UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The growth of Canadian national feeling as reflected in the poetry and novels of English Canada 1946

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T:he' GROWTH of CAM API AH NATIONAL FEELING ae REFLECTED i n The POETRY a-nd NOVELS Of - ENGLISH CANADA by William Henry Magee Being a th«eie submitted i n partial- f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Degree of Master of Arte i n the Department oi' History. THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1946 - i i i - C Q N T E N T B C H A P T E R " I PASTORS INVOLVED in CANAEIANISM and ENGLISH CANADIAN LITERATURE Definition of terms . . . . . . . . page 2. imperialism, colonialism, and internationalism, localism, the spirit, of the; New World, and Americanism, nationalism and Canadian!em. National feeling, in creative literature . . . page 12. the fine arts in Canada—reasons for studying only poetry and the novel. English and French Canadian literature, 'what is Canadian literature?' CiHAPTER II CANAEffANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE in the PESIOD PRIOR tlo O0NFEDERAT1 ON The development, of a national feeling before Confederation . • . . . . . • • • page 16. the American Revolution and the War:: of 1812. the influence of the French Revolution. sectionalism in the Maritime Provinces. the Rebellion of 1837, the Union of. Upper and Lower Canada, and responsible government, expressions of national sentiments in the 1860's. polit ical deadlock, the American Civ i l War*- other factors involved in Confederation. Confederation and attitudes to i t . Early English Canadian Literature:- . . . . page 29. poetry and fiction in the Eighteenth Century. Puritan,Loyalist, and American work in Nova Scotia. Canadianism in English Canadian Literature before Confederation . . . . . page 31. Oliver Goldsmith and the spirit of the New World. John Richardson, anti-Americanism and love of nature. Charles Sangster, love of nature and pidde in history. - iv- CKAPTER III CQNFEDERATI ON and OAN AM AN LITERATURE in the LATTER PARTTof the NINETEENTH CENTURY The growth of Canadian!am after Confederation. * page 45. anti-national sentiments at the time of Confederation. the CanadarFirst, Party and Blake's Aurora Speech. the Liberal Party and the growth of internal autonomy. the Conservative Party and the growth of internal autonomy. the westward expansion after 1867 and the Riel Rebellions. antti-Americanism and reciprocity. National Canadian poets . . . . . . page 61. Charles Mair—the Canada Pirst Party and l i fe in the New; West. Alexander M'Lachlan—the spirit of the New World. Isabella Valaney Crawford--nature and thee New World. Moderately Canadian poets. . . . . . page 72. poets of the Roberts-Carman School and the influence of Canadian nature, incidental verse and various Canadian attitudes. The novel in the late Nineteenth Century. . . page 85. William Kirby and a strong colonialism. Sir Gilbert Parker and pervading imperialism. CHAPTER IV1 CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURESin the FIRST. TYfO DECADES of the TWENTIETH CENTURY The growth of Canadianism in the early Twentieth Century . . . . . . page 91, Sir Wilfred Laurier-and national attitudes, the continued development of the West and increased immigration. reciprocity, the naval question, and the election of 1911, the Liberal Party and the growth of external autonomy. the Conservative Party and the growth of external autonomy. Sir Robert Borden and national attitudes. the First World War—unifying and disunifying influences. - V - Natioaal Canadian poetts . . . . . . page 101. Robert J . C. Stead and the influence of the Weett. W. H. Driummond and racial unity. Moderately Canadian poets. . . . • . . page 107. Marjorie Pickthall and the influence of nature. T.. R. E. Maclnnes and R. W. Service—the West-and the New World. the influence of the F ins ti. World Wars; incidental verse and. various Canadian attitudes.. The: community novel . . . . . . . page 115.. the pioneer work—Where the Sugar Maple Grows, various regional attitudes in important novelistB. CHAPTER V CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE SINCE the END of the FIRST WORLD WAR The growth of Canadianism in recent years . . page 127. the League of Nations and external autonomy. Canadian and Empire Treaties—the Halibut Tx.eaty and Locarno, the Byng incident of 1926. the Balfour Declaration and the Statute of Westminster, sectionalism in Canada in the 1920»s and 1930»s.. new national forcee--the G. B?; C , etc, the Second World War—unifying and disunifying influences. National attitudes in the Canadian novel. . , page- 134. Laura Goodman Salverson and Augustus Bridle—the immigrant and nationalism, the work of Frederick Philip Grove, non-natdonal novelistBa-Mazo de la Roche. National attitudes in Canadian poetry , , . page 141. Isabel Eccleetone Mackay and Annie Charlotte Dalton-- nature and Canadianism. P. R. Scott—national attitudes in satiric poetry, Wilson MacDonald--nature and nationalism, moderately national poets. incidental verse and various Canadian attitudes. - v i - Tlie influence;, of the Second World?; War . . . page 153. national Canadian poets—E. J . Pratt, Earle Birney, Anne Marriott. national Canadian novelists--Bruce Hutchison, Hugh MacLennan, Gwethalyn Graham, Robert Fontane. CHAPTER:W The EMERGENCE of a CANADIAN SPIRIT.; CONCLUDINĜ  REMARKS . . . page 169. National feeling and English Canadian Literature—a survey. in the period before confederation. . in the late Nineteenth Century, in the early Twentieth Century, in the last quarter of a century. National feeling and English Canadian Literature—-interrelation. the time lag. the strength of Canadiaaism in various parts of the land, a national literature. APPENDIX I Population of Canada, 1806 - 1931 . page 177. APPENDIX II Analysis of Themes Chosen by English Canadian Poets . . . . . . page 180. BIBLIOGRAPHY , page 195. - v l i - ABBREVIATI ONS • Certain abbreviations are used in the footnotes and bibliography of this thesis to refer tio works of which f riaquent,. usee ha® been made. Following, aasee tehee abbrevi atti one tog ether with the t it les for which they sfctand-.. Bennetti. - - Bennett; E . H , , ed., New- Harvesting, Toronto, Macmillan, 1938. Broadus — Broadus, E .K. , and Broadus, E . H . , AAbook of Canadian prose and verse, Toronto, Macmillan, 1934i CQB. — The Canadian Bookman. C. F. — Thee Canadian Forum. CQM. — The Canadian Magazine. D. R. — DadJaou s i eo. Re vi ew. Loga-n and French — Logan , J . D . , and French, D.G., Highways,? of Canadian Literature, TJortontco, McClelland and 'Stewart, 1928'. Q..Q... Queen's ftU8;rterly. Rhodenizsav.- Rho.deniz.e-r, WE}, Handbiook of Canadian literature1;- Ottawa, Graphic, "1930. Sfnitih Smith, A'i J:.M.", ed., The book of Canadian poetry, Chicago, University of Chicago Preae, 1943. Sponge of the Great Dominion Lighthall, W.D., ed., Songs? of the .Grxe'â t Dominion,, London, Scott:, 1889, U. of T. Q. University of Toronto Quarterly. The.- GROWTH of CANADIAN HATJOMAL FEELING AS REFLECTED IN The POEl'RY and NOVELS of ENGLISH CANADA CHAHK6IR I FACTORS"' INVOLVED i n CANADIAN!S'SE and ENGLISH C&NAMAN LITERATURE Tin: growth of* the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of Nations has been one of the s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n World history during the l a s t one hundred years; and of the several processes involved the development •„of Canada into an independent nation hae "been very important. For. t h i s rraascn that process requires s p e c i a l attention from student© of World history i n general, and from Canadian h i s t o r i a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r . The importance of the question i s further increased toy the f a c t that- the formation of the Canadian nation i n 1867 as a dir e c t r e s u l t of thi s jjiovement i a the only one of several contemporary major develop- mants of national sentdment--C&-n-6rdian, German and. I t a l i a n i n pa r t i c u l a r — w h i c h has not-: brought i n i t s wake long and bloody wars and continuous and. widespread animosities both within and beyond the borders of the affected areas. Every aspect, of the growth of Canada into a national entity must, therefore, be ex- amined, one int e r e s t i n g f i e l d f o r investigation i e Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . An examination of t h i s literature- should r.aveal the s i n c e r i t y and: depth of the Canadian nations! f e e l i n g which - 1 - - 2 - has accompanied the growth of Canada, and suggest,in what sections of the. count try such feeling is fully matured. A study of the his&ory of Canada and Canadian l i tera- tures reveals that in the.: earlier periods there were various sentiments which played an import-ant. parti in the lives, and thought'jai,of Canadians, and influenced the course of the nation»s hisrfeory. Eventually, aera distinctly Canadian spirit-hegan to emerge, these forces, continuing, tended to hampervand impede the growth of the Canadian nation. These various factors which have tended to thwart the development of nationalism in Canada: are^sixin numher and may he divided into two distinct groups. aJ: times One of these is fundamentally antagonistic to the growth, of a- national spiriti, and tends to attracti allegianceetio larger and foreign unite. The influences- in this category are imperialism, colonialism, and internationalism. The other group includes impulses which are detrimental to a true national consciousness only when that, consciousness is superficial, and really consists of one or moree of these forces. These impulses? are localism, the spiriti of the:New. World, and Americanism. ' These six forces have combined to prevent the expression of a true Canadian spiriti in English Canadian literature in a l l but a very few cases;, 3 M s im w&wt&wti&bwfsT fCanadaj, for any country which cannot evoke a national feeling is surely doomed. If our national establishment-is worth main- taining in Canada, and most, of us* are thoroughly convinced thattittis, we musfehe one nation, not; nine. We cannotu be Imperialists;, Annexationists or Provincial!sts. If we are to survive as an stiate} we.must be. Nationalists:;' in heart, and soul, rather than merely on tariff issues. Wecmussti bee ourselves^ Canadians, f ore-better or worse, without apologies. 1 . MacFarlane, R. 0 . , "Canada: one country or nine -3- Becauseeof their considerable:; importance i t is necessary to investigate more closely the nature of these forcess which have at. times served as :anti-national influences; in Canada. Because, their.' country wasaonce a Britiish colony, and is s t i l l an integral partt of: thertCbmmonwealtuh, Canadians have f e l t imperial, and ccolonial sentiments from the earliefet days of its history. "Imperialism" is that, national feeling which places the welfares and prosperity of the empire^-in this case tlhe: British Empirs»-bef-oreeany other, allegiance. "By "colonialism" is meant the attitude of mind which emphasizes the larger loyalties to Mother Country and Empire, almost to the complete, exclusion of loyalty to one'sanative colony, province or country"^--in this case Canada; In practices these two influences ha vec blended and appeared as one in most cases-, in Canada. Ass well as being the predominant: force in the early histoi-y of English Canada, they have.: exerted a major influence? in English Canadian literature from the earliest times. Almost a l l the writing produced in English speaking Canada in the Eighteenth Century sprang from them.3 In the Nineteenth Century other influences--localism, Americanism, and the spirit, of the New World.-became. important!, butt,colonial and imperial attitu- des continued almost unchecked in the literature of the land. 1. (cont.) provinces?", D. R... v. 18, p. 16, April 1938. 2. Sagefy W. N. , "Where stand a; Canadian history?'!, in Saunders, Ri. M., ed., The Canadian Historical Association,, Annual Report, Toronto, University of Toronto Press:* 1945;* p. 8:, n. 1. 3. See Chapter 2, p. 1. Eorrthie."Nineteenth Century see chapterssrj2: and 3; for the Twentieth Century, chapters 4 and - 4 - In the Twefitieth Century this influence has been gradually weakening;; hut, there are even to-day many signs of pure colonialism or of imperialistic fervour in the more conserva- tive quarters of the country. In the Nineteenth Century many Canadians were able to blend their imperial and colonial with their Canadian sentiments; but. even then these feelings thwarted the growth of Canadianism in some cases;-* and in the Twentieth Century they have-:usually doners© in tflaose;.cases• where t̂hey were.:important.4 The;twin impulses of imperialism and colonialism have been major factors: detrimental to the development of a Canadian national awareness. Economic motives: have further-accentuated this attitude in many writers. Canada has always*provided a lean market for literature, and.; Can ad i ans who depend on writing for a living have.--been forced to sell their, material in foreign markets. Such writers haver-always found in Britain one of their two chief markets, and have consequently tended to deal almost.exclusively, with those aspects of Canadian l i fe which are pleasing to this overseas audience* Furthermore, to hold this distant markets Canadian writers have had to interpret Canadian l i fe in a.way which would appeal to non-Canadian readers. They describe the glamorous and romantic aspects of Canada, but do not. attempt to presents the country as it. really is . Tiius the development of a Canadian spirit in literature 4. Charles: Mair, 7/. D. Lighthall^ and others were Canadian in spirit, as well as imperial or colonial in attitude; on the other hand writers such as Gilbert. Parker, William. WMf-redoCampbemdand William Wye Smith allowed their colonial or imperial attitudes to k i l l their Canadian feelings almost completely. A'.Twentieth Century example is Esther Kerry. f?3$); ft- 8. 6;y (the P;xtri ffjt,etc.) • C./». / W o * (Askes oP *»«rJer. i9J(.,e.tc.)- n. Tfc*,^ (Out utith the /f«uw^;«5 . /fci7^:efcc has been considerably retarded by this necessity of writing for a foreign market1. These..impulses*-imperialism and colonialism—have? become gradually less and less influential in Canada; but as they have weakened a new force—international!sm--hasbeen steadily emerging as an impulse which may become detrimental to the development.of a: national consciousness in Canada and its expression in English Canadian literature. "Internationalism" refers-to the attitude now currentt whi ch tends to overcome racial and otherr.barri eras and seeks for. human co-operation on a world-wide basis. It. is a cosmopolitan attitude--the f inal triumph of a civilized World. As a-force;, i t tends tio beehostile to nationalism—which puts the nation before anything else no matter what, hardship to other peoples such action involves— everywhere in the World. In Canada it l has tended to replace colonial and imperial attitudes as another external distraction to divert Canadians from national se&taments:. The- remaining three*:, impulst.es; which haver hampered the development of national feeling in Canada arernot distinctly hostile, to i t , and have actually been the forerunners of it in some cases. The most important, of these influences has been localism. "Localism" refers to that attachment which everyone feels for the district in which he was born or in which he lives. If;this attachment is so strong that it- supersedes every other-allegiance it is better described as "provincial- ism". If the attachment is not narrow, but, so broad and tolerant that it. approaches Canadian!sm in scope, it. may he termed "regional" rather than local. Considering the many - 6 - separatevsettlements out of which Canada has grown and the major geographic barriers which s t i l l isolate many of them, it. is;.not. strange, that localism has been a major force intthe country's histlory. Itl was the earlier feeling to develop, but— based on a love of nature, as i t largely is - - i t , hasc tended to broaden and produce a genuinely Canadian.rather than a purely local outlook. Only in those cases where i t has remained strictly provincial^ has localism impeded the:1 growth of Canada- as a nation. The earliest.Canadian writers were local in attitude of necessity; they knew of no unit, larger than tlieir particular: provinces of which they areean integral part. Localism is inevitable in their works. As, Canada has developed as.: a nation the extent and depth of the national sentiment at various stages in her history can be determined.by the extent to which localism has lingered in literature and not grown into regional or national attitudes.. AAsrecond impulse which has been the basis for Canadianism is the spirit, of the New World. "The spirit of the New World" refers to that feeling which causes many European immigrants.to forget Old World customs and attitudes and look to their future in the Americas with no regrets for the l i f e they have left behind them. TJhe whole outlook i B that, of the pioneer, and similar to the attitude of .a l l immigrants to newly developed areas. Like localism, this spirit., of the New World 5. The attitude strictly provincial. Act, of 1774, which perpetuated separate French institutions and customs and kepti. them strictly different, from those of the British in others: parts of Canada. -7- need not detract, from a national sentiment i f the patriotism involved is strong and healthy; indeed it . was the earlier of the., two feelings to emerge and has gradually grown into Canadianism as the pioneering sections have become civilized^ But!, i f the feeling for Canada is only superficial i t often dissolves on close examination into the spirit., of the New World. In literatures this force has been of considerable significance. The remaining impulse is best described as "Americanism". "Americanism" is thatt attittudeef :bund in many Nortlh Amerjica-nB^botlii within and outsideethe United Slates?; of AmeBl oâ  whi ch tends; to places the customs andi affairs? of that countlry fibremosti in their minds;. The. United Sitates has always; been a major, force in Canadian mindsca-s well ass an important, factor.-in the nation's history, and every Canadian musto be favorable or hostile tio itl. With such a-r powerful neighbour:- in mind a t ia l l times*-with American literary productions flooding tthet country—it. ie impossible? brr- Canadians- to excludec American influence, f rem their, thoughts. If one does he usually turns to Britain instead. Furthermore the United States is the. primary market.f or most. Canadian writers:; and this situation—as in the case of those who write for. a-British market—has coloured much Canadian literatures Those writers? who produceef orr an American market present!: only those features?? of: Canadian l i fe which interests Americans--the parti, with tlouristi. attraction. They neglect, the everyday Canadian almost invariably. And indeed many such writ eras hawe- gone to live in the Unitted States tio acquire the spirit of the public whioh is -8- interested in them. These six influences*-imperialism, colonialism, arid<J internationalism; localism, the spirit of the New World, and Americanism—were a l l active in Canada long before the advent., of a seventh and diffexent.force—nationalism. "Nationalism" is a term which has been used with so many varying interpreta- tions that^unless a specific statement•of the sense in which tihe term wil l bemused is madeathe value of the wordois neglig- itole. The following explanation is lengthy, butt valuable in tthati.it. indicates? precisely whati is meanti in most L caseŝ  when the word is used; i t i is thee sense, in which the word wil l be us«d in the present: treatment. It,, does not, however, suggest tihe exact, form nationalism has taken in Canada. In the present, reports the term nation -has- been used to denote a human group with the following character! B-ti cs: (a) The idea1 of. a-common .government̂ wheAherrasssp reality in the present on past, or-as an aspiration of the future; (b) Ascertain size^and closeness of contactibetween a l l the individual members. (c) A more or less defined territory. (d) Certain characteristics (of which the most frequent is language) clearly distinguishing the nation from other nations and non-national groups. (e<) Certain interests common to the individual members. (f) A certain degree of common feeling or-will, associated with a picture of the nation in the minds^of the individual members.•.. Nationalism has been used in the. report tio denote a consciousness of the distinctive character of different, nations, including the one of which the individual is a member, and a desire to increase-, the strength, liberty, and prosperity of nations. I tie effects is not: necessarily taken as being confined tto the individual's own nation, &>. Royal Institute of International Affairs, National!sm. Oxford University Press, 1̂939, p. xvi. " although admittedly this is very often thee erase* nor- is tihe nationalist!, necessarily conceived as?making thee interests of his own nation supremely importtant:.. In short, the; term is used in such a- sensectihat Ma;zzini, Gladstone, and. Weodrow Wilson can he. des- cribed ast-exponent of • nationalists as. well a/a^Herr H i t l e r . 7 This is: a satisfactory and inclusive definition. Tihe; sense i t givesst'o the term hasfvbeen well summarized:by Mr. G. P. Gooeh, who writes, "nationalism denotes the; resolveeof a-group of human beings* tco sharer their. fortiunesF, and to exercise exclusive aontirol overvttheirrown actions." Such is. the nature of nationalism. Of particular interest is that example of nationalism known as Canadianism. This force has received considerable attention from certain students who have:; tried to define.it, Q butu have meti.with l i t t l e successs Ther: trouble seems to be that!it: is impossible to make any general rules concerning the form which itr.will take. I t is: a-very elusivenforcee, and each e-xample of i t . merits; special consideration. Nevertheless:: i t is easy to determine the-:general limitsr of the term; "CansEdianism"3' involves some twelve factions. The'basis of a l l Canadian feeling is a love of Canadian nature<.and theo Canadian country- side, in whioh the people of the; land live?. In Ganadar this? 7 . ib id . , p. xx>. * 8. Gooch, G. P. , Nationalism, Swa,rtihmore, 192.0, p. v i i i . 9. ef. Maodonald, W.'L., "Nationality in Canadian poetry", C.: M., v. 62, pp. » 1 0 - 305} March 1924. 10. Throughoutthi BI-tihesiBP thet termsr; 'Canaddan' orr 1 natlonal feeling..', 'Canadian1 or 'national sentiments, 'Canadian' or 'national awareness?? and 'Canadian' of 'national consciousness' wil l be . considered as synonomous with 'Canaddanism' asf;here defined. The word 'Canadian' by itself may, however, bei- used -10- inf luence<is of p a r t i c u l a r sdgnif icance, f on Canadian natureeis very "beautiful and. widespread,. A< second f a c t o r - i s geographic unity. Enough has' been said concerning the hampering effect of geography i n Canada, 1 1 notl enough abbuti i t s consolidating influence* Isolated by tiwo oceans, and sharing i n general tihe same climates throughout, the country i s assmuch a geographic uniti. as;.is the.United States. The two oceans are, furthermore^ the? means of exit: and entry f o r the i n t e r i o r — a n o t h e r unifying f o r c e — a n d there ar.eenatural waterways half way across the country from the A t l a n t i c Ocean. History, also, hasyplayed an important! parti: i n creatling* a-Canadian national f e e l i n g . Since 1763 Canadians have a common h i at lory, and look with pride: on *n«Hj> Chojt!oo.uguayt Cryolor^o ?c.rmy and: engagements, during the F i r s t : and Second World Wars' as co-operative', e f f o r t s to preserve or strengthen the nation i n which Canadians of a l l r a c i a l o r i g i n s — English, French and others—butt. Canadians only were^ involved. Basic also i s the retention of the' B r i t i s h tie--a- desireonatural to English Canadians, but, f e l t , by French Canadians also, i n the intierestis: of preserving t h e i r own i d e n t i t y . 1 2 P a r a l l e l with t h i s B r i t i s h f e e l i n g and basic from the e a r l i e s t times i s an anti-American f e e l i n g , which has played a most.important, part i n the. development of Canadaanism, and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n (noteo10, cont.) to include both national and regional influences, i n contrast with the more r e s t r i c t e d term 'national'. 11. cf. Sage, W. N., "Geographical and c u l t u r a l aspects of the f i v e Canadas", The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Association Annual Report:. 1937, pp. 28 - 34<i for-an excellent treatments of t h i s view. 12.. cfi . Cobban, A., UatUonal self-determination, Oxford University Press, 1945, p. 80. -11- cau s ing Confederation itself J. Along ;wit!h this feeling., there is als:o a general antagonism to a l l foreign lands—even to Great Britain itself when conflicting interests arise. These;: are six major factors involved in Canadianism. Also important is enthusiastic interest in the advancement of Canadian autonomy, im the desire to he an independent nation; and, ultimately, this involvest, the assertion of tlheoright to secede from the: Commonwealth (although this 13 involvesr the legal a B p e c t o n l y ) . Coupled with this is an active interest in Canadian politics^-in the conduct of the dominion parliament at Ottawa. And Canadianism involves an than interest in questions other^politics.l, also on a national scaled- economic, social and cultural uniformity; a general interest, in the Canadian scene. Added to this, and a-more:-recent, develop- ment, are.ties of transportation and communication--the trans- continental railways, newspapers with a Canadian outlook, and in recent years the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Less tangible, but also involved, areccertain common attitudes: of faith. A*devotion to the, doctrines' of the:: Christiian religion is a majorr influences tending to create a Canadian nation, especially considering the fact that each Church has' its separate Canadian organization. And, lastly, a belief in internal and international co-operation and a love of peace, prosperity, and the pursuit of happiness for-everyone in the World has been a distinct!, quality of Canadian national feeling. These twelve factors combine tto produce'what ie known as " Canadd ani smM. 13. ib id . , p. 81. -12- WI*M;tjheisewf&cdtsB5 in mind, we c<an now turn moxepar- ticulary tio the influaace of nationalism in Canadian literature and make the few limitations which are necessary before we proceed with the general study planned. In Canada poetry and fiction are the only branches of tihepfine arts which have received any exuensivec supports., during a? cconsidqeratolen period of time, although in recent years the School of Seven has .created a national art-and Merril l Denison and others a national drama. For this reason--and because they alone provide an extensive field for- one? survey—it is convenient tro limit. -Che* present. 130. study to these tsraefield®. Coeativeeliterature is , probably, more, l ikely to reflect!: the: feelings of the country than is any other type of literature. The creative artist interprets and describes the community in which hee l i vase and the- feelings.. thatl s©em vital in itU If.. there?.is a-'strong national feeling in Canada-this, too, should appeari in Canadian literature?. However it: is possible to draw definite conclusions only in the period following Confederation when literatUrecwassproduced in Sfome volume. In Canada0 literatures has been written in many langu^g im- ages, but. an adequate study of most of the. work in languages other than English and French has only recently been started.* The mostl important. non-English literatureein Canada/ haB^been the French material produced in Quebec: However-itt is impos- sible to considerj. even this literature-here because of the quantity involved. Furthermore a l l important anthologists: and historians of Canadian literature to date have devoted their attention to the work written in one language only. Therefore* t3- tt. Fm- th.'f fiiSoti *k0tt ttoUtt, Tati AS tit SlhfL-ne S^tekts thSltpktH luteJe -13- it. ie reasonable to consider in this study only English Canadian literature. A' further justification for this limita-- .tion arises out, of the;fact thati, important, contributions to this field have been made from a l l of Canada's provinces, whereas;.the-Prench work is limited largely to Quebec. The English Canadian f ield therefore offers the most satisfactory opportunity for obtaining a cpoes-serction of the; Canadian att i- tudes as. a* wholes A/,study of trends in French Canadian l i tera- tures would however: be a desirable supplement to this study. The question then arises, 'Yiflaat;is English Canadian literature?' If Canada-had her:, own language the answer-to this question would beoobvious. But English is thee language of many other countries: which have an important, influence in a l l Canadian thought. It. is useless to limit, the study to those writers who were born in the country, for two reasons. Immi- grants have produced work that is quite as;Canadian in every sense of the term as:: is that of native born writers;. No one denies thatLJoseph Conrad's work belongs to English--not to Polish--literature< Also, these native writers often leave the country and write work that is definitely not Canadian. And yet it! is wrong to consider the work of tourists national, although they may seem to write work that breathes Canada through and through. Writing of this kind has appeared from American and British authors who have never- seen the country. There are only two safeocriterawhereby literature can be classified as Canadian. A l l that,has been written by native born writers while they l ive in the country is Canadian; what they write abroad may or may not be so. Furthermore a l l that has been written by immigrants which contains a Canadian flavour -14- of any kind is Canadian. No strict rules are possible, but these two generalizations should include most cases of what, can reasonably stand, for Canadian literature:. With these various factorsrin mind i t is only neces- sary to note one or two obvious reservations before beginning our treatment. Whether a writer expresses any national feeling or not has obviously littileeeffect on the quality of his work. Therefore we are noticoncerned here with the merits or demerits of various writers. On the other hand some limits are neces- sary; so that while major writers who are not. Canadian in out- look wil l receive-only brief mention, the insignificant.authors who do reveal a Canadian sentiment wil l also receive l i t t l e mention. This restriction is fa ir , because those writers who have scarcely been remembered during the last few decades are surely unimportant writers, and hence, do not reflect the.major literary movements of their day. Usually they are* 'hack' writers who write for some motive alien to the composition of fine art, and hence do not enter the scope of this treatment, Furthermore the desirability or undesirability of a?Canadian national sentimenttdoes not concern us in this treatment'!. A l l that, we wish to discover is the extent of the feeling for Canada present in the various periods of the nation's;.history, without considering the value of such feeling. What-is signi- ficant is the extent.to which English Canadian literature reflects the emergence of nationalism in Canada during the last century. History reveals various significant, indications of the actual presence of such a feeling as an actives agent, but has this feeling become sufficiently pervasive to affect poets - i s l - and novelists? AAcomparison of the-influence of national feeling in Canadian history with the evidence of its reflection in literature should provide the answer to this question. With these points in mind, therefore, let us turn tio an examination o f i English Canadian literature in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries in order to discover the amount of national awareness extant therein. -16- OHAPTER II CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE in the period prior, tto CONFEDERATION The American Revolution created not! one nation, but two. Just as the United Sta test of America owes-, its existence tio thatL.movement, so tho Dominion of Canada-also stems: from i t . Before the American Revolution Canada was predominantly a French province hostile to Britain, and bitter over the recent Cession or Conquest; The Maritime Provinces, were only sparsely populated, and Ontario and the West. virtually uninhabited by any but, the native Indians. But: after the American Revolution those people in the new republic who were not. in favour.-with, tihe change: of allegiance migrated tb Canada; They turned tihe wilderness?from a predominantly French province intb a- strong British colony. New Brunswick and Upper Canada owe their existence to this migration, and Nova Scotia, Prince:.Edward. Island and Quebec a l l received significant., numbers: of Loyalists;*1 Theseo immigrant BL brought;, with them a hate and fear of the country to the. south which—united: with thesFrench distrust! of the\American oolonies--preve3ited any possibility of annexation for centuries, and created the present Canada. 1. fflhe Loyalists^ must haveenumbered well over 40,000. Wittke} C. , A hia&tory of ^ Canada, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1941, pp. 57, 6ffi and 65, suggests the following figures: Upper Canada, 10,0000(by HQS); PrincesEdwaard Island, 600; Cape Breton, 3,000; Nova Scotia 18,000; and New Brunswick, 10,000 (by 1783). -17- Whetherrthe; American Revolution by itself would have provided a stimulus for a strong national feeling is doubtful— early Canadian poets and novelists; did not; deal with i t to any extent.. It. did, however, bring into Canadac-many immigrants:— the Loyalists—who hated republicanism and were devoted to the monarchy, and the animosity i t . created: hass been aocentuateddby a series, of clashes;:.and incidents. Before another three decades were past the:two peoples were engaged in another war— 2 the War: of: 1812 --which forced them even f art hen aparjt, renewed olddanimosities, and created new ones., and reinforced Canada's separate development. Thus the f irst , and most important factors in the creation of the present Dominion of Canada occurred within sixty years?of thee Conquest- and even at that, time a at song Canadian feeling was beginning to emerge, at. least in Upper, and Lower Canada, based on antagonism to the United States. I t.iB true that antagonism to the UnitedoStates would foster..a-strong Brit ish feeling in this early period, but i t must have also created a feeling of union among a l l Brit ish colonies north of the? United States. Thatt t&iea feeling aroused was: distinctly Canadian appearssplainly in the various victories during the War;of 181S--victories that resulted from and also caused much pride in the peoples of Brit ish North America.3 2. cf. page 33 of this chapter for the effect of the war on Richardson. 3. Such skirmishes as Chateauguay and Crysler's Farm did much to creates- sr common feeling of pride in Canada. At Chateauguay a group of French Canadians and Indians defeated, an American force nearly three times its size. -18- Another. factor dating from this early period which did much to prepare the way for the possibility of a unified nation in Canada was the French Revolution. TheeFrench in Quebec were loyal to thee Church, and the old order, and therefore became, antagonistic to their former fatherland as the Revolution progressed and its supporters in France became more radical. Furthermore this feeling did notodwindle appreciably during, the Nineteenth Century, and politicians could rely on the hatred of 'liberalism' to keep Quebec within the Liberal Conservative Party (as i t i later became) for many decades to come. At-the time of the American Revolution the French in Quebec were?, disappointed in France for another reason; the French govern- ment, gave considerable help to the American states to free them from British control--to those very states which had been 4 the traditional enemies of Quebec. These various factors, have fostered the growth of Canadian national feeling,, butt have exerted l i t t l e influence in English Canadian literature. There were, however, other forces at work in British North America which moreethan balanced those influences which tended to foster a common Canadian feeling. Nova Scotia, which has remained in its present boundaries since Cape Breton was returned to iti in 1820, was settled predominantly by pre*. Loyalist.New Englandere, Loyalists, and Scots. 5 The province 4. One English Canadian novelist who has dealt, with the question of French aid to the American Republics is William Kirby. See excerpt from The Golden Dog. Chapter 3, p. . 5J. cf. Creighton, D. C , Dominion of the North. Boston, Houghton Miffl in, 1944, p. 206. -19- had l i t t l e interest in Canada, for its chief economic tie was with the WestvIndies, and the. American settlers were actually within the social and cultural orbit of New York and the New England states. In 1806 the province contained 65,000 inhabi- g ttantis, in 1822: seme 81,3000 In 1827, with the addition of records from Cape Breton, the figure stood at 123,600; and by 1861 it. had reached 330,800. NewvEr.unsw.ick was f irst settled by Loyalists, who formed a bureaucracy and established the Church of England. To this staid and settled community came Aeadians, British and Irish, many of whom engaged in the thriving lumber industry, which upset the stable bureaucracy. Roman Catholics, Baptistso and Methodists, threatened the established Church. With a l l these various local interests to occupy their minds the people little developedAInterest in Canada. In 1806 thereewerer some 35,000 people in the province:; by 1824 some 74,000; and by 1861 some 252,000. Prince.Edward Island was at that time an isolated agricultural provinceewhich, however, grew att a faster rate than any other province except Upper Canada. In 1806 the residents numbered 9,600$ in 1841 the figure stood at. 47,000, and by 1861 i t had increased to:--80j800. TheeMaritlime Provinces as.: a whole remained isolated colonies with much more interest in the New England states tha'nHln Canada; There.-.1 have been few nationally minded poets or novelists from this parti,of Canada H I . i — * f ' ill •• • 1 1 m,m 11 .' ' = ' v : - . 1 . : - 6. These and a l l other population figures—unless other- wise specified—are taken from Burpee, L. J . , AnahistorloaHsratias> of Canada.t'TToronto. Nelson, 1928. See Appendix I, Table I, taken from Burpee*? for the period beforeeConfederation. -20- until the Twentieth Century. Lower Canada was occupied during this period with a struggle between French and English inhabitant's? The French desired isolation and opposed progress of any kind. The: English, who were merohants and business men, pressed for progress and united action with UpperrCanada whenever possible?. Lower Canada waso not affected to the same, extent as were the other: province® by immigration, but its French population doubled in the sixty years following the Conquest and greatly outnumbered a l l other 7 settlers in British North America combined. In 1765 the population figure stood at 69,800; by 1806 i t had risen to 250,000. By 1831 i t had again doubled, standing at. 553,000; and again by 1861, when i t reached 1,111,500. Most!affected by immigration, and the f irst nationally minded section of theo country waerUpper Canada-; Loyalist, in origin, the-province:was soon changed into an American province, but., subsequent,British immigration restored its former com- 8 plexion. Nevertheless the American influence was very important, as is indicated by the power of the Methodist Church which came with i t . This body soon broke with both American and English branches of the: same Church, an indication, one writer believes, of "the. growing nationalism of the Canadian 9 frontier." In 1806 the population figure stood at. 70,700$;in 1824 at.. 150,000. By 1834 i t had again doubled, standing in 7. cf. Burt, A. L . , A short history of Canada for Americans. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota^Press; 1942, p. 134. 8. ib id . , pp. 134*5. 9. Creighton, op. cit... p. 216. -21- thatt yearrat. 321,100; and by 1861 it. had reached 1,396,000. Thus although certain foreign influences had laid the basis of a Canadian feeling by 1815, isolation was the predomi- nant feature of British North America during this period. Nevertheless the basis on which a national f eelingjcould arise was. there, and in the following half a century i t did begin to appear; The complexion of the population was.* however, greatly changed by immigration. In 1806 British North America contained somee430,000 people; in 1825. some 830,000. By 1835 this figure had increased to 1,270,000; and by 1860 to 3,120,000. New settlers mean new attitudes and a- submerging of former ones. Slowly isolation grew less: potent, and Canadian!sm more? signifi- cant;. Thereeis, however, almost no Canadian literature, dating from the. 1820's or e a r l i e r . 1 0 During this period the pressing polit ical issue; was?, reform, in a l l partes of British North America'. In thea United: States Jacksonian democracy was promising a new era for the common man, and in Great Britain various democratic: measures > culminating in the Great Reform B i l l of 1832, were passed in parliament. In British North America- the movement lead toethe Rebellion of 1837, This event: was most significant, in the development of self <-government; in Canadâ  butl probably did not. r.esult:..from any national sentiment. The: movement was directed primarily against factions in Canada rather than against the British government, and paralleled similar democratic movements in England itself . The Rebellion did, however, lead indirectly 10• The Rising Village is the notaMe exception. A l l other- early literature was. colonial, American or local; see:2p. -22- to an increase of Canadian feeling. After the:; suppression of the uprising there:was considerable friction with the United States over the Caroline incidentand raids;:.across;:. the."; border, by members of thee Hunt ersanduPatriot Lodges;* The resultant anti-American feeling, strengthened̂  sentimentlsn stil l bitter over the American Revolution and the War of 1812, and increased Canadian unity. The immediate result of the Rebellion was Lord Durham's mission to Canada, which culminated in his famous report. The.report! recommended legislative union and local autonomy for the people of Upper and Lower Canada-; butt pointed out. that racee hatred seemed to prevents any possibility of. a.; unified Canadian people.i:L At that time the colonial office was stil l following the Old Colonial System, which had always been the basis of British colonial policy. Tihe recommendation regarding union was; quite compatible with the. system and was> immediately put into effect. The other major plan of the Durham Report—local autonomy—had to wait, until the fall of the Conservative ministry in 1846 before officials sympathetic with it. came, into power in England. The Union Act, of 1840 reunited Upper and Lower Canada and created one Canadian government to rule it. Thus the colonial office tried to repair the damage done by the Quebea Aeti. of 1774. and the Constitutional Act of 1791 whereby racial and religious differences in Canada were accentuated, and the two areas were: severed politically. Now; let"* 4 ——--—-—-«--—•-—• 11. cf.ft*Lord Durham to Lord Glenelg*v in Kennedy, W. P. M., Statutes, treaties and documents of the. Canadian constitution, Oxford university iress, mau, pp. oo* - 360. -23- however:; iti was.: too late, for feelings were hitter on both 12 sides. There was, then, this fatal flaw in the Union Act. of 1840—it accentuated differences even further by giving;equal representation to each part of the colony without, regard to population, with the. result, that a double majority becamê ; necessary in each administration. TheoUnion did, however, prepar.ec the, way f or. ar. larger.: union a-.; quart err of a: century later. The year 1846 is significant in the history of Canada because during i t the Whig ministry of which Lord Grey was colonial secretary came into power in England. EheoWhig Party represented business interests: and supported free trade. Colonies were only a nuisance, in the new economic pla», and the government: was not very concerned with what happened to them. Thus it i was that Lord Elgin became governor of Canada, and with the approval of Lord Grey allowed self-government to develop in Canada. With this stimulus behind them the new; Canadian administrations gradually enacted various measures of importance. These have a l l been significant in the development of Canadian autonomy, but, were probably not., associated with 13 national sentiments,.when enacted:; ' SSBSBBSSBS3SSSSSBSBSSSB3S 12. cf. Creighton, op. c i t . , p. 283; Burt, op. c i t . . pp. 158 - 159. Burt, points out that..the Union Act,was moBt unjust to the French. It placed the large public debt of Upper Canada on the shoulders of the French of Lower Canada as well as on the English of Upper Canada; i t made. English the official language.; and i t provided for equal representation. 13. Important among these measures were The clergy reserves; act(1854), Tihe seigniorial tenures act(1854) and three Union Actt amendment acts(1848, 1854 and 1856 respectively). The last three acts;-dealt with the official language (French als:o being allowed), the power to alter the..; constitution of the legislative council, and the power to make laws regulating the appointment o f a speaker in the legislative council. See'Kennedy,Statutes pp. 516 - 535.; * -24- There were, nevertheless:, several important*., expres- sions of early national f e e l i n g i n the l a t e 1850*s and early 1860's, soon a f t e r the most important of these measures had become law. These are sig n i f i c a n t : because they indicate, the temper of sasme leading minds i n Canada at a time when En g l i s h Canadian literature-was almost void of any national expression. Thomas-D'Arcy McG-ee wasr, i n 1860, looking forward tio the time "when we should be known not as Upper of Lower Canadians, Nova Scotians, or New Brunswickians, but as members of a nation designated as the Six United Provinces."-^ John A. Macdonald, foremost, among the Fathers of Confederation, believed that, Canadians "were standing on the very threshold of nations, and when admitted we should occupy no unimportant p o s i t i o n among l fi the nations of the world." Most s i g n i f i c a n t , however, and e a r l i e r i n date than these sentiments^ i s a document dating from 1858. A.4 Ti Gait, minister of finance, presented the following "Resolutions on F e d e r a t i o n . " 1 6 1. Thatt i n view, of the rapid development of the population and resources of Western Canada, i r r e c o n c i l a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s present themselves to the maintenance of that equality which formed the basis of the Union of Upper and Lower Canada, and require t h i s House to consider means whereby the progress which has so happily characterized t h i s province may not be arrested through the occurrence of sectional jealousies and dissensions. It i s , therefore, the opinion of t h i s House that the Union of Upper and Lower Canada should be changed from a L e g i s l a t i v e to a Federative Union by the subdivision of the province into two or more d i v i s i o n s , each 14. cited i n Kennedy, W. P. M., The constitution of Canada, 1554 - 1957. Oxford University Press, 1938, p. 290. 15. i b i d . , p. 289. 16. Kennedy, Statutes, pp. 535 - 536i - 2 5 - governing i t s e l f i n l o c a l and sectional matters, with a general l e g i s l a t i v e government f o r s u b j e c t s of national and common inte r e s t ; and that\ a.- Commission of nine membersc be named to reporti on the best means? and mode* of ef f e c t i n g such c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes* 2. Thatr, considering the-claims possessed by this, province^ on the North-western and. Hudson's^Fay t e r r i t o r i e s ? and the necessity of making provision for- the governmentof the said districts;? i t i i s the opinion of t h i s House thati, i n thee adoption of a? federative constitution for; Canada- meaaie should be- provided f o r thee l o c a l government i. of thef said t e r r i - t o r i e s ^ under the:. general government;,until population and settlement..may from time to time enable them to be admitted' into the Canadian Confederation. 