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The dialectical principle in the poetry of Arthur Hugh Clough. Wells, Margo Constance 1963

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THE DIALECTICAL "PRINCIPLE IN THE POETRY OF ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH  by  MARGO CONSTANCE WELLS B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 1  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1 9 6 3  the  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and mission for extensive p u r p o s e s may his  be  study.  I further  the Head o f my  written  permission.  Department of E n g l i s h The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,. V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date  September 10,  196,3  copying, or  s h a l l not  per-  scholarly  Department or  I t i s understood that  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain w i t h o u t my  agree that  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  g r a n t e d by  representatives.  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT The t i t l e of Walter Houghton's r e e e n t a r t i c l e , "Arthur Hugh Clough: c o u l d not f a i l  A Hundred Years of Disparagement,"  .  t o s t r i k e any reader f a m i l i a r w i t h the g e n e r a l  tone and s u b j e c t matter of the major c r i t i c i s m which has appeared  on Clough t o the present day.  Most of the s t u d i e s  have been i n the nature of p e r s o n a l a p p r e c i a t i o n s and have d e a l t p r i m a r i l y with Clough as a man.  Even the more s c h o l a r l y  and o b j e c t i v e s t u d i e s which have been p u b l i s h e d l a t e l y have f a i l e d to t r e a t h i s p o e t r y i n any comprehensive  way,  but have  tended, r a t h e r , to emphasize one aspect of Clough and then have r e f e r r e d b r i e f l y to c e r t a i n poems which support a t h e s i s . There has been no noteworthy  attempt  to s u b j e c t h i s p o e t r y  to a c l o s e t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s i n order to determine i f any general p r i n c i p l e underlies i t .  For t h i s reason, I have been  p r i m a r i l y concerned i n t h i s study with examining  the p o e t r y of  Arthur Hugh Clough to assess the presence i n i t of what I have c a l l e d the d i a l e c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e — t h e way c h a r a c t e r i s t i c approach  i n which h i s most  to experience i s c a r r i e d over i n t o  h i s p o e t r y and f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n theme, mood, tone, form, imagery and c h a r a c t e r s . ii  iii Chapter  I I d i s c u s s e s the presence  of the d i a l e c t i c a l  element i n the theme of Clough*s p o e t r y — p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the poems which d e a l with r e l i g i o n , i n those which attempt  t o answer  the unanswerable q u e s t i o n s , why man i s h e r e , how he should l i v e w h i l e here, and i f he w i l l continue t o e x i s t i n some form a f t e r death, and i n those which probe the nature o f l o v e . Chapter  I I I examines the way i n which the d i a l e c t i c a l  principle  i s r e f l e c t e d i n juxtaposed moods, i n the tone, and i n the e x t e r n a l form o f Clough*s p o e t r y .  And, f i n a l l y , Chapter IV  c o n s i d e r s imagery and c h a r a c t e r s , the i m a g i n a t i v e and dramatic embodiment o f the d i a l e c t i c The for  i n themes d e a l t with i n Chapter I I .  study concludes w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Clough,  the most p a r t , d i d n o t succeed i n s o l v i n g h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  and s p i r i t u a l problems and i n conveying h i s poetry.  the s o l u t i o n  through  F o r the poems here analyzed, w i t h perhaps the  e x c e p t i o n of " E a s t e r Day, P a r t I I , " r e c o r d h i s f a i l u r e to c r o s s "the d a r k l i n g p l a i n "  and f i n d  some new l i g h t of t r u t h  which would s a t i s f y him both e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . In many o f them, the d i a l e c t i c when Clough,  e x i s t s as unresolved debate  unable t o f i n d an i n t e l l e c t u a l  s y n t h e s i s , con-  c l u d e s with an admission of d e f e a t or with the d e c i s i o n t o wait f o r some f u r t h e r r e v e l a t i o n of T r u t h .  At other times,  when h i s d e s i r e f o r c e r t a i n t y w i l l not permit him t o l e t the dialectic  end i n an impasse, he i s f o r c e d t o s h i f t the terms  iv of the debate and to " s y n t h e s i z e " h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n a realm of pure f e e l i n g  or on an i d e a l p l a n e .  difficulties Thus, the  c o n c l u s i o n becomes an emotional, r a t h e r than an i n t e l l e c t u a l s o l u t i o n — u s u a l l y one i n which Clough ends by t r u s t i n g  an  undefined " l a r g e r hope," when he i s unable to answer the problem posed by r a t i o n a l  means.  V  TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE 1  INTRODUCTION CHAPTER I.  ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH:  THE VICTORIAN, THE MAN,  THE POET II. III. IV.  3  DIALECTIC IN THEME  37  MOOD, TONE AND FORM  6?  IMAGERY AND CHARACTERS  8**  CONCLUSION  109  BIBLIOGRAPHY  112  INTRODUCTION The t i t l e Hugh Clough:  of Walter Houghton's r e c e n t a r t i c l e ,  A Hundred Years of Disparagement,"  1  "Arthur  cannot  fail  to s t r i k e any reader f a m i l i a r w i t h the g e n e r a l tone and s u b j e c t matter  of the major c r i t i c i s m which has appeared  the present day.  on Clough t o  Most o f the s t u d i e s have been i n the nature  of p e r s o n a l a p p r e c i a t i o n s , have d e a l t p r i m a r i l y with Clough as a man, and have tended t o pass q u i c k l y over the p o e t r y with a p o l o g i e s t o the reader f o r having even c o n s i d e r e d the work o f one who so m a n i f e s t l y was n o t a poet.  The g e n e r a l o p i n i o n has  been t h a t Clough, w h i l e p o s s e s s i n g many admirable had  qualities,  somehow f a i l e d t o r e a l i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and had,  indeed, been a f a i l u r e i n most w a y s — p a r t i c u l a r l y as a poet. Even the more s c h o l a r l y and o b j e c t i v e s t u d i e s which have appeared  r e c e n t l y have f a i l e d t o t r e a t Clough*s p o e t r y i n any  comprehensive way, but have tended, r a t h e r , t o emphasize one aspect of Clough  and then have r e f e r r e d b r i e f l y t o c e r t a i n  Walter E . Houghton, "Arthur Hugh Clough: A Hundred Years o f Disparagement," S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . 150Q1 9 0 0 , v o l . 1 (Autumn 1 9 6 D , pp. 3 5 - 6 1 . This a r t i c l e a n t i c i pates h i s book, The Poetry of Clough: An Essay i n R e v a l u a t i o n , soon t o be p u b l i s h e d by Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 1  2 poems which support a t h e s i s .  p  There has been no noteworthy  attempt to s u b j e c t C l o u g h s p o e t r y to a c l o s e t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s 1  i n order to determine i f any g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e u n d e r l i e s i t . F o r t h i s reason, I w i l l mainly be concerned  i n t h i s study w i t h  examining the p o e t r y of Arthur Hugh Clough t o assess the presence the way  i n i t of what I am c a l l i n g the d i a l e c t i c a l i n which h i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c approach to  principle— experience  i s c a r r i e d over i n t o h i s p o e t r y and f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n theme, mood, tone, form, imagery, and c h a r a c t e r s . p o e t r y was  w r i t t e n between 1837  and 1853  As most of Clough*s  and no marked change  i n s t y l e or theme occurs between these dates, I have chosen to o r g a n i z e my d i s c u s s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the c a t e g o r i e s of theme, mood, tone, form, imagery, and c h a r a c t e r s , hoping to a v o i d , f o r the reader's sake, r e p e t i t i o n and  i n this  way  confusion.  With the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of I s o b e l Armstrong's b r i e f study, A r t h u r Hugh Clough, which appears i n the W r i t e r s and T h e i r Work S e r i e s , No. lM-8 (London, Longmans, Green, 1962). K a t h a r i n e C h o r l e y s book, A r t h u r Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind (Oxford a t the Clarendon P r e s s , 1962) attempts l i t t l e t e x t u a l c r i t i c i s m and, indeed, i s u s e f u l mainly as an a d d i t i o n a l biographical reference. t  • CHAPTER I ARTHUR HUGH CLOUGH:  THE VICTORIAN, THE MAN,  THE POET  "I w i l l l o o k s t r a i g h t out, see t h i n g s , not t r y t o evade them; F a c t s h a l l be f a c t f o r me, and Truth the Truth as ever, F l e x i b l e , changeable, vague, and m u l t i f o r m , and doubtful.—" Amours de Voyage. V,  100-02.  I n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the two volumes o f Clough's l e t t e r s which he e d i t e d , F. L. Mulhauser shows how Clough's life,  s h o r t as i t was, touched  elements of V i c t o r i a n  a t so many p o i n t s on Important  life:  Schoolboy a t Rugby under B r . A r n o l d , student a t B a l l i o l under Ward i n the midst of the T r a c t a r i a n c o n t r o v e r s y , F e l l o w o f O r i e l a t the time when u n i v e r s i t y reform began t o be a g i t a t e d and s u b s c r i p t i o n again became a s e r i o u s i s s u e , observer o f the u p r i s i n g s i n P a r i s i n lQk& and the Roman R e p u b l i c of 1 8 ^ 9 , head of U n i v e r s i t y H a l l and P r o f e s s o r i n the U n i v e r s i t y of London, r e s i d e n t i n Cambridge, Massachusetts, and welcome guest i n the homes of Boston Brahmins, c i v i l servant i n the E d u c a t i o n O f f i c e , and devoted admirer and h e l p e r of h i s c o u s i n by marriage, F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e — a l l these he was, as w e l l as f r i e n d of Matthew and Thomas A r n o l d , C a r l y l e , Emerson, Froude, C h a r l e s E l i o t Norton, and many others whose a c t i v i t i e s were important t o t h e i r t i m e . l  F r e d e r i c k L. Mulhauser, ed., The Correspondence of A r t h u r Hugh Clough. Oxford a t the Clarendon P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 , v o l . 1 , p. xv. 3  k However, important as a knowledge of these b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s may be as a b a s i s f o r viewing Clough as a t r u e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of h i s age, there i s an even more t e l l i n g reason f o r r e g a r d i n g him i n t h i s l i g h t .  F o r Clough, i n common with so many other key  V i c t o r i a n f i g u r e s , under the p r e s s u r e o f the new s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s , the c u r r e n t m a t e r i a l i s t i c e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the u n i v e r s e and the Higher C r i t i c i s m of the B i b l e l o s t h i s f a i t h i n t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n and i n i t s e x p l a n a t i o n s of God, man's r e l a t i o n s h i p t o God, and the meaning and purpose existence;  o f human  and, l i k e them, he experienced the d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t  and s p i r i t u a l c o n f l i c t attendant on t h i s l o s s of f a i t h . f e l t h i m s e l f , l i k e Matthew A r n o l d , to be "on a d a r k l i n g and was t o r n by r e l i g i o u s doubt, "the nagging nightmare  o f the s e n s i t i v e V i c t o r i a n . "  plain"  philosophical  As F. L. Lucas r a t h e r  f a c e t i o u s l y , but nonetheless t r u t h f u l l y , remarked: remains  He, t o o ,  "For us he  the impersonation of an age when r e l i g i o u s doubt was  not, as now, a r a r e and m i l d g r e e n s i c k n e s s , but a c r i p p l i n g , even a f a t a l malady."  3  H i s p o e t r y i s the r e c o r d o f the  John Heath-Stubbs, The D a r k l i n g P l a i n : A Study of the L a t e r Fortunes o f Romanticism i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y from George P a r l e y t o W. B. Y e a t s . London, E y r e & Spottiswoode, 1 9 5 0 , p. 9 8 . F . L. Lucas, Ten V i c t o r i a n Poets, 3 r d ed., Cambridge at the U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 ^ 8 , p. 7 3 . 3  5 s p i r i t u a l c r i s i s he underwent, of h i s attempt to c r o s s t h i s " p l a i n " and f i n d some new  l i g h t of t r u t h which would s a t i s f y  him both e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , and of h i s f a i l u r e to do so. own  doubts,  title  In the p r o c e s s , he gave e x p r e s s i o n not only t o h i s but a l s o to those of h i s age, k  of "the poet  of dilemma"  earning h i m s e l f the  and the c r e d i t of  w r i t t e n p o e t r y r e a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s Moreover, through  "having  century.  n y  the c h a r a c t e r s of the heroes of h i s  longer poems, p a r t i c u l a r l y Claude and Dipsychus,  Clough  e x p l o r e d not o n l y the problems which he and h i s f e l l o w V i c t o r i a n s f a c e d , but a l s o the psychology, mind, of the n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  the working of the  i n t e l l e c t u a l , and drew a t t e n t i o n  t o the dangers attendant upon p r o t r a c t e d s e l f - a n a l y s i s .  He  was  o n l y too w e l l aware t h a t i n t r o s p e c t i o n and i n t e l l e c t u a l cons c i e n t i o u s n e s s , when c a r r i e d to extremes i n a s e n s i t i v e c o u l d l e a d t o over-scrupulousness  nature,  and a g e n e r a l p a r a l y s i s of the  w i l l to a c t — " t h e v i t i a t i n g h a b i t of the n i n e t e e n t h  century"^  d e p l o r e d by Matthew A r n o l d and d e s c r i b e d by him i n h i s p r e f a c e V. S. P r i t c h e t t , "Books i n G e n e r a l , " New N a t i o n . v o l . kl (January 6, 195D, p. 15* ^T. S. P e r r y , "Arthur Hugh Clough," v o l . 36 (October 1875), p. 4-18. Armstrong, Arthur Hugh C l o u g h  T  p.  Statesman and  A t l a n t i c Monthly, 21.  6  to  the Poems of 1 8 5 ^ as "the d i a l o g u e of the mind w i t h  itself."  T h i s i s the s t a t e of mind s a t i r i z e d by Clough i n h i s p o r t r a i t of Claude i n Amours de V o y a g e — a c h a r a c t e r who one of the " s u p e r f l u o u s men"  who  s t r o n g l y reminds  appear throughout n i n e t e e n t h  c e n t u r y R u s s i a n l i t e r a t u r e i n works such as A Hero of Our Time by Lermontov,  or Rudin or Spoke by Turgenev.  Lacking a f i r m  b a s i s from which t o judge and hence unable to d e c i d e on any c l e a r course of a c t i o n , these c h a r a c t e r s e x h i b i t "a d i s p o s i t i o n to  p r e s s too f a r the f i n e r and s u b t l e r i n t e l l e c t u a l and moral  7  susceptibilities ";  they are the v i c t i m s of "an over-educated  1  ft  weakness of purpose," which has been pushed  and of a morbid tendency to s e l f - a n a l y s i s " t o the verge of monomania," w i t h the  r e s u l t that " a l l the s p r i n g s of a c t i o n are clogged and impeded by the cobwebs of s p e c u l a t i o n .  1 , 9  As Claude c r i e s i n a moment of  r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h i s tendency i n h i m s e l f : HANG t h i s t h i n k i n g , at l a s t !  what good i s i t ? oh, and what e v i l ! Oh, what m i s c h i e f and p a i n ! l i k e a c l o c k i n a s i c k man*s chamber, T i c k i n g and t i c k i n g , and s t i l l through each c o v e r t of slumber p u r s u i n g . (Amours, I I I ,  207-09)  1 0  ^Arthur Hugh Clough, The Poems and Prose Remains. With a S e l e c t i o n from h i s L e t t e r s and a Memoir, E d i t e d by h i s Wife, London, Macmillan, 1 8 6 9 , v o l . 1 , pp. 3 7 7 - 7 8 . Hereafter referred to as P.P.R. 8  I b i d . ,  p.  377.  J o h n Addington Symonds, "Arthur Hugh Clough," F o r t n i g h t l y Review, v o l . , n.s. (December 1 8 6 8 ) , p. 6 0 2 . . 9  k  10  H.  F. Lowry, A. L. P. N o r r i n g t o n , and F. L. Mulhauser,  7 or as Dipsychus  d e s p a i r i n g l y asks a f t e r a p e r i o d of prolonged  a n a l y s i s has once more deadened h i s i n s t i n c t i v e d e s i r e to a c t : I s i t a t h i n g ordained, then? i s i t a c l u e F o r my l i f e ' s conduct? i s i t a law f o r me That o p p o r t u n i t y s h a l l breed d i s t r u s t , Not p a s s i n g u n t i l t h a t pass? Ghance and r e s o l v e , L i k e two l o o s e comets wandering wide i n space, C r o s s i n g each o t h e r ' s o r b i t s time on time, Meet never. ( D i p . . XI, 6 - 1 2 ) The reason, one would suggest, t h a t Clough was  so w e l l q u a l i f i e d  to speak f o r and t o examine t h i s type of mind i s e s s e n t i a l l y  the  same as the reason why he c o u l d so f a i t h f u l l y express the doubts and a n x i e t i e s which beset h i s age—namely, t h a t Clough these poems from h i s own the same tendency  experience.  spoke i n  He r e c o g n i z e d i n h i m s e l f  to c o n s i d e r c a r e f u l l y every aspect of the  s i t u a t i o n a t hand before a c t i n g and t o analyze minutely h i s c o n f l i c t i n g a t t i t u d e s to experience.  He  own  knew the dangers of t h i s  approach t o l i f e as w e l l as i t s v a l u e s , and the h a b i t of debating each q u e s t i o n w i t h i n h i m s e l f had been aggravated  i n him a l s o  by  the moral and r e l i g i o u s u n c e r t a i n t y of the p e r i o d i n which he  eds., The Poems of Arthur Hugh Clough. Oxford a t the Clarendon P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 , PP. 2 0 3 - 0 M - . T h i s i s the standard e d i t i o n of d o u g h ' s p o e t r y , and hence, the one we have chosen to use f o r t h i s paper. H e r e a f t e r , quotations from the p o e t r y w i l l not be footnoted. I n s t e a d , page r e f e r e n c e s f o r the s h o r t e r poems and scene and l i n e numbers (and t i t l e s , where necessary) f o r the l o n g e r ones w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the t e x t . "The Mystery of the F a l l " w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o as "The F a l l , " Amours de Voyage as Amours. and Dipsvchus as Dip. .  8  l i v e d , by the l a c k of any a b s o l u t e a u t h o r i t y and the consequent need t o r e l y s o l e l y on the i n d i v i d u a l c o n s c i e n c e . Glough had not begun h i s c a r e e r i n t h i s s t a t e of mind. When he a r r i v e d at Oxford i n 1 8 3 7 , he was  as secure i n h i s  r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s as a p i o u s mother and e i g h t years at Rugby under the guidance appears  of Dr. A r n o l d c o u l d make him.  t h a t these b e l i e f s r e s t e d on a very shaky f o u n d a t i o n ,  f o r they crumbled under the onslaught of the new met with at Oxford.  i d e a s which he  H i s e m o t i o n a l l y - r o o t e d f a i t h i n the  t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g s of C h r i s t i a n i t y was  defenceless against  the arguments which d a i l y presented themselves the new  However, i t  to h i s i n t e l l e c t —  s c i e n t i f i c t h e o r i e s , the u n s e t t l i n g l o g i c of W.  and the S t r a u s s i a n Higher C r i t i c i s m of the B i b l e . C h o r l e y v e r y a p t l y comments:  " B e l i e f s based  As K a t h e r i n e  on emotion are  e i t h e r impervious  t o i n t e l l e c t u a l a t t a c k or completely  l e s s against i t .  Clough was  among the d e f e n c e l e s s .  the b e l i e f s which had been d i s t u r b e d by Ward's  x x  G. Ward  12  1 , 1 1  defenceHence,  constant  C h o r l e y , Arthur Hugh Clough. p. 5 2 .  W. G. Ward was a f r i e n d of d o u g h ' s a t Oxford. He took p a r t i n the T r a c t a r i a n Movement and l a t e r , l i k e Newman became a convert t o Roman C a t h o l i c i s m . Ward l a t e r deeply r e g r e t t e d the u n w i t t i n g e f f e c t he had had on Clough and s a i d : 12  "The r e s u l t was not s u r p r i s i n g . I had been prematurely f o r c i n g Clough's mind, and there came a r e a c t i o n . His i n t e l l e c t u a l p e r p l e x i t y f o r some time preyed h e a v i l y upon h i s s p i r i t s ; i t g r i e v o u s l y i n t e r f e r e d with h i s studies; and I take i t f o r granted i t must have v e r y s e r i o u s l y d i s t u r b e d h i s r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e s and h a b i t s . I cannot to t h i s day t h i n k of a l l t h i s without a b i t t e r  9  p r o b i n g f i n a l l y f e l l under the seemingly unanswerable of the Higher C r i t i c i s m ,  1 3  arguments  and he was l e f t with " S a i l s r e n t , /  And rudder b r o k e n , — r e a s o n i m p o t e n t , — / A f f e c t i o n s a l l u n f i x e d " (p. 2 8 ) . Perhaps t h i s i s t o o v e r s t a t e the case somewhat.  In  f a c t , Clough never l o s t h i s i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f i n the e v e n t u a l emergence of T r u t h , i n the e x i s t e n c e of a transcendent and unknowable D e i t y (whom he o f t e n r e f e r s t o simply as T r u t h ) , or i n the essence of C h r i s t i a n i t y , the e t e r n a l t r u t h s of human r e l i g i o u s experience which he f e l t the d i s c r e d i t e d s t o r i e s had merely served t o i l l u s t r a t e .  Biblical  The immediate  result  of t h i s l o s s of b e l i e f was, r a t h e r , t o s e t him l o o k i n g f o r a new p r i n c i p l e which would s a t i s f y h i s i n t e l l e c t as w e l l as h i s moral consciousness and h i s emotional need f o r b e l i e f , and, a t the same time, t o i n c r e a s e h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o accept nothing which he had not p e r s o n a l l y proved t o be t r u e .  H e n c e f o r t h , he was t o seek  T r u t h w i t h i n , i n the i n d i v i d u a l conscience and the r e a s o n —  pang of s e l f - r e p r o a c h . " ( W i l f r e d Ward. W i l l i a m George Ward and the Oxford Movement, London and New York, Macmillan, 1 8 8 9 , pp. 1 0 9 - 1 0 , as quoted i n Howard F o s t e r Lowry, ed., The L e t t e r s of Matthew A r n o l d t o A r t h u r Hugh Clough, London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 2 , p. 1 8 . )  n  I have touched o n l y b r i e f l y on the h i s t o r y o f the s p i r i t u a l c r i s i s which Clough underwent a t Oxford, because the d e t a i l s may be found i n almost any one of the s t u d i e s which have appeared on Clough, and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the H i g h e r C r i t i c i s m w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l i n Chapter Two. J  10  For not by o b s e r v a t i o n of without Cometh the Kingdom of the Voice of God: , I t i s w i t h i n u s — l e t us seek i t t h e r e . ("The F a l l , " IV, But, as Clough was set to  to d i s c o v e r , t h i s was  58-60)  a d i f f i c u l t t a s k he had  h i m s e l f , i n view of the f a c t t h a t he had forgone a l l appeal r e v e a l e d t r u t h and the f a c t t h a t there were so many d i f f e r e n t  avenues open t o man, truth.  none of which appeared to l e a d to the whole  The e x i s t e n c e of a h i g h e r Truth or D e i t y might be un-  m i s t a k a b l e , but, s i n c e God had not seen f i t t o r e v e a l H i m s e l f t o man,  the q u e s t i o n of how  still left  t o l i v e i n accordance w i t h Truth  was  unanswered.  T h i s d e d i c a t i o n t o "the uncoloured l i g h t of T r u t h , " which began i n h i s Oxford days, became the keynote of h i s l i f e . I t was the  t h i s l o v e of t r u t h which prevented him from c l i n g i n g to  b e l i e f s of h i s youth once h i s i n t e l l e c t had been  satisfied  t h a t they were f a l s e , and which l e d him f i n a l l y to r e s i g n h i s F e l l o w s h i p a t O r i e l , because he d i d not f e e l t h a t he  could  c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y remain i n a u n i v e r s i t y t h a t r e q u i r e d i t s F e l l o w s to  s u b s c r i b e to the T h i r t y - N i n e A r t i c l e s of the Church.  It i s  worthy of note here t h a t the one p o i n t on which a l l h i s f r i e n d s and c r i t i c s agree i s i n c r e d i t i n g him w i t h an unswerving sense of honesty and t r u t h .  They a l l appear to have been p a r t i c u l a r l y  impressed by t h i s q u a l i t y , both as i t appeared i n h i s l i f e  and  11  Ik in  h i s work.  H i s f r i e n d Matthew A r n o l d , who  s t i l l remains  of  the s t e r n e s t c r i t i c s of h i s p o e t r y , c o u l d not h e l p but  one  be  s t r u c k by the q u a l i t y of " s i n c e r i t y " evident i n i t — " w h i c h always produces a powerful  e f f e c t on the r e a d e r . "  For  "the  s p e c t a c l e of a w r i t e r s t r i v i n g e v i d e n t l y to get b r e a s t to b r e a s t with r e a l i t y i s always f u l l of i n s t r u c t i o n and v e r y  invigora-  1*3  ting."  