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Factors associated with the formation of the power motive and sex differences in motive expression Dewis, Elizabeth (Van Tassel) 1962

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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE FORMATION OF THE POWER MOTIVE AND SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVE EXPRESSION by ELIZABETH V.T. DEWIS B.A.,. U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto, 1956  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n the Department of Psychology  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1962  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and for extensive  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s  be  representatives.  I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f  Psychology  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 3, Canada.  April 2 6 , Date  1962  Columbia,  permission.  ii  ABSTRACT T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was designed  t o i n v e s t i g a t e some  a s p e c t s o f t h e dynamics o f power m o t i v a t i o n .  An a n a l y s i s was  made o f p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e e a r l y f o r m a t i o n o f t h i s motive i n i n d i v i d u a l s , and o f sex  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the  n a t u r e o f f a n t a s y responses which r e f l e c t the degree o r s t r e n g t h of power m o t i v a t i o n .  Power m o t i v a t i o n was here conceived t o  be a l a t e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f a person t o a c t i n such a way as t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f t h e means o f i n f l u e n c i n g and m a n i p u l a t i n g other person(s). Concerning the formation of motives,  i t was  hypothesized  t h a t s u b j e c t s w i t h a s t r o n g power motive would be those  with  an o l d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n than s u b j e c t s low i n power m o t i v a t i o n ; t h a t they would come from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s ; t h a t they would have s i b l i n g s c l o s e r i n age; and t h a t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o f a m i l y s i z e and s p a c i n g , would be r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n .  I t was f u r t h e r h y p o t h e s i z e d  t h a t s u b j e c t s h i g h i n power m o t i v a t i o n would i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r dominant p a r e n t , t h a t i s , they would tend t o p e r c e i v e themselves as l i k e the dominant parent and as c l o s e r t o t h e dominant parent as a c h i l d , more o f t e n t h a n would low power subjects.  I t was a l s o , p r e d i c t e d t h a t h i g h power s u b j e c t s  would i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r more o f t e n t h a n low power s u b j e c t s , and t h a t t h e r e would be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex of t h e dominant parent and t h e s t r e n g t h o f a s u b j e c t ' s power  iii motivation. Concerning  sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the expression of power  m o t i v a t i o n , i t was p r e d i c t e d that the f a n t a s y responses o f women would c o n t a i n more statements o f an emotional  nature,  more expressions of o b s t a c l e s t o t h e i r goal-seeking, and more frequent, reference* f a i l u r e experience of  than would the imagery  males. The method.employed was s i m i l a r t o that devised by  McClelland et a l (1953) f o r the measurement o f achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n motives.  F o l l o w i n g an a r o u s a l t a s k  designed  to a c t i v a t e the power motive, f o u r p i c t u r e s s i m i l a r t o those of  the Thematic Apperception  Test were p r o j e c t e d on a screen.  Subjects were r e q u i r e d t o w r i t e a short s t o r y i n response t o each stimulus p i c t u r e .  The s u b j e c t s were 238 psychology  students o f whom 167 were males and 71 females.  Their protocols,  w r i t t e n i n response t o the p i c t u r e s , were scored a c c o r d i n g t o the s c o r i n g conventions (1958).  f o r need power e s t a b l i s h e d by V e r o f f  On the b a s i s o f these scores, s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d  i n t o low and h i g h need power groups.  A t t e s t and c h i square  t e s t s of a s s o c i a t i o n were a p p l i e d t o the data. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o f a m i l y s i z e and spacing, i s r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h of power m o t i v a t i o n a t the f i v e percent l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . None of the remaining  hypotheses concerning the formation of  motives were confirmed.  The hypothesis  concerning sex  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the expression of power m o t i v a t i o n was not confirmed.  iv I t was concluded t h a t t h e f a n t a s y measure o f power m o t i v a t i o n does i s o l a t e a v a r i a b l e f o r s t u d y , a l t h o u g h evidence t h a t f a n t a s y may measure f r u s t r a t i o n o f a need r a t h e r than s t r e n g t h of need l i m i t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based on f a j i t a s y m a t e r i a l .  The r e s u l t s o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  i n d i c a t e t h a t f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i s an i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e i n t h e development o f t h e power m o t i v e , and p o s s i b l y o t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l .  V  CONTENTS CHAPTER  I II  PAGE ABSTRACT Introduction and Statement of the Problem  1  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e  7  The Power Motive  III  The Formation of Motives  11  Sex Differences  14  Fantasy as a Measure of Motivation  17  Summary  19  Method  IV  21  Subjects  21  Measuring Instruments  21  Experimental Procedure  22  Treatment of the Data  25  Results  V  7  2-9  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores  2-9  S i b l i n g Order and Power Motivation  29  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Power Motivation  <35  Sex Differences and Power Motivation  39  Restatement of Hypotheses  41  Discussion  44  S i b l i n g Order  44  Identification  48  Sex Differences  50  Implications  53  APPENDICES 1.  Stimulus  Pictures  2.  F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e and  Identification  Questionnaire 3.  D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study of Sex  Differences  i n A f f e c t i v e Imagery i n F a n t a s y S t o r i e s  vii  TABLES TABLE 1  PAGE D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores f o r Male and  30  Female Groups 2  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Ordinal Placement and  32  Strength of Power Motivation 3  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores and Family Size  33  4  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Age Spacing of S i b l i n g s and  34  Strength of Power Motivation 5  R e l a t i o n s h i p between F i r s t and Middle or Last  36  Ordinal P o s i t i o n s and Strength of Power Motivation 6  R e l a t i o n s h i p between F i r s t and Middle or Last  37  Ordinal P o s i t i o n i n Families of Three Children or More and Strength of Power Motivation 7  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Spacing and Ordinal P o s i t i o n  38  i n F a m i l i e s of Three Children or More and Strength of Power Motivation 8  R e l a t i o n s h i p between Sex of Dominant Parent and  40  Strength of Power Motivation 9  Number of Subjects i n Male and Female Groups Above and Below the Median f o r Various Power-Related Imaginative  Categories  42  viii  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  The w r i t e r i s g r e a t l y indebted t o h e r t h e s i s  advisor,  Dr. W.H. Read, f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g l y a c t i v e i n t e r e s t and h e l p f u l c r i t i c i s m d u r i n g t h e course o f t h i s t h e s i s .  The w r i t e r  a l s o whishes t o express h e r a p p r e c i a t i o n t o  D.L.G. Sampson  f o r h i s a d v i c e and a s s i s t a n c e as a member o f t h e Committee. S p e c i a l thanks a r e a l s o due t o Mrs. L. Leedham f o r a l l o w i n g the w r i t e r t o t e s t h e r p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s , F l e m i n g whose a s s i s t a n c e able.  Appreciation  and t o Mr. T.  i n s c o r i n g t h e p r o t o c o l s was i n v a l u -  i s a l s o extended t o t h e many p s y c h o l o g y  s t u d e n t s whose w i l l i n g c o o p e r a t i o n  made t h i s study p o s s i b l e .  1  CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n and Statement o f t h e Problem T h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n was an attempt t o r e v e a l some a s p e c t s o f t h e dynamics o f power m o t i v a t i o n .  An a n a l y s i s was made o f  possible f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the e a r l y formation of t h i s motive i n i n d i v i d u a l s , and o f sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e n a t u r e of f a n t a s y responses which r e f l e c t t h e degree o r s t r e n g t h o f the power m o t i v e .  Power m o t i v a t i o n was here c o n c e i v e d  t o be  a l a t e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n o f a person t o a c t i n such a way as to g a i n c o n t r o l o f the:.means o f i n f l u e n c i n g and m a n i p u l a t i n g other person(s).  The p e r s o n c h a r a c t e r i z e d by h i g h power  m o t i v a t i o n w i l l d i r e c t p r i m a r y concern toward a t t a i n i n g o r maintaining t h i s  control.  The measuring instrument used i n t h i s r e s e a r c h was t h a t developed by V e r o f f (1958).  I t i s identical i n structure  to t h e methods used i n t h e measurement o f achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n developed by M c C l e l l a n d e t a l (1953).  T h i s method  i n v o l v e s t h e use o f f a n t a s y p i c t u r e s s i m i l a r t o those used i n the Thematic A p p e r c e p t i o n  Test as a d e v i c e t o measure m o t i v e s .  I n c o n t r a s t w i t h t h e achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n m o t i v e s , r e s e a r c h has been done on power.  little  One o f t h e aims o f t h e  p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was t o f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h i s measure o f power m o t i v a t i o n . The manner i n which an i n d i v i d u a l expresses  power need  2  t h r o u g h f a n t a s y w i l l be i n f l u e n c e d by two broad v a r i a b l e s . The  s u b j e c t ' s p e r c e p t i o n o f an ambiguous,  fantasy-evoking  s i t u a t i o n w i l l i n p a r t be determined by t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes  which he has e x p e r i e n c e d ,  characteristics.  and by h i s p e r s o n a l i t y  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence t h a t e a r l y  s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s c r u c i a l t o a d u l t motive f o r m a t i o n 1951)•  I t i s widely-accepted  (McClelland,  t h a t t h e fundamental motives  g u i d i n g t h e l i f e s t y l e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a r e formed i n e a r l y childhood.  A t t h e e a r l y developmental l e v e l s , rewards and  punishments a r e mediated p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h t h e p a r e n t s , and, i f they a r e p r e s e n t , o t h e r s i b l i n g s .  The n a t u r e o f these  r e l a t i o n s h i p s should have a profound i n f l u e n c e on t h e motive structure of the c h i l d .  The b i r t h o f a s i b l i n g may j e o p a r d i z e  s e c u r i t y i n an o l d e r c h i l d .  Or t h e presence o f an o l d e r  s i b l i n g may thwart a young c h i l d ' s p l e a s u r e - s e e k i n g .  The age  s p a c i n g between t h e s i b l i n g s may be o f some importance. s i b l i n g who i s c l o s e i n age may be viewed as a g r e a t e r t h a n a more d i s t a n t b r o t h e r o r s i s t e r .  A rival  In a d d i t i o n , the  p a r e n t - c h i l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s may i n f l u e n c e t h e format i o n of motives.  The means which a c h i l d uses t o e f f e c t  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , and t h e q u a l i t i e s o f t h e parent w i t h whom he i d e n t i f i e s w i l l serve t o shape h i s d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were made c o n c e r n i n g f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e power m o t i v e .  The r e s e a r c h  f i n d i n g s o f V e r o f f (1958) suggested t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e f o r m a t i o n o f power m o t i v a t i o n and family structure.  On t h i s b a s i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d i n a l  3  placement and t h e s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n was p r e d i c t e d . An i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a h i g h need power s c o r e was expected t o have a t l e a s t one o l d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n than l o w power scorers.  H i g h need power s c o r e r s were expected t o come from  l a r g e f a m i l i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y moire o f t e n .  They were expected  t o have s i b l i n g s c l o s e i n age more o f t e n than low power scorers.  A r e l a t i o n s h i p between these t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , o r d i n a l  p o s i t i o n , f a m i l y s i z e and s p a c i n g , was p o s t u l a t e d .  Subjects  from f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n o r more w i t h o l d e r s i b l i n g s who a r e c l o s e i n age were expected t o show more evidence o f power m o t i v a t i o n t h a n s u b j e c t s whose f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r s from t h i s .  