3. That ..a general Confederation of the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, "Newfoundland and Prince. Edward Island with Canada and the.Western t e r r i t o r i e s ; i s most desirable and calculated to.promote t h e i r several and united- i n t e r e s t s by preserving to each province the uncontrolled management of i t s peculiar i n s t i t u t i o n s and of those i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s respecting which differences of opinions might, a r i s e with other . members of Confederation, while i t w i l l increase that, i d e n t i t y of f e e l i n g which pervades the possessions of tihe B r i t i s h Criown i n North America; and. by the adoption of a uniform p o l i c y f o r the' development of the vastt and varied resources of these.immense t e r r i t o r i e s w i l l greatly add to t h e i r national power and consideration; and that a Committee of nine members be appointed tlo report on the steps to be taken f o r ascertaining with- out delay the sentiments of :the inhabitants of the Lower Provinces and of the Imperial Government on t h i s most important: s u b j e c t , 1 6 Even as t h i s desire f o r Canadian federation was being f e l t i t was becoming certain that the Union was impractical. Members im parliament separated into two groups of mot unequal B i z e . The L i b e r a l Conservative group consisted of French Canadian Roman Catholics:: and E n g l i s h Tories. The Reform or L i b e r a l group consisted of the French P a r t i Rouge and the Upper Canada Reform Party of George Brown. With the following of each group uncertain governmente; were i n constant fear., of defeat. The- f i r s t s r e a l c r i s i s earner i n 185:8, butu many more followed i n the 1860's. I t was as a result of t h i s p o l i t i c a l -26- deadlock that George Brown joined the Conservative government in 1864 with a view to finding a solution to the problem in a federation of British North American provinces. Thus polit ical deadlock was the immediate cause of Canada's desire for Confederation. Ae this pol i t ical trouble was becoming more, compli- cated the American Civ i l Warr. broke out. There had been a strong Canadian sentiment: for over half a century based on hostility to the United States, and now at this moment so convenient for the cause of Confederation in Canada- i t was renewed and 3 7 strengthened. As the defeat of the South became more and more certain Canadians feared that the North American balance 18 of power would be destroyed. To augment the alarm resulting from this fear came the open disgust of Great Britain with Canada?, and suggestion that. British troops should be withdrawn when the Canadian parliament rejected a milit ia b i l l in 1862. Added to this was the threat that westward expansion in the United Sttates might, block similar development in Canada, and the hostile attitude of the American government.- This increased considerably towards;-the end of the Civ i l War, when the Ameridan customs officials began demanding passportefrom t^btiri'Site^hnd^a t-he-'-Amert cfan^ ôVernlnentt tterea*ehedotfeohrepeal legi slatton providing for the importiand export of Canadian merchandise through the United States in bond, served notice of the termi- 17. cf. Martin, C , "The United States and Canadian nationality", Canadian Historical Review, v. 18, pp. 1 - 11, March 1937. 18, cf. Creighton, op. c i t . . p. 287. -27- n a t i o n of the RUsh-Bagot agreement of 1817, and dec ided tha t . r e c i p r o c i t y must end. The s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r compl ica ted by the:-actual border c l a shes , ,known asi the F e n i a n r a i d s , which 19 occurred at t h i s t ime . W i t h a l l these important, s igns of f r i c t i o n w i t h the U n i t e d S ta tes looming before the i r - -eyes , Canadians r e a l i z e d the need f o r Confedera t ion and began to t h i n k of B r i t i s h N o r t h America i n n a t i o n a l termer; The e f f e c t was most, potent i n New Brunswick , where i t „ d i s c r e d i t e d t he pro-Amer ican a n t i - C o n f e d e r a t i o n Smi th government and caused tihe people to r e t u r n an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n favorable^ tio the un ion at the next e l e c t i o n s ? 0 Thus New- Brunswick au tho r i zed Confedera t ion and made i t p o s s i b l e f o r Tupper i n Nova S c o t i a - t o do l i k e w i s e . I n a d d i t i o n to these major causes thereowere*..certain other.* f a c to r s which a l s o prepared the:-way f o n Confede ra t ion . For.-one t h i n g the new economic a t t i t u d e to c o l o n i e s i n England was:-s ignif icant" . I f Canada were to have p r e f e r e n t i a l t r e a t - ment w i t h i n the .Empire: no longe r she must look elsewhere f o r a s s i s t a n c e . By means of the R e c i p r o c i t y Trea ty she was ab le f o r a w h i l e to s u b s t i t u t e the U n i t e d S ta tes f o r G r e a t ! B r i t a i n i n her economic system, b u t tha t a i d , too , came to an end p r i o r to Confede ra t ion . The only remaining a l t e r n a t i v e was to formula te a n a t i o n a l economic p o l i c y , which indeed d i d occur- s h o r t l y a f t e r Confede ra t ion . There was a l s o the new u n i t y 19. c f . S tacey , A . P . , "Fenianism and the r i s e of n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n Canada at . the t ime of Confedera t ion" , Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Re viewy v . 12:, pp. 238 - 261, Sep t . 1931. 20. cfi . CCreighton, op. c i t . . pp. 299, 303. «• 28— provided to the country by the developments of systems of trans- portation and communication. The widespread.1 construction of railways and the.growing importance of the St., Lawrence water- way certainly contributed to the development of a federated country. Indeed, the St. Lawrence-system had always been a unifying force, in Canada*. I t was1..the: one great rivervwhich led from the eastern shore into the heart of the continent. I t possessed a geographical monopoly; and i t shouted its uniqueness.to adventurers:; The rlVerrmeant', mobility and distance;; i t invited journeyings;; i t promised immense expanses, unfolding, flowing away into remote and changing horizons. The whole west, with a l l its riches, was. the dominion of thê  river. And finally there wass-the increasing interest in the- We st, felt, particularly bj Upper Canadians and by business men in Lower- Canada. Canadians hoped for a future in the-West, to r ival that- open to the United States, and national rivalry called for- national endeavour .to back it,. With a l l these factors combining at just, the oppor- tune moment with polit ical deadlock and fear of the United States, Confederation became possible and. was achieved in 18S7. It. was a-practical move undertaken to thwart various dangerous tendencies, but many people at that time felt that there was*no possibility of the merger enduring, or of Canada becoming ag- nation. The country was divided into two groups, with the maj ority of anti-confederates in the Mari times and of those in favour, of the move in Upper Canada. Said one Nova Scotian, "I do not think that the people of Nova- Scotia want annexation 21. Creighton, D. G.*, The commercial empire of the St. Lawrence 1760 - 1850, Toronto, Ryerson, 1937, p. 6l (cf. also pp. 1 - 21). -29- tio the United States:, but- why should you drive them against their interests and inclinations into a union with Canada^—with which they have no natural means of communication, and no s y m p a t h y ? c o n f e d e r a t i o n was, however, based on a generous tolerant feel ing. '"•We" weree of different races , 1 said Car tier,", 'not for the purpose of warring against-each other, but in order 23 to compete and emulate for-the general welfare'.'" Itt wass on such a sp ir i t , that, the Canadian nation was founded. Nevertheless in spite of the strength Canadaanism must have enjoyed in the decades before Confederation there.- was l i t t l e contemporary reflection of i t in the fine arts of the country. A considerable quantity of poetry and some novels were produced, but the basic sentiments were almost, invariably colonialism, Americanism, or localism. Itc wassnot. unt i l the* lat ter part of the century that Canadian l i terature began to reflect this v i t a l Canadian sentiment which produced Confedera- t ion. It; i s , however, interesting to examine br ief ly the l i t erary act iv i ty of English Canada'in this period. The f i r s t . English l i terature.written in Canada appeared in the lat ter half of the Eighteenth Century, and was.; written by vsoldiers in the B r i t i s h forces that conquered Canada, from the. French and later defended itssfrontiers , from the American republics.-; Thus the poem "The Reduction of Louisburgh", by Valentine Nevil le , appeared in 1759; and "The Conquest of Canada or the S«4ge of QUebec: a tragedy", by George Cookings, 22.. Creightton, Domini on of _ the; North, p. 301. 23:. i b i d . , p. 312. -30- was published in 1 7 6 0 . AAlong piece of some 8 , 0 0 0 lines-- Thee Conquest, of Quebec: an epic in eight, books—was written by Henry Munphy and appeared in 1 7 9 0 . And the f irst Canadian novel--The. History of Emily Montagjaey by MTJSS Frances Blnooke*- dates^from 1 7 6 9 . Thus the f irst impulse which motivated English Canadian writers was an imperialistic, one, blending with and later becoming secondary to a more colonial.attitude. While English Canadian writers:were expressing their British sentiments immigrants from the United States were producing work of a local character with an American flavour in Nova Sicotia. In the Eighteenth Century Puritan literature of the type popular in New England flourished there, notably in the hands of Henry Alline ( 1 7 4 8 - 1 7 8 4 ) , himself a native of Rhode Island. After the American Revolution writers of loyalist tradition from the United States produced literature? similar tio that of the Puritan School in its local and American tone. Chief figures in this group are the poets Joseph Stansbury ( 1 7 4 0 - 1 8 0 9 ) and Jonathan Odell ( 1 7 3 7 - 1 8 1 8 ) , and the journalist Jacob Bailey ( 1 7 3 1 - 1 8 0 8 ) , , Another Nova Scotian, Thomas Chandler Haliburton, was probably the most noted of a l l English Canadian writers before Confederation. His humorous novels are often considered to be lasting crea- tions. But the main impulse which they reflect is neither localism nor the spirit of the New World; i t is rather a pure Americanism (in the narrowest sense of the word.). None of these early contributions to English Canadian literature reflect a spirit which is in any way Canadian; but the f i r s t faint evidence of a feeling for Canada appears at this time in -31- Oliver Goldsmith's poem of 1825, TTfce-. Rising Village". 24 "The Rising Village" presents primarily the spirit of the New World; hut. there is a feeling in it that is faintly natianal. It is Canadian in the.feeling for:-nature, and in the spirit of adventure found in the new land. But the impulse is weak and elusive, for Goldsmith knew of no unit in North America larger than the Maritime region to which he could belong—this was many years before Confederation was even thought, of. The. feeling is so weak that Logan believes i t to 25 be only the semblance of a genuine Canadian!sm. But this opinion is scarcely correct; the poem contains more than that. It., is "the first.poetic representation of the experiences b$> which the Loyalists triumphed over home-sickness and. material obstacles and came to love and have faith in Canada, the land of their adoption." The following lines, which would sound anything but.national in a post-Donfederation poem, sound distinctly Canadian for 1825:. Not. f i f ty summers..yet have passed their clime-- How short, a- period in the space of time-- Sincee savage tribes^ with terror in their train, Rushed o'er thy fields, and ravaged a l l the plain. But some few years have rolled in haste away Since, through thy vales, the fearless beast of prey, With dismal yel l and loud appalling cry, Proclaimed his midnight, reign of terror nigh. And now how changed the. scene! the., f irst , afar Have.fled to wilds beneath the northern star; The last has learned to shun man's dreaded eye, And, in his turn, to distant regions f ly . While the poor peasant, whose laborious care Scarce from the soil could wring his scanty fare. 24. firsts published 1825, revised 1834$ quoted in part, in Smith, pp. 53 - 55". 25. cf. Logan and French, p. 96. 26. RnodShJ?^e»j.zpr 162. -32- Now in the peaceful arts of culture skilled, Sees his wide barn with ample treasures f i l l ed; Now. finds his dwelling, as the year goess round fe Beyond his hopes, with joy and plenty crowned.*24 —11. 19 - 36. Oliver Goldsmith was the first.poet whose writings suggest a Canadian tone. But the f irst English Canadian authors to write consciously about their country were novelists. Goldsmith could not. have been aware of Canada am his country, and any national flavour evident, in his work must have been unconscious. Butt in response to the: growing demand for a national literature two pre-Confederation novelists—John Richardson and Mrs. Leprehon*'—wrote fiction that contained a distinctly Canadian flavour. Of these: Richardson was by far the most, important, as. a novelist. _ John Richardson was born at Queenston on the Niagara River in October, 1796 of Jacobite stock. His father was a surgeon in the British army, and when in 1801 his duties requi- red him to live with his unit, his wife and son went to Detroit to live with her. father, Colonel Askin. Colonel Askin was a 28 merchant in Detroit who in 1796 had elected to remain loyal to the British flag but had. been obliged to remain in Detroit another five years for business reasons. Consequently shortly after he was joined by his daughterr and grandson he moved 27. Mrs. Leprehon (Rosanna Eleanor Mullins, 1832 - 1879) wrote three novels of some importance. The f irst of these, "Ida Beresford", appeared in the Literary Garland (a Canadian periodical of that, time) in 1848. The Manor House., of de Vil lerai was published in 1859, and Antoinette de Mirecourt in 1864. These works are now rare and not easily obtainable^; but. it. is the opinion of one crit ic that: Mrs-. Leprehon was "the:- first,Canadian novelist whose work is the director the nationalistic movement in Canadian literature."(Rhodenizer,p.79) 28. In 1796 Detroit was evacuated by its British garrison -33- aeross the r i v e r into Upper Canada, s e t t l i n g nearly opposite 29 the foot of Hog Island. He and his wife were proud of t h e i r B r i t i s h allegiance? and f i l l e d young John with much of t h e i r pride; and i n p a r t i c u l a r Mrss Askin impressed him with the d e t a i l s of Pontiac's seige of Detroit i n 1763. In 1802 Dr. Richardson s e t t l e d at Amhersthurg i n the Western D i v i s i o n of Upper Canada, and shortly afterwards h i s family joined him theres; I t was theebeautif u l scenery of t h i s region that t h r i l l e d the a r t i s t i c appreciation of young John. . Thus i n his early youth Richardson had already been impressed strongly by the. beauty of thee region i n which he l i v e d and by the a n t i - American f e e l i n g fostered by hi s grandparents--the two influences which l a t e r became the basis of his Canadianism. His anti-American f e e l i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r gained additional strength during the Wan of 1812. Richardson entered that, conf l i c t L before he was f u l l y 16, and was a member of the Guard of Honour which took possession of Detroit, when i t capitulated. He was taken prisoner i n 1813 and held f o r about a year^ i n various places. Thereafter hes saw active. aer-viaes i n thesBrdtish army " u n t i l 1818, mostly i n the. West. Indies. In 1818 he was placed,on h a l f pay, and devoted himself to l i t e r a - tures with some success u n t i l 1838. In that, year he returned to Canada^ (after having l i v e d abroad for. some twenty r f our'years;) (note 28, cont.) under the terms of Jay's Treaty. 29. A' site, often mentioned i n Wacousta, and near the present c i t y of Windsor. 30. Pontiac was a leading Indian chief at the time of the B r i t i s h Conquest.of Canada-* AfcKwar chief of the Ottawas he organized Indian t r i b e s into a kind of army, and succeeded i n -34- and again devoted himself to literature. He died in poverty at New York in 1852. Major Richardson had already written several poems and novels "based on Canadian situations^4" when in 1832 he wrote the historical romance Wag ou sta- or The, Prophecy in which he? displayed his Canadian sentiments. It is a story of the Eohtiac Conspiracy and reveals particularly the experiences of the author's youth. It was his grandmother who interested him in the subject, he chose, and it , was; also she. and her. husband who f irst impressed the difference between "American" and "British" upon him. In Wacousta• Richardson frequently distinguishes:, between "Canadian" and "American", although at thê  time of which he is writing such a- distinction was of l i t t l e significance. 32 Wacousta f i r s t appeared in 1832, over thirty years before Confederation. Hence in estimating the extent to which national sentiment is evident, in it i it. is. necessary to make allowances for this fact. Indeed each literary creation of any period should be examined independently of any general rules. What appears very Canadian at one time and in one writer wi l l not necessarily so appear in another. Just what conception of Canada Richardson entertained is uncertain. At times he uses the term 'Canadian1 to refer only to the French of Quebec:; (note 30, cont) capturing 8 out of 12 forts attacked in 1763, although he failed in his own attack on Detroit after a si&ge of five months, cf. Parkman, F . , Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War, Boston, Li t t le , Brown and Company, 1912, 2 vols. 31. The long poem Tecumseh deals with the War. of 1812, and the novel Ecarte introduces several Canadian situations. 32;. Richardson, J . , Wacousta; Toronto, McClelland and -35- Thus he refers throughout Wacousta to one such character as 'the Canadian'; and the editor of the 1923 edition notes that "the term "Canadian" as used hy the author, denotes?--as the name 33 originally did—the descendants of French settlers in Canada; But at other times the author refers to Canada as opposed to the United States;; thisjis a general use of the term and quite: likely ref lectlss; a broad Canadian attitude. In his first chapter he writes, "it often happened in Canada during this interesting 34 period that..." At, another point, he notes, "T.o the right, on approaching from the town, lay the adjacent shore a of Canada-, 35 washed by the broad waters of the Detroit." Again he writes, "the vessel.. .was:.-finally seen to cast anchor in the navigable 36 channel that, divides Hog Island from the shore of Canada... ; and again, "he...pursuing his way across the river, had nearly gained the shores of Canada.... " 3 7 These-- incidental references, (and these arecall of this kind there are in the book) seem to indicate that the author has a feeling for Canada as: his native land. Kioweyersinsofar as this feeling is based on anti- Americanism it. is as much pro-British as distinctly Canadian. Indeed it seems certain that at al l times during the Nineteenth Century anti-Americanism played a predominant part, in moulding Canadian feeling. Nevertheless anti-American feeling was not the only (note 32, cont.) Stewart̂  1923. 33. ibid., p. 102. 34i ibid., p. 4. 35". ibid., p. 115. 36. ibid., p. 353. 37. ibid.. p. 450. -36- basis of Canadianism then evident. Richardson, in common with other writers of his century, felt a sense of unity within Canada-through the appreciation of Canadian nature. This4 feeling is significant, for it. indicates a common impulse that. is constructive in the development of a national awareness. It is true that in many cases such appreciation tends to he local or regional rather than national, but. as long as it. is not. strictly provincial it. is Canadian in tame. In Wacousta the most sustained evidence of. Canadian sentiment is to be found in the description of landscape and:nature. In particular the following paragraph seems national in inspiration. The sun was high in the., meridian as. the second detachmenti, commanded by Colonel de Haldimar in person, issued from the fort of Detroit. It; was that soft. and hazy season, peculiar to the bland and beautiful autumn of Canada, when the golds* light, of heaven seems as i f transmitted through a veil of tissue, and a l l animate and inanimate nature, expanding and fructifying beneath its fostering influence, breathes the most delicious langour and voluptuous repose. It was one of those s t i l l , calm, warm, and genial days which in those regions come under the vulgar designation of Indian summer, a season that is ever hailed by the Canadians with a satisfaction pro- portional to the extreme sultriness of the summer and the equally oppressive rigor of the winterly which i t t i s immediately preceded and followed. These are indications of a true Canadian sentiment evident, in Richardson. But; his national consciousness was at a l l times mingled with a sincere love of Britain. He had the colonial attitude common to almost every English Canadian 39 writer in the.-'Nineteenth Century. He speaks of the. "true and 38. ib id . , p. 100. 39. In Richardson's case this British attachment was undoubtedly strengthened by his years of service in the army noti. only in Canada but also in the West Indies and Spain. -37- 1 oy al B'rl t l sh soldi er «" * u "nati ve England , * A and.. " tihe 42 indomitable daring of the British sailor." In these refer- ences Blchardson reveals that he was a man of his times, although he:expressed more clearly than any of his comtemporary artists his feelings for the country. In summary, Richardson in his Wa/cousta expresses; the f irst important Canadian senti- ment in English Canadian literature; much of this is based on an antagonism to' the United States blended with a colonial attitude to Britain, but a truly national note is struck in some of the descriptions of the Canadian landscape. The only Canadian poet of significance to write before the Confederation period was Charles Sangster. His interests are similar to those of tihe novelist John Richardson, and therefore reveal, in combination with his>, the*.-general .44 ' attitude of Upper Canadians prior to Confederation. Like 40. Biohardson, op. cit , p. 22. 41. ib id . , p. 34. 42. ib id . , p. 277. 43. The Canadian Brothers or The.Prophecy Fulf i l led, the sequel to Wacousta, is also Canadian in sentiment; but, i t was" written tm provide a national literature for Canada, and sounds very art i f i c ia l in tone. (Rhodenizer, p. 79). 4'4'k The. only other outstanding poets and novelist's of the period lived in Nova sreotia; they were -Oliver Goldsmith, Joseph Howe' and- TJhomasf.Chandler Halliburton. In contrast: tio the Canadian spirit evident in the Upper Canada -̂writ'eriSf- these Maritime poets and novelists reveal predominantly North American, imperial and local, and American and local influences respect- ively. This contrast between the two sections of C&nada is interesting; i t suggests that at this period the people in the Maritime Provinces felt only a local interest;--they had no conception of a.-future continent-wide nation, whereas the- people in Upper Canada already felt a much broader allegiance: embracing at least the; eastern half of the modern Dominion of Canada.-. This feeling was probably the direct result of the Union Parliament which was set up after Lord Durham's mission to Canada. -38- Richardson, Sangster shows a Canadian feeling "based on united action in the past, and on an appreciation of Canadian natlurer. Indeed Sang at er was:, theef irstpoet. to treat Canadian subject;? 45 matter in morecthan a strictly local manner. James; Sangster, Charles' father, was a native of Scotland who fought on the Loyalist side in the American Revolution; but he died before Charles was 2, and thus had l i t t l e influence on his son's thoughts. Anne, Charles' mother, was?,the daughter of Scottish settlers in Prince, Edward Island. Charles£was: born at. Point Frederick, near Kingston, in Upper. Canada, in a district,then surrounded by the Canadian forests which play such a large part in his poetry. He:, was at f i r s t a clerk and messenger in the ordnance office, but from 184-9 to 1861 he was engaged in newspaper work, mainly with the Kingston Whig. It was during this period when he was a news- paper employee that he published his two volumes of poetry, The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay and other poems in 1856, and Hesperus and other poems and lyrics in 186:0. In his later 47 years;.-hee published no more* verse. Charles Sangster was the firsti.poet to reveal a vital Canadian feeling in his work; but in the majority of his poems no such feeling appears. These poems reveal his wide reading in English literature, and are imitative of poets in that f ield. 4.5̂  cf. Rhodenizer, p. 165; Dictionary of Canadian Biography, p. 387, etc* 46. Charlesrr.Sangster displays l i t t l e anti-American feeling in his work. In places he reveals a pride in his Scottish ancestry, but this is probably derivative from his mother-. 47. In 1864 he joined the staff of the Kingston Daily Hews. -39- Bbth the subjects and the style derive from such famous poets 48 as Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley and Tennyson. Most, important, poets go through a similar.' period of imitation as they develop their, own genius; hut. Sangster seased writing poetry before he had passed beyond this stage. Therefore the fact that most of Sangster's poems a re t imitat ive of English writers does not necessarily indicate the tastes of the reading public:in Canada before:. Confederation. These imitative poems may result: from such a tastet; but. they could also result, from the natural inclination of a young poet to read and copy from masters-. Of more significance-- arecthose poems which suggest a Canadian inspiration in some way. The most widespread Canadian influence present in his work is evident in the treatment of nature seen in some 10 of the shorter poems and sonnets in the Hesperus collection as well as in 3 of the 4 longer:poems in that, group.4^ In many cases the,:description suggests <aw regional or.•Canadian appreciation rather than a purely local picture-; 50 Particularly Canadian are the twin poems "Thee snows" and "The rapids" 5 1; "The rapids" reads in part, (note 47, cent.) and from 1868 to 1886 he was employed in the Post-office Department at Ottawa. He married: twice-, once-; in 1855 and again in 1865; and was the father tojtlhreeo-children by his second marriage. He died in 1893;. 418. Of the 46 shorter poems in his Hesperus and other poems and lyrics 12. deal with love;;15 with l i fe , religion and eternity'; 4 wi'th pastoral themes; and 3 with the l i fe of the poet. None of these poems suggest Canada in any way. Of the longer poems "Hesperus" shows no Canadian feeling whatever; and only 3: of his 18 sonnets are Canadian in any way. (See Appendix II, Table I for an analysis of his volume)* 49. See Appendix II, Table I for an analysis of Hepserus. 50. Hesperus: and other poems, Montreal, Lovell, I860 , p. 92. 51. ib id . , p. 94. ~40~ A l l peacefully gliding:1, The-waters dividing, Thecindolent!|batitleau moved: slowly alongj, The rowers, light-hearted, From sorrow long partted, Beguiled tihe dull moments with laughter-and song: "Hurrah for the Rapid.1 that merrily, merrily, Gambols and leaps, on its tortuous way; Soon we will enter i t , cheerily, cheerily, Pleased with its freshness, and wet with.its spray. —11. 1-10. At fern of: Sangster.'st descriptivec.poems suggest a; Canadian atmo- sphere: by treating/-tihe< life, of the? Indian. These poems seem to 52 lack sincerity and are: bookish rather than truly Canadian. In contrastl. with these poems others of the descriptive poems;:. suggest l i t t l e or no Canadian inspiration, but rather- a foreign influence similar to that:.evident, in the imitative poems in 53 the collection. Even more important, in their reflection of a Canadian feeling are those pQemss which deal with subjectssfrom Canadian history. These poems in particularc seem tio reflect a national feeling current, in the country beforecConfederation based on a: pride in united action in the past. In most of these poems Sangster puts his Canadian feeling above his strong colonial sentiments. He does have a firm admiration for England, but. he never, lets that;obscure his national spirit . "Mr. Sangster; while cherishing a loyal attachment to the mother-land, gives 54 Canada the chief placeoin his hearti." 52. cf. "Autumn", p. 65; "Falls of the Chaudiere"!, p. 53";: sonnets 16 (p. 177) and 17 (p. 178). See Appendi^II, Table I. 53. cf; "The wren", p. I l l ; "The April snowstorm, 1882", p. 132; etcr; See Appendix II, liable I. 54. Dewart, E. H . , "Charles Sangster, the. Canadian poet,!', GZm;, v; 7, p. 29, May 1896. -41* In his poem "Quebec?*^ he muses over the famous siege which decided the fate of Canada. In if. he expresses his pride 56 in England when he notes her fame ; but. throughout*, i t is obvious that Canada* has first, place in his heart, as the climax of his emotiion expressed in ther closing lines shows. Tihe poem reads Quebec' how regally i t crowns the height, Like a tanned giant on a solid throne.' Unmindful of the sanguinary fight., The* roar of cannon mingling with the moan Of mutilated soldiers;.years agone, That; gave the place a glory and a- namee Among the1 nations. France, was heard to groan; England rejoiced, but checked the proud acclaim,-- A braveeyoung chief had fa l l 'n to vindicate her name. Wolfe1 and Montcalm.' two nobler names ne'er graced The- page of history, or the hostile plain; No braver souls the storm of battle faced, Regardless of the danger or the pain. They passed unto their rest, without. a> stain Upon their, nature or their generous hearts. One graceful column to the noble twain Speaks of a nation's gratitude, and starts?.; gg The tear that;Valour.claims and Feeling's self imparts. "Quebec-?' is a good example of Sangsten's method of musing over the: past, history of his country. It. is his most successful method of revealing his Canadian spirits. AA more-, successful poem belonging tto tihis group is his? famous "Br.cook"̂ ''', written in 185r9, which reads in part as follows?. 55'; Songs*, of the Greatl. Domini on, p. 307. 56. "Quebec"; lines: 8 - 9 , 57. Songs of the Great •.Dominion, pp. 254 - 255; Smith, pp> 92;- 93; Tne version cited is that of tihe-̂ f irsfc.o of. these books. -42- One..voice, one people, one in heart, • And soul, and feeling, and. desire.' Re-light; the smouldering martial fire^ Sound the mute trumpet, strike the lyre-, The .hem deed! can nott expire^ The dead s t i l l play their parti. Bad set high the monumental stone.' AAnation's fealty is theirs, And we are the rejoicing heirs, The; honoured sons of sires whose- cares We take upon us unawares, Ass ffeeselfo' as?, oiarr owtti. We Dbasti. not, of the victory, But;-render homage, deep and just* To his—to their--immortal dust, Who proved so worthy of theirr trustc,— Ho lofty pile nor. scculpturedr. bustl. Can herald their:, degrees No tongue need blazon forth their fame,-- The: cheerSF.that st ir the sacred h i l l Are but mere?-promptings of the wil l That conquered then, that conquers s t i l l ; And generations yett shall t h r i l l „ Ato Brock'si'remembered name;5' —11. 1 - 24. This: is probably Slangs ten's mostl successful method of auggesting,.his national spiriti; but, as we have seen he does? reveal his feeling for the country in other ways—particularly in nature ,̂ lyrics which reflect the Canadian scene. Hec: could also write the. 'drum and trumpet,' style of verse, a; types wMch hassbeen very popular, in Canada-; In particular his poem C O "Song for:Canada" contains some stirring passages:. Our lakes are deep and wide;j .Our fields and forests broad;: With cheerful air We&ll speed the share, And break the. fruitful sod;; T i l l blestt with rural peaces Proud of our rust ice. t o i l , On h i l l and plain T'rue kings we'll reign, The victor Sf. of tihe. soi l . - 4 3 - Butolet,. the rash intruder da-xe TJo touch ourrdarling: strand, Thee martial f ir.es* Thato thrilled; ourr sires 5 a Would light,him from tihe land. — 11. 16 - 3a Songster displays a significant Canadian spirit, for a poet writing before Confederation. This spiriti, is best revealed in his treatment of his tor ice sites and heroes?, but. aome;-: of his nature poetry also contains a truly Canadian touch. These poems reveal a distinctly Canadian spiriti, mainly because the poet was so thoroughly Canadian himself that his feelings were sincere and therefore naturally appeared in his work. But his more conscious attempts to be national—his 'drum and trumpet.' verse--although enthusiast!coare not. very successful. Thee main reason for thissis that they deal with generalities;; that might apply to almost any country. And yet, reviewing the Nineteenth Century, Mr. Ei H. Dewart.wrote, in 1896, In some important.respects, Sangster is s t i l l the; most representative of our bardB% It is not merely thatthis theme ay are Canadian, he lived in an atmo- spJhere of Canadian sentiment, and everything he wrote is permeated with the free spirit.of the; 5 Q "grand old woods"7and broad lakes of his country. And indeed very few English Canadian poets have:expressed as sincerena national feeling in tiheir work as Sfengster.did in a few. of his best.poems. During the century bef oie Confederation a strong national feeling seems to have developed in Canada, mainly in Upper Canadâ , based on antagonisms to the-; United States, and on love of the Canadian landscape. However this feeling did not produceemuch literature* that,was.,distinctly Canadian during 59. Dewart, op. c i t . . p. 29. -44- this period. Most! of the: poets and novelists were'too local, orrtoo American, or too colonial in their attitude to feel any Canadian sentiments. The most significant, exceptions to this condition wereethe novel Waeousta by John Richardson and a few poems by Charles Sangster. The main Canadian influence? in these works stems from the* ant 1-American feeling which had been strong ;in ttheccountry since the time of the.; American Revolution and the War of 1812. Notfor over half a century did the: f irst of these two events have any effect on Canadian literature; and it . was almost two decades after the War of 1812 when Wac ou stia; f irs t ! appeared. Thus, theree was a considerable time, lag before this vital feeling first,found expression in the fine arts of the- country. And even Waoousta is based more on the earlier Pontiac Conspiracy than on the wars with the United States.. There was l i t t l e vital national feeling in Canadian, literature before Confederation, end what., there was representated att i - tudes that must'havei been important for a considerable time in the lives of the people of the-; land. CHAPTER III CONFEDERATION and CANADIAN LITERATURE" in the?--latter part, of the NINETEENTH CENTURY Confederation in Canada did not proceed from an irrepressible national feeling in the residents of Brit ish North America, but. was adopted primarily for-practical reasons. Since-1867 a-Canadian national feeling has emerged as a result, of polit ical union; but. even to-day many sections of the citizenry do not appreciate the fact, that Canada- is a nation, and their country. It is true that a feeling of unity had arisen in British North America as a result of the American wars; but that, feeling had affected only a comparatively small section of the Canadian people, for since. 1812 the complexion of the Canadian population had beengchanged by immigration. There., is l i t t l e or no evidence to indicate that, many people in any of the British provinces, other than Upper Canada felt any deep national feeling prior to Confederation.1 The main force leading to the Confederation movement wasf, rather, the polit ical stalemate which hounded the. Union parliament in the years preceding the movement. It was this condition which caused 1. As we have seen only John Richardson and Charles^ Samgster--both Uppen Canadians--expressed any vital Canadianism in their literature in the pre*Confederation period. During that period both the French in Quebec and the English in the Maritime Provinces were too provincial to be. Canadian in any national sense. 2. This was, at least, the immediate cause of Confederation. The state of union that.had existed between Upper and Lower -45- -46. rival polit ical leaders to co-operate, and resulted in the sending of delegates to the Charlottetown Conference. In 1867 many Canadians felttthat, Confederation was impractical, and those who did., support. the plan did so only for. practical reasons.4 This attitude continued long after Confederation was achieved, and as later as 1889 G'oldwin Smith, certainly no opponent of the idea of a Canadian nation, was writing in 5 6 The Bystander, ' The. By stand err has the heart iest sympathy with those who strive to make Canada a nation... .Bilt there; is no use in attempting manifest.impossibilities, and no impossibility apparently can be more manifest than thatt of fusing or. even harmonizing a French and Papal with a British and Protestant community.8 (note 2, cont.). Canada in the quarter of a century prior to Confederation actually made the move feasible. Then, when the pol i t ical deadlock developed in the early 1860's Canadians felt that.the obvious solution was federation such as had been suggested for the Maritime Provinces. 3. cf. Wallace:, W. S., "The growth of Canadian national feeling", Oanadian Historical Review. v. 1, p. 137, June 1920. In particular Mr. WalYac'e mentions a speech by a member of parliament, one Christopher Dunkin, in which the speaker could see no possibility of a Canadian nationality in view of the/: varying allegiances of Canadians to London, Paris, Ireland or Washington. 4. ib id . . pp. 137 - 138. In particular Mr. Wallace mentions:'John Rose and Goldwin Smith. Both favoured Confedera- t i on, but only for practical reasons at that time. 5. ib id . , p. 138. 6. Nova Scotians, and people from the Maritimes in general, havecibeen slow to accept Confederation. This reluctance is probably the direct result of the resentment which Nova Scotians in 1867 felt against the way in which Confederation had been forced on them. It..is true that Joseph Howe changed his att i - tude after his visit to London, but nevertheless Nova Scotia has always voted Liberal in the belief tihat.it is revenging;, itself on the Conservative Party for the part i t played in the affair. Very few Maritime writers have been national in any way. The first, one to indicate a significant and widespread Canad- ianism was the novelist Miss. L. M. Montgomery. Butt except for -47- Nevertheless, there, were present in Canada at. the time of. Conf ederatlon erfew/ men of vision who fre-ltt not. only the": possibility for but., also the necessity of a stfeong national feeling. At;, f irst scattered and insignificant;, this feelings ssLowly gathered strength until i t grew into the. Canada M r at movement, in 1870 and 1871. As early as 1868 Charles Mair, a member of this pro-national group, had been contributing articles with a national flavour, describing the new North-west, to the Toronto Globe; but i t was not until 1871 thatjthis plan to propagate''Canaddanism became significant. In thatc yean-W. A*. Foster, clearly the leader of the group, delivered a speech outlining the purposes of the new group. He-, entitled his s-peech Canada First!; _ov± our new nationality, and from this t i t le the movement acquired its name?. Shortly after this time the Canada First, movement entered politics, and proclaimed a-- national program. Itsn success was immediate; with the election of TlhomassMosss in West1: Tlbronto in 1874; but. short-lived. Both the:Liberal and Conservative Parties immediately began a drastic campaign of extermination, and soon the- Canada First. Party 7 disintegrated. As; has often been pointed out, this was fortunate? as far.'as the cause of nationalism in Canada was.' concerned, for Canadianism ceased to be a party issue. And (noten6, cont.) her:it. is only in very recent times that Maritime writers..have become'-really Canadian, the mostt notable example being Hugh MacLennan, the novelist.. 7. cf. Wallace, op. c i t . , p. 158; Kennedy, W; P. M., The Constitution of Canada 1554 - 1937, Oxford University Press, 1938 ( 2nd edition), p. 340. * -46- furthermore both thesLiberals and Conservatives have adopted various aspects of the Canada First platform, 6 and co-operated t-o develop a Canadian nation. Theemain significance:: of the; CanadaaFlrsti. Party is that!, iti, shows;: just how Canadian some leading men of that period really were. Perhaps the best expression of this sentiment, is to be found in the Aurora Speech of. Edward Blake of the Liberal Party, who in 1874 broke ttem̂ porarily with his party and seemed to approach thee program of tlhea Canada-PirsttParty in his national sentiments. The tone;; of Blake's comments indicates the sentiments of nationalists in Canada in 1874, as the following passage from it suggests; Let.me now turn to another? question which hass been adverted to on several occasions, as one looming in the not very distantc future* I refer to the relations of Canada to the Empire* Upon this topic I took, three; or four years- aĝ p, an opportunity of speaking, and ventured tio suggest that an efforts should be made tio reorganize the Empirec.upon a Federal basis. I repeat what I then said, that the time may be; at hand when the people of Canada shall be called upon to discuss the question. Matters cannot drift- much longer as they haveedrifted hithertto. The Treaty of Washington produced a very profound impression throughout. this country. It.produced a feeling that at no distant.period the people of Canada would desire that they should have:some greater shares of control than they nowhaveein the management', of foreign affairs; thatt our Government should not present the anomaly which it-.now presents—a Government the freest, perhaps the most democratic in the world with reference to local and domestic matters*, in which you ruleeyourselves as freely, as any mother people in the world, while in your foreign affairs; your relations with other countries, whether peaceful or warlike; 'Commercial or financial, or otherwise, you have, no more voice than the people of Japan. This, however, is a state: of things -©fiiwhich you have no right to complain, because so long as you do not choose to undertake the responsibilities and 8* i b i d . t p. 158. The Liberal Party under Blake, Laurier, and; King hase supported constitutional autonomy, whereas the Conservative Party under Macdonald, Burden, and Bennett, has supported an economic national policy. -49- burdehs which, attach to some Bhare of control in these affairs!* you cannot fully claim the rights and privileges :6f> free-born Britons in such matters:* But how-long is this talk in the newspapers and elsewhere, this talk which I find in very high places, of the desirability, aye, of the necessity of fostering a national spirit, among the people of Canada, to be* meretitalk? It: is impossible to foster a- national spir i t unless you have national interests to attend to, or among people who do not choose to undertake • theeresponsibilities and to devote themselves to the duties to which national attributes belong. The:establishment of: autonomy in Canada haezproceeded through two separate and fairly distinct.stages. The first- of these stages developed during the period before?: the Great- War of 1914 - 1918, when the Canadian people secured virtual, autonomy in internal affairs. Many of the privileges of self- government., dated from the period prior to 1867; but- ther.ee weres s t i l l several important limitations to bee removed after that date. Freedom in these matters resulted from strong agitation from within Canada, incited by the new national spirit . The- second phase in the attainment of complete autonomy in Canadaf has proceeded during the early part,of the Twentieth Century, with the development of independence in external affairs. A\ gradual growth in Canadianism has accompanied both phases of this general development, and, indeed, made it. necessary. The rate at which Canada has secured independence-may be taken as a reliable measure of the growth of a national spirit, in the citizenry of Canada. 9. Wallace^ W. S'"., ed., "Edward Blake's Aurora Speech, 1874"; Canadian Historical Review, v. 2, p. 255, Slept. 1921. Elsewhere in his speech Blake made other interesting comments. "The future of Canada, I believe, depends very largely upon the cultivation of a national spirit."''(p. 256). "I have; no hesi- in saying that., tihe Government of Canada is far in advance, in the application of real Republican principles, of the Govern- -50- Biake in his Aurora Speech of 1874.revealed his own Canadian sentiments and pointed out that Canadians did not enjoy a satisfactory measure of self-government. In 1875 he returned to the Liberal cabinet.as Minister of Justice^ and proceeded to bring, in several significant, reforms. These? were: necessary because enthusiasticc;Canadians were dissatisfied with the continufiping colonial status of their, country. The/; first, significant change; v;as tihe establishment of a-Supreme. Court in Canada- in order to reduce the number of appeals to the Privy Council. More important was the reform in the power, of the governor-general which resulted from Blake's representations to the British government. After 1877 the governor-general no longer was required to reserve legislation on certain types of b i l l s , and his privilege of pardon was reduced. 1 0 These reforms wereomost important in themselves; but of significance also was the spirit in which they were introduced. Blake;'s (notev9, cont.) ment of either England or the United States." (pp. 257 - 258). 10. cf. Kennedy, ¥ . P. M., ed., Statutes, treaties and documents of the Canadian constitution 1715 - 192,9. Oxford University PresB, 1930 (2nd edition), P» €>12t n. 1, as follows, Various changes have taken placeoin the position of the governor-general. Prom the year 1867 to 1878, his instruc- tions forbade him to give his assent to any b i l l (a) for divorce,- (b) for grant ing land or money or gratuity to him- self, ( c i ) for making paper or any other currency legal tender, (d) for imposing differential duties, (e) contrary to treaty obligations, (f) interfering with the discipline or control of the naval or military forces of the.crown in Canada, (g) interfering with the royal prerogative, or the rights and property of British subjects; outside of Canada-, or with the trade and shipping of the United Kingdom and its dependencies, (h) containing provisions to which the royal assenthas already been refused or which have been disallowed. Acting on these instructionfitwenty-one Bills;., were;reserved, in 1877, af t err Edwardd Blake:, ministerr of 51* national sentiments were- quite as strong when he was in office asr.they had "been at the time of'his Aurora Speech. In ar memor- •vandum to the-British cabinet, submitted while he was tapeatlhge fibr,:-reform, Blake pointed out the national basis-.of his proposals. •Canada, is not merely a colony or province: she is a dominion composed, of an aggregate..of seven large provinces federally united under an imperial charter^ which expressly recites that her c on© t i tuition is to bee similar in principles to that of the^United Kingdom. Nay, more; besides the powers- with which she is invested over a large part.of the affairs of the inhabitants of the.', several provinces* she en j oys: absolute? powers of legislation and administration over the people and territories of the North-west,, out.of which she has; already created one province, and is empowered to creates others, with representative institutions. These; circumstances, together, with the vastness of her. area?, the numbers of her population, the character of the representative institutions and of the responsible government which as-.