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Precipitation of the Fraser River basin : a descriptive study. Wallis, John Hubert 1963

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PRECIPITATION OF THE FRASER RIVER BASIN: A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY  by JOHN HUBERT B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  WALLIS  of British  Columbia,  1955  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s required standard.  THE  as conforming  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH April  1963  to the  COLUMBIA  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  Geography  The University of British Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  /^af ^ /S>£^3.  ABSTRACT  This 1955  study  Climate  106  of precipitation  of British  s t a t i o n s which  Basin,  Emphasis  characteristics, forming  The of  with  the b a s i s  first  annual  by a s i m i l a r  snowfall  with  proportions and of  which  with  or coastal location,  of checking  observations  precipitation  was  i n various  i n the Coast  Considerations methods  a n d minimum,  i s noted  homogeneity  concerning  the  throughout  A  concentration the  annual  parallel  with  parts  i n large  seasonal of  of  seasonal  discussion of on  seasons  hy an  analysis  o f the B a s i n . resulting  throughout  as well  i n which parts  dependent  the  as the value records heavy  The  i n con-  of precipitation,  of station  years  Basin,  and  emphasis  i s concluded  data  i n the  the proportion  repeatedly  of variability  general  and d i s c u s s i o n  Mountains  characteristics  River  o f the  and t h e p r o p o r t i o n  a s snow.  of  precipitation  o f mean  precipitation,  regimes  o f the gaps  station  i n the Fraser  concerning  season  occurs  for total  precipitation  tinental on  i n each  the network  concerns  precipitation examination  i n the  representation  o f the study  observations  m o n t h s o f maximum  effect  cartographic  portion  snowfall  operated  the d e s c r i p t i o n o f  and seasonal  precipitation  been  on d a t a  concerning  of the explanations  followed  annual  Columbia  have  i s on  i s "based  are or  thesis. and included  light  o f the Basin.  An  I  examination of a l l t o p i c s as they a f f e c t basins of the F r a s e r concludes the study.  the t h i r t e e n  sub-  IN ACKNOWLEDGMENT  The author wishes to acknowledge the courteous and prompt a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d on numerous o c c a s i o n s by W.H, Mackie, M e t e o r o l o g i s t - i n - c h a r g e , Gonzales Observatory, fC  V i c t o r i a , B.C., and M.R. Thomas, M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , Toronto, O n t a r i o , and wishes to thank a l s o S. Gregory, U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l , K. Hare, M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , H. Landsberg, U.S. Weather Bureau, f o r the time and thought devoted to answering q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g to the chapter on v a r i a b i l i t y . Particular  thanks a r e extended to Dr. J . D. Chapman,  without whose i n s p i r a t i o n and t h o u g h t f u l  practical  a s s i s t a n c e graduate work would never have been undertaken, and to Dr. J.K.Stager, both o f whom, as f a c u l t y  advisors,  d i s p l a y e d unusual and u n f a i l i n g p a t i e n c e i n g u i d i n g the author to the completion o f t h i s  thesis.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter  I  Chapter  II  page 1  Introduction Mean A n n u a l  and S e a s o n a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n  . .  Mean A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n . , . , Mean S e a s o n a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n . . . . . A r e a s o f Maximum P r e c i p i t a t i o n A r e a s o f Minimum . P r e c i p i t a t i o n .. . . . . . . . . . . Areas o f Intermediate P r e c i p i t a t i o n Chapter I I I  Mean A n n u a l  and S e a s o n a l S n o w f a l l  Mean A n n u a l S n o w f a l l , Mean S e a s o n a l S n o w f a l l S p r i n g S n o w f a l l (maps 11, 12, 13,) Summer S n o w f a l l . . . . . . Autumn S n o w f a l l (maps 14, 15, 16) W i n t e r S n o w f a l l (maps 17, 18, 19) R a t i o o f S p r i n g to Autumn S n o w f a l l Chapter  IV  Seasonal Proportion  . . . . . . . . . . .  P e r c e n t a g e o f A n n u a l T o t a l by S e a s o n S p r i n g (map 21) Summer (map 22) Autumn (map 23) W i n t e r (map 24) , S e a s o n and Month o f Maximum and Minimum Precipitation P r e c i p i t a t i o n Regimes Chapter V  16 24 25 27 30  . . . .  of Precipitation  . . .  .  Bibliography  34 38 39 41 42 45 49 51 51 51 52 54 55  67  S u b - b a s i n s o f the P r a s e r  The Upper P r a s e r S u b - B a s i n . The S t u a r t S u b - B a s i n The Nechako S u b - B a s i n The West R o a d S u b - B a s i n The Q u e s n e l S u b - B a s i n The C h i l c o t i n S u b - B a s i n . . The B r i d g e S u b - B a s i n The N o r t h Thompson S u b - B a s i n The S o u t h Thompson S u b - B a s i n . . . . The Thompson S u b - B a s i n The M i d d l e F r a s e r S u b - B a s i n . , The L i l l o o e t S u b - B a s i n The Lower F r a s e r S u b - B a s i n Conclusion  34  57 64  Variability  C h a p t e r VI  16  78  . . . . .  79 81 82 85 85 87 88 89 90 91 93 94 96 97 99  ii  Appendix  I.  History  of Stations  Fraser Appendix  River  i n the  Basin  102  II.  A.  Fraser  Basin  Mean  Seasonal  B.  Precipitation Fraser River Basin  Data Mean  Monthly  Precipitation  Data  C  0  D.  River  . « 106  F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n Mean A n n u a l Seasonal Snowfall .  . 112 and 120  F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n M e a n S e a s o n a l Snow as P e r c e n t a g e o f Mean A n n u a l Snowfall a n d o f Mean A n n u a l P r e c i p i t a t i o n . . . »  Appendix  III  A c t u a l Monthly P r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r S t a n d a r d P e r i o d 1921-1950 f o r 26 s t a t i o n s u s e d i n V a r i a b i l i t y Study.  125  . 130  No. 1. 2.  3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.  List  o f Tables  Page  Comparison o f d e n s i t y o f s t a t i o n network i n various, areas 9 Number and d e n s i t y o f s t a t i o n s by s u b - b a s i n s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n as o f December 31st,1954 . 10 C o m p a r i s o n o f e l e v a t i o n r a n g e s and number o f stations i n Basin 11 Comparison o f p r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n i n v a r i o u s types o f topography with p r o p o r t i o n o f stations 12 P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s amounts o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n (map 4) , 17 C r o s s - s e c t i o n o f e l e v a t i o n and a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n K e m a n o - K i l d a l a P a s s t o Red P a s s Junction 22 P e r c e n t a g e o f B a s i n w i t h maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s e a s o n s (maps 5 t o 8) 25 P e r c e n t a g e o f B a s i n w i t h minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s e a s o n s (maps 5 t o 8) 28 P e r c e n t a g e o f B a s i n with, i n t e r m e d i a t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s e a s o n s (maps 5 t o 8) , , . 30 P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s mean a n n u a l amounts o f snow (map 9 Proportion of Basin r e c e i v i n g various parts o f a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n a s snow (map 10) . . 37 P r o p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s amounts o f snow i n t h e s p r i n g (map 11) . . . 39 P r o p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s percentages of annual snowfall i n s p r i n g (map 12) . . 40 P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n i n which v a r i o u s p e r centages o f the s p r i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n ' o c c u r s as snow (map 13) 41 P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s amounts o f snow i n t h e autumn (map 14) 43 P r o p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s percentages of annual snowfall i n autumn (map 15) 44 P r o p o r t i o n . o f B a s i n i n "which v a r i o u s percentages of t h e autumn p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r as snow (map 16') 45 P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s amounts o f snow i n the w i n t e r (map 17) 46 Proportion of Basin r e c e i v i n g various percentages of annual snowfall i n winter (map 18) 47 P r o p o r t i o n s o f B a s i n i n which v a r i o u s p e r centages of winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n occur as snow (map 19) . 48 P  14. 15. 16.  17.  18. 19«  20,  Proportion of Basin r e c e i v i n g given percentages o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n s p r i n g (map 21) . . . . . . . . . Proportion of Basin receiving given percentages o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n summer (map 22) P r o p o r t i o n of Basin r e c e i v i n g given percentages o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n autumn (map 23) . . . Proportion of Basin r e c e i v i n g given percentages o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n w i n t e r (map 24) Comparison o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n regime i n maritime and c o n t i n e n t a l l o c a t i o n s Example o f p o s s i b l e r e - g r o u p i n g o f months i n t o seasons f o r r e g i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by Kamloops and S t e v e s t o n P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s s e a s o n s (map 25) .• . . P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s months (map 26) . . . P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n ' v a r i o u s s e a s o n s (map 27) . . . P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s months (map 28) . . . P r e c i p i t a t i o n Regimes o f the F r a s e r B a s i n (map 29) . . Y e a r s o f maxima a n d m i n i m a w i t h i n t h e s t a n d a r d p e r i o d 1921-1950 . Number o f s t a t i o n s w i t h a f i r s t t o f i f t h o r d e r maximum o r minimum f o r g i v e n y e a r s . .  . . . . .  .  V  LIST OF MAPS  F o l l o w i n g page  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.  P h y s i c a l features- r e f e r r e d to i n the text . 5 Relief 6 Weather o b s e r v a t i o n s t a t i o n s 8 Mean annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n inches 16 Mean s p r i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n inches 25 Mean summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n inches 26 Mean autumn p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n inches . . 26 Mean winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n inches . 27 Mean annual s n o w f a l l i n inches 34 Mean annual s n o w f a l l as percentage o f annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n . . . . * 36 11. Mean s p r i n g s n o w f a l l i n inches . 39 12. S p r i n g s n o w f a l l as percentage o f mean annual s n o w f a l l 40 13. S p r i n g s n o w f a l l as percentage o f s p r i n g precipitation . 41 14. Mean autumn s n o w f a l l i n inches . „ 43 15. Autumn s n o w f a l l as percentage o f mean annual s n o w f a l l . . » 44 16. Autumn s n o w f a l l as percentage o f autumn precipitation , . . . . . . . . . . 45 17. Mean winter s n o w f a l l i n inches . 46 18. Winter s n o w f a l l as percentage o f mean annual s n o w f a l l . . . . . . . . . 47 19. Winter s n o w f a l l as percentage o f winter precipitation . . , 48 20. Comparison o f p r o p o r t i o n o f mean annual snow f a l l i n g i n s p r i n g and autumn 49 21o S p r i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n as percent of mean annual . » 51 22. Summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n as percent o f mean annual 52 23. Autumn p r e c i p i t a t i o n as percent o f mean annual 54 24. Winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n as percent o f mean annual . 55 25o Season o f maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n . . «, 60 26. Month o f maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n 61 27. Season of minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n . . . . . . . . . 6.2 28. Month o f minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n 63 29. P r e c i p i t a t i o n regimes .64 30. Coefficient of variation .72 31? 1928—an example o f a year o f f a i r l y widespread l i g h t p r e c i p i t a t i o n 73 32. 1948—an example o f a year o f f a i r l y widespread heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n . . . . . . . . 74 33• Sub-basins o f the F r a s e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 s  CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION  Man has come r e c e n t l y to a stage i n h i s t h i n k i n g where he c o n s i d e r s economic p l a n n i n g around the b a s i c u n i t , the r i v e r basin.  A f t e r generations  have manipulated data  within  a r t i f i c i a l bounds o f man's d e v i s i n g we now r e t u r n to the natural building b l o c k — o f t e n t r i b a l boundaries.  the o r i g i n a l u n i t used as e a r l y  Unfortunately  f o r ease o f p l a n n i n g ,  many  o f the world's major r i v e r b a s i n s are shared by two or more n a t i o n a l groups.  In t h i s s i t u a t i o n many complex d e c i s i o n s are  f u r t h e r complicated  by n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g s .  At a r e c e n t  i n Vancouver s i x t y - f i v e s p e c i a l i s t s gathered to d i s c u s s ment o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r b a s i n . although p e r t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y apply  i n many i n s t a n c e s  Their  develop-  conclusions,  to the i n t e r n a t i o n a l problem,  to the development o f any major r i v e r  system, such as the F r a s e r  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The r o l e o f  the r i v e r b a s i n as the b a s i c u n i t w i t h i n which data c o l l e c t e d and plans  seminar  should be  drawn was s u c c i n c t l y expressed by the  seminar as f o l l o w s : The i n t e r n a t i o n a l r i v e r b a s i n i s an i n d i s p e n s a b l e u n i t f o r m e t e o r o l o g i c a l , h y d r o l o g i c a l and e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d i e s and i s an important u n i t f o r o r g a n i z i n g , s t i m u l a t i n g and c a r r y i n g out economic and s o c i a l development i n c l u d i n g the improvement o f l a n d and water use p r a c t i c e s . The Seminar, therefore- draws a t t e n t i o n to the need f o r each n a t i o n to c o n s i d e r the h y d r o l o g i c consequences o f i t s a c t i o n s throughout a r i v e r b a s i n . 1  1 J.D.Chapman, ed. The I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r B a s i n , Proceedings of a Seminar on the Development and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r B a s i n , h e l d under the auspices o f the R e g i o n a l T r a i n i n g Centre f o r U n i t e d Nations F e l l o w s , U n i v e r s i t y o f • B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 6 3 , p . 2 .  Despite encouraging progress there remains a v i t a l need f o r the establishment and r a p i d expansion o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r the g a t h e r i n g , p r o c e s s i n g and a n a l y s i s of data p e r t a i n i n g to i n t e r n a t i o n a l water resource development. There a l s o remains a need to i d e n t i f y the kinds and amounts of data r e q u i r e d f o r d i f f e r e n t developments and d i f f e r e n t stages of development. In the economy of the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia the Fraser River Basin i s a v i t a l it  encompasses a quarter of the p r o v i n c e — b u t  its relative location. of  area, p a r t l y because o f sheer  population.on  through  A l l main connections  the P a c i f i c Coast  the B a s i n , as w e l l as those  province.  and  size-  a l s o because o f between the c e n t r e s  the r e s t of Canada pass  to the n o r t h e r n part of the  H a l f the p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia l i v e s i n  the p a r t of the B a s i n below Hope. The v a r i e t y of r e s o u r c e s within, i t s boundaries a great extent to for  f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n .  to  Close  t h r e e - f i f t h s of the p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia depends i t s livelihood  Basin—timber, two  accounts  d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y on r e s o u r c e s of the  a g r i c u l t u r e , f i s h i n g and hydro power.  The  latter  are f r e q u e n t l y newsworthy because of the c o n f l i c t between  the f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y ' s concern g r e a t e s t salmon stream, and power p r o d u c t i o n one  over p o s s i b l e l o s s of the world's  the d e s i r a b i l i t y of h a r n e s s i n g f o r  o f the few l a r g e r i v e r s on the c o n t i n e n t  e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e to l o a d c e n t r e s but  still  undeveloped.  A  f u r t h e r f a c t o r i n the e f f i c i e n t u t i l i z a t i o n of r e s o u r c e s i s the n e c e s s i t y f o r f l o o d p r e v e n t i o n i n the l a r g e a g r i c u l t u r a l of  the lower  F r a s e r v a l l e y and  2  Chapman-,;;pj3. c i t , ,  p.3•  delta.  area  3 Before  any p l a n n i n g  f o r the development o f the economy  can  be undertaken an awareness of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of water r e sources  to other n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s  is essential.  The  f o r an inventory o f b a s i c data i n p l a n n i n g o f f l o o d vention i s s e l f - e v i d e n t .  Though r e c o g n i t i o n has  necessity  pre-  been g i v e n  to the n e c e s s i t y o f s t u d y i n g the r i v e r b a s i n as a b a s i c u n i t by some government agencies  like  the Water Resources Branch of  the Department o f Northern A f f a i r s and N a t i o n a l Resourcesother  agencies  like  ment of Transport  the M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch o f the Depart-  collect  i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the country  as a  whole and r a r e l y examine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r i v e r by  themselves. B r i t i s h Columbia however, through m i s f o r t u n e ,  e a r l y beginning The  basins  f l o o d of 1948  made an  toward planned development of the F r a s e r which caused widespread damage i n the  l y s e t t l e d lower F r a s e r v a l l e y and  Basin.. dense-  d i s r u p t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  and communications beyond the l i m i t s of the B a s i n focussed  the  a t t e n t i o n of government upon the need f o r systematic  of  f l o o d p r o t e c t i o n f o r the area.  As  a result  study  of t h i s d i s a s t e r  the F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l governments e s t a b l i s h e d the Dominion-Provincial  Board, F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n .  The  purpose  set f o r t h i n i t s terms o f r e f e r e n c e i s to determine what developments and  c o n t r o l s seem a d v i s a b l e with regard  f l o o d c o n t r o l and h y d r o - e l e c t r i c power. broader i n t e r e s t s can be Board.  In 19551  to  Nevertheless  seen i n the p u b l i s h e d work of the  when the F r a s e r R i v e r Board succeeded  the  4 Dominion-Provincial  Board, Fraser River Basin, i t published  the Interim Report. Investigations into Measures for Flood 3 Control in the Fraser River Basin,  with a second volume of  appendices dealing with the geography, resources and industry of the same area.  It also provided a useful reference on the  Basin, Meteorology and Climatology of the Fraser River Basin, A Resume of Sources. About the time that the need of planning i n the Fraser Basin was 1948,  forced upon B r i t i s h Columbia by the disaster of  the concept was developing of a r i v e r basin as a natural  u n i t , and as such the most l o g i c a l unit for the study of natural phenomena, e.g., meteorological and hydrological characteristics.  After 1948,  i t became clear that l i t t l e  was  known about the most obvious natural r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the Basin, the hydrologic cycle.  Accordingly this thesis responds to  both challenges; i t s main purpose i s to examine p r e c i p i t a t i o n within the Fraser River Basin. Some work' has been undertaken 4 5 6 already by Chapman, Kerr, Weir, and individuals concerned 3  Victoria,'  4  J.D.Chapman, "Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia," Transactions of the F i f t h B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference. V i c t o r i a , 1952, p. 8 - 3 7 .  5  W.G.Kendrew and D. Kerr, Climate of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Yukon T e r r i t o r y , Ottawa, Queen's P r i n t e r , 1955.  6  T.R.Weir, Ranching i n the Southern Interior Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia. Ottawa, Geographical Branch, Department of Mines and Technical Surveys, 1955, Memoir 4.  1956.  5  with s p e c i f i c problems i n l i m i t e d s e c t i o n s of the B a s i n .  7  Most  emphasis has been on the province as a whole or i t s southern h a l f , except like  f o r those s t u d i e s d e a l i n g with very small  i n d i v i d u a l settlements  and  their  environs.  E v i d e n t l y no  attempt has been made to examine p r e c i p i t a t i o n of the b a s i n as a whole.  T h i s a n a l y s i s i s based mainly  g r a p h i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and  areas  river  upon c a r t o -  c o r r e l a t i o n , with d e s c r i p t i o n and  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s u p p o r t i n g the maps. The  obvious q u e s t i o n about p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s of course  t o t a l amount of r a i n f a l l Fraser Basin. proceed  and  However, no  very f a r without  s n o w f a l l that occurs i n the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s phenomenon can  the.next  p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l s b e i n g asked.  q u e s t i o n of where and when Since both r e l i e f and  topo-  g r a p h i c form have d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n with the occurrences both r a i n and  the  of  snow, a general d e s c r i p t i o n o f the l a n d surface  i n the B a s i n must precede any c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the problems a s s o c i a t e d with the o b s e r v a t i o n a l data, interpretation. of  their r e l i a b i l i t y  and  A d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n i s given i n Appendix A  8 the I n t e r i m Report of the F r a s e r R i v e r Board.  7  R e g i o n a l s t u d i e s submitted as Master's Theses i n the Geography Department, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, by such students as W. Hardwick, J . S t a t h e r s and E. Wahl i n c l u d e some r e f e r e n c e to c l i m a t e of s p e c i f i c r e g i o n s .  8  I n t e r i m Report, I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o Measures f o r F l o o d C o n t r o l s i n the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n , V i c t o r i a , 1956. Appendices A and Bs form a second volume of t h i s r e p o r t .  PHYSICAL FEATURES REFERRED TO IN THE  TEXT  Physiographic terminology from Appendix A of the Interim Report Investigations into Measures for Flood Control in the Fraser River Basin, based on Memoir 247 of the Geological Survey of Canada.  zs  i50  ZOO  6 The  Fraser River Basin occupies  southern h a l f  of B r i t i s h and f r o m  Columbia,  the major p o r t i o n  extending  from  49° to 56°  north  latitude  longitude.  The  river  i s 850 m i l e s i n l e n g t h , c u r v i n g i n a s p r a w l i n g "S"  from  i t s headwaters the S t r a i t  1 1 8 ° 30' t o 1 2 8 ° west  o f the  i n the Rocky Mountains  o f Georgia.  The B a s i n  to the d e l t a i c  mouth a t  (map 1) i s p r i m a r i l y  an  a r e a o f p l a t e a u between two m o u n t a i n  systems w i t h i n the n o r t h -  west-southeast  The e x t e n s i v e u p l a n d  trending Cordillera.  tween t h e C o a s t  and C o l u m b i a  Mountains  i s approximately  be-  100  m i l e s wide i n the s o u t h o f t h e b a s i n and 200 m i l e s i n t h e north.  The n o r t h e r n h a l f o f t h i s  Nechako P l a t e a u — a v e r a g e s subdued r e l i e f .  4000 f e e t  3000 f e e t  The s o u t h e r n  the F r a s e r P l a t e a u — r i s e s (1500 f e e t  Interior  half  i n elevation  the a v e r a g e  M o u n t a i n s ) where i t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d topography  (maps 1 and 2 ) .  these plateaux Prince  George  elevation  by b r o k e n  Nechako P l a t e a u , b u t a t t h e j u n c t i o n w i t h  the C o a s t  Mountains to the lowland  Strait level  o f Georgia  deep, and where  o f the Coast  south  across  more e n t r e n c h e d .  i s o n l y a few h u n d r e d  i s 1800 f e e t  called  and d i s s e c t e d  As t h e F r a s e r f l o w s  the g o r g e  fairly  and a g e n e r a l l e v e l o f  i t becomes p r o g r e s s i v e l y the r i v e r  and h a s  o f the P l a t e a u — h e r e  to the south  below  Plateau—the  feet  flood  below the  the C h i l c o t i n  the r i v e r plain  i t i s more t h a n 4000 f e e t  At  cuts  River  through  adjacent  to the  below the g e n e r a l  o f the p l a t e a u . West o f the I n t e r i o r  a r e 5000 t o 7000 f e e t  P l a t e a u the Coast  h i g h , except  near  Mountains,  which  the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r  MAP 2 STATION CIRCLE Station number Total annual Subdivision preciptatiorT^63/»\ of the Basin Number  af  years  record  of  /  496  \C\ass  of  station Elevation above sea-I eve I  R E L I E F 0 - 5 0 0 FEET  4000-6000  500-2000  6000-10000  2000-4000  OVER  BASIN BOUNDARY  10000 SOURCE:  ISO  zoo  British Columbia Atlas of Resources  7 where they r i s e over 10,000 f e e t , separate the B a s i n from the P a c i f i c Ocean.  The Columbia and Rocky Mountains, l y i n g  west  and east, r e s p e c t i v e l y , o f the Rocky Mountain Trench, mark the e a s t e r n margins o f the B a s i n .  The n o r t h e r n d i v i d e c o n s i s t s o f  the  Skeena Mountains and Hogem Ranges o f the Omenicas, and i n  the  south the l a n d r i s e s to the Cascades and Okanagan H i g h l a n d s . The main t r i b u t a r y o f the F r a s e r i s the Thompson R i v e r ,  which with the Quesnel d r a i n s the Columbia Mountains; these are the  only t r i b u t a r i e s o f any consequence  the  east.  j o i n i n g the F r a s e r from  From the west flow the Nechako, West Road, C h i l c o t i n  and Bridge R i v e r s .  Other streams such as the Homathko, K l i n a -  k l i n i and Dean R i v e r s tap the l e e s i d e of the Coast Mountains, but of  drain d i r e c t l y  to the P a c i f i c  Ocean.  With the d i v e r s i t y  land f o r m s — b o t h windward and leeward s l o p e s o f major  mountain ranges, and l a r g e n o r t h - s o u t h and east-west v a l l e y s entrenched i n t o  the p l a t e a u s u r f a c e s — t h e r e i s an  infinite  v a r i e t y of s t a t i o n exposures. The main source o f data has been the C l i m a t e of B r i t i s h  Q Columbia p u b l i s h e d annually through the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia Department  o f A g r i c u l t u r e and the Gonzales  Observatory o f the M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch o f the A i r S e r v i c e s D i v i s i o n of the Department  of T r a n s p o r t (Canada).  The  average  f i g u r e s o f the 1955 p u b l i c a t i o n (the year o f the commencement of  the study) have been used, with no attempt to c o r r e c t or  adjust the d a t a to a common p e r i o d . 9  Queen's P r i n t e r ,  Victoria  L i t t l e r e f e r e n c e has been  8 made t o s t r e a m this  data  hydrologic High tended  would a s s i s t  irregular  relief  lines  i n the r i v e r  distribution  areas unoccupied  stations.  Since  and d e e p l y  valleys.  i t is difficult  appears  rivers  distributed  from  produce a  i n Table  1.  large  i n the network o f c l i m a t i c  to o p e r a t e  a  continuous  t h e r e a r e numerous p a r t s o f t h e  t h e map,  i n the network  the s t a t i o n s  and f o r l a r g e a r e a s  On an a v e r a g e ,  have  The i n f l u e n c e o f  r e p r e s e n t e d by any s t a t i o n  B a s i n r e p r e s e n t s 830 s q u a r e areas  o f the  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n t o  T h i s has helped  i s reflected  As c a n be s e e n  d a t a at a l l .  entrenched  o f communication  s t a t i o n , i n a remote l o c a t i o n ,  means e v e n l y  examination  o f the B a s i n .  or s p a r s e l y s e t t l e d .  distribution  (map 3 ) .  though study o f  o f p o p u l a t i o n i n the B a s i n , l e a v i n g  population  Basin not t r u l y  data,  i n a more i n t e n s i v e  characteristics  to d i r e c t  locations linear  f l o w o r t o snow C o u r s e  one s t a t i o n miles.  there  a r e by no a r e no  i n the F r a s e r R i v e r  A comparison  with  other  MAP 3 STATION CIRCLE Station number Total annua  Subdivision of the Basin  precipitation  6 3  Number of /  Class of station Elevation above  years of record  LOWER FRASER VALLEY I.Jericho Beach 2 BrocWbn Point 3 Sea Island 4Steveston 5 Ladner 6 Vancouver (City Hall) 7.Annacis Island 8 New Westminster 9 Burquiflam 10 Pitt Meadows II.White Rock 12 Reidville 13 Fort Langley 14 Kensington Prairie 15 Goverdale 16. Port Kells 17. Port Coquitlam 18 Coquitlam Lake 19 A iouette Lake 20 Haney 21 Langley Prairie 22 Aldergrcve 23Abbofsford (AirpcitJ 24Abbotsford (Upper Sumas 25. Mission 26 Stave Falls 27 Stave Lake 28.Nicomen (Deroche)  WEATHER OBSERVATION STATIONS 29 Chilliwack (Sardis) 30. Cultus Lake 31 Sardis (Vedder Crossing) 32. Agassiz 33 Jones Lake 34. Hope (Town) 35 Hope ( Little Mountain ) 36 Hell's Gate 37. North Bend 38. Lytton THOMPSON-SHUSWAP VALLEY I Merritt 2. Nicola Lake 3. Mamit Lake 4. Ashcroft (2) 5. Ashcroft 6. Vidette Lake 7. Tranquille 8 Kamloops ( Airport) 9 Kamloops ( Dominion Range Experimental Station ) 10 Kamloops ( Mission Flats ) I I Knouff Lake 12 Chinook Cove 13 Hemp Creek  14Vavenby I 5.Blue River 16 Monte Creek 17 Westwold 18 Falkland 19 Chase 20.Sorrento 21 Eagle Bay 22Sicamous 23Malakwa 24Annis (Canoe Point ) 25Tappen 26 Salmon Arm 27 Salmon Arm (2) 28 Enderby 29 Shuswap Falls 30Mabel Lake MIDDLE FRASER VALLEY I .Laluwissen Creek 2.Lillooet 3Pemberton Hatchery 4.Pemberton Meadows 5 A l t a Lake 6 A l t a Lake TVBralorne  8Little Gunn Lake 9Bndge River lO.Moha 1 I Pavilion 12 Dog Creek 13. Lac la Hache 14. Alkali Lake 15. Big Creek 16 150 Mile House 17. Williams Lake 18. Horsefly Lake 19 Soda Creek 20 Alexis Creek 21 Bullion (Quesnel Forks 22Barkerville 23 Quesnel 24.Quesnel (Airport) 25 Woodpecker UPPER FRASER VALLEY I. Prince George 2 Aleza Lake 3 Dome Creek 4 McBride 5 Cranberry Lake 6.Red Pass Junction 150  zoo  NECHAKO VALLEY I.Fort George 2 Vanderhoof 3 Fort St. James 4. Burns Lake 5. Wistaria 6Nadina River 7 Tahtsa Lake West STATIONS OUTSIDE FRASER BASIN I. Silver Creek (Omenico) 2Germansen Landing 3Revelstoke 4. Fauquier 5. Vernon (Coldstream) 6. Kelowna 7Peachland (Trepanier) 8.0sprey Lake 9 Aspen Grove I O.Princeton 11.Skagit 12. Waddinqton Harbour 13. Tatlayoko Lake 14. Kleena Kleene 15. Anahim Lake 16. Kemano 17. Kemano-Kildala l8.Smithers 19 Babine Lake  9 Table  1  Comparison o f d e n s i t y o f s t a t i o n network Locality  i n various  Square m i l e s p e r s t a t i o n  Ontario^ Manitoba Saskatchewan Alberta B r i t i s h Columbia S o u t h w e s t c o a s t o f B.C. R e m a i n d e r o f B.C.  1,590 5,130  Canada United States C e n t r a l Europe  3,910 600  Western Eastern  areas  2,520  2,120 1,640 160 2,620  75 186 417  Washington^ Washington  Within  the b a s i n  representative  t h e number o f s t a t i o n s i s s c a r c e l y  of i t s various  sub-basins.  2 r e v e a l s a wide r a n g e o f s t a t i o n  A study  of table  d e n s i t y and shows a l s o  many s t a t i o n s once a c t i v e no l o n g e r  report  that  data.  10  J.D. Chapman, Climate o f B r i t i s h Columbia p . 9. A l l l o c a l i t i e s l i s t e d i n t a b l e e x c e p t W e s t e r n and E a s t e r n Washington a r e taken from t h i s s o u r c e .  11  A . C . G e r l a c h , P r e c i p i t a t i o n o f Western Washington,, Ph.D. T h e s i s , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 1944V P» 3«  12  J.C.Sherman, The P r e c i p i t a t i o n o f E a s t e r n W a s h i n g t o n , Ph.D. T h e s i s , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n , 1947% p . 6.  10 Table  2  Number and D e n s i t y o f S t a t i o n s by S u b - b a s i n s o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n a s . o f December 3 T T " 1 9 5 4 ^ 1  Sub-basin  Area i n sq. mi.  % of area over  3000'  Upper Fraser  Number o f S t a t i o n s Active InOver a c t i v e 3000'  Total  Density Sq. ML, station  66%  5  1  2  6  2133  6,810  43  1  1  0  2  3405  12,200  62  5  2  0  7  1743  West Road  4,740  90  0  0  0  0  Quesnel  4,650  76  1  3  0  4  1162  Chilcotin  7,560  96  2  1  1  3  2520  Bridge  1,850  93  1  2  2  3  617  North Thompson  7,000  84  5  2  1  7  1000  South Thompson  5,050  84  11  8  2  19  266  Thompson  7,480  85  6  11  3  17  440  12,600  66  9  15  4  24  525  Lillooet  3,210  72  3  2  0  5  642  Lower Fraser  3,250  56  37  19  2  56  58  12,800  Stuart Nechako  Middle Fraser  By  comparing  t h e number  amount o f t h e s u b - b a s i n feet,  13  i t i s easy  Fraser River  o f s t a t i o n s o v e r 3000 f e e t ,  —  and t h e  w h i c h h a s e l e v a t i o n i n e x c e s s o f 3000  to r e a c h  the c o n c l u s i o n  that  the v e r t i c a l  B o a r d , A Resume o f S o u r c e s , p . 30-33.  11  distribution sentative.  o f s t a t i o n s i n the F r a s e r B a s i n This  i s brought  o u t more  Table  i s most  forcibly  unrepre-  by t a b l e 3.  The  3  C o m p a r i s o n o f E l e v a t i o n R a n g e s and Number o f S t a t i o n s i n B a s i n Elevation Range  % of Basin Range  o v e r 10,000 f t . 6,000 t o 10,000 4,000 t o 6,000 2,000 t o 4,000 500 t o 2,000 0 to 500  lower  inadequately several  represented presented Basin  area—have  only  i s well  Lake  feet  elevation  areas—over  that  inadequate the B i g  two i n t w o - t h i r d s  i n t h e West Road  r a n g e s upward f r o m two and  and on t h e r i d g e s r e a c h e s  o f 1700 f e e t ,  h a l f the  This  by t h e f a c t  Elsewhere,  station  are also  the v a l l e y s a r e w e l l r e -  s t a t i o n s are the only  Plateau.  the n e a r e s t  4 i n d i c a t e s that  i n the B a s i n  10% o f the s t a t i o n s . illustrated  density  o f the h i g h l a n d i s  Table  found  the p l a t e a u  where t h e a l t i t u d e  thousand feet,  b u t the c l i m a t e  Although  by s t a t i o n s ,  the I n t e r i o r  basin,  b o t t o m s , have a h i g h  c l a s s e s o f landform  C r e e k and W i l l i a m s of  1% 30% 39%  and documented.  unequally.  distribution  valley  stations,  observed  broad  % of Stations i n Range  1% 12% 30% 45% 11% 2%  e l e v a t i o n s , mainly  of observation  in  s i x and s e v e n  drainage three thousand  i s i n the middle F r a s e r v a l l e y  thirty  West Road and F r a s e r R i v e r s .  miles  from  a t an  the j u n c t i o n o f the  The l a c k o f s t a t i o n s o v e r  4000  12 Table  4  Comparison o f P r o p o r t i o n ' o f B a s i n Topography with P r o p o r t i o n Landform Class  Approximate % of Basin  North-south v a l l e y s East-west v a l l e y s Plateau Windward s l o p e Leeward s l o p e feet  is especially  sources,  since  most c a s e s  climate,  critical  i t i s i n the  unknown d e p t h o f  flood  projects.  Number o f stations  10% 5 55 10 20  complete network i s r e q u i r e d  to  s u c h equipment  expensive.  Approximate % of s t a t i o n s . 30% 50 10 5 5  in a f u l l  d e s c r i p t i o n o f water  high  that  land  the  a n n u a l and  snow p a c k a c c u m u l a t e s . f o r any  research  on  fill  i n the  g a p s i n the  i s at present  Appendix I g i v e s  deal  on  irrigation of  automatic  present  the  in  A more  net-  both experimental  information  re-  micro-  c o n t r o l , h y d r o - p o w e r p o t e n t i a l and  equipment  of  29 57 7 5 6  However i t would r e q u i r e a g r e a t  recording work and  i n V a r i o u s Types of~Stations  length  and of  14 record, The Columbia of  14  elevation, latitude, f o l l o w i n g statement and  longitude from  the Yukon T e r r i t o r y  the  and  class  Climate  sums up  the  of  of  station.  British  present  condition  the  s t a t i o n network: (The s t a t i o n s ) a r e numerous on the L i t t o r a l and i n t h e v a l l e y s o f the s o u t h o f the P r o v i n c e , many h a v i n g a long s e r i e s of records. E l s e w h e r e , i n the v a l l e y s o f  J.D.Chapman and D . B . T u r n e r , ed., B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A t l a s o f Resources, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources C o n f e r e n c e , 1956, p*14, g i v e s a s i m p l i f i e d d e f i n i t i o n p f c l a s s of s t a t i o n : " C l a s s I instruments i n c l u d e barometer, b a r o g r a p h , wet and d r y b u l b t h e r m o m e t e r , maximum and m i n i mum t h e r m o m e t e r , anemometer and r a i n g a u g e . Class I I , maximum and minimum thermometer and r a i n gauge o n l y . C l a s s I I I ' r a i n gauge o n l y . "  t h e N o r t h I n t e r i o r and on the u p l a n d s e v e r y w h e r e , t h e y are q u i t e i n a d e q u a t e to d e l i n e a t e the c l i m a t e o f a l a n d o f such s t r o n g r e l i e f . Many s t a t i o n s o f the e a r l i e r y e a r s o f s e t t l e m e n t have l o n g b e e n abandoned and t h e i r r e c o r d s are s h o r t . O f the b e t t e r e q u i p p e d l a t e r s t a t i o n s few were e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1935, most s i n c e 1940, t o s e r v e the n e e d s o f a i r n a v i g a t i o n . I n some p l a c e s an o l d e r s t a t i o n i n t h e town has b e e n c o n t i n u e d w i t h a new one a t the n e i g h b o u r i n g a i r p o r t but o w i n g t o the u s u a l l y much more e x p o s e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e a i r p o r t t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e two, t h o u g h t h e y may n o t be f a r a p a r t , a r e n o t s t r i c t l y c o m p a r a b l e . . . . T h e p a u c i t y o f s t a t i o n s on t h e u p l a n d s ma.kes the most u n f o r t u n a t e gap i n our k n o w l e d g e o f the P r o v i n c e , so much o f w h i c h i s m o u n t a i n or plateau.