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A review of the genus Caranx from the tropical east Pacific Lane, E. David 1962

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A REVIEW OF THE GENUS CARANX FROM THE TROPICAL EAST PACIFIC  by  E. DAVID LANE B.Sc,  University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1959  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of Zoology  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1962  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r scholarly purposes may granted by the Head of my Department or by his  be  representatives.  It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of  ZOOLOGY  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  APRIL 30, 1962  - i -  ABSTRACT  Seven Caranx species occur i n the tropical east P a c i f i c ,  _C. caballus  (61 specimens examined) i s separable from the Atlantic form C. crysos (10 specimens examined) by a character index.  C_. marginatus (64 specimens  examined) i s separable from the Atlantic form C. latus (5 specimens examined) and the Indo-Pacific form C, sexfasciatus (2 specimens examined) by vertebral count.  C, hippos (58 specimens examined) occurs on both sides  of the Panama Isthmus.  C. lugubris (28 specimens examined) i s circumtropical.  C_. melampygus (37 specimens examined) i s synonymous with (3. stellatus. C!. medusicola (3 specimens examined) i s endemic to the east Pacific region, as i s C!. vine tus (22 specimens examined). Caranx species i n the tropical east Pacific comprise:  2 circumtropical  species (C_. hippos and C_. lugubris); 1 Pan-Pacific species (C. melampygus) and 4 endemic species (C. caballus, C. marginatus. C, vinetus and C.  medusicola). Barriers to Caranx distribution i n the east Pacific are:  temperature  to the north and south; the Panama Isthmus to the east; and the east Pacific sea barrier to the west. Some forms vary to the extent of specific difference over their range (C. caballus : _C. crysos and _C. marginatus : C.  latus : C. sexfasciatus)  while others are very similar over their entire range (C. lugubris and C_. melampygus). extremes.  C. hippos i s intermediate i n v a r i a b i l i t y between these  Probable reasons for paucity of the tropical east Pacific fauna  are the presence of barriers to invasion, especially the east Pacific sea barrier and the lack of coral reef habitat.  On the basis of Caranx evidence  i t i s unlikely that the postulated 3 to 4C° Pleistocene temperature drop had a serious effect on the f i s h fauna.  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. J.C. Briggs and Dr. C.C. Lindsey for suggesting and supervising this study.  Also,  gratitude i s expressed to Dr. J.F. Bendell, Dr. B.M, Bary and Dr. N.J. Wilimovsky for their c r i t i c a l advice. The author i s indebted to Mr. F.H. Berry of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Biological Laboratory, LaJolla, for his encouragement and advice and Mr. J.D. McPhail for the translation of Lindberg's work on marine water levels. The specimens examined were collected by Dr. H.R, MacMillan, Dr. P.A. Larkin, Dr. C.C. Lindsey, Dr. J.C, Briggs, Dr. M.A. Newman, Mr. R.J. Krejsa, Mr. F.T, Pletcher and Mr. R.E. Johannes. Further specimens were supplied by Dr. C.R. Robins, University of Miami and Mr. W. Baldwin, University of California at Los Angeles. acknowledged.  These people are gratefully  - iii -  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMEM: TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES  i i i i i i vi vii  INTRODUCTION  1  MATERIALS AND METHODS  2  MATERIALS COUNTS AND MEASUREMENTS TREATMENT OF PROPORTIONAL MEASUREMENTS ABBREVIATIONS ILLUSTRATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHIC METHODS FAMILY CARANG3HAE DESCRIPTION OP THE FAMILY CARANGIDAE KEY TO THE GENERA THE GENUS CARANX Lacepede DESCRIPTION OP THE GENUS CARANX DESCRIPTIONS OF CARANX SPECIES  2 2 4 5 5 6 7 7 9 12 12 15  CARANX CABALLUS Gunther Synonomy Material Examined Description Distribution  15 15 15 16 17  CARANX VINCTUS Jordan and Gilbert Synonomy Material Examined Description Distribution  17 17 18 18 19  CARANX HIPPOS Linnaeus Synonomy Material Examined Description Distribution  20 20 20 21 22-  CARANX MARGINATUS G i l l Synonomy Material Examined Description Distribution  23 23 24 24 25  - iv -  Page CARANX LUGUBRIS Poey Synonomy Material Examined Description Distribution  26 26 26 27 28  CARANX MELAMPYGUS Cuvier Synonomy Material Examined Description Distribution  28 28 29 29 31  CARANX MBDUSICOLA Jordan and Starks Synonomy Material Examined Description Distribution  32 32 32 32 33  CARANX Sp  34  COMPARATIVE MATERIAL FROM THE ATLANTIC  35  CARANX LATUS Agassiz Material Examined Description  35 35 35  CARANX CRYSQS Mitchell Material Examined Description  . . . . .  35 35 36  KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CARANX IN THE TROPICAL EAST PACIFIC .  37  DISCUSSION  39  DEFINITION OF THE TROPICAL EAST PACIFIC  39  SPECIES AND SPECIES COMPLEXES  39  Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx  caballus : crysos : fusus vinetus hippos marginatus : latus : sexfasciatus . . . . lugubris melampygus = stellatus medusicola and melampygus  BARRIERS TO DISTRIBUTION Panama Isthmus East Pacific Barrier Temperature Barriers CARANX;  ZOOGEOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTION  39 41 41 42 44 44 45 46 46 47 48 50  - V -  Page SUMMARY  54  BIBLIOGRAPHY  56  APPENDICES  63  - vi -  LIST OP TABLES Page I II  L i s t of some characters used and the number of specimens examined  3  Differences i n some characters between (2. crysos and C. caballus  40  Differences i n some characters between C. latus and C_. marginatus  43  IV  Number of spots and size of C_. melampygus  44  V  Distribution and differentiation of non-endemic Caranx species i n the east Pacific  51  III  - vii -  LIST OF FIGURES Page  v  1.  Measurements made on Caranx species  2a  2.  X-ray photograph of C. hippos  3a  3. Length/head length and head leDgth/upper jaw length . .  4a  4. Length/depth  4b  5.  4c  Head length/eye length and length/pectoral f i n length .  6. Caranx caballus  16a  7.  16b  Caranx caballus distribution . . . . .  8. Caranx vine tus  19a  9. Caranx vinctus distribution  19b  10.  Caranx hippos  22a  11.  Caranx hippos distribution  22b  12. - Caranx marginatus  25a  13.  Caranx marginatus distribution  ..  14.  Caranx lugubris  27a  15.  Caranx lugubris distribution  27b  16.  Caranx melampygus  31a  17.  Caranx melampygus distribution  31b  18.  Caranx medusicola  33a  19.  Caranx medusicola distribution  33b  20.  Character index separating C. crysos and C_. caballus .  40a  21.  Some proportion characters for C. crysos. C_. caballus. C. latus and C. marginatus  22.  Anterior p r o f i l e of C. medusicola and C. melampygus .  23.  Equatorial Pacific Ocean  24.  Present distribution of tropical waters (From Briggs, 1961)  25.  40b 45 47a 48a  Distribution of tropical waters with a winter temperature drop of 3 C° (From Briggs, 1961)  26.  25b  48a  Distribution of tropical water with a winter temperature drop of 8 C° (Based on Sverdrup et a l , 1942) . -.  48b  I N T R O D U C T I O N  The following four problems are treated i n this study. To attempt to determine the number of species of Caranx i n the tropical east Pacific area and what these species should be named*  The species  pairs C. crysos and C_. caballus. C. latus and £. marginatus, C. melampygus and C. medusicola and C. melampygus and C. stellatus are of special interest here. To indicate the distribution of the specie's that are present i n the tropical east Pacific both on a world wide basis and within the tropical east P a c i f i c . To devise effective keys to the genera of the family Carangidae and the species of the genus Caranx that are found i n the tropical east P a c i f i c . To discuss the two main theories as to the reasons for the poor shorefish fauna of the tropical east Pacific and to attempt to evaluate them i n terms of the genus Caranx.  This entails four main points:  the effectiveness  of the Panama Isthmus barrier, the effectiveness of the East Pacific barrier, the emergence of the isthmus, and the effect of Pleistocene glaciation on the tropical east P a c i f i c .  M A T E R I A L S  AND  METHODS  MATERIALS Most specimens examined came from the M.V.  Marijean collections made  i n the tropical east Pacific between 1954 and 1961 inclusive.  Some specimens  were collected by F.T. Pletcher i n Mexico (1959) and R.E. Johannes i n Panama (1959).  Fish from the Gulf of California came from the Fish Museum at the  University of California at Los Angeles and comparative material from the Atlantic and Caribbean came from the Museum of the University of Miami Marine Laboratory.  A tabular presentation of the material studied, size  ranges and distribution i s given at the start of each species description. COUNTS AND MEASUREMENTS The f i s h were measured with a stainless steel Helias M.B. (200 mm.) 200 mm.  1 calipers  calibrated to one tenth of a millimeter. Measurements exceeding were made on a standard measuring board using a Leitz plastic rule  calibrated to 1  mm.  A l l counts and measurements are as i n Hubbs and Lagler (1949) except as noted below (see F i g . l ) .  Fork length was used i n preference to standard  length due to the d i f f i c u l t y i n establishing the posterior end of the body as there are i n this region considerable adipose deposits and overlapping scutes.  Caudal f i n ray counts were divided into major rays (those which reach  the t r a i l i n g edge of the f i n ) and dorsal and ventral minor rays (those which do not reach the t r a i l i n g edge) (Fig. 2).  G i l l rakers were counted on the  lower portion of the f i r s t right hand g i l l arch, including a l l rudiments which were s u f f i c i e n t l y developed to be f e l t with a fine probe.  Lateral scutes  counts include those specialized scales on the posterior half of the l a t e r a l line (straight portion), starting at the f i r s t scale with a pointed posterior  4  3 1- F o r k length 2 - Depth 3 - P e c t o r a l fin length  Figure  1.  4 - H e a d length 5 - E y e length 6 - Upper j a w length  Measurements made on C a r a n x  species.  edge and raised center line which i s pointed  and ending at the l a s t scale on the l a t e r a l .  One or two rounded scales may follow this*  Spines are defined as unbranched and clear, while rays are usually branched and always cross-striated. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n "unbranched rays" (Shults et a l , 1953) w i l l not be used here.  By these definitions, i n Caranx  there i s one short spine on the dorsal edge of the pectoral f i n .  A l l counts,  measurements and characters used are based on an examination of a l l specimens l i s t e d (unless the structure involved was missing or mutilated) except as shown i n Table I.  TABLE I L i s t of Some Characters Used and the Number of Specimens Examined. Character Relationship of ventral f i n to anus Caudal major and minor rays Relationship of longest dorsal spine to longest dorsal ray Relationship of arched to straight portions of l a t e r a l line Relationship of longest dorsal ray to the base of soft dorsal Length of scaly sheath along soft dorsal and anal base Osteological characters  No* of Specimens of each Species Examined 10 10 10 10 5 10-40  5  The bone structure was examined from either prepared skeletal mounts or X-ray.  The f i l m used was Ilford Ilfex X-ray f i l m 836X-EX744} the machine used  was a General E l e c t r i c Model D movable unit. Osteology varies l i t t l e within the genus Caranx. F i g . 2 i s an X-ray photograph of C. hippos.  Abdominal vertebrae (those i n front of the anastomosed  - 3a -  Fig. 2  X - R a y p h o t o g r a p h of C . h i p p o s  1. D o r s a l p t e r y g i o p h o r e s p i n e 2. F i r s t a b d o m i n a l  vertebra  3. F i r s t c a u d a l  vertebra  4. L a s t caudal  vertebra  5. F i r s t m a j o r c a u d a l  ray  5'. L a s t  ray  major caudal  - 4 -  f i r s t haemal spine and anal support) are 10 i n number* Caudal vertebrae (those posterior to the abdominal vertebrae) are 14 or 15 i n number (Pig. 2). TREATMENT OF PROPORTIONAL MEASUREMENTS To evaluate the usefulness of proportional characters two standard deviations were plotted on either side of the mean, using the formula  (Walker and Lev, 1953).  Figures 3, 4 and 5 show the ranges, 2 standard  deviations (equaling 95$ confidence intervals (Snedecor, 1956)), and the means of the characters used for a l l species.  Between any two species i f no overlap  occurs i n the plot of two standard deviations, the character plotted i s valid to separate 95$ of the specimens i n these species.  The graphs i n Figs. 3, 4,  and 5 show the specimens of any given species divided into those smaller than 250 mm. and those 250 mm. and larger. From these figures i t can be seen that fork length/depth, fork length/head length and head length/upper jaw length are useful proportions to separate some species.  Fork length/pectoral f i n length or any proportion involving pectoral  f i n length was found to be of l i t t l e value as the very long, narrow t r a i l i n g end of the f i n i s subject to breakage and i t i s often impossible to ascertain i f breakage has occurred.  Another frequently used character which was found  invalid i n separating the species i s head length/eye length, as was any proportional measure involving eye length.  These characters are unsatisfactory  as adipose tissue often make eye length d i f f i c u l t to measure. Also, the ratio between eye length and head length, or any other body measure tested using eye length varied greatly with growth.  One could divide the f i s h into small size  groups and find significance but this i s not necessary i n separating the species dealt with here.  2.5  3.0  J  Figure 3. i  3.5 i  Length/head length and head length/upper Jaw length, a* 2 standard deviations about ®ean (J) •  i « range  a a G. caballus 167-241 mm 31 specimens a'a c . caballus 250-403 mm 30 specimens b n 57 yinctua 60-284 mm 22 specicseno c a C . hippos 66-246 m 46 specimens c' = C. hippos 262-730 mm 12 specisens  d = C. marginatus 86-243 ©a 64 specimens e =* CT lugubris T97-220 so 3 specimens e'* C7 luiiubria 288-755 mm 25 specimens f a C« aelampygua 89-241 on 29 specimens f ' n raelaapymia 398-675 as 8 specimens = C. aedualcola 112-157 ®m 3 epecioens g  - 4b -  F i g u r e 4.  L e n g t h / d e p t h , aymbola ae i n F i g u r e 5*  2.5  2.0  3.0  3.5  — i —  —i—  4.0  4.5  5.0  — i —  5.5  6.0  _H E  •70S-  -1.93  P F i g u r e 5.  