET FRONTAGE COMPATABLE OR BENEFICIAL FRONTAGE MAJOR DEAD DETRIMENTAL AREAS FIGURE XI 142 or cater to customers, not compatible with typical retailing activities. These various activities create "dead areas", or areas which possess no attractive power in themselves to customers who might be attracted to the retail activities in the centre. Not only do these activities not attract the same customers, but they tend to inhibit customers from pass-ing in front of them to reach re t a i l activities located on the other side of the non compatible use, or, due to their charac-ter, they often inhibit people from frequenting that partic-ular area of the retail district. This can be seen in the northern end of downtown Ladner where, even since the i n i t i a l f i e l d work was conducted, one large well-stocked and attrac-tive substantial retail business, and one smaller service industry catering to pedestrian as well as to vehicular trade both located at the extreme north end of Delta Street opp-osite the major dead area in that location, have gone "out of business" (see Plate la). Another very serious dead area, south of the former one, has created a space of about 230 feet between compatible retail activities. The mixture of incompatible land uses between the retail activities (see Figure IX) has created a virtual barrier to pedestrian movement, with three-quarters of the pedestrians moving along the "other" side of the street, (see Pedestrian Flow map, Figure XII). This has very seriously affected the small isolated r e t a i l area, and con-sequently has resulted in its high vacancy rate and frequent change in occupants. PLATE I VACANCY a. Two Adjoining Large Vacant Stores b. A Vancant, Overgrown Chicken Coop c. V i s t a from a Residential Street NOTE: See Figure I for the location of the photographs PEDESTRIAN FLOW LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT STUDY SUMMER L960: WEEKDAYS 9AM-6PM A'TERARKD HOURLY PEDESTRIAN FLOW BOTH WAYS ALONw SIDEWALKS ACRUSS THE STREET ACCORDING TO THE DIRECTION OF FLO'.-.';;:;.!;;:-Nomas* if PmaasJ~/f*s FIGURE XII' PEDESTRIAN FLOW LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT STUDY SUMMER L960: WEEKDAYS 9AM-6PM A'VERAGRD HOURLY PEDESTRIAN FLOW BOTH WAYS ALONG SIDEWALKS ACROSS THE STREET ACCORDING TO THE DIRECTI( OF FLOV.'i-ivi;: WESTHAM.STREET FIGURE-: X I I I 143 These and the other dead areas are having a very detri-mental effect on the isolated activities, especially in the northern end of downtown Ladner, which has been declining quite rapidly in recent years. Considering downtown Ladner as a whole, the insulation and isolation of the compatible retail activities, the exis-tence of large expances of non-beneficial activities — vacant land and residential uses — the intrusion of detrimental activities ~ due to their obnoxious character; their effect on the compactness of the area; their creation of dead areas; their dilution of the retail character of the downtown area; the conflict between the type of customers (foot and mobile) attracted — have a l l adversely affected the downtown area to such an extent that i t no longer adequately performs this Important role of retailing. Service Industries Centre Similarly, the service activities are suffering from their intermixture with non-beneficial and incompatible uses. This phenomenon exists for the service activities which range in type from the service station and garage located in the heart of the commercial area that has i t s access roads blocked by the vehicles of reta i l customers or by the pedestrian traffic flow, or that has inadequate space for the storage of vehicles or for expansion; as well as for the light indus-t r i a l activities such as black smiths or engine repair works. Unless these isolated individual activities are particularly large or well known, they are liable to be "overlooked", 144 whereas i f they were grouped they attract a greater volume of trade through a tendency for cumulative attraction that takes place. The isolated and insulated character of these generally vehicular-oriented activities can be seen in the maps Land Use 1960 (see Figure IX), and Vehicular Oriented  Uses (see Figure XIV). Not only do these activities tend to benefit from being grouped for mutual benefit, but also from the flow of vehic-ular traffic in their immediate vicinity. They must have ad-equate easy access. The map Vehicular Flow (see Figure XV), shows how many of these areas are entirely missed by the main flow of traffic — which is definitely to their detri-ment (as can be seen by Plates Ila and ma). Although a large volume of vehicular traffic, that flows in front of the service activities, is a great advan-tage to them, i t is a definite detriment to the ret a i l pedestrian-oriented activities, especially where there is some conflict between the pedestrian and vehicular movement. This conflict in movement, such as occurs in the south-east corner of the commercial district (compare Pedestrian Flow Figure XII with Vehicular Flow Figure XV), is detrimental to the business of vehicular-oriented activities as well as to the pedestrian-oriented activities. Entertainment Centre The third most important role that downtown Ladner plays is as an entertainment or social centre. "Clubs" and other formal organizations have always been very important in the VEHICULAR ORIENTED USES LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y VEHICULAR ORIENTED USES NON CONFORMING VEHICULAR ORIENTED ACTIVITIES IN CBD ' ilMIMi 1 ' Ml _ u L , i i ( l l l f . . • •. • 1-. • • t • . • 1 Lva... I . ! • 1 ! 1 -FIGURE XIV VEHICULAR F L O W LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y VOLUME '-ND DIRECTION OF TRAFFIC FLOW CO FIOTJRE XV PLATE II STRUCTURES IN DISREPAIR a. Black Smith Shop b. Leaning Commercial Establishment c. Storage Shed and Wharf d. Storage Shed and Residences NOTE: See Figure X for the location of the photographs PLATE III DETRIMENTAL STORAGE a. A Second Hand Store b. An Automobile Graveyard c. An Automobile Graveyard NOTE: See Figure X for the location of the photographs. 145 lives of the populace of Ladner. These organizations would include such groups as the Delta Agricultural Society, which has been active since 1888; the Independent Order of Odd-fellows, which has been active since 1892; the Ladner Board of Trade, which has been active since 1910; and such recent groups as the Rotary Club; which was organized only in 1958. This strong concept of active and virtually total community participation probably originated due to the isolation of the early settlers and their need to provide their own enter-tainment. It has since then become a tradition. Some indi-cation of the importance of these o f f i c i a l organizations to the people of Ladner can be seen in the actual number, which totals over forty, in addition to the churches and church groups. To fully appreciate the significance of this number i t must be remembered that the total population of Ladner is only about three thousand inhabitants — men, women and children. Currently these activities are scattered throughout the settlement, but there are several within, or immediately adjoining the downtown district. When these social organiz-ations are considered in conjunction with the other enter-tainment activities, such as the theatre, pool hall, beer parlour, dance hall, and so on, a l l of which are used pre-dominantly during the same hours — usually in the evenings or on Saturdays — there can be seen a definite advantage in the grouping of these mutually compatible activities, there-by increasing the total attractive power of the area as a 146 whole. In the Land Use 1960 map (Figure IX) these activities are designated as special downtown uses. They are definite attributes to any downtown, for they allow i t to be used during the hours that the retail activities are generally not operating. Currently these entertainment activities are scat-tered throughout the area. Possibly the two main prerequisites for entertainment activities are convenient access and adequate convenient park-ing. By and large the lack of these two necessities and the general dispersal of the entertainment activities has proven to be harmful to their continued existence, as well as to the ability of the downtown district to adequately f u l f i l l the requirements demanded of a truly successful entertainment centre. Office Centre Generally speaking, the office activities — p r i v a t e or public — derive l i t t l e benefit from being interspersed with the retail activities. In fact, this lnterspersion detrimentally affects the activities within which they are mixed, both by their physical existence and their use of other fac i l i t i e s such as parking space, and prevents them from deriving some possible advantages which would result from their being grouped. Office work cannot be efficiently conducted when numerous distractions are occurring on a l l sides, but these office activities should be located near enough to be able to exchange customers and to take advan-tage of the services offered by the other activities, and 147 vice versa. In addition there should be adequate space to allow for the continued expansion of the office activities, in such a manner that there is no necessity for them to move out of the area. The Land Use 1960 map (see Fivure IX) illustrates how dispersed these office activities currently are. They derive no benefit from economies of scale, interchange of customers, cumulative attraction. The customers derive no benefit from ease of access to a l l these activities; "visual" competition between them; and so on. The quality of the work and work-ing conditions are not as good as they easily could be. Currently most of these private office f a c i l i t i e s are tucked into "odd", and often very confined, corners, which allow l i t t l e or no room for expansion. If they expand, they wil l almost invariably move — which results in inconvenience to their former customers, loss of business to the enter-prise, detrimental affects on activities which formerly benefitted from their proximity, and possibly the loss of another activity to the downtown area. Downtown Ladner could better f u l f i l l its role of office centre than i t currently is, which would be to the benefit of the people, the activity, the town, and the whole municipality. Perhaps the most hard pressed office activity for space to allow for continued expansion is the municipal gov-ernment building. Currently this activity has already taken over one retail store area along the main street in order to accommodate some of i t s need for space. The whole building 148 is overcrowded. It is improperly designed for the activity for which i t is being used. It is detrimentally affecting, the surrounding retail activities. There is a definite need for expansion. As a result the government building is not properly f u l f i l l i n g its function, and, accordingly, neith-er is Ladner. This condition will continue to get worse with the continued expansion of the population of Delta Munici-pality, and only some drastic change in accommodation wil l improve the situation. Liabilities of Downtown Ladner There are certain general factors which can be con-sidered in order to determine some of the causes for the inability of the commercial district to adequately perform its functions or roles. As a generalization the downtown's Inability to perform its various roles could be attributed to its declining physical condition. The main factors which indicate such a declining condition for a commercial district were enumerated in chapter I under the section "Physical Features Showing the Occurrence of a Declining Retail Dis-tr i c t " . With these factors in mind an effort w i l l now be made to determine whether the Ladner Commercial area could be generally considered as in a declining, or imminently de-clining, condition; i f so, then this would accordingly indi-cate a need for some attempt at stabilization and re v i t a l i -zation of the district. Various characteristics can provide a general indi-cation of the stage of decline, or imminent decline, of the 149 area. The greater the variety, frequency, and intensity of the characteristics the more imminent, or advanced, is the decline of the district. The following paragraphs Indicate some characteristics of decline in relation to Downtown Lad-ner. Mixed Land Use The most common and most detrimental characteristic indicating the decline of a commercial area is the mixture of incompatible land uses. This does exist in Ladner to a very great extent. Ladner is predominantly a ret a i l commer-ci a l district. Since the customers of retail activities are characteristically pedestrians, and not vehicles, certain activities oriented toward the latter that are mixed with reta i l pedestrian-oriented activities would be detrimental to these retail activities. In addition to this the greater the number of pedestrian-oriented activities grouped together, especially in sub-groupings, or sub-nuclei, of mutually bene-f i c i a l activities, the greater wi l l be the cumulative attrac-tion of the area, which is to the benefit of a l l the activi-ties, as well as to the people served by the activities. The existence of any activities amongst the retail activities, which do not provide a certain interchange of customers, or an aid to this cumulative attraction, or at least enable use to be made of the downtown facilities during the hours that the retail activities are not operating, are definitely not beneficial and quite possibly detrimental, to the retail dis-tricts. One of the main advantages of a retail district is 150 its. compactness, which enables the easy interchange of cus-tomers who move about as pedestrians. Any introduction of activities which spreads out the area or increases the walk-ing distance within the retail district i s detrimental to the retail activities. The Land Use 1960 map (see Figure IV) illustrates the large amount of land along the main commercial streets — Delta and Westham — that is devoted to non r e t a i l activities, or at least to activities which in various ways detrimentally affect the retail area — s u c h as vehicular oriented or service activities, governmental activities, churches, resi-dential land, or vacant land. Table II (2) partly i l l u s -trates this by showing that 61% of the land area is devoted to vacant land. It can also be seen in Table II (3) that of the floor area only 56% is devoted to ret a i l activities, or activities that are mutually compatible with ret a i l activi-ties not beneficial, and often detrimental, to ret a i l pedes-trian-oriented activities. The map Major Deadening Areas (see Figure XI) further demonstrates how the incompatible uses are indiscriminantly scattered amongst the retail pedestrian-oriented activities. These non-compatible activities are creating large "dead" areas amongst the ret a i l activities which are deterring the flow of pedestrians past the dead areas, and are, in fact, preventing the r e t a i l activities from interchanging pedes-trian customers. As a result of these dead spaces, although the number, variety, and type of ret a i l activities exists in 151 the area la order to create a strong centre, there Is rela-tively l i t t l e cumulative attraction. Vacant Commercial Premises Perhaps one of the more important factors indicating the declining tendencies of an area is the amount of vacant commercial floor area that exists within the district. At the time of the field survey four percent of the total floor area of the district was vacant, but with the elapse of six months an additional three percent has become vacated, which shows that seven percent of the total floor area of the dis-trict is now vacant. Since we are dealing exclusively with* commercial floor area, i t is more relevant to relate this per-centage only to commercial floor area, which thereby indi-cates that twelve percent of the total commercial floor area is currently vacant and devoted to no productive use. Parking At this point i t might be relevant to consider park-ing. In most older shopping districts there is usually a substantial amount of walk-in business as well as drive-in business; that is, the district is usually in a relatively high density population area and many people live within walking distance of the retail pedestrian-oriented shops. The map Population Distribution (see Figure XVI) indicates that 84% of the population is located within one mile of the centre of the downtown area, or that two-thirds of the pop-ulation lives within three-quarters of a mile of the CBD centre. Generally three-quarters of a mile is considered 152 the maximum effective walk-in distance of trade, but due to the rural character, and the historic development and ties with the town centre, i t is felt that one mile could be con-sidered the maximum walk-in distance of customers to the CBD centre. Due to the elongated character of the r e t a i l dist-r i c t , the CBD centre is about $ mile away from the extreme south-eastern edge of the commercial district. This would have a tendency to Increase the feasible walking distance, at least toward the easterly direction. Generally i t could be considered that about 50% of the retail trade is conducted with people who walk to the area. The report Conservation and Rehabilitation of Major Shopping Districts considers that with this distribution a ratio of two square feet of parking to each square foot of retail floor area could be considered adequate. Any ratio less than this would have a tendency either to lose custom-ers or to f a l l to attract adequate new customers in order to allow for reasonable growth. The traditional argument has been that "this amount of parking accommodation has proved satisfactory in the past and i t will suffice for the future". When It is remembered that the number of automobiles is in-creasing twice as rapidly as the human population, the fallacy of this approach is obvious. At the moment within the commercial district there is about 190,000 square feet of floor area devoted to the various activities that attract vehicles. There is about 117,000 square feet of off-street parking to accommodate the 153 attracted vehicles (see Table II (2)). The map Parking U t i l i - zation, (Figure XVII), due to the vacancy rate in most off street parking lots, as well as the fairly high u t i l i z -ation of some lots and certain streets, would seem to indi-cate that much of the parking accommodation is improperly lo-cated. Two blocks of on-street parking are used consistently higher throughout the week, while the majority of the other parking accommodation is used well below its capacity. Acc-ordingly there does not seem to be any lack of parking space within the downtown area, as can be seen in the chart Park- ing Utilization in Downtown Ladner (Figure XVIII), either on any specific day, or at any specific hour within the day for the week, but i t does indicate that the current distribution of parking space is not satisfactory. There is also the current tendency toward more evening shopping and higher ownership and utilization of the automobile. This means con-tinuously higher and more Intense use of parking during more confined shopping hours. Although these trends have not yet become important in this area, the tendency is definitely in this direction, and must accordingly be considered. The current ratio of roughly 12:19 (12 square feet of off street parking to 19 square feet of retail floor area) appears to be definitely inadequate for even a short time in the future. Traffic The vehicular traffic flow, as seen from the map Vehicular Flow (Figure XV) demonstrates certain problems. The traffic cuts the commercial area into segments. This • '•'41. ON & OFF STREET PARKING LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT STUDY ifERMISSABLE CURB: PARKING -INUMBER OF PARKING SPACES AVAILABLE p i WEEKLY PEAK HOUR UTILIZATION fA AVERAGE WEEKLY PEAK HOUR USE I Ni/WSEA QF S P A C E S o FIGURE XVII PARKING UTILIZATION IN DOWNTOWN LADNER 10:10 7/:J0 12:10 }:JO Z-lO J.JO V.JO S"»« C-30 7M Hourly P a r k i n g U t i l i z a t i o n f o r Downtown Ladner; 9 : 3 0 AM to 6 : 3 0 PM Co , < I i fe O go MON.. TUE. WED.. THUR. FRI. SAT.'