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"Quiet rebellion" : a study of youth Douglas, Lawrence Fitzroy 1962

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"QUIET REBELLION": A STUDY OF YOUTH  by LAWRENCE FITZROY DOUGLAS B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of Anthropology and Sociology  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1962  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and for extensive  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s  be  representatives.  I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  Ce^A^i  $.  \*\ £2_.  permission.  ii ABSTRACT T h i s essay r e p o r t s on f i n d i n g s drawn from a l a r g e r study which seeks t o d i s c o v e r the ways i n which persons between the ages o f seventeen and twenty-one y e a r s attempt  t o cope w i t h  t h e i r s i t u a t i o n i n the p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n between c h i l d h o o d and adulthood.  The emphasis c e n t r e s on t h r e e matters which are  sources o f c o n f l i c t f o r y o u t h :  the s t r i v i n g f o r independence,  the management of s e x u a l i t y , and the d e s i r e f o r achievement. These c o n f l i c t areas are c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f the youth c u l t u r e , the s t r u c t u r e d complex of p a t t e r n s of behaviour adhered t o by youth, and t h e i r r e l e v a n c e f o r the process of i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n .  I t was  expected t h a t the ways o f coping w i t h these problems of youth would d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g to the socio-economic  p o s i t i o n of the  respondents. Data f o r the study was c o l l e c t e d f i r s t , by means o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e a d m i n i s t e r e d t o students i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y s o c i o l o g y course of t h i s u n i v e r s i t y .  T h i s allowed the s e l e c t i o n  of a sample o f persons e x h i b i t i n g the necessary c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of age, and socio-economic  s t a t u s which was c a l c u l a t e d on the  b a s i s o f the e d u c a t i o n and income o f t h e i r p a r e n t s . the respondents  grouped  Each o f  a c c o r d i n g t o these c r i t e r i a i n t o f o u r  c a t e g o r i e s f o r each sex was i n t e r v i e w e d and g i v e n a sentence completion t e s t .  T h i r t y - e i g h t persons i n s t e a d of the hoped f o r  f o r t y - f i v e i n each of e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s — f u l f i l l e d the r e q u i r e ments.  iii We found t h a t a l l the respondents  experience  c o n f l i c t s w i t h r e g a r d t o the three d e s i g n a t e d a r e a s .  In their  s t r i v i n g f o r independence the c o n f l i c t c e n t r e d on t h e i r  attempts  to r e c o n c i l e t h e i r need f o r independence from p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y w i t h a complementary need f o r dependence on t h e i r p a r e n t s . t h e i r attempts  In  t o manage s e x u a l i t y they are s t r i v i n g to s a t i s f y  t h e i r d e s i r e s and t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s , and t o g a i n s o c i a l a p p r o v a l a l l a t once.  Under achievement they are t r y i n g t o preserve  t h e i r independence, u t i l i z e t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s , and o b t a i n s e c u r i t y simultaneously.  T h e i r g e n e r a l response  t o these  c o n f l i c t s I s c h a r a c t e r i s e d as a " q u i e t r e b e l l i o n " .  This  i n v o l v e s the e x p r e s s i o n of independence i n ways which  satisfy  the c u l t u r a l d i c t a t e s concerning c h i l d r e n ' s obedience t o parents and ensures s o c i a l a p p r o v a l f o r "standing on t h e i r  own  f e e t " , although t h i s l a t t e r s u b t l y subverts p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y . I t i s f u r t h e r manifested i n t h e i r moral i n d i v i d u a l i s m which l a y s the onus of the d e c i s i o n concerning r i g h t conduct individual,  and i n t h e i r proposed  ritualistic  the p u b l i c sphere w i t h a concomitant  on the  participation i n  i n n o v a t i o n i n the p r i v a t e  realm. The c e n t r a l i t y  o f the problem of independence r e v e a l s  t h a t these three c o n f l i c t s are aspects of the search f o r i d e n t i t y i n v o l v i n g a t once the s t r u g g l e to r e l a t e  themselves  to the environment i n a new way and r e l u c t a n c e t o abandon the old r e l a t i o n .  The data suggests t h a t i t i s n o t socio-economic A  s t a t u s , but the c h a r a c t e r o f the p a r e n t - c h i l d - r e l a t i o n s i n  iv which they are embedded which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s t h e i r response t o their situation.  Furthermore, t h e i r behaviour i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d  by r e a l i s m , a tendency t o a s s e s s t h e i r s o c i a l environment critically  and not to y i e l d t o i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and romantic  idealisation.  I t i s therefore  suggested, on the b a s i s o f the  important s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r behaviour and  that o f the youth c u l t u r e , t h a t the l a t t e r can be  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o sub-cultures middle and l a t e adolescent  corresponding t o the e a r l y ,  age-levels.  The more dramatic  f e a t u r e s of the youth c u l t u r e would be c o n f i n e d  t o the two  e a r l i e r l e v e l s , whereas a t the t h i r d l e v e l there i s g r e a t e r o r i e n t a t i o n to the p a t t e r n s  o f a d u l t c u l t u r e , w i t h maintenance  of such youth c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s  as independence s t r i v i n g s and  the d a t i n g complex which a r e adaptive adult world.  f o r f u n c t i o n i n g i n the  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1  INTRODUCTION The Problem R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study The Data The F i n d i n g s  . . . . .  1 6 7 9  Chapter I  INDEPENDENCE The Q u e s t i o n s The F i n d i n g s The Components of the Independence C o n f l i c t . . . ' D e f i n i t i o n of Independence The F u n c t i o n of Independence Independence and S e c u r i t y . . A d u l t Ambivalence Parent-child Relations The A c t u a l The I d e a l T r u s t and Respect Hidden A u t h o r i t y Negative Models The "Quiet R e b e l l i o n " The E x p r e s s i o n of Independence S i g n i f i c a n c e of F i n a n c i a l Independence F i n a n c i a l Independence and Inner S e c u r i t y . . . . The Nature of "Independence" . . . ' v. . V a r i a t i o n s on the Theme Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r c e p t i o n o f the Problem . . Boys , Rehearsal of a Role Girls Mothers as Negative Models ; . . Freedom o f V o l u n t a r y Dependence V a r i a t i o n s by C a t e g o r i e s B B£ G* Ge 9  II  SEXUALITY The Questions The F i n d i n g s  12 12 12 12 lh 15 15 Io 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 2h 25 27 29 31 31 31 33 3"+ 35 36 37 37 38 39  hO  h3 *+3 1*3  vi Chapter  \  Page Moral Individualism M+ S e x u a l i t y i n Context . . M-5 C h i l d r e n the "Products" o f Parents kb D i f f e r e n c e s i n V o l u n t a r i n e s s of R e l a t i o n s . . . . k7 Moral I n d i v i d u a l i s m and Independence k8 Sexual Behaviour and Sex Codes **9 The E t i q u e t t e of Sexual Indulgence 50 Double Standard 51 Reasons f o r Abstinence . . . . . . . 52 The G i r l s ' F e a r s 53 The Boys' F e a r s 55 Doubt, Conformity and Deviance 57 The Need f o r Understanding ., 57 I n f o r m a t i o n , Communication and Models . . . . . . ^8 Agencies of I n s t r u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 The S c h o o l ' s R o l e 60 The R o l e of the U n i v e r s i t y 62 Confronting R e a l i t y 63 D i f f e r e n c e s by Sex 6»+ Boys: Mutual Consent 6h Girls: A f f e e t i o n a l Bonds . . . 65  III  67  ACHIEVEMENT The Questions The F i n d i n g s Boys: The C o n f l i c t . . Lowered A s p i r a t i o n s Ritualism O p p o s i t i o n t o E a r l y Marriage . . . Girls: The C o n f l i c t — M a r r i a g e and Career . . . . Marriage as S e c u r i t y Marriage as a Career R e s o l u t i o n o f the Dilemma . O p p o s i t i o n t o E a r l y Marriage The Careers Chosen . A Variation Boys and G i r l s .  IV  85  THE SEARCH FOR IDENTITY The C e n t r a l C o n f l i c t I d e n t i t y : A New A d a p t a t i o n Ambivalence Toward Parents I d e n t i t y and Ideology The P o l i t i c a l Sphere I d e n t i t y and P r i v a c y  67 67 67 68 70 72 7h 75 76 78 79 80 82 83  . . . . .  85 87 89 9p 9k 96  vii Chapter V  Page 99  REALISM Stages of Development Preview of the F u t u r e R e a l i s m or Defeatism? The Management of S e x u a l i t y  VI  ALIENATION AND  THE YOUTH CULTURE  100 102 103 10b 108  The Concept of A l i e n a t i o n 108 A l i e n a t i o n and Youth . . . . . . . I l l The Youth C u l t u r e 112 A P s y c h o s o c i a l Moratorium l l * I d e a l and A c t u a l 116 The I n d i v i d u a l and H i s C u l t u r e . . . . . 118 The Respondents and the Youth C u l t u r e 119 Sub-Cultures 121 D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the Late A d o l e s c e n t Sub-Culture 123 A Comparison 128 1  VII  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  13^  What We Expected t o F i n d 13^ What We Found 13^ A. Independence 136 1. The C o n f l i c t . . . 136 2. The Obstacles 137 3. The "Quiet R e b e l l i o n " 137 B. S e x u a l i t y 138 1. The C o n f l i c t . . 138 2. Moral I n d i v i d u a l i s m . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 8 3. S e x u a l i t y per se: Doubt 139 k. An E t i q u e t t e of Indulgence 139 5. Reasons f o r Abstinence ikO 6. The Need f o r Understanding l*fl C. Achievement 1^3 1. The C o n f l i c t 1^3 2. Boys 1^3 3. Girls lMt k. E a r l y Marriage ikk D. V a r i a t i o n s and D i f f e r e n c e s 1**5 1. By Sex: Boys I*f5 2. Girls I*f6 3. D i f f e r e n c e s i n Emphases by C a t e g o r i e s . . . l*+8 ( i ) B p — B o y s of h i g h e d u c a t i o n and low income p a r e n t s l*+8  viii Chapter  Page ( i i ) BK—Boys w i t h low e d u c a t i o n and low income parents . . . . . . . . 14-9 ( i i i ) G->—Girls w i t h low e d u c a t i o n and h i g h income parents . . . . . . . I*f9 ( i v ) G K — G i r l s w i t h low e d u c a t i o n and low income parents 15© (v) Comparison of Category V a r i a t i o n s . 1 5 0 ( v i ) Summary of V a r i a t i o n s 151 E. Identity 1 0 1. The C o n f l i c t 15*+ 2. I d e n t i t y and Ideology 155 3. Identity: Product or C o n d i t i o n . . . . 1 5 6 k. I d e n t i t y and the S e l f 157 F. R e a l i s m 158 G. A l i e n a t i o n and Youth C u l t u r e . . . . . . . 160 1. The Youth C u l t u r e . . . . . . . . . . . l 6 l .H. Concluding Remarks .163 1. Sophistication 163 2. No R a d i c a l S o l u t i o n s 165 3. " S e r i o u s " versus " F r i v o l o u s " 165 k. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r E d u c a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n s 166 5. I n c e n t i v e s t o Marriage 168 6. R e l a t i o n s w i t h Peers 169 I. I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Deviance 171 Some Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 177 1. The Values of Youth 177 2. Youth and P o l i t i c s 177 3. Youth and H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n 178 h. Youth and R e l i g i o n 178 5. The Youth C u l t u r e 178  BIBLIOGRAPHY  179  ix  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I owe a tremendous debt t o P r o f e s s o r K.D. Naegele f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e d i r e c t i o n and encouragement a t every of the development o f t h i s essay.  stage  Y e t , he i s i n no way  accountable f o r the shortcomings which must be blamed o n l y on the author.  My thanks are due t o my f e l l o w - s t u d e n t , Inge  Paulus, who g r a c i o u s l y consented t o l i s t e n t o s e v e r a l o f the taped i n t e r v i e w s i n f o u r o f the c a t e g o r i e s , i n order t o check some of my f i n d i n g s .  I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o S y l v i a Long who  generously consented t o type the o r i g i n a l d r a f t .  To a l l of  the students who made i t p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h t h i s f a r , by w i l l i n g l y c o n s e n t i n g , i n the midst of t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r f i n a l examinations,  t o submit  to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a sentenee-  completion t e s t , and even t o an i n t e r v i e w , I express my deep g r a t i t u d e by d e d i c a t i n g t h i s essay t o them. grateful draft.  F i n a l l y , I am  t o Mrs. A l i c e Bownick f o r h e r t y p i n g o f the f i n a l  INTRODUCTION The  Problem  The f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d i n t h i s essay are p a r t o f a l a r g e r study which seeks t o d i s c o v e r the modes adopted by youth, persons between the ages o f seventeen and twenty-one y e a r s , i n t h e i r e f f o r t s to manage t h e i r s i t u a t i o n v i s - a - v i s t h e i r s o c i a l environment.  Although o n l y s e l e c t e d m a t e r i a l s  are d e a l t w i t h here, the f u l l i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n v o l v e s an examination of some o f the important a s p e c t s o f youth's p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d o f a d u l t s o c i a l arrangements.  Therefore,  we have t o d i s c o v e r what they c o n s i d e r t o be the major problems c o n f r o n t i n g them.  We thus f o c u s our a t t e n t i o n on such q u e s t i o n s  as: 1.  what p r e s s u r e s they f a c e and what c o n f l i c t s a r e thereby generated;  2.  what and how they t h i n k about t h e i r  situation;  3.  how they i n t e n d t o , and a r e , coping w i t h these problems;  4.  what they want t o do w i t h t h e i r  lives;  5.  what o b s t a c l e s they would have t o overcome. I n t h i s essay we f u r t h e r address o u r s e l v e s t o the  t a s k of f i n d i n g out whether the a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and behaviour of these young people are s u f f i c i e n t l y p a t t e r n e d and widespread, so that they may be regarded as being p a r t o f a "youth c u l t u r e " .  2 That i s , we want to know whether the ways i n which these young people manage t h e i r s o c i a l environment  r e v e a l the c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s of what Parsons, f o r example, has c o n c e p t u a l i s e d as the "youth c u l t u r e " .  1  In a d d i t i o n , we seek t o a s c e r t a i n whether  the behaviour o f youth c a n be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as " a l i e n a t i o n " , a term which some w r i t e r s have employed t o d e s c r i b e youth's 2 r e l a t i o n t o the a d u l t w o r l d . A t t e n t i o n i s f o c u s e d on three areas which have g e n e r a l l y been regarded by w r i t e r s concerned w i t h youth and adolescence as c e n t r a l t o the behaviour o f young people: s t r i v i n g f o r independence, d e s i r e f o r achievement.^  the  the management of s e x u a l i t y , and the Thus, the "youth c u l t u r e " can be  expected t o i n c l u d e ways of coping w i t h these t h r e e  problems.  We t h e r e f o r e have t o examine the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the "youth c u l t u r e " as f o r m u l a t e d by Parsons, f o r example, and compare i t s " c u l t u r e t r a i t s " w i t h those d i s c o v e r e d among our respondents, i n an e f f o r t to d i s c o v e r whether the l a t t e r form p a r t o f the "youth c u l t u r e " .  1 T. Parsons, Essays i n S o c i o l o g i c a l Theory, R e v i s e d E d i t i o n , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , F r e e P r e s s , 195*+, PP. 89-91; 189-90; 3^2-5. 2 See, f o r example, K. K e n i s t o n , " A l i e n a t i o n and the D e c l i n e of U t o p i a " i n The American S c h o l a r . S p r i n g i960, pp. 161-200; R.A. Cloward and L.E. O h l i n , Delinquency and O p p o r t u n i t y , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , F r e e P r e s s , i960, pp. 10k-6. 3 See T. Parsons, l o c . c i t . : E.H. E r i k s o n , "The Problem o f Ego I d e n t i t y " i n M. S t e i n , A . J . V i d i c h and D.M. White ( e d . ) , I d e n t i t y and A n x i e t y , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , F r e e P r e s s , i960,  PP. 37-87.  3 We began w i t h the assumption t h a t the socio-economic p o s i t i o n o f the respondents would be p e r t i n e n t to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r ways of coping w i t h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  That i s ,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and behaviour of the respondents would r e f l e c t the d i f f e r e n c e s i n income and educat i o n of t h e i r p a r e n t s .  Thus, we expected t o d i s c o v e r whether  a "youth c u l t u r e " e x i s t s f o r the respondents, and a l s o , that i f such a phenomenon e x i s t s , i t s content would v a r y w i t h s o c i o economic p o s i t i o n .  T h i s r e f e r s t o the c o n f i g u r a t i o n of t r a i t s  r a t h e r than t o the t r a i t s themselves. h y p o t h e s i s t h i s would r e a d :  S t a t e d as a g e n e r a l  the youth c u l t u r e would be found  to be not an homogeneous phenomenon, but comprised o f "subc u l t u r e s " d i f f e r i n g i n t h e i r configurations according to socio-economic p o s i t i o n .  T h e r e f o r e , what we expect t o f i n d are  s u b - c u l t u r e s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s and behaviour p a t t e r n s of the respondents, due t o t h e i r  location  i n d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s i n the socio-economic dimension of the social  structure. F u r t h e r , we seek t o d i s c o v e r whether the p e r c e p t i o n s  of the respondents w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n  vis-a-vis  the a d u l t w o r l d r e v e a l any concern w i t h the achievement has been d e s c r i b e d as " i d e n t i t y " .  o f what  T h i s r e f e r s to a s t r i v i n g  toward an i n n e r coherence and i n t e g r i t y , based on a s e l f knowledge which takes i n t o account the i n d i v i d u a l ' s present  status with reference  to past and  future  statuses  i n a s e t of  LL  family relationships. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s proposed t o compare our  findings  w i t h those of E l k i n and Westley f o r a Canadian upper-middle c l a s s suburb. general and  They have expressed s e r i o u s doubts about  the  c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of adolescence as a p e r i o d of storm  s t r e s s , s i n c e t h e i r study has  s o c i a l i s a t i o n centred  revealed  on adolescence i n t h i s community.  t h i s b a s i s , they have argued the m y t h i c a l "youth c u l t u r e " and  no d i s c o n t i n u i t y of  q u a l i t i e s of  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t u r b u l e n c e  cence as a stage i n the l i f e  of  On the  adoles-  c y c l e of i n d i v i d u a l s i n modern  society. B e f o r e abandoning t h i s g e n e r a l  c o n c e p t i o n of  adoles-  cence, however, i t i s n e c e s s a r y to ask c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s cognizance of E l k i n ' s and Westley's f i n d i n g s .  Are  taking  differences  k See E.H. E r i k s o n ' s f o r m u l a t i o n of " i d e n t i t y " i n "The Problem of Ego I d e n t i t y " i n M. S t e i n , A . J . V i d i c h and D.M. White ( e d s . ) , l o c . c i t . : C h i l d h o o d and S o c i e t y , New York, Norton, 1950; Young Man L u t h e r . New York, Norton, 19 ; "Growth and C r i s e s of the 'Healthy* P e r s o n a l i t y " , i n C. Kluckhohn, H.A. Murray and D.M. Schneider ( e d . ) , P e r s o n a l i t y i n Nature. C u l t u r e and S o c i e t y . R e v i s e d E d i t i o n , New York, Knopf, 1956, pp. 185-225; i n H.L. Witmer and R. K a t i n s k y , ( e d . ) , New P e r s p e c t i v e s f o r Research on J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n c y . U.S. Dept. of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n , and W e l f a r e , C h i l d r e n ' s Bureau Conference Report, May 1955. 5 F. E l k i n and D. Westley, "The Myth of A d o l e s c e n t C u l t u r e " , i n American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. V o l . 20, No. 6, December 1955, pp. 680-h.  5 i n socio-economic p o s i t i o n s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the appearance of the kinds  of behaviour regarded as g e n e r a l l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  adolescence?  Does the upper-middle c l a s s p a t t e r n of  t i o n begun i n c h i l d h o o d — f o r guidance and  socialisa-  example, the emphasis on  parental  s u p e r v i s i o n , the emphasis on the a c q u i s i t i o n of  s o c i a l s k i l l s i n v o l v i n g the i n h i b i t i o n of o v e r t a c t i o n s , the c o n d i t i o n i n g of o t h e r s ' approval  aggressive  and  a f f e c t i o n on  one's d i s p l a y of " r e s p e c t a b l e " b e h a v i o u r — s e r i o u s l y development of a "youth c u l t u r e " ? f i n d i n g s apply  inhibit  the  Do E l k i n ' s and Westley's  p r i n c i p a l l y to a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d and  c u l t u r a l l y homogeneous upper c l a s s community? D i f f e r e n c e s i n adolescent  response c o n s i s t e n t l y  c o r r e l a t e d w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n socio-economic p o s i t i o n would have to be d i s c o v e r e d and  before  our c o n c e p t i o n s of "youth c u l t u r e "  adolescence as a p e r i o d of storm and  s t r e s s can be  modified.  R e p o r t e d i s o l a t e d cases do not warrant the abandonment of g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n , though e x p l a n a t i o n s are n e c e s s a r y .  In order  to consider  t i o n of p r e v a i l i n g n o t i o n s adolescents  are not  a basic  of adolescence, we  of such v a r i a n t s re-conceptualisamust f i n d  that  t y p i c a l l y e x e r c i s e d by the problems of  independence, s e x u a l i t y and r e l a t i o n s at t h i s l i f e  achievement, and  that p a r e n t - c h i l d  stage do not manifest the s t r a i n s and  c o n f l i c t s which l e a d youth to p r e f e r the s o c i e t y of t h e i r We  must a l s o f i n d t h a t the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e does not l e a v e  unstructured  the  area, an unoccupied e c o l o g i c a l n i c h e ,  between  peers. an  6 c h i l d h o o d and a d u l t h o o d . role  specifications  continuity We  The  s i t u a t i o n must be so d e f i n e d  that  are c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e d , making f o r  and a smoothe s o c i a l t r a n s i t i o n f r o m c h i l d to a d u l t .  are l i k e l y t o f i n d c o n d i t i o n s which f a c i l i t a t e the t r a n s -  f o r m a t i o n , where e f f o r t s are made to f i l l  the s t r u c t u r a l  But i t i s h a r d l y l i k e l y , t h a t under the p r e s e n t arrangements, we would not f i n d t h i s  gap.  social  gap.  R a t i o n a l e f o r the Study I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed, j u d g i n g from the  literature  on the s u b j e c t , t h a t a d o l e s c e n c e i s a p e r i o d of t u r b u l e n c e the l i f e - c y c l e of i n d i v i d u a l s  i n modern s o c i e t y .  It is a  stage which i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of and p r e s s u r e s  from the a d u l t w o r l d .  The  interaction  i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l demands c r e a t e s f o r y o u t h ,  in  drives,  of these  especially  towards the end of a d o l e s c e n c e , c o n f l i c t s w h i c h must be resolved.  T h i s i s an e s s e n t i a l  t i o n from c h i l d h o o d  p a r t of the p r o c e s s of  to a d u l t h o o d ,  p e r i o d of i n i t i a t i o n b e f o r e  r e p r e s e n t i n g as i t does the  the f u l l a s s u m p t i o n of a d u l t  A d o l e s c e n c e i s , t h e r e f o r e , a p e r i o d of g r e a t ance i n the l i f e - c y c l e of i n d i v i d u a l s , of a d o l e s c e n t s '  transi-  roles.  import-  and hence some knowledge  r e a c t i o n s t o t h e i r s t a t u s would a i d i n  c l a r i f y i n g an u n d e r s t a n d i n g from c h i l d to a d u l t .  The  of the p r o c e s s of  transformation  t r i a l s and problems of y o u t h have  been c o p i o u s l y documented f o r the U n i t e d S t a t e s of A m e r i c a , but  7 very l i t t l e has been done w i t h r e g a r d t o Canadian youth. was  It  t h e r e f o r e proposed to undertake a p r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n  i n t o the concerns  of some Canadian young people i n order to  d i s c o v e r some aspects of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s of t h e i r c o n d i t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the w o r l d they l i v e i n ; to f i n d out what d i f f e r e n c e s , i f any, and t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s t o the  and a t the same time  there are between them  south.  The Data I n f o r m a t i o n f o r the o v e r - a l l study was means of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , sentence-completion interviews.  tests,  by  and  However, only data gathered i n the i n t e r v i e w s have  been u t i l i s e d f o r t h i s essay.  The data secured by  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and the sentence-completion be  collected  the  t e s t s remain y e t to  analysed. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d to both s e c t i o n s of  the i n t r o d u c t o r y s o c i o l o g y course of t h i s u n i v e r s i t y , and hundred and  s i x t y - s e v e n (267)  were o b t a i n e d .  In t h i s way  to be i n t e r v i e w e d was  two  more or l e s s completed r e t u r n s background i n f o r m a t i o n on  secured.  The respondents  persons  were d i v i d e d  on the b a s i s of t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s each of boys and g i r l s , a c c o r d i n g to the income and e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r parents.  Boys were d e s i g n a t e d by the symbol B, and g i r l s  G, and we  drew up the f o l l o w i n g f o u r c a t e g o r i e s f o r each  a t o t a l of e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s .  by sex—  8 G  ]L  and B-^  persons whose parents possess h i g h e d u c a t i o n and h i g h income;  G  2  and B  persons whose parents possess h i g h e d u c a t i o n  2  and low income; G^ and B^  persons whose parents possess low e d u c a t i o n and h i g h income;  G^ and  - persons whose parents possess low e d u c a t i o n and low income. Income High  Education  High Low  F o r purposes to be attendance  G  l>  Low G ,  l  B  B  2  G , B3 3  G  4'  2  k  B  o f t h i s study h i g h education was taken  a t u n i v e r s i t y o f both or e i t h e r parent, and  low e d u c a t i o n as non-attendance a t u n i v e r s i t y of both High income was s e t a t over  $5,000  $5,000  parents.  per annum and low income a t  or l e s s per annum. I t was intended t o i n t e r v i e w a t l e a s t f i v e  between the ages of seventeen  persons  and twenty-one y e a r s i n each  of the e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s , but o n l y three boys of approximately the r e q u i r e d age were found t o s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i a of B — 2  parents w i t h h i g h e d u c a t i o n and low income.  Thus, o n l y  9 t h i r t y - e i g h t persons were i n t e r v i e w e d i n s t e a d of f o r t y originally  as  planned. The i n t e r v i e w s which were a l l r e c o r d e d on tape were  of an average d u r a t i o n of f o r t y - f i v e minutes. guide was  d e v i s e d to cover  An i n t e r v i e w  the three s e l e c t e d problem a r e a s :  independence, s e x u a l i t y , and achievement.  The  principal  q u e s t i o n s appear at the head of the t h r e e chapters which bear these headings.  In a d d i t i o n , the respondents  they c o n s i d e r e d t o be youth today";  "the most important  problem f a c e d by  and what they c o n s i d e r e d to be  d i f f e r e n c e between o l d e r and younger The Chapters  were asked what  "the major  people".  Findings  I to IV t r e a t the f i n d i n g s drawn from the  data under the headings of the major c o n f l i c t s which the respondents  experience i n the  Chapter  situation.  I d e a l s w i t h the attempts to r e c o n c i l e  a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y needs f o r emancipation  the  from p a r e n t a l  a u t h o r i t y and dependence on parents f o r s e c u r i t y .  T h i s i s the  core of the independence c o n f l i c t . Chapter  I I d i s c u s s e s the s t r u g g l e to manage the  c o n f l i c t i n the matter of s e x u a l i t y , whereby attempts are made to e f f e c t a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n to the a p p a r e n t l y  incompatible  demands of sexual d e s i r e s , c o n s c i e n c e , and s o c i a l a p p r o v a l .  10 Chapter I I I d e a l s w i t h the problem of achievement which i n v o l v e s c o n t r a d i c t o r y d e s i r e s f o r independent  action  and s e c u r i t y i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d . Chapter IV t r e a t s the problem of i d e n t i t y where the s t r u g g l e t o achieve i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n v o l v e s the d e s i r e t o emerge from o l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s which c l a s h e s w i t h the d e s i r e t o remain embedded i n them. Chapters V and VI t r e a t matters a r i s i n g from the d i s c u s s i o n s of the s i t u a t i o n s of c o n f l i c t i n the f o u r p r e v i o u s chapters. Chapter V c e n t r e s on the approach which appears to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the respondents' attempts t o manage their problems—their realism. Chapter VI examines the concepts of "youth c u l t u r e " and " a l i e n a t i o n " , and e n q u i r e s i n t o t h e i r a p p l i c a b i l i t y as c a t e g o r i s a t i o n s of youth's r e l a t i o n t o the a d u l t w o r l d . Chapter V I I embodies a summary of the p r e v i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s , together w i t h the v a r i a t i o n s and d i f f e r e n c e s which emerge from t h e i r attempts t o cope w i t h the s o c i a l environment.  I n a d d i t i o n , some c o n c l u d i n g remarks and  o b s e r v a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o these young people's a t t i t u d e s t o marriage, peers, and s o c i a l change, precede some suggestions of matters which might be t o p i c s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h .  11 A s h o r t s e l e c t b i b l i o g r a p h y of works r e l e v a n t t o the t o p i c s d i s c u s s e d ends the essay.  CHAPTER I INDEPENDENCE The  Questions  The p r i n c i p a l q u e s t i o n s which were asked i n the i n t e r v i e w s i n order t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n concerning t h e independence  c o n f l i c t a r e the f o l l o w i n g :  To what extent do you t h i n k independence a t home and a t work?  i s important  When a problem b a f f l e s you, do you ask your parents what t o do? Suppose you were to decide t o do something and your parents were t o oppose you, what would you do? Do you f e e l f r e e t o do as you wish a t home? Are t h e r e any areas where your parents s t i l l as a c h i l d ?  t r e a t you  In what areas do you f e e l t h a t you are your own master? Do you ever wish you were f r e e t o be more dependent? I t i s sometimes s a i d t h a t t h e r e i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between being f r e e and being s e c u r e . What do you have t o say about t h i s ? What do you t h i n k independence i s ? The F i n d i n g s The Components of the Independence C o n f l i c t Examination of the data gathered from the i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l s a concern w i t h independence  t h a t transcends the  boundaries of the c a t e g o r i e s t o which the i n d i v i d u a l  respondents  1  were a s s i g n e d .  3  Both the boys and the g i r l s , r e g a r d l e s s of the  income and e d u c a t i o n l e v e l s of t h e i r p a r e n t s , are e x e r c i s e d by t h i s question.  T h e i r g e n e r a l concern w i t h independence i n -  v o l v e s two r e l a t e d problems: 1.  emancipation  from and/or r e p u d i a t i o n of p a r e n t a l  authority; 2.  the assumption  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the a d u l t world.  And y e t , they are a l s o aware of t h e i r dependence on parents e s p e c i a l l y , and the s e c u r i t y they thereby  enjoy.  S e c u r i t y , f o r them, means being p a r t of a f a m i l y and embedded i n a system of primary r e l a t i o n s h i p s . the dilemma they f a c e l i e s i n the attempt  being  The c r u x of  to r e c o n c i l e  the  need f o r independence w i t h a complementary need f o r dependence on p a r e n t s , and thus achieve autonomy w h i l e at the same time r e t a i n i n g the s e c u r i t y t o which they have become accustomed. A p p a r e n t l y , i t would be f a i r l y simple t o g a i n freedom from p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and be i n a p o s i t i o n t o make one's decisions.  But they r e g a r d t h i s s e c u r i t y as a necessary  i n g - o f f p o i n t f o r the attainment of self-knowledge security. of  own jump-  and i n n e r  I t i s the s t r u g g l e to a t t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y  balance  independence and dependence t h a t o c c a s i o n s one of the  p r i n c i p a l c o n f l i c t s a t t h i s stage of t h e i r l i v e s .  The f o l l o w i n g  q u o t a t i o n s c l e a r l y express t h i s i d e a : Parents should l e t o f f when t h i s age i s reached, so the c h i l d can go h i s own way and achieve w e l l - b e i n g  Ik and know h i m s e l f . But parents should be around t o understand. T h i s i s t h e i r main r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . K i d s should have p r i v a c y a t home and be able t o make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s while c o n s i d e r i n g others i n the f a m i l y . . . . Parents owe the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r independence t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . They should leave them alone to make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s from the time they f i n i s h h i g h s c h o o l . D e f i n i t i o n o f Independence The  s t r u g g l e t o achieve a balance  of autonomy and  s e c u r i t y i s f u r t h e r complicated by t h e i r d e s i r e f o r s o c i a l a p p r o v a l and the p e r c e i v e d o b l i g a t i o n t o c o n s i d e r the f e e l i n g s of those others w i t h whom they i n t e r a c t .  F o r them, being  independent does n o t g i v e u n l i m i t e d freedom and o p p o r t u n i t y to pursue t h e i r d e s i r e s unmindful  o f the i n t e r e s t s o f o t h e r s .  Freedom of a c t i o n must be balanced by r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o n e s 1  a c t i o n s and by c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the e x p e c t a t i o n s of o t h e r s . The f o l l o w i n g statements  are t y p i c a l .  Independence i s the a b i l i t y , i n the f i r s t p l a c e t o be not guided by s e l f i s h m o t i v a t i o n s , but t o r e c o g n i z e the s e l f , s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n ; whether you're a pawn, a k n i g h t , or a k i n g . When t o l d to do something, i t i s e v a l u a t i n g the i n s t r u c t i o n s , g e t t i n g t r u e pers p e c t i v e s , and then d i s o b e y i n g i f one t h i n k s i t wrong.... Independence a t t h i s age i s v e r y important so long as i t i s r e c o g n i s e d t h a t independence means r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's own a c t i o n s . Independence i s freedom t o a c t w i t h i n what s o c i e t y says, as long as no one e l s e i s harmed. Independence i s freedom o f a c t i o n and d e c i s i o n w i t h c o n s i d e r a t i o n of o t h e r s i n your a c t i o n s .  15  The F u n c t i o n of Independence Independence i s regarded as e s s e n t i a l f o r the growth of i n t e g r i t y ^  and f o r the attainment of s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n  and t h a t i n n e r s t r e n g t h t h a t i s needed to f a c e c r i s e s without breaking down.  Furthermore,  they f e e l that t h i s i s  the stage i n the l i f e c y c l e when they must achieve i n d i v i d u a l i t y and i n n e r s t r e n g t h so that the problems of the a d u l t world can be r e a l i s t i c a l l y c o n f r o n t e d . Independence i s e s s e n t i a l f o r achievement, otherwise you're too dependent on o t h e r s ; you c a n ' t t h i n k f o r y o u r s e l f and experiment t o l e a r n t o a c h i e v e . You can't be y o u r s e l f without independence, f o r then you're bound up w i t h everyone e l s e , n o t an i n d i v i d u a l - a nobody, r e a l l y . You have to break away from home to make your own d e c i s i o n s and s t r i k e out on your own.... I t ' s important to have independence a t home, be g r a d u a l l y accustomed to i t , so that you won't be l o s t when you have i t suddenly. Independence has to be achieved sooner or l a t e r , and the sooner, the b e t t e r o f f a person w i l l be t o f i n d h i m s e l f . I t ' s v e r y important a t home.... Independence and S e c u r i t y The respondents f e e l t h a t there i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n between freedom and s e c u r i t y i n the f a m i l y where the n e c e s s i t y f o r obedience  to p a r e n t a l d i c t a t e s d e n i e s them o p p o r t u n i t y to  g a i n experience i n decision-making and independent although s e c u r i t y i s assured.  action,  The h i e r a r c h i c a l arrangement  of p a r e n t a l dominance and c h i l d submission i n the f a m i l y Precludes the e x e r c i s e of autonomy by youth.  16 The p r i c e of s e c u r i t y a t home i s the r e s t r i c t i o n of freedom. T h i s i s p a r t of belonging to a f a m i l y . I'd l i k e to be independent. But your freedom i s - l i m i t e d by your o b l i g a t i o n s i n the f a m i l y . I f you're a l t o g e t h e r f r e e you won't have anybody to depend on. Thus, the need f o r s o c i a l a p p r o v a l and r e t e n t i o n of t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p a t t e r n of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s to which they have been accustomed e x e r t s  a profound  on t h e i r response t o the s i t u a t i o n i n which they f i n d But  influence themselves.  they are made p a i n f u l l y aware o f t h e i r p o s i t i o n of margin-  ality.  They are no longer  adults.  c h i l d r e n and they are not y e t  In s p i t e of some measure of parent-youth consensus  that they have outgrown c h i l d i s h modes, the f u l l mantle of adulthood i s w i t h h e l d , f o r they are d e p r i v e d  of the r i g h t s and  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which s i g n a l the r e l e g a t i o n of c h i l d h o o d to the  past.  Adult  Ambivalence They blame t h i s e x c l u s i o n from a d u l t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  on the p e r s i s t e n c e  i n a d u l t s of n o t i o n s  of them as c h i l d r e n .  They are t r e a t e d as c h i l d r e n but are denied the i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of c h i l d r e n and, a t the same time, they are a l s o s u b j e c t to a d u l t o b l i g a t i o n s without the concomitant r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They are confronted  w i t h the ambivalent a d u l t a t t i t u d e i n such  e x p r e s s i o n s as..."you ought t o know b e t t e r " , but "what you say doesn't r e a l l y matter, you're only a c h i l d " .  They r e l a t e such  17 inconsistency.to  a p a r e n t a l wish f o r continued  f o r g e t t i n g of t h e i r own  life  dominance and  a  history.  Parents j u s t don't r e a l i s e that c h i l d r e n grow up and become a d u l t s . I don't know how they t h i n k they became a d u l t s . They had to grow up t o o — t h o u g h some of them never d i d . C h i l d r e n r e b e l because of s i t u a t i o n s where t h e i r p a r e n t s f o r c e t h e i r o p i n i o n s and i d e a s on them. I t g i v e s parents a sense of power. C h i l d r e n can be manipulated and u s u a l l y a r e . . . . They keep the c h i l d young, possess him l i k e a c h a t t e l i n the house. C h i l d r e n don't become a d u l t s because parents don't l e t them. At home you must f e e l t h a t you're t r u s t e d by parents to do what you want. You must f e e l independent and be able to do what you wish. The i n d i v i d u a l s e l f i s most important to have your own i d e a s and a t t i t u d e s towards t h i n g s . Parents should r e s p e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n and r e a l i s e t h a t they're i n d i v i d u a l s , not j u s t under t h e i r i r o n g r i p . The and  c o n f l i c t s t h a t a r i s e from t h i s s t a t u s  the a t t e n d a n t c o n f u s i o n  •'inner" and confusion as he  "outer" a s p e c t .  and  "Inner" In the  have both  an  sense that  u n c e r t a i n t y i s produced w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l  s t r u g g l e s to achieve a sense of i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t y t h a t  w i l l be r e c o g n i s a b l e and  of e x p e c t a t i o n s  ambiguity  and  acceptable.  Conflicting  expectations  d i r e c t i v e s do not c o n t r i b u t e to t h i s sense of i n n e r  ence and  c e r t a i n t y , f o r at any moment any  s a t i s f y the e x p e c t a t i o n s "outer"  aspect  a c t may  of the a d u l t i n a u t h o r i t y .  to The  of such c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e s the l a c k of p r e d i c t -  a b i l i t y i n i n t e r a c t i o n , a s i t u a t i o n of doubt and d e r i v i n g not  fail  coher-  only from the youth's a n x i e t y  course to be f o l l o w e d ,  uncertainty  over the  but a l s o from the p e r c e i v e d  proper unsureness  18 of the parents concerning t h e i r r o l e i n the process of f o r m a t i o n of the c h i l d i n t o an Parent-child  family  adult.  Relations  The into focus,  matter of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s i s thus brought  and  the respondents are l e d to examine the kinds of  s i t u a t i o n s i n which they are embedded.  from statements of what a c t u a l l y o b t a i n s ought to be:  trans-  that i s , they d e f i n e  They proceed  to what they  think  the r o l e of parents v i s - a - v i s  youth a t t h i s stage i n the l i f e c y c l e . :  They r e l a t e the  actual  to the i d e a l , s i n c e what they t h i n k ought to e x i s t i s what they f e e l i s l a c k i n g i n t h e i r present s i t u a t i o n . The  Actual They p a i n t a p i c t u r e of g e n e r a l l y  r e l a t i o n s between themselves and  unsatisfactory  t h e i r parents.  They experience  a sense of estrangement from t h e i r p a r e n t s , c h a r a c t e r i s e d an i n a b i l i t y to d i s c u s s matters of i n t e r e s t and  importance to  themselves w i t h those w i t h whom they would p r e f e r to them.  by  discuss  They f e e l t h a t t h e i r parents l a c k i n t e r e s t i n , and  f o r , them as i n d i v i d u a l s . they are  subject  respect  A l l i e d to t h i s i s the complaint  e i t h e r to too l i t t l e  that  or too much r e s t r i c t i o n :  they are e i t h e r " r u l e d w i t h an i r o n hand" or " l e f t to grow as weeds".  In s h o r t , a l a c k of t r u s t , r e s p e c t  the c h i e f f e a t u r e family  and  intimacy  of the p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n  s i t u a t i o n s which they  describe.  