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The potential "constituency" of a Family Service Agency; -- an interview-survey of new applicants who… Belanger, Kathleen Elizabeth 1960

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THE POTENTIAL "CONSTITUENCY" OF A FAMILY SERVICE AGENCY An i n t e r v i e w - s u r v e y o f new a p p l i c a n t s who d i d n o t become c l i e n t s . Vancouver, 1 9 5 9 *  by KATHLEEN ELIZABETH BELANGER  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  A c c e p t e d as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r t h e degree o f Master o f S o c i a l Work  I960 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  In presenting the  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the  University  o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e for  s c h o l a r l y purposes may  study.  I further  copying of t h i s  be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  Department  be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  of  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  my  I t i s understood  t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r g a i n s h a l l not  thesis  financial  permission.  iii  -  ABSTRACT  S o c i a l workers tend to expect p u b l i c acceptance o f t h e i r comparatively recent attainment to p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s . It i s p o s s i b l e t o s u s p e c t , however, t h a t t h i s e x p e c t a t i o n i s based, not on known f a c t , but on h o p e f u l assumption, and t h a t , i n t r u t h , t h e r e are many m i s c o n c e p t i o n s , and many a n a c h r o n i s t i c i d e a s about s o c i a l workers and s o c i a l a g e n c i e s abroad i n the community. In order to t e s t t h i s hypothesis, t h i s study explores a s m a l l a r e a o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work p r a c t i s e , i n an attempt t o l e a r n what e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s e r v i c e and o f s o c i a l workers new a p p l i c a n t s b r i n g t o a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and whether these e x p e c t a t i o n s are r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , not o n l y t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f the agency, but t o the p r e s e n t - d a y r o l e o f the s o c i a l worker. The method used was t o p r e s e n t , f i r s t , a b r i e f s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s o f the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by p e r s o n a l i n t e r views w i t h a group o f new a p p l i c a n t s who d i d not become c l i e n t s . The i n t e r v i e w m a t e r i a l was t h e n examined and a n a l y z e d by a p p l i c a n t - g r o u p . Two main d i v i s i o n s were u t i l i z e d ; f i r s t , "Lost A p p l i c a n t s : The Urgent Ones", under which appear "The 'White Heat' o f Need", and "Apparent Urgency"; and second, " L o s t A p p l i c a n t s : The D o u b t f u l Ones", under which appear " F l u i d E x p e c t a t i o n s " , " S o c i a l C l a s s B a r r i e r s " , and "Negative Transference". The s t u d y r e v e a l s , i n a way which tends t o complement and c o n f i r m the f i n d i n g s . o f a companion s t u d y by E . M i l d r e d P o r t e r , t h a t i t i s the new a p p l i c a n t s f o r casework s e r v i c e from a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency who are becoming the l o s t c l i e n t s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t because t h i s appears t o be a group o f a p p l i c a n t s who c o u l d have r e c e i v e d a v a l i d preventive s e r v i c e . A n a l y s i s o f the i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l s a number o f s e r i o u s b a r r i e r s to communication between new a p p l i c a n t s and caseworkers which c o n t r i b u t e d t o the l o s s o f these p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s . These b a r r i e r s c o n s i s t e d o f m i s u n d e r s t o o d need, m i s c o n c e p t i o n s o f r o l e on the p a r t o f b o t h a p p l i c a n t s and caseworkers, l a c k o f c o n f i d e n c e i n s o c i a l workers as p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l workers and "The W e l f a r e " which p e r s i s t from the p a s t and are no l o n g e r v a l i d . The c r u c i a l * importance o f the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h the new a p p l i cant i s h i g h l i g h t e d and a re-assessment o f the e f f i c a c y o f "telephone i n t a k e " suggested. I t i s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t the t r u e urgency o f a new a p p l i c a n t ' s need i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s and t h a t the approach t o the assignment o f p r i o r i t i e s when t h e r e i s a w a i t i n g l i s t needs t o be much more d i a g n o s t i c a l l y o r i e n t e d and much more attuned t o the b a r r i e r s t o communication w h i c h can be assumed t o e x i s t between new a p p l i c a n t and caseworker. P a r t i c u l a r l y i s t h i s t r u e when c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s to.be given, t o the "new c l i e n t e l e " o f s o c i a l work - t h a t i s , the middle c l a s s a p p l i c a n t whose s t e p s toward a s o c i a l agency are f e a r f u l and whose e x p r e s s i o n o f need i s c o n t r o l l e d .  -  iv  -  The same b a r r i e r s t o communication which e x i s t between new a p p l i c a n t and caseworker can be presumed t o e x i s t between s o c i a l workers and t h e l a r g e r community. T h i s may account, a t l e a s t i n p a r t , f o r t h e grave d i f f i c u l t i e s s o c i a l work, as a p r o f e s s i o n , e x p e r i e n c e s i n mass media p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " i n g e n e r a l . This study s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e same k i n d o f a c t i v e , aware attempts t o overcome b a r r i e r s t o communication between caseworker and new a p p l i c a n t need t o be made between s o c i a l work and t h e l a r g e r community so t h a t a n a c h r o n i s t i c a t t i tudes can be m o d i f i e d and an a u t h o r i t a t i v e " p u b l i c image" o f s o c i a l work achieved.  -  i i -  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract..  i i i  Acknowledgements Chapter I .  v  Do A p p l i c a n t s Understand  S o c i a l Work?  S o c i a l Work as a s t r i v i n g p r o f e s s i o n . Some community a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l workers. The f u n c t i o n o f a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. S o c i a l casework i n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency i n h i s t o r i c a l perspective . Chapter  II.  What Can be Learned  from R e f e r r a l s ?  The r e p o r t e d " c o n s t i t u e n c y " o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. The r e s e a r c h t a s k . The method o f r e p o r t i n g r e f e r r a l s t a t i s t i c s . Reported r e f e r r a l s t a t i s t i c s . " P e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s i n a t h r e e months period. Examination o f 80 new, p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s . Referral s o u r c e compared w i t h l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e a p p l i c a n t s r e c e i v e d . Reason f o r a p p l i c a t i o n compared w i t h the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the c a s e . Source o f r e f e r r a l compared w i t h the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the c a s e . The i n t e r v i e w plan Chapter  III.  L o s t A p p l i c a n t s ; The Urgent  IY.  Interviewswith Urgency". 35  L o s t A p p l i c a n t s : The D o u b t f u l Ones.  Group I : " F l u i d E x p e c t a t i o n s " . I n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. F . and Mrs. G. Group I I : " S o c i a l C l a s s B a r r i e r s " . Interviews with Mrs. H. and Mrs. I . Group I I I : "Negative T r a n s f e r e n c e " . Interviews w i t h Mrs. J . , Mrs. K. and Mrs. L.... Chapter V.  12  Ones.  Group I : "The 'White Heat' o f Need". Mrs. A., Mrs. B., and Mrs. C. Group I I : "Apparent I n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. D. and Mrs. E . Chapter  1  Problems o f Communication and the W a i t i n g  32  List.  " L o s t A p p l i c a n t s " ' p r i o r knowledge o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. T h e i r knowledge o f and a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l workers. S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e . S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the w a i t i n g l i s t . A p p l i c a n t s ' view o f the h e l p f u l n e s s o f the agency subsequent t o r e q u e s t for service. B a r r i e r s t o communication between a p p l i c a n t s and caseworkers d e f i n e d by a p p l i c a n t - g r o u p . Casework, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e , and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the s t u d y f i n d i n g s 78 Appendices: Aw B. C.  Interview Questions. Letter to Applicants. Bibliography. TABLES IN THE  TEXT  1.  R e f e r r a l Sources  f o r New  and Re-Opened Cases i n  1959*••••  18  T a b l e 2.  R e f e r r a l Sources  f o r New  Cases i n a Three Month P e r i o d . . .  22  T a b l e 3»  Reason f o r A p p l i c a t i o n Compared w i t h D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case.  27  T a b l e k.  Source o f R e f e r r a l Compared w i t h D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case.....  31  Table  Acknowledgements  Without t h e s k i l l e d , p a t i e n t h e l p and d i r e c t i o n o f Dr. Leonard C. Marsh and Mr. M i c h a e l Wheeler o f t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, t h i s t h e s i s would n o t have been p o s s i b l e . I would a l s o l i k e t o e x p r e s s my deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o Mr. Deryck Thomson, D i r e c t o r o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f G r e a t e r Vancouver, without whose consent and generous h e l p the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a p p l i c a n t s c o u l d n o t have been a r r a n g e d , and t o Mrs. I v y B u t t , R e g i s t r a r o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, who gave much o f h e r time and who unq u e s t i o n i n g l y made a l l n e c e s s a r y s t a t i s t i c s and case r e c o r d s available.  THE POTENTIAL "CONSTITUENCY" OF A FAMILY SERVICE AGENCY An. i n t e r v i e w - s u r v e y o f new a p p l i c a n t s who d i d n o t become c l i e n t s * Vancouver, 1959•  CHAPTER ONE DO APPLICANTS UNDERSTAND SOCIAL WORK? S o c i a l work i s a s t r i v i n g p r o f e s s i o n , as a r e a l l r e l a t i v e l y new professions. two  B u t t h e ambiguity i m p l i c i t i n t h e a s s o c i a t i o n o f these  words " s t r i v i n g " and " p r o f e s s i o n " may g l o s s o v e r some f a c t s - f a c t s  which s o c i a l workers need t o know. '< On t h e one hand, s o c i a l workers expect p u b l i c acceptance and r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r a t t a i n m e n t t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s ; on t h e o t h e r  hand,  they s t r i v e c o n t i n u a l l y upward, s t r a i n i n g toward t h a t e n v i s i o n e d peak o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m which they r e p e a t e d l y reached. suspect  t e l l themselves they have  already  And i n t h e i r s t r a i n i n g toward t h i s peak, i t appears p o s s i b l e t o t h a t they may have n e g l e c t e d  t o i n q u i r e i f t h e community which  s u p p o r t s t h e i r endeavours and t h e c l i e n t s who a r e , o r c o u l d be, u s i n g s e r v i c e s understand, accept,  and a r e g i v e n c o n f i d e n c e  their  by t h i s emphasis on  professional status. There a r e c e r t a i n s i g n s a l o n g  t h e way which p o i n t  f a i r l y d i r e c t l y , at  l e a s t i n the c i t y o f Vancouver, t o a s i z e a b l e gap between s o c i a l workers' image o f t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n and t h e community's i d e a s on t h e s u b j e c t . Vancouver "Sun" o f F e b r u a r y 3» I960 t h i s item  I n the  appeared:-  " I s the Community Chest a c h a r i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , o r i s n ' t i t ? That's the question  A i d . Reg. A t h e r t o n asked Tuesday when t h e i s s u e o f  p r o v i d i n g shoes f o r needy s c h o o l c h i l d r e n came up a g a i n i n C i t y C o u n c i l ....  * I t h i n k t h e chest  ant and what i s n o t ' , charity.  c o u l d r e s o l v e t h i s by d e c i d i n g what i s i m p o r t -  Atherton s a i d .  'The c h e s t  i s a body s e t up f o r  I f t h i s i s n ' t t h e i r f i e l d what i n t h e w o r l d i s t h e i r  field?"' Alderman A t h e r t o n i s presumably n o t t a l k i n g about a s p e c i a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e , he i s t a l k i n g about an a l l - e m b r a c i n g  charity.  u n i t y Ghest i s c o n t e n t t o pay t h e s a l a r i e s o f a g r e a t many f u l l y  The Commqualified  s o c i a l workers, among them the s t a f f o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, i n o r d e r t h a t t h e y may p r o v i d e personal has  p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s t o h e l p people w i t h t h e i r  inter-  d i f f i c u l t i e s ; Alderman A t h e r t o n has e i t h e r never been t o l d t h i s , o r  chosen n o t t o l i s t e n .  -  2  -  On a n o t h e r page o f the same i s s u e o f t h e  "Sun"  t h i s appeared:-  " M e e t Alderman B e r t Emery, m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l o r . g i v i n g marriage c o u n s e l l i n g f o r 35 a c o l l e g e degree t o do The  y e a r s and  He s a i d he's  been  i t ' s n o t n e c e s s a r y t o have  that.  alderman spoke Tuesday when the B.C.  Association of Social  Workers s u g g e s t e d t o c i t y c o u n c i l t h a t s o c i a l workers l i c e n s e d as marriage counsellors should  have a master's degree i n s o c i a l work and have s e v e r a l  years r e l a t e d experience." Here, the emphasis suggests complete n e g a t i o n o f the statement o f  a  p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker s p e a k i n g f o r h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n . w i t h i n the r e a l m o f p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t Alderman A t h e r t o n i s f a r from apprised  It i s  being  o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l work; Alderman Emery i s a g a i n s t  the whole i d e a . Perhaps the statements o f two n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t any of confusion  and  consensus o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , but t h e y do p r e s e n t  negativism  about s o c i a l work which ought not to be  e s p e c i a l l y when i t i s c o n s i d e r e d the community and  aldermen i n a l a r g e urban community do  t h a t t h e s e men  a b l e t o a c t as o p i n i o n  There a r e o t h e r s i g n s o f c o n f u s i o n and  of negativism.  One  not  signs  ignored,  are e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  of  leaders. about s o c i a l workers, o f  disregard  i s r e l a t i v e l y low s o c i a l work s a l a r i e s , which  perhaps be equated w i t h minimal p r e s t i g e .  Another i s the r e c e n t  can  defection  from Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f a h e a l t h o r g a n i z a t i o n which judges i t can g a i n more p u b l i c s u p p o r t by  "going i t alone".  s i g n s o f a l l are the p e r s i s t e n t and  P r o b a b l y the most i n d i c a t i v e  c o n t i n u i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o f s o c i a l workers  i n a r r i v i n g a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y " p u b l i c image".  Much o f t h i s depends on  " i n t e r p r e t i n g " e i t h e r themselves as p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , o r the s e r v i c e s they are t r a i n e d to provide,  to r e f e r r a l resources,  p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s , and  the  community as a whole. T h i s c o n f u s i o n i s n o t by any means c o n f i n e d t o any t o be o p e r a t i v e  elsewhere i n N o r t h America.  one  a r e a but  appears  Dr. Margaret B a i l e y , i n a  recent  d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n on Community O r i e n t a t i o n s toward S o c i a l Casework makes this observation,  " A n a l y s i s o f the s u r v e y f i n d i n g s immediately suggests t h a t  s o c i a l casework l a g s b e h i n d a l l o f the o t h e r s extent  t o which the community has  (helping professions)  i n the.  a c c e p t e d i t s i n c r e a s i n g emphasis on h e l p  to  persons i n i n t e r - p e r s o n a l d i f f i c u l t y . named more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n any  other  S p e c i f i c s o c i a l casework a g e n c i e s were type o f community f a c i l i t y as known t o  o f f e r h e l p w i t h c h i l d guidance problems, but the caseworker was  the l e a s t  f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t e d o f a l l p r o f e s s i o n a l persons f o r b o t h c h i l d  guidance  and m a r i t a l  difficulties."  I n s p i t e o f a l l these s u s p e c t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s , almost a l l f a m i l y agenc i e s and few  c h i l d guidance c l i n i c s have had  to f a c e the n e c e s s i t y , i n the  past  years,, o f s e t t i n g up w a i t i n g l i s t s t o handle the excess o f demand f o r  t h e i r s e r v i c e s o v e r the a v a i l a b l e s u p p l y .  C h i l d guidance c l i n i c s are  part-  i a l l y s t a f f e d by s o c i a l workers; f a m i l y a g e n c i e s are e n t i r e l y s t a f f e d by s o c i a l workers.  On  the f a c e o f i t ,  s o c i a l work i s u n d e r s t o o d and out  t h i s would seem t o mean t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l  i n demand.  Yet Dr. B a i l e y ' s f i n d i n g s p o i n t  t h a t w h i l e s o c i a l casework i s w e l l known t o o f f e r h e l p w i t h c h i l d guidance  and m a r i t a l problems, i t i s i n f r e q u e n t l y s u g g e s t e d . C l e a r l y , t h e r e are a m b i g u i t i e s  here between what the community knows  and does n o t know about s o c i a l work; what p o s i t i v e i d e a s i t h o l d s , and what negative  ones; what i s f a c t , and what i s s u p p o s i t i o n o r erroneous  - or ingrained, u n r e a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e .  expectation  Perhaps the o n l y c e r t a i n t y a t  present  i s the f a c t t h a t a m b i g u i t y e x i s t s ! T h i s study does n o t propose t o attempt any k i n d o f t o t a l assessment o f community a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l work as was survey.  In t h i s , s t r u c t u r e d interviews  sample o f 1660 agencies.  a d u l t s who  The  present  c a r r i e d out i n Dr.  were conducted w i t h a community  were b o t h c l i e n t s and n o n - c l i e n t s o f  social  s t u d y proposes o n l y t o examine a s m a l l a r e a  s o c i a l work p r a c t i s e i n an attempt t o g e t some i n d i c a t i v e answers t o main  Bailey's  of two  questions:1.  What e x p e c t a t i o n s  o f s e r v i c e do a p p l i c a n t s b r i n g w i t h them t o a  p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l agency i n a p a r t i c u l a r u r b a n community? 2.  Are  those e x p e c t a t i o n s  r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the  the agency as the agency c o n c e i v e s t h a t And,  by i m p l i c a t i o n , can a n y t h i n g  drawn from the answers t o these two the community's e x p e c t a t i o n s  valuable  function of  function? i n the way  main q u e s t i o n s  o f guidance  which might p o i n t  be  toward  o f s o c i a l work i t s e l f ?  B a i l e y , Margaret B., Community O r i e n t a t i o n s toward S o c i a l Casework Other P r o f e s s i o n a l Resources, D o c t o r o f S o c i a l Work D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 195b • 1  and  -  if  -  I n s e v e r e l y p r a c t i c a l terms, t h e s e q u e s t i o n s amount t o : come t o a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l agency? what problems do  they expect h e l p  Who  <  The  reasons.  " c h i l d welfare",  coloured  by a semantic o v e r l a y  "rehabilitation".^"  area  "health",  S e c o n d l y , i t s s t a f f i s made up  a stated, published  f u l l y q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers. c l i e n t i s presumed by  by  that function i s  o f s u c h words as  i s f r e q u e n t l y s t r e s s e d i n a g e n c y - p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l and the agency has  and  F i r s t , i t i s a p r i m a r y s o c i a l work s e t t i n g - i n  e x c l u s i v e l y o f f u l l y q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers.  Therefore,  how  chosen f o r the  o t h e r words, i t s p u b l i c l y s t a t e d f u n c t i o n , whether or n o t u n d e r s t o o d , i s not  And  With  given?  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f G r e a t e r Vancouver was  o f s t u d y f o r two  do p e o p l e  s u g g e s t e d t h a t they come?  from a p a r t i c u l a r agency?  whom do t h e y expect t h a t h e l p t o be  Why  And  this,  too,  t h r o u g h mass media.  f u n c t i o n which i s c a r r i e d out On the  face of i t , then,  by  the  the agency to want the same t h i n g from the agency t h a t  the agency i s p r e p a r e d and  equipped t o g i v e - a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l casework  service to f a m i l i e s . THE  FUNCTION OF How  A FAMILY SERVICE AGENCY  c l e a r i s t h i s stated, published 2  the F a m i l y S e r v i c e  Agency.  Methods o f  c e n t r a l purpose o f the f a m i l y  service  and  t o promote h e a l t h y  s a t i s f a c t o r y s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g of various  personality f a m i l y members".  While t h i s l e a v e s room f o r f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n o f what are the values",  and  what makes up  a starting-point. goals "The  are t o be  The  and  "positive  " s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g " , i t i s s u r e l y c l e a r enough as  f o l l o w i n g statement, i n the same r e p o r t , o f how  these  a c h i e v e d , a l s o seems l u c i d - a t l e a s t t o the s o c i a l worker.  b r o a d purposes o f the  functions  Service  t o harmonious f a m i l y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , to s t r e n g t h e n  the p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n f a m i l y l i f e , development and  Scope and  the d e f i n i t i v e statement o f the F a m i l y  A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, r e a d s , "The agency i s t o c o n t r i b u t e  function?  f a m i l y agency are c a r r i e d out  t h r e e r e l a t e d secondary ones.  through two  These f u n c t i o n s  are: 1)  major providing  A l t h o u g h S u p e r v i s e d Homemaker S e r v i c e i s p r o v i d e d w i t h i n the agency's f u n c t i o n , t h i s s e r v i c e i s , by p o l i c y , supposed o n l y t o be g i v e n as an e x t e n s i o n o f casework s e r v i c e , w i t h casework s e r v i c e always o c c u p y i n g the c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n . 2 Scope and Methods o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, 1 9 5 5 * P« 3»  - 5 casework s e r v i c e s ; 2) p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n community p l a n n i n g ; 3)  conducting  group e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ; k)  education;  and 5) engaging At f i r s t  contributing to professional  i n research."^" g l a n c e , these two statements  are a c c e p t a b l e enough.  That  a  l a c k o f c l a r i t y , o r a t l e a s t a concern about c l a r i t y , does e x i s t , however, i s p l a i n l y r e v e a l e d i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o the r e p o r t .  "At v a r i o u s p o i n t s  i n t h i s r e p o r t , t h e Committee emphasizes the p r i n c i p l e t h a t the casework treatment  s e r v i c e s h o u l d be c l e a r l y p l a c e d i n a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n the  agency's program.  The e x t e n t t o which o t h e r f u n c t i o n s o r s e r v i c e s s h o u l d be  developed w i l l depend on a range o f f a c t o r s .  The importance,  however , o f  m a i n t a i n i n g a p r o p e r b a l a n c e - o f k e e p i n g the casework treatment s e r v i c e i n c e n t r a l focus - i s s t r e s s e d .  T h i s p r i n c i p l e s h o u l d be o f v a l u e t o boards and  community groups i n p l a n n i n g f a m i l y agency and community programs, and a l s o be o f h e l p t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work i n t r a i n i n g  should  students  f o r the f a m i l y casework f i e l d as w e l l as f o r o t h e r f i e l d s o f s o c i a l work. I t s h o u l d be u s e f u l , t o o , as a guide i n agency i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  For various  r e a s o n s , c e r t a i n agency programs, such as homemaker s e r v i c e s , v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , group e d u c a t i o n , camps o r n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , have sometimes r e c e i v e d a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount o f p u b l i c T h i s statement  2  attention."  p o i n t s out t h a t " f o r v a r i o u s r e a s o n s " a u x i l i a r y programs  o f f a m i l y a g e n c i e s "sometimes r e c e i v e a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e amount o f p u b l i c attention".  Why  i s p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n more e a s i l y f o c u s s e d upon the c o n c r e t e  s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d by f a m i l y a g e n c i e s ?  Do  f a m i l y a g e n c i e s t e n d themselves  f o c u s on t h e i r more c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e s , b o t h i n program and i n p u b l i c i t y ?  to Or  does p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n " n a t u r a l l y " f o c u s on t h e s e a s p e c t s t o the d e t r i m e n t o f the c e n t r a l casework s e r v i c e ?  One  o f the " v a r i o u s r e a s o n s " t o e x p l a i n t h i s  might be t h a t c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e s , s u c h as homemaker s e r v i c e , a r e b o t h more e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d and more e a s i l y understood concept o f "casework".  x  Ibid.  p.  3.  2  Ibid.  p.  2.  than the more s u b t l e , complex  -  6  -  Casework i n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. The  casework treatment s e r v i c e must occupy t h e c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n i n a  f a m i l y agency's  s e r v i c e ; and i t i s the a u x i l i a r y s e r v i c e s which r e c e i v e t o o  much p u b l i c a t t e n t i o n . agency's  T h e r e f o r e , the gap, o r l a c k o f c l a r i t y , between t h e  view o f i t s s t a t e d purposes and f u n c t i o n s and t h e community's view  o f t h e s e , c a n be assumed t o l i e i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f casework s e r v i c e . And as casework s e r v i c e i s t h e name g i v e n t o t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a o f t e c h n i c a l competence which has a l l o w e d s o c i a l workers t o c o n s i d e r themselves p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , t h e n t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s which o c c u r i n t r y i n g t o make c l e a r what casework s e r v i c e i s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y c r e a t e c o n c o m i t a n t ; d i f f i c u l t i e s i n making c l e a r what a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker i s - and does. L i t e r a t u r e on t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s o c i a l work i s s p a r s e .  I t provides  m a i n l y statements l i k e t h i s : "Casework, the most w i d e l y p r a c t i s e d form o f s o c i a l work i s the l e a s t u n d e r s t o o d . "  Or t h i s : "The problem  e v i d e n t i n ' i n t e r p r e t i n g ' s o c i a l work t o t h e p u b l i c . in  i s especially  I n a b i l i t y t o implant  the p u b l i c mind and t h e minds o f o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s a c l e a r image o f s o c i a l  work i s a matter o f c o n s t a n t concern t o the p r o f e s s i o n .  However, t h i s i s a  d i f f i c u l t y s h a r e d by s i s t e r o c c u p a t i o n s i n the human r e l a t i o n s f i e l d , r e s u l t i n g predictably  from t h e n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k and t h e as y e t modest degree o f  professionalism."  2  O b v i o u s l y i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o p r o c e e d without a t t e m p t i n g t o d e f i n e casework s e r v i c e .  And i n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n a t l e a s t a p a r t i a l d e f i n i t i o n o f  p r e s e n t - d a y s o c i a l work l i e s , s i n c e t h i s s p e c i a l i z e d casework a s p e c t o f g e n e r a l s o c i a l work p r a c t i s e i s the c e n t r a l f i e l d o f t e c h n i c a l competence integrated with "professional"  skill.  Wilensky and Lebeau have a h e l p f u l statement on t h i s m a t t e r . i c a l l y , s o c i a l work c o n s i s t e d  o f a t r a d i t i o n o f c o n c e r n f o r the w e l f a r e o f  people, e s p e c i a l l y the disadvantaged.  But no group can c l a i m monopoly o f  h u m a n i t a r i a n philosophy:, o r c r e a t e a p r o f e s s i o n t h a t people b e l i e v e life,  "Histor-  out o f i t .  To t h e e x t e n t  t h a t e v e r y c i t i z e n has h i s duty t o improve  the common 3 s o c i a l work ( a s s o c i a l reform) l o o k s l i k e everybody's b u s i n e s s . "  ^ P a r a d i s e , V i o l a , Toward a P u b l i c Understanding o f Casework, R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New York, 19W. p . 16. :  2 Wilensky, H a r o l d L . , and Lebeau, C h a r l e s N., I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New York, 1$50, p . 314 3  I b i d . , p . 288.  Not  o n l y does s o c i a l Work, as s o c i a l r e f o r m , tend to seem l i k e  business,  everybody's  the i d e a seems t o be a f o o t , a t l e a s t i n some q u a r t e r s , t h a t  work, even as casework, i s a l s o everybody's b u s i n e s s . a l r e a d y c i t e d above, was  - t h e b u s i n e s s f o r 35 y e a r s .  corner  I have one  d r u g g i s t does who  r i g h t now  " I have  has been i n  - a d r i n k i n g husband, a  I t ' s not n e c e s s a r y f o r anyone t o have a u n i v e r s i t y  degree t o g i v e c o u n s e l l i n g Fortunately  Alderman Emery,  even more e x p l i c i t i n h i s f u r t h e r statement.  been d o i n g marriage c o u n s e l l i n g as any  c h i l d being neglected.  social  advice.'*  f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f s o c i a l work, a somewhat  more s o p h i s t i c a t e d view i s taken by h i s t o r i a n s o f s o c i a l w e l f a r e . and Lebeaux s e t t h i s out i n d e t a i l .  "Against  Wilensky  t h i s knowledge background,"  t h e y s t a t e , "casework t a k e s form as a t y p e o f c o u n s e l l i n g p r o c e s s which emphasizes h e l p i n g an i n d i v i d u a l t o i d e n t i f y , c l a r i f y , and understand h i s d i f f i c u l t i e s t o the p o i n t where he can f r e e h i m s e l f The  resemblance t o psychotherapy i s c l o s e .  t h a t any  from them, or accept  and  inner resources  which, i f f r e e d from the s h a c k l e s  has  of fear,  i n h i b i t i o n , and o t h e r types o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l b l o c k a g e , w i l l enable him become e f f e c t i v e l y s e l f - r e s p o n s i b l e ( e x c e p t , and  the l i k e . )  A man  of course, psychotics,  - o r why  one  i s not a v a i l a b l e t o him  motto i s " h e l p people t o h e l p themselves".  to  babies,  out o f work, f o r example, w i l l not u s u a l l y be  w i t h a j o b , but w i l l be h e l p e d t o understand why h o l d , one  help.  Casework o p e r a t e s on the premise  i n d i v i d u a l f a c i n g s o c i a l s t r e s s e s which he cannot d e a l w i t h  strengths  own  supplied  he w i l l not seek, o r cannot  on h i s terms.  To t h i s end  knowledge'and i n s i g h t i n t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s ,  Casework's  training stresses  b o t h o f the c l i e n t and  the  worker."^ B e f o r e the 1 9 3 0 ' s , the concept o f a s o c i a l worker was u s u a l l y female, who  ministered  o f a person,  s o l e l y t o the m a t e r i a l needs o f p o v e r t y -  s t r i c k e n f a m i l i e s , t o dependent o r n e g l e c t e d  c h i l d r e n , t o the d i s a b l e d ,  the  "worthy poor", the g e n e r a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d " o t h e r s " o f our communities. "image" was  o f a s o c i a l worker who  gave and expected the r e c i p i e n t t o take  ( h o p e f u l l y w i t h a show o f g r a t i t u d e ) , who f o r him  o r t o him  processes.  The  t a l k e d t o the c l i e n t and d i d  r a t h e r than t o work w i t h him  on the b a s i s o f h i s  I t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o understand, t h e r e f o r e , why  things  psychological  misconceptions  o f s o c i a l work as p r a c t i s e d today, i n a f a m i l y s e r v i c e agency, can a r i s e .  1  I b i d . , p.  290  - 8 It  has,  e s s e n t i a l l y , nothing  t o p r o v i d e but  s o c i a l casework s e r v i c e , which,  t o r e t u r n t o Wilensky and Lebeau, must s t r e s s "knowledge and i n s i g h t i n t o psychological processes,  b o t h o f the c l i e n t and worker."  C e r t a i n l y i n these  days the s o c i a l worker i s t r a i n e d t o u n d e r s t a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l  processes;  whether the c l i e n t has been " t r a i n e d " t o expect t h i s k i n d o f s k i l l knowledge on the p a r t o f the s o c i a l worker i s perhaps the m i s s i n g .the  part  of  equation. If  confusions  and m i s c o n c e p t i o n s e x i s t between c l i e n t and  between s o c i a l worker and how  and  s o c i a l worker,  l a r g e r community, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t t o understand  they have been r e i n f o r c e d f a r and wide when "chest  campaigns h e l p e d t o  e n t r e n c h the i d e a t h a t the f a m i l y agency e x i s t e d o n l y t o r e l i e v e d e s p e r a t e want.  No  wonder the m o n e y - r a i s e r s r e a c h e d f o r the most a g i l e purse-opening  symbol they c o u l d f i n d - u s u a l l y a p i t i a b l e c h i l d w i t h o u t - s t r e t c h e d The  a p p e a l worked."^"  But  - and  hand.  t h i s i s the s i g n i f i c a n t sentence f o r our  present  c o n c e r n - " I t s t i l l works so w e l l t h a t some c h e s t s h e s i t a t e t o 2 i t w i t h the f a r b e t t e r s t o r y casework now can t e l l . " The  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f G r e a t e r  t e n y e a r s , has  Vancouver, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the  t r i e d t o t e l l t h i s " b e t t e r s t o r y " i n many ways.  s t r e s s e d i t s casework s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n , c a r e f u l l y p l a y e d its  Supervised  replace  It  has  down p u b l i c i t y  Homemaker S e r v i c e , f o l l o w i n g , i t might be n o t e d , the  c i t e d i n j u n c t i o n o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America.  last  on  previously  In i t s annual  r e p o r t s , i t s i n t e r p r e t i v e pamphlets, i n the speeches i t s s t a f f have g i v e n  to  innumerable community groups, i n i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community p l a n n i n g ,  in  family l i f e  education,  t e l e v i s i o n , i t has  i n p u b l i c i t y r e l e a s e s to newspapers, magazines, r a d i o ,  s t r u g g l e d t o get the essence o f p r o f e s s i o n a l casework s e r v i c e  a c r o s s so t h a t , h o p e f u l l y , agency, c l i e n t , and tune about f a m i l y s e r v i c e . of i t s t i t l e ,  I t has  community w i l l be somewhat i n  p u r p o s e f u l l y t a k e n the word " W e l f a r e " out  to replace i t with "Service".  I t has,  with conscious i n t e n t ,  s t r u c k out the word " r e l i e f " from a l l i t s p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l , and s u b s t i t u t e d s u c h p h r a s e s as " f i n a n c i a l management", " f i n a n c i a l "budget c o u n s e l l i n g " , and  Paradise,  op.  >  I b i d . , p . 19.  "income management".  c i t . , p.  19.  . . . . . . .  U n d e r l i n i n g , present  writer's.  has  troubles",  - 9 The  agency's  25th  Annual Report i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l i n g i n t h i s  c o n s c i o u s attempt t o e x p l a i n t o p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t and function.  I n the y e a r s between 1928  the Bureau's h e l p might be good, bad, i n s t a r k need.  Like other  and 1938,  community t h i s  i t says,  changing  "People who  sought  o r j u s t b e w i l d e r e d , but too many were  f a m i l y a g e n c i e s we  found o u r s e l v e s  coping  with  h i g h r e l i e f c o s t s , but Board and  S t a f f n e v e r l o s t s i g h t o f the f a c t t h a t  Bureau's r e a l job was  s k i l l e d casework s e r v i c e s . "  to. p r o v i d e  Through the y e a r s 19^6  t o 1952,  the agency i s s a y i n g ,  "Anxious people  l i t t l e peace o f mind i n t i m e s o f s o c i a l change and w o r l d u n r e s t . s t r u g g l e to meet h i g h l i v i n g c o s t s and o f s e c u r i t y , but p a r e n t s and  W e l f a r e Bureau." "  since  Parents  f e a r s f o r the f u t u r e c r e a t e t e n s i o n s . f i n d i n g t h e i r way  can g i v e them to h e l p i n t h e i r s e a r c h  emotional  for serenity.  