^5 A different, this for  detailed  same a r e a w o u l d be  facilitated  s t a t i o n s to i n d i c a t e  represents station.  the There  local  not  but  for careful  and  analysis  by  o n l y the  topography  i s need  o f weather s t a t i o n s ,  statistical  o f the  a classification extent  also  to which  the h i s t o r y  study  o f the  a t t e n t i o n must be  p a i d to the  (changes o f l o c a t i o n ,  these  i t e m s have b e e n t a k e n  into  etc.),  account,  each  homoof  accuracy  of station. while  site  factor  station  class  the  site  o f the r e c o r d , which depends upon t h e h i s t o r y observer,  code  of  geneity  measurement, l e n g t h o f r e c o r d , and  data f o r  the of  Some o f  others  could  16 be  i g n o r e d f o r a study  of t h i s  Kerr, Climate  breadth.  15  Kendrew and  o f B.C.  and  Yukon, p .  14.  16  P o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y a p p a r e n t e r r o r s or i n c o n g r u e n c i e s i n the d a t a i n t h e 1955 C l i m a t e ' o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a were c h e c k e d w i t h W.H.Mackie, M e t e o r o l o g i s t - i n - c h a r g e , G o n z a l e s O b s e r v a t o r y , V i c t o r i a , who on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s c o r r e c t e d the d i s c r e p a n c i e s .  14 To  d e s c r i b e the a r e a l and  temporal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p r e -  c i p i t a t i o n i n the F r a s e r R i v e r Basin the map  has been the  17 primary d e v i c e .  I t s u t i l i t y both as a r e s e a r c h  a means o f d i s p l a y i n g the r e s u l t s o f study The  t o o l and  as  i s w e l l known.  g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s of p r e c i p i t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n are shown  by i s o h y e t s on the maps, and pleths.  The  difficulties  computed r a t i o s by i s o -  i n drawing i s o l i n e s i n areas  moderate r e l i e f are numerous. fewer s t a t i o n s to provide  other  Not  of  only are there u s u a l l y  data, but data i s at l e a s t  poten-  t i a l l y l e s s r e l i a b l e because of problems of o b t a i n i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample o f the r a i n and creased  wind v e l o c i t i e s p r e v a l e n t  at higher  c i s i o n s are r e q u i r e d of the r e s e a r c h e r data and  are t h e r e f o r e l e s s v a l i d  they were made f o r areas of l e s s  s n o w f a l l with the i n elevations.  which are based on fewer  than would be the case i f relief.  Because of the problems d i s c u s s e d concerning  the i n -  adequacies of the s t a t i o n network, some method had to  ensure a c o n s i s t e n t b a s i s f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  to be The  c l a i m that p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n c r e a s e s with a l t i t u d e i s t i a t e d i n the B a s i n . 17  De-  adopted  general substan-  In the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y , f o r example,  E r r o r s i n the draughting o f the map w i l l be n o t i c e d where Trembleur Lake appears as p a r a l l e l r i v e r s and where a r i v e r has been erroneously shown f l o w i n g south from the east end of Canim Lake over a d i v i d e to the North Thompson R i v e r .  15 the average  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r Steveston at an e l e v a -  t i o n of 10 f e e t i s 37.23 i n c h e s , f o r New f e e t , 56.53 i n c h e s , and inches. Basin.  Westminster at  f o r Coquitlam Lake at 528  S i m i l a r examples can be found  feet,  330 138.1  f o r other areas of the  For areas i n which data are scarce or n o n - e x i s t e n t  i s o h y e t s have been drawn on the b a s i s that p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n creases with a l t i t u d e with guidance, however, from da-tafefor other s t a t i o n s o f s i m i l a r e l e v a t i o n and l o c a t i o n .  This pro-  cedure has l e d to the s t a n d a r d i z e d i s o h y e t a l p a t t e r n s which appear from map  to map.  These shapes were developed  with the  a i d o f a map  of g e n e r a l i z e d r e l i e f and are i n e f f e c t g e n e r a l -  i z e d contour  lines.  the above assumption data on stream  Often p r e c i p i t a t i o n v a l u e s were f i x e d  on  with no f u r t h e r c o r r o b o r a t i o n than some  flow and a l i m i t e d knowledge o f n a t i v e vege-  t a t i o n and i t s moisture  requirements.  That the r e l a t i o n s h i p between e l e v a t i o n and  precipitation  i s not d i r e c t or simple can be i l l u s t r a t e d by the example of Ladner at 10 f e e t with 36.23 inches a n n u a l l y , compared to L a l u w i s s e n Creek at 1000  f e e t , 7.60  i n c h e s , though w i t h i n each  area of the B a s i n such examples would be harder  to f i n d .  Moreover, the s c a l e of i n c r e a s e i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n with v a r i e s from one r e g i o n to  another.  elevation  CHAPTER II  MEAN ANNUAL AND SEASONAL PRECIPITATION  Annual f i g u r e s p r o v i d e a u s e f u l p o i n t at which to i n t r o duce a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n , gross p i c t u r e .  s i n c e they p r e s e n t the  But while data on mean annual  precipitation  g i v e s a v a l u a b l e g e n e r a l impression o f the water supply an area, at the same time i t conceals the important f e a t u r e s o f the annual  cycle.  from  temporal  These f e a t u r e s can be examined  w i t h i n the framework o f 'seasons , months, or even s h o r t e r time p e r i o d s depending upon the i n t e n s i t y r e q u i r e d by a given study.  For the purposes of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n  seasonal  grouping o f the data i s most u s e f u l , s i n c e the monthly tend to obscure  figures  the more g e n e r a l seasonal trends (maps 5 to 8)  which c h a r a c t e r i z e  the annual  c y c l e i n the r e g i o n .  MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION  The  most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f the i s o h y e t a l map o f annual  p r e c i p i t a t i o n (map 4 ) i s the s t r o n g l y d e f i n e d areas with h i g h t o t a l s compared to the extensive r e g i o n s with lower amounts.  annual  The g e n e r a l areas o f maximum are the lower  Fraser  valley,  the Coast Mountains, and the windward s i d e o f the  Cariboo  and Rocky Mountains.  Between these two major areas o f  heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s a p l a t e a u o f g e n e r a l l y moderate p r e c i p i t a t i o n c o n t a i n i n g some n o t a b l y a r i d s e c t i o n s . t r a s t between the almost  The con-  super-humid southwest border  o f the  7^  MAP  CIRCLE  n u m b e r  "Total exnrwjaS  Subdivision  p r e c i p i t a t i o n ^ A " ^ o f  Number  of  /  fO^*-  4  S T A T I O N Station  ^ / / ^  496  the  \ C l a s s  years of record  B a s i n  of  station Elevation sea  above  -level  MEAN ANNUAL PRECIPITATION IN  INCHES  under 10"  30" to 40"  10" to 15"  40" to 50"  15"  to 20"  50"  to 60"  20" to 30"  60"  to 100"  over 100"  ISO  ZOO  Note: data from 1955 Climate of British Columbia.  17  B a s i n and the s e m i - a r i d southern in a half-day's  journey  interior  i s very  marked—  o f some hundred m i l e s one can pass  from the Douglas f i r and hemlock f o r e s t s o f the Coast to the open g r a s s l a n d and sagebrush o f the i n t e r i o r at A s h c r o f t . Ranches i n t h i s a r i d area, a t e l e v a t i o n s from 3,000 to 4,000 feet below and i n the l e e o f the 6000-foot Coast Mountains, are i r r i g a t e d by flumes that extend f o r m i l e s along the v a l l e y sides.  The moisture requirements o f t h i s s e m i - a r i d area are  a l l met by u t i l i z i n g the water from the b e t t e r s u p p l i e d r e g i o n s o f greater e l e v a t i o n which surround i t . Map 4 and t a b l e 5 r e v e a l the very l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n area i n which the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n ranges from 15 to 50 inches per annum.  The widespread i d e a that  Columbia i s a l a n d o f heavy r a i n f a l l  British  i s o b v i o u s l y based more  Table 5 P r o p o r t i o n o f Basin r e c e i v i n g V a r i o u s Amounts o f P r e c i p i t a t i o n (Map Annual Precipitation Percentage o f Basin Area  4)  Under Over 10" 10-15 15-20 20-30 30-40 40-50 50-60 60-100 100"  3%  Q%  32%  20%  10%  11%  Q%  on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the part o f the province h e a v i l y populated which i t i s t r u e .  6%  2%  that i s  than on the p r o p o r t i o n o f the p r o v i n c e f o r C e r t a i n l y the q u a r t e r o f B r i t i s h  Columbia  18 that l i e s w i t h i n the F r a s e r B a s i n i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d more bymoderate amounts of p r e c i p i t a t i o n , much o f which does not occur  as r a i n , but  as snow.  For a d i s c u s s i o n of annual amounts  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n the areas of maximum are d e f i n e d as over i n c h e s , areas of minimum as under 15 intermediate  p r e c i p i t a t i o n as 15  of d i v i s i o n between these  inches, and  to 50 i n c h e s .  The  of  points  three ranges might be chosen on  v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a — t y p e s of v e g e t a t i o n , the occurrence  areas  50  the need f o r  of f l o o d s , to name a f e w — b u t  irrigation,  a l l such d i v i s i o n s  are i n essence a r b i t r a r y a c c o r d i n g to the s p e c i f i c problem. In a d e s c r i p t i o n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n amounts not r e l a t e d to one  p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n , i t seems l o g i c a l to separate  those  areas whose p r e c i p i t a t i o n range r e p r e s e n t s  a  any only  significant-  l y d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n w i t h i n the B a s i n , from the ranges i n the middle of the chosen s c a l e , and  the groupings depend  i n t u r n upon the p r a c t i c a l choice of i s o h y e t s i n c l u d e d map  on  4. Of the areas which r e o e i v e over 50 inches a n n u a l l y  the  l a r g e s t c e n t r e s on the Coast Mountains i n the southwest of the B a s i n , and  i n c l u d e s the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y .  Records o f  s t a t i o n s i n the v a l l e y i n d i c a t e a range between 50 and i n c h e s , but  75  the h a l f dozen s t a t i o n s with a r e c o r d of over  years and an e l e v a t i o n o f over 200  25  f e e t i n the f r i n g e o f the  Coast Mountains average 75 inches a n n u a l l y . s t a t i o n i n the r e g i o n , Jones Lake at 2180  The  highest  f e e t i n the Cascade  Mountains although lished  south several  records  A second west the  corner  the  average  of  the  75  north  region  of of  annually.  in  Lake.  station  at  Barkerville,  windward slope  of  the  the  inches. in  the  The forest  quired  for  The form  appearance cover  this  stations  a network  entrenched  valleys  of  the  2000-foot  lee  of. t h e  along land  18  the areas  other  of red  tree  which  lies  the  to  the  the  level  highest  some  The  200 m i l e s  portion of  the  50  to  heavier  north-  a  Here region  at  of  of  area from  feet  on  averages  over  40  devil's  inches  higher  (under  elevations.  15  precipitation,  with  inches)  the  encircles  and r e a c h e s  the  crosseast-  ocean  Mountains.  it  along  o f minimum l i e s open  club  re-  p r o v i d i n g an  the  Coast  Quesnel  4180  100  Plateau,  Thompson and N i c o l a R i v e r s , with  the  northwest-southeast  Interior  pattern.  at  hemlock and  growth occurs  is  year.  Mountains north  cedar,  that  in  estab-  main area  Cariboo Mountains,  main a x i s  into  each  indicates  Thompson and N i c o l a R i v e r s  component  the  The  well  Mountains.  o f minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n  whose  valleys  west  of  West  inches,  with  inches  Coast  and Rocky  suggests  type  river  100  the  maximum i s The  91.5  o f maximum a p p e a r s  against  Columbia  only  the  of Tahtsa Lake  inches  the  records  i n excess  Basin  record  exceeds  Fraser,  stations  smaller  four-year  which  of  below  in  the  Extending some as  up-  far  east  P r e c i p i t a t i o n f i g u r e s quoted w i t h i n the t e x t have been rounded to the n e a r e s t t e n t h , a l t h o u g h data i n Appendix I is given in hundredths.  as Chase i n the Thompson-Shuswap v a l l e y , beyond Knouff Lake on the North Thompson, and River.  i n t o the v a l l e y o f the Bonaparte  T h i s minimal r e g i o n i n c l u d e s the main stem of the  Praser n o r t h almost west, and  to Quesnel,  i n c l u d i n g Anderson Lake on  the v a l l e y bottoms o f the C h i l c o t i n sub-basin  e l e v a t i o n s approaching  3000 f e e t .  the  to  At s i m i l a r a l t i t u d e s east  of the Praser the r e g i o n takes i n the San Jose v a l l e y as f a r south as Lac l a Hache.  A s m a l l e r separate area occurs i n the  low p a r t o f the Nechako v a l l e y around Vanderhoof. A s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n of extremely  low p r e c i p i t a t i o n  (under  10 inches) occurs w i t h i n the e x t e n s i v e area j u s t d e s c r i b e d . It  lies  i n the v a l l e y bottoms of the middle  P a v i l i o n to W i l l i a m s Lake and to A l e x i s Creek.  the v a l l e y of the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r  A similar low-lying section  Creek i s separated from another the Thompson that reaches  The  of the l a r g e s t  the Thompson R i v e r , i n d i c a t e s consequently  around  l a r g e r extremely  to M e r r i t t  Lake on the North Thompson. Green Lake, one  Praser from  Laluwissen  dry s t r i p  on the N i c o l a and  On  Knouff  absence o f an o u t l e t on .  l a k e s i n the uplands  north of  the low p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  the  small r u n - o f f i n the a r e a .  In g e n e r a l the convex landforms  r e c o r d the maximum p r e -  c i p i t a t i o n while the concave s u r f a c e s r e c e i v e minimal amounts. Between the two  extremes some t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the B a s i n —  c h i e f l y the e x t e n s i v e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u — h a s c i p i t a t i o n of 15 to 50 i n c h e s . t h i r d of the B a s i n f a l l s  an annual  pre-  Within these broad l i m i t s a  i n t o the range o f 15 to 20 inches per  annum—a r e g i o n s c r i b e d , and Mountain Stuart  s u r r o u n d i n g the d r i e r  including a strip  Trench,  as w e l l  areas p r e v i o u s l y  o f the v a l l e y  as a l o n g arm  floor  de-  i n the R o c k y  extending into  the  sub-basin.  S t a t i o n s over consistent  3000 f e e t  pattern  have  emerges f r o m  such v a r i e d  their  sites  records.  Some  K n o u f f Lake r e c e i v e  15  inches per year while o t h e r s  Barkerville  40  inches.  receives  receive  twice the r a i n f a l l  lorne,  26.6  a r e no  r e c o r d s from  i n c h e s and B i g C r e e k , the West Road Although  sub-basin  almost  i n a r e a by  12.4  inches).  square m i l e s ,  t o 20  the  the r u n - o f f the  20  from  windward  i t i s assumed  over  be  Quesnel  that  shadow o f t h e C o a s t  i n c h e s p e r y e a r , and  south  Since there  i t drains  Consequently  t h e West Road s u b - b a s i n i n the r a i n r e c e i v e s 15  like  s u b - b a s i n i n f e r e n c e s must  i s v e r y much g r e a t e r b e c a u s e  slope of Cariboo Mountains.  like  Plateau ( c f . Bra-  t h e West Road e x c e e d s  100  no  m o u n t a i n o u s a r e a t o the  o f the F r a s e r  drawn f r o m Q u e s n e l .  the l a t t e r  The  that  Mountains  inches at  the  higher e l e v a t i o n s . The  general pattern  of annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n g amounts as t h e l a n d r i s e s abrupt  decrease  (the r a i n  as the c r e s t  shadow),  Mountain  Trench  range.  the Coast  (table  6)  to e a s t ,  o f the m o u n t a i n  f o l l o w e d by  the p l a t e a u to the next K i l d a l a Pass near  f r o m west  a slow  increase  Pass  illustrates  increasan  i s passed  eastward  Junction  the  then  range  A cross-section  t o Red  shows  point.  across  f r o m Kemanoi n the R o c k y  Table 6 C r o s s - s e c t i o n of E l e v a t i o n and Annual P r e c i p i t a t i o n Kemano-Kildala to Red P a i s J u n c t i o n Station  Altitude  Kemano-Kildala Tahtsa Lake West Vanderhoof P r i n c e George A l e z a Lake Barkerville McBride Red Pass J u n c t i o n  Annual Precipitation  5280 F t . 2830 2093 1800 2000 4180 2400 3475  117 I n . 75 14 21 36 40 20 26  In the northern h a l f o f the B a s i n the west s i d e o f the F r a s e r i s d r i e r than the southern h a l f .  the e a s t e r n s i d e ; the r e v e r s e i s true i n T h i s checkerboard  p a t t e r n o f maximum and  minimum annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s due to the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f high l a n d i n the B a s i n ; the Coast Mountains, f o r example, i n the southwest and the Cariboo  Mountains i n the n o r t h e a s t  c o i n c i d e with areas o f high p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  P r e c i p i t a t i o n on  the Nechako P l a t e a u exceeds that on the F r a s e r P l a t e a u where the Coast Mountains to the west reach 10,000 f e e t and r a i n shadow e f f e c t  i s more pronounced.  Some o f the anomalies i n the simple  concept  of increasing  p r e c i p i t a t i o n with i n c r e a s i n g e l e v a t i o n are due to the c h a r a c t e r of the landform.  Consider  the obvious  examples o f Ladner at  sea l e v e l on the windward s i d e of the Coast inches annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and L i l l o o e t on the opposite  Mountains, with 36  ( e l e v a t i o n 740 f e e t )  s i d e o f the mountains with only 13 inches;  s i m i l a r l y Stave Lake i n i t s exposed p o s i t i o n has 138 inches,  while ley in  the  has  higher  only  relation  general  92  but  inches.  The  northwest-southeast  topographic  are  b r e a k s i n the  broken,  grain of  the  a l s o because  into  the  plateau  the  h e r e as  drawn a c r o s s  the  west, p a r a l l e l  to  to  The  river.  the  At  the  Fraser River  of  pattern  i s not  Because o f as  deeply  amounts o f m o i s t u r e  effect  follows  f r o m the  east  ground  this  valley the  isohyets  bank to  Mountains, r a t h e r the r i s i n g  Skeena  entrenched  the and  there is  a i r comes t h r o u g h the  Fraser  Cariboo  the  p o i n t s where  simple  Plateau.  than to  the  parallel  the  east,  where the R o c k i e s e x c e e d 10,000 f e e t , o v e r c o m e s the more influence that  the  often end  of  o f entrenchment isohyets  the  case.  the  parallel  to  stream, a c r o s s of  the  river.  and  the  parallel  near L y t t o n . eastern  the  slopes  river,  i n t o the  plateau,  local  contours  as  Here  occurs  the  o f the  Coast  This reverses  t h e n downstream on  the  the east  at  the  drawn  western  the u s u a l  west  opposite  Mountains, the  downslopes  pattern  side, across  side of a  so  i s more  i s o h y e t s are  t h e n u p s t r e a m on  drawn u p s t r e a m , on  local  Fraser  anomalous a r e a  Cascade Mountains.  isohyets being river,  not  Another  Basin the  do  of  val-  station location  i t i s f a r t h e r south,  stations receive greater  the  landforms d i s r u p t s  province.  Nechako V a l l e y and  and  of  i s o h y e t a l p a t t e r n which  western mountains  fact  the  local  f o r example, where m o i s t  i n t o the  are  limitation  to b o t h m a j o r and  the  Gap  more p r o t e c t e d J o n e s L a k e a c r o s s  of  the  south-flowing  24 MEAN SEASONAL PRECIPITATION Prom the d i s c u s s i o n of areas with maximum, minimum and i n t e r m e d i a t e amounts of p r e c i p i t a t i o n based on the average of the recorded annual  t o t a l s we g a i n an o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of the  g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of p r e c i p i t a t i o n w i t h i n the Praser B a s i n a good estimate of the areas most l i k e l y to encounter  and  water  shortages, as w e l l as those best able to supply t h e i r needs'. Although  the mountainous areas g e n e r a l l y have the h e a v i e s t  p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  the v a l l e y bottoms the l i g h t e s t , not a l l  areas r e c e i v e t h e i r h e a v i e s t and the same p a r t of the  lightest precipitation  year.  In examining more c a r e f u l l y year v a r i o u s methods may  the f l u c t u a t i o n s d u r i n g the  be used to d i v i d e i t i n t o  seasons a c c o r d i n g to the purpose of such a seasons,  during  suitable  division—fire  p l a n t i n g or growing seasons would be u s e f u l d i v i s i o n s  f o r s p e c i a l study.  Seasons r e f e r r e d to h e r e i n are the con-  v e n t i o n a l ones i n which December, January winter, March, A p r i l and May,  and February  s p r i n g , June, J u l y and  summer, and September, October and November, autumn.  comprise  August, Mean  seasonal data has been d e r i v e d by combining the three monthly averages f o r each s t a t i o n as recorded the Climate o f B r i t i s h The  i n the 1955  e d i t i o n of  Columbia.  choice o f l i m i t s to r e p r e s e n t maximum and minimum  p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the seasonal a n a l y s i s i s a r b i t r a r y . the i s o h y e t s on the maps of seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n do  Since not  25 correspond s y s t e m a t i c a l l y with those on the annual map, i t i s not p o s s i b l e to simply quarter the annual l i m i t s of 50 and 15 inches to a r r i v e at amounts to be designated maximal and minimal i n each season.  The choice between the 10 and 15-inch  isohyets for maximum and between the 3 and 5-inoh f o r minimum has been i n f l u e n c e d to some extent by e f f o r t s to choose i n t e r v a l s which show up s i g n i f i c a n t p o r t i o n s of the Basin.  The  compromise(between these v a r i o u s f a c t o r s l e d to a choice of over 15 inches average p r e c i p i t a t i o n as a seasonal l i m i t f o r areas of maximum, and under 5 inches f o r areas of minimum, and 5 to 15 inches f o r intermediate areas.  Under these three cate-  gories c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be given to the p a r t i c u l a r regions which receive the s p e c i f i e d amounts f o r each of the four seasons. Areas of Maximum P r e c i p i t a t i o n (more than 15 inches w i t h i n a season) The areas of low p r e c i p i t a t i o n must draw t h e i r water supply from regions which are adequately provided f o r ; hence the miles of flumes used by a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s i n the A s h c r o f t r e g i o n .  But  the areas of maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n which can f u r n i s h such a supply vary somewhat from season to season. Table 7 Percentage of the Basin with Maximum P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n Various Seasons (maps 5 to 8) Seasonal Precipitation Spring Summer Autumn Winter 15-20" over 20 over 15 15-20 over 20 15-20 20-30 over 50" Percentage of Basin 1% 2% 4% 1% 4% 9% 4% 3%  STATION C Station numbe Total annual  Subdivision  prcciptation^63/^T^\ /  Number of / years of record  of the B a s i n  24Wir \ C l a s s of station Elevation above sea-level -496  MEAN SPRING PRECIPITATION IN INCHES  under 3"  7"  to 10"  3" to 5"  10" to 15"  5" to 7"  15" to 20" over 20 Note: Spring refers to March, April, May. 150  ZOO  On  t h e s p r i n g map  (5) t h e a r e a which  o f 15 i n c h e s i s e x t r e m e l y  limited.  maximum on t h e map o f a n n u a l the  southern  and the Cascade  Mountains  south  less  t h e maximal a r e a .on t h e a n n u a l  to  than  i t i n location By  the to  area  only  records  In general  the Coast  of this  10.9 i n c h e s  Mountains  and B a r k e r v i l l e  a r e a on t h e windward  similar  i n this  season.  Small p o r t i o n s o f  i n this  Because  season  i t i s assumed t h a t t h e C a r i b o o  o f the Basin)  (1%  o f the B a s i n ) . I n autumn  combination  a t 4180 f e e t  s l o p e o f the mountains  o f over  15 i n c h e s  than  s p r i n g a n d summer maps. i s surprisingly  i n the c o a s t a l  t h e Coast  little  difference  area  Mountains  occurs over  o f maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n In the i n t e r i o r  15  o f the general  have a l a r g e r  (map 7) maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n  o f the areas  exceed  i n the i n t e r i o r o f  i n c o n t r a s t to a general decrease  (3%  Actually  ( S t a v e L a k e , 15.2 i n c h e s ) a l s o  of precipitation  the B a s i n  figures  map a l t h o u g h  i t i n c l u d e s the areas  i n t h i s q u a r t e r o f the year.  increase  there  i s considerably  between B l u e R i v e r and Dome C r e e k .  i n c l u d e s no s t a t i o n s ,  t h e west  region,  area  and s h a p e .  Mountains.  4000 f e e t  inches  The t o t a l  summer (map 6) t h e main a r e a o f maximum i s f o u n d i n  the C a r i b o o over  i t i s centred i n  M o u n t a i n s and i n c l u d e s t h e  Fraser valley  o f the r i v e r .  average  L i k e the main a r e a o f  precipitation  p a r t o f the Coast  e a s t e r n p a r t o f the lower  e x c e e d s an  a  on t h e  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  between t h e a v e r a g e  f o r summer and autumn; t h e a r e a w i t h  precipitation  MEAN SUMMER PRECIPITATION IN  INCHES  under 5"  7" to  5  IO to 15"  11,  -.11  to 7  IO"  n  over 15  Note: Summer refers to June, July, August. •50  zoo  MAP 7 S T A T I O N CIRCLE Station n u m b e r Total annual  Subdivision  precipitcrt'ic<r^63/^T^\A^of  Number of /  496  trie B a s i n  \ C l a s s of  y e a r s of record  station Elevation above sea-level  MEAN AUTUMN PRECIPITATION IN INCHES under 3" -.11 ,  7 " to 10"  r-ll  10" to 15"  3 to 5 5 to 7  15" to 20" over 20"  ISO  200  Note*. Autumn refers to September, October, November.  27 over to  15  i n c h e s i n the  t h a t o f summer.  occurs  the  e x c e e d s 20 39.7  On  a r e a which inches.  the  inches  The  lower  and  maximum r e c o r d e d  The  15  exceed  found  i n the C o a s t The  the- B a s i n .  Areas  inches  area  i n autumn  for this  season  is  area  a s t r o n g resemblance  precipitation,  appears  that  to  encompassing p a r t  the  of  t h e main p o r t i o n o f  the  p a t t e r n common t o a l l  again  i n the w i n t e r  i n w i n t e r , but  Mountains j u s t t h a t e x c e e d s 15  U-shape a r o u n d  area r e c e i v i n g  problem areas  o f the a r e a s  will  be  assisted  precipitation.  20  (less  insight  into  totals  lower  are  Fraser  f o r m s an  almost  east rims  of  i n c r e a s e to over  30  than  the  autumn  precipitation  water  the a r e a s  map.  5 inches within a  precipitation.  which might p r e s e n t by  and  i n c h e s on  of minimal  i n d i s c u s s i o n of annual  tion  south  i s the  over  o f Minimum P r e c i p i t a t i o n Potential  i n c h e s here  season  R o c k y Moun-  the h i g h e s t  n o r t h o f the  the west,  A n o t i c e a b l e change  i n the  closed  inches  h i g h e s t r i d g e s o f t h e C o l u m b i a and  tains  continuous  difference  However, t h e l a r g e r  general northwest-southeast  8).  inches  Lake.  identical  valley.  seasonal d i s t r i b u t i o n s  valley.  where the main  C a s c a d e M o u n t a i n s and  Fraser The  coast  i n autumn b e a r s  a r e a o f maximum a n n u a l the Coast  Mountains i s almost  i n s p r i n g e x c e e d s 15  inches at Coquitlam  e x c e e d s 15  (map  Cariboo  Further  supply  were  season) dis-  defini-  problems  o f minimum  seasonal  MEAN WINTER PRECIPITATION IN  INCHES  I  under 3"  UZZJ  10" to 15"  i  3" to 5"  I  I  5" to 7"  mm  20" to 30'  !  7" to 10"  mm  over 30"  I  150  15" to 20'  Note: Winter refers to December, January, February. zoo  Table 8 Percentage  o f the B a s i n with Minimal P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n V a r i o u s Seasons Tmaps 5 to 87  Seasonal Precipi- tation Spring Summer Autumn Winter Under 3" 3-5" under 5" 3-5" under 5" 5-5" under 3" 5-5" Percentage o f Basin Area  20%  36%  5%  26%  Since s p r i n g i s the dry season  3%  18%  the areas o f minimum are  than f o r any other season,  t o t a l area o f the B a s i n .  5%  f o r the major p a r t o f the  B a s i n , on the map (5) f o r t h i s season more widespread  26%  occupying h a l f the  Prom the Rocky Mountain Trench to  south o f L y t t o n , the minimal  r e g i o n s f o l l o w the F r a s e r R i v e r ,  extending upstream along the main t r i b u t a r i e s and i n g e n e r a l over the adjacent plateaux to an e l e v a t i o n o f 4000 f e e t . d r i e s t p o r t i o n ( l e s s than 3 inches) i n c l u d e s entrenched south and east-west  The north-  v a l l e y s - the F r a s e r south o f Quesnel,  the San Jose, C h i l c o t i n , Thompson and N i c o l a as w e l l as a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f the Nechako and S t u a r t v a l l e y s .  In c o n t r a s t  to a scant 1.2 inches at Laluwissen Creek and Kamloops, the l e s s entrenched  p o r t i o n o f the F r a s e r between Quesnel and  P r i n c e George with s l i g h t l y over 3 inches separates the extremel y dry areas. In summer (map 6) the area r e c e i v i n g l e s s than 5 inches i s more c o n f i n e d than i n s p r i n g .  I t occurs on the main v a l l e y  f l o o r s from the F r a s e r near Quesnel  south, a l o n g the C h i l c o t i n ,  Bridge and headwaters of the L i l l o o e t , and on the Thompson and N i c o l a eastward of the B a s i n .  to the Monashee Mountains at the border  A second  l a r g e area i n the Nechako and S t u a r t  v a l l e y s - i n s p r i n g continuous with the area of minimum on the F r a s e r - also has between 3 and 5 inches of summer r a i n , does a very small s t r i p i n the Rocky Mountain Trench another  on the d e l t a at the mouth of the F r a s e r .  minimum of 1.7  as  and  From the  inches at Laluwissen Creek a narrow area with  l e s s than 3 inches f o l l o w s the F r a s e r south to H e l l ' s Gate and the Thompson and N i c o l a from L y t t o n east to Kamloops and Merritt. Autumn (map  7) shows an area of minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n  the same s i z e as that of the summer season.  No  longer does i t  occupy the upper Nechako b a s i n , but reaches as a  continuous  band from T a k l a Lake south to M e r r i t t — a g a i n the l o w - l y i n g centre of the B a s i n . again south of Quesnel ( A s h c r o f t , 1.7  Although  the area of extreme minimum i s  i n the l e e of the Coast  Mountains  inches) the area of l e s s than 3 inches i s not  continuous, but broken by r e g i o n s of 3.3  ( L i l l o o e t ) and  5.2  inches (Lytton) at p l a c e s a f f e c t e d by movements of a i r from the c o a s t .  The n o r t h e r n segment of extreme minimum  extends  northward from P a v i l i o n to Soda Creek, west to A l e x i s Creek and east to Lac l a Hache, while the southern s e c t i o n occupies  the  usual Merritt-Ashcroft-Kamloops crescent. Even i n the winter (map  8) an a p p r e c i a b l e area of  minimal  p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs along the main r i v e r s , and as i n other  30 seasons  i t is split  into  a n o r t h e r n and southern d i v i s i o n by-  h i g h e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n between Woodpecker (7.0 inches)  and  P r i n c e George (6.3 inches) i n the r e g i o n o p p o s i t e the Skeena Gap.  The n o r t h e r n Nechako-Stuart  approximately  4.5  Thompson r e g i o n we  area of minimum  averages  inches each winter while w i t h i n the F r a s e r f i n d again an area with l e s s than 3 inches  broken as i n autumn at L i l l o o e t and L y t t o n by 4.0 inches r e s p e c t i v e l y .  The  and  7.6  winter, however, produces a r e g i o n  of 3 to 5-inch p r e c i p i t a t i o n  a l o n g the San Jose R i v e r to Lac  l a Hache, where i n s p r i n g and  summer t o t a l s are l e s s than 3  inches. Areas of Intermediate P r e c i p i t a t i o n  L i k e the map  (5 to 15 inches w i t h i n a season)  of annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  each of the  season-  a l maps shows areas with i n t e r m e d i a t e amounts of p r e c i p i t a t i o n (5 to 15 inches) on the p l a t e a u s u r f a c e s .  Although  not dense-  l y populated many of these areas are used e x t e n s i v e l y by ranchers and l o g g e r s . Table 9 Percentage  o f B a s i n with Intermediate Amounts of P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n V a r i o u s Seasons (maps 5 to 8)  Seasonal Precipitation 5-7  Spring 7-10 10-15  Percentage of Basin 22% 16% area  3%  5-7  27%  Summer 7-10 10-15  21%  11%  5-7  33%  Autumn 7-10 10-15  U%  11%  Winter 5-7 7-10 10-15  28%  21%  12%  The area with i n t e r m e d i a t e amounts o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n s p r i n g i s smaller than d u r i n g any other season. mainly  I t covers  the e l e v a t e d r e g i o n s on the Nechako and F r a s e r  Plateaux,  hut d i f f e r s from the areas with the same range o f  p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the three other seasons i n extending  through  the Columbia Mountains where i n summer, autumn, and s p r i n g a d e f i n i t e area o f maximum appears.  I n c o n t r a s t to s p r i n g , the  intermediate p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n summer i s the l a r g e s t o f any season, c o v e r i n g mainly  the p l a t e a u areas but r e a c h i n g f a r t h e r  down on the v a l l e y s i d e s than i n s p r i n g . solid belt  I t consists of a  from the West Road sub-basin past P r i n c e George to  the e a s t e r n l i m i t s o f the B a s i n . The autumn p a t t e r n o f intermediate ranges bears  a strong  resemblance to that o f s p r i n g i n the southern h a l f o f the Basin.  On the p l a t e a u east o f the F r a s e r from Quesnel to be-  yond B a r k e r v i l l e a l a r g e r e g i o n spreads  n o r t h i n c l u d i n g the  s e c t i o n of the r i v e r from Woodpecker to i t s source.  The  l a r g e s t area o f land r e c e i v i n g intermediate p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n t h i s season extends from j u s t above the F r a s e r - C h i l c o t i n j u n c t i o n northward i n the l e e o f the Coast  Mountains a c r o s s  the headwaters o f the Nechako. Winter l i k e  summer produces a continuous  area i n c l u d i n g  most o f the Nechako P l a t e a u and the main areas o f the F r a s e r P l a t e a u , with the windward slopes o f the Columbia and Rocky Mountains.  As i n autumn and summer, the F r a s e r R i v e r from  32 Woodpecker to beyond McBride l i e s i n t h i s a r e a o f i n t e r mediate p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  i n c o n t r a s t to the minimal occurrence  i n a l l seasons a l o n g the r i v e r to the south. The i s o h y e t a l  p a t t e r n s f o r seasons bear a resemblance  to those f o r annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  The areas o f maximum  i n most seasons occupy the slopes o f the Coast and Cariboo Mountains, while the minimal areas l i e i n the entrenched valleys.  The p l a t e a u s u r f a c e s toward the s i d e s of the B a s i n ,  along with i s o l a t e d r a i s e d p o r t i o n s near the r i v e r s i n the center  , r e c e i v e between 5 and 15 i n c h e s i n each o f the  seasons.  These r e g i o n s are s u f f i c i e n t l y extensive that the  i n t e r m e d i a t e ranges o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n occupy from  two-fifths  to t w o - t h i r d s o f the B a s i n , depending on the season. T a b l e s and maps o f mean seasonal p r e c i p i t a t i o n some l i g h t on the temporal and a r e a l p i t a t i o n i n the B a s i n .  throw  distribution of preci-  The marine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t y p i c a l of  19 the  southwest Coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia  are r e p e a t e d on  the  windward slopes o f the Cariboo-Rocky Mountain complex- • •  (a f a c t l o n g r e c o g n i z e d i n f i e l d s other than c l i m a t o l o g y . ) The presence on these mountains o f some o f the c o a s t a l t r e e s i s evidence o f the reappearance o f the c o a s t a l  forest  character-  i s t i c s m o d i f i e d though they are because o f the d i s t a n c e from the  sea.  From the broader point o f view, one might say that  the  coastal  19  The terms marine and maritime used h e r e a f t e r r e f e r to those s p e c i f i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n t y p i c a l o f the southwest coast o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  maritime p r e c i p i t a t i o n b e l t  i n c l u d e s the moun-  t a i n o u s r e g i o n s o f the B a s i n and that the Praser Nechako Plateaux are merely  l a n d s u r f a c e s resembling  C e n t r a l P l a i n s o f North America  i n s o f a r as t h e i r  t a t i o n and g e n e r a l c l i m a t i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are Were the Peace R i v e r Gap  and  lower and wider,  the  precipiconcerned.  these p l a t e a u x  would i n f a c t be continuous with the c e n t r a l p l a i n s o f the c o n t i n e n t , c l i m a t i c a l l y , v e g e t a t i o n a l l y and ically.  physiograph-  CHAPTER  I I I MEAN ANNUAL AND SEASONAL  A large proportion falls and  and  a s snow i n t h e F r a s e r  latitude.  with  o f the t o t a l  flood fish  Basin  An u n d e r s t a n d i n g  SNOWFALL  annual  because  precipitation  of i t s elevation  o f many p r o b l e m s  control, hydro-electric production,  survival  i n the b a s i n  associated  irrigation  depends upon a k n o w l e d g e o f  snow c o n d i t i o n s . MEAN ANNUAL SNOWFALL  The closely  p a t t e r n o f the i s o l i n e s resembles  amounts v a r y Valley  from l e s s  from the s h o r t  annually  outside  5280 f e e t )  that  t h a n 15 i n c h e s  a division  before  may be°much h i g h e r  snowfalls  i n parts  i savailable.  areas  as those  will  be u s e d .  