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The growth of Canadian national feeling as reflected in the poetry and novels of English Canada Magee, William Henry 1946

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T:he' GROWTH of CAM API AH NATIONAL FEELING ae REFLECTED i n The POETRY a-nd NOVELS Of - ENGLISH CANADA  by  W i l l i a m Henry Magee  Being a th«eie submitted i n p a r t i a l - f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the Degree of Master of A r t e i n the Department oi' H i s t o r y .  THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH  OCTOBER, 1946  COLUMBIA  -iii-  CQNTENTB  CHAPTER"  I  PASTORS INVOLVED in CANAEIANISM and ENGLISH CANADIAN LITERATURE Definition of terms .  . . .  .  .  .  . page 2.  imperialism, colonialism, and internationalism, localism, the spirit, of the; New World, and Americanism, nationalism and Canadian!em. National feeling, in creative literature .  .  . page 12.  the fine arts in Canada—reasons for studying only poetry and the novel. English and French Canadian literature, 'what is Canadian literature?'  CiHAPTER II CANAEffANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE in the PESIOD PRIOR tlo O0NFEDERAT1 ON The development, of a national feeling before Confederation . • . . . . . • • • page 16. the American Revolution and the War:: of 1812. the influence of the French Revolution. sectionalism in the Maritime Provinces. the Rebellion of 1837, the Union of. Upper and Lower Canada, and responsible government, expressions of national sentiments in the 1860's. p o l i t i c a l deadlock, the American C i v i l War*other factors involved in Confederation. Confederation and attitudes to i t . Early English Canadian Literature:- .  .  .  . page 29.  poetry and fiction in the Eighteenth Century. Puritan,Loyalist, and American work in Nova Scotia. Canadianism in English Canadian Literature before Confederation . . . . . page 31. Oliver Goldsmith and the spirit of the New World. John Richardson, anti-Americanism and love of nature. Charles Sangster, love of nature and pidde in history.  -iv-  CKAPTER III CQNFEDERATI ON and OANAM AN LITERATURE in the LATTER PARTTof the NINETEENTH CENTURY The growth of Canadian!am after Confederation.  * page 45.  anti-national sentiments at the time of Confederation. the CanadarFirst, Party and Blake's Aurora Speech. the Liberal Party and the growth of internal autonomy. the Conservative Party and the growth of internal autonomy. the westward expansion after 1867 and the Riel Rebellions. antti-Americanism and reciprocity. National Canadian poets  .  .  .  .  .  .  page 61.  Charles Mair—the Canada Pirst Party and l i f e in the New; West. Alexander M'Lachlan—the spirit of the New World. Isabella Valaney Crawford--nature and thee New World. Moderately Canadian poets.  .  .  .  .  .  page 72.  poets of the Roberts-Carman School and the influence of Canadian nature, incidental verse and various Canadian attitudes. The novel in the late Nineteenth Century.  .  . page 85.  William Kirby and a strong colonialism. Sir Gilbert Parker and pervading imperialism.  CHAPTER IV  1  CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURESin the FIRST.  TYfO  DECADES of the TWENTIETH CENTURY  The growth of Canadianism in the early Twentieth Century . . . . . . page 91, Sir Wilfred Laurier-and national attitudes, the continued development of the West and increased immigration. reciprocity, the naval question, and the election of 1911, the Liberal Party and the growth of external autonomy. the Conservative Party and the growth of external autonomy. Sir Robert Borden and national attitudes. the F i r s t World War—unifying and disunifying influences.  -V-  Natioaal Canadian poetts  .  .  .  .  .  .  page 101.  Robert J . C. Stead and the influence of the Weett. W. H. Driummond and racial unity. Moderately Canadian poets.  . . .  •  .  . page 107.  Marjorie Pickthall and the influence of nature. T.. R. E . Maclnnes and R. W. Service—the West-and the New World. the influence of the F ins ti. World Wars; incidental verse and. various Canadian attitudes.. The community novel . :  .  .  .  .  .  .  page 115..  the pioneer work—Where the Sugar Maple Grows, various regional attitudes in important novelistB.  CHAPTER V CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE SINCE the END of the FIRST WORLD WAR The growth of Canadianism in recent years  .  . page 127.  the League of Nations and external autonomy. Canadian and Empire Treaties—the Halibut Tx.eaty and Locarno, the Byng incident of 1926. the Balfour Declaration and the Statute of Westminster, sectionalism in Canada in the 1920»s and 1930»s.. new national forcee--the G. B?; C , etc, the Second World War—unifying and disunifying influences. National attitudes in the Canadian novel.  .  , page- 134.  Laura Goodman Salverson and Augustus Bridle—the immigrant and nationalism, the work of Frederick Philip Grove, non-natdonal novelistBa-Mazo de l a Roche. National attitudes in Canadian poetry  ,  ,  . page 141.  Isabel Eccleetone Mackay and Annie Charlotte Dalton-nature and Canadianism. P. R. Scott—national attitudes in satiric poetry, Wilson MacDonald--nature and nationalism, moderately national poets. incidental verse and various Canadian attitudes.  -vi-  Tlie influence;, of the Second World?; War  .  .  . page 153.  national Canadian poets—E. J . Pratt, Earle Birney, Anne Marriott. national Canadian novelists--Bruce Hutchison, Hugh MacLennan, Gwethalyn Graham, Robert Fontane.  CHAPTER:W The EMERGENCE of a CANADIAN SPIRIT.; CONCLUDING^ REMARKS  .  .  . page 169.  National feeling and English Canadian Literature—a survey. in in in in  the the the the  period before confederation. . late Nineteenth Century, early Twentieth Century, last quarter of a century.  National feeling and English Canadian Literature—-interrelation. the time lag. the strength of Canadiaaism in various parts of the land, a national literature.  APPENDIX I  Population of Canada, 1806 - 1931  . page 177.  APPENDIX II Analysis of Themes Chosen by English Canadian Poets . . . . . . page 180. BIBLIOGRAPHY  , page 195.  -vli-  ABBREVIATI ONS • Certain abbreviations are used in the footnotes and bibliography of this thesis to refer tio works of which f riaquent,. usee ha® been made.  Following, aasee tehee  abbrevi atti one tog ether with the t i t l e s for which they sfctand-..  Bennetti.  --  Bennett; E . H , , ed., New- Harvesting, Toronto, Macmillan, 1938.  Broadus  —  Broadus, E . K . , and Broadus, E . H . , AAbook of Canadian prose and verse, Toronto, Macmillan, 1934i  CQB.  —  The Canadian Bookman.  C. F.  —  Thee Canadian Forum.  CQM.  —  The Canadian Magazine.  D. R.  —  DadJaou s i eo. Re vi ew.  Loga-n and French — Logan , J . D . , and French, D . G . , Highways,? of Canadian Literature, TJortontco, McClelland and 'Stewart, 1928'. Q..Q...  Queen's ftU8;rterly.  Rhodenizsav.-  Rho.deniz.e-r, WE}, Handbiook of Canadian literature ;- Ottawa, Graphic, "1930. 1  Sfnitih  Smith, A'i J:.M.", ed., The book of Canadian poetry, Chicago, University of Chicago Preae, 1943.  Sponge of the Great Dominion Lighthall, W.D., ed., Songs? of the .Grxe'a^t Dominion,, London, Scott:, 1889, U. of T. Q. University of Toronto Quarterly.  The.- GROWTH of CANADIAN HATJOMAL FEELING AS REFLECTED IN The POEl'RY and NOVELS of ENGLISH CANADA  CHAHK6IR I FACTORS"' INVOLVED i n CANADIAN!S'SE and ENGLISH C&NAMAN LITERATURE  Tin: growth of* t h e B r i t i s h Commonwealth of Nations has been one of t h e s i g n i f i c a n t developments i n World h i s t o r y d u r i n g t h e l a s t one hundred y e a r s ; and of the s e v e r a l  processes  i n v o l v e d the development •„of Canada i n t o an independent n a t i o n hae "been very important.  For. t h i s rraascn t h a t process  requires  s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n from student© of World h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l , and from Canadian h i s t o r i a n s i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The importance of  the q u e s t i o n i s f u r t h e r increased toy the f a c t that- the of t h e Canadian n a t i o n i n 1867 as a d i r e c t r e s u l t  formation  of t h i s  jjiovement i a the only one of s e v e r a l contemporary major  develop-  mants of n a t i o n a l sentdment--C&-n-6rdian, German and. I t a l i a n i n p a r t i c u l a r — w h i c h has not-: brought i n i t s wake long and bloody wars and continuous beyond the borders  and. widespread a n i m o s i t i e s b o t h w i t h i n and of the a f f e c t e d areas.  Every  aspect, of the  growth of Canada i n t o a n a t i o n a l e n t i t y must, t h e r e f o r e , be examined,  one i n t e r e s t i n g f i e l d f o r i n v e s t i g a t i o n i e Canadian  literature.  An examination of t h i s l i t e r a t u r e - should r.aveal  the s i n c e r i t y and: depth of t h e Canadian n a t i o n s ! f e e l i n g which  -1-  -2-  has accompanied the growth of Canada, and suggest,in what sections of the. count try such feeling is f u l l y matured. A study of the his&ory of Canada and Canadian l i t e r a tures reveals that in the.: earlier periods there were various sentiments which played an import-ant. parti in the lives, and thought'jai,of Canadians, and influenced the course of the nation»s hisrfeory.  Eventually, aera distinctly Canadian spirit-hegan to  emerge, these forces,  continuing, tended to hampervand impede  the growth of the Canadian nation.  These various factors which  have tended to thwart the development of nationalism in Canada: are^sixin numher and may he divided into two distinct groups. aJ: times  One of these is fundamentally antagonistic to the growth, of anational spiriti, and tends to attracti allegianceetio larger and foreign unite.  The influences- in this category are imperialism,  colonialism, and internationalism.  The other group includes  impulses which are detrimental to a true national consciousness only when that, consciousness is superficial, and really consists of one or moree of these forces.  These impulses? are localism,  the spiriti of the:New. World, and Americanism. ' These six forces have combined to prevent the expression of a true Canadian spiriti in English Canadian literature in a l l but a very few cases;, 3 M s im w&wt&wti&bwfsT fCanadaj, for any country which cannot evoke a national feeling is surely doomed. If our national establishment-is worth maintaining in Canada, and most, of us* are thoroughly convinced t h a t t i t t i s , we musfehe one nation, not; nine. We cannotu be Imperialists;, Annexationists or Provincial!sts. If we are to survive as an stiate} we.must be. Nationalists:;' in heart, and soul, rather than merely on t a r i f f issues. Wecmussti bee ourselves^ Canadians, f ore-better or worse, without apologies. 1 . MacFarlane, R. 0 . , "Canada: one country or nine  -3Becauseeof their considerable:; importance i t  is  necessary to investigate more closely the nature of these forcess which have at. times served as anti-national :  in Canada.  influences;  Because, their.' country wasaonce a Britiish colony,  and is s t i l l an integral partt of: thertCbmmonwealtuh, Canadians have f e l t imperial, and ccolonial sentiments from the earliefet days of i t s history.  "Imperialism" is that, national feeling  which places the welfares and prosperity of the empire^-in this case tlhe: B r i t i s h Empirs»-bef-oreeany other, allegiance.  "By  "colonialism" is meant the attitude of mind which emphasizes the larger loyalties to Mother Country and Empire, almost to the complete, exclusion of loyalty to one'sanative colony, province or country"^--in this case Canada;  In practices these  two influences ha vec blended and appeared as one in most cases-, in Canada.  Ass well as being the predominant: force in the early  histoi-y of English Canada, they have.: exerted a major influence? in English Canadian literature from the earliest times.  Almost  a l l the writing produced in English speaking Canada in the Eighteenth Century sprang from them. other influences--localism,  3  In the Nineteenth Century  Americanism, and the spirit, of the  New World.-became. important!, butt,colonial and imperial attitudes continued almost unchecked in the literature of the land. 1. (cont.)  provinces?", D. R... v. 18, p. 16, April 1938.  2. Sagefy W. N . , "Where stand a; Canadian history?'!, in Saunders, Ri. M . , ed., The Canadian Historical Association,, Annual Report, Toronto, University of Toronto Press:* 1945;* p. 8:, n. 1. 3. See Chapter 2, p. 1. Eorrthie."Nineteenth Century see chapterssrj2: and 3; for the Twentieth Century, chapters 4 and  -4-  In the Twefitieth Century this influence has been gradually weakening;; hut, there are even to-day many signs of pure colonialism or of imperialistic fervour in the more conservative quarters of the country.  In the Nineteenth Century many  Canadians were able to blend their imperial and colonial with their Canadian sentiments; but. even then these feelings thwarted the growth of Canadianism in some cases;-* and in the Twentieth Century they have-:usually doners© in tflaose;.cases• where^they were.:important.  4  The;twin impulses of imperialism  and colonialism have been major factors: detrimental to the development of a Canadian national awareness. Economic motives: have further-accentuated this attitude in many writers.  Canada has always*provided a lean  market for literature, and.; Can ad i ans who depend on writing for a living have.--been forced to s e l l their, material in foreign markets.  Such writers haver-always found in Britain one of  their two chief markets, and have consequently tended to deal almost.exclusively, with those aspects of Canadian l i f e which are pleasing to this overseas audience*  Furthermore, to hold  this distant markets Canadian writers have had to interpret Canadian l i f e in a.way which would appeal to non-Canadian readers.  They describe the glamorous and romantic aspects of  Canada, but do not. attempt to presents the country as it. really is.  Tiius the development of a Canadian spirit in literature  4. Charles: Mair, 7/. D. Lighthall^ and others were Canadian in spirit, as well as imperial or colonial in attitude; on the other hand writers such as Gilbert. Parker, William. WMf-redoCampbemdand William Wye Smith allowed their colonial or imperial attitudes to k i l l their Canadian feelings almost completely. A'.Twentieth Century example is Esther Kerry. f?3$); ft- 8. (Out utith the  6;y (the P;xtr  i  /f«uw^;«5  .  ffjt,etc.)  /fci7^:efcc  • C./». / W o * (Askes oP *»«rJer. i9J(.,e.tc.)-  n. Tfc*,^  has been considerably retarded by this necessity of writing for a foreign market . 1  These..impulses*-imperialism and colonialism—have? become gradually less and less influential in Canada; but as they have weakened a new force—international!sm--hasbeen steadily emerging as an impulse which may become detrimental to the development.of a national consciousness in Canada and i t s :  expression in English Canadian literature.  "Internationalism"  refers-to the attitude now currentt whi ch tends to overcome racial and otherr.barri eras and seeks for. human co-operation on a world-wide basis.  It. is a cosmopolitan attitude--the  triumph of a civilized World.  final  As a-force;, i t t e n d s tio beehostile  to nationalism—which puts the nation before anything else no matter what, hardship to other peoples such action involves— everywhere in the World.  In Canada i t l has tended to replace  colonial and imperial attitudes as another external distraction to divert Canadians from national se&taments:. The- remaining three*:, impulst.es; which haver hampered the development of national feeling in Canada arernot distinctly hostile, to i t , and have actually been the forerunners of i t in some cases. localism.  The most important, of these influences has been "Localism" refers to that attachment which everyone  feels for the d i s t r i c t in which he was born or in which he lives.  If;this attachment is so strong that it- supersedes  every other-allegiance i t is better described as "provincialism".  If the attachment is not narrow, but, so broad and  tolerant that it. approaches Canadian!sm in scope, it. may he termed "regional" rather than local.  Considering the many  -6-  separatevsettlements out of which Canada has grown and the major geographic barriers which s t i l l isolate many of them, it. is;.not. strange, that localism has been a major force intthe country's histlory.  Itl was the earlier feeling to develop, but—  based on a love of nature, as i t largely i s - - i t , hasc tended to broaden and produce a genuinely Canadian.rather than a purely local outlook.  Only in those cases where i t has remained  s t r i c t l y provincial^ has localism impeded the: growth of Canada1  as a nation.  The earliest.Canadian writers were local in  attitude of necessity; they knew of no unit, larger than tlieir particular: provinces of which they areean integral part. Localism is inevitable in their works.  As, Canada has developed  as.: a nation the extent and depth of the national sentiment at various stages in her history can be determined.by the extent to which localism has lingered in literature and not grown into regional or national attitudes.. AAsrecond impulse which has been the basis for Canadianism is the spirit, of the New World.  "The spirit of the  New World" refers to that feeling which causes many European immigrants.to forget Old World customs and attitudes and look to their future in the Americas with no regrets for the l i f e they have left behind them.  TJhe whole outlook i B that, of the  pioneer, and similar to the attitude o f . a l l immigrants to newly developed areas.  Like localism, this spirit., of the New World  5. The attitude s t r i c t l y provincial. Act, of 1774, which perpetuated separate French institutions and customs and kepti. them strictly different, from those of the B r i t i s h in others: parts of Canada.  -7-  need not detract, from a national sentiment i f the patriotism involved is strong and healthy; indeed i t . was the earlier of the., two feelings to emerge and has gradually grown into Canadianism as the pioneering sections have become civilized^ But!, i f the feeling for Canada is only superficial i t  often  dissolves on close examination into the spirit., of the New World.  In literatures this force has been of considerable  significance. The remaining impulse is best described as "Americanism".  "Americanism" i s thatt attittudeef :bund in many  Nortlh Amerjica-nB^botlii within and outsideethe United Slates?; of AmeBl oa^ whi ch tends; to places the customs andi affairs? of that countlry fibremosti i n their minds;.  The. United Sitates has always;  been a major, force in Canadian mindsca-s well ass an important, factor.-in the nation's history, and every Canadian musto be favorable or hostile tio itl.  With such a- powerful neighbour:- in r  mind a t i a l l times*-with American literary productions flooding tthet country—it. ie impossible? brr- Canadians- to excludec American influence, f rem their, thoughts. usually turns to Britain instead.  If one does he  Furthermore the United  States is the. primary market.f or most. Canadian writers:; and this situation—as in the case of those who write for. a-British market—has coloured much Canadian literatures  Those writers?  who produceef orr an American market present!: only those features?? of: Canadian l i f e which interests Americans--the parti, with tlouristi. attraction. invariably.  They neglect, the everyday Canadian almost  And indeed many such writ eras hawe- gone to live in  the Unitted States tio acquire the spirit of the public whioh is  -8interested in them. These six influences*-imperialism, colonialism, arid<J internationalism; localism, the spirit of the New World, and Americanism—were a l l active in Canada long before the advent., of a seventh and diffexent.force—nationalism.  "Nationalism"  is a term which has been used with so many varying interpretations that^unless a specific statement•of  the sense in which  tihe term w i l l bemused is madeathe value of the wordois negligitole.  The following explanation  is lengthy, butt valuable in  tthati.it. indicates? precisely whati is meanti in most L cases^ when the word is used; i t i is thee sense, in which the word w i l l be us«d in the present: treatment.  It,, does not, however, suggest  tihe exact, form nationalism has taken in Canada. In the present, reports the term nation -has- been used to denote a human group with the following character! B-ti cs: (a) The idea of. a-common .government^wheAherrasssp reality in the present on past, or-as an aspiration of the future; (b) Ascertain size^and closeness of contactibetween a l l the individual members. (c) A more or less defined territory. (d) Certain characteristics (of which the most frequent is language) clearly distinguishing the nation from other nations and non-national groups. (e<) Certain interests common to the individual members. (f) A certain degree of common feeling or-will, associated with a picture of the nation in the minds^of the individual members.•.. 1  Nationalism has been used in the. report tio denote a consciousness of the distinctive character of different, nations, including the one of which the individual is a member, and a desire to increase-, the strength, liberty, and prosperity of nations. I tie effects is not: necessarily taken as being confined tto the individual's own nation, &>. Royal Institute of International Affairs, National!sm. Oxford University Press, ^1939, p. xvi. "  although admittedly this is very often thee erase* noris tihe nationalist!, necessarily conceived as?making thee interests of his own nation supremely importtant:.. In short, the; term is used in such a- sensectihat Ma;zzini, Gladstone, and. Weodrow Wilson can he. described ast-exponent of • nationalists as. well a/a^Herr Hitler. 7  This is: a satisfactory and inclusive definition.  Tihe; sense i t  givesst'o the term hasfvbeen well summarized:by Mr. G. P. Gooeh, who writes, "nationalism denotes the; resolveeof a-group of human beings* tco sharer their. fortiunesF, and to exercise aontirol overvttheirrown actions."  exclusive  Such is. the nature of  nationalism. Of particular interest is that example of nationalism known as Canadianism. This force has received considerable attention from certain students who have:; tried to define.it, Q  butu have meti.with l i t t l e successs  Ther: trouble seems to be  that!it: is impossible to make any general rules concerning the form which itr.will take.  I t is: a-very elusivenforcee, and each  e-xample of i t . merits; special consideration.  Nevertheless:: i t is  easy to determine the- general limitsr of the term; "CansEdianism" ' :  involves some twelve factions.  3  The'basis of a l l Canadian  feeling is a love of Canadian nature<.and theo Canadian countryside, in whioh the people of the; land live?. 7 . i b i d . , p. xx>.  In Ganadar this? *  8. Gooch, G. P . , Nationalism, Swa,rtihmore, 192.0, p. v i i i . 9. ef. Maodonald, W.'L., "Nationality in Canadian poetry", C.: M . , v. 62, pp. » 1 0 - 305} March 1924. 10. Throughoutthi BI-tihesiBP thet termsr; 'Canaddan' orr natlonal feeling..', 'Canadian or 'national sentiments, 'Canadian' or 'national awareness?? and 'Canadian' of 'national consciousness' w i l l be . considered as synonomous with 'Canaddanism' asf;here defined. The word 'Canadian' by i t s e l f may, however, bei- used 1  1  -10-  i n f luence<is  of p a r t i c u l a r sdgnif i c a n c e , f on Canadian n a t u r e e i s  very "beautiful and. widespread,. unity.  A< second f a c t o r - i s geographic  Enough has' been s a i d concerning  geography i n C a n a d a , influence*  the hampering e f f e c t  of  notl enough abbuti i t s c o n s o l i d a t i n g  11  I s o l a t e d by tiwo oceans, and  same climates throughout, the country  i s assmuch a geographic  uniti. as;.is the.United  States.  the? means of e x i t : and  entry f o r the i n t e r i o r — a n o t h e r u n i f y i n g  force—and country  The  s h a r i n g i n g e n e r a l tihe  two  oceans are, furthermore^  there ar.eenatural waterways h a l f way  from the A t l a n t i c Ocean.  across  the  H i s t o r y , a l s o , hasyplayed  important! parti: i n creatling* a-Canadian n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g . 1763  Canadians have a common h i at lory, and  Chojt!oo.uguay  t  and  C r y o l o r ^ o ?c.rm  y  Since  look w i t h p r i d e : on *n«Hj>  and: engagements, d u r i n g  the F i r s t :  Second World Wars' as co-operative', e f f o r t s t o preserve  strengthen  an  or  the n a t i o n i n which Canadians of a l l r a c i a l o r i g i n s —  E n g l i s h , F r e n c h and  others—butt. Canadians only were^ i n v o l v e d .  B a s i c a l s o i s the r e t e n t i o n of the' B r i t i s h t i e - - a - d e s i r e o n a t u r a l to E n g l i s h Canadians, but, f e l t , by F r e n c h Canadians a l s o , i n the intierestis: of p r e s e r v i n g t h e i r own t h i s B r i t i s h f e e l i n g and anti-American  identity.  1 2  Parallel  with  b a s i c from the e a r l i e s t times i s an  f e e l i n g , which has  played  a most.important, p a r t  i n the. development of Canadaanism, and,  more p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n  (noteo10, cont.) t o i n c l u d e b o t h n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l i n f l u e n c e s , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h the more r e s t r i c t e d term ' n a t i o n a l ' . 11. c f . Sage, W. N., "Geographical and c u l t u r a l aspects of the f i v e Canadas", The Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n Annual Report:. 1937, pp. 28 - 34<i f o r - a n e x c e l l e n t treatments of t h i s view. 12.. cfi. Cobban, A., U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1945,  UatUonal s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , p. 80.  Oxford  -11cau s ing Confederation itself . J  Along ;wit!h this feeling., there is  als:o a general antagonism to a l l foreign lands—even to Great Britain itself when conflicting interests arise.  These;: are six  major factors involved in Canadianism. Also important is enthusiastic interest in the advancement of Canadian autonomy, im the desire to he an independent nation; and, ultimately, this involvest, the assertion of tlheoright to secede from the: Commonwealth (although this 13 involvesr the legal  aBpectonly).  Coupled with this is an  active interest in Canadian politics^-in the conduct of the dominion parliament at Ottawa. than  And Canadianism involves an  interest in questions other^politics.l, also on a national scaledeconomic, social and cultural uniformity; a general interest, in the Canadian scene.  Added to this, and a-more:-recent, develop-  ment, are.ties of transportation and communication--the transcontinental railways, newspapers with a Canadian outlook, and in recent years the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation.  Less  tangible, but also involved, areccertain common attitudes: of faith.  A*devotion to the, doctrines' of the:: Christiian religion  is a majorr influences tending to create a Canadian nation, especially considering the fact that each Church has' i t s separate Canadian organization.  And, lastly, a belief in  internal and international co-operation and a love of peace, prosperity, and the pursuit of happiness for-everyone in the World has been a distinct!, quality of Canadian national feeling. These twelve factors combine tto produce'what ie known as " Canadd ani sm . 13. i b i d . , p. 81. M  -12-  WI*M;tjheisewf&cdtsB5 in mind, we c<an now turn moxeparticulary tio the influaace of nationalism in Canadian literature and make the few limitations which are necessary before we proceed with the general study planned.  In Canada poetry and  f i c t i o n are the only branches of tihepfine arts which have received any exuensivec supports., during a? cconsidqeratolen period of time, although in recent years the School of Seven has .created a national art-and Merrill Denison and others a national drama. For this reason--and because they alone provide an extensive f i e l d for- one? survey—it is convenient tro limit. -Che* present. 130.  study to these tsraefield®.  Coeativeeliterature i s , probably,  more, l i k e l y to reflect!: the: feelings of the country than is any other type of literature.  The creative artist interprets and  describes the community in which hee l i vase and the- feelings.. thatl s©em v i t a l in itU  If.. there?.is a-'strong national feeling  in Canada-this, too, should appeari in Canadian literature?. However it: is possible to draw definite conclusions only in the period following Confederation when literatUrecwassproduced in Sfome volume. In Canada literatures has been written in many langu^g im0  ages, but. an adequate study of most of the. work in languages other than English and French has only recently been started.* The mostl important. non-English literatureein Canada/ haB^been the French material produced in Quebec:  However-itt is impos-  sible to considerj. even this literature-here because of the quantity involved.  Furthermore a l l important anthologists: and  historians of Canadian literature to date have devoted their attention to the work written in one language only. t3-  tt.  Fm- th.'f  fiiSoti  *k0tt  ttoUtt,  Tati  AS tit  SlhfL-ne S^tekts  Therefore* thSltpktH  luteJe  -13-  i t . ie reasonable to consider in this study only English Canadian literature.  A' further justification for this limita--  .tion arises out, of the;fact thati, important, contributions to this f i e l d have been made from a l l of Canada's provinces, whereas;.the-Prench work is limited largely to Quebec. The English Canadian f i e l d therefore offers the most satisfactory opportunity for obtaining a cpoes-serction of the; Canadian a t t i tudes as. a* wholes  A/,study of trends in French Canadian l i t e r a -  tures would however: be a desirable supplement to this study. The question then arises, literature?'  'Yiflaat;is English Canadian  If Canada-had her:, own language the answer-to this  question would beoobvious.  But English is thee language of many  other countries: which have an important, influence in a l l Canadian thought.  It. is useless to limit, the study to those  writers who were born in the country, for two reasons.  Immi-  grants have produced work that is quite as;Canadian in every sense of the term as:: is that of native born writers;.  No one  denies thatLJoseph Conrad's work belongs to English--not to Polish--literature<  Also, these native writers often leave the  country and write work that is definitely not Canadian. And yet i t ! is wrong to consider the work of tourists national, although they may seem to write work that breathes Canada through and through.  Writing of this kind has appeared from  American and B r i t i s h authors who have never- seen the country. There are only two safeocriterawhereby literature can be classified as Canadian.  A l l that,has been written by native  born writers while they l i v e in the country is Canadian; what they write abroad may or may not be so.  Furthermore a l l that  has been written by immigrants which contains a Canadian flavour  -14-  of any kind is Canadian.  No strict rules are possible, but  these two generalizations should include most cases of what, can reasonably stand, for Canadian literature:. With these various factorsrin mind i t is only necessary to note one or two obvious reservations before beginning our treatment.  Whether a writer expresses any national feeling  or not has obviously littileeeffect on the quality of his work. Therefore we are noticoncerned here with the merits or demerits of various writers.  On the other hand some limits are neces-  sary; so that while major writers who are not. Canadian in outlook w i l l receive-only brief mention, the insignificant.authors who do reveal a Canadian sentiment w i l l also receive mention.  little  This restriction is f a i r , because those writers who  have scarcely been remembered during the last few decades are surely unimportant writers, and hence, do not reflect the.major literary movements of their day.  Usually they are* 'hack'  writers who write for some motive alien to the composition of fine art, and hence do not enter the scope of this treatment, Furthermore the desirability or undesirability of a?Canadian national sentimenttdoes not concern us in this treatment'!.  All  that, we wish to discover is the extent of the feeling for Canada present in the various periods of the nation's;.history, without considering the value of such feeling.  What-is signi-  ficant is the extent.to which English Canadian literature reflects the emergence of nationalism in Canada during the last century.  History reveals various significant, indications of  the actual presence of such a feeling as an actives agent, but has this feeling become sufficiently pervasive to affect poets  -isl-  and novelists?  AAcomparison of the-influence of national  feeling in Canadian history with the evidence of its  reflection  in literature should provide the answer to this question.  With  these points in mind, therefore, let us turn tio an examination ofi English Canadian literature in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries in order to discover the amount of national awareness extant therein.  -16-  OHAPTER II CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE in the period prior, tto CONFEDERATION  The American Revolution created not! one nation, but two.  Just as the United Sta test of America owes-, i t s existence  tio thatL.movement, so tho Dominion of Canada-also stems: from i t . Before the American Revolution Canada was predominantly a French province hostile to Britain, and bitter over the recent Cession or Conquest;  The Maritime Provinces, were only sparsely  populated, and Ontario and the West. virtually uninhabited by any but, the native Indians.  But: after the American Revolution  those people in the new republic who were not. in favour.-with, tihe change: of allegiance migrated tb Canada;  They turned tihe  wilderness?from a predominantly French province intb a- strong B r i t i s h colony.  New Brunswick and Upper Canada owe t h e i r  existence to this migration, and Nova Scotia, Prince:.Edward. Island and Quebec a l l received significant., numbers: of Loyalists;*  1  Theseo immigrant BL brought;, with them a hate and fear  of the country to the. south which—united: with thesFrench distrust! of the\American oolonies--preve3ited  any possibility of  annexation for centuries, and created the present Canada. 1. fflhe Loyalists^ must haveenumbered well over 40,000. Wittke} C . , A hia&tory of ^ Canada, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1941, pp. 57, 6ffi and 65, suggests the following figures: Upper Canada, 10,0000(by HQS); PrincesEdwaard Island, 600; Cape Breton, 3,000; Nova Scotia 18,000; and New Brunswick, 10,000 (by 1783).  -17-  Whetherrthe; American Revolution by i t s e l f would have provided a stimulus for a strong national feeling is doubtful— early Canadian poets and novelists; did not; deal with i t to any extent..  It. did, however, bring into Canadac-many immigrants:—  the Loyalists—who hated republicanism and were devoted to the monarchy, and the animosity i t . created: hass been aocentuateddby a series, of clashes;:.and incidents.  Before another three  decades were past the:two peoples were engaged in another war— 2 the War: of: 1812 --which forced them even f art hen aparjt, renewed olddanimosities, and created new ones., and reinforced Canada's separate development.  Thus the f i r s t , and most important  factors in the creation of the present Dominion of Canada occurred within sixty years?of thee Conquest- and even at that, time a at song Canadian feeling was beginning to emerge, at. least in Upper, and Lower Canada, based on antagonism to the United States.  I t . i B true that antagonism to the UnitedoStates  would foster..a-strong B r i t i s h feeling in this early period, but i t must have also created a feeling of union among a l l B r i t i s h colonies north of the? United States.  Thatt t&iea feeling aroused  was: distinctly Canadian appearssplainly in the various victories during the War;of 181S--victories that resulted from and also caused much pride in the peoples of B r i t i s h North America.  3  2. cf. page 33 of this chapter for the effect of the war on Richardson. 3. Such skirmishes as Chateauguay and Crysler's Farm did much to creates- sr common feeling of pride in Canada. A t Chateauguay a group of French Canadians and Indians defeated, an American force nearly three times i t s size.  -18Another. factor dating from this early period which did much to prepare the way for the possibility of a unified nation in Canada was the French Revolution.  TheeFrench in Quebec were  loyal to thee Church, and the old order, and therefore became, antagonistic to their former fatherland as the Revolution progressed and i t s supporters in France became more radical. Furthermore this feeling did notodwindle appreciably during, the Nineteenth Century, and politicians could rely on the hatred of 'liberalism' to keep Quebec within the Liberal Conservative Party (as i t i l a t e r became) for many decades to come.  At-the  time of the American Revolution the French in Quebec were?, disappointed in France for another reason; the French government, gave considerable help to the American states to free them from B r i t i s h control--to those very states which had been 4  the traditional enemies of Quebec.  These various factors, have  fostered the growth of Canadian national feeling,, butt have exerted l i t t l e influence in English Canadian literature. There were, however, other forces at work in B r i t i s h North America which moreethan balanced those influences which tended to foster a common Canadian feeling.  Nova Scotia, which  has remained in i t s present boundaries since Cape Breton was returned to iti in 1820, was settled predominantly by pre*. Loyalist.New Englandere, Loyalists, and Scots.  5  The province  4. One English Canadian novelist who has dealt, with the question of French aid to the American Republics is William Kirby. See excerpt from The Golden Dog. Chapter 3, p. . 5J. cf. Creighton, D. C , Dominion of the North. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1944, p. 206.  -19-  had l i t t l e interest in Canada, for i t s chief economic tie was with the WestvIndies, and the. American settlers were actually within the social and cultural orbit of New York and the New England states.  In 1806 the province contained 65,000 inhabig  ttantis, in 1822: seme 81,3000  In 1827, with the addition of  records from Cape Breton, the figure stood at 123,600; and by 1861 it. had reached 330,800. NewvEr.unsw.ick was f i r s t settled by Loyalists, who formed a bureaucracy and established the Church of England.  To  this staid and settled community came Aeadians, B r i t i s h and Irish, many of whom engaged in the thriving lumber industry, which upset the stable bureaucracy.  Roman Catholics, Baptistso  and Methodists, threatened the established Church. With a l l these various local interests to occupy their minds the people little  developed Interest in Canada.  In 1806 thereewerer some 35,000  A  people in the province:; by 1824 some 74,000; and by 1861 some 252,000.  Prince.Edward Island was at that time an isolated  agricultural provinceewhich, however, grew att a faster rate than any other province except Upper Canada.  In 1806 the  residents numbered 9,600$ in 1841 the figure stood at. 47,000, and by 1861 i t had increased to --80j800.  TheeMaritlime Provinces  :  as.: a whole remained isolated colonies with much more interest in the New England states tha'nHln Canada;  There.-. have been few 1  nationally minded poets or novelists from this parti,of Canada H 1  1  '  I  .  m,m  i 11  —*f'  '  .' v  :  ill •• • =  -  .  1  .  :  -  6. These and a l l other population figures—unless otherwise specified—are taken from Burpee, L . J . , AnahistorloaHsratias> of Canada.t'TToronto. Nelson, 1928. See Appendix I, Table I, taken from Burpee*? for the period beforeeConfederation.  -20-  until the Twentieth Century. Lower Canada was occupied during this period with a struggle between French and English inhabitant's?  The French  desired isolation and opposed progress of any kind.  The: English,  who were merohants and business men, pressed for progress and united action with UpperrCanada whenever possible?.  Lower Canada  waso not affected to the same, extent as were the other: province® by immigration, but its French population doubled in the sixty years following the Conquest and greatly outnumbered a l l other 7  settlers in B r i t i s h North America combined.  In 1765 the  population figure stood at 69,800; by 1806 i t had risen to 250,000.  By 1831 i t had again doubled, standing at. 553,000;  and again by 1861, when i t reached 1,111,500. Most!affected by immigration, and the f i r s t nationally minded section of theo country waerUpper Canada-;  Loyalist, in  origin, the-province:was soon changed into an American province, but., subsequent,British immigration restored its former com8 plexion.  Nevertheless the American influence was very  important, as is indicated by the power of the Methodist Church which came with i t .  This body soon broke with both American  and English branches of the: same Church, an indication, one writer believes, of "the. growing nationalism of the Canadian 9 frontier."  In 1806 the population figure stood at. 70,700$;in  1824 at.. 150,000. By 1834 i t had again doubled, standing in 7. cf. Burt, A. L . , A short history of Canada for Americans. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota^Press; 1942, p. 134. 8. i b i d . , pp. 134*5. 9. Creighton, op. cit... p. 216.  -21-  thatt yearrat. 321,100; and by 1861 it. had reached 1,396,000. Thus although certain foreign influences had laid the basis of a Canadian feeling by 1815, isolation was the predominant feature of B r i t i s h North America during this period. Nevertheless the basis on which a national f eelingjcould arise was. there, and in the following half a century i t did begin to appear;  The complexion of the population was.* however, greatly  changed by immigration.  In 1806 B r i t i s h North America contained  somee430,000 people; in 1825. some 830,000.  By 1835 this figure  had increased to 1,270,000; and by 1860 to 3,120,000.  New  settlers mean new attitudes and a- submerging of former ones. Slowly isolation grew less: potent, and Canadian!sm more? s i g n i f i cant;.  Thereeis, however, almost no Canadian literature, dating  from the. 1820's or e a r l i e r .  1 0  During this period the pressing p o l i t i c a l issue; was?, reform, in a l l partes of B r i t i s h North America'.  In thea United:  States Jacksonian democracy was promising a new era for the common man, and in Great Britain various democratic: measures > culminating in the Great Reform B i l l of 1832, were passed in parliament.  In British North America- the movement lead toethe  Rebellion of 1837,  This event: was most significant, in the  development of self <-government; in Canada^ butl probably did not. r.esult:..from any national sentiment.  The: movement was directed  primarily against factions in Canada rather than against the British government, and paralleled similar democratic movements in England i t s e l f .  The Rebellion did, however, lead indirectly  10• The Rising Village is the notaMe exception. A l l otherearly literature was. colonial, American or local; see:2p.  -22-  to an increase of Canadian feeling.  After the: suppression of ;  the uprising there:was considerable friction with the United States over the Caroline incidentand raids;:.across;:. the."; border, by members of thee Hunt ersanduPatriot Lodges;* The resultant anti-American feeling, strengthened^ sentimentlsn s t i l l bitter over the American Revolution and the War of 1812, and increased Canadian unity. The immediate result of the Rebellion was Lord Durham's mission to Canada, which culminated in his famous report.  The.report! recommended legislative union and local  autonomy for the people of Upper and Lower Canada-; butt pointed out. that racee hatred seemed to prevents any possibility of. a.  ;  unified Canadian people.  i:L  At that time the colonial office  was s t i l l following the Old Colonial System, which had always been the basis of British colonial policy.  Tihe recommendation  regarding union was; quite compatible with the. system and was> immediately put into effect.  The other major plan of the  Durham Report—local autonomy—had to wait, until the fall of the Conservative ministry in 1846 before officials sympathetic with it. came, into power in England. The Union Act, of 1840 reunited Upper and Lower Canada and created one Canadian government to rule it.  Thus the colonial office tried to repair the damage  done by the Quebea Aeti. of 1774. and the Constitutional Act of 1791 whereby racial and religious differences in Canada were accentuated, and the two areas were: severed politically. Now; let"*  4  ——--—-—-«--—•-—•  11. cf. *Lord Durham to Lord Glenelg* in Kennedy, W. P. M., Statutes, treaties and documents of the. Canadian constitution, Oxford university iress, mau, pp. oo* - 360. ft  v  -23-  however:; i t i was.: too late, for feelings were hitter on both 12 sides.  There was, then, this fatal flaw  in the Union Act. of  1840—it accentuated differences even further by giving;equal representation to each part of the colony without, regard to population, with the. result, that a double majority became^; necessary in each administration.  TheoUnion did, however,  prepar.ec the, way f or. ar. larger.: union a-.; quart err of a: century later. The year 1846 is significant in the history of Canada because during i t the Whig ministry of which Lord Grey was colonial secretary came into power in England.  EheoWhig Party  represented business interests: and supported free trade. Colonies were only a nuisance, in the new economic pla», and the government: was not very concerned with what happened to them.  Thus i t i was that Lord Elgin became governor of Canada,  and with the approval of Lord Grey allowed self-government to develop in Canada.  With this stimulus behind them the new;  Canadian administrations gradually enacted various measures of importance.  These have a l l been significant in the development  of Canadian autonomy, but, were probably not., associated with 13 national sentiments,.when enacted:; '  SSBSBBSSBS3SSSSSBSBSSSB3S  12. cf. Creighton, op. c i t . , p. 283; Burt, op. c i t . . pp. 158 - 159. Burt, points out that..the Union Act,was moBt unjust to the French. It placed the large public debt of Upper Canada on the shoulders of the French of Lower Canada as well as on the English of Upper Canada; i t made. English the o f f i c i a l language.; and i t provided for equal representation. 13. Important among these measures were The clergy reserves; act(1854), Tihe seigniorial tenures act(1854) and three Union Actt amendment acts(1848, 1854 and 1856 respectively). The last three acts;-dealt with the o f f i c i a l language (French als:o being allowed), the power to alter the..; constitution of the legislative council, and the power to make laws regulating the appointment a speaker in the legislative council. See'Kennedy,Statutes pp. 516 - 535.; * o f  -24-  There were, nevertheless:, s e v e r a l important*., express i o n s of e a r l y n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n the l a t e 1850*s and e a r l y 1860's, soon a f t e r the most important  of these measures had  become law. These are s i g n i f i c a n t : because they i n d i c a t e , the temper of sasme l e a d i n g minds i n Canada at a time when E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e - w a s almost  v o i d of any n a t i o n a l e x p r e s s i o n .  Thomas-D'Arcy McG-ee wasr, i n 1860, l o o k i n g forward tio the time "when we should be known not as Upper of Lower Canadians, Nova S c o t i a n s , or New Brunswickians,  but as members of a n a t i o n  designated as the S i x U n i t e d P r o v i n c e s . " - ^  John A. Macdonald,  foremost, among the F a t h e r s of C o n f e d e r a t i o n , b e l i e v e d that, Canadians "were standing on the very t h r e s h o l d of n a t i o n s , and when admitted we should occupy no unimportant  p o s i t i o n among  l fi  the n a t i o n s of the world."  Most s i g n i f i c a n t , however, and  e a r l i e r i n date than these sentiments^ from 1858.  A.4 Ti  i s a document d a t i n g  G a i t , m i n i s t e r of f i n a n c e , presented the  f o l l o w i n g " R e s o l u t i o n s on F e d e r a t i o n . " 1. Thatt i n view, of the r a p i d development of the p o p u l a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s of Western Canada, i r r e c o n c i l a b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s present themselves t o the maintenance of t h a t e q u a l i t y which formed the b a s i s o f the Union of Upper and Lower Canada, and r e q u i r e t h i s House t o c o n s i d e r means whereby the p r o g r e s s which has so h a p p i l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d t h i s p r o v i n c e may not be a r r e s t e d through the occurrence of s e c t i o n a l j e a l o u s i e s and d i s s e n s i o n s . I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , the o p i n i o n of t h i s House t h a t the Union of Upper and Lower Canada should be changed from a L e g i s l a t i v e t o a F e d e r a t i v e Union by the s u b d i v i s i o n of the p r o v i n c e i n t o two or more d i v i s i o n s , each 1 6  1554  14. c i t e d i n Kennedy, W. P. M., The c o n s t i t u t i o n of Canada, - 1957. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1938, p. 290. 15. i b i d . ,  p. 289.  16. Kennedy, S t a t u t e s , pp. 535 -  536i  -25-  governing i t s e l f i n l o c a l and s e c t i o n a l matters, w i t h a g e n e r a l l e g i s l a t i v e government f o r s u b j e c t s of n a t i o n a l and common i n t e r e s t ; and that\ a.- Commission of nine membersc be named t o r e p o r t i on the best means? and mode* of e f f e c t i n g such c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes* 2. Thatr, c o n s i d e r i n g t h e - c l a i m s possessed by t h i s , province^ on the North-western and. Hudson's^Fay t e r r i t o r i e s ? and the n e c e s s i t y of making p r o v i s i o n forthe g o v e r n m e n t o f the s a i d d i s t r i c t s ; ? i t i i s the o p i n i o n of t h i s House thati, i n thee adoption of a? f e d e r a t i v e c o n s t i t u t i o n for; Canada- meaaie should beprovided f o r thee l o c a l government i. of thef s a i d t e r r i t o r i e s ^ under the . g e n e r a l government;,until p o p u l a t i o n and settlement..may from time t o time enable them t o be admitted' i n t o the Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n . 3. That ..a g e n e r a l C o n f e d e r a t i o n of the p r o v i n c e s of New Brunswick, Nova S c o t i a , "Newfoundland and Prince. Edward I s l a n d w i t h Canada and the.Western t e r r i t o r i e s ; i s most d e s i r a b l e and c a l c u l a t e d to.promote t h e i r s e v e r a l and united- i n t e r e s t s by p r e s e r v i n g t o each p r o v i n c e the u n c o n t r o l l e d management of i t s p e c u l i a r i n s t i t u t i o n s and of those i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s r e s p e c t i n g which d i f f e r e n c e s of o p i n i o n s might, a r i s e w i t h other . members of Confederation, while i t w i l l i n c r e a s e that, i d e n t i t y of f e e l i n g which pervades the p o s s e s s i o n s of tihe B r i t i s h Criown i n North America; and. by the adoption of a uniform p o l i c y f o r the' development of the vastt and v a r i e d resources of these.immense t e r r i t o r i e s w i l l g r e a t l y add t o t h e i r n a t i o n a l power and c o n s i d e r a t i o n ; and t h a t a Committee of nine members be appointed tlo r e p o r t on the steps t o be taken f o r a s c e r t a i n i n g without delay the sentiments o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s of the Lower P r o v i n c e s and of the I m p e r i a l Government on t h i s most important: s u b j e c t , :  :  1 6  Even as t h i s d e s i r e f o r Canadian f e d e r a t i o n was felt  i t was  becoming c e r t a i n t h a t the Union was  impractical.  