A p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between power s c o r e s and  age and number o f younger s i b l i n g s was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d though no p r e d i c t i o n s were made. A r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a t t e r n s o f p a r e n t a l  identifica-  t i o n and t h e s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n was a l s o p r e d i c t e d . H i g h need power i n d i v i d u a l s were expected t o i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r mother.  Measures d e s i g n e d t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n on two  a s p e c t s o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n were used.  I t was expected t h a t  h i g h need power s u b j e c t s would p e r c e i v e themselves t o be most l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r , and i n a d d i t i o n , t h a t they would be most involved with t h e i r father.  A f u r t h e r measure was designed  t o query which i s t h e dominant p a r e n t i n t h e home.  Regard-  l e s s o f t h e sex o f t h e p a r e n t , i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t h i g h need power people would i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e dominant parent more o f t e n than l o w power p e o p l e .  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f a r e l a t i o n - -  s h i p between s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n and t h e sex o f t h e  4 s u b j e c t ' s dominant parent was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d , though no p r e d i c t i o n s were made as t o which parent would tend t o be dominant f o r low and h i g h power s u b j e c t s . The  s o c i a l i z a t i o n process d i f f e r s f o r men and women.  T h i s may r e s u l t i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n motive s t r u c t u r e along sex lines.  The area of power concern i s one i n which c o n f l i c t i n  the female can be expected. women m i t i g a t e against activity.  Many of the r o l e s a s c r i b e d t o  the overt expression  of i n f l u e n c e  I n women c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a h i g h power need, s e l f -  r o l e c o n f l i c t s may develop. The  f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were made concerning sex  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the expression v  o f power m o t i v a t i o n .  s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e or manipulative  a c t i v i t y outside  Because here  r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d sphere o f i n f l u e n c e i s n e g a t i v e l y  valued  i n our s o c i e t y , i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t women w i l l tend t o a n t i c i p a t e more f a i l u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n i n the expression o f power m o t i v a t i o n  than w i l l men.  I t was expected t h a t the  f a n t a s y responses of women would c o n t a i n more imagery i n v o l v i n g f a i l u r e t o reach goals and o b s t a c l e s t o t h e i r g o a l a t t a i n ment.  I t was f u r t h e r suggested that female responses would  c o n t a i n more a f f e c t i v e imagery s i n c e they may be more i n c l i n e d than men t o c o n t r o l t h e i r world through a f f e c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s (Bennett and Cohen, 1959) and s i n c e , because they are presuma b l y i n a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n , t h e i r a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l would be g r e a t e r .  I n a study employing the method used i n t h i s  research, V e r o f f  (1958) found l i t t l e  a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s and o b s t a c l e s .  imagery i n v o l v i n g  However, h i s s u b j e c t s were  5 a l l males, and i f the p r e d i c t i o n s concerning female responses to fantasy were found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t , h i s f i n d i n g s may be a t t r i b u t a b l e t o sex d i f f e r e n c e s . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were made. S i b l i n g Order 1.  High need power subjects w i l l tend t o have an o l d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n than w i l l low power s u b j e c t s .  2.  High need power subjects w i l l come from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s than w i l l low power s u b j e c t s .  3.  High need power subjects w i l l have s i b l i n g s c l o s e r i n age than w i l l low power s u b j e c t s .  4.  O r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o f a m i l y s i z e and spacing, w i l l be r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h of power motivation.  Identification 1.  High need power subjects w i l l perceive  themselves  as l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r more o f t e n than low power s u b j e c t s . 2.  High need power subjects w i l l p e r c e i v e themselves as s i m i l a r to t h e i r dominant parent more o f t e n than low power s u b j e c t s .  3.  High need power s u b j e c t s w i l l tend t o be more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r than w i t h t h e i r mother.  4.  High need power subjects w i l l tend t o be more i n v o l v e d with t h e i r dominant parent than w i l l low need power subjects.  5.  There w i l l be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sex of the dominant parent and the s t r e n g t h of the s u b j e c t s ' power  motivation.  6 Sex D i f f e r e n c e s 1.  Female imagery w i l l c o n t a i n more statements o f a f f e c t , more o b s t a c l e s and more f a i l u r e experiences than w i l l the imagery of males.  C H A P T E R I I  Review of the L i t e r a t u r e The Power Motive Theories  o f Power.  The phenomenon of power s t r i v i n g has  r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n i n the t h e o r i e s of A d l e r (1927) and  S u l l i v a n (1947).  Both agree t h a t power s t r i v i n g develops  out of the f r u s t r a t i o n s of e a r l y i n f a n c y and t h a t i t f u n c t i o n s to impel development i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s . A d l e r i a n man's profound i n f e r i o r i t y f e e l i n g s l e a d him t o seek power over h i s environment.  Power i s symbolized  by the f a t h e r , so the c h i l d ' s  attempts a t ascendancy w i l l u s u a l l y r e s u l t i n emulation i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the f a t h e r . to be equated.  of or  Power and m a s c u l i n i t y appear  F o r women, A d l e r claimed  the r e s u l t i s an  almost u n i v e r s a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r r o l e .  Their psychic  l i f e i s pervaded by s t r o n g f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y because of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i n a man's world.  Because t h e i r sense of  i n f e r i o r i t y i s so much more i n t e n s e , presumably t h e i r power s t r i v i n g s may be correspondingly s t r o n g e r and more u n r e m i t t i n g than the males'. S u l l i v a n ' s conception refined.  o f power i s c o n s i d e r a b l y more  U n d e r l y i n g the m a n i f e s t a t i o n of man's b i o l o g i c a l  needs i s a 'power motive  1  which impels  the i n d i v i d u a l to seek  both b i o l o g i c a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s and s e c u r i t y . formed i n the process  The ' s e l f i s  o f d i s c o v e r i n g how t o o b t a i n power or  8 success i n i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s .  Mullahy  (1948) makes the  following observation. S u l l i v a n has not yet adequately d i s t i n g u i s h e d between power as a b i l i t y , which goes w i t h r e s p e c t f o r o n e s e l f and others and the achievement of s a t i s f a c t i o n s and s e c u r i t y ; and power i n the sense of g a i n i n g domination and c o n t r o l over others (p.334). In t h i s r e s e a r c h the power motive was  conceived of as a  need to c o n t r o l the means o f i n f l u e n c i n g others. p e r s o n a l aspects o f t h i s concept are obvious. more r e s t r i c t e d than S u l l i v a n ' s .  The  inter-  T h i s concept i s  However, h i s theory may  c l a r i f y the f u n c t i o n i n g of the power motive.  help  For S u l l i v a n ,  the  development of the motive would seem t o be f a r more dependent upon the r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c h i l d w i t h the s i g n i f i c a n t members of h i s environment than w i t h any f e e l i n g s of i n f e r i o r i t y  based  on sex. A l s o of t h e o r e t i c a l interest i s Homey's (1937) conception of power.  A c h i l d ' s s t r u g g l e f o r r e l a t i v e c o n t r o l i n competitive  s i t u a t i o n s i s condoned and  f o s t e r e d i n our c u l t u r e .  primary f a m i l y group t h i s s t r u g g l e may  In the  be more i n t e n s e i f there  are other s i b l i n g s w i t h whom one must compete.  This  suggests  the p o s s i b l e i n f l u e n c e of f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e on the formation of the power motive. I t should be noted t h a t these t h e o r e t i c a l  conceptions  of power are much broader than the conception of power employed i n the present r e s e a r c h . . Power m o t i v a t i o n i s here c l o s e l y approximates  and was  t i o n of need dominance.  conceived  i n s p i r e d by Murray's (1938) d e s c r i p -  9 Research on Power Motivation.  Though much has been done  on the group dynamics of power r e l a t i o n s h i p s , very l i t t l e research has been c a r r i e d out" on the dynamics of power motivation i n individuals.  We do not know why some people r a t h e r  than others have a strong need to influence or c o n t r o l .  Nor do  we know i f people with a strong need f o r power a c t u a l l y seek to express i t , or, i f they do, whether they are more or l e s s successful i n t h e i r influence attempts than those l e s s strongly motivated.  Maslow (1939) suggests that dominance f e e l i n g does  not n e c e s s a r i l y issue i n dominance behavior. He does i n d i c a t e that people w i t h r e l a t i v e l y high dominance f e e l i n g make the best leaders, and are often selected to be leaders.  Maslow s 1  concept of dominance includes much more, however, than the r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d d e f i n i t i o n of power employed here. By p r o v i d i n g a method f o r the measurement of power motivation i n i n d i v i d u a l s V e r o f f (1958) has opened up t h i s area f o r study.  He conceives of the power motive as f o l l o w s .  that d i s p o s i t i o n d i r e c t i n g behavior toward s a t i s f a c t i o n s contingent upon the c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c i n g another person(s). In the phenomenal sphere of the power-motivated i n d i v i d u a l , he considers himself the 'gatekeeper' to c e r t a i n d e c i s i o n making of others. The means of c o n t r o l can be anything at a l l that can be used to manipulate another person. Overt dominance s t r i v i n g s can be considered one kind of c o n t r o l execution. The d e f i n i t i o n of the power motive offered here, however, i s meant to include more than dominance (p.105). In developing h i s measure V e r o f f obtained from two groups w r i t t e n s t o r i e s i n response t o p i c t u r e s . assumed that power motivation was aroused.  Por one group i t was This group consisted  io of 34 male candidates f o r student o f f i c e who had congregated to await the o f f i c i a l r e s u l t s of the e l e c t i o n . Because the candidates were presumably extremely concerned about c o n t r o l of the means of influence i e . , being elected to o f f i c e , the s i t u a t i o n was thought to meet the requirements f o r arousal of the motive as i t was defined.  For the second group i t was assumed that  power concern was not s p e c i f i c a l l y a c t i v a t e d .  A scoring system  i s o l a t i n g the kinds of imagery presumably r e f l e c t i n g power motivation was then applied to the two sets of s t o r i e s . was  found, as was  expected, that the s t o r i e s from the aroused  group contained more power imagery than those from the aroused group.  It  non-  Unexpected, however, was the f i n d i n g that there  was l i t t l e imagery i n v o l v i n g a f f e c t i v e states and  obstacles.  As a p o s s i b l e explanation V e r o f f suggested that the power motive does not permit the arousal of associated a f f e c t i v e thoughts. The repression of a f f e c t surrounding  the power area may r e s u l t  from c u l t u r a l taboos against the overt and obvious expression of t h i s motive, e s p e c i a l l y the expression of overt s a t i s f a c t i o n s derived from power behavior.  An a l t e r n a t i v e explanation is  that  the p a r t i c u l a r p i c t u r e used d i d not provide cues to the kind of t h i n k i n g that would  r e f l e c t an a f f e c t i v e component.  . The v a l i d i t y of t h i s measure r e s t s f i r s t on the d i f f e r e n c e s obtained between the two groups and secondly on i t s c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h other behaviors presumably r e l a t e d to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of power motivation.  High need power scorers as compared with  low need power scorers tended to have lower scores on the S o c i a l Value dimension of the Allport-Vernon Scale of Values.  They  11 showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y of being l e a d e r .  stronger  interest  They were r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r b y t h e i r  classroom  instructors  frequency  of t r y i n g to convince  Finally, tion  they  on t h e f r e q u e n c y  o f a r g u m e n t a t i o n and t h e  others  of t h e i r p o i n t s o f view.  rated the job s a t i s f a c t i o n  from t h e i r f e l l o w s s i g n i f i c a n t l y  made t h i s  i n the job s a t i s f a c t i o n  of obtaining recogni-  higher.  Veroff  (1958)  observation.  