whose t o t a l  o f minimum have l e s s  distribution,  o f maximum, minimum and  amounts on a b a s i s s i m i l a r  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  mediate  indi-  o f 841.0 i n c h e s  any c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f s e a s o n a l  o f the t o p i c under  intermediate  areas  with  purposes o f d i s c u s s i n g the a r e a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f  snowfall,  defined  Fraser  a t Kemano-Kildala Pass ( e l e v a t i o n  t h e m o u n t a i n s f o r which no d a t a For  Mountains,  record  (map 9)  The a n n u a l  i n the lower  i n the Coast  (three-year)  the B a s i n there  snowfall  o f annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  t o o v e r 200 i n c h e s  cations  of  that  o f annual  to t h a t u s e d f o r  A r e a s o f maximum a r e  snowfall  e x c e e d s 100 i n c h e s ,  t h a n 40 i n c h e s ,  s n o w f a l l between 40 and 100 i n c h e s  and a r e a s per year.  of inter-  M E A N  A N N U A L  IN  S N O W F A L L  INCHES  under 20"  80 to 100"  20"to 40"  100" to 150"  40" to 60"  150" to 200'  60" to 80"  over 200" Note: Data from 1956 I50  too  Climate of British Columbia  35 Table  10  P r o p o r t i o n s o f t h e B a s i n r e c e i v i n g : v a r i o u s mean a n n u a l of Amount i n i n c h e s under 20" 20-40 Proportion of the B a s i n Area 1% The Coast  per  60-80  12%  25%  third  and C a r i b o o  plateau,  40-60  A%  highest  snow (map  Barkerville.  10).  Highest  that  high  snowfalls:  middle  the B r i d g e R i v e r section  just  high  north  inches  200 i n c h e s  areas  five  with  Praser v a l l e y ;  Fraser  areas  100 i n c h e s  o f snow two  f o r Tahtsa  f o r areas  be c o n s e r v a t i v e .  i s broken i n t o  Soda C r e e k , and the C h i l c o t i n valley  o f the  i n the C h i l c o t i n sub-  o f over  their  through  associated  t h e Thompson  valley  to P a v i l i o n  and  along  o f t h e same name; t h e  centered  a r o u n d W i l l i a m s L a k e and  centered  of less  segments  the N i c o l a t o M e r r i t t ; t h e  of Lytton  to the s e t t l e m e n t  o f the middle  entrenched  3%  i n each o f these  o f 2830 f e e t  the lower  from  over  e  t o A s h c r o f t and on a l o n g  Fraser  7%  21%  record of 4 6 2 l  s n o w f a l l may  a r e a o f minimum  f r o m Chase  records  the e s t i m a t e  i n f l u e n c e o f adjacent  heavy  Over 200"  a t A l t a Lake and 191.1 i n c h e s a t  The s h o r t - t e r m  suggests  of extremely  the  27%  150-200  M o u n t a i n s and b o r d e r i n g p o r t i o n s o f t h e  L a k e West a t an e l e v a t i o n  The  80-100 100-150  o f the B a s i n , which c o n s i s t s  r e g i o n s a r e 279.1 i n c h e s  basin  9T  f o r m s t h e a r e a o f maximum w i t h  annum ( t a b l e  amounts  than  on A l e x i s C r e e k .  40-inch  The  snowfall are not  extensive  (5% o f the B a s i n ) , though t h e i r p o p u l a t i o n  them r e l a t i v e l y important.  The  first  two  makes  areas o f minimum  s n o w f a l l mentioned h e r e — t h e lower F r a s e r V a l l e y and  Thompson-  N i c o l a r e g i o n — o f f e r an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison.  lower  Fraser mal  i s ah area of maximum t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n though m i n i -  s n o w f a l l , while  the Thompson-Nicola r e g i o n i s minimal f o r  both t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n and  snowfall.  Two-thirds of the Fraser B a s i n r e c e i v e s amounts lie  The  of snowfall  ( 4 0 to 60 inches)„  i n the c e n t r a l plateaux  intermediate  Most o f these areas  of the B a s i n where s t a t i o n s l i k e  Mamit at 3 3 0 0 f e e t r e c o r d only 4 3 ° 3 inches  of snow.  to the popular  with vast q u a n t i t i e  concept of a c o l d n o r t h l a n d  o f snow, the map  of annual s n o w f a l l emphasizes the broad  panses i n the Nechako and northern  Contrary  of the F r a s e r  S t u a r t s u b - b a s i n s — t h e two  ex-  most  s y s t e m — w i t h only moderate amounts of  snowo Map  10 i l l u s t r a t e s annual s n o w f a l l  from the p o i n t  view of the p r o p o r t i o n of annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n which as snow, i n c o n t r a s t to map  of  occurs  9 which d e a l t with a c t u a l amounts  of s n o w f a l l w i t h i n the B a s i n .  The  p r o p o r t i o n of the mean  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n f a l l i n g as snow i s of g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t to the c l i m a t o l o g i s t , a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t , f o r e s t e r , h y d r o l o g i s t and  others concerned with moisture supply  the Homathko R i v e r yet flows  taps  west, so man  i n the B a s i n .  As  the l e e s i d e of the Coast Mountains has  f o l l o w e d nature's p a t t e r n i n  d i v e r t i n g part of the Nechako westward to provide  hydro power.  M E A N  A N N U A L  S N O W F A L L  AS PERCENTAGE OF ANNUAL PRECIPITATION  —  under 5 %  20% to 30%  5% to 10%  30% to 4 0 %  10% to 20%  40% to 50%  czrj  over 50%  too  ISO  zoo  37  The  feasibility  of such  storage  o f water  out  year.  the  as  a d i v e r s i o n depends i n p a r t  snow to m a i n t a i n  Table Proportion  Percentage of Basin Area  1%  Areas of highest  receive with  Mountains which l i e s 48.6%  extensive in  4%  as  area  snowfall  than  i n the  snow, one  i n the  e x c e e d s 50%  only  A l t a Lake but  the  36.0%  the  and  Basin,  Bralorne  38.4%  that  of  only  of the  of  the  -  table  snow.  the  The  Coast  existence  of a  this  however, B i g C r e e k (3500 f e e t ) 38.6%  nearby  total  the h i g h e s t  as  2127  station  snow.  In  (3100 as  On  o f the  at  feet)  fairly wherethe feet)  snow.  f e e t averages  station  areas  region  i s thought  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n .  at  11)  B a r k e r v i l l e (4180  m o u n t a i n s above  five-year-old station  only  seems l i k e l y  assumes the  o f the  long-term record  indicates  Since  as  9%  Cariboo  Mountains  i n the p a r t  Basin.  higher  southwest p o r t i o n o f the records  that  and  Basin  precipitation Cariboo  over 50%  35%  Coast the  Annual  40-30%:  49%  one-tenth of  i n the  the  30-40%  e l e v a t i o n i n the  proportion  more e x t e n s i v e  records  1%  upwards o f h a l f t h e i r  this high  to be  20-30%  (approximately  through-  11  10-20%  1%  the  o f water  of Basin r e c e i v i n g various parts of P r e c i p i t a t i o n as Snow (map 10)  Proportion of p r e c i p i tation occurring Less as snow than 5% 5-10%  Mountains  a supply  on  2100  At 46.8%  feet  this basis i t Coast  Mountains  within the  the  Basin  drainage  tion  as  (2830  area  snow.  feet),  Kleena  feet,  where  very  greater  average  Farther where  Kleene  (5280  but  72.1%) high  more  north  62.5%  (2950  areas  is  feet,  than  snow,  the  proportions  for  and and  the  mountains their  Tahtsa  for  such  beyond  precipitaLake  indicate  annual  West  stations  Kemano-Kildala  Basin,  of  the  50% o f  records  45.5%)  beyond  in  as  Pass  another  total  region  occur  as  snow. The tation and  lower  as  r a i n f a l l  protection  ior.  Only  snow,  the  area  of  Basin,  40%  10%  lowest  its  low  the of  in  form.  melting  assists  in  of  meeting  MEAN  An (maps  11  examination to  20)  of  as  half of  the  SEASONAL  some  of  provincial  the  Basin  the  water  2%  a  the  further  demands  as  Though the  when of  this  whole  population. 30  third the  east-west  spring  inter-  receives  encompass and  location,  f a l l s  the  while  the-seasonal  indicates  of  Basin.  some  regions  in  precipi-  maritime  Fraser  north-south snow  its  influences  only  snow,  These  along  the  half  of  precipitation  occupies  central  areas  i n  affect  most  elevation,  annual  proportion  this  The  of  the  here  records  continental  precipitation  concave  valleys. is  to  low-lying  50%  arid  because  from  conditions  of to  5  valley  minimum s n o w f a l l  The  40  Fraser  to gets  semitrending  precipitation  these  dry  areas.  SNOWFALL  occurrence  patterns  which  of  snowfall  contrast  with  those o f the mean annual  distribution,,  of d i s t r i b u t i o n by seasons,  In the d e s c r i p t i o n  three aspects o f s n o w f a l l are  c o n s i d e r e d f o r each, absolute amount, p r o p o r t i o n o f annual s n o w f a l l i n a g i v e n season,  and p r o p o r t i o n o f s e a s o n a l p r e -  c i p i t a t i o n which occurs as snow, S p r i n g Snowfall (Maps 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 ) The map o f s p r i n g s n o w f a l l (map 1 1 ) d i f f e r s from most maps of t h i s study i n that the area o f maximum (over 4 0 inches) i s c o n f i n e d to the Cariboo Mountains.  Barkerville i s typical  of t h i s area ( 4 % o f the B a s i n - t a b l e 1 2 ) with 5 2 . 5 snow i n the s p r i n g .  The maximum o f 9 9 . 9  inches o f  inches at Tahtsa  Lake West (based on only a f o u r - y e a r average) on the boundary of the B a s i n probably  i n d i c a t e s the edge o f a more e x t e n s i v e  area o f maximum which l i e s beyond the B a s i n .  The Coast  Mountains i n the south appear to r e c e i v e l i t t l e inches ( A l t a Lake, a long-term  station,  2 9 o 5  more.than 3 0  inches).  Table 1 2 P r o p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s amounts o f snow i n s p r i n g (map l T J Amount i n inches Proportion of B a s i n area  less than  5 "  7%  5 - 1 0 "  1 6 %  1 0 - 2 0 "  37%  2 0 - 5 0 "  2 6 %  3 0 - 4 0 "  1 0 %  over  4 0 "  4%  Less than 5 inches o f s n o w f a l l i s recorded i n the lower Praser v a l l e y (minimum 1 . 1 inches at Sea I s l a n d ) and below the  M E A N  S P R I N G IN  S N O W F A L L  I N C H E S  under 5" •i  11  5 to 10 10"to20"  I  I  20" to 30"  f  I  30" to 40"  I  1  40" to 50"  over 50"  50  too  ISO  tOO  Note: Spring refers to March, April, May.  2000-foot  level  along  the F r a s e r  Q u e s n e l and M a b e l L a k e . appears  that  inches. and  and  data  availablei t  Canyon r e c e i v e s s l i g h t l y  over 5  H e l l ' s G a t e and N o r t h Bend have o n l y  five-year records  reveal  From t h e l i m i t e d  the F r a s e r  Since  and Thompson R i v e r s t o  an a v e r a g e  thus i n c l u d e  r e s p e c t i v e l y , a longer  of less this  than  region  5 inches  record  might  o f snow i n t h e s p r i n g  i n the areas  Table  four-  o f minimum.  15  P r o p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n t h a t r e c e i v e s v a r i o u s p e r c e n t a g e s o f a n n u a l s n o w f a l l i n s p r i n g T m a p 12) Percent of a n n u a l snow in spring Proportion of the Basin area The  less than 5%  5-10%  10-15%  3%  12%  14%  Cariboo  proportion  spring  (map 12) t h a n any o t h e r  in  i n this  than  thence northwest  5%) c e n t r e  on  the I n t e r i o r  in  the s p r i n g  almost Plateau  4%  1%  with  snow i n t h e  Here o v e r  around L i l l o o e t ,  to A s h c r o f t .  a  the s m a l l e s t  Gunn L a k e ,  south  a  quarter proportion  west t o  to L y t t o n and  The h a l f o f the B a s i n  a v e r a g e s 15 t o 20% o f t h e a n n u a l  snow  season.  Data concerning tation  annual  region.  The a r e a s  P e m b e r t o n Meadows and L i t t l e  24%  5% o f t h e B a s i n — r e c e i v e  ( t a b l e 13) o f t h e i r  season.  spring (less  42%  Mountains—about  higher  falls  15-20% 20-25% 25-30% o v e r 5 0 %  which f a l l s  the part  o f each  season's t o t a l  precipi-  i n t h e f o r m o f snow ( t a b l e 14) g i v e s  some  S P R I N G  S N O W F A L L  AS PERCENTAGE OF MEAN ANNUAL SNOWFALL  under 5 %  15% to 2 0 %  5 % to 10% 10% to 15%  2 0 % to 2 5 % 2 5 % to 3 0 % Zl  over 30% N o t e Spring refers t o March, April, May. ISO  zoo  41  i d e a o f the be  present  l e n g t h o f time before  percolates important  into  the m o i s t u r e  i t either  the  i n areas  soil.  runs  supply  is likely  o f f , i s evaporated,  This storage  where a g r i c u l t u r e  factor  to  or  is particularly  depends upon a  gradual  run-off.  Table Proportion  o f B a s i n i n w h i c h v a r i o u s p e r c e n t a g e s o f the p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r as snow (map 13)  Percent of spring precipitation as snow  less than 10%  Proportion o f the Basin area The portion  in  10-13%  6%  striking (45%)  moisture  14  as  12%  20-25%  11%  f e a t u r e o f map  13  The  the n o r t h e r n h a l f falls  o f the B a s i n . as  snow i n the  Thompson R i v e r s to Vavenby and  population  Summer On Lake  Anderson Lake.  a large  of i t s spring  10%  a r e a from  and  and  30%  Under  the r i v e r  River  almost  45%  i s t h a t above 2500  v a l l e y up North  14%  i s t h a t such  area concerned  over 50%  25-30%  12%  o f the B a s i n r e c e i v e s over  snow.  precipitation  15-20%  spring  feet  o f the s p r i n g the  t o W i l l i a m s L a k e , up along  lower the  the  T h i s a r e a encompasses  Fraser  Thompson Bridge  the  major  c e n t e r s o f the F r a s e r B a s i n .  Snowfall the b a s i s of  (3750 f e e t ) ,  .6  the  averages  of  .1  inches at  inches at B a r k e r v i l l e  (4180  Knouff feet),  and  M A P  13  STATION CIRCLE Station numb*i |Total annual Subdivision precipitation^ ^(g^f^ °* ^  '  n  Number of / A9S \C\ass of | years of record station Elevation above  S P R I N G  S N O W F A L L  AS PERCENTAGE OF SPRING PRECIPITATION  under 10%  2 0 % to 25 %  10% to 15 %  2 5 % to 3 0 %  15% to 2 0 %  over 3 0 % Note= Spring refers to March, April, May. ISO  too  traces  at B r a l o r n e  (2990 f e e t ) , feet)  and  quarter The  Dog  annual  Lake  feet),  (3100  Fort  i t may  occur  r e c o r d no  at higher  amounts r e c o r d e d  snowfall.  The  centre  3000 f e e t on  A third occurs  as  the  snow a t  interesting  short  shows 4%  that  feet),  the  Fraser  the  Basin  elevations.  record of  Again  the  the  of  the  of Kemano-Kildala Pass annual  of  the  record  i n the  three  snowfall within  i n summer the  summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n  of Kemano-Kildala Pass i s years  summer p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s r e c o r d e d f o r m i n the  as  studied*18%  of  the  s n o w ' — t w i c e as much  lower F r a s e r  v a l l e y during  as  the  winter.  Autumn S n o w f a l l In greater of  the  (maps 14,  autumn as snowfall data  15,  in spring t h a n do  the  16)  the  rim,  elevation,  Basin.  i n that  comes i n t h i s  summer  i n summer f o r m l e s s t h a n 1%  to a h a l f o f 1%  snow.  of  a  summer.  (3300  or near  i n d i c a t e a s i m i l a r scattered occurrence  boundaries of  the  shows no  Mamit L a k e  (2280  t h a t up--to  some snow d u r i n g  a l l i n the  above  feet), Bullion  S t . James  i t i s assumed  (3900 f e e t ) ,  (3370 f e e t ) ,  (5280 f e e t ) w h i c h may  receives  central portions  The  (1862  (2900 f e e t ) ,  Snow o c c u r s  although  B i g Creek  s t a t i o n s whose a v e r a g e r e c o r d  Creek  the  George  Basin  Vidette  Plateau. but  the  high  snow a r e and  Prince  Wistaria  of  only  (3500 f e e t ) ,  Cariboo  Coast  f o r B a r k e r v i l l e (43.1  M o u n t a i n s show a  Mountains.  On  the  i n c h e s ) , B i g Creek  basis (10,1  inches)  and  Bralorne  in  the C a r i b o o  40  inches, while  only  20  area  (20.1 (3%  those  inches)  of  i t i s assumed  that  totals  the B a s i n - t a b l e 15)  will  exceed  i n the  Coast  Mountains w i l l  inches.  Table  15  Proportion  o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s amounts o f A u t u m n ( m a p 14)  Amount incliss  Less thsri 5"  5-10"  10-20"  5%  17%  A2%  in  Proportion of Basin area Again fall  i n autumn as  i s i n the  along  the  lower  lower  levels  area  the  spring, extending  The  (North  3%  a r e a o f minimum  (l.O inches  F r a s e r and  stopping  to Dog  short of  Bend, 3.2  receive  Fraser  and  in this  spring,  Nechako P l a t e a u x 40  inches of  o f the B a s i n  i n t e r m e d i a t e range  e v e n to  amount i n Bay  the C h i l c o t i n  on  entirely.  5 inches 5-inch  in  range  ( t w o - t h i r d s o f the  snow i n the  e l e v a t i o n s between p l a t e a u x  further quarter  Basin  valleys.  Eagle  the m i n i m a l under  and  inches).  between 5 and  transitional  into  snow-  at Ladner)  Thompson  C r e e k and  the  40"  over  t h a t which r e c e i v e s t h i s  only  i n autumn f a l l s  The  (a  and  snow i n  7%  F r a s e r Canyon, however, w h i c h r e c o r d s o v e r  spring,  the  o f the  30-40"  26%  i n s p r i n g the  i s smaller than  rivers,  20-50"  Fraser valley  The  these  exceed  the  distribution  area). i s very  The  autumn, as  and  do  mountains  proportion of  similar  within this  Basin)  to  range  the'  that i n i n each  MAP 14 STATION CIRCLE Station number Total annual Subdivision prcciptatico^63/^\A-^of the Basin Number of / 496 \Class of years of record sfaiion Elevation above sea-I eve I  MEAN AUTUMN SNOWFALL IN INCHES  under 5"  20 to 30  5"to 10"  30" to 40'  10" to 20"  over 40"  ISO  zoo  Note: Autumn refers to September, October, November.  season*  The  than  other, c h i e f l y  any  10  to 20-inch  r a n g e encompasses l a r g e r  on  M o u n t a i n s and  the h i g h  m o u n t a i n s and  the p l a t e a u x  the  transitional  less than 5%  5-10%  1%  2%  Proportion of the Basin area  occurs the  the Coast  of  deeply  little.  the  area  in  22.0%  west o f  i o n s have east  o f the  compared  11%  annual  in spring.  over 50%  25-30%  41%  Now  3%  snowfall triple  the a r e a  of  whereas i n s p r i n g i t  I t i s reduced  i n size  was  from  3%  of  the  fall.  c o n f i g u r a t i o n o f the  t o 14.3%  20-25%  of  i n the l e e o f t h e h i g h e s t p o r t i o n  B r a l o r n e r e c e i v e s 20.8%  receives  0  T h i s a r e a o f maximum i s  autumn maps i s s i m i l a r ,  autumn compared  the  area  Mountains.  general  s p r i n g and  the  16).  30%  Fraser Valley,  i n s p r i n g t o 1% In  on  lower  15-20%  32%  Mountains over  entrenched  the C o a s t  Basin  10-15%  o f the comparable  minimum i s the the  these  16  10%  i n autumn ( t a b l e  size  a r e a s between  Coast  o f the B a s i n t h a t r e c e i v e s v a r i o u s p e r c e n t a g e s a n n u a l s n o w f a l l i n autumn (map 15)  Percent of a n n u a l snow i n autumn  In  s l o p e s o f the  west o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r  Table Proportion  leeward  regions  isolines  though the  spring, while  t o 26.9%  in spring.  the F r a s e r R i v e r  a 5% h i g h e r v a l u e  the  i n autumn t h a n  the r e v e r s e i s t r u e .  a  snow i n the Barkerville  In broad  isolines  the  amounts v a r y  of i t s annual  i n the  for  terms  at higher e l e v a t -  s p r i n g , while  to  A U T U M N  S N O W F A L L  AS PERCENTAGE OF MEAN ANNUAL SNOWFALL under 5%  15% to 20%  5% to 10%  20% to 25 %  10% to 15%  over 2 5 %  Note: Autumn refers to September, October, November. so  too  iso  too  45 Table  17  P r o p o r t i o n s o f B a s i n i n which v a r i o u s p e r c e n t a g e s o f the autumn p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r as snow Xmap 16) Proportion o f autumn precipitation as snow  less than 10%  Proportion of B a s i n . On map  10-15% 15-20% 20-25% 25-30%  7%  5%  8%  16 t h e r e s e m b l a n c e  12%  i s n o t i c e a b l e ; t h e dominant  split.  In the n o r t h e r n t w o - t h i r d s  3 7 % comes  i n this  the p r o p o r t i o n s r a n g e .from  o f the B a s i n over  form.  less  through  the lower  Fraser valley  farther  back from  the r i v e r  Winter  Snowfall  In  winter  falls  than  10% a l o n g  north  in are  the r i v e r  (maps 17, 18, 19) t h e m o u n t a i n s on b o t h  the east  maximum i n t h e C a r i b o o than  18 as e x c e e d i n g  on t h e f o u r - y e a r a v e r a g e  so much h i g h e r  Mountains,  be a The  little small  150 i n c h e s o f snow i s Lake  t o d e f i n e an a r e a o f maximum  i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e to w i n t e r  than  sides  though the a r e a  o f 287 i n c h e s a t T a h t s a  The q u a n t i t y o f snow u s e d  s p r i n g and autumn  and west  and R o c k y M o u n t a i n s may  t h a t i n the Coast  shown i n t a b l e  West.  section  i n t h e same r e g i o n s , ,  of  based  At  t o Dog c r e e k up t o 25%  t h e B a s i n r e c e i v e l a r g e amounts o f snow,  area  25%  as snow.  I n the s o u t h e r n  of  more e x t e n s i v e  of this  f e a t u r e i s the n o r t h - s o u t h  17) o f t h e autumn p r e c i p i t a t i o n  Barkerville  24%  t o t h e s p r i n g map  series  (table  44%  over 30%  i n the other  seasons.  where  Indeed  figures the use  A U T U M N  S N O W F A L L  AS PERCENTAGE OF AUTUMN PRECIPITATION under 10%  [  I  2 0 % to 25 %  10% to 15%  I  I  25 % to 3 0 %  15% to 2 0 %  ••ED  over 3 0 %  Note: Autumn refers to September, October, November.  46 Table Proportion Amount inches  o f the Basin r e c e i v i n g v a r i o u s i n winter (map 177  in  Less than 20"  1%  o f 40 i n c h e s  as a l o w e r  this of  14%  36%  85% o f the Basin assumption  this  24%  limit  i n areas  i s perhaps true  the major p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n Hence f o r t h i s  upper l i m i t more w i l l On on  f o r areas  designate  this basis  the slopes  the  snowfall  minimum ( l e s s lower F r a s e r most as  i n a broad  in the  areas  While  the purpose which..exceed  quantity  v  and C a r i b o o  does n o t r e a c h  and on t h e v a l l e y tributaries  triangle  would  o f winter  will  be u s e d as an  and 100 i n c h e s o r  o f maximum l i e above 5000  t h a n 40 i n c h e s )  o f the major  out those  mountains,  i n the c e n t r a l p l a t e a u x  f o r winter  1%  o f maximum.  the areas  levels  i n one r e s p e c t ,  s e a s o n 40 i n c h e s  an a r e a  11%  o f maximum f o r w i n t e r .  o f minimum s n o w f a l l ,  o f the Coast  even a t h i g h e r  13%  f o r maximum s n o w f a l l  d i s c u s s i o n i s to p o i n t  snowfall.  amounts o f snow  over 20-40" 40-60" 60-80" 80-100" 100-150" 100"  Proportion of Basin area  place  18  between  although  o f the Basin  100 i n c h e s .  l i e i n the g r e a t e r floor  Areas o f  part  o f the  o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r and  as f a r n o r t h  as Quesnel, as w e l l  t h e Nechako and S t u a r t  and  the southern  end o f the Rocky Mountain T r e n c h .  the  lower F r a s e r  valley  and i n s m a l l  feet  strips  along  Rivers  Only i n the r i v e r  M E A N  W I N T E R  S N O W F A L L  IN INCHES  under 30  50 to 70"  30"to 40"  70" to 100"  40"to 50"  over 100" Note Winter refers to December, January, February. :  150  too  bed  near  Laluwissen  does the maining fall  winter 73%  lies  a r e a on Rivers  produce  on  from  the r a i s e d  which  than  entrenched ly  less.  The  in  the w i n t e r  3%  (less  i n this  Proportion of Basin area  is  i n the  in fact  centages  of  than  limited  less than 50%  50-60%  10%  30%  Coast  and  and  almost  no  Nechako  a percentage  series  low  levels  annual  the B a s i n  (table  19),  50%  i n winter)  of  the  snow  while  covers  10%  70-80%  44%  to  occurs the  of  the  19  60-70%  13%  Mountains. the  on  annual  3% T h i s seeming fact  s n o w f a l l i n the  to w i n t e r ,  of  over 80%  t h a t the  total precipitation,  t h a t whereas t h e entirely  of  o f maps s i n c e  o f the  Cariboo  relation  re-  unbroken  and  80%  l o g i c a l i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  bear  snowfall,  largest  o f Basin that r e c e i v e s v a r i o u s percentages s n o w f a l l i n w i n t e r (map 18)  Percent of a n n u a l snow i n winter  Basin  The  t h e h i g h g r o u n d shows p r o p o r t i o n a t e -  'Table Proportion  the  s n o w f a l l as  a r e a i n which over  a r e a o f minimum  with  as m a x i m a l i s i n t h e  while  covers  snow.  to the F r a s e r R i v e r .  shows w i n t e r  valleys,  inches of  between the C h i l c o t i n  Mountains  appears  20  junction  i n t e r m e d i a t e amounts o f snow-  s n o w f a l l , l o o k s odd  the a r e a which  Thompson-Nicola  plateaux,  appearing  the C o a s t  18,  the a n n u a l  less  the  o f the B a s i n w i t h  the map  Map  G r e e k and  but  lower  the h i g h e r  anomaly per-  only  to  areas  is  levels  it is  • H I  50%to 60%  I  70% to 80%  over 80%  2£  a  SO  i  too  i  150 i  Note: Winter refers to December, January, February, ZOO  >  48 s p r e a d more e v e n l y tween 50  and  70%  through  o f the  autumn, w i n t e r  total  snow f a l l s  almost  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the B a s i n — a n  of  intermediate l e v e l s  the  the l a r g e s t  continuous  West Road, Nechako. and A first cerned as  with  glance  in  the p e r c e n t  of and  90%  l a r g e part of  The  The  entire  the Nechako and  lower F r a s e r v a l l e y ,  Percentage of B a s i n  less than  10%  2%  warmest and  10-15  15-20  1%  1%  logically  that  occurs  i s snow  r e g i o n from with  the  Stuart River fall  Of  the r e m a i n i n g  than  the exception basins  into  this  enough, i s the  20 winter  over  20-25 25-50 50-50 50-70 70-90 90% 1%  t h e r e f o r e the r a i n i e s t  2% o f the B a s i n g e t s l e s s snow.  (19) c o n -  o f B a s i n i n w h i c h v a r i o u s p e r c e n t a g e s o f the p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r as snow (map 197  Proportion of winter precipitation as snow  with  i n the  precipitation  areas northward,  Table Proportion  chiefly  o f the major p a t t e r n i n  a s m a l l a r e a i n the R o c k y M o u n t a i n T r e n c h ,  range.  as  appearing  o f the w i n t e r  Thompson d r a i n a g e  a fairly  in  t h e main p l a t e a u x  precipitation  impression  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f the B a s i n . and  composed  t a b l e (20) o r map  the  of winter  snow p r o v i d e s a c l e a r  Bridge  Be-  Stuart River basins,  at e i t h e r  the F r a s e r B a s i n — o v e r  t h e map  spring.  i n the w i n t e r  area  w h i c h make up  r e g i o n on  and  10%  1%  2%  3%  a r e a i n the B a s i n . of i t s winter  15% Only  74% this  precipitation  q u a r t e r o f the B a s i n w i t h  inter-  M A P  19  S T A T I O N CIRCLE Station  number  "Total annual  Subdivision  precipitaticx^63/^TN  Number of / y e a r s of record  of the B a s i n  496  \ C l a s s of stat\or\ Elevation above sea-I eve I  W I N T E R  S N O W F A L L  AS PERCENTAGE OF WINTER PRECIPITATION under 10%  2 5 % to 3 0 %  10% to 15%  3 0 % to 5 0 %  15% to 2 0 %  5 0 % to 70 %  2 0 % to 2 5 %  7 0 % to 9 0 % over 9 0 %  25  ISO  200  Note: Winter refers to December, January, February.  49 mediate p r o p o r t i o n s ,  the N e c h a k o - S t u a r t r e g i o n  part  o f the drainage  area  90%,  while  bottom o f the F r a s e r  the  Bridge  exceed  the r i v e r River,  Ratio  the B r i d g e  i n c e r t a i n areas  each  in  o f the  snowfall  i t became  more  snow i n s p r i n g  f r o m most o f t h e B a s i n .  The r e s u l t i n g  apparent  A  quotient  the average o f s p r i n g i s on map  20 and  the l e e o f t h e C o a s t M o u n t a i n s and on t h e h i g h  ground  the i n t e r i o r  there  while  areas  exposed d i r e c t l y  areas  sufficiently  greater  i s more  data  the r e v e r s e  snow i n t h e s p r i n g t h a n i n t h e  i s true  elevated  at higher  t o be s i m i l a r l y  snowfall The  e x p o s e d , have a where  q u i c k l y i n the f a l l  t h e warmer m a r i t i m e a i r  Thus an e x c e s s o f autumn o v e r  i s an i n l a n d o r c o n t i n e n t a l snowfall  The  interior  The i n t e r i o r ,  i s cooled  a i r moving under levels.  i n the B a s i n .  a i r or those  s p r i n g t h a n autumn s n o w f a l l . .  cold northern  found  elsewhere  to maritime  autumn e x c e e d s s p r i n g s n o w f a l l ,  the  barely  snowfall  stations recorded  f o r autumn.  fall,  by  plain  as  Appendix I I D . In  of  and t h e L i l l o o e t  s t a t i o n was d e r i v e d by d i v i d i n g  snow by t h a t  as f a r n o r t h  o f the a l l u v i a l  t h e work on s e a s o n a l  t h a n autumn - t h e r e v e r s e for  itself,  approach:' .  valley.  o f s p r i n g t o autumn During  that  o f t h e Thompson R i v e r s  the m i n i m a l p r o p o r t i o n s  lower F r a s e r  a n d a good  spring  characteristic.  o f the B a s i n v a r i e s from over  e l e v a t e d r i m t o between 60 and 100 i n c h e s  100 i n c h e s  annually  on  on t h e  MAP 2 0 STATION  CIRCLE  Station n u m b e r Total annual  Subdivision  preciprtation^ 6 3 / ' T N  of the B a s i n  Number of / years of record  496  \ C l a s s of station Elevation above sea-I eve I  COMPARISON OF PROPORTION OF MEAN ANNUAL SNOW FALLING IN SPRING AND AUTUMN SPRING- Area in which a greater percentage of annual snowfall occurs in the spring than in the autumn. AUTUMN  :  Area in which a greater percentage of annual snowfall occurs in the autumn than in the spring.  *50  ZOO  Note i Spring refers to March, April. May. Autumn refers to September, October, November.  p l a t e a u x , while the minimum occurs i n the lower The  F r a s e r valley„  s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t i n the s n o w f a l l f i g u r e s comes not  s t r a i g h t annual  from  amounts, however, hut from the v a r i a t i o n i n  the p r o p o r t i o n of annual  p r e c i p i t a t i o n which occurs as snow.  Since the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the snow data i n most a p p l i c a t i o n s i s r e l a t e d to water storage the p r o p o r t i o n data i s probably of most interest.,  I t i s s t r i k i n g a l s o to note  between the minor s i g n i f i c a n c e o f a few  the c o n t r a s t  inches o f snow i n the  lower  F r a s e r v a l l e y , where p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s f a i r l y h i g h , com-  pared  to the value of a s i m i l a r q u a n t i t y on the p l a t e a u where  t h i s might r e p r e s e n t the major p a r t of annual  precipitation,,  CHAPTER IV  SEASONAL PROPORTION OP  Knowledge o f t h e mum  occurrence  Any  planning  be  first  these  in this  cipitation  place  i s e s s e n t i a l i n an  f o r the  done w i t h  t i m e and  utilization  to t h e  which o c c u r s  for  various  for  the  Finally  precipitation.  Consideration of  the  will  annual  t h e n to  the  a map  (29)  combining  and  dry  be  given  pre-  recorded infor-  minima forms the  i n w h i c h wet  must  seasons  minimum amounts a r e  t i m e s o f maxima and  a d i s c u s s i o n of regions  mini-  water r e s o u r c e  i n each season,  months i n w h i c h maximum and  mation concerning  of  proportion  and  regions.  o f maximum and  a n a l y s i s of  f a c t s i n mind.  chapter  PRECIPITATION  basis  periods  coin-  cide.  PERCENTAGE OF  Spring  (Map  The  that  s p r i n g i s the  Nowhere does more t h a n 25%  Basin  this has  portion regions, River.  SEASON  21)  d i s c u s s i o n of a c t u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n  indicated  during  ANNUAL TOTAL BY  20  season to  occurs and  on  o f the  ( t a b l e 21),  25% on  driest  i n the  higher  seasons  Fraser  Basin.  total  precipitation  occur  although  t w o - f i f t h s of  the  (maximum i s J o n e s L a k e ' s 2 4 . 1 % ) .  the  the  season  i n various  plateaux,  coastal plain  at  i n the  the  This  pro-  mountainous  mouth o f  the  Fraser  7i  S P R I N G  AS  / ^ ^ f ± j f ^ _  P R E C I P I T A T I O N  PERCENT OF  under  f£//*~y  MEAN  ANNUAL  15%  15% over  to 2 0 %  20%  Note: Spring refers to 25  O  ISO  too  March, April, May.  52  Table Proportion  21  o f the B a s i n t h a t r e c e i v e s g i v e n percentages a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n s p r i n g (map 21)  of  i,  Percentage o f annual precipitation in spring.  l e s s than 15%  Proportion of Basin area  6%  small part  55%  The  very  15%  o f i t s annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  regions  along  Bridge,  Chilcotin  in  of the Basin  the v a l l e y  alignment, the B a s i n trend.  which  The extreme minimum  dry areas,  plateau of  the r i v e r v a l l e y s  throughout  their  moisture  Steveston  Summer(Map Over  the  i n spring. the three  appears at L i t t l e  where 1 2 . 1 % o f t h e a n n u a l Apart  and t h e a d j a c e n t  the B a s i n n o r t h  patterns i n  northwest-southeast  regions  season.  from  these  reaches  of  o f L y t t o n r e c e i v e 15 t o 2 0 %  In c o n t r a s t littoral  and S e a I s l a n d a l s o r e c o r d  to the r e s t  o f the  s t a t i o n s at Ladner,  less  than  20% i n s p r i n g .  22) the I n t e r i o r  the i s o l i n e annual  for this  Lake  have an e a s t - w e s t  from p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n these  upper  and a r o u n d F r a n c o i s  These areas  River valley  i s recorded  lower F r a s e r v a l l e y ,  in  basin.  than  i n scattered  b o t t o m s o f t h e Thompson,  where t h e main e m p h a s i s i s on a  precipitation two  i n spring lies  i s a departure  Gunn L a k e i n t h e B r i d g e  41%  which r e c e i v e s l e s s  and San J o s e R i v e r s  t h e Nechako d r a i n a g e  over 20%  15-20%  Plateau  there  p a t t e r n o f summer  distribution  i s a striking contrast  precipitation  o f maximum and minimum  compared t o values.  S U M M E R  PRECIPITATION  AS PERCENT OF MEAN ANNUAL  under 10%  20% to 25%  10% to 15%  25% to 3 0 %  15% to 20%  30% to 35% over 35%  150  ZOO  Note s Summer refers to June, July, August.  Table  22  P r o p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n that r e c e i v e s g i v e n percentages o f the a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n summer~T5iap 2 2 j Percentage of annual precipitation i n summer  Less than 10%  Proportion of Basin area The  7%  2%  WNW-ESE a l i g n m e n t  t h i s map i s u n u s u a l .  5% found  9%  Alkali  23%  7%  i n t h e i n t e r i o r r e g i o n on  portion  o f the B a s i n which  35% o f i t s a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n  highest  47%  The a r e a o f maximum p e r c e n t a g e f o r  summer i s t h e l o w c e n t r a l over  over 55%  10-15% 15-20% 20-25% 25-30% 50-35%  i n this  season.  receives The  p e r c e n t a g e s occur a l o n g the C h i l c o t i n R i v e r p a s t Lake  (44.4%) e a s t w a r d  t o Canim L a k e .  That  almost  t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e B a s i n h a s b e t w e e n 20 a n d 3 5 % o f t h e annual Basin  t o t a l i n t h e summer i n this  season  i l l u s t r a t e s the wetness o f the  compared  to o t h e r s .  S i n c e t h e "wet"  a r e a i s i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f t h e p r o v i n c e where a n n u a l are  so much l o w e r  the  coastal  lowest  plain,  totals  t h a n t h o s e o f t h e h i g h r i m o f t h e B a s i n and t h i s wetness i s o n l y r e l a t i v e .  summer a v e r a g e  While the  amount o f 3.8 i n c h e s on t h e c o a s t  r e p r e s e n t s o n l y 10% o f the annual  t o t a l , i n c o n t r a s t the  l o w e s t o f t h e i n t e r i o r , 1.7 i n c h e s , r e p r e s e n t s 21% o f t h e annual  precipitation.  The  C o a s t M o u n t a i n s a r e a r e a s o f minimum i n summer  than 10% o f the annual from  the other seasons.  fall),  which  i s a complete  Representative figures  mountains a r e i m p o s s i b l e to o b t a i n ,  but A l t a  (less  reversal  f o r these  Lake,  w i t h 7.4%  of the annual totafea&eiutfring i n summer, and Coquitlam Lake 7*7%, Jones Lake, 9.3%, Hope ( L i t t l e Mountain) 8.3% and H e l l ' s Gate 5.9%, a l l s t a t i o n s on the p e r i p h e r y of the mountains,  illustrate  the summer minimum f o r the mountains  and the lower F r a s e r v a l l e y .  A c r e s c e n t extending from the  Shuswap r e g i o n along the e a s t e r n border o f the B a s i n and a c r o s s the e n t i r e n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n to the Coast  Mountains  r e c e i v e s a q u a r t e r o f i t s annual t o t a l as summer p r e c i p i tation.  T h i s c r e s c e n t covers that h a l f o f the B a s i n most  remote from the a r e a of lowest summer percentages. Autumn (Map 23) The p a t t e r n o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n completely d i f f e r e n t basically similar  d i s t r i b u t i o n i n autumn i s  from summer; though l e s s i n t e n s e i t i s  to the winter p a t t e r n .  The maximum per-  centage recorded i n autumn occurs i n the Coast  Mountains.  The extreme maximum on r e c o r d (39.6% o f the annual) i s at Table 23 P r o p o r t i o n o f the Basin that r e c e i v e s given percentages o f the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n autumn (map 257 Percentage of annual precipitation in'autumn Proportion of B a s i n  less than 20% 3%  20-25%  25-50%  16%  Hope, but areas r e c e i v i n g  55%  50-55% 22%  over 55% 4%  a g r e a t e r percentage o f t h e i r  i n autumn are assumed to e x i s t  i n the Coast Mountains  totals  to. the  7&  /=>*j?<z  MAP 23 STATION  CIRCLE  Station n u m b e r "Total annual  Subdivision  p r e c i p i t a t i c x ^ 6 3 / ^ T X A - ^ o f the B a s i n  Number of / y e a r s of record  496  \ C l a s s of station Elevation above s e a -level  AUTUMN PRECIPITATION AS PERCENT OF MEAN ANNUAL  n  •  under 2 0 %  2 5 % to 3 0 %  2 0 % to 2 5 %  3 0 % to 3 5 % over 35 %  Note: Autumn refers to September, October, November. is  o  so  too  ISO  loo  northwest. The area where the s m a l l e s t percentage o f t o t a l moisture falls  i n autumn i s i n the entrenched Fraser-San Jose  around Dog Creek ( 1 5 . 3 % ) .  junction  The r e g i o n extends from Lac l a  Hache on the San Jose to P a v i l i o n on the F r a s e r R i v e r .  Three-  q u a r t e r s of the B a s i n — i n c l u d i n g the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u and Cariboo M o u n t a i n s — r e c e i v e s 25 to 35% o f i t s annual water supply i n t h i s season ( t a b l e 23). of  Communities at e i t h e r end  the main stem of the F r a s e r r e c o r d 20 to 30% o f t h e i r  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the f a l l . Winter (Map 24) N i n e t y - f i v e percent of the F r a s e r B a s i n r e c e i v e s more than a q u a r t e r o f i t s annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n d u r i n g the lowsun quarter o f the year and as would be expected a high p r o portion f a l l s difficult  i n the form o f snow.  Since snow i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  to c a t c h , measure, and convert a c c u r a t e l y to a  water e q u i v a l e n t  (even by the nominally standard but a c t u a l l y  v a r i a b l e 10 inches o f snow to one inch o f water) the data sometimes present p u z z l i n g  anomalies.  