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The effect of two types of assignment on performance on examinations in high school Holt, John Cyril 1962

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THE EFFECT OP TWO TYPES OP ASSIGNMENT ON PERFORMANCE: ON EXAMINATIONS IN HIGH SCHOOL by JOHN CYRIL HOLT B» Sc., Manchester U n i v e r s i t y * England,, 19U-1-A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS; i n the department of Education We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA. August, 1962 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my ! Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s * I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l , g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission* Department of Education The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Canada D a t e r J u l y 31* 1962*. ABSTRACT The aim of t h i s study was to compare the e f f e c t s of two types of study assignment on the achievements of h i g h s c h o o l students on three types of b i o l o g y examination. One exam-i n a t i o n c o n s i s t e d of o b j e c t i v e questions, a second of s u b j e c t i v e questions of the short essay type, w h i l e the t h i r d was a combination of o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e questions* One type of assignment c o n s i s t e d of questions of the o b j e c t i v e type, the other of questions of the short essay type. Of r e l a t e d i n t e r e s t were the p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s of a high percentage of o b j e c t i v e examination questions, on the use by teachers of essay assignments. An experiment of the matched p a r a l l e l groups type was c a r r i e d out©, The experimental v a r i a b l e was the type of study assignment given, c o n s i s t i n g of e i t h e r o b j e c t i v e or short essay q u e s t i o n s . The d u r a t i o n of the experiment was s i x weeks, the academic subject f i e l d was b i o l o g y , the groups r e c e i v e d s i m i l a r teaching, and comparisons were made on the r e s u l t s o f s p e c i a l -l y constructed t e s t s administered before and a f t e r the teaching period© Each t e s t c o n s i s t e d of an o b j e c t i v e examination and an essay examination. The mean gains of the two groups: on each type of examination were compared. Results on what could be considered a mixed examination were obtained by combining the r e s u l t s of the o b j e c t i v e and essay examinations. The o b j e c t i v e and essay parts were weighted i n such a way that the mixed examination coulid be considered to resemble the type of exam-ina t i o n i n biology set by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education* A f i n a l comparison was: made between students;* r e s u l t s on the experimental t e s t s and on the a c t u a l depart-mental, examination* Attempts were made to es t a b l i s h the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the objective test but i t was; not possible to establi s h any p a r t i c u l a r degree of v a l i d i t y or r e l i a b i l i t y f o r the essay t e s t * A f t e r s t a t i s t i c a l t r e a t -ment, i t was found that there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference at the f i v e percent l e v e l between the result s of the groups on any of the three experimental t e s t s * Some d i f f i c u l t y was experienced i n comparing the r e s u l t s of the experimental t esta with those of the departmental examination* This was due to the system of recommendation which does, not require the top-si x t y percent to write the departmental examination, making i t impossible to obtain a. representative sample f o r comparison i n t h i s study* Certain conclusions were drawn subject to the l i m i t a t i o n s of the test s and of the general, experimental conditions. Comparing the use of objective and essay study assignmentst-(1) there seemed to be no difference i n the effect on the res u l t s on an objective t e s t * Teachers and t h e i r students might f e e l free to use either type of study assignment i n biology, (2:) nothing i n the study indicated any difference i n the effect on an essay t e s t , (3) nothing i n the study indicated any difference i n the effect on a. combined objective--essay test of the type used by the Department of Education, nothing i n the study indicated that the use of one type of study assignment rather than the other would hamper a student's chances of success on a biology examination of the type set by the Department of Education* In summary i t may be s a i d that the type of examination i n biology set by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education did not appear to place any r e s t r i c t i o n on the type of study assignment used i n high schools, provided that the assignments were comprehensive i n t h e i r cover of the material under study* v i i i I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e to the f o l l o w i n g persona f o r a s s i s t a n c e r e c e i v e d i n completing t h i s studys Dr.- Nagaswari Rajaratnam, my t h e s i s a d v i s e r , Mr. Roland Anderson,, who a s s i s t e d i n marking the t e s t s , Mr. Robert Bruce f o r reading the manuscript, and Mr. Tomo Naka, who checked the s t a t i s t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s . My thanks are a l s o due to the p r i n c i p a l and s t a f f of L» V. Rogers High School f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and patience during the p e r i o d of the experiment. TABLE OP CONTENTS' Page LIST OP TABLES........ ... v i i ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v i i i Chapter I. THEME WRITING AND OBJECTIVE EXAMINATIONS...* 1 Examinations and teaching practices Objective examinations and student attitudes to study Objective examinations and teacher at t i t u d e s The r o l e of the study assignment I I . AN OUTLINE OP THE STUDY.................. 10; The problem Delimitation of the study Hypothesis An outline of the experiment I I I . THE PERFORMANCE OF THE EXPERIMENT......., ..»•«• 1$. Preparation of the materials The administration of the experimental material IV. ANALYSIS OP THE RESULTS 31 The equality of the matched groups The v a l i d i t y of the test Mean gains and t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l . s i g n i f i c a n c e Comparisons with the departmental examination V* INTERPRETATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS ... 39 S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the re s u l t s Conclusions Limitations to the conclusions Summary Suggestions f o r further study Page APPENDIX A COPIES OF THE TESTS. ............ ....... * ...... ». kS B VALIDITY AND -RELIABILITY, OF THE TESTS............ 1. R e l i a b i l i t y of the objective t e s t 2» R e l i a b i l i t y of the essay test 3. V a l i d i t y of the tests C TEACHING AND ASSIGNMENT MATERIAL 62 1. Copy of the teaching unit 2. Sample of the lesson notes and accompanying assignments D DETAILS OF MATCHING GROUPS^ ,..... ......,.,.,.».....,. ......... 68 E DETAILS OF SCORES, GAINS, AND CALCULATIONS: OF D AND t . ...... .... ... ......... .. ... .......... 7® BIBLIOGRAPHY. . . . . . . « . o . .......... ....... * . . ... .... ....... . . . . 71^  v i i LIST OP TABLE Si Page Table I . Mean d i f f e r e n c e s between groups f o r matching f a c t o r s , ................. . ......... . 32: I I . Mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n gains between groups. ..*.<>. • 35 I I I . t r a t i o s f o r mean d i f f e r e n c e s i n gains............ 36 IV. Comparisons between r e s u l t s on experimental t e s t s and successes i n the departmental examinat i o n . ........... .... • • ... .<v.r.r. • • • . . . • • • . 37 Appendix. ••-. , •. . Table A Values o f p the p r o p o r t i o n of students; passing each question,, and of qj (=1 - p ) , the p r o p o r t i o n f a i l i n g each q u e s t i o n . . . . . . . . • 55 2 B C a l c u l a t i o n of <S~ f o r the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 • . . . • • • » . • • • • » • . . . . . • . . . . . . . • • 56 C Comparison of the marks awarded by the readers-.. 57 D Table of specification........•.••••»•.••••••.•. 5$ E Analyses of s c o r i n g • • . 59 F Comparisons between students i n each of the matched p a i r s . . . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . o . . . . . . . © 68 G Scores and gains of each student i n each part of the t e s t and the d i f f e r e n c e s i n gains between the students of each matched pair.......«..«• 70; H C a l c u l a t i o n s of D and t f o r the three t e s t s . . . . . 72: CHAPTER I THEME WRITING AND OBJECTIVE EXAMINATIONS Examinations and teaching practices-This study arose as a r e s u l t of general concern with the effects of current examination methods on high school teaching practices, i n p a r t i c u l a r on the type of written assignment designed by high school teachers as a learning experience f o r t h e i r pupils. It i s widely f e l t that the objective type of question which constitutes such a large part of present day examinations, colours the whole approach to high school studies; and has a r e s t r i c t i v e effect on c e r t a i n teaching practices which may be of value i n f o s t e r i n g educational development i n the f u l l e s t 3 e n s e . For instance, i t i s f e l t by many teachers that the regular w r i t i n g of essay themes i n subjects such as s o c i a l studies and the sciences c u l t i v a t e s much that i s desirable i n the educational growth of students* Such teachers are not s a t i s f i e d , however, that essay w r i t i n g i s good preparation f o r objective examinations. I t i s a common assumption that there i s an incompatability between the achievement of broad educational aims and the s a t i s f a c t o r y preparation f o r examinations of the objective type. There iss l i t t l e , i f any, evidence to support or refute such an assumption, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the high school l e v e l * It seems l i k e l y that,, f o r school, and public examination purposes, the use of objective tests w i l l , continue. Under most conditions they are superior to essay t e s t a i n r e l i a b i l i t y , v a l i d i t y , and ease of scoring. A. number of questions could be asked however, which seem to be pertinent to the bearing of objective examination on school and college education. What do they measure? Do students with a thorough knowledge and understanding of the subject matter do better than those who have made a se l e c t i v e study of aspects of the subject f i e l d susceptible to objective testing? what effect do these examinations have on students' methods of study? How much are the methods used by a school teacher influenced by the objective examination which h i s students w i l l write at the end of h i s course? Objective examinations and student a t t i t u d e s to study. In what way, i f any, do students allow t h e i r methods of study to be influenced by the type of examination they w i l l have to s i t ? Douglas and Talmadge*1- found that students who expected to be tested by objective examinations prepared and learned tables of f a c t s and minute d e t a i l s of the material covered and t r i e d to learn the wording of the textbook on important points, whereas those who anticipated t e s t i n g by essay-type questions studied g e n e r a l i t i e s and trends, form-ulated personal opinions about the m a t e r i a l studied, attempted ^H. R. Douglas and M. Talmadge, "How University Students Prepare f o r New Types of Examinations". Stohool and Society 39, 193k> PP. 318 - 320. - 3 -to draw c o n c l u s i o n s from prepared tables; and s t u d i e d t h e i r l e c t u r e notes g e n e r a l l y . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s ; reached the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t the type o f examination does i n f l u e n c e methods o f study, o b j e c t i v e examinations f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n on d e t a i l , and exact wording w h i l s t essay examinations favoured! methods i n v o l v i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n of m a t e r i a l , p e r c e p t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s and t r e n d s and the f o r m a t i o n of personal. a t t i t u d e s t o the s u b j e c t matter* 2 In another study, Meyer concluded t h a t students e x p e c t i n g to be t e s t e d by essay q u e s t i o n s took a w h o l i a t i c view of t h e i r s u b j e c t s , attempting t o see f i r s t the general, o u t l i n e or "major d r i f t " o f t h e m a t e r i a l under study, memorizing l a t e r such d e t a i l as time p e r m i t t e d . Those s t u d y i n g w i t h an o b j e c t i v e examination i n mind f r a n k l y admitted c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the l e a r n i n g of m i n u t i a e and d e f i n i t i o n s . One student s a i d he "'stuffed'" h i s memory w i t h as many f a c t s as he c o u l d b e f o r e the examination and then f o r g o t most o f them. 3 Summarizing t h i s f i e l d , Freeman says, " I b e l i e v e o u r students are o b t a i n i n g a wrong concept o f what study means and t h a t the r e a l aims of i n s t r u c t i o n a r e b e i n g d i s t o r t e d ' " . O b j e c t i v e Examinations and t e a c h e r a t t i t u d e s . Concerning the a t t i t u d e s ; of some teach e r s to c o u r s e s G, Meyer, "An E x p e r i m e n t a l Study of O l d and New Types; of Examination, l i t Methods of Study"'. J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l . Psychology 26,. 1935, PP- 30 - lj . 