.. D a i l y Peak Hour P a r k i n g U t i l i z a t i o n f o r Downtown Ladner; Monday to Saturday ' FIGURE X V I I E 154 large volume of traffic definitely impedes the flow of pedes-trians across certain streets, which has jeopardized the future of some retail pedestrian-oriented activities. In addition there are some activities, which require the adjac-ent flow of vehicular movement in order to profitably exist, that are entirely missed by the vehicular flow. In a sense some areas have too large a flow of vehicles for the street size (such as Westham Street), whereas other areas have too small a flow for either the activities located thereon, or for the size of the street (such as Chisholm Street). In ad-dition one other possible conclusion concerning the vehicular traffic flow is its tendency to form a looping path. The traffic from the north east enters the downtown area but skirts i t s outer edge (on the eastern side). There is a def-inite halting of the traffic along Elliott Street on its way south toward Westham Street, presumably to stop and shop on a street that has ample convenient parking space. After the approximately one half hour lag, the traffic moves onto West-ham Street, and then the bulk of the traffic heads eastward. The other looping path that exists is the vehicular traffic that enters the downtown area from the east along Westham Street, goes along Westham Street, turns north along Delta Street and then eastward along Bridge Street, These two loop-ing tendencies appear consistently throughout the week. One of the main problems that exists in the downtown area in relation to the traffic is the inadequate capacity of some of the streets. The most obvious example of this is the 155 large volume of traffic along Westham Street, considering its narrow width and the parking along its both sides. Adjoining Residential Areas Another serious problem is the relatively large amount of vehicular traffic which enters the downtown area from the north east along Westminster Avenue. This average of nearly 120 vehicles per hour through an exclusively resi-dential area between 7 a.m. and 8 p.m., on a two lane paved street is definitely a problem. It has become a very real hazard to the quality and character of this residential area. Another residential area that is being even more detrimental-ly affected, is located south of the downtown area along Arthur Drive, which has an hourly average of about two hun-dred and twenty five vehicles for the same period of time. Street Area One serious problem within part of downtown area is the over-abundance of street coverage. For example consider-ing a large area of the downtown commercially zoned district, over forty per cent of the land is devoted to street, while the activities contained on the land are predominantly res i -dential or vacant land (see Figures XIX and IX). This low productive usage of such ideally located land could prove to be very expensive to the community of Ladner, or possibly the whole municipality. Vacant Land The large amount of vacant land within the downtown area (see map Land Use 1960, Figure IX), over 60% of the total A R E A LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y AREA DEVOTED TO STREETS IN LADNER h L^f FIGURE XIX 156 area (see Table II (2)) and the large amount of vacant land surrounding the downtown area (see map Population Distribution Figure XVI), which generally exists in large parcels, pro-vides both one of the current l i a b i l i t i e s to the district and one of the potential attributes of the district. These large vacant parcels of land, which presently increase the cost of servicing, spread out the retail area, and generally detract from the district's appearance, could prove to be vital tools in any future improvement. In addition to this is the fact that much of the land in the downtown area is owned by individuals in large parcels (see map Land Ownership Figure XXIV). This would reduce the number of persons that must be dealt with concerning any improvement to the area. Marginal Activities The existence of marginal commercial activities occupying land, or run-down and possibly even obsolete build-ings (see Plates lib and lb), within the downtown area i s another sign of the decline of the area. There are numerous examples of this situation existing in Ladner — such as a junk dealer (see Plate Ilia), a black smith shop (see Plate Ila). and storage sheds (see Plate lie and d). In addition to these marginal commercial activities there exists a large number of poor residential buildings located within the downtown area. These residences typically have been constructed prior to 1914 (see map Age of Build- ings Figure XX). In 1957 and 1958 probably due to the imminent completion of the new Deas Island Tunnel, many of FIGURE XX 157 the older residential houses within the downtown area were purchased. They were retained as residential accommodation — a non-conforming use which is tolerated due to the historic existence of the activities located there — by land specu-lators who hoped that land values would rise rapidly once Ladner was connected directly to Metropolitan Vancouver. As a result there are a number of run-down residential buildings which, although they are not being adequately maintained, are retained for residential usage. These are definitely marginal activities which are detrimentally affecting the downtown area and are good indications of some declining tendencies. Congestion Congestion , another indication of decline, occurs along certain street and at certain intersections of the downtown area. The worst intersection is in the south-west corner of the district at the Elliott Street-Westham Street intersection (see Vehicular Flow map Figure XV). Between 7 A.M. and 8 P.M. an average of 500 vehicles per hour meet at this intersection. During the hour following 4:30 P.M. a peak is reached of over 870 vehicles per hour, but a half hour prior to this the number was only 640 vehicles and a half hour after this peak only 560 vehicles per hour. This Indicates the rather concentrated peak hour rush at this intersection, which, although dangerous for a short period, is not adequate to warrant the installation of a traffic light, at least according to the Traffic Engineers Handbook. This general area is the worst for vehicular accidents in 158 Ladner. For the year ending June 1960 70% of the motor vehi-cle accidents of Ladner occurred within the commercial dis-trict, and 80% of these were located in the general vicinity of this intersection. The complicated nature of the various streets meeting within a short distance of each other at various angles, as well as the large volume of traffic being carried are defin-ately detrimental characteristics for this main approach to the commercial district, (see Land Use 1960 Figure IX). This situation is further complicated by the activities located at this intersection. One corner is occupied by a service sta-tion, which has about 180 feet of street frontage totally used as access. Another corner is occupied by a confection-ary store, the whole block of street frontage is long enough to allow only two cars parallel parking, but during certain hours there are often four cars stopped in front which creates a dangerous condition. Another corner provides park-ing, in front of the store for four or five automobiles. Cars often attempt to enter this parking location from a l l direc-tions, which, at times, creates complete traffic chaos. Perhaps the worst problem is the vehicular movement from Hotham Street to Elliott Street or vice versa. These are offset by no more than twenty-five feet, which necessitates some dexterous maneuvering, especially considering the volume of traffic flowing across their path along Westham Street. Street congestion has been compounded by the use of on-street parking, especially along the narrow Westham Street 159 with its large volume of traffic (see Vehicular Flow Figure XV), but since i t permits only parallel parking, twenty-four feet is left for traffic movement and maneuvering. The traffic situation i s worse along Delta Street which has angle parking on either side of the street, especially in the two blocks north of Westham Street that are quite intensively used for parking (see Parking Utilization Figure XVII), which leaves only 22 feet for free flowing traffic as well as the parking, backing out, and other general interruptions to the traffic flow. This general inconvenience, discomfort, and danger has provided a very definite deterent to the customer who wishes to shop in downtown Ladner. Decomposition Many of the activities that abutt residential areas have had a very detrimental effect on the land values. One typical vista from the back of Delta Street — which is the main commercial street in Ladner — provides a rather unat-tractive view for the residential houses on the next street that face in that direction (see Plate lc). Another example is the rear view of the shopping centre and Its treatment of the bank of Chilukthan Slough (see Plate IVa), as seen by some single family residences across the slough (see Plate Va). Similarly a used-car sales lot is.located between two residential uses, but i t provides no screening for the bene-f i t of the residents. Perhaps one of the worst eyesores within the downtown area of Ladner, Indicated on the Land Use  1960 map (Figure IX), by an organic shaped "auto-oriented" PLATE TV WATERFRONT c. Overgrown Slough NOTE: See Figure X for the location of the photographs. PLATE V ASSETS See Figure X for the location of the photographs 160 activity in the north eastern part of the Downtown district, is the storage yard of parts for an automobile repairs garage. This is an "automobile graveyard" composed of numerous vehi-cles in various stages of disrepair and decomposition, in places even gathered together in heaps, which form distinc-tive land marks, in the centre of downtown (see Plate III b and c). These are by no means the only examples within Down-town Ladner demonstrating the lack of screening, and indicate symptoms of, and possibly some causes for, i t s declining con-dition. The waterfront also possesses certain characteristics which are definite l i a b i l i t i e s to the downtown area. The partly decomposed broken-down skeleton of a former dock (Plate lie) provides a rather poor neighbour for the new government wharf (Plate Vb). In addition, the existence of decrepit old barges and houseboats, which are used as mooring places for fish boats in the harbour, which is adjacent to the commercial district, provides a rather poor view and impression of the harbour and the downtown district (see Plate IVb). The unkempt appearance is not limited to the river but also exists along Chilukthan Slough (see Plate IV a and c), where the banks have been allowed to "run wild" and provide "accommodation" for different types of refuse along the edge of the water. External Display of Goods Another type of activity that is aiding and abetting the general decline, or imminent decline, of downtown Ladner 161 Is the presence of several old, run-down second hand stores. Various types and grades of second hand articles and "junk" are displayed out-of-doors by these activities (see Plate Ilia). Such activities will detrimentally affect adjoining activities, and aid l i t t l e in attracting customers who would benefit other retail activities, or the downtown area as a whole. Shifting Downtown Centre The Age of Buildings map (see Figure XX), shows fairly well the tendency that is occurring in Ladner. Generally the older commercial buildings are located north of Bridge Street and along Delta Street, and the new commercial build-ings are located along the souther one-third of Delta Street, along Westham Street, and across the slough on the Trunk Road. Historically the trend has been for the "100%" corner or the best site to shift away from the site of the original commercial district, which is along the waterfront, toward the south and east. The map Value of Improvements (see Figure XXI), illustrates fairly well the current centre of town: the westerly side of Delta Street near the Bridge Street intersection. There also appears some indication that this "centre" might shift down to Westham Street. One problem that will arise i f the shifting is allowed to continue toward the east, w i l l concern the former "centres" of downtown Lad-ner, which are located nearer the waterfront. As the current centre moves further away from them, they lose more more business, and decline more rapidly. Eventually they will \ \ V \ \ \ < ' 1 i 1 1 i ' ! i i ! j i : ' i • 1 - Z H J VALUE OF IMPROVEMENTS LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y VALUE PES FOOT STREET FRONTAGE 8 OVER $200. 1.00 - 200. 50 - 100. . 25 - 50. TiO improvement S C A L C tM F £ J T T t*0 y N FIGURE XXI.* 162 become an area of blight, which wil l spread and detrimentally affect, directly or indirectly, the whole commercial district and possibly, even the whole community. Low Land Assessment The Assessed Land Value map (see Figure XXII), shows the large amount of land within the downtown area that is assessed at a very low rate. Generally speaking i t is these areas of low land assessment, presently vacant or occupied by old run-down residential houses, which are being held by land speculators. Not only does this low land assessment allow the land speculators to hold the land and leave i t in a low productive use or marginal activity, for there is l i t t l e expense in so retaining i t and there are good prospects of future increased profits, but also the low land assessment cannot adequately cover the cost of servicing the area. As a result the residential lots within the community subsidize the provision of u t i l i t i e s and other services for a portion of downtown, since many residential lots are assessed higher per square foot than similar sized commercial lots in the downtown area, whereas just the opposite phenomenon should occur. Small Walk-in Trade Based on the Zoning map (see Figure XXIII), the most obvious conclusion that can be reached is the elongated ten-dency of the village, especially since the downtown area is off at one end of the community. The residential zoning, which should provide an adequate population near the downtown LAND VALUE LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y ASSESSED LAND VALUE PER SQUARE'.FOOT ikO to 50. . . . . . . . 30 t o «40. ....... . 20 to 30 . . . . . . . 10 to 20 . . . . . . less than 10 . . , * -FIGURE XXII 163 district — in order for both the downtown and the population to benefit from their relative proximity — is in an easterly or southerly direction from the CBD, which extends to a dis-tance of three-quarters of a mile south of the centre of the CBD and two and three-quarter miles east of the centre of the CBD (see Population Distribution map Figure XVI). Located to the west is an industrial area, and to the north is water. This situation creates difficulties for a commercial district to build up an adequate walk-in trade, which is desirable. Another characteristic that stands out is the way that the light industrial zoning separates, or insulates, the down-town area from the channels of water — Ladner Reach (the river) and Chilukthan Slough. Appearance One other general characteristic of downtown which, although difficult to measure, appears to be one character-is t i c designating a declining area, which would definitely have an adverse effect on the ability of the district to ade-quately perform its various roles, is the appearance of the district both en toto and in component parts. The study of Ladner reveals a certain degree of con-trasts, which stand out in the architecture of the structures. There are two main periods of architecture represented in the commercial district: prior to 1910 and after 1945 (see Age of  Buildings Figure XX). The older buildings are wooden frame structures, usually two stories high, that present a square and ornate false front to the street. Some of the structures 164 have been partly modernized and now the f i r s t floor blends in harmoniously with the newer structures. The newer struc-tures are constructed of wood or cement blocks, and generally are faced with stucco or t i l e material. Characteristically they are one storey in height and have a large glass display window fronting on the street. There exists, throughout the commercial district, an Incongruous mixture of these two architectural styles, which strikes a rather discordant note on f i r s t seeing the downtown area. Mo one thing exists to tie together the various activities — in order to show that this is a l l one commercial district — and the varied styles of buildings certainly aids in giving the impression of a mult-itude of small incongruous centres. Merely the varying architecture would not be too bad, i f the buildings were a l l maintained, but this is not the case. Often one building is adequately maintained and attractive in Itself, but its neighbours are run-down, dishevelled, and unattractive structures — which in some cases are actually several inches from being level and is visually noticeable (see Plate lib). This creates a completely chaotic appear-ance to the area, which is not at a l l inviting or attractive — quite the reverse of i t s competition, the planned modern shopping centre. In addition the facilities — such as the sidewalks — which attempt to physically tie the commercial area to-gether for the pedestrian, in some locations are non-exis-tent or have fallen into disrepair. As a group these feat-165 voces have had a very detrimental effect on the ability of the area to f u l f i l l its various roles. Access and Circulation Good, convenient, safe access and circulation are vita l necessities for a commercial district to survive. At present Ladner has an excellent freeway running through the settlement which lies between one and one-quarter and one and three-quarter miles from the downtown centre, which means that the downtown area is conveniently located with regard to distance from the freeway, and yet not hampered by the flow of a large volume of traffic through i t . There are four main roads leading into the downtown area (see Vehicular Flow Figure XV). The least used is from the west, which handles less than one hundred vehicles per hour. There is a relatively small population located at this end of Delta (see Figure XVI). The road has several right angle turns near the downtown area which interrupts the smooth flow of traffic. The next most important access carries about 120 vehicles per hour (with about 80% moving toward the down-town area) along a narrow (two lane) road through a single family residential area, which is being detrimentally affec-ted by the traffic flow. This is one of the main access roads from the Delta Thruway; the connection to the thruway being located about one and one-quarter miles from the down-town centre. The next most important access road is Arthur Drive which provides access to the south for about two hun-dred and twenty-five vehicles per hour. This road is 165 crooked, narrow, often with houses or trees right up to the edge of the pavement, and through a single family residential area, which wil l be adversely affected by the continued flow of traffic. The most important access to the downtown area, carrying about four hundred and fi f t y vehicles per hour, is also the best equipped to do so. It is a relatively wide, straight, paved road, which efficiently funnels the traffic into the downtown area. The one main difficulty is the actual entrance f a c i l i t i e s . This is a five street intersection, one street of which is a bridge; four of the corners have build-ings constructed right up to the street edge, thereby obstruc-ting the vision; there is a high volume of traffic meeting at this intersection during the peak hours (up to 870 vehicles per hour); and the main street into the commercial district is not adequate to carry the volume of traffic demanded, especially not with parking along both sides of the street. Accordingly i t may be concluded that downtown Ladner is not being efficiently, conveniently and safely provided with vehicular access, which has had, and wil l continue to have — probably in a continuously increasing manner — a very detri-mental effect on downtown Ladner. Commercial Sprawl Perhaps one of the most obvious conclusions that would be reached, when considering the Land Use 1960 map (see Figure IX), or especially the Major DeadeningAreas (see Figure XI), (which shows the compatible retail activities), is the elongated nature of the Ladner commercial district. 166 It extends twenty-four hundred feet in length, or forty-five percent of a mile, which is about ten times the typical "real" effectively used width of the commercial district. This ten-dency has created a very important deviation from the commonly accepted prerequisite for a successful commercial district, which is compactness. The various factors that have created this "commercial sprawl" have already been considered else-where, but among the most important are the mixture of land uses, the shifting of the downtown centre, and the lack until now of any effective barrier to new activities being set up further to the east. Conclusion In conclusion i t is quite obvious that the factors just considered have had a detrimental effect on the ability of the downtown district to adequately perform its various roles. Although i t is admitted that there is no scientific method for measuring the individual effects of each factor on the declining, or Imminently declining condition that exists in downtown Ladner, this declining condition en toto is having a very definite influence on the area's ability to perform its roles. The actual physical characteristics demonstrating the decline of, and accordingly the problems facing, downtown Ladner are identical to those that illustrate the decline of an older outlying commercial district — as enumerated in chapter I. Based upon these considerations i t would appear that, at least to this extent, the older outlying commercial 167 district is similar to a formerly rural community which has come under the influence of an expanding urban metropolitan area. Before anything can be done concerning the improvement of this situation, the causes of this decline must be con-sidered. Causes of Decline The physical skeleton of downtown Ladner was formed in 1888 and has not been altered to this day, with the excep-tion of Delta Street, which was widened from a f i f t y foot street to a seventy foot street. Other than this, the current circulation and land pattern was created about three-quarters of a century ago (see map Downtown Ladner 1888 and 1960 Figure X). The Age of Buildings map (see Figure XX) Indicates the large number of structures that were erected over thirty years ago and over forty-five years ago. Con-sequently the actual physical design and accommodation of the buildings, the relationship of the buildings, the internal circulation pattern, as well as much of the access to the area were created for conditions very much different from those which exist at the moment, or are likely to exist in the future. The changes that have occurred, and are likely to occur in the future, indicate what the main problems of the area are, as well as the greatest problem that wi l l face the area in the future. Customers' demands have changed, but basically much of downtown Ladner has failed to change in order to better satisfy these new, and, in certain ways, drastically different requirements. 