case c o n s u l t a n t s  Troubled  t o the F a m i l y  They need a l l the warmth, u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  o f the h e l p o f our p s y c h i a t r i c and  find  t o g i v e t h e i r c h i l d r e n some measure  t h e i r unhappy c h i l d r e n are now 1  s u p p o r t we  t h e i r own  the  We  are  a v a i l a b l e t o the  glad  agency  19^6." The  f i r s t excerpt  s e r v i c e were l i k e was  underlines  t h a t what the people who  requested  n o t o f p r i m a r y importance; they c o u l d be  o r j u s t b e w i l d e r e d , but too many were i n s t a r k need."  "good,  I t i s nevertheless  p l a i n t h a t i n s p i t e o f the s t a r k need, the agency's r e a l job i s to casework s e r v i c e .  I n the second e x c e r p t ,  bad, made  provide  p a r e n t s are s t r u g g l i n g t o manage  t h e i r money, but the agency f o c u s i s even more c l e a r l y upon i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems and  the n e c e s s i t y o f p s y c h i a t r i c and  case c o n s u l t a n t s .  The  "need" i s not mentioned. . A l o o k a t the agency's f i n a n c i a l r e p o r t s 1952  shows t h a t need c o n t i n u e d  t o e x i s t and was  l i s t e d for f i n a n c i a l assistance increased  b e i n g met;  considerably  however, c o u l d w e l l p o i n t t o a g r e a t e r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e some c l i e n t s ' needs as p a r t o f a casework p l a n .  since  i n f a c t , the amounts  each y e a r .  This,  f l e x i b i l i t y i n meeting  Although i t i s not  the scope o f t h i s study to attempt to prove t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n , i t i s one  word  within nevertheless  which f i t s n e a t l y i n t o the p r e s e n t - d a y p r a c t i s e o f most f a m i l y a g e n c i e s  t o meet s p e c i a l need where t h i s w i l l f u r t h e r a more c o n s t r u c t i v e use casework s e r v i c e .  'amily S e r v i c e Agency.  of  10  -  Fe e-Charging. I n 1951 I t was  the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency i n i t i a t e d a f e e - c h a r g i n g  begun as an experiment and no g e n e r a l p u b l i c i t y was  community about i t .  I n the b r i e f summary o f the y e a r s 19^6  t o pay  f o r our s e r v i c e " .  f e e s f o r our s e r v i c e s " .  the p r e r o g a t i v e i s c l e a r l y the From 1955  g i v e n t o the  However, the annual r e p o r t s , as t h e y e a r s go  show a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e i n the way  have asked to pay  policy.  by,  i n which t h i s p o l i c y has been e x p l a i n e d . t o 1951» I n 1952,  i t can be r e a d t h a t "many "Some o f our c l i e n t s p r e f e r  They "ask" t o pay o r they " p r e f e r " t o  pay;  client's.  on, a l t h o u g h i t i s once s t a t e d i n the body o f the annual  r e p o r t o f t h a t y e a r , "For those a b l e t o pay  toward t h e c o s t s o f the s e r v i c e  a f e e ' s c a l e i s r e l a t e d t o f a m i l y income", i n the y e a r s  f o l l o w i n g , the amount  c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h f e e s i s s i m p l y s t a t e d i n the F i n a n c i a l Report further explanation. some c l i e n t s pay  I n t h i s way,  i t appears as an a c c e p t e d  f o r s e r v i c e and t h a t t h i s needs no  without  fact that  clarification.  I t might be n o t e d here t h a t no attempt has ever been made by  the  agency t o g i v e undue p u b l i c i t y t o f e e - c h a r g i n g , a l t h o u g h the experiment has  e v o l v e d i n t o a f i x e d p o l i c y ; moreover, the money so c o l l e c t e d i s s t i l l  t u r n e d back i n t o the g e n e r a l revenue o f the Community C h e s t .  The  monetary  g a i n a c c r u e i n g out o f t h i s p a r t o f the agency's o p e r a t i o n i s e i t h e r so s m a l l as to have l i t t l e  o v e r a l l importance, o r so charged w i t h p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s  d i f f i c u l t i e s - perhaps most p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view o f the Community emphasis on h e l p t o the needy as a campaign t e c h n i q u e  Chest's  - t h a t the l e s s  said  the b e t t e r . With t h i s e x c e p t i o n , the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency ( w h i l e a v o i d i n g , i n f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t w i t h c l i e n t s , o r i n i t s annual r e p o r t s and  except  interpretive  pamphlets, which have a l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n , f e e - c h a r g i n g as a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s problem) has made c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t , not o n l y i n i t s day-to-day work, but i n e x p l a i n i n g i t s s e r v i c e to the p u b l i c , t o b r i d g e the gap o l d and new,  between "Welfare"  and  "Counselling".  T h i s gap seems, t o some  degree a t l e a s t , t o have been b r i d g e d by the agency i t s e l f and by the workers who  provide i t s s e r v i c e s .  the c l i e n t s who  between  social  I t remains t o be s e e n , however, whether  w i s h t o use the s e r v i c e s o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f  -  11 . -  G r e a t e r Vancouver have caught up w i t h t h e t i m e s . l e a r n what s o c i a l casework i n a f a m i l y  Have t h e y managed t o  agency c o n s i s t s o f today?  h a v i n g found t h i s o u t , a r e they c o n t e n t w i t h the knowledge?  And,  CHAPTER TWO  WHAT CAN BE LEARNED FROM REFERRALS?  One d i c t i o n a r y meaning o f t h e word " c o n s t i t u e n c y " i s " a group o f c l i e n t s o r s u p p o r t e r s " : a meaning f o r " c o n s t i t u e n t " i s a "necessary o r component,"  part,,  A p p l y i n g these meanings t o c l i e n t s o f a s o c i a l agency i t  i s c l e a r t h a t any agency must have i t s c o n s t i t u e n c y .  Just as a p o l i t i c i a n  cannot g e t e l e c t e d , u n l e s s he g e t s t h e v o t e s , a s o c i a l agency has no e x i s t e n c e without  clients.  But the p o l i t i c i a n knows immediately  the b a l l o t s have been  counted whether h i s p o l i t i c a l e x i s t e n c e i s a s s u r e d o r n o t ; the s o c i a l agency does n o t have t h i s e x p l i c i t way o f f i n d i n g o u t whether what i t has t o o f f e r the p u b l i c i s n e c e s s a r i l y what t h e p u b l i c i s prepared  t o "vote f o r " .  It  may have t r i e d t o make i t s f u n c t i o n p a l a t a b l e t o t h e p u b l i c , j u s t a s the p o l i t i c i a n has p r e s e n t e d h i s p l a t f o r m .  But i t i s q u i t e l i k e l y t h a t t h e  p o l i t i c i a n has done some p r e l i m i n a r y spadework; he i s p r e p a r e d  t o assess  what w i l l g e t him t h e v o t e s , and what measures w i l l be l i k e l y t o keep him in office. o f him.  I n o t h e r words, he has. some i d e a o f t h e v o t e r s '  expectations  Whether he meets t h e s e e x p e c t a t i o n s o r n o t i s a m a t t e r between him  and h i s c o n s c i e n c e  and perhaps even more d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t r e n g t h  of h i s desire t o get r e - e l e c t e d . Without p u s h i n g  t h i s analogy  too f a r , i t i s quite evident that the  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency has t h e c o n f i d e n c e applicants f o r service.  o f a large "constituency" o f  I t must a l s o be meeting the e x p e c t a t i o n s o f many  o f these a p p l i c a n t s o r i t would n o t have s u c h a l e n g t h y w a i t i n g l i s t . the f a c e o f i t ,  i t has more " v o t e r s " than i t needs.  . B u t t h e r e i s another  side to this-coin.  The s o c i a l agency does n o t  have t h e f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o t h e p o l i t i c i a n f o r "keeping ground".  On  an e a r t o t h e  I t has ways, through mass media, o f t e l l i n g i t s s t o r y , b u t i t  has no way o f c h e c k i n g i f t h i s s t o r y has been h e a r d ,  and by whom.  I t may  have come i n t o e x i s t e n c e many y e a r s e a r l i e r - "voted i n t o o f f i c e " v i a a  -  s p e c i f i c platform, but,  13  t h r o u g h the e n e r g i e s  i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d , i t has had  making any  -  o f a group o f i n t e r e s t e d c i t i z e n s  l i t t l e opportunity  -  s i n c e t h a t time f o r  f u r t h e r assessment o f p o s s i b l y changed p u b l i c a t t i t u d e s , or  changed p u b l i c needs. ^" The  Reported " C o n s t i t u e n c y "  o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  To b e g i n w i t h , what components make up the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency as  "constituency"  judged by i t s annual r e p o r t s ?  of  the  These r e v e a l a  e l u s i v e c l u e s ; however, t h e y remain c l u e s and no more.  The  few  number o f f a m i l i e s  g i v e n s e r v i c e i s f r e q u e n t l y s t a t e d ; the k i n d s o f problems t h e s e f a m i l i e s were h e l p e d w i t h are enumerated. example, the r e p o r t o f 1952 200  problems and personal 458  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e  emphasis upon numbers; f o r  s t a t e s , "Among t h e i r t r o u b l e s were 853  problems i n p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s .  adjustment c r e a t e d problems f o r 109  marital  D i f f i c u l t i e s i n their  c h i l d r e n , 113  adolescents,  and  adults." I n 1955,  a d i f f e r e n c e appears; the numbers are t h e r e , but an  i s a l s o made t o p e r s o n a l i z e F o r example, " I am now e v e r been ... we are h i s p a r e n t s .  these problems t h r o u g h c a p s u l e  back w i t h J a c k and  are b o t h g r a t e f u l ..."  I n 1956, kind.  The  case h i s t o r i e s .  t h i n g s are b e t t e r than t h e y have "Bobby i s a d i f f e r e n t c h i l d and  Everybody i s r e l a x e d now  r e a s o n s , i t s h o u l d n ' t happen a g a i n  attempt  and  as we  so  t h i n k we know the  ...."  the emphasis i s a g a i n on numbers, but o f a more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e has  come t o the f o r e ; the number o f  interviews,  the number o f "telephone c o n s u l t a t i o n s " , the number o f home v i s i t s .  The  statement o f purpose o f the agency, which has i t s p l a c e i n a l l annual r e p o r t s , i s merely i m p l i e d i n s u c h words as ".... c o n f u s e d , the u n c e r t a i n , the l o n e l y ...."  the  t r o u b l e d , the  the  c o u p l e d w i t h a t e l l i n g phrase from  T o l s t o i ' s Anna K a r e n i n a , " A l l happy f a m i l i e s resemble one unhappy f a m i l y i s unhappy i n i t s own  frightened,  another ....  every  fashion."  I n May, i960, the r e c e n t l y formed Research Department o f the Community Chest and C o u n c i l o f G r e a t e r Vancouver completed An A p p r a i s a l o f the Chest by B u s i n e s s L e a d e r s : Report o f an A t t i t u d e Survey o f kO Leaders o f Vancouver Commerce, I n d u s t r y and F i n a n c e on t h e i r A t t i t u d e s toward the Chest and C o u n c i l s . Subsequent t o the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s r e p o r t a r e q u e s t was made f o r funds t o conduct a community-wide a t t i t u d e s u r v e y toward h e a l t h and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s , but because o f budget l i m i t a t i o n s t h i s c o u l d not be c a r r i e d o u t .  -  In 1 9 5 7 i preventive and  Ik  -  an e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e r e p o r t p l a c e s i t s e n t i r e emphasis on  n a t u r e o f f a m i l y s e r v i c e , r e l a t i n g t h i s t o growing s o c i a l  problems  gaps i n s e r v i c e i n the community, s t a t i n g i n v a r i o u s ways t h a t i t i s  l e s s expensive to provide  p r o f e s s i o n a l s e r v i c e s to help troubled f a m i l i e s  t h a n i t i s t o p l a c e c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes, to t r e a t d e l i n q u e n c y , or provide  beds i n mental h o s p i t a l s .  p o s s i b l e t o make i n a few  The  breakdown, and  s h o r t p a r a g r a p h s , t h a t the  t h a t t h e agency i n t e n d s  e s s e n t i a l job o f  to r e s i s t pressures  i n the  The  l a s t p a r a g r a p h i n t h i s r e p o r t i s worth n o t i n g .  of re-emphasizing prevention, and  experiment ....  through  "As  other  time goes on  t o c o n t r i v e new  o f d e t e c t i n g f a m i l y problems i n t h e i r  ways  early  o f e n c o u r a g i n g the p e o p l e w i t h those f a m i l y problems t o have  them t r e a t e d as s o o n as they b e g i n . problem needs t o be before  family  community.  hope, t h r o u g h p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s and  stages,  a  p l a c e d on i t  t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r s e r v i c e s which must be p r o v i d e d auspices  to  p o i n t i s made, as c l e a r l y as i t i s  f a m i l y agency i s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f casework s e r v i c e t o p r e v e n t  we  the  looked  t h e i n f e c t i o n has  L i k e any  other i l l n e s s a  family  a f t e r a t the s t a r t , when a cure i s p o s s i b l e ,  s p r e a d outward t o the  c h i l d r e n and  t o the  and  community  itself." Most s o c i a l workers c o u l d agree t h a t t h i s i s an e m i n e n t l y p r o f e s s i o n a l statement o f purpose and  a forward-looking  apparently,  i s the  function.  I t equates the p r e v e n t i v e  aspect way,  of medicine.  statement o f i n t e n t .  t r e n d the agency i s t a k i n g i n i t s own aspect  I t speaks o f " d e t e c t i o n and  treatment" i n a  casework i s , or what the s o c i a l worker does, i s not t h a t t h e s e f a c t s are known and So  f a r i t seems e v i d e n t  agency, about i t s purpose and  conception  of i t s  o f s o c i a l work w i t h the  though w i t h o u t d e l i n e a t i n g what treatment and  being  This,  do not r e q u i r e  preventive  matter-of-fact  detection consist of. s p e l l e d out,  the i m p l i c a t i o n  explanation.  t h a t t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency i s c l e a r , as intent.  What  I t s job i s , s i m p l y  and  an  straightforwardly,  ( l ) t o p r e v e n t f a m i l y breakdown t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l services, and  (3)  (2)  t o improve i t s t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e c t i n g s i g n s o f e a r l y t r o u b l e ,  t o encourage f a m i l i e s t o seek p r o f e s s i o n a l casework s e r v i c e s  t h e i r problems become c h r o n i c .  before  -  The  15  '"constituency", as the agency sees i t , t h e r e f o r e , has been d e f i n e d  i n terms o f the f u n c t i o n and purpose staff. left  -  Those f a m i l i e s who  o f the agency and i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l  have problems which may  become more s e r i o u s i f  " u n t r e a t e d " a r e i t s c l i e n t e l e as the agency p e r c e i v e s i t .  to be s e e n i f the " c o n s t i t u e n c y " p e r c e i v e s t h i s purpose,  I t remains  and i f i t does,  how  c l e a r l y , and what f a c t o r s c o l o u r t h i s p e r c e p t i o n . The Research In 1684  Task .  the y e a r 1 9 5 9 * the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency gave casework s e r v i c e t o  families.  Many o f these f a m i l i e s and i n d i v i d u a l s had had  b e f o r e - some f o r a s h o r t p e r i o d , o t h e r s f o r an extended f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s who  service  period.  Those  had r e c e i v e d s e r v i c e b e f o r e would be presumed  t o have some a c q u i r e d i d e a s o f agency s e r v i c e .  They c o u l d a l s o be presumed  t o have some acceptance o f the agency as h e l p f u l t o them o r they would n o t have continued, i n s e r v i c e , o r have r e q u e s t e d t h a t t h e i r case be  re-opened.  I t seemed, t h e r e f o r e , from the b e g i n n i n g , t h a t i f any attempt were t o be made to get a p i c t u r e of c l i e n t s *  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the agency and i t s s e r v i c e i t  would be n e c e s s a r y t o s t u d y , p a r t i c u l a r l y , new for  the f i r s t  cases coming t o the agency  time.  Would i t be p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e on a p u r e l y s t a t i s t i c a l b a s i s the c o n s t i t u e n t s o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency were, why and who, it  i f anyone, suggested t h a t t h e y come?  who  t h e y were coming,  To answer these q u e s t i o n s  was n e c e s s a r y t o s t a r t w i t h an overview o f the t o t a l i n t a k e o f the y e a r  1959» e x c l u d i n g the cases c a r r i e d over from the p r e v i o u s y e a r . Even t h i s was  not without i t s d i f f i c u l t i e s .  First,  i t was  necessary  to  go through a number o f time-consuming s t e p s i n o r d e r t o get any i n f o r m a t i o n  at  all.  The s t a t i s t i c a l  c a r d s which are made up from the d a i l y  application  forms and'which i n c l u d e a l l f a c t - s h e e t i n f o r m a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g s o u r c e o f  •Slorth Vancouver and West Vancouver cases were e x c l u d e d from the s t a r t because both are d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s and operate, as i t were, w i t h i n a s m a l l town s t r u c t u r e , q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from the G r e a t e r Vancouver A r e a . The West . Vancouver o f f i c e i s open o n l y on a minimal p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , and the N o r t h Vancouver o f f i c e , which i s housed w i t h i n a community H e a l t h and Welfare B u i l d i n g , n o t i c e a b l y g e t s the b u l k o f i t s r e f e r r a l s from s o u r c e s w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g i t s e l f , and from a few a p p a r e n t l y c l o s e l y a l l i e d . p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e .  -  16  -  a p p l i c a t i o n , a r e f i l e d under each worker's name, without s e p a r a t i o n o f c a s e s i n t o new,  re-opened,  o r c a r r i e d o v e r from the y e a r b e f o r e .  c a r d s on c l o s e d c a s e s which might have been new but c l o s e d w i t h i n i t , The o n l y way  o r re-opened  Statistical  d u r i n g the y e a r ,  are f i l e d a l p h a b e t i c a l l y under the c l i e n t ' s name.  o f s e c u r i n g the needed i n f o r m a t i o n was  r e v i e w o f the "day books'*.  One  o f these books l i s t s new  found t o be  cases i n the o r d e r  i n which t h e y come i n , on a month t o month b a s i s ; the o t h e r l i s t s the c a s e s i n the same way.  a  re-opened  The i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n b o t h day books i s the  case number, the name o f the f a m i l y , the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e , and the name o f the worker t o whom the case has been a s s i g n e d . w e l l , t h e address o f the  The  "new"  day book i n c l u d e s , as  family.  The Method o f R e p o r t i n g R e f e r r a l S t a t i s t i c s . R e f e r r a l s t a t i s t i c s , which a r e r e p o r t e d monthly through the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r t o the Board o f D i r e c t o r s , and compiled a t the end o f the y e a r f o r the a n n u a l r e p o r t , are o b t a i n e d i n the f o l l o w i n g way:t a b u l a t e d i n t h e new  and re-opened  The r e f e r r a l  statistics  day books a r e added and t r a n s p o s e d from  t h e r e on t o a l a r g e monthly s t a t i s t i c a l s h e e t , which f o r m u l a t e s i n a rough-andready manner v a r i o u s r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s i n the community. The t h r e e main headings a r e . " S o c i a l A g e n c i e s " , " H e a l t h A g e n c i e s " , and "Group Work, e t c . " .  Under these headings a r e a number o f sub-headings.  example, l a w y e r s are l i s t e d under a sub-heading Agencies" s e c t i o n .  For  o f " l e g a l " i n the " H e a l t h  Under "Group Work, e t c . " appear " p e r s o n a l " , " r e l a t i v e s " ,  " o t h e r c l i e n t s " , " s c h o o l s " , "churches", the " S a l v a t i o n Army", "attendance o f f i c e r " , the " N a t i o n a l Employment S e r v i c e " .  I t i s d i f f i c u l t not t o s u s p e c t  t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y has e v o l v e d o v e r the y e a r s i n t o a c a t c h - a l l r e p o s i t o r y o f a l l r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s which have not e x a c t l y f i t t e d under the first  two  headings.  To f u r t h e r s o r t out the r e f e r r a l s under the "How  They Came" h e a d i n g  f o r the monthly p e r u s a l o f the E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r and the Board, the  statistician  has t o make a s e p a r a t e t a l l y from t h i s s t a t i s t i c a l s h e e t , r e a l i g n i n g the r e f e r r a l s under ( l ) ' ' s c h o o l s , churches and o t h e r community o r g a n i z a t i o n s " , (2) " S o c i a l H e a l t h A g e n c i e s " , (3) "the f a m i l y o r r e l a t i v e s " , and d o c t o r s , l a w y e r s and o t h e r c l i e n t s . "  (k)  "neighbours,  and  employers,  -  17  -  I t i s , o f c o u r s e , o f t e n a d i f f i c u l t , i f n o t almost i m p o s s i b l e t a s k , t o d e c i d e among t h e s e broad c a t e g o r i e s where a p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r r a l s o u r c e should f i t i n .  F o r example, i f a d o c t o r from the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h has  made a r e f e r r a l , where does he f i t i n - under H e a l t h Agencies o r d o c t o r s ? Where do t h e p o l i c e f i t i n ? - s i n c e they a r e , i n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, l i s t e d on t h e o r i g i n a l s h e e t under the sub-heading  o f " l e g a l " under the main  heading o f " H e a l t h A g e n c i e s " . I n any c a s e , f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y , which i n t e n d e d t o c o n c e n t r a t e on new cases o n l y , i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o u s e e i t h e r the m a t e r i a l on t h e r e f e r r a l s h e e t , o r t h e monthly "How They Came" s t a t i s t i c s as r e p o r t e d t o t h e E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r , because b o t h new and re-opened c a s e s were added t o g e t h e r .  I t was, t h e r e f o r e , n e c e s s a r y t o count  one by one, a l i t h e new and re-opened  cases f o r t h e t o t a l y e a r from the  day books and t o take from each l i s t e d case t h e r e f e r r a l s o u r c e . and re-opened"cases together.7  The new  were counted s e p a r a t e l y and the two t o t a l s added  ( A l l N o r t h Shore cases were excluded, as e x p l a i n e d above.)  Reported R e f e r r a l \  through,  Statistics.  T h i s count o f t h e r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s r e v e a l e d t h a t o u t o f 892 f a m i l i e s  o r i n d i v i d u a l s who a p p l i e d f o r agency s e r v i c e i n t h e y e a r  1959» 626 made  t h e i r own a p p l i c a t i o n s , n o t preceded by a s p e c i f i c r e f e r r a l from any o t h e r source.  *  -  T a b l e 1*  Re f e r r a l  18  -  R e f e r r a l Sources f o r New and Re-Opened Cases i n 1959  Source  s o c i a l and h e a l t h a g e n c i e s  Total  15k  schools  16  churches  11  doctors  25  lawyers  5  employers  2  relatives  25 *  27  other c l i e n t s  1  individuals  personal  626  892 * T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d a l l those r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s which d i d n o t f i t i n t o any o f t h e o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s  -  19  -  T h i s d i s c o v e r y was i n t e r e s t i n g , but i t a f f o r d e d no u s e a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n about it  the " c o n s t i t u e n c y " o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  All  r e v e a l e d , so f a r , was t h a t a v e r y l a r g e percentage o f the p e o p l e who had  r e q u e s t e d a d v i c e i n the y e a r 1959 initiative.  had a p p a r e n t l y done s o on t h e i r  Who they were, by what r o u t e t h e y had a r r i v e d  own  ( e x c e p t , perhaps,  g e o g r a p h i c a l l y ) , what, i f any, e x p e c t a t i o n s o f s e r v i c e they brought w i t h them, were s t i l l unknown f a c t s t o the agency. S i n c e more than 68% o f the new cases w i t h which t h i s s t u d y  proposed  t o c o n c e r n i t s e l f were " p e r s o n a l " a p p l i c a t i o n s , what was t h e agency d e f i n i t i o n of a "personal" r e f e r r a l , or application?  As a l l f a m i l y a g e n c i e s  by t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America must conform s t a t i s t i c a l procedures what was the FSAA d e f i n i t i o n ?  to certain required  The manual r e v e a l e d ,  " I f the a p p l i c a n t a p p l i e s d i r e c t l y , w r i t e ' p e r s o n a l t h r o u g h how c l i e n t h e a r d o f agency.  accredited  1  .... t o i n d i c a t e  U n l e s s an a p p l i c a n t i s r e f e r r e d by l e t t e r o r  t e l e p h o n e , o r b r i n g s a w r i t t e n r e f e r r a l w i t h him, the a p p l i c a t i o n i s considered personal.  F o r r e - a p p l i c a t i o n s , the statement  s h o u l d be ' p e r s o n a l  through former c o n t a c t * " . T h i s appeared  t o be a r e a s o n a b l e statement  of reporting  procedure.  Where, t h e n , d i d t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c t u a l r e p o r t i n g - o r , as i t was b e g i n n i n g t o seem, l a c k o f r e p o r t i n g  lie?  R e f e r r a l i n f o r m a t i o n comes t o t h e s t a t i s t i c i a n from the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n form, made out by each caseworker service.  who r e c e i v e s a r e q u e s t f o r  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , upon the caseworker's  i n f o r m a t i o n alone t h a t  the s t a t i s t i c i a n must r e l y t o compile the r e f e r r a l s t a t i s t i c s .  A re-  examination o f t h e r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s l i s t e d i n the "day book" o f new  cases  showed t h a t none o f the 573 new c l i e n t s came "through" anyone, i f these s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d be taken a t t h e i r f a c e v a l u e . By what r o u t e , t h e r e f o r e , these new a p p l i c a n t s had a r r i v e d a t the agency door was, a p p a r e n t l y , a p u r e l y s p e c u l a t i v e m a t t e r , and o f l i t t l e  value  Shyne, Ann W., Handbook on S t a t i s t i c a l R e c o r d i n g and R e p o r t i n g i n F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c i e s , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, 19^9* P« 17 •  ! o r i n t e r e s t t o t h e s t a t i s t i c i a n , the caseworker, the a d m i n i s t r a t o r , o r the, Board v  of-Directors.  However, t h e FSAA ''Handbook" s t a t e s on page one, " R e l i a b l e measures  o f casework o p e r a t i o n a r e e s s e n t i a l t o the a d m i n i s t r a t o r ; s u p e r v i s o r ,  ,  caseworker, and.Board member i n r e v i e w i n g , e v a l u a t i n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g and p l a n n i n g a casework program.  While such s t a t i s t i c s have t h e g r e a t e s t use  f o r t h e e x e c u t i v e , i t i s t h e caseworker who i s t h e s o u r c e o f the case-by-case d a t a and c a r r i e s major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e m a t e r i a l compiled.  A knowledge on the p a r t o f a l l s t a f f members o f t h e uses o f  such data i s important used most The  i f d a t a a r e t o be r e c o r d e d a c c u r a t e l y and s t a t i s t i c s  effectively." "Handbook" goes on t o s t a t e , "An agency e x e c u t i v e p u t s . s t a t i s t i c a l  d a t a t o a v a r i e t y o f u s e s , n o t o n l y i n i n t e r n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , but i n r e p o r t i n g t o the Board and t h e community on t h e s e r v i c e s o f the agency, i n d i s c u s s i n g w i t h p l a n n i n g groups t h e r o l e o f t h e agency i n t h e s o c i a l w e l f a r e . s t r u c t u r e o f t h e community, and i n p r e s e n t i n g the agency's f i n a n c i a l needs .... The r a t e o f t u r n o v e r on case l o a d , as w e l l as the s o u r c e o f a p p l i c a t i o n s and the k i n d s o f problems p r e s e n t e d a r e s i g n i f i c a n t o f the way t h e community i s 2 u s i n g t h e agency." So f a r , i n t h i s s e a r c h f o r comparable s t a t i s t i c a l d a t a c o n c e r n i n g r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s , i t had been d i s c o v e r e d t h a t a l t h o u g h a v a i l a b l e  statistics  on r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s had been kept i n a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e and thorough manner, t h e s t a t i s t i c s themselves no way s i g n i f i c a n t  had no meaning.  C e r t a i n l y they were i n  " o f t h e way t h e community i s u s i n g t h e agency."  Personal Referrals . The next l o g i c a l s t e p , t h e r e f o r e , was t o s e p a r a t e o u t t h e " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s on new cases from t h e t o t a l a c c o u n t i n g o f r e f e r r a l s .  Since  the o n l y r e p o r t e d d e s i g n a t i o n o f t h e r e f e r r a l was t h e word " p e r s o n a l " , and t h i s had no s p e c i f i c meaning, what was t h e agency view o f t h e preponderance o f these  referrals?  Shyne, Ann W., op. c i t . , p . l , 2  Ibid,., • p . l .  -  , The  21  agency's annual r e p o r t s r e v e a l i t s c o n c e p t i o n o f the h i g h  i n c i d e n c e o f t h e s e r e f e r r a l s by such statements and more p e o p l e come t o us on t h e i r ownJ" us on t h e i r own  c o n t i n u e d i n 1952",  "6l#  as t h e s e : - "Each y e a r more  "The  trend f o r c l i e n t s to  o f the f a m i l i e s came on  find  their  T h i s r e p r e s e n t s an i n c r e a s e o f 7% in. the number o f d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s  own.  f o r our h e l p " ,  "A growing number o f c l i e n t s f i n d us on t h e i r own",  I n the annual r e p o r t o f 1955  t h i s statement  o f persons r e q u e s t s e r v i c e on t h e i r own f r i e n d s and  former c l i e n t s .  appears,  "The  and so  majority  i n i t i a t i v e , o r through t h e a d v i c e o f  Some are r e f e r r e d by o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s ,  o t h e r s by v a r i o u s h e a l t h o r w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n the Vagueness i s n o t a b l e everywhere.  community."  And y e t f o r c l i e n t s t o f i n d  their  way  w i t h o u t r e f e r r a l o f any k i n d seems t o be a t r e n d o f which the agency  may  be p r o u d .  No r e a s o n i s g i v e n f o r the t r e n d ; i t s i m p l y e x i s t s .  numbers, i n c r e a s e s , m a j o r i t i e s are somehow a r r i v i n g ; them o r m o t i v a t e s  on.  them i s , however, o b s c u r e .  Growing  the f o r c e which p r o p e l s  The use o f c l o u d y terms t o  d e s c r i b e t h i s group i s n o t i c e a b l e - "some", " o t h e r s " , "more and more", "a m a j o r i t y " , - s u g g e s t i n g t h a t nobody knows f o r sure what a l l t h i s means, but on the whole, whatever i t means, i t tends t o be m y s t i c a l l y  gratifying.  The same vagueness i s rampant c o n c e r n i n g t h e d i r e c t r e f e r r a l s - "some" are r e f e r r e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n s , agencies.  T h i s vagueness i s not s u r p r i s i n g when the e s s e n t i a l l a c k o f  p r e l i m i n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f the "How The  " o t h e r s " by " v a r i o u s " h e a l t h o r w e l f a r e  They Came" s t a t i s t i c s i s c o n s i d e r e d .  Sample.  S i n c e the r e f e r r a l d a t a s e c u r e d so f a r had on why  o r how  light  c l i e n t s chose t o come t o the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, a deeper  probe had t o be made. it  thrown so l i t t l e  T h i s c o u l d not be done from the r e p o r t e d s t a t i s t i c s ;  remained, t h e r e f o r e , t o examine the f i l e s ,  i n f o r m a t i o n might be g l e a n e d from t h a t s o u r c e . examine a l l the new  i n the hope t h a t more s p e c i f i c I t was  cases f o r the f u l l y e a r ; i t was,  take a t h r e e months sample.  not p o s s i b l e to  t h e r e f o r e , decided to  22 The  months chosen were September, October and November o f  There were two main reasons f o r t h i s c h o i c e *  1959*  F i r s t , i n these months i n t a k e  was r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e i n r e l a t i o n t o the t o t a l y e a r ;  t h a t i s , summer h o l i d a y s  ( f o r b o t h c l i e n t s and workers) were o v e r , s c h o o l s were re-opened and the C h r i s t m a s season which b r i n g s many s e a s o n a l r e q u e s t s n o t y e t t o o c l o s e t o the h o r i z o n .  t o a f a m i l y agency was  S e c o n d l y , t h i s was a p e r i o d i n the a g e n c y ^  o p e r a t i o n when s t a f f complement was f a i r l y complete.  The w a i t i n g l i s t was i n  e x i s t e n c e but n e i t h e r a p p r e c i a b l y b e t t e r n o r worse t h a n i n p r e v i o u s o r subsequent months. " P e r s o n a l " R e f e r r a l s i n a Three Month P e r i o d . I n t h i s t h r e e month p e r i o d " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s showed  approximately  the same preponderance over a l l o t h e r r e f e r r a l s as t h e y e a r l y s t a t i s t i c s had shown.  On new c a s e s , a l o n e , they t o t a l l e d Table  65$.  2.  R e f e r r a l Sources f o r New Cases i n a Three Month P e r i o d Referral Source s o c i a l and h e a l t h agencies  Month Sept.  Oct.  Total Nov.  7  10  5  22  schools  1  2  2  5  churches  0  0  1  1  doctors  2  1  1  k  lawyers  1  0  0  1  employers  0  0  0  0  relatives  1  3  1 .  individuals  0  3  2  5  other  0  0  0  0  35  23  22  80  3k  123  clients  personal  •5  -  "More and more" and  23  -  "a m a j o r i t y " were o b v i o u s l y coming i n t h i s t h r e e month  p e r i o d , as they had. come a l l y e a r . Another i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t was  . t h a t , i f these  f i g u r e s c o u l d be taken a t  t h e i r f a c e v a l u e , no s i n g l e community group showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  disposition  t o r e f e r cases t o the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency except o t h e r s o c i a l and  health  agencies. Out  o f a t o t a l o f 8l r e f e r r a l s on re-opened cases d u r i n g the  month p e r i o d , the percentage o f " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s was, e x p e c t e d , even h i g h e r , r i s i n g t o . n e a r l y 80#. 11 o f the 8 l  two  be  However, i n s p i t e o f  this,  c l i e n t s i n t h i s group were preceded t o the agency by a r e f e r r a l  from a h e a l t h o r s o c i a l agency, two and  as would  three  came from s c h o o l s , two  from  doctors,  from r e l a t i v e s .  E x a m i n a t i o n o f 80 New, Was  "Personal" Applications.  i t p o s s i b l e t h a t these 80 new,  t h a t and n o t h i n g more?  Was  " p e r s o n a l " a p p l i c a t i o n s were j u s t  i t p o s s i b l e t h a t these c l i e n t s had,  as  the  f i n d i n g s so f a r r e v e a l e d , s i m p l y become " c o n s t i t u e n t s " o f the agency by means o f some a n t e n n a - l i k e  p e r c e p t i o n , o r was  i t p o s s i b l e t h a t they  a c t u a l l y h e a r d o f the agency from some d i s c o v e r a b l e s o u r c e , group o r groups o f " c o n s t i t u e n t s " who  although  found t h a t 15  the agency f i r s t  of  agencies, on  behalf  F o u r had been r e f e r r e d by d o c t o r s ; 7 by i n d i v i d u a l s .  o f the c l i e n t . had  "heard somewhere" o f the agency and  One  s c h o o l and one  o t h e r c l i e n t s had  two  c h u r c h a c c o u n t e d f o r two sent  About the r e m a i n i n g  i n f o r m a t i o n whatsoever.  Three  had r e a d about i t i n the newspaper. more r e f e r r a l s ; lawyers s e n t  three,  two.  T h i s accounted f o r 38 o f the new  were s t i l l ,  I t was  i n a c t u a l i t y , been r e f e r r e d by s o c i a l and h e a l t h  these r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s had h o t telephoned  month p e r i o d .  from some o t h e r  so f a r remained u n d i s c o v e r e d ?  Each o f the 80 cases were r e a d c a r e f u l l y . these c l i e n t s had,  had  k2  " p e r s o n a l " a p p l i c a t i o n s i n the  three  c l i e n t s , t h e r e was  referral  I n o t h e r words, oyer 52$  so f a r as i t was  no r e c o r d e d  o f these new  applicants  p o s s i b l e t o l e a r n from the d a i l y a p p l i c a t i o n  form, the s t a t i s t i c a l c a r d s , the day book, o r even the f i l e s  themselves,  -  "personal*  1  2k  -  r e f e r r a l s and n o t h i n g more.  I f the a p p l i c a n t had  volunteered  any i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g a r e f e r r a l s o u r c e , o r i f the caseworker  had  r e q u e s t e d i t , i t had not been c o n s i d e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n o f s i g n i f i c a n t enough v a l u e t o be r e c o r d e d anywhere. It accepted  seems r e l e v a n t t o c o n s i d e r the f a c t t h a t a l l o f these 80 for service.  consequently, s e r v i c e was  A s e r v i c e had  a l r e a d y been g i v e n o r was  whether a r e f e r r a l s o u r c e was  cases were  contemplated}  r e c o r d e d o r n o t , the r e q u e s t f o r  a p p a r e n t l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o the s t a t e d f u n c t i o n o f the agency.  