Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Poetry and music in England, 1660 to 1760 : a comparison based on the works on Dryden, Purcell, Pope,… Gooch, Bryan Niel Shirley 1962

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1962_A8 G6 P6.pdf [ 12.91MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105893.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105893-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105893-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105893-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105893-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105893-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105893-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105893-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105893.ris

Full Text

POETRY AND MUSIC IN ENGLAND, 1660 TO I76O: A COMPARISON BASED ON THE WORKS OP DRYDEN, PURGELL, POPE, AND HANDEL by BRYAN NIEL SHIRLEY GOOCH B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959 A.R.C.T., Royal Conservatory of Music of Toronto, 1957 L.T.G.L., T r i n i t y College of Music, London, 1959 F.T.G.L., T r i n i t y College of Music, London, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of ENGLISH We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1962 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of ENGLISH  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. D a t e A p r i l 7, 1962 POETRY AND MUSIC IN ENGLAND BETWEEN 1660 AND 1760: A COMPARISON BASED ON THE WORKS OF DRYDEN, PURCELL, POPE, AND HANDEL by BRYAN NIEL SHIRLEY GOOCH ABSTRACT OF THESIS Art r e f l e c t s the age i n which i t i s produced, and any facet of Art, such as music or poetry, by v i r t u e of t h i s f a c t , i s i n t r i n s i c a l l y related to other facets. Such an examination as i s suggested i n the t i t l e of thi s thesis i s deemed to be of use to students of English on the ground, then, that l i t e r a t u r e , or more s p e c i f i c a l l y , poetry, i s not an i s o l a t e d c u l t u r a l phenomenon which has no re l a t i o n s h i p to other arts within a given age. In some eras, many s i m i l a r i t i e s e x i s t i n the ar t s ; i n other ages, fewer. I t i s my contention that between 1660 and 1760 i n England, there were many points of resemblance i n poetry and music. The f i r s t chapter discusses the approach to be taken i n dealing with, s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the two mediums noted above, and indicates the l i m i t a t i o n s of the thesis. Because of the great amount of both primary and secondary source material relevant i i i i i to the period between 1 6 6 0 and 1 7 6 0 , the examination i s confined to a comparison of c e r t a i n representative works of Dryden, P u r c e l l , Pope, and Handel. Some secondary source material i s also brought into the discussion; as there has been much excellent c r i t i c a l work done both i n regard to music and poetry, i t i s l o g i c a l to try to bring together i n t h i s thesis comments of writers on both a r t s . Since t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s intended primarily f o r l i t e r a r y scholars, the f i r s t chapter also includes a b r i e f outline of developments i n music i n England i n the post-Elizabethan and Commonwealth years; t h i s i n c l u s i o n i s judged to be necessary i n view of the f a c t that some of the facets of Bestoration music r e l a t e to works produced i n e a r l i e r years. The second and t h i r d chapters constitute the major part of the examination. The former deals with Dryden and P u r c e l l , and involves (respectively) a consideration of the poetic and musical influences working upon them, the courtly, secular, and occasional nature of t h e i r productions, and the presence, i n the l a t t e r , of the "spectacular," the "magnificent." This portion of the chapter considers ornamentation, such aspects of the arts as t h e a t r i c a l elements, innovation and improvement, form, and manner. S p e c i f i c works are then discussed; these include Dryden's A Song fo r Saint C e c i l i a ' s Day and Alexander's Feast, and P u r c e l l ' s setting of Nicholas Brady's ode f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s day, H a i l ! Bright C e c i l i a , and King Arthur. The t h i r d chapter i s l i k e the second i n many respects, but deals with Pope and Handel. The influences on these two men are discussed, and an i v i l l u s t r a t i o n i s included to show that such influences bear a remarkable s i m i l a r i t y to those which, i n many ways, determined the nature of the works of Dryden and P u r c e l l . The discussion dealing f i r s t with Pope and then with Handel, moves to such topics as precision and craftsmanship, representation of thought i n sound, choice of words (Pope), rhythm, and se l e c t i o n of range and nature of music i n the setting of poetry (Handel), p r i n c i p l e of contrast, pastoral aspects, s a t i r e , influence of the b e l i e f i n an ordered universe, regard f o r Nature, and general c l a s s i f i -cation of both a r t s . The works of Pope dealt with i n these pages include The Rape of the Lock T An Essay on C r i t i c i s m . Moral Essays. E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot, The Dunciad, and Windsor Forest: of Handel, Messiah, Kompositionen fur K l a v i e r , and Music f o r the  Royal Fireworks. The chapter concludes with a short analysis of Handel's setting of Pope's words i n the a r i a , "Where'er you walk" from Semele. In the case of the music of both P u r c e l l and Handel, i l l u s t r a t i o n s are provided to a s s i s t the reader. Extensive documentation also ensures the maximum u t i l i t y of the d i s s e r t a t i o n . The fourth chapter draws together the l i n e s of the discussion. That there are d e f i n i t e p a r a l l e l s between the two ar t s , i n the l i g h t of the evidence presented, i s undeniable. As the f i n a l pages state, there i s s t i l l a great deal to be done i n the f i e l d i n terms of further research and examination of both primary and secondary sources. However, t h i s thesis shows conclusively that the same currents which were present i n the V poetry between 1660 and 176O were very often present i n some form i n the music, and there i s every reason f o r considering the two arts "acknowledg'd s i s t e r s . " CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . i i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS v i i Chapter I. POETRY AND MUSIC: THE BACKGROUND OF THE SUBJECT . 1 A Statement of Purpose Music and Poetry i n Post-Elizabethan and Commonwealth England I I . DRYDEN AND PURCELL 1 9 Influences on Dryden and P u r c e l l Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : The Court and Secularism, Occasional Art, and the Spectacular S p e c i f i c Works Considered I I I . POPE AND HANDEL 9 6 Influences on Pope and Handel Pope and Handel: Some Individual C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Pope's Art Cha r a c t e r i s t i c s of Handel's Art "Where'er you walk": Pope and Handel Together IV. " ACKNOWLEDGE* SISTERS" 1 8 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1 9 0 v i LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS I l l u s t r a t i o n Page Theory of Similar Influences . . to follow p. 11*+ P u r c e l l : from In the Midst of L i f e I from "Arise ye Subterranean Winds," The Tempest . II from Prelude, Suite I I I . Six Suites f o r Harpsichord I l l from Ode f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day. (1692) from "'Tis Nature's Voice" IV from "Soul of the World" V from Frost Scene, King Arthur "What Pow'r art thou" . VI from "Thou Doating Fo o l " VI Handel: from Suite IV. Kompositionen fur Klavier Courante VII Sarabande VII Gigue VII from Messiah "Pastoral Symphony" VIII "There Were Shepherds. . ." VIII "And Loi The Angel of the Lord . . . " IX "And the Angel Said Unto Them" IX "And Suddenly There was with the Angel" IX "Comfort Ye, My People" X "Every Valley S h a l l be Exalted" XI from Music f o r the Royal Fireworks from "La Paix" . . XII from "La Rejouissance" XII "Where'er you walk," Semele XIII v i i CHAPTER I POETRY AND MUSIC: THE BACKGROUND OF THE SUBJECT A Statement of Purpose In any examination of the poetry and music of seventeenth and eighteenth century England, the scholar may do no less than confess himself humbled and awed by the vastness of the ranges of the two arts. Such i s the enormity of these subjects, that a dissertation, especially one involving a comparison of poetry and music, must be subject to stringent limitations. In this thesis I shall confine my discussion to the poetry and music written between 1660 and 17&0, and shall deal almost exclusively with the work of Dryden and Pope, and their majestic counterparts in music, Purcell and Handel. Many of the works by these men would i l l u s t r a t e well the points I wish to make; however, just as the range of the subject i s limited, so mustthe number of works included in the examination be held i n careful check. Thus, i n the case of the work of Handel, the majority of his oratorios and a l l his operas are excluded from a l l but slight mention; the works considered i n the course of this thesis do not constitute by any means a l l the evidence which would support my contentions. 1 2 The purpose of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s to show that there are d e f i n i t e s i m i l a r i t i e s between the poetry and the music of the R e s t o r a t i o n and Augustan era s , t h a t i s , between the works of Dryden and P u r c e l l and between those of Pope and Handel. Not only w i l l s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t y l e s , techniques, and e f f e c t s be noted, but p a r a l l e l s i n terms of the i n f l u e n c e s which operated on these men--both i n regard t o precursors and teachers and some of the events of t h e i r a g e s — w i l l a l s o be d i s c u s s e d . The question which a r i s e s here i s t h i s : what i s the value of such a comparison of poetry and music? Too o f t e n , I suggest, poetry i s viewed apart from music and the other a r t s , not only by s c h o l a r s of music but a l s o of poetry; . the converse i s a l s o t r u e . I t i s only r i g h t t o t r y t o show that developments i n poetry had t h e i r counterparts i n music, to b r i n g the s c h o l a r s of one a r t i n t o touch w i t h the other. As Dryden h i m s e l f s a i d : Musick and Poetry have ever been acknowledg'd S i s t e r s , which walking hand i n hand, support each other; As Poetry i s the harmony of Words, so Musick i s t h a t of Notes; and as Poetry I s a R i s e above Prose and Oratory, so i s Musick the e x a l t a t i o n of Poetry. Both of them may e x c e l a p a r t , but sure they are most e x c e l l e n t when they are joyn'd because nothing i s then wanting to e i t h e r of t h e i r P e r f e c t i o n s : f o r thus they appear l i k e Wit-ard Beauty i n the same Person. 1 -J.A. Westrup, P u r c e l l , 3rd ed., The Master M u s i c i a n s , New S e r i e s ed. E r i c Blom (London, 19*+7), p. 69. "This d e d i c a t i o n was w r i t t e n f o r P u r c e l l by Dryden. The o r i g i n a l d r a f t i s i n B r i t . Mus., Stowe 755, f e . Cf. Mark Van Doren, John Drvden: A Study of h i s Poetry. F i r s t Midland Book E d i t i o n (Bloomington, Indiana, I960), pp. 5o f f . ; h e r e a f t e r c i t e d as Drvden. In t h i s t h e s i s a l l footnotes w i l l be set out according to MLA recommenda-t i o n s except where references i n v o l v e scores of music; i n the l a t t e r , to make the reference c l e a r and u s e f u l to the reader, the p u b l i s h e r ' s name w i l l be given. 3 Even i n the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries aesthetic p theorists and academicians considered the two arts separately; today, not only scholars of each a r t as well as some of the aesthetic t h e o r i s t s do t h i s , but many students of 'art h i s t o r y ' follow the same road, the road of i n s u l a r i t y . What are the reasons f o r breaking down t h i s i n s u l a r i t y ? No art can e x i s t independent of the s p i r i t of an age; art i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the age; i t i s an expression of the man of the age, of the taste of the man of the age. The same taste which governs the poetry of an era i s , to an extent, a guiding or determining force i n the music, architecture, or sculpture of that age. Both P u r c e l l and Dryden r e f l e c t e d the Restoration s p i r i t ; ^ they could not f a i l to do so, i n view of the demands of the age upon musician and poet. There i s more to seeing music and poetry together, then, than just to examine them actually i n combination, as, f o r example, i n songs and stage music. A scholar of English, l e t us say, of seventeenth-century poetry, should know other aspects of the age with which he deals. But I suggest that he w i l l not f u l l y "know" hi s age u n t i l he i s aware of the s i g n i f i c a n t developments, movements, or character-i s t i c s i n the other arts as well as i n society. More v a l i d , too, w i l l be h i s judgements upon a r t i s t i c currents i f he does possess such an awareness. (That, of course, i s not to suggest Bertrand H. Bronson and James E. P h i l l i p s , Music and L i t e r a - ture i n England i n the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries (Los Angeles, 1953)» PP« 1-21; passim. % e s t r u p , p. 239. Van Doren, p. 237. k that he should know each art i n equal d e t a i l ; a climber cannot attempt, i n one lifetime,every peak i n a continent, and hope to scale them a l l . ) Therefore, just as one can say, too, that the taste of an age i s seldom, i f ever, confined to one sphere of art alone, one may also say that i t i s not good scholarship to study an art independent of the era which nurtured i t . Music and poetry, s i s t e r a r t s , are both facets of human expression, as I have said, and though t h e i r outward appearance i s d i f f e r e n t , one r e l y i n g on the spoken word and the other on tone, they both exhibit, often, within an era, s t r i k i n g resemblances, resemblanc-es peculiar to t h e i r era, and of i n t e r e s t to the student of that era. To draw my argument together, then, I s h a l l say that to view the arts of a given age, and to see the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between them, not only puts each of them i n perspec-t i v e , but also helps one to gain a clearer view of that given age, a view which may be useful, i f desired, i n ap p l i c a t i o n to other s o c i a l phenomena. This thesis, as stated above, w i l l deal with only two a r t s ; I do not suggest, though, that these are the only f i e l d s (poetry and music) i n which examination would be both f r u i t f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g . I have said that poetry does not e x i s t on i t s own, that i s , without connection with the other a r t s . This i s not to suggest that i t may not stand alone, or that any other " a r t " may not stand alone, but i t i s to suggest that no one facet of a r t i s t i c expression may be shut o f f i n i t s own jealously-guarded, purple-draped tower and be viewed as a completely unique, independent, self-supporting e n t i t y . That 5 there are those who would advance such a view i n regard to poetry, or even to music i s a f a c t , as I have stated above; i t i s a regrettable f a c t . Yet l e t us not castigate twentieth-century scholars f o r t h i s , f o r they are not alone to blame. Such views were held i n previous centuries, and s p e c i a l i s a t i o n i n the humanities as well as the sciences has not, i n our own century, made the breakdown of insularism any easier. And before those i n the humanities c r i t i c i s e t h e i r sciencemen counter-parts f o r not giving the arts due regard, should theyj within t h e i r own f i e l d , not be broadminded? Yet, l e t i t not be thought that I deny anyone a loye f o r poetry, and i f one so desires, poetry alone; my point i s t h i s : i f one i s to have as complete a view as possible of. an a r t , one must see i t i n perspective, i n the l i g h t of s o c i a l background, and i n the l i g h t of contem-porary developments i n other a r t s . Music i n Post-Elizabethan and Commonwealth England It would be advantageous, i n t h i s introductory chapter, to glance at the nature of the years preceding the Restoration i n r e l a t i o n to the arts before treating the eras with which t h i s thesis s p e c i f i c a l l y deals. Prima f a c i e the Restoration seems to have caused some rather cataclysmic changes i n the p o l i t i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and a r t i s t i c temper i n England. However, inve s t i g a -t i o n w i l l show that 1660, though a year of d e f i n i t e change, was by no means a year which saw the r i s e of new customs and Supra, p. 3 , n. 2. 6 i n s t i t u t i o n s which had no roots i n an older order; indeed, e s p e c i a l l y i n the a r t s , currents which were present although subdued during the Interregnum were given a chance to flow unhindered. The important point i s that those currents were present. Of course, there were facets of the Restoration period which were not to be found i n the epoch preceding i t , but these were often the r e s u l t of reaction to Puritan customs and regulations. Yet had not the l a t t e r regulations been i n e f f e c t such facets might not have been so marked. Moreover, without an understanding of the nature of the Cromwellian period, a f u l l appreciation of the a r t i s t i c tenor of the l a t e r period i s impossible. History i s a continuous process of evolution, not a series of sporadic growths. I s h a l l now, therefore, outline b r i e f l y the growth of music i n the E l i z a -bethan and post-Elizabethan eras, and then go on to indicate the a r t i s t i c aura of the Commonwealth.. Just as the Elizabethan age l e f t a glorious monument i n poetry and empire, so i t l e f t a musical heritage and i n s p i r a -t i o n which gave a great deal of l i f e b l o o d to the newer veins of composition. An evidence of t h i s heritage i s to be found i n the popularity of madrigals, f i r s t brought to England i n 1588 i n a t r a n s l a t i o n of Musiea Transalpina. a c o l l e c t i o n of I t a l i a n 'G.P. Gooch, History and Historians i n the Nineteenth Century. Beacon Press E d i t i o n (Boston, 1959), PP. 8-9. See also A.K. Holland, Henry P u r c e l l . Penguin E d i t i o n (Harmondsworth, Middle-sex, 19^-8), p. 9» The l a t t e r volume w i l l hereafter be c i t e d Holland, P u r c e l l . 7 works i n the genre J3 Many of the more c u l t i v a t e d people as well as composers and musicians performed these works, and since madrigals were polyphonic i n style and involved the active p a r t i c i p a t i o n of a group of people, they provided much public entertainment. The playing of instruments was also popular, p a r t i c u l a r l y with respect to three rather common instruments of the Tudor era, the c i t t e r n ( G i t t e r n ) , the pandore, and the opharion (orpharion). The c i t t e r n was the most popular and " . . . was standard barbershop f u r n i t u r e , a toy with which the waiting customer could amuse himself, and was mainly f o r unskilled 7 players."' Vocal works, then, were popular, and the composers of madrigals did not f a i l to cater to the pre v a i l i n g taste. Byrd, Gibbons, Morldy, Weelkes, and Wilbye wrote f i n e works of the type, although the l a s t two are often thought to be the consummate masters of the form. Unfortunately the publication of madrigals extended only twenty-four years into the post-Elizabethan era, the printed output coming to an end i n 1 6 2 7 . On the other hand, there were other types of vocal compositions to replace the madrigal, such as fantasias (based on the London street c r i e s and ballads, to be sung to s p e c i f i c tunes, e.g., Greensleeves.) One must not, of course, forget the ayre, which was an extremely popular type of work and one which also emerged 6 H. C. C o l l e s , The Growth of Music. 2 d . ed. (Oxford, 1 9 ^ 9 ) , p.k2. Unless otherwise indicated, a l l c i t a t i o n s w i l l be to Part I of t h i s volume. 7 Gustave Reese, "England Under the Tudors: Instrumental Music," Music and Western Man, ed. Peter Garvie (London, 1 9 5 8 ) , p. 13^. 8 as part of the Elizabethan heritage. Morely and Campian both wrote ayres, but they are overshadowed by John Dowland, who wrote a t o t a l of eighty-eight ayres which were published i n four volumes. Some of these works were written f o r solo voice and l u t e ; others were arranged f o r two, three, four, or f i v e voices. In the case of the polyphonic ayre, either a l l the voices could be sung, or just the highest voice, the others being played upon lutes and v i o l s . Two excellent examples of t h i s type of work are Campian*s " F i r e , F i r e " (1617) and Dowland's "In Darkness Let Me Dwell" ( l 6 l 0 ) . 8 I indicated above that the playing of instruments was a popular pastime. Indeed, instrumental music was of great importance i n t h i s period. There were many works f o r the v i r g i n a l , " . . . a modest l i t t l e instrument with neither pedals nor stops . . . . "^ Often such works were i n v a r i a t i o n form, and were based on f o l k melodies and dance t u n e s . ^ O r i g i n a l compositions included the pavan and g a l l i a r d , e.g., Byrd's Pavana Bray and G a l l i a r d a Bray. There were also " . . . pro-grammatic compositions with descriptive e f f e c t s , l i k e John B u l l ' s The Kings Hunt . . . ," and," . . . as a subcategory of the descriptive works a group of l i t t l e genre pieces that seem to An e x c e l l e n t l y edited s e l e c t i o n of ayres i s to be found i n : W.H. Auden, Noah Greenberg, and Chester Kallman, eds., An E l i z a -bethan Song Book (Garden C i t y , New York, 1956). ^Reese, p. 130. 1 0 I b i d . , pp. 130-131. 9 foreshadow by more than two centuries the intimate Character-stucke of Robert Schumann." Music f o r the lu t e i s well worthy of attention, and much of i t , l i k e that f o r the v i r g i n a l s , had i t s roots i n the popular 12 and f o l k melodies. As i n the case of the ayre, the most famous man i n t h i s f i e l d was John Dowland, who achieved a most remarkable balance of music and words. His Flow:.My Tears, set as an ayre f o r solo voice and l u t e , as well as f o r v i r g i n a l s (with the t i t l e Lachrvmae) i s a good i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s point. Moreover, i t demonstrates that Dowland was a man whose a r t i s t r y went well beyond conventionality, and whose depth of f e e l i n g was well matched by h i s a b i l i t y to portray profound emotion i n music. Let i t not be forgotten, too, that the pavans, g a l l i a r d s , courantes,and j i g s which formed a great deal of the lu t e repertoire and which came down to us i n teaching manuals, were l a t e r to become component movements of the su i t e . Instrumental ensembles were popular i n the households as well as i n the theatres. I t seems e n t i r e l y reasonable, judging from such evidence as household inventories, to suggest that the whole consort of v i o l s — a group of s t r i n g instruments resembling i n a way our present day quartet—was the most enjoyed. (This . .Ibid., p. 132. 12 E r i c Blom, Music i n England. Revised Penguin E d i t i o n (West Drayton, Middlesex, 19**7)» P- 71. P u r c e l l , a composer with true melodic g i f t s , was by no means d i s d a i n f u l of using well known melodies i n c e r t a i n works. 10 was despite the f a c t that the v i o l i n was coming to the f o r e . ) " ^ "Indeed, Eng l i s h instrumental music reveals important prefigura-tions of the st r i n g quartet of the future, and i s among the most o r i g i n a l and h i s t o r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t contributions made i k by England to the art of music." Among the r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t forms f o r v i o l s are the fantasias, some of the f i n e s t being by 15 Orlando Gibbons. ' In these fantasias are to be found fugal writing and rhythmic v a r i a t i o n , both techniques to be used l a t e r by Blow and P u r c e l l . Locke also wrote some fantasias; some of Pu r c e l l ' s sonatas,make use of the c y c l i c form, and "Locke was c l e a r l y the model i n those works, but P u r c e l l sur-passes him not only i n h i s greater harmonic subtlety, but also i n the cogency of h i s musical argument."1^ Nevertheless, the •^Ibid., p. 7k. C e c i l Forsyth, i n Orchestration. 2d. ed. (London, 1935), p. .29.9) says: "Heavy and cumbersome though the V i o l s were, they yet had a weak and unsatisfactory tone-quality [ s i c ] that cannot compare f o r an instant with that of the modern V i o l i n - f a m i l y . Some few V i o l s have been r e f i t t e d as Vi o l a s and even as 'Cellos. Players, however, f i n d them d i f f i c u l t to man-age. The lower strings have a tendency to sound heavy and funereal, while the whole instrument i s e a s i l y 'overplayed.' The Viol-players must have adopted what we should consider a quiet, l i f e l e s s s t y l e of bowing. Under the pressure of a very s l i g h t •attack," the instruments cease to do t h e i r best. They sulk." Reese, p. 135. •^"Gibbons, Orlando," Encyclopaedia Britannica (1959), X, 333. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the volume e n t i t l e d Fantasias i n  Three Parts, composed f o r v i o l s (c. l 6 l 0 ) was " . . . said to have been the f i r s t piece of music i n England printed from en-graved copper plates . . . . " Michael Tilmouth, "The Technique and Forms of P u r c e l l ' s Sonatas." Music and Let t e r s . XL ( A p r i l 1 9 5 9 ) , 111. 11 groundwork had been l a i d , and out of the f i r m foundations l a i d by Gibbons and Locke arose some of the mighty p i l l a r s i n the glorious palace of art b u i l t by Blow and P u r c e l l . Up to t h i s point my consideration has dealt e n t i r e l y with secular music. Sacred music must not be forgotten. William Byrd, whose l i f e extended into the Jacobean era, l e f t an enormous amount of church music f o r the L a t i n l i t u r g y i n the form of Masses f o r three, four, and f i v e voices, and a number of excellent motifs published under the t i t l e s of Gantiones Sacrae and Gradualia. For the Anglican Church, he wrote the celebrated Great Service and a number of exquisite 17 anthems. ' Orlando Gibbons was not overshadowed by t h i s record. His appointment, f i r s t as organist of the Chapel Royal, and then as organist at Westminster Abbey—a post l a t e r to be held by Blow and Purcell--may be interpreted as a sign of the increasing 18 importance of instrumental music i n the service. He alone of h i s generation was able to write new music f o r the English l i t u r g y which kept the l o f t y s p i r i t of the older L a t i n music, a s p i r i t which was to disappear to a c e r t a i n extent i n the sacred music of the Restoration. "His Service i n F and c e r t a i n of h i s anthems are t r u l y polyphonic . . .," a l l the voices being melodious, yet the meaning of the words not being hidden by 19 incautious overlapping. 7 Moreover, as an innovation, he " . . . ^ F o r a text on Byrd which i s both scholarly and readable, see E.H. Fellowes, William Byrd. 2d. ed. (London, 19^8). x C o l l e s , p. k7. See also Westrup, P u r c e l l . pp. 3^-37. "^Co l l e s , l o c . c i t . 12 sometimes wrote parts f o r instruments . . . " and chorus, or, " . . . more remarkable s t i l l , an accompaniment to a solo voice . . . . The contrasts between solo, chorus, and orchestra show that Gibbons' mind was moving i n a d i r e c t i o n similar to 20 that of the I t a l i a n operatic composers." The Commonwealth phase saw a great deal of opposition to elaborate church music, and the destruction by extremists p i of a number of church organs and music books. Yet, many of the leading Puritans were musical. Cromwell "borrowed" an organ from Magdalen College, Oxford, and had i t i n s t a l l e d at Hampton Court; he authorised State Concerts; music publishing came out of i t s infancy; and " . . . many famous c o l l e c t i o n s such as Playford's English Dancing Master appeared on the scene." The country was not musically d e s t i t u t e , but rather, ton a l l y withered. "Choirs [were] depleted and the s t y l e of singing . . . decayed. Old Thomas Mace, author of 'Musick's Monument,' that pious 'Remembrancer of the best P r a c t i c a l Musick, both Divine and C i v i l , that has ever been known to have been i n the World,' i s s t i l l lamenting i n 1676 that the Psalms Ibid., pp. ^6-^-7. I t i s to be noted that " I t a l i a n a t e " s t y l e i n music i n England was not just the r e s u l t of the importation of the madrigal or the influence of Carissimi on Pelham Humphrey; i n f r a , pp. 27-28. 2 1Blom, pp. 77-78. Westrup, p. 35, c i t e s Rvves. Mercurius Rusticus (16*4-6), p. 215 > when he touches upon the damage done to the Westminster Abbey organ during the C i v i l War, " . . . when troops were quartered i n the abbey, who 'brake downe the Organ, and pawned the Pipes at s e v e r a l l Ale-houses f o r pots of Ale. «*' 2 2A. K. Holland, "P u r c e l l and English Seventeenth-Century Music," Music and Western Man, p. 167. 13 of the Prophet David are (as he might say) 'tortur'd and tormented 1 by choirs which could scarcely r i s e above one man to a p a r t . " 2 ^ C o l l e s states that the " . . .. o r i g i n a l and t h r i v -ing school of music f o r keyboard instruments . . . /'founded i n the age of Eliza b e t h , was checked i n i t s development by the C i v i l War and the Commonwealth—unsafe as i t i s to c i t e p o l i t i c a l changes as the causes f o r a r t i s t i c changes—and that England had to await i n s p i r a t i o n from abroad, the " . . . s p i r i t of the madrigalists being exhausted." Yet, as Blom says, the Interrve^num did see the s t a r t of the s e c u l a r i s a t i o n and the pr o f e s s i o n a l i s a t i o n of music; with these trends came public concerts by former members of the Chapel Royal, and the f i r s t signs of En g l i s h opera which acted as a replacement f o r the forbidden stage plays. ' These operas are Italianate—much to the horror of the 96 ghost of Ascham--and use the declamatory r e c i t a t i v e which had 27 been developing i n England i n the masque. ' Shirley's masque, Cupid and Death (1653), with music by Gibbons and Locke, i s a t r a n s i t i o n a l work between masque and opera. Lawes, Cooke, Hudson, and Coleman produced a r e a l opera with Davenant's Siege 2 % o l l a n d , P u r c e l l . pp. 33-31** 2 l f C o l l e s , p. 52. 2^Blom, p. 83. See also Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 63, 75-Roger Ascham, "The Schoolmaster," Tudor Poetry and Prose, ed. J. W. Hebel, H. H. Hudson,et a l (New York, L19531), P« 651. Ascham says: "Englese Italianatooeun diabolo i n c a r n a t e " 2^Blom, p. 80. See also Holland. P u r c e l l . pp. ih f f . , and Westrup, pp. IGk f f . Ik of Rhodes (1656). Blow's Venus and Adonis (c. 1682), although c a l l e d a masque, i s r e a l l y an opera, every word being sung; and i t was t h i s work, with i t s use of r e c i t a t i v e , which was to serve as a model f o r the P u r c e l l opera, Dido and Aeneas (1689?). 2^ I f the Puritans may be viewed as being responsible f o r the growth of English opera by fo r c i n g an i n t e r e s t i n the masque, they are not responsible f o r i t s d i s s o l u t i o n " . . . which i s due to the Restoration and i t s b r i l l i a n t , c y n i c a l , and l i c e n t i o u s comedy. " ^ I have already indicated that during the Interregnum theatres were closed and plays were placed under a ban. Just as that era caused musical development i n the land to suffer by such measures as the suspension of Chapel Royal services, so the period l e d to a slowing down i n what otherwise would have been the "normal" development of dramatic productions. Musicians, unable to f i n d positions within the sphere of the church, had to seek elsewhere f o r their bread. To a c e r t a i n l i m i t e d extent they found i t i n the realm of public performance and i n s t r u c t i o n ; i r o n i c a l l y , a government of which the members had s t r i c t r e l i g i o u s See Westrup, pp. 106-107; f o r notes on The Siege of Rhodes: see also A. C. Baugh, ed., A L i t e r a r y History of England (New York, [19^8]), p. 751. ^ H o l l a n d , " P u r c e l l , " Music and Western Man, p. 168. 3°Blom, p. 83. Another obstacle was that composers had d i f f i -c u l t y i n combining I t a l i a n r e c i t a t i v e s t y l e with the E n g l i s h language. Such d i f f i c u l t y was a discouragement to the production of English opera. See Holland, Henry P u r c e l l . p. 15. 15 p r i n c i p l e s i n d i r e c t l y caused some of the c i t i z e n s to seek employments more secular than those to which they had been accustomed. S i m i l a r l y , although i n d i v i d u a l poets continued to write, the closing of the theatres caused dramatic authors and actors to search f o r some other means of subsistence; some means of l i v e l i h o o d they found i n masques and i n pastiches of f a r c i c a l comedy acts. If i t i s f a i r to point out that i n spite of the stark morality of the Commonwealth period and i t s masters, c e r t a i n of the leading Puritans (e.g., Milton), were not averse to the blessings of music,^ 2 i t i s also f a i r to note that " . .. . there were, i n Cromwell's time, dramatic performances i n the houses of noblemen and even p r i v a t e l y among c u l t i v a t e d P u r i t a n s . " 3 3 There were, on the one hand, private performances of worthwhile music and drama f o r the more c u l t i v a t e d people, and on .the other, public showings of mediocre farce f o r the l e s s educated. For the l a t t e r group, simple musical patterns which had t h e i r roots i n ballads and folk-melodies had s t i l l not l o s t t h e i r a t t r a c t i o n . ^Baugh, pp. 7^8 f f . Sherburn (p. 7 W states that: " O f f i c i -a l l y the theatres of London had been closed from the autumn of 1642 u n t i l a f t e r the Restoration of Charles II . . . . The lower classes . . . . s t i l l delighted i n 'mummings,1 rope-dances, acro-batic acts, and d r o l l s — w h i c h l a s t were f a r c i c a l fragments of plays." He notes l a t e r (p. 75D that S i r William Davenant " . . . had written masques, and romantic plays f o r f i f t e e n years before the theatres were closed . . . . During the interregnum he had evaded r e s t r i c t i o n s by producing operas and entertainments— not .technically plays." He r e f e r s the reader at t h i s point to Al f r e d Harbage, S i r William Davenant (Philadelphia, 1935)* 3 2Supra, p. 12. ^^Baugh, p. 748. 16 Yet, one should,not forget that the production of a r t , either l i t e r a r y or musical, was, during the Interregnum at l e a s t , on a small scale. While i t i s u n r e a l i s t i c to say that the Puritan era was an a r t i s t i c desert, i t i s , I suggest, thoroughly unscholarly to i n f l a t e the productions of that period beyond t h e i r true size and importance. The period was, i n tru t h , no aid to Engl i s h a r t i n many respects, f o r although i t caused a reaction i n the l660's, (with which I s h a l l deal l a t e r , ) which saw the r i s e of elaborate continental s t y l e s i n both music and l i t e r a t u r e , and although i t forced a more professional rSle on the Engl i s h musician and on growth of the masque, i t halted the development of the En g l i s h school of keyboard music, and i n general i t dampened public i n t e r e s t i n serious t h e a t r i c a l production to such an extent that whereas i n 1600 " . . . London could support a half-dozen playhouses . . afte r the Restoration, " . . . i f we shut our eyes to two or three years of f r e e - f o r - a l l competition i n producing plays, only two theatres maintained a struggling existence, and f o r the period 1682-95 only one continued regular seasons. Such conditions prevailed i n spite of a considerable royal patronage. , J Just as i t i s incor r e c t to see i n the music of the Restoration, then, a con-tinuation and strengthening of a l l the factors of the art present before the years of Puritan r u l e , so i t i s equally incorrect to see i n l i t e r a t u r e , and e s p e c i a l l y i n the theatre, a re-emergence of a l l the t r a i t s of taste common to the Jacobean era. 3**Ibid., p. 7^9 x7 I t should be noted at t h i s point, too, that i n the material given above, evidences of s i m i l a r i t y i n the development of the two arts are apparent. In both the music and the l i t e r a -ture of the Restoration there are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to the art of an e a r l i e r age i n England; yet there are also new^ Influences, new s t y l e s , new techniques, and new e f f e c t s . Some of th i s "newness" might have appeared whether or not the Commonwealth had occurred; but some of i t was, I suggest, a d i r e c t reaction to the r e s t r i c t i o n s and the imposed taste of the years between 16M-2 and l 6 6 0 . S i m i l a r i t y between develop-ments i n the two does not enter an obscure realm with the Restoration; rather, p a r a l l e l s become more marked, for what the preceding years did i n part was to marshal a r t i s t i c f e e l i n g , and to confine i t within narrow bounds, so that with the advent of freer years, i t burst f o r t h i n a joyous, i f sometimes l i c e n t i o u s wave. Surging forward on the c r e s t of t h i s wave of " r a d i c a l r e a c t i o n " were both poetry and music, and the basis of the wave was taste. Art has always been a r e f l e c t i o n of i t s age, an i n d i c a t i o n of the taste, tenor, and temperament of i t s age. This may be well i l l u s t r a t e d by reference to many eras, and p a r t i c u l a r l y by reference to the years from 1 6 6 0 on. The art of the Restoration, of which both music and poetry are i n t e g r a l parts was l a r g e l y c o u r t l y , secular^ and spectacular. I t was l u s t y and public and yet, i n some respects, profound and personal; i t was energetic and decorative, and much of i t shows a marked s t r i v i n g f o r perfection of expression. Before I go on, however, to describe i n greater d e t a i l the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of 18 Restoration a r t , to i l l u s t r a t e these with references to s p e c i f i c works, and to point out the great s i m i l a r i t i e s between poetry and music, both of which, as components of " a r t " serve to delineate the age to an extent quite beyond the range of what i s unfortunately sometimes termed "pure h i s t o r y , " I propose to comment on the a r t i s t i c influences which were operative i n two men who were the greatest of t h e i r era i n their respective a r t s , Dryden and P u r c e l l . There were s i m i l a r i t i e s i n the productions of these two men and i n the influences which determined the s t y l i s t i c nature of those productions. CHAPTER II DRYDEN AND PURCELL Influences on Dryden and P u r c e l l Dryden was not influenced by English poetry alone. The works of C l a s s i c a l and French writers also had a marked e f f e c t on him. His education at Westminster School under Dr. Richard Busby ensured a s o l i d introduction to the C l a s s i c s . Van Doren notes that " . . . i t was under Busby that Dryden contracted the Latinism of thought and speech which proved l a t e r both a blessing and a curse." 1 His studies at T r i n i t y College, Cambridge, served to broaden h i s knowledge of the C l a s s i c poets, e s p e c i a l l y the Latin w r i t e r s , whose works he preferred to those of the Greek authors. "His examples from Greek l i f e are very few; he f e l l back upon La t i n texts of Homer and Theocritus, and he knew Longinus only through the French of Boileau, or perhaps the English of John H a l l . He preferred the severer muses of the Homans, he said, to 'the looseness of the Grecians.' He shared here the bias of h i s age; the Augustans were Augustans, p not Hellenes." His chief masters were V i r g i l , Lucretius, and Van Doren, Dryden, p. 6. "Ibid., p. 9. See also Westrup, P u r c e l l . p. l 6 l . 19 20 Ovid, and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the London of the f i r s t two decades a f t e r the Restoration resembled i n many ways Ovid's Rome; Van Doren suggests that one may see the popularity of Ovid i n Restoration England i n the l i g h t of t h i s s i m i l a r i t y . 3 Dryden 1s concepts of the human emotions, of the passions, are also drawn from C l a s s i c a l writings. "He had learned from Sappho, according to Addison, that persons i n love a l t e r n a t e l y burn and freeze. He had learned from V i r g i l that i n sudden f r i g h t the knees tremble and the breath deserts the frame. He had learned from Lucretius the terminology of physical l o r e . He contracted from them a l l h i s taste f o r dealing i n blood and hardness and c r u e l t y . But what more deeply affected him than t h i s was the t r a d i t i o n of Roman v i r t u e , male v i r t u e , which he: found r e c i t e d so admirably i n the ancient h i s t o r i e s . " This t r a d i t i o n often found a place i n h i s dedications, as d i d the other concepts a place i n many of h i s works. Of the English poets, there were a number whose work Dryden knew, among them Jonson, Milton, Quarles, Wither, Sylves-t e r , and Drayton; but Cowley, Waller, Denham, and Davenant had the greatest e f f e c t on him.^ From Cowley Dryden i n h e r i t e d the tendency to varied a l l u s i o n . Indeed, the l a t t e r was well 3Van Doren, l o c . c i t . See Van Doren 1s paragraph on Dryden's non-dramatic verse, pp. 9h f f . ^ I b i d . , p. 10. ^ I b i d . , pp. 10-11. ^ I b i d . , pp. 2-3, 18. See also pp. 19 f f . 21 acquainted with Cowley's works and although they are not without f a u l t s , saw f i t to imitate them on occasion. Van Doren notes that while i t has long been known that four l i n e s i n MacFlecknoe, Where t h e i r vast courts the mother strumpets keep, And undisturbed by watch i n silence sleep . . . . Where unfledged actors learn to laugh and cry, And infant punks t h e i r tender voices t r y , are a closeparody of four i n the Davideis: Where t h e i r vast courts the mother-waters keep, And undisturbed by moons i n silence sleep . . . . Beneath the dens where unfledged tempests l i e , And i n f a n t winds t h e i r tender voices t r y ; . i t has not been observed that the famous p o r t r a i t of Shadwell near the beginning of MacFlecknoe. Some beams of wit on other souls may f a l l , S t r i k e through and make a l u c i d i n t e r v a l ; But Shadwell's genuine night admits no ray; His r i s i n g fogs p r e v a i l upon the day, i s r e p l e t e with echoes from an adjoining passage i n Cowley's epic: There i s a deep place, wondrous deep below, Where genuine night and horror does o'erflow; . . . Here no dear glimpse of the sun's lovely face, Strikes through the s o l i d darkness of the place; No dawning morn does her kindreds display; „ One s l i g h t weak beam would here be thought the day.' S i m i l a r l y , Dryden's debt to Waller cannot be denied; the l a t t e r was able to write with ease and freedom, and of t h i s Dryden was capable also. "The secret of writing with ease . . . was . . . the secret which Augustan poets were to need to know . . . . His Ibid., pp. 20-21 22 [Waller ' s ] ease was ease of mind as well as of meter. He was o cool and gracious at the same time." "From Denham Dryden ac-quired the r a t i o c i n a t i v e dignity which i s secured by quiet r h e t o r i c a l questions, r e s t f u l aphorisms, and meditative Q en.iambementl'7 In the prefatory essays by Davenant and Hobbes to Davenant's Gondiberb (1651) i s to be found material important i n terms of Restoration poetry and, of course, i n terms of Dryden's poetry, f o r i n these essays Hobbes and Davenant set fo r t h " . . . the materials f o r the new poetry . . . . This volume of l 6 5 l was almost a text-book of the new a e s t h e t i c s . " 1 0 Not only the Court came to England from France with the re s t o r a t i o n of the monarchy. Many facets of French l i f e , from manners to cooking, came with i t to influence English people i n the realm of taste, e s p e c i a l l y those of the upper classes. In the f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e , as Audra says, "avec Charles II etaient revenus d ' e x i l plusieurs ecrivains qui s'etaient formes en France, sinon sous 1 'influence, du moins aux cotes de leurs confreres f r a n c a i s . II ne nous appartient pas de rechercher ce que Waller, Denham, Davenant, Wycherly ont vien pu devoir a l a l i t t e r a t u r e francaise contemporaine . . . . La seule l i t t e r a t u r e etrangere qu'on l i s e couramment en Angle-terre, c'est c e l l e de l a F r a n c e . " 1 1 Dryden, c e r t a i n l y , was well 8 I b i d . , p. 21. ^Ibid., p. 23. See pp. 189 f f . re Milton's influence and the place of en.lambement i n Dryden's poetry. 