168 Although downtown Ladner, as a whole, has done l i t t l e to satisfy the new demands, being made by the consumer, new faci l i t i e s have grown up to satisfy them, or at least new means have enabled the customer to satisfy his demands. A new planned shopping centre has grown up at one edge of the commercial area, which has set off a chain reaction which, i f allowed to continue unimpeded could eventually create a ghost centre out of the present downtown district of Ladner, as the "retail centre" of town moves eastward along the Ladner Trunk Road. The new tunnel and freeway have enabled custom-ers from Ladner to shop in the modern shopping centres in Metropolitan Vancouver or in Downtown Vancouver or New West-minster, a l l of which are within one-half hour drive of their residences. These bigger, more attractive and varied, colour-fu l and exciting, commercial areas are now the real competi-tion for Downtown Ladner, especially with the new trends in the weekly, family, Friday-night, or Saturday, combined social and shopping trip by automobile. Not only does Ladner face the prospect of losing its older customers for a l l but the convenience goods, but also i t w i l l not benefit from the new population that is moving into the village residential areas. If the trend is allowed to gain momentum, i t wi l l be a l l but impossible to reverse. The last ten to fifteen years has seen the influx of a large number of activities totally incompatible with the retail pedestrian-oriented activities within the downtown area (see Age of Buildings Figure XX and Land Use 1960 Figure 169 IX). These incompatible activities have tended to destroy the retail character of this area through increasing the dead areas, increasing the size of area, providing greater pedes-trian-vehicular movement conflict, decrease the cumulative customer attraction of the area, and by introducing activi-ties that do not appeal to the senses of the average retail customer. There does exist within Ladner certain obsolete structures and marginal activities that serve l i t t l e purpose other than to "drag down" the condition of the rest of the surrounding area. The condition of these buildings, at least in many cases, is due to their control by land speculators who feel that someday in the not too distant future land within the downtown area w i l l be worth considerably more than i t was when they purchased i t . Much of this land purchased shortly before the completion of the new Deas Island Tunnel connecting Ladner to the rest of Metropolitan Vancouver, but land values have not increased as rapidly as they had antici-pated. The failure of the land values to increase has been partly due to the ability of the customers to obtain provi-sions in other shopping areas, as well as the strongly con-servative tendencies of many of the older business enterprises, as well as some formal organizations, within downtown Ladner. Many of these men cannot see "the writing on the wall',* and, in fact, are quite content to let things go along as they are. The way things are going may presently allow them a slightly larger profit than they received prior to the con-170 struction of the tunnel, but they have derived l i t t l e benefit from the population increase. This would seem to indicate that the "new" population is not purchasing most of its requirements locally, and, accordingly, that the population has not been able to receive locally the services required or desired by i t . Such a trend has a tendency to gain momentum with time unless something "positive" is done to stop i t . There does appear to be a definite lack of appreciation, by those directly concerned, with these existing trends or immin-ent trends. Major Physical Attributes of Downtown Ladner Downtown Ladner is not adequately performing its various roles. Most of the important causes for i t s present inability to perform these roles have been considered, and, in addition, some of the causes for this current situation have been examined. Although certain obvious problems con-front the Ladner downtown district, no satisfactory remedial proposals can be made without a thorough analysis of the natural attributes of the district. Such an analysis may indicate certain feasible "natural" or obvious methods to improve the district. Attention will now be directed toward the major physical assets that exist in the district which could have some bearing on the improvement of Downtown Ladner. Vacant Land One of the main assets of Ladner, considering future development, is the large amount of open space within the downtown area (see Land Use 1960 Figure IX) and within the 171 area surrounding the downtown (see Population Distribution Figure XVI), much of which is held in large plots by indi-viduals (see Land Ownership Figure XXIV). Within the downtown area, i t allows greater flexibility and economy for a plan, as well as the possibility for a more advantageous staging of any programme. Surrounding the downtown, i t provides space for possible placement of activities not desirable within the downtown district, as well as open space and/or for an in-creased population near the downtown area, as well as near the other public facilities centrally located. Watfer F r o n t a g e The large amount of water frontage, as well as the type and quality of the activities along the water front pro-vide a definite asset to Downtown Ladner. Water, itself, can be a definite attraction, i f i t is properly utilized. In addition the fish boat mooring along the water front could provide a certain colour, vitality, or uniqueness to the area (see Plate Vb). Many of the activities along the water front are economically marginal, often occupying obsol-ete structures, which would facilitate their removal or replacement (see Plate II c and d). In addition much of the water front is vacant, and much is in municipal hands. Con-cerning the improvement in appearance of the slough water front, private residences have already demonstrated that i t can be made attractive (see Plate Va). Utilities The public u t i l i t i e s , as shown on the Public U t i l -L A N D OWNERSHIP LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y x x x x /~J, i—' K r " A A A * J*/» Ann .. ^ , >/. .3 C (' ... .«? 1' ' 1 J • v <•. . . -1 -EACH PATTERN INDICATES A SINGLE OWNERSHIP WITHIN THE DOWNTOWN AREA UNDIFFERENTIATED LOTS INDICATE SINGLE LOT OWNERS FIGURE . XXIV 172 itles map (see Figure XXV), could be generally considered an asset to any improvement in the district. The large areas which are practically void of any u t i l i t i e s provide greater flexibility and economy in any plan of improvement for the area, which might require deviation from the current pattern of land utilization. Age of Structures The strategically located, large groups of old build-ings, which have a low improvement value and are located on low valued land, provide another asset to the downtown dis-trict (see Land Use 1960 Figure IX; Age of Buildings Figure XX; Value of Improvements Figure XXI; Assessed Land Value Figure XXII). In most cases they are economically and soc-iall y incompatible, non-conforming in zoning, and an econom-ic and social l i a b i l i t y to the community. Although these strategically located activities — when considered in re-lation to the prosperous "desirable activities" — are usu-ally in disrepair, generally unattractive and detrimental to the desirable activities, they do make feasible the implemen-tation of certain desirable "plans". Vehicular Oriented Activities Another natural advantage is the grouping of the vehicular-oriented activities, although not at a l l well-defined, when related to the value of improvements, they do provide certain natural approaches to the improvement of the downtown area. This is further aided by the location, direction, and volume of the vehicular and pedestrian move-FIGURE XXV 173 ment, as well as the current deficiencies, and potentially desirable alternatives in access and circulation accommo-dation. Pedestrian-Oriented Retail Activities The location of the various mutually compatible retail activities, when considered in relation to the value of improvements, and especially when related to the various other assets of the downtown area, appear to suggest certain "natural" or obvious, feasible alternatives for any improve-ment to the area. Conclusion In conclusion i t can safely be stated that the down-town district is not adequately performing i t s required roles, and, accordingly, i t is in need of improvement. In addition there are certain obvious key factors which need to be im-proved in order to stabilize or revitalize the area, and which can, in fact, be physically improved by basing the im-provements on the major physical assets or attributes of the district. The next chapter will be devoted to proposing a programme for the stabilization and revitalization of down-town Ladner based upon the revitalization concepts previously considered for the older established commercial districts, and upon the major physical attributes, and the other charac-teristics of downtown Ladner. CHAPTER VII A REVITALIZATION PROGRAMME FOR DOWNTOWN LADNER Based upon the detailed physical, historical, and economic analysis of downtown Ladner, as well as its general situation within Delta Municipality and Metropolitan Vancouver, i t is quite evident that the downtown district i s not adequa-tely performing its function, and, accordingly, requires some positive steps to achieve some degree both of stabilization and revitalization. It has further been noted that there are certain very definite attributes or assets characteristic of the district, which, i f considered in relation to problems confronting the district, and, i f directed in a comprehensive fashion towards certain preconceived goals, provide some alternative desirable and feasible approaches to the problem. This chapter is devoted to demonstrating one such approach. Basically a successful stabilization or revitalization programme requires good community organization which will implement the proposed plan for the removal of detrimental characteristics (or to re-arrange the detrimental activities in such a way that there is no longer any detrimental f r i c -tion) ; the plan for making more effective the natural a t t r i -butes of the district; and the plan for the injection or i n i -tiation of certain desirable fa c i l i t i e s or characteristics in 175 the district* Fundamentally a comprehensive revitalization programme should involve the three basic elements noted in Part II: organization (which would include the initiating effort admin-istration, and implementation); research; and planning. This chapter will be devoted to a practical demonstration of how such a revitalization programme could be developed for the currently declining, or imminently declining, central business district of the community of Ladner. Organization In order for any revitalization programme to be successful, i t must have the complete support and active par-ticipation of the various people that will be directly con-cerned with the results of such a programme. The people who would be concerned with the programme are those who have some real property Interests in the downtown district — the various downtown activities, the property owners, the inter-ested brokers, other people with some legal financial or other interest in the downtown's future (which must accord-ingly include some representation of the surrounding re s i -dential and industrial uses), the municipality, other concer-ned government organizations, and the municipal planner. There is obviously a difficulty in uniting such a large and varied interests group, which must be accomplished in order to produce a manageable organization. Accordingly i t is of primary importance to make a l l these people realize the seriousness of the situation. A technically qualified 176 person can see the problem that exists as well as most of the major causes of these problems that are confronting the down-town district, in addition to the most probable future res-ults of these problems. It is now necessary to acquaint the affected persons with the implications — preferably related to some very real and personal interest of that person, and definitely not in some abstract term of benefit to the "whole community", which in a l l probability means nothing to him. Such a thorough educational programme of community organiz-ation must be effectively carried out for the revitalization programme to be effective. The people concerned must be made aware of the problems, and a l l the ramifications, and become sufficiently disturbed — whether due to selfish or human-itarian motives — that they feel something must be done to improve the situation. Unless there is almost universal com-munity concern, and agreement that something must be done, any effective implementation of the most wonderful programme would be virtually impossible. All people, or activities, in the community do not possess the same influence, and, accordingly, i t is desirable to gain the active support of those organizations or indivi-duals, whose support would be important and influential. There are various influential formal organizations that a l -ready exist in Ladner, which would be concerned with the down-town district. We have already noted the large number of organizations within the community. Since there is such a large number i t would appear that there is fairly good 177 representation of the community in the formal organizations. Accordingly, the most fundamental step would be to acquaint the most influential and most directly concerned organiz-ation — for example the Ladner Board of Trade — with the current situation. It would be very desirable to gain the support of this organization. In addition i t is desirable to gain the support of the various other organizations which are currently intimately connected with the district, such as those that are located in the downtown district -- for example the Independent Order of Oddfellows, the Canadian Legion, and the Community Hall -- or those which i t would be desirable to have located in the downtown district in the future. Perhaps among the most vital activities that i t is desirable to gain the support of are the systems of mass communication ~ newspaper, radio, and television. In the case of Ladner the two local newspapers would be absolutely necessary from the i n i t i a l stage, whereas the other modes would be necessary in that stage where something was "begin-ning to take form" — that is where concrete proposals were beginning to be made. Such an organization, since i t would be so large, would not be effective to do the work. Although i t is not desirable to have a large organization to do the actual work, ini t i a l l y i t is necessary to gain the support of the total membership within each of the various formal organizations, accordingly, the organizations and other legally interested persons should be represented on the organization. But in 178 order to be effective, the size of the organization should be reduced to the minimum, but yet be a truly representative group. Practically, this would mean that each organization and activity should be represented by no more than one person. This would be s t i l l very large but in order to make feasible any implementation of the programme, i t would have to be rep-resented by a l l concerned. Administration In order to make this body more manageable, i t would be desirable to elect a board of directors, who would make the various required decisions and proposals for the pro-gramme. In order to be effective, the board must keep a "run-ning account" of the progress that i t is making which, in turn, would be relayed to the interested individuals down through the "large representative organization" and from there to various member formal organizations, which would in turn inform their following. Interest in this project must be maintained in the populace as a whole, which might be accomplished by various methods that would give the individ-uals a sense of active participation. This feeling of actually participating is very important, for people will more actively support — morally and financially — a pro-gramme which they feel they have helped to create. The board, since i t is primarily composed of business men who would realize the virtue of tackling such a problem in a business-like manner, and not in a chamber-of-commerce 179 manner, would be responsible for financing arrangements, hiring the required staff, achieving the required coordin-ation (between the private, public, and semi-public organ-izations concerned), the day-to-day administration of the programme, and the actual implementation of the programme. Since the aspects covered are so varied and technical, i t would be necessary to create committees, which would be res-ponsible for the various aspects of the programme. In ad-dition, to enable the decisions of the board and the various committees to be based solidly upon a factual footing, a technical staff must be properly chosen. Ladner is a community of about 3,000 inhabitants, but its hinterland, or its area of influence, depending on the particular function under consideration, encloses a much larger population — currently up to 12,500. The size and quality of the professional staff must coincide with the available resources, as well as the complexities involved in stabilizing and revitalizing the district. Since the Corporation of Delta Municipality has such a large interest in the stability of downtown Ladner and the welfare of the populace, i t is fitting that i t contribute sub-stantially to the organization. Ordinarily the assessor, building inspector, sanitary inspector, engineer, lawyer, and planner — a l l technically qualified men in their various fields — consider the problems of Ladner in isolation, or, i f en toto, not comprehensively. That is, typically, they look at the problems from their individual points of view, 180 but seldom do they get together to consider even a l l their Interests comprehensively. Even i f they did do this, there are s t i l l numerous important aspects of the downtown dis-trict that would in a l l probability be ignored or at least not given due consideration. Accordingly, although a l l these men are an important and necessary portion of the required technical staff for the board and its committee, some addit-ional professionals are required. The additional qualifica-tions required should include an architect, landscape expert, store design expert, real estate economist, market analyst, financing expert, and a general contractor. Although this may appear to be a large staff, there are several economies that do exist. In a l l probability one professional may be qualified for one or more of the aspects considered. Many architects are also landscape experts. In addition the architects can design the external and some in-ternal aspects of the stores. In choosing the correct prof-essional for the job, these particular requirements would be borne in mind. Similarly some real estate economists are also market analysts, and numerous market analysts understand a great deal about retail store relationship and interior lay-out. In a l l probability, since financing is of such a vital importance, and so technically complex, a professional exclu-sively qualified for this aspect would be considered. Gener-ally private consultants are hired as they are required for particular portions of the programme. In a l l probability the municipal or town planner, since he is professionally 181 trained to have just this comprehensive and objective approach to problems, would best f i t into the picture in two different positions. The f i r s t would be as direct and continuous ad-visor to the board, concerning the overall programme; and, second, as the physical overall designer for the downtown dis-trict — considering the district in its major component parts and en toto. In conclusion i t is felt that an adequate profess-ional staff of about four members would be retained in vary-ing degrees of permanence, depending on the stage of the pro-gramme that has been reached. Major Committees In a l l probability there should be three major com-mittees in operation under the board's guidance, but the board itself would act as the coordinating and administra-tive body for the f u l l programme. One committee would be concerned primarily with mer-chandising and would take the form of a merchant's association. It would be represented primarily by merchants situated in downtown Ladner. This committee would deal with the promo-tion and operation of the downtown district as a Unit. The second committee would be the largest and most complex. This would deal with the planning of the downtown district. It would be concerned with the current approach, such as zoning, parking, street lighting, and other u t i l i -ties, as well as the more detailed technical aspects such as research, physical planning, design, staging, and implement-182 action. The third committee would be concerned with the f i n -ancial aspects of the programme. This would include any additional assessment of the effected activities, government participation, cooperatively owned facilities, capital im-provements, possible corporation, mortages, and float loans. This third committee would vary according to the par-ticular organization that was created to do the work — i.e. the governmental role; the private role; or the corporate role; or some combination of these three. These various types of organizations have already been considered in chapter IV. The various potential methods for the implementation of such a revitalization programme have already been dis-cussed in chapter TV. The actual approach that would be req-uired for downtown Ladner would depend on the support rec-eived for the programme as well as the strength of any oppo-sition. In conclusion i t can be said that the type of organ-ization, which will affect the degree of citizen participa-tion will greatly affect the success of the programme. A truly effective programme must have the active support and participation of the whole affected community. The more dir-ect that the connection to, and support of, the large number of individuals who make up the community, the more probable will be the success of the project. In a sense the formally created board should act as 183 spokesmen for, and representatives of, the whole populace, very much like the present municipal council, except that there would be better communication between the public and .the board members, and the board would be concerned with a much more confined physical area. The good free flowing com-munication is vita l in order to achieve the required sense of active participation which is certainly desirable. The board should articulate the problems (as well as the effect of the problems on the community); the alternatives (and their results); the objectives of the programme; plans for achieving the objectives; and the feasible implementation methods for the plans. The creation of the board is one eff-ective method, for realizing the programme, which increases the speed and ease of decision making, but i t is effective and adequate only as long as i t retains the confidence and support of the people, concerning the stabilization and re-vitalization programme. The stabilization and revitalization of downtown Ladner is the "raison d'etre" of the board, and, accordingly this goal must be kept in mind. Research The research conducted is the real basis for the stabilization and revitalization programme, and, accordingly, the programme can be only as good as the research that is carried on. Research is therefore very important for what i t leaves out as well as what i t includes — since the important factors should not be obscurred in the factual data. 184 Planning Analysis The research covers basically three elements; plan-ning analysis; functional analysis; and architectural analysis. Planning analysis covers the various factors required to de-cide whether or not an area is stable; what has caused the situation, i f i t is not stable; and the physical assets of the area which make i t desirable and feasible to improve the situation. These factors, which include blight analysis, activities analysis, land use analysis, vehicular and pedes-trian movement analysis; the natural physical attributes and so on, which have already been considered in the previous chapter. Architectural Analysis Architectural analysis, which determines the possi-b i l i t i e s for achieving the desired physical unity, individual variety, district uniqueness, attractiveness and pleasantness, due to i t s highly technical nature and the required profes-sional s k i l l , will not be considered in detail. Although i t is a very important part of the whole research programme and does play a very significant role in the stabilization pro-gramme, i t must be conducted by a highly qualified person — one of a group of professionals already considered as necess-ary for the success of such a programme. Functional Analysis Functional analysis is necessary in order to deter-mine the present functions of the district; how adequately i t is performing these functions; the causes for its inability 185 to adequately perform the functions; as well as to determine the district's future functions. The analysis of the future function ~ broken down into the various types of activities and the area required to accommodate each type of activity — will form the basic requirements for any stabilization or revitalization plan. The previous chapter has already con-sidered the function, or roles, of the district, its perfor-mance and the causes; as well as the general role of the district in the future — which will be basically the same as the present with the possible extension of some of the roles. The future roles, the resultant activities, and their required space, will have to be considered in more detail. Predicting the future floor