T h a t t h e measure r e f l e c t s n o t o n l y t h e g r o u p d i f f e r e n c e s i n assumed m o t i v a t i o n l e v e l b u t a l s o individual differences i n variables related to a s p e c t s o f power c o n c e r n a s d e f i n e d i s a f a c t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t c a n be u s e d w i t h s u c c e s s i n r e s e a r c h e s i n w h i c h s u c h a measure o f m o t i v a t i o n would be needed (p.115). He went on t o s t a t e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p r o j e c t i v e measure o f power m o t i v a t i o n d e v e l o p e d h e r e n o t o n l y c a n s u c c e s s f u l l y i s o l a t e t h e presumed d i f f e r e n t i a l l e v e l o f m o t i v a t i o n i n groups but a l s o can s u c c e s s f u l l y p r e d i c t a t t i t u d e s and o v e r t b e h a v i o r which a r e presumably r e l a t e d t o t h e processes i n v o l v e d i n power m o t i v a t i o n (p.116).  The  Formation o f Motives Some T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  her  In connection  with  r e s e a r c h ' i n t o t h e r e l a t i o n between need a c h i e v e m e n t and  learning  experiences  i n independence and mastery Winterbottom  (1958) made t h e f o l l o w i n g  observation.  Research i n t o the o r i g i n s o f motives revealed i n f a n t a s y h a s b e e n d i r e c t e d t o w a r d s a t l e a s t two kinds of determinants. One d i r e c t i o n h a s b e e n toward a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e experiences o f t h e person i n r e l a t i o n t o p e r c e p t i o n s o f h i s body a s s o u r c e s o f m o t i v a t i o n and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . A n o t h e r d i r e c t i o n has b e e n t o w a r d s t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s and h a s s t r e s s e d t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l  12 and c o n c e p t u a l development engendered by e x p e r i e n c e s with, p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s , and the e x t e r n a l w o r l d i n g e n e r a l (p.453). I n b o t h cases the primacy of e a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s i n the format i o n of r e l a t i v e l y e n d u r i n g , p e r s i s t e n t and structures i s recognized.  McClelland  s t a b l e motive  (1958) o f f e r s a  compelling  r a t i o n a l e f o r the importance of e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n e x p e r i e n c e s i n the f o r m a t i o n  of m o t i v e s .  I f i t i s accepted t h a t a f f e c t i v e  a r o u s a l i s somehow at the r o o t of m o t i v a t i o n a l  associations,  the g r e a t a f f e c t i v e i n t e n s i t y of e a r l y c h i l d h o o d w i l l r e s u l t i n the f o r m a t i o n  experience  of s t r o n g , g e n e r a l i z e d  motives.  A f f e c t i v e s t a t e s are b o t h more i n t e n s e and more d i f f u s e a t e a r l i e r developmental l e v e l s t h a n a t the l a t e r .  The  the  motives  which evolve w i l l be e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t t o e x t i n g u i s h .  As  s y m b o l i c , c o r t i c a l c o n t r o l develops the a f f e c t i v e component and  involvement of the autonomic nervous system a p p a r e n t l y  comes l e s s .  be-  T h i s suggests t h a t motives become p r o g r e s s i v e l y  h a r d e r t p form w i t h age.  Interpersonal  e x p e r i e n c e s of  the  c r i t i c a l e a r l y p e r i o d w i l l have an enormous i n f l u e n c e on d e v e l o p i n g p e r s o n a l i t y of the S i b l i n g Order.  the  child.  Rosen (1961) i n v e s t i g a t e d the  relation-  s h i p between f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and achievement m o t i v a t i o n .  He  found t h a t i n s m a l l middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s the e f f e c t of o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n seems t o be r e l a t i v e l y u n i m p o r t a n t .  The  oldest  and  youngest c h i l d r e n i n a t w o - c h i l d f a m i l y have almost i d e n t i c a l need achievement s c o r e s .  However, as f a m i l y s i z e  increases  the s c o r e s of the o l d e s t c h i l d i n a middle c l a s s f a m i l y become  13  h i g h e r than those o f t h e youngest c h i l d . changed w i t h s o c i a l c l a s s .  He found t h i s p a t t e r n  He concluded t h a t i t i s dangerous  t o speak o f a r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i r t h order and need ment without and  achieve-  t a k i n g i n t o account t h e i n f l u e n c e o f f a m i l y s i z e  social class.  T h i s c a u t i o n was observed i n t h e p r e s e n t  research. V e r o f f (1958) h y p o t h e s i z e d  t h a t power m o t i v a t i o n would  be p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e number o f s i b l i n g s i n a subject's family.  He f u r t h e r p r e d i c t e d a r e l a t i o n between  b i r t h order and s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n .  He reasoned t h a t  power s a t i s f a c t i o n s a r e perhaps d e r i v e d from experiences i n which m a n i p u l a t o r y  behaviors  a r e i n evidence.  pect t h a t t h e h i g h power m o t i v a t e d  One would ex-  i n d i v i d u a l s would come from  l a r g e r f a m i l i e s where t h i s type o f experience  i s more l i k e l y  t o occur.  A l s o , c o m p e t i t i o n among s i b l i n g s f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e  possession  o f a l o v e d p a r e n t i s l i k e l y t o develop power r e l a t e d  needs.  However, V e r o f f ' s p r e d i c t i o n t h a t h i g h need power  s u b j e c t s would come from l a r g e f a m i l i e s was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d . He suggested t h a t t h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t any r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e power motive and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e depends on more complex c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a n s i m p l y t h e number o f f a m i l y members. When t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power s c o r e s was d i v i d e d i n t o t h i r d s (low, medium, and h i g h ) a t r e n d was uncovered.  H i g h power  s c o r e r s tended t o have a t l e a s t one o l d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n t h a n low power s c o r e r s  (p.15).  Parental Identification. concept i n p s y c h o a n a l y t i c According  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s t h e key  explanations  of s o c i a l i z a t i o n .  t o p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y t h e boy i d e n t i f i e s w i t h  14  his  f a t h e r and  the g i r l w i t h her mother.  These p a t t e r n s  emerge through the Oedipus c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n when o b j e c t c h o i c e s have t o be renounced.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n involves  a s s i m i l a t i o n of the q u a l i t i e s of a n o t h e r t o o n e s e l f .  the We  may  q u e s t i o n the e x i s t e n c e of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s a l o n g samesex l i n e s .  A d l e r (1927) seems t o suggest t h a t c h i l d r e n w i l l  a u t o m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f y w i t h the f a t h e r because he i s seen as the power f i g u r e i n the f a m i l y .  I n any  case, the p a r e n t w i t h  whom the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e s embodies the q u a l i t i e s which the c h i l d wishes t o have.  I f the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the dominant  p a r e n t i n the home, t h e n p o s s i b l y s t r o n g power needs w i l l  be  induced i n the c h i l d , r e g a r d l e s s of the sex of the p a r e n t or the  child. B i e r i and Lobeck (1959) have i n v e s t i g a t e d the  s h i p of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n a u t h o r i t y acceptance and t i o n patterns.  relationidentifica-  They found no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n  o v e r a l l a u t h o r i t y acceptance, but d i d uncover r e l a t e d t r e n d s in parental i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns. t h a t such p a t t e r n s may  T h i s seems t o i n d i c a t e  be r e l a t e d t o c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i -  ables. Sex  Differences S o c i a l Role.  Sex d i f f e r e n c e s are a r e s u l t of c o n s t i t u -  t i o n a l , s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l i t y d e t e r m i n a n t s which i n t e r a c t i n a complex manner t o produce the v e r y obvious b e h a v i o r a l erences of men  diffe  and women.  P e r t i n e n t t o the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i s the evidence of  15 c o n f l i c t i n the a d u l t female r o l e .  The degree of adjustment  t o r o l e s which s o c i e t y a s s i g n s t o i t s age-sex c a t e g o r i e s v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h the c l a r i t y w i t h which such r o l e s a r e d e f i n e d . R o l e c o n f l i c t s a r e l i k e l y t o f o l l o w from ambiguous r o l e expectations.  There i s evidence t h a t the a d u l t m a r r i e d female  r o l e i s u n c l e a r t o the average u n i v e r s i t y g i r l (Rose, 1951). There i s a l s o evidence t h a t the female r o l e w i t h w h i c h she i s p r e s e n t l y o c c u p i e d i s ambiguous.  The presence o f outmoded  r o l e models f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s the d i f f i c u l t y i n d e v e l o p i n g a v a l i d c o n c e p t i o n of h e r r o l e .  S i t u a t i o n s which have not y e t  been d e f i n e d and i n c o m p a t i b l e d e f i n i t i o n s of the same s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n add t o the c o n f u s i o n .  A s t u d y of women u n i v e r s i t y  s t u d e n t s by Komarovsky (1946) i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y commonly f a c e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t h e i r a d u l t sex r o l e s . They a r e c o n f r o n t e d w i t h vagueness and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s and male f r i e n d s .  The  particular  c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n of the female u n i v e r s i t y student i n v o l v e s two r o l e s .  The t y p i c a l l y 'feminine r o l e ' embodies the o l d e r  and s t i l l operant concepts o f f e m i n i n i t y , such a s , s u b m i s s i v e n e s s , charm, d e f e r e n c e , and so on.  The more 'modern r o l e  1  p a r t i a l l y o b l i t e r a t e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between t h e sexes and emphasizes achievement.  Both r o l e expectations are present i n  the s o c i a l environment and most g i r l s v a c i l l a t e between the two.  ,It would seem d i f f i c u l t t o w h o l e - h e a r t e d l y embrace one  r o l e r a t h e r t h a n the o t h e r . I t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o expect t h a t r o l e c o n f l i c t s would  16 be m a n i f e s t e d i n t h e a r e a o f power concern.  To a c e r t a i n  e x t e n t dominance b e h a v i o r i s f o s t e r e d i n b o t h men and women i n our c u l t u r e .  However, f o r b o t h sexes, i n t e n s e concern over  c o n t r o l o f t h e means o f i n f l u e n c e i s u n a c c e p t a b l e .  A woman  w i t h a s t r o n g need power has t h e a d d i t i o n a l handicap o f competing role definitions.  Overt power b e h a v i o r may c o n f l i c t w i t h  o t h e r expected b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s , t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f which i s necessary f o r c e r t a i n kinds of g r a t i f i c a t i o n .  The r o l e  conflict  between acceptance o f t h e 'feminine r o l e ' o r t h e 'modern r o l e ' , t o use Komarovsky's terms, may be o p e r a t i v e i n t h e a r e a o f power concern.  Maslow (1939) has suggested t h a t t h e i n h i b i t o r y  c o n t r o l by c u l t u r a l p r e s s u r e s i s f a r g r e a t e r and more e f f e c t i v e f o r dominance b e h a v i o r than i t i s f o r dominance f e e l i n g .  Women  w i t h a h i g h need power do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m a n i f e s t i t i n b e h a v i o r . P o s s i b l y the dynamics o f t h i s need may be more c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d through f a n t a s y . Motivation.  S t u d i e s on sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y  s t r e s s t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l n a t u r e o f t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n process and tend l a r g e l y t o a t t r i b u t e p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s t o t h i s f a c t o r r a t h e r than t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s ( a l t h o u g h psychoa n a l y t i c t h e o r y would n o t agree w i t h t h i s emphasis).  Of p a r t i c -  u l a r i n t e r e s t i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by l i n d z e y and Goldberg (1953) on m o t i v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females as measured by t h e TAT. They found t h a t t h e TAT d i d d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e sexes on a number o f p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s (females have a s t r o n g e r need f o r abasement and a r e more  17 nurturant).  I n a l a t e r , s i m i l a r study L i n z e y and S i l v e r m a n  (1959) scored  s t o r i e s f o r a f f i l i a t i o n , achievement, and power  imagery a c c o r d i n g t o t h e method o f A t k i n s o n  e t a l (1958).  