O s t e n s i b l y , people were coming t o . t h e a p p r o p r i a t e source o f h e l p f o r the r i g h t r e a s o n s . . But how  had they l e a r n e d o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency  and  what e x p e c t a t i o n s d i d they b r i n g w i t h them? Answers t o these q u e s t i o n s were s t i l l as remote as t h e y had been a t the b e g i n n i n g  o f the  study.  R e f e r r a l Source Compared w i t h "Length o f S e r v i c e . At t h i s p o i n t i n the i n v e s t i g a t i o n i t was  i m p o s s i b l e t o probe f u r t h e r  i n t o study o f the a c t u a l r e f e r r a l r e s o u r c e s , even from the f i l e s , s i n c e no more i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be a s c e r t a i n e d from t h a t s o u r c e . might be a f r u i t f u l  I t seemed t h a t i t  avenue o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o s e p a r a t e o u t , i f p o s s i b l e , the  l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e these a p p l i c a n t s had r e c e i v e d , t o see i f t h i s might throw l i g h t on the a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s  o f the r e f e r r a l i n r e l a t i o n to the a p p l i c a n t s '  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f agency s e r v i c e .  I f the r e f e r r a l was  might be presumed t h a t t h e s e r v i c e would be c o n t i n u e d length o f time.  a p p r o p r i a t e then i t f o r an a p p r e c i a b l e  A g a i n , because so many o f the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s , i f , i n  t r u t h , t h e r e had been any,  were n o t r e c o r d e d , t h i s c o u l d p r o v i d e o n l y  a  stepping-off place f o r further i n v e s t i g a t i o n . The s i x cases found s t i l l  t o be on the w a i t i n g l i s t were e x c l u d e d  at  t h i s p o i n t because none o f these c l i e n t s , d u r i n g the e a r l y s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y , had y e t been i n t e r v i e w e d , except  f o r the o r i g i n a l telephone  call  requesting s e r v i c e . F i r s t o f a l l , i t was  d i s c o v e r e d t h a t over 70$  c l i e n t s had r e c e i v e d l e s s t h a n two  o f the r e m a i n i n g  lh  i n - p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w s , p l a c i n g them i n the  c a t e g o r y o f " b r i e f s e r v i c e " cases a c c o r d i n g t o the F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n  -  25  Over 39%  o f America c r i t e r i a f o r l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e . A t o t a l o f o n l y 29.7%  interview at a l l . i n t e r v i e w s and  had  c o u l d thus be termed " c o n t i n u e d  two  had no  o r more  in-person  in-person  s e r v i c e " cases.  In l i n e w i t h t h i s f i n d i n g i t has been r e p o r t e d t h a t " N a t i o n a l on f a m i l y a g e n c i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t 53% fewer than 2 i n t e r v i e w s between 2 and  (10%  had no i n t e r v i e w , K%  6 i n t e r v i e w s and  sample o f 80 new  o f the cases accepted  o n l y 12%  had  one  statistics  for service  had  i n t e r v i e w ) , 29%  7 o r more  had  interviews.The  cases f o r t h i s s t u d y shows a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r  percentage  o f drop-outs t h a n i s shown by the n a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s , but t h i s c o u l d perhaps be accounted f o r by the f a c t t h a t the n a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s c e r t a i n l y would i n c l u d e re-opened cases as w e l l as hew Of the 29 all,  15  " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s who  had no r e f e r r a l s o u r c e r e c o r d e d .  o n l y one  in-person  i n t e r v i e w , 11  therefore, impossible  had no  t o s t a t e w i t h any  cases. r e c e i v e d no i n - p e r s o n  interview at  Of the 23 c l i e n t s who  received  r e f e r r a l source recorded.  It  was,  v a l i d i t y what p o s s i b l e c o r r e l a t i o n  might e x i s t between l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e and s o u r c e (and k i n d ) o f r e f e r r a l , s i n c e t h i s non-recorded r e f e r r a l s o u r c e c o u l d mean a n y t h i n g I t was' i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e , however, t h a t o f the 15 p e r s o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s but who  were l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d  have been r e f e r r e d by s o c i a l and  health agencies,  i n - p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w s , and n e a r l y 50% Only one  o f the s o c i a l and  r e c e i v e d no  or  nothing.  c l i e n t s who  through the f i l e s  to  80% r e c e i v e d l e s s than  views, whereas i n the non-recorded r e f e r r a l s 9 out o f 38  continued  inter-  beyond  Some caseworkers f e e l t h a t  the " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l means a more h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d c l i e n t than the  one  pushed toward the agency by a " d i r e c t " r e f e r r a l from some o t h e r s o u r c e . i s p o s s i b l e t h a t they may  request  t h e r e any  It  be making an i n t u i t i v e l y c o r r e c t assessment.  Reason f o r A p p l i c a t i o n Compared t o the D i s p o s i t i o n o f the Was  two  in-person interview at a l l .  h e a l t h agency r e f e r r a l s went beyond t h r e e  t h i s p o i n t , 5 o f them g o i n g beyond 7 i n t e r v i e w s .  made  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the r e a s o n f o r the  Case.  applicant's  f o r s e r v i c e and the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the case? In other words, had  a large  Beck, H e l e n L., "Short-Term Casework S e r v i c e i n a P r e - a d m i s s i o n a d m i s s i o n U n i t o f a Mental H o s p i t a l " , M e n t a l Hygiene, January, 1958, p. 51*  -  26 -  p e r c e n t a g e o f a p p l i c a n t s asked f o r an i n a p p r o p r i a t e account f o r o n l y  29.7$  service?  o f t h e cases g o i n g on t o c o n t i n u e d  Would t h i s  service?  Here the F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America c r i t e r i a f o r problem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was used, b u t i n a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t  way from t h a t i n which  a caseworker would n e c e s s a r i l y use these c r i t e r i a .  I n each a p p l i c a t i o n as  it  comes i n the caseworker may l i s t ,  r a t h e r than t h e c l i e n t ' s r e q u e s t . request  was c o n s i d e r e d ;  a t times, the evident  f a m i l y problems  F o r t h e purpose o f t h i s study o n l y t h e  on t h e premise t h a t t h i s , i n i t s e l f was a s i g n i f i c a n t  c l u e t o t h e way i n which t h e c l i e n t viewed t h e agency and i t s p o s s i b l e helpfulness  t o him.  I t was p l a i n , as soon as t h i s comparison was completed, t h a t t h e most p u b l i c i z e d p a r t o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency's purpose and f u n c t i o n was realized, service.  a t l e a s t i n name, b y those who sought t o a v a i l themselves o f t h e Of t h e 80 new c l i e n t s who made * p e r s o n a l ,  ,,  applications f o r  s e r v i c e i n t h e s e l e c t e d t h r e e month p e r i o d j kO r e q u e s t e d h e l p w i t h m a r i t a l difficulties.  3.  Table  Reason f o r A p p l i c a t i o n Compared w i t h D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case . • . 1 •';  D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case * Reason f o r A p p l i c a t i o n  Family  1  2  3  h  6  10 1  k  5  6  7  8  5  10 3 .  Total  Relationships  a« M a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y b. P a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s c• Unmarried parenthood  , 5 1  l  ko  5 1 :  I n d i v i d u a l P e r s o n a l i t y Adjustment a» C h i l d r e n under 13 b . A d o l e s c e n t s (13-20) c . A d u l t s (21 and o v e r )  5 2  3 1  1  9  2  l  2  1  3  1 1  1  1  1  7 1  10  20  11  6  16  80  P l a n n i n g S u b s t i t u t e Care o f C h i l d r e n Old Age P h y s i c a l i l l n e s s or handicap Mental i l l n e s s I n t e l l e c t u a l Retardation Economic Employment E d u c a t i o n a l and V o c a t i o n a l Adjustment Recreation Housing  * D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case 1. R e f e r r e d elsewhere 2. S e r v i c e completed 3« C l i e n t u n w i l l i n g t o continue ,k. Modification unlikely 5« C l i e n t d i d not c o n t i n u e d e s p i t e 6. No community r e s o u r c e 7. Waiting l i s t 8. A c t i v e case  2  •1  17  15  3  >  :  p" .an  .  -  28  -  Only 7 asked f o r d i r e c t f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e o r h e l p w i t h "income management." Of the 6 cases s t i l l r e m a i n i n g  on t h e w a i t i n g l i s t , 5 had a p p l i e d f o r h e l p  w i t h m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s ; o n l y one  f o r h e l p w i t h income management.  From t h i s d a t a a l o n e i t seemed f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t the agency's expressed  f u n c t i o n and purpose o f p r e v e n t i n g f a m i l y breakdown was  i t s e l f w e l l enough known to p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s .  There was  still  making the  possibility,  however, t h a t o n l y a p p r o p r i a t e a p p l i c a t i o n s were b e i n g made i n t o c a s e s . next s t e p , t h e r e f o r e , was  The  to attempt t o e v a l u a t e those r e q u e s t s which were not  made cases on the premise t h a t perhaps a l l i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e q u e s t s had been f i l e d as NCM's.  1  T h i s , however, proved t o be c l o s e to an i m p o s s i b l e t a s k . names had  f i r s t t o be s e c u r e d  t h e r e was  n o t h i n g t o go on but a l a s t name so i t was  recorded m a t e r i a l without  a great deal of d i f f i c u l t y .  p r o j e c t i n i t s e l f , s i n c e each was  of  Often  impossible to trace  Even t o s e a r c h t h r o u g h  from t h e r e p o r t s was  a research  "Brown", f o r example, might be  by one  s e v e r a l hundred Browns, and might have c a l l e d the agency i n any y e a r s i n c e  The  1927*  "NCM's" which were p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e r e p r e s e n t e d a  a p p r o p r i a t e and n o n - a p p r o p r i a t e  conglomeration  r e f e r r a l s and even more e v i d e n t l y , each  appeared t o r e p r e s e n t a q u a l i t a t i v e judgment o f the p a r t i c u l a r caseworker had handled  the o r i g i n a l a p p l i c a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g  " b r i e f s e r v i c e " o r an "NCM".  made cases because i t was a p p l i c a n t was although  whether t o c a l l t h i s r e q u e s t  a  o f the agency's scope; some were not  c o n s i d e r e d , i n the caseworker's judgment, t h a t the  not h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d  enough toward c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f the s e r v i c e ,  the r e q u e s t , i n i t s e l f , was  g i v e n by the a p p l i c a n t was  who  Some were a p p r o p r i a t e r e q u e s t s , but the a p p l i c a n t  l i v e d o u t s i d e the g e o g r a p h i c a l boundaries  had  any  f i l e d i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r r a t h e r than  A c l i e n t whose name happened t o be  the agency's i n c e p t i o n i n  of  applicants'  from each caseworker's monthly r e p o r t .  the NCM's which were r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i a b l e  year.  NGM  a p p r o p r i a t e enough; i n some, i n f o r m a t i o n  so s c a n t y and the r e q u e s t so vague t h a t the worker  a p p a r e n t l y g i v e n up and d e c i d e d n o t t o pursue the whole i d e a .  Some were  "No Case Made". T h i s i s the FSAA s t a t i s t i c a l d e s i g n a t i o n f o r any a p p l i c a t i o n on which no s e r v i c e i s g i v e n o r contemplated.  -  r e f e r r e d elsewhere;  29 -  some were g i v e n what might be c o n s i d e r e d a b r i e f  service.  T a l k s w i t h s e v e r a l i n t a k e workers r e v e a l e d a l s o t h a t many a p p r o p r i a t e r e q u e s t s as w e l l as i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e q u e s t s f o r s e r v i c e were made n e i t h e r i n t o c a s e s n o r "NCM's".  I n some s i t u a t i o n s a p p l i c a n t s were s o abashed by t h e  i d e a o f the waiting l i s t  t h a t i t was c o n s i d e r e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o seek f u r t h e r  i n f o r m a t i o n and they were s i m p l y g i v e n the name o f some o t h e r r e s o u r c e immediately,  a l t h o u g h t h e r e q u e s t i t s e l f had been a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e f u n c t i o n  o f t h e agency. I t was, t h e r e f o r e , i m p o s s i b l e t o s e p a r a t e o u t , i n any way, a t any g i v e n p o i n t i n time, how many r e q u e s t s were a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e agency o r i n a p p r o p r i a t e , u n l e s s i t ' would be p o s s i b l e t o s e t up some c o n t r o l a t i n t a k e t o keep t r a c k o f each r e q u e s t a s i t came i n .  I n view o f t h e  v a r i e t y o f r e q u e s t s t h a t come i n t o a f a m i l y agency on any p a r t i c u l a r day i n any p a r t i c u l a r week - some o f them s t r a n g e , i n the extreme - i t would seem b o t h u n n e c e s s a r i l y time-consuming and p r o b a b l y  f r u i t l e s s t o attempt t o s e t  up such a c o n t r o l . Because such c o n f u s i o n e x i s t e d between those a p p l i c a t i o n s which were made c a s e s and those which were n o t , i t seemed i m p o r t a n t ,  f o r t h e purpose o f  comparison, t o take a l o o k a t those cases among t h e 80 new, p e r s o n a l r e f e r r a l s which were c o n s i d e r e d t o have had a s h o r t - t e r m completed s e r v i c e . marital d i f f i c u l t i e s  were c o n s i d e r e d .  Only the  T h i s r e v e a l e d t h a t o f t h e 6 "completed  s e r v i c e " m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , one r e c e i v e d o n l y one telephone  interview, i n  which she was g i v e n l e g a l i n f o r m a t i o n and t h e o t h e r was g i v e n a s e r v i c e which was r e c o r d e d so u n c l e a r l y as t o be i m p o s s i b l e o f d e s c r i p t i o n s . f o u r each had o n l y one i n - p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w .  The o t h e r  One, i n t h i s l a t t e r group, had  been urged much a g a i n s t h e r w i l l t o s e e k the agency s e r v i c e by h e r husband's lawyer and was " u n w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e " b e f o r e she ever came; another was r e f e r r e d immediately  t o another  agency; another  was c o n s i d e r e d " t o o d i s t u r b e d  and c o n t r o l l i n g " t o accept h e r p a r t i n the m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y ;  and the f o u r t h  was the v i c t i m o f an extremely  elsewhere.  poor r e f e r r a l and was r e f e r r e d  These 6 "completed s e r v i c e " cases were, t h e r e f o r e , s i m i l a r i n many ways t o cases t h a t o t h e r caseworkers might have made NCM's - o r have f i t t e d i n t o almost any of  t h e o t h e r " d i s p o s i t i o n o f c a s e " c a t e g o r i e s as l a i d down by FSAA.  C e r t a i n l y i t appeared p o s s i b l e t o s u s p e c t t h a t each o f these c l i e n t s ' view o f  -  the agency was  a c o n f u s e d one  30  and  -  f a r from b e i n g i n e x a c t  accordance  w i t h the agency's e x p r e s s e d f u n c t i o n . That i s not  to say t h a t t h e s e c l i e n t s d i d not r e c e i v e a v a l i d  casework s e r v i c e w h i c h the agency would c o n s i d e r w i t h i n i t s o v e r a l l f u n c t i o n , but  the i n f o r m a t i o n s e c u r e d  from the p e r u s a l o f these cases p r o v i d e d  a  somewhat d i f f e r e n t f a c e t o f the meaning o f a m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y which r e c e i v e d a "completed s e r v i c e " than would be s u s p e c t e d  at f i r s t  had  glance.  Source o f R e f e r r a l Compared w i t h D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case. I t had  39*2%  a l r e a d y been l e a r n e d t h a t  i n the t h r e e month p e r i o d had r e c e i v e d no o v e r 70%  had  in-person  r e c e i v e d l e s s than 2 i n - p e r s o n  not been p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r any  o f the new,  "personal"  referrals  i n t e r v i e w a t a l l and  interviews.  A l t h o u g h i t had  v a l i d r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a c t u a l s o u r c e  o f r e f e r r a l and the l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e because 52%  o f the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s  were u n r e c o r d e d , i t had been l e a r n e d , f a i r l y c e r t a i n l y , t h a t r e g a r d l e s s r e f e r r a l source,  t h e r e d i d seem t o be  o f problems i t was  h e l p them w i t h .  impossible  A g a i n , however, i t was impossible,  equipped t o  to s t a t e t h i s unequivocably  a t l e a s t w i t h i n the scope o f a s t u d y such as  t o make a t r u e count o f the i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l s o r  What had  happened t o them a f t e r they a r r i v e d ?  By  the source o f r e f e r r a l w i t h the d i s p o s i t i o n o f the case i t was t h a t 17  o f the 7^  this,  requests.  A s u b s t a n t i a l number o f c l i e n t s were o s t e n s i b l y coming f o r the reasons.  of  a n o t i c e a b l e tendency f o r p o t e n t i a l  c l i e n t s t o b r i n g t o the agency the k i n d s  because i t was  that  right  comparing discovered  cases ( w a i t i n g l i s t e x c l u d e d ) had been c l o s e d because  the " c l i e n t was  u n w i l l i n g to continue",  " c l i e n t d i d not  continue  despite  plan".  and  11  had been c l o s e d because the  -  Source  31  -  Table  k.  o f R e f e r r a l Compared w i t h D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case  Source  D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case^  of Referral  S o c i a l and H e a l t h Agencies  1  2  3  3  2  if  k  5  k  a)  Total  6  7  .'2  1  1  Schools Churches  1  Doctors  1 1  Lawyers  15  1  1  1  1  3 3  l  Employers Relatives Individuals Other  1  2 1  Clients  Not Recorded  5  12  "Heard Somewhere"  1  Mass Media  1 10  (a)  20  10  k  1  17  11  D i s p o s i t i o n o f Case: 1. 2. 3. k. 5. 6. 7.  (b)  1  R e f e r r e d elsewhere S e r v i c e completed C l i e n t u n w i l l i n g to continue Modification unlikely C l i e n t d i d not c o n t i n u e d e s p i t e p l a n No community r e s o u r c e A c t i v e case  Waiting l i s t  cases excluded on t h i s t a b l e .  2  6  1  2  7 1  38  1  2  16  7*  3  ( B )  -  I t seemed s i g n i f i c a n t  32  -  t h a t l*f o f these drop-outs  had r e q u e s t e d h e l p w i t h  m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s , the most c l e a r l y d e f i n e d and h i g h l y p u b l i c i z e d casework s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e through the agency. A r e c e n t s t u d y done on drop-outs t h i s o b s e r v a t i o n , "The  from a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c makes  l o g i c a l f i r s t s t e p toward e l i m i n a t i n g or c u t t i n g down  the number o f d e f e c t o r s and premature t e r m i n a t o r s i s t o e x p l a i n d e f e c t i o n and premature t e r m i n a t i o n . "  1  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y which, i t must be remembered, began w i t h a d i f f e r e n t  f o c u s - not why  t h i s seemed n o t the " l o g i c a l f i r s t i f i t c o u l d be d i s c o v e r e d why  they dropped o u t , but why  s t e p " b u t the l a s t .  they came -  H o p e f u l l y , however,  these c l i e n t s came f o r h e l p , what e x p e c t a t i o n s  they brought w i t h them, where t h e y had l e a r n e d o f the agency and how, why,  the answers t o these q u e s t i o n s , i n themselves,  l i g h t on why  might h e l p t o throw some  they had dropped o u t .  A f u r t h e r l o o k a t the case r e c o r d s o f t h e s e 28 to  the agency, who  c l i e n t s who  had been " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s , and who  " u n w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e " , o r who in  and  were  new  had e i t h e r been  had not c o n t i n u e d " d e s p i t e p l a n " , d i s c l o s e d ,  the main, o n l y the caseworker's view o f the r e a s o n f o r t e r m i n a t i o n .  There  were c l u e s t h a t some had been poor r e f e r r a l s , t h a t some had been anxious when they f i r s t  c a l l e d b u t l e s s anxious when c a l l e d back l a t e r about an appointment.  Some s i m p l y d i d n o t keep s c h e d u l e d appointments and d i d n o t respond  to follow-  up l e t t e r s .  i t possible  But no p a t t e r n o f withdrawal  t o d i s c o v e r what, i f any,  d i s c e r n i b l e ; n o r was  p a r t , p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the agency and i t s  s e r v i c e had p l a y e d i n any o f t h e s e The  was  withdrawals.  same s t u d y quoted above goes on t o make t h i s statement,  "The  s t u d i e s o f t h e premature t e r m i n a t o r have sought t o e x p l a i n t h i s phenomenon through a n a l y s i s o f case r e c o r d s , o p i n i o n s o f the t h e r a p i s t s i n v o l v e d , and s p e c u l a t i o n s by the c l i n i c s t a f f i n g e n e r a l . s u p p o s i t i o n a l and hence o f l i m i t e d v a l u e .  Such d a t a a r e o f n e c e s s i t y The s i m p l e , d i r e c t  approach o f  L e v i t t , Eugene E . , "Parents Reasons f o r D e f e c t i o n from Treatment a t a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , " Mental Hygiene, October,  1958.  p.  522.  - 33 -  q u e s t i o n i n g the p a r e n t seems t o have been o v e r l o o k e d and  undervalued."  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f t h e case r e c o r d s o f the 28 c l i e n t s who terminated prematurely  was  had  without value i n h e l p i n g to provide e i t h e r  i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g r e f e r r a l s o u r c e , c l i e n t s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f agency s e r v i c e , o r r e a s o n s f o r premature t e r m i n a t i o n . q u e s t i o n i n g t h e s e c l i e n t s who  The  " d i r e c t approach"  of  had chosen n o t t o c o n t i n u e w i t h the s e r v i c e  o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, was  the o n l y avenue o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n  still  open. Of t h e p r e s e n t sample (28  a p p l i c a n t s f o r s e r v i c e d u r i n g t h r e e months),  a l l were " p e r s o n a l " a p p l i c a t i o n s ; and a l l o f the a p p l i c a n t s ' cases had been c l o s e d e i t h e r because " c l i e n t was  u n w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e " o r because  d i d not c o n t i n u e d e s p i t e p l a n . "  F o r 15  i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g r e f e r r a l , except  o f these t h e r e was  no  "client  recorded  f o r the " p e r s o n a l " d e s i g n a t i o n ,  e i t h e r i n the day books, the s t a t i s t i c a l c a r d s , o r the f i l e .  E i g h t were  l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d t o have been r e f e r r e d by s o c i a l o r h e a l t h a g e n c i e s ; 2 had been r e f e r r e d by l a w y e r s ; one by a s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l ; one by an and one by another an average 2.2  client.  number o f 2.8  "individual"  There were 19 m a r r i e d c o u p l e s i n the group w i t h  c h i l d r e n ; 7 s e p a r a t e d c o u p l e s w i t h an average  c h i l d r e n ; one s i n g l e woman; and 1 common-law c o u p l e , w i t h 5  F i f t e e n had r e q u e s t e d h e l p w i t h a m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t y ; , two w i t h t h e i r c h i l d r e n ; f i v e asked  f o r h e l p f o r themselves  r e l a t i o n e i t h e r to a c h i l d o r a marriage;  of  children.  asked f o r h e l p  as i n d i v i d u a l s i n  t h r e e r e q u e s t e d S u p e r v i s e d Homemaker  S e r v i c e ; one r e q u e s t e d h e l p i n h a n d l i n g the e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e o f an a d u l t son; one  a p p l i c a t i o n was  f o r h e l p w i t h income management; and one was  for  financial assistance. The  Interview Plan.  I t was  hoped t o arrange s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w i t h each o f t h e s e  28 a p p l i c a n t s i n which c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s would be asked but w i t h i n which much freedom f o r e x p r e s s i o n o f i d e a s and f e e l i n g would be 1  Ibid.  2See Appendix A.  2  possible.  To t h i s end, out.  3k -  a l e t t e r r e q u e s t i n g t h e former a p p l i c a n t ' s c o o p e r a t i o n was s e n t  1  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , as many as n i n e f a m i l i e s c o u l d n o t be t r a c e d . important  because a number o f these  This i s  f a m i l i e s appeared from t h e case r e c o r d  i n f o r m a t i o n t o have been a t a p o i n t o f c r i s i s i n v o l v i n g t h e imminent break-up o f a m a r r i a g e ,  when they c a l l e d ,  either  o r apparent f i n a n c i a l and  employment problems. Another s i x c o u l d n o t be q u e s t i o n e d 2 reasons.  f o r t h e survey  f o ra variety of  I n o n l y one case was i t d e l i b e r a t e l y d e c i d e d t o f o r e g o i n t e r v i e w i n g  the a p p l i c a n t because o f s e v e r e e m o t i o n a l  d i s t u r b a n c e and the p a r t i c u l a r  n a t u r e o f t h e problem. This l e f t  o n l y twelve  a p p l i c a n t s t o be i n t e r v i e w e d .  I t was r e c o g n i z e d  t h a t t h i s was an u n f o r t u n a t e l y s m a l l sample from which t o draw any v a l i d conclusions.  However, a p r e l i m i n a r y t r i a l probe would be p o s s i b l e which  might g i v e some new i n s i g h t s i n t o c l i e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s and thus l e a d t h e way for  further research.  I t was a l s o r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r o f the  r e p l i e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s would be n e g a t i v e s i n c e o n l y those c l i e n t s were t o be i n t e r v i e w e d who would be expected and i t s s e r v i c e .  t o have n e g a t i v e  f e e l i n g s about the agency  I f t h e i r f e e l i n g s had been p o s i t i v e they would  probably  have gone on t o f u r t h e r s e r v i c e .  See Appendix B. 2 One man, who h a d been a d r o p - i n , and had appeared e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d at the time he was i n t e r v i e w e d , t e l e p h o n e d , v e r y d i s t r a u g h t , upon r e c e i p t o f the l e t t e r , l e a v i n g a message t h a t under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d he w i s h anyone t o c a l l him a t home o r o f f i c e s i n c e he was f e a r f u l t h a t h i s w i f e might l e a r n o f h i s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e agency. He s a i d he would c a l l a g a i n , b u t d i d n o t do s o . One young m a r r i e d woman who had t e r m i n a t e d prematurely a f t e r t h r e e i n t e r v i e w s , i n s p i t e o f s e v e r e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r m a r r i a g e , telephoned t o l e a v e a message t h a t " E v e r y t h i n g i s f i n e now, and I don't want my husband t o know I was over t h e r e . " The c l o s i n g assessment on t h i s case mentioned t h a t a premature s u g g e s t i o n had been made about i n v o l v i n g t h e husband which, i t was f e l t , had r e s u l t e d i n t h e l o s s o f t h e c l i e n t . I n two homes a s e p a r a t i o n had taken p l a c e . One man had n o t known t h a t h i s w i f e had sought h e l p and d i d n o t know where she c o u l d be reached; t h e o t h e r , a l t h o u g h i t had been he who had sought h e l p , r e f u s e d t o be i n t e r v i e w e d because "my w i f e ' s gone now, and I'm t r y i n g t o f o r g e t the whole t h i n g . " The one s i n g l e woman i n t h e sample was d i s c o v e r e d t o have l e f t f o r a v a c a t i o n i n Europe; another woman who had c a l l e d about the emotional d i s t u r b a n c e o f an a d u l t s o n c o u l d never be reached, a l t h o u g h numerous messages were l e f t .  CHAPTER THREE  LOST APPLICANTS : THE URGENT ONES  I n a r e c e n t a r t i c l e , H e l e n H a r r i s Perlman w r i t e s o f h e r c o n c e r n about "The Case o f t h e T h i r d Man" who  who  1  i s the one out o f e v e r y t h r e e  applicants  drops out o f s o c i a l agency o r c l i n i c s e r v i c e b e f o r e the second i n t e r v i e w .  She makes a number o f t r e n c h a n t o b s e r v a t i o n s about t h e u n d e r l y i n g reasons f o r the l o s s o f t h i s t h i r d a p p l i c a n t and s u g g e s t s as a p r o p o s i t i o n f o r t e s t i n g , "What an a p p l i c a n t w i l l do i n the i n t a k e phase o f a case i s h e a v i l y c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f what i s e x p e c t e d o f him and what he  may  e x p e c t , i n r e t u r n , from the caseworker and agency - i n s h o r t , by h i s c o n c e p t i o n 2 o f h i s and the caseworker's r o l e s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e problem he b r i n g s . " I n some s m a l l measure, t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a p p l i c a n t s which form the main body o f t h i s s t u d y may  s e r v e t o e l u c i d a t e f u r t h e r and make more c o n c r e t e ,  t h r o u g h t h e a p p l i c a n t s ' own words, why have become a c l i e n t . he may  t h i s " t h i r d man"  ( o r woman) may  not  He a p p l i e d and t h e r e f o r e a t one p o i n t was an a p p l i c a n t ;  n e v e r have committed h i m s e l f , as Mrs. Perlman f u r t h e r s u g g e s t s , t o  becoming  a client.  I f these twelve a p p l i c a n t s d i d not commit themselves, what l e d t o t h e i r withdrawal? them?  What o c c u r r e d between them and the caseworkers who  spoke w i t h  What d i d the case r e c o r d r e v e a l about the cause o f each w i t h d r a w a l  and d i d t h e a p p l i c a n t s h a r e t h i s  view?  I t i s o n l y too w e l l r e c o g n i z e d t h a t human b e i n g s can never be s u c c e s s f u l l y c a t e g o r i z e d , but f o r a s t u d y l i k e t h i s i t seemed n e c e s s a r y t o attempt i t , i f o n l y f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y .  T h e r e f o r e , the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h a p p l i c a n t s  which f o l l o w have been grouped under two main headings - "The Urgent Ones" and "The i j o u b t f u l Ones".  W i t h i n t h e s e two main groups are f i v e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s -  Perlman, H e l e n H a r r i s , "Intake and Some R o l e Considerations'! S o c i a l Casework, A p r i l , I960, p. 171. 1  2  I b i d . , p.  17*U  -  "The  36 -  'White Heat' o f Need" - which borrows a g a i n  "Apparent Urgency", " F l u i d E x p e c t a t i o n s " , "Negative The  from Mrs. Perlman,  " S o c i a l C l a s s B a r r i e r s " , and  Transference". m a t e r i a l on each a p p l i c a n t i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e s e c t i o n s - "the  agency view o f t h e applicantf' and "the a p p l i c a n t ' s view o f the agency"' - i n an attempt t o come t o terms w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s by an a d m i t t e d l y  each had o f the o t h e r ;  followed  q u a l i t a t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e meaning o f t h e two"Views"  b a l a n c e d a g a i n s t each o t h e r . The  m a t e r i a l i n c l u d e d under t h e "agency view" o f each a p p l i c a n t has  been t a k e n d i r e c t l y from the case r e c o r d - except where, o b s e r v a t i o n s l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s have been added f o l l o w i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w e r ' s v i s i t home.  Although i t has been p r e s e n t e d  i n much a b b r e v i a t e d  about t o the  form, i t i s  b e l i e v e d t h a t a l l t h e a v a i l a b l e , e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n has been i n c l u d e d . The  " a p p l i c a n t ' s view" i s g i v e n . i n the a p p l i c a n t ' s words, almost v e r b a t i m ,  w i t h o n l y r e p e t i t i o n s and o b v i o u s l y i r r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l d e l e t e d .  Although  t h e r e were many gaps i n i n f o r m a t i o n which l e d , i n some i n s t a n c e s , t o some undoubtedly s p e c u l a t i v e and perhaps q u e s t i o n a b l e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , an attempt  has been made t o remain o b j e c t i v e and t o i n d i c a t e where casework judgments were p a r t i c u l a r l y s p e c u l a t i v e . In s e v e r a l cases the a p p l i c a n t s spoke so w e l l f o r themselves t h a t the added " i m p l i c a t i o n s " were almost redundant. GROUP I : The "White Heat" o f Need (1)  Mrs. A. Mrs.  A., a 36 y e a r o l d mother o f 3 s m a l l c h i l d r e n , t e l e p h o n e d t h e agency  s t a t i n g t h a t she had heard "you have women who come out and keep house". She  f e l t worn o u t and needed a r e s t and thought i f she d i d n o t get i t she  would "soon be i n an i n s t i t u t i o n " . Although the f a m i l y was e m i n e n t l y e l i g i b l e f o r S u p e r v i s e d S e r v i c e , as Mr. A. was e a r n i n g o n l y  $270  i t i s agency p o l i c y t o r e f e r r e q u e s t s f a m i l i e s t o the C a t h o l i c Family  Homemaker  a month, they were C a t h o l i c .  Since  f o r Homemaker S e r v i c e from C a t h o l i c  Agency f o r p r e l i m i n a r y i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and,  i f a l l i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , t o expect t h e C a t h o l i c Agency t o r e q u e s t  Homemaker  - 37 S e r v i c e on the f a m i l y ' s b e h a l f , t h i s p o l i c y was e x p l a i n e d t o Mrs. A., who appeared  t o a c c e p t t h i s procedure without apparent  concern.  I t was n o t u n t i l a week l a t e r t h a t the caseworker  a t the C a t h o l i c  F a m i l y agency t e l e p h o n e d t o a s k t h a t t h e A. a p p l i c a t i o n he kept i n mind. Mrs. A. was i n h o s p i t a l and h e r s i s t e r had a p p l i e d f o r s e r v i c e on heir behalf.  D i f f i c u l t i e s had a r i s e n i n p r o c e e d i n g w i t h t h e a p p l i c a t i o n ,  however, because  t h e s i s t e r was i m p a t i e n t w i t h the n e c e s s a r y p r o c e d u r e s .  As no f u r t h e r word was heard from the C a t h o l i c Agency, t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency case was c l o s e d .  Reason f o r c l o s i n g was " c l i e n t d i d n o t  continue despite p l a n . " A p p l i c a n t ' s View. Mrs. A. was s o u n r e s p o n s i v e and h o s t i l e when telephoned t h a t she r e f u s e d t o a c c e p t an appointment  t o be i n t e r v i e w e d .  Over t h e t e l e p h o n e ,  however, h e r f e e l i n g s were c l e a r . " A l l I know i s I wanted h e l p and I d i d n ' t g e t i t . do y o u have t o be b e f o r e t h e y ' l l h e l p you? C a t h o l i c Agency my s i s t e r went t o . even i f we a r e C a t h o l i c . She was s u r e mad, t o o .  I d i d n ' t know i t was the  That d i d n ' t make us f e e l any b e t t e r ,  What does r e l i g i o n m a t t e r a t a time l i k e t h a t ? Even madder than I was.  more r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s t h a n you e v e r heard o f . your whole l i f e and take y o u r whole h i s t o r y . w r i t t e n statement  from the d o c t o r .  "Welfare" without a l l that r e d tape. the housekeepers.  How d e s t i t u t e  They t o l d h e r about They i n v e s t i g a t e  You even have t o have a  My s i s t e r got h e l p from t h e V i c t o r i a She was the one who t o l d me about  She s a i d they were r e a l good t o h e r over t h e r e .  When  your husband has been out o f work f o r months and months and you got a l l those b i l l s t o pay, you worry so much y o u g e t a l l s i c k and f u n n y - f e e l i n g . At a time l i k e t h a t a l l you want i s h e l p - n o t r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s .  Oh, we managed a l l r i g h t .  We had t o .  That's the b e s t way.  c a n ' t count on anyone e l s e b u t your f a m i l y when you've got t r o u b l e . " ,  You  -  38 -  Implications• T h i s would appear t o be an example o f t h e p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t who g e t s l o s t between two a g e n c i e s and i s n e v e r found a g a i n .  As Mrs.  A. s a i d h e r s e l f ,  " A l l y o u want i s h e l p , n o t r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s . " The  p o l i c y as s e t down between t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and t h e  p a r t i c u l a r C a t h o l i c agency concerned i n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s based on f u n c t i o n a l , monetary and r e l i g i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s .  The C a t h o l i c Agency has no  Homemaker S e r v i c e o f i t s own; i t must r e q u e s t C a t h o l i c f a m i l i e s from t h e n o n - s e c t a r i a n has  f a r t o o few Homemakers t o s e r v e Mrs.  the s e r v i c e on b e h a l f o f  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, which  f a m i l i e s who a r e n o t C a t h o l i c .  already  1  A., however, d i d n o t understand the r e a s o n s f o r these p o l i c y  considerations;  n o r c o u l d she have been expected t o c a r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y a t a  point of c r i s i s . and  Supervised  I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t Mrs.  