1 0 I b i d . , p. .23. See also pp. 24-27 f f . 1 ; LE. Audra, L'Influence Francaise dans l'oeuvre de Pope (Paris, 1939), pp. 1 9 - 2 0 . H e c i t e s the Term Catalogues as evidence. 23 acquainted with the works of the French authors. This f a c t i s demonstrated i n the Essay of Dramatic Poesy (1668) and i n the Apology f o r Heroic Poetry and Poetic License (1677); i n the l a t t e r he makes use of Bapin's d e f i n i t i o n of wit: "'a propriety 1? of thoughts and words.'" A t r a n s l a t i o n of Longinus and works by Boileau also had a great e f f e c t upon him. Indeed, Van Doren makes the point that i t was Dryden who was " . . . i n an import-ant degree responsible f o r Boileau 1s vogue i n England through his c ollaboration with S i r William Soame i n 1680-1 upon a t r a n s l a t i o n of the Art of Poetry. U n t i l then Boileau 1s e f f e c t had been f e l t c h i e f l y i n s a t i r e ;.Etherege , Buckingham, Rochester, Butler, and Gldham i n turn had imitated him i n that department." 1 3 St. Evremorri was another to have an e f f e c t on Dryden, and i t i s to be noted that the l a t t e r ' s s t y l e as exhibited i n such works as Absalom and Achitophel, R e l i g i o L a i c i , and The Hind and the Panther was greatly influenced by l b . French c r i t i c i s m and i d e a l s . He did not admire French poetry Van Doren, p. 91. See also pp. 32-31* i n regard to the "wit" of Davenant and Dryden. 1 3 I b i d . , p. 92. Van Doren goes on to point out that "now i t was Boileau's whole outlook which was transferred to England. Now i t was that the accepted meanings of 'wit' and 'sense' and 'nature' and 'the c l a s s i c s ' began to draw together; now i t was that English speech and En g l i s h writing i n a l l t h e i r parts began to seem nearly c i v i l i s e d . The, E a r l of Mulgrave's Essay upon  Poetry (1682) and the E a r l of Roscommon's Essay on Translated  Verse (l68U>), two sensible poems i n the manner of Horace and Boileau, stamped a r i s t o c r a t i c approval upon the Frenchman's creeds at the same time that they spoke h i s language and breath-ed h i s s p i r i t . Almost the f i r s t of English verse-essays, they set the standard of decency and urbanity to which Augustans were continually returning over the next three or four decades." i'+Ibid., pp. 92-93. 2h per se. d i s l i k i n g i t f o r i t s element of s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and the lightness of the French language; he preferred, rather, the 15 strong English tongue. y English, French, and I t a l i a n music a l l influenced P u r c e l l . In discussing these influences, I s h a l l mention three prominent composers of the early Restoration period. To Henry Cooke f e l l the task of reorganising the Chapel Royal, and t h i s he did i n a most masterful way, selecting members with an eye to i n t e l l i g e n c e as well as to qua l i t y of voice. Among h i s students were Pelham Humfrey, John Blow, William Turner, Thomas Tudway, and Michael Wise. 1^ Humfrey was sent to France where he studied the st y l e of L u l l y , and to I t a l y , where he came under the influences; of Carissimi. On h i s return to England, he was appointed as Master of the Chapel Royal Choir, and thus had a great influence over P u r c e l l , who was then a student at the Chapel. "Apart from h i s use of the declamatory r e c i t a t i v e s t y l e , charm rather than depth would seem to be the characteris-t i c feature of Humfrey's church m u s i c . T h o u g h h i s music lacks profundity, Humfrey i s important i n that h i s works •^I b i d . , pp. 93-91*-. See also p. 33. 16 Blom, Music i n England. p. 95. See also Westrup, P u r c e l l . pp. 10 f f . 17 'Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 37. Commenting on Humfrey, Holland (p. 35) says that "whether Humfrey was a c t u a l l y L u l l y ' s p u p i l we cannot say f o r c e r t a i n , but i n Paris at that time he could scarcely avoid coming under L u l l y ' s influence. He returned to England, as Pepys remarks, an 'absolute monsieur.'" 25 demonstrate the new secular mood which was r i s i n g i n English •I Q church music. John Blow, the second of Cooke's students l i s t e d above, was also an important f i g u r e . Though his harmonic experiments make him a more unconventional composer than P u r c e l l , we f e e l i n him " . . . a much greater kinship [than that of Humfrey] with the s p i r i t of the older church composers . . . . " 1 9 I t was i n h i s capacity as organist at Westminster that he was able to exert a l a s t i n g e f f e c t on P u r c e l l , who was h i s apprentice fo r one year. Like l i t e r a t u r e , music was also governed to a c e r t a i n extent by the pre v a i l i n g current of taste, e s p e c i a l l y a r i s t o -c r a t i c taste. Charles II c e r t a i n l y spent s u f f i c i e n t time on the continent to develop a l i k i n g f o r French and even I t a l i a n music. Professor Westrup notes that "since he [Charles II] was a boy of ten when the C i v i l War broke out, he can have had very l i t t l e chance of becoming acquainted with the older s t y l e of church music, whieh was even then i n i t s decline. His musical education must have been influenced by the tastes of h i s mother, who was French, and by h i s residence during h i s e x i l e i n 20 Paris . . . ." I have noted above that French s t y l e i n l i t e r a -ture received a r i s t o c r a t i c assent; i n music, too, the seal of acceptance was set upon the importation of continental modes by l 8 I b i d . , p. 37. 1 9 I b i d . , p. 53-2 0Westrup, p. 199. See also p. 105. 26 the very f a c t that Humfrey was sent on h i s grand tour at Charles II's expense; not a l l the approval of I t a l i a n and French music was the r e s u l t of a s u p e r f i c i a l feigning of taste. French music had i t s place, then, i n the Restoration picture and i n Purcell's background. So fond of the G a l l i c s t y l e was Charles II that, i n i m i t a t i o n of Le Roid.u S o l e i l . he established at h i s own court a band of twenty-four v i o l i n s , a group which at l e a s t would help to approximate the splendour of V e r s a i l l e s . P u r c e l l was ever a man of h i s time, and h i s music r e f l e c t s not only I t a l i a n but also French influence. "The dances i n Purcell's t h e a t r i c a l works and the overtures to h i s anthems and odes are a permanent record of the impression 22 made by the French s t y l e . " Even though i n the Preface to the Sonatas of III Parts, he c r i t i c i s e d French works, r e f e r r i n g to the " . . . l e v i t y , and balladry of our neighbours . . . , " 2 he was not above imitating them. The""Entree de 1'Envie" from the prologue of L u l l y ' s Cadmus et Hermione interested him, and the a i r found i t s way in t o The Tempest i n the dance following ^ x I b i d . , pp. 201, 95-96; see also Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 3h f f . 2 2 I b i d . , pp. 97-98. See also Michael Tippett, "Qur Sense of Continuity i n English Drama and Music," Henry P u r c e l l : Essays  on His Music, ed. Imogen Hoist (London, 1959), p. ^5» Hereafter t h i s volume w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as P u r c e l l : Essays. 2 3Westrup, p. *f8. Westrup (p. 97) comments on the decline of French influence and the r i s e of I t a l i a n . See also Holland, P u r c e l l . . p. 6 l . V. supra, p. 2*f. 27 PL "Arise, ye subterranean winds." S i m i l a r i t y with L u l l y ' s style i s also apparent i n Dido and Aeneas as well as i n the Frost scene i n King Arthur ( l 6 9 1 ) , 2 ^ and " . . . several of h i s dance movements . . . reproduce the elegant gaiety of the French b a l l e t de cour . . . . But the dominant [foreign] influence i n ?6 h i s work—and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s vocal m u s i c — i s I t a l i a n . " However, A. K. Holland makes the following point: " I t i s note-worthy that to contemporary observers P u r c e l l , and indeed English composers generally, seemed to be holding a middle course between French and I t a l i a n styles . . . . P u r c e l l had himself, somewhat e a r l i e r , given credence to t h i s idea i n the 27 preface to 'Dioclesian 1 . . . ." ' But i t cannot be denied that some time a f t e r the Restoration there was a swing i n taste i n pO favour of It a l i a n a t e music. Many aspects of Purcell's work show traces of I t a l i a n influence. His use of the declamatory r e c i t a t i v e i s , i n great part, the r e s u l t of a knowledge of Humfrey's work and the l a t t e r oh Westrup, pp. 110-111; 146-1^7. Westrup suggests that P u r c e l l probably saw a performance of Cadmus i n London i n 1686. 2 ^ I b i d . , pp. 116-120; 13k. Westrup (p. 118) notes that the "Triumphing Dance" i n Dido and Aeneas i s reminiscent of the Chaconne i n . L u l l y ' s Cadmus et Hermoine. P6 Ibid., p. 2^2. Other composers were also susceptible to foreign influences. See Westrup's note on John Blow, pp. 113-H**-^ H o l l a n d , P u r c e l l . p. 6 l . 2 8 I b i d . , pp. 60-62. See also Westrup, pp. 82-92; 9*+; 96-98. 28 29 learned the mysteries of r e c i t a t i v e while i n I t a l y . 7 P u r c e l l ' s Sonatas of I I I Parts (1683) also show an I t a l i a n face. Indeed, i n the preface to these sonatas he says that he has " . . . f a i t h -f u l l y endeavour'd a just i m i t a t i o n of the most fam'd I t a l i a n Masters . . . . He i s not asham'd to own h i s unskilfulness i n the I t a l i a n Language; hut that's the unhappiness of h i s Educa-t i o n , which cannot j u s t l y be accounted h i s f a u l t , however he thinks he may warrantably af f i r m , that he i s not mistaken i n the power of the I t a l i a n Notes, or elegancy of t h e i r Compositions, which he would recommend to the English A r t i s t s . " 3 ^ I t a l i a n s t y l e i s also evident i n the dramatic works of the l680's and 1690's, e.g., Circe (c. 1685?), The F a i r y Queen (1692), The  Indian Queen (1695), and The Tempest ( 1 6 9 5 ) , 3 1 and i n the l a t e r choral works, e s p e c i a l l y the verse anthems, 3 2 ( i n such pieces as coloratura arias,) and " . . . songs with trumpet o b b l i g a t o . 1 , 3 3 What must not be neglected i s the f a c t that despite the foreign currents which were surging through the a r t i s t i c channels i n England, P u r c e l l was c e r t a i n l y influenced by English music written before the Restoration. For t h i s view there i s every 7Westrup, p. 202. P u r c e l l was susceptible to foreign i n -fluence; see also Holland, P u r c e l l , p. 62. 3°Westrup, pp. *f7-^8. See also pp. 230, n. 1, 2 ltl - 2 l t 2 . Holland i s skeptical as to whether the " I t a l i a n Masters" r e a l l y were I t a l i a n ; see h i s P u r c e l l . p. 60. 3 1Westrup, pp. 137-152. 3 2 I b i d . , p. 206. 3 3 I b i d . , p. 158. 29 ; , j u s t i f i c a t i o n . He was f a m i l i a r with the older s t y l e of English o k church music, as a number of h i s f u l l anthems attest;- 3 " P u r c e l l 1 s dramatic music was b u i l t on the foundations of the OK Chapel Royal anthem," J y and h i s " . . . vocal s t y l e was based on i n f l e c t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s derived from h i s Elizabethan pre-decessors"-' In the f i e l d of instrumental music, the fancies for v i o l s show a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p with early seventeenth-century works i n the genre.(in step-movement and imitation,) while the t r i o sonatas, despite the I t a l i a n features to be found therein, (e.g., l i v e l y nature, skip-movement, sequences, and use of the basso continuo.) have an unmistakably English 07 character.-" His use of f a l s e relation also shows him to have followed Elizabethan custom.^ 8 But these are, for the most part, ok J Westrup, pp. 201-202. Prof. Westrup states that there i s no doubt about Elizabethan and Jacobean influence on P u r c e l l ; see pp. 25-26. ^ H o l l a n d , P u r c e l l . p. 86. 3 6 I b i d . , p. 93. '^westrup, pp. 202; 233-236; 2 k 0 - 2 k l . Westrup comments on the difference i n mood between the sonatas of G o r e l l i and those of P u r c e l l (p. 236). He goes on to say that "Perhaps something of t h i s was i n Roger North's mind when he spoke of P u r c e l l ! s 'Noble set of Sonnatas, which however elog'd with somewhat of an English v e i n — f o r which they;are unworthily despised—are very a r t i f i c a l l and good Musicki' Westrup c i t e s as h i s source An Essay of Musicall Ayre ( B r i t . 'Mas.-, Add. 32536, f o . 7 8 v ) , and notes that "North i s probably r e f e r r i n g to the f i r s t set. • A r t i f i c i a l l 1 has the same meaning as the German kunstvoll . i . e . ' f u l l of craftsmanship.'" An "English aura" i s present i n c e r t a i n of the organ works; see Ralph Downes, "An Organist's View of the Organ Works," P u r c e l l : Essays, p. 71. strup, pp. 2 L 9 - 2 5 l . 30 technical matters. Though such d e t a i l s should be noted, to dwell s o l e l y i n the realm of technical d e t a i l i s often to lose sight of larger and more important questions. Here one must remember the r o l e of l i t e r a t u r e i n Purcell's l i f e , f o r i n terms of English influence on him, I suggest that one cannot overlook the part played by the works of Shakespeare, by l i n e s whose very s p i r i t and cadence form a monument to the English language, and by the works of other English writers; when P u r c e l l handled the English language per se, he was handling an a r t i c l e which i n i t s e l f owed no recent, Restoration homage to a continental tongue; he was dealing with one of the most p r i c e l e s s and b e a u t i f u l possessions of h i s fellow countrymen. That he appreciated i t s beauty and i t s p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s there i s no doubt; j y evidence which w i l l i l l u s t r a t e P u r c e l l ' s a b i l i t y to set the English language to music w i l l be c i t e d i n a l a t e r part of t h i s work. Common C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : The Court and Secularism, Occasional Art, and the Spectacular I have more than implied, i n the.preceding pages, that the court had a great influence both on the music?and on the poetry of the Restoration. The Puritan era saw the r i s e of the more independent professional musician, the man who had to seek a l i v i n g outside the realm of the church or other protective body. Poets f o r years had, to a c e r t a i n extent, at l e a s t , been -^Tippett, "Our Sense of Continuity," P u r c e l l : Essays, pp. 4 5 - 4 6 . See also Dryden 1s praise of P u r c e l l ' s a b i l i t y to set English words, c i t e d i n Westrup, pp. 70, 72, and i n Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 69. 31 dependent on the n o b i l i t y f o r patronage and subsistence; the si t u a t i o n i n the years following 1660 was not d i f f e r e n t . The king and court supported music and they supported theatre also. How strong the influence was i n the l a t t e r f i e l d i s implied i n Sherburn's statement that "the very predominance of court influence and courtier management tended perhaps to diminish the ko appeal of the theatre to the merchant classes . . . ." In much of the poetry also, and here I r e f e r p a r t i c u l a r l y to that of Dryden, there i s every i n d i c a t i o n that the c u l t i v a t i o n of roya l and noble favour was often practised. The evidence f o r th i s opinion may be found not only i n the subjects of some of the poems themselves, (e.g., Threnodia Augustalis. Britannia Rediviva. Astrea Redux, etc.) but also i n the dedications which kl preface many of them. One dedication i s of p a r t i c u l a r note, f o r i t leaves no doubt as to the v a l i d i t y of the point which I am now making. That dedication i s the one which appears at the head of the Fables. The i n s c r i p t i o n i s to the Duke of Ormond: My Lord, — Some Estates are held i n England by paying a Fine at the change of every Lord: I have enjoy'd the Patronage of your Family from the time of your excellent Grandfather to t h i s present Day. I have dedicated the Lives of Plutarch to the f i r s t Duke; augh, A L i t e r a r y History of England, p. 7*+9. In regard to professionalism i n music, see Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 63-6^, 75, 89-90. hi To His Sacred Majesty. To My Lord Chancellor. Annus  M i r a b i l i s . Fables, and some of the e p i s t l e s and complimentary addresses have dedications to members of the n o b i l i t y . 32 and have celebrated the Memory of your Heroick Father. Tho' I am very short of the Age of Nestor, yet have l i v e d to a t h i r d Generation of your House; and by your Grace's Favour am admitted s t i l l to hold from you by the same Tenure. I am not vain enough to boast that I have deserv'd the value of so I l l u s t r i o u s a Line; but my Fortune i s the greater, that f o r three Descents they have been pleas'd to Distinguish my Poems from those of other Men, and have accordingly made me th e i r peculiar Care. May i t be permitted me to say, That as your Grandfather and Father were cherish*d and adorn'd with Honours by two successive Monarchs, so I have been esteem'd and patronis'd by the Grandfather, the Father, and the Son, descended from one of the most Ancient, most Conspicuous, and most Deserving Families i n Europe.^ 2 In h i s poetry and i n h i s plays Dryden worked to s a t i s f y noble taste; i n t h i s task, f o r the most part, he succeeded. I t i s k o true that some of the plays were unsuccessful, J and Sherburn k k suggests c e r t a i n reasons f o r t h i s . Nevertheless, i t cannot be denied that the taste which he followed i n h i s plays and i n h i s poetry was s a t i s f a c t o r y to a court continentally-minded i n a r t i s t i c matters. I have noted above that the King had G a l l i c tastes, and Dryden catered to the p r e v a i l i n g flavour. When the monarch demanded splendour and magnificence i n a r t , Dryden had l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n providing them. Dryden 1s a r t , then, was a courtly a r t . I t should not be thought here that I am viewing John Dryden, "To His Grace the Duke of Ormond," The Poems of  John Drvden. ed. John Sargeaunt (London, 1925), P. 2&TK Other c i t a t i o n s of Dryden 1s works w i l l be to t h i s volume unless other-wise noted; c i t a t i o n s w i l l be to Dryden, Works. See also Van Doren, Dryden, p. 236. ^ v a n Doren, p. ihO. k k Baugh, l o c . c i t . 33 him i n a vacuum, and that other l i t e r a r y men were not working with s i m i l a r p r i n c i p l e s ; Sherburn's words on Restoration theatre make quite clear the f a c t that Dryden was not alone i n h i s use of spectacular devices. ^ Indeed, Van Doren states that at the end of the century there was not . . . serious doubt,in the minds of beginning poets as to what was the best i n matter, form, and s t y l e ; Dryden had stamped an image of himself on every world of verse, and few could r e f r a i n from f a l l i n g i n some measure into the cadences of h i s prologues, h i s epilogues, h i s s a t i r e s , h i s discourses, h i s songs, his odes, h i s narratives. P u b l i c l y also i t was under-stood that Dryden represented the taste of the nation i n poetry. The man who once had subsisted by pane-gyrizing the Crown, by p r o p i t i a t i n g the coxcombs of the theatres, and l a t e r by being a partisan i n verse, was now more honorably engaged i n s e l l i n g h i s verses to the readers of England generally.ko Like Dryden, P u r c e l l was dependent f o r a l i v i n g upon noble f a v o u r — p a r t i c u l a r l y r o y a l favour. Indeed, since h i s f i r s t appointment as assistant to John Hingston i n 1673> he remained i n the royal service, f o r while some musicians had to ^Baugh, pp. 750 f f . 1+6 Van Doren, p. 237. The author notes the r i s e of the read-ing public at the end of the century. Whereas patronage had been a v i t a l f actor i n a poet's l i v e l i h o o d , "the bookseller with h i s subscription editions was now i n a p o s i t i o n to guarantee a kind of independence and professional prosperity to men of g i f t s . . . ." On the reading public, see also Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1959)> PP. 35 f f . Van Doren, pp. ikO f f . , comments on Dryden's partisanship; Holland, P u r c e l l , pp. k5-k6, notes h i s profes-sionalism. Westrup, pp. 22-23 3>k seek subsistence from purely professional work, without the assistance of continued patronage, P u r c e l l , although what one might c a l l a "professional," remained i n the sphere of the 1+8 court. His compositions not only r e f l e c t the influences working on him, as described above, but also r e f l e c t court taste. And Purcell's taste and court taste were one and the same. Westrup says that i n June 1683 P u r c e l l ventured in t o p r i n t on h i s own account f o r the f i r s t time with a work which, as f a r as we know, marks a new departure—the Sonatas of I I I  Parts for two v i o l i n s and bass with organ or harpsi-chord. k 9 Yet even these works were dedicated to the King: On the title-page he i s proudly described as 'Composer i n Ordinary to h i s most Sacred Majesty, and Organist of h i s Ghapell Royall,' and the f i r s t v i o l i n part i s enriched with an engraved p o r t r a i t , which iwe are assur-ed i s the 'vera e f f i g e s Henriei P u r c e l l , aetat. suae 2k.' The work i s dedicated to the king, by whose r o y a l favour the composer declares he has been emboldened to lay h i s compositions at His Majesty's 'sacred feet. ' 5 0 In them, too, i s the same I t a l i a n s t y l e with which Charles II became acquainted when he was s t i l l i n France; moreover, i t i s the composer's avowed in t e n t i o n to write i n t h i s s t y l e . He says he has t r i e d k 8 H o l l a n d , P u r c e l l , p. 75. V. supra, p. 31, n. k 0 . ^Westrup, p. k7. ^°Loc. c i t . See also p. 255* 35 1 . . . p r i n c i p a l l y to bring the seriousness and gravity of that sort of Musick into vogue . . . . ' 51 I t was t h i s style which, with the French t r a i t s added, marked so many of the composer's anthems and odes, works undeniably written f o r r o y a l occasions and with an eye to royal favour. Professor Westrup speaks of Purcell's a c q u i s i t i o n of a " b r i l l i a n t manner" i n regard to the odes, and notes also that i t i s i n 1683 that he i s able to show h i s true mettle i n t h i s (Jo type of work. -> The same desire f o r c o l o u r f u l , b r i l l i a n t e f f e c t s that influenced Dryden had i t s e f f e c t upon P u r c e l l . The 1687 ode, Sound the trumpet, beat the drum, opens with pompous magnificence . . . . The style suggests Han-del i n i t s breadth and splendour . . . . The s o l i d l y b u i l t opening chorus of Now does the glorious day  appear (1689) has the r o c k - l i k e determination commonly associated with Handel's choral works. The instrument-a l writing shows the same richness, and the use of strings i n f i v e parts, a f t e r L u l l y ' s model, gives an added richness to the texture.5k Even i n the l a s t year of h i s l i f e , i n h i s setting of Shadwell's adaptation of The Tempest, he does not seek a quieter s t y l e . ^ " P u r c e l l , Preface to the Sonatas of I I I Parts, c i t e d i n Ibid., p. *+8. Professor Westrup states that t h i s preface may have been written by Playford f o r P u r c e l l , but that the l a t t e r was i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y i n agreement with the content of the piece. See p. 230. For a good discussion of I t a l i a n influence i n P u r c e l l ' s sonatas, see Michael Tilmouth, (supra, p. ID , n. 16), passim. See also Holland, P u r c e l l , pp. 6 O - 0 I . ^ 2Westrup, pp. 172 f f . , 197 f f . See also p. 152, and Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 127 f f . ^Westrup, p. 172. ^ I b i d . , pp. 180-181. 36 True, h i s style develops through the years, but, judging from Westrup's examples, here i s the work of the same man who, influenced by French and I t a l i a n models, wrote the e a r l i e r anthems and odes. Here i s the man of the court r e f l e c t i n g the taste of the court, which enjoyed the often spectacular contin-ental aura. Although The Tempest was not written s p e c i f i c a l l y for n o b i l i t y , i t s t i l l r e t ains c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the many works which were. Post-Hestoration music, then, l i k e poetry, was indeed a courtly a r t , and P u r c e l l , i n the eyes at l e a s t of North, was "Orfeus B r i t a n n i c u s . " ^ The influence of the court was, moreover, secular, and the Hestoration years saw a r i s e i n secularism i n the a r t s , a trend on which I s h a l l comment b r i e f l y . I suggested above that the Puritan regime did not k i l l a r t i s t i c enthusiasm i n the country; rather, i t confined i t , and i n 1660, with the end of s t r i c t control over musical and dramatic a c t i v i t y , England experienced the r i s e of a taste which bore many continental marks. While c e r t a i n men of the arts went to France f o r genuine i n s p i r a t i o n i n their f i e l d , others sought European manners and graces without considering f i r s t whether they had p a r t i c u l a r merit i n a given s i t u a t i o n . The r i s e of the professional musician (mentioned e a r l i e r ) and subsequently of the virtuoso, also aided the growth of the new trend. "Charles II's tastes were eminently secular, but [Holland 5 5Roger North, The Musical Grammarian, ed. Hilda Andrews (London, 1925), p. 33 > c i t e d i n Westrup, p. 2 k l . See also Dryden 1s ode, "On the Death of Mr. P u r c e l l . " 37 suggests] h i s influence i n changing the d i r e c t i o n of English 56 music has probably been overrated." y Charles I I 1 s group of twenty-four v i o l i n s and h i s craving to emulate the splendour of V e r s a i l l e s contributed to the magnificent and rather worldly aura. Continental styles found th e i r way not only into secular music but also into sacred music. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that John Evelyn comments i n h i s diary that on December 21, 1662, a f t e r a sermon delivered by one of the king's chaplains, instead of the ancient, grave, and solemn wind musique accompanying the organ, was introduced a concert of twenty-four v i o l i n s between every pause, after the French f a n t a s t i c a l l i g h t way, better s u i t i n g a tavern, or a playhouse, than a churchJ57 Even sacred anthems were written i n the new harmonic st y l e which 58 had o r i g i n a l l y developed i n the opera and i n the masque. 56 y Holland, P u r c e l l , p. 30. In view of what I have said i n the immediately preceding pages, however, l e t us not underrate the e f f e c t of the c o u r t — a secular court with predominantly French manners—on the art of England. In the new era, music, as Blom says (Music i n England, p. 91,) " . . . not only emancipated i t s e l f , as i t quite properly should have done, from the i n h i b i -tions of Puritan morality; i t began at once to be pressed into the service of courtly l a x i t y . " A moderate position i n regard to the extent of court influence i s the most scholarly one* 57John Evelyn, The Diary of John Evelvn. ed. E. S. deBeer (Oxford, 1955), I I I , 3 ^ 7 . S e e also Blom, p. 97, and Westrup, pp. 28, 98. ^Blom, p. 96. . "Wherever the necessary material was obtain-able, the service was now allowed to be o r c h e s t r a l l y accompanied, and t h i s i n turn encouraged the use of the new harmonic s t y l e , i n which blocks of chords supported contrapuntal parts . . . ." 38 Blom notes that the fashion as such had the upper hand, and i t was not to be expected that the church, influenced on the one side by the f r i v o l i t y at court and on the other by an inev i t a b l e reaction against Puritan stringency, should override i t with any great show of severity.5 9 I t was not instrumental music per se which was new; i t was i t s " . . . introduction i n divine service to which Evelyn, and no doubt others of the same temper, took exception, e s p e c i a l l y when the music played was modelled on the French practice, and hence, i n t h e i r view, frivolous;"' 1 Professor Westrup, i n describing the church music of Pur c e l l ' s day, remarks on the use of the declamatory s t y l e of the I t a l i a n s " . . . with i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c e f f e c t s of pathos and dramatic expression . . . ," and on the development of the " . . . anthem into a cantata . . . [with] the introduction of instruments on an equal basis with the voices." He also c i t e s Tudway's notes on Restoration church music, notes which describe Charles II's attitude toward sacred, music and which tend to show the monarch as being s o l e l y responsible f o r a l l the changes i n that f i e l d . In the in t e r e s t s of c l a r i t y , I s h a l l quote them i n part. ^ I b i d . , pp. 96-97. See also Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 39. 6 o w estrup, P u r c e l l . p. 28. See also pp. 207-210, 152. 6 l I b i d . , pp. 199-200. 39 His Majesty . . . Order'd to add symphonys &c. with and these upon E s t a b l i s ' d private music to play the he had appointed. the Composers of h i s Chappell Instruments to t h e i r Anthems; [ s i c ] a select number of h i s symphonys & Retornellos which In about h or 5 years time some of the forwardist & brightest Children of the Chappell, as Mr. Humfreys, Mr. Blow, & c , began to be Masters of a f a c u l t y i n Composing. This h i s Majesty greatly encourag'd by i n -dulging t h e i r y o u t h f u l l fancys, so that ev'ry month at l e a s t , & afterwards oft'ner, they produc'd something New of t h i s Kind. In a few years more s e v e r a l l others, Educated i n the Chappell, produc'd t h e i r Compositions i n this s t y l e ; for otherwise i t was i n vain to hope to please h i s Majesty. Thus t h i s secular way was f i r s t introduc'd into the service of the Chappell, And has been too much imitated ever since by our Modern Composers.°2 Westrup i s i n agreement with Holland i n saying that Tudway's views about the king's influence are exaggerated. He points out that, l i k e Evelyn, Tudway d i s l i k e d the " s e c u l a r i t y " of the instrumental symphonies. But once l e t i t be accepted that instrumental (music i n church was admissible, and i t i s c l e a r that the only s t y l e i n which i t could have been written was the secular s t y l e . There was no t r a d i t i o n of instrumental church music. To the Restoration composers instrumental music was simply instrumental music, without any q u a l i f i c a t i o n . It has too often been supposed that a secular s t y l e means a f r i v o l o u s s t y l e , unsuited to divine o f f i c e s ; whereas i t should have been obvious that secular music can be, and often i s , as sober and d i g n i f i e d as anything written expressly f o r the church.©3 6 2 B r i t . Mus., H a r l . 7338, f o . 2 v - 3 , c i t e d i n Ibid., pp. 199-200. See also p. 17. 6 3 I b i d . , pp. 201-202. ko We should not, however, misunderstand Professor Westrup. What he says of secular music i s quite true. But the f a c t remains that instrumental symphonies were added to the anthems i n order to make the service more a t t r a c t i v e , not s p e c i f i c a l l y to induce greater devoutness i n the members of the congregation. H. K. Holland i s quite d e f i n i t e about t h i s point: The conventions of the period led to the s e l e c t i o n of texts, as Bumpus has pointed out i n h i s 'Cathedral Music,' notable f o r t h e i r highly coloured imagery. The anthem was the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c form of English church music. Pepys constantly r e f e r s to i t and Haw-kins t e l l s us of a modish habit of the gentlemen of the time, who escorted a lady to the afternoon service at St. Paul's e s p e c i a l l y i f there was a new anthem. It may not have been a very r e l i g i o u s practice but i t was at l e a s t a sign of musical i n t e r e s t . The Chapel Royal anthems were quite frankly a musical entertain-ment. With their r i t o r n e l l i , t h e i r b r i l l i a n t solos, designed to show of f the voice of the Rev. John Gostling, or some other famous chanter, t h e i r choruses and f i n a l a l l e l u i a s , they were an extremely spectacular feature of Restoration r e l i g i o n . They were part of . . . the r e l i g i o u s entertainment that was maippedxoilt :> t for the diversion of the r o y a l ear.oM-On the one hand then, while such continental a t t r a c t i o n s appeal-ed to the l i s t e n e r because of their v a r i e t y and colour, i t must not be forgotten that c e r t a i n composers could use such devices with the greatest s i n c e r i t y and consciousness of the place i n 'Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 1 2 6 - 1 2 7 . 65 which t h e i r music was to be heard. P u r c e l l was one of those. ' Just as Tudway and Evelyn believed that English music degenerated with the importation of continental t r a i t s , so ce r t a i n men of l e t t e r s regarded Restoration poetry as i n f e r i o r to that of previous eras i n that they found l i t t l e of the profundity or at l e a s t sound thought which characterised some of the l a t t e r . I t was charged [too] that France had corrupted E n g l i s h song with her Damons and Strephons, her 'Ghlorisses and P h y l l i s s e s , 1 and that the dances with which she was supposed to have vulgarized the drama and the opera had introduced notes of t r i v i a l i t y and i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y into a l l l y r i c poetry. Dryden . . . ran them [dances] into h i s plays whenever there was an excuse.66 Van Doren states that "the seventeenth century i n England was a century of se c u l a r i z a t i o n , f i r s t under I t a l i a n and then under French influences," and that "poets drew much of t h e i r best knowledge and i n s p i r a t i o n from musicians, so that any a l t e r a t i o n i n musical modes was c e r t a i n to a f f e c t the styles of v e r s e . " ^ 6 ^ I b i d . , pp. 127-129. P u r c e l l ' s handling of h i s musical resources was always i n keeping with the s i t u a t i o n f o r which he was writi n g ; secular devices which found t h e i r way int o h i s church music were treated with tact and d i s c r e t i o n and an awareness not only of h i s audience—a court congregation—but also of h i s text and i t s meaning. See also Westrup, pp. 207-210. Pure ell" 1's p o s i t i o n should not be equated with that of P a l e s t r i n a after the Council of Trent. ^Van Doren, Dryden. p. 175» Van Doren goes on to note Dryden's indebtedness to Molie're and Voiture. ^ I b i d . , p. 176. (See Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 60, i n regard to the change from French to I t a l i a n taste i n the years following the Restoration.) k 2 Instead of the i n t r i c a c i e s of the rhythms and harmonies of the music and poetry of the former age, the s i m p l i c i t i e s of dance measures now rang through the works of church and stage and 6 8 11 . . . a l l the world of l y r i c poetry." "Dryden f o r h i s own part was i n c l i n e d to welcome swift, simple, straight-on 69 rhythms . . . ;' these were rhythms akin to the dance measures of the day. Just as P u r c e l l moved from the f u l l anthem to the verse anthem and out of close touch with pre-Bestoration music, so Dryden moved away from the style of h i s early songs, with their d i s t i n c t i v e aura of the Caroline period to a new s t y l e , 70 a more simple, d i r e c t , dance-like mode. The examples i n Van Doren's text provide ample i l l u s t r a t i o n of t h i s point, and that c r i t i c notes that by no means are these songs of Dryden's to be classed as profound. They were, I suggest, the p o e t i c a l counterparts of many of the short works of P u r c e l l ; they possess the same s l i g h t l y f r i v o l o u s and brilliant-.nature which i s to be found i n the l a t t e r . * 7 1 Indeed, they border on the v i r t u o s i c , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Restoration a r t which I s h a l l touch on l a t e r . ^^Van Doren, p. 177. There was, the author notes, strong resistance to the newer s t y l e . 6 9 I b i d . , p. 179. ^°Ibid., p. 180. The author quotes a song from The Indian  Emperor, and states that Dryden moved from the st y l e of t h i s " . . . to a more modern, more breathless world of song, a world where he f e l l at once, i n An Evening's Love, into the d a c t y l i c swing that was to win him h i s way into the i r r e p r e s s i b l e D r o l l e r i e s . . . ." P u r c e l l moved into more rhythmic frameworks; see Westrup, p. 2kl. 71 ' P e t e r Pears, "Homage to the B r i t i s h Orpheus," P u r c e l l : Essays, pp. 1 f f . ^3 The songs of Dryden show a lightness and s p r i g h t l i n e s s , then, not to be found i n much of Garoline verse. But the analogy with Restoration music goes deeper, f o r I suggest that even when the poet i s dealing with serious subjects as he i s i n the epitaphs and elegies, there i s not the depth of f e e l i n g of Jonson, Donne, or Milton. His ode "On the Death of Mr. P u r c e l l " i s possibly a sincere t r i b u t e , i t i s true, but i t s conventions tend to l i m i t the depth of expression, to mask what might otherwise be a statement of true f e e l i n g . I do not say that there i s no f e e l i n g i n the poem, but that the emotion-a l impact i s severely l i m i t e d . Yet, one cannot say that the elegy, as a poem, i s not very b e a u t i f u l . The same comments might be made about "Upon Young Mr. Rogers," "On Mrs. Margaret Paston," and "Epitaph on a Nephew." Compared to Jonson 1s per-sonal and very b e a u t i f u l "On My F i r s t Son," h i s lo v e l y "Epitaph on E l i z a b e t h , L.H.," and h i s strong yet sympathetic utterance on Shakespeare, Dryden's elegies, l i k e h i s songs, are not as profound, as deeply infused with the poet's personality. It would appear that the lightheartedness of much of Restoration art had penetrated even here. The only hymn which can be 72 confidently attributed to Dryden, Veni. Creator S p i r i t u s . though sincere and more moving than the elegies, has not the depth and personal conviction of, l e t us say, Donne's Holy Sonnets, e s p e c i a l l y "Batter my heart . . . " with which i t has 'Van Doren, p. 185. For the author's comments on Dryden's epitaphs, see pp. 122 f f . kk a number of s i m i l a r i t i e s i n terms of thought. Van Doren says of t h i s hymn that i t . . . i s i n a c e r t a i n sense rounder and deeper utterance than any of the songs. The vowels are more varied and the melody has a more s o l i d core to i t ; the bass of a cathedral organ rumbles under the rhythms.73 He states too that Dryden " . . . was a born writer of hymns . . . " and that "praise with him was as i n s t i n c t i v e as s a t i r e . " ' Yet, l i k e P u r c e l l ' s , h i s praise and h i s devotion are n a t u r a l l y tempered with the tenor of the times, and, as I stated above, the tenor was one of attractiveness and splendour. Thus, while P u r c e l l and Dryden perhaps used the contemporary conventions of their arts quite sincerely, and knew what they were expressing, the very use of those conventions sometimes stood i n the way of complete communication of the depth of a thought or emotion. One i s i n c l i n e d to agree with Landor i n his judgement on the opening of R e l i g i o L a i c i , f o r indeed, th i s i s perhaps Dryden*s most profound point. "'Landor once said to me,' wrote Henry Crabb Robinson i n h i s Diary f o r January 6, lo% 2 , 'Nothing was ever written i n hymn equal to the beginning 75 of Dryden's R e l i g i o L a i c i . — t h e f i r s t eleven l i n e s . ' " ' ^ ^ L o e . c i t . See also p. 123. 7 k I b i d . , p. 185. ''Loc. c i t . P u r c e l l i s able to achieve great depth i n some of h i s work; e.g., the music f o r the funeral of Queen Mary, 1695. k5 Both Dryden and P u r c e l l were devout men. Both celebrat-ed t h e i r f a i t h i n th e i r a r t s , but both, even i n profound moments, r e f l e c t the influence of continental s t y l e s , s t y l e s which suited the court and which, f o r the most part, were eminently secular. And i t was with P u r c e l l , heavily influenced by French and I t a l i a n examples as well as by English ones, that Dryden, working under many of the same influences and s t r i v i n g to improve h i s own work and to s a t i s f y the taste of the times, joined. The poet obtained " . . . the f u l l advantage of an association with t h i s powerful composer who, as Motteux put i t i n the f i r s t number of h i s Gentleman's Journal i n 1692, joined 'to the delicacy and beauty of the I t a l i a n way, the graces and 76 gayety of the French.'"' Before going on to discuss more s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of the art of Dryden and P u r c e l l , I s h a l l turn f o r a moment at t h i s point to note an important factor which i s evident i n both poetry and music i n so f a r as they are connected with the court and the society surrounding i t . One might expect that a continuing patronage would i n c l i n e i f not compel a poet or a composer to produce a continuing stream of works f o r the s a t i s f a c t i o n and pleasure of h i s employer, and that these works would be produced whether or not state or " s o c i a l " occasions occurred which demanded sp e c i a l productions. However, i n the ^ I b i d . , p. 178. See also Westrup, P u r c e l l . pp. 67-734 For a l i s t of Dryden's works set by P u r c e l l , see Van Doren, pp. 177-178, and Westrup, App. B., pp. 271 f f . See also Holland, P u r c e l l , pp. 69, l*t5 i n regard to Dryden 1 s partnership with P u r c e l l . 46 case of both Dryden and P u r c e l l , "occasional" works are often the r u l e , and indeed, s p e c i a l events f o r which pieces had to be written often resulted i n some of t h e i r best productions. Van Doren has put the matter of the "occasional", as f a r as Dryden i s concerned, out of question. There i s a sense i n which every poem that Dryden wrote was occasional . . . . Circumstances were re-quired to draw him out on paper. B i r t h s , deaths, l i t e r a r y events, p o l i t i c a l incidents tapped i n him the r i c h e s t commenting mind that English poetry has known. He i s the celebrant, the s i g n a l i z e r par  excellence. He succeeded Ben Jonson, the other great occasional poet of the seventeenth century, i n a kind of writing that was p e c u l i a r l y Augustan . . . . The temper of the century had s w i f t l y become suited to a sort of expression aiming "rather at aptitude than alt i t u d e , " as Thomas Jordan.put i t i n the dedication of h i s Poems and Songs i n 1664. I t had become more and more agreeable to read and write verses that suavely wreathed themselves around p l a i n , s o c i a l facts.77 He states, too, that Dryden not only rose to h i s occasions, but rose above them, that he." . . . brought to them r i c h e r store's-;-; 78 of thought and melody than were adequate,"' that he never "Van Doren, p. 107. 