Members im parliament separated i n t o two groups of mot Bize.  being  unequal  The L i b e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e group c o n s i s t e d of F r e n c h  Canadian Roman Catholics:: and E n g l i s h T o r i e s .  The Reform or  L i b e r a l group c o n s i s t e d of the F r e n c h P a r t i Rouge and the Upper Canada Reform P a r t y of George Brown.  With the f o l l o w i n g of  each group u n c e r t a i n governmente; were i n constant fear., of defeat.  The- f i r s t s r e a l c r i s i s earner i n 185:8, butu many more  f o l l o w e d i n the 1860's.  I t was  as a r e s u l t  of t h i s  political  -26-  deadlock that George Brown joined the Conservative government in 1864 with a view to finding a solution to the problem in a federation of B r i t i s h North American provinces.  Thus p o l i t i c a l  deadlock was the immediate cause of Canada's desire for Confederation. Ae this p o l i t i c a l trouble was becoming more, complicated the American C i v i l Warr. broke out.  There had been a strong  Canadian sentiment: for over half a century based on hostility to the United States, and now at this moment so convenient for the cause of Confederation in Canada- i t was renewed and 37 strengthened. As the defeat of the South became more and more certain Canadians feared that the North American balance 18  of power would be destroyed.  To augment the alarm resulting  from this fear came the open disgust of Great Britain with Canada?, and  suggestion that. B r i t i s h troops should be withdrawn  when the Canadian parliament rejected a m i l i t i a b i l l in 1862. Added to this was the threat that westward expansion in the United Sttates might, block similar development in Canada, and the hostile attitude of the American government.-  This increased  considerably towards;-the end of the C i v i l War, when the Ameridan customs officials began demanding passportefrom t^btiri'Site^hnd^a t-he-'-Amert cfan^^oVernlnentt tterea*ehedotfeohrepeal legi slatton providing for the importiand export of Canadian merchandise through the United States in bond, served notice of the termi17. cf. Martin, C , "The United States and Canadian nationality", Canadian Historical Review, v. 18, pp. 1 - 11, March 1937. 18, cf. Creighton, op. c i t . . p. 287.  -27n a t i o n of the RUsh-Bagot agreement of 1817, and d e c i d e d t h a t . r e c i p r o c i t y must end.  The s i t u a t i o n was f u r t h e r  complicated  by t h e : - a c t u a l b o r d e r c l a s h e s , , k n o w n asi the F e n i a n r a i d s , w h i c h 19 o c c u r r e d at t h i s t i m e .  W i t h a l l t h e s e important, s i g n s of  f r i c t i o n w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s looming b e f o r e  their--eyes,  Canadians r e a l i z e d t h e need f o r C o n f e d e r a t i o n and began t h i n k of B r i t i s h N o r t h A m e r i c a i n n a t i o n a l termer;  The  was most, p o t e n t i n New B r u n s w i c k , where i t „ d i s c r e d i t e d p r o - A m e r i c a n a n t i - C o n f e d e r a t i o n S m i t h government  to effect the  and caused  tihe people t o r e t u r n an a d m i n i s t r a t i o n favorable^ tio the u n i o n at the next e l e c t i o n s ?  0  Thus New- B r u n s w i c k a u t h o r i z e d  C o n f e d e r a t i o n and made i t p o s s i b l e f o r Tupper i n Nova S c o t i a t o do l i k e w i s e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e major causes  thereowere*..certain  other.* f a c t o r s w h i c h a l s o p r e p a r e d the:-way f o n C o n f e d e r a t i o n . For.-one t h i n g t h e new economic a t t i t u d e t o c o l o n i e s i n E n g l a n d was:-significant".  I f Canada were t o have p r e f e r e n t i a l  treat-  ment w i t h i n the .Empire: no l o n g e r she must l o o k elsewhere assistance.  for  By means of the R e c i p r o c i t y T r e a t y she was a b l e  f o r a w h i l e t o s u b s t i t u t e the U n i t e d S t a t e s f o r G r e a t ! B r i t a i n i n h e r economic system, b u t t h a t a i d , t o o , p r i o r to Confederation.  The o n l y r e m a i n i n g a l t e r n a t i v e was t o  f o r m u l a t e a n a t i o n a l economic p o l i c y , shortly after  came t o an end  Confederation.  w h i c h indeed d i d occur-  There was a l s o t h e new u n i t y  1 9 . c f . S t a c e y , A . P . , " F e n i a n i s m and the r i s e of n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n Canada a t . the time of C o n f e d e r a t i o n " , Canadian H i s t o r i c a l Re viewy v . 12:, p p . 238 - 261, S e p t . 1931. 20. cfi. CCreighton, op. c i t . . p p . 299,  303.  «• 28—  provided to the country by the developments of systems of transportation and communication.  The widespread. construction of 1  railways and the.growing importance of the St., Lawrence waterway certainly contributed to the development of a federated country.  Indeed, the St. Lawrence-system had always been a  unifying force, in Canada*. I t was ..the: one great river which led from the eastern shore into the heart of the continent. It possessed a geographical monopoly; and i t shouted i t s uniqueness.to adventurers:; The rlVerrmeant', mobility and distance;; i t invited journeyings;; i t promised immense expanses, unfolding, flowing away into remote and changing horizons. The whole west, with a l l i t s riches, was. the dominion of the^ river. 1  v  And finally there wass-the increasing interest in the- We st, felt, particularly bj Upper Canadians and by business men in LowerCanada.  Canadians hoped for a future in the-West, to r i v a l that-  open to the United States, and national rivalry called fornational endeavour .to back it,. With a l l these factors combining at just, the opportune moment with p o l i t i c a l deadlock and fear of the United States, Confederation became possible and. was achieved in 18S7. It. was a-practical move undertaken to thwart various dangerous tendencies, but many people at that time felt that there was*no possibility of the merger enduring, or of Canada becoming agnation.  The country was divided into two groups, with the  maj ority of anti-confederates  in the Mari times and of those in  favour, of the move in Upper Canada.  Said one Nova Scotian,  "I do not think that the people of Nova- Scotia want annexation 21. Creighton, D. G.*, The commercial empire of the St. Lawrence 1760 - 1850, Toronto, Ryerson, 1937, p. 6l (cf. also pp. 1 - 21).  -29tio the United States:, but- why should you drive them against t h e i r interests and i n c l i n a t i o n s into a union with Canada^—with which they have no natural means of communication, and no s y m p a t h y ? c o n f e d e r a t i o n was, however, based on a generous tolerant f e e l i n g .  '"•We" weree of different r a c e s ,  said Car tier,",  1  'not f o r the purpose of warring against-each other, but i n order 23 to compete and emulate for-the general welfare'.'"  Itt wass on  such a s p i r i t , that, the Canadian nation was founded. Nevertheless  i n spite of the strength Canadaanism  must have enjoyed i n the decades before Confederation there.- was little  contemporary r e f l e c t i o n of i t i n the fine arts of the  country.  A considerable quantity of poetry and some novels  were produced, but the basic sentiments were almost, invariably colonialism, Americanism, or localism.  Itc wassnot. u n t i l the*  l a t t e r part of the century that Canadian l i t e r a t u r e began to r e f l e c t t h i s v i t a l Canadian sentiment which produced Confederation.  It; i s , however,  interesting to examine b r i e f l y the  l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y of E n g l i s h Canada'in this period. The f i r s t . E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e . w r i t t e n i n Canada appeared i n the l a t t e r half of the Eighteenth Century, and was.; written by vsoldiers i n the B r i t i s h forces that conquered Canada, from the. French and l a t e r defended i t s s f r o n t i e r s , from the American republics.-;  Thus the poem "The Reduction of Louisburgh",  by Valentine N e v i l l e , appeared i n 1759; and "The Conquest of Canada or the S«4ge of QUebec: a tragedy", by George Cookings, 22.. Creightton, Domini on of _ the; North, p. 301. 23:. i b i d . ,  p. 312.  -30-  was published in  1760.  AAlong piece of some  Thee Conquest, of Quebec:  lines--  an epic in eight, books—was written by  Henry Munphy and appeared in 1 7 9 0 .  And the f i r s t Canadian  novel--The. History of Emily Montagjaey by dates^from 1 7 6 9 .  8,000  MTJSS  Frances Blnooke*-  Thus the f i r s t impulse which motivated  English Canadian writers was an imperialistic, one, blending with and later becoming secondary to a more colonial.attitude. While English Canadian writers:were expressing their British sentiments immigrants from the United States were producing work of a local character with an American flavour in Nova Sicotia.  In the Eighteenth Century Puritan literature of  the type popular in New England flourished there, notably in the hands of Henry Alline Rhode Island.  (1748  -  1784),  himself a native of  After the American Revolution writers of  loyalist tradition from the United States produced literature? similar tio that of the Puritan School in its local and American tone.  Chief figures in this group are the poets Joseph  Stansbury  (1740  -  1809)  and Jonathan Odell  the journalist Jacob Bailey  (1731  -  1 8 0 8 ) , ,  (1737  -  1818),  and  Another Nova  Scotian, Thomas Chandler Haliburton, was probably the most noted of a l l English Canadian writers before Confederation. His humorous novels are often considered to be lasting creations.  But the main impulse which they reflect is neither  localism nor the spirit of the New World; i t is rather a pure Americanism (in the narrowest sense of the word.).  None of  these early contributions to English Canadian literature reflect a spirit which is in any way Canadian; but the f i r s t faint evidence of a feeling for Canada appears at this time in  -31-  Oliver Goldsmith's poem of 1825, TTfce-. Rising Village". 24 "The Rising Village"  presents primarily the spirit  of the New World; hut. there is a feeling in i t that is faintly natianal.  It is Canadian in the.feeling for:-nature, and in the  spirit of adventure found in the new land.  But the impulse is  weak and elusive, for Goldsmith knew of no unit in North America larger than the Maritime region to which he could belong—this was many years before Confederation was even thought, of.  The. feeling is so weak that Logan believes i t to 25  be only the semblance of a genuine Canadian!sm.  But this  opinion is scarcely correct; the poem contains more than that. It., is "the first.poetic representation of the experiences b$> which the Loyalists triumphed over home-sickness and. material obstacles and came to love and have f a i t h in Canada, the land of their adoption."  The following lines, which would sound  anything but.national in a post-Donfederation poem, sound distinctly Canadian for 1825:. Not. f i f t y summers..yet have passed their clime-How short, a- period in the space of time-Sincee savage tribes^ with terror in their train, Rushed o'er thy fields, and ravaged a l l the plain. But some few years have rolled in haste away Since, through thy vales, the fearless beast of prey, With dismal y e l l and loud appalling cry, Proclaimed his midnight, reign of terror nigh. And now how changed the. scene! the., f i r s t , afar Have.fled to wilds beneath the northern star; The last has learned to shun man's dreaded eye, And, in his turn, to distant regions f l y . While the poor peasant, whose laborious care Scarce from the s o i l could wring his scanty fare. 24. firsts published 1825, revised 1834$ quoted in part, in Smith, pp. 53 - 55". 25.  cf. Logan and French, p. 96.  26. RnodShJ?^e»j.zpr 162.  -32Now in the peaceful arts of culture skilled, Sees his wide barn with ample treasures f i l l e d ; Now. finds his dwelling, as the year goess round Beyond his hopes, with joy and plenty crowned.* fe  24  —11. 19 - 36. Oliver Goldsmith was the first.poet whose writings suggest a Canadian tone.  But the f i r s t English Canadian  authors to write consciously about their country were novelists. Goldsmith could not. have been aware of Canada am his country, and any national flavour evident, in his work must have been unconscious.  Butt in response to the: growing demand for a  national literature two pre-Confederation novelists—John Richardson and Mrs. Leprehon*'—wrote fiction that contained a distinctly Canadian flavour.  Of these: Richardson was by far  the most, important, as. a novelist.  _  John Richardson was born at Queenston on the Niagara River in October, 1796 of Jacobite stock.  His father was a  surgeon in the British army, and when in 1801 his duties required him to live with his unit, his wife and son went to Detroit to live with her. father, Colonel Askin. 28 merchant in Detroit who in 1796  Colonel Askin was a  had elected to remain loyal  to the British flag but had. been obliged to remain in Detroit another five years for business reasons.  Consequently shortly  after he was joined by his daughterr and grandson he moved 27. Mrs. Leprehon (Rosanna Eleanor Mullins, 1832 - 1879) wrote three novels of some importance. The f i r s t of these, "Ida Beresford", appeared in the Literary Garland (a Canadian periodical of that, time) in 1848. The Manor House., of de V i l l e r a i was published in 1859, and Antoinette de Mirecourt in 1864. These works are now rare and not easily obtainable^; but. it. is the opinion of one c r i t i c that: Mrs-. Leprehon was "the:first,Canadian novelist whose work is the director the nationalistic movement in Canadian literature."(Rhodenizer,p.79) 28. In 1796 Detroit was evacuated by i t s B r i t i s h garrison  -33-  aeross the r i v e r i n t o Upper Canada, s e t t l i n g n e a r l y o p p o s i t e  29 the f o o t of Hog I s l a n d .  He and h i s w i f e were proud  of t h e i r  B r i t i s h a l l e g i a n c e ? and f i l l e d young John w i t h much of t h e i r p r i d e ; and i n p a r t i c u l a r Mrss A s k i n impressed him w i t h the d e t a i l s of P o n t i a c ' s s e i g e of D e t r o i t i n 1763.  I n 1802 D r .  Richardson s e t t l e d at Amhersthurg i n the Western D i v i s i o n of Upper Canada, and s h o r t l y afterwards h i s f a m i l y j o i n e d him theres;  I t was t h e e b e a u t i f u l scenery of t h i s r e g i o n t h a t  t h r i l l e d t h e a r t i s t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n of young John. . Thus i n h i s e a r l y y o u t h Richardson had a l r e a d y been impressed the. beauty  s t r o n g l y by  of thee r e g i o n i n which he l i v e d and by the a n t i -  American f e e l i n g f o s t e r e d by h i s grandparents--the two i n f l u e n c e s which l a t e r became the b a s i s of h i s Canadianism. H i s anti-American f e e l i n g i n p a r t i c u l a r gained a d d i t i o n a l s t r e n g t h d u r i n g t h e Wan of 1812.  Richardson entered  t h a t , conf l i c t L b e f o r e he was f u l l y 16, and was a member of the Guard of Honour which took p o s s e s s i o n of D e t r o i t , when i t capitulated.  He was taken p r i s o n e r i n 1813 and h e l d f o r about  a year^ i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s .  T h e r e a f t e r hes saw a c t i v e . aer-viaes i n  t h e s B r d t i s h army " u n t i l 1818, mostly i n the. West. I n d i e s .  In  1818 he was placed,on h a l f pay, and devoted h i m s e l f t o l i t e r a tures w i t h some success u n t i l 1838.  I n that, y e a r he r e t u r n e d t o  Canada^ ( a f t e r having l i v e d abroad f o r . some twenty f our'years;) r  (note 28, cont.)  under the terms of Jay's T r e a t y .  29. A' s i t e , o f t e n mentioned i n Wacousta, and near the present c i t y of Windsor. 30. P o n t i a c was a l e a d i n g I n d i a n c h i e f at the time of t h e B r i t i s h Conquest.of Canada-* AfcKwar c h i e f of the Ottawas he organized I n d i a n t r i b e s i n t o a k i n d of army, and succeeded i n  -34-  and again devoted himself to literature.  He died in poverty  at New York in 1852. Major Richardson had already written several poems and novels "based on Canadian situations^ " when in 1832 he wrote 4  the historical romance Wag ou sta- or The, Prophecy in which he? displayed his Canadian sentiments.  It is a story of the Eohtiac  Conspiracy and reveals particularly the experiences of the author's youth.  It was his grandmother who interested him in  the subject, he chose, and i t , was; also she. and her. husband who f i r s t impressed the difference between "American" and "British" upon him.  In Wacousta• Richardson frequently distinguishes:,  between "Canadian" and "American", although at the^ time of which he is writing such a- distinction was of l i t t l e significance. 32 Wacousta  f i r s t appeared in 1832, over thirty years  before Confederation.  Hence in estimating the extent to which  national sentiment is evident, in i t i it. is. necessary to make allowances for this fact.  Indeed each literary creation of any  period should be examined independently of any general rules. What appears very Canadian at one time and in one writer w i l l not necessarily so appear in another.  Just what conception of  Canada Richardson entertained is uncertain.  At times he uses  the term 'Canadian to refer only to the French of Quebec:; 1  (note 30, cont) capturing 8 out of 12 forts attacked in 1763, although he failed in his own attack on Detroit after a si&ge of five months, cf. Parkman, F . , Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War, Boston, L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1912, 2 vols. 31. The long poem Tecumseh deals with the War. of 1812, and the novel Ecarte introduces several Canadian situations. 32;. Richardson, J . , Wacousta; Toronto, McClelland and  -35Thus he refers throughout Wacousta to one such character as 'the Canadian'; and the editor of the 1923 edition notes that "the term "Canadian" as used hy the author, denotes?--as the name 33 originally did—the descendants of French settlers in Canada; But at other times the author refers to Canada as opposed to the United States;; thisjis a general use of the term and quite: likely ref lectlss; a broad Canadian attitude.  In his first chapter  he writes, "it often happened in Canada during this interesting 34 period that..." At, another point, he notes, "T.o the right, on approaching from the town, lay the adjacent shore a of Canada-, 35 washed by the broad waters of the Detroit." Again he writes, "the vessel.. .was:.-finally seen to cast anchor in the navigable 36 channel that, divides Hog Island from the shore of Canada...  ;  and again, "he...pursuing his way across the river, had nearly gained the shores of Canada.... "  3 7  These-- incidental references,  (and these arecall of this kind there are in the book) seem to indicate that the author has a feeling for Canada as: his native land.  Kioweyersinsofar as this feeling is based on anti-  Americanism it. is as much pro-British as distinctly Canadian. Indeed it seems certain that at a l l times during the Nineteenth Century anti-Americanism played a predominant part, in moulding Canadian feeling. Nevertheless anti-American feeling was not the only (note 32, cont.)  Stewart^ 1923.  33. 35".  ibid., p. 102. ibid., p. 115.  37.  ibid.. p. 450.  34i ibid., p. 4. 36. ibid., p. 353.  -36basis of Canadianism then evident.  Richardson, in common with  other writers of his century, f e l t a sense of unity within Canada-through the appreciation of Canadian nature.  This  4  feeling is significant, for it. indicates a common impulse that. is constructive in the development of a national awareness.  It  is true that in many cases such appreciation tends to he local or regional rather than national, but. as long as it. is not. strictly provincial it. is Canadian in tame.  In Wacousta the  most sustained evidence of. Canadian sentiment is to be found in the description of landscape and:nature.  In particular the  following paragraph seems national in inspiration. The sun was high in the., meridian as. the second detachmenti, commanded by Colonel de Haldimar in person, issued from the fort of Detroit. It; was that soft. and hazy season, peculiar to the bland and beautiful autumn of Canada, when the golds* light, of heaven seems as i f transmitted through a veil of tissue, and a l l animate and inanimate nature, expanding and fructifying beneath its fostering influence, breathes the most delicious langour and voluptuous repose. It was one of those s t i l l , calm, warm, and genial days which in those regions come under the vulgar designation of Indian summer, a season that is ever hailed by the Canadians with a satisfaction proportional to the extreme sultriness of the summer and the equally oppressive rigor of the winterly which i t t i s immediately preceded and followed. These are indications of a true Canadian sentiment evident, in Richardson.  But; his national consciousness was at  a l l times mingled with a sincere love of Britain.  He had the  colonial attitude common to almost every English Canadian 39 writer in the.-'Nineteenth Century. He speaks of the. "true and 38. i b i d . , p. 100. 39. In Richardson's case this British attachment was undoubtedly strengthened by his years of service in the army noti. only in Canada but also in the West Indies and Spain.  -37-  1 oy a l B'rl t l sh soldi er «" *  u  "nati ve England , * 42  A  indomitable daring of the B r i t i s h sailor."  and.. " tihe In these refer-  ences Blchardson reveals that he was a man of his times, although he:expressed more clearly than any of his comtemporary artists his feelings for the country.  In summary, Richardson  in his Wa/cousta expresses; the f i r s t important Canadian sentiment in English Canadian literature; much of this is based on an antagonism to' the United States blended with a colonial attitude to Britain, but a truly national note is struck in some of the descriptions of the Canadian landscape. The only Canadian poet of significance to write before the Confederation period was Charles Sangster.  His  interests are similar to those of tihe novelist John Richardson, and therefore reveal, in combination with his>, the*.-general .44 ' attitude of Upper Canadians prior to Confederation. Like 40. Biohardson, op. c i t , p. 22. 41. i b i d . , p. 34.  42. i b i d . , p. 277.  43. The Canadian Brothers or The.Prophecy F u l f i l l e d , the sequel to Wacousta, is also Canadian in sentiment; but, i t was" written tm provide a national literature for Canada, and sounds very a r t i f i c i a l in tone. (Rhodenizer, p. 79). 4'4'k The. only other outstanding poets and novelist's of the period lived in Nova sreotia; they were Oliver Goldsmith, Joseph Howe' and- TJhomasf.Chandler Halliburton. In contrast: tio the Canadian spirit evident in the Upper Canada^-writ'eriSf- these Maritime poets and novelists reveal predominantly North American, imperial and local, and American and local influences respectively. This contrast between the two sections of C&nada is interesting; i t suggests that at this period the people in the Maritime Provinces felt only a local interest;--they had no conception of a.-future continent-wide nation, whereas thepeople in Upper Canada already felt a much broader allegiance: embracing at least the; eastern half of the modern Dominion of Canada.-. This feeling was probably the direct result of the Union Parliament which was set up after Lord Durham's mission to Canada. -  -38-  Richardson, Sangster shows a Canadian feeling "based on united action in the past, and on an appreciation of Canadian natlurer. Indeed Sang at er was:, theef i r s t p o e t . to treat Canadian subject;? 45  matter in morecthan a s t r i c t l y local manner. James; Sangster, Charles' father, was a native of Scotland who fought on the Loyalist side in the American Revolution; but he died before Charles was 2, and thus had l i t t l e influence on his son's thoughts.  Anne, Charles'  mother, was?,the daughter of Scottish settlers in Prince, Edward Island.  Charles£was: born at. Point Frederick, near Kingston, in  Upper. Canada, in a district,then surrounded by the Canadian forests which play such a large part in his poetry.  He:, was at  f i r s t a clerk and messenger in the ordnance office, but from 184-9 to 1861 he was engaged in newspaper work, mainly with the Kingston Whig.  It was during this period when he was a news-  paper employee that he published his two volumes of poetry, The St. Lawrence and the Saguenay and other poems in 1856, and Hesperus and other poems and lyrics in 186:0.  In his later  47  years;.-hee published no more* verse. Charles Sangster was the firsti.poet to reveal a v i t a l Canadian feeling in his work; but in the majority of his poems no such feeling appears.  These poems reveal his wide reading  in English literature, and are imitative of poets in that f i e l d . 4.5^ cf. Rhodenizer, p. 165; Dictionary of Canadian Biography, p. 387, etc* 46. Charlesrr.Sangster displays l i t t l e anti-American feeling in his work. In places he reveals a pride in his Scottish ancestry, but this is probably derivative from his mother-. 47. In 1864 he joined the staff of the Kingston Daily Hews.  -39-  Bbth the subjects and the style derive from such famous poets 48 as Wordsworth, Byron, Shelley and Tennyson.  Most, important,  poets go through a similar.' period of imitation as they develop their, own genius; hut. Sangster seased writing poetry before he had passed beyond this stage.  Therefore the fact that most of  Sangster's poems a r e t i m i t a t i v e of English writers does not necessarily indicate the tastes of the reading public:in Canada before:. Confederation.  These imitative poems may result: from  such a tastet; but. they could also result, from the natural inclination of a young poet to read and copy from masters-. Of more significance-- arecthose poems which suggest a Canadian inspiration in some way.  The most widespread Canadian  influence present in his work is evident in the treatment of nature seen in some 10 of the shorter poems and sonnets in the Hesperus collection as well as in 3 of the 4 longer:poems in that, group. ^ In many cases the,:description suggests <aw regional 4  or.•Canadian appreciation rather than a purely local picture-; 50 Particularly Canadian are the twin poems "Thee snows"  and  "The rapids" ; "The rapids" reads in part, (note 47, cent.) and from 1868 to 1886 he was employed i n the Post-office Department at Ottawa. He married: twice-, once-; in 1855 and again in 1865; and was the father tojtlhreeo-children by his second marriage. He died in 1893;. 51  418. Of the 46 shorter poems in his Hesperus and other poems and lyrics 12. deal with love;;15 with l i f e , religion and eternity'; 4 wi'th pastoral themes; and 3 with the l i f e of the poet. None of these poems suggest Canada in any way. Of the longer poems "Hesperus" shows no Canadian feeling whatever; and only 3: of his 18 sonnets are Canadian in any way. (See Appendix II, Table I for an analysis of his volume)* 49. See Appendix II, Table I f o r an analysis of Hepserus. 50. Hesperus: and other poems, Montreal, Lovell, I860 , p. 92. 51. i b i d . , p. 94.  ~40~  A l l peacefully gliding: , The-waters dividing, Thecindolent!|batitleau moved: slowly alongj, The rowers, light-hearted, From sorrow long partted, Beguiled tihe dull moments with laughter-and song: "Hurrah for the Rapid. that merrily, merrily, Gambols and leaps, on i t s tortuous way; Soon we w i l l enter i t , cheerily, cheerily, Pleased with its freshness, and wet with.its spray. —11. 1  1  1-10.  At fern of: Sangster.'st descriptivec.poems suggest a; Canadian atmosphere: by treating/-tihe< l i f e , of the? Indian.  These poems seem to 52  lack sincerity and are: bookish rather than truly Canadian. In contrastl. with these poems others of the descriptive poems;:. suggest l i t t l e or no Canadian inspiration, but rather- a foreign influence similar to that:.evident, in the imitative poems i n 53 the collection. Even more important, in their reflection of a Canadian feeling are those pQemss which deal with subjectssfrom Canadian history.  These poems in particularc seem tio reflect a national  feeling current, in the country beforecConfederation based on a: pride in united action in the past.  In most of these poems  Sangster puts his Canadian feeling above his strong colonial sentiments.  He does have a firm admiration for England, but. he  never, lets that;obscure his national s p i r i t .  "Mr. Sangster;  while cherishing a loyal attachment to the mother-land, gives 54 Canada the chief placeoin his hearti." 52. cf. "Autumn", p. 65; "Falls of the Chaudiere" , p. 53";: sonnets 16 (p. 177) and 17 (p. 178). See Appendi^II, Table I. !  53. cf; "The wren", p. I l l ; "The April snowstorm, 1882", p. 132; etcr; See Appendix II, liable I. 54. Dewart, E . H . , "Charles Sangster, the. Canadian poet,!',  GZm;, v; 7, p. 29, May 1896.  -41* In his poem "Quebec?*^ he muses over the famous siege which decided the fate of Canada.  In if. he expresses his pride  56 in England when he notes her fame  ; but. throughout*, i t is  obvious that Canada* has f i r s t , place in his heart, as the climax of his emotiion expressed in ther closing lines shows.  Tihe poem  reads Quebec' how regally i t crowns the height, Like a tanned giant on a solid throne.' Unmindful of the sanguinary fight., The* roar of cannon mingling with the moan Of mutilated soldiers;.years agone, That; gave the place a glory and a- namee Among the nations. France, was heard to groan; England rejoiced, but checked the proud acclaim,-A braveeyoung chief had f a l l ' n to vindicate her name. Wolfe and Montcalm.' two nobler names ne'er graced The- page of history, or the hostile plain; No braver souls the storm of battle faced, Regardless of the danger or the pain. They passed unto their rest, without. a> stain Upon their, nature or their generous hearts. One graceful column to the noble twain Speaks of a nation's gratitude, and starts?.; gg The tear that;Valour.claims and Feeling's self imparts. 1  1  "Quebec-?' is a good example of Sangsten's method of musing over the: past, history of his country.  It. is his most successful  method of revealing his Canadian spirits.  AA more-, successful  poem belonging tto tihis group is his? famous "Br.cook"^''', written in 185 9, which reads in part as follows?. r  55'; Songs*, of the Greatl. Domini on, p. 307. 56. "Quebec"; lines:  8-9,  57. Songs of the Great •.Dominion, pp. 254 - 255; Smith, pp> 92;- 93; Tne version cited is that of tihe-^f irsfc.o of. these books.  -42-  One..voice, one people, one in heart, • And soul, and feeling, and. desire.' Re-light; the smouldering martial fire^ Sound the mute trumpet, strike the lyre-, The .hem deed! can nott expire^ The dead s t i l l play their parti. Bad set high the monumental stone.' AAnation's fealty is theirs, And we are the rejoicing heirs, The; honoured sons of sires whose- cares We take upon us unawares, Ass ffeeselfo' as?, oiarr owtti. We Dbasti. not, of the victory, But;-render homage, deep and just* To his—to their--immortal dust, Who proved so worthy of theirr trustc,— Ho lofty pile nor. scculpturedr. bustl. Can herald their:, degrees No tongue need blazon forth their fame,-The: cheerSF.that s t i r the sacred h i l l Are but mere?-promptings of the w i l l That conquered then, that conquers s t i l l ; And generations yett shall t h r i l l „ Ato Brock'si'remembered name; ' 5  —11. 1 - 24.  This: is probably Slangs ten's mostl successful method of auggesting,.his national spiriti; but, as we have seen he does? reveal his feeling for the country in other ways—particularly in nature^, lyrics which reflect the Canadian scene.  Hec: could  also write the. 'drum and trumpet,' style of verse, a; types wMch hassbeen very popular, in Canada-;  In particular his poem  CO  "Song for:Canada" contains some stirring passages:. Our lakes are deep and wide;j .Our fields and forests broad;: With cheerful air We&ll speed the share, And break the. f r u i t f u l sod;; T i l l blestt with rural peaces Proud of our rust ice. t o i l , On h i l l and plain T'rue kings we'll reign, The victor Sf. of tihe. s o i l .  -43-  Butolet,. the rash intruder da-xe TJo touch ourrdarling: strand, Thee martial f ir.es* Thato thrilled; ourr sires Would light,him from tihe land.  5  a  — 11. 16 - 3a  Songster displays a significant Canadian spirit, for a poet writing before Confederation.  This spiriti, is best  revealed in his treatment of his tor ice sites and heroes?, but. aome;-: of his nature poetry also contains a truly Canadian touch. These poems reveal a distinctly Canadian spiriti, mainly because the poet was so thoroughly Canadian himself that his feelings were sincere and therefore naturally appeared in his work.  But  his more conscious attempts to be national—his 'drum and trumpet.' verse--although enthusiast!coare not. very successful. Thee main reason for thissis that they deal with generalities;; that might apply to almost any country.  And yet, reviewing the  Nineteenth Century, Mr. Ei H. Dewart.wrote, in 1896, In some important.respects, Sangster is s t i l l the; most representative of our bardB% It is not merely thatthis theme ay are Canadian, he lived in an atmospJhere of Canadian sentiment, and everything he wrote is permeated with the free s p i r i t . o f the; "grand old woods" and broad lakes of his country. 5 Q  7  And indeed very few English Canadian poets have:expressed as sincerena national feeling in tiheir work as Sfengster.did in a few. of his best.poems. During the century bef oie Confederation a strong national feeling seems to have developed in Canada, mainly in Upper Canada^, based on antagonisms to the-; United States, and on love of the Canadian landscape.  However this feeling did not  produceemuch literature* that,was.,distinctly Canadian during 59. Dewart, op. c i t . . p. 29.  -44-  this period.  Most! of the: poets and novelists were'too local,  orrtoo American, or too colonial in their attitude to feel any Canadian sentiments.  The most significant, exceptions to this  condition wereethe novel Waeousta by John Richardson and a few poems by Charles Sangster.  The main Canadian influence? in  these works stems from the* ant 1-American feeling which had been strong ;in ttheccountry since the time of the.; American Revolution and the War of 1812.  N o t f o r over half a century did the: f i r s t  of these two events have any effect on Canadian literature; and i t . was almost two decades after the War of 1812 when Wac ou stia; f i r s t ! appeared.  Thus, theree was a considerable time, lag before  this v i t a l feeling first,found expression in the fine arts of the- country.  And even Waoousta is based more on the earlier  Pontiac Conspiracy than on the wars with the United States.. There was l i t t l e v i t a l national feeling in Canadian, literature before Confederation, end what., there was representated a t t i tudes that must'havei been important for a considerable time in the lives of the people of the-; land.  CHAPTER III CONFEDERATION and CANADIAN LITERATURE" in the?--latter part, of the NINETEENTH CENTURY  Confederation in Canada did not proceed from an irrepressible national feeling in the residents of B r i t i s h North America, but. was adopted primarily for-practical reasons. Since-1867 a-Canadian national feeling has emerged as a result, of p o l i t i c a l union; but. even to-day many sections of the citizenry do not appreciate the fact, that Canada- is a nation, and their country.  It is true that a feeling of unity had  arisen in B r i t i s h North America as a result of the American wars; but that, feeling had affected only a comparatively small section of the Canadian people, for since. 1812 the complexion of the Canadian population had beengchanged by immigration. There., is l i t t l e or no evidence to indicate that, many people in any of the B r i t i s h provinces, other than Upper Canada f e l t any deep national feeling prior to Confederation.  1  The main force  leading to the Confederation movement wasf, rather, the p o l i t i c a l stalemate which hounded the. Union parliament in the years preceding the movement.  It was this condition which caused  1. As we have seen only John Richardson and Charles^ Samgster--both Uppen Canadians--expressed any v i t a l Canadianism in their literature in the pre*Confederation period. During that period both the French in Quebec and the English in the Maritime Provinces were too provincial to be. Canadian in any national sense. 2. This was, at least, the immediate cause of Confederation. The state of union that.had existed between Upper and Lower  -45-  -46.  r i v a l p o l i t i c a l leaders to co-operate, and resulted in the sending of delegates to the Charlottetown Conference.  In 1867  many Canadians felttthat, Confederation was impractical,  and  those who did., support. the plan did so only for. practical reasons.  4  This attitude continued long after Confederation was  achieved, and as later as 1889 G'oldwin Smith, certainly no opponent of the idea of a Canadian nation, was writing in 5 6 The Bystander, ' The. By stand err has the heart i e s t sympathy with those who strive to make Canada a nation... .Bilt there; is no use in attempting manifest.impossibilities, and no impossibility apparently can be more manifest than thatt of fusing or. even harmonizing a French and Papal with a British and Protestant community. 8  (note 2, cont.). Canada in the quarter of a century prior to Confederation actually made the move feasible. Then, when the p o l i t i c a l deadlock developed in the early 1860's Canadians f e l t that.the obvious solution was federation such as had been suggested for the Maritime Provinces. 3. cf. Wallace:, W. S., "The growth of Canadian national feeling", Oanadian Historical Review. v. 1, p. 137, June 1920. In particular Mr. WalYac'e mentions a speech by a member of parliament, one Christopher Dunkin, in which the speaker could see no possibility of a Canadian nationality in view of the/: varying allegiances of Canadians to London, Paris, Ireland or Washington. 4. i b i d . . pp. 137 - 138. In particular Mr. Wallace mentions:'John Rose and Goldwin Smith. Both favoured Confederat i on, but only for practical reasons at that time. 5. i b i d . , p. 138. 6. Nova Scotians, and people from the Maritimes in general, havecibeen slow to accept Confederation. This reluctance is probably the direct result of the resentment which Nova Scotians in 1867 f e l t against the way in which Confederation had been forced on them. It..is true that Joseph Howe changed his a t t i tude after his v i s i t to London, but nevertheless Nova Scotia has always voted Liberal in the belief tihat.it is revenging;, i t s e l f on the Conservative Party for the part i t played in the affair. Very few Maritime writers have been national in any way. The f i r s t , one to indicate a significant and widespread Canadianism was the novelist Miss. L . M. Montgomery. Butt except for  -47Nevertheless, there, were present in Canada at. the time of. Conf ederatlon erfew/ men of vision who fre-ltt not. only the": possibility for but., also the necessity of a stfeong national feeling.  At;, f i r s t scattered and insignificant;, this feelings  ssLowly gathered strength until i t grew into the. Canada M r at movement, in 1870 and 1871.  As early as 1868 Charles Mair, a  member of this pro-national group, had been contributing articles with a national flavour, describing the new North-west, to the Toronto Globe; but i t was not until 1871 thatjthis plan to propagate''Canaddanism became significant.  In thatc yean-W. A*.  Foster, clearly the leader of the group, delivered a speech outlining the purposes of the new group.  He-, entitled his  s-peech Canada First!; _ov± our new nationality, and from this t i t l e the movement acquired its name?.  Shortly after this time  the Canada First, movement entered politics, and proclaimed a-national program.  Itsn success was immediate; with the election  of TlhomassMosss in West: Tlbronto in 1874; but. short-lived. 1  Both  the:Liberal and Conservative Parties immediately began a drastic campaign of extermination, and soon the- Canada First. Party 7 disintegrated.  As; has often been pointed out,  this was  fortunate? as far.'as the cause of nationalism in Canada was.' concerned, for Canadianism ceased to be a party issue.  And  (noten6, cont.) her:it. is only in very recent times that Maritime writers..have become'-really Canadian, the mostt notable example being Hugh MacLennan, the novelist.. 7. cf. Wallace, op. c i t . , p. 158; Kennedy, W; P. M., The Constitution of Canada 1554 - 1937, Oxford University Press, 1938 ( 2nd edition), p. 340. *  -46-  furthermore both thesLiberals and Conservatives have adopted various aspects of the Canada F i r s t platform, and co-operated 6  t-o develop a Canadian nation.  Theemain significance:: of the;  CanadaaFlrsti. Party is that!, iti, shows;: just how Canadian some leading men of that period really were.  Perhaps the best  expression of this sentiment, is to be found in the Aurora Speech of. Edward Blake of the Liberal Party, who in 1874 broke ttem^ porarily with his party and seemed to approach thee program of tlhea Canada-PirsttParty in his national sentiments.  The tone;; of  Blake's comments indicates the sentiments of nationalists in Canada in 1874, as the following passage from i t suggests; Let.me now turn to another? question which hass been adverted to on several occasions, as one looming in the not very distantc future* I refer to the relations of Canada to the Empire* Upon this topic I took, three; or four years- ag^p, an opportunity of speaking, and ventured tio suggest that an efforts should be made tio reorganize the Empirec.upon a Federal basis. I repeat what I then said, that the time may be; at hand when the people of Canada shall be called upon to discuss the question. Matters cannot driftmuch longer as they haveedrifted hithertto. The Treaty of Washington produced a very profound impression throughout. this country. It.produced a feeling that at no distant.period the people of Canada would desire that they should have:some greater shares of control than they nowhaveein the management', of foreign affairs; thatt our Government should not present the anomaly which it-.now presents—a Government the freest, perhaps the most democratic in the world with reference to local and domestic matters*, in which you ruleeyourselves as freely, as any mother people in the world, while in your foreign affairs; your relations with other countries, whether peaceful or warlike; ' C o m m e r c i a l or financial, or otherwise, you have, no more voice than the people of Japan. This, however, is a state: of things -©fiiwhich you have no right to complain, because so long as you do not choose to undertake the responsibilities and 8* i b i d . p. 158. The Liberal Party under Blake, Laurier, and; King hase supported constitutional autonomy, whereas the Conservative Party under Macdonald, Burden, and Bennett, has supported an economic national policy. t  -49burdehs which, attach to some Bhare of control in these affairs!* you cannot f u l l y claim the rights and privileges :6f> free-born Britons in such matters:* But how-long is this talk in the newspapers and elsewhere, this talk which I find in very high places, of the desirability, aye, of the necessity of fostering a national s p i r i t , among the people of Canada, to be* meretitalk? It: is impossible to foster a- national s p i r i t unless you have national interests to attend to, or among people who do not choose to undertake • theeresponsibilities and to devote themselves to the duties to which national attributes belong. The:establishment of: autonomy in Canada haezproceeded through two separate and f a i r l y distinct.stages.  The first- of  these stages developed during the period before?: the Great- War of 1914 - 1918, when the Canadian people secured virtual, autonomy in internal affairs.  Many of the privileges of self-  government., dated from the period prior to 1867; but- ther.ee weres s t i l l several important limitations to bee removed after that date.  Freedom in these matters resulted from strong agitation  from within Canada, incited by the new national s p i r i t . Thesecond phase in the attainment of complete autonomy in Canadaf has proceeded during the early part,of the Twentieth Century, with the development of independence in external affairs.  A\  gradual growth in Canadianism has accompanied both phases of this general development, and, indeed, made i t . necessary.  The  rate at which Canada has secured independence-may be taken as a reliable measure of the growth of a national spirit, in the citizenry of Canada. 9. Wallace^ W. S'"., ed., "Edward Blake's Aurora Speech, 1874"; Canadian Historical Review, v. 2, p. 255, Slept. 1921. Elsewhere in his speech Blake made other interesting comments. "The future of Canada, I believe, depends very largely upon the cultivation of a national spirit."''(p. 256). "I have; no hesiin saying that., tihe Government of Canada is far in advance, in the application of real Republican principles, of the Govern-  -50-  Biake in his Aurora Speech of 1874.revealed his own Canadian sentiments and pointed out that Canadians did not enjoy a satisfactory measure of self-government.  In 1875 he  returned to the Liberal cabinet.as Minister of Justice^ and proceeded to bring, in several significant, reforms.  These? were:  necessary because enthusiasticc;Canadians were dissatisfied with the continufiping colonial status of their, country.  The/; first,  significant change; v;as tihe establishment of a-Supreme. Court in Canada- in order to reduce the number of appeals to the Privy Council.  More important was the reform in the power, of the  governor-general which resulted from Blake's representations to the British government.  After 1877 the governor-general no  longer was required to reserve legislation on certain types of b i l l s , and his privilege of pardon was reduced.  10  These  reforms wereomost important in themselves; but of significance also was the spirit in which they were introduced.  Blake;'s  (notev9, cont.) ment of either England or the United States." (pp. 257 - 258). 10. cf. Kennedy, ¥ . P. M . , ed., Statutes, treaties and documents of the Canadian constitution 1715 - 192,9. Oxford University PresB, 1930 (2nd edition), P» €>12 n. 1, as follows, t  Various changes have taken placeoin the position of the governor-general. Prom the year 1867 to 1878, his instructions forbade him to give his assent to any b i l l (a) for divorce,- (b) for grant ing land or money or gratuity to himself, (ci) for making paper or any other currency legal tender, (d) for imposing differential duties, (e) contrary to treaty obligations, (f) interfering with the discipline or control of the naval or military forces of the.crown in Canada, (g) interfering with the royal prerogative, or the rights and property of British subjects; outside of Canada-, or with the trade and shipping of the United Kingdom and i t s dependencies, (h) containing provisions to which the royal assenthas already been refused or which have been disallowed. Acting on these instructionfitwenty-one Bills;., were;reserved, in 1877, af t err Edwardd Blake:, ministerr of  51* national sentiments were- quite as strong when he was in office asr.they had "been at the time of'his Aurora Speech.  In ar memor-  •vandum to the-British cabinet, submitted while he was tapeatlhge fibr,:-reform, Blake pointed out the national basis-.of his proposals. •Canada, is not merely a colony or province: she is a dominion composed, of an aggregate..of seven large provinces federally united under an imperial charter^ which expressly recites that her c on© t i tuition is to bee similar in principles to that of the^United Kingdom. Nay, more; besides the powers- with which she is invested over a large part.of the affairs of the inhabitants of the.', several provinces* she en j oys: absolute? powers of legislation and administration over the people and territories of the North-west,, out.of which she has; already created one province, and is empowered to creates others, with representative institutions. These; circumstances, together, with the vastness of her. area?, the numbers of her population, the character of the representative institutions and of the responsible government which as-.-citizens, of the various provinces:--, of Canada-her people have so long enjoyed, a l l point to the propriety of dealing with the question in hand in a manner very different,from that which might be. f i t l y adopted with reference to a single and comparatively small young colony. Beside the general spread., of the? principles of. constitutional freedom, there? has4ee« in reference to the colonies a recognized difference between their circumstances, resulting i n the application to those in a less advanced condition of a lesser measure of self-government, while others are said to be invested with "the fullest.freedom of p o l i t i c a l government"; and i t may be f a i r l y stated that there is no dependency of the B r i t i s h crown which is entitled to so f u l l an application of the principles of constitutional freedom as the dominion of Canada. 111  (note 10, cont.) justice* had visited England, the practice of enumerating the:titles to be reserved was discontinued, a suspending, clause, being inserted in acts which would otherwise require the governor-general's..ireservataon... .In addition, during Lord Dufferin*s,. tenure of officee difficulties^arose) overr the prerogative of pardon, and Lord Duff erin exercised i t without.the adviceoof his ministers. During his v i s i t to England, Blake arranged for a- change.... somewhat revised in 1905.... (but cf. Ch. V,' p. for the "Byng affair" of 1926). 11. Kennedy, W. P. H . , The constitution of Canada:  -52-  The.;Conservative' government, which, came-into officer in 1878, also contributed tio the.:development of autonomy, so well advanced in the. prededing years, through the agency of Blake.  In 1879 the question of a-High Commissioner for-Canada-  in London arose, when the difficulties resulting from the frequent trips ministers in the Canadian cabinet, weres obliged to make tio London became fully apparent.  At f irstl the B r i t i s h  government opposed any such office on the grounds thatiit threatened the existence'-of the Empire.;  In reply the-; Canadian  governments asserted its- right..to, equality with the government, of the^> United Kingdom in internal affairs; then o f f i c i a l opinion was thatt In considering many questions of the highest importance, such as the commercial and f i s c a l policy of the Dominion as affecting the United Kingdom, the promotion of Imperial interest a- in the administration and settlement, of the interior of the Continent, and on many other subjects, indeed on a l l matters of internal concern, the Imperial Government., and Parliament, have so far.transferred to Canada an independent, control that'; their, discussion and settlement, have become subjects f o r mutual assent, and concert;, and thereby have^ it. is thought, assumed a quasi-diplomatic, character as between her Majesty's Government, without, in any manner derogating from their general authority as rulers of the entire Empire. ** Nevertheless at this time the government of Canada believed in only internal autonomy; as?regards external affairs i t desired to follow the wishes of the imperial government!.faithfully. (notes-. 11, conf.)  University Press, 1938, p. 243.  12. "Report of a committee, of the Privy Council for Canada- (1879)" enclosed in a letter of 1880, "The Marquis of Lome to Sir M. EV Hicks Beach", quoted in Kennedy, Statutes, pp. 678 - 679.  .53-  The Committee would further respectfully submit, in elucidation of the views contained in the memorandum, that. tihe,.Governmenttof Canada, in respect, of negotiations with foreign Powers, in no respect desire^ to be-, placed in the position of independent negotiators. ° Even f a i r l y ardent nationalists were, in 1880, as strongly imperial as they were; Canadian, i f not more so.  This, was,  indeed, the f i n a l position national sentiment in Canada attained to during the: Nineteenth Century. The f i n a l important achievement, tending towards autonomy gained by Canada;*in thec;Nineteenth Century concerned economic: treaties*.with othear n a t i o n s .  