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Financing child care and preventive services : an analysis of the per-diem formula and assisted financing… Kellerman, William Mathias 1960

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FINANCING CHILD CARE AND PREVENTIVE SERVICES An A n a l y s i s of the Per-Diem Formula and A s s i s t e d F i n a n c i n g as A p p l i e d to the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver 1953 to 1960. by WILLIAM MATHIAS KELLERMAN Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work Accepted as conforming to the standard r e q u i r e d f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK School of S o c i a l Work 1960 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree th a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree th a t permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t i s understood tha t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver Canada. Date 3 k ' v i i i ABSTRACT. The f i n a n c i n g of c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s i s not widely understood. I t i s commonly known tha t "the government" provides s e r v i c e s i n r u r a l areas, but the d i v i s i o n of c o s t s between the p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n to provide necessary s e r v i c e s has not been the subject of d e f i n -i t i v e research. The f i n a n c i n g of s e r v i c e s which are provided by the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i s a l s o not w e l l understood, nor the l e g i s l a t i v e b a s i s upon which s e r v i c e s are provided. C h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s have two aims; to prevent the ne g l e c t of c h i l d r e n and strengthen f a m i l i e s so t h a t they w i l l remain together, and to provide good s u b s t i t u t e care f o r c h i l d r e n when they cannot remain In t h e i r own homes. These s e r v i c e s are provided by a combination of p r o v i n c i a l , municipal and p r i v a t e agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n B r i t i s h Columbia. C h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s were begun i n B r i t i s h Columbia by p r i v a t e agencies. As p o p u l a t i o n and needs developed, l e g i s l a t i o n was passed, which provided that the care of wards who had been committed by c o u r t , would be provided f o r through p u b l i c funds. While a l l c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s are provided f o r through p u b l i c funds i n most areas i n the province, preventive casework s e r v i c e s i x have continued to be provided by p r i v a t e , o r voluntary funds i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, through the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . I n recent years the s o c i e t i e s have reviewed the present arrangement f o r p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s , i n c l u d i n g the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c support f o r preventive s e r v i c e s . At the same time questions were being r a i s e d about the c o n t i n u i n g use of p r i v a t e funds, to support work which i s being financed elsewhere i n the province by p u b l i c funds. The p o s i t i o n of the p r i v a t e agencies i s t h a t a "mixed system" of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s o f f e r s s t r e n g t h to the e n t i r e c h i l d welfare programme, and t h a t p r i v a t e agencies w i t h community support can continue to make a v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n maintaining standards of s e r v i c e . The present study f i r s t sketches i n the background of the development of f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d r e n i n ward care. The formula f o r reimbursement, known as the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e , i s then analysed i n budget terms (e.g. maintenance f o r c h i l d r e n , c l o t h i n g , h e a l t h care, e t c . ) to show what has been provided f o r c h i l d r e n i n care of the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , i n a t y p i c a l recent year (1957). The per c a p i t a per diem r a t e f o r maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, i s the average X cost of maintaining and s u p e r v i s i n g a c h i l d i n care f o r a year, and i s a c l e a r cut a d m i n i s t r a t i v e device i n that reimbursement f o r s e r v i c e i s c a l c u l a t e d on the a c t u a l number of days care provided f o r c h i l d r e n . An important p a r t of the a n a l y s i s i s the c l a r i f i c a t i o n of the dlst<-i n c t i o n between (a) maintenance reimbursement, and (b) the cost of preventive s e r v i c e . Other methods, or formulae, are r e f e r r e d to i n the study. The r e l e v a n t s t a t i s t i c s of C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society operations (to which t h i s t h e s i s i s spec-i f i c a l l y l i m i t e d ) are assembled f o r a p e r i o d of years. Some of the questions of f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under present l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the various s e r v i c e s provided are thereby c l a r i f i e d . The study shows that the p r o v i s i o n of ward care f o r c h i l d r e n under the s u p e r v i s i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s has been soundly financed through the present per diem formula. The questions and i s s u e s which have been r a i s e d about the c o n t i n u i n g support of s e r v i c e s by the Community Chest are reviewed. The approach taken i s that the p r o v i s i o n of funds should not be the main c r i t e r i a f o r d e c i d i n g the best c o n t i n u i n g method of p r o v i d i n g prevent-i v e s e r v i c e s i n Vancouver. The c o n c l u s i o n i s that x i a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c funds could be provided to the p r i v a t e agencies, and t h a t a formula should be e s t -a b l i s h e d to do so, i f t h i s i s to be done. i i TABLE OF CONTENTS. Chapter 1. The P r i v a t e Agency i n C h i l d Welfare Page 1 S e r v i c e s . H i s t o r i c a l review and cur r e n t p o l i c y . Payment f o r wards i n the care of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n i n care and se r v i c e s provided. C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society programme and expenditures. S e r v i c e s , and con-t i n u i n g problems. Chapter 2 . A F i n a n c i a l A n a l y s i s ; C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society, 1957. Page 27 The agency budget and the"per-diem" reimbursement formula. Maintenance payments; t-c l o t h i n g , education,health care, e t c . A u x i l i a r y expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n care, Receiving Home expenses. The d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses. The t o t a l budget, 1957. Computing the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e f o r C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society f o r 1957. Chapter 3 . Sourdes of A s s i s t e d Financing, Page 70 Community Chest c o n t r i b u t i o n s , Budgeting procedures. Services financed by Community Chest. An a n a l y s i s f o r 1957. Income sources. Services rendered. Current questions about c o n t i n u i n g Chest support. A l t e r n a t i v e methods of f i n a n c i n g preventive s e r v i c e s . Some comparative examples. i i i Chapter 4. The F i n a n c i a l S t r u c t u r e ; I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the Future. Page 124 Summary, and a review of the i s s u e s . The f u n c t i o n s of p r i v a t e and p u b l i c agencies. Strengths and weaknesses of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies. Conclusions. Appendices -A. Some notes on o f f i c e b u i l d i n g expenses, 164 d e p r e c i a t i o n expenses, automobile expenses, insurance coverage, 1957* The use of family allowance. Table 1. The use of family allowance t r u s t accounts, 1957. 2. The number of c h i l d r e n i n care, and the number of days maintenance provided, according to the age of the c h i l d , 1957* 3- d e t a i l of expenditures, 1957* B. The question of f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e i n 174 f i n a n c i n g c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s . C. B i b l i o g r a p h y . 181 i v TABLES IN THE TEXT 1. E x p e n d i t u r e s o f C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , 1944 - 1958 Page 17 2. P e r c a p i t a p e r diem r a t e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r C h i l d r e n ' s A i d - S o c i e t i e s , 1944 - 1957. Page 18 3» P r o t e c t i o n and c a r e o f c h i l d r e n ; t o t a l n u m b e r s , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , 1949 - 1957. Page 21 4. P r o p o r t i o n o f maintenance r e i m b u r s e d by P r o v i n c i a l Government and Community Chest, C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , 1952-1957.Page 21 5« P r o t e c t i o n and c a r e o f C h i l d r e n ; some i n d i c e s o f y e a r l y f l u c t u a t i o n s , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , 1953 - 1957. Page 22 6. Y e a r to y e a r changes i n some s i g n i f i c a n t i n d i c e s , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , 1953 - 1957. Page 22 7. C h i l d r e n a d m i t t e d t o c a r e , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , 1957. Page 30 8. C h i l d r e n d i s c h a r g e d from c a r e , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , 1957 Page 30 9. The e s t i m a t e d c o s t o f c l o t h i n g r e q u i r e -ments o f c h i l d r e n , 1958. Page 39 10. E s t i m a t e d average c o s t o f new c l o t h i n g and c l o t h i n g r e p l a c e m e n t s f o r c h i l d r e n , by age. Page 39 11. C l o t h i n g c o s t s o f c h i l d r e n i n care,1957, e s t i m a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e number o f c h i l d r e n i n p a i d c a r e , a t t h e average c o s t o f new c l o t h i n g . Page 41 12. Cost o f shoes and c l o t h i n g f o r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e 1957, e s t i m a t e d f o r a f u l l y e a r , as p e r day's c a r e used f o r each age group, a t t h e average c o s t o f r e p l a c e m e n t . Page 42 V Tables continued. 13« Cost of shoes and c l o t h i n g 1957, estim-ated f o r the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n p a i d care, at the cost allowed f o r new c l o t h i n g , o r replacements, depending upon whether the c h i l d had been i n care f o r p a r t of, or the f u l l year. Page 43 14. Cost of shoes and c l o t h i n g 1957> estim-ated f o r the number of c h i l d r e n i n pay care, except f o r i n f a n t s , at the average cost of replacements. Page 45 15. Health care expenses, c h i l d r e n i n care, 1957. Page 47 16. Education expenses, c h i l d r e n i n care 1957- Page 49 17- A u x i l i a r y expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n care, 1957. Page 50 18. Expenses of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1957• Page 56 19. Expenses f o r s t a f f , C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , 1957. Page 61 20. General a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , 1957- Page 63 21. T o t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses, C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society, 1957. Page 64 22. Comparison of expenses c o n t r i b u t i n g to the per c a p i t a r a t e , two c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , Vancouver, 1957 Page 68 23* Per c a p i t a per diem r a t e s , comparisons between c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , Van-couver, and c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , Toronto, 1953 - 1957. Page 68 24. Community Chest share of expenses, the amount paid by Chest, and percentage of t o t a l exoenses, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society,"1944 - 1957- Page 75 v l Tables continued. 2 5. Non-ward care financed by Community Chest; number of days, cost and percentage i n c -rease or decrease over previous years, C a t h o l i c c h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society, 1953-1957. Page 78 26. S e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s and unmarried mothers; cost to Community Chest; percentage i n c -rease o r decrease over previous year, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1953-1957- Page 79 2 7 . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses; Community Chest share and amount p a i d by the Chest; per-centages of t o t a l , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n s A i d S o c i e t y , 1953 - 1957. Page 80 28. Community Chest share of expenses, Chil d r e n ' s A i d So c i e t y , 1957. C a t h o l i c Page 83 29. Amount p a i d by Community Chest a f t e r f i n a l c r e d i t s , C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1957. Page 83 3 0 . Income, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1957. Page 85 31. Ratios based on a number of v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s , and on u n i t s of time f o r the same number of v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s , C a t h o l i c Children's A i d So c i e t y , June 1955- Page 87 32. P r o p o r t i o n of work f o r c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s , v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s , C a t h o l i c Children's A i d So c i e t y , 1948 - 1959. Page 88 33. P r o p o r t i o n of work f o r c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s , v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s combined, C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d So c i e t y , 1948-1957- Page 89 34. P o r p o r t i o n of work f o r c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s , v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s , and v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s combined, compar-isons of percentages, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , 1948 - 1957. Page 90 v i i Tables Continued. 35 • Average monthly expenditures f o r mainten-ance of c h i l d r e n , C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s of S e a t t l e and Spokane, and C a t h o l i c C h i l -dren's A i d Society, Vancouver, 1957 Page 118 36. Average monthly expenditures f o r main-t a i n i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n care, C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s of S e a t t l e and Spokane, and C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society and Children's A i d Society Vancouver, 1957. Page 120 37. Maintenance and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n care, comparison by percentages, C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s of S e a t t l e and Spokane, and C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society and Chi l d r e n ' s A i d Society, Vancouver, 1957. Page 121 x i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I would l i k e to convey my a p p r e c i a t i o n to Mr. W. Ward Markle, Executive D i r e c t o r , The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto, and to Most Rev. Thomas G i l l , A u x i l i a r y Bishop of S e a t t l e , and D i r e c t o r of the C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s of the Arch-diocese of S e a t t l e , f o r t h e i r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e i n sending m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s study. My s i n c e r e thanks a l s o to Dr. Leonard Marsh f o r h i s most h e l p f u l a s s i s t a n c e , to Mr. Douglas Fowler f o r v a l u a b l e comments and suggestions, and to Mrs. V i o l a M u l l a l l y f o r her generous help i n p r e p a r a t i o n of the manuscript. I should a l s o acknowledge the patience and encouragement of my wife over the long p e r i o d during which t h i s study was being completed. FINANCING- CHILD CARE AND PREVENTIVE SERVICES. CHAPTER 1 THE PRIVATE AGENCY IN CHILD WELFARE SERVICES. The o r g a n i z a t i o n , and the methods of p r o v i d i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , have I n c r e a s i n g l y been pr e d i c a t e d on the growing understanding, and r e c o g n i t i o n of the needs and r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n . The needs and r i g h t s of c h i l d r e n have not always been w e l l recognized. The E l i z a b e t h e n poor laws, w i t h the systems of a p p r e n t i c e s h i p and indenture, and the use of almshouses to care f o r dependent c h i l d r e n , showed l i t t l e under-standing of them, or sympathy f o r the c h i l d r e n . The f i r s t recognized c h i l d w elfare programme on t h i s c o n t i n e n t , was begun w i t h the establishment of an orphanage, i n New Orleans i n 1729. During succeeding years many such i n s t i t u t i o n s were set up. The placement of c h i l d r e n w i t h p r i v a t e f a m i l i e s f o l lowed, and new agencies became necessary. The Children's A i d S o c i e t y of New York C i t y was e s t a b l i s h e d i n I853, and the payment of board to care f o r c h i l d r e n developed. 1 The f i r s t c h i l d w elfare l e g i s l a t i o n I n B r i t i s h Columbia was passed May, 1901. This was the"Act f o r the P r o t e c t i o n and Reformation of Neglected and Dependent C h i l d r e n . " 1. S o c i a l Work Year Book, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l workers, Boyd P r i n t i n g Co., Albany, New York, I960; Maurice 0. Hunt, C h i l d Welfare, p. 1.42. 2. This Act was changed a year l a t e r to the "Chlldrens P r o t e c t i o n Act of B r i t i s h Columbia". Among other t h i n g s , i t provided f o r the establishment of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and i t was on Jul y 11th, 1901, tha t the Children's A i d Society of Vancouver was formed. This was the f i r s t of three such s o c i e t i e s to be e s t a b l i s h e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s recorded that the e a r l y years of the Children's A i d S o c i e t y : "were an incessant s t r u g g l e to keep some s o r t of balance between Increasing numbers of c h i l d r e n to care f o r and the c o l l e c t i o n of s u f f i c i e n t money'to do so. The D i r e c t o r s ' c h i e f respons-i b i l i t i e s i n those days, though not of course t h e i r only one, was to make f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r the work. I n t r y i n g to grasp the extent of t h e i r problem we must r e a l i z e two th i n g s ; that c h i l d r e n from any pa r t of the Province could be, and were, committed to the care of the S o c i e t y , and no one was under any s t a t u t a r y o b l i g a t i o n to pay f o r t h e i r maintenance". 2 The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society was e s t a b l i s h e d on August 2 5 t h , 1905, as The Children's A i d Society of the Church of the Holy Rosary. I t r e t a i n e d t h i s name u n t i l 1930, when i t was changed to The Children's A i d Society of the C a t h o l i c Archdiocese o f Vancouver, which Is the present l e g a l t i t l e . 2 . Angus, Anne Margaret, The Children's A i d Society  of Vancouver, B.C., 1901 - 1951, Page .7. 3. The new Soci e t y experienced the same f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s as the Vancouver Children's A i d . "The main problem of the Society during the p e r i o d up to 1910 was a l a c k of operating funds. The p r o v i n c i a l government had f a i l e d to recognize i t s f i n -a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the care of c h i l d r e n committed to the Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s . Small grants were r e c e i v e d from the C i t y and the P r o v i n c i a l Government, but these were Inadequate to meet the needs o f these S o c i e t i e s . " 3 Membership d r i v e s were h e l d to r a i s e money and a l l C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s were s o l i c i t e d to a s s i s t the S o c i e t y . In 1910 the P r o t e c t i o n Act was amended to provide t h a t the m u n i c i p a l i t y to which the c h i l d belonged was to pay not l e s s than $1.50 per week f o r the maintenance of a c h i l d , to the age of fourteen. The P r o v i n c i a l Government was to pay f o r c h i l d r e n who were not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a m u n i c i p a l i t y , i f a court order was made. There was no f i n a n c i a l p r o v i s i o n f o r c h i l d r e n who were not committed by court order. The Children's P r o t e c t i o n Act became P a r t IV of the I n f a n t s ' Act i n 1911, and i n 1919 the I n f a n t s ' Act was amended. This provided f o r an in c r e a s e i n the weekly minimum r a t e from $1.50 to $2.00 f o r c h i l d r e n who were committed to the S o c i e t i e s . This increase d i d not meet the a c t u a l cost of maintaining the c h i l d r e n . The d i f f e r e n c e had to be made up by c o l l e c t i o n s and tag days, and various other f u n c t i o n s , e x p e c i a l l y those of women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s . ^ 3. Cote, Maurice N. The Children's A i d Society of the  C a t h o l i c Archdiocese of Vancouver, page 11 4. Angus, Anne Margaret, Children's A i d Society of Vancouver page 20. 4. In 1922 the minimum weekly amount was increased to $3.00. The Societies however continued to struggle with inadequate funds, and, though the s i t u a t i o n had improved over the early years, " i t was l a r g e l y through the r e s u l t s of the hard -working members and the women's parish organizations that t h i s had been achieved."^ The year 1927 marked a new era i n the financing of children committed to Children's Aid Societies. In 1925, the Rotary Club was requested to give assistance to various community services. After looking into c h i l d welfare services, i t was concluded that a thorough study should be done. The Canadian Council of Child Welfare was consulted, a survey was completed i n 1927* In regard to finances, the report recommended that the actual cost of maintaining a c h i l d should be paid as "the reasonable sum" which was provided for by the Act, instead of the $3.00 per week which was being paid. The report suggested that $1.00 per day would represent more closely the actual cost.g With the implementation of the recommendation of t h i s survey that the actual cost of maintaining wards should be paid, Children's Aid Societies were able to b u i l d more firmly t h e i r programmes for the children for whom they were responsible. The Protection of Children Act was passed i n 1943, replac-ing Sections 111 and IV of the Infants' Act. This Act 5. Cote, Maurice N. The Children's Aid Society of the  Catholic Archdiocese of Vancouver, page 20. 6. Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia Child Welfare Survey, Canadian Council on Child Welfare, 1927. 5. provides i n S e c t i o n 32 ( 1 ) : "when a Judge commits any c h i l d to the custody or c o n t r o l of any c h i l d r e n s a i d s o c i e t y , he s h a l l at the same time, or subsequently, upon a p p l i c a t i o n of the s o c i e t y , make an order f o r the payment by t h e ; l o c a l a u t h o r i t y of the area to which"the c h i l d belongs of a reasonable sum, not being l e s s than four d o l l a r s per week, to cover the costs Incurred by the s o c i e t y i n maintaining and s u p e r v i s i n g the c h i l d i n any temporary home or s h e l t e r or In any f o s t e r home where, c h i l d r e n are to cared f o r without compensation, In which the c h i l d may be placed by the s o c i e t y . The p r a c t i c e of the p l a c i n g of c h i l d r e n w i t h the lowest bidder i s p r o h i b i t e d . " This i s the a u t h o r i t y which Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia have at the present time to ensure payment f o r c h i l d r e n committed to t h e i r care by order of a c o u r t . Payment f o r a l l c h i l d r e n i n care i s made on the b a s i s of a per c a p i t a per diem r a t e which represents the a c t u a l average cost per day to the s o c i e t y to maintain a c h i l d i n care. This r a t e i s e s t a b l i s h e d y e a r l y by d i v i d i n g the t o t a l cost of maintaining a l l c h i l d r e n i n care, by the t o t a l number of days which the s o c i e t y has paid f o r the c h i l d r e n , i n f o s t e r homes or elsewhere. The P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act provides t h a t : "Before any order f o r payment i s made pursuant to subsection ( l ) , the s o c i e t y s h a l l f u r n i s h the Judge w i t h a statement showing the average per diem cost of maintaining and s u p e r v i s i n g the c h i l d r e n who were i n i t s care f o r the immediately preceding f i s c a l year of the s o c i e t y , as confirmed by the s o c i e t y s a u d i t o r s and the Superintendent, and i t s h a l l be presumed i n the absence of evidence to the contrary t h a t such average cost represents cost of maintaining and s u p e r v i s i n g a c h i l d i n the s o c i e t y ' s care, and the Judge s h a l l make h i s order a c c o r d i n g l y . " y 7. P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act. S e c t i o n 32 ( 2 ) . 6. I t i s the p r a c t i c e of the Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s to f i l e a statement signed by the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare, 14 Family and J u v e n i l e Court each year a f t e r a u d i t s f o r the previous year have been completed. The i n c o r p o r a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i s a l s o provided f o r i n the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act. I t provides t h a t any ten persons, who are B r i t i s h subjects and over the age of twenty-one years may apply f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n of a s o c i e t y . The purpose of a s o c i e t y i s described as " p r o t e c t i n g c h i l d r e n from cruelty,., a m e l i o r a t i n g f a m i l y c o n d i t i o n s that l e a d to neglect of c h i l d r e n , and c a r i n g f o r and p r o t e c t i n g c h i l d r e n i n need of p r o t e c t i o n . " The Act a l s o sets f o r t h t h a t the areas of j u r i s d i c t i o n of the s o c i e t y are to be define d ; the numbers of d i r e c t o r s and t h e i r e l e c t i o n i s provided f o r , and t h e i r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are s t a t e d , ( s e c t i o n s 2, 21 to 27) The d i r e c t o r s are empowered to draw up by-laws which must be confirmed by a general meeting, and approved by the Lieutenant-Governor i n C o u n c i l . The s o c i e t i e s are th e r e f o r e democratic o r g a n i z a t i o n s which must operate w i t h i n the p r o v i s i o n s of the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act. Payment f o r Wards i n the Care of A Children's A i d S o c i e t y . For many years m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p a i d the f u l l cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n f o r whom they were l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . In.1947 the p r o v i n c i a l government began reimbursing 7. m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r 80 per cent of t h i s c o s t . Previous to t h i s , some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had been slow i n paying t h e i r b i l l s , but a f t e r the p r o v i n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e began accounts were p a i d promptly, as the government would not pay them u n t i l they had paid the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . While the a s s i s t a n c e to m u n i c i p a l i t i e s helped to remove f i n a n c i a l s t r a i n f o r them as w e l l as f o r the s o c i e t i e s , i t a l s o brought w i t h i t new accounting problems. A f t e r the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s had paid the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y account f o r c h i l d r e n i n ward care, the m u n i c i p a l i t y had to b i l l the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r 80 per cent of t h i s amount. This was r a t h e r a roundabout precedure f o r a l l concerned, and from A p r i l 1956, a new procedure was adopted whereby a l l accounts from c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r wards were sent d i r e c t l y to the p r o v i n c i a l government. Accounts f o r wards are sent monthly, and s p e c i f y the number of days during the month that c h i l d r e n have been pa i d f o r i n f o s t e r homes or elsewhere. I f c h i l d r e n are I n f r e e i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as detention homes or i n d u s t r i a l schools, or are i n fre e f o s t e r homes and no maintenance i s p a i d while they are there, the p r o v i n c i a l government or m u n i c i p a l i t y i s not b i l l e d f o r those days. The Super-intendent of C h i l d Welfare i s n o t i f i e d of every move'of a c h i l d i n care, ward or non-ward, through a form which i s c a l l e d a "placement s l i p " , and accounts f o r wards can be checked against t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . 8. " The change i n the method of payment d i d not change the f a c t that the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were s t i l l being b i l l e d by the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . I t was merely a precedure which had been agreed upon, and which allowed c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s to c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r b i l l i n g , and i t cut out one st e p p i n handling the accounts i n government and municipal o f f i c e s . A f u r t h e r change i n procedures became e f f e c t i v e i n September, 1958, w i t h a change i n p r o v i n c i a l government p o l i c y on the sharing of welfare c o s t s . The p r o v i n c i a l government proposed t h a t c e r t a i n s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c o s t s , i n c l u d i n g c h i l d welfare c o s t s , would be shared between the p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on a 90 per cent-10 per cent b a s i s . The 10 per cent share i s d i v i d e d on a p o p u l a t i o n b a s i s , among those m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which are re s p o n s i b l e f o r these costs under the M u n i c i p a l Act, and they pay a y e a r l y per c a p i t a r a t e . This change d i d away wit h the need to " e s t a b l i s h residence" under the Residence and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y Act, when a c h i l d i s committed to care by a c o u r t . The p r o v i n c i a l government i s accepting the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r payment f o r a l l c h i l d r e n committed as wards, and agencies are not asking f o r maintenance orders against a " l o c a l a u t h o r i t y " when a c h i l d i s committed. The P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act was not changed i n order to b r i n g t h i s p o l i c y i n t o e f f e c t . The change 9. t h e r e f o r e could be described as a c o l l e c t i v e sharing of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r payment, v o l u n t a r i l y accepted, whereas formerly payment was ordered. While the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y had some r e s e r v a t i o n s i n regard to no order being made at the time of committal of a c h i l d , i t welcomed the end of having to e s t a b l i s h residence i n cases, f o r s o c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , reasons. The Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare has the a u t h o r i t y under the P r o t e c t i o n Act to au t h o r i z e anyone to apprehend a c h i l d who i s neglected as defined under the Act. C e r t a i n members of the s t a f f of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s have w r i t t e n a u t h o r i z a t i o n s which are f i l e d at Family and Ju v e n i l e Court. The Act a l s o provides t h a t the c h i l d w i l l be brought before a Judge w i t h i n seven days. The Judge has the power to adjourn the case u n t i l such time as a f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n can be made, and the c h i l d may be placed t e m p o r a r i l y i n t o the care of the Agency u n t i l the f i n a l hearing i s he l d . Such a c h i l d i s then o f f i c i a l l y "before c o u r t . " When a c h i l d i s apprehended and i s "before c o u r t " the agency must pay f o r t h a t c h i l d i n a f o s t e r home or elsewhere, and provide other n e c e s s i t i e s . The f i n a l court hearing may be delayed, and i n the meantime there has been no order made f o r payment. When there are many c h i l d r e n i n care, the r e s u l t i s tha t q u i t e and amount of money can be 10. expended on t h e i r b e h a l f . I n the past, c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s c a r r i e d these c h i l d r e n without reimbursement u n t i l an order f o r maintenance could be made. This, plus the f a c t that payment f o r c h i l d r e n i s always a month behind the a c t u a l expenditure r e s u l t e d i n l a r g e over-d r a f t s at the bank. In 1949 the p r o v i n c i a l government began paying the agency f o r these c h i l d r e n , and they are b i l l e d f o r i n the same manner as wards. I f the complaint before the court to have a c h i l d committed i s withdrawn, there i s no reimbursement, and the p r o v i n c i a l government accepts the cost of maintenance f o r these c h i l d r e n . The P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act a l s o provides t h a t when an order f o r maintenance i s made, i t i s e f f e c t i v e on the date the c h i l d was apprehended, regardless of the date that the order i s made. The Act a l s o provides t h a t the order w i l l continue "so long as the c h i l d remains i n the care of the s o c i e t y and an expense to the s o c i e t y up to. but not beyond the day when the c h i l d reaches the age of eighteen years."g There i s p r o v i s i o n f o r o b t a i n i n g an extension of the order, however, s i n c e A p r i l 1 st, 1954, the p r o v i n c i a l government has been assuming the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of such instances where the agency can show th a t I t i s necessary or very d e s i r a b l e f o r s o c i a l reasons that maintenance be continued beyond the age of eighteen years. 8. P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act, S e c t i o n 32 (9) 11. Another Instance of the p r o v i n c i a l government assuming one hundred per cent of the cost of maintenance, i s f o r c h i l d r e n : "born to an unmarried mother who has not been l i v i n g i n a so-called"common-law" r e l a t i o n s h i p . In other words, the p o l i c y i s designed to take care of the s i n g l e g i r l who needs help i n planning f o r h e r s e l f and chiId-and f o r whom i t i s e s s e n t i a l we extend the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b l e degree of p r o t e c t i o n and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . " g This p o l i c y a l s o i n c l u d e d the married woman, i f the f a t h e r o f the c h i l d was not her husband. In such cases evidence was not given as to residence, and the m u n i c i p a l i t y which would normally have been re s p o n s i b l e f o r maintenance of the c h i l d was not n o t i f i e d . The r e s u l t was that the p l i g h t of the unmarried mother d i d not become known I n her home community through necessary court a c t i o n . This p o l i c y was i n e f f e c t from June 1st , 1952 u n t i l the f u r t h e r change i n p o l i c y was made e f f e c t i v e September 1st , 1958, when i t no l onger became necessary to e s t a b l i s h residence. Payment f o r non-wards i n the care of a Children's A i d S o c i e t y . A l l of the c h i l d welfare agencies i n B r i t i s h Columbia provide temporary "non-ward care" f o r c h i l d r e n . "Non-ward care" means s e r v i c e extended to f a m i l i e s who have some k i n d of emergency making i t impossible f o r the c h i l d r e n to remain i n t h e i r own home. I l l n e s s , p h y s i c a l and mental, i s the 9. C i r c u l a r l e t t e r to a l l m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and o f f i c i a l s of the S o c i a l Welfare Branch from the D i r e c t o r of Welfare, May 15th, 1952. 