No  s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r achievement o r a f f i l i a t i o n b u t women showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more power imagery. O b s e r v a t i o n o f h i g h e r dominance s c o r e s f o r females produces a l l k i n d s o f bewilderment. I t f i t s n e i t h e r w i t h p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s , n o r w i t h common sense. I n e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , t h e a u t h o r found c o l l e g e women s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n males on abasement s c o r e s , a r e s u l t which i s seemingly i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f h i g h power motives (p.320). A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s seeming d i s c r e p a n c y  c o u l d be  t h a t abasement scores r e f l e c t one aspect o f t h e female r o l e , whereas power s c o r e s r e f l e c t a n o t h e r , p o s s i b l y c o n f l i c t i n g , aspect.  L i n d z e y used 40 s u b j e c t s o f each sex.  I t may be  q u e s t i o n e d as t o whether h i s sample was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e . F a n t a s y as a Measure o f M o t i v a t i o n The use o f f a n t a s y i n t h e measurement o f motives has c e r t a i n advantages over t h e o l d e r methods i n v o l v i n g s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n o r r a t i n g s by o t h e r s .  Fantasy i s r e a d i l y influenced  by induced m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s and i s s e n s i t i v e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e n s i t y o f motive s t r e n g t h .  A l s o , t h e responses o f t h e  s u b j e c t s a r e n o t contaminated by an awareness o f t h e v a r i a b l e s under s t u d y .  F a n t a s y m a t e r i a l f u r t h e r l e n d s i t s e l f most  r e a d i l y t o a n a l y s i s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l terms.  The s i m p l e s t  measure we can o b t a i n o f t h e power motive i s t o observe t h e f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s about power as measured t h r o u g h i m a g i n a t i v e  productions.  18 Fantasy productions r e v e a l p e r s o n a l i t y but the r e l a t i o n s h i p between such r e v e l a t l e n s x a n d o v e r t b e h a v i o r i s r a t h e r obscure.  What i s s t r o n g i n i m a g i n a t i o n i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y  s t r o n g i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s m a n i f e s t p e r s o n a l i t y .  Do d i f f e r e n c e s  i n s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n as measured by f a n t a s y d i s c r i m i n a t e between i n d i v i d u a l s a t an o v e r t l e v e l ? P o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between f a n t a s y measures o f power, achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n , and i n d i c e s o f t h e same motives d e r i v e d from o v e r t b e h a v i o r have been r e p o r t e d . r e s u l t s support  Such  t h e view t h a t motives may be c o n c u r r e n t l y  r e f l e c t e d i n b o t h f a n t a s y and o v e r t b e h a v i o r .  R e c e n t l y , how-  ever, t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n has been  questioned.  Broverman e t a l (I960) found evidence s u g g e s t i n g t h a t f a n t a s y might serve as an a l t e r n a t i v e o r s u b s t i t u t e channel f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f achievement m o t i v a t i o n when t h i s motive i s b l o c k e d from b e h a v i o r e x p r e s s i o n i n r e a l l i f e .  Lazarus  et a l  (1957) had p r e v i o u s l y found t h a t achievement f a n t a s y decreased w i t h age and e d u c a t i o n .  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r subsequent  r e s u l t s these f i n d i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d by Broverman e t a l as follows. The h i g h e r achievement f a n t a s y i n younger, l e s s w e l l educated s u b j e c t s was a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o express achievement needs i n b e h a v i o r , w h i l e t h e o l d e r i n d i v i d u a l s were seen as more a b l e t o express such needs, w i t h a concomitant r e d u c t i o n o f f a n t a s y about achievement (p.374). Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s consonant w i t h a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c view o f f a n t a s y as t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f u n g r a t i f i e d needs o r w i s h fulfilment.  I n t h i s way f a n t a s y may f u n c t i o n as an o u t l e t f o r  !9  s o c i a l l y unacceptable  motives and f r u s t r a t e d power s t r i v i n g s .  The r e s e a r c h o f Feshbach.(1958) i n d i c a t e s t h a t f a n t a s y may be d r i v e - r e d u c i n g .  Hence, i n a f a n t a s y - e v o k i n g  behavior  situation,  the person c h a r a c t e r i z e d by motive f r u s t r a t i o n may be expected t o express I h i s m o t i v e .  L i n d z e y and G o l d b e r g (1953) have a l s o  suggested t h a t c o v e r t o r i m a g i n a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n o f a motive w i l l o n l y occur under c o n d i t i o n s where t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s n o t permitted f u l l overt g r a t i f i c a t i o n .  F a n t a s y may y i e l d a  measure o f need f r u s t r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n need s t r e n g t h . However, evidence l i n k i n g measures o f motive s t r e n g t h obtained through f a n t a s y and o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a o f the motive must be accounted f o r b e f o r e t h e t h e s i s t h a t f a n t a s y measures need f r u s t r a t i o n may be f u l l y  accepted.  Summary The power motive has l o n g been r e c o g n i z e d  i n psycho-  a n a l y t i c t h e o r y as one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l determinants h a v i o r w i t h i t s genesis i n the e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n of t h e c h i l d .  o f beexperiences  The r e s e a r c h o f V e r o f f (1958) i n d i c a t e s t h a t  t h i s motive can be measured.  H i s f i n d i n g t h a t power scores  were r e l a t e d t o o t h e r o v e r t b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a o f power s t r i v i n g suggests t h a t t h i s measure does i n f a c t a s s e s s t h e power motive.  I f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was t o show a r e l a t i o n -  s h i p between power scores and o t h e r e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a , a d d i t i o n a l evidence r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s measure would be a t hand. The review o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e supports t h e l i n k i n g o f such v a r i a b l e s as s i b l i n g o r d e r , sex d i f f e r e n c e s , and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  patterns to personality v a r i a b l e s .  F i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  the e x i s t e n c e o f f r u s t r a t i o n l e a d s us t o ask whether need f r u s t r a t i o n r a t h e r than need s t r e n g t h i s b e i n g  measured.  CHAPTER I I I Method Subjects Undergraduate p s y c h o l o g y s t u d e n t s were used as s u b j e c t s . A t o t a l o f 238 were t e s t e d i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e s e s s i o n s .  The  f i r s t group were 58 s t u d e n t s from P s y c h o l o g y 307 o f which 37 were men, and 21 women.  The second and t h i r d groups were 180  P s y c h o l o g y 100 s t u d e n t s o f which 130 were men and 50 were women. A t o t a l o f 167 men and 71 women were t e s t e d . the  As can be seen  t o t a l number o f men i s more t h a n t w i c e t h a t o f women.  T h i s r a t i o approximates t h e g e n e r a l d i s t r i b u t i o n in the u n i v e r s i t y .  o f t h e sexes  I t was n o t f e a s i b l e t o t e s t a l l - f e m a l e  groups s e p a r a t e l y . M e a s u r i n g Instruments Stimulus P i c t u r e s .  Pour s t i m u l u s p i c t u r e s were used.  These were p a r t o f a s e t o f s i x p i c t u r e s d e v i s e d f o r power s t u d i e s i n M i c h i g a n ( A t k i n s o n , 1958).  With the o r i g i n a l  group o f t h i r d y e a r s t u d e n t s f i v e p i c t u r e s were shown.  first How-  ever, one o f t h e p i c t u r e s evoked v i r t u a l l y no power imagery at a l l and was d i s c a r d e d f o r t h i s r e a s o n .  These p i c t u r e s  resemble t h e more h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d p i c t u r e s o f t h e TAT and presumably much t h e same dynamics e n t e r i n t o t h i s situation  fantasy  as e n t e r i n t o t h e TAT. The p i c t u r e s a r e b l a c k and  22  white.  Copies o f them a r e shown i n Appendix 1. F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e aand I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Questionnaire.  A  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was i n c l u d e d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l procedure i n which t h e s t u d e n t s were requested  t o s t a t e t h e i r sex and age,  the m a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e i r p a r e n t s , and t h e number, sex, and ages o f t h e i r s i b l i n g s .  Ten q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w e d o f which o n l y  t h r e e a r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s study. designed  These t h r e e q u e s t i o n s were  t o e s t a b l i s h the patterns of parental i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  and t h e dominance s t a t u s o f t h e p a r e n t s .  The r e m a i n i n g  seven  were 'dummies' used i n o r d e r t o make t h e v a r i a b l e s l e s s obvious t o t h e s u b j e c t s . The r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s a r e as f o l l o w s . ;  1.  Which parent do you f e e l you a r e most l i k e a t t h e present?  2.  Which parent d i d you f e e l c l o s e r t o as a c h i l d ?  3.  Which parent p l a y s t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t i n making t h e important d e c i s i o n s i n your household?  The  s u b j e c t s c o u l d respond mother, f a t h e r , o r u n c e r t a i n .  The  f i r s t two q u e s t i o n s were suggested by t h e r e s e a r c h o f B i e r i et a l (1959) on t h e comparison o f d i r e c t , measures o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  indirect.and fantasy  The f i r s t q u e s t i o n was designed  to r e v e a l p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y .  The second q u e s t i o n was d e s i g n -  ed t o r e v e a l degree o f involvement.  The t h i r d q u e s t i o n was  added i n an attempt t o d i s c o v e r which i s t h e dominant parent i n the home.  The complete q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s shown i n Appendix 2.  Experimental  Procedure  A r o u s a l Task.  P r i o r t o the presentation of the stimulus  23  p i c t u r e s the s u b j e c t s were r e q u i r e d t o do a s h o r t a r o u s a l task.  The purpose of t h i s t a s k was  t o arouse or a c t i v a t e the  motive which i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a l a t e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n . H a v i n g been aroused, the motive i s presumably r e v e a l e d i n the subsequent f a n t a s y s i t u a t i o n .  I t was  found w i t h the  first  group of s u b j e c t s t h a t w r i t i n g a s h o r t answer i n response t o a q u e s t i o n was  s u f f i c i e n t t o e l i c i t need power i n a  number of c a s e s .  The  q u e s t i o n was,  reasonable  'Suppose you a r e p l a c e d  i n a p o s i t i o n t o e x e r t a g r e a t d e a l of i n f l u e n c e .  How  would  you use t h i s i n f l u e n c e and t o what end?'. P r e s e n t a t i o n of S t i m u l u s P i c t u r e s . Upon c o m p l e t i o n  of  the a r o u s a l t a s k the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n . T h i s i s a study of i m a g i n a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . Four p i c t u r e s w i l l be p r o j e c t e d on the s c r e e n b e f o r e you. You w i l l have 20 seconds t o look' a t the p i c t u r e and t h e n f i v e minutes t o make up a s t o r y about i t . These f o u r q u e s t i o n s are asked ( i n d i c a t i n g q u e s t i o n s w r i t t e n on the b l a c k b o a r d ) . They w i l l g u i d e your t h i n k i n g and enable you t o cover a l l the elements of a p l o t i n the time a l l o t t e d . P l a n t o spend about a minute on each q u e s t i o n . O b v i o u s l y - t h e r e are no r i g h t or wrong answers, so t h a t you may 'feel f r e e t o make up any k i n d of a s t o r y about the p i c t u r e s you choose. T r y • t o make them v i v i d and dramatic f o r t h i s i s a t e s t of c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . Do not merely d e s c r i b e the p i c t u r e you see. T e l l a s t o r y about i t . Work as f a s t as you can i n o r d e r t o f i n i s h i t on t i m e . Make them i n t e r e s t i n g . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? I f you need more space f o r any q u e s t i o n s use the r e v e r s e s i d e of the paper. The sheets a t the end of the t e s t b o o k l e t c o n t a i n a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . P l e a s e do not l o o k a t these sheets u n t i l you have completed w r i t i n g the f o u r s t o r i e s . Do not g i v e your name. I n - a l l t h r e e groups these i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n by  their  classroom teacher.  Each  Test b o o k l e t s were d i s t r i b u t e d .  b o o k l e t c o n t a i n e d f o u r b l a n k sheets on which t o w r i t e s t o r i e s ,  24  and, a t t h e end, two q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h e e t s .  The i n s t r u c t i o n  not t o l o o k a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n i n o r d e r t o prevent the i n t e r f e r e n c e of p r e d o m i n a n t l y a f f i l i a t i v e set  themes w i t h the  presumably c r e a t e d by t h e a r o u s a l s i t u a t i o n .  The s l i d e s  were exposed f o r twenty seconds and t h e s u b j e c t s were a l l o w e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e minutes i n which t o w r i t e t h e i r s t o r i e s . A c c o r d i n g t o L i n d z e y and S i l v e r m a n (1959) these a r e o p t i m a l conditions. to  They d i d find,however,  t h a t female s u b j e c t s tended  show more o f a g i v e n v a r i a b l e when p r e s e n t e d w i t h i n d i v i d u a l  cards r a t h e r t h a n p r o j e c t e d s l i d e s .  