Head length/eye l e n g t h and l e n g t h / p e c t o r a l f i n l e n g t h symbols as i n F i g u r e 3 except a = c a b a l l u s ( a l l specimens) b £ i v i n c t u s ( a l l specimens) 9JL hippos ( a l l specimens) d = marginatus ( a l l specimens) e = l u g u b r i s ( a l l specimens) f = C_j_ melampygus ( a l l specimens) g = C. medusicola ( a l l specimens) =  c  =  - 5-  ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations used i n this work are as follows: •jj = Length divided by depth •j| = Length divided by head length •j; = Length divided by pectoral length JJ  = Head length divided by upper jaw length JJ  — = Head length divined by eye length T.E.P. = Tropical East Pacific (3. = i n front of species name equals Caranx Spec* = specimen(s) as opposed to Sp* = species x = average I. = Island; I . = Islands s  B.C. Catalogue No. = from University of B r i t i s h Columbia W Catalogue No. = from University of California at Los Angeles U.M.M.L. Catalogue No. = from University of Miami Marine Laboratory ILLUSTRATION The maps of the Tropical East Pacific were based on those i n Bartholomew (1956) reduced by squares to the appropriate size.  The f i s h i l l u s t r a t i o n s  were drawn from particular specimens indicated on the drawings.  The f i s h was  placed i n a tray with an elastic band around the long axis of the tray.  This  band was lined up with the straight portion of the l a t e r a l line and pinned to the f i s h thus giving a base line from which to plot points on the i l l u s t r a t i o n . Where reduction i n scale was necessary, points were plotted on the drawing with Dietzgen 1% inch proportional dividers. Stippling technique i s that described i n Cannon (1936)*  - 6 -  BIBLIOGRAPHIC METHODS Dean's Bibliography of Pishes, Volumes I, II, and III was examined to obtain the references from Linnaeus to 1915*  The Zoological Record and  Biological Abstracts were consulted from 1915 to the present*  In searching  through Dean many t i t l e s of the following nature were encountered, "A Collection of Marine Pish from the Pacific Coast of Mexico with some Descriptions".  A l l such t i t l e s were checked, many of which made no reference  to Caranx. or perhaps only a distribution record. included i n the present bibliography.  These t i t l e s are not  The t i t l e s l i s t e d i n the bibliography  are those cited i n the text and those l i s t e d i n the species synonymies. Papers l i s t e d i n the synonymies, but not seen by the author, are indicated. Included i n the synonymies are the original description, papers recording the geographical range of the species, and a l l descriptive and figurative references from the tropical east Pacific for the species concerned.  FAMILY GARANG3DAE  Caranx i s a genus of circumtropical fishes of the family Carangidae, Order Percomorphi.  The family was f i r s t placed i n this order by Regan (1909),  contested by Starks (1909, 1911), who claimed this Family should be i n Order Scombroidea. are  Recent authors have followed Regan,  Notable among such authors  Berg (1947) Perciformes = Percomorphi; Matsubara (1955) Percida =  Percomorphi; and Herald (1961) Percomorphi, A family description i s included here as the existing descriptions are either too short and lacking i n important details (Jordan and Evermann, 1896; Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, taken from Jordan and Evermann; Walford, 1937) or too  long and unweildy (Ginsburg, 1952),  The following description conforms  i n general to that of Roxas and Agco (1941), including the salient diagnostic features of the family. DESCRIPTION OF THE FAMILY CARANGIDAE Body more or less compressed, oblong or elongate, or short and deep. Caudal peduncle generally slender.  Short ridges on the peduncle and caudal  f i n above and below the l a t e r a l line i n many genera.  (These ridges present  on Caranx and are the reason f o r using fork length rather than standard length)• Lateral line complete, arched anteriorly and straight posteriorly.  Lateral  scutes either arming the lateral line for i t s entire length, or only the posterior straight portion (Caranx). or entirely absent.  Mouth moderate,  maxillary not reaching past the eye except i n Oligoplites, premaxillary usually protractile, maxillary with or without supplemental bone.  Dentition varied,  complete or incomplete, sometimes teeth deciduous or overgrown with flesh i n larger specimens.  Adipose eye shields often well developed.  wide, g i l l membranes usually not united, free from isthmus.  G i l l opening Branchiostegals 7.  - 8 -  G i l l arches 4, a s l i t behind the l a s t . cycloid, often deciduous.  Scales complete or incomplete,  Dorsal fins two, the f i r s t spinous with 3-8 spines,  moderate i n height to very low.  The pterygiophore bearing the f i r s t dorsal  spine i s pointed forward giving the appearance of a procumbent spine, the term applied to this structure by other authors (See Pig. 2). in young, grown over with skin i n older specimens. depressable into groove. by 14-40 rays.  Spinous dorsal usually  Second dorsal long and soft with 1 spine followed  Anal f i n with 1 spine followed by 14-30 rays and preceeded  by two individual spines. and anal f i n s .  This point i s visible  Detached f i n l e t s occasionally present after dorsal  Pectoral f i n short or long, where long falcate.  thoracic, 1 spine and 5 rays.  Swim bladder present.  extremely numerous (more than 100 i n some forms).  Ventral f i n s  Pyloric ceaca usually  Members of this family  inhabit a l l warm seas i n the tropical faunal regions.  In the tropical east  Pacific there are 16 genera and 33 species (See Appendix l ) .  - 9 -  KEY TO THE GENERA  Existing keys to the genera are d i f f i c u l t to use.  Jordan and Everman  (1896) and Meek and Hildebrand (1925) place considerable emphasis on dentition i n their keys.  Teeth, however, i n large specimens of some genera of Carangidae  become deciduous or overgrown with f l e s h .  Walford (1937), contains some  errors i n counts and i s unreliable i n these sections.  For these reasons  i t was deemed necessary to devise the following new key.  A  AA  Ventral outline more strongly curved than dorsal. Pectoral f i n s almost twice as long as head.  Chloroscombrus  Dorsal outline equally or more strongly curved than ventral. Pectoral f i n s shorter or longer than head. B  Lateral line with bony scutes. C  Dorsal and anal f i n s each with detached f i n l e t .  CC  Dorsal and anal f i n s without f i n l e t s D  Shoulder girdle with a deep furrow near i t s junction with the isthmus, a fleshy projection above i t  Gill C o v e r Fleshy DD  —  Projection  Shoulder girdle without furrow or fleshy projection.  Decapterus  Selar  - 10 -  E  Lateral line with bony scutes along i t s entire length.  EE  Lateral line with bony scutes on the posterior straight portion only. E FF  Dorsal and anal f i n s each with more than one long filament.  Bony scutes on lateral line more than twenty. H  Soft dorsal with 29 or more rays.  HH  Dorsal and anal f i n s never falcate, maxillary very narrow, i t s greatest width scarcely ? eye.  II  Hemicaranx  Dorsal and anal f i n s falcate except i n C. vinetus; maxillary broad, greater than l/3 dia of eye. J  Dorsal and anal f i n s each produced into one filament.  JJ GG  Carangoides  Soft dorsal with fewer than 29 rays. I  Dorsal and anal f i n s not produced into filament.  Citula Caranx  Bony scutes on l a t e r a l line fewer than twenty. £  KK  Dorsal and anal f i n s falcate, anterior profile not near vertical. Dorsal and anal f i n s not falcate, anterior profile near v e r t i c a l . (The scutes i n this genera are often very weak and d i f f i c u l t to see).  Lateral line without bony scutes. L  Alectis  Dorsal and anal f i n s with one or no long filament. G  BB  Trachurus  Second dorsal and anal about equal i n length, both longer than distance from back of head to anus.  Gnathanodon  Vomer  11  M  Body deep, greatly compressed; pectoral f i n s 1.8 times or more i n head-*-; preorbitals extremely deep; snout steep.  MM  Body not greatly compressed. Pectorals always less than 1.5 times head^; preorbitals not deep. N  NN  LL  Selene  Maxillaries large - never more than 2 l/3 i n head; dorsal and anal f i n s never falcate. Scalesdeeply embedded, skin leather-like.  Oligoplites  M a Hxiilma r y not large - never less than 2 2/3 i ni head ; dorsal and anal f i n s falcate. Scales not deeply embedded, skin not leather-like.  Trachinotus  Anal f i n much shorter than second dorsal, i t s base shorter than abdomen. 0  Dorsal and anal each with a single detached f i n l e t .  Elagatis  00 Dorsal and anal without f i n l e t s . P PP  F i r s t dorsal with 6-8 slender spines. F i r s t dorsal with 3-4 low s t i f f spines.  This character i s uncertain, but the pectoral f i n of Selene i s much longer than that of either Oligoplites or Trachinotus. This character i s also somewhat uncertain for some species, but the maxillary i s much larger i n Oligoplites than i n Trachinotus.  Seriola Naucrates  THE GENUS CARANX Lacepede  The genus Caranx was f i r s t designated by Lacepede (1802) who apparently took the name from Commerson (pre Linnean),  Jordan and Evermann (1896),  present a history of Caranx which w i l l be quoted here, but they give the type of the genus incorrectly.  The type i s Scomber carangus Bloch =  C, hippos (Linnaeus) by subsequent designation of Bleeker. type),  (Lacepede gave no  "The name Caranx was apparently recorded i n manuscript by Commerson,  who applied i t to Caranx speciosus (now Gnathanodon).  In printed nomenclature  Caranx was f i r s t used by Lacepede; who adopted the name from Commerson applying i t to a large group containing among other species trachurus. carangus, speciosus. ferdau, and ruber.  This genus was further delimited by  Rafinesque........next further restricted by Cuvier and Valenciennes" (Jordan and Evermann, 1896).  The present r e s t r i c t i o n , and the one commonly  used today, i s that of Bleeker (1851), whose "type by subsequent designation i s the correct type of the genus. A generic description of Caranx i s included as i n most of the previously published works the generic descriptions are based on too few specimens of each Caranx species (Jordan and Evermann, 1896; Meek and Hildebrand, 1925), or based on Caranx from different areas and do not conform to the Caranx of the  tropical east Pacific (Williams, 1958).  Some of the older Caranx descriptions  do not follow Bleeker's r e s t r i c t i o n and include several other genera ( G i l l , 1863; Jordan and Gilbert, 1884; Gtinther, 1869; Weber and DeBeaufort, 1931). DESCRIPTION OP THE GENUS CARANX Caranx Lacepede (as restricted by Bleeker, 1851). Body ovate or oblong, fusiform to compressed, anterior-dorsal profile  - 13 -  sometimes strongly concave (as i n large C. lugubris) to gently arched (C_. crysos and caballus). Adipose shield on eyes moderately to well developed. Pectoral-girdle not crossed by groove near isthmus.  Mouth moderate to large,  maxillary broad with well developed supplemental bone, extending to below eye. Premaxillary protractile.  Teeth developed i n one row on upper and lower jaws  (two rows i n C_, vine tus lower jaw), upper jaw with an inner band of fine teeth.  Small teeth also present i n patches on the vomer, palatine and tongue.  Jaw teeth occasionally becoming deciduous or overgrown with flesh i n the large specimens of some species.  G i l l rakers moderate i n size.  Preopercle entire  i n adults, serrated i n the very young, with a membraneous border.  Dorsal  spines low (l/2 height of elevated rayed dorsal) to moderate (slightly higher than elevated rayed dorsal), seven or eight i n number connected with a membrane except the posterior two, and collapsing into a groove i n the back. small anteriorly pointed "spine" from the pterygiophore  Often a  at the anterior end  of the spinous dorsal (See Pig. 2), overgrown with skin i n larger specimens. Rayed dorsal and anal f i n s falcate anteriorly except i n C. vinetus. anteriorly separated from rayed anal.  Two  spines  Never any dorsal or anal f i n l e t s .  Ventral f i n s moderate, never extended, one spine and five rays.  Pectoral f i n s  long and falcate. Caudal f i n strongly forked, the peduncle slender, adipose ridges above and below l a t e r a l line half on peduncle and half on anterior caudal f i n .  Scales small, cycloid, often irregular and sometimes deciduous.  Breast scaled except i n C. hippos where i t i s naked except for a small patch anterior to the ventral f i n s .  Lateral line arched anteriorly, the posterior  part armed with strong l a t e r a l scutes, widest on the peduncle.  Young often  with v e r t i c a l cross bars fading with age except i n C_. vine tus where the bars are retained throughout l i f e . The placing of C. vine tus i n the genus Caranx has been questioned by  - 14 -  Berry (pers com) using Williams' (1958) definition of Caranx.  This species  does not agree with Williams' definition because i t has two rows of teeth on the lower jaw and does not have falcate dorsal and anal f i n s .  However,  any attempt to place C. vinetus i n another genus (probably Carangoides) presents more problems than are solved; the only way to keep to Williams' definition would be to erect a new genus f o r C» vinctus which seems undesirable. Therefore i n this work Williams' definition of Caranx i s broadened to include C. vinctus.  - 15 -  DESCRIPTIONS OF CARANX SPECIES  CARANX CABALLUS GUNTHER (Fig. 6) Svnonvmv Trachurus boops Girard, 1858, p. 108 (desc. and f i g . ) - Not T. boops of C.&V. Caranx boops G i l l . 1862, p. 261 (desc.) - Not C. boops of C.&V. Caranx caballus Gunther. 1869, p. 431 (desc. and f i g . ) Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, p. 199 (syn.) Evermann and Jenkins, 1891, p. 138 (dist.) Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1892, p. 353 (dist.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896a, p. 207 (dist.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 921 (desc.) Snodgrass and Heller, 1905, p. 333-427 (dist.) Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, p. 359 (desc. and f i g . ) Walford, 1937, p. 73 (desc. and f i g . and dist.) Hildebrand, 1946, p. 208 (desc. and f i g . ) Caranx g i r a r d i Steindachner. 1869, p. 25 Caranx crysos Nichols. 1920, p. 29 (part desc.) Caranx crysos caballus Nichols and Murphy, 1944, p. 243 (desc.) Material Examined  Cat. No. Specimens W51-39 ¥51-49 W51-51 W51-56 W59-12 W59-248 BC54-46 BC54-52 BC55-38 BC56^337 BC57-94 BC57-95 BC57-98 BC57-104 BC57-108 BC57-144 BC57-168  4 1 2 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 1 4 1 1 2 1  Size Range (mm.)  