A. i s e s s e n t i a l l y a h o s t i l e woman  t h a t h e r s i s t e r i s t h e same and t h a t b o t h women might r e a c t t h i s way t o  any s i m p l e r e q u e s t  for factual information.  I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e that both  had much t o h i d e , t h a t they were l o o k i n g f o r "something f o r n o t h i n g " , Mrs. grant  or that  A.'s s i s t e r , a t l e a s t , may have been used t o the immediate, u n q u e s t i o n i n g o f help  from t h e V i c t o r i a " W e l f a r e " .  But s o c i a l workers are used t o  h o s t i l e p e o p l e , and dependent p e o p l e ; i t i s t h e i r j o b t o h e l p them t o be l e s s h o s t i l e and dependent so t h a t they c a n be f r e e d , h o p e f u l l y , t o a c t i n a more c o n s t r u c t i v e way. Whatever t h e reasons b e h i n d the h o s t i l i t y o f t h e s e two women i t would have been i m p o r t a n t t o know what they were, j u s t as i t would be i n any casework s i t u a t i o n . Mrs.  I t would seem most r e a s o n a b l e to s u s p e c t ,  A. and.her s i s t e r were s i m p l y  however, t h a t  r e a c t i n g w i t h j u s t i f i a b l e anger because  o f urgent unmet need, and t h a t t h i s anger was i n c r e a s e d by the k i n d o f 2 "displacement o f g o a l s " sometimes found i n b u r e a u c r a c y where "adherence t o the r u l e s , o r i g i n a l l y c o n c e i v e d 3 end-in-itself."^  as a means, becomes t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an  A s p e c i a l g r a n t from t h e Community Chest and C o u n c i l i s p r o v i d e d t o t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency f o r S u p e r v i s e d Homemaker S e r v i c e t o C a t h o l i c f a m i l i e s . 1  2  1956,  B l a u , P e t e r M., Bureaucracy i n Modern S o c i e t y , Random House, New York, p . 88  3 I b i d . , p . 88.  -  39  -  I t i s not i m p o s s i b l e t o use the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f procedures and  the  t a k i n g o f n e c e s s a r y f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n as a c o n s t r u c t i v e casework t e c h n i q u e , but i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o do t h i s i f the caseworker  does not have a c l e a r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the reasons f o r the procedures and i s f u l l y c o n v i n c e d o f the v a l i d i t y o f t h e i r p u r p o s e s . i n g by the caseworker themselves; statement  There  seems a l s o to have been  a t the C a t h o l i c Agency o f the a c t u a l  c e r t a i n l y i t has n e v e r been a requirement  be s u p p l i e d by the d o c t o r .  between d o c t o r and caseworker  misunderstand-  procedures  that a written  A simple telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n  i s enough so t h a t the agency may  be more  h e l p f u l to the f a m i l y through knowledge o f the d i a g n o s i s and the l e n g t h o f time S u p e r v i s e d Homemaker S e r v i c e w i l l be n e c e s s a r y and a p p r o p r i a t e . The k i n d o f g o a l - d i s p l a c e m e n t t h a t o c c u r r e d i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h i s case a r o s e because the agency which would p r o v i d e t h e s e r v i c e was n o t the one which would be i n t e r p r e t i n g the " r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s " , thus compounding the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f communication between a p p l i c a n t and caseworker.  These  d i f f i c u l t i e s i n communication were f u r t h e r compounded by the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f Mrs. A.'s s i s t e r .  Mrs. A.'s  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency were  c l e a r l y and s i m p l y s t a t e d i n the b e g i n n i n g ; she was was  ill,  she was  f r i g h t e n e d and she u r g e n t l y needed someone to l o o k a f t e r her  That the f a m i l y had o t h e r problems was  indicated.  poor,  she  children.  But i t i s a l t o g e t h e r  p r o b a b l e t h a t Mrs. A. w i l l remain so h o s t i l e toward b o t h the C a t h o l i c agency and the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency t h a t she i s u n l i k e l y to seek h e l p from  either  source a g a i n . (2) • Mrs. B. • .. Mrs. B.,  aged 50,  telephoned t o ask where she s h o u l d go f o r h e l p w i t h  problems she was  h a v i n g w i t h her 19-year-old s o n .  was  f e l t t h i n g s were not s e r i o u s , but she d i d not want them  poor".  She  t o g e t worse.  When t o l d about the w a i t i n g l i s t ,  She thought h i s " o u t l o o k  she appeared  to a c c e p t t h e  n e c e s s i t y o f w a i t i n g without c o m p l a i n t , but when c a l l e d about an y/z months l a t e r she "appeared An appointment she " f o r g o t " .  h e s i t a n t and s a i d she was  appointment  upset 3 months  was made which she d i d n o t keep and when telephoned she She r e f u s e d another appointment  o b j e c t t o her g o i n g t o an o u t s i d e p e r s o n .  ago". said  as she f e l t h e r son would  -  ko  -  A p p l i c a n t ' s View, "The. r e a s o n I d i d n ' t c o n t i n u e was because I was a f r a i d i t might make t h i n g s worse.  Len i s a t an age when he would r e s e n t somebody coming and  t a l k i n g t o him; and anyway, t h i n g s calmed down a l o t a f t e r t h a t . We'd been h a v i n g problems w i t h him f o r q u i t e a w h i l e - worse when he s t a r t e d t o d r i v e an o l d c a r o f h i s Dad's,  I t was the day he took i t o u t -  d e f i e d h i s f a t h e r - when the gas p e d a l wasn't working and he had no i n s u r a n c e t h a t I was s o u p s e t .  That's when I c a l l e d .  I was r e a l l y t e r r i f i e d .  I  thought  maybe somebody e l s e , o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y , c o u l d p u t some sense i n t o h i s  head.  Boys, I guess, a r e a l o t h a r d e r t o b r i n g up than g i r l s .  f a t h e r ' s n e a r l y 56.  He t r i e s so hard t o g e t ahead - I mean he hasn't so  many working y e a r s l e f t . he's  He doesn't  seem t o have much time f o r L e n ;  always s o t i r e d when he comes home.  between them.  And h i s  I j u s t thought  And  I always seem t o be i n t h e middle  somebody might come t o s e e him and h i s Dad and  l e a v e me out o f i t f o r once. J u s t the same, I was t h e one who was u p s e t .  I mean, I made the c a l l .  I l o o k e d up t h e number i n t h e y e l l o w pages, under 'Family'. t o l d me they c o u l d n ' t s e e me o r v i s i t I was j u s t f r a n t i c *  o r a n y t h i n g I d i d n ' t know what t o do.  I t r i e d t o f i n d some o t h e r p l a c e i n t h e phone book.  But I c o u l d n ' t seem t o f i n d a n y t h i n g . s t r a i g h t , I guess.  When they  I was s h a k i n g so much I wasn't t h i n k i n g  Then Len had an a c c i d e n t .  But l u c k i l y i t wasn't s e r i o u s .  I somehow knew he would.  The o t h e r f e l l o w was v e r y good about i t and  l e t us pay f o r the damage without r e p o r t i n g i t .  S i n c e then t h i n g s have  been e a s i e r about the c a r , but we s t i l l have problems w i t h him.  He q u i t  s c h o o l and he i s n ' t working and he's always d i s a p p o i n t i n g h i s Dad. I've been m a r r i e d b e f o r e and we were on r e l i e f . o f T.B. and one o f t h e g i r l s was i n t h e Preventorium  My f i r s t husband d i e d , f o r n i n e months.  I knew i f y o u were poor you c o u l d g e t a s o c i a l worker, but I thought i f you c o u l d pay you would be expected t o . all  probably  I wasn't t h i n k i n g about money -  I wanted was somebody t o come r i g h t away.  nobody c o u l d .  So  I guess i t ' s j u s t as w e l l  I'm p r e t t y s u r e Len would have been v e r y r e s e n t f u l , even  a n g r i e r than he was a l r e a d y a t h i s Dad and me.  I t i s n ' t as i f he's ever  -  Ifl  -  been i n v o l v e d i n c r i m i n a l behaviour j u s t t h a t we  would have l i k e d him  or anything s e r i o u s l i k e t h a t .  It's  to f i n i s h s c h o o l - even go on t o U n i v e r s i t y  t o make something o f h i m s e l f . I knew t h e r e would be s o c i a l workers o f some k i n d a t F a m i l y S e r v i c e . My  f r i e n d had t r o u b l e w i t h her marriage  S e r v i c e i n N o r t h Vancouver.  and got a l o t o f h e l p from F a m i l y  I guess t h a t ' s where I h e a r d  remember r e a d i n g some t h i n g s i n the newspaper.  might be good a t i t , No, had  She  and  I  I guess I know more about  s o c i a l workers than most people because one o f my a t s c h o o l l a s t y e a r on s o c i a l work.  about i t ,  daughters  d i d a j o b study  t h i n k s she's g o i n g t o be one.  She  too - she's t e n d e r - h e a r t e d and s e n s i b l e .  none o f us have ever had  a s o c i a l worker b e f o r e .  One  o f the  girls  t o go t o the s c h o o l p s y c h o l o g i s t f o r s t u t t e r i n g , once, but t h a t ' s a l l  c l e a r e d up now.  A l l I know i s , t h e r e ought t o be more s o c i a l workers.  you need one, you s h o u l d be a b l e to have one.  Now,  If  not t h r e e months from  now.'  1  Implications. Mrs. B. " f o r g o t " her f i r s t appointment w i t h the i n t e r v i e w e r , a l t h o u g h the time had  been s e t o n l y the day b e f o r e .  When seen, however, she s a i d a l l  the p o l i t e t h i n g s ; she spoke, by i n d i r e c t i o n , o f s o c i a l workers b e i n g h e a r t e d and She  s e n s i b l e " ; she thought  t h e r e ought t o be more o f them.  r e i t e r a t e d f r e q u e n t l y t h a t Len's behaviour  "criminal".  She  not the  registration.  and t h a t t h i s i n v o l v e d b e i n g  "talked to."  But she and h e r second husband had  come up i n the w o r l d .  b o t h working v e r y hard; soon t h e y would own operating...  d i f f i c u l t but  she denied t h a t she had e v e r had a s o c i a l worker she knew  t h a t i f you were poor you c o u l d get one, v i s i t e d and  was  d e n i e d t h a t he had ever been " i n t r o u b l e " , a l t h o u g h  S o c i a l S e r v i c e Index r e v e a l e d a P r o b a t i o n Department Although  "tender-  the apartment b l o c k they were  They wanted a U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n f o r each o f t h e i r  Her p r i d e i n t h e i r s u c c e s s f u l u p w a r d - s t r i v i n g was f o r e , be s u s p e c t e d  evident.  t h a t she would be c o n f u s e d as to what was  h e r i n a s k i n g f o r h e l p from a s o c i a l worker.  They were  I f money was  children.  I t might, t h e r e now  expected  not needed, i f  of  -  k2  -  one had r e a d i n the newspapers o f t h e more up-to-date  f u n c t i o n o f the s o c i a l  worker, i f one's s i s t e r had a v a i l e d h e r s e l f o f t h i s s e r v i c e , i f one's c h i l d might  even become a s o c i a l worker, how  D i d one s a y , "Help me",  d i d one now  phrase a r e q u e s t f o r h e l p ?  o r d i d one s a y , i n a c o n t r o l l e d way,  "Things are n o t  s e r i o u s but I don't want them t o g e t worse."? A l t h o u g h she saw  the s o c i a l worker as someone who  might r e l i e v e some  o f t h e p r e s s u r e by t a l k i n g t o Len and h i s f a t h e r , without s e e i n g h e r s e l f as p a r t i c u l a r l y i n v o l v e d , she c o n t i n u a l l y t u r n e d the i n t e r v i e w t o d i s c u s s i o n o f h e r own  feelings.  She  u l a r l y w i t h Len; she was  f e l t she had made many mistakes i n t h e p a s t , p a r t i c w o r r i e d about her husband's h e a l t h ; she was  most  concerned about t h e a b i l i t y o f p a r e n t s i n t h e i r f i f t i e s t o b r i n g up t h r e e teen-aged  children.  A l t h o u g h she had c a l l e d the agency a t a moment o f c r i s i s , out o f h e r f e a r t h a t Len would a g a i n get i n t o t r o u b l e w i t h the law, i t was  too d i f f i c u l t  f o r h e r t o d i s c u s s t h i s o p e n l y , even i n the p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n i n t e r v i e w . There were many c l u e s p o i n t i n g t o ambivalence worker, y e t d i s t r u s t o f h e r .  - need f o r the  And a l t h o u g h she had, almost  social  instinctively,  c a l l e d f o r a s o c i a l worker d u r i n g h e r "white heat o f need", none was able.  The m i s t r u s t then took o v e r .  I f she c o u l d have been seen  avail-  immediately,  when h e r defences were lower, she might have become a c l i e n t r a t h e r than an a p p l i c a n t who  d e c i d e d a g a i n s t u s i n g the s e r v i c e as i t was  i m p l i e d h e r s e l f , i t may  now."  (3)  Mrs.  "now,  not t h r e e months  C.  Mrs. C ,  a 28 y e a r o l d m a r r i e d woman w i t h two v e r y s m a l l c h i l d r e n ,  t e l e p h o n e d t o ask f o r h e l p w i t h her marriage and "problems w i t h my mother".  As she seemed extremely a n x i o u s , she was  f o r the f o l l o w i n g  o f f e r e d an  husband's  appointment  day.  She d i d n o t keep h e r appointment. case was  As she  not be a v e r y p l e a s u r a b l e n e c e s s i t y t o have t o c a l l  on a s o c i a l worker, but i f you need one, you need one from  offered.  c l o s e d was  The caseworker's  assessment  when the  as f o l l o w s : " I t would seem t h a t Mrs. C. c a l l e d a t a p o i n t  o f a n x i e t y and has p r o b a b l y d e c i d e d not t o oppose h e r husband's wishes coming t o t h i s agency.  She no doubt  f e e l s t h a t i n some way  by  things w i l l  turn  -  out f o r the b e s t . point of  h3  -  I would expect h e r t o c a l l a t some l a t e r date, a t a  crisis."  A p p l i c a n t ' s View. "We my  had  t h i s problem f o r over a y e a r .  husband and  move o u t . upset  I had t h i s t e r r i b l e f i g h t and  I t j u s t b u i l t up. I asked my  mother-in-law t o  I c a l l e d you people r i g h t a f t e r we had the f i g h t .  I h a r d l y knew what I was  doing.  I t h i n k I remembered o t h e r people who I thought  so book;  got h e l p t h e r e .  maybe somebody would see the whole t h r e e o f us  together.  I d i d n ' t want to blame i t on them,  I j u s t wanted t o do something about the mess we were i n .  I wanted someone  c o u l d see a l l s i d e s . When the man  t o l d me  about the w a i t i n g l i s t  i f something had gone from under me. but nobody d i d .  I was  awful I f e l t , how  urgent i t was.  list. who  I was  I l o o k e d i t up i n the telephone  I know I have f a u l t s , but so do t h e y .  who  Finally,  Now  I was  j u s t shocked.  I f e l t t h e y would c a l l me  just desperate.  As  p r e t t y soon,  Nobody seemed t o understand  I felt  how  I ought t o have been on t o p o f the  t h a t I l o o k back on i t , I r e a l i z e t h e r e were p r o b a b l y o t h e r  people  had worse t r o u b l e s than mine; but a t the time mine seemed the worst o f  anybody's. I don't remember him g i v i n g me guess I was was  too upset even t o l i s t e n p r o p e r l y t o what he s a i d .  'waiting l i s t ' .  l o n g , the way it  I felt.  f i g h t s about. saw me  the day  He doesn't was  I'm  I just  He's  been a b i g h e l p .  even t a k i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s .  take s i d e s - f a r from i t .  He's  Father  had L...  b r i n g i n g us back  I l i k e him as a  He h e l p e d my  Funny -  o f the t h i n g s we  somebody, anybody, soon.  -  couldn't  the o n l y o t h e r p e r s o n I c o u l d t h i n k o f .  who's C a t h o l i c ; t h a t ' s been one  I called.  b e t t e r f o r my  doesn't  f o r e v e r f o r somebody to c a l l me.  But a l l I wanted was  together again.  A l l I heard  I don't remember when I c a l l e d the p a r i s h p r i e s t  seemed l i k e I'd waited  husband's the one  I  However l o n g I had to w a i t , I c o u l d n ' t even wait t h a t  wait any l o n g e r and he was my  an appointment f o r the next day.  person.  husband t o see t h a t i t  mother-in-law t o get a p l a c e o f her own,  so you can see  take s i d e s , he j u s t does what seems best t o h e l p u s .  he  -  Vf  -  I don't know a n y t h i n g about s o c i a l workers. be s o c i a l workers, a t F a m i l y S e r v i c e .  A l l I wanted was somebody t o h e l p me.  Maybe a middle-aged woman who would understand see u s a l l .  I d i d n ' t know t h e r e would  I'm n o t v e r y b r i g h t , I g u e s s .  a l l s i d e s o f our problem and I suppose p e o p l e who h e l p you  s h o u l d have t r a i n i n g , b u t t h a t was t h e l e a s t o f my w o r r i e s when I c a l l e d up." Implications. Mrs. C. wanted someone, anyone, t o h e l p h e r . where she thought  She telephoned  she remembered o t h e r p e o p l e had been h e l p e d .  urgency and a n x i e t y a l l she heard were t h e words " w a i t i n g l i s t " .  a place  But i n h e r She had  no r e c o l l e c t i o n t h a t an appointment had been g i v e n h e r f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g day. F o r some r e a s o n which i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o d i s c e r n from t h e case r e c o r d , she g o t the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e urgency o f h e r need was n o t understood; h e r t h e words " w a i t i n g l i s t " symbolized  rejection.  for  Because the p a r i s h p r i e s t  she t u r n e d to saw h e r a t once, i t i s he whom she " l i k e s as a p e r s o n " , who c o n t i n u e s t o h e l p h e r and h e r husband, i n s p i t e o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y t r o u b l i n g r e l i g i o u s c o n t e n t i o n , and who i s a p p a r e n t l y a c h i e v i n g a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree of  success.  In a l l o f t h e s e t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s t h e r e was an urgent help.  T h i s c r y came a t a time Mrs. Perlman c a l l s ,  when change and even p r e v e n t i o n through  c r y f o r immediate  "The moment o f white heat -  casework h e l p may be most a c h i e v a b l e . "  Of these l o s t c l i e n t s o n l y one i s b e i n g h e l p e d elsewhere. two,  one has s u s p e c t e d problems, t h e o t h e r m a n i f e s t problems.  1  Of t h e o t h e r Mrs. A. and  her s i s t e r have a p p a r e n t l y t r a n s f e r r e d t h e i r h o s t i l i t y toward t h e agency which t r i e d t o i n t e r p r e t the " r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s " t o s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n g e n e r a l ; Mrs. B., who s t i l l has c r i t i c a l problems w i t h h e r s o n , needed h e l p " t h r e e months ago, n o t now."  Perlman, op. c i t . ,  p. 1 7 1 .  -  k5  -  Of t h e t h r e e a p p l i c a n t s , i t was p r o b a b l y most d i f f i c u l t  f o r Mrs. B. t o  ask f o r h e l p and t o e x p r e s s h e r need because o f h e r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s as a . r e l i e f r e c i p i e n t and h e r p r e s e n t need t o s t r i v e  f o r higher s t a t u s .  She was  s u f f i c i e n t l y f r i g h t e n e d t o l a y a s i d e h e r p r i d e and m i s t r u s t t o a s k f o r h e l p , o n l y t o be t o l d she must wait f o r t h r e e months b e f o r e t h a t h e l p would be forthcoming.  I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e r , she was p o l i t e  on t h e s u r f a c e b u t r e s e n t f u l and r e s i s t a n t underneath,  and i t would be most  u n l i k e l y t h a t she would be p r e p a r e d a g a i n t o p r e s e n t h e r s e l f as an a p p l i c a n t unless a severe c r i s i s  arose and she had nowhere e l s e t o t u r n .  The r e f e r r a l s o u r c e s f o r these t h r e e a p p l i c a n t s appear"to little  significance.  A l l sought  t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency because they  had remembered t h a t o t h e r people had r e c e i v e d h e l p t h e r e . it  have had  They thought o f  o n l y as a place.where they might g e t h e l p ; t h e i r c o n c e p t i o n o f how t h a t  h e l p would be g i v e n , who would g i v e i t , what t h e i r own c o n t r i b u t i o n o r involvement for  would be d i s p l a y e d a c o n g l o m e r a t i o n  a reason d i f f e r e n t i n s p e c i f i c  o f misconceptions.  Each,  c o n t e n t , b u t t h e same i n essence, d i d  not f o l l o w through on t h e s e r v i c e as i t was o f f e r e d because, the  "critical  moment" o f i n t a k e d i d n o t meet t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s o f what was i n v o l v e d i n service.  I n t h e main, each f e l t t h a t t h e urgency  recognized.  o f t h e i r need was n o t  I n each s i t u a t i o n t h e r e was a l a c k o f r e a l  communication  between a p p l i c a n t and caseworker, i n each t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n t cause.  specific  F o r M r s . A. a hampering agency p o l i c y , arid the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f h e r  s i s t e r s t o o d i n the way; f o r Mrs. B. a m i l d l y phrased r e q u e s t , superimposed upon a much l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d need, c o v e r e d up urgency; "waiting l i s t " symbolized,  f o r h e r , r e j e c t i o n and n e g a t i o n o f need.  GROUP I I ; Apparent (1)  f o r Mrs. C. t h e words  Urgency  .Mr. D. Mr. D., a m a r r i e d man w i t h t h r e e teen-aged  c h i l d r e n , telephoned,  u p s e t " , c o m p l a i n i n g about h i s w i f e ' s b e h a v i o u r w i t h o t h e r men.  "very  When seen  the f o l l o w i n g day i t seemed e v i d e n t t h a t he wanted someone t o "make h i s w i f e behave", and was n o t p r e p a r e d  to involve himself i n help.  A t Mr. D.'s  - i n s i s t e n c e , Mrs. D. was telephoned and o f f e r e d s e r v i c e , b u t she s a i d she had t o l d Mr. D. t o l e a v e - a s . he had t h r e a t e n e d h e r w i t h p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t .  The  -  k6  -  worker suggested F a m i l y C o u r t ( p o s s i b l y because  o f the need f o r l e g a l  p r o t e c t i o n f o r Mrs. D. a l t h o u g h t h i s i s not c l e a r ) and the case was  closed,  l a t e r t o be r e f e r r e d back by F a m i l y Court and q u i c k l y a c c e p t e d a g a i n f o r service. . When Mr. D. was why  he had come.  and the case was  seen the second time he appeared c o n f u s e d and u n c e r t a i n  A l t h o u g h a g a i n o f f e r e d s e r v i c e he d i d not f o l l o w  through  closed.  A p p l i c a n t ' s View. "I  had t h i s problem  s t e a d i l y worse.  from a week a f t e r we were m a r r i e d .  I t j u s t got  I began t o f e e l more d e s p e r a t e - t h i n g s kept b u i l d i n g  up.  We had one of. our u s u a l b i g f i g h t s one day - y e l l i n g and so on - we l i v e i n one o f those h o u s i n g p r o j e c t s - and I thought t h e r e would be a complaint the n e i g h b o u r s so I went t o see Mr. J . . . . the manager o f the p r o j e c t . s p i l l e d out the whole s t o r y t o  from I  him.  • He s a i d I ought t o go t o the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  I never heard o f  i t b e f o r e , but he s a i d t h e y had marriage c o u n s e l l o r s t h e r e and i f t h e y c o u l d n ' t h e l p us they might send us t o a p s y c h i a t r i s t .  Before that I looked a  few  times i n the t e l e p h o n e d i r e c t o r y f o r marriage c o u n s e l l o r s , , but I haven't money and t h e r e might be a c h a r g e .  I d i d n ' t know about the F a m i l y S e r v i c e  Agency, b e i n g f r e e so I d i d n ' t do a n y t h i n g about i t . when Mr. J . . . . t o l d me  any  I s u r e l i k e d the i d e a  about i t b e i n g f r e e .  I wanted someone t o t a l k t o my w i f e . I got no j o b , but the way  I'm  n o t p e r f e c t ; I gamble and  she behaves you'd t h i n k I was  t h e worst man  i n the  world. I never knew t h e r e would be s o c i a l workers t h e r e .  I always  thought  s o c i a l workers were t o i n v e s t i g a t e people and g i v e r e l i e f and t h i n g s l i k e I d i d n ' t r e a l l y know what k i n d o f h e l p I'd g e t . p r o b a b l y be a m a r r i e d person who I  I guess I thought i t would  knew about l i f e  f e l t l e t down w i t h what I g o t .  The man  and d i d n ' t g e t i t from books. I saw never c a l l e d my  u n t i l t o o l a t e , and. t h e n one t h i n g he d i d t h a t made me the o n l y t h i n g I c o u l d do was d i d n ' t want.  l e a v e my w i f e .  that.  That was  fed" up was  wife  to t e l l  the one t h i n g I  me  I f anybody dropped the case i t was r e a l i n t e r e s t i n us. felt better.  - Now,  i f he'd  him, not me.  Nobody showed any  gone and v i s i t e d my w i f e I would have  I t ' s a l l v e r y w e l l t o say t h a t c l i e n t s have got r i g h t s t o  privacy»and they ought t o want h e l p , but i f my w i f e had been mad been h i s j o b t o handle t h a t .  That's what he g e t s p a i d f o r .  p r o b a b l y would've been g l a d t o see him i f he'd  come.  i t would've  Anyway, she  Taken an i n t e r e s t ,  like."  Implications. T h i s i n t e r v i e w has been much a b r i d g e d .  Mr. D.. used i t l a r g e l y t o  r e c o u n t s t o r i e s o f h i s i l l - t r e a t m e n t a t the hands o f h i s w i f e , but a l s o a t the hands o f s o c i a l workers he had.known, employers and s o on, a t . l e n g t h .  He  gave every appearance o f the d e t e r i o r a t i n g a l c o h o l i c , and credence was  added  to  t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n by the f a c t t h a t he had not h e l d a s t e a d y job f o r the  l a s t f o u r y e a r s and was to  t o t a l l y supported by h i s w i f e .  C l e a r l y he wished  be c a r e d f o r by the agency, b o t h e m o t i o n a l l y and f i n a n c i a l l y , and would  have l i k e d t o use the agency as a weapon a g a i n s t h i s w i f e and as a t o o l t o f o r c e h e r t o be n i c e r t o  him.  F a m i l y problems were o f l o n g s t a n d i n g and p r o b a b l y not amenable t o treatment  except, perhaps,  o f a v e r y long-term k i n d .  The s u p p o s i t i o n , i n  view o f the p a t h o l o g i c a l and c h r o n i c nature o f the f a m i l y problems would be t h a t the c h i l d r e n , t o o , would have problems, but when Mr. D. was about t h i s he e v i n c e d l i t t l e i n t e r e s t and no  questioned  concern.  He t r i e d t o p l a c e the i n t e r v i e w e r i n the p o s i t i o n o f b e i n g the worker who  might, t h i s time, meet h i s needs, and who  b e h a l f o f h i s w i f e ' s problems.  He was  not p r e p a r e d  case-  would be a g g r e s s i v e on to see h i m s e l f as an  i n v o l v e d c l i e n t , a l t h o u g h he t a l k e d about h i m s e l f and h i s f e e l i n g s a t g r e a t length. H i s a n x i e t y and sense o f urgency,  however, had been t r a n s m i t t e d o v e r  the telephone t o the i n t a k e worker so v i v i d l y t h a t he was p r i o r i t y d u r i n g the f i r s t r e f e r r a l by F a m i l y C o u r t . the f a c t t h a t Mrs. B. had  g i v e n immediate  c o n t a c t and a f u r t h e r e a r l y appointment on r e T h i s seemed t o s t a n d out i n sharp r e l i e f a g a i n s t t o wait 3$ months f o r a f i r s t  appointment.  -  (2)  -  1*8  Mrs. E . Mrs.  E. telephoned,  "very upset  about h e r m a r r i a g e " .  She s t a t e d  i t was common-law u n i o n and t h a t t h e r e were f i v e c h i l d r e n .  P r i o r i t y was.  g i v e n t o h e r r e q u e s t a s " f a m i l y i s i n c r i s i s and t h e r e i s a p o s s i b i l i t y o f breakdown."  '•Mrs. E . needs immediate h e l p w i t h a n x i e t y . "  Over t h e telephone  the caseworker gave Mrs, E . some l e g a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g h e r " r i g h t s " . When t e l e p h o n e d  about an appointment time, Mrs. E . s a i d the s i t u a t i o n  had improved because, "My husband f i n a l l y r e a l i z e d I mean b u s i n e s s . " accepted -another  t h e o f f e r o f an i n t e r v i e w , b u t c a n c e l l e d i t l a t e r . and c a n c e l l e d i t , a l s o .  She  She accepted  Both i n t e r v i e w s were c a n c e l l e d o s t e n s i b l y  because she c o u l d n o t g e t time o f f from work. The  case was c l o s e d because Mrs. E . was " u n w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e . "  A p p l i c a n t ' s View. "He had been d r i n k i n g f o r two o r t h r e e weeks and i t was time I d i d something about i t .  I phoned the Burnaby S o c i a l Welfare  them I d i d n ' t want money, I j u s t wanted h e l p . S e r v i c e b e f o r e , as f a r as I know. a f r i e n d who was on t h e 'Welfare' but t h e people  Branch and t o l d  I never h e a r d  o f Family  They e x p l a i n e d what i t was t o me. and I thought a t f i r s t  i n Burnaby e x p l a i n e d the d i f f e r e n c e .  I had  i t was the same t h i n g ,  I knew i f they recommended  F a m i l y S e r v i c e i t would p r o b a b l y be a l l r i g h t . I s u r e d i d n ' t want t o g e t i n a mess l i k e f r i e n d s o f mine who went to  t h a t X.... M a r r i a g e  $500  Bureau.  They had t o sue t h a t man; he s t u c k them  over  and a l l he d i d was g i v e them a bunch o f s e x t e s t s . I thought F a m i l y S e r v i c e was a good i d e a a t f i r s t  I guess y o u know we're n o t m a r r i e d ?  b u t my husband d i d n ' t .  W e l l , I thought they might be a b l e t o  g i v e me i n f o r m a t i o n about s e p a r a t i n g from him.  He ought t o be t h e one t o  l e a v e ; I c o u l d n ' t pack up w i t h f i v e k i d s and s u p p o r t  them a l l m y s e l f .  I t h i n k I knew t h e r e would be s o c i a l workers t h e r e .  A l l I wanted,  though, was t o g e t i t o f f my c h e s t and be f i n i s h e d w i t h the whole b u s i n e s s . I knew i t would be c o n f i d e n t i a l and t r u s t w o r t h y .  That's  a l l I c a r e d about.  -  k9  -  As f o r s o c i a l workers i n g e n e r a l , I don't t h i n k o f them as up t o much. A f r i e n d o f mine's daughter i s n o t m a r r i e d and p r e g n a n t . f r i e n d who  went t o t h a t M a r r i a g e Bureau.  That's the same  They're s u r e i n a mess - the k i d ' s  o n l y s i x t e e n and she wants t o keep the baby.  The s o c i a l worker s u r e hasn't  been much good t o them as f a r as I can s e e . Then t h e r e ' s a neighbour up the way ought t o be working.  appointment  He's  She  feel.  w i t h you p e o p l e because  days o f f are so i r r e g u l a r .  you do, then?  j u s t s i t s t h e r e on r e l i e f .  She l o o k s a l o t b e t t e r than I  I d i d n ' t keep my go and my  who  i t was  so f a r t o  . Anyway, he wouldn't go, and what can  been o f f d r i n k i n g f o r a w h i l e , now,  and t h i n g s a r e n ' t too  bad. I guess I t h i n k o f F a m i l y S e r v i c e as a s o r t o f p r o t e c t i o n . a c t s up a g a i n I ' l l know what t o do. i t o v e r t o me,  I have the house now;  a f t e r I c a l l e d you p e o p l e .  I ' l l have something,  anyway.  I'm  I made him  And i f I s e p a r a t e from him  I don't want t o marry him.  d i v o r c e , I guess, but I've n e v e r asked him t o . anyway?  I f he  Who  sign now  He c o u l d get a  wants to marry  him,  j u s t g o i n g t o s t a y w i t h him u n t i l the k i d s are a l i t t l e b i g g e r .  The t r o u b l e i s , e v e r y time I d e c i d e d e f i n i t e l y t o l e a v e him I get pregnant again. I suppose s o c i a l workers a r e t r a i n e d t o h e l p - p e o p l e . have t o be.  I've no i d e a what k i n d o f t r a i n i n g , though.  t h i s t h i n g m y s e l f , I ' l l know where t o go, anyway. t o my  I guess  I f I c a n ' t handle  I t h e l p s me most t o t a l k  f r i e n d - I mean she's got l o t s worse problems t h a n I've g o t .  know, i t always h e l p s t o hear about people who I f e l t i t was  they  I don't  have worse problems than y o u r s .  urgent a t the time I c a l l e d ; I f e l t  l o n g e r , but a f t e r I'd t a l k e d f o r a w h i l e I f e l t b e t t e r .  I c o u l d n ' t go on I guess t h a t was  any the  main t h i n g I wanted a t the t i m e . " Implications. Mrs. E . got what she wanted - o v e r the t e l e p h o n e . — - a chance t o v e n t i l a t e her a n x i e t y and some l e g a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r o t e c t h e r s e l f and t o use as a d e t e r r a r t o Mr. E i . ' s b e h a v i o u r . Throughout  T h i s was  the i n t e r v i e w Mr.  a l l the h e l p she needed o r c o u l d use.  E . k e p t coming i n and out o f the room, o b v i o u s l y  -  50  -  u n s e t t l e d and anxious about the i n t e r v i e w e r ' s p r e s e n c e . as i f he d i d n o t e x i s t , by Mrs. E .  She r e f e r r e d t o him as "he" and made  no attempt t o introduce- him t o the i n t e r v i e w e r . did  He was i g n o r e d ,  Although s t a t i n g t h a t she  n o t w i s h t o proceed w i t h the i n t e r v i e w i n h i s presence s i n c e he had n o t  known o f . h e r c a l l , she proceeded anyway. the i n t e r v i e w e r i n t o a g r e e i n g She  She kept a t t e m p t i n g  t o manipulate  w i t h h e r about Mr. E.'s s h o r t c o m i n g s .  spoke i n a monotone, c r i e d o f f and on, i n a f l a t , spasmodic  f a s h i o n , as i f t h i s were something she d i d a u t o m a t i c a l l y , w i t h l i t t l e behind i t .  feeling  I t might be supposed t h a t t h i s would be t h e way she d i s c u s s e d  her t r o u b l e s w i t h those who would l i s t e n , o r w i t h tho'se who she f e l t were worse o f f t h a n she was.  She seemed t o g e t a k i n d o f gloomy d e l i g h t out  o f t h e m i s e r y she f e l t ; i f she c o u l d be r e l i e v e d o f h e r problems she would probably  be j u s t as gloomy and would soon f i n d o t h e r s  Both Mr. D. and Mrs. for  service.  place.  E . g o t immediate p r i o r i t y g i v e n t o t h e i r  request  I n b o t h cases the p r i o r i t y was g i v e n on the b a s i s o f a c r i s i s  i n t h e f a m i l y and the a p p l i c a n t s ' obvious a n x i e t y . Mrs.  t o take t h e i r  Mr. D, was an a l c o h o l i c ;  E . t h e w i f e o f an a l c o h o l i c ; each wished t o use the s o c i a l worker as  ammunition a g a i n s t t h e m a r i t a l p a r t n e r .  Obviously  c r i s e s had been  frequent  i n t h e p a s t , b u t , because these were new a p p l i c a n t s , as f a r a s t h e Family S e r v i c e Agency was concerned, and t h e r e was no S o c i a l S e r v i c e  Index  r e g i s t r a t i o n on e i t h e r , no p r i o r c l u e s were a v a i l a b l e as t o the c h r o n i c n a t u r e o f t h e problems, which might have made the i n t a k e workers wary o f t h e kind of anxiety  displayed.  B o t h Mr. D. and Mrs.  E . wanted s e r v i c e on t h e i r own terms.  At t h e  r i s k o f a premature d i a g n o s i s based on l i t t l e  evidence,  c l e a r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e r t h a t Mr. D. and Mrs.  E . c o u l d b o t h be c l i n i c a l l y  categorized as " p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r " .  i t appeared q u i t e  The c l i e n t w i t h a s e v e r e p e r s o n a l i t y  d i s o r d e r i s t h e most d i f f i c u l t , unrewarding, and t r u l y h a r d - t o - r e a c h c l i e n t , who can be h e l p e d ,  type o f  i f a t a l l , o n l y on a p e r s i s t e n t , long-term b a s i s ,  51  -  whose e x p e c t a t i o n s o f anyone i n t h e environment, o f any s o c i a l agency, o r any s o c i a l worker, a r e demanding, whose use o f s e r v i c e i s m a n i p u l a t i n g , and whose c r i s e s , o f which there a r e many, g i v e e v e r y appearance o f urgency.  CHAPTER FOUR  LOST APPLICANTS : THE DOUBTFUL ONES  Only two o f the f i v e l o s t a p p l i c a n t s d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s chapter(L'3ecame c l i e n t s o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  And these two -  Mr. D. and Mrs. E . - were those w i t h the l e a s t h o p e f u l p r o g n o s i s . became c l i e n t s because the "apparent and d e a l t w i t h .  They  u r g e n c y " o f t h e i r need was r e c o g n i z e d  The o t h e r t h r e e - Mrs. A., Mrs. B. and Mrs. C. - whose  urgency o f need was more b a s i c a l l y r e a l , r a t h e r than flamboyantly  apparent,  d i d n o t become c l i e n t s because t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r need' was n o t understood, and the immediate h e l p c a l l e d f o r was n o t g i v e n . The  f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w s w i t h seven l o s t a p p l i c a n t s d i s c l o s e a  d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f urgency - the l o s t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r e v e n t i v e f a m i l y casework.  A l l o f these, seven a p p l i c a n t s took t e n t a t i v e , d o u b t f u l s t e p s  toward the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency; a l l had tenuous m o t i v a t i o n and f l u i d expectations.  S e v e r a l had s t r o n g n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s about s o c i a l workers.  But a l l had problems w i t h which the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency might have h e l p e d them; and a l l f a i l e d t o take t h a t h e l p . l o s t t o perform  a p r e v e n t i v e f a m i l y casework s e r v i c e - an o p p o r t u n i t y u n l i k e l y  t o be found a g a i n w i t h these p a r t i c u l a r GROUP I : F l u i d (1)  Thus, an o p p o r t u n i t y was  families. Expectations  Mr. F . Mr. F., f a t h e r o f two p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , came to t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e  Agency s t a t i n g t h a t he wished a d v i c e about the method o f g a i n i n g custody o f his children. remember.  