Henry Sidgwick,  J  whose a r t i c l e , which appeared i n the  October, 1 8 6 9 i s s u e of the Westminster Review, i s one  of the  most p e r c e p t i v e s t u d i e s of Glough, comments on h i s "horror of i l l u s i o n s and d e c e p t i o n s  of a l l k i n d s , " " h i s p e r p e t u a l  a g a i n s t p r e j u d i c e s and p r e p o s s e s s i o n s , " p a s s i o n a t e d e v o t i o n not to the Search itself,  a b s o l u t e , exact t r u t h . " ^  watchfulness  as a r e s u l t of " h i s  a f t e r T r u t h , but to Truth  F i n a l l y , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that  1^  G o l d i e Levy, who wrote one of the f i r s t book-length b i o g r a p h i e s of Clough, d e c l a r e d : "Clough*s most outstanding t r a i t was h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty" (Arthur Hugh Clough, 1 8 1 9 1861, London, Sidgwick and Jackson, 1 9 3 8 , p. 2 1 0 ) . Similarly, T. S. P e r r y found t h a t "what i s most n o t i c e a b l e i n Clough i s h i s earnestness" ("Arthur Hugh Clough," p. * t l l ) , and F. L. Lucas noted t h a t h i s " i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . . . r e mains one of the c e n t r a l t h i n g s i n the worth of Clough*s p o e t r y and i n the unhappiness of h i s l i f e . " (Ten V i c t o r i a n Poets, p. 60).  ^Howard F o s t e r Lowry, ed., The L e t t e r s of Matthew A r n o l d to Arthur Hugh Clough. London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932, p. 8 6 . of  " ^ e n r y Sidgwick, "Review of 'The Poems and Prose Remains Arthur Hugh Clough,'" Westminster Review, v o l . 9 2 (October  1869),  p.  367.  12 one  of the epigraphs  chapter  t h a t F r a n c i s Woodward chose to p r e f a c e the  on Clough i n h i s book, The Doctor's  Disciples,  again  emphasizes C l o u g h s austere adherence t o the i d e a l o f t r u t h — 1  "'If to  God were a b l e to b a c k s l i d e from t r u t h , I would f a i n  cling  t r u t h and l e t God go ( M e i s t e r E c k h a r t ) . " ' ' 1  One perhaps needs t o be reminded a t t h i s p o i n t t o r e t a i n a sense of p r o p o r t i o n and t o guard a g a i n s t the type of exaggerated  statement o f t e n used about Clough*s d e d i c a t i o n t o t r u t h .  F o r Clough was s t i l l a man, s u b j e c t t o the same f a u l t s and weaknesses as other men. the times when he f e l l  He h i m s e l f was only too w e l l aware o f  short of t h i s i d e a l , and would, no doubt,  have been s u r p r i s e d to see h i m s e l f p i c t u r e d as a s a i n t l y devotee before  the s h r i n e o f T r u t h .  ever, without is  f e a r of being charged w i t h o v e r s t a t i n g the case,  t h a t Clough kept t h i s i d e a l of Truth before him a l l h i s  and  s t r o v e v a l i a n t l y , i n s p i t e o f a l l the o b s t a c l e s t h a t  him,  to remain f a i t h f u l t o i t everywhere.  i d e a l and a c o n s c i o u s in his l i f e , ly  What can be claimed f o r him, how-  life  confronted  I t was a conscious  e f f o r t on h i s p a r t — o n e which i s e v i d e n t  i n h i s p o e t r y , and i n h i s prose.  What he c o n s c i o u s -  sought throughout h i s c a r e e r was to be a man o f " i n t e l l e c t u a l 18  as w e l l as moral honesty"  — o n e who knew the  ^ F r a n c i s J . Woodward, The Doctor's D i s c i p l e s ; A Study of Four P u p i l s of A r n o l d of Rugbv--Stanley. p e l l . C l o u g h W i l l i a m A r n o l d , London. Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s 195H-« P. 127. T  T  l8  P.P.R.. p. ^22.  13 High triumphs of c o n v i c t i o n s , sought And won by i n d i v i d u a l thought; The j o y , d e l u s i v e o f t , but keen, Of h a v i n g with our own eyes seen. (p. k0$) His or  constant admonitions  a g a i n s t adopting some a r b i t r a r y b e l i e f  p o s i t i o n without having f i r s t  s u b j e c t e d i t t o the t e s t of the  reason can be t r a c e d t o h i s b e l i e f t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty i s the o n l y path t o t r u t h . As he soon found out, i t was v e r y d i f f i c u l t t h i s path.  to f o l l o w  I n the f i r s t p l a c e , h i s i n s t i n c t i v e d e s i r e " t o  a t t a i n a f i x e d p o i n t " was c o n s t a n t l y a t war with the i n t e l l e c t u a l need t o determine  that "the f i x e d p o i n t be a r i g h t o n e . "  1 9  And  i t was p r e c i s e l y the T i g h t n e s s of any one course of a c t i o n or b e l i e f which was so v e r y hard t o a s c e r t a i n .  F o r Clough*s  d e d i c a t i o n t o t r u t h and h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t no a b s o l u t e t r u t h had y e t been r e v e a l e d t o man f a c e d him with a dilemma.  Even  a f t e r he had weighed a l l the evidence and c o n s i d e r e d the problem from every p o s s i b l e p o i n t of view, he c o u l d never be sure that he had found the t r u t h or made the r i g h t d e c i s i o n .  There was  no way of p r o v i n g t h a t he had, no r e c o u r s e except to h i s own T  •••••V  reason and c o n s c i e n c e — t w o  f a c u l t i e s which were not e n t i r e l y  t r u s t w o r t h y , s i n c e they had been known to l e a d men a s t r a y i n the past.  Moreover, as t r u t h was r e l a t i v e and ever-changing, i t was I b i d . , p. 32k.  Ik even dangerous t o come to any c o n c l u s i o n , l e t alone decide whether i t was v a l i d ;  f o r there was always the p o s s i b i l i t y of  new f a c t s coming t o l i g h t that..might modify the present conclusion.  T h i s i s the thought which i s expressed so v i v i d l y i n  d o u g h ' s poem, "To spend uncounted y e a r s of p a i n , " and which caused Henry Sidgwick t o comment t h a t , i n s p i t e of d o u g h * s f r e q u e n t attempts " t o r e c o n c i l e and s e t t l e , h i s deepest conon  v i c t i o n i s that a l l  settlement i s premature"  :  To spend uncounted y e a r s of p a i n , Again, a g a i n , and y e t a g a i n , In working out i n h e a r t and b r a i n The problem of our being h e r e ; To gather f a c t s from f a r and near, Upon the mind t o h o l d them c l e a r , And, knowing more may y e t appear, Unto one's l a t e s t breath t o f e a r , The premature r e s u l t t o d r a w — (p. 90) 2  Yet, although he was aware of the blank w a l l that conf r o n t e d him, he s t i l l  c o u l d not abandon h i s attempt t o f i n d the  answers to the q u e s t i o n s , both m e t a p h y s i c a l and p e r s o n a l , which tore, a t him.  H i s emotional d e s i r e f o r c e r t a i n t y and the i n t e n s e  moral i d e a l i s m , which never l e f t him even when he d i s c a r d e d the r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s t h a t had f i r s t  engendered i t , would n o t l e t  him r e s t e a s i l y i n h i s s c e p t i c i s m , or a l l o w him to t u r n t o more  Sidgwick, "Review o f 'The Poems . . . ,*" p. 373. Italics  mine.  15  immediate and p r a c t i c a l problems which c o u l d be more readilysolved.  They drove him on t o f i n d an i n t e l l e c t u a l b a s i s f o r the  c o n v i c t i o n s which he i n t u i t i v e l y f e l t , but c o u l d not c o n s c i o u s l y accept  or w h o l e h e a r t e d l y adopt u n t i l they had been proven t r u e  by h i s reason. hearted  Indeed, i t i s f u r t h e r testimony t o h i s whole-  commitment t o t r u t h and t o h i s powers of perseverance  t h a t he continued he  t o pursue t h i s g o a l , i n s p i t e of the f a c t  knew t h a t , a t b e s t , he c o u l d a r r i v e a t only p a r t i a l knowledge,  never the complete t r u t h . /  that  As he s t a t e d i n h i s essay on The M  R e l i g i o u s T r a d i t i o n , " the foreknowledge of f a i l u r e i n no way r e l e a s e d man from the n e c e s s i t y o f making the a t t e m p t — e v e n though humanly d i s c o v e r a b l e vague, and multiform,  t r u t h be ever " f l e x i b l e ,  changeable,  and d o u b t f u l . "  I do acquiesce i n t h i s humble d o c t r i n e ; I do b e l i e v e t h a t , s t r i v e as I w i l l , I am r e s t r i c t e d , and grasp as I may, I can never h o l d the complete t r u t h . But t h a t does not the l e a s t imply t h a t I am j u s t i f i e d i n s h u t t i n g t h e eyes of my understanding t o the f a c t s of s c i e n c e , or i t s ears t o the c r i t i c i s m of h i s t o r y , nor y e t i n n e g l e c t i n g those pulsations" of s p i r i t u a l i n s t i n c t which come to me from a s s o c i a t i o n a t one time w i t h U n i t a r i a n s , a t another w i t h C a l v l n i s t s , or again w i t h E p i s c o p a l i a n s and Roman C a t h o l i c s . I cannot see beyond the h o r i z o n ; but w i t h i n the n a t u r a l h o r i z o n am I t o make an u n n a t u r a l new horizon f o r myself?22  P.P.R.. pp. * t 2 5 - 2 6  o  16  I t was j u s t t h i s commitment t o t r u t h , coupled with the m u l t i f o r m and changeable  nature of human knowledge and e x p e r i -  ence, t h a t l e d t o the development i n Clough  of a d i a l e c t i c a l  method of r e a s o n i n g — t h e p r o c e s s of reasoning from o p i n i o n s by means of d i s c u s s i o n or debate. be taken on f a i t h and no " w i l l i n g  accepted  As nothing c o u l d  suspension of d i s b e l i e f "  c o u l d be made anywhere, every o p i n i o n had to be t e s t e d and analyzed by the reason before i t c o u l d be accepted or c o n s i d e r e d as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n .  2 3  According t o The Concise E n c y c l o p a e d i a of Western P h i l o s o p h y and P h i l o s o p h e r s , the word " d i a l e c t i c " d e r i v e s "from the Greek verb meaning *to c o n v e r s e ,  1  and o r i g i n a l l y  meant 'the a r t of c o n v e r s a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n or debate.*" Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y d e f i n e s i t a s : examination of  i n t o the t r u t h of an o p i n i o n ;  t r u t h by d i s c u s s i o n . "  The  "The a r t of c r i t i c a l the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  The beginning of the d i a l e c t i c ,  regarded p r i m a r i l y then as "the a r t of debate by q u e s t i o n and  One remembers a t t h i s p o i n t Adam's awareness i n "The Mystery of the F a l l " of there being "A wakeful, changeless touchstone i n my b r a i n , / R e c e i v i n g , n o t i n g , t e s t i n g a l l the w h i l e " and h i s d e c i s i o n "To watch the seething process o u t " J  (II,  3^-35,. 57).  pk J . G. Urmson, ed., The Concise E n c y c l o p a e d i a of Western P h i l o s o p h y and P h i l o s o p h e r s . London, Hutchinson, i 9 6 0 , P. 1 1 7 .  17 answer,"  per J  i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the Socrates of the  Platonic dialogues.  P l a t o h i m s e l f regarded d i a l e c t i c  "the supreme p h i l o s o p h i c a l method, 'the coping-stone  as of the  s c i e n c e s , * " although many of h i s r e f e r e n c e s to i t are vague and  "almost any form of n o n - s p e c i a l i z e d reasoning c o u l d f a l l  under i t . "  A r i s t o t l e , i n h i s handbook of Topics« i s u s u a l l y  c r e d i t e d with having d e f i n e d d i a l e c t i c more p r e c i s e l y and with making i t a p r i n c i p l e of f o r m a l l o g i c .  In h i s handbook, he  d i s t i n g u i s h e s between d i a l e c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g , which proceeds s v l l o g i s t i c a l l v from o p i n i o n s g e n e r a l l y . accepted, and demonstrative r e a s o n i n g , which begins with primary and true premises; but he h o l d s t h a t d i a l e c t i c a l r e a s o n i n g , i n , c o n t r a s t with e r i s t i c , i s *a process of c r i t i c i s m wherein l i e s the path t o the p r i n c i p l e s of a l l i n q u i r i e s . 2 7 1  With Hegel  (and l a t e r with Marx), d i a l e c t i c was  g i v e n an a d d i -  t i o n a l f u n c t i o n , f o r they viewed I t "as a p r o c e s s not  merely  of r e a s o n i n g , but one found i n h i s t o r y , and i n the universe as a whole, c o n s i s t i n g of a necessary movement from t h e s i s to a n t i - t h e s i s , and then t o a s y n t h e s i s of the  two."  28  -'Dagobert D. Runes, ed., D i c t i o n a r y of P h i l o s o p h y , York, P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1 9 ^ 2 , p. 7 8 . ?6  New  Urmson, Concise E n c y c l o p a e d i a , p. 1 1 7 . 2  'Runes, D i c t i o n a r y of P h i l o s o p h y , p. 7 8 ( i t a l i c s  28  U r m s o n , Concise E n c y c l o p a e d i a , p. 1 1 7 .  mine).  18  Since Clough d i d not f e e l t h a t man knowledge of absolute  t r u t h , i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t he  have used a method of probable r e a s o n i n g , from accepted o p i n i o n s  c o u l d a r r i v e at  any  should  one which proceeded  and which moved towards a c o n c l u s i o n  s y n t h e s i s by means of a debate.  T h i s i s not  or  to suggest t h a t  Clough c o n s c i o u s l y adopted t h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l p r i n c i p l e ,  but  r a t h e r t h a t , g i v e n h i s d i s t i n c t l y i n t e l l e c t u a l h a b i t of mind, his  r e j e c t i o n of r e v e a l e d  t r u t h s and,  at the same time, h i s  l i f e l o n g d e s i r e t o determine which of the many accepted  opinions  or r e l a t i v e t r u t h s c o n f r o n t i n g him h e l d the most t r u t h , he n a t u r a l l y developed, a d i a l e c t i c a l method of r e a s o n i n g . mind.became the f o c a l p o i n t of a constant  His  i n t e l l e c t u a l debate  which encompassed every fundamental assumption h e l d by  men  and which never abated, because he c o u l d never f e e l c e r t a i n t h a t any  of the c o n c l u s i o n s  completely v a l i d .  he had  reached were f i n a l  Tomorrow might b r i n g a new  or  perception  or  f a c t which c o u l d modify, or even i n v a l i d a t e , today's d e c i s i o n . Indeed, Clough's poem, "Upon the water, i n the boat," g i v e s , one  f e e l s , a very apt d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s approach t o  life:  S t i l l as we go the t h i n g s I see, E'en as I see them, cease to be; T h e i r angles swerve, and with the boat The whole p e r s p e c t i v e seems t o f l o a t . Yet s t i l l I l o o k , and s t i l l I s i t , A d j u s t i n g , shaping, a l t e r i n g i t . (p.  108)  19  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the strong d i a l e c t i c a l  strain  i n C l o u g h s mode of reasoning i s a l s o present i n h i s p o e t r y ; 8  f o r h i s p o e t r y i s v e r y much an e x p r e s s i o n of h i m s e l f .  His  poems are i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l and s u b j e c t i v e — f a s c i n a t i n g l a t i o n s of h i s own  thought  p r o c e s s e s , of the c o n f l i c t s  reve-  he  experienced,  of the problems he f a c e d and attempted to s o l v e .  Even when he  t r i e s to be more o b j e c t i v e , as, f o r example, i n  his  l o n g e r poems, h i s own  he has assumed.  The  p e r s o n a l i t y shines through  the mask  t r a i t s of the main c h a r a c t e r s are  still  C l o u g h i a n t r a i t s , even though they have been exaggerated times f o r the purposes of s a t i r e .  And,  l a u g h i n g w r y l y a t h i s own weaknesses.  at  even then, he i s r e a l l y Other c r i t i c s have  commented on the s t r o n g l y i n t e l l e c t u a l f l a v o u r of Clough's p o e t r y (or on what I am c a l l i n g the d i a l e c t i c a l s t r a i n ) and have then gone on to s t r e s s the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between Clough's p e r s o n a l i t y and the s u b j e c t matter and tone of h i s poetry.  S t o p f o r d Brooke says t h a t :  'Michael Timko says: "To Clough, the nature of the poetry and the c h a r a c t e r of the poet were i n s e p a r a b l e . P o e t r y , f o r him, was b a s i c a l l y the e x p r e s s i o n of a man's c h a r a c t e r , the r e f l e c t i o n of h i s e s s e n t i a l nature; p o e t r y was, i n s h o r t , the v e r b a l e x p r e s s i o n of a man's innermost being." ("The P o e t i c Theory of Arthur Hugh Clough," E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , v o l . 3 (August 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 2k0.) k  2 9  20  Of a l l the poets who p l a y e d on England as on a harp, Clough was one of the most p e r s o n a l . . . . He contemplated h i s s o u l and i t s s e n s i t i v e and bewildered workings i n c e s s a n t l y , and saw i n them the image of t h a t which was going on i n the s o u l of the younger men i n E n g l a n d . 3 0 Henry Sidgwick expresses t h i s view.even more c l e a r l y when he observes that Clough*s  " p r o d u c t i o n i s always i n accordance  the i n n e r laws of h i s nature and expresses working  of h i s mind.'*  c o n t i n u e s , "was  31  . . . faithfully  the  "His p o e t i c a l u t t e r a n c e , " Sidgwick  connected by an i n n e r n e c e s s i t y with h i s  p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e " and then concludes t h a t in  with  "the whole man  is  the poems, they s p r i n g from the v e r y core of h i s b e i n g . "  John Addington of Clough*s  Symonds was  a l s o s t r u c k by the p e r s o n a l q u a l i t y  poems and d e s c r i b e s them as "the v e r y p i t h  and  marrow of a d e e p l y - t h i n k i n g , d e e p l y - f e e l i n g s o u l — t h e most h e a r t f e l t u t t e r a n c e s of one who  sought t o speak out what  i n him i n the fewest and the s i m p l e s t w o r d s . "  3 2  was  Finally,  there i s the comment made by John Dowden which c o n t a i n s a v i t a l t r u t h , i f one can o v e r l o o k i t s tendency  to exaggeration  and the question-begging, to most r e a d e r s , of the words, "songs" and  "music."  °Stopford A. Brooke, Four Poets; A Study of Clough. A r n o l d , R o s s e t t i and M o r r i s , London, S i r Isaac Pitman, 1 9 0 8 , P. 2 6 . 3  3 1  32  Sidgwick,  "Review of *The Poems . . . ,*" p. 3 6 3 .  Symonds, "Arthur Hugh Clough," p. 5 9 1 .  21  The whole range of our l i t e r a t u r e shows no poet whose w r i t i n g s so f u l l y and f a i t h f u l l y r e p r e s e n t the man as those of Clough. We know none who so f r e e l y and ent i r e l y g i v e s us h i m s e l f . There i s not one of h i s poems i n which we do not f i n d the p e r s o n a l outcome of h i s n a t u r e . H i s songs he s i n g s out of h i s own h e a r t . To g i v e e x p r e s s i o n t o h i s own thoughts and f e e l i n g s was the motive of h i s m u s i c . 3 3 The l a s t l i n e of t h i s q u o t a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t i n g , as i t suggests a reason why  Clough*s p o e t r y was  p e r s o n a l — n a m e l y , t h a t i t was h i s way  interes-  so  of working out the  problems which w o r r i e d him, o r , a t l e a s t , a means of r e l i e v i n g the t e n s i o n s b u i l t up i n him by the c o n t i n u i n g mental debate t o which he was  committed.  Furthermore, remembering h i s d i a l e c t i -  c a l method of r e a s o n i n g , one i s prepared f o r these c o n f l i c t s t o emerge, to a l a r g e e x t e n t , i n the form of a d i a l e c t i c .  It  seems n a t u r a l t o expect t h a t the i n n e r debate, when g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n , would of i t s c r e a t o r .  take the same form t h a t i t had i n the mind There i s evidence t h a t Clough h i m s e l f regarded  p o e t r y i n the l i g h t both of an emotional o u t l e t and an e x t e r n a l medium through which he c o u l d work out h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s .  In  f  the poem which begins " I t i s not sweet c o n t e n t , be sure, / That moves the n o b l e r Muse t o song," he a t t r i b u t e s the source of p o e t r y t o some i n n e r c o n f l i c t and c o n t i n u e s :  -Vohn Dowden, "Arthur Hugh Clough," Review, v o l . 1 2 (December, 1 8 6 9 ) , p. 5 1 3 . J  Contemporary  22  It  i s not calm and p e a c e f u l b r e a s t s That see or r e a d the problem t r u e ; They o n l y know on whom*t has p r e s t Too h a r d to hope t o s o l v e i t too. (p. 9 0 ) Here he seems to suggest a l s o t h a t t h i s i n n e r c o n f l i c t i s somehow n e c e s s a r y b e f o r e one can become a good poet, as o n l y those who have experienced these p a i n s themselves can adeq u a t e l y understand and express the problems which beset most men.  I t i s an i d e a which he advances again i n h i s essay on  Wordsworth:  "Perhaps  i t i s only those t h a t are  themselves  engaged i n the t h i c k of the s t r u g g l e and c o n f l i c t , t h a t  rightly  can cheer on, or f i t l y can admonish t h e i r f e l l o w s , or t o any ok good purpose assume the h i g h moral t o n e . "  J  Elsewhere  in his  w r i t i n g , Clough a l s o s t r e s s e s the p u r g a t i v e e f f e c t of p o e t r y . In  Dipsychus. f o r example, he d e s c r i b e s i t as one of the ways  i n which "the p r o c r e a n t heat and f e r v o u r of our youth (VIII, 2 3 - 2 ) L  escapes"  and has M p s y c h u s answer the S p i r i t ' s q u e s t i o n  as to why he w r i t e s p o e t r y with the words: To p l e a s e my own poor mind? To f i n d repose; To p h y s i c the s i c k s o u l ; to f u r n i s h vent To d i s e a s e d humours i n the moral frame. (VII, 2 9 - 3 1 ) It  i s tempting here t o see a s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the  of  Clough*s f i r s t volume of poems, Ambarvalia, which a l s o  P.P.R.• P. 3 2 3  title  23  i n c l u d e d some poems by Thomas Burbidge. "Ambarvalia," as I s o b e l Armstrong  F o r the name  t e l l s us, " r e f e r s t o the  annual f e s t i v a l i n a n c i e n t Rome d u r i n g which the f i e l d s and boundaries were p u r i f i e d . " - ' '  Gould the t i t l e ,  one wonders,  have appealed t o Clough because he regarded h i s p o e t r y as a means of s e l f - p u r i f i c a t i o n ? In any event, i t does seem s i g n i f i c a n t , i n the l i g h t of our s u g g e s t i o n t h a t Clough regarded p o e t r y as an emotional r e l e a s e and as a means of o b j e c t i f y i n g  and r e s o l v i n g h i s p e r -  s o n a l c o n f l i c t s , t h a t he o n l y r e v e a l e d h i m s e l f thus f u l l y i n h i s poetry.  H i s l e t t e r s , f o r example, are markedly impersonal-  w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of the l e t t e r s he wrote t o Blanche from America,  but even these, as Armstrong  comments, "are out-  s t a n d i n g o n l y f o r t h e i r uncompromising r e s e r v e . " ^ 3  any biographer would be hard-put p e r s o n a l f a c t s from them.  Indeed,  t o d i s c o v e r more than a few  As F. L. Mulhauser remarks:  Clough*s l e t t e r s are l e t t e r s of statement r a t h e r than l e t t e r s of c o n f e s s i o n . He r a r e l y e x p l o r e s h i s i d e a s f o r h i s correspondent, l o o k i n g a t them from f i r s t one angle and then another; l i k e w i s e , he r a r e l y e x p l o r e s his feelings. Indeed f o r t h i s he had a p e r s o n a l d i s t a s t e and he t r i e d t o a v o i d i t . 3 7 •^Armstrong, 3 6  Ibid.,  Arthur Hugh Clou.g,h , p. 1 7 .  p. 1 1 .  •^Mulhauser,  Correspondence,  v o l . 1 , p. x i v .  24 It  appears t h a t the same r e s e r v e was  v e r s a t i o n , i f we  a l s o e v i d e n t i n h i s con-  can c r e d i t the l e t t e r which Matthew A r n o l d  wrote t o Mrs. Clough i n 1 8 6 8 ,  i n answer t o her request t h a t  he t e l l her a l l he knew of such important events i n Clough*s life  as h i s r e s i g n a t i o n of the O r i e l F e l l o w s h i p : On t h i s and many other such p o i n t s he expressed hims e l f i n h i s poems with more ease and unreserve than i n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n ; and h i s poems, to my mind, r a t h e r e n l a r g e the communication he made of h i m s e l f , than are capable of having what they t e l l of him enl a r g e d by the r e p o r t of f r i e n d s . 3 8  F i n a l l y , i t i s important to note t h a t most of Clough*s p o e t r y was  w r i t t e n d u r i n g p e r i o d s of g r e a t s t r e s s , a t the times i n h i s  l i f e when he was  most u n c e r t a i n and most u n h a p p y — t h e p e r i o d a t  Oxford, p a r t i c u l a r l y from 1839-4-0,  and the y e a r s from  1848-53  which witnessed h i s r e s i g n a t i o n of the O r i e l F e l l o w s h i p , h i s t r i p abroad, and h i s acceptance and l a t e r r e s i g n a t i o n of the p o s i t i o n at U n i v e r s i t y H a l l i n London.  39  There are a few  l e t t e r s of Clough*s from Oxford which c h r o n i c l e the u n s e t t l i n g  J  3 9  Lowry, L e t t e r s to Clough, pp. A s F. L. Mulhauser  161-62.  comments:  "At two important p e r i o d s of h i s l i f e , 1839-4-0 and 184-9-51 > Clough l o s t h i s sense of h i m s e l f , h i s fundamental p e r s o n a l c o n f i d e n c e ; the i n j u r y was deep and s e r i o u s , and i t i s d u r i n g these two p e r i o d s t h a t most of h i s important p o e t r y was w r i t t e n . " (Correspondence, v o l . 1 , p. x v i ) .  25  ko e f f e c t t h a t Ward was  then having  on him,  and  there are a l s o  some which date from the U n i v e r s i t y H a l l p e r i o d , such as  the  l e t t e r t h a t he wrote to the younger Thomas A r n o l d i n 1 8 5 1 i n which he c a u t i o n s him  a g a i n s t r e t u r n i n g home with  the words:  As f o r your coming home, I i n c l i n e to t h i n k i t would be a very g r e a t h a z a r d . I , l i k e you, have jumped over a d i t c h , f o r the f u n of the experiment and would not be d i s i n c l i n e d to be once again i n a highway with my b r e t h r e n and companions. My s i t u a t i o n here under a^, set of m e r c a n t i l e U n i t a r i a n s i s i n no way charming. The  c o n c l u s i o n of t h i s l e t t e r c o n t a i n s a c o n f e s s i o n ,  i n i t s honest r e v e l a t i o n of emotion, that he was  unusual  l a t e r to make  to Blanche i n 1 8 5 3 — " I n London I f e l t myself p r e t t y w e l l h e l p l e s s to e f f e c t a n y t h i n g "  w  I n  —:  1 8 3 9 he w r i t e s to John G e l l :  " I f you were t o come h e r e , you would a t once have Ward at you asking you your o p i n i o n s on every p o s s i b l e subj e c t . . .beginning with Covent Garden and Macready and c e r t a i n l y not ending t i l l you got to the Question of the Moral Sense and Deontology. I do not q u i t e l i k e h e a r i n g so much of these M a t t e r s as I d o — b u t I suppose i f one can only keep s t e a d i l y to one's work (which I wish I d i d ) and q u i t e r e s o l v e to f o r g e t a l l the words one has heard and to t h e o r i z e o n l y f o r amusement, there i s no harm i n i t . " ( I b i d . , p. 9 3 ) 1 + 1  Ibid.,  p. 2 9 0 .  