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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The contemporary theme in the Persaai of Aischylos Hunt, Marlene Rae 1962

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THE  CONTEMPORARY THEME  IN THE PERSAI OF AISCHYLOS by MARLENE RAE HUNT B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia,  1959  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of Classics  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g  to the  r e q u i r e d standard  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October,  1962  In presenting  this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. f o r extensive  I f u r t h e r agree that permission  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be  granted by the Head of my Department o r by h i s  representatives.  I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission.  Department of  Classics,  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  October,1962  ABSTRACT  The P e r s a i of A i s c h y l o s i s one  of the few Greek t r a g e d i e s  with  contemporary h i s t o r i c a l themes, and the only such p l a y that has v i v e d complete.  sur-  T h i s study undertakes to determine whether one  can  with c e r t a i n t y , or even p r o b a b i l i t y , e x p l a i n A i s c h y l o s * choice of h i s unusual theme.  Much i n f o r m a t i o n of doubtful value  passed down as f a c t . accept  has been  Tnerefore, the method f o l l o w e d has been t o  nothing as f a c t u n t i l i t has been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by a c a r e f u l  examination of the  evidence.  An i n s p e c t i o n of three t h e o r i e s concerning  Aischylos' chief  purpose i n w r i t i n g h i s other extant p l a y s f a i l s to produce a s a t i s f a c t o r y explanation for the P e r s a i .  The remainder of the study i s  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n whether the reason f o r A i s c h y l o s * choice of subject i n t h i s play can be found to l i e i n h i s a t t i t u d e toward contemporary affairs:  i n h i s r e l a t i o n to/the great v i c t o r i e s of the  Hellenes  over the P e r s i a n s , to the expansion of Athenian power by l a n d and and,  above a l l ,  sea,  to the s t r u g g l e s of p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n s w i t h i n Athens.  T h i s i n v o l v e s an i n q u i r y i n t o A i s c h y l o s * o p i n i o n s about contemporary a f f a i r s and  h i s i n c l u s i o n of these opinions" i n h i s t r a g e d i e s  than the P e r s a i ;  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the nature  stances surrounding, had  two  of, and  the  f i f t h - c e n t u r y p l a y s by Phrynichos  other circum-  that a l s o  themes from contemporary h i s t o r y and that might have i n f l u e n c e d  A i s c h y l o s i n h i s w r i t i n g of the P e r s a i ; an examination of the  nature  o f , and c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g , The  conclusions  reached a r e a s f o l l o w s :  c a n n o t s a y how much r e f e r e n c e he one  could j u s t i f i a b l y  the Persai  itself. F i r s t , a l t h o u g h one  t o contemporary events A i s c h y l o s  include i n h i s tragedies  other  than the P e r s a i ,  c a n a t l e a s t o b s e r v e t h a t he d i d i n c l u d e m a t e r i a l o f t h i s  s i n c e i n two o f the o t h e r  extant  moreover, i n both these t r a g e d i e s prominent place.  tragedies  there  nature,  i s p o s i t i v e evidence;  t h e contemporary a l l u s i o n has a  Second, e v i d e n c e o u t s i d e  t h e Persai- r e v e a l s  A i s c h y l o s o n l y a s a p a t r i o t i c A t h e n i a n and n o t as a p o l i t i c a l h a v i n g s p e c i a l sympathy w i t h , o r a n t i p a t h y p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s of h i s t i m e .  felt  partisan  t o w a r d s , any o f t h e l e a d i n g  T h i r d , evidence suggests the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t P h r y n i c h o s i n w r i t i n g h i s t r a g e d i e s w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y themes was m o t i v a t e d by p o l i t i c a l  partisanship or friendship with a  p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e , Themistokles.  Fourth,  leading  although Aischylos  seems  t o h a v e s t r i v e n t o make t h e P e r s a i a s t r a g i c a n d u n i v e r s a l , a s p o s s i b l e , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e theme h e h a d s e l e c t e d made f a i l u r e t o c r e a t e r e a l l y t r a g i c drama a l m o s t c e r t a i n .  There a r e s e v e r a l  possible  m o t i v e s t h a t m i g h t have i n f l u e n c e d t h e e x p e r i e n c e d d r a m a t i s t t o choose t h i s  subject:  t h e u r g e t o meet t h e c h a l l e n g e  a  i n 4-72  of handling  d i f f e r e n t theme i n a more e f f e c t i v e way t h a n h a d a p r e v i o u s  dramatist;  t h e d e s i r e t o c o n v e y a r e l i g i o u s message o f d i r e c t s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r the Athenians;  t h e w i s h t o h e l p one who may have b e e n a f r i e n d a n d  who was c e r t a i n l y a f e l l o w - p a t r i o t now i n t r o u b l e , T h e m i s t o k l e s . A i s c h y l o s was a d r a m a t i s t of t h e P e r s a i a l l three  a  who w r o t e on many l e v e l s , a n d i n t h e c a s e  suggested reasons f o r h i s s e l e c t i o n of i t s  iv  subject, since they are compatible with one another, could have influenced him in varying degrees,.  Thus, i n regard to the choice  of a contemporary theme for the Persai. one can only identify what was possible;  to go beyond this into the realm of probability or  certainty would be to go beyond the evidence.  Ack no w l e dgm en t  The  a u t h o r w i s h e s to express  M a l c o l m F. M c G r e g o r a n d  her  appreciation to  Professors  C. V/. J . E l i o t f o r d i r e c t i o n and  g i v e n i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  thesis.  help  Contents  Chapter I. II. III.  Page A i s c h y l o s and H i s Times  1.  P h r y n i c h o s and C o n t e m p o r a r y Themes  4-2.  The P e r s a i o f A i s c h y l o s  70.  Introduction  The P e r s a i o f A i s c h y l o s i n having f o r i t s subject or heroic legend.  i s u n i q u e among e x t a n t  Greek t r a g e d i e s  contemporary h i s t o r y r a t h e r than mythology  I was i n t e r e s t e d i n why A i s c h y l o s c h o s e s u c h a  theme, and f e l t t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s q u e s t i o n worthwhile.  As i t t u r n e d  w o u l d be  o u t , t h e r e s u l t s were n e g a t i v e .  i n s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o p e r m i t an answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n . in  However,  t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I f o u n d t h a t ' much i n f o r m a t i o n  i s p a s s e d down a s f a c t h a s no c e r t a i n b a s i s a t a l l . c o r r e c t i o n of misinformation is  There i s  h a s some v a l u e ,  that  Since the  I f e e l that t h i s  study  justified. Because I b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e r e a s o n f o r A i s c h y l o s  1  choice of  s u b j e c t might l i e i n h i s r e a c t i o n t o t h e p o l i t i c a l c o n f l i c t s and o t h e r contemporary c o n d i t i o n s , I viewed the P e r s a i mainly i n t h e l i g h t of contemporary h i s t o r y .  Accordingly,  the f i r s t  c h a p t e r i s an e x a m i n a t i o n  of evidence concerning A i s c h y l o s ' a t t i t u d e toward the events of h i s t i m e and t h e e x t e n t  t o w h i c h he p r o m u l g a t e s t h e s e v i e w s i n h i s p l a y s  other  than the Persai.,  other  plays of the f i f t h  The s e c o n d c h a p t e r i s an e x a m i n a t i o n o f two century  before  C h r i s t t h a t we know a l s o h a d  themes f r o m c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y , P h r y n i c h o s ' the P h o i n i s s a i . itself.  Capture o f M i l e t o s and  The t h i r d c h a p t e r i s a c o n s i d e r a t i o n  of the P e r s a i  CHAPTER ONE  A i s c h y l o s and H i s Times  F o r many y e a r s s c h o l a r s have i n t e r p r e t e d t h e t r a g e d i e s o f A i s c h y l o s as possessing  above a l l e l s e t h e c e n t r a l r e l i g i o u s theme o f  man's r e l a t i o n t o t h e d i v i n e government o f t h e w o r l d ; *  other  subjects  a r e o n l y i n c i d e n t a l l y t o u c h e d upon b y A i s c h y l o s a n d nowhere a t t a i n t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s message he h a s t o c o n v e y . t h e p l a y s i n s u c h a way, t h e r e  seems t o be i n them a c o n s t a n t  on t h e w o r k i n g s o f d e s t i n y a n d f a t e t h r o u g h Z e u s ' w i l l human p a s s i o n ,  To one r e g a r d i n g emphasis  and through  on t h e supremacy o f j u s t i c e a n d t h e i n e v i t a b l e p u n i s h -  ment o f s i n , e s p e c i a l l y u p p i c j . Because o f i t s contemporary s u b j e c t , t h a t i s , t h e P e r s i a n at Salamis,  the Persai presents  difficulties  t o the c r i t i c  defeat  wishing t o  s t r e s s t h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f t h e r e l i g i o u s theme o v e r a l l o t h e r s i n Aischylos* tragedies. are portrayed  C e r t a i n l y , overweening p r i d e and i t s consequences  i nt h i s play.  obvious that A i s c h y l o s  1  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t i s n o t i m m e d i a t e l y  p u r p o s e was p r i m a r i l y t o t e a c h  a serious moral  l e s s o n o f u n i v e r s a l a p p l i c a t i o n r a t h e r than t o arouse i n t h e Athenians a g l o a t i n g scorn f o r t h e i r defeated  enemy; i n f a c t , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o  suppose t h a t A i s c h y l o s c o u l d have e x p e c t e d t h e A t h e n i a n s o n l y  eight  years a f t e r t h e i r overwhelming v i c t o r y a t Salamis n o t t o r e l i s h t h e  1.  E.g., A. E. H a i g h , The T r a g i c Drama o f t h e G r e e k s ( O x f o r d ,  p. 66, a n d G i l b e r t Norwood, G r e e k T r a g e d y (2nd e d . , p. 128.  L o n d o n , 1928),  1896),  -2-  s i g h t o f t h e f a l l e n n a t i o n but t o perceive  i t s tragic,  universal  significance. Since  the subject  o f t h e P e r s a i i s c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y , one  m i g h t hope t o f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A i s c h y l o s * p l a y s t h a t l a y s more e m p h a s i s on h i s t o r y t h a n on r e l i g i o n . Accordingly,  l e t us c o n s i d e r  the ideas  r e c e n t l y , J o h n F i n l e y , who m a i n t a i n  o f G e o r g e Thomson a n d , more  t h a t t h e theme o f A i s c h y l o s '  works i s a v i s i o n o f the h i s t o r i c a l development o f s o c i e t y , a v i s i o n s t r o n g l y r e f l e c t i n g A i s c h y l o s * r e a c t i o n s t o the achievements of  2 f i f t h - c e n t u r y democratic Athens.  Thomson,  t r a g e d y back i n t o p r i m i t i v e t r i b a l  t r a c i n g the roots of  s o c i e t y and a s s e r t i n g t h a t t h e  e v o l u t i o n o f t h e A t h e n i a n t r a g i c a r t was c o n d i t i o n e d e v o l u t i o n o f s o c i e t y from t r i b a l s t a t e , sees as A i s c h y l o s  1  above a l l by t h e  organization to that of the c i t y -  b a s i c aim t o e x p l a i n i n h i s t r a g e d i e s  the t r i b e developed i n t o the democratic c i t y - s t a t e . ^  how  He b e l i e v e s  that,  by f o c u s i n g i n any one p l a y upon some p a r t i c u l a r aspect- o f s o c i e t y ' s upward s t r u g g l e a n d p o r t r a y i n g e a c h s t e p i n i t s p r o g r e s s a s a r e c o n ciliation  o f o p p o s i n g f o r c e s t o p r o d u c e t h e mean ( i n s t e a d o f t h e  d o m i n a t i o n o f one o v e r t h e o t h e r ) , A i s c h y l o s a r r i v e s a t h i s v i s i o n o f t h e f i n a l t r i u m p h o f A t h e n i a n democracy a s t h e end o f a c l a s s - s t r u g g l e a c h i e v e d t h r o u g h t h e m e r g i n g o f t h e o l d l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y and t h e s e r f s i n the formation  o f t h e new m i d d l e c l a s s , whose power i s b a s e d  on w e a l t h r a t h e r t h a n on n o b i l i t y o f b i r t h . f o r t h the pinnacle  That A i s c h y l o s can s e t  o f s o c i e t y ' s r i s e as t h e ascendancy o f t h e m i d d l e  2.  George Thomson, A e s c h y l u s a n d A t h e n s  3.  Thomson, op. c i t . . p.  308.  (2nd e d . , L o n d o n , 194-6).  -3-  c l a s s i s p o s s i b l e , a c c o r d i n g t o Thomson, o n l y b e c a u s e he i s a m o d e r a t e democrat who i g n o r e s t h e r i g h t s o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t  (.i.e., t h e  4 s l a v e s i n f i f t h - c e n t u r y A t h e n s ) t o b o t h f r e e d o m a n d power. t h e theme t h a t Thomson s e e s r u n n i n g mainly  Because  through A i s c h y l o s * tragedies i s  d e p e n d e n t on h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A i s c h y l o s * p o l i t i c a l  v i c t i o n s , h i s theory  looks promising  f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  con-  of the  i n s p i r a t i o n b e h i n d A i s c h y l o s * P e r s a i . a p l a y w i t h a c o n t e m p o r a r y theme. However, t h e P e r s a i i s t h e one p l a y t h a t Thomson i s u n a b l e t o f i t i n t o t h e p a t t e r n he h a s drawn up: he c a n see no more i n i t t h a n t h e o l d a r i s t o c r a t i c idea that wealth gods.  Thus, a s i d e  b r e e d s p r i d e , w h i c h i s p u n i s h e d by t h e  f r o m any w e a k n e s s e s t h a t Thomson's t h e s i s a s a 5  w h o l e may p o s s e s s ,  in failing  f a c t o r y t o one a t t e m p t i n g and  to include the Persai i t i s unsatis-  t o f i n d an explanation f o r A i s c h y l o s '  choice  treatment o f a s u b j e c t as c h a l l e n g i n g as t h a t o f t h e P e r s a i . 4.  Thomson, o p . c i t . . p. 34-5.  5.  Using  tragedy  incomplete analogies  extend back i n t o t r i b a l  close connection of tragedy.  t o demonstrate t h a t t h e r o o t s of  s o c i e t y , he m a i n t a i n s  that there i s a  b e t w e e n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s o c i e t y and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  He t h e n seems t o assume ( u n j u s t i f i a b l y ) t h a t  Aischylos,  b e c a u s e he i s a t r a g e d i a n , must be v i t a l l y a n d c h i e f l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o c e s s o f s o c i e t y ' s changes from i t s p r i m i t i v e b e g i n n i n g s  to the  A t h e n i a n democracy o f h i s own d a y , and he p r o c e e d s t o i n t e r p r e t A i s c h y l o s ' t r a g e d i e s from the p o i n t of view o f t h i s preconceived a s I see i t , u n f o u n d e d n o t i o n .  and,  -A-  Finley  f i n d s a u n i f y i n g theme f o r A i s c h y l o s ' w o r k s i n  " s t r i v i n g f o r u l t i m a t e harmony," f o r "a f i n a l and  Aischylos'  o r d e r beyond change,"  i n h i s r i s i n g " t o t h i s s e n s e o f o r d e r . . . t h r o u g h an  historical  7 v i s i o n of the  p a i n f u l a s c e n t o f s o c i e t y as a w h o l e " ; a v i t a l  aspect  o f t h i s v i s i o n i s t h e hope o f i n d e f i n i t e p r o g r e s s w i t h i n  the  d i s c i p l i n e d f r e e d o m o f d e m o c r a c y , a hope i n s p i r e d by  innovating  and  the  r a t i o n a l atmosphere of f i f t h - c e n t u r y d e m o c r a t i c A t h e n s .  notes a r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p r o c e s s i n v o l v i n g t h e r e s o l u t i o n of t h e c l a i m s t h r o u g h " t i m e , c o n f l i c t , and  Finley  s o c i e t y ' s advance, a  s t r u g g l e between d i f f e r e n t  the d i s c o v e r y  o f some  higher  g  ground of agreement," sequence of t h r e e  i n Aischylos'  " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c use  p l a y s , t h e t r i l o g y , by w h i c h he  of  the  expresses time  and  o development."  Once a g a i n ,  the  general  theory,  a p p l i c a b l e to a l l  A i s c h y l o s ' other extant plays, excludes the P e r s a i .  I n the  first  p l a c e , the P e r s a i i n F i n l e y ' s view i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n i t s t r i l o g y " ^ and  does n o t ,  one  s t a g e i n an  and  reaching  as do A i s c h y l o s  evolutionary  i t s culmination  1  other tragedies,  represent  process developed throughout the at the end.^*  I n the  trilogy  second p l a c e , i t s  message w i t h i n F i n l e y ' s scheme i s n e g a t i v e as o p p o s e d t o t h e p o s i t i v e  6.  J . H.  F i n l e y , Pindar  and  7.  F i n l e y , op_. c i t . . p.  7.  8.  F i n l e y , op_.  9.  F i n l e y , op_. c i t . . p.  10.  F i n l e y , op_. c i t . . p.  11.  F i n l e y , op_. c i t . . p.  c i t . . p.  180. 6. 209. 6.  A e s c h y l u s (Cambridge. Mass.,  1955).  -5-  ideas  of the  other  plays.  Instead  of r e v e a l i n g a c o n d i t i o n  i n which  progress i s achieved, i t d i s p l a y s a s i t u a t i o n i n which progress necessarily lack  the  within this  s h o r t - l i v e d ; X e r x e s and,  more g e n e r a l l y ,  p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r a c h i e v e m e n t , the  which achievement  negative  i s possible.  idea contains  p r e s u m a b l y owes h e r  an  v i c t o r y to  Persai nevertheless  in  other  the  scope o f F i n l e y ' s An  plays  of  and  the  of Aischylos  e a s i l y i n t o any plays.  Persai h i s unconventional  t o mould the consider respect  theme of  them t o  be,  the  pattern  ones, t h e  s i n c e the  s t o r y of the  and  o v e r the  and,  the  outside  that  A i s c h y l o s ' main  P e r s a i cannot includes  subject  why  is puzzling:  i s not  the  Aischylos i f he  in  clear.  may  this  i f he  in addition  chose  intended  aims, w h a t e v e r one  immediately evident; or  be  to  had  i n an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f A i s c h y l o s ' of h i s r e l a t i o n  Persians,  t o the  above a l l , t o the  to t h e  expansion  struggles  in  his  However,  P e r s a i i s drawn from c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y ,  l i e directly  sea,  the  n a t u r e of t h i s p u r p o s e i s not  toward contemporary a f f a i r s :  land  who  knowledge o f  h i s r e a s o n f o r c h o o s i n g a theme t h a t  customary  Hellenes  limits  believes,  therefore,  Accordingly,  mind a n o t h e r p u r p o s e , e x i s t i n g e i t h e r a l o n e  o f the  this  and,  Persai to his usual  presented obstacles  answer may  the  concept.  r e m a i n d e r of A i s c h y l o s ' e x t a n t for  Finley  i n s p e c t i o n o f these, three t h e o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g  obviously  of  remains e s s e n t i a l l y d i f f e r e n t  purpose i n w r i t i n g tragedy t h u s suggests t h a t fitted  Persians,  comparison w i t h Athens,  a possession  p r o p e r bounds, t h e n a t u r e from the  recognition  Even i f , a s  implied  the  is  the  attitude  great  victories  of A t h e n i a n  of p o l i t i c a l  power  factions  by  -6-  w i t h i n Athens;  12  of h i s conception  of the extent t o which h i s a t t i t u d e  t o w a r d c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t s s h o u l d be a l l o w e d dies.  An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s e two  of t h i s  to intrude i n h i s  proposals  will  trage-  occupy the r e s t  chapter.  Unfortunately,  none o f our  e x i s t i n g sources f o r A i s c h y l o s '  g i v e s us t h e n e c e s s a r y i n s i g h t i n t o A i s c h y l o s ' a t t i t u d e t o w a r d temporary events.  They t e l l  l i f e ^ con-  us t h a t he d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f at  the  14 b a t t l e o f M a r a t h o n i n 490,  and  s t r u g g l e s at A r t e m i s i o n , ^  t h a t he  Salamis,^  o n l y t h a t , a l o n g w i t h many o t h e r  fought a l s o i n the  and P l a t a i a , ^ b u t  p a t r i o t i c H e l l e n e s , he  later  this  shows  t o o k an a c t i v e  18 part i n defending 12.  I use  h i s country  against  the  Persians.  t h e word " d i r e c t l y " h e r e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e P e r s a i  h a v e a r i s e n f r o m A i s c h y l o s ' d e s i r e t o comment upon a p a r t i c u l a r temporary 13.  Our  may  con-  situation. main sources are  the A e s c h y l i V i t a f o u n d i n t h e  Codex M e d i c e u s o f h i s p l a y s and  an a r t i c l e on A i s c h y l o s i n  I n a d d i t i o n , s m a l l p i e c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n a r e  Suidas.  s c a t t e r e d h e r e and  there  elsewhere. 14.  Suidas,  s..v. AltfxuAoc^, and  A e s c h y l i V i t a ; Marmor P a r i urn,  48.  merely mentions t h a t A i s c h y l o s fought at Marathon. 15.  Pausanias,  I . 14.  16.  Pausanias,  I . 14.  17.  Aeschyli  18.  To be  5. 5;  Aeschyli  Vita.  Vita.  s u r e , i f A i s c h y l o s composed h i s own  P a u s a n i a s ( I . 14.  4)  and  m e n t i o n i n i t any  other  A t h e n a i o s (XIV.  epitaph,  as  627c) assert, h i s f a i l u r e  achievement b e s i d e s  h i s d i s p l a y of v a l o u r  to at  -7-  T h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t A i s c h y l o s made a t l e a s t t h r e e visits  to Sicily:  one a b o u t 4-76/5, t o p r o d u c e t h e A i t n a i a i i n  honour o f H i e r o n ' s newly founded c i t y 4-69, t o g i v e , upon H i e r o n ' s r e q u e s t ,  o f A i t n a ; one b e t w e e n 4-71 a n d a performance i n Syracuse o f h i s  P e r s a i . w h i c h h a d won t h e p r i z e i n A t h e n s i n 4-72; t i m e a f t e r t h e O r e s t e i a , w h i c h was p r e s e n t e d  a final  one some  i n 4-58 ( f o r he d i e d i n  19 3  Gela  i n 4-56/5).  C o m m e n t a t o r s , b o t h a n c i e n t a n d modern,  motives f o r these v i s i t s  to Sicily,  seeking  have s e e n i n them a r e a c t i o n b y  A i s c h y l o s t o c e r t a i n events i n Athens.  A l l such t h e o r i e s , however,  M a r a t h o n i s a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he p l a c e d h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t h e r e his  dramatic  triumphs.  above  However, w h i l e t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t o r e f u t e  P a u s a n i a s and, A t h e n a i o s ( t h e V i t a s a y s t h a t t h e S i c i l i a n s i n s c r i b e d i t , and  d o e s n o t m e n t i o n who composed i t ) , t h e r e i s a l s o no c e r t a i n e v i d e n c e  t o p r o v e t h a t t h e y were c o r r e c t i n a s s i g n i n g t h e a u t h o r s h i p epitaph  to Aischylos himself. 7 >  19.  fj&wm&v  pa0uxatrtiEt<5 Mifdo?  foce  Ksir©si  SKto'-rapevoc;..  See W i l h e l m v o n C h r i s t , "Der A e t n a i n d e r g r i e e h i s c h e n  Sitzungsber.  Poesie,"  A k a d . Munchen. 1 8 8 8 : 1 , p p . 3 7 1 - 3 7 6 , f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e  sources concerning is  The e p i t a p h :  Aio*xJ^ov Euqjoptbvdf  • KGI  of t h e  not c e r t a i n .  Aischylos' trips t o S i c i l y .  T h e number o f v i s i t s  -8-  are p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e .  F o r e x a m p l e , one s u g g e s t i o n i s t h a t A i s c h y l o s  u s e d S i c i l y p r i m a r i l y as a r e t r e a t f r o m t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y  democratic  t e n d e n c i e s o f h i s t i m e ; i n t h e c a s e o f h i s l a s t j o u r n e y , b e c a u s e he felt  i t e x p e d i e n t t o remove h i m s e l f f r o m t h e d a n g e r o f r e p r i s a l  after  h i s f u t i l e a t t a c k i n t h e Eumenides upon E p h i a l t e s ' m e a s u r e s c o n c e r n i n g  20 the Areiopagos.  The c o n j e c t u r e r e s t s upon a s u b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e -  t a t i o n o f one t r a g e d y . A r i s t o p h a n e s may r e f l e c t A i s c h y l o s ' p o l i t i c a l l e a n i n g s i n t h e Frogs  ( l i n e s 1420-14-65), where he d e p i c t s A i s c h y l o s a n d E u r i p i d e s ,  u n d e r t h e q u e s t i o n i n g o f D i o n y s o s , h a v i n g a d e b a t e on c o n t e m p o r a r y politics  ( c a . 406 B . C . ) .  The two d r a m a t i s t s d i f f e r i n t h e i r o p i n i o n s  c o n c e r n i n g what s h o u l d be done a b o u t A l k i b i a d e s . expresses i t ,  As G i l b e r t M u r r a y  "Euripides i s against the u n p r i n c i p l e d p o l i t i c i a n ; 21  Aeschylus i s f o r supporting t h e troublesome  man o f g e n i u s . "  While  a g r e e i n g i n t h e i r d i s l i k e o f t h e r a d i c a l government i n A t h e n s ,  they  g i v e d i f f e r e n t a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n how A t h e n s c a n be s a v e d . E u r i p i d e s m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e c i t y s h o u l d be t a k e n  from  t h o s e now i n power a n d e n t r u s t e d t o o t h e r s , t h a t i s t o s a y , t h a t t h e 20.  6th  Wilhelm von C h r i s t , Geschichte d e r G r i e c h i s c h e n L i t t e r a t u r .  e d . , r e v i s e d by W i l h e l m  S c h m i d , I (MUnchen,  1912),  p.  286  ( I w a n v o n M u l l e r , e d . , Handbuch d e r K l a s s i s c h e n A l t e r t u m s - W i s s e n s c h a f t , VII). London, 21. 1940),  A l s o , J . W. D o n a l d s o n , The T h e a t r e  1875),  pp.  126-127.  G i l b e r t Murray, Aeschylus: p. 76.  o f t h e G r e e k s (8th e d . ,  The C r e a t o r o f T r a g e d y  (Oxford,  -9-  extreme democratic  government s h o u l d be r e p l a c e d by  a more m o d e r a t e  22 one;  A i s c h y l o s , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , d e s p a i r i n g o f any r e a l  possibility  o f improvement f o r t h e government o f A t h e n s , c o n t e n d s t h a t t h e  city's  o n l y hope o f a v e r t i n g d i s a s t e r l i e s i n h e r r e a l i z i n g t h e s t r e n g t h o f h e r n a v a l power and u s i n g i t t o go o u t and f i g h t t h e enemy. sure, the opinions expressed a p p l i c a t i o n t o the events Themistokles, and  another  be  h e r e by A i s c h y l o s c o u l d h a v e f o u n d  o f h i s own  times, i n d i c a t i n g support  " t r o u b l e s o m e man  anti-Spartan p o l i c i e s .  To  But  of  o f g e n i u s , " and  of h i s naval  one must remember t h a t  Aristophanes  makes no d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e t o A i s c h y l o s ' v i e w s on t h e s t a t e o f  Athenian  a f f a i r s d u r i n g h i s l i f e t i m e and d e s c r i b e s o n l y what he b e l i e v e s w o u l d be A i s c h y l o s  1  r e a c t i o n , i f he were s t i l l  about f i f t y years a f t e r h i s death.  a l i v e , to events  Furthermore,  occurring  Aristophanes'  d e s c r i p t i o n o f what A i s c h y l o s ' o p i n i o n s m i g h t be a t t h i s l a t e  date  i s p r o b a b l y b a s e d o n l y on h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A i s c h y l o s ' p l a y s not  on any  c e r t a i n knowledge o f the d r a m a t i s t ' s  A r i s t o p h a n e s , t h e r e f o r e , cannot s e r v e as e v i d e n c e A i s c h y l o s ' a t t i t u d e toward events 22.  M u r r a y , op_. c i t . .  p.  77.  