However, t h i s was not  f e a s i b l e i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n view o f t h e l a r g e number o f subjects.  The f o u r q u e s t i o n s mentioned i n t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s  were t h e f o l l o w i n g . 1.  What i s happening?  2.  What has l e d up t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n ?  That i s , what  has happened i n t h e p a s t ? 3.  What i s b e i n g thought?  4.  What w i l l happen?  What i s wanted?  By whom?  What w i l l be done?  F a m i l y S t r u c t u r e and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  Upon  c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e l a s t s t o r y the s u b j e c t s were asked t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  They were a d v i s e d once a g a i n t h a t t h e  e n t i r e proceedings were annonymous.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y e i g h t minutes  were a l l o w e d f o r t h i s t a s k , upon c o m p l e t i o n o f which t h e t e s t b o o k l e t s were handed i n .  25  Treatment o f t h e Data S c o r i n g System.  The p r o t o c o l s were f i r s t a n a l y z e d f o r  the presence o f power r e l a t e d imagery.  V e r o f f (1958) made t h i s  statement. There has t o he some r e f e r e n c e t o t h e thoughts, f e e l i n g s , and a c t i o n s o f one o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n a s t o r y w h i c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r i s concerned w i t h t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e means o f i n f l u e n c i n g a person (p.220). There a r e t h r e e c r i t e r i a o f power imagery. c r i t e r i o n concerns  statements  The f i r s t  o f a f f e c t s u r r o u n d i n g t h e main-  tenance o r a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e means o f i n f l u e n c ing  a person.  The second i n v o l v e s statements  about someone  a c t u a l l y d o i n g something about m a i n t a i n i n g o r a t t a i n i n g t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e means o f i n f l u e n c i n g another person. c r i t e r i a a p p l i e s t o statements  The f i n a l  o f an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -  s h i p which i n i t s e x e c u t i o n i s c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d as one i n which t h e r e i s a s u p e r i o r p e r s o n h a v i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e means of i n f l u e n c i n g another who i s s u b o r d i n a t e .  Once i t i s e s t a b l i s h -  ed t h a t a s t o r y s a t i s f i e s any one o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a t h e subc a t e g o r y system o f s c o r i n g f o l l o w s . subcategories  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the  follows.  Need i s scored i f i n t h e s t o r y t h e r e i s an e x p l i c i t statement  o f someone wanting t o a t t a i n o r m a i n t a i n  c o n t r o l o f t h e means o f i n f l u e n c e . I n s t r u m e n t a l A c t i v i t y i s scored i f t h e r e i s a s t a t e ment about someone i n t h e s t o r y d o i n g something t o c o n t r o l t h e means o f i n f l u e n c e . Q-oal A n t i c i p a t i o n i s scored i f t h e r e a r e statements o f a c h a r a c t e r t h i n k i n g about t h e g o a l , o r about whether  or n o t he w i l l he s u c c e s s f u l i n r e a c h i n g t h e g o a l . B l o c k s i n t h e Person o r i n t h e World a r e s c o r e d i f t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s o f d i s r u p t i o n t o ongoing  behavior  which i s d i r e c t e d toward a t t a i n i n g o r m a i n t a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e means o f i n f l u e n c e .  I f the obstacle  l i e s i n some weakness o r d i f f i c u l t y o f t h e person concerned  w i t h power then i t i s s c o r e d b l o c j t person.  I f t h e o b s t a c l e l i e s o u t s i d e t h e person t h e s t o r y i s scored block world. A f f e c t i v e S t a t e s a r e scored i f t h e r e a r e a f f e c t i v e responses made i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h e i t h e r h a v i n g  reached  o r n o t reached t h e g o a l . Thema i s scored when t h e b e h a v i o r a l sequence o f t h e power concern i s t h e c e n t r a l p l o t o f t h e s t o r y . The  s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n i s e s t i m a t e d by t a l l y i n g t h e  number o f c a t e g o r i e s i n which t h e s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a a r e f u l filled.  The s c o r i n g o f i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y , g o a l a n t i c i p a -  t i o n , and a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s may be e i t h e r p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e . The maximal s c o r e p o s s i b l e i s 10.  I f power imagery i s n o t  p r e s e n t , t h e s t o r y i s s c o r e d u n r e l a t e d imagery o r z e r o power. Scorer R e l i a b i l i t y .  A t k i n s o n (1958) p r o v i d e s p r a c t i c e  m a t e r i a l s f o r l e a r n i n g how t o s c o r e need power. c o n s i s t o f seven s e t s o f 30 s t o r i e s each.  F o r each s e t the  s c o r e r checks h i s s c o r i n g w i t h t h a t o f an e x p e r t . i n d e x o f agreement i s t h e percentage s c o r e r and t h e expert on t h e presence  These m a t e r i a l s  The f i r s t  agreement between t h e o f m o t i v e - r e l a t e d imagery.  27  The s c o r i n g o f t h e Imagery c a t e g o r y i s t h e s i n g l e most i m p o r t ant s c o r i n g d e c i s i o n t o be made; o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s can o n l y be s c o r e d i f m o t i v e - r e l a t e d imagery i s p r e s e n t .  The second index  of agreement i s rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s ( r h o ) .  T h i s i s used  because t h e s u b j e c t s were p l a c e d , on t h e b a s i s o f a median b r e a k i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t o t a l s c o r e s , i n t o l o w and h i g h need power groups.  A r e l i a b l e ordering of individuals i s  therefore essential. research.  Two judges p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r e s e n t  On t h e p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l s w i t h f a m i l i a r p i c t u r e s  t h e i r combined mean r e l i a b i l i t y s c o r e was .81. T h i s s c o r e may be compared w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by F e l d and Smith  (1958) who  found a mean c o r r e l a t i o n o f .78 f o r t h e i r sample o f power scorers.  When t h e i r s c o r e r s were g i v e n n o v e l p i c t u r e s t h e i r  r e l i a b i l i t y f e l l t o .69. The combined mean r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e judges i n t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h when presented w i t h n o v e l p i c t u r e s was  .84. F e l d and Smith c o n s i d e r e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t i e s  which  they a c h i e v e d t o be a c c e p t a b l e f o r r e s e a r c h purposes.  They  s t u d i e d t h e s c o r i n g o f achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n to power and o b t a i n e d h i g h e r r e l i a b i l i t i e s  i n addition  on t h e former two.  However, they noted t h a t t h e s c o r i n g system f o r need power i s the most r e c e n t l y developed  o f t h e t h r e e and has had t h e l e a s t  refinement through use i n r e s e a r c h . scoring r e l i a b i l i t i e s  W i t h a l l t h r e e motives,  i n t h e .80s- i s a d v i s a b l e .  urged t o d i s c u s s d i f f i c u l t  Judges a r e  s c o r i n g q u e s t i o n s and come t o agree-  ments c o n c e r n i n g conventions which a r e n o t a d e q u a t e l y i n t h e manuals.  I n V e r o f f ' s study-(1958) t h e rank  covered  order  28 c o r r e l a t i o n (rho) o b t a i n e d by two judges was .87. The p e r c e n t age agreement f o r Imagery between t h e two judges o f t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h was 93-7. T h e i r rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n ( r h o ) was .90.  These r e l i a b i l i t i e s were based on t h e s c o r i n g o f 32  s t o r i e s , o f which h a l f were w r i t t e n by males and h a l f by females.  The Thema c a t e g o r y was excluded from t h e f i n a l  scor-  i n g because i t proved t o be a v e r y s u b j e c t i v e judgement and the  s c o r e r s were unable t o agree as t o i t s presence o r absence.  The rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n quoted above was computed a f t e r Thema had been e x c l u d e d . S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment o f t h e D a t a .  Every s u b j e c t wrote  f o u r s t o r i e s , each o f which was s c o r e d f o r power m o t i v a t i o n . The t o t a l s c o r e f o r any s u b j e c t was t h e summed s c o r e s o f t h e four stories.  S u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o low, medium and h i g h  power groups on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r s c o r e s .  The t o t a l s f o r t h e  male and female groups i n each s u b c a t e g o r y were a l s o t a b u l a t e d so as t o p e r m i t comparison between t h e groups as r e g a r d s t h e v a r i o u s c a t e g o r i e s o f power imagery, such a s , a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s , o b s t a c l e s , e t c . A t t e s t and c h i square was a p p l i e d t o t h e data.  S i n c e d i r e c t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s were made, o n e - t a i l e d  t e s t s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e were made.  l e v e l s o f .05 were con-  s i d e r e d ' s i g n i f i c a n t , w h i l e those from .05 t o .10 were con1  sidered suggestive only.  P r o b a b i l i t i e s h i g h e r t h a n .10 were  c o n s i d e r e d n e i t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t n o r s u g g e s t i v e and a r e r e p o r t e d as n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t .  CHAPTER IV Results D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Power Scores Table 1 i n d i c a t e s t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power s c o r e s f o r the male and female groups.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n  s u b j e c t s were d i v i d e d i n t o low, medium and h i g h need power groups.  S u b j e c t s o b t a i n i n g a s c o r e o f zero were c l a s s i f i e d as  low i n power m o t i v a t i o n .  Those o b t a i n i n g s c o r e s o f two were  p l a c e d i n t h e medium power group.  Those o b t a i n i n g a s c o r e of  t h r e e o r above were p l a c e d i n the h i g h power group.  Each  group c o n t a i n e d r o u g h l y one t h i r d o f t h e t o t a l number o f c a s e s . The low and medium groups were combined t o form a low power group which was c o n t r a s t e d w i t h t h e h i g h power group.  This  a l l o w e d more o f t h e d a t a t o be used.  Table 1  S i b l i n g Order and Power M o t i v a t i o n O r d i n a l Placement.  Table 2 g i v e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be-  tween o r d i n a l ! placement and s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t  relationship  between power s c o r e s and o r d i n a l placement i n t h e f a m i l y .  The  h y p o t h e s i s t h a t h i g h need power s u b j e c t s would tend t o have an o l d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n than low need power s u b j e c t s was  Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f Power Scores f o r Male and Female Groups  Power Score 0  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  Total  Males  55  49  16  22  6  11  2  2  3  1  167  Females  20  25  4  8  7  1  4  0  1  1  71  Total  75  74  20  30  13  12  6  2  4  2  238  31 not  confirmed.  T a b l e .2  Family relationship the  are  Examination of Table  e x i s t s between s t r e n g t h  number o f s i b l i n g s  indicated ular  Size.  i n a family.  between the s t r e n g t h  size of family, that no d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s  3 indicates that  o f power m o t i v a t i o n A l s o , no r e l a t i o n  o f power m o t i v a t i o n  i s , subjects regard  no  and  was  and a  partic-  from t h r e e - c h i l d f a m i l i e s  than subjects  from  two-child  significant  relation-  families.  Table  Spacing.  T a b l e 4 shows t h a t no  s h i p was  found  presence  of an older  the  3  to exist  between s t r e n g t h  sibling  f i n d i n g s were confirmed  three  first, was  middle,  or last.  or l e s s  to their Table  S i z e , and Spacing.  Subjects  position i n the family  as  5 shows t h a t no r e l a t i o n s h i p  found between t h e s e o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s and s t r e n g t h  motivation.  although  4  O r d i n a l Placement, Family according  older  directionally.  Table  were grouped  years  o f power and t h e  H o w e v e r , when s u b j e c t s  c o m i n g f r o m one and  o f power two-child  32  Table 2 R e l a t i o n s h i p between O r d i n a l  Placement  and S t r e n g t h of Power M o t i v a t i o n  H i g h Power (N=75)  Low Power (N=123)  Ss w i t h an o l d e r s i b l i n g  36  49  Ss w i t h no o l d e r s i b l i n g  39  74  C h i square = .96,  p = n.s., 1 d f , o n e - t a i l e d  test.  33  Table 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores and Family Size  Number of S i b l i n g s  Above 4  Total  1  2  3  4  High Power  10  25  21  8  11  75  Low Power  17  43  35  14  14  123  i n Family  34  Table 4 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Age S p a c i n g o f S i b l i n g s and  Strength  o f Power M o t i v a t i o n  H i g h Power (N=53) Ss w i t h s i b l i n g s t h r e e years older or l e s s Ss w i t h no s i b l i n g s t h r e e years older or l e s s  Low Power  (N=9D  16  17  37  74  C h i square = 1.90, p = .10, 1 d f , o n e - t a i l e d t e s t .  