12. most common cause and, at the time that the c h i l d r e n are admitted to care, the breakup of the fam i l y i s seen as being necessary f o r a temporary p e r i o d only. C h i l d r e n are admitted to care as non-wards, at the request of parents, who s i g n "non-ward consents" which a u t h o r i z e s the agency to provide f o r the c h i l d r e n as necessary. Because the parents are making a r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n during a time when they are not able to provide care f o r them, these c h i l d r e n are not presented i n court as neglected. I n some ins t a n c e s , there may be evidence of n e g l e c t , but i f the parents are s i n c e r e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n , and wish to r e t a i n guardianship, the pro-v i s i o n o f t h i s care may be a means of h e l p i n g them to provide adequately f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n i n the f u t u r e . This s e r v i c e , t h e r e f o r e , i s seen as a "preventive", f a m i l y s e r v i c e , which helps to hold f a m i l i e s together. Non-ward care i s p a i d f o r on the same basi s as ward care when i t i s provided by a p u b l i c agency. Non-ward care which i s provided by a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y i s financed by the Community Chest. The Chest i s not b i l l e d f o r c h i l d r e n i n non-ward care. Agencies r e c e i v e grants from the Chest, and the amount of non-ward care which has been estimated as' necessary f o r the year i s covered i n the grant. C h i l d r e n i n non-ward care cost the agency as much to maintain as wards because they r e c e i v e the same s e r v i c e s and a c t u a l l y the Community Chest pays.the per c a p i t a r a t e f o r these c h i l d r e n . 13. I f parents are able to c o n t r i b u t e toward the cost of main-tenance, they are encouraged to do so. I f they are able to pay the f u l l c ost, they pay the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e which has been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the previous year. The Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare o c c a s i o n a l l y wishes a c h i l d who i s i n her care to be i n Vancouver f o r medical or s o c i a l reasons. The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y can accept t h i s c h i l d i n t o care, and the Superintendent signs a "Transfer of S u p e r v i s i o n " which a u t h o r i z e s the agency to provide f o r the c h i l d . Such a c h i l d may be e i t h e r a ward o r a non-ward of the Superintendent, and the c h i l d i s i n non-ward care of the s o c i e t y a f t e r such a t r a n s f e r of s u p e r v i s i o n i s made. The Superintendent i s b i l l e d f o r the cost of maintaining these c h i l d r e n . This a l s o a p p l i e s to c h i l d r e n who are wards of another province. I n such in s t a n c e s the Superintendent accepts r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u p e r v i s i o n of the c h i l d , and then delegates i t to the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y . A c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y may take i n t o care a c h i l d who Is a ward o r non-ward of another c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y , and these c h i l d r e n are pai d f o r by the p r o v i n c i a l government d i r e c t l y , and agencies do not b i l l each other f o r maintenance. In the C i t y of Vancouver, I f a f a m i l y i s on s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , and i t i s necessary that the c h i l d r e n come i n t o care t e m p o r a r i l y , the Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e Department requests the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y to place them i n f o s t e r 14. homes,with the parent's consent. Children's a i d societies have children i n t h e i r care who are the f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l government; many d i f f e r e n t municipalities; the Superintendent of Child Welfare; Community Chest, and other children's aid s o c i e t i e s . C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Children i n Care and Services Provided. As has been noted, there are two c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of children i n care of the Catholic Children's Aid Society, those who are wards, and those who are i n temporary care as non-wards. Services which are provided to children i n care of the agency can be l i s t e d as follows: 1. For temporary placement - the intake process; obtaining information and making assessments. When children are placed "before court", the intake process may be largely the inv e s t i g a t i o n of a complaint and gathering evidence through contact with natural parents i f they are available, and others. 2. Apprehending and presenting the c h i l d i n court, and presenting evidence when the case i s heard for f i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n . 3« Placement of a l l children i n foster or group l i v i n g homes, and continuing supervision of the c h i l d , which e n t a i l s work with foster parents. 4. Work with natural parents, i f available, to r e h a b i l i t a t e the family, i f possible. 5» Providing medical and dental care, clothing and shoes. 6. The homefinding programme to provide resources for placement. 1 5 . Gatholio Children's A i d Society Programme and Expenditures. The t o t a l y e a r l y expenses of the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y have been r i s i n g s t e a d i l y over the years, but so a l s o has the average cost per c h i l d . These increases r e f l e c t and I n c r e a s i n g amount of s e r v i c e which the s o c i e t y has provided, but they r e f l e c t more s t r o n g l y the increasing, expense of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s at a l l . The cost of main-taining, a c h i l d has r i s e n ; payments to f o s t e r parents have been Increased, shoes and c l o t h i n g and other goods have become more expensive. S a l a r i e s are higher, and other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses have increased. Looking at t o t a l expenses alone does not gi v e one a good i n d i c a t i o n of r i s i n g c o s t s , unless one c o r r e l a t e s them w i t h increases or decreases i n the amount of s e r v i c e provided. Reviewing the in c r e a s e i n the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e provides a more accurate p i c t u r e . There are, however, c e r t a i n things which must be remembered. The p o l i c y of an agency can change over a p e r i o d of years about the amount of goods provided f o r c h i l d r e n i n care. C o n s i d e r a t i o n must be given to an I n c r e a s i n g or decreasing standard of s e r v i c e . While a t r a i n e d and experienced s t a f f i s e s s e n t i a l to the p r o v i s i o n of good s e r v i c e , the number of people a v a i l a b l e to do a given amount of work i s important, and i s a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n when reviewing c o s t s . O f f i c e f a c i l i t i e s , and personnel p r a c t i c e s , are others. 16. An agency u s u a l l y grows w i t h the community i t serves, or more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r s e r v i c e . An agency's growth may however, be more spasmodic than i s i n d i c a t e d by an i n c r e a s i n g need f o r s e r v i c e . Caseloads may grow, and the standard of s e r v i c e s u f f e r as a r e s u l t , before a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f can be e s t a b l i s h e d . An agency's growth may not r e f l e c t the i n c r e a s i n g need f o r s e r v i c e , i f there i s not e x t r a money a v a i l a b l e when a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f i s necessary. The p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s pay f o r m a i ntaining wards i n care. The Community Chest has undertaken to pay f o r non-ward care. The agency t h e r e f o r e has been f r e e to provide f o r c h i l d r e n i n care as i t thought necessary, having the assurance that the cost of main-t a i n i n g c h i l d r e n would be reimbursed. During the f i v e years 1953-57, t o t a l expenses of the agency in c r e a s e d from s i x to ten percent every year. I n the ten years 1948-57, they increased 168 percent. (See Table 1) The per c a p i t a r a t e i n c r e a s e shows more f l u c t u a t i o n over the l a s t f i v e years, but the percentage in c r e a s e per year i s comparable to the budget i n c r e a s e . Over a ten year pe r i o d , however, the Increase i n the per c a p i t a r a t e has been l e s s . Nevertheless, i t s o v e r a l l i n c r e a s e f o r the years 1948 to 1957 has been 117 percent. (Table 2) I t has already been noted th a t the u n i t of measurement used to account f o r the amount of care provided f o r c h i l d r e n i s a day. I t i s used because c h i l d r e n are i n care f o r 17. TABLE 1. Expenditures of C a t h o l i c Children's A i d So c i e t y , 1944-1958. (From audited statements; f i g u r e s rounded) Year Cost of maintaining A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Emergency T o t a l c h i l d r e n i n care. Expenses. Fund Expenses. 1944 | 80,240 | 23,782 f104,022 1945. 87,754 25,987 - 113,741 1946 94,708 30,204 - 124,912 136,634 1947 106,613 29,910 . P41 1948 124,939 35,121 229 160,288 1949 147,281 43,003 376 190,660 210,857 1950 161,256 49,123 479 1951 193,876 56,862 441 251,620 1952 198 , 621 78,980 197 277,798 1953 198,515 97,093 276 295,884 1954 218,380 115,862 202 334,443 1955 230,299 125,759 287 356,344 1956 251,194 137,437 350 388,980 1957 276,137 154,055 434 431,310 1958 290,717 169,550 307 460,575 18. TABLE 2. Per Capita Per Diem Rates E s t a b l i s h e d f o r Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s . 1 1944 - 1957. Year C a t h o l i c Children's C h i l d r e n ' s Children's A i d A i d A i d S o c i e t y Society S o c i e t y Vancouver V i c t o r i a 1944 1 -99 1 -95 1 .92 1945 .98 .99 .95 1946 .99 1.04 .97 1947 1.04 1.09 1.13 1948 1 .15 1.22 1.18 1949 1.24 1.31 1.32 1950 1.28 1 .32 1.53 1951 1 .51 1.61 1.79 1952 1.77 1.80 1.97 1953 1.89 1.91 1.94 1954 2.05 2.09 2.35 1955 2.17 2.26 2.46 1956 2.42 2.58 3.15 1957 2 .51 2.66 3.55 1. To nearest cent, e.g., a c t u a l e s t a b l i s h e d r a t e f o r C.C.A.S. f o r 1957 was§2.5097'1'• 19. v a r y i n g lengths of time, o c c a s i o n a l l y only f o r one or two days. The agency pays f o s t e r parents f o r the number of days a c h i l d i s i n t h e i r home, and i s reimbursed f o r the same number of days. Children's a i d s o c i e t i e s are not reimbursed f o r c h i l d r e n who are i n fr e e homes or i n s t i t u t i o n s , o r f o r those who are s e l f supporting. These c h i l d r e n are none- . t h e l e s s u$der the s u p e r v i s i o n of the agency. They are i n care, but these days are not important to the agency f i n a n c i a l l y . The numbers of days care r e f e r r e d to i n t h i s study are p a i d days, t h a t i s , days care f o r which payment was made by the s o c i e t y , and f o r which i t was reimbursed. The t o t a l p a i d days care show some f l u c t u a t i o n from year to year, but are h e a v i l y i n f l u e n c e d by the great v a r i a t i o n i n the amount of non-ward care which was p a i d by Community Chest. I t w i l l be noted t h a t the percentage of i n c r e a s e or decrease i n government and municipal days i s small when compared wi t h the i n c r e a s e and decrease i n non-ward days. (See Tables 4 and 6) Al s o i n 1952 to 1955 ward days increased q u i t e sharply, w h i l e non-ward days were dropping, whereas i n 1956 and 1957 non-ward days increased d r a s t i c a l l y , w h i l e ward days dropped sharply i n 1956 and remained v i r t u a l l y unchanged from the previous year, i n 1957* T r a n s l a t i n g "days care" i n t o money, and remembering th a t the per c a p i t a r a t e has been I n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y , the account f o r ward,days has been i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y , while the expense f o r non-ward care has f l u c t u a t e d g r e a t l y , without any c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n . 20 T o t a l days care provided f o r i n a year does not alone i n d i c a t e the amount of work done i n regard to c h i l d r e n i n care. The number of c h i l d r e n admitted to care and discharged from care, and the number committed as wards, and placed f o r adoption, are b e t t e r i n d i c a t i o n s . (See Tables 3 and 5) While these s t a t i s t i c s a l s o show great f l u c t u a t i o n s from year to year, a l l show a marked Increase over f i v e years, excepting the number of c h i l d r e n committed as wards. The l a t t e r s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t casework witfo- f a m i l i e s was i n c r e a s i n g and becoming more e f f e c t i v e . The amount of pre-v e n t i v e work d i d inc r e a s e , and the agency b e l i e v e s that t h i s was a major f a c t o r i n h o l d i n g down the amount of non-ward care, and l e s s e n i n g the numbers of c h i l d r e n who were committed. 21. TABLE 3. P r o t e c t i o n and Care of C h i l d r e n ; T o t a l Numbers, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1949 - 1957. C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n T o t a l Days C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n Year Admitted discharged care p a i d . committed placed to care. from care. to care as wards f o r a d i p t l o n . 1949 200 159 145,889 35 38 1950 268 164 155,850 45 37 1951 206 174 158,298 42 49 1952 212 159 149 ,978 60 57 1953 229 164 147,947 153 ,952 71 58 1954 218 204 76 80 1955 176 142 153,210 62 69 1956 214 203 149,759 58 82 1957 279 ' 238 156,890 39 75 TABLE 4. P r o p o r t i o n of Maintenance Reimbursed by P r o v i n c i a l Government  and Community Chest, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1952-1957. Year T o t a l days Care p a i d Community Non-Ward Chest days P r o v i n c i a l Government and M u n i c i p a l Days n Number Percentage of t o t a l days Number percentage of t o t a l days. 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 149,978 147,947 153 ,952 153,210 149,759 156,890 27,625 16,759 9,297 6,987 12,540 19,218 18.4 11.3 6.0 4.6 8.3 12 . 3 122,353 131 ,188 144,655 146 ,223 137,219 137,672 81.6 88.7 94.0 95.4 91 . 7 87.7 1. P r o v i n c i a l and municipal t o t a l s i n c l u d e a small number of non-ward days. ( non-wards of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare.) 22. TABLE 5 P r o t e c t i o n and Pare of C h i l d r e n ; Some Indices of Yearly F l u c t u a t i o n s , C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Soc i e t y . 1953 - 1957. To t a l p a i d C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n C h i l d r e n Days care admitted , discharged committed placed f o r Year percentage to care from care as wards adoption i n c r e a s e percentage percentage percentage percentage or i n c r e a s e i n c r e a s e i n c r e a s e i n c r e a s e decrease or or or or decrease decrease decrease decrease 1953 -1.4 +8.3 +3.1 +18.3 +1.7 1954 + 4.1 -4.8 +24.3 + 7.0 +37-9 1955 + .5 -19.2 -30.3 -18.5 -13.7 1956 - 2.3 +21.5 +42.9 - 6.4 +18.8 1957 + 4.8 +30.3 +17.2 -32.7 - 8.5 TABLE 6 Year to Year Changes i n Some S i g n i f i c a n t I n d i c e s ; C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Soc i e t y , 1953-1957. T o t a l Per T o t a l Government Community budget Cap i t a days & M u n i c i p a l Chest days Year percent- percent- p a i d care days, percent- percentage age age percent- age, i n c r e a s e i n c r e a s e or inc r e a s e i n c r e a s e age i n c r e a s e or decrease or decrease decrease. 1953 6.51 6.94 -1.4 + 7.22 -39.4 1954 13.03 8.15 +4.1 +10.26 -44 .5 1955 6.54 5.91 +0.5 + 1 . 0 8 -24 .8 1956 9 .15 11 .58 -2.3 - 6.16 +79-5 1957 10.70 3.77 +4.8 + 0.33 +53.3 23. The Need f o r Services and Continuing Problems. 0 One has only to read the y e a r l y r e p o r t of the Super-intendent of C h i l d Welfare, o r attend an annual meeting of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y to r e a l i z e that an ever i n c r e a s i n g number of c h i l d r e n i n B r i t i s h Columbia are the r e c i p i e n t s of c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s . The scope of c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i s w e l l o u t l i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g statement: " C h i l d w e l f a r e as a f i e l d of a c t i o n i n c l u d e s a broad range of e f f o r t s aimed at making i t p o s s i b l e f o r c h i l d r e n to l i v e h a p p i l y and to grow and develop i n t o healthy, wholesome i n d i v i d u a l s able to make the most of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l i n l i f e . I t encompasses s e r v i c e s provided d i r e c t l y to c h i l d r e n and i s a l s o concerned w i t h the p r e s e r v a t i o n and strengthening of f a m i l y l i f e and the b r i n g i n g about of the -kind of community l i f e which makes f o r wholesome c h i l d development."^ The s e r v i c e s which are provided by the c h i l d w e l f a r e agencies i n B r i t i s h Columbia, can be c l a s s i f i e d under two broad headings; prevention of neglect so that c h i l d r e n can remain i n t h e i r own homes, and p r o v i d i n g care f o r those whose homes have broken down, or who do not have a home. . These are two d i s t i n c t areas of s e r v i c e (a) maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, and (b) p r o v i d i n g preventive s e r v i c e s . The p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e s provided are focussed on i n d i v i d u a l f a m i l i e s . The agency's foremost goal must be to keep the c h i l d i n i t s own home, provided t h a t i t i s not neglected there. Concentrated casework s e r v i c e s , i n a d d i t i o n to any other resources which might be h e l p f u l , should be used i n an e f f o r t 1 0 . Q p ^ c l t . S o c i a l Work Year Book 1960. page 141 24. to h o l d the f a m i l y together. Maurice 0. Hunt points out t h a t : "The strong t i e s of a f f e c t i o n and love which e x i s t between .most c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents from i n f a n c y p lace parents i n a s p e c i a l p o s i t i o n to have a v i t a l i n f l u e n c e upon the l i v e s of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . He goes on to say t h a t : " f o r some c h i l d r e n , reasonably s a t i s f a c t o r y s u b s t i t u t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be developed wi t h persons not t h e i r own parents, f o r many deprived c h i l d r e n such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s never a t t a i n e d . Modern c h i l d welfare l e a d e r s h i p , I t h e r e f o r e , places strong emphasis upon e f f o r t s to strengthen the c h i l d ' s own f a m i l y . " He points out too t h a t : "good f o s t e r care i s expensive, as compared to e a r l y s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes." ]_2 I f these s e r v i c e s do not prove to be e f f e c t i v e , the c h i l d w i l l need care away from i t s own home. I f the breakup of the home appears to be temporary, the agency can o f f e r non-ward care, and i t should do what i t can to r e - e s t a b l i s h the home as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . In such instances the c h i l d i s i n care w i t h the consent of the parents, and t h i s k i n d of care should -be extended i f the parents are r e s p o n s i b l e , and have not neglected the c h i l d . When there i s serious n e g l e c t of a c h i l d which demands immediate a c t i o n , or i f the parents are incapable of p r o v i d i n g adequate care, the c h i l d may be presented i n court, and evidence 11. I b i d - page 143 12. I b i d , page 144 25. given as to the need f o r p r o t e c t i o n . I f the court concurs, the c h i l d w i l l be committed to the agency as a ward. In order to maintain an adequate ch i l d , p l a c i n g programme, i t i s v i t a l t h a t s u f f i c i e n t f o s t e r and adoption homes are a v a i l a b l e to the agency, so th a t each c h i l d I s assured of a home which w i l l provide f o r him what he has thus f a r been deprived o f . A l l of the s e r v i c e s noted are provided by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare throughout the province, by municipal o f f i c e s , and by the three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s which serve Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . The cast of ward care f o r c h i l d r e n i s shared between the p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s on the same b a s i s , i r r e s p e c t i v e of which agency provides the s e r v i c e . The cost of preventive work, and casework s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers, miscellaneous s e r v i c e s , and non-ward care, are al s o shared on the same b a s i s , when these s e r v i c e s are provided by p r o v i n c i a l o r municipal o f f i c e s . They are paid by p r i v a t e or vo l u n t a r y funds, provided by Community Chest, when given by a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y . This i s not because the government and the c i t i e s of V i c t o r i a and Vancouver would not provide these s e r -v i c e s , but r a t h e r , i t i s because c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s have always provided them. The concept has remained that because the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s are p r i v a t e agencies, 26. and these s e r v i c e s are l e s s o b viously a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , p r i v a t e agencies should continue to provide them, thus r e t a i n i n g p r i v a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p o l i c y and standards of s e r v i c e . The s o c i e t i e s have not pressed to have a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s financed by p u b l i c funds, because of t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t y about t h e i r s t a t u s as p r i v a t e agencies i f too l a r g e a p o r t i o n of t h e i r income was to come from government. The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s b e l i e v e t h a t both p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s have a v a l i d place i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s . The Community Chest has had great d i f f i c u l t y i n recent years i n p r o v i d i n g necessary funds f o r a l l i t s member agencies, and there i s question about the c o n t i n u i n g support of s e r v i c e s by the Chest. I n one sense, however, whether necessary s e r v i c e s are provided through p u b l i c or p r i v a t e funds i s of secondary importance. The focus must remain on c h i l d r e n , and the s e r v i c e s they need. Whatever conclusions are reached i n the f u t u r e , they w i l l be v a l i d only i f they ensure b e t t e r s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n who need them. 27. CHAPTER I I A FINANCIAL ANALYSIS; CATHOLIC CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY, 1957. During 1957, the C.C.A.S. admitted two hundred and seventy nine c h i l d r e n i n t o care. This number i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n who were i n care only a short time as non-wards, and others who were apprehended under the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n Act. T h i r t y nine c h i l d r e n were committed to the So c i e t y as wards during the year, but two hundred and t h i r t y e i g h t c h i l d r e n were discharged from care. Among the l a t t e r , one hundred and t h i r t y e i g h t were returned to parents or r e l a t i v e s , and twenty three became of age or were married. Adoption homes were found f o r seventy f i v e c h i l d r e n . At the end of the year the agency had seven hundred and twenty four c h i l d r e n i n care, and during the year, a t o t a l of nine hundred and s i x t y two c h i l d r e n had been i n care. I t i s not necessary to pay board or c l o t h i n g e t c . , f o r a l l c h i l d r e n who are i n care. Wards i n adoption homes during the one year probation p e r i o d , c h i l d r e n i n schools f o r the mentally retarded, those I n h o s p i t a l or c o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s , are some of the c h i l d r e n who are not paid f o r . I n a d d i t i o n there are those who are s e l f supporting, who continue to be an agency r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s u p e r v i s i o n . They may need some f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , but maintenance i s di s c o n t i n u e d when they earn enough to support themselves. 28. Maintenance i s p a i d to the age of twenty one i f necessary, because of h e a l t h , unemployment or other sound reason. The f o l l o w i n g schedule shows the number of c h i l d r e n by age groupings f o r whom maintenance was p a i d during 1957, and the number of p a i d days care f o r each. Number of c h i l d r e n Age Days care p a i d (For f u r t h e r breakdown by age, see Appendix A) The l a r g e s t group of c h i l d r e n are those of pre-school age, and the l a r g e s t number i n t h i s group are i n f a n t s under one year of age (116) i n pay-care dur i n g 1957. - The l a r g e s t number of admissions i s i n t h i s age group, most of them being c h i l d r e n of unmarried parents. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that there i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e i n the number of c h i l d r e n i n care beyond s i x years of age. This probably r e f l e c t s the f a c t t h a t few c h i l d r e n are placed f o r adoption a f t e r s i x years of age. When c o n s i d e r i n g s e r v i c e s and a c t u a l goods provided f o r c h i l d r e n i n care, one must bear i n mind that accounts are not maintained f o r any i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d , nor f o r any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c h i l d by age, sex or k i n d of care provided. Expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n care are pooled, and there i s no ready way of 316 131 131 68 38 B i r t h to 5 i n c l . 6 to 10 i n c l . 11 to 15 I n c l . 16 to 17 i n c l . 18 to 21 62,507 38,161 36,497 14,404 5,321 684 156,890 29. a s c e r t a i n i n g what expenses are f o r any c h i l d or group of c h i l d r e n . We do know, however, the expenses i n regard to p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s , and the cost of goods which they received as a group. We,also know the ages of c h i l d r e n who were i n care, and the number of days care provided f o r each age group. I t i s t h e r e f o r e p o s s i b l e to show an average of goods and s e r v i c e s which were provided per c h i l d , and what each of these goods or s e r v i c e s c o n t r i b u t e d to the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e . Conversely, t h i s provides d e t a i l s about what was provided on an average per day per c h i l d f o r the amount of two d o l l a r s and f i f t y one cents which was e s t a b l i s h e d as the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e f o r 1957* 3Q TABLE 7 C h i l d r e n Admitted to Care, C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society, 1957 Ma] Le Female . Age of F i r s t h a l f Second h a l f F i r s t h a l f Second h a l f T o t a l s . c h i l d of year of year of year of year Underl 39 27 16 34 116 1 - 2 15 8 7 7 37 3 - 6 6 3 12 5 26 6 -11 9 7 9 11 36 12-18 12 18 17 14 61 19-21 0 1 1 1 3 T o t a l 81 64 62 72 279 TABLE 8 C h i l d r e n Discharged from Care, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society,1957. Male Female Age of F i r s t h a l f Second h a l f F i r s t h a l f Second h a l f T o t a l s . c h i l d of year of year of year of year Under 1 5 20 9 17 51 1 - 2 9 6 12 12 39 3 - 5 3 3 6 7 19 6 -11 5 11 3 6 25 12-18 2 3 6 14 25 19-21 0 5 0 0 5 T o t a l 24 48 36 56 237 (a) (a) I n c l u d i n g 73 c h i l d r e n who were not being maintained when discharged. 31. Maintenance Payments. This i n c l u d e s a l l payments made to f o s t e r and boarding homes, and a l l I n s t i t u t i o n s during 1957 f o r c h i l d r e n who were i n pay care. T o t a l maintenance p a i d $204,739.27 Less St. Euphrasia s School 9.879.15 $194,860.12 Average r a t e per day, a l l ages - $1.25537 St. Euphrasia's School i s a boarding school f o r emotionally d i s t u r b e d g i r l s . The agency places g i r l s there who cannot continue to l i v e at home, and who would not make a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment i n a f o s t e r home. A s p e c i a l r a t e i s paid f o r t h i s care. The cost f o r g i r l s who are wards or non-wards of the agency, i s Included i n the per c a p i t a per diem expenditures. The cost i s not i n c l u d e d f o r g i r l s who are wards or non-wards of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. Instead the Superintendent pays the boarding r a t e to the agency, however the cost of s u p e r v i s i o n , c l o t h e s , e t c . , i s absorbed i n t o the agencyL's. per c a p i t a c o s t . Because the f u l l maintenance r a t e i s pai d by the Superintendent, the t o t a l amount p a i d i s deducted from the agency's t o t a l maintenance c o s t , and to compensate f o r t h i s , the number of days pai d f o r i s deducted from the t o t a l number of days care, when the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The maintenance r a t e s which are pai d to f o s t e r parents are c a l c u l a t e d to provide f o r the t o t a l maintenance of the 32. c h i l d i n the home. I n a d d i t i o n to food, allowances have been made f o r c l e a n i n g s u p p l i e s , minor r e p a i r s , school s u p p l i e s , (not i n c l u d i n g book r e n t a l s and t e x t s ) personal and c l o t h i n g care, h e a l t h s u p p l i e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , (except f o r school) r e c r e a t i o n , and r e l i g i o u s observance. No allowance i s made f o r the home, e.g. rent, insurance, major r e p a i r s and appli a n c e s . I n regard to the adequacy of r a t e s , i t should be noted t h a t i n March 1955 a committee of the Children's A i d So c i e t y of Vancouver composed of Board members, a f o s t e r mother, a n u t r i t i o n c o n s u l t a n t , M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Committee; and s t a f f members, concluded a thorough study of board rates and recommended t h a t the f o l l o w i n g r a t e s should be Implemented immediately. C h i l d r e n up to 10 years of age f l . 0 0 per day C h i l d r e n 10 to 12 years of age 1 .15 per day G i r l s 12 to 14 years of age 1 .31 per day Boys 12 to 14 years of age 1 .50 per day G i r l s 14 to 16 years of age 1 .31 per day Boys 14 to 16 years of age 1 . 5 0 per day G i r l s 16 to 21 years of age 1 . 5 0 per day Boys 16 to 21 years of age 1.64 per day In Compiling t h i s recommendation i t was emphasized t h a t the sub-committee recognized that the moderate r a t e costs were low and were based on an income l e v e l of $2550 to $3050 per year. On March 1 s t , 1956 the f o l l o w i n g rates were authorized, and they were lower than the rat e s which had been recommended. C h i l d r e n up to 14 years of age G i r l s 14 years of age, and over Boys 14 years of age, and over $1.00 per day 40.00 per month 45.00 per month 33. On January 1 s t , 1957, a small a d d i t i o n a l i n c r e a s e became e f f e c t i v e C h i l d r e n up to 14 years of age G i r l s 14 years of age, and over Boys 14 years of age, and over $1.00 per day i l l . 3 1 per day f1.60 per day While f o s t e r parents do not expect, or t r y to make a p r o f i t on the maintenance allowed, they should "break even" at l e a s t . When the new rates went i n t o e f f e c t i n March 1956 and January 1957, f o s t e r parent's r e a c t i o n g e n e r a l l y was t h a t the r a t e was too low. While there was no great pressure to Increase them f u r t h e r during 1957, the agency was aware that some homes which might have provided good care to c h i l d r e n would not be a v a i l a b l e because of the minimum r a t e s . By the summer of 1958 f o s t e r parents of long standing began asking f o r i n c r e a s e d r a t e s , and t h i s pressure grew as the year progressed. I n November 1958, a committed of the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, c o n s t i t u t e d s i m i l a r l y to the 1955 committee, completed a new study of board r a t e s . The committee r e - p r i c e d a l l items, and followed the same method of assessing costs as had been used f o r the 1955 study. The r e p o r t s t a t e s t h a t : "The cost quoted represents the a c t u a l cost of maintaining a c h i l d on a moderate standard of l i v i n g ...13 The-committee f e e l s t h i s i s j u s t adequate to maintain a f o s t e r c h i l d on the standard r e q u i r e d by the Children's A i d Society and the community at l a r g e . " 13. This f o l l o w s the standards which have been used f o r a l l such income or cost computations i n Canada f o r the l a s t 10 years, v i z . A Guide to Family Spending, f i r s t i s s u e d by the Welfare Council of Greater Toronto, i n 1949, and since kept up to date; and a d d i t i o n a l "budgets" i s s u e d by the M e t r o p o l i t a n Health Committee, Vancouver. 34. I t goes on: "The committee was shocked to d i s c o v e r that i n the age range 6 - 1 3 years i n c l u s i v e (hoys and g i r l s ) , we are paying from $1.12 per month to $13*70 per month l e s s than the a c t u a l cost of maintenance, and that I n the age range 16-20 years i n c l u s i v e (boys and g i r l s ) we are paying from $1.42 to $2.41 per month l e s s than the a c t u a l cost of maintenance. " I t w i l l be remembered that the recommendations f o r increased board r a t e s , made i n March, 1955, could not be put i n t o e f f e c t i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y because of l a c k of funds, and t h a t the increases approved i n 1956 were a compromise and were considered to be inadequate even then.-1' While i t could be argued that a r e p o r t compiled i n 1958 does not apply completely to 1957, the evidence i s that f o s t e r home r a t e s were too low during 1957. In many in s t a n c e s , s p e c i a l r a t e s are expected and must be p a i d because the c h i l d r e n f o r whom they are p a i d have s p e c i a l needs. Boarding homes which w i l l take i n teen-agers and provide good care normally charge $60 to $65 per month, and the agency has no choice about paying such r a t e s . Convent boarding schools charged up to $65 a month during 1957, Vancouver College $2 per day, and the agency had g i r l s i n i t s care who were placed i n St. Euphrasia's School at $7 per day. C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society has a s p e c i a l problem i n regard to f i n d i n g s u f f i c i e n t homes f o r i n f a n t s and babies, and a l a r g e number of these c h i l d r e n are placed i n Our Lady of Mercy Home, where the cost averaged $1.30 per day per c h i l d d uring 1957. I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s a number of c h i l d r e n are placed i n e s p e c i a l l y l i c e n s e d homes, where the cost averaged $1.5.0 per day, 35. I f the r e g u l a r l y a u t h o r i z e d r a t e had been p a i d f o r a l l c h i l d r e n i n care, approximately $169,000 would have been spent f o r maintenance. I t i s estimated that $25,800 was p a i d as s p e c i a l r a t e s . ©f the amount paid i n s p e c i a l rates i t i s estimated that $14,000 was spent on behalf of c h i l d r e n under three years of age, and $11,000 f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n , e s p e c i a l l y teen-agers. I f the r a t e s recommented i n the 1955 study had been I n e f f e c t , approximately i$175»000 would have been spent. The use of these r a t e s would not have a f f e c t e d g r e a t l y the amount which was p a i d i n s p e c i a l r a t e s . The amount necessary f o r babies would have remained the same, but the amount necessary f o r other c h i l d r e n would have been s l i g h t l y l e s s . Clothing:. The cost o f c l o t h i n g f o r c h i l d r e n i n care during 1957 was $32,746 and f o r shoes $8,294, f o r a t o t a l expense of $41,040. This c o n t r i b u t e d .26440^ towards the per c a p i t a per diam r a t e . Most of the c l o t h i n g provided f o r c h i l d r e n i n care i s bought by f o s t e r parents, who o b t a i n a r e q u i s i t i o n f o r c l o t h i n g needed f o r the- c h i l d from the s o c i a l worker s u p e r v i s i n g the home. These r e q u i s i t i o n s a u t h o r i z e purchases from a c e r t a i n s t o r e , and an approximate p r i c e i s s t a t e d . The p o l i c y of the agency i s t h a t medium p r i c e d c l o t h i n g should be bought which w i l l g i v e good value f o r money p a i d . The agency's experience i s t h a t the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of f o s t e r parents shop w i s e l y , but t h a t there are some d i f f e r e n c e s i n the standard 36. of c l o t h i n g purchased depending on the d i f f e r e n c e i n the standard of the home. For the same reason, some f o s t e r homes r e q u i r e more c l o t h i n g than others because (more or) l e s s mending, and "making over" of c l o t h i n g i s done. Some f o s t e r mothers sew e x t e n s i v e l y f o r c h i l d r e n , asking only f o r the cost of m a t e r i a l , w h i l e others do l i t t l e or no sewing. This i s accepted, and the agency's p o l i c y i s to maintain, on the whole, a standard of purchases which provides good value, being, n e i t h e r cheap o r e x o r b i t a n t . The agency keeps a small stock of c l o t h i n g on hand, such a r t i c l e s being mainly c l o t h e s f o r i n f a n t s to three years old. s i z e s , and some other items f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n such as jeans, and Jackets. This c l o t h i n g i s purchased wholesale, and because of t h i s , and because i t i s convenient f o r s t a f f , and saves time shopping f o r i n d i v i d u a l items, i t i s considered worthwhile to continue t h i s p r a c t i c e . Other items, e s p e c i a l l y f o r o l d e r c h i l d r e n , are not kept at the agency, because the stock would have to be too l a r g e , and some items would not move i n the same volume year a f t e r year because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n weather from year to year, n e c e s s i t a t i n g storage i n o f f seasons. In a d d i t i o n , o l d e r c h i l d r e n l i k e to shop, and o b t a i n t h e i r c l o t h e s i n a normal way, and t h i s i s considered to be good p r a c t i c e . Then too, a l l of the stores who have r e g u l a r purchases throughout the year a l l o w the agency a discount of ten per cent, which i n 1957 amounted to over $4,000.00. 