-citizens, of the various provinces:--, of Canada-her people have so long enjoyed, a l l point to the propriety of dealing with the question in hand in a manner very different,from that which might be. f i t l y adopted with reference to a single and compara- tively small young colony. Beside the general spread., of the? principles of. constitutional freedom, there? has4ee« in reference to the colonies a recognized difference between their circumstances, resulting in the applica- tion to those in a less advanced condition of a lesser measure of self-government, while others are said to be invested with "the fullest.freedom of polit ical govern- ment"; and i t may be fairly stated that there is no dependency of the British crown which is entitled to so f u l l an application of the principles of constitutional freedom as the dominion of Canada. 1 1 1 (note 10, cont.) justice* had visited England, the practice of enumerating the:titles to be reserved was discontinued, a suspending, clause, being inserted in acts which would otherwise require the governor-general's..ireservataon... .In addition, during Lord Dufferin*s,. tenure of officee difficulties^arose) overr the prerogative of pardon, and Lord Duff erin exer- cised i t without.the adviceoof his ministers. During his visit to England, Blake arranged for a- change.... somewhat revised in 1905.... (but cf. Ch. V,' p. for the "Byng affair" of 1926). 11. Kennedy, W. P. H . , The constitution of Canada: -52- The.;Conservative' government, which, came-into officer in 1878, also contributed tio the.:development of autonomy, so well advanced in the. prededing years, through the agency of Blake. In 1879 the question of a-High Commissioner for-Canada- in London arose, when the difficulties resulting from the frequent trips ministers in the Canadian cabinet, weres obliged to make tio London became fully apparent. At f irstl the British government opposed any such office on the grounds thatiit threatened the existence'-of the Empire.; In reply the-; Canadian governments asserted its- right..to, equality with the government, of thê > United Kingdom in internal affairs; then official opinion was thatt In considering many questions of the highest importance, such as the commercial and fiscal policy of the Dominion as affecting the United Kingdom, the promotion of Imperial interest a- in the administration and settle- ment, of the interior of the Continent, and on many other subjects, indeed on a l l matters of internal concern, the Imperial Government., and Parliament, have so far.trans- ferred to Canada an independent, control that'; their, discussion and settlement, have become subjects for mutual assent, and concert;, and thereby havê  it. is thought, assumed a quasi-diplomatic, character as between her Majesty's Government, without, in any manner derogating from their general authority as rulers of the entire Empire. ** Nevertheless at this time the government of Canada believed in only internal autonomy; as?regards external affairs i t desired to follow the wishes of the imperial government!.faithfully. (notes-. 11, conf.) University Press, 1938, p. 243. 12. "Report of a committee, of the Privy Council for Canada- (1879)" enclosed in a letter of 1880, "The Marquis of Lome to Sir M. EV Hicks Beach", quoted in Kennedy, Statutes, pp. 678 - 679. . 5 3 - The Committee would further respectfully submit, in elucidation of the views contained in the memorandum, that. tihe,.Governmenttof Canada, in respect, of negotiations with foreign Powers, in no respect desire^ to be-, placed in the position of independent negotiators. ° Even fairly ardent nationalists were, in 1880, as strongly imperial as they were; Canadian, i f not more so. This, was, indeed, the final position national sentiment in Canada attained to during the: Nineteenth Century. The f inal important achievement, tending towards autonomy gained by Canada;*in thec;Nineteenth Century concerned economic: treaties*.with othear nations. 1 4 Difficulty arose over the.; inclusion of Canada ass part., of the Empire-: in most-favoured nation treaties:-;-made-, by the Imperial government, and over the desire of Canada to conclude separate-, treaties with certain foreign countries, particularly the United States of America,,. and France-.- In this matter, also, the British government was: dubious, about the stand taken by the Canadian cabinet.. Said Sir. Henry Wrlxon on this issue, 'I have no idea of & nation as anything else? than one complete unity with regard to an outsider nation, and I cannot..understand a dependency of the Empire: arranging with an outside power.• 13. ib id . , p. 679. 14. In practice: a solution had been found to this problem earlier in the century, as indicated by Elgin's reciprocity treaty of 1854, and Macdonald's. negotiations with the American government-in 1871 (to be'dealt with later in this chapter). It only remained to work out. legal authority for independent, action, and to ensure:its continuance in the future.. 15. cited in "The Marquis of Ripon to the governor- general of Canada", Kennedy, Statutes, p. 681. -54- Finally in 1899 a new practice began to operate.; Canada would henceforth have the; right of separate withdrawal from and of separate adherence.;to treaties concluded between lfi the: Imp e r i a l government!, and foreign powers;* ° Following, this decision Canada? could abstain from any commercial treaty which Great!. Britain made with any foreign power; and she could also establish her own treaties-, with other-powers, but. through imperial offices. This commencements of independent action in external aff aires has- developed into a major issasin the: twentieth Century. Oneeof the mostv important!, factors- in the development of a national feeling in Canada: after 1867 waa. the: westward' expansion of the new dominion, combined with the. building of the Canadian Pacific. Railway and the resultant, immigration. This rapid expansion and unexpected growth mast taovo greatly strengthened national feelings in the eastern provinces, tying them closer: to each otherjin the? new! federation than they could otherwise-have:been; and. even more significant that, this jmsi^ vt>£us / A t have,boonAthe feeling evoked, in the new. Western provinces. The three, prairie provinces were, created by the. dominion government and have l i t t l e or no separate history to inspire them. Furthermore immigrants to these provinces werecin large measure immigrants to Canada as?.a- whole, and not to French Quebec, or English Ontario or the^Maritimes. They left their former nationality behind them across the- Atlantic,'Ocean, and accepted 16. cf, Kennedy, The, constitution of Canada, p. 349. /6a- Com/»*•&, P.r exaftt/rf*, tU tftitUt. *f Ci»l*s fait • fee. Pf.(l'i7. . 5 5 . their. Canadian allegiance with deep s incer i ty . 1 7 It. seems. l ikely, therefore, that the peoples of the prairie provinces would, on the whole, %aSocf to be more national and leas local in their sentiments: than Canadians in the Eastern provinces or in British Columbia-, a l l of whom had important. pre-Conf ederation histories to inspire them. Nevertheless this opportunity for pride, in Canada was somewhat impaired at the beginning. When Manitoba joined the 18 Union in 1870 there: was considerable fear of the national allegiance, among.French-Indian settlers in the west. In particularrthe people feared they might-lose their, claim to their lands, and that they might suffer-for.-their.. Roman Catholic, religion. The Canadian representative-.handled.: the situation somewhat, tactlessly, with the result;.thati the.half-breeds set up their own government; und err the leadership of Louis Rial . The. rebellion was; easily suppressed, but Canada,-.felt humiliated at the way in which the situation had developed; and some.loss, of national interest must havo resulted, at least temporarily. , 17. Many of these immigrants had had strong national feelings in their. European fatherlands; they now transferred' their affections to Canada, and became strongly national Canadians. . 18. In 1870 both the British and Canadian parliaments approved the admission of Manitoba into Confederation; but in 1886 Canada was given permission to deal herself with any terr i - %6££esijfi&ai&he^Eomini>anpwhichsmightbla$ie? -heeomef pr.0vimces* c£. Kennedy, Statutes,"p. 680 19. cf. Stanley, G. F. G. , The?birth of Western Canada; London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1936, pp. 67 - 86 on this affair, (pp. 327 - 379 for the Second Riel Rebellion). Mr. McDougall, the governor, designate, was ordered to assume, the: administration of Manitoba only after, the troubled conditions:-, had died down. He crossed the; border while RIel was stal l well entrenched, and had to fleer back again to escape the rebels. -56- Following the entrance into Confederation of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1871, Canada had to undertake the building of the Canadian Pacif i c Railway. At.the time t h i s project aroused. much b i t t e r - f e e l i n g i n various partem of Canada. In the East, Canadians f e l t , the construction was far-too costly; i n B r i t i s h Columbia- •• that, i t i was no ti. s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d ; 2 0 and. on the p r a i r i e s that. i t . was a* threat to existing conditions. Neverthe- less the construction of a transcontinental railway wasnmost important i n the i n s p i r a t i o n of national sentiment i n Canadians. To have such a v i t a l means of communication across the broad and unsettled country within two decades, of Confederation wasa Step indeed a/miracle*.; but. i t was a?-necessary and important. Ain the creation of a Canadian national f e e l i n g . Perhaps the railway would do l i t t l e to arouse such f e e l i n g among residents of Quebec; but ineevery other part of the dominion i t s influence W A S must, have boo» Awidespread. In the Maritime Provinces i t would tend to turn the people away from the:economic and s o c i a l o r b i t of theeNew; England states, of which they weres r e a l l y a part. To the residents of Ontario i t offered a splendid opportunity f o r migration west. On the p r a i r i e s i t . thwarted absorption by American expansion and reduced localism and i s o l a t i o n . And i n B r i t i s h Columbia i t provided a death blow to annexation and made- the Canadian allegiance desirable* Indeed, the. building of the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was one of the most important. 20. The people of Eastern Canada f e l t the railway to be an insufferable burden on them undertaken f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons alone. B r i t i s h Columbians resented delay i n f u l f i l l i n g treaty obligations?, and appealed to London (a move which nationally minded Canadians resented). Blake discussed the issuer i n h i s Aurora Speech (quoted p. 48, above, on another matter). -57- fac torso in the development of modem C ana das In spite of its importance to Canada, however, the building of the railway was largely responsible:, f or the Second Riel Rebellion, supressed in 1885.. Indians, and half-breeds, resented the railway because of the evils .of civilization which accompanied i t . Thee-buffalo her.da. we-r.ee depleted,, half-breeds:, again feared they would lose their land, and unscrupulous whites were.;flooding the country with whiskey. As a result Louis Riel was again able to set up a government, and in March of 1885 he and some of his followers, attacked a troop of Mounted* Police- near, Princes Albert., k i l l ing some and injuring otihers* Afterra biittierr overland march a-Canadian army underran imperial comman- der succeeded in suppressing the rebellion. This campaign by an a l l Canadian force-was significant, in the evolution of the Canadian nation, and was the one satisfactory result of the:: affair. But in Quebec tihe hanging of Louis Riel aroused, anger, and lef t, bitt err-feelings which hampered the:, growth of Canadian- ism in that, region. In the period following the American Revolution and the. War.-of 1812 animosity to the United States of America wast the chief force tending to create a national feeling in Canadians. This factor was;, indeed, one of the two main influence®- in the. works of pre-Conf ederation poetspand novelists which tended to make them Canadian in tone. This influence continued and grew stronger in the period following Confedera- tion, although other factors, as have been suggested, were? at, least;.equally important in fostering Canadianism in this. -58- period. x In 1871AJohn Ai. Macdonald,. the prime minister, was; engaged in negotiations with the American government over,'cer- tain border, issues:, particularly Fenian Raid claims and the San Juan question. He; was a member of the British delegation, and as such found that. Canadian issues were neglected by the dele- gation as a whole because the other delegates were.'more; concerned with the question of the "Albania claims" than with Sir J,hhA. problems of vital interest-to Canada. As a result ^Macdonald found that the British government, did not offer Canada much support in her. claimi for compensation for the Fenian Raids:, andt misuse of the At lant ice fisheries*:, or in the dispute: over the;, San Juan question. It wa.8i, indeed, significant, that for the f irs t time a Canadian official was a member of a British dele- gation; but at the time Hr.^Macdonald was more concerned over the. fact, thati, he would lose some support at., the pollsa because? heoseemed; to have sacrificed Canada's interests to the United States. He did win the election of 1872, but. his party was forced to use such dishonest; measures to do so that two years later the Liberal Party was able to gain a- strong, maj orlty. T.he.;election of 1874 was only the first, of a series.: of elections in which Canadian animosity to the United States1 was a contributing or deciding factor. In 1878 the. Liberal 21. AS we have seen, Canadian animosity against and fear of the United States was;-increased considerably in the 1860's by the Civ i l War, the building of the Pacific railway, and the Fenian Raids. See: Martin, C , "The United States and Canadian nationality", Canadian Historic®.! Review, v. 18, pp. 1 - 11, March 1937; and Stacey, A. P., "Fenianism and the rise of national feeling in Canada at the time of Confederation", Canadian Historical Review, v. 12, pp. 238 - 261, Sept. 1931. -59- Party was urging a renewal of r e c i p r o c i t y with the United States. Si*- 3ohh A - Hsc.-.AMacdonald, i n opposition, adopted a- plank from the Canada? PiristvParty platfoem and urged a p r o t e c t i o n i s t "national p o l i c y " . Canadian nationalism came to his support, and he won the e l e c t i o n . In 1882 and again i n 1887 TIacdonald and h i s national policy won general elections i n opposition to the L i b e r a l Party under Blake. Thereafter Wilfred Laurier assumed leadership of the opposition, and i n 1891 fought, his f i r s t , national campaign, again urging closer economic t i e s with the United States?; Again national f e e l i n g defeatedc.reciprocity; but-in 1891 imperial f e e l i n g s were more; important-during ther campaign than was Canadianism. Macdonald's slogan, "a B r i t i s h subject^ a B r i t i s h subject I w i l l die." provided the- r a l l y i n g point f o r h i s party. Thus towards the close of the. Nineteenth Century imperial and c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s became s i g n i f i c a n t i n Canada, as they did i n other parts of the Empire, and itate i n the century t h i s f e e l i n g became so strong that i t tended to impede thet development of Canadianism. The culmination of t h i s imperialism appeared at the time of the Boer War, when English Canadians supported the Empire e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y . Thus temporarily the growth of Canadianism was d e f i n i t e l y thwarted by imperialism. During the Nineteenth Century there was a remarkable growth of national f e e l i n g i n Canada. This was long fostered by animosity to the United States of America, but a f t e r 1867 22,. This phrase i s inscribed on Macdonald's statue i n Kingston, Ontario.' - 6 0 - other f a c t o r s became important, i n the development, of such f.eeling. The immediate i n s p i r a t i o n of Confederation itsel'f has always been most important to Canadians. It has aroused pride i n the nation as?, a whole.- and i n t h e s t r u g g l e s and hardships endured i n the process of becoming a nation. The struggle f o r i n t e r n a l autonomy naturally accompanied such development., of. Canadianism, and i n turn served t.o increase, i t . considerably. National pride demands national status, and v i r t u a l i n t e r n a l autonomy was secured i n the years: immediately following Confed- eration. The t i d e of immigration into the Westiern area has;; been another very important, f a c t o r i n the strengthening of Canadian nationalism. It i s true that the two R l e l Rebellions were; temporary setbacks, accompanying westward expansion, but. even these, aroused some national pride when Canadian forces^ were used to suppress them. Again, the transcontinental railway, which also resulted from the westward expansion, was> another outstanding f a c t o r i n the p r a c t i c a l union of Canada. In a l l , during the l a t t e r . p a r t of the Nineteenth Century there- was a gradual and strong development of national pride i n Canada, more s i g n i f i c a n t i n some sections of the Canadian community than i n others., but t.o some extent affedting a l l parts, of the dominion. The Canadian people were undoubtedly becoming nationally minded during t h i s period. During t h i s period also Canadians were f o r the f i r s t time evolving a national l i t e r a - tures significant, both i n quantity and i n quality. It is. in t e r e s t i n g , therefore, to consider to what extent t h i s national sentiment i s r e f l e c t e d i n the. l i t e r a t u r e of the -61- country, and. when i t f irat*.makes.; i t s appearance. In some cases i t . i s immediately and strongly apparent; i n some cases i t i s only occasionally evident; and i n a few cases i t i s quite absent. TihiB d i v e r s i t y suggests that some sections of the Canaddan community were much more strongly affected by national f e e l i n g s than were others; and to some extent, the sections of the country from which various degrees;.of Canadianism i n l i t e r - ature.: emanate..should suggest the r e l a t i v e strength of t h i s sentiment i n the various sections of the country. The outstanding poet of Confederation i n the-* Nineteenth Century was Charles Mair. of the Canada F i r s t Party. Born i n 1838 at. Lanark i n the Ottawa Valley of wealthy Scottish parents, Charles had ample time i n hi s youth to c u l t i v a t e h i s mind f o r a l i t e r a r y career. During his attendance at Queen's- University he:began corresponding with a Dr. Schultz of Red River, with the result, that the lure of the western plains impelled him to study medicine with the object of joi n i n g Dr.,; Schultz on the completion of his course. In 1868 Mair- went to Ottawa to read the proofs of h i s f i r s t volume of poetry, Dreamland, which was published i n that. year. While; there he established a; considerable reputation f o r himself i n government c i r c l e s by making a pre'cis of the Hudson's Bay Company Charter and Treaty Rights f o r a member of parliament. Because of t h i s success he was appointed paymaster of a Government, construction gang which was building a r a i l r o a d from Winnipeg to Lake of the Woods. Thus began Mair's career i n Western Canada, the career which brought him into close contact, with the rapidly expanding dominion. His first.volume was a success, and spurred on by -62- the favorable reception i t received Mair contributed a series of a r t i c l e s to the Montreal Gazette and the Toronto Globe i n which he t r i e d to develop a sincere Canadian f e e l i n g . I f was at t h i s time that the Canada F i r s t Party was. becoming important, and i t was through these a r t i c l e s that Mair made his most significant, contribution to i t s cause. Following Ithe. £c©m$>aref i on ro&rhlsogovernment job, Mair moved further west and became a f u r trader, and was thus occupied when the F i r s t B l e l Rebellion broke:, out. Mair and h i s wife were taken prisoner i n that out- break, and Mair was sentenced to be shot; but he managed to escape. He then moved to Windsor, and wrote his long drama- Tec umseh, which he?; published i n 1886. His. wide experiences on the p r a i r i e s had made him the l o g i c a l person to treat such a subject. Following the Second R i e l Rebellion, i n which he: fought;, Mair-again resumed h i s f u r trading occupation, moving to Prince Albert. In 1890 he wrote h i s powerful and moving essay on The.American Bison f o r tihe Royal Society of Canada; his plea was so strong that the Dominion Government established a sanctuary f o r buffalo at. Wainwright, i n the Rocky .Mountains 23 near Banff. In 1899 he joined the Scrip Commission and t r a v e l l e d down the Mackenzie River; t h i s journey led to hlL.8 famous essay Through the Mackenzie Basin, published i n 1908, probably the. most important, of a l l his writings. Mair published his l a s t and most, s i g n i f i c a n t volume of poems, Canadian Poems, i n 1901. He-died i n 1925. 23. cf. Garvin, J . W, ,.ed., JasfcieraworkBd of t E anad ft an authors, Charles Mair. Toronto, Radisson Society, 1926, p. * i . -63- Then volume Dreamland, and other poems was published i n 1868, i n the year following Confederation. Many of the poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n are d i s t i n c t l y Canadian--indeed the volume as a wholes i s much more?;Canadian i n tone than any that preceded it—but.-none r e f l e c t . d i r e c t l y the s p i r i t . o f Confederation. Most, of the poems areedescriptive.-in character, and. a l l that: achieve a Canadian note f a l l intto t h i s category. Ofi the 32 poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n , 15*-almost; h a l f — d e a l with themes of l i f e or death and are not. Canadian i n any way. These are the t y p i c a l subjects to be expected of poets, and suggest the influence:'of Mair's extensive erudition. Of the remaining poems some 7 are descriptive i n character but not d i s t i n c t l y Canadian. These, too, suggest the influence of Mair's reading. The remaining 10 poems are a l l Canadian i n flavour; and most, of them carry a national tone; 7 may be so described, whereas 3 O A are l o c a l rather than national i n scope. HEy<p iii a l lofi *he 25 Canad^&nf desc r i p t i o n evident i n these poems i s "The pines." The following passage from that: poem i s d i s t i n c t l y Canadian ahA indicates the general tone of the poems i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n . And the cypresses murmured of g r i e f and woe, And the linden waved solemnly to and f r o , And the sumach seemed wrapt, i n a golden mist, 2 f i And', the. softi. maple: blushed where the fr o s t ; had kissed:. —11. © - 12. Less t y p i c a l of the c o l l e c t i o n b u t . d e f i n i t e l y national i n 24. See Appendix I I , Table I I fbr; an analysis of Dreamland and other poems. 2b\ A l l references to Dreamland are to Mair, C , Dreamland and other Poems, Montreal, Dawson, London, Low, 1868, reprinted i n Garvin," J." W., ed., Master-work a of Canadian authors, Toronto, Radisson Society, 1926, pp. l x l x - 74. "The pines" i s on pp. 6 - 9. -64- f lavour i s "Nighti. and morn" , which deals with the troubles of the. native Indian. In t h i s connection it;, i s significant. tio remember that before 1868 Mair had noti l e f t Ontario, and did not.have the thorough knowledge of Indian problems-which he l a t e r acquired. But;, i n the ancient woods the Indian old, Unequal to the chase, Sighs as he thinks of a l l the paths untold, "No longer trodden by his f l e e t i n g race. And, Westward, on f a r - s t r e t c h i n g p r a i r i e s damp, The savage shout, and mighty bison tramp ft R o l l thunder with, the l i f t i n g mists i.of morn. The long drama Tecumseh, published eighteen years later., was ar much more?, significant;, poetic endeavour than was the Dreamland volume, and was strongly national i n flavour. The theme i t s e l f was calculated to arouse Canadian sentiments, and Hair's treatment, of i t only served to heighten i t s value f o r t h i s purp®se. Perhaps the most important way i n which Mair develops the Canadian flavour i s by the use of long passa-gee of description that create a national tone. These are; s i m i l a r to the poems we have examined i n the Dreamland c o l l e c t i o n , but, are even more d i s t i n c t l y Canadian than those poems were.. The following passage i s t y p i c a l of the descriptive sections of the poem. We l e f t The s i l e n t f orest, and, day a f t e r day, Great p r a i r i e s swept beyond our aching sight Into the measureless West; uncharted realms, Voiceless and calm, save when tempestuous wind Rolled the rank herbage into billows vast, And rushing tides, which never found a shore. And tender clouds, and v e i l s of morning mist, Ceastf£lyi'@gsehad-ows, cbhssedbhyfH'y&ngilifeht Into interminable wildernesses, 26. i'gjfed'Ufcspb., seda-pgo. *n<> D->i*r£.iz\: Poe>hs;b, 'J r-yoalz, -65- Flushed with f r e s h blooms, deep perfumed by the rose, And murmurous with flower-fed b i r d and bee. The- deep-grooved bison-paths l i k e furrows lay, Turned by the cloven hoofs of thundering herds Primeval, and s t i l l traveled as of yore. And gloomy valleys opened at our feet,-- Shagged with dusk cypresses and hoary pine; And sunless gorges, rummaged by thee.wolf, Which through long reaches of the p r a i r i e wound, Then melted slowly into upland vales, 2 « Lingering, far-stretched amongst the spreading h i l l s . —A'ct IV, Sc. 7. In addition to these passages of description Mair also endeavoured to present a national tone by introducing passages on the attitudes of various characters to Canada- and the Empire. These are presented i n the way i n which people of 1812 would f e e l ; but. nevertheless it i . i s int e r e s t i n g to note that patriotism f o r Mair seems to mean a strong b e l i e f i n Empire as well as a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian attitude. This imperial attitude was a part of the Canadianism present i n a l l Nineteenth Century writers. In the present century i t has dwindled considerably, and i n many cases i s quite absent. A ' t y p i c a l passage of t h i s type from Tecumseh i s the following excerpt from thee.lines;., a l l o t t e d to Brock. I believe i n B r i t a i n ' s Empire, and In Canada, i t s true and l o y a l son, Who yet s h a l l r i s e to greatness, and s h a l l stand At England's shoulder helping her to g u a r d 2 g True l i b e r t y throughout a f a i t h l e s s world. The Canadian poems were not published u n t i l 1901; they therefore r e f l e c t , the experiences of a quarter of a century of l i f e . o n the Canadian p r a i r i e s . They should; and do, 27. "Tecumseh, a drama and Canadian poems", Toronto, Briggs, 1901, reprinted i n Garvin, op. c i t . . pp. 75 - 275 ("Tecumseh" and notes, pp. 75-198), Act, IV, Scene 7. 28. i b i d . , Act.IV, p. 143. - 6 6 - represent the ultimate i n Canadian sentiment which Mair attained to i n his writing. Of the. 21 poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n 12: are on poetic;:themes, and are therefore not d i s t i n c t l y Canadian. But the remaining 9 are a l l strongly Canadian i n sentiment, and present the most v i t a l expression of national f e e l i n g evident i n English Canadian poetry i n the "Nineteenth Century. Several of these poems deal with the; Indian, others':1 with Canadian history, and two with the Canadian landscape:. Typical of these poems i s the s t i r r i n g h i s t o r i c a l treatment, "A'ballad f o r brave women" , which reads i n parti as follows. A story worth t e l l i n g our annals afford, 'Tis the wonderful journey of Laura Secord.' --11. 1 - 2 . * • • « • Ah! f a i t h f u l to death were our women of yore*.' Have they f l e d with the past, to be heard of no more? No, no! Though t h i s l a u r e l l e d one sleeps i n the grave, We have; maidens as true, we; have matrons as brave; And should Canada ever be forced to the tes t * * To spend f o r our country the blood of her b e s t — When her sons l i f t the linst o c k and brandish thg 0sword, Her. daughters w i l l think of brave Laura Secord. — 11. 113 - 120. Thus we see that during the l a t t e r part., of the Nineteenth Century Charles Mair was writing poetry that was strongly Canadian i n flavour. His publications span the whole l i f e of the Dominion of Canada i n that century, and reveal the gradual development of a strong national s p i r i t i n him. This emerged primarily as a result of h i s l i f e on the Canadian p r a i r i e s , where, he was;-in consta.nt contact with the native-: Indian and the pioneering development of the Canadian west, and where:he experienced the crises of the R i e l Rebellions. This 29. See Appendix I I , Table I I I , f o r an analysis of Canadian poems 30. "Tecumseh and Canadian poems", op. c i t . , pp. 233-236. -67- contact with v i t a l elements i n the grov/th of the new nation was the major f a c t o r i n the evolution of Mair's Canadianism; hut i t i s also s i g n i f i c a n t to note that from the f i r s t i M a d r wasr nationally minded. His p r a i r i e l i f e did not create:- a- Canadian s p i r i t l i n him, f o r he possessed that as early as 1868, when he joined the Canada-First: group. I t . i s impossible, therefore, tio determine from Mair's career whether fe e l i n g s and events- i n the Canadian west were v i t a l enough i n themselves to create a national f e e l i n g c i n Canadians i n the Nineteenth Century. "What. Mair's work does indicate i s , rather, that; there was a: v i t a l national f e e l i n g present i n at leasts some Canadians from the e a r l i e s t days of the nation's history, and that t h i s f e e l i n g was accentuated by developments i n the expanding west. I t was there that the future of Canada as a- country lay. The fear of the American states and the need f o r p o l i t i c a l readjustment may have created the Canadian nation, but the westward expansion i n the l a t e Nineteenth Century did much to create a national f e e l i n g . Nevertheless Mair i s not primarily a r e f l e c t o r of th i s condition, but. a prophet and forerunner of i t . He was a strong n a t i o n a l i s t at;.a-time when comparatively few people i n Canada re a l i z e d they were Canadians. Mair was the leading poet of Confederation i n the Nineteenth Century, and was one of the main forces urging the creation and development of a strong 31 Canadian f e e l i n g . His nationalism, although d e f i n i t e l y dated, i s as strong as that of any Canadian poet down to very recent, times. 31. As we have seen, i t was mixed with a c o l o n i a l attitude, as was a l l Canadian f e e l i n g ,in the Nineteenth Century. -68- Mair 0* expressed the most consistent Canadian feeling among Nineteenth Century poets, but certain other writers were able at-times to express sentiments. quite as-; vital and significant: ast-his. One of the most interesting of these poets was Alexander M'Lachlan. Born in Johnstone, Scotland, on' the banks of the Clyde in 1818, M(Lachlan was over twenty before he came to Canada. His father had come to Canada some:ten years earlier and eventually bought a farm. Alexander came.-in 1840, sold his father's farm, and spent, ten years buying various farms and trying his hand at pioneering, only to decide finally that farming did not suit him. In 1850 he moved to Erin township in Wellington County in Ontario, and for a quarter of a century devoted himself to tailoring, reading, writing and lecturing. Ret spent.the remainder of his l i f e on his son's farm, except for a few months in his last, year; 1896, when he lived at Orangeville mourning his son's death at the farm. As a poet, M'Lachlan reflects the varying experiences 32;. Two po:et&-oponsb:emporary to Mair in his early work are worth noting. Thomas D'Arcy McGee was born in Ireland in 1825. He was ar- strong nationalist, and fled to the United States Because of his part in the abortive uprising of 1848. Even- tually he came to Canada and aided in the creation of the. Canadian nation. He; wrote; most of his poems before he came to Canada, but in those written in Canada ("Jacques Cartier", "The launch of the Griff en", and a few pioneer ballads;) he achieved a distinctly Canadian sentiment.(see Markey, J . , "Thomas. D 'Arcy McGee: poet and patriot". C M . . v. 46, pp. 67 - 72, Nov. 1916). John Heade (1837 - 1919) was also born in Ireland. Coming to Canada in 1856, he spent,all his l i fe in newspaper work except for the period from 185:9 to 1868 during which he f i r s t studied law and then became a Church of England clergyman. His one volume of poems (The prophecy of Merlin and other poems, 1870) is primarily colonial in sentiment,_ although some Canadian flavour is evident, cf. Bqyd, J . , "Hastings", Songs of the Great Dominion, pp. 28 - 32.. (Seecalso Boyd, J . , "John Reade", CM.:, v. 53, pp. 74 - 77, where the opposite point of view is suggested.). - 6 9 - of his l i f e . Many of his poems must'- have been written prior to his emigration to Canada; but there is no way of determining just: which belong to this early period. In general his poems treatisuch themes as ' l i f e ' , ' l i fe and eternity 1, 'religion', •freedom', 'love1, and 'nature'--the usual subjects for the p©etic muse. Of 158 poems in his Collected works 8 are 33 distinctly Canadian, but 24 are definitely Scottish in tone. Of the-remainder some 11 reflect.Canada in some way. Thus Alexander M'Lachlan did not express a Canadian sentiment: throughout the whole of his work—nor was i t possible for him to do so. Nevertheless he indicates the way in which the pioneer became Canadian and expressed a sincere national sentiment. M'Lachlan uses a l l types of approaches to express his Canadian emotions. He is master of the ar t i f i c ia l type of martial verse.in which the expression does not. sound entirely sincere. In this category is the poem "Hurrah for the new dominion", part;, of which reads as follows; Hurrah for^the grand old forest, land, Where: freedom spreads her pinion.' Hurrah with me for the maple tgee.' Hurrah for the new dominion.' - - 11. 5 - 8 . Much of his work stresses a love of freedom, which also in places became a feature of his Canadianism. One such poem is "Young Canada, or Jack's as good as his master",0 celst'ainly national in sentiment. 33. See Appendix II, Table IV, for an analysis of The poetical works of Alexander M'Lachlan, Toronto, Briggs, 1900. 34. The poetical works of Alexander M'Lachlan, Toronto Briggs, 1900, p. 208. 3 & > p > ^ -70- I love this land of fores*..grand..' Th.es. land where-labour/' s free; Leti others roam away from home, Be: this the land for me.' Where no one moils, and strains and toils , That snobs may thrive- the faster; And: a l l are f ree, as; "men should bei, „_ And Jack's: as:-;good's; his master! -~11. 1 - 8. The only long poem M'Lachlan turned his hand to was "The 36 Emigrant.". This; poem obviously is based on his own pioneering experiences, and is atl. times: distinctly Canadian, although it. also emphasizes lovenof Scotland and thee spirit . of the New Worldc. Land of mighty lake and forestJ Where* stern Winter's locks are. hoar est..; Wheref.warm Summer's leaf is greenest., And old Winter's bite, the-keenest1.,; Where mild Autumn's leaf! is: seareett, And her.partlng. smile:the dearest!; Wherec the Tempest, rushes forth Friom hiss caverns of the north, With the lightnings of his wrath Sweeping forests from his path. . . . . —11. 1 - 10. Thou artt not. a land of story; Thou art. not; a land of glory; No traditions, dates, nor song To tihineeancientt woodstbelong; No long lines of bards;., and sages Looking on us down the ages; No old heroes sweeping by In their war-like panoply, YeU heroic deeds are done Where no battle's lost or won; In the cottage in the woods., In the desertso 1 itudes;-j Pledges of affection given That wil l berredeem'd in heaven. Why seek ye a foreign land gg For the theme that's, close at hand? —11. 25 - 40. But perhaps the most interesting and frank expression of 37 Canadianism is the humorous.poem "Old Canada, or gee buck gee", definitely a forerunner of the Service-Drummond group of poets. 36. ib id . , pp. 204 - 256. 33. Smith, pp. 83' - 84. - 7 1 I t e l l ye what.' them and t h e i r "books, Are getting tio be perfect. pukese; And sure enough this: edication W i l l bet-the ruin o' the nation; WEE'll not. ha-' men, it'ss-.my opinion, F i t to defend our New Dominion; Not one o' them can swing an axe, But. they w i l l bore you with their-facts;; I'd. send the c r i teres of f to work, But i that, by any means t h e y ' l l shirk.' Grandad to some o' them I be, 0, that's what- r i l e s and sexes me.',„ Ain't i t a- caution?—Gee Buck Gee.'0' — 1 1 . 27 - 39. In a l l , M'Lachlan wee d e f i n i t e l y Canadian throughout much of his work. Also Canadian i n places i s the work of Isabella t o Valancy Crawford. MiBBPCrawford was born i n Dublin, Ireland, i n 1850, and came to Canada with her parents e i g h t years: l a t e r . She grew, up i n a pioneering region, and stayed i n such surroundings' u n t i l 1864, when she moved to Lakefield i n Peter- borough County. Later she moved.to Peterboro i t s e l f , where she died suddenly i n 1887. In her poetry she dealt with the usual poeticothemeB—love* l i f e , and eternity. Several poemsc r e f l e c t Canadian nature, based on the d i s t r i c t i n which she grew up. However so i n d i s t i n c t and conventional i s her treatment of the subject that i n few places areothey recognizable as Canadian, Of the 86 poems i n her Collected poems only 2 are d i s t i n c t l y national i n theme, although others do suggest a Canadian 39 appreciation. MiSSKCrawford's work indicatessthe moder.ate<- influenceenational f e e l i n g s exerted on many Canadians during the? Nineteenth Century—seldom strong but often widespread. 38. Garvin, J . Wv, ed., The collected poems of I s a b e l l a Valancy Crawford, Toronto, Briggs, 1905. 39. See Appendix I I , Table V f o r an analysis of her work. Typical of this-feeling is "Malcolm's Katie: a love story"1, her.long poem, which deals with pioneer l i f e . "Bitedeep and wide, 0 Axe, the: tree, WhaU doth thy "bold voice promise me?" "1 promi se thee. a l l j oy oust; thi ng.st That f urni sh forth tihe lives;-; of kings;,! "For ev'ry silver ringing blow, Cities- and palaces shall grow.' "Bite deep and wide, 0 Axe, the tree, Tel l wider prophecies to me." "When rust,hath gnaw'd me deep and red, A nation strong shall l i f t ;h is head.' "His crown the very Heav'ns shall smite, Aens. shall build him in his might.'" "Bite deep and wide, 0 Axe, the tree:; 4 0 Bright Seer, help on thy prophecy.'" — 11. 1 - 14. These^ then, are.the poets who expressed the.most significant Canadianism in their work during the Nineteenth 41 Century. Two were, immigrants to Canada-and Ontario, but revealed important national feelings-; The third, Charles; Mair, was a- native, of Ontario, but. spent, much of hi3s l i f e in thes Canadian west. He expressed strong and vital national senti- ments in his poetry. Thereo:were?, however,- other-important, poets who did not.feel the tide of growing nationalism to nearly the same extent as did these vthree poets. Foremost! among, such poetsr:were- thermemberŝ ; of the Rbberts»Carman-Lampman group, whose attitude bears examination. Typical of the group, and 40. Smith, p. 13.15. . 41. Another poet.of the period who suggested a national awareness in several of his pieces was John Edward Logan (1852 -1945). Particularly significant are such poems as "A-blood- red ring hung round the moon" and "The; injun", although the latter one is also strongly colonial. (Verses, Pen and Pencil -73- yet. more-;: overtly national than some members of i t , is Sir Charles-G. D. Roberts; a detailed study of his work wil l suffice to show the general attitude of the poets in this group. CharlesfiG. K Roberts, the^major figureein this group, does not: reveal a consistent, national sentiment in his work. In plaees he handles Canadian imagery very well, butt, only in a local and: Eastern mannen; of his many hundreds-of poems fewer than a- dozen are Canadian in any significant, way. Born in Douglas, New Brunswick, In 1861, Roberts spent., almost, a l l his Canadian period in theeMaritlme provinces;. Until he was 14 he lived at thevmouth of the Tantramar-River in the district so prominent in his poetry. He attended the University of New Brunswick until 1879, and thereafter lectured at.; the: University of King's College, Windssor, Nova Scotia after spending a few years, in Toronto on the staff of the Week. He lefttCanada-in 1896 and lived in New York and later in England until 1924, when he returned to Canada. He died in 1943. Tihus during the formative years of his l i fe Roberts lived almost exclusively in the.,Maritime Provinces; and during the greater- part of his poetic career he was outside Canada and wrote- work in no way Canadian. Furthermore-the.Maritime; Provinces were?, at first.uninterested in and even antagonistic to Confederation, and had long felt their isolation from Canada. Poet stand novelists- from Nova- Sfcotia^w.ere^nott Canadian in feeling (note: 41, cont). Club, Montreal, 1916. 42. fioik&emit'howas:: the only pre-Conf ederation writer from the Maritime Provinces who wrote with a Canadian feeling, and his work was certainly not national in spirit . These province© were in the social and cultural orbit; of New York and -74- bef ore; Confederation, and have much influence not. to so "become i n t h i s period. For these reasons there-seems l i t t l e chance:.- thatl Robert st1 poetry w i l l r e f l e c t .more; than a casual interest, i j i Canada as a- nation. S i r Charles G. D. Roberts was both a poet, and no v e l i s t andsachieved considerable l i t e r a r y fame; i n both f i e l d s . However i n both types of l i t e r a t u r e h is approach to the Canadian scene i s p a r a l l e l , and need thereforeebe studied only i n one,; As a- poet Roberts, did much of his s i g n i f i c a n t work i n his early l i f e , before he l e f t f o r New York i n 1896. His f i r s t volume, Orion and_ other, poems (1880), was experimental and . reveals predominantly the influence of h i s wide reading. Like/; many f i r s t t volumes i t i s regarded, by some c r i t i c s at least, as " a l l a r t i f i c e ; a l l a r t i f i c i a l " and i n no way Canadian. 4 5 His;- second volume, In Divers Tones, appeared i n 1887 and contains poems;.;based on Canadian national f e e l i n g . This and the others of his early volumes wer.ee collected and published i n 1907 as 44 Poems. This volume provides a convenient basis f o r an examination of the extent to which Canadian feeling;permeated RobertissJ work. Of the-182. poems i n this: c o l l e c t i o n 22'- i n the group "New York Nocturnes" 1 and 64 of the 69 i n the "Miscellaneous poems"'were, written i n the United States and based on American 44 situations?. Furthermore.-- the long introductory poem "Ave:.1" (note 42, cont..) thet New England states f o r a long time, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that, when Roberts..and Carman--both p o e t s — l e f t Canada they went to l i v e i n t h i s region. 43. Logan and French, p. 118. 44; Boston, Page, 1907; analysis i n Appendix I I , T*VI. -75- i s a- poetic piece written f o r the Shelley centenary. Of the. remaining 95 poems 48 treat topics such as eternity and l i f e , and 4 are d i s t i n c t l y imperial. Of the remainder, 33.deal with Canadian nature i n a. purely l o c a l fashion, while 10 a r e regional or national i n scope. If these 10 were well spaced throughout his p o e tic career, Roberts would;, rank as. a-nationally minded., poet:; but. they areenoti, coming instead from one short period i n his l i f e " and', appearing, almost;, a l l of them, i n the- In Divers:' Tjpnes group. Indeed "with the single;-notable exception of Roberts,! spasmodic ' C a l l 1 to the Canadian people to achieve a nation or Canadian setting and colour i n some of his natures poetry, Roberts' verse i s anything but..Canadian. In h i s ten d i s t i n c t l y Canadian poems Roberts.does., nevertheless, express: v i t a l national sentiments.. It..was i n these poems that he d i f f e r e d from other.-poets of the ; Roberts- Carman group, and showed the effect:, of the impact;, of Confedera-- t i o n on the l i f e of the Oanadian people. Although i n essence only 'drum and trumpet* verse, the most notable of these poems are. so enthusiastic and obviously sincere that! they equal the best thathhas yet been- done by Canadian poets i n the f i e l d of patrioticcpoetry. One of the best of these pieces i s the poem "Canada*. 4 6 45?. Logan and French, p. 115. Mr. A'; J . M. Smith (Smith, •p\ 174) presents thei.opposite-point of view; After pointing out. the sentiment- of Roberts;', national odes, he remarks, "Yet, the. deepest and most enduring expression of nationalism i s t t o be:found i n Roberts' poems of nature and the Acadian country- side^, where the expression i s implicit-and i n d i r e c t . " Hie. view, however, seems incorrect. 46. Poems, pp. 125 - 127; Smith, pp. 174 - 176; Broadus-, pp. 33 — 3<%T""go*ngsi of the Great; Dominion, pp. 18 - 20. -76- 0 Child ofi Nations, giant-limbed, Who stand'st among the nations now Unheeded, unadorned, unhymned, With unanointed br.ow, — How; long the ignoble, sloth, how long The trust i n greatness hot thine, own? Surely the.lion's brood i s strong To f r o n t s the?-world alone.' How long the indolence, ere thou dares Achieve thy destiny, seize; thy fame-,-- Eree-our proud eyes behold thee, bear; natd on • s; f ranchi s e, nati on • name? The; Saxon f brc ej the Ce 11 i c. f i re, These are-.; thy manhood ' s: = heritag6 * ! Why rest, with babes and slaves? Seek higher The place? of race and age. 1 see to every wind unfurled The f l a g that, bears .the Maple Wreath; Thy s w i f t keels furrow round the world Its blood-red folds.beneath. — 1 1 . 1 - 20. Montcalm and Wolfe.' Wolfe and Montcalm.' Quebec? thy storied c i t a d e l Attest- i n burning song, and psalm How here;thy heroes f e l l . ' 0 Thou t h a t b'orc'st. the battle* s r brunt At Que ens ton and at^Lundy'st Lane,-- On whose;, scant, ranks but iron f r o n t The-battle broke i n vain.'-- Whose.was the danger, whose the day, From whose triumphant throats the cheers, Ati Chrysler's Farm, at. Chateauguay, Storming l i k e clarion-bursts our ears? On soft P a c i f i c slopes,—beside; Strange f l o o d s - t h a t northward rave and f a l l , — Where chafes Acadia's chainless;-.tide— Thy sons await thy c a l l . —11. 29 - 44;. But, thou, my country, dream not thou.' Wake'3, and behold how night i s done,— How on thy breast*, and o'er-thy brow Bursts the uprising sun.' — 1 1 . 53'• - 56. Roberts' most successful poemswritten under t h i s national impulse is;.undoubtedly "Ah ode to the Canadian -77- Confederacy". ' Although i t i s ; written i n the blatant s t y l e of thee'drum and trumpet' poets.: it,, expressas^an emotion that. sounds:;quite sincere, so r i c h i s the enthusiasm displayed. I t i s a c a l l to the Canadian nation to arouse i t s e l f and take i t s r i g h t f u l place i n the World. Thus i t i s not merely an exclama- t i o n of delight, i n Canada because that, i s the author's country, assmost. such poems are* "An ode f o r the Canadian Confederacy" i s probably the best: that has been done i n Canada with t h i s style of verse'; Awake, my country, the hour i s great., with change.' Under t h i s gloom which yeti obscurest the land, Prom ice-blue s t r a i t and stern Laurentian range To where?giant peaks our western bounds;command, A deep voice stirs-, vibrating i n men's ears: As i f their.