is the  19 I never on any o c c a s i o n d i s c u s s my problems w i t h my p a r e n t s . I t i s n ' t easy to t a l k to them.... I t ' s j u s t the whole atmosphere a t home and the way I was brought up: you j u s t wouldn'tJ They s t i l l r e g a r d me as a c h i l d , t h a t ' s the way they t a l k to me. Anyt h i n g I say, they say, 'Oh w e l l , you're j u s t young, y o u ' l l change your mind', and t h i s s o r t of t h i n g . I f I d e c i d e not to take my umbrella, my mother would come running a f t e r me w i t h i t . J u s t v e r y odd l i t t l e things; these l i t t l e t h i n g s add up the most. I am n o t f r e e t o do as I wish a t home--in no area I can t h i n k o f , except i n my hobbies. F o r one t h i n g I f e e l o b l i g a t e d t o my parents i n c e r t a i n r e s p e c t s . I am n o t too f r e e even from the v o c a t i o n a l p o i n t of view, f o r they always i n s i s t e d t h a t I s t r i v e f o r the top e c h e l o n s — l a w or medicine. My s o c i a l l i f e i s c u t down through p r e s s u r e . I'm s t i l l t r e a t e d as a c h i l d i n s t u d y i n g , using the c a r - - t h e y f e e l I ' l l bum around town--and i f I'm watching T.V". they f e e l I should be s t u d y i n g . The  Ideal They s t a t e q u i t e e x p l i c i t l y what they t h i n k p a r e n t s '  role  should be.at t h i s stage o f t h e i r l i v e s , and what t h e i r  own o b l i g a t i o n s are.  They admit  the g r e a t e r knowledge and  experience of these a d u l t s and are w i l l i n g to f o l l o w  their  l e a d , p r o v i d e d that they concur i n the T i g h t n e s s o f the proposed course.  They a r e w i l l i n g  to y i e l d p r i d e of place t o experienced  l e a d e r s h i p , but a r e r e l u c t a n t to s a c r i f i c e t h e i r merely f o r the sake of f u l f i l l i n g  obligations.  integrity They seek a  balanced d i s c i p l i n a r y p a t t e r n that would ensure development along the l i n e s which they t h i n k they should f o l l o w . Parents owe e d u c a t i o n and guidance to a c e r t a i n age, the age I am now. By now they should have done enough so you can take over and make your own mistakes.  20 Parents owe b r i n g i n g up w i t h r e s p e c t f o r s o c i e t y ' s v a l u e s . Those w i t h opposite v a l u e s are very unhappy . The f i r s t o b l i g a t i o n to parents i s not t o make them unhappy, i f i t i s i n a c c o r d w i t h your own o u t l o o k , which i s not t o be s a c r i f i c e d a t anytime d u r i n g f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . These y e a r s are v e r y important. T r u s t and  Respect They say that s a t i s f a c t o r y development of youth  cannot fails  take p l a c e i n an atmosphere of a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m which to a p p r e c i a t e the n e c e s s i t y f o r d i s c u s s i o n . Under  dircumstances  d i r e c t i v e s are complied w i t h merely  the peace, or b e t t e r , to a v o i d open h o s t i l i t y and s o c i a l approval.  to preserve secure  Resentment i s thus engendered, d i s t a n c e grows  between the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and r e l a t i o n s become f o r m a l devoid of meaning, i n the sense t h a t the subordinate f o l l o w s the r u l e s i n a r i t u a l i s t i c  manner.  and merely  They.feel that  such a u t h o r i t a r i a n parents s h i r k t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r guidance to  such  to go by d e f a u l t , and are  exact and r e c e i v e a compliance Furthermore,  allow  satisfied  that s i g n i f i e s n o t h i n g .  t h i s l a c k of mutual r e s p e c t and  p r e c l u d e s t h e i r r e c e i v i n g v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n through  trust the  process of communication w i t h t h e i r parents which i s i t s e l f important.  They want to be f r e e to choose between a v a i l a b l e  a l t e r n a t i v e s , even though t h i s may  involve  Indeed, parents who  such disagreement  can understand  disagreement. and  r e t r e a t i n t o the background l e a v i n g youth o p p o r t u n i t i e s to  21 " t e s t t h e i r wings", a r e worthy of being regarded be f o l l o w e d .  as models t o  Then they would " f e e l l i k e i n d i v i d u a l s a t home".  I f parents c o u l d only r e a l i s e the g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y they have when they decide to have c h i l d r e n . . . . I wish I c o u l d be more dependent on my p a r e n t s . I know they can't make the d e c i s i o n s f o r me, but I wish I c o u l d go t o them and have them understand and h e l p me make the decisions...-. Parents hang on t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n too much. I t i s as i f they have no f a i t h i n t h e i r own u p b r i n g i n g . Kids would do the r i g h t t h i n g without a l l t h i s s u p e r v i s i o n and e n q u i r y . Parents of teen agers should t r y t o know them more than they do and t r u s t them. F o r I f i n d t h a t when someone t r u s t s me I f e e l so much b e t t e r , and I would n o t want to h u r t t h i s t r u s t , t o make them l o s e t h i s t r u s t i n me. Being t r u s t e d i s a bond, v e r y much so. Sometimes I wish I c o u l d be more dependent on my p a r e n t s . Some of my f r i e n d s have f a t h e r s who a r e strong images—mine i s n ' t ; and mothers who are g r e a t givers--mine i s n ' t . I always had an a f t e r s c h o o l job and bought my own c l o t h e s , and so on. Hidden A u t h o r i t y P a r e n t s , they say, owe them the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r independence.  They should enjoy a f a m i l y environment where parents  grant independence and assure s e c u r i t y , so t h a t they would be f r e e t o develop  s e l f - r e l i a n c e and i n t e g r i t y .  They  advocate  p a r e n t a l surrender of the o v e r t a u t h o r i t y t h a t was perhaps necessary a t an e a r l i e r stage, r a t h e r than t h e i r own r e p u d i a t i o n of i t .  T h i s would be p a r e n t a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the f a c t  that they a r e d e a l i n g w i t h persons who are themselves aware of t h e i r own needs and o b l i g a t i o n s to achieve i n d i v i d u a l i t y and  22 i n n e r s e c u r i t y through making t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s w h i l e c o n s i d e r i n g the i n t e r e s t s of others i n the f a m i l y . At t h i s stage you should be r e a l l y independent a t home. Parents should only be guides, i f needed. One has to make one's own mistakes and go on one's own steam, and by o n e s e l f . Negative Models I n s t e a d , parents appear to be s e r v i n g these  youth  as n e g a t i v e models because o f the p e r c e i v e d d i s c r e p a n c y between t h e i r a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n and what they f e e l t h e i r s i t u a t i o n be.  should  They see i n t h e i r parents what they ought not to become  and r e s o l v e to l i v e up to t h e i r own p r e s c r i p t i o n s .  They w i l l  p r o v i d e the kinds of f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s that w i l l n o t make t h e i r c h i l d r e n " f e e l most themselves from home".  o n l y when they are away  They w i l l be unobtrusive mentors, ready and  w i l l i n g t o guide and/or to stand back q u i e t l y and observe, c o n f i d e n t i n the e f f i c a c y of t h e i r own methods of t r a i n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g statement  i n c l u d e s both the p r o h i b i t i o n s and the  prescriptions f o r parents: Some parents want t o possess t h e i r c h i l d r e n — m i n e d o — l i k e something t h a t belongs i n the house, a cup or a saucer. They should b r i n g them up n o t t o f l y o f f the handle. They should be r e s p e c t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s and guided as such. They have t h e i r own way of t h i n k i n g and some independence. I t i s the duty of parents t o g i v e l o v e , to i n s t r u c t and guide, so t h a t c h i l d r e n can make up t h e i r own minds and t u r n out i n d i v i d u a l s . . . . Yet, I don't hate my p a r e n t s , d e f i n i t e l y not. I do l o v e them. But i t ' s a k i n d of l o v e you get used t o , you become accustomed to them. There's no c l o s e bond, nothing i n t e l l e c t u a l , no d i s c u s s i o n . I f e e l none of t h i s . I w i l l see that my c h i l d r e n get t h i s .  23  The  "Quiet R e b e l l i o n " Apparently i t i s when such p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e i s  p e r c e i v e d , when a u t h o r i t a r i a n d i r e c t i v e s i n c e s s a n t l y f o r i n t e r e s t and understanding, and when attempts " f o r c e " i d e a s i n t o the minds of youth,  substitute  are made to  that r e b e l l i o n occurs.  But seldom i s the o p p o s i t i o n to parents o v e r t and  violent.  Rather would i t be more a p p r o p r i a t e l y d e s c r i b e d as a " q u i e t rebellion".  F o r , an o v e r t c o n f o r m i t y and an apparent  cence mask r e s e n t f u l d i s a p p r o v a l and smouldering  acquies-  dissatisfaction.  While f o l l o w i n g p a r e n t a l d i c t a t e s , they a t the same time s u b t l y express t h e i r autonomy i n areas and ways that do not t h e i r p a r e n t s ' sense of a u t h o r i t y .  disturb  They seem to have  adopted  t h i s mode of managing t h e i r s i t u a t i o n as the method most l i k e l y to ensure  continued s o c i a l a p p r o v a l f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s . The  s u p p r e s s i o n of c o n f l i c t i n t h e i r primary group  r e l a t i o n s probably g i v e s r i s e to an i n n e r c o n f l i c t i n which they s t r u g g l e to cope w i t h the demands of the s e l f f o r  coherence,  w h i l e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y attempting i n some manner to r e c o n c i l e i n c o m p a t i b l e demands of s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s .  By means of  techniques of "gradualism" they not o n l y i n h i b i t the e x p r e s s i o n of a g g r e s s i o n and g a i n s o c i a l a p p r o v a l , but they a l s o c o n c r e t e l y t h e i r demand f o r independence and Such r a t i o n a l attempts realistic  solution.  realise  individuality.  a t problem-solving appear to p r o v i d e a  2k The E x p r e s s i o n of Independence F o r some of the respondents,  girls  especially,  attendance  a t u n i v e r s i t y r e p r e s e n t s a major step toward' the  attainment  of independence.  Faced w i t h the o p p o s i t i o n of  f a t h e r s who r e g a r d u n i v e r s i t y education f o r g i r l s as a waste of  time and money, they have to o v e r - r i d e p a r e n t a l d i s a p p r o v a l  i n order to reach the v a l u e d g o a l .  Such g i r l s are f o r c e d t o  become independent of the f a m i l y ' s f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s and to d e f r a y t h e i r expenses by means of e a r n i n g s , l o a n s , and, where t h e i r academic standing permits, by s c h o l a r s h i p s .  It i s  t h e r e f o r e n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t they adopt a t t i t u d e s which a r e compatible  with t h e i r a c t i o n s .  They f e e l  that u n i v e r s i t y  e d u c a t i o n i s t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n d e r i v e s from u t i l i s a t i o n  of one's own r e s o u r c e s , and,  moreover, they are o l d enough t o shoulder the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t goes w i t h independent d e c i s i o n .  They thus a v o i d f u r t h e r  o b l i g a t i o n to t h e i r parents who cannot then v o i c e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the event of t h e i r marriage  after  graduation.  My f a t h e r doesn't b e l i e v e g i r l s should go to u n i v e r s i t y because they w i l l get married. So, the only way I can go i s to assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . . . . My parents don't take too much i n t e r e s t i n the u n i v e r s i t y and what's going on t h e r e . I f i t were my p a r e n t s ' money and I d i d p o o r l y , or got m a r r i e d , they would r e s e n t i t . And I don't want to be o b l i g a t e d . T h i s way my independence i s great and I l i k e i t . I t i s good to go out and do something f o r yourself. My u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i s my own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I pay my own way. I t ' s a value to me and I wouldn't choose t o have my parents c o n t r i b u t e .  25 Some o t h e r s , who  encounter no p a r e n t a l o p p o s i t i o n to  t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y attendance, decide to pay t h e i r own i n s p i t e of p a r e n t a l w i l l i n g n e s s and a b i l i t y to pay. earn t h e i r own let  expenses, They  f e e s and i n c i d e n t a l expenses and are content to  t h e i r parents take care of t h e i r room and board o n l y .  They  seem to be obeying an i n n e r d i r e c t i v e that c a r r i e s g r e a t e r weight:  the sense of i n n e r s a t i s f a c t i o n d e r i v e d from  self-  direction. Dad f e e l s he owes me a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , but I f e e l I should pay f o r i t by myself, although a fund has been set a s i d e f o r my e d u c a t i o n s i n c e I was a c h i l d . F o r some, f i n a n c i a l independence comes through of c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  T h e i r u n i v e r s i t y attendance r e c e i v e s  p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l , but the f a m i l y r e s o u r c e s cannot bear cost.  The i n d i v i d u a l s are thus l e f t  efforts,  force  to r e l y on t h e i r  the  own  thereby g a i n i n g a l a r g e measure of independence.  they are f r e e from an a d d i t i o n a l s e t of o b l i g a t i o n s , and  For, free  to s e t l i m i t s f o r themselves. S i g n i f i c a n c e of F i n a n c i a l Independence Moreover, f i n a n c i a l independence g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e s a f e e l i n g of o b l i g a t i o n t o repay p a r e n t a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s even where repayment i s not expected.  Thus, f i n a n c i a l support  parents tends to be regarded as l o a n s which c a r r y an that cannot be d i s c h a r g e d merely  by u t i l i s i n g  f o r the purpose f o r which i t was  intended.  from  obligation  the c o n t r i b u t i o n  They tend to f e e l  26 that the bond w i l l only be d i s s o l v e d when they have r e t u r n e d what they have r e c e i v e d .  Perhaps i t i s the c o n n o t a t i o n of  c h i l d h o o d dependence i n which parents have a duty t o p r o v i d e f o r the wants of t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h a t they seek to a v o i d . C h i l d r e n need to be c a r e d f o r by a d u l t s , whereas a d u l t s must take care of themselves.  Adult s o l i c i t u d e  demands no m a t e r i a l reward.  f o r children usually  But l o a n s are arranged  between  a d u l t s and e n t a i l repayment which then n u l l i f i e s the indebtedness of the r e c i p i e n t . It selves.  i s t h i s l a t t e r s t a t u s which they want f o r them-  To support themselves f i n a n c i a l l y f r e e s them from one  aspect of dependence on t h e i r p a r e n t s .  They are, t o a l a r g e  e x t e n t , a b l e t o decide f o r themselves how t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s w i l l be a l l o c a t e d .  Thus, repayment i s viewed as "wiping the  s l a t e c l e a n " , s e v e r i n g a dependence' l i n k , and f o r e s t a l l i n g f u t u r e reminders  of continued indebtedness.  say that the s i t u a t i o n to the respondents' of a c o n t r a c t .  i n which parents c o n t r i b u t e f i n a n c i a l l y  u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n assumes the c h a r a c t e r  However, i t i s a c o n t r a c t i n which one p a r t y i s  e i t h e r i g n o r a n t of h i s involvement, the s i t u a t i o n  We might t h e r e f o r e  or i s u n w i l l i n g to r e g a r d  as i t has been d e f i n e d f o r him.  I d e f i n i t e l y f e e l t h a t I have to repay my p a r e n t s , so that I won't be o b l i g a t e d t o them. They made t h e i r own l i f e so they should use t h e i r money f o r themselves. I can make my own l i f e . I don't l i k e the dependence in-between.  27 I f e e l t h a t when i t s a l l over I ' l l be c o n s t a n t l y reminded o f what they gave--room and board. My p a r e n t s a r e v e r y money-conscious. They t h i n k o f e v e r y t h i n g i n d o l l a r s and c e n t s . T a l k o f money a t home u s u a l l y ends i n a b i g argument. I f e e l I have to r e p a y them, so I t r y n o t t o take any. Y e s , I t h i n k I s h o u l d r e p a y them. They pay e v e r y t h i n g e l s e b u t my f e e s . I ' l l t r y t o repay them because I c o n s i d e r i t my r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . They s h o u l d n ' t have to work h a r d e r t o send me h e r e . Yes, I f e e l I s h o u l d repay them. I'm supposed t o , f o r when I s t a r t e d here I was t o l d I s h o u l d repay i t .  1  F i n a n c i a l Independence and Inner S e c u r i t y The  q u e s t i o n of f i n a n c i a l independence touches  problem o f s e c u r i t y .  on the  S e c u r i t y , as they see i t , has two a s p e c t s ,  a f i n a n c i a l and an e m o t i o n a l .  F i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y r e f e r s to the  c o n d i t i o n where t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e t o s a t i s f y h i s m a t e r i a l needs a d e q u a t e l y from a s e t o f r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e r e s o u r c e s . Such s t a b i l i t y may be guaranteed accumulated w e a l t h .  by t e n u r e o f employment and/or  Emotional s e c u r i t y i s the f e e l i n g of s e l f -  c o n f i d e n c e t h a t comes from b e i n g embedded i n a s e t o f s t a b l e relationships;  t h e f e e l i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e persons who can be  depended on when t h e y a r e needed.  This f e e l i n g therefore  r e s t s on a sense o f t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of " o t h e r s . However, t h e respondents  regard the f e e l i n g of  s e c u r i t y t h a t h i n g e s on t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f o t h e r s as a p r e l i m i n a r y stage t o t h e a c q u i r i n g o f an i n n e r s e c u r i t y . l a t t e r i s a c h i e v e d when t h e i n d i v i d u a l g a i n s and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . on t h e former  This i s the f i n a l  self-knowledge  stage o f s e c u r i t y  stage of dependence on o t h e r s .  This  built  The r o a d t o t h i s  28  c o n d i t i o n i s v i a the e x e r c i s e of s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , and  financial  independence w h i c h removes some of the f e e l i n g of dependence is:, t h e r e f o r e  of prime s i g n i f i c a n c e i n i t s a t t a i n m e n t .  f e e l t h a t u l t i m a t e l y s e c u r i t y i s an e m o t i o n a l s t a t e , one  can be independent and  secure a t the same t i m e .  what they seem to mean by a c q u i r i n g m a t u r i t y  and  They therefore, This i s  becoming  independent a d u l t s . S e c u r i t y does not r e s t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , o n l y i n knowing y o u r s e l f . You must f e e l s e c u r e i n y o u r s e l f . I f you want independence t h e r e must be s e c u r i t y i n t h i s independence. The most i m p o r t a n t problem today i s a c q u i r i n g m a t u r i t y and becoming independent a d u l t s ; t o know whether you want the t h i n g s you want or are p r e s s u r e d i n t o them; whether t h e y are s e l f - d e c i s i o n s or because everybody e l s e does them. S e c u r i t y l i e s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g y o u r s e l f , knowing you are and where y o u ' r e g o i n g . We  who  can t h e r e f o r e c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e y admit a need f o r  b o t h an i n t e r n a l and an e x t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y t o govern t h e i r lives.  They d e s i r e a s t a t e of a f f a i r s w h i c h would a l l o w them  to f e e l f r e e to challenge  the d i c t a t e s of e x t e r n a l  authority  i n accordance w i t h the demands of the i n t e r n a l a u t h o r i t y . t o be a b l e t o do t h i s , i n n e r coherence has  t o be a c h i e v e d  T h i s i s the c o r e of the s t r u g g l e f o r independence.  But first.  I t i s the  e f f o r t t o emerge from a p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which they are p r e d o m i n a n t l y dependent and ing outside  of t h e m s e l v e s , and  governed by an a u t h o r i t y r e s i d to proceed to a new  relationship  w i t h t h e i r environment i n w h i c h they are s e l f - r e l i a n t , p r i m a r i l y t o t h e i r own d i r e c t i o n .  responsive  29 if  The Nature o f "Independence" An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e c o n d i t i o n of independence w h i c h t h e r e s p o n d e n t s seek, r e v e a l s t h a t i t i n v o l v e s  several  elements some o f which a r e a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y .  Thus,  they d e s i r e t o be f r e e o f p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l , w h i l e b e i n g a t t h e same time a s s u r e d o f p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l and guidance o f t h e i r a c t i o n s .  E v i d e n t l y , what they seek a t t h i s  s t a g e o f t h e i r l i v e s i s t o be i n v o l v e d i n a s e t o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s w h i c h o f f e r s b o t h freedom and s e c u r i t y :  freedom t o  make t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n , and s e c u r i t y i n t h e knowledge t h a t they p a r t i c i p a t e i n a p a t t e r n o f f a m i l i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h they can r e l y on n o t t o change suddenly o r u n a c c o u n t a b l y .  F u r t h e r m o r e , they e x p e c t t h a t they  s h o u l d be a b l e t o count on p a r e n t a l guidance whenever they need i t ,  and t h a t d e c i s i o n s and a c t i o n s t a k e n by them independent  of p a r e n t a l d i c t a t e s s h o u l d e a r n  approval.  T h e i r emphasis on p a r e n t a l guidance and a p p r o v a l i n d i c a t e s t h a t they a r e concerned w i t h a d h e r i n g t o c u l t u r a l l y approved v a l u e s :  t h a t i s , w i t h t a k i n g a c t i o n s which would n o t  incur negative sanctions.  A t t h e same t i m e , by i n s i s t i n g on  a p a t h o f independent d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n , t h e y m a n i f e s t a commitment t o c e r t a i n v a l u e s o f t h e i r s o c i e t y i n w h i c h each i n d i v i d u a l i s expected t o o b t a i n t h e s o c i a l l y p r e s c r i b e d by h i s own e f f o r t s .  rewards  I n t h i s sense, t h e r e s p o n d e n t s c a n be s a i d  t o r e g a r d themselves as " a p p r e n t i c e s " who a r e w i l l i n g t o l e a r n  30  to u t i l i s e the s o c i a l s k i l l s which t h e i r  ""masters"—their  parents—possess. However, they f e e l t h a t a n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r the l e a r n i n g of t h i s s k i l l i n independent a c t i o n i s b e i n g embedded I n a s e t of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a l l o w opportunities for learning.  That i s , p a r e n t s must be a b l e  appreciate  be w i l l i n g to p r o v i d e  the s i t u a t i o n and  to  the n e c e s s a r y  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n to p r a c t i s e decision-making  and  independent a c t i o n , so t h a t the l a t t e r can a c h i e v e the  level  of " m a t u r i t y " n e c e s s a r y f o r adequate f u n c t i o n i n g i n the world.  T h i s t e s t i f i e s to t h e i r awareness of the k i n d s  of  dependency needs w h i c h have been f o s t e r e d and g r a t i f i e d t h e i r being  children i n families.  t h a t such dependence i s now  c o m p a t i b l e n e i t h e r w i t h the  kinds  cultural  Y e t , i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e , t h i s dependence  can be "put t o work" t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e achievement of f u t u r e s t a t e which i s t h e i r  p a r e n t a l surrender  of s e c u r i t y d u r i n g  be a p p r e c i a t e d why  they p r e f e r  of a u t h o r i t y , r a t h e r t h a n t h e i r  r e p u d i a t i o n of i t . The  own  former c o u r s e g u a r a n t e e s the  the p e r i o d of e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n  have a c h i e v e d i n n e r s e c u r i t y .  feeling  u n t i l they  I t does not c l o s e the door  guidance and h e l p , nor does i t remove the f a m i l i a r I n t h i s way,  the  aim.  Perhaps i t can now  approval.  by  F u r t h e r m o r e , they f e e l  of i n d i v i d u a l s they d e s i r e to be, nor w i t h the expectations.  adult  on  source of  the p a t h towards s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n  adequate f u n c t i o n i n g i n s o c i e t y i s made much smoother, f o r  and their  31  r e p u d i a t i o n of p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l and a u t h o r i t y would  likely  engender resentment w h i c h would p r e c l u d e a r e c e p t i o n of p a r e n t a l a p p r o v a l , and g u i d a n c e , were i t ever needed. Moreover, independence i s n o t sought as an end i n i t s e l f , b u t r a t h e r as the means towards the a t t a i n m e n t o f s e l f - k n o w l e d g e and i n n e r s e c u r i t y . the  g o a l towards w h i c h they s t r i v e .  This l a t t e r condition i s I t s achievement demands  t h a t , a t t h i s stage of t h e i r l i v e s , i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n o p e r a t e from t h e base o f s e c u r i t y a f f o r d e d by t h e i r b e i n g embedded i n a p a t t e r n o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s founded on p a r e n t a l a p p r e c i a t i o n of t h e i r r o l e i n the p r o c e s s of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from c h i l d to adult.  I t now becomes e v i d e n t t h a t , from t h e p e r s p e c -  t i v e of t h e i n t e n d e d g o a l , t h e elements o f the "independence syndrome"--freedom of d e c i s i o n and a c t i o n , p a r e n t a l g u i d a n c e and a p p r o v a l , and being embedded i n a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s - - a r e n o t c o n t r a d i c t o r y as t h e y f i r s t appeared.  R a t h e r , i n t h i s way, the l o g i c of t h e i r  r e l a t i o n s c a n be seen. V a r i a t i o n s on the Theme Sex D i f f e r e n c e s i n P e r c e p t i o n of t h e Problem Boys D i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f t h e s t r u g g l e f o r independence are  emphasized by d i f f e r e n t groups o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s i n ways  t h a t h i g h l i g h t the g e n e r a l p i c t u r e d e s c r i b e d above.  A major  32  difference i n perception more concerned w i t h being own m a t e r i a l wants.  o c c u r s by sex.  The boys tend t o be  on t h e i r own and t a k i n g c a r e o f t h e i r  E m a n c i p a t i o n f r o m p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y and  the a s s u m p t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e i r f i n a n c i a l needs tend'  t o be uppermost i n t h e i r minds.  F i n a n c i a l independence  g i v e s them a g r e a t measure o f freedom e x t e n d i n g from t h e purchasing  o f t h e i r own c l o t h e s through p a y i n g t h e i r own  u n i v e r s i t y expenses t o p r o c u r i n g The  t h e i r own c a r s .  l a t t e r e s p e c i a l l y i s h i g h l y p r i z e d since the  m a t t e r o f t h e use o f t h e f a m i l y c a r i s g e n e r a l l y s u b j e c t t o the f a t h e r ' s supreme a u t h o r i t y .  H i s v e t o c a n n u l l i f y a boy's  b e s t l a i d p l a n s and r e v e a l h i s v u l n e r a b l e dependence n o t o n l y t o h i m s e l f but t o h i s peers as w e l l .  C o n s e q u e n t l y , ownership  of a c a r removes a p o w e r f u l means o f c o n t r o l from h i s hands, and i n c r e a s e s  parents'  t h e boy's freedom o f movement and autonomy.  T h i s i n c r e a s e d m o b i l i t y t e n d s t o make boys l e s s dependent on f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and throws them i n t o c l o s e r a s s o c i a t i o n with t h e i r peers.  The home thus becomes a p l a c e where t h e y  e a t and s l e e p , p r i v i l e g e s w h i c h they g e n e r a l l y pay f o r .  The  i m p o r t a n c e o f f i n a n c i a l independence t o them i s shown by t h e a b i l i t y to provide  oneself w i t h the n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e .  When  t h e y d i s c u s s s e c u r i t y i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s they r e f e r t o t h e i r f u t u r e f a m i l i e s of p r o c r e a t i o n . Independence i s t h e a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t y o u r s e l f f i n a n c i a l l y and t o l e a d y o u r own l i f e w i t h o u t anyone h e l p i n g or t e l l i n g you what t o do.  33 Independence i s the a b i l i t y t o do as you w i s h and make up y o u r own mind, and n o t t o depend on someone e l s e f o r the n e c e s s i t i e s o f l i f e . P e r s o n a l s e c u r i t y c a n come o n l y a f t e r independence from p a r e n t s i s g a i n e d . Not independence from everybody e l s e , f o r t h e n y o u ' l l have y o u r own f a m i l y l i f e and f i n a n c i a l security. A man c a n be secure i n h i m s e l f . Freedom and s e c u r i t y might be c o n t r a d i c t o r y a t home i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , but a m a r r i e d man i s more o r l e s s f r e e and g e t s s e c u r i t y from h i s own f a m i l y . Rehearsal of a Role I t may be t h a t t h e boys' g r e a t e r  emphasis on f i n a n c i a l  independence i s r e l a t e d t o t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n  of the c u l t u r a l  d e f i n i t i o n of t h e a d u l t male as t h e p r o v i d e r i n h i s f a m i l y o f procreation.  Great s t o r e i s s e t on t h e k i n d o f man who p r o v i d e s  a d e q u a t e l y f o r t h e m a t e r i a l needs of h i s w i f e and c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e i r l e s s e r c o n c e r n a t t h i s stage o f t h e i r l i v e s with the complexities  of i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the  f a m i l y may r e f l e c t a n o t uncommon c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e . the e x i g e n c i e s  of the occupational  Here,  w o r l d t a k e t h e man out o f  the home t o e a r n a l i v i n g i n o r d e r t o s u p p o r t h i s f a m i l y . is  He  thus unable t o be d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n the i n t e r p l a y o f  f a m i l y l i f e d u r i n g most o f h i s waking h o u r s .  Consequently,  h i s w i f e , who u s u a l l y has d i r e c t charge o f t h e c h i l d r e n and the home w h i l e he i s a t work, i s more enmeshed i n the i n t e r a c t i o n s , of the f a m i l y . These young men may t h e r e f o r e be r e g a r d e d as b e i n g engaged i n t h e r e h e a r s a l o f a p a t t e r n o f r o l e b e h a v i o u r  34 characteristic  o f t h e a d u l t male i n t h e i r s o c i e t y .  p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a f u t u r e r o l e they may perhaps have  In their unwittingly  f o l l o w e d t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f a s p e c t s o f t h e b e h a v i o u r of t h e i r f a t h e r s who would l i k e l y be the most a c c e s s i b l e models o f t h e c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n t o be adopted. Girls Whereas the boys a r e more concerned w i t h a s p e c t s o f independence t h a t t e n d t o make them want t o be f r e e o f t h e home, the g i r l s p l a c e g r e a t e r emphasis on independence w i t h i n the home.  They a r e more concerned w i t h t h e k i n d s o f r e l a t i o n -  ships that e x i s t i n the f a m i l y . the  A l t h o u g h t h e y a r e t r o u b l e d by  problem o f independence as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e f o r t h e growth  of i n d i v i d u a l i t y , t h e r e i s some f e a r t h a t t o be i n d e p e n d e n t might d i s r u p t t h e s e c u r i t y e n j o y e d i n a s e t o f f a m i l y ships.  relation-  F o r them, i t i s n o t so much a q u e s t i o n of independence  v e r s u s dependence  as o f i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e i n t h e f a m i l y .  They a r e p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h t h e achievement of a b a l a n c e . the  Those who most i n s i s t  on independence a l s o have'  s t r o n g e s t w i s h e s f o r f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s which would a l l o w  g r e a t e r dependence  on t h e i r p a r e n t s .  Those who have  been  a l l o w e d independence w i s h f o r g r e a t e r dependence, and those who a r e dependent y e a r n f o r a b a l a n c i n g independence.  They  want a home atmosphere c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t r u s t , i n t e r e s t and affection,  i n w h i c h t h e y c a n be f r e e t o e x e r c i s e t h e i r  judgment.  Neither harsh d i s c i p l i n e nor excessive permissiveness w i l l  35  s u f f i c e , s i n c e both are e q u a l l y d e t r i m e n t a l the one  perpetuating  to p e r s o n a l  the s t a t u s of c h i l d , the o t h e r  growth:  betraying  a l a c k of p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t and a f f e c t i o n . Nobody as r e a l l y f r e e because of o t h e r s ' expectations of you. I n the f a m i l y i t i s more a q u e s t i o n of i n t e r dependence than of dependence and independence. C h i l d r e n s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s and g u i d e d as such. I t i s , t h e job of p a r e n t s t o g i v e l o v e , t o i n s t r u c t and g u i d e , so t h a t c h i l d r e n can make up t h e i r own minds and t u r n out i n d i v i d u a l s . My f a t h e r r u l e s w i t h an i r o n hand, so I am not f r e e to do as I w i s h a t home, i n no a r e a . I'm t r e a t e d as a c h i l d i n every area. I'm c o n s t a n t l y reminded: 'You're j u s t a c h i l d , you know,' and ' t h i s i s n ' t your house, you're j u s t l i v i n g h e r e . ' I go t o the basement room and c r y . I never f e l t as a wanted c h i l d . Mothers as N e g a t i v e Models The personal  g i r l s ' c o n c e r n w i t h the c o m p l e x i t i e s  of  inter-  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n the f a m i l y can be r e g a r d e d as a  r e c o g n i t i o n of the woman's r o l e i n the management of i n the home.  As the a d u l t who  tension  i s i n c l o s e s t and most c o n t i n u o u s  i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h the c h i l d r e n of the f a m i l y , the w i f e i s comp e l l e d t o come to g r i p s w i t h the problems of s t a b i l i s i n g  family  inter-personal relations.  only  I n t h i s r o l e she would be n o t  l i a i s o n between the f r e q u e n t l y absent f a t h e r and but a l s o the symbol of p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y . e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n s may  come t o c e n t r e  the c h i l d r e n ,  Consequently,  on h e r .  She  may  bear the brunt of both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e s e n t i m e n t s t h e r e f o r e may  be c o m p e l l e d to d e v i s e  of the p e r s o n a l  the  have t o and  s o l u t i o n s to the problems  r e l a t i o n s h i p s she i s so much i n v o l v e d i n .  36 I t i s i n t h i s sense t h a t t h e mothers o f t h e s e g i r l s may be s e r v i n g as models.  B u t j u d g i n g from the k i n d o f  atmosphere w h i c h t h e y say e x i s t s i n t h e i r homes, t h e i r  mothers  are n e g a t i v e models.  identifi-  They a r e l e a r n i n g l e s s by d i r e c t  c a t i o n w i t h t h e model t h a n by deducing from t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e what t h e r o l e p a t t e r n s ought t o be.  unsatisfactory  I t i s perhaps  i n t h i s l i g h t t h a t one s h o u l d v i e w t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of mothers as t h e p r i n c i p a l o b s t a c l e t o t h e i r achievement o f independence. They have seen h e r much too f r e q u e n t l y as t h e symbol o f a u t h o r i t y and f a r t o o l i t t l e as the m e d i a t o r . failing  Perhaps by  t o s u p p o r t them v i s - a - v i s t h e f a t h e r , the mother has  been deemed blameworthy t h r o u g h the mechanism o f a s s o c i a t i o n : she was n o t o v e r t l y " f o r " them, t h e r e f o r e she was " a g a i n s t " them. Freedom of V o l u n t a r y Dependence The g i r l s  1  c o n c e p t i o n of independence i n c l u d e s t h e  i m p l i c a t i o n of freedom t o s u r r e n d e r v o l u n t a r i l y t h e v e r y independence they now seek.  They want t o be i n d e p e n d e n t a t  home now i n o r d e r t o a c q u i r e m a t u r i t y , so t h a t they c a n become dependent on a husband. dependence  They d i s t i n g u i s h between a u n i l a t e r a l  i n the f a m i l y o f o r i e n t a t i o n and a mutual  i n the f a m i l y o f p r o c r e a t i o n : l a t t e r a l l o w s freedom.  dependence  t h e f o r m e r i s r e s t r i c t i v e , the  I t i s the d i f f e r e n c e between  p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e i r a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e i r  their  ideal.  37  Freedom and s e c u r i t y can be c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y f o r women. I f you're secure, you're f i n a n c i a l l y dependent on your f a t h e r or husband. I t imposes r e s t r i c t i o n s i n the case of the f a t h e r , but f o r a husband i t shouldn't, though I imagine i t does sometimes. R e s t r i c t i o n s don't have to go along w i t h s e c u r i t y , but they do sometimes. A man and w i f e have s e c u r i t y i n each other and they are s t i l l f r e e . You marry so you can have someone t o take care of and he to take care of you; more f o r companionship. V a r i a t i o n s by C a t e g o r i e s Respondents i n f o u r of the c a t e g o r i e s show i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i a t i o n s i n the emphasis they p l a c e on c e r t a i n aspects of the s t r u g g l e f o r independence: e d u c a t i o n and low income;  B , the boys w i t h parents of h i g h 2  B^, the boys w i t h parents of low  income and low e d u c a t i o n ; G^, the g i r l s w i t h parents of h i g h income and low e d u c a t i o n ;  G^, the g i r l s w i t h parents of low  income and low e d u c a t i o n . Both c a t e g o r i e s of boys are concerned w i t h  their  r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r parents, over and above the concern f o r f i n a n c i a l independence i n a manner t h a t d i f f e r s from the g e n e r a l p i c t u r e f o r the boys. high education—are  Those i n B ~ - p a r e n t s 2  of low income and  t r o u b l e d by t h e i r p e r c e i v e d e x c e s s i v e  dependence, whereas those i n B ^ — p a r e n t s  of low income and low  e d u c a t i o n are concerned w i t h too much independence.  The B  2  boys are caught  i n the dilemma of being f o r c e d  to be i n v o l v e d i n the kinds of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s which they  38 want to a v o i d . separation.  But strong l o y a l t y  to the f a m i l y p r e c l u d e s t h e i r  They want to a v o i d the censure that would be  evoked f o r d i s r u p t i n g the s t a b l e f a m i l y environment,  and they  f e e l g r e a t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r maintenance of the s t a t u s quo. Hence, they do "what makes t h e i r from the d r a s t i c  parents happy" and r e f r a i n  measure of b r e a k i n g away, because " i t i s not  r i g h t " and they want to r e t a i n  s o c i a l approval.  Consequently,  they express t h e i r independence i n areas t h a t l e a v e the f a m i l y s t r u c t u r e i n t a c t , p r i n c i p a l l y i n the realm of b e l i e f s and i d e a s . Committed to adherence t o the s o c i e t a l v a l u e s , they l i v e w i t h the i n n e r c o n f l i c t  unresolved.  I f my mother wanted me to l i v e a t home and I wanted to l i v e away from home, I would go along w i t h h e r . But i f she wanted me to continue u n i v e r s i t y and I wanted t o q u i t , I would q u i t . I have wished f o r independence l o t s of times, r would l i k e t o l i v e away from home, but t h i s would be a l i t t l e unrealistic. C h i l d r e n owe t h e i r p a r e n t s , much more than f i n a n c i a l repayment, understanding and r e s p e c t , and t o l i v e up to their ideals.  The boys i n B^ have long been accustomed to independence, e s p e c i a l l y  i n f i n a n c i a l matters.  They have been s e l f -  supporting s i n c e t h e i r h i g h s c h o o l days, although l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r parents.  But they g i v e i n d i c a t i o n s o f having missed the  sense of p a r e n t a l involvement w i t h them, which would i n d i c a t e interest  and g i v e emotional s e c u r i t y .  Their f i n a n c i a l  independ-  ence alone i s u n s a t i s f a c t o r y , f o r they have n o t approached  an  39 i n n e r s e c u r i t y because the s e c u r i t y d e r i v i n g from dependence on s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s has never been enjoyed. balance which they now  I t i s the proper  tend to seek, by t h e i r r e a c t i o n to  "too much independence too  soon".  I am f r e e to do as I wish a t home. There i s n ' t enough c o n t a c t w i t h my parents f o r me to be t r e a t e d i n any manner. I wish I c o u l d l o o k t o them f o r g u i d a n c e — not i n f i n a n c i a l matters; I w i l l l o o k a f t e r those myself. I don't ask my parents about my problems. I ask my friends. I t ' s never been easy to t a l k over anything w i t h my p a r e n t s .  S  3 The G^ g i r l s are the o n l y respondents who  r e p o r t good r e l a t i o n s with t h e i r p a r e n t s . f a m i l y environment  Consequently,  Evidently,  comes c l o s e to the i d e a l :  f r e e and secure, and there i s no problem  consistently their  they f e e l  both  of communication h e r e .  these g i r l s f e e l secure i n going t h e i r own  knowing that i n t e r e s t e d and understanding parents w i l l whatever they themselves have decided i s r i g h t .  way,  support  T h e i r parents  do not oppose t h e i r d e c i s i o n s a f t e r matters are d i s c u s s e d , but the g i r l s g i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o what t h e i r parents approve and disapprove.  They s e t l i m i t s and r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e i r  own  behaviour i n order not t o abuse the freedom and s e c u r i t y  they  enjoy. My parents never t e l l me what to do. They suggest and we d i s c u s s the problem. Then they say: ' I t ' s up to you. ' I t ' s v e r y easy to t a l k w i t h them. They've never 1  ho really opposed any decision I make, not because I'm spoiled, but because I always take into consideration what they would think when I'm about to do anything; It's quite easy to talk with my parents—I'm not s t i l l treated as a child. When they oppose we discuss i t . I show why I want to do i t and they t e l l me why they oppose. I show my point of view and listen to their's. Then perhaps I'd go out and do i t , even i f they disagreed. I limit myself at home far more than i n my own apartment. I don't smoke at home because i t displeases my father that I do. I am my own master, except that when with the family I exert myself not to step on their toes.... They've been remarkably mature about not treating me as a child. They l e t me move out and take my own apartment. They feel i t ' s intelligent for a g i r l to be on her own for a while.  The G^ girls express the strongest dissatisfaction with their relationship to their parents.  They see themselves  completely dominated by parents who are enamoured of the power they wield over their children and who seem intent on perpetuating this state of affairs.  These g i r l s express the  strongest yearnings for independence, for indications are that theirs are the authoritarian parents with whom i t i s f u t i l e to try to discuss matters.  Their chief concern now i s to  leave home and be free of excessive parental restrictions. Their submission at home cloaks the deep resentment—and which they feel.  fear—  For, a show of hostility might aggravate an  already grievous situation.  In their desire for association  with reliable parental figures whom they can trust,'they turn to family friends, for their own parents cannot be trusted with confidences.  kl  They long for a home atmosphere i n which matters can be discussed and where they would "feel like individuals". For them, attendance at university i s an act of independence. Bereft of parental support i n this enterprise, they set great store by financial independence, although the hardships they endure sometimes make them wonder at the T i g h t n e s s of their choice of a university education in preference to a post-highschool job.  