37. C l o t h i n g check l i s t s , which note the date and item purchased, are kept f o r a l l c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes. The p r i c e of.these items i s not noted, and would take too much time to do, c o n s i d e r i n g s t a f f a v a i l a b l e . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group of. the c l o t h i n g check l i s t s can be p r i c e d , but allowances must be .made f o r Items such as coats, s k i r t s , and sweaters, which can be worn f o r longer p e r i o d s , (and such allowances would not n e c e s s a r i l y be v a l i d i n each i n s t a n c e . ) I n order to t r y to show what was provided, i t was considered more v a l i d to look at the t o t a l c o s t , and the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n care. Because some c h i l d r e n are i n care f u r a f u l l year, and some only f o r a few days or a few weeks or months, the admissions and discharges, and the ages of these c h i l d r e n had to be considered. The t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n , by age, and the number of days they were i n care as a group, i s known f o r the year. (See Schedule page 2 8 ) . The ages, of the c h i l d r e n admitted and discharged i s a l s o known. (See Tables 7 and 8) "The Report to the Community Chest and Council on The Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Allowances i n the C i t y of Vancouver, September 1958" was used to provide a standard of c l o t h i n g requirements of c h i l d r e n . This r e p o r t , i n a s e r i e s of t a b l e s , sets f o r t h c l o t h i n g needs f o r c h i l d r e n i n v a r i o u s age groups. (See Table 9) The r e p o r t s t a t e s , (page 58) t h a t : "Each item l i s t e d i n the C l o t h i n g Inventory was p r i c e d at the p r e v a i l i n g r e t a i l p r i c e . The source used i n most cases was Eaton's Catalogue 1958. Moderate to 38. "low p r i c e s were chosen, hut not n e c e s s a r i l y the lowest p r i c e d a r t i c l e s where d u r a b i l i t y and usefulness were c a r e f u l l y weighed." The amounts necessary, as given i n the Tables, have been used i n d i f f e r e n t ways to i l l u s t r a t e how the amount of c l o t h i n g provided f o r c h i l d r e n i n care compares wi t h the standard used f o r the study. The number of boys and g i r l s i n each age group i s not known, t h e r e f o r e the average cost of c l o t h i n g f o r boys and g i r l s as given i n the study was used. This seems a f a i r b a s i s when l o o k i n g at the sex of c h i l d r e n admitted during the year, 145 boys and 134 g i r l s ; and a l s o i n regard to discharges, 111 boys and 106 g i r l s , not counting the 21 boys and g i r l s who became of age or were married during the year. (For average c o s t s , see Table 10) The amount allowed f o r nineteen to twenty one year olds i s t h a t quoted f o r twelve to eighteen. This was done because the report quoted an amount f o r men and women, age twenty to f o r t y four, and t h i s was thought to be l e s s a p p l i c a b l e f o r boys and g i r l s completing education, or t e m p o r a r i l y unemployed. Most c h i l d r e n , when coming i n t o care, have an Inadequate wardrobe, or none at a l l . I n f a n t s who come i n t o care d i r e c t l y from h o s p i t a l r a r e l y have any clothing, provided. When c h i l d r e n are placed i n t o f o s t e r homes they are provided w i t h a b a s i c , adequate wardrobe as necessary f o r the time of year. Some c h i l d r e n who are going to be i n care f o r only a short time, and where there i s no economic problem i n the f a m i l y , 39. TABLE 9. The Estimated Cost of C l o t h i n g Requirements of C h i l d r e n . Yearly T o t a l C h i l d r e n Ages Replacement Cost Cost (new) Infants _ $ 86.31 $ 86.31 Boys - g i r l s 1 - 2 67.11 67.11 Boys 3 - 6 52.50 84.47 Boys 6 -11 74.58 II8.58 Boys 12 -18 66.23 125.32 G i r l s 3 - 6 56.28 88.13 G i r l s 6 -11 70.00 110.41 G i r l s 12- 18 108.76 171.15 Source: The Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Allowances i n t h eqCity of Vancouver, September, 1958. pages 61-68. TABLE 10. Estimated Average Cost of New C l o t h i n g and Cl o t h i n g  Replacements f o r C h i l d r e n , by Age. Ch i l d r e n . Cost of New C l o t h i n g 1 Cost of Replacements Boys G i r l s Average Boys G i r l s Average I n f a n t s $ 86.31 $ 86.31 1 - 2 67 .11 67.11 3 - 6 | 84.47 $ 88.13 86.30 152 .50 | 56.28 54.39 6 -11 H 8 . 5 8 110.41 114 .49 74.58 7 0 . 0 0 72.29 12 -18 125.32 171.15 148.23 66.23 108.76 87.50 19 -21 148.23 87.50 4 0 . may need l i t t l e c l o t h i n g w h i l e i n care f o r a month to s e v e r a l months. Some parents provide necessary c l o t h i n g d u r i n g such a short p e r i o d . Such i n s t a n c e s , however, are r a r e . For the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n i t i s necessary to o u t f i t them almost completely when they come i n t o care. When c h i l d r e n are discharged, they take the c l o t h i n g they have w i t h them. The reason f o r t h i s p o l i c y i s that f o r the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of parents who are r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g a f a m i l y , i t would be impossible f o r them to o u t f i t the c h i l d r e n completely at one time. Another reason i s th a t i t would be l i t e r a l l y robbing a c h i l d to c o n f i s c a t e h i s c l o t h i n g , or part of i t , and t h i s would c e r t a i n l y have some a d d i t i o n a l e f f e c t on problems of readjustment. I n any case, most of the c l o t h i n g would be w e l l worn, and would be d i f f i c u l t to b r i n g to other f o s t e r homes to be used. The only c h i l d r e n who are not sent out w i t h a f u l l wardrobe, or w i t h the cl o t h e s they need, are i n f a n t s and babies. They are o c c a s i o n a l l y c l o t h e d by the agency when they are discharged, w i t h what i s needed, but r a r e l y are e x t r a c l o t h e s sent. This a p p l i e s to c h i l d r e n being returned to parents. Adopting parents almost always provide c l o t h i n g f o r the c h i l d when they take I t home. Reviewing the v a r i o u s t a b l e s which have been drawn up on the b a s i s o f costs allowed i n the Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e , we f i n d t h a t the a c t u a l amount spent 41. Compares w e l l w i t h what i s allowed i n the r e p o r t . (See Table 13) I t I s the o p i n i o n of the s t a f f of the agency th a t f o s t e r c h i l d r e n are g e n e r a l l y dressed as w e l l as, and o f t e n b e t t e r than the other c h i l d r e n i n the community. TABLE 11 C l o t h i n g Costs of C h i l d r e n I n Care, 1957. Estimated on the  Bas i s of the Number of C h i l d r e n I n Pai d Care, at the Average Cost f o r New C l o t h i n g . Age of Number of C h i l d average f o r T o t a l c h i l d c h i l d r e n new c l o t h i n g Cost 0 - 1 180 86.31 #15,535.80 1 - 2 36 67.11 2,415-96 3 - 6 100 86.30 8,630.00 6 -11 160 114.49 18,318.40 12-18 187 148.23 27,719.01 19-21 21 148.23 3,112.83 T o t a l 684 175,732.00 The A c t u a l cost f o r the year f o r c l o t h i n g was $41,040. I t i s obvious that t h i s b a s i s of comparison i s . not v a l i d because a l a r g e number of c h i l d r e n need only replacements, and because of the number of c h i l d r e n who are i n care only a short time. This a p p l i e s e s p e c i a l l y to i n f a n t s . C l o t h i n g f o r them i s not provided f o r the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d i n most ins t a n c e s , but f o r a group, and they are r a r e l y o u t f i t t e d when discharged. i 42. TABLE 12. Post of Shoes and C l o t h i n g f o r C h i l d r e n I n Care 1957, estimated f o r a f u l l year (365 days) as per day's care used f o r each age group, at the average cost of replacement. - P a i d day's care Average Cost Age of P a i d days care per age group per c h i l d T o t a l c h i l d per age group d i v i d e d by 365 f o r r e - Cost. - placement I n f a n t s 25,680 70.35 86.31 $ 6,071.91 1 - 2 8,806 24 .12 67.11 1,618.69 3 -.6 28,021 79.50 54.39 4 , 3 2 4 . 0 1 6 -11 46 ,922 128.55 72.29 9 , 2 9 2 . 8 8 12-18 45,278 124.02 87.50 10,851.75 19-21 2,183 5.98 87.50 522.25 T o t a l s 156,890 432,681.49 This t a b l e I n d i c a t e s what the cost of c l o t h i n g and shoes would have been i f the same number of days care had been provided, but w i t h each c h i l d i n care f o r a f u l l year. The only group of c h i l d r e n f o r whom t h i s t a b l e c ould be eonsidered comparable, i s f o r the i n f a n t s . (See Table 11) 43. TABLE 13. Post of Shoes and C l o t h i n g f o r 1957. estimated f o r t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n p a i d care, a t the cost allowed f o r new c l o t h i n g , o r replacements, depending upon whether the c h i l d had been i n care f o r part o f , or the f u l l year. Age of . Number of T o t a l Phi Id C h i l d r e n Post I n f a n t s 181 .|11,349.58 1 - 2 5 2,113.97 3 - 6 97 5,555.50 6 -11 160 11,645-23 12-18 187 17,179.05 19-21 21 1,934.13 149,777.46 Table 13 presents the most v a l i d approach, f o r comparing a c t u a l costs w i t h the estimated costs allowed i n the Report on the Adequacy of S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e . For those c h i l d r e n admitted to care during the f i r s t s i x months of the year, the f u l l cost of new c l o t h i n g i s charged as allowed i n the re p o r t , and i n the amount i n d i c a t e d f o r boys and g i r l s . For these c h i l d r e n admitted to care during the second h a l f of the year, one h a l f of the cost of new c l o t h i n g i s charged. For the remaining c h i l d r e n who were i n care before the beginning of the year, the cost of replacements i s charged. For those c h i l d r e n discharged during the f i r s t s i x months of the year, a c r e d i t i s given of h a l f of the cost of replacements. 44. For the c h i l d r e n discharged during the second h a l f of the year, no c r e d i t i s given to a l l o w f o r those c h i l d r e n who were discharged e a r l y during the f i r s t s i x months of the year. The t o t a l amount i s considered a v a l i d com-p a r i s o n w i t h the a c t u a l cost f o r the year exeept f o r that , part of i t charged i n regard to i n f a n t s , who are not out-f i t t e d i n the same way as o l d e r c h i l d r e n are. (See Table 11) A more v a l i d cost i n regard to i n f a n t s i s that charged on the b a s i s of days care only, since i n a d d i t i o n to the above, these c h i l d r e n are r a r e l y provided w i t h c l o t h i n g when discharged from care. Weighting t h i s t a b l e to th a t extent • T o t a l Cost as given $49,777.46 Less Cost re i n f a n t s 11,349.58 38,427.88 Adding Cost re i n f a n t s 6,071.91 (as given i n Table 10) $44,499.79 A c t u a l cost f o r the year: $41,040.85 The average cost of c l o t h i n g 684 c h i l d r e n was s i x t y d o l l a r s per c h i l d , during 1957. 45. TABLE 14 of c h i l d r e n i n pay care, cost of replacements. except f o r i n f a n t s , at the average Age of c h i l d Number of c h i l d r e n Cost per c h i l d ; average of r e -placement cost T o t a l cost I n f a n t s (180) 70.35 86.31 |6,071.91 1 - 2 36 67.11 2,415.96 3 - 6 100 54.39 5,439.00 6 -11 160 72.29 11,566.40 12-18 187 87-50 15,362 .50 19-21 21 87 .50 1.837.50 |42,693.27 Ac t u a l cost f o r the year was $41,040 .85. A l l t o t a l s are based on cost of replacements f o r the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n care during the year, except f o r i n f a n t s where the cost i s based on the number of i n f a n t s who would have been i n care, i f each had been i n care f o r a f u l l year. Table 14 i n d i c a t e s t h a t , except f o r i n f a n t s , the c h i l d r e n i n care were cl o t h e d f o r the estimated cost of replacements, during 1957• 46. Health Expenses f o r C h i l d r e n i n Care. A l l medical expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n care are p a i d f o r by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. Doctor's fees, and p r e s c r i p t i o n s are p a i d f o r through the Medical S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n . C h i l d r e n do not have medical i d e n t i f i c a t i o n numbers, but code l e t t e r s "CWD" ( C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n ) are used to i d e n t i f y charges f o r s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n care. When c h i l d r e n come i n t o care they are r e g i s t e r e d f o r B. C. H o s p i t a l Insurance Services and f o r medical care, and t h i s coverage i s r e t a i n e d u n t i l they are discharged, or u n t i l they are employed, and can provide f o r necessary care themselves. The only medical expenses which the agency pays f o r d i r e c t l y are miscellaneous items, and these are u s u a l l y incurred-because of emergencies, or through some ex t r a o r d i n a r y s i t u a t i o n . The agency uses St. Paul's H o s p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t s weekly c l i n i c s , and pays the h o s p i t a l f o r t h i s . Ambulance fees, and s p e c i a l nurse's fees are a l s o p a i d by the agency. The agency pays f o r a l l d e n t a l care r e q u i r e d f o r c h i l d r e n I n care. The amount of d e n t a l s e r v i c e s necessary f o r c h i l d r e n coming i n t o care i s considered to be l a r g e . I t i s not uncommon f o r a c h i l d of eig h t years of age or o l d e r to need eighty to one hundred d o l l a r s worth of d e n t a l s e r v i c e s . Often the amount necessary i s higher than t h a t . 47. I t seems v a l i d to say th a t most o l d e r c h i l d r e n who come i n t o care have had t h e i r t e e t h "badly neglected. Eye g l a s s e s , and r e p a i r s to eye gl a s s e s , and ortho-paedic appliances, are a l s o p a i d f o r by the agency. The t o t a l cost o f medical and d e n t a l care, p a i d f o r by the agency during the year was $6,820.23. This amount c o n t r i b u t e d .04393^ per day to the per c a p i t a per diem c o s t . Reimbursement to f o s t e r parents f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expenses to take c h i l d r e n to doctors, d e n t i s t s , or c l i n i c s amounted to $90.05 durin g the year. This amount has not been i n c l u d e d i n the cos t of medical and d e n t a l care, but i s i n c l u d e d i n the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n . TABLE 15. Health Pare Expenses, C h i l d r e n i n Care, 1957. Medical P l i n l c s (St. Paul's H o s p i t a l ) $ 600.00 Dental 4769.15 Eye Glasses 685.00 Repairs 152.90 Ambulances 24.00 S p e c i a l Nurse 108.00 Orthopaedic 164.00 Miscellaneous - i n c l u d i n g p l a s t i c eye 317.18 T o t a l $6820.23 One hundred and f o r t y nine c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d d e n t a l s e r v i c e s at an average cost of $32.00 per c h i l d . Dental expenses c o n t r i b u t e d .03072^ per day to the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e . 48 Forty seven p a i r s of eye glasses were s u p p l i e d , and t h i s expense added .00539^ to the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e . The balance of medical expenses added .00708^ to the per c a p i t a r a t e , and the t o t a l h e a l t h care expenses con-t r i b u t e d .04393^ to the r a t e . Education Expenses. The p o l i c y of C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society i s t h a t every c h i l d should attend a C a t h o l i c school, wherever p o s s i b l e . This i s not always p o s s i b l e f o r v a r i o u s reasons, however the l a r g e m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n attending school are e n r o l l e d i n p a r o c h i a l schools, convent boarding schools, or Vancouver Colle g e . Fees at the p a r o c h i a l schools vary from two d o l l a r s per month to seven d o l l a r s per month, w i t h a l a r g e number of them charging f i v e d o l l a r s per month. The agency pays the same fee f o r c h i l d r e n i n care who attend these schools as the parishoners do. The agency must a l s o pay various s p e c i a l fees f o r c h i l d r e n who attend p u b l i c school as w e l l as those who attend p a r o c h i a l schools. These i n c l u d e l o c k e r r e n t a l s , book r e n t a l s , and other miscellaneous fees. Some school s u p p l i e s are provided, some being provided by f o s t e r parents. Family allowance i s used f o r some items, notably f o r "zipper cases" and s p e c i a l s u p p l i e s , and a l s o f o r some fees which are considered to be e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r , and not e s s e n t i a l . / 49. I t i s not agency p o l i c y to send pre-school c h i l d r e n to ki n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s e s , but where i t has been recommended th a t a c h i l d should attend such c l a s s e s , u s u a l l y by C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , then c h i l d r e n are sent. Some s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i s a l s o Included i n these Expenses, but i s u s u a l l y not a l a r g e amount. The cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from school i s reimbursed to f o s t e r parents, and t h i s amounted to $769.81 du r i n g the year. This has not been i n c l u d e d i n the cost of education, but Is Included I n the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n . Education costs f o r the year were $6,560.73. This c o n t r i b u t e d .04226^ per day to the per c a p i t a per diem c o s t . TABLE 16. Education Expenses, C h i l d r e n i n care 1957« Fees - P a r o c h i a l Schools, convent boarding schools and Vancouver College (day p u p i l s )^ $5,116.87 S p e c i a l l o c k e r , e t c . , f o r c h i l d r e n attending p a r o c h i a l and p u b l i c schools 114.06 S p e c i a l Classes 85.00 S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g - fees f o r three c h i l d r e n 293.12 Book Rentals and Supplies, a l l c h i l d r e n 741.68 Kindergartens (24 months) 210.00 T o t a l $6,560.73 T~. 1366 months were p a i d f o r , at an average cost of $3-75 per month, or $37.45 f o r a ten month year. I f a l l c h i l d r e n had attended a f u l l year, t h i s would have p a i d f o r 136.6 c h i l d r e n . The amount of $5,116.87 c o n t r i b u t e d .03296^ per day to the per. c a p i t a per diem c o s t . 50. A u x i l i a r y Expenses f o r C h i l d r e n In Care. The items noted i n Table 17 below, are various s m a l l expenses which amounted to #4391. They added l e s s than 3^ to the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care. Explan-a t i o n s of the items f o l l o w the t a b l e . TABLE 17 A u x i l i a r y Expenses f o r C h i l d r e n i n Care, 1957. Items of Expense T o t a l cost Cost per day. (a) T r a n s p o r t a t i o n of C h i l d r e n #1968 .01268 (b) Legal Expenses 256 .00165 (c) Recr e a t i o n and Pocket money 1914 .01233 (d) Miscellaneous Expenses 126 .00081 (e) D e p r e c i a t i o n , Foster Home equipment 125 .00081 Total s #4391 .02828 51. (a) The amount paid during 1957 f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n was $1,968.57. This added .01268^ per day to the per c a p i t a r a t e . I t has been noted that the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from school i s p a i d to f o s t e r parents. This a p p l i e s a l s o to the cost of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r medical or d e n t a l treatment where f o s t e r parents cannot provide t h e i r own c a r and must take a bus. The amount p a i d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to and from school was $769.81, and f o r medical and d e n t a l treatment was $90.05, l e a v i n g a balance of $1,108.71 f o r a l l other t r a n s p o r t a t i o n of c h i l d r e n . The boarding r a t e p a i d to f o s t e r parents i n c l u d e s and amount c a l c u l a t e d to cover a normal or average expense f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , e x c l u s i v e of school t r a n s p o r t a t i o n expenses. The agency t h e r e f o r e makes no f l a t allowance to any f o s t e r parents to cover these expenses, but pays them as arranged. Older c h i l d r e n who l i v e i n boarding houses where the main-tenance r a t e , by agreement does not i n c l u d e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n or pocket money, are given a small t r a n s p o r t a t i o n allowance, depending upon t h e i r circumstances. The agency must a l s o provide t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n f o r a v a r i e t y of other reasons. These could i n c l u d e a c h i l d who was going to l i v e w i t h r e l a t i v e s ; an o l d e r c h i l d going to a job, Christmas, Easter and summer h o l i d a y v i s i t s , when a 5 2 . s h o r t d i s t a n c e f o r v a l i d reasons; and o c c a s i o n a l l y to "bring a c h i l d back who has run away, and i s stranded somewhere. Some h o l i d a y v i s i t i n g expenses are covered by f a m i l y a l l o w -ance funds. (b) The s o c i e t y r e t a i n s l e g a l counsel, who advises the agency as necessary, on i n d i v i d u a l cases, or i n regard to p o l i c y . A token r e t a i n e r fee of $250.00 was paid f o r t h i s s e r v i c e d u r i n g 1957» and miscellaneous small a d d i t i o n a l fees brought the t o t a l amount p a i d to $256.25. This amount c o n t r i b u t e d .00165^ per day to the per c a p i t a r a t e . (c) Foster parents are not p a i d a s p e c i a l allowance to cover spending allowances f o r c h i l d r e n as the boarding r a t e i s c a l c u l a t e d , to Include t h i s . A l s o , f o s t e r parents r e c e i v e p a r t , or a l l of a c h i l d ' s family allowance which i s considered, an a d d i t i o n a l amount to cover i n c i d e n t a l s i n c l u d i n g spending allowances. Many c h i l d r e n , however, must be provided w i t h an allowance. These are p r i m a r i l y o l d e r c h i l d r e n who attend sc h o o l , o r are unemployed, and have no source of income. Such allowances are kept to a minimum, and average amounts are $1.00 to $1.50 per week, or $5*00 per month. The amount spent f o r the year was $1,914.64, which added .01233^ per day to the per c a p i t a r a t e . 53. (d) Miscellaneous expenses i n c l u d e the cost of o b t a i n i n g b i r t h and baptismal c e r t i f i c a t e s f o r c h i l d r e n , and other a d d i t i o n a l expenses on be h a l f of c h i l d r e n i n care. This amounted to $126.51 f o r the year, and added . 0008l<^ per day to the per c a p i t a r a t e . (e) The agency does not supply c r i b s or buggies and s t r o l l e r s to f o s t e r parents, however, i t has been found necessary to buy c r i b s , and a few s i n g l e beds to loan to f o s t e r parents f o r short p e r i o d s , i n order to be able to use the home, f o r temporary placements e s p e c i a l l y . These c r i b s are moved from home to home as necessary, and remain the property of the agency. An expense of $125.84 was w r i t t e n o f f at the end of 1957, and t h i s added .00081^ to the per c a p i t a c o s t . 54. R e c eiving Home Expenses. The s o c i e t y operates a Receiving Home which i s l i c e n s e d f o r t h i r t e e n c h i l d r e n . This home i s used f o r temporary placements mainly, w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l c h i l d remaining s e v e r a l months, f o r s p e c i a l reasons. The ages of c h i l d r e n placed there are r e s t r i c t e d , and i t i s used p r i m a r i l y f o r c h i l d r e n who come i n t o care on short n o t i c e , o r f o r c h i l d r e n who are q u i t e upset when they come i n t o care. S t a f f at the home c o n s i s t s of the Matron, A s s i s t a n t R e l i e f Matron and maid. Expenses during the year 1957 were S a l a r i e s #6,568.72 P r o v i s i o n s 3,222.11 Fu e l , l i g h t and water 544.50 Telephone 197.25 Insurance 75.64 Repairs and maintenance 1,419.01 Dep r e c i a t i o n - B u i l d i n g 365-47 - Equipment 447.82 T o t a l i |12,840.52 This expense i s chargeable one hundred per cent to the per c a p i t a r a t e , and amounted to .08207^ per day During 1957, eighty-two c h i l d r e n were admitted to the home, and a t o t a l of 3,913 days care were provided there. The per c a p i t a per diem r a t e f o r the Ihome was $3*276. 55. I f c h i l d r e n were not placed i n the Receiving Home, they would be i n a f o s t e r home, and maintenance would be pa i d f o r them. C l o t h i n g and shoes, medical, d e n t a l care, e t c . , and s u p e r v i s i o n or casework s e r v i c e s are provided f o r c h i l d r e n i n the Receiving Home as w e l l as to those I n f o s t e r homes, so that the cost per day of maintaining a c h i l d there compares w i t h the boarding home or maintenance r a t e p a i d to f o s t e r parents f o r a c h i l d of the same age. Family Allowance: Family Allowances are paid to c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n who are i n care, and upon r e c e i p t of an a p p l i -c a t i o n from the agency. S p e c i a l r e g u l a t i o n s govern the agency's use of these funds, and a s p e c i a l Family Allowance t r u s t account i s maintained. (See Appendix A f o r d e t a i l s ) S p e c i a l Trusts -The f i n a n c i a l statement f o r 1957 l i s t e d an amount of $359.00 as a S p e c i a l Trusts balance. This amount represented donations which had been made to the agency, and at the request of the donors were to be spent on " e x t r a s " f o r c h i l d r e n , i n c l u d i n g Christmas g i f t s . The agency does not s o l i c i t such funds, because of i t s agreement w i t h Community Chest not to campaign or s o l i c i t f o r funds. These s p e c i a l donations, however, are very u s e f u l , and are w e l l used to provide g i f t s f o r c h i l d r e n at Christmas, or sports or r e c r e a t i o n a l items throughout the year as a supplement to Family Allowance funds. 56. TABLE 18. Expense of M a i n t a i n i n g C h i l d r e n i n Care, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1957. Expense items 100$ per c a p i t a cost P o r t i o n of per c a p i t a r a t e Percentage of T o t a l per c a p i t a r a t e Maintenance p a i d to f o s t e r parents, e t c . $194,860.12 1.2554 50.01 C l o t h i n g and Shoes 41 ,040.85 .2644 10.53 Medical and Dental 6,820.23 .0439 1.75 Education 6,560.73 .0423 1.68 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1,968.57 .0127 • 50 Recreation and Pocket Money 1,914.64 .0123 .49 Receiving Home 12,840.52 .0821 3-27 D e p r e c i a t i o n , Equipment, l e g a l S ervices and Miscellaneous 508.60 .0033 .12 #266,514.26 1.7169 68.40 57. Expenses of c h i l d r e n i n care during 1957 accounted f o r over s i x t y e i g h t per cent of the per c a p i t a r a t e . Of t h i s , over f i f t y per cent was f o r maintenance pai d to f o s t e r parents, i n s t i t u t i o n s and boarding homes. Ten per cent was spent on c l o t h i n g and shoes, l e a v i n g e i g h t per cent f o r a l l other expenses of c h i l d r e n i n care. Legal expenses are Included i n the s i x t y e i g h t per cent, and could properly be c l a s s e d as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expense, but are chargeable one hundred per cent to per c a p i t a expenses, and account f o r only .06 per cent of the t o t a l expense. The D i v i s i o n of A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Expenses. Added to the amount of money which i s p a i d out f o r goods and s e r v i c e s on behalf of c h i l d r e n i n care, are the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses of the agency. Some of these expenses must be added to the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, and the balance i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Comm-u n i t y Chest d i r e c t l y , to pay f o r s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s , to unmarried mothers, and other "voluntary s e r v i c e s . " In regard to the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and supervisory c o s t s , i t i s necessary to have a formula f o r doing so. For many years t h i s d i v i s i o n was based on the number of v i s i t s made by the s o c i a l work s t a f f to and on beha l f of c h i l d r e n i n care as against the v i s i t s made i n doing f a m i l y and preve n t i v e work, s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers, 58. and the various other s e r v i c e s that were considered to be voluntary s e r v i c e s . I t was recognized t h a t t h i s was not a very accurate method. V i s i t s to c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes are, perhaps, not too d i f f e r e n t i n regard to the average l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d f o r each v i s i t than those to and f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. I t was recognized t h a t i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers a smaller number of v i s i t s were being counted i n r e l a t i o n to the time taken, and tha t these v i s i t s , on the average, took longer. On the whole however, i t was b e l i e v e d that t h i s method was a v a l i d one, and that i t was p r o v i d i n g an accurate r a t i o of work done on behalf of c h i l d r e n i n care as against a l l other v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e s . I n recent years the method o f using only v i s i t s to c a l c u l a t e the percentage of costs chargeable to each area of s e r v i c e was questioned more s e r i o u s l y than i t had been. I t was recognized i n a l l c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s that an i n c r e a s i n g l y l a r g e r amount of work was being done i n the o f f i c e . I t was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s was e s p e c i a l l y true i n regard to fa m i l y work and work with unmarried mothers, although I t was a l s o true i n regard to c h i l d r e n i n care. Because these v i s i t s were conducted i n the o f f i c e they were counted s t a t i s t i c a l l y as i n t e r v i e w s Instead of v i s i t s , and t h e r e f o r e were not taken i n t o account i n regard to the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses. 59. The three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were usi n g the same formula f o r c a l c u l a t i n g what the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e -and supervisory expenses would be, but the percentage was d i f f e r e n t f o r each agency. The c o m p i l a t i o n of per c a p i t a had been discussed by the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare, and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the three agencies.. A f t e r s e v e r a l meetings the Superintendent was able to propose to the s o c i e t i e s on b e half of the p r o v i n c i a l government th a t a d e f i n i t e percentage should be used to determine the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and super-v i s o r y c o s t s . I t was suggested that t h i s should be 80 per cent to 20 per cent, and t h a t t h i s would apply to a l l the expenses which were normally shared. Eighty per cent of these expenses were to be added to the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, l e a v i n g twenty per cent as the Community Chest share. I t was thought that t h i s would be a f a i r d i v i s i o n . I t was proposed t h a t t h i s p o l i c y should be e f f e c t i v e as of January 1st, 1956. The Community Chest was consulted and i t was i n favour of the p l a n . The three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s a l s o b e l i e v e d t h i s new formula was sound, and i t went i n t o e f f e c t f o r the year 1956. The r a t i o of work i n C a t h o l i c Children's A i d , on the b a s i s of the s t a t i s t i c a l count of v i s i t s , had f o r s e v e r a l years been below twenty per cent f o r Community Chest s e r v i c e s . The 60. set r a t i o of 80 - 20 meant that Community Chest would be paying a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r share. This would be o f f s e t , however by the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e being somewhat l e s s f o r the c h i l d r e n i t was f i n a n c i n g i n non-ward care. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Expenses. The cost of p r o v i d i n g a l l s u p e r v i s i o n and casework s e r v i c e s during the year was $153,922.84. Twenty per cent of these expenses were assumed by the Community Chest to provide the "voluntary" or " p r i v a t e " s e r v i c e s of the agency, and eighty per cent was added to the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care. The Chest share was $30,875«28 and the amount added to the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care was $123,047.56. This amount c o n t r i b u t e d .79278 cents per day to the per c a p i t a c o s t . Expense f o r s t a f f . During 1957 the agency employed twenty-four s o c i a l workers, i n c l u d i n g f o u r Supervisors and the Executive D i r e c t o r ; ten accounting, stenographic and c l e r i c a l s t a f f , two Registered Nurses, and a j a n i t o r . The s a l a r y f o r the Receiving Home s t a f f and j a n i t o r i s not i n c l u d e d here. Unemployment insurance i s provided f o r a l l s t a f f e x c ept s o c i a l workers and nurses. The agency had a pension p l a n p r i o r to 1957, but no members of the s t a f f had a v a i l e d themselves of i t , however, a new p l a n sponsored by the Community 61. Chest f o r f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g agencies was begun i n Ju l y 1 s t , 1957, and e l i g i b l e members of s t a f f j o i n e d at that time. The employee c o n t r i b u t e s f i v e per cent of earnings, and the agency c o n t r i b u t e s approximately the same amount. S t a f f a l s o have the opportunity of Medical Services A s s o c i a t i o n coverage, w i t h the employee and the agency each paying h a l f of the premium. The v a r i o u s insurance p o l i c i e s which the agency c a r r i e s are d e t a i l e d s e p a r a t e l y . (See "insurance Coverage", Appendix A.) During 1957 the agency sent f i v e members of s t a f f to the C h i l d Welfare League of America Conference at P o r t l a n d , Oregon. Some members of s t a f f attend t h i s conference each year. TABLE 19 C a t h o l i c Children's A i d So c i e t y , Expensefor S t a f f , 1957. Item ; 100$ 20% Q0% S a l a r i e s #124,973-07 $24,994.61 $99 ,978.46 Unemployment Insurance 346 .51 69.30 277.21 Pension P l a n 684.34 136.87 547.47 M.S..A. Coverage 746.98 149.40 597-58 Compensation Insurance 758.10 151.62 606.48 Conference 191 .23 38 .25 152.98 $127,700.23 $25,540.05 $102,160.18 Increase to per c a p i t a r a t e was .65815 per day. 62. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n E x p e n s e s , S t a f f - 1957. T h e s o c i e t y o w n s t h e c a r s w h i c h m e m b e r s o f s t a f f u s e , h o w e v e r , s o m e m i l e a g e i s p a i d f o r e m e r g e n c y o r u r g e n t c a l l s w h e n a n a g e n c y c a r i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . T h e c o s t o f a u t o m o b i l e s i s n o t c h a r g e d t o o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s a s t h e y a r e b o u g h t , b u t a r e c a p i t a l i z e d , a n d d e p r e c i a t i o n i s c h a r g e d y e a r l y o n t h e c a p i t a l i z e d a m o u n t r e m a i n i n g a t t h e e n d o f t h e y e a r . O t h e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e x p e n s e s I n c l u d e b u s f a r e f o r s t a f f , o c c a s i o n a l t r i p s t o V i c t o r i a , a n d o t h e r t r i p s w h i c h m a y b e n e c e s s a r y . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n e x p e n s e s f o r s t a f f f o r t h e y e a r w e r e a s f o l l o w s : -O p e r a t i o n o f a u t o m o b i l e s #6,745*10 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , s t a f f 390.97 D e p r e c i a t i o n , a u t o m o b i l e s 3 , 0 0 8 . 91 I n s u r a n c e , a u t o m o b i l e s 1 , 1 4 1 . 0 1 L e s s - P r o f i t , s a l e o f a u t o m o b i l e 559.94 T o t a l #10,726.05 C o m m u n i t y C h e s t S h a r e 20$ $ 2 , 1 4 5 - 2 0 P e r c a p i t a e x p e n s e s h a r e - 8 0 $ 8,580.85 I n c r e a s e t o p e r c a p i t a r a t e w a s .05528^ p e r d a y . 63. TABLE 2 0 . C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society, General A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Expenses - 1957* Item 100$ 20$ 80$ Insurance, Equipment F i x t u r e s , F i r e # 73.29 $14 .66 #58.63 S t a t i o n e r y and o f f i c e s u p p l i e s 1,920.65 384.13 1,536 .52 Postage and Telegrams 698.12 139.62 558.50 Telephone 2,599.86 519.97 2 ,079.89 A u d i t 5 0 0 . 0 0 100.00 , 400.00 I n t e r e s t and Exchange 1,516.39 303.28 1 ,213.11 A d v e r t i s i n g 285.19 57-04 228.15 P u b l i c a t i o n s 25.05 5 .01 20.04 P u b l i c i t y 343-76 68.75 275.01 Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l Membership Fee 250.00 5 0 . 0 0 200.00 S o c i a l S e r v i c e Index i 113.40 113.40 D e p r e c i a t i o n Equipment 923.91 184 .78 739.13 Mlsc ellaneous 177 .08 35.42 141.66 $9,426.70 $1,976.06 #7,450.64 1. S o c i a l S e r v i c e Index i s paid 100$ by Community Chest. General a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses c o n t r i b u t e d .04800^ per day to the per c a p i t a r a t e . 64. O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Expenses. As the s o c i e t y does not own i t s own o f f i c e "building, i t rented one. I n a d d i t i o n to rent, the agency su p p l i e d l i g h t , heat, water and was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r maintenance and r e p a i r s . These expenses t o t a l l e d |6069 f o r 1957 • This expense c o n t r i b u t e d .03128^ per day to the per c a p i t a r a t e . (See appendix A f o r d e t a i l s . ) D e p r e c i a t i o n Expenses, Automobile Expenses and Insurance Coverage. The cost of these items has been i n c l u d e d as i t a p p l i e d to the expenses reviewed. (For d e t a i l s see Appendix A.) A d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses accounted f o r over t h i r t y - o n e per cent of the per c a p i t a r a t e . Twenty-six per cent of t h i s was f o r s a l a r i e s , and other expenses f o r s t a f f , l e a v i n g Just under f i v e and one h a l f per cent f o r other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses. TABLE 21 T o t a l A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Expenses, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society 1957 Expense items Community Chest share 20$ Per Capita Expense Share 80$ P o r t i o n of Per Cap i t a Rate Percentage of T o t a l Per c a p i t a r a t e S t a f f 1 $25,540.05 $102,160.18 .6581 26 .22 General Admini s t r a t l o n 1,976.06 7,450.64 .0480 1.91 S t a f f T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 2,145 .20 8,580.85 .0553 2.20 O f f i c e , r e n t , e t c . 1,213.97 4 ,855 .89 .0313 1.24 T o t a l $30,875.28 $123,047.56 .7927 31.60 65 Computing the Per Capita Per Diem Rate f o r C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , 1957. In order to e s t a b l i s h the t o t a l per c a p i t a cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, the f o l l o w i n g expenses are added together - eighty per cent of a d m i n i n s t r a t l o n and s u p e r v i s i o n expenses; the d i r e c t costs of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, and the f u l l amount of Receiving Home expenses. The t o t a l amount of these expenses I s d i v i d e d by the t o t a l number of days care which the agency provided during the year, and the r e s u l t i n g f i g u r e i s the "per diem r a t e . " I n 1957 the d i r e c t costs of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, and of Receiving Home expenses were $266,514.26. Eighty per cent of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n expenses was $123,047*56. These amounts t o t a l l e d $389,561.82. C h i l d r e n were i n care f o r a t o t a l number of 156,890 days. This amount, l e s s 1669 days which were p a i d f o r g i r l s i n St. Euphrasia's School, l e f t a balance of 155,221 per c a p i t a days care. The l a t t e r number of days d i v i d e d i n t o the t o t a l cost r e s u l t e d i n a per c a p i t a per diem r a t e of $2.5097 f o r 1957* I n c o n t r a s t to the r a t e which was e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the Ca t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , the r a t e f o r the Children's A i d S ociety of Vancouver was $2.6634 f o r 1957* The C.C.A.S. spent 68.4 per cent of i t s per c a p i t a r a t e on d i r e c t costs 66. of maintaining, c h i l d r e n I n care, and the V.C.A.S. spent 61.7 per cent by comparison. The percentages spent by the two agencies f o r various goods and s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n care are very c l o s e except f o r maintenance p a i d f o r c h i l d r e n i n care. The C.C.A.S. was four per cent higher. The two agencies f o l l o w the same basic p o l i c i e s I n regard to the expenses which are i n c l u d e d i n the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e . The maintenance rates p a i d to f o s t e r parents are the same. There are, however, d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s p e c i a l rates which each agency f i n d s i t necessary to pay. For example, the C.C.A.S. had a l a r g e r percentage of I n f a n t s on a s p e c i a l r a t e than d i d the V.C.A.S. The d i f f e r e n c e i n the percentage spent f o r education i s due to c h i l d r e n i n C.C.A.S. care attending p a r o c h i a l schools, where a fee was paid f o r them. I t i s l i k e l y that the percentage spent on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f o r c h i l d r e n was a f f e c t e d by t h i s a l s o , because c h i l d r e n attending p a r o c h i a l schools must go f a r t h e r than c h i l d r e n attending p u b l i c school. The percentages spent by the two agencies f o r super-v i s i o n and general a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses are d i f f i c u l t to comment on since the w r i t e r has not made a d e t a i l e d study of the V.C.A.S. expenses or o r g a n i z a t i o n . The V.C.A.S. i s approximately as l a r g e again as the C.C.A.S. The C.C.A.S. spent 31.6 per cent of the per c a p i t a r a t e on a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 67. and s a l a r i e s , as against 38.3 f o r V.C.A.S. (See Table 22.) While maintenance ra t e s are the same f o r a l l agencies i n B r i t i s h Columbia, other expenses of maintaining c h i l d r e n can vary between agencies. S a l a r i e s may be the same, or comparable, but other a d m i n i s t r a t i o n costs vary. Consid-e r i n g these d i f f e r e n c e s , the per c a p i t a r a t e s , and the increase s f o r s e v e r a l years f o r the two s o c i e t i e s i n Vancouver have been q u i t e comparable and c o n s i s t e n t . There i s l e s s of a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n , and the r a t e s are l e s s comparable, f o r the two c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n Toronto. A low, or high, per c a p i t a r a t e does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean a poorer, or b e t t e r s e r v i c e to c h i l d r e n , and comparisons cannot be made between agencies unless each agency's s e r v i c e i s thoroughly s t u d i e d . This i s more v a l i d when c o n s i d e r i n g r e l a t i v e per c a p i t a r a t e s of agencies of d i f f e r e n t areas where c o s t s , and other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s might account f o r l a r g e d i f f e r e n c e s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note the a c t u a l rates f o r the Toronto agencies, however, because the method of paying c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n i n care i n Ontario i s more comparable to B r i t i s h Columbia than any other province, and the ra t e s are comparable. (See Table 23) I t i s al s o i n t e r e s t i n g to note how c l o s e l y the cost of main-t a i n i n g c h i l d r e n i n care of C a t h o l i c c h a r i t i e s i n S e a t t l e corresponds to t h i s expense f o r C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society i n Vancouver. ^ 14. See Chapter I I I 68. Comparison of Expenses C o n t r i b u t i n g to the Per Capita Rate, Two Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s , Vancouver, 1957. TABLE 22 Expense items P o r t i o n of Per Capita Percentage of Per r a t e Capita Rate C.C.A.S. V.C.A.S C.C.A.S. V.C.A.S Board, Maintenance and r e c e i v i n g homes. 11.3383 '11.3163 53.31 49.41 C l o t h i n g and Shoes .2650 .2692 10.53 10.10 Medical, Dental .0439 .0405 1.75 1 .52 Education .0423 .0058 1.70 .22 Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n , .0118 and Recreation • 0275 1.11 .44 Su p e r v i s i o n and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .7927 1.0204 31.60 38.31 To t a l s 2.5097 2.6640 100.00 100.00 TABLE 23 Per Capita Per Diem R a t e s ; 1 Comparisons between Children's A i d  S o c i e t i e s , Vancouver, and Children's A i d Societies., Toronto. 1953-1957 C a t h o l i c Children's Children's A i d C a t h o l i a Children's Year A i d Society Society of Children's A i d Society Vancouver Vancouver A i d Society of Metrop-of Metrop- o l i t a n o l i t a n Toronto Toronto 1953 1.89 1.91 2.24 2.12 1954 2.05 j 2.09 1.88 1.80 1955 2.17 i 2 . 2 6 2.38 2.08 1956 2.42 2.58 2.46 2.29 1957 2.51 2.66 2.76 2.40 1. To the nearest cent. 69. Therefore w h i l e we cannot compare goods and s e r v i c e s provided f o r c h i l d r e n by the d i f f e r e n t agencies, we do know tha t the a c t u a l costs f o r the Vancouver agencies were roughly comparable to those f o r the Toronto c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and a l s o to those f o r the S e a t t l e agency, f o r 1957. The Superintendent of O h i l d Welfare has approximately as many c h i l d r e n i n care throughout the Province as have the three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s combined. These c h i l d r e n are supervised by the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department, and f i e l d workers c a r r y c h i l d w e l f a r e cases as part of a gen-e r a l i z e d caseload. I t i s not p o s s i b l e to c a l c u l a t e a per c a p i t a r a t e f o r c h i l d r e n i n p r o v i n c i a l care which i s comparable to the r a t e s struck f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , because s u p e r v i s i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n costs f o r c h i l d r e n i n care are not separated from these t o t a l expenses f o r the Department. Comparable expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n the care of the Super-intendent were, t h e r e f o r e , not a v a i l a b l e . 70. CHAPTER I I I  SOURCES OF ASSISTED FINANCING. In a d d i t i o n to p r o v i d i n g care to c h i l d r e n who are committed to i t as wards, the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society provides s e r v i c e s which are financed by voluntary donations. The preventive and p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the agency are among these. Casework s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n In t h e i r own homes. This work i s most important because i t s aim i s to keep f a m i l i e s i n t a c t , and to keep c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes. I f i t i s necessary f o r c h i l d r e n to come i n t o the care of the Society f o r a short time, the c o s t of maintaining these c h i l d r e n i s borne by voluntary funds. I n i t s e a r l y years, the agency only accepted i n t o care those c h i l d r e n who were committed to i t as wa&ds. Preventive s e r v i c e s , and a programme of non-ward care developed only a f t e r the survey of 1927. Services to unmarried mothers are a l s o financed by community funds. The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y began o f f e r i n g t h i s s e r v i c e i n 1911. I t has been noted e a r l i e r that the Society was c o n t i n -uously s o l i c i t i n g funds i n the community during i t s e a r l y years. I n 1931 i t joined the Vancouver Welfare Federation, and except f o r a two year p e r i o d when i t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s which was then r a i s i n g money f o r C a t h o l i c s e r v i c e s , i t has r e t a i n e d t h a t membership, and i s a f i n a n c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g member of the Community Chest. 71. Services Financed by Community Oheat. The Community Chest accepts the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r payment f o r p r eventive family.work and c e r t a i n other s e r v i c e s which are provided by the s o c i e t y . The goal of casework s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes i s to help keep the f a m i l y together when i t i s threatened through unemployment, delinquency, mental or p h y s i c a l i l l n e s s , or m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y . Small amounts of c l o t h i n g , and emergency f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e can be provided. The focus of casework s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers i s to a s s i s t them i n working out t h e i r problems and i n making a good p l a n f o r the c h i l d . Maternity home care, or p r i v a t e work homes are o f f e r e d w h i l e the mother i s awaiting c o n f i n e -ment . Miscellaneous s e r v i c e s which are provided Include reports f o r the Supreme Court f o r custody a p p l i c a t i o n s , and out-of-town e n q u i r i e s , to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n f o r other agencies or dep-artments i n other areas of the province, and f o r other provinces. These requests are u s u a l l y made through the o f f i c e of the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare. The agency a l s o does r e p o r t s f o r the Department of Immigration. These are made at the request of the Superintendent, to a s c e r t a i n whether plans to • b r i n g minors i n t o Canada are sound or not. Reports are a l s o 72. made f o r the Family Allowance Department, at the request of the Family D i v i s i o n of the P r o v i n c i a l S o c i a l Welfare Department. The agency i s p a i d a fee f o r the l a t t e r r e p o r t s . Budgeting. I t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e purposes that an agency have an estimated budget f o r a year's programme. Agencies which are p a r t i a l l y or wholly financed by Community chest are r e q u i r e d to submit an estimated budget, f o r approval. Because of t h i s , new budgets f o r C a t h o l i c C hildren's A i d Society are drawn up to comply w i t h p o l i c i e s and procedures of the Chest. Agencies are u s u a l l y requested by Community Chest to submit a " t e n t a t i v e " budget f o r the f o l l o w i n g year, during May. I t i s recognized that i t i s d i f f i c u l t f o r agencies to do t h i s so f a r ahead of time. I t i s necessary, however, tha t the Chest has an estimate of agency needs f o r the f o l l o w i n g year so that a "campaign g o a l " can be s e t . The t e n t a t i v e estimate does not l i s t Income and expenditures by item, but only i n t o t a l f i g u r e s . Increases or decreases i n r e l a t i o n to the previous and c u r r e n t year are noted, and the agency has an opportunity to c o n s u l t w i t h the Chest i n regard to any proposed expansion i n programme contemplated f o r the f o l l o w i n g year. 73. The de t a i l e d estimate i s usually requested i n November, a f t e r the Chest has completed i t s fund-raising campaign. This estimate i s done on forms supplied by the. Chest, which have been especially drawn up to s u i t each agency. In addition to the detailed l i s t i n g of income and expenditure, the amount proposed for sa l a r i e s i s broken down, and each established p o s i t i o n i s l i s t e d separately, and pay grade and step noted. A l l . insurance p o l i c i e s are also l i s t e d , as well as the cars operated, with make, st y l e , year, cost and o present mileage noted. The agency must also submit an estimated requirement for conference attendance. After the estimated budget has been processed at Community Chest, the agency Is given a date at which time representatives of the agency meet with the Chest budget committee which has been assigned to i t , to review and discuss the proposed estimates. While the Chest i s interested i n the t o t a l budget, i t i s primarily interested i n the amount of money the agency i s requesting of i t , and the areas of service for which i t i s responsible. The f i n a l estimates are usually reviewed i n February or March, at which time the grant to the agency i s established. Expenses of Services Financed By Community Chest. A review of the amounts of money which Community Chest has had to pay for the services which i t has financed, shows quite a f l u c t u a t i o n from year to year. (See Table 24) Over a 74. fo u r t e e n year p e r i o d ending i n 1957, the Community Chest share of expenses rose from $19,000 to $77,000. The percentage of t o t a l expenses was lowest i n 1954 and 1955, at 10 per cent, and highest i n 1951, at 26 per cent. While a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses were r i s i n g , and t h e r e f o r e the Community Chest share of these expenses were going up a l s o , the l a r g e f l u c t u a t i o n i n the percentage of t o t a l expenses was of course, due to the amount of non-ward care necessary f o r a year. (See Tables 25 and 26.) I t has been noted that p r i o r to 1956 the Chest share of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses was determined by the r a t i o of the number of v i s i t s made by s o c i a l workers on behalf of c h i l d r e n i n care, to the number made In regard to those s e r v i c e s f i nanced by the Chest, and t h a t , beginning i n 1956 the r a t i o was set at 80 per cent to 20 per cent. The amount o f money which the Chest i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n any year can be computed by m u l t i p l y i n g the number of non-ward days care necessary f o r the year by the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e , plus the Chest share of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses. The Chest u s u a l l y pays l e s s than t h a t , since i t receives c r e d i t f o r donations r e c e i v e d during the year, and f o r payments made by parents f o r c h i l d r e n i n temporary non-ward care, i n a d d i t i o n to miscellaneous Income such as membership fees. There may a l s o be f u r t h e r adjustments necessary because of days care i n suspense at 75 TABLE 24 Community Chest Share of Expenses, the Amount P a i d by Chest,  and Percentage of T o t a l Expenses - C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Soci e t y , 1944 - 1957-T o t a l Chest Amount Amount Expenses Share P a i d by Pa i d by Year f o r Year Before C r e d i t s Chest Chest Percentage - of T o t a l __ 1944 * 104,022 1 21,454 * 19 ,358 18.6 1945 113,741 25,681 23,611 2 0 . 8 1946 124,912 31,760 27,192 21.8 1947 136,634 38,603 34,644 34,349 1 25.3 1948 160,288 43,474 21.4 1949 190,660 210 ,857 45 ,853 42,993 22.5. 1950 51,334 47,300 22.4 1951 251,619 67,877 65 , 665 26.1 1952 277,798 61,117 56,532 20.3 1953 295,884 I 47,693 44,688 15.1 1954 334,443 37,733 35 ,528 10.6 1955 356,344 38,108 37,969 10.6 1956 388,980 57,062 57 ,317 14.7 1957 431,310 79,297 77,045 17.7 1. The P r o v i n c i a l Government made a s p e c i a l grant to the Society i n 1948 i n the amount of $6,000.00. 7$ the end of 'the year, or " b i l l e d i n c o r r e c t l y during the previous year. I n a d d i t i o n , a f u r t h e r adjustment i s made i n regard to d e p r e c i a t i o n charged during the year, to com-pensate f o r c a p i t a l a d d i t i o n s , and the s a l e of c a p i t a l i z e d assets during the. year. Therefore, between 1944 and 1957, the Chest p a i d somewhat l e s s than would be i n d i c a t e d by the number of days non-ward care and i t s share of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses, except f o r 1956 when i t p a i d s l i g h t l y more, because of adjustments which were necessary. (See Table 27) I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to measure the amount of work done, or the s e r v i c e s provided to unmarried mothers, and the pro-t e c t i o n and preventive work done wi t h f a m i l i e s , i n r e l a t i o n to the cost of these s e r v i c e s . The agency has s t a t i s t i c s of the number of people who r e c e i v e d s e r v i c e , but these s e r v i c e s have been regarded as a u n i t of work, and v i s i t s , i n t e r v i e w s , e t c . , have not been segregated. We do know the percentage of i n c r e a s e or decrease i n numbers served, and i n v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s . These i n d i c a t e an approximate p r o p o r t i o n a t e i n c r e a s e i n regard to v i s i t s versus the i n c r e a s e i n expenses f o r these s e r v i c e s . (See Table 26) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that i n 1957 the number of v i s i t s went over 20 per cent. Before the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses was set at 80 per cent to 20 per cent, there was d i s c u s s i o n about i n c l u d i n g the number of o f f i c e 77. i n t e r v i e w s made on behalf of c h i l d r e n i n care, and f o r Chest s e r v i c e s , i n the s t a t i s t i c a l count, which would determine what the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses would be. I t was not considered f u r t h e r because of the new p o l i c y , however, the i n c l u s i o n of o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w s r a i s e s the percentage of work done on b e h a l f of Chest s e r v i c e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . (See Tables 32 and 33.) This w i l l be discussed f u r t h e r i n the next chapter. 78. •TABLE 2-5 Non-ward Pare Financed by Community Cheat; Number of Days. Cost, and Percentage in c r e a s e o r Decrease Over Previous  Years, C a t h o l i c Children's' A i d Society, 1953 - 1957. Year Non-lfard Care .. . _ Number of days Percent-age + or -Cost]_ Percent-age + or -Percent-age of t o t a l days 1953 16,759 W39.4 131,705 -35 .1 : H . 3 • • 1954 9,297 - 4 4 . 5 19 ,023 - 4 0 . 0 6.0 1955 6,987 - 2 4 . 8 15,141 - 2 0 . 4 4 . 6 1956 12,540 +79.5 30,325 +100.3 8.4 1957 19.218 +53.3 48,231 + 59 . 0 12 .3 1. Computed by m u l t i p l y i n g the number of non-ward days by the per c a p i t a per diem ra t e f o r the year. 79. TABLE 26. Services to F a m i l i e s and Unmarried Mothers; Post to Community  Chest. Percentage Increase or Decrease over Previous Year. P a t h o l l o Children''a A i d Society, 1953 - 1957. Year Number of c h i l -dren i n own homes. % + or -Unmarried Mothers T o t a l Cost to Chesty | New ; Cases i 1 % + or -T o t a l f o r Year % + or - 1 % + or -1953 210 +12.9 : 119 +27.9 199 +31.8 15,988 +22.9 1954 255 +21.4 123 + 3-3 194 - 2.5 ,18,710 1+19.3 1955 408 + 60 . 0 113 - 8.1 180 ( - 7.2 J22,967 !+ 8.5 1956 418 + 2.4 114 + .9 157 +12.8 26,737 + 9-3 1957 587 +40.0 131 +14.9 216 +37.6 3 0 , 8 0 3 x +12.1 1. Representing Community Chest §hare of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses l e s s c r e d i t s and adjustments. 80. TABLE 27 A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Expenses; Community Chest Share and Amount  P a i d by the Chest; Peroentap.es of T o t a l , C a t h o l i c Children's  A i d S o c i e t y , 1953 - 1957. Year T o t a l Adminis-t r a t i v e expense | Chest Share Less C r e d i t s 1 Amount P a i d by Chest I Percent-age of t o t a l 1 Percent-age of T o t a l 1953 . 97,092 15,988 16.5 12,983 13.4 1954 115,862 18,710 16.1 16 ,505 14.2 1955 125,759 22,967 18.3 22,828 18.2 1956 137,437 26,737 19.5 26,991 19.6 1957 154 ,055 30,803 20.0 28,512 18.5 81. Community Chest Expenses, and Services Financed - 1957. During 1957 the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society provided 19,218 p a i d temporary non-ward days care.. The c h i l d r e n who r e c e i v e d t h i s s e r v i c e were cared f o r i n the same manner, and were provided w i t h the same goods and s e r v i c e s as were the c h i l d r e n who were i n care as wards of the s o c i e t y . ' This care was p a i d f o r 100 per cent by the Community Chest, except f o r medical care and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n (premiums) which was provided f o r by the P r o v i n c i a l Government. The cost of t h i s non-ward care to the Community Chest was $48,231.42. The amount of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses which were c a l c u l a t e d to f i n a n c i n g s e r v i c e s f o r unmarried mothers, and p r o t e c t i o n and preventive work with f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes, and miscellaneous other s e r v i c e s was $30,761.88. For t h i s expense, one hundred and t h i r t y - o n e new unmarried mothers re c e i v e d s e r v i c e s , and an a d d i t i o n a l number of a c t i v e cases were c a r r i e d i n t o 1957 f o r a t o t a l number of two hundred and s i x t e e n . F i v e hundred and eiShty-seven c h i l d r e n were given s e r v i c e s during the year f o r v a r i o u s lengths of time. I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s there were a l a r g e number of contacts and e n q u i r i e s which are not s p e c i f i e d . Such contacts and e n q u i r i e s however, were recorded i n work s t a t i s t i c s . In a d d i t i o n to the expenses already noted, the Community Chest p a i d f o r the t o t a l cost to the s o c i e t y f o r use of the S o c i a l S ervice Index. The cost of t h i s s e r v i c e was $113. 82 The s o c i e t y a l s o has an emergency fund. Small grants can be made to f a m i l i e s who are without g r o c e r i e s over a weekend, or to unmarried mothers. The amount disbursed i s pai d by the Chest, and during 1957, $434 was used. The Chest was a l s o charged w i t h a small sum which was the d i f f e r e n c e i n the amount payable to the s o c i e t y f o r the care of c h i l d r e n , andthe amount a c t u a l l y p a i d on the b a s i s of the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e which had been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the year. A c r e d i t was given i n the amount of $247 to reimburse the Chest f o r expenses which had been charged to i t i n e r r o r i n 1956. The t o t a l cost to the Chest f o r 1957 was $79,297. During the year the s o c i e t y r e c e i v e d $2252 as fees, donations and payments from parents f o r c h i l d r e n i n care, and these funds reduced the amount payable by the Chest to $77,044. T h i r t y - f o u r hundred and e i g h t y - e i g h t v i s i t s were made, and t w e n t y - f i v e hundred and t h i r t y - s e v e n i n t e r v i e w s given i n regard to s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers and p r o t e c t i o n and preventive work. This number of v i s i t s represented 23 per cent of t o t a l v i s i t s made during the year. Combining v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s , the amount of work done on be h a l f of Chest financed s e r v i c e s was 31.7 per cent. The Community Chest p a i d 18.5 per cent of the t o t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses f o r the year. I t p a i d 17-8 per cent of the t o t a l budget f o r the year, to finance non-ward care of c h i l d r e n , and preventive and p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s , and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers. 83. TABLE 28 Community Chest'Share of Expenses, C a t h o l i c Children's Aid- Soci e t y , 1957. Expense items Amount A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and Su p e r v i s i o n # 30,761.88 H Non-ward care of C h i l d r e n (19,218 days @ #2.5097) 48,231.42 Emergency Fund and S o c i a l Service , Index 547.57 Shortage ( c l o s u r e ) 3.68 #79,544.55 Less - C r e d i t adjustment f o r 1956 247.16 T o t a l Chest Share of Expenses # 79,297.39 TABLE 29 Amount p a i d by Community Chest a f t e r F i n a l C r e d i t s , C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1957. Community Chest share of Expenses #79,297.39 Less C r e d i t s -Membership fees and donations # 615.28 Co n t r i b u t i o n s - Parents and Guardians 1627*50 Miscellaneous 10 . 0 0 Amount Pai d by Chest $77,044.61 84. Income, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , 1957. T o t a l expenses of the agency f o r 1957 was $431,310. The P r o v i n c i a l Government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were assessed f o r the number of c h i l d r e n i n care of the s o c i e t y , at the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the year. The Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare pa i d f o r g i r l s i n her care who were being supervised by the s o c i e t y i n St. Euphrasia's School at the r a t e of $7 per day, which was the amount which the s o c i e t y p a i d to the school. The item " P r o f i t - s a l e of automobile" should also be noted. The amount of $559 i s a book p r o f i t due to t r a d i n g i n an automobile on a new one, and r e c e i v i n g as a t r a d e - i n allowance more than, the o l d automobile had been valued at i n the books of the agency. This p r o f i t was shared on the 80 percent - 20 per cent b a s i s between expenses c o n t r i b u t i n g to the per c a p i t a c o s t , and Community Chest. Miscellaneous income and the c r e d i t adjustment has been noted p r e v i o u s l y . (See Table 29). The amount of $77,000 which the Community Chest was r e q u i r e d to pay was 17*7 per cent of the t o t a l Income. The P r o v i n c i a l Government and M u n i c i p a l i t i e s p a i d 81 per cent, and .9 per cent was r e a l i z e d from donations, c o n t r i b u t i o n s and other miscellaneous sources. 85. TABLE 30. Income - C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , 1957. P r o v i n c i a l Government (80,715 days care @ 2.5097) $ 202,570.44 Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare ( f o r care at St. Euphrasia's School) 9,879.15 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s (55,288 days care @ 2.5097) 138,756.29 Community Chest 77,044.61 P r o f i t - Sale of Automobile 559.94 Membership fees, donations, C o n t r i b u t i o n s by Parents and Miscellaneous 2,252.78 C r e d i t adjustment to Chest f o r 1956. 247.16 T o t a l Income $ 431,310.37 86. Work S t a t i s t i c s , 1957. The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society r e c e i v e s f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the Community Chest, and as a "Chest agency", i t i s r e q u i r e d to submit monthly work reports to the Chest. These repo r t s c o n s i s t of b a s i c s t a t i s t i c a l counts of work done, c h i l d r e n admitted to care, discharged from care e t c . P r i o r to 1956, the r a t i o between the number of v i s i t s which had been made on behalf of c h i l d r e n i n care, and the number of v i s i t s on b e h a l f of p r o t e c t i o n and preventive work, and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers, had been used to determine what the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses should be between Community Chest and the amount i n c l u d e d i n t o the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e . Other s t a t i s t i c a l m a t e r i a l was used as a f u r t h e r record of work done during a year, but served no d i r e c t purpose i n regard to determining the d i v i s i o n of expenses, or the amount of the grant to be r e c e i v e d from the Community Chest. I n June 1955, the agency had a l l s o c i a l workers keep a record of the amount of time spent i n various a c t i v i t i e s . D e f i n i t i o n s were w r i t t e n on bow time was to be recorded, however there were d i f f e r e n c e s i n how c l o s e l y time was accounted f o r . Despite the b e l i e f t h a t the study was not as accurate as I t might have been, some general conclusions were i n d i c a t e d . 87. Each s o c i a l worker noted the amount of time i n minutes which were spent i n various a c t i v i t i e s each day. The u n i t s of time, t h e r e f o r e , were minutes. The study showed that the amount of time spent on a v i s i t to a f o s t e r home, with, or on b e h a l f of a c h i l d i n care, averaged 20.2 minutes. The number of minutes f o r an i n t e r v i e w i n the o f f i c e , with or on b e h a l f of a c h i l d i n care, averaged 23 . For fam i l y cases, and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers, v i s i t s averaged 32.8 minutes, and o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w s 34.4. The study t h e r e f o r e i n d i c a t e d that s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n care took a p p r o x i -mately one t h i r d l e s s time, than f o r f a m i l y cases and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers f o r each recorded v i s i t and i n t e r v i e w . The percentages of work done based on a count of v i s i t s , i n t e r v i e w s , o r v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s combined, are seven to ei g h t per cent lower than those based on u n i t s of time. The f o l l o w i n g Table i l l u s t r a t e s these d i f f e r e n c e s . TABLE 31 . Ratios. Based on a Number of V i s i t s and Interviews, and on  Un i t s of Time f o r the Same Number of v i s i t s and Interviews, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, June 1955. C h i l d r e n i n Care Family worl to Unmarri* 1 and s e r v i c e s pd mothers. A c t i v i t y Percentage Based on NumberB Percentage Un i t s of Time Percentage Numbers Percentage Units of Time V i s i t s I n t e r -views V i s i t s and I n t e r views 84.7 74 .3 83.1 77.5 67-1 75.4 15-3 24.7 16 . 8 22.5 32.9 24.6 88. TABLE 32 P r o p o r t i o n of Work f o r C h i l d r e n and F a m i l i e s . V i s i t s and  Interviews, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society. 1948 - 1957. C h i l d r e n i n Care Family Work Year V i s i t s Percent-age of t o t a l v i s i t s I n t e r -views V i s i t s Percent-; age of t o t a l v i s i t s I n t e r -views. 1948. 6,552 77.4 286 1,915 22.6 872 1949 7,938 79.6 587 2,034 20.4 832 1950 6,658 ! 79.5 635 1,720 20.5 895 1951 9,120 82.0 j 402 | 2,009 18.0 980 1952 14, 613 86.7 1,103 2,244 13.3 916 1953 15,376 85-7 2,136 2,564 14.3 1,075 1954 14,029 83.8 2,180 2,612 16.2 1,196 1955 12,029 83.3 1,562 2,419 16.7 990 1956 11,437 80.0 1,335 2,886 20.0 1,791 1957 l l r 6 6 8 77.0 1,273 3,488 23.0 2,537 89. TABLE 33. P r o p o r t i o n of Work f o r C h i l d r e n and F a m i l i e s , V i s i t s and  Interviews combined, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, 1948-1957. C h i l d r e n i n Care Family Work Year V i s i t a and Interviews ' Percentage of T o t a l V i s i t s and Interviews Percentage of T o t a l 1948 6,838 ! 71.1 2,787 28.9 1949 : 8,525 74.8 2,866 25.2 1950 ! 7,293 7 3 . 6 2,615 26.4 1951 : 9,522 76.1 2,989 ' 23.9 1952 ; 15,716 83-3 3,160 16.7 1953 ', 17,512 82.8 3,639 17 . 2 1954 ' 17,009 81.7 3,808 18.3 1955 13,591 79.9 3,409 20.1 1956 12,772 7 3 . 2 4,677 26 .8 1957 12,941 . 68.3 6,025 31.7 90. TABLE 34 P r o p o r t i o n of Work f o r Otilldren and F a m i l i e s , V i s i t s and  Interviews, and V i s i t s and Interviews combined, Gomparlson  of Percentages. C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Soc i e t y , 1948-1957.. C h i l d r e n i n Care * Family Work Year Percentage of t o t a l v i s i t s ' Percentage of v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s Percentage of t o t a l v i s i t s Percentage of v i s i t s and i n t e r -views. 1948 77.4 71.0 22.6 29.0 1949 79.6 74.8 20.4 25.2 1950 79.5 73-6 20.5 26.4 1951 82.0 76.1 18.0 23.9 1952 86.7 83.3 13.3 16.7 1953 85-7 82.8 14.3 17.2 1954 8 3 . 8 81.7 16.2 18 . 3 1955 83.3 79.9 16.7 20.1 1956 80.0 73.2 20.0 26.8 1957 i 77.0 6 8 . 