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Factors associated with the formation of the power motive and sex differences in motive expression Dewis, Elizabeth (Van Tassel) 1962

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FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE FORMATION OF THE POWER MOTIVE AND SEX DIFFERENCES IN MOTIVE EXPRESSION by ELIZABETH V.T. DEWIS B.A.,. University of Toronto, 1956 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts i n the Department of Psychology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1962 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of Psychology The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 3, Canada. April 2 6 , 1962 Date i i ABSTRACT This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was designed to i n v e s t i g a t e some aspects of the dynamics of power motivation. An a n a l y s i s was made of p o s s i b l e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the e a r l y formation of t h i s motive i n i n d i v i d u a l s , and of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the nature of fantasy responses which r e f l e c t the degree or strength of power motivation. Power motivation was here conceived to be a l a t e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n of a person to act i n such a way as to gain c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c i n g and manipulat-i n g other person(s). Concerning the formation of motives, i t was hypothesized that subjects w i t h a strong power motive would be those w i t h an older s i b l i n g more oft e n than subjects low i n power motiva-t i o n ; that they would come from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s ; that they would have s i b l i n g s c l o s e r i n age; and that o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n to f a m i l y s i z e and spacing, would be r e l a t e d to strengt h of power motivation. I t was f u r t h e r hypothesized that subjects high i n power motivation would i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r dominant parent, that i s , they would tend to perceive themselves as l i k e the dominant parent and as c l o s e r to the dominant parent as a c h i l d , more oft e n than would low power su b j e c t s . I t was also, p r e d i c t e d that high power subjects would i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r more often than low power sub j e c t s , and that there would be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between sex of the dominant parent and the streng t h of a subject's power i i i motivation. Concerning sex differences i n the expression of power motivation, i t was predicted that the fantasy responses of women would contain more statements of an emotional nature, more expressions of obstacles to t h e i r goal-seeking, and more frequent, reference* f a i l u r e experience than would the imagery of males. The method.employed was simi l a r to that devised by McClelland et a l (1953) f o r the measurement of achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n motives. Following an arousal task designed to activate the power motive, four pictures s i m i l a r to those of the Thematic Apperception Test were projected on a screen. Subjects were required to write a short story i n response to each stimulus picture. The subjects were 238 psychology students of whom 167 were males and 71 females. Their protocols, written i n response to the pictures, were scored according to the scoring conventions f o r need power established by Veroff (1958). On the basis of these scores, subjects were divided into low and high need power groups. A t t e s t and c h i square tests of association were applied to the data. The results indicated that ordinal position, i n r e l a -t i o n to family size and spacing, i s related to strength of power motivation at the f i v e percent l e v e l of significance. None of the remaining hypotheses concerning the formation of motives were confirmed. The hypothesis concerning sex differences i n the expression of power motivation was not confirmed. i v I t was concluded that the fantasy measure of power motivation does i s o l a t e a v a r i a b l e f o r study, although evidence that fantasy may measure f r u s t r a t i o n of a need r a t h e r than streng t h of need l i m i t s the v a l i d i t y of i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s based on fajitasy m a t e r i a l . The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n d i c a t e that f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i s an important v a r i a b l e i n the development of the power motive, and p o s s i b l y other p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as w e l l . V CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE ABSTRACT I Introduction and Statement of the Problem 1 I I Review of the Literature 7 The Power Motive 7 The Formation of Motives 11 Sex Differences 14 Fantasy as a Measure of Motivation 17 Summary 19 I I I Method 21 Subjects 21 Measuring Instruments 21 Experimental Procedure 22 Treatment of the Data 25 IV Results 2-9 Di s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores 2-9 S i b l i n g Order and Power Motivation 29 Id e n t i f i c a t i o n and Power Motivation <35 Sex Differences and Power Motivation 39 Restatement of Hypotheses 41 V Discussion 44 S i b l i n g Order 44 Id e n t i f i c a t i o n 48 Sex Differences 50 Implications 53 APPENDICES 1. Stimulus P i c t u r e s 2. Family Structure and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire 3. D e s c r i p t i o n of the Study of Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n A f f e c t i v e Imagery i n Fantasy S t o r i e s v i i TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores for Male and 30 Female Groups 2 Relationship between Ordinal Placement and 32 Strength of Power Motivation 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores and Family Size 33 4 Relationship between Age Spacing of Siblings and 34 Strength of Power Motivation 5 Relationship between F i r s t and Middle or Last 36 Ordinal Positions and Strength of Power Motivation 6 Relationship between F i r s t and Middle or Last 37 Ordinal Position i n Families of Three Children or More and Strength of Power Motivation 7 Relationship between Spacing and Ordinal Position 38 i n Families of Three Children or More and Strength of Power Motivation 8 Relationship between Sex of Dominant Parent and 40 Strength of Power Motivation 9 Number of Subjects i n Male and Female Groups Above 42 and Below the Median for Various Power-Related Imaginative Categories v i i i ACKNOWLEDGMENT The w r i t e r i s g r e a t l y indebted to her t h e s i s a d v i s o r , Dr. W.H. Read, f o r h i s u n f a i l i n g l y a c t i v e i n t e r e s t and help-f u l c r i t i c i s m during the course of t h i s t h e s i s . The w r i t e r a l s o whishes to express her a p p r e c i a t i o n to D.L.G. Sampson f o r h i s advice and ass i s t a n c e as a member of the Committee. S p e c i a l thanks are a l s o due to Mrs. L. Leedham f o r a l l o w i n g the w r i t e r to t e s t her psychology students, and to Mr. T. Fleming whose assi s t a n c e i n sco r i n g the protocols was i n v a l u -a b l e . A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o extended to the many psychology students whose w i l l i n g cooperation made t h i s study p o s s i b l e . 1 CHAPTER I I n t r o d u c t i o n and Statement of the Problem This i n v e s t i g a t i o n was an attempt to r e v e a l some aspects of the dynamics of power motivation. An a n a l y s i s was made of po s s i b l e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the e a r l y formation of t h i s motive i n i n d i v i d u a l s , and of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the nature of fantasy responses which r e f l e c t the degree or strength of the power motive. Power motivation was here conceived to be a l a t e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n of a person to act i n such a way as to gain c o n t r o l of the:.means of i n f l u e n c i n g and manipulating other person(s). The person c h a r a c t e r i z e d by high power motivation w i l l d i r e c t primary concern toward a t t a i n i n g or maintaining t h i s c o n t r o l . The measuring instrument used i n t h i s research was that developed by Ve r o f f (1958). I t i s i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t u r e to the methods used i n the measurement of achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n developed by McClelland et a l (1953). This method inv o l v e s the use of fantasy p i c t u r e s s i m i l a r to those used i n the Thematic Apperception Test as a device to measure motives. In contrast w i t h the achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n motives, l i t t l e r esearch has been done on power. One of the aims of the present research was t o f u r t h e r e s t a b l i s h the usefulness of t h i s measure of power motivation. The manner i n which an i n d i v i d u a l expresses power need 2 through fantasy w i l l be influenced by two broad v a r i a b l e s . The subject's perception of an ambiguous, fantasy-evoking s i t u a t i o n w i l l i n part be determined by the s o c i a l i z a t i o n processes which he has experienced, and by h i s p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . There i s considerable evidence that e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n i s c r u c i a l to adult motive formation (McClelland, 1951)• I t i s widely-accepted that the fundamental motives guiding the l i f e s t y l e of the i n d i v i d u a l are formed i n e a r l y childhood. At the e a r l y developmental l e v e l s , rewards and punishments are mediated p r i m a r i l y through the parents, and, i f they are present, other s i b l i n g s . The nature of these r e l a t i o n s h i p s should have a profound i n f l u e n c e on the motive s t r u c t u r e of the c h i l d . The b i r t h of a s i b l i n g may jeopardize s e c u r i t y i n an older c h i l d . Or the presence of an older s i b l i n g may thwart a young c h i l d ' s pleasure-seeking. The age spacing between the s i b l i n g s may be of some importance. A s i b l i n g who i s close i n age may be viewed as a greater r i v a l than a more d i s t a n t brother or s i s t e r . In a d d i t i o n , the p a r e n t - c h i l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns may in f l u e n c e the forma-t i o n of motives. The means which a c h i l d uses to e f f e c t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , and the q u a l i t i e s of the parent w i t h whom he i d e n t i f i e s w i l l serve to shape h i s developing p e r s o n a l i t y . