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The role of work in rehabilitation: a review of welfare agency services for unemployed and handicapped… Thomson, James Bannerman 1962

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THE ROLE OF WORK IN REHABILITATION A Review of Welfare Agency Services for Unemployed and Handicapped Men, Vancouver, i960. -*>y James Bannerman Thomson Thesis Submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work Accepted as conforming to the standard required for the degree of Master of Social Work Sohool of Social Work 1962 The University of British Columbia In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be alloxved v/ithout my written permission. Department of 9 0 V 4 ^ <M o £ t/. The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date 10 /YAy £ ?-i i i ABSTRACT A man grows and develops through the ac t i v i t y of "work". It i s more than a source of income, though this i s apt to he forgotten for the wage earner i n the industrialized money-economy of today. When a man is trained to his capacity and i s employed, he i s an asset to "both his community and himself. He experiences a feeling of self-worth; he can he a figure of respect and adequacy to his wife and children. In contrast to this, a wage-earner decays when exposed to prolonged periods of enforced idleness. Unemployment demoralizes, debilitates and isolates; normal energetio drives may be turned into anxiety, guilt and depression. Unemploy-ment aggravates other personal and social problems which break down men, their wives and children. A l l this i s particularly true among the "lower strata" of the unemployed. In October, 1959» i n Vancouver, almost 20,000 men and women were registered with the National Employment Service. At the same time there were only 1,000 u n f i l l e d job vacancies. In January of the same year, the Special Placements Section for British Columbia had 1,200 registrants, and found jobs for 64. This i s a placement record of one i n twenty. Unemploy-ment Insurance was collected by 1,200 Vancouver persons in Deoember 1959* at the same time that 5»000 unemployed received half a million dollars i n Social Assistance. The Salvation Army, i n 1959» gave Vancouver's unemployed men 167,466 free meals and 13,427 free nights lodging. The Francescan Sisters of Vancouver gave out sandwiches to 300 men each day at 4 o'clock. Of the 100 persons registered with the Epilepsy Centre, over 50 were seeking work. Of 36 new cases opened with the Alcoholism Foundation i n January I960, 28 were unemployed. Eighty per cent of those registered with the John Howard Society had no work. And the vast majority of the addicts asking for help from the Narcotic Addiction Foundation were unemployed. These figures add several dimensions to the simple word "unemployed". The survey of available services, whioh was the second part of the present study, was made through personal interviews (based on a standard schedule of questions) with o f f i c i a l s of a l l agencies having regular contact with unemployed men. This permitted: (a) a composite picture of the lower-stratum or skid row unemployed man, (b) an assessment of current services, with special reference to work needs. The typical skid row unemployed man i s unattached, with few roots i n the community. He i s usually over 40, (though there is a minority group of younger men) with grade school education, no s k i l l , and an irregular work history. Although registered for employment, he i s seldom called for work because he has so l i t t l e to offer. He receives Social Assistance because he has no savings, and i s ineligible for Unemployment Insurance. He usually has some degree of physical d i s a b i l i t y , which may include a problem with alcohol. He i s medically certified as being "capable of l i ^ i t work", but i s physically run-down and has lost the habit of regular work. Services presently available include economic maintenance, food, clothing, shelter, registration for employment and counselling: but these are offered i n varying amounts by a variety of agencies. They meet the basic needs, but they are not coordinated; and most of all,'they do not offer the opportunity to work or alternative training and rehabilitation. i v The immediate need i n Vancouver i s for an active central registry of a l l unemployed, improved communication between the various agencies and services, and the establishment of a central service council to evaluate needs and develop a programme to meet these needs. Comprehensive planning starting from registration, evaluation and training, and ending with job placement, should be the goal: but "sheltered work", for both training and production i s the most practical resource. Insufficient attention has been given to successful programmes of sheltered work and rehabilitation courses i n other countries. These could usefully be considered for adaptation here* preferably on a national scale. V Acknowledgements It i s with pleasure that I express my indebtedness to a l l those heads of agencies who gave so generously of their time, specific knowledge, thoughts and ideas. Only with their cooperation have I been enabled to gather this material which I hope w i l l direct new interest to the subject of the place of "work" i n rehabilitation. I would also like to record my sincere thanks to both Professor W. G. Dixon and Dr. Leonard C. Marsh for their continued intellectual contributions, support and guidance. My fond appreciations go to my wife Jessie, for her help, understanding and ever-present encouragement. t i i TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter I Work Experience and Human Welfare Page Man's growth and development through work. The need for physical a c t i v i t y . Men and work: occupational differentials. Decay through lack of work. Scope of study. Method of study. ..... 1. Chapter II The Unemployed Today* Some Vancouver Measurements. Employment and guidance agencies. Agencies giving economic assistance. Material maintenance agencies. Physically handi-capped oriented agencies. Socially handicapped oriented agencies. The unemployed man i n skid row. In Summary H « Chapter III Services For Unemployed Men Offered by Vancouver  Agencies. The provision of economic maintenance. Works projects and employment. Sheltered work opportunities. Counselling and case work services. In Summary. 37* Chapter IV Training and the ."Sheltered Workshop": Some Basic  Welfare Approaches The training needs of unemployed men. Training and rehabilitation under sheltered conditions. The need for training and sheltered work opportunity in Vancouver: an agency assessment. In Summary 56. Chapter V The. Untrained and the. Disabled Unemployed:  The Need for Coordination of Services Unemployment as a social problem. The division of labor and the jobs available. The lower strata. Services offered. Existing service inadequacies: present needs. 68. Appendices * A. Interview Guide B. Definitions C. List of Agencies and Persons Contacted D. Bibliography v i THE ROLE OF WORK IN REHABILITATION A Review of Welfare Agency Services for Unemployed and Handicapped Men, Vancouv er, 1960. Chapter I WORK EXPERIENCE AND HUMAN WELFARE Unemployment, as a social problem, can be viewed i n varying degrees of depth; but, for two Vancouver business men, i t recently came 1 into sharp, clear focus. The story i s told i n a local newspaper a r t i c l e . The business men had run a three-day advertisement asking for applicants for a single low-paid warehouse job. To receive two hundred applications for i t was a j o l t to the employers who thought that "business seems good to us". "Unemployment" to them meant men li n i n g up at the Salvation Army for soup: they wondered what conditions would be like i n the logging industry, i f they were this bad for low paid jobs in the ci t y . The letters of application came from youngsters out of school, and old men who had retired and could not make ends meet; but most tragic were letters from able-bodied men between the ages of 24 and 40, with wives and children to support. The business men reported that about half of the applicants were of "high a b i l i t y " , many were ski l l e d craftsmen from Europe, some had a measure of university training, and they a l l had the eager hope of "landing" this job. Some pleaded for employment even at a lower wage i f i t had a future. The employers were firm i n their belief that these were not derelicts who had come from the box-cars or from under the Georgia Viaduct. These men had wives and children, and homes to keep up — i f they could find work. One of the business partners 1. Broadfoot, Barry., "Two Hundred Men Apply for Single Low-paid Warehouse Job", Vancouver Sun. December 11, 1958. - 2 -was startled because these applicants did not refer to the present period as a "recession". They called i t a depression. After reading their letters, he wished that he could give every one of them a chance to work, which of course he could not. Another "picture" of unemployment appeared in a local newspaper in December, 1958* It showed men lining up i n front of the employment 1 office of the Public Works Department of the City of Vancouver. Vancouver had a moderate snowfall and some men found work because of i t . As early as 5 l30 i n the morning, men began congregating at the Public Works employment office. During the early morning 72 of the 250 men were hired to clear away snow. Later in the day 100 more were hired. Men waited almost a l l day i n a line-up a half a block long. It was cold and wet, but the waiting group cheered as a truck load of successful applicants drove past carrying their shovels. Some men said that they had been unable to find work for months, others had had a few days work in the past months, while others reported that they had been l a i d off recently. There was joy i n the hearts of those who were allowed to work, sadness and despair i n the minds of the unsuccessful. These pictures from the present — not from the depression thirt i e s — are a salutary reminder that "old fashioned" unemployment i s s t i l l a problem. What are the broader perspectives of it? Man's Growth and Development Through Work Charlotte Towle, one of the most quoted writers on common human needs, has saidt - "Man normally desires a l i f e beyond the narrow confines of an infantile s e l f . He wants to learn, he wants to marry and to establish a family, he wants to work, he wants a p a r t i c i -pating and contributing part i n .the. l i f e of the community. . 1. MacGillivray, Alex., "That White Stuff Means Jobs to Line of Patient Seekers", Vancouver Sun. December 8, 1958. - 3 -He is deeply frustrated when he is denied the requisite opportunities for this f u l l e r l i f e . " 1 Productive, remunerative work engaged i n by a man i n a monetary economy enables him to meet most of his individual and family needs by giving him an income. For the average wage earner, work means money with which he can buy food, clothing and shelter. Worker relationships have been strongly enhanced by the intensified division of labor i n modern industry. Work mates belong to the same union or association, and this functional "community" often plays a greater role i n a man's social interaction than contacts made i n his geographical community. Through a trade union association, a man may find the opportunity for social action, and thus fe e l more a part of his community because he i s helping to shape i t . Many of his recreational associations also may stem from his work mates in his plant or from the "local"union branch. The man with work i s obviously an asset to his community. He knows that he has something to offer, and his community i n turn t e l l s him that he i s of value, that i t needs what he can give. Through his work he produces, and from the fr u i t s of his labor he i s enabled to consume. He i s in this way "integrated into his community", as we say — meaning that he belongs. It gives him a sense of status as an individual; but also lets him feel that he i s making a contribution. Some jobs do this more success-f u l l y than other, of course. But even the manual worker feels self-respect i f he has done a hard day's work. With unemployment, the picture changes. Although there i s statutory equality- before the law,, i t i s a hard fact that police and jurists 1. Towle, Charlotte, Common Human Needs, American Association of Social Workers, New York, 195 5» P» 35• - 4 -are less kindly disposed to a man who i s unemployed. A man with no employ-ment, particularly i f he i s also without a fixed address, has less of a chance of talking his way out of a drunkenness charge, or a charge of disorderly conduct, than a man with steady employment and a good address. In this way, having employment helps a man to be "more equal" i n the eyes of the law. Most important of a l l — i n welfare terms — i s the man that has steady, remunerative work. Because, by this very fact he represents a figure of adequacy and security to his wife and family. "In order to be happy, a person must have a sense of convic-tion about his own worth and dignity. In our culture the individual's sense of worth receives major nourishment from work and the rewards that i t brings. The parent's own sense of worth and of being rewarded for his labor, i s reflected i n his a b i l i t y as a parent to develop i n his children a sense of trust i n the future and convictions about the worth-whileness of work." 1 Through the example of his own work, a father can i n s t i l the virtues of industry into the personality of his children. He can teach them the satisfactions coming from work and the earning of money. Dr. Strecker, the well known psychiatrist, has l i s t e d "the 2 opportunity for work", as one of the basic psychological needs. Most men can derive emotional satisfaction and some degree of contentment from their occupation. Even i f i t has much that i s routine, i t has the personal associations inherent i n working with others. These add to feelings of personal value and status. Some — though not a l l — work offers the opportunity for self-expression; i t may give rewards for individual Industry, or enterprise. . . Work i s certainly an outlet, for 1. Feldman, Frances Lomas, The Family in a Money World. Family Service Association of America, New York, 1957 > P« 40. 2. Strecker, Edward A., Fundamentals of Psychiatry, J.G. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, p. 199. - 5 -built-up energy, and frequently enables the positive channelling of basic aggressive drives. A work situation contributes to the ever developing "ego-identity", and allows the values and ethics of the super-ego to s o l i d i f y into a "work-ideal". At least for the average wage-earner, when he has a regular, satisfying job — even though i t i s often monotonous and sometimes unpleasant — he has come a long way i n his search for security — and perhaps contentment. He w i l l certainly enjoy his leisure more. The Heed for Physical Activity Because of man's biological endowment, i t i s essential for him to exercise his muscles i n some way. Physical ac t i v i t y i s as necessary for well-being as food, clothing and shelter. Man needs exercise for normal growth and development. Today, this can be exerted either through work or through recreation. Recreation — almost unknown to the men, women, children and sweated workers of the Industrial Revolution factory towns — i s now an accepted feature of l i f e for the man who enjoys a forty-hour week. Manual work of course s t i l l entails physical exertion, and this applies particularly to unskilled occupations. However, employment today i s increasingly "labor saving". Even blue collar workers are more often pushing buttons and turning switches from s i t t i n g and standing positions, than l i f t i n g , pulling and pushing with their arms, legs and backs. With the increased technology of material handling, mechanical and electronic production control, along with the expanding office of bureaucracy; more men are getting less exercise at work, and they are turning to leisure and recreational a c t i v i t i e s for this much-needed exercise. Is leisure rest, or exercise? The paradox is a social problem - 6 -when i t takes the form of idleness i n unemployment. Unemployment i s not leisure. It i s inactivity that no one wants. Men and Work* Occupational Differentials Unemployment, like employment, i s not the same thing for every-body, however. Modern industrial society has developed hand-in-hand with a great increase i n the division of laborj and workers i n the wage economy are st r a t i f i e d i n an occupational hierarchy. At the peak of this pyramid are the professional, the entrepreneurs, the executives of industry and commerce. Below this group are the semi-professionals, higher grades of service people, small business operators, etc., then the great army of white-collar workers, c l e r i c a l , office and store personnel. The responsible-skilled are followed by the semi-skilled, and the unskilled and purely manual are at the bottom of the p i l e . There are many reasons — cultural, social, fam i l i a l , personal and educational — which contribute to the placing of a man on this occupational totem pole. Sometimes workmen belonging to newly immigrant ethnic groups find d i f f i c u l t y i n establishing themselves i n anything better than semi-ski l l e d employment because of cultural legacies, custom and language. A man's occupational destiny i s frequently determined to a large extent by the socio-economic class and status of his parents. He knows his family's way of l i f e best, and he may find i t easy to follow, or he may react against i t . Father's footsteps may be easy io walk in , or his aspiration may be too high. Mother may engender too much dependency, or she may reject her son to such an extent that his lack of security precludes job sta b i l i t y . Sibling interrelationships also play their part i n vocational choice and proficiency. Sibling rivalry often strengthens, though some-times i t destroys. A man's wife can be an unmeasurable asset i n helping him to gain his occupational objective, or she can drag him down into occupational impotency. Probably the most important factor i n job determination is education. It equips a man to select, train for, and continue i n employ-ment which uses his maximum capacity. It also provides him with work that i s personally satisfying. When a man i s trained for a specific occupation, and when he has accumulated a number of years experience i n this occupation, his chances of steady employment are obviously better. Although some basic mechanical s k i l l s are interchangeable, many workers these days require retraining. 