78 ' I b i d . , p. 108. Some i n t e r e s t i n g l i n e s relevant to t h i s point are to be found i n J.W.N. S u l l i v a n , Beethoven: His S p i r i t u a l  Development. Mentor Book E d i t i o n (New York, 1949), P. 73: "Even with poetry, which often professes to have i t s o r i g i n i n , some p a r t i c u l a r occasion, the poem i s never the e f f e c t of the p a r t i c u l a r occasion acting on some kind of tabula rasa. The experience of the p a r t i c u l a r occasion f i n d s i t s place within a context, although the impact of the experience may have been necessary to bring t h i s context to the surface. A genius may be defined as a man who i s exceptionally r i c h i n recoverable contexts. But the formation of these contexts i s , f o r the , most part, an unconscious process." e n t i r e l y deserted the realm of the panegyric during the reigns of Charles II and James I I , that "his o f f i c i a l praise rings with a round Roman grandeur," and that "he writes as i f he 79 l i v e d to praise, not praised to l i v e . " ' 7 How correct Van Doren i s may be judged by reading any of Dryden 1s panegyrics; while To His Sacred Ma.iesty. A Panegyric on His Coronation ( l 6 6 l ) i s c e r t a i n l y a poem designed to a t t r a c t r o y a l favour by v i r t u e of i t s panegyric nature, i t i s also a good poem per se. I t i n no way contradicts what that c r i t i c has said of Dryden 1s praise-in-verse; rather, i t i l l u s t r a t e s h i s words. It i s f u l l of praise and warm compliments, yet not replete with them to the point of being fawning. The poet, I suggest, knows when to s t o p — a n admirable professional c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Further, the praise i n t h i s poem i s always poetic rather than just pedestrian. The images are not excessive or inappropriate, as they might be i n the work of a lesser man. The l i n e s , too, sing with the music of a master: Next to the sacred Temple you are l e d , Where waits a Crown for your more sacred Head; How j u s t l y from the Church that Crown i s due, Preserv'd from ruine and restor'd by you.1 The g r a t e f u l ! quire t h e i r harmony employ Not to make greater, but more solemn joy. ' 7Van Doren, p. 110. The author also notes that " .' . . i t was only with the return of Charles II from France and the setting up of what was believed would be a permanent l i t t l e s o c i a l court that l i t e r a r y England came for awhile to be some-thing l i k e l i t e r a r y Rome i n the fourth century or l i k e l i t e r a r y I t a l y i n the f i f t e e n t h . " See p. 109 f o r an enlargement of t h i s statement. Wrapt soft and warm your Name i s sent on high, As flames do on the wings of Incense f l y ; Musique herself i s l o s t , i n vain she brings Her choisest notes to praise the best of Kings; Her melting st r a i n s i n you a tombe have found g 0 And lye l i k e Bees i n their' own sweetnesse drowned. A much l a t e r work, "To the E a r l of Roscomon. on h i s Ex c e l l e n t  Essay on Translated Verse"(168^), shows the same talent f o r t h i s sort of writing and the same deft execution of the lauda-tory poem. F i l l e d with w e l l turned compliments, the piece could not have f a i l e d to achieve i t s object, v i z . , to please and delight the E a r l and to inform readers of h i s prowess. The g i s t of the poem i s given i n the following l i n e s : The Wit of Greece. the Gravity of Rome. Appear exalted i n the B r i t t i s h Loome; The Muses Empire i s restor'd agen, In Charles h i s reign, and by Roscomon's Pen. How w i l l sweet Ovid's Ghost he [ s i c ] pleas'd to hear His Fame augmented by a B r i t t i s h Peer, How he embellishes His Helen's loves, Q. Outdoes h i s softness, and h i s sense improves? It should not be assumed that these complimentary addresses of Dryden's were unmarked by progress i n poetic s t y l e . Speaking of two l a t e r works of t h i s type, Van Doren remarks that O Q Dryden, To His Sacred Majesty. A Panegyric on His Coronation. Works, p. 12, 11. M-5-56. 8 lDryden, "To the E a r l of Roscomon on h i s Excellent Essay on Translated Verse," Works, p. 153, 11. 26-29, 59-62. In l i n e 59, "he" should be read "be". k 9 the famous l i n e s to Congreve oh h i s Double-dealer ( l 6 9 k ) , and those to S i r Godfrey Kneller of the same year, probably i n acknowledgement of a p o r t r a i t of Shakes-peare,* which Kneller had given him, represent a more r e f l e c t i v e stage i n the progress of Dryden's e p i s t o l a r y manner. They do not charge upon t h e i r subjects with the breathless speed.of the early addresses; th e i r discourse, which i n one case i s upon the dramatic poetry of the l a s t age and i n the other case i s upon the h i s t o r y of paintingi seems packed and ripe.8 2 In the same way that P u r c e l l 1 s l a s t two birthday odes f o r Queen Mary, Celebrate t h i s f e s t i v a l (l693)and Come ye sons of a r t away ( l 6 9 k ) , have an aura of splendour and magnificence about them, 8 3 the poet's " . . . l a s t two e p i s t l e s of a l l appeared with 84 considerable pomp i n . . . [ h i s ] l a s t volume, the Fables." Indeed, the l i n e s to the Duchess of Ormond have an almost martial sound to them i n places; trumpets and drums would not be out of 85 place by way of accompaniment. Gn some of the epitaphs, also i n the realm of occasional verse, I have already commented. In speaking of Dryden as a narrative poet, Van Doren remarks that h i s " . . . narrative 86 surface i s more animated than moving." The same i s true i n a 8? Van Doren, p. 118. Somewhat the same comment could be made i n re the development i n P u r c e l l 1 s "Birthday Odes;" see Westrup, pp.. 181 f f . estrup, pp. I87 f f . 8k Van Doren, p. 120. These are the prefatory poem to Palamon  and A r c i t e . dedicated to the Duchess of Ormond, and To My  Honour'd Kinsman. John Driden . . . . 8^Dryden, To Her Grace the Duchess of Ormond. Works, p. 279. See p a r t i c u l a r l y 11. 1-29. 8 6Van Doren, p. 229. 5 0 way about h i s elegaic poetry, f o r although one w i l l agree with the c r i t i c that To the Memory of Mr. Oldham i s sincere and 8 7 b e a u t i f u l , ' one w i l l also f e e l , I suggest, that i t does not have great depth of f e e l i n g i n r e l a t i o n to other poetry of t h i s type. Perhaps an even stronger example, though, of the importance of occasional pieces i n Dryden 1s poetry i s the wealth of prologues and epilogues to be found there. "They give, more adequately than any other d i v i s i o n of h i s work, a notion of h i s various powers; h i s speed, h i s precision, h i s weight, h i s melody, h i s taet . . . . They are h i s most speaking poems; 88 they have the warmth of f l e s h and blood." They are neat and succinct, d i r e c t and a l i v e . P u r c e l l , was often at h i s best i n h i s i n c i d e n t a l music f o r various plays; Dryden i s l i k e him, f o r he i s b r i l l i a n t i n the prologues, etc., and what are these but f i n e l y turned overtures and f i n a l e s written f o r t h e a t r i c a l - s o c i a l occasions? "Prologues and epilogues were poems now that could stand alone . . . . Bayes [ i n The Rehearsal] was r i g h t ; prologues 8 9 and epilogues had become s o c i a l events." 7 These pieces were important to the audience i n Restoration theatre, and Van Doren states that v 8 7 I b i d . , p. 12h. 8 8 I b i d . , p. 128. 8 9 I b i d . , p. 130. For Van Doren 1s f u l l discussion of these pieces, see pp. 128-139. 51 I f Dryden wrote h i s f i r s t prologues and epilogues per-f u n c t o r i l y , i t i s p l a i n that he wrote h i s l a t e r ones both with i n s t i n c t i v e delight and with due attention to the precautions necessary f o r insuring t h e i r success.90 For Dryden, then, an occasional piece was not an un-important t r i v i a l i t y to be tossed o f f without proper attention. Indeed, such works form a great part of h i s t o t a l output and contain much of h i s best work. What are the C e c i l i a odes (with which I s h a l l deal i n d e t a i l l a t e r ) , i f not occasional pieces? Pieces of t h i s type were a very r e a l factor i n the Restoration era, and l i t e r a t u r e was not alone i n displaying the era's taste for them. Music, and i n p a r t i c u l a r , that of P u r c e l l , contains many counterparts to the works of Dryden which I have just been discussing. One has only to glance at Professor Westrup's catalogue of P u r c e l l ' s works to see that my statement i s not unfounded. It i s f i l l e d with the names of odes, welcome songs, anthems f o r spec i a l services, i n c i d e n t a l works f o r plays, and so on. Even Dido and Aeneas (1689?) the composer's only r e a l opera, i s an occasional piece, l i k e Blow's Venus and Adonis.(c. 1682), to which i t owes a c e r t a i n d e b t . 9 1 As Van Doren notes the aptness of Dryden's verse f o r "personal" occasion, so A. K. Holland remarks on the same feature i n P u r c e l l . There are s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l s i n the c r i t i c a l opinions here: 7 W I b i d . , p. 133. 9 1 ' John Blow, Venus and Adonis, ed. Anthony Lewis, Tercentenary E d i t i o n (Monaco: L'Oiseau Lyre, 19 L 9), P. i i of Forward. 52 P u r c e l l ' s music was always ' r i g h t l y f i t t e d and adapted' to whatever was the purpose of the occasion. The charge of being an 'occasional* composer or poet i s one which i s apt to have depressing associations i n a country that has not always been too fortunate i n those on whom the o f f i c i a l l a u r e l s have been placed . . . . Even when he i s confronted with the empty bom-bast and s e r v i l e f l a t t e r i e s of some of the royal odes, h i s a r t i s never demeaned and r a r e l y sounds forced . . . . He never f a i l e d to r i s e to a great ceremonial opportunity. His whole career was made up of such opportunities and h i s e s s e n t i a l l y dramatic genius pass-ed e a s i l y from the theatre i n Dorset Gardens to the theatre i n public l i f e . 9 2 Although c e r t a i n pieces which might be classed as i n c i d e n t a l music are linked to p a r t i c u l a r plays by v i r t u e of dialogue or action, others, p a r t i c u l a r l y purely instrumental works, could f i t i n any one of a number of stage pieces i n the same way that some of Dryden's prologues and epilogues c o u l d . ^ However, i t should not be i n f e r r e d from t h i s statement that a l l or even a great deal of Pur c e l l ' s "occasional" pieces might have suited one occasion as well as another. The comment above r e f e r s s p e c i f i c a l l y to some of the i n c i d e n t a l music f o r plays. To i n -clude other works would be unscholarly and in c o r r e c t . Most of q 2 H o l l a n d , P u r c e l l . pp. 78-79-^ 3 I b i d . , p. 152. See also Van Doren, p. 130. Van Doren says that " . . . i t became possible f o r audiences to be addressed on special subjects. Prologues and epilogues were poems now that could stand alone; often i t made very l i t t l e difference at what play or i n what order they were spoken." Holland points out, i n regard to i n c i d e n t a l music (p. 152), that "these move-ments are i n v a r i a b l y short but contain much sparkling music. They have no p a r t i c u l a r relevance to the play i n hand and might equally well be transferred from one to another. But they are excellent theatre music . . . ; Purcell's copiousness of melodic invention i s scarcely anywhere seen to better purpose . . . . P u r c e l l 1 s sense of movement, of gesture, i s supreme." 53 Dryden's pieces, e.g., To His Sacred Majesty, are eminently suited to the occasion; so are those of P u r c e l l . This f a c t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable when one comes to look at the r o y a l odes. Even the early ones are e n t i r e l y suitable i n view of the i r purpose, and although they do not reach the standard of the l a t e r odes, are by no means musical doggerel. Professor Westrup's discussion of these odes renders unnecessary an outline of t h e i r development here; s u f f i c e i t to say that h i s treatment of the subject i s quite f u l l and i s 9 4 adequately i l l u s t r a t e d with musical examples. These odes are magnificently written; they are martial and t h r i l l i n g , and undeniably b e a u t i f u l despite t h e i r Restoration lavishness. Westrup says of Celebrate t h i s f e s t i v a l (1693) that " . . . the baroque magnificence of the choral writing and the proud energy of the melodies make the work as a whole an imposing piece d' occasion. Such solemn Jubilee i s proper to a queen's b i r t h d a y . " 7 y Even bad verse—which i t was sometimes h i s l o t to s e t — d i d not prevent him from e x c e l l i n g himself, as i n Come ye  sons of art away ( l 6 9 4 ) . 9 ^ The four C e c i l i a odes, as I have remarked above, are also without doubt admirably designed f o r the day being c e l e b r a t e d , 9 7 H a i l , bright C e c i l i a (1692) being, ^Westrup, P u r c e l l . pp. 172 f f . See also pp. 37 , L 0 - 4 l , 46, 48 - 5 0 , 5 3 - 6 0 . 9 5 I b i d . , p. 187. 9 ^ I b i d . , p. 188. See also pp. 40-41, and Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. I l l f f . , 173. V. i n f r a , p. 92. 9 7Henry P u r c e l l , Ode f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day, ed. Michael Tippett and Walter Bergmann (London: Schott and Co., Ltd., 1955). See the h i s t o r i c a l note on the St. C e c i l i a ' s Day t r a d i -t i o n . See also Westrup, pp. 5 0 - 5 1 . I suggest, the best. Many of the anthems, occasional pieces though they were, contain some of the composer's best w r i t i n g . Professor Westrup mentions i n p a r t i c u l a r My heart i s i n d i t i n g , a verse anthem f o r the coronation of James I I , as being of exceptional magnificence.^ 8 The Te Deum and Jubilate (169*0, a sacred work written f o r the St. G e c i l i a celebration, i s another work which shows the composer producing a good work for a p a r t i c u l a r occasion, although as Westrup says, the r e i t e r a t i o n of the chord of D major, however glorious the choir and however magnificent the trumpet-playing, no longer excites us as i t did P u r c e l l ' s contemporaries and the audiences of the estrup, P u r c e l l . p. 209. See Henry P u r c e l l , The Works of  Henry P u r c e l l , Published f o r the P u r c e l l Society (London: Novello and Co., Ltd., IS78), XVTI, 69-II8. "' (These v o l s , are hereafter referred to as P u r c e l l , Works.) My Heart i s I n d i t -ing i s a fasci n a t i n g and b e a u t i f u l work. There i s a Eugal-type entry of the vocal l i n e s a f t e r a long instrumental introduction. It i s a verse anthem of wonderful proportions c o n t a i n i n g r r i t a f r -n e l l i and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rhythm i n the second verse. The work ends with a f i n a l glorious " A l l e l u i a " i n 3/2 time, f i r s t i n h a l f notes and then i n flowing quarter notes. Cf. the treatment of "glorious" (pp. 79 f f . ) and that of "heroic" and "glory" i n The L i b e r t i n e , v o l . XX of Works, pp. 65-67. The two funeral sentences, In the midst of l i f e and Thou know'st. Lord are also very b e a u t i f u l . The e a r l i e s t version of these i s i n Works, XIII, 1-5 and 6-10.. There i s a c e r t a i n overlapping of e n t r i e s , yet the distance between the parts i s such that the words are not obscured. (See C o l l e s , Growth of Music, p. h7. V. supra, p.11 ). E s p e c i a l l y remarkable i n In the midst of l i f e i s the chromaticism on pp. k-5. The composer moves through ten keys i n s i x bars, yet the harmony i s not what one would c a l l o v e r l y - f l u i d . Each part flows of i t s own accord and modulation i s often achieved through judicious use of an augmented chord. (See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. I ). Later versions of these two anthems are given with Man that i s born of a woman i n Works, XXIX. 36 f f . These were used at the funeral of iQueen Mary i n lo95« 55 eighteenth century, to whom such magnificence was s t i l l novel and striking.99 I t would be possible to carry on a discussion of a great number of P u r c e l l ' s works simply under the heading of "occasional pieces." My point here, though, i s to show that l i k e Dryden 1s, much of P u r c e l l ' s work i s i n t h i s realm, and that much of i t i s excellent. Like Dryden, P u r c e l l not only rose to an occasion, but rose above i t . I would l i k e to c i t e here one more work by way of i l l u s t r a t i o n . That i s the u t t e r l y s u i t a b l e , magnificent, and moving music for the funeral of Queen Mary i n l695« The sections f o r a quartet of trombones and drums alternate with some of the f i n e s t choral writing i n the h i s t o r y of English church music. The anthem, Thou knowest. Lord, the secrets of  our hearts, i s moving i n i t s s i m p l i c i t y , and glorious i n i t s counterpoint. I t i s a f i t t i n g homage to a queen, and a more than adequate demonstration that occasional works need not be uninspired or t r i v i a l . 1 ^ P u r c e l l and Dryden were i n many cases, t h e n , " a r t i s t s of the occasion," and i n almost every case what was produced not only suited the occasion and whatever y " l b i d . , p. 2 2 0 . The taste for magnificence i l l u s t r a t e d by clever use of trumpets, extended into the eighteenth century. Handel's debt to t h i s work i s c l e a r ; see E r i c Blom, Music i n  England, p. 117. See also Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 1 2 3 - 1 2 M T 1 0 0 S e e Westrup, pp. 8 2 f f . , f o r d e t a i l s of t h i s work. The music was heard at P u r c e l l ' s own funeral i n Westminster Abbey In November of the same year. The Ganzona fo r trombones i s also used i n a setting of Shadwell's The L i b e r t i n e : see P u r c e l l , Works. XX, 55« V. supra, p. 5^ » n. 9Q~. See Van Doren, p. 2 3 , i n regard to dignity i n Dryden 1s verse. 56 magnificence or sentiment i t demanded, but was also worthwhile as a r t . I have Indicated that the desire of the. Court was f o r an art of magnificence and extravagance. Many of the occasions which art was c a l l e d upon to celebrate were state events; both Bryden's poems and P u r c e l l ' s works, (e.g., the royal odes) r e f l e c t t h i s trend. However, the demand fo r opulence i n a r t did not stop with state occasions. Indeed, I t went beyond, to enter the playhouse, and, as I have stated above, the church. Dryden's heroic plays, f o r example., demonstrate well the emphasis on the "spectacular" i n the theatre, f o r Holland notes that . . . the complete change of outlook that had come over the theatre between the decay of the poetic drama and the r i s e of the heroic play i n a large measure accounts f o r the type of work presented. Stage-machinery, was a comparative novelty and i t was soon developed to a point that seems in c r e d i b l e even to us, who are accus-tomed to the scenic splendours of the modern s t a g e . 1 U i These heroic plays were not only elaborate from the point of view of stage design, but were magnificent f o r th e i r very sound. Often i n c i d e n t a l music was used, to add greater .appeal. As the authors of The Censure of Bota . . . put i t , 'An heroic poem never sounded so nobly, as when i t was heightened with shouts, and clashing of swords; Holland, P u r c e l l , pp. 149-150. The author describes some of the stage devices, and notes that "Dryden seems to have r e -conciled himself to the f a c t that i n opera i t was music and the spectacle that counted—'these sorts of entertainment', as he said, 'are p r i n c i p a l l y designed for the Ear and the Eye. 1" (See p. 150.) See also pp. 68, 173. 57 . . . drums and trumpets gained an absolute dominion over the mind of the audience (the la d i e s and female s p i r i t s ) ; . . .Mr. Dryden would never have had the courage to have ventured on a Conquest had he not writ with the sound of drum and trumpet. '102 After c i t i n g t h i s passage, Van Doren proceeds to discuss the heroic plays and i n p a r t i c u l a r , The Indian Emperor, stating that i n the l a t t e r , there i s a more powerful ground-rhythm than has been heard before. This metrical plunge and bound was the discovery and glory of the heroic plays. I t was exactly t h i s which was to give spring to Augustan heroic verse.103 I t should be noted, then, that an aura of magnificence extended even to the rhythms of the poetry, as well as fi n d i n g a place i n the words themselves and i n the images which they created. Van Doren puts the matter c l e a r l y when he points out that i n regard to h i s images, Dryden " . . . was more at home among the warriors of the Aeneid . . . J»-l'v^r and that i n connection with h i s rhythms, "Dryden 1s habit of d i l a t i n g h i s heroic verse with Alexandrines not only grew upon him so that he indulged i n fl o u r i s h e s when fl o u r i s h e s were not required, but i t became contagious." 1 0^ Just as the eye was important, so was the ear, 1 0 2 V a n Doren, p. 86. 1 0 3 I b i d . , p. 87. 1 0 k I b i d . , p. 214. See also p. 218. 1 0 ^ I b i d . , p. 192. For Van Doren 1s comments on Dryden and the Pindaric, see pp. 196 f f . Dryden 1s comments on the form could f i t w e l l i n a t r e a t i s e on harmony. 58 and the vehicle for much of the heroic verse was the couplet Writing them 0 heroic plays} with a flesh-and-blood audience, an actually hearing audience i n mind, he could not be inattentive to the claims of the ear. His dramatic triumph, such as i t was, was a triumph of the ear.106 I t i s not only i n the plays, though, that the reader i s to f i n d Dryden conscious of the ear of hi s l i s t e n e r , f o r many of h i s shorter poems i l l u s t r a t e t h i s tendency w e l l , e.g., On the Death of Mr. P u r c e l l (1695), A Song f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day. November 22. 1687. and Alexander's Feast (1697). The last-mentioned poem i s r e a l l y an a r t i s t i c tour de force. Magnificent and.grand i n every way, i t i s perhaps the best "purely poetic" (as opposed to dramatic) example of the spectacular i n Dryden's verse. I t i s easy to see why Van Doren 107 notes that "poets c a l l e d themselves 'virtuosos.'" ' Poetry Ibid., p. 85. Van Doren states on t h i s page that l i k e C p r n e i l l e , Dryden " . . . had a fondness f o r stage argument and s t o i c declamation, and from him he learned the value of an obvious, unbroken melody." The former has i t s p a r a l l e l i n opera i n the r e c i t a t i v e , the l a t t e r i n the extended coloratura l i n e which i s to be found i n many of the areas of the period. Both of the musical p a r a l l e l s are, i n great part, a r e s u l t of French and I t a l i a n influence, and Dryden's debt to C o r n e i l l e i s cer t a i n . Just as Dryden wrote f o r h i s audience, so, too, did P u r c e l l , and hi s triumph i n stage works as well as non-dramatic pieces was one of the ear. Van Doren (p. 59) also says that " i t was pr e c i s e l y the music of the couplet, easy and continuous rather than i n t r i c a t e and intermittent, that won the couplet i t s prestige at the s t a r t . " This has a p a r a l l e l i n the growth of homophony; (V. i n f r a y . p. 60, n. 111). 1 0 7 I b i d . , p. k6. 59 which i s highly ornamented, ( i n part by elaborate imagery,), eloquent, and r h e t o r i c a l i n some respects, i s , i n i t s own way, very b e a u t i f u l . I t s manner i s one of baroque splendour. Yet i n i t , as i n much of the highly ornamented music of the day, i s an a i r of a r t i f i c i a l i t y , of contrivance, or ornamentation, of 1 O f t elegant imagery f o r i t s own sake, f o r the sake of convention. It i s only i n a poem l i k e Alexander's Feast (or i n some of the l a t e r works of P u r c e l l ) , that such ornamentation i s handled with a s k i l l which makes the e f f e c t and not the device i t s e l f p a r t i c u l a r l y 109 apparent. ' What Van Doren says about poetry i s equally true of music: " . . . i t was . . . sop h i s t i c a t i o n , easy expertness, and obvious perfection of f i n i s h [that] became of paramount importance . . . . 1 , 1 1 0 The manner of the heroic plays and of some of the poems of Dryden, then, i s often the ornamental, f i g u r a t i v e manner of the baroque, but the form which was i n many cases used to convey;/ the manner, v i z . , the couplet, was a device with s i n g u l a r l y c l a s s i c a l t r a i t s . I t made f o r neatness, compactness, a n t i t h e s i s , and balance; i t was a form i n which control and correctness were to become paramount, i n which perfection was to become a major goal. i oft I b i d . , pp. h6-k7» On ornamentation i n music, see Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 91. 1 0^Westrup, P u r c e l l . p. 1^0. Professor Westrup indicates that P u r c e l l gained gradually h i s control over I t a l i a n technical de-vices, and that he f i n a l l y mastered them i n The Indian Queen and The Tempest. "No longer does he use technical devices f o r t h e i r own sake; he has made them h i s servants." 1 1 0 V a n Doren, p. 1+6. 60 I t was p r e c i s e l y the music of the couplet, easy and continuous rather than i n t r i c a t e and intermittent that won the couplet i t s prestige at the s t a r t , . . , The preface to Joshua Poole's English Parnassus (1657), an enterprising forerunner of the handbooks on poetry which Bysshe, Gildon, and others were to issue i n the eighteenth century, placed particular.,-, emphasis upon the "Symphony and Cadence" of poesy; r i g h t accent, " l i k e r i g h t time i n Music, produces harmony;" rhyme i s the "symphony and music of a verse." I t became easy, by Pope's time, to write i n flawless c a d e n c e . i l l In "variety of tone," sheer d i v e r s i t y , and "genuine melody," 112 Dryden i s a master. "Dryden, believing always that ' v e r s i -f i c a t i o n and numbers are the greatest pleasures of poetry,' tended to cherish heroic verse as a musical instrument, and to work fo r 'harmony and rhythm alone' . . . . His desire was always [ s i c ] for more 'even, sweet, and flowing l i n e s i ' " 1 1 3 114 Circumlocution or periphrasis also appealed to him, and Ibid., pp. 59-60. Dryden accepted and developed the couplet; see pp. 69 f f . , 85. However, I suggest i t was not "easy" f o r Pope to write "flawless" couplets. P u r c e l l moved i n the d i r e c t i o n of homophony and euphony, out of which came more c l e a r l y defined t o n a l i t y , even i n h i s polyphonic works. By Handel's time, i t was easier to use both polyphony and t o n a l i t y . See Westrup, pp. 216-217, 245-251. 1 1 2 V a n Doren, p. 60. 1 1 3 L o c . c i t . He admired I t a l i a n f o r i t s softness and melodiousness, and i n an attempt to "soften" h i s verse, used p o l y s y l l a b l e s — t r o c h e e s which i n music have a counterpart i n short suspensions. See p. 6 l . I t should be noted that he d i d not "always" s t r i v e f o r " . . . sweet, and flowing l i n e s . " Van Doren's generalisation i s , I suggest, too broad. See Westrup, p. 2 5 k , i n regard to melodic l i n e s . V. i n f r a , p. 79. 111+ x Van Doren, p. 6 l . 61 t h i s may have i t s musical p a r a l l e l i n the statement of ideas i n 115 long, ornamented-vocal l i n e s . • Correctness, balance, precision, and melody: these were features of Dryden's l i n e s . Van Doren c i t e s two l i n e s from Pope's Essay on C r i t i c i s m which bring f o r t h one further c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Dryden's verse with which I should l i k e to deal before returning to P u r c e l l ' s music to draw more l i n e s of comparison. 'Tis not enough no harshness gives offense, The sound must seem an echo to the sense. Essay on C r i t i c i s m . 11. 16^-165 The second l i n e of h i s couplet referr e d to Dick Minims who i n s i s t e d that "imitative harmony," or "representative harmony," or "representative v e r s i f i c a t i o n , " as i t was variously c a l l e d , was an indispensable ingredient i n poetry . . . . The chief secret, confided Dryden i n the preface to Albion and Albanius. " i s the choice of words; and, by t h i s choice, I do not mean elegancy of expression but propriety of sound, to be varied according to the nature of the subject. Perhaps a time may come when I may treat of t h i s more l a r g e l y out of some observations which I have made from Homer and V i r g i l who, amongst a l l the poets, only understood the art of numbersl'116 ?The tendency In the nineteenth century was towards more concise expression both i n the poetry per se and i n l i e d e r ; there was not nearly so much r e p e t i t i o n , i n the l a t t e r , of phrase fragments, which r e p e t i t i o n causes delay i n the trans-mission of an idea. "'""^Ibid.,. pp. 62-63. For the counterpart i n music, see Westrup, p. 209, and pp. 168-169. There are many examples of "picturesque"detail i n Purcell's works. See also Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 85-9I+, 97-98, 171. V. Supra, p. n. 98; v. i n f r a , p. 65, n. 12h. 62 There i s no need to r e l a t e here the d e t a i l s of Dryden's imi t a t i v e harmony, since Van Doren does t h i s and provides examples as well . I t should be noted, though, that Dryden, a poet whose e f f e c t s are often baroque i n their magnificence, places importance on the word "propriety." That word i s a key to the c l a s s i c a l mind. Imitations of sound or speed could not be achieved i n a haphazard way; they had to be worked with good taste, and they could not, I suggest, be overdone. From Cowley to Dick Minim, Dryden was the great example of the i m i t a t i v e v e r s i f i e r , as he was also the great example of most of what the Augustans believed to con-s t i t u t e a poet . . . . But nothing i s more natural than that h i s best music should be heard i n the poems which he most meant. I t was when he was most oblivious of the problem of adapting sound to sense, when he was f u l l e s t of the scorn or the admiration which he knew better than any other poet [how] to express, that he f e l l i n t o h i s properest rhythms.117 What Van Doren says here cannot be disputed. Art r e f l e c t s the man—and the age. When Dryden laboured l e s s to make sound echo sense, he was at h i s best. When he used technical devices le s s for t heir own sake, h i s work became more a l i v e and le s s a r t i -l l 8 f i c i a l . This i s true, too, of P u r c e l l , f o r while he strove to improve h i s technique of composition, and while tec h n i c a l devices sometimes give a s l i g h t l y a r t i f i c i a l a i r to some of h i s work, he was, fundamentally a true musician whose a r t i s t i c 119 honesty cannot be doubted. ' 117 Van Doren, pp. 65-66. 'ibid., p. 67. See also pp. 46-1+7. Westrup, pp. 2 4 l , 253, 255-257. 118 119, 6 3 In discussing l a t e seventeenth-century music, and p a r t i c u l a r l y that of P u r c e l l , i n the l i g h t of the Restoration secularism and the attachment of art to the court, I stated that magnificence and majesty were features of that a r t , even when i t entered the church. For not only was the church, and with i t , the music for the services, dominated by the court, but the theatre [also] was bound up with the court. I t s audience was drawn not from the c i t i z e n s of London, who looked askance at i t s licence and immorality, but from the aristocracy and the king's immediate circle. 1 2 0 The same taste which required instrumental symphonies i n church services prevailed i n the theatre, and i t s desires were only s a t i s f i e d with an equivalent dose of a r t i s t i c magnificence. It i s necessary to look at only a few of the operatic scores to see that t h i s i s true. The Indian iQueen and The Tempest are excellent examples i n t h i s regard, and much of the i n c i d e n t a l music f o r some of the plays displays the same type of splendour. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n the case of the music f o r Abdelazer, 121 Amphitryon, and Aureng-Zebe. However, i t should not be assumed that a l l i s bombast and trumpeting. These works, even x ^ I b i d . , p. 103. . 1 PI P u r c e l l , Works, XVI and XIX. See also Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 168 f f . , &+ f f . Holland says that "the trend of vocal music during the 17th century was towards an increasingly ornate s t y l e , coinciding with the growing taste f o r decoration i n the p l a s t i c a r t s . " See' also p. 99s decoration and ornateness were more excessive i n the early eighteenth century when instrumental writing technique gained su p e r i o r i t y . 6k i n t h e i r most energetic moments, contain i n t e r e s t i n g contra-puntal writing and harmonic " s o l i d a r i t y " combined with a superb 122 sense of l i n e . There are some diminutive pieces i n the in c i d e n t a l music too; among them, the Minuet (V) from Abdelazer and the Sarabande (II) from Amphitryon are perfect gems, and contain a l l the grace, balance, and perfection which one would wish i n the most c l a s s i c of pieces and which one would expect to f i n d i n the best of Dryden and Pope i n their 12^ quieter moods. J Pomp finds i t s way int o anthems and theatre music a l i k e ; i t c e r t a i n l y plays a r6*le i n the ro y a l odes i n which, indeed, one would expect to f i n d i t . In the St. C e c i l i a Odes also there i s a tendency towards ''richness" of harmony, of ornamentation, and of orchestration which makes f o r a t r u l y baroque atmosphere, although the balance of l i n e and the precision and neatness of the counterpoint r e f l e c t almost a c l a s s i c ten-dency. Even Fishburn's rather t r i t e verse does not damage Purcell's s k i l l i n setting Welcome to a l l the Pleasures (1683). I t i s vigorous and i n t e r e s t i n g ; the flowing chromatic cantus  firmus of the second verse, "Here the D e i t i e s approve . . . " i s c e r t a i n l y not without power and beauty. The im i t a t i v e treatment of "Then l i f t up your voices . . . " (the t h i r d verse) i s also well done and quite lovely. Pomp returns, of course, V. supra, p. 60, n. 113. 'Purcell, Works. XVI, 10. 25. 65 with the f i n a l e , and i s to be found i n the same fashion i n Raise. Raise the Voice (1683) and i n Laudate Ceciliam (1683) also. The setting of the Nicholas Brady ode, H a i l i Bright  C e c i l i a (1692), also contains i t s share of sumptuous counter-point and long, elaborate vocal l i n e s i n choruses and solos l i k e " H a i l i bright C e c i l i a " and "'Tis nature's voice." Dryden's manner was often one of eloquence and magnificence, and h i s form, e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s heroic plays and l a t e r works, i s of c l a s s i c perfection and cont r o l . P u r c e l l ' s manner and form are quite s i m i l a r , and just as Dryden improved i n h i s control of the couplet, so P u r c e l l extended h i s command of I t a l i a n technical devices and also moved towards a type of writing which was f a r more diatonic i n t o n a l i t y than that of h i s early works, moving through an evolution, Professor Westrup says, equivalent to the musical development between Monteverde 12*3 and S c a r l a t t i . y As the couplet gave greater unity and control to Dryden's verse, so the newer harmony and the accept-ance of the basso continuo gave greater unity to P u r c e l l ' s l ?6 music. Van Doren, as I have said, notes that Dryden used P u r c e l l , Works. X. Note the picturesque treatment of " r a i s e " on p. 29, and " p l i a n t " on p. 36. This sort of thing, of which these instances are but s p e c i f i c examples, i s the counterpart to Dryden's "imitative harmony." See also Westrup, pp. 50-51, 77, and Holland, P u r c e l l , p. 120 f f . , 155. V. i n f r a , p. 68, n. 135. 1 2^Westrup, P u r c e l l . pp. 2 L 5 f f . , 255. V. supra, p. 58, n. 106, and p. 60, n. 111. 1 2 6 i b i ( i . 9 p. 2kk. In regard to P u r c e l l i n terms of the "baroque" and the " c l a s s i c a l " and i n regard to h i s sense of form, see Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 97-98; see also Tilmouth, 66 rhythm to create e f f e c t s of magnificence and indeed, sometimes 127 over-indulged i n rhythmic s u b t l e t i e s . ' What Professor Westrup says about P u r c e l l ' s stock-in-trade i s i n t e r e s t i n g to consider: Certain things w i l l s t r i k e at once the most casual student of Pu r c e l l ' s music—the use of a syncopated rhythm i n 3/*+ time (as i n 'Fear no danger to ensue* i n Dido and Aeneas); the dancing trochees ( J U ,C2) that do duty f o r triumph, v i c t o r y , storm and the l i k e ; the fondness f o r melting appoggiaturas, p a r t i -c u l a r l y i f the piece i s vocal and i f the word " s o f t " i s there to prompt imagination. A l l these were the stock-in-trade of seventeenth century composers, and i f P u r c e l l used them more than others, i t was because they s a t i s f i e d some natural whimsy i n h i s own mind.128 I wrote e a r l i e r of Dryden's g i f t of melody, of h i s desire f o r a smooth, flowing l i n e . He had a constant desire to perfect and improve h i s v e r s e . 1 2 9 Professor Westrup, i n concluding h i s text on P u r c e l l , has t h i s to say: It i s P u r c e l l ' s sense of form that should engage our f i n a l attention, f i r s t i n the l i m i t e d span of melody and then on a larger scale. As a melodist he was and i s supreme. I have suggested elsewhere that h i s mastery of formal proportion and i n e v i t a b l e grace may well have been due to constant e f f o r t , to a persistent desire to p o l i s h and adjust . . . . The most remark-able thing about P u r c e l l 1 s tunes i s t h e i r length. They "Purcell's Sonatas," Music and Letters, p. 110: " P u r c e l l 1 s s t y l e became smoother i n h i s l a t e r years as h i s f e e l i n g f o r t o n a l i t y became stronger . . . ." There i s a baroque element i n the organ works; see Downes, "The Organ Works," P u r c e l l : Essays, p. 69. 1 2 7 V . supra, p. 57. 1 2 8Westrup, p. 2kk. Cf. Van Doren, pp. 55-56, 192. 1 2 9 V . supra, pp. 59-60 . See also Van Doren. pp. 1^8, 21*f. This author states (pp. 196-197) that Dryden " . . . l e t h i s ear preside; he l e t h i s cadences ru l e and determine one another i n the i n t e r e s t s of an i n t e g r a l harmony. He placed h i s words where they would neither jar nor remain i n e r t , but flow. His best Pin-daric passages are streams of words d e l i c a t e l y and musically disposed." 67 spread i n spacious curves, depending f o r t h e i r symme-try l e s s on r e p e t i t i o n than on an ingenious equilibrium of contrasted elements. The singer or l i s t e n e r who exclaims a f t e r one of P u r c e l l 1 s songs: "What a perfect melody," would do well to study more c l o s e l y the basis of that perfection—how range and rhythm are adjusted to the temper of the words and how s k i l f u l l y passing notes are used to smooth the way.130 Yet "narrowness of range" should not be taken too l i t e r a l l y . Van Doren has said that Dryden possesses great "variety of tone" and tremendous " d i v e r s i t y . 1 , 1 3 1 P u r c e l l , too, both i n the large number of types of works he produced and i n the va r i e t y of tone he achieved within i n d i v i d u a l sections of a p a r t i c u l a r work shows enormous v e r s a t i l i t y i n h i s medium. The man who so be a u t i f u l l y set Dryden's l i t t l e poem "Go, t e l l Amynta, Gentle Swain" i s the same one who wrote "Arise, Ye Subterranean Winds," that spectacular bass a i r i n Act II of The Tempest (written f o r the Rev. John Gostling) and the "Great Chorus" i n Hail. 1 Bright  C e c i l i a ( 1 6 9 2 ) . 1 3 2 I have referre d on occasion to Purcell's use of f l o r i d coloratura l i n e s . I suggest he used such an imported technique estrup, P u r c e l l . pp. 254-255. See also Van Doren, pp. 101, 105-106. Narrowness of range i s also a feature of the Augustan poets, states Van Doren; see p. 60. See also Holland, P u r c e l l , P. 173-1 3 1 V . supra, p. 60. 1 3 2 P u r c e l l , Works. XXII, 133 f f . , and XIX, 124 f f . See also P u r c e l l , Ode f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day (1692) (supra, p. 53, n. 97), pp. 106 f f . Other c i t a t i o n s to the l a s t v o l . w i l l be to Ode, and w i l l r e f e r to the ed i t i o n c i t e d above. See Holland, P u r c e l l , pp. 57 f f . , i n regard to Pu r c e l l ' s d i v e r s i t y . 68 quite sincerely because of i t s effectiveness i n portraying and giving r i s e to a wide var i e t y of emotions. On most occasions, I think, he handled i t w e l l , and produced some splendid, grace-f u l , flowing, and yet, at times, f o r c e f u l l i n e s . "That i s to say, Augustan poetry at i t s worst grew r h e t o r i c a l , vague, and monotonous; at i t s best i t was f a r d i f f e r e n t . " 1 3 3 But Dryden was able to write highly decorative poetry well, (e.g., Alexander 1s  Feast.) and P u r c e l l was able to do the same i n music, (e.g., "Arise, Ye Subterranean Winds"). The l a t t e r i s a magnificent a r i a , f l o r i d and f o r c e f u l , yet not without grace. The l i n e s are long, but the piece does not lack unity. In both the rapid passages and i n the quieter ones, the composer has indulged i n picturesque treatment, (e.g., " a r i s e , " "howl," and "languish,") and f o r me, the r e s u l t i s e n t i r e l y e f f e c t i v e . 1 3 * * Another bass solo which exhibits somewhat the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s "Wond'rous machine" i n the setting of the Brady ode (1692). I t combines st a t e l y and f l o r i d w riting, and the picturesque treatment of "warbling" i s a f i n e example of the composer's 1 3 5 method of imitating the meaning of words i n sound. J ' I t should 3 3Van Doren, pp. 44-45, 171. For a discussion of the develop-ment of vocal style and coloratura writing, see Holland, P u r c e l l , pp. 84-90. V. supra, p. 63, n. 121. 1 3 k p u r c e l l , Works. XIX, pp. 124 f f . ; see I l l u s t r a t i o n No. I I . See also Westrup, P u r c e l l . pp. 145-147. Westrup compares t h i s with a setting by Pietro Reggio (1674); see pp. 145-146, 93; see Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 125. l 3 ^ P u r c e l l , Ode, pp. 72 f f . See also Westrup, pp. I68-I69 f o r a comment on the "picturesque" and Holland, P u r c e l l , p. 13. 69 not be thought that f l o r i d writing i s to be found only i n the vocal music. Even the l i t t l e suites i n A Choice C o l l e c t i o n of  Lessons f o r the Harpsichord or Spinet (1696) contain examples of t h i s . 1 3 6 P u r c e l l was a competent writer of coloratura l i n e s , then; he was also eminently capable of creating b e a u t i f u l , expansive melodies, balanced, sweet, and perfect, which can l i v e , i n the musical sense, i n any age. This i s true i n terms of many of h i s songs, both i n dramatic and non-dramatic works. One f o r which Prof. Westrup has a p a r t i c u l a r l y high regard i s "I attempt from love's sickness to f l y , " i n The Indian Queen " . . . a perfectly polished gem and an outstanding example of Purcell's g i f t of melody." 1 3 7 Prof. Westrup has every ground for h i s opinion of t h i s f l u i d and charming l i t t l e song. Indeed, i t i s the s i m p l i c i t y of a l i t t l e work l i k e t h i s which often causes one to forget that P u r c e l l , l i k e Dryden, was, i n a way, a developer of existing forms. Both men were content to use forms that lay at hand; yet, within them, each worked i n h i s own way not just to improve but to expand his range and contr o l . Van Doren says: 3 Henry P u r c e l l , Six Suites f o r Harpsichord or Pianoforte, ed. G. M. Cooper, published f o r the P u r c e l l Society (London: Novello and Co. Ltd., n. d.), pp. ^-5, 10-11. These are reminis-cent of some of S c a r l a t t i ' s l i t t l e Sonatas. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. I I I . 1 3 7Westrup, p. ihk. See also pp. 135-136, 15^, 163-171, and P u r c e l l , Works. XIX, 7l*~75. V. supra, p. 60, i n regard to melody i n Dryden's poetry. 70 Dryden*s style was a constant delight to h i s contempor-ari e s because i t was u n f a i l i n g l y fresh; new poems by Mr. Dryden meant i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d new cadences, new a i r s . He was perpetually fresh because he perpetually studied h i s v e r s i f i c a t i o n . . . . There can be no question that he experimented f r e e l y and was always sensitive to novel demands that novel subjects might make upon h i s medium. He generally knew beforehand what e f f e c t s he should gain; and he had a happy fa c u l t y f o r h i t t i n g at once upon rhythms which would secure those effects. 