-own hearts throbbed that thunder f o r t h , A sound wherein who hearkens wisely hearse-: The voice of the desire of t h i s strong North; — This North whose heart of f i r e Yet .knows,-; not itsr-deslreo Clearly, but., dreams^ and murmurs, i n the dream. The hour of dreams i s done. Lo, on the h i l l s the gleam.' Awake, my country, the hour of dreams i s done.' Doubt not, nor dread the greatness of thy f a t e . Tho' faint: souls fear the keen, confronting sun, And f a i n would bid the morn of splendour wait; Tho' dreamers, rapt, i n starry visions, cry, "Lo, yon thy future, yon thy f a i t h , thy fame?.'" And stretch vain hands to stars., thy fame i s nigh, Here -in Canadian hearth, and home, and name;— This name, which yet... s h a l l grow T i l l a l l the nations know Us for. a p a t r i o t people, heart, and hand Loyal to our native earth,--our own Canadian land.' 0 strong hearts, guarding the b i r t h r i g h t of our glory, Worth your best.blood t h i s heritage ye guard.' Those mighty streams. resplendent with our; st.ory, These i r o n coasts by rage-, of seas unjarred,-- What f i e l d s of peace these bulwarks-: well secure;! What-,vales of plenty those balm floods supply.' S h a l l not our love t h i s rough, sweet land make sure-, Her bounds preserve i n v i o l a t e , though wider? 0 strong hearts of the North, 4.7. Poems, pp. 127 - 128, Songs of the GreatiDominion,p.3a -78- Let.flame your l o y a l t y f o r t h , And put the craven and base to an open shame, ^ T i l l earth s h a l l know the. Child of Nations "by her name.' Thus;-Roberts achieved a v i t a l national sentiment i n 48 several of h i s poems i n the In Divers. Tones group. This indicates t h a t Confederation made a deep impression on the minda. of. many Canadians who wereonot, on the whole, nationally minded. Throughout the. r e s t of h i s work, however, Roberts revealed l i t t l e or no v i t a l Canadian awareness:. He wrote frequently on nature, but. i n a l o c a l rather than a - d i s t i n c t l y Canadian fashion. In t h i s his work i s similar.- to that, of most of the other poets i n the Roberts-Carman group, who need; not., therefore-,- be examined i n such d e t a i l . WV B l i s s Carman (1861 - 1929) was born at.Fredericton of L o y a l i s t descent. He l e f t Canada i n 1881, and remained abroad, except f o r b r i e f v i s i t s , during the rest-of his l i f e . He i s not usually regarded as. a nationally minded writer; indeed. Mr. L. A. Mackay, i n an analysis that-scarcely seems correct, i n s i s t s that he was.-.a minor American, not, a Canadian, poet, 49 r e f e r r i n g to the "delusion that. Carman i s a Canadian poet." 50 Logan also notes that h i s work i s not Canadian i n sentiment. 48. William Douw L i g h t h a l l (1857 - ) wrote several national poems sim i l a r to those of Roberts; but h i s work i s i n f e r i o r to that of Roberts and sounds quite a r t i f i c i a l . Much mores significant, was h i s Canadian anthology, Songs of the Great Dominion, which stresses national poetry. Among his national poems are "Canada not.last", "The confused land", and "National hymn" (pp. 28, 21, 22 respActively i n h i s anthology)). He also endeavoured to s t r i k e a Canadian note i n his h i s t o r i c a l romance, The Young Seigneur (1888). 4.9. " B l i s s Carman", C.E;, v. 13, p. 183, Feb. 1933:1 50. cf.. Logan and French, p. 139; but contrast L i g h t h a l l i n Songs of the Great Dominion, p. 449. -79- The-.-. reason f o r t h i s opinion seems to be^ that! Carman wrote no a such obviously Canadian pieces as those of Roberts, nor do any of h i s pieces: show a keen i n t e r e s t t i n Canadian history. But neither of these i s necessary, surely, before a work of a r t maji be considered national. I t i s true that Carman spent l i t t l e r time i n Canada a f t e r 1881, but neither did Roberts; a f t e r 1896. Roberts' nature;verse has seemed national i n i n s p i r a t i o n to many readers; and yet much of i t has.a l o c a l rather than a national flavour. .Carman's work i s of just the same type. Frequently i t , too, appears to express: a f e e l i n g only f o r the l o c a l i t y (as, f o r example, "Low tid e on Grand Pre"); but quite; often a national consciousness^-albeit,a weak o n e — i s also present. And t h i s sentiment i s not confined to any one period of his work, as was Roberts' Canadianism. L i g h t h a l l quotes his "Carnations i n Winter"^ 1, which i s surely as Canadian as any 52 nature poetry yet written; i n 1920 he wrote "Ah open l e t t e r " , which i s d e f i n i t e l y national i n i n s p i r a t i o n ; and i n 1924 53 appeared the f r i v o l o u s d i t t y "Advice to the young" , another: Canadian poem. I saw across a valley the autumn rains come down, And sweep i n solemn grandeur across the f o r e s t crown; And I thought upon the valley where each man walks alone, And a l l the t r a i l s run out and stop at the edge of the unknown. But I did not dread the solitude, not f i n d those vasts f o r l o r n With t h e i r unfolding silence, f o r I was; Northern born. The great unbroken wilderness was a l l a joy to see, And the f i r s and painted spruces are l i k e old friends to me. And when I heard the whisper of the snow begin to sing, 51. Songs of the Great Dominion, p. 449. 52. CF.. v>; 1, pp. 80 - 82, Dec. 1920. 53. C.B;:, v. 6, p. 7, Jan.,' 1924; r e p l i e d to by Barringtoq, C , "Quizzing a poet", C;.B:.-, v. 6, p. 37, Feb. 1924. -80- My heart.went wild for gladness, as i f i t had been spring. Out.-of the gray came whirling the. legions of air, That dance? upon the storm-wind and make, the world more fair; A l l night they wrought their witch-work until the morning glow, When every bough was bending with the blossoms of thee snow. Then slowly very slowly I crepti. out to the wild, 5g With the rapture and the wonder and the footsteps of a child. — 11. 4& - 60. These lines are Canadian i f nature poetry can be-, and are indi- cative of the impulse evident, in a considerable portion of his work. Carman seems to have acquired a.- national sentiment quite as strong as that present in any other poet of this School. He frequently escapes the localism so common to his group, and to Canadian writers in general; and he never suffers from the colonial domination found in Campbell. Some writers have expressed a deeper and others a more widespread but few have revealed as sincere a feeling for Canada couched in such delicate-^tones as thafcefSunddinnCarman's poetry. Archibald Lampman (1861 - 1899), who has been called 54 "Canada's greatest nature poet" , has a considerable reputa- tion as an interpreter of the essential spirit of Canada-. Logan, who i B the foremost protagonist of this opinion, states^ that'.:, he. was "a subtle interpreters of the^ Canadian national spirit.by way of a new-and philosophic interpretation of Nature 55 in Canada." This view, which seems much too strong, has been 56 challenged in recent years. Born ati Morpeth, Kent-County, Ontario of Loyalist descent, he worked in the c iv i l service at Ottawa during most of: his l i f e . His.work, which is nature 54. Rhodenizer, p. 207. 55. Logan and French, p. 207. cf. also Smith, p. 183; Logan, J . D., "The literary group of '61", CM.", v. 37, pp. 559- 562, Oct. 1911; Knister, R., "Archibald Lampman",L\R., v. 7,p.350, Oct. 56. cf. Kennedy,L., "Archibald Lampman", C.FTT" 1927. -81, poetry similar in general to that of Carman0', is often purely local in character, hut at times distinctly Canadian. It is probable, however, that his work seems so typical of Canada to 55 some critics because i t is descriptive of Ontario, and must strike a familiar note to residents of • that parti of. Canada-. Among his more broadly Canadian passages are-one from the poem "Sapphics",5 8 Clothed in splendour, beautifully sad and silent, Comes the autumn over the woods and highlands, Golden, rose-red, f u l l of divine remembrance, Pull of foreboding. Soon the maples;, soon wil l the glowing birches, Stripped of a l l that summer and love have dowered them, Dream, sad-limbed, beholding |&eir pomp and treasure Ruthlessly scattered. —11. 1 « 8. and two from UThe woodcutter's hut",®® (note 5*% cont). v. 13, pp. 301 - 303, May 1933. 57. Another poet of this school whose work is very similar to that of Lampman and Carman in its approach to Cajiadianism is Frederick George Scott (1861 -1111 ) of O n t a r i o *^Particularly Canadian in feeling is his poem "The unnamed lake" (The unnamed lake and other poems, T.oronto, Briggs, 1897, pp. 7 - 9; Collected poems, Vancouver, Clarke and Stewart, 1934* pp. 8-9). It. sleeps among the thousand hi l l s Where..no man ever trod, And only nature's music f i l l s The silences of God. —11. 1 - 4 . Contemporary to F. G. Scott was Duncan Campbell Scott, who was born in Ottawa in 1862 and worked during much of his l i fe in the c i v i l service. He is also a nature..poet whose work is not, on the whole, distinctly Canadian. He has often been praised for the Canadian feeling evident in some of his work (Logan and French, pp. 159, 177; Hammond, M. 0., "The poet of the Laurentians", C M . , v. 32, p. 456, March 1909); but he has, stated that poetry should not be consciously national ("Poetry and progress;'.', C M ; , v. 60, pp. 187-195, Jan. 1923.) although he does desire to see a national literature in Canada ("A decade of Canadian poetry", C M . , v. 17, pp. 153-8, June, 1901). His; work as a whole does present»-national outlook because he haso treated Quebec (In the Village of Viger, 1896, and the one act (note 57 cont., and notes 58 and 59 on next page). Par.-up i n the wild and wintry h i l l s i n the heart of the c l i f f - broken woods;, Where the mounded d r i f t s l i e soft and deep i n the noiseless solitudes, The hut of the lonely woodcutter stands, a few rough beams that show A blunted peak and a low black l i n e , from the g l i t t e r i n g waste of snow.... — 1 1 . 1 - 4. Day a f t e r day the woodcutter t o i l s u n t i r i n g with axe and wedge, T i l l the j i n g l i n g teams come up from the road that runs by the valley's edge, With plunging of horses, and hurling of snow, and many a shout ed word., Andi-carry away the keen-scented f r u i t of his;, cutting, cord upon cord.. 9 — 1 1 . 13 - 16 Passages such as these are as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canada as they can be, and suggest an appreciation of the country as a whole that, makes. Canadian flavour appear naturally and unconsciously to the poeti's; expression'. Emily Pauline Johnson (1862 - 1913) was born on the Indian reserve near Brantford of Indian and E n g l i s h parents. Her formal education was l i m i t e d — s h e attended the Indian school oh the reserve;, and l a t e r Brantford Central School—but before she was 12 she had read Longfellow, Scott, Byron and Shakes- peare. After 1892 she went on many lecture tours, and i n 1909 she s e t t l e d i n Vancouver. The sentiment: evident i n her poetry evolved gradually from a passionate..protest against, wrongs suffered by the Indians,through a proud Canadianism^to a genuine world outlook. Her treatment of Canadian nature i s simi l a r to that of the other poets i n the Roberts-Carman group. (note 57, cont.) play Pierre)and the p r a i r i e s ("At Gu l l Lake, 1810", Smith, pp. 222 - 225) i n addition to his native Ontario. 58. (see p. 81) Scott, D. C , ed., The poems of Archibald Lampman, Toronto, Briggs:, 1915, pp. 217 - 218. 59, (see pp. 81, 82) i b i d . , pp. 247 - 250. -83- Among her more, distinctly national pieces is "Prairie Greyhounds*' , which indicates the Canadian sentiment inspired by the building of the transcontinental railway. C. P. R. Westbound--No. 1 I swing to the sunset land, The world of prairie, the world of plain, The world of promise, and hope, and gain, The world of gold, and world of grain, And the world of the willing hand. I carry the brave and bold, The one who works for the nation's^ bread, The one whose past, is a thing that's dead, The one who battles.-and beats ahead, And the one who goes for gold. I swing to the land to be: I am the power that, laid its. floors, I am the guide to its western shores, I am the key to its golden doors, That, open agorae tdoma. 6 0 —11. 1 - 15. These, then, are the major poets of the Roberts- Carman group whose work suggests in any way a Canadian national awareness.61 In contrast to such distinctly national poets., as Mair; M'Lachlan, and Miss Crawford, their work—except for a 60., Broadus, pp. 46 - 47. 61. One poet of this group whose work is colonial and imperial rather than Canadian in tone was William Wilfred Campbell (1861 - 1919). William was the son of the Rev. Thomas Campbell, rector of the Anglican Church at Berlin (Kitchener), Ontario. Luring his youth he moved with his family to various parts of Ontario, the beauty of the scenery at Wiarton on Georgian Bay being particularly attractive to him. He, too, entered the ministry, preaching in turn in New Hampshire, New- Brunswick, and at Wiarton; but after 1890 he was in the Civ i l Service at Ottawa. His work both in poetry and fiction (A Beautiful Rebel, etc.) is thoroughly imperial in character, over, half his poems falling into this category, (cf. Allison, f. T . , "William Wilfred Campbell", C.B., April 1919, p. 15). few of Roberts' poems—frfaoir work i s not overtly national i n tone. Often, too, t h e i r nature poetry i s not as t y p i c a l of Canada as a whole as i s the work of those poets. And yet i n t h e i r more d i s t i n c t l y Canadian pieces the writers; i n t h i s group do present sentiments quite as s i g n i f i c a n t and national i n outlook as do any other writers during the Nineteenth Century. Considering that national f e e l i n g was only beginning to emerge i n Canada during t h i s period, the sentimentslexpressed i n these works are probably much more t y p i c a l of the feelings 1 of Canadians as a whole than are those of Hair and the more go thoroughly national writers. In addition to the work of these established poets there was considerable i n c i d e n t a l poetry written l a t e i n the? Nineteenth Century, much of which appeared i n p e r i o d i c a l s such as The Canadian Magazine. Although much of t h i s poetry i s purely l o c a l or even p r o v i n c i a l i n character, some of i t i s Canadian i n outlook. This work i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t indicates that national sentiments were f a i r l y widespread throughout Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , and not merely concentrated i n the work of a few writers. A f a i r summary of the nationally inspired poems found i n i n c i d e n t a l poetry during the l a t t e r 62* Some modern c r i t i c s do not agree with t h i s estimate of t h e i r work. Writes Miss Grace Tomkinson ("The watched pot of Canadian poetry", D.R.. v. 14, p. 464, Jan. 1935), Their work, as we look back now, seems curiously off the same piece. They a l l wrote a great deal about nature, which was to be expected i n a new country where the seaaons, as someone suggests, have a way of thrusting themselves dramatically upon us, demanding attention. They were more o s i l s s s i c o l o n i a l , leaning heavily on the established t r a d i t i o n s of the Motherland, convinced of t h e i r own auda- c i t y i n attempting to break new ground i n Canadian themes, by no means sure that our homespun words had poetic value. - 8 5 - part of the Nineteenth Century, as well as a few examples of c o l o n i a l , imperial and l o c a l verse, appears i n Tables I , on page 86. Typical of such work i s "At Ste. Therese!' by Mrs Susie Frances Harrison ("Seranus", 1859 - ), editor of the early anthology of Canadian poetry, The Canadian Birthday Book (1887). Whichever way one goes one sees The seminalre, and i s sure to meet The t a l l twin towers of the grim eglise, And but. f o r the keen Canadian breeze. Blowing the sharp Canadian sleet Over the Lombardy poplar trees- T.o me and Pierre, who says i t w i l l freeze By nighty I f e e l as i f I must greet. The t a l l twin towers of the grim eglise FJbr an Old World; church with Old World fees The Old World c a r i l l o n sounding sweet Over the. Lombardy poplar trees:. —11. 4 - IS . (cf. liable I ) F i c t i o n was, on the -whole, only a minor l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n Canada- late- i n the Nineteenth Century. Nevertheiesjs interest i n i t revived i n the l a s t two decades of the century, and national sentiments appeared extensively i n many novels!. AC tier:- 1877 the impulse of Confederation and national Canadian in some, e t s e j * awareness aroused^considerable interest i n the h i s t o r i c a l rom- ance,, the most significant, novels dating from t h i s period being Kir.by's The Golden Dog and Parker's The Seats of the Mighty. That, impulse, produced tangible evidence i n our l i t e r a t u r e because of a conscious r e a l i z a t i o n of national ideals and a sensing of the s p i r i t of a courageous and romantic past, i n a country that, s u p e r f i c i a l l y viewed, had Rarely reached the stage of 'growing pains'. 63. Smith, pp. 169 - 170. 64. Logan and French, pp. 241 - 242. TABLE' I CANADIAN SENTIMENT.-' IN MINOR POETS LATE !IN THE 'NINETEENTH CENTURY. Author Armstrong, G.W Bramble, C M GSampbell, C. Duvar, J . H . Edwards, L . A . , "Fidelis" Gosnell, B?.E. Gourlay, R, Hart., P.W; Howland, O.A. Lawson, P . Livingstone.K. McManus, E . Meyers, R.D. Mo odd erj Mrs.Sc.'S Muir, A. Murray, R's Rowe, H.K. Sherman, P. St rat on, B/J Upham, R. Yule, P.V. Poem "Canada" "Domi ni on Hymn" "This Canada of Ours"" "Canadian Hymn" "Le Roberval: a drama" "To the soldiers of the second contingent.'1 "Dominion Day"" "Prom ocean to ocean" "A Canadienne" "A message from a few millions"' "Canadian hymn"" "TJO Canada" "Hymn t.o Canada" "Canada" "Children of the Queen" "Canadian hunter's song' "The Maple Leaf Forever "From ocean unto ocean" "En route to Alaska* "A word from Canada;" "From "'85"" "The future of B T C " "Poems of the heart., and Source . . . C M . . . v. 6, p. 314, Feb. 1896 . . . . . . C M . . , v. 7, p. 227, June 1896 . . . ...CUT., v. 14, pp. 40-1, Nov. 1899. .. .C-.lt;, • v. 13, p. 134, June 1899... . . .publi shed' 1888. . . . C M ; , v. 14, p. 486, March 1900.. ...Songs of the Great Domini on, — P P . ib - ITC . . . C M . , v. 2, p. 96, Nov. 1893 . . . . . . C M . , v. 6, p. 165, Heo. 1895 . . . . . . C M ; , V . 14, p. 486, March 1900.. . . . C M . " , V . 9, p. 463, Oct.. 1897 . . . . . . cTSfc, v. 12, p. 301, Feb. 1899... . . . C C M . r , v. 7, p. 554, Octu 1896 . . . . . .cTl.. v. 9, p. 279, Aug. 1897 . . . . . V . 14, p. 447, March 1900.. ...Songs of the Great Dominion, p. 172. ".,-written 1067 . . .popular - hymn . . , . . . C M I , v, 11, p. 61, May 1898 . . . •••£5 ;» v * 9 « p p ' 3 2 4 " & . A t l S « 1 8 9 7 « ...Songs of the Great Dominion,p.24. . , . CM?/,, v. 4, p. 591, Feb. f§96 . . , homeT". .published 1881 . . . Sentiment some imperialism, imperialism. Canadian!sm, colonialism. Canadianism. imperialism in the Boer War. colonial!sm. imperialism, surface, nationalism, imperialism in Boer War. surface nat. Canadianism. surface, nat. surface, nat. imperialism. Canadianism. imperialism, surface nat. the New World!, imperialism, surface nat. locelsim. surface: nat. -87- William Kirby (1817 - 1906) was born i n Kingston- upon-Hull, England, and came to Canada with his parents i n 1832. He was educated i n Cincinnati and l a t e r i n Montreal, and then went to Niagara, where he published the Mail f o r twenty years. From 1871 to 1895" he was Collector of Customs at Niagara. His A fi poetry i s at times Canadian i n flavour, but.more.significant than i t . i s his famous novel, TheeGolden Dog (1877), which has 66 been c a l l e d "the greatest Canadian novel". It. displays ar p a t r i o t i c fervour for: Canada as^part of the Empirec, and one c r i t i c c goesr. so f a r as to say "In fact i . Canadian scenes are g l o r i f i e d not. so much because they are things, of beauty i n themselves as because they constitute an i d e a l place i n which to f o s t e r the B r i t i s h sentiment- to-which he was so intensely devoted" ; but. t h i s description seems rather too strong. Nevertheless The Golden Dog i s hardly as Canadian i n i n s p i r a - t i o n as?the pre-Confederation novel Wacousta i s . The theme i s Canadian, and many statements i n the book reveal a sincere attempt to be national; but ..at times, forces detrimental to a- true national flavour predominate. However the book opens on a sincere Canardia-n note. "•See Naples and then d i e . M That, was a proud saying....But I now say, 'See Quebec and l i v e forever .this b r i g h t morning i s worthy of Eden, and the glorious landscape worthy of such a sun r i s i n g . " 6 ' But. t h i s sentiment, i s not often repeated i n the novel, although 65'* The United Empire L o y a l i s t s , a ta l e of Upper Canada, 1846; Canadian i d y l l s , 1868 and~i894. P a r t i c u l a r l y n a t i o n a l i n flavour i s the "Spina Christa" (Songs of the Great Dominion, pp. 240 - 252), which i s a f a n c i f u l survey of Canadian history. 66. Rhodenizer, p. 83. 67. Kirby, W., The Golden Dog, Toronto, Musson, n.d., p . l . -88- i n one place. Kirby stresses the importance of Canada, writing, New Prance, aft e r gathering a harvest of glory, such as America had never seen reaped before, f e l l at l a s t , through the neglect, of her mother country. But she dragged down the nation i n her f a l l , and Prance would now give the apple of her eye f o r recovery, never to be, of "the acres of snow", which LaftEompadour so scornfully abandoned to the E n g l i s h . 0 0 Much of the Canadian sentiment i s couched i n a strong a n t i - American f e e l i n g , as seen i n the assertion that ""I once with six hundred Canadians surrounded a l l New England....we swept Connecticut from end to end with a broom of f i r e . " " u , and ""Against a l l the force of New England. But I cannot promise 7Q the same against the English regulars, now landing at New York?" But the main s p i r i t stressed i s a c o l o n i a l rather than a national one. Kirby i s pleased to note how happy the French were under the B r i t i s h , and how well they were treated, writing, The Canadian saw, with resentment, French f l e e t s and armies dispatched to America, to aid the- Bostonians, a f r a c t i o n of which force sent i n the hour of need would have saved New France from conquest.1 The assis- tance which had been so b r u t a l l y denied to her own children, France; now gave l a v i s h l y to t h e i r hereditary enemies who had f o r over a century been trying t.o conquer Canada. Through causes rooted deeply i n the history of New France, the Canadians had ever regarded the English colonists i n America, as t h e i r enemies, f a r more than the English themselves, and, therefore, when driven to a choice between the two, they remained true to England, and t h e i r wise choice has been j u s t i f i e d to t h i s day. S i r G i l b e r t Parker was born i n Camden East, Ontario, of Loyalist: descent, i n 1860. He studied to be a minister, but took up literature•and journalism instead. He went to Australia 68. i b i d . , p. 373. 69. ibid.., p. 7. 70. i b i d . , p. 128. 71. i b i d . , p. 574. .89- i n 1885, and l i v e d i n England aft e r 1897. He was an im p e r i a l i s t at heart and wrote novels set i n many parts of the Empire. In places he i s quite Canadian i n s p i r i t , buti only rarely . Among hiS Eimportant, Canadian novels are When Valmond came to Pontiac and The Seats of the Mighty. But., apart from the setting there i s l i t t l e hint of the country as an i n t e g r a l force i n the novel- i s t ' s mind; rather the p r i n c i p l e love i s f o r England. Parker, 72 the i m p e r i a l i s t , desires that, "Canada he ours" and laud83 the "glory there-was f o r B r i t i s h arms ahead."'''3 Thet most d i s t i n c t l y Canadian sentiments are put i n the mouths of Prench Canadians; i n one place: Montcalm fears "I s h a l l see my beloved Canada no 74 more." The other important f i c t i o n produced during t h i s period i s summarized i n Table I I , following. Pew of the novels are remembered to-day, but insofar as they deal with Canadian topics i n a d i s t i n c t l y national way, and were thus inspired by ar s p i r i t then prevalent, they do indicate a- v i t a l Canadianism. TABLE II Canadian P i c t i o n i n the l a t t e r part of the. Nineteenth Century. Author. Novel. Date. Campbell, W.W. Laut, Agnes L i g h t h a l l , W.D. Macdermott, A'. Roberts* S i r C C D . Saunders, Margaret M ..A Beautiful Rebel ...1909 .. Lord s: of the North ...1901 ..The Young Seigneur. ...1888 .. P r a i r i e Evenings • • The Raid f r'onT'Be'ause^j our ... 1894. ..Rose a C h a r l i t t e ...,1898 f f 2 m T 3 a e- Seats of the Mighty, New-York, Apnleton-Century, 192:7, p. 2TT. 73:. i b i d . , p . 282. 74. i b i d . P p . 2 3 8 ( c f . also p . 35.9). - 9 0 - During the. Nineteenth. Century national f e e l i n g dde-'ve^Msped rrapfidiy and strongly i n Canada-, based i n the f i r s t , place on antagonism to the United States but increased many times by various other factors during the Confederation period, i n addition to fear of the United States, p o l i t i c a l i n s t a b i l i t y , westward expansion, growing economic unity, and many other factors aroused strong Canadian sentiment i n the people of the? country. Thereeis ample evidence, of t h i s development i n the history of the period, and also i n the l i t e r a t u r e then written. Among the poets of the l a t e Nineteenth Century some wrote work that i s strongly national i n i n s p i r a t i o n . This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y true of Charles Mair, whose association with the Canada? F i r s t group and l i f e i n the new wes-tt created a v i t a l Canadian awareness which appears frequently i n h i s work. More-; representative of the people as a whole, probably, i s the work of such members of the Roberts-Carman-Lampman group as Roberts, Carman, Lampman, and Pauline Johnson. These poets were on occasion d i s t i n c t l y national i n sentiment, but more often they were only moderately conscious of t h e i r Canadian n a t i o n a l i t y . The novels of the period are sim i l a r i n t h e i r degree of national awareness to the poetry of t h i s l a t t e r group, but are also c o l o n i a l i n outlook. It seems evident, therefore, that poets and novelists were inspired--but i n varying degrees--by the development of Canadianism i n t h i s period. But the f a c t that some f e e l i n g i s quite widespread, and that, at times a deep national i n s p i r a t i o n i s evident, suggests that much more- work with a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian flavour w i l l appear i n the next period. CHAPTER :IW . CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE' i n t he PilRST'VTWO DECADES3 of the TWENTIETH CENTURY TihecConservative Party formed the majority of administrations i n the Canaddanng.overnment during the Nineteenth Century, and did much to further the cause of i n t e r n a l autonomy i n the dominion, and to f o s t e r Canadian nationalsawareness'. For only one. term of o f f i c e did the L i b e r a l Party gain power- prior, to 1896; b u t . i t too made worthy contributions to the development of Canadianism. During the ensuing years down to 1919 both parties held o f f i c e f o r a considerable length of time, and both, under the masterful leadership of two statesmen of i the f i r s t rank, supported the^interests of autonomy i n Canada-. S i r Robert.Borden and S i r Wilfred Laurier followed i n the foot- steps of t h e i r predecessors, S i r John A. Macdonald and Edward: Blake i n the prosecution of t h i s policy; but a t the end of th e i r era, as i n the case of the e a r l i e r one, Canada- seemed dangerously divided i n spite of the many significant.advances towards independence which had occurred. The Manitoba School question was the^most v i t a l issue i n the election of 1896. The Roman Catholic hierarchy i n Quebec were w i l l i n g to make a p o l i t i c a l issue of the problem, and, Protestants i n Ontario were equally determined to secure a> solution pleasing to themselves;. The question seemed l i k e l y to s p l i t the nation into two b i t t e r l y h o s t i l e camps, with calami- -91- -92- tous r e s u l t B to the splendid development of Canadianism which had followed Confederation. Fortunately f o r Canada such an outcome was avoided through the ele c t i o n to power of the Li b e r a ! Party under S i r Wilfred Laurier. E n g l i s h speaking Canada supported the L i b e r a l Party because i t advocated provin- c i a l rights--and hence a u n i f i e d school system--for Manitoba. On the other hand French speaking Canada- supported S i r Wilf red Laurier because i t saw a splendid opportunity to make one of i t s sons prime minister. The election of 1896 was a vict o r y f o r Canadian nationalism."*" Reciprocity had been a major part of the L i b e r a l Platform i n several preceding elections, and had been rejected, by national f e e l i n g . In the ele c t i o n of 1896 i t was not an issue, and following the ele c t i o n the new prime minister revealed that his attitude towards a national economy did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from that of the Conservative 'national p o l i c y ' . In 1898, during a debate on the J o i n t High Commission with the United States, the prime minister declared, 'There was a time, when Canadians...would have given many things to obtain the American market; ther.ec- was a time not long ago when the markets of the great c i t i e s of the union was the only market we.; had f o r any of our products. But, thank Heaven.I These days are past and over now.'2 Nor-was t h i s any temporary p o l i c y supported Eor. p o l i t i c a l ssssssssssssssr.r : -i'L as 1. cf.. Burt, AA short-history of Canada f o r Americans. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press," 1942, p. 245. Canadians resented the appeal to Rome against the Catholic hierarchy i n Quebec*; but Laurier f e l t t the move to be necessary to maintain national harmony i n G&nadaa 2. quoted i n Creighton, D. G., Dominion of the Horth, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1944, p. 390. -93- reasons. Canada- was entering,... a new era-, and consequently needed a new economic program--new f o r the L i b e r a l Party, at, l e a s t . TJhes end of the, Nineteenth Century and the beginning of the Twentieth saw the rapid change to i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n Efiropee and North America;, which has characterized the'jmodem economiceorder. The areas affected ceased to be major grain growing regions, and be cameo instead importers 1 of foodstuffs.. With general rapid increases i n population even more food was necessary. The<f ormer grain b e l t s of the earth could not supply the demand; more food had to be produced. Thussit. was;. thatLthe world looked to the Canadian West, as ap source for.-this food, and immigrants flocked i n to develop the land and supply the grain demanded. This* development of the west, provided a s i g n i f i c a n t stimulus to Canadian national f e e l i n g i n various* ways.. i n 1896 onl£ 16,800 immigrantsrhad entered;. C^nada-- the loweat ( number since CSnfederation. 3 BSittwith the new demand for. wheat;, the f i g u r e rose sharply. In 1901 over 55*700 immigrantSB entered Canada, and f o r 1906 the figure, stood a t 3 211,600. These new Canadians l e f t behind them strong national sentiments; i n Europe, and transferred their, l o y a l t i e s to Canada. Thus immigrants often becameothe staunchesti. n a t i o n a l i s t s i n Canada. 4 The new L i b e r a l regime saw the development of the 3. i b i d . , p. 387. 4. There are several s i g n i f i c a n t examples of t h i s tendency i n the work of Canadian pSetssnandt novelists--Alexander M'Lachlan and Is a b e l l a Valancy Crawford i n the Nineteenth Century, and Laura Goodman Salverson i n the Twentieth Century (Ch. 5, p.l3f). -94- west ae one of the moves necessary to strengthen the dominion, and, started a; vigorous immigration campaign. Canada's popula- tion increased significantly during the period, rising from 4,800,000 in 1891 through 5,370,000 in 1901 and 7,200,000 in 1911 to 8,781,000 in 1921, with the major increases in the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia.5* 6 The expansion of the West:,was the great features of therperiod. Nevertheless there were.many other important economic developments. Prospectors found gold in the Yukon, and many people rushed to that area; minimg became important in Ontario and British Columbia; and the- new industrial age came- to Canada?. Old cities? such as Montreal and Toronto increased rapidly in size, and new cities such as Vancouver became impor- tant, as a result of this economic activity. Canada was slowly becoming a unit in fact as well as in theory. Stimulated by the prospect of continuous prosperity, business interests commenced the construction of two new transcontinental railways,, the Grand Trunk 'Pacific and the Canadian. Northern. Eventually these schemes; failed, and ovonttaally thendominion government had to take over the various lines constructed and merge them into the Canadian National Railway. Theemovement was,-, however, a sign of national activity in Canada as well as; a unifying force. Said Laurier in 1903, in support of new-lines^ ' 5\ see Appendix I, Table II. 6. Various national organizations, particularly the Churches., aided in the development of national sentiment, in Canada;. The creation of the United Church in 1925 was; a manifestation of Canadian feeling in the: Churches;-. 7. quoted in creightlon, op. c i t . . p. 391. -95- Heaven grant that it.be not already too late; heaven grant that whilst we tarry and dispute, the trade of Canada is not deviated to other channels, and that, an ever vigilant, competitor does not take to himself the trade, that;, properly belongst..to those who acknowledge: Canada as^their native or adopted land." Reciprocity was not. an issue in the election of 1896, nor in those of 1900, 1904 or 1908. But., in 1911 the question of a-tariff agreement with the United States again developed. Sir.. Wilfred Laurier feltt that c farmers desired such a program, and thought perhaps such a policy would counteract.the pol i t i - cal disaster of the Navy Service B i l l of 1910. In 1909 the British governmentAdooidod that each dominion should develop ittst; own na>vy, and the Canadian government proceeded to seek appropriate legislation. Opposition arose from two quarters. English colonialists;, supported by the Conservative Party, opposed the move on the grounds thatL. it. would threaten imperial unity. On the other hand Quebec 'National!stis;', led by Henri Bourassa, wanted protection against, the United States and against. English Canada:, so they too disliked the proposal. With these two issues combining against him, Laurier. went, down to defeat in 1911. It is uncertain, however, whether the decisive factor was national feeling rebelling against reci- procity, or. colonialism and other antli-national forcesc.combin- ing to thwartithe creation of a.r-Canadian navy. The significant, development of autonomy in Canada 8. Said Laurier, on this issue, 'I do not. pretend to be an Imperialist, nor do I pretend to be an anti-lmperialisti. I am a Canadian, f i rs t , last, and a l l the time. I am a British subject, by birth, by tradition, by convict!on--by the convic- tion that, under British institutions my native; land has;.fiound a measure of security and freedom which it could not have found under any other regime.1" (Creighton, p. 425). «96- durlng t h i s period was i n the f i e l d of intra-Commonwealth re l a t i o n s . In the Colonial Conference of 1897 the B r i t i s h government, stressed the need f o r imperial unity, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the three fieldsr-.of commercial, p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y relations^ Commercial co-operation f a i l e d "because of free- trade i n England; p o l i t i c a l co-operation developed no far t h e r than the u n o f f i c i a l conferences u n t i l 1917; and m i l i t a r y unity gradually became unacceptable. This^independent; action contin*; ued through the Conferences- of 1902 and 1907, and i n 1909 the B r i t i s h Admiralty advised separate navies f o r ' t h e dominions:. But, as^ we'haves seen, t h i s l a t t e r move toward SR autonomy was rejected i n Canada-; Canada also developed her p r i v i l e g e of making separate commercial agreements during t h i s period. In 1898 C Canada? set, up a- Joint. High Commission with the United; States to settles such questions as the A t l a n t i c and P a o i f i c fisheries? problems and the Alaskan boundary dispute. The-; commission contained four Canadians and one Newfound land err out. of the six members;: i n the: B r i t i s h delegation. But when Canadians f e l t that B r i t a i n neglected t h e i r i n t e r e s t s i n the f i n a l settlement of the.Alaskan boundary dispute they experienced a s i g n i f i c a n t impulse of canadianism, and desired even more say i n matteras af f e c t i n g themselves. In 1907 Canada completed a commercial treaty with Prance, and i n t h i s case Canadian delegates carried on a l l the negotations, although B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s signed the-, agreement. Again i n 1909 Canadarset up another Joint High Commission to negotiate with the-United States, t h i s time f o r a t a r i f f agreement. AS we have seen, the work of this; body proved -97- ineffective,' f o r i t was: defeated i n the e l e c t i o n of 1911. Nevertheless i n a l l these negotiations- Canada was developing external autonomy i n commercial r e l a t i o n s . The other pressing issue of the Laurier regime which affected Canadian national sentiment... was. the. South A f r i c a n War.-. The war was waged at a time when imperial unity was being advocated. En g l i s h Canadians f e l t , they must support the war with a l l t h e i r resources, and Laurier i n s i s t e d that French Canadians*.:must accept, the w i l l of the majority and aid i n the c o n f l i c t also. Thus: imperialism was a major force i n Canada at t h i s time, "but Laurier believed i t was also a precedent, for; independents Canadian action i n time of war. 'What! we have done,' said Laurier proudly i n the debates of 1900, 'we have done...in the plenitude, i n the majesty of our c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i v e indepen- dence....! am free to say that whilst.. I cannot admit that Canada should take part i n a l l the wars of Great B r i t a i n , neither am I prepared to say that, she should not take parti i n any war at a l l . I am prepared to look upon each case upon i t s merits as; i t a r i s es....I claim f o r Canada t h i s , that i n future, Canada s h a l l be at l i b e r t y to act or not., to act, t.o i n t e r f e r e or not. to i n t e r f e r e , to do justi as she. pleases, and. that, she s h a l l reserve to herself the right, to judge whether or not there i s cause f o r her to act.• S i r Robert Borden came into power i n 1911, and ate J.l bet s u m IS ftt«.<A f f rst^oaomod to t a k e ^ l i t t l o i n t e r e s t i n the development of OS Sif YfitftA A.Mtt-i*e«- h*A <Une . Canadian autonomyA Indeed the general attitude to Canada at t h i s time was that i t was .merely a colony. In 1913 a B r i t i s h reviewer-noted that, as regards the commercial treaty with France^, "the action of Canada d i f f e r s i n kind hardly at a l l from that taken from time to time by C r o w n Colonies;, under tifeei 9. quoted i n Creighton, op. c i t . , p. 402. -98- authority from the.Imperial Government, i n matters solely a f f e c t i n g themselves. 1 , 1 0 But af t e r the start of the Great War the new prime minister sdon revealed himself to he as ardent a na t i o n a l i s t as was his predecessor. Canada and the other dominions made a worthy contribution to the war e f f o r t , and Borden f e l t they merited consultation i n the determination of pol i c y . After the formation of the Lloyd George ministry i n 1916 prospects f o r more recognition of the.-Canadian war e f f o r t brightened. In 1917 Lloyd George called an Imperial Conference at which importantt.developments took place. As a temporary measure for. the prosecution of the war. an Imperial War Cabinet was established. Lloyd George and his associates regarded t h i s body as a meeting of the leaders of autonomous states, on equsl terms. "Ministers from six nations s i t around the council board, e l l of them responsible to t h e i r respective parliaments and to the peoples of the countries which they represent, declared Borden. "We meet there as e q u a l s , " ^ he asserted. It was a recognition of the right of the dominions to a measure of external as well as to complete., i n t e r n a l autonomy. The f i n a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l adjustment was to be postponed, however, u n t i l 12 a f t e r the end of the War; S i r Robert soon found another splendid opportunity to further the cause of external autonomy f o r Canada. Canada had 10. Dawson, R. M., The development of dominion status 1900 - 1936, London, Oxford University Press, 1937, p. 150. {!' rom The Round Table (Macmillan, London), Sept., 1913, pp. 596-600. 11. i b i d . , pp. 172 - 3. (The Round Table, June 1917, pp. 441 - 6, from a speech Borden delivered to the Empire Parliamen- tary Association.). 12. i b i d . , pp. 173 - 4. (House of Commons debates,May 17,1917) -99- played an important part i n securing the A l l i e d victory, and f e l t that she should have a part i n creating the peace. Borden, with the whole of Canada behind him, demanded the same voice which small powers such as Belgium exerted. In a telegram to Lloyd George the Canadian prime minister declared, There i s need f o r serious consideration as to the^ representation of the Dominions i n the peace nego- t i a t i o n s . The press and people of t h i s country take i t f o r granted that Canada w i l l be represented at the Peace Conference....1 hope you w i l l keep i n mind that c e r t a i n l y a very unfortunate impression would be created and possibly a dangerous f e e l i n g might be aroused i f these d i f f i c u l t i e s are not overcome by some solution which w i l l meet the national s p i r i t of the Canadian people. Canada indeed secured the desired representation at the Peaces Conference. She also demanded and secured recognition as an independent member of. the/League of N a t i o n s , ^ with the same pr i v i l e g e s the other members enjoyed. Thus by the end of the second decade of the Twentieth Century Canada was, i n practice, an independent nation. National sentiments were also s i g n i f i c a n t during t h i s period, and had increased, as a result of Canada's role i n the n fi Great War. Canada entered the war a united nation, ° and prosecuted her war e f f o r t with considerable i n t e r n a l harmony u n t i l 1917. At. home the f e d e r a l government was assuming powers hitherto exercised only by the provinces, thus creating a 13. i b i d . , p. 178. 14. Canada and the other dominions had e a r l i e r secured separate representation at the Universal Postal Union Conven- t i o n (1906), the Radiotelegraphic Union Convention (1912), and the International Convention f o r the Safety of Human Lives at Sea (1914). 15. The Imperial Government refrained from any i n t e r f e r - ence i n Canadian a f f a i r s at t h i s time, treating her as an -100- national atmosphere; and overseas the Canadian army won several important v i c t o r i e s ; — a t Ypres, Passchendaele, Vimy Ridge and other places—which served to raise the nation's prestige abroad and pride at home. In 1917, however, the dominion government found i t necessary to i n s t i t u t e conscription. E n g l i s h Canada was i n favour of the move, hut French Canada opposed i t . The. veteran L i b e r a l leader, S i r Wilfred Laurier, lead the- Quebec): members, i n t h e i r opposition, but. many English Canadian L i b e r a l s broke with him and joined the Conservative government. In the ensuing elections Canada was divided on a purely r a c i a l basis> and national unity, apparently so strong at the atart. of the war, was severely broken. During 1917 a Canadian General Staff was set up i n London, and a Canadian, Arthur Currie, succeeded a B r i t i s h o f f i c e r i n command of the Canadian c o r p s . 1 6 But any national f e e l i n g r e s u l t i n g from these moves was more than counterbalanced by the national disunity r e s u l t i n g from the alie n a t i o n of the English and French races i n Canada over the conscription issue. Early i n 1919, when t h i s disunity was at i t s heighest peak, the ardent n a t i o n a l i s t , S i r Wilfred Laurier, died. He had come into power i n 1896, at a time when r a c i a l antagonism was threatening the unity of the nation. His ele c t i o n at that time had preserved the national harmony, but now, when a sim i l a r s i t u a t i o n had developed, he died leaving no one to take (note 15, cont.) independent nation instead. This policy increased Canada's national prestige. See Kennedy, W. P. M., The Constitution of Canada, Oxford University Press, 1937, p.363. 16. Canada also secured the right to f u l l control over her shipping i n 1917. cf. Kennedy, Statutes, p. 695. -101- his place. The period between the two c r i s e s had seen a con- siderable development, of Canadian sentiment, as: the result, both of amazing i n t e r n a l development, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the west, and of rapid progress i n the attainment of external autonomy. But i t i s probable that the b e n e f i c i a l effect on Canadian national awareness of these., advances was largely offset, by the r a c i a l disunity of the closing years of the. war. English Canadian poets and novelists were active i n the f i r s t two decades of the century, and r e f l e c t e d i n many cases the national sentiment r e s u l t i n g from the various factors we havecmentioned i n the history of the country. In some cases t h e i r work i s quite as national as, i f not more so than, the work of Mair and other nat i o n a l l y minded Nineteenth Century writers. In other cases i t i s moderately Canadian i n f e e l i n g , as was the work of the Roberts-Carman group of poets.' On the; whole, however, their, work suggests a~ s l i g h t l y more intensive appreciation of the nation--a gradual development of such awareness—than appeared i n p a r a l l e l Nineteenth Century types. Two poets of t h i s period, Robert J . C. Stead and William Henry Drummond, produced work that i s p a r t i c u l a r l y Canadian i n flavour. Robert J . Ol Stead was born i n M i d d l e v i l l e , Ontario, i n 1880, but., moved with h i s parents to Manitoba two years l a t e r . From 1898 to 1910 he worked as a newspaper publisher i n Manitoba, but i n 1910 he moved to Alberta where he eventually became a p u b l i c i t y agent f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c ; Railway. In 1919 he became Director of P u b l i c i t y i n the Department of Immigration and Colonization at Ottawa. Mr. Stead has published two volumes of poetry, The Empire :Builders -102- i n 1908 and Kitchener, and other poems i n 1917. The l a t t e r volume contains most of the poems i n the earlier, c o l l e c t i o n , i. 17 An analysis of the topics which the poems i n the Kitchener volume deal with reveals the r e l a t i v e strength of various 18 sentiments i n his work. Of the 57 poems i n the volume^ 14 deal with themes such as love, l i f e and eternity and contain no national, imperial or l o c a l f e e l i n g s . The next group—15 i n number--deal with war and peace. These suggest the influence of the Great War, during which the volume was published, but 19 are, i n general, not Canadian i n sentiment. Tihe t h i r d group contains 12 poems which are c o l o n i a l or imperial i n flavour; t h i s number--over o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l i n the volume— suggests an imperial impulse unsurpassed i n Canadian poetry. Opposed to these, however, are the remaining two groups—10 poems which are regional i n scope, and thus suggest a Canadian atmosphere, and 6 which r e f l e c t national Canadian sentiments; This analysis suggests that.. Stead f e l t h i s Canadian na t i o n a l i t y strongly, but at the same time retained strong imperial f e e l i n g s , as did Canadian poets i n the Nineteenth Century. He also r e f l e c t s the influence of the Great War, but produced l i t t l e poetry with a national flavour r e s u l t i n g from i t . 