1 The following table, "The Access to School" shows the true — and insufficiently understood — perspective of the labor market, of vocational training, and educational opportunity i n Canada. (The relative proportions were worked out for 1939 > but current improvements have not been drastic enough to change the main differences i n dimensions). In spite of compulsory free education, free high school, et cetera, only a small minority get to university, and a sizeable proportion of youngsters f a i l to graduate from high school. The greater part of the work force therefore i s artisan: white collar, executive and professional occupations are a minority. While a l l groups are subject to unemployment, there i s much less s t a b i l i t y among the lower-skilled ranks of wage-earners. Deoay Through Lack of Work There are of course other kinds of work besides wage-paid employment. But "work" means a wage paid job to 80 per cent of urban males. For them unemployment i s not leisure, i t means that no job can 1. Marsh, Leonard C , Canadians In and Out of Work. Oxford University Press; Toronto, 1940, p. 247. Reproduced by permission of the author. T H E ACCESS T O S C H O O L " ^ a * * " I . i f f — * ^ — • — r y - 1 — * — • — 1 @ " - j . • (ja • w an • t.» • w F I G . — l ' i » » p « > r t • « » n i t i - ^•C I I I . I I K I ' o f t h < - p r i n c i p i l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e - m o x t t > p i c • I o c u i p i t i n n . i l c l . u « o s to w h i c h they l e a d . ( A p p r o x i m a t e o n l y ) . - 8 -be found. Accordingly, the average wage-earner w i l l decay economically, socially and emotionally through the forced inactivity of unemployment. Dr. Burns, the well known social scientist, who has written more on Social Security matters than any other American, explained the anti-socializing effects of unemployment i n the thirties i n these words* "There i s a considerable body of evidence to support the view that idleness as such, i f long continued, i s a demoral-izing experience for most unemployed persons, especially when they li v e i n a culture which attaches a high value to economic independence and when the i n a b i l i t y to obtain employment effectively isolates the individual from the patterns of l i f e and relationships that are common to other members of the community. In this sense i t i s true that unemployment creates needs that are not met merely by the assurance of an adet_uato alternative flow of income. The pain and sadness of a home where the breadwinner i s out of work i s clearly stated i n this excerpt from a recent a r t i c l e by the socially sensitive Vancouver journalist, Miss Jean Howarth. "The most terrible thing about unemployment i s not that i t means that a family is sometimes hungry, sometimes cold, sometimes badly clad; but that unemployment i t s e l f eats like acid into a family's home, into a family's hope, into faith i n i t s neighbors and i t s nation. . . He goes out every day looking for work, and does not find i t . Logically, he knows that this i s because there are not enough jobs to go around; but i n a l l of his instincts as a man and a husband and a father, he blames himself, he i s ashamed. His whole l i f e i s a turmoil of fear for his family, disgust with himself, and a gradually growing bitterness against a country that has only handouts, not work, for a man who wants only to work. " ^ Family breakdown may also result indirectly from unemployment because of the imbalance in the emotional give and take between husband and wife, ^his has been discussed by Charlotte Towle i n her account of basic human needs. 1. Burns, Eveline M., S o C i a l Security and Public Policy, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, 1930. p. 8. 2. Howarth, Jean, "This is Unemployment", Vancouver Sun, October 31, 1958. p. 26. - 9 -"Out of affectional and economic deprivation i n her earlier years, a woman may bring to marriage a childlike need to be loved and to be cared for. Her husband may be able to meet her excessive need as long as he i s feeling adequate through having a satisfactory work, so that he has status as head of the family and status i n the community as a wage earner. . . Loss of satisfying work and the loss of status entailed i n unemployment may, however, create feelings of inadequacy i n the husband which make him temporarily dependent on her for assurance of love. Unable to meet his affectional need, she may be ir r i t a t e d , particularly when he is showing less affection and providing so l i t t l e . She i s even less able than usual to meet his need. And so mutual frustra-tion may lead to a break-down in a relationship which might have continued had not changed circumstances brought a shift i n the balance of needs." Both parental and community responsibility for the next genera-tion must also be considered. Can a father i n s t i l industry and satis-faction from work into his children i f he i s not experiencing rewarding work? Can children be content and secure when their parents are not? "Empty houses occasioned by the mother's working, parents who are anxious and disturbed over the economic situation, unemployed fathers who are depressed and defeated by a too-competitive world do not give these children the base of security that they s t i l l need to sustain them i n their struggle to make their place i n the group." ^  When the psychological basis for the need to work is considered, i t becomes immediately apparent that a man's feelings and attitudes are negatively affected when he becomes employed. Defence mechanisms w i l l be overworked i n order to retain ego equilibrium i n what may seem to be a r i g i d and rejecting environment. Discontent and dissatisfaction w i l l ensue, and feelings of self worth and individual value w i l l deteriorate. For the unemployed man, basic aggressive drives are often internalized as ho s t i l i t y and anxiety, rather than being channelled into the energy of a satisfying work experience. When there i s continued frustration from 1. Towle, Charlotte, Common Human Needs, American Association of Social Workers, New York, 1955> P« 65. 2. Ibid, p. 42. - 10 -normal aggressive drive outlets, guilt, depression, and even suicidal thoughts may become manifest i n personal and inter-personal l i v i n g situations. Scope of Study This study i s about unemployed men and the social services offered them i n Vancouver. The focus i s on the men of skid row who require training and an opportunity to work. The problem i s that i n Vancouver — and i n Canada — there are thousands of men who are willing and able to work, but work i s not available to them. A man grows and develops through the activity of his work. This i s particularly so for the wage earner i n the industrialized money economy of today. When a man i s trained to his capacity and i s employed, he i s an asset to both his community and himself. He experiences a feeling of self worth, and he i s usually a figure of respect and adequacy to his wife and children^" In contrast to the growth and development that comes with satisfying work experience, a wage earner decays when exposed to pro-longed periods of the enforced idleness of unemployment. In short, unemployment demoralizes; i t debilitates and isolates. Often i t turns normal energetic drives into anxiety, gu i l t , depression and even suicide. Unemployment may either cause or aggravate other personal and social problems which break down men, their wives and children. Social workers know this only too well because they are called i n to deal with the hardest h i t . Today the major source of information for the measurement of unemployment i s the National Employment Service. Most unemployed men are registered, and many of the socially and physically handicapped are - 11 -registered i n the Special Placements Section. Other significant enumera-tions of the amount of unemployment are available from the Unemployment Insurance Commission and from the local Social Assistance r o l l s . The amount of money given by these agencies to unemployed persons i s a measurement of unemployment, however, i t is not widely used. The Salvation Army can measure the amount of unemployment in the city, i n terms of meals served and beds slept i n . Also other religious organiza-tions serving men i n and around Vancouver's skid row note the amount of unemployment in a similar way. The specialist agencies such as the Epilepsy Centre, the Alcoholism Foundation and the John Howard Society, count the unemployed as they register for treatment of their specific problems. If the information from these agencies i s combined i t i s possible to sketch a representative impression of "Vancouver's unemployed man". A l l of these measurements are reviewed i n some part, in the present study. The other side of this picture is J what i s done for the un-employed? Services for unemployed men i n Vancouver are varied, uncoordinated and frequently overlapping. They may meet a l l needs except job finding: most d i f f i c u l t of a l l i s to get appropriate training. Economic assistance i s available to a l l men of good intention, and i t is sufficient to "keep body and soul together". The Winter Work's Incentive Program has brought work to a few of Vancouver's unemployed. The sheltered workshops of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society and the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, offer both training and productive work to only a small handful of the physically and socially handicapped persons who could benefit from such opportunities. - 12 -While counselling and social casework may be necessary to help men restore their personal capacity, they are also important elements i n training programs and in physical and social rehabilitation. Method of the Study The unemployed men and the services offered them, f i r s t became 1 known to the writer i n 1958 - 1959* It was at this time that the general thesis of the present study was formulated. The greatest part of the s t a t i s t i c a l and attitudinal data was obtained by interviewing responsible persons in the various agencies and 2 services administering to the needs of the unemployed men. During these interviews with the executive secretary, the administrator, or perhaps 3 the supervisor; an outline of main questions was followed. This inter-view guide assisted i n structuring the interview so that the facts of unemployment could be systematically e l i c i t e d . Some of the facts of major concern were those pertaining to the agencies' contact with un-employed men as individuals. Both description and classification of unemployed men were in this way made possible. Additional and supplementary facts and attitudes were gathered from selected agency records. The opening chapter of this survey delineates what work means to men. Physical well-being, personal satisfactions, intra-family harmony, and social and economic balance are considered. The hierarchy 1. The writer was a staff Social Worker with the Vancouver City Social Service Department in Vancouver's skid row from October 1, 1958 to September 7, 1959* 2. A l i s t of the positions f i l l e d i n the agencies of the individuals interviewed is compiled i n Appendix "C". 3. This outline i s reproduced i n Appendix "A". A few relevant definitions are also appended, (Appendix "B"). - 13 -of occupations along with the major differentials are related directly to the position that the unemployed man on skid row finds himself i n . An attempt has also been made i n this section to bring out the negative feeling tones which express the hardships, the frustration and the decay that accrue to am unemployed man. The next chapter is a review of the present state of unemploy-ment with the focus on the men i n skid row. This information is ordered according to agency function and includes numerical statements of the amount of unemployment and a specific description of types and classes of men who are unemployed. Chapter III delineates the quality and quantity, and the variety, of services offered to unemployed men by Vancouver agencies and social service departments. The major services of economic mainten-ance, food, clothing, shelter, counselling and work i t s e l f are dealt with. Training and rehabilitation needs of unemployed men are gone into i n the second last chapter where the focus i s on the role of the sheltered workshop and what i t oan offer to the physically and socially handicapped. The f i n a l chapter takes the form of a summary, with additional statements i n reference to existing service inadequacies and suggestions as to how present needs may be met. In the appendices w i l l be founds a copy of the interview guide; a l i s t of pertinent definitions; a l i s t of agencies and persons contacted; and a bibliography of books, articles and reports to which reference has been made. Chapter II THE UNEMPLOYED TODAYt SOME VANCOUVER MEASUREMENTS There are many evidences of unemployment i n Vancouver today. Social agencies and social workers are always in touch with men whose problems include unemployment and inadequate employment. The National Employment Services are flooded with job applicants, and the Unemploy-ment Insurance Commission offices serve long lines of beneficiaries. Every morning and evening men line up for free soup at 119 East Cordova Street and every afternoon a similar line — but longer — can be viewed at 373 East Cordova Street, where men get free sandwiches. .Some of these men are i n receipt of some form of economic assistance, but they are a l l unemployed. On the streets every day there are men who are easily identi-f i e d as unemployed. The reasons are varied: too old, too young, poorly trained, seasonal workers, transient workers. According to the s t r a t i f i -cation of the labor market, these, along with men with social and physical handicaps are frequently the ones who compete with least efficiency for jobs. In Vancouver there i s no central agency where a l l unemployed men are required to register, although this has been urged from time to time. And because of the variety i n the ways that an unemployed man can meet his needs, no welfare organization has a monopoly on the provision of the required services. A wide variety of agency services exist; (a) those that offer employment registration and vocational guidance, - 15 -(b) those that offer various forms of economic assistance,(c) those offering the material assistance of food, clothing and shelter, (d) those that are specifically concerned with the needs of particular physical handicapped groups, and (e) those that cater to particular groups of socially handicapped persons. This classification i s followed i n the chapters that follow. Registration with both public and private agencies i s almost always voluntary. Often i t is very informal and considerable dupli-cation of services results because of the lack of cross-checking. For these reasons the st a t i s t i c s presented for each of the following agencies are specific to that agency's experience, and i t i s impossible to obtain an unduplicated count of unemployed men. It is not the intention of this study to attempt such a count and the unemployment picture would be distorted i f the figures obtained from different agencies were simply added together. Despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s , the mosaic of unemployment comes to l i f e when the multiple and undisputable statements concerning men without work are brought together. Employment and Guidance Agencies The National Employment Service of the Unemployment Insurance Commission reported on April 20, I 9 6 0 , that there were 566,000 men and 1 women seeking work i n Canada. Persons with jobs i n January, I960, 2. were estimated by the Employment Service to be just over 5,500,000. This means that over nine per cent of the labor force — almost one worker i n ten -— was looking for a job.. 1. United Press International news dispatch, The Vancouver Sun, A p r i l 20, I960. 2. Canadian Press news dispatch, The Vancouver Province, March 24, I960. - 16 -In the calendar year of 1959» the National Employment Service in B r i t i s h Columbia received just over 500,000 applications for employ-ment. Of these, about one-half were from residents of Vancouver. The Employment Service includes i n i t s "placement figures" those cases that have been transferred to other d i s t r i c t s . However, even with these transferred cases included, the total placements for the province were fewer than 130,000, or about one i n four applicants. The placements for the City of Vancouver were i n the same ratio,ramounting to about 1 60,000 persons. The Br i t i s h Columbia Regional Director of the Employment Service has recently quoted the following figures on unemployment i n this region. At the peak of unemployment, which is usually January, i n the years 1957 and 1959 > 16 per cent of the labor force was un-2 employed. In the year 1958 this figure had risen to 20 per cent. One man i n five was not working, with the result that he probably had to be cared for, along with his family — i f he had one — from the income of the four men who were working and producing. In the City of Vancouver on October 29, 1959 > there were almost 20,000 men and women registered with the National Employment 3 Service. On the same date there were only 1,000 u n f i l l e d vacancies. This meant that there were 20 men looking for employment when only one job vacancy was l i s t e d as being vacant. This statement is of course an over-generalization, because many of these men looking for a job . . 1.- Canada, National Employment Service, Employment Observations  Pacific Region 1959-58-57. mimeographed report, Vancouver, i960. 2. Keetch, Horace,. "Unemployment .- Plans for P u l l Employment".,, an address given at the Unemployment Conference. Vancouver and Dis t r i c t  Labour Council. A p r i l 3» 1959• 3. Canada, Unemployment Insurance Commission, Unfilled Vacancies  and Registrations at October 29. 19*59. City of Vancouver, mimeographed report, Vancouver, 1959* - 17 -were unskilled, while most of the job vacancies were for specialists of one type or another. The picture i s however, clear that the unf i l l e d vacancies have l i t t l e or nothing to offer the men who are either regular or sporadic applicants for the services of the private and public wel-fare agencies. Job opportunities for the handicapped person are even more scarce. The record of the Special Placements Section of the National Employment Service for the Province of Bri t i s h Columbia during the month of January, 1959» was that of placing 64 men i n employment. The unplaced 1 applicants registered for the same month totalled over 1,200. This reflects a placement record of about one in twenty, or five per cent. It i s clear that this i s completely unsatisfactory in meeting the work needs of the handicapped unemployed person. No wonder the Employment Service refers men back to the John Howard Society, the Canadian Arthri-t i s and Rheumatism Society, and the Epilepsy Society i n the hopes that they, the private agencies, can provide work for the handicapped. A spokesman for the Special Placements Section, City of Vancouver, e s t i -mated that i n the month of March, I960, there would be about 400 unplaced male applicants. According to his monthly report which was not quite complete for March, i960; 90 of the total group would be placeable with normal effort; 190 would require special effort; and over 70 were only pa r t i a l l y employable. Some of the di s a b i l i t i e s l i s t e d with their frequency are as follows: lung trouble 26, heart trouble 35» hearing defects 10, rheumatism 11, orthopaedics 70» psychoses 14» old 2 age 11,. and personal problems, 60., . 1.- Neish, J.E-, Canada,, National Employment Service,. Special Place-ments Section, Unplaced Applicants and Placed Applicants. 1959. personal records, Vancouver, i960. 