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were made concerning f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g the formation of the power motive. The research f i n d i n g s of V e r o f f (1958) suggested the p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the formation of power motivation and fa m i l y s t r u c t u r e . On t h i s b a s i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between o r d i n a l 3 placement and the strength of power motivation was pr e d i c t e d . An i n d i v i d u a l w i t h a high need power score was expected to have at l e a s t one older s i b l i n g more oft e n than low power sc o r e r s . High need power scorers were expected to come from l a r g e f a m i l i e s s i g n i f i c a n t l y moire o f t e n . They were expected to have s i b l i n g s close i n age more ofte n than low power sc o r e r s . A r e l a t i o n s h i p between these three v a r i a b l e s , o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , f a m i l y s i z e and spacing, was postu l a t e d . Subjects from f a m i l i e s of three c h i l d r e n or more wit h older s i b l i n g s who are close i n age were expected to show more evidence of power motivation than subjects whose f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e d i f f e r s from t h i s . A p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p between power scores and age and number of younger s i b l i n g s was a l s o i n v e s t i g a t e d though no p r e d i c t i o n s were made. A r e l a t i o n s h i p between patterns of pa r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n and the strength of power motivation was a l s o p r e d i c t e d . High need power i n d i v i d u a l s were expected to i d e n t i f y with t h e i r mother. Measures designed to e l i c i t i nformation on two aspects of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n were used. I t was expected that high need power subjects would perceive themselves to be most l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r , and i n a d d i t i o n , that they would be most involved w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r . A f u r t h e r measure was designed to query which i s the dominant parent i n the home. Regard-l e s s of the sex of the parent, i t was predicted that high need power people would i d e n t i f y w i t h the dominant parent more often than low power people. The p o s s i b i l i t y of a r e l a t i o n - -ship between strength of power motivation and the sex of the 4 subject's dominant parent was also investigated, though no predictions were made as to which parent would tend to be dominant for low and high power subjects. The s o c i a l i z a t i o n process d i f f e r s for men and women. This may resu l t i n differences i n motive structure along sex l i n e s . The area of power concern i s one i n which c o n f l i c t i n the female can be expected. Many of the roles ascribed to women mitigate against the overt expression of influence a c t i v i t y . In women characterized by a high power need, s e l f -r o l e c o n f l i c t s may develop. The following hypotheses were made concerning sex differences i n the v expression of power motivation. Because strong influence or manipulative a c t i v i t y outside here r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d sphere of influence i s negatively valued i n our society, i t was predicted that women w i l l tend to anticipate more f a i l u r e and f r u s t r a t i o n i n the expression of power motivation than w i l l men. It was expected that the fantasy responses of women would contain more imagery involv-ing f a i l u r e to reach goals and obstacles to th e i r goal a t t a i n -ment. It was further suggested that female responses would contain more a f f e c t i v e imagery since they may be more inclined than men to control t h e i r world through a f f e c t i v e relationships (Bennett and Cohen, 1959) and since, because they are presum-ably i n a c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n , t h e i r a f f e c t i v e arousal would be greater. In a study employing the method used i n this research, Veroff (1958) found l i t t l e imagery involving a f f e c t i v e states and obstacles. However, his subjects were 5 a l l males, and i f the predictions concerning female responses to fantasy were found to be s i g n i f i c a n t , his findings may be attributable to sex differences. The following hypotheses were made. Si b l i n g Order 1. High need power subjects w i l l tend to have an older s i b l i n g more often than w i l l low power subjects. 2. High need power subjects w i l l come from larger families than w i l l low power subjects. 3. High need power subjects w i l l have s i b l i n g s closer i n age than w i l l low power subjects. 4. Ordinal position, i n r e l a t i o n to family size and spacing, w i l l be related to strength of power motiva-t i o n . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1. High need power subjects w i l l perceive themselves as l i k e t h e i r father more often than low power subjects. 2. High need power subjects w i l l perceive themselves as si m i l a r to t h e i r dominant parent more often than low power subjects. 3. High need power subjects w i l l tend to be more involved with t h e i r father than with t h e i r mother. 4. High need power subjects w i l l tend to be more involved with t h e i r dominant parent than w i l l low need power subjects. 5. There w i l l be a relationship between the sex of the dominant parent and the strength of the subjects' power motivation. 6 Sex Differences 1. Female imagery w i l l contain more statements of af f e c t , more obstacles and more f a i l u r e experiences than w i l l the imagery of males. C H A P T E R I I Review of the Literature The Power Motive Theories of Power. The phenomenon of power s t r i v i n g has received considerable attention i n the theories of Adler (1927) and Sullivan (1947). Both agree that power s t r i v i n g develops out of the frustrations of early infancy and that i t functions to impel development i n certain d i r e c t i o n s . Adlerian man's profound i n f e r i o r i t y feelings lead him to seek power over his environment. Power i s symbolized by the father, so the child's attempts at ascendancy w i l l usually re s u l t i n emulation of or i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the father. Power and masculinity appear to be equated. For women, Adler claimed the result i s an almost universal d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r r o l e . Their psychic l i f e i s pervaded by strong feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y because of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i n a man's world. Because t h e i r sense of i n f e r i o r i t y i s so much more intense, presumably t h e i r power striving s may be correspondingly stronger and more unremitting than the males'. Sullivan's conception of power i s considerably more refined. Underlying the manifestation of man's b i o l o g i c a l needs i s a 'power motive 1 which impels the in d i v i d u a l to seek both b i o l o g i c a l satisfactions and security. The ' s e l f i s formed i n the process of discovering how to obtain power or 8 success i n interpersonal r e l a t i o n s . Mullahy (1948) makes the following observation. Sull i v a n has not yet adequately distinguished between power as a b i l i t y , which goes with respect for oneself and others and the achievement of satisfactions and security; and power i n the sense of gaining domination and control over others (p.334). In this research the power motive was conceived of as a need to control the means of influencing others. The i n t e r -personal aspects of t h i s concept are obvious. This concept i s more r e s t r i c t e d than Sullivan's. However, his theory may help c l a r i f y the functioning of the power motive. For Sullivan, the development of the motive would seem to be far more dependent upon the relationship of the c h i l d with the s i g n i f i c a n t members of his environment than with any feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y based on sex. Also of theore t i c a l interest i s Homey's (1937) conception of power. A child's struggle for r e l a t i v e control i n competitive situations i s condoned and fostered i n our culture. In the primary family group th i s struggle may be more intense i f there are other s i b l i n g s with whom one must compete. This suggests the possible influence of family structure on the formation of the power motive. It should be noted that these theore t i c a l conceptions of power are much broader than the conception of power employed i n the present research. . Power motivation i s here conceived closely approximates and was inspired by Murray's (1938) descrip-t i o n of need dominance. 9 Research on Power Motivation. Though much has been done on the group dynamics of power relationships, very l i t t l e research has been carried out" on the dynamics of power motiva-t i o n i n individuals. We do not know why some people rather than others have a strong need to influence or control. Nor do we know i f people with a strong need for power actu a l l y seek to express i t , or, i f they do, whether they are more or less successful i n t h e i r influence attempts than those less strongly motivated. Maslow (1939) suggests that dominance feeling does not necessarily issue i n dominance behavior. He does indicate that people with r e l a t i v e l y high dominance feel i n g make the best leaders, and are often selected to be leaders. Maslow1s concept of dominance includes much more, however, than the r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d d e f i n i t i o n of power employed here. By providing a method for the measurement of power motivation i n individuals Veroff (1958) has opened up t h i s area f o r study. He conceives of the power motive as follows. that disposition directing behavior toward satisfactions contingent upon the control of the means of influencing another person(s). In the phenomenal sphere of the power-motivated i n d i v -i d u a l , he considers himself the 'gatekeeper' to certain decision making of others. The means of control can be anything at a l l that can be used to manipulate another person. Overt dominance str i v i n g s can be considered one kind of control execution. The d e f i n i t i o n of the power motive offered here, however, i s meant to include more than dominance (p.105). In developing his measure Veroff obtained from two groups written stories i n response to pictures. Por one group i t was assumed that power motivation was aroused. This group consisted io of 34 male candidates for student o f f i c e who had congregated to await the o f f i c i a l results of the election. Because the cand-idates were presumably extremely concerned about control of the means of influence i e . , being elected to o f f i c e , the si t u a t i o n was thought to meet the requirements for arousal of the motive as i t was defined. For the second group i t was assumed that power concern was not s p e c i f i c a l l y activated. A scoring system i s o l a t i n g the kinds of imagery presumably r e f l e c t i n g power motivation was then applied to the two sets of s t o r i e s . It was found, as was expected, that the stories from the aroused group contained more power imagery than those from the non-aroused group. Unexpected, however, was the finding that there was l i t t l e imagery involving affective states and obstacles. As a possible explanation Veroff suggested that the power motive does not permit the arousal of associated affective thoughts. The repression of affect surrounding the power area may result from c u l t u r a l taboos against the overt and obvious expression of this motive, especially the expression of overt satisfactions derived from power behavior. An alternative explanation is that the p a r t i c u l a r picture used did not provide cues to the kind of thinking that would r e f l e c t an a f f e c t i v e component. . The v a l i d i t y of t h i s measure rests f i r s t on the differences obtained between the two groups and secondly on i t s correlation with other behaviors presumably related to the s a t i s f a c t i o n of power motivation. High need power scorers as compared with low need power scorers tended to have lower scores on the Social Value dimension of the Allport-Vernon Scale of Values. They 11 showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y s t r o n g e r i n t e r e s t i n the job s a t i s f a c t i o n of b e i n g l e a d e r . They were r a t e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r by t h e i r classroom i n s t r u c t o r s on the frequency o f argumentation and the frequency of t r y i n g to convince others of t h e i r p o i n t s of view. F i n a l l y , they r a t e d the job s a t i s f a c t i o n of o b t a i n i n g r e c o g n i -t i o n from t h e i r f e l l o w s s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r . V e r o f f (1958) made t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n . That the measure r e f l e c t s not onl y the group d i f f e r e n c e s i n assumed moti v a t i o n l e v e l but a l s o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a b l e s r e l a t e d t o aspects of power concern as d e f i n e d i s a f a c t suggesting that the instrument can be used w i t h success i n researches i n which such a measure of m o t i v a t i o n would be needed (p.115). He went on to s t a t e the