and  politics. f o r the nature  c o n t e m p o r a r y w i t h h i s own  time.  of  -10-  The w r i t e r o f t h e s o - c a l l e d l e t t e r s o f T h e m i s t o k l e s  seems t o  24 b e l i e v e t h a t A i s c h y l o s was  a f r i e n d of Themistokles,  T h e m i s t o k l e s send t o A i s c h y l o s a l e t t e r  ( E p i s t l e One)  f o r he makes i n which  Themistokles r e l a t e s the circumstances l e a d i n g to h i s a r r i v a l Argos d u r i n g h i s o s t r a c i s m . to Ameinias,  Another  letter  ( E p i s t l e Eleven), addressed  one o f A i s c h y l o s * b r o t h e r s , and a p p e a l i n g t o  n o t t o d e s e r t him,  at  Ameinias  s i n c e T h e m i s t o k l e s e a r l i e r gave s u p p o r t t o  brother Kynegeiros, i s also i n t e r e s t i n g i n that i t i n d i c a t e s  Ameinias' the  l e t t e r - w r i t e r ' s b e l i e f i n some s o r t o f c o n n e c t i o n between T h e m i s t o k l e s and t h e f a m i l y of A i s c h y l o s .  Nevertheless, these l e t t e r s , 25  p r o b a b l y a s l a t e a s t h e second  century after C h r i s t ,  composed  a t t h e most  p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e o f a t r a d i t i o n t h a t A i s c h y l o s and T h e m i s t o k l e s were f r i e n d s , and do n o t p r o v e  t h a t i n f a c t any s u c h r e l a t i o n s h i p  existed  between them. The  o n l y r e m a i n i n g source of knowledge c o n c e r n i n g A i s c h y l o s *  a t t i t u d e toward contemporary  a f f a i r s i s h i s own  At t h e same t i m e , t h e y a l o n e c a n i n d i c a t e how 23.  See R. J . L e n a r d o n ,  P h o e n i x . XV  extant t r a g e d i e s .  much A i s c h y l o s b e l i e v e d  "Charon, Thucydides,  and  'Themistokles',"  ( 1 9 6 1 ) , pp. 2 8 - 4 0 , f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e  l e t t e r s , a d i s c u s s i o n i n which  t h e e m p h a s i s i s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e  h i s t o r i c i t y o f t h e m a t e r i a l f o u n d i n them. 24.  R. J . L e n a r d o n ,  "The  Chronology  E x i l e , " H i s t o r i a . V I I I ( 1 9 5 9 ) , p. 30,  of Themistokles' Ostracism  n. 34:  t h e w r i t e r e v i d e n t l y l o o k e d on t h e i n t i m a c y as 25.  R. J . L e n a r d o n ,  P h o e n i x . XV  ( 1 9 6 1 ) , p.  "This i s not h i s t o r y , credible." 29.  and but  -11-  c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t s s h o u l d be r e f l e c t e d a n d commented upon i n t r a g e d y . The  q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r a n d t o what e x t e n t  s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s t o be  f o u n d i n A i s c h y l o s * p l a y s o t h e r t h a n t h e P e r s a i ( w h i c h must r e m a i n outside the present  d i s c u s s i o n ) has r e c e i v e d v a r i o u s answers.  For  example, G i l b e r t Murray, r e m a r k i n g t h a t " t h e s t r o n g t r a d i t i o n i n t h e h i g h e r k i n d o f G r e e k p o e t r y , a s i n good p o e t r y a l m o s t e v e r y w h e r e , was to  a v o i d a l l t h e d i s t u r b i n g i r r e l e v a n c e s o f contemporary l i f e , " can 26  "see  no e v i d e n c e o f any p o l i t i c a l a l l u s i o n , " e v e n i n t h e E u m e n i d e s .  Others,  w h i l e i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e main purpose o f t h e t r a g e d i e s i s  r e l i g i o u s o r p h i l o s o p h i c , do n o t o v e r l o o k references.  scattered  political  B u t quot e d i t o r e s . t o t s e n t e n t i a e ; a n d a l l u s i o n s v a r y  w i t h t h e commentator. found expression:  As a r e s u l t , a t l e a s t t h r e e o p i n i o n s  have  o n e , t h a t A i s c h y l o s was a m o d e r a t e d e m o c r a t ,  f a v o u r i n g t h e A r g i v e a l l i a n c e b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e p r o g r e s s i v e democ r a t s , b u t "engaged w i t h Cimon i n a n a t t e m p t t o r e s c i n d " t h e p r o g r e s 27 s i v e m e a s u r e s r e d u c i n g t h e powers o f t h e A r e i o p a g o s ; t w o , t h a t he was i n f u l l sympathy w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s i v e d e m o c r a t s , i n c l u d i n g 28 Xanthippos, was  A r i s t e i d e s , Themistokles,  and P e r i k l e s ;  t h r e e , t h a t he  n o t d i r e c t l y c o n n e c t e d w i t h any p a r t i c u l a r f a c t i o n b u t , a s a  p a t r i o t i c Athenian,  a i m e d a t r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f , and compromise b e t w e e n ,  26.  M u r r a y , op. c i t . . p p .  2?.  D o n a l d s o n , op. c i t . . p p .  28.  W. G. F o r r e s t , " T h e m i s t o k l e s  X (I960), pp. 235-236.  75-76. 126-127. and A r g o s , " C l a s s , Q u a r t . .  -12-  the c o n s e r v a t i v e s and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e s i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f h i s 29 city-state. C l e a r l y , these possibilities,  suggestions  s p a n a l m o s t t h e w h o l e gamut o f  i n d i c a t i n g the d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e r p r e t i n g the  contemporary a l l u s i o n s i n A i s c h y l o s attempting t o understand  tragedies.  1  why A i s c h y l o s c h o s e a c o n t e m p o r a r y theme  f o r a p l a y , one must e n d e a v o u r t o s e t t l e t h i s a c c e p t i n g as evidence  Nevertheless, i n  o n l y the obvious  questions;•• By.  and a v o i d i n g a l l t h e  r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f p o s s i b i l i t y a n d p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t c a n a r i s e one may hope t o a r r i v e a t t r u e a n d u s e f u l a n s w e r s , a l t h o u g h , t h e y may be p a r t i a l a n s w e r s . tragedy  indeed,  To t h i s e n d , I s h a l l r e g a r d  each  a s a p l a y t h a t was meant t o u n f o l d l i n e by l i n e a n d n o t  as s o m e t h i n g t o be r e a d and r e - r e a d by t h o s e i n f i n d i n g contemporary The e a r l i e s t  primarily interested  allusions.  extant tragedy  of Aischylos a f t e r t h e P e r s a i i s  t h e Seven A g a i n s t T h e b e s , w h i c h b r o u g h t A i s c h y l o s t h e p r i z e a t t h e C i t y D i o n y s i a i n 4-67.  F o r t h e o n l y contemporary a l l u s i o n i n t h i s  t r a g e d y one must t u r n t o P l u t a r c h , " ^ who r e l a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g 0  anecdote:  when t h e l i n e s  06  (592-594-)  yap 5OKE?V apto;Tq<s, .&XX*  -«Jva*-  0e\et,  {3a©£?av aXona 6ta cppsvo^ ttap7pouu-£vo<;,  ra were d e c l a i m e d ,  ne6va 0Xao*TaV.ei 0ouXeupara  everyone i n t h e t h e a t r e t u r n e d around and l o o k e d  29.  D o n a l d s o n , op,, c i t . .  30.  P l u t a r c h , A r i s t e i d e s , 3 . 4- (Loeb  p. 126. edition).  -13-  a t A r i s t e i d e s , o b v i o u s l y t h i n k i n g t h a t t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n was most a p p l i c a b l e t o h i m . To be s u r e , w h i l e s u c h w o r d s c o u l d h a v e been u s e d i n r e f e r e n c e t o A r i s t e i d e s , t h e i r aptness and complete r e l e v a n c e as a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e e r A m p h i a r a o s l e a v e one w i t h no p r o o f A i s c h y l o s i n t e n d e d them a s i m p l i e d p r a i s e o f A r i s t e i d e s . P l u t a r c h ' s s t o r y i n no way s u g g e s t s  Moreover,  t h a t t h e s p e c t a t o r s thought  A i s c h y l o s meant t h e l i n e s t o have a t w o f o l d s i g n i f i c a n c e . on t h e o t h e r h a n d , show t h a t t h e A t h e n i a n had  t o d e a l i n 4 6 ? B.C. was p r e p a r e d  that  I t does,  audience w i t h which A i s c h y l o s  t o s e e i n one o f h i s t r a g e d i e s  the contemporary a p p l i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n words.  The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h i s  i s t h a t i t r e v e a l s a s t a t e o f m i n d on t h e p a r t o f t h e a u d i e n c e t h a t the d r a m a t i s t i n w r i t i n g h i s p l a y had to take i n t o account;  he h a d  t o r e a l i z e t h a t , w h e t h e r he i n t e n d e d i t o r n o t , t h e p e o p l e m i g h t i n t e r p r e t material suggestive and m i g h t even a c c e p t affairs.  31.  o f contemporary a f f a i r s as so intended  i t a s a n e x p r e s s i o n o f h i s o p i n i o n on s u c h  Of c o u r s e , he c o u l d n o t f o r e s e e a n d t a k e p r e c a u t i o n s  A r i s t e i d e s was famed f o r h i s u p r i g h t c h a r a c t e r  against  (Aristotle,  R h e t o r i c . I I . 23. 7. u s e s h i s name a s a s y m b o l o f m a t c h l e s s  probity),  e s p e c i a l l y i n r e g a r d t o h i s a s s e s s m e n t i n t h e w i n t e r o f 4-78/7 o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o be made by t h e members o f t h e C o n f e d e r a c y o f D e l o s ( P l u t a r c h , A r i s t e i d e s , 24-; T h u c y d i d e s , V. 1 8 . 5 ) .  T h i s assessment  was  c o n s i d e r e d by t h e a l l i e s t o be f a i r b o t h  a t t h e time  i t was made  and  e v e n l a t e r , when t h e C o n f e d e r a c y h a d become a n A t h e n i a n  Empire  ( s e e B. D. M e r i t t , H. T. Wade-Gery, a n d M. F. M c G r e g o r , The  Athenian Tribute L i s t s .  I l l [ P r i n c e t o n , N. J . , 1 9 5 0 ] , p p . 24-2-24-3).  -14-  e v e r y u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y e v o k e d r e a c t i o n o f t h i s k i n d ; he c o u l d n o t a n t i c i p a t e e v e r y p o t e n t i a l a l l u s i o n and, i n a d d i t i o n , he must h a v e f e l t t h a t a chance contemporary a p t n e s s d i d n o t w a r r a n t r e m o v a l of what was d r a m a t i c a l l y v a l u a b l e .  O b v i o u s l y , t h e r e f o r e , one  cannot  assume t h a t any p a s s a g e c a p a b l e o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a p p l i c a t i o n  was  d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d i n t h e t r a g e d y by t h e d r a m a t i s t a s a comment on a f f a i r s o f h i s t i m e s o r e v e n t h a t i t was views.  i n accordance w i t h h i s  A t l e a s t , one c a n n o t make s u c h a s s u m p t i o n s so l o n g a s t h e  passages i n q u e s t i o n are r e l e v a n t w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f the p l a y i t s e l f and g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e y a r e meant t o have porary s i g n i f i c a n c e .  contem-  At t h e same t i m e , k n o w i n g t h e a u d i e n c e ' s  s e n s i t i v i t y t o c o n t e m p o r a r y a l l u s i o n and t a k i n g i t f o r g r a n t e d t h a t the  d r a m a t i s t was  i n t e l l i g e n t enough t o be aware o f t h i s  sensitivity,  one m i g h t a r g u e t h a t p a s s a g e s t h a t were l i k e l y t o r e m i n d t h e A t h e n i a n s of  i m p o r t a n t c o n t r o v e r s i a l m a t t e r s were p r o b a b l y d e l i b e r a t e l y  i n s e r t e d by t h e a u t h o r .  I f , however,  one f i n d s t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n t o  h a v i n g contemporary s i g n i f i c a n c e , a passage i s i r r e l e v a n t t o i t s c o n t e x t , t h e n one c a n be c e r t a i n t h a t A i s c h y l o s i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y  taking  advantage o f h i s a u d i e n c e ' s r e a d i n e s s to h e a r i n a t r a g e d y a remark or  comment by him on s o m e t h i n g or someone q u i t e o u t s i d e t h e t r a g e d y and  of  g r e a t i n t e r e s t t o them a t t h a t moment. There a r e no s u c h p a s s a g e s i n t h e Seven A g a i n s t T h e b e s .  most one c a n f i n d i s a number o f p a s s a g e s c o m p l e t e l y r e l e v a n t the  The within  t r a g e d y but s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t i n g e v e n t s t h a t had t a k e n p l a c e  -15-  s h o r t l y before 4-6? B.C^  The f i r s t  (54-7-54-9) i s a r e f e r e n c e t o one  man's repaying the nurture he had r e c e i v e d as a stranger  i n Argos by  u t t e r i n g t h r e a t s against t h e battlements o f Thebes, t h r e a t s which the speaker prays may not be f u l f i l l e d . from Eteokles  ( 5 5 0 - 5 6 2 ) a complaint  T h i s mention of t h r e a t s evokes about the loud boastings  of the  A r g i v e s , a c r i t i c i s m a l s o i m p l i e d by c o n t r a s t i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f one  of h i s own men as being no braggart  of Polyneikes "Apyet  (554-).  as, among other t h i n g s , TOv 7TOXea)^ TapdKTOpa ;  TCDV KanSv 6i6atfHaXov ( 5 7 2 - 5 7 3 ) .  d i s c u s s e s Polyneikes*  32.  u-eYtCTOv.  Not long a f t e r t h i s , the  messenger ( 6 3 1 - 6 5 2 ) , r e p o r t i n g that Polyneikes  av6pT)XaTT)V  Next comes the mention  i s at the seventh, gate,  resentment towards E t e o k l e s as the  anuao'TTipa  the one who dishonoured him by d r i v i n g him away from home,  I do not include among these passages two i n which others have  seen p o s s i b l e contemporary a l l u s i o n s .  First,  i n regard to l i n e s 6 9 - 7 5 *  Thomson (op. c i t . . p. 3 1 3 ) remarks that "the a l l u s i o n to the people of Thebes as Greek i n speech ( i n f a c t , of course,  the enemy was the same)  means that we are to regard the e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Thebes i n the l i g h t of the P e r s i a n i n v a s i o n . "  Admittedly,  A i s c h y l o s * d e s i g n a t i o n of the  Theban people as Greek i n speech i s ' s t r a n g e .  But that A i s c h y l o s  should use a c i t y that had openly medized d u r i n g the P e r s i a n Wars as a symbol f o r H e l l a s seeking the help of the gods against a P e r s i a n a t t a c k i s even stranger. STJUOS  encpuyow  nana)  Secondly, l i n e  1044 (rpaxu^ ye  was used by Muller i n a d i s s e r t a t i o n ( c i t e d by  Haigh, op. c i t . . p. 5 5 ) as proof o f anti-democratic Aischylos' part.  u-evrot  sentiments on  However, one l i n e considered by the c r i t i c i n  his  t h r e a t t o r e p a y E t e o k l e s i n t h e same way  first  fail  to k i l l  w i t h e x i l e i f he s h o u l d  E t e o k l e s i n b a t t l e , and P o l y n e i k e s  t a i n i n g , t h e p i c t u r e o f a woman, J u s t i c e ,  1  shield  con-  leading along a warrior,  and t h e w o r d s , Harci^a) 6'  av6pa T o v 6 e n a i  XOiV r'  E t e o k l e s * r e s p o n s e t o t h i s (653-676) i s  eTriefTpocpacj.  m a i n l y a condemnation whole  noXtv  o f P o l y n e i k e s a s someone who  z^ei  Tcarpcpcov  has never i n h i s  l i f e a c t e d o r t h o u g h t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h j u s t i c e and  c e r t a i n l y c a n n o t now,  Saiua-  who  when i l l - t r e a t i n g h i s f a t h e r l a n d , c l a i m  the  support of J u s t i c e . N o t l o n g b e f o r e t h e s e p a s s a g e s were d e l i v e r e d t o t h e A t h e n i a n a u d i e n c e , e v e n t s o f w h i c h t h e y a r e r e m i n i s c e n t had t a k e n p l a c e . These i n c l u d e d t h e o s t r a c i s m o f T h e m i s t o k l e s and h i s l a t e r t i o n a s a m e d i z e r and h i s c o n s e q u e n t f a c t o r s had c o m b i n e d  from H e l l a s .  Several  t o produce t h e f i n a l d o w n f a l l of the f o r m e r l y  powerful Athenian leader: p o l i t i c a l opponent,  flight  condemna-  The  ascendancy  of Themistokles* chief  t h e p r o - S p a r t a n Kimon, h a d r e n d e r e d e f f e c t i v e  a g a i n s t him t h e a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g h o s t i l i t y  of t h e Lakedaimonians"^  i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t of the t r a g e d y , w i t h i n which i t i s c o m p l e t e l y r e l e v a n t , i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y a s e v i d e n c e f o r t h e p o e t ' s v i e w s on c o n temporary p o l i t i c s .  B e s i d e s , t h e l a s t scene of the p l a y , i n which t h i  l i n e i s c o n t a i n e d , i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t o be s p u r i o u s ( s e e H. J . R o s e , A Handbook o f Greek L i t e r a t u r e  [ L o n d o n , 1934-], p.  151).  A t any r a t e , a s i d e f r o m A i s c h y l o s * i n t e n t , t h e r e i s no r e a s o n even t o b e l i e v e t h a t e i t h e r of f h  e  s  e  p a s s a g e s w o u l d have s t r u c k t h e a u d i e n c e  as h a v i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t e m p o r a r y 33.  P l u t a r c h , Kimon. 16.  2.  meaning.  -17-  ( p r o v o k e d o r i g i n a l l y by T h e m i s t o k l e s the w a l l s of Athens).  1  i n s i s t e n c e on t h e r e b u i l d i n g o f  A l s o , T h e m i s t o k l e s ' own o b n o x i o u s  vanity,  34 s e l f - p r a i s e , and n o t o r i o u s l y unscrupulous d e a l i n g s  h a d , by a r o u s i n g  g e n e r a l d i s l i k e a g a i n s t him a n d l e n d i n g p l a u s i b i l i t y t o t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t he t o o k b r i b e s f r o m t h e P e r s i a n s , made h i m a r e a d y c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e s u s p i c i o n s o f t h e Athenians'.  F i n a l l y , the under-cover  activities  w h i c h t h e o s t r a c i z e d T h e m i s t o k l e s h a d engaged i n t h r o u g h o u t t h e Peloponnese something  ( a f t e r he h a d f o u n d r e f u g e a t A r g o s )  had g i v e n t h e S p a r t a n s  t h a t , because of t h e p r e s e n t A t h e n i a n h o s t i l i t y  toward  T h e m i s t o k l e s a n d t h e S p a r t a n s ' own i n f l u e n c e i n A t h e n s , t h e y were a b l e t o use as evidence o f h i s c o m p l i c i t y  i n t h e median o f  Pausanias.^ 34.  Plutarch, Themistokles.  35.  Thucydides,  I . 135.  21-22.  D e s p i t e t h e a l l e g e d documentary p r o o f  o f f e r e d by t h e L a k e d a i m o n i a n s  i n support of t h i s charge  o f medism a n d  a l t h o u g h T h e m i s t o k l e s may h a v e communicated d u r i n g h i s o s t r a c i s m w i t h Pausanias  (Plutarch, Themistokles. 23), i ti s probable that  T h e m i s t o k l e s was w o r k i n g s o l e l y league  ( s e e F o r r e s t , op. c i t . .  f o r the f o r m a t i o n o f an a n t i - L a k o n i a n pp. 229 a n d 2 3 2 ) .  This, of course,  would have s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e S p a r t a n s ' f e a r o f him, and t h e i r d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o be r i d o f h i m c o u l d h a v e l e d them t o f o r g e documents ( F o r r e s t , op_. c i t . .  p. 238) f a l s e l y i m p l i c a t i n g T h e m i s t o k l e s i n a  c r i m e t h a t w o u l d c o n c e r n t h e A t h e n i a n s a s much a s t h e m s e l v e s and thus ensure their  t h e i r support i n h i s a r r e s t and c o n v i c t i o n .  " p r o o f " o f h i s g u i l t a n d t h e abundance o f i l l - w i l l  Aside  from  toward him  i n Athens, t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c e n t r e from which T h e m i s t o k l e s had  -18-  It i s d i f f i c u l t resemblance  t o b e l i e v e t h a t A i s c h y l o s d i d n o t see  between t h e s e e v e n t s ( t h a t i s , t h e r i v a l r y  T h e m i s t o k l e s and Kimon, T h e m i s t o k l e s  1  the  between  unscrupulousness, h i s ostracism,  h i s n e g o t i a t i o n s w h i l e s o j o u r n i n g i n A r g o s , h i s c o n v i c t i o n upon t h e charge  o f medism, and h i s e x i l e ) and c e r t a i n e l e m e n t s  i n h i s tragedy,  n a m e l y , t h e s t r u g g l e f o r power b e t w e e n E t e o k l e s and P o l y n e i k e s , t h e l o u d b o a s t i n g o f one man  who,  as a s t r a n g e r , had been w e l l , t r e a t e d  a t A r g o s , and E t e o k l e s * c o n d e m n a t i o n o f P o l y n e i k e s as t h o r o u g h l y u n j u s t , P o l y n e i k e s ' s t i r r i n g up o f t h e A r g i v e s a g a i n s t t h e T h e b a n s , and t h e r e f e r e n c e s t o " e x i l e " a n d h a r m i n g  of the f a t h e r l a n d .  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t s c o n c e r n i n g T h e m i s t o k l e s were s o r e c e n t A i s c h y l o s must s u r e l y have e x p e c t e d h i s a u d i e n c e t o see o f them i n t h e S e v e n A g a i n s t . T h e b e s . which  Furthermore,  Moreover,  that reflections  the passages  in  i t c o u l d see t h e s e r e f l e c t e d a r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n one a r e a o f  the play  37  and t h u s r e i n f o r c e one a n o t h e r , w h i c h ' s u g g e s t s  operated I n the Peloponnese  was  a deliberate  Argos, a c i t y which had observed  q u e s t i o n a b l e n e u t r a l i t y d u r i n g t h e P e r s i a n War,  a  must have h e l p e d  the  S p a r t a n s t o c o n v i n c e t h e A t h e n i a n s t h a t he had b e e n m e d i z i n g . 36.  A l t h o u g h o p i n i o n s v a r y on t h e d a t i n g of t h e o s t r a c i s m and  o f T h e m i s t o k l e s , t h e e x i l e c o u l d n o t have b e e n e a r l i e r t h a n 4?1 ( s e e b e l o w , pp. °1"93  and p.'94, n.44  exile B.C.  , f o r a f u l l e r d i s c u s s i o n of the  i  c h r o n o l o g y o f t h e s e e v e n t s ) ; t h e S e v e n A g a i n s t T h e b e s was in  performed  467. 37.  They a l l f a l l w i t h i n l i n e s 547-675.  such passages  The  o n l y l a r g e gap  w i t h i n these l i n e s c o n s i s t s of E t e o k l e s ' speech  between  following  -19-  i n t e n t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e d r a m a t i s t are  one, i s u n c l e a r .  completely  A t any r a t e , s i n c e a l l t h e p a s s a g e s  r e l e v a n t w i t h i n t h e drama a n d p r o v i d e  whatever o f p u r p o s e f u l is  allusions  concerned,- t h o u g h what h i s h i d d e n message m i g h t have b e e n , i f he  intended are  as f a r as contemporary  reference  to current  events,  involved  no e v i d e n c e further  speculation  fruitless. H a v i n g examined t h e Seven A g a i n s t  T h e b e s , one c a n c o n c l u d e no  more t h a n t h a t A i s c h y l o s d i d h o t i n t h i s i n s t a n c e h e s i t a t e t o l e a v e i n t h e t r a g e d y m a t e r i a l t h a t was l i k e l y t o r e m i n d t h e A t h e n i a n s o f recent  and s i g n i f i c a n t  experiences.  C h r o n o l o g i c a l l y , one a r r i v e s n e x t , opinion, a t the Suppliants.  according  recent  F o r many y e a r s t h i s w o r k was g e n e r a l l y  b e l i e v e d t o be t h e e a r l i e s t o f A i s c h y l o s ' e x t a n t l i t e r a r y arguments f o r an " e a r l y p r o d u c t i o n " d i n a t e p a r t w h i c h pT)Ct?  t o most  occupies,"  tragedies.  were " t h e v e r y  "the spectacular  The subor-  nature of the  p i e c e , a n d t h e a b s e n c e o f a c t i o n o r t r u e 7repw£ r e t a ," " t h e f a i n t n e s s of t h e character-drawing  i n t h e c a s e o f p e r s o n s n o t members o f t h e  c h o r u s , " " t h e e p i c s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e language and g e n e r a l l y o f t h e t h o u g h t , " a n d " t h e p e c u l i a r b e a u t y and s i m p l i c i t y o f t h e c h o r a l odes."  However, s i n c e t h e d i s c o v e r y  of a papyrus fragment  provided  upon t h e w o r d s t h a t a r e a l l e g e d t o have r e m i n d e d t h e A t h e n i a n s of. Aristeides. 38.  T. G. T u c k e r , The ' S u p p l i c e s ' o f A e s c h y l u s ( L o n d o n a n d  New Y o r k , I889), p. x x i i i .  Tucker ( s e e 0 £ . c i t . - . pp. x x i - x x i v )  t o t h e p l a y a p r o b a b l e d a t e o f 492-491 B.C.  assigns  He i s i n f l u e n c e d n o t o n l y  -20-  e x t e r n a l e v i d e n c e t h a t t h i s p l a y was a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y  produced  39 l a t e r t h a n 4-6?, p e r h a p s 463, in  the tragedy  itself  that i s incompatible  s c h o l a r s have b e l a t e d l y  a q u a l i t y o f dramatic with  discovered  thought and p r e s e n t a t i o n  an e a r l y d a t e f o r i t s c o m p o s i t i o n a n d ,  by t h e a r g u m e n t s s t a t e d above b u t a l s o by t h e a l l u s i o n he s e e s i n the a n t i c i p a t e d attack of the Egyptians threatened place  upon the H e l l e n e s ;  t o "that  a t t a c k on A t t i c a b y t h e P e r s i a n s w h i c h s u b s e q u e n t l y t o o k  a t Marathon" (op. c i t . .  p. x x i ) .  S u p p l i a n t s on t h e b a s i s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y a l l u s i o n s a l o n e  little  39.  (their  are c i t e d elsewhere i n t h i s chapter), but without the  support of other  "more c e r t a i n " e v i d e n c e t h e i r a r g u m e n t s c a r r i e d  weight. From P. Oxy. XX  (1953),  no.  2256,  frag.  8  ( L u c a s ) we know  t h a t A i s c h y l o s won t h e p r i z e a t t h e D i o r i y s i a w i t h t h e t r i l o g y  con-  t a i n i n g t h e D a n a i d e s a n d a c c o m p a n i e d b y t h e s a t y r - p l a y , t h e Amymone. This i s almost c e r t a i n l y t h e group t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e S u p p l i a n t s . And  s i n c e t h e same f r a g m e n t r e c o r d s  competed ( p r o b a b l y )  that Sophoklesj  i n 468 a n d on t h a t o c c a s i o n  o v e r A i s c h y l o s ( P l u t a r c h . Kimon. 8, 7-8),  who  gained  must have been a f t e r 467.  Thebes was p r o d u c e d i n 46?, Moreover, although  f r a g m e n t may s i m p l y be t h e f i r s t  first thev i c t o r y  i n t h i s i n s t a n c e won t h e  s e c o n d p r i z e , t h e S u p p l i a n t s was p e r f o r m e d a f t e r 468. A i s c h y l o s * Seven A g a i n s t  c  A f e w s c h o l a r s (.e.g., D o n a l d s o n ,  M C l l e r , and Cavaignac) attempted t o a s s i g n a l a t e date t o t h e  suggestions  ,  In fact,  since  the Suppliants  t h e l e t t e r s AP on t h e  two l e t t e r s o f  -tapxcov,  thus leaving  us i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l s u s p e n s e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y a r e t h e  -21-  i n f a c t , argues f o r a l a t e date;  i n a d d i t i o n , t h e y have f o u n d i t  p o s s i b l e t o e x p l a i n away t h e a l l e g e d p r i m i t i v e f e a t u r e s o t h e r t h a n  the  41 q u a l i t y o f t h o u g h t a s b e i n g demanded by t h e m y t h . it  now  seems p o s s i b l e , and  even p r o b a b l e ,  l a t e p l a y , some u n c e r t a i n t y s t i l l beginning  D. ¥.  L u c a s , The  40.  remains.  G r e e k T r a g i c P o e t s (2nd  ed.,  a  unfortunate,  which would place see  A b e r d e e n , 1949), pp.  63-65.  F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s c e n e i n w h i c h t h e K i n g o f A r g o s a r r i v e s and  f o r sanctuary dramatic.  i s (Lucas,  The  w i l l have a war  op.  the chorus as a whole)  e x t . , p. 83)  Argive King f i n d s himself  t h e s u p p l i a n t s he  he  This i s  F o r a more d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n  t h e l e a d e r o f t h e c h o r u s ( r e i n f o r c e d by  Aulis,  although  t h a t the S u p p l i a n t s was  o f t h e name o f t h e a r c h o n A r c h i d e m i d e s ,  t h e S u p p l i a n t s i n t h e y e a r 463.  However,  "as a w h o l e . . . e x t r e m e l y i n a q u a n d a r y ; i f he  i n c u r s d i v i n e a n g e r , and  w i t h the Egyptians  l i k e Orestes  And  refuses  i f he p r o t e c t s them  on h i s h a n d s .  he  L i k e Agamemnon a t  oh h i s r e t u r n , l i k e A n t i g o n e ,  cannot a v o i d o f f e n c e .  appeals  w h a t e v e r he  t h e agony o f h i s i n d e c i s i o n i s  does rendered  w i t h a c l a r i t y which i s unique before the p l a y s of E u r i p i d e s . " F i n l e y (op. c i t . .  p. 196)  makes t h e f o l l o w i n g comment: " I f t h e  S u p p l i a n t s i s p a r t o f an e a r l y t r i l o g y , Aeschylus 41. was  1  one  could only conclude that  t h o u g h t emerged n e a r l y f u l l - g r o w n . "  As L u c a s ( o p . c i t . .  