He had been " s e n t " by a lawyer, whose name he c o u l d n o t  He and Mrs. F . were s t i l l  s e p a r a t i o n because o f h e r p r o m i s c u i t y . wanted, and i t was suggested  l i v i n g t o g e t h e r b u t he was  contemplating  He was u n c e r t a i n about what he  t o him t h a t he d e c i d e w i t h i n one week whether  he wished t o i n v o l v e h i m s e l f i n c o u n s e l l i n g o r t o seek a s e p a r a t i o n .  It  was arranged w i t h him t h a t i f he d i d n o t c a l l the caseworker w i t h i n a week h i s case would be c l o s e d .  As Mr. F . d i d n o t c a l l , t h e case was c l o s e d as  " c l i e n t u n w i l l i n g to continue."  - 53 -  A p p l i c a n t ' s View. The  i n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr.  F . was  u n w i l l i n g t o be seen i n p e r s o n .  conducted on the telephone  He  talked f a i r l y  as he  was  f r e e l y , a f t e r some  i n i t i a l r e s i s t a n c e , but spoke i n a whisper, as he d i d not wish h i s w i f e , who  was  i n another room, t o hear the  conversation.  "That l a w y e r - I can't remember h i s name - t o l d me I'd g i v e i t a t r y , but now I wanted was  c o u l d n ' t have done t h a t h i m s e l f .  Things l i k e t h a t . i n the end,  How  I f 75%  what's the use  "I don't see why  I mean, was  i t any use my  me  any s o l u t i o n .  f e l l o w I saw  up  t h a t lawyer t o l d I got no  wasn't too h e l p f u l .  He  seemed t o be  ideas  had  on  personal  just guessing,  I f he'd  me  He never gave  He d i d n ' t have any d e f i n i t e i d e a s , or any  d i d n ' t seem t o be p e r s o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d .  g i v e me  I  except t h a t t h e y ' r e someone t h a t ' s t a k i n g  knowledge o f cases l i k e o u r s . He  w i f e and  of g e t t i n g help?  about s o c i a l workers a t a l l , The  lawyer  o f f a m i l i e s w i t h t r o u b l e s l i k e ours s p l i t  I n e v e r knew t h e r e would be s o c i a l workers t h e r e .  p e r s o n a l problems.  the  All  d i d o t h e r p e o p l e handle such problems?  I never h e a r d o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency b e f o r e t o go.  I thought  I l o o k back I d i d n ' t want t o go v e r y much.  i n f o r m a t i o n on p o i n t s o f view.  g i v i n g i t another t r y ?  to come.  a few  like I  was.  f a c t s to  I would've f e l t b e t t e r . "  Implications. Mr.  F . d i d not p a r t i c u l a r l y want to go t o the  i n the f i r s t p l a c e , and was C l e a r l y he i s a man  who  Family  S e r v i c e Agency  unimpressed by what he got when he a r r i v e d .  l i k e s t h i n g s i n " b l a c k and w h i t e " , who  appears t o  have c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s i s t a n c e t o i n v o l v i n g h i m s e l f p e r s o n a l l y , but who as evidence  o f p e r s o n a l c o n c e r n the r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s p r e f e r e n c e  takes  for  definiteness. Because the i n f o r m a t i o n i n the case r e c o r d i s so s c a n t y and Mr. was  u n w i l l i n g to be i n t e r v i e w e d i n p e r s o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o do  little  except guess about any i d e a s o f agency s e r v i c e he might have brought him.  What k i n d or q u a l i t y o f i n f o r m a t i o n was  a l s o a matter f o r s p e c u l a t i o n .  F.  with  g i v e n him by the l a w y e r i s  Whether h i s own  a n x i e t y s t o o d i n the  way  - 54 -  of understanding  what the lawyer t o l d him about t h e purpose o f r e f e r r a l , o r  whether he was a r b i t r a r i l y " s e n t " i s n o t known.  C e r t a i n l y he appeared t o  f e e l t h a t he had been s e n t , and would have p r e f e r r e d t h a t the lawyer had been a b l e t o g i v e him t h e i n f o r m a t i o n he s o u g h t . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g , however, t o s p e c u l a t e what percentage o f the d r o p - i n s , l i k e Mr. F., who come t o a F a m i l y with s e r v i c e .  Agency, a c t u a l l y f o l l o w through  A t a l k w i t h t h e i n t a k e workers r e v e a l e d t h a t i n g e n e r a l  drop-ins are u s u a l l y e i t h e r mentally  disturbed people,  wanderers,  seekers  a f t e r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , o r t h e k i n d o f a p p l i c a n t who p r e f e r s a " t r i a l r u n " t o l o o k over t h e b u i l d i n g and p e r s o n n e l  b e f o r e committing h i m s e l f t o  a c c e p t i n g s e r v i c e from t h e agency. With the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , Mr. F . c o u l d p o s s i b l y be judged t o be emotionally  d i s t u r b e d ; he dropped i n , he was a m b i v a l e n t , u n c e r t a i n , he c o u l d  not remember the l a w y e r ' s name, y e t h i m s e l f sought f a c t s and a s o l u t i o n . But i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t even a moderate degree o f emotional would have remained u n n o t i c e d  by t h e i n t a k e worker.  disturbance  The most  likely  s u p p o s i t i o n might be t h a t he was, i n e f f e c t , s i m p l y l o o k i n g , as he s a i d he was,  f o r f a c t s , i n f o r m a t i o n and a s o l u t i o n , and t h a t , f o r him, t h i s was a  t r i a l - r u n t o see i f these t h i n g s were a v a i l a b l e . That these were t h e kind, o f e x p e c t a t i o n s he h e l d was n o t s t a t e d i n the case r e c o r d .  He was s e e n o n l y a s "ambivalent" about t h e s e r v i c e .  That he was ambivalent about the s e r v i c e appears v e r y t r u e , whether h i s m o t i v a t i o n c o u l d have been s t r e n g t h e n e d  indeed;  i f the e x p e c t a t i o n s he  brought w i t h him c o u l d have been d i s c u s s e d f r e e l y w i t h t h e caseworker, and even, i n some s m a l l measure met, i n t h i s b e g i n n i n g of speculation.  There i s o n l y one c e r t a i n t y here;  phase, i s a l s o a matter problems s t i l l  exist  i n t h e F . home which were c l e a r l y m a n i f e s t  when Mr. F . r e v e a l e d h i s f e a r  t h a t h i s w i f e might overhear the telephone  conversation with the i n t e r v i e w e r .  - 55 -  (2)  Mrs.  G.  Mrs. G.,  a 20 y e a r o l d mother o f one young c h i l d , who  a n o t h e r , t e l e p h o n e d t o ask f o r marriage c o u n s e l l i n g .  was e x p e c t i n g  She s t a t e d i n the  f i r s t c a l l t h a t she and h e r husband were b o t h w i l l i n g t o come.  Both  she  and h e r husband were seen s e p a r a t e l y and r e g u l a r l y i n r e g a r d to t h e i r m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s f o r f o u r months; Mrs. G. more f r e q u e n t l y than h e r husband.  The case was  to continue." assessment  unwilling  The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s , a c c o r d i n g t o the  made by the caseworker,  environment", how  c l o s e d a t the end o f t h i s time as " c l i e n t  c o n s i s t e d o f " c o n t i n u i n g s t r a i n s i n the  but these s t r a i n s were n o t s p e c i f i e d beyond the mention  h a r d Mrs. G. found i t t o get a b a b y - s i t t e r .  more w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e t h a n Mrs. G. but f e l t  Mr. G. appeared  of  to be  t h i s would be u n p r o d u c t i v e  u n l e s s h i s w i f e c o n t i n u e d t o come. Mrs. G. was  noted t o have a "tendency t o i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e . "  A p p l i c a n t ' s View. "We've had t h i s problem b u i l t up. w i t h me.  ever s i n c e we were m a r r i e d .  I t j u s t s o r t of  Then we had a b i g row and I made him promise t o go somewhere I t e l e p h o n e d the M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h where I'd been t a k i n g the  baby and t h e y t o l d me  about F a m i l y S e r v i c e .  I knew t h e r e must be  marriage  c o u n s e l l o r s around somewhere but I thought they'd be too e x p e n s i v e . the nurse t o l d me t h a t F a m i l y S e r v i c e was  When  a Chest agency I knew you wouldn't  have t o pay so I thought I would see what i t was  l i k e anyway.  When you  have no money you have t o take what you can g e t . I thought they would g i v e me  i d e a s and a d v i c e .  I mean, a l l the s o c i a l - w o r k e r d i d was involved.  I f e l t i t was  up t o me  listen.  I was  She. d i d n ' t seem t o be d e e p l y  t o do a l l the t a l k i n g ;  enough working w i t h our heads t o g e t h e r .  There wasn't  I mean, I t h i n k I wanted more  f e e l i n g s and t o have h e r g i v e an o p i n i o n once i n a w h i l e . know the r e a l t r u t h , she was took any n o t e s .  I mean, how  sure disappointed.  I f you want t o  j u s t l i k e a r e c o r d i n g machine.  She never even  are you g o i n g t o know enough about a person to  h e l p them i f you a r e n ' t even i n t e r e s t e d enough t o take down what they say? I f i g u r e d she would need n o t e s t o study about me a f t e r I'd gone. d i d n ' t have a n y t h i n g t o go on - about me,  as a p e r s o n .  But  She seemed t o  she  - 56 . -  have t r o u b l e p u t t i n g t h i n g s i n t o words, t o o , as i f I had t o have t h i n g s e x p l a i n e d t o me.  Gee,  I'm  I know a d v i c e doesn't h e r t o see me  not t h a t dense. always work.  as a p e r s o n - not her up t h e r e and me  never d i s c u s s e d any o f t h i s w i t h h e r . I don't name was  What I meant I wanted was down h e r e .  for  No,  I  Could I have?  t h i n k I ever heard o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency b e f o r e .  a b i t f a m i l i a r , though.  Maybe I heard about i t on T.V.  The  o r something.  I wasn't s u r e whether t h e r e would be p s y c h o l o g i s t s o r s o c i a l workers t h e r e . I knew whoever i t was what k i n d .  would have some k i n d o f t r a i n i n g but I d i d n ' t know  I always t h i n k o f s o c i a l workers as g i v i n g a s o r t o f g e n e r a l i z e d  s e r v i c e f o r people w i t h problems.  Like a doctor.  They take g e n e r a l  t r a i n i n g f i r s t and then p i c k some s p e c i a l i t y l i k e c h i l d r e n ' s work.  Now  t h a t I t h i n k more about i t , though, I never thought o f s o c i a l workers i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h marriage of  counselling.  I t h i n k o f them more as h a v i n g a l o t  e x p e r i e n c e meeting people i n t h e i r houses and i n c l i n i c s o r i n working  with c h i l d r e n . " Implications. Mrs. G.'s still  fluid.  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f F a m i l y S e r v i c e were somewhat n e g a t i v e b u t She was  w a i t i n g t o be shown.  An " o r d i n a r y " marriage  c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e would be something she c o u l d n o t a f f o r d , t h e r e f o r e she must t a k e what she c o u l d g e t . Although she, u n l i k e the o t h e r c l i e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s study  had  r e c e i v e d a c o n t i n u e d s e r v i c e o v e r a p e r i o d o f months, her case had been c l o s e d because she t e r m i n a t e d p r e m a t u r e l y .  Her d e c i s i o n t o t e r m i n a t e  based, i t would seem, on her f e e l i n g t h a t she was  was  not being helped, r a t h e r  than on the d i f f i c u l t y o f g e t t i n g a b a b y - s i t t e r and o t h e r  "environmental  strains." To. Mrs. G.,  b e i n g h e l p e d meant a down-to-earth r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the  caseworker i n which each c o u l d see the o t h e r as a p e r s o n .  She  saw  t a k i n g as an evidence o f i n t e r e s t and o f c o n f i r m a t i o n t h a t she was while person.  She  thought  notea worth-  t h e o p i n i o n s and a d v i c e o f the worker would be  an i n d i c a t i o n o f the k i n d o f two-way r e l a t i o n s h i p she appeared  t o seek.  -  57  -  The i n t e r v i e w e r ' s p e r s o n a l d i a g n o s t i c i m p r e s s i o n , i n an a d m i t t e d l y i n c o n c l u s i v e i n t e r v i e w , h e l d f o r an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t r e a s o n , would be t h a t Mrs. G. knew e x a c t l y what she wanted - an e x p e r i e n c e d person who  could  h e l p her i n p r a c t i c a l ways and, i n f a c t , g i v e her o p i n i o n s and a d v i c e where •these were needed.  I t i s more than p o s s i b l e t h a t she would have welcomed  some home v i s i t s , c o n s i d e r i n g she had one s m a l l c h i l d , another on the  way,  and had no s p a r e money f o r b a b y - s i t t e r s . Her s e e k i n g , i n the main, was t h a t she was service.  a p o s i t i v e one, i n s p i t e o f some f e e l i n g  h a v i n g t o "take what she c o u l d g e t " i n h a v i n g t o seek a f r e e  Her e x p e c t a t i o n s were v a l i d enough, when e x p l o r e d , but they  never been e x p r e s s e d d i r e c t l y t o the  had  caseworker.  I t might be n o t e d here t h a t the caseworker  who  saw Mrs. G. was  new  to  the agency, u n c e r t a i n i n her r o l e and somewhat a n x i o u s , which might have accounted  f o r her d i f f i c u l t y i n r e s p o n d i n g t o Mrs. G. i n the way  d e f i n i t e , p o s i t i v e response t o her needed t o be g i v e n . she was  s t i l l t o o unsure  i n which  In a l l p r o b a b i l i t y ,  o f h e r s e l f t o unbend w i t h Mrs. G. and t o e n t e r i n t o  the k i n d o f f r e e i n t e r c h a n g e n e c e s s a r y w i t h such a y o u t h f u l c l i e n t . I t might be wondered how was  much o f Mrs. G.'s  a response t o what Mrs. G. thought  was  "tendency  to i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e "  expected o f h e r by the  caseworker.  Both Mr. F. and Mrs. G. f e l t b a r r i e r s t o communication between thems e l v e s and the caseworker  "due  to f a u l t y perception or a c t u a l misconception  o f the r e c i p r o c a l e x p e c t a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n a c l i e n t ' s h e l p - t a k i n g and caseworker's  a  help-giving.''''  Mr. F . wanted i n f o r m a t i o n o f a f a c t u a l n a t u r e ; Mrs. G. wanted a down-to-earth mother-daughter r e l a t i o n s h i p . o f the F a m i l y Agency t o g i v e .  N e i t h e r was  And y e t b o t h t h e s e a p p l i c a n t s dropped  because they d i d not get what they were s e e k i n g .  Perlman, op. c i t . ,  p.  beyond the  172.  scope out  I t i s quite possible  that  n e i t h e r would have c o n t i n u e d  -  58  i n s e r v i c e no m a t t e r what had been done or  l e f t undone, but the f a c t remains t h a t the d i s c r e p a n c y a p p l i c a n t wanted and what each a p p l i c a n t got was  between what each  c l a r i f i e d with n e i t h e r  o f them. To a g a i n quote Mrs.  Perlman - "None ( o f t h e p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r  d r o p - o u t s ) - has been l e s s e x p l o r e d than t h i s i d e a : t h a t the a p p l i c a n t not have any r e a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g expectations  may  o f what he i s a p p l y i n g f o r o r t o , t h a t h i s  be q u i t e a t odds w i t h the r e a l i t y he encounters;  the o t h e r s i d e , the caseworker may  The to  and  a r e so m a n i f e s t l y  1  caseworker who  ask him  t h a t , on  be assuming t h a t what he a s k s , does,  p r o p o s e s , make complete sense t o the a p p l i c a n t because they s e n s i b l e to him."  may  i n t e r v i e w e d Mr.  F. apparently  considered  i t "sensible"  t o d e c i d e w i t h i n one week whether he wished t o i n v o l v e h i m s e l f i n  c o u n s e l l i n g or seek a s e p a r a t i o n .  Perhaps i t was.  On the o t h e r hand,  Mr.  F . wanted " i n f o r m a t i o n on p o i n t s o f view", f a c t s about o t h e r problems l i k e his,  reassurance  t h a t t h e r e might be hope f o r h i s m a r r i a g e .  C e r t a i n l y Mr.  F . had no i d e a what he was  s i m p l y l o o k i n g f o r h e l p w i t h something t h a t was s e n s i b l e or not..  " a p p l y i n g f o r o r t o " ; he  was  t r o u b l i n g , him.whether i t was  H i s . m o t i v a t i o n t o seek h e l p on the agency's terms appeared  v e r y low i n d e e d , but i t might be wondered i f t h i s m o t i v a t i o n c o u l d have been fanned i n t o somewhat more p o s i t i v e flame i f h i s e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the agency' and  the agency's e x p e c t a t i o n s o f him Mrs.  G.'s  m o t i v a t i o n was  had been more f u l l y c l a r i f i e d a t i n t a k e .  c o n s i d e r a b l y s t r o n g e r than Mr. F , ' s .  had p e r s i s t e d h o p e f u l l y f o r f o u r months, s t i l l was  possible.  was  still  w a i t i n g to be shown what h e l p  It.might.be s a i d t h a t , even a f t e r t h i s p e r i o d o f time,  i n the b e g i n n i n g  o n l y an a p p l i c a n t .  She  t r y i n g t o adapt h e r s e l f t o the r o l e o f c l i e n t , t o f i n d h e r way t r o u b l e seemed to. be. t h a t - s h e  without  any  corresponding  I b i d . , p.  seemed t o  was. making t h i s attempt p r e t t y much alone This i s  not engaged i n a s t r u g g l e t o h e l p Mrs.  But she had n e v e r , i t appeared, been a b l e t o p r o v i d e  172  be  within i t .  s t r u g g l e on the p a r t o f the caseworker.  not t o say t h a t the caseworker was w i t h her problems.  she  phase o f casework t r e a t m e n t , o r even, perhaps  t h a t she-was not y e t a c l i e n t a t a l l ,  The  She  G. a  - 59 -  f r e e enough atmosphere f o r Mrs. she  G. t o move c o n f i d e n t l y w i t h i n , so  c o u l d c a n d i d l y s t a t e her needs and  expectations  o f agency s e r v i c e .  I d e a l l y t h i s c l a r i f i c a t i o n s h o u l d have taken p l a c e i n the f i r s t S i n c e i t d i d n o t , Mrs.  G. and  that  interview.  the caseworker were s t i l l h a r d i l y working a t  c r o s s - p u r p o s e s f o u r months l a t e r .  GROUP I I : S o c i a l C l a s s B a r r i e r s .  (1)  Mrs.  H.  Mrs.  H.,  a 29 y e a r o l d mother o f t h r e e v e r y young c h i l d r e n , who  had  been t r a i n e d as a n u r s e , t e l e p h o n e d "somewhat t e n t a t i v e l y " t o r e q u e s t i n t e r v i e w to d i s c u s s her marriage.  A d i v o r c e was  been t o l d by her lawyer t o c a l l the F a m i l y She  seemed " u n c e r t a i n and  l i s t she was p e r i o d o f one  ambivalent".  given p r i o r i t y . month.  p e n d i n g , but she  S e r v i c e Agency b e f o r e  Although she was  an  had  proceeding.  t o l d o f the  waiting  T h i s p r i o r i t y , however, e n t a i l e d a w a i t i n g  When she  s t r a i g h t e n e d out and she was  was  c a l l e d she  l e s s anxious.  s a i d her problems  "She  had  hoped she had not  been  too much t r o u b l e . " Applicant's  View.  "We've been h a v i n g  trouble for quite a while.  s t r a i g h t e n i t s e l f out when my  f a m i l y has  I thought i t would  husband f i n i s h e d U n i v e r s i t y .  under s t r a i n , g e t t i n g our e d u c a t i o n My  But  and h a v i n g  q u i t e a l o t o f money and  We've b o t h been  the c h i l d r e n a t the same t i m e .  I'd saved a b i t , but  still  it  was  hard. It  was  l i k e a b o l t out o f the b l u e when he asked f o r a d i v o r c e .  began t o get these t e r r i b l e m i g r a i n e headaches. U n i v e r s i t y thought I ought t o see too.  T h i s was  Neither  when we  the d o c t o r n o r  the p s y c h o l o g i s t .  and He  f r i e n d s o f my  d i r e c t l y and  someone e l s e would.  I saw  the d o c t o r  about the  there,  divorce.  the lawyer thought I ought t o go ahead with i t and  t h a t I s h o u l d hang on. c a l l e d him  o f the g i r l s I knew a t  were i n the middle o f a r r a n g i n g  wanted the whole t h i n g postponed u n t i l I had both personal  One  I  husband, but I t was asked him  seen somebody.  they f e l t he was  the l a w y e r who t o see me.  They were  a c t i n g immaturely  knew Mr.... at your p l a c e . He  c o u l d n ' t , but  said  -  -  60  Nobody seemed t o have time t o see me. matter; i t was  too l a t e anyway.  A l l he wanted was  the d i v o r c e .  I guess i t d i d n ' t  really  My husband would n e v e r t a l k t o anyone. I r e a l l y telephoned because  a d v i c e about r a i s i n g c h i l d r e n under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , how  I wanted  to be b o t h  mother and f a t h e r , I guess. I t h i n k I hoped, t o o , t h a t someone would make i t c l e a r t o me f a u l t the d i v o r c e was,  and why.  I've always  f e l t I'm  too dominated  my p a r e n t s and I c o u l d n ' t go t o them; I've always defended my them.  by  husband t o  I thought whoever I saw might be an i m p a r t i a l person who  p r o f e s s i o n a l a t t i t u d e and knowledge and who  whose  had  a  c o u l d put t h i n g s t o g e t h e r .  What p r o f e s s i o n wouldn't matter so much. I'd never heard o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency b e f o r e . t o l d me  i t was  just  a marriage c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e ; I d i d n ' t know i t had a n y t h i n g  to do w i t h the Red F e a t h e r . an overwrought  The lawyer  I have a c o u s i n who's a s o c i a l worker.  k i n d o f p e r s o n , always  emotionally involved with her  They're n o t a l l l i k e t h a t , I suppose. They're r e a l l y h u m a n i t a r i a n i n o u t l o o k .  -She's clients.  As a matter o f f a c t , I admire  them.  Dedicated, l i k e a nurse, or doctor.  They would have t o be, t o take i t . I don't remember much about what went on between m y s e l f and the person I talked to.  I guess I was  e x p e c t i n g too much. - I n a way.,-I guess I  r e l i e v e d , n o t t o have t o get i n v o l v e d . time t h e c h i l d r e n were my  I was  beginning to forget i t ;  c o n c e r n , n o t the m a r r i a g e .  needed t o t a l k i t a l l o u t , I guess, but I always people o u t .  I'm  embarrassed  to go t o anyone I don't know. someone I know.  was by  that  And y e t I r e a l l y  f e e l d r e a d f u l about  t o go t o anyone w i t h my problems.  I'm  At the same time I would f e e l worse  I mean, t h e y have a c e r t a i n i d e a o f me.  putting afraid telling  Through my  marriage t r o u b l e s I kept e v e r y t h i n g t o m y s e l f ; I kept hoping t h i n g s would work o u t . my  Even now,  t a l k i n g t o you about i t ,  I'm  g e t t i n g another one  of  headaches. I t ' s a funny f e e l i n g when you have t o ask someone f o r h e l p .  want them t o be r i g h t t h e r e , t h i n k i n g you're unique and o r i g i n a l .  You At the  same time, you don't want t o get i n v o l v e d w i t h them, and s t i l l you'd r a t h e r get i n v o l v e d w i t h them, about a t h i n g l i k e t h i s - so damaging t o you, as a p e r s o n - than anyone c l o s e r t o y o u . "  -  61 -  Implications. Mrs.  H. remained w i t h t h e i n t e r v i e w e r  f o r over an hour and a h a l f .  In a f r i g h t e n e d , spasmodic way, she would t u r n the i n t e r v i e w toward d i s c u s s i o n o f h e r own problems and f e e l i n g s and t h e n q u i c k l y back away from them. time she would b r i n g up something p e r s o n a l  Each  she would ask t e n t a t i v e l y i f i t  was a l l r i g h t t o do s o . I t was c l e a r t h a t she had many s e r i o u s problems i n r e l a t i o n t o unexpressed h o s t i l i t y t o b o t h h e r p a r e n t s , her husband who was s u p p o r t i n g  minimally  s e v e r e f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n by  b u t who r e f u s e d even t o see t h e  c h i l d r e n o r Mrs. H., and many f e a r s f o r the f u t u r e as a woman alone who must somehow l e a r n how t o be b o t h f a t h e r and mother t o h e r c h i l d r e n . Her  need t o c o n t r o l h e r s e l f , however, was so g r e a t  i t r e v e a l e d h e r deep need " t o t a l k i t a l l o u t . " involvement was so c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y  that, i n i t s e l f ,  And y e t h e r f e a r o f  g r e a t t h a t t h i s c o n t r o l seemed b o t h  n e c e s s a r y t o h e r and extremely p r e c a r i o u s .  She seemed t o have g i v e n up  h e r m a r r i a g e , a t h e r husband's i n s i s t e n c e , w i t h o u t much s t r u g g l e ,  internal-  i z i n g most o f h e r f e e l i n g s about i t , i n much the same way as she showed h e r c o n c e r n about " p u t t i n g people o u t " o r b e i n g The  "too much t r o u b l e . "  " c e r t a i n i d e a " she had o f h e r s e l f was so t e n u o u s l y h e l d and so  important t o h e r t h a t she c o u l d n o t even phrase h e r r e q u e s t a r e a l l y urgent need w a r r a n t i n g immediate a t t e n t i o n . not  t o the agency as  T h i s seemed t o r e f l e c t  o n l y h e r own i n s e c u r i t y and f e a r , b u t an unexpressed w i s h t h a t something  might y e t be done t o save t h e marriage o r , f a i l i n g t h a t , t h a t someone, somehow, c o u l d h e l p h e r f e e l l e s s f r i g h t e n e d , and l e s s a f a i l u r e . Although Mrs. H. was g i v e n p r i o r i t y , a month's w a i t was s t i l l  necessary.  F o r an a p p l i c a n t l i k e t h i s who was n o t o n l y ashamed b u t a f r a i d t o ask f o r h e l p , even a month was t o o l o n g t o w a i t .  When the c a l l o f f e r i n g an  appointment was made, she had a l r e a d y t o l d t h e lawyer t o go ahead w i t h d i v o r c e p r o c e e d i n g s , a l t h o u g h she had been r e g r e t t i n g t h i s d e c i s i o n ever s i n c e .  -  1  -  (2)  62  -  Mrs. I . I . , the 26 y e a r o l d mother o f two p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , c a l l e d  Mrs.  the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency a s k i n g f o r an appointment t o see a m a r r i a g e counsellor.  She s a i d h e r main problem was t h a t h e r husband would not "share  the money."  Her husband was n o t aware o f t h e c a l l .  When h e r name came up on the w a i t i n g l i s t kyk months l a t e r and she was telephoned  about an appointment she "appeared embarrassed" a t h a v i n g  called  - p r e v i o u s l y and s a i d t h e problem was s o l v e d . A p p l i c a n t ' s View. " I saw t h e name o f t h e agency i n the newspaper. what c o n n e c t i o n ,  I can't remember i n  e x a c t l y - I'm always r e a d i n g about marriage problems i n t h e  paper o r i n magazines - I suppose because I t h i n k they might h e l p me. P r e v i o u s l y I thought o f s o c i a l workers i n c o n n e c t i o n  w i t h t h e ones I  knew a t the h o s p i t a l who seemed t o l o o k a f t e r t h e rubby-dubs', b u t t h a t 1  a r t i c l e q u a l i f i e d my o p i n i o n a l i t t l e .  Always b e f o r e  I thought o f t h e  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency as l o o k i n g a f t e r a lower segment o f the community you know, d e s e r t e d  f a m i l i e s and t h a t s o r t o f t h i n g .  People who c a n ' t manage  t h e i r own a f f a i r s . The  man on t h e t e l e p h o n e ,  t o o , gave me a d i f f e r e n t s l a n t when he t o l d  me about f e e s , t r a i n i n g and so on.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , I took i t f o r g r a n t e d  that  I would be seen by a q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n - e i t h e r a s o c i a l worker o r a p s y c h o l o g i s t . I d i d n ' t know what would be i n v o l v e d i n g e t t i n g h e l p ; I would l e a v e t h a t up t o the p e r s o n I saw t o arrange what was b e s t under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s . . couldn't  I f ,1  f i n d o u t what I wanted t o know from you people,. maybe you c o u l d r e f e r  me t o someone who c o u l d h e l p . Somehow I thought they wouldn't.  Do p s y c h i a t r i s t s handle t h i s s o r t o f t h i n g ? I would t h i n k a marriage c o u n s e l l o r would be  best. My own i d e a i s t h a t i f you had a s t r o n g c h u r c h a f f i l i a t i o n be. t h e r e a l l y l o g i c a l p l a c e t o go - o r your own f a m i l y d o c t o r . no s t r o n g c h u r c h c o n n e c t i o n and o u r d o c t o r i s a p e r s o n a l f r i e n d .  t h a t would But we have Parents a r e  bound t o be b i a s e d , and i t would be j u s t as w e l l they d i d n ' t know you were having  trouble.  -  It improved  was  63  the w a i t i n g l i s t  a little.  Anyway, my  -  t h a t r e a l l y put me  i f b o t h o f us weren't i n v o l v e d .  shown some c o n c e r n . still  on the l i s t ;  I c o u l d n ' t see where i t would h e l p  Anyway, i f you people had been i n t e r e s t e d i n Even a q u i c k phone c a l l once a month would have  A l l t h a t was we haven't  And t h e n , t h i n g s  husband r e f u s e d t o go; he s a y s he's t o o ego-  t i s t i c a l t o t e l l h i s problems t o anyone.  me you would have c a l l e d me.  off.  needed was  f o r g o t t e n you.'  something  like,  'Your name i s  Would t h a t be too much t o  expect? Or even one i n t e r v i e w . I mean? - my  The  telephone i s i m p o s s i b l e .  c o n c e p t i o n s about your agency are vague.  anyway, p r o b a b l y have j u s t as vague i d e a s .  Other people - l i k e  And i t was  ask f o r h e l p , e s p e c i a l l y from a p l a c e I wasn't s u r e o f . talked to s a i d ,  You see what  v e r y h a r d f o r me  me,  to  When the person I  ' I f you're c o n s i d e r i n g d i v o r c e , c a l l us, and w e ' l l t r y t o f i t  you i n . '  you can imagine how  I felt.  supposed  t o p r e v e n t d i v o r c e , n o t w a i t f o r i t t o happen. When the woman c a l l e d me  coming i n f o r an appointment.  I thought marriage c o u n s e l l o r s were  f o u r m o n t h s . l a t e r she was  I was  embarrassed  i n s i s t e n t about  my  t h a t I wasn't as i n t e r e s t e d  as she' was." Implications. Mrs. I . i s a U n i v e r s i t y graduate; h e r husband, a l s o a U n i v e r s i t y graduate, i s a s t r u g g l i n g s a l e s e x e c u t i v e .  T h e i r home i s a r e l a t i v e l y  one i n a h i g h - t a x a r e a o f s e t t l e d , m i d d l e - c l a s s homes.  I t i s excellently~„k§pt  up on the o u t s i d e ; i n s i d e , the f u r n i t u r e i s i n q u i e t , good t a s t e and  expensive.  There a r e no c u r t a i n s on the windows, however, and no r u g s , so i t might s u s p e c t e d t h a t the L's are the k i n d o f young c o u p l e who  new  p r e f e r t o wait  be until  they can buy what they c o n s i d e r s u i t a b l e r a t h e r than t o lower t h e i r s t a n d a r d s . Mrs. I . gave the i m p r e s s i o n d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w o f a c o n t r o l l e d young woman who  would f i n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o express f e e l i n g .  a c c e p t e d the w a i t i n g l i s t to  without c o m p l a i n t , and w a i t e d , w i t h apparent  be c a l l e d when h e r t u r n came, when the caseworker  because  Although she  I wasn't as i n t e r e s t e d as she was."  c a l l e d she was  docility,  "embarrassed  Her l a c k o f i n t e r e s t was  a c o n t r o l l e d , h o s t i l e r e a c t i o n t o what she c o n s i d e r e d e v i d e n c e o f the l a c k of i n t e r e s t i n her.  had  clearly agency's  -  It in  -  6k  would seem v a l i d to say  t h a t she had, overcome a number o f  making the o r i g i n a l c a l l - namely, her  had  r e a d , t h a t s o c i a l work was  f e e l i n g o f shame and  f e e l i n g , i n s p i t e o f the a r t i c l e  f o r a "lower segment o f the  b e l i t t l e m e n t i n h a v i n g t o ask  w i t h such an i n t i m a t e  obstacles  community", and  f o r help at a l l ,  t h i n g as the marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p , i n which she,  about and  therefore  p r o f e s s i o n a l l y competent but used t o t e n d i n g  t o the  mistrusted,  whom she  probably s t i l l  "rubby dubs" o f the  Throughout the i n t e r v i e w she  to a p e r s o n who  might  a  operation  emotionally  be  community.  i n d i c a t e d t e n t a t i v e l y t h a t the  upset f o r the p a s t s i x months and  i n the month t o come.  she  thought o f as b e i n g more  marital  problems were s t i l l s e r i o u s , t h a t her husband had b;een i l l , . i r r i t a b l e apparently  her  especially  c o n t r o l l e d , proud p e r s o n , would have t o f u r t h e r r e v e a l h e r s e l f i n a p l a c e knew v e r y l i t t l e  she  was  and  f a c i n g a major  Both were v e r y w o r r i e d about t h e i r f i n a n c i a l  situation.  There i s i n c r e a s i n g evidence t h a t " f a m i l y and some s e t t i n g s have a l r e a d y  children's services i n  s h i f t e d q u i t e f a r toward a m i d d l e - c l a s s  and w i t h f u r t h e r s h i f t s i n s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , t h i s t r e n d may continue."  be  clientele,  expected t o  1  Although the a u t h o r s quoted above query whether s o c i a l c l a s s b a r r i e r s will  tend t o c r e a t e  d i f f i c u l t i e s between the s o c i a l worker, who  a t t a i n e d newly-won m i d d l e - c l a s s  s t a t u s , and  may  have  the c l i e n t o f h i g h e r or e q u a l  background, they answer t h e i r query by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s o c i a l workers perhaps more s o p h i s t i c a t e d than they used t o be and,  i n general,  are  minimize  p o s s i b l e d i f f i c u l t i e s on t h i s b a s i s . It  i s not  contributed  p o s s i b l e to prove whether o r not s o c i a l c l a s s b a r r i e r s  to the l o s s o f e i t h e r o f t h e s e a p p l i c a n t s ; i t i s o n l y p o s s i b l e  suggest t h a t l a c k o f communication and caseworker was  the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g between a p p l i c a n t  e s s e n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r , and  and  that s o c i a l class  Wilensky, H a r o l d L., and Lebeaux,Charles N., I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , New York, E u s s e l l ' S a g e F o u n d a t i o n , 1958, p. 171.  to  -  b a r r i e r s may  65  have i n c r e a s e d t h i s  -  lack.  Both Mrs. H. and Mrs. I . found i t extremely hard t o ask f o r h e l p . Each h e l d a s e l f - i m a g e o f competence t o handle t h e i r own But underneath,  a f f a i r s and  to  control feeling.  in  the p r e v e n t i v e sense, than had e i t h e r Mr. D. o r Mrs. E., who  immediate p r i o r i t y , but who  ability  each had an unexpressed need more u r g e n t , each r e c e i v e d  were e s s e n t i a l l y u n t r e a t a b l e , except over a l o n g -  term p e r i o d and w i t h d o u b t f u l p r o g n o s i s . Because b o t h Mrs. H. and Mrs. I . were o b v i o u s l y i n t e l l i g e n t , a b l e t o v e r b a l i z e c l e a r l y , and unable t o admit  the degree o f t h e i r a n x i e t y , i t was  assumed t h a t they c o u l d w a i t more c o m f o r t a b l y and t o l e r a t e t h e i r problems b e t t e r . T h i s was  probably t r u e .  Both are s t i l l  w i t h them, a f t e r a f a s h i o n .  t o l e r a t i n g t h e i r problems and c o p i n g  N e i t h e r has sought h e l p elsewhere.  But they  c o u l d have been h e l p e d . Mrs. H. s a i d t h a t she hoped she had n o t been too much t r o u b l e and  she  guessed she had expected too much; the agency saw h e r as ambivalent and u n c e r t a i n . Mrs. I . s t a t e d , ' somewhat a c i d l y , t h a t she thought marriage c o u n s e l l o r s were supposed  t o p r e v e n t d i v o r c e , not w a i t f o r i t t o happen; the agency saw her as a  p e r s o n who  was  "embarrassed"  by h e r c a l l and whose problems were s o l v e d .  Mrs. H. hoped t o be c o n s i d e r e d "unique and o r i g i n a l " ; Mrs. I . thought, "If  you people were i n t e r e s t e d i n me you would have c a l l e d me."  Both, i n  e f f e c t , wanted t o be t o l d t h a t they were important enough not t o have been forgotten. I n t e l l i g e n c e and s o c i a l s t a t u s may  succeed i n d i s g u i s i n g the urgent  need f o r empathy and u n d e r s t a n d i n g between a p p l i c a n t and caseworker, is  still  there.  but i t  What b o t h these a p p l i c a n t s s a i d about t h e i r r e a l need, and  what they r e a l l y hoped t o have u n d e r s t o o d about them and f o r them, e s s e n t i a l l y at variance.  was  -  66 -  GROUP I I I : Negative  (1)  Mrs.  Transference.  J.  Mrs. J . t e l e p h o n e d the agency s t a t i n g "my Her husband d i d not understand  problem i n v o l v e d c h i l d r e n " .  or get a l o n g w i t h her daughters  marriage  and she f e l t she needed h e l p t o handle  ively.  Although she was  She  of a previous  the s i t u a t i o n more c o n s t r u c t -  t o l d about t h e w a i t i n g l i s t  appointment i n s i d e t e n days.  •  she was  c a l l e d about an  c a n c e l l e d t h i s appointment on the b a s i s o f  h e r husband's u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o come.  The  case was  thereupon  closed.  Four  months l a t e r she c a l l e d a g a i n a s k i n g f o r an immediate appointment as her husband was  now  w i l l i n g t o be seen, but a g a i n c a n c e l l e d the appointment she was  because her husband had changed h i s mind and the " s i t u a t i o n had  given  improved".  A p p l i c a n t ' s View. "This"problem t e n s e , w i t h me what'to do.  between my  husband and the g i r l s b u i l t up u n t i l I was  b e i n g always i n the middle between them, t h a t I d i d n ' t know I phoned Mr...., the marriage  the phone book.  counsellor.  I l o o k e d him up i n  He suggested F a m i l y S e r v i c e , a f t e r I'd seen him  because you people had more e x p e r i e n c e w i t h c h i l d r e n . when he s a i d I had  " I was  was  j u s t the  'Welfare'.  as the  'Family C o u n s e l l i n g " . 'Welfare'.  sure d i s a p p o i n t e d  I always  thought  You know, a s e r v i c e t o h e l p someone out i n o t h e r  ways than j u s t c o u n s e l l i n g - w i t h money, I suppose. place  j u s t once,  t o go somewhere e l s e .  