Locality Tenados I., Sinaloa, Mexico Venados I., Sinaloa, Mexico Venados I., Sinaloa, Mexico Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Point Willard, Lower California, Mexico Pulmo, Lower California, Mexico Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico Socorro I., Revillagigedo I *, Mexico Zihautanejo, Guerrero, Mexico Indefatigable I., Galapagos I ., Eq. Petacalco Bay, Guerrero, Mexico Petacalco Bay, Guerrero, Mexico Petacalco Bay, Guerrero, Mexico Santiago Bay, Colima, Mexico Navidad Bay, Compilo, Mexico Socorro I., Revillagigedo I ", Mexico Maria Magdelena I., Tres Marias I * , Mexico s  s  212-220 207 285-294 194 203 179 186—191 351 175-181 262 195 284 181-310 343 200 250-268 271  - 16 -  BC59-236 BC59-256 BC59-270 BC59-680 BC59-689 BC60-5 BC60-15 BC6CKL13 BG60-114 BC60-116 BC60-465 BC60-466 BC60-482 BC60-485 BC60-502 BC61-142 BC61-181  1 1 1 3 3 2 1 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 6 1 1  Cape San Lucas, Lower California, Mexico 176 Clarion I., Revelligigedo I * , Mexico 169 San Juanito I., Las Tres.Marias I *, Mexico 284 Chame Point, Panama 197-203 Panama City Mkt., Panama 205-212 Manjanillo Mkt., Colima, Mexico 294-311 Acapulco Mkt., Guerrero, Mexico 327 Tabago I., Panama 265-280 Tabago I., Panama 167-191 Tabago I., Panama 227-273 Isla l a Granda, Guerrero, Mexico 173-195 Isla l a Granda, Guerrero, Mexico 297-313 Maria Magdelena I., Las Tres Marias I * ,Mex,,314 Maria Magdelena I., Las Tres Marias I \Mex,,316 Cape San Lucas, Lower California, Mexico 195-403 Maria Magdelena I., Las Tres Marias I' Mex, ,314 Socorro I., Revellegigedo I . , Mexico 322 s  s  S  s  Description Dorsal VIII-I, 21-24 (one specimen 20 but with damaged f i n ) ; anal II-I, 18-21 rarely 17; caudal minor rays-dorsal 7-9, ventral 7-9; caudal major rays 17-21; pectorals I, 20-23; ventrals I, 5. 10 + 15 = 25.  Lateral scutes 38-51.  Vertebrae  G i l l rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch 25-31, usually 27-31,  Body fusiform, not compressed, snout moderate not steep. 3.32-4.78 (x 3.78).  Head i n length 3.49-4.01 (x 3.77).  length 2.60-3.57 (x 3.09).  Depth i n length Pectoral f i n i n  Upper jaw length i n head 2,46-2.80 (x 2.68).  Eye length i n head 3.75-5.03 (x 4,32), this character varies greatly with size.  Por 95$ ranges of proportions see Pig. 3, 4 and 5. Scales small, cycloid, somewhat irregular and deciduous, present on  cheek, postorbital region and breast. Anterior arched portion of lateral line about half the length of the posterior straight portion.  Spinous dorsal not quite as high as elevated  portion of rayed dorsal f i n .  Rayed dorsal and anal f i n s with obvious and  loose scaly sheath.  Ventral f i n s short, do not reach anus.  Pectoral f i n s  very long and falcate i n adults, considerably shorter i n young.  Soft dorsal  Caranx  caballus  BC60-465 specimen No. 1  - 16b -  Figur© 7  and anal f i n s falcate, their longest rays equal to between 1/4 and 1/3 of the length of the f i n base. Teeth present on both jaws, vomer, palatine and tongue, jaw teeth deciduous i n many larger specimens.  Single row of teeth on lower jaw,  single row with small teeth behind on upper jaw.  Eye with adipose shield  both anterior and posterior. Colour i n Alcohol: Fins:  Spinous and rayed dorsal dusky; caudal dusky; anal pale yellowish,  some dusky area around edges; ventral pale yellowish; pectoral pale yellowish with a dark base on the underside. Operculum with black or very dark grey-brown spot (see F i g . 6).  Body dark  dorsally (irridescent blue i n l i f e ) , ventrally pale yellowish (silver i n life). Distribution:  (See F i g . 7)  C, caballus i s endemic to the tropical East Pacific area.  The southward  l i m i t i s on the Peruvian Coast, probably Cape Aguja, (Walford, 1937).  To the  North i t has been taken at San Diego (Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1892).  It i s  known also from the offshore islands i n the Revillagigedo group and on the Galapagos group (Snodgrass and Heller, 1905)*  Specimens used i n this study  are taken from the areas shown on Fig. 7.  CARANX VINCTUS JORDAN AND GILBERT (Fig. 8) Synonymy Caranx sp. Lay and Bennet, 1839, p. 55 (desc. and f i g . )  - 18 -  Caranx vinetus Jordan and Gilbert, 1882, p. 349 (desc. and f i g . ) Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, p. 199 (syn.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 918 (desc.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896a, p. 207-584 (dist.) Gilbert and Starks, 1904, p. 77 (part desc.) Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, p. 358 (desc. and f i g . ) Walford, 1937, p. 74 (desc. and f i g . and dist.) Nichol, 1944, p. 124 (desc. and dist.) Carangus vinetus Jordan and Evermann, 1902, p. 305 (colour)  Cat.No.  No. Specimens  W53-185 ¥54-434 ¥58-46 W58-47 BC57-76 BC60-25 BC60-30 BC60-31  3 2 4 7 1 1 2 2  Size Range (mm.)  Locality Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico Locality unknown i n Costa Rica S. of Topolobampo, Sinoloa, Mexico S. of Topolobampo, Sinoloa, Mexico Acapulco Mkt., Guerrero, Mexico Port (Puerto) Arista, Oaxaco, Mexico larras, Sinaloa, Mexico 2\ miles south of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico  92-103 60-161 231-266 119-284 197 254 168-172 197  Description Dorsal VIII-I, 22-25 (one specimen 21 but with damaged f i n ) ; anal II-I, 19-21; caudal minor rays-dorsal 8-11; ventral 8-10; caudal major rays 17-19; pectorals I, 18-20; ventrals I, 5. 24.  Lateral scutes 45-52. Vertebrae 10 + 14 =  G i l l rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch 26-30 usually 28-30. Body  fusiform, s l i g h t l y compressed, snout moderate, not steep. 2.84-3.34 (x 3.08). Head i n length 3.49-3.84 (x 3.72).  Depth i n length Pectoral f i n i n  length 2.99-5.00 (x 3.36). Upper jaw length i n head.2.65-3.14 (x 2.77). Eye length i n head 3.55-5.07 (x -4.12), this character varies greatly with size.  For 95$ ranges of proportion see Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Scales small, cycloid, somewhat irregular, present on cheek, postorbital  region and breast.  - 19 -  Anterior arched portion of lateral line about three quarters the length of the posterior straight portion. Spinous dorsal as high as elevated portion of rayed dorsal f i n .  Rayed dorsal and anal f i n s with reduced scaly  sheath on anterior portion of f i n only. or s l i g h t l y past anus.  Ventral f i n s moderate reaching to  Pectoral f i n s very long and falcate i n adults,  considerably shorter i n young.  Soft dorsal and anal f i n s raised anteriorly  but not falcate. Teeth present on both jaws, vomer, palatine and tongue, 2 rows of teeth on lower jaw, one irregular row with small teeth behind on upper jaw.  Eye  with adipose shield only moderately developed both anterior and posterior. Colour i n Alcohol: Fins:  Spinous dorsal dusky; rayed dorsal and anal pale yellowish; caudal  yellowish; pelvic pale yellowish; pectoral pale yellowish, small dark area at base on the underside. Operculum with black or very dark grey-brown spot (See F i g , 8).  Body dark  dorsally (irridescent blue i n l i f e ) , ventrally pale yellowish (silver i n life).  Seven or eight dark v e r t i c a l bars on the side of the body reaching  to just below the midline. Distribution:  (See F i g . 9)  C. vinctus i s endemic to the tropical east Pacific area.  The published  southward l i m i t i s Panama (exact location missing (Walford, 1937)).  To the  north i t i s known from the southern part of the Gulf of California (Jordan and Evermann, 1896) and Conception Bay (Walford, 1937). in this study are taken from the areas shown i n F i g , 9.  The specimens used  Caranx  vinctus  BC60-30 specimen No.1 Figure  8.  Figure  9,  - 20 - -  CARANX HIPPOS LINNAEUS (Pig. 10) Synonymy Scomber hippos Linnaeus, 1766, p. 492 (desc.) Carangus chrysos G i l l . 1863, p. 434 (desc.) Carangus hippos Grill. 1863, p. 434 Carangus hippus Jordan and Gilbert, 1883, p. 269 (misspelling) Caranx caninus Gunther. 1866, p. 602 (desc.) Gunther, 1869, p. 432 (desc.) Walford, 1937, p. 72 (desc. and f i g . and dist.) Caranx hippos Gunther. 1860, V 2, p. 449 (desc.) Jordan and Gilbert, 1883, p. 269 (dist.) Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, p. 200 (syn.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 920 (desc.) Gilbert and Starks, 1904, p. 77 (desc.) Starks, 1906, p. 762 (dist.) Starks, 1911, p. 48 (osteol.) Kendall and Radcliffe, 1910, p. 99 (dist.) Nichols, 1920a, p. 44 (desc.) Nichols, 1937a, p. 58 (desc.) Nichols, 1937, p. 1 (desc.) Hildebrand, 1939, p. 38 (dist. and canal) Nichols and. Roemhild, 1946, p. 15 ( f i n variation) Hildebrand, 1946, p. 208 (desc.) Smith, 1953, p. 218 (dist. S. Af.) Mather, 1954, p. 292 (dist. Atl.) Randall, 1955, p. 87 (dist. Pac. I *) Robinson, 1959, p. 254 (dist.) Berry, 1959, p. 503 (dist. Atl.) Blanc and Bauchot, 1960, p. 488 (dist. W. Af.) s  Caranx carangus Gunther. 1860, p. 448 (desc.) Weber and DeBeaufort, 1931, p. 257 (dist. Indo Pac.) Caranx anthopygus Jordan. 1925, p. 16 Material Examined Cat. No.  Specimens  ¥51-22 BC56-142 BC56-145 BC57-78 BC57-87 BC57-118  16 1 1 2 6 2  Locality Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Capoblanco, Peru Capoblanco, Peru Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico Petacalco Bay, Guerrero, Mexico Chamela Bay, Colina, Mexico  Size Range (mm.) 146-289 550 444 196-198 108-172 345-380  - 21 -  BC59-215 BC59-656 BC59-667  5 1 4  BC59-671 BC59-674 BC59-676 BC59-685 BC59-687 BC60-12 BC60-25 BC60-28 BC61-I26 N 906 N 907 N 708  3 2 1 4 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1  Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Cupica Bay to Orpu River, Columbia 30 M. N. of Panama City,-mouth Caimito River, Panama Santa Clara, Panama Los Angles, Panama Los Angeles, Panama Chiman Area, 90 M. S. Panama City Panama City Mkt», Panama Manzanilla, Coliraa, Mexico Puerto Arista, Oaxaco, Mexico San Bias, Nayarit, Mexico Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico Maria Madre?, Tres Marias I * , Mexico Maria Madre, Tres Marias I * , Mexico Cape San Lucas, Lower California, Mexico s  s  163-244 69 113 93-111 355 109-150 264-323 68-168 110-114 143 123 508 468 730  Description Dorsal VII or VIII-I, 18-23 (usually VIII, 19-21); anal II-I, 15-18; caudal minor rays-dorsal 8-9, ventral 7-9; caudal major rays 17-19 the dorsal half of which are always 10; pectorals I, 18-21; ventrals I, 5.  Lateral  scutes 27-42. Vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24. G i l l rakes on lower limb of f i r s t arch 15-19 (usually 16-18). Body moderately compressed, snout steep but rarely i f ever concave i n profile. Pig.  Depth i n length 2.47-3.74 (x = 2.92) varies with size of f i s h (see  3). Head i n length 3.11-3.58 (x 3.36).  Pectoral f i n i n length 2.76-  3.94 (x -3.20). Upper jaw length i n head 2,16-2.55 (x -2.30). Eye length i n head 3.28-5.77 (x 4.22), this character varies greatly with size. For 95$ ranges of proportions see Figs, 3, 4 and 5. Scales small, cycloid, somewhat irregular, present on cheek and postorbital region, those on cheek very small, absent from breast except for a small, diamond shaped, patch immediately anterior to the ventral f i n s . the  Soft dorsal and anal f i n s falcate,  longest rays of the f i n s equal to l/3 to l/2 the length of the f i n base. Anterior arched portion of lateral line about 4/5th the length of the  - 22  posterior straight portion. Spinous dorsal about half as high as elevated portion of rayed dorsal f i n .  Rayed dorsal and anal f i n s with reduced scaly  sheath on anterior portion of the f i n s only. to the region of the anus.  Ventral fins moderate reaching  Pectoral f i n s very long and falcate i n adults,  considerably shorter i n young. Teeth present on both jaws, vomer, palatine and tongue, becoming deciduous i n large specimens.  Single row of teeth some enlarged and canine  l i k e on the lower jaw, similarly on the upper jaw but with small teeth behind.  Eye with adipose eye shield both anterior and posterior.  Colour i n Alcohol: Fins:  Spinous dorsal dusky; rayed dorsal yellowish with dark edges and dark  f i n rays on posterior 3/4 of f i n ; caudal yellowish with dusky edges; anal yellowish with dusky markings on edge. Ventral f i n yellowish; pectoral f i n pale yellowish with dark area at base on underside and dark spot on lower portion. Operculum with a black or very dark grey spot (See F i g , 10).  Body dark  dorsally (irridescent blue i n l i f e ) , ventrally pale yellowish (silver i n life).  Four or five v e r t i c a l dark bars across body reaching to below the  midline i n young, disappearing i n adults. Distribution (See F i g . l l ) C. hippos i s regarded by several authors to be circumtropical (Berry, 1959; Briggs, I960).  However, several fauna works claiming to include a l l  Caranx species from the areas concerned omit (3. hippos. i s Williams (1958) on tropical B r i t i s h East Africa,  Most notable of these  Randall's (1955) report  on the fishes of the Gilbert Is. contains only a questionable reference to the presence of C_. hippos.  The positive range may be placed as follows: both  east and west coasts of tropical America, South African tropical waters  Caranx  hippos  BC57-87 specimen No.1 Figure  10.  - 22b -  Figure  11.  - 23 -  (Smith, 1953), west coast of Africa (Blane and Bauchot, I960), IndoAustralian Archipelago (Weber and Debeaufort, 1931, Caranx carangus Bloch = C. hippos Linnaeus), and the Chinese Coast (Fowler, 1937a).  It therefore  may be considered world wide except for some small areas where C. hippos may not exist.  In the tropical east Pacific i t i s found from the extreme  north of the Gulf of California (Robinson, 1959) and Cape San Lucas south to Cape Aguja, Peru.  The specimens used i n this study are taken from the  areas shown on F i g . 11.  CARANX MARGINATUS GILL (See F i g . 12) Synonymy Carangus marginatus G i l l . 1863, p. 166 (desc.) Jordan and Evermann, 1902, p„ 306 (desc.) Caranx latus = f a l l a x = marginatus Jordan and Gilbert 1883  (dist.)  Caranx latus = marginatas Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, p. 200 (syn.) Caranx latus Jordan and Eollman, 1890, p. 180 (dist.) Evermann and Jenkins, 1891, p. 138 (dist.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896a, p. 207-584 (dist.) Snodgrass and Heller, 1905, p. 333-427 (dist.) Caranx f a l l a x (marginatus) Jordan and Gilbert, 1883a, p. 373-378 (dist.) Caranx marginatus Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 922 (desc.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896a, p. 207-584 (dist.) Gilbert and Starks, 1904, p. 78 (desc.) Fowler, 1905, p. 81 (desc. from Hawaii) Snodgrass and Heller, 1905, p. 333^427 (dist.) Kendell and Radcliffe, 1912, p. 99 (desc.) Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, p. 356 (desc. and f i g . ) Walford, 1937, p. 74 (desc. and f i g . ) Hildebrand, 1939, p. 38 Caranx sexfasciatus Nichols. 1938, p. 1 (dist.) Nichols and Murphy, 1944, p. 242 (desc.) Caranx hippos Giinther. 1869, p. 431 ( i n error)  Material Examined  Gat. No.  No. Specimens  ¥51-36 15 BC54-64 1 BC56-444 1 BC56-445 1 BC56-449 3 BC56-454 ? 2 BC57-78 2 BC57-175 1 BC58-383 3 BC59-202 2 BC59-241 5 BC59-264 1 BC60-12 14 examined BC60-13 5 BC60-17 5 BC60-476 2 BC61-125 1  Size Range (mm.)  Locality Esteso at Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Cape San Lucas, Lower California, Mexico Tower I., Galapagos I * Tower I., Galapagos I * Cocos I., Costa Rica, Mexico Cocos I., Costa Rica, Mexico Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico Maria Magdalena I., Tres Marias I ;Mexico Clarion I., Revillagigedo I ' , Mexico Maria Magdalena I., Tres Marias I J Mexico Maria Magdalena I., Tres Marias I J Mexico Cleopha I., Tres Marias I * , Mexico Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico Acapulco, Guerrero, Mexico Chamela Bay, Nayarit, Mexico Isla La Granda, Guerrero, Mexico s  s  s  s  S s  s  150-213 128 140 87 91-101 105-109 241-243 186 148-176 106-116 123-175 148 86-128 100-22 118-140 94-97 116  Description Dorsal VIII-I, 19-21; anal II-I,  15-17 rarely 14; caudal minor rays,  dorsal 7-9, ventral 7-9; caudal major rays 17-19; pectorals I, 18-21, rarely 17; ventrals I, 5. Lateral scutes 28-36. Vertebrae 10 + 15 = 25. Grill rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch 15-17. Body fusiform, moderately compressed, snout moderately steep never concave in profile. (x 3.40).  