2. Canada, National Employment Service, Special Placements Section, City of Vancouver, J.M. Brooks, Supervisor, Unemployment Insurance  Commission Report of Special Placements, March, I960, Vancouver, i960. - 18 -This report gives some indication of the numbers and the employability of some of our disabled unemployed. Most of these men need both assistance i n obtaining a job, and assistance i n maintaining i t on a non-competitive basis. There are certainly many more disabled persons who are unemployed because of their handicaps, but who are not registered with the Employment Service. Many know the f u t i l i t y of registration, others are "work shy" because of social or personal prob-lems, and others have established irregular means of obtaining food, clothing and shelter, which meet their needs but which are outside the norms of regular work situations. The individual records of applicants at the Employment Service contain such information as age, marital status, training and work history; but, as yet, this information has not been tabulated. This i s the information which can be helpful when some type of sheltered work opportunity i s organized for the rehabilitation of the disabled persons concerned. In the year 1958, the Youth Counselling Service tested and counselled 800 persons. Another I65 persons were interviewed primarily as to vocational and academic information. Of the group tested, the 1 mean age was 27 years. Almost 20 per cent of the persons tested were older women who had grown-up children s t i l l attending school. Many of these had been referred from the City Social Service Department because of their desire to get off Social Assistance and into some part-time occupation for which they were suited. Almost the total number of applicants to the Counselling Service were untrained and unemployed. A few. were attending a high school and .were thus not available to -the 1. Youth Counselling Service for Br i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report. 1958. mimeographed report, Vancouver, 1959* - 19 -labor market. Some of this number had means and plans by which they aspired to continue their training, while most, were searching for some guidance as to which occupation would guarantee them steady, satisfying work. Physically disabled persons made up 30 per cent of total applicants, and another 30 per cent were classified as having 1 a social d i s a b i l i t y . The Past President of the B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Labor, which has a membership of 140,000 trade unionists, was of the opinion that_the majority of unemployed men were between 45 and 60 years of age, and that many had been displaced by automation. He f e l t that most union men that were unemployed were at least semi-skilled, married, and were dependent on seasonal employment. Other s k i l l e d craftsmen are unemployed simply because of lack of work opportunity i n their trades. A case i n point is that of the Shipwrights, Boatbuilders, Joiners and Caulkers, Vancouver Local 506 of the United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America. Their business agent reported i n A p r i l , i960, that 100 of their members, about one third of their total membership were out of work because of lack of work at the Burrard Dry Dock and a general slow up of boat repair jobs 2 coming into Vancouver ship yards. It i s certainly a waste of productive manpower when 100 highly sk i l l e d and well qualified tradesmen are with-out work opportunity. These are some of the men who are l i s t e d by both the National Employment Service and by the Unemployment Insurance 1. This information was offered by Mr. R.J. Tettamanti, Executive Director of the Youth Counselling Service, during a personal interview March 9» I960, i n Vancouver. 2. Blunden, Dennis. "Shipwright Union Retrenches to Weather Jobless C r i s i s " , The Vancouver Sun, April 23, i960. - 20-Commisaion as being, "capable and available for work", and as being, " i n receipt of benefits". Agencies Giving Economic Assistance The Unemployment Insurance Commission reported that for the f i s c a l year of 1958-59» one and three quarter million claims were made in Canada for unemployment insurance. Payment for these claims reached 1 close to $500,000,000. Even i n consideration that some men may have claimed a number of times during the year, i t i s fantastic to think that with a labor force of five and one half million persons, almost one and one half million of these have been without work, apparently willing and certainly registered for work, for a portion of the year. Contributions to the Unemployment Insurance Fund f e l l far short of meeting the benefit need during this period. Between the f i s c a l years 1957-58 and 1958-59, the Fund dropped from three quarters of a b i l l i o n dollars to half a b i l l i o n dollars, the 2 largest annual drop since the Fund's inception. It i s obvious that the flaw i n the normal functioning of this social invention i s that jobs cannot, and are not, offered to those unemployed after a reasonable period of unemployment. The B r i t i s h Columbia experience i n the 1958-59 f i s c a l year was to the effect that on the last day of December, 1958, there were 65,000 claimants for regular Unemployment Insurance, and 14,000 claimants for 5 seasonal benefits. 1. Canada, Unemployment Insurance Commission, Eighteenth Annual Report  Fi s c a l Year Ending Maroh 31. 1959. Ottawa. 1959, P« 23 2. Ibid, p. 30 3. Ibid, p. 46 - 21 -The picture i n the City of Vancouver as presented by the Supervisor of Insurance, Unemployment Insurance Commission, Vancouver Local Office, i s that i n February, I960, about 1,200 persons collected Unemployment Insurance each week. In a personal interview he stated that moneys paid out i n such benefits amounted to about $100,000 per day. There i s no breakdown available as to the classification of these recipients, but he f e l t that about 30 per cent of a l l claimants were women and that 40 per cent of these were not looking for employ-ment and, i f offered employment, would refuse i t . He added that these women, along with many other workers, only plan to work as employees for part of the year, and that they either work "for themselves" or do not work at a l l during the time they are i n receipt of Unemployment Insurance. His view of this unhealthy situation was similar to that voiced by many people who are concerned with unemployment and i t s cost to the community. It was his opinion that u n t i l a person collecting Unemployment Insurance can be asked to report to work on a job within a short period of time after becoming unemployed, such gross abuses of Unemployment Insurance w i l l continue and the cost to the contributors w i l l continue to r i s e . Unemployment, from the point of view of the City Social Service Department, i s as follows. The Assistant Administrator reports that i n the month of December, 1959» over 2,200 able bodied men and women received Social Assistance. During the same period over 2,800 persons 1 with medical d i s a b i l i t i e s were, i n receipt of Social Assistance. 1. City of Vancouver,. Social Service Department, Statement of Case  Load and Expenditures. December. 1959. mimeographed report, Vancouver, I960. These figures do not include dependent children and spouses of married recipients, and they do not include those recipients of Social Assistance who are residents of boarding and nursing homes. The total cash support granted to these persons during this month 1 was almost 500,000 dollars. Specific information about persons receiving assistance i s on f i l e , but there i s no recent compilation of this data. The Assistant Administrator suggests that 65 per cent of assistance recipients are untrained, and that there are very few white collar workers among them. He would guess that one-third of the single men receiving assistance have a problem with alcoholism. In 1955» "the Single Men's Section, Supervisor, City Social Service Department, did a study of 2,446 applications by single men 2 for unemployment assistance. This study covered the period of December 21, 1954 to July 15, 1955» and some of the findings throw considerable light on the various types, classes, varieties of men who are receiving Unemployment Assistance. Unemployment Assistance was granted to 1,936 men who applied for i t . The average age of the men was 42 years, with a concentration of 53 per cent being between 40 and 60 years of age. The unskilled applicants made up 50 per cent of the total with the semi-skilled making up to 24 per cent. Of the total number of applicants, 452 had arrived i n the B r i t i s h Columbia area within the past five years. Those born i n Canada made up 60 per cent. Single men numbered 1,244, separated 489, divorced ,118,. and 85 were widowed.. Only 486 1. Ibid. 2. Colcleugh,. Murray C , Assistance to Single Unemployed Men  December 1954 to July 1955. City of Vancouver Social Service Department, Vancouver 1955• - 23 -were eligible for Unemployement Insurance Supplementary Benefits, while just 70 received regular Unemployment Insurance Benefits. Those not eli g i b l e for any Unemployment Insurance numbered 1,208. Those charged and/or convicted under the Drug Addictions Act numbered 101. By October 1, 1955* 28 of these had been incarce-rated under the same Act. Social Assistance was stopped i n the case of 72 men who did not heed the warning of the Department to refrain from their alcoholic habit to the extent of incurring no further S.I.P.P. (SeenIntoxicated i n a Public Place) charges. Those charged with intoxication during the period of the study numbered 391* Breaches of the law, ranging from shoplifting to robbery with violence brought 92 of these men into court. An additional 257 men had spent a period i n j a i l at some time prior to their application for assistance. This figure was thought to be low, because no direct question was asked as to the man's having been incarcerated. Applications of 510 men were rejected or not completed. Reasons for this varied from, not keeping appointments, being el i g i b l e for Unemployment Insurance, f a i l i n g to confirm domicile, having a permanent income, l i v i n g with relatives, or having li q u i d assets. Ci1y Social Service had a previous personal experience with 677 men. The range of assistance granted was from 1 to 29 weeks, with an average of 13.5 weeks. Only 43 of the men were i n receipt of a small war disabi l i t y pension; 45, of a small Workmen's Compensation Pension; and 4, of an income from other sources. - 24 -Material Maintenance Agencies During the year 1959* the Salvation Army Harbour Light Corps gave 167,466 free meals to unemployed men. These meals were provided after a morning service about ten o'clock, and after an evening service about nine o'clock. Many of the unemployed men who availed themselves of the free meals required free lodging, and the Harbour Light Corps 1 met this need to the extent of 13,427 beds. More meals and beds are provided during the winter months, but the need for this service exists and i s provided for atJ a l l times. The Corps Commandant suggested i n a personal interview i n February, I960, that about 40 per cent of the unemployed men served were between the ages of 20 and 45, with perhaps 20 per cent over 65 years of age. His estimate i s that 40 per cent of these men are seasonal workers during the summer, with a higher percentage relying on seasonal work during the winter. He f e l t that half of the total group were alcoholics and that about 15 per cent were physically dis-abled. He would estimate that 50 per cent of the men had no special training, and that 30 per cent could be classified as white collar workers. The Harbour Light Corps offers double room residence for about 70 men who are undergoing rehabilitation. These men are"converts" and they provide the manpower for the day to day operation of the Corps services. Of these men, half are on Social Assistance and about one-quarter of the group receive some other form of public assistance. 1. Salvation Army Harbour Light Corps, Harbour Lighter. January, i960, Volume 5, Number 1, Vancouver i960. - 25 -At the Salvation Army Dunsmuir House i n the last three months of 1959* about 1,000 men came requesting emergency assistance. This i s an average of over 10 men a day seeking food and shelter, and there i s no duplication in this count over a three month period because a separate record was kept of each individual applicant. The Brigadier f e l t that many of these men d r i f t down to Harbour Light and the Central City Mission and he was certain that there was some over-lapping i n the services these agencies offered. The Salvation Army Men's Social Service Centre has only a small contact with unemployed men and has no record as to their numbers or cla s s i f i c a t i o n . The Padre of the Central City Mission stated that i n the year 1959» he averaged over 50 interviews with unemployed men every day. Many of these men come back a number of times, some of them have so l i t t l e to offer that he does not expect them to settle into steady employment, but a few remain i n employment and are struck off his growing l i s t of unemployed men. Not oounted i n these 50 interviews a day, i s a group of men that the Central City Mission has li s t e d as "undesirables". These men are not allowed into the building and they may not benefit from the Mission's services. This l i s t includes 284 chronic alcoholics who cannot provide room and food for themselves. There are 4 drug addicts, 21 "general trouble-makers" and 3 "fire-bugs"; 7 men are "very dirty" and 2 are homosexuals. There are 29 chronic bed-wetters, 2 double amputees, and 2 are mentally disabled. One i s senile and 5 steal continuously from dormitories. The Padre said that the police have a l i s t of 1,500 such persons who live i n Vancouver. - 26 -These are some of the human "beings that even the private agencies have cast out. Perhaps the majority of these men cannot now benefit from a work experience. They just have to be cared for. The priest at the Catholic Sailors' Club reported that he i s i n contact with about 50 men a month. The majority of them are between 18 and 40, with a concentration between the ages of 25 and 55* Most of them are laborers, with about 10 per cent being physically disabled. The Father f e l t that half of them are socially disabled, and that of the total number, 40 per cent "have no future". Many of them are on Social Assistance, and a few are in receipt of Unemployment Insurance. The Francescan Sisters of Atonement give out sandwiches every afternoon about 4 o'clock to these, and other unemployed men i n the d i s t r i c t . Each day about 300 men stand patiently i n line to receive this free food. Physically Handicapped Oriented Agencies The Provincial Rehabilitation Coordinator worked with about 100 new cases i n the year 1959* Besides these new cases, an additional 100 cases were carried over from the previous year. He was able to complete the rehabilitation program for 90 of these cases. This i n -cluded job placement. Of these 90 cases, 40 were between the ages of 21 and 30. The distribution of age was rather evenly spread between those i n their teens, t h i r t i e s , forties and f i f t i e s . Public assistance 1 was being received by 44, and 41 were i n receipt of private assistance. The Epilepsy Centre has recently completed an analysis of their f i r s t 100 registered cases, and the following are some of their 2 findings. The unemployed group numbered 53, with 30 others not 1. Bradbury, C.E., Report of the Rehabilitation Coordinator. December 31, 1959, Province of Br i t i s h Columbia, mimeographed report, Vancouver, I960. 2. B r i t i s h Columbia Epilepsy Society, The Firs t Hundred, mimeographed report, Vancouver, i960. - 27 -seeking work i n the labor market. There were only 7 who had regular, gainful employment. Those between the ages of 21 and 50, numbered 60. Of the group, 60 were single, and 17 were married. Social adjustment was affected seriously and moderately i n 60 of the cases, and severe emotional disturbance was evident in 13 cases. Mental retardation was evident i n 4 cases and 5 cases were physically disabled. Those with some high school education numbered 36, and 41 were non-skilled. Only 21 were economically independent, while 33 were dependent on some form of public support. The Canadian Art h r i t i s and Rheumatism Society admits about 200 new cases each month i n the province of Bri t i s h Columbia. About 40 of these are admitted i n the Greater Vancouver Area. In the year 1959» the Society served 4»500 patients i n B r i t i s h Columbia and almost 300 of these were i n Vancouver taking treatment on an outpatient basis. Those being treated on an inpatient basis numbered 80. The figures for those unemployed were not readily available. However, the Execu-tive Secretary f e l t that nearly a l l of their cases were unemployed 1 and seeking employment within their capacity. A number of studies are available which throw light on the numbers and classification of the clients of the Society. One study conducted from October, 1955» to September, 1959» recorded the referral 2 of 113 a r t h r i t i c s to the Arts and Crafts Workshop in Vancouver. 1. Miss R. McLeod, Executive Secretary, Canadian A r t h r i t i s and Rheumatism Society, Vancouver, offered these figures i n a personal interview, March, i960. - 2. Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society,- City, of Vancouver, Referrals - Arts and Crafts. October. 1955 - September. 1959. mimeographed report, Vancouver, 1959« - 28 -Of this group, 69 were under 65 years of age. Of those referred, 25 did not attend, and 28 continued i n the workshop after the period of study. The small number of referrals to the Workshop were due to i t s limited capacity. These figures indicate the large percentage of ar t h r i t i c s that are older and less able to become a part of the labor force on the open competitive market. Another study i s recorded by Dr. Robinson, Medical Director of the B r i t i s h Columbia Division of the Arthritis and Rheumatism 1 Society. In this study of 104 patients admitted from 1952 to 1955 inclusive, 46 were men. Of this group, 10 were admitted for training i n self-help alone, while 36 were capable of self-care and could ambulate. It was possible to follow 34 of these men over a two year period. Their average age was 39, and on admission, 26 were out of work. Only five were working to their capacity. Their work background was as follows: heavy labor 19, trades 7> white collar 4, miscellaneous 4» These figures indicate that there are a significant number of unemployed men who are disabled by a r t h r i t i s and rheumatism. Many of these men are older and unskilled, and their only r e a l i s t i c opportunity to contri-bute to the extent of their capacity, i s under sheltered conditions. The Canadian National Institute for the Blind reports that 2 on March 31, 1959, there were 23,263 blind Canadians. About 10 per cent of these were i n the province of British Columbia, and of this group, over 1,000 were employed in consession stands. About 300 others were employed i n industry, and C.N.I.B. sheltered workshops. 1. Robinson, Harold S., "The Cost of Rehabilitation in Rheumatic Disease", Journal of Chronic Diseases. Volume 8, Number 6, December, 1958, pp. 713-718. , . .2. The. Canadian National Institute for the Blind, National Report  Year Ended March 31. 