They feel that they sacrificed freedom for a  security that has not materialised.  Nevertheless, they look  forward eagerly to marriage, a relationship into which they w i l l enter voluntarily and i n which they w i l l have the freedom and security which they now lack at home. No, I don't like to be dependent. I'd much rather be independent. But I wish things were different so that I could depend on my parents. If they were truly adults, i t would be so nice to discuss my problems with them and hear their opinions. Advice i s good to be weighed and considered to see i f you can use i t . . . . My idea of wanting to feel independent i s because they make me feel so dependent. Well I don't like to go into my parents too much; I'm more or less afraid of them. For, i f I argue, my mother gets excited and says she's going to be sick. Then my father gets mad at her and she says: 'your father i s angry at me now and i t ' s your fault,' so I leave things mild unless i t i s of great importance, like not being a Eoman Catholic and not going to church. My mother gets upset so I try to show her.... I feel more an adult than my mother who doesn't act or think rationally, and I try to show her that i t ' s alright; that the neighbours won't really care that much, and that I won't go to h e l l . My mother t e l l s my problems to other people. I can't t e l l her anything. I go to other adults, my boyfriend and his parents—his mother i s my second mother--and class-mates i n nursing.... I talked to my family doctor who knows the situation. He told me to ignore what goes on at home; this i s the only way to be free  k2  and get through my course; to do whatever I feel i s right even though I'm bawled out for i t . I've done this and i t works very well. If you're free you have to have a l l your needs met, be able to support yourself and have people to rely on always, and have certain material things that are really yours.... I chose security by the fact of coming to university instead of going out to work, when I wouldn't have had this constant bickering; I would have been free. I am not free to do as I wish at home because there are so many rules. I don't feel I ' l l be completely free until I leave home and get married. Evidently, these g i r l s are reacting to family situations where they feel that the excessive dominance of their parents makes them too dependent. They want dependence but not i n excess, and only i n situations where family relationships allow them freedom and individuality.  CHAPTER II SEXUALITY The Questions The following are the main questions that were asked in order to gain information concerning the conflicts with regard to sexuality. How do you think matters stand between boys and g i r l s your age? What kinds of relationships do you think exist between them? What kinds of behaviour do you think they engage in? Suppose you were asked to recommend a pattern of sexual behaviour for boys and g i r l s your age. What would you suggest? What would you say i f you were asked to describe your own code of behaviour i n these matters? Would you say that you need more information on sexual matters? What kinds of information? Who do you think should provide i t ? Do you discuss these matters with friends? With parents? What would you consider as wrong or immoral sexual behaviour? The Findings The respondents' attempts to deal with the problem of sexuality immediately involves them i n the problem of morality in general.  Their approach, which i s here characterised as  "moral individualism", i s therefore treated f i r s t , since this  kh  mode of confronting individual conduct pervades their whole discussion of sexuality.  Hence, i t i s considered necessary to  clarify this concept before proceeding to the specific question of sexuality. Moral Individualism The data reveal the respondents' confusion not only about the pattern of behaviour that should be followed, but also about the ideas they should adopt.  This confusion stems  from an awareness of the co-existence of various conflicting ideas and modes of behaviour.  The different groups are able to  defend and justify values and actions which contravene what they are told i s the norm, and they can see merit i n each of the patterns of behaviour and sets of ideas which they confront. Faced with this discrepancy between what people say they do, and should do, and what they actually do, each tends no longer to ask who or what i s right, but what i s the best course for the individual to follow. The only general recommendation that they feel can be made under these circumstances i s that each individual must decide for himself. The chaotic situation i n which there are contradictions both between the within groups apparently leaves them no alternative.  Each person i s willing to say what he opposes but  not what others should oppose, for this i s entirely a matter for the individual and his conscience.  This "moral individualism"  which puts the onus on each person to establish standards solely  k5  for his own conduct, allows private criticism with regard to the wisdom of other people's actions.  However, i t forbids the  expression of public judgment on the morality of such behaviour. For, each person lives under conditions peculiar to himself and i s motivated i n his behaviour by forces which come together i n a configuration applicable solely to him. Consequently, they feel that the individual can be judged only i n this context and not with regard to standards which overlook such individual differences. Everybody says that moral standards are low. But one never knows what everybody else i s doing, and what i s the accepted thing. It's up to the individual's discretion.... If i t ' s right for you, people shouldn't say i t ' s immoral for you, as long as you feel differently about i t . Whatever goes against what a person feels and believes is immoral. It's not f a i r to judge others, because a t e r r i f i c amount of things contribute to a person's morality. It's not just the way they feel about sex that causes them to do things like that. It's their home l i f e , the way they're treated by their parents, and so on. I just don't think i t ' s f a i r . It's immoral i f there's no basis for people to go about and sleep with everybody, i f i t ' s just for sensation and emotion, i f nothing l i e s behind i t . Too many people are condemned when the circumstances are not known. One doesn't have to be common with everyone. It i s d i f f i c u l t when people are i n love, so i t ' s up to the individual. But I am against g i r l s who go out with different fellows two or three times. This i s unwise, not immoral. Sexuality: i n Context Their "moral individualism" i s thus a way of coping with the problem of right conduct generally.  Sexuality i s  k6  f i t t e d into the context of social behaviour, so that the matter can be viewed i n proper perspective.  True, i t i s of  great importance in their lives and creates urgent problems, which can assume exaggerated significance.  But these problems  can be more effectively handled i f they are seen as involving the whole matter of relations with others, both peers and adults.  Moreover, they are at the particular stage i n the  life-cycle when commitment to some kind of "ethic" would aid them to proceed along some more or less well-defined path i n the adult world.  They are aware that others' interests might  conflict with their own.  But they are willing to respect them  even though they disagree with them.  Their individualistic  approach as their rationale for action would thus tend to minimise overt conflict. And yet there i s an apparent inconsistency between their attitude to their parents and their attitude to their peers.  They feel free to c r i t i c i s e the former for failing to  live up to their moral obligation, while they refrain from passing moral judgment on the latter's behaviour.  This seeming  contradiction demands explanation, since i t i s argued above that their relativism applies to a l l areas of social relations and conduct. Children the "Products" of Parents The major factor here i s the child's relation to his parents, involving the belief that the latter are f u l l y  k7  responsible for the well-being of their progeny during the formative years.  The respondents hold the view that children  are what their parents allow them to be.  The particular family  setting, and the kinds of treatment are forces which act to produce the particular individuals they become.  Since these  forces are largely under the control of parents, i t i s they who are blame-worthy and not their offspring.  It i s therefore  unfair, i n the respondents' view, to pass judgment on the behaviour of the "product":  i t i s the "producer" who should  properly be taken to task for the behaviour of his "handiwork". Furthermore, they are i n the throes of hacking their way out of the forest of confusion sown by their elders. Therefore, they feel that action which succeeds i n getting them out alive deserves praise, i f any comment must be made at a l l .  Of course, such a view smacks of a "principle of  divided responsibility", whereby actions with undesirable consequences are blamed entirely on external forces, whereas those which produce praiseworthy results redound to the credit of the individual alone. Differences i n Voluntariness of Relations In addition, there i s a difference i n their relationships with parents and peers, the principal feature of which i s the extent of voluntariness of participation.  There  is l i t t l e element of choice i n being a member of a particular family;  i n being related i n a special way to the persons who  are one's parents.  Being a child of one's parents i s a status  48 that i s fixed by forces entirely out of one's control. But, to a large extent one can choose one's peer-group from among an available aggregate of age-mates;  and being a "buddy" to  one's significant peers i s partly a result of one's own choice. Therefore, willingness to c r i t i c i s e one's parents adversely may represent an awareness of the relative unaltera b i l i t y of the parent-child t i e , in which the socio-psychological aspect may perhaps be altered by physical separation, but the biological aspect i s immutable.  On the other hand, when the  values and interests of peers conflict there can be re-orientation via another selection of age-mates.  The refusal to  c r i t i c i s e the behaviour of peers could then be a recognition of their common status which makes them subject to similar sets of deprivations vis-a-vis parents. Moral Individualism and Independence Their approach to morality i s intimately bound up with the value they place on independence from adult authority. Their adherence to s t r i c t l y personal codes i s an assertion of independence and their refusal to pass public judgment on the actions of others indicates respect for others' rights to independence.  Their moral individualism i s thus a facet of  their desire to avoid manipulation by others and be selfdirected.  Their inner lives are their strongholds  against  the adult world, where their overt conformity protects them from the encroachment of external agencies and allows tion of the "quiet rebellion".  Nevertheless,  continua-  this i s a  if9 m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e i r ambivalence towards the s o c i a l T h e i r r i t u a l i s t i c behaviour  order.  i n d i c a t e s both a r e c o g n i t i o n of the  need f o r change and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to d i s t u r b the arrangements which others v a l u e .  I t a l s o suggests a l a c k of deep commitment  to the approach they f a v o u r . Sexual Behaviour  and Sex Codes  I t i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the area of sexual  behaviour  t h a t the c o n f l i c t stemming from attempts t o s t r i k e a sure through  the chaos of c o n f l i c t i n g  p a t t e r n s i s prominent.  are s t r u g g l i n g to synchronise behaviour  path They  and code, and t o  a r r i v e a t a synthesis that i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e e of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . They have to r e c o n c i l e a t l e a s t of s e x u a l i t y :  satisfaction  three aspects of the problem  of t h e i r d e s i r e s , s a t i s f a c t i o n of  t h e i r c o n s c i e n c e s , and the winning  of s o c i a l a p p r o v a l .  But  d e s i r e , conscience and s o c i a l approval are a p p a r e n t l y incompatibles.  F o r a c t i o n s which meet the requirements of  one may outrage  the o t h e r s :  masters.  i t i sdifficult  to s a t i s f y  three  A l a c k of c o n v i c t i o n i n t h e i r own pronouncements  becomes m a n i f e s t  here.  I f you can j u s t i f y i t i n your own mind, t h e r e ' s nothing wrong w i t h having s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s , even i f others c o n s i d e r i t wrong. Of course, t h e r e ' s s o c i e t y t o be c o n s i d e r e d ; t h a t ' s the whole t r o u b l e . You have to s a t i s f y your conscience and y o u r s e l f . . . . I do what s o c i e t y says. I t ' s hard t o say 'do t h i s or do t h a t . ' I don't know. You should have a good moral s t a n d i n g ; l i v e up t o the morals of your s o c i e t y , c h a s t i t y and common sense where p r e - m a r i t a l sex r e l a t i o n s are concerned.... You should  50 strike a balance between your own strong desires and your own morals, so as not to produce strong feelings." The balance depends on the individual.... You should follow what's i n your own mind to do. If you feel i t ' s alright to have sex relations, go ahead. It's a l l up to how you feel about i t . I don't believe in sex relations before marriage. The Etiquette of Sexual Indulgence Although a satisfactory compromise has not yet been reached, certain elements toward i t s achievement are emphasized. They insist on certain conditions as pre-requisites for indulgence i n sexual relations and these together can be termed an etiquette of sexual indulgence.  They tend to feel that pre-  marital sexual intercourse w i l l continue to occur but they can insist on the observance of certain regulations to circumvent too  easy and carefree indulgence. Sexual behaviour i s l e f t to  individual discretion, but i t i s the individual's responsibility to proceed only after certain conditions are met.  There must  be affection between the partners i n a long-lived relationship and neither party must be put at a disadvantage.  Furthermore,  both sexes agree that i t i s the g i r l who must have the supreme power of decision, i n spite of the affection and mutual consent of the partners. Both must proceed with complete awareness of what they are about to do, but the g i r l always has the right to terminate the procedure at the preliminaries. ing  It i s interest-  that indulgence without affection and mutual consent tends  to be regarded as immoral, whereas a g i r l ' s failure to prevent matters from "going too far" i s viewed not i n terms of morals, but rather as a matter of wisdom.  51  A l l k i n d s of behaviour are i n d u l g e d i n — c o m p l e t e p h y s i c a l union, p e t t i n g , necking and h o l d i n g hands. A f t e r they've known each other f o r a w h i l e , they get f r e e r . Chastity i s outmoded i n some ways, but you must know somebody f o r q u i t e a w h i l e . Most people f e e l so. They wouldn't go about s l e e p i n g w i t h anybody; probably w i t h the person y o u ' l l marry. I t depends on the i n d i v i d u a l s and how they f e e l towards each o t h e r . I f they're r e a l l y i n l o v e , I can't see why they shouldn't have i n t e r c o u r s e i f they want t o . I t ' s immoral i f you're j u s t out f o r a good time and don't know or l i k e the person. I go more on my f e e l i n g s and not j u s t f o r a good time. I t ' s wrong only when one person i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p f e e l s taken advantage o f . Both people must be w i l l i n g and consent t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p . . . . I t i s wrong t o go out w i t h a g i r l on a date and take advantage of her s e x u a l l y ; i f t h e r e ' s no a f f e c t i o n or no i n t e n t i o n of g e t t i n g s e r i o u s with her. I t i s wrong i f a boy takes advantage of a g i r l on a date; i f he r e a l l y goes a t her. I t i s wrong i f the g i r l agrees. She shouldn't, unless she wants to be a fool. The boy has more r i g h t t o take advantage than the g i r l has to agree. I've found t h a t boys w i l l t r y anyt h i n g — a n d they w i l l — t o see what the g i r l ' s r e a c t i o n is. They're u s u a l l y v e r y s u r p r i s e d i f the g i r l doesn't stop them. Double Standard The w i l l i n g n e s s of both sexes to a c c o r d boys the " r i g h t t o t r y " , and g i r l s the r i g h t t o r e j e c t the  advances,  shows the acceptance of a double standard of s e x u a l m o r a l i t y . It  i s expected t h a t boys w i l l g a i n p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e ,  whereas g i r l s w i l l remain s e x u a l l y unblemished  until  marriage.  T h i s d u a l i t y stems p a r t l y from the b e l i e f t h a t g i r l s stand to s u f f e r most as a r e s u l t of p r e - m a r i t a l i n d u l g e n c e .  They may  come pregnant and have t o i n c u r a l l the s o c i a l opprobrium  be-  that  52  attends such a "bad continue w i t h  s i t u a t i o n " , w h i l e the boys g e n e r a l l y  impunity.  F o r boys, youth i s the time f o r experience, but not for g i r l s . I don't know what the boys would do then. G i r l s should be pure t i l l marriage. Prostitution i s open f o r boys to get e x p e r i e n c e , though i t ' s probably the l e a s t used. C h a s t i t y i s a good i d e a , f o r a g i r l anyway. I don't r e a l l y care what the men do. I t ' s up to them. I t ' s a l r i g h t f o r men to f i n d out, but i t ' s the g i r l who bears the brunt. She may get pregnant, a bad s i t u a tion. Reasons f o r Abstinence In  s p i t e of t h e i r r e l a t i v i s m i n the matter  of s e x u a l  behaviour, t h e r e i s a more or l e s s g e n e r a l adherence to the mode of a b s t i n e n c e .  Apart from a g e n e r a l doubt concerning  r i g h t course to f o l l o w there are s e v e r a l reasons f o r t h i s .  the The  p r i n c i p a l ones a r e : 1.  f e a r of pregnancy;  2.  f e a r of "shot-gun"  3.  avoidance  k.  l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e x u a l i n d u l g e n c e ;  5.  d e s i r e t o m a i n t a i n the "wholeness" of the body and the  weddings;  of g u i l t and s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l ;  self.  The g i r l s are. p r i m a r i l y motivated by f e a r of pregnancy,  avoidance  of  g u i l t and s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l , and the d e s i r e f o r "wholeness"  of  the body.  The boys a b s t a i n through f e a r of " g e t t i n g  stuck"  53  w i t h a "shot-gun" wedding, and l a c k of o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n d u l gence. The G i r l s '  Fears As the g i r l s see i t ,  themselves.  to p r o t e c t  There i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they  become pregnant done.  abstinence i s the way  may  and so r e v e a l to a l l the world what they have  In the f a c e of v i s i b l e evidence of t h e i r a c t i o n s , they  would be hard put to l i v e down the shame of being an unwed mother and the p u b l i c judgment of unchaste  behaviour.  They  would, i n a d d i t i o n , have to reckon w i t h the doubt and  guilt  concerning the m o r a l i t y of t h e i r conduct.  Moreover, even i f  they were f o r t u n a t e enough to a v o i d pregnancy, there i s the f e a r of i n s u f f i c i e n t is  the problem  s t r e n g t h to d e s i s t once they have begun.  There  of the a b i l i t y t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r a t t e n t i o n s t o a  s i n g l e p a r t n e r and/or the f e a r of being abandoned f o r another. They are l i k e l y , under these circumstances, to become known as promiscuous,  "easy on a date", and they would l o s e a l l v a l u e  w i t h the v i o l a t i o n of t h e i r body i n t e g r i t y . The n o t i o n of the maintenance of a "wholeness" i s r e l a t e d t o the i d e a that s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e p r o p e r l y belongs only i n marriage.  They want to present themselves  t h a t they would not f i n d something  missing.  "whole" so  Thus a b s t i n e n c e as  a means of s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n i n v o l v e s not only s o c i a l p r e s t i g e i n t h e i r present s t a t u s , but a l s o the f o r t u n e s of t h e i r  expected  54 marriages.  I n a sense, they adhere  to the "romantic" i d e a of  the "mystery" i n marriage and sex, the premature r e v e l a t i o n of which p r e j u d i c e s t h e i r v a l u e i n the marriage market. w i t h a double standard of s e x u a l m o r a l i t y , t h i s view  Coupled attributes  g r e a t power to the man's r o l e i n s e x u a l i t y and marriage.  For,  not o n l y can he employ them as o b j e c t s f o r h i s a c q u i s i t i o n of s e x u a l e x p e r i e n c e , he can a l s o devalue them i n the p r o c e s s .  He  i s i n a p o s i t i o n of power both to have i n t i m a t e knowledge of t h e i r worth and t o r e f u s e , as a consequence of such knowledge, to enter i n t o c o n t r a c t w i t h them.  Furthermore,  the n o t i o n of  the v i o l a t i o n of body i n t e g r i t y r a i s e s s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n s of a s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l nature concerning the e f f e c t on m a r i t a l adjustment  of adherence  to such a b e l i e f .  F o r i n s t a n c e , what  p e r c e p t i o n of a husband does such a w i f e have, and what are the consequences  f o r the c o n j u g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p ?  However, these  i m p l i c a t i o n s cannot be e x p l o r e d here. Don't go a l l the way u n l e s s you want t o get married. Otherwise, neck, p e t , and enjoy y o u r s e l f , i f you l i k e the person. Sex r e l a t i o n s would get you i n t o t r o u b l e . You might get pregnant. 'If you're i n l o v e , ' they say, 'there's no reason why n o t . ' But i s i t worth the p r i c e , I ask. From one person i t can l e a d t o o t h e r s , and then you're k i n d of used. I t ' s a l l up t o how you f e e l about i t . I don't b e l i e v e i n sex r e l a t i o n s b e f o r e marriage, because I want to present him w i t h something. I t ' s hard to e x p l a i n but.... Almost s o r t of as a g i f t , of the f a c t t h a t I've never i n d u l g e d i n t h a t w i t h anyone e l s e b e f o r e . Because I i n t e n d t o s t a y married to the person I marry.  55 My boy-friend and I are both religious people. We both want to do what i s right and to save for marriage. We don't want to do things belonging to marriage before we're married, for then i t would have something lacking. The Boys' Fears The boys' abstinence from sexual indulgence from fear of "shot-gun" weddings i s complementary to the g i r l s ' fear of pregnancy.  They take a primarily pragmatic view, i n the  sense that they are concerned with the consequences of the action for them.  They feel that, should the g i r l s be impregnat-  ed, they would be compelled to "do the gentlemanly thing" and get married.  They are reluctant to be caught i n such a  situation, since their freedom i s at stake. This may be the time to gain experience but i t i s not the time to get married. They therefore resort to abstinence because they are unwilling to lose their freedom by accident and realise the responsibility they may be called upon to undertake. Furthermore, such unplanned, early marriages might ally them with partners who for various reasons might prove to be unsuitable.  They want to choose for themselves with whom  they w i l l spend the rest of their lives.  For, a sexual partner  for a moment's delight might not necessarily prove to be a congenial companion for a life-time.  There are, presumably,  c r i t e r i a more relevant to the choice than sexual gratification. This suggests their division of g i r l s into at least two categories:  those from among whom one w i l l marry and who are  56 to remain "pure" until marriage;  and those who provide sexual  experience and satisfaction, but are not prospective marriage partners. And yet, their abstinence i s only partially a deliberate course. behaviour.  Force of circumstances partly determines their Were they able to find partners they would cast their  fears aside and abandon self-restriction. Apparently, after a certain point i s reached, lack of f a c i l i t y supersedes deliberate abstention as a determinant of their behaviour. Perhaps rumours of the t h r i l l s to be enjoyed have convinced them of what they have been deprived.  Then they may become so eager  to make up for this deprivation that they become willing "to do just about everything; necking, petting and sexual intercourse, because you hear so much about i t . " Here, the element of t h r i l l seeking experimentation assumes significance. The sexual act must be coupled with responsibility. If you can provide for the child you have every right to go ahead. You must be aware of the responsibility of the relationship.... You must have consideration for the other person and responsibility towards what you're getting into. I wouldn't take the chance. I'm not financially and otherwise endowed to take care of the child. If a person i s so endowed i t ' s okay with me. But there must be realisation of his capacity and responsibility. You shouldn't have sex relations at this age because forced marriages are due to pregnancy. You should be sure you want to live with one another before entering into sexual acts before marriage. I never had sex relations with any g i r l , because I don't want to get stuck with a g i r l this way. But I don't think i t ' s morally wrong to have sex relations.  57 I suppose you would say I'm r e l a t i v e l y pure. Up to a p o i n t i t was a d e l i b e r a t e course of a c t i o n . Now i t ' s mainly due to l a c k of f a c i l i t y . I f the o p p o r t u n i t y were a v a i l a b l e I would f o l l o w the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n and have sex r e l a t i o n s . Doubt, Conformity  and Deviance  None of t h e i r modes of managing the s i t u a t i o n strong c o n v i c t i o n .  There i s doubt concerning  carries  the adequacy of  t h e i r present codes and behaviour not only t o meet the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , but a l s o t o s a t i s f y t h e i r own c o n s c i e n c e s . unconvinced c o n f o r m i t y and v i c e v e r s a . circumstances  tends to y i e l d p l a c e t o uneasy  An  indulgence  T h e i r ever-changing p e r c e p t i o n s m i r r o r changing  and l e a d t o constant  re-appraisals.  Deviation  from the p e r c e i v e d s o c i e t a l v a l u e s may s a t i s f y t h e i r d e s i r e s but i s accompanied by uneasiness; v a l u e s opposite t o s o c i e t y ' s are unhappy".  individual  " f o r those  with  Yet, conformity  does not of i t s e l f produce a s t a t e of c e r t a i n t y , f o r the m u l t i p l i c i t y of p a t t e r n s of conduct serves only to accentuate their confusion.  The moral i n d i v i d u a l i s m t o which they have  r e s o r t e d i n t h e i r u n c e r t a i n t y i s not a s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n , but merely a temporary r e s p i t e from the s t r u g g l e f o r a r e s o l u t i o n of the problem.  Indeed, by c r e a t i n g problems of i t s own, moral  i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n c r e a s e s the c o m p l e x i t i e s of an a l r e a d y  complicat-  ed matter. The Need f o r Understanding They f e e l t h a t only an understanding h e l p them to manage i t e f f e c t i v e l y .  of s e x u a l i t y w i l l  F o r t h i s purpose, e x i s t i n g  58  knowledge of the matter should be made available to them without distortion through long-established prejudices. It i s true that they can get the information from books, but this method lacks the personal touch which can be obtained i n conversation or discussion. A book merely provides impersonal information impersonally;  i t cannot set a living example for  the individual to follow.  Proper knowledge of the matter can be  acquired only through the medium of interpersonal relations. Besides, books may arouse feelings which they do not know how to control, and much of the information might require further exposition. Information, Communication and Models The respondents  1  concern for an understanding of  sexuality i n order to be able to manage i t competently involves a need for the consideration of three related matters:  informa-  tion, the actual data to be interpreted; communication, the interpersonal process by which the data i s transmitted;  models,  the crowning of the acquisition of knowledge, i n which adults become objects of identification.  Generally, they look to  parents and other adults to provide a l l three factors. But parents have failed i n this area as well.  They possess l i t t l e  adequate knowledge and, because of prejudice and ignorance, do not take the trouble to obtain i t .  In addition, the kinds of  parent-child relations i n which they find themselves preclude discussion.  Thus, i t i s parental lack of proper information,  59 as w e l l as t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o the s u b j e c t which d i s q u a l i f y them from s e r v i n g as models to be emulated.  The consequent f a i l u r e  of  t o t u r n o u t s i d e of the  communication f o r c e s the respondents  home i n search o f what they seek.  As a r e s u l t , they are  sometimes l e d i n t o b l i n d experimentation living it  and d e p r i v e d of seeing  examples of the meaning and p o t e n t i a l i t y of s e x u a l i t y as  i s embodied i n the c o n j u g a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . A b i g s e c r e t i s made of i t . There's no reason why i t should be. A f t e r a l l , young men and women a r e p o t e n t i a l parents. Parents should e x p l a i n i t f u l l y when they're asked. My parents g i v e me no i n f o r m a t i o n whatsoever. They l e f t books l y i n g around. I probably l e d a more s h e l t e r e d l i f e than most; and I went t o a g i r l s ' s c h o o l too. There are too many parents l i k e mine and too many g i r l s l i k e me before I went i n t o n u r s i n g . I t should be provided by p a r e n t s . But parents u s u a l l y have wrong i d e a s themselves, so they're o f t e n not u s e f u l here.... Parents should take the t r o u b l e t o g e t the r i g h t i n f o r m a t i o n and g i v e i t to t h e i r c h i l d r e n . I t would be n i c e and c r e a t e c l o s e r e l a t i o n s . I never d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h p a r e n t s . My mother i s shy. I never f e l t c l o s e t o my f a t h e r and never thought of i t . G e n e r a l l y there i s n ' t enough i n f o r m a t i o n on sex, especially for g i r l s . Parents don't t e l l them a n y t h i n g . I know from g i r l s i n the .dorm who don't even know now. I don't have enough e i t h e r . I t ' s good to be a b l e t o s i t and t a l k about i t i n a d i s c u s s i o n , so i t ' s not r e garded as immoral. I t ' s b e t t e r than r e a d i n g a book. Parents should t a l k about i t i n the home. K i d s have to get i t from other people. A l o t of people today have t o f i n d out on the s t r e e t s and t h i s i s u g l y . I never d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h my p a r e n t s . You should g e t the i n f o r m a t i o n from...perhaps, n o t from someone t e l l i n g you, but when you see a good marriage where o b v i o u s l y t h e r e ' s sex and l o v e . Perhaps a l o t of i t can come from the a t t i t u d e of the p a r e n t s ; perhaps r e i n f o r c e d a t s c h o o l , I don't know. The man a t s c h o o l i n HPD ("health and p e r s o n a l development") d i s c u s s e d f i n g e r n a i l s and s k i n . Love and sex are p a r t of p e r s o n a l development, but he stuck to h e a l t h . . . .  60  Agencies of Instruction They feel that i t i s the moral responsibility of the adult world to contribute towards their understanding of the problem.  Parents and schools—including the university—should  shoulder the onus of this obligation, but parents have the greatest responsibility, because of their authority over children, and because of the intimacy which should characterise parent-child relationships.  They tend to dismiss the church as  being far more concerned with the dissemination of a particular moral point of view, rather than with the propagation of knowledge.  Sex education, they f e e l , should be amoral, i n the  sense that instruction should not be concerned with judging according to any moral standards, but primarily with providing the factual information. The School's Bole The schools should build on the foundation which parents have l a i d .  Furthermore, such a wealth of information i s re-  quired that i t would tax the capacities of any parent.  Therefore,  the schools must supplement what parents provide, or, where parents have failed, make up the deficiency.  They feel that the  school can contribute greatly toward the removal of prejudicial attitudes, without at the same time confining i t s e l f to any single moral view.  In fact, consistent with the derivation of  the word "education", the school must go beyond training i n merely academic subjects and treat attitudes and emotional  61 matters, i n such a way  as to develop a l l the  individual's  faculties. In order to do t h i s , be t r e a t e d as an important  the management of s e x u a l i t y must  aspect of p e r s o n a l development.  T h e r e f o r e , there must be d i s c u s s i o n of a l l matters p e r t a i n i n g to  s e x u a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g not only anatomical and  matters,  physiological  but a l s o the r e l a t i o n of s e x u a l i t y to the emotions,  c o n t r a c e p t i o n and a b o r t i o n , c o n c e p t i o n and c h i l d b i r t h ,  sexual  d e s i r e s and a t t r a c t i o n , and v e n e r e a l d i s e a s e s . Sex i n f o r m a t i o n should be provided by p a r e n t s , and i t i s hard and sometimes i m p o s s i b l e , so the church and s c h o o l s , w i t h the r i g h t persons, should do i t . My c o u n s e l l o r was the b i g g e s t ' p r i s s ' . She would j u s t make g i r l s go the other way. But f i r s t of a l l , i t should be the p a r e n t s . I d i s c u s s e d i t w i t h mine. I t h i n k I have enough i n f o r m a t i o n , but I may be wrong. What i s g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g , I t h i n k , i s more emphasis, not on the anatomy and p h y s i o l o g y , but the i d e a of sex a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o v e . Sex e d u c a t i o n a r t i c l e s t a l k s t a t i s t i c a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y , but the emotions which are i n v o l v e d are not i n c l u d e d . T h i s i s what should be made a v a i l a b l e . Schools should p l a y a much g r e a t e r p a r t . E i t h e r they are a f r a i d or they are t r y i n g to h i d e i t . High s c h o o l k i d s are g r e a t l y i n t e r e s t e d i n i t . My s i s t e r i n Grade E l e v e n asks me. At s c h o o l i t i s presented i n such a way t h a t k i d s t h i n k i t i s a joke. They can see the teacher i s embarrassed and they know t h a t they are w i t h h o l d i n g something. T h i s i s so because the t e a c h e r s themselves t h i n k i t i s something not to be t a l k e d about i n public. They are the same w i t h t h e i r own c h i l d r e n and they are worse w i t h other people's c h i l d r e n . I f parents can't do i t because of- t h e i r own p r e j u d i c e s , then the s c h o o l s should and so remove the degrading a t t i t u d e to sex. Students should know b e f o r e they get to u n i v e r s i t y . E v e r y t h i n g should be p r o v i d e d ; n a t u r a l body f u n c t i o n s , without any Idea of r e l i g i o n and morals.  62  I t s h o u l d be taught and the m e r i t s of i t shown; to keep the body whole. B u t i t s h o u l d n ' t be f o r c e d as the C a t h o l i c s do. Don't taboo the i s s u e and say the whole t h i n g i s a s i n . . . . They l a c k the normal p h y s i o l o g y ; how the body f u n c t i o n s f o r y o u r s e l f and the o p p o s i t e sex. A l o t of what i s w r i t t e n i s above the average p e r s o n ' s unders t a n d i n g . I understand i t because i t was e x p l a i n e d i n nursing. The B o l e of the U n i v e r s i t y The r e s p o n d e n t s concede t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f i c u l t i e s  to  be surmounted w i t h r e g a r d t o the u n i v e r s i t y p r o v i d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on s e x u a l m a t t e r s — " . . . i f the u n i v e r s i t y does i t , i t w i l l a stew."  Y e t the u n i v e r s i t y has an i m p o r t a n t  i s t r u e t h a t t h e y s h o u l d be i n f o r m e d  raise  p a r t to p l a y .  It  b e f o r e they r e a c h t h i s  level.  However, p r o f e s s o r s i n c e r t a i n d i s c i p l i n e s can c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e i r greater understanding.  F o r example, t h e y r e g a r d  g i s t s as e x p e r t s on the e m o t i o n a l  psycholo-  a s p e c t s of s e x u a l i t y w h i l e  s o c i o l o g i s t s and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s are w e l l v e r s e d i n s o c i a l c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n sexual behaviour. and. h u m a n i t i e s  and  Moreover, the a r t s  can c o n f r o n t them w i t h d i s c u s s i o n s which o f t e n  i n i t i a t e them, w i t h m i n g l e d shock and d e l i g h t , i n t o the  sexual  p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of l i t e r a r y passages.  But sometimes new  informa-  t i o n p r o v i d e d by t h e i r p r o f e s s o r s may  c o n t r i b u t e to t h e i r  confusion. And y e t , they do not c o m p l a i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r m o r a l p r e s c r i p t i o n s are i n j e c t e d i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s of s e x u a l m a t t e r s at t h i s l e v e l .  T h e i r p r o f e s s o r s may  astound them w i t h r e c o n d i t e  63  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r a l l o w t h e i r own  s u b j e c t s , but they do not  moral standards to i n t r u d e :  a p p a r e n t l y , they  l e a v e t h e i r students to d e v i s e and f o l l o w t h e i r own Perhaps t h i s i s p a r t of the reason why  standards.  they tend t o r e g a r d the  u n i v e r s i t y as the embodiment of the " c u l t of i n d i v i d u a l i t y " , where both p r o f e s s o r and student are f r e e t o be  independent.  I t should be p r o v i d e d by p a r e n t s . But parents u s u a l l y have wrong i d e a s themselves, so they're o f t e n not usef u l here. But then you c o u l d get i t from s c h o o l s and people who are a u t h o r i t i e s , l i k e p s y c h o l o g i s t s on the emotional a s p e c t s . . . . I would l i k e to d i s c u s s i t w i t h " p r o f s " i n s o c i o l o g y and anthropology who are more acquainted w i t h s o c i e t i e s and their differences. A l l my " p r o f s " , whether i n French or b i o l o g y , t a l k about sex. At f i r s t i t came as q u i t e a blow to me. Mother f i n a l l y ended up phoning the Dean.' I don't know t h a t I can c o n s i d e r anything as immoral e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r S o c i o l o g y 200. For example, p r e - m a r i t a l i n t e r c o u r s e i s c o n s i d e r e d immoral i n t h i s s o c i e t y but not i n o t h e r s ; and then not as much f o r a boy as f o r a g i r l . One must l e a r n to f i g h t f o r o n e s e l f , e s p e c i a l l y a t university. There's every o p p o r t u n i t y a t u n i v e r s i t y to be independent as a student or a p r o f e s s o r . You have the c h o i c e of your f i e l d and s u b j e c t , and the manner of treating i t . A l l of t h i s c o n t r i b u t e s to your own i n dividuality. Confronting R e a l i t y It  i s the respondents' d e s i r e to proceed i n t o the w o r l d  w i t h a l l t h e i r f a c u l t i e s adequately developed which u n d e r l i e s t h e i r i n s i s t e n c e on understanding as a means of coping w i t h sexuality. growth.  They seek f u l l p e r s o n a l development not an  T h e r e f o r e , they must c o n f r o n t t h i s prominent  unbalanced aspect of  6h life.  To encompass t h i s end they f e e l t h a t they must be  thoroughly educated  so t h a t they can e x e r c i s e independent  c h o i c e and adopt a course  t h a t would guarantee s a t i s f a c t i o n i n  t h e i r r e l a t i o n s with their D i f f e r e n c e s by The  society.  Sex outstanding d i f f e r e n c e i n the  respondents'  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the problem of s e x u a l i t y occurs by sex. boys place g r e a t e r emphasis on mutual consent  The  as a p r e - c o n d i t i o n  f o r sexual i n d u l g e n c e , whereas the g i r l s i n s i s t  on p r e - e x i s t i n g  a f f e c t i o n a l bonds. Boys:  Mutual Consent The boys are concerned  as an aftermath  w i t h not being h e l d to blame  of engagement i n the sexual a c t .  Both p a r t n e r s  should be f u l l y aware of what i s i n v o l v e d , so t h a t n e i t h e r would f i n d h i m s e l f a t a disadvantage.  They f e e l t h a t both are " o l d  enough t o stand the consequences." t h e i r d e s i r e not  T h i s emphasis i s r e l a t e d to  "to be t i e d down" nor  "to get stuck".  Insist-  ence on m u t u a l i t y of d e s i r e and consent i m p l i e s t h a t a l l o b l i g a t i o n s cease with the consummation of the a c t ; whatever happens afterwards way  " i s not t h e i r b u s i n e s s . "  conscience f i n d s r e l i e f and immediate plans and  are not j e o p a r d i s e d .  that In t h i s commitments  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r an unwanted pregnancy  would i n t e r f e r e w i t h plans f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g o n e s e l f i n a c a r e e r before embarking on marriage.  B e s i d e s , a " f o r c e d " marriage  robs  65  the i n d i v i d u a l of freedom of c h o i c e . safeguard,  t o cover  concession  t o a f f e c t i o n a l bonds;  I t i s perhaps as a m i l d  t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they make a token the g i r l must be known and  liked. The law says the g i r l must be eighteen y e a r s o l d . I f the g i r l wants the r e l a t i o n s h i p , okay. But she must not be f o r c e d ; her consent i s necessary. Both must want i t . I t must have meaning f o r both of you. You must know and l i k e the g i r l . I don't c o n s i d e r any sex a c t wrong; only a man t a k i n g advantage of a woman. I l i k e to a c t on e n j o y i n g myself, but you've got to h o l d y o u r s e l f back i n t h i s area. Sex r e l a t i o n s are immoral when the g i r l ' s l a s t name i s not known, w i t h i n a couple o f hours of meeting. T h i s i s f r e q u e n t i n my p a r t o f town.... There must be longer acquaintance. Girls:  A f f e c t i o n a l Bonds  Although the g i r l s have doubts about t h e whole matter, they tend  to f e e l t h a t m u t u a l i t y  sexual indulgence:  of deep a f f e c t i o n must precede  "being i n l o v e " i s an e n a b l i n g  Engaged c o u p l e s , those  factor.  on the verge of marriage, and o t h e r s  bound by strong a f f e c t i o n a l t i e s who are f o r c e d t o postpone t h e i r marriage, can s a f e l y  "engage i n f u r t h e r sex r e l a t i o n s . "  F o r them, l o v e " s a n c t i f i e s " the a c t . underscore m u t u a l i t y as an i n d i c a t i o n relationship  Thus, t h e i r n e g l e c t t o  of d e s i r e and consent can be i n t e r p r e t e d  of t r u s t i n t h e p a r t n e r :  i n an a f f e c t i o n a l  n e i t h e r p a r t y would t h i n k of h u r t i n g the other.  F o r they f e e l t h a t l o v e , t r u s t and r e s p e c t a r e i n s e p a r a b l e elements of l a s t i n g primary  relationships.  66 Perhaps y e s , i f the person i n v o l v e d means something, but not f o r sex i t s e l f . I f the person means n o t h i n g at a l l , i f i t ' s p u r e l y p h y s i c a l and no emotion.is i n v o l v e d a t a l l , i t ' s not p r o s t i t u t i o n , but i t ' s the same b a s i c i d e a . Most of my f r i e n d s f e e l t h a t you don't s l e e p w i t h a man you don't i n t e n d t o marry. You're l e t t i n g y o u r s e l f i n f o r t r o u b l e i f your r e l a t i o n s h i p comes c l o s e t o this.... A boy won't t r y anything i f he has a l o t of r e s p e c t f o r the g i r l . I f he f e e l s he w i l l get something h e ' l l try. And why shouldn't he.... I f t h e y ' r e r e a l l y i n l o v e I can't see why they shouldn't have i n t e r c o u r s e i f they want t o . . . . I t ' s immoral i f you're j u s t out f o r a good time and don't know of' l i k e the person....  