3 23.0 31.7 91. While a count of v i s i t s may not give an exact d i v i s i o n of work done, a review of r a t i o s based on such a count should give a t r u e i n d i c a t i o n of f l u c t u a t i o n s from year to year. (See Tables 32 -34) B a s i c a l l y , the method of compiling s t a t i s t i c s d i d not change from year to year, but d e f i n i t i o n s i n regard to what c o n s t i t u t e d a v a l i d v i s i t or i n t e r v i e w were redrawn and tightened twice from 1952 to 1957 w i t h a consequent impact on the number of v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s recorded. A review of the t a b l e s shows that the percentage of f a m i l y work has f l u c t u a t e d very much durin g the ten years noted. Because the percentages are based on a-count of the~number of v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s , they do not give-an e v a l u a t i o n of the t o t a l time spent by the s t a f f on d i f f e r e n t areas of work. There i s reason to b e l i e v e that i f a time study had been done f o r any of the ten years noted, t h a t the r e s u l t s would have been approximately the same as they were f o r 1955* A c a l c u l a t i o n of time given to v i s i t s and i n t e r -views, based on the u n i t s of time which were i n d i c a t e d as being v a l i d i n the time study done i n 1955, shows that more t h a n . f i f t y per cent of the t o t a l s t a f f time given to v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s i n 1957, was done on behalf of f a m i l y and preventive work and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers. This c o n c l u s i o n i s explained when one considers the amount of time 92. which was gi v e n to t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by the s o c i a l workers who v i s i t e d f o s t e r homes and c h i l d r e n who were placed i n them. I t seems c l e a r that a d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses, based on s t a t i s t i c s of v i s i t s was not v a l i d f o r many years. A study of the amount of time which workers can giv e to various d u t i e s i s h e l p f u l and i n t e r e s t i n g i n e v a l u a t i n g agency pro-gramme. I t does not, however, give a sounder b a s i s upon which to evaluate the a c t u a l d i v i s i o n of work. A sounder b a s i s i s to evaluate t o t a l time given by the s t a f f to the d i f f e r e n t areas of work. A review f o r 1957 i n d i c a t e s that the r a t i o of t o t a l time given to s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n i n care, as opposed to fam i l y work and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers, was 71 per cent to 29 per cent. This e v a l u a t i o n i s based on the time of a l l s o c i a l work and nursing s t a f f , but does not i n c l u d e c l e r i c a l or stenographic s t a f f . This study w i l l not Include any attempt to assess the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e s provided, except to note p e r i o d i c incr e a s e s i n s t a f f , and the s i z e of caseloads. I n 1946 the agency had a s t a f f establishment of twelve s o c i a l workers, one nurse and ten accounting, c l e r i c a l and domestic s t a f f . Increases were made as f o l l o w s -93. Year S o c i a l Workers Nurses A l l other S t a f f 1952 14 2 11 1953 17 2 13 1954 19 2 14 1955 21 2 15 1956 24 2 15 An add!tonal c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s that the agency was, on the average, below f u l l s t a f f by one s o c i a l worker from 1952 to 1957 I n c l u s i v e . Of the s t a f f which was added during those years not a l l were used to r e l i e v e caseloads. A permanent Intake p o s i t i o n was created, to r e l i e v e other workers who were r o t a t i n g to cover i n t a k e work, and two workers were assigned to do homefinding. During the same time the establishment f o r Supervisors was Increased from two to four, one of whom was a supervisor f o r the adoption programme, w i t h two workers devoting t h e i r time to t h i s only. During 1952, the agency was s e r i o u s l y u n d e r s t a f f e d , w i t h caseloads as high as one hundred c h i l d r e n , and o c c a s i o n a l l y higher. E a r l y i n 1953, the agency moved to new quarter s , and a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f was allowed, which brought caseloads down to an average of between f i f t y - f i v e to s i x t y . During 1957, caseloads of c h i l d r e n I n f o s t e r homes were between 94. f i f t y - f i v e and s e v e n t y - f i v e , w i t h an average of s i x t y - f i v e . A d e s i r a b l e standard f o r c h i l d care caseloads would be t h i r t y - f i v e , w i t h up to forty-two allowed as a workable load.-j_5 Seven caseworkers had caseloads of c h i l d r e n i n care e x c l u s i v e l y , however i n a d d i t i o n to working w i t h the c h i l d r e n and f o s t e r parents, casework w i t h n a t u r a l parents was necessary and p o s s i b l e i n an estimated t w e n t y - f i v e per cent of the cases. Four workers c a r r i e d caseloads of unmarried mothers mainly during 1957, w i t h a v a r y i n g s m a l l e r number of a c t i v e f a m i l y cases, and c a r r i e d a t o t a l a c t i v e caseload of between f o r t y to f i f t y . Two workers c a r r i e d family and p r o t e c t i o n cases mainly, w i t h a s m a l l e r number of c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r or boarding homes w i t h caseloads between f i f t y - f i v e to s i x t y - f i v e . A d e s i r a b l e caseload f o r unmarried mothers i s t h i r t y - f i v e , and f o r f a m i l y and p r o t e c t i o n workers t h i r t y , w i t h no more than f i f t y recommended f o r p r o t e c t i o n work. The adoption workers c a r r i e d up to f o r t y cases. A recommended standard f o r t h i s work i s s t a t e d to be the placement of twenty-four c h i l d r e n i n 15. The M u n i c i p a l i t y of M e t r o p o l i t a n Toronto - Report uptpn  a proposed Realignment of the J u r i s d i c t i o n of the  Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s operating w i t h i n the Metro- p o l i t a n Toronto Area. June 1956. P a r t 2, S e c t i o n 1, r'Caseloads page 12b1. Further references to standards are from the same source. 95-adoption homes i n a year, w i t h the worker doing the home-f i n d i n g i n v o l v e d to make tha t number of placements. A standard recommended caseload Is s i x t y - f i v e . .The two homefinding workers had tip to twenty a p p l i c a t i o n s to work on at any one time, and o f t e n approved f o u r to f i v e homes a month, but t h i s average was not maintained throughout the year because of d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g s u f f i c i e n t s u i t a b l e a p p l i c a n t s . These workers, however, a s s i s t e d i n placements, and c a r r i e d a small number of cases f o r short p e r i o d s . The Court worker-and Receiving Home sup e r v i s o r c a r r i e d a small caseload of s e l e c t e d cases, i n a d d i t i o n to her main d u t i e s , t h i s l o a d v a r y i n g from time to time, and averaging ten c h i l d r e n . Three Supervisors and the Executive D i r e c t o r d i d not c a r r y any cases during the year, but the Supervisor of P r o t e c t i o n Work and unmarried mothers d i d c a r r y a s m a l l s number of cases. The amount of p r o t e c t i o n work done i n the agency was of great concern f o r a number of years, however the r a t i o was i n c r e a s e d as a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f was added. While the work done i n p r o t e c t i o n and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers during 1957 was j u s t under t h i r t y - t w o per cent of a l l work done, on the b a s i s of the number of v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s f o r the year, a much l a r g e r amount of family and p r o t e c t i o n work could have been done during t h a t year. While cases r e f e r r e d were being given s e r v i c e , only s e l e c t e d cases were given i n t e n s i v e a t t e n t i o n , because not enough time was a v a i l a b l e . The agency d i d not have enough workers on s t a f f to do the work which should have been done i n t h i s area of s e r v i c e . 97 Current Questions about Continuing Chest Support. The Community Chest makes grants to the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society on a d e f i c i t basis only; but because the Society has a very small income except f o r payments f o r care of wards, the Chest undertakes to pay f o r the temporary non-ward care of c h i l d r e n , preventive and p r o t e c t i o n work, and for. casework s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers. The cost of non-ward care f o r C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y has f l u c t u a t e d very much i n recent years, i . e . from $48,000 i n 1952, to $15,000 i n 1955, and back to $48,000 i n 1957- The Chest pays 20 per cent of t o t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n expenses to finance pro-j e c t i o n and unmarried mother s e r v i c e s . From 1952 to 1957 these expenses increased from*$12,000 to $30,700. The work s t a t i s t i c s f o r 1957 showed 23 per cent of v i s i t s f o r the year were made on behalf of these "voluntary" s e r v i c e s , w i t h 31 per cent of v i s i t s and i n t e r v i e w s being done on b e h a l f of these s e r v i c e s . Therefore, w h i l e Chest grants have been i n c r e a s i n g , i t has been favoured by the set 20 per cent d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses. During, the years 1951 to 1957, the Chest paid from 10.6 per cent of the t o t a l budget of C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , to 26 per cent. The amount f o r 1957 was 17*7 per cent. During the same year the Toronto C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society r e c e i v e d 7*3 per cent of i t s t o t a l 98. budget from the Chest. As a c o n t r a s t , the C a t h o l i c c h a r i t i e s i n S e a t t l e expects to supplement i t s income to provide expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n care by an estimated grant from the United Good Neighbour Fund of 41 per cent of i t s t o t a l income f o r 1959. The Vancouver Community Chest has had great d i f f i c u l t y i n recent years e s p e c i a l l y , i n meeting the f i n a n c i a l needs of member agencies. Programmes have not been enlarged as considered d e s i r a b l e i n many in s t a n c e s , and budgets have been c u r t a i l e d to provide the previous years l e v e l of s e r v i c e . The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s have shared these budgeting problems, and have not been able to o b t a i n a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f when they found t h i s necessary. This a f f e c t e d not only the areas of s e r v i c e p a i d f o r by the Community Chest, but a l s o the l e v e l of s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to c h i l d r e n i n care, wards and non-wards. Because the agencies could not c o n t r o l the amount of non-ward care which was necessary, the cost of t h i s has always been met by the Chest, i n the amount found to be necessary throughout the year. The cost of non-ward care provided by C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , has, over a p e r i o d of years, cost the Chest s u b s t a n t i a l l y more than i t s share of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses. In recent years a question has been r a i s e d i n c r e a s i n g l y o f t e n about the k i n d s - o f s e r v i c e s which the Community Chest 99 i s supporting. At the annual meeting of the Chest, held on March 13th, 1959, a panel of " f i v e l e a d i n g Vancouver c i t i z e n s " argued the question, "Should Government take Over A l l Health and Welfare S e r v i c e s ? " One member of t h i s panel noted that s e r v i c e s which are provided by the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , are provided by the Government throughout the r e s t of the Province. F o l l o w i n g t h i s meeting, s e v e r a l e d i t o r i a l s appeared i n the Vancouver Sun-^5 which suggested t h a t the government should make o u t r i g h t grants to the Chest equal to the amount which c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s needed. The Chest campaign f o r funds i n the f a l l of 1959 again f a i l e d to b r i n g the amount which was needed by the agencies. In December, 1959 the Chest wrote to the s o c i e t y to advise that "the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the Chest have asked t h a t • d i s c u s s i o n be undertaken w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society regarding, the f u t u r e f i n a n c i n g of c e r t a i n aspects of your agency s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g the costs of non-ward care." The l e t t e r continued,to say tha t the request was being made " i n response to numerous communications" which had been received which questioned "the appropriateness of voluntary Red Feather funds supporting aspects of c h i l d w elfare programme i n t h i s c i t y , which i n other areas are supported through p u b l i c tax funds." 16. Issues March 19th, and July 15th, 1959. 100. The Society was advised that the Chest:-"would l i k e to gi v e p a r t i c u l a r c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the con t i n u i n g appropriateness of voluntary funds being used to support the costs of non-ward care and would a l s o l i k e to review the expenditure of v o l -untary funds to meet the costs of the f a m i l y work program, (represented at present by 20$ of the non-maintenance costs of the agency.)" • The estimated budget f o r I960 had already been sent to the Chest, and the Society was advised t h a t i t would be considered by the Chest on the same b a s i s as other years' budgets. Budgeting f o r I960 proved to be as d i f f i c u l t as previous years had been. In February I960, a h e a l t h agency withdrew from the Chest, s t a t i n g that i t could not accept the budget c u r t a i l m e n t which was necessary because the Chest had not r e a l i z e d i t s campaign g o a l . This a c t i o n r e s u l t e d I n a p u b l i c demand that a survey should be conducted to a s c e r t a i n i f a l l the agencies r e c e i v i n g funds from the Chest should continue to be supported by i t . The question of which s e r v i c e s should, i n the p u b l i c mind, be supported by v o l -u n t a r i l y c o n t r i b u t e d funds was thrown wide open, i n s t e a d of being focused on a few s e r v i c e s . At the time of w r i t i n g , the proposed survey had not been s t a r t e d . 101. A l t e r n a t i v e Methods of Financing Preventive S e r v i c e s . The f i n a n c i n g of the preventive s e r v i c e s provided by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s has been a r e c u r r i n g i s s u e f o r many years. While there has been c o n t i n u i n g concern w i t h the l a c k of adequate preventive s e r v i c e s , the main i s s u e i s the amount of non-ward care which w i l l be nec-essary f o r any year. I t i s impossible to p r e d i c t more than a year i n advance what amount of non-ward care w i l l be necessary, because experience has shown th a t the need f o r t h i s s e r v i c e i s a f f e c t e d very much by economic changes and the l e v e l of employment from year to year. The best t h a t can be done i s to estimate from the experience of previous years, and e s p e c i a l l y on the c u r r e n t year. I f the estimate i s too low, the agency w i l l have a d e f i c i t , and i f t h i s i s very l a r g e i t can be d i f f i c u l t f o r the Chest to cover i t out of funds a v a i l a b l e f o r t h a t year. On the other hand, i f estimates were padded to a l l o w a comfortable "cushion", the Chest would have to a l l o t funds to the agency which i t might not need, and which undoubtedly could be used u r g e n t l y elsewhere. The p r a c t i c e , t h e r e f o r e has been to budget as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e to the l e v e l of the previous year, a f t e r a l l o w i n g f o r any s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which seem v a l i d at the time. 102. when budgets were drawn up f o r 1953, i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t there would be a g r e a t e r need than i n the previous year; the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society budgeted f o r a twenty-six per cent i n c r e a s e from the Community Chest over the previous year, and the Children's A i d Society, of Vancouver estimated an eighteen per cent i n c r e a s e . The Community Chest was not able to au t h o r i z e these sharp in c r e a s e s , and the agencies were ©.bilged to seek a s s i s t a n c e from the p r o v i n c i a l government, and the C i t y of Vancouver. The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society estimated t h a t i t would need $22,000 i n a d d i t i o n to the Chest grant. The s o c i e t i e s made j o i n t r epresentations to the pro-v i n c i a l government, and to the..city c o u n c i l . The respons-i b i l i t y of the s o c i e t i e s to maintain adequate p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s was s t r e s s e d , and the f a c t that i n t a k e could not be l i m i t e d was a major p o i n t . The government and the C i t y of Vancouver both agreed to a s s i s t the s o c i e t i e s . The p r o v i n c i a l government granted the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d $18,975, w i t h the C i t y making up. the balance of $3,025. As events turned out, these grants were not needed. The s o c i e t y returned $13,575 to the p r o v i n c i a l government, and was allowed to keep the balance f o r a fu t u r e emergency. The C i t y of Vancouver grant was returned i n the f u l l amount. 103. Miss Ruby McKay, Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare, was f u l l y aware of the c o n d i t i o n s w i t h which the agencies were coping, and took part i n d i s c u s s i o n s and n e g o t i a t i o n s which went on to o b t a i n a s s i s t a n c e f o r the agencies, e x p e c i a l l y from the government. The Superintendent was concerned about the b a s i s upon which representations were made f o r a s s i s t -ance, and a l s o w i t h other questions which seemed t i m e l y . Miss McKay, t h e r e f o r e c i r c u l a t e d a . b r i e f i n which she: "endeavoured to examine the present a d m i n i s t r a t i v e . s t r u c t u r e of c h i l d w elfare s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h 6olumbla and to determine what i f any changes i n the l i n e s of communication, areas of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and methods of f i n a n c i n g programs, are i n d i c a t e d between c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s and the Super-intendent; c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s and the p r o v i n c i a l and municipal governments; and the Superintendent and municipal governments, i n order that an adequate f u t u r e standard of work throughout can be ensured."^7 The Superintendent emphasized t h a t : " t h i s submission i s not i n the nature of a formal study w i t h recommendations. R a t h e r , i t i s my hope that Boards of Children's A i d S o c i e t i e s and o f Chests and C o u n c i l s , and M u n i c i p a l and p r o v i n c i a l departmental o f f i c i a l s , w i l l look upon i t as a b r i e f intended to suggest only some areas r e q u i r i n g study w i t h i n t h e i r own groups." IT. Department of Health and Welfare, V i c t o r i a . Submission  of Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare Regarding Children's  A i d S o c i e t i e s ' Budget D e f i c i e n c y . June 1953, page 1. 104. In order to provide a b a s i s f o r comparison w i t h other provinces, Miss McKay wrote to the D i r e c t o r s of C h i l d Welfare i n Manitoba, Ontario and Nova S c o t i a , and noted t h a t A l b e r t a , Saskatchewan, Quebec and Newfoundland do not have c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s of the B r i t i s h Columbia o r Ontario type. The r e p l i e s were summarized, and showed a wide d i f f e r e n c e to approach to f i n a n c i n g . The Superintendent noted t h a t i n Nova S c o t i a the province and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s each p a i d 50 per cent up to $8.00 weekly f o r c h i l d r e n who were wards i n f o s t e r homes, and $10.00 f o r those In an I n s t i t u t i o n , I n 1953. Mun-i c i p a l i t i e s gave grants towards t o t a l o perating costs which v a r i e d from 10 per cent to 31 per cent, and the province a l s o granted f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e towards operating c o s t s which averaged 8 per cent. In a d d i t i o n the province matched up to 50 per cent on a grading s c a l e , of voluntary funds c o l l e c t e d by an agency. M u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e d toward p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e s by paying an e s t a b l i s h e d per c a p i t a r a t e according to p o p u l a t i o n , w i t h m u n i c i p a l i t i e s of 15,000 p o p u l a t i o n paying 10$ per c a p i t a ; 15,000 to 75,000 4^ per c a p i t a ; and 75,000 or more, 2.<f, per c a p i t a . In the Province of Manitoba, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s pay 100 per cent of the cost of ward care, the r a t e being estab-l i s h e d y e a r l y by a r a t e establishment committee. I n 105. regard to preve n t i v e s e r v i c e s , the government c o n t r i b u t e s 50 per cent of "a bas i c approved budget b u i l t around the s e r v i c e c o s t . " In Ontario, the m u n i c i p a l i t i e s pay 75 per cent, and the province 25 per cent of " reasonable per diem ra t e s which vary from m u n i c i p a l i t y to m u n i c i p a l i t y . " I n a d d i t i o n , the p r o v i n c i a l government makes grants to a s s i s t i n f i n a n c i n g p r e v e n t i v e s e r v i c e s "at the r a t e of 25 per cent of the t o t a l funds secured from p r i v a t e sources." The government a l s o pays grants ranging from |500 to #2,000, according to grading of s e r v i c e i n an agency. The Government a l s o pays some "mileage rates f o r c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d s e r v i c e s undertaken by the s o c i e t i e s . " Mun-i c i p a l i t i e s a l s o i n some instances g i v e t h e i r l o c a l s o c i e t y a s s i s t a n c e i n the form of grants, but no s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n i s acknowledged. The Superintendent noted that i n B r i t i s h Columbia, m u n i c i p a l i t i e s pay 20 per cent and the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment 80 per cant of the a c t u a l per diem per c a p i t a r a t e f o r wards,-j_8 a s e s t a b l i s h e d by the agency's a u d i t o r and approved by government a u d i t . Miss McKay noted t h a t 18. This was changed i n 1958 to 10 per cent - 90 per cent. 106. to a s s i s t i n the f i n a n c i n g of preventive s e r v i c e s , the government: "has i n the past made p e r i o d i c grants to c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , upon the agencies' request when a d e f i a i e n c y i n budget arose. No-service, o f f e r e d by a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y apart from maintenance of wards, c h i l d r e n i n care of a s o c i e t y at the request of the Superintendent, and c h i l d r e n of T.B. parents i n long term care, i s p a i d f o r by the p r o v i n c i a l government." The Superintendent's comment i s that-: " i t i s c l e a r that no one province has found an e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y answer to the problem of f i n a n c i n g c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and i t i s to be noted that even w i t h our present d i s t r i b u t i o n of c o s t s , the B r i t i s h Columbia government i s paying more generously to c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r maintenance of c h i l d r e n , and r e l i e v e s the municipal burden to a gr e a t e r extent than are any of these other provinces. Indeed I t almost appears as i f , i n c l u d i n g the various grants made i n Nova S c o t i a , Manitoba and Ontario they s t i l l c o n t r i b u t e l e s s than i s p r e s e n t l y p a i d c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Her c o n c l u s i o n i s : "the above formulas take Into account the need to safeguard against the d i m i n i s h i n g of vo l u n t a r y funds i n support of the agencies, and i n t h i s , too, we must concern o u r s e l v e s . The l i f e blood of the volunt a r y agency i s dependent upon the support i t re c e i v e s from the community i t serves. While government unquestionably can be he l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r payment of c e r t a i n phases of program, because of t h e i r s t a t u t o r y b a s i s , t h i s can not i n any circumstance be looked upon as a means of c u r t a i l i n g or e l i m i n a t i n g voluntary funds from an agency s budget. On the contrary, g r e a t e r government . f i n a n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n should r e l e a s e increased funds to the volun t a r y agency f o r expansion and development of programmes ur g e n t l y needed and prop-e r l y designated as a voluntary agency's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 107. " I f t h i s p r i n c i p l e i s not c l o s e l y adhered to i n -our planning, the voluntary agency would u l t i m a t e l y he such In name only, and i n r e a l i t y q u i c k l y become simply an extension of the p u b l i c department." The Superintendent a l s o points up .questions about whose r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i t i s to provide c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s , and s t a t e s : " I t could be argued that by a m u n i c i p a l i t y ' s c h a r t e r , which r e q u i r e s them to provide f o r 'needy" c i t i z e n s , and a l s o by the f a c t that under p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment s t a t u t e s (The P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act and The S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e Act) m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are r e q u i r e d to c o n t r i b u t e a p o r t i o n of the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n the care of a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y or the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare, they then a l s o have a f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to maintain r e l a t e d preventive c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s . Conversely, the argument would be t h a t , s i n c e municipal f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d i n the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act ..... and i n c l u d e s only the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n ... they are- r e l i e v e d of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n other areas of c h i l d w e l f a r e . To s u b s t a n t i a t e t h i s l a t t e r argument, too, i s the f a c t that such programmes as adoption, unmarried parents, m a r i t a l problems, which may l e a d to n e g l e c t of c h i l d r e n , l e g i t i m a t i o n , e t c . could not e a s i l y be i n t e r p r e t e d as s e r v i c e s to the needy" and on the contrary are programmes provided f o r by p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e ... not municipal enactment and t h e r e f o r e a p r o v i n c i a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " Adoption programmes have i n the past been paid f o r by both the p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , because v i s i t s on b e h alf of t h i s work were i n c l u d e d i n the number of v i s i t s on behalf of c h i l d r e n i n care. The m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e r e f o r e paid f o r adoption s e r v i c e s i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to the number of days care f o r wards 108. which they were r e q u i r e d to pay, because the percentage of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n costs which were i n c l u d e d i n the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e was increased by the v i s i t s made f o r adoption work. This i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y s t i l l t r u e since the d i v i s i o n of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses was set at 80 per cent to 20 per cent, because the adoption programme was taken i n t o account when t h i s d i v i s i o n was agreed t o . The Superintendent's p o i n t i s v a l i d however, because m u n i c i p a l i t i e s would not l i k e l y undertake to provide a programme which they are not l e g i s l a t i v e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r . The Superintendent p o i n t s out tha t more d i r e c t municipal p a r t i c i p a t i o n would n e c e s s i t a t e a more complex formula, because of d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s and f i n a n c i a l resources, i n a d d i t i o n to other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and t h a t , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y there are " d e s i r a b l e and obvious" advantages to having programmes c e n t r a l i z e d i n a p r o v i n c i a l government. I t i s suggested that the p r o v i n c i a l government should be re s p o n s i b l e f o r s e r v i c e s provided under p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e s , but tha t s e r v i c e s to provide f o r " c o n d i t i o n s that lead to neglect of c h i l d r e n " are a moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of m u n i c i p a l i t i e s . I t i s suggested that such c o n t r i b u t i o n s by m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could be made on a per c a p i t a b a s i s , and tha t the p r o v i n c i a l 109. government could c o n t r i b u t e on a cost of s e r v i c e b a s i s . An a l t e r n a t i v e suggestion made i s t h a t both government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s could "agree to c o n t r i b u t e a c e r t a i n percentage of whatever monies are c o l l e c t e d by the Community Chest and designated f o r a c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t y . " . A drawback to t h i s method, i t i s recognized, i s tha t i t would not " o f f e r the c e r t a i n t y of resources that an a c t u a l payment f o r s e r v i c e p l a n c o u l d . " An a d d i t i o n a l one i s "that i t does not point up p u b l i c and p r i v a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r programme." Another suggestion made i n the b r i e f i s t h a t a l l non-wards i n c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s care could be chargeable to a " l o c a l area" as defined under the Residence and Res-p o n s i b i l t i y Act. The Superintendent noted t h a t there would be d i f f i c u l t i e s i n t h i s method because of the need to e s t a b l i s h residence, and that i n many Instances r e f u s a l s could be expected because of Income r e g u l a t i o n s . I t i s not l i k e l y that i t would ever be req u i r e d again to e s t a b l i s h residence f o r c h i l d r e n who are being committed as wards by court , since t h i s has been unnecessary since September, 1958. In November, 1953, re p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia met w i t h the 110. Superintendent to d i s c u s s f i n a n c i a l problems, and the other p o i n t s which had been r a i s e d i n t h i s b r i e f . Represent-a t i v e s from Community Chest and from the C i t y of Vancouver attended some of the meetings. A f t e r s e v e r a l sessions i t was e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t the p r i v a t e agencies b e l i e v e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s should continue to operate as they had done i n the past, but t h a t preventive work described i n the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act as " a m e l i o r a t i n g f a m i l y c o n d i t i o n s that l e a d to neglect of children,'V should be provided by p u b l i c funds. Methods of securing a d d i t -i o n a l funds from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the p r o v i n c i a l government were reviewed. I t was b e l i e v e d that payments based on per c a p i t a grants would be d i f f i c u l t to assess, and a l s o that payment f o r s e r v i c e would b r i n g w i t h i t a c l o s e r c o n t r o l which the p r i v a t e agencies d i d not wish to have imposed upon them. I t was not r e s o l v e d who should be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what s e r v i c e s . I t was agreed t h a t b a s i c to a p l a n f o r f i n a n c i n g , was a c l e a r statement to which a l l agencies could subscribe, of the proper goals i n c h i l d w e l f a r e , and how these should be achieved. This was worked on, without reaching an agreed form. No s p e c i f i c recommendations were made on the securing of a d d i t i o n a l income from m u n i c i p a l i t i e s and the p r o v i n c i a l government. 111. I t has been noted already that the emergency grants made by the p r o v i n c i a l government and the Gi t y of Vancouver to the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s were not needed during 1953* The agencies could v a l i d l y have increased s e r v i c e s i n preventive work, but the money had not been granted f o r t h i s purpose, and expenditures f o r non-ward care d i d not in c r e a s e , as had been a n t i c i p a t e d . I n a d d i t i o n , a d e f i c i t was not expected' i n 1954, and th e r e f o r e the urgency i n o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l funds had been removed. One f u r t h e r p o i n t should be noted. I n the d i s c u s s i o n s on methods of o b t a i n i n g a d d i t i o n a l funds, i t was c l e a r t h a t the s o c i e t i e s b e l i e v e d t h a t a d d i t i o n a l funds should be made a v a i l a b l e w i t h "no s t r i n g s attached." I n the b r i e f which the Superintendent c i r c u l a t e d , she s t r e s s e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s must be soundly financed, but t h a t " e q u a l l y e s s e n t i a l .is an Improved system of e v a l u a t i o n of work done." She pointed out t h a t : "the k i n d of c o n s u l t a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n , and planning w i t h agencies which leads to sound growth and development, of n e c e s s i t y has become dangerously i n f r e q u e n t , and new methods be devised to c o r r e c t the s i t u a t i o n . " The Superintendent a l s o noted i n her b r i e f t h a t : "underlying a l l p r o v i n c i a l government planning i n welfare s e r v i c e s has been a si n c e r e d e s i r e to maintain and inc r e a s e the i n t e r e s t of l o c a l areas, and t h i s same a p p r e c i a t i o n of the value of c i t i z e n r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n (as i s p o s s i b l e 112. "through Boards of Children's a i d s o c i e t i e s ) i s evident throughout a l l government planning i n c h i l d w e l f a r e matters." The Superintendent a l s o emphasized during the d i s c u s s i o n s , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the government to account f o r a l l money spent. The agencies, however, saw the maintenance of standards as the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Boards of D i r e c t o r s , and thought t h a t any d i r e c t budget c o n t r o l c o u l d be d e t r i m e n t a l to s e r v i c e s , the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of which they could be held r e s p o n s i b l e f o r , under the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act. Boards have been very conscious t h a t s e c t i o n 27 of the Act s t a t e s t h a t " d i r e c t o r s of a s o c i e t y s h a l l have f u l l power i n a l l t hings to administer the a f f a i r s of the s o c i e t y . . . " They have been f e a r f u l that any outside budget c o n t r o l might be r e s t r i c t i v e and could r e s u l t i n l e s s e n i n g standards f o r c h i l d r e n f o r whom they are r e s p o n s i b l e . In the event, t h e r e f o r e that these d i s c u s s i o n s have not brought f o r t h any new approach to f i n a n c i n g s e r v i c e s i n c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , at the l e a s t , they have helped to i l l u s t r a t e the problems, and the p r i n c i p l e s which are i n v o l v e d . Some attempt to c l a r i f y and r e s o l v e these w i l l be undertaken i n the concluding chapter. 