0* N. Freeman, "The Monopoly of O b j e c t i v e Tests'". E d u c a t i o n a l Forum 10, 191*6. PP» 3^9 - 395. - l l . -terminating i n objective examinations,: Stalnaker^" says that i t i s hard to blame a teacher whose success may be judged by the scores obtained by h i s pupils on an objective examination involving no w r i t i n g , i f he reduces the amount of written work done i n h i s classes. Certainly the idea that public exam-inations of the objective type f o s t e r a "quiz-kid" or s l o t -f i l l i n g mentality i n students and teachers i s one that i a frequently heard i n high school s t a f f rooms. Many teachers say that they f e e l that there i s much of value f o r students, i n regular theme w r i t i n g i n many high school subjects, but that the objective examinations which most students w i l l write l i m i t the number of theme w r i t i n g assignments which they f e e l f j u s t i f i e d i n giving. Important though i t i s , the passing of the f i n a l examination i s a l i m i t e d objective f o r a high school course. I t would seem to be desirable that, at the end of any course, each student should be, to the extent of h i s a b i l i t y , a better educated person i n that p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d of knowledge than he was at the beginning; that he should have a f e e l i n g f o r the subject as a whole and i t s place i n the f i e l d of human endeavour, and be able to i n t e r p r e t , evaluate and apply to new s i t u a t i o n s , the knowledge gainedj that he should be able to express himself at length on some aspects of the subject. ^ J . M. Stalnaker, "The Essay Type of Examination"". Educational Measurement, ed. E. P. Lindquist, Ch. 13, P» 515* Washington, D. C.: American. Council of Education, 1951* - $ -U i i l e an atomistic approach to the subject, such as might be encouraged by study with an objective examination i n mind, may help a student to these ends, many teachers f e e l that the organizing of ideas i n essay form provides a more promising approach. An examination should be a measure of one or more desirable outcomes of education, not an end i n i t s e l f . A w e l l designed examination may, to some extent, measure the degree of development of the foregoing i d e a l s . A poorly designed one may be quite unrelated to them. Certainly the examination should be the servant of the course, not the master. Never-theless many courses of study do lead to public examinations and teachers are obliged to do a l l they can to see that at least the deserving students pass. For such students the public examination may be the only gateway to i n s t i t u t e s of higher learning. The teacher's a b i l i t y to hold h i s position or obtain advancement may depend on such tangible outcomes as the examination successes of h i s pupils, rather than on intangibles such as h i s a b i l i t i e s as an i n s p i r i n g teacher* It seems then that the high school teacher has to be aware of two goals, the examination at the end of the course and the i d e a l s and attitudes which he would l i k e h i s students to acquire as a r e s u l t of t h e i r studies under h i s guidance* The r o l e of the study assignment. The study assignment i s one of the teacher's p r i n c i p a l t o o l s f o r guiding the learning of h i s pupils. Discussing the assign-study-recite method of teaching so much used at the high school l e v e l , Burton p says, "The assignment i s the key to teaching and to learning under t h i s organization. The assignment l a r g e l y determines the r e s u l t s achieved." In the widest sense, the answering of an o r a l question i s as assign-ment, but, and t h i s applies p a r t i c u l a r l y to high school-students, a great deal of assignment work consists of a search f o r relevant information and i t s organization i n some recorded form. The value attached to good assignments i a 6 emphasized i n the findings of a study by Woodring and Fleming who investigated the problems experienced by 230 teachers i n connection with study assignments. Many of them expressed, d i f f i c u l t y i n designing assignments which were acceptable to students as worthwhile a c t i v i t i e s , included challenges to mental exploration, and provided f o r continuity of work. I f , as i s generally claimed, assignment work bears heavily on the achievement of students, then the teacher must have h i s aims c l e a r l y i n mind when designing h i s assignments. Aa has already been suggested, i t i s the opinion of many teachers and students that, where the examination takes the objective form, students who are given objective-type study assignments w i l l do better than those given essay-type assignments. The l a t t e r type may be a more e f f e c t i v e a i d to the achievement of wider educational goals. ¥» H. Burton, The Guidance of Learning A c t i v i t i e s , p. 3 3 6 , New Yorks Appleton-Century-Crofis,,1952. ^M. N. Woodring and C. W. Fleming, D i r e c t i n g the Study of  High School Pupils, New Yorks Teachers College, Columbia. University, 1929* This poses two questions. The f i r s t i s , "Does essay-w r i t i n g have the value so often a t t r i b u t e d to i t , of f o s t e r i n g desirable educational outcomes?" The other i s , "Prom the point of view of passing an objective examination, are objective-type practice assignments i n f a c t better than essay-type assignments?" The f i r s t question i s important and should provide an i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d f o r research. However, i t i s not the purpose of t h i s study to deal with i t . The second question i s of immediate and p r a c t i c a l interest to the high school teacher concerned with more than h i s students i examination r e s u l t s * I t s solution might wel l lead an interested teacher to investigate the f i r s t question. I t i s with t h i s second question that, t h i s study i s p r i n c i p a l l y concerned* * There appear to be no previous published studies of the problem of the re l a t i o n s h i p between essay w r i t i n g and objective examinations i n the high school s i t u a t i o n . Lundahl and; Mason?, working with u n i v e r s i t y students compared essay and objective type assignments and found no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n t h e i r effect on w r i t i n g s k i l l s . The duration of the experiment was l i m i t e d to four weeks and involved the w r i t i n g of four long 8 essays* In another study among uni v e r s i t y students, Meyer 7w. S* Lundahl and J . M. Mason, "Essay Testing i n B i o l o g i c a l Sciences as a Means of Supplementary Training i n Writing S k i l l s " . . Science Education I4.O, 1956, pp. 261 - 267• o G. Meyer, "An Experimental Study of the Old and New Types of Examination, It The Effect of Examination Set on Memory"1* Journal of Educational Psychology 2J>, 193*!-, PP* - 661* - 8 -found a d i s t i n c t advantage f o r an essay question "set"' over an objective question "set"', i n achievement on various types of essay and objective examination* These students were older than high school students, t h e i r studies were unguided and the subject matter was h i s t o r i c a l . The findings do not necessarily apply to younger students working under considerable teacher guidance, e s p e c i a l l y i f the subject i s a branch"of the sciences* It i s the main purpose of t h i s study to t ry to throw some l i g h t on the r e l a t i v e effect on r e s u l t s i n an objective examination, of essay and objective type assignments, within the l i m i t e d f i e l d of a single science course offered i n the B r i t i s h Columbia High School system. Once the matched groups <and experimental material were assembled f o r the purpose, i t was found possible to compare also the r e l a t i v e effectiveness of the two types of assignment on an essay test and on a mixed t e s t , merely by adding an essay test to the o r i g i n a l objective test to be given. These two comparisons are there-fore included as secondary investigations. F i n a l l y , some comparisons are made between student attainment during the ' period of the experimental part of the study and success on the appropriate Department of Education f i n a l examination* The study i s not primarily concerned with t r y i n g to determine which i s the better type of study assignment from the point of view of student success i n examinations. Rather i t i s devised to investigate the degree to which a teacher whose students w i l l be faced with an objective examination, may f e e l free to assign essay questions, during the teaching of h i s course, i f he f e e l s that these have desirable outcomes. I f students who have been given objective assignments do better on objective examinations than those who have been given essay assignments, then the teacher may f e e l r e s t r i c t e d as to the amount of essay wr i t i n g he gives. If there';is no* difference, or i f the essay-writing students do better, then the teacher may f e e l free to assign as much essay w r i t i n g as he f e e l s to be appropriate, without fear of handicapping h i s students on the examination. CHAPTER I I AN OUTLINE OF THE STUDY The problem. The aim of t h i s study was to compare the effects of essay and objective study assignments on student achievement In a biology examination consisting of questions of the type set on the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education Junior Matriculation Examination f o r the Biology 91 course. The experimental work was done at L. V. Rogers High School, Nelson, B r i t i s h Columbia, during the Biology 91 course which preceded the examination conducted by the Department of Education i n June, 1961. The departmental examination usually consists of objective questions worth about ninety percent of the marks and short essay questions worth about ten percent. The p r i n c i p a l purpose of the study was to compare the effects of the two types of assignment on achievement on an objective examination comprising questions of the type used i n the departmental examination. A d d i t i o n a l to t h i s was a comparison of achievement on an essay examination and on a mixed exam-inatio n whose objective and essay sections c a r r i e d marks values s i m i l a r to t h e i r r e l a t i v e values on a t y p i c a l depart-mental examination. These additional aims were attempted by including §n essay examination and combining the r e s u l t s of the two examinations, suitably weighted, to simulate a mixed t e s t . A f i n a l comparison was made between the students' - 11 -r e s u l t s on the experimental examinations and on the departmental examination. In t h i s study the term "objective question", whether applied to assignments or examinations, includes multiple choice, matching, and completion questions. The use of completion questions i s l i m i t e d to those involving the in s e r t i o n of the missing word i n a sentence, or the supplying of the single word answer to a question of a highly objective nature. The term "essay question"' refers to a question normally requiring an answer of one or more paragraphs, although occasionally single sentence answers would be acceptable. Such a question gives r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e guidance to the stud-ent as to the nature or form of the answer. It requires him to exercise i n i t i a t i v e and formulate a fre e response e s s e n t i a l l y planned and executed by himself. Delimitation of the study. An attempt was made to es t a b l i s h the comparison of r e s u l t s on the objective test as a v a l i d , controlled experiment. Because of the d i f f i c u l t y of establ i s h i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y of the essay t e s t , no attempt was made to estab l i s h as s t a t i s t -i c a l l y v a l i d , the comparisons of results on the essay and mixed t e s t s . These results were processed s t a t i s t i c a l l y how-ever and comparisons were made i n the l i g h t of the conditions under which they were obtained. The essay questions used i n the assignments and tes t s required answers from one sentence to one or two paragraphs - 1 2 -i n length* The i n i t i a t i v e f or formulating the answers came from the student but answers of t h i s length probably do not require the same degree of forethought or such an o v e r a l l view of the subject matter as do lengthy themes occupying a>. number of pages. The subject matter was mainly b i o l o g i c a l and ecological involving the formation of concepts and the under-standing of relationships and applications as we l l as a knowledge of material f a c t s . Answers to essay questions i n such a f i e l d are hardly comparable with lengthy themes of a l i t e r a r y or philosophical nature. Any conclusions drawn from t h i s study about the bearing of essay w r i t i n g on exam-inat i o n r e s u l t s should be l i m i t e d to short answers to questions i n a s c i e n t i f i c f i e l d . The findings may also be of some interest to teachers i n other f i e l d s , such as s o c i a l studies, where essay questions of a si m i l a r type may sometimes be used. Hypothesis'. The hypothesis proposed was that there would be no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the achievements on the object-i v e , essay or combined t e s t s , of the two groups of students, the one group having been given objective assignments, the other group essay assignments. To minimize the danger of accepting the hypothesis when i t was i n fact f a l s e , that i s of committing a type I I error, the n u l l hypothesis was pro-posed at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence. - 13 -An outline of the experiment* The experiment was carried out using p a r a l l e l matched groups over a period of approximately s i x weeks i n October and November of I960. The matched groups were selected from three of the f i v e classes of Grade XI students i n the Biology 91 course at L. V. Rogers High School. The time of the year was chosen as one when students would be w e l l s e t t l e d i n school routine and there would have been time to establish rapport between the students.and the experimenter who was the biology teacher. Previous records showed i t to be a time of good attendance. The period of s i x weeks allowed the presentation of a quantity of subject material which constituted a reasonable e n t i t y , without clashing with school examinations. The experimental plan was to administer to both groups an i n i t i a l test of the b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d to be covered, to follow t h i s with a period, of Instruction using s i m i l a r teach-ing methods but d i f f e r e n t types of study assignment, and to conclude with a f i n a l t est s i m i l a r to the i n i t i a l test.. The teaching period included 1 5 lessons and three laboratory periods. The i n i t i a l and f i n a l t est each consisted of an objective and an essay examination. The mean gain i n marks from the i n i t i a l to the f i n a l test was calculated