CHAPTER I I I ACHIEVEMENT The  Questions  The respondents were asked the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s i n order t o e l i c i t i n f o r m a t i o n concerning achievement. Assuming t h a t you had to work f o r a l i v i n g , what c a r e e r would you prepare f o r now? What a l t e r n a t i v e c a r e e r s have you  considered?  What are you l o o k i n g f o r i n a c a r e e r ? Imagine t h a t money were no o b j e c t , t h a t you were independently wealthy. What would you do? I t i s s a i d t h a t two important c h o i c e s have to be f a c e d by people your a g e — w o r k and marriage. What do you have t o say about t h i s ? Given your present p l a n s , when do you expect to get Which do you c o n s i d e r more important, work or  married?  marriage?  The F i n d i n g s The i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t h i s area f o c u s e d on t h e i r f u t u r e careers.  The data r e v e a l a g e n e r a l concern w i t h the  of s e c u r i t y which i s seen to have two emotional.  aspects:  financial  Because of the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l  and emphasis of the two  attainment  interest  sexes, boys and g i r l s are t r e a t e d  separately. Boys:  The  and  Conflict The boys m a i n t a i n t h a t independence i s the most  68 important f a c t o r i n a c a r e e r , but they a l s o need s e c u r i t y . They f e e l t h a t f o r boys a c a r e e r i s more important marriage.  Therefore,  of independence and  the c o n f l i c t c e n t r e s  on the  achievement  s e c u r i t y i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d , where  they are seen to be i n c o m p a t i b l e s .  The  s o - c a l l e d independent  p r o f e s s i o n s no l o n g e r ensure independence. o r g a n i s a t i o n s now  than  Professional  possess the independence of o p e r a t i o n t h a t  i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i t i o n e r once had.  They are of the o p i n i o n  the i n c r e a s e d b u r e a u c r a t i s a t i o n of these p r o f e s s i o n s , w i t h pressures  that  together  from the g e n e r a l p u b l i c have compelled concern  f o r f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and independence.  the  p r e s t i g e to o v e r - r i d e concern f o r  Consequently, w h i l e  employment i n b u r e a u c r a t i c  o r g a n i s a t i o n s , as t y p i f i e d by the business  corporation, offers  the g r e a t e s t measure of s e c u r i t y , i t a l s o e n t a i l s the  greatest  l o s s of freedom. Lowered A s p i r a t i o n s This perception f e e l i n g t h a t "you join  'em."  of the s i t u a t i o n l e a d s them to  can't buck the system", " i f you  They y i e l d beforehand to the pressures  pate encountering  i n the o c c u p a t i o n a l world.  independent a t work today "because of the way is  set up."  Therefore,  can't l i c k  'em  they a n t i c i cannot  be  the s o c i a l system  one would do w e l l to s e t t l e f o r the  most of what i s a v a i l a b l e — s e c u r i t y . The  f i n a n c i a l aspect  s e c u r i t y , then, assumes paramount importance. medicine, law and  One  the  engineering  of  C a r e e r s such as  are superseded by t e a c h i n g ,  social  69 work, commerce and government s e r v i c e .  They abandon t h e i r  i d e a l s and lower t h e i r a s p i r a t i o n s i n the f a c e of a r e a l i t y which they p e r c e i v e as denying r e a l i s a t i o n of t h e i r p r e f e r r e d goals. I t i s t r u e r e s t r i c t i o n of t h e i r h o r i z o n s may t o a p e r c e i v e d l a c k of a b i l i t y f o r t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e s . i s a l s o f e a r of improvidence i n l a t e r l i f e , u n w i l l i n g n e s s to take r i s k s .  be  due  But  eoupled with  there  an  T h e i r p r e f e r r e d c h o i c e s promise  p e r s o n a l achievement and p r e s t i g e , but there i s a l s o the t h r e a t of f a i l u r e and  the consequent d e n i a l of the m a t e r i a l  which they d e s i r e .  Consequently, they now  satisfactions  seek s e c u r i t y of  tenure, r e g u l a r and moderate income, and i n t e r e s t as compensat i o n f o r the abandonment of f i r s t were saying t h a t one  choices.  I t i s as i f they  can l i v e w i t h i n n e r c o n f l i c t s stemming from  involvement i n s i t u a t i o n s which one would p r e f e r t o a v o i d , s i n c e there may  be a way  out, but one has  to l i v e i n order to f i n d  I f I had to work f o r a l i v i n g I'd choose j o u r n a l i s m , but my plans are vague. T r y i n g to decide what you want to do w i t h your f u t u r e i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t . I f i n d i t so, and I t h i n k i t i s g e n e r a l l y so. At my age you're always a f r a i d y o u ' l l succumb to the m a t e r i a l i s m and set v a l u e s of the s o c i e t y which you oppose, but i t i s i n e v i t a b l e . I t r y to s t a y away but I f i n d myself s l i p p i n g and becoming more i n v o l v e d w i t h the m a t e r i a l and l e s s w i t h the i d e a l i s t i c , due to worry over s e c u r i t y . . . . The importance of independence a t work depends on how s t r o n g the i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s a r e . For the normal North American c i t i z e n i t i s not v e r y important, because he i s concerned only w i t h m a t e r i a l independence. For me i t i s very important. L o t s of people come to u n i v e r s i t y t o get i n t o a h i g h e r income b r a c k e t . They go i n t o c a r e e r s where there's the most money.... People don't decide about a c a r e e r ;  out.  70 they l o o k u n t i l they f i t i n t o something and then stick. I'm l o o k i n g f o r s e c u r i t y , money, t o be realistic. I l i k e material things. In a c a r e e r I want happiness, enjoyment and r e a s o n a b l e s e c u r i t y . Not n e c e s s a r i l y h i g h pay, but so I won't be e a s i l y d i s p l a c e d i n the event of a depression. I want promotion and advancement but i t must not be r i s k y . . . . There's a d e f i n i t e c o n t r a d i c t i o n between freedom and s e c u r i t y out i n the w o r l d i n g e n e r a l . F o r , i f you're on your own and f r e e , unattached to some company or i n s t i t u t i o n , you won't be secure. The p r e s s i n g problem i s what t o do w i t h your f u t u r e and be secure a t the same time. Choice of a v o c a t i o n means your l i v e l i h o o d , and people want to be happy and s a t i s f i e d i n what they're d o i n g . The chances today f o r independence a t work are not too good. There's too much tendency to conform to a s e t pattern. T h i s r e s t r i c t s independence and c r e a t i v i t y and decision-making. I d i s l i k e c o n f o r m i t y and the f a c t t h a t you must say the r i g h t t h i n g to the r i g h t people to get anywhere. T h i s i s one of the p r e s s u r e s on me. The p r e s s u r e s a f t e r u n i v e r s i t y to get and h o l d a job make you i n t o a " g r e y - f l a n n e l s u i t man." But what can you do? I ' l l probably end up t h a t way. I'm l o o k i n g f o r something t h a t would g i v e me s e c u r i t y and enjoyment. I'm not s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n advancement, because of the many cases I've seen where people i n middle-age can't p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r f a m i l y as b e f o r e , and. c o n f l i c t s develop.... Ritualism T h i s mode of coping w i t h t h e i r s i t u a t i o n r e s t s on the assumption conditions.  t h a t they are powerless to change the e x i s t i n g But the c o n f l i c t remains a gnawing r e a l i t y  since  submission t o e x t e r n a l f o r c e s t h a t are p e r c e i v e d as i n v i n c i b l e r  does not by i t s e l f  e l i m i n a t e the d e s i r e f o r change.  The  dis-  l i k e of the n e c e s s i t y f o r c o n f o r m i t y t o the e s t a b l i s h e d order and the attendant f e e l i n g  t h a t c r e a t i v i t y i s thereby suppressed  serve only to exacerbate a s i t u a t i o n i n which they f e e l hopel e s s l y embedded.  F o r , they f e e l that the s t r u g g l e f o r  71 i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the world of work i s an important p a r t of s t r u g g l e f o r s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n and  adult maturity.  T h e r e f o r e , they have to take measures to p r o t e c t i n d i v i d u a l i t y and  self-respect.  independence i n the and  can  transfer  p r i v a t e sphere.  For  example, they s t i l l  e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h e i r f a m i l y of  t h e i r deep i n t e r e s t s  and  constricting  they can  " i n i t but  material satisfactions  p r e s s u r e s of the  not  of i t " .  to the  demands of the  of the  prevailing  end  their  Their overt conformity  realisation  of the  p r e f e r r e d g o a l has  rejection  prevent  i n the world of work,  becomes a means to the family l i f e .  d i v e r t e d from the  realm of p r i v a t e l i f e , i n the  their  Such c o m p a r t m e n t a l i s a t i o n would  long-term g o a l of a s a t i s f a c t o r y to be  the  individuality.  i n i t s e l f , now  commitment tend now  reserve  e x t e r n a l world would"mask t h e i r  In other words, p a r t i c i p a t i o n  participation  this  occupational world:  they cannot l i v e without and  s o c i a l order.  further inroads into  to the  procreation  c r e a t i v i t y to  s e a l o f f t h e i r p r i v a t e worlds from p u b l i c view and  the  retain  They would take from i t  commitment f o r t h e i r p r i v a t e endeavours.  from being an  their  In a sense, t h i s i s a mode of r e t a l i a t i o n  a g a i n s t the be  the  to the  extent t h a t the  Their f r u s t r a t i o n  l e d to a r e - d i r e c t i o n ,  t h e i r h i e r a r c h y of v a l u e s , i n a way s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to  Interest  and  unavoidable  as the  road  to  i n seeking a  a re-structuring  t h a t promises g r e a t e r  individuality.  of  o c c u p a t i o n a l sphere  former i s viewed p r i m a r i l y  latter.  end  of  72 Independence i s v e r y important a t work to the person as a p e r s o n a l i t y , t o the extent that a person w i l l be a b l e t o go about h i s work without c o n s t a n t p e s t e r i n g and i n t e r f e r e n c e . To go about i t on h i s own a person must f e e l a c e r t a i n sense of independence, r e l a t i v e l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t , or l o s e some of the advantage of growing up i n t o an a d u l t . You need independence a t work f o r s e l f - r e s p e c t . A man wouldn't be f r e e i f he's t i e d down to a job and a w i f e , i f he can't get along w e l l w i t h both. There's a r e a l need f o r independence as p a r t of s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n . F o r the way I've been brought up i t ' s a r e a l necessity. I would be b e s t i n a job where I have independence, but you're u s u a l l y t o l d what t o do and how t o do i t . Before marriage you should e s t a b l i s h y o u r s e l f i n a job f o r a t l e a s t one to two y e a r s , then you can c o n s i d e r marriage. I wouldn't t h i n k of i t otherwise. Both work and marriage are important, but work comes first. A p r o f e s s i o n i s more important because you have to support your w i f e and f a m i l y , or marriage won't work so w e l l . A f t e r your c a r e e r i s chosen, you can t h i n k of marriage. A f t e r your t r a i n i n g you can get a job and when you're f i n a n c i a l l y independent, then get married. I would i n s i s t on f i n a n c i a l independence. O p p o s i t i o n t o E a r l y Marriage In s p i t e o f — o r perhaps because cance t h a t marriage now marriage.  o f — t h e added  signifi-  assumes, they s t r o n g l y oppose e a r l y  They want to be f u l l y prepared b e f o r e they d e c i d e i n  t h i s major remaining area of independent t i o n i n v o l v e s the achievement  action.  Such p r e p a r a -  of f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y as the  f o u n d a t i o n on which t o b u i l d the i n t i m a t e companionship,  the  interdependence and the sense of s e c u r i t y which they expect i n marriage.  Hence, marriage a t t h i s stage i s seen as posing a  t h r e a t t o the c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n which i s a p r e - r e q u i s i t e to the attainment of f i n a n c i a l  security.  73 Moreover, e a r l y marriage would not c o n t r i b u t e to the dissipation  of t h e i r c o n f u s i o n , s i n c e t h e i r only c e r t a i n t y  t h a t they cannot f o l l o w t h e i r p r e f e r r e d c a r e e r s . they have not d e f i n i t e l y decided they i n t e n d to f o l l o w : alternatives, tentatively  at l e a s t .  they are v a c i l l a t i n g between  two  In other cases, they have only r a t h e r  chosen a c a r e e r i n which to earn a l i v i n g should T h e r e f o r e , i t would only  matters f u r t h e r t o add the c h o i c e of a spouse  the problem of f i n a n c i a l support. deal with  Generally,  on the s u b s t i t u t e c a r e e r s  t h i s n e c e s s i t y suddenly c o n f r o n t them. complicate  is  "first  things  and  They f e e l t h a t they must  first."  I won't marry u n t i l a f t e r my post-graduate work and t h a t ' s a t l e a s t another f i v e y e a r s . I f I marry now I would not be able to go through and a l l would be l o s t to me. I'm i n no desperate hurry t o marry, but at times I wish I was married so I c o u l d t a l k t h i n g s over w i t h my w i f e — c o n f i d e n c e s , i n t i m a t e thoughts and f e e l i n g s . I want marriage f o r companionship. I t ' s j u s t r i d i c u l o u s to marry a t t h i s age. I can't see how you can be stuck between work and marriage at t h i s age. Work i s d e f i n i t e l y more important, because a t t h i s age marriage w i l l h o l d you down, and the d e c i s i o n about work w i l l a f f e c t your whole life. Marriage i s not y e t a p p r o p r i a t e , not f o r people under twenty-one; they're t a k i n g a chance. The ch oi ce of work i s the major t h i n g . . . . I would marry f o r s a t i s f a c t i o n of the s e l f , f o r s e c u r i t y w i t h someone, and to have progeny; to have something and be something to somebody...."Boys don't t h i n k so much of marriage w h i l e they're t h i n k i n g of a c a r e e r : marriage i s i n the long run. G i r l s don't t h i n k of a career. They get supported by husbands when they're married.  7h Thus, f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y i s the boys' o v e r - r i d i n g concern i n t h i s area, p a r t l y because they f e e l t h a t t h i s i s all  they can hope f o r from the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d , and p a r t l y  because i t i s e s s e n t i a l to the achievement of s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n the p r i v a c y of f a m i l y l i f e , the only major sphere now open t o freedom of c h o i c e Girls:  and a c t i o n .  The C o n f l i c t — M a r r i a g e The  and Career  g i r l s ' dilemma c e n t r e s  of the o l d adage:  on the t r u t h or f a l s i t y  "a woman's place i s i n the home."  They  agree t h a t every g i r l wants t o get m a r r i e d , but they tend a l s o t o want a c a r e e r as w e l l .  They f e e l t h a t marriage i s more  important, and i s i n f a c t a c a r e e r , but that a g i r l contribute family.  should  something t o the w o r l d i n a d d i t i o n to r a i s i n g a  I t i s the f e a s i b i l i t y of t h i s d u a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t  concerns them and engenders c o n f l i c t . have both marriage and a c a r e e r ,  Although they p r e f e r t o  they tend t o f e e l that i t would  not be p r a c t i c a b l e . They r e j e c t out of hand the i d e a of the e x c l u s i v e p u r s u i t of a c a r e e r .  They r e a d i l y e n v i s i o n marriage as t h e i r  s o l e i n t e r e s t i f the choice i s f o r c e d on them.  They f e e l  that  a g i r l would be lonesome i n a c a r e e r , i f she were unmarried, no matter how s u c c e s s f u l she became.  Success i n a c a r e e r i s a t t r a c -  t i v e only i f i t i s combined w i t h marriage, whereas success i n marriage alone c o u l d be enjoyed.  However, complete success  would i n v o l v e a combination of both.  75 I f e e l t h a t somehow a c a r e e r and marriage should be f i t t e d t o g e t h e r . A g i r l should choose something she c o u l d do a f t e r marriage. Marriage i s every g i r l ' s dream. E v e r y g i r l wants to get married but g i r l s a t u n i v e r s i t y want a c a r e e r t o o , so i t should be somet h i n g they can continue a f t e r marriage. Both can be combined, but marriage i s more important. Basically, a woman's job i s to produce c h i l d r e n . I f she can r a i s e a happy f a m i l y and h e l p her husband a l o n g , i t may be j u s t as good as some other job, though her p l a c e i s not n e c e s s a r i l y o n l y i n the home. Marriage i s a c a r e e r too. When marriage comes along any g i r l w i l l choose i t . I won't g i v e up marriage f o r a c a r e e r , u n l e s s I can take the c a r e e r a l o n g . Marriage i s more important.... I t ' s s o r t of a c a r e e r , not being j u s t a housewife and be stuck i n the house a l l day, but t o have o u t s i d e interests. Work and marriage are important c h o i c e s , but I would p r e f e r to combine both. I'd put marriage f i r s t , though, i f I had to choose.... I want t o get married, I guess, because i t i s the c u l t u r a l l y accepted t h i n g . I hope t o have c h i l d r e n , but I can't say t h i s i s the reason.... Marriage as S e c u r i t y They say t h a t a woman needs s e c u r i t y and t h i s i s what marriage  offers.  I t i s t h i s s e c u r i t y which i s a key  f a c t o r i n t h e i r dilemma.  T h e i r d e s i r e f o r a combination  marriage and a c a r e e r i s tempered by the f e a r t h a t t h e i r would thereby be j e o p a r d i s e d .  of security  But i t i s p r i m a r i l y the emotional  aspect of s e c u r i t y w i t h which they are concerned.  They want  the sense of c e r t a i n t y that s i g n i f i c a n t persons can always be r e l i e d upon to be present.  Success i n a c a r e e r alone would  guarantee f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y , but t h i s h o l d s l i t t l e for  attraction  them, because they f e e l t h a t l o n e l i n e s s i s i n h e r e n t i n  such a s i t u a t i o n f o r women.  I t would be an empty triumph s i n c e  76  there would be an absence  of the kinds of s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  which they p r i z e so h i g h l y :  they would l a c k the emotional  support of husband and c h i l d r e n . to chance;  They are not prepared to t r u s t  t h e r e f o r e , they would s e t t l e f o r marriage a l o n e .  E v e r y g i r l a t u n i v e r s i t y i s here f o r an e d u c a t i o n , but they p l a n t o get married someday too. You won't be working f o r the r e s t of your l i f e , but e d u c a t i o n i s necessary to understand your husband and h e l p your f a m i l y and home. Marriage i s more important than a c a r e e r , but they work t o g e t h e r . I won't get married without a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . I ' l l get married a f t e r graduation. I ' l l get married then because...I don't know...well, marriage i s s e c u r i t y f o r a woman, and f o r r a i s i n g a f a m i l y . You'd be lonesome i n a c a r e e r , a l though t h a t i s n i c e . But you need s e c u r i t y , and t h i s i s why a woman m a r r i e s : marriage p r o v i d e s more security. Marriage as a Career Thus, the g i r l s ' r e a d i n e s s t o s e t t l e f o r marriage i n t h e i r dilemma, i s f u r t h e r evidence of t h e i r g r e a t concern w i t h the r e l a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of s o c i a l arrangements.  They tend to  proceed d i r e c t l y to an examination of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l i n s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s , summarily all  "extraneous" m a t e r i a l .  elements  brushing a s i d e , as i t were,  In t h i s manner, they t u r n to con-  s i d e r some of the e f f e c t s of combining  marriage and a c a r e e r .  Having a c a r e e r saves a woman from boredom i n the home, and a l s o a l l o w s her to make a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the s o c i e t y .  However,  the c a r e e r should be abandoned when she has c h i l d r e n and d u r i n g t h e i r formative years.  Otherwise  the c h i l d r e n would be d e p r i v e d  of the k i n d of home atmosphere t h a t they have deemed e s s e n t i a l to proper development.  Companionship, l o v e and a t t e n t i o n would  77  be m i s s i n g , and  the c h i l d r e n ' s growth would be p r e j u d i c e d should  both parents be s i m u l t a n e o u s l y engaged i n c a r e e r s o u t s i d e of the home. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h e r e f o r e devolves in  on the mother,  the f a t h e r ' s absence a t work, to provide the kinds of  r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n which the c h i l d r e n can achieve growth.  They i n t e n d to p r o v i d e those q u a l i t i e s the l a c k of  which they d e p l o r e i n t h e i r present homes. marriage  personal  While they want  f o r companionship w i t h a husband, they f e e l  an  a p p a r e n t l y g r e a t e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y toward the c h i l d r e n .  All  t h e i r e n e r g i e s should be d i r e c t e d toward the establishment maintenance of a home atmosphere of happiness solidarity.  and  and f a m i l y  They i n t e n d to surpass t h e i r parents by being  ever  m i n d f u l of t h e i r r o l e - e x p e c t a t i o n s and to be models w i t h which t h e i r c h i l d r e n can p o s i t i v e l y  identify.  Marriage and house-keeping can be a w f u l l y humdrum. I f you have no o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s other than marriage, you can get a w f u l l y in-drawn. But both should not be combined i f there are c h i l d r e n . I would choose marriage, I imagine, i n order to have c h i l d r e n — I ' m fond of them and I have g r e a t maternal i n s t i n c t s — a n d f o r companionship. F i r s t , b e f o r e marriage, you should, i f i t ' s a t a l l p o s s i b l e , see a l i t t l e of l i f e . Then, a f t e r marriage, you should r e a l i s e you're r e s p o n s i b l e f o r your c h i l d ren. A g r e a t f a u l t i s t h a t parents j u s t don't r e a l i s e t h i s too much. I want to a f f e c t my c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s i n a major way. I would l o v e to have c h i l d r e n . Parents owe c h i l d r e n l o v e so they can grow; p h y s i c a l care too, and then, through t h e i r marriage, an example, a good one, should be s e t .  78 At a n u r s e r y s c h o o l I v i s i t e d the c h i l d r e n were from homes where the one or both parents were working. I don't t h i n k they were a l l t h a t normal, because of t h e i r f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n : no f a t h e r , both parents out working, l a c k of companionship, l o v e , a t t e n t i o n and affection. One l i t t l e boy was p r a c t i c a l l y dragged and thrown i n by h i s mother. He s t a r t e d t o throw t h i n g s , then l a t e r asked me i f I would be h i s mommy. R e s o l u t i o n of the Dilemma T h e i r p r e f e r r e d r e s o l u t i o n of the dilemma between marriage and a c a r e e r i s to pursue the c a r e e r b e f o r e they marry, and i f t h e i r husbands v o i c e no o b j e c t i o n s , to continue u n t i l they begin t o have c h i l d r e n .  In t h i s way, there would be some  s a t i s f a c t i o n i n having u t i l i s e d t h e i r t r a i n i n g , should the o p p o r t u n i t y never again occur.  I n a d d i t i o n , working b e f o r e  marriage would a l l o w them to e x e r c i s e t h e i r independence  and be  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r themselves. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they do not want t o p r o l o n g such independent a c t i o n too l o n g .  A maximum p e r i o d of one t o two  y e a r s i s what they a l l o w themselves.  Perhaps, they f e a r  that  t h e i r chances f o r marriage would recede should they i n s i s t t o o much on e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r independence. be c a r e f u l t o be w i l l i n g  They t h e r e f o r e have to  to surrender t h e i r emancipation from  dependence i n the f a m i l y of o r i e n t a t i o n f o r the new s e c u r i t y of marriage which they f e e l i s r a t h e r a s i t u a t i o n of two independent persons i n mutual dependence, than one o f dominance and submission.  Here they f e e l t h a t they can have freedom  of a c t i o n .  79  I won't f e e l independent married....  till  I l e a v e home and  get  I want to get married to get away from home, t o run my own house and s t a r t my own l i f e . I f e e l very s t r o n g l y now about not being able to run t h i n g s a t home. I f e e l I should work before marriage. I disagree w i t h young marriages, but i t i s up to the i n d i v i d u a l . I f e e l one needs to know how the other h a l f l i v e s before s e t t l i n g down. Younger people don't r e a l l y r e a l i s e what marriage r e a l l y i s . . . . I ' l l probably work f o r two y e a r s a f t e r marriage. My f i a n c e has a couple more y e a r s a t u n i v e r s i t y . Then there may be c h i l d r e n so I ' l l stop. Opposition to E a r l y  Marriage  They oppose e a r l y marriage, not only because they want to work b e f o r e marrying, but a l s o because they f e e l t h a t a c e r t a i n l e v e l of m a t u r i t y has to be reached. persons  They say t h a t  under the age of twenty-one y e a r s are not "grown-up"  enough t o assume the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and c h a l l e n g e of and t h a t t h i s emotional immaturity of  the f i r s t  crises.  may  marriage,  be b e t r a y e d a t the  onset  I t i s b e t t e r to w a i t u n t i l each p a r t n e r  knows the other w e l l , i s c e r t a i n of t h e i r mutual a f f e c t i o n , is  aware of the s e r i o u s n e s s of the venture.  happiness  i n marriage has  They f e e l t h a t  to be worked a t and t h a t f o r t h i s a  c e r t a i n l e v e l of p e r s o n a l growth i s n e c e s s a r y . has to c o n s i d e r whether marriage marriage  and  Moreover,  alone or a combination  and a c a r e e r i s d e s i r e d and take i n t o account  immediate and f u t u r e consequences.  of the  one  80 I want to work f o r a couple of years b e f o r e I get married. L o t s of my f r i e n d s are g e t t i n g married at e i g h t e e n and n i n e t e e n , v e r y e a r l y . T h i s i s very silly. There's no sense r u s h i n g i n t o i t . The guys they're marrying they don't know v e r y w e l l . F o r them, t h i s i s the age t o marry. You're l i k e l y to f i n d , i f you marry too young, t h a t l a t e r you don't l i k e the person; say, a t n i n e t e e n . You're not grown up enough, not e m o t i o n a l l y mature. In marriage t h e r e ' s a l o t of happiness t o be gained. I t i n v o l v e s a g r e a t d e a l of s a c r i f i c e and i s q u i t e a challenge. I t depends what a g i r l wants. Some o n l y want t o get married and r a i s e a f a m i l y ; some want a c a r e e r b e f o r e they get married. The problem f o r those who want both i s whether t o get married r i g h t away or put i t o f f . When and i f t o marry i s a l s o a r e a l problem. The Careers Chosen The c a r e e r s which the g i r l s have chosen e i t h e r t o precede  or to accompany marriage have s e v e r a l f e a t u r e s i n  common: (i)  They are predominantly  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h women;  ( i i ) They are h i g h demand o c c u p a t i o n s ; ( i i i ) The t r a i n i n g p e r i o d i s r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t ; (iv)  They i n v o l v e working w i t h , and on, people i n personal r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  The v a s t m a j o r i t y of the personnel i n t e a c h i n g , n u r s i n g and s o c i a l w o r k — t h e i r chosen c a r e e r s — a r e women.  These  are the p r o f e s s i o n s women u s u a l l y t h i n k of when they c o n s i d e r pursuing a c a r e e r .  Among the respondents,  those who have made  d e f i n i t e c h o i c e s o f t e n c o n s i d e r the other two as a l t e r n a t i v e s ,  81  and where no c h o i c e has y e t been made, these t h r e e are as a l t e r n a t i v e s .  Furthermore,  mentioned  the employment s i t u a t i o n i s so  f a v o u r a b l e f o r women i n these occupations t h a t they have difficulty  little  o b t a i n i n g employment f o r the f i r s t time, or r e -  employment a f t e r v o l u n t a r y withdrawal.  Thus, because  of the  h i g h demand i n these p r o f e s s i o n s , i t i s r a t h e r women's i n c l i n a t i o n s and/or f a m i l y p r e s s u r e s which l a r g e l y  own  determine  engagement i n these o c c u p a t i o n s , once the n e c e s s a r y t r a i n i n g  has  been a c q u i r e d . Another f a c t o r of g r e a t weight i s the r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t p e r i o d r e q u i r e d f o r t r a i n i n g i n them.  P r o f e s s i o n s such as  medicine are r e j e c t e d not o n l y on the grounds of the r e q u i r e d a b i l i t y , but a l s o the l e n g t h of time r e q u i r e d , among other c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , i s taken i n t o account.  In a d d i t i o n , these  three p r o f e s s i o n s i n v o l v e the constant c o n f r o n t a t i o n of other people's problems i n work s i t u a t i o n s which a l l o w the e s t a b l i s h ment of more or l e s s s t a b l e p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s as the core of  the t a s k , r a t h e r than as a c c e s s o r y to i t .  Thus, teachers  have s t u d e n t s , nurses have p a t i e n t s , and s o c i a l workers have c l i e n t s , a l l of whom a r e , so to speak, i n " s i t u a t i o n s of plight." is  The important element  i n the r e l i e f  of these s i t u a t i o n s  the process of communication between those p r o f f e r i n g  the  r e q u i r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e and those r e c e i v i n g i t . girls  tend to r e j e c t occupations which deny such c r u c i a l  p e r s o n a l involvement, as w e l l as f a i l i n g criteria.  The inter-  t o meet the other  82 I went s t r a i g h t i n t o n u r s i n g . I r e j e c t e d medicine because I thought I l a c k e d the b r a i n s and the money, and I was a f r a i d to take the b i g step. Also, f o r women, t h e r e ' s always marriage i n the back of your mind. I want a c a r e e r t h a t I'm i n t e r e s t e d i n . I've done my f a t h e r ' s books and he says I'm good a t i t . But books don't t a l k back to you. I want a c a r e e r t h a t combines p e r s o n a l achievement and s e c u r i t y . I wouldn't accept a r e c e p t i o n i s t ' s job or a job i n personnel i n a company. I want t o f e e l t h a t I am doing something and working towards something. I d i s l i k e d my summer job a t B.C. E l e c t r i c . I t was very routine. I d i s l i k e b u s i n e s s companies f o r t h i s . I belong t o J u n i o r Achievement and i t ' s good t o get you to know about business matters and the b u s i n e s s environment. But i t ' s too impersonal a t h i n g . I c o u l d n ' t care i f i t succeeds or not. B.C. E l e c t r i c i s too b i g f o r words.... I p r e f e r a job t h a t o f f e r s p e r s o n a l achievement r a t h e r than s e c u r i t y . A Variation The  g i r l s — t h o s e o f low-education and low-income  parents—provide achievement.  the only v a r i a t i o n i n the g i r l s '  They a r e caught i n no dilemma o f c h o i c e  marriage and a c a r e e r : home." and  d i s c u s s i o n s of between  f o r them, "a woman's place i s i n the  Marriage i s the c a r e e r f o r a g i r l and as such, i t demands  ought t o r e c e i v e one's whole i n t e r e s t and e n e r g i e s .  f e e l that a c a r e e r i s the man's province i n t e n t i o n of t r e s p a s s i n g .  They  and they have no  T h e i r a t t i t u d e i s , no doubt, i n f l u e n c e d  by t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s i n homes which both parents engage i n occupations o u t s i d e the home. of t h e i r own d e p r i v a t i o n s , they r e s o l v e not t o i n f l i c t c o n d i t i o n s on t h e i r own o f f s p r i n g : b e t t e r than t h e i r  parents.  Mindful such  i n s h o r t , they would do  83 And y e t , a l l the g i r l s have a r r i v e d a t the same position v i a different routes.  The G^ g i r l s '  categorical  r e j e c t i o n of a c a r e e r other than marriage means t h a t they d i d not s e r i o u s l y e n v i s i o n a l t e r n a t i v e c o u r s e s .  However, the other  g i r l s reached the same p o s i t i o n , a f t e r a detour d u r i n g which they c o n s i d e r e d the a l t e r n a t i v e s and the attendant h a z a r d s . For  these l a t t e r the a l t e r n a t i v e s were tempting, whereas the  former appear  to have encountered no  temptations.  Marriage i s the u l t i m a t e f o r women. T h i s i s what they l o o k forward t o . Working may g i v e c h i l d r e n more m a t e r i a l goods, but t h i s i s n ' t g i v i n g them what they need: a t t e n t i o n , l o v e and a f f e c t i o n . I regard marriage as the c a r e e r f o r a g i r l . From a g i r l ' s p o i n t of view, marriage i s more important. F o r boys, i t would be the o p p o s i t e - - o r both. I r e g a r d marriage as a c a r e e r . I f you want t o marry you should make a c a r e e r of i t and g i v e i t a l l . For a g i r l marriage i s more important than a c a r e e r . Men i n our s o c i e t y make the home and p r o v i d e f o r i t . A c a r e e r i s more important f o r a boy than a g i r l . Marriage i s a c a r e e r f o r a g i r l . I would choose marriage and I t h i n k most g i r l s would.... I'd r a t h e r get married. I t ' s the man's job t o have the c a r e e r . A woman's p l a c e i s i n the home--unless she has to work l i k e my mother. T h i s i s q u i t e n a t u r a l . I would choose marriage a l o n e . I would choose marriage. I t ' s much more important than a c a r e e r . . . . Work i s not as important f o r women as marriage.... Boys and  Girls Thus, we f i n d t h a t the prime concern f o r the respond:-  ents i n the area of achievement  i s security.  The boys f o c u s on  f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y i n order to safeguard themselves and  their  8k f u t u r e f a m i l i e s a g a i n s t the c y c l i c a l v a r i a t i o n s of the economic world.  In strong disagreement w i t h the e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l  arrangements, they w i l l r e s o r t t o r i t u a l i s t i c  participation i n  the o c c u p a t i o n a l world and r e s e r v e deep commitment f o r t h e i r p r i v a t e worlds, independence.  i n order to preserve t h e i r c r e a t i v i t y  and  They r e j e c t e a r l y marriage as t h r e a t e n i n g  their  present and f u t u r e plans f o r the m a t e r i a l w e l l - b e i n g of t h e i r f a m i l i e s of p r o c r e a t i o n . The  g i r l s are a l s o concerned to safeguard  future families.  However, they f o c u s on emotional  and f o r t h i s reason r e j e c t any  their security  arrangement l i k e l y to j e o p a r d i s e  the harmonious i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s which they v a l u e . Thus, both the combination  of marriage and a c a r e e r ,  e a r l y marriage are r e j e c t e d :  and  the former, because i t i n t r o -  duces c o m p e t i t i o n between husband and w i f e , as w e l l as d e p r i v e s the c h i l d r e n of the k i n d of home atmosphere e s s e n t i a l to p e r s o n a l development;  the l a t t e r , because i t sends g i r l s  e m o t i o n a l l y unprepared to w i t h s t a n d  the i n e v i t a b l e  crises  of the m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . These d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n s of marriage by boys and g i r l s , whereby the former f o c u s on t h e i r r o l e of m a t e r i a l p r o v i d e r and  the l a t t e r on t h e i r r o l e of t e n s i o n -  manager w i t h r e g a r d t o i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , would seem to be an i n t e r e s t i n g p e r s p e c t i v e from which to view the problems of marriage and f a m i l y  life.  CHAPTER IV THE SEARCH FOR IDENTITY Our  previous  discussions  show t h a t the problem o f  independence pervades the respondents' t h i n k i n g i n a l l the matters they have considered. they are f o c u s i n g  I t i s the c e n t r a l theme whether  on p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , s e x u a l i t y and  m o r a l i t y , or the t h r e a t s t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y i n the world of work.  Indeed, independence as a problem i s so i n t i m a t e l y bound  up i n a l l these areas of c o n f l i c t that i t assumes s i g n i f i c a n c e as the core o f a s i n g l e major problem which they a r e endeavouri n g to r e s o l v e .  I t becomes an important aspect  of a matter  which d i r e c t s t h e i r thoughts and a c t i o n s , the search f o r identity. The  Central Conflict  Looked a t i n t h i s l i g h t , the three  previously  discussed, areas of c o n f l i c t are f a c e t s of t h i s l a r g e r and dominant s t r u g g l e .  The c e n t r a l i t y o f the s t r i v i n g t o achieve  independence i n d i c a t e s that i t i s the d e c i s i v e b a t t l e i n the campaign.  Therefore,  an examination of the r e l a t i o n of  independence and i d e n t i t y may c o n t r i b u t e t o a f u r t h e r c a t i o n of matters p r e v i o u s l y The  treated.  respondents r e g a r d  independence as the means by  which they can a t t a i n s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n : a "pawn, a k n i g h t ,  clarifi-  or a k i n g . "  t o know whether one i s  T h i s means t h a t t h i s i s the road  86 toward a sense of i d e n t i t y .  T h e i r strong emphasis on the  n e c e s s i t y f o r a d u l t p r o v i s i o n of the proper c o n d i t i o n s conducive to the achievement of the importance  of independence  i s therefore a recognition  of i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n .  Similarly,  their  moral i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s an a s p e c t of the search f o r i d e n t i t y . By t h i s means they are s t r i v i n g to achieve s e p a r a t i o n from a l l those w i t h whom they have h i t h e r t o been i n t i m a t e l y bound up and from what the l a t t e r have stood f o r i n r e l a t i o n to themselves.  The i n d i v i d u a l  i s endeavouring  to e s t a b l i s h  f o r himself  a s e t of v a l u e s and to show a tendency not to a t t r i b u t e inherent virtue  t o the consensus  of sentiments and v a l u e s shared  by the m a j o r i t y , even though h i s v a l u e s may of t h i s consensus.  an  partake of  elements  In t h i s sense, he stands i n o p p o s i t i o n t o a  s t a t i s t i c a l view of m o r a l i t y p e r c e i v e d as e x i s t i n g  i n the a d u l t  world. F u r t h e r evidence of t h i s concern w i t h i d e n t i t y t i o n , and of the r e l a t i o n of independence in  t o i d e n t i t y i s found  t h e i r r e a c t i o n to the p r e s s u r e s they see emanating  occupational world. promising s e c u r i t y i t y and t a l e n t s ,  forma-  from  the  They see these s o c i a l arrangements as but a t the e x o r b i t a n t p r i c e  of t h e i r  t h r e a t e n i n g to rob them of t h e i r  and submerge them i n the mass.  creativ-  individuality  T h e i r intended r i t u a l i s t i c  p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a desperate e f f o r t to salvage remnants of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , by r e t r e a t i n g  behind the ramparts  of  t h e i r p r i v a t e worlds and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y m a i n t a i n i n g only the essential  minimum of communication w i t h the p u b l i c  sphere.  87 Identity:  A New  Adaptation  Thus, t h e i r search f o r i d e n t i t y r e p r e s e n t s an endeavour to e s t a b l i s h a new s o c i a l environment.  p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s w i t h  their  T h i s endeavour i n c l u d e s t h e i r attempts  cope w i t h the problems of independence, s e x u a l i t y and  to  achieve-  ment, and to f u r t h e r and c l i m a x the development i n i t i a t e d w i t h i n the bounds of the f a m i l y of o r i e n t a t i o n .  There i s e v i d e n t l y a  f e l t need to surpass what they have h i t h e r t o been as c h i l d r e n , to emerge from  the present u n s a t i s f a c t o r y mode of r e l a t i o n t o the  environment, and by l e a v i n g o l d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s behind to to a new  and b e t t e r one.  proceed  T h i s process of t r a n s f o r m a t i o n i n v o l v e s  r e c o g n i t i o n of one's present s t a t u s seen i n r e l a t i o n t o what one was  i n the past and to what one hopes to become.  Such  s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n i s the d e l i n e a t i o n of o n e s e l f which comes w i t h knowledge of one's l i m i t a t i o n s and the s u b s t i t u t i o n of a p r i v a t e e t h i c f o r a p u b l i c one. sense  The  outcome of the whole process i s a  of i d e n t i t y which i s s a t i s f a c t o r y t o the i n d i v i d u a l  and  r e c o g n i s a b l e to h i s s i g n i f i c a n t o t h e r s .  The respondents  r e f e r to t h i s process of s e l f -  r e a l i s a t i o n as p e r s o n a l growth and the achievement of m a t u r i t y . I t s attainment would enable them to go f o r t h i n t o the world w i t h a l l t h e i r f a c u l t i e s developed, t h e i r own  so that they can f o r m u l a t e  a l t e r n a t i v e s and govern t h e i r own  actions.  In t h i s  sense, t h e i r c o n f l i c t i n the search f o r i d e n t i t y i s between the urge to sever the f a m i l i a r t i e s t h a t bind them and the d e s i r e to c l i n g to those same r e s t r i c t i n g t i e s .  I t i s as i f they f e a r  88 to l o s e the s e c u r i t y of being thus bound but a r e a l s o by a g r e a t e r s e c u r i t y i n being f r e e .  attracted  I n f a c t , they f e e l  that  s e c u r i t y i s u l t i m a t e l y an emotional s t a t e which comes from "knowing who you are and understanding y o u r s e l f . " i t r e s t s n o t on dependence upon others but r a t h e r  Consequently, separation  from them and s e l f - r e l i a n c e . The most important problem f a c i n g youth today i s f i n d i n g themselves; knowing who you are and what you're l i k e ; understanding y o u r s e l f and being a b l e t o see t h a t there are t h i n g s " y o u would r e a l l y l i k e t o do. A t e r r i f i c amount of people today don't r e a l l y know what they're like: they don't understand themselves. You have t o r e a l i s e the s o c i e t y t h a t surrounds you and almost binds you. I t ' s j u s t knowing what you r e a l l y are and what you're r e a l l y l i k e . The most important problem today i s a c q u i r i n g m a t u r i t y and becoming independent a d u l t s . I t i s emotional problems and g e t t i n g to know o n e s e l f . I t involves, f i r s t of a l l , knowing how you get along w i t h people. You have t o know your own l i m i t a t i o n s ; whether you're i n d u s t r i o u s , whether you want what you do, and whether you would do something e l s e i f g i v e n the o p p o r t u n i t y . The most important problem i s the problem of s e c u r i t y . L o t s of people don't know what t h e i r f e e l i n g s a r e ; what t h e y ' r e going t o do. They're s t i l l wondering who they a r e . They should t r y to understand themselves, why they do t h i n g s that way. S e c u r i t y does not r e s t w i t h other people, only i n knowi n g y o u r s e l f . You must f e e l secure i n y o u r s e l f . I f you want independence, t h e r e must be s e c u r i t y i n t h i s independence. The most important problem today i s how t o become i n dependent i n d i v i d u a l s . I t i s having t o break from the home and to d e c i d e what you want without anyone t e l l i n g you; j u s t r e a l i s i n g t h a t you're on your own, no people to f a l l back on; t o make your own d e c i s i o n s and make steps forward by y o u r s e l f . T h i s i s the i d e a of s e c u r i t y , when you know what you want. I t ' s merely a matter now of going out and t r y i n g to achieve i t .  