1959. Toronto, p. 5. - 29 -Mr. Ogilvie, Assistant Superintendent of C.N.I.B. British Columbia, has stated that i n the year 1959» there were 290 newly blind persons i n the Province, most of whom were unemployed on registration. The figures which would show the number of this group that are capable of and desire employment, are not readily available, but i t i s f e l t that a significant number of them could be so classified. The vast majority of blind persons have to be trained, or re-trained upon onset of blindness. Most blind persons are older, over 55» and many of them are single. Socially Handicapped Oriented Agencies The Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia, i n the month of August, 1959» admitted 24 new cases, and re-opened 11 cases. Of the new cases, 8 were unemployed, 22 were male and 19 were sober on 1 making their application for admittance for treatment. During the month of January, I960, 36 new cases were opened and 28 of these were 2 unemployed. In the f i s c a l year ending the 31st of March, 1959» 481 new cases had been admitted and 320 of these had been unemployed on 3 admission. The Executive Director of the Alcoholism Foundation, reported that i n the period of Apr i l 1, 1955» to March 1, 1959, a total of 1625 men and vomen had been contacted by the staff of the Foundation. He stated that 1,100 of these were between the ages of 31 and 50, that about 50 per cent of these were ski l l e d , and about 25 per cent were white collar workers. He adde.d .that the Foundation works mainly with . - 1.. The Alcoholism Foundation of Bri t i s h Columbia, Treatment andi-Case  Statistics. Month of August, 1959» Vancouver. 2. The Alcoholism Foundation of Br i t i s h Columbia, Treatment and Case  Statistics'. Month of January, i960, Vancouver. 3. The Alcoholism Foundation of Br i t i s h Columbia, Treatment and Case  Sta t i s t i c s , Month of March, 1959, Vancouver - 30 -the client who ie i n the middle upper class socio-economic bracket. One of the reasons for this i s that members of this class appear to have more motivation to overcome their i l l n e s s from alcohol, than members of skid row society. He f e l t that most of those that were unskilled were in receipt of Social Assistance. During the month of July, 1959, the staff of the John  Howard Society conducted 170 interviews with ex-inmates. New and reopened cases numbered 36 for this period. In January, i960, interviews increased to 249, with new and reopened oases numbering 1 I44. The total active caseload at the beginning of i960 was 346. The Executive Director of John Howard, stated that the vast majority of the new and reopened cases were those of unemployed men, and that about 80 per cent of their total cases were unemployed. He added that i t i s the exceptional man who comes out of prison that has a job to go to, and that only 15 per cent of men incarcerated are eli g i b l e for Unemployment Insurance benefits. This indicates a positive correlation between men committing crimes and men being unemployed. He stated that many ex-inmates are seasonal workers, that most are un-trained, and that a few were, white collar workers. He f e l t that many of them were casual workers, that a few had physical handicaps and that a l l of them had some degree of social maladjustment. Their major handicap i s that they "have records", and many of them have their social adjustment complicated by alcoholism and/or narcotic addibtion. He suggested that he found most of his clients single, and between the ages of. 20 and 35» • 1.. John Howard Society, S t a t i s t i c a l Summary of Case Work Services  January. 1959 - January. I960. Vancouver. . . . - 31 -The Salvation Army Correctional Services Department reports a similar picture to that of the experience of John Howard. The Corps Officer's opinion was that most of the ex-inmates that he had been in contact with were untrained and could be classified as being "young adults". He stated that during the month of February, I960, over 500 office interviews had been devoted to offering some type of social service to these men. The Director of the Narcotic Addiction Foundation stated i n his 1958-59 Annual Report, that there were 1,500 addicts i n the Greater 1 Vancouver D i s t r i c t . He added that most of these, at some time or other, are l i k e l y to serve prison terms either for the possession of drugs, or for i l l i c i t a c t i v i t i e s indulged i n for the purpose of enabling them to "keep their habit". In the 1958-59 f i s c a l year, 93 men and women sought treatment at the Foundation. Of the 27 women, 12 were under 20 years of age, 5 were between 21 and 25» and 6 were between 26 and 30. None were over 40. Of the 66 men, 10 were under 20, 18 were between 21 and 25, 16 were between 26 and 30 and only 8 were over forty. Those between 31 and 45 a l l had lengthy prison records. Of the 93 seeking treatment, 2 56 requested withdrawal and 37 wanted rehabilitation. The Senior Social Worker reported that with few exceptions, those who come to the Foundation are unemployed. He added that, because of the high cost of drugs, practically a l l addicts were offenders.. Their i l l e g a l a ctivity was usually that of prostitution . , 1.. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of Brit i s h Columbia, Third Annual  Report. 1958-1959. Vancouver. 2. Ibid. - 32 -and shop l i f t i n g . He f e l t that a majority of them were alcoholics and about half of them were i n receipt of Social Assistance. It was his experience that very few of them had any special employment q u a l i f i -cations. The Unemployed Man i n Skid Row Information about most unemployed men i n Vancouver's skid row d i s t r i c t i s on f i l e with the City Social Service Department, or the National Employment Service. However, this information has not been tabulated with the result that i t i s not readily available for presentation. The following composite picture has been developed from data sources previously mentioned. Most of these men are "unattached"; being single, separated, divorced or widowed. They are thus unencumbered with family l i v i n g and responsibility and they usually live i n single rooms, and have few roots i n the community. They frequently — especially during the winter months — sleep i n men's hostels, eat at the "soup kitchens", and wear second-hand clothing. Although there are a significant number between the ages of 20 and 40, most skid row men are between 40 and 60. Most have had only grade school education, some have less than average mental a b i l i t y , and some have d i f f i c u l t y with the English language. Most are unskilled, having had no specific trades training, and many are semi-skilled, having had training on the job. Many have an irregular work history with much unemployment. Many only work occasionally, usually according to the seasons — construction, logging, farming or fishing busy periods. Most have - 33 -registered with the National Employment Service, and those i n receipt of Social Assistance, report back to the Employment Service on a weekly basis. Some report back on their own, knowing f u l l well that even i f they are offered a job, i t would demand more than they had to offer, and thus, i t would be short lived. This particularly applies to the men who are registered with the Special Placements Branch of the National Employment Service. Most of these men receive Social Assistance, because they have not "sufficient stamps" to become el i g i b l e for Unemployment Insur-ance. Usually, their only assets are the clothing and personal possessions that they can carry i n a suitcase. They frequently do not have good clothing with which to try and impress a prospective employer. They are members of the lower socio-economic class, and they live from month to month on their Social Assistance Allowance of $55.00. Most of the older men have physical d i s a b i l i t i e s : aches, pains, rheumatism and a r t h r i t i s , shortness of breath, and digestive and heart complaints. Many of these organic symptoms are exaggerated by alcoholism, insufficient and inadequate food and irregular hours. The younger men have fewer somatic complaints but they are frequently "run down" and i n less than normal physical condition. Many have been medically cert i f i e d as only "capable of light work". Some have psycho-somatic complaints, and a number are borderline psychotics. A very few are blind. A l l of these men have — i n large part — lost the habit of regular work. Many have no work tolerance and many are work-shy. The: - 54 -unemployed on skid row also include significant numbers of sociopaths and other social misfits. Some have rather regular periods of incar-ceration for breaches of the law, and others are frequently bothersome to the police. The local constables have long l i s t of those they c a l l "undesirables". In Summary Of the many men unemployed i n Vancouver today, this study i s mainly concerned with the unemployed of the "lower ranks", of those on skid row. Social workers and other staff i n a wide variety of public and private agencies, meet some of the basic needs of these men; but services are often duplicating and overlapping. Coordination between the services i s lacking and records of contacts with unemployed men are diversely kept. In spite of this haphazard, uncoordinated concern for unemployed men, a comprehensive and illuminating assessment of the un-employment problem can be made. In Vancouver during 1959» one applicant in four who applied through the National Employment Service was placed. The men who were untrained, unskilled and had physical and social d i s a b i l i t i e s were those who were not placed. In the same year, the Special Placements Section of the Employment Service maintained a placement record of five per cent. Vocational testing and evaluation is available to those who know of the Youth Counselling Service. The cost of a l l unemployed men to the Unemployment Insurance Commission ( i e . , to the Canadian people) i n 1958 was half a b i l l i o n dollars. In Vancouver, 1,200 persons collect this insurance each week. Social Assistance i n December, 1959, for 5,000 Vancouver unemployed - 35 -amounted to half a million dollars. In 1959 "the Salvation Army Harbour Light Corp gave 167,466 free meals to unemployed men, and provided 13,427 beds for those who had no other place to sleep. In this same year the Central City Mission was interviewing an average of 50 unemployed men each day and offering food and lodging for many more. The Mission has a l i s t of over 350 "undesirables'* who are excluded from their services, and they state that the police have a similar l i s t including 1,500 persons. The Catholic Sailors' Club offers food and shelter services to about 50 men a month. The Prancescan Sisters give sandwiches to about 300 men every day at 4 o'clock. Special rehabilitation for 90 cases was successfully com-pleted i n 1959 by the Provincial Rehabilitation Coordinator. Many more cases were not even referred to the Coordinator because of their i n a b i l i t y to meet educational requirements or because they were not judged to be particularly good rehabilitation risks. Of the f i r s t 100 persons to register with the Epilepsy Centre, over 5° were seeking work. Rheumatics and Arthritics register with their Society to the extent of 40 per month in the Greater Vancouver Area. Almost a l l of them are seeking employment within their capacity, and they are a l l capable of some work contribution. Because of good organization, planning and "sheltered work opportunity", most blind persons are employed. Of the 36 new cases opened with the Alcoholism Foundation in Vancouver i n January, i960, 28 were unemployed. In the year 1958» three-quarters of those applying for treatment were without work, i.e., 320 persons. The John Howard Society found that of their - 36 -aotive caseload of 346 at the beginning of I960, only about two men i n ten had work. The vast majority of addicts requesting help from the Narcotic Addiction Foundation are unemployed. They achieve their necessarily high income from theft, usually shop-lifting. The Founda-tion worked with 66 men i n 1958* The unemployed man i n Vancouver's skid row i s usually unmarried or unattached, usually without relatives, and with few roots i n the community. He has a small house-keeping room or he sleeps i n hostels and he takes every advantage of meals freely offered. He i s usually over 40, with grade-school education, no s k i l l and an irregular work history. He i s usually registered with the National Employment Service, seldom i s called for work because he does not have much to offer, and he i s usually i n receipt of Social Assistance because he has no savings and he i s ineligible for Unemployment Insurance. He usually has some degree of physical d i s a b i l i t y and frequently he has a problem with alcohol. He i s probably medically ce r t i f i e d as being "capable of light work"; but he i s l i k e l y to be physically run down, and has lost the habit of regular work. He consumes but does not produce, and he has really lost f a i t h i n himself and his value to his community. He probably feels hostile because of this. For a l l kinds of reasons, therefore, this single unemployed man, when he i s unskilled and unattached, demands very special service i f something constructive i s to be done for him. Chapter III SERVICES FOR UNEMPLOYED MEN OFFERED BY VANCOUVER AGENCIES "Vancouver's many agencies — both public and private — offer a wide array of services for unemployed men: but again, they depend greatly on the class and category of worker concerned. Economic assistance i s offered to those who qualify, i n the form of either Unemployment Insurance or Social Assistance. Registration for employ-ment can be made with the National Employment Service. In recent years — i n order to provide work for those who are seasonally unemployed during the winter — the Federal Government has initiated a Winter Works Incentive Program. Sheltered work opportunity i s a recent "social invention" that i s being used to provide training or employment, pa r t i -cularly for those with severe handicaps. As has already been pointed out, the material assistance of food, clothing and shelter, i s readily available to the unemployed man i n downtown Vancouver. A l l agencies offer counselling of some description to the man without work, and many of them offer casework services. The Provision of Economic Maintenance Economic assistance i s currently offered to a number of groups in the population in a variety of ways. (l) For people over seventy years of age, the Federal Govern-ment grants a 855*00 per month pension. This comes as a right, not upon proof of need. If a person can qualify under a means test of minimum assets and B r i t i s h Columbia residence, a $20.00 per month supplement i s added by the Provincial Government. Very few of the - 38 -unemployed men mentioned previously can qualify for this Old Age  Security. (2) However, some qualify for Old Age Assistance which i s provided for those persons sixty five years of age and over, who are i n need. This program i s shared between the Federal and Provincial Governments as to cost; i s administered by the Province according to residence, assets and income qualifications and; i s supplemented by the Provincial Government in the amount of $20.00 per person, per month, for those who can meet British Columbia residence requirements. Some men over sixty-five are f u l l y able to work, and want 1 to work. But because of their i n a b i l i t y to compete on the already flooded labor market, they must look to pension plans rather than to remunerative work i n order to meet their needs as consumers. Should these men be allowed to continue to produce even though they are the losers in the competition with younger men for jobs? (3) Under the Unemployment Insurance Act of 1940, provision i s made for a compulsory, contributory unemployment insurance scheme. The Unemployment Insurance Fund accrues from equal contributions from both employee and employer, with an additional contribution of one-fifth of this total amount coming from the Federal Government. Contribution is related to earnings, e.g., thirty-six cents being paid i n by an employee per week i f his income i s between $27.00 and $33*00 per week. Benefits are related to contributions and are provided to the un-employed man as a right. He must be employable and available for work. For the contribution amount mentioned above, the benefit would be $13.00 per week i f the employee i s single, and $18.00 per week i f the employee has dependents. Duration of benefit i s related to - 39 -"contributions history", e.g., one week's benefit for two week's contribution i n the past one hundred and four weeks, up to a maximum of thirty-six weeks benefit. Benefits are also paid to persons who become incapacitated after they have begun to collect their benefits. These benefits continue for the l i f e of the claim although the person i s not capable of work and i s not available for work. (4) The City Social Service Department offers Social  Assistance to those who can meet the means test e l i g i b i l i t y require-ments. It i s not based upon the insurance principle, i t i s unearned and i s only granted after the recipient's need has been proven. Applicants come from hospitals, correctional institutions, other c i t i e s and provinces, and from those persons who have exhausted other income and savings. A l l applicants must prove that they have registered for employment with the National Employment Service. The Provincial Government reimburses the municipalities i n the amount of ninety per cent of the basic and certain supplementary Social Assistance payments to indigent residents and assumes f i f t y per cent of administrative costs. The Federal Government i n turn reimburses the Provincial Government for f i f t y per cent of the cost of this assistance. The majority of Social Assistance recipients can work as able-bodied persons and many of those receiving assistance as medical indigents have been c e r t i f i e d as oapable of "light work" by a medical practitioner. "Light work" i s very, very hard to find i n Vancouver. Works Pro.iects and Employment Because of high winter unemployment and the seasonal nature of the Canadian construction industry, the Federal Government initia t e d - 40 -the Municipal Winter Works Incentive Program. The enabling l e g i s l a -tion along with cost sharing ratios and qualifications for men to be hired i s set out as followss "The Government of Canada, subject to the approval of each winter works project by the provincial government and acceptance of i t by the Government of Canada, w i l l reimburse each municipality one-half of the direct pay-r o l l costs of the municipality or i t s contractors or sub-contractors incurred on winter works projects during the period December 1, 1959 to April 30, I960. The bulk of those employed under this plan must be unemployed at the time they are hired or persons who would be un-employed in the absence of special winter works projects under this program. In this way, the employment created w i l l benefit those most i n need." The results of this program for the winter of 1958-59 for Pacific legion were that 2,812 men were employed on 305 projects for 2 a total of 132,96li- man days. The figures for the 1959-60 program, up to February 17, I960,indicate that 3*155 men were employed on 3-310 projects for a total of 190,439 man days. A spokesman for the B r i t i s h Columbia Government stated i n September, 1959* that i t would pay 25 per cent of labor costs, or, 50 per cent of these costs i f the workers used on the project had been on Social Assistance for three months. In the latter case this would mean that the municipalities would not have to pay anything towards the salaries of those workers who had been i n receipt of Social Assistance. 