I b i d . , v o l . 2 , p. 3 8 O .  26  Nothing i s v e r y good, I am a f r a i d , anywhere. I c o u l d have gone cracked a t times l a s t year with one t h i n g or another, I t h i n k — b u t the wheel comes round. If I were out i n V.D.I,., I t h i n k I should s t a y , a t l e a s t t i l l I had done something. 3 k  Up to t h i s p o i n t then, we have been concerned with e s t a b l i s h i n g the t h e s i s t h a t d o u g h had a d i a l e c t i c a l method of reasoning and t h a t t h i s h a b i t , i n t u r n , was i n t o h i s p o e t r y , because his writing.  carried  over  of the i n t e n s e l y p e r s o n a l nature of  I t remains now  to determine i f other c r i t i c s have  n o t i c e d the d i a l e c t i c a l s t r a i n i n Clough*s t h i n k i n g or i n h i s p o e t r y , i f Clough h i m s e l f was  aware of i t ,  and then f i n a l l y ,  to suggest the form t h a t the d i a l e c t i c takes i n h i s poems. Many of Clough*s f r i e n d s and c r i t i c s have commented on the "Dipsychus" element  in him—his  ,,  double-mindedness,  ,,  s t r o n g l y i n t e l l e c t u a l and a n a l y t i c a l b i a s of h i s own  the life  and  of h i s p o e t r y , h i s r e f u s a l t o compromise w i t h t r u t h , and h i s f e a r of committing h i m s e l f or of r e a c h i n g c o n c l u s i o n s premat u r e l y — y e t few of them have attempted  to d i s c o v e r the source  of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c tendencies of Clough, or to analyze the poems f o r the evidences of the d i a l e c t i c a t work. Both S t o p f o r d Brooke and G o l d i e Levy p e r c e i v e d t h a t Clough*s p o e t r y o f t e n took on the nature of a debate.  Stop-  f o r d Brooke says t h a t much of the p l e a s u r e he experienced upon  IMd., vol. 1, f o r Van Diemens Land.) J  p. 2 9 0 .  (V.D.L. i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n  27  r e a d i n g Clough*s e a r l y p o e t r y came from " i t s c l e a r image o f a c e r t a i n type of men and women i n a s p i r i t u a l l y t r o u b l e d time, i t s c l o s e c o n t a c t w i t h and i n t i m a t e e x p r e s s i o n of the con-  kk s t a n t l y debating s o u l . . . ."  I n l i k e manner, G o l d i e  Levy, a f t e r s t a t i n g t h a t Clough*s p o e t r y i s p r i m a r i l y t u a l i n i t s appeal, concludes:  intellec-  VHis p o e t r y i s an i n t e l l e c t u a l  debate, f u l l of the s p e c u l a t i v e doubt of the a g e . " ^  Also,  one cannot h e l p but be amused by Hoxie F a i r c h i l d * s exasperated r e m a r k — " I t i s n o t my f a u l t t h a t t h i s chapter moves l i k e a seesaw:  Clough never advances an important i d e a which he does  k6 not elsewhere deny."  To r e t u r n a g a i n t o S t o p f o r d Brooke,  both he and Henry Sidgwick came c l o s e t o d i s c o v e r i n g a d i a l e c t i c a l movement i n the mood of Clough*s p o e t r y .  Brooke i s  f a s c i n a t e d by the i l l u s i o n i n the p o e t r y of "a c e a s e l e s s change of mood w i t h i n one atmosphere,  l i k e the c e a s e l e s s change of  c l o u d scenery i n a day of t h e same k i n d o f weather from,morning L. 7 t o evening," ' and Sidgwick*s a t t e n t i o n i s caught by the moods  kk  Brooke, Four P o e t s , p. 3 0 .  ^ L e v y , A r t h u r Hugh Clough, p. 2 1 6 . ^ o x i e Neale F a i r c h i l d , R e l i g i o n s , Trends jfl E n g l i s h P e e t r v : v o l . k: I83O-I88O, C h r i s t i a n i t y and Romanticism i n the V i c t o r i a n E r a . New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 ? p. 5 2 3 .  kl  'Brooke, Four P o e t s , p. 3 7 .  28 i n their  "balanced, complex c h a r a c t e r ;  solemn r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  there i s either a  of c o n f l i c t i n g impulses, or a s u b t l e and  s h i f t i n g s u g g e s t i o n of d i f f e r e n t  p o i n t s of view."  One  might conclude by quoting another passage from Sidgwick*s essay on Clough;  f o r Sidgwick, perhaps more than any of the  other c r i t i c s , seems to have been g r e a t l y s t r u c k by the v e r y element i n Clough*s p o e t r y which I have presumed to. term the d i a l e c t i c a l element.  Clough*s s k i l l , he s t a t e s , " l a y i n  b a l a n c i n g a s s e r t i o n s , comparing p o i n t s of view,  .sifting  gold  from dross i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l products p r e s e n t e d to him, rejecting  the r h e t o r i c a l , d e f i n i n g the vague, p a r i n g away the  e x a g g e r a t i v e , r e d u c i n g t h e o r y and argument to t h e i r form."  7  simplest  I t i s a l s o , one f e e l s , p r e c i s e l y t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l  s t r a i n i n Clough, although A r n o l d never uses t h i s term, which prompted Matthew A r n o l d ' s c r i t i c i s m of Clough*s p o e t r y and provoked h i s i m p a t i e n t commands t o Clough t o stop t h i n k i n g and get on w i t h something.  In l 8 8 , k  a f t e r Clough*s r e s i g n a t i o n  of the O r i e l F e l l o w s h i p , A r n o l d wrote f r e q u e n t l e t t e r s admonishing him t o s t i r h i m s e l f and f i n d something e l s e to "Shake y o u r s e l f — i t our  i s e a s i e r t o d i s c o v e r what we can do than  v a n i t y l e t s us t h i n k .  F o r God's sake don't mope, f o r from  Sidgwick, "Review of *The Poems . . .,*" p. I b i d . , p.  do—  367.  371.  29  t h a t no good can  come."'  He  obviously f e l t  t h a t a prolonged  p e r i o d of i n a c t i v i t y would only serve t o aggravate C l o u g h s 1  n a t u r a l d i s p o s i t i o n t o analyze r a t h e r than t o act and t h i s was  to be avoided a t a l l c o s t s .  Clough on August 1 2 ,  1 8 8 , i n which he L  that  Hence h i s l e t t e r  to  says:  I d e s i r e you should have some o c c u p a t i o n — I t h i n k i t d e s i r a b l e f o r e v e r y o n e — v e r y much so f o r you. Besides s i n c e the Baconian era wisdom i s not found i n d e s a r t s : and you a g a i n e s p e c i a l l y need the world and y e t w i l l not be absorbed by any q u a n t i t y of i t . . . — y o u poor subjective, y o u — . . . . 5 1 And  a g a i n i n 1 8 5 1 when Clough i s once more l o o k i n g f o r a  p o s i t i o n a f t e r r e s i g n i n g h i s p o s t at U n i v e r s i t y H a l l , advises him and  to "be  b u s t l i n g about i t ; we  men  are growing o l d ,  advancing towards the d e v i c e l e s s dark:  not t o reach i t t i l l we consider  had  felt  a t l e a s t t r i e d some of the  well things  t h a t C l o u g h s tendency to v a c i l l a t e , 1  than a c t , to q u e s t i o n ,  of mind which he  deplored  mind with i t s e l f . "  He  another example of the modern h a b i t and  l a b e l e d as "the  b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was  ^ L o w r y , L e t t e r s to Clough, p. Ibid.,  pp.  5 I b i d . . p.  rather  r a t h e r than a f f i r m , to debate, r a t h e r  than decide an i s s u e was  2  i t would be  desirable."'  Arnold  5 l  Arnold  88-89.  118.  Qk.  dialogue  of  the  n e c e s s a r y i n one*s  30  personal l i f e  t o accept some premise or s t a r t i n g p o i n t i n  order t o be a b l e t o a c t and t h a t only through a c t i o n c o u l d  one  f i n d the answers to the other q u e s t i o n s which p u z z l e d man. A r n o l d d i d not seem t o understand t h a t C l o u g h s reverence f o r 1  t r u t h would not a l l o w him to compromise i n t h i s f a s h i o n , or t o act  without f i r s t having determined t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r course  of  a c t i o n was  the r i g h t one, and t h a t h i s method of a r r i v i n g  at  the t r u t h was  j u s t t h i s same d i a l e c t i c a l process of r e a s o n i n g  that Arnold objected to.  I n s t e a d , he saw i t as a type of  "morbid c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s ^ 11  3  and t o l d Clough so:  You ask me i n what I t h i n k or have thought you going wrong: i n t h i s : t h a t you would never take your a s s i e t t e as something determined f i n a l and unchangea b l e f o r you and proceed t o work away on the b a s i s of t h a t : but were always poking and p a t c h i n g and c o b b l i n g at the a s s i e t t e i t s e l f — c o u l d never f i n a l l y , as i t s e e m e d — ' r e s o l v e to be m y s e l f — but were l o o k i n g f o r t h i s and t h a t e x p e r i e n c e , and doubting whether you ought not t o adopt t h i s or t h a t mode of being of persons q u i ne vous v a l a i e n t pas because i t might p o s s i b l y be n e a r e r the t r u t h than your own. . . .5^  ^ B l a n c h e a l s o accuses him of having "something of a morbid s e n s i t i v e n e s s t o t r u t h t h a t makes you think^ithe opprobrium and the n e c e s s i t y f o r speaking g r e a t e r t h a h j t h e y a r e . " ( I t a l i c s mine) (Mulhauser, Correspondence, v o l . 2> f n . 3 ? P» 381).  Lowry, L e t t e r s to Clough, p. 1 3 0  31 Consequently,  as one might expect, i t was  a l s o the  i n t e l l e c t u a l tenor of Clough*s p o e t r y , the element of debate and d i a l e c t i c i n i t , which drew Arnold's c r i t i c i s m .  For  A r n o l d wanted modern p o e t r y t o become a 'magister v i t a e * the p o e t r y of former  ages had b e e n — p o e t r y  comprehensive view of l i f e , which was man,  which would h e l p men  which e x h i b i t e d a  s a t i s f y i n g t o the whole  to answer the q u e s t i o n of "how  l i v e , " because i t had been w r i t t e n by poets "who s t e a d i l y and saw "to  i t whole."  as  saw  to  life  Hence, he found Clough*s  s o l v e the U n i v e r s e " through h i s p o e t r y i r r i t a t i n g  attempts and  accused him of being "a mere d-d depth hunter i n p o e t r y , " of t r y i n g "to go i n t o and to the bottom of an o b j e c t i n s t e a d of grouping  o b j e c t s , " when i d e a l l y "'Not  wide.*"  He  deep the poet sees, but  d i s l i k e d Clough*s p o e t r y because i t was  i n tone and fragmentary,  r a t h e r than a f f i r m a t i v e and w h o l e —  because i t asked not answered the q u e s t i o n of how live.  questioning  man  was  to  One f e e l s here t h a t some of the vehemence of Arnold's  a t t a c k may  be a t t r i b u t e d to the f a c t t h a t he sensed  these same  tendencies t o q u e s t i o n and debate i n h i m s e l f ^ and i n h i s  own  p o e t r y (the c h a r a c t e r of Empedocles, f o r example) and f e a r e d t h a t Clough*s i n f l u e n c e might b r i n g to the f o r e the v e r y q u a l i t i e s which he had been f i g h t i n g a l l h i s l i f e to  suppress.  *^As Lowry comments: "Much as he t A r n o l d ] d i s c o u r a g e s i n him the o v e r - q u e s t i o n i n g s p i r i t , he was h i m s e l f m i g h t i l y of Clough's way." ( I b i d . , p. 35)  32  As he says i n a l e t t e r t o Clough w r i t t e n on November 3 0 , 1 8 5 3 , what people want i s something t o animate and ennoble them — n o t merely to add z e s t t o t h e i r melancholy or grace t o t h e i r dreams — I b e l i e v e a f e e l i n g of t h i s k i n d i s the b a s i s of my nature — and of my p o e t i c s . You c e r t a i n l y do n o t seem t o me s u f f i c i e n t l y to d e s i r e and e a r n e s t l y s t r i v e t o wards — assured knowledge -- a c t i v i t y — happiness. You are too content t o f l u c t u a t e — t o be ever l e a r n i n g , never coming t o t h e knowledge of the t r u t h . T h i s i s why, with you. I f e e l i t necessary t o s t i f f e n myself — and h o l d f a s t mv rudder.5o To the b e s t of my knowledge, the term " d i a l e c t i c " i s never  used by Clough, i n e i t h e r h i s prose, or h i s l e t t e r s , or  i n h i s poetry.  However, t h e r e a r e i n s t a n c e s i n h i s p o e t r y  where he employs a terminology a s s o c i a t e d with a d i a l e c t i c , as, f o r example, the t i t l e  of the poem, "Thesis and A n t i -  t h e s i s , " which takes the form of a debate between youth and a g e — i n s t a n c e s which suggest t h a t he was c o n s c i o u s l y aware of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p h i l o s o p h i c a l method of r e a s o n i n g .  More-  over, there i s a v e r y i n t e r e s t i n g passage i n Dipsychus i n which Clough lectic  s a t i r i c a l l y d e s c r i b e s the very form which a d i a -  u s u a l l y takes and, i n the p r o c e s s , suggests t h a t he  was aware of t h i s p r i n c i p l e a t work i n h i s own mind and i n h i s p o e t r y and a l l too conscious of the d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t which t h i s h a b i t of thought would have on a man's p e r s o n a l  I b i d . , p. 146.  ( I t a l i c s mine)  33  life.  I t i s the S p i r i t , Dipsychus* more w o r l d l y and p r a c t i -  c a l s e l f , who i s speaking a t t h i s time, and he a t t a c k s Dipsychus f o r f a i l i n g to enter wholeheartedly i n t o f o r being i n " a l l t h i n g s  any a s p e c t of l i f e ,  vague":  For a waste f a r - o f f maybe o v e r l o o k i n g The f r u i t f u l is. c l o s e by, l i v e i n metaphysic, With t r a n s c e n d e n t a l l o g i c f i l l your stomach, Schematise j o y , e f f i g a t e meat and d r i n k ; Or, l e t me see, a mighty Work, a Volume, The complemental o f the i n f e r i o r Kant, The C r i t i c of Pure P r a c t i c e , based upon The antimonies of the Moral Sense: f o r , l o o k you, We cannot a c t without assuming *x*, And a t the same time *y* i t s c o n t r a d i c t o r y ; Ergo, to a c t . 5 7 ( X I , 1 5 3 - 6 3 ) f  It  i s d i f f i c u l t , a f t e r r e a d i n g t h i s passage w i t h i t s wry note  of  s e l f - c o n d e m n a t i o n , not t o f e e l t h a t Clough was f u l l y aware  of t h i s d i a l e c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e  i n h i s t h i n k i n g and i n h i s  p o e t r y , and t h a t he saw how i t p a r a l y z e d the w i l l t o a c t , w h i l e , at the same time, r e g a r d i n g i t as the only way open to a man of i n t e g r i t y whose g o a l was the d i s c o v e r y of t r u t h . Although no c r i t i c has a c t u a l l y dialectical principle  made a study of the  i n Clough*s p o e t r y , a few w r i t e r s have  used t h i s term t o d e s c r i b e some a s p e c t of i t . are  The comments  u s u a l l y b r i e f and unsupported, and t h e r e i s no attempt  to pursue t h i s thought or t o examine h i s p o e t r y i n the l i g h t of t h i s p r i n c i p l e .  John Heath-Stubbs,  ^ ( I t a l i c s mine—11.  161-62)  i n h i s book, The  3  k  D a r k l i n g P l a i n , c r e d i t s Clough with p o s s e s s i n g , at h i s b e s t , "a f a c u l t y f o r s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d i m a g i n a t i v e r e a s o n i n g i n v e r s e , f o r genuine m e t a p h y s i c a l p o e t r y , such as had appeared  s i n c e the days of P o p e . I t  not  becomes c l e a r i n the  p a r e n t h e t i c a l remark which f o l l o w s t h i s statement  t h a t Heath-  Stubbs regards Clough's f a c u l t y f o r " i m a g i n a t i v e r e a s o n i n g " as being a s u c c e s s f u l attempt Wordsworth's f a i l u r e  at " d i a l e c t i c , " i n contrast to  to achieve i t i n The E x c u r s i o n — "  (Wordsworth indeed i s a great p h i l o s o p h i c a l poet;  but he i s  so by v i r t u e of the p e r s o n a l l y r i c a l experience he p r e s e n t s . When he attempts J.  d i a l e c t i c — a s i n The E x c u r s i o n — h e  fails.)"  A. Symonds a t t r i b u t e s the v a r i a t i o n s i n tone t o be found i n  Clough*s poems t o h i s d i a l e c t i c a l method of r e a s o n i n g : An i r o n i c a l tone runs through them, and i s s t r a n g e l y blended with b i t t e r n e s s , g r a v i t y , and a k i n d of tender regret. They ought not t o be separated; f o r nothing i s more t r u e of Clough*s mind than i t worked by t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s , not r e a c h i n g a c l e a r s y n t h e s i s , but pushing i t s c o n v i c t i o n s , as i t were, t o the verge of a conclusion.59 The d i a l e c t i c a l element i s i m p l i c i t i n the terms Symonds chose t o u s e — " t h e s i s , " " a n t i t h e s i s , " and " s y n t h e s i s . " the same v e i n , Walter Houghton f i n d s t h a t one teristic  techniques of Clough*s p o e t r y i s "the  of the  In  charac-  dialectical  ^ H e a t h - S t u b b s , The D a r k l i n g P l a i n , p. 1 0 9 ^Symonds, "Arthur Hugh Clough," p. 5 9 7 .  35  movement"^;  Thomas A r n o l d p r a i s e s The B o t h i e f o r " i t s  penetrating d i a l e c t i c " ^ ; 1  Katherine Chorley f e e l s  that the  real  theme of Amours de Voyage i s "the d i a l e c t i c between engagement  6? and disengagement" t h a t the t i t l e  ;  and l a s t l y , R i c h a r d M.  "Adam and Eve,"  used by Glough, Mrs.  and Matthew A r n o l d when r e f e r r i n g "The Mystery matter,  Gollin  suggests Clough,  to the poem we now  know as  of the F a l l , " i s more s u i t e d t o i t s subject  as i t p o i n t s to "the two  a t t i t u d e s toward s i n and  redemption Clough d i a l e c t i c a l l y opposed i n the poem's structure."^  3  Admittedly, a l l these r e f e r e n c e s to " d i a l e c t i c "  are r a t h e r c u r s o r y , but the f a c t t h a t these w r i t e r s have n o t i c e d t h i s element i n Clough's p o e t r y does seem to add f u r t h e r weight t o our argument. Having thus e s t a b l i s h e d the e x i s t e n c e of a d i a l e c t i c a l principle  i n Clough's method of reasoning and i n h i s p o e t r y ,  our concern now principle  w i l l be to examine the way  i n which  this  m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n the p o e t r y — i n theme, mood, form,  tone, imagery, and c h a r a c t e r s . oughton, "Arthur Hugh Clough: Disparagement," p. kk*  A Hundred Years  of  Thomas A r n o l d , "Arthur Hugh Clough: A Sketch," Nineteenth Century, v o l . 3 (January, 1 8 9 8 ) , p. 1 0 9 . x  k  ^Chorley, Arthur Hugh Clough. p. 1 9 5 . R i c h a r d M. G o l l i n , "The 1 9 5 1 E d i t i o n of Clough-*s A C r i t i c a l Re-examination," Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 6 0 6 3  Poems:  (November, 1 9 6 2 ) ,  p.  123.  36 Because  of the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s  between theme and form, the theme, as i t develops i n a work o f art,  tends t o d i c t a t e i t s own form.  handling  Hence, when one i s  i d e a s i n a balanced or c o n t r a s t i n g way or debating  an i s s u e , the theme i n e v i t a b l y shapes i t s e l f i n t o a d i a l e c t i c a l form.  However, f o r the purposes of d i s c u s s i o n , I have  d e c i d e d , perhaps a r b i t r a r i l y , theme and form s e p a r a t e l y ,  to c o n s i d e r  the q u e s t i o n o f  p l a c i n g the emphasis i n Chapter I I  on the ideas and i n Chapter I I I on the form.  CHAPTER I I DIALECTIC IN THEME " I f i t i s so, l e t i t be so, And we w i l l a l l agree so; But the p l o t has c o u n t e r p l o t I t may be, and y e t be n o t . " ( I s i t t r u e , ye gods, who t r e a t us," P. 3 ) k  As Clough's  d i a l e c t i c a l h a b i t of mind may be t r a c e d  to the c r i s i s which he underwent a t Oxford, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t r e l i g i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the s u b j e c t of a number of h i s poems i n which the d i a l e c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e may be seen o p e r a t i n g thematically.  H i s subsequent  e f f o r t s t o determine  by reason  how man can l i v e i n accordance with T r u t h , even though the exact nature of t h i s h i g h e r T r u t h has not y e t been r e v e a l e d , gave r i s e t o another such body of p o e m s — t h o s e which  attempt  to answer the unanswerable q u e s t i o n s , why man i s here, how he should l i v e w h i l e h e r e , and i f he w i l l continue to e x i s t i n some form a f t e r death. poems i n which Clough degree  of importance  F i n a l l y , there i s the group o f  examines the nature of l o v e and the i t should assume i n a man's l i f e .  In  most o f these poems, there i s a b a s i c p a t t e r n that the c l a s h of i d e a s takes, although, of course, t h i s p a t t e r n undergoes v a r i a t i o n s , and the a c t u a l d i a l e c t i c a l process i s o f t e n 37  38 complex. two  G e n e r a l l y , however, each poem begins by p r e s e n t i n g  or more o p i n i o n s commonly h e l d about the s u b j e c t under  c o n s i d e r a t i o n , moves toward a c o n c l u s i o n by a process of debate, and then reaches e i t h e r a s y n t h e s i s (compromise s o l u t i o n ) , or an  impasse.  1  From the o u t s e t , Glough was w e l l aware t h a t , i n h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o accept o n l y those r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s which he had p e r s o n a l l y proved t o be t r u e , he was  s e t t i n g out on a  d i f f i c u l t and l i t t l e - t r a v e l l e d p a t h — o n e beset with s e l f - d o u b t , and perhaps, u l t i m a t e l y , f a i l u r e .  The  loneliness, temptation  t o g i v e up the quest and r e j o i n h i s f e l l o w s , those who  receive  The implanted word with f a i t h ; believe Because t h e i r f a t h e r s d i d b e f o r e , Because they l e a r n t , and ask no more, was  c o n s t a n t l y with him and p r o v i d e d the impetus f o r many  i n n e r debates  s i m i l a r i n theme to the one which forms the  b a s i s of the poem, " 0 happy they whose h e a r t s receive' In t h i s poem, Glough  1  (p. M-C^).  balances the happiness which r e s u l t s from  the peace and s e r e n i t y of mind enjoyed by those who  unquestion-  i n g l y accept a t r a d i t i o n a l c r e e d a g a i n s t the joy " d e l u s i v e o f t , but keen" which comes from "having with our own  eyes  seen"  In our d i s c u s s i o n , I have t r i e d to choose f o r d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s those poems which I have f e l t t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y good examples of the d i a l e c t i c i n theme, mood, form, imagery, and c h a r a c t e r s and then t o r e f e r b r i e f l y , e i t h e r i n the t e x t or i n the f o o t n o t e s , t o other poems which i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p r i n c i p l e .  39  and, the  as one  might expect, he  more s a t i s f a c t o r y one.  d e s p a i r e d of f i n d i n g any God  and  of the he  was  d e c i d e s that the There were a l s o  l a t t e r joy i s  times when Clough  r a t i o n a l grounds f o r man's b e l i e f i n  tempted to adopt the  opposite p o i n t  a t h e i s t or complete r e l i g i o u s s c e p t i c .  c o u l d see  o n l y two  of h i s reason and  alternatives:  r e t r e a t to the  or to f a c e the t r u t h , as he  saw  of  view—that  At such moments,  to ignore the  conclusions  orthodox r e l i g i o u s i t then, and  of a h i g h e r T r u t h , or D i v i n e B e i n g .  I t was  position,  deny the  existence  while i n t h i s  frame of mind t h a t he wrote such poems as "Cease, empty F a i t h , Spectrum s a i t h " (p. 1 1 0 )  the  As the  b i b l i c a l story  r e g a r d e d by C h r i s t i a n s t h i s doctrine Day,  Part I . "  " E a s t e r Day,  first  5^).  P a r t I " (p.  of C h r i s t ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n i s  as p r o o f of H i s  the f o c a l p o i n t The  and  d i v i n i t y , Clough made  of the d i a l e c t i c i n "Easter  section  with Clough's p a s s i o n a t e d e n i a l  of the poem ( 1 1 . of C h r i s t ' s  i - 6 3 ) begins  Resurrection—  C h r i s t i s not r i s e n ? C h r i s t i s not r i s e n , no, He l i e s and moulders low; C h r i s t i s not r i s e n — a d e n i a l which becomes the r e f r a i n of P a r t I and some s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s He the  has  of p h r a s i n g at the  been provoked i n t o u t t e r i n g  s i g h t of "the  end  appears w i t h  of each s t a n z a .  t h i s vehement p r o t e s t  by  great s i n f u l s t r e e t s of Naples" which seem  to p r o v i d e c l e a r p r o o f that the C h r i s t of the  Gospels never  ko e x i s t e d and that the i d e a of new  l i f e i m p l i c i t i n the d o c t r i n e  of the R e s u r r e c t i o n has no b a s i s i n r e a l i t y . s t a n z a s , Glough  In the f o l l o w i n g  examines and then d i s c a r d s as i n s u f f i c i e n t  p r o o f a l l the d e t a i l s found i n the b i b l i c a l account of C h r i s t ' s Resurrection  which c o u l d be advanced  t h a t the R e s u r r e c t i o n was  by C h r i s t i a n s as evidence  an a c t u a l h i s t o r i c a l event.  tone of v o i c e i n which he does t h i s ("What though i m p l i e s that he i s answering  someone.  . .  The .")  Thus, t h i s p a r t of the  poem takes on the form of a debate, as the nature of h i s opponents*  statements can be deduced from the answers that  Clough makes. He f i r s t  challenges  t h a t p a r t of the g o s p e l which  s t a t e s t h a t when C h r i s t ' s f o l l o w e r s a r r i v e d a t the tomb on E a s t e r morning, they found the stone r o l l e d away and the grave empty— What though the stone were r o l l e d away, and The grave found empty there?  