f o r each group and the s t a t i s t i c a l -s ignificance of the difference; between mean gains was calculated. Attempts were then made to draw conclusions - 1 % -about the bearings of the d i f f e r e n t types of assignment on achievement i n examinations of the types set and about the degree to which the departmental examination l i m i t s the teacher's freedom to set essay questions as assignments* CHAPTER I I I THE PERFORMANCE OF THE EXPERIMENT Prep a r a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l s , ( i ) The Tests* The same t e s t s were used f o r the i n i t i a l and f i n a l . -t e s t i n g * At the time of the i n i t i a l t e s t i n g the students had very l i t t l e knowledge of the m a t e r i a l under t e s t , nor ' was there any i n d i c a t i o n at tha t time that they were t o be t e s t e d again l a t e r , on the same m a t e r i a l . The i n t e r v a l between i n i t i a l and f i n a l t e s t i n g was n e a r l y s i x weeks. I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e r e could be any c a r r y - o v e r from the i n i t i a l to the f i n a l t e s t i n g p e r i o d s . However, as the purpose of the t e s t i n g was to measure gain i n achievement, i t was necessary to t e s t f o r any s l i g h t i n i t i a l knowledge the students might have. I t might be thought t h a t i d e a l l y the examinations should be devised by some person other than the i n v e s t i g a t o r , who designed the teaching m a t e r i a l and assignments. I n p r a c t i c e , however, the tea c h i n g m a t e r i a l , assignments, and examinations were a l l prepared by the i n v e s t i g a t o r . I t would have been d i f f i c u l t t o f i n d another person s u f f i c i e n t l y q u a l i f i e d i n the subject matter and experimental technique and s u f f i c i e n t l y aware of the o b j e c t i v e s of the study to design v a l i d exam-i n a t i o n s . The experimenter was aware of the need to av o i d any k i n d of b i a s and extreme care was taken to equate aa n e a r l y aa p o s s i b l e the two types of assignment w i t h each other and the two examinations w i t h each other* The exam-i n a t i o n s were designed some weeks before the experiment was c a r r i e d out w h i l e each p a i r of assignments was prepared,, by r e f e r r i n g to the m a t e r i a l t o be t a u g h t , only a few days p r i o r to i t s use du r i n g the experimental p e r i o d * The o b j e c t i v e and essay examinations were prepared i n such a way that each one independently covered as f u l l y as p o s s i b l e the content of the u n i t t o be taught* The exam-i n a t i o n s were presented t o the students as parts I and I I of the same test,, each part being designed f o r completion w i t h i n an hour* A. copy of the whole t e s t i s given i n Appendix A* Part I , the o b j e c t i v e examination, contained 26 m u l t i p l e choice questions, 25 matching q u e s t i o n s , and )±3 questions of the completion type* However, 17 of the completion questions: i n v o l v e d s e l e c t i n g numbered items from diagrams and were, i n e f f e c t , matching questions* Part I I , the esaay examination, comprised l i j . questions; designed to be answered i n a few sentences* An attempt was , made to-make the questions cover the same ground as t h a t covered i n the o b j e c t i v e examination* The design of the questions probably has a great d e a l t o do w i t h the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y of an essay examination* Prom a s e r i e s of studies. S t a i l n a k e r ^ * 1 0 * 1 ^ concludes; that the o b j e c t i v e s to be tested; should be c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and the scope of each question l i m i t e d to one o r , at the most, a very few o b j e c t i v e s . He advises the use of many short questions and t h i s i s a t e c h -no; 13 nique a l s o recommended by Thurstone . Sims; , as a r e s u l t of experience gained i n h i s many s t u d i e s of methods of improving essay examinations, recommends that every q u e s t i o n should i s o l a t e and l i m i t the outcomes of l e a r n i n g t o be t e s t e d . These recommendations were borne i n mind when desig n i n g the questions, A. check of the face v a l i d i t y of the examinations was; obtained by submitting them, together w i t h an o u t l i n e of the m a t e r i a l covered, t o various teachers of b i o l o g y throughout the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, w i t h the request that they examine the t e s t s i n r e l a t i o n to the o u t l i n e and g i v e t h e i r opinions on the relevance of each examination, & comparison of the a n a l y s i s of s c o r i n g according t o context categories; ^ J . M» Stalnaker and R, C. S t a l n a k e r , " R e l i a b i l i t y Reading of Essay Tests'*. School. Review. l\2, 193^ »-PP- 599 - 605. 1 0 J . M. S t a l n a k e r , "The Problem of the E n g l i s h Examination"' E d u c a t i o n a l Record 17 Supplement Number 10, 1936, pp, 35 -1 : LJ» M» S t a l n a k e r , "Essay Examinations R e l i a b l y Read'*. School and S o c i e t y I4.6, 1937, PP. 671 - 672. 12 L, L. Thurstone,, An A p p r a i s a l of the Test Movement, Proceedings, 1936,- I n s t i t u t e of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e r s of Higher I n s t i t u t i o n s , Chicagoz U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s , 1936. 13 V. M. Sims, "Essay Examination i s a P r o j e c t i v e Technique" 1  E d u c a t i o n a l Digest U4., 19^ 8, pp. 28 - 3 1 . - 18 -when compared with the tables oP s p e c i f i c a t i o n provided evidence of content v a l i d i t y * D e t a i l s of the evidence obtained f o r these aspects of v a l i d i t y are given i n Appendix Bo <The r e l i a b i l i t y of the objective examination was estimated by applying the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 to the r e s u l t s of the f i n a l t e s t * ^ " Details of the numbers of students completing cor r e c t l y each test item i n Part I, the objective; t e s t , are included i n Appendix Bo These were the figures used f o r c a l c u l a t i n g the r e l i a b i l i t y * The method of marking an essay test has considerable bearing on i t s r e l i a b i l i t y * In Chapter I, several studies were quoted which i l l u s t r a t e d the u n r e l i a b i l i t y of muach essay test marking* Studies by Sims*-> and Stalnaker 1^ show; that methods are available f o r improving the r e l i a b i l i t y o of essay marking* Traxler and Anderson^-?, i n a study where the scoring was very c a r e f u l l y controlled, obtained a cor r e l a t i o n of .91+ between two markers. Many other studies could be quoted but the various methods of improving the 1^G. P. Kuder and W* M. Richardson, "The Theory of the Estimation of Test R e l i a b i l i t y " . Psychometrika 2, 1937, pp. 151 - 160* _ ' . \< V* M* Sims, "Improving the Measuring Q u a l i t i e s of an Essay Examination". Journal of Educational Research 27, 1933* pp. 2 0 - 3 1 . " ^ J . M. Stalnaker, "Essay Examinations Reliably Read", School and Society I4.6,-November 20, 1937, PP* 671 - 672* ^A* E. Traxler and H. A* Anderson, " R e l i a b i l i t y of an Essay Test i n English" 1. School Review; 1+3, 1935, PP» 53k " 514.0* - ' " - 1 9 -r e l i a b i l i t y of the marking of essays are well summarized by Furst^-® and include: ( 1 ) determining in advance the qualities to be judged* (2) defining quality levels in advance of actual, grading by such methods as preparing a model, paper and reading a sample of papers. (3) grading one question at a time* (1+) grading papers anonymously* (5) using a team of readers and averaging the ratings. These points were considered carefully when marking the essay test* In an attempt to make the essay test as reliable aa possible, particular care was taken with the preparation and marking of the questions. In order to provide some evidence as to r e l i a b i l i t y , the coefficient of correlation between the scores allocated by the two markers was computed* ( i i ) The Assignments* The experimental variable was the type of assignmentsto be given to each group of students* It was important that the conditions under which the assignments were completed should be carefully controlled and as similar as possible for the two groups. Conditions in the students' homes were considered to be too variable to allow the assignments to be done ass homework. It was decided therefore to have them eompleted during the class periods. Half an hour was the usual time E. J. Purst, Constructing Evaluating Instruments, New Yorkt Longmans-Green, 1958» - 20 -allowed f o r each assignment. This meant that 35 minutes had to be allowed to cover the distribution,, completion and c o l l e c t i o n of each assignment. This l e f t 2D minutes of the 55 minute period as teaching time. In view of the importance of the assignments i n t h i s experiment, i t was necessary to ensure that they were the best that could be prepared. The following f a c t o r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y adhered to: (1) Each assignment gave as complete a coverage as possible of the lesson which i t followed^ even i f t h i s involved some duplication, (2) The coverage of the essay and objective assignments following a given lesson was?: as s i m i l a r as. possible. Any diagrams forming the basis of questions were used i n both types of assignment, (3) The questions were so designed that the students would be able to answer most of them cor r e c t l y , without the answers being so obvious that there was a lack of challenge, A small percentage of more d i f f i c u l t questions was included to maintain the interest of more able students. (Ij.) The time necessary f o r completion had to be judged so that the assignments were f i n i s h e d , that i s so that complete coverage of the material under study was achieved. At the same time, the two groups had to be a c t i v e l y engaged fo r s i m i l a r lengths of time. Hectographed assignment sheets of each type were prepared f o r each lesson, meeting, as nearly as possible, the foregoing requirements. Assignments of the two types were also pre-pared to follow the p r a c t i c a l work i n laboratory periods*. Samples of the two types of assignment are included i n Appendix C. ( i i i ) The Lesson Material, In preparing the teaching material f o r each period, the following factors were considered to be p a r t i c u l a r l y important (1) The requirements of the complete Biology 91 course necessitated the covering of a considerable amount of material during each lesson period. Theoretic-a l l y , i t would be desirable to deal with only one main topic during each period. Analysis of the Biology 91„syllabus i n r e l a t i o n to the number of teaching periods available i n the school year showed that an average of one and one h a l f topics must be dealt with per lesson period. (20 Only 20 minutes were available f o r teaching during each lesson period. (3) Teaching variables were reduced as f a r as possibles that i s the teaching experienced by the two groups had to be as s i m i l a r as possible. (I4.) There was no time for extensive reading of the textbook. Obviously students would not remember every point which arose during the teaching part of the lesson. They would require reference - 22. -m a t e r i a l i n order to complete t h e i r assignments* In t h i s connection i t should be mentioned t h a t much of the m a t e r i a l r e q u i r e d i n the B i o l o g y 91 course i s not i n the textbook. For the majority, of students the teacher i s the only source of t h i s supplementary m a t e r i a l * To meet a l l these requirements b r i e f but d e t a i l e d hectographed notes were prepared f o r each l e s s o n . I t was; not p o s s i b l e under the circumstances t o provide much v a r i e t y of approach except f o r the r e g u l a r l y spaced laboratory-periods* During these periods the i n s t r u c t i o n a l time was incr e a s e d to $0 minutes and c o n s i s t e d of p r a c t i c a l work, w i t h the examination of specimens and microscopic s l i d e s and the p r e p a r a t i o n of b i o l o g i c a l drawings* The assignment part of the l e s s o n was represented by s e t s of questions of the two types, o b j e c t i v e and essay, r e l a t e d to the p r a c t i c a l work*. Because of the l i m i t e d scope of the m a t e r i a l covered i n the p r a c t i c a l s e c t i o n of the l a b o r a t o r y period, the number of questions was reduced so that the work could be completed w i t h i n the s h o r t e r time allowed f o r assignment work duri n g l a b o r a t o r y p e r i o d s * Samples of l e s s o n notes are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix C* ( i v ) Assembly of the matched groups. During the school year I960 - 61 there were 5> c l a s s e s of B i o l o g y 91 at L* V* Rogers High School, Three c l a s s e s , c o n s i s t i n g s o l e l y of students on the U n i v e r s i t y Programme, were taught by the experimenter* These c l a s s e s were known, - 2 3 -according t o the t i m e t a b l e p e r i o d i n which they were taught, as Block A, Block C and Block D» The students were grouped w i t h respect to a b i l i t y i n a f a i r l y heterogenous manner although, on the average, the l e v e l of a b i l i t y was highest i n Block D and lowest i n Block A. There was however, con-s i d e r a b l e o v e r l a p , there b e i n g i n each b l o c k some very able students and some of l i m i t e d a b i l i t y . T h i s arrangement proved t o be very f o r t u n a t e and made matching the groups a good deal e a s i e r than i t might otherwise have been. The group to be given the essay assignments, and known as the essay group, was chosen from the students of Block C, the c l a s s intermediate i n a b i l i t y and placed i n the t i m e t a b l e between the other two c l a s s e s . The other group, known as the o b j e c t i v e group, was drawn from the students i n Blocks A and D. The f a c t o r s considered i n matching were, previous achieve-ment i n Science and E n g l i s h Composition, I n t e l l i g e n c e Quotients as measured by the O t i s Test of Mental A b i l i t y Higher Exam-i n a t i o n Form C given i n June 1959, age, r e s u l t s of the Gates Reading Survey Form I given i n June 1959, and the sex of the