89 Ambivalence  toward  Parents  They r e g a r d parents both as a t h r e a t t o t h e i r i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n and as a source of a s s i s t a n c e i n the p r o c e s s . P a r e n t s , they say, can provide the guidance needed a t t h i s stage, but they a l s o want t o perpetuate t h e i r dominance over them.  Because of t h e i r l o n g e r l i f e and c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e ,  a d u l t s must have d e v i s e d some system of d e a l i n g w i t h the r e c u r r e n t problems which c o n f r o n t them.  T h e r e f o r e , a d u l t s can  teach them the ways by which to proceed to t'heir own  solutions.  They want guidance i n the techniques of d e v i s i n g s o l u t i o n s , not a p r e s e n t a t i o n of e s t a b l i s h e d r e s u l t s , f o r t h e r e i s so much i n these with which they d i s a g r e e .  But the p o t e n t i a l i t y f o r  a d u l t a s s i s t a n c e i s not r e a l i s e d , s i n c e parents are i g n o r a n t of  t h e i r r o l e i n c h i l d r e n ' s development.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s of  communication which r e s u l t render the search f o r i d e n t i t y more hazardous  than i t ought to be. However, t h e i r ambivalence  can a l s o be r e f e r r e d to  the c o n t r a d i c t o r y impulses to emerge from the s t a t e of dependence and to remain dependent. of  life  The d e s i r e f o r a new  t h r e a t e n s the s a t i s f a c t i o n s enjoyed i n the o l d .  way They  tend t o p e r c e i v e a sense of i d e n t i t y as a "higher l e v e l " of r e l a t i o n to the world and t o a n t i c i p a t e s a t i s f a c t i o n s from t h i s which would out-weigh what i s l o s t .  Thus, i t i s p a r t l y  the a n x i e t y generated by these c o n t r a d i c t o r y impulses which i s the motive f o r c e i m p e l l i n g them onward to encounters w i t h the unknown.  T h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to venture f o r t h , r a t h e r than to  90 remain where they a r e , i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a c t i v e  approach.  Parents can't l e t t h e i r c h i l d r e n grow up l i k e weeds. They have t o guide them, t r y t o h e l p them. And then when the c h i l d gets t o the age where he wants t o make h i s own d e c i s i o n , to l e t o f f the g u i d i n g a l i t t l e and s t i l l be there t o understand and h e l p the c h i l d understand what they s a i d , and l e t the c h i l d go on h i s own way. A person can only achieve w e l l - b e i n g , or securi t y , or happiness, or freedom, i f they f e e l they know themselves and know what they want. We're n o t sure where we're going and what we should be d o i n g . . . . Now i s the time t o decide and prepare f o r when you're o l d e r . Some have emotional problems from t h e i r upbringing which has a l o t t o do w i t h i t . . . . I would l i k e to be somebody w i t h a mind of h i s own, who knows what he wants and i s content to s t a y where he i s and do t h i n g s d i f f e r e n t l y from o t h e r s . S t r i c t e r u p b r i n g i n g doesn't work. I know a twenty-yearold who i s s t i l l l i k e a baby. Others a r e a t the other extreme, j u s t hog-wild. I d e n t i t y and Ideology The respondents f e e l that the a d o p t i o n of a coherent body of i d e a s i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h e i r i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n . A l though they want t o formulate t h e i r own a l t e r n a t i v e s , they a l s o want a s e t of pre-formulated p r o p o s i t i o n s which they can adopt as g u i d e - l i n e s i n t h e i r s e a r c h .  They a r e of the o p i n i o n that  such an " i d e o l o g y " would a i d i n p i e c i n g together the strands i n the f a b r i c of an i d e n t i t y and channel t h e i r e n e r g i e s to prevent an expenditure of unnecessary  effort.  The a v a i l a b i l i t y o f  6 See E.H. E r i k s o n ' s d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p o i n t i n "The Problem of Ego I d e n t i t y " i n M. S t e i n , A . J . V i d i c h and D.M. White, l o c . . cit. Our i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the data on t h i s q u e s t i o n i s g r e a t l y indebted to h i s a n a l y s i s . ;  91 d i f f e r e n t i d e o l o g i e s would a l l o w s e l e c t i o n  of one t h a t  fits  the s e t of l a r g e l y u n s t r u c t u r e d n o t i o n s w i t h which they are experimenting.  Such s e l e c t i o n may even i n v o l v e the f o r m a t i o n  of a new one by means of an e c l e c t i c borrowing of elements deemed worthy of i n c l u s i o n , where no e x i s t i n g  system i s w h o l l y  satisfactory. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h such a system of i d e a s and b e l i e f s , t o the extent that they a s s i m i l a t e  i t into  their  s e l f - i m a g e s - - o r are themselves absorbed i n t o i t — w o u l d tate t h e i r orientation  to the world.  see themselves from a s t a b l e  They would be able to  p e r s p e c t i v e as being r e l a t e d i n  p a r t i c u l a r ways to the s o c i a l order. r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l i f i e d world  facili-  Then, r e l y i n g on t h i s  image, they c o u l d make c h o i c e s and  commitments, whether temporary or permanent.  F o r , the com-  p l e x i t i e s of the world would become more manageable and l e s s d i s t r e s s i n g w i t h such a ready Thus, they a t t r i b u t e  p r e s e n t a t i o n of ends and means. special significance  to a d o p t i o n  of an i d e o l o g y during the search f o r i d e n t i t y , because i d e n t i t y i n v o l v e s knowing not only "what your c a p a c i t i e s also  a r e " , but  "what you b e l i e v e i n . " Furthermore, there i s the f e e l i n g  t h a t a l l other problems hinge  on t h i s :  whether i t i s the  immediate c h o i c e of a c a r e e r , or the more p e r s i s t e n t the c h o i c e of g o a l s toward which to o r i e n t  problems of  one's l i f e .  Failure  to f i n d t h i s p r i n c i p l e of o r i e n t a t i o n would have s e r i o u s r e p e r c u s s i o n s i n the other aspects of l i f e .  Moreover, freedom  92 i n matters of b e l i e f i s e s p e c i a l l y important because of the c o n s t r i c t i n g p r e s s u r e s i n the e x t e r n a l world, of a c t i o n . And y e t , perhaps because of t h i s v e r y  significance  of an i d e o l o g y , they experience d i f f i c u l t y i n choosing one t h a t accords w e l l w i t h emotions and i n t e l l e c t .  Exposure t o  i d e o l o g i e s which they r e g a r d as c o n t r a d i c t o r y can make c h o i c e a f r u s t r a t i n g experience, e s p e c i a l l y where each i s seen t o possess s a t i s f a c t o r y elements. separate themselves obscure  from  I n a d d i t i o n , the urge t o  o l d r e l a t i o n s and f a m i l i a r persons  the m e r i t s of b e l i e f s which those o t h e r s possess.  the former  may In  case, the p e r c e p t i o n of a g u l f between r e l i g i o n and  s c i e n c e c r e a t e s an a p p a r e n t l y insurmountable  d i f f i c u l t y , i n which  u n c e r t a i n t y and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n l e a d to v a c i l l a t i o n .  In the  l a t t e r case, o p p o s i t i o n t o parents may l e a d to the acceptance of a s e t of b e l i e f s the p r i n c i p a l m e r i t of which i s t h a t they oppose those h e l d by t h e i r p a r e n t s : own  that i s , opposition f o r i t s  sake. A l l i e d to t h i s i s the case where they can only s t a t e  what they oppose but not what they stand f o r .  I t may be t h a t  t h i s i s a temporary s t a t e of a f f a i r s during which they t o decide upon a p o s i t i v e commitment.  attempt  However, i t may a l s o be  a more or l e s s f i n a l commitment t o an " i d e n t i t y by o p p o s i t i o n " , as i t were:  t h a t i s , a s t a t e of c e r t a i n t y based  on r e j e c t i o n of a p a r t i c u l a r defense it  of another.  essentially  system, r a t h e r than a staunch  Where i d e n t i t y by o p p o s i t i o n i s temporary,  i s an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n i s a c o n t i n u i n g  93 process i n which the a l r e a d y a v a i l a b l e elements have to be c o - o r d i n a t e d now i n order t o f a c i l i t a t e f u r t h e r development of the p r o c e s s .  I n other words, the continued search i s t o f i n d  the other components necessary to f i t i n w i t h the core towards the completion  of the s t a b l e s e l f - i m a g e .  F o r them, an i d e o l o g y  stands a t the c o r e , and i t s adoption i s f a r from an easy The most important problem f a c i n g youth today i s m o r a l i t y , because what i s b e l i e v e d i n and what i s done are o f t e n two d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s . The problem i s t o f i n d out what you're doing and why you're here; why you're a l i v e . L o t s of students have no i n n e r s e c u r i t y or s t r e n g t h , moral s t r e n g t h . Perhaps, because they were n o t brought up w i t h i t . T h e i r parents d i d n ' t g i v e i t to them. R e l i g i o n i s one way to get t h i s . . . . I t i s the r e l i g i o u s problem. U n i v e r s i t y students tend t o put i t out of t h e i r minds. They don't know what they b e l i e v e i n ; whether t h e r e ' s a God. I t ' s important f o r people t o have a f a i t h t o base t h e i r l i f e on. They might not t h i n k so, but you need something t o base what you b e l i e v e i n on. The s e l f alone won't do. You need a r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f . . . . The most important problem i s what your c a p a c i t i e s are and what you b e l i e v e i n , i n order t o f i n d out what you want out o f l i f e . The major c o n f l i c t f o r freshmen, even f o r t h i r d and f o u r t h year s t u d e n t s , e i g h t e e n t o twenty-one, i s r e l i g i o n . To choose or not t o choose; to s a t i s f y your parents or n o t ; what t o t h i n k , what to choose. R e l i g i o n i s f i n d i n g out about y o u r s e l f ; to f i n d r e l i g i o n i n the search itself. T h i s i s the main c o n f l i c t , a most v i t a l one at t h i s age. I t o v e r l a p s e v e r y t h i n g , c a r e e r , and so on. I f you miss here, you might miss out on everything else. Because we're l e a r n i n g more, the problem of s c i e n c e and r e l i g i o n i s v e r y f r u s t r a t i n g . I've been through it; r a t h e r , I'm i n the midst of i t . I haven't y e t found a s o l u t i o n . Everyone needs some f a i t h t o keep living.... Now i f I b e l i e v e , i t ' s n o t because my parents do. I t w i l l be my own b e l i e f .  task.  94 I f you don't b e l i e v e i n God, what can be moral or immoral? A f t e r a l l , t h i s i s what the moral-immoral t h i n g i s based on; whether i f i s a g a i n s t the Ten Commandments. But I suppose t h e r e ' s other b a s i s f o r m o r a l i t y than r e l i g i o n . I d o n ' t b e l i e v e there's a God. I see so many who c a l l themselves C h r i s t i a n s and a r e r e a l l y h y p o c r i t e s . They c l o a k themselves i n r e l i g i o n by going t o / c h u r c h on Sunday and a r e s i n n i n g f o r the r e s t of thg^week. T h i s i s the f a u l t of religion.... :  The P o l i t i c a l Sphere Together  w i t h r e l i g i o n and s c i e n c e , p o l i t i c a l  philosophy o f f e r s elements of i d e o l o g y which they can a c c e p t : ;; :  the i d e a s embodied i n such terms as s o c i a l i s m , democracy and egalitarianism.  T h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of these n o t i o n s c o n f r o n t s  them w i t h the problem of s o c i a l change i n the e s t a b l i s h e d o r d e r . However, they tend t o be content merely to p o i n t out what ought to be done, s i n c e they f e e l powerless changes.  t o e f f e c t the necessary  Y e t , they a r e c r i t i c a l of themselves f o r f a i l i n g t o  attempt to t r a n s l a t e t h e i r i d e a s i n t o a c t i o n .  For instance,  they f e e l t h a t the present s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e c r e a t e s b a r r i e r s to the advancement of c e r t a i n persons  located i n i t .  They  would l i k e to change t h i s s i t u a t i o n , but r e g a r d i t as a h o p e l e s s task.  On the other hand, they decry t h e i r own l a c k of " r a d i -  calism". Indeed, t h e i r own stance d i f f e r s l i t t l e from the conservatism f o r which they blame t h e i r e l d e r s . i n g o f a d u l t shortcomings  T h e i r catalogu-  serves to b e l i t t l e a d u l t achievement  and power, and to compensate f o r t h e i r own f e e l i n g s of impotence.  By l e a v i n g the q u e s t i o n of change i n the s o c i a l  95 arrangements t o c o n s e r v a t i v e a d u l t s whose i n t e r e s t s would a l l o w only i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes,  they l e a v e themselves o p p o r t u n i t y  to say that they c o u l d do b e t t e r , a v o i d the r i s k of f a i l u r e , and ensure the on-going  p r e d i c t a b i l i t y of the s o c i a l order f o r  themselves. In t h i s r e g a r d , i n t h e i r search f o r an i d e o l o g y , i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t that they l i m i t themselves t o a s e l e c t and narrow range of " s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e " world images. " r a d i c a l i s m " manifested i n t h e i r c h o i c e s . themselves  There i s l i t t l e  They have c o n f i n e d  to c o n s i d e r a t i o n of only those systems of p o l i t i c o -  p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a s which have earned popular a p p r o v a l . Moreover, they show g r e a t e r c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e g a r d to what they oppose than c l a r i t y i n what they espouse.  They are a l s o  d i s s a t i s f i e d both w i t h what they r e j e c t and what they a c c e p t . T h i s i s perhaps due t o t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to d i s c o v e r what they seek w h o l l y i n any s i n g l e i d e o l o g y , thus being f o r c e d to an as yet unsatisfactory eclecticism.  Identity formation therefore  i n v o l v e s a s y n t h e s i s of these s e l e c t e d i d e o l o g i c a l but a l s o of other fragments  elements,  of i d e n t i t y d e r i v e d from  elsewhere.  I f e e l t h a t the p o l i t i c a l system i s wrong. I t should be changed. I would l i k e to l e a d a one-woman crusade to get r i d of the s o c i a l i l l s and g i v e a l l people e q u a l i t y . Some people are being stepped on. I f you're born i n the tougher s i d e of town, you don't have the same chance, as i f you were born on Marine D r i v e , to go to u n i v e r s i t y . I was l u c k y , I got the chance. I would achieve g r e a t s e l f - s a t i s f a c t i o n from this.  96 My pet peeve i s about g e t t i n g a h e a d — m o b i l i t y . The p r e s s u r e s a g a i n s t us are u n f a i r . Even those w i t h a b i l i t y c a n ' t , because of the way the s o c i a l system i s set up. The sons of the r i c h have more opportuni t y because of t h e i r home s o c i a l i s a t i o n and the money to back them. I would l i k e to see t h i s changed, and the best way i s to g i v e a f a i r l y h i g h minimum of e d u c a t i o n . A b i l i t y alone should be the c r i t e r i o n . People should get e d u c a t i o n as f a r as they want to go, so t h a t more a b l e people w i l l be a t the top. There's g r e a t a t t r a c t i o n f o r me i n the development of democracy t h a t ' s going on r i g h t now. I've l i v e d i n I s r a e l f o r a y e a r , and I'd l i k e to go to A f r i c a f i r s t , then to A s i a . My a t t i t u d e , I would say, i s l e f t - w i n g liberal—socialist. I have g r e a t i n t e r e s t i n c i v i l liverties. I don't have a h i g h o p i n i o n of Canadian p o l i t i c s and I d e p l o r e the continuous compromises e s p e c i a l l y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . . I've l i v e d i n a Kibbutz and enjoyed i t v e r y much. The problem i s whether t o l i v e i n I s r a e l or America; or, i f i n I s r a e l , whether i n a K i b b u t z or not.... Younger people are more c o n s e r v a t i v e than I l i k e . There i s n ' t enough r a d i c a l i s m i n them; no w i l l i n g n e s s to see a change f o r the b e t t e r i n the s o c i a l o r d e r , or to p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n b r i n g i n g about s o c i a l change. They are w i l l i n g to l e t the more c o n s e r v a t i v e , who are more concerned w i t h s e c u r i t y , make and suggest changes which don't go f a r . There's too much s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y as i t i s , and a w i l l i n g n e s s to l e t i t s t a y so. They won't be l i b e r a l u n l e s s they get away from t h e i r own s o c i e t a l i n f o r m a t i o n sources. They have to get out among the people. The sources of i n f o r m a t i o n can be changed, but I don't t h i n k they w i l l be, because of the v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s i n h e r e n t i n c a p i t a l i s m — I mean our own democracy—and t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m .  I d e n t i t y and P r i v a c y The  s t r u g g l e to r e l a t e themselves to t h e i r  environment i n a new  way,  a l s o i n v o l v e s the d i s c o v e r y of  a s p e c t s of the s e l f that h i t h e r t o l a y dormant. to  develop a sense of unique i n d i v i d u a l i t y , the  are seeking to e s t a b l i s h a new new  r e l a t i o n to the s e l f .  social  self-conception;  F o r , by  trying  respondents that i s , a  Changed r e l a t i o n s w i t h the environment  97 imply a changed c o n c e p t i o n of the s e l f , i n v o l v i n g a c l e a r e r s e p a r a t i o n from  those around.  F o r , although the s e l f i s a  product of experience i n s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , i t s c o n t i n u e d s u r v i v a l as an e n t i t y demands both continued i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r s , as w e l l as s e p a r a t i o n from others and action.  independent  The process of i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n t h e r e f o r e i n c l u d e s  a changed c o n c e p t i o n of the s e l f accompanying the emergence from a p a t t e r n of r e l a t i o n s h i p s in. which dependence predomina t e s , and the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a new  s e t of r e l a t i o n s to the  world which are c h a r a c t e r i s e d by independence. The q u e s t i o n of p r i v a c y i s c l o s e l y bound up w i t h the problem of i d e n t i t y . respondents'  T h i s i s c l e a r l y e x e m p l i f i e d by the  i n s i s t e n c e that with regard to s e x u a l i t y " i t i s  up to the i n d i v i d u a l . "  Not  only do they remove the r i g h t of  d e c i s i o n concerning what code w i l l govern  the behaviour  that  has d i r e c t p u b l i c consequences from the p u b l i c domain, they also i n s i s t  t h a t "sex i s between you and  engaged i n w i t h . "  the person i t i s  Both the p a t t e r n of p r e - m a r i t a l sexual  behaviour which would d i r e c t l y a f f e c t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e p u t a t i o n i n v o l v i n g reward and punishment, and kinds of a c t s performed  the  social  particular  i n a p r i v a t e s e t t i n g normally removed  from p u b l i c s c r u t i n y , are matters f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  con-  science. There i s thus a p u b l i c and a p r i v a t e aspect to identity:  the one i s r e c o g n i s a b l e to and assessed by the  98 community, t h e o t h e r i s p r i m a r i l y e v a l u a t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l himself.  However, because o f t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e o p i n i o n s  and a t t i t u d e s o f c e r t a i n persons f o r the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  self-  c o n c e p t i o n , i n n e r coherence t o some e x t e n t depends on congruence between b o t h .  And y e t one a s p e c t c a n i n some measure  be employed as a r e f u g e from d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s i n the o t h e r . F o r example, irksome p r e s s u r e s t o conform i n the p u b l i c  sphere  may be r e n d e r e d l e s s unbearable by t h e r e a d y r e s o r t t o the p r i v a t e from w h i c h i n t o l e r a b l e and t h r e a t e n i n g m a t t e r s can be isolated.  Independent a c t i o n w h i c h i s d e n i e d i n t h e " o u t s i d e "  can be c a r r i e d out i n the " i n s i d e " , as i t were.  The p r i v a t e  w o r l d then becomes t h e arena i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l lives".  "really  This i s not t o p o s t u l a t e a c l e a r - c u t s e p a r a t i o n of  the two s p h e r e s , between w h i c h t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r no communication;  n o r a complete w i t h d r a w a l from t h e p u b l i c w o r l d and an  existence only i n a secluded p r i v a t e r e a l i t y .  This i s the  s t a t e o f a f f a i r s t h a t i s supposed t o c h a r a c t e r i s e c e r t a i n forms o f p s y c h o s i s .  B a t h e r , i t i s t o presume t h e e x i s t e n c e o f  s e v e r a l w o r l d s w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f t h e p u b l i c and the p r i v a t e , and between w h i c h communication t a k e s p l a c e w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f i n v o l v e m e n t .  CHAPTER V REALISM  vis-a-vis  The  respondents' g e n e r a l approach to t h e i r  situation  the  a d u l t world can  this i s  be  termed r e a l i s m .  By  meant t h a t they take a " p r a c t i c a l view" of t h e i r a s s e s s i n g i t i n a manner which does not c r e a t e d by  distortion.  toward f u l l the  w i t h the  as  to  difficulties  a c t i o n s are  In order to a t t a i n  t h i s end,  T e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y i s not  they are  the  concerned  culturally over-riding  i n t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of r a t i o n a l measures.  t h e i r prime f o c u s i s on the  oriented  "mature, independent a d u l t s " i n  r e l a t i o n of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d means to  d e f i n e d ends. factor  T h e i r thoughts and  participation  a d u l t world.  lead  condition,  social acceptability  Rather,  of t h e i r  actions.  Thus, " r e a l i s m " as employed here, stands opposed both " i d e a l i s m " and their refusal  "impracticality".  I t i s intended to  to escape i n t o a world f a r removed from the  to  portray demands  of t h e i r present s t a t u s , i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r f u t u r e s t a t u s adults.  They tend to r e g a r d t h e i r s i t u a t i o n  as a matter  of  problem-solving w i t h a p a r t i a l l y s e l f - i m p o s e d time l i m i t . " i d e a l i s t i c " and  "impractical"  approach would l o s e  sight  as  The of  the  c o n n e c t i o n between t h e i r present and  f u t u r e s t a t u s e s , and  their  behaviour, o r i e n t e d p r i m a r i l y  p r e s e n t , would l e a d  them to  a "dead-end", as i t were.  to the  They would be  present stage as i f i t were the justment to the  demands of the  last.  inclined  Then, the  to l i v e  the  process of  s i t u a t i o n , consequent on the  adrude  100 awakening t o the f a c t t h a t the present stage cannot  last  f o r e v e r , would engender d i f f i c u l t i e s over and above those e n t a i l e d i n the "normal"  t r a n s i t i o n t o adulthood.  Instead, i n  s p i t e o f t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n f a c e t s o f the a d u l t s o c i a l arrangements, they p r e f e r to " f a c e the f a c t s of l i f e " and to shoulder t h e i r s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as i t i s d e f i n e d i n the a d u l t  culture. Stages o f Development T h e i r emphasis on t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n an on-going  of  system  s o c i a l arrangements a t a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d of h i s t o r y makes  them view the present as a stage i n t h e i r development.  They  envisage a f u t u r e when they would have been transformed  into  a d u l t s who do n o t d i f f e r much from those now l i v i n g , and under a s e t of circumstances not much d i f f e r e n t from what now e x i s t s . T h e r e f o r e , the present a d u l t s can teach them how t o a r r i v e a t s o l u t i o n s to the i n e v i t a b l e problems of d a i l y l i f e .  In a d d i t i o n ,  a d u l t s can l e a r n from youth who are i n c l i n e d to e x p l o r e a l l a v a i l a b l e avenues.  In t h i s way, more e f f i c i e n t means t o a t t a i n  the e s t a b l i s h e d g o a l s may be d i s c o v e r e d . They f e e l t h a t the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n , i n s p i t e of i t s g r e a t e r knowledge and e x p e r i e n c e , i s r i g i d and c o n s e r v a t i v e . They tend to i g n o r e the p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f more e f f i c i e n t means to the e s t a b l i s h e d g o a l s , i n t h e i r o v e r - r i d i n g concern w i t h And y e t , w h i l e d e p l o r i n g a d u l t s  1  security.  c o n s e r v a t i s m , they admire  their  good sense and s t a b i l i t y , f o r they have a c q u i r e d the sense o f  101 d i r e c t i o n which youth l a c k s .  Younger people are more f l e x i b l e ,  they say, because "they don't r e a l l y know what they are or where they're going. N e v e r t h e l e s s , they f e e l t h a t there i s no c o r r e l a t i o n between age and m a t u r i t y . the score i s " ; years.  necessary  Youth o f t e n knows "what  they sometimes a c q u i r e a m a t u r i t y beyond t h e i r  On the other hand, a d u l t s o f t e n merely have e x p e r i e n c e ;  they do not u t i l i s e i t p r o p e r l y , because they do not l e a r n it.  from  Such d i s j u n c t i o n s between age and m a t u r i t y , together w i t h  the r e s u l t a n t d i f f e r e n t i a l outlook can l e a d to i n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l conflict.  However, they f e e l t h a t they are j u s t as i m p e r f e c t as  o l d e r people. may  They may  be r a d i c a l but not r a d i c a l enough.  They  t h i n k t h a t they know e v e r y t h i n g , when, i n f a c t , they know  nothing.  There i s the danger t h a t i n t h e i r h u r r y to get out of  t h e i r dilemma and  "get on with i t " ,  l e s s o n s of a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e .  they may  miss the sobering  T h e r e f o r e , a d u l t c a u t i o n and  c o n f o r m i t y should temper y o u t h f u l h a s t y  radicalism.  Younger people are more o r i g i n a l but l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d . Older people may have met the problem before and have a solution for i t . You have to l i s t e n to both to know which i s b e t t e r . Younger people's i d e a s come from t h e i r t r a i n i n g i n the c u l t u r e , t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g and e d u c a t i o n . Older people get t h e i r s from e x p e r i e n c e , from having lived. Younger people haven't matured to the extent t h a t o l d e r people have. They haven't found which way t h e i r l i f e i s to take y e t . There i s s t i l l c o n f l i c t i n the young who t h i n k parents should have done more w i t h t h e i r l i v e s . than they've a c t u a l l y done. Parents probably know b e t t e r because they went through what we're going through.  102 I suppose i t ' s d i r e c t i o n t h a t o l d e r people have g o t ; a rut, stability. We haven't. I t i s the nature o f younger people that we don't know what we a r e , so how can we be s t a b l e about what we're d o i n g . Younger people are more r a d i c a l , they t r y t o t h i n k more. Older people are so damned s o c i a l i s e d i t ' s awful. They accept e v e r y t h i n g l i k e Adam and Eve as t r u t h . Young people c h a l l e n g e more. T h i s i s the g e n e r a l s o r t of t h i n g . Yet o l d e r people t r y to guide k i d s abouti I t i s r i d i c u l o u s t h a t because you're young you're not an a d u l t merely by age. I t h i n k i t ' s the way people think. I wouldn't c a l l a d u l t s those who f l y o f f the handle. I c a l l them c h i l d r e n ; i t ' s not age. I know people who at f o r t y - f i v e are r e a l l y c h i l d r e n , , not a d u l t s . C h i l d r e n are those who do not a c t r a t i o n a l l y , who behave on whims and i m i t a t e . I t i s so w i t h some a d u l t s who i m i t a t e the Joneses. Because they have T.V. you must have one. Many younger people can t h i n k r a t i o n a l l y . They know what they want, but haven't got the y e a r s . The s o c i a l changes that go on have g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the way people t h i n k . Today's g e n e r a t i o n t h i n k of n u c l e a r a t t a c k and a n n i h i l a t i o n of the human r a c e . Our p a r e n t s ' g e n e r a t i o n d i d n ' t have t h i s . Parents were i n f l u e n c e d by the D e p r e s s i o n , e t c . They have the e x p e r i e n c e , but some don't use i t and l e a r n from i t . They j u s t had the experience. Older people tend t o be more r e a l i s t i c . T h i s sometimes means p e s s i m i s t i c . They say: 'We c o u l d do t h i s or go t h e r e , but something w i l l happen, so l e t ' s not do i t . * Younger people w i l l say: 'Let's do, or we c o u l d do, this. T h i s c o u l d happen, but l e t ' s do i t anyway.' I t h i n k o l d e r people are d e f e a t i s t . They gauge what other people are saying and doing i n terms of what they l i k e . . . Preview of the F u t u r e In  t h e i r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the d i f f e r e n c e s i n o u t l o o k  between o l d e r and younger people they wonder what they become.  will  They say " o l d e r people are younger people who have been  tamed", and tend t o t h i n k that i t i s i n e v i t a b l e t h a t they w i l l share the same f a t e .  But i n t h e i r r e s i g n a t i o n they s t i l l want t o  know whether the e v e n t u a l r e s u l t i s due to the f a c t t h a t they were  103 wrong i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e a l l along, or whether the powerful p r e s s u r e s always triumph.  social  The answer would have consequences f o r  t h e i r immediate a c t i o n s .  F o r , i f they are bound to l o s e ,  i s no use i n s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t the system. merely serves to c o n f i r m t h e i r  Such an  s u s p i c i o n s concerning  there  attitude the  omnipotence of the s o c i a l order and to c r e a t e doubts about the T i g h t n e s s of t h e i r i d e a s .  T h i s stems from t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of  a d u l t s as r e p r e s e n t i n g now  what they i n the next stage w i l l  Under such circumstances say, to begin now  i t would probably'be  be.  b e t t e r , they would  to a d j u s t to the s t a t e of a f f a i r s ,  s i n c e to  s t r u g g l e would only l e a d to added g r i e f . Realism  or  Defeatism?  I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e i r r e a l i s m assumes f e a t u r e s of d e f e a t i s m .  T h e i r a t t i t u d e of impotence g i v e s the  impression  t h a t they w i l l have to s e t t l e f o r whatever changes i n the  social  arrangements occur i n the normal course of events.  such  While  an approach would l i k e l y f a c i l i t a t e t h e i r adjustment to the order by ensuring i t s f a m i l i a r perpetuate  s t a b i l i t y , i t i s also l i k e l y  t h e i r f e e l i n g s of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n ,  f u l l participation  and involvement  in i t .  and preclude  to their  The view t h a t s o c i a l  change i s beyond t h e i r powers can only serve to c o n f i r m existing  social  the  system, s i n c e they make no a c t i v e endeavour to have the  irksome f e a t u r e s removed.  104 I t i s true t h a t elements of r a d i c a l i s m may as s e c r e t f a c e t s of t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i d e n t i t i e s .  be  But  embodied  covert  p r o t e s t has no d i r e c t impact on the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y arrangements. In f a c t , the guardians of the system may absence of o v e r t p r o t e s t as support and consolidation.  w e l l i n t e r p r e t the take measures to e f f e c t  Furthermore, r e f u s a l to provide  evidence of disagreement may  unequivocal  hamper the development of  concerted  a c t i o n t o . b r i n g about the changes which they deem to be F o r , through p l u r a l i s t i c ignorance, each may  f e e l e i t h e r that  he i s alone i n h i s disagreement or t h a t others do not thereby a l l o w i n g On  a r e s e r v o i r of d i s c o n t e n t  necessary.  to go  care,  untapped.  the other hand, t h e i r ambivalence towards change  can be f u r t h e r evidence of t h e i r r e a l i s m , s i n c e a l t e r a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g arrangements may unexpected areas.  For  produce unwanted consequences i n  example, i t i s p o s s i b l e that a change to  a l l o w i n d i v i d u a l autonomy i n corporate  o r g a n i z a t i o n may  a l t e r the  assure f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y ,  and  s e t s of c o n d i t i o n s which now  that the g a i n i n independence may  security.  S i m i l a r l y , the c a r e e r s and  exclude from the range of choice may  not  seriously  outweigh the l o s s of  occupations which they a l l o w a great measure of  independence, but render the i n d i v i d u a l m a t e r i a l l y i n s e c u r e , to i r r e g u l a r employment and Thus, t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n  income, and  the c o n d i t i o n s of work.  that " o l d e r people are more  conservative  because t h e i r worry about s e c u r i t y i s g r e a t e r " , can be a p p l i e d t o themselves.  due  equally  105  O l d e r people a r e more r e s i g n e d t o l i f e as i t i s . They don't have the i l l u s i o n s o f younger p e o p l e . They a r e no l o n g e r l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o a l i f e o f s u c c e s s and complete h a p p i n e s s , f o r they know o f the h e a r t - b r e a k s . They l i v e a d a i l y l i f e . B e i n g a teen-ager i s q u i t e a dilemma. You l o o k back to your younger days when l i f e seemed so much e a s i e r , though i t p r o b a b l y i s n ' t t r u e . You d i d n ' t have so many o b l i g a t i o n s — y o u know, 'ignorance i s b l i s s ' s o r t of t h i n g . You d i d n ' t know the w o r l d had so many problems, and t h a t t h e r e were so many problems i n g e t t i n g a l o n g w i t h p e o p l e . Then a g a i n , y o u l o o k a t b e i n g an a d u l t and y o u ' l l be on your own; and what y o u do now determines the k i n d o f l i f e y o u ' l l l i v e t h e n . Y e t , y o u would l i k e t o have a good t i m e , and y e t you know t h a t i f y o u spend t o o much time a t t h i s you w i l l r e g r e t i t l a t e r . So, i f you don't k n u c k l e down now, you won't a c h i e v e t h e t h i n g s you want t o do. You have to have an eye t o the f u t u r e , and y e t you want t o be a l i t t l e more f r e e . . . . I thought l o t s o f my p a r e n t s i d e a s were a w f u l l y f u n n y , but as I grew up I r e a l i s e d t h e y were q u i t e l o g i c a l . Maybe they got them d i f f e r e n t l y from the s u r r o u n d i n g s t h e y had when t h e y grew up.... F o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n a d o l e s c e n c e q u i t e a change t a k e s p l a c e . You go t h r o u g h a stage where r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s are s h i r k e d and you demand as much independence as p o s s i b l e and don't conform. B u t t h e y do outgrow t h i s . I can see t h i s from my own f r i e n d s , though one s t i l l shows t r a c e s o f i t . You t e n d t o be more s t a b l e as you grow o l d e r . B u t I don't know whether i t i s because c o n v e n t i o n a l t h i n g s are r i g h t i n t h e end, o r whether i t i s j u s t t h a t y o u give.-in t o s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s . Younger people have a h o p e f u l , o p t i m i s t i c o u t l o o k f o r the f u t u r e and when t h e y ' r e o l d e r t h e y r e a l i s e t h a t t h i s may n o t be and g i v e up hope l i k e o l d e r people who j u s t g i v e up hope and j u s t more or l e s s e x i s t . They d i d n ' t a c c o m p l i s h what they s e t out t o do and r e a l i s e t h a t t h e i r l i f e i s s h o r t l y over. They don't l o o k f o r ward t o much. They j u s t t a k e t h i n g s i n t h e i r s t r i d e and become more or l e s s d e f e a t e d and g i v e up, s o r t o f .  106  The Management of S e x u a l i t y Their e f f o r t s  t o cope w i t h the problem of  m a n i f e s t t h i s same r e a l i s t i c approach.  They f e e l t h a t  i s an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t of l i f e and t h a t i t must be in  sexuality  understood  t h i s r e l a t i o n i n o r d e r t h a t i t be p r o p e r l y managed.  t o s u r r o u n d i t w i t h a taboo and a c c o r d i t s e c r e t i v e  sexuality  Hence,  treatment  would p r e c l u d e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of i t and d i s t o r t i t s t r u e position  i n the scheme of t h i n g s , by p e r p e t u a t i n g i g n o r a n c e  prejudice.  and  Such a s i t u a t i o n i n v i t e s b l i n d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and  c r e a t e s unnecessary h a r d s h i p s and t r o u b l e s f o r y o u t h i n i t s quest f o r f u l l growth and development.  I t i s for this  reason  t h a t they i n s i s t on the importance o f an adequate sex e d u c a t i o n by p a r e n t s and e x p e r t t e a c h e r s . ' T h i s i s a l l a p a r t of t h e i r c o n c e r n t o e n t e r the a d u l t w o r l d w i t h a l l t h e i r f a c u l t i e s  well  developed. They t a k e a s i m i l a r l y p r a c t i c a l v i e w of m a r r i a g e a t t h i s stage o f t h e i r l i v e s .  They a v o i d e a r l y m a r r i a g e because  they h o l d t h a t i t i s an e n t e r p r i s e which must be undertaken after certain  p r e - c o n d i t i o n s are f u l f i l l e d .  only  They must be a b l e  t o s a t i s f y the m a t e r i a l needs of a f a m i l y and possess the l e v e l of e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y n e c e s s a r y t o cope w i t h the a t t e n d a n t problems of i n t e r p e r s o n a l adjustment. would i n t e r f e r e w i t h the a c q u i s i t i o n istics.  Marriage at t h i s  stage  of these e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r -  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t towards t h i s end, each  sex  107 c o n c e n t r a t e s on a d i f f e r e n t  aspect of the  conjugal  relationship,  working towards an i d e n t i t y focused on i t s m a r i t a l r o l e . a d d i t i o n , the  g i r l s ' d e c i s i o n i n favour of marriage alone shows  t h e i r awareness of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y relations  of f a m i l y Indeed, the  of which they are i t y i s based on  respondents' concern f o r  a part.  individuality  demands of the  c u l t u r a l v a l u e of  the  Yet,  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  responsibil-  achievement. must  individual  not i s always  social action  needs of both the  encompassing s o c i a l system, d e s p i t e c o n f l i c t s of  Thus they r e l a t e environment:  problems on to the  of o t h e r s , s i n c e the  of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s .  proceed w i t h due  s o c i a l order  T h e i r n o t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l  adherence to the  interests  p a r t of a web  the  inter-personal  they a l s o f e e l t h a t p u r s u i t of one's i n t e r e s t  endanger the  and  f o r the  life.  r e v e a l s t h e i r concern to s a t i s f y the  But  In  t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l concern to the  future.  individual interest.  realities  i n fact, their realism i s directed  a scope that transcends the  can  of  toward  immediate by r e l a t i n g i t  CHAPTER VI ALIENATION AND THE YOUTH CULTURE  The  The  term  as a d e s c r i p t i o n be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  Concept  of A l i e n a t i o n  "alienation"  enjoys widespread  o f a mode o f a d a p t a t i o n w h i c h o f man i n modern s o c i e t y .  t o be m a n i f e s t e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s from h i s s u r r o u n d i n g s . modern s o c i e t y prevailing  The a s s u m p t i o n  a r e so d i s s a t i s f i e d  social  arrangements  The c o n c e p t i s s a i d  withdrawal,  apathy, estrangement, as a r e s u l t  of a s p e c t s o f s o c i a l  life  This  mode i s s a i d  of increasing  i s that  distance  individuals i n  they r e s o r t  to r e f e r  today  i s supposed t o  and d i s s i l l u s i o n e d  that  adaptation.  by i n d i v i d u a l s  sense  usage  by t h e  to this  mode o f  t o a sense o f  or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n e x p e r i e n c e d  o f d e - h u m a n i s a t i o n and l o s s w h i c h were f o r m e r l y  o f meaning  sources of strong  7 commitment  and s a t i s f a c t i o n .  are viewed  as the b r e e d i n g ground  is  apparently  "unhealthy"  of this  reaction  social  arrangements  creeping  to exposure  sickness  which  to these  conditions.  The the  the widespread  The e x i s t i n g  occupational  principal villain  single-minded  sphere i s g e n e r a l l y  of the p i e c e .  r e g a r d e d as  Modern s o c i e t y  pre-occupation with technical  with i t s  efficiency  and h i g h  7 S e e , f o r e x a m p l e , K. K e n i s t o n , " A l i e n a t i o n a n d t h e D e c l i n e o f U t o p i a " i n The A m e r i c a n S c h o l a r , S p r i n g I 9 6 0 , pp. 1 6 1 - 2 0 0 ; E. Fromm, The Sane S o c i e t y . New Y o r k , R i n e h a r t , 1 9 5 5 ; F . Pappenheim, The A l i e n a t i o n o f M o d e r n Man, New Y o r k , M o n t h l y R e v i e w P r e s s , 1 9 5 9 .  109  p r o d u c t i v i t y i n the economic sphere i s s a i d to have so  de-  p e r s o n a l i s e d work t h a t t h i s a s p e c t of s o c i a l l i f e w h i c h h i t h e r t o was  the f o c u s of p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t has now  Where once men's work was now  become r e p u l s i v e .  an i m p o r t a n t element i n t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s ,  the r e p u l s i o n they f e e l , because o f an e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g  specialisation  and r o u t i n i s a t i o n  i n the w o r l d of work, d r i v e s  them t o a r i t u a l i s t i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n charms, but modern man  i n work.  Work has l o s t i t s  i s h e l d t o i t p r i n c i p a l l y because of the  need t o s a t i s f y the m a t e r i a l wants w i t h o u t w h i c h he cannot e x i s t . And more u n f o r t u n a t e l y , the de-humanisation  which  o r i g i n a t e d w i t h work has i n f i l t r a t e d o t h e r a r e a s of s o c i a l Man  i s now  n o t o n l y s e p a r a t e d from the j o y s of work but a l s o  from h i s f e l l o w s .  There i s estrangement n o t o n l y from the  p r o d u c t s o f h i s work, but t h e r e are a l s o e v e r - w i d e n i n g i n h i s personal r e l a t i o n s . in  a s p i r i t u a l l y m e a n i n g f u l way,  has superseded  breaches  He no l o n g e r f e e l s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r s but o n l y i n so f a r as he  c e i v e s them t o be i n the same p l i g h t : "organic" s o l i d a r i t y .  a "mechanical"  become " a l i e n a t e d " from h i m s e l f .  per-  solidarity  But worse y e t , the s i c k n e s s  has moved i n t o the v e r y h e a r t of the i n d i v i d u a l :  in  life.  man  As he w i t h d r e w from  has  now  involvement  the d e - p e r s o n a l i s e d s o c i a l arrangements i n o r d e r t o escape  t h e i r morbid i n f l u e n c e , the d i s e a s e f o l l o w e d i n h i s wake t o f i n a l l y lodge w i t h i n him.  Not o n l y does he now  n o t know what t o  i n v e s t w i t h v a l u e and v a l i d i t y , but he has a l s o l o s t h i s v i s i o n s of a h o p e f u l f u t u r e . threatened.  