20 P a r t i c u l a r l y national in. flavour i s "The mixer", which concludes, 17. Stead, R v J . C , Kitchener and other poems, Toronto, Husson, 1917. 18. See Appendix II, Table. VII f o r an analysis, of Kitchener. 19. cf. "We were men of the furrow", Kitchener, p. 12, which, i n contrast, i s Canadian i n tone. 20. Kitchener, pp. 44 - 49. -103- In the c i t y , on the p r a i r i e , i n the for e s t , i n the camp, In the mountain-clouds of color, i n the fog-white river-damp, From A t l a n t i c to P a c i f i c , from the Great Lakes to the Pole, l£:am mixing strange ingredients into a common whole; Everyv hopes; s h a l l vtouiId--upohemeij every:;heart s h a l l he my own, The ambitions of my people s h a l l be mine, and mine alone; Not a s a c r i f i c e so great but they w i l l gladly lay i t down o Q When I turn them out Canadians--all but the yellow and brown. — 11. 57 - 64. 21 Another s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian poem i s "The squad of one", which deals with the Mounted P o l i c e . The poet takes a sincere pride; i n the a b i l i t y of the Canadian government, to maintain law and order on the p r a i r i e s . That, night i n the post sat Sergeant Blue, with paper and pen i n hand, And t h i s i s the word he wrote and signed, and mailed to a foreign land; "To U. S. Marshall of County Blank, greetings I give to you; My squad has just brought i n your man, and the squad was "Sergeant Blue." There are- things unguessed, there are tales untold, i n the l i f e of the great,.lone land, But here i s a fac t that. prairie»bred alone may understand, That a thousand miles i n the fa-fitnesses, the fear of the law obtains, 2 i And the pioneers of j u s t i c e were the "Riders of the Pl a i n s . " — 11. 53 - 60. Mr. Stead has also been a novelist of some importance. In h is best, known novel, The Cow Puncher (1919), he presents a clear picture of the Canadian west, but i s also interested i n the p r a i r i e s as a granary f o r the Empire. Nevertheless t h i s sentiment was no more contradictory to Stead's Canadianism i n his novels than i t was i n his poetry. As a Canadian novelist Mr. Stead presented a f a i t h f u l picture of p r a i r i e - l i f e . He concentrated on giving a true representation of one region, and did not try to be national; he was dealing with a l o c a l i t y and trying to i l l u s t r a t e l i f e as i't was actually l i v e d therein. 21. i b i d . , pp. 105 - 109. -104- His novels are p r a i r i e through, and through. As such they follow i n the wake of e a r l i e r novels of t h i s period which developed a new kind of f i c t i o n i n Canada.. This trend can best be discussed when we examine the works of Miss. L. M. Montgomery and Charles W. Gordon* Stead, following i n t h e i r path, writes f i c t i o n that approaches the s p i r i t of the Canadian people through a close examination of the peoples of various parts of the country. The theory i s that i f a l l sections of the; country are studied i n th i s way a true picture of the land w i l l result from a group of novels studied together. Most authors deal only with one community. Thus Stead's novels approach the Canadian scene through the p r a i r i e community. Taken by themselves they seem f a i r l y p r o v i n c i a l ; but a p r o v i n c i a l s p i r i t actually has no place i n them. They are part of the trend towards a truer picture of contemporary Canada i n the Canadian novel. This trend gradually developed a f e e l i n g f o r Canada i n f i c t i o n . Although The Cow Puncher i s generally considered the best of Stead's novels, h i s other f i c t i o n , including Neighbours (1922), The smoking f l a x (1924), and Grain (1927), a l l presente a r e a l i s t i c picture of l i f e on the Canadian p r a i r i e s . Robert Stead was certa i n l y a nationally minded Canadian, proud of his country's development i n the West-, proud of her independent, status. William Henry Drummond (1854 - 190 7) was born i n County Leitrim, Ireland, the son of an o f f i c e r i n the Royal I r i s h Constabulary, He came to Canada at an early age with his parents, where his father soon died. As soon as he could work young William learned telegraphy to ease the burden on his -105- mother, and i t was as a telegraph operator at^Bord - a-Plouffe that he f i r s t came into contact with French Canadian l i f e . He studied medicine at university, and l a t e r became Professor of Medical Jurisprudence at M c G i l l . Urummond's po e t i c a l works appeared i n four volumes 22 between 1897 and 1908. The sentiments expressed i n each group are f a i r l y p a r a l l e l , and f o r t h i s reason i t i s possible to obtain a f a i r cross-section of the topics he deals with by analyzing one group only. Of the 34 poems i n the Johnnie 23 Courteau c o l l e c t i o n almost.half—15 i n number—deal with poetic topics such as l i f e , and love; bulj. i n contrast with similar types i n the works of most other poetB, 6' of these are d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n flavour. Furthermore at least 7 other poems treat d i s t i n c t l y Canadian topics i n a national way, and 3 i n a. regional way. Thus of the 34 poems i n Johnnie Courteau and other poems at least 16--almost h a l f — s t r i k e a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian note. Of the. remaining poems 6 are l o c a l rather than regional or Canadian i n tone, 2 are c o l o n i a l ( i . e . I r i s h ) , and 1 North American. The r e l a t i v e strength of these various influences i s approximately the same i n a l l of Drummond's volumes. I t i s apparent, therefore, that Drummond, who was not a native born Canadian, has written work quite as d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n flavour as that of any native Canadian poet. 22. The habitant and other French-Canadian poems. New York, Putnam, 1901 ( f i r s t edition, 1895); Johnnie Courteau and other poems, New York, Putnam, 1905 ( f i r s t edition, HJOl); The voyageur and other poems, New York, Putnam, 1905; The great f i g h t , poems and sketches, New York, Putnam, 1908. Collected poems, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1926. 23. See Appendix I I , Table WII, f o r an analysis. -106- The main feature of Drummond's work i s his interpre- tat i o n of French Canadian l i f e . I t i s t h i s , probably, that has given him his strong national consciousness. In many of the poems descriptive of French Canadian l i f e and customs the attitude i s d i s t i n c t l y national. Don't seem so long we b u l l ' dat road, Chemin de Pacifique, Tak' honder d o l l a r pass/on dere, an' nearly two t'ree week, Den look dat place i t freeze so hard, on w'at, you c a l l Klon-dgk^, Wall.' i f we have to f i l l dem up, we got some large contrac'.' . — 1 1 . 21 - 24. This poem suggests the influence of nationalism r i s i n g out of the construction of the Canadian PacificeRailway, and the increased interest i n the west. Another example of Drummond's 25 national sentiments i s "De nice l e e t l e Canadienne". In t h i s case the f e e l i n g seems to be based on pride i n Canada as opposed to other countries, such as England and the United States, stemming, perhaps, from the remarkable advances i n external autonomy made during t h i s period. You can pass on de worl' w'erever you lak, Tak' de steamboat f o r go Angleterre, Tak' car on de State, an' den you come back An' go a l l de place., I don't c a r e — Ma f r i e n ' dat's a fack, I know you w i l l say, W'en you come on dis contree again, Dere's no g i r l can touch, w'a£ 5we see ev'ryday, De nice l e e t l e Canadienne. — 1 1 . 1 - 8 . At times, however, Drummond's French Canadian poetry i s regional or even l o c a l i n flavour. The regional poems are often Canadian i n flavour, but the l o c a l ones tend to be provin- 24. Johnnie Courteau, pp. 77 - 80; Collected poems, pp. 187 - 190. 25. The habitant, pp. 34 - 36; Collected poems, pp. 30 - 32; CM.., v. 29, p. 570. August 190 7. -10 7- c i a l i n matters:..of national i n t e r e s t . This attitude i s , however, quite rare i n Drummond. Hore common i s the regionalism of such 26 poems as "The corduroy road". De corduroy road go bompety bomp, De corduroy road go jompety jomp, Ah 1 he's takin' beeg chances upset hees lftgd De horse dat'11 t r o t on de corduroy road. 6 —11.1-4. Drummond also s t r i k e s a d i s t i n c t l y national note i n poems which do not suggest French Canadian attitudes. At times he even asserts a conscious and very proud awareness of the: 27 Canadian nation. A poem of t h i s type i s "Canadian forever", which suggests the attitude of Canadians to the Empire during t h i s period. And should e'er the Empire need us, She ' l l require no chains to lead us, For we are Empire's children, But Canadian over a l l . . . . —11. 33 - 36. For we are Canadian, Canadian forever, 37 Canadian forever--Canadian over a l l . * ' — c h o r u s . And, indeed, t h i s assertion was proven to be true i n 1914, when Canadians of a l l walks of l i f e entered the war with l o y a l and w i l l i n g hearts. Drummond re f l e c t e d well the growing national consciousness of Canadians. Less d i s t i n c t l y national on the whole-than .thetwroa?k •off'Stefedl^nd?©rummandt.iibntt.at timesoai'stiin?Gt!ydCanadian^—is the poetry of Marjorie L. C. P i c k t h a l l (1883 - 1922). Born i n London, England, Miss P i c k t h a l l came to Canada with her parents when Bhe wast-- seven years old. She received her education i n Toronto, and l a t e r became l i b r a r i a n at V i c t o r i a College i n 26. Johnnie Courteau, pp. 7-12; Collected poems, pp. 125-31. 27. The voyageur, pp. 116-117; Collected poems, pp. 355-7. -108- T.oronto. She was absent, from Canada from 1914 to 1920, when she was engaged i n war work i n England. Host, of her poetry f i r s t appeared i n three volumes, The D r i f t of Pinions (1913), The Lamp of Poor Souls (1917) and. The Y/oodcarver1 s Wife and other poems (1922). Her Complete poems appeared i n 1927. She also wrote a novel, The Bridge (1921) and a c o l l e c t i o n of short stories, Angel's shoes (1923). Miss P i c k t h a l l was primarily a poet of nature, and 28 the majority of her work r e f l e c t s only a l o c a l appreciation. Nevertheless a considerable number of her poems do r e f l e c t a broader allegiance", at times c o l o n i a l , at. times regional, at times national. A'group of nature poems including "Apples", "Wiltshire", "Kerry", "The old harper", "For a l l prisoners and 29 captives.", "Summer casualty l i s t " , and "When i t i s finished"' are d e f i n i t e l y c o l o n i a l i n atmosphere. Other poems—nature poems again--are regional i n scope. In t h i s group are "The tree", "Forest-born", "Three island song", "The rover", and 30 "November". But some of her poems s t r i k e a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian or national note. Her treatment of nature i n "Canada's 31 Century" i s sincerely national i n outlook. 28. "The woodcarver's wife" i s widely regarded as distinc-* t l y Canadian; but there seems to be no national f e e l i n g i n i t at a l l ; i t i s also doubtful whether or not i t represents Quebeci 29. cf. The complete poems of Marjorie P i c k t h a l l . Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1927, pp. 66, 67, 74, 75, 192, 193, 195, respectively. 30. i b i d . , pp. 34, 39, 41, 68, 164, respectively. -109- Out of the north, 0 Lord, Out of the north we have come at Thy word; The forests have heard, Yea, the- t a l l cedars have heard, and they bow; The plains have rejoiced at the wound of the plow, They^have laughed, they have laughed at the kiss, of the r a i n In the bountiful beauty of grain; The waters have sung of the ships to be. We are come, a people new-risen, and free 32. As our wide deep r i v e r s that run from the snows to the sea. --11. 1 - 10. Also Canadian i n outlook are h i s t o r i c a l treatments such as 32 "Two Souls", Pere Lalement", and Chanson de :.la Tour". At times, also, her poetry i s expressive of hope i n the national 33 destiny of Canada, as i n "Star of the North". Dark i s the wat-ch-fire, sheathed the ancient sword, But sons must follow where t h e i r sires£;have- led, To the anointed end, 0 Lord, Where march the mighty dead. Eirm stands the red f l a g battle-blown, And we w i l l guard our own, Our Canada, Prom snow to sea, „„ One hope, one home, one shining destiny. ^ — 1 1 . 19-27, Thus although much of her poetry i s quite l o c a l i n character-- as nature poetry must be--and some of i t expresses a c o l o n i a l sentiment., Miss P i c k t h a l l achieved at times a thoroughly Canadian—even a national--note i n her work. Much less Canadian i n atmosphere is^the work of T. R. E. Maclnnes. The son of the Honorable T..R. Mclnnes, senator f o r and l a t e r l ieu^nt-governor of B r i t i s h Columbia, Tom was born at Dresden, Ontario i n 1867. He was ca l l e d to the bar i n Ontario i n 1893, and af t e r 1896 served on various government commissions i n Western Canada. He l a t e r l i v e d f o r a while i n China, and then se t t l e d i n Vancouver. He has published i n a l l 32.. i b i d . , pp. 19, 21, 23 respectively. 33. i b i d . , p. 14. -110. six volumes of poetry, of -which, the f i r s t , Lonesome Bar and other poems (1909), i s the most d i s t i n c t l y national i n flavour. Of the 24 poems i n t h i s volume, 16 deal with poetic, themes such 35 as l i f e and eternity, and are i n no way Canadian. Of the remainder, 2 are d i s t i n c t l y national i n flavour, 2 are l o c a l , 2 36 imperial, and 2 — i n c l u d i n g the long t i t l e poem, "Lonesome B a r " — North American. Of these l a t t e r 6 poems 4'. are i n some way Canadian i n outlook. Thus of the 24 poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n only 6 are suggestivev.. of Canada-; and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the most Canadian i n flavour, of a l l his volumes. "Lonesome B a r " 3 6 i t s e l f r e f l e c t s primarily the s p i r i t of the New World, hut i s i n places d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n atmo- sphere; It suggests the national influence of the Yukon gold rush, part, of the lure of the. New West! i n Canada, Out of the North there rang a cry of Gold.' And a l l the-• spacious regions of the West! Prom rugged Caribou to where the crest Of Mexican Sierras mark the old Franciscan f r o n t i e r s , caught the regaId soundJ, And echo'd and re-echo'd i t , t i l l round The eager World the rumor of i t : r o l l ' d : How Eldorado once again was found Where stretch Canadian plains, f o r l o r n and rude Hard upon the iron-temper'-d A r c t i c solitude. — 11. 1 - 10. Although much of Maclnnes*"poetry indicates a Western attitude, some of i t suggests a feeling, f o r Ontario. T y p i c a l of s/uch 37 feeling, i s the d e l i g h t f u l l y r i c "Idlewild", which i s d e f i n i t e l y Canadian i n tone. 34. His other volumes are In Amber Lands, 1910; The rhymes of a rounder, 1913; The f o o l of joy, 1918; Complete: poems, 1923:; and High Low Along, 1934.. 1 3J?; See Appendix I I , Table 1̂  f o r an analysis-. 36: Complete poems, Toronto, Ryerson, 1923;, pp. 81 - 99. 37. i b i d . , pp. 37 - 39. -111- Ah, now i n the land of the Maple, In t h i s midmost Autumn time, The mellow, waning, yellow, Indian summer time, Disconsolate I roam Afar within the a i s l e d , Olden, silent'., golden Forest of I d l e w i l d , — Forest, of lonely memories: o n l y , — Silent, and golden-aisled. 0 r — 1 1 . 38 - 47. .Thus T'.omr>Ma-'GiEnn.e.sy l i k e Miss. P i c k t h a l l , r e f l e c t s at times a Canadian attitude i n his poetry, butdoes not, i n general, produce work that i s as national i n tone as that of Stead and Drummond. Even less Canadian i s the work of Robert W. Service': Born i n Lancashire, England, i n 1876, and educated at the University of Glasgow, Service came to Canada i n 1905. He. worked f o r the Canadian Bank of Commerce at various branches i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon u n t i l the outbreak of the Great. C6A.seA be Lot in C a . War. After the war he Aaottlod i n tho Unitod States. - Among his several volumes of poetry two, The s p e l l of the Yukon and Rhymes of a Ro l l i n g Stone, provide- the basis f o r an int e r e s t i n g Comparison. The f i r s t of these volumes appeared i n 1907, two years a f t e r Service came to Canada. The predominantviinfIttenc-eo: i s that of the New World, which forms the basis f o r at least 7 38 of the 34 poems i n the group. Of the other poems 4 are l o c a l and 1 i s c o l o n i a l i n sentiment, and""the remainder deal with poetic themes such as love, l i f e and eternity. None of the poems are d is t inct ly Canadian i n tone, but "The rhyme (of the 39 remittance man" suggests the way i n which the influence of 38. See Appendix I I , Table X, f o r an analysis of The s p e l l  of the Yukon. • • • • 39. Complete poems, Nev; York, Dodd, Mead and Co., 1940,p.46. -112- the New World slowly emerges i n immigrants. While the trout leaps i n the r i v e r , and the blue grouse t h r i l l s the cover, And the frozen snow betrays the panther's track, And the robin greets the dayspring with the rapture of a lover, I am happy, and I ' l l nevermore go back, For I know I'd just be longing f o r the l i t t l e old log cabin, With the morning-glory clinging to the door, T i l l I loathed the-.-: c i t y places, cursed the care. on a l l the faces, Turned my back on lazar London evermore. 9 — 1 1 . 25 - 32. In the l a t e r and very representative volume, Rhymes 40 of a Rolling" Stone, Service's attitudes change somewhat. In . In t h i s volume only 9 poemst" oucfe of ?:50cr.eflect; the* spiri.t£of ethe New World, r e l a t i v e l y a smaller number than the 7 out of 34 i n the e a r l i e r c o l l e c t i o n . But i n t h i s volume 11 poems are regional i n scope, and although they are never national i n flavour, they do suggest. Canada- as the country i n which they were written. Thus there: i s a gradual weakening of pioneer- attitudes and a,- strengthening of Canadian ones i n h i s work as the.- poet gradually becomes accustomed to the land of his adop- t i o n . Nevertheless t h i s f e e l i n g never becomes national i n Servicer* In Muskrat.Land dim streams divide The tundras belted by the sky. How sweet i n slim canoe to g l i d e , And dream, and l e t the world go by.' Bu i l d gay camp-fires on greening strand.' In Muskrat Land, i n Muskrat Land. 4 1 — 1 1 , 43."- 48. But. before these sentiments could develop further Service l e f t f o r the war, never to return and make Canada hi s home again. His poetry i s i n t e r e s t i n g from a national point of view, however, 40. See Appendix I I , Taible XI, f Or-an analysis of Rhymes':' of a Ro l l i n g Stone. 41. "Sunshine", Complete poems, pp. 178 - 185'. -113- i n that i t shows how the- influence of the New V/est affected immigrants to Canada and awakened a Canadian s p i r i t i n them. In addition to these poets, who are-, the most impor- tant, ones to r e f l e c t a Canadian f e e l i n g in. the f i r s t : two decades of the Twentieth Century, i t i s in t e r e s t i n g to examine the work of some poets who fe l t - a Canadian awareness as the result of the nation's part i n the Great War of 1914 - 1918. Most war poetry dealt with themes such as l i f e , love, eternity and war.— as such work usually does—hut some of i t r e f l e c t s ^ a national s p i r i t . As we have seen, Canada played an important, part i n the war; and as a res u l t many of her c i t i z e n s f e l t a new nation- a l pride. A poet who well r e f l e c t s such sentiments i s Esther Kerry, whose, other work i s largely c o l o n i a l ; i n p a r t i c u l a r 42 "He i s a Canadian" suggests: a nationa.1 i n s p i r a t i o n . He i s a Canadian^-I wonder has he stood In some thick f o r e s t , on a mountain slope.-, S i l e n t beneath a pine. And looking out across a valley seen Nothing but b r i s t l i n g tree trunks f a r below And storm-scarred grey mountains Whose snow caps Rise to a sun-swept blue. He i s a Canadian—I wonder has he stood On some s t i l l morning by a tiny lake And watched the water r i p p l e on the beach,-- One' l i t t l e clearing In the mighty woods*- And knows that he i s f i r s t to breath©- that a i r Not weighted by a thousand l i v e s and thoughts, But rare and pure A breathing straight from God. Oh, Canada, of bigness, beauty, strength, Whom we thy children know as ne'er before In exile's retrospect of glorious hours, We love thee with a love we never fe l t , t i l l now, 42. L i g h t h a l l , W. D., "Canadian poets of the Great War", 0;B., v. 1, A p r i l 1919, pp. 19 - 20. -114- AAlove not. a l l our own, a heritage Prom those, who tio thy shore; no more= return. Their, love of thee, unconscious, pent, Which drove them for t h , they knew not why And urged them on A l l glad f o r thee to die. In t h i s great love may we be consecrate And made a nation new, Strong as thy mountains, Generous- as thy plains, Pure as thy wintersv And with depths unknown As a l l thy f ores.t. lakes- - S t i l l pools of peace. A&second poet who reveals at times a national impulse r e s u l t i n g fromr.the Great, War i s Helena Coleman. In p a r t i c u l a r "Autumn-- 43 1917" i s s i g n i f i c a n t f o r it s : national flavour. Arecthereeyoung hearts;, i n Prance-recalling These dream-filled, blue .Canadian days, When gold and scarlet flames., are f a l l i n g Prom beech and maple set ablaze? Pluck they again the pale wild aster The.bending plume of golden-rod? And do t h e i r exiled hearts beat f a s t e r .„ Roaming i n thought t h e i r native sod? --11. 1 - 8. These two poems and a--few others- suggest! a sincere Canadianism inspired by the Great.Waru They indicate, as does the history of the times, that.one of the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the development of Canadianism i n t h i s period was the War. Many minor poets published occasional verse i n perio d i c a l s during t h i s period. Mosti,of t h e i r work indicates a s u p e r f i c i a l Canadian sentiment-.-a nationalism inspired only sporadically by momentary pride i n the new nation. These poems were usually written f o r some occasion that arouses pride i n Canada—often Dominion Day i t s e l f . One poem i n t h i s group which reveals a national sentiment much stronger than that. 43. i b i d . , p. 19. .115. usually evident i n t h i s period i s "A Canadian Qlympjionikos n, written early i n the century. I t reads i n part, "I am a brakeman on the Grand Trunk l i n e . And f o r a l i v e l i h o o d shunt cars upon I n f e r i o r tracks* to depots semi-proximate. Gar© f i l l e d with sardinesrand molasses, dry goods and. implements .. Employed "by a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n occidental parts.* — 11. 37 - 41. This i s perhaps the best of a score of poems which Indicate a Canadian s p i r i t — m o s t often i n the s u p e r f i c i a l manner, mentioned above. Table III, on page 116, summarizes a c t i v i t y i n t h i s work i n the period from 1900 to 1920. ........... (see Table III) E n g l i s h Canadian poetry does r e f l e c t , therefore, the amazing national progress and the gradual growth of Canadianism during t h i s period. Some poets are-more strongly national than others,, and some are only s l i g h t l y Canadian i n attitude, but on the whole t h e i r work suggests a gradual development i n national awareness from the weaker and l e s s widespread sentiments evident i n the poetry of t h e i r Nineteenth Century predecessors. This i s true i n almost every case. Stead and Drummond, who are the most national poets of the period, have written work which contains r e l a t i v e l y more nati o n a l l y inspired pieces than did Mair, M'Lachlan and Miss Crawford, who represented t h i s a t t i - tude among the e a r l i e r poets. S i m i l a r l y Miss P i c k t h a l l and Tom Maclnnes have written r e l a t i v e l y more poems r e f l e c t i v e of Canadian awareness than did poets of the Hoberts-Carman School, who were moderately national poets of the preceding, period. 44. Mann, A. K., C H ., v. 27, pp. 203 - 205, July 1906. NAEIONAL FEELING: in ENGLISH CANADIAN PERIODICAL POETRY, 1900 - 1920 Author Poem Source-. S e n t i m e n t Aikins, C C C . Blake, R. Bowman, L.M. Bray, H, Dale, J-.A'."/ Gilzean-Reid Gordon, Al Kerry, Esther McOready, jJJEffi Macdonald, E.RS Manks, H.L. Mann, AA.K. Morae, W.J. Phelps, A.LI Wharton-Stork, C Wicher, 3BJA1. Yeoman, E.M: • ft • « * • "Manitoba" "Alberta" "British Columbia" . "The Coronation" "England"1 obscurer. "A' trip tto London'"' . "To the maple-leaf". "Ode for Dominion Day, 1917" "A C&nadian spring . song" "At the grave; of Mui "0 Canada" "Canada*' "AA Canadian Olympionikos" "The Can. abroad" "Canadian wind as" "What's a man?" , "Prom Kobe to Canada "To Canada" . . C'. M." . . C. Mi • *0^JEL poet 4 5 . • CCBTi ..CCBB, r"C.M." ..OCIK . .cTl; . .CSM." ..(KM-; •. C BS ".cTl.' y. 3:7, p. 3;72, Aug. 1911 v. 37, p. 508, Oct. 1911 v. 38, p. 41, Nov; 1911 v. 37, pp. 220-1, July 1911 v. 45, p, 8, May 1915) v. 1, Oct.. 1919, p. 35: v. 26, p. 32, .Nov. 1905 v. 49, pp. 237-8, July 1917 v. 1, April 1919, p. Br- each one local, . . .but. Canadian as a whole. ...imperialism. ...imperialism. ...imperialism. ...Canadianism. . . . by a t ouri st. ..,colonialism. .'. . colonialism. v. 28, p. 46, March 1907 -...Canadianism. v. 41, p. 233., July 1913 ...surface nat. v» 17, p. 177, June 1901 ...Canadianism. v. 27, pp. 203-5, July 1906; ...Canadianism. v. 29, p. 509, Oct. 1907 v. 50, p. 117, De:cci 1917 v. 1, July 1919, p. 58 v. 23, p. 171, June 1904 v. 34, p. 514, April 1910 . . . Canadian!sm. . . , surface nat. ...Canadianism. ...Canadianism. ,..surface nat. 45. ef. Blackburn, G. , "The poems of Horace..Bray, C^B?., v* 1, July 1919, pp. 9 - 12* -117- But i n spite of t h i s gradual increase some poets, such as Service, reveal l i t t l e or no national awareness i n t h e i r work, and i n c i d e n t a l verse remains s u p e r f i c i a l and sporadic. Never- theless the poetry of the period reveals a gradual strengthen- ing of pro-national f e e l i n g s i n Canada. The English Canadian novel presents-a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n the f i r s t - p a r t o f the Twentieth Century. The work was frequently regional rather than- national i n flavour, "but suggests a sincere r e f l e c t i o n of a slowly developing Canadian- ism. A new trend "begins i n Canadian f i c t i o n i n the Twentieth Century. The only important f i c t i o n i n the Nineteenth Century had: been the h i s t o r i c a l romance, which had flo u r i s h e d spas- modically. This had revealed an intere s t i n the history of Canada; but often the desire to paint t h i s history as Canadian (or, as B r i t i s h ) had marred the attempt. The novels—except, f o r one or two--had offered only a momentary a t t r a c t i o n . They did not picture the country as i t was either i n t h e i r own times or i n the times described. Indeed Canadian f i c t i o n had hardly come into being before 1900. However a new trend developed immediately aft e r the turn of the century--a ttend which has lead to the creation of an important and bulky Canadian f i c t i o n . The new novelists dealt with the Canada which they knew, not with a romantic past. They t r i e d to pictures contemporary society as i t r e a l l y was. To do t h i s they l i m i t e d t h e i r f i e l d to some community which they knew intimately. Their novels did not r e f l e c t a national impulse as the h i s t o r i c a l romance had done; but the impulse behind them was not a r t i f i c i a l . Most Canadianism evident i n Nineteenth Century work was s u p e r f i c i a l ; -118- the new localism was quite sincere. Furthermore some of these writers.', deal with more than one region of the country, and thus present a Canadian picture when t h e i r work i s viewed as a whole. Thus although i n d i v i d u a l novels are quite l o c a l i n character, a c o l l e c t i o n of them may be national i n tone. As t h i s movement i n f i c t i o n became stronger and stronger a f e e l i n g f o r Canada as a nation gradually developed. The novelists now painted the Canada they knew, and i f any v i t a l national awareness were'- present i n t h e i r work they should r e f l e c t - i t more f a i t h f u l l y than could a h i s t o r i c a l novel, which reads l a t e r f e e l i n g s into e a r l i e r situations where they have no place. The pioneer work i n t h i s f i e l d was Y/here the | Sugar Maple Grows 4 6 by A. M. Teskey. Hardly a novel i n the s t r i c t e s t sense of the term, i t i s rather a series of pictures of l i f e i n a Canadian community bound together by the central figure- of the author, and the central setting of the v i l l a g e . As the sub- t i t l e suggests, i t actually presents " I d y l l s of a Canadian v i l l a g e . " This book does not. picture Canada as a whole, or.a v i t a l Canadian s e n t i m e n t — i t does not profess to do so. The author i s interested only i n the one l o c a l i t y , and the country as a- whole i s only considered once i n the novel. However t h i s i n c i d e n t a l reference indicates an awareness of the nation that i s h ealthier and more enduring than the s u p e r f i c i a l Canadian sentiment fostered by e a r l i e r writers. A n o v e l i s t * who t r i e s to show how Canadian he i s seldom convinces the reader, and he indicates l i t t l e of the sentiment prevalent i n the country at 46. Toronto, Musson, 1901, quotation pp. 9 - 10, -119- the time. A novel i s primarily a work of art, and i f i t i s to be of use as an i n d i c a t i o n of the extent to which Canadian f e e l - ing i s prevalent at the time any national impulse evident i n it should be unconscious. It,seems to be i n t h i s novel, f o r the-, following passage contains the only reference to Canada present i n i t . I always came back, afte r journeyings i n other lands among strangers and foreigners, to my summer home: i n law-abiding Canada, where righteousness seemed to have the upper.hand, as to a Sabbath rest. I returned with the r e g u l a r i t y of the robin and the blue-bird, and with the same f e e l i n g of coming home which they manifest by building t h e i r nest, and r a i s i n g t h e i r f l e d g l i n g s i n the bosom of "Our Lady of the Sunshine." Mapleton, situated i n the f a i r e s t part of the r i c h province of Ontario, was a t y p i c a l Canadian villager* Walking through our quiet streetsvyou might hear the r i c h I r i s h brogue, the broad Scotch burr, the deep German gutteral, or the sharp nasal twang of the "American", aa we c a l l our neighbours of the United States. And while a b e a u t i f u l l y kept lawn of mossy greeness and velvet smoothness environed our home, the next was i n a setting of Canada t h i s t l e s or bur- docks—or mayhap a "pratie-patch"' i f the owner was an Irishman. T a l l sugar-maples stood here and there on either side of the street, and during the short f e r v i d Canadian summer threw t h e i r g r a t e f u l shade a l i k e over velvet lawn and "pratie patch", donning i n autumn a dress of russet, crimson and gold of that indescrib- able splendour which makes our maples the wonder and admiration of the world. A canal ran through the heart of the v i l l a g e connecting two of the.;great, lakes, and across one corner meandered the r i v e r , called by the less ambitious—much to the disgust of the r i s i n g generation—"the. c r e e k . 1 , 4 6 The year 1908 i s a s i g n i f i c a n t one f o r the Canadian novel. In i t three important novels appeared, a l l following in the wake of Miss A. M. Teskey's book. The most.important of these was L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables. A l l of Miss -120- Montgomery's work belongs, to the same type of f i c t i o n , and can 47 therefore best be discussed as a whole. Mioo.Montgomory W O P - widoubftodly the moot.important En g l i s h Canadian novoliot i n t h i s por-iod. Instead of dealing with h i s t o r i c a l topics she drew a picture of contemporary l i f e - . She sets her novels:-; i n Prince.Edwardo Island or Ontario communities, and indicates, no wider f e e l i n g s . Her work i s neither sincerely nor a r t i f i c i - a l l y national, but does present a localism that i s not narrowly p r o v i n c i a l . Thus::her work represents an important advance on -the road towards the appearance of Canadianism i n f i c t i o n . S i n c e r i t y i s the prime requirement necessary f o r the develop- ment of a Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . "The inte r e s t of r e a l i t y i n the new Canadian novel i s mainly character interest, heightened by concentrated regional setting; and not far. behind i s the 48 •interest, of incident. Thus Miss-Montgomery presents a mirror of Canadian country l i f e - - s h e presents good nature studies of Prince Edward Island and O n t a r i o 4 ^ — b u t her work remains regional and l o c a l rather:than Canadian. The second important novelist i s the 1908 trio-was Marian Keith, v;ho published her Duncan Polite-.in that .year. Like Miss Montgomery she also has written many novels- with a s t r i c t l y l o c a l flavour, dealing with the l o c a l f e e l i n g i n a thoroughly sincere manner. Butcher novels do have a broader 47. Among her many other novels Chronicles of Avonlea, Anne of the; Island, and Anne's House- of Dreams are well-known. The 'Emily' series began i n 1923 with Emily of New House. 48. Weber, E., "L. M. Montgomery's "Anne"", D.R., v. 24, p. 65, A p r i l 1944. 49. cf. Logan and French, p. 298. -121- scope than do Miss Montgomery's; instead of dealing with only one small l o c a l i t y they present a cross-section of Ontario 50 r u r a l l i f e . Thus her work i s "a f a i t h f u l picture of the s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s - - l i f e of a certain type of r u r a l Canadian . 51 settlement, and Canadian town." The t h i r d novelist i n the 1908 group was N e l l i e L. McClung, who published. Sowing Seeds i n Danny i n that year. Mrs. 52 McClung has written many Canadian novels and short stories of the l o c a l or p r o v i n c i a l type. Her work presents a ca r e f u l l y drawn picture of various communities i n Eastern Canada^ Her work i s sim i l a r to that of Miss Montgomery and Marian Keith, with much l o c a l colour but. no f e e l i n g for. Canada as a country- no national consciousness or s p i r i t of the land. Charles William Gordon (Ralph Conner) ranks- second only to L. M. Montgomery as the major novelist of t h i s period. His work also r e f l e c t s regional rather than national sentiment, although he deals with several d i f f e r e n t regions. His novels cover a l l walks of Canadian l i f e , and even go abroad f o r t h e i r t opics. But none of them are national--they are a l l regional or l o c a l . Some—particularly those set i n Western Canada—are obviously designed to catch the glamorous aspects of Canadian l i f e to please a foreign market. Such novels do not r e f l e c t any national flavour, f o r they could e a s i l y have been written 50. Among herrmany other'-books SI 'Maple, Treasure-; Valley and .Lizbeth of the Dale are.'well-known, 51. Logan and French, p. 303.. 52. Among her other novels are The second chance and Purple springs-. " -122- by Americans or Englishmen who have.: never seen the country. Of one* such work a reviewer notes, "Its sole claim to Canadianism had been due to it s . efforts^ to present, by American technique, a s u p e r f i c i a l " l o c a l colour" supposed to be characteristic, of 53 some small section of the vast t e r r i t o r y of the Dominion," Mr, Gordon has'probably done his best work i n the 'Glengarry' group, 5 4 although h i s e a r l i e r novel Black Rock; a t a l e of the- se lkirks, i s widely praised. In these novels he approximates the 1 excellent representation of certain aspects-.,of Canadian l i f e - f o u n d i n Miss Montgomery's work. One of the moref promising novelists of t h i s period was. Arthur. Stringer (b. 1874). A native Canadian, he captured the s p i r i t of the Canadian p r a i r i e s i n his famous p r a i r i e t r i l o g y . In 1916 he wrote. The P r a i r i e Wife.; three years l a t e r he published The P r a i r i e Mother; and two years l a t e r - - i n 1921—The P r a i r i e Child appeared.. These three novels present an excellent r e a l i s t i c ; study of the p r a i r i e s and. suggest a Canadian awareness. It was generally expected that Stringer would soon produce the great Canadian novel which c r i t i c s were looking f o r . However Mr. Stringer found that his work was not widely appreciated i n Canada, and soon was.nf orbed to move to the United States. He continued to set h i s work i n Canada;, but only i n such a way as' would please the American public. In a frank statement concerning one such book he remarked that he — — — • — t a a — w — — m m ^ a m,,m am 53. ""Polly Masson" and our polyglot p o l i t i c s " , C.B., v. 1, Oct. 1919, pp. 43'- 44. 54. His more important novels are Glengarry school days- (1902), The man from Glengarry (1906), The g i r l from Glengarry (1933);, and The-; foreigner U909). -123- could write about Alaska- or the Yukon, or any romantic aspect of Canadian l i f e , although he knew no more about his t.opic than 55 a- F i j i Islander knows about, the New York stock exchange. Arthur Stringer was also a. minor poet of some importance, and i n his early work r e f l e c t s some Canadian f e e l i n g . The poem 56 "The c o l o n i a l " r e f l e c t s a strong Canadian sentiment, but one that i s rather s u p e r f i c i a l . However there i s a strong I r i s h sentiment i n a l l his work, and aft e r he l e f t the country t h i s 57 tended to predominate i n his work. In Arthur Stringer Canada l o s t a writer-who was capable of capturing ar v i t a l Canadianism. Another novelist and poet who found the same d i f f i c u l - ty as Mr. Stringer was John Murray Gibbon. Mr. Gibbon was born i n Ceylon i n 1875 of S c o t t i s h parents, and did not come to Canada u n t i l 1913. Since then he has taken an active part, i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , writing novels, poetry, and short stories, and becoming president, of the Canadian Authors' Association. Mr-. Gibbon has written f i v e novels, of v/hich Drums Afar (1918J, The Conquering Hero (1920) and Pagan Love"(1922) are probably 58 the. most s i g n i f i c a n t from a Canadian point of view. Never- theless i n a l l his novels Mr. Gibbon presents the attitude of the t o u r i s t rather than that of the national Canadian. Indeed he found that the Canadian public does not appreciate the native novelist, but drives him "across the boundary l i n e , where he 55. cf. "The man who couldn't sleep", C.B..« v. 1,. Jan., 1920, pp. 6 1 - 6 4 . 56. cf. C.M., v. 15, pp. 361 - 362, Aug. 1900. 57. cf. King who loved old clothes, and other I r i s h poems, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill, 1941, etc. "* ' 58. also Hearts;.and Faces, 1916; Eyes of a Gypsy, 1926. -124- may s t i l l s t i r a l i t t l e Canadian flavour into h i s l i t e r a r y soup; hut by residence i n the United States and c u l t i v a t i o n of American taste he writes afterwards primarily f o r another 59 c l i e n t e l e than ours." Gradually, however, hi s novels tended t,o lose t h e i r t o u r i s t q u a l i t i e s and became d i s t i n c t l y Canadian, though regional, i n character, and his^poetrytd^es suggeetaa 60 national impulse, p a r t i c u l a r l y "A/1 Canadian Calendar". OCTOBER F a l l i n g , f i a l l i n g leawes.1 And indoors Cellars sweet-smelling with apples, 6Q F a i r hands busy with canning and stores f o r the winter. It seems l i k e l y , too, that i f Mr. Gibbon had continued to write novels he would have become more and more nationally minded i n them. In those he has written he i s at times regional i n outlook, and some of his poetry i s d i s t i n c t l y Canadian. These are only the most important novelists i n t h i s period. Many other writers followed these writers i n dealing with l o c a l settings. Together they deal with a l l aspects of Canadian l i f e from coast to coast. Table IV presents a summary of the other important novelists of t h i s period. Although they are nowhere Canadian i n sentiment, these novels as a whole do give the impression of an awakening national consciousness. And that i s probably just what was to be expected. The f i r s t Confederation enthusiasm—which was super- f i c i a l and momentary--was over, and the Canadian people a l l across the country were beginning to acquire a sincere f e e l i n g 59. Douglas, R. W., "Present l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia", C.B., v. 1,. July 1919, p. 44. 60. C.B., v. 2, Jan. 1920, pp. 12 - 13. - 1 2 5 - f.or t h e i r part of Canada. As yet a l l was regional, but as time went on t h i s sincere fcegionalism could very possibly grow into a sincere national sentiment. In summary of the novelists i n t h i s period i t has well been said that While the men, following the lead of Ralph Connor, are endeavouring to achieve Canadianism by s p e c i a l i - zing on the d i f f e r e n t kinds of f i s t - f i g h t s which occur i n different, parts of the Dominion, the women are devoting their, attention to securing the corresponding national colouring by a depiction of the scenery and the domestic manners- of various sections of r u r a l Canada....Neither class of novel goes very deep into the es s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of Canadian life-;°x TABLE IV Canadian novelists. 1900— 1925 Author. Amy, W.L. Cody, H.C. Cooney, P.J. Day, P.P. Duncan, N, Durkin, D. Hood, R.H. King, W.B. Knowles, R.E. Le Rosslgnol, J . McKishnie, A.P. Packard, P.L. Roberts?, T.G. S i n c l a i r , B.W. .Snider, C.H.J. Sullivan, A. Wallace, P.W. Watanna, 0. Watson, R-. Wilson, M. T i t l e . .Blue Pete: Half Breed, etc. .The Frontiersman (1910) .Rod of the Lone Pa t r o l (1912). '(hi s t o r i .Kinsmen .Rockbound ,The way of Luke of (1928) the sea (1904) Labrador, .g r . .The Lob s t i c k TralY .The chivalry of K e i t h Leicester (1918) .In the garden of charity(1905*) .St. Cuthbert's . L i t t l e s t o r i e s of Quebec .WilloWi the wisp, and the way. ,Qf ^ , A. .On the ir o n world. aT Big Ri ver. Cloud. T1920) the Eighteen- .Jess of the .SoorrMan's Rock .In the wake oF" •• . TwelversT .The inner door .tfhe Viking *gTood (1921). .Cattle. Brave and Gallant Gentleman (JTSTs) „ .The forging o f t he pikes. setting, subj ect, etc. . . . p r a i r i e s . ...mounties. c a l romance.) ,.,N.S.sea l i f e ...Newfoundland ...Manitoba. . . . P a c i f i c coast. ...N. S. ...Ontari o. .. .Quebec:. ...Ontario. ...B.C., Yukon. ...N.B. . . ( h i s t o r i c a l romance). ...Toronto. ...N. S, . . . p r a i r i e s . .. .Pacific; ,.. coast. ... (historical v. 1, Oct. 1919, -126- During the. firs t ; , two decades of the Twentieth Century Canada grew i n size and importance. The. New West attracted thousands, of immigrants yearly, and mining and industx-ial development's "Became important. . As- these tendencies; "became sigs. n i f i can tt. at, home the Canadian government was pressing with not- able success1, f o r a f u l l e r measure of external autonomy, and Canadians were establishing a proud record i n the Great, War. A l l these developments toward nationhood combined to evoke a:, s p i r i t of nationalism i n the c i t i z e n r y of the c o u n t r y — a s p i r i t which the poets and novelists of the period r e f l e c t . The work of English Canadian writers both i n poetry and i n f i c t i o n indicates the actual presence of Canadianism i n the country, and suggests that, t h i s force was slowly becoming stronger and stronger. Poets of the period vary i n the degree.to which they suggest, a-Canaddan flavour, i n verse, and some reflect, very l i t t l e at a l l , but a l l seem to s t r i k e a stronger national note than did t h e i r respective predecessors i n the Nineteenth Century. Novelists also suggest, a gradual progress towards a national awareness, but i n t h i s case the development i s from l o c a l to regional rather than from s u p e r f i c i a l and sporadic to spontaneously Canadian work. In a l l cases, however, i t i s evident from a study of English Canadian poetry and f i c t i o n t h a t national awareness increased s i g n i f i c a n t l y during t h i s period. CHAPTER V CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE SINCE thai-END of the FIRST.. WORLD WAR S i r Wilfred Laurier died i n 1919, and S i r Robert Borden r e t i r e d from p o l i t i c a l l i f e the following year. Through the e f f o r t s of these two men Canada had secured v i r t u a l inde- pendence i n external as well as i n i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s , and now needed only l e g a l recognition of her pos i t i o n to ensure f u l l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l autonomy. In the following quarter of a century she obtained the desired l e g i s l a t i o n , and developed her inde- pendent status so f a r that no foreign country could r e t a i n any doubt of her freedom of action. Her national status has done much to arouse a national consciousness i n Canadians, but certain conditions at home have marred the effect of t h i s development. Canada's i n t e r n a l history during t h i s period presents a mixed record i n which provincialism and f a c t i o n a l s t r i f e developed to hamper the federal system, whereas certain new c e n t r a l i z i n g tendencies served to counteract i n part t h i s decentralizing influence. But twenty-five years l a t e r , as- Canada emerged from the Second World V/ar, there was some doubt as to the r e a l unity of the country. It was Canada's new role as a member of the League of Nations which f i n a l l y proved her independence to be r e a l , although many Canadians of the time were doubtful about the -127- -128- wisdom of j o i n i n g the new body. During the parliamentary debate on the.League Covenant several Canadian n a t i o n a l i s t s objected to any i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s of Canadian sovereign- ty. '"In m i l i t a r y matters', said Rodolphe Lemieux, 'we are governed...by and from Ottawa, and not by and from London; and we do not want to be governed by and from Geneva. Indeed so strong was t h i s f e e l i n g that Canadian delegates to the League restrictions oh nat.'oniC jovctcfjntf brought up the question of Ano.tional l i m i t at l o n g / and even pres- sed f o r a r e v i s i o n of A r t i c l e X, which provided f o r armed support by member nations. With such active national sentiments a l i v e i n her c i t i z e n r y , Canada was certain t.o secure complete autonomy when opportunity offered. In 1922 the need f o r l e g a l readjustment became evident. When the Chanak incident threatened Anglo-Turkish war, the B r i t i s h government formulated i t s p o l i cy without consulting the dominions., but. asked f o r t h e i r m i l i t a r y aid i f i t proved necessary. Canada resented t h i s action, and rep l i e d , ' I t i s the view of the Dominion Government that public opinion i n Canada would demand the authorization of Parliament as the necessary preliminary to the d i s - patching of a contingent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c o n f l i c t i n the Near Bast. We would welcome the f u l l e s t informa- t i o n possible, i n order to decide upon the a d v i s a b i l i t y of summoning Parliament.''3, 4 In 1923, when negotiating for.; a Halibut..Treaty with the United States, "the Canadian government i n s i s t e d on negotiating the 1. Creighton, D. G., Dominion of the North, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1944f~p^ 456. 2. cf. Dawson, R. M., The development of dominion status 1900 - 1936, Oxford University Press, 1937, pp. 251 - 254, and also p. 504, which describes the significance of Canada's ele c t i o n to the League Coundil i n 1927. 3. i b i d . , pp. 235 - 236. 