14  Difficulty arose over the.;  inclusion of Canada ass part., of the Empire-: in most-favoured nation treaties:-;-made-, by the Imperial government, and over the desire of Canada to conclude separate-, treaties with certain foreign countries, particularly the United States of America,,. and France-.-  In this matter, also, the British government was:  dubious, about the stand taken by the Canadian cabinet..  Said  Sir. Henry Wrlxon on this issue, 'I have no idea of & nation as anything else? than one complete unity with regard to an outsider nation, and I cannot..understand a dependency of the Empire: arranging with an outside power.• 13. i b i d . , p. 679. 14. In practice: a solution had been found to this problem earlier in the century, as indicated by Elgin's reciprocity treaty of 1854, and Macdonald's. negotiations with the American government-in 1871 (to be'dealt with later in this chapter). It only remained to work out. legal authority for independent, action, and to ensure:its continuance in the future.. 15. cited in "The Marquis of Ripon to the governorgeneral of Canada", Kennedy, Statutes, p. 681.  -54-  Finally in 1899 a new practice began to operate.; Canada would henceforth have the; right of separate withdrawal from and of separate adherence.;to treaties concluded between lfi the: Imp e r i a l government!, and foreign powers;* °  Following, this  decision Canada? could abstain from any commercial treaty which Great!. Britain made with any foreign power; and she could also establish her own treaties-, with other-powers, but. through imperial offices.  This commencements of independent action in  external aff aires has- developed into a major issasin the: twentieth Century. Oneeof the mostv important!, factors- in the development of a national feeling in Canada: after 1867 waa. the: westward' expansion of the new dominion, combined with the. building of the Canadian Pacific. Railway and the resultant, immigration. This rapid expansion and unexpected growth mast taovo greatly strengthened national feelings in the eastern provinces, tying them closer: to each otherjin the? new! federation than they could otherwise-have:been; and. even more significant that, this jmsi^ vt>£us  /At  have,boon the feeling evoked, in the new. Western provinces. A  The  three, prairie provinces were, created by the. dominion government and have l i t t l e or no separate history to inspire them. Furthermore immigrants to these provinces werecin large measure immigrants to Canada as?.a- whole, and not to French Quebec, or English Ontario or the^Maritimes. They left their former nationality behind them across the- Atlantic,'Ocean, and accepted 16. cf, Kennedy, The, constitution of Canada, p. 349. /6a-  Com/»*•&, P.r exaftt/rf*, tU tftitUt. *f Ci»l*s fait • fee.  .(l'i7.  Pf  .55.  their. Canadian allegiance with deep s i n c e r i t y .  17  It. seems.  l i k e l y , therefore, that the peoples of the prairie provinces would, on the whole, %aSocf to be more national and leas local in their sentiments: than Canadians in the Eastern provinces or in British Columbia-, a l l of whom had important. pre-Conf ederation histories to inspire them. Nevertheless this opportunity for pride, in Canada was somewhat impaired at the beginning. 18 Union in 1870  When Manitoba joined the  there: was considerable fear of the national  allegiance, among.French-Indian settlers in the west.  In  particularrthe people feared they might-lose their, claim to their lands, and that they might suffer-for.-their.. Roman Catholic, religion.  The Canadian representative-.handled.: the situation  somewhat, tactlessly,  with the result;.thati the.half-breeds  set  up their own government; und err the leadership of Louis R i a l . The. rebellion was; easily suppressed, but Canada,-.felt humiliated at the way in which the situation had developed; and some.loss, of national interest must havo resulted, at least temporarily. , 17. Many of these immigrants had had strong national feelings in their. European fatherlands; they now transferred' their affections to Canada, and became strongly national Canadians. . 18. In 1870 both the B r i t i s h and Canadian parliaments approved the admission of Manitoba into Confederation; but in 1886 Canada was given permission to deal herself with any t e r r i %6££esijfi&ai&he^Eomini>anpwhichsmightbla$ie? -heeomef pr.0vimces* c£. Kennedy, Statutes,"p. 680 19. cf. Stanley, G. F . G . , T h e ? b i r t h of Western Canada; London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1936, pp. 67 - 86 on this affair, (pp. 327 - 379 for the Second Riel Rebellion). Mr. McDougall, the governor, designate, was ordered to assume, the: administration of Manitoba only after, the troubled conditions:-, had died down. He crossed the; border while RIel was s t a l l well entrenched, and had to fleer back again to escape the rebels.  -56F o l l o w i n g the entrance i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1871, Canada had t o undertake the b u i l d i n g Canadian P a c i f i c Railway.  of the  At.the time t h i s p r o j e c t aroused.  much b i t t e r - f e e l i n g i n v a r i o u s partem of Canada.  I n the East,  Canadians f e l t , the c o n s t r u c t i o n was f a r - t o o c o s t l y ; i n B r i t i s h Columbia-••that, i t i was no ti. s u f f i c i e n t l y r a p i d ;  2 0  and. on the  p r a i r i e s that. i t . was a* t h r e a t t o e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  Neverthe-  l e s s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l r a i l w a y wasnmost important i n the i n s p i r a t i o n of n a t i o n a l sentiment i n Canadians. To have such a v i t a l means of communication and u n s e t t l e d  a c r o s s the broad  country w i t h i n two decades, of C o n f e d e r a t i o n wasa Step  indeed a/miracle*.; but. i t was a?-necessary and important. in the A  c r e a t i o n of a Canadian n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g . would do l i t t l e  Perhaps the r a i l w a y  t o arouse such f e e l i n g among r e s i d e n t s of  Quebec; but ineevery other part of the dominion i t s i n f l u e n c e WAS  must, have boo» widespread. A  In the Maritime P r o v i n c e s i t would  tend t o t u r n the people away from the:economic and s o c i a l of  theeNew England s t a t e s , ;  of which they weres r e a l l y a p a r t .  To the r e s i d e n t s of O n t a r i o i t o f f e r e d a s p l e n d i d for  m i g r a t i o n west.  orbit  opportunity  On the p r a i r i e s i t . thwarted a b s o r p t i o n by  American expansion and reduced l o c a l i s m and i s o l a t i o n .  And i n  B r i t i s h Columbia i t p r o v i d e d a death blow t o annexation and made- the Canadian a l l e g i a n c e d e s i r a b l e * of  Indeed, the. b u i l d i n g  the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway was one of the most important.  20. The people of E a s t e r n Canada f e l t the r a i l w a y t o be an i n s u f f e r a b l e burden on them undertaken f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons alone. B r i t i s h Columbians resented delay i n f u l f i l l i n g t r e a t y obligations?, and appealed t o London (a move which n a t i o n a l l y minded Canadians r e s e n t e d ) . Blake d i s c u s s e d the issuer i n h i s Aurora Speech (quoted p. 48, above, on another m a t t e r ) .  -57-  fac torso in the development of modem C ana das In spite of its importance to Canada, however, the building of the railway was largely responsible:, f or the Second Riel Rebellion, supressed i n 1885..  Indians, and half-breeds,  resented the railway because of the evils .of c i v i l i z a t i o n which accompanied i t .  Thee-buffalo her.da. we-r.ee depleted,, half-breeds:,  again feared they would lose their land, and unscrupulous whites were.;flooding the country with whiskey.  As a result Louis Riel  was again able to set up a government, and in March of 1885 he and some of his followers, attacked a troop of Mounted* Policenear, Princes Albert., k i l l i n g some and injuring otihers*  Afterra  biittierr overland march a-Canadian army underran imperial commander succeeded in suppressing the rebellion.  This campaign by  an a l l Canadian force-was significant, in the evolution of the Canadian nation, and was the one satisfactory result of the:: affair.  But in Quebec tihe hanging of Louis Riel aroused, anger,  and lef t, bitt err-feelings which hampered the:, growth of Canadianism in that, region. In the period following the American Revolution and the. War.-of 1812 animosity to the United States of America wast the chief force tending to create a national feeling in Canadians.  This factor was;, indeed, one of the two main  influence®- in the. works of pre-Conf ederation poetspand novelists which tended to make them Canadian in tone.  This influence  continued and grew stronger i n the period following Confederation, although other factors, as have been suggested, were? at, least;.equally important in fostering Canadianism in this.  -58period.  x  In 1871 John Ai. Macdonald,. the prime minister, was; A  engaged in negotiations with the American government over,'certain border, issues:, particularly Fenian Raid claims and the San Juan question.  He; was a member of the B r i t i s h delegation, and  as such found that. Canadian issues were neglected by the delegation as a whole because the other delegates were.'more; concerned with the question of the "Albania claims" than with Sir  problems of v i t a l interest-to Canada.  As a result  J,hhA.  ^Macdonald  found that the B r i t i s h government, did not offer Canada much support in her. claimi for compensation for the Fenian Raids:, andt misuse of the At lant ice fisheries*:, or in the dispute: over the;, San Juan question.  It  wa.8i,  indeed, significant, that for the  f i r s t time a Canadian o f f i c i a l was a member of a B r i t i s h delegation; but at the time Hr.^Macdonald was more concerned over the. fact, thati, he would lose some support at., the pollsa because? heoseemed; to have sacrificed Canada's interests to the United States.  He did win the election of 1872, but. his party was  forced to use such dishonest; measures to do so that two years later the Liberal Party was able to gain a- strong, maj orlty. T.he. election of 1874 was only the first, of a series.: ;  of elections in which Canadian animosity to the United States was a contributing or deciding factor.  1  In 1878 the. Liberal  21. AS we have seen, Canadian animosity against and fear of the United States was; increased considerably in the 1860's by the C i v i l War, the building of the Pacific railway, and the Fenian Raids. See: Martin, C , "The United States and Canadian nationality", Canadian Historic®.! Review, v. 18, pp. 1 - 11, March 1937; and Stacey, A. P . , "Fenianism and the rise of national feeling in Canada at the time of Confederation", Canadian Historical Review, v. 12, pp. 238 - 261, Sept. 1931. -  -59P a r t y was  Si*- 3ohh A-  u r g i n g a renewal of r e c i p r o c i t y w i t h the U n i t e d  States.  Hsc.-. Macdonald, i n o p p o s i t i o n , adopted a- plank from the Canada? A  P i r i s t v P a r t y platfoem policy".  and urged a p r o t e c t i o n i s t  "national  Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m came t o h i s support,  the e l e c t i o n .  In 1882  n a t i o n a l p o l i c y won  and  and  his  g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s i n o p p o s i t i o n to  the  L i b e r a l P a r t y under B l a k e .  again i n 1887  and he  TIacdonald  T h e r e a f t e r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r assumed  l e a d e r s h i p of the o p p o s i t i o n , and  i n 1891  fought, h i s f i r s t ,  n a t i o n a l campaign, again u r g i n g c l o s e r economic t i e s w i t h United States?; b u t - i n 1891  won  the  Again n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g d e f e a t e d c . r e c i p r o c i t y ;  i m p e r i a l f e e l i n g s were more; important-during  campaign than was  Canadianism.  Macdonald's slogan,  s u b j e c t ^ a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t I w i l l die."  provided  ther  "a B r i t i s h  the- r a l l y i n g  point f o r h i s party. Thus towards the c l o s e of the. N i n e t e e n t h i m p e r i a l and  c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s became s i g n i f i c a n t i n Canada,  as they d i d i n other p a r t s of the Empire, and century  Century  itate i n the  t h i s f e e l i n g became so strong t h a t i t tended to impede  thet development of Canadianism.  The  culmination  of t h i s  i m p e r i a l i s m appeared at the time of the Boer War,  when E n g l i s h  Canadians supported  Thus  the Empire e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y .  t e m p o r a r i l y the growth of Canadianism was by  definitely  thwarted  imperialism. During  the N i n e t e e n t h  Century there was  growth of n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n Canada. by animosity  T h i s was  a remarkable  long f o s t e r e d  to the U n i t e d S t a t e s of America, but  after  1867  22,. T h i s phrase i s i n s c r i b e d on Macdonald's s t a t u e i n Kingston, Ontario.'  -60-  other f a c t o r s became important, i n the development, of such f.eeling.  The  immediate i n s p i r a t i o n of C o n f e d e r a t i o n  always been most important to Canadians. i n the n a t i o n as?, a whole.- and endured i n the process  I t has  in thestruggles  of becoming a n a t i o n .  itsel'f  has  aroused p r i d e  and  hardships  The  struggle f o r  i n t e r n a l autonomy n a t u r a l l y accompanied such development., of. Canadianism, and  i n t u r n served t.o increase, i t . c o n s i d e r a b l y .  N a t i o n a l p r i d e demands n a t i o n a l s t a t u s , and autonomy was eration.  The  secured  virtual  internal  i n the years: immediately f o l l o w i n g Confed-  t i d e of immigration i n t o the Westiern area  has;;  been another very important, f a c t o r i n the s t r e n g t h e n i n g Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m .  I t i s t r u e that the two  Rlel  of  Rebellions  were; temporary setbacks, accompanying westward expansion, but. even these, aroused some n a t i o n a l p r i d e when Canadian f o r c e s ^ were used t o suppress them.  Again, the t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l  r a i l w a y , which a l s o r e s u l t e d from the westward expansion, was> another outstanding  f a c t o r i n t h e p r a c t i c a l union of Canada.  In a l l , during the l a t t e r . p a r t was  a gradual  and  of the N i n e t e e n t h Century there-  strong development of n a t i o n a l p r i d e i n  Canada, more s i g n i f i c a n t i n some s e c t i o n s of the community than i n others., but  t.o some extent  Canadian  affedting a l l  parts, of the dominion. The  Canadian people were undoubtedly becoming  n a t i o n a l l y minded during t h i s p e r i o d .  During t h i s p e r i o d a l s o  Canadians were f o r the f i r s t time e v o l v i n g a n a t i o n a l tures s i g n i f i c a n t , both i n q u a n t i t y and  in quality.  i n t e r e s t i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t o c o n s i d e r to what extent  litera-  I t is. this  n a t i o n a l sentiment i s r e f l e c t e d i n the. l i t e r a t u r e of  the  -61-  country, and. when i t f irat*.makes.; i t s i t . i s immediately  appearance.  and s t r o n g l y apparent;  I n some cases  i n some cases i t i s  only o c c a s i o n a l l y e v i d e n t ; and i n a few cases i t i s q u i t e absent.  TihiB d i v e r s i t y suggests t h a t some s e c t i o n s of the  Canaddan community were much more s t r o n g l y a f f e c t e d by n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g s than were others; and t o some extent, the s e c t i o n s of the country from which v a r i o u s degrees;.of Canadianism  in liter-  ature.: emanate..should suggest the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of t h i s sentiment  i n the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of the country. The outstanding poet  of C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n the-*  N i n e t e e n t h Century was C h a r l e s Mair. of the Canada F i r s t P a r t y . Born i n 1838 at. Lanark i n the Ottawa V a l l e y of wealthy  Scottish  parents, Charles had ample time i n h i s youth t o c u l t i v a t e h i s mind f o r a l i t e r a r y c a r e e r .  During h i s attendance  at Queen's-  U n i v e r s i t y he:began corresponding w i t h a Dr. S c h u l t z of Red R i v e r , w i t h the result, t h a t the l u r e of the western i m p e l l e d him t o study medicine  w i t h the object of j o i n i n g  Dr.,; S c h u l t z on the completion of h i s course. to  plains  Ottawa t o read the p r o o f s of h i s f i r s t  In 1868 Mair- went  volume of poetry,  Dreamland, which was p u b l i s h e d i n that. y e a r .  While; t h e r e he  e s t a b l i s h e d a; c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p u t a t i o n f o r h i m s e l f i n government c i r c l e s by making a pre'cis of the Hudson's Bay Company Charter and T r e a t y R i g h t s f o r a member of p a r l i a m e n t .  Because of t h i s  success he was appointed paymaster of a Government, c o n s t r u c t i o n gang which was b u i l d i n g a r a i l r o a d from Winnipeg t o Lake of the Woods.  Thus began Mair's c a r e e r i n Western Canada, the c a r e e r  which brought him i n t o c l o s e contact, w i t h the r a p i d l y dominion.  expanding  H i s f i r s t . v o l u m e was a success, and spurred on by  -62-  the f a v o r a b l e r e c e p t i o n i t r e c e i v e d M a i r c o n t r i b u t e d a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s to the Montreal Gazette and the Toronto Globe i n which he t r i e d t o develop a s i n c e r e Canadian f e e l i n g .  I f was  at  t h i s time that the Canada F i r s t P a r t y was. becoming important, and i t was  through these a r t i c l e s t h a t Mair made h i s most  s i g n i f i c a n t , c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i t s cause. ro&rhlsogovernment t r a d e r , and was broke:, out. break,  j o b , M a i r moved f u r t h e r west and became a f u r  thus occupied when the F i r s t B l e l R e b e l l i o n  M a i r and h i s w i f e were taken p r i s o n e r i n that  and Mair was  escape.  F o l l o w i n g Ithe. £c©m$>aref i on  sentenced t o be shot; but he managed t o  He then moved t o Windsor, and wrote h i s long drama-  Tec umseh, which he?; p u b l i s h e d i n 1886.  His. wide experiences on  the p r a i r i e s had made him the l o g i c a l person to t r e a t subject.  out-  such a  F o l l o w i n g the Second R i e l R e b e l l i o n , i n which he:  fought;, M a i r - a g a i n resumed h i s f u r t r a d i n g occupation, moving to P r i n c e A l b e r t .  In 1890 he wrote h i s powerful and moving  essay on The.American B i s o n f o r tihe Royal S o c i e t y of Canada; h i s p l e a was  so strong that the Dominion Government  a sanctuary f o r b u f f a l o at. Wainwright,  established  i n the Rocky .Mountains  23 near B a n f f . travelled  In 1899 he j o i n e d the S c r i p Commission and  down the Mackenzie  R i v e r ; t h i s journey l e d t o hlL.8  famous essay Through the Mackenzie  B a s i n , p u b l i s h e d i n 1908,  probably the. most important, of a l l h i s w r i t i n g s .  Mair published  h i s l a s t and most, s i g n i f i c a n t volume of poems, Canadian Poems, i n 1901.  He-died i n 1925.  23. c f . G a r v i n , J . W, ,.ed., JasfcieraworkBd of t E anadftan authors, C h a r l e s Mair. Toronto, Radisson S o c i e t y , 1926, p. * i .  -63-  Then volume Dreamland, and other poems was p u b l i s h e d i n 1868,  i n the y e a r f o l l o w i n g C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  i n the c o l l e c t i o n  Many of the poems  are d i s t i n c t l y Canadian--indeed  the volume as  a wholes i s much more?;Canadian i n tone than any that it—but.-none r e f l e c t . d i r e c t l y  preceded  the s p i r i t . o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  Most, of the poems a r e e d e s c r i p t i v e . - i n c h a r a c t e r , and. a l l that: achieve a Canadian note f a l l poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n , life  intto t h i s category.  15*-almost; h a l f — d e a l w i t h themes of  or death and are not. Canadian i n any way.  typical  Ofi the 32  These are the  s u b j e c t s t o be expected of poets, and suggest the  influence:'of M a i r ' s e x t e n s i v e e r u d i t i o n .  Of the remaining  poems some 7 are d e s c r i p t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r but not d i s t i n c t l y Canadian.  These,  too, suggest the i n f l u e n c e of M a i r ' s r e a d i n g .  The remaining 10 poems are a l l Canadian i n f l a v o u r ; and most, of them c a r r y a n a t i o n a l tone; 7 may be so d e s c r i b e d , whereas 3 O A  are  l o c a l r a t h e r than n a t i o n a l i n scope.  HEy<p iii a l l o f i *he  25  Canad^&nf d e s c r i p t i o n evident i n these poems i s "The p i n e s . " The f o l l o w i n g passage from that: poem i s d i s t i n c t l y Canadian ahA i n d i c a t e s the g e n e r a l tone of the poems i n t h i s And And And And',  collection.  the cypresses murmured of g r i e f and woe, the l i n d e n waved solemnly t o and f r o , the sumach seemed wrapt, i n a golden mist, the. softi. maple: blushed where the f r o s t ; had kissed:.  Less t y p i c a l  2 f i  —11.  © - 12.  of the c o l l e c t i o n b u t . d e f i n i t e l y n a t i o n a l i n  24. See Appendix I I , Table I I Dreamland and other poems.  f b r ; an a n a l y s i s of  2b\ A l l r e f e r e n c e s t o Dreamland are t o Mair, C , Dreamland and other Poems, Montreal, Dawson, London, Low, r e p r i n t e d i n Garvin," J." W., ed., Master-work a of Canadian authors, Toronto, Radisson S o c i e t y , 1926, pp. l x l x - 74. "The p i n e s " i s on pp. 6 - 9.  1868,  -64-  f l a v o u r i s "Nighti. and morn" the. n a t i v e I n d i a n .  , which d e a l s w i t h the t r o u b l e s of  In t h i s connection it;, i s s i g n i f i c a n t . tio  remember t h a t b e f o r e 1868  Mair had noti l e f t Ontario, and d i d  not.have the thorough knowledge of I n d i a n problems-which he l a t e r acquired. But;, i n the ancient woods the I n d i a n o l d , Unequal to the chase, Sighs as he t h i n k s of a l l the paths u n t o l d , "No l o n g e r trodden by h i s f l e e t i n g r a c e . And, Westward, on f a r - s t r e t c h i n g p r a i r i e s damp, The savage shout, and mighty b i s o n tramp  ft  R o l l thunder with, the l i f t i n g mists .of morn. i  The later., was  long drama Tecumseh, p u b l i s h e d eighteen years  ar much more?, s i g n i f i c a n t ; , p o e t i c endeavour than was  Dreamland volume, and was theme i t s e l f was  strongly national i n flavour.  the  The  c a l c u l a t e d to arouse Canadian sentiments,  and  H a i r ' s treatment, of i t only served to h e i g h t e n i t s value f o r t h i s purp®se. develops  Perhaps the most important  way  i n which Mair  the Canadian f l a v o u r i s by the use of long passa-gee of  d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l tone.  These are; s i m i l a r to  the poems we have examined i n the Dreamland c o l l e c t i o n , but, are even more d i s t i n c t l y Canadian than those poems were..  The  f o l l o w i n g passage i s t y p i c a l of the d e s c r i p t i v e s e c t i o n s of the poem. We l e f t The s i l e n t f o r e s t , and, day a f t e r day, Great p r a i r i e s swept beyond our aching s i g h t Into the measureless West; uncharted realms, V o i c e l e s s and calm, save when tempestuous wind R o l l e d the rank herbage i n t o b i l l o w s vast, And r u s h i n g t i d e s , which never found a shore. And tender clouds, and v e i l s of morning mist, Ceastf£lyi'@gsehad-ows, cbhssedbhyfH'y&ngilifeht Into interminable wildernesses,  26. i'gjfed'Ufcspb., seda-pgo. *n<> D->i*r£.iz\:  Poe>hs; , 'J r-yoalz, b  -65-  F l u s h e d w i t h f r e s h blooms, deep perfumed by the rose, And murmurous w i t h f l o w e r - f e d b i r d and bee. The- deep-grooved bison-paths l i k e furrows l a y , Turned by the c l o v e n hoofs of thundering herds P r i m e v a l , and s t i l l t r a v e l e d as of y o r e . And gloomy v a l l e y s opened at our f e e t , - Shagged w i t h dusk cypresses and hoary p i n e ; And s u n l e s s gorges, rummaged by thee.wolf, Which through long reaches of the p r a i r i e wound, Then melted slowly i n t o upland v a l e s , « L i n g e r i n g , f a r - s t r e t c h e d amongst the spreading h i l l s . —A'ct IV, Sc. 2  I n a d d i t i o n to these passages a l s o endeavoured passages  7.  of d e s c r i p t i o n M a i r  t o present a n a t i o n a l tone by  introducing  on the a t t i t u d e s of v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r s t o Canada- and  the Empire.  These are presented i n the way  i n which people of  1812 would f e e l ; but. n e v e r t h e l e s s i t i . i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that p a t r i o t i s m f o r M a i r seems t o mean a s t r o n g b e l i e f i n Empire as w e l l as a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian a t t i t u d e . a t t i t u d e was  a part of the Canadianism present i n a l l N i n e t e e n t h  Century w r i t e r s .  In the present century i t has  c o n s i d e r a b l y , and i n many cases i s q u i t e absent. passage  This imperial  dwindled A'typical  of t h i s type from Tecumseh i s the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t  from thee.lines;., a l l o t t e d t o Brock. I b e l i e v e i n B r i t a i n ' s Empire, and In Canada, i t s t r u e and l o y a l son, Who y e t s h a l l r i s e t o g r e a t n e s s , and s h a l l stand At England's shoulder h e l p i n g her t o g u a r d True l i b e r t y throughout a f a i t h l e s s world. 2 g  The Canadian poems were not p u b l i s h e d u n t i l  1901;  they t h e r e f o r e r e f l e c t , the experiences of a q u a r t e r of a century of l i f e . o n the Canadian p r a i r i e s .  They should; and  27. "Tecumseh, a drama and Canadian poems", Toronto, B r i g g s , 1901, r e p r i n t e d i n G a r v i n , op. c i t . . pp. 75 - 275 ("Tecumseh" and notes, pp. 75-198), Act, IV, Scene 7. 28. i b i d . , Act.IV, p.  143.  do,  -66-  represent the u l t i m a t e i n Canadian sentiment which M a i r attained to i n h i s writing.  Of the. 21 poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n  12: are on poetic;:themes, and a r e t h e r e f o r e not d i s t i n c t l y Canadian.  But the remaining 9 a r e a l l s t r o n g l y Canadian i n  sentiment, and present the most v i t a l e x p r e s s i o n of n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g evident i n E n g l i s h Canadian p o e t r y i n the "Nineteenth Century.  S e v e r a l of these poems d e a l w i t h the; Indian, others':  1  w i t h Canadian h i s t o r y , and two w i t h the Canadian landscape:. T y p i c a l of these poems i s t h e s t i r r i n g h i s t o r i c a l " A ' b a l l a d f o r brave women"  , which reads i n parti as f o l l o w s .  A s t o r y worth t e l l i n g our annals a f f o r d , 'Tis the wonderful journey of Laura Secord.' *  •  treatment,  •  «  --11. 1 - 2 .  •  Ah! f a i t h f u l t o death were our women of yore*.' Have they f l e d w i t h the past, t o be heard of no more? No, no! Though t h i s l a u r e l l e d one s l e e p s i n t h e grave, We have; maidens as t r u e , we; have matrons as brave; And should Canada ever be f o r c e d t o the t e s t * * To spend f o r our country the blood of h e r b e s t — When h e r sons l i f t the l i n s t o c k and b r a n d i s h thg sword, Her. daughters w i l l t h i n k of brave Laura Secord. — 11. 113 - 120. 0  Thus we see that d u r i n g the l a t t e r part., of the N i n e t e e n t h Century C h a r l e s M a i r was w r i t i n g p o e t r y that was s t r o n g l y Canadian i n f l a v o u r . life  H i s p u b l i c a t i o n s span the whole  of the Dominion of Canada i n that century, and r e v e a l the  g r a d u a l development of a strong n a t i o n a l s p i r i t emerged p r i m a r i l y as a r e s u l t of h i s l i f e  i n him.  This  on the Canadian  p r a i r i e s , where, he was;-in consta.nt contact w i t h the native-: I n d i a n and the p i o n e e r i n g development of the Canadian west, and where:he experienced the c r i s e s of the R i e l R e b e l l i o n s .  This  29. See Appendix I I , Table I I I , f o r an a n a l y s i s of Canadian poems 30. "Tecumseh and Canadian poems", op. c i t . ,  pp. 233-236.  -67-  contact w i t h v i t a l elements  i n the grov/th of the new n a t i o n was  the major f a c t o r i n the e v o l u t i o n of M a i r ' s Canadianism;  hut i t  i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t from the f i r s t i M a d r wasr n a t i o n a l l y minded.  H i s p r a i r i e l i f e d i d not create:- a- Canadian  s p i r i t l i n him, f o r he possessed that as e a r l y as 1868, when he j o i n e d the Canada-First: group.  I t . i s impossible, therefore,  tio determine from Mair's c a r e e r whether f e e l i n g s and events- i n the Canadian west were v i t a l enough i n themselves n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g c i n Canadians  to create a  i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century.  "What.  Mair's work does i n d i c a t e i s , r a t h e r , that; t h e r e was a: v i t a l n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g present i n a t leasts some Canadians from the e a r l i e s t days of the n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r y , and that t h i s  feeling  was accentuated by developments i n the expanding west. there that the f u t u r e of Canada as a- country l a y . the American  s t a t e s and the need f o r p o l i t i c a l  I t was  The f e a r of  readjustment may  have c r e a t e d the Canadian n a t i o n , but the westward expansion i n the l a t e N i n e t e e n t h Century d i d much t o c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l feeling.  N e v e r t h e l e s s M a i r i s not p r i m a r i l y a r e f l e c t o r of  t h i s c o n d i t i o n , but. a prophet and f o r e r u n n e r of i t .  He was a  strong n a t i o n a l i s t at;.a-time when comparatively few people i n Canada r e a l i z e d they were Canadians. of  M a i r was the l e a d i n g poet  C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, and was one of the  main f o r c e s u r g i n g the c r e a t i o n and development of a strong 31 Canadian f e e l i n g .  H i s n a t i o n a l i s m , although d e f i n i t e l y  dated,  i s as strong as that of any Canadian poet down t o very recent, times. 31. As we have seen, i t was mixed w i t h a c o l o n i a l a t t i t u d e , as was a l l Canadian f e e l i n g ,in the N i n e t e e n t h Century.  -68-  Mair * expressed the most consistent Canadian 0  feeling among Nineteenth Century poets, but certain other writers were able at-times to express sentiments. quite as-; v i t a l and significant: ast-his.  One of the most interesting of these  poets was Alexander M'Lachlan.  Born in Johnstone, Scotland, on'  the banks of the Clyde in 1818, M(Lachlan was over twenty before he came to Canada.  His father had come to Canada some:ten  years earlier and eventually bought a farm.  Alexander came.-in  1840, sold his father's farm, and spent, ten years buying various farms and trying his hand at pioneering, only to decide finally that farming did not suit him.  In 1850 he moved to  Erin township in Wellington County in Ontario, and for a quarter of a century devoted himself to tailoring, reading, writing and lecturing.  Ret spent.the remainder of his l i f e on his son's  farm, except for a few months in his last, year; 1896, when he lived at Orangeville mourning his son's death at the farm. As a poet, M'Lachlan reflects the varying experiences 32;. Two po:et&-oponsb:emporary to Mair in his early work are worth noting. Thomas D'Arcy McGee was born in Ireland in 1825. He was ar- strong nationalist, and fled to the United States Because of his part in the abortive uprising of 1848. Eventually he came to Canada and aided in the creation of the. Canadian nation. He; wrote; most of his poems before he came to Canada, but in those written in Canada ("Jacques Cartier", "The launch of the Griff en", and a few pioneer ballads;) he achieved a distinctly Canadian sentiment.(see Markey, J . , "Thomas. D 'Arcy McGee: poet and patriot". C M . . v. 46, pp. 67 72, Nov. 1916). John Heade (1837 - 1919) was also born in Ireland. Coming to Canada in 1856, he spent,all his l i f e in newspaper work except for the period from 185:9 to 1868 during which he f i r s t studied law and then became a Church of England clergyman. His one volume of poems (The prophecy of Merlin and other poems, 1870) is primarily colonial in sentiment, although some Canadian flavour is evident, cf. Bqyd, J . , "Hastings", Songs of the Great Dominion, pp. 28 - 32.. (Seecalso Boyd, J . , "John Reade", CM.:, v. 53, pp. 74 - 77, where the opposite point of view is suggested.). _  -69-  of his l i f e .  Many of his poems must'- have been written prior to  his emigration to Canada; but there is no way of determining just: which belong to this early period. treatisuch themes as ' l i f e ' , •freedom',  In general his poems  ' l i f e and eternity ,  'religion',  1  'love , and 'nature'--the usual subjects for the 1  p©etic muse.  Of 158 poems in his Collected works 8 are 33  distinctly Canadian, but 24 are definitely Scottish in tone. Of the remainder some 11 reflect.Canada in some way. -  Thus  Alexander M'Lachlan did not express a Canadian sentiment: throughout the whole of his work—nor was i t possible for him to do so.  Nevertheless he indicates the way in which the  pioneer became Canadian and expressed a sincere national sentiment. M'Lachlan uses a l l types of approaches to express his Canadian emotions.  He is master of the a r t i f i c i a l type of  martial verse.in which the expression does not. sound entirely sincere. dominion",  In this category is the poem "Hurrah for the new part;, of which reads as follows; Hurrah for^the grand old forest, land, Where: freedom spreads her pinion.' Hurrah with me f o r the maple tgee.' Hurrah for the new dominion.'  - - 11.  5-8.  Much of his work stresses a love of freedom, which also in places became a feature of his Canadianism.  One such poem is  "Young Canada, or Jack's as good as his master",  0  celst'ainly  national in sentiment. 33. See Appendix II, Table IV, for an analysis of The poetical works of Alexander M'Lachlan, Toronto, Briggs, 1900. 34. The poetical works of Alexander M'Lachlan, Toronto Briggs, 1900, p. 208. ^ 3 & >  p >  -70I love this land of fores*..grand..' Th.es. land where-labour/' s free; Leti others roam away from home, Be: this the land for me.' Where no one moils, and strains and t o i l s , That snobs may thrive- the faster; And: a l l are f ree, as; "men should bei, „_ And Jack's: as:-;good's; his master! -~11. 1 - 8. The only long poem M'Lachlan turned his hand to was "The 36 Emigrant.".  This; poem obviously is based on his own pioneering  experiences, and is atl. times: distinctly Canadian, although it. also emphasizes lovenof Scotland and thee s p i r i t . of the New Worldc. Land of mighty lake and forestJ Where* stern Winter's locks are. hoar est..; Wheref.warm Summer's leaf is greenest., And old Winter's bite, the-keenest .,; Where mild Autumn's leaf! is: seareett, And her.partlng. smile:the dearest!; Wherec the Tempest, rushes forth Friom hiss caverns of the north, With the lightnings of his wrath Sweeping forests from his p a t h . . . . . —11. 1 - 10. Thou artt not. a land of story; Thou art. not; a land of glory; No traditions, dates, nor song To tihineeancientt woodstbelong; No long lines of bards;., and sages Looking on us down the ages; No old heroes sweeping by In their war-like panoply, YeU heroic deeds are done Where no battle's lost or won; In the cottage in the woods., In the desertso 1 itudes;-j Pledges of affection given That w i l l berredeem'd in heaven. Why seek ye a foreign land gg For the theme that's, close at hand? —11. 25 - 40. 1  But perhaps the most interesting and frank expression of 37 Canadianism is the humorous.poem "Old Canada, or gee buck gee", definitely a forerunner of the Service-Drummond group of poets. 36. i b i d . , pp. 204 - 256.  33. Smith, pp. 83' - 84.  -71  I t e l l ye what.' them and t h e i r "books, Are g e t t i n g tio be p e r f e c t . pukese; And sure enough t h i s : e d i c a t i o n W i l l bet-the r u i n o' the n a t i o n ; WEE'll not. ha-' men, it'ss-.my o p i n i o n , F i t t o defend our New Dominion; Not one o' them can swing an axe, But. they w i l l bore you w i t h t h e i r - f a c t s ; ; I'd. send the c r i teres of f t o work, But i t h a t , by any means t h e y ' l l shirk.' Grandad t o some o' them I be, 0, t h a t ' s what- r i l e s and sexes me.',„ A i n ' t i t a- c a u t i o n ? — G e e Buck Gee.' ' — 1 1 . 27 - 39. 0  In his  a l l , M'Lachlan wee d e f i n i t e l y Canadian  throughout much of  work. A l s o Canadian  i n p l a c e s i s the work of I s a b e l l a  to  Valancy Crawford. in  MiBBPCrawford  was born i n D u b l i n , I r e l a n d ,  1850, and came t o Canada w i t h her parents e i g h t years: l a t e r .  She grew, up i n a p i o n e e r i n g r e g i o n , and stayed i n such surroundings' u n t i l 1864, when she moved t o L a k e f i e l d borough County. d i e d suddenly  L a t e r she moved.to Peterboro i t s e l f ,  i n 1887.  poeticothemeB—love* Canadian  However so i n d i s t i n c t  where she  I n h e r p o e t r y she d e a l t w i t h the u s u a l  life,  nature, based  i n Peter-  and e t e r n i t y .  on the d i s t r i c t  S e v e r a l poemsc r e f l e c t  i n which she grew up.  and c o n v e n t i o n a l i s h e r treatment  of the  s u b j e c t t h a t i n few p l a c e s areothey r e c o g n i z a b l e as Canadian, Of the 86 poems i n h e r C o l l e c t e d poems only 2 are d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l i n theme, a l t h o u g h others do suggest a Canadian 39 appreciation.  MiSSKCrawford's work i n d i c a t e s s t h e moder.ate<-  i n f l u e n c e e n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g s e x e r t e d on many Canadians the? N i n e t e e n t h C e n t u r y — s e l d o m  s t r o n g but o f t e n  during  widespread.  38. Garvin, J . Wv, ed., The c o l l e c t e d poems of I s a b e l l a Valancy Crawford, Toronto, B r i g g s , 1905. 39. See Appendix I I , Table V f o r an a n a l y s i s of h e r work.  Typical of this-feeling is "Malcolm's Katie:  a love story" , 1  her.long poem, which deals with pioneer l i f e . "Bitedeep and wide, 0 Axe, the: tree, WhaU doth thy "bold voice promise me?" "1 promi se thee. a l l j oy oust; thi ng.st That f urni sh forth tihe lives;-; of kings;,! "For ev'ry silver ringing blow, Cities- and palaces shall grow.' "Bite deep and wide, 0 Axe, the tree, T e l l wider prophecies to me." "When rust,hath gnaw'd me deep and red, A nation strong shall l i f t ; h i s head.' "His crown the very Heav'ns shall smite, Aens. shall build him in his might.'" "Bite deep and wide, 0 Axe, the tree:; Bright Seer, help on thy prophecy.'"  40  — 11. 1 - 14.  These^ then, are.the poets who expressed the.most significant Canadianism in their work during the Nineteenth 41 Century.  Two were, immigrants to Canada-and Ontario, but  revealed important national feelings-;  The third, Charles; Mair,  was a- native, of Ontario, but. spent, much of hi3s l i f e in thes Canadian west.  He expressed strong and v i t a l national senti-  ments in his poetry.  Thereo:were?, however,- other-important,  poets who did not.feel the tide of growing nationalism to nearly the same extent as did these three poets. v  Foremost! among, such  poetsr were- thermembers^; of the Rbberts»Carman-Lampman group, :  whose attitude bears examination.  Typical of the group, and  40. Smith, p. 13.15. . 41. Another poet.of the period who suggested a national awareness in several of his pieces was John Edward Logan (1852 -1945). Particularly significant are such poems as "A-bloodred ring hung round the moon" and "The; injun", although the latter one is also strongly colonial. (Verses, Pen and Pencil  -73-  yet. more-;: overtly national than some members of i t , is Sir Charles-G. D. Roberts; a detailed study of his work w i l l suffice to show the general attitude of the poets in this group. CharlesfiG. K Roberts, the^major figureein this group, does not: reveal a consistent, national sentiment in his work.  In plaees he handles Canadian imagery very well, butt,  only in a local and: Eastern mannen; of his many hundreds-of poems fewer than a- dozen are Canadian in any significant, way. Born in Douglas, New Brunswick, In 1861, Roberts spent., almost, a l l his Canadian period in theeMaritlme provinces;.  Until he  was 14 he lived at the mouth of the Tantramar-River in the v  d i s t r i c t so prominent in his poetry.  He attended the University  of New Brunswick until 1879, and thereafter lectured at.; the: University of King's College, Windssor, Nova Scotia after spending a few years, in Toronto on the staff of the Week. He lefttCanada-in 1896 and lived in New York and later in England until 1924, when he returned to Canada.  He died in 1943.  Tihus  during the formative years of his l i f e Roberts lived almost exclusively in the.,Maritime Provinces; and during the greaterpart of his poetic career he was outside Canada and wrote- work in no way Canadian.  Furthermore-the.Maritime; Provinces were?, at  first.uninterested in and even antagonistic to Confederation, and had long f e l t their isolation from Canada. novelists- from Nova- Sfcotia^w.ere^nott Canadian (note: 41, cont).  Poet stand in feeling  Club, Montreal, 1916.  42.fioik&emit'howas::the only pre-Conf ederation writer from the Maritime Provinces who wrote with a Canadian feeling, and his work was certainly not national in s p i r i t . These province© were in the social and cultural orbit; of New York and  -74-  bef ore; C o n f e d e r a t i o n , and have much i n f l u e n c e not. t o so "become in this period. thatl Robert st  F o r these reasons there-seems  l i t t l e chance:.-  poetry w i l l r e f l e c t .more; than a c a s u a l i n t e r e s t ,  1  i j i Canada as a- n a t i o n . Sir andsachieved  C h a r l e s G. D. Roberts was b o t h a poet, and n o v e l i s t c o n s i d e r a b l e l i t e r a r y fame; i n b o t h f i e l d s .  However i n b o t h types of l i t e r a t u r e h i s approach t o the Canadian in his  scene i s p a r a l l e l ,  and need t h e r e f o r e e b e s t u d i e d only  one,; As a- poet Roberts, d i d much of h i s s i g n i f i c a n t work i n e a r l y l i f e , b e f o r e he l e f t  f o r New York i n 1896.  His f i r s t  volume, O r i o n and_ other, poems (1880), was experimental and . r e v e a l s predominantly the i n f l u e n c e of h i s wide r e a d i n g .  Like/;  many f i r s t t volumes i t i s regarded, by some c r i t i c s a t l e a s t , as "all artifice;  a l l artificial"  and i n no way C a n a d i a n .  second volume, I n D i v e r s Tones, appeared poems;.;based on Canadian n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g . of  45  His;-  i n 1887 and c o n t a i n s T h i s and the others  h i s e a r l y volumes wer.ee c o l l e c t e d and p u b l i s h e d i n 1907 as 44  Poems.  T h i s volume p r o v i d e s a convenient b a s i s f o r an  examination of the extent t o which Canadian f e e l i n g ; p e r m e a t e d RobertissJ work. Of the-182. poems i n t h i s : c o l l e c t i o n 22'- i n the group "New York Nocturnes"  1  and 64 of the 69 i n the " M i s c e l l a n e o u s  poems"'were, w r i t t e n i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and based  on American  44 situations?.  Furthermore.-- the long i n t r o d u c t o r y poem "Ave:. " 1  (note 42, cont..) thet New England s t a t e s f o r a l o n g time, and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that, when Roberts..and Carman--both p o e t s — l e f t Canada they went t o l i v e i n t h i s r e g i o n . 43. Logan and French, p. 118. 44; Boston, Page, 1907; a n a l y s i s i n Appendix I I , T*VI.  -75-  i s a- p o e t i c p i e c e w r i t t e n f o r the S h e l l e y centenary.  Of the.  remaining 95 poems 48 t r e a t t o p i c s such as e t e r n i t y and l i f e , and 4 are d i s t i n c t l y i m p e r i a l .  Of the remainder, 33.deal w i t h  Canadian nature i n a. p u r e l y l o c a l f a s h i o n , w h i l e 10 a r e r e g i o n a l or  n a t i o n a l i n scope.  his  I f these 10 were w e l l spaced  throughout  p o e t i c c a r e e r , Roberts would;, rank as. a - n a t i o n a l l y minded.,  poet:; but. they areenoti, coming i n s t e a d from one short p e r i o d i n his  l i f e " and', appearing, almost;, a l l  Tjpnes group.  Indeed  of them, i n the- I n Divers:'  "with the single;-notable e x c e p t i o n of  Roberts,! spasmodic  'Call  n a t i o n or Canadian  s e t t i n g and c o l o u r i n some of h i s natures  1  t o the Canadian people t o achieve a  poetry, R o b e r t s ' verse i s anything In  but..Canadian.  h i s t e n d i s t i n c t l y Canadian poems Roberts.does.,  n e v e r t h e l e s s , express: v i t a l n a t i o n a l sentiments..  It..was i n  these poems t h a t he d i f f e r e d from other.-poets of the Roberts;  Carman group,  and showed the effect:, of t h e impact;, of Confedera--  t i o n on the l i f e only are.  of the Oanadian people.  'drum and trumpet*  Although i n essence  verse, the most notable of these poems  so e n t h u s i a s t i c and o b v i o u s l y s i n c e r e that! they equal the  best thathhas y e t been- done by Canadian poets i n the f i e l d of patrioticcpoetry. "Canada*.  One of the best of these p i e c e s i s the poem  46  45?. Logan and French, p. 115. Mr. A'; J . M. Smith (Smith, •p\ 174) p r e s e n t s thei.opposite-point of view; After pointing out. the sentiment- of Roberts;', n a t i o n a l odes, he remarks, "Yet, the. deepest and most enduring e x p r e s s i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m i s t t o be:found i n Roberts' poems of nature and the Acadian countryside^, where the e x p r e s s i o n i s i m p l i c i t - a n d i n d i r e c t . " Hie. view, however, seems i n c o r r e c t . 46. Poems, pp. 125 - 127; Smith, pp. 174 - 176; Broadus-, pp. 33 — 3%T""go*ngs of t h e Great; Dominion, pp. 18 - 20. <  i  -76-  0 C h i l d ofi Nations, g i a n t - l i m b e d , Who stand'st among the n a t i o n s now Unheeded, unadorned, unhymned, With unanointed br.ow, — How; long the ignoble, s l o t h , how long The t r u s t i n greatness h o t thine, own? S u r e l y t h e . l i o n ' s brood i s s t r o n g To f r o n t s the?-world alone.' How long the i n d o l e n c e , ere thou dares Achieve thy d e s t i n y , seize; thy fame-,-Eree-our proud eyes behold thee, bear; natd on • s; f r a n c h i s e, n a t i on • name? The; Saxon f brc ej the Ce 11 i c. f i re, These are-.; thy manhood ' s: = h e r i t a g 6 * ! Why r e s t , w i t h babes and s l a v e s ? Seek h i g h e r The place? of race and age. 1 see to every wind u n f u r l e d The f l a g that, bears .the Maple Wreath; Thy s w i f t k e e l s furrow round the world Its blood-red folds.beneath. —11.  1 -  20.  Montcalm and Wolfe.' Wolfe and Montcalm.' Quebec? thy s t o r i e d c i t a d e l Attest- i n burning song, and psalm How here;thy heroes f e l l . ' 0 Thou t h a t b'orc'st. the b a t t l e * s r b r u n t At Que ens ton and at^Lundy'st Lane,-On whose;, scant, ranks b u t i r o n f r o n t T h e - b a t t l e broke i n vain.'-Whose.was the danger, whose the day, From whose triumphant t h r o a t s the cheers, Ati C h r y s l e r ' s Farm, at. Chateauguay, Storming l i k e c l a r i o n - b u r s t s our ears? On s o f t P a c i f i c s l o p e s , — b e s i d e ; Strange f l o o d s - t h a t northward rave and f a l l , — Where chafes Acadia's chainless;-.tide— Thy sons await thy c a l l . — 1 1 . 29 - 44 . ;  But, thou, my country, dream not thou.' Wake', and behold how n i g h t i s d o n e , — How on thy b r e a s t * , and o'er-thy brow B u r s t s the u p r i s i n g sun.' —11. 3  Roberts' most s u c c e s s f u l poemswritten n a t i o n a l impulse is;.undoubtedly "Ah ode t o the  53'• -  56.  under t h i s Canadian  -77-  Confederacy".  '  of thee'drum and  Although i t i s ; w r i t t e n i n the b l a t a n t  style  trumpet' poets.: it,, expressas^an emotion that.  sounds:;quite s i n c e r e , so r i c h i s the enthusiasm d i s p l a y e d . i s a c a l l to the Canadian n a t i o n t o arouse i t s e l f r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n the World.  and  take i t s  Thus i t i s not merely an exclama-  t i o n of d e l i g h t , i n Canada because that, i s the author's assmost. such poems are* i s probably  "An  It  country,  ode f o r the Canadian Confederacy"  the best: t h a t has been done i n Canada w i t h  this  s t y l e of verse'; Awake, my country, the h o u r i s great., w i t h change.' Under t h i s gloom which yeti obscurest t h e land, Prom i c e - b l u e s t r a i t and s t e r n L a u r e n t i a n range To where?giant peaks our western bounds;command, A deep v o i c e stirs-, v i b r a t i n g i n men's ears: As i f their.-own h e a r t s throbbed t h a t thunder f o r t h , A sound wherein who hearkens w i s e l y hearse-: The v o i c e of the d e s i r e of t h i s strong North; — T h i s N o r t h whose heart of f i r e Yet .knows,-; not itsr-deslreo C l e a r l y , but., dreams^ and murmurs, i n the dream. The hour of dreams i s done. Lo, on the h i l l s the gleam.' Awake, my country, the hour of dreams i s done.' Doubt not, nor dread the greatness of thy f a t e . Tho' f a i n t : s o u l s f e a r the keen, c o n f r o n t i n g sun, And f a i n would b i d the morn of splendour wait; Tho' dreamers, rapt, i n s t a r r y v i s i o n s , cry, "Lo, yon thy f u t u r e , yon thy f a i t h , thy fame?.'" And s t r e t c h v a i n hands to stars., thy fame i s nigh, H e r e i n Canadian hearth, and home, and name;— T h i s name, which yet... s h a l l grow T i l l a l l the n a t i o n s know Us for. a p a t r i o t people, heart, and hand L o y a l t o our n a t i v e earth,--our own Canadian land.' -  0 strong h e a r t s , guarding the b i r t h r i g h t of our g l o r y , Worth your b e s t . b l o o d t h i s h e r i t a g e ye guard.' Those mighty streams. r e s p l e n d e n t w i t h our; st.ory, These i r o n coasts by rage-, of seas u n j a r r e d , - What f i e l d s of peace these bulwarks-: w e l l secure;! What-,vales of p l e n t y those balm f l o o d s supply.' S h a l l not our l o v e t h i s rough, sweet land make sure-, Her bounds preserve i n v i o l a t e , though wider? 0 strong h e a r t s of the North, 4.7. Poems, pp.  127 - 128,  Songs of the GreatiDominion,p.3a  -78-  L e t . f l a m e your l o y a l t y f o r t h , And p u t the craven and base t o an open shame, ^ T i l l e a r t h s h a l l know the. C h i l d of N a t i o n s "by h e r name.' Thus;-Roberts  achieved a v i t a l n a t i o n a l sentiment i n  48 s e v e r a l of h i s poems i n the I n Divers. Tones group.  This  i n d i c a t e s t h a t C o n f e d e r a t i o n made a deep impression on the minda. of. many Canadians who minded.  Throughout  revealed  little  frequently  wereonot, on the whole, n a t i o n a l l y  the. r e s t of h i s work, however, Roberts  or no v i t a l Canadian awareness:.  He wrote  on nature, but. i n a l o c a l r a t h e r than a - d i s t i n c t l y  Canadian f a s h i o n .  In t h i s his work i s similar.- t o that, of most  of the other poets i n the Roberts-Carman group, who  need; not.,  therefore-,- be examined i n such d e t a i l . WV  B l i s s Carman (1861 - 1929)  of L o y a l i s t descent.  He l e f t Canada i n 1881,  abroad, except f o r b r i e f v i s i t s , d u r i n g is  was born  at.Fredericton  and  remained  the r e s t - o f h i s l i f e .  He  not u s u a l l y regarded as. a n a t i o n a l l y minded w r i t e r ; indeed.  Mr. L. A. Mackay, i n an a n a l y s i s t h a t - s c a r c e l y i n s i s t s that he was.