f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n . The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the p r o j e c t i v e measure of power m o t i v a t i o n developed here not only can s u c c e s s f u l l y i s o l a t e the presumed d i f f e r e n t i a l l e v e l o f m o t i v a t i o n i n groups but a l s o can s u c c e s s f u l l y p r e d i c t a t t i t u d e s and overt behavior which are presumably r e l a t e d to the processes i n -volved i n power m o t i v a t i o n (p.116). The Formation of Motives Some T h e o r e t i c a l C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . In connection with her research' i n t o the r e l a t i o n between need achievement and l e a r n i n g experiences i n independence and mastery Winterbottom (1958) made the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n . Research i n t o the o r i g i n s o f motives revealed i n fantasy has been d i r e c t e d towards a t l e a s t two kinds of determinants. One d i r e c t i o n has been toward a p s y c h o a n a l y t i c understanding of the experiences of the person i n r e l a t i o n t o perceptions of h i s body as sources o f motiva-t i o n and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n . Another d i r e c t i o n has been towards the i n v e s t i g a t i o n of en v i r o n -mental f a c t o r s and has s t r e s s e d the m o t i v a t i o n a l 12 and conceptual development engendered by experiences with, parents, s i b l i n g s , and the e x t e r n a l world i n general (p.453). In both cases the primacy of e a r l y experiences i n the forma-t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y enduring, p e r s i s t e n t and s t a b l e motive s t r u c t u r e s i s recognized. McClelland (1958) o f f e r s a compelling r a t i o n a l e f o r the importance of e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences i n the formation of motives. I f i t i s accepted that a f f e c t i v e a r o u s a l i s somehow at the root of m o t i v a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s , the great a f f e c t i v e i n t e n s i t y of e a r l y childhood experience w i l l r e s u l t i n the formation of strong, generalized motives. A f f e c t i v e s t a t e s are both more intense and more d i f f u s e at the e a r l i e r developmental l e v e l s than at the l a t e r . The motives which evolve w i l l be extremely d i f f i c u l t to e x t i n g u i s h . As symbolic, c o r t i c a l c o n t r o l develops the a f f e c t i v e component and involvement of the autonomic nervous system apparently be-comes l e s s . This suggests that motives become p r o g r e s s i v e l y harder tp form w i t h age. I n t e r p e r s o n a l experiences of the c r i t i c a l e a r l y period w i l l have an enormous i n f l u e n c e on the developing p e r s o n a l i t y of the c h i l d . S i b l i n g Order. Rosen (1961) i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n -ship between f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e and achievement motivation. He found that i n small middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s the e f f e c t of o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n seems to be r e l a t i v e l y unimportant. The oldest and youngest c h i l d r e n i n a two-child f a m i l y have almost i d e n t i c a l need achievement scores. However, as f a m i l y s i z e increases the scores of the oldest c h i l d i n a middle c l a s s f a m i l y become 13 higher than those of the youngest c h i l d . He found t h i s p a t t e r n changed wi t h s o c i a l c l a s s . He concluded that i t i s dangerous to speak of a r e l a t i o n s h i p between b i r t h order and need achieve-ment without t a k i n g i n t o account the i n f l u e n c e of f a m i l y s i z e and s o c i a l c l a s s . This caution was observed i n the present research. V e r o f f (1958) hypothesized that power motivation would be p o s i t i v e l y associated w i t h the number of s i b l i n g s i n a subject's f a m i l y . He f u r t h e r predicted a r e l a t i o n between b i r t h order and strength of power motivation. He reasoned that power s a t i s f a c t i o n s are perhaps derived from experiences i n which manipulatory behaviors are i n evidence. One would ex-pect that the high power motivated i n d i v i d u a l s would come from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s where t h i s type of experience i s more l i k e l y to occur. A l s o , competition among s i b l i n g s f o r the e x c l u s i v e possession of a loved parent i s l i k e l y to develop power r e l a t e d needs. However, Ver o f f ' s p r e d i c t i o n that high need power subjects would come from l a r g e f a m i l i e s was not subs t a n t i a t e d . He suggested that t h i s f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s that any r e l a t i o n s h i p between the power motive and f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e depends on more complex considerations than simply the number of f a m i l y members. When the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power scores was d i v i d e d i n t o t h i r d s (low, medium, and high) a trend was uncovered. High power scorers tended to have at l e a s t one older s i b l i n g more often than low power scorers (p.15). P a r e n t a l I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s the key concept i n psychoanalytic explanations of s o c i a l i z a t i o n . According to psychoanalytic theory the boy i d e n t i f i e s with 14 h i s f a t h e r and the g i r l w i t h her mother. These patterns emerge through the Oedipus c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n when object choices have to be renounced. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s the a s s i m i l a t i o n of the q u a l i t i e s of another to oneself. We may question the existence of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns along same-sex l i n e s . A d l e r (1927) seems to suggest that c h i l d r e n w i l l a u t o m a t i c a l l y i d e n t i f y w i t h the f a t h e r because he i s seen as the power f i g u r e i n the f a m i l y . In any case, the parent w i t h whom the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e s embodies the q u a l i t i e s which the c h i l d wishes to have. I f the c h i l d i d e n t i f i e s w i t h the dominant parent i n the home, then p o s s i b l y strong power needs w i l l be induced i n the c h i l d , regardless of the sex of the parent or the c h i l d . B i e r i and Lobeck (1959) have i n v e s t i g a t e d the r e l a t i o n -ship of sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n a u t h o r i t y acceptance and i d e n t i f i c a -t i o n patterns. They found no s i g n i f i c a n t sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n o v e r a l l a u t h o r i t y acceptance, but d i d uncover r e l a t e d trends i n p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s . This seems to i n d i c a t e that such patterns may be r e l a t e d to c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i -a b l e s . Sex D i f f e r e n c e s S o c i a l Role. Sex d i f f e r e n c e s are a r e s u l t of c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l , s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l i t y determinants which i n t e r a c t i n a complex manner to produce the very obvious b e h a v i o r a l d i f f e erences of men and women. Pe r t i n e n t to the present research i s the evidence of 15 c o n f l i c t i n the adult female r o l e . The degree of adjustment to r o l e s which s o c i e t y assigns to i t s age-sex categories v a r i e s d i r e c t l y w i t h the c l a r i t y w i t h which such r o l e s are defined. Role c o n f l i c t s are l i k e l y to f o l l o w from ambiguous r o l e expectations. There i s evidence that the adult married female r o l e i s unclear to the average u n i v e r s i t y g i r l (Rose, 1951). There i s a l s o evidence that the female r o l e w i t h which she i s p r e s e n t l y occupied i s ambiguous. The presence of outmoded r o l e models f u r t h e r increases the d i f f i c u l t y i n developing a v a l i d conception of her r o l e . S i t u a t i o n s which have not yet been defined and incompatible d e f i n i t i o n s of the same s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n add to the confusion. A study of women u n i v e r s i t y students by Komarovsky (1946) i n d i c a t e s that they commonly face mutually e x c l u s i v e expectations i n t h e i r adult sex r o l e s . They are confronted w i t h vagueness and i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n the expectations of t h e i r parents and male f r i e n d s . The p a r t i c u l a r c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n of the female u n i v e r s i t y student involves two r o l e s . The t y p i c a l l y 'feminine r o l e ' embodies the older and s t i l l operant concepts of f e m i n i n i t y , such as, submissive-ness, charm, deference, and so on. The more 'modern r o l e 1 p a r t i a l l y o b l i t e r a t e s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between the sexes and emphasizes achievement. Both r o l e expectations are present i n the s o c i a l environment and most g i r l s v a c i l l a t e between the two. ,It would seem d i f f i c u l t to whole-heartedly embrace one r o l e r a t h e r than the other. I t seems reasonable to expect that r o l e c o n f l i c t s would 16 be manifested i n the area of power concern. To a c e r t a i n extent dominance behavior i s fostered i n both men and women i n our c u l t u r e . However, f o r both sexes, intense concern over c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c e i s unacceptable. A woman wi t h a strong need power has the a d d i t i o n a l handicap of compet-i n g r o l e d e f i n i t i o n s . Overt power behavior may c o n f l i c t w i t h other expected behavioral patterns, the f u l f i l m e n t of which i s necessary f o r c e r t a i n kinds of g r a t i f i c a t i o n . The r o l e c o n f l i c t between acceptance of the 'feminine r o l e ' or the 'modern r o l e ' , to use Komarovsky's terms, may be operative i n the area of power concern. Maslow (1939) has suggested that the i n h i b i t o r y c o n t r o l by c u l t u r a l pressures i s f a r greater and more e f f e c t i v e f o r dominance behavior than i t i s f o r dominance f e e l i n g . Women with a high need power do not n e c e s s a r i l y manifest i t i n behavior. P o s s i b l y the dynamics of t h i s need may be more c l e a r l y revealed through fantasy. M o t i v a t i o n . Studies on sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r s o n a l i t y s t r e s s the d i f f e r e n t i a l nature of the s o c i a l i z a t i o n process and tend l a r g e l y to a t t r i b u t e p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r e n c e s to t h i s f a c t o r r a t h e r than to c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c t o r s (although psycho-a n a l y t i c theory would not agree w i t h t h i s emphasis). Of p a r t i c -u l a r i n t e r e s t i s an i n v e s t i g a t i o n by l i n d z e y and Goldberg (1953) on m o t i v a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s between males and females as measured by the TAT. They found that the TAT d i d d i f f e r e n t i -ate between the sexes on a number of p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s (females have a stronger need f o r abasement and are more 17 nurturant). In a l a t e r , s i m i l a r study Linzey and Silverman (1959) scored s t o r i e s f o r a f f i l i a t i o n , achievement, and power imagery according to the method of Atkinson et a l (1958). No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were found f o r achievement or a f f i l i a -t i o n but women showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more power imagery. Observation of higher dominance scores f o r females produces a l l kinds of bewilderment. I t f i t s n e i t h e r w i t h previous f i n d i n g s , nor wit h common sense. In e a r l i e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , the author found c o l l e g e women s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than males on abasement scores, a r e s u l t which i s seemingly i n c o n s i s t e n t with the f i n d i n g s of high power motives (p.320). A p o s s i b l e explanation of t h i s seeming discrepancy could be that abasement scores r e f l e c t one aspect of the female r o l e , whereas power scores r e f l e c t another, p o s s i b l y c o n f l i c t i n g , aspect. Lindzey used 40 subjects of each sex. I t may be questioned as to whether h i s sample was s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e . Fantasy as a Measure of M o t i v a t i o n The use of fantasy i n the measurement of motives has c e r t a i n advantages over the ol d e r methods i n v o l v i n g s e l f - d e s -c r i p t i o n or r a t i n g s by others. Fantasy i s r e a d i l y influenced by induced m o t i v a t i o n a l s t a t e s and i s s e n s i t i v e to d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n t e n s i t y of motive st r e n g t h . A l s o , the responses of the subjects are not contaminated by an awareness of the v a r i a b l e s under study. Fantasy m a t e r i a l f u r t h e r lends i t s e l f most r e a d i l y to a n a l y s i s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l terms. The simplest measure we can obtain of the power motive i s to observe the frequency w i t h which an i n d i v i d u a l t h i n k s about power as measured through imaginative productions. 