1 3 8 P u r c e l l , too, was continually aware of the demands of a musical s i t u a t i o n , and would indulge i n what some c r i t i c s have c a l l e d " i r r e g u l a r i t y " i n order to meet them, "There i s , i n f a c t , almost no end to the surprises he i s prepared to spring on the l i s t e n e r . " 1 3 9 However, t h i s experimentation and " i r r e g u l a r i t y " never gave r i s e to a weakness i n structure. "He was able to give a coherent structure to h i s music, while paying the most scrupulous regard to the sense and accentuation of the t e x t . " l l + 0 Later, Holland remarks that Purcell's grasp of construction increased with h i s years, and that the Canzonas, l a t e instrument-Ikl a l works, point " . . . to a growing sense of formal construction. 1 3 8 V a n Doren, p. 73• See also the s e l e c t i o n from the L i f e of  Dryden included i n Samuel Johnson, Selected Prose and Poetry, ed. Bertrand H. Bronson, Rinehart E d i t i o n (New York and Toronto, 1955), P. k 8 0 . 1 3 9Westrup, p. 252. See pp. 251-253. See also Holland, P u r c e l l , pp. 8, 106. l L°Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 99. m i L i Ibid., p. 109. In regard to Pu r c e l l ' s grasp of form, see pp. 167, 169, and Westrup, pp. 232, 253; v. supra, p. 65, n. 126. 71 Dryden not only obtained great unity i n h i s verse with the couplet, but, i n terms of the ideas which he sometimes conveyed with i t , engaged i n r a t i o c i n a t i o n . He " . . . was fascinated by the tec h n i c a l problems involved i n making rhyme and reason l i e down together." P u r c e l l had a similar f a s c i n a t i o n f o r a similar problem. Ratiocinative argument may help to bind a poem together; so does the cantus firmus. the basso continuo: P u r c e l l r e v e l l e d i n the [ l a t t e r ] device. Sometimes i t ran away with him, and the ground bass would go on r e -peating i t s e l f mechanically . . . . More often he held i t i n s t r i c t control and so f a r subdued i t to h i s w i l l that he could use i t to provide the miracle of Dido's lament. An examination of almost any one of h i s songs on a ground w i l l show a most ingenious subtlety i n circumventing the dangers of the form . . . .1^3 With experimentation, then, came greater expression, but not at the loss of unity. A r i e l ' s a r i a , "Dry those eyes," i n The Indian Queen and "Here the D e i t i e s approve" i n Welcome to a l l the Pleasures (1683) are both good examples of ground basses ikk expertly handled. Correctness, balance, precision, and melody: these, I said, were features of Dryden's poetry; they are also features of P u r c e l l ' s music. l l f 2Van Doren, p. 169. Cf. pp. k5-h6. l l + 3Westrup, pp. 2hk-2k5. See also pp. 160-161. In regard to balance i n Purcell's work, see Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 101-102. l l f I + P u r c e l l , Works, XIX, 136 f f . , and X, 8 f f . Westrup (p. 2^5,) notes ways i n which P u r c e l l counteracts any monotony which might be l i k e l y to occur through the use of the form. 72 S p e c i f i c Works Considered I should l i k e to turn now to a more det a i l e d examination of several of the works of Dryden and P u r c e l l which have been written under similar s t i m u l i . These are Dryden's A Song f o r  St. C e c i l i a ' s Day (1687) and Alexander's Feast: Or. The Power  of Music. (A Song i n Honour of St. C e c i l i a ' s Day, 1697) and Purcell's H a i l i Bright C e c i l i a , the 1692 ode written f o r the same f e s t i v a l . I should also l i k e to include some comments on King Arthur ( 1 6 9 D , an opera i n which both collaborated* Dryden had a high regard for music, and i n the opening l i n e s of A Song f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day (1687) he heralds i t s supreme power: From Harmony, from heav'nly Harmony, This universal Frame began A Song . . ., 11. 1-2 From Harmony to Harmony Through a l l the Compass of the notes i t ran, The Diapason closing f u l l i n Man. A Song . . . ,11. 13-15. These are l o f t y organ sounds, with the r i c h depth of the "great" giving a sonorous power to the words. What Passion cannot MUSIGK r a i s e and quell? A Song . . ., 1. 16. As when Jubal struck upon the s h e l l , so, i n the second verse, Dryden's words soar melodically to portray the influence of 73 harmony upon the passions of man. Few of the l i n e s of Browning The i n "Parleying With Charles Avison," • or of the statements of Wagner i n "Ein glucklicher A b e n d , h a v e said more i n praise of music than t h i s verse, which " . . . s l i p s through l i q u i d cadences and dissolves i n the sweet sounds of a harp . . . . " l l + 7 In stanzas two to seven i n c l u s i v e , Dryden describes the capabil-i t i e s of the various instruments. In doing so, he gives a clear i n d i c a t i o n of h i s own power and technical b r i l l i a n c e . The rapid t r i p l e t s which are employed i n the description of the trumpet are e f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r s t i r r i n g manner, as are the thunderous r o l l i n g words which connote so well the beat of the drum. Ce r t a i n l y , the man was a master of imitative harmony. 'In t h i s section of the thesis, i n which several poems are considered In d e t a i l , l i n e references w i l l be given d i r e c t l y below the quotations rather than i n footnotes. Alexander 1s  Feast w i l l be indicated by Alex. F.. and A Song f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s  Day by A Song . . . . As a c o r o l l a r y of the mention of Brown-ing's poem and i n connection with the powers of music, the statements of Avison are most i n t e r e s t i n g . Avison, a B r i t i s h musicologist and organist, said without " . . . experimental evidence i n 1775s that 'the force of sound i n charming the passions i s prodigious,' and that music 'does na t u r a l l y r a i s e a var i e t y of passions i n the human breast, si m i l a r to sounds which are expressed; and thus, by the musician's a r t , . . . we are by turns elated with joy, or sunk i n pleasing sorrow, roused to cour-age, or quelled by g r a t e f u l t e r r o r s , melted into p i t y , tenderness, and love, or transported to the regions of b l i s s , i n an extacy of divine praise . . . .' There are c e r t a i n sounds natural to joy, others to g r i e f or despondency, others to tenderness and love; and by hearing these, we n a t u r a l l y sympathize with those who either enjoy or s u f f e r . " See Charles Avison, An Essay on Musi-c a l Expression (London, 1775), PP« 3~L, c i t e d i n Susanne K. Langer, Philosophy i n a New Key. Mentor E d i t i o n (New York, 1955 [copyright 1942]), p. 173-l U-f> Richard Wagner, "Ein glucklicher Abend" reprinted by Gatz, i n Musik-Aesthetik, from the Gazette Musicale. nos. 56-58 (1841), c i t e d i n Langer, pp. 179-180. 'Van Doren, p. 202. The author states that Dryden had a 7b The poet's a b i l i t y to change the mood of h i s piece i s admirable. After the P u r c e l l i a n martial sounds of the t h i r d verse, the f l u t e i s heard, i n the fourth, hinter dem orchestra, the gentle words with d e l i c a t e , soft consonants, e.g., " f , " "v," and "w," l i q u i d " l ' s " and s i b i l a n t "s's," and flowing iambics giving a t y p i c a l l y woodwind atmosphere to the portrayal: The soft complaining FLUTE In dying Notes discovers The Woes of hopeless Lovers, Whose dirge i s whispered by the warbling LUTE. A Song . . . , 11. 33-36 Subtle vibrations occur i n the l a s t l i n e as the master hand touch-es upon the lute s t r i n g s . The v i o l i n , just coming to the fore at t h i s time among stringed instruments, c e r t a i n l y merits a place i n the poem—as i L f t i t merited a place i n P u r c e l l ' s scores. Despite the f a c t that c e r t a i n tonal imperfections of the instrument were just being re-moved by the geniuses of Cremona—members of the Amati and l a t e r of the S t r a d i v a r i families—Dryden recognised i t s expressive c a p a b i l i t i e s . The poet could not deny the'range of the v i o l i n , and we, i n the l i g h t of t h i s poem, cannot deny the range of h i s verse. In describing the instrument, he uses words exactly ". . . wholly orchestral purpose . . . " and r e l i e d on " . . . a purely instrumental technique." For an excellent discussion of the St. C e c i l i a ' s Day t r a d i t i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y of Dryden's Song and Alexander's Feast, see John Hollander, The Untuning of  the Sky (Princeton, New Jersey, 1 9 6 l ) , pp. 390 f f . Westrup.'Purcell. pp. 223-225. 75 appropriate to portray i t s nature, and c a p a b i l i t i e s of expression, e.g., "pangs," "fury," " f r a n t i c k , " and "pain," etc. After f i v e short and meaningful l i n e s about the v i o l i n , he changes the tone and mood once more to consider the might of the organ. But oh! what-Art can teach What human voice can reach The sacred"ORGANS Praise? Notes i n s p i r i n g holy Love, Notes that wing the i r heavenly Ways To mend the Choires above. A Song . . . , 11. h2~k7 This i s reputedly C e c i l i a ' s invention . given l a v i s h praise as the most heavenly of a l l instruments. . . . bright CECILIA raised the Wonder high'r : When to her Organ vocal Breath was given, An Angel heard, and stra i g h t appear'd Mistaking Earth for Heav'n. A Song . . . , 11. 51-5^ The organ, with a l l i t s stops of d i f f e r e n t "tone colours" and vibrant pedals, i s a "combination" of many instruments and th e i r i n d i v i d u a l powers. I t s sound can be present, yet scarcely heard, melancholy, yet not sorrowful, and j o y f u l , yet not happy. There i s hardly one human emotion which t h i s instrument cannot evoke. -"•^Christopher H o l l i s , Drvden (London, 1933), P. 157. C e c i l i a i s only the legendary inventor of the organ, which can be traced back to the second century B.C. and perhaps e a r l i e r . 76 The l a s t stanza of this poem i s , I think, the best. It i s at once l o f t y i n expression and t e c h n i c a l l y b r i l l i a n t i n performance. I f the f i n a l stanza of the Brady ode, H a i l i Bright  C e c i l i a , i s magnificent i n Pur c e l l ' s glorious setting, the excellent climax of Dryden 1s work i s equally s t i r r i n g without such an instrumental a i d , because i n the l a t t e r , the music i s i n the poetry, and the words, as i f sung by a splendid cathedral choir, r i s e on "the viewless wings of poesy." ' As from the Pow'r of Sacred Lays The Spheres began to move, And sung the great Creator 1s Praise To a l l the bless'd above; So, when the l a s t and dreadful Hour This crumbling Pageant s h a l l devour, The TRUMPET s h a l l be heard on high, The dead s h a l l l i v e , the l i v i n g d i e , And MUSICK s h a l l untune the Sky. Grand Chorus, A Song . . . , 11. 5 5 - 6 3 A Song f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day cannot, of course, compare with Alexander's Feast, "but i t i s curious how many l i n e s and phrases i t has contributed to the l i s t of stock q u o t a t i o n s — e s p e c i a l l y curious when i t i s remembered that the whole piece i s only 151 sixty-three l i n e s long." y 150 ' Van Doren (p. 201,.) i s disparaging about most of the poetry belonging to the St. C e c i l i a t r a d i t i o n i n England and even about some of the music of P u r c e l l and Handel written f o r the celebra-t i o n of the Saint's day. I suggest that he i s unfair. The works by P u r c e l l and Handel are not, at worst, " . . . cheap programme music . . . ," and the Brady poem, while not equal to those of Dryden, at l e a s t deserves honourable mention. 1^ 1G. Saintsbury, Drvden (London, l 8 8 l , ) p. 110. The use of "curious" here i s i n i t s e l f curious; why many of the poem's l i n e s have become so well known i s pe r f e c t l y obvious: they are 77 Another ode on the same subject as the one just described i s Alexander's Feast (1697). I t contains a number of Dryden 1s expressive t r a i t s and i t i s what one might c a l l a thoroughly "musical 1 1 poem. Moreover, "the idea of casting a music ode in t o narrative or dramatic form was i t s e l f a new and 152 happy one." y As the mood of the narrative might change, so the temper and music of the verse might a l t e r , and indeed, i n thi s work, there i s never any inconsistency between the thoughts expressed and the tone and technical devices used to convey them. The f i r s t two stanzas together form a splendid overture. The f i r s t contains a l l the regal t o n a l i t y of One of L u l l y ' s " V e r s a i l l e s " introductions so well imitated by P u r c e l l , and portrays by means of i t s s t a t e l y rhythm and description the splendour of the f e a s t t s s e t t i n g . ' J The second stanza bears splendid l i n e s . See Pope, An Essay on C r i t i c i s m . 11. 297-298. Golles, p.106, states that Handel " i n 1736 . . . set Pope's ode, Alexander's Feast, to music, and i n 1739 he set Dryden*s Ode on  St. C e c i l i a ' s Day, i n which he a c t u a l l y seems to have copied Purcell*s s t y l e to some extent." C o l l e s i s wrong here i n regard to Alexander's Feast; i n 1736 Handel did set a poem of that t i t l e , but i t was Dryden's, not Pope's. Blom, Music i n England, p. 128, states that Matthew Greene set Pope's Ode f o r St.  C e c i l i a ' s Day as h i s exercise f o r h i s doctor's degree at Cam-bridge i n 1730, and on p. 131 says that "Handel's choral concert-work just then was h i s setting of Dryden's 'Alexander's Feast,* which so impressed Pope, who doubtless considered himself to be the equal of Dryden, that he desired Handel to set a poem of h i s own." Blom says further that Handel refused to collaborate with Pope on a subject the l a t t e r had suggested, Orpheus and Eurydice. See also G.F. Handel, Ode on St. C e c i l i a ' s Day (London: Novello and Company, Ltd., 1909), H i s t o r i c a l Notes, and R.M. Myers, Handel. Dryden. and Milton (London, 1956), pp. 31 f f . 1*3 2 ' Van Doren, p. 20k. Van Doren gives a good summary of the material which was probably at Dryden's disposal when he wrote t h i s poem. ^ W e s t r u p , P u r c e l l . pp. 97, 111, 116,-201. V. supra, p. 59. 78 a l l the marks of a more restrained Largo, which moves from the ton i c , i n swelling cadential harmony, to the dominant seventh which demands resolution ( l i n e *+l). To a jaunty, s p i r i t e d Allegro, the dominant seventh resolves: Sound the Trumpets, beat the Drums] Bacchus Blessings are a Treasure; Drinking i s a Soldier's Pleasure; Rich the Treasure, Sweet the Pleasure, Sweet i s Pleasure a f t e r Pain. Alex. F.. 11. 50, 56-60 There i s a true zest and vigour here, an energy which i s not the e f f e c t of a group of words ttr.und.led out by a mere v e r s i -f i e r whose mind i s i n a state of suspended animation. Not only the j o y f u l rhythm—brisk trochees—but also the words, f u l l of bite and l i f e i n their consonants, make t h i s passage highly e f f e c t i v e , and the r e p e t i t i o n of the l a s t f i v e l i n e s i n the succeeding chorus serves to heighten the f o r c e f u l dramatic qua l i t y . 1 In t h i s poem, the theme of the power of music i s l i k e a ground bass. Thus, i n the fourth stanza, through poetic counterpoint, the tonal epic grows as the poet describes the king, "soothed with sound," r e f i g h t i n g h i s b a t t l e s . Yet t h i s mighty crescendo i s checked with the r e l a t i o n of the f a l l of Darius. After the mighty rhythmic romp and fury of l i n e s s i x t y - f i v e to seventy-two, t h i s sudden change i s most e f f e c t i v e . 79 He sung Darius Great and Good, By too severe a Fate, F a l l e n , f a l l e n , f a l l e n , f a l l e n , F a l l e n from h i s high Estate, And vreltring i n h i s Blood . . . . Alex. P.. 11. 75-79 Line 77 i s e s p e c i a l l y remarkable, f o r Dryden, with complete control of h i s medium, uses a mournful yet b e a u t i f u l series of phrased "descending seconds" which bring out pe r f e c t l y the 15*+ mood of the passage. ' Perhaps both Dryden and The Mighty Master smiled to see That Love was i n the next degree . . . . There i s a sweetness to the f i f t h section which i s conveyed by an easy rhythm and well chosen words. The humming sounds of the middle l i n e s of the stanza (99-105)> l i k e Tennyson's 155 "murmuring of innumerable bees," J J or l i k e Keats' "murmurous 156 haunt of f l i e s on summer eves," J. have an hypnotic q u a l i t y to them. The r e p e t i t i o n of "looked" and "sighed" conveys, i n the l a t t e r part of the stanza, the limpid sound as well as the languid picture of the conqueror's "love and death" throes. Once again, the r e i t e r a t i o n i n the chorus of the l a s t l i n e s of 1^ l fV. supra, p. 60, n. 113. ^"Come aovn, 0 Maid," 1. 31. l 5 6 " 0 d e to a Nightingale," 1. 50. 80 the stanza creates an admirable and pleasing s o l i d i t y of mood. That Alexander's reactions occur at the feast i s , of course, due to music. To that a r t , and to Timotheus, go the l a u r e l s . After the gentle andante of the f i f t h stanza, the outburst of passion i n the f u r i o u s l y paced sixth part i s a b r i l l i a n t and not a di s t r e s s i n g contrast. The a b i l i t y of music to f i r e the passions to a white heat i s shown well here. The vigorous, i r r e g u l a r beats (11. 123-135), Break h i s Bands of Sleep asunder, And rouze him, l i k e a r a t t l i n g Peal of Thunder. Hark, hark.' the ho r r i d Sound Has raised up his Head; As awak'd from the Dead, And amaz'd, he stares around. Alex. F., 11. 123-130. the magnificent pictures (11. 131-l k 5), "Revenge, revenge!" Timotheus c r i e s ; "See the Furies a r i s e . See.the Snakes that they rear, How they h i s s i n the i r Hair, And the Sparkles that f l a s h from their Eyes. Behold how they [the Grecian hosts] toss their Torches on high, How they point to.the Persian Abodes, And g l i t t ' r i n g Temples of their H ostile Gods.'" Alex. F.. 11. 131-135, 1 L3-1 L5. and the wealth of "sound e f f e c t s " produced by a c a r e f u l choice of words bring a true fury to the passage as does the music of Pu r c e l l to the eleventh section of Brady's ode. Indeed, "the 81 enormous v i t a l i t y . . . " o f Dryden*s poem " . . . not only has insured i t s long l i f e ; f o r a century i t i n s p i r e d ambitious, 1 5 7 imitators and nameless parodists." J l Despite a l l the c o n t r o l which, i n ancient times, Timotheus, with "his breathing lute and sounding l y r e , " was able to exert over the emotions of man, C e c i l i a rose to even greater heights, f o r the organ must be acknowledgedas superior to a l l other instruments, and i t s "inventor," the brightest star i n the universe of tone. Let old Timotheus y i e l d the P r i z e , Or both divide the Crown; He r a i s ' d a Mortal to the Skies; She drew an Angel down. Alex. F.. 11. 167-170 I would suggest that the Grand Chorus i s not merely a r e p e t i t i o n of l i n e s 161-170. I t does not just restate the thought of the seventh stanza. Though i t s linkage to that part i s obvious, i t would seem to serve f a r more as a coda to the whole work, containing, as i t does, an expression of praise of the mighty organ and i t s inventor. As P u r c e l l uses the f u l l orchestra and chorus i n the Grand Chorus of Brady*s poem, so we are p r i v i l e g e d to hear Dryden express h i s thoughts here i n that f u l l , organ-toned range which i s h i s to command. In one of h i s l a s t l e t t e r s , he states that h i s l i f e - l o n g wish was to improve 158 the language, and by so doing, improve the poetry. ' "Dryden 1^ 7Van Doren, p. 206. ^ ^ S a i n t s b u r y (supra, p. 76, n. 151), p. 187. V. supra, pp. 59-60. 82 i s always s t r i v i n g . . . to f i n d better l i t e r a r y forms, a better vocabulary, better metres, better construction, [and] better style . . . . Considering what he started with,.what he accomplished, and what advantages he l e f t to h i s successors, he must be pronounced, without exception, the,greatest c r a f t s -man i n English l e t t e r s . . . ,« , 1 59 A Song f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day and Alexander's Feast i l l u s t r a t e h i s craftsmanship, as well as h i s high regard f o r music, and show h i s poetry to have a d i s t i n c t musical q u a l i t y , ' as well as a richness of expression l i k e that of the ornamented yet melodic music of the day. "Dryden's Song fo r St. C e c i l i a ' s  Day i n 1687 and h i s Alexander's Feast i n 1697 were the most distinguished performances [ i n the St. C e c i l i a ' s Day t r a d i t i o n ] of the century, each making fashionable a new and sensational method." To Scott, Alexander's Feast was "the best of English l y r i c s ; " to R.L. Stevenson, there was i n the odes of Dryden "'more sustained eloquence and harmony of E n g l i s h 162 numbers than i n a l l that has been written since.'" Pope had l a v i s h praise f o r the "Timotheus ode" i n a paraphrase of i t i n An Essay on C r i t i c i s m : V o l t a i r e , on the continent, was also generous i n h i s accolades. ^ S a i n t s b u r y , pp. 188-189; c f . Westrup, pp. 137, 2 k l , 253-257. l 6°Van Doren, p. 201. l 6 l I b i d . , p. 251. Ibid., p. 2L5» Van Doren comments on Dryden's reputation. 83 "De toutes l e s odes modernes, c e l l e ou i l regne l e plus grande enthousiasme qui ne s ' a f f a i b l i t jamais, et qui ne tombe n i dans l e faux n i dans lrampule" est l e Timothee, ou l a f©te d 1Alexandre, par Dryden; e l l e est encore regarded en Angleterre comme un chef-d'oeuvre ini m i t a b l e , dont Pope n'a pu approcher quand i l a voulu s'exercer dans l e m§me genre. Cette ode f G t chante'e; et s i on avait au un musicien digne du poete, ce s e r a i t l e chef-d'oeuvre de l a poesie lyrique. " I 6 3 "Vous appelez Cowley Le Pindare anglais . . . c'e'tait un poete sans harmonie . . . . La v r a i Pindare est Bryden, auteur de cette b e l l e ode intitule'e F i t e d'  Alexandre, ou Alexandre et Timothee. Cette ode . . . passe en Angleterre pour l e chef-d'oeuvre de l a poesie l a plus sublime et l a plus varie'e; et je vous avoue que, comme je sais mieux 1 'anglais que l e grec, j'aime cent f o i s mieux cette ode que tout Pindare.'• Boswell t o l d Johnson "that V o l t a i r e , i n a conversation with me, had distinguished Pope and Dryden thus: 'Pope drives a handsome chariot, with a couple of net trimmings; Bryden a coach, and s i x stat e l y horses. ' " 164 Indeed, as Br. Johnson says, what was said of Home, adorned by Augustus, may be applied by an easy metaphor to English poetry embellish-ed by Dryden, " l a t e r i t i a m i n v e n i t , marmoream r e l i q u i t , " he found i t brick, and he l e f t i t marble. 1"? 16^ -^Ibid., pp. 23k. This comment appears i n V o l t a i r e ' s a r t i c l e on Enthusiasm i n the Dictionnaire Philosophic;ue. 16U I b i d . , pp. 234-235. This comment of V o l t a i r e ' s appears o r i g i n a l l y i n a l e t t e r written from Ferney on March 9, 1772, "to M. Chabanon, who had just published a t r a n s l a t i o n of Pindar with an essay on the Pindaric genre . . . ." On l a t e seventeenth and early eighteenth century opinions and settings of Alexander's  Feast, see Myers, Handel. Dryden, and Milton, pp. 23 f f . 165 'Johnson, " L i f e of Dryden," i n Selected Prose and Poetry, p. 485. The source of the Lat i n phrase i s given as Suetonius, Augustus, XXIX. 8lt Both A Song for St. C e c i l i a ' s Day and. Alexander's Feast are secular pieces and both are show pieces. This de s c r i p t i o n of them, of course, does not detract from their stature. Dryden sought to improve the Eng l i s h language and to master i t as a means of expression, i n which task he c e r t a i n l y succeeded, and P u r c e l l sought to improve techniques i n composition and to e x c e l l both as a writer and a performer i n the medium of music. Pur c e l l ' s setting of Nicholas Brady's ode i n 1692 i s a remarkable work i n almost every way. What i s not remarkable i s the verse, although i t does, as I have suggested above, deserve honourable mention. The music, though, i s a wonderful counterpart to Dryden's two poems discussed above. The opening ten bars, marked i n the Tippett and Bergman score, maestoso, convey to the l i s t e n e r an impression of grandeur and of c o n t r o l , a control which i s never to be l o s t i n any section of the work. One of P u r c e l l ' s t e c h n i c a l l y b r i l l i a n t and unif i e d canzonas •I £ Q follows the slow introduction. I t i s l i g h t and f r e s h , yet l 6 6 B a s i l Willey, The Seventeenth Century Background, Doubleday Anchor E d i t i o n (Garden C i t y , New York, 1955), p. 95. Willey says i n part: "The difference between Dryden and Donne i s la r g e l y due to the f a c t that i n the i n t e r v a l which separates them the Cartesian world-picture had replaced the Scholastic. The order, precision and correctness of post-Restoration art echo the methodical r e g u l a r i t y of Descartes' thinking and the perfection of h i s mechanised universe." • ^ P u r c e l l , Ode. (V. supra, p. 53) n. 97). See also Westrup, P u r c e l l , pp. 77, 123, 191-1*, and Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 122-123. Holland (p. 123) says "few of Purcell's works show a greater consistency of style than th i s splendid Ode." Dr. Nicholas Brady was Chaplain to the Queen and a minor poet and dramatist. l 6 8 V . supra, p. 70. 85 i t does not lose a supple strength which characterises the best of P u rcell's contrapuntal writing. This canzona i s followed by a moving adagio, f a r more homophonic than the preceding movement, i n 3/2 metre, and which moves to a quick 3/8 section which includes trumpet and timpani—a t y p i c a l "fanfare" movement. The character-i s t i c rhythmic motif here i s J-j j J J . The introductory symphony concludes with a grave section of ten bars i n length, score f o r strings and oboes, a moving piece which sets the mood for the f i r s t chorus, " H a i l i Bright C e c i l i a . " This f i r s t chorus i s t r u l y majestic i n i t s opening bars, and at bar thirteen, with the words " F i l l every heart with love of thee and thy c e l e s t i a l art . . . " there enters a melody both flowing and b e a u t i f u l . The contrapuntal writing i n t h i s part shows the composer to be a master of h i s c r a f t . I t i s fresh and yet c ontrolled, inventive and not outlandish. There i s ornamen-tatio n here, too, i n the development of the melodic l i n e , but i t i s never outside the realm of the good taste of the era. There i s both s y l l a b i c and coloratura work, and both follow one l69 another w e l l . 7 This chorus leads to a duet, "Hark, each tree," again f u l l of many beauties. Notable here i s the delight-f u l manner i n which the instruments are recognised by the composer, as they were by Dryden, as possessing d i f f e r e n t tonal P u r c e l l , Ode, p. 21 86 170 q u a l i t i e s , f o r he l e t s them answer one another p l a y f u l l y . P u r c e l l ' s love of word painting, of the picturesque i s also evident here i n h i s treatment of " s p r i g h t l y v i o l i n . " 1 7 1 For sheer vocal pyrotechnics, however, the a l t o solo, "*Tis Nature's voice," (which follows,) cannot e a s i l y be equalled. B r i l l i a n t coloratura and word painting are both here, together with an 172 inc r e d i b l e sense of l i n e . ' " P u r c e l l himself sang the counter tenor solo (No. k)'with Incredible g r a c e s . ' " 1 7 3 The glorious chorus, "Soul of the world," contrasts well with the preceding piece, although c e r t a i n l y i t i s not devoid of ornamented and picturesque passages. One i n p a r t i c u l a r s t r i k e s the l i s t e n e r ; that i s the treatment of " j a r r i n g . " The word i s repeated, and i s given one eighth note, per s y l l a b l e , and i s accompanied by tremulo eighths i n the s t r i n g s . The r e s u l t i s most e f f e c t i v e , and portrays exactly the meaning of the word i n 7 Ibid., p. 28. Note the dialogue between the recorders and v i o l i n s . See also Holland, P u r c e l l , p. 116, on P u r c e l l ' s delight i n instrumental conversation. 1 7 1 P u r c e l l , Ode, p. 31. The bass sings of the v i o l i n ; the soprano, i n a l e s s decorative fashion and i n more mellow tones, of the f l u t e . The t e s s i t u r a of the bass part i s high, of the soprano low; thus the composer c l e v e r l y secures a f a i r i m i ta-t i o n of the q u a l i t i e s of the instrument he i s describing i n music. 1 7 2 I b i d . , pp. 38 f f . This i s declamatory r e c i t a t i v e at i t s best. Note the treatment of "moving" i n a descending, tr i p p i n g l i n e , and l a t e r of "grieve" (p. kl) a slow descending chromatic passage as contrasted to the cheery sixteenth notes of " r e j o i c e . " 1 7 3Gentleman !s Journal and Monthly Miscellany (November, 1692), p. 19, c i t e d i n i b i d . , H i s t o r i c a l Note, p. i i . See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. IV. 87 the same way that Dryden 1s use of, l e t us say, " f a l l e n " i n Alexander's Feast gives r i s e to a f e e l i n g not only of f a l l i n g 17l+ i t s e l f , but of sadness and despondency. The gentle soprano solo and chorus, "Thou tuns't t h i s world" follows, but not be-fore the a r t i s t i c a l l y woven polyphony of the setting of "various parts" i s resolved by the simpler homophony of "one perfect 175 harmony." ' J Praise of the organ i n s p i r e d f l i g h t s of fancy i n Dryden and i t d i d i n P u r c e l l too. "With.that sublime c e l e s t i a l l a y " contains a variety of types of l i n e s i n i t s course of praising the "noble" instrument. F l o r i d word painting, slower, graceful, moving l i n e s — t h e s e are a l l part of what amounts to a 176 musical kaleidoscope. ' This whole work i s a display case 7 Ibid., pp. k5-k6. V. supra, p. 79. See also Westrup, P u r c e l l . p. 13^, i n regard to P u r c e l l ' s use of the tremolando. Note the excellent use of the ground bass i n "Thou did'st the scattered atoms bind," pp. k6 f f . In regard to "Soul of the World," see I l l u s t r a t i o n No. V . 1 7 ^ P u r c e l l , Ode, pp. 52-5^. "Thou tun'st t h i s world" contains one of Purcell's most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rhythms, v i z . JT3 » which looks trochaic but which often sounds, iambic when repeated. (See Westrup, pp. 165, 175, 2kk, This rhythm i s found i n many French and I t a l i a n works.) Note the f l o r i d treatment of "move," pp. 63-61+. 1 7 6 P u r e e l l , Ode, pp. 66. Note the f l o r i d treatment of "noble" and, on p. 69, the lightness of the setting of "brisk" i n the alle g r o . The drop of a t h i r d and fourth i n the two a l t o parts i n the word "lightness" i n the fourth bar of the a l l e g r o (p. 69) i s also a clever touch and contrasts well with the settings of "grave" and "dulness" at the end of the piece (p. 71). c f . Van Doren, p. 6 l , i n regard to Dryden 1s attempts to "soften" h i s verse with p o l y s y l l a b l e s ; P u r c e l l has achieved the same e f f e c t by a drop i n tone, i n the case of "lightness," of an i n t e r v a l of a t h i r d i n one part and a fourth i n another. 8 8 containing many of Pureell's f i n e s t wares, and i s comparable to Dryden's poetic orchestration i n praise of the Saint. One of his stock-in-trades was the basso ostinato,. and i n the da capo bass solo, "Wond'rous machine" there i s an excellent example of t h i s device. The piece i t s e l f i s sturdy and l i n e a r , and despite the basso ostinato, never becomes dreary. Here, again, i s word painting. Notable e s p e c i a l l y i s "warbling;" the l i n e 177 does what the word suggests: i t warbles. In the following sections, "The a i r y v i o l i n " and "In vain the am'rous f l u t e , " one i s again regaled with an instrumental-vocal impression of the tonal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the two instruments described. Both sections are quite b e a u t i f u l ; the f i r s t i s treated i n a spr i g h t l y manner, with a dotted rhythm (JT? ) i n 3 A metre, and the second i s slower, s o f t e r , and more gentle. In both movements the music e n t i r e l y conveys the s p i r i t of the poetry. It also does t h i s i n "The f i f e and a l l the harmony of war" which forms a decisive and martial contrast to the mild-mannered minor measures which describe the timid f l u t e . The instrumentation here i s e n t i r e l y s u i t a b l e , v i z . , trumpets, timpani, and bass v i o l s . The piece i s martial and t h r i l l i n g , and i s f u l l of decorative b r i l l i a n c e . The idea, however, that no instrument i s capable of e x c e l l i n g the organ i s c a r r i e d on, and i n the next section, "Let these among themselves contest," v i r t u a l l y a vocal contest between two basses, the thought i s stated again. P u r c e l l , Ode, p. 7 3 , V. supra, p. 6 8 89 Each bass part i s a b e a u t i f u l e n t i t y per se. and the v a r i e t y of entries and the echoing of the parts by each other against a modest continuo part serve to show P u r c e l l to be a supremely competent writer of polyphony. The conclusion of the whole work comes with the Great Chorus, "HailJ Bright C e c i l i a , " which contains a l l the d i g n i t y and splendour that I mentioned e a r l i e r as being a part of Restoration a r t . This i s P u r c e l l at h i s most majestic point. The seemingly slow moving choral part i s pe r f e c t l y supported by the dri v i n g and yet d i g n i f i e d instrumental accompaniment. Trumpets, timpani, oboes, and strings are given i n t e r e s t i n g and well integrated parts i n the f i r s t part. "Who whilst among the 178 quire above . . . ," ' the second section of t h i s magnificent f i n a l e i s somewhat quieter i n tone, and, l i k e other sections of th i s Ode, contains some t r u l y masterful part writing. I t i s i n turn followed by a s t i l l slower section, "With rapture of d e l i g h t , " a solo quartet, which serves as a preparation f o r the return 179 of the f i r s t and most martial chorus, da capo. 1 7 The words of t h i s Great Chorus are reminiscent of those of the f i n a l choruses of Dryden's two St. C e c i l i a odes; they approximate his thought well . Much of the age, with i t s splendour, i t s 1 7 8 P u r c e l l , Ode, p. 113. 1 7 % b i d . , pp. 120-122. V. supra,pp. 53 f f . P u r c e l l i s often the Pindar of Restoration music, just as Dryden was Pindaric i n temper. See Van Doren, pp. 192-193« Many of the odes of P u r c e l l contain a s i m i l a r "Pindaric" temper. See, f o r example, Westrup's comments on Arise my Muse (1690), i n P u r c e l l , pp. 183-185. 90 lavishness, and its love of a r t , i s contained i n t h i s f i n a l , section. Much of P u r c e l l i s here too, f o r there i s not only the majesty of a f u l l orchestra and chorus, but also six-part choral fugal writing, and a short, slow section for quartet. Here i s majesty; here i s a r t ; here i s Dryden; here i s Restoration music. At every point, as Dryden does with words i n verse, P u r c e l l creates with c a r e f u l orchestration and control of l i n e the exact mood which i s appropriate to the thought of the l i n e . The a b i l i t y to do t h i s stems from a true knowledge of the c a p a b i l i t i e s of the human voice; the composer himself was an excellent counter-tenor. V i r t u o s i c though h i s music often i s , i t i s always music and never sheer display; the same comment may be made on Dryden*s poetry. The v i r t u o s i t y of such music i s not to be held i n contempt. The trend to r i c h , baroque ornamentation can be seen i n the other arts as well. I t i s necessary only to look at Dryden 1s l a v i s h d i c t i o n or at the splendour of the court c i r c l e s to r e a l i s e t h i s , f o r art , although i t had become professional, had not yet become bourgeois. Though "no composer ever had a greater flow of spontaneous melody, . . . Purcell*s vocal music i s based on the practice of the t i m e . " 1 8 0 As may be gathered from the pages of t h i s t h e s i s , P u r c e l l was an expert i n the setting of English poetry. What i s impor-tant to remember i s that he combined technical competence with musicianship; he was never a l i f e l e s s note-arranger. Dryden recognised the composer's genius: Holland, P u r c e l l , p. 90. See also p. 91. V. supra, p. 59. 91 What has been wanting on my Part [ i . e . , i n Amphitryon], has been abundantly supplied by the Ex c e l l e n t Composition of Mr. P u r c e l l ; i n whose Person we have at length found an English-man, equal with the best abroad. At l e a s t my Opinion of him has been such, since h i s happy and judicious Perform-ances i n the l a t e Opera [ i . e . , D i o c l e s i a n ] ; and the Experience I have of him, i n the setting my Three Songs f o r t h i s Amphitryon.181 In the Preface to King Arthur (1691) he r e i t e r a t e s t h i s judgment, but goes on to discuss the technique of writing poetry which i s to be set to music. , English i s c e r t a i n l y more d i f f i c u l t to set than I t a l i a n , c h i e f l y because of the large number of hard consonants and b r i t t l e endings; but i t i s quite i n c o r r e c t to assume that Dryden used feminine endings only when writing poetry which was to be s e t . 1 8 3 Westrup quotes Professor N i c o l l i n regard to the words i n King Arthur: "'had a l l operas such be a u t i f u l l i b r e t t i as these two [i . e . , A l b i o n and Albanius and King  Arthur] have,there would be small cause f o r complaint.'"1'81'' I f Dryden Tj Q-l Letter by Dryden prefixed to the published text of Amphitryon. c i t e d i n Westrup, P u r c e l l , p. 67. See also Van Doren, pp. 177-178. estrup, P u r c e l l . p. 72. 1 8 2 w , l 8 3 V . supra, p. 60. For expositions of Dryden's views on the matter of writing such poetry, see Westrup, l o c . c i t . , and pp. 109-110, 132-133, Van Doren, pp. 178 f f . , I86-I87, and Holland, P u r c e l l . pp. 69, l l * * , 157. In regard to Pur c e l l ' s a b i l i t y to set music, see Holland, pp. 69, 78, 86 f f . , 91, 97, 110, 145, 158-161, and Westrup, pp. 125, 218-219, 2 5 k . l gh. Allardyce N i c o l l , A History of Restoration Drama. 1660- 1700. 3rd e d i t i o n (Cambridge, 19 k0), p. 150, c i t e d i n Westrup, P u r c e l l , p. 72. 92 f e l t cramped when he wrote the l i b r e t t o f o r th i s work, i t does not show. Westrup says that "the l y r i c s of King Arthur contain 1 8 5 nothing that could offend Dryden 1s reputation." J However, l a t e r i n h i s work he blames the i l l - e f f e c t of the following l i n e s on feminine endings: Honour p r i z i n g , Death despising, Fame acquiring By expiring, l 8 6 Die and reap the f r u i t of glory. I suggest that the f a u l t of these l i n e s l i e s not i n the feminine i 87 endings per se. but i n the unfortunate choice of words. ' l 8^Westrup, l o c . c i t . l 86 I b i d . , p. 133. See also Henry P u r c e l l , The Music i n Dry- den 's King Arthur, ed. J.A. F u l l e r Maitland (London: Boosey and Go., I 8 9 - ), pp. 14-15. For Westrup's discussion of King  Arthur, see P u r c e l l . pp. 131-137. See also Holland, P u r c e l l . 157-160. It i s claimed by some c r i t i c s that the music i s merely i n c i d e n t a l i n r e l a t i o n to the words, and that often the melodic l i n e s do not f i t with the poetic l i n e s . I submit, however, that the music i s e n t i r e l y e f f e c t i v e . Where a word may seem to be unbalanced i n terms of the rhythms of normal speech, e.g., Cupid's a r i a , "Thou doating f o o l , " P u r c e l l with h i s usual mastery of h i s medium, has u t i l i s e d — t o the best advantage of both music and poetry—the weight and the melodic vocal properties of the vowels, etc. Any imbalance, so c a l l e d , i s therefore j u s t i f i e d . Much of the adverse c r i t i c i s m stems from a f a i l u r e to understand seventeenth-century a r t i s t i c techniques; i t i s similar i n nature to the f a i l u r e of c r i t i c s to appreciate Chaucer's metre. I e n t i r e l y agree with Professor Westrup; t h i s work i s worthy of performance today. See pp. 136-137 of h i s discussion. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. VI. l 8 7 T h e l i n e s just quoted are bad, and t h i s Prof. Westrup recognises. I would put t h i s question: how can he reconcile hi s view about t h i s passage with h i s e a r l i e r comment that no f a u l t could be found with the l i b r e t t o ? See Westrup, P u r c e l l : c f . pp. 72 and 133. 93 For the most part though, King Arthur i s a very pleasing work. Both composer and poet show a remarkable a b i l i t y to write well i n various moods; both show an awareness of the importance of rhythm and of choice of words and harmony i n view of the meaning which i s to be conveyed. Such beauties as the gentle, tuneful l i t t l e a i r of Cupid, "Thou doating f o o l . . . " and such splendid statements as one f i n d s i n the ba t t l e scene ! i n Act I, "Come i f you dare," are not uncommon i n i t ; nor are such contrasts unusual. Word painting and coloratura e f f e c t s are 189 to be found here, too. 7 Dryden has an eye to spectacle and splendour i n t h i s work, and P u r c e l l has not f a i l e d i n h i s task of supporting the design. Indeed, some quite i n t e r e s t i n g e f f e c t s are achieved, such as the shivering e f f e c t i n the f r o s t 190 scene, which I mentioned e a r l i e r . 7 For sheer beauty of poetry and melodic l i n e , Venus' a r i a , "Fairest I s l e , " i s a f i n e example, while Pu r c e l l ' s a b i l i t y i n contrapuntal writing i s displayed to advantage i n many of the sections, e.g., the very f i n e G minor P a s s a c a g l i a . 1 9 1 For pure magnificence of t h r i l l i n g sound, one can always turn to the f i n a l chorus, (reminiscent of those of P u r c e l l ' s odes,) and to the Grand Dance, a charming l 8 8 P u r c e l l , King Arthur, pp. 20 f f . , 59 f f . N.B. the drum's rhythm i n the poetry and i n the music, pp. k , 21. For true spectacle, see the s a c r i f i c i a l scene, Act I, p. 5« l 8 9 I b i d . , p. 31. Note the treatment of "down." See also pp. 9k f f . 1^°Ibid., pp. 58-59. Westrup l i k e s t h i s scene. Van Doren, Drvden. p. 187, says i t s e f f e c t i s " . . . not exactly happy." See also Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 92. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. VI. 191 P u r c e l l , King Arthur, pp. 109 f f . , 83 f f . 9h 192 chaconne which follows the chorus. ' I t i s not only b e a u t i f u l melody, good counterpoint, an awareness of the mood and nature of the verse, and i n t e r e s t i n g harmony which d i s t i n g u i s h this' ' work from the musical point of view. It i s more mature, both i n technique and i n imagination, than Diocleslan, and there i s more v a r i e t y i n the i n -vention . . . . The best movements i n t h i s opera, whether simple songs or elaborate contrapuntal structures, have that q u a l i t y inseparable from f i n e craftsmanship—they appear inevitable. 1 9 3 From the poetic point of view, there i s beauty of verse, of couplet, of l i n e , of phrase, and of word. And there i s beauty of a r t i s t i c honesty, too. Both P u r c e l l and Dryden, using similar techniques, have produced a p a t r i o t i c spectacle In t h e i r best Restoration manners. 1^ What Prof. Westrup says about the work i n t h i s connection i s of note here: There i s a patriotism that finds expression i n banners and bugles and another less o s t e n t a t i o u s — a patriotism of the s p i r i t . Look beneath the conceits and conven-tions that form the crust of Dryden 1s text [of Purcell*s music], and you w i l l f i n d the same emotion to which Rupert Brook gave expression when he wrote that "the actual earth of England held for him a quality . . . which, i f he'd ever been sentimental enough to use the word, he'd have c a l l e d 'holiness.'"195 1 9 2 I b i d . , pp. 122-127. Note the clipped trochees i n "Hither t h i s way" duplicated i n the rapid, breathless eighth notes of Purcell's s e t t i n g ; the i n t e r v a l leaps contribute to the "nervous" aura, pp. 36-37. 1 9 3Westrup, p. 137. 1 ^ H o l l a n d , P u r c e l l , pp. 66-67 comments on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of English opera i n the Restoration. 1 9 5 p r i n t e d i n t h e oxford Book of English Prose, p. IO62, c i t e d i n Westrup, p. 136. This i s quoted i n p a r t i c u l a r connection with "Fairest I s l e ; " v. supra, p. 93-95 Westrup 1s own estimate of P u r c e l l the man—the man i n the music— says somewhat the same thing f o r the composer's s i n c e r i t y and a r t i s t r y . 