-.a minor American, r e f e r r i n g t o the " d e l u s i o n  seems c o r r e c t ,  not, a Canadian,  that. Carman i s a Canadian  poet, poet."  49 50  Logan a l s o notes that h i s work i s not Canadian i n sentiment. 48. W i l l i a m Douw L i g h t h a l l (1857 ) wrote s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l poems s i m i l a r t o those of Roberts; but h i s work i s i n f e r i o r to that of Roberts and sounds q u i t e a r t i f i c i a l . Much mores s i g n i f i c a n t , was h i s Canadian anthology, Songs of the G r e a t Dominion, which s t r e s s e s n a t i o n a l p o e t r y . Among h i s n a t i o n a l poems are "Canada n o t . l a s t " , "The confused land", and " N a t i o n a l hymn" (pp. 28, 21, 22 r e s p A c t i v e l y i n h i s anthology)). He a l s o endeavoured to s t r i k e a Canadian note i n h i s h i s t o r i c a l romance, The Young Seigneur (1888). 4.9. " B l i s s Carman", C.E;,  v. 13, p. 183, Feb. 1933:1  50. cf.. Logan and French, p. 139; b u t c o n t r a s t L i g h t h a l l i n Songs of the Great Dominion, p. 449.  -79The-.-. reason f o r t h i s o p i n i o n seems t o be^ that! Carman wrote no a such o b v i o u s l y Canadian p i e c e s as those of Roberts, nor do of h i s pieces: show a keen i n t e r e s t t i n Canadian h i s t o r y .  any  But  n e i t h e r of these i s necessary, s u r e l y , b e f o r e a work of a r t maji be c o n s i d e r e d n a t i o n a l .  I t i s t r u e that Carman spent l i t t l e r  time i n Canada a f t e r 1881,  b u t n e i t h e r d i d Roberts; a f t e r  1896.  Roberts' n a t u r e ; v e r s e has seemed n a t i o n a l i n i n s p i r a t i o n t o many r e a d e r s ; and yet much of i t has.a l o c a l r a t h e r than a national flavour. Frequently i t , locality  .Carman's work i s of j u s t the same type.  too, appears t o express: a f e e l i n g  (as, f o r example, "Low  only f o r the  t i d e on Grand P r e " ) ; b u t quite;  o f t e n a n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s ^ - a l b e i t , a weak o n e — i s a l s o present.  And  t h i s sentiment  i s not c o n f i n e d t o any  of h i s work, as was R o b e r t s ' Canadianism. "Carnations i n W i n t e r " ^ , 1  one p e r i o d  L i g h t h a l l quotes h i s  which i s s u r e l y as Canadian  nature poetry y e t w r i t t e n ; i n 1920  he wrote "Ah  as any  open l e t t e r "  which i s d e f i n i t e l y n a t i o n a l i n i n s p i r a t i o n ; and i n  52  ,  1924  53 appeared  the f r i v o l o u s d i t t y  "Advice t o the young"  , another:  Canadian poem. I saw a c r o s s a v a l l e y the autumn r a i n s come down, And sweep i n solemn grandeur a c r o s s the f o r e s t crown; And I thought upon the v a l l e y where each man walks alone, And a l l the t r a i l s run o u t and stop at the edge of the unknown. But I d i d n o t dread the s o l i t u d e , not f i n d those v a s t s f o r l o r n W i t h t h e i r u n f o l d i n g s i l e n c e , f o r I was; Northern born. The g r e a t unbroken w i l d e r n e s s was a l l a j o y to see, And the f i r s and p a i n t e d spruces are l i k e o l d f r i e n d s t o me. And when I heard the whisper of the snow b e g i n t o s i n g , 51. Songs of the Great Dominion, p. 52. C F . .  1920.  53. C.B; , v. 6, p. 7, Jan.,' 1924; r e p l i e d to by B a r r i n g t o q , "Quizzing a poet", C;.B:.-, v. 6, p. 37, Feb. 1924. :  C,  v>; 1, pp. 80 - 82, Dec.  449.  -80-  My heart.went wild for gladness, as i f i t had been spring. Out.-of the gray came whirling the. legions of a i r , That dance? upon the storm-wind and make, the world more f a i r ; A l l night they wrought their witch-work until the morning glow, When every bough was bending with the blossoms of thee snow. Then slowly very slowly I crepti. out to the wild, g With the rapture and the wonder and the footsteps of a child. 5  — 11. 4& - 60. These lines are Canadian i f nature poetry can be-, and are indicative of the impulse evident, in a considerable portion of his work.  Carman seems to have acquired a.- national sentiment quite  as strong as that present in any other poet of this School.  He  frequently escapes the localism so common to his group, and to Canadian writers in general; and he never suffers from the colonial domination found in Campbell.  Some writers have  expressed a deeper and others a more widespread but few have revealed as sincere a feeling for Canada couched in such delicate-^tones as thafcefSunddinnCarman's poetry. Archibald Lampman (1861 - 1899), who has been called 54 "Canada's greatest nature poet"  , has a considerable reputa-  tion as an interpreter of the essential spirit of Canada . -  Logan, who i B the foremost protagonist of this opinion, states^ that'.:, he. was "a subtle interpreters of the^ Canadian national spirit.by way of a new-and philosophic interpretation of Nature 55 in Canada." This view, which seems much too strong, has been 56 challenged in recent years.  Born ati Morpeth, Kent-County,  Ontario of Loyalist descent, he worked in the c i v i l service at Ottawa most of:p.his207. l i f e . His.work, which is nature 54.during Rhodenizer, 55. Logan and French, p. 207. cf. also Smith, p. 183; Logan, J . D . , "The literary group of '61", CM.", v. 37, pp. 559562, Oct. 1911; Knister, R., "Archibald Lampman",L\R., v. 7,p.350, Oct. 56. cf. Kennedy,L., "Archibald Lampman", C.FTT" 1927.  -81,  poetry similar in general to that of Carman ', is often purely 0  local in character, hut at times distinctly Canadian.  It is  probable, however, that his work seems so typical of Canada to 55 some c r i t i c s  because i t is descriptive of Ontario, and must  strike a familiar note to residents of • that parti of. Canada-. Among his more broadly Canadian passages are-one from the poem "Sapphics", Clothed in splendour, beautifully sad and silent, Comes the autumn over the woods and highlands, Golden, rose-red, f u l l of divine remembrance, Pull of foreboding. Soon the maples;, soon w i l l the glowing birches, Stripped of a l l that summer and love have dowered them, Dream, sad-limbed, beholding |&eir pomp and treasure Ruthlessly scattered. —11. 1 « 8. 58  and two from UThe woodcutter's hut",®® (note 5*% cont).  v. 13, pp. 301 - 303, May 1933.  57. Another poet of this school whose work is very similar to that of Lampman and Carman in i t s approach to Cajiadianism is Frederick George Scott (1861 -1111 ) of O n t a r i o * ^ P a r t i c u l a r l y Canadian in feeling is his poem "The unnamed lake" (The unnamed lake and other poems, T.oronto, Briggs, 1897, pp. 7 - 9; Collected poems, Vancouver, Clarke and Stewart, 1934* pp. 8-9). It. sleeps among the thousand h i l l s Where..no man ever trod, And only nature's music f i l l s The silences of God. —11.  1-4.  Contemporary to F . G. Scott was Duncan Campbell Scott, who was born in Ottawa in 1862 and worked during much of his l i f e in the c i v i l service. He is also a nature..poet whose work is not, on the whole, distinctly Canadian. He has often been praised for the Canadian feeling evident in some of his work (Logan and French, pp. 159, 177; Hammond, M. 0., "The poet of the Laurentians", C M . , v. 32, p. 456, March 1909); but he has, stated that poetry should not be consciously national ("Poetry and progress;'.', C M ; , v. 60, pp. 187-195, Jan. 1923.) although he does desire to see a national literature in Canada ("A decade of Canadian poetry", C M . , v. 17, pp. 153-8, June, 1901). His; work as a whole does present»-national outlook because he haso treated Quebec (In the Village of Viger, 1896, and the one act (note 57 cont., and notes 58 and 59 on next page).  Par.-up i n the w i l d and w i n t r y h i l l s i n the h e a r t of the c l i f f broken woods;, Where the mounded d r i f t s l i e s o f t and deep i n the n o i s e l e s s solitudes, The hut of the l o n e l y woodcutter stands, a few rough beams t h a t show A b l u n t e d peak and a low b l a c k l i n e , from the g l i t t e r i n g waste of snow.... — 1 1 . 1 - 4. Day a f t e r day the woodcutter t o i l s u n t i r i n g w i t h axe and wedge, T i l l the j i n g l i n g teams come up from the road t h a t runs by the v a l l e y ' s edge, With plunging of horses, and h u r l i n g of snow, and many a shout ed word., Andi-carry away the keen-scented f r u i t of his;, c u t t i n g , cord upon cord.. — 1 1 . 13 - 16 9  Passages such as these are as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canada as they can be, and suggest  an a p p r e c i a t i o n of the country as a whole  that, makes. Canadian f l a v o u r appear n a t u r a l l y and u n c o n s c i o u s l y t o the poeti's; expression'. Emily P a u l i n e Johnson (1862 - 1913) was born on the I n d i a n r e s e r v e near B r a n t f o r d of I n d i a n and E n g l i s h p a r e n t s . Her f o r m a l education was l i m i t e d — s h e attended  the I n d i a n school  oh the reserve;, and l a t e r B r a n t f o r d C e n t r a l S c h o o l — b u t she was 12 she had read Longfellow, peare.  before  S c o t t , Byron and Shakes-  A f t e r 1892 she went on many l e c t u r e t o u r s , and i n 1909  she s e t t l e d i n Vancouver.  The sentiment: evident i n h e r poetry  evolved g r a d u a l l y from a passionate..protest against, wrongs s u f f e r e d by the Indians,through genuine world  outlook.  a proud Canadianism^to a  Her treatment  of Canadian nature i s  s i m i l a r t o t h a t of the other poets i n the Roberts-Carman group.  (note 57, cont.) p l a y P i e r r e ) a n d the p r a i r i e s ("At G u l l Lake, 1810", Smith, pp. 222 - 225) i n a d d i t i o n t o h i s n a t i v e O n t a r i o . 58. (see p. 81) S c o t t , D. C , ed., The poems of A r c h i b a l d Lampman, Toronto, Briggs:, 1915, pp. 217 - 218. 59,  (see pp. 81, 82) i b i d . , pp. 247 - 250.  -83-  Among her more, distinctly national pieces is "Prairie Greyhounds*'  , which indicates the Canadian sentiment inspired  by the building of the transcontinental railway. C. P. R. Westbound--No. 1 I swing to the sunset land, The world of prairie, the world of plain, The world of promise, and hope, and gain, The world of gold, and world of grain, And the world of the willing hand. I carry The one The one The one And the I I I I  the brave and bold, who works for the nation's^ bread, whose past, is a thing that's dead, who battles.-and beats ahead, one who goes for gold.  swing to the land to be: am the power that, laid its. floors, am the guide to its western shores, am the key to its golden doors,  That, open agorae tdoma.  60  —11. 1 - 15.  These, then, are the major poets of the RobertsCarman group whose work suggests in any way a Canadian national awareness.  61  In contrast to such distinctly national poets., as  Mair; M'Lachlan, and Miss Crawford, their work—except for a 60., Broadus, pp. 46 - 47. 61. One poet of this group whose work is colonial and imperial rather than Canadian in tone was William Wilfred Campbell (1861 - 1919). William was the son of the Rev. Thomas Campbell, rector of the Anglican Church at Berlin (Kitchener), Ontario. Luring his youth he moved with his family to various parts of Ontario, the beauty of the scenery at Wiarton on Georgian Bay being particularly attractive to him. He, too, entered the ministry, preaching in turn in New Hampshire, NewBrunswick, and at Wiarton; but after 1890 he was in the C i v i l Service at Ottawa. His work both in poetry and fiction (A Beautiful Rebel, etc.) is thoroughly imperial in character, over, half his poems f a l l i n g into this category, (cf. Allison, f. T . , "William Wilfred Campbell", C.B., April 1919, p. 15).  few  of Roberts' poems—frfaoir work i s not o v e r t l y n a t i o n a l i n  tone.  Often, too, t h e i r nature p o e t r y i s not as t y p i c a l of  Canada as a whole as i s the work of those p o e t s .  And yet i n  t h e i r more d i s t i n c t l y Canadian p i e c e s the writers; i n t h i s group do present sentiments outlook as do any  q u i t e as s i g n i f i c a n t and n a t i o n a l i n  other w r i t e r s d u r i n g the N i n e t e e n t h  C o n s i d e r i n g t h a t n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g was  Century.  only beginning t o emerge  i n Canada d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the sentimentslexpressed i n these works are probably much more t y p i c a l of the f e e l i n g s  1  of  Canadians as a whole than are those of H a i r and the more go thoroughly n a t i o n a l w r i t e r s . In t h e r e was  a d d i t i o n to the work of these e s t a b l i s h e d poets  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c i d e n t a l poetry w r i t t e n l a t e i n the?  N i n e t e e n t h Century, much of which appeared as The  Canadian Magazine.  in periodicals  such  Although much of t h i s poetry i s  p u r e l y l o c a l or even p r o v i n c i a l i n c h a r a c t e r , some of i t i s Canadian i n outlook.  T h i s work i s s i g n i f i c a n t because i t  i n d i c a t e s that n a t i o n a l sentiments were f a i r l y  widespread  throughout  concentrated i n  Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , and not merely  the work of a few w r i t e r s .  A fair  summary of the n a t i o n a l l y  i n s p i r e d poems found i n i n c i d e n t a l poetry d u r i n g the  of of  latter  62* Some modern c r i t i c s do not agree w i t h t h i s estimate t h e i r work. Writes Miss Grace Tomkinson ("The watched pot Canadian poetry", D.R.. v. 14, p. 464, Jan. 1935), T h e i r work, as we look back now, seems c u r i o u s l y o f f the same p i e c e . They a l l wrote a g r e a t d e a l about nature, which was t o be expected i n a new country where the seaaons, as someone suggests, have a way of t h r u s t i n g themselves d r a m a t i c a l l y upon us, demanding a t t e n t i o n . They were more o s i l s s s i c o l o n i a l , l e a n i n g h e a v i l y on the e s t a b l i s h e d t r a d i t i o n s of the Motherland, convinced of t h e i r own audac i t y i n attempting t o break new ground i n Canadian themes, by no means sure t h a t our homespun words had p o e t i c v a l u e .  -85-  part of the N i n e t e e n t h Century, colonial, 86.  as w e l l as a few  i m p e r i a l and l o c a l verse, appears  examples of  i n Tables I ,  T y p i c a l o f such work i s "At S t e . Therese!' by Mrs  Susie  Frances H a r r i s o n ("Seranus", 1859  -  anthology  Canadian B i r t h d a y Book  of Canadian poetry, The  on page  ), e d i t o r of the  early  (1887).  Whichever way one goes one sees The seminalre, and i s sure t o meet The t a l l twin towers of the grim e g l i s e , And but. f o r the keen Canadian breeze. Blowing the sharp Canadian s l e e t Over the Lombardy p o p l a r treesT.o me and P i e r r e , who says i t w i l l f r e e z e By nighty I f e e l as i f I must greet. The t a l l twin towers of the grim e g l i s e FJbr an Old World; church w i t h Old World f e e s The Old World c a r i l l o n sounding sweet Over the. Lombardy p o p l a r trees:. —11.  4 -  IS .  ( c f . liable I ) F i c t i o n was,  on the -whole, only a minor l i t e r a r y  a c t i v i t y i n Canada- late- i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century. i n t e r e s t i n i t r e v i v e d i n the l a s t two and n a t i o n a l sentiments appeared AC tier:- 1877  the impulse  decades of the century,  e x t e n s i v e l y i n many novels!.  of C o n f e d e r a t i o n and n a t i o n a l  in some,  Nevertheiesjs  Canadian  etsej*  awareness a r o u s e d ^ c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n the h i s t o r i c a l romance,, the most s i g n i f i c a n t , novels d a t i n g from t h i s p e r i o d being Kir.by's The Golden Dog and Parker's The Seats of the Mighty. That, impulse, produced t a n g i b l e evidence i n our l i t e r a t u r e because of a conscious r e a l i z a t i o n of n a t i o n a l i d e a l s and a sensing of the s p i r i t of a courageous and romantic past, i n a country t h a t , s u p e r f i c i a l l y viewed, had R a r e l y reached the stage of 'growing p a i n s ' . 63.  Smith,  pp. 169  -  170.  64.  Logan and French, pp.  241  -  242.  TABLE' I CANADIAN SENTIMENT.-' IN MINOR POETS LATE !IN THE 'NINETEENTH CENTURY. Author  Poem  Armstrong, G.W Bramble, C M GSampbell, C. Duvar, J . H . Edwards, L . A . ,  Source  "Canada" "Domi ni on Hymn" "This Canada of Ours"" "Canadian Hymn" "Le Roberval: a drama" "To the soldiers of the second contingent.' "Dominion Day""  .. .CM... .. .CM..,  Sentiment  v. 6, p. 314, Feb. 1896 v. 7, p. 227, June 1896  . . . some imperialism, . . . imperialism. ...CUT., v. 14, pp. 40-1, Nov. 1899. Canadian!sm, .. .C-.lt;, • v. 13, p. 134, June 1899... colonialism. Canadianism. . . . p u b l i shed' 1888. imperialism i n . . . C M ; , v. 14, p. 486, March 1900.. the Boer War. colonial!sm. ...Songs of the Great Domini on, imperialism, "Prom ocean to ocean" —PP. ib - I T C "A Canadienne" . . . C M . , v. 2, p. 96, Nov. 1893 . . . surface, nationalism, "A message from a few . . . C M . , v. 6, p. 165, Heo. 1895 . . . imperialism i n millions"' . . . C M ; , V . 14, p. 486, March 1900.. Boer War. "Canadian hymn"" . . . C M . " , V . 9, p. 463, Oct.. 1897 . . . surface nat. "TJO Canada" . . . cTSfc, v. 12, p. 301, Feb. 1899... Canadianism. "Hymn t.o Canada" . . . C C M . , v. 7, p. 554, Octu 1896 . . . surface, nat. "Canada" . . .cTl.. v. 9, p. 279, Aug. 1897 . . . surface, nat. "Children of the Queen" . . V . 14, p. 447, March 1900.. imperialism. Canadianism. "Canadian hunter's song' ...Songs of the Great Dominion, p. 172. imperialism, "The Maple Leaf Forever " . , - w r i t t e n 1067 "From ocean unto ocean" . . . p o p u l a r - hymn . . , surface nat. "En route to Alaska* . . . C M I , v, 11, p. 61, May 1898 . . . the New World!, ; "A word from Canada;" •••£5 » * « ' " . S« « imperialism, ...Songs of the Great Dominion,p.24. surface nat. "From "'85"" "The future of B T C " . , . CM?/,, v. 4, p. 591, Feb. f § 9 6 . . , l o c e l s i m . "Poems of the heart., and homeT". .published 1881 . . . surface: nat. 1  "Fidelis" Gosnell, B?.E. Gourlay, R, Hart., P.W; Howland, O.A. Lawson, P . Livingstone.K. McManus, E . Meyers, R.D. Mo odd erj Mrs.S .'S c  Muir, A. Murray, R's Rowe, H.K. Sherman, P. St rat on, B/J Upham, R. Yule, P.V.  r  v  9  p  p  3 2 4  &  A t l  1 8 9 7  -87-  William Kirby  (1817 - 1906) was b o r n i n K i n g s t o n -  upon-Hull, England, and came t o Canada w i t h h i s p a r e n t s i n 1832. He was educated i n C i n c i n n a t i and l a t e r i n Montreal, and then went t o Niagara, where he p u b l i s h e d the M a i l f o r twenty y e a r s . From 1871 t o 1895" he was C o l l e c t o r of Customs at N i a g a r a . H i s A fi  poetry i s at times Canadian i n f l a v o u r ,  but.more.significant  than i t . i s h i s famous novel, TheeGolden Dog (1877), which has 66 been c a l l e d  "the g r e a t e s t Canadian n o v e l " .  I t . d i s p l a y s ar  p a t r i o t i c f e r v o u r f o r : Canada a s ^ p a r t of t h e Empirec, and one c r i t i c c goesr. so f a r as t o say "In f a c t i . Canadian scenes are g l o r i f i e d not. so much because they are things, of beauty i n themselves as because they c o n s t i t u t e an i d e a l p l a c e i n which to f o s t e r the B r i t i s h sentiment- to-which he was so i n t e n s e l y devoted"  ; but. t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n seems r a t h e r t o o s t r o n g .  N e v e r t h e l e s s The Golden Dog i s h a r d l y as Canadian i n i n s p i r a t i o n as?the p r e - C o n f e d e r a t i o n n o v e l Wacousta i s .  The theme i s  Canadian, and many statements i n the book r e v e a l a s i n c e r e attempt t o be n a t i o n a l ; but ..at times, f o r c e s d e t r i m e n t a l t o at r u e n a t i o n a l f l a v o u r predominate.  However the book opens on  a s i n c e r e Canardia-n note. "•See Naples and then d i e . That, was a proud saying....But I now say, 'See Quebec and l i v e forever . t h i s b r i g h t morning i s worthy of Eden, and the g l o r i o u s landscape worthy of such a sun r i s i n g . " ' M  6  But. t h i s sentiment, i s not o f t e n repeated i n the n o v e l , a l t h o u g h  65'* The U n i t e d Empire L o y a l i s t s , a t a l e of Upper Canada, 1846; Canadian i d y l l s , 1868 and~i894. P a r t i c u l a r l y n a t i o n a l i n f l a v o u r i s the "Spina C h r i s t a " (Songs of the Great Dominion, pp. 240 - 252), which i s a f a n c i f u l survey of Canadian h i s t o r y . 66. Rhodenizer, p. 83. 67. K i r b y , W., The Golden Dog, Toronto, Musson, n.d., p . l .  -88-  in  one place. K i r b y s t r e s s e s the importance of Canada, w r i t i n g , New Prance, a f t e r g a t h e r i n g a h a r v e s t of g l o r y , such as America had never seen reaped b e f o r e , f e l l at l a s t , through the neglect, of her mother country. But she dragged down the n a t i o n i n her f a l l , and Prance would now g i v e the apple of her eye f o r recovery, never t o be, of "the a c r e s of snow", which La Eompadour so s c o r n f u l l y abandoned t o the English. ft  0 0  Much of the Canadian sentiment i s couched i n a strong a n t i American f e e l i n g , six  hundred  as seen i n the a s s e r t i o n that  Canadians  surrounded a l l New  " " I once w i t h  England....we swept  Connecticut from end to end w i t h a broom of f i r e . " " ""Against a l l the f o r c e of New  England.  u  , and  But I cannot  promise  7Q the  same a g a i n s t the E n g l i s h r e g u l a r s , now  But the main s p i r i t n a t i o n a l one.  l a n d i n g at New  York?"  s t r e s s e d i s a c o l o n i a l r a t h e r than a  K i r b y i s pleased t o note how happy the F r e n c h  were under the B r i t i s h , and how w e l l they were t r e a t e d , w r i t i n g , The Canadian saw, w i t h resentment, F r e n c h f l e e t s and armies d i s p a t c h e d to America, t o a i d the- Bostonians, a f r a c t i o n of which f o r c e sent i n the hour of need would have saved New France from conquest. The a s s i s tance which had been so b r u t a l l y denied to her own c h i l d r e n , France; now gave l a v i s h l y to t h e i r h e r e d i t a r y enemies who had f o r over a century been t r y i n g t.o conquer Canada. 1  Through causes rooted deeply i n the h i s t o r y of New France, the Canadians had ever regarded the E n g l i s h c o l o n i s t s i n America, as t h e i r enemies, f a r more than the E n g l i s h themselves, and, t h e r e f o r e , when d r i v e n to a choice between the two, they remained t r u e to England, and t h e i r wise choice has been j u s t i f i e d to t h i s day. Sir of  G i l b e r t Parker was born i n Camden E a s t , O n t a r i o ,  L o y a l i s t : descent, i n 1860.  He s t u d i e d t o be a m i n i s t e r , but  took up l i t e r a t u r e • a n d j o u r n a l i s m i n s t e a d .  He went to A u s t r a l i a  68.  i b i d . , p. 373.  69.  ibid.., p. 7.  70.  i b i d . , p. 128.  71.  i b i d . , p.  574.  .89-  i n 1885,  and l i v e d i n England a f t e r 1897.  He was  an  imperialist  at h e a r t and wrote novels set i n many p a r t s of the Empire. p l a c e s he i s q u i t e Canadian  i n s p i r i t , buti only r a r e l y .  In  Among  h i S E i m p o r t a n t , Canadian n o v e l s are When Valmond came t o P o n t i a c and The Seats of the Mighty. i s l i t t l e hint  But., a p a r t from the s e t t i n g t h e r e  of the country as an i n t e g r a l f o r c e i n the n o v e l -  i s t ' s mind; r a t h e r the p r i n c i p l e l o v e i s f o r England.  Parker,  72 the i m p e r i a l i s t , d e s i r e s that, "Canada he ours" " g l o r y there-was  f o r B r i t i s h arms ahead."'''  3  and laud83 the  Thet most d i s t i n c t l y  Canadian sentiments are put i n the mouths of P r e n c h i n one place: Montcalm f e a r s  "I s h a l l see my  Canadians;  beloved Canada no  74 more." The  other important f i c t i o n produced  p e r i o d i s summarized i n T a b l e I I , f o l l o w i n g .  during t h i s Pew  of the novels  are remembered to-day, but i n s o f a r as they d e a l w i t h Canadian t o p i c s i n a d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l way,  and were thus i n s p i r e d  ar s p i r i t then p r e v a l e n t , they do i n d i c a t e a- v i t a l  by  Canadianism.  TABLE I I Canadian P i c t i o n i n the l a t t e r p a r t of the. N i n e t e e n t h Century. Campbell, Author. W.W. Laut, Agnes Lighthall, W.D. Macdermott, A'. Roberts* S i r C C D . Saunders, Margaret M  f f 2 m  192:7, p.  ..A B N eo av ue tl if . u l Rebel .. Lord s: of the N o r t h ..The Young Seigneur. . . P r a i r i e Evenings • • The R a i d f r'onT'Be'ause^j our ..Rose a C h a r l i t t e  ...1909 Date. ...1901 ...1888 ... 1894. ...,1898  - Seats of the Mighty, New-York, Apnleton-Century, 2TT.  T 3 a e  73:. i b i d . , p .  282.  74. i b i d . P p . 2 3 8 ( c f .  also p . 35.9).  - 9 0 -  During the. Nineteenth. Century n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g dde-'ve^Msped rrapfidiy and s t r o n g l y i n Canada-, based i n the f i r s t , place  on antagonism t o the U n i t e d  times by v a r i o u s in  S t a t e s but i n c r e a s e d many  other f a c t o r s d u r i n g  a d d i t i o n to f e a r of the U n i t e d  the C o n f e d e r a t i o n  States, p o l i t i c a l  westward expansion, growing economic u n i t y , and many  period,  instability, other  f a c t o r s aroused strong Canadian sentiment i n the people of the? country. history  Thereeis  ample evidence, of t h i s development i n the  of the p e r i o d , and a l s o i n the l i t e r a t u r e  written.  then  Among the poets of the l a t e N i n e t e e n t h Century some  wrote work that i s s t r o n g l y n a t i o n a l i n i n s p i r a t i o n .  This i s  p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of C h a r l e s Mair, whose a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the Canada? F i r s t group and l i f e  i n the new wes-tt c r e a t e d a v i t a l  Canadian awareness which appears f r e q u e n t l y i n h i s work. representative  More-;  of the people as a whole, probably, i s the work  of such members of the Roberts-Carman-Lampman group as Roberts, Carman, Lampman, and P a u l i n e Johnson.  These poets were on  o c c a s i o n d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l i n sentiment, but more o f t e n they were only moderately conscious The  novels  of t h e i r Canadian n a t i o n a l i t y .  of the p e r i o d a r e s i m i l a r i n t h e i r degree of  n a t i o n a l awareness t o the poetry a l s o c o l o n i a l i n outlook.  of t h i s l a t t e r group, but are  I t seems evident,  poets and n o v e l i s t s were i n s p i r e d - - b u t  therefore,  i n varying  the development of Canadianism i n t h i s p e r i o d .  that  degrees--by  But t h e f a c t  t h a t some f e e l i n g i s q u i t e widespread, and that, a t times a deep n a t i o n a l i n s p i r a t i o n i s evident,  suggests that much more-  work w i t h a d i s t i n c t l y Canadian f l a v o u r w i l l appear i n the next  period.  CHAPTER :IW . CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE' i n t h e PilRST'VTWO DECADES3 of the TWENTIETH CENTURY  TihecConservative P a r t y formed the m a j o r i t y of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s i n the Canaddanng.overnment d u r i n g the N i n e t e e n t h Century,  and d i d much t o f u r t h e r the cause of i n t e r n a l autonomy  i n the dominion, and t o f o s t e r Canadian  nationalsawareness'.  F o r only one. term of o f f i c e d i d the L i b e r a l P a r t y g a i n powerp r i o r , t o 1896; b u t . i t too made worthy c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o the development of Canadianism.  During  the ensuing years down t o  1919 b o t h p a r t i e s h e l d o f f i c e f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h of time, and both, under the m a s t e r f u l l e a d e r s h i p of two statesmen of i  the f i r s t  rank, supported  t h e ^ i n t e r e s t s of autonomy i n Canada-.  S i r Robert.Borden and S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r f o l l o w e d i n the f o o t steps of t h e i r predecessors,  S i r John A. Macdonald and Edward:  Blake i n the p r o s e c u t i o n of t h i s p o l i c y ; but a t the end of t h e i r era, as i n the case of the e a r l i e r one, Canada- seemed dangerously  d i v i d e d i n s p i t e of the many s i g n i f i c a n t . a d v a n c e s  towards independence which had occurred. The Manitoba School q u e s t i o n was the^most v i t a l i s s u e i n the e l e c t i o n of 1896.  The Roman C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y i n  Quebec were w i l l i n g t o make a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e of the problem, and, P r o t e s t a n t s i n O n t a r i o were e q u a l l y determined t o s e c u r e a> s o l u t i o n p l e a s i n g t o themselves;.  The q u e s t i o n seemed l i k e l y t o  s p l i t the n a t i o n i n t o two b i t t e r l y h o s t i l e camps, w i t h  -91-  calami-  -92-  tous  r e s u l t B  t o the s p l e n d i d development of Canadianism which  had f o l l o w e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n . outcome was avoided  F o r t u n a t e l y f o r Canada such an  through the e l e c t i o n t o power of the  L i b e r a ! P a r t y under S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r .  E n g l i s h speaking  Canada supported the L i b e r a l P a r t y because i t advocated p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s - - a n d hence a u n i f i e d s c h o o l system--for Manitoba. On the other hand F r e n c h speaking Canada- supported S i r W i l f red L a u r i e r because i t saw a s p l e n d i d o p p o r t u n i t y i t s sons prime m i n i s t e r . for  t o make one of  The e l e c t i o n of 1896 was a v i c t o r y  Canadian nationalism."*" R e c i p r o c i t y had been a major p a r t of the L i b e r a l  P l a t f o r m i n s e v e r a l preceding by n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g .  e l e c t i o n s , and had been r e j e c t e d ,  I n the e l e c t i o n of 1896 i t was n o t an  i s s u e , and f o l l o w i n g the e l e c t i o n the new prime m i n i s t e r r e v e a l e d t h a t h i s a t t i t u d e towards a n a t i o n a l economy d i d not differ  s i g n i f i c a n t l y from t h a t of the Conservative  policy'.  'national  I n 1898, during a debate on the J o i n t H i g h Commission  w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , the prime m i n i s t e r  declared,  'There was a time, when Canadians...would have g i v e n many t h i n g s t o o b t a i n t h e American market; ther.ecwas a time not long ago when t h e markets of the great c i t i e s of the union was the only market we.; had f o r any of our products. But, thank Heaven.I These days a r e past and over now.' 2  Nor-was t h i s any temporary p o l i c y supported Eor. p o l i t i c a l ssssssssssssssr.r : -i'L as 1. cf.. Burt, AA s h o r t - h i s t o r y of Canada f o r Americans. Minneapolis, U n i v e r s i t y of Minnesota Press," 1942, p. 245. Canadians resented the appeal t o Rome a g a i n s t t h e C a t h o l i c h i e r a r c h y i n Quebec*; b u t L a u r i e r f e l t t the move t o be necessary to m a i n t a i n n a t i o n a l harmony i n G&nadaa 2. quoted i n Creighton, D. G., Dominion of the Horth, Boston, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1944, p. 390.  -93-  reasons.  Canada- was  needed a new  entering,... a new  era-, and  consequently  economic program--new f o r the L i b e r a l P a r t y , at,  least. TJhes end of the, N i n e t e e n t h Century and the b e g i n n i n g of the Twentieth saw the r a p i d change t o i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n i n Efiropee and N o r t h America;, which has c h a r a c t e r i z e d the'jmodem economiceorder. growing  The areas a f f e c t e d ceased to be major g r a i n  r e g i o n s , and be cameo i n s t e a d importers of foodstuffs.. 1  With g e n e r a l r a p i d i n c r e a s e s i n p o p u l a t i o n even more food necessary.  was  The<f ormer g r a i n b e l t s of the e a r t h could n o t  supply the demand; more f o o d had t o be produced.  T h u s s i t . was;.  t h a t L t h e world looked t o the Canadian West, as ap source for.-this food, and immigrants  f l o c k e d i n to develop the l a n d and  the g r a i n demanded.  This* development of the west, p r o v i d e d a  significant  supply  stimulus t o Canadian n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n various*  ways.. i n 1896  onl£ 16,800 immigrantsrhad  the loweat number s i n c e C S n f e d e r a t i o n . (  3  BSittwith the  demand f o r . wheat;, the f i g u r e rose s h a r p l y . immigrantSB entered Canada, and f o r 1906 3 211,600.  These new  Canadians  sentiments; i n Europe, Thus immigrants Canada.  4  entered;. C^nada--  In 1901  new  over 55*700  the f i g u r e , stood a t  l e f t behind them s t r o n g n a t i o n a l  and t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r , l o y a l t i e s t o Canada.  o f t e n becameothe staunchesti. n a t i o n a l i s t s i n  The new L i b e r a l regime saw the development of the  3. i b i d . , p.  387.  4. There are s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t examples of t h i s tendency i n the work of Canadian pSetssnandt n o v e l i s t s - - A l e x a n d e r M'Lachlan and I s a b e l l a Valancy Crawford i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, and Laura Goodman S a l v e r s o n i n the Twentieth Century (Ch. 5, p.l3f).  -94-  west ae one of the moves necessary to strengthen the dominion, and, started a; vigorous immigration campaign.  Canada's popula-  tion increased significantly during the period, rising from 4,800,000 in 1891 through 5,370,000 in 1901 and 7,200,000 in 1911 to 8,781,000 in 1921, with the major increases in the Prairie Provinces and British Columbia. * 5  6  The expansion of the West:,was the great features of therperiod.  Nevertheless there were.many other important  economic developments.  Prospectors found gold in the Yukon, and  many people rushed to that area; minimg became important in Ontario and British Columbia; and the- new industrial age cameto Canada?.  Old cities? such as Montreal and Toronto increased  rapidly in size, and new cities such as Vancouver became important, as a result of this economic activity.  Canada was  slowly becoming a unit in fact as well as in theory. by the prospect of continuous prosperity, business  Stimulated  interests  commenced the construction of two new transcontinental railways,, the Grand Trunk 'Pacific and the Canadian. Northern.  Eventually  these schemes; failed, and ovonttaally thendominion government had to take over the various lines constructed and merge them into the Canadian National Railway.  Theemovement was,-, however,  a sign of national activity in Canada as well as; a unifying force.  Said Laurier in 1903, in support of new-lines^ '  5\ see Appendix I, Table II. 6. Various national organizations, particularly the Churches., aided in the development of national sentiment, in Canada;. The creation of the United Church in 1925 was; a manifestation of Canadian feeling in the: Churches;-. 7. quoted in creightlon, op. c i t . . p. 391.  -95-  Heaven grant that it.be not already too late; heaven grant that whilst we tarry and dispute, the trade of Canada is not deviated to other channels, and that, an ever vigilant, competitor does not take to himself the trade, that;, properly belongst..to those who acknowledge: Canada as^their native or adopted land." Reciprocity was not. an issue in the election of 1896, nor in those of 1900, 1904 or 1908.  But., in 1911 the question  of a-tariff agreement with the United States again developed. Sir.. Wilfred Laurier feltt that c farmers desired such a program, and thought perhaps such a policy would counteract.the p o l i t i cal disaster of the Navy Service B i l l of 1910.  In 1909 the  B r i t i s h government dooidod that each dominion should develop A  ittst; own na>vy, and the Canadian government proceeded to seek appropriate legislation. English colonialists;,  Opposition arose from two quarters.  supported by the Conservative Party,  opposed the move on the grounds thatL. it. would threaten imperial unity.  On the other hand Quebec 'National!stis;', led by Henri  Bourassa, wanted protection against, the United States and against. English Canada:, so they too disliked the proposal. With these two issues combining against him, Laurier. went, down to defeat i n 1911.  It is uncertain, however, whether the  decisive factor was national feeling rebelling against reciprocity, or. colonialism and other antli-national forcesc.combining to thwartithe creation of a. -Canadian navy. r  The significant, development of autonomy in Canada 8. Said Laurier, on this issue, 'I do not. pretend to be an Imperialist, nor do I pretend to be an anti-lmperialisti. I am a Canadian, f i r s t , last, and a l l the time. I am a B r i t i s h subject, by birth, by tradition, by convict!on--by the conviction that, under B r i t i s h institutions my native; land has;.fiound a measure of security and freedom which i t could not have found under any other regime. " (Creighton, p. 425). 1  «96-  d u r l n g t h i s p e r i o d was relations.  i n the f i e l d  of intra-Commonwealth  In the C o l o n i a l Conference of 1897 t h e B r i t i s h  government, s t r e s s e d the need f o r i m p e r i a l u n i t y ,  particularly  i n the t h r e e fieldsr-.of commercial,  military  relations^  Commercial  p o l i t i c a l and  c o - o p e r a t i o n f a i l e d "because of free-  t r a d e i n England; p o l i t i c a l c o - o p e r a t i o n developed no f a r t h e r than the u n o f f i c i a l conferences u n t i l 1917; g r a d u a l l y became unacceptable.  and m i l i t a r y  unity  This^independent; a c t i o n contin*;  ued through the Conferences- of 1902 and 1907,  and i n 1909  the  B r i t i s h A d m i r a l t y a d v i s e d separate n a v i e s f o r ' t h e dominions:. But, as^ we'haves seen, t h i s l a t t e r move toward SR autonomy  was  r e j e c t e d i n Canada-; Canada a l s o developed her p r i v i l e g e  of making  separate commercial agreements d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d .  I n 1898 C  Canada? set, up a- J o i n t . H i g h Commission w i t h the United; S t a t e s t o s e t t l e s such q u e s t i o n s as the A t l a n t i c problems  and the Alaskan boundary  and P a o i f i c  dispute.  fisheries?  The-; commission  contained f o u r Canadians and one Newfound land err out. of the s i x members;: i n the: B r i t i s h d e l e g a t i o n .  B u t when Canadians  that B r i t a i n n e g l e c t e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s of the.Alaskan boundary  felt  i n the f i n a l settlement  d i s p u t e they experienced a s i g n i f i c a n t  impulse of canadianism, and d e s i r e d even more say i n matteras affecting  themselves.  In 1907  Canada completed  a  commercial  t r e a t y w i t h Prance, and i n t h i s case Canadian d e l e g a t e s c a r r i e d on a l l the n e g o t a t i o n s , a l t h o u g h B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s signed the-, agreement.  Again i n 1909 Canadarset up another J o i n t  High  Commission to n e g o t i a t e w i t h t h e - U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h i s time f o r a t a r i f f agreement.  AS we have seen, the work of this; body proved  -97-  i n e f f e c t i v e , ' f o r i t was: defeated  i n the e l e c t i o n of  N e v e r t h e l e s s i n a l l these negotiations- Canada was  1911.  developing  e x t e r n a l autonomy i n commercial r e l a t i o n s . The  other p r e s s i n g i s s u e of the L a u r i e r regime which  a f f e c t e d Canadian n a t i o n a l sentiment... was. the. South A f r i c a n War.-. The  war  was  advocated.  waged at a time when i m p e r i a l u n i t y was  being  E n g l i s h Canadians f e l t , they must support the  w i t h a l l t h e i r resources,  and L a u r i e r i n s i s t e d that F r e n c h  Canadians*.:must accept, the w i l l conflict also.  war  of t h e m a j o r i t y  Thus: i m p e r i a l i s m was  and  a i d i n the  a major f o r c e i n Canada at  t h i s time, "but L a u r i e r b e l i e v e d i t was  a l s o a precedent, f o r ;  independents Canadian a c t i o n i n time of  war.  'What! we have done,' s a i d L a u r i e r proudly i n the debates of 1900, 'we have done...in the p l e n i t u d e , i n the majesty of our c o l o n i a l l e g i s l a t i v e independence....! am f r e e t o say t h a t whilst.. I cannot admit that Canada should take p a r t i n a l l the wars of Great B r i t a i n , n e i t h e r am I prepared to say that, she should not take p a r t i i n any war at a l l . I am prepared to look upon each case upon i t s m e r i t s as; i t a r i s e s . . . . I c l a i m f o r Canada t h i s , t h a t i n f u t u r e , Canada s h a l l be at l i b e r t y t o act or not., t o a c t , t.o i n t e r f e r e or not. t o i n t e r f e r e , to do j u s t i as she. p l e a s e s , and. t h a t , she s h a l l r e s e r v e to h e r s e l f the r i g h t , t o judge whether or not there i s cause f o r her t o a c t . • S i r Robert Borden came i n t o power i n 1911, J.l bet s u m  and  ate  IS ftt«.<A  f f rst^oaomod t o t a k e ^ l i t t l o i n t e r e s t i n the development of OS  Sif  YfitftA  Canadian autonomy t h i s time was  A.Mtt-i*e«- h*A A  <Une .  Indeed the g e n e r a l  a t t i t u d e to Canada at  that i t was .merely a colony.  In 1913  a British  reviewer-noted t h a t , as regards the commercial t r e a t y w i t h France^, "the a c t i o n of Canada d i f f e r s i n k i n d h a r d l y from t h a t taken from time to time by 9. quoted i n Creighton,  op.  Crown  c i t . , p.  at a l l  Colonies;, under tifeei 402.  -98-  a u t h o r i t y from t h e . I m p e r i a l affecting themselves.  Government, i n matters s o l e l y  But a f t e r the s t a r t of the Great War  1,10  the new prime m i n i s t e r sdon r e v e a l e d h i m s e l f n a t i o n a l i s t as was h i s predecessor.  t o he as ardent a  Canada and the other  dominions made a worthy c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e war e f f o r t , and Borden f e l t policy. 1916  they merited  c o n s u l t a t i o n i n the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of  A f t e r the f o r m a t i o n  prospects  brightened.  of the L l o y d George m i n i s t r y i n  f o r more r e c o g n i t i o n of the.-Canadian war e f f o r t  I n 1917 L l o y d George c a l l e d an I m p e r i a l  at which importantt.developments took p l a c e . measure for. the p r o s e c u t i o n was  established.  Conference  As a temporary  of the war. an I m p e r i a l War Cabinet  L l o y d George and h i s a s s o c i a t e s regarded  this  body as a meeting of the l e a d e r s of autonomous states, on equsl terms.  " M i n i s t e r s from s i x n a t i o n s  s i t around t h e c o u n c i l  board, e l l of them r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e and  t o the peoples of the c o u n t r i e s which they  d e c l a r e d Borden. was  "We meet there as e q u a l s , " ^  a r e c o g n i t i o n of the r i g h t  parliaments  represent, he a s s e r t e d .  It  of the dominions t o a measure of  e x t e r n a l as w e l l as t o complete., i n t e r n a l autonomy.  The f i n a l  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l adjustment was t o be postponed, however, u n t i l 12 a f t e r the end of the War; S i r Robert soon found another s p l e n d i d opportunity t o f u r t h e r t h e cause of e x t e r n a l autonomy f o r Canada.  Canada had  10. Dawson, R. M., The development of dominion s t a t u s 1900 - 1936, London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937, p. 150. {!' rom The Round Table (Macmillan, London), Sept., 1913, pp. 596-600. 11. i b i d . , pp. 172 - 3. (The Round Table, June 1917, pp. 441 - 6, from a speech Borden d e l i v e r e d t o the Empire Parliamentary Association.). 12.  i b i d . , pp. 173 - 4. (House of Commons debates,May 17,1917)  -99-  played an important felt  p a r t i n s e c u r i n g the A l l i e d  victory,  t h a t she should have a p a r t i n c r e a t i n g the peace.  w i t h the whole of Canada behind him, which small powers such as Belgium  and Borden,  demanded the same v o i c e  exerted.  I n a telegram t o  L l o y d George the Canadian prime m i n i s t e r d e c l a r e d , There i s need f o r s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n as t o the^ r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Dominions i n the peace negotiations. The p r e s s and people of t h i s country take i t f o r granted t h a t Canada w i l l be represented at the Peace Conference....1 hope you w i l l keep i n mind that c e r t a i n l y a very u n f o r t u n a t e impression would be created and p o s s i b l y a dangerous f e e l i n g might be aroused i f these d i f f i c u l t i e s are not overcome by some s o l u t i o n which w i l l meet the n a t i o n a l s p i r i t of the Canadian people. Canada indeed secured the d e s i r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at the Peaces Conference. independent  She a l s o demanded and  secured r e c o g n i t i o n as an  member of. the/League of N a t i o n s , ^ w i t h the same  p r i v i l e g e s the other members enjoyed.  Thus by the end  second  Canada was,  decade of the Twentieth Century  an independent  of the  i n practice,  nation.  N a t i o n a l sentiments were a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , and had  i n c r e a s e d , as a r e s u l t  of Canada's r o l e i n the n fi  Great War.  Canada entered the war  prosecuted her war u n t i l 1917.  a u n i t e d n a t i o n , ° and  e f f o r t w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r n a l harmony  At. home the f e d e r a l government was  assuming powers  h i t h e r t o e x e r c i s e d only by the p r o v i n c e s , thus c r e a t i n g a 13.  ibid.,  p.  178.  14. Canada and the other dominions had e a r l i e r secured separate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n at the U n i v e r s a l P o s t a l Union Convent i o n (1906), the R a d i o t e l e g r a p h i c Union Convention (1912), and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Convention f o r the S a f e t y of Human L i v e s at Sea (1914). 15. The I m p e r i a l Government r e f r a i n e d from any i n t e r f e r ence i n Canadian a f f a i r s at t h i s time, t r e a t i n g her as an  -100-  n a t i o n a l atmosphere; and overseas the Canadian army won s e v e r a l important v i c t o r i e s ; — a t Ypres, Passchendaele, Vimy Ridge and other p l a c e s — w h i c h served t o r a i s e the n a t i o n ' s and  p r i d e at home.  prestige  abroad  I n 1917, however, the dominion government  found i t necessary t o i n s t i t u t e c o n s c r i p t i o n .  E n g l i s h Canada  was i n f a v o u r of the move, hut F r e n c h Canada opposed i t . The. veteran L i b e r a l l e a d e r ,  S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r , l e a d the- Quebec):  members, i n t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n ,  but. many E n g l i s h Canadian L i b e r a l s  broke w i t h him and j o i n e d the C o n s e r v a t i v e government. ensuing e l e c t i o n s Canada was d i v i d e d and war,  n a t i o n a l u n i t y , apparently was s e v e r e l y broken.  on a p u r e l y  so strong  I n the  r a c i a l basis>  at the a t a r t . of the  During 1917 a Canadian General S t a f f  was s e t up i n London, and a Canadian, A r t h u r C u r r i e , a B r i t i s h o f f i c e r i n command of the Canadian c o r p s .  1 6  succeeded But any  n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g r e s u l t i n g from these moves was more than counterbalanced by the n a t i o n a l d i s u n i t y r e s u l t i n g from the a l i e n a t i o n of the E n g l i s h and F r e n c h races i n Canada over the conscription  issue.  E a r l y i n 1919, when t h i s d i s u n i t y was at i t s heighest peak, the ardent n a t i o n a l i s t , S i r W i l f r e d L a u r i e r , d i e d . had  He  come i n t o power i n 1896, at a time when r a c i a l antagonism  was t h r e a t e n i n g  the u n i t y of the n a t i o n .  H i s e l e c t i o n at that  time had preserved the n a t i o n a l harmony, but now, when a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n had developed, he d i e d l e a v i n g no one t o take (note 15, cont.) independent n a t i o n i n s t e a d . This p o l i c y i n c r e a s e d Canada's n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . See Kennedy, W. P. M., The C o n s t i t u t i o n of Canada, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1937, p.363. 16. shipping  Canada a l s o secured t h e r i g h t t o f u l l c o n t r o l over her i n 1917. c f . Kennedy, S t a t u t e s , p. 695.  -101-  h i s place.  The p e r i o d between the two c r i s e s had seen a con-  s i d e r a b l e development, of Canadian sentiment, as: the result, b o t h of amazing i n t e r n a l development,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the west, and  of r a p i d progress i n the attainment of e x t e r n a l autonomy. it  i s probable t h a t the b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t on Canadian  awareness of these., advances  was  But  national  l a r g e l y o f f s e t , by the r a c i a l  d i s u n i t y of the c l o s i n g y e a r s of the. war. E n g l i s h Canadian poets and n o v e l i s t s were a c t i v e i n the f i r s t  two decades  of the century, and r e f l e c t e d i n many  cases the n a t i o n a l sentiment r e s u l t i n g from the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s we havecmentioned  i n the h i s t o r y of the country.  In some cases  t h e i r work i s q u i t e as n a t i o n a l as, i f not more so than, the work of Mair and o t h e r n a t i o n a l l y minded N i n e t e e n t h Century writers. as was  In other cases i t i s moderately Canadian i n f e e l i n g ,  the work of the Roberts-Carman group of poets.' On the;  whole, however, their, work suggests a~ s l i g h t l y more i n t e n s i v e a p p r e c i a t i o n of the n a t i o n - - a g r a d u a l development awareness—than Two  appeared  of such  i n p a r a l l e l N i n e t e e n t h Century types.  poets of t h i s p e r i o d , Robert J . C. Stead and  W i l l i a m Henry Drummond, produced work that i s p a r t i c u l a r l y Canadian i n f l a v o u r . Ontario, i n 1880, years l a t e r .  Robert J . Ol Stead was born i n M i d d l e v i l l e ,  but., moved w i t h h i s parents to Manitoba  From 1898 t o 1910  two  he worked as a newspaper  p u b l i s h e r i n Manitoba, but i n 1910 he moved to A l b e r t a where he e v e n t u a l l y became a p u b l i c i t y agent f o r the Canadian P a c i f i c ; Railway.  In 1919 he became D i r e c t o r of P u b l i c i t y i n the  Department of Immigration and C o l o n i z a t i o n at Ottawa.  Mr.  Stead has p u b l i s h e d two volumes of poetry, The E m p i r e B u i l d e r s :  -102-  in  1908 and K i t c h e n e r , and other poems i n 1917.  The l a t t e r i.  volume c o n t a i n s most of the poems i n the e a r l i e r , c o l l e c t i o n , 17  An a n a l y s i s of the t o p i c s which the poems i n t h e K i t c h e n e r volume d e a l w i t h r e v e a l s the r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of v a r i o u s 18 sentiments i n h i s work.  Of the 57 poems i n the volume^ 14  d e a l w i t h themes such as l o v e , l i f e and e t e r n i t y and c o n t a i n no n a t i o n a l , i m p e r i a l or l o c a l f e e l i n g s . number--deal w i t h war and peace. of are,  The next g r o u p — 1 5 i n  These suggest the i n f l u e n c e  the Great War, d u r i n g which the volume was p u b l i s h e d , but 19 i n g e n e r a l , not Canadian  i n sentiment.  Tihe t h i r d  group  c o n t a i n s 12 poems which are c o l o n i a l or i m p e r i a l i n f l a v o u r ; t h i s number--over o n e - f i f t h of the t o t a l i n the v o l u m e — suggests an i m p e r i a l impulse unsurpassed  i n Canadian p o e t r y .  