18 Fantasy productions r e v e a l p e r s o n a l i t y but the r e l a t i o n -ship between such revelatlensxand overt behavior i s r a t h e r obscure. What i s strong i n imagination i s not n e c e s s a r i l y strong i n an i n d i v i d u a l ' s manifest p e r s o n a l i t y . Do d i f f e r e n c e s i n strength of power motivation as measured by fantasy d i s -criminate between i n d i v i d u a l s at an overt l e v e l ? P o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between fantasy measures of power, achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n , and i n d i c e s of the same motives derived from overt behavior have been reported. Such r e s u l t s support the view that motives may be concurrently r e f l e c t e d i n both fantasy and overt behavior. Recently, how-ever, the v a l i d i t y of t h i s formulation has been questioned. Broverman et a l (I960) found evidence suggesting that fantasy might serve as an a l t e r n a t i v e or s u b s t i t u t e channel f o r the expression of achievement motivation when t h i s motive i s blocked from behavior expression i n r e a l l i f e . Lazarus et a l (1957) had p r e v i o u s l y found that achievement fantasy decreased w i t h age and education. On the basis of t h e i r subsequent r e s u l t s these f i n d i n g s were i n t e r p r e t e d by Broverman et a l as f o l l o w s . The higher achievement fantasy i n younger, l e s s w e l l educated subjects was a t t r i b u t e d to t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to express achievement needs i n behavior, while the older i n d i v i d u a l s were seen as more able to express such needs, wi t h a concomitant reduction of fantasy about achievement (p.374). Such an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s consonant w i t h a psychoanalytic view of fantasy as the expression of u n g r a t i f i e d needs or wish f u l f i l m e n t . In t h i s way fantasy may f u n c t i o n as an o u t l e t f o r !9 s o c i a l l y unacceptable motives and f r u s t r a t e d power s t r i v i n g s . The research of Feshbach.(1958) i n d i c a t e s that fantasy behavior may be drive- r e d u c i n g . Hence, i n a fantasy-evoking s i t u a t i o n , the person c h a r a c t e r i z e d by motive f r u s t r a t i o n may be expected to express Ihis motive. Lindzey and Goldberg (1953) have a l s o suggested that covert or imaginative expression of a motive w i l l only occur under conditions where the i n d i v i d u a l i s not permitted f u l l overt g r a t i f i c a t i o n . Fantasy may y i e l d a measure of need f r u s t r a t i o n r a t h e r than need st r e n g t h . However, evidence l i n k i n g measures of motive strength obtained through fantasy and overt b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a of the motive must be accounted f o r before the t h e s i s that fantasy measures need f r u s t r a t i o n may be f u l l y accepted. Summary The power motive has long been recognized i n psycho-a n a l y t i c theory as one of the p r i n c i p a l determinants of be-havior w i t h i t s genesis i n the e a r l y s o c i a l i z a t i o n experiences of the c h i l d . The research of V e r o f f (1958) i n d i c a t e s that t h i s motive can be measured. His f i n d i n g that power scores were r e l a t e d to other overt b e h a v i o r a l c r i t e r i a of power s t r i v i n g suggests that t h i s measure does i n f a c t assess the power motive. I f the present research was to show a r e l a t i o n -ship between power scores and other e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a , a d d i t i o n a l evidence regarding the v a l i d i t y of t h i s measure would be at hand. The review of the l i t e r a t u r e supports the l i n k i n g of such v a r i a b l e s as s i b l i n g order, sex d i f f e r e n c e s , and i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns to p e r s o n a l i t y v a r i a b l e s . F i n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the existence of f r u s t r a t i o n leads us to ask whether need f r u s t r a t i o n r a t h e r than need strength i s being measured. CHAPTER I I I Method Subjects Undergraduate psychology students were used as subjec t s . A t o t a l of 238 were tested i n three separate se s s i o n s . The f i r s t group were 58 students from Psychology 307 of which 37 were men, and 21 women. The second and t h i r d groups were 180 Psychology 100 students of which 130 were men and 50 were women. A t o t a l of 167 men and 71 women were t e s t e d . As can be seen the t o t a l number of men i s more than twice that of women. This r a t i o approximates the general d i s t r i b u t i o n of the sexes i n the u n i v e r s i t y . I t was not f e a s i b l e to t e s t a l l - f e m a l e groups s e p a r a t e l y . Measuring Instruments Stimulus P i c t u r e s . Pour stimulus p i c t u r e s were used. These were part of a set of s i x p i c t u r e s devised f o r power studies i n Michigan (Atkinson, 1958). With the o r i g i n a l f i r s t group of t h i r d year students f i v e p i c t u r e s were shown. How-ever, one of the p i c t u r e s evoked v i r t u a l l y no power imagery at a l l and was discarded f o r t h i s reason. These p i c t u r e s resemble the more h i g h l y s t r u c t u r e d p i c t u r e s of the TAT and presumably much the same dynamics enter i n t o t h i s fantasy s i t u a t i o n as enter i n t o the TAT. The p i c t u r e s are black and 22 white. Copies of them are shown i n Appendix 1. Family Structure aand I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire. A questionnaire was included i n the experimental procedure i n which the students were requested to s t a t e t h e i r sex and age, the m a r i t a l status of t h e i r parents, and the number, sex, and ages of t h e i r s i b l i n g s . Ten questions followed of which only three are pe r t i n e n t to t h i s study. These three questions were designed to e s t a b l i s h the patterns of p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and the dominance status of the parents. The remaining seven were 'dummies' used i n order to make the v a r i a b l e s l e s s obvious to the subjec t s . ; The releva n t questions are as f o l l o w s . 1. Which parent do you f e e l you are most l i k e at the present? 2. Which parent d i d you f e e l c l o s e r to as a c h i l d ? 3. Which parent plays the greatest part i n making the important d e c i s i o n s i n your household? The subjects could respond mother, f a t h e r , or u n c e r t a i n . The f i r s t two questions were suggested by the research of B i e r i et a l (1959) on the comparison of d i r e c t , i n d i r e c t . a n d fantasy measures of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . The f i r s t question was designed to r e v e a l perceived s i m i l a r i t y . The second question was design-ed to r e v e a l degree of involvement. The t h i r d question was added i n an attempt to dis c o v e r which i s the dominant parent i n the home. The complete questionnaire i s shown i n Appendix 2. Experimental Procedure Arousal Task. P r i o r to the pres e n t a t i o n of the stimulus 23 p i c t u r e s the subjects were required to do a short a r o u s a l task. The purpose of t h i s task was to arouse or a c t i v a t e the motive which i s considered to be a l a t e n t p r e d i s p o s i t i o n . Having been aroused, the motive i s presumably revealed i n the subsequent fantasy s i t u a t i o n . I t was found w i t h the f i r s t group of subjects that w r i t i n g a short answer i n response to a question was s u f f i c i e n t to e l i c i t need power i n a reasonable number of cases. The question was, 'Suppose you are placed i n a p o s i t i o n to exert a great deal of i n f l u e n c e . How would you use t h i s i n f l u e n c e and to what end?'. Pr e s e n t a t i o n of Stimulus P i c t u r e s . Upon completion of the a r o u s a l task the f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s were given. This i s a study of imaginative processes. Four p i c t u r e s w i l l be projected on the screen before you. You w i l l have 20 seconds to look' at the p i c t u r e and then f i v e minutes to make up a s t o r y about i t . These four questions are asked ( i n d i c a t i n g questions w r i t t e n on the blackboard). They w i l l guide your t h i n k i n g and enable you to cover a l l the elements of a p l o t i n the time a l l o t t e d . Plan to spend about a minute on each question. Obviously-there are no r i g h t or wrong answers, so that you may 'feel f r e e to make up any kind of a s t o r y about the p i c t u r e s you choose. Try • t o make them v i v i d and dramatic f o r t h i s i s a t e s t of c r e a t i v e imagination. Do not merely describe the p i c t u r e you see. T e l l a s t o r y about i t . Work as f a s t as you can i n order to f i n i s h i t on time. Make them i n t e r e s t i n g . Are there any questions? I f you need more space f o r any questions use the reverse side of the paper. The sheets at the end of the t e s t booklet contain a questionnaire. Please do not look at these sheets u n t i l you have completed w r i t i n g the four s t o r i e s . Do not give your name. I n - a l l three groups these i n s t r u c t i o n s were given by t h e i r classroom teacher. Test booklets were d i s t r i b u t e d . Each booklet contained four blank sheets on which to w r i t e s t o r i e s , 24 and, at the end, two questionnaire sheets. The i n s t r u c t i o n not to look at the questionnaire was given i n order to prevent the i n t e r f e r e n c e of predominantly a f f i l i a t i v e themes wi t h the set presumably created by the aro u s a l s i t u a t i o n . The s l i d e s were exposed f o r twenty seconds and the subjects were allowed approximately f i v e minutes i n which to w r i t e t h e i r s t o r i e s . According to Lindzey and Silverman (1959) these are optimal c o n d i t i o n s . They d i d find,however, that female subjects tended to show more of a given v a r i a b l e when presented w i t h i n d i v i d u a l cards r a t h e r than projected s l i d e s . However, t h i s was not f e a s i b l e i n the present study i n view of the l a r g e number of sub j e c t s . The four questions mentioned i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s were the f o l l o w i n g . 1. What i s happening? 