Depth i n length 2.50-3.31 (x 2.89).  Pectoral f i n i n length 2,92-4.41 (x 3.43).  head length 2.02-2.38 (x 2.19).  Upper jaw length i n  Eye length i n head length 3.23-4.29 (x 3.66),  this character varies greatly with size. Fig.  Head i n length 3.04-3.65  For 95$ ranges of proportions see  3, 4 and 5. Scales small, cycloid, somewhat irregular, present on cheek, postorbital  region and breast. Anterior arched portion of lateral line s l i g h t l y more than half the length  - 25  of the posterior straight portion.  Spinous dorsal about half as high as  elevated portion of rayed dorsal. Rayed dorsal and anal f i n s with very reduced scaly sheath on anterior 1/3 of f i n only.  Ventral f i n s reaching well  beyond anus. Pectoral f i n s very long and falcate i n adults; considerably shorter i n young.  Soft dorsal and anal f i n s falcate, the longest rays of  the f i n s equal to 1/3 to 1/2 the length of the f i n base. Teeth present on both jaws, vomer, palatine and tongue, becoming grown over with flesh i n some larger specimens,  A single row of teeth on the  upper and the lower jaws, a few anterior ones enlarged canine l i k e , a patch of small teeth behind single row on upper jaw. Colour i n Alcohol: Fins:  Spinous dorsal dusky, rayed dorsal yellowish, dusky borders especially  on the anterior portions of the f i n ; anal pale yellowish; caudal dusky yellow with darker posterior border.  Ventral f i n s pale yellowish.  Pectoral f i n  yellowish, darker area at base on underside. Opercular spot pale or absent however there i s a small black dot at the dorsal angle of the g i l l opening.  Body dark dorsally (irridescent blue i n  l i f e ) , ventrally pale yellowish (silver i n l i f e ) .  Four to six dark v e r t i c a l  bars on sides of body extending to below the midline i n young, disappearing with age. Distribution (See F i g , 15) C, marginatus i s a part of the worldwide C. latus-sexfaseiatus»<narginatus complex (see page 42 ). Only the ranges of C. marginatus w i l l be discussed here. C. marginatus i s known from the tropical east Pacific and a questionable record from Hawaii (Fowler, 1905).  I t occurs from the south Gulf of California  (Jordan and Gilbert, 1883a), to Panama (Kendall and Radcliffe, 1912) and on the offshore islands i n the Revilligigedo group, Cocos I., Galapagos I * s  Caranx  marginatus  BC59-241 specimen - No. 2 Figure  12  ;  - 25b  F i g u r e 13.  - 26 -  (Snodgrass and Heller, 1905).  The areas where specimens used i n this  study were taken can be seen i n F i g . 13,  CARANX LUGUBRIS POEY (Fig. 14) Synonymy; Scomber ascensionis (non Osbeck) Bloch and Schneider, 1801, p. 33 Caranx ascensionis (non Osbeck) Cuvier i n Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1833, p. 102 (desc. and f i g . ) Gunther, 1860, p. 432 (desc.) Caranx lugubris Poey, 1860, p. 22 (desc. and f i g . ) Jordan and Gilbert, 1882a, p. 227 (desc. and dist.) Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, p. 201 (syn.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 924 (desc.) Jordan and McGregor, 1899, p. 271-284 (dist.) Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, p. 352 (desc.) Walford, 1937, p. 76 (desc. and d i s t . and f i g . ) Woods i n Shultz et a l , 1953, p. 514 (desc.) Randall, 1955, p. 88 (dist.) Berry, 1959, p. 523 (dist.) Blanc and Bauchot, 1960, p. 489 (desc.) Caranx tenebrosus Jordan, Evermann and Wakiya i n Jordan, Evermann and Tanaka, 1927, p. 656 (desc. and dist.)  Material Examined  r +  w  BC54-53 BC54-403 BC57-159 BC58-383 BC61-179 BC61-183 BC61-184 BC61-187  No. Specimens 1 2 1 1 13 7 2 1  Size Range (mm.)  Locality Socorro I., Revillagigedo I Cocos I., Costa Rica Socorro I., Revillagigedo I Clarion I., Revillagigedo I Socorro I., Revillagigedo I Socorro I., Revillagigedo I Socorro I., Revillagigedo I Socorro I., Revillagigedo I  s  * , Mexico  s  ' , Mexico * , Mexico ' , Mexico * , Mexico ' , Mexico * , Mexico  s s s s s  288 197-204 310 229 349-621 325-421 354-372 755  - 27 -  Description Dorsal VIII or VII-I, 20—22 (only occasionally VII spines); anal II-I,  17-19  (rarely 16); caudal minor rays, dorsal 8-9, ventral 8-9;  major rays 17-20; pectorals I, 19-22; ventrals I, 5. Vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24.  caudal  Lateral scutes 26-34.  G i l l rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch 17-20.  Body compressed, snout steep and often concave i n p r o f i l e . length 2.44-3.10 (x 2.88).  Head i n length 3.20-3.60 (x 3.39).  f i n i n length 2.72-3.40 (x 3.02).  Depth i n Pectoral  Upper jaw length i n head length 2.30-2.66  (x 2.49). Eye length i n head length 3.44-6.10 (x 4.61), this character varies greatly within any one size group.  For 95$ ranges of proportions  see Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Scales small, cycloid, somewhat irregular, quite firm, present on cheek, postorbital region and breast. Anterior arched portion of l a t e r a l line about half the length of the posterior straight portion.  Spinous dorsal about l/3 as high as the elevated  portion of rayed dorsal f i n .  Rayed dorsal and anal with very reduced scaly  sheath on anterior portion of f i n only. i n adults.  Pectoral f i n s very long and falcate  Rayed dorsal and anal f i n s very falcate, longest rays of the f i n  equal to more than l/2 the length of the f i n base. Teeth present on both jaws, vomer, palatine and tongue, becoming overgrown with flesh or lost completely i n large specimens. A single row of teeth on the upper and the lower jaw, these teeth subequal and often canine-like. Upper jaw with small teeth behind the main row. Eye with adipose shield both anterior and posterior. Colour i n Alcohol: Fins:  Spinous and rayed, dorsal dark brown almost black; anal, ventral  and pectoral f i n s similar.  F i g u r e 14.  - 27b -  Figure 15  - 28 -  No opercular spot. Body dark brown, almost black dorsally, ventrally not quite as dark but s t i l l dark brown.  Lateral line scutes almost black.  Distribution (Fig. 15) This species i s noted to have an almost circumtropical distribution by Berry (1959) who records i t as occurring i n the Western Atlantic (but not on the coast of the United States), Eastern Atlantic, Eastern and Western Pacific and Indian Ocean. Definite distribution records are from -the IndoPacific (Randall, 1955); from Hawaii and the East Pacific (Walford, 1937); from the West Coast of A f r i c a (Blanc and Bauchot, I960), and from the Western Atlantic (Berry, 1959).  However, the East African and Cape Area  covered by Williams (1958) and Smith (1953) show no records.  Weber and  DeBeaufort (1931) have not recorded the f i s h from the Indo-Australian archipelago and Roxas and Agco (1943) do not mention C, luguhris from the Philippine Is. This f i s h appears to inhabit the rocky shores of islands rather than the mainland.  For example, i t i s present around islands i n both  the Pacific and the Atlantic, but i s not recorded to date from the mainland of America.  C. lugubris i s taken infrequently.  The specimens used i n this  study were taken on the offshore islands of the Revilligigedo group and Cocos Is. (Fig. 15).  CARANX MELAMPYGUS CUVIER (Fig. 16) Synonymyt Caranx melampygus Cuvier i n Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1833, p. 116 (desc. and f i g . ) Giinther, 1860, p. 440 Jordan and Gilbert, 1882a, p. 230 (desc. and dist.) Jordan and Gilbert, 1884, p. 201 (syn.) Jordan, 1886, p. 361 (dist.) Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 925 (desp.)  - 29 -  Caranx stellatus Eydoux and Souleyet, 1840, p. 167 (desc.) Giinther, I960, p. 436 (desc.) Jordan, Evermann and Tanaka, 1928, p. 655 (desc. and dist.) Weber and DeBeaufort, 1931, p. 253 (desc.) Walford, 1937, p. 75 (desc. and f i g . and dist.) Roxas and Agco, 1941, p. 40 (desc. and dist.) Smith, 1953, p. 216 (desc. and dist.) Monro, 1955, p. 129 (desc. and dist.) Carangus melampygus Jordan and Evermann, 1902, p. 307 (colour) Snodgrass and Heller, 1905, p. 365 (desc.) Wakiya, 1924, p. 139-244 (desc. and dist.) Meek and Hildebrand, 1925, p. 353 (desc.) Weber and DeBeaufort, 1931, p. 248 (desc. and dist.) Fowler, 1936, p. 286 (desc. and dist.) Smith, 1953, p. 216 (desc. and dist.) Woods i n Shultz et a l , 1953, p. 512 (desc. and dist.) Monro, 1955, p. 129~Tdesc. and dist.) Williams, 1958, p. 382 (desc. and dist.) Carangus f o r s t e r i Jordan and Evermann, 1905, p. 191 (not seen) Caranx f o r s t e r i Jordan and Seale, 1906, p. 230 Xurel melampygus Jordan. Evermann and Clark, 1930, p. 272 (dist.) Xurel stellatus Jordan, Evermann and Clark, 1930, p. 273 (dist.)  Material Examined  Cat. No.  Specimens  BC57-152 BC58-383 BC59-261 BC59-264 BC61-149 BC61-179 BC61-181 BC61-187 BC61-189  2 18 4 4 3 3 1 1 1  Size Range (mm.)  Locality Socorro I.» Clarion I., Socorro I., Cleopha I., Maria Madra Socorro I., Socorro I., Socorro I., Socorro I.,  r S .  Revillagigedo , Mexico Revillagigedo , Mexico Revillagigedo , Mexico Tres Marias Is. Mexico I., Tres Marias I *, Mexico Revillagigedo I * Mexico Revillagigedo I * Mexico Revillagigedo I * Mexico Revillagigedo I * Mexico s  s  107-151 110-131 210-241 89-129 642-675 441-610 398 670 119  Description Dorsal VII or VIII-I, 21-23 (usually VIII-I, 22-23); anal II-I, 18-20 (one specimen at 16); caudal minor rays-dorsal 8-9, ventral 7-9; caudal  - 30 -  major rays 16-19; pectorals I, 18-21; ventral I, 5. Lateral scutes 29-37 (usually 33-36). Vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24. G i l l rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch 18-19 (rarely 16-17).  Body compressed, snout f a i r l y steep i n young,  to steep i n large specimens, profile of head often concave i n large specimens. Depth i n length 2.47-3.19 (x 2.74) varying with size (See F i g , 4), Head i n length 3.07-3.71 (x 3.52).  Pectoral f i n i n length 2.69-3.47 (x 3.13).  Upper jaw length i n head length 2.31-2.90 (x 2,53). Eye length i n head length 3.32-7.84 (x 4,49), this character varies greatly with size.  For 95$ ranges  of proportions see Figs. 3, 4 and 5. Scales small, cycloid, somewhat irregular, well embedded, present on cheek, postorbital region, and breast.  Anterior arched portion of lateral  line about half the length of the posterior straight portion.  Spinous dorsal  from 1/2 to 3/4 as high as the elevated portion of rayed-dorsal f i n .  Rayed  dorsal and anal f i n s falcate, the longest rays equals from 2/5 to s l i g h t l y more than l/2 of the length of the f i n base, scaly sheath reduced and only present on anterior half of f i n s . past the anus.  Ventral f i n s moderate i n length reaching  Pectoral f i n s long and falcate i n a l l specimens studied.  Teeth present on both jaws, vomer, palatine and tongue, jaw teeth becoming overgrown with f l e s h or deciduous i n some large specimens. A single row of teeth on the lower and the upper jaws; the upper with patch of small teeth behind. Colour i n Alcohol: Specimens under 150 mm,:  Spinous and rayed dorsal dusky with darkened borders  on rayed dorsal; anal dusky except anterior falcate lobe which i s dark. Ventral f i n s light with faint dusky t i n t at d i s t a l end; pectoral f i n s l i g h t ; caudal dusky with darker borders.  - 31 -  Opercular spot absent.  Body dark dorsally (irridescent blue i n l i f e ) ,  ventrally silver as i n l i f e , no snots present. Specimens 200-300 mm.:  Spinous and rayed dorsal dark, anterior portion of  rayed dorsal almost black; anal dark, anterior lobe being almost black. Ventral f i n s dark on lateral edge and nearing d i s t a l end, light medially and proxmally; pectoral f i n s l i g h t , slightly darker than young; caudal darker than young but not nearly black. Opercular spot absent.  Body dark dorsally (irridescent blue-green  i n l i f e ) , ventrally dirty silver as i n l i f e ; a few spots (10—20) present on each side of the body (Fig. 15), Specimens greater than 350 mm,:  Fins as i n mid-sized specimens except a l l  f i n s a l i t t l e darker and the caudal becoming very dark brown with lighter posterior margin. Opercular spot absent.  Body very dark (almost black) dorsally  (irridescent blue-green on dark backgroundin l i f e ) , ventrally a golden shade as i n l i f e , many spots on side of body and head. From the above i t can be seen that the colour pattern of C, melampygus changes radically with growth, which has led many authors to believe the young and the adults to be distinct species (See Table I I I ) . Distribution:  (Fig. 17)  Caranx melampygus i s reported from the tropical Indian Ocean and the Red Sea (Smith, 1953; Williams, 1958), throughout the Indo-Pacific region (Weber and DeBeaufort, 1931; Randall, 1955; Monro, 1955) and i n the east P a c i f i c . This species i s not recorded from the Atlantic Ocean,  In the east Pacific  i t i s recorded from the Tres Marias I * south to Panama and on the offshore s  islands of the Revillagigedo group and Cocos (Walford, 1937).  Figure 16.  - 31b -  F i g u r e 17.  - 32 -  CARANX MEDUSICOLA JORDAN AND STARKS Synonymy: Caranx medusicola Jordan and Starks, 1895, p. 430 (desc) Jordan and Evermann, 1896, p. 924 (desc. and f i g . and dist.) Gilbert and Starks, 1904, p. 78 (desc. and dist.) Meek and Hildebrand, 1931, p. 355 (desc.) Walford, 1937, p. 75 (desc. and dist.) Carangus medusicola Jordan and Evermann, 1902, p. 306  Material Examined  Cat. No.  No. Specimens  BC54-64 BC60-488  2 1  Size Range (mm.)  Locality Cape San Lucas, Baja California, Mexico Maria Magdalena I L a s Tres Marias I * , Mexico  112-114  s  157  Description Dorsal VIII-I, 21-23; anal II-I, 19-20; caudal minor rays-dorsal 7-8, ventral 7-8; caudal major rays 18; pectorals I, 20; ventrals I, 5. Lateral scutes 37-40. Vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24. arch 19.  G i l l rakers on lower limb of f i r s t  Body compressed, snout f a i r l y steep, p r o f i l e straight, not concave  on the three specimens examined. i n length 3.58-3.66 (x 3.62).  Depth i n length 2.45-2.59 (x 2.52). Head  Pectoral f i n i n length 3.70-5.20 (x no meaning).  Upper jaw length i n head length 2.43-2,64 (x 2,54), Eye length i n head length 4,2-4.3 (x 4.25). Scales small, cycloid, somewhat irregular not embedded, present on cheek, postorbital region and breast. Anterior- arched portion of lateral line about half the length of the posterior straight portion.  Spinous dorsal from 3/4 to equal to the height  of the elevated portion of the rayed dorsal. Rayed-dorsal and anal fins  - 33 -  falcate, but anal rounded on falcate end.  The longest dorsal ray equal  to 1/3 to 1/2 of the length of the base, the longest anal ray equal to less than 2/5 the base of the f i n . half of f i n bases.  Scaly sheath reduced, present only on anterior  Ventral f i n s moderate i n length reaching past the anus.  