Opposed t o these, however, are the remaining two g r o u p s — 1 0 poems which are r e g i o n a l i n scope, and thus suggest a Canadian atmosphere, and 6 which r e f l e c t n a t i o n a l Canadian  sentiments;  T h i s a n a l y s i s suggests that.. Stead f e l t h i s Canadian  nationality  s t r o n g l y , but at the same time r e t a i n e d s t r o n g i m p e r i a l f e e l i n g s , as d i d Canadian poets i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century.  He  a l s o r e f l e c t s the i n f l u e n c e of the Great War, but produced l i t t l e poetry w i t h a n a t i o n a l f l a v o u r r e s u l t i n g from i t . 20 P a r t i c u l a r l y n a t i o n a l in. f l a v o u r i s "The mixer",  which  concludes, 17. Stead, R v J . C , K i t c h e n e r and other poems, Toronto, Husson, 1917. 18. See Appendix II, Table. VII f o r an a n a l y s i s , of K i t c h e n e r . 19. c f . "We were men of the furrow", K i t c h e n e r , p. 12, which, i n c o n t r a s t , i s Canadian i n tone. 20. K i t c h e n e r , pp. 44 - 49.  -103-  In the c i t y , on the p r a i r i e , i n the f o r e s t , i n the camp, In the mountain-clouds of c o l o r , i n the fog-white river-damp, From A t l a n t i c t o P a c i f i c , from the Great Lakes t o the P o l e , l£ am mixing s t r a n g e i n g r e d i e n t s i n t o a common whole; E v e r y v hopes; s h a l l vtouiId--upohemeij every:;heart s h a l l he my own, The ambitions of my people s h a l l be mine, and mine alone; Not a s a c r i f i c e so g r e a t but they w i l l g l a d l y l a y i t down o When I t u r n them out C a n a d i a n s - - a l l but the y e l l o w and brown. — 11. 57 - 64. :  Q  21 Another  s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian  poem i s "The squad of one",  d e a l s w i t h the Mounted P o l i c e . in  the a b i l i t y  which  The poet takes a s i n c e r e pride;  of the Canadian government, t o m a i n t a i n law and  order on the p r a i r i e s . That, n i g h t i n the post s a t Sergeant Blue, w i t h paper and pen i n hand, And t h i s i s the word he wrote and signed, and mailed t o a f o r e i g n land; "To U. S. M a r s h a l l of County Blank, g r e e t i n g s I g i v e t o you; My squad has j u s t brought i n your man, and the squad was "Sergeant B l u e . " There are- t h i n g s unguessed, t h e r e are t a l e s u n t o l d , i n the l i f e of the great,.lone l a n d , But here i s a f a c t that. prairie»bred alone may understand, That a thousand m i l e s i n the fa-fitnesses, the f e a r of t h e law obtains, 2i And the p i o n e e r s of j u s t i c e were the "Riders of the P l a i n s . " — 11. 53 - 60. Mr. In  Stead has a l s o been a n o v e l i s t  of some  importance.  h i s best, known n o v e l , The Cow Puncher (1919), he p r e s e n t s a  c l e a r p i c t u r e of the Canadian west, but i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r a i r i e s as a granary f o r the Empire.  Nevertheless t h i s  sentiment was no more c o n t r a d i c t o r y t o Stead's Canadianism i n his  novels than i t was i n h i s p o e t r y .  As a Canadian  novelist  Mr.  Stead presented a f a i t h f u l p i c t u r e of p r a i r i e - l i f e .  He  concentrated on g i v i n g a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of one r e g i o n , and did  not t r y t o be n a t i o n a l ; he was d e a l i n g w i t h a l o c a l i t y and  t r y i n g t o i l l u s t r a t e l i f e as i't was a c t u a l l y l i v e d 21. i b i d . , pp. 105 - 109.  therein.  -104-  H i s novels  are p r a i r i e through, and through.  i n the wake of e a r l i e r novels  As such they f o l l o w  of t h i s p e r i o d which developed a  new k i n d of f i c t i o n i n Canada..  T h i s t r e n d can best be d i s c u s s e d  when we examine the works of Miss. L. M. Montgomery and Charles W. Gordon*  Stead, f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r path, w r i t e s f i c t i o n that  approaches the s p i r i t  of the Canadian people through a c l o s e  examination of the peoples of v a r i o u s p a r t s of the country. The  theory  i s t h a t i f a l l s e c t i o n s of the; country  are studied i n  t h i s way a t r u e p i c t u r e of the land w i l l r e s u l t from a group of novels  studied together.  community.  Most authors d e a l only with one  Thus Stead's novels  through the p r a i r i e community.  approach the Canadian scene Taken by themselves they seem  f a i r l y p r o v i n c i a l ; but a p r o v i n c i a l s p i r i t p l a c e i n them.  a c t u a l l y has no  They a r e p a r t of the trend towards a t r u e r  p i c t u r e of contemporary Canada i n the Canadian n o v e l .  This  t r e n d g r a d u a l l y developed a f e e l i n g f o r Canada i n f i c t i o n . Although The Cow Puncher i s g e n e r a l l y considered  the best of  Stead's novels, h i s other f i c t i o n ,  i n c l u d i n g Neighbours (1922),  The  (1927), a l l presente  smoking f l a x  (1924), and G r a i n  r e a l i s t i c p i c t u r e of l i f e  on the Canadian p r a i r i e s .  a  Robert  Stead was c e r t a i n l y a n a t i o n a l l y minded Canadian, proud of h i s country's  development i n the West-, proud of h e r independent,  status. W i l l i a m Henry Drummond  (1854 - 190 7) was born i n  County L e i t r i m , I r e l a n d , the son of an o f f i c e r i n the Royal I r i s h Constabulary, parents,  He came to Canada at an e a r l y age w i t h h i s  where h i s f a t h e r soon d i e d .  young W i l l i a m l e a r n e d telegraphy  As soon as he could work  t o ease the burden on h i s  -105-  mother, and i t was as a t e l e g r a p h operator a t ^ B o r d - a - P l o u f f e that he f i r s t  came i n t o contact w i t h F r e n c h Canadian l i f e .  He  s t u d i e d medicine at u n i v e r s i t y , and l a t e r became P r o f e s s o r of M e d i c a l J u r i s p r u d e n c e at  McGill.  Urummond's p o e t i c a l works appeared i n f o u r volumes 22 between 1897 and 1908.  The sentiments expressed i n each  group are f a i r l y  parallel,  to  c r o s s - s e c t i o n of the t o p i c s he d e a l s w i t h by  obtain a f a i r  a n a l y z i n g one group only. 23 Courteau  and f o r t h i s reason i t i s p o s s i b l e  Of the 34 poems i n the Johnnie  c o l l e c t i o n a l m o s t . h a l f — 1 5 i n number—deal with  p o e t i c t o p i c s such as l i f e ,  and l o v e ; bulj. i n c o n t r a s t w i t h  s i m i l a r types i n the works of most other poetB, d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n f l a v o u r .  Furthermore at  6' of these are least  7 other  poems t r e a t d i s t i n c t l y Canadian t o p i c s i n a n a t i o n a l way, and 3 i n a. r e g i o n a l way.  Thus of the 34 poems i n Johnnie Courteau  and other poems at l e a s t 16--almost Canadian note.  half—strike a distinctly  Of the. remaining poems 6 are l o c a l r a t h e r than  r e g i o n a l or Canadian i n tone, 2 are c o l o n i a l 1 N o r t h American.  (i.e.  I r i s h ) , and  The r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h of these v a r i o u s  i n f l u e n c e s i s approximately the same i n a l l of Drummond's volumes.  I t i s apparent, t h e r e f o r e , that Drummond, who was not  a n a t i v e born Canadian, has w r i t t e n work q u i t e as d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n f l a v o u r as that of any n a t i v e Canadian poet. 22. The h a b i t a n t and other French-Canadian poems. New York, Putnam, 1901 ( f i r s t e d i t i o n , 1895); Johnnie Courteau and other poems, New York, Putnam, 1905 ( f i r s t e d i t i o n , HJOl); The voyageur and other poems, New York, Putnam, 1905; The great f i g h t , poems and sketches, New York, Putnam, 1908. C o l l e c t e d poems, Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1926. 23. See Appendix  I I , T a b l e W I I , f o r an a n a l y s i s .  -106-  The main f e a t u r e of Drummond's work i s h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of F r e n c h Canadian l i f e .  I t i s t h i s , probably,  g i v e n him h i s strong n a t i o n a l consciousness.  t h a t has  I n many of the  poems d e s c r i p t i v e of F r e n c h Canadian l i f e and customs the attitude i s d i s t i n c t l y national. Don't seem so long Tak' honder d o l l a r Den look dat p l a c e Wall.' i f we have  we b u l l ' dat road, Chemin de P a c i f i q u e , pass/on dere, an' n e a r l y two t ' r e e week, i t f r e e z e so hard, on w'at, you c a l l Klon-dgk^, t o f i l l dem up, we got some l a r g e contrac'.' . — 1 1 . 21 - 24.  T h i s poem suggests the i n f l u e n c e of n a t i o n a l i s m r i s i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Canadian P a c i f i c e R a i l w a y , i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n the west.  out of  and the  Another example of Drummond's  25 n a t i o n a l sentiments i s "De n i c e l e e t l e Canadienne".  In this  case the f e e l i n g seems t o be based on p r i d e i n Canada as opposed t o other c o u n t r i e s , such as England and the U n i t e d S t a t e s , stemming, perhaps, from the remarkable advances i n e x t e r n a l autonomy made d u r i n g t h i s  period.  You  can pass on de w o r l ' w'erever you l a k , Tak' de steamboat f o r go A n g l e t e r r e , Tak' c a r on de S t a t e , an' den you come back An' go a l l de place., I don't c a r e — Ma f r i e n ' dat's a f a c k , I know you w i l l say, W'en you come on d i s contree again, Dere's no g i r l can touch, w ' a £ w e see ev'ryday, 5  De n i c e l e e t l e Canadienne. At times,  —11. 1 - 8 .  however, Drummond's F r e n c h Canadian poetry i s  r e g i o n a l or even l o c a l i n f l a v o u r .  The r e g i o n a l poems are  o f t e n Canadian i n f l a v o u r , but the l o c a l ones tend t o be provin24. Johnnie Courteau, pp. 77 - 80; C o l l e c t e d poems, pp. 187 - 190. 32;  25. The h a b i t a n t , pp. 34 - 36; C o l l e c t e d poems, pp. 30 CM.., v. 29, p. 570. August 190 7.  -10  7-  c i a l i n matters:..of n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t . q u i t e r a r e i n Drummond.  T h i s a t t i t u d e i s , however,  Hore common i s t h e r e g i o n a l i s m of such 26  poems as "The corduroy road". De corduroy road go bompety bomp, De corduroy road go jompety jomp, Ah he's t a k i n ' beeg chances upset hees lftgd De horse dat'11 t r o t on de corduroy road. —11.1-4. 1  6  Drummond a l s o s t r i k e s a d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l note i n poems which do not suggest F r e n c h Canadian a t t i t u d e s .  At times  he even a s s e r t s a conscious and very proud awareness of the: 27 Canadian n a t i o n .  A poem of t h i s type i s "Canadian f o r e v e r " ,  which suggests the a t t i t u d e of Canadians t o the Empire this period. And should e'er the Empire need us, S h e ' l l r e q u i r e no chains t o l e a d us, For we are Empire's c h i l d r e n , But Canadian over a l l . . . . For  during  — 1 1 . 33 - 36.  we are Canadian, Canadian f o r e v e r ,  37  Canadian f o r e v e r - - C a n a d i a n over a l l . * '  —chorus.  And, indeed, t h i s a s s e r t i o n was proven t o be t r u e i n 1914, when Canadians of a l l walks of l i f e w i l l i n g hearts.  Drummond  entered t h e war w i t h l o y a l and  r e f l e c t e d w e l l the growing  national  consciousness of Canadians. L e s s d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l on the whole-than .thetwroa?k •off'Stefedl^nd?©rummandt.iibntt.at  timesoai'stiin?Gt!ydCanadian^—is the  poetry of M a r j o r i e L. C. P i c k t h a l l  (1883 - 1922).  Born i n  London, England, Miss P i c k t h a l l came t o Canada w i t h h e r p a r e n t s when Bhe  wast-- seven y e a r s o l d .  She r e c e i v e d her e d u c a t i o n i n  Toronto, and l a t e r became l i b r a r i a n at V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e i n 26. Johnnie Courteau, pp. 7-12; C o l l e c t e d poems, pp. 125-31. 27. The voyageur, pp. 116-117; C o l l e c t e d poems, pp. 355-7.  -108T.oronto.  She was absent, from Canada from 1914  she was engaged i n war work i n England. first  appeared  (1922).  other poems  (1917)  of P i n i o n s  (1913),  and. The Y/oodcarver s Wife and 1  Her Complete poems appeared  a l s o wrote a novel, The B r i d g e short s t o r i e s , Angel's shoes  when  Host, of h e r poetry  i n t h r e e volumes, The D r i f t  The Lamp of Poor S o u l s  t o 1920,  (1921)  in  1927.  She  and a c o l l e c t i o n of  (1923).  Miss P i c k t h a l l was p r i m a r i l y a poet of nature, and  28 the m a j o r i t y of her work r e f l e c t s only a l o c a l  appreciation.  N e v e r t h e l e s s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of h e r poems do r e f l e c t a broader allegiance", at times c o l o n i a l , times n a t i o n a l . "Wiltshire",  at. times r e g i o n a l , a t  A'group of nature poems i n c l u d i n g  "Apples",  "Kerry", "The o l d harper", "For a l l p r i s o n e r s and  29 captives.", "Summer c a s u a l t y l i s t " , and "When i t i s f i n i s h e d " ' are d e f i n i t e l y c o l o n i a l i n atmosphere. Other p o e m s — n a t u r e poems again--are r e g i o n a l i n scope. I n t h i s group a r e "The tree",  "Forest-born", "Three i s l a n d song",  "The r o v e r " , and  30 "November".  But some of h e r poems s t r i k e a d i s t i n c t l y  Canadian or n a t i o n a l note.  Her treatment  of nature i n "Canada's  31 Century"  i s s i n c e r e l y n a t i o n a l i n outlook.  28. "The woodcarver's w i f e " i s widely regarded as d i s t i n c - * t l y Canadian; but t h e r e seems t o be no n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n i t at a l l ; i t i s a l s o d o u b t f u l whether or not i t r e p r e s e n t s Quebeci 29. c f . The complete poems of M a r j o r i e P i c k t h a l l . M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1927, pp. 66, 67, 74, 75, 192, 195, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 30.  ibid.,  pp. 34,  39,  41,  68,  164,  respectively.  Toronto, 193,  -109-  Out of the north, 0 Lord, Out of the n o r t h we have come at Thy word; The f o r e s t s have heard, Yea, the- t a l l cedars have heard, and they bow; The p l a i n s have r e j o i c e d at the wound of the plow, They^have laughed, they have laughed at the kiss, of the r a i n In the b o u n t i f u l beauty of g r a i n ; The waters have sung of the s h i p s t o be. We are come, a people new-risen, and f r e e 32. As our wide deep r i v e r s t h a t run from the snows t o the sea. --11. 1 - 10. A l s o Canadian  i n outlook are h i s t o r i c a l treatments such as 32  "Two Souls", Pere Lalement",  and Chanson de .la Tour".  At  :  times, a l s o , her p o e t r y i s e x p r e s s i v e of hope i n the n a t i o n a l 33 d e s t i n y of Canada, as i n "Star of the North". Dark i s the wat-ch-fire, sheathed the a n c i e n t sword, But sons must f o l l o w where t h e i r sires£;have- l e d , To the anointed end, 0 Lord, Where march the mighty dead. E i r m stands the r e d f l a g b a t t l e - b l o w n , And we w i l l guard our own, Our Canada, Prom snow t o sea, „„ One hope, one home, one s h i n i n g d e s t i n y . ^ — 1 1 . 19-27, Thus although much of her poetry i s q u i t e l o c a l i n c h a r a c t e r - as nature poetry must be--and some of i t expresses a c o l o n i a l sentiment., Miss P i c k t h a l l achieved at times a thoroughly Canadian—even  a n a t i o n a l - - n o t e i n her work.  Much l e s s Canadian i n atmosphere i s ^ t h e work of T. R. E. Maclnnes.  The son of the Honorable T..R. Mclnnes,  f o r and l a t e r l i e u ^ n t - g o v e r n o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, born at Dresden,  O n t a r i o i n 1867.  senator Tom was  He was c a l l e d t o the b a r i n  Ontario i n 1893, and a f t e r 1896 served on v a r i o u s government commissions i n Western Canada.  He l a t e r l i v e d f o r a w h i l e i n  China, and then s e t t l e d i n Vancouver.  He has p u b l i s h e d i n a l l  32.. i b i d . , pp. 19, 21, 23 r e s p e c t i v e l y .  33. i b i d . , p. 14.  -110.  six  volumes of poetry, of -which, the f i r s t ,  Lonesome Bar and  other poems (1909), i s the most d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l i n f l a v o u r . Of the 24 poems i n t h i s volume, 16 d e a l w i t h p o e t i c , themes such 35 as l i f e and e t e r n i t y , and are i n no way  Canadian.  remainder, 2 are d i s t i n c t l y n a t i o n a l i n f l a v o u r , imperial,  Of t h e 2 are l o c a l ,  2 36  and 2 — i n c l u d i n g the long t i t l e poem, "Lonesome B a r " —  N o r t h American.  Of these l a t t e r 6 poems 4'. are i n some way  Canadian i n outlook.  Thus of the 24 poems i n the c o l l e c t i o n  only 6 are suggestivev.. of Canada-; and t h i s i s c e r t a i n l y the most Canadian i n flavour, of a l l h i s volumes. "Lonesome B a r " of  3 6  itself  r e f l e c t s p r i m a r i l y the s p i r i t  the New World, hut i s i n p l a c e s d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n atmo-  sphere;  I t suggests the n a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e of the Yukon g o l d  rush, part, of the l u r e of the. New  West! i n Canada,  Out of the N o r t h t h e r e rang a cry of Gold.' And a l l the-• spacious r e g i o n s of the West! Prom rugged Caribou t o where the c r e s t Of Mexican S i e r r a s mark the o l d F r a n c i s c a n f r o n t i e r s , caught the regaId soundJ, And echo'd and re-echo'd i t , t i l l round The eager World the rumor of i t : r o l l ' d : How E l d o r a d o once a g a i n was found Where s t r e t c h Canadian p l a i n s , f o r l o r n and rude Hard upon the iron-temper'-d A r c t i c s o l i t u d e . — 11. 1 - 10. Although much of Maclnnes*"poetry i n d i c a t e s a Western a t t i t u d e , some of i t suggests a f e e l i n g , f o r O n t a r i o .  T y p i c a l of s/uch 37  f e e l i n g , i s the d e l i g h t f u l l y r i c  "Idlewild",  which i s  d e f i n i t e l y Canadian i n tone. 34. H i s other volumes are I n Amber Lands, 1910; The rhymes of a rounder, 1913; The f o o l of j o y , 1918; Complete: poems, 1923:; and High Low Along, 1934.. 1  3J?; See Appendix I I , T a b l e 1^ f o r an analysis-. 36: Complete poems, Toronto, Ryerson, 1923;, pp. 81 - 99. 37. i b i d . , pp. 37 - 39.  -111-  Ah, now i n the land of the Maple, In t h i s midmost Autumn time, The mellow, waning, yellow, I n d i a n summer time, D i s c o n s o l a t e I roam A f a r w i t h i n the a i s l e d , Olden, silent'., golden F o r e s t of I d l e w i l d , — F o r e s t , of l o n e l y memories: o n l y , — S i l e n t , and g o l d e n - a i s l e d . .Thus T'.omr>Ma-'GiEnn.e.sy l i k e Miss. P i c k t h a l l , Canadian a t t i t u d e i n h i s poetry,  — 1 1 . 38 - 47.  0r  r e f l e c t s at times a  b u t d o e s not,  i n general,  produce work that i s as n a t i o n a l i n tone as t h a t of Stead and Drummond. Even l e s s Canadian i s the work of Robert W. Service': Born i n L a n c a s h i r e ,  England, i n 1876,  and educated a t the  U n i v e r s i t y of Glasgow, S e r v i c e came t o Canada i n 1905.  He.  worked f o r the Canadian Bank of Commerce a t various branches i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon u n t i l the outbreak of the Great. C6A.seA be Lot in C  War.  A f t e r the war h e a o t t l o d A  s e v e r a l volumes of poetry  a  .  i n tho U n i t o d  S t a t e s . - Among h i s  two, The s p e l l of the Yukon and  Rhymes of a R o l l i n g Stone, provide- the b a s i s f o r an i n t e r e s t i n g Comparison.  The f i r s t  of these volumes appeared i n 1907, two  years a f t e r S e r v i c e came t o Canada. The predominantviinfIttenc-eo: i s t h a t of the New World, which forms the b a s i s f o r a t l e a s t 7 38 of the 34 poems i n the group. and  Of t h e other poems 4 a r e l o c a l  1 i s c o l o n i a l i n sentiment, and""the remainder d e a l  p o e t i c themes such as l o v e , l i f e and e t e r n i t y .  with  None of the  poems a r e d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n tone, but "The rhyme of the 39 remittance man" suggests the way i n which the i n f l u e n c e of 38. See Appendix I I , Table X, f o r an a n a l y s i s of The s p e l l of the Yukon. •• • • (  39.  Complete poems, Nev; York, Dodd, Mead and Co., 1940,p.46.  -112-  the New  World slowly emerges i n  immigrants.  While the t r o u t leaps i n the r i v e r , and the b l u e grouse t h r i l l s the cover, And the f r o z e n snow b e t r a y s the panther's t r a c k , And the r o b i n g r e e t s the d a y s p r i n g w i t h the r a p t u r e of a l o v e r , I am happy, and I ' l l nevermore go back, F o r I know I'd j u s t be l o n g i n g f o r the l i t t l e o l d l o g cabin, With the morning-glory c l i n g i n g t o the door, T i l l I l o a t h e d the-.-: c i t y p l a c e s , cursed the care. on a l l the faces, Turned my back on l a z a r London evermore. — 1 1 . 25 - 32. 9  In t h e l a t e r and  very r e p r e s e n t a t i v e volume, Rhymes 40  of  a R o l l i n g " Stone, S e r v i c e ' s a t t i t u d e s change somewhat.  In  .  In t h i s volume only 9 poemst" oucfe of ?:50cr.eflect; the* spiri.t£of ethe New  World, r e l a t i v e l y a s m a l l e r number than the 7 out of 34 i n  the e a r l i e r c o l l e c t i o n . r e g i o n a l i n scope,  But i n t h i s volume 11 poems are  and although they are never n a t i o n a l i n  f l a v o u r , they do suggest. Canada- as the country i n which they were w r i t t e n .  Thus there: i s a g r a d u a l weakening of pioneer-  a t t i t u d e s and  a,- s t r e n g t h e n i n g of Canadian ones i n h i s work as  the.- poet g r a d u a l l y becomes accustomed to the land of h i s adoption.  N e v e r t h e l e s s t h i s f e e l i n g never becomes n a t i o n a l i n  Servicer* In Muskrat.Land dim streams d i v i d e The tundras b e l t e d by the sky. How sweet i n s l i m canoe to g l i d e , And dream, and l e t the world go by.' B u i l d gay camp-fires on greening strand.' In Muskrat Land, i n Muskrat L a n d . —11, 4 1  But. b e f o r e these sentiments for  the war,  43."-  48.  could develop f u r t h e r S e r v i c e l e f t  never to r e t u r n and make Canada h i s home again.  H i s poetry i s i n t e r e s t i n g from a n a t i o n a l p o i n t of view, however, of  40. See Appendix I I , Taible XI, f Or-an a n a l y s i s of Rhymes':' a R o l l i n g Stone. 41.  "Sunshine",  Complete poems, pp. 178 -  185'.  -113-  i n that i t shows how  the- i n f l u e n c e of the New  V/est a f f e c t e d  immigrants t o Canada and awakened a Canadian s p i r i t In  a d d i t i o n t o these poets, who  tant, ones t o r e f l e c t a Canadian f e e l i n g  i n them.  are-, the most impor-  i n . the f i r s t : two  decades  of  the T w e n t i e t h Century, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o examine the work  of  some poets who  the  f e l t - a Canadian awareness  n a t i o n ' s p a r t i n the Great War  as the r e s u l t of  of 1914 - 1918.  Most war  poetry d e a l t w i t h themes such as l i f e , l o v e , e t e r n i t y and war.— as such work u s u a l l y d o e s — h u t some of i t r e f l e c t s ^ a  national  spirit.  As we have seen, Canada played an important, part i n  the  and as a r e s u l t many of her c i t i z e n s f e l t  war;  a l pride.  a new  nation-  A poet who w e l l r e f l e c t s such sentiments i s E s t h e r  Kerry, whose, other work i s l a r g e l y  colonial; in particular  42 "He i s a Canadian"  suggests: a nationa.1 i n s p i r a t i o n .  He i s a Canadian^-I wonder has he stood In some t h i c k f o r e s t , on a mountain slope.-, S i l e n t beneath a p i n e . And l o o k i n g out a c r o s s a v a l l e y seen Nothing but b r i s t l i n g t r e e trunks f a r below And storm-scarred grey mountains Whose snow caps R i s e to a sun-swept b l u e . He i s a C a n a d i a n — I wonder has he stood On some s t i l l morning by a t i n y l a k e And watched the water r i p p l e on the beach,-One' l i t t l e c l e a r i n g In the mighty woods*And knows that he i s f i r s t t o breath©- t h a t a i r Not weighted by a thousand l i v e s and thoughts, But r a r e and pure A b r e a t h i n g s t r a i g h t from God. Oh, Canada, of b i g n e s s , beauty, s t r e n g t h , Whom we thy c h i l d r e n know as ne'er b e f o r e In e x i l e ' s r e t r o s p e c t of g l o r i o u s hours, We l o v e thee w i t h a l o v e we never f e l t , t i l l  0;B.,  now,  42. L i g h t h a l l , W. D., "Canadian poets of the Great v. 1, A p r i l 1919, pp. 19 - 20.  War",  -114-  AAlove not. a l l our own, a h e r i t a g e Prom those, who tio thy shore; no more= r e t u r n . Their, l o v e of thee, unconscious, pent, Which drove them f o r t h , they knew not why And urged them on A l l g l a d f o r thee t o d i e . In t h i s g r e a t l o v e may we be consecrate And made a n a t i o n new, Strong as thy mountains, Generous- as thy p l a i n s , Pure as thy wintersv And w i t h depths unknown As a l l thy f ores.t. l a k e s - S t i l l pools of peace. A&second poet who r e v e a l s a t times a n a t i o n a l impulse r e s u l t i n g fromr.the Great, War i s Helena Coleman.  I n p a r t i c u l a r "Autumn--  43 1917"  i s significant f o r its: national flavour. Arecthereeyoung hearts;, i n P r a n c e - r e c a l l i n g These d r e a m - f i l l e d , b l u e .Canadian days, When g o l d and s c a r l e t flames., are f a l l i n g Prom beech and maple s e t ablaze? P l u c k they a g a i n the p a l e w i l d a s t e r The.bending plume of golden-rod? And do t h e i r e x i l e d h e a r t s beat f a s t e r .„ Roaming i n thought t h e i r n a t i v e sod?  These two poems and a--few others- suggest! a s i n c e r e i n s p i r e d by the Great.Waru  --11. 1 - 8. Canadianism  They i n d i c a t e , as does the h i s t o r y  of the times, that.one of the s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s i n the development of Canadianism i n t h i s p e r i o d was the War. Many minor poets p u b l i s h e d o c c a s i o n a l verse i n p e r i o d i c a l s during t h i s period.  Mosti,of t h e i r work i n d i c a t e s a  s u p e r f i c i a l Canadian sentiment-.-a n a t i o n a l i s m i n s p i r e d only s p o r a d i c a l l y by momentary p r i d e i n the new n a t i o n .  These poems  were u s u a l l y w r i t t e n f o r some o c c a s i o n t h a t arouses p r i d e i n C a n a d a — o f t e n Dominion Day i t s e l f .  One poem i n t h i s  group  which r e v e a l s a n a t i o n a l sentiment much s t r o n g e r than that. 43. i b i d . , p. 19.  .115.  u s u a l l y evident i n t h i s p e r i o d i s "A Canadian Qlympjionikos , n  w r i t t e n e a r l y i n the century.  I t reads i n p a r t ,  "I am a brakeman on the Grand Trunk l i n e . And f o r a l i v e l i h o o d shunt c a r s upon I n f e r i o r tracks* t o depots semi-proximate. Gar© f i l l e d w i t h s a r d i n e s r a n d molasses, dry goods and. implements .. Employed "by a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n o c c i d e n t a l p a r t s . * — 11. 37 - 41. T h i s i s perhaps the b e s t of a score of poems which I n d i c a t e a Canadian above.  spirit—most T a b l e III,  o f t e n i n the s u p e r f i c i a l manner, mentioned  on page 116,  work i n the p e r i o d from 1900 ...........  to  summarizes a c t i v i t y i n t h i s 1920.  (see T a b l e III)  E n g l i s h Canadian poetry does r e f l e c t , t h e r e f o r e , amazing n a t i o n a l progress and the g r a d u a l growth of during t h i s period.  the  Canadianism  Some poets are-more s t r o n g l y n a t i o n a l than  others,, and some are only s l i g h t l y Canadian  i n a t t i t u d e , but  on  the whole t h e i r work suggests a g r a d u a l development i n n a t i o n a l awareness from the weaker and l e s s widespread  sentiments  evident i n the p o e t r y of t h e i r N i n e t e e n t h Century p r e d e c e s s o r s . T h i s i s t r u e i n almost every case.  Stead and Drummond, who  are  the most n a t i o n a l poets of the p e r i o d , have w r i t t e n work which c o n t a i n s r e l a t i v e l y more n a t i o n a l l y i n s p i r e d p i e c e s than d i d Mair, M'Lachlan  and Miss Crawford, who  tude among the e a r l i e r p o e t s .  represented t h i s  Similarly  atti-  Miss P i c k t h a l l and  Tom  Maclnnes have w r i t t e n r e l a t i v e l y more poems r e f l e c t i v e of Canadian awareness than d i d poets of the Hoberts-Carman School, who  were moderately n a t i o n a l poets of the preceding, p e r i o d .  44. Mann, A. K.,  CH.,  v. 27, pp. 203 - 205, J u l y  1906.  NAEIONAL FEELING: in ENGLISH CANADIAN PERIODICAL POETRY, 1900 - 1920 Author  Poem  Aikins, C C C . Blake, R. Bowman, L.M. Bray, H, Dale, J-.A'."/ Gilzean-Reid Gordon, Al  Source-.  "Manitoba" "Alberta" . . C'. M." "British Columbia" . . . C. Mi "The Coronation" "England" • *0^JEL obscurer. p o e t "A' trip tto London'"' .. • CCBTi "To the maple-leaf". "Ode for Dominion Day, 1917" "A C&nadian spring . ..CCBB, song" "At the grave; of Mui r"C.M." "0 Canada" ..OCIK "Canada*' . .cTl; "AA Canadian Olympionikos" "The Can. abroad" . .CSM." "Canadian wind as" ..(KM-; "What's a man?" , •. C BS "Prom Kobe to Canada ".cTl.' "To Canada" 1  45  Kerry, Esther McOready, jJJEffi Macdonald, E.RS Manks, H.L. Mann, A .K.  • ft  A  Morae, W.J. Phelps, A.LI Wharton-Stork, C Wicher, 3BJA1. Yeoman, E.M:  • «  * •  y. v. v. v. v.  Sentiment  3:7, 37, 38, 37, 45,  p. 3;72, Aug. 1911 each one local, p. 508, Oct. 1911 . . .but. Canadian p. 41, Nov; 1911 as a whole. pp. 220-1, July 1911 ...imperialism. p, 8, May 1915) ...imperialism. ...imperialism. ...Canadianism. v. 1, Oct.. 1919, p. 35: . . . by a t ouri st. v. 26, p. 32, .Nov. 1905 v. 49, pp. 237-8, July 1917 ..,colonialism. .'.. colonialism.  v. 1, April 1919, p. Brv. v. v» v.  28, 41, 17, 27,  p. 46, March 1907 p. 233., July 1913 p. 177, June 1901 pp. 203-5, July 1906  v. 29, p. 509, Oct. 1907  v. 50, p. 117, De:cci 1917  v. 1, July 1919, p. 58 v. 23, p. 171, June 1904 v. 34, p. 514, April 1910  ;  -...Canadianism. ...surface nat. ...Canadianism. ...Canadianism. . . . Canadian!sm. . . , surface nat. ...Canadianism. ...Canadianism. ,..surface nat.  45. ef. Blackburn, G . , "The poems of Horace..Bray, C^B?., v* 1, July 1919, pp. 9 - 12*  -117-  But i n s p i t e of t h i s g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e some poets, such as Service, reveal l i t t l e  or no n a t i o n a l awareness i n t h e i r work,  and i n c i d e n t a l verse remains  s u p e r f i c i a l and s p o r a d i c .  Never-  t h e l e s s the poetry of the p e r i o d r e v e a l s a g r a d u a l strengtheni n g of p r o - n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g s i n Canada. The E n g l i s h Canadian n o v e l p r e s e n t s - a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n i n the f i r s t - p a r t o f  the T w e n t i e t h Century.  The work  was f r e q u e n t l y r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than- n a t i o n a l i n f l a v o u r , "but suggests a s i n c e r e r e f l e c t i o n of a slowly d e v e l o p i n g Canadianism.  A new t r e n d "begins i n Canadian f i c t i o n i n the T w e n t i e t h  Century.  The only important f i c t i o n i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century  had: been the h i s t o r i c a l romance, which had f l o u r i s h e d modically.  spas-  T h i s had r e v e a l e d an i n t e r e s t i n the h i s t o r y of  Canada; but o f t e n the d e s i r e t o p a i n t t h i s h i s t o r y as Canadian (or, as B r i t i s h ) had marred the attempt.  The n o v e l s — e x c e p t ,  f o r one or two--had o f f e r e d only a momentary a t t r a c t i o n .  They  d i d not p i c t u r e the country as i t was e i t h e r i n t h e i r own times or i n the times d e s c r i b e d .  Indeed  come i n t o being b e f o r e 1900. immediately  Canadian f i c t i o n had h a r d l y  However a new t r e n d developed  a f t e r the t u r n of the century--a t t e n d which has  l e a d t o the c r e a t i o n of an important and bulky Canadian  fiction.  The new n o v e l i s t s d e a l t w i t h the Canada which they knew, not w i t h a romantic p a s t .  They t r i e d t o pictures  s o c i e t y as i t r e a l l y was.  contemporary  To do t h i s they l i m i t e d t h e i r  t o some community which they knew i n t i m a t e l y .  field  Their novels d i d  not r e f l e c t a n a t i o n a l impulse as the h i s t o r i c a l romance had done; but the impulse behind them was not a r t i f i c i a l . Canadianism  Most  evident i n N i n e t e e n t h Century work was s u p e r f i c i a l ;  -118-  the new  l o c a l i s m was  quite sincere.  Furthermore  some of these  writers.', d e a l w i t h more than one r e g i o n of the country, and  thus  present a Canadian p i c t u r e when t h e i r work i s viewed as a whole. Thus although i n d i v i d u a l novels are q u i t e l o c a l i n c h a r a c t e r , a c o l l e c t i o n of them may  be n a t i o n a l i n tone.  As t h i s movement  i n f i c t i o n became s t r o n g e r and  s t r o n g e r a f e e l i n g f o r Canada as  a n a t i o n g r a d u a l l y developed.  The  Canada they knew, and  i f any  n o v e l i s t s now  p a i n t e d the  v i t a l n a t i o n a l awareness were'-  p r e s e n t i n t h e i r work they should r e f l e c t - i t more f a i t h f u l l y than could a h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l , which reads l a t e r f e e l i n g s  into  e a r l i e r s i t u a t i o n s where they have no p l a c e . The p i o n e e r work i n t h i s f i e l d was Y/here the Sugar |  Maple G r o w s sense  46  by A. M. Teskey.  Hardly a n o v e l i n the  strictest  of the term, i t i s r a t h e r a s e r i e s of p i c t u r e s of l i f e i n  a Canadian community bound t o g e t h e r by the c e n t r a l f i g u r e - of the author, and the c e n t r a l s e t t i n g of the v i l l a g e . title  As the sub-  suggests, i t a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t s " I d y l l s of a Canadian  village."  T h i s book does not. p i c t u r e Canada as a whole, or.a  v i t a l Canadian s e n t i m e n t — i t does not p r o f e s s t o do so.  The  author i s i n t e r e s t e d only i n the one l o c a l i t y , and the country as a- whole i s only c o n s i d e r e d once i n the n o v e l .  However t h i s  i n c i d e n t a l r e f e r e n c e i n d i c a t e s an awareness of the n a t i o n that i s h e a l t h i e r and more enduring than the s u p e r f i c i a l Canadian s e n t i m e n t f o s t e r e d by e a r l i e r w r i t e r s . to  show how  tries  Canadian he i s seldom convinces the reader, and  indicates l i t t l e  46.  A n o v e l i s t * who  of the sentiment  Toronto, Musson, 1901,  he  p r e v a l e n t i n the country at  q u o t a t i o n pp.  9 - 10,  -119-  the time.  A n o v e l i s p r i m a r i l y a work of a r t , and  i f i t i s to  be of use as an i n d i c a t i o n of the extent t o which Canadian f e e l ing i s p r e v a l e n t at the time any n a t i o n a l impulse should be unconscious.  evident i n it  It,seems to be i n t h i s novel, f o r the-,  f o l l o w i n g passage c o n t a i n s the only r e f e r e n c e to Canada present in i t . I always came back, a f t e r j o u r n e y i n g s i n other lands among s t r a n g e r s and f o r e i g n e r s , t o my summer home: i n law-abiding Canada, where r i g h t e o u s n e s s seemed to have the upper.hand, as t o a Sabbath r e s t . I returned w i t h the r e g u l a r i t y of the r o b i n and the b l u e - b i r d , and w i t h the same f e e l i n g of coming home which they manifest by b u i l d i n g t h e i r nest, and r a i s i n g t h e i r f l e d g l i n g s i n the bosom of "Our Lady of the Sunshine." Mapleton, s i t u a t e d i n the f a i r e s t p a r t of the r i c h p r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o , was a t y p i c a l Canadian villager* Walking through our q u i e t s t r e e t s v y o u might hear the r i c h I r i s h brogue, the broad S c o t c h b u r r , the deep German g u t t e r a l , or the sharp n a s a l twang of the "American", a a we c a l l our neighbours of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . And w h i l e a b e a u t i f u l l y kept lawn of mossy greeness and v e l v e t smoothness environed our home, the next was i n a s e t t i n g of Canada t h i s t l e s or burd o c k s — o r mayhap a " p r a t i e - p a t c h " ' i f the owner was an Irishman. T a l l sugar-maples stood here and there on e i t h e r s i d e of the s t r e e t , and d u r i n g the short f e r v i d Canadian summer threw t h e i r g r a t e f u l shade a l i k e over v e l v e t lawn and " p r a t i e patch", donning i n autumn a d r e s s of r u s s e t , crimson and g o l d of t h a t i n d e s c r i b a b l e splendour which makes our maples the wonder and a d m i r a t i o n of the world. A c a n a l ran through the h e a r t of the v i l l a g e connecting two of the.;great, l a k e s , and across one corner meandered the r i v e r , c a l l e d by the l e s s a m b i t i o u s — m u c h t o the d i s g u s t of the r i s i n g g e n e r a t i o n — " t h e . c r e e k . 1 , 4 6  The year 1908 novel.  i s a significant  In i t t h r e e important  novels appeared, a l l f o l l o w i n g i n  the wake of Miss A. M. Teskey's book. these was  one f o r the Canadian  The most.important  L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables.  of  A l l of Miss  -120-  Montgomery's work belongs, t o the same type of f i c t i o n ,  and  can  47 Mioo.Montgomory WOP-  t h e r e f o r e best be d i s c u s s e d as a whole.  widoubftodly the moot.important E n g l i s h Canadian n o v o l i o t i n t h i s por-iod.  Instead of d e a l i n g w i t h h i s t o r i c a l t o p i c s  drew a p i c t u r e of contemporary l i f e - .  She  s e t s her novels:-; i n  Prince.Edwardo I s l a n d or O n t a r i o communities, and no wider f e e l i n g s .  indicates,  Her work i s n e i t h e r s i n c e r e l y nor  artifici-  a l l y n a t i o n a l , but does present a l o c a l i s m t h a t i s not provincial.  Thus::her work r e p r e s e n t s an important  -the road towards the appearance of Canadianism S i n c e r i t y i s the prime requirement ment of a Canadian l i t e r a t u r e . new  Canadian novel i s mainly  in fiction. develop-  i n t e r e s t of r e a l i t y i n the  c h a r a c t e r i n t e r e s t , heightened  concentrated r e g i o n a l s e t t i n g ; and not f a r . behind 48 • i n t e r e s t , of i n c i d e n t .  narrowly  advance on  necessary f o r the  "The  she  by  i s the  Thus Miss-Montgomery p r e s e n t s a  m i r r o r of Canadian country l i f e - - s h e p r e s e n t s good  nature  s t u d i e s of P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and O n t a r i o ^ — b u t her work 4  remains r e g i o n a l and l o c a l r a t h e r : t h a n The  second  important  Canadian.  n o v e l i s t i s the 1908  trio-was  Marian K e i t h , v;ho p u b l i s h e d her Duncan P o l i t e - . i n t h a t .year. L i k e Miss Montgomery she a l s o has w r i t t e n many novels- w i t h a strictly  l o c a l f l a v o u r , d e a l i n g w i t h the l o c a l f e e l i n g i n a  thoroughly s i n c e r e manner. Butcher novels do have a broader 47. Among her many other novels C h r o n i c l e s of Avonlea, Anne of the; I s l a n d , and Anne's House- of Dreams are well-known. The 'Emily' s e r i e s began i n 1923 w i t h Emily of New House. 48. Weber, E., "L. M. Montgomery's "Anne"", D.R., v. 24, p. 65, A p r i l 1944. 49. c f . Logan and French,  p.  298.  -121-  scope than do Miss Montgomery's; i n s t e a d of d e a l i n g w i t h only one s m a l l l o c a l i t y they present a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of O n t a r i o 50 rural l i f e .  Thus h e r work  i s "a f a i t h f u l p i c t u r e of the  s o c i a l and r e l i g i o u s - - l i f e of a c e r t a i n type of r u r a l Canadian . 51 settlement, and Canadian town." The t h i r d  n o v e l i s t i n the 1908 group was N e l l i e L.  McClung, who published. Sowing Seeds i n Danny i n t h a t y e a r .  Mrs.  52 McClung has w r i t t e n many Canadian novels the l o c a l or p r o v i n c i a l type.  and short s t o r i e s  of  Her work p r e s e n t s a c a r e f u l l y  drawn p i c t u r e of v a r i o u s communities i n E a s t e r n Canada^  Her  work i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t of Miss Montgomery and Marian K e i t h , w i t h much l o c a l c o l o u r but. no f e e l i n g for. Canada as a c o u n t r y no n a t i o n a l consciousness  or s p i r i t  of the l a n d .  Charles W i l l i a m Gordon (Ralph Conner) ranks- second only t o L. M. Montgomery as the major n o v e l i s t  of t h i s p e r i o d .  H i s work a l s o r e f l e c t s r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than n a t i o n a l although he d e a l s w i t h s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t r e g i o n s . cover a l l walks of Canadian l i f e , topics. or  local.  sentiment,  H i s novels  and even go abroad f o r t h e i r  But none of them are n a t i o n a l - - t h e y a r e a l l r e g i o n a l S o m e — p a r t i c u l a r l y those s e t i n Western C a n a d a — a r e  o b v i o u s l y designed t o c a t c h the glamorous aspects of Canadian life  t o p l e a s e a f o r e i g n market.  Such novels do not r e f l e c t  any n a t i o n a l f l a v o u r , f o r they could e a s i l y have been w r i t t e n 50. Among herrmany other'-books SI 'Maple, Treasure-; V a l l e y and . L i z b e t h of the Dale are.'well-known, 51. Logan and French, p. 303.. 52. Among h e r other novels are The second chance and P u r p l e springs-. "  -122-  by Americans or Englishmen  who have.: never  one* such work a reviewer notes,  seen t h e country.  Of  " I t s s o l e c l a i m t o Canadianism  had been due t o i t s . e f f o r t s ^ t o present, by American technique, a superficial  " l o c a l c o l o u r " supposed t o be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , of 53  some s m a l l s e c t i o n of the vast t e r r i t o r y Mr,  Gordon has'probably  group,  5 4  of the Dominion,"  done h i s best work i n the 'Glengarry'  a l t h o u g h h i s e a r l i e r n o v e l B l a c k Rock; a t a l e of the-  se l k i r k s , i s widely p r a i s e d .  I n these novels he  approximates  the e x c e l l e n t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c e r t a i n aspects-.,of  Canadian  1  l i f e - f o u n d i n Miss Montgomery's work. One of the moref promising n o v e l i s t s of t h i s p e r i o d was. Arthur. S t r i n g e r the s p i r i t trilogy.  (b. 1874). A n a t i v e Canadian,  of the Canadian  he captured  p r a i r i e s i n h i s famous p r a i r i e  I n 1916 he wrote. The P r a i r i e Wife.; t h r e e y e a r s  he p u b l i s h e d The P r a i r i e Mother; and two y e a r s 1921— The P r a i r i e C h i l d appeared..  later  later--in  These t h r e e novels present  an e x c e l l e n t r e a l i s t i c ; study of the p r a i r i e s and. suggest a Canadian  awareness.  I t was g e n e r a l l y expected  would soon produce the g r e a t Canadian looking f o r .  that Stringer  n o v e l which c r i t i c s were  However Mr. S t r i n g e r found t h a t h i s work was not  widely a p p r e c i a t e d i n Canada, and soon was.nf orbed t o move t o the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  He continued t o s e t h i s work i n Canada;, but  only i n such a way as' would p l e a s e t h e American p u b l i c . f r a n k statement  In a  concerning one such book he remarked t h a t he — — — • — t a a — w — — m m ^ a m,,m am  53. " " P o l l y Masson" and our p o l y g l o t p o l i t i c s " , Oct. 1919, pp. 43'- 44.  C.B., v. 1,  54. H i s more important novels a r e G l e n g a r r y s c h o o l days(1902), The man from Glengarry (1906), The g i r l from Glengarry (1933);, and The-; f o r e i g n e r U 9 0 9 ) .  -123-  could w r i t e about Alaska- or the Yukon, or any romantic aspect of  Canadian l i f e ,  a l t h o u g h he knew no more about h i s t.opic than 55  a- F i j i  I s l a n d e r knows about, the New York stock  A r t h u r S t r i n g e r was  exchange.  a l s o a. minor poet of some importance, and  i n h i s e a r l y work r e f l e c t s some Canadian f e e l i n g .  The poem  56 "The c o l o n i a l "  r e f l e c t s a strong Canadian sentiment, but  that i s r a t h e r s u p e r f i c i a l .  However there i s a strong  sentiment i n a l l h i s work, and a f t e r he l e f t 57 tended to  predominate i n h i s work.  l o s t a writer-who was  the country t h i s  capable of c a p t u r i n g ar v i t a l  Canadianism.  found the same d i f f i c u l -  as Mr. S t r i n g e r was John Murray Gibbon.  i n Ceylon i n 1875  Mr. Gibbon was  born  of S c o t t i s h p a r e n t s , and d i d not come t o  Canada u n t i l 1913.  S i n c e then he has taken an a c t i v e part, i n  Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , w r i t i n g novels, poetry, and short and becoming  Irish  In A r t h u r S t r i n g e r Canada  Another n o v e l i s t and poet who ty  one  stories,  president, of the Canadian A u t h o r s ' A s s o c i a t i o n .  Mr-. Gibbon has w r i t t e n f i v e novels, of v/hich Drums A f a r (1918J, The Conquering Hero  (1920) and Pagan Love"(1922)  are probably 58  the. most s i g n i f i c a n t from a Canadian p o i n t of view.  Never-  t h e l e s s i n a l l h i s novels Mr. Gibbon p r e s e n t s the a t t i t u d e of the  t o u r i s t r a t h e r than that of the n a t i o n a l Canadian.  Indeed  he found that the Canadian p u b l i c does not a p p r e c i a t e the n a t i v e n o v e l i s t , but d r i v e s him "across the boundary l i n e , where he 55. c f . "The man who couldn't s l e e p " , C.B..« v. 1,. Jan., 1920, pp. 6 1 - 6 4 . 56. c f . C.M., v. 15, pp. 361 - 362, Aug. 1900. 57. c f . K i n g who l o v e d o l d c l o t h e s , and other I r i s h poems, I n d i a n a p o l i s , B o b b s - M e r r i l l , 1941, e t c . "* ' 58. a l s o Hearts;.and Faces, 1916; Eyes of a Gypsy,  1926.  -124may  still  s t i r a l i t t l e Canadian f l a v o u r i n t o h i s l i t e r a r y  soup; hut by r e s i d e n c e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and c u l t i v a t i o n of American t a s t e he w r i t e s afterwards p r i m a r i l y f o r another  59 c l i e n t e l e than ours."  G r a d u a l l y , however, h i s n o v e l s  tended  t,o l o s e t h e i r t o u r i s t q u a l i t i e s and became d i s t i n c t l y Canadian, though r e g i o n a l , i n c h a r a c t e r , and h i s ^ p o e t r y t d ^ e s suggeetaa  60 n a t i o n a l impulse, p a r t i c u l a r l y "A/ Canadian Calendar". OCTOBER 1  F a l l i n g , f i a l l i n g leawes. And indoors C e l l a r s sweet-smelling w i t h apples, Q F a i r hands busy w i t h canning and s t o r e s f o r the w i n t e r . 1  6  It  seems l i k e l y ,  too, t h a t i f Mr. Gibbon had  continued to w r i t e  novels he would have become more and more n a t i o n a l l y minded i n them.  In those he has w r i t t e n he i s at times r e g i o n a l i n  outlook, and some of h i s poetry i s d i s t i n c t l y  Canadian.  These are only the most important n o v e l i s t s i n t h i s period.  Many other w r i t e r s f o l l o w e d these w r i t e r s i n d e a l i n g  with l o c a l settings.  Together  they d e a l w i t h a l l aspects of  Canadian l i f e from coast t o coast. summary of the other important  T a b l e IV p r e s e n t s a  n o v e l i s t s of t h i s p e r i o d .  Although they are nowhere Canadian i n sentiment,  these novels  as a whole do g i v e the impression of an awakening n a t i o n a l consciousness. expected. ficial  And  t h a t i s probably j u s t what was  t o be  The f i r s t C o n f e d e r a t i o n e n t h u s i a s m — w h i c h was  super-  and momentary--was over, and the Canadian people a l l  across the country were beginning to a c q u i r e a s i n c e r e f e e l i n g 59. Douglas, R. W., "Present l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia", C.B., v. 1,. J u l y 1919, p. 44. 60. C.B.,  v. 2, Jan. 1920,  pp. 12 -  13.  -125-  f.or t h e i r p a r t of Canada.  As y e t a l l was r e g i o n a l , but as  time went  fcegionalism  on t h i s s i n c e r e  i n t o a s i n c e r e n a t i o n a l sentiment. i n t h i s p e r i o d i t has w e l l been s a i d  could very p o s s i b l y grow  I n summary of the n o v e l i s t s that  While the men, f o l l o w i n g the l e a d of Ralph Connor, are endeavouring t o achieve Canadianism by s p e c i a l i z i n g on the d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of f i s t - f i g h t s which occur i n d i f f e r e n t , p a r t s of the Dominion, the women are d e v o t i n g their, a t t e n t i o n t o s e c u r i n g the corresponding n a t i o n a l c o l o u r i n g by a d e p i c t i o n of the scenery and the domestic manners- of v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s of r u r a l Canada....Neither c l a s s of n o v e l goes very deep i n t o the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of Canadian life-;° x  TABLE IV Canadian n o v e l i s t s . 1 9 0 0 — Title.  Author. Amy, W.L. Cody, H.C. Cooney, P.J. Day, P.P. Duncan, N, Durkin, D. Hood, R.H. King, W.B. Knowles, R.E. Le R o s s l g n o l , J . McKishnie, A.P.  1925 setting, subj e c t , etc. ...prairies.  .Blue Pete: H a l f Breed, e t c . .The F r o n t i e r s m a n (1910) .Rod of the Lone P a t r o l (1912). ...mounties. '(hi s t o r i c a l romance.) .Kinsmen ,.,N.S.sea l i f e (1928) .Rockbound ...Newfoundland ,The way of the sea (1904) . g r . Luke of Labrador, ...Manitoba. .The Lob s t i c k T r a l Y ...Pacific .The c h i v a l r y of K e i t h coast. L e i c e s t e r (1918) .In the garden of charity(1905*) ...N. S. . . . O n t a r i o. .St. Cuthbert's .. .Quebec:. . L i t t l e s t o r i e s of Quebec .WilloWi the wisp, and the way. ...Ontario. , ^ , world. A. .On the i r o n aT B i g Cloud. ...B.C., Yukon. .Jess of the Ri ver. ...N.B. .SoorrMan's Rock T1920) .In the wake oF" the E i g h t e e n ..(historical ••• . TwelversT romance). .The i n n e r door ...Toronto. .tfhe V i k i n g *gTood (1921). ...N. S, .Cattle. ...prairies. Brave and G a l l a n t .. . P a c i f i c ; Gentleman (JTSTs) „ ,.. coast. .The f o r g i n g o f t he p i k e s . ... ( h i s t o r i c a l Qf  Packard, P.L. Roberts?, T.G. Sinclair, B.W. .Snider, C.H.J. S u l l i v a n , A. Wallace, P.W. Watanna, 0. Watson, R-. Wilson, M.  v. 1, Oct. 1919,  -126During the. f i r s t ; , two decades of the T w e n t i e t h Century Canada grew i n s i z e and importance. thousands, of immigrants  The. New  West a t t r a c t e d  y e a r l y , and mining and  industx-ial  development's "Became important. . As- these tendencies; "became sigs. n i f i can tt. at, home the Canadian government was  p r e s s i n g w i t h not-  able success , f o r a f u l l e r measure of e x t e r n a l autonomy, and 1  Canadians were e s t a b l i s h i n g a proud r e c o r d i n the Great, War. All  these developments toward nationhood combined t o evoke a:,  s p i r i t of n a t i o n a l i s m i n the c i t i z e n r y of the c o u n t r y — a s p i r i t which the poets and n o v e l i s t s of the p e r i o d r e f l e c t . of  The work  E n g l i s h Canadian w r i t e r s b o t h i n p o e t r y and i n f i c t i o n  i n d i c a t e s the a c t u a l presence of Canadianism and suggests that, t h i s f o r c e was stronger.  i n the country,  slowly becoming s t r o n g e r and  Poets of the p e r i o d vary i n the degree.to which they  suggest, a-Canaddan f l a v o u r , i n verse, and some r e f l e c t , very little  at a l l , but a l l seem to s t r i k e a s t r o n g e r n a t i o n a l note  than d i d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e predecessors i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century.  N o v e l i s t s a l s o suggest, a g r a d u a l progress towards a  n a t i o n a l awareness, but i n t h i s case the development i s from l o c a l t o r e g i o n a l r a t h e r than from s u p e r f i c i a l and s p o r a d i c t o spontaneously Canadian work.  