area required for the various activities, which will be located in the shopping district, is an extremely hazardous project. They are ex-tremely difficult to accurately anticipate since they are based upon so many unpredictable variables: the growth of Ladner*s population; the population growth of Delta Munici-pality, which may be wholly or partly served by Ladner through one or more of the activities located in the down-town district; the ability of the district to attract custom-ers from other areas; new types of activities that may come into the area due to changes in technology or taste, at some future date; the strength, and location, of competition for the downtown district; the characteristics of the future pop-ulation being considered; changing tastes; and present and future policy decisions. These factors, among others, make 186 i t extremely difficult to anticipate the future demand for the various activities, the required floor area, and the land area required to accommodate the various activities. They only serve to emphasize the need for an extremely competent market analyst and real estate analyst to conduct this aspect of the research project. Due to financial reasons, haste or some other factor, i t may be necessary for the planner to attempt to estimate the future desirable area required for the downtown district. Such an estimate would have to be based upon an analysis of the current situation; anticipated growth of the "influenced area", the influence that the "influenced area" will have on the district, the general trends that occur with the growth of a district; the most desirable type of district; as well as other policy decisions. In addition any estimate must be flexible to allow for un-expected changes or circumstances. The vast majority of the studies considering this question of expansion appear to feel that the total floor area wi l l expand almost in direct proportion to the popu-lation growth of the district's retail trade area. This would appear to be as accurate an estimate that can be made in the present situation, in spite of a l l its realized weaknesses. Various estimates have been made of the growth of Delta Municipality. One such study, which was concerned with the increased population in relation to the amount of space that would be needed for a new municipal hall, estimated that 187 Delta would reach about 35,000 population by 1972, 44,000 by 1976, and 120,000 by the year 2000.1 Another study, dealing with metropolitan highway planning, estimated that Delta's population would be 23,000 by 1966, 44,000 in 1976, and 138,000 in the horizon year, which shows about the same trend in growth.2 This means that by 1972 the population of Delta will have increased about 188%, i f these predictions are true. TABLE III POPULATION GROWTH OF DOWNTOWN LADNER TRADE AREA3 Year Ladner Delta Downtown Ladner Population Population Floor Area (less Residential) 1960 3,000 12,500 246,000 1972 (est) 35,000 Horizon Yr. 9,000 600,000 % Increase 200% 188% 145% Current, and anticipated conditions seem to support the proposition that Ladner's population will in a l l proba-bilit y , increase more rapidly than Delta's as a whole. These conditions would include: the anticipated growth of Metropoli-tan Vancouver; the location and amount of vacant residential land within Metropolitan Vancouver; the amount of vacant land in Ladner; the amount of vacant land within two miles of down-town Ladner; the proximity of Ladner, as opposed to the rest of Delta, to the various employment centres in Metropolitan Vancouver; the amount of residential land in Ladner which has already been subdivided and partly serviced; the existence of numerous facilities in Ladner; the desirability of increasing 188 the population of Delta in the already existing residential areas and in the already subdivided locations in preference to encroaching on some of the best agricultural land in the Lower Mainland; due to the relative decline of the commer-cial district and its need for an increased walk-in trade, the advantage of a policy to increase the population within walk-in distance of the downtown district; as well as numer-ous other factors. Therefore i t would appear that Ladner's population could reach 9,000 by 1972 or 1975, which would be a 200% increase. Perhaps Ladner would not reach this popu-lation until 1980, or possibly even later, but that i t will reach this population in the relatively near future is virtually certain. Accordingly this 9,000 population will be considered the "horizon year" population of Ladner. Currently there are 246,000 square feet of floor area devoted to the various activities located in downtown Ladner. This figure excludes residential floor space, which, due to the character and condition of the residential houses located downtown, probably wi l l not remain, and, in fact, are not desirable in their current location. This tabulation is to be used to estimate the amount of commercial floor space which will be located in downtown Ladner in the horizon year. If the floor area were to increase at something less than in direct proportion to the population increase, say about 150%, the floor area in downtown Ladner would approximate 600,000 square feet in the horizon year. Although this floor area might appear on the large side, due to the current tendencies 189 in a l l activities toward a luxurious use of space — which can be seen everywhere from the modern office building, and com-mercial retail store to the service industry and service trades establishment — quite indifferent to the actual size of the activity. It is necessary to take into account this trend, for although most existing downtown districts comparable in size to the trade area here being considered — which varies for the activity being considered and reaches a peak for the municipal hall activities which cover the whole Delta populat-ion — these older downtowns are facing problems just because of this lack of space to more adequately serve the public, to accommodate new and modern activities, and to allow for the expansion of existing activities. Accordingly i t is felt desirable to err on the high side, and accordingly allow for greater flexibility, rather than too ridgidly confine the activities and create problems in the near future concerning expansion. Accordingly 600,000 square feet will be consid-ered the downtown floor area in the horizon year. Basically the function of downtown Ladner will remain the same in the future as in the present, but there will undoubtedly be some variation in the relative Importance of the various roles that i t will play. Table IV shows the various activities located in down-town Ladner, the floor area for each type of activity and the percent of the total floor area that each activity occupies. In addition the third column indicates the distribution of floor area in a city of forty-eight thousand and the fourth 190 column indicates the floor area distribution for an average of nine cities varying in size. These comparisons are pro-vided only to indicate some of the relative trends that are most likely to occur in downtown Ladner. It would be virtu-ally impossible to predict the exact future floor area dis-tribution, but these trends do indicate what generally could happen as a town matures, which of course does vary with the particular character of the town under consideration. But bearing in mind the inherent weaknesses in this approach, certain general conclusions can be reached. TABLE IV VARIOUS ACTIVITIES• FLOOR AREA AS A PERCENT OF TOTAL FLOOR AREA :DOWNTOWN LADNER Floor Area Percent of Total Floor Area H RETAIL Food Cafes 28,000 6,500 4,000 9,600 39,800 3 3 Clothing Household Variety 1 3 12 8 6 20 5 5 10 5 5 12 191 TABLE IV — Continued Floor Area Percent of Total Floor Area Ladner (1) 1960 Ladner 1960 Muskegon (2) Population 48,000 Average of 9 Cities (3) Ladner Estimate Horizon Tr. Miscellaneous Recreation Beer Parlour Theatre Service Station TOTAL RETAIL 9,700 3,000 6,000 3,400 9,400 2J7 * 5 7 3 2 3 3 36 47 31 36 SERVICE, FINANCIAL, Financial and office Service Trades Medical Transportation - water - land Warehouse and storage Transient Residential TOTAL SERVICE E AND OFFICE .12,700 14,800 5,200 21,000 23,000 3,800 rc. USES 4 16 20 15 $}• » * ( t !}• 1 1 { I 7 8 10 8 1 10 11 3 24 38 46 33 OTHER USES Residential Public (P.O., Fire, Police) Organizations Municipal Hall Industrial Vacant Floor TOTAL OTHER USE 42,200 29,000 11,200 4,700 34,600 13,300 5 13 6 3 0 31 f 3 9 J 7 1 23 4 14 < [ 10 J 111 4 5 6 4 40 15 23 27 192 TABLE IV — Continued Floor Area Percent of Total Floor Area CO • Ladner 1960 Ladner 1960 Muskegon Population 48,000 Average of 9 Cities Ladner Estimate Horizon Yr, DOWNTOWN LADNER TOTAL 288,000 100% 100% 100% 100% NOTES: (1) The author conducted a survey of the downtown district during July, I960. The floor area was based upon a land-use field survey, aerial photographs, and assessment records. (2) "Land Use of Moskegon compared with average of nine other cities", Central Business District Redevelopment Plan, Part of the Master Plan, City of Muskegon, Michigan, 1957, follows page 14. (3) From "Central Business District Studies", by Murphy, Vance and Epstein, Central Business District Redevelopment Plan, 1957, follows page 14. Based upon Table IV the most obvious factor is that in a l l probability the "service, financial, and office uses" will increase in the district, and that the "other uses" wi l l decrease considerably. In a l i t t l e more detail the most obvious dlscrepan-193 cies are: the shortage of financial and office space, which could as much as triple; the transient residential accommod-ation will in a l l probability greatly increase; the public organizations, and industrials will in a l l probability be considerably reduced; the retail food percentage w i l l decr-ease; and the re t a i l clothing and household goods shops will increase. These factors, quite aside from the actual floor area devoted to each activity, w i l l have considerable significance in any stabilization or revitalization programme. In the previous chapter, one of the problems was the scatter of offices. Now that i t is probable that the relative import-ance of office space will greatly increase — possibly by three or four fold — an adequate size concentration of mutu-ally compatible and mutually beneficial activities can be created. In addition transient accommodation will become rela-tively more important with the growth of the community. Indi-cations would lead to the conclusion that i t will occupy at least three percent of the total floor area, which means about eight or nine hotels equal in size to the current one. Acc-ordingly hotel location in relation to other activities, can be c r i t i c a l . Another c r i t i c a l factor is that i t would appear improb-able that the transportation floor area will increase by any appreciable amount. But related to this is the factor that warehouse and storage floor area will probably greatly in-194 crease in floor area, and accordingly be a very significant land user. The increase in the relative importance of retail clothing and household activities floor area lends itself to the creation of specialty nuclei dealing with various con-sumer goods. Since there will now be enough household goods stores, they could be grouped, which would benefit the activ-ities, the customer, and the downtown as a whole. Similarly the grouping of clothing stores, and the possible sub-group-ing of male and female goods stores, and so on, lends itself to the creation of a more attractive, healthy, prosperous, stable, and manageable downtown district. These groupings necessarily must be based upon the recommendations of market and sales specialists, but the general principles of cumula-tive attraction,mutual compatibility, and mutual benefit should be adhered to as closely as possible, although they may have to be modified in cases due to other planning con-siderations. The actual distribution and grouping of the various activities and fac i l i t i e s must be based upon the principles previously mentioned concerning the design of planned shop-ping centres, which in reality, form part of the research analysis of the various relevant factors. Attention must now be turned to the actual creation of a master plan for the stabilization and revitalization programme. Planning The third major element in the revitalization and 195 stabilization programme i s the actual physical planning progr-amme. As has been previously noted in detail in chapter IV, the actual "planning" of the district physically can be consi-dered in three major sections: land allocation; architectural planning; and site planning. Each of these major sections-of physical planning w i l l now be considered, as they might apply to downtown Ladner. Land Allocation The most fundamental aspect to the whole programme i s the question of how much land is required for the downtown dis-t r i c t . In addition consideration must be given to how much land is required for each of the various "types" of land uses. The f i r s t step to this problem is to consider the amount of floor space that is currently allocated to the vari-ous downtown activities; then to consider how much floor space will be allocated to the various downtown activities in the hor-izon year; and last to how much land space is required for each type of activity for the given amount of future floor space. The current floor area is based on a survey of the ex-isting downtown situation. The future floor area is based upon a prediction of the future floor area required to adequately accommodate the anticipated activities needed to serve the expected future population. The amount of land area required for the various activities for each square.foot of floor area is based upon various planning principles, bearing in mind economics, aesthetics, sociological changes, possibility of 196 error, health, welfare, safety, and so on. Table V, which shows the distribution of the total floor area among the various activities for 1960 and for the horizon year has been based upon an analysis of the downtown district, the trade area, and the situation of downtown Ladner within the metropolitan community. Table VI translates the floor areas into the actual am-ount of land required for the various major types of compatible activities, and concludes with an overall estimate of 41 acres being required for the downtown district by the horizon year. The actual floor area allocations that have been made are based primarily on the amount of floor space that will be needed to accommodate the horizon population of 9,000 for cer-tain activities, as well as that needed to accommodate the mun-icipal population of 34,000 which is expected within the next twelve to fifteen years. The amount of land area required to make these floor area activities attractive in both an aesth-etic and a convenience sense, was based upon those land alloc-ation concepts that have been responsible for so much of the success of the modern planned shopping centres. This added space was primarily in the form of parking, circulation, servicing and landscaping, but would include smaller items such as play areas, convenience facilities such as sitting areas, buffer zones within the site, and so on. Based upon the table VI, by the horizon year the retail activities will require 677,650 square feet for ret a i l space, storage, parking, circulation, servicing, promotion, 197 TABLE V FLOOR AREA DISTRIBUTION AMONG ACTIVITIES RETAIL 1960 food 8% cafes 2 clothing 1 variety 3 miscellaneous 12 service trades 4 medical 2 TOTAL 32% Entertainment miscellaneous recreation beer parlours theatres 7 organizations 9 TOTAL 16 Transient Residential 1 Office and Finance 4 Municipal Government 1 Special Post office, library, police, fire hall, telephone 3 Service Industries service stations 3 transportation 6 warehouse and storage 7 industrial 10 TOTAL 26 Vacant 4 TOTAL FLOOR AREA 246,000 Horizon Tear 4% 2 5 5 12 4 2 32% 8 7 3 15 1 3 3 8 11 4 15 25 600,000 square feet. 198 and landscaping. In the same manner service industrial acti-vities will require 529,410 square feet of land area; office activities w i l l require 275,300 square feet, entertainment w i l l require 211,765 square feet; and transient residential will require 55,060 square feet. The relative importance of each major activity can be seen in chart I (see Figure XXVI), which is the same aerial scale as the Ladner Commercial Dis-trict Study Maps. TABLE VI DOWNTOWN LADNER: HORIZON YEAR LAND ALLOCATION - ... AND REQUIREMENTS . .. The total site area required for the horizon year i s 1,783,000 sq. f t . or 41 acres. HEAVY DAYTIME VEHICULAR ATTRACTORS sq. f t . sq. f t . Retail 677,650 retai l floor area @ 32% total f1. area 192,000 retail parking @ 2:1 (parking:retail) 384,000 landscaping @ 15% of site area 101,650 Service industries total site area 529,410 service industries floor area @ 25%site 150,000 service industries parking @ 2:1 300,000 landscaping @ 15% of site area 79,410 LONG TERM PARKING Office, and finance total site area 275,300 office and finance floor area <§ 15%site 90,000 office etc. parking at 1 auto/250 -sq. f t . f l . 144,000 landscaping @ 15% of site area 41,300 Transient residential total site area 55,060 transient residential floor area @ 3% 18,000 transient residential parking @ 1 auto per 250 sq. f t . floor area 28,800 landscaping @ 15% of site area 8,260 SITE AREA: HORIZON YEAR R e t a i l Parking _ _ J R e t a i l Floor Space and Landscaping TIbtal Area: 1,783,000 SQ.FTT. or kl ACRESr Special Service Industry, Landscaping, and Parking Translent Residentia Parking Transient Accommo-dation Office Parking Additional Entertain-ment Parking Office Floor Space, and Landscaping Entertain-ment , Floor Space, anc Landscapir j FIGURE XXVI 199 TABLE VI — continued sq. f t . sq. f t . PREDOMINANTLY EVENING USES Entertainment total site area entertainment at 15% of floor area entertainment parking (in addition to use of other commercial parking space) 1:1 landscaping @ 15% of site area 90,000 31,765 90,000 211,765 SPECIAL DOWNTOWN USES And to allow flexibility, total site area special downtown uses @ 5% floor area landscaping 34,315 30,000 4,315 TOTAL SITE AREA 1,783,000 square feet. In addition a site of from five to ten acres, accord-ing to consultants who have made the study for Ladner, should be set aside for a municipal hall, police station, and other possible municipal government activities, such as a school board office, and so on. The most desirable location for such a grouping would be immediately adjacent to, but not within the downtown district. The most practical good loca-tion would appear to be immediately across the Chilukthan Slough from the downtown district. This site is virtually vacant; partly owned by the municipality; and, in addition, provides numerous opportunities for development in conjunction with the downtown district. corning the major land allocations is that they are made for the horizon year, which might occur anywhere from ten to twenty years hence. Accordingly staging wi l l play a c r i t i -Another consideration that must be born in mind con-200 cal role in the development of the downtown district. Architectural Planning The architectural treatment is one of the most c r i t i -cal and also one of the most difficult, for the revitalization programme. The architectural aspect of the programme has already been dealt with at some length in chapter IV, and accordingly those various devices will not be repeated. Primarily the revitalization plan should take the best from a l l "worlds", and transform downtown Ladner into this end product. This would mean realizing in downtown Ladner a l l the advantages or assets of the planned shopping centre, those of the central business district, as well as those obscure and dormant factors of the downtown district's character, which make i t unique. It is especially this last aspect, when amplified and exalted through the use of the former two con-cepts, which should provide the main strength, attraction, and stability to downtown Ladner. Many of these elements can best be "brought out" through the proper architectural treatment. Among the var-ious factors that must be considered are: a strong unifying element; the variety of activities and the atmosphere of excitement; the pleasantness of the area; the convenience of the area; the character and uniqueness of the district; and so on. Character of Ladner The shopping centre design should create a function-ally sound relationship between the activities, convenience 201 for a l l persons concerned, and a physically attractive, infor-mal, and pleasant district. The downtown characteristics should provide variety, excitement, hustle and bustle, and a l l the other factors that make the downtown districts attractive. The uniqueness or character of downtown Ladner wil l be based primarily on its past but also on its present. Ladner is one of the oldest fishing settlements in the Lower Mainland, and this is s t i l l an important local activity. The fish boat, as well as the pleasure boat, mooring currently forms an intim-ate part of the downtown district. The downtown's relation-ship to the harbour ought to be utilized to a greater extent. Other cities have created a great tourist attraction and show piece out of a fishing harbour. To date no place in the Lower Mainland has so utilized its harbour, and, in fact, few settlements have so ideally located a harbour as Ladner has. This provides one ideal method to bring out some of the his-tory, glamour, and grandeur of Ladner*s past. Various methods could be used to achieve this. Some of the old sheds, which are already rotten and beginning to crumble, the old skeleton-like remains of former docks, and the decrepit old house boats and barges, should be removed. This whole area could easily be cleaned up. The activities dealing with boating, boat repairs, sales, and so on could be grouped along some more confined portion of the waterfront. The marina could be enlarged to provide accommodation for a l l the fish boats, as well as the pleasure and other commercial craft, in a more concentrated, 202 convenient, and visible area. To make this water-oriented concentration visible to the curious and interested a cafe could be located along the waterfront with an adequate vant-age point to over-look the whole harbour. To many people the real character, l i f e , excitement, and uniqueness, of fishing and boating with a l l they entail, are seen only in the movie-theatre. With a large enough con-centration of these types of activities and vessels (which do presently exist in adequate number around the district), adequate and convenient facilities to accommodate tourists, boat owners, the curious, and merely the romanticists; the fisherman's wharf and the marina could become a landmark or characteristic of downtown Ladner. The existence of the fishing fleet, the private boats, the exciting and potential mooring fac i l i t i e s , the boat repairing activities, their prox-imity to downtown Ladner and to the large park, a l l provide a very real and desirable attribute to exploit. Basically Ladner has always been a fishing village and a service centre for the surrounding agricultural area. The surrounding area is considered among the best agricultural acreage in the Pacific North West. Currently there is no location in Metropolitan Vancouver that has attempted to create an outdoor market place based upon the produce of the farm and the fish fleet. Since none exists, there wi l l be no competition for such an activity, and, in fact, the mere existence of such a market, due to its uniqueness, wi l l be an attraction to people be they local residents, metropolitan 203 residents, or tourists. The i n i t i a l attraction w i l l probably be curiosity, but the bargains, fresh food, the different shopping atmosphere, the various other attractions, such as easy access, parking, and so on, could make i t become a very lasting activity, which could greatly aid the whole downtown district. A properly planned and conducted open market, correct-ly related to parking and the other downtown activities, could provide an ideal method for improving the trade of the down-town activities, as well as provide a market for the local farmers and fishermen, and bring out the "real character" of the municipality. One of the most c r i t i c a l aspects of this operation would be the promotion, related with the other attractions and activities of Ladner. One aspect that should be considered in connection with the open-air market is a central plaza. This could provide an ideal focal point, heart, or centre for the com-munity, which is currently missing. It should be large enough to be used for a variety of activities, such as an open-air market, open-air dances, out-of-door displays, open-air concerts, contest judging (such as "beauty queens", or "May Day queens"), for public announcements, and so on, but i t must not be so large or unconfined as to lose i t s identity, unity, or intimateness. The architectural treatment of this open space is one of the most cr i t i c a l aspects the programme will cover. In fact the architectural treatment is really the 204 cr i t i c a l aspect required to "bring out" the required charac-ter for each of these major "special attractions". But in addition the architectural aspects will play a very Important role in developing the other aspects that are also considered important, such as unity, variety, and so on. Site Planning The land allocation and the distribution must be guided by certain fundamental stabilization and revitalization site planning concepts and principles. They have been dealt with at some length in the chapter IV, dealing with the re-vitalization programme theory. They include such aspects as: a ring road; a buffer zone; convenient access; a collar of off-street parking; nucleations of vehicular-oriented acti-vities isolated and insulated from nucleations of pedestrian-oriented activities; pedestrian malls, plazas, and arcades; and properly interlated activities and f a c i l i t i e s . 