Table 24 P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n that r e c e i v e s g i v e n percentages o f annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n winter (map 247 Percentage o f annual precipitation  Less than  Proportion of Basin  5%  i n winter  25% 25-30% 21%  over  30-35%  35-40%  40%  50%  14%  10%  WINTER PRECIPITATION AS PERCENT OF MEAN ANNUAL  under 2 5 % 25% to 3C%  3 0 % to 3 5 % 35% to 4 0 % over 4 0 %  Note: Winter refers to December, January, February.  The  p a r t of the B a s i n r e c e i v i n g the l a r g e s t percentage  the t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n winter i s the Coast Mountains.  In  t h i s r e g i o n ( 1 0 % of the Basin) almost h a l f of the moisture d u r i n g t h i s season  ( H e l l ' s Gate, 49.5%;  of  falls  L i t t l e Gunn Lake, 4 5 - 0 % ) .  I t i s a l a r g e area encompassing the e n t i r e southwestern  corner  of the B a s i n , and extending east to the d i v i d e i n the Cascade Mountains between the South Thompson and F r a s e r drainage and n o r t h to the r i d g e between the Bridge and C h i l c o t i n basins.  Lowest winter percentages  areas, sub-  occur i n approximately  same area which r e c e i v e s a marked summer maximum.  the  This section  i n c l u d e s the Quesnel-Fraser-Bridge R i v e r r e g i o n , the Nechako v a l l e y and  the very s m a l l r e g i o n at F o r t George, and a l l of these  r e g i o n s r e c e i v e c l o s e to 25% of the annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the winter  ( H o r s e f l y Lake, 1 9 . 5 % ) .  That  the s m a l l e s t p r o p o r t i o n s  of annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e c o r d e d i n winter are as h i g h as 25% of the t o t a l s i s evidence of the s t r o n g marine i n f l u e n c e at t h i s time of year.  Elsewhere,  e i g h t y - f i v e percent o f the B a s i n  r e c o r d s i n t e r m e d i a t e percentages t a t i o n i n t h i s season.  o f 25 to 40% o f i t s p r e c i p i -  Areas w i t h i n t h i s range i n c l u d e the  lower F r a s e r v a l l e y , where winter produces 40% of the t o t a l cipitation,  and the h i g h p o r t i o n of the Cariboo Mountains  ( B a r k e r v i l l e , 26.3%, Blue R i v e r 29.8% are the nearest Most of the I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u f a l l s i n the 30 to 35% The  pre-  f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n by seasons-of  annual occurrence  i n each has c l a r i f i e d  stations).  range.  the p r o p o r t i o n of  some d i f f e r e n c e s i n  57 distribution the  basin.  lower  of The  Fraser  portion  precipitation  of  most  valley  the  abrupt west  Basin,  of  which  change the  Mountain system.  The  trast  between  areas  and  Kamloops  other and  areas  months  as  examples.  w i l l of  two  now  be  of  minima,  SEASON  The portion the have and  total  been those  of  Coast  of  recorded  in  the  discussion  so  that  similar  main  and  Cariboo-  the  con-  Steveston these  headings  in  maritime  Annual  and  and  seasons  continental  Precipitation Kamloops  inches  10  AND M I N I M U M  maps  have  recorded  in  described each  adjacent  be  grouped  into  can  the  season. for  stations  inches  PRECIPITATION  minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n  regimes  the  17% 33% 23% 27%  and  precipitation  the  ,  OF MAXIMUM  maximum or  plotted with  and  of  25  37  A N D MONTH  annual  seasons  the  parts  between  19% 10% 31% 40%  foregoing of  place  records  under  Percent of Steveston  Spring Summer Autumn Winter  various  illustrates  the  Proportions  p r e c i p i t a t i o n regime locations  Season  Annual  below  using  in  Mountains  between  table  Table Comparison  takes  considered  maxima- and  exist  Coast  lies  Rocky  these  which  each  proNow station  compared,  regions.  In the e f f o r t  to determine seasons o f maximum and minimum  p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r the r e g i o n s o f the B a s i n i t became that the c o n v e n t i o n a l grouping  o f months i n t o seasons d i d not  n e c e s s a r i l y place the three wettest season.  obvious  c o n s e c u t i v e months i n one  The p o s s i b i l i t y was e x p l o r e d o f combining months other  than the u s u a l December, January and February  to g i v e a more  l o g i c a l wet season on the c o a s t , f o r example, where November, December and January would form a more accurate winter wet season.  I n the same way a dry summer season would group the  three months o f June, J u l y and August together, but t h i s would leave an unequal d i s t r i b u t i o n o f months i n the remaining seasons, with February,  March, A p r i l and May forming  a long  s p r i n g , and September and October a short autumn. Besides  the i n e q u a l i t y i n the number o f months i n a season  i n such an o r g a n i z a t i o n , a f u r t h e r d e t e r r e n t to a r b i t r a r i l y a l t e r i n g seasonal groups i s the f a c t  that the same combinations  of months would not be s u i t a b l e i n a l l r e g i o n s of the B a s i n . U s i n g again the r e c o r d s o f _ S t e v e s t o n and Kamloops to r e p r e s e n t the areas o f the coast and i n t e r i o r r e s p e c t i v e l y , t a b l e 26 i l l u s t r a t e s a re-grouping areas  of seasons that could be used f o r  that may appear at f i r s t  seasonal  emphasis.  glance  to d i f f e r widely  Granted that the category  months covers a v a r i e t y of percentages  i n their  of i n t e r m e d i a t e  o f annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  there are s u r p r i s i n g p a r a l l e l s between the two s t a t i o n s i n the average monthly p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r wet, dry and i n t e r m e d i a t e months.  L o g i c a l as the r e - g r o u p i n g  illustrated  i n the t a b l e  59 Table 26 Example o f p o s s i b l e r e - g r o u p i n g of months i n t o seasons f o r r e g i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d by Kamloops and Steveston Kamloops Season and type  Month  Wet  Nov. Dec • Jan,  Steveston % o f annual Precipitation  Feb. Mar. Apr. May  June July Aug.  Summer Intermediate  8.4 10 5 9.5  Wet  Nov. Dec. Jan.  28.4  Winter  7.0 3.6 4.1 8,9  Spring Wet  Month  o  Winter Intermediate Dry Dry Intermediate  Season and type  Sept. Oct.  23.6  Spring  14.0 9.7 9.7  Dry  33.4  Summer  7.7 6.9  Autumn  Intermediate  14.6  Average;  14.8 15.9 15.9 44.6  Feb. Mar. Apr. May  10.3 7.8 5.8 5.0 28.9  June July Aug.  Intermediate  4.5 2.5 3.2 10.2  Sept. Oct.  5.9 10.4  Autumn  16.5  Average;  6 wet months 4 intermediate 2 dry months  10.4 7.6 3.9  3 wet months 6 intermediate 3 dry months  might be f o r some purposes, i t does not appear p r a c t i c a l advantage l y seasons.  % o f annual Precipitation  14.9 7.5 3.4  to o f f e r a  over the c o n v e n t i o n a l groupings i n t o  quarter-  As the zones o f map 29 demonstrate, no s i n g l e r e -  grouping would s u f f i c e f o r the v a r i e t y minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n  o f months o f maximum and  that occurs i n the F r a s e r B a s i n .  Yet  while complete s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f seasons would not be p o s s i b l e , the e n t i r e survey  i n t h i s t h e s i s might n e v e r t h e l e s s show some  s t r i k i n g r e s u l t s i f a s u f f i c i e n t number o f r e g i o n s were establ i s h e d and i n v e s t i g a t e d by unconventional  seasons.  Reference  to seasons i n the ensuing d i s c u s s i o n i s based on the conventiona l q u a r t e r s o f the year used up to t h i s p o i n t i n the t h e s i s . The  area west o f the c r e s t of the Coast Mountains r e c e i v e s  i t s maximum seasonal p r e c i p i t a t i o n (over 25% o f the annual) i n the winter  (map 25).  The second h i g h e s t p e r c e n t a g e — o n  ion the h i g h e s t — o c c u r s i n the f a l l .  That  occas-  these c o n d i t i o n s h o l d  Table 27 P r o p o r t i o n o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n v a r i o u s  seasonsTmap 257  Seasons o f primary and secondary maximum Proportion of B a s i n  WinterAutumn  SummerWinter  SummerAutumn  30%  34%  16%  Other Combinations 20%  true around the south and east rims o f the B a s i n suggests that the l i t t o r a l  c o n d i t i o n s o f the Coast Mountains are d u p l i c a t e d on  the other h i g h areas around the B a s i n , c r e a t i n g a horse-shoe area o f winter and autumn maximum around the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the B a s i n . the summer.  On the plateaux  the maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n occurs i n  In the southeast  the secondary  maximum comes i n  winter, while i n the northwest i t i s autumn.  Throughout the  B a s i n autumn or winter i s the season of e i t h e r primary or  7&  SEASON OF MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION  Summer Winter  25  O  SO  IOC  ISO  200  /^//t>*iS  f^zye-<So  secondary  maximum,,  I t i s noteworthy  t h a t t h e maximum on t h e  h i g h g r o u n d may be 4 0 % o f t h e a n n u a l most o f t h e c e n t r a l dicating  that  throughout The  results  from  while i n  t h e maximum i s o n l y 28% t o 30%,  the p r e c i p i t a t i o n  the year  northeast  area  precipitation,  i s more e v e n l y  i n the i n t e r i o r  showsno c l e a r the opposing  than  in-  distributed  i t i s on t h e c o a s t .  precipitation  regime,  m o d i f i e d maritime  a fact  which  and c o n t i n e n t a l i n -  fluences  i n t h a t p a r t o f t h e B a s i n most open t o b o t h — m o d i f i e d  maritime  v i a t h e S k e e n a Gap a n d c o n t i n e n t a l t h r o u g h  openings  between t h e Hogem Range and Omenica, S k e e n a and  Hazelton  Mountains. Table  Proportion Months "of P r i m a r y and Secondary Maximum  28  o f B a s i n r e c e i v i n g maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n months (map 2 6 j ~  December January  Proportion of Basin  December November  June J anuary  5%  19%  27%  t h e B a s i n ./the m o u n t a i n o u s a r e a s  December-November maximum months a l t e r n a t e portion  around  Other Combinations  22%  27%  are analyzed  show a D e c e m b e r - J a n u a r y o r  (map 2 6 ) .  These  the p l a t e a u x .  two c o m b i n a t i o n s  In the h i g h e r  of  southeast  o f t h e P r a s e r P l a t e a u t h e months o f maximum a r e J u n e ,  December, and J a n u a r y ; they  i n various  June, J u l y August  When t h e months o f maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n for  the v a l l e y  a r e June, J u l y  i n the northwest  and August.  Again  o f t h e Nechako P l a t e a u the h i g h e r  ground  shows  MONTH OF MAXIMUM PRECIPITATION  June December  25  O  SO  too  I50  200  the tendency to a low-sun maximum. i s there a pure summer maximum.  Only on the F r a s e r P l a t e a u  In the Nechako v a l l e y com-  b i n a t i o n s of January and J u l y , J u l y and November, June and  Sep-  tember, August and J u l y , and January and February a p p e a r — a g a i n i n d i c a t i n g the c o n f l i c t of maritime and c o n t i n e n t a l  influences.  The upper F r a s e r v a l l e y shows a combination o f both c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s with January and September  or September  and November  maxima. Months o f maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n common to a l l areas are December, January, June, J u l y and August. combination i s most p r e v a l e n t  (table  only on the r i d g e around the B a s i n .  The  'December-January  28), d e s p i t e i t s occurrence The q u a r t e r of the B a s i n  which forms the F r a s e r P l a t e a u seems to be the l e a s t  irregular  i n i t s p r e c i p i t a t i o n regime, with three concurrent months o f maximum i n June, J u l y and August. In c o n s i d e r i n g those seasons d u r i n g which the lowest p e r centage o f the t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r s i t becomes apparent that f o r the whole B a s i n s p r i n g i s the season of e i t h e r the primary or the secondary minimum (map  27).  Throughout the c e n t r e  of the B a s i n , e s p e c i a l l y i n the F r a s e r and Nechako-Plateaux, the secondary minimum occurs i n the autumn or w i n t e r .  Once more  the high ground west, south and east of the p l a t e a u x shows a summer-spring  or spring-summer  minimum.  The  spring-summer  combination i s also predominant i n the.Rocky and Columbia Mountains.  I t also occurs i n the l e e o f the Coast Mountains  SEASON OF MINIMUM PRECIPITATION  Spring Summer  150  zoo  Table Proportion  of  Basin  Seasons of primary and secondary minimum  Moha  to  of  majority  and  the of  alignment  Spring Summer  Spring-summer Winter  8%  9%  13%  around 25%  r e c e i v i n g minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n s e a s o n s (map 27)  Summer Spring  Proportion of Basin .  L i l l o o e t .  annual  maps  of  of  the  29  In  this  this  study,  pattern  the  reflects  Table Proportion  of  Basin  Months of primary and secondary minimum  On element  is  west  the  of  map the  while  a  area  east-west Chase,  line  Coast  August, small  (28)  to  March  is  showing  months  of  of  the  land.  in  Mountains  the  month  of  the  the  1%  is  the  the  minimum  March, (table  Thompson  River  between  with  April  is  April  Basin  month,  striking  interior.  the  driest  of  month  various  March April  minimum and  east  the  1%  coast  the  in  5  northwest-southeast  April-March May  the  of  As  only  66%  comprising  section  grain  15%  minimum,  recorded.  between  the  of  dominant  the  Spring Winter  30  33%  the  Spring Autumn  r e c e i v i n g minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n months (map 28)  July August  Proportion of Basin  is  various  55%  season  precipitation  in  as  30)  To  July or  or  May.  along  In  the  Tranquille the  the  second  and  MONTH OF MINIMUM PRECIPITATION  25  o  1  1  July  r~~  I  April  SO  too  ISO  ZOO  driest, March  y e t i n the remainder  a n d May  with  t h e most  o f the i n t e r i o r  months  obvious  o f maximum  sequence  of regions  pilation  of this  combining maximum of  with  data.  winter  secondary  o r summer season  minimum e m e r g e d .  of  maximum  maximum  were  possible,  fairly  broad  greatly  within  relatively  or the primary  generalizations,  Basin.  Table  31 p r e s e n t s  approximations which  short  based  first  showing  refinements  these  time  season months  of the  a r e i n many i n -  since  the subdivisions  of  on t h e  or secondary  t h e months  d i s t a n c e s i n many  i n the given  by  a com-  the general pattern  t h e maps  o f t h e mean p e r c e n t a g e  occurs  obtained  subdivisions  although  29 s h o w s  25 a n d 2 7 ) o n s e a s o n s  combination  By s u p e r i m p o s i n g  stances  cipitation  with  maps  and  o f minimum i s an Map  were  ( 2 6 ) and minimum (28) f u r t h e r  subdivisions  with  this  o f maximum  of  regime.  The b o u n d a r i e s  From  o f the season  and months  a common  the information (from  and minimum.  REGIMES  to discussions  and t h e season  analysis  supersedes  f r e q u e n t minimum.  PRECIPITATION  The  April  shown  areas  I n the  o n map 2 9 ,  o f annual period.  vary  pre-  PRECIPITATION REGIMES  Ia n  25  Winter maximum -summer minimum Winter maximum -spring minimum Summer maximum- spring-summer minimum Summer maximum- spring-winter minimum Summer maximum- spring-autumn minimum  b a b c  O  SO  IOO  I SO  £00  65 Table  31  P r e c i p i t a t i o n Regimes o f the Region map 29  Fraser  B a s i n. ( c f .map  % o f Season Season % o f Months a n n . o f m i n . min . maximum o f max.  29)  % of ann.  Months minimum  % i  ' 3 4  am  Winter maximum Ia(i)  winter autumn  39 32  summer spring  10 December 20. ' November.  . 14 13  J u l y "• August  (ii)  winter autumn  39 32  summer spring  10 20  December January  ' 15 14  July August  2 3  b(i)  winter autumn  31 24  spring summer  18 23  December November  12 11  Apr.Mar. May  5 6  (ii)  winter autumn  31 24  spring summer  18 18  December January  13 12  Apr.Mar. May  5 6  summer autumn  27 27  spring summer  16 26  Jan.June July  12 11  Apr.Mar. May  4 5  b(i)  summer autumn  28 28  spring winter  18 25  Jan.June July  11 10  Apr.Mar. May  5 6  (ii)  summer autumn  34 26  spring winter  16 24  June,July August  13 12  AproMar May  4 5  c(i)  summer winter  39 25  spring autumn  19 22  June,Jan. December*  13 12  Apr.Mar. May  4 5  (ii)  summer winter  30 27  spring autumn  14 19  June,July August  15 12  Apr.Mar. May  3 4  Summer maximum Ha  The h i g h g r o u n d ized the  by a w i n t e r  maximum,  I on t h e map  i s character-  b u t c a n be s u b - d i v i d e d on t h e b a s i s o f  s e a s o n o f m i n i m u m — a summer minimum ( l a ) i n t h e C o a s t Moun-  tains, and  shown a s s e c t i o n  and a s p r i n g minimum ( l b ) i n t h e C a r i b o o - R o c k y  i n the l e e o f the Coast Mountains.  A further  depends upon t h e a c t u a l months o f maximum.  Mountains  sub-division  In I a ( i ) the p r i m a r y  maximum o c c u r s in  la(ii)  i n December, t h e s e c o n d a r y  t h e month o f p r i m a r y  secondary  occurs  i n January.  a r y maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n ing  t o whether November  the p r i m a r y  i n November,  while  maximum i s December b u t t h e Likewise  i n l b t h e month o f  d i s t i n g u i s h e s the s u b - s e c t i o n s  ( i ) or J a n u a r y  month o f maximum i n b o t h  secondaccord-  ( i i ) f o l l o w s December,  areas.  S e c t i o n I I i n c l u d e s t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u and t h e windward slope  o f the C a r i b o o  a primary with  maximum s e a s o n  i t sdistinguishing  i n summer and p r i m a r y  autumn ( I l a and l i b ) o r w i n t e r  separating division  high  the main s u b s e c t i o n s .  s e p a r a t i o n of areas  and low p r e c i p i t a t i o n  cipitation  differences  central plateau.  conflicting while  supersede  those  minimum  As i n s e c t i o n  again  I n some s e c t i o n s s u c h a distinct  Mountains  coming from  minimum sub-  minimum.  common s e a s o n s  emphasizes  i n spring,  I further  and months o f  the b a s i c  between t h e r i m o f t h e P r a s e r  forces prevent  i n the Cariboo  with  f e a t u r e s are  ( l i e ) as s e c o n d a r y  depends on t h e month o f s e c o n d a r y  This  the  Mountains;  preB a s i n and  a s t h e Nechako  p a t t e r n from  valley,  emerging,  the c o n t i n e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s b a r e l y  the c o a s t .  CHAPTER V  For  VARIABILITY  c a l c u l a t i o n s on v a r i a b i l i t y  f r o m the n e t w o r k on  provide  s t a t i o n s were s e l e c t e d  the b a s i s o f l e n g t h o f r e c o r d and  representativeness of v a r i o u s areas Soda C r e e k was  26  of  the B a s i n .  general  However,  i n c l u d e d d e s p i t e i t s short r e c o r d i n order  some i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the  central  I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u opposite Quesnel Lake. the D e p a r t m e n t o f T r a n s p o r t A p p e n d i x I I I ) were u s e d which-•v,'3S t h e n  standard  to c a l c u l a t e  g r a p h e c ^ for.- e a c h  :  C o n r a d and  The  to  portion of  annual  p e r i o d 1921  the  totals  to 1950  for  (see  rela-tive&variability,  station,,  Pollak claim that:  . . . i t must be t h e f i r s t s t e p o f the c l i m a t o l o g i s t to examine whether the s e r i e s i s homogeneous, i n o r d e r to a v o i d i n f e r e n c e s t h a t a r e s t r i c t l y f a l s e . . . . S i n c e i t i s g e n e r a l l y i m p o s s i b l e to d e c i d e whether o r n o t a s e r i e s o f o b s e r v a t i o n s i s a b s o l u t e l y homogeneous r e l a t i v e h o m o g e n e i t y must be considered.20 A c l i m a t o l o g i c a l s e r i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous w i t h r e s p e c t to a s y n c h r o n o u s s e r i e s a t a n o t h e r p l a c e i f the d i f f e r e n c e s ( o r r a t i o s ) o f p a i r s o f homologous a v e r a g e s c o n s t i t u t e a s e r i e s o f random numbers t h a t s a t i s f i e s the law o f e r r o r s . 2 1 The stations C i t y ) and  examples g i v e n i n t h i s 69  miles  a p a r t , New  precipitation  t e x t are  f o r temperature  Haven, C o n n e c t i c u t ,  (Boston,  and  Waltham,  and  V. C o n r a d and L . W . P o l l a k , Methods i n C l i m a t o l o g y , M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950, p.  21  Ibid,  226.  York  Massachusetts,  20  p.  New  (two  Cambridge, 223.  j 68 11  miles  s u c h as  apart). British  But  when d e a l i n g w i t h  Columbia questions  a mountainous  arise  that  are  region  not  consider-  22 ed  by  C o n r a d and  So  G r e g o r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f L i v e r p o o l , who  homogeneity sity,  who  Pollak.  Consequently  i n his studies  has  Division, and  Weather B u r e a u , U n i t e d  W i t h each  individual  the  M.K.  of  with  i n England; F.K„Hare, M c G i l l  Canada Department o f T r a n s p o r t ;  erce.  were made  d i d some work  known i n t e r e s t s i n c l i m a t o l o g y ;  Deputy C h i e f , C l i m a t o l o g y  Climatology,  enquiries  Univer-  Thomas,  Meteorological  Branch,  H.E.Landsberg, D i r e c t o r , States  Department  same g e n e r a l  o f Comm-  p r o b l e m s were  discussed. The  first  the y e a r s the  question  o f the  arose  standard  example i n the  annual values  monthly v a l u e s . values  are  out  the  measuring snowfall w o u l d be 22  are  i s reduced with  probably  the  and  q u i t e proper  winter  rainfall.  length  annual  the  c a u s e d by  Hare  feels  of p e r i o d  in tests  so than  of  same o f f i c e  different  annual  that  precipitation  Landsberg suggested  t o b r e a k down t h e  to  standardized  f o r use  a h y d r o l o g i s t from  i n the  in contrast  data.  more r e a d i l y  than monthly v a l u e s  although  difficulty  a n n u a l amounts f o r  i n question,  Thomas a g r e e s t h a t  better  homogeneity,  period  of  t e x t which used monthly  inter-station variability that  over use  pointed  methods  that i t  totals' into  The q u e r i e s by m a i l b r o u g h t l e t t e r s f r o m G r e g o r y , Thomas and L a n d s b e r g i n J u n e and J u l y o f 1961.  of  Hare,  winter  and non-winter s u b t o t a l s and on these The  to perform double-mass  analyses  separately. next q u e s t i o n that presented  i t s e l f concerned whether  to check each of these r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t a t i o n s a g a i n s t nearby s t a t i o n s or a g a i n s t one f o r the extent  another.  to which i t r e p r e s e n t s  l e n g t h of i t s r e c o r d , there was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the northern l a t e d to t h i s q u e s t i o n from one  Since each s t a t i o n was  another.  with topography.  no  i t s l o c a l i t y and  other  f o r the  s t a t i o n i n some cases,  h a l f of the B a s i n .  i s that of what d i s t a n c e  Closely res t a t i o n s may  be  Presumably the d i s t a n c e apart would vary Gregory f e l t  that a d i s t a n c e of 50 to 60  would be too g r e a t , e s p e c i a l l y i n an area of such r e l i e f , but  chosen  accidented  that a comparison of s t a t i o n s i n the south  i n d i c a t e whether a p a r t i c u l a r ent from a l l o t h e r s .  s t a t i o n was  miles  persistently  should differ-  Landsberg s t a t e d that a l l agree that  the  smaller the d i s t a n c e between s t a t i o n s being compared the more s e n s i t i v e a t e s t of r e l a t i v e homogeneity of t h e i r r e c o r d s i s l i k e l y to be,  that i n mountainous t e r r a i n t h i s f a c t o r can  important,  and  that s t a t i o n s on windward and  matter how  c l o s e together,  are l i k e l y not  be  leeward s l o p e s ,  to have r e l a t i v e l y  homogeneous r e c o r d s . The  o p i n i o n s expressed  by the four men  concerning  the  value and methods of c a l c u l a t i n g r e l a t i v e homogeneity o f f e r considerable accuracy  contrast.  Gregory f e e l s that a check on  of a s t a t i o n ' s r e c o r d i s necessary;  e s t i m a t i n g the degree of c o r r e l a t i o n between  he  the  suggests  neighbouring  no  s t a t i o n s or a l t e r n a t i v e l y a procedure that c o u l d be a p p l i e d to one  s e t o f data by i t s e l f .  In t h i s case the standard  deviation  i s c a l c u l a t e d and any r e c o r d which d i f f e r s from the average by more than three  times t h i s amount i s checked c a r e f u l l y .  that by these two methods grosser For  e r r o r s can be e l i m i n a t e d .  smaller e r r o r s c a r e f u l checking  the only way t o d e t e c t  He f e e l s  inaccuracies.  o f the o r i g i n a l r e c o r d s i s Thomas i s of the o p i n i o n  that methods used by the U n i t e d S t a t e s Weather Bureau are to be p r e f e r r e d to Conrad and P o l l a k ' s and c i t e d Murray M i t c h e l l , who has been r e s p o n s i b l e geneity  the work o f Dr. f o r a p p l y i n g homo-  t e s t s to the Bureau's Bench Mark Network programme.  Landsberg s t a t e s that although Conrad and P o l l a k ' s methods o f homogeneity a n a l y s i s may not be the best p o s s i b l e approach, they are nonetheless u s e f u l . office  i s inclined  The only s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m h i s  to l e v e l at Conrad and P o l l a k ' s  definition  of these c r i t e r i a concerns t h e i r a r b i t r a r y l i m i t s o f acceptable d e v i a t i o n from the expected v a l u e s which they decide  f o r homogeneous data,  i n favor o f inhomogeneity.  l i m i t s should be perhaps twice  beyond  He f e e l s the  as broad as recommended which  would correspond to about 95% confidence  ( i n s t e a d o f 67%) that  the s e r i e s being compared were r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous.  A less  r i g o r o u s but o f t e n u s e f u l method o f comparing p r e c i p i t a t i o n s e r i e s i s to p l o t them as a time s e r i e s on paper—for  r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous data  approximately p a r a l l e l  to one another.  semi-logarithmic  the s e r i e s w i l l r u n He commented ,on how  poor a sampling how  s e r i o u s an  before the  i t can  ,that  standard  inhomogeneity be  detected  Conrad's geneity  rain-gauge  in rainfall  through  the  really  is  and  measurements has  sampling  to  variability  goes on 1, 2,  3, 4,  the p r o b l e m .  o f Quebec and  he  the  states,  After  of  Labrador  he  deliberately  1938-1947 s t a n d a r d "My  suggestion  to r a t i o n a l i z e  theory  as r e g a r d s  statistical to s u g g e s t  by  means  of  concerning  homo-  t h a t you  abstain  broken r e c o r d s " .  He  believes  p r e t t y w e l l d i s c r e d i t s C o n r a d ' s methods, precipitation. justification  the b e s t  way  "There  i s i n my  opinion  f o r C o n r a d ' s method."  to p r o c e e d  with  broken  He  records:  i g n o r e the p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e c u l a r v a r i a t i o n } p l o t a l l s t a t i o n s whose r e c o r d s e x t e n d t e n y e a r s i n t h e c a s e o f t e m p e r a t u r e o r twenty y e a r s i n t h e c a s e o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n and assume t h a t t h e s e mean v a l u e s a r e good p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e s ; p l o t maximum, minimum and mean v a l u e s f o r a l l s h o r t e r p e r i o d ..records* draw i s o l i n e s t h r o u g h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s s u b j e c t ively. I f p o s s i b l e o f c o u r s e one s h o u l d use a good d e a l o f d y n a m i c a l i n s i g h t a t s t a g e 4.  concludes  that:  . . . t h e s e p r o c e d u r e s have a b s o l u t e l y no f o r m a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n , but t h e y a r e b a s e d on v e r y l o n g e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e i n t r i c a c i e s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r game. The more I work i n c l i m a t o l o g y the l e s s i m p r e s s e d I am by f a n c y statistics as a p p l i e d to m o n t h l y o r a n n u a l d a t a . I' r e f e r y o u to an a r t i c l e by J . E . M c D o n a l d i n one o f t h e I960 i s s u e s o f T e l l u s . who has a s i m i l a r l e s s o n to administer. -' 2  23  be  p o i n t i n g out  s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n of r e c o r d i s simply  attempt  especially  to  e v e r y t h i n g to  sampling  valid  study  techniques, and  f r o m any that  a solution  i n h i s own  standardized  He  the  measurements. H a r e has  no  device  K.  Hare, P e r s o n a l  communication  to the  w r i t e r , June  1961.  D r . H a r e was  careful  to p o i n t out  m i n d when m a k i n g t h e s e  suggestions  of extreme v a r i a b i l i t y  entirely  t h a t he had  and  Canada i n  that i n very a r i d  d i f f e r e n t procedures  regions  would  be  advocated. As  a result  h o m o g e n e i t y was coefficient later  made b u t  diverse thoughts  Climate  o f v a r i a t i o n f r o m raw  map  (30)  of B r i t i s h  confirms  w i t h low annual  what w o u l d be  Kamloops.  are found  i n K e n d r e w and  The  The  areas  variability  i n c l u d i n g . t h e Nechako  highest c o e f f i c i e n t s  of  and  i n the F r a s e r R i v e r  Basin—  v a l l e y s i n the l e e of the  highest  I t w o u l d seem, t h e r e f o r e , t o  o f the r e g i o n s i n t h e B a s i n most p r o t e c t e d f r o m c o a s t a l  influences.  Since  i t i s c l o s e to the l o w e r  Fraser v a l l e y ,  area of l e a s t v a r i a b i l i t y ,  i t i s obvious  w h i c h l i e s b e t w e e n t h e two  i s an a r e a o f a b r u p t  i s unfortunate  t h a t t h e r e a r e o n l y two  t h a t the F r a s e r  Bend, each w i t h a s h o r t r e c o r d — w h i c h  to p e r m i t  a detailed  The  study  of t h i s  Skeena.Gap must p e r m i t  change. Gate  is insufficient >  area.  o t h e r a r e a o f low v a r i a b i l i t y The  climatic  the  Canyon  stations—Hell's  and N o r t h  valley.  and  Kerr's  a l o n g t h e Thompson b e t w e e n L y t t o n  entrenched  the  the Y u k o n T e r r i t o r y .  totals,  i s less.  p o r t i o n o f the Coast Mountains.  It  relative  p l o t t e d on a map  a n t i c i p a t e d - - t h a t the  T h i s area i s the d r i e s t  an a r e a o f d e e p l y  one  check of  p r e c i p i t a t i o n have a h i g h degree o f  the v a r i a b i l i t y  variability  be  d a t a was  C o l u m b i a and  that i n regions with larger  valley,  no  t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d by c a l c u l a t i n g  c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e s i m i l a r map  The  and  of these  i s found  i n the  a i r masses from the  Nechako Pacific  •7% T£/A>^  COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION under 2 0 % 2 0 % to 2 5 % over 2 5 %  iso  zoo  72-  Ocean to move r e l a t i v e l y  far inland, producing  variability  a t W i s t a r i a and  Steveston.  I t i s n o t i c e a b l e that s t a t i o n s  as A s h c r o f t and 1938,  Fort  S t . James c o m p a r a b l e  Kamloops c a n v a r y g r e a t l y  f o r i n s t a n c e , when A s h c r o f t has  Kamloops i s i n f a c t  11% p o s i t i v e ;  both  the  stations,  with  former  a coefficient  but  40%  as n e a r  a 60%  and  the  1926  latter  of  another  time.  negative  the y e a r  to t h a t  one  at a g i v e n  of  In  variation, was  75%  wet  at  wetter  than  usual. Considerations to  an e x a m i n a t i o n  period 32  as  those  constant  shows t h e y e a r s o f maxima and  tation  In  i n the  following Agassiz  are  the  stations)  distribution wettest  illustrates both  values.  o f g r e a t e s t and  the n e x t  years  year  1948  was  i n successive order; 1932,  f o r each year  (10  the n e x t  minima.  Maps 31  the  least four  great v a r i a t i o n  precipifigures  i . e . for 1953»  and  32  show 1928  consideration.  first (16  the  maximum i n the  i n the y e a r s  etc.  s t a t i o n s with  s t a t i o n s ) chosen as examples o f  i n the p e r i o d under  Table  long-term  wettest  s h o w i n g the  o f the p l a c e s o f minimum and years  The  led  standard  pattern occurred.  minima f o r t h e s e  the y e a r  o r d e r maxima and and  i n the  30-year p e r i o d i s p l a c e d f i r s t .  Maps were p r e p a r e d  and  table  the w e t t e s t  fifth  i n the p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h  o f the y e a r l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n  t o d i s c o v e r whether any  stations.  to  such  driest  Table  of occurrence  32 for  1928 - AN E X A M P L E OF A YEAR OF FAIRLY WIDE-SPREAD LIGHT PRECIPITATION  Note: The years of light precipitation for selected stations were arranged in ascending order and numbered. The figure "I", then, indicates that 1928 was the driest year in the normal period, 1921-1950. The figure "2" indicates that 1928 was the second driest year.  IS  O  SO  IOO  ISO  ZOO  Table Y e a r s o f Maxima and M i n i m a  52  within  the S t a n d a r d P e r i o d .  Y e a r s o f heavy precipitation Agassiz Ashcroft Babine Lake Barkerville B i g Creek Bralorne Bridge River C r a n b e r r y Lake Dome C r e e k F o r t St.James Hope Kamloops K n o u f f Lake Lillooet Lytton Mamit Lake Merritt Moha P e m b e r t o n Meadows P r i n c e George Quesnel Salmon Arm Soda C r e e k Steveston T a t l a y o k o Lake Vavenby Wistaria  Table figures number first  were wet  1927,  53, 21 , 59, 33 51, 44 , 45, 27 45, 53 , 51, 48 <47, ;.46 , *39, *..27 48, 55 , 44, 45 53, 54 , 49, 48 39, 50 , 38, 36 50, 41 , 56, 55 32, 34 , 36, 41 57, 53 f 39, 54 32, 21 , 31, 34 41, 37 , 24, 48 47, 32 > 42, 44 54, 51 , 41, 37 51, 39 , 50, 33 45, 58 , 59, 37 33, 51 » 49, 21 33, 39 t 24, 46 21, 39 , 55, 33 34, 32 , 33, 39 48, 56 , 57, 37 54, 37 » 51, 58 53, 39, 48, 47,  37 r 54 t 54 , 59 r  33, 48, 47, 53,  the i n f o r m a t i o n  the p a r t i c u l a r  1933,  1937,  1941,  1922,  1948,  1926,  1929, 1938, 1929, 1930, 1921, 1936, 1943, 1925, 1926, 1922, 1952, 1928, 1928, 1922, 1929, 1928, 1928, 1928, 1929, 1926, 1922, 1928, 1929, 1944, 1951, 1930, 1943,  27 3427 26  in  another  28, 52, 30, 35, 22, 30, 58, 52, 38, 52, 52, 44, 42, 44, 52, 26, 29, 38, 28, 38, 23, 29, 28, 46, 52, 30, 21, 29, 36, 35, 52, 30, 25, 28, 44, 52, 34, 30, 40, 30, 35, 25, 43, 26, 40, 57, 22, 38, 21, 28, 22, 26, 23, 38, 26, 52, 43,  57 26 27 23 35 35 46 23 30 31 26 34 43 43 26 43 40 25 30 24 45 25  52, 43, 28, 55,  38 29 26 31  30, 28, 28, 26, 28, 43, 40, 36, 28,  22, 52, 22, 38,  form.  43, 40, 21, 52,  The  light precipitation  are  the  year i n  was  a  o r d e r maximum or minimum.  years, while  were d r y .  Years of l i g h t precipitation  t h e h e a d i n g s h e a v y and  stations in  to f i f t h  general  1952  33 p r e s e n t s  under of  1932, 1954, 1947, 1948, 1954, 1950, 1937, 1933, 1933, 1959, 1933, 1927, 1948, 1956, 1941, 1954, 1927, 1927, 1950, 1941, 1955, 1948, 1927, 1931, 1950, 1959, 1954,  1921-1950  there  I t c a n be  1950,  1928,  which  1951,  1930,  seen that i n  1954  1938,  and  1943,  1959 and  1 9 4 8 - AN E X A M P L E OF A YEAR OF FAIRLY WIDE-SPREAD HEAVY PRECIPITATION  Note: The years of heavy precipitation for selected stations were arranged in descending order and numbered. The figure "I", then, indicates that 1948 was the wettest year in the normal period, 1921-1950. The figure "2" indicates that 1948 was the second wettest year.  25  O  (SO  too  The  r e s u l t s o f t h i s l i m i t e d examination are q u i t e i n -  c o n c l u s i v e f o r many years but i n some a p a t t e r n emerges.  In  Table 55 Number o f S t a t i o n s with a F i r s t tn TH f*h o ^ mum f o r Given Year i n Standard P e r i o d . 1921-1950" o  M n y 1 r m i T r i  n  r  M  i  n  i  Number o f s t a t i o n s with Heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n light precipitation  ISS£ 1921 22 23 24 25 26 27  4  4  0 0 2 0 1 7 0 0 0  29 1950 51  8 4 1 5 11 1 16 9 11 2 0 , 2  2' 5 10  32 53  G  4  34  35 36  0 2 7 1 8 0 6 1 0 3 4 2 5 ' 10 2 6  37 38 39 1940 41 42 45 44 45 46 47 48 49 1950 1921  r  f o r i n s t a n c e , many o f the n o r t h e r n  Creek recorded  5  3 1 8  G 5 0 1  Q 4 1 2  Oi G 0 0  s t a t i o n s were dry. B i g  i t s d r i e s t year i n the 1921-1950 p e r i o d ,  George i t s second d r i e s t , Kamloops and Vavenby t h e i r  Prince  fourth  driest; ions  a t t h e same  were  Agassiz  wet.  their  wettest—obviously  year  Lillooet, Vavenby  1 9 2 2 was  the t h i r d  and Babine  After  three  shows  eleven  years  Fraser River,  The  next  year  stations  fell  a  centrated stations  i n the g e n e r a l  year  that  no  one  with  the dry category  pattern with  period nine  After this  i n 1931.  1926  or east  stations  dry.  again,  George.  ( s e e map  cases  tendency  on o r  the  31) a n d 1929  o f the dry s t a t i o n s year  wet.  I n 1928 s i x t e e n  i n many  another  of  of the r i v e r  seven  wet, a n d one on t h e west  i s a good  will  i n which  disappeared  I n 1933 t e n s t a t i o n s  and east  of the Basin  while  two h a d w e t o n e s ; River  illustration  o f the  be no u n i f o r m i t y i n a g i v e n  south  Bridge  Meadows,  f o r Prince  all\on  and  con-• eleven a n d no were  o f the F r a s e r .  1936  there  Quesnel,  Pemberton  t o t h e west  the tendency,  a dry record,  the wettest  s t r o n g p a t t e r n emerged,  station  i n the southwest.  east  S t . James,  and f o u r t h wettest  p a t t e r n was e v i d e n t  nearby;.  year,  i t s fifth  w e t - - i t was  f o r Steveston,  i n the standard  similar  mainly  uniformly  i n the dry category,  with  into  showed  The hood  Lake,  reversed  recorded  followed  wet,  occurred  stat-  wettest  and M e r r i t t  split  f o r Fort  wettest  i n which  of the Fraser  strong  of the southern  had i t s second  wettest,  fairly  period  stations  the  driest  third  a north-south  o f the standard  east  Meadows  some  f o r 1921.  The year  however,  Pemberton  a n d Hope  pattern  time,  three  Bralorne  stations  wettest.  year.  I n the  had dry records,  had i t s d r i e s t  had i t s f i f t h  strong'likeli-  year,  while  From years  i t would  drought  while  variability  i s 37.7%;  wet  than  the  Basin  the  same  the  Basin,  general  stations It areally  negative  towards  wet  that  that  than  there  or c y c l e  The most towards  likely  within  o f change,  specific  either  part  of  years  t o have time.  in  a In  at several (map 3 2 ) .  regular  o f wet  of a longer  drastic-  variability  likely  one f o r m i n i m a  i n the arrangement  precipi-  maximum r e c o r d s i n  a t t h e same  simple  average  i s 42.5%,  of high  a r e more  records  i s no  The  a r e more  f o r maximum r e a d i n g s  i n t e n s i v e study  and d r y p e r i o d s .  