though  T h i s cannot be accepted as evidence of C h r i s t ' s d i v i n i t y , f o r someone c o u l d e a s i l y have moved Him  to another grave where H i s  body, l i k e a l l t h i n g s human, would g r a d u a l l y  decay—  Ashes to ashes, dust t o d u s t ; As of the u n j u s t , a l s o of the j u s t — C h r i s t i s not r i s e n . Clough then s e t s a s i d e the second most commonly o f f e r e d  hi S c r i p t u r a l p r o o f of C h r i s t ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n — t h a t the women saw angels,  "or Him h i m s e l f " near the tomb—with the i r o n i c comment  t h a t He has never appeared to anyone s i n c e , t e r r o r to b l i n d Saul" I n other words,  "save i n thunderous  and " i n an a f t e r - G o s p e l and l a t e  Creed."  the C h r i s t and the Angels that these people  saw were simply the c r e a t u r e s of i m a g i n a t i o n , and other men b e l i e v e d and founded a r e l i g i o n on t h i s i n c i d e n t because their desire for f a i t h .  S i m i l a r l y , he d i s p o s e s of the  of  story  t h a t the A p o s t l e s and the t r a v e l l e r s to Emmaus saw C h r i s t with the words, "Ah! 'some  1  d i d w e l l to doubt."  Having thus  how v u l n e r a b l e t h a t f a i t h i s which r e s t s on h i s t o r i c a l Clough ends t h i s  s e c t i o n by b r i n g i n g h i s t h e s i s to  shown facts,  its  l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n and comparing the growth of C h r i s t i a n i t y to the growth of a rumour i n a l a r g e c i t y w h i c h , s t a r t i n g from a small i n c i d e n t ,  soon gains widespread fame and a u t h o r i t y ,  because no one can t r a c e i t back t o i t s if  it  o r i g i n and determine  i s based on t r u t h or n o t .  As c i r c u l a t e s i n some g r e a t c i t y crowd A rumour c h a n g e f u l , vague, importunate, and l o u d , From no determined c e n t r e , or of f a c t , Or a u t h o r s h i p e x a c t , Which no man can deny Nor v e r i f y ; So spread the wondrous fame.  Italics  mine.  H2 In the second s e c t i o n of Part I , Clough d e p i c t s  the  i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n of those people who, s t r u c k by the t r u t h of h i s arguments, have come to accept the t h e s i s that " C h r i s t not r i s e n . " such l i n e s  An overwhelming sense of d e s p a i r i s  is  conveyed by  as: Is He not r i s e n , and s h a l l we not r i s e ? Oh, we unwise? What d i d we dream, what wake we to d i s c o v e r ? Ye h i l l s , f a l l on us, and ye mountains, c o v e r !  The d i s c r e d i t i n g - of the d o c t r i n e of C h r i s t ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n has t r a g i c import f o r men, because  t h e i r b e l i e f i n redemption and  i n i m m o r t a l i t y — a b e l i e f which made the h a r d s h i p s of t h i s bearable—was,  i n a l a r g e measure, d e r i v e d from the  they a t t a c h e d to the R e s u r r e c t i o n . gave meaning to t h e i r l i v e s ,  life  significance  Deprived of the f a i t h which  they are f i l l e d with a sense of  l o s s and of h o p e l e s s n e s s , f e e l i n g  t h a t they have been d e c e i v e d  and betrayed by someone they t r u s t e d : E a t , d r i n k , and d i e , f o r we are men d e c e i v e d , Of a l l the c r e a t u r e s under heaven's wide cope We are the most h o p e l e s s who had once most hope We are most wretched t h a t had most b e l i e v e d . However, i n keeping with the d i a l e c t i c a l treatment of the of the poem, i n the t h i r d s e c t i o n  (11.  95-156) Clough  man w i t h an a l t e r n a t i v e way of meeting t h i s He counsels  theme  presents  spiritual crisis.  man to a v o i d both optimism and d e s p a i r and to  k  3  adopt an a t t i t u d e of s t o i c r e s i g n a t i o n .  One  remembers here  the t i m e l y words t h a t Arnold has Empedocles speak:  "Because  thou must not dream, thou need'st not then d e s p a i r . "  Man  must endure and make the most of the s m a l l comforts t h a t b r i n g s , f o r he can expect no  life  more—  . . . i f there i s no other l i f e f o r you, S i t down and be content, s i n c e t h i s must even He i s not r i s e n .  do:  The t h e s i s of t h i s poem c o u l d not s a t i s f y Clough f o r l o n g , however, as h i s most p e r s i s t e n t b e l i e f was t i o n c o n t a i n e d the whole t r u t h .  " I f he  saw  two  t h a t no p o s i s i d e s of a  q u e s t i o n , " Sidgwick observed, "he must keep seeking view from which they might be harmonized." d e c i s i o n reached i n "Easter Day, his  r e l i g i o u s sense.  3  Part I" l e f t  Hence, i n "Easter Day,  he makes use of the b a s i c premise u n d e r l y i n g C r i t i c i s m of the B i b l e  k  to formulate  ^Sidgwick, "Review of 'The J.  M. B e a t t y  a p o i n t of  Moreover, the no o u t l e t f o r P a r t I I " (p. 5 9 ) > Strauss's Higher  a more g e n e r a l l y  acceptable  Poems . . . ,'" p. 3 6 8 .  says:  "The Bete Moire of the orthodox d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , however, was the German S t r a u s s , who p u b l i s h e d the f i r s t volume of h i s Leben Jesu i n 183*+ and the whole work i n the f o l l o w i n g year. T h i s work was a powerful a t t a c k upon the s u p e r n a t u r a l i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . Strauss a t t a c k e d even the h i s t o r i c i t y of C h r i s t . Yet as he says i n h i s p r e f a c e , *The author i s aware t h a t the essence of the  If If s o l u t i o n by i n t e r p r e t i n g the B i b l i c a l s t o r y m e t a p h o r i c a l l y ,  a  s o l u t i o n which i s a c t u a l l y a s y n t h e s i s of the d i a l e c t i c i n "Part I " — But i n a l a t e r hour I sat and heard Another v o i c e that spake, another graver word. Weep not, i t bade, whatever hath been s a i d , Though He be dead, He i s not dead. In the t r u e Creed He i s y e t r i s e n indeed, C h r i s t i s yet r i s e n . " C h r i s t i s y e t r i s e n , " because, even though the  biblical  s t o r i e s themselves, such as the one which t e l l s of C h r i s t ' s R e s u r r e c t i o n , have no b a s i s i n h i s t o r y or f a c t , the t r u t h s of human r e l i g i o u s experience true.  which they i l l u s t r a t e remain e t e r n a l l y  "Manuscripts are d o u b t f u l , r e c o r d s may  be  unauthentic,  c r i t i c i s m i s f e e b l e , h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s must be l e f t  uncertain,"  y  but the "essence" of C h r i s t i a n i t y s t i l l warrants man's b e l i e f . A higher  Truth e x i s t s , although i t s p r e c i s e nature i s y e t  unknown, and men,  as Tennyson says, can s t i l l r i s e "on  stones of t h e i r dead s e l v e s to h i g h e r  things."  stepping  Taken  C h r i s t i a n f a i t h i s p e r f e c t l y independent of h i s c r i t i cism. The s u p e r n a t u r a l b i r t h of C h r i s t , h i s m i r a c l e s , h i s r e s u r r e c t i o n and a s c e n s i o n , remain e t e r n a l t r u t h s , whatever doubts may be c a s t on t h e i r r e a l i t y as h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s . ' T h i s p o i n t of view i s s i g n i f i c a n t as being c l o s e l y a k i n t o Clough*s." ("Arthur Hugh Clough as Revealed i n h i s P r o s e , " South A t l a n t i c Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 5 ( A p r i l 1 9 2 6 ) , p. 175.) P.P.R., p.  k  21  H5 s y m b o l i c a l l y , the d o c t r i n e o f t h e R e s u r r e c t i o n it  g i v e s man hope;  suggests t h a t he can r i s e t o a new l i f e i n h i m s e l f ,  experience a p s y c h o l o g i c a l and moral t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . had May,  Clough  expressed t h i s i d e a e a r l i e r i n a l e t t e r which he wrote i n 1847:  But I cannot f e e l sure t h a t a man may n o t have a l l t h a t i s important i n C h r i s t i a n i t y even i f he does n o t so much as know t h a t Jesus of Nazareth e x i s t e d . The t h i n g which men must work a t , w i l l n o t be c r i t i c a l questions about the S c r i p t u r e s , but p h i l o s o p h i c a l problems of Grace and F r e e W i l l , and of Redemption as an Idea, n o t as an h i s t o r i c a l event.6 The  s y n t h e s i s he reaches i n " P a r t I I " i s a l s o i m p l i c i t i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g passage from h i s essay on "The R e l i g i o u s T r a d i t i o n " — an essay which i s s t r o n g l y d i a l e c t i c a l i n theme and form: I t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r any s c h o l a r t o have read, and s t u d i e d , and r e f l e c t e d without forming a strong impression o f the e n t i r e u n c e r t a i n t y of h i s t o r y i n g e n e r a l , and of the h i s t o r y of C h r i s t i a n i t y i n p a r t i cular. I t i s e q u a l l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r any man t o l i v e , a c t , and r e f l e c t without f e e l i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e and depth o f the moral and r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g which passes amongst us by the name of C h r i s t i a n i t y . 7  Mulhauser, Correspondence, v o l . 1, p. 182. P.P.R.. p. 421.  46 Clough develops  the theme of "Easter Day, P a r t s I and  I I , " then, a c c o r d i n g t o the p r i n c i p l e of a d i a l e c t i c , with P a r t I I forming of r e s o l v i n g  the s y n t h e s i s .  I t i s h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c way  any i s s u e , whether i t be r e l i g i o u s or not, and of  a r r i v i n g a t some measure of the t r u t h . him t o a v o i d wholeheartedly antithesis  of P a r t I .  In t h i s case, i t enables  adopting e i t h e r  the t h e s i s  or the  I n s t e a d , he d i s c a r d s the elements of the  C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n which he f e e l s t o be i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h reason, w h i l e r e t a i n i n g , essence  a t the same time, h i s b e l i e f i n the  of C h r i s t i a n i t y and thereby reaches  a s o l u t i o n which  s a t i s f i e s him both e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y . lectic  of the poem,  M ,  The d i a -  G l d t h i n g s need not t h e r e f o r e be t r u e " 1  (p. 8 9 ) i s r e s o l v e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. Here Clough  counsels  man to acknowledge the t r u t h wherever i t appears and t o h o l d f a s t t o i t , f o r n e i t h e r i n the p a s t , nor i n the present has man a r r i v e d  a t f u l l knowledge o f any s u b j e c t . *01d t h i n g s need not t h e r e f o r e be t r u e 5* 0 b r o t h e r men, nor y e t the new; Ah! s t i l l awhile the o l d thought r e t a i n , And y e t c o n s i d e r i t a g a i n .  The  i d e a c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s stanza thus l i n k s the poem with  o t h e r s such as " E a s t e r Day, P a r t I I , although the t o p i c i s 1  not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o n . The d i a l e c t i c i n the theme of "When I s r a e l came out of Egypt"  (p. 16) i s e s s e n t i a l l y the same as the one i n " E a s t e r  Day."  Again, Clough balances the orthodox r e l i g i o u s  position  a g a i n s t the modern " a t h e i s t i c u n b e l i e f " and a f t e r a process of debate d e c i d e s t h a t n e i t h e r p o s i t i o n warrants man's f u l l support.  Each p o s i t i o n c o n t a i n s some t r u t h , but n e i t h e r one  c o n t a i n s the whole.  The e r r o r i n each p o s i t i o n stems from  man's d e s i r e f o r c e r t a i n t y , and h i s subsequent h a b i t of making a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n s prematurely f o r the sake of c e r t a i n t y . Not content simply to b e l i e v e i n the e x i s t e n c e of God and t o w a i t f o r H i s complete p l a n t o be r e v e a l e d , some men have gone on t o a t t r i b u t e v a r i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o God, to form  "idol  thoughts," and t o develop a v a r i e t y of r e l i g i o n s , a l l c l a i m i n g to  have the t r u t h .  These men, Clough says, a r e l i k e  children  who s t i l l need the s e c u r i t y of a f a t h e r and who must be p r e sented with c o n c r e t e examples b e f o r e they can grasp an a b s t r a c t -concept.  Other men, products o f the modern, s c i e n t i f i c age,  have gone t o the opposite extreme.  R e j e c t i n g many of the  forms and dogmas of r e l i g i o n on r a t i o n a l grounds, as Clough did,  they have then gone on, wrongly he f e e l s , t o deny the  e x i s t e n c e of God as w e l l — By Science s t r i c t so speaks He now To t e l l us, There i s None' E a r t h goes by chemic f o r c e s ; Heaven's A Mlchanique C l l e s t e ! And h e a r t and mind of human k i n d A watch-work as the r e s t ? The c o n c l u s i o n Clough comes t o i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h a t no c o n c l u s i o n  ko  i s p o s s i b l e a t the moment; revelation.  man must wait f o r some f u r t h e r  At t h i s time, Clough  s t a t e s , man must n e i t h e r  accept a t r a d i t i o n a l creed as completely t r u e , nor espouse o  the a t h e i s t i c view and abandon a l l b e l i e f i n God.  Rather,  he must "take b e t t e r p a r t , w i t h manlier h e a r t " and develop the courage t o r e s i s t adopting e i t h e r p o i n t of v i e w — No God, no T r u t h , r e c e i v e i t n ' e r — B e l i e v e i t n e ' e r — G ManJ But t u r n not then t o seek a g a i n What f i r s t the i l l b e g a n ; — and the f o r t i t u d e t o wait p a t i e n t l y f o r the whole t r u t h to be revealed— . . . a h , wait i n f a i t h God's s e l f - c o m p l e t i n g p l a n ; Receive i t not, but l e a v e i t n o t , And wait i t out, G Man.'9  S i m i l a r l y i n the poem, "That there a r e powers above us I admit" (p. k0$), he concedes the e x i s t e n c e of the supern a t u r a l "powers," b u t , s i n c e he cannot prove i t one way or the other, d e c i d e s n e i t h e r t o accept, nor r e j e c t the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r being b e n e f i c e n t ones. "At any r a t e — That there are beings above us, I b e l i e v e , And when we l i f t up h o l y hands of p r a y e r , I w i l l n o t say they w i l l n o t g i v e us a i d . " I n a l e t t e r of May, 18^7, Clough mentions v a r i o u s r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n s h e l d by other men and then concludes: 9  "I t h i n k others are more r i g h t , who say b o l d l y , we don't understand i t , and t h e r e f o r e , we won't f a l l down and worship i t . Though t h e r e i s no o c c a s i o n  h9 The  exact nature  o f t h i s t r u t h may be s t i l l  u n c e r t a i n , but  Glough i s f u l l y c o n f i d e n t t h a t one day i t w i l l be r e v e a l e d — He s h a l l y e t b r i n g some worthy t h i n g For w a i t i n g s o u l s t o see. U n t i l t h i s time, man's attempts t o d e f i n e t h i s  higher  Truth or t o d e s c r i b e God must i n e v i t a b l y f a l l f a r short of the truth.  T h i s i s the reason why Clough u s u a l l y r e f e r s t o God  simply as T r u t h and why he c a r e f u l l y avoids e x p l a i n i n g what he means by t h i s term.  I t i s enough f o r him t h a t " T r u t h "  exists;  he does not need t o t r a n s l a t e t h i s a b s t r a c t concept i n t o a 10  p a r t i c u l a r image.  T h i s i s the i d e a which he expresses i n  the poem, 'ftymnos Ahymnos" ( p . 8 7 ) — t h e t i t l e the key t o t h e d i a l e c t i c o f the poem.  of which  contains  I t i s a hymn, i n the  sense t h a t i t i s a poem o f p r a i s e i n which he a f f i r m s h i s b e l i e f i n the e x i s t e n c e o f God or T r u t h —  vol.  f o r a d d i n g — ' t h e r e is. nothing i n i t ' — I should say, U n t i l I know, I w i l l w a i t : and i f I am n o t born with the power t o d i s c o v e r , I w i l l do what I can, with what knowledge I have; t r u s t to God's j u s t i c e ; and n e i t h e r pretend t o know, nor without knowing, pretend t o embrace . . . . (Mulhauser, Correspondence, 1 , p. 1 8 2 ) . 1 0  H oxie F a i r c h i l d comments:  "But Clough was one of those uncomfortable people who . ' w i l l not make t h e i r image.' They s t r u g g l e a f t e r an ' a c t u a l a b s t r a c t , ' r e f u s i n g to accept a p a t t e r n f o r t h e i r ignorance." ( C h r i s t i a n i t y and Romanticism i n the Y i c t o r i a n E r a p. 5 0 7 . ) f  50  0 Thou whose image i n the s h r i n e Of human s p i r i t s dwells d i v i n e . Y e t , on the other hand, i t i s not a hymn i n the t r a d i t i o n a l sense, because he makes none of the statements u s u a l l y found i n r e l i g i o u s  about  God  songs—  1 w i l l not frame one thought of what Thou mayest e i t h e r be or not. He  i s content simply to f e e l t h a t . . . i n our s o u l and h e a r t Thou, whatsoe'er Thou mayest be, a r t . Through the medium of these poems d e a l i n g with r e l i g i o n ,  Clough  thus e v e n t u a l l y comes to the p o i n t , a f t e r a prolonged  i n n e r debate, where he f e e l s  j u s t i f i e d i n making c e r t a i n  a f f i r m a t i o n s i n which he expresses h i s b e l i e f i n the e x i s t e n c e of God  ("Truth".), i n the essence  e v e n t u a l emergence of T r u t h .  of C h r i s t i a n i t y , and i n the  T h i s hard-won b e l i e f brought  him  some peace of mind, but i t d i d not put an end t o the d i a l e c t i c c o n s t a n t l y going on w i t h i n h i m — a number of v i t a l were s t i l l l e f t was  unanswered.  questions  Since a h i g h e r T r u t h e x i s t e d , i t  p l a i n l y man's duty, Clough f e l t , t o t r y to l i v e i n a c c o r -  dance with t h i s p r i n c i p l e ;  but, as the nature of t h i s h i g h e r  Truth had not y e t been r e v e a l e d to man, so was  manifestly uncertain.  hopeless  the means of man's doing  As Dipsychus  comments, i t appears  51 To expect t o f i n d i n t h i s more modern time That which the o l d world s t y l e d , i n o l d - w o r l d phrase, Walking with God. I t seems H i s newer w i l l We should not t h i n k of Him a t a l l , but trudge i t , And of the world He has a s s i g n e d us make What best we can. (IX, 9 - l ) L  Gnce more, i t seemed t h a t man would have t o a r r i v e at the t r u t h on h i s own,  t h a t he would have t o f i n d the best way  " t o pace  the sad c o n f u s i o n through" h i m s e l f , with o n l y h i s reason and conscience t o guide him. i n another group  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n of C l o u g h s  resulted  1  of poems i n which the d i a l e c t i c a l  principle  i s e v i d e n t i n the t h e m e — t h o s e i n which he attempts t o answer the unanswerable q u e s t i o n s , why l i v e while here,iand  man  i s h e r e , how he should  i f he w i l l continue to e x i s t i n some form  a f t e r death. Another fundamental  problem which occupies Clough*s  a t t e n t i o n i n a number of poems i s the n e c e s s i t y of a c t i o n . In s p i t e of man's i n s t i n c t i v e d e s i r e t o a c t , the w i s e s t course f o r the p r e s e n t would seem to be t o r e p r e s s t h i s d e s i r e and w a i t f o r some f u r t h e r r e v e l a t i o n of God*s p l a n . a c t i n g now without f u l l knowledge, man  may  be committing him-  s e l f t o a p o i n t of view or a course which w i l l prove to be f a l s e .  For, i n  eventually  I t i s t h i s thought which prompts the  f r e q u e n t e x p r e s s i o n s of f e a r found i n Clough*s poems—the f e a r of being f o r c e d t o come t o a d e c i s i o n or to a c t prematurely and on i n s u f f i c i e n t evidence.  I t i s t h i s f e a r , i n an  form, which motivates the f o l l o w i n g speech of Claude:  exaggerated  52  I do not wish to be moved, but growing where I was growing, There more t r u l y to grow, t o l i v e where as y e t I had languished. I do not l i k e being moved: f o r the w i l l i s e x c i t e d ; and action Is a most dangerous t h i n g ; I tremble f o r something factitious, Some m a l p r a c t i c e of h e a r t and i l l e g i t i m a t e p r o c e s s ; We are so prone to these t h i n g s with our t e r r i b l e n o t i o n s of duty. (Amours, I I , 2 7 0 - 7 5 ) Yet, c l e a r l y , as Clough was  w e l l aware, man  cannot wait f o r  the r e v e l a t i o n of a t r u t h which w i l l make doubt and h e s i t a t i o n unnecessary. his  As Dipsychus  g r e a t game" (IX, 8 9 ) .  says:  " L i f e l o v e s no l o o k e r s - o n a t  The nature of l i f e  s e l f demands that h i s r o l e be an a c t i v e Hence a d i a l e c t i c  and of man  him-  one.  or debate takes p l a c e w i t h i n Clough  and w i t h i n h i s c h a r a c t e r s whenever they are f a c e d with a s i t u a t i o n t h a t r e q u i r e s a c t i o n or commitment on t h e i r p a r t . For example, the attempts  of the main c h a r a c t e r s to decide  between a c t i o n and i n a c t i o n , engagement and disengagement, becomes a major theme i n such poems as "Sa Majeste Chretienne  (p. 6 9 )  Dipsychus,  seeing t h a t h i s submission  1  1  and Dipsychus.  In Scene IX of  tres Dipsychus,  to the world i s  One of the main s u b j e c t s of the "dialogue of the mind w i t h i t s e l f " i n t h i s poem i s the a c t i v e versus the contemplat i v e l i f e , engagement versus disengagement. The poem c o n s i s t s of the King's attempt to j u s t i f y , o s t e n s i b l y to h i s c o n f e s s o r , but r e a l l y to h i m s e l f , the s i n s t h a t he has committed on the grounds t h a t , g i v e n the n e c e s s i t y of a c t i o n and the l a c k of any c l e a r d i r e c t i o n by which to a c t , e r r o r i s i n e v i t a b l e . He cons i d e r s and then r e j e c t s the p o s s i b i l i t y of h i s having adopted a  53  i n e v i t a b l e unless he  can f i n d a b e t t e r a l t e r n a t i v e , makes a  supreme e f f o r t t o d i s c o v e r , through reason, a b e t t e r way live.  H i s r e j e c t i o n , a f t e r much thought, of the  t h a t e i t h e r r e l i g i o n or love can provide  one  course that he has  h i s more w o r l d l y  t r i e d to a v o i d and  s e l f ) has  n e c e s s i t y of c o n s i d e r i n g him, man  with a  to c o n s i d e r  the  that the S p i r i t  advocated a l l a l o n g — a c t i o n .  a c t i o n as a p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n  f o r h i s most p e r s i s t e n t c o n v i c t i o n has  (or The  "staggers"  always been that  c o u l d only r e t a i n h i s i d e a l s by r e s i s t i n g the f o r c e s which  would draw him  into society.  But,  escape, the problem remains now act.  possibility  modern man  s a t i s f a c t o r y purpose f o r l i v i n g f o r c e s him  to  The  as there  seems to be  of d e c i d i n g when and how  to  d i a l e c t i c of t h i s passage r e s u l t s from h i s subsequent  e f f o r t t o determine whether i t i s b e t t e r to enter  immediately  i n t o a c t i v e l i f e , hoping t h a t a c t i o n w i l l e v e n t u a l l y  bring  b e l i e f , or to w a i t u n t i l the t r u t h , God*s p l a n f o r man, revealed,  no  is  u n t i l the c l e a r c a l l to r i g h t a c t i o n comes which w i l l  make f u r t h e r doubt and h e s i t a t i o n  impossible.  Dipsychus begins by examining the view t h a t i t i s b e t t e r to wait u n t i l the one the example of Napoleon who  t r u e course can be l e t pass the  seen and  " l e s s e r chances  cites and  more p a s s i v e r o l e , o u t l i n e s the n e c e s s i t y of a c t i o n and y e t the d i f f i c u l t y of d e c i d i n g i n " t h i s waste and w i l d i n f i n i t y of ways" which path "conducts.to Thee," and then concludes t h a t , i n s p i t e of e v e r y t h i n g , "somehow I t h i n k my h e a r t i s pure."  5H  i n f e r i o r hopes" ( 5 1 ) , w a i t i n g f o r the r i g h t moment, "the one t h i n p i e c e t h a t comes, pure g o l d " ( 5 6 ) , when a c t i o n  ensures  victory.  "lesser  The thought t h a t perhaps  i n l e t t i n g these  chances" go by he i s l o s i n g v a l u a b l e experience which would enable him t o be s u c c e s s f u l i n the main encounter causes him to  s h i f t t o the other p o i n t of view (the a n t i t h e s i s ) f o r a  moment.  But there i s no g a i n h e r e , f o r t h i s p o i n t i s imme-  d i a t e l y balanced by the a f t e r - t h o u g h t t h a t , i f he becomes p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h these " l e s s e r chances," he may f o r g e t h i s ultimate g o a l — To base mechanical a d r o i t n e s s y i e l d The I n s p i r a t i o n and the Hope, a slave?  (77-78)  The advantage then, f o r the p r e s e n t , seems to l i e with the t h e s i s , " t o w a i t , " and he c o n c l u d e s : Were i t not b e t t e r done, then, t o keep o f f And see, n o t share, the s t r i f e : stand out the w a l t z Which f o o l s w h i r l d i z z y i n ? (82-84-) He does not remain i n t h i s frame of mind f o r l o n g , however; to  immediately  the q u e s t i o n of whether i t i s p o s s i b l e  remain a l o o f from l i f e  occurs and he has t o admit t h a t the  nature of l i f e i t s e l f p r e c l u d e s t h i s course.  The only avenue  open t o man under these circumstances would thus seem t o be the acceptance let  of the a n t i t h e s i s — t o put a s i d e a l l h e s i t a t i o n ,  i n s t i n c t take over, and a c t ( 8 5 - 1 0 2 ) .  