2. What has l e d up to t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? That i s , what has happened i n the past? 3. What i s being thought? What i s wanted? By whom? 4. What w i l l happen? What w i l l be done? Family S t r u c t u r e and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire. Upon completion of the l a s t s t o r y the subjects were asked to complete the questionnaire. They were advised once again that the e n t i r e proceedings were annonymous. Approximately eight minutes were allowed f o r t h i s task, upon completion of which the t e s t booklets were handed i n . 25 Treatment of the Data Scoring System. The prot o c o l s were f i r s t analyzed f o r the presence of power r e l a t e d imagery. V e r o f f (1958) made t h i s statement. There has to he some reference to the thoughts, f e e l i n g s , and a c t i o n s of one of the characters i n a s t o r y which i n d i c a t e s that the character i s concerned with the c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c i n g a person (p.220). There are three c r i t e r i a of power imagery. The f i r s t c r i t e r i o n concerns statements of a f f e c t surrounding the main-tenance or attainment of the c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c -i n g a person. The second involves statements about someone a c t u a l l y doing something about maintaining or a t t a i n i n g the c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c i n g another person. The f i n a l c r i t e r i a a p p l i e s to statements of an i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n -ship which i n i t s execution i s c u l t u r a l l y defined as one i n which there i s a superior person having c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c i n g another who i s subordinate. Once i t i s e s t a b l i s h -ed that a s t o r y s a t i s f i e s any one of these c r i t e r i a the sub-category system of s c o r i n g f o l l o w s . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the subcategories f o l l o w s . Need i s scored i f i n the s t o r y there i s an e x p l i c i t statement of someone wanting to a t t a i n or maintain c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c e . Instrumental A c t i v i t y i s scored i f there i s a s t a t e -ment about someone i n the s t o r y doing something to c o n t r o l the means of i n f l u e n c e . Q-oal A n t i c i p a t i o n i s scored i f there are statements of a character t h i n k i n g about the goal, or about whether or not he w i l l he s u c c e s s f u l i n reaching the g o a l . Blocks i n the Person or i n the World are scored i f there are instances of d i s r u p t i o n to ongoing behavior which i s d i r e c t e d toward a t t a i n i n g or maintaining c o n t r o l of the means of i n f l u e n c e . I f the obstacle l i e s i n some weakness or d i f f i c u l t y of the person concerned with power then i t i s scored blocjt person. I f the obstacle l i e s outside the person the s t o r y i s scored block world. A f f e c t i v e States are scored i f there are a f f e c t i v e responses made i n connection w i t h e i t h e r having reached or not reached the g o a l . Thema i s scored when the b e h a v i o r a l sequence of the power concern i s the c e n t r a l p l o t of the s t o r y . The strength of power motivation i s estimated by t a l l y i n g the number of categories i n which the s c o r i n g c r i t e r i a are f u l -f i l l e d . The s c o r i n g of instrumental a c t i v i t y , goal a n t i c i p a -t i o n , and a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s may be e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or negative. The maximal score p o s s i b l e i s 10. I f power imagery i s not present, the s t o r y i s scored unrelated imagery or zero power. Scorer R e l i a b i l i t y . Atkinson (1958) provides p r a c t i c e m a t e r i a l s f o r l e a r n i n g how to score need power. These materials c o n s i s t of seven sets of 30 s t o r i e s each. For each set the scorer checks h i s s c o r i n g w i t h that of an expert. The f i r s t index of agreement i s the percentage agreement between the scorer and the expert on the presence of motive-related imagery. 27 The s c o r i n g of the Imagery category i s the s i n g l e most import-ant s c o r i n g d e c i s i o n to be made; other categories can only be scored i f motive-related imagery i s present. The second index of agreement i s rank order c o r r e l a t i o n s (rho). This i s used because the subjects were placed, on the basis of a median brea k i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t o t a l scores, i n t o low and high need power groups. A r e l i a b l e ordering of i n d i v i d u a l s i s therefore e s s e n t i a l . Two judges p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the present research. On the p r a c t i c e materials w i t h f a m i l i a r p i c t u r e s t h e i r combined mean r e l i a b i l i t y score was .81. This score may be compared w i t h scores obtained by F e l d and Smith (1958) who found a mean c o r r e l a t i o n of .78 f o r t h e i r sample of power sc o r e r s . When t h e i r scorers were given novel p i c t u r e s t h e i r r e l i a b i l i t y f e l l to .69. The combined mean r e l i a b i l i t y of the judges i n the present research when presented w i t h novel p i c t u r e s was .84. F e l d and Smith considered the r e l i a b i l i t i e s which they achieved to be acceptable f o r research purposes. They studied the s c o r i n g of achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n i n a d d i t i o n to power and obtained higher r e l i a b i l i t i e s on the former two. However, they noted that the s c o r i n g system f o r need power i s the most r e c e n t l y developed of the three and has had the l e a s t refinement through use i n research. With a l l three motives, s c o r i n g r e l i a b i l i t i e s i n the .80s- i s a d v i s a b l e . Judges are urged to discuss d i f f i c u l t s c o r i n g questions and come to agree-ments concerning conventions which are not adequately covered i n the manuals. I n V e r o f f ' s study-(1958) the rank order 28 c o r r e l a t i o n (rho) obtained by two judges was .87. The percent-age agreement f o r Imagery between the two judges of the present research was 93-7. Their rank order c o r r e l a t i o n (rho) was .90. These r e l i a b i l i t i e s were based on the s c o r i n g of 32 s t o r i e s , of which h a l f were w r i t t e n by males and h a l f by females. The Thema category was excluded from the f i n a l s c o r -in g because i t proved to be a very s u b j e c t i v e judgement and the scorers were unable to agree as to i t s presence or absence. The rank order c o r r e l a t i o n quoted above was computed a f t e r Thema had been excluded. S t a t i s t i c a l Treatment of the Data. Every subject wrote four s t o r i e s , each of which was scored f o r power motivation. The t o t a l score f o r any subject was the summed scores of the four s t o r i e s . Subjects were d i v i d e d i n t o low, medium and high power groups on the basis of t h e i r scores. The t o t a l s f o r the male and female groups i n each subcategory were a l s o tabulated so as to permit comparison between the groups as regards the various categories of power imagery, such as, a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s , obstacles, e t c . A t t e s t and c h i square was a p p l i e d to the data. Since d i r e c t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n s were made, o n e - t a i l e d t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e were made. l e v e l s of .05 were con-sidered ' s i g n i f i c a n t 1 , while those from .05 to .10 were con-sidered suggestive only. P r o b a b i l i t i e s higher than .10 were considered n e i t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t nor suggestive and are reported as n o n - s i g n i f i c a n t . CHAPTER IV Res u l t s D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores Table 1 i n d i c a t e s the d i s t r i b u t i o n of power scores f o r the male and female groups. On the b a s i s of t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n subjects were d i v i d e d i n t o low, medium and high need power groups. Subjects o b t a i n i n g a score of zero were c l a s s i f i e d as low i n power motivation. Those o b t a i n i n g scores of two were placed i n the medium power group. Those o b t a i n i n g a score of three or above were placed i n the high power group. Each group contained roughly one t h i r d of the t o t a l number of cases. The low and medium groups were combined to form a low power group which was contrasted with the high power group. This allowed more of the data to be used. Table 1 S i b l i n g Order and Power M o t i v a t i o n O r d i n a l Placement. Table 2 gives the r e l a t i o n s h i p be-tween o r d i n a l ! placement and strength of power motivation. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that there i s no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between power scores and o r d i n a l placement i n the f a m i l y . The hypothesis that high need power subjects would tend to have an older s i b l i n g more often than low need power subjects was Table 1 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores f o r Male and Female Groups Power Score 0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 T o t a l Males 55 49 16 22 6 11 2 2 3 1 167 Females 20 25 4 8 7 1 4 0 1 1 71 T o t a l 75 74 20 30 13 12 6 2 4 2 238 31 n o t c o n f i r m e d . T a b l e .2 F a m i l y S i z e . E x a m i n a t i o n o f T a b l e 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t no r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s b e t w e e n s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n and t h e number o f s i b l i n g s i n a f a m i l y . A l s o , no r e l a t i o n was i n d i c a t e d b e t w e e n t h e s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n a nd a p a r t i c -u l a r s i z e o f f a m i l y , t h a t i s , s u b j e c t s f r o m t h r e e - c h i l d f a m i l i e s a r e no d i f f e r e n t i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a n s u b j e c t s f r o m t w o - c h i l d f a m i l i e s . T a b l e 3 S p a c i n g . T a b l e 4 shows t h a t no s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n -s h i p was f o u n d t o e x i s t b e t w e e n s t r e n g t h o f power and t h e p r e s e n c e o f a n o l d e r s i b l i n g t h r e e y e a r s o l d e r o r l e s s a l t h o u g h t h e f i n d i n g s w e re c o n f i r m e d d i r e c t i o n a l l y . T a b l e 4 O r d i n a l P l a c e m e n t , F a m i l y S i z e , a n d S p a c i n g . S u b j e c t s w e r e g r o u p e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n t h e f a m i l y a s f i r s t , m i d d l e , o r l a s t . T a b l e 5 shows t h a t no r e l a t i o n s h i p was f o u n d b e t w e e n t h e s e o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s and s t r e n g t h o f power m o t i v a t i o n . However, when s u b j e c t s c o m i n g f r o m one and t w o - c h i l d 32 Table 2 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Or d i n a l Placement and Strength of Power M o t i v a t i o n High Power Low Power (N=75) (N=123) Ss w i t h an older s i b l i n g 36 49 Ss w i t h no o l d e r s i b l i n g 39 74 Chi square = .96, p = n.s., 1 df, o n e - t a i l e d t e s t . 33 Table 3 D i s t r i b u t i o n of Power Scores and Family Size Number of Siblings 1 2 3 4 Above 4 Total i n Family High Power 10 25 21 8 11 75 Low Power 17 43 35 14 14 123 34 Table 4 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Age Spacing of S i b l i n g s and Strength of Power M o t i v a t i o n High Power (N=53) Low Power (N=9D Ss w i t h s i b l i n g s three 16 17 years older or l e s s Ss w i t h no s i b l i n g s three 37 74 years older or l e s s Chi square = 1.90, p = .10, 1 df, o n e - t a i l e d t e s t . 