'In addition, the land allocation and distribution must take into account current retailing factors — such as: the grouping of mutually compatible and mutually beneficial acti-vities; the relationship of activity groupings to parking lots; relationship of minor activities to the major "magnetic" activities; and so on — as well as sociological changes that are occurring and wi l l continue to occur. The land allocation and distribution must also take into account, with specific relation to the staging of the revitalization programme: the age of structures; condition of structures; the value of structures; the use of structures; 205 existing fac i l i t i e s and u t i l i t i e s ; vacant land; and the other facets that have already been considered. The Master Plan The organization work, the research, and the various aspects of planning are expected to reach fruition in the master plan for the district. The master plan wi l l have to take into account a l l the factors that have already been con-sidered, but now with particular emphasis on the particular physical site under consideration, the character of the area and the development that has taken place, as well as the staging of the plan's implementation. The major elements of the plan will be considered in the following paragraphs, but in order to fully appreciate each element, they must be considered in the light of a l l the previous chapters. Access Direct, convenient, adequate, and safe access is one vital aspect of this plan. In addition the access should be such as not to affect detrimentally the adjoining activities residential, commercial, institutional, etc. Accordingly i t is necessary to make the access roads of adequate width to carry the anticipated traffic, as well as to insulate and isolate them. The access road directly to the east (the Ladner Trunk Road) is the only partially satisfactory road at the moment, but i t could be considered adequate provided that the five-way intersection at the downtown entrance were improved. This is accomplished in the plan by removing 1 LAND USE MASTER PLAN LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT STUDY ACCESS. AND RIHGTKOADS RETAlIi CONCENTRATION , .V HSl&VJGE INDUSTRIES. 'V ENfeT'A'rHjWENT \.'. • v . P -.OFFicE-, FjMAfics. .>mn£t&'h\ ft*-4 FIGURE XXVII 206 Arthur Drive (running to the south-east) and transforming Elliott Street into merely a service road. Arthur Drive which provides access from the south inlanders along the slough. If the residences, which are now generally located on very small shallow lots, were removed, a park-like atmosphere easily could be created along this tree-lined access route. This would aid the residences, traf-f i c , and the settlement in general. Access to the west would be provided by a direct road running along the water front. This would provide a major direct access road to downtown (in preference to the present condition of a large number of narrow streets which f i l t e r traffic through residential areas often along roads construc-ted with right angle turns). Access to the north-east would be moved from running through the residential district to running along the dyke. This would straighten the access road, prevent the cutting up of the district, remove the detrimental effect of through-traffic, and facilitate the introduction of a wider access road. Ring Road A ring road provides definite limits to the downtown district, thereby facilitating the creation of a major focal point for the community. This road acts as an isolating and insulating element between the surrounding residential and the inner commercial activities. It also facilitates the movement of through-traffic past the downtown district, with-207 out detrimentally affecting the downtown district, but at the same time provide a smoother and more convenient distribution of traffic among the various activities and circulation bet-ween the major nuclei within the downtown district. Replotting, which can be relatively easily accompli-shed in this situation, is required at the south-west and south-east corners of downtown Ladner. Along the westerly side a road exchange is required. Land purchases and road exchanges wil l be required for the north-east access road and corner of the ring road. The north-easterly side of the ring road would be an entirely newly dedicated road, through pres-ently vacant, but residentially zoned, land. The south side of the ring road could be constructed of adequate width by widening to the north of the existing street, since the land, which will also be needed for addit-ional off-street parking, is occupied by old residential houses which are in relatively poor condition. Their declin-ing condition is partly a result of the lack of insulation from the detrimental effects of the adjoining rear-view of the commercial district. Municipal Concentration Estimates concerning the amount of land required for the Delta Municipal Hall make i t necessary, desirable, and feasible to locate i t outside, but immediately adjacent to, the downtown district. The north-easterly bank of Chilukthan Slough provides an ideal location. Currently Chilukthan Slough is an "eyesore", and, accordingly, detrimental to the 208 community of Ladner. But i t does provide a definite asset to the district, provided that i t is properly used. Some residences have already shown how easily i t can be improved. This inland strip of water, separating the commercial area from the future government concentration, and providing a park belt within the downtown district, is a very important element in the downtown development plan. This park belt pro-vides a connection between the large new park (proposed by the municipal planning department in Ladner for the north side of Ladner Reach), and the downtown district, the government concentration, and the residential districts. Service Industries There wil l be three main concentrations of service industrial activities. Along the waterfront wi l l be the service industries which cater to the water oriented trade — boat sales, service, storage, and so on. These will be pro-vided for the commercial as well as the pleasure craft. In* addition facilities w i l l be provided for the launching of water-craft, which vary in size from row boats to large fish-ing boats. The two remaining major service industry concentra-tions will be of a different character. The concentration in the centre of the district will be devoted primarily to acti-vities for storage or transportation, and not to activities which must depend on proximity to a large traffic flow. This interior service industry activity concentration — which is devoted predominantly to this type of activity at present — 209 will be the farthest removed from the ring road and the direct flow of traffic, but i t will be nearest to the largest number of retail activities, which might demand its services --storage fac i l i t i e s or transportation service. The other service industry nucleus will be devoted to activities which cater to vehicular traffic, such as automo-bile sales, automobile rentals, automotive accessories, rep-airs, servicing, lumber yards and so on. This nucleus will be adjacent to the ring road, on the access road to two large parking areas, and visible from the largest percentage of vehicles entering the district. One small service industry type of activity is the bus station which would be located adjacent to the retail activi-ties, adjacent to an existing and a future hotel, as well as adjacent to abundant parking. Currently this area is used as a garage, service station, and an outdoor bus station. Entertainment The entertainment facilities are grouped along the ring road, within the downtown district, near the various downtown activities and their parking, but physically separa-ted from them. In addition due to the potential tourist trade, that could be attracted by the introduction of a marina, a "fisherman's wharf", and a large outdoor passive and active recreation park, this location could attract customers who could come exclusively to utilize these fac i l i t i e s and yet not detrimentally affect the other activities, or who could easily 210 walk from the retail or other activities in downtown Ladner. There is the added advantage that this location could easily use the public parking facilities during the hours that the other activities are generally dormant. Since some of the activities will cater to tourists, who would be interested in seeing the l i f e and activity on the fisherman*s wharf, a restaurant should be located out over the water but high enough to provide good vision. One ideal location could be above an existing large building situated there. In addit-ion this structure could serve as one end to a suspension bridge from the park, thereby joining the park area direct-ly to downtown Ladner and in particular, to the recreation nucleus. Among other things, a canopy and landscaped walk-way should tie together the entertainment f a c i l i t i e s . In addition arcades could be used successfully to connect these entertainment facilities with the off-street parking. Along these arcades could be located the various novelty shops, cigar stores, and small cafes, which are generally required with any successful entertainment concentration. Retail The retail activities form the core to the downtown district, for they are basically its main attraction. The highest concentration of retail activities will occur around a central plaza, which wil l be at the Delta-Westham Street intersection. This two-hundred by three-hundred foot trian-gular open space will be surrounded by retail stores at ground level, and by office and finance activities at the 211 second and third floor levels. A parklike walk-way will join this plaza to the government and private office concentrations along the slough, and will also provide pedestrian access from the residential district to the north-east as well as from the parking lots. Access to the plaza from the north-east will be through a pedestrian arcade, which will be lined with small shops. There will be a similar type of arcade to the south. The western corner of the plaza is intended as an open-air market place, with vehicular access provided to its extreme outer edge. Surrounding the plaza, as well as along the other retail and entertainment streets, will be a covered walkway, or canopy. Within the plaza will be located one or two summer outdoor cafes, which will be really only external extensions of indoor cafes around the plaza. Distributed around the plaza will be park benches, flower pots, trees, and some types of statuary. Directly in the centre of the plaza, commanding a dominant location by being set somewhat away from other object, should be a rela-tively large water fountain, which will, in some way, indi-cate the fishing and agricultural heritage of the district. This fountain is very important for i t should be unique and attractive in such a way as to form a remembered and.signi-ficant symbol of downtown Ladner, as well as, in a sense, be a symbol of the "raison d'etre* for the downtown district. At one corner of the plaza stands a quaint old white church, with a t a l l spire, set amongst large green bushy trees. This church spire forms a visual focal point at one 212 end of the parkway with the future municipal hall forming the other end, and the passage through the arcade causing either of these items to "burst" into view and yet definitely term-inate the vista. There is the added use of this church spire as a dominant landmark. With its height, i t is readily notic-eable from any part of the downtown district. This makes finding the exact location of the plaza an easy task no matter what direction you approach from. The required street closure and replotting to achieve this plaza is rather minor, thereby making i t an entirely feasible operation. The rest of Delta Street to the north east, in addit-ion to Bridge Street, could eventually be transformed into pedestrian malls, but this would occur at some future date — depending on the success and acceptance of the southern plaza and pedestrian mall. The immediate concern with these street would be to improve their appearance and the walking conditions. Two arcades would provide this northern portion of Delta Street with access to the off-street parking directly behind i t . In a sense each of these arcades would enter the street by a small enclosure or small plaza, around which would be grouped stores. Off-Street Parking Off-street parking is located directly in relation to the distribution of the various activities and to the ring road. Accordingly the parking, to a very great extent, is easily visible and accessible from the ring road and from the 213 activity i t is serving. The land used for parking in this plan is currently occupied mainly by vacant land, or obsol-ete residential structures or improperly located service industry activities. The maximum walking distance from the retail shops to the extreme outer edge of the parking lots is up to three hundred and f i f t y feet, but the preponderance of vehicular stalls are within two hundred feet of the shops. Residential Immediately adjacent to the downtown ring roads on a l l sides would be predominantly multiple-family dwellings. This would increase the population density within walk-in distance of the downtown district, thereby facilitating the servicing of this population, increase the economic operation of downtown, as well as use the ring road and major access roads to move the population to work, to entertainment, or to shop. Transient Residential There w i l l be no one concentration of transient resi-dential accommodation but rather a general dispersal through-out the downtown district. Accommodation should be provided adjacent to the central plaza and malls, but not in such a fashion as to create any "dead" ground floor retail frontage. It would be preferable to have the hotel above the ground floor shops, perhaps even amongst the offices, in order to provide nearby customers for the shops, and nearby services for the transient residents. Transient accommodation would also be provided above the entertainment facilities, in such 214 a manner as to be utilized by those using the marina f a c i l i -ties, entertainment facilities, and recreation fa c i l i t i e s . Another type of transient accommodation could be provided in the quiet setting above the offices and medical buildings facing the Chilukthan Slough Parkway and the municipal con-centration. This, in a sense, is a central point between the entertainment, retail, and municipal concentration. Expansion Space Any unanticipated demand for expansion, as well as the expected continuous growth, should preferably go in a vertical direction rather than in a horizontal direction. In addition the ground floor space could be used more intensively, and could accordingly accommodate a larger amount of activities. Since much of the success of the plan depends on the concen-tration of activities, this vertical expansion is a definite-ly desirable occurrence. No future expansion should be made at the expense of the off-street parking fa c i l i t i e s . The amount of off-street parking is already at a minimum for the amount of activities located in the downtown district. At some future date, due to this minimum standard of parking space allocated, vertical parking accommodation or mass transit will be required. But even i f these facilities are provided, since off-street park-ing is such a vital attraction, which will in.all probability increase in strength in the future, i t should not be taken over by retail activities — merely because i t is cheaper to allow horizontal rather than vertical expansion — for this 215 w i l l inevitably be a self-defeating purpose. If i t is found necessary to expand into the parking area, adequate off-street parking within the commercial buildings, should be provided to compensate for the conscripted parking space, as well as to meet the requirements of the added retail floor area. An-other possible exception in order to allow future expansion to take over the off-street parking space, is technological change. If the private automobile is replaced by some means of transportation which will not require the automobile and its parking space in the downtown area, then the plan's off-street parking space can be utilized for commercial expan-sion. Master Plan Implementation A crutial and integral part of the master plan imple-mentation i s the sequence that the desired end-product will be affected. The various aspects of the development — private and public — must be coordinated and interrelated in such a manner as to achieve the greatest benefit for each individual activity, each type of activity, the downtown dis-trict as a whole, and the whole community; with the ultimate stage of development culminating in the completely implemented master plan. The master plan is intended as a general guide for the future development, of the downtown district and each stage of development, or each "comprehensive plan", should achieve certain definite ends, in itself, as well as the more impor-tant "long term" goals. 216 It should be stressed at this point, that, although the plan is a general guide for development, i t must be dynamic, "on going", and evolving rather than static. Since conditions are changing (and, in fact, changing so rapidly and radically), no current plan can accurately anticipate the best solution for future problems or conditions. It is there-fore desirable that the master plan be implemented in stages, and that at the end of each stage the whole plan be re-eval-uated in the light of the current, and anticipated future, conditions and experience — bearing in mind the desired goals of downtown stabilization, revitalization, and optimum satis-faction. Based upon past, current and anticipated future con-ditions, the proposed master plan for Downtown Ladner has been created to best achieve the desired ends, but i t is realized that at some future date i t may require some degree of alteration. The mere production of a "plan" or guide for develop-ment by itself is virtually useless. It must be used con-stantly by those in a l l sectors of the economy — which in our ease would mean particularly the municipal organization and the "downtown improvement organization", as well as numerous activities which make up the downtown district. In addition, certain definite and positive steps must be taken by both of these organizations to assure that the desired end wil l be achieved. This could be called the catalytic approach to master plan implementation. Within the community there are certain facilities, 217 ut i l i t i e s , and activities, which, i f properly introduced, will initiate a succession of results. It is necessary to anticipate the end result that will occur with the intro-duction of each element into the district. In this way, with the introduction of the proper composition of elements, the desired goal — the implemented master plan -- will be ach-ieved. It is the responsibility of these two organizations working together, to introduce the necessary elements in order to achieve the desired end. In addition i t is the responsibility of especially the municipal organization, but also the "downtown improvement organization", to utilize its police powers — zoning, building inspection, sanitation, engineering, and so on — to prevent any obstruction from arising, or deviation from occurring, which could detrimen-tally affect the implementation of the plan. Among the most important elements that can be intro-duced to achieve the desired end, is a strong attraction, such as a department store, supermarket, marina, and so on. These strong "attractions" will attract customers and other smaller individually weaker shops to their proximity. Since they are relatively large and important, they also introduce a certain element of stability into the area. Various methods have been used to attract these types of activities. Among the most important requirements needed to attract them are: adequate demand or customers, space, uti l i t i e s , facilities, access, circulation, the proper rela-tionship to the other activities, and so on. There are 218 numerous large organizations, which, i f properly approached with statistical data concerning the district, its assets, and its potentialities, could probably be attracted to the dis-t r i c t . It would be primarily the responsibility of the down-town improvement organization to prepare, document, and dis-tribute such information. Such a strong organized approach, especially with the proper and attractive information, cannot help but be rewarding. But i t is necessary to take positive steps to attract the desirable activities. The introduction and maintenance of the proper fac-i l i t i e s by the municipality is a necessary adjunct to the attraction of desirable activities. The provision of ade-quate vehicular access, circulation, accommodation, u t i l i t i e s , and other public facilities, properly controlled and planned future development, and so on, a l l aid in the creation of a district which is stable and attractive to the desirable type of activities. The proper relation between the new and the existing activities is also an important aspect of the development. This "indirect" land use control, possessed by a l l municipalities, has often been under-estimated. Character-istically, municipalities own a large percentage of the community's real estate, and are very heavy investors of capital in the land — such as in streets, sewer and water lines, dykes, drainage systems, schools, municipal buildings, and so on. By regulating the supply, quality, and quantity of these public services, the municipality indirectly effects 219 and influences private development. The controlled use of municipal improvements within an overall planning framework has been termed a "Capital Improvements Programme". The real essence of such a programme is that i t sets out the future policy of the community on long range development, and pro-vides a policy framework within which municipal capital im-provements are undertaken. Essentially this approach is the long range comprehensive programming of physical fac i l i t i e s , which are considered necessary or desirable, and a statement of future financial policy to realize and to guide the development of these fa c i l i t i e s . Although many of the facilities, such as roads, sewer and water lines, the major park areas, and attractive app-roaches to the district are the entire responsibility of the municipality; implementation of the Master Plan will also depend on the action of other included groups. For example individual store improvement is the responsibility of each proprietor; and the promotion of the entire district, and the attraction of desirable activities, are the responsibility of the "downtown improvement organization". In addition, there are many aspects which will require the cooperative efforts of both organizations as well as of the individual , proprietors. Such cooperation is needed for the integrated and cooperative facade design; the introduction of common facilities, such as a canopy, the mall, and plaza landscap-ing, common parking facilities, park walkways, play areas, and pedestrian arcades. 