In a l l cases, however, i t i s  evident from a study of E n g l i s h Canadian poetry and  fiction  t h a t n a t i o n a l awareness i n c r e a s e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g t h i s period.  CHAPTER V CANADIANISM and CANADIAN LITERATURE SINCE thai-END of the FIRST.. WORLD WAR  Sir  W i l f r e d L a u r i e r d i e d i n 1919, and S i r Robert  Borden r e t i r e d from p o l i t i c a l l i f e the f o l l o w i n g y e a r .  Through  the e f f o r t s of these two men Canada had secured v i r t u a l  inde-  pendence i n e x t e r n a l as w e l l as i n i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s ,  and now  needed only l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n of h e r p o s i t i o n t o ensure c o n s t i t u t i o n a l autonomy. she  In the f o l l o w i n g q u a r t e r  obtained the d e s i r e d l e g i s l a t i o n ,  of a century  and developed h e r inde-  pendent s t a t u s so f a r that no f o r e i g n country could doubt of h e r freedom of a c t i o n .  full  r e t a i n any  Her n a t i o n a l s t a t u s has done  much t o arouse a n a t i o n a l consciousness i n Canadians, but certain conditions development.  a t home have marred the e f f e c t of t h i s  Canada's i n t e r n a l h i s t o r y d u r i n g  presents a mixed r e c o r d  t h i s period  i n which p r o v i n c i a l i s m and f a c t i o n a l  s t r i f e developed t o hamper the f e d e r a l system, whereas c e r t a i n new c e n t r a l i z i n g tendencies served t o counteract decentralizing influence.  But t w e n t y - f i v e  i n part t h i s  y e a r s l a t e r , as-  Canada emerged from the Second World V/ar, there was some doubt as t o the r e a l u n i t y of the country. It was Canada's new r o l e as a member of the League of Nations which f i n a l l y proved h e r independence t o be r e a l , although many Canadians of the time were d o u b t f u l  -127-  about the  -128wisdom of j o i n i n g the new  body.  During the  parliamentary  debate on the.League Covenant s e v e r a l Canadian n a t i o n a l i s t s objected to any i n t e r n a t i o n a l l i m i t a t i o n s of Canadian sovereignty.  '"In m i l i t a r y matters',  s a i d Rodolphe Lemieux,  'we  are  governed...by and from Ottawa, and not by and from London; and we do not want to be governed by and from Geneva. strong was  Indeed so  t h i s f e e l i n g t h a t Canadian d e l e g a t e s to the League restrictions  oh nat.'oniC jovctcfjntf  brought up the q u e s t i o n o f n o . t i o n a l l i m i t at l o n g / and A  even pres-  sed f o r a r e v i s i o n of A r t i c l e X, which provided f o r armed support by member n a t i o n s . sentiments  With such a c t i v e n a t i o n a l  a l i v e i n her c i t i z e n r y , Canada was  complete autonomy when o p p o r t u n i t y o f f e r e d . f o r l e g a l readjustment  became e v i d e n t .  threatened A n g l o - T u r k i s h war, i t s p o l i c y without  c e r t a i n t.o secure In 1922  the need  When the Chanak i n c i d e n t  the B r i t i s h government  formulated  c o n s u l t i n g the dominions., but. asked f o r  t h e i r m i l i t a r y a i d i f i t proved  necessary.  Canada resented  t h i s a c t i o n , and r e p l i e d , ' I t i s the view of the Dominion Government t h a t p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n Canada would demand the a u t h o r i z a t i o n of Parliament as the necessary p r e l i m i n a r y t o the d i s p a t c h i n g of a contingent to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the c o n f l i c t i n the Near B a s t . We would welcome the f u l l e s t informat i o n p o s s i b l e , i n order t o decide upon the a d v i s a b i l i t y of summoning Parliament.''3, 4 In 1923,  when n e g o t i a t i n g for.; a Halibut..Treaty w i t h the U n i t e d  S t a t e s , "the Canadian government i n s i s t e d on n e g o t i a t i n g the 1. Creighton, D. G., Dominion of the North, Houghton M i f f l i n , 1944f~p^ 456.  Boston,  2. c f . Dawson, R. M., The development of dominion s t a t u s 1900 - 1936, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1937, pp. 251 - 254, and a l s o p. 504, which d e s c r i b e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of Canada's e l e c t i o n t o the League C o u n d i l i n 1927. 3. i b i d . , pp. 235 - 236. 4. Canada a l s o r e f u s e d to be i n v o l v e d i n the Lausanne  -129-  agreementi. and  s i g n i n g the document, i t s e l f ,  l i m i t a t i o n i m p l i e d by the use And  i n 1925  without  the  of B r i t i s h d i p l o m a t i c  legal  channels.  5  Canada i n s i s t e d t h a t she be excluded from the  Locarno Pact!, f o r commitments;, undertaken by t'he B r i t i s h government d i d n o t . i n v o l v e her.  Thus Canada secured  r e c o g n i t i o n of her r i g h t t o conclude  t r e a t i e s by h e r s e l f ,  to a b s t a i n from B r i t i s h f o r e i g n agreements. Canada prepared I t was  complete  In these ways  h e r s e l f f o r the B a l f o u r D e c l a r a t i o n of at t h i s time,  Conference of 1926,  and  j u s t b e f o r e the  1926,  Imperial  when Canada seemed to have complete  e x t e r n a l autonomy, t h a t an i n t e r n a l c r i s i s arose t o t h r e a t e n her s o v e r e i g n t y . government secured  In the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s of 1925 only 101  seats, as opposed to the t o t a l of  116 gained by the C o n s e r v a t i v e the P r o g r e s s i v e s , Mr. King, maintain h i s government.  the. L i b e r a l  opposition.  With the a i d of  the prime m i n i s t e r , hoped to  This? p l a n f a i l e d . , however, when the  customs scandal broke i n 1926.  Mr, K i n g then asked the governor-  g e n e r a l to d i s s o l v e parliament, but the l a t t e r r e f u s e d , choosing  i n s t e a d to ask the C o n s e r v a t i v e  government.  Three days l a t e r he granted  d i s s o l u t i o n he had parliamentary  r e f u s e d to Mr. K i n g .  to t h a t f a c t i o n  the  This interference i n  government on the part, of the king's, r e p r e s e n t a -  t i v e challenged Canadian autonomy. ensuing  o p p o s i t i o n t o form ar  Mr; K i n g fought, the  campaign on the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s s u e , and  won.  (note 4, cont.) T r e a t y w i t h Turkey (1924) when not t o the Conference; c f . i b i d . , pp. 258 - 272. 5. c f . Dawson, op.  c i t . , pp.  254 -  257.  invited  -130-  With t h e s e ; i s s u e s was^ determined to secure s oon as; p o s s i b l e . :  with valuable secured  still  i n t e r e s t , Canada-  complete c o n s t i t u t i o n a l autonomy as..  At the I m p e r i a l Conference of 1926  support  Mr.  King,  from I r i s h and South A f r i c a n d e l e g a t e s ,  the famous B a l f o u r D e c l a r a t i o n , which foreshadowed  complete c o n s t i t u t i o n a l autonomy. the  of recent  The  dominions are,  declared  report, autonomous Communities w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Empire, equal i n s t a t u s , i n no way subordinate;-one t o a n o t h e r - i n any aspect of t h e i r domestic or e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , though u n i t e d by a common a l l e g i a n c e t o the Crown, and f r e e l y a s s o c i a t e d as members of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth of Nations.°  F i v e years  later,  i n 1931,  the S t a t u t e of Westminster  provided  e o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the autonomous s t a t u s of B r i t i s h dominions as enunciated  the  i n the B a l f o u r D e c l a r a t i o n .  Since that date^ Canada, along w i t h the o t h e r dominions:, been a completely  independent n a t i o n , and has; slowly  her autonomy i n v a r i o u s ways, p a r t i c u l a r l y by diplomatic  service.  In 1939,  has  developed  enlarging  her  furthermore, Canada d e c l a r e d  war  f o r h e r s e l f , one week a f t e r the B r i t i s h d e c l a r a t i o n was made; :  t h i s a c t i o n , a sharp c o n t r a s t to the s i t u a t i o n i n  1914,  c o n c l u s i v e l y i l l u s t r a t e d Canada's independence. Nevertheless,  while  she was  becoming an autonomous  n a t i o n i n e x t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s , Canada was disunity i n internal a f f a i r s . ill  suffering national  A f t e r the F i r s t World War  was  considerable  The  L i b e r a l P a r t y reformed i t s ranks, but  there-  f e e l i n g because of the c o n s c r i p t i o n c r i s i s . Canadians of a l l  6. Canada P a r l i a m e n t a r y Papers, no. 10, 1926 - 1927, c i t e d i n Kennedy,,W. P. M., S t a t u t e s , Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1930, p. 703.  -131-  races s t i l l war  a new  resented  the q u a r r e l .  In the decade f o l l o w i n g the  s e c t i o n a l i s m developed i n Western Canada.  P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y was  p r i m a r i l y a western p r o t e s t movement, and  never secured: a n a t i o n a l b a s i s . P r o g r e s s i v e s won  The.-;  important  E a r l y i n the 1920's the  numbers of seats, but l a t e r the move-  ment slowly c o l l a p s e d , and many of i t s f o l l o w e r s returned  to  the support  new  of the L i b e r a l P a r t y ,  p r o t e s t movements.  In a l l ,  although  others j o i n e d  however, the c a r e e r of the  Progres-  s i v e movement suggests s e c t i o n a l i s m r a t h e r than n a t i o n a l i s m i n Canada. Since the d e c l i n e of the P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y s e c t i o n a l g r o u p s — t h e C. C. P., Nationale,  the S o c i a l C r e d i t , the Union  and the B l o c P o p u l a i r e — h a v e  groups have a n a t i o n a l p l a t f o r m and campaigns, but t h e i r support p r o v i n c i a l and has, than n a t i o n a l i s m . and proclaimed  arisen.  support  these  s e c t i o n a l or  therefore, fostered sectionalism rather In 1933  a group of Canadian p o l i t i c i a n s  Party, a s o c i a l i s t . g r o u p , has gained then, but i t s support Y/estern Canada, and  The  remarkable s t r e n g t h s i n c e  i n Western Canada l a r g e l y to the  In 1935  the S o c i a l C r e d i t P a r t y won s i n c e then has  most A l b e r t a seats i n g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s . I t has only a p r o v i n c i a l b a s i s .  to  Province the carried  a national  The-Union N a t i o n a l e  B l o c P o p u l a i r e are b o t h Quebec p a r t i e s which have r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e support groups., and  from F r e n c h Canadians.  the d i v e r g e n t  economic and  met  r e s u l t a n t C. C. FJ.  has been confined almost e n t i r e l y  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n 'Alberta, and  p l a t f o r m but  Some of  national election  i s almost, e n t i r e l y  the Regina M a n i f e s t o .  of Saskatchewan.  other  These v a r i o u s  s o c i a l i n t e r e s t s they  and  -132-  represent  i n d i c a t e the r e a l s t r e n g t h of p r o v i n c i a l i s m i n Canada. Furthermore Canada's p o p u l a t i o n  as r a p i d l y i n the two preceding  period.  decades s i n c e 1921  ceased t o  increase  as i t d i d i n the  Immigration f i g u r e s , which showed such  numbers as 184,000 migrants i n 1906 t.o 91,700 i n 1921  has  and  and  16,900 i n 1939.  8  331,000 i n 1911, The  fell  r a t i o of f o r e i g n  9 to Anglo-Saxon immigrants has,  however, i n c r e a s e d .  suggests that those immigrants who  This f a c t  are most; h e l p f u l t o the.  development of n a t i o n a l i s m i n Canada are b e g i n n i n g to form the major p o r t i o n of Canada's new immigration has  citizenry.  But  the f a c t , that  d e c l i n e d suggests that what p r o v i n c i a l i s m s were  i n the country a f t e r the F i r s t World War undiminished, f o r the l a c k of new  blood  would continue to weaken them.  There^have been, however, c e r t a i n u n i f y i n g f o r c e s which have helped to o f f s e t p r o v i n c i a l i s m . the North and  the r e s u l t a n t use  important f a c t o r .  The  development of  of a i r power has been a  The N o r t h has  played  the  very  same p a r t i n recent  y e a r s i n f o s t e r i n g Canadianism that the West d i d i n e a r l i e r times, and  a i r power has helped t o g i v e a l l Canadians a n a t i o n a l  outlook.  T h i s r o l e of a i r power has become even more important  s i n c e the  establishment  of the government operated Trans Canada  A i r . L i n e s , which has been as h e l p f u l to Canada as a n a t i o n the Canadian N a t i o n a l Railway.  More important s t i l l has  as  been  the n a t i o n a l communication system provided s i n c e 1932 through r7. T h i s p r o v i n c i a l i s m has been f o s t e r e d by s e v e r a l P r i v y C o u n c i l d e c i s i o n s which have s t r e s s e d p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , c f . Creighton, op. c i t . , p. 467 (the Canada Temperance A c t ) , pp. 476 - 477 ( v a r i o u s l i c e n s e s ) , pp. 495-6 (Bennett's s o c i a l b i l l s ) 8. c f . Canada Year Book, 1941, 9. The  f i g u r e s are; i n 1891,  pp.  x i v - x v ; Appendix I,T.  7,600 from other  countries,  2  -133the f a c i l i t i e s ; of the Canadian Radio B r o a d c a s t i n g Commission ( l a t e r the Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ) . network was and  established  sportsr, rnusicv drama, p o l i t i c a l  t r a n s c o n t i n e n t a l audiences, and u n i t y w i t h i n the  country.  been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the i n recent  years.  In p a r t i c u l a r the network  c r e a t i o n of a school  One  much to also  In a l l there have been recent,  s e c t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l  are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y u n i f y i n g and  important. d i s u n i t i n g f o r c e s at  c i t i z e n s , Canada entered the- Second World War  The. war. of 1914  had  fostered, national unity u n t i l  when the c o n s c r i p t i o n q u e s t i o n that question  contributed  of t h e i r number, J . E. H- MacDonald, has  With these v a r i o u s  1939.  indeed,  The-. School  number of u n i f y i n g forces; i n Canada i n  i n f l u e n c e s , and  plays  of Canadian drama  spreading of n a t i o n a l outlooks.  These have combined to o f f s e t  work among her  of Canadian  n a t i o n a l r a d i o coverage has,  w r i t t e n poetry w i t h a n a t i o n a l . f l a v o u r .  years.  has  such well-known n a t i o n a l i s t s  of Seven, a group of Canadian a r t i s t s , has  a^ c o n s i d e r a b l e  ha.-ve had  Others of the f i n e a r t s have a l s o developed  i n t o media f o r the  Canadianism.  comment-  have been w e l l used tio c r e a t e  w i t h a n a t i o n a l outlook, w r i t t e n by The  News and  speeches--all  f o s t e r e d Canadianism through the p r e s e n t a t i o n  as M e r r i l l Denison.  :  i t has been used t o combat: s e c t i o n a l i s m  promote a n a t i o n a l outlook i n Canadians.  ary,  Since t h i s  arose; but'..in t h i s second  developed at an e a r l y p e r i o d .  In 1941,  in  1917, war  during  a  p l e b i s c i t e - on the i s s u e , F r e n c h Canada opposed the  conscription  program, whereas E n g l i s h Canada supported i t . The  d i s u n i t y thus  (note 9, c o n t ) . 22,000 from Great B r i t a i n , 52,500 from the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; i n 1926, 66,000 from other c o u n t r i e s , 48,800 from Great B r i t a i n , 20,900 from the U. Si. A. See Appendix I,T. I I I .  -134-  suggested  dragged on throughout  the war y e a r s u n t i l 1945, when  overseas s e r v i c e was added t o the c o n s c r i p t i o n p l a n .  Bitter  f e e l i n g s on b o t h s i d e s continued through a l l these years, w i t h F r e n c h Canadians, p a r t i c u l a r l y r e s e n t f u l . war  N e v e r t h e l e s s the f i n e  r e c o r d of Canadian s o l d i e r s has aroused a measure of n a t i o n -  a l p r i d e i n a l l Canadians. larly  proud  E n g l i s h Canadians have been p a r t i c u -  of t h e i r war r e c o r d b o t h i n the a c t u a l f i g h t i n g and  i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the t o o l s of war.  Indeed c u r r e n t t r e n d s  i nt E n g l i s h i Canadian!' l i t e r a i t u r e suggest, t h a t the recent war has had  a much more- profound  sentiment  e f f e c t i n c r e a t i n g a Canadian n a t i o n a l  than d i d the war of 1914. The war has c r e a t e d much n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e i n  E n g l i s h Canada, but from the e a r l i e s t years of t h i s p e r i o d poets and n o v e l i s t s — n o v e l i s t s i n p a r t i c u l a r — h a v e r e v e a l e d a n a t i o n a l awareness i n t h e i r work. introduced a v i t a l  spirit  Two important n o v e l s which  of Canadianism  a r e The V i k i n g Heart  (1923) by Laura Goodman S a l v e r s o n and Hansen (1924) by Augustus Bridle. ^ 1  B o t h d e a l w i t h the way i n which immigrants come t o  accept.Canada as t h e i r country.  Miss S a l v e r s o n was born i n  Winnipeg i n 1890 of I c e l a n d i c a n c e s t r y .  She was educated i n  the U n i t e d S t a t e s , but l a t e r returned t o Winnipeg.  The V i k i n g  Heart, expresses, a' v i t a l n a t i o n a l consciousness; i t i s the s t o r y of 'his  an immigrant who e v e n t u a l l y r e a l i z e s t h a t Canada has become country.  The f o l l o w i n g passage i s d i s t i n c t l y  national.  10. Miss S a l v e r s o n ' s other novels--When Sparrows F a l l (1929), Lord of the S i l v e r Dragon (1927), e t c . , reveaT"no*" Canadian f e e l i n g . Mr. B r i d l e has, w r i t t e n no other n o v e l s . 11. Macklem, J . , "Laura Goodman S a l v e r s o n " , C.B., v. 9, p. 100, A p r i l 1927, quotes t h i s passage.  1 1  -135T h i s Canada which had demanded much of them-i t was- her country. T h i s peace which was hers, she had p a i d f o r , j u s t as she had p a i d a heavy p r i c e t h a t she might l i v e . The o l d saying of her f a t h e r ' s f l a s h e d fcack i n t o her mind: " A l l t h i n g s w i t h "blood ix and t o i l are bought, a l l j o y s are cleansed i n t e a r s . " ' Augustus B r i d l e was extraction.  He  born i n Dover, England, i n 1869  attended  the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, and  l i v e d i n v a r i o u s p a r t s of Ontario m u s i c a l arid dramatic  of I r i s h  and A l b e r t a .  has  He l a t e r became  c r i t i c f o r the Toronto D a i l y St ax.;  His  novel, Hansen, i s a l s o a s t o r y of C a n a d i a n i z a t i o n w i t h a n a t i o n a l outlook. i s remarkable.  Indeed the e x p r e s s i o n  In a t r u l y  of Canadianism i n i t  e x t r a o r d i n a r y wedding speech the  immigrant, Hansen, d e c l a r e s , 'When i n a b i l i n g u a l parliament we have b i l i n g u a l M. P. 's who understand as much as they can of the' l i f e t h a t - l i e s behind each language, we s h a l l b e g i n to evolve^-a n a t i o n as thoroughly Canadian as the people to the South are American...But so long as each race i n the country t h i n k s i t s own ideas and customs and language g r e a t e r than those of the g r e a t country of i t s adoption, so long as most of Canada- t h i n k s i t s e l f only a vast j u v e n i l e i m i t a t i o n of the- United S t a t e s , we s h a l l never be anything but a. vast j u v e n i l e i m i t a t i o n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s , we s h a l l never be anything but: a a n a t i o n a l k i n d e r g a r t e n , unworthy of those two great n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s , John A. Macdonald and W i l f r e d L a u r i e r ; s t i l l more unworthy to remember the great French, E n g l i s h , and S c o t t i s h men who f i r s t t r a c k e d our mighty r i v e r s and b u i l t r a i l w a y s through the mountains. 1  Both The  3  V i k i n g Heart and Hansen suggest, a. new  a t t i t u d e to  Canada as a n a t i o n i n the f i c t i o n of the country. e s s e n t i a l l y community novels, but  They are  are w r i t t e n from the p o i n t cf  12. D. G. French, "Canadian f i c t i o n " , C.B., 27, Feb. 1925, c i t e s t h i s passage ( c f . p. 27).  v. 7, pp.  26-  13. T h i s passage i n d i c a t e s a r e a l i z a t i o n of the f a c t t h a t Anglo-French antagonism i n Canada i s a major f a c t o r i n current Canadian l i f e . Indeed t h i s has been one of the most, important, f o r c e s i n contemporary Canadian h i s t o r y .  -136-  view of the s t r a n g e r who  has to overcome h i s European n a t i o n a l  f e e l i n g s b e f o r e he can f e e l at; home i n h i s new  setting..  As he.-  does t h i s he tends t o s u b s t i t u t e - C a n a d a for: h i s n a t i v e country i n h i s n a t i o n a l allegiano:e. keen Canadianism  The r e s u l t , i s the emergence of a  s t r o n g e r than t h a t evident, i n the mores compla-  cent, n a t i v e born c i t i z e n r y .  But. these two n o v e l s stand apart,  from the work of t h e i r authors as-a-whole.  Neither novelist,  has w r i t t e n another book d i s p l a y i n g a s i m i l a r Canadian  awareness.  The f e e l i n g evident i n these novels i s important, but i s h a r d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a widespread  or permanent.feeling.  The f i r s t i C a n a d i a n n o v e l i s t . t o d i s p l a y a Canadian f e e l i n g throughout P h i l i p Grove (b. 1872).  vital  the whole, of h i s work i s F r e d e r i c k  Born i n Sweden and educated  Mr. Grove s e t t l e d i n America  i n Europe,  q u i t e by a c c i d e n t i n 1892.  After  that date he l i v e d a l t e r n a t e l y i n Canada and the U n i t e d ' S t a t e s , but he g r a d u a l l y came to regard Canada, as h i s home. he-was- c o n s t a n t l y w r i t i n g f i c t i o n , but..he was p u b l i s h e r f o r h i s work f o r almost  Prom. 1893  unable t o f i n d  t h i r t y years.  a  Undaunted by  t h i s adverse r e c e p t i o n , he wrote novels r e f l e c t i n g a v i t a l Canadian  awareness i n the f a c e of the s e v e r e s t p e r s o n a l hard-  s h i p s and w i t h no prospect, of ever p u b l i s h i n g h i s work,  when-  he f i n a l l y d i d f i n d a p u b l i s h e r he found that h i s n o v e l s were not a f i n a n c i a l success. u l t e r i o r motive,  Perhaps because he was-writing f o r / n o  perhaps because h i s h a r d s h i p s made him  the e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s of Canadian  life,  he has d i s p l a y e d a  n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g that has not. been surpassed by any Canadian  realize  other  novelist. A Search f o r America  ( p u b l i s h e d 1927)  Was written i n  -13,7-  1893 and 1894.  I t . i s l a r g e l y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , b e i n g the s t o r y  of an immigrant to N o r t h America whose experiences were very s i m i l a r t o those of Grove's own New  World..  life  i n h i s f i r s t y e a r s ^ i n the  The dominant f e e l i n g i s the s p i r i t : o f t t h e New ;  World;  as the; hero puts a s i d e h i s European f e e l i n g s and acquires: an American outlook he comes t o f e e l quite" N o r t h American i n s p i r i t . "My f i r s t ; i m p r e s s i o n (of America)...was t h a t of a f l o a t i n g t i d e , changing q u i c k l y , u n t h i n k i n g l y , c o n t i n u a l l y - - l i k e the winds which blow over the c o n t i n e n t . But i t i s the s u r f a c e only t o which I belonged....Underneath t h i s f r a n t i c c a c t i o n , t h i s everchanging s u r f a c e - a g i t a t i o n , I have i n the course of years, l e a r n e d t o d i s c e r n an ever-growing, s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n which i s as f i r m as the rocks:, moving only i n q u i e t , steady, unvarying motion--a motion headed towards c l e a r e r i n s i g h t , and a f i r m e r r e s o l v e to a s s e r t i t s e l f . In order t o c a t c h the r e a l t r e n d of American thought you have t o get your ear down t o the s o i l t o l i s t e n . Then you w i l l hear the s a n i t y , the good sgnse and the good w i l l which are t r u l y American. 4  S e t t l e r s of the. Marsh  ( p u b l i s h e d 1925)  1918, but. abridged for. p u b l i c a t i o n . Swedish immigrant ..who  was  w r i t t e n i n 1917  I t i s the s t o r y of a  s e t t l e d i n Northern Manitoba.  community novel, but the community becomes.a symbol Canadian n a t i o n ; i t i s the record a t i o n i n the Canadian W e s t . "  15  and  It i s a of the  of the " c r e a t i n g of a c i v i l i z -  The Yoke of L i f e  1930) was w r i t t e n from 1913 t o 1920.  (published  I t i s h i s l a s t pioneer  novel, and i s s i m i l a r t o S e t t l e r s of the Marsh. Our D a i l y Bread (1928) and F r u i t s of the E a r t h (1933) d e a l w i t h the e f f o r t s of second and t h i r d g e n e r a t i o n Canadians 14. Rimmer, T. D., "The soul of an immigrant", C.B., p. 17, Jan. 1928, quotes t h i s passage, 15. Pacey, D., 1945, p. 47.  v. 10,  F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove, Toronto, Ryerson,  -138-  t o b u i l d a s t a b l e community i n the Southern p r a i r i e s ; . c o n t r a s t , t o the immigrant s u b j e c t s  In  of h i s e a r l y novels these  d e a l w i t h Canadian born people who a r e not so openly aware of t h e i r Canadianism, but n e v e r t h e l e s s feeling.  r e v e a l a pervading n a t i o n a l .  Our D a i l y Bread i s the s t o r y of the E l l i o t f a m i l y ; the  f a t h e r and mother b u i l d a r e s p e c t a b l e p r a i r i e s , b u t the  homestead i n the Western  c h i l d r e n r e b e l at the h a r d s h i p s i n v o l v e d and  choose other walks of l i f e .  The n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i s evident i n  the d i s c u s s i o n of others parts, of Canada- ( p a r t i c u l a r l y B. C. and  i n such i n c i d e n t a l r e f e r e n c e s  )  as the f o l l o w i n g :  AS the morning wore on, h i s excitement had s t e a d i l y increased. At noon he went up the h i l l behind h i s house. From there he could see the whole n o r t h road and p a r t of the east-west road south of town. That was the-Trans-Canada Highway along which they must come.  17 There i s a l s o much v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n of p r a i r i e c s c e n e r y . F r u i t s of the E a r t h i s a, s i m i l a r n o v e l i n which the Spalding, f a m i l y grows up and d i s p e r s e s  i n the same way as the E l l i o t  f a m i l y had done i n Our D a i l y Bread, although the tone here i s much l e s s p e s s i m i s t i c .  Here a l s o the Canadian sentiment i s  i n c i d e n t a l and pervading r a t h e r than overt; but r e f e r e n c e s tto  i ft the country as a whole The best  i n d i c a t e a thoroughly Canadian outlook.  change i n a t t i t u d e between Grove and e a r l i e r n o v e l i s t s i s seen i n such statements as the f o l l o w i n g e x p r e s s i o n of  Canadian! sm: 16. c f . Our, D a i l y Bread, Toronto, Macmillan, 1928, pp. 1551577, 263, e t c . 17. i b i d . , p. 389. 25,  18. c f . F r u i t s ; of the E a r t h , Toronto, Dent, 1933, pp. 4, 197, 199, 263, 267, 280, e t c .  -139-  K i n g s t o n stood, t o Abe, f o r a l l t h a t was p r o v i n c i a l i n the s p i r i t of O n t a r i o ; i t seemed s t r a n g e l y eastern; i t represented a l l t h a t Abe had abandoned i n coming west. F r u i t s of the E a r t h was s i n c e i t appeared i n Southern the M i l l  Grove has;, w r i t t e n two more n o v e l s , b o t h set.  O n t a r i o , Two  (1944).  Grove's l a s t , p r a i r i e n o v e l ;  Generations  (1939) and The Master of  Both d i s p l a y a Canadian outlook, and  moods s i m i l a r to those evident i n h i s e a r l i e r books.  indicate Expres-  s i o n s of n a t i o n a l awareness are very p a r a l l e l t o the examples c i t e d from h i s e a r l i e r works.  Indeed F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove  has shown more n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n h i s novels than has other Canadian n o v e l i s t , u n t i l very recent times. six  first  of the New  Prom  World present i n h i s  n o v e l (A Search f o r America) Grove q u i c k l y came t o advo-  cate a s t r o n g Canadian f e e l i n g i n h i s next two  novels  (Settlers  the Marsh and The Yoke of L i f e ) by h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  a s s i m i l a t i o n of immigrants i n t o the l i f e his  H i s r e c o r d of  novels a l l thoroughly n a t i o n a l i n f e e l i n g i s unique-.  an e a r l y i n t e r e s t s i n the s p i r i t  of  any  of the new  nation.  In  l a t e r novels h i s Canadian a t t i t u d e has continued t o be  v i t a l and pervading. importance  Throughout h i s works Grove r e f l e c t s the.  of immigration and  of the p i o n e e r i n g We-s.tL i n c r e a t i n g  a n a t i o n a l awareness i n Canadians*. Miss- Mazo de l a Roche, a contemporary of Mr.  Grove's,  has f a i l e d t o suggest; the same n a t i o n a l awareness i n her novels that Grove and  others have done i n t h e i r s .  Born i n 1885,  Miss.-'  de l a Roche l i v e d for. many y e a r s on her f a t h e r ' s farm near the^ Niagara P e n i n s u l a , where she came t o l o v e Canadian nature.  19.  i b i d . , p.  6.  She  -140-  began w r i t i n g novels e a r l y i n the 1920's, but-^ i s best  known'for  20 the J a l n a s e r i e s of n o v e l s .  Beginning w i t h Jalna- i n 1927,  has w r i t t e n novel a f t e r novel and u s i n g  one  set i n the  same Ontario  or more of the same characters?;  The  -  she  locality  setting for  these s t o r i e s i s the farm of a f a m i l y of wealtihy E n g l i s h immigrants  living  i n Ontario;  but  the s e t t i n g plays l i t t l e  part i n  her  novels. With two young c h i l d r e n i n a c o l d d r a f t y house; w i t h A d e l i n e ' s beauty a source of anxiety; w i t h f a r too many F r e n c h about Quebec to be c o n g e n i a l t o an E n g l i s h gentleman; w i t h a- w i n t e r temperature thati, played coyly about twenty d a z z l i n g degrees below zero; the Whiteoaks f e l t d r i v e n to f i n d a more s u i t a b l e habitation. Captain Whiteoak had a f r i e n d , a r e t i r e d Anglo-Indian c o l o n e l who had a l r e a d y s e t t l e d on the f e r t i l e shore of O n t a r i o . "Here," he wrote, "the winters are m i l d . We have l i t t l e snow, and i n the long, f r u i t f u l summer the l a n d y i e l d s g r a i n and f r u i t i n abundance. An agreeable l i t t l e settlement of r e s p e c t a b l e f a m i l i e s i s being formed. You and your t a l e n t e d lady, my dear Whiteoak, would r e c e i v e the welcome here t h a t people of your consequence m e r i t .  The  d e s c r i p t i v e passages, though w e l l w r i t t e n , r e v e a l only a  l o c a l i n t e r e s t , and'apart from these the.Canadian s e t t i n g i s of l i t t l e  or no  use.  I t i s t r u e that the J a l n a m a t e r i a l i s set i n Canada and that t h i s a f f o r d s the author an opportunity t o use her d e s c r i p t i v e powers, but otherwise the s e t t i n g might almost as w e l l be Kamchatka or Zanzibar, f o r it., does not affect;, the s t o r y i n any n o t i c e a b l e way. Moreover, the characters? behave n e i t h e r l i k e human beings i n g e n e r a l nor l i k e E n g l i s h people i n p a r t i c u l a r . s  Thus Mszo de l a Roche does not present  a n a t i o n a l - - o r even a  20. J a l n a , 1927; White oaks of Jalna,. 1929; Young Renny, 1935; Whiteoak harvest, 1936; Growth oT a Man, 1958; WhTEeoak c h r o n i c l e s , 1940; Whiteoak h e r i t a g e , 1940; Wakefield's course, 1941; Two S a p l i n g s , 1942; The b u i l d i n g of J a l n a , 1944; e t c . 21. J a l n a , Montreal, Rocket Books of Canada, 1945, 22. Rhodenizer, pp.  106  - 10 7.  pp.  18-9.  -141-  Canadian--outlook  i n her n o v e l s .  While n o v e l i s t s such as F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove and Maz.o de l a Roche were w r i t i n g novels t h a t were or were not Canadian outlook, Canadian poets were suggesting a v i t a l n a t i o n a l awareness i n t h e i r work.  Two  s i g n i f i c a n t nature poets  who  have w r i t t e n work that, i s Canadian i n s p i r i t a r e - I s a b e l E c c l e s t o n e Mackay and Annie C h a r l o t t e D a l t o n . Mackay (1875  - 1928)  was  I s a b e l Ecclestmne  born i n Woodstock, O n t a r i o , of  S c o t t i s h and E n g l i s h p a r e n t s .  A f t e r 1909  she l i v e d i n Vancouver,  and took an a c t i v e p a r t i n the work of the Canadian A u t h o r s Association.  1  Her most s i g n i f i c a n t volume from a n a t i o n a l p o i n t . 24  of  view was P i r e s of D r i f t w o o d  (1922).  Of the 98 poems i n  t h i s c o l l e c t i o n some 74 d e a l w i t h p o e t i c t o p i c s such as love or eternity, which do not l e n d themselves treatment.  to national  Of the other poems at l e a s t 13 are thoroughly  Canadian i n atmosphere. of  life,  Her poems u s u a l l y d e a l w i t h s-ubje:ot:a.  l o c a l c h a r a c t e r , but the treatment  Canadian f e e l i n g .  i s permeated w i t h a  More conscious than u s u a l , and very Canadian  i n outlook,- i s "The Gatekeeper"? which i s a r e f l e c t i o n on the 5  23. The work o f ^ F r e d e r i c k Niven, l i k e that of Miss de l a Roche, i s not g e n e r a l l y Canadian i n outlook. Born i n V a l p a r a i s o i n 1878 of S c o t t i s h parents, Mr. Niven spent most of h i s l i f e ; p r i o r t o 1920 i n S c o t l a n d . F o r t h i s reason most of h i s novels are S c o t t i s h r a t h e r than Canadian i n sentiment. In h i s l a t e r novels, however, he has presented a s i g n i f i c a n t Canadian s p i r i t , ( c f . The F l y i n g Years, 1935; Mine I n h e r i t a n c e , 1940, The T r a n s p l a n t e d , 1944). He d i e d am 1944. 24. Her other important, volume was other verse, 1918. I n 1930 M c C l e l l a n d p u b l i s h e d The complete poems of I s a b e l an a n a l y s i s of F i r e s of Driftwood, see 25.  " F i r e s of Driftwood",  The S h i n i n g Ship and and Stewart (Toronto) E c c l e s t o n e Mackay. F o r Appendix I I , T a b l e XIII,  Complete Poems, pp. 41 -  42.  -142-  g l o r y of Quebec C i t y ,  i n p e r t the poem reads?,  The  s u n l i g h t ; f a l l s on o l d Quebec^ A c i t y framed of rose and g o l d , An ancient gem more b e a u t i f u l In that, i t s beauty waxes o l d . 0 P e a r l of Cities.' I would- set You h i g h e r i n our diadem, And h i g h e r yet and h i g h e r y e t , T h a t t g e n e r a t i o n s s t i l l to be May k i n d l e at- your h i s t o r y . ' . . . .  —11.  Montcalm met Wolf e.* The b i t t e r s t r i f e Of f l a g and f l a g was ended h e r e — And every man who gave h i s l i f e Gave i t that now one f l a g may wave,' One n a t i o n r i s e upon h i s grave. —11. &  1-9.  32 -  36.  Another i n t e r e s t i n g example of her. work i s the poem "Prom the 26 trenches".  T h i s p i c t u r e s the l o n g i n g of a Canadian who  absent from h i s n a t i v e l a n d . "Oh,  to be i n England" and  The  is  poem i s s i m i l a r t o Browning's  j u s t as s i n c e r e i n f e e l i n g .  Oh, to be. i n Canada; now that Spring i s merry, Happy apple blossoms gay a g a i n s t the s m i l i n g green; Here the l i l a c ' s p u r p l e plume and here the pink of cherry, H i l l s i d e s just, a d r i f t of bloom w i t h c l o v e r i n between.' Oh, to be i n Canada-.' there's a road that rambles Through a l e a f i n g maple-wood and up a windy h i l l , V e l v e t pussy-willows press s o f t hands amid the brambles P r i n g i n g round 8 s k y - f i l l e d p o o l where c a t t l e d r i n k t h e i r fill.^ —11. 1-8. 6  But most of her work d e a l s w i t h nature,  and  an overt f e e l i n g as do p i e c e s such as those  cannot d i s p l a y such quoted above.  These a l s o r e v e a l a s i g n i f i c a n t Canadianism which i s i n h e r e n t in  the method of d e a l i n g w i t h the subject i n q u e s t i o n .  poet does not d e a l w i t h nature l o c a l f a s h i o n , but  r e v e a l s e broader i n s p i r a t i o n .  she does not d e a l wih  26. i b i d . , pp.  i n a p r o v i n c i a l or  only one  125 -  126.  l o c a l i t y , but  The  strictly Furthermore  t r e a t s many p a r t s  -143-  of Canada.  A t y p i c a l example of t h i s nature poetry i s 28  "Indian summer". I w i l l breathe a mist about me L e s t you.see my f a c e too c l e a r l y , L e s t you f o l l o w me too b o l d l y I w i l l s i l e n c e every song. Through the haze and through t h e s i l e n c e You w i l l know t h a t I am p a s s i n g ; When you break the s p e l l t h a t holds you I am gone.' — 1 1 . 9 - 16* 2  8  Another, important., poet i n t h i s group who was w r i t i n g b e f o r e the new p e r i o d i s Annie C h a r l o t t e D a l t o n Mrs. D a l t o n was born i n England, u n t i l 1904.  (1865 - 1938).  and d i d not come t o Canada  S i x years l a t e r she p u b l i s h e d h e r f i r s t  poetry, The Marriage  of Musi a.  volume of  As.-, i s to be expected,  this  volume does not i n d i c a t e much n a t i o n a l i n s p i r a t i o n ; i n s t e a d the poet  i s preoccupied w i t h r e l i g i o u s s u b j e c t s .  Her l a t e r volumes  of poetry r e v e a l a gradual a s s i m i l a t i o n i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y u n t i l i n h e r l a t e r work she becomes thoroughly Canadian i n spirit. 1926,  In a l i t t l e  chap-book, The'Ear Trumpet, w r i t t e n i n  she d i s p l a y s no n a t i o n a l sentiment,  probably because she  i s w r i t i n g i n r e p l y t o the E n g l i s h poet E d i t h S i t w e l l . d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the change i n a t t i t u d e becomes The Amber-Riders. (1929),  though mainly  But  apparent.  r e l i g i o u s i n tone,  c o n t a i n s many s i g n s of a Canadian sentiment.  Particularly  29 s i g n i f i c a n t i s the poem "The m o t o r i s t "  which i n d i c a t e s w e l l  27. c f . "The s l e e p i n g beauty"' ( " F i r e s of d r i f t w o o d " , p. 37), "Lake L o u i s e " ( " F i r e s of d r i f t w o o d " , p. 40), "The gatekeeper" ("FlE^&ooT d r i f t w o o d " , pp. 41 - 42), "The p r a i r i e s c h o o l " ("Fires; of d r i f t w o o d " , pp. 45 - 46), "A very e x c e p t i o n a l Eskimo" (("The s h i n i n g s h i p " ; pp. 25 - 26), e t c . , i n h e r Complete.- Poems. 28.  " F i r e s of d r i f t w o o d " , Complete Poems, p. 101.  2.9. The Amber-Riders*, Tornnto,  Ryerson, 1929, pp. 86 - 87.  -144-  t h i s new n a t i o n a l awareness. north, appeared volume.  Her next volume, The n e i g h i n g  two y e a r s l a t e r and i s h e r most important  I t r e v e a l s a pervading f e e l i n g f o r the country that. i B  very strong and permeates each poem, and i n d i c a t e s - t h e poet's f i n a l acceptance of Canada as h e r country. itself  "The Neighing North"  i s a f a n t a s y d e a l i n g w i t h imaginary and legendary  a c t i v i t i e s of the V i k i n g s and others i n the Canadian n o r t h c e n t u r i e s ago.  The f o l l o w i n g l i n e s from "The s k r a e l i n g s "  (a s e c t i o n of the poem) i n d i c a t e s the s p i r i t  30  of the whole poem.  Time keeps no t a l l y , Kanadiens, of those y e a r s i n your Northlands, Thousands of years, whose days were u n e v e n t f u l and barren, Gods immortal and myth-men s i t t i n g no l o n g e r together, S i t t i n g no l o n g e r t o g e t h e r and sopping i n crimson communigg, Whilst, i n the warm South empires were b u r i e d and b u i l d e d . — 1 1 . 31 - 35. 31 "I know a White Kingdom"  a l s o suggests Canada, a l t h o u g h i t i s  p r i m a r i l y a r e l i g i o u s poem; the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s are: t y p i c a l . "I know a White Kingdom--"' Never t o go t h e r e , G l a d l y t o dream of i t a l l day l o n g , G l a d l y t o plunge through i t s g l o r y and s i l e n c e — Ah.' what a kingdom f o r song.' But, f i e r c e l y t o e n t e r i t s p l e a s u r e s , F i e r c e l y t o b a t t l e i t a pain, Making a f r i e n d of a noble foe;*--Ah. what- a kingdom f o r men.' T h i s i s no country f o r weaklings: Who husband t h e i r b r e a t h , Content t o await i n aimless e x i s t e n c e , T h e i r d i g n i t y i n death.* — 1 1 . 1 - 13. 1  51  Perhaps  the best i n d i c a t i o n of a thorough Canadianism contained  i n t h i s volume i s the short b a l l a d  "The sounding portage".  30. "The s k r a e l i n g s " , "The n e i g h i n g n o r t h " , The Neighing North, Toronto, Ryerson, 1931, pp. 8 - 13. 31. "I know a white kingdom", "A white kingdom", The Neighing North, Toronto, Ryerson, 1931, pp. 31 - 32.  -145-  T i i i s p i e c e evokes a s t r o n g e r emotion than e i t h e r of the other poems quoted, piece. in  and i s t h e r e f o r e a moreppowerful and  impressive  The whole atmosphere-of the poem i s s t r o n g l y  sentiment; the suggestion of open spaces and  adventure  and t r a v e l ;  Canadian  loneliness:;oof  of brooding nature and the occupations  s u g g e s t e d — a l l l i m i t the poem t o Canada. The wind r o a r s and the r i v e r r o a r s ; Strange f o o t s t e p s h u r r y i n g by, To the r o a r i n g wind and the r o a r i n g stream Tumultuously r e p l y . The wind s i n k s and the r i v e r s i n k s ; : And the f o o t s t e p s d w i n d l i n g by, With the f a i n t i n g wind and the f a l l i n g Pause, h e s i t a t e , and d i e .  stream  T h i s i s the Sounding Portage where A mort of y e a r s ago, P u r - t r a p p e r s bound f o r the hunting-ground Came trampling t o and f r o . The red men f i r s t w i t h b i r c h canoes, The white men next, p r e v a i l ; Together, they i n h a r d s h i p t r e a d An immemorial t r a i l . Here, by the camp-fire:; t a l e s are t o l d , And s t r a n g e r t h i n g s are s a i d , How the highway then i s a by-way now And portage f o r the dead. The h u r r y i n g sounds make a man's f l e s h creep; Though he s t r i v e t o laugh and joke, When the steps draw nigh, none make r e p l y , And the s c a r l e t embers smoke. The steps draw n i g h and the r a p i d r o a r s , The l i s t e n e r s - - b r e a t h e a prayer, They t h i n k they hear f a i n t words of cheer Prom s t r u g g l i n g mortals there.. When the s t a r s ' come out w i t h rapturous shout, The nodding campers peer Through the f r i n g e of t r e e s t o the g h o s t l y stream, And l o s e i n s l e e p t h e i r f e a r ;  32. "The sounding portage", " B a l l a d s of the s u b - A r c t i c " , The. Neighing North, Toronto, RyerBon, 1931, pp. 51 - 53.  -146-  But the wind r o a r s and the r i v e r roars , And the f o o t s t e p s h u r r y i n g by, To the r o a r i n g wind and the r o a r i n g stream Tumultuously r e p l y . -  Then the; wind sinks and the r i v e r s i n k s With the f ootstepsr d w i n d l i n g by, But., the f a i n t i n g wind and the f a l l i n g stream L i k e them can never d i e . It  i s dawn and the deer a r e d r i n k i n g , For the hasty camp i s gone; And the wind r o a r s and the stream roars:; And the tramping dead move on. 2  A younger  contemporary  of these poets i s A r t h u r S.  33 Bourinot the  (b. Ottawa, 1893).  Mr. Bourinot. was a- s o l d i e r i n  Great-War of 1914 - 1918, but. h i s work does not o f t e n  reflect; this.  I n one or two p i e c e s so i n s p i r e d he d e a l s w i t h  France and England; but most of h i s work i s l i m i t e d i n s e t t i n g to Canada.  He i s p r i m a r i l y a nature poet, choosing Southern  O n t a r i o and the Ottawa R i v e r f o r h i s a r e a .  But h i s work,  though l o c a l i z e d i n s u b j e c t , i s Canadian i n s p i r i t .  Only  r a r e l y does a conscious n a t i o n a l i s m a s s e r t i t s e l f , and when i t does the r e s u l t i s not. always s i g n i f i c a n t . ; but-a r a t h e r  satis-  f a c t o r y poem of t h i s type i s "The Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n " , * 3  which i n places, i s s i n c e r e l y Canadian i n e x p r e s s i o n . Remember that thy people L i v e not by bread alone, And that the dreamer's s p i r i t O u t l a s t s the s t r o n g e s t stone. F o r g e t not that the ages Have touched the f a l s e w i t h r u s t And that- the Godless n a t i o n s L i e p r o s t r a t e i n the dust.  --11. 21 - 28.  33. H i s e a r l i e r v/ork i s w e l l represented i n the volume S e l e c t e d poems (1915 - 1935), Toronto, Macmillan, 1935. L a t e r volumes i n c l u d e Rhymes of the F r e n c h Regime (1937) and Canada at Dieppe (1942). 34. S e l e c t e d poems, Toronto, Macmillan, 1935, pp. 62 - 63.  -147-  The m a j o r i t y  of Mr*  Bourinot's  poetry  i s devoted t o nature  study based on a n a t i o n a l i n s p i r a t i o n . f a c t o r y of these poems are "The  Indian"  "Trek Song" d e a l s w i t h the migratory and  suggests the p l e a s u r e  Among the more s a t i s and  "Trek Song"-.  h a b i t s of b i r d s i n Canada,  of t h e i r nomadic l i f e .  When the snow has l e f t the hollows And the. b i r d s are f l y i n g Horth, When the winds are warm w i t h A p r i l and the r a i n , Oh, i t ' s then the f o o t s t e p s f a l t e r and the weary eyesight The ways t h a t to the w i l d e r n e s s l e a d . f o r t h . ° --11. F. R.  Scott  (b. 1899)  i s perhaps the most remarkable  n a t i o n a l poet Canada"has produced. Scott, i s the son He  i s now  Born i n Quebec C i t y ,  s a i d , has  Mr.  of the Canadian poet F r e d e r i c k George Scott..  a p r o f e s s o r at M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y i n Montreal,  a c t i v e supporter  follows 1-5,  of the C. C. F. P a r t y .  T h i s party,  as we  a n a t i o n a l p l a t f o r m i n s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t  nature of the support, i t has a t t i t u d e s i n Canada.  and  an have  the  received indicates s e c t i o n a l  As a member of this, p a r t y Mr.  S c o t t hass  taken an a c t i v e i n t e r e s t i n Canadian government, and has  found  much t.o c r i t i c i z e i n c e r t a i n p o l i c i e s which he f e e l s have been d e t r i m e n t a l to n a t i o n a l u n i t y .  A mild  satirist,  he a t t a c k s a l l 37  aspects  of Canadian s o c i e t y from a n a t i o n a l p o i n t of view.  35.  c f . Smith, pp.  302 -  38.  S e l e c t e d poems-, pp.  305. 17 -  18.  37. Other Canadian poets contemporary to Sccott have a t t a c ked v a r i o u s aspects of modern s o c i e t y . In sharp c o n t r a s t to h i s work, however, t h e i r poetry i s not n a t i o n a l or Canadian i n outlook. Most of i t d e a l s w i t h human problems, some w i t h nature.: i n a p u r e l y l o c a l manner. But s i n c e t h e i r works are. not Canadian i n s p i r i t i . i t i s n o t u s e f u l t o c o n s i d e r them here-. Included i n t h i s group are such important poets as Dorothy L i v e s a y (b. V/innipeg, 1909) and Leo Kennedy (b. England 1907, educated i n M o n t r e a l ) .  A  -148-  remarkable  example of h i s work i s the poem "An anthology of  38 up-to-date  Canadian  poetry";  which a t t a c k s a l l aspects of  Canada's c h e r i s h e d democratic l i f e  i n very b i t i n g terms.  The  f o l l o w i n g quotations a r e t y p i c a l of the whole poem. I NATURAL RESOURCES Come and see the vast n a t u r a l wealth of t h i s mine. In the short space of t e n y e a r s It has produced s i x American i n i l l i o n a i r e s And two thousand pauperized Canadian families*. --11. 1-4. VIII OUR.. INSTITUTIONS ' Meet Senator Raymond D. Belgan McLocourt Whom the Canadian people have chosen as lawmaker. He was unsparing of h i s p r i v a t e means ( o r h i s shareholders') In h e l p i n g h i s p a r t y - - s h e e r p u b l i c s p i r i t J u s t l y rewarded by the l e a s e of a power s i t e . L a t e r he was" g i v e n a c o n s t i t u e n c y i n the- Maritime ay And was famous f o r the^staunch way he got jobs f o r h i s f r i e n d s . A f t e r a few years of t h i s t r a i n i n g i n s t a t e c r a f t The death of Senator Wishwash, aged 97, (You know, the one connected w i t h the Custom's scandal) Created a vacancy i n the Upper Chamber, So H. D. B. McLocourt was accorded the 'honour.'' — 1 1 . 39-52, -  XIV LAND OF OPPORTUNITY T h i s young P o l i s h peasant. E n t i c e d t o Canada by a C.P.N;R. advertisement Of a g l o r i f i e d western homestead, Spent the best y e a r s of h i s l i f e And every cent of h i s savings T r y i n g t o make a l i v i n g from Canadian s o i l . F i n a l l y broken by the slump of wheat He d r i f t e d t o the c i t y , spent s i x months i n a l o u s y refuge, Got i n v o l v e d i n a Communist demonstration, And i s now being deported by the Canadian government. T h i s w i l l t e a c h these f o r e i g n reds The s o r t of country they've come t o . — 1 1 . 81-92.  38. C P . , v. 12, pp. 290 - 291, May 1932.  -149-  EPILOG.UE I I I I  b e l i e v e i n Canada. l o v e her as my home. honour her i n s t i t u t i o n s . r e j o i c e i n the abundance o l her r e s o u r c e s .  To her products I pledge my patrongge, And to the cause of her producers I pledge my d e v o t i o n . — 1 1 . 102 3 8  108.  39 S i m i l a r i n theme t o ,this poem i s " S o c i a l notes", p i e c e which r e v e a l s a complete  a short  awareness of the Canaddan n a t i o n .  CREDITT h i s d e l e g a t i o n of unemployed Canadians Has j u s t been informed That i f the Government spent any more on r e l i e f So that t h e i r c h i l d r e n might be d e c e n t l y clothed; and f e d The c r e d i t of the country would s u f f e r . — 1 1 . 36 - 40. GENERAL ELECTION There i s nothing l i k e hard times F o r t e a c h i n g the people t o t h i n k . By a d e c i s i v e vote A f t e r d i s c u s s i n g a l l the i s s u e s They have turned out the C o n s e r v a t i v e s And put back the L i b e r a l s . — 3 9  11. 86 - 91.  Somewhat d i f f e r e n t i n theme but a l s o q u i t e Canadian  i s the poem  40 "The Canadian  authors meet".  I t i s a b i t i n g c r i t i c i s m of the  best known poets of the country, and i s h a r d l y f a i r t o the country's l i t e r a r y  efforts..  The a i r i s heavy w i t h "Canadian" t o p i c s , And Carman, Lampman, Roberts, Campbell, S c o t t Are. measured f o r t h e i r f a i t h and philanthropies.; T h e i r z e a l f o r God and K i n g , t h e i r earnest thought. 39. CJ?., v. 15, p. 220, March 1935. L i n e s 86 - 91 c l e a r l y r e f l e c t the General E l e c t i o n of 1935. T h i s i s one of the most d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n s of Canadian h i s t o r y i n c r e a t i v e literature. 40. C.F..  v. 15, p. 338, D e c ,  1935;  Smith, p.  361.  -150-  The cakes are sweet, but sweeter the f e e l i n g That one i s mixing w i t h the l i t e r a t i ; I t . warms; the o l d and melts, the most c o n g e a l i n g . R e a l l y , i t i s a most d e l i g h t f u l p a r t y . S h a l l we go round the mulberry bush, or We gather at the r i v e r , or s h a l l we^ Appoint, a poet l a u r e a t e t h i s F a l l , . Or s h a l l we have another cup of tea?  shall  0 Canada., 0 Canada, Oh can A day go by without; new authors s p r i n g i n g . To paint, the. n a t i v e maple, and t o p l a n . More ways t o set the selfsame w e l k i n r i n g i n g ? 4 0  P r i m a r i l y nature p o e t r y , but almost feeling  as n a t i o n a l i n  as t h a t of P. R. S c o t t , i s the poetry of W i l s o n  MacDonald. Canadian  —11.9-24.  