1 9 ^ 'Westrup, p. 256. CHAPTER I I I POPE AND HANDEL Influences on Pope and Handel In t h i s section which -deals with the work of Pope and Handel, I s h a l l approach the question of a comparison of t h e i r works i n the same fashion as appears i n the preceding pages on Dryden and P u r c e l l . That i s to say, the a r t i s t i c influences at work on the two men w i l l be considered before s p e c i f i c works are discussed with a view to comparison of s t y l e s , techniques, and e f f e c t s . I t has been made clea r i n pages dealing with French influence on Dryden and P u r c e l l that an extremely powerful G a l l i c current was running i n English Restoration t a s t e . 1 French l i t e r a t u r e retained an important place i n Engl i s h l e t t e r s i n the eighteenth century also; Pope knew the works of French authors and was influenced by them. In f a c t , he learned the language e s p e c i a l l y to read them. "Pope a i t pu apprendre tout seul assez -de francais pour l i r e nos poetes, nos moralistes, [et] nos ^ 2 c r i t i q u e s ^ u d r a , L'Influence Francaise dans l'oeuvre de Pope, pp. 1 9 - 2 0 . V. supra, pp. 22-23. * 2Audra, p. 33. 9 6 , 97 We conquered France, but f e l t our c a p t i v e f s charms; Her a r t s v i c t o r i o u s triumphed o'er our arms; B r i t a i n to soft refinements l e s s a foe, ^ Wit grew p o l i t e , and numbers learned to flow. Here i s an admission by Pope of the influence described above. Yet, " . . . § l'i n f l u e n c e des l i v r e s venait ajouter c e l l e des k hommes." Several concrete examples of the influence of French authors upon Pope may be c i t e d . Boileau imitates Horace i n h i s Satire I I : Je f a i s m i l l e serments de ne jamais e c r i r e Mais quand j ' a i bien maudit et Muses et Ph£bus, Je l a vols qui p a r a i t , quand je n'y pense plus; AussitSt malgre* moi tout mon feu se rallume; ? Je reprends sur l e champ l e papier et l a plume.' Pope's E p i s t l e to Augustus i s d i s t i n c t l y similar:** I,who so o f t renounce the Muses, l i e , Not — ' s s e l f e'er t e l l s more f i b s than I; When sick of Muse, our f o l l i e s we deplore, And promise our best friends to rhyme no more; We wake next morning i n a raging f i t 7 And c a l l f o r pen and ink to show our wit.' 3The F i r s t E p i s t l e of the Second Book of Horace. 263-266. See Alexander Pope. The Works of Alexander Pope (London. 18_), William Warburton, i n notes which preface t h i s volume, says (p.* 22) that Pope used the translations of Homer by La V a l t e r i e and Dacier. Unless otherwise noted, a l l c i t a t i o n s of Pope's works w i l l be to Alexander Pope, The Complete Works of Alexander Pope, ed. Henry Boynton (Boston, L 1 9 3 U ) . " k Audra, p. 35. ^Boileau, S a t i r e I I . 26-30, c i t e d i n i b i d . , p. 362. 6 Audra, p. 362. 7The F i r s t E p i s t l e of the Second Book of Horace. 175-180. 98 The end of the E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot bears a s t r i k i n g resem-8 blance to Boileau's E p i s t l e X. Sherburn notes that apart from a t r i p to London made with the purpose of learning French and I t a l i a n , Pope's education took place mainly at B i n f i e l d . Whether he was i n London long enough to master any language one may doubt: evidently he had some t r a i n -ing and did much reading i n the four that he attempted— L a t i n , Greek, French, and I t a l i a n . Gf the l a s t two he probably t r i e d to acquire only a reading knowledge , V o l t a i r e exaggerated Pope's ignorance of French, which the poet read, though he could neither speak nor under-stand the spoken language.9 The influence of the C l a s s i c s on Pope cannot be question-ed. His ideas of poetry and nature stem from them:, 10 Nature and Homer were, he found, the same. His pastorals convey, at times, an atmosphere of the C l a s s i c s , an atmosphere which was maintained even i n the neo-Latin poems. V i r g i l had imitated Homer, and although to imitate V i r g i l was not the same as to imitate Homer d i r e c t l y , i t was perhaps more sa t i s f a c t o r y . . . to the Renaissance poet since the dominating element i n the Renaissance was L a t i n . In Engl i s h poetry, i t i s the poets of Rome who have the most say t i l l the o Audra, l o c . c i t . See also W.L. MacDonald, Pope and His  C r i t i c s : A Study i n Eighteenth Century Per s o n a l i t i e s (London, 1 9 5 D , P. 71. ^George Sherburn, The E a r l y Career of Alexander Pope (Oxford, 1 9 3 L ) , PP- k 0 - k l . 1 0 A n Essay on C r i t i c i s m . I, 35. See also 60 f f . 99 purer glory of Athens i s discovered more f u l l y i n the mid-eighteenth century . . . . " H A l l through Pope's poetry there are C l a s s i c a l influences and references; he i s always acknowledging h i s indebtedness to the Grecian and Roman poets, c i t i n g them as the source of poetic wisdom, and advising others to seek the same Parnassus. You then whose judgment the r i g h t course would steer, Know well each ancient's proper c h a r a c t e r . i 2 Pope i s himself. He i s also of h i s own time. But he i s nevertheless h a l f a Roman poet . . . . The Roman poets deepen his mood and strengthen h i s sense of what i s worthy. They help him to form h i s c r i t i c a l stand-ards of poetry, i-3 While C l a s s i c a l c r i t i c a l standards containing high regard for balance of l i n e and perfection of sound, i n f a c t , f o r "correct-ness," were being employed i n the formation of the nation's poetry, Greek and Roman a r c h i t e c t u r a l concepts were fi n d i n g a Ik s o l i d place i n many of the elaborate buildings of the period.. The taste f o r C l a s s i c a l elements i n eighteenth-century poetry was by no means a lone "sport," as Beverly S. Allen's excellent 1 1 G e o f f r e y T i l l o t s o n , On the Poetry of Pope (Oxford, 1938), p. k, 1 2 A n Essay on C r i t i c i s m . I, 118-119. 1 3 T i l l o t s o n , p. 11. Ik For a good discussion of the influence of I t a l i a n architec-ture i n England, see Beverly S. AUen, Tides i n E n g l i s h Taste, 1619-1800 (Cambridge, Mass., 1937), I, 19 f f . 100 volumes show, just as i t was not a freak feature i n Dryden's day. Indeed, Pope's use of the C l a s s i c s demonstrates, I suggest, the l o g i c a l outcome of their continued use i n the Restoration and e a r l i e r periods. For decorum, f o r verse form, for manner, Pope often turned, i n my opinion, with splendid 15 r e s u l t , to V i r g i l and Ovid. ' Pope's words i n An Essay on  C r i t i c i s m make thi s point quite d e f i n i t e : Learn hence f o r ancient rules a just esteem; To copy nature i s to copy them, l b Let i t not be thought that Pope was not swayed or influenced by the poetry of h i s own country, or that he thought l i t t l e of i t . His respect f o r Dryden i s obvious i n h i s para-phrase of Alexander's Feast i n An Essay on C r i t i c i s m . Dame Edi t h S i t w e l l states*that i n a f t e r l i f e he stated repeatedly that everything he knew about v e r s i f i c a t i o n he learned from Dryden, and that even at the age of twelve he could d i s t i n g u i s h the difference between softness and sweetness i n the texture of several poets . . . . Dryden, at t h i s time, was s t i l l l i v i n g , and could be seen; and to t h i s c h i l d the dream of seeing Dryden was l i k e the dream of seeing poetry i n some bodily form . . . . I t was while he was s t i l l at the school at Hyde Park Corner that Pope, i n h i s passion f o r 15 'MacDonald, p. 75. In regard to C l a s s i c a l influence and the c r i t i c i s m s of Pope's poetry by Welsh, see Sherburn, (supra, p. 98, n. 9 ) , PP. 56 f f . l 6 A n Essav on C r i t i c i s m , I , 1 3 9-l kO. 101 Dryden 1s poetry, induced some friends to take him to the coffee-house where Dryden was usually to be seen, that he might please himself with the sight of the old poet. "I saw Dryden", he to l d Spence, "when I was about twelve years of age. I remember h i s face w e l l , f o r I looked upon him with veneration, and observed him very particularly. " 1 7 He recognised the greatness of a great many English poets, and 1 9 he had a tremendous admiration f o r John Donne. 7 "He imitates not only the Romans but Chaucer, Donne, and several smaller 2 0 English poets." He had, also, a r e a l veneration f o r Dean Swift. Dame S i t w e l l suggests, and I think with every foundation, " . . . that ho poet of h i s or any other time, was more learned 2 1 on the subject of h i s a r t . " I f Pope f e l t a c e r t a i n passion lacking i n the love poetry of the1 seventeenth century, he c e r t a i n l y t r i e d to f i l l 7 E d i t h S i t w e l l , Alexander Pope. Penguin E d i t i o n (Harmonds-worth, Middlesex, 19*+8), p. 32. Dame S i t w e l l r e l a t e s a similar experience of S i r Joshua Reynolds, who, when a young boy, caught a glimpse of Pope, then an established poet. In regard to Dryden's influence on Pope, see also Van Doren, Dryden, pp. 65-66, 258 f f . , and Samuel Johnson, L i f e of Pope, i n t r o . and with notes by F. Ryland, B e l l ' s English C l a s s i c s (London, 1895), PP. 9 k -97, 108. l 8Robert K. Root, The Po e t i c a l Career of Alexander Pope (Princeton, 1938), p. 56. • ^ S i t w e l l , p. 93» The author discusses Pope's taste i n poetry, and notes that i t was not affected by the tastes of the age. PO T i l l o t s o n , On the Poetry of Pone, p. 5. 21 S i t w e l l , l o c . c i t . Van Doren would probably debate the issue i n support of Dryden; at best, he could hope fo r a draw. See also Dame Si t w e l l * s discussion of the couplet i n Pope's work, pp. 215 f f . She i s , I think, unfair to Chaucer, p. 216. 102 the breach i n E l o i s a to Abelard. Yet h i s attitude toward the love poetry was by no means deprecating. There are no Modern Writers, perhaps, who have succeed-ed better i n love-verses than the English . . . . Never was, there a more copious Fancy or a greater reach of Wit, than what appears i n Dr. Donne; nothing can be more gallant or gentle than the poems of Mr. Waller; nothing more gay or s p r i g h t l y than those of S i r John Suckling; and nothing f u l l e r of Variety and Learning than Mr. Cowley's.22 Walsh, a man of considerable influence on Pope, while acknowledg-ing the pleasing aspeet of the love poetry of Donne, Suckling, and Waller, sees that " . . . t h e i r poetry betrays the f a c t that they were i n no true sense great l o v e r s . " I am s a t i s f i e d [he w r i t e s ] , that C a t u l l a s . T i b u l l u s , Propertius. and Ovid, were i n love with their Mistresses . . . . I confess I cannot believe Petrarch i n Love with h i s , when he writes Coneeits 2 ^ upon her Name, her Gloves, and the Place of her B i r t h . -* He goes to the length of cautioning the l i t t l e wizard, however, on being so correct i n h i s poetry that there i s no l i f e l e f t i n i t . That r e v i s i o n with a view to perfection was a good idea Walsh acknowledged, but a simultaneous wringing out of s p i r i t was to be placed under a ban. Mechanical rule s alone do not op Letters and Poems. Amorous and Gallant (1692) c i t e d i n T i l l o t s o n , pp. 1 4 - 1 5 . T h i s i s Pope's p o s i t i o n as stated by Walsh i n the preface to the anonymous volume. 2 3Walsh, Works (London, 173&), p. v i , c i t e d i n Sherburn, The  E a r l y Career, p. 57. ok Sherburn, p. 58. 103 create poetry. "In f a c t , the only 'rule' that he [Walsh] commonly invokes i s that of propriety . . . ." Like Dryden, Pope i s seen to he a product of French, and C l a s s i c a l influences; i n the opinion of T i l l o t s o n and other c r i t i c s he i s also the product of Engl i s h influences. By h i s own acknowledgement he i s greatly i n debt to h i s seventeenth-century predecessors. He continues the t r a d i t i o n b u i l t up by Dryden, and what outside influences are at work on him are es s e n t i a l l y no d i f f e r e n t from those which were at work on Dryden; rather, they are complementary. Dryden 1s death does not mark the end of a t r a d i t i o n , but only a point i n i t s o v e r a l l continuation. Like P u r c e l l , Dryden, and Pope, Handel was influenced by three main currents of composition, i n his case, German, I t a l i a n , and English. A l l these men, apart from combining the lessons learned from th e i r predecessors to produce new, fresh works, show that spark of individualism and genius which removes them from the f i e l d of merely ingenious derivation. German by virt u e of his b i r t h and by vir t u e of a great part of h i s person-a l i t y , Handel was tempered with the l y r i c i s m and bel canto of I t a l i a n opera, some of which he may have absorbed from Zachow, with whom he studied at H a l l e . Yet he was i n many ways an English composer. His Germanic background and tr a i n i n g show c l e a r l y i n h i s music, e s p e c i a l l y i n the sta t e l y slow movements and i n h i s thorough command of technique which lends such power to h i s works. S i r Newman Flower states that Zachow Sherburn, p. 58 104 adopted the boy Handel as the object f o r the outpourings of h i s whole musical enthusiasm . . . . He gave to that genius a l l the service he knew, sparing himself nothing. The r e s u l t was that Handel derived f a r more than a musical teaching from Zachow; he was imbued with a c e r t a i n amount of h i s s t y l e . There i s , [ s i c ] i n several of Handel's compositions, d i s t i n c t leanings to-wards Zachow . . ... . The world's debt to Zachow l i e s , not i n h i s musical remains, but i n the sound and s t r i c t l y accurate t u i t i o n which he gave to the boy Handel. 25 S i r Newman Flower implies that Keiser, the owner of the Hamburg opera house where Handel found a po s i t i o n i n the second v i o l i n s a f t e r h i s a r r i v a l i n that c i t y from H a l l e , may have had a c e r t a i n amount of influence over Handel i n the matter of composition; the matter i s l e f t rather i n doubt by th i s pZ author. However, Edward J. Dent i s quite e x p l i c i t on t h i s point and notes a d e f i n i t e resemblance between Almira (1705), Handel's f i r s t opera, and those of Keiser. The r e c i t a t i v e s of Almira are i n German, and Handel sets them i n a purely German s t y l e , using melodic out-l i n e s that to a modern reader suggest Bach's cantatas rather than I t a l i a n opera . . . . Young Handel, l i k e many Germans, tended to think instrumentally rather than voc a l l y ; In h i s arias an over-elaborated v i o l o n c e l l o part often diverts too much attention from the melody of the voice. Keiser, l i k e a l l Germans, delights i n showy songs with trumpets or hunting horns . . . . Handel n a t u r a l l y imitates Keiser, and th i s i s no doubt the reason why horns play ? S i r Newman Flower, George Frederic Handel (London, 1959), p. 49. See pp. 49-51. Handel often stated that he owed every-thing to Zachow; see pp. 130-131. See also Gerald Abraham, "Some Points of S t y l e , " Handel; A Symposium, ed. Gerald Abra-ham (London, New York, Toronto, 1954), p. 263. 2 6 I b i d . , pp. 62 f f . 105 such a large part i n most of h i s operas and i n many of the oratorios too.27 The St. John Passion written f o r the Holy Week of 170*+ also bears s i m i l a r i t i e s (such as the lack of chorales) to Reiser's work, and J u l i a n Herbage states that i t i s c e r t a i n l y Germanic i n i t s f u l l n e s s of harmony and accompaniment, but i t s melody owes much to such I t a l i a n influences as C e s t i and Stradella . 2 8 I t i s also possible that Handel may have gained some knowledge from Johann Mattheson whom he also met i n Hamburg, but the evidence i s not conclusive. Mattheson was older than Handel by four years, and towards him "'. .'. adopted the 2 9 attitude of the experienced and worldly wise teacher. 1 1 7 He states i n h i s Ehren-Pforte that 'Edward J . Dent, "The Operas." Handel: A Symposium, pp. 17-18. Professor Dent notes (p. 18) that "Handel undoubtedly learned much from Keiser, but i t i s absurd to suggest that he 'borrowed' from him." Cf. Sedley Taylor, The Indebtedness of  Handel to Works by Other Composers: A Presentation of Evidence (Cambridge, 1906), pp. 167 f f . ; he c i t e s Handel's i m i t a t i o n of Reiser's Octavia. Gerald Abraham i n "Some Points of S t y l e , " Handel: A Symposium states that Reiser's s t y l e was I t a l i a n a t e . Jens Peter Larsen i n Handel's Messiah: Origins. Composition. Sources (London, 1957)» P« 53? notes p a r a l l e l s between the North German cantatas and Handel's anthems; see also p. 5*+ i n regard to the influence of the German chorale i n the Chandos anthems. ?8 Ju l i a n Herbage, "The Oratorios," Handel: A Symposium, p. 70. See also Flower, pp. 70-72. "Flower, p. 6k. Johann Mattheson (l68l-1761+) was a German musicologist, organist, and composer. 106 he [Handel] mostly came fo r free meals to my l a t e father's, and i n return revealed to me c e r t a i n s p e c i a l t r i c k s of counterpoint. I f o r my part helped him considerably i n dramatic style.30 I t i s the very egotism of these l i n e s that causes one to doubt the complete accuracy of his words, at l e a s t we can say that Handel and Mattheson traded information, and engaged i n energetic i f b i t t e r conversation. The friendship between the two men i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one, and Flower's d e t a i l s provide a fascinating i f not exhaustive survey of i t . Examples of the Germanic st a t e l i n e s s and f u l l n e s s of harmony, mentioned e a r l i e r , are to be found i n the overtures to the Music f o r the Royal Fireworks and the Suite No. VII_ f o r Harpsichord, and the "Largo" of the Concerto Grosso No. XII. This Germaniclsm, t h i s Teutonic personality, t h i s s l i g h t ponderousness--which achieves f u l l expression i n the large op choruses of h i s oratorios, p a r t i c u l a r l y Esther-* — f i t t e d well with c e r t a i n aspects of Hanoverian England. Indeed, as Young notes, 3 Johann Mattheson, Grundlage einer Ehren-Pforte. etc. (Hamburg, 17k0), r .neudruck heransgegeben von Max Schneider ( B e r l i n : 1910), c i t e d i n i b i d . , p. 65. S i r Newman notes the irony of t h i s statement. 3 1Flower, 6k f f . See also H.R. Haweis, Music and Morals. 6th ed i t i o n (London, 1875), p. ikk. 3 2 P e r c y M. Young, The Oratorios of Handel (London, 19^ 9), p. 50. 107 . . . ceremony of State, unsurpassable i n d i g n i t y , was a part of the English way of thinking and . . . cere-monial music was a contributory factor to such elegant advertisement . . . .33 Handel's music was to o f f e r much that was i n keeping with the desire of the English f o r majesty and magniloquence of sound; he was never at a loss when the time came to don the mantle of dignity i n tone i n a noticeable way; I suggest that such a mantle i s Handel's casual clothing too, even i n the l i t t l e Harpsichord Sonatas. Thus, what might be described as a national t r a i t , t h i s rather intangible Teutonism that one more often f e e l s than i d e n t i f i e s , by no means hampered him i n his work; nor should i t hamper him, f o r t r u l y great a r t , despite l o c a l colour, i s always universal. Although the Germanic influence was not the strongest current i n Handel's music, h i s work i s as at home i n England as i t i s i n Germany; one can say the same of Handel the man, i n agreement with E r i c Blom who finds f a u l t with Chrysander and others who say that Handel " . . . found himself lonely as an honest German amid a foreign quagmire of corruption, f o r what was corrupt i n London much resembled what was so anywhere else i n the eighteenth century, including the German courts . . . . As an a r t i s t he was f a r l e s s German than he was I t a l i a n a t e and ok A n g l i c i z e d . J 33 Ibid., p. 4 6 . See also Young's essay, "Handel The Man" i n Handel: A Symposium, p. 4 . ok J Blom, Music in.England, p. 115. 108 The l i q u i d arias of h i s oratorios and operas demonstrate to a great degree the I t a l i a n operatic influence. Gertainly the influence of the da capo a r i a cannot be denied. This type of a r i a was s t a t i c i n terms of stage movement, and therefore was u t t e r l y dependent on the voice, broad melodies, and unobtrusive accompaniment. The da capo a r i a was found i n the Opera S e r i a . the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of which had been f i r m l y established, i n part, by Allessandro S c a r l a t t i ; i t i s present i n Sosarme, and l a t e r appears i n the o r a t o r i o s . 3 ^ Surely Agrippina (1707)and Rinaldo« (produced i n London i n 1711,) also a t t e s t to the i n -fluence of the I t a l i a n s upon h i s techniques i n opera, or the e f f e c t of G o r e l l i and the S c a r l a t t i s upon h i s writing for st r i n g s . Just as P u r c e l l f e l t strongly the attractions of the I t a l i a n s t y l e , so did Handel. 3^ S i r Newman Flower's account of Handel's tra v e l s and work i n I t a l y , at Florence, Venice, and e s p e c i a l l y at Rome, under the influence, i n the l a s t city, of that rather spectacular patron of the a r t s , Cardinal Ottoboni, makes i t quite clear that the composer, not only thoroughly absorbed contemporary I t a l i a n styles but mastered them. . ^Anthony Lewis, "Handel," Music and Western Man, pp. 203-204. See also Dent, "The Operas." Handel: A Symposium, p. l 4 . 3 ^ F . Raguenet i n A Comparison between the French and I t a l i a n  Mnsick and Operas (1709), p. 14, c i t e d i n Westrup. P u r c e l l . p. 242, makes a f a i r l y clear d i s t i n c t i o n between the sty l e s of France and I t a l y . 3 7Flower, pp. 80 f f . , 87-88. See also Haweis, pp. 145-150; the author's note about Ottoboni i s concise and i n t e r e s t i n g . The works of some of the English composers writing i n the 1760's and 1770's also bear an I t a l i a n stamp. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y 109 In terms of influences acting upon them, Pope was p o e t i c a l l y not just French and C l a s s i c a l , and Handel was musically not merely German and I t a l i a n . Like Pope, Handel was influenced by English precursors. To the country to which he came, the native of Halle owed a great deal; to i t s giant, P u r c e l l , homage and a g i f t of thanks. Handel's use of trumpets coupled with drums often bears the P u r c e l l i a n stamp. 3 8 Turner and Croft, both doctors of music, and both P u r c e l l i a n s , counted f o r a good deal, and may have influenced Handel to some extent . . . . Where else indeed, could he have studied the E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n , which c e r t a i n l y affected even such early works of h i s as the Chandos anthems (1716-18) and the masque of "Esther" (1729) [ s i c ] ? Who else could have so f i t l y shown him the s t y l e of P u r c e l l , so l i t t l e of whose work was published, but whose "Te Deum" and J u b i l a t e " of 1691* he imitated d i r e c t l y i n the two similar works written to celebrate the peace of the Utrecht i n 1713? noticeable, f o r instance, i n Hawdo[w]n's Two Concerti f o r Organ  i n F Major and Bb Major (London: Longman and Broderip, c. 1780). MS copies, c. 1850, are i n my possession; these were made from the printed version, of which there i s a set i n the Manchester Library. 3 8 C f . Handel, Music f o r the Royal Fireworks (London: Boosey and Hawkes, Ltd., 1943), pp. 11 f f . , (bars 4-7 f f . , ) with P u r c e l l , Ode f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Dav (1692), "Symphony," pp. 1-6, 9-12 (bars 1-46, 96 f f . , ) "The f i f e and a l l the harmony of war," pp. 91 f f . , (bars 1 f f . , ) and "Hail.' Bright C e c i l i a , " pp. 106 f f . , (bars 1 f f . ) . •3.0 -"Blom, p. 117. Blom i s incorrect i n regard to the date of Esther. The work was f i r s t c a l l e d Haman and Mordecai. and was composed i n 1720; i t was not c a l l e d Esther u n t i l 1732, when i t was revised and words by Samuel Humphreys were added to the o r i g i n a l ones of Pope. The Arnold e d i t i o n of the Esther gives the date of composition as 1720; properly, i t should be 1732, i n order to eliminate confusion over t i t l e and date. (See G. F. Handel, Esther. A Sacred Oratorio. In Score, Composed i n the Year 1720 (London:Arnold, c. 1794).) What Blom's evidence i s for 110 While c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s between the works of the two composers may be explained as the r e s u l t of similar influence, (e.g., I t a l i a n ) there aften occur passages i n which the resemblance i s too s t r i k i n g to be merely coincidental. In writing of P u r c e l l 1 s Sonatas of IV Parts Professor Westrup notes that "the end of the opening adagio of the second sonata i s curiously s i m i l a r , i n mood to a passage from 'He was despised 1 i n Handel's Messiah." Holland sees a d i s t i n c t resemblance between Pu r c e l l ' s The Tempest i n the setting of the i t a l i c i s e d words i n the l i n e s In H e l l with flames they s h a l l reign And f o r ever, f o r ever s h a l l suffer the pain. and the same words as they appear i n the "Hallelujash Chorus" i n kl A Messiah. Holland seems i n doubt about Handel's r o l e as a suggesting 1729 I cannot say; to the best of my knowledge, there i s none. Anthony Lewis i n "Handel," Music and Western Man, p. 20^ , rather vaguely supports the Haman (1720)-Esther (1732) pattern; t h i s vagueness i s unusual f o r Lewis, who i s a good scholar. S i r Newman Flower i s quite d e f i n i t e about the matter; see pp. 137, 157, 213-218. He also refutes the story that Handel composed Esther or Haman on the organ at Whitchurch, Edgeware, ( o r i g i n a l l y the Cannons Chapel,) as a plate placed.on the organ by Mr. Juteus Plummer i n 1750 s t i l l a t t e s t s ; c f . p. 137 and Haweis, pp. 156-157. L°Westrup, P u r c e l l . p. 235. See also p. 216, 195, 180-181, 175, 153, 123. See also Holland, P u r c e l l . p. 89, 122-123. In regard to P u r c e l l i a n influence on Handel, see also Dent, pp. 59-60, and Herbage, "The Secular Oratorios and Cantatas," Handel: A  Symposium, pp. 13k-135 ( f a m i l i a r i t y with Dido and Apneas as seen i n Acis and Galatea.) and lk2 and ikk (influence of Pu r c e l l ' s s a c r i f i c i a l scenes displayed i n Semele (17k3)«) k l H o l l a n d , P u r c e l l . p. 51; the i l l u s t r a t i o n given by t h i s author i s quite convincing. The author gives the following note: "In the 'Dublin Courant' f o r Ik-I7 January, 17k9, there was ad-ver t i s e d a r e v i v a l of 'The Tempest' with the o r i g i n a l songs and I l l successor to P u r c e l l i n the setting of vocal music. Professor Dent states quite d e f i n i t e l y , i n the l i g h t of Acis and Galata, kp that Handel must have known Dido and Aeneas, while Herbage notes P u r c e l l i a n influence i n L'Allegro and also i n Semele (17 k 3)» stating that i n the l a t t e r , the f i r s t act " . . . owes much to the s a c r i f i c i a l scenes of P u r c e l l , " and the second act i n i t s l a t e r stages . . . assumes the character of a P u r c e l l i a n masque, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the choruses "How engaging, how endearing" and the a l i a hornpipe "Now Love that everlasting boy. "'+3 Handel's s t y l e was d i f f e r e n t , i t i s true, but i n many ways i t was the l o g i c a l outcome of that of P u r c e l l . Differences i n personality and national background may c e r t a i n l y cause d i f f e r -ences i n s t y l e , i n manner. Herbage, however, i s quite d e f i n i t e i n regard to t h i s point: music 'by the celebrated P u r c e l l . 1 There were c e r t a i n l y e a r l i e r revivals.- Handel was i n Dublin i n 17 k 2 f o r the production of •Messiah." I would suggest that Holland's assumption that Handel knew Purcell's setting of these words i s quite reasonable, Indeed, he may have heard The Tempest i n Dublin, but the f a c t r e -mains that he would have had to have heard the work e a r l i e r than 17 k 2 for i t to have had an influence on Messiah, for he f i n i s h e d that work on September l k , 1 7 k l . See Flower, p. 290. The legend that Handel wrote at l e a s t part of Messiah i n Dublin i s pure f i c t i o n , a l b e i t a boost to the I r i s h ego. L 2Dent, pp. 13 k -135. -vulian Herbage, "The Secular Oratorios and Cantatas," Handel: A Symposium, pp. l k k - l k 5 . 112 Handel has heen accused of destroying the English musical t r a d i t i o n . Actually, despite h i s foreign o r i g i n and early t r a i n i n g , he did more than any other composer to f u l f i l the t r a d i t i o n of P u r c e l l . ^+ That Handel borrowed from, or more properly, was influenced by P u r c e l l Holland does not debate; J i n f a c t , he.states conclusive-l y that he [ P u r c e l l ] had a few minor imitators, such as h i s brother Daniel, and one great and overmastering follower, George Frederick Handel.ko Further evidence, i n the form of some of the harpsichord suites of these two men, may be put forward i n order to show that the style of P u r c e l l influenced Handel. I would suggest that a comparison of Pu r c e l l ' s Suite IV, i n A minor, and Handel's Suite I I I , i n D minor, w i l l reveal a d i s t i n c t s i m i l a r i t y i n the moods and styles of writin g . Professor Westrup, i n an excellent a r t i c l e , " P u r c e l l and Handel" i n Music and Lette r s , while very hesitant to discuss E n g l i s h composers' influence on Handel except i n a general way, makes reference not only to Purcell's Te Deum, and Jubilate of l 6 9 L i n connection with Handel's Utrecht Te Deum. but also the l a t t e r ' s "Birthday Ode" f o r 1+7 Queen Anne. Ibid., pp. I H - O - I H I . See also Larsen, p. 50. ^ H o l l a n d , P u r c e l l . p. l¥+. k 6 I b i d . , p. 51. Cf. p. ikk. k7 'Westrup, "P u r c e l l and Handel," Music and Lett e r s . XL ( A p r i l 1959), 106. . 113 In the same issue of the journal containing the a r t i c l e just named i s a paper by Charles Cudworth e n t i t l e d "Handel and the French S t y l e . " I have stated above that Handel, f o r the most part, was i n d i r e c t l y influenced by French music; that i s to say, i f French c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear.in h i s music, and they do to a c e r t a i n extent, they have come to him mainly through the works of P u r c e l l and others. However, c e r t a i n of h i s "French" works were written during h i s Hamburg days, and i n these we 48 must assume a more d i r e c t influence. This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true i n some of h i s overtures, which, l i k e many of Purcell's, show d i s t i n c t L u l l i a n t r a i t s . Other G a l l i c musical influence stems from h i s association with Mile. Marie S a l l e , the French danseuse. i n the 1730's. Of the three great German composers of the early eighteenth century, Handel, Telemann and J.S. Bach, i t seems to me that Bach spoke h i s musical French and I t a l i a n with a strong German accent, Telemann spoke h i s German and I t a l i a n with a strong French accent, and Handel h i s German, French and English with a strong I t a l i a n accent.^9 Although P u r c e l l died f i f t e e n years before Handel arrived i n London, the p r e v a i l i n g taste i n that c i t y was 48 Bent, p. 17. Prof. Bent notes, i n connection with dance music, that "Handel . . . i s at home i n i t from the very begin-ning. He must have been well acquainted with French dance music and the whole French instrumental s t y l e before he went to Hamburg." He indicates the French influence i n Almira. 49 7Gharles Cudworth, "Handel and the French S t y l e , Music and  Letters (supra, p. 112, n. 47) p. 131* This i s a very good a r t i c l e . lllf I t a l i a n a t e i n flavour. However, P u r c e l l 1 s early death had l e f t a gap i n terms of worthy a r t i s t i c works, and what was produced between 1695 and 1710 was often neither worthy nor a r t i s t i c . I t i s not f o r me to describe these intervening years or the a r t i s t i c scene i n London when Handel f i r s t arrived; S i r Newman Flower and E r i c Blom have done that to quite a s u f f i c i e n t 50 degree. J Handel came and w i l l i n g l y assumed the mantle of musical primate with the Ital i a n a t e Rinaldo; he was by no means 51 forced into writing t h i s way as Haweis would seem to suggest. Michael Tilmouth indicates the continuation of musical genius i . i n England very w e l l : The hundred-years long t r a d i t i o n of Engl i s h chamber music, which P u r c e l l had fused with It a l i a n a t e procedures to produce the noblest sonatas of hi s age, was l o s t ; the art with which he had shown the "Perfection of a Master" was forgotten. Topham and Corbett poured out th e i r i n - . s i p i d imitations of C o r e l l i to the delight of the town and the material advantage of Mr. J. Walsh, f o r A substitute shines b r i g h t l y as a King U n t i l l a King be by. A new monarch soon came. The problem posed by the f a i l u r e of the English l i n e to propagate i t s e l f was solved by the a r r i v a l of a v i r i l e gentleman from Hanover.52 -^Flower, Handel, pp. 102 f f . \ Blom, Music i n England, pp. 111-117. 5 1 VHaweis, Music and Morals, pp. 150-151. The author implies that Handel wanted to write oratorios a l l the time, and was forced into complying with the public taste i n the production of secular I t a l i a n operas. This i s perhaps a moral judgment; i t i s quite d e f i n i t e l y a stupid one. Cf. Flower, p. 172. ^ 2Tilmouth, "Purcell's Sonatas." Music and Letters. 121. to follow p. Ilk Theory of Similar Influences Dryden @ Pope English poets French " -* I t a l i a n ( C l a s s i c a l ) poets Dryden P u r c e l l Pope Handel (X. P u r c e l l II @ Handel English composers French " I t a l i a n " German composers Given that two men i n d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s are working i n the same country at approximately the same time and under sim i l a r econ-omic, s o c i a l , and a r t i s t i c influences, the works they produce are a r t i s t i c a l l y comparable and a e s t h e t i c a l l y s i m i l a r . A remarkable s i m i l a r i t y between patterns I and II e x i s t s i f the influences are diagramed. In II the doubtful existence of l i n e -H— and the presence of l i n e -H4- are s o l e l y the r e s u l t of Handel's German b i r t h ; had he been Eng l i s h , then there might have been no difference i n stage B i n I I . Line -+H+- i n II i s not a strong one; the French influence comes, i n part, through P u r c e l l , et a l . ' 115 Handel, then, was swayed by the works of Germany, I t a l y , England, and to a c e r t a i n extent, France. Working on him were almost the.same influences as were at work on P u r c e l l . Pope was swayed by the works of France, ancient Greece,and Rome, and England, the same sources which played powerful rSles i n determining Dryden's course. There i s also a s t r i k i n g p a r a l l e l between the influences working, on the one hand, on Dryden, on the other, on Purcell, and s i m i l a r l y , on Pope and Handel. These diverse influences combined, I suggest, i n each man, not only to produce e n t i r e l y u n i f i e d and balanced forms of a r t i s t i c expression, but to produce between them, as f a r as i t i s possible with two d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s of a r t , a great s i m i l a r i t y of styles and e f f e c t s . Pope and Handel: Some Individual C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s To compare the works of Pope and Handel i s to set side by side the works of two men who, s u p e r f i c i a l l y , could not be more d i s s i m i l a r . Dr. Johnson's L i f e of Pope contains an excellent d e s c r i p t i o n of the l i t t l e poet. Tiny and deformed, weak and s i c k l y , fond of being pampered and of eating good food, often s i l e n t when with people and e a s i l y put out of humour, Pope was nevertheless, to judge from Johnson's depiction, a "great heart" to those whom he loved. I f h i s manner and be-haviour were at times niggardly and somewhat s e l f i s h , i t should be noted that h i s l e t t e r s contain " . . . nothing but l i b e r a l i t y , gratitude, constancy, and tenderness."^ 3 Forthright i n h i s 'Samuel Johnson, L i f e of Pope, p. 85. See also pp. 79 f f . 116 approach to h i s contemporaries, "'he never f l a t t e r e d those whom he did not love, or praised those whom he did not esteem; " | y he wielded the most fearsome pen i n the England of h i s day, as the demolition of Sporus i n The E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot a t t e s t s ; yet i t should be noted that i t does not appear that he l o s t a single f r i e n d by coldness or by in j u r y ; those who loved him once, continued t h e i r kindness.55 Unlike Dryden, he was not what we might c a l l an "occasional" poet, and indeed, was unconcerned ( p o e t i c a l l y ) about ro y a l weddings and other splendours of state, despite the f a c t that the Prince of Wales managed to overcome the poet's d i s l i k e of 56 the Court because of the Hanoverian neglect of poetry.^ Johnson states that he was never reduced to the necessity of s o l i c i t i n g the sun to shine upon a birth-day, of c a l l i n g the Graces and Virtues to a wedding, or of saying what multitudes have said before him. When he could produce nothing new, he was at l i b e r t y to be silent.57 Dryden, l i k e P u r c e l l , wrote to please court c i r c l e s as well as himself; t h i s I explained i n Chapter I I . Handel, as S i r ^ I b i d . , p. 8 k . ^ I b i d . , pp. 89-90. 56 Pope, pp. 9 k f f . 57 Ibid., ^p. 87, 93« See Johnson's comparison of Dryden and Ibid., p. 93. 117 Newman Flower points out, wrote f o r h i s art as well as f o r h i s 58 p u b l i c , ' while Pope was concerned more with h i s art than wi,th hi s reading public, at l e a s t i n the f i r s t instance, and what might have s a t i s f i e d h i s readers might not necessarily have s a t i s f i e d him. Though Pope and Handel were i n many ways the technical and even "material"heirs of Dryden and P u r c e l l r e s pectively, they l i v e d i n a fr e e r world of a r t ; that i s to say, they did not allow themselves to be quite so bound to the taste of a s p e c i f i c c i r c l e as did t h e i r predecessors. In addition to the r i s e of a more middle-elass audience, two factors which aided i n the i r emancipation were money and personality. Neither Handel nor Pope was a man who would tolerate with good grace opposition to h i s a r t i s t i c aims, and both men had a c e r t a i n amount of money which gave them at l e a s t a degree of independence. Here Pope was l u c k i e r than Handel; Sherburn suggests that he may have received as much as £9000 from his t r a n s l a t i o n of Homer (1726),^ 9 which amount would have secured f o r him a reasonable yearly income. Johnson notes that the poet's income may have been about £800,^° which i n terms of purchasing power, was a very respectable sum. Handel's f i x e d income was f a r l e s s r e a l l y , as he was sure only of a £200 pension given to him by Queen Anne i n S l o w e r , p. 172. V. supra, p. 114. ^ 9Baugh, History of English L i t e r a t u r e , p. 924. ^Johnson, L i f e of Pope, p. 83. 118 171 k ; however, again considering the purchasing power of the amount,, the composer was by no means a pauper. His independence of character and the pension, not to mention what he made from hi s productions, could have s u f f i c e d to make him quite wealthy. However, i n h i s e a r l i e r years he lacked one qual i t y which Pope had, the a b i l i t y to be continuously f r u g a l , f o r although.he was to know the b i t t e r pains of bankruptcy, h i s l i f e was marked by extreme generosity. The competition i n the London musical world was also a cause of severe f i n a n c i a l reverses. Yet i f Handel had not been forced to turn to oratorio, (because of hi s penurious state, the distaste of London audiences f o r I t a l i a n opera, and the negative attitude towards the presentation ,of dramatic works based on B i b l i c a l texts,) i f he had been com-ple t e l y independent and able to go on producing operas a f t e r 1738 simply out of love of the form and despite f a i l u r e , perhaps 6? Messiah and I s r a e l i n Egypt would never have been written. This, of course, i s conjecture, but i t would be wrong not to consider, even momentarily, the possible influence of h i s un-cer t a i n f i n a n c i a l state. 6 l I b i d . , p. 83. In regard to the objections of the Church, ( p a r t i c u l a r l y of'Dr. Gordon, Bishop of London,) to the presentation of dramatic works with B i b l i c a l texts, see Flower, p. 2lh. The Bisnop forbade the performance of Haman and Mordecai i n London i n 1732; i t was subsequently revised and presented as the oratorio, Esther. Flower states that "Esther was the f i r s t oratorio, and the Bishop had caused i t . " He notes also that the Bishop was not the only e c c l e s i a s t to object to the performance, but does not indicate whether there were s p e c i f i c regulations against such works as Haman i n force at the time. V. supra, p. 109, n. 39. 119 This early lack of f r u g a l i t y was only one way In which Handel d i f f e r e d from Pope. His appearance was also quite d i f f e r e n t ; he was t a l l and somewhat stout; one c r i t i c w r i t i n g for readers i n the medical profession has gone so f a r as to describe h i s face as "equine;" to make matters worse, he was careless about h i s apparel, l i k e Johnson and i n contrast to Pope; and while the l a t t e r author and Handel both enjoyed a good repast, Handel indicated h i s delight by "snorting with pleasure."^ 3 His appearance was by no means i n contrast to hi s behaviour; I mentioned above that Pope and Handel would brook l i t t l e opposition to t h e i r a r t i s t i c aims, and whereas Pope's fury was expressed by his pen, Handel!s at times found expression even i n physical violence, as on the occasion when he threatened (with more than a jest) to h u r l Francesca Cuzzoni out of the window unless she rendered a song according to h i s w i s h e s . ^ I t would have been a ludicrous contrast to have seen these two men side by side, so thoroughly d i s s i m i l a r . But a comparison of the art of the German Handel, thoroughly at home 65 i n English surroundings, y and the art of Pope, w i l l show many p a r a l l e l s . I t i s to some of those p a r a l l e l s that I s h a l l now turn. ^ 3"Harmonious Autocrat," MP of Canada. II, (February 1961), 109. Cf. Johnson, L i f e of Pope, pp. 80 f f . 6 kFlower, p. 162. ?0n the e f f e c t of English environment on Handel, see Young, "Handel the Man," Handel: A Symposium, pp. 3-4. 1 2 0 C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Pope's Art There i s always a c l a s s i c i s t ' s care and pr e c i s i o n i n Pope's writing. There i s also a subtlety of expression—which i s often not appreciated—which stems from h i s use of the couplet. I f Handel's use, say, of I t a l i a n conventions and an often-ornamented melodic l i n e , ( e s p e c i a l l y i n slow movements,) has l e d unhearing l i s t e n e r s to categorise h i s work as "mechani-c a l " or " t e c h n i c a l l y n i c e , " the use of the couplet by Pope has caused a number of readers to adopt toward h i s work the same 66 a t t i t u d e . Yet as strength and beauty l i e i n Handelian conventions, so do they r e s t i n Pope's heroic couplets. I t i s true that i n the hands of some v e r s i f i e r s the couplet may become a series of numbing iambics, but t h i s i s not the case when i t i s graced by the hand of Pope. Johnson makes the point that he " . . . was never content with mediocrity when excellence could be a t t a i n e d . " 6 7 His desire f o r "perfection" was something that he f e l t within himself, and the very independence gained by the Homer t r a n s l a t i o n would indicate that he was not forced, i n h i s l a t e r years, to compete f o r the l a u r e l with h i s contemporaries. Johnson says that he was one of those few whose labour i s th e i r pleasure: he was never elevated to negligence, nor wearied to im-patience; he never passed a f a u l t unamended by One such reader was Leigh Hunt, whose attitude towards Pope's writing i s noted below, p . 1 2 6 . 6 7Johnson, L i f e of Pope, p. 9 2 , 121 i n d i f f e r e n c e , nor quitted i t by despair. He laboured h i s works f i r s t to gain reputation, and afterwards to keep it.