I'd never heard o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency b e f o r e . it  so  You ought t o c a l l  your  I would expect most people t h i n k of F a m i l y S e r v i c e  Even the words 'Agency' and  ' S e r v i c e ' have t h a t i n them f o r  me. I was  p r e p a r e d t o pay $5.00 an i n t e r v i e w .  That's what I p a i d Mr  and I assumed i t would be the same. \  I wanted t o t a l k to someone, t o see i f he c o u l d e x p l a i n t o my how  t o get a l o n g w i t h the g i r l s .  have gone, t o o , i f i t was  The  necessary.  g i r l s knew I was  husband  going and they would  - • 6? -  I hoped i t would be someone who was m a r r i e d . would have no p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e . six  An unmarried  person  I went t o another p l a c e once,  about  o r seven y e a r s ago, j u s t when my f i r s t marriage was b r e a k i n g up.  M i s s somebody-or-other saw us and i t was worse t h a n u s e l e s s . s e e i n g us t o g e t h e r she saw u s b o t h s e p a r a t e l y . me a n o t h e r .  A  Instead o f  She t o l d him one t h i n g and  A l l i t d i d was make t h i n g s worse.  We never went back.  Of  c o u r s e , t h i n g s were p r e t t y f a r gone, then; maybe nobody c o u l d have done anything.  At t h e same time I t h i n k someone who was m a r r i e d would have  been b e t t e r .  A m a r r i e d p e r s o n would have known b e t t e r t h a n t o s e e us  s e p a r a t e l y when we were h a v i n g so much t r o u b l e anyway. I d i d n ' t know i t was your p l a c e I went t o t h a t time.. Broadway t h e n and had a d i f f e r e n t name, d i d n ' t i t ?  I t was down on  Perhaps i f I ' d known  i t was the same p l a c e I wouldn't have c a l l e d t h i s time - c o n s i d e r i n g t h a t o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e I had.. I d i d n ' t know t h e r e would be s o c i a l workers. known i t would be some k i n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l .  I guess I must have  I l i s t e n t o t h a t program 'For  B e t t e r o r F o r Worse' on TV and t h e man on t h a t i s t h e head marriage for  Los Angeles.  I t h i n k he's a p s y c h o l o g i s t o r something.  s o c i a l workers and p s y c h o l o g i s t s were much t h e same. have t o have a U n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e .  counsellor  I thought  I mean, they would  T h a t ' s a l l t h a t would be n e c e s s a r y .  I f y o u want t o g e t your s e r v i c e b e t t e r known you ought t o use TV. Who r e a d s t h e s e  days?  The t h i n g t h a t put me o f f was the w a i t i n g l i s t . problem y o u want t o do something  When you have a  about i t now, n o t a month from now.  I  thought i t was u r g e n t ; they d i d n ' t seem t o .  in  a week and then t h e y d i d n ' t .  I mean,  They s a i d t h e y would phone  When they f i n a l l y d i d c a l l ,  I'd t a l k e d i t  o v e r w i t h my husband and he r e f u s e d t o go, s o I j u s t t o l d them t h a t . d i d n ' t s e e where i t would do much good i f he wouldn't c o o p e r a t e .  I ,,  Do y o u  t h i n k t h e y might send someone up t o see my husband? I f y o u want t o know t h e t r o t h , . I j u s t don't know whether F a m i l y S e r v i c e would be a h e l p f u l p l a c e o r n o t . books.  I'm t h i n k i n g ' o f b u y i n g some o f D r . L.'s  He a d v e r t i s e s them on TV and they sound l i k e they might be more"  h e l p f u l t o me t h a n y o u r p l a c e . "  - 68 -  Implications. I n a l l , M r s . J . made two a p p l i c a t i o n s t o the agency and the agency made one attempt t o draw h e r i n t o s e r v i c e . s e r v i c e a t every  I t was c l e a r l y she who d e c l i n e d  point.  Her s t r u g g l e over acceptance o f s e r v i c e seems t o have had s e v e r a l elements i n i t - f e a r o f p e r s o n a l i n v o l v e m e n t , f e e l i n g s about t h e " W e l f a r e " s i n c e t h i s i s c l e a r l y a woman who - i s s t r i v i n g upward, a need t o r a t i o n a l i z e t h a t t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s a r e e n t i r e l y t h e husband's f a u l t .  But perhaps t h e  most dominant-element which c o n t r i b u t e d t o h e r f a i l u r e t o use t h e s e r v i c e was the n e g a t i v e  t r a n s f e r e n c e which was a p p a r e n t l y  c o n t a c t w i t h t h e agency.  enhanced d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s  I t might be n o t e d t h a t she appeared more  comfortable  w i t h t h e m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l o r she f i r s t went t o , who was male and i n whom she o b v i o u s l y had more c o n f i d e n c e  than i n a female s o c i a l worker.  Although she  s t a t e d she would have p r e f e r r e d a m a r r i e d woman d u r i n g h e r f i r s t  contact,  later  d u r i n g t h e i n t e r v i e w she mentioned a "he" as b e i n g someone she c o u l d t a l k t o . She  was f a i r l y c e r t a i n t h a t D r . L . ' s TV marriage c o u n s e l l i n g would be more  h e l p t o h e r than t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  Not o n l y was he a man b u t s o  remote t h a t she c o u l d escape i n v o l v i n g h e r s e l f i n a h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p . A l t h o u g h t h e r e was no r e c o r d o f Mrs. J . ' s p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e agency i t seems more than p o s s i b l e t h a t she had one, s i n c e t h e agency was s i t u a t e d on Broadway a t t h e time she mentioned and:was s t i l l Family  c a l l e d "The  Welfare Bureau". To add f u r t h e r weight t o t h e i d e a o f n e g a t i v e  t r a n s f e r e n c e , Mrs. J .  " f o r g o t " t h a t t h e i n t e r v i e w e r was coming, s t i l l had h e r h a i r i n c u r l e r s , although  i t was l a t e a f t e r n o o n , and a l t h o u g h  turn i t o f f during the interview.  she t u r n e d t h e TV down, d i d n o t  Her response t o t h e i n t e r v i e w e r was b o t h  v e r b a l l y and n o n - v e r b a l l y n e g a t i v e , b u t without (2)  hostility.  M r s . K. Mrs.  K., a 30 y e a r o l d d e n t a l a s s i s t a n t , i n t h e p r o c e s s  d i v o r c e from h e r second husband, telephoned old  overt  s o n who was a b e h a v i o u r problem.  h e r own a t t i t u d e t h a t she needed h e l p .  of securing a  t o a s k f o r h e l p w i t h h e r two y e a r  She s a i d she r e a l i z e d t h a t i t was w i t h Mrs. K. was g i v e n p r i o r i t y because  - 69 -  of  "a young c h i l d m a n i f e s t i n g symptoms s u g g e s t i n g b e g i n n i n g d i s t u r b a n c e .  Mother sounds u p s e t . " She was for  seen one week a f t e r the t e l e p h o n e c a l l , but d i d not r e t u r n  f u r t h e r i n t e r v i e w s a l t h o u g h the worker had d i s c u s s e d c o n t i n u a n c e  h e r a t some l e n g t h and had t o l d her "how was  with  g l a d we were t o see someone  who  so w e l l m o t i v a t e d t o do something about h e r problems." A p p l i c a n t ' s View. "When they t o l d me  a t the C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c about the F a m i l y S e r v i c e  Agency I went a l o n g w i t h i t . weren't i n t e r e s t e d i n Roy;  But what I expected wasn't what I g o t .  they c o n c e n t r a t e d on me.  Oh,  They  the s o c i a l worker  was  a good l i s t e n e r , a l l r i g h t , but I d i d n ' t have any c o n f i d e n c e i n h e r . What I thought discipline.  She  I would get was  a d v i c e and i m p a r t i a l i d e a s about  d i d n ' t s a y much, but somehow h e r a t t i t u d e i m p l i e d t h a t  Roy's problems were a l l my  fault.  I went out o f t h e r e so mixed up  f r i g h t e n e d and c o n f u s e d t h a t I d i d n ' t know what t o do. and phoned my s t a t e I was  doctor.  in.  That was  on what a mess I was  v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n me  to  a house I own a l l what was  one  j u s t what I needed - somebody t o s t o p c o n c e n t r a t -  and t e l l me  what I c o u l d do.  s t r a i g h t when I'm  He's  always been  I t r u s t him i m p l i c i t l y .  i n the wrong but somehow I  Most o f my  t e r r i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p with her.  She's the most domineering  woman you e v e r met.  E v e r y t h i n g I do i s wrong.  He's don't"  Perhaps problems,  We never got a l o n g She's s t i l l  wrong w i t h ' u s .  They s u r e t o l d h e r where t o g e t o f f .  good t h a t made me  trying  I l i v e with three other g i r l s i n  and she came o v e r t h e r e the o t h e r day and t r i e d t o t e l l  wouldn't b e l i e v e how l i k e that.  c u t t h i s out and s i t down and take  I've never g o t t e n a l o n g w i t h my mother;  r u n me.  f u r i o u s about t h e  i f I would have f e l t b e t t e r i f I'd seen a man.  I suppose, come from my ever.  He was  I went r i g h t home  him.  You ask me I would.  'Now,  - as a p e r s o n , I mean.  v e r y abrupt and t e l l s me mind i t from  me r i g h t away.  He j u s t s a i d ,  things at a time.' ing  He saw  and  us You  f e e l , t o get s u p p o r t a g a i n s t h e r  - 70  A l l my l i f e  I've t r i e d t o r e b e l a g a i n s t h e r .  Now she's g o t one o f  my c h i l d r e n and I don't know what t o do about i t .  She's t r y i n g t o dominate  .him j u s t t h e way she d i d me, and my f a t h e r j u s t s i t s around and l e t s h e r do it.  I've g o t t o g e t my boy o u t o f t h e r e b u t I s i m p l y c a n ' t a f f o r d t o keep  him w i t h me - I o n l y seem t o be a b l e t o make p l a n s f o r one, w i t h t h e money I get.  My husband doesn't even see t h e c h i l d r e n ,  l e t a l o n e g i v e me any  support. I t r y t o p u t up a good f r o n t  and cope w i t h t h i n g s t h e b e s t way I know  how, b u t I s u r e c o u l d have used some h e l p back t h e n . h a n d l e d me was v e r y poor. Really, hated h e r .  I don't know what i t was.  B u t t h e way t h a t woman I j u s t hated h e r .  I would never go back f o r a n y t h i n g i n t h e w o r l d .  It  wasn't s o much what she s a i d o r d i d , i t was t h e way I f e l t about h e r . seemed away up t h e r e and me down h e r e . our heads t o g e t h e r about my problems,  She  I thought maybe we c o u l d have p u t s o r t o f l i k e c o n t e m p o r a r i e s , b u t she was  so i m p e r s o n a l , and I d i d n ' t have t h e f e e l i n g t h a t she was any s u p p o r t t o me, o r u n d e r s t o o d how d e p r e s s e d and c o n f u s e d and f r i g h t e n e d I was, and how t e r r i f i e d o f f i n d i n g o u t t h e y were my problems. my problems,  Oh, I knew they r e a l l y were  n o t Roy's; I suppose most people.do know, underneath,, and a r e  scared t o death t o f i n d out.  But i t was t o o soon.  was j u s t i n p i e c e s when I g o t t o t h e d o c t o r .  I c o u l d n ' t take i t .  That woman was r i g h t , y o u know.  And maybe I was s p u r r e d on t o t h i n k and do something, back t h e r e a g a i n , i f y o u gave me a m i l l i o n I don't have any s p e c i a l  feelings  known q u i t e a few, as a matter o f f a c t . f i x e d by d i f f e r e n t  I  b u t I would never go  dollars.  o r i d e a s about s o c i a l workers.  I've  They've come i n t o g e t t h e i r t e e t h  d e n t i s t s I've worked f o r .  I n t h e j o b I have now we g e t  a l o t o f s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s and I've heard them speak o f "my s o c i a l worker".  They seem t o t h i n k t h e y ' r e a l l r i g h t .  I ' d h a t e t o be one m y s e l f .  Too much m i s e r y . I don't remember whether I knew I ' d be s e e i n g a s o c i a l worker, o r n o t . Anyway, t h e e x p e r i e n c e I had a t your p l a c e d i d n ' t have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h t h e -  woman I. saw b e i n g a s o c i a l worker.  I t was j u s t a p e r s o n a l t h i n g on my p a r t  and t h e f e e l i n g I had about h e r a s a p e r s o n . I still  f e e l t h e C l i n i c c o u l d have h e l p e d me b e t t e r .  t h e r e a r e s o c i a l workers t h e r e , too?  Don't t e l l me  I thought i t was a m e d i c a l  clinic."  Implications, Two t h i n g s seem t o s t a n d o u t c l e a r l y here - a n e g a t i v e t r a n s f e r e n c e r e a c t i o n *completely u n r e c o g n i z e d by the caseworker and an almost t o t a l l a c k o f . r e a l communication between caseworker and a p p l i c a n t .  The caseworker  was g l a d Mrs. K. was "so w e l l m o t i v a t e d t o do something about h e r problems"; Mrs, K. was so p a n i c k e d by t h e thought, so "mixed-up, f r i g h t e n e d and c o n f u s e d " t h a t she t u r n e d immediately t o h e r f a m i l y d o c t o r f o r comfort and s u p p o r t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e n e g a t i v e t r a n s f e r e n c e elements c o u l d n o t have been s e p a r a t e d h e r e from the way i n which Mrs, K. used the caseworker s i n c e it  c o u l d be s u s p e c t e d t h a t she t u r n e d away from t h e caseworker toward t h e  d o c t o r i n t h e same way a s , i n h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r p a r e n t s , she t u r n e d away from t h e h o s t i l e , d o m i n e e r i n g mother t o t h e more p a s s i v e , b u t h o p e f u l l y comforting f a t h e r . However, t h e caseworker c l a r i f i e d h e r own p e r c e p t i o n s and e x p e c t a t i o n s o f Mrs. K. t o h e r own s a t i s f a c t i o n ; she was l o o k i n g f o r w a r d t o working i n a r e w a r d i n g way w i t h a h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d , i n t e l l i g e n t c l i e n t .  "But t h e caseworker  does n o t have a c l i e n t , whether a t i n t a k e o r l a t e r , u n t i l he and the a p p l i c a n t have come t o some r u d i m e n t a r y agreements another and t o t h e problem.""*"  about t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one  The caseworker and a p p l i c a n t had, i n t h i s  i n t e r v i e w , two e n t i r e l y opposing views o f " t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one a n o t h e r " , and a l t h o u g h t h e i r views o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g problem might have merged l a t e r , it  was i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e a p p l i c a n t t o c o n t a i n t h i s view, so e a r l y , w i t h o u t  a r e a c t i o n o f p a n i c and r e b e l l i o n , s i n c e i t p l a y e d r i g h t i n t o and i n c r e a s e d h e r n e g a t i v e t r a n s f e r e n c e t o the caseworker.  Perlman, op. c i t . ,  p . 17^.  -12 (3)  Mrs. L .  —  .  Mrs. L . i s a 21  y e a r o l d woman who  has been-married  f o r a y e a r and  h a l f , has one 9 month o l d c h i l d and i s e x p e c t i n g a n o t h e r .  a  Her husband i s  t h i r t y , a p a r t n e r i n a b u s i n e s s , and t h i s i s h i s t h i r d m a r r i a g e .  He  has  p r e v i o u s l y been i n t r o u b l e w i t h the law, but the c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u r r o u n d i n g t h i s .are n o t known.  The c o u p l e are o f d i f f e r e n t r e l i g i o n s and t h i s i s a  source o f c o n t e n t i o n . area.  They l i v e i n a new  F u r n i s h i n g s a r e i n good t a s t e and  apartment b l o c k i n a h i g h r e n t expensive.  Mrs. L . c a l l e d the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency s t a t i n g t h a t she and  her  husband " c a n ' t t a l k t h i n g s o v e r . "  She was  t o a c c e p t i t ; b u t when a l e t t e r was  s e n t t o h e r t h r e e months l a t e r , she d i d n o t  reply.  The case was  t o l d o f the w a i t i n g l i s t ,  appeared  c l o s e d as " c l i e n t u n w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e " .  A p p l i c a n t ' s View. "We  began t o have problems r i g h t from the time we were m a r r i e d .  he s t a r t e d t o b e a t me  up I thought  i t was  time t o g e t h e l p .  I'd h e a r d o f  the Welfare a l o n g time ago, b u t I c a n ' t remember where I heard; t h i n g I d i d a f t e r he beat me up was pages.  When  The  first  t o l o o k up F a m i l y C o u r t i n the y e l l o w  The woman I t a l k e d t o t o l d me  about the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  thought t h e y were a l l p a r t o f the same Welfare - perhaps  different  I  departments.  I don't t h i n k I e v e r heard o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency by i t s e l f - I mean, s e p a r a t e d from the W e l f a r e . f r i e n d s who  went, o r  The name was  f a m i l i a r , though.  Maybe I had  something.  I would r a t h e r have gone t o a r e g u l a r marriage c o u n s e l l o r . l i k e t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t a k i n g c h a r i t y .  I mean, we're n o t e x a c t l y  a c t u a l l y we're p r e t t y broke a t the moment because my going very w e l l , but a f t e r a l l , are r e a l l y  I don't rich;  husband's b u s i n e s s i s n ' t  I've n e v e r gone w i t h o u t a n y t h i n g , and my  parents  well-off.  I knew t h e r e would be s o c i a l workers t h e r e and s o c i a l workers mean c h a r i t y , t o me.  I was  s u r p r i s e d t o hear they d i d marriage  Anyway, I needed h e l p and something it  was  counselling.  was b e t t e r than n o t h i n g ,  a k i n d o f s e c o n d - c l a s s s e r v i c e as f a r as I was  concerned.  I mean,. I didn't  - 73 -  know you c o u l d pay f e e s . or  I don't know i f they would have made any d i f f e r e n c e  n o t , I mean I don't remember a n y t h i n g about f e e s b e i n g mentioned.  I was  i n no mood f o r " d e t a i l s .  Now  Anyway,  t h a t I t h i n k about i t , though, a t h i n g t h a t ' s  f r e e i s n ' t u s u a l l y worth much, i s i t ? I f you want t o know what I r e a l l y t h i n k o f s o c i a l workers - I t h i n k t h e y ' r e a bunch o f c r e e p s . out  They remind me  of missionaries.  Like a minister going  t o t h e house and t a l k i n g t o you, k i n d o f s a v i n g you from s i n .  p e o p l e I knew i n s c h o o l who S a l v a t i o n Army t y p e s .  I mean the  thought o f g o i n g i n t o s o c i a l work were r e a l c r e e p s .  S o c i a l workers t e l l you what t o do.  I don't mind  c o n s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , but I don't t h i n k e v e r y t h i n g i s always my I guess my i d e a s about s o c i a l workers a r e n ' t v e r y c l e a r . t h i n k t h e y ' r e f o r poor people who if  I met  One  way  I  c a n ' t a f f o r d a n y t h i n g b e t t e r ; another way  one a t a p a r t y I'd s t e e r c l e a r - t h e y ' d p r o b a b l y s t a r t t o a n a l y z e  The main t h i n g t h e y s t u d y a t U n i v e r s i t y i s p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , i s n ' t (At  fault,  first,  me.  it?"  when asked i f she had ever been i n touch w i t h a s o c i a l  b e f o r e , Mrs. L , d e n i e d i t vehemently.  -  A f t e r she had r e l e a s e d a l l  worker  this  h o s t i l i t y , however, she became s l i g h t l y l e s s n e g a t i v e and more r e l a x e d . ) "Now, when I was  I remember. fourteen.  k e p t s a y i n g , "My  My mother, got a s o c i a l worker t o come and see me She was  awful.  She earner i n  a b i g government c a r .  p l a c e , r i g h t i n f r o n t o f me.  friends.  g o i n g t o get me  my  A d v i c e a l l over the  My mother j u s t thought I was g e t t i n g i n w i t h the  wrong crowd and wanted t h i s s o c i a l worker t o g e t me out o f i t , I g u e s s .  was  She  daughter would n e v e r do t h i s o r t h a t , " and she k e p t . t e l l i n g  mother she ought t o meet the mothers o f my g i r l  i f anybody was  once  out i t wasn't t h a t s o c i a l worker.  But  A l l she d i d  t e l l me what t o do. I agree t h a t e x p e r i e n c e d i d n ' t make me t o o c r a z y about g o i n g t o t h e  F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  I guess, now you mention i t , I had a l o t o f these  f e e l i n g s about s o c i a l workers.  Funny, I'd f o r g o t t e n a l l about t h a t u n t i l  I:guess I knew s o c i a l workers were t r a i n e d , b u t t h i s wouldn't fit  them f o r m a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l i n g .  now.  necessarily  I t h i n k o f p s y c h i a t r i s t s , marriage  c o u n s e l l o r s and s o c i a l workers a l l as a k i n d o f a group, but I never t h i n k o f s o c i a l workers as marriage c o u n s e l l o r s .  They're more l i k e l y t o do e v e r y t h i n g  -  a l l mixed up t o g e t h e r . the marriage  M a r r i a g e c o u n s e l l o r s would have s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n  wants t o ask f o r h e l p ?  E s p e c i a l l y over the t e l e p h o n e .  disembodied. across,  I t ' s h a r d t o ask f o r  I hate t e l e p h o n e s , t h e y ' r e s o r t o f  either.  disappointed.  t o l d me  I was  about the w a i t i n g l i s t  problems t h a n mine. asked me  know how  I r e a l l y wasn't v e r y  u p s e t , a l l r i g h t , but i t wasn't as i f my husband was  dope a d d i c t , o r something.  The man  Nobody.  You don't get y o u r s e l f a c r o s s and the o t h e r person doesn't get  When t h a t man  to  -  field.  And b e s i d e s , who help.  7h  How  a  I mean, I guess a l o t o f p e o p l e have more u r g e n t do they f i g u r e out who's got an urgent problem?  i f i t was  urgent.  urgent my problem  Who  am I t o say?  He's  the one who  i s compared t o o t h e r p e o p l e s ' .  So I s a i d  I guess i f I'd h o l l e r e d l o u d enough, maybe they would have seen me. didn't f e e l l i k e h o l l e r i n g .  I see now  why  I didn't.  ought no.  But  I  I had a l l these  f e e l i n g s about s o c i a l workers anyway and I guess I wasn't a l l t h a t anxious t o ask one o f them f o r h e l p . A f t e r t h a t we went t o a lawyer and s e p a r a t e d f o r two weeks. my  husband i n t o a g r e e i n g t o go t o a marriage c o u n s e l l o r - a man  He was to are,  a l lright.  t h i n k i t was  At l e a s t he s a i d he'd  a l l my  fault.  see my  He  talked  i n Burnaby.  husband, t o o , and d i d n ' t seem  But my husband wouldn't go, so here we  still  back t o g e t h e r a g a i n , i n the same mess we were i n ; i n - t h e f i r s t p l a c e .  I guess I ought  t o phone you people a g a i n . "  Implications. The ambivalence are  both obvious here.  about s e e k i n g h e l p , the u n d e r l y i n g n e g a t i v e t r a n s f e r e n c e , However, once these f a c e t s had been e x p l a i n e d somewhat,  Mrs. L . used t h e l a t t e r p a r t o f the time as a casework i n t e r v i e w .  She  d i s c u s s e d h e r marriage problems q u i t e f r e e l y , f r e q u e n t l y but t e n t a t i v e l y h e r "good" r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h e r mother. she had f i r s t  L a t e r , when p u r p o s e f u l l y asked where  thought o f g o i n g f o r h e l p she s a i d , "To my mother", and  s p o n t a n e o u s l y s a i d , " I guess t h a t ' s p r o b a b l y where my main problem mother's always own  t o l d me what t o do.  mentioned  E v e r y time I've done something  t h a t she's warned me n o t t o do, she's t u r n e d out t o be r i g h t .  then  is. on Like  My my my  - 75 -  marriage.  She  c o u l d n ' t have been more r i g h t , i n a way.  h e r the s a t i s f a c t i o n .  I'm  But I hate t o g i v e  s c a r e d t h a t ' s what w i l l happen i f I g e t i n v o l v e d  w i t h a s o c i a l worker, l i k e the one who  came t o see me  before."  I t would seem, from t h i s a d m i t t e d l y i n c o n c l u s i v e i n t e r v i e w , t h a t i t might have been a v e r y d i f f i c u l t t a s k to h e l p Mrs. L, intoa p o s i t i v e 1  w i t h a caseworker, e s p e c i a l l y a female one;  relationship  and then o n l y i f i t had  p o s s i b l e t o g i v e e a r l y r e c o g n i t i o n t o the ambivalence,  been  r e s i s t a n c e and under-  l y i n g n e g a t i v e t r a n s f e r e n c e which u n d e r g i r d e d h e r u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o go beyond the f i r s t c a l l to the agency. c o u l d be  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o envisage how  f u l l y taken i n t o account  telephone  interview,  Mrs, L.'s  and s u c c e s s f u l l y handled  these  i n one  factors  brief  f e e l i n g s about a s k i n g f o r h e l p a t a l l were so  bound up w i t h her n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s about " c h a r i t y " , s o c i a l workers,  and  unexpressed h o s t i l i t y toward h e r mother, a l l o f which had been r e i n f o r c e d by h e r e a r l i e r n e g a t i v e c o n t a c t w i t h a s o c i a l worker, t h a t her e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e a t the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency were not o n l y u n r e a l i s t i c but almost  totally subjective.  Even the f a c t , as she was first  l a t e r a b l e t o "remember", t h a t she had gone  t o F a m i l y Court f o r h e l p not because she thought  p l a c e , but o n l y because her mother t o l d h e r t o , was diagnostic  o f i t as a h e l p f u l  an extremely  important  fact.  I t appeared q u i t e c l e a r t h a t the e l i c i t i n g o f these f a c t s o f r e f e r r a l s o u r c e , r o u t e to the agency, s u b j e c t i v e and u n r e a l i s t i c knowledge o f the agency and i t s s o c i a l work s t a f f , c o u l d q u i t e p r o f i t a b l y have been used b o t h as d i a g n o s t i c and treatment  t o o l s , i n themselves.  I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n i t would  be i m p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s m o t i v a t i o n o r t r e a t a b i l i t y without  first  clarifying  w i t h Mrs. L . h e r p r e s e n t and p a s t f e e l i n g s about the " W e l f a r e " and s o c i a l workers. Even i f t h e r e were no w a i t i n g l i s t and i t had been p o s s i b l e t o see Mrs. immediately,  i t i s d o u b t f u l i f she c o u l d have been transformed  L.  into a client  r a t h e r t h a n an a p p l i c a n t u n l e s s these b a r r i e r s c o u l d have been overcome. C e r t a i n l y the b a r r i e r s t o h e r c o n s t r u c t i v e use o f the s e r v i c e , as w e l l as many clue's t o the n a t u r e o f her problems were c o l o u r f u l l y e x p l i c i t i n h e r d i s c l o s u r e o f the r o u t e she had she brought w i t h  her.  t r a v e l l e d t o the agency and the  expectations  - 76 -  A negative  t r a n s f e r e n c e i s , at the b e s t o f t i m e s , none too easy t o  a s s e s s ; perhaps i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  t o a s s e s s over the  telephone.  "Because the p a t i e n t ( c l i e n t ) i s d e f e n s i v e , e v a s i v e , i n w a r d l y  outraged,  and perhaps e x p r e s s i v e l y h o s t i l e , l i t t l e w i l l be a c h i e v e d u n t i l these a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s a r e r e s o l v e d . them as soon as p o s s i b l e .  t o focus  on  T h i s i s r e l a t i v e l y easy where the p a t i e n t  v e r b a l i z e s r e a d i l y or otherwise f e e l i n g s a r e n o t openly  I t i s , t h e r e f o r e , urgent  untoward  reveals himself.  Often,however, d i s t u r b e d  a p p a r e n t , and must be p e r c e i v e d from how  the p a t i e n t  t a l k s r a t h e r than from what he s a y s , or from random g e s t u r e s , mannerisms and facial  expressions." I t i s n o t by any means known whether these t h r e e a p p l i c a n t s , Mrs.  Mrs. K and Mrs.  L., c o u l d ever have been m o t i v a t e d  s e r v i c e , but i t i s i m p o s s i b l e  J.,  i n t o a use o f casework  even to a s s e s s r e a l i s t i c a l l y whether  these  a p p l i c a n t s , i n i t i a l l y non-motivated as they were, c o u l d have been h e l p e d accept  t r e a t m e n t , s i m p l y because they were never s e e n .  Not  o n l y were t h e y  n e v e r s e e n , but t h e i r a t t i t u d e toward the agency and t o s o c i a l work and a t t i t u d e toward s e e k i n g and  a c c e p t i n g h e l p was  even a minimum o f the n e g a t i v e These n e g a t i v e  to  their  n e v e r even e x p l o r e d , so t h a t  f a c t o r s c o u l d be brought i n t o the l i g h t o f  f e e l i n g s c o u l d not be e x p l o r e d , o r a c c e p t e d ,  each o f these t h r e e s i t u a t i o n s i t was  day.  because, i n  p o s s i b l e t o g i v e cognizance to what the  applicant s a i d , o n l y . Mrs.  K. s a i d t h a t i t was  the caseworker who  saw  w i t h her own  a t t i t u d e t h a t she needed h e l p ;  h e r seemed t o have assumed, because the s o - c a l l e d  " i n t a k e " had been completed over the t e l e p h o n e , client. was  The  t h a t Mrs. K. was  c o n t r a r y appears t o have been t r u e .  a reluctant applicant.  She  was  already  a  not a c l i e n t ;  she  A f u r t h e r p e r u s a l o f the case r e c o r d r e v e a l e d t h a t ,  i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t Mrs. K. b u r s t e x p l o s i v e l y i n t o t e a r s a number o f times d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w , t h e caseworker d i d not p e r c e i v e h e r p a n i c confusion.  What she s a i d seemed t o be o f more importance than what  and she  r e v e a l e d by h e r i n v o l u n t a r y t a c t i o n s .  Wolberg, Lewis R., New  York, 1954.  p.  275.  The  Technique o f Psychotherapy, Grune and S t r a t t o n ,  - 77 Mrs.  L., i n h e r i n i t i a l approach t o t h e agency s i m p l y  said, i n a  c o n t r o l l e d way, t h a t she and h e r husband c o u l d n o t t a l k t h i n g s  over.  C e r t a i n l y t h i s kind o f request  gave l i t t l e appearance o f urgency and  r e v e a l e d no t r a c e o f h o s t i l i t y  toward t h e agency o r s o c i a l workers.  This  however, i n the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w f o r t h i s  study,  h o s t i l i t y was so m a n i f e s t , t h a t i t was i n e s c a p a b l e Mrs.  from t h e v e r y s t a r t o f the i n t e r v i e w , n o t o n l y i n  L.'s words, b u t i n h e r tone o f v o i c e and i n every g e s t u r e  she made,  even b e f o r e she v e r b a l i z e d i t c o m p l e t e l y . Mrs. ively.  J . s a i d she needed h e l p t o handle h e r s i t u a t i o n more c o n s t r u c t -  But h e r e s s e n t i a l l y i n t r a c t a b l e , n e g a t i v e  f e e l i n g s toward t h e  agency and s o c i a l workers were i n e s c a p a b l y r e v e a l e d i n t h e f i r s t  interview,  making i t p l a i n t h a t what she s a i d was n o t what she meant o r f e l t a t a l l . The  experienced  caseworker i s s e n s i t i v e toward and adept a t i n t e r -  p r e t i n g s i g n s o f v e r b a l and n o n - v e r b a l appropriate.  negativism,  when t h i s appears t o be  A l t h o u g h Mrs. K. was seen i n p e r s o n , these s i g n s were n o t  p e r c e i v e d by t h e caseworker.  I f these s i g n s were n o t even p i c k e d up i n  a f a c e - t o - f a c e i n t e r v i e w , how much more d i f f i c u l t i t must be t o p e r c e i v e s u c h s i g n s w i t h a p p l i c a n t s l i k e Mrs. L . and Mrs. J . who were i n t e r v i e w e d o v e r t h e telephone  onlyI  CHAPTER FIVE PROBLEMS OF COMMUNICATION AND  T h i s study was  THE WAITING LIST  begun i n an attempt t o d i s c o v e r some f a c t s  about  the " c o n s t i t u e n c y " o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency o f G r e a t e r Vancouver - m a i n l y where and how  the p e o p l e who  asked f o r s e r v i c e heard about the agency, what  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f the agency and o f s o c i a l workers they brought w i t h them, and whether these e x p e c t a t i o n s met  the r e a l i t y o f t h e purpose  agency and i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f .  and f u n c t i o n o f the  The agency, i t s e l f , seemed c l e a r  what i t s " c o n s t i t u e n c y " ought t o be: - those people who  about  have f a m i l y problems  which, i f " t r e a t e d " i n time by the a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l casework s e r v i c e s w i l l n o t become c h r o n i c o r l e a d t o f a m i l y breakdown.  The same  c l a r i t y was n o t d i s c e r n i b l e when i t came t o what the " c o n s t i t u e n c y " a c t u a l l y was. To b e g i n w i t h , an e x a m i n a t i o n was made o f the r e f e r r a l on new  and re-opened  cases i n the y e a r  1959*  statistics  However, the method o f r e p o r t i n g  . t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s and l a c k o f p r e l i m i n a r y d e f i n i t i o n o f why  and how  these  s t a t i s t i c s were t o be kept r e v e a l e d s u c h vagueness and so many l a r g e gaps i n i n f o r m a t i o n , t h a t a p u r e l y s t a t i s t i c a l s t u d y was  found t o be u n r e v e a l i n g .  A l t h o u g h r e f e r r a l s t a t i s t i c s e x i s t e d , they were i n no way way  i n which the community was  u s i n g the agency.  The most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t appeared  t o be - i f the a v a i l a b l e  were t o be taken a t t h e i r f a c e v a l u e - t h a t more t h a n 68% - *  f o r s e r v i c e i n the 1959. or  how  came as " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s .  t h e y had heard o f the agency was  c l u e s as t o these a p p l i c a n t s * workers who  s i g n i f i c a n t o f the  statistics  o f the new  applicants  In o t h e r words, where  a c t u a l l y unknown.  Furthermore,  any  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f agency s e r v i c e , o r o f the s o c i a l  would p r o v i d e t h a t s e r v i c e , were u n a v a i l a b l e , even from the case  records.  In of  an attempt t o probe deeper i n t o what s i g n i f i c a n c e t h i s  preponderance  " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s might have f o r the agency, and, by i m p l i c a t i o n , f o r  s o c i a l work i t s e l f , o f 125  new  a t h r e e months sample was  applications for service.  chosen f o r s t u d y , c o n s i s t i n g  E i g h t y o f t h e s e were found t o be  -  " p e r s o n a l " r e f e r r a l s , and  -  79  f o r o v e r h a l f o f them t h e r e was  no r e c o r d e d  referral  data. A large majority  o f these requests  had been f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e  p o i n t i n g to the f a c t t h a t the agency's purpose and l e a s t i n name, by t h i s " c o n s t i t u e n c y " e x a m i n a t i o n o f the d a t a , i t was had  o f a l l - 28 had  discovered  r e c e i v e d l e s s than 2 in-person  person i n t e r v i e w at all."*" o f t h e s e new  o f new  applicants.  t h a t over 70$  interviews  Furthermore - and a p p l i c a n t s who  had  f u n c t i o n was  and  But  r e a l i z e d , at on  had  The  applicants  r e c e i v e d no i n -  the most s i g n i f i c a n t  a p p l i e d f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e  dropped out e i t h e r because they were " u n w i l l i n g t o c o n t i n u e " ,  continue "despite  further  o f these new  o v e r 39%  t h i s was  service,  fact  service  or d i d not  plan."  focus o f t h i s study evolved,  t h e r e f o r e , i n t o a t r i a l probe o f  the  r e a s o n s b e h i n d t h e s e d r o p - o u t s , from the a p p l i c a n t s ' p o i n t o f view, and what l i g h t , these r e a s o n s might throw on the e x p e c t a t i o n s s o c i a l work t h e s e " l o s t a p p l i c a n t s " had was  p o s s i b l e t o i n t e r v i e w o n l y 12  were e i t h e r u n a v a i l a b l e ,  brought w i t h them.  of  Unfortunately,  i t 16  o f the a p p l i c a n t s because the r e m a i n i n g  f o r various reasons, or u n w i l l i n g to p a r t i c i p a t e .  A l t h o u g h the group was  s m a l l , which meant a s c a n t y number o f  upon which to base v a l i d c o n c l u s i o n s , ated.  o f agency s e r v i c e and  opinions  a number o f s e r i o u s problems were i l l u m i n -  Keys t o s o l u t i o n s o f these problems w i l l , o f c o u r s e , need t o depend  further research, The  but some g u i d e p o s t s t o f u t u r e study are  apparent.  c e n t r a l problem r e v e a l e d by the s t u d y o f each a p p l i c a n t ' s view o f  agency and  o f i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work s t a f f , as h e l d a g a i n s t and  w i t h the agency's view o f each " l o s t a p p l i c a n t " was the view each h e l d o f the o t h e r . caseworker and communication. o t h e r w i t h the  applicant explored One  on  the  compared  the e s s e n t i a l d i v e r g e n c e  of  I n o t h e r words, i n each s i t u a t i o n between f o r t h i s study t h e r e was  a two-fold  failure  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s f a i l u r e l a y w i t h the a p p l i c a n t ,  of the  caseworker.  These f a i l u r e s o f communication seem t o have been f a i l u r e s o f o m i s s i o n r a t h e r t h a n commission, f a i l u r e s o f assumption o f f a c t r a t h e r than knowledge o f  These p e r c e n t a g e s were worked out on the b a s i s o f 7^ o r i g i n a l 80, was  s i n c e 6 cases s t i l l remained on the w a i t i n g l i s t  collected.  cases out  of  the  a t the time the  data  -  80  !  f a c t on t h e p a r t o f b o t h caseworker and a p p l i c a n t . a p p l i c a n t i n t e r v i e w e d i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s s t u d y was o t h e r than he, o r she, i n f a c t was,  I n e s s e n c e , each l o s t assumed t o be something  i n r e l a t i o n t o the agency; and each l o s t  a p p l i c a n t h e l d assumptions about the agency and i t s caseworkers which were based n o t on f a c t , but on s u b j e c t i v e a t t i t u d e s , f a u l t y c o n c e p t i o n s , o r l a c k o f knowledge. Seven o f t h e twelve a p p l i c a n t s were o f f e r e d h e l p by " t e l e p h o n e i n t a k e " o r i g i n a l l y , but t h i s was dropped i n and was  as f a r a s t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n s went.  