The v e r y l a s t v e s t i g e s of h i s i d e n t i t y  are  So r u n the u s u a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c o n d i t i o n of  110  modern i n d u s t r i a l man, w i t h v a r i o u s remedies b e i n g  prescribed,  based on t h i s d i a g n o s i s , t o e f f e c t h i s c u r e o f " a l i e n a t i o n " . But as a c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f man's r e l a t i o n t o h i s s o c i a l environment t h e c o n c e p t o f " a l i e n a t i o n " p r e s e n t s manyd i f f i c u l t i e s i n i t s usage. l a c k of c l a r i t y .  Perhaps the c h i e f d i f f i c u l t y i s i t s  The c o n c e p t has been used t o d e s c r i b e so many  d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n s t h a t i t s vagueness has i n c r e a s e d :  men  are " a l i e n a t e d " from s o c i e t y , from o t h e r men, from work, and from themselves.  As g e n e r a l l y employed, t h e term i m p l i e s a p r i o r  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e o b j e c t or o b j e c t s from w h i c h one i s now estranged.  T h e r e f o r e , we would n o r m a l l y e x p e c t t o f i n d i t  a p p l i e d t o s i t u a t i o n s where t h i s p r e - e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n o b t a i n e d , t o g e t h e r w i t h some s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h e n e c e s s a r y degree o f t h i s previous  familiarity. F o r i n s t a n c e , would one be j u s t i f i e d i n r e f e r r i n g t o a  s t r a n g e r as b e i n g " a l i e n a t e d " from t h e community i n w h i c h he has arrived?  Doubtless,  t h e r e i s a sense o f d i s t a n c e between him  and the members o f t h e community, and h i s i n v o l v e m e n t f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes o f group l i f e i s m i n i m a l .  But i s t h i s  r e l a t i o n s h i p a l i e n a t i o n i n t h e sense i n w h i c h t h e term i s g e n e r a l l y used t o d e s c r i b e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f an i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s e n v i r o n ment?  And suppose t h e s t r a n g e r were t o s e t t l e i n t h e community  and d e l i b e r a t e l y c o n f i n e h i s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s t o o t h e r  strangers  from h i s own homeland, w h i l e l i m i t i n g h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e members o f the community t o the bare n e c e s s i t i e s o f b u s i n e s s and  Ill g r e e t i n g s when they a r e e n c o u n t e r e d .  Would a l i e n a t i o n be a  f i t t i n g d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s state of a f f a i r s ? measure o f f a m i l i a r i t y here and some knowledge, distantiation,  There i s a and a sense o f  presumably. A l i e n a t i o n and Youth  The s i t u a t i o n o f y o u t h i n modern i n d u s t r i a l may be l i k e n e d t o t h a t o f our h y p o t h e t i c a l s t r a n g e r s .  society And y e t ,  t h e i r r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n from t h e a d u l t w o r l d has been c h a r a c t e r i s e d as a l i e n a t i o n , t h u s s e r v i n g o n l y t o i n c r e a s e t h e vagueness o  of  t h e term.  There i s g e n e r a l agreement t h a t y o u t h a r e n o t  c h i l d r e n and they a r e n o t a c c o r d e d t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f c h i l d r e n ; nor a r e they g r a n t e d the s t a t u s o f a d u l t s and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t r i g h t s and d u t i e s . the  I n f a c t , they occupy a m a r g i n a l p o s i t i o n ,  h i a t u s between c h i l d h o o d and a d u l t h o o d , where t h e r e i s no  s t r u c t u r e d s e t o f p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r l a i d down by t h e a d u l t world.  I n t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , they a r e t o l d t o "grow  up" b u t t h e y a r e n o t t o l d how. d e v i s e d and s t a b i l i s e d t o f i l l  The p a t t e r n s which they have t h i s vacuum and s o l v e t h e problems  t h e y f a c e have been termed t h e "youth c u l t u r e " .  I t represents a  m i x t u r e o f t h e c h i l d h o o d p a t t e r n s through w h i c h they have passed and the a d u l t p a t t e r n s toward which they aim. 8 See, f o r example, K. K e n i s t o n , l o f i . c i t . ; and R.A. C l o w a r d and L.E. O h l i n , D e l i n q u e n c y and O p p o r t u n i t y , G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s , F r e e P r e s s , 19o0, pp. 104-106; 108-124; t h e term i s a p p l i e d t o b o t h d e l i n q u e n t and n o n - d e l i n q u e n t y o u t h f u l b e h a v i o u r .  112  The Youth C u l t u r e The y o u t h c u l t u r e i s s a i d t o be c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a c o m p u l s i v e s t r i v i n g f o r independence antagonism  from a d u l t a u t h o r i t y ,  t o a d u l t e x p e c t a t i o n s , e x a g g e r a t i o n of the r o m a n t i c  l o v e complex, c o m p u l s i v e c o n f o r m i t y t o the s t a n d a r d s of the peer group, d e n i a l of a d u l t s t a n d a r d s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  and  i n t e n s e i d e a l i s a t i o n of e m o t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t s o c i a l o b j e c t s , Q  or  u n r e a l i s t i c romanticism.  Thus, the y o u t h c u l t u r e s t a n d s i n  d i r e c t o p p o s i t i o n t o the c u l t u r e of the a d u l t w o r l d , i n such a way  t h a t y o u t h can e n j o y what t h e y p e r c e i v e t o be the b e s t of  two w o r l d s :  the c h i l d ' s i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and the a d u l t ' s  privileges. Some h o l d t h a t t h i s p a t t e r n of a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r r e p r e s e n t s an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o e n t e r a d u l t h o o d and a r e j e c t i o n of  adult culture;  t h a t t h i s i s evidence of youth's  from t h e i r s u r r o u n d i n g s . ^ 1  alienation  The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t y o u t h has  withdrawn i n t o i t s own w o r l d from the a d u l t w o r l d . statements seem t o be g r a t u i t o u s .  Such  Youth d i d n o t w i t h d r a w  the a d u l t w o r l d because i t was never i n i t .  from  I t carved f o r  i t s e l f an e c o l o g i c a l n i c h e out of the "no-man's l a n d " between c h i l d h o o d and a d u l t h o o d .  There was always d i s t a n c e between them  9 T. P a r s o n s , E s s a y s i n S o c i o l o g i c a l Theory. R e v i s e d E d i t i o n , G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s , F r e e P r e s s , I95h, PP* 8 9 - 1 0 3 ; 189-190; 336-3^7; and J.S. Coleman, The A d o l e s c e n t S o c i e t y , G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s , Free Press, 1 9 6 1 . 1 0 See K. K e n i s t o n , loc*. c i t .  113  and t h e a d u l t w o r l d , w h i c h they viewed from a c r o s s t h e b a r r i e r o f age. They d i d n o t r e j e c t a d u l t r o l e s because they were n o t i n t r o d u c e d i n t o them.  L e f t t o t h e i r own d e v i c e s , they  experiment  i n t h e y o u t h c u l t u r e w i t h such a s p e c t s o f a d u l t r o l e s as come t o hand, because no c l e a r d i r e c t i o n and guidance  i s p r o v i d e d by  the a d u l t s o c i a l arrangements. I t i s t h e r e f o r e a m i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o say t h a t t h e y o u t h c u l t u r e i s a symbol o f y o u t h ' s  "alienation", f o r this  a s s o c i a t i o n o f youth r e p r e s e n t s t h e i r r e c o g n i t i o n of l i k e d e p r i v a t i o n s and a c o n c e r t e d attempt  to ameliorate t h e i r c o n d i t i o n .  Moreover, i t i s a temporary d e v i c e f o r any p a r t i c u l a r body o f youth, s i n c e , although there are " c a s u a l t i e s " , the m a j o r i t y always graduates from i t and assumes p o s i t i o n s i n the a d u l t world. likely  However, as a way o f managing t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n , i t i s t o c o n t i n u e t o e x i s t so l o n g as t h e r e i s need f o r i t ,  w h i c h may mean as l o n g as t h e p e r i o d remains u n s t r u c t u r e d and no acceptable a l t e r n a t i v e s are provided t o f i l l  the v a c u u m . ^  Thus,  a l t h o u g h i t r e p r e s e n t s a r e a c t i o n t o e m o t i o n a l t e n s i o n and i n s e c u r i t y g e n e r a t e d by y o u t h s . s i t u a t i o n , t h e y o u t h c u l t u r e s e r v e s 1  to i n s t r u c t them i n t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s  o f c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s which  they w i l l assume i n t h e a d u l t w o r l d , i n t h e absence o f d i r e c t 12  and f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n . 1 1 See A.K. Cohen on t h e f o r m a t i o n and maintenance o f subc u l t u r e s , D e l i n q u e n t B o y s , G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s , Free P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 , pp.  12  49-72.  Compare T. P a r s o n s , op. c i t . . pp.  101;  189-190.  Ilk Furthermore,  the concept  of a l i e n a t i o n r e f e r s t o  apathy, p a s s i v i t y and w i t h d r a w a l , whereas t h e y o u t h c u l t u r e r e p r e s e n t s an a c t i v e mode o f c o p i n g w i t h a p r o b l e m a t i c tion. falling  situa-  Even i f the y o u t h c u l t u r e c o u l d somehow be r e g a r d e d as i n the province of adulthood, the experimentation w i t h  a d u l t r o l e s t h a t o c c u r s t h e r e c o u l d i n no way be c o n s i d e r e d passive r e j e c t i o n .  F o r , t h e r e j e c t i o n t h a t o c c u r s i s preceded  by a c t i v e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n and s e l e c t i o n .  I t would r e q u i r e an  a t t i t u d e such as i n d i f f e r e n c e , or r e j e c t i o n o u t o f hand w i t h o u t s e l e c t i o n through e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n , t o m e r i t c a t e g o r i s a t i o n as passivity.  T h e r e f o r e , " a l i e n a t i o n " cannot be a c c e p t e d as a  sound c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f youth's  s t a n c e v i s - a - v i s the a d u l t  w o r l d because t h e concept i m p l i e s a p r i o r f a m i l i a r i t y and involvement  which y o u t h d i d n o t s h a r e , and because t h e y a r e  engaged i n a c t i v i t y o r i e n t e d toward concept  the a d u l t w o r l d .  I f the  i s t o be u s e f u l and a p p l i c a b l e , i t s h o u l d be c o n f i n e d ,  say, t o t h e mode w h i c h y o u t h may adopt i f s o j o u r n and i n v o l v e m e n t as .adults i n the e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i a l o r d e r , and some s p e c i f i e d degree o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the on-going p a s s i v e w i t h d r a w a l and r i t u a l i s t i c A Psychosocial  p a t t e r n s were t o i n d u c e  participation. Moratorium  I t i s p r o b a b l y more f r u i t f u l t o r e g a r d  youth's  r e a c t i o n t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , as a " p s y c h o s o c i a l moratorium", a p e r i o d o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n d u r i n g which these young  persons  s t r u g g l e t o a c h i e v e a measure o f s t a b i l i t y by r e c o n c i l i n g t h e  115  p s y c h i c and s o c i a l f o r c e s o p e r a t i n g i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h I V  t h e i r environment.  J  I t i s t h e p e r i o d b e f o r e a f i n a l commitment  i s made when i n d i v i d u a l s , who a r e n o t y e t r e a d y or a b l e t o assume a s t a b l e and l a s t i n g i d e n t i t y , go t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g and r e j e c t i n g from among t h e a v a i l a b l e i d e n t i t i e s and commitments.  Thus, b e h a v i o u r d u r i n g a moratorium i s p u r p o s i v e ;  d i r e c t e d toward f a m i l i a r i s a t i o n w i t h t h e r o l e s and p a t t e r n s o f behaviour which o b t a i n i n the a d u l t world.  The end i n v i e w i s  e n t r a n c e i n t o and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e l a t t e r , and t h i s i m p l i e s some i n t e r e s t i n what t h e f u t u r e w i l l be. "running  The a p p a r e n t l y  aimless  around" i s an attempt t o f i n d d i r e c t i o n through t h e  maze of m u l t i p l e  paths.  In s p i t e of a d u l t o p p o s i t i o n t o t h i s  psychosocial  moratorium, t h e b e h a v i o u r adopted i n i t c a n be r e g a r d e d as more or l e s s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d ;  that i s , i t s continued  existence  represents  a d u l t a c q u i e s c e n c e towards i t s maintenance, s i n c e no  systematic  attempt has been made t o a b o l i s h i t .  What may have  i n c i t e d a d u l t resentment i s n o t o n l y y o u t h ' s i n g e n i o u s  combina-  t i o n s o f c h i l d h o o d and a d u l t p a t t e r n s , b u t a l s o t h e merging o f aspects  of a d u l t r o l e s i n t o h i t h e r t o unexplored syntheses.  But  such combinations'-were p r e d i c t a b l e i n t h e absence o f b o t h d i r e c t i n s t r u c t i o n and c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n o f a d u l t r o l e s and p a t t e r n s o f  1 3 See E.H. E r i k s o n ' s f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s concept i n M. S t e i n , A . J . V i d i c h and D.M. W h i t e , oo. c i t . . pp. 3 7 - 8 7 .  116  behaviour.  E v e r y s e l e c t i o n i s made from t h e m a t e r i a l s  available,  p a r t l y because o f i n t e r e s t and need, and i s always accompanied by rejection.  D o u b t l e s s , today's a d u l t s chose o n l y some a s p e c t s o f  what was a v a i l a b l e t o them.  Today's y o u t h a r e c o n t i n u i n g  this  process. I d e a l and A c t u a l I t has a l s o been s t a t e d t h a t y o u t h ' s c o n v i c t i o n o f an i r r e c o n c i l a b l e gap between the u n l i m i t e d h i g h a s p i r a t i o n s encouraged by t h e i r s o c i e t y and t h e p e r c e i v e d  d e n i a l of o p p o r t u n i t i e s  f o r t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t , i s one source o f t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n and 1^  r e s o r t to the youth c u l t u r e .  I n a d d i t i o n , t o our e a r l i e r  o b j e c t i o n t o t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n o f y o u t h ' s b e h a v i o u r , we must consider  here t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e a l i s m ;  the c o r r e c t n e s s  of the statement.  assuming f o r t h e moment  I n d i v i d u a l s have i d e a l s ,  e x p r e s s e d and u n e x p r e s s e d , toward w h i c h they s t r i v e . u s u a l l y s e t a t some d i s t a n c e  These a r e  above t h e i r l e v e l o f achievement:  t h e y i n v o l v e , so t o speak, some e x a g g e r a t i o n o f what t h e i n d i v i d u a l f e e l s he c a n a c h i e v e .  I f the c u l t u r e s e t s a s p i r a t i o n s w h i c h by  d e f i n i t i o n are unattainable,  because t h e y have no l i m i t , i t  would be t h e p a r t o f r e a l i s m t o remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n , i n o r d e r t o p r e v e n t t h e development o f anomie.  I t i s true that the a c t u a l  n e v e r measures up t o t h e i d e a l , b u t a manageable d i s c r e p a n c y between both would s e r v e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  motivation  1*+ K. K e n i s t o n , l o c . , . c i t . T h i s i s v i r t u a l l y a statement o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f anomie as d e f i n e d by R.K. Merton i n S o c i a l Theory and  117  to s t r i v e , by h o l d i n g out the hope t h a t i f the i d e a l cannot be r e a c h e d , i t can a t l e a s t be c l o s e l y o n l y acceptance of the d i s c r e p a n c y  approximated.  but r e c o g n i t i o n of i t s  manageability—or  unmanageability—is  to face r e a l i t y .  A lowering  a c o n d i t i o n of amomie;  Thus, not  e v i d e n c e of a w i l l i n g n e s s  of aims does not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t  i t may  represent  an attempt t o c o r r e c t  an  15 u n r e a l i s t i c a s p e c t of the s o c i a l arrangements. F u r t h e r m o r e , i m p l i c i t i n t h i s n o t i o n of y o u t h ' s alienation  i s the i d e a t h a t a l l i s w e l l w i t h the  s o c i a l arrangements;  t h a t no change i s n e c e s s a r y i n a d u l t  management of the s i t u a t i o n .  But  i s a response to t h i s u n s t r u c t u r e d attitude.  prevailing  the v i e w t h a t the y o u t h c u l t u r e s i t u a t i o n negates such an  F o r , y o u t h have e s t a b l i s h e d f o r themselves c l e a r l y  d e f i n e d p a t t e r n s of v a l u e s f o r them.  They know now  and b e h a v i o u r , where none were s e t  what the e x p e c t a t i o n s  out  a r e , s i n c e they  shared i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n .  This  stands  i n c o n t r a s t t o the s i t u a t i o n i n the a d u l t w o r l d where a d u l t r o l e s are not c l e a r l y d e f i n e d , and from which y o u t h are e x c l u d e d . sense, a d u l t s were "shown up",  and  t h i s may  o p p o s i t i o n , over and above the s u b v e r s i o n  be a source of  In a their  of t h e i r a u t h o r i t y  and  control.  S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , Revised E d i t i o n , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , 1 9 5 7 ? pp. 1 3 1 - 9 4 b u i l d i n g on Durkheim's i d e a . There i s t h u s an imp l i c i t n o t i o n of the y o u t h c u l t u r e as a d e v i a n t a d a p t a t i o n t o a socially structured situation. This notion i s also expressed i n R.A. C l o w a r d and L.E. O h l i n , l o c . c i t . , where they are concerned w i t h the g e n e s i s and maintenance of d e l i n q u e n t s u b c u l t u r e s . 5  1 5 Compare R.K.  M e r t o n , op. c i t . , c h a p t e r s k and  5.  118  Thei I n d i v i d u a l  and  His  Culture  F i n a l l y , d i s c u s s i o n s of a l i e n a t i o n r e f e r to r e j e c t i o n of t h e i r s o c i e t y  and  their culture.  made c l e a r what i s meant by such a s t a t e m e n t . never t o t a l l y i n v o l v e d i n t h e i r c u l t u r e , t h a t they are not  But  i t i s never  Individuals  f o r the  "as  they l i v e i t . "  are  simple reason  aware of a l l i t s r a m i f i c a t i o n s .  know t h e i r c u l t u r e  individuals'  They o n l y  Their s o c i a l i s a t i o n  and  i n t e r e s t s r e v e a l t o them o n l y c e r t a i n f a c e t s of t h e i r  socio-  c u l t u r a l environment.  certain  a s p e c t s of the  They become i n v o l v e d o n l y w i t h  s e l e c t e d f a c e t s w h i c h have been t r a n s m i t t e d  t h e m — b y persons who  were themselves l i m i t e d by  p r o c e s s of t h e i r s o c i a l i s a t i o n — a n d r e n d e r s i g n i f i c a n t f o r them.  There i s t h e r e f o r e a whole range i n w h i c h they are  transfer  interests within  commitment from one  d i s c o v e r e d o u t s i d e the  set  e r s t w h i l e l i m i t s of t h e i r  involvement.  culture  i n v e s t e d w i t h v a r y i n g degrees of  Then, what i s r e f e r r e d  simply a r e - s t r u c t u r i n g  of v a l u e s and  of e n v i r o n m e n t a l changes.  of  ken.  be viewed as b e i n g a r r a n g e d i n a h i e r a r c h y i n w h i c h  d i f f e r e n t elements are  is  been newly  I n t h i s c a s e , a s p e c t s of t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n t  and  not  their limited, significant cultural  f i e l d t o a n o t h e r s e t — o r even t o a s e t t h a t has  can  interests  Perhaps what i s meant by r e j e c t i o n of the c u l t u r e  that these i n d i v i d u a l s v a l u e s and  selective  which t h e i r d e r i v e d  of a s p e c t s of t h e i r s o c i e t y ' s c u l t u r e involved.  the  to  I n t h i s way,  to as a l i e n a t i o n  interests  under the  v a l u e s and  the interest may  be  stress  a c t i o n s which  119  h i t h e r t o h e l d a dominant p o s i t i o n i n the h i e r a r c h y would y i e l d p r i d e of p l a c e to o t h e r s p r e v i o u s l y low i n p o s i t i o n . also conceivable  It is  t h a t such a r e - s t r u c t u r i n g c o u l d e n t a i l  i m p o r t a t i o n of elements w h i c h were f o r m e r l y o u t s i d e of  the  the  h i e r a r c h y but p r e s e n t w i t h i n the t o t a l c u l t u r a l environment. I t may  be, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t such a r e - e v a l u a t i o n i s t a k i n g  p l a c e w i t h the t r a n s f e r of commitment from the w o r l d  of work to  the f a m i l y s p h e r e , which i s today b e i n g commented on as " a l i e n a t i o n from work". The  above d i s c u s s i o n of a l i e n a t i o n i s e q u a l l y  relevant  t o our r e s p o n d e n t s ' s i t u a t i o n as y o u t h v i s - a - v i s the a d u l t T h e i r r e a l i s m , i n s p i t e of doubt and  world.  uncertainty, contradicts  any c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of them as " a l i e n a t e d " , i n a d d i t i o n to  the  o t h e r o b j e c t i o n s to the term.  world  T h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n toward the  w h i c h t h e y are about t o e n t e r i s the o p p o s i t e  of the  withdrawal which i s s a i d to c h a r a c t e r i s e a l i e n a t i o n .  passive They know  t h a t the s e a r c h i n w h i c h they are engaged i s d i f f i c u l t  and  f r u s t r a t i n g , but they have not succumbed t o the f e e l i n g of utter hopelessness.  They seek a way  out of the chaos, and  w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t guidance from those who  are  have the proper know-  ledge. The Respondents and Our  the Y o u t h C u l t u r e  d a t a do not r e v e a l a l l the elements d e s c r i b e d  being c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the y o u t h c u l t u r e .  I n f a c t , we  c e r t a i n elements t h a t are d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed t o those  find  as  120  postulated as basic to the structured complex of values, attitudes and behaviour which comprise the youth culture.  Thus,  while the respondents set great store by independence and regard emancipation from and/or repudiation of parental authority as essential to personal development, and participate i n the "dating complex", they do not adhere to the other patterns of behaviour. Instead, they are equally skeptical of both adult and peer group standards, and do not simply conform to the expectations of their age-mates i n opposition to adult expectations. They tend to c r i t i c a l l y assess the merits and de-merits of both sides. This realism precludes any tendency to "romanticism" on their part:  their preference for "facing the facts" prevents them  from setting up other individuals as idols, and stands opposed to unrealistic idealisation. In addition, they are more oriented toward the adult world than to the world of their peers, and this i s i n spite of the shortcomings which they perceive i n the adult world.  They  are aware that for them there i s no turning back, and, although they would prefer to see certain changes made i n the adult social arrangements, they are prepared to assume adult roles, even i n the absence of such changes.  In fact, they are irked by  their continued exclusion from responsibilities i n the adult world and their relegation to a position of marginality.  121  Sub-Cultures But t h e absence o f these a t t i t u d e s i n the r e s p o n d e n t s ' approach t o t h e i r s i t u a t i o n does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y negate the 16  e x i s t e n c e o f a y o u t h c u l t u r e and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t . I n s t e a d , i t may be t h a t t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l y o u t h c u l t u r e s r a t h e r t h a n a s i n g l e one;  or t h a t s e v e r a l s u b - c u l t u r e s c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h 17  ed w i t h i n t h e y o u t h c u l t u r e . '  F o r i n s t a n c e , we would suggest  t h a t c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s o f v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r a r e more or l e s s c o n f i n e d t o d i f f e r e n t a g e - l e v e l s w i t h i n  adolescence.  Thus, e a r l y , m i d d l e , and l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e would each have i t s own p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n , w i t h t h e f i r s t two l e v e l s showing g r e a t e r resemblance t o each o t h e r than t o t h e t h i r d . C e r t a i n elements would be f o u n d t o be common t o a l l the agel e v e l s and s u b - c u l t u r e s , b u t each would p o s s e s s a unique " g e s t a l t " . We would f u r t h e r suggest t h a t t h e more  "dramatic"  f e a t u r e s o f the y o u t h c u l t u r e a r e abandoned w i t h c l o s e r age approximation  t o adulthood.  A t the same t i m e , elements w h i c h  are v a l u a b l e f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a d u l t w o r l d a r e r e t a i n e d . Thus, independence from a d u l t c o n t r o l , d e s p i t e the antagonism 1 6 T h i s i s p a r t l y a f u n c t i o n o f t h e k i n d s o f q u e s t i o n s asked. Other q u e s t i o n s might have r e v e a l e d a d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n . 1 7 Compare the s e p a r a t i o n o f s u b - c u l t u r e s w i t h i n t h e d e l i n q u e n t s u b - c u l t u r e by A.K. Cohen and' J.F. S h o r t , J r . , "Research i n D e l i n q u e n t S u b c u l t u r e s " i n J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s ? V o l . Ik, No. 3 , 1 9 5 8 , pp. 2 0 - 3 7 ; a l s o Cloward and O h l i n , op. c i t . . c h a p t e r 7» See a l s o J . M i l t o n Y i n g e r ' s d i s t i n c t i o n between " S u b c u l t u r e and C o n t r a c u l t u r e " i n American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 2 5 , No. 5 , October I 9 6 0 , pp. 6 2 5 - 3 5 .  122  which i t sometimes generates, i s highly relevant to individual functioning i n North American society, where independent action in status achievement, marriage choice and the establishment of the family, at least, stand among the highest adult societal values.  Similarly, the "dating complex" serves to introduce  individuals into heterosexual association and prepare them for the choice of a marriage partner and the eventual establishment of a family. It i s therefore not unexpected that these two features bulk so large i n the respondents' concern, and are present i n both Parsons' formulation of the youth culture and i n Coleman's "adolescent society". Moreover, the congruence of Coleman's findings for high school students with Parsons' formulation with regard to romanticism, irresponsibility and compulsive conformity, and the absence of these features among our respondents, tends to support the suggestion of "age-level subcultures". Youth at different periods i n adolescence define their situations differently, so that the university students feel that they have outgrown certain patterns of behaviour which are then "kid stuff" to them, but s t i l l matters of deep commitment to the senior high school students, who, i n turn feel too "grown-up" for junior high school patterns. In fact, university attendance i s evidence of this "putting away of childish things", since i t involves some measure of commitment to academic achievement which tends to be sneered at i n high school "adolescent society". 18 J.S. Coleman, op. c i t . , pp. 39-k2.  123 Thus, we  can  say t h a t a " c o l l e g e s u b - c u l t u r e "  w i t h i n the g e n e r a l youth c u l t u r e , and behaviour and  exists  t h a t the p a t t e r n s  of  a t t i t u d e s of our respondents can be taken as i n d i c a -  t i v e of t h i s .  Some of i t s p r i n c i p a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e :  emphasis on independence, a d e s i r e f o r a d u l t  an  responsibilities,  moral i n d i v i d u a l i s m , r e a l i s m i n v o l v i n g among other f a c t o r s a questioning  a t t i t u d e toward both a d u l t and  peer-group  patterns,  and an a c t i v e s t r i v i n g f o r i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the approaching a d u l t world, balanced by a p a s s i v e social order.^ serves  The  submission to a p e r c e i v e d  omnipotent  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of c o n t r a d i c t o r y elements  to h i g h l i g h t the c o n f l i c t s and  people are e x p e r i e n c i n g  c o n f u s i o n which these young  i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o cope w i t h a f r u s t r a t -  i n g environment. D i f f e r e n t i a t i o n w i t h i n the Late Adolescent Sub-Gulture But we  have to a l l o w f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of f u r t h e r  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s w i t h i n the s u b - c u l t u r e d i s t i n g u i s h a " c o l l e g e " and  of l a t e adolescence.  a "non-college"  sub-culture.  We  can  The  " c o l l e g e s u b - c u l t u r e " can be f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t i a t e d between those a c t i v e l y o r i e n t e d t o the a d u l t w o r l d and  manifesting  a d u l t a t t i t u d e s — t y p i f i e d , f o r example, by our  respondents—and  those o r i e n t e d to the  s o c i a l aspects of u n i v e r s i t y l i f e ,  including  19 Compare the f i n d i n g s of D. Riesman, "Where i s Our C o l l e g e G e n e r a t i o n Headed" i n A t l a n t i c . A p r i l 1 9 6 l ; and R.E. Nixon, "The Dynamics of Growth i n Adolescence" i n P s y c h i a t r y , V o l . 2k, February 1 9 6 l , PP« 18-31.  12k  such prominent  p a t t e r n s as p a r t i e s and popular music,  i t i e s and s o r o r i t i e s , and the " d a t i n g complex".  fratern-  I t i s the  ascendance of these l a t t e r p a t t e r n s , w i t h the emphasis on present enjoyment and "having a good time", which c h a r a c t e r i s e s t h i s s e c t o r of the " c o l l e g e s u b - c u l t u r e " :  there i s a l a r g e 20  element of the g e n e r a l youth c u l t u r e present h e r e . The n o n - c o l l e g e s u b - c u l t u r e of l a t e adolescence would i n c l u d e the p a t t e r n s of behaviour of young people who  entered  the o c c u p a t i o n a l world i n s t e a d of proceeding to u n i v e r s i t y . G e n e r a l l y , they would be a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a d u l t world i n a manner independent i n adult r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  of p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y , and s h a r i n g  Some, f o r i n s t a n c e , would be m a r r i e d  and e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r own household, w h i l e o t h e r s would be "going steady" or d a t i n g w i t h a view t o marriage, now are e a r n i n g t h e i r own  livelihood.  t h a t they  Others, though engaged i n  a d u l t p a t t e r n s and d i s p l a y i n g a d u l t a t t i t u d e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n the sphere of o c c u p a t i o n a l commitments, may  adhere to p a t t e r n s  s i m i l a r to those of the " l e i s u r e s e c t o r " of the c o l l e g e subculture. of  S i m i l a r l y , the l a c k of commitment t o academic achievement  the l a t t e r may  l e a d t o a f a i r l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of "dropping-  out" from u n i v e r s i t y attendance, and entrance i n t o t h i s  "leisure  20 Compare M. Trow's d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of c o l l e g e v a l u e s , a t t i t u d e s and behaviour i n t o a c o l l e g e c u l t u r e , a youth c u l t u r e , and student s u b c u l t u r e s . He was s p e c i f i c a l l y concerned w i t h f a c t o r s i n r e c r u i t m e n t to c o l l e g e t e a c h i n g : "Recruitment to C o l l e g e Teaching" i n A.H. Halsey, J . F l o u d and C.A. Anderson, E d u c a t i o n , Economy and S o c i e t y , Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , F r e e P r e s s ,  196l,  pp. 602-620.  125  s e c t o r " of the n o n - c o l l e g e "having The  s u b - c u l t u r e , where the value of  a good time" c o - e x i s t s with the v a l u e of having  21  a job.  job serves as a guarantee f o r the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the  immediate g r a t i f i c a t i o n a l p a t t e r n and n o t p r i m a r i l y as a symbol of acceptance  of the p u b l i c a d u l t commitment.  That  is,an  e x p r e s s i v e value becomes transformed, i n t o an i n s t r u m e n t a l one. Our respondents'  i n t e n d e d mode of a d a p t a t i o n to the  a d u l t world bears some resemblance to t h i s t r a n s v a l u a t i o n .  They  propose to combine r i t u a l i s m i n the p u b l i c sphere w i t h i n n o v a t i o n i n t h e i r p r i v a t e l i v e s as the mode of coping with anomie, i n 22  Merton's terminology.  But t h e i r present behaviour,  especially  w i t h r e g a r d to the e x p r e s s i o n of independence, cannot so e a s i l y be c a t e g o r i s e d — e x c e p t perhaps i n Parsons'  terms which a l l o w  f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o whether s o c i a l o b j e c t s or norms are the f o c u s . ^  Thus, we have a complicated  2  the respondents  s i t u a t i o n i n which  i n t h e i r s t r i v i n g f o r independence from p a r e n t a l  a u t h o r i t y both submit and r e b e l .  Moreover, these responses are  d i r e c t e d toward both s o c i a l o b j e c t s , t h e i r parents, and the norm 2 1 See D. Matza's and G. fSykes'. d i s c u s s i o n of "subterranean v a l u e s " i n American s o c i e t y i n American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. V o l . 2 6 , No. 5-, October 1 9 6 l , pp. 7 1 2 - 9 . These are w i d e l y h e l d and r e c o g n i s e d v a l u e s i n c o n f l i c t or c o m p e t i t i o n with other deeply h e l d v a l u e s . 2 2 R-wK. Merton, l o c . c i t . 2 3 T. Parsons,  1951,  PP.  The S o c i a l .System, Glencoe,  256-259.  I l l i n o i s , Free  Press,  126 of c h i l d r e n ' s obedience to t h e i r p a r e n t s .  They submit i n some  areas and r e b e l i n c e r t a i n others of the same g e n e r a l s i t u a t i o n ; t h a t i s , w i t h r e g a r d to t h e i r p a r e n t - c h i l d  relations.  However, i t should be noted t h a t the r e b e l l i o n p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l — f o r example, paying one's own expenses,  against  university  or purchasing one's own c a r — d o e s not u n e q u i v o c a l l y  i n v o l v e v i o l a t i o n of the norm of obedience  to p a r e n t s .  For, i t  i s a c u l t u r a l l y d e f i n e d g o a l t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l "stands on h i s own f e e t " or "does i t h i m s e l f " .  C h i l d r e n are i n d o c t r i n a t e d  i n t o t h i s p a t t e r n by the parents themselves, whose a u t h o r i t y can thus be subverted a t the same time t h a t the c u l t u r a l as t r a n s m i t t e d by them are obeyed.  dictates  That i s , the c h i l d obeys h i s  parents by d i s o b e y i n g them, as i t were.  We  seem to have here a  case of c o n t r a d i c t o r y p r e s c r i b e d norms a p p l i c a b l e to the same s i t u a t i o n w i t h i n a s i n g l e s o c i a l system. be c h a r a c t e r i s e d as d e v i a n t , Merton's it,  I f such behaviour can  schema does not a l l o w f o r  and i t s t r a d d l e s the a c t i v i t y - p a s s i v i t y dichotomy  f o r m u l a t i o n , and perhaps d i v i s i o n as w e l l .  the l a t t e r ' s  conformative-alienative  F o r i t i s a moot p o i n t whether the proper  combination should be compulsive enforcement and submission, or compulsive enforcement compulsive  i n Parsons*  (or  achievement!  (or achievement)  and  independence. There seems to be l i t t l e  e x p r e s s i o n of independence  doubt t h a t such ambiguous  c a r r i e s elements of compulsion,  t h a t , r e g a r d l e s s of the m o t i v a t i o n a l dynamics,  and  t h i s i s an  i n d i c a t i o n of an a t t i t u d e i n c o n f o r m i t y with the c u l t u r a l v a l u e .  127  S i m i l a r l y , t h e apparent de-emphasis  o f c o n f o r m i t y t o peer-group  s t a n d a r d s a t t h i s s t a g e , and t h e i r own a d m i s s i o n o f a need f o r dependence on a d u l t s now, may be s u g g e s t i v e o f an o u t - g r o w i n g of  the k i n d s o f dependency needs f o s t e r e d i n the f a m i l y and  l a t e r s a t i s f i e d i n the peer-group when t h e p a r e n t a l f i g u r e s came t o be viewed as o b s t a c l e s t o t h e i r independence.  F o r , the  k i n d s o f dependence they now need have none o f the s u b m i s s i v e ness o f c h i l d r e n t o p a r e n t s i n the home. the  Rather, i t partakes of  m u t u a l i t y o f a d u l t s who r e c o g n i s e the need f o r c o - o p e r a t i v e  relations i n social l i f e .  I n o t h e r words, these persons c a n be  viewed as h a v i n g v i r t u a l l y a r r i v e d a t a new r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r environment, and i t i s a mode of a d a p t a t i o n t h a t i n c l u d e s of  t h e s p e c t a c u l a r f e a t u r e s o f the y o u t h c u l t u r e .  little  However, they  have r e t a i n e d t h o s e f e a t u r e s w h i c h a r e a c c e p t a b l e and f u n c t i o n a l 2k  in  the a d u l t w o r l d .  From t h i s p o i n t o f v i e w , the y o u t h  c u l t u r e — a n d the s u b - c u l t u r e s which c a n be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d w i t h i n i t — c a n be r e g a r d e d as t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s a t i o n o f y o u t h ' s common p o s i t i o n i n an u n s t r u c t u r e d d i m e n s i o n o f t h e s o c i a l structure. 2k Compare Matza and S y k e s , l o c . c i t . ; and. P a r s o n s , who h o l d s that c e r t a i n youth c u l t u r e values are i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d i n American a d u l t c u l t u r e , and a r e i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e main system o f v a l u e s . " P a t t e r n s o f A g g r e s s i o n i n t h e Western W o r l d : , i n E s s a y s i n S o c i o l o g i c a l Theory, R e v i s e d E d i t i o n , G l e n c o e , I l l i n o i s , F r e e P r e s s , 195*+» PP« 2 9 8 - 3 2 2 . Parsons r e c o g n i s e s s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s as t r a n s m i t t e r s o f y o u t h c u l t u r e b u t does n o t d i f f e r e n t i a t e what i s t r a n s m i t t e d by each medium.  128  A Comparison We  cannot agree w i t h E l k i n and W e s t l e y who  m y t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r of a d o l e s c e n t  c u l t u r e and  argue the  the u s u a l c h a r a c t e r 25  i s a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n c e as a p e r i o d of s t r e s s and s t r a i n . ^  On  the b a s i s of t h e i r study of an upper m i d d l e - c l a s s suburb i n Montreal,  they c o n c l u d e t h a t the r e p o r t e d w i d e s p r e a d dominance  of y o u t h c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s among American a d o l e s c e n t s  i s a myth.  They say t h a t d a t a f r o m o t h e r s t u d i e s of suburban and s m a l l town s e t t i n g s , such as  ,t  Elmtown", c o n f i r m t h e i r p o i n t of v i e w .  They  found more c o n t i n u i t y t h a n d i s c o n t i n u i t y i n s o c i a l i s a t i o n , s h a r p c o n f l i c t s between p a r e n t s and a d o l e s c e n t s , and no o v e r t problems of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o i c e or e m a n c i p a t i o n authority figures.  few  serious  from  F u r t h e r m o r e , these a d o l e s c e n t s were not  c o m p u l s i v e l y independent and r e j e c t i n g of a d u l t v a l u e s . c u l t u r e elements e x i s t e d but were l e s s dominant t h a n f a m i l y and a u t h o r i t y guidance p a t t e r n s and  Youth  accepted  the a d o l e s c e n t s  say  t h a t t h e i r " k i d d i n g around" and o t h e r y o u t h c u l t u r e a c t i v i t i e s are temporary phenomena. T h i s does not seem t o be s u f f i c i e n t grounds f o r abandoni n g the n o t i o n of a y o u t h c u l t u r e and the c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of a d o l e s c e n c e as a Sturm and Drang p e r i o d .  C o n f l i c t i s not  always  2 5 F. E l k i n and D. W e s t l e y , "The Myth of A d o l e s c e n t C u l t u r e " i n American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 2 0 , No. 6 , December 1 9 5 5 , . pp.  680-k.  2 6 A.B.  1949.  H o l l i n g s h e a d , Elmtown's Y o u t h , New  Y o r k , John W i l e y ,  129  expressed i n overt behaviour.  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , f o r example,  that these young people do not d i s c u s s s e x u a l i t y with parents, whereas other matters are t a l k e d about. suggest t h a t E l k i n and Westley have probably  We  their would  discovered  a set.  of c o n d i t i o n s under which youth c u l t u r e elements become ated to a d u l t p a t t e r n s and prominent.  parents  the t u r m o i l of adolescence made l e s s  These c o n d i t i o n s would i n c l u d e , a r e l a t i v e l y  homogeneous and guided, and  i s o l a t e d suburban s e t t i n g where youth are  encouraged, i n a d u l t p a t t e r n s which they see  f o l l o w — f o r example, e n t e r t a i n i n g — a n d  ships encourage independence, with few What we  subordin-  their  family r e l a t i o n -  contradictory  seem to have here i s a s t r u c t u r i n g of the  expectations.  adolescent's  world by a d u l t s i n a manner that cushions the s t r a i n s by c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n s of r o l e s with patterns.  providing  s i g n i f i c a n t components of a d u l t  However, a l l the c o n f l i c t s are not  thereby removed:  some remain s h i e l d e d from p u b l i c view. The  p e r s i s t e n c e of i n n e r c o n f l i c t i s a t t e s t e d to by  the f i n d i n g s of another Canadian study of a  middle-class  suburb, where some overt c o n f l i c t between a d o l e s c e n t s i s manifested  as w e l l .  economic s t a n d i n g ,  and  adults  Crestwood H e i g h t s i s s i m i l a r i n s o c i o -  and r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n ,  to E l k i n s  and  27 Westley's Suburban Town. borne out: and  Yet,  the l a t t e r s ' f i n d i n g s are  there i s c o n f l i c t , though l i t t l e  some adherence to youth c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s .  2 7 J.R. S e e l e y , R.A. Sim and E.W. New York, B a s i c Books, 1 9 5 6 .  overt  not  rebellion,  Here the  L o o s e l y , Crestwood  community Heights,  130 c u l t u r e does n o t provide  s t r u c t u r e d a d u l t guidance, and the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between a d u l t d i c t a and a c t i o n s a r e e x p l o i t e d by the a d o l e s c e n t s . adulthood  However, with c l o s e r age approximation t o  there i s movement towards acceptance of some of the 29  adult values  of the community. '  T h i s i s support  f o r our age-  l e v e l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the youth c u l t u r e and the g r a d u a t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s through the v a r i o u s  stages.  E l k i n and Westley have sought to employ t h e i r respondents' r e c o g n i t i o n of the temporary nature  of the youth  c u l t u r e elements as support  But we f a i l to  see the r e l e v a n c e  f o r t h e i r argument.  of t h i s p o i n t , s i n c e what p r o t a g o n i s t s of the  youth c u l t u r e n o t i o n have s t a t e d i s the permanence of the p a t t e r n s d e s p i t e the changing p a r t i c i p a n t s .  We would h o l d  t h e i r data r e v e a l the importance f o r a d o l e s c e n t  that  behaviour of the  kinds of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s i n which a d o l e s c e n t s are embedded, and a d u l t guidance, as our respondents have emphasized. VJe see l i t t l e  b a s i s f o r c o n c u r r i n g with t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n of the  m y t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r of the youth c u l t u r e and the c o n f l i c t s of adolescence. In f a c t , we conclude that a g e n e r a l youth c u l t u r e embodying s e v e r a l s u b - c u l t u r e s e x i s t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g a g e n e r a l i s ed adherence by a d o l e s c e n t s  28  to p a t t e r n s of behaviour  S e e l e y , Sim and L o o s e l y . l p e , c i t . , pp.  29 I b i d . , p. 108.  112-117.  specifically  131 confined  to the a g e - p e r i o d between c h i l d h o o d  Prominent  among i t s d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s  independence great  and adulthood.  