4. Canada also refused to be involved i n the Lausanne -129- agreementi. and signing the document, i t s e l f , without the l e g a l 5 l i m i t a t i o n implied by the use of B r i t i s h diplomatic channels. And i n 1925 Canada i n s i s t e d that she be excluded from the Locarno Pact!, f o r commitments;, undertaken by t'he B r i t i s h government did not.involve her. Thus Canada secured complete recognition of her right to conclude t r e a t i e s by herself, and to abstain from B r i t i s h foreign agreements. In these ways Canada prepared herself f o r the Balfour Declaration of 1926, It was at t h i s time, just before the Imperial Conference of 1926, when Canada seemed to have complete external autonomy, that an i n t e r n a l c r i s i s arose to threaten her sovereignty. In the general elections of 1925 the. L i b e r a l government secured only 101 seats, as opposed to the t o t a l of 116 gained by the Conservative opposition. With the aid of the Progressives, Mr. King, the prime minister, hoped to maintain his government. This? plan failed., however, when the customs scandal broke i n 1926. Mr, King then asked the governor- general to dissolve parliament, but the l a t t e r refused, choosing instead to ask the Conservative opposition to form ar government. Three days l a t e r he granted to that f a c t i o n the d i s s o l u t i o n he had refused to Mr. King. This interference i n parliamentary government on the part, of the king's, representa- t i v e challenged Canadian autonomy. Mr; King fought, the ensuing campaign on the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l issue, and won. (note 4, cont.) Treaty with Turkey (1924) when not i n v i t e d to the Conference; cf. i b i d . , pp. 258 - 272. 5. cf. Dawson, op. c i t . , pp. 254 - 257. -130- With these;issues s t i l l of recent interest, Canada- was^ determined to secure complete c o n s t i t u t i o n a l autonomy as.. s:oon as; possible. At the Imperial Conference of 1926 Mr. King, with valuable support from I r i s h and South A f r i c a n delegates, secured the famous Balfour Declaration, which foreshadowed complete c o n s t i t u t i o n a l autonomy. The dominions are, declared the report, autonomous Communities within the B r i t i s h Empire, equal i n status, i n no way subordinate;-one to another-in any aspect of t h e i r domestic or external a f f a i r s , though united by a common allegiance to the Crown, and f r e e l y associated as members of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of Nations.° Five years l a t e r , i n 1931, the Statute of Westminster provided eonstitutional recognition of the autonomous status of the B r i t i s h dominions as enunciated i n the Balfour Declaration. Since that date^ Canada, along with the other dominions:, has been a completely independent nation, and has; slowly developed her autonomy i n various ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y by enlarging her diplomatic service. In 1939, furthermore, Canada declared war f o r herself, one week af t e r the B r i t i s h declaration was:made; th i s action, a sharp contrast to the s i t u a t i o n i n 1914, conclusively i l l u s t r a t e d Canada's independence. Nevertheless, while she was becoming an autonomous nation i n external r e l a t i o n s , Canada was suffering national disunity i n i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s . A f t e r the F i r s t World War there- was considerable i l l f e e l i n g because of the conscription c r i s i s . The L i b e r a l Party reformed i t s ranks, but Canadians of a l l 6. Canada Parliamentary Papers, no. 10, 1926 - 1927, cited i n Kennedy,,W. P. M., Statutes, Oxford University Press. 1930, p. 703. -131- races s t i l l resented the quarrel. In the decade following the war a new sectionalism developed i n Western Canada. The.-; Progressive Party was primarily a western protest movement, and never secured: a national basis. Early i n the 1920's the Progressives won important numbers of seats, but l a t e r the move- ment slowly collapsed, and many of i t s followers returned to the support of the L i b e r a l Party, although others joined new protest movements. In a l l , however, the career of the Progres- sive movement suggests sectionalism rather than nationalism i n Canada. Since the decline of the Progressive Party other sectional groups—the C. C. P., the S o c i a l Credit, the Union Nationale, and the Bloc Populaire—have arisen. Some of these groups have a national platform and support national election campaigns, but t h e i r support i s almost, e n t i r e l y sectional or p r o v i n c i a l and has, therefore, fostered sectionalism rather than nationalism. In 1933 a group of Canadian p o l i t i c i a n s met and proclaimed the Regina Manifesto. The resultant C. C. FJ. Party, a socialist.group, has gained remarkable strength since then, but i t s support has been confined almost e n t i r e l y to Y/estern Canada, and i n Western Canada larg e l y to the Province of Saskatchewan. In 1935 the S o c i a l Credit Party won the p r o v i n c i a l elections i n 'Alberta, and since then has carried most Alberta seats i n general elections. It has a national platform but only a p r o v i n c i a l basis. The-Union Nationale and Bloc Populaire are both Quebec parties which have received considerable support from French Canadians. These various groups., and the divergent economic and s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s they -132- represent indicate the r e a l strength of provincialism i n Canada. Furthermore Canada's population has ceased to increase as rapidly i n the two decades since 1921 as i t did i n the preceding period. Immigration figures, which showed such numbers as 184,000 migrants i n 1906 and 331,000 i n 1911, f e l l t.o 91,700 i n 1921 and 16,900 i n 1939. 8 The r a t i o of foreign 9 to Anglo-Saxon immigrants has, however, increased. This f a c t suggests that those immigrants who are most; h e l p f u l to the. development of nationalism i n Canada are beginning to form the major portion of Canada's new c i t i z e n r y . But the fact, that immigration has declined suggests that what provincialisms were i n the country af t e r the F i r s t World War would continue undiminished, f o r the lack of new blood to weaken them. There^have been, however, certain unifying forces which have helped to offset provincialism. The development of the North and the resultant use of a i r power has been a very important f a c t o r . The North has played the same part i n recent years i n f o s t e r i n g Canadianism that the West did i n e a r l i e r times, and a i r power has helped to give a l l Canadians a national outlook. This role of a i r power has become even more important since the establishment of the government operated Trans Canada Air. Lines, which has been as h e l p f u l to Canada as a nation as the Canadian National Railway. More important s t i l l has been the national communication system provided since 1932 through r- 7. This provincialism has been fostered by several Privy Council decisions which have stressed p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , cf. Creighton, op. c i t . , p. 467 (the Canada Temperance Act), pp. 476 - 477 (various l i c e n s e s ) , pp. 495-6 (Bennett's s o c i a l b i l l s ) 8. cf. Canada Year Book, 1941, pp. xiv-xv; Appendix I,T. 2 9. The figures are; i n 1891, 7,600 from other countries, -133- the f a c i l i t i e s ; of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission (l a t e r the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation). Since t h i s : network was established i t has been used to combat: sectionalism and promote a national outlook i n Canadians. News and comment- ary, sportsr, rnusicv drama, p o l i t i c a l speeches--all ha.-ve had transcontinental audiences, and have been well used tio create unity within the country. In p a r t i c u l a r the network has fostered Canadianism through the presentation of Canadian plays with a national outlook, written by such well-known n a t i o n a l i s t s as M e r r i l l Denison. The national radio coverage has, indeed, been responsible f o r the creation of a school of Canadian drama i n recent years. Others of the f i n e arts have also developed into media f o r the spreading of national outlooks. The-. School of Seven, a group of Canadian a r t i s t s , has contributed much to Canadianism. One of t h e i r number, J. E. H- MacDonald, has also written poetry with a national.flavour. In a l l there have been â  considerable number of unifying forces; i n Canada i n recent, years. These have combined to offset sectional and p r o v i n c i a l influences, and are becoming increasingly important. With these various unifying and d i s u n i t i n g forces at work among her c i t i z e n s , Canada entered the- Second World War i n 1939. The. war. of 1914 had fostered, national unity u n t i l 1917, when the conscription question arose; but'..in t h i s second war that question developed at an early period. In 1941, during a plebiscite- on the issue, French Canada opposed the conscription program, whereas English Canada supported i t . The disunity thus (note 9, cont). 22,000 from Great B r i t a i n , 52,500 from the United States; i n 1926, 66,000 from other countries, 48,800 from Great B r i t a i n , 20,900 from the U. Si. A. See Appendix I,T. I I I . -134- suggested dragged on throughout the war years u n t i l 1945, when overseas service was added to the conscription plan. B i t t e r f e e l i n g s on both sides continued through a l l these years, with French Canadians, p a r t i c u l a r l y r esentful. Nevertheless the f i n e war record of Canadian soldiers has aroused a measure of nation- a l pride i n a l l Canadians. E n g l i s h Canadians have been particu- l a r l y proud of t h e i r war record both i n the actual f i g h t i n g and i n the production of the tools of war. Indeed current trends i nt Engl i s h i Canadian!' literaiture suggest, that the recent war has had a much more- profound effect i n creating a Canadian national sentiment than did the war of 1914. The war has created much national l i t e r a t u r e i n English Canada, but from the e a r l i e s t years of t h i s period poets and n o v e l i s t s — n o v e l i s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r — h a v e revealed a national awareness i n t h e i r work. Two important novels which introduced a v i t a l s p i r i t of Canadianism are The Viking Heart (1923) by Laura Goodman Salverson and Hansen (1924) by Augustus B r i d l e . 1 ^ Both deal with the way i n which immigrants come to accept.Canada as t h e i r country. Miss Salverson was born i n Winnipeg i n 1890 of Icelandic ancestry. She was educated i n the United States, but l a t e r returned to Winnipeg. The Viking Heart, expresses, a' v i t a l national consciousness; i t i s the story of an immigrant who eventually r e a l i z e s that Canada has become 'his country. The following passage i s d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l . 1 1 10. Miss Salverson's other novels--When Sparrows F a l l (1929), Lord of the S i l v e r Dragon (1927), etc., reveaT"no*" Canadian f e e l i n g . Mr. B r i d l e has, written no other novels. 11. Macklem, J., "Laura Goodman Salverson", C.B., v. 9, p. 100, A p r i l 1927, quotes t h i s passage. -135- This Canada which had demanded much of them-- i t was- her country. This peace which was hers, she had paid for, just as she had paid a heavy price that she might l i v e . The old saying of her father's flashed fcack into her mind: " A l l things with "blood ix and t o i l are bought, a l l joys are cleansed i n tears."' Augustus B r i d l e was born i n Dover, England, i n 1869 of I r i s h extraction. He attended the University of Toronto, and has l i v e d i n various parts of Ontario and Alberta. He l a t e r became musical arid dramatic c r i t i c f o r the Toronto Daily St ax.; His novel, Hansen, i s also a story of Canadianization with a national outlook. Indeed the expression of Canadianism i n i t i s remarkable. In a t r u l y extraordinary wedding speech the immigrant, Hansen, declares, 'When i n a b i l i n g u a l parliament we have b i l i n g u a l M. P. 's who understand as much as they can of the' l i f e t h a t - l i e s behind each language, we s h a l l begin to evolve^-a nation as thoroughly Canadian as the people to the South are American...But so long as each race i n the country thinks i t s own ideas and customs and language greater than those of the great country of i t s adoption, so long as most of Canada- thinks i t s e l f only a vast juvenile imitation of the- United States, we s h a l l never be anything but a. vast juvenile imita- t i o n of the United States, we s h a l l never be anything but: aanational kindergarten, unworthy of those two great national leaders, John A. Macdonald and Wilfred Laurier; s t i l l more unworthy to remember the great French, English, and S c o t t i s h men who f i r s t tracked our mighty r i v e r s and b u i l t railways through the mountains. 1 3 Both The Viking Heart and Hansen suggest, a. new attitude to Canada as a nation i n the f i c t i o n of the country. They are e s s e n t i a l l y community novels, but are written from the point cf 12. D. G. French, "Canadian f i c t i o n " , C.B., v. 7, pp. 26- 27, Feb. 1925, c i t e s t h i s passage (cf. p. 27). 13. This passage indicates a r e a l i z a t i o n of the f a c t that Anglo-French antagonism i n Canada i s a major f a c t o r i n current Canadian l i f e . Indeed t h i s has been one of the most, important, forces i n contemporary Canadian history. -136- view of the stranger who has to overcome his European national fe e l i n g s before he can f e e l at; home i n his new setting.. As he.- does t h i s he tends to substitute-Canada for: his native country i n his national allegiano:e. The result, i s the emergence of a keen Canadianism stronger than that evident, i n the mores compla- cent, native born c i t i z e n r y . But. these two novels stand apart, from the work of t h e i r authors as-a-whole. Neither novelist, has written another book displaying a s i m i l a r Canadian awareness. The f e e l i n g evident i n these novels i s important, but i s hardly representative of a widespread or permanent.feeling. The f i r s t i C a n a d i a n novelist.to display a v i t a l Canadian f e e l i n g throughout the whole, of his work i s Frederick P h i l i p Grove (b. 1872). Born i n Sweden and educated i n Europe, Mr. Grove settled i n America quite by accident i n 1892. After that date he l i v e d alternately i n Canada and the United'States, but he gradually came to regard Canada, as his home. Prom. 1893 he-was- constantly writing f i c t i o n , but..he was unable to f i n d a publisher f o r his work f o r almost t h i r t y years. Undaunted by t h i s adverse reception, he wrote novels r e f l e c t i n g a v i t a l Canadian awareness i n the face of the severest personal hard- ships and with no prospect, of ever publishing h i s work, when- he f i n a l l y did f i n d a publisher he found that his novels were not a f i n a n c i a l success. Perhaps because he was-writing for/no u l t e r i o r motive, perhaps because his hardships made him r e a l i z e the essential q u a l i t i e s of Canadian l i f e , he has displayed a national f e e l i n g that has not. been surpassed by any other Canadian novelist. A Search f o r America (published 1927) W a s written i n -13,7- 1893 and 1894. It. i s largely autobiographical, being the story of an immigrant to North America whose experiences were very sim i l a r to those of Grove's own l i f e i n his f i r s t years^in the New World.. The ; dominant f e e l i n g i s the s p i r i t : oftthe New World; as the; hero puts aside h i s European fee l i n g s and acquires: an American outlook he comes to f e e l quite" North American i n s p i r i t . "My fi r s t ; i m p r e s s i o n (of America)...was that of a f l o a t i n g tide, changing quickly, unthinkingly, c o n t i n u a l l y - - l i k e the winds which blow over the continent. But i t i s the surface only to which I belonged....Underneath t h i s f r a n t i c c a c t i o n , t h i s ever- changing surface-agitation, I have i n the course of years, learned to discern an ever-growing, s o l i d foundation which i s as f i r m as the rocks:, moving only i n quiet, steady, unvarying motion--a motion headed towards clearer insight, and a firmer resolve to assert i t s e l f . In order to catch the r e a l trend of American thought you have to get your ear down to the s o i l to l i s t e n . Then you w i l l hear the sanity, the good sgnse and the good w i l l which are t r u l y American. 4 S e t t l e r s of the. Marsh (published 1925) was written i n 1917 and 1918, but. abridged for. publication. I t i s the story of a Swedish immigrant ..who settled i n Northern Manitoba. It i s a community novel, but the community becomes.a symbol of the Canadian nation; i t i s the record of the "creating of a c i v i l i z - ation i n the Canadian West." 1 5 The Yoke of L i f e (published 1930) was written from 1913 to 1920. I t i s his l a s t pioneer novel, and i s si m i l a r to S e t t l e r s of the Marsh. Our Daily Bread (1928) and F r u i t s of the Earth (1933) deal with the e f f o r t s of second and t h i r d generation Canadians 14. Rimmer, T. D., "The soul of an immigrant", C.B., v. 10, p. 17, Jan. 1928, quotes t h i s passage, 15. Pacey, D., Frederick P h i l i p Grove, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945, p. 47. -138- to b u i l d a stable community i n the Southern prairies;. In contrast,to the immigrant subjects of his early novels these deal with Canadian born people who are not so openly aware of t h e i r Canadianism, but nevertheless reveal a pervading national . f e e l i n g . Our Daily Bread i s the story of the E l l i o t family; the father and mother b u i l d a respectable homestead i n the Western p r a i r i e s , b u t the children rebel at the hardships involved and choose other walks of l i f e . The national f e e l i n g i s evident in the discussion of others parts, of Canada- ( p a r t i c u l a r l y B. C. ) and i n such i n c i d e n t a l references as the following: AS the morning wore on, his excitement had steadily increased. At noon he went up the h i l l behind h i s house. From there he could see the whole north road and part of the east-west road south of town. That was the-Trans-Canada Highway along which they must come. 17 There i s also much v i v i d description of prairiecscenery. F r u i t s of the Earth i s a, si m i l a r novel i n which the Spalding, family grows up and disperses i n the same way as the E l l i o t family had done i n Our Daily Bread, although the tone here i s much less pessimistic. Here also the Canadian sentiment i s inci d e n t a l and pervading rather than overt; but references tto i ft the country as a whole i n d i c a t e a thoroughly Canadian outlook. The change i n attitude between Grove and e a r l i e r novelists i s best seen i n such statements as the following expression of Canadian! sm: 16. cf. Our, Daily Bread, Toronto, Macmillan, 1928, pp. 155- 1577, 263, etc. 17. i b i d . , p. 389. 18. cf. Fruits; of the Earth, Toronto, Dent, 1933, pp. 4, 25, 197, 199, 263, 267, 280, etc. -139- Kingston stood, to Abe, f o r a l l that was p r o v i n c i a l i n the s p i r i t of Ontario; i t seemed strangely eastern; i t represented a l l that Abe had abandoned i n coming west. F r u i t s of the Earth was Grove's last, p r a i r i e novel; since i t appeared Grove has;, written two more novels, both set. i n Southern Ontario, Two Generations (1939) and The Master of the M i l l (1944). Both display a Canadian outlook, and indicate moods sim i l a r to those evident i n his e a r l i e r books. Expres- sions of national awareness are very p a r a l l e l to the examples cited from his e a r l i e r works. Indeed Frederick P h i l i p Grove has shown more national f e e l i n g i n his novels than has any other Canadian novelist, u n t i l very recent times. His record of six novels a l l thoroughly national i n f e e l i n g i s unique-. Prom an early interests i n the s p i r i t of the New World present i n his f i r s t novel (A Search f o r America) Grove quickly came to advo- cate a strong Canadian f e e l i n g i n his next two novels (Settlers of the Marsh and The Yoke of L i f e ) by h i s presentation of the assimilation of immigrants into the l i f e of the new nation. In his l a t e r novels h i s Canadian attitude has continued to be v i t a l and pervading. Throughout his works Grove r e f l e c t s the. importance of immigration and of the pioneering We-s.tL i n creating a national awareness i n Canadians*. Miss- Mazo de l a Roche, a contemporary of Mr. Grove's, has f a i l e d to suggest; the same national awareness i n her novels that Grove and others have done i n t h e i r s . Born i n 1885, Miss.-' de l a Roche l i v e d for. many years on her father's farm near the^ Niagara Peninsula, where she came to love Canadian nature. She 19. i b i d . , p. 6. -140- began writing novels early i n the 1920's, but-̂  i s best known'for 20 the Jalna series of novels. Beginning with Jalna- i n 1927, she has written novel a f t e r novel set i n the same Ontario l o c a l i t y and using one or more of the same characters?; The- setting f o r these stories i s the farm of a family of wealtihy E n g l i s h immi- grants l i v i n g i n Ontario; but the setting plays l i t t l e part i n her novels. With two young children i n a cold drafty house; with Adeline's beauty a source of anxiety; with f a r too many French about Quebec to be congenial to an E n g l i s h gentleman; with a- winter temperature thati, played coyly about twenty dazzling degrees below zero; the Whiteoaks f e l t driven to f i n d a more suitable habitation. Captain Whiteoak had a f r i e n d , a r e t i r e d Anglo-Indian colonel who had already s e t t l e d on the f e r t i l e shore of Ontario. "Here," he wrote, "the winters are mild. We have l i t t l e snow, and i n the long, f r u i t f u l summer the land y i e l d s grain and f r u i t i n abundance. An agreeable l i t t l e settlement of respectable f a m i l i e s i s being formed. You and your talented lady, my dear Whiteoak, would receive the welcome here that people of your consequence merit. The descriptive passages, though well written, reveal only a l o c a l i n t e r e s t , and'apart from these the.Canadian setting i s of l i t t l e or no use. It i s true that the Jalna material i s set i n Canada and that t h i s affords the author an opportunity to use her descriptive powers, but otherwise the setting might almost as well be Kamchatka or Zanzibar, f o r it., does not affect;, the story i n any noticeable way. Moreover, the characters? behave neither l i k e human beings i n general nor l i k e English people i n p a r t i c u l a r . s Thus Mszo de l a Roche does not present a national--or even a 20. Jalna, 1927; White oaks of Jalna,. 1929; Young Renny, 1935; Whiteoak harvest, 1936; Growth oT a Man, 1958; WhTEeoak chronicles, 1940; Whiteoak heritage, 1940; Wakefield's course, 1941; Two Saplings, 1942; The building of Jalna, 1944; etc. 21. Jalna, Montreal, Rocket Books of Canada, 1945, pp. 18-9. 22. Rhodenizer, pp. 106 - 10 7. -141- Canadian--outlook i n her novels. While novelists such as Frederick P h i l i p Grove and Maz.o de l a Roche were writing novels that were or were not Canadian outlook, Canadian poets were suggesting a v i t a l nation- a l awareness i n t h e i r work. Two s i g n i f i c a n t nature poets who have written work that, i s Canadian i n s p i r i t are-Isabel Ecclestone Mackay and Annie Charlotte Dalton. Isabel Ecclestmne Mackay (1875 - 1928) was born i n Woodstock, Ontario, of S c o t t i s h and English parents. Afte r 1909 she l i v e d i n Vancouver, and took an active part i n the work of the Canadian Authors 1 Association. Her most s i g n i f i c a n t volume from a national point. 24 of view was Pire s of Driftwood (1922). Of the 98 poems i n t h i s c o l l e c t i o n some 74 deal with poetic topics such as l i f e , love or eternity, which do not lend themselves to national treatment. Of the other poems at least 13 are thoroughly Canadian i n atmosphere. Her poems usually deal with s-ubje:ot:a. of l o c a l character, but the treatment i s permeated with a Canadian f e e l i n g . More conscious than usual, and very Canadian i n outlook,- i s "The Gatekeeper"? 5which i s a r e f l e c t i o n on the 23. The work of^Frederick Niven, l i k e that of Miss de l a Roche, i s not generally Canadian i n outlook. Born i n Valparaiso i n 1878 of S c o t t i s h parents, Mr. Niven spent most of his l i f e ; p r i o r to 1920 i n Scotland. For t h i s reason most of his novels are S c o t t i s h rather than Canadian i n sentiment. In his l a t e r novels, however, he has presented a s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian s p i r i t , (cf. The F l y i n g Years, 1935; Mine Inheritance, 1940, The Transplanted, 1944). He died am 1944. 24. Her other important, volume was The Shining Ship and other verse, 1918. In 1930 McClelland and Stewart (Toronto) published The complete poems of Isabel Ecclestone Mackay. For an analysis of F i r e s of Driftwood, see Appendix II, Table XIII, 25. "Fires of Driftwood", Complete Poems, pp. 41 - 42. -142- glory of Quebec City, i n pert the poem reads?, The sunlight; f a l l s on old Quebec^ A c i t y framed of rose and gold, An ancient gem more b e a u t i f u l In that, i t s beauty waxes old. 0 Pearl of Cities.' I would- set You higher i n our diadem, And higher yet and higher yet, Thattgenerations s t i l l to be May kindle at- your history.'.... —11. 1 - 9 . Montcalm met Wolf e.* The b i t t e r s t r i f e Of f l a g and f l a g was ended h e r e — And every man who gave his l i f e Gave i t that now one f l a g may wave,' One nation r i s e upon hi s grave. & — 1 1 . 32 - 36. Another inter e s t i n g example of her. work i s the poem "Prom the 26 trenches". This pictures the longing of a Canadian who i s absent from his native land. The poem i s si m i l a r to Browning's "Oh, to be i n England" and just as sincere i n f e e l i n g . Oh, to be. i n Canada; now that Spring i s merry, Happy apple blossoms gay against the smiling green; Here the l i l a c ' s purple plume and here the pink of cherry, H i l l s i d e s just, a d r i f t of bloom with clover i n between.' Oh, to be i n Canada-.' there's a road that rambles Through a l e a f i n g maple-wood and up a windy h i l l , Velvet pussy-willows press soft hands amid the brambles Pringing round 8 s k y - f i l l e d pool where c a t t l e drink t h e i r f i l l . ^ 6 — 1 1 . 1 - 8 . But most of her work deals with nature, and cannot display such an overt f e e l i n g as do pieces such as those quoted above. These also reveal a s i g n i f i c a n t Canadianism which i s inherent in the method of dealing with the subject i n question. The poet does not deal with nature i n a p r o v i n c i a l or s t r i c t l y l o c a l fashion, but reveals e broader i n s p i r a t i o n . Furthermore she does not deal wih only one l o c a l i t y , but treats many parts 26. i b i d . , pp. 125 - 126. -143- of Canada. A t y p i c a l example of t h i s nature poetry i s 28 "Indian summer". I w i l l breathe a mist about me Lest you.see my face too cl e a r l y , Lest you follow me too boldly I w i l l silence every song. Through the haze and through the silence You w i l l know that I am passing; When you break the s p e l l that holds you I am gone.' 2 8 — 1 1 . 9 - 16* Another, important., poet i n t h i s group who was writing before the new period i s Annie Charlotte Dalton (1865 - 1938). Mrs. Dalton was born i n England, and did not come to Canada u n t i l 1904. Six years l a t e r she published her f i r s t volume of poetry, The Marriage of Musi a. As.-, i s to be expected, t h i s volume does not indicate much national i n s p i r a t i o n ; instead the poet i s preoccupied with r e l i g i o u s subjects. Her l a t e r volumes of poetry reveal a gradual assimilation into Canadian society u n t i l i n her l a t e r work she becomes thoroughly Canadian i n s p i r i t . In a l i t t l e chap-book, The'Ear Trumpet, written i n 1926, she displays no national sentiment, probably because she i s writing i n reply to the English poet E d i t h S i t w e l l . But during t h i s period the change i n attitude becomes apparent. The Amber-Riders. (1929), though mainly r e l i g i o u s i n tone, contains many signs of a Canadian sentiment. P a r t i c u l a r l y 29 s i g n i f i c a n t i s the poem "The motorist" which indicates well 27. cf. "The sleeping beauty"' ("Fires of driftwood", p. 37), "Lake Louise" ("Fires of driftwood", p. 40), "The gatekeeper" ("FlE^&ooT driftwood", pp. 41 - 42), "The p r a i r i e school" ("Fires; of driftwood", pp. 45 - 46), "A very exceptional Eskimo" (("The shining ship"; pp. 25 - 26), etc., i n her Complete.- Poems. 28. "Fires of driftwood", Complete Poems, p. 101. 2.9. The Amber-Riders*, Tornnto, Ryerson, 1929, pp. 86 - 87. -144- t h i s new national awareness. Her next volume, The neighing north, appeared two years l a t e r and i s her most important volume. It reveals a pervading f e e l i n g f o r the country that. iB very strong and permeates each poem, and indicates-the poet's f i n a l acceptance of Canada as her country. "The Neighing North" i t s e l f i s a fantasy dealing with imaginary and legendary a c t i v i t i e s of the Vikings and others i n the Canadian north 30 centuries ago. The following l i n e s from "The skraelings" (a section of the poem) indicates the s p i r i t of the whole poem. Time keeps no t a l l y , Kanadiens, of those years i n your Northlands, Thousands of years, whose days were uneventful and barren, Gods immortal and myth-men s i t t i n g no longer together, S i t t i n g no longer together and sopping i n crimson communigg, Whilst, i n the warm South empires were buried and builded. — 1 1 . 31 - 35. 31 "I know a White Kingdom" also suggests Canada, although i t i s primarily a r e l i g i o u s poem; the following l i n e s are: t y p i c a l . "I know a White Kingdom--"' Never to go there, Gladly to dream of i t a l l day long, Gladly to plunge through i t s glory and s i l e n c e — Ah.' what a kingdom f o r song.' But, f i e r c e l y to enter i t s pleasures, F i e r c e l y to bat t l e i t a pain, Making a f r i e n d of a noble foe;*--- Ah.1 what- a kingdom f o r men.' This i s no country f o r weaklings: Who husband t h e i r breath, Content to await i n aimless existence, Their dignity i n death.* 5 1 — 1 1 . 1 - 13. Perhaps the best i n d i c a t i o n of a thorough Canadianism contained i n t h i s volume i s the short ballad "The sounding portage". 30. "The skraelings", "The neighing north", The Neighing North, Toronto, Ryerson, 1931, pp. 8 - 13. 31. "I know a white kingdom", "A white kingdom", The Neighing North, Toronto, Ryerson, 1931, pp. 31 - 32. -145- Tiiis piece evokes a stronger emotion than either of the other poems quoted, and i s therefore a moreppowerful and impressive piece. The whole atmosphere-of the poem i s strongly Canadian i n sentiment; the suggestion of open spaces and loneliness:;oof adventure and t r a v e l ; of brooding nature and the occupations s u g g e s t e d — a l l l i m i t the poem to Canada. The wind roars and the r i v e r roars; Strange footsteps hurrying by, To the roaring wind and the roaring stream Tumultuously reply. The wind sinks and the r i v e r sinks;: And the footsteps dwindling by, With the f a i n t i n g wind and the f a l l i n g stream Pause, hesitate, and die. This i s the Sounding Portage where A mort of years ago, Pur-trappers bound f o r the hunting-ground Came trampling to and f r o . The red men f i r s t with b i r c h canoes, The white men next, p r e v a i l ; Together, they i n hardship tread An immemorial t r a i l . Here, by the camp-fire:; t a l e s are t o l d , And stranger things are said, How the highway then i s a by-way now And portage f o r the dead. The hurrying sounds make a man's f l e s h creep; Though he s t r i v e to laugh and joke, When the steps draw nigh, none make reply, And the scarlet embers smoke. The steps draw nigh and the rapid roars, The listeners--breathe a prayer, They think they hear f a i n t words of cheer Prom struggling mortals there.. When the stars' come out with rapturous shout, The nodding campers peer Through the fri n g e of trees to the ghostly stream, And lose i n sleep t h e i r fear; 32. "The sounding portage", "Ballads of the sub-Arctic", The. Neighing North, Toronto, RyerBon, 1931, pp. 51 - 53. -146- But the wind roars and the r i v e r roars -, And the footsteps hurrying by, To the roaring wind and the roaring stream Tumultuously reply. Then the; wind sinks and the r i v e r sinks With the f ootstepsr dwindling by, But., the f a i n t i n g wind and the f a l l i n g stream Like them can never die. It i s dawn and the deer are drinking, For the hasty camp i s gone; And the wind roars and the stream roars:; And the tramping dead move on. 2 A younger contemporary of these poets i s Arthur S. 33 Bourinot (b. Ottawa, 1893). Mr. Bourinot. was a- so l d i e r i n the Great-War of 1914 - 1918, but. his work does not often reflect; t h i s . In one or two pieces so inspired he deals with France and England; but most of his work i s limi t e d i n setting to Canada. He i s primarily a nature poet, choosing Southern Ontario and the Ottawa River f o r h i s area. But his work, though l o c a l i z e d i n subject, i s Canadian i n s p i r i t . Only ra r e l y does a conscious nationalism assert i t s e l f , and when i t does the resu l t i s not. always significant.; but-a rather s a t i s - factory poem of t h i s type i s "The Canadian Confederation", 3* which i n places, i s sincerely Canadian i n expression. Remember that thy people Live not by bread alone, And that the dreamer's s p i r i t Outlasts the strongest stone. Forget not that the ages Have touched the f a l s e with rust And that- the Godless nations Lie prostrate i n the dust. --11. 21 - 28. 33. His e a r l i e r v/ork i s well represented i n the volume Selected poems (1915 - 1935), Toronto, Macmillan, 1935. Later volumes include Rhymes of the French Regime (1937) and Canada at Dieppe (1942). 34. Selected poems, Toronto, Macmillan, 1935, pp. 62 - 63. - 1 4 7 - The majority of Mr* Bourinot's poetry i s devoted to nature study based on a national i n s p i r a t i o n . Among the more s a t i s - factory of these poems are "The Indian" and "Trek Song"-. "Trek Song" deals with the migratory habits of birds i n Canada, and suggests the pleasure of t h e i r nomadic l i f e . When the snow has l e f t the hollows And the. birds are f l y i n g Horth, When the winds are warm with A p r i l and the rain, Oh, i t ' s then the footsteps f a l t e r and the weary eyesight follows The ways that to the wilderness lead.forth. ° --11. 1 - 5 , F. R. Scott (b. 1899) i s perhaps the most remarkable national poet Canada"has produced. Born i n Quebec City, Mr. Scott, i s the son of the Canadian poet Frederick George Scott.. He i s now a professor at McGill University i n Montreal, and an active supporter of the C. C. F. Party. This party, as we have said, has a national platform i n spite of the f a c t that the nature of the support, i t has received indicates sectional attitudes i n Canada. As a member of this, party Mr. Scott hass taken an active i n t e r e s t i n Canadian government, and has found much t.o c r i t i c i z e i n certain p o l i c i e s which he f e e l s have been detrimental to national unity. A mild s a t i r i s t , he attacks a l l 37 aspects of Canadian society from a national point of view. A 35. cf. Smith, pp. 302 - 305. 38. Selected poems-, pp. 17 - 18. 37. Other Canadian poets contemporary to Sccott have attac- ked various aspects of modern society. In sharp contrast to his work, however, t h e i r poetry i s not national or Canadian i n outlook. Most of i t deals with human problems, some with nature.: i n a purely l o c a l manner. But since t h e i r works are. not Canadian i n s p i r i t i . i t i s not useful to consider them here-. Included i n t h i s group are such important poets as Dorothy Livesay (b. V/innipeg, 1909) and Leo Kennedy (b. England 1907, educated i n Montreal). -148- remarkable example of his work i s the poem "An anthology of 38 up-to-date Canadian poetry"; which attacks a l l aspects of Canada's cherished democratic l i f e i n very b i t i n g terms. The following quotations are t y p i c a l of the whole poem. I NATURAL RESOURCES Come and see the vast natural wealth of t h i s mine. In the short space of ten years It has produced six American i n i l l i o n a i r e s And two thousand pauperized Canadian families*. --11. 1-4. VIII OUR.. INSTITUTIONS ' Meet Senator Raymond D. Belgan McLocourt Whom the Canadian people have chosen as lawmaker. He was -unsparing of h i s private means (or hi s shareholders') In helping his party--sheer public spirit- J u s t l y rewarded by the lease of a power s i t e . Later he was" given a constituency i n the- Maritime ay And was famous f o r the^staunch way he got jobs f o r his frie n d s . After a few years of t h i s t r a i n i n g i n statecraft The death of Senator Wishwash, aged 97, (You know, the one connected with the Custom's scandal) Created a vacancy i n the Upper Chamber, So H. D. B. McLocourt was accorded the 'honour.'' —11. 39-52, XIV LAND OF OPPORTUNITY This young P o l i s h peasant. Enticed to Canada by a C.P.N;R. advertisement Of a g l o r i f i e d western homestead, Spent the best years of his l i f e And every cent of h i s savings Trying to make a l i v i n g from Canadian s o i l . F i n a l l y broken by the slump of wheat He d r i f t e d to the c i t y , spent six months i n a lousy refuge, Got involved i n a Communist demonstration, And i s now being deported by the Canadian government. This w i l l teach these foreign reds The sort of country they've come to. —11. 81-92. 38. CP., v. 12, pp. 290 - 291, May 1932. -149- EPILOG.UE I believe i n Canada. I love her as my home. I honour her i n s t i t u t i o n s . I r e j o i c e i n the abundance ol her resources. To her products I pledge my patrongge, And to the cause of her producers I pledge my d e v o t i o n . 3 8 — 1 1 . 102 - 108. 39 Similar i n theme to ,this poem i s "Social notes", a short piece which reveals a complete awareness of the Canaddan nation. CREDIT- This delegation of unemployed Canadians Has just been informed That i f the Government spent any more on r e l i e f So that t h e i r children might be decently clothed; and fed The credit of the country would suffer. —11. 36 - 40. GENERAL ELECTION There i s nothing l i k e hard times For teaching the people to think. By a decisive vote After discussing a l l the issues They have turned out the Conservatives And put back the L i b e r a l s . 3 9 — 11. 86 - 91. Somewhat d i f f e r e n t i n theme but also quite Canadian i s the poem 40 "The Canadian authors meet". It i s a b i t i n g c r i t i c i s m of the best known poets of the country, and i s hardly f a i r to the country's l i t e r a r y efforts.. The a i r i s heavy with "Canadian" topics, And Carman, Lampman, Roberts, Campbell, Scott Are. measured f o r t h e i r f a i t h and philanthropies.; Their zeal f o r God and King, t h e i r earnest thought. 39. CJ?., v. 15, p. 220, March 1935. Lines 86 - 91 c l e a r l y r e f l e c t the General E l e c t i o n of 1935. This i s one of the most dire c t r e f l e c t i o n s of Canadian history i n creative l i t e r a t u r e . 40. C.F.. v. 15, p. 338, D e c , 1935; Smith, p. 361. -150- The cakes are sweet, but sweeter the f e e l i n g That one i s mixing with the l i t e r a t i ; It. warms; the old and melts, the most congealing. Really, i t i s a most d e l i g h t f u l party. Shall we go round the mulberry bush, or s h a l l We gather at the r i v e r , or s h a l l wê Appoint, a poet laureate t h i s F a l l , . Or s h a l l we have another cup of tea? 0 Canada., 0 Canada, Oh can A day go by without; new authors springing. To paint, the. native maple, and to plan . More ways to set the selfsame welkin r i n g i n g ? 4 0 —11.9-24. Primarily nature poetry, but almost as national i n f e e l i n g as that of P. R. Scott, i s the poetry of Wilson MacDonald. 4 1 Born i n Cheapside, Ontario, of S c o t t i s h and Canadian parents, Wilson MacDonald has l i v e d i n every province except Prince Edward Island. In t h i s way he has been able to appreciate nature i n various l o c a l i t i e s but r e t a i n a national perspective. A s i g n i f i c a n t volume was h i s Out of the 42 A*̂  Wilderness.; (1926). Of the 21 poems i n the f i r s t t p a r t of. t h i s volume ("The book of the wilderness") 10—almost h a l f - - are d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n outlook, and at least 4 are. thoroughly national. One of his most significant, national 44 pieces i s "Out of the wilderness" i t s e l f . My song i s a roseate rug, yet not of the- Orient 1. Here i s the weave of i t : seaweed, curled black with s a l t , Under the cold, high c l i f f s of Gaspe; Pine-shadowed snow, at the dome of the Selkirks, Burning with suns and flaming with moons and remaining forever; Sands from the r e s t l e s s and changeable dunes of Wasaga;; Slim, hardy reeds i n the broad, lonely marshes 41. Song of the p r a i r i e land and other poems, 1918; Out of the wilderness, 1926; A flagon of beauty, 1951;The song of the undertow and other poems, 1935; Comber Cove, 1944, etc.:. 42. Ottawa, Graphic, 1926. 43. See Appendix II, TableXIV. 44. Out of the Wilderness, Ottawa, Graphic, 1926, pp. 3 - 6. -151- Where James Bay f a l t e r s between her allegiance To land and the gray, green water; Gold suns.that oslip from the world atoAiberni, Warming the. seas with t h e i r f i r e s ; Threads of blue mist from the indolent valleys Of the low, lovely, lounging Laurentians; Sighs of the hemlock and snow-loving tamarack, Where^ the trees march to the south i n Slaskatchewan; F i r s that, leap up from dark Capilano Where music glides down a long s t a i r to the sea; Orange and purple and crimson and bronze From the gay palette of gorgeous October In the l a k e - l y r i c land of Algonquin; Shadows from deep, f r o s t y f i s s u r e s whose^ waters S l i p from t h e i r turbulent l i f e to the h i l l - c r a d l e d Shuswap; Leaves of the red-limbed arbutus and roses of red, Leaning low to the sea i n V i c t o r i a , The a l l - l o v e l y l y r i c of c i t i e s . And, through a l l these c o l o r f u l threads of my song,.. Tolerance, truth, and the k i s s of f u l l brotherhood. —11.44-70. A l l these major Eng l i s h Canadian poets, have written verse that i s d i s t i n c t l y national i n flavour during the period since 1920. The f a c t that, there are so many with so widely divergent interests suggests the r e a l strength of Canadianism i n t h i s period i n spite of the various, p r o v i n c i a l and sectional attitudes apparent.in the history of the period. There were, however, certain poets contemporary with them who reveal ajfemast no, or only a moderate, Canadian s p i r i t i n t h e i r work. S i g n i f i - cant i n t h i s group of poets i s a .Montreal quartette-. Of these, Abraham M. K l e i n (b.- 1909) 4 5 suggests; no Canadianism i n his poetry. Says one c r i t i c , "It i s a somewhat paradoxical f a c t that the greatest l i v i n g poet i n Canada whose work i s a conscious and inspired expression of nationalism i s not concerned with Canadian nationalism, but with an a l i e n , proud, and ancient nationalism--that of Judea." 4^ Leo Kennedy4'* 4 ® 45. Hath not a Jew.. ., 1940; The H i t l e r i a d , 1944; Poems, 1944, 46. Smith, p. 390. 47. The Shrouding. 1935. 48. cf. page 147, note 37. -152- (b. 1907) has not written many poems, hut those which he has written have been well received by the c r i t i c s . His work reveals- no Canadian f e e l i n g , but i s si m i l a r to the work of the American poet T. S. E l i o t . A t h i r d poet i n the Montreal group i s Leo Cox 4 9 (b. 1898). Born i n London and educated i n England, Mr . L G ox:'served with the Canadian army during the F i r s t World War. He also has not published much poetry as yet, but what has appeared has at times a national flavour. Much of his work i s l o c a l i n character, but. the localism i s not a narrow provin- cialism, but a broader appreciation that suggests a blend of l o c a l and national sentiments. S i g n i f i c a n t are his poems "Father Point i n August" 5 0 and "Labrador Night" 1, 5 1 both of which reveal a Canadian sentiment. "Labrador Night" reads, To-night our ship i s anchored where Sand-silvered i s the shore, To f i n d at Havre St. Pierre Black gold of Labrador. The pioneer's f i r s t night on land, Unsteady from the seas, . Was not more s t i l l than t h i s , the sand And stars the same as these This cycle of the selfsame wind, Cooled i n f a r h i l l s of snow, And charged with balsam, makes the mind At one with h i s of long ago. So l i t t l e t r a v e l l e d i s the street With grasses overgrown, There may be traces of his feet By weed and flower and stone. And a l l the houses face the s e a - Mo ther of gain and lo s s - - And every heart i n piety Is turned toward a cross. 2 49. Sheepfold, 1926; The wind i n the f i e l d , 1932; River without end, 1957; North Star, 1941. 5X1. cf. Bennett, p. 26. 51. Smith, p. 311. -153- Ihe fourth poet i n the Montreal group i s A. J. M. 52 Smith (h. 1902). Born i n Montreal and educated at McGill and Edinburgh, Mr. Smith has contributed much to national l i t e r a - ture, i n Canada by publishing an anthology of English Canadian 53 poetry which stresses national verse, but his poetry i s not national i n sentiment. Of the 39 poems i n h i s Hews of the 52,54 55 Phoenix only 1, "The lonely land", suggests a Canadian in s p i r a t i o n , and that hardly a national one. Cedar and jagged f i r u p l i f t sharp barbs against the gray and cloud-piled sky; and i n the bay blown spume and windrift and thin, b i t t e r spray snap at the whirling sky; and the pine trees lean one way. --11. 1 - 11. These, then, are the important poets and novelists i n the period from 1920 to the beginning of the Second World War who have suggested a v i t a l national awareness i n t h e i r work. On the whole they have not r e f l e c t e d many of the v i t a l influences which have tended to arouse a Canadian national s p i r i t i n t h i s period; but they have, nevertheless, r e f l e c t e d a v i t a l nation- alism. The same attitude which i s evident i n t h e i r poetry appears also i n i n c i d e n t a l verse during t h i s period. It i s convenient to summarize the national trend i n such work i n tabular form; but a few i n d i v i d u a l examples can f i r s t be c i t e d . 52. News of the phoenix and other poems, Toronto,Ryerson,1943 53. The Book of Canadian poetry, University of Chicago Press, 1943. 54. See Appendix "II, Table XV. 55. News of. the phoenix, p. 19; CP., v. 7, p. 309, July 1927. -154- Many of the poems l i s t e d i n Table Vvare sincerely and spontan- eously Canadian i n sentiment, but only a few need be examined i n d e t a i l . Nevertheless i t i s necessary to remember that, the examples cited only broach--they do not exhaust r-the sincerely Canadian sentiments found i n these poems. In a semi-humorous poem appearing i n The Canadian Forum, Si H. Hooke reveals a Canadian f e e l i n g that seems to he more^ than s u p e r f i c i a l i n flavour. The piece never seems to r i s e above verse, and the tone i s s u p e r f i c i a l l y comic; but behind these obvious features l i e s a sincere pride i n contem- porary a r t . One portion of the poem reads, 'I guess you're the only person i n Heaven Who hasn't heard of the School of Seven.' St. Peter, he dipped h i s pen i n the ink, And scratched h i s head, then, 'Strike me pink,' Said he, 'I've heard of the Pleiades, The seven that shine on. Northern Seas, And the seven torches around the throne, And the seven seals, but I'm free to 5gwn I never heard of these guys before.' —11. 25 - 33. A poet who has published several s i g n i f i c a n t pieces i n p e r i o d i c a l s writes under the signature of 'L. A. M.' This poet achieves a Canadian sentiment that sounds v i t a l i n several pieces, as indicated i n Table V. The following selections are from the poem " P i d e l i s Vulnera Amici", which i s a c r i t i c i s m of various aspects of Canadian l i f e . What's our ambition? Why we aim to be The Empire's, nay the whole world's granary....--11. 