students,. Achievement i n E n g l i s h Composition was: i n c l u d e d as a f a c t o r because of the prominence given during the experiment c to the w r i t i n g of essay type assignments and examination questions. The maximum p o s s i b l e number of p a i r s was t h i r t y , the number of students , i n % Block C, I t was''anticipated that i t would be impossible t o match a l l of these. S i m i l a r i t y of achievement i n Science and E n g l i s h were considered to be o f - 214. * primary importance i n the matching process* Where these achievements d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y more than seemed d e s i r a b l e * more r i g i d c r i t e r i a were a p p l i e d to the comparisons of i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s , c h r o n o l o g i c a l ages, and Gates reading ages* To s a t i s f y these c o n d i t i o n s , the matched p a i r s wei?e assembled i n two sets according to the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a t Set 1: Science and E n g l i s h grades the same or d i f f e r i n g by one grade point* I f both d i f f e r e d the d i f f e r e n c e s must be i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s * O t i s i n t e l l i g e n c e quotients not d i f f e r i n g by more than twelve p o i n t s . Ages not d i f f e r i n g by more than eight months* Gates t e s t not considered* Set 2: Science and E n g l i s h grades d i f f e r i n g by not more than two grade points i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s , or Science and E n g l i s h grades each d i f f e r i n g by one grade point i n the same d i r e c t i o n * O t i s i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s not d i f f e r i n g by more than f o u r points*. Ages not d i f f e r i n g by more than f o u r months. Gates readi n g ages not d i f f e r i n g by more than 0*lj. years*. I n both s e t s , students of l i k e sex were matched together where i t was p o s s i b l e to do t h i s and s t i l l meet the f o r e g o i n g c r i t e r i a * « An estimate was made of the o v e r - a l l e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the equating of the groups, by computing the means of the d i f f e r e n c e s - 25 -between the matched students f o r the f o r e g o i n g f a c t o r s * To counter the p o s s i b i l i t y of sub-conscious b i a s e n t e r i n g i n t o the marking of the t e s t papers, each student was given a number. The numbering was done randomly by another person and numbers were given to a l l students i n Block A, C and D, whether they were i n c l u d e d i n the matched groups or not. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the experimental m a t e r i a l . " An experiment of t h i s nature could not p o s s i b l y be hidden from the students being used as s u b j e c t s , e s p e c i a l l y as they were o l d e r students, t h e i r average age being j u s t over 16 years. Before the experimental p e r i o d began t h e r e -f o r e , the students concerned were t o l d that they would be t a k i n g part i n an educational experiment l a s t i n g about s i x . weeks. I t was explained t h a t , f o r the experiment to be v a l i d , i t was necessary that they should do e x a c t l y as they were t o l d and not t r y t o i n f l u e n c e the r e s u l t s by doing e x t r a work or d i f f e r e n t work, or by any other means. In response t o t h e i r n a t u r a l c u r i o s i t y i t was explained t h a t the l e s s they knew about the nature and purpose of the experiment w h i l s t i t was i n progress, the more v a l i d the r e s u l t s were l i k e l y t o be. A f u l l e x p l a n a t i o n was promised a f t e r the c o n c l u s i o n of the experimental p e r i o d . These students were f a m i l i a r w i t h the p r i n c i p a l s u n d e r l y i n g s c i e n t i f i c r esearch and seemed able to appreciate these p o i n t s . The i n c i d e n t a l b e n e f i t s to the students were pointed - 26 -out. Work would be much more inte n s e i n c l a s s but there ' would be no homework. In f a c t they were e s p e c i a l l y requested not to attempt any study of b i o l o g y outside the normal c l a s s hours. At the same time they were t o l d t h a t the i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l a s s would probably be of a very h i g h standard. Much more time would be gi v e n to the prepar a t i o n of lessons than the teacher would normally devote and they would be provided w i t h a great d e a l of hectographed,-material. Rapport between teacher and students was good and there seemed to be ready acceptance of the whole i d e a . The i n i t i a l t e s t was presented without warning. The subjects were t o l d that they were not expected to know much about the questions on the papers, that there was no f :stigraa. attached to a low mark or even to a zero mark,, t h a t they should not guess any of the answers but should d e f i n i t e l y attempt each question to which they thought they knew the answer. No time l i m i t was placed on e i t h e r part and, i n f a c t , a l l students had f i n i s h e d both parts of the t e s t w i t h i n an hour. The papers, were i d e n t i f i e d by students' numbers, not by names. Each paper was marked by the experimenter and by a col l e a g u e , a l s o a b i o l o g y teacher. The markers worked independently. P a r t i c u l a r care was taken w i t h the essay s e c t i o n ^ as w i l l , be described i n more d e t a i l i n : connection w i t h the marking of the f i n a l t e s t . The lessons f o l l o w e d a f a i r l y stereotyped p a t t e r n . The l e s s o n f n o t e s were d i s t r i b u t e d p r i o r to the commencement of the l e s s o n p e r i o d and were used as the b a s i s of the twenty - 27 -minute teaching p e r i o d . Pears t h a t the i n e v i t a b l e s i m i l a r i t y of p r e s e n t a t i o n day a f t e r day might become monotonous proved to be groundless. The stimulus of knowing that an experimental-study was i n progress, the v a r i e t y introduced by the o c c a s i o n a l l a b o r a t o r y period, and the s p i r i t of f r i e n d l y competition between students w i t h i n a c l a s s t o e x c e l i n working the assignments, were a l l f a c t o r s which seem to have helped to maintain i n t e r e s t . A f t e r twenty minutes, dur i n g which the l e s s o n notes; were di s c u s s e d , the appropriate type of assignment was d i s t r i b u t e d . A l l students: i n Block C were given essay assignments and a l l i n Blocks A and D were given o b j e c t i v e assignments* immediately before the c l o s e of the l e s s o n , the previous day's a s s i g n -ments, duly marked, were d i s t r i b u t e d . The current day's completed assignments were handed i n as the students l e f t the classroom at the c o n c l u s i o n of the l e s s o n p e r i o d . A s s i g n -ments were i d e n t i f i e d by students' names, not by t h e i r numbers. Each day's assignments were marked In readiness f o r r e t u r n to the students at the f o l l o w i n g l e s s o n period* The experimenter marked the essay assignments and prepared the key to the o b j e c t i v e assignments which were marked by an a s s i s t a n t . Serious c o n s i d e r a t i o n was given to the problem of whether or not to r e t u r n marked assignments to the students. There might be a danger of contamination i f the students looked at each other's completed assignments. On the other hand i t might be d i f f i c u l t to maintain the students' i n t e r e s t i n d a i l y assignments over a period of s i x weeks i f they d i d not - 28 - i • see how t h e i r e f f o r t s were evaluated. The p o s s i b i l i t y of d i s t r i b u t i n g the assignments and then c o l l e c t i n g them again was excluded because of the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e i n each le s s o n p e r i o d . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t , at t h i s age, students would be u n l i k e l y t o spend much time out of school d i s c u s s i n g d e t a i l s of school work and would be p a r t i c u l a r l y u n l i k e l y t o rework each others assignments. Wo doubt c u r i o s i t y l e d the students of each group to look o c c a s i o n a l l y at the com-p l e t e d assignments returned to those i n the other group,, but i t seems u n l i k e l y that they could l e a r n any more from examining these assignments than they c o u l d have done from reading the hectographed sheets w i t h which they had.; been provided. The value of assignments l i e s i n completing them and i n each student seeing the teacher's estimate of h i s e f f o r t s . I n the i n t e r e s t s of good rapport i t was t h e r e f o r e decided to r e t u r n the c o r r e c t e d assignments and t o allow the students to keep them. I t was found t h a t , i n the e a r l y stages of the experimental p e r i o d , the essay group attempted t o answer t h e i r q u estions at too great a l e n g t h and i n too much d e t a i l . By the t h i r d or f o u r t h l e s s o n however, they had l e a r n e d to l i m i t the scope of t h e i r answers, c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the d e t a i l s and ideas c a l l e d f o r by the q u e s t i o n s . The problem of g e t t i n g the students t o f i n i s h the essay assignments; w i t h i n the time a v a i l a b l e was one t h a t p e r s i s t e d throughout the experiment and i t may be that the students would have b e n e f i t e d more i f - 29 -they had been allowed to complete then at home. The d i f f i c u l t y had been a n t i c i p a t e d and was c o r r e c t e d to some extent by making the l a s t q u e s t i o n , u s u a l l y the only one not completed, one -of l e s s importance than the others* During the s i x week experimental p e r i o d there were at number of absences* F o r t u n a t e l y the worst cases occurred j t amongst students not i n c l u d e d i n the matched groups* A l l students who had been absent were given the l e s s o n and assignments they had missed, a t midday breaks or a f t e r s c h o o l * Attendance at these times was v o l u n t a r y but students were very cooperative w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t every student d i d a l l the assignments appropriate to h i s group. The f i n a l t e s t was administered without warning. One hour was allowed f o r each part* Part I , the o b j e c t i v e exam-i n a t i o n , was given f i r s t and a l l students f i n i s h e d i t before the end of the f i r s t hour. Part I I was given dur i n g the second hour* Most students appeared to have s u f f i c i e n t time,, but a very s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n was s t i l l w r i t i n g at the end of the hour allowed. The whole t e s t was marked independently by the two teachers who marked the i n i t i a l t e s t . The marking of the o b j e c t i v e t e s t presented no p a r t i c u l a r problem. The readers prepared independent keys and compared them t o ensure agree-ment. Each page was then marked independently by each person and the marking compared as a check. For the marking of the essay test,, the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down on page 20 were adhered - 30 -t o as c l o s e l y as. was p r a c t i c a b l e . Working independently, each reader considered each question i n r e l a t i o n to the m a t e r i a l taught and developed point by point answers. These independent keys were then compared and combined i n t o an agreed marking key. Approximately twenty percent of the marks f o r each question were awarded f o r the q u a l i t y of the p r e s e n t a t i o n . The papers were graded anonymously, each one being i d e n t i f i e d by a number only. Before grading each que s t i o n , a random sample of papers was read, to e s t a b l i s h a general standard, e s p e c i a l l y f o r the q u a l i t y of p r e s e n t a t i o n . Each reader marked a l l the questions, but graded one question at a time throughout the who set of papers. T h e i r independent gradings were then compared. D i f f e r e n c e s , which were s u p r i s i n g l y few, were discussed u n t i l an agreed mark co u l d be a l l o t t e d . Some id e a of the extent of these d i f f e r e n c e s can be gained from Table C i n Appendix B. Gains f o r each student on the f i n a l t e s t over the i n i t i a l , t e s t , were computed f o r Part I , Part I I and f o r the combined p a r t s . The formula used f o r o b t a i n i n g combined scores was:: C = 9AI + B 10 . where C represents the score on the combined p a r t , A the score on the o b j e c t i v e p a r t , and B the score on the essay p a r t . Mean gains were c a l c u l a t e d f o r the essay and o b j e c t i v e groups: and these gains and the d i f f e r e n c e s between them were t r e a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l l y t Q determine t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OP THE RESULTS; The e q u a l i t y of the matched jgpougs, " Block G-, from which the essay group was drawn, numbered 3i0 students. Pour of these were r e p e a t i n g the course and were not i n c l u d e d In the experiment* The remaining 26 were matched as w e l l as p o s s i b l e from Blocks A and D» One student from Block C l e f t school before the experiment was* completed. This l e f t 25 s u i t a b l e students i n Block C» Of these, 15 were matched w i t h students of Block A and 10 w i t h students of Block D, As: might be expected students could not be matched p e r f e c t l y f o r a l l f a c t o r s . A f t e r f o l l o w i n g the procedures f o r matching as l a i d down i n Chapter I I I ^ , i t was found p o s s i b l e to assemble 22: p a i r s according to the f i r s t s e t of c r i t e r i a and three p a i r s according to the second,. The three p a i r s were composed of students numbers lj.6 and 53* 108 and 57, and 20 and 77• In 21 p a i r s the sexes were s i m i l a r but three g i r l s and one boy of the essay group were matched w i t h students of the opposite sex* The averaging of school grade points and of i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o tients i s not s t a t i s t i c a l l y sound, but t o give a q u a l i t a t i v e i d e a of the extent and d i r e c t i o n of any o v e r - a l l d i f f e r e n c e s page 2I4. - 32 -between the groups, means were c a l c u l a t e d f o r d i f f e r e n c e s , between students i n the matched p a i r s , of ages, i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s and grade p o i n t s f o r previous work i n Science and E n g l i s h . These mean d i f f e r e n c e s are given i n Table I * School grades at L» V. Rogers High School are awarded according t o the u s u a l seven point s c a l e i n use i n B r i t i s h Columbia* Approximate percentages of students awarded each grade ares-A, %.