220 Staging of Development  Current Stage of the Plan Within Downtown Ladner, there are numerous activi-ties, or types of activities, which are properly located with relation to any long term approach to the revitaliza-tion and stabilization of the district. Figures XXIX and XXX show the location of those land uses and structures, which are acceptably located, as well as current property lines, in relation to the proposed master plan. Basically, they will form the skeleton around which the future development of the district w i l l take place. The existing activities which are not included as acceptable require either removal, replacement, transfor-mation into a desirable conforming and compatible type of activity, and preferably in the order proposed by the follow-ing stages of development. Stage I The primary concern of the i n i t i a l stage of develop-ment is to create one dominant central focus for the district, as well as numerous sub-foci. It is mainly around these focal points that the future development will be directed. The most important aspect of the fir s t stage is the creation of a central focus or heart of the community. This wil l take place in and around the central plaza. At least one additional strong customer-attractor, and the other att-racted smaller and weaker retail activities, should be lo-cated around the plaza in order to increase its cumulative BUILDING PATTERN FIGURE XXVIII s LAND SUBDIVISION PATTERN ' • »• \ V . .V-'' * • ..r>'. >V r-c,'.,,*sr,.wy:«; - ' v ' i ^ . ~ •«.*•<..• '4 5 FIGURE XXIX LAND USE 1960 LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U P X , ACCESS AND RING ROADS RETAIL CONCENTRATION SERVICE INDUSTRIES ENTERTAINMENT OFFICE, FINANCE., MEHICAL OFF"STREET PARKING' PUBLIC PARK Sr. PARKWAYi PEDESTRIAN MALL. POTENTIAL MALL MULTII FAMILY? RESIDENTIAL. FIGURE XXX S T A G E LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y ACCESS AND BING ROADS RETAIL CONCENTSATION SER '/ICE ItfDUSrRJXS E NTERT A I NMS'NT O F F I C E , FINANCE", MEHICA.L OFF'STREET' PARKING'.. PUBLIC PARK & PARKWAY'-. PEDESTRIAN MAXIi-POTENTIAL HALL-MULT I! FAMILY- R E S I D E N T I A L . mm FIGURE XXXI FIGURE XXXII 221 attraction. The ground floor around the plaza and pedestrian mall will be devoted exclusively to pedestrian-oriented retail activities, but office, finance, medical, transient-residenti-al, and other desirable activities, will be allowed on the floors above ground level. Two of the current small parking lots are transformed into part of the pedestrian plaza; southern Delta Street is cut off and retained exclusively for pedestrian use; and off-street parking is provided at either side of the plaza — on one side by transforming a large open lumber storage yard into parking space, and on the other side by transforming a strip of redundant street area into a walkway and a parking lot. The concentration of entertainment fac i l i t i e s is initiated by the transference of the I.O.O.F. lodge from along Delta Street to a location facing the waterfront. The Canadian Legion, which requires space for expansion, wi l l also be located in this same area. Similarly other fraternal and entertainment fac i l i t i e s should be located here to form a real entertainment and social nucleus. The waterfront needs to be cleaned up. A decrepit old storage shed and an old skeleton of a wharf should be re-placed by a modern marina with provisions for commercial and pleasure craft. In conjunction with the boat accommodation, facilities for the sales and maintenance of boats w i l l be allowed in this water-oriented activity concentration. In order to improve the access to the downtown dis-222 trict, the south-eastern corner's five-way intersection requires improvement. To accomplish this: Elliott Street is closed to through traffic; a new street is provided on the north east side of Chilukthan Slough, which w i l l allow through traffic to easily by-pass the downtown district. Stage 2 In this stage, retailing once again i s the most cri t i c a l aspect considered. The pedestrian mall and plaza are extended in size; the retail concentration around this district is increased; and additional convenient parking accommodation is provided for this area. The northern portion of Delta Street is now also landscaped and the bulk of the new retailing activities are located in this area. Abundant adjoining parking accom-modation is also provided for this area. A separate municipal concentration is created along the Slough facing onto a landscaped finger of water, and joined to the central plaza by a pedestrian landscaped walk-way. In relatively close proximity to the municipal con-centration, the landscaped walkway and park, and parking accommodation is an office-medical concentration. At about this stage attention should be concerned with the development of multiple family dwellings to the south-east and south-west of Downtown Ladner adjoining the circulation system and activity concentrations. One c r i t i c a l aspect in this stage of development is the improvement of vehicular access and circulation. In the 223 plan the bulk of the traffic is removed from narrow Westham Street and more easily accommodated along a widened street to the south. In addition, the south-east access provisions are improved by the introduction of a straightened, more direct route with fewer intersecting and dangerous streets. Stage 3 The most significant aspect of this stage i s the completion of the ring road and pedestrian mall, and the introduction of a new direct access route to the north-east. In conjunction with these steps, additional off-street park-ing accommodation has been provided, the entertainment con-centration has been expanded, and multiple-family residential accommodation has been extended to the west. In addition the municipal and office concentration has expanded, and the retail concentration surrounding the central plaza has been completed. Stage 4 Due to the increased concentration of people and other activities to the west, a direct access road is provided along the waterfront. With the completed f i l l i n g - i n of multi-ple-family residential accommodation uses to the west, an extension of this type of activity should be allowed to the east, but with the greatest density nearest to the ring-road. Parks, park walk- and park drive-ways play a rather significant role in this stage of development. Most of the area within the downtown district w i l l have been improved and now most development will occur in a vertical and FIGURE XXXIII '.'.•^'::-S>.-'>Tw ^ ^ ^ 5 T A [LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT S T U D Y \ < \ V-' \ y y y X', \ v V \ f l f H ACCESS AND RING SOA IK RET.A LF. C ^ C O a W - T I O N SERVICE. I?JDU»STFfrt-'i ENTERTAINMENT O F F I C E , FINANCE, ME810AL O F F ' S T R E E T PARXiNO PUBL-IC PARK fe- PARKWAY PEDES TR I A N M A L L P O T E N T I A L M A L L " M ' J L T I . F A M I L Y ^ S I C f c N T l A L X w m m x V X A A y y A A.. A - J - — ~i r i . — i — i — , — i • • • .'• a a la • a l a • k • _ • • • • * • • * • • a a la a a la a a i a a a " " • . • a a a a ^ a a • • J ' a a j a • a j a • • • la a a j a a a • a |a a a l a a a l a FIGURE XXXIV 224 concentrated fashion rather than horizontally. With this increased density, greater attention must be focused on the open and green spaces. The main approaches — to the west, north and south — should be improved by a greater use of landscaping, and in addition direct access should be provided to the park across Ladner Beach. With the completion of this stage of development the fully implemented master plan should have been achieved, and the downtown district will have been stabilized and revital-ized. L A N D USE MASTER P L A N I kX-'Aiv-.V.-V.V' LADNER COMMERCIAL DISTRICT STUDY ACCESS AND RING ROADS R E T A I L CONCENTRATION SERVICE INDUSTRIES . ENTERTAINMENT' OFFICE, FINANCE, M E S I C A L OFF'STREET PARKING• PUBLIC PARK & PARKWAY-' PEDESTRIAN MALL. POTENTIAL MALL MULTIL FAMILYA RESIDENTIAL, v/.v.v.v.-Xy.y^ Jc»tF7» mr FIGURE XXXV 225 References 1An unpublished report to Delta Municipality by a firm of architects concerned with the requirements for a new municipal hall. o Source: "Population, Density and Households", Population and Land Use Forecasts, a study, on Highway Planning, Part 2, Technical Report No. 1,-Technical Committee for Metro-politan Highway Planning, Metropolitan Vancouver, B.C., 1958, Table 2. 3 Unpublished report to Delta Municipality by a firm of architects concerning requirements for a new municipal hall. CHAPTER VIII CONCLUSIONS With the rapid growth of our metropolitan areas, numerous formerly rural towns and villages have become en-compassed by a spreading metropolitan urbanism. Some older rural-established commercial districts have inadequately: ad-justed to the new and different demands being made upon them, with the consequent result that many of these districts have already become blighted areas, and many others are rapidly decaying or declining, and will imminently become "commercial slums". Although each of these older-established commercial districts makes up only a small percentage of the whole metropolitan commercial area, as a group they amount to a large proportion of the total commercial area. Not only is the private and public investment associated with them large, but the functions performed are considerable. Generally, the further that the commercial district is located from the main metropolitan central business district, the greater the number of functions i t performs, and the more dependent are the people on the services provided by the district. In the main the older rural-established commercial districts, since they are located in formerly rural, agriculturally-utilized areas, 227 are further from the main metropolitan central business dis-trict : accordingly, these rural-established districts f u l f i l l a relatively more important function in the lives of the people whom they serve, than commercial districts nearer the main metropolitan central business district. It is really only since the end of World War II that any attention has been directed toward the older urban-estab-lished outlying commercial district — and even this attention has been rather meagre when i t is considered in relation to the work on planned shopping centres, urban redevelopment, freeways, subdivisions, and so on. The relative importance — tax revenue, personal income, return on investment, cus-tomer service and convenience — of these generally strategi-cally located districts would seem to indicate the j u s t i f i -cation — in economic or social terms — for greater atten-tion to these districts. The older rural-established, recently metropolitan-encompassed commercial districts appear to have been entirely neglected. But, not only are the tax revenues, personal in-come, and investment returns as great as in the outlying com-mercial districts, the customer service and convenience are considerably greater — with the customer being far more dependent for a greater variety of functions on these rural-established districts — than on the outlying commercial dis-tricts. With our continually expanding metropolitan areas, more and more of the older rural-established commercial 228 districts will become encompassed by the metropolitan urban, or suburban, growth. The continued existence of these older districts —- which are presently performing a very important function — is doubtful, unless some definite, positive, and imaginative steps are taken to improve the current situation and trend. It is, in many cases, desirable, necessary, and feas-ible to halt and, in fact, to reverse the trend of the declin-ing condition that exists in many of the older rural-estab-lished recently metropolitan-encompassed commercial districts. This desired stabilization and revitalization can be achieved through the application of the principles and experience — derived from modern planned shopping centres and from revital-ized outlying or downtown urban commercial districts — related directly to the particular assets and li a b i l i t i e s of the considered commercial district. Such a dynamic and comprehensive stabilization and re-vitalization programme is not only necessary (in economic and social terms) but i t can be feasible and practical under current conditions without involving any large out-of-the ordinary public capital expenditure, any waste of existing private or public capital expenditure, or any deprivation of personal freedom or curtailment of free enterprise. In other words, typically the same activities — public and private — will operate in the same fundamental fashion that currently exists; generally the same public and private investment will occur as at present; but, in order to achieve greater com-229 mercial district, public, individual customer or activity operator satisfaction from the ordinary development of the district, a l l development will be directed in a comprehensive and coordinated fashion towards a single goal. The single goal, of necessity, must be articulated by the populace as a whole, or by their representatives; and the goal can be achieved by means of a programme created and implemented through the combined, coordinated, and comprehensive effort of the private sector, the public sector, and a select body of professionals. The approach used to achieve the desired end must be through a coordinated, comprehensive, and dynamic pro-gramme. Since i t involves such a complex set of problems — involving numerous different types of activities, organiz-ations, standards, minor goals, criteria, and so on — i t requires a complex approach to the problem. In addition to the comprehensive "modern" approach used by planned shopping centres — concerning economic analysis; coordinated architec-tural design, retail development, and centre operation; modern land allocation and land use relationships — there is the need for progressive community organization; for the most ad-vanced thinking concerning redevelopment, land ownership, government participation, finance, economic stability, the continually evolving community and the resultant changing demands, and the economic, social and physical interdependence of individual activities and facilities — a l l of which are required for a successful revitalization programme. 230 Possibly the one outstanding aspect of this revital-ization programme, that is in need of greater attention, is the methods for programme implementation. In particular this would mean more attention concerning such aspects as the type of organization best suited for such a programme; the type of administration for the programme; new zoning regulations; greater attention on capital programming; methods to finance such a programme; and the type, or combination of types, of ownership required for such a programme. Implementation is one of the most cr i t i c a l aspects of the whole revitalization programme, and certainly is worthy of more attention. With-out a realistic, and yet bold new, approach to implementation, no programme is really complete or adequate. APPENDIX A THE ADOPTION OF SHOPPING CENTRE CONCEPTS BY ESTABLISHED COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS THE ADOPTION OF SHOPPING CENTRE PRINCIPLES . _BY ESTABLISHED COMMERCIAL DISTRICTS In recent years the planned shopping centre, due to its phenominal success and general acceptance by the public, has been transplanted from its suburban setting to urban surr-oundings near the heart of the city. In fact, in many cases, plans have been proposed to transform the heart of cities and towns into what would be, in reality, "planned shopping centres". Although there has been l i t t l e done in North America toward the implementation of these plans some Euro-pean cities appear to have grasped the ideas and adopted them to suit their particular situation. In North America we have limited our actual use of these principles to portions of blocks or to a few side streets, which are often based only on a "gimmick approach" with l i t t l e consideration of the exact nature of the principles or the desirability of a longer term approach. Accordingly many of the "mall" or "promotional gimmick" approaches have not been very successful. It appears that the most successful schemes are the more permanent and comprehensive approaches to utilizing the shopping centre principles. This appendix is a condensation or precis of reports and articles on some possible, proposed, or implemented pro-jects, that appear to have been based on principles similar 232 to those that are basic to the success of the planned modern shopping centre. The variations in location within the established com-mercial areas that the planned shopping centre principles have been used will be presented in the following groupings. (1) Planned Shopping Centres located Downtown. (2) Central Business Districts Transformed by the use of Plan-ned Centre Principles. (3) isolated Downtown Sections Transformed by the use of Plan-ned Centre Principles. (4) Established Outlying Commercial Districts Transformed by the use of Planned Centre Principles. (5) Promotion "Gimmicks". Planned Shopping Centres Located Downtown The Midtown Plaza in Rochester, N.Y., * is proposed as a downtown shopping centre in the central city. The sponsors claim the plaza "is a project unique in scope and approach, having the compactness, completeness and vitality characteristic of downtown, and having the atmosphere, amenities and con-veniences characteristic of the newest shopping centres" This area will contain an inner loop for circulation and a series of municipal garages for parking. In addition there will be a two story shopping plaza for more than sixty stores grouped around a landscaped mall. The plaza will be air cool-ed in summer and heated in winter. The mall wil l feature statuary, restaurants, fountains, and public displays. This project is expected to be completed by 1962. 233 The Mallpark is the Dayton, Ohio,2 shopping centre ap-proach for bringing into downtown a we11-organized and attrac-tive commercial unit. Essentially i t calls for the redevelop-ment of numerous relatively small downtown parcels, each of which would include a mall, parking garage, new buildings, and the improvement of existing buildings. The area would become a place of shaded walks, fountains, and trees. Possibly what they consider most important is the close functioning relation-ship of parking to the various retailing and office activities. Boston's "Off the CommonM Shopping Centre3 was a small scale very successful mall experiment, which has been expan-ded and appears to be achieving some degree of permanence. Vehicular traffic was removed from two side streets; flower and hedge boxes were installed; bunting was strung across the streets; the store fronts were visually improved; benches and soothing music were provided; and a charge account for any store was good for a l l the stores in that area. The mammoth Lloyd Center, in Portland, 4 Oregon, which was opened in August 1960, has been so successful that i t has created economic problems in the rest of the downtown commer-cial district. It provides 8,000 free parking places, an ice-skating rink, concerts by the Portland Symphony Orchestra, and numerous other attractions. Lloyd Center has taken over so much of the city's retail trade that merchants in other parts of town report their business off as much as 10 to 35%. 