35  f a m i l i e s were e l i m i n a t e d , a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was revealed.  T a b l e 6 shows t h a t h i g h need power people occupy  middle o r l a s t p o s i t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more o f t e n t h a n low power people.  A f u r t h e r comparison, shown i n T a b l e 7, i n t r o d u c -  ed t h e s p a c i n g v a r i a b l e .  T h i s comparison was c a r r i e d out be-  tween s u b j e c t s i n whose f a m i l i e s t h e r e were t h r e e o r more s i b l i n g s , and i n which t h e r e were s i b l i n g s w i t h i n t h r e e or l e s s o f t h e s u b j e c t .  years  A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found  i n d i c a t i n g t h a t h i g h power s u b j e c t s who have one o r more s i b l i n g s w i t h i n t h r e e years o f t h e i r age, and who come from f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n o r more, occupy middle o r l a s t p o s i t i o n s more o f t e n than do low power s u b j e c t s who have s i m i l a r , family structures.  Table 5, T a b l e 6, and T a b l e 7  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Power M o t i v a t i o n Because sex d i f f e r e n c e s have been r e v e a l e d i n p a t t e r n s of p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( B i e r i & Lobeck, 1959) t h e male and female groups were not combined, so t h a t separate t r e n d s would be r e v e a l e d i f i n f a c t they e x i s t e d . P e r c e i v e d S i m i l a r i t y Measure.  The p e r c e i v e d  similarity  measure d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between low and h i g h need power subjects.  The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t h i g h need power s u b j e c t s would  tend t o p e r c e i v e themselves as l i k e t h e dominant p a r e n t more o f t e n t h a n low power s u b j e c t s was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  Nor d i d  36  Table 5 Relationship  between F i r s t and M i d d l e o r  L a s t O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n s and S t r e n g t h o f Power  Motivation  Low Power (N=121)  H i g h Power (N=73) Ss o c c u p y i n g f i r s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n  38  74  Ss occupying m i d d l e o r l a s t  35  47  ordinal position C h i square = 1.19»  p = n.s., l d f , o n e - t a i l e d  test.  37  Table 6 R e l a t i o n s h i p between F i r s t and M i d d l e o r L a s t O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n i n F a m i l i e s o f Three C h i l d r e n o f More and S t r e n g t h o f Power Motivation  H i g h Power (11=40) Ss occupying f i r s t  ordinal  low Power (N=63)  13  34  27  29  position Ss o c c u p y i n g m i d d l e o r l a s t ordinal position C h i square = 3*72, p = .05, 1 d f , o n e - t a i l e d t e s t .  38  Table 7 R e l a t i o n s h i p between S p a c i n g and O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n i n F a m i l i e s o f Three C h i l d r e n o r More and S t r e n g t h o f Power M o t i v a t i o n  H i g h Power (N 24)  Low Power (N 32)  Ss h a v i n g s i b l i n g s w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s o f own age and o c c u p y ing  7  19  17  13  f i r s t ordinal position Ss h a v i n g s i b l i n g s w i t h i n t h r e e y e a r s o f own age and o c c u p y ing middle o r l a s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s C h i square = 3.89, p = .05, 1 d f , o n e - t a i l e d t e s t .  39  they perceive themselves as most l i k e t h e i r father s i g n i f i c a n t l y more oftieii than low power scorers. Involvement Measure.  The involvement measure a l s o  f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between low and high need power subjects.  High need power subjects do not tend to be more  involved with t h e i r dominant parent than are low power subjects. A l s o , there was no i n d i c a t i o n that high need power subjects tend to be more involved w i t h the f a t h e r .  Most subjects,  regardless of power score, tended to be most involved with the mother. Dominant Parent.  Table 8 suggests a trend f o r high  power male subjects to judge t h e i r mother as the dominant parent more often than do low power subjects.  Table 8  Sex Differences and Power Motivation Imagery i n the s t o r i e s w r i t t e n by the male and female groups was compared by dichotomizing the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of the combined groups as near to the median as p o s s i b l e . Table 9 shows f o r each category the number"of subjects i n each group above and below the median of the combined d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Chi square was computed f o r each instance that p o t e n t i a l l y represented  a s i g n i f i c a n t d e v i a t i o n from a chance d i s t r i b u t i o n .  A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was  obtained i n the category of p o s i t i v e  instrumental a c t i v i t y with females demonstrating more of t h i s  40  Table 8 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Sex of Dominant Parent and Strength of Power M o t i v a t i o n  Dominant Parent  High Power (N 38)  Low Power (N 49)  Mother  19  15  Father  19  34  Chi square = 2.61, p. = .10, 1 d f , one-tailed t e s t .  imagery than males., No o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were indicated.  Table 9 A t t e s t was. computed t o compare t h e mean power s c o r e s of female s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e mean power s c o r e s o f male s u b j e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was o b t a i n e d . Restatement  o f Hypotheses  The hypotheses s t a t e d i n Chapter I a r e r e s t a t e d below a l o n g w i t h t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o b t a i n e d i n each case. Sibling  Order 1.  H i g h need power s u b j e c t s w i l l tend t o have an o l d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n than w i l l low power s u b j e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d as shown i n T a b l e 2.  2.  H i g h need power s u b j e c t w i l l come from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s t h a n w i l l low power s u b j e c t s . . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were i n d i c a t e d as shown by e x a m i n a t i o n of T a b l e 3.  3.  H i g h need power s u b j e c t s w i l l have s i b l i n g s  closer  i n age t h a n w i l l low power s u b j e c t s . • No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d as shown i n Table 4, a l t h o u g h the h y p o t h e s i s was confirmed d i r e c t i o n a l l y . 4.  O r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o f a m i l y s i z e and s p a c i n g , w i l l be r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h o f power motivation.  S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d as  shown i n Table 7 where p = .05.  42  Table 9 Number of Subjects i n Male and Female Groups Above and Below the Median* f o r Various Power-Related Imaginative Categories  Males (N 167)  Imaginat ive Category-  Females (N 71)  Chi Square  p**  Above  Below  55  51  20  -  n.s.  27  140  11  60  -  n.s.  .39 . 27 . 59 . 105  128 140 108 62  25 7 27 49  46 64 44 22  2.98  .05 n.s. n.s. n.s.  2 2  165 165  0 1  71 70  -  n.s. n.s.  2 20  165 145  1 10  70 61  -  n.s. n.s.  2 6 7  165 161 160  1 6 6  70 65 65  -  . n.s. n.s. n.s.  Above  Below  . I l l . Instrumental A c t i v i t y -  Goal A n t i c i p a t i o n  Block . A f f e c t i v e States  *  Median based on combined frequencies of both the female and the male groups.  **  One-tailed t e s t .  43  Identification 1.  H i g h need power s u b j e c t s w i l l p e r c e i v e themselves as l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r more o f t e n than low power subjects.  2.  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d .  H i g h need power s u b j e c t s w i l l p e r c e i v e themselves as s i m i l a r t o t h e i r dominant parent more o f t e n than low power s u b j e c t s .  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were  obtained. 3.  H i g h need, power s u b j e c t s w i l l tend t o be more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r fthan w i t h t h e i r mother. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d .  4.  H i g h need power s u b j e c t w i l l tend t o be more i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r dominant parent t h a n w i l l low need power subjects.  5.  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d .  There w i l l be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e sex o f the dominant parent and t h e s t r e n g t h of the s u b j e c t s ' power m o t i v a t i o n .  No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were  obtained as shown i n T a b l e 8, a l t h o u g h a g a i n , the h y p o t h e s i s was confirmed Sex  directionally.  Differences 1.  Female imagery w i l l c o n t a i n more statements o f a f f e c t , more o b s t a c l e s , and more f a i l u r e e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l the imagery o f males.  No s i g n i f i c a n t  were obtained as shown i n T a b l e 9.  than results  CHAPTER V Discussion S i b l i n g Order The  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t o r d i n a l placement, f a m i l y s i z e  and s p a c i n g , c o n s i d e r e d  s e p a r a t e l y are not s u f f i c i e n t i n them-  s e l v e s t o produce marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n power m o t i v a t i o n . S t r e n g t h of power m o t i v a t i o n i s not a f f e c t e d by o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n along.  However, when the v a r i a b l e of f a m i l y s i z e i s  t a k e n i n t o account, s u b j e c t s occupying middle or l a s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s and who  come from f a m i l i e s o f three or more c h i l d r e n  tend t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n power m o t i v a t i o n t h a n s u b j e c t s cqming from s i m i l a r s i z e f a m i l i e s who position.  occupy the f i r s t o r d i n a l  I n t w o - c h i l d f a m i l i e s need power appears t o be  f a i f c l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d which suggests t h a t s i b l i n g order i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n the development of the power motive i n s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s .  A number o f f a c t o r s p o s s i b l y  i n t e r a c t t o produce t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The  o l d e r s s i b l i n g has a more p o w e r f u l p o s i t i o n than  younger s i b l i n g s .  V e r o f f (1961) has suggested t h a t t h i s measure  o f power m o t i v a t i o n may This suggestion  a c t u a l l y measure power d e p r i v a t i o n .  i s a l s o b o r n out by the r e s u l t s of Broverman  et a l (i960) w i t h achievement m o t i v a t i o n . t o suppose t h a t a younger s i b experiences  It is  reasonable  greater deprivation  i n the a r e a o f power concern than does an o l d e s t - s i b l i n g .  Such  45  power d e p r i v a t i o n may  r e s u l t i n g r e a t e r power needs as  manifested i n fantasy.  On the other hand, i f t h i s instrument  does not measure d e p r i v a t i o n , hut does measure the a c t u a l s t r e n g t h o f power s t r i v i n g , i t would s t i l l be expected t h a t a younger c h i l d would m a n i f e s t a s t r o n g e r need power than an oldest c h i l d . ing  Presumably e a r l y power e x p e r i e n c e s i n v o l v e  manipulated by others and  i n turn manipulating  others.  There i s l i k e l y t o be a d e f i n a b l e power h i e r a r c h y i n the of more than one  child.  be-  Prom b i r t h the c h i l d w i t h an  family  older  s i b l i n g i s i n v o l v e d i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s of t h i s h i e r a r c h y t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than the f i r s t s i b l i n g who  has  at l e a s t a few y e a r s i n which h i s p o s i t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y  un-  rivalled.  The  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Rosen (1961) suggests t h a t  the  f i r s t c h i l d i s l i k e l y t o develop a h i g h need achievement r a t h e r t h a n a h i g h need power, a l t h o u g h t h i s i s evident  only i n f a m i l i e s  of t h r e e or more c h i l d r e n . However, t h e presence o f an o l d e r s i b l i n g i s not i n i t s e l f t o produce a h i g h need power. i s i n f l u e n c e d by the s i z e of the f a m i l y .  The  formation  sufficient of motives  Most p r o b a b l y t h i s i s  because more o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t b o t h f o r m a n i p u l a t i n g  others  and  three  i n t u r n b e i n g manipulated by o t h e r s i n f a m i l i e s of  o r more c h i l d r e n than i n s m a l l e r f a m i l i e s . i n a l a r g e r f a m i l y may the p a r e n t s as w e l l . 'pecking o r d e r s '  Youngest c h i l d r e n  a l s o be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o m a n i p u l a t e I n any  case, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t d e f i n i t e  e x i s t i n f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n or more.  C h i l d r e n o c c u p y i n g middle o r l a s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s are c l o s e l y i n v o l v e d i n t h i s 'pecking order' from b i r t h .  46  No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found t o e x i s t between s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n and t h e presence o f a younger s i b , even t a k i n g family size into consideration. important  t o have an o l d e r s i b w i t h whom t o i n t e r a c t t h a n a  younger s i b . important  T h i s suggests t h a t i t i s more  I t appears t h a t b e i n g manipulated  may be more  i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f the power motive t h a n i s the a c t  of m a n i p u l a t i n g .  