p. 84)  s a y s , "What was  rarely  remembered  t h a t t h e S u p p l i c e s c o u l d n o t be t y p i c a l o f e a r l y drama, b e c a u s e  few m y t h s a r e s u c h t h a t t h e h e r o c a n be r e p r e s e n t e d chorus.  c o l l e c t i v e l y by  A c c o r d i n g l y f e a t u r e s o f t h e p l a y w h i c h c o u l d p l a u s i b l y be  i n t e r p r e t e d as p r i m i t i v e m i g h t , i n f a c t , be due  t o t h e use  o f one  of  a  -22-  s i n c e f o r t h e purpose o f an i n q u i r y i n t o t h e nature  o f contemporary  a l l u s i o n s i n A i s c h y l o s * S u p p l i a n t s , a s i n any o t h e r p l a y f o r t h a t m a t t e r , a knowledge o f t h e date o f t h e w r i t i n g and p r o d u c t i o n play i s necessary. reach  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , one c a n , w i t h o u t  some c o n c l u s i o n s Searching  about contemporary r e f e r e n c e s  i n the Suppliants.  one comes upon t h o s e t h a t  the v o i c e o f the people as highest passages, b r i e f l y ,  are as f o l l o w s :  the King o f the Argives  the sons o f A i g y p t o s ; he w i l l now c a l l  authority i n the s t a t e . i n lines  365?-369  anc  emphasize These  * 397-4-01,  i n s i s t s upon c o n s u l t i n g t h e p e o p l e a n d o b t a i n -  t h e i r consent before  general  such knowledge,  f o r p a s s a g e s i n t h e S u p p l i a n t s t h a t a r e i n some way  i r r e l e v a n t w i t h i n t h e i r context,  ing  of t h e  g i v i n g the Danaids refuge  i n lines  together  from t h e i r  517-518, t h e K i n g t e l l s t h e D a n a i d s t h a t  t h e people of the l a n d i n order  public well-disposed  pursuers,  t o w a r d s them; i n l i n e s  t o make t h e  600-624, Danaos  r e p o r t s t o h i s d a u g h t e r s t h a t t h e A r g i v e s , by unanimous v o t e , p a s s e d a d e c r e e g r a n t i n g them a s y l u m ; i n l i n e s  have  698-703, t h e D a n a i d s  p r a y f o r t h e s a f e t y o f t h e p e o p l e , who c o n t r o l t h e s t a t e ; i n l i n e s  739-740 and 94-2-944, t h e r e i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e v o t e o f t h e p e o p l e a s guaranteeing  the p r o t e c t i o n of the Danaids.  C l e a r l y , t h e A r g o s o f A i s c h y l o s * S u p p l i a n t s i s one i n w h i c h t h e king.'s p o s i t i o n i s a n o m i n a l one o n l y and t h e a c t u a l r u l e r s a r e t h e people; i n other words, i t s nature  i s t h a t o f a democracy.  But  s u r e l y , a s b o t h A. D i a m a n t o p o u l o s and W. G. F o r r e s t n o t e ,  this  t h e few m y t h s i n w h i c h i t was p o s s i b l e t o g i v e t h e c h o r u s  this  unusual predominance."  -23-  emphasis i n t h e S u p p l i a n t s  on t h e supreme power o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e  s t a t e i s , t o q u o t e F o r r e s t , " t o t a l l y i r r e l e v a n t i n any  mythological  42 situation."  A t t h e same t i m e ,  c e r t a i n l y relevant fifth  century.  reference  t o a democratic Argos i s  t o conditions e x i s t i n g i n that c i t y w i t h i n the  A f t e r t h e d e s t r u c t i o n by K l e o m e n e s o f t h e A r g i v e  army a t Se;peia a b o u t 4 9 4 B.C., t h e government o f A r g o s h a d p a s s e d i n t o t h e hands o f t h e d o u l o i a n d h a d become more d e m o c r a t i c ; a t some t i m e b e f o r e Forrest conjectures,  later,  t h e i r r e v o l t from T i r y n s i n 467, perhaps, as c l o s e t o the date o f T h e m i s t o k l e s  1  flight  from  A r g o s , t h e d o u l o i were e x p e l l e d f r o m A r g o s b y t h e a r i s t o c r a t s , b u t 43 p r o b a b l y , s i n c e A r g o s i n 4 6 2 / 1 made a t r e a t y w i t h d e m o c r a t i c A t h e n s , e i t h e r the d o u l o i then regained c o n t r o l o f Argos or the a r i s t o c r a t i c 44 government became more d e m o c r a t i c i n n a t u r e . The  mythologically  i r r e l e v a n t emphasis i n t h e S u p p l i a n t s  upon t h e  supreme a u t h o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e i s s o p r o m i n e n t an e l e m e n t t h a t i t must have been i n c l u d e d f o r some d e l i b e r a t e r e a s o n . one  f i n d s that i t i s relevant  Therefore,  when  i f a p p l i e d t o t h e same c i t y a t a t i m e  somewhere w i t h i n a t h i r t y - y e a r p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g  the production  of the  p l a y a n d f o r t h e s e r e a s o n s w o u l d f o r m an a l l u s i o n t h a t an a u d i e n c e could 42.  e a s i l y , a n d , i n f a c t , w o u l d be l i k e l y t o , p e r c e i v e , F o r r e s t , op_. c i t . . p. 2 4 0 .  Tetralogy  one c a n  A. D i a m a n t o p o u l o s ("The D a n a i d  o f A e s c h y l u s , " J . H. S., L X X V I I [ 1 9 5 ? ] ,  p . 2 2 0 ) e a r l i e r made  t h i s p o i n t c o n c e r n i n g t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e p e o p l e ' s a u t h o r i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e whole  play.  43.  T h u c y d i d e s , I . 102. 4.  44.  See F o r r e s t , op. c i t . . pp. 221-232, f o r a f u l l e r  presentation.  -24-  h a r d l y doubt that the dramatist  intended  i t to have t h i s a p p l i c a t i o n .  To put i t more s t r o n g l y , A i s c h y l o s must c e r t a i n l y have been d e l i b e r a t e l y making a contemporary a l l u s i o n here. Another passage that must be part of the contemporary a l l u s i o n i n the Suppliants i s the long prayer  ( l i n e s 625-709) i n which the  Danaids express t h e i r g r a t i t u d e to the Argive people f o r g r a n t i n g them refuge by p r a i s i n g , and invoking b l e s s i n g s upon, the A r g i v e s .  This  passage, as a whole, d i f f e r s from those c i t e d above i n that i t does not contain a d i r e c t statement e i t h e r of the a u t h o r i t y of the people or of the act through which the people have i n the exercised t h e i r authority.  Nevertheless,  u t t e r e d i n r e t u r n f o r the a c t i n question,  Suppliants  inasmuch as i t i s expressly follows immediately upon  the announcement of the a c t , contains near i t s end  ( l i n e s 698-703) a  d i r e c t reference t o the supremacy of the people i n the government of the c i t y together  with p r a i s e of t h i s government and a wish f o r i t s  c o n t i n u i n g s a f e t y , and comes only a f t e r a t t e n t i o n has been s e v e r a l times drawn to the sovereignty  of the Argive people, t h i s  of g r a t i t u d e can h a r d l y be separated Athenian  45. popular  expression  from a l l u s i o n to contemporary  experience.  A i s c h y l o s might have been making an i n d i r e c t a l l u s i o n to government i n Athens, but t h i s seems u n l i k e l y , when i t was  p o s s i b l e f o r the Athenians to see a d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e to the same c i t y > (Argos).  In any case, the element that i s i r r e l e v a n t i n the  tragedy  would s t i l l be r e l e v a n t w i t h i n the sphere of contemporary a f f a i r s .  -25-  As t o what s i g n i f i c a n c e t h e e m p h a s i s upon a d e m o c r a t i c g o v e r n m e n t at Argos and t h e expression  o f g r a t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e A r g i v e s c o u l d have  had  f o r an A t h e n i a n a u d i e n c e a n d , a c c o r d i n g l y , what p u r p o s e A i s c h y l o s  had  i n making t h e a l l u s i o n s i n t h i s p l a y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o  ascertain.  The v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s make c l e a r t h e v a r i e t y o f p o s s i b l e  46 applications.  A. D i a m a n t o p o u l o s ,  who d a t e s t h e S u p p l i a n t s t o  493/2, a r g u e s t h a t A i s c h y l o s ' i n s i s t e n c e on t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f s u p p l i a n t s , a n d on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d s o v e r e i g n t y  o f t h e demos.  i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e i n 493 a s a j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e d e m o c r a t i c p o l i c y of t h e non-appeasers i n t h e f a c e o f a c c u s a t i o n s the  l o n i a n s they had exposed Athens t o P e r s i a n  that through a i d t o reprisals.  D i a m a n t o p o u l o s a l s o b e l i e v e s t h a t t h i s p l a y c o u l d have b e e n a n a t t e m p t t o promote a n a l l i a n c e w i t h A r g o s i n o p p o s i t i o n t o t h o s e who m i g h t have been t r y i n g t o a c q u i r e S p a r t a t h e postponement o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n strengthening the Athenians,  as a f r i e n d .  He e x p l a i n s  of t h e S u p p l i a n t s by s u g g e s t i n g  i n t h e power o f p r o - S p a r t a n ,  a n t i - I o n i a n f e e l i n g s among  as e v i d e n c e d , i n h i s o p i n i o n , by t h e A t h e n i a n s '  reaction t o Phrynichos'  a  hostile  C a p t u r e o f M i l e t o s . w h i c h he d a t e s t o t h e  47 s p r i n g o f 492. ' 48 E. C a v a i g n a c  d a t e s t h e S u p p l i a n t s t o 4?0 b e c a u s e o f t h e  s i m i l a r i t y he s e e s i n t h e p o s i t i o n o f T h e m i s t o k l e s a t t h a t t i m e t o t h a t of t h e Danaids i n t h e p l a y .  He s u g g e s t s t h a t j A i s c h y l o s i n t h e  46.  £p.. c i t . . p p . 220-229.  47.  See b e l o w , p p . 43-58, f o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s  48.  "Eschyle  pp. 102-106.  et Themistocle,"  play.  R e v , de P h i l . . XLV (1921),  i  -26-  Suppiiants  i s e i t h e r e x h o r t i n g A r g o s n o t t o g i v e up T h e m i s t o k l e s t o  t h e S p a r t a n s and A t h e n i a n s o r i s e x p r e s s i n g not  handed T h e m i s t o k l e s o v e r ;  g r a t i t u d e that they  w h i c h o f t h e two  conjectures  had  contains  p o s s i b l e f a c t depends on t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n o f t h e p l a y  to  49 Themistokles'  ostracism.  50 Mtfller  saw  i n the abundant p r a i s e of Argos i n the  Suppliants.  51 and  Donaldson  saw  i n the " d i s t i n c t r e f e r e n c e s  t o a m i c a b l e r e l a t i o n s between the p o p u l a r Athenians,"  reason to place t h i s tragedy  i n the  Suppliants  p a r t y a t A r g o s and i n 461,  the  t h e y e a r when  52 A t h e n s and A r g o s were e n t e r i n g i n t o an a l l i a n c e w i t h one  another.  53 Forrest, was  who  p r o d u c e d and  accepts  463  as t h e y e a r i n w h i c h t h e  b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p l a y was  w r i t t e n l a t e i n 464  49. - See b e l o w , p. 91 and p. 94-, n.44. e a r l y i n 463, a d v a n c e s t h e t h e o r y t h a t A i s c h y l o s was 50.  As H a i g h , op_. c i t . .  51.  0p_. c i t . . p.  52.  D o n a l d s o n was  p. 101,  Suppliants or  reminding  the  mentions.  124. i n f l u e n c e d by r e f e r e n c e s  i n l i n e s 761  and  952-953 " t o t h e a n t i c i p a t e d r e s u l t s o f a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n G r e e k s Egyptians,"  t h a t i s , t o t h e outcome o f t h e f i g h t i n g i n E g y p t where  A t h e n i a n s were h e l p i n g I n a r o s , k i n g o f L i b y a , i n h i s r e v o l t Persia, and  and  However, s i n c e any  Egyptians  references  are completely  the  against  t o a c o n f l i c t between Greeks  r e l e v a n t w i t h i n the p l a y i t s e l f ,  c a n n o t j u s t i f i a b l y i n t e r p r e t them as a l l u s i o n s t o t h e a f f a i r s  one of  contemporary Athens. 53.  Op.  cit..  p. 239.  o f A r g o s — s h o u l d she  To  quote F o r r e s t :  " I t s theme i s t h e  dilemma  a c c e p t a s u p p l i a n t e v e n at t h e r i s k o f w a r ? I n  4?0  -27-  Athenians of the democratic A r g i v e s  1  e a r l i e r support of the a n t i -  S p a r t a n T h e m i s t o k l e s i n an attempt t o i n f l u e n c e t h e d e m o c r a t i c Athenians t o break r e l a t i o n s w i t h Sparta the  a n d t o make a t r e a t y  with  Argives. I do n o t p r o p o s e h e r e t o a r g u e t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s  of the  t h e o r i e s I have m e n t i o n e d , f o r , s i n c e e a c h one i s b a s e d on mere possibilities,  such an e x e r c i s e w o u l d n o t r e s u l t i n a c o n c l u s i o n  c e r t a i n enough t o be o f u s e t o t h e i n q u i r y u n d e r p r o g r e s s ,  i,.e., t h e  r e a s o n f o r A i s c h y l o s * s e l e c t i o n o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y theme i n t h e P e r s a i . In c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , an examination o f t h e S u p p l i a n t s r e v e a l s t h a t A i s c h y l o s a t some t i m e , w h e t h e r b e f o r e the P e r s a i . nature.  included i n a tragedy  What s i g n i f i c a n c e  producing  allusion of a p o l i t i c a l  i t h e l d f o r t h e A t h e n i a n s a n d what  p o l i t i c a l or p a t r i o t i c feelings it  a repeated  or after  on t h e d r a m a t i s t ' s  part  inspired  are not c l e a r . Passing  on t o t h e O r e s t e i a . t h e o n l y c o m p l e t e t r i l o g y o f A i s c h y l o s  t h a t we h a v e , p e r f o r m e d i n 458 a n d a w a r d e d f i r s t p r i z e a t t h e C i t y D i o n y s i a , one c a n i m m e d i a t e l y s a y t h a t t h e f i r s t  two p l a y s o f t h e  g r o u p , t h e Agamemnon a n d t h e C h o e p h o r o i . do n o t c o n t a i n any o b v i o u s  54 a l l u s i o n s t o contemporary events.  The t h i r d p l a y , h o w e v e r ,  provides  A r g o s h a d been f a c e d w i t h j u s t t h i s d i l e m m a a n d h a d a n s w e r e d i t , a s s h e d o e s i n t h e p l a y , by a c c e p t i n g t h e s u p p l i a n t a n d by r i s k i n g w a r , w i t h Sparta as  c e r t a i n l y and p e r h a p s , a s i t t h e n seemed, w i t h K i m o n i a n A t h e n s  well." 54,  Since  an a l l i a n c e between Athens and Argos had been formed  a few y e a r s b e f o r e ,  i n 462/1,  i t i s p e r h a p s , a s J . B, B u r y  only  -28-  material for discussion. 55 Murray  comments as f o l l o w s :  t r a d i t i o n i n the higher e v e r y w h e r e , was porary  life,  E u m e n i d e s. and in  k i n d o f Greek p o e t r y ,  t o a v o i d a l l the  I see no  "Considering  as i n good p o e t r y  political allusion in  some o f A t h e n a ' s s p e e c h e s may  by t h e c o n f l i c t s o f t h e t i m e .  be  end  That i s a very  ( I n support of the  l i n e s 976  ff.)  d i s t u r b i n g i r r e l e v a n c e s of contemporary l i f e , "  deliberate  when one  i n w h i c h i t was  t o l a y h e a v y s t r e s s on two  ed.,  i n Athens,  subjects  almost c e r t a i n l y broke  a t any  i n t h e d r a m a t i c s e t t i n g of t h e t r i l o g y  0p_. c i t . , pp. 75-76.  a situation  s u g g e s t s , "a  a l l y t h a t he makes Agamemnon l o r d  o f n e w l y - d e s t r o y e d Mycenae," b u t  obvious s i g n i f i c a n c e u n t i l the  55.  He  L o n d o n , 1916], p. 352)  u n d e s i g n e d c o m p l i m e n t t o t h e new  innovation  to create  considers  o f h i s way  t h a t were e x t r e m e l y s i g n i f i c a n t  the  " t o a v o i d a l l the  t h a t i n t h i s t r a g e d y he went o u t p o s s i b l e f o r him  the  done.  Eumenides A i s c h y l o s w i s h e d , as M u r r a y m a i n t a i n s ,  not  cites  I t h i n k , h o w e v e r , t h a t one must a d m i t  To b e g i n w i t h , i t i s u n r e a s o n a b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n  A r g o s and  and  stirred  l o n g i n g f o r p e a c e , he  Eumenides t h a n M u r r a y has  (A H i s t o r y of G r e e c e [2nd  the  d i f f e r e n t t h i n g from  p r e s e n c e o f more c o n t e m p o r a r y p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e and a l l u s i o n i n the  contem-  of the p l a y  the r e s u l t of emotions  political allusion." 858  almost  s u s p e c t t h a t t h e deep l o n g i n g f o r p e a c e  concord expressed i n the l y r i c s towards the  f f . and  strong  d i s t u r b i n g i r r e l e v a n c e s of  e v i d e n c e of any  At most one may  t h a t the  t h i r d play, the  rate  this  does n o t  take  Eumenides.  on  not of  -29-  with tradition  i n making Orestes'  t h e A r e i o p a g o s , " ^ and  t r i a l the  cause o f the f o u n d i n g  t h r o u g h t h i s i n n o v a t i o n he was  able to  s p e c i a l p r o m i n e n c e t o a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e f u n c t i o n s and t h e A r e i o p a g o s ; t h i s was c o n t r o v e r s i a l reform powers.  He  only three  of  give  powers of  or f o u r y e a r s a f t e r E p h i a l t e s '  o f t h i s body had  r o b b e d i t of most o f i t s  a l s o broke w i t h t r a d i t i o n i n l a y i n g the  scene of t h e  trilogy  i n A r g o s i n s t e a d o f i n M y k e n a i , and b e c a u s e of t h i s i n n o v a t i o n  the  e m p h a s i z e d a l l i a n c e i n t h e Eumenides between O r e s t e s '  Athena's  city  and  r e f l e c t e d t h e a c t u a l a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n A r g o s and A t h e n s t h a t had formed o n l y three still  years before  the production  been  of t h e E u m e n i d e s and  in effect. T h a t A i s c h y l o s d i d s t r e s s t h e s e s u b j e c t s becomes c l e a r when  e x a m i n e s t h e p a s s a g e s i n w h i c h he order  o b v i o u s l y d e a l s w i t h them.  of t h e i r o c c u r r e n c e i n t h e p l a y , t h e y a r e as f o l l o w s :  287-298, a f t e r h a v i n g  e x p l a i n e d h i s p o s i t i o n and  coming to Athena, Orestes invokes he and h i s l a n d and  the Argive  56.  To  A t h e n a ' s a i d and  of Orestes before  p. 119,  in lines  promises her trusty allies  n. 2):  by m a k i n g t h e t r i a l . t o be t h e the a s s o c i a t i o n of Orestes'  But  he  introduces  cause of i t s f i r s t  trial  and  an i n n o v a t i o n on A i s c h y l o s *  any  e v i d e n c e t o the c o n t r a r y , as almost c e r t a i n .  1  p a r t may  be  for  sent  a new  old feature  institution."  the founding  was  that  "In p l a c i n g the  the Areopagus A e s c h y l u s f o l l o w s the  t r a d i t i o n ( H e l l a n i c u s , f r a g . 82).  the  the reason f o r h i s  p e o p l e w i l l be h e r  quote Haigh (op. c i t . .  one  In  e v e r m o r e ; i n l i n e s 667-673, A p o l l o t e l l s A t h e n a t h a t he h a s  trial  was  taken,  of the  That  Areiopagos  i n the absence of  -30-  O r e s t e s a s a s u p p l i a n t t o h e r i n o r d e r t h a t s h e may w i n h i m a n d t h o s e c o m i n g a f t e r h i m a s new a l l i e s a n d t h a t t h i s a l l i a n c e may l a s t f o r e v e r ; i n l i n e s 681-706, A t h e n a d e l i v e r s a l e n g t h y s p e e c h  explaining  the v e n e r a b l e and e t e r n a l n a t u r e o f t h e c o u r t o f judges t h a t she i s e s t a b l i s h i n g , the court of t h e Areiopagos; his  i n l i n e s 762-774, a f t e r  a c q u i t t a l , O r e s t e s pledges an oath t h a t h i s p e o p l e , t h e A r g i v e s ,  w i l l m a i n t a i n f o r e v e r t h e a l l i a n c e t h a t he h a s made w i t h t h e Athenians. So p o i n t e d a r e t h e a l l u s i o n s t o c o n t e m p o r a r y justified to  e v e n t s t h a t we a r e  i n b e l i e v i n g t h a t A i s c h y l o s was i n f a c t c o n v e y i n g a message  h i sfellow-citizens.  What t h i s message was becomes o b v i o u s upon  a c l o s e r examination of the evidence. First,  the making o f an A t h e n i a n a l l i a n c e w i t h Argos and t h e  r e f o r m o f t h e A r e i o p a g o s h a d a r i s e n o u t o f a n d h a d been t h e c a u s e o f p o l i t i c a l c o n t e n t i o n i n Athens.  Kimon and h i s f o l l o w e r s w e r e  intent  on m a i n t a i n i n g a p o l i c y o f f r i e n d s h i p w i t h S p a r t a , t h e a l l y o f t h e P e r s i a n Wars.  M o r e o v e r , t h e y v/ere n o t i n f a v o u r o f a n y d i m i n i s h i n g o f  t h e power o f t h e A r e i o p a g o s , f o r , a l t h o u g h s u c h men a s T h e m i s t o k l e s a n d A r i s t e i d e s ( p a s t a r c h o n s ) h a d b e e n members o f t h i s C o u n c i l , i t was 57 e s s e n t i a l l y a n o l i g a r c h i c c o n s e r v a t i v e body,  and, t h e r e f o r e , " i t  s e r v e d n a t u r a l l y as a c e n t r e o f a c t i o n t o t h e o l i g a r c h i c a l o r c o n 58 servative party,"  o f which  Kimon was l e a d e r .  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  t h e r a d i c a l d e m o c r a t s l e d by E p h i a l t e s f e l t t h a t o l i g a r c h i c  IV,  57.  Aristotle, Politics.  58.  George G r o t e , H i s t o r y o f G r e e c e ( 2 n d e d . , L o n d o n ,  p. 4 4 6 .  Sparta  I I . 12?4 a . 1907),  -31-  was now A t h e n s ' r e a l enemy, a n d t h e y were s t r u g g l i n g t o b r i n g a b o u t an a l l i a n c e b e t w e e n A t h e n s a n d A r g o s , a c i t y t h a t h a d o b s e r v e d s u s p i c i o u s n e u t r a l i t y d u r i n g t h e war w i t h P e r s i a b u t w h i c h  a  they  f e l t w o u l d p r o v e a s t a u n c h a l l y a g a i n s t S p a r t a , s i n c e s h e was Sparta's chief r i v a l Peloponnese.  i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r t h e hegemony o f t h e  Of c o u r s e , t h e y were a l s o d e s i r o u s o f a r e m o v a l o f  some o f t h e powers o f t h e A r e i o p a g o s . flict  I n t h e y e a r 462/1, t h i s  o f i n t e r e s t s came t o a h e a d a n d a f f a i r s moved r a p i d l y .  Kimon was a b s e n t  conI n 462,  from Athens a s s i s t i n g S p a r t a i n h e r r e s i s t a n c e t o  59 t h e H e l o t r e b e l s i n Ithome, a c i r c u m s t a n c e t h a t E d u a r d  Meyer  s u g g e s t s b e n e f i t e d E p h i a l t e s i n t h a t i t gave h i m a f r e e h a n d t o promote h i s p o l i c y .  Following this,  i n uncertain chronological order,  were t h e i n s u l t i n g d i s m i s s a l by t h e S p a r t a n s not l o n g a f t e r they had a r r i v e d ,  of the Athenian troops  E p h i a l t e s ' reform of the Areiopagos  60 sometime i n t h e a r c h o n s h i p o f K o n o n , 462/1, the H e l l e n i c a n t i - P e r s i a n confederacy, which  Athens* w i t h d r a w a l from s h e h a d j o i n e d i n 481,  6l and h e r f o r m a t i o n o f an a l l i a n c e w i t h A r g o s ,  and the o s t r a c i s m o f  62 Kimon i n t h e s p r i n g o f 461 a n d h i s c o n s e q u e n t Soon a f t e r , E p h i a l t e s was m u r d e r e d . surrounded  departure from  Athens.  O b v i o u s l y , much c i v i l  turmoil  t h e r e f o r m o f t h e A r e i o p a g o s a n d t h e d r a w i n g up o f a  59.  G e s c h i c h t e d e s A l t e r t u m s . I V : 1 (5th e d . , B a s e l , 1954), p . 536.  60.  A r i s t o t l e , A t h . P o l . . 25. 2.  61.  Thucydides,  62.  P l u t a r c h , Kimon, 17. 2.  63.  A r i s t o t l e , A t h . P o l . , 25. 4.  I . 102. 1.  -32-  t r e a t y w i t h A r g o s , t h e two c o n t e m p o r a r y prominent a p l a c e i n A i s c h y l o s '  s u b j e c t s t h a t a r e g i v e n so  E u m e n i d e s.  As t o A t h e n s ' e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s f o l l o w i n g t h e t r e a t y w i t h i n 4-61/0 s h e c a p t u r e d K a u p a k t o s  Argos,  from t h e O z o l i a n - L o k r i a n s and  o c c u p i e d Megara, which had asked f o r A t h e n i a n p r o t e c t i o n  after 64  d e s e r t i n g t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n League because In the spring of 460,  of a dispute with  Corinth.  A t h e n i a n t r o o p s who w e r e e n g a g e d w i t h t h e i r  i n a campaign a g a i n s t Kypros l e f t  t h e i s l a n d and s a i l e d t o Egypt t o 65  help Inaros i n h i s revolt against Persia. o f h e r f l e e t s o f a r away, A t h e n s  allies  A t t h i s t i m e , w i t h much  f o u n d h e r s e l f a t war w i t h t h r e e  s t a t e s , K o r i n t h , E p i d a u r o s , and A i g i n a , a l l s u p p o r t e d by P e l o p o n n e s i a n troops.  D e s p i t e h e r a p p a r e n t d i s a d v a n t a g e , she came o u t v i c t o r i o u s  i n t h e s e v e r a l l a n d a n d s e a b a t t l e s f o u g h t b e t w e e n t h e s p r i n g and 66 autumn o f 4 6 0 . were s t i l l  In 459/8,  when a l a r g e number o f A t h e n s ' t r o o p s  i n Egypt, S p a r t a sent an e x p e d i t i o n t o c e n t r a l H e l l a s t o  f o r c e t h e P h o k i a n s t o r e s t o r e t o t h e D o r i a n s one o f t h e i r t o w n s t h e y had t a k e n .  A f t e r t h i s , about  the time o f A i s c h y l o s ' O r e s t e i a . t h e  L a k e d a i m o n i a n t r o o p s l i n g e r e d i n B o i o t i a , p l o t t i n g w i t h men  inside  A t h e n s t o c h e c k t h e c i t y ' s power. I t was o b v i o u s t h a t w a r w i t h 6? S p a r t a was i m m i n e n t . And, i n d e e d , i n t h e summer o f 4 5 8 , n o t l o n g 64. T h u c y d i d e s , I . 103. 3 - 4 . 65.  Thucydides, I . 104.  66.  T h u c y d i d e s , I . 105. 1; -  67.  T h u c y d i d e s , I . 107. 2 ( h e t e l l s us t h a t t h e c i t y t h e P h o k i a n s  t o o k was one o f t h r e e :  2. 106.  B o i o n , K y t i n i o n , o r E r i n e o n ) a n d 107.  4.  -33-  a f t e r t h e O r e s t e i a h a d been p e r f o r m e d ,  the Peloponnesians  and Athenians  68 met  i n b a t t l e a t Tanagra,  near t h e A t t i c  frontier.  When one k e e p s i n m i n d t h e c i v i l d i s c o r d s u r r o u n d i n g a n d f o l l o w i n g the reform o f the Areiopagos  and the making o f the a l l i a n c e w i t h Argos  and, b e s i d e s , t h e g r a v e d a n g e r o f an a t t a c k from S p a r t a t h a t now t h r e a tened Athens, c e r t a i n passages  i n t h e B u m e n i d e s t a k e on g r e a t e r s i g n i f -  i c a n c e a n d make c l e a r t h e message t h a t A i s c h y l o s was t r y i n g t o c o n v e y . Some have s e e n i n l i n e s 292-298, where O r e s t e s i n v o k e s A t h e n a , she  i s i n some r e g i o n o f t h e L i b y a n l a n d h e l p i n g t h o s e s h e l o v e s o r i s  i n t h e P h l e g r a i a n p l a i n , a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e presence 69 in  whether  Egypt.  K. J . Dover  of Athenian troops  i s probably r i g h t i n saying:  " I n the present  s t a t e o f o u r k n o w l e d g e i t w o u l d be i n c a u t i o u s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s e  lines  as a n y t h i n g b u t an i n v o c a t i o n o f t h e t y p e w h i c h  fav-  o u r e d by t h e g o d , c f . T h e o c r .  1. 123."  n o t have i n t e n d e d t h i s a s a c o n t e m p o r a r y  names l o c a l i t i e s  However, w h i l e A i s c h y l o s may a l l u s i o n , t h e a u d i e n c e may  have i n t e r p r e t e d i t a s s u c h , c o m i n g a s i t does i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r erence t o a m i l i t a r y a l l i a n c e w i t h Argos; I note i t , 68.  Thucydides,  I . 108. 1.  ref-  t h e r e f o r e , as a  See M e r i t t , Wade-Gery, a n d M c G r e g o r ,  A. T. L . , p p . 171-173, f o r t h e d a t e . 69. LXXVII  "The P o l i t i c a l A s p e c t (1957)» P. 237.  o f A e s c h y l u s ' s E u m e n i d e s . " J . H. S.,  N o t o n l y was A t h e n a c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h L a k e  T r i t o n i s i n L i b y a and w i t h t h e P h l e g r a i a n p l a i n , b u t a l s o " t h e A t h e n i a n f o r c e i n Egypt  fought i n t h e D e l t a , n o t i n L i b y a " and "Aeschylus  a i n l y drew a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two i n S u p p . 