°8 The mind which f i t s the pattern described by Johnson i s a keen one backed by a great degree of energy and love of the poetic a r t . Dr. Johnson was never a man to bestow bounteous accolades on the undeserving, and h i s praise of Pope i s considered and worthy of note. Writing of Pope's i n t e l l e c t and att i t u d e , he says that the poet had . . . genius; a mind active, ambitious, and adventurous, always i n v e s t i g a t i n g , always aspiring; i n i t s widest searches s t i l l longing to go forward, i n i t s highest f l i g h t s s t i l l wishing to be higher; always imagining something greater than i t knows, always endeavouring more than i t can do.69 Considering the heights Pope reached as a poet, i t i s , i n the l i g h t of these words, staggering to think of as p i r a t i o n to an even higher l e v e l . To choose examples of the perfection which one fi n d s i n h i s poetry i s both easy and d i f f i c u l t . There are many passages which i l l u s t r a t e i t w e l l , and to select one i s to leave an hundred others unmentioned, such was the consistency of hi s s k i l l . A se l e c t i o n must be made, and the l i n e s which contain the b e a u t i f u l d e s c r i p t i o n of the sylphs, the protectors of Loc. c i t . Ibid . , pp. 91-92. 122 Belinda's honour i n The Rape of the L o c k , 7 0 serve well as an i l l u s t r a t i o n here. Some to the sun their insect-wings unfold, Waft on the breeze, or sink i n clouds of gold; Transparent forms, too f i n e f o r mortal sight, Their f l u i d bodies h a l f dissolved i n l i g h t , Loose to the wind their a i r y garments flew, Thin g l i t t ' r i n g textures of the filmy dew, Dipt i n the r i c h e s t tincture of the skies, Where l i g h t disports i n ever-mingling dyes, Where every beam new transient colours f l i n g s , Colours that change whene'er they wave their wings. This passage i s not only an example of perfection of rhythm i n r e l a t i o n to the thought expressed, or of the choice of words. It i s an example of o v e r - a l l perfection. I suggest that there i s not a word which could be altered without damage to the picture created, and c e r t a i n l y , improvement could never be gained by further refinement. I f Pope had not been s a t i s f i e d with the passage, i t would not appear i n pr i n t i n i t s present 72 form. The aura of the passage i s one of lightness. The words are f i n e l y chosen, themselves being almost " f l u i d bodies h a l f dissolved i n l i g h t . " The open vowels and the l i q u i d con-sonants play an e f f e c t i v e role i n giving transparency to the passage. As Root says, " . . . the poem i s constructed with the nice craftsmanship of a watchmaker," and " . . . imagination / u C l e a n t h Brooks, The Well Wrought Urn (New York, [l9 k7]), p. 89. 7 1The Rape of the Lock, I I , 59-68. 72 ' Johnson, L i f e of Pope, p. 9k« 123 i s never allowed to outrun the c o n t r o l l i n g judgement, 1 , 7 3 An important point to note here though i s that while the poet exercises a firm control over h i s work, he does so, only to the extent that h i s work i s ordered and correct, and not to the extent that i t i s constrained. Rarely does the reader f e e l that a thought contained i n a passage seems to want to break the bounds of that passage and to s p i l l over into several extra l i n e s i n order to be f u l l y expressed or t r u l y i n t e l l i g i b l e . Never, despite the conciseness of Pope's w r i t i n g , does the reader f i n d images that appear to have been pruned, l i k e trees on a metropolitan boulevard, i n order to squeeze them into the couplet form. Pope seldom overstates; nor does he understate. He has the true g i f t of being able to express neatly i n a few words what other writers take l i n e s to say. I t i s t h i s g i f t which i s part of h i s genius. He i s able to select f o r a par t i c u l a r location the word with the largest number of relevant 7k associations and connotative connections.' Johnson indicates that h i s memory was of great strength, s u f f i c i e n t to enable him to command a vast vocabulary and range of expressions and ideas. These benefits of nature he improved by incessant and unwearied di l i g e n c e ; he had recourse to every source of i n t e l l i g e n c e , and l o s t no opportunity of information; he consulted the l i v i n g as well as the dead; he read h i s compositions to h i s friends . • . .75 7 % o o t , The P o e t i c a l Career, p. 86. 7k / B r o o k s , l o c . c i t . 7 5 '-'Johnson, L i f e of Pope, p. 92. 124 He was the epitome of one of h i s best known aphorisms: True Wit i s Nature to advantage dressed, What oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed. 76 The passage from The Rape of the Lock c i t e d above serves to i l l u s t r a t e Pope's capacity to describe the abstract and the ethereal v i v i d l y ; a few l i n e s from An Essay on Criticism w i l l show i n s t a n t l y h i s a b i l i t y to create pictures i n h i s readers' minds of concrete subjects and to evoke responses to poetic techniques. But when loud surges lash the sounding shore, (168) The hoarse, rough verse should l i k e the torrent roar: When Ajax s t r i v e s some rock's vast weight to throw, The l i n e too labours and the words move slow; Not so, when swift Camilla scours the p l a i n , n n F l i e s o'er the unbending corn and skims along the main.'' (173) This demonstration, with i t s magnificent imagery and rhythms, shows the imprint of a master's touch. I t i s , i n many respects, the poetic counterpart of much of Handel's music with i t s b e a u t i f u l l y worked counterpoint and often superb melodic grace. The poet i s seen to be able to move from a sluggish l i n e (1. 171) to one of g l i d i n g dexterity (1. 172) without breaking the contin-u i t y of thought. His rhythm i s perfect. In l i n e 171—in which there are more than f i v e heavy s y l l a b l e s and a t o t a l of eight monosyllables—the "words move slow," and the rhythm corresponds 76 'An Essay on C r i t i c i s m . I I , 97-98. Ibid., I I , 168-173. 77 125 exactly with the thought involved. The same unity of thought and rhythm i s achieved i n l i n e 172, wherein the l i g h t beats coupled with the picture given, are suggestive of a b i r d g l i d i n g downwards to catch the up-currents of warm a i r , as a swallow swoops and glides over the shallows of a lake i n search of f l i e s f o r i t s seemingly day-long meal. I stated e a r l i e r that Dryden and P u r c e l l were masters of "the picturesque;" Pope i s an expert i n the same thought/sound t r a d i t i o n . Handel, as I s h a l l show l a t e r , demonstrates a si m i l a r a b i l i t y to create music that matches p e r f e c t l y with the thought and the rhythm of 7 8 h i s text. Again, with t h i s passage, i t i s e n t i r e l y reasonable to note that there i s not one word which can be replaced by a better one; one word added would be a s u p e r f l u i t y ; one 7 9 subtracted, a grievous l o s s . Here i s true "correctness."' 7 The conformation of sound with thought was not just a natural phenomenon i n Pope's poetry. I t was h i s theory that such conformation should e x i s t , that i t was a v i t a l factor i n poetic technique. Lines from An Essay on C r i t i c i s m show t h i s to be so, and indicate that the Alexandrine (or rapidly-read penta-meter) i n the l a s t l i n e of the passage from that poem c i t e d above was no mere accident or momentary caprice on the writer's part. 'Tis not enough no harshness gives offence; Q Q The sound must seem an echo to the sense . . . . 7 8V. i n f r a , pp. 1 5 7ff. 7 9Root, p. 25. 8 Q A n Essay on C r i t i c i s m . I I , 161+-165. V. supra, p. 152. 126 It would be out of place here to describe i n great d e t a i l Pope's poetic technique, not only because i t has already been done i n other discourses, but because to do so would also necessitate a very lengthy e x p l i c a t i o n of Handel's a r t , which, as i n the case of the extension of the subject of Dryden and P u r c e l l , i s a f i t t e r subject f o r a book. My duty here i s to indicate s i m i l a r -i t i e s between these men, and technique w i l l be a subject only i n so f a r as the topic d i c t a t e s . Dame Edith S i t w e l l , i n a stern yet d e l i g h t f u l description of Pope's technical devices, points out the i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y of rhythms and cadences he i s able to achieve with the couplet form, and she comments on thi s v a r i e t y , saying that Pope's art i s seldom d u l l . We might as well complain that the world i s monotonous because i t i s round, and because i t c i r c l e s round the sun, as complain of the monotony of Alexander Pope.°l Such i s the l e v e l of the poet's a r t that i n h i s correctness there i s never s t i f f n e s s . Yet s t i f f n e s s and monotony are two of the charges most often l a i d against Pope's poetry. One of the most v i r u l e n t and b r i l l i a n t attacks came from Leigh Hunt. Professor T i l l o t s o n , discussing t h i s attack i n Pope and Human  Nature, admits a c e r t a i n dullness i n parts of the I l i a d c i t e d by Hunt, but defends the poet against the attack of the nineteenth-century c r i t i c . S i t w e l l , Pope, p. 225 127 What i s needed, by both t i g h t and loose metres, i s the e f f e c t of v a r i e t y . Looseness [enjambement] does not guarantee t h i s e f f e c t , and the surprising thing about Pope's closed, or mainly closed, couplets i s that they frequently achieve i t : sometimes with j u b i l a n t obvious-ness, as towards the end of 'The Messiah 1: No more the r i s i n g Sun s h a l l g i l d the morn, Nor ev'ning Gynthia f i l l her s i l v e r horn; But l o s t , dissolved i n thy superior rays, One tide of glory, one unclouded blaze 0 'erflow thy courts: the l i g h t himself s h a l l shine Reveal'd, and God's eternal day be thinei Qp but more often with 'nic e t i e s ' of a quieter sort. Pope, then, introduces variations i n t o the couplet when the thought of the l i n e c a l l s f o r them. Never i s there an im-balance between the thought and the e f f e c t of the verse. "Correctness" i s v i t a l to him, 8 3 and the necessity f o r agreement between the two i s one of i t s facets. The reader f i n d s . . . a poet who w i l l set him i n a motion which w i l l only, change as a dance changes, not as a walk on i c e changes.° k Pope's handling of rhythm i s superb. Just as the dotted rhythms ( 7 . fin-fin of Handel lend at times a s t a t e l y vigour and pulse to h i s music, and at times a graceful accent, so the poet's iambics i n the description of the sylphs (RL) contain a l l Qp Geoffrey T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature (Oxford, 1958), p. 186. For the discussion of Hunt's c r i t i c i s m s , see pp. 182 f f . , and of factors i n Pope's poetry, including rhyme and metre, pp. 160-212. 8 3 T i l l o t s o n , On the Poetry of Pope, p. 115. 8*+ Loc. c i t . 128 the gentleness which could be desired of them. Yet, i n the opening l i n e s of the E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot the iambics contain a tympanic v i v a c i t y . Here i s the poet himself speaking: another 85 v a r i a t i o n of the couplet, ' the short chopped iambic e f f e c t , i s e n t i r e l y j u s t i f i e d . 'Shut, shut the door, good JohnI' fatigued, I said; 'Tie up the knocker, say I'm sick, I'm dead. The Dog-ster ragesi nay, ' t i s past a doubt A l l Bedlam or Parnassus i s l e t out: F i r e i n each eye, and papers i n each hand, g£ They rave, r e c i t e , and madden round the land. There are several speeds at which t h i s passage can be read e f f e c t i v e l y , and there are often several " e f f e c t i v e " speeds f o r some of Handel's works. This matter l a r g e l y depends on the taste, and to a c e r t a i n extent, knowledge, of the reader or performer.. The point I wish to make here i s t h i s , that i f the above passage i s read slowly," i t w i l l take on a f u l l n e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of an Handelian overture; i f i t i s read more quickly, i t s nature be-comes spirited"and i t s rhythm d r i v i n g , l i k e those of the tenor solo and chorus, "The Trumpet's Loud Clangour," i n the Handel setting of the Dryden Ode f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day. As i n " L i f t up your heads, 0 ye gates" i n Messiah, the reader loses any sense of a monotonous thumping of the dotted rhythm (iambics) i n the E p i s t l e the basic beat i s there of course, but i t never intrudes into the realm of thought to disturb the pictures, ideas, connotations, etc., created by the words. I t was not Pope's intention that "'Ibid., p. 135. 86 ' ' . _ 129 the reader should be drubbed into a state of i n s e n s i b i l i t y by h i s iambics. The engine of an excellent motor car has a v a r i e t y of speeds and sounds; so has Pope's metre. Indeed, i f the passage from the E p i s t l e i s read i n such a way as to bring out the s p i r i t and personality latent i n i t , the reader, I suggest, i s apt to forget that he i s reading iambics. Words, rhythms, contrasts and v a r i a t i o n s — o f pauses and of l i g h t and heavy s y l l a b l e s — a l l contribute to setting the mood fo r the poem. Within the frame-work of the couplet, Pope chooses h i s words c a r e f u l l y , weighing, balancing, and counter balancing the weight of consonants and vowels: Eternal smiles h i s emptiness betray, g 7 As shallow streams run dimpling a l l the way . . . . In comments on the passages from Ah Essay on G r i t i c i s m and the E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot. I have referred to Pope's a b i l i t y to choose not just adequate, but indeed, excellent words for any given s i t u a t i o n . Not only do the words have to f i t rhythmically the form of the l i n e , but i n themselves must have suitable rhythmic and i d e o l o g i c a l connotations not just to leave i n t a c t the thought being expressed, but rather, s u f f i c i e n t to contribute to. (to make more precise) the expression of that O Q thought. Part of t h i s matter I have touched on before, but i t 8 7 E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot. 315-316. 8 8V. supra, pp. 122-123. Cf. An Essay on C r i t . . I I , 315-323. See also T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature, p. 201. 130 i s , I f e e l , necessary to acknowledge the matter as one of import-ance i n a discussion of Pope's poetry. Although s a t i r e per se w i l l come under discussion at a l a t e r point, one further passage, i n t h i s case s a t i r i c a l , w i l l serve as a good example of the poet's s k i l l i n the realm of "choice of words." I r e f e r to the mock-serious depiction of a c h a p e l — p o s s i b l y that belonging to the Duke of Ghandos--in " E p i s t l e IV: Of the Use of Riches," of the Moral  Essays: On painted c e i l i n g s you devoutly stare, Where sprawl the saints of Verrio or Laguerre, On gilded clouds i n f a i r expansion l i e , g o And bring a l l paradise before your eye. 7 Pope must have been thoroughly f a m i l i a r with such chapels to portray the c e i l i n g ' s saints so surely. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to s a t i r i s e better a pseudo-Renaissance chapel with i t s "sprawl-ing s a i n t s " and cherubs. On the estate depicted i n the " E p i s t l e " the chapel i s r e a l l y part of the ostentation. One i s led to wonder what Handel thought of the chapel. Pope's sneering tone mocks the vanity which lay behind the elaborate decoration and depiction of paradise. I t i s not f i t t i n g that a vain man should Q 7 M o r a l Essays. IV, ll+ 5-l k 8 . p o p e denied that "Timon's V i l l e " of the " E p i s t l e " was meant to be Cannons, the Duke's estate. Sherburn, i n Huntington Library B u l l e t i n . No. 8, pp. 131 f f . , c i t e d i n C.H. C o l l i n s Baker and Muriel J. Baker. The L i f e and  Circumstances of James Brydges, F i r s t Duke of Chandos (Oxford, 1949,) p. 432, notes that while some d e t a i l s of the poem might be applicable to Cannons, " ' i t does not seem probable that Pope i n -tended any d e t a i l s to be so applied.. 1" For further comments on t h i s question, see Baker, pp. 432-l+3lt. 1 3 1 enter heaven. This i s true i n the case of Pope's Duke and Browning's Bishop, both of whom delight i n ornate r e l i g i o u s motifs. The words and the mood cannot be misinterpreted; the 9 0 demolition of a nouveau-riche i s at hand. / One of the techniques at which Pope i s most adept i s the use of contrast, that i s contrast between whole passages, as well as between single l i n e s . Very often the s h i f t from slow, heavy-syllabled l i n e s to quick and more spr i g h t l y ones, as i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n An Essay on C r i t i c i s m . I I . 1 6 8 - 1 7 3 , quoted above, i s to be found on a larger scale, where the tone of one section of a poem w i l l be found to be markedly d i f f e r e n t from the tone of another section. Cantos II and I I I of The Rape of the Lock i l l u s t r a t e t h i s point w e l l , for while Canto II contains r e l a t i v e -l y l i g h t l y scored verse appropriate to the f l u t t e r i n g sylphs described therein, Canto I I I contains the shouts and alarums of a ferocious game of ombre, a battle of cards on the epic scale. The howl that r i s e s at the end of the t h i r d Canto a f t e r the snipping of the lock climaxes what i s , by contrast with the second, a r e l a t i v e l y thunderous and noisy section. In the E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot the same sort of contrast i s to be found. Angry and waspish i n tone though the f i r s t l i n e s may be, there i s a change i n l i n e 2 7 to a more gentle, questioning mood: y Root, The Poetical Career, p. 1 8 8 . Cf. Browning's The Bishop  Orders h i s Tomb . . . 1 3 2 Friend to my l i f e . 1 (which did not you prolong, The world had wanted many an i d l e song).l! What Drop or Nostrum can t h i s plague remove? Or which must end me, a f o o l ' s wrath or love? A dire dilemma! either way I'm sped; Q . I f foes, they write, i f f r i e n d s , they read me dead. Here he addresses h i s physician, l i k e Bolingbroke, another, "Guide, Philosopher, and Friend," asking whether there i s no potion which w i l l r e l i e v e him from the d i f f i c u l t i e s of being bothered by a l l manner of men. This change i n tone adds to the var i e t y and consequent attractiveness of the poem. The return to a mocking, b i t t e r mood comes soon enough with the description of requests which are sent to him, and besides, sudden changes i n mood are very common i n man, and occur more often than they are recognised. Pope was writing a very personal poem; he recognised h i s own f e e l i n g s and variat i o n s of mood well, and following his own p r i n c i p l e s of poetry, set out i n An Essay on  C r i t i c i s m , incorporated them i n h i s missive to the doctor. How well Pope was able to make use of contrasts without destroying the unity of a piece i s to be seen i n E l o i s a to  Abelard, i n which the v i c i s s i t u d e s of human nature are portrayed with an accuracy which i s commonly associated with such a master work as Hamlet. I t i s through the use of contrast i n the mood and speed of the verse that E l o i s a t r u l y comes a l i v e f o r a l l but completely i n s e n s i t i v e readers. Professor T i l l o t s o n , i n a discussion of the " E p i s t l e to Miss Blount, on her leaving the Town, afte r the Coronation," 9 1 E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot. 2 7 - 3 2 . 133 notes the connections between the various paragraphs i n the poem, and goes on to discuss the work i n terms of Pope's . . . p r i n c i p l e of contrast. That p r i n c i p l e owed at lea s t i t s name to the painters, from whom Pope borrow-ed i t consciously: he used i t when explaining to Tonson why, not being able to show him a whole poem, he was un-w i l l i n g to show him a piece of one, the 'character' of the Man of Boss: "To send you any of the p a r t i c u l a r verses w i l l be much to'Ithe prejudice of the whole [poem]; which i f i t has any beauty, derives i t from the manner i n which i t [ i . e . the 'character'] i s placed, and the contrast (as the painters c a l l i t ) i n which i t stands, with the Q 2 pompous figures of famous, or r i c h , or high-born men."7 T i l l o t s o n notes the contrasting characters who appear i n the poems, and goes on to state that the poet . . . makes much use of t h i s p r i n c i p l e of arrangement. It has even been c a l l e d h i s 'usual method,' and compared to that of a suite of Pur c e l l or Handel i n which 'an allegro i s followed by an andante or a courante by a rigadooh.' The p r i n c i p l e of contrast i s i t s e l f a p r i n c i p l e of cohesion: to contrast i s to r e l a t e . 93 Wylie Sypher i n the b r i l l i a n t Four Stages of Benaissance Style tends to support T i l l o t s o n ' s judgment on contrast as a factor i n the unity of a work. "Contrast" implies r e l a t i o n , not indiscriminate parading of d i s s i m i l a r objects, moods, and other materials of Art. Thus, while the movements of, say, Handel's 92 ' T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature, p. 202; the author gives as the source of the quotation i n this passage Alexander Pope, The Correspondence, ed. George Sherburn (Oxford, 1956), III, 290. 9 V ' - T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature, pp. 202-203; see also p. 253; the c i t a t i o n s within the passage quoted are from George Sherburn."The Dunciad. Book IV," Studies i n English (Austin, Texas, 1 9 L 4 ) , pp. 175, 184. 13^ F Ma.ior Sonata for f l u t e and harpsichord contrast, they are also 'related. The work, l i k e E l o i s a to Abelard, i s not a d i s j o i n t e d pastiche. Sypher states that of S i r Isaac Newton's three laws of motion, the second, dealing with changes of momentum, acceleration, and mass, might be taken as the p r i n c i p l e behind the dynamics of baroque a r t ; but h i s t h i r d law i s a basic premise of late-baroque s t y l e : namely, "To every action there i s always opposed, an equal reaction," or, i n e f f e c t , the mutual actions of two bodies upon each other are equal and d i r e c t l y opposite. JLate baroque writes exact equations. In the f i n e arts the mark of late-baroque style i s the use of exaggerated contrast or counterpoise.9^ Indeed, balance and an t i t h e s i s are the very marks of the couplet form, the vehicle for most of Pope's thoughts. The two l i n e s , each of ten s y l l a b l e s (with very few exceptions) balance each other, and within each l i n e , there i s a l e v e r - l i k e poising of the words, the caesura, (often near the centre of the l i n e ) , acting as a fulcrum. Two examples from An Essay on  C r i t i c i s m w i l l make the point c l e a r : True wit i s nature to advantage dressed, What oft was thought, but ne'er so well expressed . . . . Good nature and good sense must ever j o i n ; To err i s human; to forgive, divine.95 ok 7 Wylie Sypher, Four Stages of Renaissance Style (Garden C i t y , New York, 1955), PP. 255-256. Sypher, i n discussing the neo-c l a s s i c t r a d i t i o n , places i t i n the late-baroque category; see pp. 252 f f . y?An Essay on C r i t i c i s m , I I , 97-98, 32 L -325. Note the balance between "thought" and "expressed," between "to e r r " and 135 Pope's works, then, are enlivened not only by v a r i e t y of accent and caesura, of s y l l a b l e s and sounds, within i n d i v i d u a l l i n e s , but also by contrasts i n tone and i n idea between both paragraphs as well as larger sections, f o r example, Cantos i n RL. There i s no need f o r me to assert here the poet's a b i l i t y to write s a t i r i c a l , d i d a c t i c , or epi s t o l a r y works. His well known pieces are s u f f i c i e n t evidence of h i s v e r s a t i l i t y . A type of verse of which Pope was a master and which i s l e s s often discussed i s the pastoral. "Spring" contains many gems, among them these l i n e s : Strephon. Sing then, and Damon s h a l l attend the s t r a i n , While yon slow oxen turn the furrow'd p l a i n . Here the bright crocus and blue v i ' l e t glow; Here western winds on breathing roses blow. I ' l l stake yon lamb, that near the fountain plays, And from the brink h i s dancing shade surveys.96 There i s a be a u t i f u l picture painted here, and i t i s not unfair to say "painted" rather than "drawn." Pope has an eye for colour, and i s i n a way even more "painterly" than Dryden, and he i s ever aware of the value of sound i n a poetic d e s c r i p t i o n , as i s the l a t t e r (e.g., Alex. F . ) : "to f o r g i v e , " and between "human" and "divine." Antithesis and balance constitute the technical charm of these l i n e s , not only i n terms of thought but also i n terms of rhyme. T i l l o t s o n ' s p r i n c i p l e ( c i t e d above), "to contrast i s to r e l a t e , " i s borne out i n these l i n e s . "Spring," 29-3 k -136 Go, gentle Gales, and bear my sighs along! The birds s h a l l cease to tunr t h e i r ev'ning song, The winds to breathe, the waving woods to move, And streams to murmur, ere I cease to love. Not bubbling fountains to the t h i r s t y swain, Not balmy sleep to lab'rers f a i n t with pain, Not show'rs to l a r k s , nor sunshine to the bee, Are h a l f so charming as thy sight to me.97 Rather than the splash of colour which i s to be found i n the l i n e s from "Spring," the reader i s given here a set of ideas supported by sound, a pastoral onomatopoeia. The semi-vowels and the voiced f r i c a t i v e i n l i n e kl cause the winds to "breathe" i n the reader's ear; the l i q u i d s and nasals of l i n e k29 the stream to "murmur;" and the b's i n "bubbling" reinforce the image of the c r y s t a l spring. "Winter," Pope's favourite of the set of four pastorals, contains many poetic conventions common 98 to the genre to which i t belongs; 7 i t also contains great beauty. To t h i s the opening l i n e s w i l l a t t e s t : Lycidas. Thyrsis, the music of that murm'ring spring Is not so mournful as the stra i n s you sing; Nor r i v e r s , winding through the vales below, So sweetly warble, or so smoothly flow. Now sleeping f l o c k s on their soft fleeces l i e , The moon, serene i n glory, mounts the sky, While s i l e n t birds forget t h e i r tuneful l a y s . Oh sing of Daphne's fate and Daphne's praisef Thyrsis. Behold the groves that shine with s i l v e r f r o s t , Their beauty wither'd, and t h e i r verdure lost.9 9 ""Autumn," 39-1+6. Several of the songs from Tennyson's The  Princess bear echoes of Pope's Pastorals; c f . "Now Sleeps the Crimson Petal" and "Come down, 0 Maid." 98 7 T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature, p. 59« ""Winter," 1-10. 137 One i s led to wonder how Hunt could possibly have charged Pope with first-degree monotony. 1 0 0 "Messiah," a sacred eclogue, mentioned above, i s another poem which shows Pope to be an expert at handling the pastoral. Even The Dunciad, e s p e c i a l l y Book I I I , also i s an example of the poet's pastoral .perfection; i f h i s descriptions of the sylphs (RL) or of Camilla (EC) were l i g h t and a i r y , some of the l i n e s i n Book III are sluggish and yet equally picturesque: Loi where Maeotis sleeps, and hardly flows , Q , The freezing Tanais through a waste of snows . . . . Despite a l l the beauty to be found i n the Pastorals already quoted and i n "Messiah," Windsor Forest stands as one of the f i n e s t achievements i n landscape painting, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n realm of "colour." The l i n e s from "Spring" quoted i n the fore-going paragraph contain a splash of colour. The following, from Windsor Forest, hold a v a r i e t y of shades: Seei from the brake the whirring pheasant springs, And mounts exulting on triumphant wings: Short i s h i s joy; he f e e l s the f i e r y wound, F l u t t e r s i n blood, and panting beats the ground. Ahi what a v a i l h i s glossy varying dyes, His purple crest, and s c a r l e t - c i r c l e d eyes, Thes v i v i d green h i s shining plumes unfold, , Q 2 His painted wings, and breast that flames with gold? 1 0 0 V . supra, pp. 126-127. , 1 0 1 T h e Dunciad. I l l , .87- .88. The contrast between those l i n e s , slow and cold though the picture i s , and the v i t r i o l i c humour of the greater part of the poem i s worthy of note. Pope i s always a painterly poet: blackness i s most obvious when contrasted with white. See also I I I , 13 f f . 1 0 2 W i n d sor Forest. 111-118. 138 With Handel, colour i s found i n melodic and i n harmonic r i c h e s ; with Pope, i n words and t h e i r judicious use. Both men would appear to take their influence from physical or mental exper-ience. The f u l l prismatic range which appears i n the l a s t four l i n e s of t h i s quotation i s magnificently executed. Lines 115-118 constitute an expertly rendered reproduction of r e a l l i f e which i s given even more realism by the drama of the preceding four. The pheasant's breast "flames with gold" l i k e Cleopatra's barge; so does Pope's s k i l l . The l a t t e r i s seen i n these l i n e s to range well above the sphere of mere technical perfection. Root says that these poems [the Pastorals] have the quality of exquisite music and an unmistakable competency i n l i t e r a r y c r a f t s -manship—and very l i t t l e more.l°3 Root i s unfair i n h i s judgment and confusing i n his statement of i t . He admits they have " . . . the q u a l i t y of exquisite music . . .;" there i s l i t t l e nobler i n art than t r u l y exquisite music. Technically, they show, he says, " . . . unmistakable competency . . . ." Yet h i s f i n a l comment decrees that they are severely l i m i t e d . These poems are excellent and b e a u t i f u l , considering what they are, namely, pastoral works, and measure-less profundity has never been the consistent property of the i oh. pastoral t r a d i t i o n . These excellent poems i l l u s t r a t e the early s t y l e of the genius of l a t e r years. 1 0 % o o t , p. 52. lOU-An i n t e r e s t i n g discussion of modern Latin poetry, including the pastorals of Boccaccio and Sannazaro i s to be found i n Jacob 139 Before proceeding to a discussion of several larger aspects of Pope's poetry which are relevant i n regard to the comparison between that author's work and the music of Handel, I s h a l l comment on another v i t a l f actor i n h i s output. Pope i s c h i e f l y known fo r h i s b i t t e r , b i t i n g , b r i l l i a n t s a t i r e s . Yet I t i s d i f f i c u l t to suggest i n terms of Handel's works a musical counterpart f o r h i s s a t i r i c expressions. In the early eighteenth century the scherzo had not reached any r e a l point of development as i t was to do i n the time of Beethoven. What might be mention-ed, however, i s the scherzo's probable ancestor i n mood, the gigue or Laendler. Certainly, a more light-hearted sort of expression i s hard to f i n d i n eighteenth-century music. But i n order to achieve a basis for comparison, one must see both the s a t i r e and the gigue i n terms of th e i r respective moods. Both might be said to be mischievous, though the s a t i r e s were not always written for the "delight" of the public. Yet, as i n the gigue, there i s playfulness and wit. There i s , as one finds i n The" Dunciad, " . . . a splendid energy . . . ," 1 0^ as well as a conscious attempt to r i d i c u l e the reprehensible. The same type of energy i s generally present i n the gigue, although, of course, i t never contains what one might c a l l "precise meaning." I t would be unscholarly, at the moment at l e a s t , to suggest that the basis f o r comparison i s anything more than the rather l i g h t , at times almost r o l l i c k i n g mood. Burckhardt, The C i v i l i z a t i o n of the Renaissance i n I t a l y , trans. S.G.C. Middlemore, Harper Torchbooks I l l u s t r a t e d E d i t i o n (New York, 1958), I, 259 f f . 1 0^Root, The E a r l y Career, p. 52. iko I t has been noted already that there i s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the laws of Newton and the structure of Pope's poetry; the Newtonian philosophy influenced many of the poet's ideas as well. Nature ? and Nature's Laws lay h i d i n Night. God said, Let Newton be! and A l l was Light. The emphasis on laws, on guiding precepts i s strong i n h i s works; the universe runs according to a d i v i n e l y ordered plan. Poetry, i f i t i s to be natural, Pope thought, must be ordered. It must be governed by the same sort of reason which should guide man i n h i s l i f e a c t i v i t i e s . In An Essay on Man, he says: On l i f e ' s vast ocean diversely we s a i l , , n 7 Reason the card, but passion i s the gale . . . .. ' Reason re s t r a i n s passion, and gives some order to man's behaviour. An Essay on C r i t i c i s m r e f l e c t s t h i s concept as i t i s applied to poetry: F i r s t follow nature, and your judgment frame By her just standard, which i s s t i l l the same: Unerring nature, s t i l l d i v i n e l y bright, One c l e a r , unchanged, and universal l i g h t , L i f e , force, and beauty must to a l l impart, 1 0 g At once the source, and end, and t e s t of a r t . Epitaph Intended f o r S i r Isaac Newton. 5-6. 1 Q 7 A n Essay on Man. I I , 107-108. 1 Q 8 A n Essay on C r i t i c i s m . I, 68-73. 14 1 The Ancients best imitated nature, and set the i d e a l poetry which was to portray man and h i s actions. Imagination, l i k e passion, was to be kept under c o n t r o l : 'Tis more to guide, than spur the muse's steed, Restrain h i s fury, than provoke h i s speed: The winged courser, l i k e a generous horse, Shows most true mettle when you check h i s course. Those rules of old discovered, not devised, And nature s t i l l , but nature methodised; Nature, l i k e l i b e r t y , i s but restrained By the same laws which f i r s t h e r s e l f ordained. Learn hence f o r ancient rules a just esteem; To copy nature i s to copy them.109 I f , beside the expansive expression of the Romantic poets, Pope's l i n e s seem formal and regulated, i t i s necessary to r e c a l l that they r e f l e c t the importance of reason and order i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l climate of h i s day. Looking at the earth as part and parcel of the Newtonian universe, how else could one reasonably see i t than as p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the sublime universal order? How could one escape the l o g i c , as one worked i n the medium of l o g i c , that whatever i s on earth must be r i g h t , simply because Tightness was written across the whole universe? As one held i n one's hand, as i t were, the immense cos-mic watch, was i t not inconceivable to thought that one cog i n the f i n e machinery f a i l e d i n i t s harmonious r e l a t i o n to the whole? Could man i n s u l t the nature of God by imagining that any law of His could brook an exception? That i s how Pope saw i t , thinking out the matter i n h i s Essay [on Man].HO Ibid., I, 84-91, 139-140. 'Tillotson, Pope and Human Nature, p. 53. Ih2 As Professor T i l l o t s o n notes, Pope, following cold reason and l o g i c , came to the conclusion that, despite the e v i l i n the 111 world, "Whatever i s , i s Right." If whatever i s , whatever event takes place, i s d i v i n e l y ordained, i t must be r i g h t . In Pope's philosophy as well as i n the structure of h i s couplets there i s a sense of balance, order, closure, and f i n a l i t y . That i s not to say that man has not the a b i l i t y to use h i s , reason to good end, but i t i s to say that should he do so, the very use of i t would f i t the divine plan. The s p i r i t of the man's philosophy as well as of the vehicle for i t s conveyance i s one of s o l i d i t y , firmness, and confidence. There i s not the doubt of Johnson's Vanity of Human Wishes here: Submit: In t h i s or any other sphere, Secure to be as bless'd as thou canst bear: Safe i n the hand of one disposing Power, Or i n the natal or the mortal hour. A l l Nature i s but Art, unknown to thee; A l l chance d i r e c t i o n , which thou canst not see: A l l discord, harmony not understood; A l l p a r t i a l e v i l , universal good: And, spite of Pride, i n e r r i n g Reason's s p i t e , One truth i s c l e a r , Whatever i s , i s r i g h t . T i l l o t s o n makes two further points worthy of note here. The f i r s t i s that . . . whatever the answer, optimistic or pessimistic, to Pope's long and p a i n f u l sum, I do not think that man i s very much interested i n any answer . . . . I t [the •^'''Loc." c i t . , see also An Essay on Man, I, 29h. l i p J"L^An Essay on Man, I, 285-29 k. Cf. Sypher, p. 268 on the same point. 1^ 3 answer] does not in v a l i d a t e the des c r i p t i o n of man as the painful jest and r i d d l e , i f also the glory, of the world. I f we d i s t r u s t l o g i c , we do not d i s t r u s t poetry, and Pope's l o g i c i n An Essay on Man coexists with poetry . . . . Making h i s resplendent poetry out of materials to hand, out of Nature and i t s trappings, he could not wish them to be otherwise than they were. 'Whatever is'he had no reason but to take and be thank-f u l for.113 Pope i s t r u l y a poet of nature. He composes f r e e l y within a closed system, the couplet, just as the world hurtles round the sun i n a closed system, i t s o r b i t . To look at the surface of nature, at, f o r example, a h i l l s i d e of trees and underbrush i s to see apparent chaos; to observe the same h i l l s i d e c l o s e l y , to study i t and to mark i t s features i n r e l a t i o n to other h i l l s i d e s i s to see order. and l o g i c . Pope sees an order i n a l l things. There i s i n h i s poems a s p i r i t of reasonable existence and action. Yet despite t h i s sense of order and co n t r o l , he never treats man or beast as a pure machine. E l o i s a to Abelard i s one of the most moving pieces of the century, and part of i t s effectiveness comes from the f a c t that care and contemplation have gone into the creation of the figure of E l o i s a . Pope knows people, and i t i s r e a l l i f e which appears i n th i s poem. I t i s also r e a l l i f e which appears i n the Pastorals. S u p e r f i c i a l l y , the pheasant bolting upward from the -'Tillotson, Pope and Human Nature, pp. 5*+-55. The author discusses b r i e f l y Handel's setting of the f i n a l four words i n An Essay on Man. I, 29 k, as i t appears i n Jephtha (1751); see PP. 53-5^ and 54, n. 2. V. i n f r a , p. 1 7 L . Ikk brake i n Windsor Forest seems, i n i t s very action, to be a vi c t i m of chance. Yet even that occasion f i t s the philosophy of reason outlined In An Essay on Man and quoted above i n part. Through a l l occurrences of nature run the currents of a natural law and universal order; very often the existence of the law does not seem obvious because of the naturalness of i t s e f f e c t . This awareness of natural law and an a f f i n i t y i n style with the Newtonian schema are distinguishing marks of the l a t e baroque, n e o - c l a s s i c a l period. Wylie Sypher, as I have noted above,' cements the connection. He makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between " . . . the generous baroque style and s t a t e l y forms i n paint-ing and l i t e r a t u r e we have c a l l e d 'academic,'" which infuse Dryden's heroic plays and " . . . the s l i g h t e r decorative rococo art of Pineau, Alexander Pope, Watteau, Lancet, Guardi, Longhi, and Tiepolo." Yet a l l of Dryden's output i s not represented by the heroic plays, and even between the l a t t e r and the c o n t r o l l e d , s l i g h t l y l e s s magniloquent art of Pope, there i s a d i s t i n c t connection. The academic-neoclassic t r a d i t i o n accepts a larger scale, keeping much of the baroque "augment," and r e l i e s on i d e a l s of "elevation" and the "grand s t y l e ; " but at the same time i t has a strengthened sense of "decorum," r e g u l a r i t y , unity and whatever i s tectonic. Although B r i t i s h c r i t i c s l i k e Dryden and Johnson and Reynolds scorn the French "rules," they try to keep a " j u d i c i a l " frame of mind. They admire the heroic, but they are devoted to an idea of "Nature" best defined by Reynolds Sypher, p. 253-1^ 5 when he says that "the whole beauty and grandeur of art consists i n being able to get above a l l singular forms, l o c a l customs, p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s , and d e t a i l s of every kind."115 Though d i f f e r e n t i n c e r t a i n respects, Dryden and Pope belong to roughly the same art-category. In both, as I have shown, there i s a great s t r i v i n g f o r perfection and order--a balance and a firmness of control which reaches i t s highest peak i n Pope's closed couplet. The very care and p r e c i s i o n , the balance of thought and verse discussed e a r l i e r i n the chapter, are part of t h i s art-category, t h i s neo-classic"correctness." Late-baroque masses are "closed," or contained within strongly defined l i m i t s and treated with a responsible, sober, or methodical sense of order.Ho However, to attempt to c l a s s i f y Dryden and Pope more r i g i d l y would be unwise. Pope i s more ne o - c l a s s i c a l than Dryden, i f we take into account the credo and rules of h i s a r t ; he i s perhaps ? I b i d . , p. 2 5 L . Sypher goes on to discuss the late-baroque, using examples from painting, architecture, and l i t e r a t u r e , ( i n -cluding Dryden.) The author gives a note here to Heinrich W d l f f l i n , P r i n c i p l e s of Art History. 1951, p. 1 L 9. On t h i s page W B l f f l i n (7th (Dover) e d i t i o n (New York, n.d.)), says that "Neo c l a s s i c i s m f i r s t leads back to the tectonic." He also states that " . . . the tectonic s t y l e i s the s t y l e of s t r i c t arrangement and clear adherence to r u l e . . . " and that "every-thing belongs to the tectonic style which operates i n the sense of l i m i t a t i o n and completeness, while a-tectonic s t y l e opens the closed form . . . ." He equates a-tectonic with baroque; see pp. ihQ f f . Sypher, p. 256. Sypher places Dryden's Ode f o r Saint  C e c i l i a ' s Day i n the late-baroque category. 