19-20. Slowly grows the oak; the lank and sappy weed ' Shoots limply up with true Canadian speed.... —11. 49-50. Say, what, remains when mines and forests go The way of beaver, and the buffalo?.... —11. 57-58. 56. "The B e a t i f i c a t i o n of the Blessed James", CP•, v. 9, p. 172, Feb. 1929. -155- Y/e have our f a u l t s ; but one we ne'er display — T o o tender j u s t i c e to the U. S. At Poor wi.ldered cousins.' Whom we fear and hate, And envy, and i n s u l t , and imitate. And yet, towards -England, our a f f e c t i o n mocks The wit with more ingenious paradox. Fondly we cherish her i n f i l i a l pride So long as a l l the p r o f i t ' s on our side. ' —11. 143-50. And i n another piece t h i s poet makes some b i t t e r comments on Canadian poetry. The one thing that our poets need i s — g u t s . One half t h e i r work i s b i l g e ; the rest i s rot, The limp expression of a flabby thought.... —11. 99-101, 'Here l i e s Canadian poetry; Dead, i n a Hospital of P a r a l y t i c s , 5 8 Smother'd i n kindness by complacent c r i t i c s . ' --11. 130-2. Grace Tomkinson i n a poem e n t i t l e d "Snow f o r - Christmas"^ succeeds quite well i n presenting a picture of one aspect of Canadian l i f e from a national point, of view. Her sentiment i s f a i r l y rare because many writers who deal with nature or aspects of everyday l i f e f a i l to reveal any national sentiment. Because some i s present here, we must assume that the poet felt;, an unconscious Canadian sentiment that, was very r e a l and v i t a l . The poem reads i n part, Christmas. Squaws i n the market, s e l l i n g wreaths; Fat faces, ancient hats and leg o' mutton sleeves, Eyes sulle n and heavy at the sight Of red berries roasted d e f t l y i n the club moss. A farmer s i d l i n g past i n a worn 'coon coat, A sheaf of s i l k y fox pelts over his arm, Anxious l i n e s deepened by cold i n his dark-tanned face; •Want.to buy a nice s i l v e r fox f o r the Missus f o r Christmas?' — 11. 29 - 3 7 . 5 9 5:7. C.F., v. 12, pp. 90 - 91, Decs 1931. 58. "And spoil- the c h i l d " , C.F., v. 11, pp. 221 - 222, March 1931. 59. C.F;;. v. 13, p. 101, Dec. 1932. -156- One other poem listed in Table V that merits examina- tion is "Pins for Canadian Wings" hy Paul Severin. It. is written in the free verse manner popular in contemporary English and American poetry, hut is quite Canadian in tione. It contains short and saucy summaries of trends in certain Canadian poets--critieisms that are in part justified. Charles G. D. Roberts A. M. Stephen Nature. Pan in beribboned saying his rosary spectacles. at a stampede. Wilson MaoDonald Arthur:S. Bourinot Wistful rebellion Rhetoric in the wilderness. joheskies. E. J . Pratt, H. T. J . Coleman Codfish Versres for: in a Witches' Brew; dear, ladies*; Lloyd Roberts Audrey Alexandra Brown Hot-blooded A T.ennysonian dryad anaemia. singing Greek tragedy by a coal mine. 6 0 With these specimens in mind as typical of the feelings expressed in many of the poems listed in Table V, i t is appropriate to review the various expressions of national feeling evident in the poetry together with some of the more significant examples of other trends in periodical verse. It:. is unnecessary tio consider the trends indicated by this table now; they are similar to those suggested by the work of the major poets-we have considered, and merely indicate that these feelings are widespread and not concentrated in the work of a few writers. General conclusions can, therefore, be drawn later. 60. CP:., v. 17, p. 211, Sfept. 19S7. \ TABLE V Author Ainslie, M. Aquarius Bailey, A* GC Eallantyne, L. Benson, N.A-. Bethune, N. Bo'ehmeri; F. von Brander, A .̂UJ. G, LT..E: Creighton, AiB Crossman, P̂ SP. Cynic Davies-Woodrow Earle, K.J. Fancott, E. Grant, W.E." Gordon, A4K. Gordon, H.K. Havelock, E.A* Hensley, S'iW. Hilgate,' H.C. Hooke, S.BJ.. Hopper, C. CANADIANISM in PERIODICAL POETRY SINCE"" 1920 Poem- Sfburceo Sentiment "Interlude11" ,"To a generation unemployed*" ,"Hochelaga" ."Canada an trails" "Ode for Dominion Day" "Red moon" ,"Our Mister King" . . ."Indian summer"5 "God's absolutely against it*" , "Maple trees;" "0 Canadâ " "Lampoon"1 "Canada" "Canada" "Heigh ho" "To a Canaddan ImmigrantM,i "Bone-dry" "In tihe night" "Prom Canada"' "Repatriated" "The Dominion of Canada" "The beatification . . of the Blessed James" "The emigrant's stone "True drama, on False. Creek" • C . F S • C j F j . . CT. By .DVR?. . < H F . .cclc .01 Eg . C C F j . . C . B . .CCB?. • C. Bv .cc¥. . C^B, . GiF*; .c.F. I'C.F. v. 17, p. 423̂  March 193-8 ...Canadianism. v. 16, Oct. 19306, p» 10 ..-anti-imperial. v. 12, p. 330, June 1932. ...Canadianism, v. 6, p. 63, March 1924 ...Canadianism. v, 10, pp. 145s-6, July 193D.. surface,: nat. v. 17, p. 118, July 193£7 . , .Canadianism. v. 22, p. 49, May 1942 ...Canadianism. v. 60, p. 46, Novr. 1922.. ...Canadianism. v, 10, p. 52, Nov. 1929 ...Canadianism. v. 14, p. 61, Now 1933 v. 9, p. 248, Aug.. 1927 v. 18, p. 70, June 1938 v. 9, p. 16-7, June- 1927 v. 9, p. 176, June 1927 v. 12, p. 250, April 1932. . . . localism (vsv. nat. v. 3, Sept. 1921, p. 9 ...colonialism. ...Canadianism. ...surface nat. . . . Canadian! sm. ...Canadian!sm. ...surface nat. v. 1, pp. 239-40, May 1921... colonialiem. v. 2., pp. 263-4';, Dec. 1921...Canadianism, v. 10, p. 16, Oct. 1929 ...colonialism, v. 13, p, 434, Jan. 1934 ...surface nat, v. 16, p. 125, Octt, 1934 . . . surf ace nat. v. 9, p. 172, Feb* 1929 ...Canadianism, v. 9, p. 87, Dec* 1928 ...Canadianism, v. 13, p. 205, March 1933 ...localjfesfltt. Ingraham, Key, A.F. L. L, A.M. M.K LapoihtVe, C '.Mi MacDonald, J . McMaster, E« Martin, A. Mercutio N i c o l , S. O'Brien, M.N. Osborn, M. Rabson, T. Ratz?, B. Rhodenizer,V.l Ridley, L.A.4 Ritchie,H .A. Rose; A*.C Ros's:, M.K. Ryan, B̂ A'. Sleeman, W.T?w Severin, P. Smith, N.E. Smythe, M W, Sc TJomkinson, G.. Wetherall, J.E "Canadian poetry" .. .CP. "Rockyford,Alberta".. .CO?.; "A' r e a l united f r o n t " . 0 £ "And s p o i l the child".CEV " F i d e l i s Vulnera AmiciirTc:;F: "Lines on a P.M." ...C.FJiT "1938 dialogue of . . . ctF. the dead." " T r a f f i c " ...C.F. "I sought, freedom" ... C .F ~ "March moment" ., .cTfe. "Canada"1 .. "Our fatherland" . . .01B1 "Two-party system" .. . C..F.V "The f e s t i v a l " . . . CTF£ "lines;. onTlS". E l i o t " . . .C^FJ; "Autumn" . .. cTF>- "Spring" . . .CTF% "The Ayr-shire muse". .cW'.' "The melting pot" ...̂ SS* "Canada: f o r man" ... CQB. "late spring, i n Can. ".CBS- "There i s a land" .. *CBp "AA Canadian i n Eng. ". .cT%- »Na,ti onale« ... " A p r i l 1917"! . . .CCBB "0 Canada" ...C.K "Pins" . .. .CF*. "The- Alaska Highway". .PI;Hi "For the Varsity .. .Ĉ B*S Monument" "Snow f or Chri stmas"..C.F. , "Azurecwings" .. .C.B; v. 11, p. 407, Aug. 1931 ...Canadianism. v. 10, p. 249, Apr. 1930 ...surface nat. v. 17, p. 118, July 193:7 ...Cranadianism. v. 11, pp. 221-2, March 1931;.Canadian!sm. , v. 12, pp. 90-1, Dec. 1931..Canadianism. v. 17, p. 100, June 193:7 ...Canadianism. v. 18, p. 71, June: 1938 v. 13, p. 451, Sept. 1933 v. 12, pp. 15-6, Octt. 1931 v. 7, Oct. 1926, p. 4.07(19) v. 5\ p. 51, Nov; 1924 v. 8, p. 223, July 1926 v. 14<, p. 221, March 1934- v. 13, p. 3319, June 1933:.; v. 13, p. 62., May 1932 v. 19, p. 157, Aug. 1939 v. 18, p. 112, July 1938 v. 15, p. 173, FTeb. 1935 v. 15f, pp. 326-7, Aug. 1935 v. 7, pp. 111-2;, July 1925" v. 12, p. 135, July 1930 v. 5, p. 277, Oct; 1923 v. 6'i p. 216, Octt. 1924' v. 15, p. 3:72, Nov. 1935 v. 9, p. 103, A p r i l 1927 v. 7, p. 5, Jan. 1925 v. 17, p. 211, Sept. 193,7 v. 24, pp. 164-5, July 1944 v. 6, p. 135, June 1924 v. 13, p. 101, Dec;; 1932 v. 6, p. 109, May 1924^ ,. colonialism. •.Canadian!sm. ..Canadianism. ..Canadianism. ..Canadiariism. ..surface nat. ..Canadianism. ..Caned!ani sm. .. Cana-diani sm. ..internationalism. ..Canadiani sm. . .Canadianism. . .Canadianism. ..Canadianism. . .Canadianism. ..Canadianism, . .Canadianism, ..surface hat:. ,, Canadianism. ..surface nati. ..Canadianism. ..Americanism. . .canadianism. . .Canadianism. ..Canadianism. -159- I t o i s much too early yet to ascertain the f u l l effect of the Second. World War on the development of Canadianism in literature. There are, however, certain indications that i t has? added much strength to that growth of nationalism which has been so widespread since the end of the First World War. Already several outstanding poets and novelists have written work with a national flavour since; the recent war began, and often under the direct:impulse of i t . Novelists have responded to the impulse with most success, at least, as far as the reflection of i t is concerned, but certain important poets have also suggested this inspiration in their work. Among such poets three--E. J . Pratt, Earle Birney and, Anne Marriott--are; particularly significant. E. J . Pratt (b. 1883:) hast;published many volumesF of 61 poetry since 1923, but.until recently very l i t t l e of i t has? been Canadian in sentiment, although he has associated himself with the literary l i f e of the country. Mr:; Pratt was born in Newfoundland, and that, country—the land in which he grew, up— has usually claimed his f irst allegiance. Indeed he^has admitted himself, "at heart I shall always be a- Newfoundlander? 63 The 1932.volume Many Moods, which contains 31 poems, i l lus- 61. Newfoundland Verse, 1923; The Witches' Brew. 1925; Titans, J926; The Iron Door, 1928; The Roosevelt and the Antinoe, 1930; Verses of the Sea, 1930; Many Moods, 1932; The Titanic, 1935'; The Fable of the Goats and other poems, 1937; Brebeuf and" his Brethren, 1940; Dunkirk, 1941; S t i l l Life:: and other versej 1943:; Collected poems, 1944. 62. Benson, N. A. , "Edwin J . Pratt", C.B., v. 9, p. 323, Nov., 192,7. 63. See Appendix II, Table X I X . -160- trates this spirit well. Only 4 poems in the group are Canadian in any way, whereas some 20—those which deal with local nature or l i fe in general—suggest a Newfoundland flavour. Some 7 poems deal with problems of human interest, in a< non- national manner. This spirit, is also evident, in his 1937 poem on fascism, The Fable.of thee Goats, But i in recent years Mr. Pratt has acquired a significant Canadian outlook. This is 65 most apparent in the long poem Brebeuf and his Brethren, published in 1940. This poem is some eight pages longer than the Many Moods collection, and in contrast to that volume is thoroughly Canadian in inspiration. Three hundred years have passed, and the winds of God Which blew over France are blowing once.more through the pines That bulwark the shores of the great Fresh Water Sea. Over the wastes abandoned by human tread, Where only the bittern's cry was heard at dusk; Over the lakes where the wild ducks built their nests, The skies that had banked their fires are shining again 6 g With the stars that guided the feet of Jogues and Bribeuf. Earle Birney (b. 1904) has also written several significant poems reflecting a Canadian inspiration. Born in Calgary, Mr. Birney has studied OKfcono&voiLy at the Universities of British Columbia and Toronto, and served in the overseas army during the Second World War. His volume David and other poems (1942) suggested a Canadian attitude in places, but his second volume—Now is time (1945?)—reflects directly the influence of the Second World War. Of the 27 poems6fn Now is 64. Toronto, Macmillan, 1937; Collected poems, Toronto, Macmillan, 1944, pp. 289 - 302. 6fii Toronto, Macmillan, 1940; Collected poems, pp. 36-94; the quotation is from "The martyr's shrine"'1" ponclusion] 11. 1-8, 66. See Appendix II, Table XIV. -161- time at least 5 are distinctly national in flavour. Particularly 6 7 so is the war poem "Joe Harris, 1913 - 1942", which suggests the effect of the war on a young Canadian soldier. In the.midst of life I have grown used to dwell with a gun as with a child to he petted, and to he ahsent from children. And I have grown used to cherish darkness and ditches and steel eaves as they were women, and to he ahsent from women. It is not.hard to leave these ways, could I stride from„them hack beside Canadian creeks in air unhaunted.67 —section 7. Thist̂  quotation suggests the national influence of the Second World War in Canadian literature. A third poet who hasrwritten national Canadian verse in recent years is Anne Marriott. Born in 1913 at Victoria, B. CJ, Miss Marriott wast;privately educated there. She has published three important chap-books, al l revealing a spontan- ea Q eous and pervading Canadianism.- In these, she has treated various aspects of Canadian life in a vigorous and enthusiastic fashion inspired by broad national sentiments. One of her more 69 attractive pieces is "Calling adventurerŝ ", which presents a series of pictures of life in Northern Canada--the new north which has played the part in recent years in awakening Canadian feeling that the west did in preceding periods. Here are papers, Medicine, longed-for parcels, Heavy freight no dragging portage Could have brought across the far plains. Lightning-fast they come, like lightning Slanttflashing from the sky*s roads, Pushing farther, onward, northward, 6 7 * Now is time, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945, pp. 23 - 27. 68. The wind our enemy, 1939; Calling adventurers, 1941; Salt marsh and other poems, 1941. 69. Calling adventurers, Toronto, Ryerson, 1941, pp. 3-4. -162- Where Eskimos stand, sloped e y e - s l i t s Widened as the n o i s y b i r d comes, White man run o u t - - s u r p r i s e d - - h o p e f u l - - SureJ As hard metal f l a s h i n g s Crack the s i l e n c e of the tundra, B r i n g i n g hope, l a u g h t e r and courage, g _ B r i n g i n g l i f e on t h e i r s t r o n g s t e e l wings. N o v e l i s t s , as w e l l as poets have p u b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l work i n Canada i n recent:,years. T h e i r n o v e l s suggest the r e a l s t r e n g t h of Canadianism i n recent y e a r s . One n o v e l i s t of importance i s , however, more r e g i o n a l than n a t i o n a l i n outlook. T h i s i s S i n c l a i r Ross, who was born on a Saskatchewan farm, of S c o t t i s h descent. H i s work r e v e a l s the i n f l u e n c e of the west, which was very important i n a a r l i e r p e r i o d s i n moulding a Canadian sentiment. H i s important i -novel, As f o r me. and my house, appeared i n 1941. I t i s a very r e a l i s t i c study of the misery of p r a i r i e l i f e d u r i n g l e a n y e a r s . The; n o v e l i s t captures a sense of the p r a i r i e s extremely w e l l ; he d e p i c t s one aspect of the Canadian scene most c o n v i n c i n g l y . In t h i s way he i s i n l i n e w i t h the community n o v e l i s t s of the f i r s t q u a r t e r of the century, although the l o c a l i t y d e p i c t e d i s much broader than i t was i n e a r l i e r n o v e l s . There i s * however, l i t t l e t o i n d i c a t e a Canadian r a t h e r than an American s e t t i n g ; the n o v e l i s r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than n a t i o n a l . The wind keeps on. When you step o u t s i d e i t s s t r o n g hot push i s l i k e something s o l i d p r e s s e d a g a i n s t the f a c e . The sun through the dust l o o k s b i g and red and c l o s e . B i g g e r , r e d d e r , c l o s e r every day. You b e g i n t o glan c e at i t w i t h a doomed f e e l i n g , t h a t t h e r e ' s no escape. The dust i s so t h i c k t h a t sky and e a r t h are j u s t a b l u r . You can s c a r c e l y see the e l e v a t o r s at the end of town. One step beyond, you t h i n k , and you'd go p l u n g i n g i n t o space. The days are b l u r r e d too. I t ' s wind i n the -163- morning, wind at bedtime. Wind a l l through the night--we toss and l ie l is tening. . . . The sand and dust drifts everywhere. It's in the food, the bedclothes, a film on the book you're reading before you can turn the page. In the morning ite's half an inch deep on the window s i l l s . Half 1 an inch again by noon. Half an inch again by evening. It begins to make an important place for itself in the routine of the day. I watch the l i t t l e drifts form. If at dusting time they're not quite high enough I'm disappointed, put off dusting sometimes half an hour to let them grow. But.if the wind has been high and they have outdrifted themselves, then I look at them incredulous, and feel a strange kind of satisfaction, as i f such height were an achievement for which credit was coming to me. The wind and the sawing eaves and the rattle of windows have madeethe house a cel l . Sometimes i t 's as i f we had taken shelter here, sometimes as i f we were at the bottom of a deep moaning lake. We. are quiet and tense and wary. Out muscles an^ lungs seem pitted to keep the walls from caving in. In contrast, to As for me and my house, The Hollow: Men, by Bruce Hutchison, is distinctly national in flavour. Born in Prescott, Ontario, in 1901, Mr. Hutchison has been engaged in newspaper work since 1925. This occupation has taken him to a l l parts of Canada, and to England and the United States, thus providing an excellent background for his novel. The Hollow Men is the story of a newspaper correspondent who lives a rest- less l i fe in a remote British Columbia, valley, in Ottawa, and in Washington, until he finally goes off to war himself. It is Canadian throughout, and seems to suggest a national impulse inspired by Canada's attainment of complete autonomy. The following passage is distinctly national in spirit . 70. As for me and my house, New-York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1941, pp. 128 - 129. 71. The Hollow Men, Toronto, Longmans, Green and Co., 1944, p. 4 X : -164- The-. size of Canadar was in the tower, the cleanliness, the fer t i l i ty of the soi l , the loneliness and the cruelty of the empty land. The mountains were in it also,- the hard, blue mountains beside his father's ranch, the riven cl i f fs and canyons of Mile Thirty-One, and the baked range, the trickle of water in the ditches. A l l thee substance of Canada wasegrasped and held in the image of this mighty tower. It was an old fancy with him. He had always thought of the tower as an image and symbol. Thus t.o him, though he would not have tried to t e l l i t to anyone, the tower contained more than the substance, more than the physical proportions of Canada. The very essence, the heartbeat and breath of Canada, the unutterable yearnings of Canadians in their empty land, the feelings of lonely men on l i t t l e farms, and the agony of squalid cities, the secret lusts, the courage, the mountainous confusion of these people, a l l were somehow held in the tower, and conveyed here more clearly than in words, pictures, or songs. Hugh MacLennan (b. 1907) was born in the colliery district.of Cape Breton, and spent his early years in Nova Scotia. He later travelled abroad to England and the United States, and has taught in Montreal. He has published two impor- tant novels each containing a significant Canadian feeling. Barometer Rising (1941) is a story of the Halifax explosion of 1917 and its aftermath, and of a returned soldier who appre- ciates Canada as his country now that he has lived abroad. However although the national feeling is constantly apparent, throughout! the book, i t is not particularly signif icnat. It. is too overt and conscious to sound sincere. From the various expressions of Canadianism present i t Beems apparent that the author was determined to be national in outlook, although he actually believeB that "there.is as yet no tradition of Canadian 72 literature." Thus throughout the book the. suthor speculates on Canada as a whole, but nowhere does he accept the fact that 72. Barometer Rising, New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1941, p. v i i ("Foreword"). -165- Canada really is a nation--his country. 73 Indeed he writes, Why was he glad to be hack? It was so much more than a man could ever put into words. Iti,was more than the ideatthati.he was young enough to see a great country move into its destiny. It..was. what-he felt inside himself, as a Canadian who had lived both in the United States and England. Canada at present was called a nation only because a few laws had been passed and a railway line sent from one coast to the other. In returning home he knew that he was doing more than coming back to familiar surroundings. For better or worse he was entering the future;, he was identifying himself with the still-hidden forces which were doomed to shape humanity as certainly as the tiny states of Europe had shaped the past. Canada was s t i l l hesitant, was s t i l l ham-strung by men with the mentality of Geoffry Wain. But i f there were enough Canadians like himself, half American and half-English, then the day was inevitable when -the halves would join and his country would become the central arch which united the new order. 7 4 On the other hand, Two Solitudes; (1945) is an important novel in which the expression of Canadian feeling is both pervading and sincere. It is a story of the clash of races (English and French) in Canada during the period between the First and Second World Wars. Unlike Barometer Rising i t does not contain long dissertations on Canada as a nation and the importance of Canada; but rather i t displays a strong and per- vading Canadian feeling similar to that.evident in the work of Frederick Philip Grovey and other national Canadian novelists. It is one of the most significant examples of Canadian feeling yet to appear. In Canada, a g i r l with background could seriously consider only one of three or four professions. She could nurse, teach school, work in a library, or be a dietician; she might even work in a hospital laboratory i f she had the technical training. But whatever a g i r l chose to do in Canada, she was badly paid for i t . A l l 73. ibid PP. 66, 70, 181, 193, 300, 310, etc. 74. ibid pp. 324 - 325. -166- the careers American girls were making for themselves— advertising, designing, screen-writing, editing, decora- ting, selling, even executive posts in business organiz- ations, law, medicine, architecture—were practically barred to women in Canada. Plenty of girls tried to make their way into some of them, bu^gthev were never able to get even halfway to the top, ' Gwethalyn Graham Erichsen-Brown, another important, novelist, was born in Toronto in 1913 and lived there until she was 16; since then she has travelled abroad over many parts of Europe. Herirecent novel, Earth and High Heaven, is a study of race conflict in Montreal. Primarily a study of anti-Jewish prejudice, the novel also stresses anti-Prench feeling, based primarily on religious antagonism. Important in the resolution of the conflict is an election campaign in which national policies are important, and the advent.of the Warrin which racial conflict tends to subside. The heroine, the daughter of the wealthy Drake family of Montreal, and her lover, Marc Reiser, a prominent Jewish lawyer, debate the question of how and where in Canada they could live peacefully i f they were married. The discussion involves the attitude of various social circles in Montreal and Ontario; and is only resolved when David Reiser injects a tolerant attitude from a backwoods com- munity where a l l three races are in harmony. Throughout the book awareness of the country as a? whole is pervading and sincere. The Happy Time (1945) by Robert Pontane is also a study of races in Canada. But unlike Earth and High Heaven and 75. Two Solitudes. Toronto, Collins, 1945, p. 240. 76. It is , perhaps, significant that Hugh MacLennan is the f irst Nova. Scotian who has written either poems or novels^which are distinctly national in flavour. Some parts of the country are probably more nationally minded than are others^ -167- Two Solitudes it is not a record of conflict between the various races, but the story of a successful and happy marriage between a French and Catholic man and a Scottish and Presbyterian woman. The story is set in Ottawa and displays a complete awareness of national l i f e . Various aspects of parliamentary, cultural, and social l i fe are discussed in a distinctly Canadian manner. Besides revealing an inherent Canadianism, i t also satirizes various phases of Ottawa and Canadian l i fe which are particu- larly anti-national; thus at one point the Presbyterian minis- ter, the Catholic priest-, and the Hebrew rabbi are brought to- gether in one scene. In a l l , the outlook is definitely Canadian. There have been, then, a considerable number of English Canadian poets and novelists who have written nationally inspired work in the last quarter of a century. Their work does not, however, reflect, the various factors in the history of the period which have tended to create a vital national feeling. Perhaps this is because there is usually a time lag between the event and its reflection in literature. The one major exception to this condition in this period has been the Second World War, which has already inspired some significant national feeling in English Canadian literature. Perhaps the most.inspired nationalism has appeared in the work of various novelists. Beginning early in the period with such immigration novels as The Viking Heart and Hansen and developing through the thoroughly national works of Frederick Philip Grove to such important national novels as Two Solitudes and Earth and High Heaven, the Canadian novel has become the most vital medium for the expression of Canadianism in English Canadian creative -168- literature. Poets also have written much nationally inspired work. The poetry of writers such as Isabel Ecclestone Mackay, Annie Charlotte DaIton, and Wilson MacDonaId reveals a Canadian feeling inspired by nature, and that of writers such as Prank Scott, E, J . Pratt, and Earle Birney a national awareness inspired by a more overt interest in Canada as;aanation. In a l l , English Canadian literature, hasr-produced a very significant number of nationally inspired poems and novels in the last quarter of a century.  "For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believefh [trusts] in Him las personal Saviour] should not perish, but have ev- erlasting life" (John 3:16). "In my Father's house are many man- sions: if il were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. And. if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself,- that where I am, there ye may be also" (John 14:2, 3), MNi§ ©ISTTOBW &iAut' Refected "He that believeth [trusts] not the Son las personal Saviour] shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him" (John 3:36b). "But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idol- aters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death" (Revelation 21:8). "And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire" [hell! (Revelation 20:15). KJUot will YOU do wik Jesus wUcU is called Chusi? CHAPTER VI The EMERGENCE of a CANADIAN SPIRIT; CONCLUDING REMARKS?* A considerable national feeling has arisen in Canada during the last century. One hundred years ago there was l i t t l e or no such feeling in the country as a whole; to-day there undoubtedly i s . An examination, of English Canadian poetry and fiction suggests that Canadianism has emerged gradually and spread to a l l parts of the country, although it offers no basis for an analysis of feeling in French Canada. Their ee has, how- ever, been in most cases a considerable time lag between the various historical factors responsible for Canadianism and their reflection in literature, and in some cases there has been no direct reflection at a l l . Furthermore the strength of such sentiment varies considerably from one part of the dominion to another. Indeed nationalism in Canada is primarily the result of the broadening or narrowing of certain earlier * pioneering influences, which have lasted longer and with more strength in some sections of Canada than in others. But in general there is to-day a vital national awareness in Canada. Three major factors which tended to create a Canadian spirit in the period prior to Confederation were the attitude of the pioneer, a strong anti-Americanism, and a love of the Canadian countryside, a l l of which were vital in the inhabi- tants of the land. As the pioneer gradually triumphed over natural obstacles and built a stable community in the New -169- -170- World he slowly acquired a strong feeling of attachment for his new land. This feeling is often vague, and common to countries other than Canadâ  but i t has: played a part in developing a Canadian attitude. In the period before Confederation the Nova Scotian poet Oliver Goldsmith suggeststthis attitude well in his poem-of 1825, The ..Rising Village. More important in arousing national feeling in Canada—particularly in Upper- and Lower Canada—during thiB period was the widespread animosity to the United States. This was largely the result of the two American wars—the American Revolution and the War of 1812—but wassincreased by border trouble during the Rebellion of 1837 andt'&he American Civ i l War. The most significant Canadian nowel from a national point of view which dates from this period- John Richardson's Wacousta—is based on this feeling. The novelist himself fought in the War of 1812, and was a prisoner of war for some time. Also significant in this novel is an appreciation of Canadian nature, a f^olLoai which has always been a most important factor in arousing Canadian sentiments. The poet Charles Sangster reflects a Canadianism inspired by this attitude in the pre-Confederation period. These, then, are the major examples of national literature in Canada in that, period. The two most important ones, i t will be noted, emanated from Upper Canada, Oliver Goldsmith being the only writer from the Maritime Provinces to suggest a Canadian appreciation. When i t is remembered that most writers of those times came from the Maritime Provinces, the significance of the attitude becomes apparent. That region remained isolated and largely unaware of any possible Canadian connection. It is also significant to -171- note, in the case of Richardson, that a time lag of almost two centuries intervened "between Ms participation in the War. of 1812 and the publication of Wacousta in 1832. It was in that part of the Nineteenth Century which followed Confederation that Canadianism f irst developed into a- major and widespread force; in Canada.-. The spirit of the earlier period had resulted in Confederation, now Confederation increased that spirit significantly. A direct reflection of the new nationalism appears in the work of Charles G. D. Roberts, whose poems on "Canada" and the "Canadian Confederacy" are well-known and inspiring examples of national fervour. In this period also the development of the New West played an important part..in awakening national consciousness. It took the fu l l resources of the new nation to open up the country and build the Canadian Pacific Railway. The poetry of Charles Mair-- Tlecumseh and Canadian Poems—is Canadian to Hie core and reflects this development. More particularly, Pauline Johnson in her poem "Prairie Greyhounds" suggests the national inspiration resulting from the building of the C. P. R-2 A l l these and many other new factors tended to increase Canadianism in this period. The three factors of pioneering, appreciation of Canadian nature, and antagonism to the United States, which were basic in Canadianism prior to Confederation, also contin- ued to be important in thiB period. The poems of Alexander M'Lachlan—particularly "The Emigrant"t-and Isabella Valancy Crawford—particularly "Malcolm's Katie"—reveal the gradual awakening of Canadian feelings in the pioneer. The Canadian appreciation evident in the work of such poets as Bliss Carman -172- and Archibald Lampman i s based on the influence of Canadian nature. And the national sentimentein Kirby's The Golden Dog i s based primarily on antli-Americanism. There was, then, considerable widening and deepening of national sentiment, i n Canada-in the period following. Confederation. In t h i s period, too, many more:sections of the country produced national l i t e r - ature, although some sectionalism was s t i l l apparent. Both Nova Scotia and B r i t i s h Columbia f a i l e d to produce any national l i t e r a t u r e of importance at t h i s time. I t . i s also i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the time lag^.so apparent i n the case of Richardson i s evident i n t h i s period too. Charles Roberts.' poems on Confederation did not appear u n t i l 1887—two decades a f t e r Confederation was achieved. Charles Mair had l i v e d on the p r a i r i e s some f i f t e e n years before he. wrote Tecumseh, and Canadian Ballads did not appear f o r another f i f t e e n years. And Kirby i n M s h i s t o r i c a l novel chose the period of the French regime f o r h i s Canadian treatment. Canadian national awareness developed gradually i n t h i s period, and slowly made i t s way into Canadian creative literature;; In the f i r s t two decades of the TJwentieth Century Canada made considerable progress i n her e f f o r t s to secure complete autonomy, but l a t e i n the period some disunity arose from Anglo-French antagonism r e s u l t i n g from the conscription issue. Early i n the period, however, the two races seemed to be drawing closer together. Confederation i t s e l f had united them p o l i t i c a l l y , and the elec t i o n of the L i b e r a l Party under S i r Wilfred Laurier i n 1896 as the new dominion government seemed to ensure complete unanimity i n the near future. This -173- feeling is well presented in the poems of William Henry Drummond, which are definitely Canadian in outlook. In this period, also, the development of the New West, played an impor- tant part in arousing Canadian feeling. The poetry and novels of R. J . C. Stead in particular, and also some of the poems of T. R. E. Maclnnes, suggest the influence of this inspiration in English Canadian literature. The poetry of Robert W. Service, when i t is Canadian, suggests a parallel impulse—the develop- ment of the New North in the Yukon. On the other hand, the poetry of Marjorie Pickthall suggests the continuing influence of nature in Canadian poetry. And more particularly, the Great War of 1914A - 1918, in which Canada played almost inspiring role, aroused in some writers a national attitude. Poems by Esther Kerry and Helena Coleman, in particular, suggest a Canadian feeling thus inspired. In contrast to the poetry, the English Canadian novel of this period is regional rather than national in scope. The important!; novels of both this and the next period ares not historical romances. Instead the novelist now centres his attention on some community, locality, or region in Canada and attempts to present a-true picture of i t as::.he knows i t ; he deals with the place and. time he lives in rather than with subjects romantic in place or time. This type of novel does not profess to be national or even Canadian, for that is not a prime concern of the creative artist. Most of this work is , then, regional in character, and sometimes i t is strictly provincial. The f irst important novelist to concentrate on one community was Miss A. M. Teskey, whose Where the Sugar Maple - 1 7 4 - GrQUITS i s considered the antecedant of the community novel. The important novelists of t h i s period are Miss L. M. Montgomery with her 'Anne' and,. 'Emily 1 series and Charles W. Gordon with hi s 'Glengarry' and Western s t o r i e s . During t h i s period i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , to notes that sectionalism weakened generally i n a l l parts of Canada, although Nova Scotia produced l i t t l e or no creative l i t e r a t u r e that was d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n tone. More parts of Canada are represen- ted i n the d i s t i n c t l y Canadian writing of t h i s period than were i n former ones, and the representation i s f a i r l y even and no longer concentrated largely i n Ontario poets and novelists. In th i s period, too, the time lag between h i s t o r i c a l events and t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e i s l e s s marked. Canadians seemc-* to have become gradually more and more conscious of t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y during the f i r s t two dedades of the Twentieth Century. In the quarter of a century since 1920 Canadianism has become even more s i g n i f i c a n t and widespread i n E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , but, with the major exception of the Second World War, new national forces f a i l to exert much influence on i t . The pioneering attitude, which had been the &asis of national sentiment: i n many cases i n the Nineteenth Century, i s again a most important f a c t o r . It was responsible f o r the group of national novels based on the assimilation of immigrants which began with Laura Goodman Salverson's The Viking Heart and Augustus B r i d l e ' s Hansen and became most, important i n the works of Frederick P h i l i p Grove. S i m i l a r l y , Canadian nature continues to exert a major unifying force i n -175- Canada in this period. The poetry of writers such as Isabel Ecclestone Mackay, Annie Charlotte Dalton and Wilson MaoDonald, which is based on this impulse, is Canadian—even national—in spirit . It was in the decade culminating in the Statute of Westminster (1931) that Canada finally secured domplete autonomy. This influence, combined with various aspects of Canadian government, has aroused much unity in the country, and in poetry has provided the inspiration for P. R:; Sfcott. Canadians have also come to appraciate the fu l l national spirit of Canadian history, and much progress has been made in research in this f ie ld. In poetry, E. J . Pratt's Brebeuf and his e/amp/e Brethren is a notableAof national feeling aroused by pride in Canadian history. And finally the impact of the Second World War has aroused a most significant g-eeling of unity in Canada. Canadians feel proud of their war record both at home and abroad, and feel sure of a national future. The poetry of writers such as Earle Birney is based on this important feeling, and the novels of writers such as Hugh MacLennan, Bruce Hutchison and Gwethalyn Graham-reflects i t most significantly. In the last quarter of a century, also, national literature has appeared in significant quantity in a l l parts of the country. Each province has its own distinctly Canadian writers, and, in general, as many as. any other. Thus section- alism has begun to disappear in Canada. It is significant, also, to note that the time lag has in some cases—particular- ly following the Second World War—become negligible. This is important, for it suggests that national awareness is now so -176- prominent i n Canada that i t i s spontaneous and i n t r i n s i c even i n the f i n e arts of the country. Canadianism i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e — a s elsewhere— has resulted from the broadening or narrowing of certain e a r l i e r tendencies. Local f e e l i n g s have ceased to be provincial and have become regional, then Canadian, and f i n a l l y d i s t i n c t l y national i n scope. The pioneering s p i r i t of the New World has passed as the country has become c i v i l i z e d , and narrowed into a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian attitude. And sentiments that were. foririerly c o l o n i a l , imperial or American have gradually become limited to Canada i t s e l f . Thus very gradually during the l a s t century Canadianism has emerged and spread throughout a l l sections of the country. Canada i s how completely independent, and i s developing her national l i f e more and more. To-day<r- there remains much anti-national f e e l i n g i n many sections of the land. But i t . seems likely: that i f Canadianism continues to grow at the r a t e A i t has grown i n recent years anti-national f e e l i n g s w i l l soon be n e g l i g i b l e . Indeed the: prospects for. Canada as a nation seem quite bright. I f the s p i r i t of The Happy Time becomes more general jnational w i l l eventually come naturally to every Canadian. APPENDIX I POPULATION of CANADA, 1806 - 1931 TABLE I POPULATION by PROVINCES:'-'PRIOR to CONFEDERATION (Burpee, L. J . , Ah historical atlas of Canada, Tloronto, Nelson, 1928, p. 33.) •Date: < Assim iboia; • Upper:: : Canada" : Lower : Canada : « • • New Brunsj wick : • r Prince: Edward: Island: Nova : Sootia: •1806: •1814: » M M 70, 718: 95} 000 ] 250,000: 335,000: 35,000: 9,676 i 65,000: (estt): •1817: — : : : — : 81,351: •1822: — > : 427,465: •1824 150,066; 74,176. •1825: — - < • 479,288 •1827: •1831 •2,390: . 236,702 . 553,131- mm mm — 123,630: (with : : C. IP.): •1834 •3,356 : 321,145 '> . 119,547 •: •183:8 : ! 339,422 - — — : : •202, 575: •1841 : — - • 455,688 •45,042 •1844 : — mm aa mm mm mm • 697,084 •1849 •5,391 •1851 : — j 952,004-• 890,261 • 193,800 : — 1 276, 854; •1856 •6,691 •1861 : •1,396,091 •1,111,566 • 252,047 •80,857 •330,857 -177- POPULATION by PROVINCES, 1871 - 1931 (Burpee, L. J . , Ah historical atlas of Canada, Toronto, Nelson, 1928, p. 33; figures fur 1931 from The Canada Year Book, " l 941, p. xv, -where the other figures also appear.) • : Province or : Territory : 1871 • 1881 • 1891 • 1901 • 1911 • 1921 • 1931 : .•Prince Edward Island • 94,021 • 108,891 • 109,078 103,259 • 93,728 : 88,615: • 88,038: :Nova Scotia - - - - • 387,800 • 440,572 : 450,396 459,5:74, • 492,338 ! 523,83:7 • 512,846: :New Brunswick - - - • 285,594 • 321,233 • 321,263 331,120 • 351,889 387, 876 : 408,219: :Quebec - - - - - - •1,191,516 ; 1,3519,027 •1,488,535 648,898 •2,005, 7S6 ! 2,361,199 :£2p874*i255: :Ontario - - - - - - •1,620,851 •1,926,922 • 2,1141,321 182,947 2, 927,292: '2,933,662: 3,431,683: : Manitoba . . . . . • 25,288 62, 260 ; 152,506 255,211- 461,394: 610,118: 700,139: :Saskatchewan - - - . 91,2.79: 492,432: 75:7,510: 921,785: :Alberta - - - - - - ; ; — - — < , : 73,022: 374,295;: 588,454: 73.1,605: :British Columbia^ - : 36,247: 4S,459: 98,173:: 178,657: 392,480: 524,582: 694,263: :Yukon Territory - - « 27, 219: 8,512: 4,157: 4,230: :N.-W. Territories - • • 48,000: 56,446 98,967] 20,129: 6,507* 7, 988. 9, 723: : Total - - - - - : 3, 689, 257 •4, 324,810 ! 4, 833̂  23:9.. 5, 371, 315: 7,206,643:. 8, 787,498: ,10,376, 786: T'ABLE III RACIAL ST'Aff'I ST1CS'-- CENSUS of 1921 (Burpee, p. 33) : Race ; [Prince : Edward , :Island : 9 Nova ; , Scotia: • New\ • Bruns- . wick] • Quebecc : Ontario . :English - - - - ' :Irish :Scottiish / - - :French ~ '- - - :German - - - - :Austrian - - - :Dutch : Sic and ana vi an - :Russian - - - - :Ukranian - - » :Totals: - - - - :Other razees*.- - : Total populati on : of provinces.. : 23,313: : 18,743 ; 33|4J73 5 11,971. : 260 2 ; 23L9. • 1 •202,106: 55̂ , 712: : 148,000 ; 56,619 : 2.7,046: : 682-, : 11,5D6 : 1,333, 520 : 389 131, 604, 68,670 ! 51,308 :121,111 : 1,6̂ 98 ; 80 I 3,698 : 2,142. : 185 : 3 : 196,982: : 94,947- : 63.V 915 :1, 889,277 : 4<;tT6B, : 1,901 : 1,413. : 2,219 : 2,802 : 1.176 1,211,660 530,493 ; 46 ,̂400 : 248,2:755 : 130,5)45; 11,790 5.0,5:12 12, 716 ! 8,60E : 8,307 \ 87,966 : 649 •503.̂ 913 ! 19,924 •380,499 : 7,3.77 •2,25:9,300 : 101,899 •2,738,303 ; 195,35-9 • 88,615. • 523, 83:7 • 3:87, 876 •2,361,199 •2,933,662: • : Race : Mani- • tboa- S&sk— ! atch- ; ewan •Alberta • British - ;Columbia- - •T'ottal of •Race in •Ninei- •Provinces :English - - - - :Irish . . . . . : Scottish . . . :French - - - - :German - - - - :AUstrian . . . :Dutch - - - - . : Sc and ana vi an - :Russian . . . . :Ukranian - - ~ :Totals - - - - • :Other races - . :T-Ottarl population : of provinces •170,2:86 : 71,414s : 105,034 ! 40,638 ; 19,444 ! 31,035 : 20,728 : 26,698 ! 14,009 ; 44.129 •206,872:. : 84,786- : 104,678 • 42,1524 ; 68,202: : 39,738 : 16', 63:8 : 58,382 : 45*343.- : 28,097- •180,4-78 • 68,246 • 96,062 30,913 • 35,33$ I 19,430 ; 9,490 : 44,545 21,212 23,827 • 221,145- : 54,298 j 104,965 : 11,246. ! 7̂ 23:7- ! 2,993 : 3,306 : £9,002 : 7,373' : 793 '2,5414,106 •1,107,309 :1,172,799 2,452, 202 ; 294,469 : 107,651 : 117,471 : 167,037 • 100,050 : 106,721 : 543:, 415: : 66, 703 !'6:94,489j 63,021 52:9,536 SS, 918 • 432,394- : 92:, 188 8,169,815 • 606,03:8 •610,118 • 75.7, 510 ! 588, 445; 1 524,582 • 8, 75:5r, 855 Yukon, 4,15t7; N.-W. Territories, 7,988; Navy,485-.lg,630 Total population of Canada, (census of 1921) - 48,788,485 APPENDIX II ANALYSIS of THEMES CHOSEN by ENGLISH CANADIAN POETS The following tables illustrate the various themes emphasized in certain significant volumes of poetry in Canada;. A l l classifications are: vague and indefinite, but these do show the various fields that have interested the poets in question. Eaoh volume has-been discussed in its:; appropriate: in the thesis. Numbers following each poem indicate.pagination. The following symbols are:used: # - - to indicate a thoroughly national poem, x - - to indicate- a poem that, is Canadian in flavour, but does; not suggests a national awareness:; TABLE I CHARLES?-SANGSTER HeaperuB and other poems and lyrics, Montreal, Lovell, Kingston, Creighton, 1860. — 4 9 poems. love - 14. l i fe - 7 11 Crowned" - 29 x"Ma-riline" - 30 "Eva" - 76 "Lost and found""- 96 "The star" - 104 "Love and, truth" - 109 "Rose" - 116 x"Gertrude" - 121 "Within thine eyes" - 120 "True love" - 126 "Song, Clara and I" - 130 "Good night" - 134 "Hopeless" - 138 "Into the silent land" - 139 • • • pastoral - 2 "Colin" - 68 "I'd be a fairy king" - 89 * m « colonial - 2 #"A royal welcome" - 59 #"England's hope and England's "Song, Love while you may" - 91 "Young again"1 - 99 "Glimpses" - 100 "The myBtery" - 107 "Ingratitude" - 125 "An evening thought." - 127 "The swallows" - 129 • • • l i fe , religion and eternity - 7 "Hesperus" - 11 "Malcolm" - 61 "The comet, October, 1858" - 63 "Margery" - 70 "My prayer" - 102 "Grandpere" - 113 "Yearnings" - 124 • • • the poet - 2 "The wine of song" - 78 "The poet's recompense"1 - 77 heir" - 114. -180- -181- Canadian nature - 7 localism - 4 #"The happy harvesters" - 40 x"The wren" - 111 #"The fal ls of the Chaudiere»-53 "Night..and morning" - 119 x"Autumn ode" - 41 "Flowers" - 122 x"Autumn" - 65 "A thought for spring"' - 128 x"The snows" - 92 . . . x"The rapid" - 94 Canadian - 4 x"The April snowstorm, 1852"-132#"The Plains of Abraham" - 80 . . . ' #"Death of Wolfe""- 83 number of poems....49. #"Brock" - 84 distinctly national. . . . 8. #"Song. of Canada" - 86 regional Canadianism....8. TABLE II CHARLES MAIR Dreamland and other poems, Montreal, Dawson, London, Low, 1868; reprinted in Garvin, J . W., ed., Master- Works of Canadian Authors, Toronto, Radisson Society, 1926, pp. lxix - 74. — 33 poems. description, not Canadian - 7. "The morning-land" - 9 "Innonence" - 20 "To a morning cloud" - 26 "Summer"; - 37 "The fireflies" - 55 2 sonnets, pp. 71 - 74 • • • description, Canadian - 6. x"The pines" - 6 x"The North Wind's tale""- 10 x"Address to a maid" - 32 x"Winter" - 35 x«Alice" - 46 x"Prologue to Tecumseh" - 51 • • • the Indian - 1. #"Night<, and morn" - 18 • • • number of poems...,33. distinctly national.. . .2. regional Canadianism....6. l i fe and death - 16. "Dreamland" - 1 "The beautiful land bj) the sea" - 23 "The*, l i t t l e wren" - 24 "My love" - 43 "To my photograph" - 47 "Stanzas from the heart" - 49 "Werter:"'-'- 54̂  . "Frowns and smiles" - 58 "To memory" - 62 "The lament of Andromache" - 66 #"In memory of Thomas D'Arcy McGee" - 67 5 sonnets, pp. 71 - 74 * • • local - 3. "Lines to Mount. Sti. Patrick"-30 "August" - 5:9 "Wood-notes" - 63; -182- T j A B E E ^ I I I CHARLES0 MAIR "Canaddan poems", Tecumseh. a-drama;, and Canadian poems-, Toronto, Briggs'j 1901; reprinted i n Garvin, J . W., ed., Me/ster-Works of Canadian Authors, Toronto, Radisson Society, 1926, 221 - 268. 21 poems. Canadian, description - 2. description, not. Canadian - 11. x"The l a s t bison" - 237 "Vain regrets" - 253 x"0pen the bay" - 255 "Abscence" - 259 "The r i v e r of pain"' - 260 Canadian, the Indian - 4. 8 poems, pp. 264:- 268. • • • #The legend of C h i l e e l i " . - 222 r e l i g i o n - 1. #Missipowistic" - 242 #The Iroquois at the stake" - 247 "Demos Tyrannus" - 262 #Kanata" - 251 . . . Canadian - 3. numberrof: poems.... 21 #"A b a l l a d f orrbr avee women" -233 d i s t i n c t l y national.... 7 #"In memory of William AA regional Canadianism.... 