One  applicant  seen once but f a i l e d t o r e t u r n ; one was seen f o r a s i n g l e  i n t e r v i e w subsequent t o the " t e l e p h o n e i n t a k e " but t e r m i n a t e d a t - t h a t  point;  •one a p p l i c a n t , e x c e p t i o n a l i n t h a t she was seen r e g u l a r l y o v e r a f o u r month p e r i o d , n e v e r , i n s p i t e o f t h i s l e n g t h o f s e r v i c e , became a c l i e n t o f the agency i n a t r u e s e n s e .  Two  a p p l i c a n t s became c l i e n t s i n a narrow sense o n l y .  I n o t h e r words, none o f the t e n a p p l i c a n t s e n t e r e d i n t o what Mrs. c a l l s "a working agreement  o r a 'compact' w i t h the a g e n c y " ^ w h i c h  Why  Perlman  i s imperative  b e f o r e the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n from a p p l i c a n t t o c l i e n t can t a k e p l a c e . these "compacts" n o t made?  ,  d i d the f a i l u r e s i n communication  Why  were  occur?  A l t h o u g h , i t must be r e p e a t e d , t h i s was o n l y a s m a l l group f o r s t u d y , it  was n e v e r t h e l e s s an i l l u m i n a t i n g group.  number o f f a c t s about them which may  And i t i s p o s s i b l e t o assemble  s e r v e t o throw some l i g h t on t h e misconcep-  t i o n s p r e s e n t l y h e l d c o n c e r n i n g t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and s o c i a l - !•  a  P r i o r Knowledge o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e  workers.  Agency.  S i x o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s had n e v e r h e a r d o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency b e f o r e i t was s u g g e s t e d to them as a r e s o u r c e by someone e l s e i n the community. None o f the a p p l i c a n t s had a t r u l y c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f the f u n c t i o n o f the agency and i t s e s s e n t i a l purpose, n o r o f the r o l e o f the s o c i a l within i t ,  worker  even though each had come t o an a p p r o p r i a t e p l a c e f o r h e l p .  Seven o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s c o n c e i v e d o f t h e agency as "The W e l f a r e " ; two thought o f i t as h a v i n g " W e l f a r e " c o n n o t a t i o n s , b u t o f s t i l l b e i n g a b l e t o p r o v i d e h e l p w i t h p e r s o n a l problems; t h r e e had c o n c e p t i o n s o f the agency were t o o vague t o be  categorized.  Perlman, op. c i t . ,  p.  172  which  81  -  2.  Knowledge o f and  -  A t t i t u d e Toward S o c i a l Workers.  Only t h r e e a p p l i c a n t s thought t h e y would be seen by a s o c i a l worker; f o u r thought "whoever i t was  would be t r a i n e d " , but were u n s p e c i f i c o r  c o n f u s e d as t o what k i n d o f t r a i n i n g , o r f o r what p r o f e s s i o n , t h i s would f i v e " j u s t wanted h e l p " and Considerable and  confusion  p s y c h o l o g y and  fairly  gave i t was  the "image" o f each was  negative,  equally confused.  e s s e n t i a l l y negative but  f e e l i n g s about s o c i a l workers;  a t the same time, somewhat h o p e f u l  o f the h e l p they might r e c e i v e ; t h r e e had  expectations  no o p i n i o n t o e x p r e s s .  I t would appear, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e r e was confidence  unimportant.  e x i s t e d between a p p l i c a n t s ' c o n c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l work  F o u r a p p l i c a n t s had f i v e had  f e l t t h a t who  be;  no s i g n i f i c a n t degree o f  e x p r e s s e d i n s o c i a l work as a p r o f e s s i o n , i n c o n t r a s t , f o r example,  t o the degree o f c o n f i d e n c e over t h e y e a r s , has  i n v e s t e d i n a p r o f e s s i o n s u c h as m e d i c i n e , which,  managed t o a c h i e v e a more coherent and a u t h o r i t a t i v e  " p u b l i c image". 3.  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the R e f e r r a l S o u r c e . F o r o n l y two  o f the twelve a p p l i c a n t s d i d the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e seem  p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n r e l a t i o n t o the a p p l i c a n t ' s c o n c e p t i o n  of  agency, except perhaps, t h a t i n most cases i t a p p a r e n t l y  hopefulness  and it  added to c o n f i d e n c e .  I n s p i t e o f the  increased  the  f a c t t h a t t h i s i s l a r g e l y assumption,  does remain t h a t a l t h o u g h some o f these a p p l i c a n t s came t o the F a m i l y  Service  Agency because someone e l s e thought o f i t as a h e l p f u l p l a c e , and some were vague as t o where and how  they had h e a r d o f the agency, most seem t o have  r e t a i n e d some "image" o f the agency as a h e l p f u l p l a c e , r a t h e r than o f workers as b e i n g F o r the two  h e l p f u l , p r o f e s s i o n a l people. a p p l i c a n t s f o r whom the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e seemed t o  s i g n i f i c a n t , t h i s was  i m p o r t a n t m a i n l y i n the d i a g n o s t i c and  r a t h e r t h a n i n r e f l e c t i o n o f any constituency" negative,  social  be  treatment sense,  i l l u m i n a t i n g f i n d i n g s about the " r e f e r r i n g  o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and  o r vague r e f e r r a l s b e i n g made.  the p o s s i b l e k i n d s  of p o s i t i v e ,  -  How  82  -  the r e f e r r a l s were handled i s n o t known; but the f a c t remains  t h a t the a p p l i c a n t s came.  I t would seem p o s s i b l e t o s u s p e c t  that t h i s  s m a l l sample o f the " r e f e r r i n g c o n s t i t u e n c y " had a much c l e a r e r , more c o n f i d e n t e x p e c t a t i o n and  conception  o f t h e agency's s e r v i c e s t h a n had  the  a p p l i c a n t s they r e f e r r e d . k.  S i g n i f i c a n c e o f the W a i t i n g  List.  I n f i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s , the w a i t i n g l i s t Three o f these  was  not a d i s c o u r a g i n g f a c t o r .  a p p l i c a t i o n s were g i v e n p r i o r i t y ; one  was  a drop-in  t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e d automatic p r i o r i t y ; one w a i t e d without or discomfort.  In one,  i f questions  r e g a r d to the p r o v i s i o n o f S u p e r v i s e d  and  apparent o b j e c t i o n  o f p o l i c y between two  agencies  Homemaker S e r v i c e had not  in  interfered  w i t h the h a n d l i n g o f the c a s e , p r i o r i t y would no. doubt have been g i v e n , s i n c e i l l n e s s p r e s e n t s i t s own  t i m e - l i m i t and d e a d l i n e f o r s e r v i c e , and  u s u a l l y r e q u i r e s immediate, emergency a t t e n t i o n . Mrs.  J . , whose whole c o n c e p t i o n  o f t h e agency's s e r v i c e was  and whose m o t i v a t i o n toward h e l p , p a r t i c u l a r l y from the F a m i l y Agency, appeared low i n the extreme, gave the w a i t i n g l i s t reason  negative  Service  as a s t a t e d  f o r not u s i n g the s e r v i c e , but s i n c e , i n her c a s e , the w a i t i n g time  was  c o n s i d e r a b l y s h o r t e r t h a n . f o r most a p p l i c a n t s , even s h o r t e r t h a n f o r some  who  got p r i o r i t y , i t might be assumed t h a t the w a i t i n g l i s t  served her  negative  f e e l i n g s and d e s i r e t o escape i n v o l v e m e n t , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g a d e t e r r i n g factor i n i t s e l f . I n f o u r c a s e s , however - Mrs. B., the w a i t i n g l i s t a p p l i c a n t s who  was  Mrs.  a serious deterrant.  H.,  Mrs.  I . and Mrs.  L.  -  Three o f t h e s e were middle c l a s s  found i t extremely d i f f i c u l t and b e l i t t l i n g t o ask f o r h e l p  and who  d i d h o t d i s c l o s e the t r u e n a t u r e  and who  accepted  the w a i t i n g l i s t  or e x t e n t o f t h e i r need o r  without  v e r b a l o b j e c t i o n ; the o t h e r  c l e a r l y s t r i v i n g upward toward middle c l a s s s t a t u s from an e a r l i e r background and seemed t o have r e q u e s t e d  anxiety,  h e l p i n the way  was  relief  i n which she  thought  i t might be e x p e c t e d o f her t o ask, r a t h e r t h a n t o express a l e s s s o p h i s t i c a t e d "cry  for. h e l p " .  - 83 -  Even i n t h e s e , however, i t might be argued t h a t the e s s e n t i a l f a i l u r e was  a g a i n one  o f l a c k o f communication between a p p l i c a n t and  r a t h e r than of a n e c e s s i t y to wait.  caseworker,  Even i f no w a i t i n g l i s t  had  existed,  these might s t i l l have been l o s t c l i e n t s i f r e c o g n i t i o n had n o t been g i v e n , in  the f i r s t i n t e r v i e w , t o the n e g a t i v e ,  f e a r f u l and  belittled feelings  about a s k i n g f o r h e l p each a p p l i c a n t brought w i t h them t o the agency, o f t h e i r mixed f e e l i n g s about the agency and s o c i a l workers, and o f the tenuous nature  of their It  motivation.  might a l s o be argued, as Mrs.  been i n t e r e s t e d i n me  I . s t a t e d , "Anyway, i f you people  you would have c a l l e d me.  once a month would have shown some c o n c e r n . thing l i k e ,  'your name i s s t i l l  Would t h a t be too much t o  on the l i s t ;  Even a q u i c k phone  A l l t h a t was  call  needed was  we haven't f o r g o t t e n  had  some-  you'.  expect?"  I n i t s e l f , then, the w a i t i n g l i s t ,  w h i l e bound t o be a d e t e r r a n t  by  the mere f a c t o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , might be c o n s i d e r e d a f u r t h e r b a r r i e r t o communication, the e s s e n t i a l d i f f i c u l t y i n communication s t i l l lie  hear t h a t she  and n e g a t i o n  Mrs.  C. d e l i n e a t e d t h i s v i v i d l y when she  which symbolized,  f o r h e r , r e j e c t i o n by the  to  the  caseworker,  o f h e r need.  A p p l i c a n t s ' Subsequent View o f the H e l p f u l n e s s o f the Agency. In s p i t e o f the a p p l i c a n t s ' l a c k .of a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n casework s e r v i c e , and  workers, a l l but one had It  be  failed  had been g i v e n an immediate appointment and heard o n l y  words " w a i t i n g l i s t " ,  its  to  between a p p l i c a n t and caseworker and o n l y , i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , t o  overcome between them.  5.  tending  t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y negative  f e e l i n g s about s o c i a l  some e x p e c t a t i o n o f h e l p f u l s e r v i c e from the  might be remembered t h a t they were a l l i n need and  was  i n existence.  one  a p p l i c a n t , who  r e f e r r a l from the  o f the agency or  Although i n most t h e r e was  agency.  t h a t , f o r them, a  crisis  c o n s i d e r a b l e ambivalence, o n l y  came a n y w a y , s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t he had not  wished  beginning.  Following a p p l i c a t i o n , ten a p p l i c a n t s considered Agency an u n h e l p f u l p l a c e , and the degree o f n e g a t i v e  the F a m i l y  Service  f e e l i n g ranged from o v e r t  h o s t i l i t y t o u n c e r t a i n t y j u s t a s , a t the time o f a p p l i c a t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n ranged from an urgent c o u l d be  avoided.  c r y f o r h e l p t o a f e e l i n g o f r e l i e f t h a t involvement  -Sh-  it  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t the two  the F a m i l y  a p p l i c a n t s who  still  considered  S e r v i c e Agency a h e l p f u l p l a c e , to some degree a t l e a s t , were those  c a t e g o r i z e d f o r t h i s s t u d y as "Apparently what she wanted and needed, i n her own Mr.  D,  who,  and  soon became a  Urgent",  Mrs,  E., because she  view i f n o t i n the agency's view,  got and  f o l l o w i n g the i n t e r v i e w f o r t h i s s t u d y , again became an a p p l i c a n t , client.  Of the twelve persons i n t e r v i e w e d  f o r t h i s s t u d y , o n l y these two  e v e r have been p r o p e r l y c a l l e d c l i e n t s .  The  could  r e s t were never more than a p p l i c -  ants. Of t h e s e t e n a p p l i c a n t s one s e r v i c e elsewhere;.one had considered  one  appears t o be r e c e i v i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y  i n t e r v i e w with a p r o f e s s i o n a l person  h e l p f u l , b u t - s t i l l has  many u n r e s o l v e d  problems; the r e m a i n i n g e i g h t  would s t i l l appear to have the b a s i c problem which gave r i s e t o the a p p l i c a t i o n but  original  which, by t h i s t i m e , can be presumed to have taken on a somewhat  d i f f e r e n t form.  At the time t h e y were i n t e r v i e w e d  contemplated c a l l i n g the F a m i l y and  she  f o r t h i s s t u d y , none o f them  S e r v i c e Agency a g a i n , a l t h o u g h one  s a i d , " I might"  another s a i d , " I suppose I ought t o " . All  o f these t e n a p p l i c a n t s who  f a i l e d t o take i t . opportunity  Mrs.  for preventive  • i n t a k e ' i s a c r i t i c a l one  d i d not become c l i e n t s needed h e l p ; a l l  Perlman has t h i s to s a y about f a i l u r e to s e i z e the casework, "  t h i s moment o r hour t h a t we  i n the l i f e o f the p e r s o n a p p l y i n g f o r h e l p .  Moreover, i t i s o f t e n the case t h a t not o n l y does the a p p l i c a n t problem to be  call  a c r i s i s but i t a c t u a l l y i s one.  The  'feel' his  f o r c e s c r e a t i n g h i s problem  may  have come t o a p o i n t where one  o r a s e r i e s o f breakdowns and  maladaptations  may  o c c u r i n h i s l i f e s i t u a t i o n u n l e s s e f f e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n takes p l a c e .  S o c i a l workers are i n c r e a s i n g l y concerned w i t h the i d e a o f p r e v e n t i o n . in  the i n t a k e phase o f casework, i s a potent  T h i s i s the  opportunity  f a i l s t o take i t . "  1  we  t o do p r e v e n t i v e  l o s e or waste when the a p p l i c a n t who  1  Perlman, op.  opportunity  c i t . , p.  172.  Here,  needs h e l p  work.  - 85 -  Casework I m p l i c a t i o n s S o c i a l workers are n o t accustomed t o t h i n k i n g o f the s u c c e s s f u l a p p l i c a t i o n o f casework as depending, p a r t i a l l y a t l e a s t , upon a p r o c e s s o f communication.  They are more accustomed t o t h i n k i n g o f the b a s i c p r e -  r e q u i s i t e s t o a workable casework s e r v i c e as depending on "forming a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c l i e n t " , " e x p l o r i n g the c l i e n t ' s problem", o r " a c t i v e l y engaging  i n the " p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " p r o c e s s .  The word "communication" has u n f o r t u n a t e l y become, i n t h i s day and  age,  a l o o s e l y used word - used most l o o s e l y by some p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p e o p l e .  But,  " t o communicate" means, i n i t s p u r e s t s e n s e , " t o i m p a r t " , " t o s h a r e " , " t o make common".  T h i s i s not the same t h i n g as "forming a r e l a t i o n s h i p " , " e x p l o r i n g  the c l i e n t ' s problem", o r engaging  i n the " p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g " p r o c e s s .  workers tend t o b e l i e v e t h a t i f they p r e s e n t themselves  as h e l p f u l ,  Caseskilled,  p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e , eager t o engage the " c l i e n t " i n the work o f s o l v i n g h i s problems, t h e n communication between c l i e n t and caseworker e x i s t s , f u r t h e r ado.  T h i s may  be t r u e f o r c l i e n t s who  without  have a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e d  casework s e r v i c e and the c l i e n t - c a s e w o r k e r r e l a t i o n s h i p , but i t i s n o t t r u e f o r new  a p p l i c a n t s , i f the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y have any v a l i d i t y .  need f o r a c o n c e r t e d , aware and a c t i v e attempt  The,  t o e l i m i n a t e the b a r r i e r s t o  communication exposed by the i n t e r v i e w s f o r t h i s s t u d y , i s i m p e r a t i v e b e f o r e any r e l a t i o n s h i p can form and b e f o r e a c l e a r way  can be opened t o e x p l o r a t i o n  o r s o l v i n g o f the problem which b r i n g s an a p p l i c a n t t o the p o i n t o f s e e k i n g h e l p . I t might be p o s s i b l e t o argue t h a t none o f the t e n a p p l i c a n t s who no f u r t h e r w i t h the s e r v i c e as i t was  went  o f f e r e d would have become c l i e n t s i n any  event, i n view o f t h e i r e s s e n t i a l l y n e g a t i v e i d e a s o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and o f s o c i a l workers.  But the f a c t remains t h a t they d i d a p p l y f o r  an a p p r o p r i a t e s e r v i c e from the agency, no matter how o f t h a t s e r v i c e s were.  unclear their  conceptions  Each s t i l l has m a n i f e s t o r s u s p e c t e d problems, w i t h  which the agency might have been a b l e t o h e l p them. I t seems e v i d e n t , however, t h a t the onus f o r a r r i v i n g a t a c l e a r c o n c e p t i o n o f the agency and i t s p o s s i b l e h e l p f u l n e s s t o them, f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r o l e o f the s o c i a l worker - b o t h i n r e l a t i o n t o the agency and r e l a t i o n t o the a p p l i c a n t and h i s problem - f o r s t a t i n g the problem i n understandable  terms  - 86 -  and f o r a s s e s s i n g t h e degree o f t h e f e e l i n g o f a n x i e t y and urgency was p l a c e d upon the a p p l i c a n t s . C e r t a i n l y i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o d i s c o v e r , through r e a d i n g t h e case r e c o r d s a l o n e , any f a c t s c o n c e r n i n g p o s s i b l e c o n c e p t i o n s o r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s , assumptions, u n d e r l y i n g r e s i s t a n c e s , n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s , o r r e c i p r o c a l  role  c o n c e p t i o n s o f a p p l i c a n t and caseworker i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e problem which the a p p l i c a n t brought w i t h him t o t h e agency.  These f a c e t s o f the i n i t i a l  were e i t h e r n e v e r r e c o r d e d o r never d i s c u s s e d .  contact  And s u r e l y no caseworker on  the s t a f f o f t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency would c o n s i d e r t h a t what these twelve a p p l i c a n t s had t o s a y i n the i n t e r v i e w s h e l d f o r t h i s s t u d y unimportant e i t h e r from an " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " , a d i a g n o s t i c o r a treatment p o i n t o f view. The assumptions appear t o have been, on the p a r t o f each caseworker, t h a t 1 ) . t h i s was a c l i e n t , r a t h e r t h a n an a p p l i c a n t , 2) t h i s was a c l i e n t who knew t h a t a s o c i a l worker was a p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n t r a i n e d t o p r o v i d e a p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f s e r v i c e , 3) t h i s was a c l i e n t who u n d e r s t o o d what h i s own r o l e would be i n the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g p r o c e s s , k) t h i s was a c l i e n t who knew the f u n c t i o n o f the agency because t h e r e q u e s t was a p p r o p r i a t e , and 5) t h i s was a c l i e n t  who  had c o n f i d e n t , p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s about t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and s o c i a l workers. That a l l t h e s e assumptions, i f n o t c o m p l e t e l y f a l l a c i o u s , were c e r t a i n l y t r e a c h e r o u s , i s borne out by t h e f a c t s g a i n e d through t h e i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e a p p l i c a n t s themselves.  B a r r i e r s t o Communication I n each Case t h e a c t u a l b a r r i e r t o communication  between a p p l i c a n t and  caseworker was d i f f e r e n t i n form b u t the same i n e s s e n c e . the o t h e r .  N e i t h e r understood  A l t h o u g h , f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e a p p l i c a n t s were  grouped i n a s p e c i f i c way, they might v e r y w e l l have been grouped i n e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t ways w i t h the same r e s u l t .  I t might even be s u g g e s t e d t h a t a l l the  a p p l i c a n t s ( w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e two who have been c o n s i d e r e d as c l i e n t s ) might have been grouped under one main h e a d i n g - t h a t o f "Negative o r F l u i d Expectations".  -  87 -  Group I ; "The White Heat o f Need". Those a p p l i c a n t s grouped under t h e h e a d i n g "The White Heat o f Need" each f e l t t h a t t h e urgency o f t h e i r need was n o t u n d e r s t o o d . For  Mrs. A., t h e b a r r i e r t o communication was t w o - f o l d ; p o l i c y  consider-  a t i o n s between two a g e n c i e s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the i n t e r v e n t i o n o f h e r s i s t e r , meant t h a t two f u r t h e r b a r r i e r s s t o o d between a p p l i c a n t and caseworker. T h i s was a p p a r e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d by no one except Mrs. A. and h e r s i s t e r . For  Mrs. B., upward s o c i a l s t r i v i n g , d i s t r u s t o f p a s t s o c i a l workers  and a " d i f f e r e n t " c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e r o l e o f t h e modern, p r o f e s s i o n a l  social  worker, which meant t h a t she phrased h e r r e q u e s t i n a way t h a t was misunders t o o d by the caseworker, were t h e u n d e r l y i n g b a r r i e r s . For  Mrs. C ,  the two words " w a i t i n g l i s t " were the b a r r i e r .  To h e r ,  i n h e r a n x i e t y , t h e y meant r e j e c t i o n . Group I I : "Apparent Urgency". U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e . a p p l i c a n t , b e g i n n i n g d i a g n o s i s o f h i s problem and the of  way i n which he views i t , a r e so i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up with t h e p r o c e s s communication between caseworker and a p p l i c a n t , t h a t i s i t v e r y  difficult,  e s p e c i a l l y i n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Mr. D. and Mrs. E . , t o s e p a r a t e each from t h e other.  A l t h o u g h Mr. D. was g i v e n an immediate o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w , there i s no  i n d i c a t i o n i n t h e case r e c o r d t h a t an assessment o f t h e c h r o n i c n a t u r e o f h i s problems was made, n o r i s t h e r e any i n d i c a t i o n o f a t e n t a t i v e d i a g n o s i s o f p o s s i b l e p e r s o n a l i t y d i s o r d e r , w i t h a l l t h a t d i a g n o s i s i m p l i e s i n terms o f the k i n d o f a n x i e t y t h e a p p l i c a n t had, o r t h e k i n d o f urgency d i s p l a y e d .  This,  t h e n , would appear t o have been an i n c o m p l e t e d i a g n o s i s r a t h e r t h a n a f a i l u r e in  communication. With Mrs. E . , because t h e r e was o n l y one b r i e f t e l e p h o n e i n t e r v i e w w i t h  her,  t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n by t h e caseworker o f t h e urgency o f h e r need i s much  more u n d e r s t a n d a b l e .  I t - i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e , however, t h a t i f she had  been s e e n , even once, f o r an assessment i n t e r v i e w , t h a t t h e caseworker would have f a i l e d t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e n a t u r e o f h e r problems and t h e type o f "urgency" d i s p l a y e d - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n t o what t h e agency would c o n s i d e r t h e t y p e o f urgency w a r r a n t i n g p r i o r i t y  service.  - 88 -  Perhaps because n e i t h e r o f these a p p l i c a n t s seemed to have been p r e v i o u s l y i n t o u c h w i t h any  o t h e r s o c i a l agency, and made the r e q u e s t  o s t e n s i b l y on t h e i r own,  for service,  as a " p e r s o n a l " a p p l i c a t i o n , the caseworker may  assumed t h a t t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n  f o r h e l p was  o f a much more p o s i t i v e and  have hopeful  kind. Group I I I : " F l u i d The  Expectations".  b a r r i e r s t o communication w i t h b o t h Mr.  F . and Mrs.  m i s c o n c e p t i o n s on the p a r t o f b o t h a p p l i c a n t and t o p l a y i n the p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g  process.  G. were c l e a r l y  caseworker o f the r o l e each  Both t h e s e a p p l i c a n t s were w a i t i n g  be shown, were " t r y i n g o u t " the s e r v i c e .  needs and e x p e c t a t i o n s  o f the a p p l i c a n t as a g a i n s t what the agency saw  realistic  what the s o c i a l worker saw  had been r e c o g n i z e d , had  chosen n o t  s t a t e why  F o r example, Mrs.  i s not  G.'s  statements t o the  from the caseworker's assumption"that she had  from s e r v i c e because she  The  as h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e I f they  t o become c l i e n t s i t might have been p o s s i b l e t o more c l e a r l y  because o f " s t r a i n s i n the environment".  Group IV  the as i t s  b o t h these a p p l i c a n t s might have become c l i e n t s .  they had n o t .  v a r i e d widely  to  I t might be p o s s i b l e to s t a t e t h a t i f  t h e s e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s - about the agency, about the s o c i a l worker, about  f u n c t i o n and  was  f e l t she was  prematurely  I n a c t u a l i t y , Mrs.  not b e i n g  interviewer terminated  G. had withdrawn  helped.  ; "Social Class B a r r i e r s " . p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s o f " S o c i a l C l a s s B a r r i e r s " f o r casework p r a c t i s e  a c e n t r a l focus o f t h i s s t u d y .  number o f the a p p l i c a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d ,  But  from the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by  some i m p l i c a t i o n s become  inescapable.  These i m p l i c a t i o n s are based, however, mainly on s u p p o s i t i o n , and n o t s u b s t a n t i a t e d t o the degree t h a t c o u l d be Although Wilenskyiand  a  factually  wished.  Lebeau s t a t e t h a t " I t i s j u s t the  middle-class  r a t i o n a l m e n t a l i t y which t a k e s most r e a d i l y to the n o t i o n t h a t f a m i l i e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s can be s t u d i e d and r e p a i r e d l i k e b o d i e s o f a u t o m o b i l e s " , f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y suggest an a d d i t i o n t o t h i s view. I t may  w e l l be  The  addition i s this:-  t r u e t h a t the m i d d l e - c l a s s m e n t a l i t y t a k e s r e a d i l y t o study  r e p a i r o f f a m i l i e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s , but whether m i d d l e - c l a s s ily  the  and  emotions take  read-  t o t h i s n o t i o n - any more t h a n anyone e l s e ' s , o f whatever s o c i a l c l a s s -  I s open t o q u e s t i o n .  P a r t i c u l a r l y may  t h i s be  t r u e when the s t u d y and  repair  -  89  -  /•  -  a r e t o be done i n a s o c i a l agency w i t h the s o c i a l worker as "mechanic". M i d d l e - c l a s s a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l work are s t i l l so a n a c h r o n i s t i c , so d i s t r u s t f u l , and so m i s c o n c e i v e d , immediate c o n f i d e n c e  i n the  t h a t they a r e not y e t conducive t o  "repairman".  C e r t a i n l y i t i s p o s s i b l e to suspect  t h a t many o f the a p p l i c a n t s  go on t o become c l i e n t s o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency may toward the new  middle-class  I n f a c t , a companion study the occupation has  confirm t h i s  who trend  c l i e n t e l e Wilensky and Lebeaux have p r e d i c t e d . t o t h i s has d i s c o v e r e d from i n f o r m a t i o n based  o f the male breadwinner, t h a t the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency  c o n s i d e r a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from the lower m i d d l e - c l a s s  on  clientele  and upper working  c l a s s , w i t h l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n from groups b o t h above and below t h i s . s p i t e o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l o r s o c i a l s t a t u s , however, i n f o r m a t i o n  In  gathered  f o r t h i s s t u d y , about the a p p l i c a n t s ' f a m i l y groupings and the s e r v i c e s they requested,  and i n t e r p r e t e d i n the i i g h t o f c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e , s u g g e s t s t h a t  the m a j o r i t y o f the a p p l i c a n t s are i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the s o - c a l l e d "middlec l a s s " values of family  life.  1  I n the sample o f a p p l i c a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d f o r t h i s p r e s e n t a g a i n , must be admitted  i s t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e any  were f o u r m i d d l e - c l a s s a p p l i c a n t s and t h r e e who middle-class status. i n t o the c a t e g o r y  A l t h o u g h o n l y two  study,  c o n c l u s i v e answers, t h e r e  might be termed s t r i v i n g f o r  m i d d l e - c l a s s a p p l i c a n t s were p l a c e d  o f " S o c i a l C l a s s B a r r i e r s " , because m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f  s o c i a l c l a s s i m p l i c a t i o n s seemed t o be t h e o u t s t a n d i n g  reason  for discontin-  uance, these i m p l i c a t i o n s were e v i d e n t to some degree f o r a number o f o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s as w e l l .  Mrs.  B. was  D.,  who  was  t o express her r e q u e s t  for help.  i n a lower s t a t u s group, f e l t t h a t s o c i a l workers were t o  g i v e r e l i e f and make i n v e s t i g a t i o n s - i n s h o r t , f o r p e o p l e who t h a n he  the  c l e a r l y s t r i v i n g for middle-class  s t a t u s and used a m i d d l e - c l a s s v o c a b u l a r y Even Mr.  which,  were worse o f f  was.  Of the a p p l i c a n t s who  c o u l d not be i n t e r v i e w e d , i n f o r m a t i o n from the  case r e c o r d s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h r e e were d e f i n i t e l y m i d d l e - c l a s s a p p l i c a n t s f o u r were a p p a r e n t l y s t r i v i n g upward toward m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a t u s . t e n t a t i v e judgment was occupation,  and  the way  This  based on p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e , income, husband's or i n which the r e q u e s t was  and  wife's  phrased.  P o r t e r , E . M i l d r e d , Intake P r i o r i t i e s i n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency: A Survey o f W a i t i n g L i s t Cases and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s . Vancouver, TQq8 M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o r B r i t i s h Columbia, I 9 6 0 .  )  -  90  -  Four were a p p l i c a n t s w i t h low s o , the r e q u e s t s , not  except i n one  payment o f a r r e a r s i n r e n t was "no  The  case o f one  Homemaker S e r v i c e ,  a p p l i c a n t who  c l o s e d as " c l i e n t u n w i l l i n g t o  community r e s o u r c e " ,  a s s e s s e d t h a t t h e r e were o t h e r was  f i n a n c i a l problems; even  c a s e , were f o r S u p e r v i s e d  direct financial assistance.  r a t h e r than as  incomes and  asked f o r  continue"  presumably because the  caseworker  f a m i l y problems, o f f e r e d h e l p w i t h t h e s e  and  refused. I n f i v e a p p l i c a t i o n s t h e r e was  case r e c o r d s  t o make any  not enough i n f o r m a t i o n  v a l i d attempt a t assessment o f any  b a r r i e r s which might have c o n t r i b u t e d  to the l o s s o f the  I n summary, t h e n , out o f a t o t a l sample o f 28  a v a i l a b l e i n the social class  ,  applicant.  a p p l i c a n t s who  d i d not  become c l i e n t s i n a t h r e e month p e r i o d , seven were s u b j e c t i v e l y a s s e s s e d middle-class  a p p l i c a n t s and  seven as presumably s t r i v i n g toward  as  middle-class  status. I n a l l o f these a p p l i c a t i o n s , whether the a p p l i c a n t had middle-class  s t a t u s or was  s t r i v i n g toward m i d d l e - c l a s s  t o communication between a p p l i c a n t and  attained  s t a t u s , the b a r r i e r  caseworker appeared t o l i e i n the  l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r even r e c o g n i t i o n by the caseworker o f the of mistrust, l a c k of confidence, i n h a v i n g t o ask  f o r h e l p and,  factors  f e a r o f i n v o l v e m e n t , sense o f b e l i t t l e m e n t  most apparent o f a l l ,  r e v e l a t i o n , the need t o c o n t r o l emotion, and  the f e a r o f s e l f -  to present  o n e s e l f as  an  adequate competent p e r s o n , a b l e t o t o l e r a t e . a n x i e t y and t o cope w i t h l i f e ' s problems e f f i c i e n t l y .  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note t h a t , i n the  s t u d y mentioned e a r l i e r , e x a m i n a t i o n o f the case r e c o r d s c l i e n t s , w i t h few who  cared  exceptions,  disclosed that  were hard-working, a p p a r e n t l y  respectable  f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o the b e s t o f t h e i r a b i l i t y and  were n o t u s u a l l y e v i d e n t  companion the people  whose problems  to the community a t large."'  I t would seem, t h e r e f o r e , i f caseworkers are t o become more adept a t transforming  t h i s t e n t a t i v e "new  c l i e n t e l e " from a p p l i c a n t s i n t o c l i e n t s ,  t h e y must s t r i v e t o become more a l e r t and  s e n s i t i v e to these  f e e l i n g s , i n s t e a d o f assuming t h a t such a p p l i c a n t s are s i m p l y  underlying "ambivalent"  o r " u n c e r t a i n " , o r t a k i n g i t as f a c t t h a t these a p p l i c a n t s are b e t t e r a b l e t o l e r a t e a n x i e t y , heed l e s s s u p p o r t and  encouragement d u r i n g a w a i t i n g  period,  o r can e x p r e s s t h e i r r e a l needs b e t t e r than the lower c l a s s s o c i a l work has l o n g been used t o .  to  -  Group V : "Negative Except  91  -  Transference".  f o r the t h r e e a p p l i c a n t s who  were p l a c e d i n t o t h i s  category  and c o u l d c l e a r l y be seen t o have n e g a t i v e t r a n s f e r e n c e r e a c t i o n s toward the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, and more p a r t i c u l a r l y toward s o c i a l workers, based e i t h e r on e a r l i e r n e g a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s  w i t h s o c i a l workers, p a r e n t a l  f i g u r e s , o r b o t h , i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o s t a t e , without how  further interviews,  many more o f the l o s t c l i e n t s might have been p l a c e d i n t o t h i s  s i n c e t h e i r f e e l i n g s f o l l o w i n g agency c o n t a c t were so almost  category,  totally  negative. The s a l i e n t casework i m p l i c a t i o n f o r t h i s group, however, appears t o be the d i f f i c u l t y , i f not the a c t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y , o f t r a n s f e r e n c e phenomena, elements o f r e s i s t a n c e , and the t e l e p h o n e , no matter how suggested:  - first,  s k i l l e d the caseworker.  the v a l u e o f a t l e a s t one,  i n t e r v i e w f o r each new  understanding  tenuous m o t i v a t i o n • Two  over  t h i n g s might  be  e a r l y , i n - p e r s o n assessment  a p p l i c a n t might be c o n s i d e r e d ; and second, i t might  be w i s e r and much more e f f i c a c i o u s to expect  r e s i s t a n c e , t o be a l e r t  to  n e g a t i v e t r a n s f e r e n c e r e a c t i o n s and t o c o n s i d e r tenuous m o t i v a t i o n a normal. s t a t e o f mind and  emotion f o r a l l new  a p p l i c a n t s , r a t h e r than t o assume too  many'positives.  C e r t a i n l y i t would be more h e l p f u l to b o t h agency and  a p p l i c a n t t o be much c l e a r e r c o n c e r n i n g r e f e r r a l and not t o assume, without  the r e a l meaning o f the  "personal"  f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n , t h a t the  a p p l i c a t i o n means a h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d ,  p o s i t i v e c l i e n t who  "personal"  has, w i t h some  f o r e t h o u g h t , p i c k e d out the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l casework s e r v i c e o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency as the treatment  of choice.  Administrative Implications I t i s r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r the r e s e a r c h e r t o make s u g g e s t i o n s  for  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e improvements when n o t f a c e d w i t h the t a s k o f c a r r y i n g them  out.  Recommendations can be v a l i d on paper but i m p o s s i b l e t o put i n t o p r a c t i s e when gauged a g a i n s t the p r e s s u r e s and p r a c t i c a l i t i e s o f the everyday job t o be done.  I t might be s a i d t h a t " I n many ways those  engaged i n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  communications a r e i n the p o s i t i o n s o f the t h r e e b l i n d men who  i n the Aesop f a b l e  d e f i n e d an elephant i n terms o f the p a r t i c u l a r p a r t o f h i s anatomy they  happened t o t o u c h .  Most p e r s o n s w i l l never be a b l e t o s e e , o r even  envisage,  92 the whole e l e p h a n t . " I t i s recognized t h i s study a r e  o n l y too w e l l t h a t the a p p l i c a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d  f a r from b e i n g  the  "whole e l e p h a n t " i n r e l a t i o n t o  t o t a l s e r v i c e p i c t u r e o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. many c l i e n t s a t t e s t t o the need f o r p e r s o n a l waiting l i s t the s u p p l y may  i s a necessary administrative  o f a v a i l a b l e s e r v i c e s and  be s p e c i o u s  t o even c o n s i d e r ,  toward the agency and  p a r t i c u l a r l y specious  the  At a time when so  counselling that a  intermediary  lengthy  c o n t r o l between  the demand f o r those s e r v i c e s , i t  from an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o i n t o f view,  what can be done t o i n c r e a s e the m o t i v a t i o n negative  for  o f a p p l i c a n t s who  i t s s o c i a l work s t a f f .  