113. Financing Services to C h i l d r e n i n the Care of P r i v a t e  Agencies i n the State of Washington. The method of f i n a n c i n g c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s i n p r i v a t e agencies i n the State of Washington o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison w i t h the method used i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s of the Archdiocese of S e a t t l e operates i n that area the C a t h o l i c Children's S e r v i c e s , which provides care f o r neglected and dependent c h i l d r e n , an adoption programme, and care f o r unmarried mothers. The agency obtains funds from the f o l l o w i n g sources: (1) Payments from the State and p r i v a t e sources which reimburse the agency f o r the care of s p e c i f i c c h i l d r e n . ( 2 ) I n t e r e s t from c a p i t a l funds. (3) C o n t r i b u t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the Community Chest.-^g Government grants come out of the budget of the State Department of P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , and are: "based on ra t e s determined by the annual examination of each agency's expenditures. The b a s i s of the r a t e i s the maintenance cost only. Voluntary 19. Information obtained from the D i r e c t o r , C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s of the Archdiocese of S e a t t l e , p r i v a t e correspondence, June 1959. A l l references to the S e a t t l e agency are from the same source. 114. "agencies have taken the p o s i t i o n that they do not wish to accept p u b l i c funds f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s as such ( i n c l u d i n g a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s , personnel, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , o f f i c e s u p p l i e s , e t c . ) However the agencies agreed years ago to accept from the State a f l a t average payment r a t h e r than a r a t e s p e c i f i c to each agency." Rates of payment to f o s t e r parents: "vary according to types and ages of c h i l d r e n , e t c . " The agency: "may r e t a i n c o n t r o l of the d i r e c t expenditures f o r c l o t h i n g , m e d i c a l , h o s p i t a l care, personal i n c i d e n t a l s , e t c . , a l l of which are i n c l u d e d i n the s e t t i n g of that maintenance r a t e f o r State payments." While t h i s i s the: " t h e o r e t i c a l arrangement, i n p r a c t i c e , the State has o f t e n found i t s e l f unable to pay even the f u l l average cost of maintenance f o r c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes. Hence they have sometimes continued a r a t e f o r s e v e r a l years d e s p i t e the f a c t that the agency could prove i t s costs f o r f o s t e r care had r i s e n . " The State pays: "only f o r c h i l d r e n provided e l i g i b l e f o r such support; the State Department i t s e l f reserves the d e c i s i o n as to the c h i l d ' s e l i g i b i l i t y ; we supply the inform-a t i o n e s t a b l i s h i n g the f a c t . There are many c h i l d r e n who, under the terms of the law, do not meet the s t r i c t d e s c r i p t i o n of dependency. Such c h i l d r e n must be supported without State a s s i s t a n c e . ' A l s o , i t i s of s i g n i f i c a n c e to note that c h i l d r e n may be p a r t i a l l y dependent, that i s , t h e i r parents' income may be shown s u f f i c i e n t to pay only p a r t of the c h i l d ' s support. I n such i n s t a n c e s , the State w i l l supplement up to the agency's r a t e f o r maintenance." "While the State pays an average rate f o r f o s t e r home care, I t pays a s p e c i f i c i n s t i t u t i o n a l r a t e , t h a t I s , the exact per c a p i t a c o s t of a c h i l d i n t hat given i n s t i t u t i o n during the preceding year. 115. "However, before e s t a b l i s h i n g such a r a t e from the agency's f i g u r e s , i t f i r s t s c a l e s the agency's expenditures down to the maximum standards of P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e . I f , f o r example, an agency's experience i n expenditure f o r food i s greater than the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e standards f o r food f o r a c h i l d of such sex and age, the State Department w i l l reduce that item i n the agency's per c a p i t a report and the r e s u l t a n t r a t e w i l l be correspond-i n g l y i n f l u e n c e d . " Parents, guardians, "and other r e s p o n s i b l e I n d i v i d u a l s and corporations (e.g. e s t a t e s , insurance, e t c ) . " do pay the: " f u l l per c a p i t a c o s t , i n c l u d i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s e r v i c e s , i f they are able to pay i t . G enerally, however, there i s no question of the c h i l d ' s own family being able to pay the f u l l c o s t . Frequently too, i t i s the court which sets by decree the r a t e the c h i l d ' s own parents are expected to pay. I f the parents can a f f o r d i t , the Court charges them the f u l l cost of care." M e d i c a l - h o s p i t a l expenditures are: "audited as a separate item but paid under the same general arrangement by the p u b l i c agency. Again, payment represents an average r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c expenditure, but i n t h i s case i t i s the average expenditure of our own agency, not a l l the agencies lumped together." The f e d e r a l government p a r t i c i p a t e s i n f i n a n c i n g , however the State r e c e i v e s no f o s t e r care funds from the f e d e r a l government; but: " i t r e c e i v e s a goodly p o r t i o n of other a s s i s t a n c e funds from the Federal Government as w e l l as some grants f o r other s p e c i a l purposes." The S e a t t l e Community Chest, (United Good Neighbor fund) c o n t r a c t s w i t h voluntary agencies to finance t h e i r d e f i c i t s . A l l revenues and expenditures are budgeted 116. and reported, and the Chest reviews and approves the e n t i r e budget, item by item, and at i t s d i s c r e t i o n i t may a l t e r the agency's estimates of i t s income or expend-i t u r e . The United Good Neighbour expects agencies to "recover reimbursements wherever and as much as a v a i l a b l e " , but i t does not allo w agencies to s o l i c i t funds or c o n t r i b -u t i o n s . A l l s e r v i c e s are "reported and budgeted i n the same way" and "the adoption s e r v i c e and care of unmarried mothers are financed i n e x a c t l y the same system as the other s e r v i c e s . " Unmarried mothers are cared f o r i n a separate i n s t i t u t i o n , but i n the current year'sgo budget f o r the adoption and f o s t e r care agency: "State payments f o r general maintenance items account f o r 4J.2 per cent of a l l our r e c e i p t s ; State payments f o r ' m e d i c a l - h o s p i t a l expenses account f o r 2.1 per cent; c o n t r i b u t i o n s account f o r 2.4 per cent; payments by parents and other p r i v a t e sources account f o r 10.8 per cent and the Community Chest a l l o c a t i o n accounts f o r 41.3 per cent." The f i g u r e s quoted are f o r an estimated budget, but compared w i t h the a c t u a l percentages of funds received by the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society over.a p e r i o d of years, i t i s obvious t h a t i n the State of Washington a n o e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t concept governs the sharing of c h i l d welfare c o s t s than i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The c o n t r i b u t i o n s 20. 1959. 117. to the S e a t t l e agency, and payments by parents account f o r over 13 per cent of the t o t a l income, whereas C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society income from s i m i l a r sources provided merely .5 per cent i n 1957, and i t was an average year i n t h a t respect. The b i g d i f f e r e n c e i s i n the amounts r e c e i v e d from p u b l i c and p r i v a t e sources. The percentage estimated as income from the Chest i n S e a t t l e , 41.3 per cent, campares w i t h a ten year average ending i n 1957, of 18.2 per-cent f o r C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y . The percentage of 43*2 per cent of income from State funds f o r the S e a t t l e agency compares w i t h a ten year average f o r the Vancouver agency of 81.3 per cent of income from p u b l i c funds. The discrepancy i s due i n l a r g e measure to the f a c t t h a t the S e a t t l e agency i s not reimbursed by the State f o r s a l a r i e s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses i n c u r r e d i n s u p e r v i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n care, as p r i v a t e agencies are i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s , the s t a t e does not pay f o r c h i l d r e n who are not " e l i g i b l e " , and only s u b s i d i s e s c h i l d r e n who are determined to be p a r t i a l l y dependent. The S e a t t l e agency does not provide non-ward care on the same b a s i s as B r i t i s h Columbian agencies do. (.Children who must be admitted to care by the S e a t t l e 1 1 8 . agency, but f o r whom p a r e n t s can not c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l l y , a r e i n a comparable c l a s s i f i c a t i o n as B r i t i s h Columbian a g e n c i e s non-wards which Community Chest pay f o r . The number o f days c a r e p r o v i d e d f o r n o n - e l i g i b l e o r p a r t l y e l i g i b l e c h i l d r e n , o r t h e c o s t o f t h i s s e r v i c e t o t h e S e a t t l e agency i s not know, so t h a t a comparison o f t h i s c annot be made. TABLE 35. Average Monthly E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r Maintenance o f C h i l d r e n , C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s o f S e a t t l e and Spokane, and C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver, 1957* Items o f E x p e n d i t u r e C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s S e a t t l e - ^ C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s Spokane^ C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n 1 s A i d S o c i e t y . Food f o r C h i l d r e n $39 .87 $46.26 # 3 8 . 1 5 2 • C l o t h i n g 5-73 7 . 8 0 8.03 Other exp-enses f o r c h i l d r e n 2.95 3 .31 4.65 T o t a l maintenance 148.55 #57-37 #50.83 1. P e r c a p i t a e x p e n d i t u r e s 1957, V o l u n t a r y C h i l d C a r i n g a g e n c i e s , S t a t e o f Washington, S t a t e Department o f P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e , Olympia, Washington August 1958. 2. M o n t h l y r a t e computed by m u l t i p l y i n g d a i l y maintenance p a i d t o f o s t e r p a r e n t s , by 30.4. 119. Table 35 shows the v a r i a t i o n i n the costs of main-t a i n i n g c h i l d r e n i n care, not i n c l u s i v e of s u p e r v i s i o n expenses. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare the t o t a l amounts spent per month, however a c l o s e comparison of these expenses cannot be-made because the f i g u r e s used f o r the Vancouver agency of the average amount p a i d to f o s t e r -parents i n c l u d e s an allowance f o r household expenses. The amounts p a i d by the Washington agencies do not i n c l u d e an allowance f o r household s u p p l i e s , laundry, heat, l i g h t or water. An a d d i t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e i s th a t the amounts paid f o r food f o r c h i l d r e n by the Washington agencies do not cover c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , whereas the amount pa i d as maintenance to f o s t e r parents by the Vancouver agency i n c l u d e s some c h i l d r e n i n i n s t i t u t i o n s where a s p e c i a l higher r a t e was pa i d . The monthly expenses f o r maintenance of c h i l d r e n was lower f o r the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society than f o r the Washington agencies. C l o t h i n g , and other expenses f o r c h i l d r e n i n care was higher f o r the Vancouver agency. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to compare these expenses as i t i s not known e x a c t l y what d i f f e r e n c e s there are i n goods and s e r v i c e s , and expenses which are i n c l u d e d . 120. The same comments a p p l y t o Ta b l e 36, and t h e expenses f o r s a l a r i e s , g e n e r a l o p e r a t i o n and m e d i c a l c a r e e s p e c i a l l y , because t h e Vancouver agency pays f o r few m e d i c a l expenses. (See c h a p t e r 11 - H e a l t h Care) TABLE 36. Average Monthly E x p e n d i t u r e s f o r M a i n t a i n i n g and Super- v i s i n g C h i l d r e n i n Care, C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s o f S e a t t l e  and Spokane, and C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , and  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver, 1957. Items o f E x p e n d i t u r e | C.C. | S e a t t l e C.C. Spokand C.C.A.S. Vancouver ! ' C.A.S. Vancouver Maintenance o f C h i l d r e n i 148.55 157-37 $50.83 i $48.72 M e d i c a l 2.07 10 . 5 0 1.34 1 . 2 3 S a l a r i e s ! 15.06 19 . 5 1 21 . 5 8 26.42 G e n e r a l O p e r a t i n g 3.26 4.25 2.43 4.61 T o t a l s |68.94 $91.63 ; $76.18 $80.98 I f t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were not r e i m b u r s i n g p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r s u p e r v i s i o n c o s t s and were o n l y p a y i n g maintenance f o r c h i l d r e n I n c a r e , t h e C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y would have been o b l i g e d t o l o o k t o o t h e r s o u r c e s f o r 121. $107,820. I f the Vancouver•Community Chest had been under an agreement to pay t h i s amount,its share of expenses would have increased by 25 per cent, and i t would have paid 42 per cent of the t o t a l expenditures for 1957. This compares with the 41 per cent which was the amount estimated for income from the Community Chest by the Seattle agency. TABLE 37. Maintenance and Administrative/ Expenses for Children In  Care, Comparison by Percentages, Catholic Charities of  Seattle and Spokane, and Catholic Children's Aid Society  and Children's Aid Society, Vancouver, 1957« Di v i s i o n of Expenses C.C. Seattle C.C. Spokane C.C.A.S. Vancouver C.A.S. Vancouver Maintenance of Children 7 0 . 4 £2.6 68.4 61.7 Admini s t r a t i v e and Super-visory i 1 29.6 37.4 31.6 38.3 A comparison of the d i v i s i o n of expenditures for children i n care for the Washington and Vancouver agencies shows that there i s a sizable spread i n percentages between the Seattle and Spokane agencies, and almost an i d e n t i c a l one between the two Vancouver agencies. I t 122. Is i n t e r e s t i n g to note th a t the S e a t t l e agency and the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society d i v i s i o n s of maintenance expenses and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e costs are w i t h i n two per cent, of the other. S i m i l a r l y , the r a t i o s of the Spokane agency, and the Children's A i d Society of Vancouver are w i t h i n two per cent of the other. I t has been noted already t h a t c l o s e comparisons of costs cannot be made because o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n items which are allowed i n the expenditures. At the same time, the Washington agencies and the Vancouver agencies both operate under the same bas i c p o l i c i e s concerning the kinds of items allowed Into the maintenance and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n expenses. The B r i t i s h Columbia method of f i n a n c i n g the care of dependent c h i l d r e n who are under p r i v a t e agency super-v i s i o n recommends i t s e l f more than that used i n Washington. Under the per diem formula i n B r i t i s h Columbia', the cost of maintenance and s u p e r v i s i o n i s guaranteed f o r any c h i l d who has been committed to a s o c i e t y by co u r t . A p r i v a t e agency i s not dependent on voluntary funds which may be d i f f i c u l t to o b t a i n , to maintain and adequately supervise a c h i l d who I s i n need of p r o t e c t i o n . The Washington approach toward f i n a n c i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e p o i n t s up other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s however. The Washington community must see I t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward dependent 123. c h i l d r e n i n p r i v a t e agency care as a "50-50" one shared w i t h government. There i s a l s o a question about the stat u s of the p r i v a t e c h i l d welfare agencies i n Washington compared w i t h those i n B r i t i s h Columbia, where the trend has been to have I n c r e a s i n g l y more government support. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the community to help provide s e r v i c e s through adequate voluntary support must be questioned i f i t i s d e s i r a b l e f o r p r i v a t e agencies to continue to provide b a s i c s e r v i c e s . 124 . CHAPTER IV THE FINANCIAL STRUCTURE - IMPLICATIONS FOR THE FUTURE. Ever y community and n a t i o n has some dependent c h i l d r e n . There a r e v a r i o u s ways by wh i c h t h e s e c h i l d r e n can be c a r e d f o r ; p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , o r a programme combining p u b l i c and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , o r t h r o u g h p u b l i c a g e n c i e s e x c l u s i v e l y . The r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f the s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s p e r se are not t h e main s u b j e c t o f t h i s s tudy w h i c h i s c o n f i n e d t o p r e s e n t methods o f f i n a n c i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, " c h i l d w e l f a r e " i n t h i s c o n t e x t meaning s e r v i c e s f o r n e g l e c t e d and dependent c h i l d r e n . These s e r v i c e s were begun i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i t h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Van-c o u v e r i n 1 9 01 . A C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y f o l l o w e d a few y e a r s l a t e r , I n 1905. The s o c i e t i e s t o o k c h i l d r e n i n t o c a r e from t h e whole p r o v i n c e , t h e numbers grew, and f i n a n c i n g was p r e c a r i o u s f o r many y e a r s . Changes i n c h i l d w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n g r a d u a l l y produced g r e a t e r f i n a n c i a l s t a b i l i t y . A su r v e y , w h i c h was com-p l e t e d i n 1927, recommended t h a t the a c t u a l c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g a c h i l d s h o u l d be p a i d , and t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h i s r e p o r t e n a b l e d t h e s o c i e t i e s t o d e v e l o p a sounder programme f o r c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . The P r o t e c t i o n o f 125-C h i l d r e n A c t , pas s e d I n 1943, p r o v i d e d t h a t the r e i m b u r s e -ment t o c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n committed as wards, would be t h e : " c o s t s i n c u r r e d by t h e s o c i e t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g and s u p e r v i s i n g t h e c h i l d ..." The amountto be r e i m b u r s e d i s c a l c u l a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a "per c a p i t a p e r diem" r a t e , w h i c h i s the average c o s t p e r day t o m a i n t a i n a c h i l d i n c a r e . C h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s a r e p a i d monthly by the p r o v i n c i a l government f o r wards i n c a r e . F o r many y e a r s m u n i c i p a l i t i e s p a i d t h e f u l l c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g c h i l d r e n who became t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y under t h e P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t . I n 1947 however, t h e p r o v i n c i a l government began r e i m b u r s i n g m u n i c i p a l i t i e s f o r 80 p e r c e n t o f t h i s c o s t . On September 1 s t , 1958, t h e p r o v i n c i a l government undertook t o pay 90 p e r c e n t o f t h e maintenance c o s t f o r wards. I n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, c h i l d r e n who a r e i n c a r e o f c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r temporary p e r i o d s a t t h e r e q u e s t o f p a r e n t s , a re p a i d f o r by the. Community Che s t . Throughout the r e s t o f the p r o v i n c e such non-ward c a r e i s p r o v i d e d f o r on the same b a s i s as ward c a r e . A d o p t i o n s e r v i c e s have been the s u b j e c t o f a s e p a r a t e arrangement by agreement between the s o c i e t i e s and t h e 126. p r o v i n c i a l government. Costs f o r adoption s e r v i c e s are Included i n the per c a p i t a r a t e c a l c u l a t e d f o r c h i l d r e n i n care of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . The p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s t h e r e f o r e pay the major cost of t h i s s e r v i c e , w i t h the Community Chest paying a p o r t i o n p r o p o r t i o n a t e to the number of non-ward days as a g a i n s t the number of days p a i d f o r wards. Other s e r v i c e s provided by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s - preventive f a m i l y work and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers - are financed by Community Chest, l e s s small c r e d i t s which may accrue through outside income. I n the post war years, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g numbers of c h i l d r e n coming i n t o care, and the r i s i n g p r i c e s , the expenditures on c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e have r i s e n a s t r o -n o m i c a l l y . From 1948 to 1957, t o t a l expenses of the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society have r i s e n 168 per cent, during the same p e r i o d the per c a p i t a r a t e -has increased 117 per cent. Judged from a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s f o r one year (1957), C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society o u t l a y s are comparable w i t h other agencies. The d i v i s i o n of the d a i l y cost f o r maintaining and s u p e r v i s i n g c h i l d r e n i n care a l s o compared c l o s e l y w i t h other agencies. The per c a p i t a r a t e computed f o r 1957 was $2.5097« Of t h i s amount, 79 cents per day, or 31*6 per cent of the t o t a l 127. was spent to provide casework and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e r v i c e s . Maintenance allowances to f o s t e r parents, and other d i r e c t goods and s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n I n care accounted f o r the balance, $1.71 per day, or 68.4 per cent. The method of f i n a n c i n g care and s e r v i c e s of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia i s r e l a t i v e l y s t r a i g h t -forward, compared wi t h t h a t used i n some other provinces. I n three provinces (which have been reviewed i n t h i s study) the p r o v i n c i a l governments and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s share v a r y i n g percentages of the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n who are agency wards. In a d d i t i o n , various s u b s i d i e s or grants are made to s o c i e t i e s . These are based on a percentage of t o t a l operating budgets, and/or grading s u b s i d i e s , and percentages of v o l u n t a r y funds c o l l e c t e d . I n one province, Nova S c o t i a , m u n i c i p a l i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e on a per c a p i t a b a s i s . While i t i s not known w i t h what r e l a t i v e ease or d i f f i c u l t y agencies w i t h i n these provinces are f i n a n c i n g care and s e r v i c e s , funds seem to be provided through a patchwork of resources. The grants and sub-s i d i e s p a i d i n d i c a t e , however, that r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s recognized as extending beyond c h i l d r e n who are committed by court. An e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s i n the State of Washington. P r i v a t e agencies are here pa i d a per 128. c a p i t a r a t e f o r a l l c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes. The c a l c u l a t i o n i s based on expenses of maintenance, (food, c l o t h i n g , e t c . ) and does not i n c l u d e costs of admin-i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n . In a d d i t i o n , the a c t u a l per c a p i t a cost i s not p a i d , but a l e s s e r rate I s p a i d . The State has not always been able to pay t h i s i n the past. The State decides on the e l i g i b i l i t y f o r payment, and the c h i l d may be declared to be not e l i g i b l e * or only p a r t i a l l y dependent. For c h i l d r e n who are i n i n s t i t u t i o n s a r a t e based on a c t u a l expenses i s p a i d . Expenses which are Included must, however, conform wi t h the standard set f o r p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e payments. This r e s u l t s i n a "standardized" f i n a l r a t e . The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia b e l i e v e t h a t the p r o v i s i o n f o r payment of a per c a p i t a r a t e f o r c h i l d r e n i n care, based on a c t u a l c o s t s , has been b e n e f i c i a l to c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s . The agencies are able to budget f o r care of c h i l d r e n on the b a s i s of what i s necessary f o r them, w i t h the aasurance that i f t h i s i s done r e s p o n s i b l y , they w i l l be reimbursed. There have been no s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d ; but good standards of care, and the s e r v i c e s regarded as necessary are the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Board of D i r e c t o r s of a s o c i e t y . I n the years 1953 to 1957 i n c l u s i v e , the per 1 2 9 . c a p i t a r a t e has i n c r e a s e d from 3«77 to 1 1 . 5 8 per cent per year. The s o c i e t y has always b e l i e v e d that i t s costs have r e f l e c t e d a minimum expense, c o n s i s t e n t w i t h i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to -provide good care. Community Chests C o n t r i b u t i o n s . I t has already been noted that there i s some question i n Vancouver whether the Community Chest should continue to finance some of the s e r v i c e s which are provided by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . These s e r v i c e s can be d i v i d e d i n t o these groups, (a) temporary care of c h i l d r e n at the request of t h e i r parents (non-ward c a r e ) , (b) casework s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n In t h e i r own homes, ( g e n e r a l l y designated as the preventive s e r v i c e s ) and (c) casework s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers. (There has been more concern about c o n t i n u i n g Chest support of tem-porary care f o r c h i l d r e n . ) So f a r as the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society i s concerned, the Community Chest's share of expenses f o r s e r v i c e s rendered f l u c t u a t e d from 10 to 26 per cent of t o t a l expenses. The absolute amounts have, however, been r i s i n g s t e a d i l y because t o t a l expenses have been i n c r e a s i n g . I n 1957 the Chest c o n t r i b u t e d $ 7 7 , 0 4 5 towards services,, which was 17*7 per cent of the t o t a l 130. expenses f o r a l l s e r v i c e s . The Toronto C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y r e c e i v e d 7.3 p e r c e n t o f i t s income from t h e Chest f o r t h e same y e a r . As a c o n t r a s t , the C a t h o l i c C h a r i t i e s o f S e a t t l e e s t i m a t e d t h a t i t would r e c e i v e 411 '' p e r c e n t o f i t s income from the U n i t e d Good N e i g h b o r f u n d f o r 1959. The Community Chest i n Vancouver i s not b i l l e d f o r non-ward c a r e p r o v i d e d by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , but i t pays t h e a c t u a l c o s t o f p r o v i d i n g t h i s c a r e t h r o u g h a y e a r l y g r a n t . The Chest pays t h e amount which t h e a g e n c i e s need above th e Income from ward c a r e and o t h e r m i s c e l l a n e o u s income, t o meet t h e i r t o t a l e x p e n d i t u r e s . T h i s f i n a n c e s non-ward c a r e , and 20 p e r c e n t o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and g e n e r a l overhead expenses. T h i s d i v i s i o n has been ag r e e d upon j o i n t l y by t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and the Community Chest. A survey o f work s t a t i s t i c s , and an assessment o f t h e a r e a o f work t o w h i c h members o f s t a f f d evote t h e i r t i m e , shows t h a t t h e s e r v i c e s f i n a n c e d by t h e Chest took a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30 per c e n t o f t o t a l w o r k i n g time o f t h e s t a f f o f C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y d u r i n g 1957- There i s r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s r a t i o would be v a l i d f o r o t h e r y e a r s , and t h a t the Chest has been p a y i n g l e s s t h a n the " v o l u n t a r i l y f i n a n c e d s e r v i c e s " a c t u a l l y c o s t t o p r o v i d e . 131 I n recent years the Community Chest has not been able to meet the f i n a n c i a l requests of member agencies, d e s p i t e steady incre a s e s i n the t o t a l amounts of money which i t has r a i s e d i n i t s y e a r l y campaigns. The amount which the Chest c o n t r i b u t e d to C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society i n 1948 was more than doubled i n 1957. Increased s e r v i c e s account f o r some of t h i s , but r i s i n g costs are the main f a c t o r . While the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s have not had to decrease s t a f f o r s e r v i c e s , they have not been able to make a d d i t i o n s to s t a f f as they would have l i k e d . This has not only a f f e c t e d the l e v e l of s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s , c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r own homes, and f o r unmarried mothers, but a l s o s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n care. The Chest reviews t o t a l budgets, and as i t pays 20 per cent of a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n expenses, and f o r non-wards i n care, any i n c r e a s e i n general expenses or maintenance i s r e f l e c t e d i n the amount of money which I t must grant. An i n c r e a s e to s t a f f to serve c h i l d r e n i n care t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e s the amount necessary from the Chest. The shortage of funds to support s e r v i c e s financed by the Chest has caused questions to be r a i s e d p u b l i c l y about which s e r v i c e s . s h o u l d be financed by the Chest. The s e r v i c e s which are provided by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s have been questioned, and a committee i s being formed to recommend whether non-ward care and the other s e r v i c e s 132. p r e s e n t l y financed by the Chest should continue to be supported by i t . At the annual meeting of the Children's A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, h e l d i n February I960, the P r e s i d e n t (Ernest B u l l , Q.C.) commented on the s i t u a t i o n as r a i s i n g an i s s u e which was: "a matter of the most v i t a l importance to the Society and, i n f a c t , to i t s very e x i s t e n c e . . . . " Mr. B u l l s a i d that an o v e r s i m p l i f i e d statement of the problem i s : "Should government a u t h o r i t y take over r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r 100 per cent of the f i n a n c i n g of the Society's programme." He added th a t those who favour f u l l governmental respons-i b i l i t y f o r the work of c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s say t h a t : (1) "Work w i t h and f o r c h i l d r e n , both p r o t e c t i v e and preventive i s so important and such a v i t a l n e c e s s i t y i n our s o c i a l system that i s i s completely a respons-i b i l i t y of the State. (2) "that government has already assumed the f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r both p r o t e c t i v e and preventive f u n c t i o n s through the province except only i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n centres of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . " Answering h i s own questions, Mr. B u l l suggested the f i r s t might be accepted by those who b e l i e v e i n the " f u l l w e l f a r e s t a t e " , but "we s t i l l b e l i e v e " that a p a r t i c u l a r community: "has c e r t a i n o b l i g a t i o n s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , both moral and f i n a n c i a l , to meet the unmet needs of i t s own u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d numbers a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y 133-"of a s e c t i o n of the p u b l i c to t h e i r own few as opposed to the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the whole s t a t e . " In r e p l y to the second p o i n t , Mr. B u l l contended that there I s a very great d i f f e r e n c e between the s e r v i c e s which are needed i n Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , and those which are re q u i r e d i n r u r a l areas. He st a t e d t h a t there i s concentrated d i s t r e s s i n metrop o l i t a n areas, and: " i n such areas, preventive c h i l d welfare casework i s a h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d f i e l d . . . . " while preventive c h i l d w e l f a r e work which i s provided by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare: " i s i n c i d e n t a l to an o v e r a l l s e r v i c e i n a l l branches of w e l f a r e . " The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society has not made a p u b l i c statement of i t s views, however the Pr e s i d e n t , i n her report to the annual meeting of the Society a l s o h e l d i n February I960, s t a t e d that the: "Board welcomes the i n v i t a t i o n of the Chest to p a r t i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n s . . . " about "how much of our money should come from government and how much from p r i v a t e funds donated to the Chest." 134. A Review of the Issues. The Issues which had been r a i s e d about the c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s which the Community Chest has been supporting pose new questions. I f the Chest were to withdraw i t s support f o r the care of non-ward c h i l d r e n , the p r o v i n c i a l government, and the C i t y of Vancouver would be o b l i g e d to assume the cost of t h i s s e r v i c e . This would be financed on the same b a s i s as the care of wards, 90 per cent to 10 per cent between the government and the c i t y . I f the Chest were to withdraw i t s support f o r preventive casework s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n , and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers, the cost of t h i s would presumably be shared on the same b a s i s as s e r v i c e s to c h i l -dren i n care. I f the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s In Vancouver were to d i s c o n t i n u e p r o v i d i n g a l l , or part of the s e r v i c e s which they now give, i t i s l o g i c a l to assume that the C i t y of Vancouver would be o b l i g e d to do so. The c i t y c o u ld however, set up a separate c h i l d w e l f a r e department or s e c t i o n , and these s e r v i c e s would not need to be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o e x i s t i n g caseloads of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e . The s o c i a l workers who place c h i l d r e n Into f o s t e r and adoption homes should be e s p e c i a l l y a ) k i l l e d . There does, t h e r e f o r e , seem to be some advantage i n maintaining 135. these s e r v i c e s i n a u n i t , or s p e c i a l i z e d agency, r a t h e r than, having them provided by s t a f f who c a r r y g e n e r a l i z e d caseloads comprising -many kinds of problems. There i s also,however, growing, concern about s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s , and the need to co-ordinate them. The tendency, of s p e c i a l i z e d s e r v i c e s to recognize and t r e a t only p a r t of a problem i s recognized i n c r e a s i n g l y . I n h i s address to the annual meeting of the Children's A i d S ociety, the President s t a t e d t h a t : " i t i s axiomatic i n p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n that where money goes, c o n t r o l f o l l o w s . " There i s some evidence to support t h i s . In 1953, re p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Superintendent of C h i l d Welfare began studying the a d v i s a b i l i t y of requesting a d d i t i o n a l funds from p u b l i c sources. The p r o v i n c i a l government and the C i t y of Vancouver had made grants to the s o c i e t i e s because d e f i c i t s were expected, however, these grants had not been made under any agreement of p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to provide a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , but s o l e l y to cover the l a c k of volun t a r y funds. A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n , the s o c i e t i e s agreed that such grants should not be requested i n the f u t u r e . I t was b e l i e v e d that i f a d d i t i o n a l money was necessary, i t should be obtained because of a c l e a r s t a t u t o r y o b l i g a t i o n r e s t i n g w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l government, 136. and the Gity of Vancouver, to finance c e r t a i n s e r v i c e s . The area of work which i t was thought provided such an o b l i g a t i o n was that described i n the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act as " a m e l i o r a t i n g f a m i l y c o n d i t i o n s that l e a d to neglect of c h i l d r e n . " 2 1 The agencies considered t h i s , but saw d i f f i c u l t i e s i n regard to how any proposed payments would be assessed. There were al s o a d d i t i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . One was the t o t a l amount of money which s o c i e t i e s were already r e c e i v i n g from the p r o v i n c i a l government. I t was thought that i f a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c funds were requested, the s t a t u s of the s o c i e t i e s as p r i v a t e agencies would be questioned, e x p e c i a l l y i f grants of v o l u n t a r y funds became s m a l l e r . I n a study of agency a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , as e a r l y as 1948, Elwood S t r e e t s t a t e s t h a t : "the question of s o l i c i t i n g or r e c e i v i n g contributions, from p u b l i c funds f o r p r i v a t e agencies i s debatable." He p o i n t s out t h a t : "There i s a danger that c o n t r i b u t i o n s from g i v e r s may s u f f e r because the c i t i z e n s f e e l they should ' l e t the c i t y or county do i t ' . " 2 2 21. S e c t i o n 21 (1) 22. S t r e e t , Elwood. A Handbook f o r S o c i a l Agency  Admlnlstra11on, Harper and Brothers, New York, 1948, page 404. 