279 s q q . , . . " r e f e r e n c e may be l o o s e , a n d I n a r o s was p r i n c e o f L i b y a ,  certBut the  -34-  possible allusion.  In l i n e s 775-777, a f t e r another r e f e r e n c e t o the  a l l i a n c e between Athens and Argos, Orestes b i d s h i s f a r e w e l l , p r a y i n g for  Athens  1  s a f e t y and v i c t o r y i n her s t r u g g l e with her f o e s .  This  prayer, e s p e c i a l l y i n t h i s context, must have h e l d a s t r o n g personal meaning f o r the Athenians.  More important,  i n l i n e s 853-854 and  858-866, Athena p r e d i c t s greater honours f o r Athens i n time t o come, and then she requests the F u r i e s not to implant  i n the Athenians the s p i r i t  of i n t e r n a l war but t o l e t t h e i r f i g h t i n g be against those  outside.  A i s c h y l o s must have intended t h i s to have contemporary  significance;  not  strife,  only does h i s Athena repeat her p l e a a g a i n s t c i v i l  the wording, but he a l s o ensures that i t w i l l  varying  s t r i k e the reader  with  e x t r a f o r c e by making i t the only admonition made by Athena to the F u r i e s against a s p e c i f i c a c t i o n , and, moreover, an unprovoked one i n the context fight  of the p l a y .  As t o the people that the Athenians  should  against, I t h i n k that A i s c h y l o s must be r e f e r r i n g to the Spartans.  His words,  ©upaTo<J  Io*TCU  TtoXep-o^ , are c e r t a i n l y most f i t t i n g in; r e f -  70 erence t o the Spartans,  who are l i t e r a l l y j u s t o u t s i d e Athens.  i n l i n e s 9?6-987, the chorus,  Again,  now r e c o n c i l e d to i t s f a t e , prays that  f a c t i o n and c i v i l war may never a r i s e w i t h i n the c i t y and that everyone i n the c i t y may u n i t e i n a s p i r i t o f common love f o r one another and i n . 70.  Meyer (G. d. A., IV:1, p. 549) i n t e r p r e t s l i n e s 858-866 (espe-  c i a l l y 864 and 865) as meaning a resumption of the war with P e r s i a , e s p e c i a l l y the f r e e i n g of Kypros; but t h e r e i s i n these conducive t o such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  lines  nothing  -35-  common h a t r e d f o r t h e same enemy.  And t h i s , i t seems, must h a v e been  t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y message t h a t A i s c h y l o s was a i m i n g a t when he d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d a l l u s i o n s t o t h e t r e a t y w i t h Argos and t o t h e reform of the Areiopagos. • I t i s n o t enough t o s a y t h a t A i s c h y l o s i s m e r e l y e x p r e s s i n g h i s approval  o f t h e a l l i a n c e by p r e s e n t i n g  favourable  and p r o m i s i n g  it,  through Orestes'  l i g h t ; f o r t h e e m p h a s i s on i t o b v i o u s l y  t o b r i n g t o t h e f o r e t h e danger t h a t t h r e a t e n s a t t a c k from S p a r t a .  words, i n a serves  Athens, the impending  H i s manner o f p r e s e n t i n g i t a l s o g i v e s t o t h e  A t h e n i a n s t h e e n c o u r a g i n g i d e a t h a t , w h i l e many o f t h e i r own f i g h t i n g men a r e a b s e n t c a r r y i n g on w a r s i n o t h e r p l a c e s , e s p e c i a l l y E g y p t , t h e y can  c o u n t on t h e s u p p o r t o f a f a i t h f u l a l l y .  Furthermore, since the  a l l i a n c e was c a r r i e d t h r o u g h by t h e r a d i c a l d e m o c r a t s i n t h e f a c e o f s t r o n g o p p o s i t i o n from t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s , the Athenians o f the c i v i l  strife  t h e A t h e n i a n s may be w i t h o u t . over,  i t w o u l d have s e r v e d  t o remind  t h a t A i s c h y l o s i n t h e Eumenides p r a y s  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s obvious.  i t e x p l a i n s why A i s c h y l o s was e x p r e s s i n g h i s a p p r o v a l  More-  of the  a l l i a n c e a s l o n g a s t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r i t h a d been made. As f o r t h e r e f e r e n c e  i n t h e Eumenides t o t h e A r e i o p a g o s , i t a l s o  c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e message a d v i s i n g u n i t y i n t h e f a c e o f common d a n g e r r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g an end i n i t s e l f . decide  what o p i n i o n on t h e r e f o r m  c h i e f p o s s i b i l i t i e s are: progressive  T h e r e have been many a t t e m p t s t o  A i s c h y l o s was t r y i n g t o e x p r e s s .  The  he c o u l d be a t t a c k i n g t h i s a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e  d e m o c r a t s ; he c o u l d be a n n o u n c i n g h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e  -36-  reforra, but with r e s e r v a t i o n s ; he could be announcing  h i s unreserved  71 approval of the reform;  he could be c o n c e n t r a t i n g on appeasing the  non-progressives while a c c e p t i n g the reform h i m s e l f . The evidence f o r the d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s comes mainly Athena's long speech i n l i n e s  from  681-706. Some c r i t i c s see i n i t a heavy  emphasis on the Areiopagos' time-honoured  duty as moral guardian of the  s t a t e , i n d i c a t i n g that A i s c h y l o s thought i t would have been b e t t e r had it  remained  i n possession o f a l l i t s powers.  Others b e l i e v e that  A i s c h y l o s , by s t r e s s i n g , along with the venerable q u a l i t y , the e t e r n a l nature o f t h i s august body, was, while i n favour of the reform h i m s e l f , t r y i n g to appease those who were not by a s s u r i n g them that i t s powers would l a s t despite any l e g a l changes. that upon the h i l l  Lines  690-695, where Athena says  of Ares reverence and f e a r w i l l keep her c i t i z e n s  from doing wrong unless they themselves t a i n t the laws with e v i l  influ-  ences, can be i n t e r p r e t e d e i t h e r as a c r i t i c i s m of the changes the r a d i c a l democrats have already made or as simply a recommendation that they go no f u r t h e r i n t h e i r i n n o v a t i o n s .  Still  others argue  that  A i s c h y l o s , i n having Athena found t h e Areiopagos f o r the purpose t r i a l f o r homicide  (lines  of a  4-83-4-84), i n d i c a t e s h i s acceptance of the  l i m i t a t i o n of i t s powers, s i n c e E p h i a l t e s had l e f t to the Areiopagos,  72 out of a l l i t s major powers, j u r i s d i c t i o n only i n cases of homicide.' 71.  As Dover, op_. c i t . .  pp. 230-237, argues.  72.  A r i s t o t l e , Ath. P o l . . 25. 1-2 and 57. 3.  Norwood (op_. c i t . .  p. 115) f e e l s that i n the Eumenides i t i s i m p l i e d that Athena i s l e a v i n g the o l d d u t i e s of the F u r i e s , the moral safeguard of men, t o the  -37-  The d i f f i c u l t y s c h o l a r s have had i n attempting t o decide from the Eumenides what A i s c h y l o s himself f e l t about the  Tightness  or wrongness  of the reform of the Areiopagos i s o b v i o u s l y due t o A i s c h y l o s * t o present h i s o p i n i o n c l e a r l y . t h a t he was deliberately  Furthermore,  failure  i t i s reasonable t o assume  f u l l y aware of the impression h i s words would c r e a t e and made them c o n f u s i n g .  reform was not important.  What was  had  In h i s view, an assessment of the important was t o a v o i d i n t e r n a l  d i s s e n s i o n at a time when a u n i t e d e f f o r t was needed a g a i n s t an o u t s i d e enemy. thies,  I f we abandon e f f o r t s to i d e n t i f y A i s c h y l o s ' p o l i t i c a l i f we look on the a l l u s i o n s  sympa-  t o the Areiopagos and t o the r e l a -  t i o n s h i p with Argos as advice t o the Athenians i n t h e i r c r i s i s , c u l t i e s disappear and the p a t t e r n of thought then, r e t u r n to the. passages thought as i t develops.  emerges c l e a r l y .  diffiL e t us,  already c i t e d and t r a c e t h i s p a t t e r n of  F o l l o w i n g the two r e f e r e n c e s to the  alliance  with Argos ( l i n e s 235-292) t h a t draw the a t t e n t i o n of the Athenians to the contemporary p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y  situation  and provide them with  some encouragement, comes Athena's long speech ( l i n e s 681-706) concerni n g the court of judges t h a t she i s founding, a speech of such a nature that i t might make those who  were against the recent reform of the  Areiopagos f e e l appeased and those who  were i n favour of i t f e e l  Areiopagos, an i m p l i c a t i o n that would r e i n f o r c e the c l a i m of the Areiopagos t o i t s former extensive powers r a t h e r than i t s r e c e n t l y l i m i t e d ones.  However, the duty of the F u r i e s , as i t i s c l e a r l y  presented i n the Eumenides. l i n e 421, i s to d r i v e murderers out from t h e i r homes, and i t i s the duty of d e c i d i n g what i s to be done with a murderer that i s handed over t o the court of the Areiopagos.  -38-  satisfied.  Included  r e v e r e n c e f o r law  i n t h i s speech i s the e x h o r t a t i o n t o m a i n t a i n  and order  i s another reference  and not f o r anarchy o r tyranny.  ( l i n e s 762-777) t o t h e  strong  plea t othe  addressed t o  t o the contemporary s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the  N e x t ( l i n e s 853-854) comes t h e h e a r t e n i n g honours f o r Athens i n the  there  and l a s t i n g a l l i a n c e  w i t h A r g o s , f o l l o w e d b y a w i s h f o r A t h e n s ' v i c t o r y i n war, an a u d i e n c e b y now a t t u n e d  Then  play.  p r o p h e c y by A t h e n a o f g r e a t e r  f u t u r e a n d t h e n ( l i n e s 858-866) h e r  strong  F u r i e s n o t t o b r i n g c i v i l war upon t h e A t h e n i a n s b u t  tolet  them f i g h t w i t h enemies j u s t o u t s i d e t h e i r d o o r , so t o s p e a k , a l l o f w h i c h was u s e f u l a d v i c e - important,  f o r the A t h e n i a n s t h e m s e l v e s .  i s the passage i n which the  ( l i n e s 490-565) t h r e a t e n e d amongst m a n k i n d i f t h e Orestes,  Finally,  and  c h o r u s o f F u r i e s , who e a r l i e r  t o l e t death and d e s t r u c t i o n - r u n  j u r y o f the newly founded Areiopagos  rampant acquitted  have become r e c o n c i l e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t i t d i d a c q u i t h i m ,  a c c e p t e d i t s a u t h o r i t y i n t h i s m a t t e r , and  have  themselves promise t o b r i n g  a l l manner o f b l e s s i n g s upon A t h e n s a n d p r a y a t g r e a t f u t u r e good f o r t u n e , i n c l u d i n g ( l i n e s 976-98?) t h e w i s h t h a t t h e p e o p l e may u n i t e a g a i n s t  most  length f o r  her  especially pertinent  t h e i r enemy.  These words, coming  from b e i n g s t h a t h a d t h e m s e l v e s , i n t h e i n t e r e s t o f t h e good o f t h e A t h e n i a n s , a c c e p t e d s o m e t h i n g t h e y were e a r l i e r a g a i n s t , c a r r i e d s p e c i a l f o r c e i n 458 B.C. Standing alone, internal strife along with  the passages c o n t a i n i n g p r a y e r s  and f o r u n i f i c a t i o n a g a i n s t  t h e p r o p h e c y o f v i c t o r y i n war,  r e f e r back t o M u r r a y ' s w o r d s , s i m p l y by t h e c o n f l i c t s o f t h e t i m e "  as,  f o r an absence o f  a common f o r e i g n enemy,  m i g h t be i n t e r p r e t e d , t o "the r e s u l t o f emotions  stirred  i n w h i c h t h e Eumenides was w r i t t e n . B u t  -39-  t h e y do n o t to,  stand alone.  R a t h e r , t h e y f o l l o w , and are c l o s e l y connected,  obviously deliberate references  tions.  t o contemporary p o l i t i c a l  situa-  M o r e o v e r , t h e y make t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s m e a n i n g f u l i n a way t h a t  t h e y would not  otherwise  be r e g a r d e d a s a n y t h i n g  be. but  Viewed i n such a c o n t e x t , intended  t h e y can  hardly  contemporary a l l u s i o n s themselves.  I n the Eumenides. t h e r e f o r e , A i s c h y l o s , by making i n n o v a t i o n s i n the t r a d i t i o n a l mythological temporary p o l i t i c a l  s t o r y he was d e a l i n g w i t h , b r o u g h t i n c o n -  a l l u s i o n s that served  t o p o i n t out  a message o f s i g -  n i f i c a n c e i n t h e g r a v e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e A t h e n i a n s f o u n d thems e l v e s about the time o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n time, although  o f the  i n any way s a c r i f i c e t h e a r t i s t i c  gedy n o r d i d h e f a i l t o c o n t r i b u t e a n y o t h e r broader, or merely d i f f e r e n t , nature.  political  At the  A i s c h y l o s gave t h i s message a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e  p l a y , he d i d n o t  and  Eumenides.  f e e l i n g s , one c a n  q u a l i t y o f the  The  loftier  j u s t i f i c a b l y i n f e r f r o m t h i s p l a y no more  p a r t i s a n s h i p , and the nature  with this  tra-  Moreover, as t o A i s c h y l o s '  s a f e t y and  o f h i s c i t y - s t a t e ; t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t he was s p e a k i n g  incompatible  in his  ideas o f a perhaps  t h a n t h a t A i s c h y l o s was a p a t r i o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e  ives of p o l i t i c a l  same  welfare  from mot-  o f h i s message seems  idea.  l a s t o f Aischylos' extant  t r a g e d i e s , the Prometheus Bound, i s ,  l i k e the S u p p l i a n t s , o f u n c e r t a i n date.  Many c r i t i c s b e l i e v e t h a t i t  must have b e e n w r i t t e n some t i m e a f t e r 4-79/8, s i n c e t h e y assume t h a t P r o m e t h e u s ' d e s c r i p t i o n i n l i n e s 363-372 o f t h e  e r u p t i o n o f A i t n a was  b a s e d on A i s c h y l o s ' k n o w l e d g e o f an a c t u a l e r u p t i o n o f A i t n a t h a t  took  -40-  place i n that year.  G. Z u n t z ,  p o s t quem c a n n o t be s e t , b e c a u s e Mt. A e t n a ,  however, argues  that t h i s  terminus  "Aeschylus..., i nr e f e r r i n g t o  ...echoes an a r c h a i c e p i c w h i c h c o l o u r e d t h e a n c i e n t saga o f  Typho w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e f i r s t G r e e k s e t t l e r s on t h e s h o r e s o f  75 Sicily."  H. J . Rose  b e l i e v e s t h e P r o m e t h e u s Bound was w r i t t e n  soon  a f t e r 479/8, b u t i t i s g e n e r a l l y a s c r i b e d t o t h e l a t e p a r t o f A i s c h y l o s ' career and i s placed, according t o v a r y i n g t a s t e s , a f t e r the P e r s a i o r 76 a f t e r t h e Seven A g a i n s t Thebes o r even a f t e r t h e O r e s t e i a . 73.  The Marmor P a r i u m . 52, p l a c e s i t i n t h i s y e a r .  Thucydides  1  statement  o f i t s date i n I I I ,  As f o r  1 1 6 , 2, A, ¥ , Gomme  (A H i s t o r i c a l Commentary on T h u c y d i d e s . I I [ O x f o r d , 1956], p , 432) h a s the  f o l l o w i n g t o say:  " 7t£VT'nKOO*To5 I r e t  :  not, I t h i n k , intended as  a r o u n d number, b u t f o r t h e y e a r w h i c h we c a l l 474 B.C." "Thucydides  of  He a d d s ,  i s not vouching f o r t h e accuracy of h i s date,"  74.  T h e P o l i t i c a l P l a y s o f E u r i p i d e s . ( M a n c h e s t e r , 1955), p . 59.  75.  0p_. c i t . , pp. 91-92.  76.  E..g., Thomson, oj>. c i t . . p . 246,  I should mention  that,  because  t h e seemingly u n - A i s c h y l e a n t h e o l o g y and o t h e r f e a t u r e s u n c h a r a c t e r -  istic  o f A i s c h y l o s , seme have even d o u b t e d t h e a u t h e n t i c i t y  P r o m e t h e u s Bound. problem:  I quote Lucas' statement  of the  ( o p . c i t , , p , 106) o f t h e  " I t n e e d n o t be c o n c e a l e d t h a t i t h a s been s e r i o u s l y  suggested  t h a t t h e P r o m e t h e u s Bound i s n o t t h e w o r k o f A e s c h y l u s b u t o f a n unknown a u t h o r who l i v e d i n t h e s e c o n d c e n t u r y a n d p r o b a b l y i n t e n d e d t h e p l a y for  reading.  Its peculiarities  a r e s o r e a l t h a t a number o f s c h o l a r s o f  repute would accept t h e h y p o t h e s i s i f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h o s e i t i s meant t o remove."  i n v o l v e d were n o t  -41-  Despite  t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o e s t a b l i s h t h e date o f t h e Prometheus  Bound, a n d o f t e n i n an a t t e m p t t o d a t e i t ,  c r i t i c s have seen i n i t  77 contemporary p o l i t i c a l a l l u s i o n s .  ;,  F o r e x a m p l e , 'Norwood, '. who  conjec-  • , . , / * : . v ••  }  t u r a l l y a s s i g n s t h e p l a y t o a b o u t 4 6 5 B.C., s e e s a r e f e r e n c e t o T h e m i s t o k l e s i n l i n e 1068:  roh$ npoborat;  yap  u-tceTv l u c c O o v .  .''.,,_.' 3 =  However, s i n c e t h i s s e n t e n c e i s r e l e v a n t i n i t s c o n t e x t , b e i n g t h e w o r d s o f t h e c h o r u s a s i t e x p l a i n s why i t w i l l n o t f o r s a k e . P r o m e t h e u s , i s no b a s i s f o r v i e w i n g t i o n s have no f i r m The use  i t as a contemporary r e f e r e n c e .  of contemporary a l l u s i o n and, consequently,  To  S i m i l a r sugges-  foundation.  P r o m e t h e u s Bound, t h e r e f o r e , p r o v i d e s  on c o n t e m p o r a r y  there  no e v i d e n c e o f A i s c h y l o s  1  no e v i d e n c e o f h i s v i e w s  affairs.  sum up: f i r s t ,  although  one c a n n o t s a y how much r e f e r e n c e t o  c o n t e m p o r a r y e v e n t s A i s c h y l o s f e l t he c o u l d j u s t i f i a b l y i n c l u d e , one c a n a t l e a s t o b s e r v e t h a t he d i d i n c l u d e m a t e r i a l o f t h i s n a t u r e , two  of the extant  evidence;  tragedies  since i n  (excluding the Persai) there i s p o s i t i v e  second, i n both these t r a g e d i e s t h e contemporary a l l u s i o n has  a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e ; t h i r d , t h e one t r a g e d y  i n which A i s c h y l o s ' meaning i s  c l e a r w i t h i n t h e contemporary a l l u s i o n r e v e a l s A i s c h y l o s as a p a t r i o t i c Athenian,  putting the welfare  of h i s country  above a l l e l s e ; f o u r t h ,  nowhere does A i s c h y l o s r e v e a l any f e e l i n g s o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s h i p o r s p e c i a l sympathy w i t h , o r a n t i p a t h y t o w a r d s , any o f t h e l e a d i n g c a l f i g u r e s of h i s time^  77. 0p_. c i t . , p. 128, n. 3  politi-  CHAPTER  Phrynichos  TWO  a n d C o n t e m p o r a r y Themes  Now t h a t we have i n q u i r e d i n t o A i s c h y l o s * o p i n i o n s a b o u t c o n t e m p o r a r y a f f a i r s and h i s i n c l u s i o n o f t h e s e o p i n i o n s i n h i s t r a g e d i e s o t h e r than the P e r s a i , i t i s necessary, before approaching td  the Persai  c o n s i d e r t h e two o t h e r f i f t h - c e n t u r y t r a g e d i e s t h a t we know  t h e P e r s a i i n h a v i n g c o n t e m p o r a r y themes, t h a t i s , P h r y n i c h o s * of M i l e t o s and h i s P h o i n i s s a i .  itself,  resembled Capture  S i n c e t h e s e two p l a y s p r e c e d e d t h e  P e r s a i . t h e y m i g h t have i n f l u e n c e d A i s c h y l o s i n h i s c h o i c e o r t r e a t m e n t of t h e subject of t h e P e r s a i . Our  knowledge o f t h e d r a m a t i s t P h r y n i c h o s  He won h i s f i r s t  himself i s very  limited.  t r a g i c v i c t o r y i n 5 1 1 , ^ a n d g a i n e d a t l e a s t one o t h e r ,  i n 4-76.  I t seems t h a t he was famed - f o r  poetry.^  We have t h e names' o f t e n of. h i s p l a y s , a n d t o j u d g e f r o m  titles,  h i swriting of beautiful  lyric these  he a p p e a r s t o have e m p l o y e d c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y a s a s u b j e c t  o n l y i n t h e two p l a y s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , a n d p o s s i b l y i n a t h i r d , d e s i g n a t e d by t h e w o r d s  A t H a t 01  1.  Suidas,  2.  P l u t a r c h , Themistokles,  3.  Aristophanes, Birds.  H e p c a t  1856),  of t h e p l a y s .  SuvQcDHOt.^  N o t h i n g i s known  5 . 4-.  74-8-751;  Thesmophoriazousai.  164—6;  '  See A u g u s t u s Nauck, e d . , T r a g i c o r u m  (Leipzig,  j\  s_.v. Opuvtxo?.  Wasps. 2 2 0 a n d 2 6 9 . 4-.  ft  Graecorum Fragmenta  p. 720, a n d S u i d a s , s_.v. <S>puvtxo?,  f o r t h e names  -43-  about t h i s beyond the t r i p l e t i t l e , which, i n c i d e n t a l l y , i s found only i n Suidas.  Hence i t i s conjectured that these names may  o r i g i n a l l y have  been a p p l i e d , not to a separate playj, but to e i t h e r the Capture of M i l e t o s or the P h o i n i s s a i or both i n part."* :  There i s no c e r t a i n e v i -  dence concerning h i s a c t i v i t i e s outside the f i e l d of tragedy. one reference i n A e l i a n Athenians, wealth, but  t o Phrytiichps being chosen as s t r a t e g o s by  not because of party s p i r i t e7tel"  £HpaTrio*e  rotq nvppixioxai^  rthy TtapovTaw,  CTTpaTriYeTv... .  Iv r i v t  t o r i c i t y of. h i s s t o r y . Phrynichos  TpctY<p&ia  HarenrifcraTO  a x f T e x a p a x p w a aOTov  Unfortunately,  the  ( cfrrouSac; ) or noble b i r t h or  u-e)ui n a x 7to.Xeu.iKa ej;e7rovT}o*ev, OSTCO^ a pa  nai.  There i s  there i s no way  kni:rr\beia TO  0eaTpov  etXovTo  of t e s t i n g the h i s -  C l e a r l y , there i s " l i t t l e i n our knowledge of  himself to help us i n our study of h i s p l a y s .  Phrynichos'  Capture of M i l e t o s was  the e a r l i e s t play t h a t we know  was w r i t t e n with contemporary h i s t o r y as i t s theme; i t portrayed event t h a t took place i n 4-94  B.C.,  the capture  an  and d e s t r u c t i o n of the  Ionian c i t y of M i l e t o s by the P e r s i a n s , and must, to judge from the strong r e a c t i o n i t evoked, have been produced soon a f t e r t h a t , perhaps i n 493  B.C.  One must not f o r g e t , however, t h a t any  date of t h i s tragedy i s based only on conjecture. the name of the p l a y was  actually  MiXiyrou  t i t l e i s unusual f o r a Greek tragedy,  statement of the We  aXcaeri^.  which was  are not sure that In f a c t , such a  commonly designated  5.  See  6.  V a r i a H i s t o r i a , I I I . 8, as c i t e d by Albrecht von Blumenthal,  R.E.,  below,  XX:1, (s_.v. Phrynichos) ,,pp. 916-917. .  by  -44-  t h e name o f one we  of the c h a r a c t e r s or of the chorus,  have t o t h i s drama do n o t make i t c l e a r w h e t h e r  7 was  the t i t l e  e d i t i o n i n ancient  and  times  oXcocrtc;  possibility  s u b j e c t o f t h e P e r s a i . one  of  T h i s seems u n l i k e l y .  the  The  formed a s e l e c t i o n of p l a y s i n a s p e c i a l  ( o r were a t l e a s t f o u n d among t h e b e s t  i t i s d o u b t f u l whether a tragedy  p o s s i b l y destroyed  MtXTyrou  mentions the  l i s t e d i n Suidas.  s e v e n dramas l i s t e d p r o b a b l y  l a t e d p l a y s ) , and  Nauck  of M i l e t o s formed the  seven p l a y s of Phrynichos  references  8  or m e r e l y the s u b j e c t .  t h a t the capture  and t h e  ( a s had  t h a t had  t h e p l a y whose s u b j e c t was  circu-  been banned  the capture  of  Q  M i l e t o s ) w o u l d have been i n c l u d e d i n s u c h a s e l e c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e t r a g e d y o f P h r y n i c h o s w i t h w h i c h I am c o n c e r n e d a t t h e moment was p r o b - r  10 a b l y one ject  q u i t e separate  from h i s P e r s a i .  A t any  r a t e , s i n c e the  ( o f p r i m e i n t e r e s t i n t h i s c a s e ) , i f not t h e t i t l e ,  p e r f o r m e d s o o n a f t e r 494 t h e r e i s no  was  e v i d e n c e t h a t any  of t h e  sub-  play  c e r t a i n l y t h e t a k i n g o f M i l e t o s and  since  o t h e r name s h o u l d be a p p l i e d t o i t , I  s h a l l r e f e r t o i t as t h e C a p t u r e o f M i l e t o s . 7. V I . 21.  See  S t r a b o . XIV.  635:  P l u t a r c h . M o r a l i a . 814  8;  Herodotos,  2.  8.  Op.  cit..  p. 558.  9.  See  b e l o w , p.  10.  The  name H e p t f a t ,  . .  45. a l o n g w i t h t h e two  w i t h i t , A l K a t o i . . ; r j S u v G o o k o i , may P h o i n i s s a i . a p l a y whose s u b j e c t we Persians at Salamis  o t h e r names S u i d a s  be an a l t e r n a t i v e t i t l e b e l i e v e was  the defeat of  and among whose c h a r a c t e r s was  a d v i s e r s t o t h e k i n g , men  who  groups  for  the  the  a c o u n c i l of e l d e r s ,  c o u l d have been d e s c r i b e d by t h e a d j e c t i v e s  -45-  Unfortunately, i n ancient  although  literature,  1 1  there are several references  not a fragment remains^  Indeed, t h i s i s not  s u r p r i s i n g , f o r we l e a r n f r o m , H e r o d o t o s , o u r m a i n s o u r c e , a u t h o r was f i n e d f o r r e p r e s e n t i n g was  to the play  that i t s  s u c h a s c e n e on t h e s t a g e a n d a b a n  *  >  *  >'  i m p o s e d f o r b i d d i n g \xr\yiex\ p ^ S e v a Xp5o"©ai TOuVcp T $ S p a p a T t .  Whether o r n o t P h r y n i c h o s was f o r c e d t o d e s t r o y a t t e s t e d t o o n l y by A e l i a n ^ i little,  a n  12  the play, which i s  c o l l e c t i o n o f anecdotes, matters  f o r t h e p r o h i b i t i n g o f a n y more p e r f o r m a n c e s o f t h e C a p t u r e o f  M i l e t o s i n i t s e l f amounted t o v i r t u a l d e s t r u c t i o n o f t h e p l a y . One ance.  wonders what was c o n t a i n e d  i n t h e play t o cause such a d i s t u r b -  We a r e aware t h a t i t d e a l t w i t h t h e c a p t u r e  P e r s i a n s , b u t , as t o P h r y n i c h o s information.  1  o f M i l e t o s by t h e  t r e a t m e n t o f t h i s theme, we h a v e  What s p e c i f i c a l l y d i d he p o r t r a y ?  little  H e r o d o t o s r e l a t e s what  t o o k p l a c e a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f M i l e t o s , a n d goes on t o m e n t i o n t h e p l a y b y P h r y n i c h o s t h a t t r e a t e d t h i s theme:  AtHdlOl [Oxford, and  o r 2uv©0)KOl,  ( A . E. H a i g h , The T r a g i c Drama o f t h e G r e e k s  I896], p. 4-3, n. 5, m e n t i o n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t  SUV©CDXOI  AIKCUOI  were a l t e r n a t i v e names f o r t h e P h o i n i s s a i , d e n o t i n g t h e  P e r s i a n e l d e r s ; he does n o t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e l i e peat  may a l s o h a v e b e e n  a n o t h e r name f o r t h e P h o i n i s s a i b u t o n l y t h a t i t may have been t h e same as t h e MtXiyrou aXa>0i<g. ) 11.  L i s t e d b y Nauck, op_. c i t . .  12.  H e r o d o t o s , V I . 21. 2.  13.  V a r i a H i s t o r i a . X I I I . 17, a s c i t e d by F r i e d r i c h M a r x ,  R h e i n . Mus.. L X X V I I (1928), p . 342.  p. 558.  -4-6-  irore  br\ r a u r a  rotxg MtXTiatous n a r e X a i i B a v e ,  ore  Ye  &v6pe<s  u-ev o i ,7tXeuve<5 I n T e t v o v T o u7ro T S V nepae'cov IOVTCDV Hou-tire'cov, Yuvalneq 6e  6e  nat  renva  ev av6parro6cov XOY^P iyxvovro,  T O ev A i S u y i o t o t , 6 VTJO^ T B nat  everciu-ttparo. pvi^u-nv I r e p a s t  raW 6'  T O xpr\oxT\piov  t  rou XOYOU  xanov o&6ev aXXo  HaXeopevu e a X a a o n ,  e7rotT}0au-T)v.  Eepoat  elx°v  UTrepaupta l6ocrav Yap 6T|XOV  e v Q e v r e v o{  t^XP"^"  pacrtXeuc;  acpea<;  ev "Apjtn r r o X i , 7 r a p * " f i v TtYpn<5 r r o r a u o c ; rrfc  6e  MtXtiertcov x ^ P H S  aurot  TO. 7rept riyv T C O X I V H a t T O 7te6tov,  K a p a t IIn6acreuo*t enrrioreat.  iTTOtrjcfav  6e  ixotr\aa<; Karotntcre knt xxi *Epu©pti  7tapappea)v 1? ©aXacrcrav e £ t e t . p,ev o f  cruX^Oe'vTa  ev T $ tp$ TOUTCJ) xPWdVujv 7roXXan*<g  6evTe<5 raw MtXTjotcov H Y O V T O e < s Soucra. Aapetos  tpov  :  ...  