Pectoral fins long and falcate i n specimens studied. Teeth present on both jaws, vomer, palatine and tongue. A single row of teeth on the lower and the upper jaws.  The upper with patch of small  teeth behind. Colour i n Alcohol: Pins:  Spinous and rayed dorsal quite light with darker borders except the  anterior-falcate lobe which i s dark, almost black,  Ventrals l i g h t ; pectoral  l i g h t ; caudal dusky with darker borders. Opercular spot absent; body dark brown dorsally, ventrally yellowish, no spots present. Distribution:  (Pig. 19)  The known distribution of this species i s from Mazatlan (Jordan and Evermann, 1896) to Panama (Gilbert and Starks, 1904), and i t i s reported by these authors to occur commonly. However, many specimens supposedly of this species may be C. melampygus.  The area i n which i t i s reported to be commonly  found i s well represented i n our collections of Caranx and yet we have only three specimens of C. medusicola.  Mr, F. Berry, on checking some of the  collections at U.C.L.A., feels that many of the identified C, medusicola are in fact C, melampygus. A discussion of the differences i n these species i s on page 45 «  The specimens I have examined come from Cape San Lucas and the  Tres Marias Islands  0  5  C a r a n x )  medusicola  B C 6 0 - 4 8 8 specimen  No. 2  F i g u r e 18.  cw.  - 33b -  F i g u r e 19.  - 34 -  CARANX sp. BC56—434  1 specimen  Indefatigable I., Galapagos I *  This specimen from the Galapagos Islands does not f i t any available key to the species.  The specimen i s superficially similar to C_. marginatus  but the vertebrae are 10 + 14 = 24 whereas C. marginatus has 10 +15 =25. Also the upper jaw length i n head ratio i s much higher i n Caranx sp. than i n C. marginatus (2.52 i n Caranx sp. and 2,02-2.38 (x 2.19) i n C, marginatus). Some of the characters of this form are as follows.  Fork length, 68 mm.;  depth, 24.7 mm,; head length, 19..9 mm.; pectoral f i n length, 14,9 mm,; upper jaw length, 7.9 mm.;  eye diameter 4.9 mm.  Depth i n length 2.75; head i n  length 3.42; pectoral f i n i n length 4.56; upper jaw i n head, 2,52,  Dorsal  VIII-I, 20; anal II-I, 16; pectoral I, 19; ventrals I, 5. G i l l rakers on ?  lower limb of f i r s t arch 18. Vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24. Caudal scutes 30. Six distinct dark v e r t i c a l bands on side of body, extending almost to the ventral surface.  Opercular spot present.  - 35 -  COMPARATIVE MATERIAL FROM ATLANTIC  As well as the material previously mentioned, specimens of C» latus and C. crysos from the Atlantic were examined.  CARANX LATUS AGASSIZ  Material Examined No. Cat. No. Specimens BC60-2 UMML138 UMML1575 UMML1749  1 1 2 1  Size Range (mm,)  Locality Sacraficius I., Vera Cruz, Mexico Plantation Key, Florida Bimini, Bahamas Bahia de legua, Puerto Rico 7  67 112 53 160  Description Dorsal VIII-I, 20-21; anal II-I, 16-18; pectoral I, 18-20; ventrals I, 5. Lateral scutes 33-38. Vertebrae 10 + 14 = 24. G i l l rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch 16-17. Depth i n length 2.65-2.84.  Head i n length 2,67-3.31.  Pectoral f i n i n length 3,33-4,22. Upper jaw i n length i n head 2.03-2,65. Eye length i n head 3,19-3,84,  A discussion of the relationship of C, latus  and C. marginatus can be found on page 42 .  CARANX CRYSOS MITCHELL  Material Examined  - 36 -  No. Cat. No. Specimens BC58-398 BC61-92 UMML408 UMML1150 UMML1179 UMML1457 UMML2150 UMML3048 UMML7397 UMML7784  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  Size Range (mm.)  Locality East Coast of Florida Florida Bay, Monroe, Florida Key Largo, Florida 300, 16• N; 80°, 21« W-Combat Stn. # 70 Dry Tortugas, Florida Dry Tortugas, Florida Long Key, Florida Virginia Key, Florida Virginia Key, Florida L i t t l e Duck Key, Florida  166 100 178 100 146 149 184 175 156 91  Description Dorsal VIII-I, 22-24; anal II-I, 19-f20; pectoral I, 20-24; ventrals I, 5. Lateral scutes 45-51. Vertebrae 10 + 15 = 25.  Grill rakers on lower limb of  f i r s t arch 26-28. Depth i n length 2.53-3.49 (x 3.20). Head i n length 3.51-3.75 (x 3.62).  Pectoral f i n i n length 3.05-5.25 (x 3.69). Upper jaw  length i n head 2,24-2.53 (x 2.42).  Eye length i n head 3.48-4.46 (x 3.91).  A discussion of the relationships of C. crysos and C. caballus can be found on page  39 •  KEY TO THE SPECIES OF CARANX IN THE TROPICAL EAST PACIFIC  There are seven known species of the genus Caranx i n the tropical east P a c i f i c .  The keys i n Meek and Hildebrand (1925), Jordan and Evermann  (1896), and Walford (1937), do not adequately differenciate these species. Scute counts, anal and dorsal f i n ray counts and colour pattern are extensively used i n these keys.  Overlap was found i n a l l such characters  for Caranx marginatus, melampygus and medusicola.  The key given below  separates a l l the species of Caranx known from the tropical east P a c i f i c .  A  Grill rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch 22 or more (including rudiments). B BB  AA  Body with dark bars; scaly sheath on dorsal and anal f i n s reduced, restricted to anterior portion only.  Caranx vinetus  Body without dark bars; scaly sheath on dorsal and anal f i n s well developed - continuous along f i n  Caranx caballus  Grill rakers on lower limb of f i r s t arch less than 22 (including rudiments)• C CC  Scales absent from breast except small diamond shaped patch i n front of ventral f i n s .  Caranx hippos  Breast scaled. D  Body a l l dark brown; front of head usually concave; anterior portion of dorsal and anal f i n reaching well past l/2 f i n base.  DD  Caranx lugubris  Body not a l l dark brown; front of head usually not concave; anterior portion of dorsal and anal f i n not reaching well past 1/2 f i n base. E  Head length over upper jaw length 2,002.40 (usually between 2.05-2.25); body never spotted; g i l l rakers 17 or less, rarely 18; dorsal times anal f i n rays less than 365; vertebrae 25.  Caranx marginatus  - 38 -  EE  Head length over upper jaw length 2.30-2.80 (usually 2.45-2.65). Body may be spotted in large individuals} g i l l rakers, 18 or more, rarely 17 or less; dorsal times anal f i n rays greater than 365; vertebrae 24. Anal fins pointed or almost so, longest anal ray 2\ or less i n base of f i n ; anterio-dorsal profile not straight. FP  Anal f i n round on anterior raised portion, longest anal ray greater than 2i i n the f i n base; anterio-dorsal profile almost straight.  Caranx melampygus  Caranx medusicola  DISCUSSION  DEFINITION OF THE TROPICAL EAST PACIFIC The tropical east Pacific area i s the region of tropical waters located between Magdalena Bay (approximately 24°N) and Cape Aguja (approximately 6°S) except during periods of the " E l Nino" when the tropical waters extend further south to 12°S (Sverdrup, Johnson and Flemming, 1942),  Included i n this region are the offshore islands of the  Revillagigedo group, Cocos and Clipperton Islands, the Galapagos Islands and perhaps Gaudalupe Island.  The northern boundary of the tropical east  Pacific region i s a disputed question.  I t i s placed as far north as the  United States-Mexico boundary by Eckman (1953) and as far south as 23°N by Newell (1948).  However, i t i s generally accepted, on both a faunal and a  temperature basis (20°C winter isotherm), that the area of Magdelena Bay can be considered as the boundary. Within the Gulf of California there appears to be a change from a completely tropical fauna i n the south to a mixed tropical-warm temperate fauna i n the north (Briggs, 1955). Tropical forms of Caranx are not known to exist south of Cape Ajuga, the southern l i m i t of tropical waters.  C. caballus i s reported from as far  north as San Diego (approximately 32° 35*N) and C, hippos i s reported from the extreme north of the Gulf of California.  Caranx then do move into the  warm temperate waters to the north of the tropical zone but only infrequently. SPECIES AND SPECIES COMPLEXES Caranx caballus : crysos : fusus This complex of forms exists i n the tropical waters of the east Pacific (caballus), west Atlantic (crysos) and subtropical Mediterranean (fusus). Tortonese  (1952) places C. fusus and C. crysos i n synonyme both as C. crysos.  - 40 -  The present author has examined C,, crysos and C, caballus and found both to have 25 vertebrae.  Berry (pers. com.) has examined C. fusus and  C_« crysos and has found these forms to have 25 vertebrae.  The differences  i n some of the characters of C. crysos and C. caballus are shown i n the Table below.  TABLE II  L D  L H  H M  Lateral Scutes  Gill Rakers  C. crysos  3.20 2.53-3.49  3.62 3.51-3.75  2.42 2.24-2.53  46.7 45-51  26.8 26-28  C. caballus  3.78 3.32-4.78  3.77 3.49-4.01  2.68 2.46-2,80  44.1 38-51  28.6 25-31  L  L  Average range Average range  H  Using a character index on the above proportions (p + ^ + jjj-), 100$ separation i s obtained, C. crysos having an index range from 8,6-9,5 and C. caballus having a range from 9.6-11.5. A graphical presentation of the proportional characters and index can be seen i n Figs, 20 and 21. C. crysos and C. caballus have been synonymized as C. crysos by Nichol (1920) and as C. crysos crysos and C, crysos caballus by Nichol and Murphy (1944). Because 100$ separation between the two forms can be made by the use of a simple index a synonymy or subspecific synonymy i s unwise and the two species should be retained as such. C. caballus i s endemic to the tropical east Pacific and C. crysos to the Atlantic; there are no closely related forms i n the Indo-Pacific. As the isthmus of Panama was submerged i n pre-pleistocene times (1-3 million years ago) i t i s very l i k e l y that the C. crysos-caballus stock was  - 40a -  I5n  I N D E X  crysos F i g u r e 20.  Character  index o f |f + - + S n D M  C. c r y s o s and C (C. crysos 91 mm  to 184  mm  caballus separating  caballus. C_j_ c a b a l l u s 167  mm  to 403  mm).  head length 30-i  upper jaw length  fork  length  head  length  fork  depth  2 0 -  £  o> E o <u o_ cn  length  C  caballus  C  crvsos  10-  o-  ZL  JEL  i—r  35  20"  C.  marginatus  C.  latus  10-  02.0  2.5  3.0  "ST  4.0  2.5  Figure 21.  3.0  i 3 5  4.0  4.5  - 41 -  continuously distributed i n both the east Pacific and Atlantic during this time.  The evolution of these forms probably took place i n the areas  in which they exist today.  The differentiation of C, caballus from C. crysos  must have occurred since the l a s t emergence of the Panama isthmus. Caranx vinctus This species i s endemic to the tropical east Pacific and appears to have no very close relative i n this or any other tropical region,  Jordan  and Gilbert (1882) i n the original description of this form claim i t to be closely related to Caranx c i b i Poey,  C. c i b i has now been synonomized with  C_. bartholomaei Cuvier (Duarte-Bello, 1959).  C, bartholomaei i s a species  which i s found i n the west Atlantic and Caribbean. C_. bartholomaei  Prom the descriptions of  i n the literature and from the single specimen examined  there would appear to be no close relationship between C, vinctus and C. bartholomaei.  There exist large differences i n dentition, g i l l raker  count and scute count.  C. vinctus does not f i t Williams* (1958) Caranx  generic r e s t r i c t i o n as i t has two rows of teeth on the lower jaw and does not have falcate dorsal and anal f i n s . ascertain.  The origin of C, vinctus i s d i f f i c u l t to  This species could be an example of a form originating i n the  Indo-Pacific and being displaced to the east Pacific since the l a s t r i s i n g of the isthmus.  An equally tenable argument i s that C. vinctus evolved i n  the east Pacific-Atlantic region and was not able to survive the postulated low temperature i n the west Atlantic during the pleistocene glaciation (see page 48 ) . Caranx hippos This species i s known from almost a l l tropical waters.  It has on  occasion been named as a separate species i n the tropical east Pacific, Caranx caninus (Gunther, 1869),  The only recent author to follow Gunther  - 42 -  i s Walford (1937).  Gilbert and Starks (1904) have l i s t e d the slight  differences between C. hippos on both sides of the Panama isthmus.  East  Pacific forms have a s l i g h t l y higher g i l l raker count, more scutes on the lateral line and shorter ventral f i n s , but there i s a great area of overlap i n a l l cases.  Nichols (1937) separates C, hippos on either side of the  isthmus as subspecies, but the characters he used do not appear to be valid.  He claims scute count on the Pacific form to be 33-40 and on the  Atlantic form to be 27-33.  The specimens examined for this study from the  Pacific varied from 27-41. Another character Nichols used i n his study was head length over eye diameter, a character which varies greatly with the size of the specimens (see page 4 ) ,  Hildebrand (1939) states that C_. hippos  i s found i n the Panama Canal locks but does not pass through the Canal. The young of C_. hippos i s known to enter fresh water and the p o s s i b i l i t y exists that C. hippos does, on occasion, pass through the Canal. Meek and Hildebrand (1925) compared 50 specimens from the Atlantic coast and 70 from the Pacific coast and found no differences of sufficient magnitude to separate these populations as species.  The conclusion reached from the  above evidence i s that C, hippos i s the same species on both sides of the Panama isthmus but there are some slight morphological differences i n the species between these areas. Caranx marginatus : latus s sexfasciatus The f i r s t problem encountered i n this complex i s the identification of C_. sexfasciatus.  To give an example, Nichol and Murphy (1944) equate  C. sexfasciatus with C, marginatus; Randall (1955) equates C, sexfasciatus from the Gilbert Islands, with C, hippos from Florida, and Woods ( i n Schultz et a l , 1953) describes C, sexfasciatus from the Marshall and Mariannes Island as a different form making i t equal to £ . sexfasciatus of Quoy and Gaimard,  - 43 -  Prom the examination of two specimens of £. sexfasciatus Quoy and Gaimard, taken at Taihae (BC62-255) a vertebral count of 24 was obtained, one lower than C_. marginatus.  As C. sexfasciatus. i f i t i s a valid species, has not  been collected from the tropical east Pacific the present work w i l l deal only with C. marginatus and C. latus.  C. marginatus i s an east Pacific  form and C, latus i s a west Atlantic form. The proportional measurements and counts made on these two species with the exception of vertebrae are very similar.  Figure 21 and the Table below  summarize some of the data.  TABLE I I I  Vertebrae  Dorsal Rays  Anal Rays  Pectoral  Lateral Scutes  Gill Rakers  c. latus  10 + 14  20-21  16-18  I, 18-20  33-38  16-17  c. marginatus  10 + 15  19-21  15-17  I, 18-21  28-36  15-17  The characteristics used to separate C. latus and C. marginatus by Meek and Hildebrand, namely eye diameter and body depth, do not appear to be valid.  Eye diameter varies greatly with size (see page 4) and body depth  into length has complete overlap (see F i g . 21).  