B u t , before he can  55  a c t on t h i s d e c i s i o n , thought again i n t e r v e n e s and causes him to q u e s t i o n the assumption on which t h i s c o n c l u s i o n was b a s e d — namely, that man's i n s t i n c t s , i f f o l l o w e d , w i l l guide him to truth.  T h i s may have been t r u e f o r former g e n e r a t i o n s ,  Dipsychus  t h i n k s , but n o t f o r modern man— The age of i n s t i n c t has, i t seems, gone by, And w i l l n o t be f o r c e d back. And t o l i v e now I must s l u i c e out myself i n t o c a n a l s . And l o s e a l l f o r c e i n d u c t s . (105-08) N e i t h e r the i n d i v i d u a l nor the s o c i e t y i n which he l i v e s seems to be p r o g r e s s i n g n a t u r a l l y t o any g o a l beyond a p u r e l y m a t e r i a l and immediate one.  A c t i o n f o r a man i n t h i s i n d u s t r i a l age  seems t o c o n s i s t o f a s e r i e s of menial and humdrum tasks which, f a r from l e a d i n g anywhere, seem t o be an end i n themselves. . . . We ask A c t i o n , And dream o f arms and c o n f l i c t ; and s t r i n g up A l l s e l f - d e v o t i o n ' s muscles; and are s e t To f o l d up papers. To what end? We know not. The  (131-3 ) k  d i a l e c t i c ends with Dipsychus r e l u c t a n t l y a c c e p t i n g the  need t o a c t , even though i t w i l l have to be on the world's terms.  F o r , as " a c t i o n i s what one must get, i t i s c l e a r "  (1^-7), and as man seems d e s t i n e d never t o be presented r i g h t course  with the  of a c t i o n , o n l y numerous smaller ones, he has no  c h o i c e but t o "submit" t o the world as i t i s . The d i s h e a r t e n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s c o n c l u s i o n were not l o s t on Clough.  He r e a l i z e d that h i s search f o r Truth must  56  i n e v i t a b l y end, f o r the most p a r t , i n f a i l u r e , but t h i s  reali-  z a t i o n i n no way l e s s e n e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h i s course was the only one p o s s i b l e f o r a man of i n t e g r i t y .  The e f f o r t must  be made, even though the answers might never be found. view i s c l e a r l y expressed saw  This  i n the two poems, "The human s p i r i t s  I on a day," and "Come back again, my olden h e a r t ? "  human s p i r i t s  "The  saw I on a day" (p. 1) i s e s s e n t i a l l y a j u s t i -  f i c a t i o n f o r adopting a s c e p t i c a l , q u e s t i o n i n g a t t i t u d e t o life,  on the grounds t h a t a man's i n t e g r i t y and h i s r i g h t t o  t u r n f i n a l l y t o a c t i v e l i f e are dependent upon h i s having first  attempted t o d i s c o v e r t r u t h .  T h i s p o i n t of view i s  presented by the s p i r i t who passes around the r i n g , " h a r d l y t a s k i n g " and " s u b t l y q u e s t i o n i n g " each of the other The  a n t i t h e s i s i s expressed  through  spirits.  the a t t i t u d e s taken and  the answers g i v e n by the other s p i r i t s who r e p r e s e n t mankind in  g e n e r a l — t h o s e who have g i v e n up without r e a l l y t r y i n g t o  f i n d the answers to the questions t h a t the one s p i r i t  still  asks and have turned t o more immediate and p r a c t i c a l  matters  which can be more e a s i l y s o l v e d .  Some o f them are i r r i t a t e d  by h i s e f f o r t s t o rouse them from t h e i r i n e r t i a and answer him in  a " q u e r u l o u s l y h i g h " tone;  others r e p l y i n a v o i c e  s a d l y low," but they a l l u t t e r the same words: We know not, sang they a l l , nor ever need we know! We know n o t , sang they, what a v a i l s to know?  "softly,  57 The answer of the l a s t s p i r i t questioned, " I know not, I w i l l do my duty," l e a d s t o the c o n c l u s i o n of the poem which combines t h i s p o i n t of view and the one expressed by the q u e s t i o n i n g spirit.  The compromise s o l u t i o n i s contained i n the words,  " t r u e i g n o r a n c e " and "thee" ("thee," presumably r e f e r r i n g t o the s p i r i t who advocates  duty).  By "true i g n o r a n c e , " one  f e e l s , Clough means an ignorance which i s the r e s u l t , not of a r e f u s a l to f a c e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y (as the other s p i r i t * s was), but of the f a c t t h a t , i n s p i t e of a l l man*s determined to g a i n knowledge, the t r u e answers cannot be found.  efforts Then,  a f t e r t h i s p o i n t has been reached, man's only recourse i s duty and the hope t h a t through duty and the a c t i v i t i e s of l i f e , the t r u t h w i l l somehow be r e v e a l e d . The q u a l i t y man must c u l t i v a t e , then, i n order t o a v o i d g i v i n g up too soon as the other " s p i r i t s " d i d , i s courage—courage  to r e s i s t a c t i n g u n t i l t h i s " t r u e i g n o r a n c e "  has been reached, or u n t i l some measure o f t r u t h has been discovered.  T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the theme of Clough*s poem,  "Come back a g a i n , my olden h e a r t ? " (p. 9)»  I n i t , he compares  h i s "olden h e a r t " to h i s present s t a t e of mind, a s s e s s i n g the type of courage he possessed i n each s t a t e , and decides t h a t , although he may have been a b i t too h e s i t a n t and scrupulous then, the courage t o forego a c t i n g u n t i l the t r u t h has been d i s c e r n e d i s of a h i g h e r c a l i b r e than the courage r e q u i r e d t o  58 e a s t aside h e s i t a t i o n and doubt and a r b i t r a r i l y adopt some f a l s e p o s i t i o n i n order t o have a s t a r t i n g p o i n t from which t o act.  F o r , i n choosing  and T r u t h — s a y i n g , good."  the l a t t e r course, he betrayed  i n e f f e c t , "because I w i l l e d i t ,  himself  it is  I n the c o n c l u s i o n of the poem, he says t h a t , i n the  f u t u r e , he w i l l t r y t o s t e e r a middle course  between the  " w i l d s e l f - w i l l " o f today and the " f e a r t h a t f a l t e r e d , p a l t e r e d still"  of y e s t e r d a y — a  confidence  course  t h a t w i l l combine h i s present  and the h i g h e r courage he had f o r m e r l y , Courage t o l e t the courage s i n k , I t s e l f a coward base t o t h i n k , Rather than n o t f o r heavenly l i g h t , Wait on t o show the t r u l y r i g h t .  Another t o p i c which, i n the absence of any c e r t a i n knowledge, c a l l e d f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n was the nature self.  of man him-  The q u e s t i o n , "What i s man and why i s he h e r e ? " , becomes  the r e f r a i n of a number of poems which i l l u s t r a t e the d i a l e c t i c i n theme.  Gn the s u r f a c e , as Clough s t a t e s i n the poem, "What  we, when f a c e t o f a c e we see" (p. 6 l ) , man appears to be no more than a p a s s i v e  instrument,  A mind f o r thoughts t o pass i n t o , A h e a r t f o r l o v e s t o t r a v e l through, F i v e senses t o d e t e c t t h i n g s near. Y e t , man's i n n a t e f e e l i n g of h i s own worth, h i s need t o f e e l t h a t he has a s i g n i f i c a n t work t o do here, p r e c l u d e s h i s  59  acceptance  o f t h i s view.  He i s compelled  t o f i n d an answer  which w i l l s u b s t a n t i a t e h i s i n n e r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t he i s s e r v i n g a h i g h e r purpose than t h i s on earth and has a h i g h e r goal to reach.  Clough  f i n d s i n t h i s poem, however, t h a t i t  i s i m p o s s i b l e t o v a l i d a t e t h i s b e l i e f by o b s e r v a t i o n of l i f e or by reason. tives:  T h i s c o n c l u s i o n l e a v e s him with two a l t e r n a -  he can e i t h e r , " f o r a s s u r a n c e  1  sake," adopt some  " a r b i t r a r y " e x p l a n a t i o n of man's reason f o r e x i s t i n g , or he can continue "to pace the sad c o n f u s i o n through" without any assurance.  As n e i t h e r the t h e s i s nor the a n t i t h e s i s i s  a c c e p t a b l e to Clough, he i s f i n a l l y f o r c e d t o t r u s t h i s f e e l i n g s and the hope t h a t these l e a d him to i n order t o a r r i v e a t a 12 " s o l u t i o n " to t h i s d i a l e c t i c .  As the problem cannot be  s o l v e d i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , he i s f o r c e d to s h i f t terms and " s y n t h e s i z e " h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s on another  plane—an  The d i a l e c t i c i n the poem, "Whence are y e , vague d e s i r e s " (p. 3 8 6 ) , ends on a s i m i l a r note. Unable to determine the source of the vague a s p i r a t i o n s and l o n g i n g s which p e r p l e x and t a n t a l i z e men, t o decide whether they a r e "A message from the b l e s t , Or b o d i l y u n r e s t ; A c a l l t o heavenly good, Or f e v e r i n the b l o o d , " he concludes, e s s e n t i a l l y on f a i t h , t h a t they a r e " f o r some good end designed," and t h a t t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i n d i c a t e s an i n t u i t i v e awareness on man's p a r t o f some h i g h e r Good which he w i l l e v e n t u a l l y achieve union w i t h .  60 emotional or i d e a l  one.  Ah y e t , when a l l i s thought and s a i d , The h e a r t s t i l l o v e r r u l e s the head; S t i l l what we hope we must b e l i e v e , And what i s g i v e n us r e c e i v e ; Must That What Will  s t i l l b e l i e v e , f o r s t i l l we hope i n a world of l a r g e r scope, here i s f a i t h f u l l y begun be completed, not undone.  T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the course t h a t he i s f o r c e d t o f o l l o w i n h i s sonnet sequence  on death, f o r , once a g a i n , he  f i n d s t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to a r r i v e a t any d e f i n i t e through reason.  He  b e g i n s , i n Sonnet #IV,  conclusion  by attempting to  determine, through the d i a l e c t i c a l method, which of the popular b e l i e f s about d e a t h — d e a t h  as the end, or death as the be-  g i n n i n g - - c o n t a i n s the most t r u t h and ends, i n Sonnet #VII, by t r u s t i n g the " l a r g e r hope."  The d i a l e c t i c i n Sonnet #IV,  whether i n the uncoloured l i g h t of T r u t h " (p. 398),  "But  c e n t e r s on  Clough's e f f o r t t o d e c i d e whether man's c o n f i d e n c e i n immortal i t y i s founded or unfounded, whether the b e l i e f w i l l h o l d under  "the uncoloured l i g h t of T r u t h . "  i m p l i c i t i n the q u e s t i o n i n g tone which  The a n t i t h e s i s i s suggests that he  t h a t the o p p o s i t e p o i n t of view ( t h a t with death man e x i s t i n any form) may  be e q u a l l y t r u e .  up  He  feels  ceases to  q u e s t i o n s whether  man's "inward s t r o n g assurance" t h a t there i s l i f e a f t e r death i s based on anything more c o n c r e t e than h i s own d e s i r e t o  61 b e l i e v e t h i s , whether i t i s not j u s t an attempt " t o shut out f a c t , " because l i f e would be " i n s u p p o r t a b l e " without  this  f a i t h , and whether " t h i s v i t a l c o n f i d e n c e " i s any more Than h i s , who upon death's immediate b r i n k Knowing p e r f o r c e determines t o i g n o r e , as a b i r d sensing  the hunter i s near w i l l bury h e r eyes, so  t h a t she "can f o r g e t h e r f e a r . "  He i s unable to answer these  q u e s t i o n s , because there i s no d i s c o v e r a b l e evidence p o i n t s one way or the o t h e r — n o t h i n g b e l i e f — a n d hence concludes  which  but man's p e r s i s t e n t  the poem with an admission o f  defeat—"Who about t h i s s h a l l t e l l us what t o t h i n k ? " There appears t o be no s y n t h e s i s which w i l l r e s o l v e t h i s dialectic. In Sonnet #VI, "But i f , as (not by what the s o u l d e s i r e d " (p. 3 9 9 ) } he continues  the debate, t h i s time t a k i n g  i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the d u r a t i o n of man's b e l i e f i n i m m o r t a l i t y and  the number of "wise" men who have h e l d i t .  s t i l l very q u e s t i o n i n g and t e n t a t i v e ; is  an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s w i s t f u l  indeed,  The mood i s the whole poem  l o n g i n g f o r some  even i f i t be o n l y the bare minimum of b e l i e f .  assurance,  He s t a t e s  t h a t , i f he c o u l d b e l i e v e as other men throughout the ages have "thought"—"(hot  by what the s o u l desired/Swayed i n the  j u d g m e n t ) " — t h a t i n t h i s "human complex" there i s something which s t i l l l i v e s a f t e r death, he would be so r e l i e v e d  that  he would not even ask "when and how."  "Shall  I n Sonnet #VII,  62  I decide i t by a random shot?" (399)> h i s d e s i r e f o r c e r t a i n t y becomes so i n s i s t e n t t h a t he attempts t o s o l v e the dilemma "by a random shot."  The poem thus begins with the a s s e r t i o n t h a t  Our happy hopes, so happy and so good, Are not mere i d l e motions of the b l o o d ; And when they seem most b a s e l e s s , most are n o t . He supports  t h i s statement by suggesting  t h a t , j u s t as the  f l o w e r c o u l d not have grown i f there had not f i r s t so man's i n t u i t i v e confidence  been a seed,  i n i m m o r t a l i t y c o u l d not have  a r i s e n i f i t had not had some b a s i s i n f a c t from which t o s t a r t . He then suppresses the d i a l e c t i c a l thought t h a t t h i s argument c o u l d h o l d t r u e f o r the time when man d e s p a i r s of there  being  a l i f e a f t e r death, too ("What i f d e s p a i r and hope a l i k e be t r u e ? " ) and concludes,  r a t h e r f e e b l y , t h a t , s i n c e death i s  i n e v i t a b l e , man w i l l f i n d l i f e e a s i e r t o f a c e i f he t r u s t s his  moments o f hope, r a t h e r than the moments o f doubt.  Since  there i s no r e a l proof one way or the other, he might as w e l l choose the best  alternative.  Clough's l o v e poems are the l a s t group which c a l l f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s chapter, f o r the s u b j e c t o f l o v e i s one t h a t he gave a g r e a t d e a l of thought t o .  This i n i t s e l f i s  not unusual i n a poet, but h i s approach to the s u b j e c t , f o r a Victorian, i s .  As Henry Sidgwick r a t h e r wryly comments:  Poets, i n f a c t , are the r e c o g n i z e d preachers of the d i v i n i t y , e t e r n i t y , omnipotence of Love. I t i s t r u e  63  t h a t w i t h some of them f i t s of d e s p a i r a l t e r n a t e with enthusiasm, and they p r o c l a i m t h a t Love i s an empty dream: but the n o t i o n of s c r u t i n i z i n g the enthusiasm s y m p a t h e t i c a l l y , y e t s c i e n t i f i c a l l y , and e s t i m a t i n g the p r e c i s e value of i t s c l a i m s and a s s e r t i o n s , probably never entered i n t o any p o e t i c s o u l b e f o r e Clough.13 The m a j o r i t y of h i s l o v e poems are d i s p a s s i o n a t e and  realistic  s t u d i e s , developed, f o r the most p a r t , along the l i n e s of a dialectic. analyze  They are the r e c o r d s of the attempts he made to  the nature  of l o v e and  t o d i s c o v e r the degree of  importance i t should assume i n a man's l i f e . before  (and a f t e r ) him had  F o r , as many  men  turned to l o v e as a r e f u g e when  r e l i g i o n f a i l e d them, he c o u l d not a f f o r d to overlook  this  p o s s i b i l i t y i n h i s search f o r a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n to the problems of l i f e .  The  c o n c l u s i o n he comes t o , however, d i f f e r s  g r e a t l y from the a t t i t u d e taken towards l o v e i n a poem such as Arnold's man  "Dover Beach."  He  f i n d s t h a t the p o s s i b i l i t y of a  a c t u a l l y e x p e r i e n c i n g a l o v e which would be R e s t o r a t i v e , not t o mere o u t s i d e needs Skin-deep, but thoroughly t o the t o t a l man  (Dip.,  IX,  30-32)  is  too u n c e r t a i n t o warrant h i s viewing  i t as an end and  final  ^Sidgwick, "Review of 'The Poems . . .,'" p. 3 7 7 . F. L. Lucas a l s o comments: " I t was not only r e l i g i o u s uncert a i n t y t h a t tormented him. Even i n l o v e , where few men f i n d any d i f f i c u l t y i n being f o o l i s h enough, h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l cons c i e n c e pursues him w i t h doubts . . . ." (Ten V i c t o r i a n P o e t s , p. 6 3 )  6k answer i n i t s e l f .  Thus, Dipsychus decides  that such l o v e  e x i s t s , but . . . so, so r a r e , So d o u b t f u l , so e x c e p t i o n a l , hard t o guess; When guessed, so o f t e n c o u n t e r f e i t ; i n b r i e f , A t h i n g not p o s s i b l y to be conceived An item i n the reckonings of the wise. (IX, 3 3 - 3 7 ) However, before  a r r i v i n g a t t h i s d e c i s i o n , Clough  wrote a number o f poems which i l l u s t r a t e the d i a l e c t i c i n theme—poems such as "When panting  (p. k )  sighs the bosom f i l l "  i n which he t r i e s to determine how one can decide i f the present and  emotion i s l o v e .  should  What are the symptoms of r e a l  a person f o l l o w h i s i n s t i n c t s , h i s reason, both  i n s t i n c t and r e a s o n , or some h i g h e r In the f i r s t analyzed  love,  f a c u l t y i n t h i s matter?  stanza, Clough d e s c r i b e s  the experience to be  i n the poem—the t u r b u l e n t and c o n t r a d i c t o r y f e e l i n g s  which can be produced i n two people by a chance meeting of hands or e y e s — a n d then proceeds to examine a number of p o s s i b l e ways of d e a l i n g w i t h the q u e s t i o n . considers one  In the second stanza, he  the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the emotion d e s c r i b e d i n stanza  may be only sexual  desire.  Gr i s i t but the v u l g a r tune, Which a l l that breathe beneath the moon So a c c u r a t e l y l e a r n — s o soon? But,  he answers h i m s e l f  i n stanza  t h r e e , what i f "Reason"  65 suggests t h a t the sympathy, a d m i r a t i o n and esteem he f e e l s f o r the other person i n d i c a t e s t h a t the emotion i s not j u s t s e x u a l a t t r a c t i o n , but l o v e i n s t e a d ?  However, b e f o r e he can accept  e x p l a n a t i o n , the i n n e r debate begins a g a i n .  this  The v o i c e of "Pru-  dence" speaks from w i t h i n and warns him a g a i n s t making t h i s " I r r e v o c a b l e c h o i c e " too q u i c k l y , because, by so doing, he f o r f e i t the chance of f i n d i n g a t r u e r l o v e l a t e r  may  on—  I hear h i g h Prudence deep w i t h i n , P l e a d i n g the b i t t e r , b i t t e r s t i n g , Should slow-maturing seasons b r i n g , Too l a t e , the v e r i t a b l e t h i n g . F o r , as reason e n t e r e d the p i c t u r e a f t e r the i n i t i a l a t t r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d , emotion may  have prompted him  sexual  to r a t i o n a -  l i z e and to a t t r i b u t e q u a l i t i e s to the r e l a t i o n s h i p which i t did  n o t , i n f a c t , possess.  Hence, he may  be m i s t a k i n g a s h o r t -  l i v e d a t t r a c t i o n f o r the more d u r a b l e " t r e a s u r e " which w i l l appear a t some, f u t u r e time. Thus, he l i t y t h a t i t may  turns i n stanza f o u r to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i be b e t t e r t o b e g i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p on a  r a t i o n a l b a s i s and then l e t the emotional aspect of i t develop. But t h i s approach proves to have l i m i t a t i o n s , a l s o , f o r there i s no way is  of determining whether the emotion experienced  a l a s t i n g one or merely one  of  . . . Phosphoric e x h a l a t i o n bred Of vapour, steaming from the bed Of Fancy's brook, or P a s s i o n ' s r i v e r ,  later  66 which w i l l q u i c k l y d r y up and l e a v e him with the f e e l i n g of having been denied The g i f t f o r which a l l g i f t s above Him p r a i s e we, Who i s Love, the g i v e r . The argument, a t t h i s p o i n t , reaches an impasse,  as once a g a i n  h i s reason i s i n c a p a b l e of s o l v i n g the problem.  There seems  t o be no r a t i o n a l way of determining i f the experience i s "Love  11  or not, of r e s o l v i n g the d i a l e c t i c .  Hence, i n order t o  reach some c o n c l u s i o n , he suggests i n stanza f i v e t h a t Love must be a h i g h e r f a c u l t y than r e a s o n , "Of Seraph-kind, the l o f t i e r l o t , " which i s i t s own testimony, i t s own v a l i d a t i o n , and which i n c l u d e s and supersedes both emotion and reason and goes at once, by a type of i n t u i t i o n , t o the t r u t h .  There i s no  need t o s u b j e c t l o v e t o t h i s type of i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r , when man experiences i t ,  analysis,  there w i l l be no doubts and  h e s i t a t i o n s l e f t — h e w i l l know.  The d i a l e c t i c thus ends, once  more, with Clough having t o t r u s t "the l a r g e r hope" when he i s unable t o answer t h e problem posed, by r a t i o n a l means.  CHAPTER I I I MOOD, TONE, AND FORM " S t i l l as we go the t h i n g s I see, E'en as I see them, cease to be; T h e i r angles swerve and with the boat The whole p e r s p e c t i v e seems to f l o a t . Yet s t i l l I l o o k and s t i l l I s i t , A d j u s t i n g , shaping, a l t e r i n g i t . ("Upon the water, i n the boat," p. 109) In view of the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p which e x i s t s between mood and theme, i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t the d i a l e c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e should be r e f l e c t e d i n juxtaposed moods of Clough's as w e l l as i n i t s themes.  poetry,  The c o n f l i c t i n g p o i n t s of view  which he attempts t o r e c o n c i l e or s y n t h e s i z e  i n his  poetry  g i v e r i s e t o c o n t r a s t i n g moods which r e f l e c t the i n t e l l e c t u a l debate.  Sidgwick remarks on t h i s q u a l i t y o f Clough*s  poetry:  "He i s , then, pre-eminently a p h i l o s o p h i c poet, communicator of moods t h a t depend on profound and complex t r a i n s o f r e f l e c t i o n , a b s t r a c t and h i g h l y r e f i n e d s p e c u l a t i o n s , i n t e l l e c t u a l perceptions."  1  subtle  T h i s i s true of a t l e a s t a good  many o f h i s poems—those i n which the opposing moods serve t o p o i n t up and c l a r i f y the d i a l e c t i c i n theme.  Sidgwick, "Review of 'The Poems . . . ,*" p. 367. 67  68  There are passages i n Clough*s l o n g e r poem, Dipsychus, which p r o v i d e p a r t i c u l a r l y good i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the c o n t r a s t in  mood—passages i n which the c o n t r a s t i n g emotional a t t i t u d e s  adopted by Dipsychus and the S p i r i t towards a c e r t a i n  situation  or  they  q u e s t i o n emphasize the two d i f f e r e n t views of l i f e  hold.  Although, on the s u r f a c e , Dipsychus appears t o be a  d i a l o g u e between two people, i t i s a c t u a l l y a "dialogue of the mind with i t s e l f , " an " i n t e r n a l s u b j e c t i v e mental f i g h t , " the  S p i r i t i s a p r o j e c t i o n of Dipsychus* more w o r l d l y and  materialistic or  as  self.  ''double-minded,"  attempt  The name, "Dipsychus," means "two-souled" and t h i s poem i s the r e c o r d of the hero*s  to r e c o n c i l e the s o u l and the w o r l d , the i d e a l and the  r e a l , h i s d e s i r e f o r c e r t a i n t y and t r u t h and the need f o r p r a c t i c a l a c t i o n , h i s vague a s p i r a t i o n s t o Good and h i s strong a t t r a c t i o n to the t h i n g s of t h i s world, the i n t u i t i o n s  that  come t o him of a "More Beyond" and the v o i c e of common sense which t e l l s him to "submit" and accept l i f e as i t i s .  Dipsychus  h i m s e l f g r a d u a l l y becomes aware i n the course of the debate the  v o i c e of the S p i r i t i s , i n f a c t , the c r e a t i o n of h i s  that  own  i m a g i n a t i o n , born of h i s r e f u s a l t o f a c e the f a c t t h a t these baser thoughts are h i s own.  In Scene I I , i n an attempt to  a s c e r t a i n the o r i g i n and nature of " t h i s p e r s e c u t i n g v o i c e t h a t haunts me,"  he a s k s :  P a t r i e D i c k i n s o n , "Books i n G e n e r a l , " New and N a t i o n , v o l . 2 6 (October 2 3 , 1 9 3 ) , p. 2 7 1 . L  Statesman  69 Myself or not myself? My own bad thoughts, Or some e x t e r n a l agency a t work, To l e a d me who knows whither? ( 1 9 - 2 1 ) Finally,  i n Scene X, he i s f o r c e d to admit the t r u t h and  exclaims: To t h i n e own s e l f be t r u e , the wise man says. Are then my f e a r s myself? 0 double s e l f ? And I untrue t o both. (62-64) T h i s , then, i s why Clough g i v e s the n e u t r a l name of " S p i r i t " t o Dipsychus* a n t a g o n i s t , f o r he i s n o t e v i l i n c a r n a t e , a devil,  or another M e p h i s t o p h e l e s — r a t h e r , as Thomas A r n o l d  remarks,  "the * S p i r i t * i s h i s w o r l d l y s e l f — h i ' s  sense;  i r o n i c a l , s a r c a s t i c and p r u d e n t . "  3  own common  He i s the s i d e of  Dipsychus t h a t would l i k e t o g i v e up the s t r u g g l e t o achieve p e r f e c t i o n , t r u t h , and the Absolute and pursue more immediate and t e r r e s t r i a l g o a l s , t o f o r g e t the s p i r i t u a l and the i d e a l and t h i n k o n l y o f the m a t e r i a l and the r e a l .  As Clough  says  t o h i s uncle i n the E p i l o g u e t o the poem: . . . 