2 3 4 Central Business Districts Transformed Victor Gruen*s plan for downtown Fort Worth, Texas,5 would resemble, in many respects, some of the most modern shop-ping centres. Freeways would feed vehicular traffic into the downtown area, where a l l this traffic would be dispersed by means of a ring road with parking lots along i t encircling the commercial district. Nothing would be more than six minutes walk from a person's parked car. The streets would become walks, open air courts, interspersed with flower gardens. Sep-arate vehicular service tunnels would supply the commercial enterprises. The land would be restricted to its most prod-uctive use. Mr. Gruen emphasizes that in the core city con-cept the city centre should be small enough that a shopper can get about on foot, and attractive enough that people would want to go there. Some of the sidewalks will be covered with canopies as a means of weather protection. Sidewalk shops and cafes would use part of the mall, but generally, only as an outdoor extension to indoor fa c i l i t i e s . The Urban Land Institute felt that "the biggest prac-tical difficulty is selling the worthwhileness of the plan to the voters, who must authorize the bond to finance the plan. This difficulty is greater because "the plan was not tied in with citizen participation." They felt this was especially true since the plan was not related to economics. "Central Seattle Tomorrow"6 is an adaptation of some of the planned centre concepts. It emphasizes a more compact central area which would provide maximum efficiency for the 235 convenient exchange of information, merchandise, and services. The area will be accessible from a l l portions of the region by a radial system. Convenient circulation within the centre will bo provided by a circumferential route. Automobile park-ing facilities will be located and designed for both all-day and short-term parkers. The downtown would be created as an area where the pedestrian has priority by reducing vehicular traffic, and developing landscaped walking malls. Small parks, landscaped areas, pedestrian malls, and public plazas would serve to open up new vistas, provide points of visual interest and areas for relaxation. It is felt that this would help to create a unique "personality*! for downtown Seattle. Central Minneapolis7 is also using the concepts used or propounded by shopping centre developers and experts. This plan proposes one densely clustered compact basic central area surrounded by servicing land uses. Within the central area the various mutually compatible and beneficial uses will be grouped into compact clearly separated areas, but the groups that function best in a relationship with other func-tions will be so grouped. The activity centres in central i Minneapolis will be so located and connected as to promote convenient movement of pedestrians, and, where necessary, goods, between them with a minimum of reliance upon or con-f l i c t with vehicular movement. There shall be good access from outlying areas and complete separation of through and local traffic, as well as separation of major pedestrian and vehicular movements. Adequate convenient parking shall be 236 allocated according to the need of each section, which is dependent upon the individual character of the area. The central area should be distinctive. Those aspects which can help to clearly distinguish central Minneapolis from non-central areas and from other cities should be developed — such as history, physical features, culture, values, and econ-omics. The basic design and layout of the central areas should express the unity of the area as a whole and of its major parts. There should be a sense of order which will provide a framework for the great variety of functions and activities which are needed in the area. Consistent with the other stated objectives, the layout and details should be such as to make i t as interesting, surprising, alive and varied as possible, for example, there should be a variety in scale, in density, building heights, in sizes of open space, in architectural style, building materials, and age of structures, in types of activity, in merchandise and services displayed. There should be quiet areas, noisy areas, formal areas and informal areas, areas for play and areas for contemplation. g Downtown Portland utilizes many of the shopping centre concepts for its revitalization plan. Surrounding the area will be a circulation ring road with freeways feeding into i t , and numerous parking areas accessible from this ring road. There will be a close relationship between the promen-ade, or the exclusive pedestrian mall, the parking facilities, and the circulation plan. The promenade will be an area 237 "which invites window shopping and leisurely walking at a l l times of the day". It is to be an interesting and convenient shopping area which induces continuing improvement of merchan-dising display, good signs, and enticing entrances. A major share of the responsibility for the success of the pedestrian promenade will accordingly depend on the shopkeepers, who must enhance their shopping fa c i l i t i e s . The proponents con-ceive the promenade as an "outdoor room" with the furniture composed of "benches, bus shelters, landscaping, and varia-tions in pavement texture". The area would become "clean-cut, uncluttered, and simple in concept", and accordingly a "focusing attraction for pedestrian movement and shopping activity". 9 Downtown Toledo, Ohio, has also adopted some shopping centre principles. The proposed plan envisages the central business core surrounded by an adequate parking belt, easily accessible from circulatory streets, and within 400 feet of the core. In order to achieve "convenience, safety and appearance" the plan separates pedestrian and vehicular traffic by creating a pedestrian mall. The malls are to provide a link between the parking and shopping areas, and will be pleasing and attractive rights-of-way with trees and plants, art objects, public displays, play areas, colour, and music provided. The malls will be used only on the streets of greatest pedestrian movement. They are "not an attempt to rehabilitate a declining section of downtown", but rather a "means of enhancing the central, most intensely used parts". 2 3 8 Another improvement would be the construction of sidewalk canopies "similar, i n e f f e c t to the colonnaded shopping d i s -t r i c t s of Europe and the newer Shopping centres" i n North America. Not only w i l l they provide all-weather protection, but also tend to "add to the f e e l i n g of design unity between in d i v i d u a l structures". Arcades w i l l provide an i d e a l pos-s i b i l i t y for cooperative group action. They have a great pedestrian appeal that could be expbited e s p e c i a l l y f o r the many small shops, o f f i c e s and restaurants that e x i s t i n commercial centres. They could be a i r conditioned and used as areas f o r display, or for pedestrian "short cuts" across the long b u i l d i n g blocks. Any programme fo r improvement such as t h i s requires a "high degree of cooperation between private owners" but i t should be guided by the c i t y planning agency so as to provide proper locations and design. A study on Downtown Denver, Colorado, 1 0 has noted that "the designers of new shopping centres i n the suburbs have rediscovered from the o l d world market plaza that the pedestrian plaza i s the heart of shopping area. Accordingly the Denver plan proposes to remove automobiles from some minor streets and create more space f o r the pedestrian. This would provide more ad d i t i o n a l e f f e c t i v e display space for merchants where display cases could penetrate i n t o the mall. There would be covered arcades to eliminate the sun, heat, and inclement weather, as w e l l as provide a t t r a c t i v e landscaping, fountains and benches. But these squares and plazas must a c t u a l l y a t t r a c t crowds of people to make them i n t e r e s t i n g and l i v e l y . To do a l l t h i s i t must "take lessons 2 3 9 from the suburban shopping centres". Other basic principles adopted for downtown improvement were: a specialized d i s t r i c t for each functional land use; a loop for convenient vehicular circulation; and private remodelling and development of new buildings. They noted that "the one sure way that the busin-ess assets can be preserved i s by taking this f i r s t step to-wards a more attractive environment". The Market Street Mall for Dayton, Ohio, 1 1 i s based on two major shopping centre concepts; a pedestrian mall and additional convenient parking space. The main street w i l l be transformed into a pedestrian mall or a broad walkway inter-laced with planting areas for grass, flower boxes, shrubs, and trees. It w i l l also be used for outdoor displays and ad-juncts to adjacent commercial uses during the spring and summer as automobile shows and sidewalk cafes. Small en-closures for the sale of newspapers or soft drinks would also be in character and lend to the casual and informal nature of the area. The purpose of the mall i s to provide safe, convenient pedestrian access from the adjacent parking space to the adjacent stores and business. Along the mall w i l l be canopies projecting from the stores to provide protection for parking patrons to any store facing the mall. One addit-ional feature w i l l be a dining balcony overlooking the mall. The city's cost would be the actual cost of building and land-scaping the mall, plus maintenance, and the actual loss of revenues each year because of the removal of the parking meters along the street. Construction and maintenance cost 240 will be amortized by the increased value that will accrue to the area and the consequent increase in real property tax revenues. Private owners will bear the cost of improvements to their individual buildings, which in reality are only the additional expense of doing business in a competitive activi-ty. The Royal Oak Central Business District plan 1 2 is guided by principles similar to those of the planned shopping centre. This is to be an "entirely realistic plan" which will be paid for by a special assessment levied solely against the benefitted business properties. Eleven out of twelve down-town streets will be eliminated by transforming them into pedestrian malls, which make feasible the complete separation of pedestrian and vehicular traffic. The mall plazas, and other sections of the redevelopment area will be conveniently and artistically developed with plantings, trees, benches, fountains, pools, shelters, and comfort stations to create a more pleasant atmosphere to stimulate greater shopping. Along the mall and shopping area canopies will be constructed in order to provide suitable a l l weather protection for pedestr-ians and customers. Adequate free parking spaces are to be provided in four major parking areas conveniently located throughout the C.B.D. 13 Grand Rapids, Michigan, has also adopted design principals similar to those employed in modern shopping cen-tres. This plan proposes good vehicular access from the surrounding area to the central core, where a free flowing 241 i n t e r n a l vehicular c i r c u l a t i o n system r i n g i n g the core i s provided. There w i l l be complete vehicular and pedestrian movement separation within the core, and adequate o f f street parking w i l l be provided to permit t h i s , and yet be within reasonable walking distances from the a c t i v i t i e s i n the core. This core w i l l be a compact centre encompassing a great var-i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s and shopping conveniences. This c e n t r a l area w i l l provide f o r shopping and business within an a t t r a c -t i v e open landscaped area. Simcoe, Ontario,*^ i s another town that has attempted to use the shopping centre p r i n c i p l e s i n order to create a better downtown area. This plan c a l l s f o r a concentrated core of r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s and personal services centered on pedestrian malls; adequate o f f street parking located at s t r a t e g i c locations; improved vehicular c i r c u l a t i o n to, from and within, the C.B.D.; the clearance and landscaping of the nearby r i v e r banks to extend the c e n t r a l park system into the heart of the business d i s t r i c t ; and non r e t a i l uses such as trades and services, custom workshops, buildings, devoted wholly to o f f i c e s , private clubs, government, wholesaling, or sales and service of automobiles and machines, would be grouped i n a frame surrounding the core. Within t h i s sur-rounding frame the accent would be on good vehicular, rather than good pedestrian, c i r c u l a t i o n . The report stated that "only i n such a favourable business climate w i l l new and modernized " f l o o r space be erected i n order to accommodate the increasing number and va r i e t y of a c t i v i t i e s " needed to 242 serve the increasing population. If this is not done "a new major business centre will be developed at a peripheral loc-ation" of the city where "these features can be provided". Accordingly the problem is to provide these features downtown. Shoppers Paradise. Springfield,1** Oregon's 10 day experiment attempted to apply the principles of shopping centre design and operation to a small existing downtown. This experiment involved through-traffic by-passing the main street by means of a loop, as well as providing easier to use and reasonably convenient free parking fac i l i t i e s located on side streets converted into car lots for the shoppers in the commercial area.. One of the basic concepts was the separation of vehicular and pedestrian movement by the crea-tion of a pedestrian mall, which would provide fac i l i t i e s not normally found in downtown shopping areas, including benches, entertainment, music and landscaping. In addition to this another concept proposed by the planner was the "cooperative promotion by the merchants". Because only those shops along the mall benefitted financially from the mall experiment, the other merchants have been against the creation of a permanent mall. To date, three years after the experiment, there is s t i l l talk of a permanent by-pass and eventual development of a permanent mall, but leadership on the part of the mer-chant community has been entirely lacking. In Lewisburg, Tennessee,16 a revitalization plan has been proposed which proposes to use shopping centre design principals, such as: separation of vehicular and pedestrian 243 t r a f f i c ; provision of adequate parking within a maximum of 300 feet of the shops; creation of an i n t e r e s t i n g and e x c i t i n g environment to encourage people to come to the c e n t r a l busin-ess d i s t r i c t to shop; and the elimination of non-conforming or non b e n e f i c i a l uses from the area. , 17 Davison, Michigan, a town of 5,000 population, threatened by a large shopping plaza, created an Improvement Corporation which was i n r e a l i t y an association of l o c a l merch-ants. They have attempted to transform the main street into an up-to-date convenient shopping centre. The improvements that formed the backbone of the programme were: the e s t a b l i s h -ment of adequate convenient free o f f - s t r e e t parking; the con-s t r u c t i o n of a permanent sidewalk canopy on both sides of the main street f o r the length of the shopping d i s t r i c t which proS* vides all-weather protection; an intense promotion campaign. Each merchant was required to modernize h i s store front, and a canopy was designed and constructed to give an o v e r a l l im-pression of unity to the commercial d i s t r i c t . One aspect that was emphasized was l i g h t i n g , both on the main st r e e t , which was retained for vehicular movement and parking, and beneath the canopy, which had b u i l t - i n l i g h t s . The merchants have f e l t that the e n t i r e project d i r e c t l y enabled t h i s previous-l y d e c l i n i n g business d i s t r i c t now to increase i t s revenue by 30% i n t h i r t y months. The Stevenage new town centre i n England* 0 i s designed on a pattern s i m i l a r to the North American regional shopping centres. Surrounding the core i s a r i n g road along which are 244 situated the various public and c u l t u r a l buildings, o f f i c e s , places of amusement and entertainment, and car parks. Ser-vice roads, f o r goods delivery have been provided at the rear of the shops. Much of the centre i s f i r s t seen from the rear when entering the car parks. This has been made a t t r a c -t i v e by screening, planting, and c a r e f u l d e t a i l i n g . Within the core are seven pedestrian ways — the main ones are 49 feet wide and the others are 39 feet wide — p a r t i a l l y cov-ered by a continuous canopy, which provides a strong unifying e f f e c t for the centre. Advertisement l e t t e r i n g forms part of the architecture and i s re l a t e d to the o v e r a l l design of the centre. Bright l i g h t s , neon signs and advertising are used to brighten up the scene and add to the l i v e l i n e s s of the centre at night. Street and mall f u r n i t u r e (concrete flower tubs, benches, l i t t e r baskets, street lamps, sculpture, pools, murals, and a watch tower) has been designed to r e f l e c t the character of the centre. An excellent e x i s t i n g example of a new downtown ped-e s t r i a n environment s i m i l a r to a planned shopping centre i s 19 i n Lijnbaan i n the r e b u i l t core of Rotterdam, Holland, Located i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of the Ci t y H a l l , and sur-rounded by high r i s e apartment buildings, "sixty-two q u a l i t y stores and a major department store are arranged on both sides of a broad landscaped mall. This successful example was b u i l t as a r e s u l t of t o t a l demolition by bombing during the second world war. 245 Isolated Sections Downtown Transformed The Downtown Promenade in Knoxville, Tennessee,2® was the result of the Downtown Knoxville Association. It is a five hundred foot long porchlike affair over the alley at the rear of a row of twelve leading stores on Knoxvilie's main street. Directly behind the promenade is a car parking lot, where less than a year ago were located unsightly substandard warehouses. The owners of property adjacent to the proposed promenade paid for its construction. Those merchants or prop-erty owners installed show windows and rear entrances at the back of their shops facing onto this porchlike promenade. Several park benches were placed along the fifteen foot wide promenade walkway for the convenience of those who wish to stop and relax; and several planters f i l l e d with flowers were built into the promenade at various intersections. The stores concerned do feel that business has benefitted, but the actual amount of benefit is difficult to gauge due to the short time the project has been in operation. Just one block from the promenade, Knoxville's 50 year old 75 foot wide Market House, an eyesore, is being torn down to make way for a shoppers' mall and a smaller Market House. The mall with park benches, trees, flowers and a fountain wi l l cover half the block. The 83 merchants fronting onto the square are in the process of deciding upon a uniform plan for the modernizing of the fronts of their establishments. Sparks Street Mall in Ottawa, Ontario, 2 i involves the use of certain shopping centre principles. The Downtown 246 Merchants Association initiated a pilot project which removed vehicles from a street and turned i t into a pedestrian mall with trees, flowers, fountains, and shaded benches, as well as sidewalk cafes and childrens playgrounds. The area was en-livened by bright flags, paint and sculpture. Adequate and convenient free off-street parking was provided by the merch-ants. In addition an intense promotion scheme was carried out by a l l the means of mass media. This was an unqualified succ-ess with a l l r e t a i l businesses registering an increase i n revenue and customers of far better than the rest of Ottawa, or Ontario, as a whole. They are now planning to create a permanent mall by removing a l l over-street wires, replacing the lights, improve sidewalks, and mall texture and colour, i n s t a l l heating under the sidewalks, as well as improve a l l the u t i l i t i e s in the area. A l l the stores in the area would be painted and generally improved; canopies would be con-structed and trees and shrubs would be added as a permanent attraction. Established Outlying Commercial Districts  Central Avenue Commercial District i n Minneapolis 2 2 i s an outlying commercial area that has had a plan proposed for i t relying to some extent on shopping centre principles. Primary importance has been given to provisions for good vehicular access to the area. In order to protect the nearby residential areas adequate buffer zones of space, landscaping, and suitable transitional buildings w i l l be provided. It was delt desirable to increase the population density around 2 4 7 the commercial d i s t r i c t . It would also be desirable to locate c e r t a i n community i n s t i t u t i o n s near the business d i s t r i c t to give each community.centre a greater symbolic and f u n c t i o n a l value. Because establishments within the d i s t r i c t should be c l a s s i f i e d and arranged, according to t h e i r economic and physi-c a l compatibility. (Stores which might interchange customers should be brought closer together, or at least not more than 600 feet apart). The compatible establishments would be arranged into compact groups. Customer parking from the shop-pers goods stores should not exceed 600 feet. Parking would be located between the. major access roads and the business establishments, and would preferably be e a s i l y v i s i b l e from the approaching roads. The d i s t r i c t would o f f e r a complete and balanced va r i e t y of goods and services i n order to create a "one stop" centre. Where the a c t i v i t i e s require large v o l -umes of pedestrians, everything possible would be done to make pedestrian movement within the centre safe, pleasant and convenient. A mall scheme was not considered f e a s i b l e , but a scheme was proposed which would extend parking to the rear of the stores and would leave the street as a c a r r i e r of heavy through t r a f f i c . For added attractiveness the sidewalks would be widened and improved. The plan for Magnolia V i l l a g e i n Seattle, Washington 2 3 proposes the removal of through t r a f f i c by means of a by pass route; the provision of o f f s t r e e t parking with safe and con-venient ingress and egress; safe pedestrian walkways; approp-r i a t e l i g h t i n g and landscaping; and arrangements to assure 248 that future structures would not displace parking areas. There would be a grouping of r e t a i l a c t i v i t i e s , with those catering to vehicles located on the peripheries. Employees parking would be i n the most distant and inconvenient parking areas. The stores would be redesigned so as to have a t t r a c t i v e secon-dary frontages and entrances on the rear parking l o t s . The parking l o t s would be located between the business structures and the r e s i d e n t i a l areas, but would be separated by a buffer zone of fencing and plantings. In order to form a permanent boundary between the business and r e s i d e n t i a l areas some r e -p l a t t i n g would be required. The r e a l i z a t i o n of the plan depen-ds on the "enthusiastic support and e f f e c t i v e cooperation of the owners and operators", and the proper coordination by the planning commission of the public and private groups. QA I n C i n c i n n a t i , Ohio, ^ some shopping centre p r i n c i p l e s have been proposed to improve the e x i s t i n g business concen-t r a t i o n . They would include the removal of a l l n o n - r e t a i l land uses; improving the attractiveness of the area by r e l -ieving i t from t r a f f i c congestion through the provision of a ring-road to carry through-traffic around the commercial con-centration, and, thereby, also increasing pedestrian safety; signs, and b u i l