Vertebrae number separates  these two species. As a l l marginatus examined had 25 vertebrae and a l l latus 24 vertebrae and i n a l l other Caranx species examined the vertebral count was constant within a given species, i t i s concluded that C. latus and CJ. marginatus are v a l i d species. £, marginatus and C. latus have become differentiated since the l a s t emergence of the Panama isthmus.  Previous to the emergence they must have  been continously distributed on both sides of the Americas.  - 44 -  Caranx lugubris This species i s distributed circumtropically around rocky islands. Often, as i n the Americas, i t i s not found on the mainland but only around islands.  It appears to be quite constant i n character throughout i t s range.  As (3. lugubris i s commonest i n the Indo-Pacific region and as there are more islands here than i n other tropical regions i t i s suspected that this region i s the probable area of origin. Caranx melampygus = stellatus Caranx melampygus and C, stellatus have been described as separate species by several authors, the division based on colour pattern, especially the lack of spots (C. melampygus) or presence of spots (C. stellatus).  TABLE IV Number of Spots and Size of C. melampygus.  Spots on 1 Side of Body  Head  0 0 0 0 10-30 50-100 50-100  0 0 0 0 1 or 2 100 100  No. Fish Size 89-129 107-151 110-131 119 210-241 396-670 642-675  mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm.  Specimens 4 2 18 1 4 5 3  Area Cleopha I., Tres Marias I" rS. Socorro I., Revillagigedo I" Clarion I., Revillagigedo I * Socorro I., Revillagigedo I Socorro I., Revillagigedo I ] Socorro I., Revillagigedo I Maria Madre I.,Tres Marias I s  s  From the examination of the specimens above (from 89-675 mm.) i t i s seen that the presence or absence of spots depends upon size.  I t i s concluded  that C. melampygus and C. stellatus are synonymous and must be called _C. melampygus.  C. melampygus i s a pan-Pacific form which i s absent from the Atlantic, On this basis i t i s l i k e l y the C. melampygus has reached the east Pacific since the emergence of the Panama isthmus.  I f this i s so, C, melampygus  i l l u s t r a t e s Briggs (1961) hypothesis that there i s at present a slow invasion of the tropical east Pacific by Indo-Pacific species of shore f i s h , which are crossing the east Pacific sea barrier. Caranx medusicola and melampygus Caranx medusicola has often been confused with C. melampygus. a species which i t very closely resembles.  Differences between these species include;  C. medusicola has a rounded falcate anal while C. melampygus has a pointed falcate anal, the length of the longest anal ray i n C, medusicola divides into the anal f i n base more than 2.5 times while i n C. melampygus the longest anal ray divides i n the base 2.5 times or less.  The anterior profile of  the two species are quite distinct, that of C. medusicola being almost straight while that of C. melampygus i s concave.  ,m i - —  C  melampygus  / '  F i g u r e 2 2.  \  «i  210mm.  C, medusicola  157mm  - 46 -  It i s very probable that C, medusicola i s a v a l i d species which i s rarely collected (there are only 3 specimens i n the U.B.C. collections) and i t i s considered as such i n this work.  The origin of C. medusicola i s  d i f f i c u l t to ascertain. Morphologically i t is very similar to C_. melampygus and on this basis a close phylogenetic relationship can be postulated. zoogeographical evidence however, no close relationship i s indicated. reason for this i s :  On The  C. melampygus i s pan-Pacific and because of i t s absence  from the west Atlantic, appears to have reached the east Pacific since the l a s t emergence of the Panama isthmus. Pacific region.  C. medusicola i s endemic to the east  If C, medusicola and _C. melampygus are close phylogenetic  relations, as i s indicated by their morphological similarity, one of three p o s s i b i l i t i e s exist.  C. medusicola was once an Indo-Pacific form which was  displaced to the eastern Pacific periphery and does not now exist i n the Indo-Pacific; C. medusicola has evolved i n the east Pacific from C_« melampygus very recently; or C. melampygus and C« medusicola i n the past existed i n the Pacific and Atlantic and todays distribution i s the result of both these species f a i l i n g to survive i n the Atlantic. BARRIERS TO DISTRIBUTION Panama Isthmus Any comparisons of the Atlanto-Pacific f i s h faunas must take into account the existence and submergence of the Panama Isthmus.  Stokes (i960)  estimates submergence took place i n the early Cenozoic, probably Paleocene or early Eocene and lasted u n t i l late Pliocene.  Lindberge  (i960) i n his  investigation of levels of the sea postulates that during the Sangamon interglacial period, previous to the Wisconsin glaciation, the marine water levels were 80 meters higher than at present,  F l i n t (1957) states the  - 47 -  highest interglacial elevation i n sea levels was over 30 meters.  He shows  further that around Santa Barbara the level 90 f t . above the present sea level i s associated with marine f o s s i l s which are probably late Pleistocene, somewhat more than 30,000 years old.  There are three areas today where the  coastal lowlands extend from coast to coast, namely, i n Nicaragua, i n Panama and i n south Mexico.  It i s therefore a p o s s i b i l i t y that during one of the  interglacial periods, probably Sangaman, there existed a channel separating North and South America which would allow exchange i n faunal elements between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Today transport across the Isthmus i s impossible for s t r i c t l y marine forms as the Panama Canal runs through two bodies of fresh water, one of these 30 miles long (Lake Gatun), the other 3-4 miles long.  Fish that can  tolerate fresh or brackish water for moderate lengths of time could cross, however. East Pacific Barrier This barrier i s not land but rather sea, a very large stretch of open water with no islands where shore f i s h or shore-bound pelagic f i s h could survive.  The size and extent of this barrier may be seen i n F i g . 23.  The  efficiency of the barrier has been estimated as 86.3$ at the specific level; i . e . 13.7$ of the total number of known shore f i s h have been able to cross i n a west to east direction (Briggs, 1961), such as that proposed by Lindberge  An elevation i n the water level  (i960) or F l i n t (1957) would submerge some  of the low atoIs i n the south Pacific and have the effect of increasing the size of the east Pacific barrier.  A lowering of the sea levels as postulated  during the Wisconsin g l a c i a l period would have no effect, as a drop i n sea levels of 200 meters would only increase the size of the present islands i n the tropical east Pacific and add no new islands i n the areas of the east Pacific barrier (Data from U.S.Navy Hydrographic Office, 1961).  Q> coral  F i g u r e 23.  reef  areas  EQUATORIAL  PACIFIC  B a r r i e r a r e a i n d i c a t e d by  label.  OCEAN  - 48 -  Temperature Barriers At the present time the distribution of Caranx and other marine shore fishes i n the tropical east Pacific i s limited to the north and south bytemperature barriers.  Distribution to the east and west i s limited not by  temperature but rather the previously discussed land and sea barriers.  In  Pleistocene and perhaps Pliocene times the eastern, northern and southern barriers may have differed from the present locations.  Ewing and Donn  (1956 and 1958) have postulated that the temperature i n the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean was considerably lower during the time of maximum ice melt in the interglacial periods.  I f this i s the case, the existence of a channel  between North and South America during the Sangaman interglacial may have had l i t t l e effect on Caranx distribution due to the presence of a low temperature barrier. Hubbs (1948 and I960) presents the hypothesis that the tropical east Pacific was cooler; marine temperatures decreasing by 3 C° i n the winter and 8 C° i n the summer. Such a drop i n temperature would narrow the band of tropical waters.  Hubbs also postulates that the paucity of the tropical  east Pacific shore fishes i s due to the aforementioned low temperature removing many species from this area, Briggs (1961) disagrees with Hubbs and postulates no catastrophic removal of shorefish species due to temperature.  Briggs shows i n Figures  1 and 2 of his recent (1961) paper that the 3 C° winter drop would only decrease the band of tropical waters by about 1/3, but he does not show the 8 C° summer drop postulated by Hubbs. The 8 C° reduction i n temperature would reduce the tropical zone by l/2 i t s present width and cause some northward s h i f t (See Figs. 24, 25 and 26).  According to Briggs, there are  two reasons for the paucity of the east Pacific tropical fauna; the f i r s t  - 48a -  Figure 25.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of t r o p i c a l waters with a winter temperature drop of 3 C (From Briggs, 1961). &  - 48b -  - 49 -  i s the effectiveness of the east Pacific barrier and the Panama isthmus barrier and the second i s the lack of habitat i n the east Pacific for coral reef fishes. Evidence for or against a marine temperature drop i n the tropical east Pacific during the Pleistocene i s sparce. Some of the evidence i s reviewed here. D i l l o n (1956) following botanical and snow line evidence estimates land temperatures were 5 F° (2.8 C°) lower at the equator and 10 F° (5.6 C°) lower at 35°N than present temperatures.  Interpolating  from these estimates a drop i n land temperature i n the proximity of 7.5°P (4,1°C) could be expected i n the region of the tropical east P a c i f i c . Hubbs (1948) shows a close correlation between land and sea temperatures; therefore the drop of 4.1°C land temperature would be reflected i n marine temperatures, but not quite to the same extent. Dorf (i960) presents more severe temperature decline.  Working i n paleobotany, Dorf estimates land  temperatures i n Central America during Pleistocene to be sub-tropical and warm temperate, there being no tropical zone.  Arrhenius (1952) finds that  along the line of 130°W the temperature was approximately 3 to 4 C° lower during glaciation.  This work i s based on Oxygen^g examination of core  samples using planktonic foraminifera. Most evidence points to a decline i n the marine temperatures during the periods of maximum glaciation. the l i k e l y order of magnitude.  A drop of from 3 to 5° C appears to be  - 50 -  CARANX;  ZOOGEOGRAPHY AND EVOLUTION  The barriers, the tropical zone and the distribution of Caranx have been discussed previously.  This information w i l l now be speculatively  examined i n relation to evolution and variation i n Caranx. and an evaluation of Hubbs' (i960) "temperate decrease theory" and Briggs' (1961) "barrier theory". There are three possible patterns of evolution and distribution to those Caranx forms endemic to the tropical east P a c i f i c , are:  Their patterns  f i r s t l y , the endemic species have evolved within the tropical east  Pacific since the l a s t emergence of the Panama Isthmus; secondly, they have arrived i n the tropical east Pacific since the l a s t emergence of the Isthmus, coming from the Indo-Pacific where they do not exist today; or l a s t l y they existed i n the tropical east Pacific while the Isthmus was open but did not enter the Atlantic, or i f they did enter they did not survive there. Table V indicates the distribution of those species which are not endemic to the east Pacific and those which have close relatives across the Isthmus,  As i s seen from this Table, some forms vary to the extent of  becoming different species i n different areas of their ranges, while others are very similar throughout a l l the areas of their ranges, Caranx caballus and Caranx marginatus have most l i k e l y evolved i n the tropical east Pacific since the emergence of the isthmus as both have a twin species on the Atlantic side of the isthmus. The theories on the paucity of the tropical east Pacific fauna previously mentioned (Briggs and Hubbs), w i l l now be evaluated i n terms of Caranx distribution.  As circumtropical Caranx species (C. hippos and C. lugubris),  add l i t t l e to either side of the argument, they w i l l not be used.  Five  TABLE V Distribution and differentiation of non-endemic Caranx species i n the east P a c i f i c .  INDO-PACIFIC  C. sexfasciatus  EAST PACIFIC BARRIER  EAST PACIFIC  C. marginatus  ISTHMUS  WEST ATLANTIC C. latus  DIFFERENTIATION i C , marginatus from C . latus and C. sexfasciatus - 100$ on vertebral count  C. caballus  C. crysos  100$ with index  C. hippos  C. hippos  C. hippos  Slight variation  C. melampygus  C. melampygus  C. lugubris  C. lugubris  Similar C. lugubris  Similar  - 52 -  other Caranx species w i l l be discussed, namely, C. caballus. C_. marginatus, 9.* vine tus. C_. melampygus and C, medusicola.  Only one of the five east  Pacific species (C. melampygus) i s found i n the Indo-Pacific. only one of the 12-20  Conversly  (depending upon author) Indo-Pacific species  (C. melampygus) i s found i n the east P a c i f i c .  We may say therefore, that  the east Pacific barrier i s 80$ effective for east to west movement and from 92$-95$ effective for west to east movement, i n regard to the genus Caranx, The situation across the isthmus d i f f e r s .  Two of the five species i n  both Pacific and Atlantic are closely related (C, caballus : crysos and C. marginatus : latus).  The Panama isthmus i s , therefore, only 60$ effective  when considering either east-west or west-east movement i n the past.  Today,  however, i t i s 100$ effective as there are no identical species except the circumtropical ones. If Hubbs' theory is correct, then we may assume that the Caranx on either side of the isthmus were displaced during the Pleistocene and only in recent times have come back to either side of the isthmus.  Also, the  east Pacific species present today are largely due to re-invasion from the Indo-Pacific,  Re-invasion from the Atlantic i s impossible as the isthmus has  blocked passage since the Pleistocene.  Caranx does not show such a pattern.  The a f f i n i t i e s with the Indo-Pacific are very low, the a f f i n i t i e s with the Atlantic somewhat higher. The present evidence indicates that the Pleistocene marine temperature was 3 to 4C° lower than i t i s today,  Hubbs postulates a 3°C lower winter  temperature and an 8°C lower summer temperature.  It i s unlikely that the  later (8 C°) lowering i s correct as this would make the tropical zone  - 53 -  narrower i n summer than i n the winter (Figs. 24, 25 and 26).  The map  showing the 20°C winter isotherm with a temperature drop of 3°C (Fig, 25) indicates a tropical zone of considerable size and the p o s s i b i l i t y of a major faunal die-off i s improbable. If Briggs i s correct, one would expect low a f f i n i t i e s with the IndoPacific, which i s the case, and perhaps closer a f f i n i t i e s with the Atlantic due to intermingling i n either the Sangaman interglacial period or late Pleiocene,  Also, due to the lack of habitat, a poor east Pacific  representation of coral reef fishes would be expected. tends to support this idea.  