% B 2$fo'i C+ \%l C 10#j C- 2$%',, D Z%1 E % . Table I Mean d i f f e r e n c e s between groups f o r matching f a c t o r s * F a c t o r Mean d i f f e r e n c e (Objective - Essay) E n g l i s h grade p o i n t s Science grade p o i n t s I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s Ages (Months) O.Olj. 0*32 l.lj.0 2: During the experimental p e r i o d there were seventeen absences from lessons i n each group. One student from each group was absent three times and t h i s was the highest number of i n d i v i d u a l absences. A l l absentees subsequently s t u d i e d the l e s s o n m a t e r i a l and d i d the assignments f o r each l e s s o n they had missed* D e t a i l s of the matching of p a i r s of students: are given i n Appendix D* The v a l i d i t y of the t e s t . Both parts of the t e s t , together w i t h o u t l i n e s o f the b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d covered, were submitted t o a number of teachers - 33 -of B i o l o g y at various h i g h schools i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They were asked to give t h e i r opinions on the v a l i d i t y of each part of the t e s t ; t h a t i s , each was asked to compare the t e s t w i t h the o u t l i n e and say whether, i n h i s o p i n i o n , each part provided adequate coverage of the b i o l o g i c a l f i e l d taught. The opinions of the teachers who r e p l i e d are given i n Appendix B, S e c t i o n 2* The general consensus of o p i n i o n was that the v a l i d i t y of each part i s h i g h . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the o b j e c t i v e part was estimated by app l y i n g the Kuder-Hichardson formula 20 to the r e s u l t s of 20 the t e s t . According to the formula, where r = t e a t r e l i a b i l i t y n = number of items i n the t e s t p — p r o p o r t i o n of.students passing each item q? = 1 - p - variance of the t o t a l scores on the examination 2 D e t a i l s of the c a l c u l a t i o n s of £j?qi and c r are given i n Appendix B, S e c t i o n 1, Tablea A and B. There were 91*. items on the o b j e c t i v e part of the t e s t , t h e r e f o r e t -£m = 17 .28, e r 2 = 226, r = -924- [1 - 17.28 m I "225" - +0.93 G. P. Kuder and Xf» M» Richardson, op, c i t . - 31*. -In the o p i n i o n of the i n v e s t i g a t o r t h i s i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y f i g u r e f o r the r e l i a b i l i t y of t h i s p a r t * No attempt was made to e s t a b l i s h a s t a t i s t i c a l f i g u r e f o r the i n t e r n a l c onsistency of the essay part of the t e s t * However, two f a c t o r s probably have some be a r i n g on any q u a l i t a t i v e estimate of the v a l i d i t y of t h i s part of the t e s t * One i s the general o p i n i o n on v a l i d i t y , already quoted* A. second i s the degree of agreement between the marks awarded by the two readers* This i s summarized i n Table G of Appendix B» The c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between the two readers was +0.95* There were very fewr questions not attempted* F o r t y - n i n e percent of a l l students: t a k i n g the t e s t , whether i n the matched groups or n o t , attempted a l l the questions on the essay p a r t . Of the fo u r t e e n questions on t h i s part of the t e s t , three were attempted by approximately eighty percent of the p u p i l s . A l l the other questions were attempted by at l e a s t n i n e t y percent. Approximately ninety-one percent of a l l p o s s i b l e answers were attempted. Mean gains and t h e i r s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . Table I I gives the values of.D, the mean d i f f e r e n c e i n gains between p a i r e d students, f o r the three types of t e s t . Values of D were obtained i n each case by s u b t r a c t i n g the mean gain f o r the o b j e c t i v e group from that f o r the essay group, the d i f f e r e n c e between means being equal, to the mean d i f f e r e n c e * - 35 -TABLE II Mean differences i n gains between groups Test U Essay - Objective (raw score units) Objective -5*2,0 Essay -2.00 Combined (Weighted) •£..02! Details of the gains of each i n d i v i d u a l student, of the difference i n gains between paired students, and of the ca l c u l a t i o n of D are given i n Appendix E,, Tables G and H. For the estimation of the significance of the difference 21 between correlated means f o r small samples, McNemar gives; the following formula f o r fi n d i n g the t - r a t i o :.-t = D_ 3 5 r — /l(D - D ) 2  SD = / N - 1. - / H where Sf: ~ estimate of the sampling error of the mean difference D = difference i n gain between paired student s N = Number of matched pairs Calculations shown i n Appendix E, Table H, give the values f o r S— and t as shown i n Table I I I . Q. McNemar, Psychological S t a t i s t i c s , p. 226, New. York:; Wiley and Sons, Inc., 191+9 • - 36 -Table III t r a t i o s f o r mean differences i n gains; Test D sn t Objective 5 . 2 0 3.19 1 . 6 3 Essay 2 . 0 0 3 . 5 5 0 . 5 6 Combined 5 . 0 2 ! 3.1*2 l.lj .7 Entering the table of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t f o r the numbers! of degree of freedom, n, wheret-n = N - 1 » 2k. i t i s seen that, f o r the differences to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence, t must equal or exceed. 2.O6I4.. The values of t shown i n Table III f a l l considerably below t h i s value. Comparisons with the departmental examination. Due to the system of passing by recommendation approximately sixty percent of the number of students e l i g i b l e f o r depart-mental examinations, only f o r t y percent of the students involved i n the experiment a c t u a l l y wrote the examinations. This made i t d i f f i c u l t to f i n d a s a t i s f a c t o r y basis of comparison between the experimental test r e s u l t s and student successes on the departmental examination. Table IV shows a comparison between the performances on the departmental examination i n the essay and objective groups. Pour students withdrew from the departmental examination and t h i s involved altogether three of the matched pairs, reducing the number Ibid. p. 3 6 8 . involved to forty-four. - 37 -Table IV Comparisons: between r e s u l t s on experimental tests and successes; i n the departmental examination* Objective Group Essay Group; Passed by recommendation 13 13; Passed by writ i n g 5 F a i l e d k k AV further comparison was made by computing the b i s e r i a l c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between r e s u l t s on the combined. (experimental) examination and successes on the departmental examination* The formula used wast-M - M_ pqi r b i s = _ f * x _ ^ t where:: -M =- mean on the combined examination f o r those passing the departmental examination* M = mean on the combined examination f o r those q f a i l i n g the departmental examination* p proportion passing the departmental examination, qj. = proportion f a i l i n g the departmental examination, QjT = standard deviation of re s u l t s on combined examination. y = ordinate of the normal d i s t r i b u t i o n curve at the point of d i v i s i o n between segments containing p and q proportions* Substituting the appropriate datar 63.1 - ij.6.5 x Q.82 x 0.18 r b i s nr5 — - o T 2 5 — =+0.7 0' It should be mentioned that recommendations were made on the basis of school examinations designed by the investigator i n conjunction with another biology teacher. There may be a consistent tendency on the part of the investigator to examine i n a p a r t i c u l a r way. S t r i c t l y speaking i t i s only i n the case of students who wrote the departmental examination that comparisons can be made* The investigator f e e l s however, that the combined examination provided a f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y prognosis of success on the f i n a l examination. CHAPTER V INTERPRETATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS. S t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the r e s u l t s . As stated on page 3 6 * the values of t f o r the three experimental tests f a l l below the value 2*0614. at which the difference between means would be s i g n i f i c a n t at the f i v e percent l e v e l . That i s to say, differences as great as the obtained differences could occur i n more than f i v e cases out of every hundred due s o l e l y to chance errors i n the sampling of the population. It can be sa i d that at the f i v e percent l e v e l of confidence the obtained differences i n means are too small to be s i g n i f i c a n t . Conclusions, Within the l i m i t a t i o n s of the conditions under which the experiment was c a r r i e d out,, the following conclusions may be drawn concerning the use of study assignments i n the teaching of high school biology, 1, There i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the r e s u l t s obtained on objective tests by students who study using objective assignments and by students who study using essay assignments. High school teachers and t h e i r students may therefore f e e l f r e e to use either type of assign-ment i n the study of a biology course terminating i n an objective examination. - 1 4 - 0 -2. Assuming the essay examination used i n t h i s experiment to be v a l i d and r e l i a b l e , there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the results obtained on essay examinations by students who study using essay assignments and by students who study using objective assignments. Nothing i n the study suggests that the use of objective rather than essay assignments, or vice versa, i s l i k e l y to hamper students i n answering any short essay questions included i n a f i n a l exam-inatio n . 3. Subject to the same reservations about the essay examination as were given i n conclusion 2,, there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the re s u l t s obtained on a combined examination comprising about ninety percent objective and ten percent essay questions, by students who study using objective assignments, and by students who study using essay assignments. The f i n a l examination i n Biology set by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education i s of t h i s type. 1+. It i s doubtful i f any v a l i d conclusion can be drawn from the comparison between the r e s u l t s on the experimental t e s t and the r e s u l t s on the depart-mental examinations. The experimental period covered the teaching of one unit of the course, comprising about eighteen percent of the material covered on the departmental examination. Any differences which may have arisen on the departmental examination due to the experiment may well, have been too small to be detected* It i s f e l t , nevertheless, that some type of comparison had to be made*. Had there been any s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the f i n a l r e s u l t s f o r the two groups, t h i s might well have been worthy of further investigation* Limitations of the study* The foregoing conclusions should be viewed i n the l i g h t of the experimental conditions* Due to the requirements of a cont r o l l e d experiment, some of these conditions were unlike those found i n a normal school s i t u a t i o n . For instance, students were not allowed to complete assignments outside the classroom* The teacher's methods of presentation, although s i m i l a r f o r the two groups, were d i f f e r e n t from those normally used. Students were aware that an experiment was i n progress* Although the r e l a t i v e benefits reaped from t h e i r assignments by the two experimental groups^ may have been the same under more normal circumstances, the p o s s i b i l i t y cannot be rule d out that at l e a s t part of the re s u l t s may have been due to the experimental conditions* On the other hand,, the exigencies of the normal school routine imposed some conditions f a r from i d e a l from the experimental point of view. For instance, i t i s impossible i n a school s i t u a t i o n to study a subject i n i s o l a t i o n from other subjects* Students get experience of essay w r i t i n g and of s e l e c t i n g answers to objective questions from other subjects, and there may well have been techniques involved here which c a r r i e d over from other subjects* Thanks to the utmost cooperation received from the school administration, there were no obvious instances of v a r i a t i o n between pre-sentations of the same lessons to the three blocks of students involved, but minute differences may s t i l l have existed. The r o t a t i n g type timetable .more or l e s s eliminated variations of student attitude towards learning a r i s i n g from differences of time of day. Some degree of uncertainty exists as to the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of the essay examination. However, the exam-ination was very c a r e f u l l y constructed and a number of q u a l i f i e d teachers commented favourably on i t s v a l i d i t y . There was a high c o e f f i c i e n t of c o r r e l a t i o n between the marks awarded by the two readers. Uncertainty as to the value of the examination should not be interpreted as: suggest-ing that i t was not a good examination. However, a l l conclusions r e s t i n g to any degree on the r e s u l t s of the essay examination should be viewed with i t s possible limitations; i n mind. Summary, The r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest that, i n the f i e l d of at l e a s t one high school subject, namely biology, the use of a high percentage of objective questions i n a f i n a l , examination, need not unduly r e s t r i c t a teacher's choice of the type of question to be used i n study assignments, provided that the assignments as a whole are c a r e f u l l y prepared and provide good coverage of the p a r t i c u l a r area under study* In