2. Poster" - 2S'7 #"Cabot!' - 261 TABLE- IV ALEXANDER M'LACHLAN Thee poe t i c a l w o r k s of A1 exa nd er • M' La. c h i an, Toronto, Brdg&s, 1900. — 158*" poems. i i f l and eternity - 30 "A dream" - 43 "On the,death of" - 45 "Who knows" - 48 "Fate" 1 1-' 50 "A v i s i o n " - 5:7 "GKaun hame"' - 66 x"To an Indian skull"-69 "The old, ruin grey" - 79 "The seer" - 80 "The ruined temple" - 84 x "Change" - 86 x "David, -King of I s r a e l " - 90 "The Halls of Holyrood" - 101 "We're a.' Jojjm Tamson's Bairns x«The h a l l of shadows" - 157 " I n f i n i t e " - 160 l i f e - 26 "Life's?contradictions" - 37 "To a b e a u t i f u l c h i l d " - 38 "A wreck" - 55 "The stamp of manhood" - 77 "Mammon'ŝ  i n the way" - 78 "The s p i r i t i of the press" - 98 "The l i f e of man" - 120 "My mother" - 132 "Curling song" - 139 "Sparking" - 195 "The p i c n i c " - 196 "Auld Hawkie" - 304 "My old SchoolmasteT" - 314 "-143 "Poverty *BU c h i l d " - 364 "A portrait, of Auld Hawkie"-34K "A lang-hefidit laddie" - 347 -183- "Ah, me.'" - 167 "Mystery" - 168 "Stars* - 169 "Atitiumn" - 171 "Thee early bluebird" - 179 "The s p i r i t ! of devotion" - x"Neighbour John" - 202 "The backwoods philosopher "Past and present" - 295 "Thomas Carlyle'"-- 30-8 "Daft;.Jamie" - 333 "Ahead of his time" - 349 "We're a l l a f l o a t " - 380 "Old s k i n f l i n t ' s r dream" - • • • love - 16. "Women" - 74 "Martha" - 75 "Cartha again" - 102 "We ee Mary"' - 102 "Love" - 138 "Mary White" - 140 "Sing me that, song, again" - "The flower- of the speed" . "Jeannie'srlocks" - 146 "Johnny keeps the key o't". "Charloch ban" - 147 "Lovely A l i c e " - 148 "Woman" - 149 "Lady Jane" - 150 "My love i s l i k e the l i l y " . "Clamina" - 384 "The cringer rebuked" - 362 "Go into debt""- 372 "We learn.on one another" - 3.75 "What, poor l i t t l e fellows"- 3:76 "Worth" - .378 189 "If you wouldc.be master" - 379 "The-, hero" - 381 "-264"Lang syne" - 383 "I long not.for riches" - 385 "Run Auld Adam i n " - 386 re l i g i o u s - 20. 389 "Cowardice" - 35 "Man" - 41 "Old Hannah" - 54 "Poverty's compensations" - 88 "Gladstone" - 96 "Watchers are weary" - 124 "Paisley Abbey" - 129 "Prologue" - 152; "God" - 153 "Awful s p i r i t " - 163 - 141"Settler's f i r s t ' Sabbath Dayi'259 - 144"Dr. Burns" - 266 x"The s e t t l e r ' s prayer" 5 - 270 147"The fisherman Is wife" - 291' "Auld Hawkie'ssD.ream" - 324 "My grandfather'SL; B i b l e " - 336 "The r a d i c a l " - 35:9 "Traditions" - 367 142"A song of charity" - 37? "John Tamson.'s Address" - 393 freedom - 13. Scot t i s h - 24. "Garibaldi""'- 73 "Up and be a hero'" - 93 "Pars-in the forest shade" x"The pines;'' _ 166 "May"1 - 170 "Sighs i n the c i t y " - 191 "The gipsy b l o o d " - 200 "Where' e r we may wander"1 -36 " S i r C o l i n " - 71 153"Robert. Burns" - 94 "Memories of a Sc o t t i s h l i t - erature" - 99 "1 winnaf gae1 hame" - 104 "Scotland r e v i s i t e d " - 107 "Reccollectlons of Clydesdalei'109 "'Acres of his own" - 201 x«The man who riose. f r:om nothing J! 204 "The;. SSfeotJ1 - 122 x"A backwoods^hero"1 - 278 "Awakened memories" - 113 "The*?knight of Eller.slie"-306 "A, 6 v i s i o n of boyhood""- 135 x"Wilson's grave" - 368 x"Hallowe'en""- 284 "The passing of j o l l i t y " - 382 "The wee, laddie's summer dayi'288 "When we. were boys together^ 290 Canadian - 8. #"Indian Siummer." - 180 ^•Oct'Obier"'- 185 • #"The genius of Canada" - 194 "The death of Evan Dhu" - 293 "Provost. John M'Rae" - 300 "To Hugh M'Donald" - 311 "AuldcGranny Boon" - 318 "The Warlock o'Gryffe""- 328 -184- # "The; men of the dominion"-205 "Daf ti. Maggie"'> 339 #"Young Canada" - 207 "The,= Semphill Lords" - 346 #"Hurrah f o r thee new dom. "-208""0de on the death of Robert #"The Emigrant" - 209-256 Tannahill" - 369 #"Firec- i n the. woods*' - 2.74 "Sfc^t&andc" 5.333 73 . "'John Fra®er'a; fa r e w e l l " - 388 nature .- 9. "OlduAdam" - 321 '.'Day"' - 172 "Sunset" - 173 "Morning" - 174 "Dawn" - 175 "The song of the sun"' - 176 "Bobolink" - 182 "To a; humming-bird" - 183 "May morning" - 187 "Whip-poor-will" - 188 • • • imperial - 2. "Britannia?"' 1- 32:, "The,. Anglo-Saxon"'-- 33 • • • number of poems.... 158. d i s t i n c t l y ! " . . 8. regional Canadianism....11. • • • the f i n e arts - 6 -"Heroes;'? - 311 "The poet to the painter" - 62 "Music" - 67 "Poesy" - 126 "Companionship i n books" - 257 "Burns" - 397 • • • love of animals - 4. "Auld Towser." -116 "The old. wan horsed"- 118 "Old Hossi" - 282 "Poor donkey""- 370 TABLE V ISABELLA VALANCY CRAWFORD Garvin, J . W., ed., The, collected poems of ̂ I sabella Valayicy t Cfrawf prd, Toronto, Br3ggs, 1905. -- 86 poems, love - 33. "Love's&f orget-mec-noti.""- 33 "AAperf eat . s t r a i n " 1 - 38 "Where, love, artt.hid?" - 40 x"La blanchisseuse" - 41 "The king 'S3 kissL" - 43 . "Fairy toil" - 50 "Sylvius to Chi oris" 1 - 51 "Said the skylark" - 62 "Said the canoe"' - 67 "The s a i l o r and his bride"-84 "True and f a l s e " - 88 "Love and reason" - 90 '"Love amongsttthe. rossesi?! - 92: "•Mary»ss try set!' - 95 "Latecloved—well loved"- 100 "Bouche-mignonne" - 104 l i f e and eternity - 27. "Said the daisy'"'- 341 x"The camp of souls" - 52 "The mother's?'soul"1'- 55 "Thee: i n s p i r a t i en of song"- 53 "Fa-bjy' ss dreams!.'.' - 60 "Said, the wind" - 644 "Who sees a v i s i o n " - 74 "Erin'ss warning" - 80 "Besides the sea;" - 82 "Wealth" - 85 "The hidden room" - 86 "Faith, hope and charity" - 10 7 " L i f e " - 123 "He arose""- 145 "His ciay" ! - 145 "The king »se garmentBV - 147 -185- "Love me, loves my dog"! - 113 "The burger-meister.'s welli'108"The legend of the mistlet.oe.fi 152 "Siaid the thistle-down" - 110 "In exchangeef on.- his soul" - 161 "The earth waxeth old."' - 163 "The king is dead.'" - 166 x"The ghostsr. of the trees;." - 172 x"Canada to England" - 236 x"Tbrontto" - 23:9 "Egyptt, I die.'" - 2SD "Old Spense" - 279 raini'243 "The deacon and hisf:daugh- x ter" - 290 "Farmer Stebbin's: opinions"-294 "The shell" - 114 "Love in a.diary"' - 117 "The Helot" - 129 x"T.he l i l y bed" - 169 "Gisli, the chieftan" - 177 #"Malcolm's Katie" - 193 "Between the wind and the "The wishing' star" - 248 "Vashtd, the queen" - 251 "Curtius" - 256 "My Irish love" - 260 "The Rowan tree" - 301 "My ain b'onnie lass" - 305) " Caesar' s: wif e ": - 246 • • • nature? - 8. "Mavourneen" - 76 "The stag" - 78 "RoBessin Madrid^ - 93 "The poetlof the spring" - ie8'*WarL"! - 1554 l i f e - 16. x"A/.harvestt song" - 36 "The rose" - 39 "Good-bye's^ the word" - 47 "Laughter" - 4 9 "Songs for the soldi era-?' - 70 "The. city tree" - 97 "Joy's city" - 103 "Thev:ChristmasBbahy" - 118 "Said the west wind<" - 240 "The vesper, star" - 253J. "An interregnum" - 253 "AAbattle" - 255 Canadian - 2. #"The rose, of a nation's thanks" - 45r #"01d spooksessJ pass" - 265 "The sword"; - 15:7 "Peace*" - 15^ x"Sfeptember in Toronto" - 149 "Esther" - 241 "The farmen'SBdaughter"'• - 2:98 I 'Ul l lauch to see the year . in" - 303 "A hungry day" - 306 • • • number of poeme. . . . 86. distinctly national. . . .3. regional Canadianism....9, TABLE Vr CHARLESSG. D. ROBERT'S Poems. Boston, Page> 1907. — 182 poems. local - 34. "To G. B7.' B8" - 15 "The frosted pane" "The furrow" - 46 "Thee: sower" - 46 "The waking earth" "Tib n l i fe , nature and eternity 15: - 29. "Autochthon" - - 39 "Kinship" - 17 "Origins" - 18 ««0 Thou who bidd'st," - 19 - 47 "An April adoration" - 20 Fredericton in May-time*47"Ah oblation" - 20 cow pasture" - 48 "Thee quest! of the arbutus" "Frogs;" - 49 #«In the orchard": - 27 "The. herring weir"'- 49 "The heal-all" - 27 - 24 -186- "The salt flats" - 50 "ButterfliesA' - 29 "The f ir. woodsfi"- 50 "Ah epitaph fox*- er hush andmanJ! 30 "The peas.fl eld*" - 51 "Epitaph for. a sailor?' - 31 "The mowing;.'! - 51 "The- litttleef ieldl of peaae" - 31 "When the cattle come to drinki!52 "At tides watier" - 32 "Burnt- lands*' - 5.2? "Thee uns&eeping" - 34 "The clearing" - 53 "Recessional" - 353 "The summer, pool" - 5S:> "E&rth comp.liesiV - 36 "Buckwheatt?' - 54i "Tw/o spheres;!"- 4.0 "The cicada in the firs'' - 54."Immanence? - 41 "In September.)" - 55 "Ascription" - 41 "The potato harvesti" - 56 "AAchild's prayer at aveningi'412 "The. oat-threshing" - 56 :«Ac ro sssthes flogs"1 - 455 "The autumn thistlesE? - 5f7.< "AA vestpear sonnet'" - 55" "Indian summer*' - 5:7 "The ;sMitlheasi©ftfthe frost"-5;9 "The pumpkins i n the eorn"-58 "The train among the h i l l B " - 64 "The winter fields" - 58 "BlomidlOn" - 68 "In an old barn" - 5:9 "The nightt sky" - 6:8 "Mldwinterrtihaw" - 60 "In the.'wide awe!' - 69 "The flight!of the geese" -60 "0 Solitary" - 69 "The wood frolic", - 83 . . . "The tide on Tantramar" - 85 missing - 4 poems, pp. 65 - 66. "Whitewaters" - 90 (probable-theme - eternity) "The f oresttf ire" - 95 "Ave."" - 3 "Mistt'"- 65 "Tides*' - 65f:. imperial - 45. "Dark" - 66 "Moonlight," - 66 "Khartoum" - 6>7 . . . . "The-:. Laughing Sally" - 73 l i fe - 16. "Kinsmen strong" - 123 "ffohnathan and John" - 124 "The Jonquil""- 22c. . . ". "Resurrection" - 22 Canadian - 9. ."Affiot""- 23 "The pipes of Pan" - 25 x"When milking-tlme is doneJJ48 "A song of growth'" - 28 ^"Collect for Dominion Day"-63:. "Recompense" - 29 x"The succour of Gluskap""- 75; "Renewal" - 33: x"The vengeanceeof Gluskap"-77 "AAbreathing time" - 33o x"How the Mohawks, seti out. "The/solitary woodsman" - 3/7 f:6rxMedotied" - 79 "The*: skater" - 39 #"TJhe keepers of the pass" -98 "The. slave woman" - 63 • #"Ganada" - 125 "Rain" - 64- #"Ah odeefor the Canadian "The deserttedi.: city" - 67 Confederacy" - 127 "The. ballad of crossing the #"Canadian streams" - 128 brook" - 81 "Marjory" - 97 American - 22 poems, pp.l05-119"A ballad of Manila Bay" - 100 ("New York Nocturnes") . . . . . . American - 64- poems, pp. 130-190 number of poems....182; ("Mi seellaneous") written in United States....86. . . . remainder.... 96. distinctly national.. . .6. regional Canadianism....4. -187- T A B U S E W I ROBERT' J . C. STEAD; Kitchener and other; poems, Toronto, Musson, 1917. -57 poems, wan-and peace - 15. lovei l i fe and eternity - 14. x"We were men of the furrow"-12 "Prodigal s t i l l" - 316 - 20 30 "The warrlord" - 15:. x"June, 1915" - 16 "To Prance" - 18 "Why don't they cheer??1 "The veterans:" - 23 "The? visitlor!" - 25r "He sleeps: in Planderst'.' - 2:7 "The dragon" - 28 "The soldier's wife" - x"The man of the.-house" - 53o "Daddy'SEhelper" - 80 "The attached" - 31 "The unattached" - 33 "The submarine!' - 34 . . . colonial and imperial - 12. "Kitchener" - 3 "The awakening" - 4 "England"1 - 6' "Thecoarll" - 8 "Heroessof peace." - 38 "The empire: builders" - "East!; and west!! - 40 "Mother-and son" - 5.0 "The charity ward<!« - 55 "The old guard;" - 66' "The silent ships"'- 71 x"The gramophone" - 145 3:9 number of poems....57. di stinetuLy nati onal . . . . 6. regional Canadianism....17. "Claxenccee and. John" - 75b x"The healer" - 96 x"A£. prairie heroine" - 115 x«Gfoing. home" - 122 "GCodo'ss signalman" - 12:7 "Justtbe giad" - 132 "Retrospect" - 134 "Thes sufferers:'' - 139 "The plough" - 138 ""Thou shalt not stieal"",!- 155 "The?:earrly days" - 157 "The homesteader to his dog!'160 "My beloved" - 162 • • • regional description - 10 x'»In the wheat,'' - 22 x"The seer" - 58 x"Prairie-born" - 62 x"Theemothering'!'- 68 x"Littie Tim Trotter" - e3 x"Kid McCann" - 85 x"Hustlin' in my Jeans'" - 91 x"The. prairie " - 1336 x"The homesteader." - 142. x"The terror" - 152: • • • Canadian - 6 #"Manhood's. estate" - 42 #"The: mixer" - 44 #"The-school-ma'am" - 73 #"Alkali Hall" - 100 #"The squad of one" - 105 #"The son of Marquis Hoodie"-110 TABLE VIII WILLIAM HENRY DRIMMQND Johnnie Courteau and other poems. New York, Putnam, 1901. (pagination from Collected poems. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1926). '— 1 34 poems. -188- local - 6. lifec:- 9 xMT'he oysterr schooner;" - 1317 xHBateese the lucky man" - 144 x"The "Rose.Delima"" - 199 "Little mouse" - 210 x"Litttle Bateeee*! - 220 "Dreams'"- 229 "Bateese- and his l i t t l e decoys" - 237 "Johnnie's firs*t moose"'- 214'; "Bona!' Campbell" - 222: • • • l i fe and love - 6. x"Johnnie^Courtlea«;" - 122.. x"Thes corduroy roadd' - 125 x"The cure; of calumette." -131 "The h i l l of. St. Sebastlen."-14i5 #"The Canadian country doctorill58 "Marie Louise" - 149 #"The habitant's summer" - 169 "Thee: old house, and that new"-153 #«National policy" '- 187 "Thee old. s;e»ttonMi - 231 #"Madele4ne ver.cheres" - 192 #''Stirathcona's horse" - 212 Irish - 2 #"Two hundred years ago" - 256:> "The^DIublin fusilier*' - 225 "Childdthoughts;" - 2.35: number, of poems.... 34. . . . distinctly national.. ...6. the spiriti of the New World - 1. regional Canadianism 10. "Mon f rere Camille" - 163 "Little LaccGrenier." - 175r "Autumn days4« - 190 "The old. pine tree*' - 218 "Phil-o-Rum's canoe" - 242- "Tihe log Jjiam" - 246 "The red ©anoe" - 255:. . . . regional - 3. x"My littles cabane" - 140 x"Ehe: wlnddgo" - 177 x"The:Canadian magpie" - 252 . . . Canadian - 7. TAB13F' IXC Ti m W. MolNNBS "LonesEomeeBar:, and other poems" (1909), Completea poems of Tom Mclnnes, Toronto, Ryersjon, 1923, pp. 79 - 167. 24 poems. l i fe and eternity - 11. l i fe - 5.; "Thatt otiherrone.<? - 129 "Tneoway offbeauty" - 79 "Too Wfrlt,Whitman" - 131 "Thes veteran" - 128 "Mother" - 151 "Thes clue" - 162 "Hard time©? no more" - 15& "Theetombs!' - 167 "Theedream of thee deep" - 154 "The last. Siong? - 167 "The seer" - 156 . . . "The. butterfly" - 156 local - 2. "God' s& kaleidoscope."' - 159 "Nirvanat" - 161 x:"The: Chileoot Pass*! - 105 "Content?' - 162 "Coquitlam" - 127 "Illumined" - 163 -189- Canadlan - 2. imperial - 2. #"The rhyme* of Jaques Valbeaulil3L44 "For thee crowning of the king" #«October" - 128 - 112 x»On Beacon H i l l " - 119 • • • numberrof poems.... 24. the Hew World - 2. distinctly national. . . . 2. regional Canadianism....4. x"Cactus" - 99 x"Lonesomei Bari" - fil T'ABLEi:X ROBEHTTWi' SERVICE!:! "Thê  spell of thee Yukon and otherr Verse" (originally called "Songs of a Sourdough", 1907), Complete poem's of Robert Sfervicey New York, Dodd, Mead andc Co., 1940, pp. xv i i i - 73. — 341 poems. loves- 6. religion, death and eternity -12. "The shooting of Dan McGrewJB29 "The three voices*." - 8 "Unfergotten" - 38 "New/Year's Eve" - 64 "The harpy" - 68 "Premonition" - 70 "The tramps;'* - 71 l i fe - 4! "The parson4st. son"'- 14M "Grin" - 2.7 "My Madonna" - 37 «L'Envoi" - 72 • • • the New World - 7. 17 "The heart of the sourdough*6 "The law of the Yukon" - 10 "Theelure of l i t t l e voicesU23 "The men that don'tlfall in"^42. "The low down whitei." - 48 ^The -rhyme of the remittance man"-46 "The rhyme of the restless one"-62 "The: call of the wild" - "The .lone trai l" - 19 "The Bong of the wage-slave"-25 "Theecremation of S'am McGeei"ii33 "Theereckoning" - 39 "Quatrains" - 40 "The?: l i t t l e old log cabin" - 50 "The march of the dead" - 6AY "Eightingi-Mac" - 57 "The woman and the angel" - 60 " Comfort i'">- 67 • • • localism - 4. "The-: land God forgot" - xv i i i "Thee spell of the Yukon" - 3 "The?:pines" - 21 "Music in the bush" - 44 colonialism - 1. "The younger:-son" - 52 number of poems....34. distinctly Canadian....!. -190- TABLE XI ROBERT" W; SERVICE "Rhymes of a rolling stone? (1912), Complete poems of: Robert LServ ice, New/York, I>odd, Mead and Co., 1940, pp. 166 - 286. — 50 poems love - 12. x."Sunshine" - 178 "Cheer" - 191 "The return" - 192 "Barb-wire B i l l " - 208 "?" - 212 "The lunger" - 214 religion, death and eternity - 11. "Thee soldier of fortune" - 171 "The junior god" - 193 x"Death in the Arctic" - 219 "The lostt master" - 236 "The World's,all right" - 244 x"The logger!' - 272' "The mountain and the lakeJJ217"The ghosts" - 276 "Little moccasins" - 237 x"The squaw man" - 258 "Home, and love" - 2:61 "Her letter" - 270 "AAsong of success" - 265 • * • the New World - 9. "Heart.; of the north" - 284 "The scribe'ssprayer" - 2855 "ffusti, think!" - 213 x"The atavist" - 202 l i fe ; - 16. "The gramophone at! Pond-du-laei' 174 "The idealist" - 186 #*Amblitfion" - 198 "To Sunnydale" - 199 "The blind and the dead" - 200 "Theesceptic" - 205: "Dreams are best" - 226 "Tihe headliner. and the bread- liner" - 218 "A rolling stone" - 168 x"The land of beyond" - 177 "Athabaska Dick" - 187 "The rover" - 206 "The quitter" - 228 "The wanderlust!' - 239 x«I'm scared of i t al l" - 262 #-»"Eheesong of the campf ire*:.266 xVGood-bye, l i t t l e cabin" - 282''The cow-juice cure" - 229 "Thee:trapper's Christmas EveJ»242 "The baldness of chewed ear"-247 "The mother" - 251 "Thet;dreamer" - 252 "Attthirty-five" - 256 "The man who knew" - 271 "The passing of the year" - 274 Canadian - 1. #"The nostomaniac" - 195 number of poems....50. distinctly national.. . .3. regi onal Canadiani sm.... 8. local - 1. "While the bannock bakes" - 232 TABLE XII EDWIN J . PRATT Many Moods, feffSntfO, Macmillan, 1932. 31 poems, -191- local - 13. lifee- 7. "Sea-gulls" - 9 "Thê way of Cape Racer*' - 9 "The sea-catthedafcal" - 10 "Cherries" - 33 "The child and the wren" - 34 "Frost." - 35r- "AANovember landscape!? - 36: "Magic" - 36 "One hourrof life" - 3:8 "Dreams" - 40 "To Angelina, an old nuns el'4! "Jock o' theelinks" - 44. "Theefugitlivev* - 48 . . . Canadian - 4. x"AAprairie sunset." - 11 x"Putting winter t;o bed" - 28 x"Hordzona«.' - 38 x"The Armistice silence"' - 3.9 "Afcreverie on "Blinds - 2:4 "Thee decision" - "Tatterhead" - 45 "The drag-irons" - "A lee-shore" - 47 "The ritual" - 48 a dog" - 1 25 47 mod er n. 1 i f ea - 7. "The depression ends;V . 12: "The man andothe^machine" - 20 "The? paxab'les? of .Puff sky "1 - 21 "F r om s tone? to s tie el"1 - 23 "Whither." - 27 "The highway" - 27 "The 6000" - 49 . » • number: of. poems.... 31. distinctly Canadian....4. ("But! cf. Brebeuf. and hi a brethraen. published only 8 years- later (1940), and isb several pages longer; than Many Mo ode. ThatL. volumec is Canadian through and through, in every way.) TABLE'XIII ISABEL ECCLESTONE MACKAY Fires of driftwood, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1922. 98 poems. love - 24 "In an autumn garden" - 16 "Rose Dolores" - 17 "The;;secret"1 - 235 "The? lost! name;." - 27 "The way ta> wait!""- 538. "Firstlove" - 94i "Sad one, must.you weep?"-55 "A1 Christmass child" - 58 "Give me a day" - 71 "To Aiicady" - 76 "I love my love" - 78 "The coming of love" - 86 "The., sea-* a withholding" - 91 religion, death and eternity - "Laureate" - 11 "Out! of i Babylon",;- 12L "Presience.V - 15 "A', pilgrim" - 19 "OCOsmos" - 22 "Kearj*' - 25 "Resurrection" - 26 "Theodead bride" - 29 "The vision" - 31 x"Vale;i' - 51 "Joseph" - 5.6 "Spring in Nazareth" - 5:9 "Sfong;of the sleeper" - 62 "The-;tiyraht"»- 64! "Love unkind" - 93 "I whispereddt© the bobolinki»95: "The.-.gifttol" - 66 "You" - 96 ""On the mountain" - 69 "The<.mother" - 97 "The. prophets" - 70 -192- «"The unchanged" - 102 "GaMoUai Ggp.id—110 5r- "The? meetingM - 106 "Thee enchantress."1 - 116 "(Fairy song:?' - 121 "(Perhaps"' - 133 "Glamour»' - 135 • • • natures - 19 "Fire<s ofi drif twood" - 9 "Last; spring,*! - 14 "'Springy wil l comet?" - 20 "Thes crocasfjhed" - 30 "Thet-miracle:'.' - 32. "Wet weather"" - 36 "The. sleeping beauty""- 3.7 "Lake Louise.""- 40 x"T.he-:;bridge builder"' - 43.> "Littles brown bird" - 72 "Theefie-ldcsrs of even"'1- 77 "Spri ng awakes to-day " " — 79 xs«in town""--80 "Summer.*s passing" - 81 ^"Indian summer." - 101 "Indifference" - 103 "Gold!' - 110 "The little-man in green"- "Spring, came in" - 124'.. • • • Canadian - 5. x^Thê  homesteader"1 - 33:̂ #"The gatekeeper" - 41 #"Ca?lgary station"' - 4.7 x"The. vassal"' - 98 #"From the trenches" - 125 • • * number of poems....98. "The doom of ys:'.' - 82 "Premonition" - 87 "Time?', ss garden"" - 84!= "Tihe childcV"-88 "Christmas in Heaven" - 94 "Last things" - 104 "The piper.""- 107 "TJheB materialist" - 111 "T'orrHan 0g",:- 112 "Killed in action" - 123 "Epitaph"1 - 138 "For- onê -who went,, in the: spring" - 139 ' l i f e - 21 "When as a lad" - 10 "I watch swift pictures^ - x"Theehappy traveller""- 28 "Down at the? docksA'"- 38 x"TIhe prairies school"' — • 4© "The? passers-by" - 535 "Inheritance*"'- 61 "Theetown between" - 67 "Bheewatcher" - 73 x"Ebssesslon" - 74 "Intrusion""- 89 114 "The. troubadour" - 99 xVWanderlust" - 109 "Thee banshee"" - 118 "The witch" - 119 "Thet: reasons;"" - 127 "To-day'" - 130 "Memory" - 131 "Dream " - 132- "Friendship"'! 136 "The returned man" - 137 • • • di stiinctly nati ons i . . . . 4. regional Canadianism.... 9. TABSE XIW WILSON MacD'ONALD "This book of the wilderness", Out- of. the, wilderness. Ottawa, Graphic, 1926, pp." 3 - 58. — 21 poems. l i fe and love - 5. nature;12. "A song of. the unreturningi'7 "A: song to theo valiant" - "These friends of. mine" - 16 x"The. call'" - 11 x«The song of the ski" - 17 "The loon" - 13 x*'Laranowa" - 23 x"M'sieu" - 20 -193- "The. berry pickers!' - 37 x"Muskoka" - 25 "November" - 333 Canadian - 4. "Thê werr in the gorse"-39 "The;: Bong, of the. winding road.840 #"Outt of the wilderness"—3 "Oaka*' - 45:; #"I heard the woodman grieve* 31 "Birches:.1' - 43 #"An adventurer's:i song" - 32 "In a. wood clearing" - 51 #"A'\s:ong;. of. loneeiomeness" - 557x "February the, f irst! on the; • prairdet'' - 554 number of poems*...21. digtinetfeiysnational-.. .4. r.egi onal Canadl ani sm.,.. 6. M J . M. SMITE News, of the Phoenix and other'poems. Toronto, Ryeraon, New:York, Coward-McCann, 1943:; 39 poems. lifec;- 18. "Like an old proud king" - 2 "The faithful heart!" - 7 lain the wilderness" - 11 "Hellenica^ - 14 "To the Christian dbetors"-24 "Chorus;!' - 25 "The plot; against Proteua"-26 3 "To a young poet" - 22 "Poor innocent" - 28 "ft portrait, and a prophecy*29 "Son and heir" - 30 "On reading a'ndanthology" - 33 "Newss of the phoenix" - 34; "The face" - 35: "Ode: the Eumenides" - 36 "Calvary" - 39 "Good Friday" - 40 "For-healing" - 10 number of poems.... 319. di stinctly Canadian....1. nature - 11. "A hyacinth for Edith" - 5. "The fountain"'- 8 "I shall riemember" - 9 "Thee creek1" - 16 "Swif to current:" - 17 "Sea? c l i f f M , i - 18 "The lonely land" - 19 "Ode". - 21. "Noctambule" - 2.7 "Far-west" - 32 "The. shrouding" - 41 • • • death and eternity - 10. "Shadowŝ sthere are" - 1 "The two sides of a drum" "Prothalmium" - 4 "Journey" - 12 "Theearcher" - 13 "Epitaph" - 15> "A soldier's ghost!" - 235 "Thee: cry" - 317 "Theeoffioee" - 38 "Besideeone dead." - 42 - 3; -194- TJA1LE"XVI IABLE"BIRNEY Now' is time, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945:. — 2.7 poems* na&ureo- 7. war and peace - 9. "Hands" - 43 x"Vancouver lights" - 15 "Dusk on the hay" - 17 "War. winter" - 22 "Poem"' - 28 "Status quo" - 3 "Time-bomb" - 6 x"Man on a tractior" - x"Por Steve" - 29 "Intlrooverti' - 39., x""And the earth g m young, again"i1341 - "VE^nightt""- 441 "D-day" - 57 "On a diary" - 45: "Death of a war" - 53 l i fe and death - 6. "World conference" - 56 • • • "Remarks" -'4 wax? - 4. "Lines for a peacee11 - 5 "Cadet-hospital" - 21 #"JoeeHarris, 1913 - 1942» i - "Within these caverened day si! 40 "Invasion spring" - 3 6 "Skeleton in the grass." - 41 "This, page my pigeon" - 3:8 "Young veterans" - 55 "The road to Nijmegen" - 42 23; number of poems.... 27. di stiinctly nat 1 onal . . . . 1. regi onal Canadianism.... 4. colonial - 1. "Anglosaxon street" - 19 Summary of Canadian sentiment revealed in the above, analysis No. of, nat. $ of Can. % ofi $• of poems poems sent, poems poems Can. in any way. MacDonald.... 21 . . . . . 4 . . . . , 19$ 6..... 30$. 4.9$. Drummond 34... . 16 18$.. . .10. . . . . 30$! 47$. Malr>(Table;. 3)21 7 . . . . . 33$ 9P..... 10$ 413$; Stead 57 6 11$*... .17 30$. .40$. Sangster..... 49 8 . . . . .17$. . . . . 8 . . 17$'., 33$. M c l n n e s . . . 24 2 . . . . . 8$. . . . . 4 . . . . . 16$. 25$. Mair(Table 2) 33. 2 . . . . . 6$.. . . .6 18$ 23$. Service (y. 11) 50 3i . . . . 6/ 8 . . . . . 16$̂  22$i Birney 27 1 4$ 4 15$.. 19$. Crawf o r d ; . . . . 86 3 3$. . . . . 9 . . . . . 10$'. 14$. Mackay. . . . . . . 98. . . . . 4 4$ 9 10$. 14$i Prat t 31 4 13$. 13$. M'Lachlan.. .158 8 5$.. ..11 7$. 13$. Robert a* 96 6 6$. . . . . 4 . . . . . 4$. 10$* S!er.vice(T.10)34 1 3$. 3$£ Smith 39 . . . . .1 2 .5$ , . . . . . . . 2.5$. BIBMOGR'APHY NOTE': This bibliography l is ts only the most valuable books for the topic of this thesis. Thus;.:several important books on English Canadian literature: which show l i t t le- inter- est1: in national feeling are not included^ No comments are made on primary sources, for these: have been discus- sed̂  in the thesis; or on articles in periodical rnaga-z*- inee., except! where the tltlet of. the: article? in question is misleading. Seer?introduction, p. v i i for abbrevia- tions used in the bibliography. PAHTT — A: HISTORY I PRIMARY SOURCES. Dawson, Rw M., Theodgvsiopment of dominion status, 1900 - 1936. London, Oxford University Press., 1937. Kennedy, W.' P. M., ed., Statutes^ treat! ess and documents of the C&naddan constitution 1713 - 1929, Oxford University Press. 1^3© (second edition;'. Wallace^ W. &a ed., "Edward Blake's Aurora Speech, 1874", Canadian Historical Review, v. 2, pp. 250 - 272, Sept. 1921. II SECONDARY SOURCES. A, B'opksa Burpee., L. J . , An historical atlas of Canada-, Toronto, Nelson, 1928. This is a very useful book for the study of the growth of the industry, resourcesr, and population of Canada;; Burtt, A. L . , A short, history of Canada for Americans, Minnea- polis, University of Minnesota Press, 1942. Mr. Burt has written a very useful account in which he has stressed interpretation rather than meree-facts?; Cobban, A*., National self-determination, OxfordoUniversity Press, 1945. -195- -196- Mr. Cobban presents a useful study of nationalism, and makes some interesting points on the nature of the forceein the British Commonwealth, and in Canada. Creighton, D. G., The commercial empire: of the St. Lawrence 1760 - 1850, Toronto, Ryerson, 1937. This book discusses the importance of the Stv Lawrence in Canadian history, and stresses the trade of Western Canada which i t carried. Cfceighton, D. G. , Dominion of the North, Boston, Houghton Miffl in, 1944*; ' Mru Creighton ha®, written a short but very useful interpretation of Canadian history in which he has included a large number of quotations from various important statesmen showing their attitudes to different vital issues!. Dawson, R. M., The development of dominion status, 1900 - 1936, London, Oxford University Press, 1937. There are valuable discussions of various aspects of dominion autonomy in this book as well as the valuable primary sources which form the major part of the book. Gooch, G. P., Nationalism, 2tendbh?aSwarthm8re:, 1920. Mr. Gooch presents an excellent study of the topic in this l i t t l e book, and suggests a useful definition of the term in the introductory section. Kennedy, W. P. M., The Constitution of Canada 1534 - 1937. Oxford University Press, 1938 (second edition). This is a valuable study of the development of the present system of government in Canada?, and contains useful sections on the advancement of nationalism in the country. Earkman, P. , Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War; Boston, Li t t le , Brown and Company, 1912, 2 vols. This is a detailed study of the subject suggested in the t it le , and is useful for comparison with Major- Richardson's novel, Wacousta, which also deals with the Pontiac Conspiracy. Royal Institute of International Affairs, Nattionalism, Oxford University Press, 1939. This is another useful study of the subject in question, and contains a detailed definiton of terms. -197- Stanley, G. F. G. , The_birtth of Western Canada, London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1936. Mr. Stanley presents a detailed study of the early days of the We est in Canada, stressing the history of the two Riel Rebellions. Wittke?, C , A history of Canada. Toronto,, McClelland and Stewart, 1941. This is , essentially, a text hook, hut. i t contains a l l the necessary facts:; and is a handy reference: book for Canadian history. B?. PERIODICAL ARTICLES'. Ewart, J . S., "Canada's polit ical status", Canadian Historical Review, v. 9, pp. 194 - 205, Sept. 1928. Keith, A. B. , "Canada's constitutional status", Canadian Historical Review, v. 9, pp. 102 - 116:-, June. 1928. Martin, C , "The United States and Canadian nationality", Canadian Historical Review, v. 18, pp. 1 - 11, March 1937. Sage, W. H. , "©jaegraphinal and cultural aspects of the five Canadas", The Canadian Historical Association Annual Report, 1937, pp. 28 - 34. Stacey, C. P., "Penianism and the rise of national feeling in Canada at the time of Confederation", Canadian Historical Review, v. 12, pp. 238 - 261, Sept. 1931, Wallace, W. S.,. "The growth of Canadian national feeling"', Canadian Historical Review, v. 1, pp. 136 - 165, June 1920, C. LIVES of WRITERS. cExfe«3Jleht'bhiographies are presented in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Canadian Who's Who, and in " Garvin, J . W., ed., Canadian poets,, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1926, revised edition, and Thomas, C , Canadian novelists 1920 - 1945, Toronto, Longmans Green and. Co., 1946. -198- PART.1 — BB. LITERATURE I PRIMARY SOURCES A4 ANTHOLOGIES of ENGLISH CANADIAN LITERATURES Bennett, E. H., ed., New- Harvesting, Toronto, Macmillan, 1938. Br:oadus,', E. K., and Broadus, E. H., A book of Canadian prose and verse, Toronto, Macmillan, 1934, Campbell, W., edc, The Oxford book of Canadian verse, Toronto, Oxford University Press, 1913.- ' . ' ' Garvin, J . W,, ed., flanadiflnriBo"»* gk ®or©Bife©^.iM«Clea:3iand'jiandrit.o, Stewarty 1926, revised edition. Gustafson, R"i, ed., A l i t t l e anthology of Canadian poetry, Norfolk, Conn., New Directions', 19431* Gustafson, R., ed., Canadian accent, Penguin Books, 1944. L i g h t h a l l , W. D.,-ed., Songs of the Great!. Domini on. Londcon, Scott, 1889. Rand, T. H., ed., A treasury of Canadian verBe, Toronto, Briggs, ' 1915i ' " : Smith, A. J . M., ed., The book of Canadian poetry. Chicago, University of Chicago Press; Tor on tio, Gagei 1943. B. EDITIONS Of ENGLISH CAN APIAN POETS. Birney, E., Now i s Time, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945. Bourinot, A. S., Selected poems (1915 - 1935), Toronto, Macmillan, 1935'. Brown, A. A., A dryad i n Nanalmo, Toronto, Macmillan, 1934. The poente of William Wilfred Campbell, Toronto., Briggs, 1905r. C a l l , P. 0., Acanthus and wild grape, Toronto, McClelland and St ewart; 1920. Carman, B., Ballads and l y r i c s . Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, Carman, B., Later poems, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1921. Dalton, A. C , The amber-riders and other poems, Toronto, Ryerson, 1929. -199- Dalton, A; C , Flame and adventure, Toronto, Macmillan, 1924, Dalton, A, C , Li l ies and leopards, Toronto, Ryerson, 1935. Dalton, A. C , The neighing north, Toronto, Ryerson, 1931. Drummond, W, H. , Collected poems, Toronto, McClelland and St ewart, 1926. Garvin, J . W., ed., The collected poems of Isabella Valanoy Crawford, Toronto, Briggs, 1905. Jaques, E . , My kitchen window, Toronto, Allen, 1935. Johnson, E. P., Flint, and Feathers, Toronto, Musson, 1913. Scott, D. C , ed., The poems of Archibald Lampman, Toronto, Briggs, 1915. Logan, J . E . , Verses, Pen and Pencil Club, Montreal, 1916. Livesay, D., Day and Night', Toronto, Ryerson, 1944-. MacDonald., W., Outlof the wildneress, Ottawa, Graphic, 1926, Complete poems of Tom Maclnnes, Toronto, Ryerson, 1923. The complete poems of Isabel Ecclestone Mackay, Toronto, McClFdsiand ana fc>T;ewarE7"1930r~ Garvin, J . W., ed., Master-works of Canadian authors, Toronto, Radisson Society, 1926, v. 14 (Charles Mair) Marriott, A. , Calling Adventurers, Ryerson poetry chap-books, 1941. The poetical works of AlexanderrM'Lachlan, Toronto, BMggs, 1900. The complete poems of Marjorie Pickthall, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1930. Pratt, E. J . , Collected Poems, Toronto, Macmillan, 1944. Pratt, E. J . , Many Moods. Toronto, Macmillan, 1932. Roberts, C. G. D., Poems, Boston, Page, 1907. Sangster, C. , Hesperus, and other poems and lyrics, Montreal Lovell; Kingston, Crjeightion, 1860. Scott, D. C , Lundy's Lane and other poems, Toronto, McClelland Scott, F. G. , Collected poems, Vancouver, Clarke & Stewart,1934. Scott, F. G., New poems, Quebec, Lafranee, 1929. -200- Complete poems of Robert W. Service, Hew York, Dodd, Mead and Co., 1946. Smith, A. J . M., Hews of the phoendus and other poems, Toronto, Ryerson; Hew. York, Coward-McCann, 1943"; Smith, W. W., Poems, Toronto, Dudley and Burns, 1888. Stead, R. J . C. , Kitchener and other poems. Toronto, Musson, 1917. Stephen, A. M., Brown Earth and B\ibh Grass, Vancouver, Wrigley, 1931. C. FICTION by ENGLISH CANBDIAN NOVELISTS. Baird, I . , Waste heritage, Toronto, Macmillan, 1939. Callaghan, M., They shall inherit the earth, Toronto, Maamillan, 1935. • : de la Roche, M., Jalna, Pocket Books of Canada, 1945* Graham, G., Earth and High Heaven, Toronto, Nelson, 1944. Grove, F. P., Fruits of the Earth, Toronto, Dent, 1933. Grove, F. P., Our Daftly Bread, Toronto, Macmillan, 1928. Grove, F. P., Two Generations, Toronto, Ryerson, 1939. Hutchison, B. , The Hollow Men, Toronto, Longmans, Green and Co., 1944$ Kirby, The Golden Dog, Toronto, Musson, n.d. MacLennan, H. , Barometer Rising, New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1941. MacLennan, H . T w o Solitudes. Toronto, Collins, 1945. Niven, F . , Mine Inheritance, London, Toronto, Collins, 194.0. Niven, F . , Under which king, London, Collins, 1943. Parker, G. , The seats of the mighty, New York, Apple ton-Century, 1927. Richardson, J . , Wacousta, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1923. Ross, S., As for me and my house, New York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1941. '• -201- Sallana, G. H., L i t t l e man, Toronto, Ryerson, 1942. Salverson, L. G., The Viking Heart, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1923. Stead, R, J. C , Grain, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1926. T'eskey, A. M., Where- the sugar maple grows, Toronto, Musson, 1901. Fontane, R., The happy time, Hew York, Venture, 1945. D. INDIVIDUAL POEMS i n PERIODICALS. Individual poems i n perio d i c a l s are: l i s t e d i n Tables I (P. 86), III (p. 116), and V (pp; 157 - 15.8); and a few of these poems are discussed on pages 85, 115, 154 - 156. II SECONDARY SOURCES A. BOOKS. Logan, J. D. and French, D. G., Highways of Canadian.literature, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1928 ( f i r s t e d i tion 1924). This i s the standard treatment of the subject. It i s very useful down to aboutt 192.0, giving detailed informa- t i o n and clear and i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c i s m s . However the writers are often biased or obviously wrong i n t h e i r judgements. Pacey, D., Frederick P h i l i p Grove, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945. Mr. Pacey has made a very valuable contribution to the f i e l d of Engl i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s study. The research i s thorough, the c r i t i c i s m s moderate, and the summaries well ordered. Pomeroy, E. M., S i r Charles G. D. Roberts, Toronto, Ryerson,1943. ThiB the standard treatment of Roberts. I t i s a detailed study containing valuable c r i t i c i s m s of hi s work. Rhodenizer, V. B., Handbook of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , Ottawa, Graphic, 1930. The author has attempted to supplement previous treatments of the subject, and to present general i n f o r d - ination i n a clear and concise fashion. The book i s quite successful. -202- Riddell, .W. R., John Richardson, Toronto, Ryerson,.1923. .This i s a short but very useful summary of the l i f e and works of Major Richardson. The treatment i s favorable to the author. Stevenson, L., Appraisals of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , Toronto, Macmillan, 1926. This i s a valuable survey of English Canadian l i t e r a - ture from the national point of view. . /ir- fffcwn pnsTZts • st«Utf */ *ff »^pt-ts *f p"tty ft, i'«n.d* - ekt. difF;CM. fats ptti M*vt aju A.a/ *«r« »»«•*••.« B. PAMPHLETS. ' Brown, E. K., Canadian l i t e r a t u r e to-day, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, University of Toronto Press, 1938. This pamphlet contains lectures by prominent Canadian scholars and writers on a l l aspects of l i t e r a t u r e i n Canada^ usually from a national point: of view. Pierce, L., E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , 1882 - 1932, Ottawa, Royal Society of Canada, 1932. This book contains a b r i e f sketch of a few important Canadian writers; the rest are ignored. C. PERIODICAL ARTICLES. Adeney, M., "Robert!Norwood", C.B.. v. 9, pp. 163*6, June 1927. A l l i s o n , W.T., "William Wilfred Campbell", C.B., v. 1, A p r i l 1919, pp. 65 - 66. Ayre, R., "Pauline Johnson", C.'F., v. 14, p. 17, Oct. 1933. Barr, R., "Literature i n Canada", CM., v. 14, pp. 3 - 7 , Nov., 1899; pp. 130 - 136, Dec. 1899. Barnett, E.S., "The poetry of William Wilfred Campbell", C.B.. v. 17, pp. 93 - 94, Aug. 1935. Benson, N.A., "Edwin J . Pratt", C.B.. v. 9, pp. 323-6, Oct.1927. Birney, E., "To arms with Canadian poetry", CP., v. 19, pp. 322 - 324, Jan. 1940. . Bourinot, A. S., "New poems by Dr. Scott", C.B. , v. 4, Jan 1922, pp. 55 - 56. . " Boyd, J., "John Reade", CM., v. 53, pp. 74 - 77, May 1919. - 20.3- Brown, E, K. , "The Whitieoaks Saga", C.F. , v. 12, p. 23, Oct.. 1931. Bugnet', G. , "An answer tio Lionel Stevenson's Manifesto", C . B . , . v. 6, pp. 85 - 86, April 1924. Bugnet, G., "One way to write "Canadian"", C.B':l, v. 6, pp. 209- 210, Oct. 1924. Burpee, L . J . , "Frederick Niven", BvR., v. 24v, pp. 74-6, April 194% Burpee, L . J . , "James de Mille", C.B., v. 8, pp. 203-6, July 1926. Bush, D., "Making literature hum", C .F . . v. 7, pp. 72-3, Dec. 1926'. Callaghan, M.., "The plight of Canadian fiction", U. of T. Q., v. 7, pp. 152 - 161, ffian. 1938. Campbell, W., "Scottish-Canadian poetry", CM; 7 , v. 29, pp. 169- 179, June 1907. Capron, J . , "Roberts and the influence of his times", C.M",, v. 24, pp. 224-231, Jan. 1905"; pp. 321 - 328, Feb. 1905; pp. 419 - 424, March 1905; pp. 514 - 520, April 1905i Collih, W. E . , "Archibald Lampman", U.ofT.ft., v. 4, pp. 103 - 120, Oct. 1934. Collin, W. E . , "Dorothy Livesay", C.F.', v. 12, pp. 137-138, 140, Jan. 1932. Collin, W. E . , "Leo Kennedy", C .F . . v. 14, pp. 24-6, Oct. 19335, Collin, W. E . , "Marjorie Pickthall", U.ofT.Q,.. v. 1, pp. 352 - 380, April 1932. Cooper,. J .A . , "Canada's national song", C.M.", v. 6, pp. 176- 179, Dec. 1895. """" Cunningham, L . A . , "Traits of Canadian literature", C.B.. v. 9, pp. 328 - 329, Nov. 1927. Davies-Woodrow, C., "Arthur Stringer", C.B.. v. 10, pp, 259- 261, Sept.. 1928. """"" Deacon, W.A'., "Six Canadian anthologies", C.B.. v. 3, Dec. 1921, pp. 11 - 12. Dewart, E .Bl , "Charles Sangster, the Canadian poet", P.M.. v. 7, pp. 28 ©> 34. *"""" DouglaSj R.W., "Present literary activity in British Columbia", C.B., v. 1, July 1919, pp. 44 - 46. -204- Edel, L . , "Abraham M. Klein", C .F . . v. 12, pp. 300-2, May 1932.. Edel, L . , "Alan Macdermott", C .F . , v. 13, pp. 221-2, March 1933. Edgar, P., "Literary criticism in Canada", U. ofT. Q,., v. 8, pp. 420 - 430, July 1939. Elsbn, J ,M. , "William Douw Lighthall", CJ3., v. 12, pp. 151- 154, Aug. 1930. Evans, W.S., "The Canadian Club movement", C.M.". v. 2, pp. 22 - 25, Nov. 1893.. Fairley, B. , '""Artists and authors".. C . E . , v. 2, pp. 460, 462 - 463, Dec, 1921. This article criticizes Canadian 'writers for writing nothing distinctly Canadian, Fawcett, W.*M.T, "Canada climbs Parnassus", D.H;, v. 11, pp. 383- 388, Oct. 1931. Fawcett, W.M., "Mrs. L. Adams Beck (E. Barrington)", C.B., v. 11, pp. 275 - 277, Dec. 1929. Fraser, A . E . , "The. poetry of Annie Charlotte Dalton", Ci.B.. v. 11, pp. 179 - 184, Aug. 1929. Fraser, ACE., "Wilson MacDonald", C.B.. v, 9, pp. 3-6, Jan.1927. French, D.G., "Canadian fiction—1924", C.B., v. 7, pp. 26-7, Feb. 1925. ~ ~ French, D.G., "Mrs. Frances Brooke, etcc", C..BT:, v. 8, pp. 75 - 77, March 1926. — " French, D.G., "Ralph Conner", CB.' , v. 12, pp. 77-9, April 1930. French, D.G., "Virna Sheard", C.B., v. 12, pp. 4-5, Jan. 1930. French, D.G., "W. A.Fraser", C.B?, v. 12, pp. 27-8, Feb. 1930. Garvin, J.W., "Charles Mair", C.B., v. 8, pp. 335-7, Nov. 1926. Garvin, J.W., "Ethelwyn Wetherald»s poetry, an appreciation", C.B., v. 13, pp, 199 - 201, Octu 1931. Garvin, J.W., "Isabella Valancy Crawford", C.B".., v. 9, pp. 131- 133, May 1927. Garvin, J.W., "Robert Norwood", C.B., v. 14, pp. 107-9, Oct. 1932. " Gibbon, J .M. , "Where is Canadian literature?", C M . , v. 50, PP. 334 - 340, Feb. 1918. -205- Gordon, A. , "Comments on Canadian poetry", CM.", v. 49, pp. 132- 140, June 1917. Gordon, A. , "Work for the anthologist", C.B., v. 1, April 1919, pp. 73 - 76. Gordon, H.K., "Canadian poetry", C.Fi., v, 1, pp. 178 - 180, March 1921. Gosnell, R.B., "Canadian literature and Canadian nationality", C:B., v. 8, pp. 14 - 15. Grove, F . R 7 , "The plight of Canadian fiction? a reply", U. of T. Q. , v. 7, pp. 451 - 467, July 1938. Hathaway, E . J l . , "Norman Duncan", C.B r., v. 8, pp. 171- 4, June . 192:6. Hathaway, E . J ; , "How Canadian novelists are using Canadian opportunities", C.B., v. 1, July 1919, pp. 18-22. Hammond, M.O., "The poet of the Laurentians", C M . , v. 32, pp. 456 - 460, March 1909. Haultain, A"., "A Canadian literature", C.M?.r, v. 32, pp. 510 - 511, April 1909. " — Hume, B., "Sir'Gilbert Parker", C.B.. v. 10, pp. 131-4, May 1928. J.M.? "Gertrude MacGregor Moffat", C.B., v. 10, pp. 163 - 164, June, 1928. Jacob, P. , "The background of Canadian literature", C.B7:, v. 3, June 1928, Jackson, MY£, "J.E.H.MacDonald", C.P.., v, 13, pp. 136,138, Jan. 1933. Joyce:, At, "The neighing north", C . B ? , v. 14, pp. 45-6, April 1932. Kennedy, L . , "Archibald Lampman", CCP., v. 13, pp. 101-3, May 1933;. Kennedy, L . , "Raymond Knister", C.P.. v. 12, pp. 459 - 461, Septi 1932. Knister^ R.,."The poetry of Archibald Lampman", D.R., v, 7, pp. 348 - 361, Oct. 1927. Landon, P. , "Phases of Canadian literature"1, C.B. , v. 6, pp. 106 - 107, May 1924. Lighthall, W.D., "Canadian poets of the Great. War", C.B.., v. 1, April 1919, pp. 14 - 22. -206- Logan, J.D., "Canadian poetry of the Great War"', CM 1., v. 48, pp. 412 - 417, March 1917. Logan, J..DI;, "AAdecade of Canadian poetry", COM."., v. 40, pp. 343 - 352, Feb. 1913. Logan, J.D., "The l i t e r a r y group of »61"y C.M.r. v. 37, pp. 555:- 563, Octt. 1911. Logan, J.D., "The martial verse of Canadian poetesses 1 1, C. M-I, v. 40, pp. 516 - 522, A p r i l 1913. Logan, J.D., "Why Haliburton has no successor", CCM:'-, v. 57, pp. 362 - 368, Sept. 1921. Macdonald, E-.R., "The genus l o c i i n Canadian verse", CM;, v>« 53} pp. 236 - 240, July 1919. MacDonald, G., "The poetry of Arthur S. BFourinot"', CCBtf, v. 3, June 1921, pp. 41 - 42. Macdonald, W.L.-, "Nationality i n Canadian poetry", CMv, v, 62, pp. 299 - 306, March 1924. MacFarlane, R?0,, "Canadar: one country or nine provinces?", D.Kii v. 18, pp. 9 - 1 6 , A p r i l 1938. Mackay,. L. A4 , "Audrey Alexandra Brown", C F J , v, 12, pp. 342 - 343,, June 1932. "~ Mackay, L. Ai,, " B l i s s Carman", C .F.. v. 13, pp. 182-3, Feb. 1933. Mackay, L/A., "James Gay", CF., v. 13, pp. 457-8, Sept, 1933:* Mackay, L.A., "William Wilfred Campbell", C .F., v. 14, p. 66 - 67, Nov. 1933'. Mackay, L#A., "Wilson MacDonald", C F ., v. 13, pp. 362-3, A p r i l 1933, "* Macklem, J,, "Charles Sangster", CB., v. 10, pp. 195U6, July 1928. Macklem, J., "CHHJJSnider", C.W., v. 10, pp, 327-9, Nov, 1928. Macklem, J., "Etihelwyn Wetherald", CB., v. 11, pp. 251-3, Nov. 1929. Macklem,. J., "Jean Blewett", "Laura Goodman Salverson", C.B., v. 9, pp. 99 _ 100, A p r i l 192:7. Macklem, J., "Mazo de l a Roche", 0.Bi",. v. 9, pp. 259 - 260, Sept. 1927. -207- Maclennari, W.E., ""Real" Canadian literature11, D.R., v. 6, pp. 18 - 23, April 1926. Mair, C., "Pauline Johnson: an appreciation", C.M."., v. 41, pp. 281 - 283, July 1913. * Markey, J . , "Thomas D 'Arcy McGee: poet and patriot", CM?., v. 46, pp. 67 - 72, Nov. 1915. Marquis, T'i G., "The poetry of John Orient on", K K , v. 7, p. 183, Nov; 1925. Marshall, J . , "Archibald Lampman", Q..Q... v. 9, pp. 61 - 79, July 1901. Moore, I., "Canadian literature: "What, it means to the nation"',' CGBj;>, v. 5, p. 295, Nov. 1923. Moore, J . , "Mazo de la Roche", CCF., v. 12, pp. 380 - 381, July 1932c, Mowat̂  H.M., "Greater Canadian Independence", QJ. QT» , v. 11, pp. 34 - 45, July 1903.. Muddiman, B., "Archibald Lampman", ft.Q,., v. 22, pp. 233 - 243, Jan. 1915, Muddiman, B,.:, "William Wilfred Campbell", Q,.Q,., v. 27, pp. 201-210, Oct* 1919, Northrjop, P., "Canadar-and its poetry", CP. , v. 23, pp. 207 - 210, Dec; 1943. ~ ° O'Hagan, T'., "A human hearted poet", C.B., v. 7, p. 182, Nov. 1925. Patterson, M., "Isabel Ecclestone Mackay", C.B>:, v. 9, pp. 371 - 372, Dec. 1927. Parry, A4AA, "Frederick Philip Grove", CB8. v. 12, pp. 51-3, March 1930. Perry, A^A/J, "Robert Watson", CCBE, v. 10, pp. 99 - 101, April 1928. Pierce, L. , "Canadian literature and the. national ideal", C.B3,, v. 7, pp. 143J- 144, Sept., 1925, Pierce, L. , "William Kirby", y . , v. 11, pp. 35-9, Feb. 1929. ""Polly Masson" and our polyglot politics", CB?;, v. 1, Oct. 1919, pp. 43 - 44. Pound, A4MV, "Tom Maclnnes", CBS, v. 8, pp, 363-4, Dec* 1926. -208- P r a t t , E.J .T,, "Canadian poetry—past and present" , U . o f T . Q , . , V i 8, pp. 1 - 10, Oc t . 1938. P r i c e , E.vBV, "Ca lgary has f o u r women au thors" , C.B?., v . 8, pp. 92 - 94, March 1926. R e i d , J . A . , "The Canadian novel" ' , C P . . v . 2, pp. 658 - 660, June 1922. Rhodenizer , W E S , "Char les GO- D. Rober t s " , C B . , v . 8, pp. 267- 269, Sept . 1926. Rhodenizer , W B . , "Joseph Howe", C E 5 , v . 8, pp. 139 - 141, May 1926, Rhodenizer , W E B , " "Ka the r ine H a l e " " , C B q . v . 11, pp. 84 - 85>, A p r i l 1929. Rhodenizer , VtfHJ, «L. M. Montgomery", C B S , v . 9, pp. 227 - 228, Aug, 1927. Rhodenizer , V.BB, " W i l l i a m Henry Drummond", QZB.. v . 9, pp. 35 - 36, Peh . 1927. R i d l e y , H . , " Art., and Canadian l i f e " , DJFB, v . 14, pp. 214 - 220, J u l y 1934. Rimmer, TRJ.DQ, "Recent Canadian n o v e l s " , C F . , v . 8, pp. 307-8, Oct . 1926. Rimmer, T . D . , "The s o u l of an immigrant" , C.B.", v . 10, pp, 17 - 18, J an . 1928. Ross , E .M." , "A/Sam S l i c k Centenary", C B v , v . .3, Sep t . 1931, pp. 29 - 32. S c o t t , D.CQ, "A ; Lampman", C . B ' : , v . 8, pp. 107 - 109, A p r . 1926. S c o t t , D . C , "A decade of Canadian poe t ry" , C M . , v . 17, pp. 153 - 158, June 1901. S c o t t , D . C , "Poetry and p rogress" , C M . , v . 60, pp. 187 - 19&, J an . 1923. Smith , A£J.;M., "Canadian a n t h o l o g i e s , new and o l d " , U . of T. Q . . . v. 11, pp. 257 - 474, J u l y 1942, Smith , A v J i M . , "Canadian p o e t r y - - a m i n o r i t y report.", U . of Ti. . v . 8, pp. 125 - 138, J a n . 1939. Smith , A.'.J.:iM:, ""Our poets" a ske tch of Canadian poe t ry i n the Nine teen th Century" , U.ofT.Q., v . 12, pp. 75 - 94, Oct . 1942. S te inhauer , H . , "Morley Ca l l aghan" , C P . , v . 1 2 , pp. 177-8 ,Feb. -209- 1932. Stephen, A<.M.V " T i i e major note i n Canadian poetry", DDR.. v. 9, pp. 54 - 67, A p r i l 1919, Stephen, A/.M., "The Western movement i n Canadian poetry", D.B?., v. 5, pp. 210 - 217, July 1925. Stevenson, L., "Manifesto f o r a national l i t e r a t u r e " , C.B?., v. 6, pp. 35 - 36, Feb. 1924. Stevenson, L., "The outlook f o r a Canadian f i c t i o n " , CBT;, v. 6, pp. 157 - 158, July 1924. Stevenson, O.J., "William Wilfred Campbell", ,C.BV. v. 9, pp. 67 - 71, March 1927. Stringer, A., "The man who couldn't sleep", C.B., v. 2, Jan. 1920, pp. 61 - 64. Sykes, W.J., "The poetry of Duncan Campbell Scott", ft.ft., v.46, pp. 51 - 64, Spring 1939. Tallman, L.,."Will E. Ingerso l l " , C.B.. v. 11, pp. 131 - 132, June 1929. Tomkinson, G., "The watched pot of Canadian poetry", D.R., v. 14, pp. 458 - 470, Jan . 1935. Trotter, R.G'i, "Has Canada a national culture?", , v. 44, pp. 215 - 227, Summer 1937. . "Two Canadian poets: a lecture by Archibald Lampman", U. of T. ft., v. 13, pp. 406 - 423, July 1944. W.KJ;, "Frederick P h i l i p Grove", CCBS. v. 8, p. 110, A p r i l 1926. Wade, H.G., "Theodore Goodridge Roberts"', C.B:., v. 13, pp. 215- 217, Nov. 1931. Waldron, G., "Canadian poetry", CC.'M., v. 8, pp. 101 - 108, Dec. 1896. Wilgar, W.PV, "Poetry and the divided mind i n Ganada", D.R., v. 24, pp. 266 - 271, Oct. 1944. Willsan.,M., "Mrs. J.W.F.Harrison—"Seranus", C.B.. v. 14, pp. 80 - 81, July - Aug., 1932. -210- Ef. BOOK REVIEWS. Many useful book reviews appear in Queen's Quarterly, The Canadian Magazine, The Canadian Bookman, The Canadian Eorum, Dalhousie Review, University of Toronto Quarterly and The Canadian Poetry Magazine. Most reviewers^ in these publications are interested in the reflection of Canadianlllfie in the books they are reviewing, fin.tJ^-^ vo.Ua.iU ,'$ tu *ew-«* letters /h Ca/»«JfcW which «»ftt.,'r>s ftu,'tws ««</ (;s+S hubs J>ultul>tJ Khtttt.Uu V ftf.s has e.jtfULhd yt€Li-ly ,.hee tug- ;h ^ T Ui,ivtt-s.y *f %r,„to Q«*v*erfj >»J<RH


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