T h i s l e n d s credence t o the t h e o r y t h a t what  i s b e i n g measured i s , t o some degree, power f r u s t r a t i o n . Considered  s e p a r a t e l y , t h e s p a c i n g v a r i a b l e a l s o appears  t o be u n r e l a t e d t o s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n .  When t h e  presence o r absence o f s i b l i n g s w i t h i n t h r e e years was t h e v a r i a b l e employed t o d i f f e r e n c i a t e h i g h from l o w power s u b j e c t s , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found.  The presence of younger  s i b l i n g s w i t h i n t h r e e years a l s o f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t h e two power groups.  However, when t h e presence o f o l d e r s i b l i n g s  w i t h i n t h r e e years was the v a r i a b l e a t r e n d was r e v e a l e d , a l t h o u g h i t d i d n o t a t t a i n an a c c e p t a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . H i g h power s u b j e c t s tended t o have an o l d e r s i b l i n g w i t h i n t h r e e years o f t h e s u b j e c t s age more o f t e n than l o w power s u b j e c t s . T h i s f i n d i n g s seems r e a s o n a b l e  on t h e assumption t h a t s i b l i n g s  c l o s e i n age i n t e r a c t more o f t e n and more i n t e n s e l y than those not c l o s e i n age.  The e l i m i n a t i o n of s u b j e c t s w i t h s i b l i n g s  o l d e r by more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s appeared t o h e i g h t e n t h e e f f e c t s of o r d i n a l placement.  When a l l t h r e e v a r i a b l e s , s p a c i n g , o r d i n a l  placement, and f a m i l y s i z e were c o n t r o l l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t t i o n s h i p was r e v e a l e d .  rela-  S u b j e c t s from f a m i l i e s o f t h r e e c h i l d r e n  or more, who have s i b l i n g s w i t h i n t h r e e years o f t h e i r own age,  47  and who occupy middle or l a s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s are more l i k e l y to he high i n power motivation than are subjects from s i m i l a r family structures who occupy the f i r s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was found even when the spacing v a r i a b l e was not c o n t r o l l e d f o r and only family s i z e and o r d i n a l placement were the v a r i a b l e s .  However,  the a d d i t i o n of the spacing v a r i a b l e r a i s e s the l e v e l of significance.slightly.  A l a r g e r sample than the one employed  i n the present study would be necessary t o i s o l a t e the e f f e c t s of these three v a r i a b l e s and determine the r e l a t i v e weight which each contributes to the t o t a l r e s u l t .  A l s o , the choice  of a three year i n t e r v a l as the spacing v a r i a b l e was quite arbitrary.  I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g to use several i n t e r v a l s .  Brim (i960) attempted without success to r e l a t e s i b age d i f f e r e n c e s to sex-role l e a r n i n g .  He found that the r o l e -  t a k i n g of younger s i b s was affected by the sex of the older s i b , i e . , younger boys with an older s i s t e r were s u b s t a n t i a l l y more feminine than older boys with a younger s i s t e r .  The  presence and sex of an older s i b appears to influence t h i s area of p e r s o n a l i t y development.  However, the s i z e of the  d i f f e r e n c e i n ages between s i b s was not a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r i n r o l e - t a k i n g . His study however was confined to two-child families.  Had the present study been confined to $wo-child  f a m i l i e s , most l i k e l y the same r e s u l t s would have obtained. I t was not u n t i l two-child f a m i l i e s were eliminated that s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s were revealed. -Veroff (1958) found that high need power scorers tend  48  t o have;, an o l d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n t h a n low need power s c o r e r s , but h i s f i n d i n g s were s u g g e s t i v e o n l y .  In personal  correspondence V e r o f f (1961) mentions an u n p u b l i s h e d c a r r i e d out a t P r i n c e t o n i n 1956  which a l s o upheld  study  the  t i o n s h i p between need power s c o r e s and s i b l i n g o r d e r . ever, the sample was v e r y s m a l l .  relaHow-  V e r o f f s r e s u l t s would p e r -  haps have a c h i e v e d a h i g h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l had  he  e l i m i n a t e d the s u b j e c t s from t w o - c h i l d f a m i l i e s from h i s calculations.  Rosen (1961) found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n a c h i e v e -  ment m o t i v a t i o n w i t h t w o - c h i l d f a m i l i e s , but d i f f e r e n c e s between the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s become q u i t e pronounced as f a m i l y size increased.  I t should be noted t h a t Rosen found the e f f e c t s  of s i b l i n g o r d e r on achievement m o t i v a t i o n to v a r y w i t h s o c i a l class.  H i s r e s u l t s quoted here a p p l i e d t o s u b j e c t s from  middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s .  I t was  assumed i n the p r e s e n t  research  t h a t the sample of u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s used as s u b j e c t s would a l s o r e p r e s e n t the middle c l a s s  predominantly.  Identification The  r e s u l t s indicate that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns play  l i t t l e p a r t i n the f o r m a t i o n of the power m o t i v e .  Such r e s u l t s  suggest t h a t c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y perhaps be re-examined.  True t o p s y c h o a n a l y t i c  should  formulations,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s proceed a l o n g sex l i n e s f o r the p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y measure.  Boys more o f t e n p e r c e i v e them-  s e l v e s as l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r (p .01).  For g i r l s ,  identification  w i t h the mother i s s u g g e s t i v e but not c o n c l u s i v e (p  .10).  49  However, w i t h the degree of involvement measure almost a l l s u b j e c t s , r e g a r d l e s s of sex, c o n s i d e r e d  themselves as most  i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e i r mother as a c h i l d .  T h i s makes v e r y good  sense and the v a l u e of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r measure t o i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s may  be q u e s t i o n e d .  differentiate  Analysis  reveals  t h a t boys tend t o p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a t h e r as the dominant parent more o f t e n t h a n t h e i r mother (p .05).  I f i t i s true  as  p s y c h o a n a l i t i c t h e o r y h o l d s , t h a t boys tend t o p a t t e r n thems e l v e s a f t e r t h e i r f a t h e r s , and  i f males p e r c e i v e the  father  as the dominant member of the f a m i l y , i t would seem r e a s o n a b l e t o expect the boy t o show a g r e a t e r need f o r dominance t h a n w i l l a g i r l who  p a t t e r n s her b e h a v i o r on her mother.  G i r l s a l s o p e r c e i v e t h e i r f a t h e r s as dominant (p .05). o t h e r hand, males may  On  the  have a h i g h e r need power w h i c h f a n t a s y  doesn't r e f l e c t because the need i s r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d . The A d l e r i a n h y p o t h e s i s  t h a t power i s the s t i m u l a n t i n  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s supported by the evidence here as f a r as males are concerned. ,They tend t o p e r c e i v e themselves l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r and  t h e y view t h e i r f a t h e r as dominant.  The  p a t t e r n f o r women i s l e s s c l e a r f o r a l t h o u g h they do tend t o see t h e i r f a t h e r as dominant, they p e r c e i v e themselves as t h e i r mother.  Same-sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s as f a r as  like  perceived  s i m i l a r i t y i s concerned appears t o be the r u l e .  However, the  effect  of the power  of these i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s on the f o r m a t i o n  motive appears t o be n e g l i g i b l e psychoanalytic  i f e x i s t e n t at a l l .  The  emphasis on the i n f l u e n c e of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  50  processes on the development of p e r s o n a l i t y may not apply as f a r as power motivation i s concerned. However, the l a c k of corroborating evidence may be a t t r i b u t a b l e to imperfections i n the measuring instrument employed. Of i n t e r e s t i s the suggestive f i n d i n g that high need power male subjects tend to-have a dominant mother more often than low need power males.  Though high power males do not  i d e n t i f y with t h e i r mothers on the perceived s i m i l a r i t y measure, they, l i k e low power males, see themselves as more involved with the mother as a c h i l d .  In the close mother-  c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p , i t seems reasonable to expect a dominant mother to i n s t i l l a strong power motive i n her c h i l d .  Males  do not i d e n t i f y with t h e i r mothers and yet early t r a i n i n g of mothers has a great e f f e c t on the formation of the achievement motive (Winterbottom, 1958). Mothers presumably could e f f e c t s i m i l a r r e s u l t s with the power motive. No such r e s u l t s were found with the female sample but i t was much smaller and p o s s i b l y mothers would not be as interested i n i n s t i l l i n g such patterns i n g i r l s as i n boys f o r a v a r i e t y of reasons. Sex Differences The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f a i l e d to confirm the f i n d i n g s of Lindzey and Silverman (1959).  Males and females  do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n strength of power motivation. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a r r i v e at any conclusion when doubt e x i s t s as to whether fantasy measures need f r u s t r a t i o n or need strength. I f i t measures need f r u s t r a t i o n i n part, then males and females  51 may have n e a r l y e q u i v a l e n t amounts o f f r u s t r a t i o n i n t h i s a r e a . The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s however t h a t one sex may have more d r i v e i n t h i s a r e a t h a n t h e o t h e r s sex.  Assuming t h a t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  e x p r e s s i o n o f a motive reduces i t s e f f e c t s i n f a n t a s y , t h e n a h i g h power need which has an o u t l e t may n o t be r e v e a l e d i n very great i n t e n s i t y .  A l s o assuming t h e g r e a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y  of o u t l e t s f o r t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f t h i s motive i n males, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t males may express t h i s need more o f t e n and more s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a c t u a l i n s t r u m e n t a l b e h a v i o r than females.  If  t h i s i s so, males may have a h i g h e r need power than women, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e f i n d i n g s evidenced  by t h i s r e s e a r c h .  I n any  case, i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o imagine t h a t women would have a h i g h e r need £>r power, a l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d . ment w i t h common conceptions  T h i s i s i n agree-  o f female p e r s o n a l i t y .  Parsons (1955) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l or t a s k r o l e and t h e e x p r e s s i v e o r s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l r o l e i n s o c i a l groups.  He r e l a t e s t h e s e r o l e s t o s e x - r o l e d i f f e r e n t i a -  t i o n s , w i t h t h e male c u s t o m a r i l y t a k i n g t h e former r o l e and the female t h e l a t t e r .  A l l b u t one o f t h e v a r i o u s sub-  c a t e g o r i e s on t h e power s c a l e f a i l e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e males and •••-.•females i n t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f power m o t i v a t i o n .  The f i n d i n g  t h a t females showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more imagery i n t h e p o s i t i v e instrumental a c t i v i t y category i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  I t i s the  o p p o s i t e o f what was p r e d i c t e d , i e . , t h a t female imagery would i n c l u d e more f a i l u r e experiences  t h a n male imagery.  i m p o s s i b l e t o o f f e r any sound i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h i s  It is result  52  without f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  P o s s i b l y female t e n d e n c i e s t o  express i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y i n f a n t a s y as s u c c e s s f u l i s a function of wish f u l f i l m e n t .  I n any event, t h i s f i n d i n g can-  not be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t women a r e e m p i r i c a l l y more o p t i m i s t i c t h a n men.  The absence o f any sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n  the o v e r a l l c a t e g o r y o f i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y  (including  p o s i t i v e , n e g a t i v e , and q u e s t i o n a b l e i n s t r u m e n t a l a c t i v i t y ) suggests t h a t t h e i n s t r u m e n t a l o r t a s k b a s i s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between t h e sexes suggested by Parsons (1955) s h o u l d p e r haps be re-examined. The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t women would sho more imagery  con-  t a i n i n g f a i l u r e t o r e a c h g o a l s , o b s t a c l e s , and a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s was n o t c o n f i r m e d .  When r e l a t e d t o t h e a r e a o f power concern  these expressive categories apparently f a i l t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e s e x e s .  