wide-spread  f o r t h e minimum  The a r e a s  minimum  likely  or temporally  pattern  tendency  and south,  a common y e a r  seems c l e a r  to  wet y e a r .  t h e wet y e a r s  are dry.  i s the southwest.  Some r e g i o n a l t e n d e n c i e s  some  words,  a general  i s f a r more  suggesting  a wide-spread  variability  the dry years  tendency  tendency  f o r the thirty-  f o r t h e maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n  the southeast  northeast  the general  than  i n other  t o show year  that  likely  the average  tation  the  appear  i s more  positive  ally  a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e t a b l e s a n d maps  and are  pattern  dry periods. apparent,  p e r i o d might  i n timing  either  reveal  or p l a c i n g o f  CHAPTER  The in  Seminar  Chapter  ments  and  I  VI  on  S U B - B A S I N S OP  International  brought  into  conclusions  its  THE  FRASER  River  Basins  discussions  concerning  the  the  referred following  sub-basin  as  a  to com-  unit:  ...to attempt to d e a l . . . s e p a r a t e l y or i n an u n c o o r d i n a t e d manner w i t h p a r t s o f a r i v e r b a s i n (for water c o n t r o l purposes) i s to i g n o r e i t s essential hydrologic unity. The s u b - b a s i n , . . ( i s ) an excellent a r e a l u n i t i n which to examine the d e t a i l e d operation of the i n t r i c a t e i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p of the hydrologic cycle...over the b a s i n as a whole.24 The m a g n i t u d e o f the b e n e f i t s w h i c h c a n be der i v e d from the water r e s o u r c e s o f a r i v e r b a s i n depend upon the extent of the supply a v a i l a b l e i n different p a r t s o f the b a s i n and at d i f f e r e n t times of the year.25 In  the  introductory  importance gathering the  bulk  i s t i c s  of  conclude  of of  of  using data  this  the i t  J . D .  25  Ibid,  and  by  means  11.  river  basin of  deals.with  Basin. of  within  ed.  emphasis  planning  study  Chapman, p.  the  Fraser  characteristics  24  chapter  It  as  placed  a  basic  resource the  is  framework  International  on unit  the  development,  and  precipitation  the of  major the  River  the for  appropriate  summarizing the  was  character-  perhaps  to  precipitation  sub-basins  Basin,  p.  1.  (map  33).  1 Upper Fraser 2 Stuart 3 Nechako 4 West Road 5 Quesnel 6 Chilcotin 25  o  7 8 9 10 II 12 SO  13 Bridcje IOO  North Thompson South Thompson Thompson Middle Fraser Lillooet Lower Fraser 150  too  79  THE UPPER FRASER SUB-BASIN The Upper F r a s e r S u b - b a s i n i n c l u d e s the p o r t i o n o f the r i v e r e x t e n d i n g from i t s source Nechako a t P r i n c e George. landforms,  to the j u n c t i o n o f the  I t c o n t a i n s a v a r i e t y o f major  i n c l u d i n g the n o r t h e r n s e c t i o n of the windward •  s l o p e of the C a r i b o o Mountains d r a i n e d by the W i l l o w R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s , the leeward  s l o p e s o f the  Cariboo  Mountains and the windward s l o p e s o f the Rocky M o u n t a i n s , as w e l l as the p r o t e c t e d Rocky Mountain Trench.  Although  t h i s i s the l a r g e s t o f the s u b - d i v i s i o n s (12,800 square m i l e s ) to be d i s c u s s e d , i t c o n t a i n s no major l a k e s .  The  g e n e r a l c l i m a t e has been d e s c r i b e d as a l p i n e humid c o n t i n e n 13,1  o  T o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s h i g h i n the mountainous s e c t i o n s (50 to 100  i n c h e s per y e a r , p r o b a b l y e x c e e d i n g  but much l e s s i n the T r e n c h . 4180  this i n places)  B a r k e r v i l l e , a t an e l e v a t i o n o f  f e e t on the windward s i d e o f the C a r i b o o M o u n t a i n s , a v e r -  ages 40.2  i n c h e s , w h i l e McBride,  these mountains, averages 20.3  a t 2400 f e e t i n the l e e o f  inches.  In summer and autumn  the C a r i b o o Mountains are one of the w e t t e s t areas o f the  26  F r a s e r R i v e r B o a r d , P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t on F l o o d C o n t r o l and H y d r o - e l e c t r i c Power i n the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n , V i c t o r i a , 1958, P l a t e 2K. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of g e n e r a l c l i m a t e o f sub-basins i n t h i s c h a p t e r are based on t h i s r e f e r e n c e .  Basin  (over  15  noticeably Cranberry  inches  drier, Lake.  The  i n  the  there  inches  mean  annual  is  in  Basin.  ments  of  valley, spring the  air a  from  larger i n  f a l l ,  reverse  is  true  Upper  distribution in and  summer, the  monthly The  v i l l e )  has  summer  month  minima  in  of  the  annual).  has  an  autumn  and  spring  ity  between  variations months  of  (April  and  seasonal in  and  in  and  the  of  the  is  Trench  the of  a  light  Mountains.  of  here  In  annual  as  anywhere  exposed  to  Gap  Nechako  and  snowfall side  of  remarkably (20.6% in  annual the  and  winter  months  of  5.7%  move-  occurs  the  in  mountains  in  even  winter  at  totals  show  month  of  January, May  position  November,  i n  5.6%)  minimum.  is  borne  out  by  the  occurrence  (3  to  sub-basin.  the  with l  the'  10.3%  (Barker-  in  (6.1%  and  this  small  Mountains annual)  and  26.9%  Barkerville),  of  April  seasonal  spring,  9.5%  and  annual  minimum  in  Cariboo  rainshadow  proportions of  high  annual  26.3%  (9.7%,  May,  have  ( B a ^ k - e r ^ v l l l e ^ ^ p i l ) - ~•••  Skeena  has  and  slope  the  near  l o c a l i t i e s .  (September  proportion  maximum  the  section  proportion as  precipitation  spring  maximum  the  sub-basin  maxima  McBride  is  being  sub-basin  Coast  pack  the  snow  on  many  windward  two  snow  of  autumn,  June  the  v i a  percentages  similar  this  coast  in  in  to  Trench  southern  Barkerville  annual  26.2%  variation.  of  of  of  the  Since  while  Fraser  the  and  as  proportion  than  The  heavy  f a l l s  the  in  compared a  with  regions  snowfall),  which  Fraser  high  winter  precipitation the  season)  particularly  precipitation mountains  per  and  Trench  and The very 5%)  6.4%  10.2%) similarslight between  81 THE  The  Stuart River  Skeena Mountains, Prince  George.  in  Praser  the  miles)  The  shows an basin,  total  area  keeping the  the  286  small  Map  (6,810  i s alpine arctic  the  station  land r i s e s  square,  4 (annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n )  climate  where  northern  S t u a r t and. T r e m b l e u r ,  The  (4.6,  4.5  considerably less but  still  a proportion  in this  at Port  from  (2.7  river  S t . James  on  the  to  the  north  enter  Because  inches  inches)  inches).  makes up  Basin.  o f 16.0  distributed  4.2  c o m p a r a b l e to  relation  total  i s the most  one  and  which f a l l s  Stuart  the  borders  plateau  to  the  Skeena Mountains.  winter  to  o f the  to m o d e r a t e p r e c i p i t a t i o n  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  Fraser  and  square m i l e s .  and  the  Nechako b e t w e e n V a n d e r h o o f  large lakes, Takla,  evenly  inches)  the  Though r e l a t i v e l y  (2280 f e e t ) i s f a i r l y  is  rainshadow of  i s only  sub-basin  The  joins  i n the  there  records.  Omenica and  southeast  three  o f low  although  flows  sub-basin  system.  i t contains  whose a r e a s  of  and  STUART SUB-BASIN  36.2% that of  through  but  the  i n the  entire  location  i n autumn and  constitutes a relatively  precipitation  f o r each  winter).  Despite  influence  i s stronger, here  central  cold the  to r e g i o n s  (58.0  part  sub-basin a i r from  proportion of  where  of in the  amount-of snow  ( 2 9 . 4 % i n autumn and  i t s proximity  in spring  precipitation—  of t h i s  winter, high  summer, autumn,  i s moderate  annual  through v a l l e y s which permit freely  St.James  the' amount  Snowfall  of  the  at Fort  87.5% the  the\continental pattern  the in  maritime dominates  with  the As  tion  result i n the  and  winter  transition where  the  20.6%  to  Lake. July  range 26.9%  (10.9%) May  Fraser  even:  26.3%  the of  of  Barkerville Stuart  November  The  effects  The  opposite  The  main  rim  of  Coast  Nechako  portion  the  basin  Mountains  drainage  area.  Fraser  (12,200  as  Ootsa  the  to  the  Skeena  It  i s one  square  west.  square  miles),  Tahtsa  (20  square  miles).  been  Kemano,  which  has  diverted  i n the the  To  the  the  marked  of  in April  of  (4.6%)  maximum distance  and from  quite  by  of  which in  lies  low.  numerous  square  the  water  volume  the  of  on  of  square miles), the  Mountains  water  the  and  West  large  from  Moun-  George.  north  sub-basins  Coast  Caast  rises  the  (22  the  the  Prince  W h i t e s a i l (41  through the  of  south  larger  Tetachuk  decreased  the  Alkali  months  sub-basin  west  Mountains  Part  of  i n the  and  lee  i s plateau,  miles),  (96  has  of  miles)  square  44.4%  minima  the  south  SUB-BASIN  to  area  Eutsuk  Plateau  Gap  the  the  occur  in  a  i n c r e a s e d from to  rainshadow  lies  of  on  (50  of  autumn  shows  farther  i s t h e r e f o r e summer  NECHAKO  Skeena  12.5%  spring  distribu-  28.7%,  This  common  with  precipitation  sub-basin  the  the  (10.3%),  minimum.  THE  summer  total.  sub-basin  regime  total  to  than  seasonal  p r o p o r t i o n s has  The  keep  17.0%,  annual  i n autumn  the  distribution  (5.4%).  ocean  tains  the  seasonal  i n the and  sub-basin  spring  uneven  of  Maxima  spring the  to  snowfall i s greater  Upper  is relatively  28.0%  and  that  this  the. Road  the lakes  su  miles), and Nechako to drainage  area  contributes  to  the  The  of  this  climate  main  s t a t i o n s are  2093  feet  in  the  eastern  2900  feet  in  the  west.  a  four-year  pitation located  the  of  Burns  Lake  Precipitation from  the  Plateau the is  minimum to  the  Cariboo  Mountains Pacific Fraser  by  to  The  of  total  high  on  east  record  a  Vanderhoof  east,  lee  has  with  Wistaria  of  Lake due  indication  of  20  of  the  at  has  only  preci-  Stations  inches, across  Mountains some  this  are  also  times  Skeena  Gap  West,  Nechako  eastward of  year in  of  toward  the  the  area  Coast  maritime  the  reflect in  records  the  Fort  in  the  Gap  entry  station  smaller  and  increasing  Stuart  and  Upper  noted. the  the  influence  lee  75.2  of  range.  inches.  totals, George,  p o s i t i o n from  larger precipitation  Stations  of  the  "carrj-over" effect  a mountain  inches.  feet)  at  River..  been  to  (2830  Mountains.  at  The  i t s downwind the  and  West  precipitation  Tahtsa  13.9  basin,  a i r , the  already  mountains.  slope  Vanderhoof  permits frequent  progressively  reflects  Mountains  arctic  The  and  westward  Coast  continental.  feet  exceeds  Though  i s doubtless  the  some  Nadina  the  annual  Mountains,  the  Coast  influence  sub-basins  high  nd  of  1862  Lake  Vanderhoof  cold  surrounding  Coast  the and  the-west  air.  Records the  gives  Mountains.  dominated  at of  generally  at  lee  end  i s humid  Tahtsa  but  lee  River.  basin  George  record,  in at  Fort  Fraser  to  This common the  Wistaria  18.0  inches  though  still  farther  the  Cariboo-Rocky  average  of  21.0  inches.  As  i n the  annual  two  northern  snowfall varies  ground at Vanderhoof rapidly 462.1  toward  snow.  The  snow.  a moderate  to 77.7  two-fifths  i n c h e s on  inches at W i s t a r i a ,  o f the a n n u a l  distinguishing  the  records  clearly  on map  19  sub-basin  falls  the F r a s e r B a s i n w i t h  less  Percentages  west—a result Skeena  i s the o n l y one than  the  i n t h e form  perof  s p r i n g minimum the  decrease  influence  total  in  east  to  from  effected  by  figures  f o r the 28.2%  (Vanderhoof  long-term of annual,  stations  the  17.5%, W i s t a r i a ,  (43«3%) i t shows a d i s t i n c t  evidence  o f the m a r i t i m e  months o f maximum v a r y  so w i d e l y  that  can be made f o r the  generalization  although A p r i l  28.8%)  16.9%). a  Alwinter  summer minimum ( 6 . 3 % ) -  influence. from  suggest  Wistaria,  s h o r t r e c o r d o f T a h t s a Lake West i n d i c a t e s  maximum a l s o  no  seasonal  Gap.  a w i n t e r maximum ( V a n d e r h o o f  further  80%)  i n the n o r t h e r n p a r t o f  o f the  i n the Nechako  o f the m a r i t i m e  Precipitation  though  90%  as  i n the s n o w f a l l  which i l l u s t r a t e s  that  falls  Though r e c o r d i n g a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f snow ( o v e r  form.  low  increasing  precipitation  characteristic  of winter p r e c i p i t a t i o n  the Nechako  and  54.0  I n common w i t h much o f t h e F r a s e r B a s i n  p a t t e r n appears centage  from  the m o u n t a i n s where T a h t s a L a k e West  inches.  approximately  that  sub-basins p r e v i o u s l y d e s c r i b e d , the  one  The  station  specific to  another  s u b - b a s i n a s a whole  i s the most g e n e r a l month o f minimum.  THE The miles)  WEST ROAD SUB-BASIN  West R o a d R i v e r d r a i n s a s m a l l a r e a  (4,740  o f d i s s e c t e d p l a t e a u and l o w mountains and forms the  boundary between t h e Nechako and F r a s e r P l a t e a u x . a nd i t s t r i b u t a r i e s f l o w through t h e T e l e g r a p h tinue eastward i n a deeply plateau  surface.  are h i g h e r  sub-basin; drainage  West o f t h i s  on  sub-basin  consequently  2 0 0 0 f e e t below the the Coast  ground.  the slopes  Probably  the annual  i n the v a l l e y s , exceeding  A high proportion o f this  this  precipitation  2 0 inches  total falls  on t h e a s snow  o f t h e C o a s t M o u n t a i n s and i n t h e U g a c h u k a n d  ward p o s i t i o n o f t h e s u b - b a s i n  Judging  i nrelation  seems r e a s o n a b l e  from the l e e -  t o t h e C o a s t Moun-  t a i n s and a l s o from t h e regimes i n s u r r o u n d i n g  regions, i t  t o assume a summer maximum and s p r i n g minimum. THE  Quesnel R i v e r  QUESNEL SUB-BASIN d r a i n s t h e windward slope o f t h e Cariboo  M o u n t a i n s and the n o r t h e a s t e r n  miles)  within  i n f e r e n c e s must be drawn f r o m t h e  I t c h a Mountains which l i e to the south.  large  Mountains  p a t t e r n and p e r i p h e r a l s t a t i o n s s u c h a s Q u e s n e l ,  1 5 to 2 0 inches  The  Range and c o n -  s t a t i o n h a s never been o p e r a t e d  Soda C r e e k , a n d B i g C r e e k .  higher  eroded channel  The r i v e r  than i n t h e r e g i o n o f t h e Nechako t o t h e n o r t h .  A climatic  is  square  part o f the Fraser P l a t e a u .  l a k e s , Quesnel ( 1 0 5 square m i l e s )  and H o r s e f l y  Two  ( 2 3 square  a s w e l l a s many s m a l l e r o n e s a t t e s t t o t h e m o d e r a t e l y  heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n this  sub-basin  drained  by  and  low  i s a hundred  the  evaporation  i n the  square m i l e s  West R o a d R i v e r  area.  smaller  the Q u e s n e l  Though  than  that  contributes  a  27 greater  amount o f w a t e r  Horsefly data  L a k e , and  concerning  which  lies  plateau,  Barkerville tative  of  the  sub-basin  the  of  beyond  large  mountains d r a i n e d  Fraser.  by  although  f e e t below the  a record just  the  S t a t i o n s at  Q u e s n e l , b o t h town and  some 1500  has  to  basin  transitional the  length  level to be  i s probably area  provide  only Quesnel  general  sufficient the  airport,  Bullion,  itself  of  the  reliable.  more  represen-  between p l a t e a u  Quesnel r i v e r  and  s y s t e m t h a n any  other  station. A n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n r a n g e s f r o m 20.6 and  23.5  inches  at B u l l i o n  probably  e x c e e d s 60  Snowfall  a v e r a g e s 70  at  Barkerville,  precipitation. fall at 27  inches to  75  accounting The  greater  to 40.2  at  mountainous  inches  plateau  on  the  for a third proportion  e l e v a t i o n s throughout  Quesnel  i n c h e s "at B a r k e r v i l l e .  i n the h i g h e r  a t B a r k e r v i l l e i n d i c a t e s the  higher  inches  of  Fraser  195.1  the  snow i n s p r i n g  c o a s t a l Influence  the  regions.  with  to a h a l f o f  Basin,  It  total than  recurrent  in contrast  F r a s e r R i v e r Board, P r e l i m i n a r y Report, Hydrometric Data a c c o m p a n y i n g p l a t e 2H. Average d i s c h a r g e f i g u r e s are not a v a i l a b l e f o r the West Road R i v e r s i n c e the g a u g i n g s t a t i o n , o n l y o p e r a t e s i n the open s e a s o n . Maximum f i g u r e s a r e 7,260 c . f . s . f o r the West Road, 3 8 , 5 0 0 c . f . s . a t Q u e s n e l s t a t i o n on the Q u e s n e l R i v e r .  to  the c o n t i n e n t a l  characteristic  o f more i n autumn  s p r i n g on t h e p l a t e a u a t Q u e s n e l . term a v e r a g e record  July  At B a r k e r v i l l e  than  on a l o n g -  i s t h e o n l y month o f t h e y e a r w h i c h  snowfall.  Distribution  o f annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i s quite  even i n  summer, autumn, and w i n t e r a t t h e h i g h e r e l e v a t i o n s spring  the season  o f minimum.  While  summer shows a g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e any  other season,  Quesnel  the c o n t r a s t  throughout  i n this  edge o f t h e a r e a o f summer maximum. at Quesnel,  the p l a t e a u and u p l a n d r e g i o n s , minimum  throughout  exemplifies  upper  showing  levels  than  from  with 30.1% to  region  we  encounter  A c t u a l months o f  b u t June and J a n u a r y  while A p r i l  the s u b - b a s i n .  near Quesnel  the sub-basin  i n summer p e r c e n t a g e s  w i t h 26.9% shows t h a t  maximum a r e June and J u l y  with  o f annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  w i t h 40.2% o f the a n n u a l p a s t B u l l i o n  Barkerville the  does n o t  i s the month o f  I n g e n e r a l terms  the dry c o n t i n e n t a l  humid c o n t i n e n t a l  on  the a r e a  climate,  w i t h the  characteristics.  THE CHILCOTIN SUB-BASIN  The consists  m a j o r i t y o f the 7,560-square m i l e C h i l c o t i n o f the s e m i - a r i d F r a s e r P l a t e a u .  snow-capped p e a k s r i s i n g  o v e r 10,000 f e e t  to t h e west and t h e s i z e  of Chilko  indicate reaches  a heavy p r e c i p i t a t i o n . the F r a s e r  Rivers rise  since  Lake  The a p p e a r a n c e i n the Coast  (70 s q u a r e  Much o f t h i s ,  to t h e west  of  Mountains  miles)  however, n e v e r  t h e Homathko, K l i n a k l i n i  i n the l e e o f but d r a i n  sub-basin  and Dean  through the  88 Coast Mountains to the P a c i f i c The c l i m a t e  Ocean,  i s dry continental  i n most o f t h e r e g i o n .  A l e x i s C r e e k and B i g C r e e k a r e t h e o n l y  l o w e r t h a n r:or,.l. o f t h e sub-' ""'-  sub-basin, both at elevations basin  1  elevations.  Their  two s t a t i o n s i n t h e 1  records f o r annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n are  9.3 a n d 12.4 i n c h e s r e s p e c t i v e l y , a t h i r d o f w h i c h f a l l s snow.  Like  snowfall  the general  climate  shows t h e c o n t i n e n t a l  stations receive  the greater influence.  as  autumn t h a n In winter  9 5 % o f t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n a s snow.  spring  both Similarly  the  c o n t i n e n t a l s p r i n g minimum a n d summer maximum a p p e a r s i n  the  seasonal p r e c i p i t a t i o n pattern,  with  a c t u a l maxima i n t h e  months o f J u n e a n d A u g u s t a n d m i n i m a i n M a r c h o r A p r i l . THE BRIDGE  SUB-BASIN  The B r i d g e s u b - b a s i n ( 1 8 5 0 s q u a r e m i l e s ) of  the F r a s e r  Basin.  except f o r a small  It lies  entirely  portion of plateau  i c e f i e l d s a t the source o f the r i v e r it  a l a t e and p r o l o n g e d f l o w  Since there  a r e no l a r g e  times very high. influences the  affect  i n i t s climate,  altitude  The giving  meltwater.  i n t h i s sub-basin runoff  i s at  continental  the p r e c i p i t a t i o n b e i n g g r e a t e r i n  west a n d s o u t h t h a n i n t h e n o r t h Little  Mountains  i t s regimen,  The a r e a i s a l p i n e m a r i t i m e w i t h  located at Bralorne, and  the Coast  n o r t h e a s t o f Moha.  from high  lakes  within  i s the smallest  and e a s t .  Stations are  Gunn L a k e , B r i d g e R i v e r  (settlement)  Moha. Bralorne,  representative  of the higher  elevations  (3500  feet),  averages  27.5  spread  over  the  year.  lorne)  hut  only  71.0%  snow.  This  the  the  to  fluence This  first  though  reflects  i s markedly  in a of  one the  slopes  North  of  junction  the at  the  Cariboo  square  miles)  Middle  Fraser  and  is a  River  itself,  Premier ever  the  Plateau (26  with  square  the  the  Braas  figures both  for  the  prox-  latitude  of  continental i n -  spring snowfall.  winter  of  at  occurs  southern  than  to  show  maximum  minimum  a  clearly  and  is April,  summer which  flows  and  a  SUB-BASIN  from  across  South on  east of  by  large  through tributary  d r a i n s many Canim  (21  southern  Eraser  Thompson. the  the  west on  the  on  narrow which lakes, square  by  Thompson  the  sub-basin.  North  Thompson  peaks  of  confining valleys. flows the  from  the  largest  miles).  area  Quesnel,  north  11,000-foot  to i t s  drainage  the  the  windward  Plateau  The  by  South  lakes  i n the  the  the  sub-basins,  i t rises  west,  miles)  the  lack  Clearwater, i n the  the  mentioned a  flows  i s bounded  and  since and  more  autumn  Mountains  Thompson  complete  Group  than  indicating  NORTH THOMPSON  Thompson R i v e r  Mountains  the  months  inches  continental pattern.  Kamloops  There  less  with  unevenly-  precipitation  sub-basins  regime,  of  (7,000  Cariboo  larger  the  THE  The  winter  (102.7  c o n t r a s t , however,  precipitation  minimum, again  In  i s obvious  coastal  the  i s high  i n f l u e n c e s and  River.  i s the  of  precipitation,  previously considered,  maritime  Bridge  annual  Snowfall  proportion  sub-basins  imity  inches  The  the How-  Fraser  being  Murtle  northern  90  mountainous southern  r e g i o n has  plateau  is  dry  From B l u e R i v e r precipitation The most  where  the are  segment  the  humid c l i m a t e ,  north 37.6  of  evidence  and  the  from the  indicates  Snowfall,  like  total  precipitation,  north,  but  as  snow v a r i e s  somewhat  with  represents sub-basin  the  little  40.2% o f a  annual  proportion  throughout  elevation. the  continental  the  coast-like  summer winter  maximum i n  the  South  eastern tains  Lake  than not  extremity to  (123  (22  North  Thompson  rise  Shuswap  smaller  the  in  the  reach  of  the  east.  a drier  mountains,  those  of  the  (5050  Cariboo  in  most  inches.  amount  larger  which  warmer  increasing of  snow  in April,  southern  part  the with and  SUB-BASIN  counterpart miles)  where lie  the  in  north.  the  west,  marks  the  south-  the  miles)  This  climate  to  Monashee  within  square  elevations the  occurs  north.  square  (53  from  Throughout  strongly  largest.  to  60  inches  lakes  the'  although  Barkerville  Lake 68.5  Basin,  Adams  and  at over  Cariboo  although  the  Several  being  station  northern  Fraser  miles),  miles)  Thompson has  its  sub-basin  square  square  than  the  valley,  THE SOUTH THOMPSON  Somewhat  respectively.  precipitation  the  south  in  precipitation.  maximum i n  the  is  totals  of  At Knouff annual  inches  increases  the  s p r i n g minimum a p p e a r s  the  16.5  sub-basin  types  to  the  and C h i n o o k Cove i n  and v e g e t a t i o n  south  while  continental.  in  averages  northern  Mountains  an a l p i n e  area  on the  the  sub-basin,  and  Mabel  like  the  plateau  Monashee  As i s  Moun-  common  do in  91  other  sub-basins,  many o f t h e e l e v e n s t a t i o n s  i n the South  Thompson a r e s i t u a t e d i n deep r i v e r v a l l e y s a n d t h e r e i s l i t t l e precise  d a t a f o r the u p l a n d s .  K a m l o o p s a t a n e l e v a t i o n o f 1133  f e e t i n t h e w e s t a n d M a l a k w a a t 1400 f e e t c l o s e t o t h e h i g h p o r t i o n o f t h e Monashee M o u n t a i n s a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  1  Although  W e s t w o l d a t 2125 f e e t i s t h e h i g h e s t s t a t i o n i n t h e b a s i n , i t i s . s i t u a t e d on a h i g h p l a t e a u a n d l e s s the m o u n t a i n s than  the lower  Annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  t y p i c a l of the r e g i o n near  s t a t i o n a t Malakwa.  i n c r e a s e s eastward  f r o m 10.2 i n c h e s  a t K a m l o o p s t o 21.2 i n c h e s a t Tappen and 29.6 i n c h e s a t M a l a k w a . Kamloops i s i n t h e a r e a o f l o w annual gation i s essential on i n t h e a r e a . to e a s t  p r e c i p i t a t i o n where  f o r many o f t h e t y p e s o f a g r i c u l t u r e  The a n n u a l  irricarried  s n o w f a l l a l s o i n c r e a s e s from west  ( K a m l o o p s 2 9 . 2 , T a p p e n 6 8 . 3 , M a l a k w a 103.9 i n c h e s )  though the p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e annual remains f a i r l y  constant.  L i k e other i n t e r i o r  t h i s r e g i o n h a s a g r e a t e r autumn snow c o m p r i s e s The w e s t e r n  p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r r i n g a s snow  than  c o n t i n e n t a l areas  spring snowfall.  80 t o 9 0 % o f t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n  i n that  Winter season.  p l a t e a u r e g i o n h a s summer maximum p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  while the higher  e a s t e r n p o r t i o n h a s a w i n t e r maximum.  Like  most o f t h e I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u t h i s s u b - b a s i n , h a s a s p r i n g minimum, although  according to l o c a t i o n  o f t h e months i n w h i c h minima  there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  variation  occur.  THE THOMPSON SUB-BASIN. . The Thompson s u b - d i v i s i o n o f t h e F r a s e r B a s i n  occupies  92 7,480 s q u a r e m i l e s and is  and  lies  S o u t h Thompson, and deeply  entrenched  transitional  high  between i t s s u b s i d i a r i e s , the  the  Fraser River.  in a region  of high  g r o u n d between the  Fraser  Okanagan H i g h l a n d s .  lake  west o f Kamloops.  earlier an  chapter,  i n d i c a t i o n of  plateau.  Of  elevation  o f 1000  feet-.: on valley  the  t h a n 20  Merritt  with  the  small  fairly  f e e t i n the  i s the  and  Mamit Lake a t  Kamloops a r e  although  Snow f o r m s 25  lower  the to  of  higher  caastal pattern s p r i n g , 17.0%  the  annual  elevations  s u c h as  large  an  outlet—  semi-arid  Ashcroft  at  an  3300 f e e t i n  most Fraser  of  the  greater  a  representative. Basin, and  with  inches  annual  than  that  in spring,  less  less  nearby Cascades reach 35%  1940  than and  50-inch  precipitation,  of  12.2%  Mamit Lake r e c o r d i n g  continental spring, i n autumn) the  o f a l a r g e r s p r i n g t h a n autumn o c c u r r e n c e , i n autumn).  Again  general  the  s e a s o n o f maximum between t h e and  the  a v e r a g e s 7.4  snowfall  the  Ashcroft  no  in  s t a t i o n s , below 3.000 f e e t , s h o w i n g the  (Ashcroft  in  the  Ashcroft  o f autumn s n o w f a l l  the  has  from  the  Thompson v a l l e y , M e r r i t t a t  characteristic  and  mentioned  sub-basin  runoff  s e c t i o n of  valleys.  inches,  6.8%  As  and  the  area's only  o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n most r e g i o n s  totals.  the  driest  i n the  9.1  The  River  draining  Plateau  six active s t a t i o n s , probably  Nicola River,  inches  inches  annual  in this  between M e r r i t t and  This  10  the  G r e e n Lake  Thompson  plateau,  C a s c a d e M o u n t a i n s and i s situated just  The  North  in this  s e a s o n o f minimum p r e c i p i t a t i o n ,  Mamit L a k e , and  the  sub-basin but  (20.8%  spring i s  a division  occurs  c o n t i n e n t a l summer maximum a t winter  maximum a t M e r r i t t where  in  the C o q u i h a l l a Pass i n the Cascade Mountains influence.  The  effects a coastal  sub-basin cannot be typed as a u n i t but must  be thought of as c o n t a i n i n g both a l p i n e maritime dry c o n t i n e n t a l  and  extremely  climates. THE MIDDLE FRASER SUB-BASIN  The main stem of the F r a s e r from P r i n c e George to Hope i s not a sub-basin i n the true sense, but r a t h e r a 12,600 square mile r e s i d u e when the sub-basins of t r i b u t a r i e s and the more d i s t i n c t r e g i o n s o f the Upper and Lower F r a s e r are removed. F r a s e r R i v e r has cut through plateaux which r i s e that r i v e r and l a n d s u r f a c e s which are 200  The  to the south so  f e e t a p a r t at P r i n c e  George are separated by 4000 f e e t as the r i v e r e n t e r s the Coast Mountains.  Aside from those d i s c u s s e d as separate sub-basins,  the main t r i b u t a r i e s of the Middle F r a s e r are the Cottonwood d r a i n i n g northeastward from the Cariboo Mountains vated humid F r a s e r P l a t e a u around B a r k e r v i l l e ,  and the  the San Jose  r i s i n g i n an area of low p r e c i p i t a t i o n and hence c a r r y i n g water,  and other s h o r t , s w i f t r i v e r s from the Coast  to the west and from the Cascades  little  Mountains  to the south and e a s t .  r i v e r s such as the N a h a t l a t c h and C o q u i h a l l a add volume because  ele-  Little  substantial  t h e i r headwaters are i n h i g h mountainous areas  west and east of the F r a s e r with heavy annual  precipitation.  Since t h i s s e c t i o n of the F r a s e r extends over Ah  degrees  of l a t i t u d e c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s vary g r e a t l y from P r i n c e George to Hope.  Each  s e c t i o n of the main stem has  precipitation  characteristics  similar  which the r i v e r flows.  to those o f the sub-basins  between  For example, between P r i n c e George  and  Quesnel there are humid c o n t i n e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s with 20-inch rainfall,  while from Quesnel southward p r e c i p i t a t i o n to 12.5  steadily  inches at L i l l o o e t and 7.6  wissen Creek, where a 9-year r e c o r d suggests  decreases  inches at L a l u an a r e a almost  as  a r i d as the A s h c r o f t r e g i o n on the Thompson and N i c o l a R i v e r s . Similarly  s n o w f a l l decreases  precipitation  from c l o s e to 40%  of the  annual  i n the north to 25.-9% at L y t t o n .  Where the r i v e r cuts through  the Coast Mountains there i s  a r a p i d t r a n s i t i o n from the dry c o n t i n e n t a l area i n the l e e of these mountains to an a l p i n e maritime Hope.  The  annual  c l i m a t e i n areas above  totals i n this t r a n s i t i o n a l portion increase  downstream from 17.4  inches at L y t t o n , 36.5  inches at  North  Bend, 46.3  inches at H e l l ' s Gate to 56.2  Similarly,  the p r o p o r t i o n which occurs as snow decreases  25.9%  at L y t t o n to 11.1%  at Hope.  inches at Hope. from  ,In c o n t r a s t to the v a r i o u s  amounts quoted f o r s t a t i o n s on the r i v e r , t o t a l s i n the mount a i n s exceed 100  inches of p r e c i p i t a t i o n . THE  LILLOOET SUB-BASIN  The L i l l o o e t sub-basin  i n the heart of the southern  Mountains c o n t a i n s H a r r i s o n Lake (87 square of 3210  square  Fraser Basin. precipitation  miles).  Coast  T h i s area  m i l e s i s the most rugged and p r e c i p i t o u s i n the I t r e c e i v e s heavy autumn, winter, and s p r i n g (which b r i n g s annual  t o t a l s to over 100  inches)  as w e l l as an enormous amount o f snow. Lillooet  i s i n the s n o w f i e l d s  area as the Bridge The  The source  o f the  east o f Toba I n l e t i n the same  River.  c l i m a t e i s a l p i n e maritime with  strong continental  i n f l u e n c e s i n the n o r t h , g r a d u a l l y changing to a f u l l y climate i n the south.  maritime  Pemberton Meadows (8G0 f e e t ) and Pember-  ton Hatchery (840 f e e t ) on the L i l l o o e t R i v e r are t y p i c a l o f the f l o o r of the v a l l e y .  These two s t a t i o n s average a p r e -  c i p i t a t i o n o f 36.2 and 30.8 inches r e s p e c t i v e l y , while, to the west A l t a Lake at 2100 f e e t r e c o r d s 53.8 i n c h e s . Snowfall  f i g u r e s present  striking contrasts.  Meadows 96.2 inches o f snow r e p r e s e n t s c i p i t a t i o n , while  26,5%  At Pemberton  of the t o t a l  pre-  the 43.9 inches at Pemberton Hatchery, which i s  i n a through v a l l e y exposed to warmer maritime i n f l u e n c e i n winter, r e p r e s e n t s  only 14.3%, and A l t a Lake where 212.9  inches  of snow i s 38.4% of the annual t o t a l  shows the e f f e c t s o f both  maritime a i r and g r e a t e r e l e v a t i o n .  At the low s t a t i o n s on the  river fall  the c o n t i n e n t a l p a t t e r n o f g r e a t e r autumn than s p r i n g snowi s evident.  For a l l three s t a t i o n s p r e c i p i t a t i o n shows a  winter maximum and summer minimum, although diversity  28  there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n the s p e c i f i c months o f maxima and minima.  F r a s e r R i v e r Board, P r e l i m i n a r y Report, Snow Survey Data accompanying p l a t e 2G. Snow course at T r a n q u i l l e Lake at am e l e v a t i o n of 5 5 0 0 f e e t r e c o r d s a maximum snow depth o f 149 i n c h e s .  THE  The one  of  most d e n s e l y  the  lakes,  The  Coast  Stave  region  and  s u b - d i v i s i o n of  lower E r a s e r Basin—and  (25  square m i l e s )  encompasses p a r t  C a s c a d e M o u n t a i n s and  Thirty-seven  serious  populated  SUB-BASIN  s m a l l e s t , 3250 s q u a r e m i l e s .  s u c h as  miles). the  LOWER ERASER  continuous  from f a l l  and  of the  Pitt  the  flooding.  At  (21  large square  windward s i d e  coastal  of  plain. data  in  the  highest  in  spring, occasionally  higher  is  some  Lake  i s heavy—the  to  Basin  It contains  stations record p r e c i p i t a t i o n  valley. Precipitation  local  the  e l e v a t i o n s the  the  causing  climate  is  29 alpine maritime the  the  snowpack e x c e p t i o n a l l y h e a v y ,  lower maritime r e g i o n  Only here  does i t r a i n  Within from south inches, Island 65.5  to n o r t h Agassiz  63.2  40.2  inches,  New  feet,  Lake at  103.7  Although  inches,  s t a t i o n s at  snow—some  30  inches,  56.5  inches,  inches—it  inches  of  (Sea  f o o t of  over  Alouette  100  that  snow i n a  the  inches—  Lake a t  f e e t , 138.1  i s assumed  61.2  Burquitlam  the  stations record inches,  winters.  increase  to e a s t  l a k e s r e c o r d u n d e r 6% o f  M o u n t a i n s e x c e e d 200  Basin.  Chilliwack  Against  S t a v e Lake a t 425  these  Fraser  shows an  f r o m west  inches).  f e e t , 138.1  t o 40  and  Westminster  and  while  t h a n snow t h r o u g h o u t most  inches)  Haney 91.8  528  i n the  annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n  M o u n t a i n s even l o w - l e v e l  Coquitlam  mildest  ( C u l t u s Lake 58.0  and  and  i s the  rather  this valley  inches,  Coast  as  and  516  inches. their  the  total  peaks  of  the  Coast  29  F r a s e r R i v e r B o a r d , P r e l i m i n a r y R e p o r t , Snow S u r v e y D a t a a c c o m p a n y i n g p l a t e 2G. Snow C o u r s e at C y p r e s s Lake n e a r M i s s i o n at an e l e v a t i o n o f 1100 f e e t r e c o r d s a maximum d e p t h o f 102 inches.  year.  Stations  over  y o n d the  limits  inches  per  The  2000 f e e t  year  of  this  seasonal  Lytton,  New  from  the  from  200  "be-  to  800  snowfall.  coast  i n summer, 28.8%  month o f w i n t e r  Mountains  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n  Westminster p r o v i d e s  s p r i n g , 9.4%  Coast  area range  r e c o r d of  distribution  proportions  The  drainage  in their  constant  in  i n p a r t s o f the  through  a typical  shows  fairly  the m o u n t a i n s  to  example w i t h  21.2%  i n autumn, and  40.7%  in  maximum i s December, w i t h m i n i m a i n  summer months o f J u l y and  winter. the  August.  CONCLUSION  The  re-examination  divisions  of  the  Fraser Basin  within  the  Basin,  and  the  same t i m e  of  at the  Basin  istic,  In  findings" appeared of  the  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n  the  great the  diversity  strong  of patterns  which r e c u r  clarified  arbitrary  or  this  illogical  or b o u n d a r i e s  on  the  contrasts distribution,  a common  "cross-examination  divisions  in  n a t u r a l sub-  i n scattered parts  where e x p o s u r e o r e l e v a t i o n p r o d u c e  statement  was  b a s i s of  made e a r l y i n t h i s  division  analysis i s helpful  planning  the  the  the  i n the  of  character  data  t h a t may  and have  the d e s c r i p t i o n s  larger Basin.  The  of  emphasizes  aspects  some i n s t a n c e s has  data  development o f  sub-basins'  the  necessary Fraser  illustrated,  paucity  at p r e s e n t  first,  the  as  Basin,  precipitation patterns  a r e a l b a s i s has of data  and  chapter  on  areas  that  a  sub-  a preliminary This  to  examination  a temporal i n which  and the  a v a i l a b l e makes f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s  difficult  i f not  impossible.  R o a d R i v e r b a s i n and must be before  initiated.  be  same time  sufficient  the  area. on  so  the  along with  d a t a can  areas  be  f o r which  to m a j o r  survey  but  which cannot  data.  wide v a r i a t i o n  The  c o n t i n e n t a l and thesis,  landforms  of s i t e  and  most  from  together i s not  the  general  locations  i n primary  important,  the main c h a p t e r s  o f the  the  and  might  secondary  refined  with  an  sub-basin  revealed in a l l  adequat'e number  which p l a n n i n g f o r F r a s e r  analyses  the  t h e s i s 'provides  of patterns of p r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r areas  at  entirely  minimum, f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h i n many o f  some r e f i n e m e n t s  further  West  the F r a s e r Canyon  the p r e c i p i t a t i o n  evidence  relative  o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e r e c o r d s , on ment o r  the  frequently in this  A detailed  In a d d i t i o n ,  a basic description with  illustrated  b a s i s of present  months o f maximum and  discussion  as  e x p l a n a t i o n o f the many v a r i a t i o n s  o f an  sub-basins.  