particular,. the r e s u l t s suggest that a teacher should f e e l free to include short essay questions i n h i s assignments, with reasonable confidence that, i n addition to any value such questions may have with respect to general appreciation, they would also help students to acquire a knowledge of d e t a i l s and other aspects of the subject necessary to pass an examination which includes a high percentage of objective type questions. Due to the p r a c t i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s of the study and i t s main emphasis on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between essay assignments and objective tests,, considerable caution i s necessary i n summarizing the subsidiary f i n d i n g s . However, It can be said that nothing i n t h i s study suggests that the use of objective rather than essay assignments i s l i k e l y to hinder students experienced i n essay w r i t i n g i n other f i e l d s , from answering short essay questions included i n an examination i n biology. There i s no evidence to prove that the type of biology examination set by the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Education necessarily r e s t r i c t s high school biology teachers i n the design of study assignments, provided a good coverage of the subject matter has been achieved. Suggestions f o r further study. Because of the need f o r a c a r e f u l experimental c o n t r o l , t h i s study was c a r r i e d out under somewhat a r t i f i c i a l conditions. - kk -In practice students usually work on t h e i r assignments at home or during study periods and t h i s gives them more time to complete the work* The l i m i t e d number of students available prevented the use of a normal school set-up; such as t h i s f o r the experiment* Chance differences i n home and study conditions might have been large enough to bias, the r e s u l t s . If an investigation could be c a r r i e d out involving a number of schools and several hundred pupils, i t could reasonably be expected that such differences would tend to cancel out from group to group. A t h i r d group could be added f o r which.the assignments were of a mixed type. Such mixed assignments are commonly used i n pra c t i c e . It would be i n t e r e s t i n g to see the r e s u l t s of further studies involving other high school subjects. Social, studies and other sciences suggest themselves. Such studies would be i n t e r e s t i n g not only because of t h e i r bearing on the in d i v i d u a l subjects, but also because they might reveal a. general pattern f o r the re l a t i o n s h i p between assignments and examinations. No such generalizations could possibly be drawn from a study such as t h i s one, which was confined to a single academic subject. APPENDIX: A, C O P I E S : O P T H E T E S T S ; Note - In these copies, the answer blanks, diagrams and spacing have been reduced i n s i z e * Scores?- Page 1 • •<»•». L. V* Rogers High School Page 2L • •••» Nelson, B* G* Page 3 e o • • o Biology 91 Page lj. • « • P i n a l Test Page $ • • • • * Part I Page 6 • e « • • Time allowed - 1 hour Page 7 ease e T o t a l Part 2 SECTION A Select the best answer of those provided and place i t s number i n the parentheses at the r i g h t * 1* The brown "spots"' on the underside of a f e r n l e a f are the:-(1) s o r i (2); p r o t h a l l i * (3) antheridia* archegonia* (5) annuli«•. • • • » » » • . « . * . * * , » • - * • • • • • • • •*..( ) 2* The collapse of a c e l l , due to loss of water i s c a l l e d t -(1): d i f f u s i o n * (2) imbitioh* (3) plasmolysis. (ij.) turgor* (5) translocation.* * * * . • _.•.„• 0 * • » • • • *. • * . * . ( ) 3* The type of root system which serves best to bind s o i l p a r t i c l e s together, thus preventing erosion, i s : -(1) rhizome* (2) tap root* (3) d i f f u s e root* (ij.) r h i z o i d * (5) tuberous root * * • • • • • * » * * * * * * * * * • ( ) i+* Bryophytes and Pteridophytes t i d e over unfavourable periods i n the form o f : - (1) zygotes* (2) spores* (3) gametes* (Ij.) seeds* (£) rhiz;oidis* • » * * * * . * * . ( ) 5* A member of the phylum Bryophyta i s : - (1) Lichen* (2) Reindeer Moss* (3) Sphagnum Moss* Ik) Protococcus* (5) Club Moss * • » • o • * e » • 0 * • *. • • • » • ». » ( ) - 1+6 -6* The tissues which make up the bulk of a mature Douglas F i r tree are composed o f t - (1) cambium* (2) cortex. (3) xylem* (lj.) phloem. (5) p i t h . . , . . . . . . . . . .( ) 7 . The strawberry plant reproduces sexually by means of r-(1) spores. (2) runners. (3) rhizomes. (i+) budding. (5) seeds. ....... • ....... • • • . • » .( } 8. Gymnosperm seeds possess:- (1) one cotyledon. (2) two cotyledons. (3) two dicotyledons. more than two cotyledons. (-5) no cotyledons. • • • • • • • • • . .( ) 9» The term "gymno" as i n Gymnosperm means::- (1) naked. (2:) wood. (3) f l o o r . (i+) cone. (5) wheat . . . • . • » .( ) 10/. An example of a dicotyledon i s : - (1) corn. (2) bamboo. (3) onion. (i+) tomato. (5) wheat . . . . . . . . . . . . . ( ) 11... Which one of the following i s an immediate product of photosynthesis:- (1) oxygen. (2) water. (3) carbon dioxide. (Ij.) c h l o r o p h y l l . (5) radiant energy. • • ...-•( ) 12. Foods may be tested f o r the presence of starch by the addition of a l i t t l e : - (1) hydrochloric a c i d . (2) sodium carbonate. (3) iodine. (I4.) Fehling's s o l u t i o n . (5) litmus solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •( ) 13. The rate of t r a n s p i r a t i o n from a plant i s speeded up by:-(1) high humidity. (2) strong winds. (3) low temperature. (1+) absence of s o i l water, (jp) decreased l e a f surface area . . . . . . . • « • • • • • . . . . ( ) 11+. Plant leaves with stomata evenly d i s t r i b u t e d on both epidermal surfaces would be found to have a growth habit described as:- (1) completely aquatic and unspecialized as i n the kelpy (2) leaves growing i n a v e r t i c a l p o sition as i n the grasses. (3) lower epidermis upward facing the sun, as i n the water, l i l y • (I4.) lower epidermis downward shaded from the sun, as i n the maple tree « • • • • . • • . • • ( ) .1.5*. The male sex c e l l s of a flowering plant are produced i n the:- (1) p i s t i l . (2) stigma. (3) t e s t i s . (I4.) ovule. (5) pollen . . ...... . . •. t> • o . . . .... . « e 0. a ( ); 16. Of the following, the best description of a rhizome i s : -(1) ai shallow root. (2) an underground stem. (3) a deep , root swollen with stored food. (1+) a r h i z o i d . (5) & large underground bud, with fleshy leaves. • • • • . . . • . . ( ) 17* Thin walled c e l l s separating the vascular tissues i n a woody stem and extending from the cortex to the p i t h are c a l l e d : - (1) annual rings* (2) xylem* (3) cambium* (Ij.) cork* (5) p i t h rays* • • • • * . . . . . . . • . • *( ) 18* A flower having stamens and lacking a p i s t i l , i s described as:- (1) imperfect* (2) hermaphrodite* (3) parthenogenetic* (Ij.) perfect* (5) bisexual* » • • • . , . * . . . . . * . * ( ) 19. In a flower when the receptacle completely encloses the ovary and the petals a r i s e from the receptacle edge on top of the ovary, the ovary i s said to be::- (1) i n f e r i o r * (2) superior, (3) hypogynous* (I4.) imperfect*. (5) perfect( ) 20* Cambium produces new growth:- (1) i n the xylem only* (2) i n the xylem and p i t h . (3) i n the phloem only.. ( I 4 . ) i n the xylem and phloem. (£) i n the xylem, phloem and p i t h rays . • . • . . . . . . . . ( ) 21. Th® generative nucleus produces two structures c a l l e d : -(1) cotyledons. (2) ovules. (3) sperms. (I4.) tube n u c l e i , (j?) pollen grains... . . . . . . . . . ( ) 22* Which of the following i s the best description of the sporophyte i n Liverworts? (1) small, conspicuous and dependent*. (2)-large, conspicuous and dependent. (3) micro-scopic, inconspicuous and dependent, large, conspicuous and independent* (f?) microscopic, inconspicuous and independent. • • • • • , • • • • • . • • . • • • • • • • ( ) 23* Plant leaves require a supply of oxygen:- (1) intermittent-l y . (2) at night only. (3) day and night* during the day only • • ( ) 2I4.. Winged seeds are produced on exposed s h e l f - l i k e scales, by plants of the group:- (1) dicotyledons* (2) angiosperms. (.3) monocotyledons* (4) gymnosperms* (3?) maples . * . • ( ) 25. An i n d i r e c t product of photosynthesis i s : : - (1) oxygen* (2.) f a t * (3) sugar. (Ij.) water. (5) carbon dioxide. • .„ ,( ) 2:6, A plant whose leaves are f a i r l y thick with few stomata. and two crowded palisade layers, would probably be found i n an environment which i s t - (1) sunny and wet* (2) shaded and wet* (3) sunless and dry*. (]+) cold and wet* (£) sunny and dry. , . . . . . . . * . . . . . . . . . • , , , , ,( ) i - 1+8 -SECTION B Items i n the left-hand columns; are arranged alphabetically, Read the items i n the right-hand columns, then enter i n the parentheses the number of the items i n the left-hand column most c l o s e l y associated with i t . Some numbers; may be used more than once, some not at a l l . 1. Match the description with the phylum. (1) A l l plant phyla The sporophyte i s dependent on the (2) Bryophyta gametophyte. (3) No plant phylum Reproduce both sexually and asexually. (!+) Pteridophyta Conspicuous sporophyte. The gameto-( 5 ) Spermatophyta. phyte i s microscopic and dependent (6) Thallophyta. on the sporophyte. . • . . • . ••••••( ) The zygote becomes an embryo within the seed • • • • • . . . . . . . . . ( ) Dominant t r e e - l i k e plants i n the . carboniferous period as shown by f o s s i l patterns i n present day coal seams .„ • ., • . • • • ... • C l a s s i f i e d i n four groups according to colour. • • • • • • • • • • . • • Ancient plant forms s t i l l i n existence from t h i s phylum include h o r s e t a i l s and club mosses. Phylum best adapted f o r desert existence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. Match the description with the part of a seed plant. (1) Bark Transparent c e l l s with cutinous protection . (2) Cambium Unspecialized c e l l s between xylem and (3) Cortex phloem; able to form new c e l l s » • • • • • ()+) Epidermis Chief region of food storage i n perennial. ( 5 ) Medullary plants • . • • • . . ray Loose c e l l s protecting the end of a root . . (6) Phloem Tissues conducting water and dissolved (7) Root cap minerals . . . . . . . . . o e . . . • • (8) Root h a i r A minute projection from an epidermal c e l l » (9) Root t i p D i f f u s i o n of gases takes place through t h i s (10) Stoma. pore i n the leaf surface . . . . . . . . . (11) Xylem. Provides; the chief supporting t i s s u e of dicot stems. - k9 ~ 3* Match the description with the substance* (1) Calcium carbonate (2) Cellulose G r i t i n the stem of a h o r s e t a i l * • • •••*.,.•( ) (3) Protein Wood i n a pine tree. . ... • . • ( ) (lj.) S i l i c a Storage form of food i n a flowering plant. (5) Starch Primary food manufactured i n photo-( 6 ) SUgar synthesis • • • • . • . • . « • • • • * i*.. Match the description with the part of the seed. (1) Cotyledon During germination,, roots w i l l develop from (2) Embryo (3) Hilum (6) Plumule ( 7 ) Testa . e • . a . . . a ( ) ( j the lower end of t h i s structure • • • • • ( ) P r i n c i p a l store of food i n a dicot stem * * ( ) (1+) Hypocotyl The tough outer coat of the seed. • . • . . ( ) (5) Micropyle Represents the point where the pollen tube entered the ovule • • • • • • ( ) In the bean seed, consists of two minute green, l e a f l i k e structures folded together ( ) SECTION C The diagrams below represent stages from the l i f e cycle -of, moss, AO 1. Which number represents the beginning of the gametophyte generation? . . . . . . . , . ( ) 2. Which number represents a resistant-walled, asexually-reproductive structure?;.. • . • . ..... » (: ) 3. Which number represents a dependent generation? . . . ( ) I*., which of the following numbers represents a structure which i s part of the sporophyte generation? - 1, 5, 9 , 13* llj. . •• . • •• . * •• •• , * ( ) 5, Name structure number IJ4. • • • • • 6 , Name structure number 3, • , * * * - 5 0 -The diagrams below represent stages i n the l i f e cycle of a f e r n . ' $ 7. Structure number 7 i s an enlargement of structure number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • 8. Give the number of the structure i n which male gametes are produced . . . . . . . . . . . 9 • Which number represents:;- (a) a pro t h a i l u s? . .... • (b) a sporangium? .. (c) a mature s p o r o p h y t e . . 10. Name structure number 13* • • • • • « • 11. Name structure number 9 • • « • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . e 12. What i s the function of structure number 9? The diagrams below represent an experiment to demonstrate an important physical process. '3' <out*r AH el r*e>le>sses 13» In t h i s experiment the apparatus shown at Fi g . 1 i s known as the . • • • • . . . . » . ••••.....» 11+. The process by which the water passes through the membrane i s c a l l e d • • • • • • • . • • » 15» The membrane, f r e e l y permeable to water but not to molasses i s said to be. • • • . • • • - 51 -The diagrams below represent the parts of a flower and^their subsequent development, 16* In which number would the microspore be found? • • . •«• • » 17. Which number represents a part of the gametophyte generation? • • • • » » •••••» 18, What b i o l o g i c a l name i s given to part number 10? . * 19* Part number 10 i s formed by the enlargement of another part. What number represents t h i s other part? • • , • • » •-< 2 0 , Name part number I4. « , , , , , , 2 1 , A l l the parts numbered 3 together make up the a • , - • • • • * , , The figure below i s a diagrammatic representation of the cross-section of a l e a f , X •I 22, Give the number of a structure which brings water f o r photosynthesis from the root 2 3 » What other material f o r photosynthesis, enters the l e a f at number 9?* , , « • • • • • « » . . 21+, Name part number 8 , , ... 25. G i v e t n e name of the actual structures i n which photosynthesis occurs, , 26, Give the number of the c e l l which controls the rate of lo s s of water from the l e a f , • • • • - 52 -Diagram A represents a plant stem with a portion removed to show the i n t e r n a l structure* Diagram B i s a highly mag-n i f i e d cross-section of structure number 2* tissue of t h i s stem? . • • • • 28. Which number represents the tiss u e s p e c i a l i z e d f o r the conduction of food material v e r t i c a l l y i n the stem? • 29* Which number represents the chief storage tissue of t h i s stem? . . . . . . . 