V e r o f f (1958) found t h a t few males responded  i n these c a t e g o r i e s and concluded t h a t p o s s i b l y the power motive i n h i b i t s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f a f f e c t . achievement encountered.  C e r t a i n l y , i n the  and a f f i l i a t i o n motives no such problem was A p p a r e n t l y t h e same f a c t o r s which i n h i b i t male  responses i n t h i s a r e a were a l s o i n h i b i t i n g female r e s p o n s e s . V e r o f f ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e p i c t u r e s used i n e l i c i t i n g power m o t i v a t i o n might n o t be o f t h e type t o arouse a s s o c i a t e d a f f e c t i v e thoughts must be d i s c a r d e d . A s m a l l s t u d y , d e s c r i b e d i n Appendix 2, i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e amount o f a f f e c t i v e  imagery  i n t h e male and female p r o t o c o l s o f t h e t h i r d y e a r psychology group.  I t was found t h a t female responses c o n t a i n e d a  s i g n i f i c a n t l y g r e a t e r amount o f a f f e c t than male r e s p o n s e s .  53  The  hypothesis  presented  show more a f f e c t i v e  i n t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t females would  concern i n the power a r e a was  not u p h e l d .  However, the assumption t h a t females do tend t o he more affective  i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s appears t o have been f a i r l y  w e l l based.  T h i s f i n d i n g a l s o i s i n l i n e w i t h Parson's (1955)  d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the sexes on the b a s i s of the  expressive  or s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l r o l e . Prom the f a i l u r e t o f i n d evidence of o b s t a c l e s  or  f a i l u r e imagery t o any e x t e n t , i t must be concluded t h a t the a r e a of power concern i s not one i n which women more c o n f l i c t t h a n men. used may  The  experience  r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the sample  i n p a r t account f o r the f a i l u r e t o o b t a i n any  i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes. sample of u n i v e r s i t y entire population.  students  signif-  R e s u l t s based on a  cannot be g e n e r a l i z e d t o the  Women u n i v e r s i t y  s t u d e n t s may  not  reflect  c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r f a n t a s y because t h e y have ample o p p o r t u n i t y t o express the power d r i v e . may  A l s o , c o n f l i c t i n the power a r e a  not become e v i d e n t u n t i l the a d u l t female r o l e , which  be more r e s t r i c t e d , i s entered upon.  I n the u n i v e r s i t y  may  situa-  t i o n r o l e d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes do not appear t o be  as  exaggerated as t h e y are at l a t e r p e r i o d s . Implications The r e s u l t s  of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  suggest t h a t  f a n t a s y measure of power does i s o l a t e a v a r i a b l e Significant  correlations  the  f o r study.  between s c o r e s o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h the  use o f f a n t a s y m a t e r i a l s and  e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a such as s i b l i n g  54  order provide a "basis f o r t h i s conclusion. However, the problem s t i l l e x i s t s as to whether a measure of need f r u s t r a t i o n rather than need strength i s being obtained. situation i s clarified,  U n t i l this  i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t the  r e s u l t s obtained through fantasy used as a means of measuring motives.  The f a c t that fantasy measures do c o r r e l a t e with  some e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a a t t e s t s to the p o s s i b l e usefulness of t h i s measure.  Future research on the TAT could p r o f i t a b l y be  devoted to c l a r i f y i n g t h i s area of confusion. •Evidence supporting the hypothesis that f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i s r e l a t e d to the development of power motivation i s c l e a r . Family s t r u c t u r e may p o s s i b l y be r e l a t e d to many aspects of personality.  This appears to be a f r u i t f u l area of i n q u i r y .  In a d d i t i o n to the v a r i a b l e s of spacing, o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , and s i z e of f a m i l y , v a r i a b l e s such as the sex of s i b l i n g s could also be explored i n greater depth than was p o s s i b l e i n t h i s study.  I t may w e l l be that i n t e r a c t i o n between s i b l i n g s i s  as important, and perhaps more important than i n t e r a c t i o n between the c h i l d and h i s parents, at l e a s t i n the formation of some motives.  55  BIBLIOGRAPHY A d l e r , A l f r e d . Understanding Human Nature. New York: Greenberg, 1927. Atkinson, J.W. (Ed.). Motives i n Fantasy, A c t i o n , and S o c i e t y . P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Bennett, E . & Cohen, L. Men and Women; P e r s o n a l i t y Patterns and C o n t r a s t s . Genet. P s y c h o l . Monogr., 1959, 59, 5-17. B i e r i , J . , Lobeck, R. & G a l i n s k y , M.D. A Comparison o f D i r e c t , I n d i r e c t and Fantasy Measures of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . J . Abnorm. Soc. P s y c h o l . . 1959, 58, 253-258. B i e r i , J . & Lobeck, R. Acceptance of A u t h o r i t y and P a r e n t a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . J . Pers.. 1959, 27, 74-86. Brim, O.G. Family S t r u c t u r e and Sex-role Learning by C h i l d r e n . In B e l l , N.W. & Vogel, E.F. (Eds.), A Modern I n t r o d u c t i o n to the Family. Glencoe, 111. Free Press, I960. Broverman, D.M., Jordan, E . J . , & P h i l l i p s , L. Achievement M o t i v a t i o n i n Fantasy and Behavior. J . Abnorm.Soc. Psychol., I960, 60, 374-378. F e l d , S h e i l a & Smith, Charles P. An E v a l u a t i o n o f the O b j e c t i v i t y of t h e Method of Content A n a l y s i s , I n J.W. A t k i n s o n (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy. A c t i o n , and S o c i e t y . P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Feshbach, Seymour. The D r i v e - r e d u c i n g F u n c t i o n o f Fantasy Behavior. In J . V/. A t k i n s o n (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, A c t i o n , and S o c i e t y . P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Homey, Karen. The Neurotic P e r s o n a l i t y o f Our Time. New York: Norton, 1937. Komarovsky, M. C u l t u r a l C o n t r a d i c t i o n s and Sex R o l e s . Amer. J . S o c i o l . . 1946, 52. 184-89. Lazarus, R.S., Baker, R.W., Broverman, D.M., & Mayer, J . P e r s o n a l i t y and P s y c h o l o g i c a l S t r e s s . J . Pers., 1957, 25, 559-577. Lindzey, Gardner & Goldberg, Morton. M o t i v a t i o n a l D i f f e r e n c e s Between Male and Female as Measured by the TAT. J . Pers., 1953, 22, 101-117. !  Lindzey, Gardner & Silverman, Morton. TAT t e s t : Techniques of Group A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Sex D i f f e r e n c e s , and the Role of V e r b a l ! P r o d u c t i v i t y . J . Pers., 1959, 27, 311-323.  56  McClelland:; ,-D.C. P e r s o n a l i t y , New York: Dryden,  1951.  McClelland, D.C. The Importance of E a r l y Learning i n the Formation of Motives. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, A c t i o n , and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Mullahy, P. Oedipus Myth and Complex. New York: Heritage, 1948. Murray, H.A. Explorations i n P e r s o n a l i t y . New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y , 1938. Parsons, T. Family Structure and the S o c i a l i z a t i o n of the C h i l d . I n Parsons, T. & Bales R.F. Family S o c i a l i z a t i o n and I n t e r a c t i o n Process. Glencoe. 111.: Free Press, 1955. Rose, A M. The Adequacy of Women's Expectations f o r Adult Rules. Soc. Forces. 1951, 30, 69-77. f  Rosen, B. Family Structure and the Achievement Motive. Amer. S o c i o l . Rev., 1961, 26, 574-581. Smith, Charles P. & F e l d , S h e i l a . How to l e a r n the Method of Content A n a l y s i s f o r n Achievement, n A f f i l i a t i o n , and n Power. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, A c t i o n , and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. S u l l i v a n , H.S. Conceptions of Modern Psychiatry. Washington: Wm. Alanson White P s y c h i a t r i c Foundation, 1947. Veroff, J . Development and V a l i d a t i o n of a P r o j e c t i v e Measure of Power Motivation. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, A c t i o n , and S o c i e t y. P r i n c e t o n , N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Veroff J . A Scoring Manual f o r the Power Motive. In J.W. Atkinson, (Ed.) Motives i n Fantasy, A c t i o n , and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. V e r o f f , J . Personal Correspondance.  1961.  Winterbottom, Marian R. The R e l a t i o n of Need f o r Achievement to Learning Experiences i n Independence and Mastery. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, A c t i o n , and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958.  57 APPENDIX 1 Stimulus  Pictures  (In order of p r e s e n t a t i o n )  57a  58  APPENDIX 2 P a m i l y S t r u c t u r e and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n  Questionnaire  INSTRUCTIONS SEX:  M  P  AGE:  Yrs.  Parents Are:  Mo. (a) separated o r d i v o r c e d (b) l i v i n g t o g e t h e r  P l e a s e t r y t o answer c h o i c e between a l t e r n a t i v e s i s no r i g h t o r wrong way t o held i n s t r i c t confidence.  a l l t h e q u e s t i o n s below. Make a even when t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t . There answer, and your answers w i l l be C i r c l e t h e a p p r o p r i a t e answer.  I n d i c a t e t h e number and ages o f b r o t h e r s and s i s t e r s i n your f a m i l y . Example:  2 brothers 1 sister  11 y e a r s , 13 y e a r s . 16 y e a r s .  Questions 1.  I would p r e f e r t o l i v e i n : (A) a b i g c i t y (B) a suburban d i s t r i c t (C.) a s m a l l town  2.  A  B  C  When I d i s a g r e e w i t h my p a r e n t s : i(.A) we u s u a l l y compromise (B) t h e y u s u a l l y have the f i n a l s a y (C) I u s u a l l y w i n out  3.  C i r c l e Answer  A  B  C  I n the past I : (A) got a l o n g w e l l w i t h my b r o t h e r s and/or s i s t e r s (B) q u a r r e l e d f r e q u e n t l y w i t h my b r o t h e r s and/or s i s t e r s (C) avoided a l l c o n t a c t w i t h my b r o t h e r s and/or s i s t e r s  A  B  C  59  Questions 4.  Which p a r e n t p l a y s t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t i n making t h e important d e c i s i o n s i n y o u r household? (A) Mother (B) F a t h e r (C) u n c e r t a i n  5.  A  B  A  B  Which' parent do you f e e l you a r e most l i k e a t the present? (A) Mother (B) F a t h e r (C) u n c e r t a i n  6.  C i r c l e Answer  (a) F o r g i r l s :  Would you l i k e t o marry someone:  (A) l i k e y o u r f a t h e r (B) somewhat l i k e y o u r f a t h e r (C) u n l i k e your f a t h e r (b) F o r boys:  A  B  Would you l i k e t o marry a woman:  (A) l i k e y o u r mother (B) somewhat l i k e y o u r mother (C) u n l i k e your mother 7.  I would p r e f e r t o have: (A) a l a r g e f a m i l y (B) a s m a l l f a m i l y (C) no c h i l d r e n  8.  B  Which p a r e n t d i d you f e e l c l o s e r t o as a c h i l d ? (A) Mother (B) F a t h e r (C) u n c e r t a i n  9.  A  A  B  A  B  I prefer: (A) t o l i v e a t home (B) t o l i v e c l o s e t o home (C) t o l i v e f a r away from home  10. (a) f o r g i r l s : I would l i k e t o have a husband who would: (A) make a l l o f t h e important d e c i s i o n s (B) l e t me have a say i n a l l d e c i s i o n s A  B  60 Questions (b) F o r boys:  C i r c l e Answer  I would l i k e my w i f e ( f u t u r e ) t o :  (A) a l l o w me t o make a l l t h e important decisions (B) have some s a y i n a l l d e c i s i o n s  A  B  61  APPENDIX 3  D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study of Sex Differences In A f f e c t i v e Imagery i n Fantasy S t o r i e s The object of t h i s study was to determine whether or not there are sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the amount of a f f e c t i v e imagery manifested i n fantasy s t o r i e s .  The imagery studied was not  r e s t r i c t e d to a f f e c t i v e statements r e l a t e d to power concerns hut rather included a l l statements or expressions thought to show a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s . The study was done by three t h i r d year psychology students as a group p r o j e c t .  The data used were the four  s t o r i e s of the t h i r d year students who were tested f o r the present research p r o j e c t .  This group was made up of 37 males  and 21 females. Working independently the members of the p r o j e c t group wrote out any phrases which they thought denoted a f f e c t i v e imagery.  Upon completion of t h i s task they met and  to standardize t h e i r r e s u l t s .  attempted  They reported a high degree of  c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r separate s c o r i n g s . Unfortunately,, the c o r r e l a t i o n f i g u r e s were not s t a t e d . Of i n t e r e s t to the present research was t h e i r f i n d i n g that females manifest a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater amount of a f f e c t i v e imagery than do men.  This f i n d i n g confirmed t h e i r p r e d i c t i o n .  62 S u b j e c t s were d e s i g n a t e d as h i g h or"low i n a f f e c t i v e imagery on t h e b a s i s o f t h e number o f i n s t a n c e s i n which t h e s t o r i e s o f each s u b j e c t c o n t a i n e d a f f e c t i v e imagery.  A subject  whose s t o r i e s c o n t a i n e d o n l y one o r no i n s t a n c e s o f a f f e c t was p l a c e d i n t h e low a f f e c t c a t e g o r y .  S c o r e r s w i t h two o r  more i n s t a n c e s o f a f f e c t i v e imagery were p l a c e d i n t h e h i g h a f f e c t category.  C h i square was e s t a b l i s h e d t o be 3.9.  Employing t h e o n e - t a i l h y p o t h e s i s , p = .05.  \  

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