such  the  i n some r e p r e s e n t a t i v e l o c a t i o n s  a b a s i c knowledge o f  of stations  throw more l i g h t  areas,  i t has  i n f l u e n c e s noted  with p o s i t i o n  pattern  stations  reveal conflicting  e x p l a i n e d on  coastal  valleys  d e p e n d e n t on p r e c i p i t a t i o n  Secondly,  records provide the  "through"  provided with any-planning  O b v i o u s l y «uch a r e a s as  of p r e c i p i t a t i o n  may  'be  developbased.  BIBLIOGRAPHY B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e , Climate o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Tables o f Temperature. 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G e r l a c h , A.C., P r e c i p i t a t i o n of Western Washington, T h e s i s , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1944.  Ph.D.  Glover, J . , Robinson, P. and Henderson, P.J., " P r o v i s i o n a l Maps o f R e l i a b i l i t y o f R a i n f a l l i n East A f r i c a " , Q u a r t e r l y J o u r n a l Royal M e t e o r o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y , 1954, v o l . 80, no. 346, p. 602-609. Gregory,. S., L e t t e r , t o the w r i t e r , 23 June,  1961.  Hare, F.K., The Climate o f the I s l a n d of Newfoundland: a Geographical A n a l y s i s , E x t r a c t from Geographical B u l l e t i n No. 2, 1952. Hare, F.K.,  L e t t e r to the w r i t e r , 16 June,  Harry, K.F. and'Wright, J*B., The Climate M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, Department Canada, 1957, Cir-2985 Tech 258.  1961. of Vancouver, of Transport,  Jones, O.D. Temperature and P r e c i p i t a t i o n Trends and V a r i a t i o n s o f .the F r a s e r R i v e r B a s i n , Honours Graduating Essay, Department o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1953. Kendrew, W.G. and Kerr, D., Climate o f B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon T e r r i t o r y , Ottawa, Queen*s P r i n t e r , 1955. Kidd, G.J.A., "Water Supply F o r e c a s t i n g i n B r i t i s h T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Sixth. B r i t i s h Columbia Resources Conference, V i c t o r i a , 1953. Lansberg, H.E.,  L e t t e r to the w r i t e r , 6 J u l y ,  1961.  Columbia" Natural ~"  101  Landsberg, H.E., " S t a t i s t i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n t o the Climatology o f R a i n f a l l i n Oahu, (T.H.)" The R a i n f a l l o f Hawaii, r e p r i n t e d from M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Monographs, v o l . 1, no. 3, June, 1951, pp.7-23. Longley, R.W., "Measures of V a r i a b i l i t y o f P r e c i p i t a t i o n " , Monthly Weather Review. 1952, v o l . 80, no. 7* M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , Canada, General Summaries o f H o u r l y Weather O b s e r v a t i o n s P a r t I, Toronto, 1955. P o t t e r , J.G., Mean D u r a t i o n and Accumulation o f Snow Cover i n Canada. M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, Department of T r a n s p o r t , Canada, 1958. Ramsden, H.T., "Hydrometric Surveys", T r a n s a c t i o n s of the Second B r i t i s h Columbia N a t u r a l Resources Conf e r e n c e . V i c t o r i a , 1949. Sabbagh, M.A. and Bryson, R.A., "Aspects of the P r e c i p i t a t i o n C l i m a t o l o g y of Canada I n v e s t i g a t e d by the Method o f Harmonic A n a l y s i s " , Annals o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f American Geographers, v o l . 52, no. 4, pp. 426-440. Sherman, J.C., The P r e c i p i t a t i o n o f E a s t e r n Washington, Ph.D. T h e s i s , S e a t t l e , Washington, 1947. Thomas, M.K.,  Letter  to the w r i t e r , 20 June,  1961.  Thomas, M.K., Winter Season S n o w f a l l Data, M e t e o r o l o g i c a l Branch, Department o f T r a n s p o r t , 1957, Cir-2994 CLI-17. Walker, E.R., A Synoptic C l i m a t o l o g y f o r P a r t s of the Western C o r d i l l e r a , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , Montreal, A r c t i c Meteorology Research Group, P u b l i c a t i o n i n Meteorology No. 35, 1961. Weir, T.R., Ranching i n the Southern I n t e r i o r P l a t e a u of B r i t i s h ColumbTa, Ottawa, G e o g r a p h i c a l Branch, Department of Mines and T e c h n i c a l Surveys, 1955, Memoir 4.  102  APPENDIX I  History of Stations in the Fraser River Bagin  The data for this table comes from the 1956 Climate of British Columbia . supplemented by The Monthly Record of Meteorological Observation and Meteorology and Climatology of the Fraser River Basin—A resume of Sources. In cases where discrepancies in the latitude, longitude, elevation or date of commencement of record occur, information from the Climate of British Columbia i s listed in preference to the other two, and from the Monthly Record in preference to the Resume of Sources. In the "Date of Commencement of Record? column the inactive stations show the dates of record of the station operation.. Along break in a record is noted but a gap of a year i s not. 1  Code numbers listed in the table correspond to those used on Map 3* Code Station No  Lati- Longi- Eleva- Commence- Length of Inactive Class of tude tude tion ment of Record as in 1955 Station (North) (West)) (feet) Record of 1955 v  1  A 23 Abbotsford 49 01' 122?22' 198 1945 • Airport A; 24 Abbotsford 49 03' 122 16 30 (1889-1903 Upper Sumas (1936-1945 A 32 Agassiz; 4 9 14 121 46 52 1894  11  66  II  C 19 Alexis Creek D 2 Aleza-Lake  15  II  4  II  9  52 08  123 20 2,800  1919  54 07  122 03 2,000  1952'  C 13 Alkali Lake 51 47  122 20 1,750 1911-1921  25  11  In  In  II  III  A 19 Alouette 49 17 122 29 516 Lake C 5 Alta Lake (2) 50 07 122 59 2,100  1917  41  III  1932  24  III  C  1951  5  II  6 Alta Lake  50 09  B 24 Annis 49 11 Canoe Point B 5 Ashcroft (1); 50-43  122 59 2,127  122 56 1,159 1911-1920  10  121 17 1,000 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 1 4 1917-1919 1921 121 19 1,600 1945  40  III  11  I  In  III  •  B  4 Ashcroft (2); 50 42  103 Code Station 0  Lati- Longi- Eleva- Commence- Length of Inactive Class/of tude tude tion ment of Record as in 1955 Station (North)'(West): (feet) Record of 1955  G 25 Barkerville 5 3 ° 0 4 ' 121°31' 4,180  1888  66  II  C 14 Big Creek  51 44 123 00 3,100  1904  55  II  B 15 Blue River  52 09 119 17 2,243  1929  25  III  B  50 47 122 49 3,500  1932  24  II  7 Bralorne  C 9 Bridge 50 48 122 15 830 1915-1923 River 1927-1957 C 21 Bullion 51 40 121 38 2,990 1899-1908 Quesnel Forks 1936-1940 E 4 Burns Lake 54 15 125 47 2,320 1944  33  In  III  14  In  II  Af. 9 Burquitlam 49 15 122 53  3  II  200  1926  30  III  A 29 Chilliwack 49 07 122 06 21 Sardis B 12 Chinook Cove 5115 120 11 1,324  1901  56  II  1914  42  II  1924  41  II  A 18 Coquitlam Lake  49 23 122 49  A 17 Coquitlam  49 16  122 51  D  52 50  119 20 2,460  Port  528  34 1902-1932  31  In  III  1914  40  II  190  1932  24  II  C 12 Dog Creek  51 38 122 15 3,370  1945  8  I  D  53 45  121 10 2,200 1918-1951  31  B 21 Eagle Bay  50 56  119 13U,200  34  B 28 Enderby  50 32  119 07 1,180 1894-1900  26  B 10 Falkland  50 30  1910-1927 119 33 1,929 1921-1930  10  III  E  54 26 124 14 2,280  1894  62  II  49 18 122 35  575  1946  10  II  A 36 Hell's Gate 49 45 121 22  400  1952  4  II  B 13 Hemp Creek  51 55 120 04 2,500  1953  3  II  C 20 Horsefly  52 23  1951  5  II  5 Cranberry  Lake A 30 Cultus Lake 49 03 121 57  3 Dome Creek  3 Fort St. James  A 20 Haney  121 17 2,575  1922  Lake A 35 Hope 49 25 121 25 580 1910-1954 L i t t l e Mountain A; 34 Hope 49 23 121 26 152 1939 Town A 33 Jones Lake 49 12 121 25 2,150 1915-1925  45  In  III In  In  18 11  II  II  II I  In  III  Code Station N o  Lati- Longi- Eleva- Commence- Length of Inactive Class of tude tude tion ment " of Record as in 1955 Station (North) (West)' (feet)' Record of 1955  B  9 Kamloops. 50°43 " 120°25'1,133 . 189.5 Airport B 10 Kamloops 50 A3 120 25 1,150 1950 Dominion Experimental Range Station 50 Al 120 21 1,264. 1939 B 8 Kamloops Mission Flatff B 11 Knouff Lake 50 56 120 OS 3,750 1917  65  I  4  II  17  II  44  II  C 15 Lac l a Hache51 49  121 28 2,649 1923-i927  A  5 Ladner  A9 OA  123 01  4  1901  42  C  1 Laluwissen Creek 2 Lillooett  50 27  121 40  ? 1918-1926  9  50 A2  121 56  C  740  1917  C  In  5  III II  In  41  III III  8 L i t t l e Gunn 50 51 122 55 2,975 1925-1931 Lake A 38 Lytton 50 1A 121 34 574 1917-1920 1926 B 30 Mabel Lake 50 25 118 46 1,300 1925  34 31  III  B 23 Malakwa  50 55  118 47 1,400  1917  Al  III  B  50 23  120 48 3,300  1917  38  II  D 4 McBride  53 18 120 10 2,400  1922  33  II  B  50 06  120 47 1,940  1919  34  In  II  C 10 Moha  50 53  122 16 1,800 1915-1947  32  In  III  B 16 Monte-. Creek E 6 Nadina; River A. 8 New Westminster B 2 Nicolai Lake  50 AO  119 55 1,514 1909-1918  14  In  II  50 01  126 26' 2,650  1935  22  III  A9 13  122 56  330  1878  62  II  50 09  120 39 2,120  1878  40  In  II  A 37 North Bend  A9 A2  121 26  5  In  II  C 16 150-Mile House C 11 Pavilion  52 07  121 16 2,200  1948  8  II  50 50  121 50 3,500  1954  2  II  -  3 Mamit Lake  1 Merritt  50 20 122 3 Pemberton Hatchery 50 29 122 C 4 Pemberton Meadows D 1 Prince 53 53 122 George Airport E 1 Prince 53 55 122 George (Fort George)  C  In  7  III  ,.  495 1916-1920  I  -  In  II  33  840 1909-1935  27  55  800  1912'  42  II  1942  13  I  41,2,218  44 1,862.1913-1944  31  In  11  Code Station No  Lati- Longi- Eleva- Commence- Length of Inactive Class of tude tude tion ment of Record as in 1955 Station (North) (West)' (feet) Record of 1955  C 23 Quesnel  52°59' 122°30'1,750  1893  61  II  C 24 Quesnel Airport D 6 Red Pass Junction B 26 Salmon Arm  53 02  122 31 1,787  1947  10  I  53 00  119 00 3,475  1932  24  III  50 42  119 14 2,000  1911  45  II  B 27 Salmon Arm (2); A 3 Sea Island  50 41  119 17 1,200  1951  6  II  49 H  123 10  22  1939  18  I  B 29 Shuswap Falls G 18 Soda Greek  50 18  118 49 1,240  1930  26  III  52 20  122 33 1,240 1915-1933  19  B 20 Sorrento  50 52  119 28 1,160  1917  41  III  A 26 Stave Falls 49 14  122 21  243  1910  46  II  Ai 27 Stave Lake  49 18  122 30  425 1936-1948  A', 4 Steveston  49 08  123 10  S  7 Tahtsa Lake 53 37 West B 25 Tappen 50 45  60  II  127 42 2,700  1952  4  II  119 20 1,450  1913  40  II  E  54 04 124 00 2,093  B  51 35  6' Vidette Lake 50 46  II  1896  50 41  B L4 Vavenby  In  III  10  B 7 Tranquille 2 VanderBoof  13  In  120 29 1,180 1909-1953  119 42 1,545  42  In  II  1916  28  II  1913  42:  II  120 52 3,900 1934-1939  6  In  III  1921  34  II  1929  27  II  B 17 Westwold  50 29 i l 9 45 2,125  A 11 White Rock  49 02  122 50  C 17 Williams Lake E 15 Wistaria  52 10  122 05 1,945 1936-1946  11  53 49  126 10 2,900  30  II  G 25 Woodpecker  53 30  122 35 2,000 1935-1944  10  III  200  1926  In  II  Stations with records of three years or less were omitted from this l i s t whenever a station with a longer record represents the same d i s t r i c t .  106. APPENDIX n  Au No Ir Cll Alt Amt % Total  Fraser River Basin Mean Seasonal Precipitation Dates  —number corresponding to that allotted to station on map 3 —number of years of record for the station — c l a s s of station(see page 12)) — a l t i t u d e of station i n feet —average amount of precipitation received in the season under consideration —percent of the annual precipitation falling in the particularseason — t o t a l annual precipitation for the station  Yr No Name of station  Cl  Alt  Winter Amt %  Spring Amt %  Summer Amt %  Autumn Amt %  Total  1 Jericho 10 II Beach 2 Brockton 30 III Point 3 Sea Island 18 I  10 22.44 43.0 10.89 20.9  4.82  9.2 14.09 26.9  52.24  20 23.88 40.2 12.54 21.1  5.50 9.1 17.67 29.7  59.59  22 16.38 40.7  7.88 19.6  4.03 10.1 11.91 29.7  40.20  4 Steveston  60  II  10 14.90 40.1  6.94 18.6  3.82 10.2 11.57 31.1  37.23  5 Ladner  42 II  4 13.18 38.1  6.84 18.9  3.84 10.5 11.73 32.5  36.23  6 Vancouver  41 III  286 21.26 41.6 10.43 20.4  4.47 9.2 14.77 28.8  51.14  7 Annacis 1 III Island 8 New 62 II Westminster 9 Burquitlam 30 III 10 Pitt 4 II Meadows11 White Rock 27 II  15 15.46 27.9 11.84' 21.1  12 Reidville  3 III  13?Fort  3 II  Langley 14 Kensington Prairie 15 Cloverdale  3 III  33CT 22.18 39.2 11.48 20.3  5.88 10.7 22.  a  40.3  55.55  5.61 10.Q 17.26 30.5  56.533  200 26.87 40.7 13.88 21.2 5.18 9.4 18.98 28.8 25 32.94 38.9 15.85 18.7 9.57 11.3 26.26 31.1  65.64: 84.62  4.24 10.6 11.68 29.3  40.20  200 15.92'39.5  8.36 20.8  310 19.18 36.a 7.74 14.6 7.03313.2 19.38 36.2- 53.33 20 23.94 37.3 10.78 16.7 100 16,61 34.9  7.89 16.6  8.22 12.8 21.31 33.2  64.25  5.7212.0 17.35 36.5  47.57  1 III  50  3 Hi  30 21.02: 35.7 10.39 17.7  6.47 11.0 21.03 35.6  58.91  17 Port 31 III Coquitlam  34 27.49 38.6 14.89 20.8  6.26  71.62  16 Port Kells  M  8.7 22.89 31.9  No Name"of Yr C l A l t Winter station Amt % Coquitlam Lake 19 Alouette 1 Lake 20 Haney 18  4 1  j  i  21  1  !  22  Langley Prairie Aldergrove  4 1  1 0  II III II  3 III 3  Abbotsford 1 1 I Airport 24 Abbotsford 2 5 I I Upper Sumas^ 2 5 Mission 3 II 23  26  Stave F a l l a 46  27  Stave Lake  13 I I  28  Nicomen or Deroche  3 6  56 II (Sardis) 30 Cultus 24 I I Lake 31 Sardis(Ved- 2 I I der Crossing)  2 2 . 0 10=66  7 . 7  39=67  2 8 . 5  138=13  516 4 1 » 4 0  3.9.8  23.64  2 2 . 7 1 0 . 0 6  9 . 7  2 8 . 5 9  2 7 . 7  1 0 3 . 6 9  575 3 7 . 5 2  4 0 . 9 1 9 . 9 0 2 1 . 7 1 0 . 3 6 11.2"-23.99  9 . 8 5 1 6 . 2  6 0 . 6 6  3 4 . 3  6 5 . 8 4  9 c 5 1 7 , 4 42 9 , 0  6O.30  35.9  1 1 . 7 5  17.9"  7 . 7 9 1 2 . 0 2 2 . 5 8  1 9 8 2 3 . 9 5  39.7  13=21  21.9  5 . 7 0 '  33.9  1 2 . 8 1  2 1 . 1 633=8  28.93  4 2 5 52=91  27,14  59  2 3 . 7  12.04 19=3  3 6 . 5 1 7 . 4 7 2 2 . 4  6 . 8 0 1 2 . 5 16.22" 3 0 . 1  7 . 4 9 1 2 . 0 2 1 . 9 8  8 . 8 6  11.3  23=44  138.06'  21=1  31.4  73=78  19=31 31=6  6 1 . 1 8  15=56  7 . 8 7 10=7 23=21  3 8 . 0 1 2 . 6 2 2 0 . 6 '  5.97 9 . 8  1 9 0 21=77  37=6  6 . 3 4  10.9  500 17=03  3 0 . 0 11=81  20=9  7=36  13=0 20=52  22.23  35=3  14=02  2 2 . 1  7 . 7 6 1 2 . 2 1 9 . 2 030=4  63=19  35=86  39=2  2 2 . 0 6  24=1  8 . 5 3 ^ 9 = 3  91=45  40=7  13=20  21=4  5=14  1 0 . 5 2 1 8 . 8  4=68  8=3  2 1 ' 2 3 . 2 8  1 2 . 6 7 21=7  1 7 . 2 4  29=8  58=02  t  Jones Lake  1 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 0  34  Hope(town); Hope ( L i t t l e Mountain)  18 4 5  I II  1 5 2 25=11  35  36  Hell's Gate  4  II  4 0 0 22=83  49=5  6 . 0 5  13=0  2 , 7 6  5=9 14=64  5  II  4 9 5 15=65  42=8  8=09  2 2 . 2  2=66  7 . 3  5 7 4  7=63  43=9  2.46  1 4 . 1  3 4  78=70  36=8  33  Lytton  29=8 27=0  66  38  6 2 . 6 7  2 3 . 6 1 5 . 1 7 1 1 , 1 37=39  Agassiz.  Bend  35=1  54*00  3 8 . 3 3 2 , 6 1  32  37.North  2 6 . 2 9 1 . 7 7  7 . 2 5 1 2 . 0 2 1 . 9 7 3 6 . 2  275 2 3 . 7 2  243  Chilli'wack  29  Tot&l  3 0 , 2 0  20  II  Autumn Amt %  a . 8  3 0 1 8 . 1 7  II  Summer Amt %  528 57=60  285 2 1 . 5 93 5 . 6  III  Spring Amt %  II  5 2  580'23=87  I  42=4  36=1  2 5 = 0 1 2 7 . 4  8 . 3 18=29  39=6  1 7 . 1 53 0 . 5  56=72  61=74 56=22  31=6  46=28  10=13 2 7 . 7  3 6 . 5 3  2=19 1 2 . 5  5=14 29=5  17=42  Thompson Shuswap Valley 1  Merritt  3 4  II 1 9 4 0  3=03  33=1  1=79 19=8  1=95 2 1 . 4  2=30  2 5 . 7  2  Nicola Lake  40  II  2=78  24=9  2=57  3=01 2 7 . 8  2=73  24=4  1 1 . 1 9  3  Mamit Lake  3 8  II 3 3 0 0  3=00  2 4 - 5  2 . 5 9 2 1 . 2  3=73  2 . 9 2 23=8  12=24  4  Ashcroft(2) ...11  1 6 0 0  2=95  30=2  1 . 3 8 1 4 . 2  3 = 1 1 32=Q  2=31 23=6  9=75  5  Ashcroft(l)' 40 I I I  1 0 0 0  2=04  2 7 . 6  1 . 2 6 1 7 . 1  2=42  1=67 22=6  7 . 3 9  N  I  2120  2 2 . 9  30=5  32=7  9=07  No Name of Yr Cl A l t Winter station Amt % 6'Vidette 6 III 3900 Lake 7 Tranquille 42 II 1180  Summer Amt %  4=33 24=8 3*43 19.6 5.75 33 = 2 2.61 31.2  8 Kamloops 17 II 1264 2=40 20..8 (Mission Flats)' 9 Kamloops 65 I 1133 -2.74 27.0 (Airport)) 10 Kamloops 4 II 1150 3.37 34.8 (Dominion Range Experimental Station)} 11 Knouff 44 II 3750' 4.00 26.1 Lake 12 Chinook 42 II 1324 4.79 28.8 Cove 13 Hemp Creek 3 II 2500 4.95 23.3 :  14 Vavenby  Spring Amt %  Autumn Amt % 3.91 22.4  1.3.7 16.3 2.62 31.3 1.78 21.2 1.76 15.1  4=58 39 = 5  Total 17.42 8.38  2.86 24.6 11.60  1.69 16.6 3=40 33.5 2.33 23.0 10.16 1.21 12.6 3.25 33.6 1.83 19=0  9.66  3.26 21.3 4.47 29.1 3.60." 23.5 15.33 2.96 17.8 4.70 28.2 4=19 25.2 16.64 4.82' 22.6 7.22 34ol  42 II 1545 3.92 25.1 2.88 18.3 4=82 20.6  4.27 20=0 21.26 .4.05-25.9 15.67  15 Blue River 25 III 2243 11.64 29=8 7.49 19.3 9.39 24=2 10.42 26=7 38.94 16 Monte Creek 14  II 1314 2=56 26.0 1=56 16,0  3.47 35=3 2.23 22.7  9=82  17 Westwold  34 II 2125 3=98 28=0 2=78 19.4  18 Falkland  10 III 1929 5=67 32=4 3=58 20.5 4«16 23=8 4=08 23=3 17=49  19 Chase 20 Sorrento  4=02 28=2 3=45 24=3 14=23-  2" II 1160 3=97 31.0 2.41 18=9 4=37 34=2 2.03 15=9 12=78 41 H I 1160 5=85 31=0 3=62 19=4  4=36 23=1 4=95 26=4 18.74  21 Eagle Bay 34 H I 1200 6=98 32=9 3=99 18=7 4=65 21.8 5.67 26.6 21.29 22 SIcamous 23 Malakwa  1 II 1305 " 6.50 -  27.8 3.84 16=4 6=06 25=9 6.93 29=7 23=33  41 III 1400 10=17 34=3 5=33 18.0  6=04 20=4 8.06 27=3 29=60  24 Ahnls 10 III 1159 7=12 31=4 4.02 17=6 5=20 22=9 6.38 28=0 22=72 (Canoe Point)'; 25 Tappen  40 II 1450 7=32 34.5 3=91 18=4 4=43 20.9 5=37 26=2 21=23  26 Salmon Arm 45 II 2000 6.70 33=9 3=68 18=7 4=32 22=1 4=98 25=3 19=68 27 Salmon Arm 6 II 1200 7=57 34=2' 3=96 18.0 5=29 24=0 5 23 23.8 22=05 28 Enderby  26 II 1180  6=35 33=1 3=35 17.6 4=49 23=6 4=90 25=7 19=09  29 Shuswap 26 III 1240 5=63 29=5 3=83 20=2 4=94 25=8 4=66 24=5 19.06 Falls 30 Mabel Lake 31 H I 1300 5=64 29=7 3=73 19=7 4=96 26=2 4=62 24=4 18.95 Middle Fraser Valley 1 Laluwissen 9 HI Creek  —  2i76 36=5 1.18 15 = 5  1=66 21=8 2.00 26.4 7.60  No Name of IT station  Cl A l t  41 III 740  ZLillooet  Winter Amt %  Spring Amt: %  3.98 31.9 2.06 16.4  Summer Amt %  Autumn Amt %  Total  3.20 25.5 3.29 26.2- 12.53  3 Pemberton 27 II 840 11.05 36.1 4.92 16.0 3,85 12.5 10.93 35.4 30.75 Hatchery 4 Pemberton 42 II 800 15.20 41.9 5.62 15.5 3.17 8.8 12.25 33.8 36.42 Meadows 5 Alta Lake 24 H I HOO 23.28 42.0 9.68 17.5 5.54 10.1 16.97 30.6 55.47  U)  6 Alta Lake 5 II 2127 25.58 44.0 9.56 16.5 4.26 7.4 18.75 32.1 58.15 7 Bralorne 24 II 3500 9.57 36.1 4.29 16.2 4.20 15.7 8.49 32.0 27.55 8 L i t t l e Gunn 7 III 2975 8.76 45.0 2.35 12.1 2.33 11.9" 6.04 31.0 19.48 Lake 9 Bridge 33- III 830 7.09 37.3 2.84 14.9 3.22 17.0 5.84 30.8 18.99 River J  32 III 1800 4 . 4 4 35.4 1.93 15.5 2.75 21.9 3.42 27.2 12.54  10 Nona 11 Pavilion  2 II 3500  12 Dog Creek  8  2.58 18.9 2.96 21.8 5.50 40*4 2.59 18.9 13.63  I 3370 4.15 2 6 . 1 3.20 20.0 6 . 1 3 38.6 2.47 15.3 15.95  13Lac l a Hache 5 H I 2649 4.19 35.0  1.57 1 3 . 0 3-91 32.5  2.35 19.5 12.02  14 Alkali Laka.ll.Ill 1750 2.38 23.0 1.30 12.5 4-61 44.4 2.09 20.1 10.38 15 Big Creek  55 II 3100 2.50 20.1 2.36: 10.0 4.77 38.5 2.81 22.5 12.44  16 150-Mile 8 II 2200 House 17 Williams 11 II 1945 " Lake 18 Horsefly 5 II 2575 Lake 19 Soda Creek 19 H I 1240 20 A l e x i s 1 5 II 2800 Creek 21 Bullion 14 I I 2990 ((JSiesnelForks)' 22 Barkerville66 II 4180  3.93 26.2" 2.33 15.6  5.95 39.8 2.71 19.2 14.92  3 . 1 4 23.4 2.65 19.8 4.90 36.6  2.72 20.2' 13.a  5.73 19.3 7.01 23.7 10.62 35.7 6.29 21.3 29.65 2.71 2 3 . 6 2.08 18.1 3-94 34.3 2.77 24.0 11.50 2.22 23.8 1.40 15.0 3.49 37.1 2.23 23.9 9.34  1  23 QueBnel  5.75 24.7 4.92 21.1 7.00 30.1 5.61 24.1 23.28 10.54 26.3 8.26 20.6 10.87 26.9 10.52 26.2 40.19  61 I I 1750 3.93 23.6 2.59 15.4 5.65 33.7 4.57 27.5 16.74  24 QUesnel 10 (Airport)  1 1787  5.48 16.5 3.27 23.4 7.32 27.2 4.55 27.9 20.62  25 Woodpecker 10 III 2000 6.96 26.5 4.60 17.4 7.54 28.7 7.22 27.4 26.32 Upper Fraser Valley 1 Prince 13 I 2218 6.26 2 6 . 5 3.77 15.9 7.65 32.5 5.95 25.1 23.63 George 2 Aleza Lake 4 II 2000 12.71 35.2 6.19 17.1 8.22 22.6 9.11 25.1 36.23  Jo Name of Yr station  Cl  3 Dome Creek 31 4 McBride  Alt  Winter Amt %  Spring Amt' %  Summer Amt %  Autumn Amt %  Total  II 2200 7.15 26.1  4.80 17.5  7.75 28.2  7.76 28.2  27.46  II 2400  5.29 26.0  3.83 18.9  5.15 25.4  6.06 29.7  20.33  5 Cranberry AO II 2460 Lake 6 Red Pass 2A III 3475 Junction Nechako Valley  4.38 24.6  3.42 19.3  4.79 27.0  5.13 29.1  17.72  8.57 33.0  4.46 17.0  5.92 22.7  7.09 27.3  26.04  1 Fort  33  31  George 2 Vanderhoof 28  II 186& 5.00 23.8 II 2093 3.93 28.2  3.87 18.5 2.43 17.5  6.07 28.8 3.76 27.0  6.06 28.9 3.79 27.3  21.00 13.91  3 Fort Saint 6a? II 2280 4.22: 26.3 James  2.74 17.0 4.58 28.7  4.49 28.0  16.03  4 Burns Lake 5 Wistaria  3  II 2320  4.60 21.4  3.20 14.9 7^90 36.8  5.79 26.9  21.49  30  II 2900  5.16 28.8  3.05 16.9  4.72 26.2  5.07 28.1  18.00  2.67 14.2  5.11 27.1  5.47 28.8  18.90  6.3 25.21 33.5  75.23  6 Nadina 22 III 2650 5.65 River 7 Tahtsa 4 II 2700 32.53 Lake West Stations outside Fraser Basin 1 Silver 2 III 3500 6.40 Creek I 2450 5.47 2 Germansen 4 Landing 3 Revelstoke. 55 I 1497 15.68  29.8  43.3 12.75 16.9  4.74  28.9  4.38 19.9 7.47 33.8  3.84 17.4  22.09  28.6  4.00 21.1  4.95 26.0  4.66 24.3  19.08  38.5  6.87 16.9  6.80 16.7 11.36 27.9  40.71T  5.75 28.3  4.12 20.3  4-93 24.3  5.48 27.1  20.28  5 Vernon , 58 II 1582 4.16 28.0 (Coldstream) 6 Kelowna - 41 II 1166 3.81 31.0  2.93 19.7  4.03 27.0  3.76 25.3  14.88  2.32 18.9  2.83 23.0  3.33 27.1  12.29  7 Peachland 29 III 1800 (Trepanier) 8 Osprey 24 II 3606 Lake 9 Aspen Grove 31 III 1950  5.65 35.6  3.05 19.2 2.91 18.3' 4.29 26.9  15.90  8.47 38.7  3.90 17.9  4.40 20.2  5.09 23.2  21.86  5.22 34.2  3.35 22.0  2.97 19.6  3.68 24.2  15.22  4 Fauquier  31  II 1000  ,••„:• :  10 Princeton  47  II 2075  4.01 31.6  2.27 17.9  2.86 22.6  3.53 27.9  12.67  11 Skagit  18  II 1690 18.56 44.6  7.15 17.2  4.51 10.8 11.37 27.4  41.59  21.70 34.0 11.73 18.5 12 Waddington 12 III Harbour 13 Tatlayoko 26 II 2700 5.44 32.0 2.64 15.5 Lake I 2950 4.02 31.5 1.72 13.5 14 Kleena 19 Kleene  6.81 10.7 23.40 36.8  63.64  3.86 22.7  5.10 29.8  17.04  4.08 32.1  2.91 22.9  12.73  • M B  Ill No Name of Yr Cl Alt Winter station Amt $ 15 Anahim Lake 16 Kemano  Spring Amt %  1  II 3000  4  II 190 28.89 39.2 10.60 14.3  Summer Amt $  Autumn Amt %  Total M  5.09  6.8 29.28 39.7  73.86  17 Kemano2 II 5280 36.86 31.A 28.50 2A.A 18.66 15.9 33.03 28.3 117.05 Kildalan 18 Smithers 18 II 1631 4.76 25.8 3.34 18.1 5.06 27.4 5.32 28.7 18.48 19 Babine  37 II 2230 Lake  5.62 27.7  3.54 17.1  5.24 25.5  6.04 29.7  20.44  112  B. Fraser.River Basin Mean Monthly Precipitation Data  The f i r s t row of data for each station i s the mean ©nthly precipitation taken from the 1955 Climate of British Columbia. The second row i s the percent of the annual precipitation recorded in each month. Stations indicated with the symbol # were inactive in 1955. Stations in the lower Fraser valley numbered 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 20, 21, 22, 25, and 31 are included in the tables for completeness but the data has not been utilized because the stations have short records and there are numerous long-record stations nearby. Stations 1, 2, 6, and 11 are not within the drainage basin, but have been listed for comparison with the nearest stations within the Basin. No Name of Jan Feb station Lower Fraser Valley  Mar Apr May June July  Aug Sept  Oct  Nov  Dec  1 Jericho # Beach  9.30 4.40 5.66' 3.11 2.12 2.31 1.37 1.14 3.25 5.20 5.64 8.74 17.9' 8.4 10.8 6.0 4*1 4.4 2.6 2.2 6.2 10.0 10.7 16,7  2 Brockton Point  8.34 8.16 5.85. 3.78 2.91 2.32 1.59 1.59 3.12 6.76 7.79 9.36 14.1 10.3 9.8 6.3 4.9 3.9 2.6 2.6 5.2" 11.3.13.2 15.8  3 Sea 5.24 4.72 3.54 2.45 1.89 1.67 1.13 1.23 1.92 4-38 5.61 6.42 Island 13.0 11.8 8.8 6.1 4.7 4.2 2.8 3.1 4.8 10.9 14.0 15.9 :  4 Stevestoh 5.18 3.82 2.91 2.17 1.86 1.69 .94 1.19 2.20 3.87 : 5-50 5.90 13.9 10.3 7.£ 5.8 5.0 4-5 2.5 3.2 5.9 10.4 14.8 15.9 5 Ladner  4.83 3.64 2.92 2.06 1.86 1.57 1.13 1.14 2.47 3.76 5.50 5.35 13.3 10.0 8 4 5.7 5.1 4.3 3.1 3.1 6.8 10.4 15.3 14.8  6 Vancouver 7.59 5.39 4.91 3.19 2.33 1.97 1.19 1.52 2.28 5.53 6.42 8.28 (City Hall)) 14.8 10.5 9.6 6.2 4.6' 3.9 2.3 3.0 5.5 10.8" '12.5 16.3 TAnnacis 4.78" 3.92 4.95 4.18 2.67 3.20 2.57 Island 8.6' 7.1 8.8 7.5 4.8 5.9 4.6  .11 1.62' 7.29 13.50 6.76 .2: 2.9 13.1 24.3 12.2  8 New 7.96 5.92 5-13 3.15 2.84 2.63 1.36 1.62 3.45 5.80 8.01 8.30 Westminster 14.1 10.5 9.1 6.2' 5.0 4.7 2.4 2,9 6.1 10.2 14.2 14.6 9 Burquitlam 9.33 7.41 6.47 4.01 3.40 2.68 1.64 1.86 3«51 7.12 8.35 10.13 14.1 11.3 9.9 6.1 5.2 4.1 2.5 2.8 5-4 10.7 12.7 15.3 . 10 Pitt 14.02 7.02 6.71 5.46 3.68 Meadows 16.6 8.33 7.9 6.5 4.3 11 White5.54 4.35 3.74 2.52 2.10 Rock 13.8 10.8 9.3 6.3 5.2 12 Reidville  5.33 6.3 1.97 4.9  2.30 2.7 1.15 2.9  1.94 4.43 7.55 14.28 11.90 2.3 5.2 8.9 17.0 14.0 1.12 2.24 4.25 5.19 6.03 2.8 5.6 10.8 12.9 14.9  7.00 4.74 2.86 2.98 1.90 2.89 1.70 2.44 3.03 4.22 12.13 7.44 13.2 8.9 5.4 5.6 3.6 5.4 3.2 4.6 5.6 7.9 22.7 13.9  No Name of station 13 Fort Langley  Jan 7.91 12.3  Feb  Mar  5.24  4.26  8.2  6.6  Apr 3.87  May June July 2.65  6.0  4.1  4.02  6.2  2.23  3.5  Aug Sept 1.97 3.03 3.1 4.7  14 Kensington 5 . 6 2 Prairie 11.8  4.02 3.05 3.12 1.72' 2.54 1.58 1.60 2.48 8.4 6.4 6.6 3.6 5-3 3.3 3.4 5.2  15 Cloverdale  5.34 1.76  16 Port Kella 17 Port  M  M  M  M  M  M  M  6.78 11.5  5 . 2 2 4 . 1 1 3 . 8 6 2.42 3 . 1 7 1.98 1.32 3.13 8.9 7.0 6.6 4.1 5.4 3.4 2.2 5.3  9.31  7.48  13.1  10.5  6.82  9.5  4 . 5 1 3 . 5 6 2.67  1.49  2.10  4.96  3.96 10.91 8.3 23.0  6.97 14.7  M  M  M  5.29 1 2 . 6 1 9.0 21.3  9.02 15.3  7.26  10.2  10.56  20 Haney 21 Langley Prairie  5.56 5.3  4.45 4.3  2.81 2.7  2.80 2.7  5.65 5.5  13.07 1 0 . 4 8 9.77 6.16 3.97 4.27 2.87 3.22 3.76 14.3 11.4 10.7 6.7 4.3 4.6 3.1 3.5 4.1  14.8  10.70  15.0  Alouette  7.0  6.9  16.8  19  10,4  2.9  10.79  19.7  8.8  Coquitlam 19.86 1 5 . 3 4 1 4 - 4 6 9.19 6.55 4.56 2.90 3.20 7.06 1 5 . 0 8 1 7 . 5 3 22.40 Lake 14.3 11.1 10.5 6.7 4.8 3.2 2.1 2.4 5.0 11.2 12.3 16.4 10.6  2.1  12.60'  5.68  18  I3.9  3.7  Dec  Coquitlam  14.41 11.0010.78 7.30  5.0  Nov  §  Lake  6.3  Oct  10.82-: 12.-12 10.5 11.?  15.99  8.43 11.80 9.2 12.9  13.97  15.3  15.2  7.60 12.5  5.53 3.77 3.65 2.43 3.44 2.32 1.49 3.45 9 . 1 6 . 2 : 6 . 0 4 . 0 5.7 3 . 8 2 . 5 5.7  5.48 13.04 9 . 0 21.5  8.46 14.0  22 Aldergrove 7.95  6 . 2 2 4 . 5 2 4 . 5 3 2.70 3.60 2.49 1.70 3.47  5.83 13.28  9.55  20.1  14.4  12.0'  9.5  6.9  6.9  4.1  5.5  3.8  2.6  5.3  23 Abbotsford 8 . 0 0 7.22 6 . 1 2 4 . 2 6 2.83 2 . 6 5 1.50 1.55 2.78 . ("Airport)" 1 3 . 3 1 2 . 0 1 0 . 1 7 . 1 4 . 7 4 . 4 2 . 5 2 . 6 4.6 24 Abbotsford 5.46 #(Upper Sumas): 1 0 . 2 25 Mission  6.08 9.7  26 Stave 10.26 Falls 1 2 . 9  8.9  6.65 8.01 8.73 11.0 13.3 14.4  5 . 0 0 4 . 7 1 4 . 3 1 3 . 7 9 3 . 5 3 1 . 5 9 1.68 3.58 9 . 3 8.7 8.0 7 . 0 6 . 5 2 . 9 3 . 1 6.6  5.08 9.4  7.56 14.1  7.71 14.4  6.14 4 . 0 0 4 . 9 3 3 . 1 1 3 . 8 3 1.86 1 . 8 0 3 . 3 8 9.8 6.4 7 . 9 5.0 6.1 3.0 2.9 5.4  6.67 1 1 . 9 3  8.94  7 . 4 9 7.63 5 . 3 2 4 . 5 2 3 . 9 6 2 . 3 4 2.56 4.8O 9 . 5 9 . 8 6 . 9 5.7 5 . 0 3 . 0 3 . 3 6.1  8.71 9.93; 11.18 1 1 . 2 .12.5 1 4 . 1  10.6  19.1  14.3  27 Stave Lake 16.42 14.3213.5610.66 8 . 3 9 6 . 7 1 4 . 0 8 4 . 3 8 6 . 0 5 1 5 . 3 9 1 5 . 9 3 22.17 #'  11.9  28 Nicomen 9.43 # (Deroche)" 12.8  10.4  9.8  7.7  6.1  4.9  3.0  3.2'  4.4  7.29 6.40 4.84 4 . 3 4 4 - 0 8 1.68 2 . 1 1 4 . 4 1 9 . 9 8.7 6 . 6 5 . 8 5 . 5 2 . 3 2 . 9 6 . 0  11.1  11.5  16.0  7.87 10.93 10.42 1 0 . 7 14.7 1 4 . 1  29 Chilliwack. 8 . 3 3 6 . 2 2 5.33 3 . 7 4 3 . 5 5 2 . 6 9 1 . 5 1 1.77 3 . 8 9 6 . 9 0 8 . 5 2 8 . 7 3 (Sardis)  13.6  30 Cultus Lake 7.14 31 S a r d i s  10.2  8.7  6.1  5.8  4.4  2.5  2.9  6.4  11.3  13.9  14.2  8.65  5 . 9 8 5 . 4 4 3.95 3 . 2 8 2 . 6 8 1 . 8 4 1 . 8 2 3 . 1 8 9.3 6.8 5.6 4.6 3 . 2 3 . 1 5.5  6.72  7.34  12.3  10.3  11.6  A2.7  2.89-  6.00  6.03  11.91  CVedder 5.1 Crossing)'  10.6  3.57  6.3  4.8O  8.5  3.44  6.1  3.21  5.7  1.84  3.2  2.31  4.1  2.58  4.6  10.5  21.0  15.0 8.14  14.35  No Name of station 32 Agassiz  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May June July  Aug Sept  Oct  12.2  6.08 5.59 4.38 4.05 3.67 1.91 2.16 4.16 9.6 8.8 6.9 6.4 5.8 3.0 3.4 6.6  6.88 10.8  33 Jones 12.80 # Cake 14.0  9.44 8.93 6.51 6.62 3.82 2.37 2.33 5.57 10.3 9.8 7.1 7.2 4.2 2.6 2.5 6.1  8.76 34 Hope (Town) 14.2  6.62 5.99 4.38 2.83 2.23 1.41 1.50  9.30 10.14 13.62 10.2 14.9 11. 6.93 7.90 9.73 11.2 12.8 15.8  9.27 35 Hope CLittle 16.4 Mountain)' 36 Hell's 9.64 Gate 20.9  5.96 4.98 3.02 2.52 2.07 1.19 1.42 10.6 8.9 5.4 4.5 3.7 2.1 2.5 5.56 2.42 2.60 1.03 12.0 5.2 5.6 2.2  .79 1.7  37 North  4.97 13.6  3.02 4.53 2.10 1.46 8.3 12.4 5.8 4.0  1.32  2.32 13.3  1.88 10.8  Bend  38 Lytton  7.67  10.7  9.7  .95  7.1  ,70  4.6  .81  3.6  2.3  2.4  3.46 5.6  8.16  Deo 8.48  13.0  13.5  r  3.50 6.20  7.45 13.3  8.64 15.4  5.13 11,1  7.04 15.2  7.63 16.6  6.2  11.0  .65 1.32 2.47 2.8 5.3  1.4  Nov  .74 2.1  1,6  .60 1.62 2.85 4*4  7.8  5.66 15.5  7.66 20,9  .91  .53 3.0  ,75 1.04 4.3 6.0  1.73 9.9  2.37 13.6  3.43 19.8  .81  .46 .68 5.1 7.5  .66 7.3  .74 8.1  .90 10.3  1.30 14.2  .89  .92  .76, 1.05 6.8 9.4  1.03  .87  1.26  3.6  5.5  4.0  4.6  5.2  .84 9.2  .64 7.1  5.6  o51  .64 7.1  8.8  9.6  .68 6.1  7.4  .97 7.9  .77 6.3  6.9  Thompson-Shuswap Valley 1 Merritt  #/  2 Nicola #' Lake 3 Mamit Lake A Ashcroft  car  5 Ashcroft (1)  6 Vidette #: Lake 7 Tranquille  #  8 Kamloops (Mission Flats) 9 Kamloops (Airport))  .89 9.7  1.07  1.18  12.0  .85  .72 7.4  .45  11.5  6.1  1.64  1.14 6.5  .91  .64 7.6  7.2 .97  9.4  10.9  .83  9.5  .83  .55 .1.19 1.29 4.9 10.6 11.5  .93 8.3  8.0 ' 8.2!  . 84 .62 1.13 1.60 .93 1.20 1.02 5.1 9.213.I 7.6 9.8 8.3  ,42  .36 3.7  4.3  .34 4.6  4.1  .30  7.1  1.03  9.2  8.4  10.3  .88 9.0  1.05  .60 1.42 .70 .99 6.2 I4.6 7.2 10.2  .57 5.8  .86 8.8  .62 1.08 .58 .76 8,4 I4.6 7.8 10.3  .53 7.2  .59  7.4  8.0  •.7ft 10.0  .70 1.59 2.30 1.71 1.74 1.16  .55  10.8  6.5  4.0  9.1  13.3  9.8 10.1  6.6  1.34 7.7  1.41 8.1  1.55  .32  .69  1.07  .70  .58  .52  3.8  .36 4.3  8.212.8  8.4 10.1  6.9  6.2'  .68 8.1  1.06 12^7  .53 4.6  .37 3.2  .55 4.7  .84 1.83 1.02 1.73 7.2 15.8 8,8 14.9  6.1  .71  .37 3.6  .42 4.1  .90 1.41 .99 1.00 8.9 14.0 .9.7 9.8  7.7  ,.48 5.0  .26 2.7  .47 1.39 1.15 4.9 14.3 11.9  .71 7.4  7.0  10 Kamloops-- 1.17 1.07 (Daniaion Range 12.0 11.1 Experimental Station)) 11 Knouff Lake 146 .93 6.1 9.5  1.14  .94  6.1  .85  .93 1.39 1.84 1.45 1.18  6.1  9.1 12.0  9.5  7.6  .71  1.08  8.9  1.07  9.3  9.2  1.04 9.0  .78  .70 6.9  .85 8.4  1.06 10.5  .73 7.6  .49 5.1  .61 6.3  11.7  1.22 1.12 8,0 7.3  1.26 8.2  1.13  1.61 10.5  No Name of Jan Feb Mar Apr MayJune July Aug Sept Oct station 12 Chinook 1,78 1.10 .88 .85 1.23 2.03 1.35 1.32 1.21 1.50 Gove 10.7 6.6 5.3 5.1 7.4 12.2 8.1 7.9 7.3; 9.0 13 Hemp Creek  1.42 6.7  14 Vavenby  1.52:  .87  .80  9.7  5.6  5.1 5.0  15 Blue River 16 Monte #" Creek 17 Westwold 18 Falkland  1.60 1.32 1.20 2.10 2.81 2.21 2.20 1.09 7.5 7.1 5.6 9.9 13.3 .0.5 10.3 5.1  1.01 2.17 1.93 4.7 10.2 9.1  3.86 3.20 2.86 2.01 2.62 3.40 3.18 2.81 2.60 9.9 8.2 7.4 5.2 6.7 8.8 8o2 7.2 6o7  3.66 4.16 4.58 9.4 10.6 11.7  .91 9.3  .54 5.5  .29 3.0  .42 4.3  .85 1.39 1.06 1.02 .69 8.7 H . I 10.8 10.4 7.1  .74 7.5  .80 I. 11 8.1 II. 2  1.36  1.00  . 87  .74 1.17 1.78 1.08 1.16 1.05  9.6  7.0  6.1  1.28 9.0  1.12 I. 62 7.9 II. 4  2.27  6.3 7.5  2.50  .99 1.38 1.87 1.37 1.121.32  6.0 7.0  1.80 9.6  1.83^ 2.30 9.8 12.2  1.75 1.37 1.21 1.41 1.92 1.37 1.36 1.57  2.09  2.01 2.73 9.4 12.9  1.44 1.25  7.7  6.7  8.2 6.4  1.73  2.04 1.42  7,4  8o7 6,1  12.9  2.29 13.1  .76 I. 41 6.0 II. 1  .52  .93  4.1 7.3  11.8  3.82  .84 1.44 1.19 1.52 1.37 4°8 802 608 8.7 7.8 .77 6.0  8.3  2.11  6,2. 6.8 10.8  8.1 7.4  .69 .88 .50 5.5 6.9 3.9  1.06  11.6 11.1  5.2 8.2. 12.5 7.6  1.11 1,31 1*09 1.18 1.88  1.50  23 Malakwa  I. 91 II. 5  8.9  1.41 1.28 1.53 9.0 8.2 9.8  #  22 Sicamouar  1.48  8.2 II. 5 9.6 9.5 8.7  19 Chase  21 Eagle Bay  Dec  .79 1.29 I. 81 1.52:1.49 1.36  13.0  20 Sorrento  Nov  5.3  .96 2.80 7.5 21.8  7.4 9.9 7.3  5.7 6.6  9.0  6.4 6.4 7.4  .64 1.78 2.68 2.74 .64 1.52 1.50 3.91 6.4 16.8 2.7 7.6 11.5 11.7 2.7 6.5  2.53 1.89 1.51 '1.93 2.54 1.70 1.80 2.37  8.5  6.4  9.8  5.1 6.5  8.6  5.7 6.1 8.0  2,96  10.1  2.73 11,7  2.73 3.82 9.2 12.9  24 Ahnis 3.11 (Canoe 13.8 # Point)' 25 Tappen 2.82 13.3  1,53 1.10 1,25 1.67 2.11 1.70 1.39 1.76 2.09 9.2 6.7 4»8 5.5 7.3 9.3 7.5 6.1 7.7 i 1.65 1.32 1.10 1.49 2.01 1,27 1.15 1.47 1.9227.8 6.2 5.2 7.0 9.5 6.0 5.4 6.9 9.0  2.53 2.48 11.1 10.9  26 Salmon  1,62 1.22 1,08 1.38 1.82 1.27 1.23 1.24 1.71  2.03 2.61 10.3 13.2  2.47 Arm  12.4  8.3  6.2  5.5 7.0  9,3  6,5 6,3  6.3  .81 1.93 8.8 7.6 7.5 4°9 5.6" 8.7 7.2 8.1 3.7  2.49 3.02  1.49  2.02 2.40 10.6 12.5  27 Salmon 2.87 Arm (2): 13.0  1.68 1,64 1.08 1,24 1,92 1,59 1.78  28 Enderby  2.48  1.47 1.08  29 Shuswap Falls  1.95 10.2  1.70 1.02 1.16 1,65 2.10 1.44 lo40 1.48 9.0 5.4 6.1 8.7 10.9 7.6 7.3 7.8  30 Mabel Lake  2.12 11.2  1.41 1.10 1.09 1.54 2.12 1.45 1.39 1.45 7.4 5.8 5.8 8.1 11.2 7.7 7.-3 7.7  0  12.9  8.7  2.18 2.85 10.3 13.4  7.7  .94 1.33 1,98 1.25 1.26 1.39  5.7 4.9 7.0 10.4 6,6 6.6 7.3  7.8  11.3 13.6  1.52 1.66 1.98 8.0 8,7 10.3  1  1.65 1.52 2.11 8.7 8.0 n . i  No Name of Jan Feb station Middle Fraser Valley 1 Laluwissen 1,06 § Creek 14.0 2 Lillooet  1.32 10.5  3 Pemberton # Hatchery  4.27 14.0  Mar Apr May June July  -.47 ,58 .31 .29 6.2 7.6 4.1 3.8 .86 6.9  .67 .30 .69 .56 8.8 3.9 9.1 7.4  .75 .48 .83 1.22 .93 1.05 .93 6.0 3.8 6.6 9.7 7.4 8.4 7.4  8 Little #' Gunn Lake  2.92 1.80 .94 .95 15.0 9.2 4.8 4.9  9 Bridge § River  2.16 1.72 1.30 : .72/ .82 1.34 .80 1.08 1.09 9.1 6.8 3,8 4.3 7.1 4.2' 5.7 5,7 11.4  1.22 1.33 1.56 1.31 1.33 1.53 2.13 1.74 : 8.0 6.6 4.6 5.0 5.9 4.8 5.0 5.8  1.53 1.04 12.2 8.3 .70 5.1  Dec  .73 1.23 9.7 16.3  1.12 1.24 1.80 8.9 9.9 14.5  5.51 6.22 15.2 17.1 8.88 16.0  7.05 3.81 3.53 . 2.22 1.57 1.25 1.44 3.22 5.82 9.71 7.60 12.1 6.6 6.1 3.8 2.7 2.2 2.5 5.5 10.0 16.6 13.1  3.17 11.9  12 Dog Creek  .71 9.3  .93 1.09 2.23 4.51 2.6 3,0 6.1 12.5  7 Bralorne  11 Pavilion  Nov  8.18 6.22 2.92 2.31 1.75 1.81 1.98 2.85 6.46 7.66 i.45 ; 3.2 3.3 3.6 5.1 11.7 13.8 14.8 11.2 8.0 5.3.  6' Alta Lake 10.93 18.8  10 Mohas  Oct  : 2.85 2.30 : 1.27 1.45 1.02 1.38 2.44 3.76 4.73 3.93 1.35 9.3 7.5 4»4 4.1 4.7 3.3 4.5 7.8 12.2 15.4 12.8  4 Pemberton 5.02 3.96 2.75 1.53 : 1.34 1.15 Meadows 13.8 11.0 7.6 4.2 3.7 3.2 5 Alta Lake  Aug Sept  .71 .46 5.7 3.7  .46 1.13 2.4 5.8  2.96 4.00 11. r 15.1  4.27 16.2  .51 .69 1.33 2.71 2.00 4.04 2.6 3.5 6.8 13.9 10.3 20.8 2.U' 2.31 3.21 12.9 12.2 16,8  .76 1.22 .64 .89 .94 1.03' 1.45 6.1 9.7 5.1 7.1 7.5 8.2 11.5  .80 1.20 : 1.14 .62 2.26' 1.11 2,13 1.67 5.9 8.9 8.4 4.5 16.7 8.1 15.6 12.2  1.87 14.9  .52 3.8  .40 1.08 2.9 7.9  ; .80 1.33 2.43 1.79 1.91 1.49 1.22 1.07 9.4 7.6 6.7 5.0 8.3 15.3 11,3 12.0  .85 5.3  .93 5.8  .69 4.2  1.44 9.1  13 Lac la" # Hache  1.78 14.9  .27 .47 1.35 1.02 1.54 2.2 3.9 11.2 8.5 12.8  .76 6.3  .53 4.4  1.06 8.8  1.65 13.8  14 Alkali # Lake  .86 8.3  .66 .21 .33 .76 1.65 1,43 1,53 6.4 2.0 3.2 7.3 15.9 13.8 14.7  .93 9.0  .46 4.4  .70 6.7  .86 8.3  15 Big Creek  .82 6.6  .71 .88 .50 .98 1.80 1.36 1.61 1.15 5.7 7.1 4.0 7.9 14.5 10.9 12.9 9.2  .76 6.1  .90 7.2  .97 7.8  16 150-Mile House  1.60 10.7  -  ..  17 Williams#• Lake 18 Horsefly Lake  .76 6.3  .83 6.9  .77 .66 .48 1.19 2.17 1.92 1.86 5.2 4-4 3.2 8.0 14.4 12.9 12.5  .74 1,01 5.0- 7.8  .73 1.04 .68 .64' 1.33 1.92 1.43 1.55 .93 5.4 7.8 5.1 4.8 9.9 14.3 10.7 11.6 6.9  .86 6.4  .96 1,56 6.4 10.5 .93 6.9  1.37 10.2  2.25 1.42 2.39 1.81 2.81 4.56 2.89 3.17 1.74 2.54 2.01 2.06 8.6 6.8 6.9 4.8 8.1 6.1 9.5 15.3 9.7 10.7 5.9 7.6  No Name of station  Jan  1 9 Soda #' Creek 2 0 Alexis Creek 2 1 Bullion # (Quesnel Forks)' 2 2 Barkerville  2 4 Quesnel (Airport)'  May June July  .55  =63  = 50  =95  1=51  1=35  4 . 8  5 = 5  4=3  8=3  13=1  11=8  o l  2.61 11 o  T  3 » 8 2 ; 9 = 5  Aug Sept 1=08 9=4  =97 8=4  Oct  =97 8o4  =43  .36  =46  = 58  1.09  1 = 12 1.28  1=08  = 55  4=6  3=9  4=9  6,2  11=6  11=9  13=6  11.6  5=9  2=09  1=57  1=29  2=06  2.84  2=19  1=97  2=21  8=9  12.2  9=4  9=0  6.7  3=02  3=25  7.6  8 . 1  5.5  6=1  8  0  5  2.57  3=93  3 . 5 5  3=39  6 . 4  9=7  8 . 8  8.4  9=5  3.40 8 = 5  1=97 8 =5  8.3  1.00  =81  = 62 1 . 1 6  2=03  1=89  1=73  1=49  l o 6 2  9o0  6 , 1  4=8  3=7  6 „ 9  12 =1  U=3  10=3  8=9  9=7  2.22  1.47  2.02  2=78  =77  1=32  2,52  5=7  3=7  6 , 4  12=3  9=7  13=6  2=88  1=92  1=64  1=35  1=61  2.31  2=68  2=55  2.64  11=0  7=3  5=1  6 , 1  8 . 8  10.2  9=7  10o0  8 = 5  1=54  2=26  2=66  2=73  1.71  2 =20  11=3  11=6  2.73  2.38  2=90  6 , 5  8=0  6.2  1=69  8=  =83  1=08  7 =2  9o4  =60 6 =4  9=1  1=43  6=1  9=4 8.7  1=18  5=4  Dec  1=46  7=1  1.12  Nov  3=77  3=35  1.51  1 0 , 8  #  Apr  9 . 4  =94  2 5 Woodpecker  Mar  1=08  10  2 3 Quesnel  Feb  2=23  1.05 4=5 3=70 9.2 1.42 8 =5  1=74 2  =85  8=4 2=35  8=9  1=79 8.7  2.16 8 =2  Upper Fraser Valley 1 Prince George  2.34  1.88  1=18  9o9  8 . 0  5=0  4=4  2=96  1=42  2 Aleza Lake  5o20  3=76  14=4  10 = 5  3 Dome Creek  2.78  1=84  1=62  6=7  5=9  1=46  1=55  10 = 2  4 McBride  1=89 9=3  5 Cranberry Lake 6 Red Pass Junction  1=46 8=2  3=18 12=2  7 = 2  1.16 6=5  1=91 7=3  8 = 2:  7 =6  1=13  1=05  3=9  1.25 4=6  6 = 5  1=81 5=0  1.93  3  .ll  806 2=55  7=0  9=3  1.15  1=13  1=60  5.7  5=6  i=io- 1=19  6=4  6o2  1=97  1=21  7=6  9 = 6  6=7  1.28  7 =9  7 = 5  2=61 9 = 5  1=84 9 d  2=59 9=4  1.71 8 . 4  7 = 2  2=78 10 = 1  2=11  9=3 2=72 7 = 5  2=65  9=6 1=88  2=04 8.6  2=04 8=6  3=49 9.6  2=33 8=5 2=07  3=75  10=3 2=53  9=2 1=94  10=3  9=2  10 = 2  9=5  1=84  1=72  1=76  1=62  1=83  1=34  1 = 57  9=1  10=3  7=6  8=9  10=5  9=7  1 = 56  2 =24  3=29  3=48  12=7  13 = 5  1=92  1.86  1=81  4=6  4 . 8  =99  1=46  4=7  7=0  10=2  6=9  2=15 8=3  1.96 7 = 5  6=0  8=6  9=9  Nechako Valley 1 Fort George 2 Vanderhoof 3 Fort Saint James 4 Burns Lake  1=83 8o7  1=31 6 =2  1=42 6 = 8  2=14  l o 6 5  =96  =98  = 55  =90  1=55  11.8  6=9  7=0  4=0  6.5  1 1 . 1  =87  =74  1=13  1=57  5=4  4=6  7 . 0  1=12  1=15  1=49 9.3  1.77 8=2  1.13  7=0 1=07 5=0  5 =2  5=4  =93 4=3  1.89 9=0  1.25  2=04  2=14  2=00  9=6  10=2  9=5  =96  1=17  1=36  1 = 26  1=32  9.8  9.1  9=5  9.0  6 . 9  1=73  1=28  9=8  10 =9  =96  4=50  4=5  21=0  8=0  8.4 1=41  8= 8  2=44  1=64  11=3  7=6  1=43  8=9 1=97 9=2  9.2  8=9  1.65  1=60  10=3  10.0  2=18  1=76  10 =  1  8 =2  No Name of Jan Feb station 5 W i s t a r i a 1.74 1 . 0 8  907  6 Nadina River 7  Mar  9=33  12". 4  Aiig Sept  1 . 2 1  .78  1 . 0 6  1 . 6 2  1 . 8 2  1 . 2 8  6.7  4 . 3  5o9  9o0  1 0 . 1  7.1  <>71  . 9 2  1 . 5 9  1 . 9 0  1 . 6 2  1 . 3 8  3 ° 8  4 » 9  1 0 . 1  8.6  7 . 3  6o0  2 . 0 2 1 . 5 01 . 0 4 5.5 1 0 . 6 7.9  Tahtsa 10.46 Lake We s t 1 3 . 9  Apr May June J u l y  5o72 7 . 6  5o53 7 . 3  1 . 5 0 2 . 0  "8.4  1 . 6 4 2 . 2  1 . 3 9  1.71  Oct  2 . 3  Dec  1 . 3 2  1.71  2.04  2.34  7 . 3  9.5  11.3  1 3 o l  5 . 9 2  1 . 8  Nov  1.93  2.16  2.13  10.2  11.4  11.3  9o95  9 . 3 4  1 2 . 7 4  7 . 9  13o2  12.4  1 7 . 0  1 . 2 2  1 . 6 8  2 . 8 2  Stations outside Fraser Basin 1 Silver .96 2 . 6 2 1 . 6 5 f Greek 4 = 3 1 1 ° 87 . 5 (Omenica) 2 Germansen 1 . 9 2 1 . 0 4 .87 4»6 Landing 1 0 . 0 5 = 4 3 Revelstoke 5-76 1 4 o Z  4 Fauquier  3=07  1 . 1 8  . 9 4  14o6  1 3 . 9  5 . 3  4o3  2 . 3 9  o74  l o 7 7  2 . 0 6  1.12  1 . 1 5  1 . 4 9  1 2 . 6  3o9  9o3  1 0 . 8  5.9  6 . 0  7 . 7  l o 9 5  2 . 0 7  10.7  7 . 0  4o8  5 o l  1 . 3 3  1.99 1.35  908  1 . 0 0  6 . 7  7 . 5  1 . 3 0  4<>9  .86  .80  1.27  1 . 7 3  1 . 1 7  5°4  8.5  H o 7  7 . 7  6  6.9  04  1 . 1 3  1 . 1 4  l o 3 2  .80  8 . 3  5.0  1 . 2 8  .97  1 . 0 9  6.1  6.9  1.04 4 . 8  l o 2 4  1 . 8 4  1 . 2 8  5 . 7  8 . 4  5 » 9  7 . 4  8 . 5  9.3  .79  1 . 0 4  1.41  5.0  6 . 5  8.8  1.71  1 . 2 5  5.9  5.7  7 . 8  12.8  2 . 0 2  2.51  10.6  13o2  4o77  3.55  11.7  13o6  1 . 0 9  2.41  8.3  10.7  l o 0 4  9o0  .99  8 01  .91  .94  6 . 2  2.16  1.63'  8.3  7 . 6  .81  9o5  1.23  .66  6 . 6  6 . 7  8.2  5=4  1 . 1 1  3.88  2 . 7 1  1 . 2 2  .72  7 . 6  5o5  7o6  5.9  1.31  1.59  8.8  10.7  1 . 6 6  1.15  13.5  9.3  I.  11.8  8 4  2.27  6  14.3  II.  2.13 9o7  3 ° 2 4 14o8  1 . 4 6  o95  .94  l o 0 0  .89  1 . 0 8  . 7 9  1.23  1 . 6 6  1 . 9 3  9o6  6 . 2  6o2  6.6  5.9  7.1  5 . 2  8.1  . 0 . 9  12.6  l o l 7  .85  .84  o 9 6  6 . 7  6 . 6  7o6  .95  .64  .60  1.03  7 . 