Caranx distribution  Hubbs* theory of a temperature drop i n the  neighbourhood of 3 to 4°C i n the tropical east Pacific i s supported by most of the literature and i s not argued here; however, i t i s unlikely that such a drop had a serious effect on the shore f i s h fauna.  The paucity of the  shore f i s h fauna i n this region i s better explained by the barriers and lack of habitat.  SUMMARY  There are seven d i s t i n c t species of Caranx i n the tropical east Pacific area.  These are:  Caranx caballus, _C, vinctus. C. marginatus.  C_. hippos, C_, lugubris. C. melampygus and C. medusicola. C, marginatus i s separable from C_« latus and C. sexfasciatus on vertebral counts, C. marginatus having one more caudal vertebrae. L may be separated from C. crysos with a character index  L  C. caballus  H  + — + ^) •  C_. melampygus may be separated from C_, medusicola by the anal f i n shape and dimensions (C. melampygus - falcate portion pointed and long; C_. medusicola - falcate portion rounded and shorter) and snout shape (concave in CJ. melampygus; almost straight i n C. medusicola). C. stellatus i s synonymous with C_. melampygus; the previously reported colour differences being size dependent.  The present distribution of east  Pacific Caranx species may be described as: 2 - circumtropical (C. hippos, £. lugubris) 1 - Pan-Pacific (C. melampygus) 4 - endemic to the tropical east Pacific (C. caballus, C. marginatus, C, vinctus, C. medusicola) The present barriers to Caranx distribution i n the tropical east Pacific are:  temperature to the north and south; the Panama isthmus to the east; and  the east Pacific sea barrier to the west. Non-endemic Caranx forms i n the tropical east Pacific show different amounts of v a r i a b i l i t y over their total range.  C. marginatus : latus :  sexfasciatus and C. caballus : crysos vary most between geographic regions and £. melampygus and £. lugubris vary least between geographic regions. The most probable reasons for the paucity of the tropical east Pacific  - 55 -  fauna are the presence of barriers, especially the east Pacific sea barrier, and the lack of coral reef habitat.  Based on Caranx evidence  i t i s unlikely that the postulated 3 to 4C° Pleistocene drop i n temperature had a serious effect on the shore f i s h fauna.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Agassiz, L. 1829. In Spix, J.B. von. and L. Agassiz. Selecta genera et species piscium quos i n itinere per Brasiliam annis 1817-20 Monachii. Pt. 1, 82 p., 48 p i . Arrhenius, G. 1961, Geological record on the ocean f l o o r . Pp. 129-148 In Oceanography, Sears, M. ed. (1959) 1961. Publ. No. 67, A.A.A.S., Wash., D.C. 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Descriptions of some new species of fishes collected at the Galapagos Islands and along the coast of the United States of Colombia, 1887-1888. Proc, U.S. Nat. Mus., 12: 149-183. Jordan, D.S, and B.W, Evermann, 1896-1900. The Fishes of North and Middle America: A descriptive catalogue of the species of f i s h - l i k e invertebrates found i n the waters of North America, north of the Isthmus of Panama. B u l l . U.S. Nat. Mus. 47, Pt. 1-4: 3313 p. Jordan, D.S. and B.W. Evermann. 1896a. A check-list of the fishes and f i s h l i k e vertebrates of North and Middle America. Rept. U.S. Fish Comm. 21: 207-584.  - 59 -  Jordan, D.S. and B.W. Evermann, New York, 573 p,  1902, American food and game fishes.  Jordan, D.S, and B.W. Evermann, 1905, The aquatic resources of the Hawaiian Island I. The shore fishes of the Hawaiian Island, with a general account of the f i s h fauna. B u l l . U.S. Pish Comm., 1903 (1905) 23: 574 p. + 138 p i . Jordan, D.S., B.W. Evermann, and H.W. Clark, 1930. Check l i s t of the fishes and f i s h - l i k e vertebrates of North and Middle America north of the northern boundary of Venequela and Colombia. Rept. U.S. Comm. Fish. (1928), 670 p. Jordan, D.S., B.W. Evermann, and S. Tanaka. 1927, Notes on new or rare fishes from Hawaii, Proc. Cal. Acad. S c i . Ser. 4 (16): 649-680. Jordan, D.S, and C.H. Gilbert. 1882. Descriptions of 33 new species of fishes from Mazatlan, Mexico. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus, 4: 338-365. Jordan, D.S, and C,H. Gilbert. 1882a. Notes on a collection of fishes made by Lieut. Henry E. Nichols, U.S.N,, on the west coast of Mexico, with descriptions of new species, Proc, U.S. Nat. Mus. 4: 225-233, Jordan, D.S. and C.H. Gilbert, 1883. Notes on fishes observed about Pensacola, Florida, and Galveston, Texas, with descriptions of new species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 5: 241-307. Jordan, D.S. and C.H. Gilbert. 1883a. L i s t of fishes collected at Panama by Capt. J.M, Dow, now i n the U.S. National Museum. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 5: 373-378. Jordan, D.S. and C,H. Gilbert. 1883b. L i s t of fishes now i n the Museum of Yale College, collected by Prof. Frank H. Bradley at Panama, with descriptions of 3 new species. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 5: 620-632. Jordan, D.S. and C,H. Gilbert. 1883c, Mexico, by Charles Henry Gilbert.  L i s t of fishes collected at Mazatlan, B u l l . U.S. Fish Comm. 2: 105-108.  Jordan, D.S. and C.H, Gilbert. 1884, A review of North American Caranginae. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 6: 188-207. Jordan, D.S. and R.C. McGregor, 1899. L i s t of fishes collected at the Revillagigedo Archipelago and neighbouring islands. Rept. U.S. Fish. Comm. 24: 271-284.  Jordan, D.S. and A. Seale. 1906. The fishes of Samoa: Description of the species found i n the Archipelago, with a provisional check l i s t of the fishes of Oceania. B u l l . U.S. Bur. Fish.(1905) 25: 173-455. Jordan, D.S. and E.C. Starks. 1895. In Jordan, D.S. The fishes of Sinaloa. Proc. C a l . Acad. S c i . 2 Ser. 5: 377-514. Jordan, B.K, 1925, Notes on the fishes of Hawaii with descriptions of six new species, Proc, U.S. Nat. Mus., 66: 1-43.  - 60 -  Kendall, W.C. and L. Radcliffe. 1912. Zool., Harv. C o l l . , 35: 75-171. Lacepede, B.E.E. 1802. 558 p., 34 p i .  The shore fishes.  Histoire naturelle des poissons.  Lay, G.T. and E.T. Bennett. 1839. Fishes. voyage, 41-75, p i . 15-23, London.  Mem. Mus. Comp. Tome 3, Paris,  In the zoology of Captain Beechey's  Lindberg, G.U, 1960. Prervannoe rasprostranenie ryb i krupnye kolebaniya urovnya okeana (interrupted distribution of f i s h and large fluctuations in ocean l e v e l ) . Tr. okean. komi., Akad. nank SSSR, torn 10, vyp. 4: 14-16. Linnaeus, C.  1766.  Systema naturae.  L. S a l v i i , Holmiae, ed. 12, Vol. 1, 531 p.  Mather, F.J. 1954. Northerly occurences of warm water fishes i n the Western Atlantic. Copeia, 1954: 292-293. Matsubara, K.  1955.  Fish morphology and hierarchy.  Pt. 1.  789 p. (In Japanese)  Meek, S.E. and S.F. Hildebrand. 1925. The marine fishes of Panama. F i e l d Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool., Ser. 15, (Pt. I I ) : 331-707.  Pub.  M i t c h i l l , S.L. 1815. The fishes of New York, described and arranged. Trans. L i t . Philos. S o c , New York, 1: 355-492. #  Monro, I.S.R. 1955. The marine and fresh water fishes of Ceylon. Dept. External A f f a i r s , Canberra: 349 p. + 56 p i . Newell, I.M. 1948. Marine molluscan provinces of western North America: A critique and a new analysis. Proc. Amer. P h i l . Soc, 92 (3): 155-166. Nichols, J.T.  1920.  On Caranx crysos. etc. Copeia, 1920 (81): 29-30.  Nichols, J.T. 1920a. On the range and geographic variation of Caranx hippos. Copeia, 1920 (83): 44-45. Nichols, J.T, 1937. 967: 1-5. Nichols, J.T. 58-59.  1937a.  Notes on the carangin fishes.  On Caranx hippos (Linnaeus) from Equador.  Nichols, J.T. 1938. Notes on the Carangin fishes. Quoy and Gaimard. Amer. Mus. Nov. 998: 6 p. Nichols, J.T. 1944. (1944): 124.  Amer. Mus. Nov.,  N.Y.,  Copeia, 1937:  I I I . On Caranx sexfasciatus  On the young of Caranx vinetus Jordan and Gilbert.  Copeia  Nichols, J.T. and R.C. Murphy. 1944, A collection of fishes from the Panama Bright, Pacific Ocean, B u l l . Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 83-4: 221-260. Nichols, J.T. and J . Roemhild. 1946. Fin-count variation i n Caranx hippos (Linnaeus). Marine L i f e , Occasional Paper 1 (5): 15-17.  - 61 -  Poey, P, 1860, Memorias sobre l a h i s t o r i a natural de l a Isla de Cuba, acompanadas de sumarias. Latinos y extractas de Prances, 2: 97-336, Havana, Quoy, J,R»C, and P, Gaimard, 1824, Voyage autour du monde execute sur les corvettes de S,M.L. Vranie et l a Physicienne. Zool. 358 p., 65 p i . Paris, Randall, J.E, 1955. Pishes of the Gilbert Islands. 47: 246 p.  Atoll,  Ees. B u l l , No.  Regan, C.T. 1909. Anatomy and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the Scombroid fishes. Ann. Mag. N t . Hist., 3 Ser. VIII: 66-75. a  Robinson, D.T, 1959. The ichthyofauna of the lower Rio Grande, Texas and Mexico. Copeia, 1959 (3): 253-256. Roxas, H.A, and A.G. Agco, 1941, A review of the Philippine Carangidae. Philippine Jour. S c i . Manila. 74—1: 1-82. Shultz et a l . Pishes of the Marshall and Marianas Islands. U.S. Nat. Mus, 202: 684 p. Smith, J.L.B, 1953. The sea fishes of southern A f r i c a . Ltd., South Africa, 563 p. Snedecor, G.W, 1956, S t a t i s t i c a l methods, 5th ed, Ames, Iowa. 543 p.  Vol, 1.  Bull,  Central News Agency  Iowa State College Press,  Snodgrass, R.E. and E. Heller, 1905, Shore f i s h of the Revillagigedo, Clipperton, Cocos, and Galapagos Islands, Proc, Wash. Acad. S c i . 6: 333-427. Starks, E.C. 1906. On a collection of fishes made by P.O. Simons i n Equador and Peru. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 30: 761-800. Starks, E.C. 1909. The Scombroid fishes.  Science, 30: 572-574.  Starks, E.C. 1911, The osteology and relationships of the fishes belonging to the family Carangidae, p. 27-49. In Osteology of certain scombroid fishes. Leland Stanford J r . Univ. Publ. Univ. Ser. No. 5. Steindachner, P. 1870. Ichthyologische Notizen IX. 1869 (1870), 60, 1: 290-318.* Stokes, W.L,  I960,  Essentials of earth history.  Sverdrup, H.U., M.W. Johnson and R.H, Fleming. Inc., N.J., 1087 p.  Sitzber.  Akad. Wiss. Wien,  Prentice Hall, N.J.  1942, The oceans,  502 pp.  Prentice-Hall  Tortenese, E, 1952. Monografia dei Carangini viventi nel Mediterraneo (Pices Perciformes). Ann. Mus, Storia. Nat. Genoa, 65: 259-324. U.S. Navy Hydrographic Office. 2nd ed.  1961. The World.  H.O. Misc. 15, 254-6 and 7.  - 62 -  Wakiya, Y. 1924, The Carangoid fishes of Japan, 15: 139-244, Walford, L.A. Equator,  Ann, Carnegie Mus, Pittsburgh  1937, Marine game fishes of the Pacific coast from Alaska to the Univ, C a l i f , Press, Berkeley, 205 p. + 69 p i .  Walker, H.M. and J . Lev. 1953. S t a t i s t i c a l inference. Henry Holt and Co., New York, 510 p. Weber, M. and L.F. DeBeaufort. 1931. The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. VI, Perciformes (continued). E.J. B r i l l Ltd., Leiden,  448 p.  Williams, F. 1958, Fishes of the family Carangidae i n B r i t i s h East African waters. Ann. Mag. N t, Hist. Ser. 13, V i : 369-430. a  - 63 -  -64-  arangidae from the Tropical East Pacific "amily Carangidae Genus Selar Selar crumenophthalmus Genus Trachurus Trachurus picturatus Genus Hemicaranx Hemicaranx atrimanus Hemicaranx zelotes Hemicaranx leucurus Genus Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx Caranx  caballus vinctus melampygus medusicola lugubris hippos marginatus sp.  Genus Gnathanodon Gnathanodon speciosus Genus Citula Citula dorsalis Genus Alectis Alectis ciliaris Genus Vomer Vomer declivifrons Genus Chloroscombrus Chloroscombrus orqueta  *65  Carangidae from the Tropical East Pacific  Genus Selene Selene oerstedii Selene brevoortii Genus Trachinotus Trachinotus Trachinotus Trachinotus Trachinotus  kennedyi culveri rhodopus paloma  Genus Oligoplites Oligoplites Oligoplites Oligoplites Oligoplites  altus mundus saurus refulgens  Genus Elagatis Elagatis bipinnulatus Genus Seriola Seriola mazatlana Seriola dorsalis Genus Naucrates Naucrates ductor Genus Carangoides Carangoides orthogrammus  (Cont.)  Appendix 2  -  C . caballus data (All measurements  Length  Depth  Head  Pectoral  Upper  Eye  Dorsal  Anal  Pect-  Length  Fin  Jaw Length  Length  Fin  Fin  oral  Length 191.0  50. 0  185. 5  51.3 49. 5  186. 3  50.2  271.0  70.9 46.9 74.2  46.2  176. 1 284. 1 203. 0  47.6  19.4 18.0  12.0  47. 8  57. 1  18.0  11.6  -  29. 5  75.6  50.8  16.7  75.2  97.8  28.8  52.7  62.0  19.6 20. 1  53.3 54.6  196. 9  49.6  51. 5 52.0  66.5 58.6  280. 1  67.8  71.2  92.0  26. 5  264.7  69.0  26. 1  49. 5  69.9 44.4 52.7  85.8  167. 1 190.6  50.5  17. 5  59.3 98.7  19.0  287.7  54.4 75.7  204.7  57.2  73. 5 54.0  211.8 226.6  57.2 64. 1  54.7 58.0  63.2 67.4  20.8 21.6  241.2  65.9 76.0  60. 1  72.4  22. 5  72. 5 85.0 94.5  92.8 108.8 127.4  27.8 32. 1 36.0  51.3 78. 3 82.0  60.3 87.0  19.4 29.2  99.5  30.4  350.9 199.6 310.6 293.7  86.7 85.0 45.7 64.9 77.0  168.9 283. 8  46.7  262. 0  67.0  195.4  48.8  69.6  12.7  61.4 53.7  197.6  272. 5 326. 5  -  -  45.9 75.0  50.9 87.7  •67.6 50.7  85.7 63. 1  18.8 27.9 19.6  17.4 27.9 25.9 18. 6  -  17.8  11.2 11.6  -  -  12.0  -  Fin --  7  21  8  8  19  22 24 23  -  19 18 19 20  30  10+15  -  30  -  42  10+ 15  45  -  45  8  28  10+ 15  49  -  29 28  39 41  28  -  10+15  43  29 26?  10+15  43 43 42  -  29, 30  -  8  20  23  17 20  -  20  23 24 22 23 22  1-23  19 19 20  1-22  19  1-22  24  19 18 20  21  18  8  24  17.0  22  21  -  13.0  23  19  8  23  19 18  -  23 ?  16?  24  20  -  20  19  30  44  47 46  18  20  27 ?  10+15 10+ 15  24  22? 23  28?  44 43  29 30  19 20  24  Scutes  8  7  1-22  Vertebrae  10+ 15  20  22 '  Gill Rakers  28  8  24 23  -  16.4  M  V m  D m  V H I - I 24 II--118 23 19 22 19 22  12.0  Caudal  in m i l l i m e t r e s )  28 28 30 29 28  42 43 46  -  46  -  7  29  10+ 15  44  -  29  -  43  10+ 15  45  10+15  44  8  29 25 30 29 28  46 45 44  Appendix 2 - (2) Length Depth  173.0 174.7 180.6 288. 316. 403. 393 195.0 310. 197. 5 180. 5 181.9 250. 268. 314. 343. 322. 297. 313. 300. 327. 314. 316. 194.0 207.0 179. 1 203.0 212.0 220.  47.3 46. 1 48.3 80.4 84.0 95.5 95.8 52.9 83.4 52. 5 51.2 48.2 64.0 71.9 79.9 88.3 89. 1 74.3 83. 1 82. 1 83.2 80.9 83.2 55.0 56.0 49.7 61.2 56.8 62. 1  Head Length  45.4 46.9 48. 9 75.2 85.0 106. 5 105.6 50.9 88.9 52. 5 47. 1 47. 1 67.9 73. 8 85.0 96.4 90.4 80.0 84. 3 81.8 85.8 85. 1 83.6 52.4 57. 5 46.7 54.8 56. 1 58.2  Pectoral Upper Fin Jaw Length Length 52.6 50.4 56.6 92.6 112.3 135.2 126.6 58.8 114.6 63.8 56.9 55.7 81.0 94.0 104.7 121.4 115.4 100.6 120.4 103.7 109.4 105.2 106.5 68.9 64.1 50.2 69.9 65.9 74.6  16.7 17.5 18.4 28.0 33.2 39.4 39.4 19.0 34.2 20.0 16.8 18.4 25. 1 27.8 32.8 36.3 35. 5 30.7 34.2 29.6 32.9 31.6 32.0 19.5 20.6 17. 1 21 .0 20.9 22.0  Dorsal Anal Eye Fin Length Fin  11.4 11.5 12.3 16.9 16.9 21.4 23.2 12.2 23.7 14.0 10.8 11.7 15.9 19.0 19.5 21.5 21.0 19.9 20.3 17.0 18.9 18.8 21.0 11. 1 12.0 10.6 11.9 11.7 12.9  22 24 24 22 23 22 21 23  -  23 23 23 24 22 23 22 22 23 22 23 20? 