30. Name part number 3 « . . . • .31, Describe the l e a f venation c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s stem . • • » • • • • • • • SECTION D • • • • Answer the questions or complete the statements by supplying -the missing words or phrases. Answer at the r i g h t of the question. 1. The raw material from which bees manufacture honey i s c a l l e d (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)....., 2. Flowers having ..no petals or scent glands, but with . abundant pollen,, w i l l probably be p o l l i n a t e d by the agency of (2). . (2)..... 3* F r u i t s which become dry and then "explode" or f o r c i b l y eject t h e i r seeds are described as being(3)..«. ••ij.. The transfer of food products from the manufacturing area i n the l e a f to storage areas i n the roots or stem i s c a l l e d (Ij.) » • (ij . ) . . . . . 5. Organisms having male and female sex organs on separate indiv i d u a l s are said-to be (5) • • * (5).. •••• 6. Roots a r i s i n g from stem or l e a f tissues are c a l l e d (6) roots. • • • • • • • . . • • « . >. (6)..... ;, 7 . A flower which has p i s t i l s , stamens, petals and . •.. sepals i s described as being. . . . . . . . . ( 7 ) 8. In g r a f t i n g shrubs and trees, the part to be . ' grafted to the root or stock i s c a l l e d the. • (8)...... 9. Plants which complete t h e i r l i f e cycle i n one year are c l a s s i f i e d as (9) plants • • • . » . (9)..... 10. The movement of any substance through a semi-permeable membrane, from a place of greater concentration to one of l e s s e r concentration,, i s known as .(10)..... - 53 - -Student 1 s Number •• •••• Scores L. V* Rogers High School. 1. ...... 8. Nelson, B. C. 2. ..... 9. Biology 91-3. ..... 10. k 11. 5 12. 6. ...... 13-7 • . . . . . II}-. TOTAL _ PART II Answer the following questions i n paragraph form. Some answers w i l l be longer than others but the, average time f o r each one should be between 1+ and 5 minutes. A. Compare, among mosses, ferns and seed plants:-1. Alternation of generations, with respect to the degrees of dependence, conspicuousness and s i z e of the two generations. 2. The formation and d i s t r i b u t i o n of spores. 3. The methods used to survive periods of drought. B. Compare ::-I j . . The adaptions of d i f f u s e roots and tap roots. C. Describe::-5. The tissues of a dicot stem, giving t h e i r functions , and any s p e c i f i c uses they may have f o r man. ,6. The course of p o l l i n a t i o n and f e r t i l i z a t i o n i n a ' 4 ; • seed-bearing plant which has imperfect flowers. 7. How a plant makes starch and how i t s presence i n a l e a f may be demonstrated. '" 8. How the various parts of a flower become modified to form parts of the f r u i t and seed. 9 . The process of seed germination,, mentioning any differences between the various classes of plants. D. Discuss:;-10. The transference of water, minerals and food substances i n plants. 1 1 . A plant c e l l ' s need f o r water and what happens when water i s short. 12. The ways i n which plant leaves, stems and roots may be adapted to various types of environment. 13» The adaptions f o r p o l l i n a t i o n which may be shown by a flower. E. Trace:-l i j . . The course of energy from sunlight to the movement of a cat, mentioning a l l the transformation processes involved. APPENDIX B VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OP THE TESTS 1. R e l i a b i l i t y of the objective t e s t . Table A shows the values of p, the proportion of students passing each question, and of q(= 1 - p), the proportion f a i l i n g , e a c h question. TABLE A. Ques, P q< pq Ques. P Q2 Pqi Ques. p» qi m A 1 .98 . 0 2 .020 v i i .69 • 31 .214 12 .77 .23 .177 2 .85 .15 . 123 v i i i .51 .1*9 .250 13 . 8 2 .18 .148 3 •9k .04 .040 2. i •§!*• .16 .134 11* .73 .27 .197 4 .89 . i i .098 i i .88 .12 .106 15 .94 .06 .056 5 .57 .245 i i i .63 .37 .233 16 .53 • 47 .249 6 '.62 .38 .236 i v .77 .23 .177 17 .47 .53 .249 7 .kO .60 .240 V . 72 .28 .202 18 .62 .38 .236 8 .37 .86 .63 .233 v i .83 .17 .11*2 19 .41* .56 .21*6 9 .14 .120 v i i .95 .05 .0k9 20 .67 .33 .221 10 ,1k .86 .120 v i i i .62 .38 .236 21 .1*0 .60 .240 11 .87 .13 .05 .113 3. i .85 .15 .128 22 .57 .43 .33 .21]5 12: .95 .0k8 i i .91 .09 .082 23 .67 .221 13 % .15 .85 .218 i i i .85 .15 .128 24 .91 .09 .082 . 9 0 .10 .090 i v .9k .06 .056 25 .15 .85 .128 .'.15 .61 .39 .238 4* i .57 *43 .245 26 .76 , 2 k .182 16 .74 .26 .192 i i .60 .40 .21*0 27 .65 .35 .228 17 .87 .13 .113 i i i .58 .42. .2114 28 .35 .65 .228 18 .99 .01 .010 i v .80 .20 .160 29 .78 .22 .172 19 ,61 .39 .238 V .68 . 3 2 .218 30 .83 .17 . l k 2 20 .45 .55 .21*8 C 1 .1*7 .53 .2k9 31 .60 .1*0 .21*0 21 .61 .39 .238 2 .39 .61 .238 D 1 .8k .16 .134 22 .52 .48 .250 3 .79 .21 .166 2 .96 . 0 4 .35 .040 23 .59 .41 .2k2 4 . 6 4 .36 .230 3 .65 .228 2k .70 .30 .210 5 .58 .42 .244 4 .87 .13 .116 25 ,kk .56 .246 6 .71 .29 .206: 5 .49 .51 .250 .245 26 *7^ .57 .26 .2k5 7 .89 .11 .098 6 111 .57 B l i .192 8 .50 .50 .250 7 .26 .192 i i .31 .69 .214 9a. .80 .20 .160 8 .79 .21 .160 i i i .k6 .54 .248 9b .65 .35 .228 9 .90 .10 .090 i v .79 .21 .166 9c .57 .43 .2k5 10 .k5 . .55 .2k8 V .70 .30 . 210. 10 .67 .33 .221 Part total. - 5.594 v i .51 .49 .250 11 .69 .31 .21k Part t o t a l - 5.694 Part t o t a l - 5.993 TOTAL (£pq)= 17,281 Xpq f o r the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 = I7.28I - 56 -The c a l c u l a t i o n of cT f o r the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 i s taken from the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n shown Table B. TABLE B Raw score f d f d f d 2 85 - 89 6 6 36 216 80 - 81]. 131 5 55 275 75 - 79 14 4 56 22i| 70 - 71* 8 3 24 72 65 -69 6 2 12 2k 60 - 6i± 10 1 10 10. 55 - 59 15 0 0 0 50 - 51*. 7 -1 -7 7 1*5 -k9 9 -21. -18 36 ko - ''114 2 -3 -6 18 35 - 39 5 -4 -20 80 30 - 3I4. 3 -5 -15 75 SUMS; 96 127 1037 - Ml - m 1.75) S = i 2td' • N. 6- » 25 1037 ' i t •<r = 2 5 (io,8o . - 57 -2 . R e l i a b i l i t y of the essay t e s t . Table C summarizes the differences between the marks a l l o t t e d by the two readers f o r each essay question. The number of times the marks d i f f e r e d i s shown f o r each question, f o r each of the amount s:;-Reader A minus Reader B = +2, +1, 0 , - 1 , - 2 . There were no differences of more than two marks. The mean difference i n marks f o r each question i s expressed as a percentage of the average mark "X,f gained by the students on that question. A bracketed negative sign before t h i s percentage indicates that the mean difference, as derived from the foregoing expression, was negative;, that i s there was a tendency f o r Reader B to mark higher than Reader A. The t o t a l number of students w r i t i n g the test was 96 and the number who answered each question i s shown under "n n :. TABLE C Comparison of marks awarded by the readers Question Max. number mark n Numbers +2 +1 of differences 0- -1 -2 Mean difference (as % of 21) 1 12: 89 7 . 0 1 h 78 6 QJ Q 2 8 92. 3 . 0 2 2 85 3 O 1.1 3 h 89 1 .8 O 1+ 81+ 1 Q> 1.9 1+ 6 88 2 . 9 0 3 77 7 1 (-)2.k 5 15 92 9 . 1 3 1 1 76 2 0 1 . 8 6 12 91 3 . 7 0 2 86 3 0 ( - ) 0 . 3 7 8 91 1+.8 0 2 814- 5 0 (-0.0.7 8 6 81+ 3 . 2 0 3 81 0 0; 1.1 9 1 1 79 l+.l 1 1 7 5 - 2 0 . 3 10. 8 95 1+.0 0 2: 81+ 7 21 (-)2.1+ 1 1 8 95 3 . 6 0 3 91 1 0 0 . 6 12 13 87 5 . 5 1 5 78 3 0 0 . 8 13 12 90 1+.3 0 2 81+. 1+ 0; ( - ) 0 . 5 11+ 10 78 3 . 5 0 6 7 1 1 0 1 . 8 T o t a l s 133 121+0 60 .5 8 50 1131+ 3 - 58 -These differences, i f allowed to stand, would have resulted i n differences i n the t o t a l scores awarded to in d i v i d u a l students by the two readers. A c o e f f i c i e n t of cor r e l a t i o n between the two readers was calculated f o r these circumstances and found to be +.95. 3. V a l i d i t y of the t e s t s . The same table of specification,as shown i n Table D, was used f o r the two t e s t s . TABLE D Table of s p e c i f i c a t i o n Subject Concepts Applications Facts T o t a l s matter a r e a i $ % % Bryophyta k • 1 5 10 Eteridophyta 3 2 9 % Spermatophyta 1 1 k 6 Roots; 3 1 131 St ems 3 h 15-Leaves; k 6 8 18 Reproduction 8 3 8 19 F r u i t s , seeds 2 l k 7 T o t a l s 28 19 53 100 Table E shows the analyses of scoring f o r the two t e s t s e Comparison with the table of s p e c i f i c a t i o n (Table D) w i l l ' give an idea of the content v a l i d i t y of each of the t e s t s . - 59 -TABLE E Analyses of scoring according to subject matter areas? Part A (Objective Test) Subject Concepts Applications Facts Totals matter area % i % • % Bryophyta- 0 . 8 k . 8 1 0 . 0 Pteridophyta 2 . 8 1.9 9 .0 1 3 . 7 Sp ermat o phyta 1 . 6 0 3*5 5 .1 Roots 3 . 1 1 . 6 6.9 1 1 . 6 Stems 3 . 1 k . 2 8 . 5 15 .8 Leavea k . 2 5 . 8 8 . 0 , 1 8 . 0 Reproduction 8 . 1 . 3 . 0 7 . 8 18.9 F r u i t s , seeds 1 . 6 1 . 1 a. 2 6.9 T o t a l s 28.9 1 8 . k 52 .7 1 0 0 . 0 Part B (Essay Test) Subject Concepts Applications Facts Totals matter area i • % Bryophyta 1 .5 2 . 3 1 .5 5.3 Pteridophytai 1 .5 2 . 3 1 .5 5 . 3 Spermatophyta 2 . 3 3.0 2 . 3 7 . 6 Roots 3 . 8 k . 6 3.0 11. k Stems 6 . 9 k . 6 7 . 6 19.1 Leaves 6 . 5 6 . 9 6.5 19.9 Reproduction 5 . 0 k . 6 8 . 8 I 8 . k F r u i t s , seeds 3 . 8 2 . 3 6 . 9 13. 0: T o t a l s 3 1 . 3 3 0 . 6 3 8.1 100.0 The following are extracts from a l l the l e t t e r s received from teachers who examined the tests f o r face v a l i d i t y . The only omissions are those of a personal or i r r e l e v a n t nature. Nothing has been omitted which r e l a t e d to v a l i d i t y . From Mr. A. Enns of Williams Lake Junior-Senior High School:: -1 . Part I: Objective examination i s well constructed and covers the material very adequately. The only minor negative c r i t i c i s m I may have i s that Section l k of the outline received somewhat shallower treatment than did the - 60 -other t o p i c s . However, the variety of questions, choice of d i s t r a c t o r s i n the multiple choice questions and the diagrams are a l l superb, 2. Part II:, The lij. essay topics are excellent and cover the work well. I especially favour section A, One would have to know how the class was taught before i t could be decided what e n t i r e l y i s desired i n question ij.,. I am not too sure what my class would understand by the word "adaptions",,.,, adaptions i n growth as related to stem, secondary roots, adaptions of root h a i r s , to climate, depth, and necessary absorptive surface. Actually the question does cover a f a i r amount of material. The questions are not a l l of the same weight. Question 1 i s much more d i f f i c u l t than numbers 1 and IIL. 3. The sample assignments are obviously the follow-up of a well organized lesson. They c e r t a i n l y demand thought on the part of the student. I f he applies himself to the assignments; there should be no doubt as to h i s comprehension of the material i n the lesson or h i s a b i l i t y to pass the designed unit t e s t . If a l l assignments were of t h i s high c a l i b r e , my negative c r i t i c i s m s of Part II would be i n v a l i d . In closing may I again say that both parts, each i n i t s own way, covers the unit thoroughly as i t i s designed and i n an i n t e r e s t i n g and challenging manner. Prom Mr. John A. G. Blackwell of Max Cameron Senior High School, Powell River. Part It Course content i s covered with exception that - 61 -there i s no mention of tropisms or types of f r u i t s * The items of section A are good, the choices are related to subject involved i n question* The items of section B are t y p i c a l , I es p e c i a l l y l i k e question #3, page Ij., Diagrams and questions of section G are s a t i s f a c t o r y and cover course content well* Question section D are excellent but I f e e l more of t h i s type should have been used. However, since I assume that t h i s was a period test you have covered the course content adequately. Part I I : The items test are v a l i d as f a r as course content i s concerned but I f e e l that they are too d i f f i c u l t and too numerous to be answered well by most Biology 91 students. Prom Mr. S. D. Foreman of Howe Sound Junior-Senior High School* In reply to your request f o r an opinion on the content v a l i d i t y of Part I, I would say that the v a l i d i t y would be very high. I f i n d i t hard to confine myself to only a st a t e -ment on the v a l i d i t y , however, I w i l l do so and again state that the teaching unit seems well covered or so v a l i d i t y i s high. Part II:: The essay exam natu r a l l y can be high or low when end re s u l t s are seen* The exam i t s e l f or the questions asked do cover the entire f i e l d and therefore the content v a l i d i t y of the exam i s high, however, without the lead words I'm sure the answer paper wouldn't lead one to believe that the v a l i d i t y was very high. APPENDIX. C TEACHING AND ASSIGNMENT MATERIAL !• Copy of the teaching u n i t . The Development of the Spermatophytes 1. Phylum Bryophyta - Mosses and Liverworts. Structure, l i f e c y c l e , elementary physiology. Alternation of Generations. Position i n the plant kingdom. 2 . Phylum Pteridophyta. - Perns, Horsetails, Club Mosses. As f o r Bryophyta - comparisons between Bryophyta and Pteridophyta* 3. Phylum Spermatophyta. Position i n plant kingdom. General functions of plant organs. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n as applied to Spermatophyta. k. Root Systems. Types, structures and functions. D i f f u s i o n , etc. 5» Absorption of water and s a l t s . 6 . Stems. Types i n r e l a t i o n to environment. Structure, functions, growth. 7» Herbaceous dicot and monocot stems. Comparisons. Internal structures. Specializations. Grafting, pruning. 8. Structure of leaves. General functions. External and Internal Structures. 9 . Functions of leaves. 10. Storage and use of foods i n plants. Translocation, r e s p i r a t i o n , transpiration, etc., 11. Experiments with leaves. Production of starch and oxygen, t r a n s p i r a t i o n . 12. Reproduction of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. General p r i n c i p l e s . Comparisons. Angiosperms - f l o r a l parts, types of flower. - 6 3 -13» The Roles of Stamens and P i s t i l . • Alternation of generations i n angiosperras - comparisons with Bryophytes and Pteridophytes. P o l l i n a t i o n and adaptations f o r l k . F e r t i l i z a t i o n and the development of seeds. Development of f r u i t s . Structure of t y p i c a l f r u i t s . 