146 more i n the rococo vein, as Sypher suggests, and as may be shown by reference to The Rape of the Lock with i t s balance of design and symmetry of decorative features, such as the sylphs 117 who do not appear contorted i n the l e a s t degree; ' and he i s also quite d e f i n i t e l y a part of the baroque stream i n a r t , as Sypher indicates also. Neo-classicism i s one of the l a s t trends of the baroque period. But to deal with categories i n ar t - h i s t o r y i s to deal with t r u l y s l i p p e r y f i s h . No art-period exists within walls as no art exists i n a vacuum, t o t a l l y independent of st i m u l i acting on other a r t s . I have shown i n the Dryden/Purcell section of th i s paper that Dryden shows both what could be c a l l e d (normally) baroque and n e o - c l a s s i c a l f i g u r e s . Yet properly the l a t t e r i s part of a much larger trend known as Baroque. What i s d i f f i c u l t i s to separate the elements i n n e o - c l a s s i c a l , tectonic a r t . Even Arnold Hauser admits t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . He says that the cla s s i c i s m of the eighteenth century i s . . . d i f f i c u l t to define and open to various socio-l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , since i t i s sustained a l t e r n a t e l y by c o u r t l y - a r i s t o c r a t i c and middle-class st r a t a of society and ends by developing into the representative a r t i s t i c style of the revolutionary bourgeoisie . . . . C l a s s i c i s t i c a r t c e r t a i n l y tends toward conservatism and i s well suited to represent authoritarian ideologies, but the a r i s t o c r a t i c outlook often f i n d s more d i r e c t expression i n the s e n s u a l i s t i c and exuberant baroque than i n abstemious and matter-of-f a c t c l a s s i c i s m . . . . I t s naturalism moves i n most cases within r e l a t i v e l y narrow l i m i t s and i s usually r e s t r i c t e d to the r a t i o n a l i s t i c portrayal of r e a l i t y , Cf. W o e l f f l i n , pp. 148-149. Ik7 that i s to say, of a r e a l i t y without i n t e r n a l contradic-tions. Naturalness and formal d i s c i p l i n e are almost one and the same thing here.118 Ch a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Handel's Art In the f i r s t part of th i s chapter I have described a number of features of Pope's poetry and have indicated the trend of h i s work i n terms of art styl e s as l a i d down by scholars working i n the f i e l d of a r t - h i s t o r y . I t w i l l be my purpose now to turn to aspects i n the music of Handel i n order to r e l a t e the work of the two men. Features i n Pope's work w i l l be shown to have the i r p a r a l l e l i n factors to be found i n the compositions of Handel. There w i l l be other points, including both s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences, as well as p a r a l l e l s to be found i n the work of other a r t i s t s , which w i l l have to be taken into account i n a longer study. There are many ways i n which Pope's art displays care and p r e c i s i o n ; the same statement may be made i n regard to Handel's music. Whether one looks at the o v e r a l l construction of an a r i a or of a sonata or suite movement, or at the harmonies and counterpoint within i t , one w i l l be struck not only by a firmness of control i n the writing, but by the evidence of s k i l l l l 8 Arnold Hauser, The S o c i a l History of Art, translated i n collaboration with the author by Stanley Godman (London, 1 9 5 D , I I , 623. Cf. Arnold Hauser, The Philosophy of Art History (London, 1959), p. 271. In the l a t t e r volume, the remarks about c l a s s i c i s m and rococo are made i n terms of art i n France; however, I suggest that they constitute a relevant reference. The comments i n regard to the s o c i a l r o l e of art styl e s are worthy of note. I*f8 which i s present. The presence of r e a l s k i l l i n any work of art serves to set apart the master craftsman from the competent ar t i s a n ; and the presence of "soul," of r e a l human f e e l i n g , a l b e i t confined within the bounds of a formal a r t i s t i c pattern or form, the true a r t i s t from the master craftsman. Handel was undeniably a true a r t i s t . With the presence of "soul" I s h a l l deal l a t e r ; what i s important at t h i s point i s to note the element of craftsmanship i n his a r t . To go to any of h i s works i s to f i n d that element. The very be a u t i f u l Suites f o r Harpsichord, e s p e c i a l l y Nos. I to VIII, hold i t i n great measure. The balance of construction as seen i n melodic l i n e s , i n harmony and i n the consequent modulation, shows the composer to be e n t i r e l y aware of the power of symmetry i n music. This point i s borne out by reference, for example, to the charming sarabande and d e l i g h t f u l gigue of 119 Suite IV (E minor). ' The sarabande, f o r example, i s e a s i l y d i v i s i b l e into melodically and harmonically l o g i c a l four-bar phrases. The piece i t s e l f i s i n two sections; the second part i s longer than the f i r s t , and th i s extra length i s , i n my opinion, f u l l y j u s t i f i e d by the moderate harmonic and melodic development to be found therein. Such development eliminates any sense of imbalance between the two parts. Balance 119 9. yG. F. Handel, Kompositionen fur Klavier. herausgegeben von Adolf Ruthardt, (New York, London, Frankfurt: GVF.:;Peters, n.d.), I, L6-L7. other references w i l l be to Suites: v o l . no. and page.no. w i l l be indicated. 1 L9 appears also between the phrases, which appear to complement each other; they stand by themselves i n terms of melodic i n t e r e s t and d i r e c t i o n of l i n e , and yet lead from one to another 120 to preserve the l o g i c of the whole piece. There i s here the grace and formal balance of Pope's couplet; the aura i s one of u n s t i l t e d precision. The movements of the sparkling Suite V (E major) also i l l u s t r a t e the same sense of formal construction. The melodic l i n e s , within the two- and four-bar phrases, l i k e Pope's thoughts i n the couplets, never r e a l l y seem to want to s p i l l over the bounds of the phrases i n order to be complete and s a t i s f y i n g . Like the couplets, they lead to the following phrase; i n their independence, they never cause the work to seem "pieced together." This i s e s p e c i a l l y noticeable i n 121 the well known set of variat i o n s which concludes the Suite. However, there are c l a v i e r works i n which the phrases, although See Wb'lfflin, p. 149, on rococo balance i n sculpture. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. VII. 1 2 1 H a n d e l , Suites. I, 53 f f . Kathleen Dale, i n "The Keyboard Music," Ch. VIII of Handel: A Symposium, p. 233, regards the c l a v i e r works of Handel as i n f e r i o r to those of J. S. Bach and Domenico S c a r l a t t i . I cannot agree with her statement that the f i r s t are " . . . not remarkable f o r great refinement of work-manship." She also notes that modern editions give no i n d i c a t i o n of the " . . . improvisatory passage-work with which, according to contemporary evidence, he [Handel] was wont to em-b e l l i s h them i n actual performance." The author states that the general opinion of scholars (Abraham and Steglich) i s that the s i m i l a r i t y between the themes of the movements of a suite was i n t e n t i o n a l . (See pp. 239-240.) Such rhythmic s i m i l a r i t y makes fo r unity within the suite. On cross-bar rhythms, etc., see p. 245. V. i n f r a , p.159. 150 t h e o r e t i c a l l y existing as elements, stand only as portions of a longer l i n e ; t h e i r function i s to support and to b u i l d the l i n e , rather than to stand as e n t i t i e s within i t . Among the innumerable cases i n point are the allemandes and courantes of the Suites i n A major and D minor and the courante and the sarabande of the E minor . . . which despite t h e i r enforced d i v i s i o n into two balancing halves, make an impression of 'perpetual motion' as , 2 2 phrase grows out of phrase with quiet i n e v i t a b i l i t y . T i l l o t s o n makes an important point which, i n view of the p a r a l l e l s between Pope and Handel, should be noted here. When i t was assumed that the heroic couplet could achieve' nothing more complex than separate epigrams, even Pope's power of constructing a paragraph was not credited to him. That h i s paragraphs are designed as wholes may be demonstrated by trying to remove a couplet without loss to qua l i t y (the aesthetic shape-l i n e s s and substance) as well as to quantity (amount of sense and mere s i z e ) . But he also provided 'n i c e t i e s ' of i n t e r r e l a t i o n between paragraph and paragraph.123 The removal of a phrase from either the courante or sarabande of Suite IV (E minor) would demonstrate the same point i n connection with Handel's music. Although there i s probably not a 1:1 r e l a t i o n s h i p between the couplet of Pope and the phrase of Handel, there are many points of s i m i l a r i t y between them. Dale, p. 2*+5. Most of Pope's couplets are end-stopped, but many are not stopped with a period; they lead, as pointed out i n the text, to the following couplet; they are part of a larger unit, e.g., paragraph. On Pope's architecture within the paragraph, see T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature, pp. 199-203. T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature, p. 199. 1 5 1 T i l l o t s o n also speaks of the i n t e r r e l a t i o n between paragraphs; roughly p a r a l l e l to t h i s i s the unity which Handel achieves between two sections of the same movement by means of s i m i l a r i t y i n thematic, rhythmic and even harmonic motives. Again, the l oh. courante of Suite IV serves as an admirable example. In the longer poems of Pope, as canto i s linked to canto i n terms of subject, so i n the c l a v i e r suites of Handel, the same sort of i n t e n t i o n a l thematic unity i s to be found. A l l these points indicate precision of design and composition. The l a s t statement i s further borne out by reference to h i s fugal writing. The fuga which opens the E minor Suite c i t e d above i s an excellent example of my point; the one which serves as the second movement of Suite VIII (F minor) i s an even better i l l u s t r a t i o n . The subject i s f o r t h r i g h t and commanding in:nature, and the writing i s f l u i d ; the r e s u l t i s f a r more than a work of mere competency. I t i s i n a way an intense piece, and expresses a l t e r n a t e l y stern power and sheer beauty of l i n e and harmony. That Handel recognised the i n t e n s i t y which could be the property of a fugue i s shown by the f a c t that he chose the st y l e f o r the great ,,Amen" of Messiah, the f i n a l and universal expression of confidence i n the Most High. I t i s the fusing of expressiveness i n terms of melody and harmony and of the a b i l i t y to handle the style which makes this F minor fugue (Suite VIII) one of h i s most profound Handel, Suites, I, k$. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. VII. 152 expressions for the c l a v i e r . Handel, then, was a composer who 125 worked c a r e f u l l y , though indeed, often s w i f t l y . 7 However, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to deal with such a topic without touching on other factors which are important i n t h i s comparison; as the discussion moves on to other subjects, the precision and excellence per se of Handel's work w i l l be further i l l u s t r a t e d . Part of Pope's s k i l l , as I stated above, l i e s i n h i s a b i l i t y to make h i s verse balance with the thought i t conveys, to make sound echo sense. The r e s u l t s of the same a b i l i t y are to be found i n Handel's scores, p a r t i c u l a r l y the vocal works. Heaviness or lightness of mood, quickness or slowness of tempo— these are commonplace e f f e c t s i n h i s music, achieved i n order to balance the thought conveyed, and achieved without any •sacrifice of beauty or "technical correctness." Pope could s h i f t from a l i n e slowed down by heavy s y l l a b l e s to one of f l i t t i n g lightness; h i s Ajax and Camilla i n An Essay on  C r i t i c i s m are adequate proof of t h i s . Handel, too, i s able to make rapid s h i f t s i n mood or speed, not to j o l t the l i s t e n e r from somnolence, but to take advantage of a dramatic "point" i n the vocal l i n e . Many examples can be found of t h i s , p a r t i c u l a r l y •'Dale, p. 233, suggests that some of the c l a v i e r works were written as "teaching pieces" f o r Handel's pupils and are there-fore " . . . r e s t r i c t e d i n i n t e r e s t as regards keyboard technique." -!!This i s possibly true of the Suites which i n modern editions are numbered from IX to XVI and which are on the whole s l i g h t e r works than the f i r s t eight. On the sources and editions of the c l a v i e r works, see Dale's essay, pp. 23 L -238. In regard to the c l a r i t y of Handel's fugal writing, see Percy M. Young, The  Oratorios of Handel, p. 111. 153 i n the s h i f t from r e c i t a t i v e to a r i a , or i n the s h i f t i n tone within a r e c i t a t i v e or a r i a . One of the f i n e s t i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the l a t t e r occurs i n Messiah: There were shepherds abiding i n the f i e l d , keeping watch over t h e i r f l o c k s by night. And l o ! the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them, and they were sore afraid.12o The quiet setting of the f i r s t part of t h i s r e c i t a t i v e r e i n -forces p e r f e c t l y the content of the verse; the mood i s one of quiet solitude, and follows l o g i c a l l y from the very b e a u t i f u l "Pastoral Symphony" (No. 13) which immediately precedes i t . The quiet pastoral mood, then, i s well established at the end of the f i r s t h a l f of the r e c i t a t i v e . With the second h a l f , that i s , with the r e l a t i o n of the appearance of the angel, there i s a complete s h i f t to a l i g h t e r , more " a i r y " tone. This section could be viewed as an i l l u s t r a t i o n of perfect musical lightness; no other aura would have been quite as suitable f o r portraying i n sound such a moment. Once again, the verse i s reinforced. As Pope gives the reader both colour and lightness i n h i s des c r i p t i o n of the sylphs i n The Rape of  the Lock, so Handel provides both q u a l i t i e s i n t h i s passage, 126 G.F. Handel, Messiah, ed. by W. T. Best (London: Novello and Company, Limited, 1923), pp. 57-58. These words form Recit, No. 14; the text i s from Luke i i , v. 8-9. Unless otherwise noted, a l l references to Messiah w i l l be to t h i s e d i t i o n . See I l l u s t r a t i o n Nos.VIII^IX. I5 k f o r the e f f e c t of the rapid broken chords and the almost f a n f a r e - l i k e soprano l i n e bursts through the grey night-mood set by the f i r s t part of the r e c i t a t i v e , and the phrasing of the v i o l i n s ' sixteenth notes and the i n t e r v a l s of the soprano l i n e immediately d i s p e l any heaviness which might have been present as the r e s u l t of so many repeated notes. The same type of dramatic s h i f t i s used again i n the following two r e c i t a t i v e s , "And the angel said unto them" (No. 15) and "And suddenly there was with the angel" (No. 16). What i s notable about the s h i f t s , then, i s Handel's a b i l i t y to sense the dramatic point, the point at which a change i n tone w i l l heighten the musical description, and to take f u l l ad-vantage of i t by writing i n a manner which completely supports the meaning of the words, and which, i n f a c t , makes them even more graphic. This i s not word painting (properly, madrigalism): i t i s passage painting. I t should be apparent also that when Handel does set words, eithe r i n r e c i t a t i v e , a r i a , or chorus, the thoughts they express seldom seem constrained within the musical l i n e . The settings are short enough; they are also long enough. This i s true even when the composer repeats words many times. I doubt, i n view of i t s expression, that any c r i t i c has suggested that the " H a l l e l u j a Chorus" could be a page or two shorter, or that "Comfort ye" (to be discussed l a t e r ) might be a page or two l o n g e r — o n the grounds that i t does not s u f f i c i e n t l y portray i n music the thoughts expressed. I t 155 c e r t a i n l y portrays them s u f f i c i e n t l y , but never to the degree of r e p l e t i o n . Handel i s a composer of taste and discrimination. Despite the argument which s t i l l rages over the subject of Handel's command of the Eng l i s h language, i t i s , I f e e l , correct to assume that he had a good grasp of i t and a love f o r i t s beauties. I t i s e n t i r e l y possible that c e r t a i n Germanic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s prevailed i n h i s pronunciation, (for example English [£] = Handel [ d ] , English [pj = Handel [ b ] , etc.) but to equate t h i s with a lack of understanding of the language i s r i d i c u l o u s . I t i s also undeniable that a person may have a good reading knowledge of a foreign language without being completely p r o f i c i e n t i n i t i n terms of speech. S i r Newman Flower states that while i n h i s f i r s t years i n London Handel thought i n I t a l i a n , as he grew older he thought i n German, and even h i s l a s t compositions bear these thoughts written i n German on the margins, f o r he never r e a l l y mastered the Eng l i s h tongue. In two years he had becjame p r o f i c i e n t i n I t a l i a n , yet the greater part of a l i f e t i m e spent i n London never gave him the, same knowledge of English. He spoke i t badly, with a strong German twang L s i c ] . His music, up to the very end, shows repeatedly the l i m i t s of h i s understanding of English by h i s frequent bad accenting i n composition.127 Flower unfortunately does not give examples to support h i s statement; i n my opinion, i t i s very l a r g e l y unsupportable. I r o n i c a l l y , Flower himself gives us the clue that Handel thought i n E n g l i s h , f o r he c i t e s the amusing incident of the composer 'Flower, Handel, pp. 118-119. See also Haweis, Music and Morals, pp. 215 f f • 156 disturbing Dr. Morell.at f i v e o'clock one morning i n order to enquire about the meaning of a word. 'What de d e v i l means de vord b i l l o w ? 1 which was i n the oratorio the doctor had written f o r him. The doctor, after laughing at so ludicrous a reason f o r disturbing him, t o l d him that billow meant wave, a wave of the sea. 'Gh, de vave,' said Handel, and bade h i s coachman re-turn, without addressing another word to the doctor.128 To Handel, "wave" meant "wave" and not "die Welle." Young states quite d e f i n i t e l y that Handel was quite at home i n the English language and i n l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s . Handel may have retained i n speech gutteral traces of German o r i g i n , he may have stimulated sluggish colleagues with f i e r y broadsides of intermingled I t a l i a n , French, and German oaths, but no law of p r o b a b i l i t y can be adduced to support the f i c t i o n that he spoke the pidgin English of common ascription.129 In regard to Handel's accenting of English i n composition, perhaps the most l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n i s not the completely negative one of Flower, nor, on the other hand, a completely positive and equally u n r e a l i s t i c o n e — u n r e a l i s t i c i n view of the f a c t that the argument i s s t i l l i n progress. I t i s my view that there i s evidence on both sides of the question, and that i t i s only reasonable to say that while at times Handel's These are the words of Dr. Thomas Morell, a l i b r e t t i s t to Handel, as recorded by John Taylor i n Records of My L i f e . (1832), I, 3 3 L et seq., c i t e d i n Flower, p. 33*+> 7Young, "Handel the Man," Handel: A {Symposium, p. 3. See also pp. 2 - k , and The Oratorios of Handel, P P . hk f f . 157 accentuation was not p a r t i c u l a r l y good., (e.g., "He s h a l l feed hi s f l o c k - " ) , i t was often excellent. Young states that from the musical standpoint, Handel i s i n one sense un-t y p i c a l of h i s period, f o r , following P u r c e l l , he was a master of verbal dexterity. He possessed a discrimin-ating ear i n accentuation (which undercuts the theory that he misunderstood our language) and accordingly allowed the subtle music of language place within the ambit of more absolute music.130 I have stated that Handel i s able to s h i f t the tone of hi s music to agree with every thought of the text at hand; he i s able to do t h i s with such s k i l l as never to promote a d i s t r a c t i n g imbalance i n rhythm or mood. Thus the continuity of expression i s preserved between the tenor's r e c i t a t i v e and a r i a , "Gomfort ye," and "Every v a l l e y s h a l l be exalted." The composer i s capable of s t i l l greater b r i l l i a n c e i n dealing with the more subtle changes within the l i n e s (of the verse) themselves. In "Comfort y e ; " not only are the natural rhythms of speech kept when the words are set to music, but the thought of the text and the mood of the music match e x c e l l e n t l y . Young's statement that Handel possessed a discriminating ear i s c e r t a i n l y supported by reference to th i s r e c i t a t i v e . Thus the f i r s t s y l l a b l e i s held, three times, f o r an average of three beats, while the accompaniment moves i n p l a c i d , detache* 1 3°Young, "Handel the Man," Handel: A Symposium, p. k . My i t a l i c s . Cf. Handel, Messiah, pp. 70 f f . , and Jens Peter Larsen, Handel's Messiah, p. 32. 158 eighth notes. The e f f e c t of the f i r s t l i n e of verse i s comforting indeed. The tone i s more conversational with the l i n e , "Speak ye comfortably to Jerusalem . . . ," and the closing verse, "The voice of him that c r i e t h i n the wilderness . . . ," i s e n t i r e l y e f f e c t i v e i n i t s declamatory setting. Dr. Burney said of "Comfort ye" that 1 . . . I am acquainted with no movement of the same. cast, to the words of any language, which i s more grate-f u l or soothing than t h i s . There i s not a note, eith e r i n the p r i n c i p a l melody or accompaniment that i s become vulgar, common, or unmeaning.'131 The utter joy of the a r i a which f o l l o w s — " E v e r y v a l l e y s h a l l be e x a l t e d " — i s most i n s p i r i n g . In t h i s a r i a , the sustaining of " p l a i n " i n contrast to the shake f i g u r a t i o n of "crooked" i s just another example of the manner i n which Handel's music conforms to, and indeed, enhances the thoughts of h i s texts. The completely melismatic treatment of "exalted" i s yet another example of t h i s , and i s i n a way reminiscent of P u r c e l l ' s treatment of " a r i s e " i n "Arise ye subterranean winds" i n The Tempest. The sound undeniably echoes the sense; these i l l u s t r a t i o n s have the i r p a r a l l e l i n the o f t - c i t e d l i n e s i n An Essay on C r i t i c i s m ( I I , 1 6 8 - 1 7 3 ) . 1 3 2 Dr. Burney's words on the bass a r i a , "The people who walked i n darkness have seen a great l i g h t , " would also support t h i s judgement: r. i i 1 3 1Young, The Oratorios of Handel, p. 110. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. X. 1 3 2 C f . Handel. Messiah, P P . k f f . V. supra, pp. 67-68. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. XI. 159 'There i s a very curious expression of the words attempt-ed i n the A i r . . . where the chromatic and indeterminate modulation seems to delineate the uncertain footsteps of persons exploring t h e i r way i n obscurity.'133 Within the phrases of an Handelian melodic l i n e , there i s l i t t l e evidence to suggest the existence of a rhythmic figure which i s used with such consistency as the iambic i n Pope. The Handelian phrase, as I noted above, appears to have i t s rough equivalent i n the couplet, but i t s length i s more variable than the l a t t e r ' s , and anything which resembled a fi x e d iambic throughout a l l or even the majority of Handel's works, would render him a composer of the most appalling monotony. In the music of the period under discussion, there i s not the range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s within the phrase f o r v a r i e t y of pause (caesura), beat, accent, and delay and propulsion (through l i g h t and heavy s y l l a b l e s , ) that there i s i n the couplet, unless the composer i s to work outside a s t a b i l i s e d metric system. Even the f r e e s t melismatic passages i n Handel have a determined pulse which i s not often disturbed. 1 3** Possibly the most unimpeded vocal writing appears i n the r e c i t a -t i v e s . While the iambic i s present i n nearly a l l of Pope's 1 3 3Young, The Oratorios of Handel, pp. 110-111. See also Haweis' comments on Handel's a b i l i t y to set words ( i n the oratorios) i n Music and Morals, pp. 191 f f . ° On the frequency of cross-bar rhythms and suspensions i n the c l a v i e r works, see Kathleen Dale, "The Keyboard Works," Handel: A Symposium, p. 2L5« 160 couplets, i t i s often under the surface and can be detected only by a consciously rhythmic reading. This I established before. Handel's music does not contain such undercurrents; he does not set up a rhythm and then s u p e r f i c i a l l y dispense with i t by imposing a counter-rhythm. I t i s always present i f not obtrusive. However, despite the f a c t that there i s not a consistent rhythm f o r Handel p a r a l l e l to Pope's iambic, i t should be noted that on a number of occasions the musical equivalent of the iambic was put to good use i n his compositions. The fresh , d i r e c t expression of the all e g r o of the "©overture" of the Music f o r the Royal Fireworks, i n which the dotted rhythm i s used extensively, i s somewhat l i k e the f i r s t l i n e s of the E p i s t l e to Dr. Arbuthnot. The "Ouverture" of the Water Music contains the same f i g u r a t i o n . The use of the dramatic (y. J*J^?£3) and more graceful ( l ^ J J'J 7 ) iambic rhythms was not one which was l i m i t e d to poetry. The l a t t e r i s to be found i n Messiah i n "And he s h a l l feed h i s f l o c k " ; the former, i n the second section of the contralto a r i a , "He was despised and rejected," i n the bass a r i a , "The trumpets s h a l l sound," and i n the chorus, "Surely He hath borne our g r i e f s . " Iambics are also to be found i n " L i f t up your heads, 0 ye gates," as I mentioned above. In a l l these examples, the rhythm does intrude to disturb the thought. As has been indicated, i t i s present as the propelling forceJ i t i s important to note that the beats of the bar are V. supra, p. 128. 161 not covered by a cross rhythm, but by whatever i n t e r e s t i n part writing there may be, by the mood, and by the melodies and ideas which are being presented. Unlike Pope's couplet, k a,> Handel "iambic" j- bar, for example, does not display a t h i r d beat moved either to the r i g h t or l e f t of i t s normal k position; i t couldn't. I f the metre of the bar i s ^, i t remains that way. The reader's consciousness of the repeated iambic pulse i n Pope's couplets disappears f o r d i f f e r e n t reasons, then, than the l i s t e n e r ' s awareness of the dotted rhythm i n " L i f t up your heads." Kathleen Dale states that Handel, l i k e P u r c e l l , showed great p a r t i a l i t y f o r dotted beats and f o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c rhythmic f i g u r e s , which he sometimes maintained throughout an ent i r e piece. !36 The iambic rhythm, while not of equal importance i n both poetry and music, was a feature of both ar t s . I indicated that Pope's choice of words plays a major ro l e i n the successful presentation of h i s thought i n the poetic medium, and that while i t i s d i f f i c u l t to separate out complete-l y a l l the elements i n h i s s k i l l as a writer, the question of J Dale, p. 2 k 5 ; works are c i t e d to support t h i s statement. "Characteristic rhythmic f i g u r e s " does not imply the presence of one dominant figu r e throughout the works. See also Young, The Oratorios of Handel, p. 55. On Pure e l l ' s use of the «TT JTT~ f i g u r e , see Westrup, P u r c e l l , pp. 165, 175, 177, 2kh. Professor Westrup (p. 2kh) c a l l s such figures "dancing trochees;" t h i s i s not s t r i c t l y accurate, f o r by the process of normal accentua-t i o n what i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y a trochaic f i g u r e takes on an iambic flavour and J T ~ l / j . "3 becomes J "p J. "2 • 162 s e l e c t i o n of the r i g h t word i s at le a s t worthy of comment. In Handel's instrumental music the p a r a l l e l to Pope's excellent choice of words could be found i n the sel e c t i o n of key, tempo, and melodic subject chosen to present a p a r t i c u l a r type of mood or f e e l i n g . Reference to h i s Water Music would c e r t a i n l y support t h i s judgment. An even closer p a r a l l e l i s to be found i n the vocal music, not only i n the accompaniment written to support or enhance the mood and ideas suggested by the words, but i n the actual progress and nature—the speed, the i n t e r v a l s , the c h a r a c t e r — o f the melodic l i n e of the voice part. "Comfort ye" and "Every v a l l e y " from Messiah, already commented on, from the point of view of the balance of sound and thought, are excellent i l l u s t r a t i o n s of thi s point. What i s important to note i s that Handel might have selected an i n t e r v a l other than the drop by step of,a minor t h i r d , from the f i f t h to the t h i r d , f o r the f i r s t statement of "Comfort ye" and s t i l l have retained the general mood of the r e c i t a t i v e . 1 3 7 Yet what he has done i s to pick possibly the clos e s t representation i n music of the meaning and mood of the words to be set. With Handel, as with Pope, i t i s not just a case of creating an adequate representation of thought; i t i s a matter of presenting the best representation, and t h i s Handel had the a b i l i t y to do. I t i s important to note that both he and Pope had excellent taste and accuracy when representing ideas and moods i n the i r respective i d i o m s . 1 3 8 1 3 7 H a n d e l , Messiah, pp. k - 5 . See also Larsen, Handel's  Messiah, pp. 105-107. 1 3 8 S e e also George Lansing Raymond, Rhythm and Harmony i n 163 Calvin S. Brown i n Music and L i t e r a t u r e , l i k e G. L. Raymond i n Rhythm and Harmony i n Poetry and Music, deals l a r g e l y with aesthetics. Along with other topics, he discusses the " l i t e r a l s e t t i n g " of vocal music, using as examples of t h i s "Comfort ye" and "Every v a l l e y . " I have indicated that t h i s r e c i t a t i v e and a r i a are i m i t a t i v e , that i s , they contain musical imitations of the sounds of normal speech. Brown's statements support t h i s idea; he c i t e s Charles Avison's Essay  on Musical Expression i n making the d i s t i n c t i o n between im i t a t i v e music and expressive music; i t i s the tendency of imitative pieces . . . to f i x the Hearers Attention on the Similitude between the Sounds and the Things which they describe, and thereby excite a r e f l e x Act of the Understanding, than to a f f e c t the Heart and r a i s e the Passions of the Soul . . . .139 Pure i m i t a t i o n badly handled, either i n poetry or i n music i s an e v i l ; Avison, as Brown shows, portrays well i t s dangers i n Poetry and Music and Music as a Representative Art: Two Essays  i n Comparative Aesthetics. 2d ed. revised (Hew York and London, 1904), pp. 298 f f . , 316. Raymond's essays i n t h i s volume are i n the f i e l d of comparative aesthetics; h i s chapters on poetic harmony (pp. 107 f f . ) , q u a l i t y and pitch i n poetry and music (pp. 168 f f . ) , and representation i n music through duration, blending of p i t c h , and q u a l i t y (pp. 239 f f . ) provide an a n a l y t i -c a l and technical comparison of poetry and. music not with regard to any one composer but with regard to the very elements of the a r t s . J'Charles Avison, An Essay on Musical Expression (London, 1753), PP. 57-59, c i t e d i n Calvin S. Brown, Music and Literature (Athens, Georgia, 19^8), p. 5 L . See also pp. 53-61. 16k connection with music. But f o r Handel, i m i t a t i o n , (his operatic idiom), the selection of the melodic step or leap best suited to represent the text, was, i n my opinion, merely one part of h i s o v e r a l l technique, just as was choice of words f o r Pope. Both E l o i s a to Abelard and "Comfort ye" and "Every v a l l e y " may be c i t e d as examples of works containing technical dexterity i n the handling of sound, but Pope and Handel are more than just v i r t u o s i c technicians; the former i s a poet, not a v e r s i f i e r , and the l a t t e r , a musician, not a writer of notes. Like Avison, Brown f e e l s that l i t e r a l setting of words leads to a r e s t r i c t i o n of the " . . . range of a r t i s t i c effectiveness . . ." and of ". . . the range of l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . . . ."" In the music of a lesser composer than Handel or P u r c e l l , t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y true, f o r a composer whose major technical device i s v i r t u o s i c i m i t a t i o n makes over the years few claims on l i s t e n e r s 1 time. However, just as there i s r e a l emotion i n E l o i s a . so there i s great depth of f e e l i n g i n "Comfort ye." Ornamentation and i m i t a t i o n were techniques of Handel's day (as well as of other periods); they were over-used neither by P u r c e l l nor by Handel. Despite the amount of i m i t a t i o n , of word painting, of c a r e f u l discrimination of sound i n the l a t t e r ' s music, Brown rather grudgingly admits him to the category of expressive composers: own, p. 6 l . x*xCt. Larsen, pp. 105-107 165 The truth probably- i s that Handel, being Handel, could write excellent music i n spite of h i s conformity with a rather puerile approach to the problems of vocal music.l k 2 In Handel's music word painting forms part of the means, not the end, and l i k e Pope's "choice of words," should never be divorced from a consideration of the vocal music. I t i s the degree of excellence i n technical matters as well as a marked human expressiveness which elevates t h e i r work to the realm of great a r t . In dealing with one of the major techniques i n Pope's poetry which leads to both v a r i e t y and unity, namely, contrast, I quoted Professor T i l l o t s o n ' s comment that "to contrast i s to r e l a t e " and also h i s c i t a t i o n of George Sherburn's point that the p r i n c i p l e of contrast i n Pope has i t s p a r a l l e l i n the l M v a r i e t y i n the movements of a suite. J The same p r i n c i p l e i s also to be seen operating on an even smaller scale i n Handel's own, l o c . c i t . This comment i s unfortunate i n i t s condescending tone; i m i t a t i o n (word painting, described i n these pages.) i s not necessarily p u e r i l e . Larsen, a Professor of Musicology at the University of Copenhagen, i s much more reasonable i n h i s judgment about i m i t a t i o n ; t h i s may be seen by reference to almost any of the pages of the second chapter of h i s volume on Messiah: see pp. 9o f f . Larsen, I f e e l , completely supports the view that Handel i s an Impressive and thoroughly a r t i s t i c composer. See also Bronson and P h i l l i p s , Music and Literature i n England, pp. 30 f f . Bronson discusses Handel's setting of Dryden's Song fo r St. C e c i l i a ' s Day; see pp. 32 f f . Ik? J T i l l o t s o n , Pope and Human Nature, pp. 202-203; v. supra, p. 133. 1 6 6 music, f o r just as one l i n e may r i s e , so another often f a l l s , creating both a n t i t h e s i s and balance. I t i s unnecessary f o r me to repeat here what has been said above i n regard to balance, neo-classicism, and s c i e n t i f i c thought. What I s h a l l do, however, i s to c i t e further i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the r o l e of the ihh p r i n c i p l e of contrast i n Handel's works. In the suites and sonatas of Handel, as Sherburn c o r r e c t l y states, there i s often great contrast between the movements, both i n tempo and i n key; yet, as I stated e a r l i e r , there i s a thematic r e l a t i o n s h i p which makes for unity, e.g., Suite V. Contrast i s employed f o r v a r i e t y and i n t e r e s t , but disunity i s never the r e s u l t . The Music f o r the Royal Fireworks ( 1 7 * + 9 ) , f o r example, displays contrast i n key and tempo both between the movements and within separate movements, (e.g., the "ouverture," "Bouree," and "La Paix" ( S i c i l i a n a ) ) . Even the f i n a l two movements, both minuets, show a marked difference i n character. Contrast i n t h i s work i s used to obtain v a r i e t y and to create i n t e r e s t ; i t also gives the work a balance and proportion which i t would not have i f a l l the movements had been of the same nature as the fourth, "La R4jouissance." l l +^ Similar comments might be made i n regard to the v a r i e t y of movements i n the Concerti Grossi. There i s , as I stated above i n my discussion of the precision.to be found Ihh , See Brown, p. 1 2 2 . Handel's works involve a great deal of use of t h i s p r i n c i p l e . l L^G. F. Handel, Music f o r the Royal Fireworks, pp. hh f f . See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. XII. 167 i n Handel's writing, a balance to be found between the phrases of a melodic l i n e ; balance, again, implies contrast. However i t i s i n the vocal music that the most s t r i k i n g uses of the p r i n c i p l e are to be found. In the discussion of Handel's a b i l i t y to vary the mood of h i s music according to hi s text, the r e c i t a t i v e s i n Messiah dealing with the appearance of the angel were c i t e d . x ^ Recitatives lky 15, and 16 are splendid examples of the use of contrast f o r dramatic emphasis. As I pointed out, the pastoral mood i s completely established i n the symphony (No. 13) and i n the f i r s t part of the r e c i t a t i v e which follows. In the second part the appearance of the angel i s p e r f e c t l y i l l u s t r a t e d ; i n the darkness of the night-shrouded land there i s a joyous f l a s h of l i g h t , a musical i l l u m i n a t i o n . The r e l a t i o n of the angel's words i s properly set i n r e c i t a t i v e , (No. 15) but the l a t t e r i s more dramatic i n q u a l i t y than the pastoral f i r s t part of No. Ik. The appearance of the heavenly host creates another contrast which i n a painting would probably be depicted by the addition of h i g h l i g h t s to c e r t a i n parts of a picture. Handel paints t h i s musically by a return to the rapid sixteenth notes of "And Lol The Angel of the Lord," (No. l k , second part) and by placing the t e s s i t u r a of the r e c i t a t i v e higher. C e r t a i n l y the l a t t e r (No. 16) contrasts with the s o l i d majesty of the chorus which follows, v i z . , "Glory to God;" i t also leads p e r f e c t l y to the chorus i n the musical sense. The l o g i c of contrast i s not d i s u n i t y but unity. Indeed, V. supra, p. 153* See I l l u s t r a t i o n Nos. VIII-IX. 168 Handel's use of the p r i n c i p l e i n Messiah i s often noted by-Professor Larsen. While there was much greater va r i e t y i n the f i r s t d r a f t and performance of the work than i n the l a t e r presentations, much remains; Handel reworked the score, eliminating those elements which made f o r d i s u n i t y . 1 * * 7 Larsen notes, f o r example, the contrasting melodic motives i n "Behold the Lamb of God," (variety on a small s c a l e ) , as well as the difference i n character between, say, "The Lord gave the word," (No. 3 8 ) , and "How b e a u t i f u l are the f e e t , " (No. 39) , (variety on a large s c a l e ) . The r e s u l t of va r i e t y such as the type just c i t e d i s an emphasising of the calm nature of the a r i a and the creation of a freshness quite d i f f e r e n t to that b u i l t up by the r e c i t a t i v e s leading to "Glory to God." I t , i s the very cheerfulness and pulse of "0 Thou that t e l l e s t good ti d i n g s to Zion," (No. 9) which causes a great deal of the impact of the r e c i t a t i v e "For, behold, darkness s h a l l cover the Earth," (No. 10) and the bass a r i a which follows, "The people that walked i n darkness." 1 1* 9 In Esther also there are examples of the use of contrast; one p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t i v e one i s the following of the graceful S i c i l i a n o "Blessing descend on downy wings" with the cheerful, animated chorus, l l f 7See, f o r example, Larsen, Handel's Messiah, pp. 131-133. l k 8 I b i d . , pp. 138, 158, Handel, Messiah, pp. 132-137. l l f 9 0 n obtaining emphasis by the use of contrast ( i n poetry) see Raymond, Rhythm and Harmony . . . , pp. 139-l kO. it 169 "The Lord our enemy hath s l a i n . " ^ ^ The examples given here, though, are but few of the many which are to be found i n Handel's works; f o r him, as f o r Pope, the employment of contrast i n order to create balance was a major item i n h i s 151 i n h i s technique. 7 E a r l i e r In t h i s chapter the "Pastoral Symphony" i n Messiah was c i t e d i n connection with the ease with which Handel conforms to the thought of the poetry which he i s setting and with h i s use of contrast. What has not yet been stated i s that the pastoral nature of t h i s piece i s quite c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a number of Handel's works. Like Pope, Handel was a painter of the countryside, and often i n h i s works there i s an aura of fresh breezes, r o l l i n g h i l l s , country sounds i n the distance, and gentleness a l l round. "And He s h a l l feed 1 5 2 h i s f l o c k " contains a s i m i l a r aura. Percy M. Young i s also quite d e f i n i t e about th i s point: Handel, l i k e Haydn (only i n greater degree), was what Dr. E i n s t e i n c a l l s an 'open-air' composer. Handel i s master of the pastoral s t y l e . He f a l l s into the English l y r i c a l t r a d i t i o n of the pastoral poets and 1^°Handel, Esther, pp. 13*+ f f . On Esther, see Young, The  Oratorios of Handel, pp. *+3 f f . 1 5 1 ' According to Sypher fs c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , Handel, with Pope, would be regarded as a l a t e baroque a r t i s t , h i s work being marked by " . . . exaggerated contrast or counterpoise," and an emphasis upon units. See Sypher, p. 256. "Late-baroque masses are 'closed* or contained within strongly defined l i m i t s and treated with a responsible sober, or even methodical sense of order." The same could be said of Handel's a r i a s , choruses, suite movements, etc. For further discussion, v. infra,pp. 176 ff. 1 5 2 < For an i n t e r e s t i n g discussion of representation through 170 echoes what hi s contemporaries, such as Dyer, Matthew Green, and C o l l i n s , were trying to achieve. The music of L 1 A l l e g r o , of Susanna, of the superbly impression-i s t i c nightingale chorus of Solomon, i s not only the music of a man paying decorous l i p service to the pastoral d e i t i e s : i t i s the music of one who knew the countryside i n intimate detail. 1 5 3 Of course, the point i s not that the depicting of pastoral scenes i n poetry and music was a new idea per se; i t i s , rather, that Pope and Handel, l i v i n g i n the same age with many of the same influences working upon them, demonstrate a great a b i l i t y to portray a country atmosphere i n t h e i r respective ar t s . Handel's "Pastoral Symphony" and Pope's Windsor Forest show t h i s to be true. Of the former i t could well be said that i t s mood, i t s tone, and I t s evening colours, with i t s green, i t s blue, and i t s zephyrs, come a l i v e , yet do so with that peacefulness which i s one of Handel's best g i f t s . In t h i s piece i s the perfect preparation of mood, of "mental s e t t i n g , " f o r the appearance of the angel and subsequently of " . . . a multitude of heavenly host . . . , " 1 5 L A tribute i n reverse i s paid to the "Symphony" by Albert Schweitzer: In the Christmas Oratorio . . . most hearers f a i l to perceive the beauty of the sinfonia that opens the Second Part; i t gives them a s l i g h t f e e l i n g of music, see Raymond, pp. 250 f f . See also Bronson and P h i l l i p s , PP. 33, L 0 . "^^Young, "Handel the Man," Handel: A Symposium, p. 7. Young l i s t s a number of Handel's t r i p s to the country, and notes also the influence on h i s music of h i s journey to Ireland. Cf. Young. The Oratorios of Handel, p. 57. 'Handel, Messiah, pp. 5« f f . ; i n regard to the quotation, see p. 59. 