6e  ra  *A©iyvatot  ^TrepiaxCOecyQevTe? T?( M t X i i r o u dXcocft r $  u-ev re  aXXn 7toXXax5 H a t br\ n a t rtotneravrt *puvtx<P Gpaua MtXtyrou aXoatv  n a t 6 t 6 a ! ; a v T i 1 $ Sanpua . r e e7tecre r o  e&Tiuia)o*av u-tv d><g avau-VTfo*av.ra o i u i i t a nana nat  I r r e r a c - a v pi^uer t U.TJ6 e v a xpacreat  ©erjrpov  nat  x t * - * '  1  ^ *  6paXMo*»»  rourq) r $ O p a u a r t . ^ 1  As f a r a s t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e c a p t u r e a r e c o n c e r n e d , we may a c c e p t Herodotos  1  account;  he c o u l d have s p o k e n  firmed r e p o r t s o f the event.  t o eyewitnesses or heard  I n d e e d , he p r e f a c e s h i s s t o r y w i t h t h e  s t a t e m e n t , " T h i s i s what h a p p e n e d t o t h e M i l e s i a n s . "  On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,  as f a r as t h e c o n t e n t s o f P h r y n i c h o s ' t r a g e d y a r e c o n c e r n e d ,  14-.  con-  H e r o d o t o s , VI. 19. 3 - 2 1 .  Herodotos  -47-  r e v e a l s no more t h a n t h a t t h e has  j u s t d e s c r i b e d and  subject  t h a t i t was  the audience to t e a r s ;  he  was  the h i s t o r i c a l event t h a t  d e p i c t e d i n s u c h a way  does n o t  s t a t e , or even i m p l y ,  drama p o r t r a y e d  the conquest e x a c t l y as i t had  ( H e r o d o t o s ) has  just described  i n g t h a t t h e p l a y had  it.  he  as t o  bring  that  Phrynichos'  t a k e n p l a c e and  I t is possible, i n fact,  as  he  consider-  i m m e d i a t e l y upon p e r f o r m a n c e b e e n r e m o v e d f r o m  c i r c u l a t i o n , t h a t Herodotos d i d not dealt with the subject. convey t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  A t any to  know p r e c i s e l y how  Phrynichos  had  r a t e , h i s a c c o u n t c e r t a i n l y does  not  us,  Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s , w r i t i n g i n t h e  l a t e f o u r t h century  after  C h r i s t , a l s o r e l a t e d (though d i f f e r e n t l y from Herodotos) the events t h e c o n q u e s t of M i l e t o s , d e c l a r i n g a t t h e end  t h a t P h r y n i c h o s had  of  used  15  hoc  argumenturn i n a t r a g e d y .  Since  t h i s i s a t e c h n i c a l term f o r  o u t l i n e of t h e b a s i c c o n t e n t s o f a p l a y , i t a p p e a r s t h a t Ammianus l i s t i n g the tragedy.  i n d i v i d u a l e v e n t s a s he However, t h e r e  15.  b e l i e v e d t h e y were t o l d i n  was  Phrynichos'  i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t Ammianus c o u l d  Ammianus M a r c e l l i n u s , X X V I I I .  as f o l l o w s :  an  B e l l o w M e d i c o p r i m o cum  1.  3 and  H i s words  d i r i p u i s s e n t Asiam Persae.  Miletum molibus magnis. minantesque defensoribus i n i e c e r e c l a u s i s necessitatem.  4.  obsidentes  c r u c i a b i l e s neces.  u t omnes m a g n i t u d i n e m a l o r u m  peremptis c a r i t a t i b u s p r o p r i i s . proiectoque  adflicti.  i n ignem m o b i l i c e n s u .  se c e r t a t i m c o n g e r e r e n t i n communem p e r e u n t i s  are  p a t r i a e rogum.  arsuros  Hoc  argumentum p a u l l o p o s t e a d i g e s t u m t u m o r e t r a g i c o P h r y n i c h u s i n t h e a t r u m induxerat  Athenarum  -4-8-  have a c q u i r e d  a copy o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f P h r y n i c h o s *  a c t u a l Capture of  M i l e t o s . a n d he may h e r e be e l a b o r a t i n g on a n d a d a p t i n g i n Herodotos. can  Hie account, therefore,  what he f o u n d  l e a v e s u s no w i s e r .  state with c e r t a i n t y i s that t h i s play contained  some  A l l one unusually  v i v i d s c e n e s o f t h e h o r r o r a n d s u f f e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e d by t h e p e o p l e o f 16  M i l e t o s a t t h e hands o f t h e P e r s i a n s ,  scenes p r o v o c a t i v e  c a u s e a v i o l e n t r e a c t i o n among the A t h e n i a n The  questions  why P h r y n i c h o s *  people.  p o r t r a y a l of t h e capture o f M i l e t o s  c a u s e d t h e r e a c t i o n i t d i d a n d why P h r y n i c h o s c h o s e t h i s theme must n e x t be i n v e s t i g a t e d .  enough t o  To b e g i n w i t h ,  contemporary  t h e charge that the  A t h e n i a n s b r o u g h t a g a i n s t P h r y n i c h o s i s nowhere made c l e a r . one  t h o u s a n d d r a c h m a i . seems t o have been a s t a n d a r d  The f i n e ,  amount l e v i e d t o  p r e v e n t p e o p l e f r o m m a k i n g n u i s a n c e s of t h e m s e l v e s and was s u b s t a n t i a l enough t o a c t a s a p o w e r f u l d e t e r r e n t ,  16.  Marx's s u g g e s t i o n  a t l e a s t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e "...  (op_. cit.« p . 34?) t h a t we may l o o k  t o E u r i p i d e s ' Trb.jan Women f o r t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f P h r y n i c h o s ' Capture of M i l e t o s and t h a t i n the c l o s i n g l i n e s of E u r i p i d e s * t r a g e d y (1317-1332), w i t h t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f M i l e t o s f o r T r o y and Persians  f o r A c h a i a n s , we h a v e an image o f t h e c l o s e o f t h e C a p t u r e  o f M i l e t o s i s mere c o n j e c t u r e w i t h  no f o u n d a t i o n  whatever.  -49-  man  o f o r d i n a r y means.  I d o u b t t h a t t h e c h a r g e was,  a s E. M. W a l k e r  18 suggests,  a nominal  one o f i m p i e t y i n the sense o f the u s e o f a  c o n t e m p o r a r y theme i n s t e a d o f a c o n v e n t i o n a l l e g e n d a r y one;  certainly,  we  h e a r nowhere o f any l a w a g a i n s t t h e u s e o f a c o n t e m p o r a r y theme a n d  no  one seems t o h a v e o b j e c t e d t o P h r y n i c h o s  of  a c o n t e m p o r a r y theme i n the P h o i n i s s a i a n d P e r s a i  andA i s c h y l o s ' l a t e r use  1  respectively.  R a t h e r , I t h i n k i t must have b e e n one o f s a c r i l e g e b a s e d on P h r y n i c h o s ' a l l e g e d d e l i b e r a t e u p s e t t i n g of t h e s p e c t a t o r s a t t h e f e s t i v a l o f t h e 19 Great D i o n y s i a .  I n Demosthenes' s p e e c h A g a i n s t M e i d i a s  t h a t about the middle 17.  we l e a r n  o f the f o u r t h c e n t u r y c o m p l a i n t s c o u l d be e n t e r e d  I n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y , one t h o u s a n d  i m p o s e d upon a p r o s e c u t o r  d r a c h m a i was t h e  "who f a i l e d t o o b t a i n o n e - f i f t h o f t h e v o t e s "  (R. J . Bonner and G e r t r u d e S m i t h , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e Homer t o A r i s t o t l e . I I ^ C h i c a g o ,  193^7, p . 56);  p. 137)»  (Bonner  upon a p r o s e c u t o r who d r o p p e d a s u i t ,  once p r o c e e d i n g s h a d begun ( B o n n e r a n d S m i t h , op_. c i t . . c o r d i n g t o the E r e c h t h e i o n accounts  This figure r e f l e c t s  p . 58).  Ac-  (J..G., I , 373-4), t h e wage f o r a  s k i l l e d workman i n t h e l a s t decade o f t h e f i f t h p e r diem.  from  upon a w i t n e s s who  f a i l e d e i t h e r t o " t e s t i f y o r t o take theoath i n d i s c l a i m e r " and S m i t h , 0 £ . c i t . .  fine  "the r i s e  d u c e d b y t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n War" (M. N. Tod,  c e n t u r y was o n e d r a c h m a  i n the c o s t o f l i v i n g  pro-  i n The C a m b r i d g e A n c i e n t  H i s t o r y . V /_ C a m b r i d g e , 1958/, P. 2 4 ) , a n d the wage must have b e e n in  the e a r l y f i f t h  the f i n e  c e n t u r y , which  lower  g i v e s some i d e a of t h e s e r i o u s n e s s o f  l e v i e d on P h r y n i c h o s s o o n a f t e r 494.  18.  E. M. W a l k e r ,  i n C. A. H., I V (1953), p . 172.  19.  Demosthenes, A g a i n s t M e i d i a s . 175-180,  - 5 0 -  a g a i n s t c i t i z e n s who  o u t r a g e d t h e s a n c t i t y of t h e D i o n y s i a c f e s t i v a l s ,  w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e p e n a l t i e s r a n g i n g f r o m f i n e s o f v a r i o u s amounts t o d e a t h , a c c o r d i n g t o the s e r i o u s n e s s o f t h e o f f e n c e .  The same p r a c t i c e  may  event, i t i s the  have e x i s t e d i n t h e e a r l y f i f t h c e n t u r y .  I n any  r e a s o n b e h i n d t h e p r o s e c u t i o n r a t h e r t h a n the c h a r g e t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t in this  instance.  To  c l a r i f y t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e p e o p l e ' s a n n o y a n c e upon v i e w i n g t h e  Capture  of M i l e t o s . I s h a l l b r i e f l y r e l a t e the events t h a t preceded  p r o d u c t i o n of the p l a y .  I n 4-99/8 A r i s t a g o r a s o f M i l e t o s v i s i t e d  to gain help f o r the Ionian r e v o l t .  The  the  Hellas  A t h e n i a n s answered h i s a p p e a l  by s e n d i n g t o I o n i a t w e n t y w a r s h i p s , w h i c h were a c c o m p a n i e d by  five  20 Eretrian vessels.  A f t e r a r r i v i n g i n I o n i a , the t r o o p s l e f t  and m a r c h e d u p l a n d t o S a r d e s . the c i t y without meeting  the s h i p s  A l t h o u g h t h e y c a p t u r e d and s e t f i r e  any o p p o s i t i o n , t h e y were d e f e a t e d on  to  the  r e t u r n march t o t h e i r s h i p s by a p u r s u i n g f o r c e o f P e r s i a n s , a n d  after  t h i s t h e A t h e n i a n s r e f u s e d t o t a k e any f u r t h e r p a r t i n t h e I o n i a n u p -  21 rising.  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , t h e r e v o l t c o n t i n u e d t o s p r e a d , and, as  M.  22 Cary  s a y s , " a t the e n d of 4-98  B.C.  t h e r e b e l l i o n had become g e n e r a l  among t h e A s i a t i c G r e e k s , and i t s h i g h - w a t e r m a r k was 20.  H e r o d o t o s , V. 97.  3;  99.  21.  H e r o d o t o s , V. 100  -  103.  22.  C. A. H.,  222.  I V , p.  now  attained."  -51-  B u t , f r o m h e r e on, G r e e k d i s u n i t y b e g a n t o t a k e i t s t o l l , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n of one c r i p p l i n g d e f e a t , u p p e r hand.  The  23  and by  degrees,,  the P e r s i a n s gained  two d i s a s t e r s t h a t f i n a l l y b r o u g h t  the  the I o n i a n r e b e l l i o n  t o an end were t h e c r u s h i n g d e f e a t o f t h e G r e e k n a v y i n a. b a t t l e  near  24 Lade  and t h e c a p t u r e and d e s t r u c t i o n by t h e P e r s i a n s of M i l e t o s , , t h e 25  c e n t r e from w h i c h  t h e r e v o l t had s p r e a d .  p o r t r a y a l o f t h e l a t t e r event  Soon a f t e r w a r d s , , P h r y n i c h o s '  l e d to h i s condemnation.  Other  t h a t t o o k p l a c e soon a f t e r t h e c a p t u r e o f M i l e t o s were t h e f i r s t and t h e a c q u i t t a l , i n 493 B.C.,  trial  of M i l t i a d e s , the P h i l a i d t y r a n t of the 26  C h e r s o n e s e and a f u g i t i v e from P e r s i a n power, T h e m i s t o k l e s t o t h e o f f i c e of a r c h o n Herodotos  events  and the e l e c t i o n of  for 493/2.^  g i v e s us a c l u e t o t h e r e a s o n b e h i n d the p r o s e c u t i o n o f  P h r y n i c h o s by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e A t h e n i a n s , a f t e r b e i n g r e d u c e d t o t e a r s by t h e s p e c t a c l e o f M i l e t o s  destruction,  1  avaviyiio'avra oiH-qi.a...HaHa ... 23.  I r e f e r here  f i n e d t h e d r a m a t i s t j&g^.,  That t h e A t h e n i a n s t o o k t h i s a c t i o n a g a i n s t  to the d e f e a t o f the P e r s i a n l a n d - f o r c e i n  t h e K a r i a n c a m p a i g n o f 49?  ( H e r o d o t o s , V.  121).  T h i s event so p a r a -  l y s e d the P e r s i a n o f f e n s i v e t h a t the Greeks g a i n e d a r e s p i t e of a couple o f y e a r s ( s e e C a r y , C. A. H.,  224).  24.  Herodotos,  VI.  14 -  25.  Herodotos,  VI.  18 - 20.  26.  Herodotos,  VI.  2?.  D i o n y s i o s of H a l i k a r n a s s o s , A n t i q u i t a t e s Romanae, V I . 3 4 .  See R. J . L e n a r d o n , V-  I V , p.  ( 1 9 5 6 ) , pp.  "The  401-419.  16.  104.  Archonship  1.  of T h e m i s t o k l e s , 4 9 3 / 2 , " H i s t o r i a ,  -52-  Phrynichos  "because he h a d r e m i n d e d them o f  misfortunes-concerning  t h e m s e l v e s " m i g h t mean no more t h a n t h a t , f e e l i n g p a r t l y for Miletos  1  f a t e , they  were a n g r y a n d ashamed a t b e i n g r e m i n d e d o f  t h e i r t r e a c h e r y i n f o r s a k i n g t h e i r own c o l o n y the I o n i a n s .  along with the r e s t o f  To be s u r e , Ammianus s t r e s s e s o n l y t h e g u i l t y  of t h e Athenians having  responsible  feeling  t h a t t h e y were b e i n g a d m o n i s h e d b y P h r y n i c h o s f o r  f a i l e d t o a i d t h e i r own c o l o n y ;  p r e t a t i o n of Herodotos'  pi  Hrfta....  t h i s was p e r h a p s h i s i n t e r -  .-.H.JIK, a,.  ...» i f , i n d e e d , he:/ d e r i v e d  h i s account from Herodotos. However, w h i l e t h e A t h e n i a n s ' unselfish  as t h i s ,  i t i sprobable  f e e l i n g s may have b e e n a s s i m p l e a n d t h a t a n o t h e r t h o u g h t was i n v o l v e d i n  t h e i r a s s e r t i o n t h a t they had been reminded o f Phrynichos  ;  . p t x i f ta......na i$a  by h i s s c e n e s o f h o r r o r h a d v i v i d l y f o r c e d upon t h e A t h e n i a n s  t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g o f P e r s i a n c o n t r o l a n d o f what  their  d e s e r t i o n o f t h e I o n i a n c a u s e m i g h t p e r h a p s c o s t them t h e m s e l v e s . withdrawing  their  support  from t h e I o n i a n s , t h e A t h e n i a n s  e a s i e r f o r t h e P e r s i a n s t o c r u s h t h e r e v o l t and t h e r e b y thened h o l d over I o n i a ; t o H e l l a s as a r e s u l t  In  h a d made i t  t o gain a streng-  the v i r t u a l l y increased proximity o f the P e r s i a n s  o f t h i s v i c t o r y meant t h a t t h e e n d M i l e t o s h a d  met h u n g more i m m i n e n t l y  o v e r A t h e n s , who h a d a l r e a d y h a d e v i d e n c e o f  t h e P e r s i a n s * d e s i r e t o d o m i n a t e h e r i n t h e demand made i n 508/7 b y Artaphernes,  t h e P e r s i a n satrap a t S a r d i s , that an Athenian  should present  embassy  t h e P e r s i a n s w i t h e a r t h and w a t e r , t h e c u s t o m a r y t o k e n s  28 of submission,  28.  a n d h i s demand i n 504 t h a t t h e A t h e n i a n s  H e r o d o t o s , V. 73.  should  take  -53-  the t y r a n t H i p p i a s back,  and who, t h r o u g h h e r s u p p o r t ( e v e n i f o n l y •  f o r a s h o r t time) of t h e I o n i a n u p r i s i n g , m e r i t e d P e r s i a n revenge. The  d e s e r t i o n o f t h e I o n i a n s was r e a l l y  j u s t one more p h a s e i n  the v a c i l l a t i n g a t t i t u d e t h a t t h e A t h e n i a n s had been d i s p l a y i n g  toward  t h e P e r s i a n s and t h a t a r o s e f r o m t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i r d e s i r e s t o a p p e a s e P e r s i a and a t t h e same t i m e n o t t o become s u b j e c t t o h e r . e x a m p l e , A r t a p h e r n e s . demands were made t o e m b a s s i e s 1  had s e n t t o him i n o r d e r , i n t h e f i r s t  For  that the Athenians  i n s t a n c e , t o c o n c l u d e ah a l l i a n c e  w i t h P e r s i a and, i n t h e second i n s t a n c e , t o d i s s u a d e A r t a p h e r n e s  from  l i s t e n i n g t o H i p p i a s and h i s s u p p o r t e r s as t h e y t r i e d t o t u r n him a g a i n s t the A t h e n i a n s .  However, when t h e A t h e n i a n embassy i n 508/7 a c c e d e d t o  t h e demand t h a t i t p r e s e n t A r t a p h e r n e s w i t h e a r t h and w a t e r t h e A t h e n i a n s made c l e a r t h e i r r e f u s a l t o s u b m i t t o P e r s i a n d o m i n a t i o n by h a r s h l y c e n s u r i n g t h e embassy on i t s r e t u r n t o A t h e n s ;  and when A r t a p h e r n e s  demanded t h a t t h e s e c o n d embassy t a k e H i p p i a s b a c k , i t r e f u s e d .  In  4-98,  Persia,  d e c i d i n g t o a c c e p t t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f open h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d  the Athenians sent twenty s h i p s t o I o n i a i n support o f t h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t Persian rule.  And y e t , a p p a r e n t l y c h a n g i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e a g a i n , t h e y  soon a f t e r r e c a l l e d the s h i p s .  T h i s a c t i o n , as M. F. M c G r e g o r ^ n o t e s ,  was p r o b a b l y due a s much t o a c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e " u t t e r , h o p e l e s s n e s s o f eventual v i c t o r y " as t o the p a r t i c u l a r defeat they s u f f e r e d j u s t before  29.  H e r o d o t o s , V. 96.  30.  "The P r o - P e r s i a n P a r t y a t A t h e n s , " H a r v . S t u d . C l a s s .  S u p p l . I (1940), p. 84.  Phil.,  -54-  the r e c a l l o f the s h i p s ; f i g h t i n g against  the Athenians probably  felt  that further  t h e P e r s i a n s now w o u l d be t o no a v a i l w h e r e a s w i t h -  d r a w a l a t t h i s p o i n t w o u l d a p p e a s e them somewhat and a l l o w t h e A t h e n i a n s t o f i g h t them l a t e r a t a more o p p o r t u n e t i m e .  The A t h e n i a n s '  election  o f H i p p a r c h o s , s o n o f Charmos a n d a P e i s i s t r a t i d , t o t h e o f f i c e o f eponymous a r c h o n i n 496/5^ was p e r h a p s a n a t t e m p t t o c o n c i l i a t e t h e Persians.  32 The  capture  o f M i l e t o s i n t h e autumn  o f 494 and t h e e v i d e n c e o f  P e r s i a n c r u e l t y a n d power t h a t i t a f f o r d e d them must have made t h e A t h e n i a n s f e e l t h a t any h o p e s t h e y h a d h a d o f p e a c e f u l l y w a r d i n g o f f t h e P e r s i a n s were i n v a i n ;  a c c o r d i n g l y , i t must h a v e made many A t h e n i a n s  d o u b t t h e wisdom o f t h e i r e a r l y d e c i s i o n t o w i t h d r a w and t o r e m a i n from the I o n i a n r e v o l t . tragedy the  I t i s no wonder, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t  aloof  Phrynichos*  a r o u s e d t h e a u d i e n c e t o t e a r s and t o t h e f i n i n g . ; o f t h e d r a m a t i s t ;  spectacle  Athenians'  i t p o r t r a y e d must have e v o k e d o r r e i n f o r c e d i n many  m i n d s a c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e i r own l a c k of s o u n d judgment a n d  the p o s s i b l e d i s a s t r o u s consequences t o t h e m s e l v e s as w e l l as a f e e l i n g of g u i l t It  at having  neglected  h a s been c o n j e c t u r e d  their  colony.  t h a t , however w i d e s p r e a d was t h e s o r r o w  and g u i l t y annoyance o f t h e A t h e n i a n s w i t n e s s i n g P h r y n i c h o s * M i l e t o s . the p r o s e c u t i o n  i t s e l f was t h e w o r k o f a g r o u p o f an t i - I o n i a n s ,  " t h o s e who were r e s p o n s i b l e 31.  Dionysios  Capture of  f o r the withdrawal  of Halikarnassos,  of t h e Athenian  ships  A n t i q u i t a t e s Eomanae, V. 77. 6;  V I . 1. 1. 32.  See G e o r g B u s o l t , G r i e c h i s c h e G e s c h i c h t e .  1895), P. 554.  II (2nd e d . , G o t h a ,  -55-  and t h e abandonment o f t h e I o n i a n c a u s e . " they  s t r i k i n g b a c k f o r what  f e l t was a d i r e c t a t t a c k upon t h e m s e l v e s .  T h e r e i s no d i r e c t  e v i d e n c e t h a t a n a n t i - I o n i a n g r o u p was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e w i t h d r a w a l .  34 In f a c t , the o n l y evidence that Walker e x i s t e n c e i sthat the sending  can c i t e i n support  of i t s  o f o n l y ( h i s own a d d i t i o n t o H e r o d o t o s '  w o r d s ) t w e n t y s h i p s i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e showed t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a particular political  g r o u p , w h i c h w o u l d have been even h a p p i e r  been a b l e t o persuade t h e A t h e n i a n s  had i t  n o t t o s e n d any a i d t o I o n i a .  35 McGregor  p o i n t s out t h e f a l l a c y o f t h i s r e a s o n i n g  by  demonstrating  t h a t twenty s h i p s , f a r from r e p r e s e n t i n g a h a l f - h e a r t e d c o n t r i b u t i o n r e s u l t i n g from t h e o p p o s i t i o n by a s t r o n g a n t i - I o n i a n f a c t i o n t o t h e sending  o f a i d , was c l e a r l y a g e n e r o u s o f f e r i n g o n t h e p a r t o f t h e  Athenians  and g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n o f a n y t h i n g o t h e r t h a n g e n e r a l  ment on p o l i c y .  agree-  S i n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e t h a t a s t r o n g 36  a n t i - I o n i a n f a c t i o n even e x i s t e d ,  i ti s vain t o speculate  s u c h a p o l i t i c a l f a c t i o n was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r P h r y n i c h o s 33. W a l k e r , C. A. H., I V , p . 172.  34.  0p_. c i t . . p . 168.  35.  0p_. c i t . . p p . 81-83.  36.  There i s d i s a g r e e m e n t c o n c e r n i n g  1  whether  trial.  t h e presence and i d e n t i t y  o f a p r o - P e r s i a n f a c t i o n i n A t h e n s f r o m 510, t h e y e a r o f t h e e x p u l s i o n of t h e P e i s i s t r a t i d t y r a n t s from Athens. pp.  W a l k e r (C_. A. H., I V , e s p .  265-267) a s s e r t s t h a t t h e r e was a p r o - P e r s i a n f a c t i o n , c o n s i s t i n g  o f t h e t y r a n t - f o l l o w e r s and t h e A l k m a i o n i d a i .  C. A. R o b i n s o n ("The  S t r u g g l e f o r Power a t A t h e n s i n t h e E a r l y F i f t h C e n t u r y , " A. J . P., LX  [1939], p p . 232-237) a c c e p t s  a p r o - P e r s i a n g r o u p , and i d e n t i f i e s  - 56 -  To r e t u r n t o t h e q u e s t i o n , why d i d P h r y n i c h o s the capture  of Miletos?  c h o o s e a s h i s theme  One m i g h t , upon f i r s t t h o u g h t ,  suggest that  37 Phrynichos and  s e l e c t e d t h e s u b j e c t s i m p l y b e c a u s e he was an i n n o v a t o r  t h a t he u n t h i n k i n g l y a n d u n l u c k i l y c h o s e a s u b j e c t t h a t was bound  unduly t o upset t h e Athenians and c a l l him. the  However, P h r y n i c h o s obviously unpleasant  Athenian not  people;  probably  f o r t h t h e i r annoyance a g a i n s t  had the i n t e l l i g e n c e t o r e a l i z e  i m p a c t t h a t t h e s u b j e c t w o u l d h a v e upon t h e  i t i sdifficult,  t h e r e f o r e , t o b e l i e v e t h a t he d i d  d e l i b e r a t e l y produce t h e Capture of M i l e t o s i n order  to convince  t h e p e o p l e o f t h e i r f o l l y i n m a i n t a i n i n g a p o l i c y o f appeasement t o wards P e r s i a (whether t h e blame r e s t e d m a i n l y them w i t h t h e P e i s i s t r a t i d a i , s u p p o r t e d , by t h e a r i s t o c r a t s u n d e r I s a g o r a s .  on t h e p e o p l e a s a w h o l e  n o t by t h e A l k m a i o n i d a i , b u t  McGregor (op_. c i t . . . p p . ? l - 9 5 ) , on  t h e o t h e r h a n d , a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e was no p r o - P e r s i a n f a c t i o n as s u c h i n A t h e n s a f t e r 510 B.C.  ¥. G. F o r r e s t ( " T h e m i s t o k l e s a n d A r g o s , " C l a s s .  Q u a r t . . X [ i 9 6 0 ] , pp.221-241) b e l i e v e s t h a t f r o m 499 t o 490 t h e A l k m a i o n i d a i w e r e f r i e n d s o f t h e P e i s i s t r a t i d a i a n d t h u s p r o - P e r s i a n , b u t removes X a n t h i p p o s from the r a n k s o f t h e A l k m a i o n i d a i and s u g g e s t s , t h a t n e i t h e r h e n o r A r i s t e i d e s was i n sympathy w i t h t h e m . c o n t r o v e r s i a l problem, depending t o a great extent toward Herodotos' testimony 37. the f i r s t  furthermore, This i s a  on one's a t t i t u d e  regarding the Alkmaionidai.  I n S u i d a s , £.v.$puvtxocj , we a r e t o l d t h a t P h r y n i c h o s t o u s e e i t h e r f e m a l e masks or f e m a l e c h a r a c t e r s  on t h e m e a n i n g o f xpoacwtov) i n t r a g e d y .  was  (depending  -57-  o r on a p a r t i c u l a r f a c t i o n ) .  O b v i o u s l y , b o t h s u g g e s t i o n s a r e no more  t h a n mere c o n j e c t u r e . One t h e n wonders i f P h r y n i c h o s on h i s own i n i t i a t i v e c h o s e theme and t h e r e b y r i s k e d t h e a n n o y a n c e o f t h e p e o p l e a n d t h e i r retaliation.  B e c a u s e T h e m i s t o k l e s was l a t e r c h o r e g o s  this possible  f o r a p l a y of  7 g  P h r y n i c h o s produced  i n 4?6  and b e c a u s e T h e m i s t o k l e s h e l d s t r o n g a n t i -  P e r s i a n s e n t i m e n t s and was, m o r e o v e r , a t t h e t i m e o f t h e C a p t u r e o f M i l e t o s d e e p l y a n d a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n p o l i t i c s , one i s t e m p t e d t o t h i n k t h a t Phrynichos d i d not alone choose t h e p o l i t i c a l l y  significant  s u b j e c t and t h a t T h e m i s t o k l e s may have s u g g e s t e d I t t o him or may a t l e a s t have encouraged  him i n i t s u s e .  c o n j e c t u r e does n o t a r g u e prominent  The l a c k o f e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s  strongly against i t ,  f o r a man who was as  i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s as t o be a candidate, f o r t h e o f f i c e o f  eponymous a r c h o n w o u l d h a v e h a d t h e s e n s e n o t t o e n d a n g e r h i s p o s i t i o n by  l e t t i n g i t be known t h a t he was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r so c o n t r o v e r s i a l an  intrigue.  On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e , i f one w a n t s t o  s e e a n i n d i c a t i o n o f c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e c o n n e c t i o n between T h e m i s t o k l e s a n d P h r y n i c h o s i n 4-76, because of P h r y n i c h o s * Capture  t h a t t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p came a b o u t  o f M i l e t o s and t h e sympathy i n thought  between h i m s e l f and P h r y n i c h o s t h a t T h e m i s t o k l e s f o u n d r e v e a l e d i n t h i s tragedy.  I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e i s no way o f a s c e r t a i n i n g w h e t h e r o r  n o t any o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e was i n v o l v e d i n P h r y n i c h o s * c h o i c e o f t h e  38.  P l u t a r c h , T h e m i s t o k l e s . 5»  4.  -58-  c o n t e m p o r a r y theme f o u n d i n t h e Our  t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n must be t h a t P h r y n i c h o s p e r h a p s i n t e n t i o n a l l y  chose the a way  C a p t u r e of M i l e t o s .  subject  o f t h e d e s t r u c t i o n of M i l e t o s and  as t o e n s u r e t h a t i t w o u l d have a d e c i d e d i m p a c t u p o n the  of the Athenians, shocking danger.  them i n t o a f u l l r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e  H i s f i n e i n d i c a t e s t h a t , whether or not  least temporarily  u p s e t the  people.  t h e a n t i - P e r s i a n M i l t i a d e s i n 493 p l a y , i t may  be  t h a t the  f o l l o w e d the p r o d u c t i o n  dramatist  must n o t e t h a t , i f P h r y n i c h o s h a d compatible with a regard  there i s nothing  he i n t e n d e d  minds Persian  t o , he  at  Furthermore, i f the a c q u i t t a l of of  a c t u a l l y c o n v i n c e d the  t h a t t h e i r p o l i c y of appeasement was  was  t r e a t e d i t i n such  mistaken.  