41  Born i n Cheapside,  O n t a r i o , of S c o t t i s h and  parents, Wilson MacDonald has l i v e d  except P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d .  In t h i s way  i n every p r o v i n c e  he has been a b l e t o  a p p r e c i a t e nature i n v a r i o u s l o c a l i t i e s but r e t a i n a n a t i o n a l perspective.  A s i g n i f i c a n t volume was  Wilderness.; (1926). t h i s volume ("The are d i s t i n c t l y  42  Of the 21 poems  h i s Out A*^  of the  i n the f i r s t t p a r t of.  book of the w i l d e r n e s s " ) 10—almost  Canadian  thoroughly n a t i o n a l .  half--  i n outlook, and at l e a s t 4 are.  One  of h i s most s i g n i f i c a n t , n a t i o n a l 44  p i e c e s i s "Out  of the w i l d e r n e s s "  itself.  My song i s a r o s e a t e rug, y e t not of the- Orient . Here i s the weave of i t : seaweed, c u r l e d b l a c k w i t h s a l t , Under the c o l d , h i g h c l i f f s of Gaspe; Pine-shadowed snow, at the dome of the S e l k i r k s , Burning w i t h suns and f l a m i n g w i t h moons and remaining f o r e v e r ; Sands from the r e s t l e s s and changeable dunes of Wasaga;; Slim, hardy reeds i n the broad, l o n e l y marshes 1  41. Song of the p r a i r i e l a n d and other poems, 1918; Out of the w i l d e r n e s s , 1926; A f l a g o n of beauty, 1 9 5 1 ;T h e song of the undertow and other poems, 1935; Comber Cove, 1944, etc.:. 42. Ottawa, Graphic, 1926. 44. Out  43. See Appendix I I , TableXIV.  of the W i l d e r n e s s , Ottawa, Graphic, 1926,  pp.  3 - 6.  -151-  Where James Bay f a l t e r s between her a l l e g i a n c e To land and the gray, green water; Gold s u n s . t h a t o s l i p from the world a t o A i b e r n i , Warming the. seas w i t h t h e i r f i r e s ; Threads of b l u e mist from the i n d o l e n t v a l l e y s Of the low, l o v e l y , l o u n g i n g L a u r e n t i a n s ; Sighs of the hemlock and snow-loving tamarack, Where^ the t r e e s march t o the south i n Slaskatchewan; F i r s that, l e a p up from dark C a p i l a n o Where music g l i d e s down a long s t a i r t o the sea; Orange and p u r p l e and crimson and bronze From the gay p a l e t t e of gorgeous October In the l a k e - l y r i c l a n d of Algonquin; Shadows from deep, f r o s t y f i s s u r e s whose^ waters S l i p from t h e i r t u r b u l e n t l i f e t o the h i l l - c r a d l e d Shuswap; Leaves of the red-limbed arbutus and r o s e s of red, Leaning low t o the sea i n V i c t o r i a , The a l l - l o v e l y l y r i c of c i t i e s . And, through a l l these c o l o r f u l threads of my song,.. T o l e r a n c e , t r u t h , and the k i s s of f u l l brotherhood. —11.44-70. A l l these major E n g l i s h Canadian poets, have w r i t t e n verse t h a t i s d i s t i n c t l y s i n c e 1920.  n a t i o n a l i n f l a v o u r d u r i n g the p e r i o d  The f a c t that, t h e r e are so many w i t h so widely  d i v e r g e n t i n t e r e s t s suggests the r e a l s t r e n g t h of  Canadianism  i n t h i s p e r i o d i n s p i t e of the various, p r o v i n c i a l and a t t i t u d e s a p p a r e n t . i n the h i s t o r y  of the p e r i o d .  however, c e r t a i n poets contemporary no,  or only a moderate, Canadian  cant i n t h i s group Abraham M. K l e i n poetry.  Says one  There were,  w i t h them who  spirit  r e v e a l ajfemast  i n t h e i r work.  of poets i s a .Montreal quartette-.  (b.- 1 9 0 9 ) critic,  4 5  sectional  suggests; no Canadianism  SignifiOf these,  in his  " I t i s a somewhat p a r a d o x i c a l f a c t  t h a t the g r e a t e s t l i v i n g poet i n Canada whose work i s a conscious and i n s p i r e d  e x p r e s s i o n of n a t i o n a l i s m i s not  concerned w i t h Canadian n a t i o n a l i s m , but w i t h an a l i e n , and a n c i e n t n a t i o n a l i s m - - t h a t of J u d e a . " ^ 4  Leo Kennedy '* 4  45. Hath not a Jew.. ., 1940;  The H i t l e r i a d ,  46. Smith, p. 390.  47. The Shrouding.  48. c f . page 147,  note  37.  proud,  1944;  4  ®  Poems, 1944, 1935.  -152-  (b.  1907) has not w r i t t e n many poems, hut those which he has  w r i t t e n have been w e l l r e c e i v e d by the c r i t i c s .  H i s work  reveals- no Canadian f e e l i n g , but i s s i m i l a r t o the work of the American  poet T. S. E l i o t .  i s Leo C o x  4 9  (b. 1898).  A t h i r d poet i n the M o n t r e a l  Born i n London and educated  i n England,  Mr . L G ox:'served w i t h the Canadian army d u r i n g the F i r s t War.  group  World  He a l s o has not p u b l i s h e d much poetry as y e t , but what  has appeared has at times a n a t i o n a l f l a v o u r .  Much of h i s work  i s l o c a l i n c h a r a c t e r , but. the l o c a l i s m i s not a narrow p r o v i n c i a l i s m , but a broader a p p r e c i a t i o n that suggests a blend of l o c a l and n a t i o n a l sentiments. "Father P o i n t i n A u g u s t " r e v e a l a Canadian  5 0  S i g n i f i c a n t are h i s poems  and "Labrador N i g h t " ,  sentiment.  1  5 1  b o t h of which  "Labrador N i g h t " reads,  To-night our ship i s anchored where S a n d - s i l v e r e d i s the shore, To f i n d at Havre S t . P i e r r e B l a c k g o l d of Labrador. The p i o n e e r ' s f i r s t n i g h t on l a n d , Unsteady from the seas, . Was not more s t i l l than t h i s , the sand And s t a r s the same as these T h i s c y c l e of the selfsame wind, Cooled i n f a r h i l l s of snow, And charged w i t h balsam, makes the mind At one w i t h h i s of long ago. So l i t t l e t r a v e l l e d i s the s t r e e t With g r a s s e s overgrown, There may be t r a c e s of h i s f e e t By weed and f l o w e r and stone. And a l l the houses Mo t h e r of g a i n and And every heart i n Is turned toward a  f a c e the s e a loss-piety cross. 2  49. Sheepfold, 1926; The wind i n the f i e l d , without end, 1957; North S t a r, 1941. 5X1.  c f . Bennett, p. 26.  1932; R i v e r  51. Smith, p. 311.  -153-  Ihe f o u r t h poet i n the M o n t r e a l group i s A. J . Smith  52  (h. 1902).  Edinburgh, Mr.  Born i n Montreal and  Smith has  educated at M c G i l l  c o n t r i b u t e d much to n a t i o n a l  ture, i n Canada by p u b l i s h i n g  M. and  litera-  an anthology of E n g l i s h Canadian 53  poetry which s t r e s s e s n a t i o n a l verse, n a t i o n a l i n sentiment. Phoenix  52,54  inspiration,  only and  1,  but  h i s poetry i s not  Of the 39 poems i n h i s Hews of  "The  l o n e l y land",  that h a r d l y  55  a national  the  suggests a Canadian one.  Cedar and jagged f i r u p l i f t sharp barbs a g a i n s t the gray and c l o u d - p i l e d sky; and i n the bay blown spume and w i n d r i f t and t h i n , b i t t e r spray snap at the w h i r l i n g sky; and the pine t r e e s l e a n one  way.  --11.  These, then, are the important poets and the p e r i o d from 1920 who  1 -  11.  novelists i n  to the beginning of the Second World  War  have suggested a v i t a l n a t i o n a l awareness i n t h e i r work.  On the whole they have not  r e f l e c t e d many of the v i t a l  influences  which have tended t o arouse a Canadian n a t i o n a l s p i r i t  in this  p e r i o d ; but  they have, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  nation-  alism.  same a t t i t u d e which i s evident  The  reflected a v i t a l  appears a l s o i n i n c i d e n t a l verse during  this period.  convenient to summarize the n a t i o n a l trend t a b u l a r form; but 52.  a few  i n t h e i r poetry It i s  i n such work i n  i n d i v i d u a l examples can f i r s t be c i t e d .  News of the phoenix and  other poems, Toronto,Ryerson,1943  53. The  Book of Canadian poetry, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago  54.  Appendix "II, Table  Press,  1943. See  XV.  55. News of. the phoenix, p. 19;  CP.,  v.  7, p. 309,  July  1927.  -154-  Many of the poems l i s t e d  i n Table Vvare s i n c e r e l y and  spontan-  eously Canadian i n sentiment, but only a few need be examined in detail.  N e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s necessary to remember that, the  examples c i t e d only broach--they do not e x h a u s t - t h e r  sincerely  Canadian sentiments found i n these poems. In a semi-humorous poem appearing i n The  Canadian  Forum, Si H. Hooke r e v e a l s a Canadian f e e l i n g that seems t o he more^ than s u p e r f i c i a l i n f l a v o u r .  The p i e c e never seems t o  r i s e above verse, and the tone i s s u p e r f i c i a l l y  comic; but  behind these obvious f e a t u r e s l i e s a s i n c e r e p r i d e i n contemporary a r t .  One p o r t i o n of the poem reads,  'I guess you're the only person i n Heaven Who hasn't heard of the School of Seven.' S t . Peter, he dipped h i s pen i n the ink, And s c r a t c h e d h i s head, then, ' S t r i k e me p i n k , ' S a i d he, 'I've heard of the P l e i a d e s , The seven that shine on. Northern Seas, And the seven t o r c h e s around the throne, And the seven s e a l s , but I'm f r e e to gwn I never heard of these guys b e f o r e . ' — 1 1 . 25 - 33. 5  A poet who  has p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l s i g n i f i c a n t p i e c e s  i n p e r i o d i c a l s w r i t e s under the s i g n a t u r e of 'L. A. M.'  This  poet achieves a Canadian sentiment that sounds v i t a l i n s e v e r a l p i e c e s , as i n d i c a t e d i n Table V.  The f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t i o n s are  from the poem " P i d e l i s V u l n e r a Amici", which i s a c r i t i c i s m of v a r i o u s aspects of Canadian What's our ambition? The Empire's, '  life. Why  we aim t o be  nay the whole world's granary....--11. 19-20.  Slowly grows the oak; the lank and sappy weed Shoots l i m p l y up w i t h t r u e Canadian speed....  —11.  49-50.  Say, what, remains when mines and f o r e s t s go The way of beaver, and the b u f f a l o ? . . . .  —11.  57-58.  56. "The B e a t i f i c a t i o n of the B l e s s e d James", C P • , p. 172, Feb. 1929.  v. 9,  -155-  Y/e have our f a u l t s ; but one we ne'er d i s p l a y — T o o tender j u s t i c e to the U. S. At Poor wi.ldered cousins.' Whom we f e a r and hate, And envy, and i n s u l t , and i m i t a t e . And y e t , towards -England, our a f f e c t i o n mocks The wit w i t h more ingenious paradox. Fondly we c h e r i s h her i n f i l i a l p r i d e So long as a l l the p r o f i t ' s on our s i d e . ' —11. And  143-50.  i n another p i e c e t h i s poet makes some b i t t e r comments on  Canadian p o e t r y . The one t h i n g t h a t our poets need i s — g u t s . One h a l f t h e i r work i s b i l g e ; the r e s t i s r o t , The limp e x p r e s s i o n of a f l a b b y thought.... —11. 'Here l i e s Canadian poetry; Dead, i n a H o s p i t a l of P a r a l y t i c s , Smother'd i n kindness by complacent c r i t i c s . ' Grace Tomkinson i n a poem e n t i t l e d  5  99-101,  8  --11.  130-2.  "Snow f o r  - C h r i s t m a s " ^ succeeds q u i t e w e l l i n p r e s e n t i n g a p i c t u r e of aspect of Canadian l i f e from a n a t i o n a l point, of view. sentiment i s f a i r l y r a r e because many w r i t e r s who  Her  deal with  nature or aspects of everyday l i f e f a i l t o r e v e a l any sentiment.  one  national  Because some i s present here, we must assume t h a t  the poet felt;, an unconscious Canadian r e a l and v i t a l .  sentiment that, was  very  The poem reads i n p a r t ,  Christmas. Squaws i n the market, s e l l i n g wreaths; Fat f a c e s , a n c i e n t hats and l e g o' mutton s l e e v e s , Eyes s u l l e n and heavy at the s i g h t Of r e d b e r r i e s r o a s t e d d e f t l y i n the club moss. A farmer s i d l i n g past i n a worn 'coon coat, A sheaf of s i l k y f o x p e l t s over h i s arm, Anxious l i n e s deepened by c o l d i n h i s dark-tanned f a c e ; •Want.to buy a n i c e s i l v e r f o x f o r the Missus f o r C h r i s t m a s ? ' — 11. 29 - 3 7 . 5 9  5 7. C.F., :  58. "And March 1931.  v. 12, pp. 90 - 91, Decs s p o i l - the c h i l d " , C.F.,  59. C.F;;. v. 13, p. 101, Dec.  1931.  v. 11, pp. 221 -  1932.  222,  -156-  One other poem listed in Table V that merits examination is "Pins for Canadian Wings" hy Paul Severin.  It. is  written in the free verse manner popular in contemporary English and American poetry, hut is quite Canadian in tione.  It  contains short and saucy summaries of trends in certain Canadian poets--critieisms that are in part justified. Charles G. D. Roberts Nature. in beribboned spectacles. Wilson MaoDonald Wistful rebellion in the wilderness. E. J . Pratt, Codfish in a Witches' Brew; Lloyd Roberts Hot-blooded anaemia.  A. M. Stephen Pan saying his rosary at a stampede. Arthur:S. Bourinot Rhetoric joheskies. H. T. J . Coleman Versres for: dear, ladies*; Audrey Alexandra Brown A T.ennysonian dryad singing Greek tragedy by a coal m i n e . 60  With these specimens in mind as typical of the feelings expressed in many of the poems listed in Table V, i t is appropriate to review the various expressions of national feeling evident in the poetry together with some of the more significant examples of other trends in periodical verse.  It:.  is unnecessary tio consider the trends indicated by this table now; they are similar to those suggested by the work of the major poets-we have considered, and merely indicate that these feelings are widespread and not concentrated in the work of a few writers.  General conclusions can, therefore, be drawn  later. 60. CP:., v. 17, p. 211, Sfept. 19S7.  \  TABLE V CANADIANISM in PERIODICAL POETRY SINCE"" 1920 Author  Poem-  Ainslie, M. Aquarius  Sfburceo  "Interlude " • C.FS ,"To a generation unemployed*" ,"Hochelaga" Bailey, A* GC • CjFj. Eallantyne, L. ."Canada an trails" . CT. B y "Ode for Dominion Benson, N.A-. .DVR?. Day" Bethune, N. "Red moon" Bo'ehmeri; F. von ,"Our Mister King" . . . < H F . ."Indian summer" Brander, A^.UJ. .cclc G, L ..E: "God's absolutely .01 Eg against it*" Creighton, AiB , "Maple trees;" .CCFj. Crossman, P^SP. "0 Canada^" .C.B. "Lampoon" Cynic "Canada" .CCB?. Davies-Woodrow "Canada" • C. Bv Earle, K.J. "Heigh ho" Fancott, E. .cc¥. "To a Canaddan Grant, W.E." . C^B, Immigrant "Bone-dry" . GiF*; Gordon, A4K. "In tihe night" Gordon, H.K. "Prom Canada"' Havelock, E.A* "Repatriated" Hensley, S'iW. "The Dominion of Hilgate,' H.C. Canada" "The beatification . . .c.F. Hooke, S.BJ.. of the Blessed James" "The emigrant's stone I'C.F. Hopper, C. "True drama, on False. Creek" 11  5  T  1  M,i  Sentiment  v. 17, p. 423^ March 193-8 ...Canadianism. v. 16, Oct. 19306, p» 10 ..-anti-imperial. v. 12, p. 330, June 1932. ...Canadianism, v. 6, p. 63, March 1924 ...Canadianism. v, 10, pp. 145s-6, July 193D.. surface,: nat. v. v. v. v,  17, 22, 60, 10,  p. p. p. p.  118, July 193£7 . , .Canadianism. 49, May 1942 ...Canadianism. 46, Novr. 1922.. ...Canadianism. 52, Nov. 1929 ...Canadianism.  v. v. v. v. v. v. v.  14, p. 61, Now 1933 9, p. 248, Aug.. 1927 18, p. 70, June 1938 9, p. 16-7, June- 1927 9, p. 176, June 1927 12, p. 250, April 1932. 3, Sept. 1921, p. 9  v. v. v. v. v.  1, pp. 2., pp. 10, p. 13, p, 16, p.  ...Canadianism. ...surface nat. . . . Canadian! sm. ...Canadian!sm. ...surface nat. . . . localism (vsv. nat. ...colonialism.  239-40, May 1921... colonialiem. 263-4';, Dec. 1921...Canadianism, 16, Oct. 1929 ...colonialism, 434, Jan. 1934 ...surface nat, 125, Octt, 1934 . . . surf ace nat.  v. 9, p. 172, Feb* 1929  ...Canadianism,  v. 9, p. 87, Dec* 1928 ...Canadianism, v. 13, p. 205, March 1933 ...localjfesfltt.  Ingraham, M.K Key, A.F. L. L, A.M.  "Canadian p o e t r y " .. . C P . "Rockyford,Alberta".. .CO?.; "A' r e a l u n i t e d f r o n t " . 0 £ "And s p o i l the c h i l d " . C E V " F i d e l i s Vulnera Amici Tc:;F: "Lines on a P.M." ...C.FJiT "1938 d i a l o g u e of . . . ctF. the dead." "Traffic" ...C.F. LapoihtVe, C '.Mi "I sought, freedom" ... C .F ~ "March moment" ., .cTfe. MacDonald, J . "Canada" .. McMaster, E« M a r t i n , A. "Our f a t h e r l a n d " ...01B1 Mercutio "Two-party system" .. . C..F.V N i c o l , S. "The f e s t i v a l " . . . CTF£ O'Brien, M.N. "lines;. onTlS". E l i o t " . . .C^FJ; Osborn, M. "Autumn" . .. cTF>"Spring" . . .CTF% "The A y r s h i r e muse". .cW'.' Rabson, T. "The melting pot" ...^SS* Ratz?, B. "Canada: f o r man" ... CQB. Rhodenizer,V.l " l a t e spring, i n Can. ".CBSR i d l e y , L.A.4 "There i s a l a n d " .. *CBp Ritchie,H.A. "AA Canadian i n Eng. ". .cT%Rose; A*.C »Na,ti onale« ... Ros's:, M.K. " A p r i l 1917" ...CCBB Ryan, B^A'. "0 Canada" ...C.K Sleeman, W.T?w "Pins" . .. .CF*. S e v e r i n , P. "The- A l a s k a Highway". .PI;Hi Smith, N.E. "For the V a r s i t y .. .C^B*S Smythe, M W, S Monument" TJomkinson, G.. "Snow f o r C h r i stmas"..C.F. .. .C.B; W e t h e r a l l , J.E , "Azurecwings" ir  1  !  c  v. 11, p. 407, Aug. 1931 ...Canadianism. v. 10, p. 249, Apr. 1930 ...surface nat. v. 17, p. 118, J u l y 193:7 ...Cranadianism. v. 11, pp. 221-2, March 1931;.Canadian!sm. , v. 12, pp. 90-1, Dec. 1931..Canadianism. v. 17, p. 100, June 193:7 ...Canadianism. v. 18, p. 71, June: 1938 ,. c o l o n i a l i s m . v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v. v.  13, p. 451, Sept. 1933 12, pp. 15-6, Octt. 1931 7, Oct. 1926, p. 4.07(19) 5\ p. 51, Nov; 1924 8, p. 223, J u l y 1926 14<, p. 221, March 193413, p. 3319, June 1933:.; 13, p. 62., May 1932 19, p. 157, Aug. 1939 18, p. 112, J u l y 1938 15, p. 173, FTeb. 1935 15f, pp. 326-7, Aug. 1935 7, pp. 111-2;, J u l y 1925" 12, p. 135, J u l y 1930 5, p. 277, Oct; 1923 6'i p. 216, Octt. 1924' 15, p. 3:72, Nov. 1935 9, p. 103, A p r i l 1927 7, p. 5, Jan. 1925 17, p. 211, Sept. 193,7 24, pp. 164-5, J u l y 1944 6, p. 135, June 1924  v. 13, p. 101, Dec;; 1932 v. 6, p. 109, May 1924^  •.Canadian!sm. ..Canadianism. ..Canadianism. ..Canadiariism. ..surface nat. ..Canadianism. ..Caned!ani sm. .. Cana-diani sm. ..internationalism. ..Canadiani sm. . .Canadianism. . .Canadianism. ..Canadianism. . .Canadianism. ..Canadianism, . .Canadianism, ..surface hat:. ,, Canadianism. ..surface nati. ..Canadianism. ..Americanism. . .canadianism. . .Canadianism. ..Canadianism.  -159-  Itois  much too early yet to ascertain the f u l l  effect  of the Second. World War on the development of Canadianism in literature.  There are, however, certain indications that i t  has? added much strength to that growth of nationalism which has been so widespread since the end of the F i r s t World War. Already several outstanding poets and novelists have written work with a national flavour since; the recent war began, and often under the direct:impulse of i t .  Novelists have responded  to the impulse with most success, at least, as far as the reflection of i t is concerned, but certain important poets have also suggested this inspiration in their work.  Among such  poets three--E. J . Pratt, Earle Birney and, Anne Marriott--are; particularly significant. E. J . Pratt (b. 1883:) hast;published many volumesF of 61 poetry since 1923, but.until recently very l i t t l e of i t has? been Canadian in sentiment, although he has associated himself with the literary l i f e of the country.  Mr:; Pratt was born in  Newfoundland, and that, country—the land in which he grew, up— has usually claimed his f i r s t allegiance.  Indeed he^has  admitted himself,  "at heart I shall always be a- Newfoundlander? 63 The 1932.volume Many Moods, which contains 31 poems, i l l u s 61. Newfoundland Verse, 1923; The Witches' Brew. 1925; Titans, J926; The Iron Door, 1928; The Roosevelt and the Antinoe, 1930; Verses of the Sea, 1930; Many Moods, 1932; The Titanic, 1935'; The Fable of the Goats and other poems, 1937; Brebeuf and" his Brethren, 1940; Dunkirk, 1941; S t i l l Life:: and other versej 1943:; Collected poems, 1944. Nov.,  62. Benson, N. A . , "Edwin J . Pratt", C . B . , v. 9, p. 323, 192,7.  63. See Appendix II, Table X I X .  -160-  trates this spirit well.  Only 4 poems in the group are  Canadian in any way, whereas some 20—those which deal with local nature or l i f e in general—suggest a Newfoundland flavour. Some 7 poems deal with problems of human interest, in a< nonnational manner.  This spirit, is also evident, in his 1937 poem  on fascism, The Fable.of thee Goats,  Butiin recent years Mr.  Pratt has acquired a significant Canadian outlook.  This is 65  most apparent in the long poem Brebeuf and his Brethren, published in 1940.  This poem is some eight pages longer than  the Many Moods collection, and in contrast to that volume is thoroughly Canadian in inspiration. Three hundred years have passed, and the winds of God Which blew over France are blowing once.more through the pines That bulwark the shores of the great Fresh Water Sea. Over the wastes abandoned by human tread, Where only the bittern's cry was heard at dusk; Over the lakes where the wild ducks built their nests, The skies that had banked their fires are shining again With the stars that guided the feet of Jogues and Bribeuf. 6  g  Earle Birney (b. 1904) has also written several significant poems reflecting a Canadian inspiration.  Born in  Calgary, Mr. Birney has studied OKfcono&voiLy at the Universities of B r i t i s h Columbia and Toronto, and served in the overseas army during the Second World War. His volume David and other poems (1942) suggested a Canadian attitude in places, but his second volume—Now is time (1945?)—reflects directly the influence of the Second World War.  Of the 27 poems fn Now is 6  64. Toronto, Macmillan, 1937; Collected poems, Toronto, Macmillan, 1944, pp. 289 - 302. 6fii Toronto, Macmillan, 1940; Collected poems, pp. 36-94; the quotation is from "The martyr's shrine"' " ponclusion] 11. 1-8, 1  66. See Appendix II, Table XIV.  -161time at least 5 are distinctly national in flavour. Particularly 67  so is the war poem "Joe Harris, 1913 - 1942",  which suggests  the effect of the war on a young Canadian soldier. In the.midst of life I have grown used to dwell with a gun as with a child to he petted, and to he ahsent from children. And I have grown used to cherish darkness and ditches and steel eaves as they were women, and to he ahsent from women. It is not.hard to leave these ways, could I stride from„them hack beside Canadian creeks in air unhaunted. —section 7. Thist^ quotation suggests the national influence of the Second World War in Canadian literature. 67  A third poet who hasrwritten national Canadian verse in recent years is Anne Marriott.  Born in 1913 at Victoria,  B. CJ, Miss Marriott wast;privately educated there.  She has  published three important chap-books, a l l revealing a spontanea Q  eous and pervading Canadianism.-  In these, she has treated  various aspects of Canadian life in a vigorous and enthusiastic fashion inspired by broad national sentiments. One of her more 69 attractive pieces is "Calling adventurers^", which presents a series of pictures of life in Northern Canada--the new north which has played the part in recent years in awakening Canadian feeling that the west did in preceding periods.  6 7  Here are papers, Medicine, longed-for parcels, Heavy freight no dragging portage Could have brought across the far plains. Lightning-fast they come, like lightning Slanttflashing from the sky*s roads, Pushing farther, onward, northward, * Now is time, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945, pp. 23 - 27.  68. The wind our enemy, 1939; Calling adventurers, 1941; Salt marsh and other poems, 1941. 69. Calling adventurers, Toronto, Ryerson, 1941, pp. 3-4.  -162-  Where E s k i m o s s t a n d , s l o p e d e y e - s l i t s Widened a s t h e n o i s y b i r d comes, W h i t e man r u n o u t - - s u r p r i s e d - - h o p e f u l - SureJ As h a r d m e t a l f l a s h i n g s Crack t h e s i l e n c e of t h e tundra, B r i n g i n g hope, l a u g h t e r and c o u r a g e , _ B r i n g i n g l i f e on t h e i r s t r o n g s t e e l w i n g s . g  N o v e l i s t s , as w e l l as poets work i n C a n a d a i n r e c e n t : , y e a r s .  have p u b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l  Their novels  s t r e n g t h of Canadianism i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  i s S i n c l a i r R o s s , who was b o r n  S c o t t i s h descent. w h i c h was v e r y  Canadian sentiment. appeared  misery  of p r a i r i e  a  i n 1941. life  i n aarlier  I t i s a very  extremely  the l o c a l i t y  r a t h e r than  well;  convincingly.  w i t h t h e community n o v e l i s t s  A s f o r me. and my  realistic  study  of t h e  The; n o v e l i s t  captures  he d e p i c t s one a s p e c t of I n t h i s way he i s i n l i n e  of t h e f i r s t  q u a r t e r of t h e c e n t u r y ,  d e p i c t e d i s much b r o a d e r  There  Canadian r a t h e r than  p e r i o d s i n moulding a  during lean years.  t h e C a n a d i a n s c e n e most  e a r l i e r novels.  on a S a s k a t c h e w a n f a r m , o f  H i s importanti-novel,  sense of t h e p r a i r i e s  although  n a t i o n a l i n outlook.  H i s work r e v e a l s t h e i n f l u e n c e of t h e w e s t ,  important  house,  the r e a l  One n o v e l i s t o f  i m p o r t a n c e i s , however, more r e g i o n a l t h a n This  suggest  i s * however, l i t t l e  an American s e t t i n g ;  than  i t was i n  to indicate the novel  a  i sregional  national.  The w i n d k e e p s on. When y o u s t e p o u t s i d e i t s s t r o n g h o t push i s l i k e something s o l i d p r e s s e d against the face. The s u n t h r o u g h t h e d u s t l o o k s b i g and r e d and c l o s e . Bigger, redder, closer e v e r y day. You begin t o glance at i t w i t h a doomed f e e l i n g , t h a t t h e r e ' s no e s c a p e . The d u s t i s s o t h i c k t h a t s k y and e a r t h a r e j u s t a blur. You can s c a r c e l y see t h e e l e v a t o r s a t t h e end o f town. One s t e p b e y o n d , y o u t h i n k , and y o u ' d go p l u n g i n g i n t o s p a c e . The  days a r e b l u r r e d t o o .  I t ' s wind  i n the  -163morning, wind at bedtime. Wind a l l through the night--we toss and l i e l i s t e n i n g . . . . The sand and dust drifts everywhere. It's in the food, the bedclothes, a film on the book you're reading before you can turn the page. In the morning ite's half an inch deep on the window s i l l s . Half 1 an inch again by noon. Half an inch again by evening. It begins to make an important place for i t s e l f in the routine of the day. I watch the l i t t l e drifts form. If at dusting time they're not quite high enough I'm disappointed, put off dusting sometimes half an hour to let them grow. But.if the wind has been high and they have outdrifted themselves, then I look at them incredulous, and feel a strange kind of satisfaction, as i f such height were an achievement for which credit was coming to me. The wind and the sawing eaves and the rattle of windows have madeethe house a c e l l . Sometimes i t ' s as i f we had taken shelter here, sometimes as i f we were at the bottom of a deep moaning lake. We. are quiet and tense and wary. Out muscles an^ lungs seem pitted to keep the walls from caving i n . In contrast, to As for me and my house, The Hollow: Men, by Bruce Hutchison, is distinctly national in flavour.  Born in  Prescott, Ontario, in 1901, Mr. Hutchison has been engaged in newspaper work since 1925.  This occupation has taken him to  a l l parts of Canada, and to England and the United States, thus providing an excellent background for his novel.  The Hollow  Men is the story of a newspaper correspondent who lives a restless l i f e in a remote B r i t i s h Columbia, valley, in Ottawa, and in Washington, until he finally goes off to war himself.  It is  Canadian throughout, and seems to suggest a national impulse inspired by Canada's attainment of complete autonomy.  The  following passage is distinctly national in s p i r i t . 70. As for me and my house, New-York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1941, pp. 128 - 129. 71. The Hollow Men, Toronto, Longmans, Green and Co., 1944, p. 4 X :  -164The-. size of Canadar was in the tower, the cleanliness, the f e r t i l i t y of the s o i l , the loneliness and the cruelty of the empty land. The mountains were in i t also,- the hard, blue mountains beside his father's ranch, the riven c l i f f s and canyons of Mile Thirty-One, and the baked range, the trickle of water in the ditches. A l l thee substance of Canada wasegrasped and held in the image of this mighty tower. It was an old fancy with him. He had always thought of the tower as an image and symbol. Thus t.o him, though he would not have tried to t e l l i t to anyone, the tower contained more than the substance, more than the physical proportions of Canada. The very essence, the heartbeat and breath of Canada, the unutterable yearnings of Canadians in their empty land, the feelings of lonely men on l i t t l e farms, and the agony of squalid cities, the secret lusts, the courage, the mountainous confusion of these people, a l l were somehow held in the tower, and conveyed here more clearly than in words, pictures, or songs. Hugh MacLennan (b. 1907) was born in the colliery d i s t r i c t . o f Cape Breton, and spent his early years in Nova Scotia.  He later travelled abroad to England and the United  States, and has taught in Montreal.  He has published two impor-  tant novels each containing a significant Canadian feeling. Barometer Rising (1941) is a story of the Halifax explosion of 1917 and its aftermath, and of a returned soldier who appreciates Canada as his country now that he has lived abroad. However although the national feeling is constantly apparent, throughout! the book, i t is not particularly signif icnat. too overt and conscious to sound sincere.  It. is  From the various  expressions of Canadianism present i t Beems apparent that the author was determined to be national in outlook, although he actually believeB that "there.is as yet no tradition of Canadian 72 literature." Thus throughout the book the. suthor speculates on Canada as a whole, but nowhere does he accept the fact that 72. Barometer Rising, New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1941, p. v i i ("Foreword").  -165Canada really is a nation--his country. 73  Indeed he writes,  Why was he glad to be hack? It was so much more than a man could ever put into words. Iti,was more than the ideatthati.he was young enough to see a great country move into its destiny. It..was. what-he f e l t inside himself, as a Canadian who had lived both in the United States and England. Canada at present was called a nation only because a few laws had been passed and a railway line sent from one coast to the other. In returning home he knew that he was doing more than coming back to familiar surroundings. For better or worse he was entering the future;, he was identifying himself with the still-hidden forces which were doomed to shape humanity as certainly as the tiny states of Europe had shaped the past. Canada was s t i l l hesitant, was s t i l l ham-strung by men with the mentality of Geoffry Wain. But i f there were enough Canadians like himself, half American and half-English, then the day was inevitable when -the halves would join and his country would become the central arch which united the new o r d e r . 74  On the other hand, Two Solitudes; (1945) is an important novel in which the expression of Canadian feeling is both pervading and sincere.  It is a story of the clash of races  (English and French) in Canada during the period between the First and Second World Wars. not contain long dissertations  Unlike Barometer Rising i t does on Canada as a nation and the  importance of Canada; but rather i t displays a strong and pervading Canadian feeling similar to that.evident in the work of Frederick Philip Grovey and other national Canadian novelists. It is one of the most significant examples of Canadian feeling yet to appear. In Canada, a g i r l with background could seriously consider only one of three or four professions. She could nurse, teach school, work in a library, or be a dietician; she might even work in a hospital laboratory i f she had the technical training. But whatever a g i r l chose to do in Canada, she was badly paid for i t . A l l 73. ibid  PP. 66, 70, 181, 193, 300, 310,  74. ibid  pp. 324 - 325.  etc.  -166the careers American g i r l s were making for themselves— advertising, designing, screen-writing, editing, decorating, selling, even executive posts in business organizations, law, medicine, architecture—were practically barred to women in Canada. Plenty of g i r l s tried to make their way into some of them, bu^gthev were never able to get even halfway to the top, ' Gwethalyn Graham Erichsen-Brown, another important, novelist, was born in Toronto in 1913 and lived there u n t i l she was 16; since then she has travelled abroad over many parts of Europe.  Herirecent novel, Earth and High Heaven, is a study of  race conflict in Montreal.  Primarily a study of anti-Jewish  prejudice, the novel also stresses anti-Prench feeling, based primarily on religious antagonism.  Important in the resolution  of the conflict is an election campaign in which national policies are important, and the advent.of the Warrin which racial conflict tends to subside.  The heroine, the daughter of  the wealthy Drake family of Montreal, and her lover, Marc Reiser, a prominent Jewish lawyer, debate the question of how and where in Canada they could live peacefully i f they were married.  The discussion involves the attitude of various social  circles in Montreal and Ontario; and is only resolved when David Reiser injects a tolerant attitude from a backwoods community where a l l three races are in harmony.  Throughout the book  awareness of the country as a? whole is pervading and sincere. The Happy Time (1945) by Robert Pontane is also a study of races in Canada.  But unlike Earth and High Heaven and  75. Two Solitudes. Toronto, Collins, 1945, p. 240. 76. It i s , perhaps, significant that Hugh MacLennan is the f i r s t Nova. Scotian who has written either poems or novels^which are distinctly national in flavour. Some parts of the country are probably more nationally minded than are others^  -167-  Two Solitudes i t is not a record of conflict between the various races, but the story of a successful and happy marriage between a French and Catholic man and a Scottish and Presbyterian woman. The story is set in Ottawa and displays a complete awareness of national l i f e .  Various aspects of parliamentary, cultural, and  social l i f e are discussed in a distinctly Canadian manner. Besides revealing an inherent Canadianism, i t also satirizes various phases of Ottawa and Canadian l i f e which are particularly anti-national; thus at one point the Presbyterian minister, the Catholic priest-, and the Hebrew rabbi are brought together in one scene.  In a l l , the outlook is definitely Canadian.  There have been, then, a considerable number of English Canadian poets and novelists who have written nationally inspired work in the last quarter of a century.  Their work  does not, however, reflect, the various factors in the history of the period which have tended to create a v i t a l national feeling.  Perhaps this is because there is usually a time lag  between the event and i t s reflection in literature.  The one  major exception to this condition in this period has been the Second World War, which has already inspired some significant national feeling in English Canadian literature.  Perhaps the  most.inspired nationalism has appeared in the work of various novelists.  Beginning early in the period with such immigration  novels as The Viking Heart and Hansen and developing through the thoroughly national works of Frederick Philip Grove to such important national novels as Two Solitudes and Earth and High Heaven, the Canadian novel has become the most v i t a l medium for the expression of Canadianism in English Canadian creative  -168literature. work.  Poets also have written much nationally inspired  The poetry of writers such as Isabel Ecclestone Mackay,  Annie Charlotte DaIton, and Wilson MacDonaId reveals a Canadian feeling inspired by nature, and that of writers such as Prank Scott, E , J . Pratt, and Earle Birney a national awareness inspired by a more overt interest in Canada as;aanation.  In  a l l , English Canadian literature, hasr-produced a very significant number of nationally inspired poems and novels in the last quarter of a century.  MNi§ ©ISTTOBW  &iAut' "For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believefh [trusts] in Him las personal Saviour] should not perish, but have everlasting life" (John 3:16). "In my Father's house are many mansions: if il were not so, I would have told you. I go to prepare a place for you. And. if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself,- that where I am, there ye may be also" (John 14:2, 3),  KJUot will YOU  Refected  "He that believeth [trusts] not the Son las personal Saviour] shall not see life; but the wrath of God abideth on him" (John 3:36b). "But the fearful, and unbelieving, and the abominable, and murderers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and idolaters, and all liars shall have their part in the lake which burneth with fire and brimstone: which is the second death" (Revelation 21:8). "And whosoever was not found written in the book of life was cast into the lake of fire" [hell! (Revelation 20:15).  do wik Jesus wUcU is called Chusi?  CHAPTER VI The EMERGENCE of a CANADIAN SPIRIT; CONCLUDING REMARKS?*  A considerable national feeling has arisen in Canada during the last century.  One hundred years ago there was l i t t l e  or no such feeling i n the country as a whole; to-day there undoubtedly i s . An examination, of English Canadian poetry and f i c t i o n suggests that Canadianism has emerged gradually and spread to a l l parts of the country, although i t offers no basis for an analysis of feeling in French Canada. Their ee has, however, been i n most cases a considerable time lag between the various historical factors responsible for Canadianism and their reflection i n literature, and i n some cases there has been no direct reflection at a l l .  Furthermore the strength of  such sentiment varies considerably from one part of the dominion to another.  Indeed nationalism in Canada i s primarily  the result of the broadening or narrowing of certain earlier * pioneering influences, which have lasted longer and with more strength i n some sections of Canada than in others.  But i n  general there i s to-day a v i t a l national awareness i n Canada. Three major factors which tended to create a Canadian spirit i n the period prior to Confederation were the attitude of the pioneer, a strong anti-Americanism,  and a love of the  Canadian countryside, a l l of which were v i t a l in the inhabitants of the land.  As the pioneer gradually triumphed over  natural obstacles and built a stable community i n the New  -169-  -170World he slowly acquired a strong feeling of attachment for his new land.  This feeling is often vague, and common to countries  other than Canada^ but i t has played a part in developing a :  Canadian attitude.  In the period before Confederation the Nova  Scotian poet Oliver Goldsmith suggeststthis attitude well in his poem-of 1825, The ..Rising Village.  More important in  arousing national feeling in Canada—particularly in Upper- and Lower Canada—during t h i B period was the widespread animosity to the United States.  This was largely the result of the two  American wars—the American Revolution and the War of 1812—but wassincreased by border trouble during the Rebellion of 1837 andt'&he American C i v i l War. The most significant Canadian nowel from a national point of view which dates from this p e r i o d John Richardson's Wacousta—is based on this feeling.  The  novelist himself fought in the War of 1812, and was a prisoner of war for some time.  Also significant in this novel is an  appreciation of Canadian nature, a f^olLoai which has always been a most important factor in arousing Canadian sentiments.  The  poet Charles Sangster reflects a Canadianism inspired by this attitude in the pre-Confederation period.  These, then, are the  major examples of national literature in Canada in that, period. The two most important ones, i t w i l l be noted, emanated from Upper Canada, Oliver Goldsmith being the only writer from the Maritime Provinces to suggest a Canadian appreciation.  When i t  is remembered that most writers of those times came from the Maritime Provinces, the significance of the attitude becomes apparent.  That region remained isolated and largely unaware of  any possible Canadian connection.  It is also significant  to  -171-  note, in the case of Richardson, that a time lag of almost two centuries intervened "between M s participation in the War. of 1812 and the publication of Wacousta in 1832. It was in that part of the Nineteenth Century which followed Confederation that Canadianism f i r s t developed into amajor and widespread force; in Canada.-. The spirit of the earlier period had resulted in Confederation, now Confederation increased that spirit significantly.  A direct reflection of  the new nationalism appears in the work of Charles G. D. Roberts, whose poems on "Canada" and the "Canadian Confederacy" are well-known and inspiring examples of national fervour.  In  this period also the development of the New West played an important part..in awakening national consciousness.  It took  the f u l l resources of the new nation to open up the country and build the Canadian Pacific Railway.  The poetry of Charles Mair--  Tlecumseh and Canadian Poems—is Canadian to Hie core and reflects this development.  More particularly, Pauline Johnson in her  poem "Prairie Greyhounds" suggests the national inspiration resulting from the building of the C. P. R-2 A l l these and many other new factors tended to increase Canadianism in this period. The three factors of pioneering, appreciation of Canadian nature, and antagonism to the United States, which were basic in Canadianism prior to Confederation, also continued to be important in thiB period.  The poems of Alexander  M'Lachlan—particularly "The Emigrant"t-and Isabella Valancy Crawford—particularly "Malcolm's Katie"—reveal the gradual awakening of Canadian feelings in the pioneer.  The Canadian  appreciation evident in the work of such poets as Bliss Carman  -172-  and A r c h i b a l d Lampman i s based on t h e i n f l u e n c e of Canadian nature.  And the n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t e i n K i r b y ' s The Golden Dog  i s based p r i m a r i l y on antli-Americanism.  There was, then,  c o n s i d e r a b l e widening and deepening of n a t i o n a l sentiment, i n Canada-in the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g . C o n f e d e r a t i o n . too,  In t h i s period,  many more:sections of the country produced n a t i o n a l  ature, although some s e c t i o n a l i s m was s t i l l  apparent.  liter-  Both  Nova S c o t i a and B r i t i s h Columbia f a i l e d t o produce any n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e of importance at t h i s time. to  I t . i s also  interesting  note that t h e time lag^.so apparent i n the case of R i c h a r d s o n  i s evident i n t h i s p e r i o d too.  C h a r l e s Roberts.' poems on  C o n f e d e r a t i o n d i d not appear u n t i l 1887—two decades C o n f e d e r a t i o n was a c h i e v e d .  C h a r l e s M a i r had l i v e d  after on the  p r a i r i e s some f i f t e e n y e a r s b e f o r e he. wrote Tecumseh, and Canadian B a l l a d s d i d not appear f o r a n o t h e r f i f t e e n y e a r s . Kirby i n M s  And  h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l chose the p e r i o d of the F r e n c h  regime f o r h i s Canadian treatment.  Canadian n a t i o n a l awareness  developed g r a d u a l l y i n t h i s p e r i o d , and slowly made i t s way i n t o Canadian c r e a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e ; ; In  the f i r s t  two decades of t h e TJwentieth Century  Canada made c o n s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s i n h e r e f f o r t s t o secure complete autonomy, but l a t e i n the p e r i o d some d i s u n i t y arose from Anglo-French antagonism r e s u l t i n g from t h e c o n s c r i p t i o n issue.  E a r l y i n t h e p e r i o d , however, t h e two r a c e s seemed t o  be drawing c l o s e r t o g e t h e r . them p o l i t i c a l l y , Sir  C o n f e d e r a t i o n i t s e l f had u n i t e d  and the e l e c t i o n of the L i b e r a l P a r t y under  W i l f r e d L a u r i e r i n 1896 as the new dominion government  seemed t o ensure complete unanimity i n the near f u t u r e .  This  -173-  feeling is well presented in the poems of William Henry Drummond, which are definitely Canadian in outlook.  In this  period, also, the development of the New West, played an important part in arousing Canadian feeling.  The poetry and novels  of R. J . C. Stead in particular, and also some of the poems of T. R. E . Maclnnes, suggest the influence of this inspiration in English Canadian literature.  The poetry of Robert W. Service,  when i t is Canadian, suggests a parallel impulse—the development of the New North in the Yukon.  On the other hand, the  poetry of Marjorie Pickthall suggests the continuing influence of nature in Canadian poetry.  And more particularly, the Great  War of 1914A - 1918, in which Canada played almost inspiring role, aroused in some writers a national attitude.  Poems by  Esther Kerry and Helena Coleman, in particular, suggest a Canadian feeling thus inspired. In contrast to the poetry, the English Canadian novel of this period is regional rather than national in scope.  The  important!; novels of both this and the next period ares not historical romances.  Instead the novelist now centres his  attention on some community, locality, or region in Canada and attempts to present a-true picture of i t as::.he knows i t ; he deals with the place and. time he lives in rather than with subjects romantic in place or time.  This type of novel does  not profess to be national or even Canadian, for that is not a prime concern of the creative a r t i s t .  Most of this work i s ,  then, regional in character, and sometimes i t is s t r i c t l y provincial.  The f i r s t important novelist to concentrate on one  community was Miss A. M. Teskey, whose Where the Sugar Maple  -174-  GrQUITS  i s considered the antecedant  of the community n o v e l .  The  important n o v e l i s t s of t h i s p e r i o d are Miss L. M. Montgomery w i t h her his  'Anne' and,. ' E m i l y  1  s e r i e s and C h a r l e s W.  Gordon w i t h  'Glengarry' and Western s t o r i e s . During t h i s p e r i o d i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , t o notes t h a t  s e c t i o n a l i s m weakened g e n e r a l l y i n a l l p a r t s of Canada, although Nova S c o t i a produced  little  d i s t i n c t l y Canadian i n tone. ted  or no c r e a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e t h a t  was  More p a r t s of Canada are represen-  i n the d i s t i n c t l y Canadian w r i t i n g of t h i s p e r i o d than were  i n former  ones, and the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s f a i r l y  even and  no  l o n g e r concentrated l a r g e l y i n O n t a r i o poets and n o v e l i s t s . t h i s p e r i o d , too, the time l a g between h i s t o r i c a l events t h e i r r e f l e c t i o n i n l i t e r a t u r e i s l e s s marked. to  In  and  Canadians seemc-*  have become g r a d u a l l y more and more conscious of t h e i r  n a t i o n a l i t y d u r i n g the f i r s t  two dedades of the  Twentieth  Century. In  the q u a r t e r of a century s i n c e 1920  has become even more s i g n i f i c a n t and widespread  Canadianism in English  Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , but, w i t h the major e x c e p t i o n of the Second World War,  new  national forces f a i l  t o exert much  i n f l u e n c e on i t .  The p i o n e e r i n g a t t i t u d e , which had been the  & a s i s of n a t i o n a l sentiment: i n many cases i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century, for  i s again a most important f a c t o r .  the group of n a t i o n a l novels based  I t was r e s p o n s i b l e  on the a s s i m i l a t i o n of  immigrants which began w i t h L a u r a Goodman S a l v e r s o n ' s  The  V i k i n g Heart and Augustus B r i d l e ' s Hansen and became most, important  i n the works of F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove.  Similarly,  Canadian nature continues t o exert a major u n i f y i n g f o r c e i n  -175Canada in this period.  The poetry of writers such as Isabel  Ecclestone Mackay, Annie Charlotte Dalton and Wilson MaoDonald, which is based on this impulse, is Canadian—even national—in spirit.  It was in the decade culminating in the Statute of  Westminster (1931) that Canada finally secured domplete autonomy.  This influence, combined with various aspects of  Canadian government, has aroused much unity in the country, and in poetry has provided the inspiration for P. R; Sfcott. :  Canadians have also come to appraciate the f u l l national s p i r i t of Canadian history, and much progress has been made in research in this f i e l d .  In poetry, E . J . Pratt's Brebeuf and his e/amp/e  Brethren is a notable of national feeling aroused by pride in A  Canadian history.  And finally the impact of the Second World  War has aroused a most significant g-eeling of unity in Canada. Canadians feel proud of their war record both at home and abroad, and feel sure of a national future.  The poetry of  writers such as Earle Birney is based on this important feeling,  and the novels of writers such as Hugh MacLennan,  Bruce Hutchison and Gwethalyn Graham-reflects i t most significantly. In the last quarter of a century, also, national literature has appeared in significant quantity in a l l parts of the country.  Each province has its own distinctly Canadian  writers, and, in general, as many as. any other.  Thus section-  alism has begun to disappear in Canada.  significant,  It is  also, to note that the time lag has in some cases—particularly following the Second World War—become negligible.  This is  important, for i t suggests that national awareness is now so  -176prominent  i n Canada t h a t i t i s spontaneous and i n t r i n s i c  even  i n the f i n e a r t s of the country. Canadianism i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e — a s  elsewhere—  has r e s u l t e d from the broadening or narrowing of c e r t a i n earlier  tendencies.  L o c a l f e e l i n g s have ceased t o be p r o v i n c i a l  and have become r e g i o n a l , then Canadian, and f i n a l l y n a t i o n a l i n scope.  The p i o n e e r i n g s p i r i t of the New  passed as the country has become c i v i l i z e d , distinctly  Canadian a t t i t u d e .  foririerly c o l o n i a l ,  And  distinctly World  and narrowed  has  into a  sentiments that were.  i m p e r i a l or American have g r a d u a l l y become  l i m i t e d t o Canada i t s e l f .  Thus very g r a d u a l l y d u r i n g the l a s t  century Canadianism has emerged and spread throughout a l l s e c t i o n s of the country.  Canada i s how  completely independent,  and i s d e v e l o p i n g her n a t i o n a l l i f e more and more.  To-day<r-  t h e r e remains much a n t i - n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g i n many s e c t i o n s of the  land.  But i t . seems l i k e l y : that i f Canadianism continues to  grow at the r a t e i t A  has grown i n recent y e a r s a n t i - n a t i o n a l  f e e l i n g s w i l l soon be n e g l i g i b l e .  Indeed the: p r o s p e c t s f o r .  Canada as a n a t i o n seem q u i t e b r i g h t .  I f the s p i r i t of  The Happy Time becomes more g e n e r a l n a t i o n a l w i l l j  come n a t u r a l l y t o every Canadian.  eventually  APPENDIX I POPULATION of CANADA, 1806 - 1931 TABLE I POPULATION by PROVINCES:'-'PRIOR to CONFEDERATION (Burpee, L . J . , Ah historical atlas of Canada, Tloronto, Nelson, 1928, p. 33.) «  <  •Date: Assim• Upper:: : Lower iboia; Canada" : Canada •1806: •1814:  » M  •1817:  —  •1822:  —  M  70, 718:  250,000:  95} 000 ]  335,000:  35,000: 9,676 i 65,000: (estt):  :  :  -  •  <  :  •1834 •3,356  :  321,145  •183:8  :  !  