'perhaps he wasn*t a d e v i l a f t e r a l l . That's the beauty o f the poem; nobody can say. You see, dear s i r , the t h i n g which i t i s attempted to r e p r e s e n t i s the conf l i c t between the tender c o n s c i e n c e and the world. Now, the over-tender conscience w i l l , o f course, exaggerate the wickedness of the world; and the S p i r i t i n my poem may be merely the h y p o t h e s i s or s u b j e c t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n , formed--* (p. 2 9 ) L  Thomas A r n o l d , "Arthur Hugh Clough:  A Sketch," p. 113  70  The  nature of the s t r u g g l e which Dipsychus undergoes i n the  poem i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the f a c t t h a t there i s a b a s i c t r u t h o f life is  inherent  contained  The  i n many of the S p i r i t ' s a r g u m e n t s — a t r u t h which i n h i s comment t h a t  ... * T i s time you l e a r n Second Reverence, f o r t h i n g s around. (XI,  For the S p i r i t i s n o t simply  a c y n i c a l and c o r r u p t  115-16)  opportunist;  he  i s the v o i c e of Dipsychus* p r a c t i c a l common sense as w e l l .  It  i s h i s common sense which t e l l s him that l i f e  necessitates  compromise, t h a t t h e r e a l demands man*s a t t e n t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n too, t h a t one must, of n e c e s s i t y , . . . t r u c k and p r a c t i s e with the world To g a i n the *vantage-ground t o a s s a i l i t from. (XII,  The  37-38)  answer, thus, as u s u a l , i s the mean which l i e s somewhere  between the two extreme p o s i t i o n s represented the  by Dipsychus and  Spirit. T h i s , however, i s to a n t i c i p a t e the c o n c l u s i o n , f o r  the g r e a t e r p a r t of the poem i s taken up with the debate between the S p i r i t and D i p s y c h u s — e a c h upholding h i s own view of l i f e and attempting t o b r i n g the other t o accept opposite  view.  this  The two s i d e s of the d i a l e c t i c a r e d e f i n e d f o r  the reader perhaps as much by t h e mood, s t y l e , and form of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e statements, as by the content.  A f e e l i n g of i d e a l i s m  71  and moral earnestness informs most o f D i p s y c h u s  1  utterances:—a  depth of f e e l i n g and thought which, i n t u r n , i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  f o r m a l and d i g n i f i e d s t y l e and tone of h i s speeches.  On  the whole, he speaks i n blank v e r s e , uses words a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f o r m a l usage, and employs i n h i s arguments.  a number of b i b l i c a l r e f e r e n c e s  The S p i r i t , on the other hand, u s u a l l y  speaks i n simple rhyming c o u p l e t s nursery-rhyme e f f e c t , employs  which have a j i n g l i n g , almost  an i n f o r m a l and c o l l o q u i a l  style,  and uses a number of slang words and popular e x p r e s s i o n s . emotions expressed i n h i s speeches parody the h i g h of Dipsychus.  The  seriousness  By c o n t r a s t , the S p i r i t * s comments are l i g h t ,  s u p e r f i c i a l , m a t e r i a l i s t i c , c y n i c a l , b a n t e r i n g , and o f t e n bitingly sarcastic.  T h i s i s h i s way  of a t t a c k i n g Dipsychus*  i d e a l i s m — b y r i d i c u l i n g i t and making i t appear to be a  silly  and romantic whim.  Katharine Chorley says: "He d e f i n e s Mephistopheles as much by h i s m e t r i c a l manner as by h i s sentiments. Mephistopheles speaks i n rhyme, and the metres used f o r h i s speeches are jaunty, d e s i g n ed to g i v e an i m p r e s s i o n of smartness and c y n i c i s m . By c o n t r a s t , Dipsychus speaks almost always i n blank verse w i t h smoother and r i c h e r cadences, and t h i s emphasizes, p a r t l y by i t s a s s o c i a t i o n with poems of a h i g h moral and i n t e l l e c t u a l purpose, h i s moral s e r i o u s n e s s and h i s m e d i t a t i v e and unworldly c h a r a c t e r . (Arthur Hugh C l o u g h :  The Uncommitted Mind, p.  2$k)  72  Scene I , f o r example, f i n d s Dipsychus frame of mind and Day."  The  i n the same  the same mood as when Clough wrote "Easter  l o c a l e has changed from Naples to V e n i c e , but  the  s i t u a t i o n which provoked h i s outburst i n Naples has not.  The  d i s c r e p a n c y between the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the R e s u r r e c t i o n - - t h e i d e a of p s y c h o l o g i c a l and moral t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , of r i s i n g to a new  s e l f — a n d the c o r r u p t i o n and  s i n he sees around him  the o l d v e r s e s to mind, and he repeats the f i r s t " E a s t e r Day,"  ending  i s not r i s e n . "  The  again with the anguished S p i r i t ' s condescending  C h r i s t i s not r i s e n ? Wasn't aware t h a t was is  Oh indeed! your creed,  brings  f o u r l i n e s of  denial,  "Christ  and mocking r e p l y ,  (12-13)  i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t t o the moral s e r i o u s n e s s and i d e a l i s m i n -  h e r e n t i n Dipsychus*  outburst.  The d i a l e c t i c i n mood operates  here by a process of c o u n t e r p o i n t — i d e a l i s m i s s e t a g a i n s t m a t e r i a l i s m , and earnestness i s juxtaposed with f a c e t i o u s n e s s and l i g h t - h e a r t e d mockery. as Dipsychus*  w o r l d l y s e l f , speaks f o r the elements of  t h a t Dipsychus* against.  life  conscience and r e l i g i o u s sense make him r e b e l  H i s j e e r i n g words r e f l e c t the a t t i t u d e the world  adopts towards those who to  For the S p i r i t , as the m a t e r i a l i s t ,  w i l l not accept i t s ways and conform  them— . . . Dear, how odd! H e * l l t e l l us next there i s no God. I thought *twas i n the B i b l e p l a i n , On the t h i r d day He rose again. (15-18)  73  R i d i c u l e i s a f a v o r i t e weapon of the world, as i s the use of a word such as "odd" to d e s c r i b e any d e v i a t i o n from the norm, for  i t immediately suggests t h a t t h e r e i s something wrong with  the  c r i t i c , r a t h e r than with what he i s a t t a c k i n g . As Scene I c o n t i n u e s , the S p i r i t becomes the spokesman  for  the need t o get the most enjoyment from every moment, from  each s e n s u a l good t h a t p r e s e n t s i t s e l f .  He does not l o o k  beneath the b r i g h t s u r f a c e of l i f e as Dipsychus does.  For he  l a c k s Dipsychus* v i s i o n of the i d e a l and hence, he  cannot  understand the d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t and r e p u l s i o n which  assail  Dipsychus when he compares the r e v e l r y t a k i n g p l a c e around him with the " s i l e n t s t a r s " and with the a s p i r a t i o n s and h i g h e r f e e l i n g s of man  which  these s t a r s symbolize t o him.  Unable t o  r e c o n c i l e h i s p e r c e p t i o n s of the i d e a l with the r e a l i t y surrounding him, Dipsychus r e j e c t s the i m p e r f e c t world; the to  while  S p i r i t r e v e l s i n the a c t i o n and g a i e t y and urges Dipsychus j o i n the f u n .  The w i s t f u l and d i s i l l u s i o n e d mood e v i d e n t  i n Dipsychus* words a t the end of t h i s scene i s opposed  to the  e n e r g e t i c , b r a c i n g , p r a c t i c a l , and j o c u l a r tone of the  Spirit's  advice t o him. . . .Enjoy the minute, And the s u b s t a n t i a l b l e s s i n g s i n i t ; I c e s , par exemple; evening a i r ; Company, and t h i s handsome square; (50-53) Up, up; i t isn't f i t With -beggars here on s t e p s t o s i t . Up--to the c a f e ! Take a c h a i r and j o i n the w i s e r i d l e r s t h e r e . (55-58)  7  k  S i n g i n g , ye gods, and dancing t o o — Tooraloo, tooraloo, tooraloo, l o o ; F i d d l e d i , d i d d l e d i , d i d d l e d i da F i g a r o su, F i g a r o g i u — F i g a r o qua, F i g a r o l a j How he l i k e s doing i t ! Ah, ha, h a !  (63-68)  One notes i n t h i s passage the i m p r e s s i o n of a c t i o n and energy which i s conveyed by the s h o r t , s w i f t l y moving l i n e s , and by the numerous e j a c u l a t i o n s and exclamatory sentences, the slang e x p r e s s i o n s , and the words which suggest s i n g i n g and l a u g h t e r . The l i n e s c a p t u r e p e r f e c t l y the l i g h t - h e a r t e d mood of the crowd, t h e i r complete absence of i n t e r e s t i n the moral q u e s t i o n s which concern Dipsychus and which prompt h i s w i s t f u l and d i s i l l u s i o n e d reply':  "While these do w h a t — a h heaven!" ( 6 9 ) .  Scene IIA, which takes p l a c e a t the quays, c o n t i n u e s the debate begun i n the p u b l i c garden i n Scene I I w i t h the Spirit s t i l l  urging Dipsychus t o c a s t a s i d e h i s moral s c r u p l e s  and have a b r i e f a f f a i r with one of the I t a l i a n g i r l s walking byIll's  only cure i s , never doubt  To d o — a n d  t h i n k no more about  it, it.  Dipsychus cannot r e g a r d the matter so l i g h t l y , however;  he  has an i d e a l c o n c e p t i o n of l o v e and f e e l s t h a t i t should e x i s t on a h i g h e r plane than the s e x u a l one.  He c a l l s on h i s memories  Of mothers, and of s i s t e r s , and chaste wives, And angel'woman-faces we have seen, And a n g e l woman-spirits we have guessed, And i n n o c e n t sweet c h i l d r e n , and pure l o v e , ( 5 - 8 )  75 t o keep him pure and prevent him from a c c e p t i n g advice.  The mood o f " r i g h t e o u s  11  the S p i r i t ' s  contempt i n which he a t t a c k s  the S p i r i t ' s a t t i t u d e towards women and l o v e p r o v i d e s a striking  c o n t r a s t t o the mood o f amused t o l e r a n c e evident i n  the S p i r i t ' s r e p l y .  Dipsychus  says:  Could I b e l i e v e t h a t any c h i l d o f Eve Were formed and f a s h i o n e d , r a i s e d and r e a r e d f o r nought But t o be s w i l l e d with animal d e l i g h t r> And y i e l d f i v e minutes* p l e a s u r e t o the m a l e — ( 2-H>5) k  The  words, " s w i l l e d  1 1  and "animal d e l i g h t , " very  powerfully  convey Dipsychus* contempt f o r t h i s type of r e l a t i o n s h i p and the a t t i t u d e taken by the S p i r i t and the world towards spirit  it—the  o f acceptance and amused t o l e r a n c e e v i d e n t i n the  Spirit's  reply: With a hey and a ho, and a hey nonino! Betwixt the acres of t h e r y e , With a hey and a ho, and a hey nonino? These p r e t t y country f o l k s would l i e — In the s p r i n g time, the p r e t t y s p r i n g time. T h i s c a r e f r e e song which echoes " I t was a l o v e r and h i s  ( 6-5D k  lass"  from As You L i k e I t i l l u s t r a t e s how l i g h t l y such a r e l a t i o n s h i p i s g e n e r a l l y regarded.  By c o n t r a s t , the s e r i o u s n e s s  of Dipsychus*  approach t o the s u b j e c t stands out even more c l e a r l y —  f o r the  S p i r i t ' s r e p l y i s a s a t i r i c mockery of a l l Dipsychus* f e e l i n g s  I t a l i c s mine.  76  and thoughts about l o v e .  The form, mood and content of t h e i r  statements once a g a i n , then, a r e d i a l e c t i c a l l y  opposed.  The second major t o p i c t o be d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s chapter i s the way i n which the d i a l e c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e i n the form of Clough*s p o e t r y .  the  the d i a l e c t i c term—form  itself  B e f o r e b e g i n n i n g , i t would  be w e l l t o c l a r i f y what i s meant by form h e r e . of  reveals  My examination  i n form i s based on the o l d e r l i t e r a r y use of  i n the sense of an e x t e r n a l arrangement of  s t a n z a s , l i n e s , and words, r a t h e r than i n the more modern sense of organic form.  I have chosen t o adopt t h i s  approach  to the q u e s t i o n of form, because-I f e e l t h a t , as a number of Clough*s s h o r t e r poems show an e x t e r n a l d i a l e c t i c a l p a t t e r n , t h i s method i s more s u i t a b l e t b the poems under d i s c u s s i o n . In "The human s p i r i t s saw I on a day" ( p . 1 ) , f o r example,  the d i a l e c t i c  i n form i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  e v i d e n t i n the  second s t a n z a , which c o n s i s t s of a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s and answers examined  that p o i n t up the two d i f f e r e n t  attitudes to l i f e  6  i n t h i s poem:  Dost thou not know t h a t these t h i n g s only seem?— I know n o t , l e t me dream my dream. Are dust and ashes f i t t o make a t r e a s u r e ? — I know n o t , l e t me take my p l e a s u r e . What s h a l l a v a i l the knowledge thou h a s t s o u g h t ? — I know n o t , l e t me t h i n k my thought. What i s the end of s t r i f e ? —  See the d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s poem which appears i n Chapter I I , p. 5 6 .  77 I know n o t , l e t me l i v e my l i f e . And when the r e s t were over p a s t , I know n o t , I w i l l do my duty, s a i d the l a s t . In  the g e n e r a l p l a n of the poem, there i s evidence of the  d i a l e c t i c a l principle also.  Stanza one e s t a b l i s h e s the t o p i c  and the b a s i c p o s i t i o n s taken by men towards the t o p i c and s e t s the scene, and stanza two develops the t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s by a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n s and answers.  Stanza three  pushes the l a s t answer t o i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n — w h e n  life i s  f i n i s h e d , w i l l he s t i l l be a b l e t o r e l y on duty, "Or w i l t thou be where t h e r e i s none?";  and f i n a l l y , stanza f o u r  r e s o l v e s the d i a l e c t i c by a compromise s o l u t i o n which o u t l i n e s the need t o a r r i v e a t " t r u e i g n o r a n c e " f i r s t of  b e f o r e one then,  n e c e s s i t y , t u r n s t o duty. The s u b j e c t of the poem, "Say w i l l i t , when our h a i r s  are  grey" (p. 3 8 8 ) , i s o l d age and how one can b e s t  one*s time then.  occupy  Glough i s c o n f r o n t e d by a number of p o s s i -  b i l i t i e s , and, as he i s unable t o decide which one of them i s the most r e l i a b l e source of comfort, he p r e s e n t s these v a r i o u s p o i n t s o f view i n the form of q u e s t i o n s , r a t h e r than i n the form o f statements. i s n o t too important; in  The stanza arrangement i n the poem, then, r a t h e r , the d i a l e c t i c i n form r e s i d e s  the grouping o f l i n e s , with every few l i n e s  constituting  another q u e s t i o n and an a l t e r n a t i v e p o i n t of view.  78 Say, w i l l i t soothe lone years t o e x t r a c t From f i t f u l shows with sense exact T h e i r sad residuum s m a l l of f a c t ? W i l l t r e m b l i n g nerves t h e i r s o l a c e f i n d In p l a i n c o n c l u s i o n s of the mind? Gr were i t to our k i n d and r a c e , And our i n s t r u c t e d s e l f , d i s g r a c e To wander then once more i n you, Green f i e l d s , beneath the p l e a s a n t b l u e ; To dream as we were used to dream, And l e t t h i n g s be whate'er they seem? One  remembers here t h a t the f o u r t h sonnet on death,  whether i n the uncoloured  "But  l i g h t of Truth"'' (p. 398), a l s o  takes the form of a s e r i e s of questions and t h a t Clough i s not a b l e to r e s o l v e the dilemma there e i t h e r — " W h o about t h i s s h a l l t e l l us what t o t h i n k ? " Perhaps the most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n t h a t the d i a l e c t i c i n form t a k e s , however, i s the one found in  the f i r s t  stanza of "*01d  i n miniature  t h i n g s need not be t h e r e f o r e  t r u e * " (p. 89). *01d t h i n g s need not be t h e r e f o r e t r u e , * 0 b r o t h e r men, nor y e t the new; Ah! s t i l l awhile the o l d thought r e t a i n , And y e t c o n s i d e r i t a g a i n ! The  first  l i n e s t a t e s the t h e s i s , the second l i n e g i v e s the  a n t i t h e s i s , and the f o l l o w i n g l i n e s suggest  See Chapter I I , p.  60  a possible solution.  79 I f one expands t h i s b a s i c p a t t e r n , one has the form which i s p r e s e n t i n a good many of Clough's poems.  The f i r s t  stanza of  such a poem u s u a l l y i n t r o d u c e s the t o p i c of the debate and the c o n f l i c t i n g i n the middle  o p i n i o n s g e n e r a l l y h e l d about the t o p i c .  Then,  s e c t i o n of the poem, the t h e s i s and a n t i t h e s i s  are examined i n d e t a i l and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s and f a l l a c i e s c a r e f u l l y noted. admission reached  F i n a l l y , the poem concludes  e i t h e r with an  of d e f e a t i n the l a s t s t a n z a , as no answer can be  a t the moment, with the d e c i s i o n t o a v o i d adopting  e i t h e r p o i n t of view u n t i l some f u r t h e r t r u t h i s r e v e a l e d , or with a d e f i n i t e s y n t h e s i s or s o l u t i o n which has e i t h e r been a r r i v e d a t i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , o r , as i n most c a s e s , by s h i f t i n g t o the realm of the emotional or the i d e a l . T h i s i s b a s i c a l l y the p a t t e r n f o l l o w e d i n the poem, "Whence are y e , vague d e s i r e s " (p. 3 8 6 ) .  I n stanzas one and  two, Clough p r e s e n t s the problem to be worked out i n the poem— Whence are ye, vague d e s i r e s , Which c a r r y men a l o n g , However proud and s t r o n g ; And, having r u l e d to-day, Tomorrow pass away? Whence a r e y e , vague d e s i r e s ? Whence a r e ye? Then i n stanzas three and f o u r , c a r e f u l l y b a l a n c i n g one p o i n t of view a g a i n s t the other, he examines two of the e x p l a n a t i o n s which c o u l d p o s s i b l y be advanced by men concerning the source  80 of these vague a s p i r a t i o n s and l o n g i n g s which u n s e t t l e and perplex  mankind. From seats of b l i s s above, Where angels s i n g of l o v e ; Or from the a i r s around, Or from the v u l g a r ground, Whence are ye, vague d e s i r e s ? Whence a r e ye?  One n o t i c e s t h a t the q u e s t i o n ,  "Whence a r e y e , vague d e s i r e s ? " ,  i s repeated a t the end of each stanza  u n t i l a conclusion i s  reached—whereupon the form o f the l i n e changes t o the exclamation,  "Ah y e t , ye vague d e s i r e s , / A h  r e f r a i n i s s e t o f f from the other serves has  yet!"  The f a c t t h a t the  l i n e s i n the stanza  also  t o emphasize G l o u g h s u n c e r t a i n t y and the d i f f i c u l t y he 1  i n s o l v i n g t h i s problem.  e i g h t , he catalogues  From stanza f i v e t o stanza  the e f f e c t which these d e s i r e s have on  men, women, boys and g i r l s , but i s s t i l l unable t o a r r i v e a t an answer t o the q u e s t i o n .  The t u r n i n g p o i n t comes i n stanza  nine when Clough, f i n d i n g t h a t the problem cannot be s o l v e d r a t i o n a l l y , decides  t o t r u s t h i s i n t u i t i o n and emotions and the  affirmative conclusion  that these l e a d him t o —  Ah y e t , though man be marred, Ignoble made and h a r d ; Though broken women l i e In anguish down t o d i e ; Ah y e t , ye vague d e s i r e s , Ah y e t ! The p e t a l s of to-day, To-morrow f a l l e n away,  81 S h a l l something l e a v e i n s t e a d , To l i v e when they are dead; When you, ye vague d e s i r e s , When you Have vanished, t o s u r v i v e ; Gf you indeed d e r i v e Apparent e a r t h l y b i r t h , But o f f a r other worth Than you, ye vague d e s i r e s , Than you. Another  I  ,  e x t e r n a l form t h a t the d i a l e c t i c a l p r i n c i p l e •  o f t e n assumes i n Clough*s p o e t r y i s that of a debate between two people or groups o f people. thesis"  I n the poem, " T h e s i s and A n t i -  (p. 4 0 0 ) , f o r example, the form n e c e s s a r i l y f o l l o w s the  theme of a debate between age and y o u t h — t h e p e r e n n i a l argument between d i f f e r e n t  g e n e r a t i o n s which p i t s wisdom and experience  a g a i n s t youth's enthusiasm and d e s i r e t o l i v e and experience f o r i t s e l f . - The poem begins with the young people's p l e a t o the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n not t o judge them b e f o r e l i s t e n i n g t o t h e i r s i d e of the argument— I f t h a t we thus are g u i l t y doth appear, Ah, g u i l t y t h o ' we a r e , grave judges, h e a r ! Stanza one, thus, i s concerned with the development of the t h e s i s , with youth's p o i n t of view and the argument t h a t , i f t h e i r e l d e r s have e r r e d i n t h e i r youth, have i n d u l g e d i n any sensuous and eager l i v i n g  ( " — a s which of you has n o t ? — " ) ,  then they should take t h i s f a c t i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n and not be too harsh on those who are i n t h a t stage of l i f e now.  82 Then be not s t e r n t o f a u l t s y o u r s e l v e s have known, To others h a r s h , k i n d t o y o u r s e l v e s a l o n e . Stanza two c o n t a i n s the a n t i t h e s i s — t h e o l d e r people's r e p l y t o youth.  They c o n s i d e r the p o i n t made i n the preceding  stanza and admit i t s v a l i d i t y — " T h a t we went wrong we say not i s not t r u e " — , but decide t h a t the f a c t t h a t they e r r e d does not d i s q u a l i f y them as judges, b u t , on the c o n t r a r y , i n c r e a s e s t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o see t h a t t h e i r youngsters  do not make  the same mistakes. But, i f we e r r e d , were we not punished too? I f n o t — i f no one checked our wandering f e e t , — S h a l l we our parents* n e g l i g e n c e r e p e a t ? — F o r f u t u r e times t h a t a n c i e n t l o s s renew, I f none saved us.,forbear from saving you, Nor l e t t h a t j u s t i c e i n your f a u l t s be seen Which i n our own or was or should have been? In stanza t h r e e , youth makes one l a s t attempt t o b r i n g the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n t o accept i t s p o i n t of v i e w — Yet, y e t , r e c a l l the mind t h a t you had then, And, so r e c a l l i n g , l i s t e n y e t again. " I f you escaped," they argue, i t i s c l e a r l y proof t h a t  "impunity  may l e a v e a c u l p r i t good," and " i f you were punished," you, d o u b t l e s s , d i d not f e e l then, as you do now, t h a t the p u n i s h ment was j u s t .  They then conclude  t h e i r e l d e r s to f o l l o w a middle  t h e i r argument by asking  course which w i l l a v o i d the  extremes i n h e r e n t i n the "indulgence" of youth " s e v e r i t y " of a g e —  and the  83  In youth's indulgence t h i n k there y e t might be A t r u t h f o r g o t by grey s e v e r i t y ; That s t r i c t n e s s and t h a t l a x i t y between, Be yours the wisdom t o d e t e c t the mean. Stanza f o u r c o n t a i n s age's answer to t h i s r e q u e s t and the c o n c l u s i o n of t h e poem.  The b a s i c i d e a expressed here by the  o l d e r men i s that i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o r e s o l v e t h e debate i n a way which w i l l s a t i s f y both s i d e s , because, i f they took every aspect of the q u e s t i o n i n t o account, they would never a c t . There comes a time when a d e c i s i o n must be made and adhered t o , even though  i t be a r a t h e r a r b i t r a r y one. Here Clough  ruefully  laughs a t h i s own tendency t o weigh every p o i n t of view b e f o r e coming t o a d e c i s i o n — a tendency which too o f t e n prevented him from  acting. * T i s p o s s i b l e young s i r , t h a t some excess Mars y o u t h f u l judgment and o l d men's no l e s s ; Yet we must take our c o u n s e l as we may For ( f l y i n g years t h i s l e s s o n s t i l l convey), * T i s worst unwisdom t o be overwise, And not t o use, but s t i l l c o r r e c t one's eyes.  The e x t e r n a l form of t h i s poem, then, i s t h a t of a d e b a t e — w i t h stanza one p r e s e n t i n g youth's p o i n t of view (the t h e s i s ) ; stanza two, age's ( t h e a n t i t h e s i s ) ; youth a g a i n ; poem.  stanza t h r e e r e t u r n i n g t o  and stanza f o u r , t o age and the c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e  CHAPTER IV IMAGERY AND  CHARACTERS  "I a l s o know not, and I need not know, Only with q u e s t i o n i n g s pass I to and f r o , P e r p l e x i n g these t h a t s l e e p , and i n t h e i r f o l l y Imbreeding doubt and s c e p t i c melancholy." ("The human s p i r i t s saw I on a day," P. 1) T h i s f i n a l chapter w i l l d i s c u s s imagery and c h a r a c t e r s , the i m a g i n a t i v e and dramatic  embodiment of the d i a l e c t i c i n  theme d e a l t with i n Chapter I .  