At the  Phrynichos'  Athenians  same t i m e ,  one  t h i s purpose i n mind, h i s i n t e n t i o n  f o r the w e l f a r e  t o i n d i c a t e t h a t he was  of A t h e n s as a w h o l e ,  m o t i v a t e d by p o l i t i c a l  and  partisan-  ship or friendship with a leading p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e . The  s e c o n d p l a y o f P h r y n i c h o s t h a t we  e v e n t s was  the P h o i n i s s a i .  The  f o r m a n c e o f t h i s t r a g e d y i s 476 b e l i e v e d t o have b e e n the t i o n o f the  know was  b a s e d on  contemporary  d a t e commonly a c c e p t e d f o r t h e B.C.,  and  i t s subject  is  generally  same as t h a t o f A i s c h y l o s ' P e r s a i ;  e v i d e n c e w i l l r e v e a l w h e t h e r o r not  per-  these ideas  an are  examinawell  founded.  39.  Since there  i s no  evidence e i t h e r that a strong  f a c t i o n e x i s t e d o r t h a t T h e m i s t o k l e s was production  i n any  o f the C a p t u r e o f M i l e t o s , t h e r e  supposing that the t r i a l  o f P h r y n i c h o s was  way  anti-Ionian  connected with  i s obviously in reality  no  basis  a trial  the for  of  T h e m i s t o k l e s ' s t r e n g t h b r o u g h t about by an a n t i - I o n i a n g r o u p , as W a l k e r suggests.  -59-  The  d a t e 476  B.C.  i s a r r i v e d a t by t h e f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n i n g .  t h e P h o i n i s s a i must have been p r o d u c e d somewhere b e t w e e n 480, of the b a t t l e  of S a l a m i s , and 472,  the y e a r o f A i s c h y l o s  1  First,  the  year  Persai. since,  40 as A r i s t o p h a n e s o f B y z a n t i o n t e s t i f i e s ,  the P h o i n i s s a i opens w i t h  an  announcement by a eunuch o f t h e " d e f e a t o f X e r x e s , " w h i c h c a n o n l y mean his to  d e f e a t a t the b a t t l e  of S a l a m i s , a n d ,  s i n c e in. a d d i t i o n ,  according  G l a u k o s of R h e g i o n as q u o t e d by A r i s t o p h a n e s , A i s c h y l o s m o d e l l e d  P e r s a i on P h r y n i c h o s *  Phoinissai.  Second, the o n l y r e f e r e n c e to  P h r y n i c h o s ' t r a g e d i e s composed b e t w e e n 480  and 472  t a r c h , where he t e l l s us t h a t T h e m i s t o k l e s  had  o f a p l a y by P h r y n i c h o s  his  f o r w h i c h he was  i s one  found  a t a b l e t s e t up  c h o r e g o s and t h a t won  in Plui n honour the  prize  41 i n 4?6  B.C.;  t h i s p l a y may  have been t h e P h o i n i s s a i .  h o w e v e r , w h i l e t h e r e a s o n s f o r p o s i t i n g 480 sound, there  i s no  unknown t r a g e d y  The  as the t e r m i n i are  p r o o f t h a t t h e p r o d u c t i o n d a t e was  f o r which Themistokles  P h o i n i s s a i i s an a t t r a c t i v e i d e a : tragedy  and 4?2  was  choregos  Obviously,  476;  that  i n 4?6  was  the the  the hero of S a l a m i s f i n a n c e d the  t h a t d e a l t w i t h the b a t t l e .  We  cannot,  however, be  a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s u b j e c t of t h e P h o i n i s s a i was  certain.  the  defeat  o f t h e P e r s i a n s a t t h e b a t t l e of S a l a m i s i s b a s e d p a r t l y upon A r i s t o phanes' statement  t h a t t h e P h o i n i s s a i o p e n e d w i t h a eunuch a n n o u n c i n g  the " d e f e a t of X e r x e s " P e r s a i was  modelled  t h e d e f e a t t h a t was  and p a r t l y upon G l a u k o s *  upon t h e P h o i n i s s a i .  The  assertion that Aischylos' q u e s t i o n now  a r i s e s whether  r e p o r t e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g of the p l a y f o r m e d  40.  Argumentum ad  Persas.  41.  Plutarch, Themistokles,  5.  4.  the  -60-  main subject w i t h an  o f t h e P h o i n i s s a i or n o t .  And  appeal t o Glaukos' words, a r g u i n g  p r e t a t i o n o f them i s t h a t , among o t h e r P h o i n i s s a i was  the  one  can  only answer  this  t h a t t h e most n a t u r a l  f e a t u r e s , the  subject  inter-  of  Phrynichos'  same as t h a t of A i s c h y l o s ' P e r s a i .  Moreover, A r i s t o t l e ' s o b s e r v a t i o n  that tragedy usually l i m i t e d i t -  42 s e l f to the  e v e n t s of a t w e n t y - f o u r hour p e r i o d  i t more l i k e l y  that the b a t t l e r e p o r t e d  throughout r a t h e r t h a n t h a t the the other  or c l o s e to t h a t  early i n the  p l a y was  f i g h t a t S a l a m i s (480  m a j o r e n c o u n t e r s b e t w e e n G r e e k s and  B.C.)  Persians  (4?9  makes  the  and  theme  one  B.C.)  of  were  43 i n c l u d e d i n the we  this.  are  44  there  a r e no  sum  up,  A r i s t o t l e , P o e t i c s . 1449  43.  Of  b.  t h a t do  A i s c h y l o s ' Eumenides and  Euripides' Suppliants Fine A r t :  Marx ( o p .  See  the  subject  s u b j e c t was  be  H.  than  p r i n c i p l e of  there  Unity  Butcher, A r i s t o t l e ' s Theory  w i t h a. C r i t i c a l T e x t and  T r a n s l a t i o n of  "The  291).  337-360) c o n t e s t s t h e t h e s i s t h a t  of Phrynichos*  f u r t h e r the Appendix a t t h e end  the  other  used w a r i l y , because  d i s p l a y the  P h o i n i s s a i p r e c e d e d A i s c h y l o s * P e r s a i and S a l a m i s was  t h e theme o f  Agamemnon, S o p h o k l e s ' T r a c h i n i a i .  ( c i t e d by S.  c i t . . pp.  evidence  12-16.  not  P o e t i c s " [4th ed., L o n d o n , 1927], p.  44.  a t S a l a m i s as  c o u r s e , t h i s argument s h o u l d  s e v e r a l Greek t r a g e d i e s  of P o e t r y and  t h e s m a l l amount of  i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t the  42.  o f Time: and  To  possess p o i n t s to the P e r s i a n d e f e a t  P h o i n i s s a i . and  4-v,-  same drama.  t h a t the P e r s i a n defeat  tragedy.  of this  chapter.  the at  -61-  From t h e t e s t i m o n y t a i n only a l i t t l e  a n d f r a g m e n t s we p o s s e s s  i t i s possible t o ascer-  a b o u t t h e P h o i n i s s a i . none o f w h i c h i s v e r y e n l i g h t e n i n g .  I have a l r e a d y mentioned t h a t , a c c o r d i n g t o A r i s t o p h a n e s o f B y z a n t i o n , the. p l a y opened w i t h a eunuch a n n o u n c i n g t h e d e f e a t o f X e r x e s a n d c o v e r i n g the c h a i r s of the c o u n c i l l o r s w i t h t a p e s t r i e s .  Aristophanes  ( f r o m G l a u k o s of R h e g i o n ) a l s o q u o t e s t h e . f i r s t l i n e o f t h e P h o i n i s s a i :  xab  kaxi  was  a chorus  1  i l e p c c o v TCDV 7 t a X a i  T  BePnKOTcuv. The t i t l e p r o v e s  o f P h o e n i c i a n women.-  t i s t s Hesychids  The s c h o l i a s t s t o t h e c o m i c d r a m a -  and A r i s t o p h a n e s h a v e g i v e n u s two f r a g m e n t s f r o m t h e  f i r s t c h o r a l ode, t h e opening  lines: '  Sv&oVtov aoxv nat  or chorus  Xi7rovTe<; Apa6ov vapv  £i6(0viov ao*Tu Xi7rouo*a 4-6  o b v i o u s l y b e g a n by p r o c l a i m i n g t h a t t h e y h a d l e f t t h e  temple o f Sidon. knowing.  Bpocepav  K G i Si6'Svo<5 7rpoXi.7rovTa  and  The  that there  Why t h e women h a d come t o S o u s a we have no way o f  There a r e p r e s e r v e d t h r e e o r f o u r o t h e r f r a g m e n t s f r o m t h e  P h o i n i s s a i (one i s o n l y t e n t a t i v e l y a s s i g n e d t o t h i s p l a y ) , b u t they a r e o f no h e l p t o u s .  45. cit..  S c h o l i o n t o A r i s t o p h a n e s , Wasps. 220, c i t e d by N a u c k , o p .  p. 4 0 . 46.  Scholion t o Hesychios,  1, p . 838, c i t e d b y N a u c k , l o c . c i t .  47.  S e e . O x y r h y n c h o s P a p y r i , I I , 221, c o l . 3» 4 s q q . . a s c i t e d  by H. J . R o s e , A Handbook o f G r e e k L i t e r a t u r e ( L o n d o n , 1934), p . 136, for  t h e most r e c e n t l y found  fragment of t h e P h o i n i s s a i .  See Nauck,  op. c i t . . p p . 56O a n d 562, f o r o t h e r f r a g m e n t s o f t h e P h o i n i s s a i .  -62-  F i n a l l y , t o aver t h a t P h r y n i c h o s chose h i s s u b j e c t m e r e l y t o  atone  f o r h i s C a p t u r e o f M i l e t o s i s p o i n t l e s s when one p e r c e i v e s t h e l a p s e o f t i m e b e t w e e n t h e two p l a y s ( a b o u t 493  B.C.  t o 4-79  B.C.  or l a t e r , a long  time f o r Phrynichos to wait before attempting to r e g a i n p o p u l a r i t y esteem as a d r a m a t i s t ) ; at Marathon, purpose  the A t h e n i a n s had a l r e a d y won  and  a momentous v i c t o r y  w h i c h P h r y n i c h o s c o u l d have d e p i c t e d i n t r a g e d y f o r t h e  o f s o o t h i n g t h e A t h e n i a n s and r e g a i n i n g t h e i r g o o d - w i l l .  Although  P h r y n i c h o s ' c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t f o r t h e P h o i n i s s a i c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d a s s i m p l y an e x p e r i m e n t i n i n n o v a t i o n , t h e r e i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e a n o t h e r m o t i v e may The  h a v e d i c t a t e d h i s s e l e c t i o n o f theme.  h e r o o f the b a t t l e  of S a l a m i s was  t h e A t h e n i a n f o r c e s i n 480; this battle  that  h i s name was  Themistokles, s t r a t e g o s of so c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  i n t h e m i n d s o f t h e A t h e n i a n s t h a t any m e n t i o n  c o u l d n o t h e l p b u t r e m i n d t h e p e o p l e o f t h e man standing a part i n t h e i r victory.  who  of Salamis  h a d p l a y e d so o u t -  I t i s significant, therefore,  that  a b o u t t h e t i m e o f t h e P h o i n i s s a i T h e m i s t o k l e s a c t e d as c h o r egos f o r t h e  48 author.  Furthermore, t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e of t h i s c o i n c i d e n c e i s  i n c r e a s e d , i f one t r a c e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f T h e m i s t o k l e s ' c a r e e r and t h e r e v e r s a l s s u f f e r e d a f t e r 480 As e a r l y as archon; 48.  B.C.  493/2 T h e m i s t o k l e s h a d h e l d t h e o f f i c e o f eponymous  d u r i n g t h i s t i m e he had p e r s u a d e d F o r r e s t (op. c i t . .  f a c t , a n d comments: patron together.  notices  p. 235,  the people t o b e g i n the  n. 10)  sees s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s  " I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t c h a n c e b r o u g h t p o e t  and  C h o r e g o i were a p p o i n t e d , not c h o s e n by l o t ( A t h . P o l . ,  -63-  f o r t i f i c a t i o n s o f P e i r a i e u s , and t h a t they should complete  some t i m e l a t e r he had c o n v i n c e d them  them w i t h a v i e w  to h a v i n g a s a f e harbour  the f l e e t  for  49  t h a t A t h e n s w o u l d someday p o s s e s s .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , he  had  50 b e e n o v e r s h a d o w e d p o l i t i c a l l y by M i l t i a d e s , t h i s g e n e r a l , who i n 490,  had won  and i t was  only  after  phenomenal renown a t t h e b a t t l e o f M a r a t h o n  h a d f a l l e n i n t o d i s g r a c e i n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r a n d had d i e d  soon a f t e r h i s t r i a l  and c o n d e m n a t i o n , t h a t T h e m i s t o k l e s b e g a n h i s r i s e  t o power.  We  replacement  i n 48?/6 o f the l o t f o r t h e d i r e c t v o t e i n t h e e l e c t i o n  archons,  are p r o b a b l y j u s t i f i e d i n s e e i n g h i s i n f l u e n c e i n the  "when," a s L e n a r d o n r e m a r k s ,  "we  realize his struggle for  power i n t h e s e y e a r s and a p p r e c i a t e t h e f a c t o f h i s a r c h o n s h i p i n 51 493/2, an o f f i c e f r o m w h i c h he was h e n c e f o r t h b a r r e d . " Evidence 56),  of  a n d c o u l d e v e n v o l u n t e e r f o r s e r v i c e ( L y s i a s 21,  1-5).  The  of  method  o f a s s i g n i n g them a p o e t i s unknown, b u t i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e y c h o s e f o r themselves,  t h e o r d e r of c h o i c e b e i n g s e t t l e d by l o t  49.  Thucydides,  I . 93.  50.  See L e n a r d o n .  51.  Lenardon,  3 -  94.  H i s t o r i a . V (1956), p.  H i s t o r i a . V (1956), p. 407.  411. Once a r c h o n s  were  s e l e c t e d by l o t i n s t e a d o f by p o p u l a r v o t e , t h e y c e a s e d t o c a r r y greatest p o l i t i c a l  i n f l u e n c e i n Athens;  someone l i k e T h e m i s t o k l e s , who t h u s no  this  l e f t t h e way  clear for  h a d a l r e a d y s e r v e d i n t h e o f f i c e and  was  longer e l i g i b l e , to a t t a i n the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e o u t s i d e of the  o f f i c e , w i t h o u t r i v a l r y f r o m t h o s e s e r v i n g as a r c h o n s . t h e r e f o r e , T h e m i s t o k l e s had a s t r o n g m o t i v e a  the  change.  Obviously,  f o r b r i n g i n g about  such  -64-  Themistokles  1  c o n t i n u e d power t h r o u g h o u t  t h e e i g h t i e s i s best seen i n  t h e c a r r y i n g o f h i s p r o p o s a l t o use t h e s i l v e r b u i l d i n g o f an Athenian f l e e t ,  of L a u r e i o n f o r t h e  instead of d i s t r i b u t i n g  i t among t h e  52 citizens.  The c u l m i n a t i o n of h i s c a r e e r came i n 4-80, when, a s  leader of the Athenians  at the battle  o f S a l a m i s , he j u s t i f i e d h i s  n a v a l p o l i c y a n d h i s own p e r s o n a l f i t n e s s , t o command. he was s t i l l  After  this,  a c t i v e i n A t h e n i a n p o l i t i c s , and i n 4-79, t h r o u g h h i s  deception o f Sparta ( i n which  he was a i d e d by A r i s t e i d e s ) , he e n a b l e d  t h e A t h e n i a n s t o f o r t i f y t h e i r c i t y , w h i c h h a d been b a d l y damaged by 53 the P e r s i a n s .  However, i n 4-77, T h e m i s t o k l e s was d e f e a t e d by A r i s t e i d e s 54i n h i s p l a n t o b u r n the H e l l e n i c f l e e t g a t h e r e d a t P a g a s a i , and I c a l l a t t e n t i o n t o L e n a r d o n ' s r e m a r k t h a t "we may s e e i n T h e m i s t o k l e s 55 1  d e f e a t a d e f i n i t e i n d i c a t i o n of h i s f a l l from popular Furthermore,  favour."  i n t h i s a n d t h e n e x t f e w y e a r s we f i n d K i m o n , n o t T h e m i s -  t o k l e s , c o n t i n u i n g t h e war a g a i n s t P e r s i a .  Diodoros  t e l l s us t h a t  T h e m i s t o k l e s was t r i e d f o r t r e a s o n , a n d a c q u i t t e d , b e f o r e h i s o s t r a c i s m . 52.  Herodotos,  V I I . 14-4-.  53.  Thucydides,  54-.  P l u t a r c h , T h e m i s t o k l e s . 20.  55.  R. J . L e n a r d o n , "The C h r o n o l o g y  I. 89. 3 - 93.  and E x i l e , " H i s t o r i a . V I I I 56. second  1-2. of Themistokles*  Ostracism  (1959), p. 33.  D i o d o r o s , X I . 54-.  Thucydides  accusation after the ostracism.  and P l u t a r c h mention only a  -65-  Lenardon-  t e n t a t i v e l y places the t r i a l  a f t e r M a r c h , 477/6, when T h e m i s t o k l e s  i n 476,  b e f o r e or n o t  long  s e r v e d as c h o r e g o s f o r P h r y n i c h o s .  58 Forrest  notes t h a t t h e charge  T h e m i s t o k l e s , may  not have been a new  h a v e b e e n a n answer to i t . proved.  o f medism, l a t e r one and  the  However, w h e t h e r t h e r e was  be  a t r i a l a t t h i s time or n o t , longer enjoyed the  may  one  confidence  people.  C l e a r l y , a f t e r 480 of  that the Phoinissai  T h e s e a r e c o n j e c t u r e s , and c a n n o t  c a n s a f e l y a s s e r t t h a t T h e m i s t o k l e s no of  preferred against  support.  B.C.  T h e m i s t o k l e s s t o o d i n more and more n e e d  T h i s a l o n e w o u l d mean l i t t l e ;  T h e m i s t o k l e s ' n e e d and P h r y n i c h o s  one  m i g h t w e l l assume t h a t  p o r t r a y a l of a b a t t l e i n which  1  T h e m i s t o k l e s d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f above a l l o t h e r s were mere c o i n c i d e n c e and t h a t P h r y n i c h o s ' second v e n t u r e P h o i n i s s a i . was  p r o m p t e d s o l e l y by h i s c o n t i n u e d i n t e r e s t i n  w i t h contemporary themes. two men  i n t o t h e f i e l d o f m o d e r n drama, t h e  were c o n n e c t e d  As i t i s , h o w e v e r , we  know t h a t i n 476  i n t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a t r a g e d y and  y e a r s b e f o r e P h r y n i c h o s had p r o d u c e d T h e m i s t o k l e s must have a p p l a u d e d .  t h a t many  I t i s possible, therefore, that c e r t a i n l y had  a s i t s theme  a b a t t l e t h a t w o u l d have i n s t a n t l y c a l l e d t o t h e m i n d s o f t h e  Themistokles  m o t i v a t e d by  a desire to  Athenians  glorify  i n the eyes of t h e A t h e n i a n s , whether t o c o u n t e r a c t a  57.  L e n a r d o n , H i s t o r i a . V I I I (1959), p.  58.  p_£. c i t . . p.  237.  the  a p l a y , the r e s u l t s of which  Phrynichos i n w r i t i n g a tragedy t h a t almost  T h e m i s t o k l e s ' m i l i t a r y r e c o r d was  experimenting  34.  charge  -66-  of  raedisra  abilities  a g a i n s t Themistokles o r simply to remind the c i t i z e n s o f h i s and s e r v i c e s i n o r d e r t o g a i n h i m s o m e t h i n g  i n f l u e n t i a l position..  I f t h e P h o i n i s s a i was p r o d u c e d  T h e m i s t o k l e s ' a c t i n g l a t e r as choregos been a gesture of thanks reminded the Athenians  of h i s former b e f o r e 4-?6,  f o r P h r y n i c h o s may w e l l h a v e  for- t h e t i m e l y p r o d u c t i o n o f a t r a g e d y t h a t  o f t h e d e b t t h e y owed t o T h e m i s t o k l e s .  I f the  i n 4-76, t h e n T h e m i s t o k l e s was c h o r e g o s  for i t ;  P h o i n i s s a i was p r o d u c e d if  such was t h e c a s e , w h e t h e r t h e i d e a o f t h e p l o t was h i s o r P h r y n i c h o s '  it  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t T h e m i s t o k l e s ' f i n a n c i n g o f t h e t r a g e d y was c l o s e l y  connected w i t h the f a c t that i t d e a l t with a subject b e n e f i c i a l t o him. I f the P h o i n i s s a i was p r o d u c e d  a f t e r 4-76, P h r y n i c h o s may h a v e b e e n r e -  paying Themistokles f o r h i s past kindness i n a c t i n g as choregos  f o r him.  As t o w h e t h e r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e P h o i n i s s a i h e l p e d T h e m i s t o k l e s , we cannot  be s u r e ;  we a r e n o t s u r e w h e t h e r i t came b e f o r e o r a f t e r h i s  59 ostracism. Finally, temporary  t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f P h r y n i c h o s ' two t r a g e d i e s w i t h  themes, t h e C a p t u r e  the f o l l o w i n g :  o f M i l e t o s and t h e P h o i n i s s a i .  Phrynichos p o s s i b l y wrote  r e l a t e d t o a contemporary  political  suggests  e a c h t o c o n v e y a message  situation.  between P h r y n i c h o s and T h e m i s t o k l e s preceded of  con-  Whether t h e c o n n e c t i o n  o r f o l l o w e d one o r b o t h  t h e t r a g e d i e s i s not c e r t a i n , b u t , s i n c e b o t h t r a g e d i e s s e r v e d  T h e m i s t o k l e s ' i n t e r e s t s , i t may be. t h a t t h e r e was a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e t r a g e d i e s and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n of t h e d r a m a t i s t and t h e s t a t e s man.  Beyond t h i s , 59.  t h e e v i d e n c e w i l l not t a k e u s .  See b e l o w , pp;A9^-93 iid<p5<#^r n/'44-i><ia  Appendix  Marx (Rhein. Mus..  L X X V I I [1928], pp. 337-360) s p e c u l a t e s t h a t  the P h o i n i s s a i was w r i t t e n a f t e r 472  and t h a t i t was  with the b a t t l e of Mykale fought i n 4-79.  concerned  primarily  H i s methods are questionable  and h i s arguments weak.  He begins by a r b i t r a r i l y r e j e c t i n g documentary  evidence  1  (that i s , Glaukos  set against i t .  statement) without having other evidence to  In p l a c e of evidence, he puts forward  arguments that do not i n v a l i d a t e Glaukos* To prove that the P h o i n i s s a i was  unconvincing  testimony.  l a t e r than the P e r s a i . he  says  that the. P h o i n i s s a i i s a newer form of tragedy than the P e r s a i . since the P h o i n i s s a i has an i n d i v i d u a l d e l i v e r i n g a prologue a t the beginning while  the P e r s a i opens with the appearance of the chorus;  that Phrynichos  presented i n an e a r l i e r p l a y a newer form of tragedy than d i d A i s c h y l o s i n a l a t e r play, Marx f e e l s , i s almost u n b e l i e v a b l e .  The u n c e r t a i n t y  of t h i s reasoning i s best demonstrated by the f a c t that c r i t i c s  now  consider, because of documentary evidence r e g a r d i n g the date, that A i s c h y l o s ' S u p p l i a n t s , which a l s o opens with the appearance of the chorus  (and contains a d d i t i o n a l f e a t u r e s that f o r m e r l y  persuaded  most s c h o l a r s to date i t before A i s c h y l o s ' other extant p l a y s ) , c e r t a i n l y was  produced, and very p o s s i b l y was  almost  written, after Aischylos'  own Seven Against Thebes, which opens with a prologue spoken by an individual. Marx argues t h a t the P h o i n i s s a i i s so obviously an improvement over the P e r s a i t h a t i t must have been w r i t t e n at a l a t e r date.  The  -68-  i m p r o v e m e n t s he c i t e s a r e t h e more " i m p r e s s i v e " q u a l i t y of  the Phoinissai.  i n which  the audience sees t h e throne-room,  except f o r X e r x e s ' "unoccupied and unadorned the  of the opening empty  t h r o n e " a n d a eunuch a n d  "famous" and " c o s t l y " P e r s i a n t a p e s t r i e s w i t h w h i c h he c o v e r s t h e  s e a t s i n t h e room, a much more " e f f e c t i v e " s i g h t t h a n t h e s i n g i n g a n d dancing chorus i n the P e r s a i ;  t h e s h r i n k i n g of t h e I m p e r i a l C o u n c i l  a n d t h e b r i n g i n g o f i t on t h e s t a g e a s an a c t o r , i n s t e a d o f h a v i n g i t a s a c h o r u s s e t o f f from t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s a s i n t h e P e r s a i ; c r e a t i o n o f a c h o r u s o f P h o e n i c i a n women, who w o u l d  the  be a b l e t o l a m e n t  much more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n a c h o r u s o f o l d men a s one f i n d s i n t h e Persai. relative  I n answer t o t h e s e a r g u m e n t s ,  one may s a y :  first., the  i m p r e s s i v e n e s s o f t h e two o p e n i n g s i s s i m p l y a m a t t e r o f  o p i n i o n , a n d t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e P e r s a i , where one h e a r s d e s c r i b e d the  w e a l t h and s p l e n d o u r and s k i l l e d  P e r s i a n h o s t , would  courage  o f t h e v a s t and f o r m i d a b l e  have b e e n much more i m p r e s s i v e t h a n a n a l m o s t  empty s t a g e , a l o n e f i g u r e , a n d some t a p e s t r y ;  second, i t i s not  c e r t a i n t h a t t h e C o u n c i l was r e d u c e d i n number and g i v e n t h e - p o s i t i o n of  an a c t o r i n s t e a d o f a c h o r u s , f o r some c r i t i c s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e  Phoinissai  must h a v e h a d two c h o r u s e s , o f w h i c h t h e C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  formed one, a n d , b e s i d e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o see w h a t was u n d e s i r a b l e  i n t h e s e t t i n g o f f o f t h e E l d e r s i n t h e P e r s a i a s a s e p a r a t e body a p a r t from t h e a c t o r s ;  third,  t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a c h o r u s o f women  possess a greater talent for  would  l a m e n t a t i o n t h a n a c h o r u s o f a g e d men i s  i n v a l i d as s u p p o r t f o r t h e s u p e r i o r i t y  of t h e P h o i n i s s a i . s i n c e t h e r e  i s no b a s i s f o r t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t more e f f e c t i v e l a m e n t a t i o n i s a c r i t e r i o n of better tragedy.  -69-  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , Marx c o n j e c t u r e s was  not  the d e f e a t  known about the developing  a t S a l a m i s as most t h i n k .  s t r u c t u r e of P h r y n i c h o s  i t w o u l d have l e f t him  had  a l r e a d y been g i v e n ;  little  is  h i s technique  t h e c h i e f m a t t e r o f h i s p l a y so e a r l y a s  for  play  Although nothing  p l a y s and  1  of t h e  a theme, Marx d e c l a r e s t h a t s u r e l y P h r y n i c h o s  have r e v e a l e d  did.  t h a t the s u b j e c t  except to amplify  would the  of not  prologue,  an account  that  p e r h a p s , however,, t h i s i s e x a c t l y what  Phrynichos  I n a d d i t i o n , upon t h e b a s i s o f h i s u n p r o v e a a s s u m p t i o n a b o u t  t h e d a t e and a n a p p a r e n t b e l i e f t h a t t h e same theme c o u l d h a r d l y u s e d t w i c e , he  says i t i s h i g h l y improbable t h a t P h r y n i c h o s  have e m p l o y e d a s u b j e c t  a l r e a d y d e a l t w i t h by A i s c h y l o s .  be  would After  h a v i n g t h u s u n j u s t i f i a b l y d i s c a r d e d t h e d e f e a t a t S a l a m i s as a p o s s i b l e theme and  i n t h e same, way  (possibly rightly,  having  dismissed  i n t h i s c a s e , s i n c e i t was  of w h i c h the A t h e n i a n s t o o k s e c o n d p l a c e  the b a t t l e . a t P l a t a i a  a v i c t o r y i n the  to the L a k e d a i m o n i a n s  t h e r e f o r e , an u n l i k e l y s u b j e c t f o r an A t h e n i a n t r a g e d y ; there  i s no  i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s was  the  d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e b a t t l e a t M y k a l e was Again, can  he has  glory  s u b j e c t ) , he the  subject  and,  besides,  strives  to  of the P h o i n i s s a i .  no p o s i t i v e e v i d e n c e to s u p p o r t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n ,  o n l y p r o d u c e such weak a r g u m e n t s a s , f o r e x a m p l e , A i s c h y l o s  and 1  f a i l u r e t o m e n t i o n the b a t t l e o f M y k a l e i n t h e P e r s a i , w h i c h makes i t more l i k e l y t h a t t h e P h o i n i s s a i d e a l t w i t h t h e  s u b j e c t , and  d o u b t f u l r e s t o r a t i o n of a g a p - f i l l e d c i t a t i o n o f two Phrynichos'  lines  his  of  P h o i n i s s a i . p o i n t i n g t o a b a t t l e t h a t c o u l d o n l y have  been M y k a l e .  own  CHAPTER THREE  The  The  P e r s a i . w h i c h was p e r f o r m e d a t t h e C i t y D i o n y s i a  archonship  o f Menon, M a r c h , 4?2 B.C., i s p r o b a b l y  p l a y of Aischylos."*" and  Persai of Aischylos  W i t h i t a n d two o t h e r  i n the  the e a r l i e s t  extant  tragedies, the Phineus  the Glaukos P o t n i e i o s . and a s a t y r p l a y , the Prometheus. A i s c h y l o s  2 won t h e d r a m a t i c At  prize.  some t i m e a f t e r 4-72, A i s c h y l o s gave a s e c o n d p r e s e n t a t i o n o f  the P e r s a i . i n S i c i l y The  at the request  of Hieron  o f Syracuse.^  m a i n i n t e r e s t o f t h e P e r s a i f o r us. i s t h a t i t i s one o f t h e  few  Greek t r a g e d i e s w i t h contemporary h i s t o r i c a l themes, and the o n l y  one  t h a t has s u r v i v e d complete.  happened only  eight years e a r l i e r , the defeat  a t S a l a m i s i n 480.  The a i m o f t h e p r e s e n t  m i n e w h e t h e r o r n o t one c a n w i t h explain Aischylos* choice 1.  I t s s u b j e c t was an e v e n t t h a t h a d s u f f e r e d by t h e P e r s i a n s  investigation is to deter1  c e r t a i n t y , o r even w i t h p r o b a b i l i t y ,  o f t h i s u n u s u a l theme.  