339,422  •1841  :  •  455,688  :  —  mm mm  •1831 •2,390 . 236,702 .  •1844  81,351:  479,288  •1827:  —  :  74,176.  150,066; —  —  427,465:  :  •1824 •1825:  •  : New Brunsjr Prince: Nova : : Edward: Sootia: : wick Island:  :  >  • •  -  mm aa mm mm mm  —  553,131-  123,630: (with : : C. IP.):  > ' . 119,547 •: -  —  —  :  •202, 575:  :  •45,042 •  697,084  •1849 •5,391 •1851  :  —  j  952,004-•  890,261 •  193,800  :  —  1 276, 854;  •1856 •6,691 •1861  :  •1,396,091 •1,111,566 •  -177-  252,047 •80,857 •330,857  POPULATION by PROVINCES, 1871 - 1931 (Burpee, L . J . , Ah historical atlas of Canada, Toronto, Nelson, 1928, p. 33; figures f u r 1931 from The Canada Year Book, " l 941, p. xv, -where the other figures also appear.) •  : :  Province or Territory  :  1871  •  1881  •  •  1891  1901  •  1911  •  1921  •  1931  :  .•Prince Edward Island •  94,021 •  108,891 •  109,078  103,259 •  93,728 :  88,615:•  88,038:  :Nova Scotia - - - - •  387,800 •  440,572 :  450,396  459,5:74,•  492,338 !  523,83:7 •  512,846:  :New Brunswick - - - •  285,594 •  321,233 •  321,263  331,120 •  351,889  387, 876  408,219:  :  :Quebec  - - - - - - •1,191,516 ; 1,3519,027 •1,488,535  648,898 •2,005, 7S6 ! 2,361,199 :£2p874*i255:  :Ontario  - - - - - - •1,620,851 •1,926,922 • 2,1141,321  182,947 2, 927,292:'2,933,662: 3,431,683:  : Manitoba . . . . . • :Saskatchewan  25,288  62, 260 ;  255,211-  461,394:  610,118:  700,139:  91,2.79:  492,432:  75:7,510:  921,785:  :  73,022:  374,295;:  588,454:  73.1,605:  98,173::  178,657:  392,480:  524,582:  694,263:  27, 219:  8,512:  4,157:  4,230:  20,129:  6,507*  7, 988.  9, 723:  152,506  - - - .  :Alberta - - - - - -  ;  ;  :British Columbia^ - :  36,247:  —  -  —  ,  <  4S,459  :  :Yukon Territory - - « :N.-W. Territories - •• :  Total  48,000:  56,446  98,967]  - - - - - : 3, 689, 257•4, 324,810 ! 4, 833^ 23:9..5, 371, 315: 7,206,643:. 8, 787,498:,10,376, 786:  T'ABLE III RACIAL ST'Aff'I ST1CS'-- CENSUS of 1921 (Burpee, p. 33) :  9  Race  :English - - :Irish :Scottiish / :French ~ '- :German - - :Austrian - :Dutch : Sic and ana vi an :Russian - - :Ukranian - -  •  ;[Prince : Nova ; New\ •• Quebecc : Ontario . Edward ,, Scotia: Bruns- . :Island : wick] - ': : - ; - 5 - : -  23,313:•202,106: 131, 604,: 196,982: 1,211,660 18,743 55^, 712: 68,670 : 94,947- 530,493 33|4J73 : 148,000! 51,308 : 63.V 915; 46^,400 11,971.; 56,619 :121,111 :1, 889,277 : 248,2:755 260 : 2.7,046:: 1,6^98 : 4<;tT6B,: 130,5)45; 682-,; 2: 80 : 11,790 1,901 : 11,5D6 I 3,698 : 5.0,5:12 1,413. 23L9.: 1,333,: 2,142.: - ; 12, 716 2,219 520 : 185 : 8,60E 2,802 ! : 389 • 1 » : 3: 8,307 1.176 :  :Totals: - - - - \ 87,966 •503.^913 •380,499 •2,25:9,300 •2,738,303 649 ! 19,924 : 7,3.77 : 101,899 ; 195,35-9 :Other razees*.- - : : Total populati on • 88,615.• 523, 83:7• 3:87, 876•2,361,199 •2,933,662: : of provinces.. •  :  Race  :English - - :Irish . . . . : Scottish . . :French - - :German - - :AUstrian . . :Dutch - - - : Sc and ana vi an :Russian . . . :Ukranian - -  : ManiS&sk— •Alberta • B r i t i s h -•T'ottal of ;Columbia- -•Race in • tboa- ! atch; ewan •Ninei•Provinces . . . . . ~  •170,2:86 •206,872:.•180,4-78 • : 71,414s: 84,786-• 68,246 : : 105,034: 104,678• 96,062 j ! 40,638 • 42,1524 30,913 : ; 19,444 ; 68,202:• 35,33$ ! ! 31,035 : 39,738 I 19,430 ! : 20,728 : 16', 63:8 ; 9,490 : : 26,698 : 58,382 : 44,545 : ! 14,009 : 45*343.- 21,212 : ; 44.129 : 28,097- 23,827 :  221,145-'2,5414,106 54,298 •1,107,309 104,965 :1,172,799 11,246. 2,452, 202 7^23:7-; 294,469 2,993 : 107,651 3,306 : 117,471 £ 9 , 0 0 2 : 167,037 7,373'• 100,050 793 : 106,721  :Totals - - - - • 543:, 415:!'6:94,489j 52:9,536 • :Other races - . : 66, 703 63,021 SS, 918 :  432,394- 8,169,815 92:, 188 • 606,03:8  :T-Ottarl population •610,118 • 75.7, 510 ! 588, 445;1 : of provinces  524,582 • 8, 75:5, 855  :  Yukon, 4,15t7; N.-W. Territories,  r  7,988; Navy,485-.lg,630  Total population of Canada, (census of 1921) - 48,788,485  APPENDIX II ANALYSIS of THEMES CHOSEN by ENGLISH CANADIAN POETS The following tables illustrate the various themes emphasized in certain significant volumes of poetry in Canada;. A l l classifications are: vague and indefinite, but these do show the various fields that have interested the poets in question. Eaoh volume has-been discussed in its:; appropriate: in the thesis. Numbers following each poem indicate.pagination. The following symbols are:used: # - - to indicate a thoroughly national poem, x - - to indicate- a poem that, is Canadian in flavour, but does; not suggests a national awareness:; TABLE I CHARLES?-SANGSTER HeaperuB and other poems and l y r i c s , Montreal, Lovell, Kingston, Creighton, 1860. — 4 9 poems. love - 14.  life - 7  Crowned" - 29 x"Ma-riline" - 30 "Eva" - 76 "Lost and found""- 96 "The star" - 104 "Love and, truth" - 109 "Rose" - 116 x"Gertrude" - 121 "Within thine eyes" - 120 "True love" - 126 "Song, Clara and I" - 130 "Good night" - 134 "Hopeless" - 138 "Into the silent land" - 139 11  •  •  •  pastoral - 2 "Colin" - 68 "I'd be a fairy king" - 89 *  m  "Song, Love while you may" - 91 "Young again" - 99 "Glimpses" - 100 1  "The myBtery" - 107  "Ingratitude" - 125 "An evening thought." - 127 "The swallows" - 129 •  •  •  l i f e , religion and eternity - 7 "Hesperus" - 11 "Malcolm" - 61 "The comet, October, 1858" - 63 "Margery" - 70 "My prayer" - 102 "Grandpere" - 113 "Yearnings" - 124 •  •  •  the poet - 2  «  colonial - 2 "The wine of song" - 78 #"A royal welcome" - 59 "The poet's recompense" - 77 #"England's hope and England's heir" - 114. 1  -180-  -181-  Canadian nature - 7  localism - 4  #"The happy harvesters" - 40 x"The wren" - 111 #"The f a l l s of the Chaudiere»-53 "Night..and morning" - 119 x"Autumn ode" - 41 "Flowers" - 122 x"Autumn" - 65 "A thought for spring"' - 128 x"The snows" - 92 . . . x"The rapid" - 94 Canadian - 4 x"The April snowstorm, 1852"-132#"The Plains of Abraham" - 80 . . . ' #"Death of Wolfe""- 83 number of poems....49. #"Brock" - 84 distinctly n a t i o n a l . . . . 8. #"Song. of Canada" - 86 regional Canadianism....8.  TABLE II CHARLES MAIR Dreamland and other poems, Montreal, Dawson, London, Low, 1868; reprinted in Garvin, J . W., ed., MasterWorks of Canadian Authors, Toronto, Radisson Society, 1926, pp. lxix - 74. — 33 poems. description, not Canadian - 7. "The morning-land" - 9 "Innonence" - 20 "To a morning cloud" - 26 "Summer" - 37 "The fireflies" - 55 2 sonnets, pp. 71 - 74 ;  •  •  •  description, Canadian - 6. x"The pines" - 6 x"The North Wind's tale""- 10 x"Address to a maid" - 32 x"Winter" - 35 x«Alice" - 46 x"Prologue to Tecumseh" - 51 •  •  •  the Indian - 1. #"Night<, and morn" - 18 •  •  •  number of poems...,33. distinctly national....2. regional Canadianism....6.  l i f e and death - 16. "Dreamland" - 1 "The beautiful land bj) the sea" - 23 "The*, l i t t l e wren" - 24 "My love" - 43 "To my photograph" - 47 "Stanzas from the heart" - 49 "Werter:"'-'- 54^ . "Frowns and smiles" - 58 "To memory" - 62 "The lament of Andromache" - 66 #"In memory of Thomas D'Arcy McGee" - 67 5 sonnets, pp. 71 - 74 *  •  •  local - 3.  "Lines to Mount. Sti. Patrick"-30 "August" - 5:9 "Wood-notes" - 63;  -182-  TjABEE^III  CHARLES MAIR 0  "Canaddan poems", Tecumseh. a-drama;, and Canadian poems-, Toronto, Briggs'j 1901; r e p r i n t e d i n Garvin, J . W., ed., Me/ster-Works of Canadian Authors, Toronto, Radisson S o c i e t y , 1926, 221 - 268. 21 poems. Canadian, d e s c r i p t i o n - 2. x"The l a s t b i s o n " - 237 x"0pen the bay" - 255 Canadian, the I n d i a n - 4.  d e s c r i p t i o n , not. Canadian "Vain r e g r e t s " - 253 "Abscence" - 259 "The r i v e r of pain"' - 260 8 poems, pp. 264:268. •  #The legend of C h i l e e l i " . - 222 # M i s s i p o w i s t i c " - 242 #The I r o q u o i s at the stake" - 247 #Kanata" - 251 numberrof: poems.... 21 distinctly national.... 7 r e g i o n a l Canadianism.... 2.  11.  •  •  religion -  1.  "Demos Tyrannus" . . . Canadian - 3.  262  #"A b a l l a d f o r r b r avee women" #"In memory of W i l l i a m AA P o s t e r " - 2S'7 #"Cabot!' - 261  -233  TABLE- IV ALEXANDER M'LACHLAN Thee p o e t i c a l w o r k s of A1 exa nd er • M' La. c h i an, Brdg&s, 1900. — 158*" poems. iifl  and  eternity -  30  life -  Toronto,  26  "A dream" - 43 " L i f e ' s ? c o n t r a d i c t i o n s " - 37 "On the,death of" - 45 "To a b e a u t i f u l c h i l d " - 38 "Who knows" - 48 "A wreck" - 55 "Fate" -' 50 "The stamp of manhood" - 77 "A v i s i o n " - 5:7 "Mammon's^ i n the way" - 78 "GKaun hame"' - 66 "The s p i r i t i of the p r e s s " - 98 x"To an I n d i a n s k u l l " - 6 9 "The l i f e of man" - 120 "The old, r u i n grey" - 79 "My mother" - 132 "The seer" - 80 " C u r l i n g song" - 139 "The r u i n e d temple" - 84 x "Sparking" - 195 "Change" - 86 x "The p i c n i c " - 196 "David, -King of I s r a e l " - 90 "Auld Hawkie" - 304 "The H a l l s of Holyrood" - 101 "My o l d SchoolmasteT" - 314 "We're a.' Jojjm Tamson's B a i r n s "-143 "Poverty *BU c h i l d " - 364 x«The h a l l of shadows" - 157 "A p o r t r a i t , of Auld Hawkie"-34K " I n f i n i t e " - 160 "A lang-hefidit l a d d i e " - 347 11  -183-  "The c r i n g e r rebuked" - 362 "Ah, me.'" - 167 "Go i n t o debt""- 372 "Mystery" - 168 "We l e a r n . o n one another" - 3.75 " S t a r s * - 169 "What, poor l i t t l e f e l l o w s " - 3:76 "Atitiumn" - 171 "Worth" - .378 "Thee e a r l y b l u e b i r d " - 179 189 " I f you wouldc.be master" - 379 "The s p i r i t ! of d e v o t i o n " "The-, hero" - 381 x"Neighbour John" - 202 "-264"Lang syne" - 383 "The backwoods p h i l o s o p h e r "Past and p r e s e n t " - 295 "I long n o t . f o r r i c h e s " - 385 "Thomas Carlyle'"-- 30-8 "Run Auld Adam i n " - 386 "Daft;.Jamie" - 333 "Ahead of h i s time" - 349 r e l i g i o u s - 20. "We're a l l a f l o a t " - 380 "Old s k i n f l i n t ' s r dream" - 389 "Cowardice" - 35 "Man" - 41 • • • "Old Hannah" - 54 l o v e - 16. "Poverty's compensations" - 88 "Gladstone" - 96 "Women" - 74 "Watchers are weary" - 124 "Martha" - 75 " P a i s l e y Abbey" - 129 "Cartha a g a i n " - 102 "Prologue" - 152; "We ee Mary"' - 102 "God" - 153 "Love" - 138 "Awful s p i r i t " - 163 "Mary White" - 140 "Sing me that, song, a g a i n " -- 1 4 1 " S e t t l e r ' s f i r s t ' Sabbath Dayi'259 - 144"Dr. Burns" - 266 "The flower- of t h e speed" . x"The s e t t l e r ' s p r a y e r " - 270 " J e a n n i e ' s r l o c k s " - 146 "Johnny keeps the key o't". 147"The f i s h e r m a n Is w i f e " - 291' "Auld Hawkie'ssD.ream" - 324 " C h a r l o c h ban" - 147 "My grandfather'SL; B i b l e " - 336 "Lovely A l i c e " - 148 "The r a d i c a l " - 35:9 "Woman" - 149 " T r a d i t i o n s " - 367 "Lady Jane" - 150 "My l o v e i s l i k e the l i l y " . 142"A song of c h a r i t y " - 37? "Clamina" - 384 "John Tamson.'s Address" - 393 5  S c o t t i s h - 24.  freedom - 13.  "Where' e r we may wander" -36 "Garibaldi""'- 73 "Up and be a hero'" - 93 " S i r C o l i n " - 71 "Pars-in the f o r e s t shade" 153"Robert. Burns" - 94 x"The pines;'' _ 166 "Memories of a S c o t t i s h l i t "May" - 170 e r a t u r e " - 99 "Sighs i n t h e c i t y " - 191 "1 winnaf gae hame" - 104 "The g i p s y b l o o d " - 200 "Scotland r e v i s i t e d " - 107 "Reccollectlons of Clydesdalei'109 "'Acres of h i s own" - 201 x«The man who riose. f r:om n o t h i n g J! 204 "The;. SSfeotJ - 122 x"A backwoods^hero" - 278 "Awakened memories" - 113 "The*?knight of E l l e r . s l i e " - 3 0 6 "A, v i s i o n of boyhood""- 135 x"Wilson's grave" - 368 x"Hallowe'en""- 284 "The p a s s i n g of j o l l i t y " - 382 "The wee, l a d d i e ' s summer dayi'288 "When we. were boys t o g e t h e r ^ 290 Canadian - 8. "The d e a t h of Evan Dhu" - 293 "Provost. John M'Rae" - 300 #"Indian Siummer." - 180 "To Hugh M'Donald" - 311 ^•Oct'Obier"'- 185 • "AuldcGranny Boon" - 318 #"The genius of Canada" - 194 "The Warlock o ' G r y f f e " " - 328 1  1  1  1  1  6  -184-  # "The; men of the dominion"-205 "Daf ti. Maggie"'> 339 #"Young Canada" - 207 "The,= S e m p h i l l L o r d s " - 346 #"Hurrah f o r thee new dom. "-208""0de on the d e a t h of Robert #"The Emigrant" - 209-256 T a n n a h i l l " - 369 #"Firec- i n the. woods*' - 2.74 "Sfc^t&andc" 5.333 73 . "'John Fra®er'a; f a r e w e l l " - 388 nature .- 9. "OlduAdam" - 321 '.'Day"' - 172 "Sunset" - 173 "Morning" - 174 "Dawn" - 175 "The song of the sun"' - 176 "Bobolink" - 182 "To a; humming-bird" - 183 "May morning" - 187 "Whip-poor-will" - 188  •  •  "Britannia?"' - 32:, "The,. Anglo-Saxon"'--  •  love  •  •  •  of animals - 4.  "Auld Towser." -116 "The old. wan horsed"- 118 "Old Hossi" - 282 "Poor donkey""- 370  1  •  •  the f i n e a r t s - 6 -"Heroes;'? - 311 "The poet t o the p a i n t e r " - 62 "Music" - 67 "Poesy" - 126 "Companionship i n books" - 257 "Burns" - 397  •  i m p e r i a l - 2.  •  •  33  •  number of poems.... 158. d i s t i n c t l y ! " . . 8. r e g i o n a l Canadianism....11.  TABLE V ISABELLA VALANCY CRAWFORD Garvin, J . W., ed., The, c o l l e c t e d poems of ^ I s a b e l l a Valayicy Cfrawf prd, Toronto, Br3ggs, 1905. -- 86 poems, t  l o v e - 33.  life  and e t e r n i t y - 27.  "Love's&f orget-mec-noti.""- 33 "AAperf eat . s t r a i n " - 38 "Where, l o v e , artt.hid?" - 40 x"La b l a n c h i s s e u s e " - 41  "Said the daisy'"'- 341 x"The camp of s o u l s " - 52 "The mother's?'soul" '- 55 "Thee: i n s p i r a t i en of song"- 53 "The k i n g ' S 3 k i s s L " - 43 "Fa-bjy' s s dreams!.'.' - 60 "Said, the wind" - 644 . " F a i r y toil" - 50 "Who sees a v i s i o n " - 74 " S y l v i u s t o Chi o r i s " - 51 "Erin'ss warning" - 80 "Said the s k y l a r k " - 62 "Besides the sea;" - 82 "Said the canoe"' - 67 "The s a i l o r and h i s b r i d e " - 8 4 "Wealth" - 85 "The hidden room" - 86 "True and f a l s e " - 88 " F a i t h , hope and c h a r i t y " - 10 7 "Love and reason" - 90 '"Love amongsttthe. rossesi?! - 92: " L i f e " - 123 "He a r o s e " " - 145 "•Mary»ss t r y set!' - 95 " L a t e c l o v e d — w e l l l o v e d " - 100 "His c i a y " - 145 "The k i n g »se garmentBV - 147 "Bouche-mignonne" - 104 1  1  1  !  -185"The burger-meister.'s welli'108"The legend of the mistlet.oe.fi 152 "Siaid the thistle-down" - 110 "In exchangeef on.- his soul" - 161 "Love me, loves my dog" - 113 "The earth waxeth old."' - 163 "The king is dead.'" - 166 "The shell" - 114 x"The ghostsr. of the trees;." - 172 "Love in a.diary"' - 117 x"Canada to England" - 236 "The Helot" - 129 x"Tbrontto" - 23:9 x"T.he l i l y bed" - 169 "Egyptt, I die.'" - 2SD "Gisli, the chieftan" - 177 "Old Spense" - 279 #"Malcolm's Katie" - 193 "Between the wind and the raini'243 "The deacon and hisf:daugh"The wishing' star" - 248 x ter" - 290 "Vashtd, the queen" - 251 "Farmer Stebbin's: opinions"-294 "Curtius" - 256 "My Irish love" - 260 l i f e - 16. "The Rowan tree" - 301 "My ain b'onnie lass" - 305) x"A/.harvestt song" - 36 " Caesar' s: wif e " - 246 "The rose" - 39 "Good-bye's^ the word" - 47 • • • "Laughter" -49 nature? - 8. "Songs for the soldi era-?' - 70 "The. city tree" - 97 "Mavourneen" - 76 !  :  "The s t a g " - 78 "Joy's city" - 103 "Thev:ChristmasBbahy" "RoBessin Madrid^ - 93 "The p o e t l o f the s p r i n g " - ie8'*WarL" - 1554  118  !  "Said the west wind<" - 240 "The vesper, star" - 253J. "An interregnum" - 253 "AAbattle" - 255 Canadian - 2.  #"The rose, of a nation's thanks" - 45 #"01d spooksessJ pass" - 265 r  "The sword" - 15:7 "Peace*" - 15^ x"Sfeptember in Toronto" - 149 "Esther" - 241 "The farmen'SBdaughter"'• - 2:98 I ' U l l lauch to see the year . in" - 303 "A hungry day" - 306 ;  •  •  •  number of poeme. . . . 86. distinctly n a t i o n a l . . . . 3 . regional Canadianism....9,  TABLE Vr  CHARLESSG. D. ROBERT'S Poems. Boston, Page> 1907. local - 34.  —  182 poems.  l i f e , nature and eternity - 29.  "To G. B7.' B8" - 15 "Autochthon" - 15: "The frosted pane" - 39 "Kinship" - 17 "The furrow" - 46 "Origins" - 18 "Thee: sower" - 46 ««0 Thou who bidd'st," - 19 "The waking earth" - 47 "An April adoration" - 20 "Tib Fredericton in May-time*47"Ah oblation" - 20 n cow pasture" - 48 "Thee quest! of the arbutus" - 24 "Frogs;" - 49 #«In the orchard" - 27 "The. herring weir"'- 49 "The heal-all" - 27 :  -186"The salt flats" - 50 "ButterfliesA' - 29 "The f ir. woodsfi"- 50 "Ah epitaph fox*- er hush andmanJ! 30 "The peas.fl eld*" - 51 "Epitaph for. a sailor?' - 31 "The mowing;.'! - 51 "The- litttleef ieldl of peaae" - 31 "When the cattle come to drinki!52 "At tides watier" - 32 "Burnt- lands*' - 5.2? "Thee uns&eeping" - 34 "The clearing" - 53 "Recessional" - 353 "The summer, pool" - 5S:> "E&rth comp.liesiV - 36 "Buckwheatt?' - 54i "Tw/o spheres;!"- 4.0 "The cicada in the firs'' - 54."Immanence? - 41 "In September.)" - 55 "Ascription" - 41 "The potato harvesti" - 56 "AAchild's prayer at aveningi'412 "The. oat-threshing" - 56 «Ac ro sssthes flogs" - 455 "The autumn thistlesE? - 5f7.< "AA vestpear sonnet'" - 55" "Indian summer*' - 5:7 "The ;sMitlheasi©ftfthe frost"-5;9 "The pumpkins i n the eorn"-58 "The train among the h i l l B " - 64 "The winter fields" - 58 "BlomidlOn" - 68 "In an old barn" - 5:9 "The nightt sky" - 6:8 "Mldwinterrtihaw" - 60 "In the.'wide awe!' - 69 "The flight!of the geese" -60 "0 Solitary" - 69 "The wood frolic", - 83 . . . "The tide on Tantramar" - 85 missing - 4 poems, pp. 65 - 66. "Whitewaters" - 90 (probable-theme - eternity) "The f oresttf ire" - 95 "Ave."" - 3 "Mistt'"- 65 "Tides*' - 65f:. imperial - 45. "Dark" - 66 "Moonlight," - 66 "Khartoum" - 6>7 . . . . "The-:. Laughing Sally" - 73 l i f e - 16. "Kinsmen strong" - 123 "ffohnathan and John" - 124 "The Jonquil""- 22c. . . ". "Resurrection" - 22 Canadian - 9. ."Affiot""- 23 "The pipes of Pan" - 25 x"When milking-tlme is doneJJ48 "A song of growth'" - 28 ^"Collect for Dominion Day"-63:. "Recompense" - 29 x"The succour of Gluskap""- 75; "Renewal" - 33: x"The vengeanceeof Gluskap"-77 "AAbreathing time" - 33o x"How the Mohawks, seti out. "The/solitary woodsman" - 3/7 f:6rxMedotied" - 79 "The*: skater" - 39 #"TJhe keepers of the pass" -98 "The. slave woman" - 63 • #"Ganada" - 125 "Rain" - 64#"Ah odeefor the Canadian "The deserttedi.: city" - 67 Confederacy" - 127 "The. ballad of crossing the #"Canadian streams" - 128 brook" - 81 "Marjory" - 97 American - 22 poems, pp.l05-119"A ballad of Manila Bay" - 100 ("New York Nocturnes") . . . . . . American - 64- poems, pp. 130-190 number of poems....182; ("Mi seellaneous") written in United States....86. . . . remainder.... 96. distinctly n a t i o n a l . . . . 6 . regional Canadianism....4. 1  :  -187-  TABUSEWI  ROBERT' J . C. STEAD; Kitchener and other; poems, Toronto, Musson, 1917. -57 poems, wan-and peace - 15.  lovei l i f e and eternity - 14.  x"We were men of the furrow"-12 "Prodigal s t i l l " - 316 "Claxenccee and. John" - 75b "The warrlord" - 15:. x"The healer" - 96 x"June, 1915" - 16 x"A£. prairie heroine" - 115 "To Prance" - 18 "Why don't they cheer?? - 20 x«Gfoing. home" - 122 "GCodo'ss signalman" - 12:7 "The veterans:" - 23 "Justtbe giad" - 132 "The? visitlor!" - 25 "Retrospect" - 134 "He sleeps: in Planderst'.' - 2:7 "Thes sufferers:'' - 139 "The dragon" - 28 "The plough" - 138 "The soldier's wife" - 30 ""Thou shalt not stieal"" - 155 x"The man of the.-house" - 53o "The?:earrly days" - 157 "Daddy'SEhelper" - 80 "The homesteader to his dog!'160 "The attached" - 31 "The unattached" - 33 "My beloved" - 162 "The submarine!' - 34 • • • regional description - 10 colonial and imperial - 12. x'»In the wheat,'' - 22 x"The seer" - 58 "Kitchener" - 3 x"Prairie-born" - 62 "The awakening" - 4 x"Theemothering'!'- 68 "England" - 6' x"Littie Tim Trotter" - e3 "Thecoarll" - 8 x"Kid McCann" - 85 "Heroessof peace." - 38 x"Hustlin' in my Jeans'" - 91 "The empire: builders" - 3:9 x"The. prairie " - 1336 "East!; and west!! - 40 x"The homesteader." - 142. "Mother-and son" - 5.0 x"The terror" - 152: "The charity ward<!« - 55 "The old guard;" - 66' • • • Canadian - 6 "The silent ships"'- 71 x"The gramophone" - 145 #"Manhood's. estate" - 42 #"The: mixer" - 44 number of poems....57. #"The-school-ma'am" - 73 di stinetuLy nati o n a l . . . . 6. #"Alkali Hall" - 100 regional Canadianism....17. #"The squad of one" - 105 #"The son of Marquis Hoodie"-110 1  r  ,!  . . .  1  TABLE VIII WILLIAM HENRY DRIMMQND Johnnie Courteau and other poems. New York, Putnam, 1901. (pagination from Collected poems. Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1926). '— 34 poems. 1  -188-  local - 6.  lifec:- 9  x T'he oysterr schooner;" - 1317 x Bateese the lucky man" - 144 x"The "Rose.Delima"" - 199 "Phil-o-Rum's canoe" - 242"Little mouse" - 210 "Tihe log Jjiam" - 246 x"Litttle Bateeee*! - 220 "The red ©anoe" - 255:. "Dreams'"- 229 . . . "Bateese- and his l i t t l e decoys" regional - 3. - 237 "Johnnie's firs*t moose"'- 214'; "Bona!' Campbell" - 222: x"My littles cabane" - 140 • • • x"Ehe: wlnddgo" - 177 l i f e and love - 6. x"The:Canadian magpie" - 252 . . . x"Johnnie^Courtlea«;" - 122.. Canadian - 7. x"Thes corduroy roadd' - 125 x"The cure; of calumette." -131 "The h i l l of. St. Sebastlen."-14i5 #"The Canadian country doctorill58 "Marie Louise" - 149 #"The habitant's summer" - 169 "Thee: old house, and that new"-153 #«National policy" '- 187 "Thee old. s;e»tton - 231 #"Madele4ne ver.cheres" - 192 #''Stirathcona's horse" - 212 Irish - 2 #"Two hundred years ago" - 256> "The^DIublin fusilier*' - 225 "Childdthoughts;" - 2.35: number, of poems.... 34. . . . distinctly national.. ...6. the spiriti of the New World - 1. regional Canadianism 10. "Mon f rere Camille" - 163 "Little LaccGrenier." - 175r "Autumn days4« - 190 "The old. pine tree*' - 218  M  H  Mi  :  TAB13F' IXC Ti m W. MolNNBS "LonesEomeeBar:, and other poems" (1909), Completea poems of Tom Mclnnes, Toronto, Ryersjon, 1923, pp. 79 - 167. 24 poems. l i f e and eternity - 11.  l i f e - 5.;  "Thatt otiherrone.<? - 129 "Tneoway offbeauty" - 79 "Too Wfrlt,Whitman" - 131 "Thes veteran" - 128 "Mother" - 151 "Thes clue" - 162 "Hard time©? no more" - 15& "Theetombs!' - 167 "Theedream of thee deep" - 154 "The last. Siong? - 167 "The seer" - 156 . . . "The. butterfly" - 156 local - 2. "God' s& kaleidoscope."' - 159 "Nirvanat" - 161 x:"The: Chileoot Pass*! - 105 "Content?' - 162 "Coquitlam" - 127 "Illumined" - 163  -189-  Canadlan - 2.  imperial - 2.  #"The rhyme* of Jaques Valbeaulil3L44 "For thee crowning of the king" #«October" - 128 - 112 x»On Beacon H i l l " - 119 • • • numberrof poems.... 24. the Hew World - 2. distinctly n a t i o n a l . . . . 2. regional Canadianism....4. x"Cactus" - 99 x"Lonesomei Bari" - fil  T'ABLEi:X ROBEHTTWi' SERVICE!:!  "The^ spell of thee Yukon and otherr Verse" (originally called "Songs of a Sourdough", 1907), Complete poem's of Robert Sfervicey New York, Dodd, Mead andc Co., 1940, pp. x v i i i - 73. — 341 poems. loves- 6.  religion, death and eternity  "The shooting of Dan McGrewJB29 "Unfergotten" - 38 "New/Year's Eve" - 64 "The harpy" - 68 "Premonition" - 70 "The tramps;'* - 71 l i f e - 4! "The parson4st. son"'- 14M "Grin" - 2.7 "My Madonna" - 37 «L'Envoi" - 72 •  •  •  the New World - 7.  -12.  "The three voices*." - 8 "The: c a l l of the wild" - 17 "The .lone t r a i l " - 19  "The Bong of the wage-slave"-25  "Theecremation of S'am McGeei"ii33 "Theereckoning" - 39 "Quatrains" - 40 "The?: l i t t l e old log cabin" - 50 "The march of the dead" - 6AY "Eightingi-Mac" - 57 "The woman and the angel" - 60 " Comfort i'">- 67 •  •  •  localism - 4.  "The-: land God forgot" - x v i i i "The heart of the sourdough*6 "Thee spell of the Yukon" - 3 "The law of the Yukon" - 10 "The?:pines" - 21 "Theelure of l i t t l e voicesU23 "Music in the bush" - 44 "The men that d o n ' t l f a l l in"^42. "The low down whitei." - 48 colonialism - 1. ^The -rhyme of the remittance man"-46 "The rhyme of the restless one"-62 "The younger:-son" - 52 number of poems....34.  distinctly Canadian....!.  -190-  TABLE XI ROBERT" W; SERVICE "Rhymes of a rolling stone? (1912), Complete poems of: Robert LServ ice, New/York, I>odd, Mead and Co., 1940, pp. 166 - 286. — 50 poems love - 12.  religion, death and eternity - 11.  "Thee soldier of fortune" - 171 x."Sunshine" - 178 "The junior god" - 193 "Cheer" - 191 x"Death in the Arctic" - 219 "The return" - 192 "The lostt master" - 236 "Barb-wire B i l l " - 208 "?" - 212 "The World's,all right" - 244 x"The logger!' - 272' "The lunger" - 214 "The mountain and the lakeJJ217"The ghosts" - 276 "Heart.; of the north" - 284 "Little moccasins" - 237 "The scribe'ssprayer" - 2855 x"The squaw man" - 258 "Home, and love" - 2:61 "ffusti, think!" - 213 "Her letter" - 270 x"The atavist" - 202 "AAsong of success" - 265 • * • l i f e ; - 16. the New World - 9. "The gramophone at! Pond-du-laei' 174 "The idealist" - 186 "A rolling stone" - 168 #*Amblitfion" - 198 x"The land of beyond" - 177 "To Sunnydale" - 199 "Athabaska Dick" - 187 "The blind and the dead" - 200 "The rover" - 206 "Theesceptic" - 205: "The quitter" - 228 "Dreams are best" - 226 "The wanderlust!' - 239 x«I'm scared of i t a l l " - 262 "Tihe headliner. and the breadliner" - 218 #-»"Eheesong of the campf ire*:.266 xVGood-bye, l i t t l e cabin" - 282''The cow-juice cure" - 229 "Thee:trapper's Christmas EveJ»242 "The baldness of chewed ear"-247 Canadian - 1. "The mother" - 251 "Thet;dreamer" - 252 #"The nostomaniac" - 195 "Attthirty-five" - 256 "The man who knew" - 271 number of poems....50. "The passing of the year" - 274 distinctly national....3. regi onal Canadiani sm.... 8. local - 1. "While the bannock bakes" - 232  TABLE XII EDWIN J . PRATT Many Moods, feffSntfO, Macmillan, 1932.  31 poems,  -191local - 13.  lifee- 7.  "Sea-gulls" - 9 "The^way of Cape Racer*' - 9 "The sea-catthedafcal" - 10 "Cherries" - 33 "The child and the wren" - 34 "Frost." - 35r"AANovember landscape!? - 36: "Magic" - 36 "One hourrof life" - 3:8 "Dreams" - 40 "To Angelina, an old nuns el'4! "Jock o' theelinks" - 44. "Theefugitlivev* - 48 . . . Canadian - 4. x"AAprairie sunset." - 11 x"Putting winter t;o bed" - 28 x"Hordzona«.' - 38 x"The Armistice silence"' - 3.9  "Afcreverie on a dog" - 1 "Blinds - 2:4 "Thee decision" - 25 "Tatterhead" - 45 "The drag-irons" - 47 "A lee-shore" - 47 "The ritual" - 48 mod er n. 1 i f ea - 7. "The depression ends;V . 12: "The man andothe^machine" - 20 "The? paxab'les? of .Puff sky " - 21 "F r om s tone? to s tie el" - 23 "Whither." - 27 "The highway" - 27 "The 6000" - 49 1  1  .  »  •  number: of. poems.... 31. distinctly Canadian....4. ("But! cf. Brebeuf. and hi a brethraen. published only 8 years- later (1940), and isb several pages longer; than Many Mo ode. T h a t L . volumec is Canadian through and through, in every way.) TABLE'XIII ISABEL ECCLESTONE MACKAY  Fires of driftwood, McClelland and Stewart, Toronto, 1922. 98 poems. love - 24  religion, death and eternity -  "In an autumn garden" - 16 "Laureate" - 11 "Rose Dolores" - 17 "Out! of i Babylon" - 12L "Presience.V - 15 "The;;secret" - 235 "A', pilgrim" - 19 "The? lost! name;." - 27 "OCOsmos" - 22 "The way ta> wait!""- 538. "Kearj*' - 25 "Firstlove" - 94i "Sad one, must.you weep?"-55 "Resurrection" - 26 "Theodead bride" - 29 "A Christmass child" - 58 "The vision" - 31 "Give me a day" - 71 x"Vale;i' - 51 "To Aiicady" - 76 "Joseph" - 5.6 "I love my love" - 78 "Spring in Nazareth" - 5:9 "The coming of love" - 86 "The., sea-* a withholding" - 91 "Sfong;of the sleeper" - 62 "The-;tiyraht"»- 64! "Love unkind" - 93 "I whispereddt© the bobolinki»95: "The.-.gifttol" - 66 "You" - 96 ""On the mountain" - 69 "The<.mother" - 97 "The. prophets" - 70 ,;  1  1  -192«"The unchanged" - 102 "GaMoUai Ggp.id—110 5"The? meeting - 106 "Thee enchantress." - 116 "(Fairy song:?' - 121 "(Perhaps"' - 133 "Glamour»' - 135 r  M  1  •  •  •  "The doom of ys:'.' - 82 "Premonition" - 87 "Time?', ss garden"" - 84!= "Tihe childcV"-88 "Christmas in Heaven" - 94 "Last things" - 104 "The piper.""- 107 "TJheB materialist" - 111 "T'orrHan 0g" - 112 "Killed in action" - 123 "Epitaph" - 138 "For- one^-who went,, in the: spring" - 139 ,:  natures - 19  "Fire<s ofi drif twood" - 9 "Last; spring,*! - 14 "'Springy w i l l comet?" - 20 "Thes crocasfjhed" - 30 ' l i f e - 21 "Thet-miracle:'.' - 32. "Wet weather"" - 36 "When as a lad" - 10 "The. sleeping beauty""- 3.7 "I watch swift pictures^ "Lake Louise.""- 40 x"Theehappy traveller""- 28 x"T.he-:;bridge builder"' - 43.> "Down at the? docksA'"- 38 "Littles brown bird" - 72 x"TIhe prairies school"' —• 4© "Theefie-ldcsrs of even"' - 77 "Spri ng awakes to-day " " — 79 "The? passers-by" - 535 "Inheritance*"'- 61 xs«in town""--80 "Theetown between" - 67 "Summer.*s passing" - 81 "Bheewatcher" - 73 ^"Indian summer." - 101 x"Ebssesslon" - 74 "Indifference" - 103 "Gold!' - 110 "Intrusion""- 89 "The little-man in green"- 114 "The. troubadour" - 99 xVWanderlust" - 109 "Spring, came in" - 124'.. "Thee banshee"" - 118 • • • "The witch" - 119 Canadian - 5. "Thet: reasons;"" - 127 "To-day'" - 130 x^The^ homesteader" - 33:^ "Memory" - 131 #"The gatekeeper" - 41 #"Ca?lgary station"' - 4.7 "Dream " - 132x"The. vassal"' - 98 "Friendship"'! 136 #"From the trenches" - 125 "The returned man" - 137 1  1  1  •  •  *  number of poems....98.  •  •  •  di stiinctly nati o n s i . . . . 4. regional Canadianism.... 9. TABSE XIW  WILSON MacD'ONALD "This book of the wilderness", Out- of. the, wilderness. Ottawa, Graphic, 1926, pp." 3 - 58. — 21 poems. l i f e and love - 5.  nature;12.  "A song of. the unreturningi'7 "A song to theo valiant" "These friends of. mine" - 16 x"The. call'" - 11 x«The song of the ski" - 17 "The loon" - 13 x*'Laranowa" - 23 x"M'sieu" - 20 :  -193-  "The. berry pickers!' - 37  x"Muskoka" - 25 "November" - 333 Canadian - 4. "The^werr in the gorse"-39 "The;: Bong, of the. winding road.840 #"Outt of the wilderness"—3 "Oaka*' - 45: #"I heard the woodman grieve* 31 "Birches:. ' - 43 #"An adventurer's:i song" - 32 "In a. wood clearing" - 51 #"A'\s:ong. of. loneeiomeness" - 557x "February the, f i r s t ! on the; • prairdet'' - 554 number of poems*...21. digtinetfeiysnational-.. .4. r.egi onal Canadl ani sm.,.. 6. ;  1  ;  M J . M. SMITE News, of the Phoenix and other'poems. Toronto, Ryeraon, New:York, Coward-McCann, 1943:; 39 poems. lifec;- 18.  nature - 11.  "A hyacinth for Edith" - 5. "Like an old proud king" - 2 "The faithful heart!" - 7 "The fountain"'- 8 lain the wilderness" - 11 "I shall riemember" - 9 "Hellenica^ - 14 "Thee creek " - 16 "To the Christian dbetors"-24 "Swif to current:" - 17 "Chorus;!' - 25 "Sea? c l i f f - 18 "The plot; against Proteua"-26 3 "The lonely land" - 19 "To a young poet" - 22 "Ode". - 21. "Poor innocent" - 28 "Noctambule" - 2.7 "ft portrait, and a prophecy*29 "Far-west" - 32 "Son and heir" - 30 "The. shrouding" - 41 "On reading a'ndanthology" - 33 • • • "Newss of the phoenix" - 34; death and eternity - 10. "The face" - 35: "Shadows^sthere are" - 1 "Ode: the Eumenides" - 36 "The two sides of a drum" - 3; "Calvary" - 39 "Prothalmium" - 4 "Good Friday" - 40 "Journey" - 12 "For-healing" - 10 "Theearcher" - 13 "Epitaph" - 15> "A soldier's ghost!" - 235 "Thee: cry" - 317 number of poems.... 319. di stinctly Canadian....1. "Theeoffioee" - 38 "Besideeone dead." - 42 1  M , i  -194-  TJA1LE"XVI IABLE"BIRNEY  Now' is time, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945:. na&ureo- 7.  —  2.7 poems*  war and peace - 9.  "Status quo" - 3 "Hands" - 43 "Time-bomb" - 6 x"Vancouver lights" - 15 x"Man on a tractior" "Dusk on the hay" - 17 x"Por Steve" - 29 "War. winter" - 22 "Intlrooverti' 39., "Poem"' - 28 x""And the earth g m young, again"i 341 - "VE^nightt""- 441 "D-day" - 57 "On a diary" - 45: "Death of a war" - 53 l i f e and death - 6. "World conference" - 56 1  •  •  •  "Remarks" -'4 wax? - 4. "Lines for a peacee - 5 "Cadet-hospital" - 21 #"JoeeHarris, 1913 - 1 9 4 2 » - 23; "Within these caverened day si! 40 "Invasion spring" - 3 6 "Skeleton in the grass." - 41 "This, page my pigeon" - 3:8 "Young veterans" - 55 "The road to Nijmegen" - 42 11  i  number of poems.... 27. di stiinctly nat 1 o n a l . . . . 1. regi onal Canadianism.... 4.  colonial - 1. "Anglosaxon street" - 19  Summary of Canadian sentiment revealed in the above, analysis No. of, nat. $ of Can. % ofi $• of poems poems sent, poems poems Can. in any way. MacDonald.... 2 1 . . . . . 4 . . . . , 19$ 6..... 30$. 4.9$. Drummond 34.... 16 1 8 $ . . . . 1 0 . . . . . 30$! 47$. Malr>(Table;. 3)21 7 . . . . . 33$ 9P..... 10$ 413$; Stead 57 6 11$*... .17 30$. .40$. Sangster..... 49 8 . . . . . 1 7 $ . . . . . 8 . . 17$'., 33$. M c l n n e s . . . 24 2 . . . . . 8 $ . . . . . 4 . . . . . 16$. 25$. Mair(Table 2) 33. 2 . . . . . 6$.....6 18$ 23$. Service (y. 11) 50 3i . . . . 6/ 8 . . . . . 16$^ 22$i Birney 27 1 4$ 4 15$.. 19$. Crawf o r d ; . . . . 86 3 3 $ . . . . . 9 . . . . . 10$'. 14$. Mackay. . . . . . . 98. . . . . 4 4$ 9 10$. 14$i Prat t 31 4 13$. 13$. M'Lachlan.. .158 8 5$.. ..11 7$. 13$. Robert a* 96 6 6 $ . . . . . 4 . . . . . 4$. 10$* S!er.vice(T.10)34 1 3$. 3$£ Smith 39 .....1 2 . 5 $ , . . . . . . . 2.5$.  BIBMOGR'APHY  NOTE':  This bibliography l i s t s only the most valuable books for the topic of this thesis. Thus;.:several important books on English Canadian literature: which show l i t t l e - i n t e r est : in national feeling are not included^ No comments are made on primary sources, for these: have been discussed^ in the thesis; or on articles in periodical rnaga-z*inee., except! where the tltlet of. the: article? in question is misleading. Seer?introduction, p. v i i for abbreviations used in the bibliography. 1  PAHTT — A: HISTORY  I  PRIMARY SOURCES.  Dawson, Rw M., Theodgvsiopment of dominion status, 1900 - 1936. London, Oxford University Press., 1937. Kennedy, W.' P. M., ed., Statutes^ treat! ess and documents of the C&naddan constitution 1713 - 1929, Oxford University Press. 1^3© (second edition;'. Wallace^ W. &a ed., "Edward Blake's Aurora Speech, 1874", Canadian Historical Review, v. 2, pp. 250 - 272, Sept. 1921. II A,  SECONDARY SOURCES.  B'opksa  Burpee., L . J . , An historical atlas of Canada-, Toronto, Nelson, 1928. This is a very useful book for the study of the growth of the industry, resourcesr, and population of Canada;; Burtt, A. L . , A short, history of Canada for Americans, Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, 1942. Mr. Burt has written a very useful account in which he has stressed interpretation rather than meree-facts?; Cobban, A*., National self-determination, OxfordoUniversity Press, 1945. -195-  -196Mr. Cobban presents a useful study of nationalism, and makes some interesting points on the nature of the forceein the B r i t i s h Commonwealth, and in Canada. Creighton, D. G . , The commercial empire: of the St. Lawrence 1760 - 1850, Toronto, Ryerson, 1937. This book discusses the importance of the Stv Lawrence in Canadian history, and stresses the trade of Western Canada which i t carried. Cfceighton, D. G . , Dominion of the North, Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1944*; ' Mru Creighton ha®, written a short but very useful interpretation of Canadian history in which he has included a large number of quotations from various important statesmen showing their attitudes to different v i t a l issues!. Dawson, R. M., The development of dominion status, 1900 - 1936, London, Oxford University Press, 1937. There are valuable discussions of various aspects of dominion autonomy in this book as well as the valuable primary sources which form the major part of the book. Gooch, G. P., Nationalism, 2tendbh?aSwarthm8re:, 1920. Mr. Gooch presents an excellent study of the topic in this l i t t l e book, and suggests a useful definition of the term in the introductory section. Kennedy, W. P. M . , The Constitution of Canada 1534 - 1937. Oxford University Press, 1938 (second edition). This is a valuable study of the development of the present system of government in Canada?, and contains useful sections on the advancement of nationalism in the country. Earkman, P . , Conspiracy of Pontiac and the Indian War; Boston, L i t t l e , Brown and Company, 1912, 2 vols. This is a detailed study of the subject suggested in the t i t l e , and is useful for comparison with MajorRichardson's novel, Wacousta, which also deals with the Pontiac Conspiracy. Royal Institute of International Affairs, Nattionalism, Oxford University Press, 1939. This is another useful study of the subject in question, and contains a detailed definiton of terms.  -197Stanley, G. F . G . , The_birtth of Western Canada, London, Longmans, Green and Co., 1936. Mr. Stanley presents a detailed study of the early days of the We est in Canada, stressing the history of the two Riel Rebellions. Wittke?, C , A history of Canada. Toronto,, McClelland and Stewart, 1941. This is, essentially, a text hook, hut. i t contains a l l the necessary facts:; and is a handy reference: book for Canadian history.  B?.  PERIODICAL ARTICLES'.  Ewart, J . S., "Canada's p o l i t i c a l status", Canadian Historical Review, v. 9, pp. 194 - 205, Sept. 1928. Keith, A. B . , "Canada's constitutional status", Canadian Historical Review, v. 9, pp. 102 - 116:-, June. 1928. Martin, C , "The United States and Canadian nationality", Canadian Historical Review, v. 18, pp. 1 - 11, March 1937. Sage, W. H . , "©jaegraphinal and cultural aspects of the five Canadas", The Canadian Historical Association Annual Report, 1937, pp. 28 - 34. Stacey, C. P., "Penianism and the rise of national feeling in Canada at the time of Confederation", Canadian Historical Review, v. 12, pp. 238 - 261, Sept. 1931, Wallace, W. S.,. "The growth of Canadian national feeling"', Canadian Historical Review, v. 1, pp. 136 - 165, June 1920, C.  LIVES of WRITERS.  cExfe«3Jleht'bhiographies are presented in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography, Canadian Who's Who, and in " Garvin, J . W., ed., Canadian poets,, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1926, revised edition, and Thomas, C , Canadian novelists 1920 - 1945, Toronto, Longmans Green and. Co., 1946.  -198-  PART.1 —  I A4  BB.  LITERATURE  PRIMARY SOURCES  ANTHOLOGIES of ENGLISH CANADIAN LITERATURES  Bennett, E. H.,  ed., New- H a r v e s t i n g , Toronto, Macmillan, 1938.  Br:oadus,', E. K., and Broadus, E . H., A book of Canadian and verse, Toronto, Macmillan, 1934,  prose  Campbell, W., edc, The Oxford book of Canadian verse, Toronto, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1913.- ' . ' ' Garvin, J . W,, ed.,flanadiflnriBo"»*gk ®or©Bife©^.iM«Clea:3iand'jiandrit.o, Stewarty 1926, r e v i s e d e d i t i o n . Gustafson, R"i, ed., A l i t t l e anthology of Canadian poetry, N o r f o l k , Conn., New Directions', 19431* Gustafson, R.,  ed., Canadian accent, Penguin Books, 1944.  L i g h t h a l l , W. D.,-ed., Songs of the Great!. Domini on. Londcon, S c o t t , 1889. Rand, T. H., ' 1915i  ed., A t r e a s u r y of Canadian v e r B e , Toronto, Briggs, ' " :  Smith, A. J . M., ed., The book of Canadian p o e t r y . Chicago, U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago P r e s s ; Tor on tio, Gagei 1943.  B.  EDITIONS Of ENGLISH CANAPIAN POETS.  B i r n e y , E., Now  i s Time, Toronto, Ryerson,  1945.  B o u r i n o t , A. S., S e l e c t e d poems (1915 - 1935), Macmillan, 1935'.  Toronto,  Brown, A. A., A dryad i n Nanalmo, Toronto, Macmillan, 1934. The poente of W i l l i a m W i l f r e d Campbell, C a l l , P. 0., Acanthus St ewart; 1920.  Toronto., B r i g g s , 1905 . r  and w i l d grape, Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and  Carman, B., B a l l a d s and l y r i c s . Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, Carman, B., L a t e r poems, Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1921. D a l t o n , A. C , The amber-riders and other poems, Toronto, Ryerson, 1929.  -199Dalton, A; C , Flame and adventure, Toronto, Macmillan, 1924, Dalton, A, C , L i l i e s and leopards, Toronto, Ryerson, Dalton, A. C , The neighing north, Toronto, Ryerson,  1935. 1931.  Drummond, W, H . , Collected poems, Toronto, McClelland and St ewart, 1926. Garvin, J . W., ed., The collected poems of Isabella Valanoy Crawford, Toronto, Briggs, 1905. Jaques, E . , My kitchen window, Toronto, Allen, 1935. Johnson, E . P., Flint, and Feathers, Toronto, Musson,  1913.  Scott, D. C , ed., The poems of Archibald Lampman, Toronto, Briggs, 1915. Logan, J . E . , Verses, Pen and Pencil Club, Montreal,  1916.  Livesay, D . , Day and Night', Toronto, Ryerson, 1944-. MacDonald., W., Outlof the wildneress, Ottawa, Graphic, 1926, Complete poems of Tom Maclnnes, Toronto, Ryerson,  1923.  The complete poems of Isabel Ecclestone Mackay, Toronto, McClFdsiand ana fc>T;ewarE7"1930r~ Garvin, J . W., ed., Master-works of Canadian authors, Toronto, Radisson Society, 1926, v. 14 (Charles Mair) Marriott, A . , Calling Adventurers, Ryerson poetry chap-books, 1941. The poetical works of AlexanderrM'Lachlan, Toronto, BMggs, 1900. The complete poems of Marjorie Pickthall, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1930. Pratt, E . J . , Collected Poems, Toronto, Macmillan, 1944. Pratt, E . J . , Many Moods. Toronto, Macmillan, 1932. Roberts, C. G. D., Poems, Boston, Page, 1907. Sangster, C . , Hesperus, and other poems and l y r i c s , Montreal Lovell; Kingston, Crjeightion, 1860. Scott, D. C , Lundy's Lane and other poems, Toronto, McClelland Scott, F . G . , Collected poems, Vancouver, Clarke & Stewart,1934. Scott, F. G . , New poems, Quebec, Lafranee,  1929.  -200Complete poems of Robert W. Service, Hew York, Dodd, Mead and Co., 1946. Smith, A. J . M., Hews of the phoendus and other poems, Toronto, Ryerson; Hew. York, Coward-McCann, 1943"; Smith, W. W., Poems, Toronto, Dudley and Burns,  1888.  Stead, R. J . C . , Kitchener and other poems. Toronto, Musson, 1917. Stephen, A. M., Brown Earth and B\ibh Grass, Vancouver, Wrigley, 1931.  C.  FICTION by ENGLISH CANBDIAN NOVELISTS.  Baird, I . , Waste heritage, Toronto, Macmillan, 1939. Callaghan, M., They shall inherit the earth, Toronto, Maamillan, 1935. • :  de la Roche, M., Jalna, Pocket Books of Canada, 1945* Graham, G . , Earth and High Heaven, Toronto, Nelson, Grove, F . P., Fruits of the Earth, Toronto, Dent,  1944. 1933.  Grove, F. P., Our Daftly Bread, Toronto, Macmillan, 1928. Grove, F. P., Two Generations, Toronto, Ryerson,  1939.  Hutchison, B . , The Hollow Men, Toronto, Longmans, Green and Co., 1944$  Kirby, The Golden Dog, Toronto, Musson, n.d. MacLennan, H . , Barometer Rising, New York, Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1941. MacLennan, H . T w o Solitudes. Toronto, Collins,  1945.  Niven, F . , Mine Inheritance, London, Toronto, Collins, 194.0. Niven, F . , Under which king, London, Collins,  1943.  Parker, G . , The seats of the mighty, New York, Apple ton-Century, 1927. Richardson, J . , Wacousta, Toronto, McClelland and Stewart, 1923. Ross, S., As for me and my house, New York, Reynal and Hitchcock, 1941. '•  -201-  S a l l a n a , G. H., L i t t l e man, Toronto, Ryerson, 1942. S a l v e r s o n , L. G., The V i k i n g Heart, Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1923. Stead, R, J . C ,  G r a i n , Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1926.  T'eskey, A. M., Where- the sugar maple grows, Toronto, Musson, 1901. Fontane,  D.  R., The happy time, Hew York,  Venture, 1945.  INDIVIDUAL POEMS i n PERIODICALS.  I n d i v i d u a l poems i n p e r i o d i c a l s are: l i s t e d i n T a b l e s I (P. 86), I I I (p. 116), and V (pp; 157 - 15.8); and a f e w of these poems are d i s c u s s e d on pages 85, 115, 154 - 156.  II A.  SECONDARY SOURCES  BOOKS.  Logan, J . D. and French, D. G., Highways of C a n a d i a n . l i t e r a t u r e , Toronto, M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart, 1928 ( f i r s t e d i t i o n 1924). T h i s i s the standard treatment of t h e s u b j e c t . I t i s very u s e f u l down t o aboutt 192.0, g i v i n g d e t a i l e d informat i o n and c l e a r and i n t e l l i g e n t c r i t i c i s m s . However the w r i t e r s a r e o f t e n b i a s e d or o b v i o u s l y wrong i n t h e i r judgements. Pacey, D., F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove, Toronto, Ryerson, 1945. Mr. Pacey has made a very v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the f i e l d of E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i n t h i s study. The r e s e a r c h i s thorough, the c r i t i c i s m s moderate, and the summaries w e l l ordered. Pomeroy, E. M., S i r C h a r l e s G. D. Roberts, Toronto, Ryerson,1943. ThiB the standard treatment of Roberts. It i s a d e t a i l e d study c o n t a i n i n g v a l u a b l e c r i t i c i s m s of h i s work. Rhodenizer, V. B., Handbook of Canadian Graphic, 1930.  literature,  Ottawa,  The author has attempted t o supplement p r e v i o u s treatments of the s u b j e c t , and t o present g e n e r a l i n f o r d ination i n a c l e a r and c o n c i s e f a s h i o n . The book i s q u i t e successful.  -202-  Riddell,.W. R.,  John Richardson, Toronto, Ryerson,.1923.  .This i s a short but very u s e f u l summary of the l i f e and works of Major Richardson. The treatment i s f a v o r a b l e to the author. Stevenson, L., A p p r a i s a l s of Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , Macmillan, 1926.  Toronto,  T h i s i s a v a l u a b l e survey of E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e from the n a t i o n a l p o i n t of view. . /ir- fffcwn pnsTZts • i'«n.d* - ekt. difF;CM. fats ptti M*vt  st«Utf */ *ff aju A.a/  B. PAMPHLETS.  »^pt-ts *f p"tty *«r« »»«•*••.«  ft,  '  Brown, E. K., Canadian l i t e r a t u r e to-day, Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1938. T h i s pamphlet c o n t a i n s l e c t u r e s by prominent Canadian s c h o l a r s and w r i t e r s on a l l aspects of l i t e r a t u r e i n Canada^ u s u a l l y from a n a t i o n a l p o i n t : of view. P i e r c e , L., E n g l i s h Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , Royal Society of Canada, 1932.  1882  - 1932,  T h i s book contains a b r i e f s k e t c h of a few Canadian w r i t e r s ; the r e s t are i g n o r e d .  C.  Ottawa, important  PERIODICAL ARTICLES.  Adeney, M.,  "Robert!Norwood", C.B..  A l l i s o n , W.T., 1919, pp. Ayre, R.,  v. 9, pp.  163*6, June  " W i l l i a m W i l f r e d Campbell", C.B., 65 - 66.  "Pauline Johnson", C.'F., v. 14,  Barr, R., " L i t e r a t u r e i n Canada", CM., 1899; pp. 130 - 136, Dec. 1899.  v. 1,  p. 17,  v. 14,  Oct.  pp.  April 1933.  3-7,  Barnett, E.S., "The poetry of W i l l i a m W i l f r e d Campbell", v. 17, pp. 93 - 94, Aug. 1935. Benson, N.A.,  "Edwin J . P r a t t " , C.B..  v. 9, pp.  Birney, E., "To arms w i t h Canadian poetry", C P . , pp. 322 - 324, Jan. 1940. . Bourinot, A. S., "New pp. 55 - 56.  poems by Dr.  Boyd, J . , "John Reade", CM.,  1927.  Nov., C.B..  323-6, Oct.1927. v.  19,  S c o t t " , C.B. , v. 4, Jan . "  v. 53, pp.  74 - 77, May  1919.  1922,  - 20.3-  Brown, E, K . , "The Whitieoaks Saga", C.F. , v. 12, p. 23, Oct.. 1931. Bugnet', G . , "An answer tio Lionel Stevenson's Manifesto", v. 6, pp. 85 - 86, April 1924.  C.B.,.  Bugnet, G., "One way to write "Canadian"", C.B' l, v. 6, pp. 209210, Oct. 1924. :  Burpee, L . J . , "Frederick Niven", BvR., v. 24v, pp. 74-6, 194%  April  Burpee, L . J . , "James de Mille", C.B., v. 8, pp. 203-6, July 1926. Bush, D . , "Making literature hum", C . F . . v. 7, pp. 72-3, 1926'. Callaghan, M.., "The plight of Canadian fiction", v. 7, pp. 152 - 161, ffian. 1938.  Dec.  U. of T. Q.,  Campbell, W., "Scottish-Canadian poetry", CM; , v. 29, pp. 169179, June 1907. 7  Capron, J . , "Roberts and the influence of his times", C.M",, v. 24, pp. 224-231, Jan. 1905"; pp. 321 - 328, Feb. 1905; pp. 419 - 424, March 1905; pp. 514 - 520, April 1905i Collih, W. E . , "Archibald Lampman", U.ofT.ft., v. 4, pp. 103 120, Oct. 1934. Collin, W. E . , "Dorothy Livesay", C.F.', v. 12, pp. 137-138, 140, Jan. 1932. Collin, W. E . , "Leo Kennedy", C . F . . v. 14, pp. 24-6,  Oct. 19335,  Collin, W. E . , "Marjorie Pickthall", U.ofT.Q,.. v. 1, pp. 352 380, April 1932. Cooper,. J . A . , "Canada's national song", C.M.", v. 6, pp. 176179, Dec. 1895. """" Cunningham, L . A . , "Traits of Canadian literature", pp. 328 - 329, Nov. 1927.  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Haultain, A"., "A Canadian literature", 511, April 1909.  C.M?., v. 32, pp. 510 " r  —  Hume, B., "Sir'Gilbert Parker", C . B . . v. 10, pp. 131-4, May 1928. J.M.? "Gertrude MacGregor Moffat", C.B., v. 10, pp. 163 - 164, June, 1928. Jacob, P . , "The background of Canadian literature", June 1928,  C.B :, v. 3, 7  Jackson, MY£, "J.E.H.MacDonald", C.P.., v, 13, pp. 136,138, Jan. 1933. Joyce:, At, "The neighing north", C . B ? , 1932.  v. 14, pp. 45-6,  April  Kennedy, L . , "Archibald Lampman", CCP., v. 13, pp. 101-3, May 1933;. Kennedy, L . , "Raymond Knister", C.P.. v. 12, pp. 459 - 461, Septi 1932. Knister^ R.,."The poetry of Archibald Lampman", D.R., v, 7, pp. 348 - 361, Oct. 1927. Landon, P . , "Phases of Canadian literature" , pp. 106 - 107, May 1924. 1  C.B. , v. 6,  Lighthall, W.D., "Canadian poets of the Great. 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A4 , "Audrey Alexandra Brown", C F J , v, 12, pp. 342 343,, June 1932. "~ Mackay, L. Ai,, " B l i s s Carman", C . F . . v. 13, pp. 182-3, Feb. 1933. Mackay, L/A., "James Gay", C F . , v. 13, pp. 457-8, Sept, 1933:* Mackay, L.A., " W i l l i a m W i l f r e d Campbell", 67, Nov. 1933'.  C . F . , v. 14, p. 66 -  Mackay, L#A., "Wilson MacDonald", C F . , v. 13, pp. 362-3, A p r i l 1933, "* Macklem, J , , "Charles Sangster", 1928.  C B . , v. 10, pp. 195U6, J u l y  Macklem, J . , "CHHJJSnider", C.W., v. 10, pp, 327-9, Nov, 1928. Macklem, J . , "Etihelwyn Wetherald", Nov. 1929.  C B . , v. 11, pp. 251-3,  Macklem,. J . , "Jean Blewett", "Laura Goodman S a l v e r s o n " , C.B., v. 9, pp. 99 _ 100, A p r i l 192:7. Macklem, J . , "Mazo de l a Roche", 0.Bi",. v. 9, pp. 259 - 260, Sept. 1927.  -207-  Maclennari, W.E., ""Real" Canadian literature , D.R., v. 6, pp. 18 - 23, April 1926. 11  Mair, C., "Pauline Johnson: an appreciation", C.M."., v. 41, pp. 281 - 283, July 1913. * Markey, J . , "Thomas D 'Arcy McGee: poet and patriot", CM?., v. 46, pp. 67 - 72, Nov. 1915. Marquis, T'i G., "The poetry of John Orient on", K K , v. 7, p. 183, Nov; 1925. Marshall, J . , "Archibald Lampman", Q..Q... v. 9, pp. 61 - 79, July 1901. Moore, I., "Canadian literature: "What, it means to the nation"',' CGBj;>, v. 5, p. 295, Nov. 1923. Moore, J . , "Mazo de la Roche", CCF., v. 12, pp. 380 - 381, July 1932c, Mowat^ H.M., "Greater Canadian Independence", QJ. QT» , v. 11, pp. 34 - 45, July 1903.. Muddiman, B., "Archibald Lampman", ft.Q,., v. 22, pp. 233 - 243, Jan. 1915, Muddiman, B,.:, "William Wilfred Campbell", Q,.Q,., v. 27, pp. 201-210, Oct* 1919, Northrjop, P., "Canadar-and its poetry", C P . , v. 23, pp. 207 210, Dec; 1943. ~ ° O'Hagan, T'., "A human hearted poet", C.B., v. 7, p. 182, Nov. 1925.  Patterson, M., "Isabel Ecclestone Mackay", C.B>:, v. 9, pp. 371 - 372, Dec. 1927. "Frederick Philip Grove", March 1930.  Parry, A4AA,  CB8.  v.  12,  pp.  51-3,  Perry, A^A/J, "Robert Watson", CCBE, v. 10, pp. 99 - 101, April 1928.  Pierce, L . , "Canadian literature and the. national ideal", C.B3,, v. 7, pp. 143J- 144, Sept., 1925, Pierce, L . , "William Kirby", y . ,  v. 11, pp. 35-9, Feb. 1929.  ""Polly Masson" and our polyglot politics", CB?;, v. 1, Oct. 1919, pp. 43 - 44. Pound,  A4MV,  "Tom Maclnnes", CBS, v.  8,  pp,  363-4,  Dec*  1926.  -208-  P r a t t , E.J.T,, "Canadian p o e t r y — p a s t and p r e s e n t " , U . 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" , pp. 215 - 227, Summer 1937. .  , v. 44,  "Two Canadian poets: a l e c t u r e by A r c h i b a l d Lampman", U. of T. ft., v. 13, pp. 406 - 423, J u l y 1944. W.KJ;,  " F r e d e r i c k P h i l i p Grove", CCBS. v. 8, p. 110, A p r i l 1926.  Wade, H.G., "Theodore Goodridge Roberts"', C.B:., v. 13, pp. 215217, Nov. 1931. Waldron, G., "Canadian p o e t r y " , CC.'M., v. 8, pp. 101 - 108, Dec. 1896. Wilgar, W.PV, "Poetry and the d i v i d e d mind i n Ganada", v. 24, pp. 266 - 271, Oct. 1944. Willsan.,M., "Mrs. J.W.F.Harrison—"Seranus", pp. 80 - 81, J u l y - Aug., 1932.  D.R.,  C.B.. v. 14,  -210-  Ef.  BOOK REVIEWS. Many useful book reviews appear i n Queen's Quarterly,  The Canadian Magazine, The Canadian Bookman, The Canadian Eorum, Dalhousie Review, University of Toronto Quarterly and The Canadian Poetry Magazine. publications  Most reviewers^ i n these  are interested i n the r e f l e c t i o n  of Canadianlllfie  i n the books they are reviewing, fin.tJ^-^ vo.Ua.iU ,'$ tu *ew-«*  letters  /h Ca/»«Jfc  ftf.s has  W  e.jtfULhd  which «»ftt.,'r>s yt€Li-ly  ,. e tug- ; he  ftu,'tws  ««</ (;s+S  hubs J>ultul V  h  ^  T  Ui,i tt-s.y v  *f  %r,„to  Q«*v*erf  

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