171 disappointment. Instead of a tender pastoral, of the kind we have i n Handel's Messiah, they get a movement into the mood of which they cannot quite enter. Even when played most tenderly, i t has a c e r t a i n r e s t l e s s -ness i n i t . . . .155 The views of the Bev. H. R. Haweis are completely i n accord with those expressed above i n connection with t h i s marvellous piece. He discusses b r i e f l y the development of Messiah and notes that aft e r "For unto us . . . " and the preceding sections there . . . comes one of those pauses so common i n the works of great dramatists, where the mind has been le d up to the threshold of c e r t a i n s t a r t l i n g events, and i s c a l l e d upon to recreate i t s e l f f o r a moment before entering upon a t r a i n of the most exc i t i n g i n t e r e s t and rapid action.15© That moment of recreation i s the "Pastoral Symphony." I t i s wondrous what magical hues and fee l i n g s Handel can work by using strings and woodwinds over a bass pedal point. Just as Bunyan i n Pilgrim's Progress gives one a v i v i d picture of the E n g l i s h countryside, so Pope, with complete co n t r o l of h i s medium, causes the reader to be transported, by means of h i s couplets, into the country to see the pheasant shoot up from the brake i n a l l i t s splendid whirrings. Both Pope and Handel are masters of the Pastoral. Albert Schweitzer. J. S. Bach, trans. Ernest Newman (London, 1955), I I , 306. •'-^Haweis, p. 200. See also p. 201. See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. VIII. 1 7 2 With the mention of Pope's s a t i r e s above, I made the point that on the basis of the i r mood they could be compared with a type of composition by Handel. I f t h i s premise i s accepted, the gigue, as I said, with i t s l i g h t and often witty tone i s perhaps s a t i r e ' s closest musical counterpart (apart, of course, from works with similar i n t e n t , such as Gay's The  Beggar's Opera). The fugal-type e n t r i e s , the t r i p l e t rhythm, and, of course, the speed, a l l contribute to what i s r e a l l y a form with a polished nature. Often i n the character of the subject there i s an element of humour. With an a t t r a c t i v e subject and good part-writing, the voices appear to be almost i n conversation with each other. Handel's Suites f o r Harpsi-chord give clear examples of t h i s , ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the fourth, the ninth, the twelfth, and the fourteenth s u i t e s ) . Reference to Bach's French Suites, notably Number Five, would tend to bear out my statements. I t i s not necessary f o r me to repeat here a l l that I have said i n regard to the balance, the precision, and the control which i s present i n so many of Handel's compositions. Order i s a natural feature of h i s works, and l i k e the works of Pope, they contain a seeming paradox i n that when they are most ordered they often seem most natural and comprehensible to the l i s t e n e r . Through balance and contrast as well as other masterly f a c e t s , Messiah emerges as a great work of a r t . I suggest that on many occasions Handel could have l e t h i s emotion run on to a r t i s t i c a l l y disastrous l i m i t s ; however, h i s reason, 173 or whatever element i n him was the governing force, caused him to hold i n c a r e f u l check those mighty forces which were h i s to command. I t i s true that there i s no i d e n t i f i a b l e rule which states how long an a r i a must be i n order to be '•correct, 1 1 a r t i s t i c a l l y ; yet i t i s my opinion that none of the arias or choruses i n , say, Messiah, show any imbalance, i n terms of length or emotional fervour, with the thoughts which they convey. I t i s , of course, possible to state that because Handel did not leave us i n prose or poetry a statement of b e l i e f i n the order of a l l things and i n the regulation of passions by reason, we cannot, as scholars, ascribe such a b e l i e f to him. Such thinking i s nonsensical. Perhaps no better statement of f a i t h i n a d i v i n e l y ordered system exists i n music than i n Messiah, and the c e r t a i n t y of h i s f a i t h , sealed by the composer's hand i n the "Amen," i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s other works, i n the precision, contrast, and balance which characterise them. My point here, then, i s that Handel had an awareness of a divine l o g i c and c o n t r o l , that he also shows a d e f i n i t e sense of order, as I have shown by reference to s p e c i f i c works i n t h i s chapter, and that i n these matters he i s very similar to Pope, whose b e l i e f i n the l o g i c a l arrange-ment of a l l things I outlined above. Professor T i l l o t s o n cements the r e l a t i o n s h i p ; f o r i n commenting on Pope's words, "Whatever i s , i s RIGHT," he notes the vast amount of e v i l as well as good taken into account i n the f i r s t part of the statement and concludes that 17 k the vast matter represented i n the "Whatever i s " i s a sorry sight, and i s unflinchingly,* shown as such i n Pope's poems, including An Essay on Man i t s e l f . 1 5 7 He goes on to state that when Handel came to set the words, he said a l l t h i s i n the music: the unison phrase-to which the singers enunciate "Whatever i s " i s a d i g n i f i e d w a i l , l y i n g across the beat, and though the chords f o r " i s RIGHT" are loud and quick and sudden, they a r r i v e only af t e r the strings have pursued a melancholy meander, as i f aimlessly i n "the la b y r i n t h of L i f e . . . ."158 Pope has been described as a poet of nature, a poet, too, of human nature; Handel i s h i s counterpart i n t h i s regard. It would be absurd to claim that the Chandos anthems are a document of the deepest r e l i g i o u s experience . . . . What they do contain i s the expression—whether grave, thoughtful, or j u b i l a n t — o f ordinary human experience: the qua l i t y i n Handel which has given to "Messiah" a po s i t i o n denied to a l l other compositions.159 Like Pope's poetry, Handel's music i s not merely the product of a number of formal r u l e s and p r i n c i p l e s of construction; i t has i t s formal elements, c e r t a i n l y , but within them i s to 1 ^ 7 T i l l o t s o n , Pone and Human Nature, p. 53« 1 ^ 8 I b i d . , pp. 5 3 - 5 k . The l a s t four words of t h i s quotation are from Dryden 1s t r a n s l a t i o n "Lucretius: against the fear of death," 1. 270. The setting of Pope's words to which T i l l o t s o n r e f e r s occurs i n Jeptha (175D i n the chorus "How dark, 0 Lord, are thy decrees." Morell i s the l i b r e t t i s t of the oratorio; the l i n e has been "borrowed" from Pope. See p. 51*, n. 2. 1 5 9 B a s i l Lam, "Handel and Bach," The Listener. March 14, 1957, c i t e d i n i b i d . , p. 5 k , n. 2. Lam i s perhaps over-generous i n h i s praise of the Messiah. See also Bronson and P h i l l i p s , p. 42. V. supra, pp. 140 f f . 175 be found the expression of the experience of man. Lam c i t e s the Chandos Anthems and Messiah as i l l u s t r a t i o n s of t h i s element of human nature. I t i s also to be found i n other works. Esther's moving plea to God f o r mercy upon the I s r a e l i t e s i n return f o r the s a c r i f i c e of her own l i f e i s but one example. However, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t , with "He was despised . . . " and other arias and choruses from Messiah to i l l u s t r a t e my point that as i n Pope's poetry so i n Handel's music i t i s r e a l l i f e which comes to the fore. Side by side with an awareness of universal laws and truths and with formal p r i n c i p l e s of composition, more r e s t r a i n i n g than those which l 6 l governed the Romantics, runs t h i s tremendous, human expression. Percy M. Young, i n discussing Handel's r e l i g i o u s p r i n c i p l e s , states that i n Messiah we notice that the d i v i n i t y of C h r i s t seldom appears, whereas the humanity of Christ does; that erring mortals are contemplated with vast sympathy and with some consciousness of the i n e x o r a b i l i t y of supernatural agents . . . . The v i a dolorosa i n Handel's thought i s a human way. Each of us makes h i s i n d i v i d u a l way to h i s separate Calvary. The greatness of God (and Handel sub-scribed to the conventional findings of theology only as a c r i t e r i o n by which he might assess h i s own judgment) fi n d s exalted expression often enough, but i n the manner of the Establishment. In the great choruses Handel f e e l s with h i s fellows and speaks f o r them: i n the r e c i t a t i v e s and arias he speaks f o r himself.162 l 6°Handel, Esther, pp. 55-60. Pope's E l o i s a and Handel's Esther are very human f i g u r e s . l 6 l J u l i a n Herbage i n "The Secular Oratorios and Cantatas," Handel: A Symposium, p. 1 L7, states that Handel i n Hercules (171+l+)writes at times with " . . . a warmth of l y r i c a l emotion . . . ." His music i s not c o l d l y formal. 1 6 2Young, "Handel the Man, " Handel: A Symposium, p. 9. 1 7 6 Like Pope's poems, then, Handel's works do not merely e x i s t within the bounds of t h e i r forms; they l i v e within them. Although h i s compositions are analysable i n terms of formal r u l e s — a s are Pope's c o u p l e t s — t h e y express much that i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y human. They are seldom, excepting h i s use of operatic c l i c h e s , over-burdened with a r t i f i c i a l p r i n c i p l e s ; thus, they seem natural to man, to whom, i n a c i v i l i s e d state, some order seems, paradoxically, only natural. I stated b r i e f l y above that Handel's work, generally speaking belongs to the late-baroque category. Hauser has indicated that i n c l a s s i c i s t i c art "naturalness and formal d i s c i p l i n e . . . " are p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l , 1 ^ 3 and my point i s further supported by reference to the p a r a l l e l s with Pope, that i s , the elements of precision and contrast, of balance and on the emphasis on the parts of a work as well as upon the whole, the decorative traces i n Pope's poetry, (e.g., the d e s c r i p t i o n of the sylphs, of the pheasant, e t c . ) , and i n Handel's music, (e.g., ornamentation and coloratura), the confident view of an order i n a l l things, and other points of 1 6 4 s i m i l a r i t y . However, such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n can only be made i n general terms, and i t i s wise to remember that no auser, S o c i a l History of Art, IX, 6 2 3 . 1 6 4 For a discussion of the q u a l i t i e s of l a t e baroque a r t , v. supra, pp. l¥+ f f . Were only one or two f a c t o r s s i m i l a r , even t h i s rather i n d e f i n i t e statement would be unwise. 177 category i s closed. That i s to say, an a r t i s t may display q u a l i t i e s belonging to more than one category, as do Dryden and, to a c e r t a i n extent, Handel. For while i t may be seen from t h i s rather cursory examination of a large subject that there are many points i n common between Pope and Handel, the l a t t e r often paints with a larger brush than the former, as many of the choruses w i l l a t t e s t . Handel was f a r more an "occasional" a r t i s t than was Pope, and the taste to which he conformed a f t e r the 1730's was not so much h i s own as i t had 165 been formerly. ' Yet, despite the d i s s i m i l a r i t y between t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and between motivating fac t o r s behind t h e i r works, s i m i l a r i t i e s i n s t y l e , techniques and e f f e c t s are, as I have shown, quite evident. Professor Larsen, discussing the Chandos Te Deum notes that the 'We praise thee 1 motive at the beginning i s a d i r e c t reminiscence of P u r c e l l , yet i t i s P u r c e l l translated i n t o Handel, translated from t y p i c a l middle Baroque into d e f i n i t e l y l a t e Baroque.I°° "Where'er you walk": Pope and Handel together I should l i k e to conclude t h i s chapter by showing how c l o s e l y the art of Pope resembles that of Handel when i t appears side by side with the l a t t e r ' s . To do t h i s I s h a l l examine b r i e f l y an a r i a from Semele (17 L 3)» "Where'er you walk." Although "^Flower, Handel. p. 2kh. See also B a s i l Lam, "The Church Music," Handel: A Symposium, p. 156. 166 Larsen, Handel's Messiah, p. 50. 178 the words of the oratorio are by Congreve, the l i n e s of the a r i a are d e f i n i t e l y Pope's and appear i n the pastoral, "Summer." Admittedly, the words are the work of a young man l67 who had not yet reached s i g n i f i c a n t poetic stature. ' However, the Pastorals, despite the adverse c r i t i c i s m on the part of Ft. K. Root, are exquisite. There i s the touch of C l a s s i c i s t influence i n them, and beside i t , the mark of a human being who i s the product of a l l h i s learning and experience, who, as I have pointed out, knows and loves the 168 countryside. In Handel's music i n t h i s a r i a one does not f i n d just an ornate I t a l i a n style nor just a Germanic state l i n e s s of mood. What one does f i n d i s the r e s u l t of a perfect union of a l l the major influences combined with those modicums of i n d i v i d u a l i t y and genius which produce u n i v e r s a l i t y i n a r t . Commenting on the second act of Semele, J u l i a n Herbage says that i f the chorus, "How engaging, how endearing," the a l i a hornpipe, "Now Love, that everlasting boy," and " . . . the f i n a l scene between Iho and Semele owe a debt to P u r c e l l , Jupiter's a i r 'Where'er you walk 1 i s an i n d i v i d u a l creation which no one except Handel could have achieved. "•L^7> Both the 167 'Root, The P o e t i c a l Career, p. 5 2 . On Semele see Flower, PP. 3O3-3Q6, 3 1 0 . ^ ^ F o r a short discussion of the countryside's influence on Pope, es p e c i a l l y i n connection with the Pastorals, see S i t w e l l , Pope, pp. kO-kl. Cf. Young, "Handel the Man," Handel: A  Symposium, p. 7 . 169 7Herbage, "The Secular Oratorios . . . ," Handel: A 179 , poetry and the music of t h i s a r i a are personal expressions on the part of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c r e a t o r s . The words are t y p i c a l of Pope; the music i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Handel* The words f i t the music w e l l , and v i c e versa. What i s created i s a gentle p a s t o r a l hymn of admiration. I n the f i r s t l i n e , the accents are present, i t i s t r u e , but they are l i g h t and breezy. Pope executes a master stroke w i t h the s e l e c t i o n of "crowd" t o d e p i c t the gathering of t r e e s i n t o a c o o l grove. The complete absence of j a r r i n g consonants puts sweetness and smoothness i n t o the l i n e s . The l a s t couplet i s p a r t i c u l a r l y b e a u t i f u l ; i f i t i s i d y l l i c — a n d t h a t i s no c o n d e m n a t i o n — i t i s e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e , both " r i s e " and " f l o u r i s h " g i v i n g connotations of verdant f e r t i l i t y . The con-v e n t i o n a l harmony tends to promote a sense of naturalness i n keeping w i t h the words. I n bars 1-8, only I , IV, V, and V 7 chords are used, but they are employed w i t h such d e l i c a c y and t a s t e , and complement such a f l o w i n g melody, w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c d otted rhythm ( J.J^ ) and gentle phrasing, t h a t they never seem p l a i n or r e p e t i t i o u s . The theme tends t o connote simultaneously the gentle whispering of leaves i n the breeze and the f l i c k e r i n g of s u n l i g h t through the green glade. Notable i s the r i s i n g and f a l l i n g of the music i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n w i t h the Symposium, p. l k 5 . See I l l u s t r a t i o n No. X I I I . "Where*er you walk." from Semele, ed. H. Heale (New York: G. Schirmer, I n c . , n.d.;. For an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n of the union of poetry and music, see J u l e s Combarieu, Les Rapports de La Musique et  de l a Poesie Considerees au P o i n t de Vue de l " B x p r e s s i o n ( P a r i s , 1893), PP. 283 f f . ( T h e s e pour l e doctorat prSsentee a l a F a c u l t y des L e t t r e s de P a r i s . ) 180 thought of the text. The words are evenly accented i n "cool gales s h a l l fan the glade;" so, too, are the notes i n the. lo v e l y descending accompaniment. Bar 5 shows the idea of shade (dark v i s u a l connotation) treated a tone lower, and r i g h t l y so, than that of breezes ( l i g h t v i s u a l connotation) two bars before. The second l i n e of the couplet i s repeated, the harmony concluding convincingly i n the dominant key. The same couplet i s heard again (bars 9-16), and i s treated by means of melodic and harmonic v a r i a t i o n . There i s absolute grace i n the poetry, and the same f e e l i n g i s engendered by the phrased sixteenth note f i g u r e s of bars 12 and 13 as the former are heard over the gentle staccato chords of the accompaniment. That t h i s i s soft shade i n sound i s c e r t a i n l y true. The second couplet ( i n bars 20-26), l i k e the r e p e t i t i o n of the f i r s t , i s set to variat i o n s of the melodic l i n e . The most obvious change i s the use of the minor key and of the consistent eighth notes which are heard i n the l a s t l i n e . In bar 21, Handel treats " r i s e " by causing the melody to leap upwards a major seventh. Just as masterful i s h i s placing of the . musical climax so that i t coincides with the word " a l l . " The open f i r s t inversion under the high note (G) of the melody i s e s p e c i a l l y s a t i s f y i n g at t h i s point. Moreover, t h i s peak or climax, i f one takes the da capo a l f i n e marking in t o consideration, i s seen to be v i r t u a l l y i n the middle of the a r i a . *The da capo i s important per se. f o r the l i s t e n e r i s not l e f t unquenched afte r the turning, searching, minor solution of the l a s t three bars. 181 The challenge of the heroic couplet Pope meets masterfully; the challenge of setting Pope's d i s c i p l i n e d l i n e s Handel meets with equal mastery. Part of the reason f o r t h i s i s h i s a b i l i t y to balance the words with b e a u t i f u l yet c o n t r o l l -ed melodic phrases, and to support the l a t t e r with a sense of tonal closure and harmonic s o l i d a r i t y . Both men l i v e i n the same realm of taste. In balance, rhythm, phrasing, mood, and indeed i n most of the aspects i n which poetry and music are comparable, Pope and Handel are a r t i s t i c brethren. That t h i s i s so i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n part, at l e a s t , by "Where'er you walk." I t i s t r u l y regrettable to r e f l e c t that many magnifi-cent works never were conceived because Handel refused to collaborate with Pope and thus form a partnership of two great m i n d s . 1 7 0 Blom, Music i n England, p. 131 CHAPTER IV "ACKNOWLEDGE SISTERS" In this thesis i t has been my purpose to show that poetry and music in England between 1660 and 1760 are comparable and indeed similar. It has been necessary in the exploration of this fiel d , to remain within somewhat narrow li m i t s j 1 thus the comparison has been limited to Dryden and Texts involving comparisons of poetry and music include John Hollander, The Untuning of the Sky; Ideas of Music in English  Poetry, 1500-1700 (Princeton, New Jersey, 1961), which deals with "ideas of music in English poetry" between 1500 and 1700; G. L. Raymond, Rhythm and Harmony in Poetry and Music (cited earlier), which is a valuable work in the field of aesthetics; J. Gombarieu, Les Rapports de la Musique et de la Poesie (noted above), a doctoral thesis with particular reference to the two arts in France, but which is general in nature and which lacks, regrettably, an index; C. S. Brown, Music and Literature, also cited above, which deals very largely with nineteenth- and twentieth-century art (Schubert, Whitman, et al.), although the author's comments on the setting of vocal music and on compara-tive forms are worthy of note in regard to the study of an earlier period; and Luigi Ronda^ The Meeting of Poetry and  Music, translated by Elio Gianturco and Cara Rosanti, The Mulin Music Books, Vol. VII (New York, n. d.), which takes into account poetry and music in the Italian Precento, Tasso and Monteverde, Goethe and music, and Debussy and Maeterlinck. See also W. H. Hadow's excellent essay on the two arts in Collected  Essays (London, 1928), pp. 220 f f . , and the papers by Bronson and Phillips on the arts in England in the seventeenth- and eighteenth- centuries in Music and Literature in England, pp. 1 f f . 182 183 P u r c e l l , and Pope and Handel. In addition, only r e l a t i v e l y few works of these men have been brought i n t o the discussion; to have c i t e d a vast number of examples would have made the presentation of the subject, at l e a s t i n i t s formative stages, as i t i s , unwieldy and confusing. A great deal of secondary as well as primary source material has been used, e s p e c i a l l y i n regard to the influences on Dryden and the others of foreign as well as n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l tendencies. Not to have noted that similar influences were at work on Dryden and P u r c e l l would have been to leave an e s s e n t i a l element out of the discussion; therefore i t was necessary to accept the word of scholars such as Van Doren and Westrup i n t h i s regard. In the consideration of the art of Dryden and P u r c e l l , I noted that both men were involved i n the web of a secular, courtly a r t , of an a r t which, partly because of patronage, le d to a number of occasional productions. The work of both poet and composer contains that i n t e r e s t i n g combination of what i s thought of as "baroque" splendour and "neo-classic" correctness, and displays a c e r t a i n amount of ornamentation and richness as well as balance and precision. Both arts contain what one might c a l l " t h e a t r i c a l " elements, and both contain, at times, small scale l y r i c expressions; both manifest innovation and evolution. The couplet of Dryden was neo-classic i n i t s correctness and yet not so perfect as that of Pope. S i m i l a r l y P u r c e l l * s eye often seems to be on the whole of a work rather than on the balance of i t s parts. Like Pope, Handel 184 i s concerned not only with the o v e r a l l nature of a work but with the contrast and balance of elements within i t . Like Dryden»s couplet, Pu r c e l l ' s ornamentation i s more f r e e -wheeling than that of Handel, and the e f f e c t of P u r c e l l ' s M , T i s Nature's Voice* 1 i s undeniably astonishing and very b e a u t i f u l ; yet a Handel a r i a often has an aura of greater control and balance (e.g., "Every v a l l e y . . . " ) . There are many p a r a l l e l s between the Dryden-Purcell comparison and the Pope-Handel comparison. In the eighteenth century, as I have noted, the arts show evidence of evolution; f o r example, Pope's couplet i s more developed and c o n t r o l l e d . The influences working on Pope and Handel are similar to those working on Dryden and P u r c e l l . Topics such as pre c i s i o n , balancing of thought and sound, rhythm, and choice of words are common to both discussions. Moreover, Pope and Handel are both masters of the pastoral; both employ the p r i n c i p l e of contrast; both, despite c o n t r o l l i n g rules of a r t , portray r e a l nature; and both, generally speaking belong to the a r t -h i s t o r i a n s ' l a t e baroque category. There are, of course, differences between Pope and Handel, f o r i f the former does not paint on as large a canvas as the l a t t e r , he i s also l e s s v e r s a t i l e i n h i s a b i l i t y to use a wide range of forms. Both Dryden and Pope wrote Odes f o r the f e s t i v a l of St. C e c i l i a ; the subject appealed to both men; but the l a t t e r poet's " . . . 'Ode on Saint C e c i l i a ' s Day' shows how s t i f f and 185 unaccustomed Pope f e l t himself to be when he was not working p i n couplets." Both comparisons (Dryden-Purcell and Pope-Handel) have been supported by reference to primary and secondary sources, and where i t has been possible, references have been given to texts i n both poetry and music i n order to esta b l i s h at l e a s t a primary c o l l a t i o n of the comments of scholars of the period under review. In the comparisons themselves, the emphasis has been on influences, s t y l e s , techniques and e f f e c t s . I am completely i n agreement with Wylie Sypher when he says that . . . any comparison of the arts on the basis of t h e i r content or subject alone i s d e f i c i e n t . The form of l i t e r a t u r e i s not i n the 'story* i t t e l l s , f o r a drama or novel i s cont r o l l e d by i t s own kind of s t y l e , i t s own mode of v i s i o n or representation. Paradoxically, l i t e r a t u r e , so f a r as i t uses a s t y l e , i s non - l i t e r a r y , since the anecdote or s i t u a t i o n i s a vehicle only, an instrument to make 'a complex of f i n e measurements,' as James knew. There are other values than 'subject* i n poems, dramas, and novels so f a r as they aspire to formal composition. The same i s true of painting and sculpture, where the subject or anecdote has imposed upon i t a c e r t a i n mode of presentation. I t i s not enough to say with Horace that poetry i s l i k e painting, i f we merely imply that some pictures u t i l i z e the same subject as poetry. k Sitwell, Pope. p. 219. 3The reader may have noted, f o r example, that where a point i s made i n regard to a technique i n l i t e r a t u r e which has i t s p a r a l l e l i n music, and the point i s supported by a secondary source, the footnote w i l l also include a reference to the musical p a r a l l e l as discussed by a c r i t i c of music. Thus re-ferences to Van Doren and Westrup may appear i n the same f n . i n an attempt to bring together both primary and secondary sources. Sypher, Renaissance S t y l e , p. 12 186 To say, prima f a c i e , that the work of a poet i s similar to that of a painter merely because both men treat the same subject i s to make an i n v a l i d judgment. In the comparison of two or more a r t s , s t y l e s and techniques have to be taken into consideration. Styles vary with d i f f e r e n t periods i n the h i s t o r y of art and within those periods, with the men employ-ing them. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of an a r t i s t ' s subject to h i s st y l e i s ' e l a s t i c ' His st y l e i s h i s language, and i f t h i s language does not allow him everything, i t allows him to say what he chooses to say. To t h i s degree style i s both 'vision and design.' Technique i s not merely a technical f e a t : i f i t i s a way of representing what i s seen or experienced, then i t involves the whole c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l world that influences the a r t i s t to t r y to represent r e a l i t y as he does. I f sty l e i s a mode of representation, yet the a r t i s t i s bound to represent the kind of world i n which he l i v e s , to which he belongs.5 Thus P u r c e l l and Dryden represent i n t h e i r a r t the pr e v a i l i n g tendencies of the l i f e which surrounded them, and Pope and Handel do the same. To compare two arts which use d i f f e r e n t materials i s to pose c e r t a i n problems f o r the a r t - h i s t o r i a n . Poetry r e l i e s on words i n which meaning i s i n t e l l i g i b l e i f not always d e f i n i t e . ^Ibid., p. 13. In connection with s t y l e as the a r t i s t ' s language, Sypher gives a note to Andre Malreaux, Voices of  Silence U 9 5 3 ) , P. L k 7 . 187 'The goal of every art i s to incorporate i n some ex-ternal work an idea i n the mind of the a r t i s t . In music t h i s idea i s a tonal one, not a l o g i c a l one which must f i r s t be translated into tones.'" Despite the difference i n art-material, a comparison w i l l often produce p a r a l l e l s between poetry and music, e s p e c i a l l y i n the realm of techniques and s t y l e s , as t h i s thesis shows. However, i t would be wrong to expect to f i n d a 1:1 correspond-ence between a poetic technique and a musical one. Thus, I have suggested that Pope's couplet appears often to have i t s p a r a l l e l i n the Handelian phrase; yet the analogy i s neither consistent nor exact. I t i s f a r more reasonable to expect to f i n d very close correspondence between architecture, sculp-ture, and painting, (arts involving similar p r i n c i p l e s of design .)., as Hauser and Wo'lfflin show, than between arts where a difference i n materials presupposes a difference--whieh may, at times, be only s l i g h t — i n design, i n construction, 7 and i n meaning. Careful scholarship can, however, detect, Edward Hanslick, vom Musikalisch-Schb'nen (Leipzig, 1922), Ch. I l l , c i t e d i n Brown, Music and L i t e r a t u r e , p. 232. 'Brown, p. 23*+. The question of meaning i n music i s seriously debated. We normally associated the music of "For unto us a c h i l d i s born" with a serious and important r e l i g i o u s event; Brown notes that i t was o r i g i n a l l y used i n a madrigal of which the words were " . . . e r o t i c I t a l i a n doggerel . . . ." Yet we are confronted with the "Pastoral Symphony," not e a s i l y mis-interpreted, and always associated with the t i t l e . On meaning i n music, on programmaticism, see Brown, pp. 229-2kk. Descrip-t i v e music i s discussed i n the following chapter, pp. 2k5 f f . 188 accurately points of s i m i l a r i t y between both a r t s , and I t i s i n the i n t e r e s t s of students of poetry and music that further research be c a r r i e d out. I t i s not merely to be able to place poets and composers more accurately i n art-categories (late baroque, e t c . ) , that t h i s research should be undertaken. Indeed the l a b e l l i n g of an a r t i s t i n such a fashion i s often dangerous and misleading, and i t i s to be noted that i n t h i s t h e s i s , where such terms are used, they are used with caution and only on the basis of v e r i f i a b l e evidence. As I stated i n the introduction, the study of two arts within a given period throws l i g h t on each a r t , as well as on the age of which they are a part. Per-spective i s necessary i n any study of an a r t , f o r music and poetry of the eighteenth century, f o r example, are r e f l e c t i o n s of that age. Knowledge of one art-form alone may be impressive, i n large quantities, but i t leads to narrowness of v i s i o n ; perspective, which comes through a broader view, leads to wisdom i n regard to the f i e l d of i n t e r e s t . In an age of s p e c i a l i s a t i o n where no man can e a s i l y know one a r t completely, l e t alone two, i t i s works i n the f i e l d of comparison which w i l l make that perspective more e a s i l y obtainable. As I pointed out i n regard to the l a t e seventeenth and eighteenth centuries i n England, insofar as comparisons of poetry and music are concerned, very l i t t l e has been achieved. This, I suggest, i s why Professor T i l l o t s o n described the area as both 189 8 " . . . i n t e r e s t i n g and f r u i t f u l . . . " i n terms of further research. In the form of d i s s e r t a t i o n or scholarly volume, the r e s u l t s of such research would be a s i g n i f i c a n t contribu-t i o n to English l i t e r a r y and musical scholarship and would further confirm Purcell's b e l i e f , set out by Dryden, that Music and Poetry have ever been acknowledg'd S i s t e r s . . . .9 Geoffrey T i l l o t s o n , Letter to the writer, October 27, 196l . ^Westrup, P u r c e l l . p. 69. See also Van Doren, Dryden. pp. kk f f . , 56, Myers, Handel. Dryden. and Milton, pp. 18-19, and Chap. I, supra, p. 2. LIST OF WORKS CONSULTED Books, A r t i c l e s , and Letters Abbott, Edwin. A Concordance to the Works of Alexander Pope. London, 1875. Abraham, Gerald, ed. Handel; A Symposium. London, New York, Toronto, 195 k . Sections of t h i s work consulted include Young, Percy M., "Handel the Man," Dent, Edward J . , "The Operas," Herbage, J u l i a n , "The Oratorios," and "The Secular Oratorios and Cantatas," Lewis, Anthony, "The Songs and Chamber Cantatas," Lam, B a s i l , "The Orchestral Music," Dale, Kathleen, "The Keyboard Music," Abraham, Gerald, "Some Points of S t y l e , " and Smith, William C , "Catalogue of Works." A l l e n , Beverly S. Tides i n English Taste, 1619-1800. 2 v o l s . Cambridge, Mass., 1937. Auden, W. H., Noah Greenberg, and Chester Kallman, eds. An  Elizabethan Song Book. Garden C i t y , New York, 1956. Audra, E. L'Influence Francaise dans lOeuvre de Pope. Pa r i s , Baker, C. H. C o l l i n s , and Muriel J. Baker. The L i f e and Circumstances of James Brydges F i r s t Duke of Chandos. Oxford, Baugh, A. C , ed. A L i t e r a r y History of England. New York, [ 1 9 L 8 ] . Blom, E r i c . Music i n England. Revised Penguin E d i t i o n . West Drayton, Middlesex, 1947. Bronson, Bertrand H., and James E. P h i l l i p s . Music and  Literature i n England i n the Seventeenth and Eighteenth  Centuries. Los Angeles, 1953* Brooks, Cleanth. The Well Wrought Urn. New York, [ l 9 k 7 ] . Brown, Calvin S. Music and Lit e r a t u r e ; A Comparison of the  Arts. Athens, Georgia, 194-8. 190 191 Browning, Robert. The P o e t i c a l Works of Robert Browning. 2 vols. London, 1904. Bukofzer, Manfred F. Music i n the Baroque Era. New York, [1947]. Burckhardt, Jacob. The G i v i l i z a t i o n of the Renaissance i n I t a l y . Translated by S. G. C. Middlemore. Harper Torchbooks I l l u s t r a t e d E d i t i o n . 2 vols. New York, 1958. Burney, Gharles. A General History of Music from the E a r l i e s t  Ages to the Present Period. C r i t i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l notes by Frank Mercer. 2 v o l s . New York, 1935. ] • The Present State of Music i n France and I t a l y . London, 1771. . The Present State of Music i n Germany, the Netherlands, and United Provinces. 2 vols. London, 1773. C o l l e s , H. C. The Growth of Music. 2d. e d i t i o n . Oxford, 1949. Combarieu,^ Jules. Les Rapports de l a Musique et de l a Poesie  Considerees au Point de Vue de 1"Expression. P a r i s , 1893. Cudworth, Charles. "Handel and the French S t y l e , " Music and  Letters. XL ( A p r i l 1959), 122-131. Dryden, John. The Poems of John Dryden. Edited by John Sargeaunt. London, 1925. Dupre, Henri. P u r c e l l . Translated by Catherine A l i s o n P h i l l i p s and Agnes Bedford. New York, 1928. E l i o t , T. S. Homage to John Dryden. London, 1924. Evelyn, John. The Diary of John Evelyn. Edited by E. S. de Beer. 6 vols^ Oxford, 1955* Fellowes, Edmund H. William Byrd. 2d. ed. London, 1948. Flower, Newman. George F r i d e r i c Handel. Bicentenary E d i t i o n . London, 1959. Forsyth, C e c i l . Orchestration. 2d. e d i t i o n . London, 1935. Garvie, Peter, ed. Music and Western Man. London, Dent, 1958. Sections of t h i s work consulted include Reese, Gustave, "England Under the Tudors: Vocal Music," "England Under the Tudors: Instrumental Music," Holland, A.K., " P u r c e l l and English Seventeenth Century Music," and Lewis, Anthony, "Handel." "Gibbons, Orlando," Encyclooaedia B r i t a n n i c a . 1959, X, 333. 192 Grierson, Herbert John C l i f f o r d . Cross Currents i n English  Literature of the Seventeenth Century; or The World, the  Flesh, and the S p i r i t , Their Actions and Reactions. London, 1929. Gooch, G. P. History and Historians i n the Nineteenth Century. Beacon Press E d i t i o n . B o s t o n , 1959. Hadow, W. H. Collected Essays. London, 1928. "Harmonious Autocrat." MP of Canada, II (February, 1961), 107-110. Harvey-Jellie, W. Le t h l a t r e classique en angleterre dans  l'a'ge de John Drvden. Montreal, 1932. Hauser, Arnold. The Philosophy of Art History. London, 1959. . The S o c i a l History of Art. Translated i n collaboration with the author by Stanley Godman. 2 v o l s . London, 1951. Haweis, H. R. Music and Morals. 6th e d i t i o n . London, 1875. Hebel, J. W., H. H. Hudson, et a l . Tudor Poetry and Prose. New York, [1953]. Holland, A. K. Henry P u r c e l l . Penguin E d i t i o n . Harmondsworth, Middlesex, 19LBT Hollander, John. The Untuning of the Sky; Ideas of Music i n  English Poetrv. 1500-1700. Princeton, New Jersey, 1961. H o l l i s , Christopher. Drvden. London, 1933. Hoist, Imogen, ed. Henry P u r c e l l ; Essays on h i s Music. London, 1959. Sections of t h i s work consulted include Pears, Peter, "Homage to the B r i t i s h Orpheus," Tippett, Michael, "Our Sense of Continuity i n English Drama and Music," and Downes, Ralph, "An Organist's View of the Organ Works." Johnson, Samuel. L i f e of Pope. Introduction and notes by F. Ryland. B e l l ' s English C l a s s i c s . London, 1896. . Selected Prose and Poetry. Edited by Bertrand H. Bronson. Rinehart E d i t i o n . New York and Toronto, 1955. Keats, John. The P o e t i c a l Works of John Keats. Edited by H. Buxton For man! London, 192k. Langer, Susanne K. Philosophy i n a New Key. Mentor E d i t i o n . New York, 1955, llW&T-193 Larsen, Jens Peter. Handel's Messiah; Origins, Composition, Sources. London, 1957. MacDonald, W. L. Pone and His Critics: A Study in Eighteenth  Century Personalities. London, 1951. Macpherson, Stewart. Studies in the Art of Counterpoint. London, 1927. Myers, R. M. Handel. Dryden. and Milton. London, 1956. Parrish, Carl, and John F. Ohl. Masterpieces of Music Before  1750. New York, [ l 9 5 l ] . Pope, Alexander. The Complete Works of Alexander Pone. Edited by Henry W. Boynton. Boston, L 1 9 3 U . . The Works of Alexander Pope. Notes by William Warburton. London, 18-. Quiller-Couch, Arthur, ed. The Oxford Book of Victorian Verse. Oxford, 1925. Raymond, George Lansing. Rhythm and Harmony in Poetry and Music and Music as a Representative Art: Two Essays in Comparative Aesthetics. 2d. edition revised. New York and London, 1904. Ronga, Luigi. The Meeting of Poetry and Music. Translated by Elio Gianturco and Cara Rosanti. The Merlin Music Books, Vol. VII. New York, n. d. Root, Robert K. The Poetical Career of Alexander Pope. Prince-ton, 1938. Saintsbury, G. Dryden. English Men of Letters, edited by John Moreley. London, 1881. Schweitzer, Albert. J. S. Bach. Translated by Ernest Newman. 2 vols. London, 19^5^ Sherburn, George. The Early Career of Alexander Pope. Oxford, 1934. Sitwell, Edith. Alexander Pope. Penguin Edition. Harmonds-worth, Middlesex, 19 k 8. Smith, William C, assisted by Charles Humphries. Handel: A  Descriptive Catalogue of the Early Editions. London, i960. Spaulding, Wlater R. Music: An Art and a Language. Boston, 1920. 194 Strachey, Lytton. Pope. Cambridge, 1925. S u l l i v a n , J. W. N. Beethoven: His S p i r i t u a l Development. Mentor Book Edit i o n ^ New York, 1949. Sypher, Wylie. Enlightened England. New York, 1947. . Four Stages of Renaissance St v l e . Garden C i t y , New York, 1955. Taylor, Sedley. The Indebtedness of Handel to Works bv Other  Composers: A Presentation of Evidence. Cambridge, 1906. Tennyson, Al f r e d Lord. The P o e t i c a l Works of A l f r e d Lord  Tennyson. Globe E d i t i o n . London, 1924. T i l l o t s o n , Geoffrey. Letter to the writer, October 27, 1 9 6 l . _ . On the Poetry of Pope. Oxford, 1938. . Pope and Human Nature. Oxford, 1958. Tilmouth, Michael. "The Techniques and Forms of P u r c e l l ! s Sonatas," Music and Letters, XL ( A p r i l 1959), 109-121. Van Doren, Mark. John Dryden: A Study of h i s Poetry. F i r s t Midland Book E d i t i o n . B l o o m i n g t o n , Indiana, I960. Walton, Alexander. Architecture and Music: A Study i n  Reciprocal Values. Cambridge, 1934. Watt, Ian. The Rise of the Novel. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1959. Weber, Max. The Rational and S o c i a l Foundations of Music. Edited and translated by Don Martindale, Johannes Riedel, and Gertrude Neuwirth. Carbondale, 111., 1958. Westrup, J. A. P u r c e l l . 3rd e d i t i o n , The Master Musicians, New Series edited by E r i c Blom. London, 1947. . . "P u r c e l l and Handel," Music and Le t t e r s . XL ( A p r i l 1959), 103-108. Willey, B a s i l . The Eighteenth-Century Background. Beacon Press E d i t i o n . B o s t o n , 1961. . The Seventeenth-Genturv Background. Doubleday Anchor E d i t i o n . N e w York, 1955. W o l f f l i n , Heinrich. P r i n c i p l e s of Art History. Translated by M. D. Hottinger. Seventh (Dover) e d i t i o n . New York, n. d. Young, Percy M. The Oratorios of Handel. London, 1949. 195 Scores Blow, John. Venus and Adonis. Edited by Anthony Lewis. Tercentenary E d i t i o n . Monaco: L'Oiseau Lyre, 19L9. Handel, Georg F r i e d r i c h . Concert! Grossi f u r Strei c h instrumente. Herausgegeben und mit Vorwort versehen von Georg Schumann; Hinrichsen E d i t i o n . 12 vols. L e i p z i g : Ernst Eulenberg, 1906. . Concert! Grossi, Op. 6. 12 vols. London: Boosey and Hawkes Ltd., L1943J. • Esther, A Sacred Oratorio/In/Score/ Composed i n the Year/1720. London: Arnold, c. 179M-. ; . Hallische Handel Ausgabe. Im Auftrag der Georg-Friedrich-Hgndel-Gesellschaft. Herausgegeben von Max Schneider und Rudolf S t e g l i c h . Kassel und Basel: Barenreiter-Verlag, 1955- . I n process. • Kompositionen f l i r K l a v i e r . Herausgegeben von Adolf R u t h a r d . h vols. L e i p z i g : C. F. Peters, n. d. . Messiah. Edited by W. T. Best. London: Novello and Company Limited, 1923. . Music f o r the Royal Fireworks. London: Boosey and Hawkes Ltd. I1943J. . Ode on St. C e c i l i a ' s Day. London: Novello and Co., Ltd., L1909?J. . Piano Works: Suites. 2 v o l s . London, Augener U938?]. Passacaglia f o r String Orchestra and Continuo. London: Novello and Company Limited, L1933J. __. "Where'er you walk," from Semele. Edited by H. Heale. New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., n. d. Hawdo[w]n, Matthias. Two Concerti f o r Organ i n F Major and Bb  Major. London: Longman and Broderip, c. 1780. LMSS, C. 1850, consulted; printed copy extant i n Manchester Library.] P u r c e l l , Henry. Six Suites f o r Harpsichord or Pianoforte. Popular E d i t i o n of Selected Works, P u r c e l l Society, No. 7, edited by G. M. Cooper. London: Novello and Company Limited, (1952?). 196 P u r c e l l , Henry. The Music i n Drvden's "King Arthur." Ed. by J. A. F u l l e r Maitland. London: Boosey and Go., I 8 9 7 . . Ode f o r St. C e c i l i a ' s Dav (1692). Edited by Michael Tippet and Walter Bergman. London: Schott and Co. Ltd., [1955]. . The Works of Henry P u r c e l l . Vols. 1-29, 31. Published for the P u r c e l l Society. London: Novello and , Company Ltd. 1878-. In process. 14871 pains of e - ter -Site pains of e . ter -death. Yet, 14S71 Ill 10 S U I T E III PRELUDE M o d e r a t o (J - 104) rrrff .Trl r f—m~f 16998 38 4 . Alto solo: 'Tis Nature's voice [In stylo recitativo] Alto Solo Bassi Continuoj 'Ti's no. - ture's voice, So spricht Ala • fur, 'tis na - ture's voice, ttiro' all the so spricht /Vo - fur. Ihr lauscht der mov gan mg 20 •e— wood and crea M/o/et und ql tures un le Kre JL der - stood a - fur. •fscb.ssao 5. Chorus: Soul of the world [Moderate] • f i • ft -I Hffl | | | | | ' f - f i f u r 7 J J JJJJ * dfVI * r a r rrrr r nrr 'J kfc • . . ft* Soul of the twrld,- feul of the work* _ j « . ioul nf the -mrlrt i n . . r ™ ^ .f.,t.. /V frftfrr i • p fff-irr> f Soul of the Jc« - le dor p**« KOI? HVt,-soul of m» See fader worid._ r.-*f< «*T -J=3-J r , r ft A O «•» •rtrur a -35 M i by thee, thenarringjorring ertultt mrdmrrw ,mr rtr . by thee, thejarringjorrihg .. cr-AMP NOT/ wifrrr,mirrwr m- tpind. by thee, the jar ring, jar-ring «r /2t> •«W tmrrw. merer by thee, thejornhjjarrirg «r • A//* "Ord mirrw, wr-rer rr f r rr r r seeds, ttw jarrti^ jorri^gseeaa of mat • ttr did a - gree. Stotf, wordwir-nr,wirrrrShff ge-ord • net und p-Jtiltf. weds, thejor-rirg jar riqj seeds- of mot • ter d i d — agree. Stafft Mrd wirrer,wtr rrr Staff— ge-ord- net und ^ gestittt. Thou didst the Du gattst dw state, thijar-rir j^or-ring seed* of mot - ter did agree. Thou didst the scat Stuff, mrd mtrrrr, wtrrv Skff gt ord net und— gt-jtt'ltt. Dugabst dem flat Seeds, thejorrwig.jor-nrg seedsof mat - ter did a -grae. Staff, Mont¥mv,wir-tvSlbff ge - ord - net und ge-jtiflt. O f f i n /•Of 56 C o l d G e n i u s . ( B a s s S o l o . ) trrmotutido What Pow'r art thou who from be - low Hast made me rise un-wil-lintf-ly, ami I can scarce-ly movo or draw my breath,can scarcely move or draw my Vll S8 R E C I T . - " A N D L O ! T H E A N G E L O F T H E L O R D C A M E U P O N T H E M . " No. 15. U B C I T . — " A N D T H E A N G E L S A I D U N T O T H E M . " And the angel said un-to them " Fear not, for be-hold I bring yon good H i n d e l ' i " MeuiAh."—Novel lo , Ewer and C c ' i O c u v o E d i t i o n . \ c Umndel'i " H«uiah."—Nontlo. E w v u d Co. ' i O c U ' o E d l t l o i . No. a. R E C I T . — C O M F O R T Y E , M Y P E O P L E . Larghetto tpiano Viol. Isaiah x l . v. 1,2. 3. PlANO 80. — „ JJ. T E N O R . — s ^ r r - p — Comfort ye, com 1 ^ - * • » fort ye, . . m y 1 i ' | | s t - j f — •iii-^- : people, i f ] 1 Tcr i fc f ? r 1 JTT^rV^-r-- f |» 1* |»—f p | >^ f-f-J 1 -1 1 M 1* J " - -arf ft*. Tempo. com - fort ye, fort ye, m y people, ? Tmpo. z 5555 5555 4 1 i i i saith y o u r G o d ; Baith y o u r G o d ; Org. Viol. Org. Viol, speak ye r - r - r r h H -*=5 1 -5 L Celli. 4 4 c o m - forta • bly to Je - r u - salera, speak ye com - forta - b l y to J e -5 5 5 V" -if J 5 -j 5 -ii- -S- -5 -2 n & m k l ' s " M e s s i a h . " — N o v e l l o , E w u r a n i l Co. 'a O c t a v o F . d H i o n 5 5 5-5555 No. 3. TENOR. A I E . — E V ' E Y V A L L E Y S H A L L B E E X A L T E D . I s a i a h z l . . T. 4 P l A N O . M MtftT hi #• * L-T L-£; fr) g C s C s p m 1 1 » • • r — ^ i g [j r_f r_ L E v - 'ry v a l - ley, m ev - ' r y val - l e y . Org.^. m r 1 N m" P ^ 1 shall be ex - alt - ed, s h a l l be . ex - alt Viol. Fl. — - h i Viol. Fl. * 1 -l-L W 3 S - - » - . *r*-f-—*r-pr JtT^m. era. d  r • • • * — H a n d e l ' s " M e -J ~ ^ 1 ~ J s s i . i l i . " — N o v c l l o , Ewer a n d C<i.'s O c t a v o E d i t i o n . Where'er you walk. A r i a f r o m ' S e m e l e . " 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105893/manifest

Comment

Related Items