137. The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s a r e p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s , and i f t h e y a r e t o r e t a i n t h i s s t a t u s t hey must have s t r o n g community s u p p o r t . I f c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s d i d r e c e i v e a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c funds w h i c h would c o v e r a r e a s o f s e r v i c e now p a i d f o r by t h e l o c a l community ( t h r o u g h t h e G h e s t ) , t h e s o c i e t i e s would have no g u a r a n t e e t h a t t h e Chest would make funds a v a i l a b l e so t h a t r e m a i n i n g " v o l u n t -a r i l y f i n a n c e d " s e r v i c e s c o u l d be expanded, o r t h a t s e r v i c e s c o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d t h r o u g h more s t a f f , r e s e a c h , o r p r o j e c t s t o meet the s p e c i a l needs o f some c h i l d r e n . Any p r o posed e x p a n s i o n , o r a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e must, under cuiffeent Chest p o l i c y , be g i v e n a p r i o r i t y r a t i n g i n r e g a r d t o t o t a l community need. T h i s i s o f c o u r s e p r o p e r , b u t i t does not g u a r a n t e e any d e f i n i t e amount o f money, n o r a d e s i g n a t e d p r o p o r t i o n , i n r e g a r d t o t h e t o t a l budget. At the same t i m e , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e C h i l d r e n ' s F o u n d a t i o n r e c e n t l y had a campaign f o r c a p i t a l funds t o e s t a b l i s h a home f o r e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , and found t h e Vancouver community w i l l i n g t o s u p p o r t t h e p r o j e c t . A l s o , w i t h i n the l a s t two y e a r s , two new s e r v i c e s , The Working Boy's Home, and t h e B i g B r o t h e r s , were o r g a n -i z e d , a d m i t t e d i n t o t h e Chest, and r e c e i v e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t from i t . A l l o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s c o u l d have been o r g a n i z e d by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and i f they had been, 138. I t i s r e a s o n a b l e to e x p e c t t h a t t h e community would have s u p p o r t e d them. I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t v o l u n t a r y funds can be o b t a i n e d f o r s e r v i c e s w h i c h t h e community i s w i l l i n g t o s u p p o r t . I f t h e r e i s . a l a c k o f funds i t i s because t h e r e i s doubt about th e s e r v i c e s f o r which t h e funds a r e b e i n g c o l l e c t e d . W h i l e -there has been d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g p r i v a t e funds f o r s e r v i c e s s u p p o r t e d by t h e Chest, i t . i s a l s o t r u e t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s have l i m i t s on t h e amount o f money w h i c h they a r e w i l l i n g t o budget f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . I n a r e c e n t s t u d y made f o r t h e Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , Edward E. Schwartz s t a t e s t h a t : " C h i l d p l a c i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s are i n c r e a s i n g not o n l y because o f t h e r i s e i n t h e number o f c h i l d r e n r e c e i v i n g c a r e , b u t a l s o because o f t h e r i s e i n the c o s t o f the major components g o i n g i n t o t h e s e r v i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y s a l a r i e s o f s t a f f , and pay-ments f o r t h e maintenance o f c h i l d r e n . The a t t e n t i o n o f many agency e x e c u t i v e s , boards o f v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s , s t a f f s o f community c h e s t and w e l f a r e c o u n c i l s and o t h e r c e n t r a l p l a n n i n g and f i n a n c i n g b o d i e s , and o f l o c a l S t a t e and F e d e r a l a u t h o r i t i e s has been d i r e c t e d t o t h e s i z a b l e and i n c r e a s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s i n t h e f i e l d o f c h i l d p l a c i n g . " Mr. Schwartz goes on t o p o i n t out t h a t : "The t r a d i t i o n a l budget statement o f c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s , l i k e t h a t o f most o t h e r p u b l i c and v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e a g e n c i e s i s an " o b j e c t i v e budget" e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f proposed o b j e c t s o r i t e m s o f e x p e n d i t u r e , f o r example, s a l a r i e s , t r a v e l , 139. ."•boarding home payment. Budget o f f i c e r s , l e g i s l a t o r s -and t h e i n t e r e s t e d p u b l i c f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t , I f n o t i m p o s s i b l e , t o p e r c e i v e f r o m t h i s k i n d o f b u d g e t what t h e a c t u a l p r o g ram o f t h e a g e n c y i s and what s e r v i c e s i t i n t e n d s t o d e l i v e r , t o say n o t h i n g o f i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o s i m i l a r p r o g r a m s and t o t h e s e r v i c e s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s . "g-j Mr. S c h w a r t z ' comments seem e n t i r e l y v a l i d when a p p l i e d t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A t t h e same t i m e , t h e C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y has a l w a y s f e l t t h a t t h e Community C h e s t b u d g e t c o m m i t t e e w h i c h r e v i e w s and a u t h o r i z e s i t s f i n a l b u d g e t s , w h i l e b e i n g v e r y t h o r o u g h , i s a l w a y s s y m p a t h e t i c t o t h e needs o f t h e a g e n c y , and e q u a t e s b u d g e t needs w i t h s e r v i c e s . The amount o f money w h i c h i s made a v a i l a b l e t o community c h e s t , o r t o g o v e r n m e n t a l d e p a r t m e n t s , i s however a r e a l i t y . I n May 1958, t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s were a d v i s e d by t h e Deputy M i n i s t e r o f W e l f a r e t h a t t h e a g e n c i e s w o u l d have t o k e e p e x p e n s e s down, and t h a t "no a l l o w a n c e h a d b e e n made f o r an . i n c r e a s e f o r t h e f o r t h c o m i n g y e a r " f o r t h e p e r d i e m c o s t . The Deputy M i n i s t e r a l s o r e q u e s t e d a d r a f t o f t h e e s t i m a t e d b u d g e t f o r t h e s u c c e e d i n g f i s c a l y e a r . The C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y B o a r d o f D i r e c t o r s r a i s e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e r e q u e s t . The P r o -t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t s t a t e s t h a t " The d i r e c t o r s o f 23. S c h w a r t z , Edward E . C o s t A n a l y s i s i n C h i l d W e l f a r e  S e r v i c e s , A d o p t i o n and F o s t e r Home C o s t s , U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , U.S. S e c u r i t y Admin-i s t r a t i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s B u r e a u , 1958, p a g e s 1 - 2 . 140. "a society s h a l l have f u l l power i n a l l things to administer the a f f a i r s of the society. 1' , J 24 The Board of Directors believes that t h i s clause i n the Act includes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to control expenditures, and that any change could constitute a serious threat to the a b i l i t y of the society to provide services of an acceptable standard to children i n need of theta. In addition, the agency pointed out that the Protection of Children Act states that the cost of maintenance i s to be a "reasonable sum" and that the government has never questioned or suggested that the per capita rate • was not reasonable. Estimated budgets have, therefore, not been sent to the department. Elwood Street has maintained i n the manual already quoted: " i t i s manifestly impossible for any organization . to estimate with absolute accuracy i t s income and expense i n d e t a i l for twelve, f i f t e e n or eighteen months ahead."25 The Catholic Children's Aid Society has been able to estimate i t s per capita cost f a i r l y accurately, and these are sent to the Superintendent of Child Welfare as requested. The society believes that to submit an o v e r a l l t o t a l budget to the Department of Social Welfare would be i n v i t i n g control of expenditures, despite the 24. Section 27. 25 . Op.cit., page 357. 141. p r o v i s i o n s of the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act, and tha t t h i s would threaten standards of care which the s o c i e t y has been able to maintain. From a f i n a n c i a l standpoint, the p r o v i n c i a l govern-ment i s i n t e r e s t e d only i n the expenditures which go i n t o the per c a p i t a r a t e . S t r e e t s t a t e s t h a t : "Where a c o n t r a c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s i n terms of payments to be made f o r s e r v i c e s rendered, the s o c i a l agency should do I t s utmost to make sure t h a t the p u b l i c funds pay the f u l l c ost of the s e r v i c e . Conversely, p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s should have assurance t h a t what they pay i s the a c t u a l cost of s e r v i c e and not an i n f l a t e d amount based on p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e , should have c o n t r o l over Intake and outgo of the persons f o r whom charge i s made by the p r i v a t e agency, and should have a u t h o r i t y , continuously enforced to r e q u i r e adequate standards of care."gg The P r o v i n c i a l government does i t s own y e a r l y a u d i t of expenditures f o r c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s and t h e r e f o r e knows what expenses are i n c l u d e d i n t o t a l costs f o r maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care. Intake and outgo cannot be c o n t r o l l e d , because s e r v i c e s must be provided as necessary. I n any event, p u b l i c funds pay f o r care only when a c h i l d i s "before court", and a f t e r i t has been committed to care by a court. Regarding c h i l d r e n i n non-ward care, there i s no p o l i c y or method of c o n t r o l ; the agency which provides the care i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r assessing whether a request f o r temporary care i s v a l i d 26. Op. c i t . , page 404. 142. or not. For many years the p r o v i n c i a l department b u i l t i n c r e a s i n g l y stronger c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s . I n recent years there has been evidence that t h i s i s no longer t r u e . P r o v i n c i a l s o c i a l work s t a f f has not been Increased to keep up to i n c r e a s i n g work-loads, and pressure of work has not allowed the s t a f f to devote as much time as i t should to c h i l d welfare work. M> the same time, the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n Vancouver have r e c e i v e d v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e from the C h i l d Welfare D i v i s i o n , i n t h a t i t places many c h i l d r e n who are i n the s o c i e t i e s ' care i n t o adoption homes i n areas s e r v i c e d by the Department of S o c i a l Welfare. The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s b e l i e v e t h a t they should continue to f u n c t i o n as strong p r i v a t e agencies, and t h a t they have a great r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to maintain h i g h standards of care f o r c h i l d r e n . I n doing so they b e l i e v e that they help to strengthen the c h i l d w elfare programme throughout the province. The p r i v a t e agencies, of course, have a l s o had d i f f i c u l t i e s i n working toward b e t t e r standards of s e r v i c e . With shortages of funds, s t a f f , automobiles and other f a c i l i t i e s have not been auth o r i z e d as needed. Trained s t a f f cannot always be obtained. Resources have been 143. l a c k i n g , and n e e d e d . r e s e a r c h has not been done. An a u t h o r i t a t i v e w r i t e r on community o r g a n i z a t i o n , Campbell G. Murphy, has o u t l i n e d t h e amount o f time c h i l d w e l f a r e w orkers s h o u l d p u t i n t o community o r g a n i z a t i o n , a n d p r e s s u r e s f o r t h e p r o v i s i o n o f d i r e c t s e r v i c e s have n o t a l l o w e d enough a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s n e c e s s a r y p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y . One o f t h e r e s u l t s i s t h a t t h e community I s n o t as aware o f t h e needs o f c h i l d r e n w i t h o u t f a m i l i e s , as i t s h o u l d be. T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y I m p o r t a n t t o p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s w h i c h need t a n g i b l e p r o o f o f community i n t e r e s t and s u p p o r t . A r t h u r Dunham, a n o t h e r w r i t e r on community o r g a n -i z a t i o n , r e p o r t s t h a t : "Membership groups i n a g e n c i e s w h i c h b e l o n g t o c h e s t s have i n many ca s e s d r i e d up, and have l e f t t h e a g e n c i e s w i t h no c o n s t i t u e n c y groups and w i t h s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g boards - an undemocratic and g e n e r a l l y u n s a t i s f a c t o r y p a t t e r n . " 2 8 As a s e c t a r i a n agency, t h e C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y has a w e l l d e f i n e d c o n s t i t u e n c y , . b u t i t has n o t , however, m a i n t a i n e d a h i g h membership. I n 1957, t h e S o c i e t y had t h i r t y - s e v e n p a i d members. T h i s was law, but t h e average 27. Murphy, Campbell G., Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e , Haughton M i f f l i n Company, 1954, pages 314-320. 28. Dunham, A r t h u r , Community W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n ; P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e , Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Company, New York, 1957, page 182. 144. number of members i n recent years has been approximately f i f t y . While the Society could r a l l y support through p a r i s h o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and uses them i n i t s never ending search f o r f o s t e r and adoption homes, there has not been a large.'), number of people i n the community a c t i v e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the problems and needs of the s o c i e t y . The l a c k of an a c t i v e and i n t e r e s t e d constituency has undoubtedly c o n t r i b u t e d , over a p e r i o d of years, to the f e e l i n g i n p a r t of the community th a t more c h i l d w elfare s e r v i c e s should be financed by p u b l i c funds. The Functions of P r i v a t e Agencies. The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia provided the f i r s t c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n the province. They have continued to f u n c t i o n i n the met r o p o l i t a n areas of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a . P r o v i n c i a l and mun-i c i p a l c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s have developed outside o f Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , and while there have been readjustments i n the geographic areas served by the s o c i e t i e s , they have not given up any areas of s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c agencies. There has been no f r i c t i o n between p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies; r a t h e r they have worked together to develop b e t t e r s e r v i c e s . 145-The P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act has provided that the a c t u a l cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care w i l l he reimbursed to the s o c i e t i e s . The p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are i n e f f e c t buying t h i s s e r v i c e from the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . Adoption s e r v i c e s have by agreement been i n c l u d e d i n the cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care, and t h i s leaves the p r o v i s i o n of non-ward care f o r c h i l d r e n , preventive work, and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers i n question as s e r v i c e s which should, or should not be provided by p r i v a t e agencies through p r i v a t e resources. The importance of t h i s area i s r e f l e c t e d i n the study made of the subject by the Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l i n 1950. I t may be s a i d t h a t t h i s r e f l e c t s some of the most widely-shared views i n Canada. The study s t a t e s t h a t : "The m a j o r i t y of the sub-committees f e l t that where basic p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i c e was recognized, i t was d e s i r a b l e that t h i s s e r v i c e should be e n t i r e l y under p u b l i c auspices, unless the s e r v i c e s are, or could be, more adequately provided on a shared or s u b s i d i z e d basis. " 2 9 The study goes on, however, to d e l i n e a t e areas where, p r i v a t e agency operations are v a l u a b l e ; 29. P u b l i c - P r i v a t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s I n C h i l d Welfare, Canadian Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 1950, pages 4-5• 146. (a) Specialized services, to "complement and supplement basic public welfare service. They should o f f e r care to groups of children with special needs and should pioneer and experiment with d i f f e r e n t methods of c h i l d care." (b) S p i r i t u a l needs, to " a s s i s t i n the building of good c i t i z e n s h i p " and "develop character...." (c) Research and experimentation,"discover gaps i n ex i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n . a n d "encourage the development of necessary l e g i s l a t i o n . . . " (d) Development of informed public opinion. "Private agencies have an essential function i n educating public opinion about s o c i a l needs and services..." While the study defines areas of function for private and public services, i t also notes that: "The actual d i v i s i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i l l always depend upon l o c a l conditions, the l e g i s l a t i o n which i s i n e f f e c t and. the existence of s t a f f and funds to administer i t . " - ^ I t must be admitted that the children's aid societies have f a l l e n short In the pursuit and development of some of the areas noted above. The Catholic Children's Aid Society has not devoted any time to the development of s p e c i a l i z e d services. . The research, which would have stimulated the experimentation leading to the develop-ment of s p e c i a l i z e d services, has not been done. There are reasons f o r t h i s . 30. Ibid, page 3« 147. A review of the work s t a t i s t i c s , the number of c h i l d r e n admitted and discharged from care, and the i n c r e a s i n g number of c h i l d r e n i n care; the t o t a l number of f a m i l i e s and unmarried mothers served y e a r l y , shows c l e a r l y that the s t a f f of the agency has had a heavy l o a d . I t i s tru e that the r a t i o of s t a f f to the work-l o a d has improved g r e a t l y I n recent years. I t has, however, not been at a p o i n t where any l a r g e p r o j e c t could be undertaken i n a d d i t i o n to the r e g u l a r work which needed to be done. I t i s tru e t h a t a d d i t i o n a l s t a f f could have been e s t a b l i s h e d to do c e r t a i n p r o j e c t s , i f such p r o j e c t s had been organized, and " s o l d " to the community. While the s t a f f of the s o c i e t y was increased over s e v e r a l years, so that caseloads could be reduced to a l l o w a b e t t e r standard of work, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f was not inc r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y . I n 1957, the Board of D i r e c t o r s of the s o c i e t y recommended to the Community Chest, t h a t an A s s i s t a n t Executive D i r e c t o r was necessary i n the agency. I t was b e l i e v e d at that time that t h i s was urgent because the Executive D i r e c t o r was not able to do alone, a l l the work which he was re s p o n s i b l e f o r . The day to day a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o u t i n e s were being taken 148. care of, however there was concern about programme e v a l u a t i o n , and planning, which was not being done adequately. The Community Chest agreed that an a s s i s t a n t ad-m i n i s t r a t o r was necessary, however, because of l a c k of funds the p o s i t i o n could not be f i l l e d u n t i l !&.>. Since J u l y of that year, to the present time, a good beginning has been made i n the agency I n t h i s v i t a l area of work. There i s every reason to b e l i e v e that t h i s a d d i t i o n to the s t a f f w i l l b r i n g b e t t e r s e r v i c e s , and recommendations f o r improving programme. Surveys which have already been made have documented the need f o r extensions i n s e r v i c e s . There are s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s which should be noted i n regard to the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Soc i e t y . The C a t h o l i c community looks to the C a t h o l i c s o c i a l agency as an extension of the p a r i s h i n p r o v i d i n g coun-s e l l i n g and s e r v i c e ; "As d i s t i n c t from p u b l i c agencies i t i s a.voluntary o r g a n i z a t i o n on the part of a diocese and C a t h o l i c c i t i z e n s , though i n the C a t h o l i c concept of s o c i a l j u s t i c e and c h a r i t y i t i s a mandatory p a r t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n of a diocese and par i s h e s , a responsib-i l i t y of the Bishop Ordinary and the people. 31. R e i t e r , Rev. J.E., Annual Meeting Report, C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society, February, I960. 149. The p r o v i s i o n of some s o c i a l s e r v i c e s through a C a t h o l i c agency, when t h i s i s p o s s i b l e , i s regarded as p r e f e r a b l e by C a t h o l i c s . C a t h o l i c needs can best be understood by C a t h o l i c s , and p o l i c i e s can be d r a f t e d to meet C a t h o l i c needs. The C a t h o l i c community, and the Church, b e l i e v e s t h a t the s p i r i t u a l welfare of dependent c h i l d r e n can best be assured through C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society b e l i e v e s that i t must continue to f u l f i l i t s r o l e to provide t h a t assurance. The Functions of" a P u b l i c Agency. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the State to ensure th a t c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e p r o t e c t i o n when necessary, i s unquestionable. The Canadian Welfare Council study s t a t e s t h a t : "there was agreement about the n e c e s s i t y f o r competent, continuous guardianship of a l l c h i l d r e n . Some sub-committees f e l t t h a t where p a r e n t a l guardianship was inadequate, the s t a t e should assume guardianship of the c h i l d . Others b e l i e v e d that the s t a t e should only provide machinery whereby guardianship could be vested i n a s u i t a b l e r e l a t i v e or i n a competent p r i v a t e agency whose standards were set and supervised by a p u b l i c depart-ment . The study c l a r i f i e s t h i s f u r t h e r . R e f e r r i n g to s o c i a l s e r v i c e s : 32. Op. c i t . , page 3« 150. "there was agreement that government has the r i g h t and duty to establish and enforce minimum stand-ards for c h i l d care and protection according to the provisions of adequate c h i l d welfare l e g i s -l a t i o n . There was some v a r i a t i o n among the sub-committees about the most desirable method by which t h i s basic r e s p o n s i b i l i t y could be discharged. For some, i t implied that government should est-a b l i s h services under i t s own auspices with adequate personnel and finances; for others, public r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was l i m i t e d to a standard setting and supervisory function with services to the i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d being given by private agencies under public charter and receiving support from public funds. " ^ While the study does not include a clear statement which defines the kinds of services which public and private agencies should provide, the point i s made that "both governmental and p r i v a t e l y sponsored programs are necessary i n a t o t a l program for the welfare of children," and that there are "certain areas of a c t i v i t y " which are appropriate to each. I t i s clear, however, that the study emphasizes the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the state to "ensure protection and guardianship," and that: "Private welfare services should complement and supplement basic public welfare services, p a r t i c -u l a r l y with respect to groups of children with special needs. "-^ The study obviously r e f l e c t s the fact that c h i l d welfare services i n Canada have been developed by public, and private agencies. There can be no argument that government has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to "establish and 33* Ibid, page 4. 34. Ibid, page 7« 1 5 1 . "enforce minimum standards." I t would seem too, t h a t i f p r i v a t e agencies do maintain adequate standards at reasonable c o s t s , that there i s no b a s i c reason why s e r v i c e s should not be provided by a p r i v a t e agency. The p r i v a t e agencies should, however, not be s t a t i c , and they should be able to make reasonable advances i n the development of programmes which are u r g e n t l y needed. One of the American authors i n the f i e l d , Wayne McMillan, p o i n t s out t h a t : " i t i s erroneous to assume, on the other hand th a t experimentation cannot go forward s u c c e s s f u l l y under p u b l i c agency auspices."-^ This has been borne out i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The pro-v i n c i a l s e r v i c e s are able to a u t h o r i z e funds In s p e c i a l i n stances to provide s e r v i c e s which are necessary, but which are not normally provided. These i n c l u d e treatment f o r d i s t u r b e d c h i l d r e n , and other s p e c i a l s e r v i c e s which are considered to be necessary f o r an i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d ' s w e l l being. A p u b l i c agency can b u i l d strong s e r v i c e s and resources i f i t has governmental support. Strengths and Weaknesses of P u b l i c and P r i v a t e Agencies. The Canadian Welfare Council study enumerates^ s e v e r a l p o i n t s which o u t l i n e strengths and weaknesses inherent i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agency p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s . 35. McMillan, Wayne, Community Org a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l  Welfare, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1945, p. 97. 36. I b i d , page 5« 152. The strengths of a p u b l i c agency are given as: (a) s e r v i c e s are " a v a i l a b l e to a l l as a matter of r i g h t . " (b) funds are "more secure," (e) " e q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e to a l l " . The weaknesses of a p u b l i c agency are, t h a t : (a) s e r v i c e cannot go beyond " p u b l i c o p i n i o n " , community understanding, and i t s l e g i s l a t i v e framework." (b) because s e r v i c e i s o f f e r e d to a l l who are e l i g i b l e , i t "may be at a minimum i n qu a n t i t y and q u a l i t y . (c) "May be somewhat r i g i d i n i t s program and admin-i s t r a t i o n . " (d) i t "may not be s u s c e p t i b l e to change and m o d i f i c a t i o n as q u i c k l y as the needs of the community r e q u i r e . " (e) "appropriations and s t a f f appointments may be a f f e c t e d by p o l i t i c a l i n f l u e n c e s . " ( f ) "have made too l i t t l e use of advisory boards and committees. I t should be noted t h a t some of the p o i n t s made above apply to the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s as w e l l . I n the areas i n which the s o c i e t i e s f u n c t i o n they are re s p o n s i b l e f o r the p r o v i s i o n of c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s , and any c h i l d who needs s e r v i c e I s e l i g i b l e f o r i t , and i t must be provided by that agency. There i s t h e r e f o r e " e q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e to a l l " which i s " a v a i l a b l e as a matter of r i g h t . " I t should a l s o be noted that such s e r v i c e might be "at a minimum i n qu a n t i t y and q u a l i t y " at various times, because c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s cannot 153. c o n t r o l i n t a k e of c h i l d r e n , or r e f e r r a l s of a c t u a l or p o t e n t i a l n e g l e c t , and must accept a l l cases as w e l l as a p u b l i c agency does. The study makes the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s - ^ to i l l u s t r a t e p r i v a t e agency strengths. I t s t a t e s that a p r i v a t e agency may: (a) "experiment and demonstrate i n meeting c e r t a i n s o c i a l needs..." (b) "be q u i c k l y responsive to changing community needs..." (c) "be s e l e c t i v e about the problems w i t h which they w i l l o f f e r help, and i n respect to the i n d i v i d u a l . . . " (d) " e s s e n t i a l that they I n t e r p r e t t h e i r s e r v i c e s to the community." (e) Keep " a l i v e a f e e l i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s o b l i g a t i o n to h i s f e l l o w s . " The weaknesses of a p r i v a t e agency are given as: (a) "may not be o f f e r i n g a type of s e r v i c e which i s most s o c i a l l y u s e f u l o r necessary..." (b) f i n a n c i n g " i s o f t e n p r e c a r i o u s . . . " (c) may not be f l e x i b l e "as they may be l i m i t e d by too narrow i n t e r e s t s of Board members or i n f l u -e n t i a l c i t i z e n s . " Most of the p o i n t s enumerated as strengths of a p r i v a t e agency have already been commented on. The p o i n t which i s made that p r i v a t e agencies keep a l i v e a f e e l i n g of i n d i v i d u a l o b l i g a t i o n , i s one which the 37. I b i d , page 6. 154. c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s b e l i e v e i s v a l u a b l e . There can be, o f c o u r s e , a " s t a t u s quo" approach w h i c h w i l l m i t i g a t e a g a i n s t p r o g r e s s , o r change, however t h e r e i s a l s o on t h e o t h e r hand, a f e e l i n g t h a t p u b l i c s e r v i c e s a r e u n r e a c h a b l e , and s u b j e c t t o no community need, but o n l y t o government, and p o l i c i e s w h i c h come down from above, r a t h e r t h a n from t h e p e o p l e who need and use t h e s e r v i c e s . T h i s c o u l d be overcome t h r o u g h the use o f a d v i s o r y boards and committees. Such boards would, however, need t o be s t r u c t u r e d i n such a way t h a t they would have d e f i n i t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and would want c o n t i n u i n g p r o o f t h a t recommendations were b e i n g g i v e n s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n Vancouver have n ot g i v e n as much a t t e n t i o n t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o c h i l d w e l f a r e , as they s h o u l d have. T h i s bas u n d o u b t e d l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o f e e l i n g i n t h e comm-u n i t y t h a t s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the s o c i e t i e s have i n r e c e n t y e a r s , g i v e n more a t t e n t i o n t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f programme, and t h e need f o r r e s o u r c e s . Members o f t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h e C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y have, during, t h e p a s t y e a r a c c e p t e d many a p e a k i n g engage-ments a t meetings o f C a t h o l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s , and made a 155. f i l m about the work of the Society which i s shown to any i n t e r e s t e d group. These a c t i v i t i e s have r e s u l t e d i n q u i t e a rewarding amount of i n t e r e s t , and over a longer p e r i o d are bound to b r i n g about a b e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of the s e r v i c e s of the S o c i e t y . Conclusions. The p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s reim-burse c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r the a c t u a l cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n who have been committed to t h e i r care by court. The s o c i e t i e s have found t h i s method to be very h e l p f u l to them, because i t has enabled them to provide f o r c h i l d r e n as necessary, w i t h the knowledge tha t the cost would be p a i d i f i t was reasonable. I n a d d i t i o n , the per c a p i t a per diem method uses a s t r a i g h t -forward formula, which has advantages a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y . I t provides a monthly income based on the previous year's c o s t s , w i t h the assurance t h a t any increase f o r the c u r r e n t year w i l l a l s o be reimbursed. The cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n has been r i s i n g s t e a d i l y . Maintenance which i s p a i d to f o s t e r parents i s a standard one f o r a l l agencies i n the province, except f o r i n d i v i d u a l i n s t a n c e s , f o r s p e c i a l reasons. Other expenses, such as c l o t h i n g , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , education can vary from one agency to another. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e expenses 156. a l s o vary. The per c a p i t a rates r e f l e c t these v a r i a b l e s , but a l s o show a steady consistency over a p e r i o d of years f o r the two Vancouver s o c i e t i e s . The expenses which went Into the per c a p i t a per diem r a t e f o r 1957 have been reviewed f o r the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d So c i e t y . No d e t a i l e d comparison of these costs has been made w i t h the other agency's expenses, however, some comparisons of per c a p i t a r a t e s have been made, , and some of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n compiling the ra t e s have been noted. Comparisons which have been made with agencies i n Toronto, S e a t t l e and Spokane are i n c o n c l u s i v e because d e t a i l s of what c o n t r i b u t e d to costs are not known. At the same time, they are roughly comparable, and i n d i c a t e t h a t the costs of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n care i n Vancouver are w e l l i n l i n e w i t h those i n the c i t i e s noted. Standards of care were a l s o not studi e d i n d e t a i l ; however, the s i z e of caseloads c a r r i e d by the s t a f f of C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Society were high when compared w i t h those recommended i n a study compiled f o r use of the Toronto s o c i e t i e s . I t i s safe to say that caseloads i n C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society are comparable w i t h those i n other l o c a l agencies. 