That Clough possessed  i m a g i n a t i v e r e s o u r c e s of a poet i s c l e a r from the  magnificent  imagery present i n a s h o r t e r poem, such as "Say not s t r u g g l e naught a v a i l e t h " (p.  the  the  63)—  For w h i l e the t i r e d waves, v a i n l y b r e a k i n g , Seem here no p a i n f u l i n c h to g a i n , Far back through creeks and I n l e t s making Came, s i l e n t , f l o o d i n g i n , the main, And not by e a s t e r n windows o n l y , When d a y l i g h t comes, comes i n the l i g h t , In f r o n t the sun climbs slow, how s l o w l y , But westward, l o o k , the l a n d i s b r i g h t . Or, i n a longer poem, such as The  Bothie—  But a r e v u l s i o n wrought i n the b r a i n and bosom of E l s p i e ; And the p a s s i o n she j u s t had compared to the vehement ocean, Urging i n h i g h s p r i n g - t i d e i t s m a s t e r f u l way through the mountains,  85  F o r c i n g and f l o o d i n g the s i l v e r y stream, as i t runs from the inland; That g r e a t power withdrawn, r e c e d i n g here and p a s s i v e , F e l t she i n myriad s p r i n g s , her sources, f a r i n the mountains, S t i r r i n g , c o l l e c t i n g , r i s i n g , upheaving, f o r t h - o u t f l o w i n g , Taking and j o i n i n g , r i g h t welcome, that d e l i c a t e r i l l i n the valley, F i l l i n g i t , making i t s t r o n g , and s t i l l descending, seeking, With a b l i n d f o r e f e e l i n g descending ever, and s e e k i n g , With a d e l i c i o u s f o r e f e e l i n g , the great s t i l l sea b e f o r e i t ; There deep i n t o i t , f a r , t o c a r r y , and l o s e i n i t s bosom, Waters t h a t s t i l l from t h e i r sources e x h a u s t l e s s are f a i n to be added. (VII,  153-65)  However, i n the few poems of Clough i n which the d i a l e c t i c i s conveyed p r i m a r i l y through imagery, the imagery i t s e l f i s n o t , on the whole, t h i s s u c c e s s f u l . in  "Why  In these poems, p a r t i c u l a r l y  should I say I see the t h i n g s I see n o t " and  "The  S i l v e r Wedding! on some pensive e a r , " the reader i s aware that the  images are being used t o p r e s e n t the terms of an argument  and hence, they do not evoke as i n t e n s e an emotional response from him.  A n a l y s i s and r e a s o n seem to be more dominant  than i m a g i n a t i o n and e m o t i o n — w i t h  here  the e x c e p t i o n of the poem,  "Epi-Strauss-Sum," i n which a more i m a g i n a t i v e f u s i o n of thought, f e e l i n g , and image takes p l a c e . In  the poem, " E p i - S t r a u s s - i u m " (p. *+9), Clough r e t u r n s  once more to the s u b j e c t of the S t r a u s s i a n H i g h e r C r i t i c i s m of the  B i b l e i n an e f f o r t to determine whether man  n i z e and a c c e p t —  should r e c o g -  86 Matthew and Mark and Luke and h o l y John Evanished a l l and g o n e ! — the change which the S t r a u s s i a n c r i t i c i s m has wrought i n h i s view of C h r i s t i a n i t y or whether he irreparable  should f e e l a sense of  loss—  Are, say you, Matthew, Mark and Luke and h o l y John? Lost i s i t ? l o s t , to be recovered never? A f t e r examining the nature of r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f before  and  a f t e r S t r a u s s , he concludes t h a t , although r e l i g i o n has much of i t s r i c h n e s s and with reason and  Truth.  c o l o u r , i t i s now  achieves a more genuinely  imaginative  embodying the d i a l e c t i c and 1  "the  Orb."  more i n accordance  T h i s i s a r a t h e r p r o s a i c statement of  the s u b j e c t matter of "Epi-Strauss-ium,"  ( C l o u g h s term f o r God)  lost  however|'  expression  f o r Clough  of theme by  the c o n c l u s i o n i n imagery.  i s represented  Truth  i n the poem by the  F o r m e r l y , Clough says, the sun shone through  sun, the  multi-coloured  s t a i n e d g l a s s windows of medieval churches  (representing  t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n i t y with i t s dogmas and  r i t u a l s , and  i t s b e l i e f i n the B i b l e as i n s p i r e d  " i n t e r c e p t e d " the  truth) that  light—  Yea, he t h a t e r s t , h i s dusky c u r t a i n s q u i t t i n g , Through E a s t e r n p i c t u r e d panes h i s l e v e l beams t r a n s m i t t i n g , With gorgeous p o r t r a i t s b l e n t , On them h i s g l o r i e s i n t e r c e p t e d spent. But,  s i n c e S t r a u s s , the sun has  moved to the southwest and  now  87 shines "through windows p l a i n l y g l a s s e d , " and, i n the b r i g h t l i g h t of Truth which the c l e a r windows (reason) l e t pass through, b e l i e f i n e v e r y t h i n g but the essence of C h r i s t i a n i t y has disappeared.  Thus, a f t e r b a l a n c i n g the advantages  of the  s t a i n e d g l a s s windows a g a i n s t those of the c l e a r and p l a i n g l a s s windows, Clough concludes that The p l a c e of worship the meantime with l i g h t I s , i f l e s s r i c h l y , more s i n c e r e l y b r i g h t , And i n blue s k i e s the Orb i s manifest t o s i g h t . S i m i l a r l y , i n the poem, "Why  should I say I see the  t h i n g s I see n o t " (p. .21), Clough uses imagery the debate t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n him.  t o dramatize  Should he conform t o the  world's standards of behaviour or w a i t f o r the v o i c e of h i s own c o n s c i e n c e t o show him the way, dance t o the music world or of the s o u l .  of the  P a r t I o f the poem begins with the  defiant question, Why should I say I see the t h i n g s I see n o t , Why be and be not? S i n c e , i n f a c t , he n e i t h e r understands many of the i d e a s people b e l i e v e i n , nor f e e l s n a t u r a l l y i n c l i n e d to a c t , t h i n k and respond i n the p r e s c r i b e d manner, he cannot see why he should conform t o the standards of s o c i e t y and "dance about t o music t h a t I hear n o t . " F o r , i n so d o i n g , he i s p l a y i n g the p a r t of a h y p o c r i t e and denying h i s own i n d i v i d u a l i t y .  In the f o l l o w i n g  88 l i n e s , Clough proceeds to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n h i m s e l f , c i t i n g through an extended metaphor of the dance of l i f e the h i g h price  of n o n - c o n f o r m i t y —  Who standeth s t i l l i * the s t r e e t S h a l l be h u s t l e d and j u s t l e d about; And he that stops i * the dance s h a l l be spurned by the dancers* f e e t , — S h a l l be shoved and t w i s t e d by a l l he s h a l l meet, And s h a l l r a i s e up an o u t c r y and r o u t . His  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the problems which r e s u l t from a  r e f u s a l t o t h i n k and a c t l i k e most people causes him to q u e s t i o n next the v e r y b a s i s of h i s i n i t i a l s t a n d — h i s conf i d e n c e i n the v a l i d i t y of h i s own f e e l i n g s  and b e l i e f s .  What  i f , he t h i n k s , h i s r e l u c t a n c e to take h i s p a r t i n the "dance" is  the r e s u l t of h i s own f a i l u r e to understand?  to now the  Perhaps up  a "humming" i n h i s ears has prevented him from h e a r i n g  "music" that the r e s t of the w o r l d seems to hear, and,  once  t h i s s t a t i c c l e a r s , he w i l l suddenly " i n a moment read the whole" and v o l u n t a r i l y take h i s p l a c e i n s o c i e t y — And hand i n hand, and h e a r t w i t h h e a r t , w i t h these r e t r e a t , advance; And borne on wings of wavy sound, W h i r l w i t h these around, around, Who here are l i v i n g i n the l i v i n g dance? In view of t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , i t may  be best t o "keep amid the  t h r o n g " and go through the motions of l i f e f o r the p r e s e n t . by r e j e c t i n g  s o c i e t y too q u i c k l y , he may miss the chance t o  For,  89 a c q u i r e the knowledge t h a t the o t h e r s seem t o p o s s e s s — a n d "Why f o r f e i t t h a t f a i r chance?" does not end h e r e ;  However, the i n n e r debate  f o r , b e f o r e he can a c t on t h i s thought, h i s  o l d doubts r e - a s s e r t themselves and he c r i e s i n sudden  fear:  Alas? a l a s I • a l a s ? - a n d what i f a l l along The music i s n o t sounding. T h i s e x p r e s s i o n of doubt marks the c o n c l u s i o n o f P a r t I and h i s examination of one p o i n t of v i e w — n a m e l y , the view t h a t t h e r e i s only one v e r s i o n of t r u t h , the world's, and man must e i t h e r accept these r u l e s of conduct or e l s e f a c e l i f e alone without any guide t o a c t i o n . In Part I I , Clough weighs the p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e r e being two guides that man can f o l l o w when a c t i n g — " A r e t h e r e n o t , then, two musics unto men?"  The d i a l e c t i c i n t h i s  section  of the poem i s conveyed p r i m a r i l y through imagery, w i t h Clough b a l a n c i n g two i m a g e s — t h e music  music of the world a g a i n s t the  of the s o u l — a n d thus seeking t o determine which i s the  most t r u s t w o r t h y sound f o r man t o l i s t e n t o .  The d e c i s i o n  which he f i n a l l y reaches i s apparent from the beginning i n the a d j e c t i v e s used to d e s c r i b e these two musics.  He f i n d s that  the music of the world i s "loud and b o l d and c o a r s e " — Only of fumes of f o o l i s h f a n c y bred, And sounding s o l e l y i n the sounding head.  90  Men  are so overpowered by the volume of t h i s music t h a t they  f a i l to r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s l e a d i n g them a s t r a y , t h a t i t i s based not on T r u t h , but The  music of the  on f a l s e and m a t e r i a l i s t i c  s o u l , i n c o n t r a s t , i s " s o f t and  values. low,"  S t e a l i n g whence we not know, P a i n f u l l y heard, and e a s i l y f o r g o t , With pauses o f t and many a s i l e n c e strange; (And s i l e n t o f t i t seems, when s i l e n t i t i s n o t ) . As man  i s pressed  variety to l i v e .  upon from every s i d e and  of o p i n i o n , i t i s h a r d f o r him However, i f man  conscience,  by  t o f i n d the true  way  searches, i n s t e a d , h i s  he w i l l , Clough f e e l s , e v e n t u a l l y  rewarded with a glimpse of  such  r e s i s t s the i n c l i n a t i o n t o f o l l o w  the louder music of the world and s o u l and  encircled  own  be  Truth.  T h i s i s the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t he comes to i n P a r t I I I , as once again he  i s f o r c e d to r e s o l v e h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  s p i r i t u a l d i f f i c u l t i e s by t r u s t i n g the u l t i m a t e  and  to h i s i n t u i t i v e b e l i e f i n  emergence of T r u t h , to h i s f a i t h t h a t , i n time,  Though drums do r o l l , and p i p e s and cymbals r i n g ; So the bare conscience of the b e t t e r t h i n g U n f e l t , unseen, unimaged, a l l unknown, , May f i x the entranced s o u l *mid m u l t i t u d e s alone.  One notes i n t h i s passage t h a t , once a g a i n , Clough makes no attempt to d e f i n e the nature of t h i s T r u t h , f o r f e a r t h a t , i n so d o i n g , he may misrepresent or d i s t o r t i t .  91  The e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s poem, with perhaps the e x c e p t i o n of P a r t I I I , i s n o t as genuinely i m a g i n a t i v e as t h a t found i n "Epi-Strauss-lum.  M  The imagery appears, a t times, t o be  imposed on the argument, and the poem, as a whole, appeals more t o the i n t e l l e c t than t o the emotions.  However, the  c o n t r a s t i n g images of the music o f the world and the music of the s o u l do serve to make the terms of the i n n e r debate more concrete. In the l a s t poem t o be c o n s i d e r e d h e r e , "The S i l v e r Wedding? on some pensive e a r " (p. 1 9 ) , the imagery embodying the d i a l e c t i c  seems r a t h e r c o n t r i v e d .  T h i s i s perhaps because,  as i s the case w i t h most o c c a s i o n a l poems, the c r e a t i v e  impulse  arose not from a p e r s o n a l emotion or problem o f Clough*s, but from an e x t e r n a l source, a r e q u e s t t h a t he w r i t e a few v e r s e s t o commemorate some f r i e n d s * t w e n t y - f i f t h wedding a n n i v e r s a r y . The way i n which he works out the d i a l e c t i c by using imagery taken from m e t a l l u r g y , the a r t of s e p a r a t i n g and r e f i n i n g metals, i s r a t h e r i n g e n i o u s .  The s u b j e c t of the poem, as one  might expect, i s romantic l o v e and the g r a d u a l change which i t undergoes with the " s u b t l e s t alchemy of the y e a r s , " as i t i s r e f i n e d i n t h e c r u c i b l e of l i f e . the i n t e n s i t y of the i n i t i a l  Clough begins by b a l a n c i n g  emotion—  The golden joys of f a n c y ' s dawning b r i g h t , The golden b l i s s o f , Woo*d, and won, and wed—  92 against  the more subdued a t t r a c t i o n he f e e l s must e x i s t  a f t e r t w e n t y - f i v e years have passed.  As g o l d  is a purer  more v a l u a b l e metal than s i l v e r , the c o n t r a s t i n g  and  images t h a t  he u s e s t o d e s c r i b e  each s t a t e C g o l d v e r s u s  t h a t t h e i r l o v e was  a t i t s h e i g h t when they were f i r s t  Hence he  now  silver)  suggest  married.  concludes:  Ah, golden then, but s i l v e r now? In sooth, The years that p a l e the cheek, t h a t dim the eyes, And s i l v e r o'er the golden h a i r s of youth, Less p r i z e d can make i t s o n l y p r i c e l e s s p r i z e . One f i n d s i n the f o l l o w i n g s t a n z a , however, t h a t Clough has proposed t h i s p o i n t of view only f o r the sake of argument; for  he now  o f f e r s an a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n .  says, the"golden j o y " of y o u t h f u l l o v e was the " f a i r y g o l d of dreams." r e f i n e d and transmuted c r u c i b l e of l i f e ,  "Not  so," he  a "baser metal,"  I n r e a l i t y , t h e i r l o v e has been  i n t o a more "genuine  substance" by the  by the "cares and tears,/And deeds together  done, and t r i a l s p a s t " of the ensuing y e a r s .  I t has been  p u r i f i e d by s u f f e r i n g and experience and i s a stronger and t r u e r emotion now  than i t was  m e t a l l u r g e i s human l i f e ! "  He  a t the b e g i n n i n g — s u c h a "Strange then takes t h i s analogy  one  step f u r t h e r and suggests t h a t the s i l v e r of t h e i r present l o v e w i l l a l s o undergo a change and w i l l be r e f i n e d i n t o "pure" g o l d by t h e i r f i f t i e t h a n n i v e r s a r y or a f t e r t h e i r death.  At t h i s  p o i n t , the p r o c e s s w i l l be complete, and t h e i r l o v e , the  93 . . . e a r t h l y chains of metal t r u e , By l o v e and duty wrought and f i x e d below, Elsewhere w i l l s h i n e , transformed, c e l e s t i a l - n e w , W i l l shine of g o l d , whose essence, heavenly b r i g h t , No doubt-damps t a r n i s h , w o r l d l y p a s s i o n s f r a y ; Gold i n t o g o l d . t h e r e m i r r o r e d , l i g h t i n l i g h t , S h a l l gleam i n g l o r i e s of a d e a t h l e s s day. The wheel.has thus turned a f u l l c i r c l e ;  once a g a i n Clough  compares t h e i r l o v e to g o l d , but t h i s time i t i s pure g o l d , r a t h e r than the " f a i r y g o l d " of  youth.  Clough a l s o uses c h a r a c t e r s to dramatize  the c l a s h of  i d e a s and the b a l a n c i n g of p o i n t s of view examined i n the second chapter.  In the l o n g e r poems, such as "The Mystery  the F a l l , " Amours de Voyage, and The B o t h i e of  of  Tober-na-vuolich.  f o r example, the d i a l e c t i c i s conveyed, i n p a r t , through i n t e r a c t i o n and the exchanges between the c h a r a c t e r s .  the  It  may  be b e s t , before moving on to a more d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the c h a r a c t e r s i n "The Mystery  of the F a l l , " t o l o o k b r i e f l y  a t the c h a r a c t e r s of Claude and Mary i n Amours de Voyage and P h i l i p and E l s p i e i n The B o t h i e . Claude,  the hero of Amours de Voyage (p. 177),  is a  s t r i k i n g example of the harmful e f f e c t s which can r e s u l t from persistent self-analysis.  He has i n d u l g e d the h a b i t s of i n t r o -  s p e c t i o n and of debating each q u e s t i o n w i t h i n h i m s e l f before a c t i n g to such an extent t h a t he has developed consciousness  a morbid  and an almost p a t h o l o g i c a l f e a r of a c t i o n .  began as a h e a l t h y and praiseworthy d e s i r e f o r t r u t h and  selfWhat knowledge  9k has degenerated  i n t o v e x a t i o u s h a i r - s p l i t t i n g and a g e n e r a l  p a r a l y s i s of the w i l l to a c t .  He  i s a p i t i a b l e and y e t , a t  the same time, a r a t h e r contemptible f i g u r e , f o r he i s weak. H i s i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s i s a n e g a t i v e , r a t h e r than a positive quality;  f o r he uses i t not as a means of a r r i v i n g  at  t r u t h , but as a way  or  j u s t i f y i n g h i s f e a r of emotion and of becoming i n v o l v e d i n  life.  He  of escaping the t r u t h , of r a t i o n a l i z i n g  i s oppressed by h i s surroundings and  dissatisfied  w i t h h i s age, but h i s anger i s not c h a n n e l l e d i n any  specific  d i r e c t i o n , and hence i t becomes a d e s t r u c t i v e , r a t h e r than a c o n s t r u c t i v e f o r c e — a s i t t u r n s back on him and on those to  him.  near  Lacking any c l e a r g o a l or p o s i t i v e program of a c t i o n ,  a l l he can do i s r a i l p e e v i s h l y a g a i n s t the c o n d i t i o n s and r e s t r i c t i o n s of h i s s o c i e t y . Mary T r e v e l l y n , on the other hand, i s completely a t home i n her age and i n the m i d d l e - c l a s s c i r c l e of s o c i e t y i n which she moves.  She i s beset by none of the s e l f - d o u b t s and  a n x i e t i e s which p e r p l e x Claude, and hence she i s a b l e to r e t a i n her s e r e n i t y of mind and to sympathize  with Claude  without  e x p e r i e n c i n g the same h e s i t a t i o n s and f e a r s t h a t he does. Claude It  As  says of h e r :  i s a p l e a s u r e indeed t o converse w i t h t h i s g i r l . Oh rare g i f t , Rare f e l i c i t y , t h i s ? She can t a l k i n a r a t i o n a l way, can Speak upon s u b j e c t s t h a t r e a l l y are matters of mind and of.thinking,  95  Yet i n p e r f e c t i o n r e t a i n h e r s i m p l i c i t y ; never, one moment, Never, however you urge i t , however you tempt h e r , consents to Step from i d e a s and f a n c i e s and l o v i n g s e n s a t i o n s t o those vain Conscious understandings t h a t vex the minds o f man-kind. No, though she t a l k , i t i s music; h e r f i n g e r s d e s e r t n o t the keys. ( I I , 2 5 5 - 6 2 ) Mary senses, from the beginning, t h e weakness i n C l a u d e — h i s f e a r o f a c t i o n and of i n s t i n c t and e m o t i o n — a n d r e a l i z e s t h a t , given h i s character, there i s l i t t l e  chance of t h e i r mutual  a t t r a c t i o n c u l m i n a t i n g i n a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , but she cannot h e l p c h e r i s h i n g the hope t h a t he w i l l p e r s i s t i n h i s search f o r h e r and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g w i l l e v e n t u a l l y work out. The d i f f e r e n t ways i n which Mary and Claude accept the odds of t h e i r never meeting again and the end of t h e i r l o v e f u r t h e r e n f o r c e s the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s and p o i n t s of view.  The i n i t i a l impulse  which prompted Claude t o  leave Rome and s e t out i n search of the T r e v e l l y n s g r a d u a l l y wanes as the days move on and he s t i l l f a i l s t o reach h e r . The d e l a y g i v e s him time t o t h i n k and to begin q u e s t i o n i n g the r e a l i t y of the emotion he f e e l s , u n t i l f i n a l l y , a f t e r a l e n g t h y mental debate, he d e c i d e s : A f t e r a l l , do I know t h a t I r e a l l y cared so about h e r ? Do whatever I w i l l , I cannot c a l l up h e r image; Only, t r y as I w i l l , a s o r t o f f e a t u r e l e s s o u t l i n e , And a p a l e blank orb, which no r e c o l l e c t i o n w i l l add t o . A f t e r a l l perhaps there was something f a c t i t i o u s about i t ; I have had p a i n , i t i s t r u e : have wept; and so have the actors.  (V,  156-65)  96  Thus, the o r i g i n a l emotion l o s e s i t s immediacy as i t i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o the realm of i d e a s , h i s o l d f e a r of a c t i o n r e a s s e r t s itself,  and he  ends by r a t i o n a l i z i n g h i s f a i l u r e with  thought t h a t , a f t e r a l l , the l o v e he f e l t was tious."  One  probably  "facti-  remembers here James Osborne's comment that  l o v e which has itself  the  "run up and down sand dunes . . . f i n a l l y  i n the waste."  Mary's n a t u r a l optimism and  a f f e c t i o n would have l e d her  to f i g h t a g a i n s t the  the loses  unwavering  circumstances  which daunt Claude, but, with h i s submission, she i s f o r c e d bow  to the i n e v i t a b l e , t o o — a l t h o u g h , as she  says,  to  "in a  d i f f e r e n t manner": Oh, and you see I know so e x a c t l y how he would take i t : F i n d i n g the chances p r e v a i l a g a i n s t meeting again, he would banish F o r t h w i t h every thought of the poor l i t t l e p o s s i b l e hope, which I myself c o u l d not h e l p , perhaps, t h i n k i n g o n l y too much o f ; He would r e s i g n h i m s e l f , and go. I see i t e x a c t l y . So I a l s o submit, although i n a d i f f e r e n t manner. (V,  The provides end  conclusion  210-15)  of the l o v e s t o r y i n The B o t h i e  (p.  an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t to the impasse reached a t  116) the  of Amours de Voyage, e s p e c i a l l y ; as the d i f f e r e n c e i n  c h a r a c t e r which separates Claude and Mary i s s i m i l a r i n k i n d , although not i n degree, to t h a t which d i v i d e s P h i l i p and E l s p i e .  James Osborne, Arthur Hugh Clough, New M i f f l i n , 1 9 2 0 , p. 1 2 3 .  York, Houghton  97  F o r , a t the b e g i n n i n g , P h i l i p Hewson, l i k e Claude,  cannot  decide how he should l i v e , experiences a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t his  age and h i s s o c i e t y , becomes known, i n consequence, among  his  f r i e n d s as something of a " r a d i c a l , " and undergoes a  p e r i o d of " i n n e r debate and c h o i c e " ( V I , 6 3 ) b e f o r e Elspie.  marrying  In h i s e f f o r t s t o determine what q u a l i t i e s one should  l o o k f o r i n a woman, P h i l i p goes from one extreme to another; first  he i d e a l i z e s K a t i e , the peasant  g i r l , because of h i s  theory t h a t "labour and labour a l o n e , can add t o the beauty of women" ( I I , 2 6 ) and then, s u f f e r i n g a r e v u l s i o n from K a t i e , he decides that the d e c o r a t i v e p e r s o n a l beauty of the Lady M a r i a i s worth a l l the "labour and p a i n " of the "poor and the weary" (V, 5 1 ) needed t o p r o v i d e h e r with the comfort and s e r v i c e she i s accustomed t o .  I n both i n s t a n c e s , P h i l i p i s  a t t r a c t e d by outward appearances, u n t i l f i n a l l y ,  after  l e a r n i n g to know and l o v e E l s p i e , he comes to r e c o g n i z e the t r u t h of the prophecy of Adam, h i s t u t o r , t h a t someday he w i l l l e a r n to v a l u e only the g o o d — Good, wherever i t * s found, you w i l l choose, be i t humble or s t a t e l y , Happy, i f o n l y you f i n d , and f i n d i n g do not l o s e i t .  ( I I , 163-64)  While P h i l i p i s a romantic  and an i d e a l i s t ,  on the other hand, i s more of a r e a l i s t .  Elspie,  I t i s a glance of  "simple s u p e r i o r i n s i g h t " from h e r eyes which shows P h i l i p  how  98  f o o l i s h h i s i d e a l i z a t i o n of K a t i e i s .  T h i s exchange  of g l a n c e s  occurs i n P a r t IV, before he i s even acquainted w i t h E l s p i e , but her eyes seemed t o him t o say: — Y e s , there he i s s t i l l i n h i s f a n c y , L e t t i n g drop from him a t random as t h i n g s not worth h i s considering A l l the b e n e f i t s gathered and put i n h i s hands by f o r t u n e , Doesn't y e t see we have here j u s t the t h i n g s he i s used t o elsewhere; People here too are p e o p l e , and not as f a i r y - l a n d c r e a t u r e s ; He i s i n a t r a n c e , and possessed; I wonder how long t o continue; I t i s a shame and a p i t y — a n d no good l i k e l y t o f o l l o w — (135-W  F o r , l i k e Mary, E l s p i e possesses a t r a n q u i l i t y of mind and an i n t u i t i v e wisdom which keep her on a steady c o u r s e , whereas P h i l i p o f t e n f e e l s l i k e a "needle which i n the shaken compass" flies  " h i t h e r and t h i t h e r " ( V I , 5 2 ) .  In the c o n c l u s i o n of the  poem, the d i f f e r e n c e s between them are r e s o l v e d , as, w i t h h i s marriage to E l s p i e , P h i l i p succeeds i n r e c o n c i l i n g the i d e a l and the r e a l , "Rachel-and-Leah" (IX, 1 7 1 ) .  He l e a r n s the  l e s s o n c o n t a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from Clough*s "l8 9 k  Roma Notebook": I t i s the v i r t u e of man I t i s the wisdom of man  t o know and l e a r n the i d e a l ^ to accept and l o v e the r e a l . - —  a t r u t h of l i f e which Claude f a i l s t o r e a l i z e .  3  Moreover, the  other i s s u e s which d i v i d e t h e m — q u e s t i o n s of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , A s quoted i n G o l l i n , "The 1 9 5 1 E d i t i o n of Clough's A C r i t i c a l Re-examination," p. 1 2 5 . 