1. Baird, J.D., Deputy Inspector of Municipalities, letter written tot A l l Municipalities, Improvement Districts and Greater Di s t r i c t s , Province of British Columbia. September 25, 1959, Victoria. 2. This information is presented through the courtesy of Mr. G.C. Wallach, Regional Executive Assistant, Pacific Region, Vancouver, February, i960. 3 . Ibid. - 41 -On these grounds, the Vancouver City Council approved, on October 7> 1959, a civ i c works program which was to cost $800,000.00 and would provide five months work. Under the circumstances that a l l the labor employed by the City of Vancouver on the project had come from Social Assistance r o l l s , the Federal and Provincial Govern-ments would pay the total wage b i l l of $520,000.00, with the City 1 paying $290,000.00 for construction equipment and supplies. This plan, however, did not work out i n the manner fore-casted, because the Provincial Government had interpreted the three months as beginning June 16, 1959* The City wanted to give married men the preference, but could only find 97 men who were eligible under the foregoing terms. The Board of Administration told Council that the Provincial Government was unwilling to change i t s policy even though the cost of keeping men on Social Assistance was greater than the extra 25 per cent i t would pay i f the men were allowed to work. The City Council had to decide whether to restri c t the Winter Works Program to the 97 married men e l i g i b l e for the provincial grant and add 100 single men who would be el i g i b l e for the additional provincial grant, or, to reduce the Works Program within the City's approved share of $29,000.00 by employing the 97 married men plus about 100 married men who did not qualify for the provincial grant. The latter arrange-ment would be the more costly for the cit y because i t would have to 2 pay 25 per cent of the wages of the additional 100 married men. 1. Vancouver Province, local news dispatch, October 7, 1959* 2. Vancouver Sun. December 2, 1959, news dispatch. - 42 -The Assistant Administrator of the City Social Service Department, reported in an interview that about 200 married men and a few single men were put on this works project. It was reasoned that because the City's share of the cost of Social Assistance was about 10 per cent, this cost would be less than paying the 25 per cent of the payroll cost of those workers on the project who did not qualify for the provincial grant. Therefore i t would cost the City more to put these men on the Works Program, than to keep them on Social Assistance. Since the City i s chiefly concerned with keeping i t s budget down, i t resisted putting "non-provincially-eligible" men on Works Program. This method of choosing men for the Works Program was further complicated because many of the best workers had been on assistance only a short time. Sheltered Work Opportunities ( l ) The Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society i s an organization which deliberately offers work as a means of rehabilita-tion. It has two sheltered work shops, one used for training and one used for production. They are both geared to use work as part of a total rehabilitation process. Members of the workshops can work with wood, fabrics, paper and clay. Because of this variety of materials and the resulting variety of projects available, the different work needs of specific individuals can be met. The capacity of the training workshop i s from 10 to 16; and for the production workshop - 6 persons. In these workshops, workers learn s k i l l s , work tolerance, work habits, and the a b i l i t y to work with others. They are assessed as to their a b i l i t i e s and are encouraged to move into the regular work force when they are ready. - 43 -The Executive Secretary reported that of the 16 men dis-charged from the production workshop i n the past year, 13 were under 60 years of age, and of these, a l l hut 2 were either working, taking further training or were ready for work of a selective nature. It was her feeling that the workshops played an essential role i n the rehabilitation of the a r t h r i t i c and the rheumatic, and she added that their f a c i l i t i e s were not sufficient enough to meet the demand. Occupational therapy i s a well established form of "work as rehabilitation", not only for crippled persons. However i t s extension has f a l l e n far short of present need. (2) The Canadian National Institute for the Blind has long used a sheltered workshop setting i n i t s rehabilitation program. The adminstration feels that the work experience plays a prominent role i n the rehabilitation of the blind person, and i t also helps them earn a l i v i n g . In the Vancouver d i s t r i c t , the Institute has at least two placement officers who consult with industry i n order to find jobs for blind persons. Many of these blind persons have had training i n the workshops before they move out into industry. Their work behaviour i s carefully watched by the placement officers who make regular v i s i t s to determine the satisfaction that this occupational experience i s having for both the blind person and the employer. The staff at the Institute feel very strongly that "sheltered work opportunity" i s the best way i n which a blind person can increase his a b i l i t y , establish work sta b i l i t y and tolerance, and achieve steady work habits. Many of the employees of the Institute's Provincial Headquarters are blind, and more than 50 men and women are employed in the workshops. In both these work situations, the blind person i s - 44 -encouraged to learn a s k i l l , to adjust himself to i t s productive re-quirements, then to move out into the regular labor force. Many-blind persons have received their training through the sheltered workshops and have thus been enabled to make their own way i n the competitive work world. A workshop placement i s also retained for the blind person who — for some reason or other — cannot compete on the open labor market and requires the protection of a sheltered work setting. Many of these men earn their maximum monthly income allowable under the terms of the Blind Person's Allowance in a few days, and they they have to be l a i d off for the remainder of the month. Allowable income is $65-00 for a single person per month, and $130.00 for a man that i s married. If more than the maximum.is.earned, the Allowance i s with-drawn, and i t i s often d i f f i c u l t for reinstatement to be achieved. To avoid this d i f f i c u l t y , the Institute regulates the period of employment for each worker so that his income does not go beyond the maximum allowable. It i s unfortunate that arman or woman must be asked to cease his employment against his w i l l i n order that the security of his income from a non-work souroe i s not jeopardized. Other types of sheltered work opportunities are found in; training on the job, occupational therapy, and i n the work involved in the housekeeping i n men's residences. (3) For the 70 men resident i n the Salvation Army Harbour  Light Hostel, there is both housekeeping and occupational therapy that is part of their rehabilitation. Further to the regular cleaning, cooking, washing and general upkeep at Harbour Light, there i s a carpenter shop, and a copper work room, where the men are kept busy. - 45 -The Corps Captain feels that this work definitely helps the men i n their rehabilitation. He i s sure that when they contribute through their work they get the feeling of belonging and that their lives have more meaning. As they work around the building the Captain has the opportunity to get to know them and i s thus enabled to assess their problems and offer guidance. Another way i n which a work experience i s offered to the men of Harbour Light i s through i t s odd job service. Summer and winter the Salvation Army has an advertisement i n the daily papers to the effect that men are available for work. In the summertime there are often not enough men to f i l l a l l the jobs, while i n the winter, the situation i s reversed. The jobs are varied, usually of one or two days duration, and the work i s of a casual and seasonal nature, e.g., basement cleaning, garden digging, window washing, fence fixing and f r u i t picking. (4) The Salvation Army Men's Social Centre has an on-going plan for using work i n the rehabilitation of men. In a new reclama-tion building — particularly constructed for the purpose — men w i l l work i n sorting, repairing and reclaiming garments and household furni-ture and appliances. When i n f u l l operation the organization w i l l have nine trucks with two men i n each truck picking up discarded and donated materials from a l l over the community. The ja n i t o r i a l service w i l l hire three men. Two men w i l l work on the paper and cloth baler, and one man on the clothes press. Another man w i l l repair shoes, two w i l l repair furniture, and two more w i l l do upholstering. Four men w i l l unload and sort materials and another w i l l be foreman. A l l of these men w i l l be encouraged to keep looking for jobs i n industry, - 46 -but u n t i l they can find more permanent and promising jobs, they can remain i n their sheltered environment. When they leave for jobs i n industry, their position in the work team w i l l be opened up for another man who wants to "work his way to rehabilitation". Thus, the plan of the Centre i s to reclaim the man at the same time he is reclaiming waste or broken down materials. (5) The Central City Mission also incorporates work to a notable degree i n their rehabilitation program. At their Hostel and Ranch about 25 boys per year learn trades such as woodwork, baking, cooking and farming. These trades are learned by day-to-day p a r t i c i -pation i n the routine work of the farm. Other members of the group work during the day on adjoining farms. About 15 of the total staff of 45 at the Mission i t s e l f have come from the ranks of the unemployed i n the downtown d i s t r i c t of Vancouver. They a l l retain this employment while they rehabilitate themselves, then they are encouraged to enter the regular labor force on their own. During the spring, summer and f a l l , the Mission has an advertisement i n the daily newspapers and sends out men on casual jobs. Cartage companies often c a l l around and take men off the street i n front of the Mission for moving jobs. These odd jobs meet the needs of the men for the moment, but because of their infrequency and uncertainty, they are of l i t t l e benefit i n rehabilitation planning. (6) In a similar manner to Harbour Light, the Catholic  Sailors' Club uses work as a rehabilitation medium. This work takes the form of helping around the Club, painting, carpentry, gardening and general maintenance. The Father instructs the men i n their work and at the same time offers guidance and counsel. He finds that he - 47 -cam sometimes "get a man started again" i n this way. Through personal contacts with a few employers, he can infrequently find permanent work for some of these men on the way to rehabilitation. Counselling and Case Work Services A l l agencies that are i n touch with the unemployed man offer some amount of counselling. The quality of this counselling varies, from the casual advice or suggestion of a junior clerk, through the evangelistic demand of a gospel minister, to the highly structured, intensive case work offered by the professional social worker. Counsell-ing i s a side-line with some agencies, and a major focus with others. (l) The National Employment Service counsels unemployed applicants as to the job placements available. Because the applicants i n most occupational groups exceed vacancies, the Employment Service counsellor usually talks to the applicant about the unavailability of ,a job for him. In order for the employable man to continue his e l i g i -b i l i t y for Social Assistance i t is necessary that he have his Employment Service identification card stamped weekly. The physical stamping on this card may be the total extent of his contact with the Employment Service o f f i c i a l over a period of months. He i s usually told to keep looking for work on his own, and to, "report back next week". In the i n i t i a l contact with the Employment Service, the un-employed man f i l l s i n an application which the Service o f f i c i a l goes over with him. This usually takes about seven minutes, but can — depending on the personal interest of the o f f i c i a l i n the particular case — extend into a two-hour interview. In the Special Placements Section the interviews are longer because of the attempt to determine as accurately as possible, the a b i l i t y as well as the d i s a b i l i t y of - 48 -the client. Some Special Placements Officers have a considerable degree of sensitivity and offer a warm understanding approach to the handicapped person's problems i n unemployment. To the extent of the writer's knowledge, there are no professional social workers offering counselling i n the National Employment Service. O f f i c i a l s i n the Employment Service frequently provide a valuable referral service, referring clients to specific private agencies i n the City. Ex-inmates are referred to the John Howard Society, arthritics to the Canadian A r t h r i t i s and Rheumatism Society, and the blind are told to register with the Canadian National Institute for the Blind. (2) The Youth Counselling Service offers an interviewee a complete battery of psychological tests, complemented by a total vocational assessment and personality evaluation. Personal and social problem counselling i s also offered i f there is a manifest need. A l l the staff are professionally trained, either i n social work or c l i n i c a l psychology. Referrals are made to the Employment Service or to other agencies which would appear to meet particular needs of the individual, e.g., to the St. John's Ambulance Corps, for persons who show aptitude and interest i n f i r s t aid. . . . ,1 , , (3) The secretary of the Sertoma Employment Office gives some friendly advice to unemployed older people who come to her look-ing for work. This advice is centred around the applicants employabi-l i t y and the current job vacancies. However personal and social problems are aired and the secretary feels that the applicants enjoy t e l l i n g her of .these problems. Referrals, are. made to .other agencies, 1. Sertoma - "Service to Man". A business men's service club with branches i n Canada and the United States. - 49 -and often, agencies — that know of the existence of the Sertoma Service — refer their older unemployed clients to i t . (4) The Unemployment Insurance Commission offers employment counselling through i t s National Employment Service. The Insurance Commission restricts i t s counselling to determining client e l i g i b i l i t y , amount, and duration of benefit. A l l recipients of Unemployment Insurance must be registered for work with the National Employment Service. (5) The City Social Service Department offers a counselling o service to a l l recipients of Social Assistance, Old Age Assistance, Blind Person's Allowance, and Disabled Person's Allowance. Less than half of the counselling staff are professionally trained social workers, and i n the section dealing with the employable single status men, none of the counsellors are professionally trained. The social workers who deal with Social Assistance cases are expected to see each client once every three months. Case loads are approximately 159 per social worker with an average of two openings and closings per work day. Those cases which require additional counselling are attended to after the new applications each day have been processed. Employable persons must keep their registration with the National Employment Service up to date, and a regular check of this i s made by the social worker. (6) The Salvation Army gives i t s own well known blend of counselling and spiritual encouragement. The Corps Captain at Harbour  Light calls i t "practical Christianity" and i t i s always available and freely given. Sometimes i t i s given when i t has not been requested. Lectures on social work are given to officer candidates, at the Salvation Army Training Centre i n Toronto, Ontario. The essence of - 50 -the Captain's counselling i s spi r i t u a l . . Advice and suggestion con-cerning personal and social adjustment problems i s given along with direction as to the various means of obtaining employment. (7) The counselling offered by the Brigadier at the Salvation Army's Dunsmuir House follows the same lines as that given at Harbour Light. A difference i n the approach of these two officers might result from the fact that Harbour Light comes under the Evangelical Branch i n the Salvation Army organizational structure, where as Dunsmuir House comes under the Social Service Branch. (8) The Corps Lieutenant of the Salvation Army Social Service Centre does less counselling than the two previously mentioned officers. However when the new Social Servioe Centre on Twelfth Avenue becomes f u l l y operational i t s two officers plan to use i t i n a "rehabilitation through work" capacity, at which time considerable counselling w i l l be done. Often the men and women who come to the Centre for clothing or home furnishings are offered counselling according to their need. (9) Considerable counselling i s done by the Padre at the Central City Mission. This i s a major part of the Mission's rehabili-tation program with i t s emphasis on physical, mental and s p i r i t u a l well-being. The Padre is not trained i n social work, however his advice i s sound and many men are helped by i t . The spiritual aspect of l i v i n g i s stressed less by him than by his Salvation Army counterparts. (10) The Priest at the Catholic Sailors' Club i s the ready, w i l l i n g and able counsellor for many sailors and others liv i n g i n and around skid row d i s t r i c t of Vancouver. He i s not trained i n social work but he makes a considerable contribution to the solution of the personal and social problems of his followers. He refers men with o - 51 -specific problems, or those i n specific categories, to other agencies. However, few men other than sailors are referred to him. (11) The Provincial Rehabilitation Officer of the Provincial  Rehabilitation Service does considerable counselling with handicapped persons. This takes the form of advice and guidance concerning i n d i -vidual problem solving and social adjustment. Much of his counselling centres around, the advisability of, and the implementation of, "Schedule R", (training of Disabled Persons project). "Under this schedule the Federal Government shares equally with the Provincial Government i n the costs of vocational training for disabled c i v i l i a n s . Trainees are selected by special committees represent-ing both Provincial and Federal Governments. Training is restricted to those persons who have continuing d i s a b i l i t i e s and require such training or retraining to f i t them for gainful employment."