35 f a m i l i e s were eliminated, a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p was revealed. Table 6 shows that high need power people occupy middle or l a s t p o s i t i o n s s i g n i f i c a n t l y more often than low power people. A f u r t h e r comparison, shown i n Table 7, i n t r o d u c -ed the spacing v a r i a b l e . This comparison was c a r r i e d out be-tween subjects i n whose f a m i l i e s there were three or more s i b l i n g s , and i n which there were s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years or l e s s of the subject. A s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found i n d i c a t i n g that high power subjects who have one or more s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years of t h e i r age, and who come from f a m i l i e s of three c h i l d r e n or more, occupy middle or l a s t p o s i t i o n s more often than do low power subjects who have s i m i l a r , f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e s . Table 5, Table 6, and Table 7 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and Power M o t i v a t i o n Because sex d i f f e r e n c e s have been revealed i n patterns of p a r e n t a l i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ( B i e r i & Lobeck, 1959) the male and female groups were not combined, so that separate trends would be revealed i f i n f a c t they e x i s t e d . Perceived S i m i l a r i t y Measure. The perceived s i m i l a r i t y measure d i d not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between low and high need power sub j e c t s . The hypothesis that high need power subjects would tend to perceive themselves as l i k e the dominant parent more ofte n than low power subjects was not s u b s t a n t i a t e d . Nor d i d 36 Table 5 R e l a t i o n s h i p between F i r s t and Middle or Last O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n s and Strength of Power M o t i v a t i o n High Power (N=73) Low Power (N=121) Ss occupying f i r s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n 38 74 Ss occupying middle or l a s t 35 47 o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n Chi square = 1.19» p = n.s., l d f , o n e - t a i l e d t e s t . 37 Table 6 R e l a t i o n s h i p between F i r s t and Middle or Last O r d i n a l P o s i t i o n i n F a m i l i e s of Three C h i l d r e n of More and Strength of Power M o t i v a t i o n High Power (11=40) low Power (N=63) Ss occupying f i r s t o r d i n a l 13 34 p o s i t i o n Ss occupying middle or l a s t 27 29 o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n Chi square = 3*72, p = .05, 1 df, o n e - t a i l e d t e s t . 38 Table 7 R e l a t i o n s h i p between Spacing and Ordinal P o s i t i o n i n F a m i l i e s of Three C h i l d r e n or More and Strength of Power M o t i v a t i o n High Power Low Power (N 24) (N 32) Ss having s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years of own age and occupying 7 19 f i r s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n Ss having s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years of own age and occupying 17 13 middle or l a s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s Chi square = 3.89, p = .05, 1 df, o n e - t a i l e d t e s t . 39 they perceive themselves as most l i k e t h e i r father s i g n i f i c a n t -l y more oftieii than low power scorers. Involvement Measure. The involvement measure also f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between low and high need power subjects. High need power subjects do not tend to be more involved with t h e i r dominant parent than are low power subjects. Also, there was no indication that high need power subjects tend to be more involved with the father. Most subjects, regardless of power score, tended to be most involved with the mother. Dominant Parent. Table 8 suggests a trend for high power male subjects to judge t h e i r mother as the dominant parent more often than do low power subjects. Table 8 Sex Differences and Power Motivation Imagery i n the stories written by the male and female groups was compared by dichotomizing the frequency d i s t r i b u -tions of the combined groups as near to the median as possible. Table 9 shows for each category the number"of subjects i n each group above and below the median of the combined d i s t r i b u t i o n s . Chi square was computed for each instance that p o t e n t i a l l y represented a s i g n i f i c a n t deviation from a chance d i s t r i b u t i o n . A s i g n i f i c a n t difference was obtained i n the category of positive instrumental a c t i v i t y with females demonstrating more of t h i s 40 Table 8 Relationship between Sex of Dominant Parent and Strength of Power Motivation Dominant Parent High Power (N 38) Low Power (N 49) Mother 19 15 Father 19 34 Chi square = 2.61, p. = .10, 1 df, one-tailed t e s t . imagery than males., No other s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s were i n d i c a t e d . Table 9 A t t e s t was. computed to compare the mean power scores of female subjects with the mean power scores of male subje c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was obtained. Restatement of Hypotheses The hypotheses stated i n Chapter I are re s t a t e d below along w i t h the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e obtained i n each case. S i b l i n g Order 1. High need power subjects w i l l tend to have an ol d e r s i b l i n g more o f t e n than w i l l low power subje c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained as shown i n Table 2. 2. High need power subject w i l l come from l a r g e r f a m i l i e s than w i l l low power subjects.. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were i n d i c a t e d as shown by examination of Table 3. 3. High need power subjects w i l l have s i b l i n g s c l o s e r i n age than w i l l low power subjects.• No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained as shown i n Table 4, although the hypothesis was confirmed d i r e c t i o n a l l y . 4. O r d i n a l p o s i t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n to f a m i l y s i z e and spacing, w i l l be r e l a t e d to strength of power motivation. S i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained as shown i n Table 7 where p = .05. 42 Table 9 Number of Subjects i n Male and Female Groups Above and Below the Median* for Various Power-Related Imaginative Categories Imaginat ive Males (N 167) Females (N 71) Chi p** Category-Above Below Above Below Square . I l l 55 51 20 - n.s. . 27 140 11 60 - n.s. Instrumental Activity-. 3 9 . 27 . 59 . 105 128 140 108 62 25 7 27 49 46 64 44 22 2.98 .05 n.s. n.s. n.s. Goal Anticipation 2 2 165 165 0 1 71 70 -n.s. n.s. Block 2 . 20 165 145 1 10 70 61 -n.s. n.s. Affective States 2 6 7 165 161 160 1 6 6 70 65 65 - . n.s. n.s. n.s. * Median based on combined frequencies of both the female and the male groups. ** One-tailed t e s t . 43 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n 1. High need power subjects w i l l perceive themselves as l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r more often than low power su b j e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained. 2. High need power subjects w i l l perceive themselves as s i m i l a r to t h e i r dominant parent more often than low power s u b j e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained. 3. High need, power subjects w i l l tend to be more involved w i t h t h e i r father fthan w i t h t h e i r mother. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained. 4. High need power subject w i l l tend to be more involved w i t h t h e i r dominant parent than w i l l low need power sub j e c t s . No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained. 5. There w i l l be a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sex of the dominant parent and the streng t h of the subjects' power motivation. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained as shown i n Table 8, although again, the hypothesis was confirmed d i r e c t i o n a l l y . Sex Differences 1. Female imagery w i l l contain more statements of a f f e c t , more obstacles, and more f a i l u r e experiences than w i l l the imagery of males. No s i g n i f i c a n t r e s u l t s were obtained as shown i n Table 9. CHAPTER V D i s c u s s i o n S i b l i n g Order The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that o r d i n a l placement, f a m i l y s i z e and spacing, considered separately are not s u f f i c i e n t i n them-selves to produce marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n power motivation. Strength of power moti v a t i o n i s not a f f e c t e d by o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n along. However, when the v a r i a b l e of f a m i l y s i z e i s taken i n t o account, subjects occupying middle or l a s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s and who come from f a m i l i e s of three or more c h i l d r e n tend to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n power motivation than subjects cqming from s i m i l a r s i z e f a m i l i e s who occupy the f i r s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n . I n two-child f a m i l i e s need power appears to be f a i f c l y evenly d i s t r i b u t e d which suggests that s i b l i n g order i s not a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n the development of the power motive i n smaller f a m i l i e s . A number of f a c t o r s p o s s i b l y i n t e r a c t to produce t h i s d i f f e r e n c e . The olders s i b l i n g has a more powerful p o s i t i o n than younger s i b l i n g s . Veroff (1961) has suggested that t h i s measure of power motivation may a c t u a l l y measure power d e p r i v a t i o n . This suggestion i s a l s o born out by the r e s u l t s of Broverman et a l (i960) w i t h achievement motivation. I t i s reasonable to suppose that a younger s i b experiences greater d e p r i v a t i o n i n the area of power concern than does an oldest - s i b l i n g . Such 45 power d e p r i v a t i o n may r e s u l t i n greater power needs as manifested i n fantasy. On the other hand, i f t h i s instrument does not measure d e p r i v a t i o n , hut does measure the a c t u a l s t r e n g t h of power s t r i v i n g , i t would s t i l l be expected that a younger c h i l d would manifest a stronger need power than an oldest c h i l d . Presumably e a r l y power experiences i n v o l v e be-ing manipulated by others and i n t u r n manipulating others. There i s l i k e l y to be a d e f i n a b l e power hierarch y i n the f a m i l y of more than one c h i l d . Prom b i r t h the c h i l d w i t h an o l d e r s i b l i n g i s involved i n the i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s of t h i s h i e r a r c h y to a greater extent than the f i r s t s i b l i n g who has at l e a s t a few years i n which h i s p o s i t i o n i s r e l a t i v e l y un-r i v a l l e d . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n of Rosen (1961) suggests that the f i r s t c h i l d i s l i k e l y to develop a high need achievement r a t h e r than a h i g h need power, although t h i s i s evident only i n f a m i l i e s of three or more c h i l d r e n . However, the presence of an older s i b l i n g i s not s u f f i c i e n t i n i t s e l f to produce a high need power. The formation of motives i s influenced by the s i z e of the f a m i l y . Most probably t h i s i s because more op p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t both f o r manipulating others and i n t u r n being manipulated by others i n f a m i l i e s of three or more c h i l d r e n than i n smaller f a m i l i e s . Youngest c h i l d r e n i n a l a r g e r f a m i l y may a l s o be i n a b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o manipulate the parents as w e l l . In any case, i t i s l i k e l y that d e f i n i t e 'pecking orders' e x i s t i n f a m i l i e s of three c h i l d r e n or more. C h i l d r e n occupying middle or l a s t o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s are c l o s e l y involved i n t h i s 'pecking order' from b i r t h . 