5  5.1  4o7  8.1  016  2 . 4 2  3  7o6  1 2 Wadding ton.. 6> 96 6 . 0 2 5 . 0 1 Harbour 1 0 . 9 9 = 47 . 9 13 Tatlayoko 1 . 8 0 1 . 3 9 Lake 1 0 . 6 8 . 2  1 . 3 9  1 1 . 0  1 . 8 4 1.45 1 2 . 1 9.5  13.5  4°9  2 . 2 4  9 Aspen" # Grove  6 . 0 8 5.63  2 . 0 2  5o3  8.8  2.93 2 . 3 0 1 . 6 2 " 1 3 . 4 10.5 7 . 4  l l o l  6 . 5  l o 7 9  8 Osprey # Lake  1 0 Princeton 1 . 4 1  2 . 6 4 ' 2 . 1 4  6.6  5.8  7 Peachland 2 . 0 8 1 . 3 0 #(Trepanier) 1 3 . 1 8 . 2  14<-6  3 . 2 2  7 . 9  ,2o85  10.0  1 1 Skagit  1 . 7 5  4=37  5 Vernon 1.47 " 1 . 1 0 (Cold9o9 7 . 4 stream) 6 Kelowna 1.23 . 9 2  f  . 9 8 4o5  o94  9o3  10 5 7 10 9 7  1 . 4 2  6.85  13c5  16.5  5 . 2 9  9o02  9.09  8.72  £ . 3  1 4 ° 2  14o3  13  1 . 0 9  l o 7 4  2.27  2.25  6 . 3  1 0 . 2  13  13  02  I.  51  2 . 7  3c4  4 ° 5  3o35  3o37  2 . 2 2  2 . 3 9  2.20  5o3  5o3  3 . 5  3o7  3.5  1 . 3 6  1 . 1 2  8 . 0  6 . 6  .96  14 Kleena Kleene  1.70 . 8 1. 5 2 1 3 . 3 6.4 4.1  .56  .64 1.60  4o4  5o0  1 2 . 6  1 5 Ahahim Lake  1 . 0 5  ol3  .71  M  1 . 3 8 8.1  3  03  =93  1.55  o87  .87  1 . 1 7  7 . 3  12.2  6 . 8  6.8  9 » 2  . 5 8  .61  1 . 7 0  M  M  oO  5.61  4c7  5<>6  13  9 1  3 . 8  .74  1.65  12.7  , 9 6  9 o 4  1 . 8 5  5 . 8  5.5  . 31 9 .17  1012  1.61  "7.6  II.  o7  8  1 . 2 0  No Name o f station 16  17  Kemano  KemanoKildala  1 8 Smithers  Jan  9=52  7=15  12=9  9 . 7  1 3 . 0 2  15=28  l i d 1.68 9=1  1 9 Babine Lake  Feb  Mar A p r May June J u l y  4 = 3 9 5=06 1 = 1 5 5=9 6.9 1=5 11.11  1 3 = 09 = 5 1 . 0 9 =91 5o9  4=9  1=69 1=36 2=3 1 . 8  8.21 9 = 1 8 3 = 7 8 7 = 5 1 ' 7 . 0  =97  5=3  7=9 3=2 6=4 1.46  7=9  1.76"1.95 9=5 10.6  2 . 1 6 ' 1 . 3"1.12 4 1.14 1 . 2 8 1.97 1.79 1 0 . 5 6 . 55=4 5 = 5 6=2" 9=6 8.7  Aug Sept  Oct  8=26  11=19  2=04 2.7  7=37 6 . 3  Nov  Dec  9=83  12=22  13=3  16=6  H.14 14=62  7 = 27  8 . 5 6  1 2 . 6  6.2"  7 . 3  1 1 . 2 "  9.5  15.2"  1.94  2.03  '1.99'  1 0 . 5  10=9  10 = 8  1.35  1=35  7=3  7 . 3  1.49  1=69  2 . 2 2  2.13  2.12  8 . 2  10=8  10.7  10.7  7=2  120 C. Fraser River Basin Mean Annual and Seasonal Snowfall Total Pptn — Mean annual total precipitation. Ann, Snow— Mean annual snowfall. % —Mean proportion of annual precipitation recorded as snow^ Amt --- Mean seasonal amount of snowfall. % — Proportion of annual snowfall recorded i n each season. No Name of Station  Total Pptn  Ann Snow  %  Winter Amt %  Spring Amt %  Lower Fraser Valley 1 Jericho Beach  52.24  13.3  2 . 6  1 1 . 3  84.9  2- Brockton Point  59.59  2 0 . 4  3.5  1 7 . 3  8 4 . 8  2 . 1  1 0 . 3  3 Sea Island  40.20  1 7 . 7  4 . 4  1 5 . 5  8 7 . 7  1 . 1  6.2"  4 ' Steveston  3 7 . 2 3  15.9  4 . 3  1 2 . 8  8 0 . 5  1 . 8  1 1 . 3  5 ladner  3 6 . 2 3  16o6  4 . 6  1 4 . 2  8 5 . 6  1 . 4  8o4  ™—  .9  6 . 8  Autumn Amt %  Summer Amt % —  — '  Ll  8o3'  1 . 0  4°  ;  8  —  —  1 . 1  6 . 2  —  —  1 . 3  8 . 2  1 . 0  6 . 0  1.0"  7 . 5  —  2.5  1 6 . 0  6 Vancouver (City Hall)" 7 Ahnacis Island  51.14  13.4  2 . 6  1 1 . 5  8 5 . 7  .9  6 . 8  —  5 6 . 3 0  1 5 . 6  2 . 8  1 0 . 5  6 7 . 3  2 . 6  1 6 . 7  •—  8* New Westminster  5 6 . 5 3  3 3 . 0  5 . 8  26.2  7 9 . 4  3 . 4  1 0 . 3  —  - ~  3 . 4  1 0 . 3  9 Burquitlam  6 5 . 6 4  2 8 . 4  4 . 3  2 5 . 6  9 0 . 1  1 . 5  5 . 3  —  — •  1 . 3  4 . 6  1 0 Pitt Meadows  87.29  24.9  2 . 8  21oO  8 4 . 4  2". 8  1 1 . 2  —  1.1  4 . 4  1 1 White Rock  4 0 . 2 0  1 4 . 5  3 . 6  1 1 . 9  8 2 . 1  1 . 5  1 0 . 3  —  ~  1.1  7 . 6  1 2 Reidville  53.01  3 7 . 3  7 . 0  3 1 . 0  8 3 . 2  2 . 8  7 . 4  —  —  3.5  9.4  1 3 Fort Langley  6 3 . 5 8  3 0 . 5  4.8  2 4 . 0  7 8 . 7  3 . 5  1 1 . 5  —  —  3.0 9 . 8  4 7 . 2 5  2 8 . 3  6 . 0  2 2 . 2  7 8 . 4  3 . 5  1 2 . 4  —  —  2.6 9 . 2  1 0 . 3  —  —  1 . 6  °»="  . 6  1 4 Kensington" Prairie 1 5 Cloverdale  short record  1 6 Fort Kells-  58.83  24.0'  4 « 1  1 9 . 8  8 2 . 4  2 . 6  17 Port Coquitlam  71.62"  2 0 . 5  2 . 9  18.1  8 8 . 3  1 . 8  3 . 4  36.1  7 6 . 4  9.5  2 0 . 2  —  —  1 . 6  3 . 4  1 1 . 2  —  —  1 . 7  5 . 2  ~  2 . 1  3 . 5  808  6 . 8  2.9  1 8 Coquitlam Lake  1 3 8 . 1 3  4 7 o<2  1 9 Alouette Lake  103.69  32.9"3.2  2 7 . 5  83.6  3 . 7  606  43.8  7 2 . 7  1 4 . 4  2 7 . 8  8 8 . 9  1 . 7  5 . 4  —  —  1 . 8  5 . 7  82;8  5 . 0  1 0 . 5  —  —  3 . 2  6 . 7  2 0 Haney  9 1 . 7 7  6 0 . 3  2 1 Langley Prairie  61.39  31.3  5 . 1  2 2 Aldergrove.  65.96'  4 7 . 3  7..2"  39.1  23  08  —  No Name of Station  Total Pptn  Ann Show  %  Winter Amt %  23 Abbotsford 60.30 30.0 5.0 22.6 75.4' (Airport); 24 Abbotsford 54.00 21.3 3.9 16.S 78.9' (tipper Sum&s) 25 Mission 63 c 49 26.1 4.1 19.7 75.5 26 Stave Falls  Spring Summer Autumn Amt % Amt % Amt %  121  1J3  5.3 17.6  —  —  2.1  2.2 10.3  —  —  2.3 10.8  4.5 17.2  —  —  1.9  7.3  2.9 12.3  —  —  1.1  4.7  137 ..52 37.9 2.7 33.5 88.5  2.6  6.8  ~  —  1.8  4.7  28 Nicomen(Derochey  73.78 33.1 4-5 26.4 79.9'  3.3  9.9  —  —  3.4 10.2  29 Chillivack (Sardis) 30 Cultus Lake  61.18  33.8.5.5 26.3 77.8  3.7 10.9  —  —  3.8 11.3'  58.02 29.0 5.0 24.9 86.0  1.8 6.2  —  —  2.3  31 Sardis (Vedder Crossing) 32 Agassiz;  58.01  42.5 7.4 24.9 58.7 12.4 29.1  —  —  5.2 12.2  63.19  38.5 6.1 3i o 80.4  4-4 U.5  —  —  3.1  8.1  33 Jones Lake  90.90 159»717.5102.3 64.0  43.9 27.5  —  — 13.5  8.5  34 Hope (Tovn)'  61.74  5.7  —  —  3.4  6.6  56.22 63.411.1 51.6 81.1 35 Hope(Little Mountain); 47.71 92.519.4 79.4 85.8 36 Hell's Gate..  6.1 9.8  —  —  5.7  9.1  6.3 6.8  —  —  6.8  7.4'  37 North Bend  36.53  7.7 11.8  —  —  3.2  4.9  38 Lytton  17.42 45.2 25.9 38.4 84.9  2.1  —  —  4.7 10.4  —  —  4.7 16.9  27 Stave Lake  78.70' 23.5 3.0" 19,5 83.0'  0  51.5 8.4 45.2 87.7  65.617.9 54.7 83.3  2.9  4.7  7.9  Thompson-Shuswap Valley 1 Merritt  28.031.0 20.2 71.9  9.07  3.1  l l c l  2:Nicola Lake  11.19; 29.9 26.8 21.8 72.9  3.4 11.4  —  —  4.7 15.7/  3 Mamit Lake  12.24 43.335.4< 26.9 62.2  9.0 20.8  —  —  7.4 17.CT  9.0  —  —  4.8 14.9  4 Ashcroft (2)  9.75  32.233.0 24.5 76.1  2.9  5 Ashcroft (1)'  7.39  18.925.5 15.3 81.0'  1.3 6.8 — -  —  2.3 12.2  8.0 13.0  —  —  10.9: 17.9/  26.9"32JJ 22.3 82.9  1.1 5.4  —  —  3.4 12.6  8 Kamloops(Mission 11.60 24.6 21.2: 20.0 81.9 Flats) 9: Kamloops(Airport) 10.16 29.2 2&8 22.8 78.1  .9 3.3  —  —  3.7 14.7  1.6 5.4  —  —  4.8 16.5  6'.8  —  —  2.5  6 Vidette Lake 7 Tranquille"''  17.42 61.135.1 42.2 69.1 8.37  1  la Kamloops ("Dominion 9.54 29.6 31X) 25.1 84.7 Range Experimental Station)  2.0  8..5!  No Name of Station  Total Fptn  11 Knouff Lake  17.08 68.5 40.2 40.5 59.1  12 Chinook Cove  16 064 47.2 28.4 37.1 78.7  13 Hemp Creek  Ann Show  %  Winter Amt %  Spring Summer Amt % Amt %  3.2  ; 21o00 78.8 37.4 55.0 69.8  14. Vayenby  15.67  15 Blue River  38.94 144.4 37.1102.1 70.9  39.6 25.3 31.3 79.0 y  16 Monte Creek  13.8 20.2  c l . . .  122  Autumn Amt %  ...I 14.1 20.6  6.7  —  —  13.1 16.7  —  — 10.7 13.5  6.9  —  —  16.9 11.7  —  .— 25.0 17.4  2.7  6.9 14.6  5.6 14.1  9.80  25.0 25.5 21.2 84.8  1.3  5.2  —  —  2.5 10.0  17 Wsstvold  14.23  38,3 26.9 31.2 81.4  2.4  6.3  —  —  4.7 12.3  18 Falkland  17.30  58.0 33.6 4209 73.9  8.1 14.0  —  —  7.0 12.1  —  _  —  —  19 Chase  short record  20 Sorrento  18.78  21 Eagle Bay  21.29  <—  —  —  5.3  9.6  55.2 29.4 45.0 81.5  4.9  8.9  6008 28.5 51.7 85.0  3.6  5.9  22 Sicamous  23,o65 93.2 39.4 72.5 77.9  7.0  7.5  —  — 13.7 14.6  23 Malakwa  29.60 103.9 35.1 84.2 80.9  6.9  6.7  dmam  — 12.8 12.4  1 ,  —  :  5  °  5  9  a  —  6.8 10.8  —  8.0 11.7  —  —  9.0 13.3  7.5 10.3  —  —  7.2 10.0  63.4 33.0 52.0 79.2  4.9  7.7  —  —  8.3 13.1  29 Shuswap Falls"  19.01 57,9 30.4 46.8 80.8  3.9  6.7  —  7.2 12.5  30 Mabel Lake  18.95  52.2 27.6 43.3 83.0  2.6  5.0  —.  6.3 12.0  7.60  19.8 26.2 13.0 65.7  2.0 10.1 —  12.53  23.5 18.8 20.8 88.5  1.1  4.7  =— I06  3 Pemberton 30.74 43.9 14.3 38.2 86.9 Hatchery 4 Pemberton Meadows1 36.24 96.2 26.5 77.7 80.8  1.7  3.9  —  60 2  6o4  — 12.3 12.8  24 Arinis(Canoe * Point) 25 Tappen  22.75  62.8 27.6 52.5 83.6  3.5  5.6  21.23  68.3 32.2 54.8 80.2  5.5  8.1  26 Salmon Arm  19.68  67.3 34.2 52.5 78.1  5.8  8.6  27 Salmon Arm(2)  22.24 72.7 32.7 58.0' 79.7  28 Enderby  19.21  r  Middle Fraser Valley 1 Laluwissen Creek 2 Lillooet  4°8 24.2  4.0  608 9.2  26.0 12.2  5 Alta Lake  55.47 212.9 38.4157.4 73.9  29.5 13.9 —  —  6 Alta Lake  59.56 279.1 46.819L6 68.8  51.0 18.2 —  — 36.5 13.0  7 Bralorne  26.55 102.7 38.6 67.9 66.1  14.7 14.3  — 20.1 19.6  123 No Name of Station 8 L i t t l e Gunn Lake 9 Bridge River 10 Mob*  Total Ann Pptn Show  %  Winter Amt %  "Spring Summer Amt % Amt %  19.19  70.2 36.7 54.7 77.9  .9  1.3  18.99  30.8 16.2 26.2 85.1  1.4  4.5  llo67  38.5 33.0 28.3 73.5  2.9  7.5  —  short record  —  —  —  11 Pavilion  —  —  —  Autumn Amt _ % 14.6 20.8 3.2 10.4 7.3 I9o0  —  —  —  9.1 12.5  - —  6.2 13e2  —  4.6 16o4  —  10.6 23.6  —  7.7 13.3  —  6.6 18 2  —  12 Dog Creek  16c27  72.9 44.9 43c0 59.1  20.8 28.4  13 Lac l a Hache  12.02  46.8 38.9 34»4 73.6  6.2 13.2  14 Alkali Lake  10.38  28.1 26.6 22.2 79.0  1.3  15 Big Creek  12.44  44c9 36.0 24.3 54.1  10.0 22.3  16 150-Mile House  15 064 58.0 37.0 41,6 71.6  8.7 15.1  17 Williams Lake  13 c41 36.2 26.9 26.0 71.8  3.6 10.0  —  18 Horsefly. Lake  29.27  90.1 30.8 58.0 64.4 21.9 24.3  —  —  10.2 11.3  19 Soda Creek  11c 50  37c8 33.0 26.3 69.8  3.4  9.0 —  —  8.1 21.4  9.34  31.7 33.9 21.1 66.6  4.5 14.2  —  6.1 19.2  21 Bullion(Quesnel '.' Forks) 22 Barkerville  23 c 28 74.8 32.1 53c8 71c9  14.2 19.0  —  6.8  23 QUesnel  16 74  47.8 26.6 34.4 71.9  4.6  24 Quesnel (Airport)) 20.63  73.3 35.5 50.8 69.4  9.8 13.3  26.32  70.5 26.8 51.5 73.1  9.1 12.9  1 Prince George  23 c63 88.8 37.5 60.0 67.6  13.0 14.7  2 Aleza Lake  36.11 164.9 45.6124.5 75.4  20.0 1.2.2 —  3 Dome Creek  27.46 100.7 36.8 65.5 65.0  12.1 12.0  —  23.1 23.0  4 McBride  20.33  77.9 38.3 A5o0 57.8  17.1 21.9  —  15.8 20.3  56.4 31.8 34o7 61,3  10.5 18.9  —  l l . 2 1908  6 Red Pass Junction 26.13 127.6 48.8 78.9 61.8  23.6 18.5  —  25.1 19.7  20 Alexis Creek  25 Woodpecker ' t. . . . . . ..  4.6 —  40 c 19 195d 48.6 98.9 50.8 52.5 26.9 ?  —  —  —  .6  0  9.1  .3 43.1 22.0 —  808 18 04 12.7 17.3  O i l  —  9.9 14.0  —  15.8 17.7  • • '•  Upper Fraser Valley —  20.4 12.4  . . . . . . ., . (  5 Cranberry Lake  17.72  Nechako Valley 1 Fort George  21.00  68.6 32.6 49.3 71.8  8.2 12.0  —  11,1 16.2  No Name of Station  Total Pptn  Ann Snow  %  Winter Amt %  Spring Summer Autumn Amt % Amt % Amt %  2 Vanderhoof  14.25  54.0 37.9 34.9 64.6  9.1 16.8  —  — 10 oO 18.6  3 Fort Saint James  16.03. 58.0 36.2 36.9 63.6  7.9 13.6  —  — 13.2 22.8  4 Burns Lake  19.35  64.1 33o2 41.8 65.2  11.6 18.1  —  — 10.7 16.7  5 Wistaria  18.00  77.7 43.2 43.4 55.7  15.8 20.4  —  — 18.5 23.9  6 Nadina River  18.90  75.8 40.1 .47.1 62.1  12.6 16.7  —  — 16.1 21.2  7 Tahtsa Lake West  75.22 462.1 61.4 287.5 62.0  99.9 21.5  —  — 74.7 16.5  21.9 21.4  —  — 21.6 21.2  Stations outside Fraser Basin 1 Silver Creek — short record •• (Omenica) 2 Germansen Landing 19.07 102.3 53.7 58.8 57.4 :  3 Revelstoke  40.71 :146.7 36.0117.9 80.4  9.9  6.7  —  — 18.9 12.9  4 Fauquier '  20.28  57.7 28.4 48.6 84.2  3.6  6.3  —  9.5  5 Vernon(Coldstream)l4.88  36.6 24.5 32.7 89.3  3.2  8.8  —  —  12.20  32.9 27.0 26.4 80.0  2.5  7.6  —  —  7 Peachland 15.90 62o 4 39.1 44.2 70.8 • '"' (Trepanier): 21.86 124.8 57.0 81.1 64.9 8 Osprey Lake  5.7  9.1-- —  2i.7 17.4  —  — 22.0 17.7  9 Aspen Grove  18.4 26.1  —  — 13.1 18.6  8.1  —  —  7.9 18.4  13.1 11.2 —  —  6.8  6 Kelovna  .7  1.9  4°0 12.4  — 12.5 20.1  15.22  70.4 46.2 38.9 55.3  10 Princeton , *  12.67  42.9 33.9 31.5 73.5  11 Skagit  41.59-117.0 28.2 97.1 83.0  12 Waddington Harbour 13 Tatlayoko Lake  63.64- . 51.4 8.1 42.6 82.8  5.6 10.9  —  —  3.2 6.3  17.04  53.2 31.233.7  9.9 18.6  —  —  9.6 18.0  14 Kleena Kleene  12.73  57.9 45.5 36.6 63.3  8.6 14.8  —  — 12.7 21.9  15 Anahim Lake  58.2  16 Kemano  73.86. 120.1 16.3 95.6 79 06" 15.9 13.2  —  —  17 Kemano-Kildala  3.5  5.8  short record 8.6 7.2  116.85 841.0 72.1368.9 43.9. 233.1 27.7 33.8 4.0 205.2 24.4  18 Sinitbers  18.48  57.4 31.138.4 66.9  19 Babine lake  20.59  85.2 41.451.1 60.0  7 . £ 13.2  —  — 11.4 19.9  13.9 16.2 —  — 20.2 23.8  Do-  125  Fraser River Basin Mean Seasonal Snov  as Percent of Mean Annual Precipitation and of Mean Seasonal Precipitation % ann — Proportion of mean annual precipitation falling as snow» % seas — Proportion of mean, seasonal precipitation received as snow. Mar quo— Maritimity quotient} amount of spring snowfall divided by amount of autumn snowfall. No Name of Station  Winter Spring Summer Autumn Mar %' ann # seas % ann % seas ^ann %se&8- % ann % seas Quo  1 Jericho Beach  3.6'  5.1  o4  2 Brockton Point  3.0  7.3  .3  3 Sea Island  3.8  9.5  4 Steveston  3.6  8.5  5 Ladner  3=9  10.8  6' Vancouver (City HallX 2.2  5=4  7 Annacis Island  1.8  8 New  _  .3  .8  81o 8  1.7  —  .2  .6  210.0  .3  1.4  —  .3  .9  100.0  .4  2=6  —  =4  2.1  —  —  .3  .9 J40.O  .4  =9  —  —  .3  .7  90.0  6.8  .5  2.2  —  .5  loi  104.0  4.6  11.9  =6  3=0  —-  .6  2.0  100.0  3.8  9.6  =3  1.0  —  —  .7  115.5  2.4  6=4  .3  1.8  —  —  ol  11 White Rock  . 2.9  7.5  .4  1.8  ~  —  .3  .9  136.35  12 Reidville  5.8  16.1  .5  3.6  —  —  .7  1.8  80.0  13 Fort Langley  3.8  10. p  .5  3.2  ~  —  .5  1.4  116 o7  14 Kensington Prairie  4=7  13=4  .7  —  .6  1.5  134.6  —  «-  —  —  .3  08 162o5  .1  .I 300.0  .1  .I 583=0  Westminster  9 Burquitlam 10 Pitt Meadows  15 Cloverdale l 6 P o r t Kells 17 Port Coquitlam , \ f '  2=6  •—  —  —  9.4  .5  2=5  —  6.6  .2  1=2  —  »=. 3=3  „8  ', f  "7  —  * ' J V ' ' • ' ' . * ) • •". • a'4$i 'v • • •• 18 Coquitlam. Lake  2.6  6.3  .7  3.1  —  19 Alouette Lake  2.6  6.7  .4  1.6  —  20 Haney •  4.8  11.7  1.6  7.2  —  21 Langley Prairie  4=5  12.9  .3  1.7  —  A  .3  —  —  (BOB  ca>ca*  o2"  1=1  I38.2  4.2 254=3'  .6  217.9  . .2  .9  6860.O  .3  08  94o4  /  No Nama of Station i%  Winter ann % seas  Spring Summer Autumn Marann % seas %axm $seasf % ann % seas Q£to  22 Aldergrove  6.0  16.5  .7  4.3  23 Abbotsford (Airport)  3o8  9.5  .9  4=0  24 Abbotsford(Upper Suraas)' 25 Mission  3.1  9.2  .4  1.7  3.1  9.3  .7  3=8  .3  26' Stave Falls  2.5  6.7  •4  1.7  .1  •,°5 263=7  27 Stave Lake  2.4  6.3  .2  .8  .1  c5 144=5  28 Ni c pm en (De roch e) >  3.5  9°7  .5  2.1  .5  lc5  97.1  29 Chilliwack(Sardis}  4.2  11.3  =7  2=9  ~~  06  ,2.0  97=4  30 Cultus Lake  4.3  11.4  =3  1.4  „_c_  =4  1=3 78.3?  31 Sardis(Vedder Crossing)/^^  15°6  2.2"  10=5  =9  2=5 238.3  32 Agassiz:  4.9  14.0  ,7  3=1  .5  1.6 141=9  33 Jones Lake  11.2"  28.6  4=8  19.9  1.5  5.4 320=5  34 Hope(Town)  7.3  18.0  =5  2=2  .6  35 Hope(Little Mountain)  9.1  21.6  1.0  5.8  1=0  3=3 107.0 4=7  > •  —  •—  .5:  1=4 156.2:  .3: 1.2 252=5:  .—  _  =4  -™  — —  —  36 Hell's Gate  16.7  34=8  1.3  10=3  —  1.4  37 North Bend  14=9  34=8  2=1  9=5  —  =9  38 Lytton  21.9  50.6  1=3  8.4  —  22.4  66.7  3=4  17.4  —  2.7  1.4  95.7  =9 236.8  i<\ •  1-9  85=3  92; 6  3=2 240.5 i? 9=2 44=6  Thompson-Shuswap Valley 1 Merritt  <  ;  5 = 2 20.5 -i .  66.0  2 Nicola Lake  19.6  78.5  3=0  13.3  3 Mamit Lake  22.0  89=7  7.3  34=8  —  6.1  4 Ashcroft(2)  25.2  83=1  2.9  21.1  —  4=9 20.8  60=4  5 Ashcroft  20.7  75.1  1.7  10.4 —  —  3=1  13.8  56.6  6 Vidette Lake  24.1  97.5  4=7  23=4 —  6.3  27.9  78.4  7 Tranquille  26.8  85.5  1=3  8.1  8 Kamloops(Mission Flats)' 9 Kamlfops(Airport)  17.2  83=4  =7  5=2  22.4  83=3  1.6  9=5  —  4=2 17.3  72.3  25.35121.6  4=0 19=2 32.4 —  _  —  3=1 12=9 4.8  20.7  24=4 33.3  No Name of Station  Winter Spring Supier Autumn Mar % ann % seas % ann % seas #ann #seas % ann % seas QUo  1 0 Kamloops(Dominion 26 . 3 7 4 . 5 Range" Experimental Station) 1 1 Knouff Lake 23 o7 82.4  2.1  16.6  —  8.2  42.4  .1  .3  —  1 2 Chinook Cove  22o3  77.5  1.9  10.9  13 Hemp Creek  26ol  94.3  6.2  27.2  _  1 4 Vavenby  20.0'  79.9  1.7  9.4  —  15 Blue River  26 3  88.1  4.4  22.6  16 Monte Creek  2 1 o7  82.9  1.3  8.4  —  17 Westwold  21.9  78.4  1.7  8.7  —  75.7  4.7  22.7  —  0  18 Falkland 19 Chase  «...  short record  15.7  80.0  8.2  39.2  97.8  •—  4.2  16.5  46.4  -  5..1  25.1  2.6  ——  —  —  77.0  2.6  21 Eagle'. Bay.  24.3  74.1  1.6  9.1  —  2 2 Sicamous  30.7  90.0  3.0  18.3  —  2 3 Malakwa  28.4  .88.8  2 o 1+13.0  2 4 Annis(Canoe Point);  23 o 2  73.8  1.5  8.8  —  —  25 Tappen  25.8  74.9  2.6  14.1  —  —  2 6 Salmon. Arm  26.6  78.4  3.0  15.8  27 Salmon Ann (2')'  26.0  76.7  3.4  19.0  28 Enderby ..  26.1  79.1  2.6  14.7  24.6  83.2  2.0  10.2  22.8  76.8  1.4  7.0'  1 Laluwissen Creek  17.1  47.2  2.7  17.0  2: Lillooet  16.6  52.3  .9  5.4  3 Pemberton Hatchery  12.4  34.6  .6  8.9'  4 Pemberton Meadows  21.4  51.2  1.7  11.1  „ _  28.4  67.7  5.3  31.5  —  '.•«"!« f t  —  3 0 Mabel Lake  52.0  3.3  13.7  51.1  4.1  17.2  2.8  —  92.4  19.8  51.1  15.9  53.9  2.9 '1 0 . 7 17.  51.4  14.4  68.7  18.1  64.5  '  3  3.8 4°6  —  amam  65.4  5.7  A  10.8  115.7  9.8  2.6  T  V  -29 Shuswap Falls  11.3  .  «*.  —  48.2  67.6  '—  24.0  o.9  24.0  6.4 2.5  2 0 Sorrento.'  13.6  13  3.6  122.2'  —  3.3  13.8  104.1  ~  4.3  17.0  59.1  —  3.8  15.5  54.2  —  3.4  13.7  41.3  —  6.4  24.1  41.7  -  1.3  4.9  68.7  —  1.3  3.7  42  "  3.4  —  4.7  Middle Fraser Valley  5 Alta Lake  _  10.1  15.4  04  50.4 113.4  No Name of station  Winter Spring Summer Autumn Mar % ann % seas % ann % seas ^ann #seas % ann % sear Qua  6 Alta Lake  3 2 c z.  75.0  8.5  53.4  —  —  6.1  7 Bralorne  25=6  71.0  5.5  34.3  —  —  7..5  23.7  8 L i t t l e Gunn Lake  28 o 6  62.5  .5  3.9  —  —  7.6  24.2 61.6  9 Bridge River  13.8  37.0"  .7  5.0  —  1.7  5.5 43.7  24c 3  63.8  2.4  15.1  —  6.3  21.4 3 9 . 7  10 Moha 11 Pavilion  —  short record  19.5 138.0 73 = 2"  —  5.6  36 c9 22.9"  5=2".  26.4 100.0  12"'Dog Creek  26.5  92.4  12.8"  65.1  —  13 Lac l a Hache  28.6  82.2  5.1  39=5  —  14 Alkali Lake  21.0  93=3  1.2  10=1  _  15 Big Creek  19.5  95.0  8=0  42.4  —  —  8.5  16 150-Mile House  26.6'  98.7  5.5  37=9  —  —  4.9  28.5 1 1 3 . 0  17 Williams Lake  19.3  82.9  2=7  13.6  — 4=9  24=3 54=6  18 Horsefly Lake  19=8  93.1  7.5  31.3  —  —  3=5  16.3 219.0  19 Soda Creek  22.9  97.1  3=0  16.4  —  —  7.1  29=3 4 1 = 9  20 Alexis Creek  22.5  95=1  4=8  32.2  _  ~°"  6.6  27=4 73.7  21 Bullion (Quesnel Fork^} 23.0  93.6  6.1  28.9'  —  —  3.0  12.2" 208.8  22 Barkerville  24=7  93 = 9 1 3 . 1  63=6 . i  —  10.7  37.5 121.9  23 Quesnel  20.5  87=6  2.8  17.8  _„  —  5=3  19.3  24 Quesnel (Airport)'  24=6  92=8  4=8  30.0  „  —  6.1  28.0 77.2  25 Woodpecker  19.5  74=0  3.5  19.8  __.  —  3=8  13=8 91.9  1 Prince George  25=3  95.9  5.5  34.5  —  —  6.7  26.6  2 Ale za Lake  34=5  98.0  5.5  32.4  —  5=6  22.4 98.1  3 Dome Creek  24.0  91.7  4.4  25 = 2  8.4'.  29=8 52=4  4 McBride.  22.1  85=1  8=4  44=3: —  —  7=8  26.1 108c2  5 Cranberry Lake  19.6  79.3  5.9  30.7  _  —  6.3  21.8 93.8  6 Red Bass Junction  30.2  92.1 . 9 . 0 / 52.9  —  —  9.6  35=4 93.9  —  22=1 27=2 27=9  93=4  52.3 1  Upper Fraser Valley  _  82.3  No N&me of station Nechako Valley 1 Fort George  Winter Spring Summer Autumn Mar % ann % seas $ ann % seas' $ann #seas % ann % s e a r Quo 23 ° 4  98o7  3 . 9  2 Vanderhoof  24° 6  88o9  6.3  3 Fort Saint James;  2 3 oO  87.5  4 . 9  4 BurnB Lake  21.6  90.9  84=2  5 Wistaria-  21.2  —  — •  5.3  18.31  7 3 . 8  3 7 . 6  —  7 . 0  2 6 . 4  9 1 . 0  28.8  —  8 . 3  29.4  6 0 . 1  60O  36.2  —  5  06  18.5  108.3"  8.7  51.8  —  6 Nadina River  2Uo9  83  04  6.7  47.2  _ _  7 Tahtsa Lake West  38.2  88  04  13.2  7 8 . 3  _  10.3  —  8 . 5  ••=*•  1 0 . 0  3606 8 5 . 4 2 9 . 4  7 8 . 3  2 9 . 6  1 3 3 . 6  Stations outside Fraser Basin 1 S i l v e r Creek(Omeniea)  =—  short record  08  —  2" Germansen Landing  30c8  23  3 Revelstoke  2 9 oO  79.6  2 . 4  4 Fauquier  2 4 oO  8 4 . 5  1.7  5 Vernon (Coldstream)!  21o9  7 8 „ 5  2.2'  11.3  6 Kelowna  21.6  66 o 7  2 . 1  10.8  7 Peachland(Trepanier)  27 c 8  7 8 . 2  3.5.  18.7  8 Osprey Lake  3 7 oO  95o8  9.9  55.7  —  —  10 o l  9 Aspen Grove  25.5  74o6  12.1  55.0  —  —  8 . 6  35.6  1 0 ; Princeton  24o 8  78.5  2 i 8  15.4  —  —  6.3?  22  1 1 Skagit  23 o4  52.3  3.2  18.3  —  6o7  19o6  1 2 ' Waddington. Harbour  11.5  54.7  —  —  1 1 . 4  4 6 . 3  101.3  14.4  —  —  4°6  16.6  5 2 . 4  —  2 . 7  10.0  6 5 . 4  8 . 8  o9  4 . 8  —  ~  1 3 Tatlayoko Lake  1 9 . 8  6 2 . 0  5o8  3 7 . 4  1 4 . Kleena- Kleene  28.7  9 1 . 2  6.8  50.0  1 5 Anahim Lake  —  18.6  —  3 . 3  12.0  6 2 . 4  —  7 . 8  29.2  4 5 . 6  4 3 02  98o6  1.6 . 5  ,  06  457oO  1 4 2 . 0  04  4 4 . 3  "'6.0  1 9 2 . 8  3.7  1 7 5 . 0  1808  1 0 3 . 2  43o7  6 7 . 8  29.4  1 8 5 . 0  7  6 2 . 0  1 1 3 . 7  —  6 . 2  21.4  66.7  ~  9 . 8  33.5  6 8 . 8  —  ~  5  lOoO  short record  16' Kemano  1 3 oO  33.1  1 7 Kemano-Kildala;  31o5  98.0  1 8 Smithers  20  1 9 Babine Lake  2 4 . 9  08  —  . 4  80  o£  91o0  2 . 1  20.0  4°2r~i  6.7  1 5 oO  78.3?  1.27  _  2 . 9  2 2 . 8  _  3 9 . 3  —  1 8 . 2  17  c  130 APPENDIX I I I  Actual Monthly P r e c i p i t a t i o n f o r Standard Period, 1921-1950  AGASSIZ  Year  Jan  Feb  Mar- Apr May June July  Aug Sept Oct  Nov Dec Total #dep  1921 9.83 9.82 5o.21 5.58 3.58 5o20 2,18 1,81 7.6732.79 11,34 9,-52 84»53 22«8 1922. 5.06 4.01 60.98 4.80 4.74 1.23 02 3J&2 5.07 30.41 2c23 7c59 55,76 8J." 1923 12o30 3o80 3,57 2,76 7,68 2,-89 1,87 ,29 4=68 3,63 7.42 12„54 63^3 4-5 1924 9,69 14.-92 2.13 3.93 1«>J03 2,20 2o^8 1,24 U<&3 9.-23 9.-58 13,17 74°-23; 22*3 1925 14,15 9,97 8,18 31J61 3V23 »79 , 66 2,22 ,43 3C-3I 5o94 9<>00 61.49 1»3 1926 5.98 5,24 1.98 3.54 6.62 .92 ,213,13 2,90 6.54 4°99 9,52 51.57 15,0 1927 5,08 3»81 5,40 3,25 3,05 ,61 1.10 3,32 6,29 9,33 6,86 6,07 54,17 10,7 1928 4=45 ,82 5.56 2,81 2.03 1.98 1.41 ,86 2.63 9.12 4,90 4.49 41,06 32,3 1929 1,67 1.46 4,25 2,124,29 3,03 . 51 .95 1.47 4,03 2.35 4,36 30,49 49.7 1930 3.61 5,90 2.26 2.26 3,54 2,69 .12 ,01 4,33 5.80 4,01 2.93 37.46 38,2 1931 5.07 4.03 .5,96:5.143.444.48 ,64 ,13 4,80 2.05 8,40 7.70 51,84 14.5 1932 9.42 14.69, IL19 4.6X1,65 3,85 4°30 1.00 5.27 8.20 14,74 11°71 90,63 49,3 1933 12.18 7,18 6.69 1.80 3,93 2,89 2.50 ,78 9,2812*12 5.89 16,70 81,93 34.9 1934 12,74 3,16 8,51 2,14 7.59 1,13 2.48 1,52 3.28 6.36 8,99 10.10 68.00 13.6 1935 19.49 3.37 5.39 2b32 08O'4.96 2.29 1,42 3«87 7,46 4.66 4,12 60,15 .8 1936 9,50 7.05 8,86 6.09 3°67 3»92 2.40 2,15 2.69 2.49 2.09 12.10 63.01 3.8 1937 2.47 7.87 3,71 8.05 3,67 5.15 .78 3.43 ,87 7.36 11.2D 9.46 64.02 5.4 1938 4,26 1,44 4.53 5,81 2,37 ,35 1,04 1.11 1.34 6,09 7.08 11,90 47,32 22.0 1939 10.26 6.29 3.97 3.99 3.43 4.37 3.22 1.14 1.52 8.433 8,41 12,57 67.60 11.3 1940 3=57 8.06 7.75 4.41 3,60 .92 2.68 2.33 1.85 7.70 4.27 7.01 54.15 10,7 1941 5.43 3.41 2.65 3,31 5.72? 2.72 .53 3,15 moi 8,17 7.38 9.24 61.72 1.6 1942 2.3GT 1,98 5.66 4.34 1,96 4.32.2.48 ,38 1.21 4,51 8.17 10,14 47.45 21.8 1943 5,65 6,58 7.88 5.46 3,79 2.823.23 1,71 2,99 7,49 2.65 5.64 55,69 8,2 1944 6,69 3.76 4.89 3.74 4.46 2.42 2.06 2,31 3.23 5°27 6.74 3.46 49.03 19.2 1945 9.10 5.39 8,85 4,98 2.74 1.71 1.05 . 85 5.89.31°50 9.49 6.50 68,05 12.1 1946 10,02 7,51 8,30 5.51 .39 3,98 1.50 1.30 2.23 5.75 4.56 10.58 61.63: 1.5 1947 12.56 5.79 4.67 4.15 1.05 4=39 1,83 .70 2.341405 5.13 13,35 70.01 15.3 1948 6.01 8.32 5.63 3.20 3.54 2,13 2.86 5.65 3.67 4,90 12.85 8,28 67,04 10,4 1949 2,68 11,96 3.47 4.03 1,83 3.55 2.48 1.66 3.15 5.82 10,24 10.08 60.95 ,4 1950" 5.19 10.00 11.17 5,48 5.12 1,58 I.36 3.84 2,80 7.51 9.13 13.10 76.28 25,6 o  1  Mean 7,55 6.25  5.84 4.11 3.48 2.74 1.74 1.80 3.71" 7.25 7.06  Standard deviation Coefficient of v a r i a t i o n  11.68  19,2  9.10 60.69  Actual. Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  ASHCROFT I  Year  Jan  Feb  Mar  £921 no data available 11 n n 1922 n 11 1 1 it ri 1923 1924 .61 .3.9 .09 1925 .57 .22 .34 1926 .49 .37 .07 1927 .25 .17 .22 Nil .26 1928 .40 1929 1.30 .10 .13 1930 .30 .22 .38 1931 .59 ,36 .5.8 1932 .34 .10 .90 1933 .08 .38 .30. 1934 .40 .45 .54 1 9 3 5 1.23 .05 = 22 1936 1.34 .55 .17 1937 2.50 1.00 .06 1938 .30 .20 .09 1939 .92 .10 .65 19^0 .24 .82 . 3 9 1941 • .12 .37 Nil M M M 1942 M 1943 .06 .42 1944 .75 1.25 .20 1945 .50 .43 .13 1946 .84 .24 .76 1947 .40 .47 .57 1948 .48 1.25 .08 1949 .70 .38 .16 1950, .35 .64 .55 Mean  .64  .46  .32  Standard deviation Coefficient of variation  Apr  May June July Aug Sept  Oct  .07 .45 Nil  .24 1.97 o 3 2 i.67 . 3 9 v70 .53 1.31  =30  .13  =89 . 4 3 .32 1.06  .09  .92  .98 1 , 6 8  .ii  =39  .70  =97 .26  .22 .09 1 . 5 3 . 2 3 = 4 1 .22 . 4 7 .70 =43 . 3 0 .50 .85 . 3 9 .44 = 0 9 .04 = 3 4 .12 . 1 9 2 . 4 3 . 3 2 .08 . 3 6 o46 .60 . 1 2 .81 .90 .33 .05 . 5 6 .30 = 4 9 1 = 0 4 1.17 = 66 .08 1 . 1 2 . 8 4 .81 . 1 3 .06 =53 .28 1.76 = 55 .08 . 0 3 =61 . 9 4= 26 1 . 5 6 = 4 8 .29 =30 . 3 6 =19 .11 =18 .05 .18 . 0 5 = 3 1 •3Z .12 . 9 0 3=71 . 3 2 . 1 0 = 4 1 = 4 2 .33 1.91 .17 1 . 2 1 =08 N i l .92 . 7 4 1.59 = 3 4 2 . 4 3 1.78 M M M M M M .20 . 6 9 1 = 8 6 = 4 0 . 2 1 =19 .13. 1 . 3 9 1 = 8 9 = 5 0 1.08 1 = 4 2 .47 = 8 6 1 . 3 8 .72 . 6 4 .62 .08 =52 1 . 9 3 Nil o 4 6 =46 .61 . 6 5 2=07 = 0 2 . 8 3 =43 .70 .55 1 = 3 4 1 . 1 0 2 = 3 4 =30 .33 . 1 0 1=44 1 . 0 3 .05 .11 . 3 7 .31 = 7 3 .18 . 3 2 Nil .31  = 6 9 1=05 1.87  = 52  =71  = 50  .65 .77 .06 .22 .77 .15 1=39 1=96 =42 =47 .11 .05  49  .42 .24 .66 M =88 Nil 1=92 .84 .96  .14  .07 1=43 .60  Nov  Dec Total jSdep  .57 1 = 21 7=45 6.7 Nil =91 5=71 18.1 .37 .86 5=61 19.6 1.37 1=41 9=79 40.2 = 25 .19 3=90 44=1 .58 .89 5*84 16.3 .20 Nil 4 * 0 2 4 2 . 4 .50 1.26 ns.94 -5 1.21 =35 7=51 7.5 .36 1.13 7.82 12=0 1.08 .88 7.41 6.1 .15 0 1$ 5=57 20.2 .17 1.54 7.76 11.1 .42 .60 6.06 13=1 =29 .70 2.80 59.8 .42 =42 8=27 1 8 . 4 .57 .48 6=12 12.3 M M M M M M M =31 .32: .84 .45 9.90 41=8 1.46 .75 9=88 41=5 .1 .73 = 17 6.99 .71 1.41 9 . 1 3 30.8 . 9 5 .28 9=51 36=2 .96 1.83 7=16 2.5 .53 = 9 7 6.38 8.5 .60  =77  6.98  132  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  BABINE LAKE  Year  Jan  Feb  1921 1922  1.95 1.70 1.22 2.75 2.16 .85 .30 1.29 1.50  1.20 1.20 .60 .95 .62 1.95 1.68 .65 2.52 1.80. .65 .25 1.52 .70 .24 1.26 Tr .65 2.21 .68  1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931  1932  1.40  Mar  ,40 1.97  1.56  1.60  1.76 1.22 1.58 1.40  1.69 ,68 .62 1.13  1933 1934  2.60 3.18 2.20  1936 1937 1938 1939 1940  no data available  1935  19a  1942 1943  n  tt II  tt it  n it  n  »  n;i  tl  It!! it  11  n  ti  11  II  ll!t  n  n  Apr  May June July  .47 1.92 .42 2.12 .51 .77 .37 .0.57 .66 •34 .62 3.31 1.35 1.16 .94 1.33 .68 1.10 .62 .64 .18 .88 1.20 .70 .68 2.16 • 45 .64 .24 .53  Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total %dep  2.84 2ol7 1.50 2.21 1.97 1.52 .60  3.25 6.54 1.35 1=51 1.37 .98 3.59 2.64 2.01 1.69 .11 1.10 1.77 1.58 1.56 .47 2.34 1.05 .59 2.76 4.23 .80 1.88 1.82 4.96 .82  2.90 1..52 1.59 2.38 1.10 1.85 1.59 1.54 .62 1.83 3.28 2.50 .86 1.77 3.35 1.99 .99 2.05 1.22 2.31 .65 .70 1.17 1.16 3.02 .68 .85 1.44 1.14 1.93 1.24 .08 .48 .97 1.92 .70 1.69 1.37 .97 2.06 1.21 1.15 1.21' 1.53 1.85 1.74 1.49*2.86-3.40 1.18 .14 3.16 2.42 3.38 2.64 .23 3=36 3.41 2.07 .69 1.58 1.02 3.99 1.96 1.46  2.04  24.35 18.0 16.31 20.9 21.59 4=6 20.47 .7 15.43 25.2 12.31 40.3 11.97 41.9 14-37 30.3 15.33 25.6 20.97 1.6 24.11 16.8 19.83 3.8 21.29 3.1  tl  tli;  1.52  2.2  tin  ti  il;* tin it  it im n 1944 ti 1945 3.52 1.31 1.02 1.75 1.19 2.30 1P50 1.86 1.40 1946 4.35 1.80 1.32 1.84 .22 2.94 3*03 .20 2.56 2.88 1.26 1947 1.38 3.41 1.56 2.53 .88 1.78 3.69 1948 2.45 .62 3.59 1.76 1.81 2.53 1.59 1.40 3.17 1949 2; 00 2,76 1.16 1.54 1.19 1.11 2.92 .92 1.70 1950 .54 3.16 1.30 3=46 .83 .91 1.26 2.24 1.09  Mean  .72 20.17  N i l N i l ZoU3 1.05 1.60 2.27 13.74 33.3  1.14  1.02  Standard deviation  5.22  Coefficient of variation  25.3  4.40 5.56 2,99 28.80 39.6 1.64 1.62 2.36 23.88 15.7 4.64 2.44 4.18 30.63 48.4 1.04 3.43 3.16 26.55 28.6 2.96 3.08 4.22 25.56 23.8 2.23 2.96 2.78 22.76 10.3  133  M ^ O o o t h j ^ r e c i p i t a t i o n for Standard Period, 1921-1950  BARKERVILLE  Year 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  Jan Feb  Mar  Apr May June July Aug Sept  4.80 2.89 3.00 3..15 2.96 49 3.65 4.85 2.45 3.«.55.. .3. 31 35 2,95 2.82 6.47 .55 3. 73 70 2.34 3.77 2.35 3«,80 2, 82 45 3.55 4.10 6.43 1..74 (58 27 2.35 3.93.1.93. 2.40 3. 47 4=07 3.47 1.89 3.15 4.99 2< 66 4.11 2.70 3.70 3.61 3.65 3. 25 5.72 3.30 2.55 2.88 2.76 2.55 5.29 1.50 2.81 3.32 2.22 2.50 5.37 .60 2.80 4.37 15 2.31 6.27 4.20 5.28 55 20 3 = 18 .47 5.55 56 52 2.03 2.64 6.80 7.10 1.43 3.54 34 2=50 4.46 7.31 2.50 5.97 .10 2.13 3.36 5.83 2.40 9.10 2.43 2.10 6.70 2.60 1.90 2< 20 1.92 2.41 4.21 2.85 1.70 .31 2.34 3=74 3« 25 2.48 4=17 4.29 10.45 12.45 1.5.7 2.34 3 = 11 4=34 2.76 1.20 3.69 1.50 2.54 6.44 .60 2.90 1.88 1.41 3.57 3.10 1.00 1.10 5.70 1.14 3.27 6.97 5.02 4.80 2.45 .87 1.98 5.55 3.07 3.20 6,31 7.21 1=43 4=86 3.75 2.52 4.28 3.10 .83 6.36 11.70 5.4110.41 3.95 3=70 8,74 13.25 2.62 2.16 6.04 2.19 2.07 4.13 9.45 no data9.95 available " " c  11  Oct Nov Dec Total $dep  2.55 4.15 6=80 2.44 1.75 1.78 7.14 2.26 2,41 2.72 2.77 1.73 2.75 5=01 4=12 3.16 2.90 3=29 3=36 2.48 1.47 2.631.46 3.71 3.35 2.00 3=77 7.00 2.68 2.97 2.24 3=41 32 4.37 2.37 1=70 2.36 1.31 4=92 64 06 4.16 1.37 5.47 69 4=50 2.25 1.26 96 2.78 1.22 2.75 3=36 1.=33 3=90 10 3.20 3 ,40 2.15 3.34 3.50 3 ,60 45 1.90 .67 6 ,85 20 3.66 3 1.74 1 >85 42 2.99 62 4.58 3 .73 2,»30 .02 ,68 66 4.23 3 5, 24 3=87 4. 18 4.59 70 4.52 2, 96 3=20 7,,06 4=87 3.02 2.51 3.=96 8.03 6,13 2.05 3.,41 2.77 4=57 3.96 2=45 7.72 2.21 1.51 7.64 8.62 2.07 3=07 2,66 6.15 36.20 3 = 21  3 = 241.10 40 = 57 7.2 3.16 3.75 39.00 10.8 3.36 4.84 37.05 15.>3 89 3 = 57 41.03 6=,2 45 6.67 40.82 6.,6 61 2.88 33=91 22..4 75 5.20 48=34 10..4 20 1.40 37.53 14.2 2.39 4.40 37.88 13.4 ,67 2.04 33=66 23.0 .65 1,25 38.46 12.0 .55 4.35 40.48 7c4 .35 80 46.96 7.3 .95 80 39=81 9.0 .95 40 41=83 4.3 ,10 50 46.61 6.5 40 80 37.82 13.5 1.15 65 37.99 13.1 ,26 69 54.59 24.8 .75 05 40.83 6.6 .22 65 42.61 2c,6 40 39=84 8c,9 5.18 ,48 40 46.99 7..4 .13 41 47.69 9c=0 .15 30 47.21 7<=9 ,70 8.25 64.65 47=7 ,20 6.85 69=87 59.7 .35 3 = 50 72.90 67.4  11  Mean 4.41 3.64 4=17  2.56 2.64 4.42 3.80 3=58 3=56 3=32 4.22 3.96 43.75  Standard deviation  5.33  Coefficient of variation  12.8  134  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  BIG CREEK Year Jan 1921 1922 192J 1924 1925 1926' 1927 1928 1929. 1930 1931 1932 1933 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 Mean  Feb  ."'30' .35 1.30 1.35 .75 .65 .75 1.85 1.00 .05 .25 1.15 .27 .65 .20 .65 .25 2.10 .30 .05 .75 .10 .48 .64 .53T 1.27 1.60 .05 .75 1.12 M .80  .65  .85  .59  .80 .45 .40  .45 .23 .20  1.10 .62 .78 .88 .31  .75  .65  1.77  Nil  .97  1.47 1.02  .25 2.27 1.45 .17  .80  .66  .73  Mar  Apr  May June'July Aug Sept  Oct Nov  .45 .28 .40 ..52 »49 1.55 1.27 .15 1.-50 .05 1.09 1.69 .27 .16 2.23 1.36 . i y 1.33 .80 .11 1.64 2.51 1.40 1.14 1.06 .14 .60 1.35 .32 .24 3.31 1.12 2.00 .80 .30 .30 1.80 .52 .30 2.11 .55 1.19 1.78 .73 .15 .47 .10 1.00 2.15 .30 1.20 1.19 .65" I.40 .27 .41 1-58 1.-97 2.99 1.47 .91 .79 1.90 .10 .45 .38 2.66 1.43 .74 1.11 .46 .35 .15 .98 .50 .85 1.37 .60 2.16 .71 .56 1.10 1.30 .97 1.18 1.81 2.02 1.07 1.66 .45 ..95 .30 .61 2.49 1.01 1.19 2.03 1.16 .95 1.08 .70 .16 .14 2.44 2.05 .60 1.25 1.30 .42 .52 2.32 .93 .41 .59 1.93 1.17 1.01 1.15 .10 .57 .60 2.40 1.81 N i l .50 .41 .73 .31" .55 .92 .41'2.00 1.26 .10 .05 .40 .22 .70 .99 1.33 1.60 .50 .18 1.43 .12 .40 .20 .43 .32 1.86 1.75 .47 060 .60 .25 1.04 3.69 .71 .24 1.14 1.48 .63 1.45 .43 .42 .65 4.06 1.07 .84 .67 1.27 .40 .86 1.14 3.47 .15 1.66 5.00 .43 .08 1.60 .10 1.90 1.67 3.75 1.56 1.81 .20 Nil .10 .45 1.37 1.88 1.06 1.64 .45 .95 o85 1.52 .90 1.96 2.51 .63 2.99 1.43 .08 .40 1.72' 1.00 1.40 2.80 .44 2.28 1.69 .70 1.80 1.03 .20 .05 4.40 .75 .78 .52 1.54 o85 .63 .30 1.06 3.10 1.80 2.60= .43 1.04 1.42 .60 1.50 1.04 2.78 1.88 4.43 o51 .92 .55 M M M M M M .08 .52 .65 1.22 .12 1.41 1-29 .50 1.57 N i l 1.40 1.43 o79  .53  .92 1.84 1.31 1.62  Standard deviation  2.28  Coefficient of variation  19.4  1.18  .73  Fee Total Jfdep .75 .85 2.45 2.85 .87 .75 1.98 .40 1.53 Nil .83 .65 2.27 .47 .90 .50 1.42 .20 .10 .60 .80 .85 .85 .67 1.20 .98 .32 1.97 1.02  .84 1.01  8.01 11.81 13.25 15.19 11.05 10.61  14.79  8.93 11.76 II.91 12.37 11.49 13.37  34.8 3.9 7.7 23 0-4 10.1 13.7 20.2 27.3 4.3 3.1 "0.5  6.5  806 9.66 21c 4  9ol0 M 9.07 11.18 11.84 14.81 14.41 11.10  26.0  26.2 9.1 3.7 20.4 17.1 9.7 15.66 27.3 15.28 24.2 13.17 7.0 13.92 13.1 17.53 42.5 M 11.15 9.3 12.30  135  Agtuialjlpnthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  BRALORNE  Year 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 19a 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 Mean  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May June July. Aug Sept  Oct  Nov  6.35 2.45 1.82 1.14 1.31 3.45  Dec Total %dep  no data available n  n  Itri II II  it  It  II  II tt  tt  it  ti ti  n  II  «  II  II  it  II  II It II  ti tt it ti II  II  tt  n  n  ti  ti ii ti  it it it  ' M. M 2c94 1.48 5.26 1.79 7c70 1,32 1=38 1.07 2.35. 3.66 1.70 1.63 2.75 .47 2.46 2.71 2.03 .96 084 .34 1.40 1.01 3=35 1.21 2.22 2.83 2c05 2.76 3.80 3.59 2.67 4.90 .68 2.25 3.85 4 . U  M 1.51 1.98 4.30 .54 2.24 2.73 .56 1.72 .63 1.58 1.37 1.09 2.83 2.70 .72 1.36 ,55 3.22  M .42 Nil .15 .65 2,59 .86 1.79 1.06 .77 1.31" 3.32 1.32 1.23 1.38 .57 1.01 1.95  ..15 .13 1.15 2.06 .45 1.29 .91 .13 .21 4.42 3.02 .46 1.30 1.01 1.86 2,18 .62 1.19 .44 .a 2.07 1.02 1.15 .92 1,20 ,47 1.11 1.84 1.40 1.12 .43 .61 .75 1.15 1.91 2.35 2.58 .35 .17 .a 2.74 .85 .57 .78 1.80 1.99 2.28 .26 1.27 2.17 1.25 2.67 2.24 1.08 .81 .39 1.05 .98 .38 .61 1.05 1.27 1.24 0 66 1.14 1.16 .45 N i l .95 1.16 .10 3.99 .43 .52 2.10 1.20 1.73 1,65 .39 1.34 2.25 2.39 2.00 3.a 2.86 1.10 2.44 3.a 1.70 1.74 2.44 .77 2.52 .78 3.70 .87  1.80 3.70 3.66 .72 .38 2.99 3.60 2.39 4.38 3.74 2.67 4.83 3.06 1.71 2.06 5.46 2.80 1,48 7.98  2.74  1.76  1.27 1.28 1,52 1.18 1.18 1.53  3.13 3.74 4.  2.15  Standard deviation  6.02  Coefficient of variation  23.3  .88  7.51 2.19 5.30 4.09 1.39 3.63 6.94 3.68  .88  3.69 8.53 5.87  M 3.56 9.12 27.58 2.33 24.49 ,88 21.05 3.58 15.27 4.30 27.52 4.98 21.23 8,51 29184 2.93 24.19 6,55 27.95 4.05 22.93 1.07 17,80 1.70 20.72 4.30 25.78 4.02 25.79 5.20 26.53 2.85 32.19 7.02 32.85 7.02 42.43  a  25.90  6.4 5.4  18.7  a.o  6,2 18.0 15,2 6,6 7.9  11,4  31.2 20.0  .4 .4  2.4 24.2  26.8 63.8  136  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  CRANBERRY LAKE  Year 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May June July  no data available T.30 2.60 1.25 .80 .35 .17 1.61 .76 1.22 .80 .30 .53 .69 1.50 1.38 2.18 .34 1.66 .68 1.34 1.54 2.00 1.20 1.00 .21 .49 .53 .52 .90 1.07 .55 .64 1.59 1.15 .75 c 48 .45 .85 .85 .55 1.65 2.20 1.77 .30 1.66 0.4I .54 1.11 1.72 1.07 .98 1.55 .31 .81 1.75 2.08 .78 1.09 1.50 1.98 1.53 .93 3.01 1.00 .62 2.31 .88 1.50 4.07 1.07 .66 1.15 1.36 1.62 1.62 1.03 2.50 .98 1.14 1.89 .65 .87 1.59 1.36 2.47 .55. .69 1.40 2.38 1.54 2.00 4.10 .80 1.40 .59 .51 1.41 2.67 .40 .73 1.00 .67 .69 .79 1.53 .78 1.13 .31 1.23 1.67 1.66 2.25 1.11 1.04 1.98 1.13 .47 1.17 .50 .52 .48 .55 .57 1.70 1.94 2.18 .80 1.52 .30 .99 2.58 1.94 2.54 1.11 .67 1,07 .77 1.82 3.89 2.40 .51 .44 1,24 1.52 3.00'1.59 2.81 1,12 1.42 ,48 1.66 1.13 2.22 1.73 1.20 1.25 1.05 .26 1.40 2.05 2.98 1.07 1.82 .98 1.28 .07 1.31 2.09 .38 1.59 1.58 .87 "1.05 1.71 2.52 .76 " .21 .63 1.73 3.04 1.15 .52 .98 1.85 ,63 1.67 .56 1.28 2.75 .66 ,38 1.67 1.02 .82 1.77 .29 .38 I.-47 1.32 1.49 2.02 3.13 2.12  Mean 1.14  1.19  1.00  Aug Sept .67 1.09 1.50 1.66 1.12 .94 .91 1.26 .41 .30 1.80 1.28 .70 .96 1.28 2.87 1.95 .68 1.36 1.77 1.57 1.15 1.91 2.18 1.61 .94 3.56 1.78 2.69  1.98 2.01 2.73 .96 1.02 2.14 M 1.29 1.49 2.33 .68 5.33 1.98 .76 1.55 .62 2.18 1.73 2.27 1.96 1.91 .71 1.03 1.89 1.65 1.08 2.36 .51 .51  Oct Nov Dec Total #dep 1„66 63 .99 14.01"17.6 .59 .46 3.84 13.79 18.9 1.41 1.76 3.67 20.19 18.6 .37 .55 .92 1 0 . a 38.8 1.96 1.31 1.36 13.42 21.1 2.39 3.20 .47 16.17 4.9 M M .38 M 1.85 .63 3.12 16.70 1.8 1.71 .46 .11 15.00 11.8 2.47 3.13 1.09 20.77 22.1 1.90 3.59 1.91 19.82 16.5 1.53 1°62 6.56 24.80 45.7 1.99 1.94 1.09 18.73 10.1 .71 .35 .08 14.34 15.6 .91 .75 2.05 12.35 27.3 2.68 2.25 1.37 18.82 10.6 1.86 1.50 2.46 17.35 1.9 2.64 3.17 2.11 18.32 7.7 2.84 1.79 1.36 20.29 19.2 2.65 2.45 2.77 22.73 33.6 1.48 3.03 1.46 20.56 20.8 1.37 .86 I.48 15.33 9.8 1.70 1.21 1.40 17.48 2.7 .88 2.36 1.15 17.08 .4 .96 1.90 1.49 17.31 1.7 3.15 1.86 1.42 16.49 3.0 2.02 1.20 1.03 19.89 16.9 1.68 2,58 4.36 17.52 2.9 2.16 3.84 1.21 24.34 43.0 0  .94 1.16 1.56 1.84 1.44 1.67 1.84 1.80 1.49 17.01  Standard deviation  3.43  Coefficient of variation  20.1  137  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  DOME CREEK  Year  Jan  Feb  Mar Apr May June July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov Dec Total £dep-  1921 no data available 1922 3o23 3.02 .84 1.49 2.11 1.31 1.26 1.96 5.37 1.35 2.34 2,54 27.02 .8 1923 2,58 2.57 3.51 =34 2.38 2.01 2.29 3.72 2,48 1.11 3.30 4.38 30.67 14.4 1924 4.38 1.44 .75 2.17 1.23 2.40 1.76 4.22 2.58 2.03 1.71 2.86 27.53 2.7 1925 4.39 3.73 3.36 .86 M M M M M M M 2.36 M 1926 2.25 .95 .84 1.60 2.65 I.64 1.24 1.57 .96 2.47 1.85 1.22 19.26 28.2 1927 1.55 .05 M 1.03 1.14 3.10 1.58 1.17 1.47 5.57 3.00 1.39 M 1928 .66 1.20 2.70 .66 ,60 2,-91 2c88 1.4'5 2.28 2c34 . 67 *£0 19»35 27.7 1929 2.85 1.60 .85 .62 1.72 3.22 35.04 .70 .30 1.63 1.06 2*28 19*87 25.8 1930 .8$ 1.12 .33 1.09 1.05 3.37 2.14 . 62 4.-76 J U 5 1.98 .66 21.12 21.1 1931 .20 . 20 2.72 .78 2.90 2.86 2.39 1.62 4.75 2.49 2.20 . 85 23.96 10.5 1932 1.90 5.89 1.62' 1.121,93 ;.09 4.38 To90 2.46 2.07 6.01 3.13 35.-55 32^6 1933 2.73'i 3*72 2.11 .65 2.80 3.82 1,87 .93 4.a'3«55 5.65 5.92 38*16 42.-3 1934' 4.41 1.22 2.80 .71 2.82 4-49 4.58 1.50 6.22 3.60 1.44 1.70 35.49 32.4 1935 4.72 .61 1.37 .72 1.65 3.47 2,68 3.64 1.41 1.44 2.12 1.50 25.33 5.4 1936 4.29 2.43 1.67 1.73 2.90 4.03 2,78 2.59 1.93 2.55 3.92 2.95 33.77 26.0 1937 5.50 1.75 .85 1.88 2.72 3.86 2.08 4.92 .87 2.80 2.00 1.45 30.68 14.4 1938 2.52 .92 2.46 .38 .80 3.54 1.60 1.52 1.70 .99 2.00 2.25 20.68 22.8 1939 2.72 4.61 1.25 2.22 2.56 1.16 2.96 1.73 4.28 2.96 3.49 1.27 32.21 20.1 1940 4.54 1.23 2.80 1.65 2.50 2.02 3.16 3.52 1.50 2.21 2.18 1.76 29.07 8.4 1941 2.67 .82 1.07 1.70 1.54 4.19 3.61 3.39 6.05 4.94 2.11 I.46 33.-55 25.1 1942 . 58 1.18 1.90 2.00 1.79 . 81 2.10' 1.59 3.44 4.71 2.88 3.98 26.96 .5 1943 1.40 1.45 . 96 . 89 3.26'3.30 3.56 3.37 1.85 1.60 1.05 1.60 24.29 9.3* 1944 1.55 2.15 1.52 .78 1,51 2.33 2.90 5.55 3.91 2.12 2.79 1.77 28,88 7.7 1945 2.89 1.53 .85 2.41 .91 4.48 1.10 1,23 3.27 2.88 2,10 2,18 25.83 3.6 1946 3.60 2.10 1.36 ,44 .21 .65 2.77 1.59 1.11 1.84 2.50 4.06 22.23 17.0 1947 4.58 1.98 .78 .83 1.63 1.59 6.17 1.72 2.57 3.13 2.35 3.35 30.68 14.4 1948 3.52 3.42 2.70 1.98 .92 1.26 1.26 5.15 2,27 3.25 1.65 4.30 31.68 18.2 1949 2.10 M .81 2.30 1.01 1.49 3.68 3.28 1.59 4.33 2.06 8.15 M 1950  1.20  1.70  Mean 2.98 1.95  1.40 1,92 3.57 2.48 2.88 3.43 2.00 2.71 4.48 1.80 29.57 10.$ 1.65 1.27 1.45 2.60 2.67 2.56 2.78 2.76 2.53 2.64 26.80  Standard deviation Coefficient of variation  5.41 20.2  138  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period 1921-1950  FORT SAINT JAMES  Year  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr May June July  1.66 .65 «98 1.34 1.19 .75 .83 1.28 1.36 .46 1.13 .71 1.43 1.37 1.67 2.44 1.15 1.12 2.45 2.10' .96 19a 1942 .76 1943 .76 1944 .85 1945 1.99 1946 2.30 1947 1.62 1948 1.70 1949 2.12 1950 .55  .83* 1.25 .77 1.20' 1.78 .52 1.035 .37 .16 .99 .10 1.26 .95 .46 .85 .88 .67 1.46 2.27 .94 1.20 .30 1.70 1.55 .60 1.30 1.61 2.00 1.85 2.12  .41  .74' 1.90 2.70 1.97 2o-37 2,43 1.21 1 . 4 1  1.33  1.09"  1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940  Mean  .55  ,40  .46  .43 .95 .92 .60 .82 .36 .91 .72. .70  Oct Nov Dec Total" #dep <=76 18,39 17.8  .76 1.32 * 2 4 .40 JS6 2 c 2 4 .91 1.64 1.30 11.78 24-5 .11 1.47 1.61 1 . 9 5 . 9 6 . .67 .91 . 9 8 1=08 12.04 22.8 .46 .34 1.67 . 