^ Since 1958 there haB been a Senior Placement Liaison Officer of the National Employment Service seconded to the Rehabilitation Service for the purpose of insuring optimum placement of physically rehabilitated individuals. (12) The Epilepsy Centre retains a full-time professional social worker and offers a continuing social case work service to the clients of the Centre. He helps them to accept and understand their i l l n e s s , and he i s supportive and encouraging with them i n helping them to cope with personal and social problems resulting from their d i s a b i l i t y . (13) Professional social workers are also available at the Canadian A r t h r i t i s and Rheumatism Society. Their counselling covers a l l facets, of the problems unique, to a r t h r i t i c s , and they, work i n conjunction 1. Canada, Department of Labor, Annual Report for the Fiscal Year  Ended March 51. 1958. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1958. p. 72. - 52 -with other therapists, nurses and doctors. Referrals are made to hospitals, medical specialists and to the National Employment Service. (14) The Canadian National Institute for the Blind i s another private agency which uses extensive social case work i n i t s rehabilitation. This i s offered immediately on registration and i s available throughout the member's period of blindness. Counselling covers home economy, parental relationships, adjustment to blindness, participation i n recreation, and employment placement. (15) The Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia has a number of professionally trained social workers on i t s staff along with medical, psychiatric, and educational counsellors. The social workers apply both case work and group work techniques i n their efforts to treat and rehabilitate the chronic alcoholic. Other personal and family problems besides alcoholism are dealt with, however the staff of the Foundation makes no home v i s i t s . By design, they have a tendency to let the client come to them rather than reaching out to him. They feel that his coming to them is an indication of his motivation for treatment, and i f this i s not present, they feel that their work w i l l have l i t t l e effect. Referrals are made to other agencies, and the National Employment Service i s relied upon for job placement. (16) The John Howard Society of British Columbia bases i t s rehabilitation programme on intensive case work, and most of the staff are professional social workers. Case work is directed at strengthen-ing personality, with.a lesser emphasis on environmental modification. Incarcerated men i n local j a i l s , prisons and penitentiaries are some-times interviewed concerning rehabilitation on release, and often members of their families are counselled so that they can be assets - 53 -to the ex-inmate i n the community. These ex-inmates are referred to the Special Placements Section of the National Employment Service for jobs because of their classification as "the socially disabled". (17) The Corps Brigadier of the Salvation Army Correctional  Services offers a counselling service to, men i n prison, men released from prison, and their families. He has some professional social work training and he applies his knowledge and B k i l l i n the alleviation of personal and social problems of adjustment. Some of his client's family problems are referred to the Family Welfare Department of the Salvation Army. (18) At the Narcotics Addiction Foundation a l l the social work staff i s professionally trained, and they work closely with the nursing and medical staff i n the care, treatment and rehabilitation of the addict. Acceptance and support are provided during withdrawal, with further case work treatment being extended through the period of rehabilitation. For the clients i n the treatment residenc, more inten-sive case work can be offered. Referrals are made to other agencies when i t i s f e l t that this can contribute to the patients rehabilitation. In Summary Economic maintenance of one kind or another i s now available to a l l bona fide unemployed. For those men and women over seventy years of age — employed or unemployed — there i s Old Age Security i n the amount of $55*00 per month. This i s granted as a right} however, i t can be supplemented by $20.00 for those who qualify under a means test. Old Age Assistance i n the amount of $55*00 per month i s available for those over sixty-five who are i n need, and this pension may also be supplemented by $20.00 for those who can meet Bri t i s h Columbia - 54 -residence requirements. Unemployment Insurance, as an earned benefit based upon contributions, i s available to most unemployed who have a reasonably consistent work record. Benefits are slightly above a subsistence level. Social Assistance at basic subsistence level amounts i s available to a l l unemployed who are i n need and who cannot qualify for other economic assistance. The Winter Works Program in the City of Vancouver provided work for less than two per cent of the able bodied men receiving Social Assistance. Poor cooperation along with insufficient planning between different government levels was evident. One result of this disorgani-zation was that the municipal government of the City of Vancouver dis-covered that i t would be more economical for the City to keep men on assistance than to offer them employment on Winter Works. Of the two major sheltered workshops engaged in the rehabili-tation of unemployed men who are physically disabled, the Canadian Arth r i t i s and Rheumatism Society has a capacity for 22 persons and the Canadian National Institute for the Blind accommodates 50 men and women. Economic maintenance, training and job placement are rather adequately provided for blind persons. However, for the arthritics and rheumatics much i n the way of training and finding work within their capacities i s desired. And for many physically and socially disabled — some of whom can only be marginal producers — neither training nor an opportunity to work under sheltered conditions i s available. Work i s used i n rehabilitation at Harbour Light and the Men's Social Centre, but the number of men that can benefit from this at one time would be less than one hundred. These men benefit from having the responsibility of work and the opportunity to work regularly. The Central City Mission provides training and work on the job for about 40 men and boys who - 55 -otherwise would neither learn nor work. Suggestion, advice, counsel and case work are offered with varied intensity for the benefit of unemployed men. The clerk at the National Employment Service usually just stamps the date on the unemployed man's registration card and t e l l s him to return next week. The psychologist at the Youth Counselling Service counsels the un-employed man as to his aptitude and interest, but offers no actual helping hand into a desirable training and work situation. Representa-tives of various churches offer spiritual guidance and sometimes the "practical Christianity" of food, clothing and shelter. And sometimes this includes an opportunity to work and make a few dollars. It i s usually only i n the specialized private agencies, such as the John Howard Society, the Epilepsy Centre and the Narcotics Addiction Foundation, that professional case work services are offered to the unemployed man. The extent to which these services can be regarded as adequate is the subject of the following chapters. - Chapter IV TRAINING AND THE •SHELTERED WORKSHOP"s A WELFARE ASSESSMENT Unemployed men who have any training at a l l , and are able to work, require only an appropriate job to solve their problem-Some of them cannot achieve a more satisfactory placement however unless they are retrained. Evidently a majority of unemployed men could do with various measures of rehabilitation and training. Many of these men are physically and socially handicapped, and their t r a i n -ing must also be rehabilitative. Training and work under sheltered conditions i s necessary fo r these men, but the City of Vancouver i s very poorly equipped to offer such services at the present time. The Training Needs of Unemployed Men Most unemployed men are unskilled, untrained or poorly trained. The need of these men i s for training. Those men who are untrained because they have never had, or never made, the opportunity, must be offered the opportunity for training. The men that have been replaced by automation must be helped to find other employment or they must be retrained so that they can handle another job. Seasonal workers who are unemployed on the off-season part of the year could be trained to do other work during this time, or they could work on public work projects. Transient workers could be offered a similar choice. They could carry their trade with them i n their travels, working when they chose, or they could work on a variety of public work projects spread throughout the country. Students and occasional workers could also - 57 -benefit from such an arrangement. Older students — already with considerable training and s k i l l — would benefit more and would make a greater contribution to their community i f they were employed i n industry or government where they could work alongside men who were f u l l y qualified. The special kind of training which i s rehabilitation or "conditioning", or both, for the physically or socially disabled un-employed, must be provided under sheltered working conditions. These unemployed men may need guidance and counselling, and frequently social case work. Training and Rehabilitation Under Sheltered Conditions In recent years there has grown up a new awareness of the work needs of the handicapped person and a greater understanding of the mean-ing of work to the l i f e of the individual and to his role i n the community. One goal i n the provision of sheltered work i s the rehabilitation of the handicapped person. Another is the service to the community i n meeting the special needs of i t s handicapped population. A comprehensive program for the rehabilitation of disabled persons would be complex and would require the cooperation and financial support of the Department of Labor, Health, and Social Welfare. (l ) Rehabilitation begins with the occupational therapy provided i n the hospital. Vocational orientation and special counselling to a l l disabled would be offered to a l l disabled by a central employment offic e . This would include attitude and aptitude testing to more clearly define capabilities, outside of the disablement. Some of the more d i f f i c u l t cases would require more thorough diagnosis i n special work c l i n i c s . The next step would be placement i n recuperative workshops, - 58 -which would "be followed by placement i n semi-sheltered employment i n industry with government grants to cover increased expenses resulting from special workshop operation. Placement would have been made through special placement f a c i l i t i e s for the handicapped. Sheltered employment would be provided for the severely handicapped, and home-work would be arranged for those i n isolated areas or for those so severely disabled persons that they could not work outside their homes. Financial assistance would be available i n the form of a grant or a loan, for the handicapped person who wished to start self-owned a c t i v i -ties for the provision of his own income. The plan would be completed by the existence of government grants, according to individual needs, for travel to and from place of training or work, for the fees or training courses, allowance for materials, medical care, maintenance i allowance and family allowance. The rehabilitation plan as outlined i s that of The Disable- ment Resettlement Program of the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation 1 coming under the direction of the National Labor Board i n Sweden. Most authorities i n the f i e l d of rehabilitation regard the securing of stable, gainful employment as one of the main criterion of the success of the rehabilitative process. The f i r s t concern i s therefore to conduct the treatment plan so as to make the individual employable to his capacity. However, the real test of a client's employability, is whether he can actually, find,, and hold a job.. In 1. United States, Senate Committee on Government Operations, Sub-committee on Reorganization and International Organizations, Domestic Programs and International Activities i n Technical Assistance,. Rehabilitation of the Disabled i n Thirty-seven Countries of the World. Washington: December 21, 1959• p. 83. - 59 -times when even the adequate worker finds i t d i f f i c u l t to secure employ-ment, the disabled person i s certainly sub-marginal and therefore must be offered employment i n a sheltered setting. (2) For an understanding of the mechanics and the actual operation of a sheltered work setting, we can do no better than consider 1 Remploy Limited, i n the United Kingdom. Remploy i s a non-profit company giving employment to men and women who register under the Disabled Persons( employment) Act, as being capable of employment only under sheltered conditions. I t i s a national wide organization supported financially by the Treasury. Since 1946 when the f i r s t factory opened, Remploy has grown to 90 factories i n 1957' More than 6,000 disabled men and women are employed. Employment may be available i n one of these factories and one qualification of employment i s that the person lives within daily traveling distance of where he w i l l work. There are 38 woodwork factories, 13 protective clothing and sewing factories and about 7 each of, knitwear, leatherwork, packaging, engineering, paper- box, and book-binding and printing factories. Each factory group assumes responsibi-l i t y for i t s own purchasing and production and some groups also control their own sales. However, a central sales organization i s available for those factories that wish to use i t . There are at least 3,000 disabled persons eligible for Remploy Factory work opportunity who for a variety of reasons cannot be absorbed. 1. Ruck,. K.S.,, ."Sheltered Workshops and Homework",- an address given at the Seventh World .Congress of the International Society for the  Welfare of Cripples. 1957. and recorded into a Report edited by Rhona Lucas, Executive Secretary, Division for Guidance of Handicapped, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, p. 22-23. - 60 -Although there i s significant dispersion of faotories across the country, the necessity of daily commutation invalidates some with special s k i l l s . Remploy employees are paid a weekly wage at an hourly rate which has been arrived at i n consultation with trade unions. The Remploy directors admit that these sheltered factories are not the complete solution but i t i s recognized that they are meeting the needs of many disabled persons and with expansion and alteration, their services to both handicapped and community w i l l improve. With the Swedish Disablement Resettlement Program and the United Kingdom Remploy Limited Workshops used as a basis for comparison, we w i l l now look at what i s needed i n Vancouver. The Need for Training and Sheltered Work Opportunity in Vancouver* An Agency Assessment (1) The Vancouver Supervisor of the Special Placements Section  of the National Employment Service expressed his frustration at not being able to offer job placement to his handicapped registrants. These number over 1,200 and his placement record i s about one i n twenty. Pew are-skilled, most would benefit from training, and many require very light employment or employment under sheltered working conditions. He f e l t that there was a great need for more sheltered training f a c i l i t i e s and sheltered work opportunity i n Vancouver. (2) The opinion of the Provincial Rehabilitation Coordinator i s reflected i n his comment that, "one of the prime needs of disabled persons after physical restoration i s assistance toward preparation for work". He stated that most of the disabled who are referred to him experience d i f f i c u l t y i n obtaining employment even though they may have received excellent physical restoration services. He f e l t that sheltered workshops for a l l disabled would be too expensive and than an arrangement - 61 -with industry to take a percentage would also.be needed. He added that i t was one of the worst things that could happen to a man, i.e., that he wanted to work, was trained and able to work, but he could not find the opportunity to work. The Rehabilitation Coordinator screens applicants for the Federal-Provincial Vocational Training Plan. Under this Training Agreement, an unemployed man may apply for either i n i t i a l training i n a vocation, or for retraining into another vocation. There are three schedules; "M" for Unemployed Persons, "R" for Disabled Persons, and "L" for veterans. Academic, vocational and professional .training i s provided for with the Federal and Provincial governments sharing the cost. Schedules "M" and "R" are regularly over-subscribed i n Vancouver. While i n Saskatchewan during the winter of 1959-60, pro-vision was made to accommodate an enrolment nearly five times greater 1 than was originally planned. Students undergoing this training receive f u l l Unemployment Insurance benefits similar to those paid to unemployed workers. It should be noted here that Saskatchewan has gone one step further than Br i t i s h Columbia i n setting up a Coordinating Council on Rehabilitation within i t s Department of Social Welfare and Rehabilita-2 tion. The purpose of this Council w i l l be to provide extension of services and prevent overlapping by public and private agencies serving the disabled.. Saskatchewan also, provides "on the. job -training", for 1. Saskatchewan News. "Training Courses for Unemployed", Regina, Vol. 15, No. 4, February 23, I960. 2. , "Saskatchewan Rehabilitation Services Unite", Vol. 15, No. 4, February 23, I960, Regina. - 6 2 -handicapped persons, at a minimum wage salary shared "by the Federal and Provincial governments and the employers. The employer's share r i s i n g 1 as the person's s k i l l increases. (3) Epileptics i n Vancouver are in serious need of training and sheltered work opportunity, and the directors of their agency — The Epilepsy Centre — are most concerned with i t s provision. The Medical Director hopes to develop a comprehensive rehabilitation 2 programme which w i l l include some definite plan for job placement. He would like to see as many of the epileptics as possible employed by industry, but for the remainder he feels that society should set up workshops so that sheltered employment could be offered. Recent information discloses that modern medicine oan control 48 per cent of a l l epileptics, and can improve 37 per cent. This means that at least 85 per cent of epileptics could work i f conditions were such that they could not harm themselves or others, i f and when they 3 had a sudden seizure. More than half of the epileptics registered with the Centre are capable and desirous of work. Most require training and they would a l l benefit from an opportunity to work. (4) The Executive Director of the Canadian A r t h r i t i s and  Rheumatism Society. B r i t i s h Columbia Branch, voiced a strong affirmative for the need for sheltered work opportunity, even after the a r t h r i t i c and rheumatic has been .trained or retrained. , She has noticed i n her 1. Saskatchewan News, "New Hope for the Handicapped", Vol. 15, No. 2, January 26, i960, Regina. . 