46 No r e l a t i o n s h i p was found to e x i s t between streng t h of power motivation and the presence of a younger s i b , even ta k i n g family s i z e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n . This suggests that i t i s more important to have an older s i b w i t h whom to i n t e r a c t than a younger s i b . I t appears that being manipulated may be more important i n the formation of the power motive than i s the act of manipulating. This lends credence to the theory that what i s being measured i s , to some degree, power f r u s t r a t i o n . Considered separately, the spacing v a r i a b l e a l s o appears to be unrelated to strength of power motivation. When the presence or absence of s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years was the v a r i a b l e employed t o d i f f e r e n c i a t e high from low power subjects, no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found. The presence of younger s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years a l s o f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e the two power groups. However, when the presence of o l d e r s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years was the v a r i a b l e a trend was revealed, although i t d i d not a t t a i n an acceptable s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l . High power subjects tended to have an older s i b l i n g w i t h i n three years of the subjects age more oft e n than low power su b j e c t s . This f i n d i n g s seems reasonable on the assumption t h a t s i b l i n g s c lose i n age i n t e r a c t more oft e n and more i n t e n s e l y than those not close i n age. The e l i m i n a t i o n of subjects w i t h s i b l i n g s o l d e r by more than three years appeared to heighten the e f f e c t s of o r d i n a l placement. When a l l three v a r i a b l e s , spacing, o r d i n a l placement, and f a m i l y s i z e were c o n t r o l l e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a -t i o n s h i p was revealed. Subjects from f a m i l i e s of three c h i l d r e n or more, who have s i b l i n g s w i t h i n three years of t h e i r own age, 47 and who occupy middle or l a s t ordinal positions are more l i k e l y to he high i n power motivation than are subjects from si m i l a r family structures who occupy the f i r s t ordinal p o s i t i o n . As previously mentioned, a s i g n i f i c a n t relationship was found even when the spacing variable was not controlled for and only family size and ordinal placement were the variables. However, the addition of the spacing variable raises the l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . s l i g h t l y . A larger sample than the one employed i n the present study would be necessary to i s o l a t e the effects of these three variables and determine the r e l a t i v e weight which each contributes to the t o t a l r e s u l t . Also, the choice of a three year i n t e r v a l as the spacing variable was quite a r b i t r a r y . I t would be inte r e s t i n g to use several i n t e r v a l s . Brim (i960) attempted without success to relate s i b -age differences to sex-role learning. He found that the r o l e -taking of younger sibs was affected by the sex of the older s i b , i e . , younger boys with an older s i s t e r were substantially more feminine than older boys with a younger s i s t e r . The presence and sex of an older sib appears to influence t h i s area of personality development. However, the size of the difference i n ages between sibs was not a s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n role-taking. His study however was confined to two-child families. Had the present study been confined to $wo-child families, most l i k e l y the same results would have obtained. I t was not u n t i l two-child families were eliminated that s i g n i f i c a n t relationships were revealed. -Veroff (1958) found that high need power scorers tend 48 to have;, an older s i b l i n g more often than low need power sco r e r s , but h i s f i n d i n g s were suggestive only. In personal correspondence V e r o f f (1961) mentions an unpublished study c a r r i e d out at P r i n c e t o n i n 1956 which a l s o upheld the r e l a -t i o n s h i p between need power scores and s i b l i n g order. How-ever, the sample was very s m a l l . V e r o f f s r e s u l t s would per-haps have achieved a higher s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l had he eliminated the subjects from two-child f a m i l i e s from h i s c a l c u l a t i o n s . Rosen (1961) found no d i f f e r e n c e s i n achieve-ment motivation w i t h two-child f a m i l i e s , but d i f f e r e n c e s be-tween the o r d i n a l p o s i t i o n s become qu i t e pronounced as f a m i l y s i z e increased. I t should be noted that Rosen found the e f f e c t s of s i b l i n g order on achievement motivation to vary w i t h s o c i a l c l a s s . His r e s u l t s quoted here a p p l i e d to subjects from middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s . I t was assumed i n the present research that the sample of u n i v e r s i t y students used as subjects would a l s o represent the middle c l a s s predominantly. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns play l i t t l e part i n the formation of the power motive. Such r e s u l t s suggest that c e r t a i n aspects of psychoanalytic theory should perhaps be re-examined. True to psychoanalytic formulations, i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns proceed along sex l i n e s f o r the perceived s i m i l a r i t y measure. Boys more often perceive them-selves as l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r (p .01). For g i r l s , i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the mother i s suggestive but not conclusive (p .10). 49 However, wi t h the degree of involvement measure almost a l l subjects, regardless of sex, considered themselves as most involved with t h e i r mother as a c h i l d . This makes very good sense and the value of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r measure to d i f f e r e n t i a t e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n patterns may be questioned. A n a l y s i s reveals that boys tend to perceive t h e i r f a t h e r as the dominant parent more often than t h e i r mother (p .05). I f i t i s true as p s y c h o a n a l i t i c theory holds, that boys tend to p a t t e r n them-selves a f t e r t h e i r f a t h e r s , and i f males perceive the f a t h e r as the dominant member of the f a m i l y , i t would seem reason-able to expect the boy to show a greater need f o r dominance than w i l l a g i r l who patterns her behavior on her mother. G i r l s a l s o perceive t h e i r f a t h e r s as dominant (p .05). On the other hand, males may have a higher need power which fantasy doesn't r e f l e c t because the need i s r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d . The A d l e r i a n hypothesis that power i s the stimulant i n i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s supported by the evidence here as f a r as males are concerned. ,They tend to perceive themselves l i k e t h e i r f a t h e r and they view t h e i r f a t h e r as dominant. The p a t t e r n f o r women i s l e s s c l e a r f o r although they do tend to see t h e i r f a t h e r as dominant, they perceive themselves as l i k e t h e i r mother. Same-sex i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s as f a r as perceived s i m i l a r i t y i s concerned appears to be the r u l e . However, the e f f e c t of these i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s on the formation of the power motive appears to be n e g l i g i b l e i f e x i s t e n t at a l l . The psychoanalytic emphasis on the i n f l u e n c e of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n 50 processes on the development of personality may not apply as far as power motivation i s concerned. However, the lack of corroborating evidence may be attributable to imperfections i n the measuring instrument employed. Of interest i s the suggestive finding that high need power male subjects tend to-have a dominant mother more often than low need power males. Though high power males do not i d e n t i f y with t h e i r mothers on the perceived s i m i l a r i t y measure, they, l i k e low power males, see themselves as more involved with the mother as a c h i l d . In the close mother-c h i l d relationship, i t seems reasonable to expect a dominant mother to i n s t i l l a strong power motive i n her c h i l d . Males do not i d e n t i f y with t h e i r mothers and yet early t r a i n i n g of mothers has a great effect on the formation of the achievement motive (Winterbottom, 1958). Mothers presumably could effect s i m i l a r results with the power motive. No such results were found with the female sample but i t was much smaller and possibly mothers would not be as interested i n i n s t i l l i n g such patterns i n g i r l s as i n boys for a variety of reasons. Sex Differences The results of t h i s investigation f a i l e d to confirm the findings of Lindzey and Silverman (1959). Males and females do not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n strength of power motivation. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to arrive at any conclusion when doubt exists as to whether fantasy measures need f r u s t r a t i o n or need strength. I f i t measures need f r u s t r a t i o n i n part, then males and females 51 may have n e a r l y equivalent amounts of f r u s t r a t i o n i n t h i s area. The p o s s i b i l i t y e x i s t s however that one sex may have more d r i v e i n t h i s area than the others sex. Assuming that opportunity f o r expression of a motive reduces i t s e f f e c t s i n fantasy, then a high power need which has an o u t l e t may not be revealed i n very great i n t e n s i t y . A l s o assuming the greater a v a i l a b i l i t y of o u t l e t s f o r the expression of t h i s motive i n males, i t i s p o s s i b l e that males may express t h i s need more oft e n and more s u c c e s s f u l l y i n a c t u a l instrumental behavior than females. I f t h i s i s so, males may have a higher need power than women, regardless of the f i n d i n g s evidenced by t h i s research. In any case, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine that women would have a higher need £>r power, a l l things considered. This i s i n agree-ment wi t h common conceptions of female p e r s o n a l i t y . Parsons (1955) d i s t i n g u i s h e s between the instrumental or task r o l e and the expressive or so c i a l - e m o t i o n a l r o l e i n s o c i a l groups. He r e l a t e s these r o l e s to sex-role d i f f e r e n t i a -t i o n s , with the male customarily t a k i n g the former r o l e and the female the l a t t e r . A l l but one of the various sub-categories on the power s c a l e f a i l e d to d i f f e r e n t i a t e males and •••-.•females i n the expression of power motivation. The f i n d i n g that females showed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more imagery i n the p o s i t i v e instrumental a c t i v i t y category i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I t i s the opposite of what was p r e d i c t e d , i e . , that female imagery would include more f a i l u r e experiences than male imagery. I t i s impossible to o f f e r any sound i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of t h i s r e s u l t 52 without f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P o s s i b l y female tendencies to express instrumental a c t i v i t y i n fantasy as s u c c e s s f u l i s a f u n c t i o n of wish f u l f i l m e n t . In any event, t h i s f i n d i n g can-not be i n t e r p r e t e d to mean that women are e m p i r i c a l l y more o p t i m i s t i c than men. The absence of any sex d i f f e r e n c e s i n the o v e r a l l category of instrumental a c t i v i t y ( i n c l u d i n g p o s i t i v e , negative, and questionable instrumental a c t i v i t y ) suggests that the instrumental or task bas i s f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t -i n g between the sexes suggested by Parsons (1955) should per-haps be re-examined. The hypothesis that women would sho more imagery con-t a i n i n g f a i l u r e to reach goals, obs t a c l e s , and a f f e c t i v e s t a t e s was not confirmed. When r e l a t e d to the area of power concern these expressive categories apparently f a i l to d i f f e r e n t i a t e between the sexes. V e r o f f (1958) found that few males responded i n these categories and concluded that p o s s i b l y the power motive i n h i b i t s the expression of a f f e c t . C e r t a i n l y , i n the achievement and a f f i l i a t i o n motives no such problem was encountered. Apparently the same f a c t o r s which i n h i b i t male responses i n t h i s area were al s o i n h i b i t i n g female responses. V e r o f f ' s suggestion that the p i c t u r e s used i n e l i c i t i n g power motivation might not be of the type to arouse associated a f f e c t i v e thoughts must be discarded. A small study, described i n Appendix 2, i n v e s t i g a t e d the amount of a f f e c t i v e imagery i n the male and female p r o t o c o l s of the t h i r d year psychology group. I t was found that female responses contained a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater amount of a f f e c t than male responses. 