are:  from a d u l t a u t h o r i t y , a d a t i n g  an emphasis on  complex i n v o l v i n g  emphasis on c r o s s - s e x r e l a t i o n a h i p s and "romantic  attachments,  a strong  a c t i v i t y orientation often  love"  characterised  by aimlessness and t h r i l l - s e e k i n g , r e c a l c i t r a n c e to a d u l t standards of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , a b r i n g i n g  to the f o r e of such  "subterranean" v a l u e s of the a d u l t c u l t u r e as p h y s i c a l prowess. In a d d i t i o n , the tendency t o romantic i d e a l i s a t i o n of c e r t a i n o b j e c t s which are i n v e s t e d with extreme emotional s i g n i f i c a n c e , at the lower a g e - l e v e l s  of adolescence, stands i n c o n t r a s t to  the r e a l i s m of l a t e adolescence. The c e n t r a l f e a t u r e  of t h i s p a t t e r n e d complex i s  peer a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a v i r t u a l e x c l u s i o n  of a d u l t s .  However,  the youth c u l t u r e r e p r e s e n t s n o t so much p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a n t i - a d u l t world as involvement i n a world apart from  adults.  The other youth c u l t u r e t r a i t s hinge on t h i s e x c l u s i v e association.  Thus, the emphasis on "romantic l o v e "  peer  attachments,  p h y s i c a l prowess, t h r i l l - s e e k i n g and the a c t i v i t y o r i e n t a t i o n , and both r e a l i s m and i d e a l i s a t i o n of e m o t i o n a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t objects  a r e a l l i n t i m a t e l y bound, up w i t h the d a t i n g complex which  i s an important aspect of peer a s s o c i a t i o n . independence  S i m i l a r l y , compulsive  and r e c a l c i t r a n c e to a d u l t standards of r e s p o n s i b i l -  i t y r e i n f o r c e , and are r e i n f o r c e d by, peer a s s o c i a t i o n , and the d a t i n g  complex, s p e c i f i c a l l y .  The l a t t e r ranges  generally, from  132  c a s u a l d a t i n g a t one extreme t o "going steady" a t the other, but the g e n e r a l  emphasis i s on p a t t e r n s  whether simply  of c r o s s - s e x r e l a t i o n s ,  "hanging around" or "having a soda"  together,  or engaging i n v a r i o u s forms of sexual r e l a t i o n s as p a r t o f the n o t i o n of "romantic I t should  love". be noted t h a t there i s a s i m i l a r i t y between  our term " d a t i n g complex" and W a l l e r ' s  " r a t i n g and d a t i n g  However, we have abandoned the " r a t i n g " aspect  complex".  of the phrase  because we f e e l that i t a p p l i e d to a s p e c i a l i s e d phenomenon within a particular situation.  I t i s true that emphasis on  i n d i v i d u a l p o p u l a r i t y and p h y s i c a l prowess are prominent  traits  of the g e n e r a l youth c u l t u r e and that boys tend to c l a s s i f y g i r l s i n t o two broad c a t e g o r i e s :  those w i t h whom they "have  f u n " and those w i t h whom they "get s e r i o u s " and marry. are convinced that the s p e c i f i c  But we  "rank c o n s c i o u s n e s s " which i s  the essenc.e o f " r a t i n g " i s n o t g e n e r a l i s e d  throughout the youth  c u l t u r e t o warrant i t s i n c l u s i o n as a dominant f e a t u r e . more, i t i s n o t present  Further-  among our respondents who share the  c o l l e g e student s t a t u s o f the s u b j e c t s  of W a l l e r ' s  study.  The  k i n d o f d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n between p a r t n e r s which we have found i s not an attempt to c r e a t e an e l i t e based on "dating  conquests",  but i s r a t h e r the common process of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n involved**in  3 0 W. W a l l e r . "The R a t i n g and Dating Complex", i n L. W i l s o n and W.L. K o l b ( e d s . ) , S o c i o l o g i c a l A n a l y s i s , New York, H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , 1 9 * + 9 , pp. 6 1 1 - 9 . See a l s o Parsons, l o g , c i t . who adopted the concept f o r h i s d i s c u s s i o n of youth c u l t u r e .  133  the s e l e c t i o n of one's a s s o c i a t e s .  The g e n e r a l p a t t e r n of  a c t i v i t i e s which comprise d a t i n g i s the same, but here the predominant s t a t u s emphasis i s absent.  Our view i s confirmed by  the f i n d i n g s of Coleman who r e p o r t s the growth of e l i t e s h i g h s c h o o l adolescents d a t i n g as a c r i t e r i o n  among  who, however, do not employ prowess i n  31  of status.-*  3 1 Coleman, op. c i t . . pp.  97-l +2. l  CHAPTER V I I SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS What We Expected t o F i n d In t h i s study we expected t o f i n d that our respondents experience c o n f l i c t s i n t h e i r attempts t o cope w i t h the problems of independence,  s e x u a l i t y , achievement,  and i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n .  I t was thought t h a t t h e i r r e a c t i o n s t o these c o n f l i c t s would v a r y i n accordance w i t h t h e i r socio-economic p o s i t i o n c a l c u l a t e d on the b a s i s o f the income and e d u c a t i o n of t h e i r p a r e n t s .  We  a l s o expected t h a t t h e i r behaviour would conform t o the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n s o f a d o l e s c e n t behaviour subsumed under the r u b r i c of youth c u l t u r e . What We Found We found our respondents t o be i n v o l v e d i n c o n f l i c t s c o n c e r n i n g independence,  s e x u a l i t y , achievement,  and i d e n t i t y .  However, our e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e i r ways o f managing these c o n f l i c t s would v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r socio-economic was not confirmed.  T h e i r responses show t h a t  socio-economic  p o s i t i o n i s n o t the s t r u c t u r a l dimension along which behaviour i s d i f f e r e n t i a t e d .  position  their  I n s t e a d , we d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a  c r u c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g f a c t o r i s the k i n d s o f p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which they a r e embedded.  On the one hand i s the  k i n d of f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s e d by a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m , of p a r e n t a l t r u s t and mutual r e s p e c t , f a i l u r e of  lack  communication,  135  and p a r e n t a l ignorance of t h e i r r o l e i n the transformation from c h i l d to a d u l t .  This p a t t e r n generates resentment on the part  of youth and leads them t o a "quiet r e b e l l i o n " against p a r e n t a l control. On the other hand, stands the kind of f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n i n which parents are aware of t h e i r r o l e i n t h i s period of transition.  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by mutual t r u s t and  respect  which f a c i l i t a t e parent-youth communication, and a w i l l i n g n e s s of parents to provide o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r youth to e x e r c i s e independence secure i n the knowledge of p a r e n t a l approval support.  and  This l a t t e r p a t t e r n tends to r e i n f o r c e youth's  commitment to the c u l t u r a l values and s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . This atmosphere of r e l a t i v e freedom and permissiveness,  with  the l a c k of c o n t r a d i c t o r y expectations on the part of parents leadsto the o r i e n t a t i o n of t h e i r behaviour towards the s o c i a l l y prescribed d i r e c t i o n s and away from i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . We a l s o found t h a t the respondents' behaviour at once i n c l u d e s youth c u l t u r e patterns and approaches the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d for adults.  expectations  The c o n f i g u r a t i o n of patterns to  which they adhere d i f f e r s from that u s u a l l y described c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the youth c u l t u r e .  as  However, on the b a s i s of  c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l s i m i l a r i t i e s of values, a t t i t u d e s and behaviour we have suggested the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of the youth c u l t u r e i n t o three a g e - l e v e l c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n s corresponding to e a r l y , middle, and l a t e adolescence, or j u n i o r high s c h o o l ,  136 s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and e a r l y c o l l e g e s u b - c u l t u r e s .  It i s  f u r t h e r suggested t h a t the l a t e a d o l e s c e n t or e a r l y c o l l e g e s u b - c u l t u r e more c l o s e l y resembles the a d u l t c u l t u r e than the g e n e r a l youth c u l t u r e , s i n c e more "dramatic" f e a t u r e s of the l a t t e r have been out-grown. l o c a t e our respondents.  I t i s a t t h i s l e v e l we would  I n a d d i t i o n , we found w i t h i n the  g e n e r a l i s e d p a t t e r n f o r our respondents d i f f e r e n c e s i n emphases w i t h r e g a r d t o the management o f the problem  areas a c c o r d i n g t o  sex. F i n a l l y , we d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the respondents'  approach  to t h e i r s i t u a t i o n v i s - a - v i s the a d u l t w o r l d i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by r e a l i s m .  T h i s i n v o l v e s a tendency  to "face the f a c t s o f  l i f e " and t o c r i t i c a l l y assess the standards o f both a d u l t s and p e e r s , i n order to a s c e r t a i n the r e s p e c t i v e m e r i t s and de-merits b e f o r e adopting e i t h e r .  At times, t h i s borders on  d e f e a t i s m when they c o n s i d e r the matter o f s o c i a l change':  they  eschew " r a d i c a l " s o l u t i o n s and adhere t o a "conservatism", p a r t l y blaming the omnipotence of the s o c i a l o r d e r . A.  Independence 1.  The C o n f l i c t The c o n f l i c t e x p e r i e n c e d i n the s t r u g g l e f o r independ-  ence d e r i v e s from the respondents' attempts t o r e c o n c i l e need f o r independence  their  from p a r e n t a l a u t h o r i t y with a complementary  need f o r dependence on p a r e n t s .  Independence i s a p r e r e q u i s i t e  f o r p e r s o n a l growth and the achievement  of s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n ,  137 whereas dependence o f f e r s the s e c u r i t y o f r e l i a n c e on s i g n i f i cant persons as a jumping-off p o i n t f o r the attainment o f i n n e r security.  Both a r e necessary a t t h i s stage of t h e i r l i v e s so  t h a t they would develop the i n d i v i d u a l i t y n e c e s s a r y f o r f u n c t i o n i n g as mature i n d i v i d u a l s i n the a d u l t world. 2.  The O b s t a c l e s They r e g a r d parents as a major o b s t a c l e t o the  attainment o f t h i s b a l a n c e , because the l a t t e r f a i l the proper home atmosphere. too s t r i c t  to provide  They f e e l t h a t parents a r e e i t h e r  or too p e r m i s s i v e , are i g n o r a n t of t h e i r r o l e s i n t h i s  p e r i o d o f t r a n s i t i o n , and l a c k r e s p e c t f o r and t r u s t i n them. Consequently,  there i s d i s t a n c e and a f a i l u r e of communication  between parents and c h i l d r e n .  I n s t e a d , the s i t u a t i o n should be  such t h a t they c o u l d d i s c u s s matters o f Importance w i t h parents and f e e l f r e e t o take independent  their  action, confident  i n the support and understanding which come from t r u s t and respect. 3.  The "Quiet R e b e l l i o n " Perception of t h e i r parents  1  f a i l u r e t o p l a y the  proper r o l e s c r e a t e s d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and resentment. conform  t o p a r e n t a l wishes i n order t o f u l f i l l  and g a i n s o c i a l a p p r o v a l . independent  their  Y e t , they obligations  At the same time, however, they take  a c t i o n i n areas where t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n would n o t be  d e t e c t e d as such, and, i n f a c t , would g a i n p r a i s e .  Thus, they  assume the burden of the c o s t o f t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n , and decide f o r themselves what i d e a s and b e l i e f s they would  adhere.to,  138 so t h a t they a t once subvert a u t h o r i t y and conform t o the cultural  dictates. By means of t h i s " q u i e t r e b e l l i o n " they achieve  of the two  important a s p e c t s of independence:  and are enabled t o work towards the o t h e r :  the  the f i n a n c i a l , emotional.  Both a s p e c t s must be present together f o r the i n d i v i d u a l achieved f u l l independence. seek the other to e s t a b l i s h  T h e r e f o r e , those who the balance;  one  have  t o have  one,  t h a t i s , t o be a t  once a b l e to p r o v i d e f o r one's m a t e r i a l needs, and to f e e l secure i n o n e s e l f . B.  Sexuality 1.  The  Conflict  Here, they are endeavouring  to r e c o n c i l e  of t h e i r s e x u a l d e s i r e s w i t h the demands of t h e i r and t h e i r need f o r s o c i a l a p p r o v a l .  satisfaction consciences  T h e i r dilemma i s i n c r e a s e d  by t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r a d i c t o r y codes and p a t t e r n s of behaviour  both between and w i t h i n groups,  r e s p e c t i v e adherents  and the f a c t t h a t the  are able to j u s t i f y t h e i r b e l i e f s  and  actions. 2.  Moral I n d i v i d u a l i s m In t h i s chaos of c o n f l i c t i n g p a t t e r n s they emphasize  the n e c e s s i t y f o r each i n d i v i d u a l h i s conscience: entirely.  to f o l l o w the d i c t a t e s of  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r h i s a c t i o n s i s h i s  They f e e l t h a t i t i s u n f a i r to judge the behaviour  of  139 i n d i v i d u a l s on the b a s i s of a s e t of r i g i d each person i s unique and  standards,  since  s u b j e c t to the i n f l u e n c e s of a unique  c o n f i g u r a t i o n of f o r c e s a c t i n g on him.  There can be  private  disagreement but no p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m , except of parents who responsible  f o r what c h i l d r e n become.  a s s e r t i o n of t h e i r independence and to respect 3.  the i n d i v i d u a l i t y of  S e x u a l i t y per  se:  are  T h i s i s a t once an  an e x p r e s s i o n  of w i l l i n g n e s s  others.  Doubt  T h i s r e l a t i v i s m i n the matter of m o r a l i t y i s a l s o a p p l i e d to the management of s e x u a l i t y , where they waver between an uneasy indulgence and  an unconvinced c o n f o r m i t y , i n s t r i v i n g  t o s a t i s f y the three demanding masters.  Moral i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s  not a f i n a l s o l u t i o n , f o r there i s the nagging doubt t h a t  the  p a r t i c u l a r course which the i n d i v i d u a l has  chosen may  be wrong.  I n s t e a d , i t i s a r e s p i t e from the s t r u g g l e  to achieve  self-  certainty. 4.  An E t i q u e t t e of Indulgence In t h e i r doubt concerning the r i g h t course they  say  t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are f r e e to engage i n sexual r e l a t i o n s i f they so d e s i r e .  However, they i n s i s t t h a t c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s  f i r s t be s a t i s f i e d .  Sexual p a r t n e r s  and mutually consent to the a c t s . would be  must be l i n k e d by a f f e c t i o n  In t h i s way,  neither  s e t at a disadvantage, f e a r s about p r o m i s c u i t y  a l l a y e d , and conditions  recriminations  must  person can  a f t e r the event f o r e s t a l l e d .  are designed to cover the d e c i s i o n w i t h regard  be  These to  I*f0 p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l behaviour, as w e l l as the kinds of a c t s engaged i n :  i n d i v i d u a l i t y and p r i v a c y are emphasized.  Never-  t h e l e s s , they adhere t o a double standard, whereby boys have the r i g h t to make advances whereas g i r l s have the r i g h t to r e j e c t them.  Boys should g a i n s e x u a l experience but g i r l s s h o u l d remain  untouched. 5.  Reasons f o r Abstinence C o n s i d e r a t i o n of f i v e s e t s o f f a c t o r s l e a d s them t o  a b s t a i n from p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l i n d u l g e n c e . ( i ) F e a r of pregnancy:  They tend to r e g a r d pregnancy as an  almost i n e v i t a b l e consequence o f c o i t u s .  T h i s i s the major f e a r ,  p r i n c i p a l l y because of the h i g h l y v i s i b l e consequences t h a t could follow. ( i i ) Fear of f o r c e d m a r r i a g e s :  They may be f o r c e d i n t o marriage  w i t h a p a r t n e r who probably would not have been otherwise chosen, were the g i r l  to become pregnant, i n order t o p r o t e c t  their  reputations.  Moreover, they may be f i n a n c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y  unprepared f o r marriage. ( i i i ) Fear of g u i l t and shame:  They may be unable to cope w i t h  t h e i r own f e e l i n g s a f t e r having done the a c t .  Guilt  feelings  may r e s u l t from d e s i r e s o v e r - r i d i n g c o n s c i e n c e , or the f e e l i n g t h a t , d e s p i t e mutual consent, the other agreed because of one's greater i n f l u e n c e .  They may f e e l t h a t everybody knows what they  have done, and f o r the g i r l , her p r i v a t e a c t may have the p u b l i c consequences of unwed motherhood.  141 ( i v ) Maintenance of body wholeness:  There i s the f e e l i n g  t h a t the i n t e g r i t y of the body would be v i o l a t e d . not only devalue  a g i r l i n the marriage  T h i s would  market, e s p e c i a l l y i f  her behaviour were known, but i t would a l s o remove an element o f mystery from  marriage.  (v) Lack o f o p p o r t u n i t y : would i n d u l g e themselves,  There i s some f e e l i n g t h a t they suspending  f e a r s , were o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e .  t h e i r r e s e r v a t i o n s and T h i s f a c t o r r a i s e s the  q u e s t i o n of the d i f f e r e n t i a l r o l e s of d e l i b e r a t i o n and chance i n t h e i r adherence t o p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l a b s t i n e n c e .  Furthermore,  how much would t h e i r f e a r s be worth, i f p r i v a c y c o u l d be guaranteed? 6.  The Need f o r  Understanding  They f e e l t h a t they must understand t o be a b l e t o manage i t adequately.  s e x u a l i t y i n order  T h i s process i n v o l v e s  m a r s h a l l i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g the a v a i l a b l e f a c t s so t h a t s e x u a l i t y can be s e t i n the proper p e r s p e c t i v e of i n d i v i d u a l development and s o c i a l l i f e .  The maintenance of a t t i t u d e s o f  p r e j u d i c e and ignorance i n v i t e s uninformed experimentation and unnecessary  trouble.  T h e r e f o r e , a l l matters  s e x u a l i t y should be openly d i s c u s s e d .  pertaining to  Adequate sex e d u c a t i o n  should p r o v i d e them w i t h t h r e e v a l u e s : ( i ) Information: transmitted.  Knowledge of s e x u a l matters  should be  The f a c t s as they a r e known should be made  a v a i l a b l e so t h a t they can be examined and i n t e r p r e t e d as a p r e l i m i n a r y to a c t i o n .  Ik2 ( i i ) Communication:  They emphasize the i n t e r - p e r s o n a l process  by which the i n f o r m a t i o n i s t r a n s m i t t e d .  Books are a v a i l a b l e  but they are impersonal o b j e c t s w i t h which one cannot d i s c u s s matters.  B e s i d e s , there i s the danger of misunderstanding  what  i s read.  T h i s i s a p e r s o n a l matter t o be d e a l t w i t h i n i n t e r -  p e r s o n a l communication, so t h a t another person i s p r e s e n t and can immediately ( i i i ) Models: a d u l t s , who  resolve d i f f i c u l t i e s . O b s e r v a t i o n of the behaviour of knowledgeable  thereby r e v e a l the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of the management  of s e x u a l i t y , i s the crowning  of the process of sex e d u c a t i o n .  Such persons would p r o v i d e l i v i n g examples of s u c c e s s f u l i n t e g r a t i o n of s e x u a l i t y i n t o s o c i a l  life.  Such a wealth of i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d t h a t , although they would p r e f e r to d i s c u s s s e x u a l matters w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , the l a t t e r c o u l d not be expected t o know i t a l l , i f they were not d i s q u a l i f i e d because of t h e i r ignorance prejudices.  and  Proper t e a c h e r s should be t r a i n e d f o r h i g h s c h o o l  i n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e the present ones being themselves and brought  even  parents  up i n the same r e s t r i c t i v e atmosphere, r e a c t i n  these matters e x a c t l y l i k e t h e i r c o n f r e r e s .  The  university  possesses e x p e r t s i n the v a r i o u s aspects of s e x u a l i t y whose s e r v i c e s can be made a v a i l a b l e .  They have the v i r t u e of not  i n j e c t i n g narrow views of s e x u a l m o r a l i t y i n t o d i s c u s s i o n s of the matter.  The Church i s g e n e r a l l y excluded as an agency of  i n s t r u c t i o n , s i n c e i t i s regarded as too prone t o p r e s e n t a too  1^3  narrow and  s p e c i a l i s e d brand of m o r a l i t y .  prefer that  the whole q u e s t i o n of m o r a l i t y  i s a matter f o r i n d i v i d u a l C.  They, i n f a c t , be  excluded:  it  decision.  Achievement 1.  The  Conflict  In t h i s area the respondents are concerned w i t h obtaining t h a t the  s e c u r i t y and  e x i s t i n g s o c i a l arrangements i n the  o f f e r the  one  but  p r o h i b i t the  g i v e s s e c u r i t y a t the 2.  r e t a i n i n g t h e i r independence.  other.  exorbitant  They f e e l  o c c u p a t i o n a l world  C o r p o r a t e bureaucracy  p r i c e of i n d i v i d u a l freedom.  Boys T h i s i s e s s e n t i a l l y the concern of the boys who  both f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y and  opportunities  employment of t h e i r t a l e n t s and  f o r independent  creativity.  w i l l have to make an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  want  They f e e l t h a t  they  compromise, by s e t t l i n g  f o r s e c u r i t y , because they have to e s t a b l i s h themselves f i n a n c i a l l y i n order to be a b l e to r a i s e a f a m i l y .  They w i l l have to  turn  elsewhere to areas such as f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s i n order to g i v e f r e e r e i n to t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s . They t h e r e f o r e  t e n d to lower t h e i r  aspirations,  abandoning t h e i r o r i g i n a l c h o i c e s of c a r e e r s i n favour secondary c h o i c e s which o f f e r p r i m a r i l y s e c u r i t y . law  and  of  Medicine,  e n g i n e e r i n g have been superseded, where a l t e r n a t i v e  c h o i c e s have been d e c i d e d , by ment s e r v i c e .  The  t e a c h i n g , the m i n i s t r y  and  govern-  s e c u r i t y they seek i n these occupations  Ihh consists of: 1.  r e g u l a r , moderate income  2.  p r e d i c t a b l e advancement  3.  tenure of p o s i t i o n .  They are concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the avoidance of r i s k . 3.  Girls The g i r l s too s e t t l e f o r s e c u r i t y as a r e s o l u t i o n of  the c o n f l i c t c e n t r e d on the p r a c t i c a l i t y o f combining a c a r e e r w i t h marriage.  They f e e l t h a t the combination would  d i s t u r b t h e i r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s and c r e a t e the k i n d of home atmosphere they have complained about, where p e r s o n a l growth i s stunted.  They w i l l t h e r e f o r e engage i n t h e i r secondary  occupa-  t i o n s b e f o r e marriage, and, should the e x i g e n c i e s o f m a r i t a l l i f e require i t ,  a f t e r t h e i r c h i l d r e n have grown up.  Marriage  o f f e r s a woman maximum s e c u r i t y , and i t i s s e c u r i t y t h a t a woman seeks, t h e r e f o r e , they w i l l l e a v e c a r e e r s t o the men whose b u s i n e s s i t i s t o p r o v i d e f o r the home. i n the home;"  "A woman's p l a c e i s  i t i s t h s r e she should make h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n and  seek achievement,  they f e e l .  They have chosen n u r s i n g , t e a c h i n g  and s o c i a l work as t h e i r p r e f e r r e d c a r e e r s .  These a r e a l l h i g h  demand occupations and c a n be combined w i t h marriage. k.  E a r l y Marriage The respondents s t r o n g l y oppose e a r l y marriage, i n  s p i t e o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f marriage i n a l l three c o n f l i c t areas.  They f e e l t h a t c e r t a i n p r e - r e q u i s i t e s have to be  145 s a t i s f i e d b e f o r e embarking on such a v e n t u r e .  They must be  f i n a n c i a l l y and e m o t i o n a l l y prepared t o meet the r e c u r r e n t problems o f m a r i t a l l i f e .  Not only would e a r l y  marriage  i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r immediate plans t o complete t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n and work f o r a few y e a r s b e f o r e marriage, but they might d i s c o v e r e i t h e r t h a t they have made premature and u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c h o i c e s o f p a r t n e r s , or t h a t they have n o t y e t a t t a i n e d t o the l e v e l o f i n n e r s t r e n g t h n e c e s s a r y f o r coping w i t h the problems of m a r i t a l adjustment. D.  V a r i a t i o n s and D i f f e r e n c e s 1.  By Sex:  Boys  The boys tend t o emphasize c e r t a i n aspects of t h e c o n f l i c t areas whereas g i r l s f o c u s t h e i r a t t e n t i o n on o t h e r s . (a)  Independence:  t h a t boys s t r e s s : home.  I n t h i s area i t i s the v a l u a t i o n a l a s p e c t they want t o be independent  o u t s i d e of the  They l a y g r e a t emphasis on f i n a n c i a l independence.  They are concerned w i t h s e v e r i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h  their  parents because of the l a t t e r ' s r e s t r i c t i o n s on independent action.  They want "to be on t h e i r own and t o pay t h e i r own  way." (b)  Sexuality:  They emphasize mutual consent as a n e c e s s i t y  f o r engagement i n p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e and are concerned  t h a t n e i t h e r p a r t n e r be put a t a disadvantage.  are concerned  They  n o t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t e x i s t s b e f o r e the  a c t , but w i t h what i t w i l l be a f t e r w a r d s .  They want t o p r o t e c t  1**6 t h e i r freedom, t h e r e f o r e , they must be f r e e o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s for  possible  consequences.  T h e i r p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r p r e - m a r i t a l a b s t i n e n c e are  f e a r o f "shot-gun weddings", and l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  sexual indulgence.  The f i r s t  r e v e a l s t h e i r concern w i t h  p r e s e r v a t i o n o f t h e i r freedom; for  t h e second shows l i t t l e  a f f e c t i o n a l t i e s as a p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o c o i t u s .  they c l a s s i f y g i r l s i n t o two groups:  concern  In fact,  those w i t h whom they have  p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l experience and would n o t o r d i n a r i l y c o n s i d e r as marriage p a r t n e r s ;  and those who a r e t o remain pure and  from among whom they would choose t h e i r f u t u r e wives.  Evidently,  the q u e s t i o n of a f f e c t i o n i s n o t important where g i r l s o f the first (c) of  c a t e g o r y are concerned. Achievement:  The boys' concern w i t h s e c u r i t y i n the w o r l d  work c e n t r e s on the a c q u i s i t i o n o f p o s i t i o n s which would  provide a r e g u l a r and s t a b l e income.  They want t o e s t a b l i s h  themselves i n a c a r e e r b e f o r e they marry, so t h a t they would be a b l e t o support a f a m i l y adequately.  They f o c u s on the m a t e r i a l  aspect o f marriage, s e e i n g themselves p r i m a r i l y i n the r o l e o f provider.  The matter o f i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s i n marriage  does n o t seem t o e x e r c i s e them. 2. (a)  Girls  Independence:  The g i r l s ' concern i s f o c u s e d on t h e  r e l a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f independence.  They want t o be independent  w i t h i n the home, and t o be r e s p e c t e d and t r e a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s .  Ik? They t h i n k , n o t so much of l e a v i n g independent, but r a t h e r parent-child but  the home i n order to be  of changing the e x i s t i n g  relations.  unsatisfactory  They want the r e l a t i o n s h i p s  preserved  t h e i r nature changed, so t h a t they can enjoy s e c u r i t y and  independence w i t h i n  them.  They should be f r e e t o surrender  t h e i r freedom i n marriage which they r e g a r d as the i n t e r dependence o f two independent i n d i v i d u a l s . (b)  Sexuality:  They i n s i s t on a f f e c t i o n a l bonds as a p r e -  requisite to pre-marital  coitus.  They a r e p r i m a r i l y  w i t h the nature of the p r e - e x i s t i n g  relationship.  concerned  Presumably,  mutual consent and concern f o r the p a r t n e r ' s w e l f a r e are subsumed under t h i s r u b r i c of a f f e c t i o n , t r u s t , r e s p e c t and i n t i m a c y on which they i n s i s t . Their  a b s t i n e n c e i s d i c t a t e d by f e a r of pregnancy,  f e a r of g u i l t and s o c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l , wholeness of the body.  and d e s i r e  to preserve the  A l l of these reasons i n v o l v e  not only  s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n i n the l i m i t e d sense o f the i n d i v i d u a l , but a l s o i n the wider sense of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s involved.  They t h i n k  of the e f f e c t t h a t p r e - m a r i t a l  would have on t h e i r f u t u r e (c)  Achievement:  relationships.  Here, too,  q u a l i t i e s of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  coitus  they are concerned w i t h t h e They choose marriage alone because  of the s e c u r i t y i t h o l d s f o r women.  They r e j e c t a combined  c a r e e r and marriage because they f e e l i t would d i s r u p t  their  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or prevent the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f the kinds  IkQ of r e l a t i o n s h i p s which they f e e l should o b t a i n i n the home. Where the  boys r e j e c t e a r l y marriage as a hindrance to t h e i r  r o l e as p r o v i d e r s , inter-personal (d)  the  g i r l s see  i t as an o b s t a c l e to  adjustment.  Summary and  Comparison of V a r i a t i o n s :  p e r c e p t i o n of the  This d i f f e r e n t i a l  s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s i n which they are  i s prominent throughout t h e i r d i s c u s s i o n s . exercised  by  successful  threats  The  boys  involved are  to themselves as i n d i v i d u a l s , i n the  t h a t t h e i r concerns r e v o l v e around e f f o r t s t o g a i n and t h e i r independence as i n d i v i d u a l s .  sense  preserve  Independence i s a v a l u e  to  them, t h e r e f o r e they emphasize s e p a r a t i o n from c o n s t r i c t i v e forces. G i r l s , on the  other hand, examine  relationships  c l o s e l y , i n order to see what c o n d i t i o n s o b t a i n w i t h i n For  them, being f r e e means being r e s p e c t e d as  within  p a r t i c u l a r sets of r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  of freedom t h a t matter, not  w i t h i n which to be f r e e , whereas the bonds.  The  latter's valuational  individuals  I t i s the  being f r e e per  se.  boys want to be f r e e  3.  i n new  Differences (i)  girls'  Categories  B — B o y s of h i g h e d u c a t i o n and 2  ence on t h e i r p a r e n t s .  establish  relationships.  i n Emphases by  These respondents are  of  emphasis makes them emphasize  r e l a t i o n a l emphasis l e a d s them to s t r e s s freedom t o be i n c l u d e d  conditions  They want bonds  freedom from r e s t r i c t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i l e the  and  them.  troubled  low  income p a r e n t s :  by a f e e l i n g of e x c e s s i v e depend-  They want t o be  independent, and  feel  149 t h a t t h i s would n e c e s s i t a t e l e a v i n g the f a m i l y But  surroundings.  they are r e s t r a i n e d by a sense of f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y which  they are u n w i l l i n g t o d i s t u r b .  There i s c o n f l i c t between t h e i r  o b l i g a t i o n s t o themselves and those t o t h e i r p a r e n t s .  They a r e  enmeshed i n a s e t of c o n d i t i o n s which they would p r e f e r to avoid.  T h e i r f e e l i n g s of o b l i g a t i o n a l l o w e x p r e s s i o n o f  independence only i n the realm of i d e a s .  So f a r , a d i s t u r b i n g  s e c u r i t y seems to have triumphed over a s t i f l e d (ii) parents:  independence.  B ^ — B o y s w i t h low e d u c a t i o n and low income  These boys have long been accustomed t o f i n a n c i a l  independence but f e e l a need to be dependent on t h e i r  parents.  They l a c k the s e c u r i t y of being embedded i n a s e t of s t a b l e p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s which they f e e l i s needed f o r the attainment  of i n n e r s e c u r i t y .  independence and too l i t t l e situation.  They a r e r e a c t i n g t o too much  dependence, and now seek a balanced  B u t , there i s a l a c k of p a r e n t - c h i l d communication,  i n t i m a c y and p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t . They i n s i s t on some measure of a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p and a f f e c t i o n b e f o r e engaging i n p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l i n t e r c o u r s e . However, they i n s i s t on a b s t i n e n c e as the mode they adopt. appear t o be r e a c t i n g t o the p a t t e r n s of s e x u a l  They  behaviour  p r e v a l e n t i n t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , where i t seems t h a t long a c q u a i n t a n c e s h i p and a f f e c t i o n would be unusual p r e - c o n d i t i o n s . (iii) parents:  G ^ — G i r l s w i t h low e d u c a t i o n and h i g h income  These g i r l s have l i t t l e  t o blame i n t h e i r p a r e n t - c h i l d  150 relationships.  T h e i r s i t u a t i o n approximates  the respondents  g e n e r a l l y r e g a r d as i d e a l .  c l o s e l y t h a t which They have a t t a i n e d  a good balance of independence and dependence w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r parents.  They u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r t h e i r p a r e n t s ' wishes and  f e e l i n g s b e f o r e t a k i n g a c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d a f f e c t them, s i n c e matters a r e f r e e l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h t h e i r parents who show i n t e r e s t i n , and r e s p e c t them, as i n d i v i d u a l s .  Only i n s e x u a l matters  have t h e i r parents f a i l e d t o l i v e up t o t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s . (iv) parents:  G ^ — G i r l s w i t h low e d u c a t i o n and low income  These g i r l s have the s t r o n g e s t complaints and express  the deepest resentment complete  against t h e i r parents.  There i s almost  d e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r parents who a r e regarded as  a u t h o r i t a r i a n s bent on r e t a i n i n g power over t h e i r  children.  They a r e made t o f e e l t o o dependent a t home and have s t r o n g wishes f o r independence o u t s i d e of t h e home.  They f e e l  estranged from t h e i r p a r e n t s w i t h whom t h e r e i s no communication, and who show them no r e s p e c t , t r u s t or a f f e c t i o n . These g i r l s r e j e c t a c a r e e r out of hand.  Marriage i s  t h e i r c a r e e r and they g i v e no thought t o t h e combination. T h e i r achievement would be t o p r o v i d e t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h the k i n d o f home atmosphere t h a t they wish they had. a l s o be t h e i r triumph (v)  Marriage would  of independence.  Comparison of Category V a r i a t i o n s :  These  v a r i a t i o n s a r e based on the theme of a balance of independence and dependence.  The G-, g i r l s are the o n l y ones who have s t r u c k  151 t h i s balance.  Those who f e e l too independent seek: dependence,  and those who f e e l t o o dependent  seek independence.  The B  2  boys and G^ g i r l s see themselves as being t o o dependent and y e a r n f o r independence o u t s i d e of the home, because the s i t u a t i o n t h e r e seems too h o p e l e s s to be changed. other boys, the B relationships:  2  U n l i k e the  and B^ a r e concerned w i t h the nature of  the former because they a r e embedded i n r e l a t i o n -  s h i p s which b i n d too w e l l , the l a t t e r because t h e i r ' s do n o t bind at a l l .  These boys are t h e r e f o r e s i m i l a r to the g i r l s i n  t h e i r concern about the n a t u r e o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which they a r e i n v o l v e d .  The B  2  boys and G^ g i r l s are s i m i l a r i n the  extreme measure of the t i e s .  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s regard  t h a t the G^ g i r l s r e a c t i n the manner c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the boys:  they seek independence o u t s i d e of the home. With r e g a r d t o s e x u a l i t y , t h e B^ a r e unique among the  boys.  T h e i r approach to p r e - m a r i t a l i n d u l g e n c e resembles that  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the g i r l s :  they i n s i s t on a f f e c t i o n a l bonds  of some d u r a t i o n . The G^ are unique among the g i r l s because of t h e i r c a t e g o r i c a l r e j e c t i o n of a career.  They appear t o have exper-  i e n c e d no c o n f l i c t o f c h o i c e between marriage and a c a r e e r . (vi)  Summary of V a r i a t i o n s :  There i s a c l o s e  r e l a t i o n between the n a t u r e o f the home environment and response i n these eases.  The d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s which these young people  have e x p e r i e n c e d i n t h e i r f a m i l y s e t t i n g s have l e d to a d e s i r e  152  f o r improvement and a f e e l i n g t h a t they can e f f e c t improvement.  such  They f e e l t h a t they can c r e a t e a home  environment  t h a t would be much b e t t e r than the k i n d w i t h which t h e i r p r o v i d e d them.  parents  Here, they are motivated by a " s p i r i t of r e f o r m "  f o c u s e d on the f a m i l y s e t t i n g .  T h i s a t t i t u d e stands i n marked  c o n t r a s t t o t h e i r f e e l i n g of impotence v i s - a - v i s other a d u l t s o c i a l arrangements, and confirms the t r a n s f e r e n c e of c a t h e x i s from the p u b l i c t o the p r i v a t e (a)  Freedom and D i s c i p l i n e :  sphere. The approach  of the  boys—  those w i t h low e d u c a t i o n and low income p a r e n t s — t o p r e - m a r i t a l s e x u a l behaviour can be r e l a t e d to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the kinds of f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s i n which they p a r t i c i p a t e d .  Their attitude  s h a r p l y c o n t r a s t s w i t h the p a t t e r n s they d e s c r i b e , where c o i t u s f r e q u e n t l y takes p l a c e " w i t h i n a few hours w i t h g i r l s whose l a s t names are not even known."  T h i s can be t r a c e d to t h e i r  f e e l i n g t h a t f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are inadequate where a d o l e s c e n t s are l e f t too e a r l y to t h e i r own  r e s o u r c e s and are accustomed to  too much independence without a b a l a n c i n g dependence. t h a t they are not s u b j e c t t o proper r e s t r i c t i o n s and They v a l u e t h e i r independence but do not equate  They f e e l guidance.  i t with  un-  r e s t r i c t e d freedom, and. see t h i s l a e k of s e l f - c o n t r o l i n s e x u a l behaviour as r e l a t e d t o a l a c k of p a r e n t a l i n t e r e s t and  discipline.  T h e i r d e v i a t i o n from the " s u b - c u l t u r a l " norms of s e x u a l behaviour i s t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e d to t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of a l a c k of balance between independence and dependence i n t h e i r child  relations.  parent-  153  (b)  The Working Mother:  S i m i l a r l y , the c a t e g o r i c a l r e j e c t i o n  of a c a r e e r , and the r e f u s a l t o c o n s i d e r a combination o f a c a r e e r and marriage, by the  g i r l s — t h o s e w i t h low e d u c a t i o n  and low income p a r e n t s — h a s been i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r parent-child relations. assume such importance  poor  They complain t h a t money matters i n t h e i r p a r e n t s ' l i v e s t h a t they generate  f r e q u e n t f a m i l y squabbles.  The c h i l d r e n a r e n e g l e c t e d because  both parents work o u t s i d e o f the home, and t h e i r mothers, e s p e c i a l l y , have l i t t l e them.  energy and i n t e r e s t l e f t t o bestow on  Consequently, even i f the c h i l d r e n have t h e i r  material  needs s a t i s f i e d , they s u f f e r emotional d e p r i v a t i o n and p a r e n t a l dominance i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n atmosphere t h a t s t i f l e s  their  p e r s o n a l growth. They t h e r e f o r e r e s e n t t h e i r extreme dependence and s e t g r e a t s t o r e by f i n a n c i a l independence, o u t s i d e o f f a m i l y q u a r r e l s over money.  which would p l a c e them  Moreover, they want i n -  dependence away from t h e home i n order t o be f r e e of the s t i f l i n g atmosphere.  They w i l l make a c a r e e r of marriage, so t h a t they  c o u l d p r o v i d e the proper home atmosphere. f e r e w i t h t h e i r r o l e as mothers.  A c a r e e r would i n t e r -  Thus, i n s p i t e of t h e i r  apparent s i m i l a r i t y t o the boys on the q u e s t i o n of independence, t h e i r c h i e f aim i s the e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f proper f a m i l y  relation-  s h i p s , and i n t h i s they are no d i f f e r e n t from t h e other (c)  A Dual Concern:  girls.  I n the same way, the concern of the B  2  b o y s — t h o s e w i t h parents of h i g h e d u c a t i o n and low i n c o m e — w i t h the nature of r e l a t i o n s h i p s a c t u a l l y a l s o i n v o l v e s , l i k e the  15k other boys, a concern w i t h the v a l u a t i o n a l aspect of independence.  They seek the k i n d s o f f a m i l y t i e s which would a l l o w them  t o be independent of the home, w h i l e r e t a i n i n g c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the f a m i l y .  They f e e l too dependent because they a r e h e l d by  bonds which b i n d them too c l o s e l y t o the home.  They seek t o  d i s c o v e r a compromise which would a l l o w them independence of the f a m i l y and a t the same time p r e s e r v e f a m i l y  solidarity.  T h e i r d u a l concern w i t h both the v a l u a t i o n a l and the r e l a t i o n a l aspects of independence bears a c l o s e r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r  family  situation. The s i t u a t i o n o f the  g i r l s — t h o s e w i t h low e d u c a t i o n  and h i g h income p a r e n t s — a p p r o a c h e s the i d e a l of the other respondents, i n which both the v a l u a t i o n a l and the r e l a t i o n a l a s p e c t s of independence a r e merged:  independent behaviour takes  p l a c e w i t h i n a framework of p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n which, g e n e r a l l y , a f e e l i n g of s e c u r i t y enhances E.  freedom.  Identity 1.  The C o n f l i c t The c e n t r a l i t y of the problem o f independence through-  out the respondents' concerns suggests t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a major c o n f l i c t subsuming the t h r e e problems of independence, s e x u a l i t y and achievement.  T h i s i n f e r e n c e i s supported by the d e s i g n a t i o n  of the most important problem f a c e d by youth today a s :  "who  they a r e , what t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s a r e , and where they a r e g o i n g . "  155  The problem  of i d e n t i t y f o r m a t i o n i s brought i n t o prominence  by t h e i r view that independence and s e l f - r e a l i s a t i o n .  