15* Structure and germination of seeds. 2 . Sample of lesson notes and accompanying assignments. N o t e s 8 THE STRUCTURE OF LEAVES Functions of Leaves (1) Photosynthesis - the manufacture of food - the p r i n c i p a l function. (2) Respiration - oxygen absorbed, carbon dioxide given o f f through stomata - minute p o r e 3 that cover the l e a f surface. (3) Transpiration - the discharge of water through stomata. ALSO - (k) storage, (5) reproduction. General Structure Blade - strengthened and supplied by veins (fibrovascular bundles) Petiole - the l e a f stalk - veins extend through petiole and j o i n fibrovascular bundles of stem. Petiole joins stem at node. Stalkless leaves are said to be " s e s s i l e " . Leaf venationt-E» G. maple cottonwood mountain ash Parallel, venation - 6k -Internal Structure of Leaves Gross-section Stoma ( p i . stomata) -the pores i n the surface of the leaf Cuticle (non-cellular) Epidermis - transparent, admits light,, prevents loss of water. Palisade c e l l s -photosynthesis Chloroplasts - contain chlorophyll thin-walled,, i r r e g u l a r l y shaped c e l l s - temporary storage Xylem ) V e i n _ fibrovascular bundle A i r spaces - c i r c u l a t e oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapour Lower epidermis Guard c e l l s - change i n t h e i r turgor opens or closes the stomata. Regulates d i f f u s i o n of oxygen and carbon dioxide, transpiration,, Stomata - 60,000 to k!?0,000 per sqj. inch. In t e r r e s t r i a l plant usually on lower surface;; i f leaves v e r t i c a l - on both surfaces water l i l y - on upper surface only. Also on epidermis of herbaceous stems. Note - woody stems have " l e n t i c e l s " - much more robust than stomata. Chlorophyll - carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and magnesium complex. Photosynthesis - using carbon dioxide & producing oxygen -during daylight hours only. Respiration - using oxygen and producing carbon dioxide - day i night. During daylight, when photosynthesis i s occurring, the" leaf produces more oxygen than i t uses - thus disguising the r e s p i r a t i o n . - 65 -THE STRUCTURE OF LEAVES a. 1. Match the leaf structure with the descri p t i o n : -(1) Cutin Continuous with phloem and xylem (2) Epidermis of stem • • , » • • • • • , * , « . ( ) (3) Guard c e l l A wax-like coating on the surface Palisade c e l l of the l e a f • • • • • • ( ) (5) Spongy C e l l containing many chloroplasts. . • ( ) mesophyll Includes many spaces which provide (6) Stoma f o r d i f f u s i o n and interchange (7) Vein of gases, ( ) Point of entry for oxygen f o r r e s p i r a t i o n , . , • • • , , , , , ( ) Structure whose size i s regulated by two s p e c i a l i z e d c e l l s « « • • • » ( ) A c e l l which occurs i n both upper and lower epidermis of an upright l e a f , • • « « . « » « < > » ( ) Provides temporary storage f o r manufactured food • • • • • • • , ( ) When water i s short, t h i s c e l l changes . shape and reduces loss of water by transpiration, • • • • • • « , ( ) Provides the strengthening frame-work of the l e a f , • • • , , , , • ( ) 2, Match the l e a f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c with the d e s c r i p t i o n : -(1) Palmate Applied to a l e a f whose blade i s attached (2) P a r a l l e l d i r e c t l y to the plant stem • • • • • • • ( ) (3) Pinnate Main veins of the l e a f radiate from ai (ij.) Sessile single point • ( ) Characteristic of cottOnwood and apple trees • • • • • , • • « « • • » ( ) Characteristic venation of corn leaves, • • ( ) Applied to leaves with no p e t i o l e , , < . , • ( ) 3 , Select the l i v i n g process which best f i t s each description (1) Photosynthesis: Characteristic of cambium tissue • . « ( ) (2) Reproduction Occurs i n a l l l i v i n g plant c e l l s (3) Respiration continuously, • • • • • • ( ) (ij.) Storage The giving o f f of water vapour from . . (5) Translocation plant leaves, stems and f r u i t s , • • ( ) (6) Transpiration The transfer of food material, , . , , ( ) Produces gaseous oxygen, , . , . • • • , ( ) P r i n c i p a l function of phloem tis s u e * ," ( ) Regulated by highly s p e c i a l i z e d c e l l s i n the l e a f epidermis « , , , , • • ( ) - 66 -k. Match the type of plant with the descriptionr-(1) A l l dicots P a r a l l e l veined leaves . . . . . . . . . ( ) (2) Herbaceous Net veined leaves. . . . . . . ( ) dicots; Stems have separate vascular bundles (3) Monocots arranged i n a r i n g formation ( ) (lj.) Woody dicots Photosynthesis can occur i n both leaves and stems. . . . . . . . . . . ( ) b. Complete the following:-(1) Minute pores that cover the surface of the leaf are c a l l e d . . . . . . . . . . . . (2) Large pores i n the surface of woody stems are c a l l e d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (3) The constituent of photosynthesis conveyed to the l e a f by xylem i s . . . (k) The green pigment to be found i n most plants i s c a l l e d (k) and i s made up of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, (£) and ( 6 ) . . . . . . . . . . . (1) (2) (3) (k) (5) (6) . o « . . o « « . . . ........... ........*•* (7) The term mesophyll i s made up of , "meso", coming form the Greek word meaning (7) and " p h y l l " , coming from (7") the Greek word meaning.(8). . . . • » • (8) (9) A non-cellular secretion of the epidermis of the l e a f i s (9). . . . • . (9) .......... (10) The le a f tissue most concerned with preventing undue l o s s of water i s the .(10) .......... ... Answer the following question about the l e a f i l l u s t r a t e d : -Name the following structures:-Structure number 1 Structure number 3 Structure number k ............. e . e Name two tissues to be found i n structure number 2 ..«..........< Underline any of the following adjectives which apply to the f , venation of thi s l e a f : -Net; Pinnate; Palmate; P a r a l l e l Assignment 8B THE STRUCTURE OP LEAVES (1) Describe the v i s i b l e structures of the i l l u s t r a t e d leaf and i t s point of attachment to the stem. What other method of attachment i s there and what adjective i s applied to i t . . . (The numbers are f o r you to use i n your description i f you wish.) (2) ,Describe the structure and functions of the vein of a l e a f . (3) Compare the l e a f venation of monocots . . and dicots. (k) Name and describe the position and structure, of the c e l l s of a leaf responsible f o r photosynthesis. ,, . , , (5) Describe the ways i n which a leaf regulates and prevents loss of water. (6) Trace the path of water from the l e a f xylem to the outside . a i r . What i s t h i s process called? (7) Very b r i e f l y compare photosynthesis and r e s p i r a t i o n . (Include the times of day when they occur.) APPENDIX D DETAILS OP MATCHING OP GROUPS; Table P snows the comparisons between students i n each of the factors on which pairs were matched. TABLE P Student Number Age Months: Oct.60 Sex I. Q". (Oti») Achievement Gates S.F.I.. June,1959 School Grades Science English 25 192> P I l k 11.8 C C+ 110 191 P 119 11 . 1 C B 131+ 190 P 106 11.1 C- B; Ik 191+ P 101 10.9 C C+ 138 19k P 111 10.9 0- C-101 198 P 10k 11.1 G- C 151 190 P 105 C- C 153 197 M 105 10.9 G C-k9 192 M 118 11.0 B C 11+3 197 M 121 B c 71 192 P 128 11.5 C C+ 11+2 193 P 127 11.6 C c; 18 199 M 115 10.1+ C+ c 120 196 M ll l j . B 53 196 P 117 l l . k B c 1+6 202: P 118 C+ B 75 193 F 12k 11.1+ C+ C+ 97 198 M 121+ 11.1+ B C+ kO 193 F 127 11.0 C+ B 11+0 195 F 131 11. 0 C+ B 103 195 M 119 11 .3 C+ C 80 198 M 125 11 .3 B: c+ 1+5 191 M 116 9.5 C c 29 189 M 121+ 9.7 C c 133 201 M 125 10.1 c- c-1+1+ 200 M 121 10 . 1 c- c Continued overleaf. - 69 -Student Number Age Months Oct.60 Sex I . Q» (Otis) Achievement Gates S.F.I. June,1959 School Grades Science English 108 196 P 117 10.0 C- C-57 197 P I l k 10.1 C+ C-20 198 P II5 10.8 C- c+ 77 195 P 113 10.6 C B 102 191 M 110 10.8 C- C 68 198 M 107 9*9 G- C-k2 196 M 123 B C 10? 195 M 122 11.0 B C 130 19k M 113 9.7 0+ B 66 192 M .119 10.9 c+ B 82 190 M 115 l l . k C C 118 197 M 123 11 .5 C+ C> 30 190 M 115 10.9 C- G 121 192 M 126 10.8 C- G 31 199 M 115 11..3 C B 85 195 M 123 11.0 C C+ 10k 199 M 117 10.9 B B 81. 198 M 119 10.3 c+ B 69 202 M 109 C C 127 198 P 119 10 .3 C+ C-117 190 P 120 11.0 C G* 26 195 P 126 10.5 c B 112 195 P I l k 11.0 c-61 199 M 123 10.6 C- 0+ APPENDIX E DETAILS OP SCORES, GAINS, AND CALCULATIONS OP D AND t . Table G shows the scores and.gains of each student i n each part of the test and the differences i n gains between students of each matched pair. Differences were obtained by-subtracting the gain by the student i n the objective group from the gain by the student i n the essay group. TABLE G Student Number Objective Part Init.. P i n a l Gain Essay Part I n i t . P i n a l Gain Differences (D) Obj. Essay Combined 25 8 ~k2 31* 3 36 33 -39 -21 -1*0.8 110 1* 77 73 2 56. 51* 13k 2: 57 55 O 1*7' 1*7 18 21.5 7k 10< 1*5 35 O 29 29 20) 138 8 52 1*4 1 1*0 39 10.8 101 12 1*7 35 0 18 18 9 21 151 3 37 34 2: 32 30 -30.8 153 11 75 61* 0 39 39 -30 -9 1*9 11 78 67 13 75 62 11*3 18 86 68 3 88 85 -1 -23 -2.9 71 8 61 53 1 52 51 l k 2 8 61 53 11 1*6 35 0: 16 1.3 18 15 76 61 20 61 1*1 120 3 72 69 0 57 57 -8 -16 -9.3 53 1* 67 63 11*- 62 1*8 25.0 k6 7 47 1*0 3 27 < 21* 23 2% 75 20 1*6 26 7 35- 28 97 13 80 67 1 67 66 ' "1*1 -38 -kl*.2 ko 6 72 66 3 60 57 11*0 2 71 69 6 66 60 -3 -3 -3*3 103 8 73 65 28 62 31* 80 3 70 67 1* 1*1 37 -2 -3 -2.3 1*5 8 1*5 37 1* 32 28 29 10 50 1*0 0 21* 24 -3 1* -2.7 Continued overleaf. - 71- -Student Number Objective I n i t . P i n a l Part Gain Essay Part Init.. P i n a l Gain Differences (D) Obj. Essay Combined 133 5 30 25 0 9 9 kk 11 36 25 1+ 17 13 0 -k -0 .3 108 3 k6 1+3 0 36 36 57 13 63 50 11 39 28 -7 8 -6.3 20 5 58 53 2 60 58 77 8 57 1+9 1+ 27 23 1+ 35 6.9 102: k 36 32 2 20 18 68 k 55 51 11+ kO, 26 -19 -8 -19.7 1+2 12 78 66 0 71+ 71+ 107 6 65 59 1+ 53 1+9 7 25 9.1 130 6 63 57 0 1+9 1+9 66 6 76 70 0 60 60 -13 -11 -13.9 82 1+ 56 52 0 55 55 118 2 67 65 0 57 57 -2 -13.2 30 6 1+2 36 2 30 28 121 3 39 36 3 32 29 0 -1 -0.1 31 85 9 62 53 0 1+3 1+3 11+ 58 1+1+ 6 32 26 9 17 lo.k 101+ 12 68 56 8 58 50 81 6 71+ 68 1+ 70 66 -12 -16 -13.3 69 6 62 56 3 71 68 127 5 82 77 5 58 53 -21 15 -19.7 117 9 60 51 0 1+1+ 1+4 26 10 - -61 51 3 1+5 1+2 0 2 0.2 112 5 1+8 1+3 Q 33 33 61 37 33 0 13 13 10 20 11.7 - 7 2 Table H and the subsequent section show the calculations of D and t fo r the three examinations TABLE H Obj ective Essay Combined 2 2 2 D D D D D D - 3 9 1 5 2 1 - 2 1 l+kl -I4.O.8 1661+..6 2 0 koo 1 8 3 2 k 2 1 . 5 k62.3 9 8 1 2 1 kkl 1 0 - 8 1 1 6 . 6 : - 3 0 900- - 9 81. - 3 0 . 8 9k8.6 - 1 1 - 2 3 : 5 2 9 -2.9 8.k 0 0 16 2 5 6 1 .3: 1 . 7 - 8 6k -16 2 5 6 - 9 . 3 8 6 . 5 2 3 5 2 9 5 7 6 2 5 . 0 . 6 2 5 . 0 ; -kl 1681 - 3 8 lkkk. -kk.2 1 9 5 3 . 6 - 3 9 - 3 9 - 3 . 3 1 0 . 9 - 2 k - 3 9 - 2 . 3 5 . 3 - 3 9 k 16 - 2 . 7 7 . 3 0 0 "fir 16 - 0 . 3 0 . 1 - 7 k9 8 6 k - 6 . 3 3 9 . 7 k 16 3 ? 1 2 2 5 6.9 -19 361 - 8 6 k - 1 9 . 7 3 8 8 . 1 7 k 9 2 5 6 2 5 9 . 1 8 2 . 8 - 1 3 169 - 1 1 121. - 1 3 . 9 193.2 - 1 3 169 - 2 k - 1 3 . 2 1 7 k . 2 : 0 0 - 1 I - 0 . 1 0 . 0 9 8 1 17 289 1 0 . 7 Ilk. 5 - 1 2 Ikk -16 2 5 6 - 1 3 . 3 1 7 6 . 9 - 2 1 kkl 1 5 2 2 5 -19.7 3 8 8 . 1 0 0 2. k 0 . 2 0 . 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 0 kOO 1 1 . 7 1 3 6 . 9 2 D = 1 3 0 £D 2 = 6 7 7 8 £D=50 SD 2 =7676 - 1 2 5 . 6 2 2 D =7632.9 N = 2 5 N=25 N= 2 5 D=5o20 D= 2 . 0 0 D= 5 . 0 2 - 73 -Calculations of 3g :-( D - D ) 2 N - 1 D 2 - ( D ) 2 N . • N . - 1 Objective Test Essay Test Combined Test '6778 - (130) IE 72T /6778 - 676 7254.3 5 3.19 7676 - (50)  2k ' /25 /7676 - 100 J '% 3.55 7633 - (126) -2£_ 7633 - 635 = 7291.6 = 3.42! Calculations of t ::-t =• D Objective Test Essay Test Combined Test t = 5.20 t = 2*00 t = 5.02! '" 3.19 3.55 3.-421 = 1.63 = 0.56 = 1.47 - 7 1 + -BIBLIOGRAPHY OP WORKS CITED A r t i c l e s Douglas, H. R« and Talmadge, M., "How University Students Prepare f o r New Types of Examination". School and Society 39, 1 9 3 4 , PP. 3 1 3 - 3 2 0 . . ~ Preeman, F. N., "The Monopoly of Objective Tests" 1. Educational  Forum 1 0 , 191+6, pp. 3 « 9 - 3 9 5 . Kuder, G. F. and Richardson, W. M., "The Theory of the Estimation of Test R e l i a b i l i t y " . .Psychometrika 2 , 1937, pp. 1 5 1 - 160.. Lundahl, W. S. and Mason, J. M., "Essay Testing i n B i o l o g i c a l Sciences as; a Means of Supplementary Training i n Writing S k i l l s " . Science Education 1+0, 1 9 5 6 , . pp. 2 6 1 - 2 6 7 . Meyer, G., "An Experimental Study of the Old and New Types of Examination, I:: The E f f e c t of Examination Set on Memory". Journal of Educational Psychology 2 5 , 1 9 3 k , pp. 61+1 - 661. Meyer, G., "An Experimental Study of the Old and New Types of Examination, l i t Methods; of Study". Journal of Educational  Psychology 26, 1 9 3 5 , pp. . 30 - 1+0. . Sims, V. M., "Improving the Measuring Q u a l i t i e s of an Essay Examination". Journal of Educational Research 2 7 , 1933, pp. 2 0 - 3 1 . " ' ~~ Sims, V. M., "Essay Examination i s a Projective Technique". Educational Digest l k , 191+8, pp. 2 8 - 3 1 . . Stalnaker, J . M. and Stalnaker, R. C , " R e l i a b i l i t y Reading of Essay Tests". School Review 1+2, 193k, pp. 599 - 6 0 5 . Stalnaker, J. M., "The Problem of the English Examination". Educational. Record 1 7 , Supplement Number 1 0 , 1936, pp. 3 5 -1+0. Stalnaker, J . M..,, "Essay Examinations Reliably Read". School  and Society 1+6, . 1 9 3 7 , PP. 6 7 1 - 672. Traxler, A. E. and Anderson, H. A., " R e l i a b i l i t y of an Essay Test i n English". School Review 1+3, 1 9 3 5 , PP. 531+ - 51+0. - 15 -Books; Burton, W. H«, The Guidance of Learning A c t i v i t i e s , New York:: Appleton-Century-Crofts, T9"£2~. Furst, E» J«,-Constructing Evaluating Instruments, New York: Longmans-Green, 1950* Lindquist, Eo P., ( e d i t o r ) , Educational Measurement, Washington D., C»: American Council of Education, 1951* McNemar, Q», Psychological S t a t i s t i c s , New York:; Wiley and Sons,. Inc., 191+9. Thurstone, L» L*, An Appraisal of the Test Movement, Proceedings 1936, Insti t u t e of Administrative O f f i c e r s of Higher Ins t i t u t i o n s , Chicago:: University of Chicago Press, 1936. Woodring, M» N, and Fleming, C. '¥'•, D i r e c t i n g the Study of High School Pupils, New York: Teachers College, ColurabTa University, 1929. 

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