d i n g facades would be redesigned to "replace ugliness with beauty"; sidewalks would be widened and other open spaces f o r the comfort and convenience of pedestrians would be provided; provisions would be made f o r easy access to the centre and adequate convenient o f f street parking within the centre; and, f i n a l l y , buffer zones, including roads, would 249 be created to protect adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l areas from any possible detrimental e f f e c t s due to the presence of the com-mercial concentration. The Charleston County Planning B o a r d 2 5 i n i t s consid-eration for the improvement of " l o c a l shopping f a c i l i t i e s " seems to accept most planned shopping p r i n c i p l e s as desirable for the established commercial areas. Through-traffic must be prevented from passing through the commercial area, prefer-ably by means of c o l l a r or ring-roads. Ample, convenient, free o f f - s t r e e t parking i s needed and i t i s preferable that the shops provide f o r i t as a single group. It i s important that convenient, sing l e and safe ingress to, and egress from, the parking area be designed. The commercial area should be planned and a r c h i t e c t u r a l l y designed as a compact unit bearing i n mind the present as w e l l as future, demands of the area. "Planted areas, play l o t s , and pedestrian walkways" should be created among the shops f o r a more pleasant shopping atmos-phere. A buffer zone would be required surrounding the com-mercial d i s t r i c t i n order to protect the adjacent r e s i d e n t i a l area. In Detroit, Michigan, 2 6 the c i t y provided adequate con-venient cheap or free o f f street parking both i n front and behind the stores i n order to a i d numerous d e c l i n i n g commer-c i a l d i s t r i c t s . Four s p e c i f i c studies reveal that although parking i s one of the main necessary fac t o r s f o r a successful business d i s t r i c t , alone, i t i s not adequate to r e v i t a l i z e a de c l i n i n g commercial area. These studies imply that there 250 axe several other factors which must be considered i n con-junction with o f f - s t r e e t parking i n order to s t a b i l i z e , or maintain a prosperous and healthy r e t a i l area, l e t alone to r e v i t a l i z e a d e c l i n i n g commercial area. The Fraser Street Study, 2 7 i n Vancouver, B.C., was a scheme fo r the improvement of an older outlying commercial d i s -t r i c t . The merchants, upon request, received from the market-ing d i v i s i o n of the Commerce Department at the University of B.C. a study of the annual e x i s t i n g and p o t e n t i a l volume of sales for the commercial d i s t r i c t ' s trade area. This was derived from a measurement of present f a c i l i t i e s , e x i s t i n g volume of trade, an estimate of the distance people t r a v e l l e d to use the e x i s t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , and the number of f a m i l i e s and t h e i r income within the trade "catchment area". Then an estimate was made of the p o t e n t i a l sales volume, the a n t i c i -pated growth of the catchment area, and the f a c i l i t i e s r e q u i r -ed to meet the demands of the e x i s t i n g p o t e n t i a l and future sales volume. Based upon these estimates, the merchants of the d i s t r i c t p e t itioned the Cit y of Vancouver to i n s t a l l com-munal o f f - s t r e e t parking f a c i l i t i e s by means of an extension of the l o c a l improvements by-law, under the Vancouver Charter, R.S.B.C., Part XXIV, June 10, 1960. Since the required 60% of the l o c a l merchants petitioned f o r the improvement, the c i t y expropriated the required land, surfaced it and fenced i t , and then charged the merchants the cost f o r the creation of these communal o f f - s t r e e t parking f a c i l i t i e s by means of a long-term s p e c i a l l o c a l improvement assessment. 251 Promotion "Gimmicks" Numerous c i t i e s have allowed t h e i r use of some planned shopping centre concepts to degenerate into merely promotion devices, which at times have not proved very successful. Ex-amples of some promotional schemes are: "Downtown Futurama" i n Fort Worth, Texas; "A Review of 1975", i n Milwaukee, W i s e ; "Bargain Carnival" i n Rome, G.A.; " L i t t l e Fort Days" i n Waukegan, 111.; "The Miracle Mall" i n Des Moines, Iowa; with various other s i m i l a r schemes i n Modesta, C a l i f ; Rock Island, Oklahoma City, Okla; Beaumont, Texas; F l i n t , Mich.; Mount Vernon, N.Y., Windsor, Ontario; etc. 252 References lFred Forman, MA downtown Shopping Centre", En© Found-ation for Highway Traffic Control Inc., Saugatuck* (Oct..1959). "Some Cities Borrow Shopping Centre Ideas to Regain Lost Trade',' The United States Municipal News, U.S. Conference of.Mayors, Washington, _D.C. (Sept. 30, I960), p.69. _ 2"Mallpark Approach to Downtown", Downtown Idea  Exchange, New York, (Nov. 15, 1960), p.2. 3"A Special Study: The Impact of the Mall on Downtown", Downtown Idea Exchange, Part I,.N.Y., n.d. 4"Some Cities Borrow Shopping Centre Ideas To Regain Lost Trade", The United States Municipal News, U.S. Conference of Mayors, Washington, D.C., (Sept. 30, 1960), p.69. 5Curtis C. Reierson, "Tomorrow's City", The Baylor  Bulletin, Baylor Business Studies, Baylor University, Waco, Texas, 1958, pp.25-28. "The Fort Worth Plan", Urban Land, Urban Land Institute, (Sept. 1956), p.7. ""Planning The Future of Seattle's Central Area", City of Seattle and the Central Association of Seattle,. Seattle, Wash, 1959. 7"Goals for Central Minneapolis; Its Function and Design", Pub. 0.103, Central Minneapolis Series No. 2, City of Minneapolis Planning Commission, Minneapolis, Minn. Revised May, 1959. D^owntown. Part 5, A program", Greater Portland Chamber of Commerce and Portland City Planning Board, Portland, Oregon, n.d, n 9"The Hub of Toledo, Downtown; Plan for Tomorrow . . . part 4 , Toledo-Lucas.County Plan Commission, Report No. 25, Toledo; Ohio, n.d. 1 0"A Demonstration Plan for Central Denver", C.A.P. Bulletin #1, Downtown Denver Improvement Association, Denver, Colorado, (Jan. 1957)., 1:L"Market Street Mall Study", City Plan Board, Dayton, Ohio, April, 1959.. 12 "Royal Oak Redevelopment", Royal Oak Chamber of Commerce, Royal Oak, Michigan, 1957. 253 13 "Grand Rapids Approach to Downtown R e v i t a l i z a t i o n " , Downtown Development Committee, Grand Rapids, Mich., (Jan. , I960). 14 J.B. Bousfield, "Simcoe Rebuilds — From the Centre Out", C i v i c Administration, v o l . 12, #7 (July 1960). Donald H. Lutes, Personal Correspondence,(Oct.5, I960). "Shoppers Paradise", S p r i n g f i e l d Chamber of Commerce, Spring-f i e l d , Oregon, 1957. 1 6 " C e n t r a l Business Zone Study for Lewisburg, Tennes-see", Tennessee, State Planning Commission, (Oct. 1958). 17"Grocer Owners Spur Downtown Modernization", NARGOS B u l l e t i n , (Feb. 1960), pp,76-78. 18 ~ "Steyenage New Town Centre", Notes and Key Plan, Town and Country Planning Association, Covent Garden, London, W.C.2. (March 1960). 1 9Robert Kick, "Europes F i f t h Avenue: Lynbaan-Rotter-dam T e s t i f i e s to the Success of the Downtown Shopping Centre", Urban Land, (Oct. 1954). 2 0 " K n o x v i l l e Plants Shopping Centre i n Business Dis-t r i c t " , Toledo Blade, Toledo, Ohio, (July 17, 1960). 2 1"The Changes are Coming to Your City Soon", The  Fi n a n c i a l Post, (Jan. 14, 1961), p.25. "Sparks Street Mall; An Experiment i n Downtown R e v i t a l i z a t i o n " , Report of the Mall Research Committee, Ottawa, Ont., (Dec. 20, I960). 22 "Central Avenue Commercial D i s t r i c t Study", Pub.119, Commercial.Study Series No. 1, City of Minneapolis Planning Commission, Minneapolis, Minn. n.d. 23 "A Community Shopping Center Study: Suggested Plan for the Magnolia V i l l a g e " , City Planning Commission, City of Seattle, Wash., (May 1951). ""Modernization of Shopping Centers", City Planning Commission, Cincinnati, Ohio (Oct. 1960). 2 5 "How Sh a l l We Grow", A Preliminary report from the Charleston County Planning Board, Charleston, South Carolina, (Jan. 1956), 254 2 6 J o h n D. M c G i l l i s , "Off Street Parking W i l l Not Serve Dying Shopping Areas"..Urban Land (July-Aug. 1958). 2 7 P r o f e s s o r Wilson, "Fraser Street Study", Market-ing Division, Department of Commerce, University.of B.C. Interim Report 1954. APPENDIX B SOURCE OF DETAILED INFORMATION " " FOR FIGURES APPENDIX B Figure I, "B.C. Lower Mainland: P o l i t i c a l Units and Main Physiographic Features", i s based upon a map drawn by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board that has appeared i n several of t h e i r reports. The Metropolitan Vancouver boundary i s that defined by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of Canada, 1956. Figure II, "Geographic Situation of Ladner", i s based upon the 1960 B r i t i s h Columbia Road Map, by the Department of Recreation and Conservation, V i c t o r i a , B.C. Figure III, "Urban Settlement 1956: Travel Time-Dis-tance from Vancouver C.B.D.", i s based upon two maps from Jobs,  People and Transportation, a report to the Metropolitan Joint Committee, Vancouver, B.C., 1960, by Gerald Hodge and Ira M. Robinson. Urban settlement i n 1956 was derived from "Urban Development 1956", Map 6 A, following page 28, and t r a v e l time was derived from "Time Distance 1956 and 1976", Map 9, following page 28. Figure IV, "Metropolitan Vancouver Outlying Commercial Areas", i s based upon a 1956 land use map, compiled by the Technical Committee for Metropolitan Highway Planning, but modified i n order to bring i t up to August 1960. Figure V, "Early Development", i s based primarily upon written information i n Delta's Century of Progress, by Gordon D. Taylor, Kerfoot-Holmes P r i n t i n g Ltd., Cloverdale, 1958; and "Land U t i l i z a t i o n i n the Lower Area of Delta Municipality", 2 5 7 Figure VI, "Location of C r i t i c a l Factors", and Figure VII, "Major Vehicular Transportation A r t e r i e s as r e l a t e d to Ladner i n 1960", are based upon a reconnaissance survey con-ducted by the author i n May 1960. Figure VII, "Major Vehicular Transportation A r t e r i e s as Related to Ladner i n I960", are based upon a reconnaissance survey conducted by the author i n May 1960. Figure VIII, "Location of the Ladner Commercial Dis-t r i c t Study", was delineated as a r e s u l t of the findings from the reconnaissance survey conducted by the author i n May 1960. Figure IX, "Land Use 1960", was based upon a land use f i e l d survey conducted by the author i n May 1960. Figure X, "Downtown Ladner 1880 and 1960", was based upon the assessment o f f i c e records of Delta Municipality and the 1960 land use map (Figure IX). Figure XI, "Major Deadening Areas", was based upon the 1960 land use map (Figure IX) of the Ladner commercial d i s -t r i c t and the reconnaissance survey conducted by the author i n May 1960. Figures XII and XIII, "Pedestrian Flow", were based upon a sampled and averaged pedestrian flow count/, conducted by the author during July and August 1960. Figure XIV, "Vehicular Oriented Uses", i s based upon the 1960 land use map (Figure IX), the May 1960 reconnaissance survey conducted by the author, and the 1960 Delta Munici-p a l i t y zoning map (Figure XXIII). Figure XV, "Vehicular Flow", i s based upon a sampled 258 and averaged vehicular flow count conducted by the author i n June 1960. A count was made between 7 A.M. and 8 P.M. during one day at c e r t a i n c r i t i c a l locations, and then spot counts, varying from one to two hours were made at random i n t e r v a l s fo r various weekdays i n order to check the v a l i d i t y of the sample count as being representative of the weekly day-time t r a f f i c flow. Figure XVI, "Built-up Areas 1960", was based upon the May 1960 reconnaissance survey conducted by the author, the I960 land use map (Figure IX), the records i n the buildings inspector's department of Delta Municipality, and an enlarged 1958 a i r photograph of the area. The population d i s t r i b u t i o n i n distance from the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t i s an estimate based upon the above information, as w e l l as the spring 1960 childre n d i s t r i b u t i o n map compiled by the Delta School Board. In Figure XVII, "On and Off Street Parking", the parking capacity or number of spaces available was based upon a f i e l d count conducted by the author i n June 1960. Where s t a l l s were not marked an estimate was made. Random sample counts of the number of cars parked i n the area were con-ducted between 9 A.M. and 7 P.M., Monday to Saturday, over a three week period i n June and July 1960. The information was tabulated and charted. The greatest u t i l i z a t i o n at each of the twelve areas considered, for any one hour during the week was tabulated as the "weekly peak hour u t i l i z a t i o n " for that area. The greatest hourly u t i l i z a t i o n for each day of the week was averaged, and t h i s was charted as the "average 259 weekly peak hour use" of that area. Figure XVIII, "Parking U t i l i z a t i o n . i n Downtown Ladner", i s based upon a parking capacity and u t i l i z a t i o n survey con-ducted i n June and July 1960 (see Figure XVII). The number of vehicles parked i n the whole of downtown Ladner at 9:3) A.M. for Monday to Saturday was t o t a l l e d and averaged to derive the arithmetic mean u t i l i z a t i o n of parking space. This mean was then taken as a percent of the t o t a l a v a i l a b l e spaces i n order to derive the weekly average i n t e n s i t y of parking u t i l i -z ation as compared to the capacity of parking for 9:30 A.M. This was done for Monday to Saturday i n order to see the change i n usage between 9:30 A.M. and 6:30 P.M. averaged f o r these days. The second part of Figure XVIII, was derived by p l o t t i n g the maximum usage, as a percent of the a v a i l a b l e spaces f o r each day, Monday through Saturday. This would then indicate the trend f o r a week i n peak hour u t i l i z a t i o n f o r the downtown d i s t r i c t as a whole. Figure XIX, "Street Area", i s based upon a measure-ment of the I960 base maps of one inch to one hundred f e e t . The base maps were compiled from assessment records, planning department records, engineering department records, and an a i r photograph at a scale of one inch to one hundred f e e t . Figure XX "Age of Buildings", Figure XXI, "Value of Improvements", and Figure XXII, "Assessed Land Value", are based primarily on the information to August 1960 i n the assessment records of Delta Municipality. Figure XXIII, "Zoning 1960", i s based upon the 1960 260 zoning by-law and map f o r Delta Municipality. Figure XXIV, "Land Ownership", i s based upon i n f o r -mation to August 1960 i n the assessment department of Delta Municipality. Figure XXV, "Public U t i l i t i e s " , i s based upon records to August 1960 i n engineering department of Delta Municipality. Figure XXVI, " S i t e Area: Horizon Year", i s based upon information i n Table VI of text, charted at a scale of one inch to three hundred feet, which i s the same scale at which the "Ladner Commercial D i s t r i c t Study" maps are drawn. Figure XXVII, "Land use: Master Plan", i s based upon the various r e v i t a l i z a t i o n concepts, and the horizon year land requirements (Figure XXVI). Figure XXVIII, "Building Pattern", i s based upon the land use map (Figure IX), the May 1960 reconnaissance survey, the 1958 a i r photograph at a scale of one inch to one hundred feet, the various other basic information (Figures VI to XXV), and the master plan (Figure XXVII). Figure XXIX, "Land Subdivision Pattern", i s based upon the land use map and the master plan (Figure XXVII). Figures XXXI to XXIV, Stage 1 to Stage 4, are based upon the master plan (Figure XXVII). A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY "Adverse Trends In Older Shopping D i s t r i c t s " . Real Estate Analyst. ~ ~ June.28, 1957. pp.291-94. "Are Downtowns Stores i n Jeopardy". Department Store Economist. Sept., 1955. pp.40-41. Armstrong, Robert H. "Rock and R o l l i n R e t a i l i n g " . Urban Land. Oct., 1956. ."A new look at.shopping centres". Urban Land. May, 1954. American Planning and C i v i c Association. "The Concepts pf New Shopping Centre Designs and How They can be Applied to E x i s t i n g Main Streets". American Planning and C i v i c Annual. Washington, D.C. 1957. pp. 13-30. Baker, Geoffrey, and Funaro, Bruno. Shopping Centres, Design and Operation. ~ New York, Reinhold Publishing Co., 1951.' Baylor University, School of Business. "Tomorrow's City". Baylor B u l l e t i n . Waco, Texas, March, 1958. Burton, Hal. The City Fights Back. New York, Cita d e l Press, 1954. Buskirk, Van. "Businessmen's Redevelopment". Ar c h i t e c t u r a l Forum..Sept., 1958. p.181. "By 1976 What City Patterns". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. Sept., 1956. pp.103-137. Cincinnati Planning Commission. "Modernization of Shopping Centres". Cincinnati, Ohio, Oct., 1960. 262 Clay, Grady. "The Main Street: 1969 : Miracle Mile or the Big Mess". American Institute of Planners. Vol. 3 , 1957 . pp. 1 3 1 - 1 3 4 . ' v _^  Cleveland-Cuyahoga County, Regional Planning Commission. Suburban Business Centres. Cleveland, Ohio, 1959. Dayton Planning Board. "Market Street Mall Study". Dayton, Ohio, 1959. "Downtown needs a Lesson from the Suburbs". Business Week. Oct. 2 2 , 1955 . pp.64 -5 . Fisher, Howard T. "Can Main Street Compete". American City. Oct., 1950. pp.1 0 0 - 1 . Fisher, Howard T. The Impace of New Shopping Centers Upon Established  Business D i s t r i c t s . Chicago, 111 . n.d. Fisk, George. "The Replanning of Centre-City Shopping D i s t r i c t s " . Journal of R e t a i l i n g . Summer, 1958. pp .80-r84. "Fourteen Ways to Better Shopping Centre Design". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record. June, 1940. pp.104 -6 . Gruen, V i c t o r . "Every Business D i s t r i c t a Modern Shopping Centre". . American.City. July, 1958. p.137. . "T y p i c a l Downtown Transformed". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. May, 1956 . pp.146 -55 . Gruen, Victor, and Larry Smith. Shopping Towns U.S.A. New York, Reinhold Publishing Corp., I 9 6 0 . Harban, James (ed). "The Future of Downtown D i s t r i c t s " . - American Planning and C i v i c Annual. 1 9 5 0 . PP.131-55. " ; Harrel, C.A. " R e v i t a l i z i n g the Central Business D i s t r i c t " . Publie Management. Aug., 1958. pp.182-6. 263 Hoyt, Homer. " C l a s s i f i c a t i o n and Si g n i f i c a n t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of /Shopping Centres". Z Appraisal,Journal. A p r i l , 1958. pp.214-222. t. ."The current trand i n hew shopping centers". Urban Land. Urban Land Institute, V o l . 12 No. 4,,April, 1953. ."The Status of New Suburban Shopping Centers". Urban Land. Urban Land Institute, Vol. 14 No. 6, A p r i l , 1955., ."Impact of New Suburban Shopping Centers". Urban Land. Urban Land Institute, Vol. 15 No. 8, Sept., 1956. Jacobs, Jane. "Downtown i s For People". The Exploding Metropolis. New York, Doubleday Anchor Books, 1958. pp.157-84. Jonassen, C.T. "Downtown Versus Suburbs i n Shopping: Measurement of Consumer Practices and Attitudes i n Columbus, Ohio". Ohio State University, 1953. " Kelley, Eugene J. Shopping Centres: Locating Controlled Regional Centres. Eno Foundation for Highway T r a f f i c Control, Saugatuck, Conn. 1956. MeKeever, J. Ross. "Shopping Centers Restudied; Emerging Patterns and P r a c t i c a l Experience". Emerging Patterns Parts I and II. Urban Land Institute, Technical B u l l e t i n No. 30. Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C. McVoy, Arthur D. "Pedestrian Way Business D i s t r i c t " . American C i t y . March, 1957. pp.136-8. M i l l e r , J. David. "An Urban Transfusion: Plan for the Reclamation and Redesign of the Downtown Area". American Institute of Architecture. Dec, 1958. pp.21-5. 264 Minneapolis Planning Commission. Goals for Central Minneapolis, i t s Function and Design Minneapolis, Minn., 1959. . Central Avenue Commercial D i s t r i c t . ~ Minneapolis, Minn., I960. Muskegon City Planning Commission. A Redevelopment Plan f o r the Central Business D i s t r i c t . ~~~~ C i t y of Muskegon, Mich., 1957., Neff, Edgar R. "Planned Shopping Centres vs Neighbourhood Shopping Areas". . Business Research Centre, Syracuse University,' New York, 1955. Nelson, Roland L. "Outlying Shopping Centres vs. Downtown R e t a i l Trade". Appraisal Journal. Oct., .1957. pp.485-98. Nelson, Richard L. The Selection of R e t a i l Locations. """ ~ New York, F.W. Dodge Corp., 1958. Nelson, R.L. and F.T. Aschman. "Conservation and Rehab i l i t a t i o n of Major Shopping D i s t r i c t s " . Urban Land i n s t i t u t e Technical B u l l e t i n No. 22. Urban Land Institute, Washington, D.C, Feb., 1954. Nelson, R.L. and F.T. Aschman. Real Estate and C i t y Planning. Princeton H a l l . 1957. Nystrom, P.H. "Revival of Downtown Shopping D i s t r i c t s " . Journal of R e t a i l i n g . F a l l , 1958. pp.129-32. "Planned C i t y : Main Street i s One Part of the Problem; Renewal Plans for Downtown". Chain Store Age. Admin. Edition., Feb., 1958. pp.48-56. Portland Chamber of Commerce. Downtown Portland. Portland, Maine. 1959. Potvin, Georges. "Commercial and Ind u s t r i a l B l i g h t " . Community.Planning Review.-March, 1959. PP. 2-7. 265 Rannells, John. The Core of the City . N.Y., Columbia Press, 1956 . Rouse, J.W. . "Program for Downtown". Architecture Forum. Aug, 1957 . p.186. .'Will Downtown Face up to the Future". . Urban Land. Feb., 1957 . pp. 1 ? 5 . Schapker, B.L. "E f f e c t of a Planned Shopping Centre on an Older Centre Serving the Same Area".^ Journal of Marketing..July, 1956. pp.71 -78 . Seattle Planning Commission. "Broadway Business Centre Study". Seattle, Wash, 1960. Seattle Planning Commission and Central (City) Association of Seattle. "Planning the Future of Seattle's Central Area: Poli c y Statement. Seattle, Wash., 1959 . "Shopping Centres vs. Downtown". National Real Estate and Building Journal. Sept. , 1957 . _ p p . 3 0 - 3 2 . "Shopping Malls Featured i n Town Improvement Plans". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record. July, 1959. pp.34 -36 . U.S. Department of Commerce, Small Business Administration. "Merchant's Association A c t i v i t i e s i n Shopping Centres". Business Service B u l l e t i n , No. 4 7 , Wash.,1954. Smith, Larry, and Vic t o r Gruen. . "How to Plan Successful Shopping Centres". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. March, 1954 ..pp.144 -47 . S p r i n g f i e l d Chamber of Commerce. Shopper's Paradise. S p r i n g f i e l d , Oregon, 1957. Stedman, Gordon H. "Impact of Shopping Centres Locally and Downtown". Journal of Retailing..Spring, 1956. pp . 2 5 r 4 0 . Tanner, 0. "Closed to T r a f f i c , Pedestrian Shopping Mall". A r c h i t e c t u r a l Forum. Feb., 1959. pp.88 -93 . 266 Test for Down Town Renewal". Arc h i t e c t u r a l Forum. July, 1958. pp.78-81. Urban Land Instit u t e . Community Builders Handbook. Urban Land Instit u t e . Wash., D.C. 1960. 

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