2,.. Dick, John, "Epilepsy i n B r i t i s h Columbia", British Columbia  Medical Journal. Volume 1, Number 11, November, 1959, Vancouver. 3. Yahraes, Herbert, Now - A Brighter Future for the Epileptic. Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 98, New York: 1958, p. 14. - 6 3 -experience the great degree of effort that handicapped persons put into learning to do something and the peace and satisfaction that they derive from their work. The Society has proven the need and the usefulness of training and employment under sheltered conditions, and hopes for a greater consideration from government for the provision of these services. The Director expressed a further need for expanded f a c i -l i t i e s plus a sales organization and outlet that would not consume the 50 per cent mark-up required by the present department store outlet. She saw considerable advantage i n having more than one type of disabled person i n a setting, so that the a b i l i t i e s of some would supplement the di s a b i l i t i e s of others. Training and work under such conditions would help persons to accept their d i s a b i l i t y more readily, would build up their feeling of self importance, and would help them to control f e e l -ings of h o s t i l i t y , aversion, temper and sadness. The Society uses to the utmost, the healing a b i l i t y of the work experience i n the restoration of physical functioning. "Work can play an important part i n restoring function to damaged muscles. More often than not the worker is more cooperative i n muscle re-education through operating a treadle that produces something other than i n what seems to him aimless exercise." ^ The tragedy of the a r t h r i t i c who has undergone long and successful physioal and emotional rehabilitation, and then joins the - , 1. Thompson,, Nellie Zetta, Editor, The Role of the Workshop i n Rehabilitation. The National Association of Sheltered Workshops and Homebound Programs, Washington, 1958? P» 52. - 6 4 -ranks of those seeking work, is aptly expressed by G.F. McCoy and H. A. Rusk, i n their evaluative study of rehabilitation at the Bellevue Medical Center. "Problems brought out most clearly . . . were the need for employment opportunity. The plight of many of the individuals was epitomized by one of them who said, . . I have gone through a l l this; I have tried hard to learn new ways, but now no one wants me.' This statement reflects self-pity, but i t also recognizes a hard fact." 1 A sheltered work setting could provide this man, and many others that share his predicament, with a meaningful, remunerative, work experience u n t i l such time as he was able to take his place i n private industry. If industrial placement did not materialize, he could continue i n the sheltered setting with personal satisfaction and productivity. "Work experience, properly guided, can ease a handicapped person from a sheltered to a competitive situation. Attention to vocational adjustment yields good work habits and attitudes which are corollaries of work." ^  ( 5 ) The necessary and productive role of sheltered training and work opportunity f o r blind persons has certainly been proven by the Canadian National Institute for the Blind. Few men do not need occupational training or retraining when they become blind. Both training and production workshops are operating to capacity i n Van-couver, and the Assistant Superintendent explained that there was always a need for more work and training space, more sub-contracted production jobs, and more analysis of private industrial production with the view to .placing blind .persons into the competitive work world. . 1.. McCoy, Georgia F. and Rusk, Howard A., An Evaluation of Rehabili-tation. Monograph 1 . The Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabili-tation, New York University-Bellevue Medical Center, New York; 1 9 5 3 • P» 6 3 . 2 . Thompson, Nellie Zetta, Editor, The Role of the Workshop i n Rehabilitation, The National Association of Sheltered Workshops and Homebound Programs, Washington: 1 9 5 8 , P« 5 2 . (6) Men with problems of alcoholism have particular needs concerning training and rehabilitation. The E Xeoutive Director of the Alcoholism Foundation expressed a strong need for sheltered training opportunities, and also for a sheltered workshop for alcoholics. It i s important for an alcoholic to have his mind off his problem as much as possible. This i s much easier when he has a job; when he i s under-going training; or when he i s building up his work tolerance under sheltered conditions. Retraining or sheltered work i s necessary for some alcoholics because of their i n e l i g i b i l i t y for bonding. Many find i t extremely d i f f i c u l t to live down a reputation of alcoholism. Their need is for an opportunity to prove themselves under protected working conditions. Such conditions are also needed because they w i l l always provide employment for the man who has just come off a day-long, or a week-long bout of alcoholism. These men need work to return to just like any other man who has been sick or "out of tune" with the community. ( 7 ) This need for a job to come back to was expressed i n a different way by the Executive Director of the John Howard Society. He f e l t that there was a need for a work setting for ex-inmates where they could work for a few days, go and look for a job, then come back and continue working i f they had not found a job. The Director would like to see work opportunity available for a man when he wanted i t and for the length of time that he wanted to spend at i t . Such a work setting — when combined with on-going case work services — would contribute significantly to the stabilization i n the work habits of the ex-inmates. The opportunity to work under these conditions would of course come second to training the ex-inmate according to his capacity, interest and the work needs of the community. - 66 -(8) The Senior Counsellor of the Narcotic Addiction Foundation reports i n the Foundation's Third Annual Report that? 1 "employment per se may yet be our strongest therapeutic agent". By this he means that training and employment are necessary for the addict during rehabilitation, and he feels that these are best pro-vided under sheltered workshop conditions. He added that registration with the Special Placements Section of the National Employment Service was next to f u t i l e when i t came to finding a chance to work for the addict. The Director of the Foundation stated that he had been dis-appointed with the lack of interest shown by commerce and industry i n 2 the provision of employment for the addict. He stresses the thera-peutic aspect of work and asks that the community give special atten-3 tion and consideration to providing work for addicts. He i s certain that the benefits which would accrue to business from the reduction i n the petty theft and criminality of the addicts i f they had jobs, would be more than worth the cost of providing these jobs. In Summary Most unemployed men are untrained or poorly trained and their need is for training to capacity. Men replaced by automation need re-training. Seasonal workers need either an additional s k i l l or an opportunity to work as unskilled workers during their off-season. Transients along with occasional workers and some student groups require readily, available .work of a semi-skilled or unskilled nature.. . , 1. Trasov, C.E., "Report of the Counsellor", Third Annual Report  1958-1959. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 5 9 , P. 10. . , 2. Halliday, Robert, "Report of the Director", Third Annual Report  1958-1959. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 5 9 , P. 4-3 . Ardies, Tom, "Dope Foundation Ready to Expand Study", The Vancouver Sun. A p r i l 3 0 , I960. - 6 7 -More advanced students profit themselves and their community best when they can be employed alongside f u l l y qualified men. The specific training required i n the rehabilitation of physically and socially disabled men i s best provided under sheltered work conditions. The Resettlement Program of the National Labor Board in Sweden has provided a remarkably comprehensive plan for the rehabilita-tion of disabled persons. The example of Remploy indicates how practical such a plan can be; and shows that the sheltered workshop i s particularly effective. Vancouver needs more training opportunities, both on-the-job i n industry and under sheltered conditions, for both her able and disabled unemployed. Some of these training situations must be carried over into work situations for those who cannot work to the competitive demands of industry on the open labor market. Under these conditions training and work would always be available for, the epileptic, the a r t h r i t i c , the man with a criminal record, the narcotic and the alcoholic. Such social and economic planning for training and work must be done at a government level and could only come about when the government assumes the responsi-b i l i t y for the provision of training and work opportunity for a l l those who want i t and can benefit from i t . Chapter V THE UNTRAINED AND THE DISABLED UNEMPLOYED: THE NEED FOR COORDINATION OF SERVICES Although unemployment is recognized as a social problem by a l l levels of government, there i s a lack of cla r i t y as to which government should assume the major responsibility for meeting the various needs of the unemployed man. Over-all planning i s lacking; and coordination between registration for employment, training and job placement, leaves much to be desired. Work i s rarely used i n rehabili-tation, although the social inventions of the public works project and the sheltered workshop are available. Unemployment as a Social Problem For a social problem to become recognized i n a community i t has been argued that four conditions are necessary. It must be a threat to, or represent a c r i s i s i n , the values and standards of the community. It must be perceived; that i s , be socially v i s i b l e . There must exist a belief that something can be done about i t , that i t can be resolved. And f i n a l l y there must be the feeling that something should be done about i t . When these conditions are existant i n the minds of at least a vocal minority of the community, a social problem i s s i g n i f i -cantly recognized. Some of this i s now true of the "unemployment problem", but i t i s s t i l l doubtful whether unemployment i s properly understood i n a l l i t s phases. The unemployed man i s a threat to the standard accepted by the community; that i s , that man should work for his l i v i n g . His lack - 6 9 -of work i s a challenge to the values of industry, activity and enter-prise i n today's community. Unemployment is visible i n the Unemployment Insurance Office , i n the Social Assistance waiting rooms, i n the soup and bread lines of the Central City Mission, and i n the increase of social problems that are being handled by private agencies. Economists and governments have some measures within their reach which could be used to reduce the amount of unemployment. But there is widespread public feeling that something must be done to provide work for un-employed men. Work means so much to modern, industrial man. It i s the means to income with which he can obtain the necessities and some luxuries of l i f e for himself and his dependents. It means work-mates, friends and "social belonging". It means having something to offer his community — something that i s wanted and needed. It gives him status and recognition. Unemployment, on the other hand, degrades, frustrates and breaks a man down. His a b i l i t y i s unwanted, even i f this i s only the determination to dig a ditch. He is prevented from playing an adequate role as husband and father. He loses fa i t h i n himself, his neighbors and his community. The "Division of Labor", and the Jobs Available In a wage economy a l l workers are s t r a t i f i e d into an occupa-tional hierarchy. Position i n this pyramid i s largely determined by education, although cultural, social, familial and personal factors are often very important. Professional and business executives are stably employed. However, only a small percentage of the labor force achieve these classifications. In fact, only a small percentage of - 7 0 -public school students complete high school. White collar employees and the more ski l l e d artisans are also usually regularly employed. It i s the unskilled, the untrained, the inexperienced men — especially i f they have other physical and social handicaps as well — who are li k e l y to be the f i r s t to lose their jobs, and to remain unemployed. It i s these latter groups with which this thesis has been particularly concerned. In order to collect information about them, the heads of social service departments and private agencies most l i k e l y to have such men on their l i s t s , were interviewed. Questions asked were about agency aim and contact with unemployed men, the unemployed men themselves, and the amount of work offered and needed. A l l major services and agencies i n the City of Vancouver which have regular con-tact with unemployed men were vis i t e d . What this revealed i s that measurement of unemployment i n the lower strata, and assessment of the needs of the unemployed are both subjectively and objectively made, and vary greatly from agency to agency. However, the f i n a l mosaic — unemployed men, the services offered them, and present needs — has been, brought to being i n the preceding chapters. The Lower Strata What is the pattern? A characteristic majority of the un-employed men on skid row are of single status, having few close relationships attachments, and no roots i n the community. They usually li v e i n single housekeeping rooms, and most of them take advantage of free food offered by the Salvation Army and the Central City Mission. Probably just over half of them are between 4 0 and 6 0 years of age; few of them have more than grade school education. A l l but a few are poorly trained, their only s k i l l being what they have "picked up on - 7 1 -v the job". Many are casual, seasonal and transient workers. Few have had steady work records prior to coming to Vancouver. Although a few receive Unemployment Insurance, the majority are regularly on and off Social Assistance. To remain on this Assistance, they must keep up their registration with the National Employment Service, frequently i n the Special Placements Section. They are seldom offered employment. The major reason being, that they have so l i t t l e to offer. Nearly a l l of them have a manifest physical or social d i s a b i l i t y . Alcoholism i s a problem with most of them and they are a l l i n poor physical condition. They need more adequate food, regular hours, and exercise. They have a l l lost the habit of work. Services Offered At least minimum economic maintenance i s available to most unemployed men. Old Age Security and Old Age Assistance applies to the older men; Disabled Persons Allowance, to those totally and permanently disabled, and Blind Persons Allowance to the blind. Unemployment insu-rance i s available only for those who have made sufficient contributions, that i s , those who have had a sizable amount of previous work; though this may be supplemented by "seasonal benefits" after contributory benefits have run out. Social Assistance is available to most others who are i n need, i f they apply. Winter Works Projects provided work for only a very small number of Vancouver's unemployed during 1 9 5 9 - I 9 6 0 . The workshops — both training and production — of the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society have a capacity of 2 2 . Both the services and the successes of these workshops are excellent. However, the number of - 72 -unemployed men helped i s very small. A rather similar situation exists in the training and work f a c i l i t i e s offered by the Canadian National Institute for the Blind, where 50 m©n a n ( i women are employed under sheltered work conditions. Regular work both for training and for production is offered by the Salvation Army Men's Social Centre.. However, the number of men that they can employ at one time i s seldom more than 30. The Salvation Army Harbour Light Hostel, the Central City Mission, and the Catholic Sailors' Club offer only a casual work f a c i l i t y i n connection with their internal housekeeping and maintenance. Advice, counselling and social casework are a l l offered by different services and agencies i n the Vancouver area. Usually this is part of determining e l i g i b i l i t y . However, specific vocational guidance is available. And casework with a focus on a specific problem area can be obtained for the asking by any unemployed — or employed — man. These services often meet a particular need of the unemployed man, even though they seldom lead to employment. Existing Service Inadequacies: Present Needs From this survey i t is now possible to sum up the present needs, assessed from both local and national viewpoints. ( l ) Public Responsibility F i r s t l y , i t i s questionable whether the lower ranks of the unemployed are regarded as a national responsibility. It would appear that they are seen as "residuals", to be looked after by local and voluntary agencies. Therefore, much greater consulatation and cooperation is needed between a l l three levels of government. And i t is encouraging - 73 -to note that a national coordination committee has recently been set up for the disabled of a l l classes i n Canada. Something similar to this i s also needed for the "employable unemployed". And, when the responsibility has been delegated, there w i l l be some improvement i n the unemployment situation. Because at the present time there are surely sufficient "sooial inventions" and "administrative techniques" available to permit training to capacity and job placement for a l l unemployed men. (2) Maintenance When a man cannot earn an income he s t i l l needs food, clothing and shelter. A North American cultural norm i s that a man should work for what he consumes. Why is an exception made for the unemployed man? Work — according to capacity — should be expected i n return for Social Assistance, food and shelter. Physical conditioning i s badly needed by most skid row men. It could be made a part of presently offered shelter services. And i t should be a part of academic and vocational training, sheltered work training and production, and any public works project. ( 3 ) Training and Work The unemployed need work. They need a central place i n a community where they can register for work and have work offered them. Those who are untrained need training. If they are unskilled because of lack of opportunity, they need the opportunity. I f they have been replaced by automation they need retraining, then placement. If