For this  purpose,  See. a b o v e , pp. 19.-21, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d a t i n g o f t h e  Suppliants. 2.  Argumentum ad P e r s a s .  T h i s was n o t h i s f i r s t v i c t o r y , w h i c h  he won i n 4 8 4 (Marmor P a r i u r n . 50). 3.  Aeschyli Vita;  s c h o l i o n on A r i s t o p h a n e s ,  Frogs. 1028,  c i t e d by H. D. B r o a d h e a d , The P e r s a e o f A e s c h y l u s ( C a m b r i d g e , I960), pp.  xlviii-xlix.  -71-  s i n c e t h e P e r s a i i s t h e o n l y one o f t h e t e t r a l o g y t h a t h a s b e e n served,  i t i s fortunate  that there  i s no a p p a r e n t c o n n e c t i o n  j e c t b e t w e e n t h e P e r s a i and t h e t h r e e  other  pre-  of sub-  plays performed a t t h e  4 same t i m e ( a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l l y b a s e d on m y t h i c a l words,  i n other  the P e r s a i i s c o m p l e t e i n i t s e l f a n d one c a n u n d e r s t a n d i t  without  reference  4. the  themes);  t o t h e o t h e r members of. t h e t e t r a l o g y ,  Since Suidas,  s . v . $puvtxo<; , t e l l s u s t h a t S o p h o k l e s was  f i r s t t o w r i t e u n c o n n e c t e d t r i l o g i e s a n d t e t r a l o g i e s , many  h a v e b e e n t r o u b l e d by the a p p a r e n t l a c k of any c o n n e c t i o n  critics  i n plot  run-  n i n g t h r o u g h t h e group o f A i s c h y l o s ' p l a y s t h a t i n c l u d e d t h e P e r s a i , We do n o t h e a r o f S o p h o k l e s c o m p e t i n g i n t h e t r a g i c c o n t e s t s u n t i l Therefore,  468,  i f one b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e p l a y s were n o t c o n n e c t e d i n a n y  way,  one must a l s o b e l i e v e t h a t S u i d a s was m i s t a k e n and t h a t A i s c h y l o s , n o t S o p h o k l e s , was t h e f i r s t t o w r i t e u n c o n n e c t e d t r i l o g i e s a n d t e t r a l o g i e s . M o r e o v e r , we know o f no o t h e r  o c c a s i o n when A i s c h y l o s f a i l e d t o r e l a t e  c l o s e l y i n theme the t r a g e d i e s o f one t r i l o g y and e v e n i n some way the s a t y r play.  Accordingly,  e v e n t h o u g h s c h o l a r s f i n d no i n d i c a t i o n  o f any c o n t i n u i t y o f p l o t t h r o u g h o u t the f o u r p l a y s t h a t A i s c h y l o s d u c e d i n 4-72,  y e t some have a t t e m p t e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  o f a l o o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g among t h e s u b j e c t s . The T h e a t r e o f the G r e e k s C8th e d . , L o n d o n , G i l b e r t Murray. Aeschylus: 112-114.  pro-  Broadhead  The C r e a t o r  (op.' c i t . .  See J , W,  Donaldson,  18?5), p p . 118-119, a n d  of T r a g e d y  (Oxford,  p. l x ) h a s t h i s t o s a y :  1940), p p . "On t h e w h o l e ,  -72-  The  suggestion  i s s o m e t i m e s made t h a t t h e P e r s a i , a s we know i t  i s not the play presented  i n A t h e n s i n 4-?2 b u t  that i t contains  p o l a t i o n s from a l a t e r r e v i s e d t e x t , or i s i t s e l f u s e d f o r the f r o m the  staging of the tragedy  in Sicily.  the  second  This theory  inter-  edition, arises  d e s i r e t o a c c o u n t f o r i r r e l e v a n c i e s and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n  t h e P e r s a i . ^ b u t t h e s e f e a t u r e s c a n be e x p l a i n e d i n o t h e r  ways a n d  t h e e v i d e n c e f o r a v a r i a n t e d i t i o n i s , a s H..D. B r o a d h e a d ^ p u t s i t , "too  s l i g h t t o make i t more t h a n a p o s s i b i l i t y . "  assumed t h e intended  t e x t of t h i s tragedy  f o r Athenian  I have t h e r e f o r e  t o be t h e one A i s c h y l o s  originally  spectators.  I t h i n k , we s h a l l do w e l l t o a c c e p t Smyth's v e r d i c t " ( h e r e h e c i t e s Smyth, A e s c h y l u s [Loeb ed.] , p ; x x i v ) : "  'the  c o n n e x i o n may w e l l h a v e v a r i e d ;  case of the P e r s i a n s ,  i n the  i s i n t e r p o s e d b e t w e e n dramas o f l e g e n d a r y t h a t the f r e e form of c o m p o s i t i o n any  degrees of i n t e r -  character, i t i s probable  was d e l i b e r a t e l y p r e f e r r e d ' .  r a t e , i n view of our ignorance o f the c o n t e n t s  t r a g e d i e s , a n d i n v i e w of t h e e x c e p t i o n a l i s the broadly  safest conclusion. connected w i t h the  'Europe v . A s i a  5.  T h e s e p a s s a g e s are  6.  Op. c i t . . p. I v ;  1  At  of the other  subject o f the Persae.  I t need n o t be d e n i e d  t o have been a c o m p l e t e u n i t y i n  which  that a l l three  this were  m o t i f , b u t each p l a y seems  itself."  84-5-851, 4-65-71, 796, 480-514-. see t h e d i s c u s s i o n o n pp.  li-lv.  -73-  The this:  first  question  does t h e s p i r i t  t h a t one must a s k i n r e g a r d  t o the P e r s a i i s  i n which A i s c h y l o s h a n d l e d t h e contemporary  m a t e r i a l i n d i c a t e t h a t he was c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h t r a g e d y o r does i t show, as some s c h o l a r s m a i n t a i n , presenting  c r e a t i n g a genuine  t h a t he was m e r e l y  i n t h e f o r m o f t r a g e d y what was i n r e a l i t y an e x u l t a n t  b r a t i o n o f the H e l l e n i c triumph over t h e P e r s i a n s ?  Opinions  cele-  vary  7 considerably.  F o r e x a m p l e , C. J . B l o m f i e l d  sees i n t h e f i n a l  lament  between Xerxes and the Chorus a d e p a r t u r e from the d i g n i t y o f t r a g e d y and  an a t t e m p t t o r a i s e a l a u g h ,  was t o p u t t h e P e r s i a n s  and a s s e r t s t h a t A i s c h y l o s * main aim  i n t h e most r i d i c u l o u s l i g h t i n o r d e r  to g r a t i f y  8 the  A t h e n i a n s ' greedy passion  f o r glory.  J . D.. C r a i g  also  believes  t h a t A i s c h y l o s d e l i b e r a t e l y i n c l u d e d c e r t a i n c o m i c and u n d i g n i f i e d features  i n the P e r s a i with t h e i n t e n t i o n of producing i n the Athenian  a u d i e n c e an a t t i t u d e " o f r e j o i c i n g i n t h e m i s f o r t u n e of p i t y i n g i t . " has  On t h e o t h e r  hand, G i l b e r t Murray^ s t a t e s t h a t  overcome t h e f a c t t h a t t h e P e r s a i "was a p p a r e n t l y  w r i t t e n t o order  Aischylos  a performance  f o r a p u b l i c c e l e b r a t i o n " and has surmounted t h e  i n h e r e n t d i f f i c u l t i e s of the s u b j e c t has  o f t h e enemy n o t  t o produce a great  achieved t h i s , Murray f e e l s , through a h e r o i c  P e r s i a n s and an emphasis on t h e i r d e f e a t  tragedy.  He  p o r t r a y a l of the  a s t h e w o r k o f g o d , whereby  7.  P r a e f a t i o . p. x i v , a s c i t e d by B r o a d h e a d , o p . c i t . , p . x v .  8.  "The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f A e s c h y l u s ' P e r s a e , " C l a s s . Rev.. X X X V I I I  (1924), pp. 98-101. 9.  0p_. c i t . . pp. 121-127.  -74-  he h a s e x a l t e d " t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y s t o r y t o l e g e n d a r y H . D. F. K i t t o b e l i e v e s t h a t , a l t h o u g h Aeschylus' "did  greatness."  " t h e P e r s a e i s n o t one o f .  b e s t p l a y s , " ^ one must n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n c l u d e  that Aischylos  n o t s e t o u t t o compose, f o r t h e s t a g e , a p i e c e i n c e l e b r a t i o n o f  S a l a m i s and P l a t a e a - a theme w h i c h m i g h t h a v e made good e p i c ' - b u t to  c r e a t e drama, a n d n o t h i n g b u t drama, on t h e theme o f h y b r i s a n d  i t s i n e v i t a b l e punishment. and  t h e r e i s o b v i o u s l y same - i s i n c i d e n t a l . In  to  What p a t r i o t i c c e l e b r a t i o n t h e r e i s -  d e c i d i n g whether A i s c h y l o s d i d or d i d not i n t e n d t h e P e r s a i  be a g e n u i n e t r a g e d y ,  that the unconventional presented  one must f i r s t r e c o g n i z e  the d i f f i c u l t i e s  s u b j e c t o f t h e P e r s a i would n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e  t o the d r a m a t i s t t r y i n g t o c r e a t e tragedy  about 4 ? 2 .  from i t i n Athens  To q u o t e B r o a d h e a d , " t h e c a t a s t r o p h i c e v e n t was ... one  t h a t h a d happened o n l y a f e w y e a r s b e f o r e , an e v e n t o f i n t e n s e  signifi-  c a n c e f o r t h e G r e e k w o r l d and t o be r e c a l l e d o n l y w i t h a deep g l o w o f patriotic  enthusiasm.  Was i t t o be e x p e c t e d  t h a t a Greek audience  w o u l d shed t e a r s a t t h e d i s c o m f i t u r e and h u m i l i a t i o n o f t h e a r r o g a n t m o n a r c h who h a d a t t e m p t e d t o r e d u c e them t o s l a v e r y ? t h i s i t w o u l d be p e c u l i a r l y d i f f i c u l t  I n view of a l l  f o r t h e d r a m a t i s t t o c r e a t e and 12  to m a i n t a i n  10.  the necessary  t r a g i c atmosphere,"  I n o t h e r words* one  H. D. F. K i t t o , G r e e k T r a g e d y ( G a r d e n C i t y . Mew Y o r k , 1 9 5 4 ) ,  P. 4 4 . 11.  K i t t o , op. c i t . . p. 3 8 .  12.  B r o a d h e a d , op. c i t . , p. x v i .  s i g n i f i c a n t to the Athenians,  The v i c t o r y was e s p e c i a l l y  f o r Herodotos ( V I I I , 9 3 , 1) t e l l s us that,,  -75-  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h w h i c h A i s c h y l o s had. t o c o n t e n d was t h e p r e j u d i c e d a t t i tude of h i s audience:  t h e p r i d e i n t h e i r v i c t o r y and t h e a n t i p a t h y  towards t h e i r would-be s u b j u g a t o r s  that rendered  them l i k e l y t o r e g a r d  t h e P e r s i a n d e f e a t more as a c a u s e f o r e x u l t a t i o n t h a n as t r a g e d y . To q u o t e B r o a d h e a d a g a i n , " a c c o r d i n g t o A r i s t o t l e ^  i t i s not the  f u n c t i o n o f the p o e t t o r e l a t e what h a s h a p p e n e d , b u t what may h a p p e n ...: h i s t o r y deals w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r , poetry r a t h e r w i t h the u n i v e r s a l s o t h a t we c a n see how  a p e r s o n o f g i v e n c h a r a c t e r w i l l on  s p e a k o r a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e law of p r o b a b i l i t y o t h e r w o r d s , t h e c h a r a c t e r s d e p i c t e d by t r a g e d y , o f t h e p e r s o n s w i t h whom i t a c q u a i n t s value. not  occasion  o r n e c e s s i t y ....  In  t h e a c t i o n s and f o r t u n e s  u s , possess a t y p i c a l and u n i v e r s a l  Now when a t r a g i c p o e t d e r i v e s t h e m a t e r i a l f o r h i s ' p l o t *  f r o m some w e l l - k n o w n m y t h , b u t f r o m r e c e n t  e v e n t s , he i s n o t e n t i r e l y  w h i l e A i g i n a was g i v e n c r e d i t f o r t h e most d i s t i n g u i s h e d s e r v i c e a t Salamis,  A t h e n s came n e x t a f t e r A i g i n a .  Moreover, d i s c u s s i n g t h e  b a t t l e f r o m a more g e n e r a l p o i n t of v i e w , H e r o d o t o s ( V I I . 1 3 9 ) a t t r i b u t e s the v i c t o r y a t Salamis the Athenians,  above a l l t o t h e f i r m  and c a l l s t h e A t h e n i a n s  s t a n d and r e s o l u t e n e s s o f  t h e " s a v i o u r s of H e l l a s . "  t h i s v i e w , a s H e r o d o t o s h e r e r e m a r k s , was p r o b a b l y  not acceptable  r e s t o f t h e H e l l e n e s , i t was p e r h a p s one h e l d by t h e A t h e n i a n s 13.  P o e t i c s . IX. 1-10.  Although to the  themselves.  -76-  f r e e t o mould t h a t m a t e r i a l to h i s p u r p o s e s . c l o s e l y t o the f a c t s of h i s t o r y ;  He must a d h e r e  the r e a l w i l l ' t e n d t o s u p p l a n t  i d e a l , so t h a t h i s s c o p e f o r r i s i n g above t h e i s c o n s i d e r a b l y reduced. does t a k e an h i s t o r i c a l  Nevertheless,  TO  ota  iaura  ay  el HOC;  A s i d e f r o m the  l e v e l of the  as A r i s t o t l e r e m a r k s , i f he  some r e a l h a p p e n i n g s f r o m  yeveaGai.  difficulties  the  particular  s u b j e c t , he c a n h a n d l e i t as a p o e t ,  t h e r e i s n o t h i n g to prevent  fairly  since  being  ~ i t presents  as c o n t e m p o r a r y h i s t o r y ,  the P e r s a i p o s s e s s e s the a d d i t i o n a l drawback of n o t h a v i n g a s i n g l e c h a r a c t e r who  c o u l d be  f e a t u r e d e i t h e r , t o use  "a s t r o n g c e n t r a l c h a r a c t e r whose m i n d or w i l l  K i t t o ' s ^ w o r d s , as animates the  o r as a " p r e d o m i n a t i n g  c h a r a c t e r whose e x i s t e n c e  p o i n t of r e f e r e n c e . "  X e r x e s i s t h e o n l y i n d i v i d u a l who  out  at a l l ,  and  s e r v e s as a  are  those  c a n be  t h e a t t e n t i o n must be d i v i d e d between him  and  singled right,  of t h e w h o l e P e r s i a n  he c a n be s e e n o n l y as a f r a g m e n t o f the w h o l e .  I t c a n be  constant  y e t he c a n n o t become a t r a g i c f i g u r e i n h i s own  s i n c e t h e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and d e f e a t force;  whole,"  Moreover,  the w h o l e f o r c e .  shown t h a t A i s c h y l o s d i d a t t e m p t t o overcome t h e i n 16  herent  one  o b s t a c l e s i n order  to produce a genuine tragedy.  14-.  B r o a d h e a d , op_. c i t . .  15.  K i t t o , op.  16.  S i n c e B r o a d h e a d ' s e d i t i o n o f the P e r s a i ( t h e most  cit..  p.  pp.  He  has  xvi-xvii.  45. recent  i n E n g l i s h ) i n c l u d e s an e x t e n s i v e commentary on t h i s t o p i c , I have  g i v e n what i s e s s e n t i a l l y a summary o f h i s v i e w s , to K i t t o ,  emphasizing the r e l i g i o u s  Broadhead does.  content  while, with  reference  of the P e r s a i more t h a n  -77-  clearly  striven  much d i s t o r t i o n to  (by c a r e f u l  too  o f t h e t r u t h ) t o adapt p a r t i c u l a r , h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s  t h e conveying  this  s e l e c t i o n a n d e m p h a s i s and w i t h o u t  of a r e l i g i o u s  message o f u n i v e r s a l  i s i n accordance with h i s usual  in  t h i s c a s e i s t h a t o f the u l t i m a t e  in  Zeus' punishment  to  Aischylos' vision  tragic  significance;  purpose.  triumph  T h e message  of J u s t i c e a s r e v e a l e d  of t h e s i n o f h y b r i s , a p r i n c i p l e of l i f e .  Accordingly,  i s central  Aischylos p i c t u r e s Xerxes,  the r a s h  young k i n g  and  of h i s n a t i o n by h i s p r e s u m p t u o u s a n d u n f o r g i v a b l e a c t o f  that  bridging casting dent  of t h e P e r s i a n s ,  that  the H e l l e s p o n t ,  a s b r i n g i n g a b o u t h i s own  of t h i n k i n g t o g a i n m a s t e r y o v e r  t h e gods by  a yoke upon t h e neck of P o s e i d o n , g o d o f t h e s e a .  itself  i s m e n t i o n e d more t h a n once, i n c o n n e c t i o n  h i m s e l f and w i t h  downfall  The  inci-  both with  Xerxes  t h e whole P e r s i a n f o r c e , a n d t h e words f o r " y o k e " a n d 17  "yoked" a r e s c a t t e r e d throughout the p l a y as i f forming In a d d i t i o n , A i s c h y l o s b r i n g s to  H e l l a s the P e r s i a n  i t t o our a t t e n t i o n t h a t when they  t h e d i v i n e powers i n t h e i r  the  H e l l e n i c gods and f o r t h i s d i s p l a y o f presumptuous  are  destined to s u f f e r at P l a t a i a  his  Salamis ( l i n e s tragic  blackens  809-822).  17.  burning  that of Xerxes:  Finally,  Xerxes alone  distorting  pride  they experienced  facts a l i t t l e f o r  the character  o f D a r e i o s and  passes the d i v i n e l y  down the w r a t h o f the gods.  See P e r s a i .  130-132, 199, 594.  o f t h e temples and s h r i n e s o f  a d d i t i o n a l woes t o t h o s e  purpose, A i s c h y l o s i d e a l i z e s  bounds and b r i n g s  came  army a s a whole d i s p l a y e d a f l a g r a n t d i s r e g a r d  for  at  a motif.  As K i t t o  722-726, 736, 744-751, 65-72,  ordained  remarks,  100-104,  -78-  ?'Darius c a n n o t be a l l o w e d  t o have p a s s e d t h e s e bounds, or t h e judgment  o f Heaven would have f a l l e n  on h i m .  Darius  must t h e r e f o r e be w i s e  18 and  prudent; It  he must s c r u p u l o u s l y  have r e s p e c t e d  i s quite clear that Aischylos  try  t o encourage A t h e n i a n p r e j u d i c e  his  subject  as s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y  i s only  only  b u t t h a t he t r i e d  representation  when p a s s a g e s are p l u c k e d  used to imply  d i d not, despite  t h a t A i s c h y l o s had any o t h e r  any s t r o n g  critics,  to deal  with  o f h i s t r a g i c message;  o u t of c o n t e x t  f e e l i n g s of personal  t h a t t h e y c a n be  purpose i n mind.  the r e l i g i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e d e f e a t  couraging  some  a s p o s s i b l e and c o n s i s t e n t l y k e p t as  h i s m a i n g o a l t h e most e f f e c t i v e it  t h i s law."  Stressing  of the Persians  pride  and d i s -  that the Athenians  m i g h t h a v e , A i s c h y l o s nowhere a t t r i b u t e s t h e v i c t o r y o f t h e H e l l e n e s to their  own prowess b u t a t t r i b u t e s i t s i m p l y  the  gods t o w a r d t h e P e r s i a n s  For  example, i t i s an e v i l  utter rout the  Hellenes  blow t h a t the  of the P e r s i a n s glory  spirit  that  arrogant  a t S a l a m i s ( l i n e 354)  received  behaviour.  and a g o d t h a t  a t the Strymon h a d n o t h i n g  therefore, i n saying  of t h e  ( l i n e s 495  t o do  18.  with  a n d 514).  t h a t , " i f t h e s t o r y of t h e  f r o z e n Strymon i s the p o e t ' s i n v e n t i o n , i t i s a d r a m a t i c a l l y illustration  brings  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e heavy  b u t was the w o r k o f the gods a l o n e  Broadhead i s j u s t i f i e d ,  and impious  causes the beginning  i n t h e b a t t l e ( l i n e 454).  the P e r s i a n s  Hellenes  for their  t o t h e i l l - w i l l of  effective  o f how d i v i n e P r o v i d e n c e c o n t r o l s e v e n t s and i t b e t r a y s  Kitto,  op. c i t . . p .  41.  no  -79-  g l o a t i n g over a defeated enemy."  A l s o , one may  note t h a t , r e -  f r a i n i n g from naming a s i n g l e Hellene, A i s c h y l o s d e s c r i b e s the  naval  b a t t l e ( i n l i n e s 408-428) with remarkable i m p a r t i a l i t y and. r e s t r a i n t , thus maintaining  the atmosphere f i t t i n g to what was  20  " p r i m a r i l y the  21 p r e s e n t a t i o n of the P e r s i a n tragedy Aischylos*  p o r t r a y a l of the  as seen through P e r s i a n eyes."  P e r s i a n s i s c o n s i s t e n t throughout the  P e r s a i with the d e s i r e to i l l u s t r a t e most d r a m a t i c a l l y h i s t r a g i c message;  i t does not r e f l e c t any attempt to arouse f e e l i n g s against  the P e r s i a n s . splendour, and  For example, i n conveying the s p e c t a c l e of the wealth, power of the P e r s i a n n a t i o n , the despotic  c o n t r o l of  t h e i r k i n g and the d e f e r e n t i a l reverence d i s p l a y e d toward the r o y a l f a m i l y , and i n a t t r i b u t i n g to them the use of strange forms of Greek words and long, impressive-sounding  names, the dramatist  i s painstakingly  c r e a t i n g an atmosphere that not only makes the O r i e n t a l c h a r a c t e r s and s e t t i n g seem as authentic  and convincing  as p o s s i b l e but a l s o ,  by emphasizing the height from which.the P e r s i a n s f a l l , makes t h e i r f a t e c a r r y a powerful impact.  In a d d i t i o n , passages i n which A i s c h y l o s  u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y makes the Persians act or speak i n a way more suggestive  that i s  of H e l l e n i c behaviour or thought than of P e r s i a n  so f i t t e d into context  are  and c a r r y meaning of such u n i v e r s a l s i g n i f i c a n c e  19.  Broadhead, op. c i t . . p. x x x i i .  20.  See Broadhead, op_. c i t . . pp. x v i i i - x i x , f o r a more d e t a i l e d  discussion. 21.  Broadhead, op_. c i t . . p. x i x  -80-  as t o I n d i c a t e t h a t A i s c h y l o s wished  them t o c o n t r i b u t e t o , n o t d e t r a c t  22 f r o m , h i s main t r a g i c the  purpose.  dramatic relevance  which,  according  Finally,  and n o b l e d i g n i t y  t o some c r i t i c s ,  F o r example,  of c e r t a i n  the p r i d e  of t h e a u d i e n c e , or i n  i n referring to the c r i t i c a l attitude  p l a y e d by t h e Chorus toward X e r x e s i n t h e f i n a l Broadhead into of  their  ( o p . c i t . . pp. x x v - x x v i ) comments: speech something  democratic Athens?  right  o t h e r "passages i n  a P e r s i a n i s made t o speak o u t o f  c h a r a c t e r merely i n order t o s w e l l 22.  i t i s p o s s i b l e t o demonstrate  This  scene  (907-1037),  "Has n o t t h e p o e t i m p o r t e d  o f the outspokenness i s not u n l i k e l y ,  dis-  t h a t was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  and K r a n z i s p r o b a b l y  i n s a y i n g t h a t here t h e v o i c e of t h e Chorus  i s the voice o f the  p o e t , . . . Compare t h e way i n which D a r i u s i s p o r t r a y e d a s t h e model r u l e r by whose s t a n d a r d o f w i s e government X e r x e s i s t o be j u d g e d , who p a s s e s v e r y s e v e r e judgment C h o r u s t h a t by t h e i r  on h i s son's a c t i o n s , a n d warns t h e  a d m o n i t i o n s t h e y must p r e v a i l  o f f e n d i n g Heaven (830-1).  on X e r x e s t o c e a s e  Nevertheless i t i s not a l t o g e t h e r unnatural  that  the Chorus  should openly express t h e i r f e e l i n g s  ated  K i n g , s i n c e he a c k n o w l e d g e s  he h a s b r o u g h t upon h i s p e o p l e  his responsibility  (933-4).  p a t i b l e with a s a t i r i c  o r contemptuous  on l i f e tone."  Broadhead  s a y s about t h e s c e n e i n  disasters  f o r t h e P e r s i a n p e o p l e because  humili-  f o r the misfortunes  However t h a t may be, i f t h e  p o e t h a s made C h o r u s o r D a r i u s t o be h i s m o u t h p i e c e , s p r i n g f r o m t h e p o e t ' s deep c o n v i c t i o n s  to t h e i r  the u t t e r a n c e s  and are quite Earlier  incom-  (p. x v i ) ,  which D a r e i o s p r o p h e s i e s f u t u r e of t h e i r  impious behaviour  -81-  w h i c h i t was  the  aim  o f the  poet  to s a t i r i s e  or pour s c o r n  on  the  throughout  the  23 Persians." Accordingly, Persai Aischylos o f the  play,  purpose  of developing  or  The  t h r o u g h the  deliberate arousal of  ceeded.  As  aim?  i t was,  character.  (800-20),  of p a t r i o t i c  of  irrelevant material  A t h e n s or r i d i c u l i n g  that  the  the  pointing to In  as g e n u i n e  a r i s e s i s , to what e x t e n t  H e r e , one  he  with  was  did  must answer t h a t , i f he  other a  by  the  third,  the  " I f the d o c t r i n e  had  had  whole P e r s i a n f o r c e a t t h e  i s Greek, i t t a k e s no  B r o a d h e a d , erg. c i t . , p. x i x .  account  and  strong  beginning  of  to  national  barbarian."  These scenes i n c l u d e ,  (845-8)"  suc-  arrogance,  "Atossa's e n q u i r i e s about Athens  "Atossa's concern f o r Xerxes' robes  only  l a c k of a  One's a t t e n t i o n i s s h i f t e d f r o m the  w e a l t h o f the  Aischylos  w h i c h t o c o n t e n d , he m i g h t have  defeated  Broadhead's d e s i g n a t i o n s ,  1076)."  at  feelings,  the P e r s i a n s .  d i f f e r e n c e s - i t concerns e q u a l l y both Greek.and  use  the  e v e n t s t o e x a g g e r a t e t h e prowess o f  inclusion  difficulties  s p l e n d o u r , and  23.  for  possible;  attempted, i n t h e P e r s a i to p r o d u c e  next q u e s t i o n  inherent  central  from h i s t o r i c a l f a c t  theme  as p o s s i b l e .  succeed i n t h i s two  any  g l o r y of H e l l a s and  tragedy  to the r e l i g i o u s  t h i s theme as e f f e c t i v e l y a s  avoided  words, A i s c h y l o s  conclude that  to m o u l d h i s m a t e r i a l  through d i s t o r t i o n  Hellenes the  strove  may  even d e v i a t i n g a l i t t l e  same t i m e , he either  t h e r e f o r e , one  "the  final  to  (230-45),"  scene  (907-  t h e d o w n f a l l and throughout b a c k and  desolate appearance o f Xerxes alone  at the  end;  t h e p l a y , moreover, t h e r e are c o u n t l e s s s h i f t i n g s  f o r t h between t h e  army and  What is more, X e r x e s , o f t h e drama, i s not  who  of  emphasis  Xerxes.  comes c l o s e s t  a h e r o i c f i g u r e nor  t o b e i n g a main c h a r a c t e r  d o e s he  have any  redeeming  24 features. class  According  of A i s c h y l e a n h e r o e s ,  ness and s e l f - w i l l " Certainly, Xerxes used  to F i n l e y ,  such  and  "those  sinfully  had  indeed,  one  man  originally  he  who has  the  been f i n a l l y  w i t h charges  no  no  b u i l d i n g up  circumstances that  l e a d s him  24. p.  211.  justification  thought  his race)  and  imperious-  for their actions.  seems to be  and  who  venture  hastens  of t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s .  to h i s own  get  motivated And,  simply  because  have t a u n t e d up  the  him  to his father's  forth  in a  headstrong  There i s , i n other  heroic figure being  not  deserve.  (Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press,  words,  f o r c e d by  c h a r a c t e r t o make a f a t a l  t o a doom t h a t he w o u l d o t h e r w i s e  Aeschylus  he  calling  for himself.  of f a i l u r e t o l i v e  of X e r x e s a s a s t r o n g and  P i n d a r and  moved by  as good o r n o b l e o r h e r o i c  an i l l - a d v i s e d  - 758),  in addition  moral  m o r t a l bounds and  p r e v a i l e d upon by o t h e r s , who  of cowardice  lowest  t o b r i d g e t h e H e l l e s p o n t to  to r e g a r d  s e t s o u t on  a c h i e v e m e n t s ( l i n e s 753 manner w i t h  no  d e s i r e to g a i n g l o r y  i s not i n c l i n e d  the  are dominantly  b r e a k i n g through  down d i v i n e w r a t h upon h i m s e l f and by n o t h i n g o t h e r t h a n  into  impetuous a t t a c k on H e l l a s ( i n w h i c h  a huge f o r c e t h a t he  them a c r o s s , t h u s  falls  who  have a l m o s t  r a s h and  1  he  decision He  1955),  is  -83-  m e n t i o n e d o n l y once ( l i n e f o r c e before vast  t h a t we  i n the  prived in  sorry state  upon any  strong  the admiration  o f the  to  host  that  of t h e  the  as t r u l y  who  his  emphasis upon t h e  not  enough.  men  out  lost Salamis.  finally gods,  see de-  dressed  of the  formerly  into Hellas.  have  i n this play  a d m i r a b l e was  won  have com-  the c h a r a c t e r  t o be  counteracted. events,  as who  more  was  necessary  Therefore,  the P e r s i a n s  limits  as u n i v e r s a l t r a g i c  to make them c o m p l e t e l y  p r i d e i n accomplishment  and  us  he m i g h t have g i v e n ,  high p o s i t i o n from which the P e r s i a n s  A t h e n i a n s so f a r b e y o n d t h e p r e j u d i c e d  the  the  w h i c h m i g h t seem t o  I n t h e P e r s a i A i s c h y l o s c o u l d not  enemy.  the  could earlier  b u i l d i n g of  i n c o n t r a s t to the b i a s e d account  over t h i s  c r i t i c i s m and  imposed d e f e a t  sympathetic  of  upon them at  a u d i e n c e c o u l d not  h e r o i c and  has  m y t h i c a l themes, f o r i n t h e c a s e of t h e P e r s a i  a u d i e n c e had  enemy and  who  Persian  i n the P e r s a i d o e s not f a l l  i m p a r t i a l p o r t r a y a l of  defeated  299)  a c c o m p a n i e d him  character  Athenians,  invading  of P e r s i a n r o y a l t y ,  dramatist's  them r e g a r d  (line  o n l y a few  had  I n the P e r s a i t h e  than i n plays w i t h prejudice  a c c o m p a n i e d by  the d i v i n e l y  suffer a downfall  of t h e  been r e d u c e d by  splendid trappings  central heroic  tragic.  