3  Poems:  99  of  s o c i a l c l a s s , and of environment,  of E l s p i e * s a b i l i t y to  move up t o h i s c l a s s or h i s own to move down, of l i v i n g a peasant l i f e tilling  i n the Highlands or r e s i d i n g i n the c i t y , of  the s o i l or f i n d i n g some work commensurate with h i s  c l a s s i c a l e d u c a t i o n — a r e r e s o l v e d by t h e i r d e c i s i o n t o emigrate t o New Zealand, t o a new country where everyone  must  i n i t i a l l y work with h i s hands, but where an e d u c a t i o n w i l l s t i l l be of use, and where no e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l c l a s s e s y e t exist. They are married, and gone t o New Zealand. F i v e hundred pounds i n pocket, w i t h books, and two or three p i c t u r e s , Tool-box, plough, and the r e s t , they rounded the sphere to New Zealand. There he hewed, and dug; subdued the e a r t h and h i s spirit; There he b u i l t him a home; there E l s p i e bare him h i s children, David and B e l l a ; perhaps ere t h i s too an E l s p i e or Adam; There hath he farmstead and l a n d , and f i e l d s of c o r n and flax fields; And the antipodes too have a B o t h i e of T o b e r - n a - v u o l i c h . (IX,  ."The  Mystery  of the F a l l "  193-200)  (p. 4 1 0 ) f i n d s Clough  more attempting t o r e s o l v e h i s r e l i g i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s his  once  through  p o e t r y , with the i n n e r debate f o c u s i n g t h i s time on the  B i b l i c a l account of the F a l l o f Man.  The d i a l e c t i c  arises  from Adam and Eve's e f f o r t s t o understand the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e of the event which has j u s t o c c u r r e d — t h e i r vague memories of the Garden of Eden, God warning  them n o t t o e a t the  IGO f r u i t of a c e r t a i n t r e e , the s e r p e n t , the a c t , the ensuing self-awareness, the Garden. Fall,  knowledge and g u i l t , and the e x p u l s i o n from  F o r , as God has n o t appeared to them s i n c e the  they a r e l e f t t o solve t h i s problem f o r themselves,  j u s t as modern man, i n the absence of c e r t a i n knowledge, must f i n d the answers t o these  u l t i m a t e questions h i m s e l f .  Basi-  c a l l y , the debate i s between the orthodox r e l i g i o u s p o s i t i o n and t h e modern p o s t - S t r a u s s i a n p o s i t i o n — b e t w e e n  f a i t h and  reason, between the s p i r i t of acceptance and t h e f e e l i n g  that  man must t h i n k and decide f o r h i m s e l f , between the b e l i e f t h a t Truth i s without  and the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t Truth i s w i t h i n  the i n d i v i d u a l conscience,  between a l i t e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  of the F a l l and a symbolic  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of i t — w i t h Eve and  Abel r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s view, and Adam and C a i n , the modern p o s i t i o n . Scene I opens with Adam t r y i n g t o calm Eve's f e a r s by t r e a t i n g the whole i s s u e of the F a l l i n as m a t t e r - o f - f a c t a manner as p o s s i b l e , i n an e f f o r t t o make h e r see t h a t the deed cannot be undone and t h a t t h e i r only course now i s t o make the most o f t h e l i f e  l e f t t o them:  Since t h a t l a s t evening we have f a l l e n i n d e e d ! Yes, we have f a l l e n , my Eve! Oh y e s ! — One, two, t h r e e , and f o u r ; — t h e a p p e t i t e , The enjoyment, the a f t e r v o i d , the t h i n k i n g of i t — S p e c i a l l y the l a t t e r two, most s p e c i a l l y the l a s t . There, i n s y n o p s i s , see, you have i t a l l : Come, l e t us go and work! ( 1 - 7 )  1G1 He  suggests t h a t the F a l l should not be viewed as a c a l a m i t y or  as cause f o r g u i l t and repentance, but as a n e c e s s a r y stage i n their development—for  " t h a t which we were, we c o u l d no more  remain" ( 1 3 ) than a seed c o u l d . We were t o grow. N e c e s s i t y on us l a y T h i s way or t h a t t o move; n e c e s s i t y , t o o , Not to be o v e r - c a r e f u l t h i s or t h a t , So o n l y move we should. (16-19) Thus, he cannot see how and " p a r t e d from God"  they c o u l d be "damned t o death e t e r n e "  ( 1 2 5 ) f o r t h i s one a c t , as Eve  believes;  on the c o n t r a r y , he welcomes t h i s g u i l t because i t makes him " f r e e , " because i t has g i v e n him the o p p o r t u n i t y t o t h i n k and a c t f o r h i m s e l f , t o express h i s own  individuality.  connected w i t h "the mighty mythus of the F a l l " he as man-invented—as  The  details  rejects  having r e s u l t e d from man's attempt t o  e x p l a i n the t r i a l s of l i f e i n terms of a punishment v i s i t e d on him by an angry  God.  Eve, however, i s obsessed by a sense of g u i l t and r e morse and r e f u s e s t o be comforted by h i s l o g i c a l arguments. As. she i s b a s i c a l l y an emotional b e i n g , her f e a r s cannot be calmed by Adam's appeal t o reason.  Her d e s p a i r i n g words,  g u i l t , g u i l t , g u i l t ! " echo throughout the scene and l e a d to her f i n a l prophecy of the s p i r i t u a l doubt and which i s to torment f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s :  "Oh, up  uncertainty  102 Ah me! a l a s ! a l a s ! More d i s m a l l y i n my f a c e s t a r e s the doubt, More h e a v i l y on my h e a r t weighs the world. Methinks The q u e s t i o n i n g of ages y e t t o be, The t h i n k i n g s and c r o s s - t h i n k i n g s , self-contempts, Self-horror; a l l despondencies, d e s p a i r s , Of m u l t i t u d i n o u s souls on s o u l s to come In me imprisoned f i g h t , complain, and c r y . Alas! Mystery, mystery, mystery evermore. (121-32) One sees i n Scene I I that Adam h i m s e l f , i n s p i t e of the c o n f i dent pose he assumes i n f r o n t of Eve, i s n o t f r e e from t h i s i n n e r doubt.  He i s d i v i d e d w i t h i n h i m s e l f — h i s  i n s t i n c t s prompting him t o r e g a r d  emotions and  the F a l l i n the same l i g h t  as Eve and h i s reason t e l l i n g him t h a t these f e a r s are j u s t c h i l d i s h f a n c i e s and t h a t the world and man are the same as before.  Moments o f c l e a r and l u c i d thought a l t e r n a t e i n him  w i t h moments o f b l i n d panic  and d e s p a i r , b u t , even a t the times  of g r e a t e s t s t r e s s , he never l o s e s h i s c u r i o s i t y about h i s confidence  life,  i n the f u t u r e and i n h i s a b i l i t y t o d e a l with  any problem the years may b r i n g , or h i s b e l i e f t h a t  eventually  man w i l l pass through these " s t r a i t s of anguish and doubt" ( I I I , 5*+) and w i l l reach "the calm ocean" of "consummated consciousness o f s e l f " ( 5 8 ) . In f a c t , the r e s t l e s s , q u e s t i o n i n g has  i n t e l l e c t , which  become the dominant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of f a l l e n man and which  r e p e l s and t e r r i f i e s Eve, f a s c i n a t e s Adam. "curious  seething  process"  He r e v e l s i n the  ( I I , 57) of a n a l y s i s and debate  103  t a k i n g p l a c e w i t h i n him and  and  i n the f e e l i n g of s e l f - r e l i a n c e  independence which t h i s g i v e s him.  l o o k s r e g r e t f u l l y a t the past and  Eve,  longs f o r a r e t u r n of t h e i r  former c e r t a i n t y and peace of mind and on a p e r s o n a l continues  God  t h a t they had.  i n Scene IV, with Eve  C h r i s t i a n view of the F a l l and and  the sense of dependence debate between them  upholding the  s h a l l not'"  God,  own  but from her  as a l l men  that God  imagination,  and  a c t i o n s and  He  b e l i e v e s that man  ( 5 2 ) , that  from  (65)  must be the a r b i t e r of h i s i n h i s own  conscience  authority—  (58-60)  d i f f e r e n c e s of p e r s o n a l i t y and p o i n t of view which  separate Adam and Eve sons.  the  amidst the v o i c e s "  For not by o b s e r v a t i o n of without Cometh the Kingdom of the Voice of God: I t i s w i t h i n u s — l e t us seek i t t h e r e . The  speak  that she must l e a r n ,  t h a t he must l o o k f o r Truth  and not i n some o u t s i d e  God,  does not  t h a t she heard, came not  must, "to d i s c e r n the Voice  i n her h e a r t .  orthodox  of man's r e l a t i o n s h i p to  " i n t h a t unmeaning a r b i t r a r y way"  commandment "'You  own  The  Adam s t i l l t r y i n g to convince her  to man  on the other hand,  become even more pronounced i n t h e i r  Abel surpasses Eve  Christian position.  In h i s adoption of the  H i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to God,  orthodox  whom he  sees as  a transcendent B e i n g , i s the most important t h i n g i n h i s  See Chapter I, f n . # 2 3 , p.  16.  life.  104 He views the s t i r r i n g s of h i s own s p i r i t and w i l l as e s s e n t i a l l y e v i l and s t r e s s e s the need f o r s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n and h u m i l i t y , f o r unquestioning f a i t h , and f o r the submission of s e l f t o the W i l l and the laws of God. He b e l i e v e s wholeheartedly i n the B i b l i c a l s t o r y o f the F a l l , i n the need f o r p r a y e r , repentance and penance, and i n the view t h a t Redemption comes through Grace.  H i s eyes and h i s thoughts are always turned upwards,  and he f e e l s keenly the s e p a r a t i o n between h i m s e l f and Adam and C a i n : My GodJ spurn n o t my mother's prayer and mine. Since I was born, was I n o t l e f t t o Thee, In an u n s p i r i t u a l and g o d l e s s house Unfathered and u n b r o t h e r e d — T h i n e and h e r s ? (VI, 6 - 9 ) C a i n , on the other hand, r e p r e s e n t s (even more than Adam) the s e c u l a r , modern, s c e p t i c a l s p i r i t with i t s emphasis on reason and on s e l f - r e l i a n c e and self-development.  One sees i n Scene  V I I t h a t he i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with the development of h i s own nature and the e x e r c i s e of h i s i n d i v i d u a l w i l l , and with t a k i n g h i s p l a c e i n the "world of a c t i o n . "  H i s statements  r e v e a l h i s i n t e n s e c u r i o s i t y about the world and about h i m s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l and h i s d e s i r e t o t e s t the powers t h a t he f e e l s surging w i t h i n him through  action—  . . . a strange impulse, s t r u g g l i n g t o the t r u t h , Urges me onward t o put f o r t h my s t r e n g t h , No matter h o w — W i l d c u r i o s i t y  105  Possesses me moreover t o essay T h i s world of a c t i o n round me so unknown; And t o be able t o do t h i s or that Seems cause enough, without a cause, f o r doing i t . (10-16)  Thus, Scene V I I ends with C a i n ' s d e c i s i o n t h a t he must perform some a c t i o n which w i l l " v i n d i c a t e my n a t u r e " and prove t h a t "I a l s o am, as Adam i s , a man" ( 2 ) . k  When the impulse t o a c t comes, i t r e s u l t s i n the murder o f A b e l .  A f t e r the deed, C a i n goes through a p e r i o d of  i n n e r c o n f l i c t s i m i l a r to the one that Adam underwent a f t e r the Fall.  H i s i n i t i a l r e a c t i o n i s one of w i l d e x u l t a t i o n a t the  v i c t o r y , at the thought that man can r i d h i m s e l f  of any one  who " w i l l n o t l e t us be, nor leave us room t o do our w i l l " (IX, 9 ) combined with a f e e l i n g o f disappointment that the a c t was not more of a c h a l l e n g e ,  t h a t Abel had n o t " s t r u g g l e d  m o r e " — " T h a t p a s s i v e n e s s was d i s a p p o i n t i n g "  (22).  Then, once  he has time t o t h i n k , he i s s t r i c k e n with g u i l t and remorse and is.  imagines t h a t he hears v o i c e s asking him where h i s  brother  The scene ends with h i s anguished c r y : 0 A b e l , brother mine, Where'er thou a r t , more happy f a r . than me? ( M - 9 - 5 0 )  T h i s experience does not cause C a i n t o change h i s b a s i c p o s i t i o n , but i t does prompt him t o modify i t s l i g h t l y .  For  106  through the murder of Abel and h i s ensuing  remorse and  C a i n comes to a knowledge of good and e v i l and tion  t h a t man  to the  guilt, realiza-  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s a c t i o n s and t h a t when he  a c t s wrongly he must f a c e the censure of h i s own Thus, i n Scene XI, when Eve seek "atonement from a g r a c i o u s God"  begs him (12),  conscience.  to repent  using  and  the  " r i t e s and h o l y means of Grace" ( 9 ) i n i t i a t e d f o r t h i s  purpose,  C a i n n e i t h e r denies h i s g u i l t , nor accepts her a d v i c e . f u l l y aware of h i s s i n and of the f a c t  to  He  is  t h a t he w i l l bear the  burden of g u i l t f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e , but he asks f o r no o u t s i d e a i d , no  " s e l f - d e l u s i o n " of f o r g i v e n e s s , to h e l p him  to  endure the years a h e a d — a l l he asks i s "never t o f o r g e t " what "one He his  impulse b l i n d l y  f o l l o w e d to i t s end"  stands c o n v i c t e d of s i n b e f o r e the only judge he own  conscience.  Hence, even when Adam warns him  becoming "overscrupulous" r e f u s e the "due  against  ( X I I I , 6 ) and counsels him not  ( 7 0 ) , he does not heed him,  asks h i s f a t h e r to curse him That to To l o s e Cancels I am my  reveres,  to  consolements" which l i f e b r i n g s , not t o be  "too wise f o r God"  He  ( 2 8 ) resulted i n .  but, i n s t e a d ,  so t h a t he w i l l always remember  f o r g e t i s not t o be r e s t o r e d ; with time the sense of what we d i d not what we d i d ; what's done r e m a i n s — b r o t h e r ' s murderer. (XIII, 3 5 - 3 7 )  i s determined to f a c e l i f e and a l l i t s b i t t e r n e s s and  with no i l l u s i o n s  and  pain  to f i n d h i s only comfort i n work and  duty--  107  "But welcome F a c t , and F a c t ' s best b r o t h e r , Work" ( 5 2 ) . Mam's speech  i n the f i n a l scene of the poem i n which  he a f f i r m s t h a t , i n s p i t e o f "doubt, despondency and death," the l a c k o f c e r t a i n knowledge and, a t times, the absence o f f a i t h or hope, L i f e has been b e a u t i f u l t o me, my son, And i f they c a l l me, I w i l l come a g a i n (XIV,  k7~k&)  s o f t e n s the s e v e r i t y of C a i n ' s c o n c l u s i o n — a s does the dream which Adam has i n t h i s scene.  F o r , the merging i n t o one o f  Adam, Eve, C a i n , and Abel which occurs i n h i s dream h i n t s a t the p o s s i b i l i t y of some f u t u r e r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the opposing views r e p r e s e n t e d by these c h a r a c t e r s i n the poem, the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n o f f a i t h and reason, o f orthodoxy through  and s c e p t i c i s m , perhaps  the a d o p t i o n by a l l men o f a p h i l o s o p h y s i m i l a r t o  Strauss's.  Thus, i n the dream, Adam sees Abel take Cain's  hand and say: 'Forgive me, C a i n . Ah me! my b r o t h e r , sad has been t h y l i f e , For my sake, a l l through me—how f o o l i s h l y ; Because we knew n o t both of us were r i g h t ' (XIV, 9 - 1 2 ) and, w h i l e he i s watching,  they both f u s e i n t o  one—  The decomposing o f those c o l o u r e d l i n e s Which we c a l l e d you, t h e i r f u s i o n i n t o one. And t h e r e w i t h a l t h e i r v a n i s h i n g and end. ( 1 7 - 2 0 )  108 Then, Eve comes and asks to " v a n i s h " i n t o him, whereupon a g e n e r a l merging of the f o u r c h a r a c t e r s takes p l a c e — I was a l o n e — y e t not a l o n e — w i t h her And she with me, and you with us, my sons, As a t the f i r s t , and y e t not w h o l l y — y e a , And that which I had witnessed thus i n you, The f u s i o n and mutation and r e t u r n , Seemed i n my substance working too. I s l e p t . I d i d not dream, my s l e e p was sweet to me. (3O-36)  CONCLUSION The main concern o f t h i s paper has been t o s u b j e c t Clough's p o e t r y t o a t e x t u a l a n a l y s i s i n order t o assess the presence i n i t o f what I have c a l l e d the d i a l e c t i c a l to  principle,  show how h i s most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c approach t o experience i s  c a r r i e d over i n t o h i s p o e t r y and f i n d s e x p r e s s i o n i n theme, mood, tone, form, imagery, and c h a r a c t e r s .  The paper was  organized a c c o r d i n g t o these headings, because I f e l t  that  t h i s was the most n a t u r a l method t o use when d e a l i n g with Clough's p o e t r y and a l s o because I hoped t h a t the a d o p t i o n of these t r a d i t i o n a l c r i t i c a l terms would h e l p t o c l a r i f y the d i s c u s s i o n f o r the r e a d e r — a l t h o u g h I was aware, a t the same time, that such d i v i s i o n s are n e c e s s a r i l y r a t h e r and that i t i s o f t e n d i f f i c u l t the  arbitrary  t o separate "the dancer from  dance." The q u e s t i o n which remains t o be answered here i s  whether Clough succeeded i n s o l v i n g h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l problems, and i n conveying the s o l u t i o n through h i s poetry. to  A c a r e f u l examination of Clough*s p o e t r y l e a d s one  answer t h i s q u e s t i o n i n the n e g a t i v e .  The poems here  a n a l y z e d , w i t h perhaps the e x c e p t i o n o f "Easter Day, Part I I " and i t s c o n c l u s i o n d e r i v e d from the S t r a u s s i a n Higher C r i t i c i s m of  the B i b l e , r e c o r d h i s f a i l u r e t o c r o s s "the d a r k l i n g  109  plain"  110  and f i n d  some new l i g h t of t r u t h which would s a t i s f y him both  e m o t i o n a l l y and i n t e l l e c t u a l l y .  The emphasis i n these poems  thus tends t o be an a n a l y s i s and debate, r a t h e r than on synt h e s i s , and on reason, r a t h e r than on i m a g i n a t i o n . of them, the d i a l e c t i c  e x i s t s as unresolved debate when  Clough, unable t o f i n d an i n t e l l e c t u a l  s y n t h e s i s , concludes  w i t h an admission of d e f e a t , "Who about t h i s what t o t h i n k ? "  In many  s h a l l t e l l us  or w i t h the d e c i s i o n t o accept n e i t h e r the  t h e s i s , nor the a n t i t h e s i s a t the moment, but t o w a i t , r a t h e r , for  some f u r t h e r r e v e l a t i o n of T r u t h — R e c e i v e i t n o t , but l e a v e i t n o t , And wait i t out, 0 Manf At  other t i m e s , when C l o u g h s d e s i r e f o r c e r t a i n t y 1  w i l l n o t permit him t o l e t the d i a l e c t i c  end i n an impasse,  he i s f o r c e d t o s h i f t the terms o f the debate  ( a s he s h i f t s  the scene t o New Zealand, t o a new w o r l d , a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f The B o t h i e ) and t o " s y n t h e s i z e " h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n a realm of pure f e e l i n g  difficulties  or on an i d e a l p l a n e — a s , f o r  example i n the poems, "Whence are ye, vague d e s i r e s , " " S h a l l I decide i t by a random shot," and "When p a n t i n g s i g h s the bosom fill."  I n these i n s t a n c e s , when emotion and i m a g i n a t i o n take  over from r e a s o n , the d i a l e c t i c cannot s t r i c t l y be c a l l e d  moves t o a r e s o l u t i o n which  a s y n t h e s i s , because  the a f f i r m a t i o n  Clough makes does n o t f o l l o w l o g i c a l l y from the argument of the  Ill poem.  Thus, the  conclusion  becomes an emotional, r a t h e r  an i n t e l l e c t u a l s o l u t i o n — u s u a l l y  one  i n which Clough ends by  t r u s t i n g an undefined " l a r g e r hope," when he  i s unable to  answer the problem posed by r a t i o n a l means.  In the poem,  "What we,  when f a c e to f a c e we  see,"  f o r example, he  finds  t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to v a l i d a t e man's b e l i e f t h a t he serving  a h i g h e r purpose than that of a p a s s i v e  on earth  and has  life the  to i n order to a r r i v e at a " s o l u t i o n "  dialectic— Ah y e t , when a l l i s thought and s a i d , The h e a r t s t i l l o v e r r u l e s the head; S t i l l what we hope we must b e l i e v e , And what i s g i v e n us r e c e i v e ; Must That What Will  of  comes f i n a l l y to t r u s t h i s f e e l i n g s and  hope t h a t these l e a d him t o the  is  instrument  a h i g h e r g o a l to reach by o b s e r v a t i o n  or by reason, and  than  s t i l l b e l i e v e , f o r s t i l l we hope i n a world of l a r g e r scope, here i s f a i t h f u l l y begun be completed, not undone.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A.  WORKS BY CLOUGH  Clough, Arthur Hugh. The Poems and Prose Remains. With a S e l e c t i o n from H i s L e t t e r s and a Memoir. E d i t e d by H i s Wife. London, Macmillan, 1 8 6 9 . 2 v o l s . Lowry, H. F., N o r r i n g t o n , A. L. P., and Mulhauser, F. L., eds. The Poems o f Arthur Hugh Clough. Oxford a t the Clarendon P r e s s , 1 9 5 1 . Mulhauser, F r e d e r i c k L., ed. The Correspondence of Arthur Hugh Clough. Oxford a t the Clarendon P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 . vols. B.  2  WORKS BY OTHER AUTHORS  Armstrong, I s o b e l . A r t h u r Hugh Clough. W r i t e r s and T h e i r Work: No. 148, London, Longmans, Green, 1 9 6 2 . Brooke, Stopford A. Four P o e t s : A Study of Clough. A r n o l d . R o s s e t t i and M o r r i s . London, S i r Isaac Pitman, 1 9 0 8 . C h o r l e y , K a t h a r i n e . Arthur Hugh Clough: The Uncommitted Mind. Oxford a t the Clarendon P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 . F a i r c h i l d , Hoxie Neale. R e l i g i o u s Trends in E n g l i s h P o e t r y . V o l . IV: 1 8 3 0 - 1 8 8 0 . C h r i s t i a n i t y and Romanticism i n the V i c t o r i a n E r a , New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957. 5 vols. Heath-Stubbs, John. The D a r k l i n g P l a i n : A Study o f the L a t e r Fortunes o f Romanticism i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y from George P a r l e y t o W. B. Yeats. London, E y r e & Spottiswoode, 1950.  Houghton, Walter E . The V i c t o r i a n Frame o f M i n d New Haven, Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 * Levy, G o l d i e . A r t h u r Hugh C l o u g h and Jackson, 1 9 3 8 . 112  f  I8l9-l86l.  T  1830-1870.  London, Sidgwick  113  Lowry, Howard F o s t e r , ed. The L e t t e r s of Matthew A r n o l d t o A r t h u r Hugh Clough. London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1932,  Lueas, F. L. Ten V i c t o r i a n P o e t s . University Press, 1 9 8 .  3 r d ed., Cambridge a t the  k  MacCarthy, Desmond.  Portraits.  Osborne, James I n s l e y . Mifflin, 1920.  London, Putnam, 1 9 3 1 *  A r t h u r Hugh Clough.  New  York, Houghton  Runes, Dagobert D., ed. D i c t i o n a r y of P h i l o s o p h y . Philosophical Library, 1 9 2 .  New  York,  k  Urmson, J . 0 . , ed. The C o n c i s e E n c y c l o p a e d i a of Western P h i l o s o p h y and P h i l o s o p h e r s . London, H u t c h i n s o n ,  I960.,  Wolfe, Humbert. "Arthur Hugh Clough." The E i g h t e e n - S i x t i e s : Essays by the F e l l o w s of the R o y a l S o c i e t y of L i t e r a t u r e . , E d i t e d by John Drinkwater, Cambridge a t the U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1 9 3 2 . Woodward, F r a n c e s J . The Doctor's D i s c i p l e s : A Study of Four P u p i l s of A r n o l d of R u g b v — S t a n l e y . Gell« Clough, W i l l i a m A r n o l d . London, Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 . k  C.  PERIODICAL ARTICLES  A r n o l d , Thomas. "Arthur Hugh Clough: A Sketch." Century, v o l . 3 (January I 8 9 8 ) , 1 0 5 - 1 6 . .  Nineteenth  k  Badger, Kingsbury. "Arthur Hugh Clough as Dipsychus." Language Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 1 2 ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 3 9 - 5 6 .  Modern  B e a t t y , J . M. "Arthur Hugh Clough as Revealed i n H i s P r o s e . " South A t l a n t i c Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 5 ( A p r i l 1 9 2 6 ) , 1 6 8 - 8 0 . D a l g l i s h , D o r i s N. "Arthur Hugh Clough:. The S h o r t e r Poems." Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , v o l . 2 (January 1 9 5 2 ) , 3 8 - 5 3 * Dickinson, Patrie. "Books i n G e n e r a l . " New Statesman N a t i o n, v o l . . 2 6 (October 2 3 , 1 9 ^ 3 ) , 2 7 1 .  and  Dowden, John. "Arthur Hugh Clough." Contemporary RevjLew, v o l . 12.(December I 8 6 9 ) , 5 l 3 - 2 * K  Ilk G o l l i n , R i c h a r d M. "The 1 9 5 1 E d i t i o n o f Clough*s Poems: A C r i t i c a l Re-examination." Modern P h i l o l o g y , v o l . 6 0 (November  1962),  120-2?..  Houghton, Walter E . "Arthur Hugh Clough: A Hundred Years o f Disparagement." S t u d i e s i n E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . 15001900. v o l . 1  (Autumn 1 9 6 1 ) ,  35-61.  J o h a r i , G. P. "Arthur Hugh Clough a t O r i e l and a t UniversityHall." PMLA. v o l . 6 6 (June 1 9 5 D , 0 5 - 2 5 . k  Palmer, F r a n c i s W. "The B e a r i n g o f Science on the Thought o f A r t h u r Hugh Clough." PMLA, v o l . 5 9 (March 1 9 W , 212-25.  P e r r y , T. S.  "Arthur Hugh Clough." 18?5),  (October  P r i t c h e t t , V. S. vol.  kl  A t l a n t i c Monthly, v o l . 3 6  H09-18.  "Books i n G e n e r a l . "  New Statesman and N a t i o n ,  (January 6 , 1 9 5 D , 1 5 - l o T  Sidgwick, Henry. "Review of 'The Poems and Prose Remains o f Arthur Hugh C l o u g h , " Westminster Review, v o l . 9 2 (October 1 8 6 9 ) , 3 6 3 - 8 7 . 1  Smidt, K r i s t i a n . "The I n t e l l e c t u a l Quest o f the V i c t o r i a n P o e t s . " E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , v o l . kO ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 9 0 - 1 0 2 . Symonds, John Addington.  "Arthur Hugh Clough."  Review, v o l . , n.s. (December 1 8 6 8 ) , k  Fortnightly  589-617.  Timko, M i c h a e l . "The P o e t i c Theory of A r t h u r Hugh Clough." E n g l i s h S t u d i e s , v o l . 3 (August 1 9 6 2 ) , 2 0- 7. k  k  k  . "The S a t i r i c P o e t r y of A r t h u r Hugh Clough." V i c t o r i a n Poetry, v o l . 1 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 3 ) , 10H-l . k  . "The 'True Creed* o f A r t h u r Hugh Clough." Modern Language Q u a r t e r l y , v o l . 2 1 ( i 9 6 0 ) , 2 0 8 - 2 2 .  

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