157. The cost of maintaining c h i l d r e n i n temporary non-ward care i s financed by the Community Chest, as w e l l as s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s , and unmarried mothers. The Chest has c o n t r i b u t e d from 10 to 26 per cent of the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d Society's expenses over recent years. The l a r g e r p a r t of the y e a r l y Chest grant to the s o c i e t y has been to provide non-ward care f o r c h i l d r e n . There i s no l e g i s l a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y upon the p r o v i n c i a l government and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s to provide f o r t h i s care. They would undoubtedly be o b l i g e d to provide f o r t h i s s ervice, i f the Community Chest d i s -continued to do so. Children's a i d s o c i e t i e s are charged i n the P r o t e c t i o n of C h i l d r e n Act w i t h " a m e l i o r a t i n g f a m i l y c o n d i t i o n s t h a t l e a d to neglect of c h i l d r e n . " Payment f o r t h i s s e r v i c e i s not mentioned. The Vancouver Community Chest has agreed to assume 20 per cent of the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s ' a d m i n i s t r a t -i v e expenses to cover the cost of preventive - s e r v i c e s to f a m i l i e s and s e r v i c e s to unmarried mothers. This study i n d i c a t e s that c l o s e r to 30 per cent of s t a f f time i s used i n p r o v i d i n g these s e r v i c e s i n the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y . The development of c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia has been accomplished through a harmonious p a r t n e r s h i p of p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies, governmental 158. and municipal on one hand, and the three c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . At the present time the p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies are sharing almost equally the t o t a l number of c h i l d r e n i n care i n the province. In regard to the care of wards, i t i s r e a l i s t i c to say that the govern-ment and m u n i c i p a l i t i e s are buying t h i s s e r v i c e at cost from the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s . The government has not i n d i c a t e d that the costs have been too high. There has, however, been concern about the l a r g e amounts of p u b l i c funds which have been p a i d to the s o c i e t i e s which are under p r i v a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . There i s some i n d i c a t i o n that i f a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c funds were requested, t h i s concern would become g r e a t e r . The d i f f i c u l t i e s which the Community Chest has had i n meeting the f i n a n c i a l needs of member agencies poses some d i f f i c u l t questions f o r the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s i n Vancouver, and could r e s u l t i n d e f i n i t e changes i n the method of p r o v i d i n g c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s i n Vancouver. While the c r i s i s has been brought about by a l a c k of funds, the focus must be on what the best method of pro-v i d i n g s e r v i c e s over a long p e r i o d seems to be. This study i s not intended to assess the merits of p r i v a t e s e r v i c e s versus p u b l i c s e r v i c e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. A review of academic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s on the merits of each 159. method of p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s suggests t h a t each has i t s strengths and weaknesses, and t h a t the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s h a v e been f u n c t i o n i n g as a unique cross between the two, possessing completely n e i t h e r the strengths nor the weaknesses of e i t h e r method. The review i n d i c a t e s t h a t e i t h e r p u b l i c or p r i v a t e agencies can provide good s e r v i c e s . The question i n Vancouver seems to be, are there reasons l o c a l l y f o r favouring one method over the other to provide c o n t i n u i n g s e r v i c e s . The community i n t e r e s t and work which the p r i v a t e agencies have brought to c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s have not been challenged. The Canadian p a t t e r n f o r the organ-i z a t i o n of c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s has been to provide them through p u b l i c and p r i v a t e agencies. B r i t i s h Columbia has b u i l t i t s s e r v i c e s on both kinds of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The per c a p i t a per diem formula f o r f i n a n c i n g ward care provided by c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , h a s been a sound one which has helped to provide a c o n t i n u i n g high standard of s e r v i c e s . There i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t a p u b l i c agency could provide the same s e r v i c e more economically, or t h a t a p u b l i c agency i s i n t e r e s t e d i n assuming the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g child, w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s i n Vancouver. 160. There are many who contend that a d d i t i o n a l p u b l i c funds could he made a v a i l a b l e to the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s , and tha t such funds should be made a v a i l a b l e on a f e e - f o r - s e r v i c e b a s i s , or on some other d e f i n i t e formula which would provide f o r the f u l l c o s t . This could be done to provide f o r e i t h e r non-ward care o r preventive s e r v i c e s . Standards of care could be assessed. The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o l l o w standard p o l i c i e s p e r t a i n i n g to the care of c h i l d r e n who are wards, and t h i s has created no d i f f i c u l t y f o r the C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y . There i s no reason to b e l i e v e t h a t a standardized p o l i c y i n regard to non-ward care or prev-e n t i v e work should prove to be d i f f i c u l t to implement. There are many who b e l i e v e that a l l c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s are completely a p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , because they see these s e r v i c e s as bas i c needs i n the community. Judged i n t h i s l i g h t , non-ward care and preventive work could both, be considered as p u b l i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r f i n a n c i n g . I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s , there i s a l e g i s l a t i v e b a s i s f o r c o n s i d e r i n g these s e r v i c e s as a p u b l i c respons-i b i l i t y , to be provided through tax funds. The p r o v i n c i a l government i s c u r r e n t l y p r o v i d i n g 90 per cent of the costs of maintaining wards. This appears to be a generous c o n t r i b u t i o n , however, generosity 161. i n one programme or area of s e r v i c e , does not mean that the p r o v i n c i a l government i s generous. Rather, the sharing of costs i n a l l areas of p u b l i c s e r v i c e s must be considered. There i s a l s o reason to ask why the Dominion Government i s not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p r o v i s i o n of c h i l d w e lfare s e r v i c e s . I t does c o n t r i b u t e towards the prov-i s i o n of s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , c o r r e c t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , and a l s o towards the welfare of Indian and Eskimo c h i l d r e n . The passing of the Unemployment Ass i s t a n c e Act (1956), opened the door to f u r t h e r n a t i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e i n areas which had been considered as p r o v i n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . There i s reason to t h i n k that the Dominion Government should extend a s s i s t a n c e to provinces to help provide b e t t e r c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , as has been done to some extent i n the United States through I t s f e d e r a l A i d to Dependent C h i l d r e n Programme. (For f u t h e r comments about t h i s , see Appendix C.) The f e a r of the p r i v a t e agencies, t h a t i f more p u b l i c funds are made a v a i l a b l e to them, that r e s t r i c t i v e c o n t r o l s w i l l f o l l o w , seems to be w e l l founded. On the other hand, one of the f u n c t i o n s of p r i v a t e agencies i s to speak out c l e a r l y on behalf of needed s e r v i c e s , or when s e r v i c e s are d e t e r i o r a t i n g . I t i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of 162. •government to safeguard standards. Conversely, i t i s the r i g h t and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p r i v a t e agencies to c a l l a t t e n t i o n to the need f o r a d d i t i o n a l s e r v i c e s , or b e t t e r standards of s e r v i c e s , whether they are considered to be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of p u b l i c or p r i v a t e agencies. As long as the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s are loaded down w i t h the same kinds of demands f o r s e r v i c e as the p u b l i c agencies are, they w i l l not be able to devote as much energy as they should as p r i v a t e agencies, to research, experimentation and the development of new s e r v i c e s . The s e r v i c e s of the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s have not changed appreciably i n many years. Their s e r v i c e s and f u n c t i o n s have remained r a t h e r s t a t i c . They could reasonably expect to re c e i v e the same community support f o r new s e r v i c e s as other o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e c e n t l y have. The c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s must do more than they have i n the past to keep abreast of changing needs f o r s e r v i c e s , and new methods of p r o v i d i n g them. So long as they do not demonstrate the v i t a l i t y which i s the unique f e a t u r e of p r i v a t e agencies, they w i l l not enjoy the wholehearted support of the community. I f the c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s were to give up part of t h e i r s e r v i c e , they would not need to c o l l a p s e , or eease to e x i s t . There would undoubtedly be many 163. worthwhile areas to which they could t u r n . They are, however, making a valuable c o n t r i b u t i o n i n p r o v i d i n g b a s i c c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , and the strengths which they can continue to b r i n g must be assessed c a r e f u l l y . The C a t h o l i c Children's A i d S o c i e t y , as a s e c t a r i a n agency, has very important reasons f o r wanting to continue to provide the same s e r v i c e s which i t has given to the C a t h o l i c community f o r so many years. In order to demonstrate i t s a b i l i t y to do so I n c r e a s i n g l y b e t t e r , i t must pursue even more v i g o r o u s l y the course which i t has taken to evaluate s e r v i c e s and p l a n f o r the f u t u r e . 164. Appendix A 1 6 5 . O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Expenses - 1957. The o f f i c e s w h i c h the s o c i e t y were r e n t i n g d u r i n g 1957 were not adequate f o r t h e number o f s t a f f , and i n a d d i t i o n t h e b u i l d i n g was a c o n v e r t e d warehouse, and was n o t too s u i t a b l e f o r use as an o f f i c e . The b u i l d i n g p r o v i d e d t h i r t y - n i n e hundred and s i x t y square f e e t o f o f f i c e space, and f o u r s o c i a l workers were i n o f f i c e s w h i c h s h o u l d have accommodated two. I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e was i n a d e q u a t e space f o r s t e n o g r a p h i c s t a f f , and f o r f i l i n g c a b i n e t s . I n t e r v i e w i n g space was p oor and i n a d e q u a t e . The r e n t was $330 . 0 0 p e r month, w h i c h amounted t o one d o l l a r p e r square f o o t per y e a r . The agency was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l i g h t , h e at, w a t e r and j a n i t o r s e r v i c e s . Expenses f o r t h e y e a r were as f o l l o w s : -Rent - $330.00 p e r month $3,960.00 L i g h t , heat and w a t e r 8 0 9 . 8 9 M a i n t e n a n c e , s u p p l i e s and r e p a i r s . 1,299.97 $6,069.86 Community Chest s h a r e -20 p e r c e n t $1,213.97 P e r c a p i t a expense s h a r e -80 p e r c e n t $ 4 , 8 5 5 . 8 9 These expenses c o n t r i b u t e d .03128 c e n t s p e r day t o t h e p e r c a p i t a r a t e . 166. D e p r e c i a t i o n Expenses. The r a t e o f d e p r e c i a t i o n c h a r g e d on v a r i o u s i t e m s was as f o l l o w s : -A u t o m o b i l e s - 25 p e r c e n t f o r t h e f i r s t y e a r , 15 p e r c e n t f o r f i v e y e a r s , on the o r i g i n a l c o s t . I f a c a r i s t r a d e d i n , and t h e t r a d e - i n a l l o w a n c e i s more t h a n the r e m a i n i n g c o s t on the books, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s t a k e n as p r o f i t . I f t h e r e i s a l o s s t h e amount i s ch a r g e d t o o p e r a t i n g expenses. Equipment - 10 p e r c e n t p e r y e a r on a l l equipment, o f f i c e o r o t h e r w i s e . R e c e i v i n g Home b u i l d i n g - 5 p e r c e n t p e r y e a r on o r i g i n a l c o s t . A u t o m o b i l e Expenses, 1957« O p e r a t i n g Expenses $6,745*10 D e p r e c i a t i o n 3.008.91 19,754.01 L e s s p r o f i t - s a l e o f a u t o m o b i l e 559.94 |9,194.07 I n s u r a n c e 1,141.01 T o t a l Expense - #10,335-08 167. Mileage p a i d - cars not agency owned -5713X .09^ per m i l e 514.17 Parking 52.20 T o l l s - bridges and f e r r i e s 95.70 $662.07 (This amount i s i n c l u d e d i n the T o t a l Expense above.) .Mileage during 1957 by seven agency cars - 107,258 miles T o t a l o p e r a t i n g cost $10,335.08 Less - mileage p a i d , parking t o l l s 662.07 $9,673,01 Cost per m i l e Cost per m i l e Cost per m i l e to operate agency ears, l e s s parking and t o l l costs - 9.00 cents per m i l e . i n c l u d i n g parking and t o l l c o s t s , agency cars only - 9115 cents per m i l e . agency and non-agency owned, i n c l u d i n g parking and t o l l expenses -9.14 cents per m i l e . automobile Expenses, Comparison - 1955• S i x agency cars - 99,172 m i l e s . Cost per m i l e , not i n c l u d i n g non agency owned cars -9.16 cents per mil e Cost per m i l e , i n c l u d i n g non agency owned cars (add 7382 mi l e s ) 9.08 cents per m i l e . (1955 - p r i v a t e c a r s , r a t e per mile paid by the agency was 8.00 cents.) 168. Insurance Coverage provided by the Society during, 1957• Compensation - s t a f f coverage. P r o v i d i n g the same b e n e f i t s as the Workman's Compensation Act f o r B r i t i s h Columbia, up to a t o t a l l i a b i l i t y of $20,000.00 - Premium 1957 $758-10 Automobile - T o t a l l i a b i l i t y - $100,000.00 Medical coverage $1 ,000.00 each person Premium 1957 1,141.01 General L i a b i l i t y - One person $25 ,000.00 Two or more - $50,000.00 Premium - 3 years 150.00 F i r e - Receiving Home - $10,000.00 Premium - 3 years 40 .00 F u r n i t u r e and F i x t u r e s - $ 8 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 Premium - 3 years 100.00 Bond - S t a f f $ 5 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 Premium - 3 years 150.00 The Use of Family Allowance. Family allowances are pai d to c h i l d r e n ' s a i d s o c i e t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n who are i n care. Receipts and disbursements do not a f f e c t the per c a p i t a r a t e i n any way, as these funds belong to the c h i l d r e n , and are spent on t h e i r b e h a l f . A separate account i s maintained i n the agency f o r each c h i l d f o r whom the allowance i s p a i d . F o s t e r parents r e c e i v e four d o l l a r s per month of the allowance f o r the f i r s t year that a c h i l d i s i n t h e i r home, and the f u l l amount a f t e r t h a t . This money i s not considered to be a part of the boarding 169. or maintenance r a t e , but to cover " e x t r a s " and i n c i d -e n t a l expenses. I n a d d i t i o n to what t h i s money provides to c h i l d r e n i n care through f o s t e r parents, the money hel d i n t r u s t by the agency provides a great v a r i e t y of items which could not be provided otherwise. During 1957, items provided f o r c h i l d r e n i n care Included b a l l e t , dancing and music lessons, permanent waves, m a t e r i a l f o r s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g , s p e c i a l c l o t h e s , one c l a r i n e t , s e v e r a l b a l l gloves, r a d i o and ra d i o r e n t a l f o r a c h i l d i n h o s p i t a l , boy scout uniforms, soccer boots, fees f o r miscellaneous school a c t i v i t i e s , s e v e r a l t r i c y c l e s , seven or more b i c y c l e s , and numerous s p e c i a l " z i p p e r cases" f o r school. When a c h i l d i s discharged to i t s parents, any balance remaining i n t r u s t i s paid to them. When a c h i l d becomes s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g , and i s s t i l l remaining i n care, the balance remaining i s paid to the c h i l d , and the account i s cl o s e d . 170. TABLE 1. Family Allowance Trust Accounts, C a t h o l i c Children's  A i d S o c i e t y , 1957. Balance Forward, January 1, 1957 |17,971.67 Receipts 26 ,534.58 I n t e r e s t 509.70 45,015-95 Payments to Foster Parents 20,146.15 R e c r e a t i o n a l 1,023.69 Educational 323.31 G i f t s 387.21 S p e c i a l C l o t h i n g 585.05 Sundries 100.54 P a i d to Parents and C h i l d r e n 3 , 0 7 8 . 0 4 &25,653.99 Balance forward December 31, 1957 * 19,361.96 Number of accounts open on December 31, 1957 - 437. I 171. TABLE 2. The Number of C h i l d r e n I n Pare and Number of Days Maintenance-Provided, According to the Age of the C h i l d , C.C.A.S., 1957. Number of C h i l d r e n Age Days care p a i d 1957-116 Under 1 13,108 64 1 12,572 36 2 8,806 40 3 11,038 32" ' " 4 10,012 28 5 6,971 21 6 5,602 26 7 6, 649 22 8 6,951 34 9 11,336 28 10 7,623 29 11 8,761 25 12 7,708 24 13 7,691 25 14 6 ,403 28 15 ' 5 ,934 39 16 9,038 29 17 5,366 ' 17 18 3,138 12 19 1,340 5 20 399 4 21 444 684 156 ,890 172. TABLE 3- D e t a i l of Expenditures 1957. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n T o t a l Family or Sup e r v i s i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n Expenditure preventive of c h i l d r e n work i n care 100% 20% 80% S a l a r i e s $124,973.07 $24,994.61 $99,978.46 S t a t i o n e r y & o f f i c e s u p p l i e s 1,920.65 384.13 1,536.52 Postage & Telegrams 698.12 139.62 558.50 Insurance 1,972.40 394.48 1,577.92 Telephone 2,599.86 519.97 2,079.89 Audit 500.00 100.00 400.00 Legal 256 .25 256 .25 I n t e r e s t & Exchange 1,516 .39 303.28 1,213.11 A d v e r t i s i n g 285.19 57.04 228 . 15 P u b l i c a t i o n s 2 5 . 0 5 5.01 20.04 P u b l i c i t y 343-76 68.75 275.01 Convention & Conference 191.23 38.25 152.98 Canadian Welfare Co u n c i l 250.OO 50.00 200.00 S o c i a l S ervice Index 113.40 113.40 Medical Ser. Ass 746.98 149.40 597.58 Pension P l a n 684.34 136.87 547.47 Unemp. Insurance 346.51 69.30 277.21 Emergency Fund 434.17 434.17 Depseciation of Equipment 923.91 184.78 739.13 Miscellaneous 177.08 35.42 141.66 $138,958.36 $28,178.48 $110,779.88 O f f i c e B u i l d i n g Expenses. Rent 3,960.00 792.00 3,168.00 Light,heat,water 809.89 161.98 647.91 Repairs $ 1,039.98 Maintenance 1,299.97 259.99 $6,069 . 86 11,213.97 $4,855.89 Tra n s p o r t a t i o n Expenses Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n 390.97 78.19 312.78 Auto. Operation 6,745.10 1,349.02 5,396.08 Deprec. of Autos . 3,008.91 6OI .78 2,407.13 Less: P r o f i t on sa l e of Auto 559.94 111.99 447.95 $9 ,585.04 $1,917.00 $7,668.04 173. D e t a i l o f E x p e n d i t u r e 1957 - c o n t i n u e d . T o t a l Ex-p e n d i t u r e F a m i l y o r P r e v e n t i v e Work. S u p e r v i s i o n o f C h i l d r e n i n Care. • Cost", o f M a i n - . t a i n i n g c h i l d r e n 100$ 2 0 $ 80$ Maintenance L e s s : c o s t - f o r c e r t a i n c h i l d r e n i n S t . Euphras-i a ' s S c h o o l ^ C l o t h i n g Shoes M e d i c a l S u p p l i e s & D e n t i s t r y E d u c a t i o n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e c r e a t i o n & P o c k e t money M i s c e l l a n e o u s | 2 0 4,739 . 2 7 9 , 8 7 9 . 1 5 32,746 .73 8,294 .12 6 , 8 2 0 . 2 3 6 , 5 6 0 . 7 3 1,968 .57 1,914.64 126.51 #204,739 .27 9 , 8 7 9 . 1 5 32,746 .73 ~ 8,294 .12 6 , 8 2 0 . 2 3 6 , 5 6 0 . 7 3 1,968 .57 1,914.64 126 . 5 1 2 5 3 , 2 9 1 . 6 5 2 5 3 , 2 9 1 . 6 5 R e c e i v i n g Home S a l a r i e s P r o v i s i o n s F u e l , l i g h t , w a t e r Telephone I n s u r a n c e R e p a i r s & Maintenance D e p r e c i a t i o n -B u i l d i n g s Equipment 6 , 5 6 8 . 7 2 3 , 2 2 2 . 1 1 5 4 4 . 5 0 197 .25 75-64 1 , 4 1 9 . 0 1 3 6 5 - 4 7 4 4 7 . 8 2 6 , 5 6 8 . 7 2 3 , 2 2 2 . 1 1 5 4 4 . 5 0 1 9 7 . 2 5 75-64 1 , 4 1 9 . 0 1 3 6 5 - 4 7 447•82 1 2 , 8 4 0 . 5 2 1 2 , 8 4 0 . 5 2 D e p r e c i a t i o n F o s t e r Home equipment 1 2 5 . 8 4 1 2 5 . 8 4 E x p e n d i t u r e s l e s s d e d u c t i o n s 4 2 0 , 8 7 1 . 2 7 3 1 , 3 0 9 . 4 5 3 8 9 , 5 61-. 82 1 . Add back, p r o f i t on s a l e o f Auto. Cost o f c h i l -d r e n i n S t . Eu-p h r a s i a 1 s 4 2 0 , 8 7 1 . 2 7 5#9.94 9 , 8 7 9 . 1 5 T o t a l expend-i t u r e 8431.310.36 i 174. Appendix B. 175. The Q u e s t i o n o f F e d e r a l A s s i s t a n c e I n F i n a n c i n g C h i l d  W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s . Under t h e B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a A c t , p a s s e d i n 1867, c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a r e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c e , and t h e y r e c e i v e no a s s i s t a n c e from t h e Dominion Government f o r t h e c a r e o f c h i l d r e n who must be m a i n t a i n e d i n f o s t e r homes o r i n s t i t u t i o n s . Each p r o v i n c e p asses i t s own c h i l d w e l f a r e l e g i s l a t i o n , and w h i l e t h e r e a r e some s i m i l a r i t i e s i n t h e methods o f f i n a n c i n g t h e c a r e o f c h i l d r e n , t h e r e a r e a l s o g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e s between p r o v i n c e s . There i s r e a s o n to ask i f t h e r e s h o u l d not be a more u n i f i e d o r c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n f o r f i n a n c i n g s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n a c r o s s Canada. I t does n o t seem n e c e s s a r y t h a t methods o f f i n a n c i n g s h o u l d become i d e n t i c a l , b u t i t i s a r g u a b l e t h a t c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a c r o s s Canada would b e n e f i t , and be s t r o n g e r i f t h e r e were a more c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f f i n a n c i n g between p r o v i n c e s . One way i n w h i c h t h i s might be a c h i e v e d would be f o r t h e Dominion Government t o a s s i s t t h e p r o v i n c e s i n p r o v i d i n g a d e q u a t e l y f o r dependent c h i l d r e n . The Dominion Government has assumed some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e unemployed, and i t has been n o t e d t h a t : 176. "in the passage of the Unemployment Assistance Act a new p r i n c i p l e i s established, for future developments i n s o c i a l welfare i n Canada. The break with t r a d i t i o n , whereby the Dominion has entered a f i e l d formerly regarded as the j exclusive j u r i s d i c t i o n of the provinces.could be a commencement of a new trend which would take the Dominion into other areas of s o c i a l welfare. Two of these areas of expansion could be i n the f i e l d of c h i l d welfare and corrections." The writer goes on to say that: "Canada lacks any national standards for c h i l d care although these should be part of a s o c i a l welfare program o.f a national government. I f children are to be regarded as national assets they should receive the same consideration ex-tended to other groups i n the population. "-j_ The same concern has been expressed i n regard to dependent children who are not i n care. " i n terms of national welfare, children are equally as important as older people and yet Mothers' Allowances have always been a pro-v i n c i a l • r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " g There are, however, d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent i n national government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n welfare services, which have been described as the: " t r a d i t i o n a l unwillingness of the Dominion to define standards, develop equalization formulas i n public assistance, and share i n administrative costs. On these three areas the Canadian assumption i s one of respect f o r p r o v i n c i a l autonomy."^ 1. Fowler, D.W. The Unemployment Assistance Act (1956-) Master of Social Work Thesis, The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1958, page 72. 2. Ibid, page 70, quoting Mr. F. R. MacKinnon, Director of Child Welfare i n Nova Scotia. 3. Ibid, page 70. 177. W h i l e i t i s t r u e t h a t the p r o v i n c e s have guarded a g a i n s t any encroachment on t h e i r autonomy, t h e N a t i o n a l F a m i l y A l l o w a n c e p l a n i s an example o f a c h i l d w e l f a r e programme on a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . The F e d e r a l Government g r a n t - i n - a i d programmes i n th e U n i t e d S t a t e s were not welcomed when they were f i r s t p r o p o s e d . They were seen as mixed b l e s s i n g s by t h e s t a t e s and t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o s i t i o n t o them. The f e a r o f " c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , t h e n s t a t e s o c i a l i s m , t h e n d i c t a t o r s h i p " was r a i s e d , and some b e l i e v e d t h a t a " c o n t i n u a t i o n i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n toward w h i c h we a r e he a d i n g w i l l e v e n t u a l l y mean t h e d e s t r u c t -i o n o f o u r form o f government as we have known i t . " ^ These f e a r s were c h a l l e n g e d by o t h e r w r i t e r s , one o f whom p o i n t s out t h a t : " a l o n g w i t h f e d e r a l a i d t o the s t a t e s has come th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new s t a t e f u n c t i o n s and s e r v i c e s , t h e Improvement and e x p a n s i o n o f o t h e r s , and the r a i s i n g o f the s t a n d a r d s o f s e r v i c e and o f t h e p e r s o n n e l engaged i n r e n d e r i n g such s e r v i c e . " ^ N o n e t h e l e s s , t h e s t r o n g e s t argument i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a g a i n s t F e d e r a l Government p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n some programmes i s the same as i n Canada, t h a t t h e F e d e r a l Government i s i n " f i e l d s d e n i e d t o i t by t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n " , 4. Anderson, W i l l i a m , The N a t i o n and t h e S t a t e s , R i v a l s  o r P a r t n e r s ? The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1955, pages I85-I87. 5. I b i d , page I83. 1 7 8 . but that d e s p i t e t h i s i t " j o i n s together f e d e r a l , s t a t e and l o c a l government i n common e n t e r p r i s e s " and i s a " d e s i r a b l e method" when f i n a n c i n g of s e r v i c e s i s beyond the means of l o c a l government.g One of the g r a n t s - i n - a i d programmes which was provided w i t h the passing of the S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Act i n 1 9 3 5 , was A i d to Dependent S h i l d r e n . I t i s to provide " f o r the p r o t e c t i o n and care of homeless, dependent, and neglected c h i l d r e n , and c h i l d r e n i n danger of becoming delinquent."y Payments may be made "to needy c h i l d r e n under the age of s i x t e e n (under the age of eighteen i f attending school) who are l i v i n g w i t h s p e c i f i e d r e l a t i v e s i n a home r e s i d -ence, "g "The a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r f e d e r a l grants Is u n l i m i t e d , " and "funds are d i s t r i b u t e d among the st a t e s i n accordance w i t h s t a t e expenditures f o r a i d to dep-endent children''^ and "funds are disbursed through the ordinary f i s c a l machinery of the s t a t e , "-^ Q E v e l i n e Burns, w r i t i n g on the s o c i a l s e c u r i t y system notes however, some of the r e s t r i c t i o n s placed 6 . Federal G r a n t s - i n - a i d , Report of the Committed on Federal G r a n t s - i n - a i d , The Council of State Government, 1 9 4 9 , Chapter 4 , page 4 1 . 7 . I b i d , Chapter 5 , page 5 9 . 8 . I b i d , see footnote page 5 9 . 9 . I b i d , page 5 9 1 0 . I b i d , paee 2 9 . 1 7 9 . on t h e use o f t h e s e g r a n t s . She s t a t e s t h a t : " F e d e r a l a i d i s a l s o l i m i t e d t o payments made t o - c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n t h e home m a i n t a i n e d by one o r more o f a s p e c i f i c l i s t o f f a i r l y c l o s e r e l a t i v e s . R a t h e r more t h a n a q u a r t e r o f t h e s t a t e s have expanded t h e l i s t o f r e l a t i v e s ; f o u r p e r m i t payments i f t h e c h i l d i s l i v i n g w i t h some non-l i s t e d p e r s o n who s t a n d s i n l o c o - p a r e n t i s t o t h e c h i l d , w h i l e a t l e a s t two ( n o r t h Dakota and W i s c o n s i n ) a u t h o r i z e payments t o c h i l d r e n i n approved f o s t e r homes. M i s s Burns adds t h a t : " f o u r s t a t e s s p e c i f i c a l l y deny A i d t o Dependent C h i l d r e n t o c h i l d r e n permanently l i v i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s , w h i l e two o t h e r s make no payments t o c h i l d r e n who f o r p h y s i c a l o r mental reasons a r e i n need o f c o n t i n u o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l c a r e . " ^ 2 P a u l Douglas, w r i t i n g i n 1 9 3 5 , when t h e S o c i a l S e c u r i t y A c t was passed, i n d i c a t e s t h a t s t a t e s c o u l d i n c l u d e payments f o r dependent c h i l d r e n l i v i n g i n f o s t e r homes and i n s t i t u t i o n s i f they wished t o do so.-^-j A n o t h e r American w r i t e r , W a l t e r A. F r i e d l a n d e r , w r i t i n g r e c e n t l y , p o i n t s out t h a t c h i l d r e n w i t h f o s t e r f a m i l i e s who a r e not r e l a t i v e s a r e s u p p o r t e d w i t h o u t a s s i s t a n c e from s t a t e f u n d s , and t h a t g r a n t s f o r t h i s s e r v i c e a r e not a v a i l a b l e . - , , , 1 1 . Burns, E v e l i n e M. The American S o c i a l S e c u r i t y System, New York S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Haughton M i f f l i n Company, 1949, Chapter X I , page 3 2 1 . 1 2 . I b i d , page 321, see f o o t n o t e . 13. Douglas, P a u l H., S o c i a l S e c u r i t y i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s W h i t t l e s e y House, McGraw H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1935, C h a p t e r V I I , page 2 0 2 . 14. F r i e d l a n d e r , W a l t e r A. I n t r o d u c t i o n o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , New J e r s e y , 1957, pafee 2 5 0 . 180. There has been no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e Dominion Government would f a v o u r a s s i s t i n g t h e p r o v i n c e s t o p r o v i d e c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . I f t h i s were to happen, t h e p r o v i n c e s would undoubtedly use such a s s i s -t a n c e w i t h i n t h e framework o f e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and s e r v i c e s . While t h e American g r a n t - i n - a i d programme has p r o v i d e d funds t o t h e s t a t e s t o p r o v i d e f o r dependent c h i l d r e n , i t has not a s s i s t e d , to any degree a t l e a s t , t h e f i n a n c i n g o f s e r v i c e s f o r c h i l d r e n i n t h e c a r e o f c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . I f t h e American p a t t e r n were t o be f o l l o w e d i n Canada, i t would l i k e l y have l i t t l e e f f e c t on a c h i e v i n g a more u n i f o r m c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o -gramme, even though i t might a s s i s t p r o v i n c e s i n p r o v i d i n g f o r dependent c h i l d r e n . I n B r i t i s h Columbia f a m i l i e s a r e not p r o v i d e d f o r under a d i f f e r e n t programme depending upon whether t h e f a t h e r i s i n t h e home o r n o t . The American p a t t e r n i s t o have more c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f need, w i t h d i f f e r e n t programmes p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e , depending upon the r e a s o n f o r dependency. F o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h e American A i d t o • Dependent C h i l d r e n programme i s d i f f i c u l t t o compare w i t h C anadian a s s i s t a n c e programmes. Appendix 182. BIBLIOGRAPHY. Books and Pamphlets 1 Social Work Year Book, National Association of Social Worker's, Boyd Printing Go. Albany, New York, I960. 2. Angus, Anne Margaret, The Children's Aid Society of  Vancouver, B.C., 1901 - 1951. 3. Cote, Maurice N., The Children's Aid Society of the  Catholic Archdiocese of Vancouver, Its Origins and  and Development, 1905 to 1953, Master of Social Work.Thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953. 4. Report of the B r i t i s h Columbia Child Welfare Survey, Canadian Council on Child Welfare, 1927. 5. Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, Revised Statutes, 1943-6. Report to the Community Chest and Council on the  Adequacy of Social Assistance In the City of Vancouver, Community Chest and Council, Vancouver, B.C., September, 1958. 7« The Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, Report  upon a proposed Realignment of the J u r i s d i c t i o n of  the Children's Aid Societies operating withlnhthe  Metropolitan Toronto Area, June 1956. 8. Department of Health and Welfare, V i c t o r i a , B.C., Submission of Superintendent of iSJhild Welfare  Regarding Children's Aid Societies' Budget Deficiency, June 1953-183. 9. S t r e e t , Elwood, A Handbook f o r S o c i a l Agency  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Harper and B r o t h e r s , New York, 1948. 10. Murphy, Campbell G-., Community O r g a n i z a t i o n P r a c t i c e , Haughton M i f f l i n Company, 1954. 11. Dunham, A r t h u r , Community W e l f a r e O r g a n i z a t i o n : P r i n c i p l e s and P r a c t i c e , Thomas Y. C r o w e l l Company, New York, 1957-12. P u b l i c - P r i v a t e R e l a t i o n s h i p s i n C h i l d W e l f a r e , Canadian W e l f a r e C o u n c i l , Ottawa, 1950. 13. M c M i l l a n , Wayne, Community O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r S o c i a l  W e l f a r e , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1945. 14. R e i t e r , Rev. J. E., Annual M e e t i n g R e p o r t , C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , I960. 15. U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , Cost A n a l y s i s i n C h i l d W e l f a r e S e r v i c e s , U.S. S e c u r i t y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau, 1958. 16. F o w l e r , D.W., The Unemployment A s s i s t a n c e A c t , 1956. M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 195,8. 17. Anderson, W i l l i a m , The N a t i o n and t h e S t a t e s , R i v a l s  o r P a r t n e r s ? The U n i v e r s i t y o f M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , M i n n e a p o l i s , 1955• 18. F e d e r a l G r a n t s - l n - A i d , Report o f the Committee on F e d e r a l G r a n t s - i n - A i d , t h e C o u n c i l o f S t a t e Government, 1949. 184. 19. Burns, E v e l i n e M., The American S o c i a l S e c u r i t y  System, New York S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , Haughton M i f f l i n Company, 1949. 20. Douglas, P a u l H., S o c i a l S e c u r i t y i n t h e United- S t a t e s , W h i t t l e s e y House, McGraw H i l l Book Company, I n c . , 1935-21. F r i e d l a n d e r , W a l t e r A., I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S o c i a l  W e l f a r e , P r e n t i c e H a l l , I n c . , New J e r s e y , 1957« 

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