i s n e c e s s a r y f o r self-knowledge  Thus, t h i s major c o n f l i c t i n the search  f o r a sense of i d e n t i t y c o n s i s t s  of attempts t o r e c o n c i l e  the  d e s i r e t o t r a n s c e n d the p a t t e r n s of e s t a b l i s h e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s which they are embedded, w i t h an opposing d e s i r e to remain bedded i n them.  They want t o r e t a i n the sense of s e c u r i t y  in  emi n the  knowledge of the presence of r e l i a b l e persons, and, a t the same time, r e l a t e T h i s new  themselves t o t h e i r environment  way.  r e l a t i o n to t h e i r surroundings e v i d e n t l y promises a  d i f f e r e n t k i n d of s e c u r i t y : comes from 2.  i n a new  the sense of s e l f - c e r t a i n t y which  self-knowledge.  Identity  and Ideology  In t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o separate themselves from o l d relationships  and e s t a b l i s h  new  ones they are guided by a  sense of what they want t o be, as compared w i t h what they are now  and what they have been.  The acceptance of an " i d e o l o g y — 1 1  a s e t of s i m p l i f i e d p r o p o s i t i o n s o f f e r i n g i s an important p a r t of t h i s p r o c e s s .  an image of the w o r l d —  I t o f f e r s a channel f o r  t h e i r e n e r g i e s and s i m p l i f i e s c h o i c e s between But, because  they do not f i n d the i d e o l o g i e s a v a i l a b l e  wholly s a t i s f a c t o r y , acceptance.  alternatives.  they tend t o p a r t i a l r e j e c t i o n  T h i s i s perhaps r e l a t e d  t o them  and p a r t i a l  to the f a c t t h a t they have  sought t o choose from a narrow range of s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ideologies,  a course no doubt d i c t a t e d  and p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n the s o c i a l o r d e r .  by a d e s i r e f o r s t a b i l i t y  156  3.  Identity:  Product  or  Condition?  In a d i s c u s s i o n of the problem of i d e n t i t y we want to know whether i t i s a product  or a c o n d i t i o n .  would  Erlkson's  v a r i o u s d i s c u s s i o n s of the matter, on which the present i s based, shed some l i g h t on t h i s q u e s t i o n . as f o l l o w s : ^  He  treatment  speaks of i t  2  ( i ) . . . t h a t something which safeguards the c o n t i n u i t y of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s p s y c h o - s o c i a l development. ( i i ) The f i n a l i d e n t i t y . . . i s s u p e r - o r d i n a t e d to any s i n g l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s of the past: i t includes a l l s i g n i f i c a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s , but i t a l s o a l t e r s them i n order to make a unique and r e a s o n a b l y coherent whole of them. ( i i i ) Such a sense of i d e n t i t y , however, i s never gained nor maintained once and f o r a l l . . . a l t h o u g h more l a s t i n g and economical methods of maintenance and r e s t o r a t i o n are evolved and f o r t i f i e d l a t e i n adolescence. ( i v ) Through a s e r i e s of c r i s e s , the i n d i v i d u a l comes to f e e l most h i m s e l f where he means most to o t h e r s - to those others who have come to mean most t o him. (v) . . . t h i s something a t any g i v e n stage of development, represents c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l inner i d e n t i t i e s . One i s a c o n s i s t e n t and more or l e s s c o n s c i o u s sense of the i d e n t i t y of what one was as a c h i l d i n a f a m i l y and of what one i s about t o become i n s o c i e t y . Another i s the c o n c e p t i o n of o n e s e l f t h a t one has g r a d u a l l y c r e a t e d and t h a t one p e r c e i v e s as one's r o l e s and r e f l e c t i o n i n o t h e r s . Ha a l s o uses the term to r e f e r t o : (a)  a sense of i n d i v i d u a l  identity;  (b)  a s t r i v i n g f o r a c o n t i n u i t y of p e r s o n a l  character;  3 2 E.H. E r i k s o n , "The Problem of Ego I d e n t i t y " , i n M. S t e i n , A.J. V i d i c h and D.M. White, op. c i t . . pp. 3 7 - 8 7 ; and H. Witmer and B. Kotinsky,loe>. c i t .  157  (c)  a c r i t e r i o n f o r ego  synthesis;  (d)  maintenance of i n n e r s o l i d a r i t y w i t h a group. I t appears t h a t what i s r e f e r r e d t o as  partakes of the nature of both a product and depending on the viewer.  identity  a condition,  That i s , the i n d i v i d u a l i s  by h i s community as possessing  a particular  t i c s which g i v e h i s behaviour a c o n s i s t e n c y .  recognised  s e t of c h a r a c t e r i s But  i n d i v i d u a l h i s i d e n t i t y i s the c o n d i t i o n f o r t h i s  to  the  consistency.  Both are d i f f e r e n t views of the same e n t i t y , as i t were. as i f the i n d i v i d u a l were to view h i m s e l f i d e n t i t y , whereas the others existing  object.  I t i s the  sense of i d e n t i t y t h a t the  and  individual's  a c t i o n s , r a t h e r than being  actions.  the individual  i t s achievement c r e a t e s the c o n d i t i o n f o r  social reality.  continuously  The  the  the end r e s u l t of h i s  F o r , i t i s not a completely f i n i s h e d e n t i t y , but  s t a t e t h a t i s being  end  as e x i s t i n g w i t h i n h i s  see the i d e n t i t y i t s e l f as  experiences,  It i s  a  r e v i s e d i n the l i g h t of changing  f a c t t h a t i t i s r e l a t i v e l y complete by  the  of adolescence suggests t h a t subsequent changes are minor  ones c o n f i n e d  to the p e r i p h e r y .  E s s e n t i a l l y , therefore,  identity  appears t o be a c o n d i t i o n .  *+.  I d e n t i t y and We  the  Self  a l s o have to ask what i s the r e l a t i o n of i d e n t i t y  to the s e l f , s i n c e the former seems to take i n t e r r i t o r y u s u a l l y assigned  t o the l a t t e r .  of the s e l f , r e p r e s e n t i n g  We  would r e g a r d  i d e n t i t y as an  aspect  the r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l s e p a r a t i o n  of  158  the l a t t e r from the s o c i a l environment.  I t i s the c r i t e r i o n by  which the boundaries of the s e l f a r e d e l i m i t e d and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s o c i a l world d e f i n e d .  I t i s a l s o the p a r t o f the  s e l f which i s " v i s i b l e " t o both the s e l f and the s o c i a l ment.  enciron-  I n s h o r t , i t i s a t once the l i a i s o n between the s e l f and  the environment,  and t h e sense by which the s e l f i s guided and  supported through s o c i a l r e a l i t y . 3 3 F.  Realism The respondents' g e n e r a l approach t o t h e i r  situation  i n the s o c i a l world has been c h a r a c t e r i s e d as r e a l i s m . manifest a w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o n f r o n t  t h e i r problems  p r a c t i c a l p o i n t of view, c r i t i c a l l y a s s e s s i n g which  they p e r c e i v e  They  from a  a l l the f a c t o r s  t o operate i n t h e i r s i t u a t i o n .  I t i s true  they have i d e a l s , but they tend to m a i n t a i n a manageable distance  between i d e a l and a c t u a l i t y ,  idealisation: were.  they "have t h e i r f e e t  shunning  unrealistic  on t h e ground",  They do not f e e l t h a t they "know i t a l l . M  as i t  Rather,  they  seek, w i t h t h e h e l p of those who know, t o a s c e r t a i n t h e i r strengths  as w e l l as t h e i r weaknesses.  They a r e s t r i v i n g t o  proceed i n t o t h e w o r l d w i t h a l l t h e i r f a c u l t i e s  developed,  s i n c e they f e e l t h a t t h e f u l l y developed i n d i v i d u a l i s b e t t e r prepared t o cope w i t h t h e r e c u r r e n t  problems  of h i s  environment.  3 3 See Ef.ikson's r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n of i d e n t i t y , s e l f , ego i d e a l and ego i n S t e i n , V i d i c h and White, op. c i t . . pp. 7 3 ~ 7 5 .  159  However, there a r e times when t h e i r r e a l i s m c l o s e on d e f e a t i s m .  borders  E x c e p t i n the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n , they tend  to f e e l t h a t they are powerless to e f f e c t major changes i n the s o c i a l arrangements,  and adhere r a t h e r c l o s e l y t o the e x i s t i n g  l i m i t s of s o c i a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y .  I t may be t h a t t h i s i s due t o  a l a c k o f awareness of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s , a s i t u a t i o n  which,  perhaps, may be a m e l i o r a t e d w i t h g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i a l w o r l d , s i n c e they i n s i s t on the need f o r understanding i n order t o be a b l e t o manage adequately.  I t i s also possible  t h a t t h e i r a t t i t u d e i s based on a sense of s o c i a l awareness, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and r e s p e c t f o r the i n t e r e s t s of o t h e r s . B u t , on the other hand, i t may be a d e s i r e f o r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y i n the s o c i a l o r d e r , coupled w i t h complacency,  which are important  f a c t o r s i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n :  the need f o r  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the f a m i l i a r may o v e r - r i d e the d e s i r e t o a l t e r the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n i t . Use  o f the term " r e a l i s m ' r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f what 1  would be c o n s i d e r e d an u n r e a l i s t i c approach on the p a r t of the respondents.  I n our sense of the term, i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c  i f they were t o f a i l t o o r i e n t themselves  t o an a d u l t w o r l d ,  and i f they were v i s i o n a r y , not i n the sense o f p e r c e i v i n g what p o s s i b i l i t i e s t h e r e a r e , but r a t h e r i n the sense o f being i d e a l i s t i c , of denying the n e c e s s i t y f o r growth out o f the a d o l e s c e n t stage of the l i f e - c y c l e .  For t h e i r realism involves  not n e c e s s a r i l y an o r i e n t a t i o n to the e x i s t i n g a d u l t w o r l d , but  160 toward an a d u l t world, and a r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t they may have t o s e t t l e f o r what e x i s t s as one a l t e r n a t i v e from among the possibilities.  Furthermore, i t would be u n r e a l i s t i c i f they  were t o f e e l t h a t they "knew i t a l l " , c o u l d l e a r n anything from a d u l t s . way  and were t o deny t h a t they  T h i s use o f the term i s i n no  meant t o imply t h a t t o be r e a l i s t i c i s b e t t e r than t o be  unrealistic.  R e a l i s m here i s simply an a n a l y t i c t o o l f o r  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between g e n e r a l i s e d a t t i t u d e s . G.  A l i e n a t i o n and Youth  Culture  Our d i s c u s s i o n of the concept of " a l i e n a t i o n " centred  on i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y as a c h a r a c t e r i s a t i o n of youth's  r e l a t i o n t o the a d u l t w o r l d , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o the youth culture.  The concept g e n e r a l l y r e f e r s t o a p a s s i v e  from and non-involvement  withdrawal  i n the surroundings and i s made t o  apply t o a v a r i e t y of s i t u a t i o n s thus i n c r e a s i n g i t s vagueness. One i m p l i c a t i o n of t h e term i s t h a t i t pre-supposes f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the r e j e c t e d o b j e c t .  a prior  T h i s f a m i l i a r i t y i s never  made e x p l i c i t , nor i s t h e r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f the degree o f i t which must e x i s t b e f o r e " a l i e n a t i o n " can be s a i d to have occurred. We found the concept t o be i n a p p l i c a b l e t o the behaviour of youth, e s p e c i a l l y t o the youth c u l t u r e , i n r e l a t i o n t o the a d u l t w o r l d , p r i n c i p a l l y because youth were never admitted t o the a d u l t w o r l d .  T h e r e f o r e , the s i t u a t i o n of  161 youth i n the a d u l t world to which the term was does not e x i s t .  The youth c u l t u r e f i l l s  p e r i o d of t r a n s i t i o n between c h i l d h o o d the p a t t e r n s  the  and  made t o  apply  unstructured  adulthood.  Here,  of behaviour adhered t o , although g e n e r a l l y i n  o p p o s i t i o n to a d u l t p a t t e r n s , r e p r e s e n t  experimentation with  such a s p e c t s of a d u l t r o l e s as come to hand, and a p p r o p r i a t e l y be l a b e l l e d a " p s y c h o - s o c i a l i s the time when i n d i v i d u a l s , who  moratorium".  are no longer  y e t a d u l t s , become i n f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d  c o u l d more This  c h i l d r e n and  not  i n t o r o l e s which they  w i l l have to adopt i n the next stage of the l i f e - c y c l e , i n the f a c e of a d u l t f a i l u r e to provide  c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n s and  expectations. Moreover, the youth c u l t u r e i s c h a r a c t e r i s e d by  an  a c t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n towards the a d u l t s o c i a l arrangements, even if  the a c t i v i t y contravenes a d u l t e x p e c t a t i o n s ,  and  this  c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h the p a s s i v i t y of " a l i e n a t i o n " . the term i s f u r t h e r d i s q u a l i f i e d as a d e s c r i p t i o n of  Thus, the  behaviour of youth. 1.  The Youth C u l t u r e The  respondents' behaviour p a t t e r n s  and  attitudes  i n c l u d e elements which are c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the g e n e r a l culture.  youth  However, there are a l s o elements which stand i n d i r e c t  o p p o s i t i o n t o the l a t t e r . independence and the  Thus, both p a t t e r n s  share compulsive  "dating complex" as elements.  But  our  162  respondents'  r e a l i s m and sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and g e n e r a l  o r i e n t a t i o n t o . a d u l t e x p e c t a t i o n s c o n t r a s t with the romantic i d e a l i s a t i o n , i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and peer-group c o n f o r m i t y  o f the  g e n e r a l youth c u l t u r e . We t h e r e f o r e concluded  t h a t the youth c u l t u r e c a n be  d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n t o s u b - c u l t u r e s , with each having  a unique  c u l t u r a l c o n f i g u r a t i o n but s h a r i n g c e r t a i n common t r a i t s . suggested  three a g e - l e v e l s u b - c u l t u r e s :  middle a d o l e s c e n t , and l a t e adolescent ing  We  e a r l y adolescent, sub-cultures,  correspond-  t o j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l , s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e student  l e v e l s , having  i n common compulsive independence and the d a t i n g  complex as c u l t u r e t r a i t s . c l o s e r approximation  We a l s o suggested  that there i s  t o a d u l t c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s i n . the c o l l e g e  s u b - c u l t u r e , because a t t h i s a g e - l e v e l c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s of behaviour  s t i l l adhered t o i n the s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l s u b - c u l t u r e  are regarded  as " k i d s t u f f " ;  and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l  students  s i m i l a r l y regard c e r t a i n junior high school patterns. We thus d i s a g r e e w i t h E l k i n and Westley who on the b a s i s of d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d o l e s c e n t behaviour  which they  found  i n an upper m i d d l e - c l a s s suburb, i n sharp c o n t r a s t t o youth c u l t u r e p a t t e r n s , g e n e r a l l y , conclude i s a myth.-  5  t h a t t h e youth c u l t u r e  More r e c e n t s t u d i e s tend to support our  conclusions.35  3*+ E l k i n and Westley, l o c . c i t . 35 See S e e l e y , Sim and L o o s e l y , l o c . c i t . , and Goleman, l o c . c i t .  163  H.  Concluding Remarks 1.  Sophistication A s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e of the r e s p o n d e n t s  1  discussions of  t h e i r s i t u a t i o n v i s - a - v i s the a d u l t world i s t h e i r t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o the matters i n v o l v e d .  sophistica-  Not o n l y have they  been a b l e t o d i s c u s s these matters w i t h sureness and shrewdness, but they have a l s o been a b l e t o formulate r e l e v a n t q u e s t i o n s . T h e i r i n s i g h t and a r t i c u l a t e manner suggest t h a t they have s e r i o u s l y contemplated the i m p l i c a t i o n s .  t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and c o n s i d e r e d some of  Although they have been a b l e to d e v i s e few  s o l u t i o n s , i t i s s t i l l remarkable  t h a t they undertook t o  w r e s t l e w i t h these complicated matters a t a l l .  And i t i s n o t  enough t o d i s m i s s t h i s by s a y i n g that u n i v e r s i t y students are expected t o a c t i n t h i s manner. ed w i t h the c o n t r a r y ;  F o r , too o f t e n a r e we c o n f r o n t -  even i n the case of a d u l t s , whose much  vaunted g r e a t e r experience o f t e n come t o nought.  The r e a c t i o n s  which today are so c o n f u s i n g l y d e s c r i b e d as " a l i e n a t i o n " t e s t i f y to t h i s . But t h i s i s n o t t o argue t h a t these young people f a r e b e t t e r than t h e i r p a r e n t s .  F o r we know t h a t t h e i r  will  sophisti-  c a t e d d i s c u s s i o n i s o f t e n a mask f o r an i n t e l l e c t u a l i s a t i o n bears l i t t l e r e l a t i o n to t h e i r a c t i o n s . ^  Indeed,  they  3 6 See A. Freud, The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. York, I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s , 1 9 + 6 . I  that  themselves  New  164  have remarked on the f r e q u e n t d i s c r e p a n c y between what i s s a i d and what i s done.  They say t h a t they can, and w i l l , do b e t t e r  than t h e i r p a r e n t s .  But  t h i s a t t i t u d e may  merely r e p r e s e n t  the time-honoured c o n f l i c t of g e n e r a t i o n s expressed i n c h i l d r e n ' s d e v a l u a t i o n of t h e i r p a r e n t s . realistic may  Indeed, they  enough t o have c o n s i d e r e d the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t they  end i n the parents' c o n d i t i o n .  T h i s , of course, c o u l d be  a r a t i o n a l e f o r f a i l u r e to l i v e up to t h e i r 2.  are  aspirations.  No R a d i c a l S o l u t i o n s I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s r e g a r d t h a t they propose no  r a d i c a l changes i n the s o c i a l arrangements, d e s p i t e t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s w i t h them.  At b e s t , they suggest minor changes  t h a t would tend to l e a v e matters more or l e s s as they now A p p a r e n t l y , t h e r e i s an i m p l i c i t assumption t h a t the arrangements should be r e t a i n e d . them;  may  or may  existing  They do not want to a b o l i s h  they merely want t o ameliorate them.  r a d i c a l i s m may  stand.  T h i s l a c k of  not augur w e l l f o r t h e i r s o c i e t y .  It  mean t h a t the maintenance and p r e s e r v a t i o n of the on-going  system i s assured; knell. tion.  or i t may  be the f a i n t sound of i t s death  F o r , i t s i n t a c t p r e s e r v a t i o n may The r e j e c t i o n or avoidance  be merely i t s stagna-  of major change c o u l d l e a d to  i t s d o w n f a l l i n the f a c e of a changing  environment, by  the  e x c l u s i o n of measures t h a t c o u l d have c o n t r i b u t e d to i t s p r e s e r v a tion. But  Of course, r a s h r a d i c a l i s m c o u l d e f f e c t t h i s same r e s u l t .  "keeping  of changes.  i t t h a t way"  can be accomplished  by the i n t r o d u c t i o n  165  3.  " S e r i o u s " versus " F r i v o l o u s " Parsons' c o n t r a s t between the  and  the  "frivolity"  of a d o l e s c e n t s  "seriousness"  i s not borne out  But  t h i s i s a new  k i n d of s e r i o u s n e s s ,  adults  here.37  There i s , i n s t e a d , a prominent o r i e n t a t i o n toward the world.  of  adult  involving  commitment t o p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a d u l t w o r l d , and r e j e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n a d u l t standards. c r i t i c a l l y assessing p a t t e r n s , and  I t i s an a t t i t u d e which i n v o l v e s  the worth of.both  adolescent  s c o r i n g the demerits of both.  and  In one  adult  sense, i t  goes beyond the a d u l t v e r s i o n i n that i t l a c k s the element of complacency and r e s i g n a t i o n which a d u l t f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h s o c i a l order  induces.  However, t h i s c o n t r a s t of a d u l t s e r i o u s n e s s adolescent  i t s dominant value  system.3®  These v a l u e s  of the g e n e r a l youth c u l t u r e .  The  But  the s e r i o u s n e s s  for  the v a l u e  system.  of the h i e r a r c h y of  37  Parsons, op.  I t has  the  d i f f e r e n c e seems i n both  of our respondents has  t i o n s , i f not f o r the m a t e r i a l aspects  adult  elements i n  are c e n t r a l to  to l i e i n the degree of prominence of such v a l u e s complexes.  and  f r i v o l i t y cannot be taken v e r y f a r , s i n c e the  world embodies " f r i v o l o u s " or " l e i s u r e c l a s s " value  patterns  the  implica-  of the s o c i a l arrangement  potentialities for a re-shuffling  values.  c i t . . pp.  9 2 , 3*+2.  3 8 Parsons, op. c i t . , p. 3 0 9 ;  and Matza and Sykes, l o c . c i t  166 k.  Implications f o r Educational Institutions T h i s new k i n d of s e r i o u s n e s s d i s p l a y e d by the  respondents  has i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s of h i g h e r educa-  t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to c u r r i c u l u m and r e c r u i t m e n t of t e a c h e r s . F o r i n s t a n c e , the withdrawal  of c a t h e x i s from work and i t s  environment i n a r e - s t r u c t u r i n g of the v a l u e h i e r a r c h y might l e a d to developments i n a t l e a s t two d i r e c t i o n s — a n d these occur s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  may  The p e r c e i v e d b l o c k i n g of c r e a t i v i t y i n  the b u r e a u c r a t i c world of work together w i t h the promise of f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y h e l d out i n i t ,  could i n t e n s i f y  pressures  toward making the u n i v e r s i t y i n t o p r i m a r i l y a v o c a t i o n a l institute.  F o r , i n such a case, i t would be e s s e n t i a l l y  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g to f i t i n d i v i d u a l s t o enter on the l a d d e r of the b u r e a u c r a t i c s t r u c t u r e of work t h a t would be demanded. T h i s would have a t e l l i n g e f f e c t on the kinds of t e a c h e r s r e q u i r e d f o r the u n i v e r s i t y and on the kinds o f courses of study provided.  Unless the c o n t r o l l e r s of the world of work s p e c i f i -  c a l l y demanded i t ,  " l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n " would be d e c i s i v e l y  d e f e a t e d , not so much by open antagonism as by i n d i f f e r e n c e . On the other extreme of t h i s " t e c h n o l o g i c a l p a r a mountcy" would be the " i d e o l o g i c a l " .  Here, i n r e a c t i o n t o the  s t u l t i f y i n g atmosphere of the o c c u p a t i o n a l world,  the world of  i d e a s would be i n v e s t e d w i t h deep emotional commitment: would be a " f l i g h t t o academia". e x p r e s s i o n , as i t were.  there  P r i v a t e p r o t e s t would be g i v e n  In response,  the c u r r i c u l u m would s t r e s s  167  the " l i f e of the mind", and the supply of " s c h o l a r l y " t e a c h e r s would outrun demand.  We  would have a community of r i g i d l y  s e l e c t e d t e a c h e r s and " p r o f e s s i o n a l s t u d e n t - s c h o l a r s " i n a s i t u a t i o n somewhat a k i n t o the mediaeval  university.  However, such extremes are h i g h l y improbable occurrence.  of  A t h i r d a l t e r n a t i v e i s much l e s s improbable.  The  withdrawal of c a t h e x i s from work and i t s t r a n s f e r e n c e t o the realm of the p r i v a t e might l e a d t o commitment t o a r t i s t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l pursuits.  A necessary t e c h n o l o g i c a l  involvement  might be accompanied by commitment t o i d e o l o g i c a l matters. such an event t h e r e would be simultaneous development of broad streams w i t h i n the u n i v e r s i t y .  In  two  In a v e r y s y s t e m a t i c  manner, the c u r r i c u l u m would have t o p r o v i d e both v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and development of the i n t e l l e c t , f o r each would r e q u i r e both.  individual  U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n would l i k e l y have t o  be prolonged i n order to f u l f i l l these requirements.  I t would  be taken much more " s e r i o u s l y " and g r e a t e r demand would be made on t e a c h e r s whose q u a l i t y would be more s t r i n g e n t l y assessed.  The  " c o l l e g e c u l t u r e " would become more homogeneous,  w i t h c l o s e r k i n s h i p between the v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s of students 39  and t e a c h e r s . ~  >/  Furthermore,  t h i s r e t r e a t t o the p r i v a t e realm and  i d e o l o g i c a l emphasis c o u l d l e a d t o a demand f o r u n i v e r s i t y  39 For a r e l a t e d d i s c u s s i o n , see Trow, l o c . c i t .  168  i n s t r u c t i o n i n the management of p r i v a t e l i f e .  Matters h i t h e r t o  l e f t t o p r i v a t e r e s o l u t i o n and which have proved p r o b l e m a t i c a l might now become widespread disciplines. the home.  t o p i c s f o r treatment by academic  The u n i v e r s i t y would be sought as an a l l y f o r  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e u n i v e r s i t y would assume more o f a  "marriage market" f u n c t i o n , w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s e n s u r i n g t h a t spouses  share t h e i r t r a i n i n g , v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s .  would thus be a g r e a t e r tendency t o " u n i v e r s i t y endogamy".  their  There  graduate  The i m p l i c a t i o n s of such developments a r e beyond  the scope of t h i s essay.  I n summary, i t can be seen what  profound e f f e c t s the i n n e r worlds of youth can have on the v a l u e of u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n pjaa e d u c a t i o n , s e r v i n g as a l e v e r e i t h e r f o r the resurgence of widespread or  ideological  interests  f o r their devaluation. 5«  I n c e n t i v e s to Marriage The f a c t t h a t a l l the respondents i n t e n d t o marry  shows t h a t t h e circumstances o f t h e i r home l i f e them a g a i n s t f a m i l y l i f e .  have n o t soured  I n f a c t , i t makes no d i f f e r e n c e  whether t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r parents were happy or unhappy, or whether t h e i r parents were h a p p i l y married or n o t . Both types o f s i t u a t i o n a r e i n c e n t i v e s t o marriage: home so t h a t i t can be emulated, can be surpassed.  the happy  the unhappy one so t h a t i t  Those who have p l e a s a n t home e x p e r i e n c e s  want t o perpetuate them because  "they were so good;"  those whose l i v e s a t home a r e unpleasant want t o prove  whereas that  169 "they can do b e t t e r than t h e i r p a r e n t s . "  Thus, both  positive  and n e g a t i v e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s b r i n g about a happy r e s u l t .  In  t h i s sense, the l a s t s k i r m i s h e s of the " q u i e t r e b e l l i o n " are t o be fought f a r beyond the t e r r i t o r y of youth.  But  then,  wars and r e b e l l i o n s seldom end where they begin. 6.  R e l a t i o n s w i t h Peers We  c o l l e c t e d no data whatsoever on the respondents'  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l groups of age-mates such as f r a t e r n i t i e s and s o r o r i t i e s , and r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e  on t h e i r c i r c l e s of peers  w i t h whom they a s s o c i a t e i n f o r m a l l y .  The data we have show  t h a t i n f o r m a l a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i r age-mates o f f e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r companionship and the management of s e x u a l i t y , and i s not s t r o n g l y emphasized.  By f o r c e of circumstances  and  need they are thrown together and s e l e c t companions of both sexes t o s a t i s f y t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and needs.  Such peer  associa-  t i o n stems p a r t l y from the f a i l u r e of communication w i t h parents e s p e c i a l l y , and p a r t l y from p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r  adults, like  condition. There i s l i t t l e  doubt t h a t p e r s o n a l matters of g r e a t  s i g n i f i c a n c e to them are a i r e d i n these a s s o c i a t i o n s . is  also l i t t l e  But there  doubt t h a t they f i n d t h i s an u n s a t i s f a c t o r y  method of coping w i t h t h e i r problems.  They tend to f e e l  that,  although they s u f f e r l i k e d e p r i v a t i o n s v i s - a - v i s the a d u l t w o r l d , t h e i r mutual i n e x p e r i e n c e and l a c k of o r i e n t a t i o n are not the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s needed to r e s o l v e t h e i r dilemmas.  It i s  17P t r u e t h a t they have s o l v e d some problems i n t h i s way, but they f e e l t h a t a d u l t guidance c o u l d have saved them the energy d i s s i p a t e d i n aimless The  experimentation.  attempts t o cope w i t h the problem of s e x u a l i t y  well illustrate this.  They d i s c u s s i t f r e e l y among themselves  i n the absence of q u a l i f i e d d i s c u s s a n t s , but they are aware t h a t even together understanding.  they l a c k the necessary i n f o r m a t i o n and  They f i n d t h i s s i t u a t i o n u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and  p o t e n t i a l l y dangerous, s i n c e such d i s c u s s i o n s , though h i g h l y e n t e r t a i n i n g , a r e seldom e d u c a t i v e .  I n f a c t , such d i s c u s s i o n s  may serve  to h i g h l i g h t t h e t h r i l l aspect  stimulate  t h r i l l - s e e k i n g e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i n order  the know".  o f s e x u a l i t y and t o "be i n  But there i s the danger t h a t t h e i r p l a y may have  s e r i o u s consequences w i t h which they are not equipped t o d e a l ; and  knowledge may be obtained  i s valuable,  a t too h i g h a c o s t .  Entertainment  they say, but i s no s u b s t i t u t e f o r s e r i o u s i n s t r u c -  t i o n i n t h i s matter. However, they f i n d t h e i r peers a source o f s a t i s f a c t i o n s seldom to be d e r i v e d elsewhere. o u t l o o k and i n t e r e s t s produces p l e a s u r e s shared.  The s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e i r which are f r e q u e n t l y  With them, one can " l e t one's h a i r down", whether a t  p a r t i e s , or i n d i s c u s s i o n s of a m u l t i p l i c i t y of s u b j e c t s . a s e l e c t few, one can pour out one's i n t i m a t e f e e l i n g s , and l i s t e n i n r e t u r n .  With  thoughts and  Such mutual exchange o f  i n t i m a c i e s n o t only " c l e a r s the a i r " , but a l s o strengthens t h e  171 bond, o f f e r i n g re-assurance of r e l i a b i l i t y i n the midst of their uncertainty. this selection independence for  The l a r g e measure of c h o i c e i n v o l v e d i n  of i n t i m a t e s g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n to a sense of  and l e s s e n s the doubt o c c a s i o n e d by the s e a r c h  identity. Thus, they r e g a r d t h e i r peers as a source both of  satisfactions  and d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s .  They are a l l i e s i n the  s t r u g g l e to achieve s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , but they can a l s o be of d i s o r i e n t a t i o n . of e x i s t i n g  agents  They are a fund of re-assurance i n the f a c e  difficulties.  But they a l s o remind of one's  i n e x p e r i e n c e and c o n f u s i o n . f e a r s f o r the f u t u r e .  own  They m i r r o r both one's hopes and  Perhaps i t i s t h i s ambivalence  which  u n d e r l i e s t h e i r g e n e r a l de-emphasis of a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h p e e r s . The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t at t h i s a g e - l e v e l t h e i r peers share  their  own h e l p l e s s n e s s may have i n f l u e n c e d t h e i r s e a r c h f o r a d u l t guidance toward adult world.  t h e i r aim of assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the  Such a de-emphasis of dependence on peers  because  of t h e i r age i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e i r o r i e n t a t i o n t o the a d u l t world.  In t h i s sense, peers remind them of what they want to  leave behind. I.  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Deviance In the l i g h t of our respondents' modes of management  of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n and the c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e i r  reactions  we can seek t o d i s c o v e r the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r d e v i a n t behaviour.  172 G e n e r a l l y , they adhere t o those p a t t e r n s of behaviour deemed to be s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e .  But the study of d e v i a n t behaviour  has t o account f o r both v i o l a t i o n of the norms and c o n f o r m i t y to them:  t o show why  some i n d i v i d u a l s v i o l a t e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d  e x p e c t a t i o n s • a n d others adhere to them. In a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of d e v i a n t i n d i v i d u a l s , i n d i v i d u a l s who  or  have manifested d e v i a n t behaviour, we have to  take i n t o account, among other f a c t o r s ,  the s i t u a t i o n of  action  i n which the i n d i v i d u a l i s p l a c e d , h i s moral p r o h i b i t i o n s ,  and  the a v a i l a b i l i t y t o him of o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h deviant patterns.  We  of a v a i l a b i l i t y .  Any  responded available.  can view a l l of these from the s t a n d p o i n t s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n governed  t o w i t h deviance;  by norms can be  that i s , s i t u a t i o n s  The i n t e r n a l i s a t i o n of standards  are always  prohibiting—or  f a c i l i t a t i n g — d e v i a n t behaviour depends on the a v a i l a b i l i t y t o the i n d i v i d u a l of such standards i n h i s s i g n i f i c a n t  environment.  S i m i l a r l y , the i n d i v i d u a l must become f a m i l i a r w i t h d e v i a n t p a t t e r n s and t h i s depends on the a v a i l a b i l i t y t o him patterns:  he must be a b l e to l e a r n them.  of moral p r o h i b i t i o n s desire  a g a i n s t deviance may  The  of such  internalisation  be manifest i n the  f o r s o c i a l \approval. We would expect t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s who  i s e d s t r o n g moral p r o h i b i t i o n s ,  have i n t e r n a l -  are f a m i l i a r w i t h d e v i a n t  p a t t e r n s of behaviour, and are i n s i t u a t i o n s where deviance an a l t e r n a t i v e  as  response would conform, other t h i n g s being e q u a l .  173  But we know t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s under sueh circumstances do p r a c t i s e deviance. w e l l and produce  Other f o r c e s operate i n t h e s i t u a t i o n as  d e v i a n t behaviour, whether i t i s t h a t  their  s t r o n g moral p r o h i b i t i o n s a r e n o t strong enough, or whether they develop a t t i t u d e s and p e r c e p t i o n s which serve t o " n e u t r a l i s e " t h e i r moral p r o h i b i t i o n s .  We know l i t t l e  of the  i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s of these f a c t o r s and the dynamics of the processes i n v o l v e d :  f o r i n s t a n c e , what happens when there i s  a r e v e r s i o n to c o n f o r m i t y a f t e r deviance i n a s i m i l a r Our respondents  situation?  are e v i d e n t l y i n a s e t o f c o n d i t i o n s  s i m i l a r to those j u s t d e s c r i b e d , w i t h r e s p e c t to moral p r o h i b i t i o n s , f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h d e v i a n t p a t t e r n s , and s i t u a t i o n s of a c t i o n .  And y e t , they adhere t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i s e d  expectations.  F o r example, they s e t g r e a t v a l u e on Independence  and are i n v o l v e d i n c o n f l i c t s concerning t h e attainment o f t h i s value.  They a l s o are concerned  t o secure s o c i a l a p p r o v a l , and  know what the d e v i a n t a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e .  However., they  inhibit  h o s t i l e a g g r e s s i v e a c t i o n s and respond i n such a way t h a t a p p r o v a l i s gained, and the v a l u e a t t a i n e d .  social  Here, an important  f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g towards the i n h i b i t i o n of non-conformity seems t o be the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e means to the attainment o f the g o a l .  kO See G.M. Sykes and D. Matza, "Techniques of N e u t r a l i z a t i o n : A Theory o f Delinquency", i n American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review. Vol.  22, 1957,  PP.  661+-70.  174  And y e t , o t h e r s e q u a l l y v a l u i n g independence and d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s , hut t o whom a l t e r n a t i v e s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e means are not a v a i l a b l e , conform  to the s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s .  Here, we  also  can r e g a r d s o c i a l  a p p r o v a l and independence as d e s i r e d v a l u e s arranged, together with others, i n a hierarchy.  Choice has to be made between  c o n f l i c t i n g v a l u e s i n a s i t u a t i o n and the one c a r r y i n g s t r o n g e r demands, because of i t s s u p e r i o r h i e r a r c h i c a l p o s i t i o n i s chosen.  D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s s t i l l e x p e r i e n c e d , however, because  of the f o r c e d s i t u a t i o n a l abandonment of the other v a l u e which was  also desired.  Presumably, the t h r e a t of the l o s s of s o c i a l  a p p r o v a l proved more t e r r i f y i n g than the l o s s of  independence,  thus i n h i b i t i n g d e v i a n t a l t e r n a t i v e s t o the attainment of the latter. Some of our respondents  are concerned w i t h  social  m o b i l i t y and say t h a t t h e i r low socio-economic s t a t u s s u b j e c t s them t o u n f a i r d e p r i v a t i o n s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e t o achieve aim.  this  Y e t , i n s p i t e of t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n i n  these terms and t h e i r c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h d e v i a n t behaviour i n t h e i r neighbourhood,  they conform  to the s o c i a l norms.  i s s a i d t h a t upwardly mobile i n d i v i d u a l s g e n e r a l l y adopt v a l u e s of the stratum towards which they a s p i r e . c l e a r how  such persons manage to n u l l i f y the  the  But i t i s not  "harmful"  i n f l u e n c e s t o which they have l o n g been s u b j e c t . they u t i l i s e  It  Presumably,  "techniques of n e u t r a l i s a t i o n " t o counter  these  d e v i a n t t e n d e n c i e s , and mechanisms f o r managing the c o n f l i c t s  175  which are generated.  We  can appeal t o the n o t i o n of i d e n t i f i -  c a t i o n as .being p e r t i n e n t here., but we would s t i l l have to know what f a c t o r s p r e - d i s p o s e i n d i v i d u a l s so l o c a t e d t o p r e f e r c o n f o r m i s t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s and t o seek out the proper models, when d e v i a n t a l t e r n a t i v e s are a l s o a v a i l a b l e . With r e g a r d t o the youth c u l t u r e , s i n c e i t i s youth's attempt t o s t r u c t u r e the u n s t r u c t u r e d p e r i o d between c h i l d h o o d and adulthood, and because  of the demand f o r independence  at  t h i s time, we have to expect t h a t i t would embody p a t t e r n s of behaviour and v a l u e s i n o p p o s i t i o n to those of a d u l t s . we would want to know the f a c t o r s which determine  But  the r e l a t i v e  weight g i v e n t o d e v i a n t and s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e p a t t e r n s , s i n c e i t i s not a homogeneous complex.  For instance, i t apparently  makes a d i f f e r e n c e which a g e - l e v e l i n adolescence we  are d e a l i n g  w i t h , s i n c e c e r t a i n v a l u e s are d e f i n e d as c h i l d i s h w i t h c l o s e r age approximation to adulthood.  However, as the " c o l l e g e  c u l t u r e " shows, i t i s not a simple matter of age,  sub-  moral  p r o h i b i t i o n s , f a m i l i a r i t y and s i t u a t i o n a l p o t e n t i a l .  For, t h i s  complex i n c l u d e s p a t t e r n s which are d e v i a n t , d e s p i t e the aura of social  acceptability. Systematic i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l have t o attempt t o  clarify  the r e l a t i o n between the youth c u l t u r e , on one hand,  and deviance and c o n f o r m i t y on the other i n order to g a i n f u r t h e r understanding of youth's i n d i v i d u a l and group We have t o take cognizance of t h e i r need to know and  behaviour. understand,  176 t h e i r d e s i r e f o r models, a c t i v i t y , and t h e i r the  t h e i r d e s i r e f o r independence  p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r  situation  a d u l t world, as s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s ,  operate to determine t h e i r behaviour.  and  vis-a-vis  among o t h e r s , which  The important  principle  would be t o combine youth's view of a d u l t s and themselves w i t h a d u l t s ' view of youth and the world.  177 Some Suggestions f o r F u r t h e r Research Investigation further  of c e r t a i n matters might serve t o  c l a r i f y youth's p e r c e p t i o n s o f the problems they con-  f r o n t and t h e i r behaviour i n r e l a t i o n t o the e x i s t i n g arrangements.  We suggest the f o l l o w i n g  social  by no means e x h a u s t i v e  list. 1.  The Values o f Youth A study might be designed t o seek t o d i s c o v e r what  s p e c i f i c a s p e c t s of the a d u l t world youth would change and what they would r e t a i n ; for";  what do they c o n s i d e r t o be "worth f i g h t i n g  what new arrangements they would i n t r o d u c e i n t o the  s o c i a l order. 2.  Youth  and P o l i t i c s We c o u l d i n v e s t i g a t e  the extent o f youth's  interest  and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the sphere o f p o l i t i c s , on both the national  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l s ;  present " c o n f l i c t o f i d e o l o g i e s  what do they t h i n k of the  between 'East' and 'West';"  where do they t h i n k the w o r l d i s heading and where do they t h i n k i t ought t o go;  what are t h e i r i d e a s on war and peace;  on the r e l a t i o n between the i n d i v i d u a l and the s t a t e — t h e q u e s t i o n o f freedom; capitalism,  socialism,  t h e i r i d e a s on democracy, communism, and t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m .  178 3.  Youth and Higher E d u c a t i o n We  purpose  c o u l d seek t o d i s c o v e r what they t h i n k i s the  of the u n i v e r s i t y ;  education—what  what are t h e i r views on h i g h e r  they t h i n k should be taught;  i n c l u d e and exclude from the e x i s t i n g system; the r e l a t i o n of students t o the f a c u l t y ;  what would they what should be  what are t h e i r views  on u n i v e r s i t y autonomy and student freedom. Youth and R e l i g i o n What views do they h o l d on r e l i g i o n as a s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n — i t s f u n c t i o n , t h e i r needs; and/or what would they change; religion; 5.  what would they r e t a i n  are there s u b s t i t u t e s f o r  would they a b o l i s h i t or keep i t .  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