i f the f a m i l i e s and  tend t o  T h i s would  i n d i v i d u a l s who  are  be  be  already  " p o s i t i v e " c l i e n t s o f the agency are t a x i n g the funds a v a i l a b l e f o r s e r v i c e to the  limit. I t has n o t been p o s s i b l e t o s t a t e , even t e n t a t i v e l y , whether t e n  o f these twelve a p p l i c a n t s c o u l d have been h e l p e d , a l t h o u g h i t has p o s s i b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t the two  who  been  d i d , i n e f f e c t , become c l i e n t s were  those f o r whom the p r o g n o s i s might be c o n s i d e r e d  poor, s i n c e n o t  d i a g n o s t i c m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e on which t o base any  valid  enough  judgment.  At the same time, the P o r t e r s t u d y , a l r e a d y mentioned, has  found  t h a t a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f cases g o i n g on t o c o n t i n u e d  s e r v i c e are re-opened  cases.  tend t o c o n f i r m  Both t h a t s t u d y and  f a c t t h a t i t i s the new lost  t h i s one,  a p p l i c a n t s who  taken t o g e t h e r ,  the  are becoming, i n l a r g e measure, the  clients. Some p o s s i b l e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s have been suggested throughout t h i s  s t u d y and w i l l n o t be  further elaborated  f e a s i b l e t o r e a c h and  h o l d more o f t h e s e new  s u g g e s t i o n s may \ ^  h e r e , but  i f i t should  a p p l i c a n t s , the  become  following  have m e r i t :  A re-assessment o f the g a i n s and l o s s e s i n v o l v e d i n "telephone  intake".  Some i n t a k e workers f e e l t h a t t e l e p h o n e i n t a k e i s s u p e r i o r i n some ways to in-person  intake interviews.  The  r e a s o n s g i v e n are t h a t a r e l a t i o n s h i p  i s s t a r t e d w i t h the f i r s t caseworker, v a l u a b l e  Simon, H e r b e r t A., Smithburg, Donald W., A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New York, A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1958.  d i a g n o s t i c c l u e s are  Thompson, V i c t o r A., p. 237.  obtained  Public  - 93 -  d u r i n g the f i r s t c o n t a c t which may  be missed l a t e r , and  i n e v i t a b l y begun,, even though the attempt may  be made to a v o i d i t .  l e s s p e r s o n a l l e v e l o f the telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n , the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f t r a n s f e r o f the  treatment i s The  i t i s s a i d , minimizes  " c l i e n t " t o a n o t h e r caseworker.  t h i s judgment i s sound, the i d e a l , o f c o u r s e , handle the i n t a k e on the c l i e n t s who  would be  have been a s s i g n e d  If  t h a t each caseworker to  him.  T h i s i s c l e a r l y an i m p o s s i b i l i t y , however, when a w a i t i n g l i s t and  even i f i t were p o s s i b l e i t would s t i l l ,  casework p r o c e d u r e , have i t s n e g a t i v e  as an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  side.  d i f f i c u l t indeed  and  F o r example, a t a time when  the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency i s making a c o n c e r t e d t o a s s i g n cases a c c o r d i n g  and seemingly v a l i d  attempt  to the s k i l l s o f p a r t i c u l a r caseworkers, i t i s  t o see how  t h i s k i n d o f c a r e f u l case assignment i s p o s s i b l e  on the i n f o r m a t i o n r e c e i v e d s o l e l y t h r o u g h a telephone c o n v e r s a t i o n a p p l i c a n t and  exists;  between  i n t a k e worker.  N a t u r a l l y the need f o r weighing the p o s i t i v e s and n e g a t i v e s  concerning  p o s s i b l e d e c i s i o n s about what k i n d of i n t a k e procedure would be most s a t i s f a c t o r y , f o r b o t h a p p l i c a n t and waiting l i s t  e x i s t e d , and each a p p l i c a n t c o u l d be g i v e n an  appointment.  But a w a i t i n g l i s t does e x i s t , and  g i v e n an immediate appointment. waiting l i s t  w i l l disappear  Nor  e f f o r t - s a v i n g device  apply  A l l new  Telephone i n t a k e ,  f o r s e r v i c e s which are p u r e l y i n f o r m a t i o n a l , and  more new  a p p l i c a n t s i n t o c l i e n t s , that i s , to  f o r an a p p r o p r i a t e  a p p l i c a n t s who  to  requests.  the agency, t h e n a number o f s u g g e s t i o n s 1.  future.  be  the  i f i t s h o u l d become an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s s i b i l i t y  attempt t o t r a n s f o r m more p e o p l e who  e v e r y a p p l i c a n t cannot  I t i s e s p e c i a l l y mandatory as a time  d e a l w i t h i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e f e r r a l s and Nevertheless,  immediate  i s t h e r e any i n d i c a t i o n t h a t  i n the f o r e s e e a b l e  t h e r e f o r e , seems t o be mandatory. and  agency, would be l e s s p r e s s i n g i f no  request  to  help  s e r v i c e t o r e a c h a "compact" w i t h can be made:a s e r v i c e which appears t o  be  w i t h i n the f u n c t i o n o f the agency s h o u l d be o f f e r e d an e a r l y assessment interview.  T h i s assessment i n t e r v i e w s h o u l d take i n t o account the urgency  o f the r e q u e s t  and  the concomitant assessment o f the need f o r p r i o r i t y ,  but  a l s o awareness s h o u l d be d i r e c t e d toward the n e c e s s i t y o f two-way communication between a p p l i c a n t and  caseworker.  And  awareness of. the need f o r communication  -  -9k  should  be accompanied 'by an a c t i v e attempt t o d i s c o v e r and t o d e a l  with  b a r r i e r s t o communication. Several  f a c t o r s which may be b l o c k i n g communication between  and caseworker have been r e v e a l e d by t h i s  applicant  study:-  (a) c o n c e p t i o n s o r m i s c o n c e p t i o n s o f agency f u n c t i o n s , and t h e r e f o r e o f t h e r o l e o f t h e s o c i a l worker, (b) t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e f e r r a l and i m p l i c a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n making i t . ( c ) p o s s i b l e r e s i s t a n c e s and n e g a t i v e  f e e l i n g s toward t h e "Welfare'  c h a r i t y e t c . , and i d e a s about s o c i a l workers which may have r o o t s i n the p a s t b u t a r e no l o n g e r  1  their  valid,  (d) l a c k o f c l a r i t y on t h e p a r t o f t h e caseworker i n e x p l a i n i n g t h e p r e s e n t - d a y f u n c t i o n o f t h e agency, and t h e p a r t p l a y e d by t h e s o c i a l worker w i t h i n  this.  A f u r t h e r p o i n t needs t o be made. , assumed by t h e c o n t i n u e d already  still  s e r v i c e worker - u n l e s s an assessment i n t e r v i e w has  taken place - t o supplant  has been a s s i g n e d  "Telephone i n t a k e " cannot be  in-person  intake.  Even when a caseworker  t o a " c l i e n t " f o l l o w i n g telephone i n t a k e , t h e r e a l  remains t o be done.  There i s y e t no c l i e n t i n e x i s t e n c e ,  intake  o n l y an  applicant. . Even i f a l l these p o i n t s were c o v e r e d t h e r e would no doubt be some l o s t a p p l i c a n t s , b u t a t l e a s t t h e r e a s o n s f o r the l o s s e s would be b e t t e r known f o r f u t u r e improvement i n s e r v i c e s . 2.  I f i t i s impossible  t o o f f e r each new a p p l i c a n t an e a r l y assessment  i n t e r v i e w , an a l t e r n a t i v e would be a system o f c a l l - b a c k s f o r those a p p l i c a n t s who f a c e a l o n g w a i t b e f o r e simply  s e r v i c e c a n be begun.  T h i s c o u l d be done  and w i t h o u t t o o much e f f o r t ; and i t would s e r v e  fairly  t o i n d i c a t e t o the '  a p p l i c a n t s t h a t they c o n t i n u e t o have i d e n t i t y and importance f o r t h e agency. S i g n i f i c a n t l y enough, t h i s would have s p e c i a l meaning f o r t h e c o n t r o l l e d , middle-class  a p p l i c a n t whose f i r s t approach t o t h e agency may have been s o  f e a r f u l i n the f i r s t  place.  - 95 -  The  Present  System o f A s s i g n i n g  Priorities  C l e a r l y another i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h a t t h e system o f a s s i g n i n g p r i o r i t i e s needs f u r t h e r r e v i e w . telephone  When a w a i t i n g l i s t  e x i s t s and  i n t a k e i s a n e c e s s i t y , t h e r e are i n e v i t a b l e l o s s e s and  weaknesses  i n casework s e r v i c e t o the c l i e n t , not because the caseworkers are unequipped to  g i v e an e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e , but because they a r e unable t o g i v e the s e r v i c e  r e q u i r e d f o r a new  a p p l i c a n t over the  telephone.  I t i s r e l e v a n t here t o quote an eminent p s y c h i a t r i s t .  Although he i s  d i s c u s s i n g a p a t i e n t e n t e r i n g psychotherapy, t h e r e i s a good d e a l o f a p p l i c a t i o n t o the p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t r e q u e s t i n g s e r v i c e o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. "The of a l l .  I n i t i a l Interview  i s probably  the most c r u c i a l t h e r a p e u t i c s e s s i o n  V i t a l hours appear l a t e r d u r i n g treatment when r e s i s t a n c e and  t r a n s f e r e n c e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s become r i f e .  However, e r r o r s i n the h a n d l i n g  a s e s s i o n a f t e r the t h e r a p e u t i c p r o c e s s i s w e l l under way  of  a r e not n e a r l y so  f a t a l as mismanagement d u r i n g the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w . The  p r i m a r y g o a l s o f the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w a r e 1.  these:  To e s t a b l i s h r a p p o r t w i t h the p a t i e n t . a.  By s u p p l y i n g the p r o p e r  emotional  c l i m a t e f o r the  interview.  b.  By s t r u c t u r i n g the purpose o f the  c.  By c l a r i f y i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s  d.  By d e a l i n g w i t h inadequate  e.  By h a n d l i n g o t h e r r e s i s t a n c e s and p r e p a r i n g the p a t i e n t f o r  interview.  about p s y c h o t h e r a p y . motivation.  psychotherapy."^ And see how  these a r e i n some way  the i n i t i a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h a new  a c h i e v e d when a telephone the p r e s s u r e may  s t a n d s between a p p l i c a n t and  be reached about p r i o r i t y .  Y o r k , 1954.  p.  198.  The  It i s difficult  to  a p p l i c a n t can be s u c c e s s f u l l y  upon the i n t a k e worker i s t o a s s e s s  Wolberg, Lewis R., New  analagous i n casework.  caseworker, and when  "urgency" so t h a t a d e c i s i o n  I t would be most d i f f i c u l t  f o r the  Technique o f Psychotherapy , Grune and  intake  Stratton  - 96 worker t o be aware o f s u b t l e , perhaps n o n - v e r b a l s i g n s o f r e s i s t a n c e  and  n e g a t i v i s m , t o d e a l w i t h p o s s i b l e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s o f agency f u n c t i o n and the r o l e o f the s o c i a l worker, t o r e c o g n i z e t r a n s f e r e n c e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , o r t o d e a l w i t h inadequate m o t i v a t i o n and p r e p a r e the a p p l i c a n t f o r agency s e r v i c e . While a l l t h i s a t t e n t i o n t o d e t a i l and the n i c e t i e s o f casework s e r v i c e appear e s o t e r i c , i t has been borne  out, through the i n t e r v i e w s w i t h the  a p p l i c a n t s , t h a t such d e t a i l s a r e n o t i m a g i n a t i v e and d o c t r i n a i r e a t but o n l y t o o n e c e s s a r y and  may  all,  realistic.  T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s t h a t t r u e urgency cannot be a s s e s s e d over the t e l e p h o n e any more r e a d i l y than a p p l i c a n t s can be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o  clients  when s u c h a b a r r i e r t o communication s t a n d s between them. There i s a complex problem i n v o l v e d h e r e : what i s t r u e urgency? o f c o u r s e , would e n t a i l much s t u d y and many d i f f i c u l t ive decisions.  convey,  casework and a d m i n i s t r a t -  So l o n g as a l l a p p l i c a n t s cannot be s e r v e d immediately, which  groups o f a p p l i c a n t s must be chosen? w a i t i n g , perhaps  This,  Only those who  f o r a lengthy period?  are p r e p a r e d t o t o l e r a t e  Those, l i k e Mr. D. and Mrs. E.,  who  a t l e a s t over the t e l e p h o n e , extreme urgency and a n x i e t y , but whose  p r o g n o s i s , i n the treatment s e n s e , i s poor?  Or might  i t be p o s s i b l e t o seek,  on a c o n c e r t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e - casework b a s i s , some c r i t e r i a f o r a s s e s s i n g a d i f f e r e n t k i n d o f "urgency", u s i n g as a b e g i n n i n g t e c h n i q u e a c a r e f u l assessment  o f each new  application.  T h i s assessment  n o t o n l y t e n t a t i v e d i a g n o s i s , assessment  would take i n t o  account  o f l e n g t h and k i n d o f treatment,  and m o t i v a t i o n , but a l s o the r e a d i n e s s o f the a p p l i c a n t t o a c c e p t the worker as a h e l p f u l , s k i l l f u l , p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n .  social  And above a l l , i t s h o u l d  take i n t o account the n e c e s s i t y f o r a concerned awareness o f the f a c t  that  the moment o f a p p l i c a t i o n i s the c r u c i a l moment when the p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t i s more ready f o r h e l p than he w i l l p r o b a b l y ever be a g a i n . Such a procedure would be t i m e - s a v i n g i n the l o n g r u n .  Assignment  on the b a s i s o f "urgency" i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p r e v e n t i o n o f f a m i l y breakdown; c e r t a i n l y i t i s n o t a method o f e n c o u r a g i n g people w i t h problems t o have them t r e a t e d as soon as they b e g i n .  - 96 -  S o c i a l Work P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s The  same problems o f communication b a r r i e r s which have been shown t o  e x i s t between caseworker and relations.  a p p l i c a n t are e v i d e n t i n s o c i a l work p u b l i c  Dr. B a i l e y , i n her s t u d y o f Community O r i e n t a t i o n s toward  S o c i a l Casework, based on an o p i n i o n s u r v e y o f 1660 c l i e n t s and n o n - c l i e n t s o f s o c i a l a g e n c i e s ,  a d u l t s who  were b o t h  s t a t e s , " S o c i a l casework, w i t h  i t s changing f u n c t i o n and i t s s e a r c h f o r community r e c o g n i t i o n , appears t o have s p e c i a l problems i n i t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s .  How  r e a d i l y do persons i n  the community a s s o c i a t e s o c i a l casework w i t h h e l p f o r e m o t i o n a l and p e r s o n a l problems?  Do average c i t i z e n s p e r c e i v e  inter-  the s o c i a l casework agency  as d e s i g n e d t o s e r v i c e p e o p l e l i k e themselves or o n l y the f i n a n c i a l l y needy and  underprivileged?  Mere l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n about a g e n c i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y  easy t o remedy, but l i n g e r i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s about s o c i a l casework's s e r v i c e s and „1 measures."  i t s p r o p e r c l i e n t e l e w i l l r e q u i r e more h e r o i c p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s  That s p e c i a l problems do e x i s t i s apparent.  The  present  study,  based as i t i s on a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f i n t e r v i e w s , cannot b e g i n suggest f i n a l s o l u t i o n s t o t h e s e problems.  But  i n t o the r e a s o n s f o r the s p e c i a l problems and attempting interviewed  solutions.  i t can p r e s e n t  some i n s i g h t s  the d i f f i c u l t i e s t o be  There i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t the  f o r t h i s s t u d y do n o t p r e s e n t  to  faced i n  applicants  a s m a l l but i n d i c a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n  o f community o p i n i o n about a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l agency and i t s p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work s t a f f . probably  Therefore,  the o p i n i o n s h e l d by the " l o s t a p p l i c a n t s " are  f a i r l y g e n e r a l i n the community.  Of c o u r s e ,  only a broader survey  o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n , c a r r i e d out on a combined q u a n t i t a t i v e - q u a l i t a t i v e b a s i s c o u l d c o n f i r m o r deny t h i s s u p p o s i t i o n , but a t l e a s t some s p e c u l a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e on p r e s e n t  evidence.  These s p e c u l a t i o n s go back t o the s u g g e s t i o n s  made e a r l i e r i n t h i s  s t u d y , i n r e g a r d t o " b a r r i e r s t o communication" between a p p l i c a n t caseworker.  and  These b a r r i e r s were found, i n the main, t o be: l ) m i s c o n c e p t i o n s  o f agency f u n c t i o n s and  the r o l e o f the s o c i a l worker, 2) r e s i s t a n c e s  B a i l e y , op. c i t . ,  and  -  97  -  n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s toward the " W e l f a r e " and c h a r i t y , 3)  i d e a s about  social k)  workers which have t h e i r r o o t s i n the p a s t but are no l o n g e r v a l i d , and l a c k o f c l a r i t y on the p a r t o f the caseworker i n e x p l a i n i n g the  present-day  f u n c t i o n o f the agency, and the p a r t p l a y e d by the s o c i a l worker w i t h i n i t . I f t h e s e b a r r i e r s e x i s t between new  a p p l i c a n t and the s o c i a l agency  and i t s s t a f f , t h e y p r o b a b l y e x i s t between s o c i a l agency (and s o c i a l workers) and t h e l a r g e r community.  T h e r e f o r e , i f an a c t i v e , c o n c e r t e d attempt t o  d i s c o v e r and t o d e a l w i t h these b a r r i e r s t o communication i s n e c e s s a r y a r e l a t i o n s h i p can form between new  before  a p p l i c a n t and caseworker, i t f o l l o w s  t h a t the same k i n d o f a c t i v e attempt must be made t o d e a l w i t h b a r r i e r s i n communication between the agency and i t s s o c i a l workers and the  larger  community. Mass media p u b l i c i t y about any s o c i a l agency o r about s o c i a l casework w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , have l i m i t e d v a l u e u n l e s s an a c t i v e , even a g g r e s s i v e , attempt i s made t o d i s c o v e r and change n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s , and to b r i n g t o l i g h t and d e a l w i t h the " l i n g e r i n g m i s c o n c e p t i o n s " , no coherent  Dr. B a i l e y speaks of;  and a u t h o r i t a t i v e " p u b l i c image" o f the s o c i a l worker b e i n g  p o s s i b l e o f achievement u n t i l t h e s e b a r r i e r s a r e overcome.  Her  suggestion  t h a t "more h e r o i c p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s " are r e q u i r e d does not seem t o be  an  understatement. Perhaps s o c i a l work needs l e s s g e n t l e " i n t e r p r e t a t i o n " and more advertising.  One  recent w r i t e r suggests,  " ' I n t e r p r e t a t i o n ' i s an u n f o r t u n -  a t e word which seems t o have e n t e r e d s o c i a l work language because o f f a l s e modesty and a r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t o f s o c i a l workers t o say they wished people  t o know what t h e y were d o i n g .  understandable  word.  We  P u b l i c i t y i s a more honest  and  s h o u l d r e c o g n i z e t h a t we want more p u b l i c i t y ,  i n t e n s i f y our e f f o r t s t o p u b l i c i z e as h o n e s t l y , e f f e c t i v e l y , and w i d e l y p o s s i b l e , our p r o f e s s i o n and our a g e n c i e s , what we are t r y i n g to  do."  s t a n d f o r , and what  and as we  1  I n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , o n l y t h r e e of the a p p l i c a n t s i n t e r v i e w e d c o n s i d e r e d the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency a f i r s t c h o i c e ; few,  Binder, Gertrude,  July,.1956.  p.  31.  i f any,  showed a s i g n i f i c a n t  " P u b l i c i z e , I n t e r p r e t o r R e l a t e ? " , S o c i a l Work,  -  degree o f c o n f i d e n c e  98 -  i n s o c i a l work a s a p r o f e s s i o n l i k e l y t o be h e l p f u l  t o them w i t h t h e i r p e r s o n a l e i t h e r f l u i d o r negative  problems.  expectations  Almost a l l o f t h e a p p l i c a n t s had o f the s e r v i c e they would r e c e i v e  from the agency; f i v e a p p l i c a n t s were openly o r c o v e r t l y d i s t r u s t f u l o f s o c i a l workers.  One a p p l i c a n t s a i d a clergyman would be t h e " r e a l l y  l o g i c a l " source o f help;  another s a i d "a marriage c o u n s e l l o r would be  best"} obviously not connecting  t h e marriage c o u n s e l l o r r o l e w i t h t h a t  o f t h e s o c i a l worker; another s t i l l p r e f e r r e d t h e C h i l d r e n ' s C l i n i c as a s o u r c e o f h e l p s i n c e she thought i t was a " m e d i c a l " when she. l e a r n e d ,  s e r v i c e , and was c o n f u s e d  from the i n t e r v i e w e r , t h a t i t was a s o c i a l worker she had  seen a t t h e C h i l d r e n ' s  Clinic.  A p p a r e n t l y what t h e s o c i a l worker i s o r does i s a mystery t o a number o f p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s ; and i t i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t i n a mystery, u n l e s s  to place  confidence  i t i s a religion.  T h i s i s n o t d i f f i c u l t , t o understand i f the h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l work i n the f a m i l y agency ( o r i n any agency, f o r t h a t matter) i s remembered. i s a l o n g s t o r y from i t s c h a r i t y b e g i n n i n g s t o i t s f e e - c h a r g i n g  It  policies,  from i t s Lady B o u n t i f u l , r e f o r m , and " f r i e n d l y v i s i t o r " days t o i t s modern emphasis on p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s .  Social  workers i n f a m i l y a g e n c i e s have c l o s e d these h i s t o r i c a l gaps t o t h e i r own s a t i s f a c t i o n ; b u t many p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s  (and perhaps, t h e l a r g e r  community i t s e l f ) have n o t c l o s e d them so s u c c e s s f u l l y . S o c i a l work, a t l e a s t i n the f a m i l y agency s e t t i n g , s h o u l d  place  i t s p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s emphasis on c l o s i n g t h i s gap, n o t o n l y i n i t s p u b l i c i t y f o r mass media, b u t f o r each p o s s i b l e r e f e r r a l s o u r c e and f o r each i n d i v i d u a l a p p l i c a n t who r e q u e s t s  service.  T h i s does n o t mean t h a t  the f a m i l y agency must c l o s e i t s doors t o t h o s e who cannot pay f o r s e r v i c e , o r t o those who may seek a s e r v i c e o t h e r  than h e l p w i t h i n t e r - p e r s o n a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; b u t i t does mean t h a t t h e f a m i l y agency, i s , i n some measure, and  unknowingly, c l o s i n g i t s doors t o many p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s who c o u l d use  i t s services. before  Some o f t h e s e p e o p l e a r e coming; t o o many a r e d r o p p i n g o u t  a v a l i d casework s e r v i c e can b e g i n .  - 99 -  In order  t o r e a c h and h o l d these p o t e n t i a l c l i e n t s the family-  agency must n o t o n l y attempt, through p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s measures and other  communication t e c h n i q u e s , i n c l u d i n g the i n t a k e procedure - t o change  prevalent longer  a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l work and t h e " W e l f a r e  valid.  I t perhaps ought t o c o n s i d e r  11  which a r e no  explaining i t s  fee-charging  p o l i c y as f u l l y i n p u b l i c i t y r e l e a s e s as i t does t o each a p p l i c a n t when a request confidence  f o r s e r v i c e i s made.  One a p p l i c a n t expressed h e r l a c k o f  i n t h e agency and i n s o c i a l work i n these words, "When you  have no money, y o u have t o take what you can g e t " .  Another s a i d , "The  man on t h e telephone gave me a d i f f e r e n t s l a n t when he t o l d me about f e e s and t r a i n i n g " .  Another s a i d , "A t h i n g t h a t ' s f r e e i s n ' t  worth much, i s i t ? "  These views may be d i s t o r t e d and u n f o r t u n a t e , b u t  the  usually  f a c t remains t h a t they e x i s t . But  a r e p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s measures n e c e s s a r y a t a l l i f t h e r e a r e  more a p p l i c a n t s than can be coped with?  Does a n y t h i n g  need t o be e x p l a i n e d ?  E a r l i e r i n t h i s study t h e ambiguity between the l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f casework s e r v i c e and the heavy demand f o r such s e r v i c e s , whether u n d e r s t o o d o r n o t , was p o i n t e d o u t .  T h i s poses another dilemma, n o t o n l y  from an  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and casework p o i n t o f view, b u t from a p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s p o i n t o f view, as w e l l . list?  Do p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s e f f o r t s cease when t h e r e i s a w a i t i n g  I t i s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t they tend t o , when r i s i n g demand f o r s e r v i c e s  meets s c a n t y  budgets and a d e a r t h o f t r a i n e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f .  On the  o t h e r hand, t h i s may be a s h o r t - s i g h t e d p o l i c y . James L . T u r r e n t i n e ,  Vice President  o f the Family Service  Association  o f America has s a i d r e c e n t l y , " I t i s my b e l i e f t h a t t h i s v i e w p o i n t ( r e f e r r e d t o above) has dangerous long-range i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the f a m i l y agency.  To  put i t another way, I f i r m l y b e l i e v e t h e r e a r e good r e a s o n s f o r i n t e n s i f y i n g p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s programs when the demand f o r an agency's s e r v i c e exceeds i t s a b i l i t y to provide  i t ..... I n s p i t e o f t h e f r u s t r a t i o n and a n x i e t y i t  may produce among boards and s t a f f s , p r e s s u r e factor.  f o rservice i s a highly positive  (No d y i n g i n s t i t u t i o n ever had t h i s problem.)  r e c o g n i t i o n o f the value  o f f a m i l y casework.  t h a t can e v e n t u a l l y make p o s s i b l e t h e e x t e n s i o n services.  I t i s public  I t i s p r o b a b l y the o n l y  force  o f agency programs and  P r o p e r l y understood and i n t e r p r e t e d , i t can h e l p us r e c r u i t more  100  -  people i n t o the p r o f e s s i o n o f casework.  I t can h e l p us t o g e t a l a r g e r  p o r t i o n o f community f u n d s , and i t can show us how a v a i l a b l e to even more people who  need  t o make our s e r v i c e s  it."  A l t h o u g h Mr. T u r r e n t i n e seems t o borrow from somewhat high-powered s a l e s promotion t e c h n i q u e s , he p r e s e n t s potent arguments. s o l v i n g the dilemma f a c i n g the f a m i l y agency.  H i s i s one way  of  T h i s dilemma has i n i t many  o f the same f a c t o r s i n h e r e n t i n the analogy s k e t c h e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y between the p o l i t i c i a n and h i s " c o n s t i t u e n c y " and the agency and i t s "constituency".  The p o l i t i c i a n , t o get e l e c t e d , must get the v o t e s ;  perhaps  the s o c i a l agency must seek s u p p o r t as a g g r e s s i v e l y as i f i t were r u n n i n g f o r office.  The main f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y have had t o do w i t h a s m a l l , p o t e n t i a l  " C l i e n t - c o n s t i t u e n c y " ; perhaps  the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency must not o n l y f i n d  ways o f g e t t i n g , k e e p i n g and e n l a r g i n g t h i s d e f i n e d c o n s t i t u e n c y , but o f r e a c h i n g out f o r a wider s u p p o r t i n g c o n s t i t u e n c y which w i l l h e l p i t t o  broaden  and expand i t s s e r v i c e s . To f i n d these ways t h e r e might be v a l u e i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s a l o n g different lines.  F i r s t , a companion study t o t h e p r e s e n t one, i n which a  group o f a p p l i c a n t s who would a s s e s s the f a c t o r s c l i e n t " and how  two  have gone on t o become c l i e n t s are i n t e r v i e w e d . which go i n t o the t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f " a p p l i c a n t  It into  these f a c t o r s d i f f e r from those which the p r e s e n t s t u d y has  shown p r e v e n t e d a p p l i c a n t s from becoming c l i e n t s .  Secondly, a q u a l i t a t i v e -  q u a n t i t a t i v e study o f a l a r g e r sample o f community a t t i t u d e s i n g e n e r a l , so t h a t b a r r i e r s t o communication between s o c i a l agency and community, between s o c i a l workers and community, can be s p e c i f i e d , t a b u l a t e d , and  thereupon  a c t i v e l y dealt with. Casework, as a p r o c e s s o f communication, service.  must precede casework as a  An a p p l i c a n t i s not a c l i e n t u n t i l the b a r r i e r s t o communication  between a p p l i c a n t and caseworker  are removed.  S o c i a l work p u b l i c  relations,  by the same token, cannot b e g i n t o be e f f e c t i v e , n o r can any coherent  "public  image" o f the s o c i a l worker be a c h i e v e d u n t i l these same b a r r i e r s are a c t i v e l y brought t o l i g h t and c o u n t e r a c t e d . T u r r e n t i n e , James L., "When Demand Exceeds S u p p l y - Step up Your P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s " , F a m i l y S e r v i c e H i g h l i g h t s , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, F e b r u a r y , I960. 1  APPENDIX A Interview  Questions  How l o n g had y o u r problem e x i s t e d b e f o r e you d e c i d e d t o ask f o r h e l p with i t ?  Can you remember i f a n y t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r happened t h a t made you to ask f o r h e l p ?  Where d i d you f i r s t t h i n k o f g o i n g f o r h e l p ? f e l t t h i s would be the b e s t p l a c e ?  I f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency was of i t ?  your f i r s t  decide  Can you remember why  c h o i c e , where d i d you  you  hear  I f someone e l s e suggested t h a t you g e t i n touch w i t h the F a m i l y S e r v i c e , what d i d you t h i n k o f the i d e a , a t f i r s t ?  In the case o f e i t h e r (k) o r (5), what d i d you expect you would get i n the way o f h e l p w i t h your problem?  Who  d i d you t h i n k would g i v e t h a t h e l p ?  Had you had any c o n t a c t w i t h any o t h e r s o c i a l agency?  Did you have any i d e a s about s o c i a l workers b e f o r e you got t o the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency?  What were y o u r i d e a s a f t e r you had been i n touch?  Why  d i d you d e c i d e n o t t o c o n t i n u e w i t h the s e r v i c e ?  APPENDIX B Letter to Applicants  Dear  Mr,  With the i d e a i n mind o f a t t e m p t i n g t o f i n d out what the people o f t h i s community expect o f the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, Mrs. B e l a n g e r o f our s t a f f - a caseworker w i t h many y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n f a m i l y s o c i a l work - i s s e e k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n which, we hope, w i l l be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e t o the agency and i t s p l a n s f o r t h e f u t u r e . 1  We a r e w r i t i n g t o you, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t o ask f o r y o u r a s s i s t a n c e , because we understand t h a t you c a l l e d the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency l a s t f a l l , b u t , f o r some r e a s o n , d i d not f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h the s e r v i c e as i t was offered. Because o f t h i s , we f e e l t h a t you would be l i k e l y t o have some i d e a s which would be most i m p o r t a n t f o r us t o know. The F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency has always been concerned w i t h t r y i n g to g i v e the f a m i l i e s o f t h i s community the k i n d o f s e r v i c e which they would f i n d most h e l p f u l t o them. However, i t i s sometimes d i f f i c u l t f o r us t o know j u s t what people expect o f our s e r v i c e and even more d i f f i c u l t , sometimes, t o get c o n s t r u c t i v e s u g g e s t i o n s about ways i n which the s e r v i c e might be made more e f f e c t i v e . T h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e as times change and our c i t y grows l a r g e r . We would l i k e you t o be a s s u r e d t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n Mrs. B e l a n g e r i s i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g from you concerns o n l y how you heard about t h e F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency, what your i d e a s were about i t b e f o r e you c a l l e d , and i f these i d e a s changed a f t e r y o u r c a l l . We would a l s o l i k e you t o be c o m p l e t e l y a s s u r e d t h a t any p e r s o n a l o r i d e n t i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about y o u r s e l f o r y o u r f a m i l y w i l l n o t be used i n any way whatsoever. Our o n l y i n t e r e s t i s t o ask, i f we may, f o r your i d e a s about the F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency and any s u g g e s t i o n s you might c a r e t o make about i t . Mrs. B e l a n g e r w i l l be t e l e p h o n i n g you s h o r t l y a f t e r you r e c e i v e t h i s l e t t e r i n t h e hope t h a t she may count on y o u r k i n d c o o p e r a t i o n .  Yours v e r y  sincerely,  Signed: Executive D i r e c t o r .  APPENDIX C Bibliography  B a i l e y , Margaret B., Community O r i e n t a t i o n s toward S o c i a l Casework and Other P r o f e s s i o n a l Resources, D o c t o r o f S o c i a l Work D i s s e r t a t i o n , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , New York, 1958. Bitterman,  Binder,  C a t h e r i n e M., " S e r v i n g A p p l i c a n t s When There i s a W a i t i n g S o c i a l Casework, June, 1958.  List",  G e r t r u d e , " P u b l i c i z e , I n t e r p r e t o r R e l a t e ? " , S o c i a l Work, J u l y ,  Bogardus, Emory S., The Making o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n , York, 1951.  Association Press,  1956.  New  F i b u s h , E s t h e r W., and Reeve, Mary, "Some C u r r e n t C o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the F i e l d o f Casework", S o c i a l Casework, J a n u a r y , 1959* F r e e r , N e l l W i l s o n , B r i e f S e r v i c e i n a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c : A P r e l i m i n a r y S u r v e y , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957. H a l l o w i t z , D a v i d and C u t t e r , A l b e r t V.M.D., "Intake and t h e W a i t i n g S o c i a l Casework, December, 195^*  List",  Hunt, M a r g a r e t , and Kogan, Leonard S., "A Study o f I n t e r r e l a t e d F a c t o r s i n t h e I n i t i a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h New C l i e n t s " , S o c i a l Casework, January, 1951. Kuhn, John G o t t f r i e d , P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e : The R e c i p i e n t s ' E x p e r i e n c e s " , Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, K u r t z , R u s s e l l H., e d . , S o c i a l Work Year Book, N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New York, 1957. p . ^67 - ^73. L e v i t t , Eugene E . , " P a r e n t s ' Reasons f o r D e f e c t i o n from Treatment a t a C h i l d Guidance C l i n i c , Mental Hygiene, October, 19^*8. Paradise,  V i o l a , Toward P u b l i c U n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Casework, R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New York, 19^.  Perlman, H e l e n H a r r i s , "Intake and Some R o l e C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " , S o c i a l Casework, A p r i l , I960. P o r t e r , E . M i l d r e d , Intake P r i o r i t i e s i n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency: A Survey o f W a i t i n g L i s t Cases and A d m i n i s t r a t i v e I m p l i c a t i o n s , Vancouver, 1958, Master o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I960. R i c h , Margaret E . , A B e l i e f i n P e o p l e , F a m i l y America, New York, 1956.  Service Association o f  19^9.  ii  Shyne, Ann W., "What R e s e a r c h T e l l s us about Short-Term Cases i n F a m i l y A g e n c i e s , S o c i a l Casework, May, 1957. "Handbook on S t a t i s t i c a l R e c o r d i n g and R e p o r t i n g i n F a m i l y S e r v i c e A g e n c i e s , F a m i l y S e r v i c e A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, 19^+9. S t e i n e r , Lee R., Where Do People Take T h e i r T r o u b l e s ? , Houghton M i f f l i n Co., Boston, 19^5. W i l e n s k y , H a r o l d L., and Lebeaux, C h a r l e s N., I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New York, 1958. Wolberg, Lewis R., The Techniques o f Psychotherapy, Grune and New York, 195*+.  Stratton,  

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