has  but  since divine r e t r i b u t i o n  p a s s i o n a t e l y viewed really  general  of him  t o w h i c h he  magnificent  Accordingly,  leader  i n the d i s a s t e r i n f l i c t e d  usual  r a g g e d c l o t h e s , and and  the  hear almost n o t h i n g  of a l l the  powerful  as  becomes t h e d e f e a t e d  numbers of h i s men  After him  he  144)  fell,  have t r a n s p o r t e d  of t h e i r  race  of joyous t h a n k f u l n e s s  A t t h e same t i m e , however, s i n c e he  the  their  feelings  f o r the kept  were  as t o make  f i g u r e s i n s t e a d of  f o r g e t t h e i r own  and  victory  direct  -84-  reference  t o t h e b a t t l e s down t o a r e l a t i v e l y  and  d i d achieve  was  able with  return  an i m p a r t i a l p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  While spectacle  Aischylos  there  i s no r e a s o n  t h a t i t was r e g a r d e d  to believe failed  t h a t t h e P e r s a i as a sad  t o move t h e A t h e n i a n s ,  by them a s g e n u i n e t r a g e d y .  of t h e P e r s i a n d e f e a t  must have made i t a l m o s t  impossible.  The p a r t i c u l a r  heroic  Yet, although  nature  o f t h e theme he had s e l e c t e d made f a i l u r e  tragic  drama a l m o s t c e r t a i n ,  t o make t h e P e r s a i a s t r a g i c  i t i s un-  t o t h e A t h e n i a n s would have made  and t h e l a c k o f any f i g u r e o f t r u l y  was e x p e r i e n c e d  broken  splendour.  of a f a l l e n n a t i o n  difficult  ofthe  and o f t h e s a d n e s s i n v o l v e d i n t h e P e r s i a n s '  and f a l l e n  significance  he  that  t o S o u s a t o b r i n g home t o t h e A t h e n i a n s a r e a l i z a t i o n  confidence  this  i t i s probable  such s c e n e s a s t h e d i s a s t e r a t t h e Strymon and Xerxes*  P e r s i a n viewpoint  likely  s m a l l amount o f s p a c e  proportions  i n o u r eyes t h e  to create  a really  A i s c h y l o s seems t o have b e e n  striving  and u n i v e r s a l a s p o s s i b l e .  But s u r e l y  enough i n 4-72 (he won h i s f i r s t  victory  as e a r l y a s  4-84-) t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e c a p a c i t i e s o f h i s a u d i e n c e a n d t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e chosen s u b j e c t . same theme h a n d l e d not l o n g From t h i s he s h o u l d  have been a b l e  h i s theme f o r t h e purpose overthrow c o u l d probably This  before  Besides,  he had a l r e a d y  by P h r y n i c h o s  i n thePhoinissai.  t o judge t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s o f  o f tragedy  and t o r e a l i z e  never form t h e s u b j e c t  that  of t h e P e r s i a n s  by t h e H e l l e n e s  the P e r s i a n  of a genuine  l e a d s one t o wonder why A i s c h y l o s , the t r a g e d i a n ,  defeat  seen t h e  as a s u b j e c t  tragedy.  selected the  t o be d e a l t  with  -85-  in  a  "tragedy." There  are s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e  answers t o t h i s  w i t h , he may, o n s e e i n g P h r y n i c h o s interest improve if  i n the unusual  Phoinissai,  1  subject of that  on P h r y n i c h o s ' t r e a t m e n t  question^  h a v e c o n c e i v e d an  p l a y and f e l t  of it.  To b e g i n  the d e s i r e t o  This i s especially  Phrynichos' P h o i n i s s a i c o n s i s t e d mainly  of "lyrical  possible  lamentation -  26 at  w h i c h we know P h r y n i c h o s  excelled"  - and,  therefore, involved  a c o n c e p t i o n o f tragedy with which A i s c h y l o s d i d n o t a g r e e , rate,  a l t h o u g h we do not know enough a b o u t  of  t h e way i n w h i c h P h r y n i c h o s  to  believe  Phoinissai  25.  that  handled  thePhoinissai  i n quite a d i f f e r e n t Murray  (jpjo.  v a r i o u s types o f annual  cit..  p.  114)  27  lines  E.  Kitto,  27.  We know from  and 472.  op. c i t . ,  B u t t h e e v e n t s he d e s c r i b e s h a v e o f t h e same theme i n  Glaukos  (Argumentum a d P e r s a s ) identical.  Harmony o f A e s c h y l u s  "How c l o s e l y A e s c h y l u s  But t h i s  [Toronto,!  that t h e f i r s t does n o t j u s t i f y  1953J, p. 21)  followed Phrynichus,  impossible  t o say, b u t t h e G l a u c u s  imply  t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e v e r b a l r e s e m b l a n c e . "  that  with  p . 36.  p l a y s were a l m o s t  T. Owen's (The  ment t h a t  t h a t by a n a l o g y  year.  26.  o f both  A i s c h y l o s may have  o f t h e same theme a t t h e G r e a t D i o n y s i a  n o t h i n g i n common w i t h a p o s s i b l e r e p e t i t i o n t r a g e d y each  the subject of the  While  suggests  reason  commemorations of t h e P e r s i a n Wars t h e r e may  have been a r e g u l a r c e l e b r a t i o n e v e r y y e a r between 4-78  manner.  t o be s u r e  t h e theme, we do have  Aischylos i n his Persai treated  A t any  whom t h e w r i t e r  state-  i ti s o f course  quotes  seems t o There  i s no  -86-  realized  t h a t he c o u l d  as  f a r a s t r a g e d y was  to  t r a g e d y he c o u l d  line  c o n c e r n e d , he c o u l d  bring  r e a s o n on t h e b a s i s followed  n e v e r overcome t h e theme's  Phrynichos' Phoinissai  s i m i l a r to P h r y n i c h o s *  A. ¥. V e r r a l l ( " T h e Proceedings  Part  weaknesses  have w a n t e d t o s e e how  a drama f o r m e d about  of one c i t a t i o n  inherent  to believe  close  a contemporary theme.  that Aischylos  verbally  any more c l o s e l y t h a n t o make h i s f i r s t  as an open acknowledgement of h i s d e b t .  of Phrynichus i n the Persae of Aeschylus,"  of t h e Cambridge P h i l o l o g i c a l  1 9 0 8 ] , pp. 13-15) b e l i e v e s  that  Aischylos  Society,  LXX1X [ L e n t  incorporated  term,  c e r t a i n passages  i n t o t o f r o m P h r y n i c h o s * P h o i n i s s a i , e s p e c i a l l y 465-4-71 a n d 4 8 0 - 5 1 4 , p r o b a b l y as a t r i b u t e t o t h e p r e v i o u s poet, but there this.  Besides, there  two p l a y s : the fate  Persai  are s e v e r a l  important  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e  t h e P h o i n i s s a i b e g i n s w i t h a p r o l o g u e by a eunuch, w h i l e opens w i t h t h e c o u n c i l l o r s d e l i b e r a t i n g about the  of t h e k i n g  of t h e Persian  and t h e P e r s i a n  fleet  forces;  i n the P h o i n i s s a i . the  i s postponed u n t i l  t h e hopes and  o f t h o s e r e m a i n i n g i n P e r s i a have been r e v e a l e d  that  t h e c h o r u s i n t h e P h o i n i s s a i was  i n the P e r s a i  possible defeat  i s announced a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , w h i l e i n t h e P e r s a i  mention of the d i s a s t e r  finally,  i s no p r o o f o f  of the P e r s i a n  Elders.  to the  composed  anxieties  spectator;  of P h o e n i c i a n women,  -87-  t  Another in  possibility  i s t h a t A i s c h y l o s , who  conveying through his  i n g between g o d s a n d saw  immediately  Phoinissai its  how  could  be  tragedies his v i s i o n  man  and  of  effective for this  contemporary n a t u r e and  the  the  purpose.  intensely interested  of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t -  bounds w i t h i n  subject  strong  was  w h i c h man  should  u s e d by P h r y n i c h o s  Certainly, in this  s i g n i f i c a n c e to the  in  act,  the  respect  Athenian 28  p e o p l e must have g i v e n n e s s w h i c h no that  could  legend  i t , i n the  words of A.  c o u l d hope t o e q u a l . "  have been t h a t  of  the  p e r h a p s meant  the  Athenians  not  the  presumptuous  This  pride  p u r p o s e may  material  subject  the  s e r v i c e s he  the  contents  intention  of  had  of t h e  could remind the  Persai  indirectly  The  a specific  their  that, t h e  Aischylos  warning  that  downfall.  inadequacy of  realized  may  the  have c h o s e n  A t h e n i a n s of T h e m i s t o k l e s Not  indications that Aischylos  of f r i e n d l y  T r a g i c Drama of t h e  Greeks  the  that through i t s  p r a i s i n g T h e m i s t o k l e s but  i n need  gods  l e a d them i n t o  own  r e n d e r e d to h i s c o u n t r y . give  the  unimportant.  possibility:  earlier  direct-  portraying a fate  successes  b r i n g about  P e r s a i p a r t l y because he  T h e m i s t o k l e s was  28.  t h a t would  another  d r a m a t i c p o r t r a y a l he  that  let their military  f o r g e n u i n e t r a g e d y was  of t h e  to provide  have made A i s c h y l o s f e e l  There i s yet  In  "a  A t h e n i a n s t h e m s e l v e s had  so w i l l e d , A i s c h y l o s should  E. H a i g h ,  a l s o we  only had are  propaganda a t t h i s  (Oxford,  1896),  p.  and do  the certain  time.  105.  -88-  As it  f a r as t h e  contents  of t h e P e r s a i a r e  f e a t u r e d above a l l o t h e r  one  i n which Themistokles  naval  policy  had  b a t t l e s t h e one  had  concerned,  at Salamis,  t h a t i s , the  d i s t i n g u i s h e d h i m s e l f and  i n which h i s  been o b v i o u s l y j u s t i f i e d ;  A i s c h y l o s knew t h a t  mere m e n t i o n of t h i s b a t t l e w o u l d r e m i n d t h e A t h e n i a n s What  i s more, he  Themistokles  1  advantageous play  would  still  might  from to  famous s t r a t a g e m  of a s i n g l e H e l l e n i c  Themistokles'  One  included i n the P e r s a i a d e s c r i p t i o n  t o the H e l l e n e s  clever  remain  add  (incidentally,  idea to a n . e v i l  spirit,  that a t t r i b u t i n g  the stratagem  authorship and  he makes no m e n t i o n of t h e f a c t t h e f o l l o w i n g day  had  in a  location  -  although  he a s c r i b e d  A i s c h y l o s knew t h a t i t of  to a divine  Themistokles. being, f a r  of i t , c o u l d have  served only T h e r e may  to help T h e m i s t o k l e s  t h a t the  of  the only mention i n the  impressive q u a l i t y .  t h a t A i s c h y l o s ' aim was  the  Themistokles.  (353-363)  i n t h e A t h e n i a n minds t h e s t r a t a g e m  l e n d h i s a c t a more d r a m a t i c  an i n d i c a t i o n  of  to f o r c e Xarxes t o f i g h t  individual's exploit);  obscuring Themistokles'  Aischylos i n  decision  to t a k e  insofar action  be as  on  a l r e a d y b e e n made by X e r x e s b e f o r e he r e c e i v e d  29 T h e m i s t o k l e s ' message. t h i s i n order  One  t o p l a c e a l l t h e emphasis  the m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e behind time,  can c o n j e c t u r e t h a t A i s c h y l o s o m i t t e d on T h e m i s t o k l e s '  the undertaking  i n s t e a d of a s t h e c a u s e o f X e r x e s '  measures d u r i n g t h e n i g h t .  In a d d i t i o n ,  A i s c h y l o s ' emphasis on T h e m i s t o k l e s '  29.  Herodotos,  I . 70 a n d  75.  device  of the s e a - f i g h t  as  at that  taking extra precautionary i t i s worth n o t i n g that  stratagem  m i g h t have had  an  -89-  even more s p e c i f i c the A t h e n i a n s 11  Epistle tells  about  o f the  us that  purpose  than merely  to r e f r e s h  T h e m i s t o k l e s ' p a r t i n the  letters  of "Themistokles",  T h e m i s t o k l e s was  battle  notes,  the b a t t l e  T h i s may  charged  have been  result  of h i s e n e m i e s ' i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e d e s p a t c h o f a message  Xerxes  as an attempt  did  later  Persian  to help Xerxes,  t o h i s own  King."^  stress that  A i s c h y l o s may  i t was  directed  s i n c e the p a s s a g e under A i s c h y l o s may  not  the Athenians  of their  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  at  all is  that  against Xerxes.  discussion  debt  Persai.  evil  spirit, hand,  i s relevant w i t h i n i t s context, i n c l u d e d i t i n order to  t o Themistokles.  the Athenians  c o u l d not  remind  However, i n t h e t h a t he  light  included i t  t h e y d i d p l a y i n the b a t t l e them t o b u i l d  have p l a y e d t h e  at Salamis  a fleet,  r e m i n d i n g them of t h i s f a c t when t h e c h o r u s  rrfiYH  TI<; aureus iarv,  tells  us t h a t  Thoricus.  "the  6 Tjcaupoq  scholiast  For t h e f o r m e r  30.  31.  the  On t h e o t h e r  i t held for the Athenians,  not e a r l i e r persuaded  Phoenix.  o f an  to  noteworthy.  Furthermore, part  scheme a s t h a t  the  himself  have been a t t e m p t i n g i n t h e  have d e l i b e r a t e l y  of  as T h e m i s t o k l e s  a d v a n t a g e when w r i t i n g t o A r t a x e r x e s ,  by h a v i n g t h e P e r s i a n s r e g a r d t h i s to  just  of  of Salamis.  as L e n a r d o n  a t some t i m e a f t e r  w i t h h a v i n g committed t r e a s o n a t S a l a m i s .  t h e memories  R. XV  J . Lenardon,  (1961),  p.  Thucydides,  Q  I . 137.  4.  perhaps  Aischylos i s  240).  Broadhead  t o the m i n e s a t L a u r i u m  V I I , 144,  where we  and  had  dpyupou  (line  "Charon, T h u c y d i d e s ,  32.  i f Themistokles  remarks:  x ovoq  i n M refers  c f . Hdt.  and  important  learn  and  how  'Themistokles',"  -90-  Th e m i s t Okies' p e r s u a d e d revenue  the Athenians to forego t h e i r  from t h e mines and' spend t h e money on b u i l d i n g s h i p s f o r .  t h e war a g a i n s t . A S g i n a , a war, H d t . adds, o f Greece, So  share of t h e  that  QaKaaaiovq"yeveaQai  dvaYHetCa^  t h i s r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m i n e s would  was t h e , - s a l v a t i o n  *A%vaiou<;.  Vi  have a deep s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r  32 the a u d i e n c e . "  S i n c e T h e m i s t o k l e s * p r o p o s a l h a d c a u s e d much  o p p o s i t i o n a t t h e t i m e and s i n c e had  later  t h o s e who h a d a r g u e d a g a i n s t i t  b e e n p r o v e d so wrong, t h e A t h e n i a n s upon h e a r i n g t h e r e f e r -  ence  could  But,  a g a i n , w h i l e A i s c h y l o s must have r e a l i z e d  this  allusion  text  t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n  order  w e l l have t h o u g h t  the b a t t l e by  debt  t o him..  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of  f o r t h e Athenians, since i t i s relevant w i t h i n  to remind Finally,  o f Themistokles and t h e i r  t h a t he i n c l u d e d  i t s con-  i tspecifically i n  them o f T h e m i s t o k l e s .  the s h o r t n e s s of A i s c h y l o s *  at P l a t a i a ,  reference  predominantly a Lakedaimonian  some s c h o l a r s t o be due t o t h e " i n f l u e n c e  i n line  817 t o  victory,  i s thought  o f T h e m i s t o k l e s and h i s  33 anti-Spartan policy." strued  as a n attempt  This  i s p o s s i b l e , b u t i t c o u l d a l s o be  to preserve dramatic u n i t y  by s t r e s s i n g  con-  only the  34 defeat  o f the P e r s i a n s at Salamis  daimonians.^ 32. Broadhead,  or even as a t r i b u t e  to the Lake-  5  op. c i t . ,  p. 9 2 .  op_. c i t . .  p . 204.  33.  Broadhead,  34.  Richmond L a t t i m o r e , " A e s c h y l u s on t h e D e f e a t o f X e r x e s , "  Classical  S t u d i e s i n Honour o f W i l l i a m A b b o t t O l d f a t h e r  1943), p. 91. 35.  Broadhead,  op. c i t . .  p . 204.  (Urbana,  Illinois,  -91-  As t o T h e m i s t o k l e s * t h e P e r s a i . we  p o s i t i o n a t the t i m e  know t h a t he was  o s t r a c i s e d i n the l a t e 470's,  a l r e a d y h a v i n g been t r i e d f o r t r e a s o n , a n d c h a r g e d w i t h medism and went i n t o e x i l e , and  u n c e r t a i n t y o v e r t h e d a t e s of t h e s e  has  recently  suggested  Themistokles*  was  events.  Forrest's  R. J .  37.  Chronology  His  4?4/3.  and  of  the sources  of  Themistoklean  and  that,  his first  trial,  t h e a t t a c k s of h i s enemies,  He went to A r g o s and. from  there  Exile,"  he c a n n o t ,  of C o r n e l i u s Hepos, A r i s t e i d e s . 3, because  But he  o f t h e nature  bases  of the  and i n d o i n g so r e s o l v e s some of t h e i m p o r t a n t  study  problems  chronology.  " T h e m i s t o k l e s and  Argos," C l a s s . Quart.. X  Diodoros,  X I . 54.  See  of t h e h i s t o r i c i t y  (I960),  i n t o Lenardon* s  a f f e c t i n g F o r r e s t ' s arguments or t h e i m p o r t  ments i n s u p p o r t  is  evidence,  h i s t h e s i s upon a c a r e f u l  c a n f i t F o r r e s t ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of e v e n t s  39.  After  of T h e m i s t o k l e s ' O s t r a c i s m and  interpretation  his conclusions.  without  37  V I I I (1959), pp. 23-48.  questionable,  38.  Lenardon  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of events d u r i n g these  enjoyed a b r i e f r e s p i t e from  "The  Historia.  One  but t h e r e i s much c o n t r o v e r s y  ;  a c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework f o r t h i s p a r t o f  then o s t r a c i s e d about  36.  prove  A.  after  a f t e r w a r d s once more  p r o v i d e s us w i t h the f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e .  Themistokles and  was  l i f e t h a t i s more c o n v i n c i n g t h a n o t h e r s 38  combined w i t h W. years,  of t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f  221-241.  chronology  of h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n .  F o r r e s t , op_. c i t . , of t h e f i r s t  pp.  p. 2 3 7 ,  trial.  for argu-  -92-  t r a v e l l e d around t h e Peloponnese; during this  the r e s u l t of h i s a c t i v i t i e s  time i s p r o b a b l y t o be seen i n the f o r m a t i o n o f an " a n t i -  S p a r t a n , d e m o c r a t i c League i n t h e n o r t h e r n P e l o p o n n e s e ,  including  Argos ( w i t h K l e o n a i ) , A r k a d i a ( w i t h both Tegea and M a n t i n e a ) , a n d E l i s , " whose f i r s t  o p e r a t i o n s were an a t t a c k o n M y k e n a i a n d t h e  41 battle  o f Tegea.  A t some t i m e d u r i n g h i s s t a y i n A r g o s ,  of h i s treasonable intentions, evidently i n v o l v i n g  "proof"  collaboration  w i t h P a u s a n i a s , was " d i s c o v e r e d " by t h e L a k e d a i m o n i a n s  after  Pausanias'  42 death.  The a l l e g e d p r o o f , a c c o r d i n g t o P l u t a r c h ' s a c c o u n t ,  s i s t e d o f l e t t e r s and documents f o u n d among P a u s a n i a s  possessions  1  t h a t r e v e a l e d a k n o w l e d g e on T h e m i s t o k l e s * p a r t of P a u s a n i a s ' dealings w i t h t h e King of P e r s i a against H e l l a s .  I f such  were a u t h e n t i c , and n o t f a b r i c a t e d by t h e L a k e d a i m o n i a n s , c r i m e a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y of k e e p i n g P a u s a n i a s ' scheme a s e c r e t r a t h e r t h a n o f e n g a g i n g  documents  traitorous  i n such a c t i v i t i e s h i m s e l f . invitation  t o e n t e r i n t o a p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h him on t h e s e u n d e r t a k i n g s . i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r us t o be s u r e w h e t h e r any  took p l a c e between Pausanias  I . 135.  Thucydides,  41.  F o r r e s t , op_. c i t . .  42.  Thucydides,  D i o d o r o s , X I . 54.  I . 135.  I n actual  communication  and T h e m i s t o k l e s a n d , i f i t d i d , t o what  extent Themistokles conspired with Pausanias. 40.  treacherous  Themistokles'  As P l u t a r c h r e l a t e s , . T h e m i s t o k l e s h a d r e j e c t e d P a u s a n i a s *  fact,  con-  Undoubtedly,  3. p. 232; 2;  see a l s o p .  229.  Plutarch, Themistokles.  23;  Themistokles'  -93-  r e p u t a t i o n f o r u n s c r u p u l o u s n e s s and. h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h A r g o s , c i t y which  was  b e l i e v e d t o h a v e b e e n i n sympathy w i t h t h e enemy  d u r i n g the P e r s i a n Wars, l e n t w e i g h t true  t h e A t h e n i a n s were c o n v i n c e d by group  fleet i n t o I f one  t h e y were r e a d y  a g a i n s t him  being written.  43.  473  See  and  to co-operate w i t h the  or e a r l y 4 ? 2 ,  Lake-  public  when t h e P e r s a i  Aware o f h i s i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y  i n the  Peloponnese,  were p r o b a b l y a l r e a d y m a k i n g a c c u s a t i o n s , and i n ominous murmurings a g a i n s t him.  In  addition,  t h a t P a u s a n i a s by t h i s t i m e h a d been put t o death, ( e v e n  f o r t h against Themistokles u n t i l  S p a r t a n s may  the  by a s u s p i c i o n o f medism  t h e e v i d e n c e a l l e g e d l y f o u n d among P a u s a n i a s *  not brought  a  i n order to  o s t r a c i z e d Themistokles  immediately  i n late  t h e r e were p e r h a p s  i s possible  though  to  a c c u s a t i o n s , and  t h e r e , however, T h e m i s t o k l e s  i n f l u e n c e d perhaps  the A t h e n i a n s i n 474/3 had  t h e Lakedaimonians  it  s chronology)  i n a r r e s t i n g him,, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o assume t h a t  o p i n i o n was  Athens  1  exile.  t h a t i n 471/0 daimonians  When t h e y a r r i v e d  considers that,  on h i s p a r t ,  was  the Lakedaimonians*  o f them s e t o u t f o r A r g o s w i t h t h e L a k e d a i m o n i a n s  arrest Themistokles. had  t o t h e c h a r g e , w h e t h e r i t was  At any r a t e , i n 4-71/0 ( a c c o r d i n g t o L e n a r d o n  or n o t .  a  F o r r e s t , op. c i t . .  p. 2 3 8 ,  possessions  h i s second  trial  have f o u n d . e v i d e n c e was  w o u l d have e f f e c t  Of c o u r s e , t h i s  i s plausible  o n l y i f one  f a b r i c a t e d or t h a t they w a i t e d u n t i l or  both.  in 4?l/0),  where he s u g g e s t s t h a t  have d e l a y e d i n p r o d u c i n g t h e e v i d e n c e t h e y were  was  the  supposed  assumes t h a t  t h e y were s u r e i t  -94-  and  i t may  have a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e  Themistokles,  s i n c e he  ship with the  Persians.  Aischylos  1  a l s o was  their  fight  strongly suspected  by  to  overtake  some o f  P e r s a i . t h e r e f o r e , a p l a y w h i c h c o u l d not  r e m i n d e d t h e A t h e n i a n s of in  same f a t e t h r e a t e n e d  against  the  g r e a t debt  the P e r s i a n s ,  they  owed to  friend-  but  have  Themistokles  a p p e a r e d at a t i m e when T h e m i s -  44 t o k l e s was there  i n need of s u p p o r t .  i s no  cannot  evidence  have a l r e a d y  with mythological  seen t h a t A i s c h y l o s  subjects  spectators.  44. about  d i d not  Even i f one  the  Athenian  h e s i t a t e t o communicate h i s  ideas  undoubtedly with  places  the  especially plays  a view t o i n f l u e n c i n g the  ostracism  expressed  i n 471/0  burn the  dence of t h e  of h i s f a l l  [1959], P.  fleet  33)  at Pagasai  existence  and  in  the  i n his defeat  those  flight  from as  favour"  i t may  e a r l y as  479,  t h e r e was  a  (Lenardon,  by A r i s t e i d e s i n h i s  of h o s t i l i t y  against  Themistokles  his f i r s t this  trial  on  plan  c o u l d not  have t a k e n p l a c e b e f o r e  about  Evithe  the charge have t a k e n  the P e r s a i . s i n c e i t preceded the o s t r a c i s m ,  47I/O, and  affected.  ( a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , p . 64),  even i n F o r r e s t ' s c h r o n o l o g y  much a f t e r  significantly  M o r e o v e r , i n 4?7  from popular  t i m e o f the P e r s a i i s f u r n i s h e d by medism;  i s not  enemies o f T h e m i s t o k l e s  w a l l s were b u i l t .  indication  Historia.VIII  in  one  469/8, as F o r r e s t does, t h e argument f o r t h e p e r t i n e n c e i n 4?2  "definite  to  i n two  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e v i e w s he  L a k e d a i m o n i a n s were  after  same t i m e ,  of h i s e x t a n t  o f a p l a y aimed a t h e l p i n g T h e m i s t o k l e s The  At the  coincidence;  have b e e n more t h a n mere c o i n c i d e n c e ,  contemporary p o l i t i c s ,  Athenian  have been  prove o t h e r w i s e .  deny t h a t i t may  s i n c e we  on  to  T h i s may  the P e r s a i .  w h i c h he  of place places  -95-  p l a y s were i n a c c o r d a n c e there  with  those  of Themistokles.  seems t o have been a t r a d i t i o n  In  addition,  that Aischylos, along with  his  46 brother  Ameinias,  the P e r s a i was he  gave no  t o have  was  a friend  of Themistokles,  t r y i n g to h e l p T h e m i s t o k l e s ,  positive  connected  evidence  of i t ;  h i m s e l f too  I f Aischylos i n  i t i s not  i f Themistokles  openly w i t h  him  s u r p r i s i n g that was  i n danger,  c o u l d have  endangered  4 7  Aischylos himself, I have p r e s e n t e d t h r e e m o t i v e s Aischylos i n his selection subject  I n t h e S u p p l i a n t s and  r e c o m m e n d a t i o n and against Sparta. formation  approval The  of an  46.  not  produced  w h i c h I have d i s c u s s e d  a previous dramatist;  of a t r e a t y . w i t h A r g o s t o a f f o r d p r o t e c t i o n  policy.  until  t r u e enemy policy  and long  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t A i s c h y l o s had a s e a r l y a s 472,  although  the S u p p l i a n t s  463.  above, p.  much of h i s p o l i c y "  1  Themistoklean  i s r e v e a l e d i n the  Also, that Perikles,  i d e a s , and  a  t h e Eumenides A i s c h y l o s r e v e a l s h i s  foresight  This tradition  4?.  t h a n had  a l l i a n c e w i t h A r g o s was  i t became A t h e n i a n  probably  way  r e c o g n i t i o n of S p a r t a as A t h e n s  perceived Themistokles' was  therefore unconventional,  f o r t h e P e r s a i : t h e u r g e to meet the c h a l l e n g e of h a n d l i n g  45.  before  have i n f l u e n c e d  of a c o n t e m p o r a r y , and  d i f f e r e n t theme i n a more e f f e c t i v e  the  t h a t might  who  l e t t e r s of  "Themistokles,"  10, later  " i n h e r i t e d many o f  ( F o r r e s t , o_p_. c i t . ,  p. 233),  Themistokles was  choregos  2 for  one  o f A i s c h y l o s ' p l a y s , p e r h a p s t h e P e r s a i (I..G. I I  s e e L a t t i m o r e , op.  cit..  ppp  82-93), a t  least  t h e w r i t i n g of the P e r s a i f o r T h e m i s t o k l e s '  does n o t  sake.  2318;  but  argue a g a i n s t  1  -96-  the  desire  t o convey  the Athenians;  a r e l i g i o u s message o f d i r e c t  the v/ish t o h e l p one who may have been a f r i e n d a n d  who was c e r t a i n l y a f e l l o w - p a t r i o t d r a m a t i s t who w r o t e on many l e v e l s , three  suggested reasons  one a n o t h e r ,  degrees.  after  Perhaps, product  h i s fundamental  now i n t r o u b l e .  all,  o f a time  A i s c h y l o s was a  and i n t h e c a s e o f t h e P e r s a i a l l  for hisselection  a r e compatible w i t h  as a n a t u r a l  significance for  of i t s s u b j e c t , s i n c e  c o u l d have i n f l u e n c e d him i n v a r y i n g  we s h o u l d r e g a r d A i s c h y l o s ' P e r s a i i n which a c i t i z e n viewed  existence r e l i g i o n  and p o l i t i c s  in  drama.  c o u n t r i e s and i n many d i f f e r e n t  simply  as p a r t o f  i n s o l u b l y bound t o -  g e t h e r , a c o m b i n a t i o n w h i c h h a s i n t h e hands o f a r t i s t s different  they  ages f o u n d  i n many  an e x p r e s s i o n  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ancient Aischylos,  Persai.  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