9 4 1.94 1.57 1.55 1.76 1.83 15.00 3.9  .41  ;1.80 .47 .47 :1.03 .79 .58 2.26 : .88 :1.89 :1.24 .99 : .30 .31 .48 .65 .81  Aug Sept  .03 .14 .39 .78 3.00 1.41 1.53 .53 1.01 2.18 1.05 1.93 .77 2.07 .63 .85 1.17 1.21 .95 .84 2.14 .51 1.29 .35 2.35 1.14 .91" 1.58 .88 1.26 2.10 2.15 2.15 .30 1.08 ,68 .83 1.40 .52' .64 2.57 1.52  .14 .88 2.81 . 9 1 .50 . 9 1 1 . 4 9  .87 .46 .56 3.47 ,83 1.09 1.56 .21 1.49 2.63 . 9 8 .24 1.68 1.24 .14 1.21 .47 2.65 1.24 2.66 1 . 8 9 .17 .27 3.84 1.48 . 9 3 1.02 1 . 6 2 1.21 1.47 2.18 2,09 1.62 1.72 1.38 I.Z91.36 2.06 1.31 2.42 1 . 9 3 1.34 .33 .22' 1.41 1.44 .65 1.17 1.76 1.37 3.21 1.11 1.12 .27 1.11 2.41 1.23 . .77 1.08 2 . 6 2 1.39 = 1 3 1.53 .17 1.46 2 . 2 9 . .53 1.39 2 . 9 5 1.23 .42 2.31 2.48 2.50 .66 1.23 1.05 .36 .97 1.61 1,90 1.85 1.32 .74 .79 .76 1.48 1.23 1.08 1.40 1 . 1 4 .72 1.59 2.21 .72 *16 1.53 1.90 V41 .19 2.21 2=01 =37 1.15 1.47 .66 1.15 2.76 2,30 1.01 1.43 2=31 .75 1.26 .12 3.50 3=10 T.57 .65 .64 1,87 .99 lc67 2.21 1.03 1=84 1.63 .69 .39 2.00 2.87 =77 2.11  .82  .78 1.17 1.47 .69 1.17 1.30  3.14 1.63 2.08 1.06 .72 1.59  15.97 2.3 14.08 9 . 8 13.67 12.4 12.56 1 9 . 5 14.12 9 . 5 1 3 . 0 8 16.2  .74 .96 12,83 17,8  2.45 .48 2 . 7 9 1.82 1.91 .54 1.46 1.66 .58 .91 o95 .75 1.06 1.56 4.10 2.00 1.10 1.18 .84 2.00 1 . 9 1 2.51 .48 .55 1»34 1.35 3=13 1.90 1.15 1.60 1=30 2.20 2=42 1.40 1=40 3.10 2=97 2.60  1 4 . 6 2 6.3 17.35 11.1 15.78 1.7 16,16 3.5 17.75 13.7 15.54 .4 12.66 18.8 22.07 41.3-' 14.88 4.6 15.48 .8 16.56 36*0 13.19 15.5 13=89 11.0 17.05 9.2 14.98 4.0 18.71 19.8 19.38 24.1 19.44 24.5 19=40 24.2  .621.13 1.621.63 1.32 1=38 1.50 1.48 1.54 15.61  Standard deviation  2.53^  Coefficient of variation  16.2  139  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  HOPE" (LITTLE MOUNTAIN)'  Year 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  Jan Feb 10.74 4.56 12.06 8.26 12.25 4.88 7.81 8.65 1.96 4.72 7.84 8.24 11.62 13.0.0 15.88 9.02 2.97 5.16 9.75 3.11 6.00 1.35 7.18 6.69 8.40 7.67 9.37 3.60 3.37 5.51  Mean 7.37  11.65. 4.05 3.45 11.85 5.88 5.45 4.99 1.05 2.35 12.89 6.57 14.06 5.89 3.80. 2.55 6.32 10.40 1.65 4.47 7.86 2.29 1.56 6.08 3.97 5.92 5.19 5.61 7.22 14.02 7.27 6.22  Mar Apr May June July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov Dec Total #dep  4-64 2.77 1.94 3.10 .69 1.61 6.24 9.36 30.28 8.24 5.52 3.71 2.38 .39 .50 1.99 4.63 6.94 3.2811.13 4.81 1.72 3.49 1.86 1.51 .76 2.74 3.79 7.0513.98 1.25 3.58 .64 1.31 .96 .75 4.62 7.29 7.34 32.74 5.36 1.28 1.48 1.36 M M .24 3.10 4.46 6.25 1.56 2.07 3.47 . 62 Tr 2.69 1.68 7.26 5.1110.73 5.22 3.90 2.95 .71 1.07 3.34 5.74 8.901177 8.01 6.96 3.20 1.90 2.11 1.33 .58 1.63 8.84 3.96 4.83 6.26 2.82 3-54 2.41 .80 . 51 1.25 5.45 3.42 30.13 5.18 2.86 1.94 2.61 .70 N i l 6.43 7.72 4.17 4.89 9.93 3.02 8.36 4.89 . 45 . 41 9.87 3.28 7.67 5.83 8.49 3.20 1.24 1.63 2.84 .79 3.41 8.35,14-41 9.99 5.38 2.07 2.09 1.91 1.39 . 80 8.49 33.55 6.9117.92 8.05 2.14 5.66 2.0tf 2.23 1.08 3.65 6.92 8.08 13.13 4.90' 1.68 .64 3.68 2.31 1.88 3.22 5.07 5.09 4.13 8,02 3.68 2.97 5.82 . 80 2.00 2.23 2.60 2,20 15,34 2.78 6.37 2.92 3.46 .15 2.06 . 99 6.59 12,011258 4.94 4.11 1.43 .41 .75 . 43 1.28 4.39 7.85 1479 3.14 3.09 3.09 2,66 1.26 .47 1.03 5.09 7.801106 6.49 3.52 2.21 1.39 . 93 . 62 1.75 6,46 4.16 6.66 1.73 2.00 3.60 2.10 .62 3.02 33.96 9.72 8.55 8.73 4.703.641.513.062.07 .31 1.82 4.6013.48 1 200 7.62 5.01 3.08 1.93 3 . H .79 2.98 8.30 2.23 5.33 5.20 1.80 3.65 2.17 1.69 1.46 5.22 5.50 4.78 2.87 5.-95 4.67 2.70 2*02 .69 .49 4.29 7.13" 8.37 5.93 3-80 3.03 .31 2.58 .76 .72 1.31 5.38 6.19 8.10 3.32 2.77 .84 2.96 1.42 c39 1.50 8,63 5.54 9*70 5.21 1.72 2.39 1.51 2.21 5.02 2.25 3.00 8.47 6.24 2.11 3,00 1.15 1.72 1.60 1.02 2.12 5.32 9.91 la59 7.14 3.85 2.63 1.36 .63 1.84 1.53 7.34 9»58 9.79  71.26 25.6 49.08 13.4 57.22 .9 60.59 6.8 M 45.52 19.7 64.41 13.5 45.04 20.5 40.90 19.0 54.11 4.5 68.12 20,1 76.67 35.2 78.02 37.6 67.78 19.5 51.03 10.0 61.00 7.5 63.28 11.6 47.19 16.7 52.91 6.6 55.16 2.7 60.32 6.3 48.10 15.1 53.64 5.35 44^4 20<,9 56.56 0.2 45-04 20.5 62.18 9.6 48.84 13.8 55.93 1.3 58.47 3.1  5.19 3.08 2.54 2.19 1.22 1.34 3.54 6.52 7.03 9.31 56.70  Standard deviation  9.52  Coefficient of variation  16.6  !  140  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period 1921-1950  KAMLOOPS  Year  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932* 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944  .20 .68 .45 .28 .89 .10 .77 .07 .06  .50 .36 .10 .14 .39 .20 .12 .26 1.12 .37 .80 .81 .41 1.06 .52  .34 .78 .49 .35 .59 .36 .05 .23 .76  1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  .60 .63 .30 1.65 1.82 1.87 1.53 1.23 1.80 .20 .26 .17 .33 .48 1.40 1.73 3.68 .48 1.85 .62 .51 .18 .94 .54 .84 .80 .84 ,31 .98 .92  Mean  .98  1945  vrs  .43 .22 .63 ..09 .15 1.58 2.61 1.39 .17 .48 .40 .19 .45 .90 .56 .69 .51 .84 .75 .41  May June July  Aug Sept  Oct •" Nov  .96 .65 .23 .84 .49 .09 1.78 .19 .12 .56 1.36 .66 1.25 .23 1.50 3.12, .68 1.08 .67 .67 .51 .67 2.18 1.24 .89 .86 .35 .72 .76 1.07 .41 1.61 1.10 .60 .15 .96 .97 .18 1.79 .78 .84 .58 1.26 2.97 .99 1.72 1.50 1.49 2.07 .29 1.55 1.14 .50 .37 .16 .28 .70 1.06 .63 .37 .74 .74 .99 .69' .60 .71 .51 .57 .50 1.031 .83 .17 .60 1.25 .45 .70 .80 .52 .69 .61 .59 .31 .66 .62 .57 .98 1.44 .22 1.04 1.03 . 48 .28 .86 2.39 .48 .13 .49 .73 .94 .27 1.16 .34 .47 .02 .64 1.32 1.45 1.43 .20 1.08 .22 .31 .66 1.28 1.95 .20 1.45 1.26 .24 .40 .61 .82 .56 .68 .78 .88 .19 .45 1.82 .15 .16 .35 .44 .57 2.94 1 . a .55 .65 .24 .24 .86 3.12 .67 Tr .83 .92 .53 .76 .61 1.81 .39 .91 .18 .21 .57 .75 .31 .57 1.28 3.79 1.86 1.98 2.21 .86 .19 .08 .93 2.54 1.28 1.36 .84 .233 .49 1.49 .37 ' .26 1.39 1.a .31 .96 .04 1.70 .10 .25 .41 .71 1.84 .15 1.66 1.51 .06 .74 .12 .60 .28 1.46 .97 .50 .59 2.37 1.92 .21 .20 .88 3.25 .04 .79 756 757 .36 .40 .30 .95 3.24 1.00 .98 .78 771 1.14 .02 1.78 .54 .62 2.89 3.14 .83 .38 1.13 .40 .68 .39 1.04 .87 .15 .32 .66 .08 .62 1.15 .60 .34 1.41 .63 N i l 1.09 •91  Dec Total &lep  .47 7.15 29.6 1.18 8.00 21.2 1.23 10.80 6,2 4.18 13.51 32.9 1.55 10.94 7.6 1.68 10.31 1.4 3.5017.97 76.8 .34 6.42 36.8 .92' 9.89 2.6 .34 7.11 30.0 1.17 8.04 20.8 .38 7.36 27.5 1.57 9.72 4.3 1.06 7.22 28.9 .47 8.90 12.4 .63 11.69 15.0 1.15 14.23^40.0 2.29 11.38 12.0 .72 10.15 0.0 .40 7.69 24.3 .42 14.38 41.5 1.13 10.74 5.7 .68 8.61 15-2 1.20 9.97 1.8 .50 10.71 5.4 .18 8.53 16.0" .73 11.58 13.9 .76 13.24 30.3 2.17 8.49 16.4  •1.96 10.04' 1.1  .59 .40 .51 .86 1.46 .82 1.04' .74 .81 .79 1.17 10.16  Standard deviation Coefficient of variation  . 2.56  25.1  141  Actual Monthly Frecipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  KNOUFF LAKE  Tear 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929  1930T  1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  Jan  Feb  no data: avaJ 11 11 n « n n 2.87 .80 2.22 1.45 2.15 .25 1.22 .40 1.60 .40 .30 1.85 1.15 1.23 1.75 1.13 1.35 1.20 1.59 1.37 1.29 .33 1.96 .55 2.21 2.21  .67 2.27 1.09 .85 .38 1.94 1.15 . 1.56 2.30 1.88 .97 1.25 1.24  Mean 1.59  1.00  2.88 1.80 .78 1.75 .67 .35 .42 1.30 .55 .88 .93 2.30 2.10  .93. 1.04  Mar Apr May June July  .72 1.28 3.07 2.10 1.50 .45 .27 1.33 1.42 3.21 .40 1.19 1.37 2.29 .81 .56 .31 1.10 1.84 2.59 1.30 1.17 .48 1.69 1.46 1.49 .62 1.08 2.95 .73 .24 .20 M 2.11 1.06 1.70 .61 1.34 2.20 1.07 3.40 2.45 1.36 .83 1.93 1.98 .37 2.87 2.62 2.06 1.56 .82 1.39 .63 1.85 1.46 .20 .54'1.80 1.11 .401.211.431.13 .85 .921.19 .89 1.53 1.78 Tr .50 1.04 .67 2.16 .65 .32 1.65 5.36 1.13 2.66 .78 3.29 .19 2.59 .68 .75 1.17 3.11 .80 .52 1.31 3.94 1.50 6.33 -.15 .25 2.35 3.10 .91 1.18 1.10 1.60 3.51 1.07 1.34 1.62 .76 2.50' 1.83 .99 1.58 1.69 4.31 .49 1.34 1.85 1.57 4.96 2.99 .50 3.74 1.97 .85 3.01 .56 .82 .56 2.48 1.96 2.18 2.45 1.46 .87 1.75  Aug Sept  Oct Nov  Dec Total $dep  1.80 .64 .47 2.01 .28 17.54 2.2 .95 3.33 1.14 .71! 3.52 20.00 11.4 1.48 2.15 1.11 1.70 2.16 17.06 4.9 1.91 1.79 2.02 1.85 2.75 18.34 2.2 .51 .52 .83 .70 .55 11.21 37.5 .56 1.06 .34 .90 1.25 13.13 26.8 .38 1.29 1.43 1.00 .60 M .79 1.26 .82 2.83 1.85 17.35 3.2 1.31 1.89 2.21 2.80 1.32 22.05 22.9 .65 1.73 2.61 .65 2.38 19.88 10.8 .68 2.78 .94 1-42 2.48 16.17 9.8 2.37 . 24 1.39' .49 1.65 13.76 23.1 1.41 .32 .44 .70 2.36 13.46 24.9 .93 .80 Tr 2.40 .91 16.44 8.33 4.57 1.30 1.23 2.00 3.45 19.39 8.0 .29 1.66 2.75 .50 1.32 18.68 4.1 .33 .80 2.13 2.00 .83 18.44 2.7 2.35 4.12 .80 .43 .50 16.23 9.5 1.37 .84 1.13 2.00 2.34 22.01 22.6 I.32 .87 1.30 . 20 2.25 15.06 16.© 3.10 3.12 .78 2.22 .77 20.90 16.4 1.23 1.99 2.05 1.83 .92 18.18 1.3'! 1.12 .85 1.25 .82 1.65 17.93 0.0 1.30 .86 2.42 2.32 1.40 23.82 32.7 5.17 2.19 1.10 2.73 1.23 25.76 43.5 .811.08 1.83 .813.18 17.44 2.7 .35 .43 2.12 1.60 2.28 17.66 1.5  1.09'1.07 1.59 2.17 1.78 1.44 1.48 I.36 1.47 1.71 17.94  Standard deviation  3.24  Coefficient of variation  18.1  142  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-195P  LILLOOET  Year 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940  19a  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May June July  .58 .41 .6CX .13 .33 2.05 .91 .52 1.34 .05 .61 .23 .18 .59 1.70 .77 .14 .29 2.34 .63 .95 .13 .43 .16 I.46 .48 1.11 2.38 .37 .23 .48 .52 .41 1.54 1.02 1.11 .81 .83 .08 .22 .96 .25 .61 1.12 .84 .63 .52 .69 .74 1.25 .05 1.03 .06 .60 2.11 .50 1.65 .45 .25 N i l .46 .45 .15 .29 1.10 .31 1.25 .80 .49 .50 .20 1.01 1.82 .45 .45 2.41 .42 Tr 1.22 1.53 1.20" .35 .56 N i l 2.15 .71 .43 .36 .66 .36 .49 1.72 1.24 1.03 N i l .70 .45 1.53 3.32 1.04 .05 .75 .75 .92 3.68 .70 1.33 .27 .80 1.33 .39 .51 1.95 1.55 .74 .68 .76 .84 1.00 .72 .70 1.21 .21 .85 1.58 1.29 .45. .02 .45 1.22 3.09" .56 2.25 .82 .40 .60 .28 2.40 .60 .39 .10 .84 .87 2.58 .62 .75 .53 .46 .06 .31 .01 1.43 .96 1.11 .68 1.07 1.00 1.09'1.00 .50 .14 .70 .51 1.10 .58 1.58 1.78 1.50 no dataiavailable 11 n n n  Aug Sept Oct 1.12 .76 .98 .95 1.92 .65 2.25 .40 .08 .44 .43 2.25 1.38 .33 1.84 1.15 .64 1.10 .23 .45 1.97 .78 .06 1.85  1.74 1.70 .49 .82 1.06 .72 1.41 .66 .39 .41 .76 .97 2.51 3.01 1.05 .75 .30 .33 1.32 .68 1.20 .82 .63 2.11 1.64 1.24 1.20 .79 .58 1.06 .72 .33 .72 1.06 1.53 .63 .69 1.94 .81 1.15 1.24 1.18 .77 .91' .61 1.71 .81 .65  Nov  Dec Total #dep  1.83 2.08 .37 .98 .31 3.56 1.63 1.47 .32 1.32 .38 1.37 1.10 .90 .29 .90 M .97 .59 Tr 2.10 3.59 3.21 1.24 .90 3.40 2.03 1.12 s 46 .36 .50 5.06 1.80 2.22 .39-1.63 1.94 2.26 .94 1.93 1.51 2.74 1.48 1.85 .48 .60 1.56 .60  13.47 6.94 13.45 12.29 8.93 8.39 14.92 8.99 M 7.77 14.90 14.30 13.72 12.16 14.86 13.09 13.96 11.84 15.10 10.57 14.93 10.13 8.94 13.19  .69 1.25 1.24 .33  M  10.4 43.1 10.2 .7 26.8 31.2 22.2 26.3 36.3 22.1 17.2 12.4 .3 21.8 7.2 14.4 2.9 23.7 13.3 22.3 16.9 26.7 8.1  1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 «! 1947 tt it Mil M M .68 .66 1.34 2.49 1948 1949 no data available 1950 .62 2.18 1.43 1.01 1.00 1.12  .95  .79  .07 2.76 2.36 2.72 17.01 39.4  Mean 1.22  .79  .97  .96 1.14 1.19 1.74 12.20  .88  .65  .46  .77 1.20  Standaxddeviation  2.71"  Coefficient of variation  22.2  .55 2.40  143  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period, 1921-1950  LYTTON  Year 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May„ June July  Aug Sept  Oct  Nov Dec Total fciep  no data available II fl; tt It  it  n  II  It  •M"  n  it  11  .65 2.78 1.90 2.99 .82 .27 .90 .43 1.40 4.89 3.92 2.81 2.03 2.02 3.49 1.22 4.59 1.87 6.22 1.19 1.35 1.60 1.20 1.94 1.08 2.40 2.28 .45 1.47 2.23 1.94 .73 .73 .42 1.62 1.51 1.30 .45 N i l 1.50 1.67 1.95 1.50 3.19 3.02 4.10 .75 2.30 1.72 3.66  Mean 1.90  1.96  «• tin it ti  .40 .14 1.60 .90 .95 .63 .55 . u 1.03 .33 .29 .98 .67 .42 .50 .67 1.23 2.44 .83 .50 1.47 .91 .19 2.49 1.46 .72 .10 .67 Tr 1.38 .45 1.33 N i l 1.21 .31 1.40 .14 .40 .17 .54 .80 .26 1.42 2.94 .16 2.44 .45 .90 .93 .81 .18 .25 .20 .59 1.77 2.32 .89 .44 1.57 Nil .08 .78 3.53 2.11 .26 .43 2.35 1.05 .99 1.71 .52 1.07 .77 .22 .85 1.50 .76 .50 .90 .45 .61 .07 .23 2.02 .42 1.05 1.53 .45 .32 1.00 .78 1.29 .25 1.00 .30 1.00 1.90 .97 .61 .45  .05 .47 .58 .16 .19 .03 .76 .51 1.20 1.55 .49 .73 .68 .30 .20 .99 1.15 1.13 .89 .88 .01 .29 1.13 .61 .10  .95- 1.02  .60  .84  Standard deviation Coefficient of variation  .69  4.51 25.3  .73 .85 .57 Tr Tr .19 2.43 .47 .45 .69 2.43 .35 2.64 Nil Tr 2.06 .31 .04 .90 .14 .24 .44 .98 .07 .16  .51 2.42 1.07 .19 .95 .85 .66 2.53 1.09 .96 .70 1.40 .91 2.08 .86 2.22 1.02 .42 .86 .82 .13 .32 .87 1,13 .69  1.45 3.18 .85 .67 .88 .76 1.34 2.37 1.90 1.12 .36 2.27 2.59 1.48 2.80 1.73 . .82 3.52 .29 2.49 1.03 3.83 1.60 .76 4.52  1.35 1.69 2.03 .94 .56 2.85 1.22 4.18 .98 ,48 2.78 4,20 5,49 2.40 ,43 8,63 2,86 2.99 .57 1.39 .29 4.42 2.15 5.60 .32 2.17 3.0810,36 1.98 3.79 3.40 6.86 3.72 3.72 .55 .67 1.69 .50 5.52 1.96 2.48 2.06 .62 5.55 2.90 2.10 4.56 4.24 5.17 4.17  12.25 17.32 10.20 9.19 14.77 20.60 20.08 22.81 19.87 14.94 17.06 19.59 14.95 24.91 16.25 26.43 15.98 13.75 10.22 15.92 12.50 19.19 20.09 16.97 24,12  .69 1.03 1.78 2.22 3.51 17.18  28.6 ,8 40,6 46.5 14.0 19.9 16.8 32.7 15.6 13.0 .6 14.0 12.9 44.9 5.4 53.8 6.9 19.9 40-5 7.3 27.2 11.6 16.9 1.2 40.4  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  MAMIT LAKE  Year  Jan  Feb  Mar  1921 no data available it it it 1922 it n ti n 1923 it .87 1924 .93 •44 .60 1925 1.15 .40 1926 .81 .60 .25 1927. l . i o .67 .24 1928 Nil Tr ,95 .63 1.41 1929 .95 1930 .48 .72 .85 1931 .61 .55 1.77 1932 .98 .20 1.20 1933 .62 .51 .94 1934 1.21 ,26 .28 1935 1.65 .22 .85 1936 1.28 . 80 •. .88 1937 2.71 2.15 .34 1938 .32 .70 .27 1939 1.17 .37 .18 1940 .39 .93 .98 19a .79 .35 .36 1942 .65 .35 .35 1943 .22 .47 .57 1944 1.15 .95 1.40 1945 .42 .46 .43 1946 .72 .60 .56 1947 1.39" 1.05 .15 1948 no data available 1949 M M M 1950 1.79 1.37 1.55 ;  Mean  .98  .66  Apr  May Jane July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov  Dec Total $dep  .40 .53 1.39 1.45 2.48 .73 .60 1.60 1.65 Tr 1.30 .81 .97 .44 .35 .45 .70 .73 .44 .70 1.54 .17 1.00 1.10 1.10 .99 .80 .56 1.85 1.25 .85 2.60 1.24 1.54 2.00 1.90 .25 .12 2.48 .88 .40 .54 N i l .29 .95 .23 1.00 .70 .16 .51 .64 .37 1.10 1.85 1.49 .26 1.39 .40 .29 .65 1.525- .35 .08 .93 .87 2.42 1.11 1.11 1.13 .48 1.77 1.09 1.18 Tr .85 1.65 1.84 2.41 .60 1.49 1.12 .39 1.34 .63 .76 1.53 1.48 1.90 .56 1.10 .06 . 92 1.16 . 62 . 32 , 80 . 47 . 86 1.48 .05 1.56 .96 1.90 1.70 .70 .94 .12 .15 . 69 1.27 1.41 .04 1.78 . 55 .63 .17 2.06 1.77 .84 .85 .89 .85 .41 .45 2.87 1.89 .40 .22 .64 1.00 3.11 2.23 .26 .26 .99 Tr .89 2.99. .81 N i l .57 1.03 . 59 1.74 .28 2.26 .36'1.10 .25 .50 .50 .80 .22 1.20 1.56 2.86 .54 1.86 1.97 .56 .49 1.12 1.17 3.34 1.82 1.29 .31 .29 .45 .84 1.30 .68 I.46 1.27 .95 .75 .56 1.24 -02 .55 .03 2.32 2.11 1.71 2.43 1.56 .12 .93 .65 .83 '1.33 2.16 . 93 1.04 . 91 2.79 4.07 1.19 .25 1.76 3.04 .13 1.83 . 6 1 1 . 9 5 1.02 .34 .16 M 3.47 .77 1.27 1.18 M M M M M 2.63 1.92 1.62 1.25 .42 1.20  .66  .64 1.11 1.62  Standard deviation  2.83  Coefficient of variation  24.2  13.27 7,90 9.50 15.70 6.86 9.55 8.48 13,84 13.52 11.76 8.44 10.80 11.20 16.02 10.40 10.34 8,57 13.66 12.16 8.74 15.36 16.58 12.81 M  13.4 32.4 18.8 34.1 41.3 18.3^ 27.5 18,2 15.5 .5 27,8 7,6 4.2 36,9 2,5 3.0 26.7 16.7 3.9 25.2 31.2 41.7 9.4  .22 1.50 M 1.87 4.83 M .95 .57 1.35 1.84 1.79 15.70 34.1  .93 1.21  .97  ,88 1.10 1.26 11.70  145  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  MERRITT  Year  1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934  1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 Mean  Jan  Feb  MaT  Apr  May June July  Aug Sept  Oct  Nov Dee Total #dep,  1.48 .49 1.95 .55 .57 .40 .24 .40 .64 .18 2.72 2.37 11.99 35.0 .16 1.42 1.35 1.28 .05 Nil .22 .89 .94 .37 .55 1.83 9.06 2.0 .58 1.04 .26 • 42 .44 1.78 .45 2.35 .39 .53 .12 1.94 10.30 15.9 .22 .14 .08 .51 .53 .76 .61 .43 1.35 1.23 7.83 i i . 8 .85 1.12 1.23 .63 .36 .94 .08 .50 .41 1.06 .34 .63 .21 .43 6.82 23U .49 .68 .38 .35 .31 .ft Nil .48 .92 1.07 .79 1.28 7.12 19.8 .21 .23 1.35 <57 .67 1.00 .67 1.06 2.70 1.66 12.54 41.2 1.62 .8d 1.10 Nil .47 .28 .14 .86 .21 .48 .36 .48 .30 .30 4.98 43.9 .80 .20 .21 .13 1.03 .70 Nil .10 .51. .521.18 2.30 7.68 13.5 .20 1.95 .18 .66 .45 .60 .20 .35 : .52" . .84 .06 Tr 6.01 32.3 .08 .39 .90 .60 1.45 .82 .20 .28 1.00 .52 1.21 .43 7.88 11.2 .90 .15 1.59 .70 .65 .23 .25 .98 .90 .37 1.50 .77 8.99 1.2 1.12 1.10 .05 .70 .66 .34 .96 .80 .81 1.55 .31 4.05 12.45 4O.2 1.01 .03 .96 .12 .65 .55 .18 .39 .64 .26 .56 1.84 7.19 18 .& 2.56 .35 .07 .05 .30 .14 .57 .45 .62 .92 .01 .53 6.57 26.0 1.02 1.12 .64 .20 .83 1.06 .04 .84 .58 .08 .15 1.84 8.40 5.4 .98 2.23 .09 .34 .48 .79 .26 .60 .39 1.29 .78 3.26 11.49 29.3 .51 .77 .38 .28 N i l .30 .80 .60 2.36 .36 .09 1.07 7.52 15.3 .06 .28 .11 .31 3.64 .18 .02 .59 .42 .68 1.26 7.96 10.3 •a .48 1.36 .68 .27 .93 .08 .98 .09 .27 .55 .56 .90 7.15 19.4 .71 .42 .52 2.22 1.89 .41 .67 1.06 1.27 .48 .90 .75 11.30 27.2 .10 .42 .17 .81 .97 .89 .69 .31 .16 1.25 1.05 1.24 8.06 9.2 .65 .55 1.17 .51 1.92 1.11 .11 .84 .12 1.00 .50 .48 8.96 .9 .55 1.19 1.25 .41 1.30 1.12 1.26 .57 1.11 .16 .60 .47 9.99 12.5 .72 .80 .30 .58 1.04 .85 .53 .30 1.00 1.85 1.20 1.16 10.33 16.3 .99 .72 .12 .56 .28 1.61 .09 .22 .11 .78 1.00 .55 7.03 20.8 .76 1.61 .27 .20 .53 1.36 .60" .90 .47 1.32 .74 .56 9.32 4.9 .71 1.54 .15 .69 .68 .93 1.44 2.41 .29 .36 .76 .58 10.54 18.6 .65 1.88 .73 .21 .42 .83 .54 .22 1.16 .64 1.05 3.68 12.01 35.2 1.32 M M .83 .56 .63 .36 .36 .17 .17 .96 1.08 1.48 .83  .86  .56 .50 .68 .79 .46 .66 .66 .71 .82 1.34 8.88  Standard deviation  1.99  Coefficient of variation  22.4  146  A c t u a l Monthly PraRipitationJj^Sjban^  Mom Year  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May June July • 1  1921 no data available  1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932  1933  1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947  ii;;  n  11 in;  2.15 2.02 .97  it -11  3.64 1.31 .59 1.71 .22 .63 2.42 .64 1.38 .72 1.12 .26 1.16 2.01 1.28 .45 .81 .20 .12 .94  1.13  .88 >1.83 .73  1.40  .81 2.38 2.39 3.28 .84 2.91 .52 1.19 1.08 .84 .33 .54 .86 .76 1.45 1.45  1.3? .86  1.09 1.84  n na  Mean 1.36  11  It)  Oct Nov  Dec Total J6dep  tt  n— .16 .47 .62 .50  .32 .34 .42 .17 .20 .09 .86 .25 .62 .12 .19 .78 .30 .74 .50 1.82 .60 1.42 .22 .47 .36 1.40 .26 .71 .43 .29 1.17 .10 .97 .01 .62 .73 .37 .98 .63 .70 .69 .51 .12 1.59 ,35 .32 1.26 .13 .32 .10 1.67 .58 1.01 .23 .72 1.31 .39 .72. .63 •32. .80 1.26 1.19 1.13 .61 1.66 1.22 .56 .31 .27 .97 .79  1948 no datai available  1949 1950  AUg Sept  it  ti  It:  tt;  1.11  .72  .42  1.40 .36 .75 1.37 1.97 .90 1.10 2.36 .27 .08 .67 .63 1.13 .50 .63 3.34 .55 2.33 1.98 1.02 1.93 .71 3.40 2.51  ;  .7251.32  Standard deviation  2.59  Coefficient of variation  20.5  .66  .92  .37 1.07 .36 .75 .34 .53 .81 .28  .42 1.19 .53 .05 .49 .25 1.59  2.72 .25 1.11 .45 .11 .47 .48 2.01 .64 1.21 .50 .02 .20  2.36  .14 2.31  .64  .67  1.26 .39  1.17 .68 1.03 .35  .36  2.10 .74 .08 1.70 .67  2.34 1.04 1.13 2.11 .67 .42 .88 .95 .35 2.28 .90 .23 .42 .58 .85 .46 .83 .91 .51 .79 .67 1.55  .61 .62 1.00 2.61 .30 .61 1.26 .56 1.22 1.69 1.02 1.02 .15 1.26 1.04 1.53 .95 1.73 1.02 1.42 .79 1.69 .77  .44 2.82 2.68 .85 1.87 .42 .54 1.32 .24 2.10 1.32 1.58 2.92 .85 .96 2.74 2.24  1.33 1.26 3.40 .05 2.53 1.02 5.65 1.85 .43 4.10 2.20 2.84 2.15 1.08 1.98 1.99 .62 1.00 1.06 1.60  .96  1.08  1.42  1.86  1.59  .46 1.41 1.60  .94  M  1.68 .56 .94 2.66 .55  .43  M  1.32 1.17  2.24  M  15.54 10.54 9.32 16.79 7.67 10.84 10.63 14*1? 12.15 16.62  22.7 16.3 26.3  32.6  13.09  12.71 11.74 14.47 10.44  39.4 14.3 16.0 11.7 4.0 31.2 3.3  .33  7.2  16.39 9.52 14.65 14.44 8.29 13.80 12.39 14.67  M  12.66  14.2 13.5  29.4 24.8 15.7  14.0  34.5 9.0 2.1 15.8  147  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period 1921-1950  PEMBERTON MEADOWS  Year  Jan 8 , 5 5  M  5  1924 7.83 1925 6.23 1926 2.90 1927 4.52 1928 4.59 1929 .80 1930 1.40 1931 7.93 1932 2.82 1933 6.48 1934 6.78 1935 15.63 1936 3.07 1937 1.50 1938 2.98 1939 6.07 1940 5.20 19a 6.00 1942" 2.26 1943 2.42: 1944 6.18 1945 4.89 1946 6.14 1947 5.02 1948 3^.66 1949 . 80 1950 2.70  Feb Mar Apr May June July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov  Dec Total $dep  4.9Z 2.32 .86 1.10 1.75.  .16 1.9» 5.78 9.13 8.68 4.46 49.61 36.1 r .80 3.02 2.98 1.53 8.54 27.61 24.2 3.40 2.21 .55 .78 . 83 1.10 . 59 1.87 1.34 2.87 10.67 33.16 9.0' 8.34 .13 . 91 .21 1.04 . 40 . 44 5.32 8.20 4.60 3.60 41.02 12.5 6.85 2.35 .85 1.95 .71 .71 2.53 .64 1.26 1.98 6.00 32.06 12.0 4.45 . 90 . 98 2.16 .35 . 47 1.13 1.52 5.29 3.55 6.54 30.24 17<J0 3.04 3.60 1.85 .96 .44 .221.20 5.69 7.20 3.05 2U7 34.24 6.0' 1.55 3.71 1.16 1.13 . 83 .14 . 35 1.91 5.23 4.18 5.53 30.31 16.8 .45 3.50 1.48 .98 1.60 1.07 .86' .73'3.42 1.68 4.59 21.16 41,9 7.26 1.25 4.28 1.35 2.11 .32 .38 1.99 3.34 2.90 2.26 28.84 20.8 3.31 2.81 2.05 . 60 2.67 N i l .92 4.00 3.71 6.35 7.55 41.90 14.9 6.252.76 1.66 .74 1.19 1.93 1.53 .80 4.57 9.01 4.25 37.51 2.9 3.13 3.74 .24 1.26 .87 .49 .34 5.56 5.66 3.38 13.20 44.35 21.7 1.75 3.62 .11 3.65 .71 1.61 .96 1.39 6.43 7.14 7.08 a.23 13.1 2.83 5.18 .12 .19 .48 1.13 1.04 2.68 2.56 2.76 4.08 38.67 6.1 2.37 2.92 1.32 1.24 1.37 1.37 3.04 1.90 1.28 2.35 7.61 29.8418.1 4.65I.49I.44I.94I.34 .72-1,79 1.06 5.24 5.55 7.81 34.53 5.2 2.25 3.30 .80 .08 .35 .47 .65 2.35 5.14 2.51 7.28 28.16 22.7 1.80 1.47 1.84 2.301.30 1.33 . 28 1.11 4.5311.36 13.55 46.94 28.8. 5.21 2.97 1780 2.43 N i l .90 .86 1.78 8.09 3.14 7.11 39.49 8.3 2.45 1.03 1.25 2.68 1.91 .44 1.35 2.22 6.49 7.42 7.55 40.79 11.9 . 88 2.60 1.13 . 50 1.62 2.00 .62 1.22 3.27 4.66 8.30 29.06 20.2 3.96 3.32 4.04 . 28 . 48 .77 .63 .71 7.02 2.04 3.52 29.19 19.8 1.82 1.89 1.24 .46 1.57 .70 ,612.82 5.24 6.14 2.67 31.34 13.9 4.09 5.01 1.59 1.70 .48 1.37 .75 2.40 2.27 6.80 5.73 37.08 1.7 5.60 4.76 2.47 N i l 2.54 .60 . 96 1.75 2.95 3.81 6.22 37.80 3.7 5.23 1.52 1.19 1.81 1.30 2.04 .25 1.34 8.59 .96 12.82 42.07 15.4 4.922.25 .85 2.96 1.34 2.06 3.01 3.51 4.91 ia31 4.15 43.93 20.5 5.06 . 96 2.90 1.26 .68 1,71 2.57 1.40 2.941L53 9.28 41.09 12.7 9.28 4.34 2.55 1.34 .82 .65 .68 1.9110.09 5.77 9.69 49.82 36.7 , 7 2  N  i  l  Mean 4.84 4.02'Z.58 1.49 1.29 1.09 Standard deviation  7.01  Coefficient of variation  19.2  T  .90 1.10 2.35 A.95 4.93  6.80 36.44  148  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  PRINCE GEORGE  Year. ^21 1922 1923 1924 1925 1936 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 Mean  Jan  Feb  Mar Apr May June July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov  Dec Total £dep  1.90 .44 .37 .75 1.27 1.56 . 36 3.01 2.36 . 62 1.76 .45 14.85 32.2 1.60 2.00 .60 1.09 .50 .49 .67 1.10 4.04 .47 1.46 2.10 16.12 26.4 1.08 .29 1.72 .02 1.35 1.10 .80 2.53 .89 3.83 1.94 1.95 17.50 20.1 1.29 .68 .88 .13 .55 2.71 .53 3.05 2.40 .68 1.58 1.70 16.18 26.1 1.30 3.05 1.62 .04 .62 2.45 .86 4.05 3.14 .64 I . 3 J 1.46 20.56 6.2 1.33 1.17 .80 .44 .71 .86 .91 1.56 1.18 2.13 1.25 2.11 14.45 34.0 2.27 .60 .40 .88 1.76 1.84 .50 .97 2.01 2.95 2.30 2.98 19.46 11.2 .63 .83 1.93 .69 1.07 2.42 .92 1.83 1.05 1.49 1.12" .85 14.86 32.2 2.03 .65 .65 1.49 .92 3.72 2.62 2.00 .81 1.41 1.23 1.05 18.58 15.2 .50 1.05 .64 .52 1.98 2.83 1.45 .20 3-30 2.01 1.65 1.88 18.01 17.8 .94 .50 2.16 .22 2.07 2.81 2.31 1.07 1.82 2.08 2.49 1.34 19.81 9.6 1.53 2.71 2.41 1.15 .72 .35 5.08 2.97 2.05 2.13 4-33 1.98 27.a 25.0 2.26 2.07 1.41 1.23 1.91 4.06 I.46 .53 3.49 3.02 2.60 3.76 27.80 26.8 1.57 .65 1.88 .26 2.91 1.87 3.92 1.16 4.99 3.64 2.43 1.80 27.08 23.5 3.19 1.55 2.11 .89 2.24 3-48 1.35 1.55 1.21 1.94 4.52 1.50 25.53 16.4 2.44 2.44 2.01 .83 1.47 3.64 2.81 2.56 2.26 1.66 1.22 1.89 25.23 15.1 2.89 1.09 .71 2.21.1.96 3.48.1.95 3.61 1.55 2.65 1.32 1.15 24.57 12.0 1.15 1.74 1.23 .56 1.28 7U17 1.56 2.07 2.68 1.96 2.02 3.5A 20.96 A.3 2.26 3.35 .98 2.57 2.19 1.56 3.16 .84 2.18 2.50 3.21 3.11 27.91 27.3 3.20 1.44 3.19 2.96 I.-92 1.63 4.59 1.85 I.45 2.29 2.53 1.68 28.73 31.0 2.96 1.24 . 66 1.04 2.34 3.97 2.37 3.79 6U2 2.92 1.93: JL98 31.32 42.8 .77 773 .93 1.17 1.72 2.70 2.15 .96 2.17 2.06 2.97 4«a 22.74 3.7 2.45 1.79 .90 1.34 2.36 1.72 1.79 3.49 1.50 1.43 1.26 .98 21.01 4.1 1.58 1.34 1.81 .84 ;85 1.95 2.21 3.93 2.31 1.97-3.30 2.46 24.55 H . 9 2.83 .52 .86 1.45 1.56 3.21 M M M M M M M n 11 available ti n no data n  n  11 11  11  1.98  n  n n n  it  11 n  I.36 1.30  .99 1.53 „31 1-.93 2.11 2.37 2.02 2.16 2.01 21.92 2  Standard deviation  4.92  Coefficient of variation  22.4  149  Actual Monthly Precipitation f o r S t a n d i P e r i o d 1921-1950  QUESNEL  Year  Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July  Hf  z  i%5 1926  lS  1927  .eu  -g Hi ^ i . / o .25 1.04 1.02' .74  i*S 2*20  Is Al TO?*?*  '11  Al  '94 2.28 1.53 2.21 1.06 9 3 l  1  -  8 5 1  9  21  o  4 3  -  3  -  1  8  6  ° 7  1  a  Dec Total *dep  .64 2.20 . 45 15.52 13.2 .36 Z7 i 99 n AT -a* I  2  'IH'n ,'  '2 -  /n/to  Get Nov  •2 -?3.0fi.65 .54 2.82  'HAA'l?  l l o *?n •  il  Aug Sept  1  2  2 l  o  7  6  ' 3-41  3  U  l 6  ' '3 17.60 1.1 7 6  6  -54 1.14 1.09 1.39 12.74 28.8  .78 2.54 3.45  8  2.95  1 ? i j . ^ f ; ^ i ; « f c t f ;g£#-& g iwi • g i S ^ M h ? ; " S J ' g i ' - * 2  18.42 2.9  i :  1  B  a  l  : H 1  c  1  9 9  1 : 9 9  ^ol^o-  1932 l"2n i*2 Al A°, * ? * ' 9 17.87 .1 1933 1 71 2*on I ' S I S o ' - ^ ^ 2.24 1.63 1.45 19.34 8.0 Td?7 II ?2 * - * -° -37 2.55 2.09 1.60 2.38 21.47 19.9 19^5 2 90 - g ^ J - O f ? ^ 1.66-3.39 2.73 1.12 2.85 21.28 M 9 X ^ 3I 1936 ?"?S- i ' £ H I ' *S \ ' ° 9 »75 18.87 5.4 4l* o 2' 9 l o 7 ° 4 1937 3 i - r r i J-S S*! 18.24 1.8 1, 1.16 2.68 2.16 2.39 3-00 .58 2.50 2.00 .85 22.43 25.3 1938 . 80 . 95 . 58 .03 . 821.071.24 2.41 .99 . 90 1.27 2.82 13.88 22.4 1939 2.13 1.50 .91 .91 2.08 2.01 2.68 .76' 2.23 2.80 2.07 1.11 21.19 18.3? 1940 .85 .61 2.07 1.29 I.36 1.11 4.25 1.97 .67 1.18 1.75 1.13 18.24 1.8 19a 1.44 .71 e5 .901.021.343.572.221.244.623.24 .56 1.00 21.86 22.1 3*S H 2 - . 1 6 2.65 1.19 1.12 1.94 2.19 2.39 17.32 3.2 ' ^ -A6 -38 1.68 2.46 3.48 2.01 1.22 1.21 1.24 .55' 17.06 4.6 2 2 1* 'J? I-'*? ° ° 21.49 20.0 nX?? ? ,* '55 1.11 .74 1.88 1.72 1.01 I.46 .82 1.75 1.02 14.47 19.1 1946 2.16 1.07 1.17 .54 .33 3-49 1.91 1.05 .58 1.94 1*86 1.45 1735 1.9 3  6  fAAi  A* 12 r"S illl 'll  l?zf \ln  11%  w« • 1948 1949 1950 Mean  I'S 1.77 1.86 1.80  i"?t ,  1  2  6 7  l  8  3 3  Al  1 , 2  Al ,i ^A'VA'^ 2  Z , ; L  7 7 1  G  7  3  2  4  6 1  2  o  0  2  e  2  l  2  o  3  4  l  o  8  6  1  0  2  8  2  1  5  3  #  0  2  5 8  ' >  5 5  3  9 0  2  9  AlA%  7 8  L O 3  l o 7  MS "S S ' » 1-61 2.30 2.31 20.93 16.9 1.80 1.36 .77 .66 .75 5.12 5.18 1.38 1.92 2.90 1.40 25.01 39.7 1.75 .69 . 92 .64 .73 2.31 2.59 .79 . 83 . 73 3.06 16.90 5.5 .71 .15 .73 2.60 I.48 1.07 2.31 .51 1.71 2.71 1.69 17.47 2.4  1.52: 1.04  1  .98  1 ,  3  ,  5  7  2  1  9 l  e  9  5  8 1  .77 1.21 1.98 2.03 1.70 1.49 1.71 1.70  Standard deviation Coefficient of variation  3.11 17.4  1.797  17.90  150  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period 1921-1950  SALMON ABM  Year  Jan Jan  Feb Mar Apr May June July Feb  1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  3.13 2.55 3.02 2.86 4.37 3.22 2.03 1.20 1.20 1.50 2.01 1.92 1.65 1.78 3.75 4.32 2.42 1.73 2.93 2.08 1.47 .43 1.76 1.57 3.68 4.45 2.37 1.10 .87 1.65  2.20 .80 .86 1.06 1.75 .36 .85 1.26 1.40 3.38 1.97 18.52 5.0 2.15 1.97 l . H .71 .06 . 29 1.52 2.04-2.65 . 60 3.19 18.87 3.2 1.10 1.14 .80 2.20 5.02 .77 1.29 .78 1.00 1.60 3.35 22.07 13.1 .98 .26 .28 .28 .96 .85 2.14 1.63 1.16 2.11 3.61 17.12 12.2 2.11 .61 .49 .66 .92 .37 1.10 .41 .85 .65 3.04 15.58 20.1 .91 .22 .40 1.13 .58 .06 .76 .99 .89 1.52 2.67 13.35 31.5 1.40 .55 .47 2.10 .98 1.42 2.71 2.22 1.68 3.10 2.42 21.08 8.0 .45 1.76 1.38 .75 2.14 .34 .26 .05 .76 1.45 1.07 11.61 40.4 .10 .92 1.86 . 96 3.23 . 57 1.34 1.27 1.54 . 86 2.49 16.34 16.2 2.36 . 9 i l . i 5 2 . O 3 i . 4 6 .23 .70 .90 2.87 2.01 .79 16.91 13»3 .80 1.19 .88 .76 2.90 .29 .41 1.84 1.85 2.52 2.76 18.21 6.6 1.45 2.38 2.11 1.24 1.32 1.02 1.16 .79 2.25 3.30 2.15 21.09 8.0 1.30 2.35 .29 1.52 1.32 .96 .62 2.07 4.00 1.45 3.06 20.59 5.5 .26 2.24 .47 1.13 .51 1.11 .45 3«48 1.40 2.92 3.06 18.81 3.5 1.13' 1.12 .77 1.35 1.71 4.29 .49 1.01 1.86 1.47 1.85 20.80 6.6 2.63 2.31 2.05 1.01 2.27 .50 .91 1.95 .59 .66 3.99 23.19 18.8 3.75 .72 2.83 147 2.44 1.55 1.16 .43 .95 4°45 2.57 24.44 25.2 2.25 .78 .42 .55 1.73 1.45 1.05 1.49 1.27 1.83 4»47 19.02 2.5 1.53 .94 .16 1.66 3.43 .48 .23 1.011.83 .87 4.06 19.13 1.9 2.97 4.44 .74 2.16 .58 1.19 .42 .53 2.22 1.69 2.34 21.36 9.4 1.95 .42 .51 2.83 3.35 1.81 1.26 3.55 1.25 1.70 1.88 21.98 12.6 • a .32 1.02 3.08 1.90 4.84 1.15 .87 1.67 .45 .95 17.09 12.4 .43 .65 .83 1.09 1.94 l . H .89 .35 2.75 .78 2.25 14.83 23.9 2.25 1.06 1.50 1.33 1.08 1.00 1.96 2.53 1.38 2.85 1.31 19.82? 1.5 1.67 1.12 1.42 .60 1.31.1.54' 1.02 1.93 3.33 3»12 2.69 23.43 20.0 2.02 .84 1.23 1.37 2.60 .45 1.28 1.43 1.74 3.00 2.06 22.47 15.1 1.47 1.21 1.24 1.30 2.78 1.94 1-23 .82 3.80 2.11 2.42 22.69 16.2 2.85 1.26 2.85 3.9I .78 2.41 2.71 1.51 1.26 2.69 2.15 25.48 30.5 3.45 1.05 .71 1.83 1.96 1.55 1.29 .68 1.90 1.08 3.63 20.00 2.5 .4 1.73 1.55 1.46 1.26 .63 1.47 .67 .39 3.08 2.45 3.09 19.43  Mean  2.30  1.66 1.66" 1.24 1.08 1.43 1.79 1.21 1.10 1.34 1.84 1.96  Aug Sept  Oct Nov  Dec Total $dep  1  Standard deviation  3.17  Coefficient of variation  16.2  2.56 19.51  151  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  SODA CREEK  Year  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May.June July  1921 no data available n it ti in 1922 it n II It' II it 1923 1924 1.50 .55 .20 .29 .05 1.26 1925 1.41 .77 1.30 .02 . 1 1 . 4 7 1926 2.20 .45 .18 .20 .36 .43 1927 .60 .50 .02 1.29 2.41 2.20 1928 1.10 .02 .35 .92 .07 1.71 .13 1929 1.24 110 .30 1.00 1.53 N il 1930 .14 .38 1.09 .94 1.42 1931 --••HIL .49 .47 .18... ...83.2.30 .87 1.84 1.87 .84 .36 .26 1932 1933 2413 1.43 1.50 .22' 1.30 1.19 1934 no data available it it ti 1935 niit n Mil tu 1936' ii ti II 1 1 1937 tt n II mi 1938 II it II 1939 II tt tl i; 1940 tt II H Mi* m 1941 n ti M tt 194Z it II II tl 1943 it it tt tl 1944 II ti It II 1945 Mil It II II 1946 Mw It it 1947 tin ti tl II 1948 tt Hi. n It It 1949 ii tl it 1950 II  Aug Sept  Oct  Nov  Dec Total $dep  t  1.18 . .27 .40 3.93 .76 .51 1.07 1.39 1.84 .61  .78 .48 .51 .84 2.67 10.31 12.2 1.28 1.78 .22 .60 2.28 10.51 10.5 N i l .40 1.00 .05 1.12 6.79 42.2 1.38 .62 1.61 1.95 2.98 19.49 65.8 1.32 1.13 1.41 .85 .05 9.69 Ho5 .36 .32 .18 .19 .54 6.40 45.5 .57 1.23 1.64 .08 .25 8.81 25.0 1.45 1.75 1.38 1.48 2.22 13.94 18.6 i.13 .62 2.66 2.15 1.26 15.70 33.6 .12 3.13 1.90 .91 1.37 15.81 34.5  MI;  Mean 1.12  .62  .64  .54  .74 1.28 1.20  Standard deviation  4.14  Coefficient of variation  34.5  .84 1.15 1.25  .91 1.47 11.75  152  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period. 1921-1950  STEVESTON  Year  Jan  Feb  1921 4.78 1922 2.84 1923 5.96 1924 5.83 1925 6.69 1926 5.32 1927 5.55 1928 5.59 1929 1.33 1930 2.01 1931 8.93 1932 4.52 1933 5.05 1934 5.13 1935 13.26 1936 6.55 1937 1.95 1938 3.95 1939 8.47 1940 4-31 1941 5.24 1942 2.37 1943 2.27 1944 4.61 1945 5.63 M 1946 1947 5.65 1948 2.93 1949 .99 1950 4.64  2.4I 2.67 2.89 6.20 4.42 4.14 3.58 1.35 .92 6.69 2.85 4.27 2.98 3.63 2.71 2.86 5.26 2.52 3.95 5.84 4.59 2.06 2.63 2.87 3.69 M 5.50 7.31 5.26 7.31  Mean 4.92  3.91 3.04 2.34 1.72 1.65  Mar Apr May June July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov  Dec Total J&dep  1.26 1.37 1.06 2.62 . 20 1.82 2.77 6.83 6.82:4.08 36.02 1.5 2.06 1.51 1.26 .10 N i l 2.00 3.67 1.86 1.88 7.16 27.01 26.1 2.13 1.38 2.17 1.89 .51 .712.22 1.72 2.83 7.53 31.94 12.6 .73 1.97 .23 1.35 .54 1.15 4.26 4-45 4.34 5.04 36.09 1.2' 2.68 2.30 1.04 .28 .41 2.33 .37 2.22 2.40 8.59 33.73 7.7 1.68 2.51 2.89 1.04 .53 1.81 1.79. 4.82 5.78 6.21 38.52 5.3 3.97 1.39 3.82 1.23 .94 2.4V 2.74 5.67 7.43 4.82 43.63 19.2 4.77 2.02U.10 1.29 . 51 .29 . 84 5.82 3.67 4.20 31.45 14.0 2.94 1.88 .82 1.68 .63 .81 1.17 2.10 2.19 5.37 34.78 4,9 2.13 3.37 1.69 1.27 .05 .31 2.05 6.91 1.97 2.71 31.16 14.8 4.93 2.98 1.14 5.46 .44 .26 4.90 2.87 3.99 8.21 46,96 28,35.84 3.11 .84 1.44 4.86 1.33 1.65 3.94 7.77 3.92 43.49 18.8 4.54 ".32 2.91 1.99 .69 .96 5.08 6.84 3«53 9.47 44.36 21.2 2.86 2.00 1.91 1.68 .89 1.14 2.40 3.70 5.58 5.53 36.45 .3 5.27 2.10 .40 1.10 2.82: .99 1.83 2.24 3.76 5.40 41.88 14.4 2.60 2.23 3.52 2.30 1.61 1.11 2.91 2.44 1.28 7.26 36.67 .2' 2;35 4.87 1.47 3.78 .01 2.4I 2.21 4.46 7.25 8.86 44.88 22.6 2.83 2.08 1.31 .57 .'69 . 36 1.41 3.59 3.24 8.57 31.12 14.9 2.29 1.13 T.97 2.19 1.81 .71 1.36 4.17 6.83 8.20 43.08 17.7 4.19 3.20 2.13 .28 M .98 1.84 6.02 3.42 7.05 M 2.92 2.38 3.55 2.10 .35 1.53 4.40 4.34 4.64 5.41 41.45 13.3 2.44 1.96 1.52 2.61 1.31 .66 .25 3.95 5.78 6.50 31.41 14.1 1.88 2.65 2.05 . 53 .78 2.43 1.11 6.38 2.27 3.78 28.78 21.3 1.50 2.03 .99 .65 .25 .49 2.26 4.03 4.87 2.25 26.82 26.6 3.34 2.35 .86 .36 .22 1.34 2.54 5.82 6.82 3.98 36.95 1.0 4.58 4.76 .29 4.06 1.82 .45 1.02 4.17 4.09 4.84 M 4.36 3.50 1.07 1.77 M .35 1.53 6.66 3.86 9.59 M 1.73 2.14 4.80 1.37 M 2.83 1.48 2.80 9.92 4.17 M 3.10 2.03 1.62:1.21 M M ,89 3.29 6.52 6.42 M M 2.59 i.18 1.16 1.38 '2.31 1.07 7.24 4.07 6.91 M  Standard deviation  5.74  Coefficient of variation  16.1  .93 1.25 2.13 4.38 4.63 5.93 36.58  153  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard -Period. lQSI-IQfn  TATLAYOKO LAKE  Y e a r  1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950  •  J a n  F  e  b  M a r  -P A  r  May June July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov Dec Total *dep  no data available " " n ti tl  It  HI!  n  u  n  " 11  tl  " . 90 .40 2.77 1.33 .91 3.56 5.72 .65 .70 1.17 . 50 .93 3.03 .72 .56 2.49 .93 1.46 3.10 1.53 1.31 ,90  Mean 1.61  in, «"  » 1 1 "  II  tti  «  «  tl  it  n  . 25 2.47 . 95 2.55 .45' 2.70 1.71 .17 4.40 .76 .73 .91 .54 .10 1.15 .49 .82 1.22 .3.5 2.66 .76 3.58  2.37 . 50 .19 .37 . 83 . 67 .73 2.0l 1.17 1.56 1.00 .22 . 47 .79 .37 .75 .80 . 80 .64 .23 .54 .30 1.59 1.81 1.44 .37 2.33 .24 .10 .37 .62 .55 2.28 .47 1.15 .27 1.93 .60 .09 .03 2.56 1.62 1.08 .29 1.45 1.92' .17 1.85 .28 .64 .25 1.68 1.44 2.66 1.40 .47 .07 .29 N i l 2.41 . 31 1.83 1.08 3.21^ .14 .82 .59 1.10 .47 .29 1.43 1.40 . a .17 1.82 1.52 . 45 1.51 1.43 . a .67 1.60 2.47 1.34 1.63 1.30 .75 1.42 .66 1.28 1.01 .59 .89 2.41 .73 .89 2.22 .47 1.83 .89 .59 1.40 1.14 .64 .02 3.13 .47 .73 .74 .39 1.60 1.82- .70 1.19 . 94 . 44 1.23i2.16 2.62! 4.12 . 23 . 81 1.04 1.27 1.58 2.18 .68 1.67  I.36 1.01  Standard Deviation Coefficient of variation  .74  .96  .99 1.94 1.15  1.47 1.69 1.09 .98 2.15 1.72 .50 i.06 2.57 1.01 1.95 4.34 .24 .47 1.57 .25 .72 4.21 1.40' 2.45 1.05 1*62 1.80 1.67 2.66 1.47 1.7 5 2.51 .33 1.46 1.00 1.07 .56 .33? 1.01 .79 .58 3.91 1.26 1.90 .14 . 54  .25 1.88 1.99 3.31 1.67 2.75 .12 2.51 1.31 .55 6.13 1.40 3.46 3.10 .70 2.83 1.98 1.44 .40 2.28 3.94  4.10 .78 2.78 1.17 4.32 1.11 .71 2.44 2.04 4.63 5.54 1.20 3.72 1.32 .99 .87 2.33 2.64 2.91 1.22 2.06  13.59 20.2 14.79 13.2 16,34 4.1 15.03 11.8 15.78 7.4 21.73 27.4 15.80 7.3^ 14.38 15.6 20.33 19.2 15.60 8.5 22.96 34.6 13.19 22.6 20.76 21.7 17.42 2.1 12.23 28.2 15.27 10.4 H.35 15.8 14.69 13.8 17.69 3.7 22,35 31.0 15.86 6.9  .17 4.51 4.92 3.16 24.633 44.4  .96 1.29 1.07 1.39 1.18 1.81 2.22 2.37 17.05 3.42 20.1  154  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period 1921-1950  VAVENBY  Year  Jan  Feb Mar  Apr May June July  Aug Sept  Oct Nov  Dec  Total $dep  1921 1.45 . 60 . 78 . 44 1.29 1.42 1.01 .55 1.82 1.03 . 98 . 97 12.34 22.5 1922- 1.70 .80 1.04 .76 1.11 .11 .34 1.23 1.81 1.04 .34 1.68 11.96 24.7 1923 1.40' 1.25 .85 .38 1.37 2.08 2.48 .95 1.21 .30 .83 1.25 14.35 9.6 1924 1.99 .73 . 23 .63 . 35 1.32 1.06 1.78 1.33 1.07 1.73 4.26 16.48 3.7 1925 1.95 1.34 1131 .36 . 34 1.30 .39 2.25 1.01 1.43 . 44 1.63 13.75 13.4 1926 1.05 .22 .30 .85 .78 .78 .15 1.61 2.35 1.62 1.26 1.82 12.72 19.5 1927 1.11 .80 .73 .31 1.21 2.68 3.24 2.55 1.56 1.66 1.53 2.97 20.15 26.8 1928 1.60 .10 .79 .31 .71 2.48 1.73 . 41 .60 1.40 . 89 . 57 11.65 26.6 1929 1.50 . 60 1.17 .70 1.82 2.02 1.25 . 92 1.17 . 38 1.05 1.42 14.00 11.8 1930T .901.01 .69 . 54 1.24 1.191.16 . 59 . 97 1.60 . 55 . 71 11.15 29.8 1931 .80 . 65 . 93 . 83 1.86 2.34 1.00 . 88 1.85 1.46 2.12 T.76 16.48 3.7 1932" 1.19 .91 1.46 1.55 .73 .79 .71 1.40 1.72 1.54 2.43 . 58 15.01 5.5 1 9 3 3 . 7 0 1.15 .47 .30 1.30 2.25 .63 2.09 1.37 2.46 1.69 2.02 16.41 3.2 1934 1.34 .25 '•^8'T:;-66*T;"61 a .65T;i;9''I.24^.'%^T8"'l.-55 1.63 16.64 4.7 1935 4.79 .36 .51 .57 .811.18 2.56 2.13 1.45 1.19 .72 .50 16.77 5.5 1936 1.92 1.97 . 81 1.03 1.79 2.22 1.01 .94 2.47 .52 . 86 1.60 17.14 7.8 1937 1.80 1.90 ;6'5'T.04".'9J"T:i"2"r;76T.'73. .56 . 88 2.76 2.13 17.24 8„4 19381.471.52 .95 .37 .88 1.36 .85 2.18 1.44 1.28 1.65 2.49 16.44 3.4 19391.66 1.28 . 91 .521.35 3.12 1.10 . 081.43 3.27 .36 1.43 16.51 3.9 1940 1.151.11 1.12 .951.64 .89 2.20 .87 .53 2.08 1.34 1.23 15.11 4.9 1941 .73 .75 .78 .71 1.55 2.42 1.07 1.31 3.42 2.30 1.17 1.38 17.59 10.6 1942 .41 .09 .62 .903.542.543.20 .90 1.32 1.06 1.82 2.81 19.21 20.8 1943 1.51 .90 .38 .65 2.12 3.05 1.06 2.38 1.06 1.53 .91 1.25 16.80 5.7 1944 .59 1.06 .93 1.08 1.16 2.38 2.84 3.27 2.69 1.14 1.63 .54 19.31 21.5 1945•'"1737 .43 .73 .70 . 561.14 . 89 1.47 1.70 1.80 .75 1.67 13.21 16.8 1946 1.83 1.58 .55 1.32 .65 2.50 .62 .92 .69 1.29 1.50 I.69 15.14 4.7 1947 1.45 2.08 .89 1.40 2.27 2.93 1.71 1.92 .49 2.19 1.59 1.83 20.75 30.5 1948 .95 1.25 -.64 2.76 1.09 .85 3.61 5.18 1.53 1.37 1.45 .60 21.28 33.9 1949 . 64 1.31 .41 .86 .38 1.83 2.21 3.18 . 44 1.11 .77 2.85 15.99 .6 1950 1.87/ 1.35 1.14 1.05 I.64 .42 1.62 .86 .25 2.63 1.90 .76- 15.49 2i5 ,  ,  Mean 1.43  .98  .79  ,  r  .85 1.27 1.74 1.49 1.59 1.40 1.48 1.28  Standard deviation  2.42  Coefficient of variation  12*2  1.60  15.89  155  Actual Monthly Precipitation for Standard Period  1921-1950  WISTARIA!  Year  Feb  Mar  Apr  May June July Aug Sept Oct  Nov Dec Total $dep  no data available  1921 1922  Jan  :  1923 1924 1925  n  II  II  ii tt it  ti it  n  II  - II  it tt it; tin  it  .76  .92  .49  1.52  2.96  1.34  1.68  2.28  2.50  2.15  3 . 3 4 20.77  1.30  1.47  .63  2 . 2 2  1.07  1.95  .48  .75  1.86  3 , 1 9  2.07  1 8 . 9 2  4*49  .81  2.67  .46  .57  .31  1.75  .67  . 8 3 1 . 5 5  1.15  1.58  1 6 . 8 4  5.6  1929  l o 8 5  .49  1.65  .61  .45  1.48  4.67  1.11  .03  1.19  1.16  2.57  17.26  3 . 2  .65  1,48  1926  o83  1927  1.33  1928  1930  1.21  1.44  .90  1931  1.81  .35  1.36  1932  1.09  2 . 6 2  2.02  1.06  .41  .34  2.61  1.58  .92  2,21  1 4 . 8 1  3 . 1 7  .78  .75  o87  1.13  1.36  1.21  14.03  2 1 . 3  2.05  .25  .27  1.38  1.13  1.28  2 . 3 2 3 . 5 9  1.85  1 9 , 8 5  1 1 . 2  4.22 1 9 . 6 5  1 0 . 1 1 4 . 2  1933  1.32  .86  .97  .58  2.69  1.88  .38  2.50  . 5 2  .69  .30  .56  .84  2.88  1.02  1935  2.30  1.09  2 . 1 2  .57  .08  1.70^  1.93  .66  1936  3 . 2 1  1.49  .80  .77  . 7 4  1.93  1.78  .92 1.85  1937  1.13  .84  1.94  .75  2.98  .07  .28  1.50  2.51  .60  .50  2.20  2 . 8 4  .83  .25  2.10  3 . 1 0  1.82  2 . 5 2  1.13  1.84  1 ° 6 6 1 9 . 1 5  1939  .98  1940  .61  1941  2.88  1.30  .59  .23  1942"  .60  1.24  .22 1.93  2.00  2.60  3 . 6 9  2.51  2 . 3 1 2 0 . 3 9  1.16'  1.45  1.60  2.18 1 6 . 8 4  5.6  .77  2.70  3 . 7 5  2 0 . 7 1  16.J0  1.79  2.40  1.93  2.12  19.57  9 . 6  1.58  2.14  2.37  1 3 . 2 4  2 5 . 7  3 . 5 9  1 9 . 6 2  9 . 9  1.64 1 6 , 1 9  9 . 2  1.50  .60  .53  .09  1.76  .82  1.28  1.94  1.67  1.07  .51  .74  .80  .55  1.36  2.47  .82  .98  .49  1.69  1.60  1.53  .28 1 . 1 2 - 1 . 4 4  1.21  1.11  1.79  .77  .30  .84  1.13  2.88 .66  1.65  4.12  1.29  1.11  1.52 1.50  2.97  2.52'  1943  1.66  <*64  1.23  .69  1944  1.30  .86  1.14  1.00  .97  1.46  1945  2.22.  .85  .97  1.39  1.84  1.28  2.04 .60  1946  2.53  1.34  1.12  .67  .37  4.70  2.20  1947  1.74  .93  1.19  .64  .73  2 . 7 4  4.05  1948  1.00  1.65  .54  .90  1.60  1949  2.54  1.35  1.24  .51  1.59  1950  1.79  1.33  .50  Mean  1.75  1.08  1.25  1.25  .80  . 8 2  1.02  .12  1 6 . 9  2.57  1.65  1.59  1.26"  .86  2 . 6  .24  1.00  1934  1938  1 6 . 4  1.25  .91  7.33  2.28  2.27  1 4 . 5 0  1 8 . 7  .62  .61  3 1 . 8 8  3 3 . 4  2.08 1 6 . 6 4  6 . 7  1.99  1 9 . 6 1  9 . 9  1.69  1.53  1 8 . 6 7  1.16  3 . 3 4 22.51  1,00 1.98  4 . 6  26.1  2.77  3 . 4 0 1.11  .95  .98  088  1 6 . 5 8  1,0  1.33  1.99  2.43  .82  1.59  2.08  1.79  19.26  7 . 9  .39  2.14  2.47  0I8  2,38  3 . 4 2  2,76  18.43'  3.3;  1.57  1 . 8 2  1.18 1,31  1.34  2.07  2.24  . 80'  Standard Deviation  2.56  Coefficient of variation  14.3  1 7 . 8 4  

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