22 23 24 23 22 22 23 23  19 21 21 19 20 19 19 19 21 19 19 19 20 19 19 19 18 20 18 20 19 18 19 19 19 18 19 19  -  Pectoral Fin _  I- 21  IIIIII-  -  21 22 22 22 23 23  Caudal D  M  V m  7  19  8  -  -  -  m  8 9  19 17  7 8  Gill Rakers  28 28 30 27 31 30 29 29 28 28 28 27 27? 29 29 27 30 28 31 28 30 27 28? 27 29 27 30 29 31  Vertebrae  10+ 15  -  10+ 15  -  10+ 15 10+ 15 10+15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+15  Scute  38 42 40 44 41 42 40 49 47 41 45 45 41 ? 43 46 45 42 44 41 46 40 44 45 46 44 44 51 51 47  Appendix 2 - (3)  Length Depth  218. 212 294. 285  60.3 56. 5 81.2 78.0  Head Length  Pectoral Fin Length  Upper Jaw Length  Eye Length  69.3 98.2 100. 1  -  21.0 21.4 29.0 29.0  12.5 12.9 16.3 16.9  60.3 55. 1 52.3 42. 1 46.0 24.2 41. 1 17.3 23.6 50.9  21.7 19.4 21.1 16.9 16.9 11.2 17.7 10.3 11.4 18.8  12.0 12.2 11.9 9.4 10.6 7.5 11.6 6.5 8.1 11.8  57.6 57.2 79.0 78. 5  Dorsal Fin  23 22 23 24  Anal Fin  Pectoral Fin  19 18 1-22 19 1-21 19 1-23  Caudal M  m  m  9  17  -  9  Gill Rakers  Vertebrae  Scutes  28 29 29  10+15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+15  51 43 47 45  26 27 27 26 28 27 27 27 27 26  10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ -  48 46 47 45 46 45 51 46 48 45  Append ix 3 - C . crysos data 184.2 177. 5 175.3 149.2 145. 5 99.6 155. 5 90.8 99.5 165. 5  55.0 56.7 54. 5 45.7 43.8 39.4 48.4 26.0 31.0 51.0  51.5 49.0 47.3 41.9 41.4 27.0 41.5 24. 8 28. 2 46.6  VIII-I 24" II--I 19 20 . 21 22 19 24 20 23 20 23 19 23 19 24 19 23 19 24 20  1-22 1-21 1-20 1-24 1-20 1-22 1-21 1-20? 1-21 _  -  -  -  -  -  15 15 15 15 15  10+ 15  Appendix 4  Length  Depth  196.9 264.2 214.9 253. 5 172.7 167.8 92.2 102.8 100.9 284.0 118.7 130.8 126.7 127. 2 126.2 124. 8 161.0 59.9 239. 266. 263. 231.  65.9 83.6 69.3 80.7 54.8 53.0 29.5 33.2 32. 5 85.2 41. 1 42.2 41.0 42.0 40.0 40.0 56.9 22.2 78.9 85. 1 86. 3 74.2  Head Length 53.2 71.4 59.4 66.8 45.2 44.6 26. 1 28.4 28.9 73.9 31.9 35. 8 34. 5 34. 1 32.9 32.6 44.6 16. 3 64.6 72.2 70.8 61.3  Pectoral Fin Length  -  65.0 85. 5 67.8 82.2 57.0 50.7 25.1 ^ 28.5 28. 5 82.9 34.6 38.7 39. 1 37.8 37.7 36.8 47.9 12.0 79.9 83.0 79.5 75.6  Upper Jaw Length  Eye Length  19.3 26.7 22.3 24.4 16.8 16.6 9.2 9.8 10.0 27.0 11.8 13.0 12.2 12. 1 12.2 11.3 14.2 6.1 23.0 27.0 26.3 22.6  13.2  -  C . vinctus Dorsal Fin  data  Anal Fin  VIII-I 25 II-•I 22 23 14.5 23 18.4 24 11.1 24 11.1 6.5 24 23 7.3 7. 1 23 23 15.5 23 8. 1 23 8.7 24? 8.8 24 9.1 9.0 23 23 8.8 23 8.8 4.6 22? 13.8 22 15.2 24 15.1 23 23 13.9  21 21 20 19 20 21 19 20 20 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 19 19  Pectoral Fin  -  1-18 1-18 1-19 1-18 1-20 1-19 1-18 1-18 1-18 1-20 1-19 1-19 1-19 1-19 1-19 1-19  Caudal m M m  Gill ^- ^  -  29 26 29 29 28 28 30 29 28 29 30 27 30 28 28 28 27 28 28 29 29  8 9 9 10 10 10  9 11  -  18 17 19 18 18 18  -  18 18  -  -  10 8 9 10 10 9  -9 9  a  -  e r s  Vertebrae 10+ 14 10+ 14  -  10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 1P+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+ 10+  14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14 14  Scutes  49 51 51 52 51 49 48 48 47 52 50 45 47 47 51 48 51 47 48 48 50 51  Appendix 5 - C . hippos data  Length  246. 243. 262. 289. 215. 219. 234. 215. 202.0 185.4 163.4 186.3 172. 1 168.7 167. 8 145.7 67.0 111.0 107.8 93.0 68. 5 345. 380. 550. 110.0 113.6 172.2 171.6 108.0 124.6  Depth  79.9 82. 1 85.2 95.6 80.0 74.3 86.4 75.5 71.2 63.8 56.4 65.6 60.3 59.9 60.0 52.9 25.6 39.3 39.1 34.4 25.5 U5: 130. 160. 39.3 40.9 61.2 62.4 43.8 45.0  Head Length  Pectoral Fin Length  74.8 74.2 78.0 87.7 64.2 66.2 69.9 66.6 61. 5 55.0 48.6 55. 8 52.7 50.9 51.0 43.4 20.2 31; 8 31.2 26. 6 19.9 100; 115. 160. 33.2 33.0 51.0 51. 8 34.6 32.0  87. 1 84.0 86.6 101. 8 72.2 70.0 76.2 73. 1 69.4 61.5 52.6 61 .0 56.7 55.6 52. 5 47.2 17.8 28.2 31.0 24. 5 13. 5 120. 135. 175. 33.5 35. 1 54.0 55.6 35.2 35.4  Upper Jaw Length 32.9 33.3 33.8 39. 1 28.2 28.9 30.0 27.9 27. 1 24.2 22. 1 24.3 22.2 22.0 22.0 19.3 8.5 13;6 13.3 11.9 8.4 45.0 50. 70. 14.4 15. 3 23. 1 23. 1 15.6 . 14. 5  Eye Dorsal Length Fin  15. 1 15.2 VIII -I 16.2 15. 5 14.4 14.3 15. 1 14.3 14.2 13.0 12.6 13.3 12.8 12.4 11.3 10.9  -  -  Anal Fin  Pectoral Fin  -  r-22  20 II-I 16 16 19 17 19 18 16 20 17 20 16 20 16 20 16 16 19 16 19 20 17 16 19 16 19 19 16 19 20 17 20 18 17 21 17 21 20 17 ? 20 16 •? 20 17 ? 16' 21 17 VIII- I 21 20 17 20 17 16 21 16 21 16 20  21 20 20 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 20 20 20 19  D  9 8  9 8  -  -  Caudal V  Gill Rakers  -  17 18? 17 18 17 17 18 17 17 18 18 17 18 18 18 18 19 18 16 17 18 16 15 16 16 17 17 17 16 17  M  19 18  -  18 18  8 9  9 8  -  8 8  -  17 19  -  8 8  Vertebrae  -  -  -  10+ 14  -  10+ 14 10+ 14  -  10+ 14 10+ 14  -  10+ 14 10+ 14  -  10+ 14 10+ 14 10+ 14  -  10+ 14 10+ 14  -  10+ 14  -  Scutes  -  39 37 41 39 44 42 40 39 37 38 41 40 41 37 38 35 36 35 35 32 36 38 37 38 34 37 37 36 37  Appendix 5 - (2)  Length Depth 115. .4; 143.0 322.9 263.9 150.8 108.7 127. 1 123. 1 355.0 243. 5 219.4 178. 1 163.0 182.3 112.6 104.0 96. 1 66.4 123.0 142.9 168.4 68.2 198.0 196.0 444.  -  508. 486. 730.  40.4 52.2 96.9 76.6 52.2 38.8 47.0 43.4 110.7 89. 1 74.9 63. 1 57.8 64.8 38.5 37. 5 32.5 24.2 42.1 49.6 57.9 25.9 63.9 66.3 125.  -  155. 149. 195.  Head Length  33.9 41.8 95.0 73.7 45.6 32.2 37. 1 39.5 102. 5 73. 3 66.4 52. 5 47.3 54.8 34.0 31. 1 27.4 20.2 35. 1 43. 1 50. 8 19. 1 58. 1 59.6 133.  -  147. 147. 210.  Pectoral Fin Length  Upper Jaw Length  32. 3 14.0 40.7 17.9 106.0 41.0 85.2 32.8 49.2 20.8 31.4 14.7 37.7 16.7 37.6 16.5 112. 1 44.9 86.8 33.7 73. 1 28.4 55.7 22.9 48. 5 20.3 58.6 24.4 14.3 33.4 .29.7 13.0 29.4 11.9 8.8 17.4 33. 5 / 15.3 45.0 19.4 53.0 22.6 16.3 8.4 66. 1 25.5 64.6 26.7 154. 60.  -  168. 176. 237.  -  63. 62. 89.  Eye Dorsal Length Fin  -  -  -  -  -  -  9.9 9.5 8. 5 6.0 10.2 11.4 13.6 5.4 14.3 13.9 23.  -  25. 24. 29.  Anal Fin  VIII--I 21 II-I 21 21 22 20 21 20 21 VII-•I 20 VIII -123 20 20 20 20 20 21 21 20 ? 23 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 21 19 18  Pectoral Fin 16 16 17 17 16 16 17 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 16 15 16 16? 17 16 16 16 16 16 16 17 1-22 17 20 17 16 17 -  Caudal M V  m  -  8  — 19  -  9  -  -  -  -  -  8 8  18 18  -  -  -  8 7  Gill Rakers  17 16 15 16 15 16 16 16 15 16 15 15 16 16 17 18 17 18 17 17 17 17 16 16 16  -  16 16 16  Vertebrae  _ _  10+ 14  _ _ _  10+ 14 10+ 14 :: t. •••  _ _  10+ 14 10+14 10+14 10+ 14 10+ 14 10+ 14 10+14  -  Scutes  36 37 40 38 35 32 37 34 36 35 34 39 38 40 28 29 28 27 33 35 41 33 39 37  -  _  34 38 37  Appendix 6 - C . marginatus' data  Length  Depth  186.-0 243.3 241.2 91.0 101. 1 100. 1 87.4 116.0 93.6 97.4 90.7 89.6 86.2 127.7 122.9 122.4 118.2 124.3 118.0 125.0 113.6 110. 8 128. 1 113. 1 104. 5 108.6 140.0 140. 8  65.8 81.0 78.8 33.2 33.7 34.3 30.9 41.7 33.7 35.0 31.1 31 .8 30.5 46.8 44.1 43. 5 41.9 44.9 42.7 44.3 39.8 39.3 44.8 40.3 36.7 38.2 49.4 46.1  Head Length  Pectoral Fin Fin Length  Upper Jaw Length  52.8 69.3 69.9 28. 1 28.9 30.7 25.0 33. 1 27.4 27.0 26. 5 24.6 25.9 38.0 36.8 34.8 34. 5 36.4 35.8 36.6 33.4 32.7 36.7 34.0 30.0 30.7 40.0 40.6  54.9 80. 1 82.7 25.5 25.8 28. 5 21.8 30.7 23.2 23.2 23.7 20.3 20. 1 38.6 34.7 34.7 32.4 35.3 35.8 36.6 32.2 32.8 38.3 34. 1 27.8 30.0 40.0 41.9  25.9 32. 1 31.9 12.7 13.3 14.3 11.0 15. 1 12. 1 11.5 11.9 11.5 10.3 16.9 17.2 15.6 15. 1 15.3 15.3 16.5 14.8 14.8 16.8 15.8 13.8 14.3 18.8 19.1  Eye Length  Dorsal Anal Fin Fin  Pectoral Fin  14.3 VIII-I 21II-I 17. 1 21 16.3 21 7.3 20 20 8. 5 20 8.2 7.0 19 8.2 21 7.7 20 7.6 19 8.0 21 7. 1 21 6.6 20 10.1 20 9.8 19 9.7 19 10.0 20 9.9 19 10. 5 20 20 9.9 9.1 19 8.8 19 10.0 21 20 9.9 20 8.9 19 11.0 20 11.5 20  16 16 16 15 1-22 15 20 17 22 15 20 17 20 15 20 15 21 16 21 16 21 16 21 15 21 17 21 16 20 17 18 14 20 15 19 15 19 16 20 15 20 16 20 16 20 17 16 20 16 21 16 21  Caudal D^ M V^  8 9 7 8  -  17 18 19 18  16 16 15 16 16  -  9 8 7 7  8 8  -  17 17  Gill Rakers  16 16 16 17 16 17 17 17 17 17 17 16 17 17 17  -  9 9  16 17 17 17  Vertebrae  -  10+15 10+ 15 10+15  -  10+ 15 10+15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+15 10+ 15 10+15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+ 15 10+ 15  -  10+ 15  -  10+15 10+ 15  Scutes  31 31 33 28 30 31 31 33 29 29 31 30 30 30 30 32 31 31 30 28 30 31 33 31 30 3.1 31 36  Appendix 6 - (2) Length  Head Depth Length  Pectoral ,Pin,, ® e n  127.5 119.5 137.8 118.0 175.6 147.6 152.2 116.0 106.0 221.3 201.0 191.3 110.5 100.1 127.7 148.0 175.0 170.0 152.8 153.0 123.1 177.0 191.2 202.1 211.0 213.0 170.1 177.9 164.2 168.1 157.3  42.4 40.1 44.4 41.2 60.9 48.7 49.2 42.0 38.6 75.9 67.9 68.1 36.7 33.5 45.0 59.1 61.1 58.1 52.1 50.9 43.5 61.8 67.4 69.0 73.5 76.1 60.3 62.7 56.2 50.8 56.1  36.8 36.2 38.4 35.1 54.3 43.5 43.6 35.4 29.2 68.9 57.3 55.4 30.4 28.8 36.4 43.1 50.0 49.7 46.0 45.7 35.3 53.0 57.9 60.4 63.0 66.2 52.0 52.5 50.9 49.6 48.3  37.5 37.4 39.0 36.4 56.7 45.5 46.0 33.8 —  64.4 61.4 58.7 29.8 29.2 33.4 41.9 57.0 53.4 46.2 45.1 34.9 55.4 60.9 64.8 67.9 71.1 54.5 59.4 50.2 49.0 48.5  Upper Jaw Length 18.0 16.8 18.0 16.7 25.5 20.6 20.3 16.0 13.5 29.3 26.8 25.1 13.5 12.7 16.1 19.3 23.6 23.1 20.2 20.9 16.5 24.6 26.4 28.3 29.0 30.8 24.1 23.7 23.2 23.3 21.4  Eye Dorsal Length F i n  Anal Fin  Pectoral Fin  11.0 V I I I - I 2 1 I I - I 17 I- 22 22 9.8 19 15 20 21 16 10.3 20 16 21 10.0 — 20 16 14.5 — 20 13.0 17 — 20 16 13.0 — 21 9.8 17 — 20 17 7.8 — 20 16 17.9 — 15.4 20 16 — 21 17 13.3 — 16 20 7.5 — 20 16 8.6 — 21 16 9.6 — 12.2 20 14 — 16 19 15.5 — 21 16 14.0 — 21 16 11.7 — 21 16 11.6 — 21 16 10.9 21 17 20 13.6 16 20 19 15.1 21 17 20 16.3 16.4 20 17 20 — 17 20 17.4 20 15 19 14.3 18 20 14.0 15 20 ,16 20 12.5 21 16 20 13.8 21 16 20 13.5  D  Caudal M V  Gill Bakers  16 17 17 18 16 15 15 17 16 16 15 16 16  — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — —  9 8  18 17 — — —  -  — — — — —  —  16 15 15  —  8 8  16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 16 17 16 16 17  Vertebrae 10+15 10+15 — —  10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 —  10+15 —  10+15 10+15 —  10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 — —  10+15 10+15  -  Scutes  30 28 30 29 31 29 27 33 33 34 29 30 29 31 32 31 31 28 30 30 34 36 32 35 32 31 34 31 32 34 30  Appendix 6 - (3) Length  150.0 173.1 153.0 151.9 149.9  Depth  Head Length  Pectoral Fin Length  Upper Jaw Length  55.9 61.2 54.1 23.7 53.6  49.4 52.6 45.3 47.1 44.1  50.8  21.6 23.7 21.3 20.6 20.0  Appendix 7 160.0 112.0 87.9 53.2 85.0  -  60.0 39.5 32.0 20.1 30.9  —  48.0 48.5 46.8  Eye Dorsal Length F i n  Anal Fin  12.8 VIII I 20 11-116 14.7 20 16 20 17 13.1 12.8 20 16 12.4 20 15  P e c t - Caudal oral D M V Fin 22 22 20 22 21  Gill Rakers  18 8 19 9  8 7  16 16 18 16 17  — — —  V e r t e - Scutes brae 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15 10+15  33 33 34 31 32  C. l a t u s data 48.4 34.1 26.8 19.9 26.9  48.0 29.3 24.8 12.6 22.2  ]  23.9 14.8 12.9 7.5 10.9  13.0 V I I I I 20 II-I 18 20 17 9.4 21 8.4 16 5.4 20 17 21 16 7.0  20 19 20  8 9 8  21  3  17 16 17  —  —  7 8 8  i  \%  \  7  17 17 16 16 16  10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14  36 38 35 33 33  Appendix 8  Length 228.9 287.6 310.3 204.4 197.1 755. 372. 354. 493. 566. 393. 392. 450. 355. 421. 349. 579. 466. 400. 621. 365.  Depth 93.5 108.9 107.2 73.3 67.1 252. 123. 126. 168. 187. 134. 126. 148. 122. 141. 127. 188. 157. 140. 215. 131.  Head P e c t o r a l Length Pin Length 65.1 86.9 90.0 60.0 57.5 220. 112. 107. 144. 158. 114. 111. 131. 110. 124. 109. 164. 137. 119. 176. 110.  77.3 99.5 107.2 72.3 63.5 230. 117. 122. 162. 174. 137. 123. 143. 126. 142. 121. 188. 154. 137. 180. 129.  Upper Jaw Length 26.3 36.0 37.0 22.6 22.7 91.5 45.4 42.2 58. 65. 47. 47. 52. 42. 49. 42. 66. 54. 47. 71. 43.  Eye Length  -  C. l u g u b r i s data  Dorsal Pin  Anal Pin  P e c t - Caudal oral D M V ra ra Fin  14.0 V I I I - I 22 I I - I 17 _ — 20 18 21.5 — 22.1 22 18 — 22 13.4 19 21 17 13.5 — 21 18 36. 21 17 r-21 27.2 21 21 17 26.1 22 32. 20 17 21 26, 20 17 22 24. V I I I - I 21 17 21 22 18 24. 21 21 17 29. 21 21 18 26. VII-I21 17 26. 23 22 24. VIII-I 22 19 22 18 22 32. 21 21 17 31. 21 18 20 28. 20 23 19 35. 22 16 25. VIII-I 21  -  —  9 8 8  17 8 19 8 20 8  Gill Rakers  10+14 10+14 10+14  19 18  10+14 10+14  —  -— -—  — — — — — —  -  _  19 20 17 18 19  — — —  — — — — — —  V e r t e - Scutes brae  -  —  —  — —  -  — — —  -  — —  — —  -  —  -  -  -  30 27 28 30 32 34 27 29 28 27 27 31 29 29 28 27 28 30 28 30 32  Appendix 9 Length  Depth  129.2 109.3 104.4 89.0 241.2 214.4 209.9 234.9 151.0 106.6 118.5 398. 111.4 131.2 115.1 118.1 142.8 107.2 121.5 109.6 114.8 115.2 117.2 116.7 118.6 111.9 120.5 114.0 111.4 115.2 610. 441. 636.  51.4 41.7 39.1 36.1 83.3 78.5 76.9 86.9 57.7 40.8 44.5 136. 43.8 52.8 43.2 45.0 52.2 40.1 43.8 42.0 42.7 41.9 43.0 42.9 46.0 42.3 43.6 42.2 40.6 41.3 203. 153. 207.  Head P e c t o r a l Length P i n Length 37.4 32.2 32.4 29.0 67.1 61.1 57.6 65.1 43.0 30.8 33.9 124. 31.9 35.4 32.5 34.7 41.8 30.5 35.1 32.0 31.3 32.5 33.8 33.6 32.9 31.4 35.0 31.4 31.4 32.1 183. 131. 190.  40.2 34.0 33.2 27.0 78.4 65.4 69.9 83.9 48.5 32.6 13.8 128. 35.0 42.6 38.1 37.7 49.9 34.5 40.7 33.5 35.0 36.1 35.8 36.2 36.0 34.2 36.8 35.0 32.1 37.8 197. 143. 192.  Upper Jaw Length 15.1 12.6 12.0 10.0 26.9 23.5 23.1 25.6 16.9 11.9 13.8 49. 12.6 14.8 13.0 13.7 16.5 12.3 13.0 12.4 12.8 12.6 13.1 13.5 13.2 12.6 12.8 12.3 12.8 12.4 79.4 50. 80.  Eye Dorsal Length - P i n 9.9 8.5 8.9 7.1 13.9 13.1 12.9 13.3 10.0 8.2 9.4 22. 9.6 8.9 9.3 8.9 10.6 8.3 9.0 8.4 8.9 8.6 8.8 9.6 9.7 9.3 8.4 8.6 8.3 8.7 26.0 25. 30.  melampygus data Anal Pin  Pectoral Pin  V I I I - I 21 II-I 19 1-21 22 19 21 21 18 21 21 18 21 22 19 22 20 20 23 22 19 21 22 20 22 23 19 21 22 20 22 23 19 22 22 19 20 VIII-I 22 20 — 22 18 — 22 19 — 22 19 — 22 19 — 23 19 — 22 18 — 18 20 23 22 19 21 22 19 21 22 18 21 V I I - I 22 19 22 18 22 VIII-I 22 22 19 22 22 19 21 22 19 20 22 19 21 22 19 22 21 16 21 VIII-I 21 18 19 21 18 22  Caudal D M V m iii m 9 9 9 9  16 17 17 17  9 9 8 8  — — — — — —  —  —  19 19 19 19 19 18 19 18 19  — — — — — — —  9 8 8  18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 18 19  — —  8  Gill Rakers  17 9 17 8 19 8 19 7 — —  —  — —  —  } 19 9  18 19 19? 19? 18 1819 19 18  --  Vertebrae 10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14 —  10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14 —  10+14 10+14 10+14  -  10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14 —  10+14 10+14 10+14 10+14 — — —  -—  —  Scutes 35 35 33 34 34 36 35 36 33 37 35 , 29 ^ 32 ? 33-4 33 33 35 34 33 36 32 34 36 37 34 34 36 35 34 33 31 31  -  Appendix 9 -  Length  654. 642. 672. 670.  Depth  247. 213. 223. 210.  Appendix 10 113.9 111.7 157.2  44.0 44.3 64.2  (2) Head P e c t o r a l Length P i n Length 204. 199. 201. 197.  224. 240. 230. 225.  Upper Eye Jaw Length Length 83. 82. 83. 81.  26. 28. 28. 28.  Dorsal Fin  Anal Fin  VIII-I 22 I I - I 29 22 20 23 19 VII-I 22 18  Pect— oral Fin  D  Caudal M V  m  m  —  —  —  —  —  Gill VerteRakers brae Scutes  _ —  17 16 17  _ —  34 33 34 33  19 19 19  10+14 10+14 10+14  37 37 40  _  - C. medusicola data 31.5 30.6 43.9  30.0 30.2 30.2  11.9 12.0 18.1  7.3 VIII-I 22 II-I 20 r-21 7.1 20 21 23 21 10.4 19 21  — —  

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