53 The hypothesis presented i n t h i s research that females would show more a f f e c t i v e concern i n the power area was not upheld. However, the assumption that females do tend to he more a f f e c t i v e i n t h e i r perceptions appears to have been f a i r l y w e l l based. This f i n d i n g a l s o i s i n l i n e w i t h Parson's (1955) d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the sexes on the b a s i s of the expressive or s o c i a l - e m o t i o n a l r o l e . Prom the f a i l u r e to f i n d evidence of obstacles or f a i l u r e imagery to any extent, i t must be concluded that the area of power concern i s not one i n which women experience more c o n f l i c t than men. The r e l a t i v e homogeneity of the sample used may i n part account f o r the f a i l u r e to obtain any s i g n i f -i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes. Results based on a sample of u n i v e r s i t y students cannot be generalized to the e n t i r e p opulation. Women u n i v e r s i t y students may not r e f l e c t c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r fantasy because they have ample opportunity to express the power d r i v e . A l s o , c o n f l i c t i n the power area may not become evident u n t i l the adult female r o l e , which may be more r e s t r i c t e d , i s entered upon. In the u n i v e r s i t y s i t u a -t i o n r o l e d i f f e r e n c e between the sexes do not appear to be as exaggerated as they are at l a t e r p e r i o d s . I m p l i c a t i o n s The r e s u l t s of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n suggest that the fantasy measure of power does i s o l a t e a v a r i a b l e f o r study. S i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s between scores obtained through the use of fantasy m a t e r i a l s and e x t e r n a l c r i t e r i a such as s i b l i n g 54 order provide a "basis for t h i s conclusion. However, the problem s t i l l exists as to whether a measure of need f r u s t r a -t i o n rather than need strength i s being obtained. U n t i l this s i t u a t i o n i s c l a r i f i e d , i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to interpret the results obtained through fantasy used as a means of measuring motives. The fact that fantasy measures do correlate with some external c r i t e r i a attests to the possible usefulness of th i s measure. Future research on the TAT could p r o f i t a b l y be devoted to c l a r i f y i n g t h i s area of confusion. •Evidence supporting the hypothesis that family structure i s related to the development of power motivation i s clear. Family structure may possibly be related to many aspects of personality. This appears to be a f r u i t f u l area of inquiry. In addition to the variables of spacing, ordinal position, and size of family, variables such as the sex of si b l i n g s could also be explored i n greater depth than was possible i n t h i s study. I t may well be that interaction between si b l i n g s i s as important, and perhaps more important than interaction between the c h i l d and his parents, at least i n the formation of some motives. 55 BIBLIOGRAPHY Adler, A l f r e d . Understanding Human Nature. New York: Greenberg, 1927. Atkinson, J.W. (Ed.). Motives i n Fantasy, Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Bennett, E. & Cohen, L. Men and Women; Personality Patterns and Contrasts. Genet. Psychol. Monogr., 1959, 59, 5-17. B i e r i , J., Lobeck, R. & Galinsky, M.D. A Comparison of Direct, Indirect and Fantasy Measures of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . J . Abnorm. Soc. Psychol.. 1959, 58, 253-258. B i e r i , J . & Lobeck, R. Acceptance of Authority and Parental I d e n t i f i c a t i o n . J . Pers.. 1959, 27, 74-86. Brim, O.G. Family Structure and Sex-role Learning by Children. In B e l l , N.W. & Vogel, E.F. (Eds.), A Modern Introduction  to the Family. Glencoe, 111. Free Press, I960. Broverman, D.M., Jordan, E.J., & P h i l l i p s , L. Achievement Motivation i n Fantasy and Behavior. J . Abnorm.Soc. Psychol., I960, 60, 374-378. Feld, Sheila & Smith, Charles P. An Evaluation of the Objectivity of the Method of Content Analysis, In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy. Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Feshbach, Seymour. The Drive-reducing Function of Fantasy Behavior. In J . V/. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Homey, Karen. The Neurotic Personality of Our Time. New York: Norton, 1937. Komarovsky, M. Cultural Contradictions and Sex Roles. Amer. J . Soc i o l . . 1946, 52. 184-89. Lazarus, R.S., Baker, R.W., Broverman, D.M., & Mayer, J. Personality and Psychological Stress. J . Pers., 1957, 25, 559-577. Lindzey, Gardner & Goldberg, Morton. Motivational Differences Between Male and Female as Measured by the TAT. J . Pers., 1953, 22, 101-117. !  Lindzey, Gardner & Silverman, Morton. TAT test: Techniques of Group Administration, Sex Differences, and the Role of Verbal! Productivity. J . Pers., 1959, 27, 311-323. 56 McClelland:; ,-D.C. Personality, New York: Dryden, 1951. McClelland, D.C. The Importance of Early Learning i n the Formation of Motives. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives  i n Fantasy, Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Mullahy, P. Oedipus Myth and Complex. New York: Heritage, 1948. Murray, H.A. Explorations i n Personality. New York: Oxford University, 1938. Parsons, T. Family Structure and the S o c i a l i z a t i o n of the Child. In Parsons, T. & Bales R.F. Family S o c i a l i z a t i o n  and Interaction Process. Glencoe. 111.: Free Press, 1955. Rose, AfM. The Adequacy of Women's Expectations f o r Adult Rules. Soc. Forces. 1951, 30, 69-77. Rosen, B. Family Structure and the Achievement Motive. Amer. Soc i o l . Rev., 1961, 26, 574-581. Smith, Charles P. & Feld, Sheila. How to learn the Method of Content Analysis for n Achievement, n A f f i l i a t i o n , and n Power. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Su l l i v a n , H.S. Conceptions of Modern Psychiatry. Washington: Wm. Alanson White Psychiatric Foundation, 1947. Veroff, J . Development and Validation of a Projective Measure of Power Motivation. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n  Fantasy, Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, - 1958. Veroff J . A Scoring Manual for the Power Motive. In J.W. Atkinson, (Ed.) Motives i n Fantasy, Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. Veroff, J . Personal Correspondance. 1961. Winterbottom, Marian R. The Relation of Need for Achievement to Learning Experiences i n Independence and Mastery. In J.W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives i n Fantasy, Action, and Society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand, 1958. 57 APPENDIX 1 Stimulus P i c t u r e s (In order of presentation) 57a 58 APPENDIX 2 Pamily Structure and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n Questionnaire INSTRUCTIONS SEX: M P AGE: Yrs. Mo. Parents Are: (a) separated or divorced (b) l i v i n g together Please t r y to answer a l l the questions below. Make a choice between a l t e r n a t i v e s even when t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t . There i s no r i g h t or wrong way to answer, and your answers w i l l be held i n s t r i c t confidence. C i r c l e the appropriate answer. Indi c a t e the number and ages of brothers and s i s t e r s i n your f a m i l y . Example: 2 brothers 11 years, 13 years. 1 s i s t e r 16 years. Questions 1. I would p r e f e r to l i v e i n : (A) a b i g c i t y (B) a suburban d i s t r i c t (C.) a small town 2. When I disagree w i t h my parents: i(.A) we u s u a l l y compromise (B) they u s u a l l y have the f i n a l say (C) I u s u a l l y win out 3. I n the past I : (A) got along w e l l w i t h my brothers and/or s i s t e r s (B) quarreled f r e q u e n t l y with my brothers and/or s i s t e r s (C) avoided a l l contact with my brothers and/or s i s t e r s C i r c l e Answer A B C A B C A B C 59 4. 5. 6. 8. Questions Which parent plays the greatest part i n making the important d e c i s i o n s i n your household? (A) Mother (B) Father (C) u n c e r t a i n Which' parent do you f e e l you are most l i k e at the present? (A) Mother (B) Father (C) u n c e r t a i n C i r c l e Answer A B A B (a) For g i r l s : Would you l i k e to marry someone: A B (A) l i k e your f a t h e r (B) somewhat l i k e your f a t h e r (C) u n l i k e your f a t h e r (b) For boys: Would you l i k e to marry a woman: (A) l i k e your mother (B) somewhat l i k e your mother (C) u n l i k e your mother 7. I would p r e f e r to have: (A) a l a r g e f a m i l y (B) a small f a m i l y (C) no c h i l d r e n A B Which parent d i d you f e e l c l o s e r to as a c h i l d ? A B (A) Mother (B) Father (C) u n c e r t a i n 9. I p r e f e r : (A) to l i v e at home (B) to l i v e close to home A B (C) to l i v e f a r away from home 10. (a) f o r g i r l s : I would l i k e to have a husband who would: (A) make a l l of the important d e c i s i o n s (B) l e t me have a say i n a l l d e c i s i o n s A B Questions 60 C i r c l e Answer (b) For boys: I would l i k e my wife (future) t o : (A) a l l o w me to make a l l the important d e c i s i o n s A B (B) have some say i n a l l d e c i s i o n s 61 APPENDIX 3 Description of the Study of Sex Differences In Affective Imagery i n Fantasy Stories The object of t h i s study was to determine whether or not there are sex differences i n the amount of a f f e c t i v e imagery manifested i n fantasy s t o r i e s . The imagery studied was not r e s t r i c t e d to affective statements related to power concerns hut rather included a l l statements or expressions thought to show affective states. The study was done by three t h i r d year psychology students as a group project. The data used were the four stories of the t h i r d year students who were tested for the present research project. This group was made up of 37 males and 21 females. Working independently the members of the project group wrote out any phrases which they thought denoted a f f e c t i v e imagery. Upon completion of t h i s task they met and attempted to standardize t h e i r r e s u l t s . They reported a high degree of correlation between t h e i r separate scorings. Unfortunately,, the correlation figures were not stated. Of interest to the present research was t h e i r finding that females manifest a s i g n i f i c a n t l y greater amount of af f e c t i v e imagery than do men. This finding confirmed t h e i r prediction. 62 Subjects were designated as high or"low i n a f f e c t i v e imagery on the basi s of the number of instances i n which the s t o r i e s of each subject contained a f f e c t i v e imagery. A subject whose s t o r i e s contained only one or no instances of a f f e c t was placed i n the low a f f e c t category. Scorers w i t h two or more instances of a f f e c t i v e imagery were placed i n the high a f f e c t category. Chi square was e s t a b l i s h e d t o be 3.9. Employing the o n e - t a i l hypothesis, p = .05. \ 

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