they are seasonal workers, their need i s for either a complementary s k i l l , or just the opportunity to work i n an unskilled capacity on their off-season. Casual and transient workers' needs are similar and can be met in the same way. Young men — i n fact a l l men — should be encouraged to gain as much academic schooling as their a b i l i t y w i l l allow. After - 74 -this they need training in a specific s k i l l or occupation. This can be done in vocational schools, under apprenticeship plans or i n industry. During this period of learning and working under instruction, they need continued economic maintenance. The handicapped unemployed require special training, often of a rehabilitative nature, followed by job placement. In the sheltered workshop, a man can be trained, can increase his work tolerance and can produce. The public work project offers employment for the semi-skilled and the unskilled and can be expanded or contracted as the unemployment situation indicates. The goal of this assistance i s to prepare the unemployed men to take his place on the competitive labor market. Because education and training is a provincial responsibility, leadership for the provision of additional f a c i l i t i e s — both academic and vocational — should be given by this government. However, because of the federal government's management of unemployment registration and Unemployment Insurance, very close collaboration between federal and provincial authorities i s necessary to ensure the successful transition from training into placement. (4) Counselling Because of the beneficial effects that work has upon unemployed men, the need for counselling them w i l l decrease when they are undergoing the work of training or the work of production on the job. When men work, there i s no longer a need to counsel them about their unemployment and the problems closely related to i t . Increased evaluative and vocational counselling may be welcomed however, and i t may then be more effective. - 75 -( 5 ) Coordination of Services Because no single service or agency is interested i n a l l unemployed men, or i n the unemployment aspects of a l l men unemployed, there must he coordination between these services and agencies i f the needs of these men are to be adequately met. There must be closer cooperation and increased communication between the members of these organizations. There must be a closer link — more referrals — between registration, evaluation and training services. And these must be tied i n tightly with the f i n a l goal of job placement. (6) Central Service Council for the Unemployed Coordination of services can best be achieved when they are administratively a l l under one auspicies. As has been shown, England and Sweden do this by central government planning. However, Vancouver's present need is for a Central S ervice Council to bring a l l participating agencies (both public and private, national and local ) together with a focus on unemployed men and their needs. Participants would include representatives from the National Employment Service and i t s Special Placements Section, the Unemployment Insurance Commission, the Winter Work Project Administration, the Provincial Government Rehabilitation Coordinator's office, the City Social Service Department, the Vancouver Vocational Institute, the Central City Mission, the Salvation Army Harbour Light Corps, the Narcotics Addiction Foundation, the Alcoholism Foundation, the John Howard Society, the Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society, and the Canadian National Institute for the Blind. - 76 -( 7 ) Work Projects There i s a significant need i n Vancouver for an expansion of Winter Works Projects. If this expansion was accompanied by greater cooperation and f l e x i b i l i t y between different levels of government, increased u t i l i z a t i o n by municipalities would result. However, of more importance — particularly for most men on skid row — i s the great need for public work projects. These projects (public housing, park development, forest conservation, slum clearance, et cetera) are of the type that can be expanded or contracted as the need i s presented. They can u t i l i z e both the unskilled and the sk i l l e d unemployed men, and remuneration can be offered for work done. The regular hours, sub-stantial food and physical reconditioning inherent i n such projects are ideal in preparing a man for participation i n the competitive labor market. (8) Sheltered Work Many services and agencies i n Vancouver do not realize the great potential of "sheltered workshops", both i n training and i n pro-duction. For those physically and socially handicapped who cannot compete on the open labor market, sheltered work i s essential. The present need in Vancouver i s for a great increase i n sheltered work opportunity for a l l classifications and degrees of disablement. Con-siderable efficiency can be achievea when men with a variety of disa-b i l i t i e s work together. Their a b i l i t i e s complement and supplement each others. ( 9 ) In Conclusion Some of the immediate needs i n Vanoouver could be tackled on a local basis. A n active central registry of a l l unemployed men, - 77 -increased coordination and communication between various agencies and services, and the establishment of a central service council need not wait for national action. What i s required however, i s comprehensive planning, starting from registration, evaluation and training, and ending with job placement; and this w i l l require money and personnel. Sheltered work for both training and production should be the subject of more imaginative experiments, both local and national. Public Work Projects w i l l always be an "undergirding" resource — perhaps provincially as well as nationally — which can be initiated to provide an expanding volume of work for the unemployed who are casual, seasonal, transient workers; f o r those who are not undergoing training; and for those who would gain l i t t l e from sheltered workshops, but who cannot complete on the regular labor market. The expansion of Winter Works Projects w i l l be needed for a long time i n Canada, not merely as an emergency measure, but to provide much-needed construction employment during the winter off-season. There i s much to be learned from experiments and from national programmes, for example, i n Sveden, Britain and elsewhere: a survey of these, perhaps by the Research Division of the Department of National Health and Welfare could provide an invaluable aid to a new programme for Canada. - 78 -APPENDIX "A" GUIDE USED IN INTERVIEWS Agency Aim and Contact with Unemployed Men 1 . What i s the agency's aim and purpose? 2 . Why do unemployed men come to your agency? 3 . What material help do you offer? 4 . What non-material help do you offer? The Men without Work 5 . How many men have you been incontact with who are unemployed; during 1959 and/or during recent months? 6. How would you classify them? 7. How many are single, married? 8. How many are untrained, white collar, seasonal, casual workers? 9 . How many are physically disabled? 10. How many are socially disabled; alcoholic, drug addicted, offenders? The Unemployed Man's Income 1 1 . How many receive Unemployment Insurance? 1 2 . How many receive pensions; O.A.A., O.A.S., B.P.A, D.P.A., W.C.? 1 3 . 'How many receive social assistance? 1 4 . How many have no income? Work Needs of the Unemployed Man 1 5 . What are the work needs of these men? 1 6 . What type of work do you offer these men? 1 7 . Do you locate work for them, part-time, full-time? 18. Do they get the work they want; are their work needs met? 1 9 . How can a man get work? 2 0 . What do men do to get work? 2 1 . What kinds of men are able rto get work? Problems and Solution i n the Provision of Work 2 2 . What do you see as the problem and solution for the provision of a work experience? 2 3 . Why has this solution not been attained? 2 4 . What has your agency done to meet the work needs of those unemployed men whom your agency has not been able to provide work experience for? - 79 -APPENDIX "B" SOME DEFINITIONS "Rehabilitation" i s considered as the process during which an unemployed or handicapped person i s enabled to attain the f u l l e s t degree of physical, emotional, social and economic satisfaction and social usefulness which are within his capacity. Rehabilitation has taken place when the individual i s meeting the general social norms of his community, and i s self-supporting as far as i s reasonable for his physical, social and vocational capacity. A person i s deemed to be "physically handicapped" when he has some organic d i s a b i l i t y (such as a heart condition, epilepsy, or an amputation) which inhibits his obtaining or holding employment on the open market. The present study excludes consideration of persons whose d i s a b i l i t i e s (permanent and total) qualify them for the Disabled Person's Allowance. An individual has been classified as being "socially handi-capped" i f he i s limited i n his efforts to obtain or hold employment because of some personal or social experience, or some present character-i s t i c , which society looks upon with disfavour. The alcoholic, the narcotic addict, and the man who has had a prison term, are included under this classification. "Work Spportunity" i s used to designate the existence of a situation within a community such that when an unemployed man presents himself to a social worker or an o f f i c i a l or an agency, or a social service department with a request for employment, he w i l l be offered - 80 -work — within his general capacity — within a few days. Registra-tion with the National Employment Service accordingly does not constitute work opportunity per se, though i t may be the means to i t . A man can be said to be having a "work experience" when he i s working i n a regular job, i n a sheltered workshop or on a govern-ment work project. It i s reasonable to extend this for the purpose of the present study, to undergoing training on a job. - 81 -APPENDIX "C" LIST OF AGENCIES AND PERSONS (a) Employment and Guidance  Agency I. National Employment Service Pacific Region Regional Special Placements Section Vancouver Special Placements Section :2. Youth Counselling Service for B r i t i s h Columbia 3. B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Labor 4 . Sertoma Service Club of Vancouver (b) Economic Assistance  Agency 5 . Unemployment Insurance Commission, City of Vancouver 6. City Social Service Department (c) Food, Clothing and Shelter  Agency 7 . Salvation Army Harbour Light Corps. 8. Salvation Army Dunsmuir House for Men 9 . Salvation Army Social Service Centre 10. Central City Mission II. Catholic Sailors' Club CONTACTED Persons Interviewed Regional Director Regional Executive Assistant Executive Assistant Supervisor Executive Director Past President Secretary of the Employment Office Persons Interviewed Supervisor of Insurance Assistant Administrator Director of Social Case work Persons Interviewed Corps Captain Director Assistant to the Director Assistant Manager Executive Director - 82 -(d) Agencies for the Physically Handicapped Agency Persons Interviewed 12. Provincial Rehabilitation Service Rehabilitation Coordinator Director of Social Work 1 3 . The Br i t i s h Columbia Epilepsy Society 14* The Canadian Arthritis and Rheumatism Society, British Columbia Branch 15* The Canadian National Institute for the Blind, B r i t i s h Columbia Branch (e) Agencies for the Socially Handicapped  Agency 16. The Alcoholism Foundation of Bri t i s h Columbia 1 7 . The John Howard Society of B r i t i s h Columbia 18. The S aivation Army, Correctional Services Department Executive Secretary Assistant Superintendent Persons Interviewed Executive Director Executive Director British Columbia Representative 19. The Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia Senior Social Worker - 83 -APPENDIX "D" BIBLIOGRAPHY  Books Bach, Prank.. Vocational Problems of .the Adolescent Offender! Some  Applications to New Haven and B.C. Borstal Association Groups. M.S.W. Thesis, School of Social Work, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1961. Bakke, E. Wight, Citizens Without Work. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1940. , The Unemployed Worker. Yale University Press, New Haven, 1 9 4 0 . Beveridge, Wm. H., F u l l Employment i n a Free Society. Geo. Allen & Unwin, London, 1 9 4 4 ' , Social Insurance and A l l i e d Services. H.M. Stationary Offioe, London, 1 9 4 2 . Burns, Eveline M., Social Security and Public Policy. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1936. Calkins, Calvin, Some Folks Won't Work. Harcourt, Brace and Company, New York, 1 9 3 0 . Cassidy, H. M._, Unemployment and Relief i n Ontario 1929-1952. J.M. Dent and Sons, Limited, Toronto, 1 9 5 2 . Clemmer, Donald, The Prison Community. Rinehart & Company, Inc., New York, I958. Colcord, Joanna C , Community Planning i n Unemployment Emergencies. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 3 0 . , Emergency Work Relief. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, I932. , Setting up a Programme of Work Relief. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1931* Dixon, William G.., Editor, Social Welfare and the Preservation of ' Human Values. J.M. Dent and Sons (Canada) Ltd., Vancouver, 1957* 8 4 -Feldman, Frances Lomas, The Family i n a Money World, The Family-Service Association of America, New York, 1 9 5 7 ' Galbraith, John Kenneth, The Affluent Society. Houghton M i f f l i n Company, Boston, 1 9 5 8 . Gibran, Ka h l i l , The Prophet. Alfred A. Knopf Publisher, New York, 1 9 5 8 . G i l l , Corrington, Wasted Manpower. W.W. Norton & Co. Inc., New York, 1 9 3 9 . Grauer, A.E., Public Assistance and Social Insurance, Kings Printer, Ottawa, 1 9 3 9 . Henderson,. L i l l i a n , Editor, The Province of Ontario — i t ' s Welfare  Servioes. Ontario Welfare Council, Toronto, 1 9 5 7 * Marsh, Leonard C , Canadians In and Out of Work. A Survey of Economic Classes and their Relation to the Labour Market, Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1 9 4 0 . , Health and Unemployment, Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1938. __, Employment Research. Oxford University Press, Toronto, 1 9 3 5 . , Social Security for Canada. Queen's Printer, Ottawa, 1 9 4 3 . M i l l s , C. Wright, White Collar. Oxford University Press, New York, 1 9 5 1 . Morgan, John, S., The New Look i n Welfare. Ontario Woodsworth Foundation, Toronto, 1 9 5 5 . McCoy, Georgia F. and Rusk, Howard A., An Evaluation of Rehabilitation, Monograph No. 1 , The Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilita-tion, New York, University-Bellevue Medical Center, New York, 1 9 5 3 • National Association of Social Workers, Goals of Public Social Policy, New York, 1 9 5 9 -Packard, Vance, The Status Seekers. David McKay Company, Inc. New York, 1 9 5 9 . Richmond, Mary E., What i s Social Case Work? Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 2 2 . Richter, L., Editor, Canada's Unemployment Problem. The MacMillan Co. of Canada., Ltd., Toronto, 1 9 3 9 « - 85 -Sherwood, Robert E., Roosevelt and Hopkins, Bantam Books Inc., New York, 1948. Strecker, Edward A., Fundamentals of Psychiatry. J.B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1 9 5 2 . Sweden, Social Welfare Board, Social Sweden. Gernandts Boktryckeri, Stockholm, 1 9 5 2 . Thompson, Nellie Zetta, Editor, The Role of the Workshop in Rehabi- l i t a t i o n . The National Association of Sheltered Workshops and Homebound Programs, Washington, 1 9 5 8 . Towle, Charlotte, Common Human Needs. American Association of Social Workers, New York, 1955* United States, National Resources Planning Board, Security. Work, and  Relief Policies. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1 9 4 2 . Upjohn, W.E., Institute for Community Research, Unemployment and Relief, Chicago, 1 9 5 5 . Warner, W. Lloyd, Democracy in Jonesville. Harper and Brothers, New York, 1 9 5 9 . Wickenden, Elizabeth, How to Influence Public Policy. American Association of Social Workers, New York, 1954* Wilensky.,. Harold L. & Lebeaux, Charles N., Industrial Society and Social Welfare. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1 9 5 8 . Yahraes, Herbert, Now - A Brighter Future for the Epileptic. Public Affairs Pamphlet No. 9 8 , New York, 1 9 5 8 . - 86 -Articles Ardies, Tom. "Dope Foundation Ready to Expand Study", The Vancouver  Sun. April 3 0 , i 9 6 0 . Bellak, Leopold, and others, "Rehabilitation of the Mentally. I l l Through Controlled Transitional Employment", American Journal  of Orthopsychiatry. 2 6 ; 285-296, A p r i l , 1 9 5 6 . Blunden, Dennis,, "Shipwright Union Retrenches to Weather Jobless Cr i s i s " , The Vancouver Sun. A p r i l 2 3 , i 9 6 0 . Broadfoot,. Barry,. " 2 0 0 Men Apply for Single Low-paid Warehouse Job",The  Vancouver Sun, December 1 1 , 1958* Burns,. Eveline.,. Davidson, George, Fauri, Fedele F., New Dimensions i n  Social Security, Reprint of Addresses Delivered at A.P.W.A. Round Table Conference, December v1957, Chicago, American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, 1 9 5 8 . Burns, Eveline M., "Social Welfare i s our Commitment", Public Welfare, reprint from July Issue, 1 9 5 8 , American Public Welfare Association, Chicago, 1 9 5 8 . Dick,. John, "Epilepsy i n B r i t i s h Columbia", British Columbia Medical  Journal. Volume 1 , Number 1 1 , November, 1959« Dewalt, L.W.,. "Emotional and Social Factors i n Epilepsy", B r i t i s h  Columbia Medical Journal, Vol. 1 , No. 1 2 , December, 1959* Hochhau8er, Edward and Hentel, Celia., "History, Philosophy, and Operation of the. Altro Workshops, Inc., ", British Journal of  Physical Medicine, 1 7 : 3 - 7 , January, 1954-Howarth, Dorothy,. " 8 2 0 0 , 0 0 Cerebral Palsy Centre Unveiled by Lions", The Vancouver Sun. March, i960. Howarth, Jean, "This i s Unemployment", The Vancouver Province. October 3 1 , 1 9 5 8 . Kohler,. Mary Conway, ."Why Does Europe Have Less Delinquency?" The  Saturday Evening Post. November 7 , 1959* P« 19* MacGillivray, Alex,. ."That White Stuff Means Jobs to Line of Patient Seekers", The Vancouver Sun. December 8 , 1 9 5 8 . MacKinnon, Fred R. "Local Government and Welfare", Canadian Public Administration, March i 9 6 0 , Volume i i i , Number 1 , p. 3 1 - 4 2 . - 87 -Robinson,. Harold S..,, "The. Cost of Rehabilitation in Rheumatic Disease", Journal of Chronic Diseases. Volume 8 , Number 6, December, 1 9 5 8 , pp. 7 1 3 - 7 1 8 . Saskatchewan Provincial Government, " J a i l Inmates Find Useful Work at Northern Lumber Camp", Saskatchewan News. Vol. 1 5 , No. 8 , A p r i l 26, I 9 6 0 , Regina. . . . . . . , "New Hope for the Handicapped", Saskatchewan News, Vol. 1 5 , N 0. 2 , January 2 6 , i 9 6 0 , Regina. ; . - . . "Saskatchewan Rehabilitation Services Unite", Saskatchewan News. Vol. 1 5 , No. 4 , February 23, I 9 6 0 , Regina. Vancouver Province. January, 1959 - March, i 9 6 0 . Vancouver Sun. The. May, 1959 - May, i 9 6 0 . - 88 -Reports Alcoholism Foundation of British Columbia,. Treatment and Case Statistics, August, 1959. March, 1959. and January, I960, mimeographed reports, Vancouver. Bradbury., C.E., Report of the Rehabilitation Coordinator. December 51. 1959. Province of British Columbia, mimeographed report, Vancouver, I 9 6 0 . B r i t i s h Columbia Provincian Government, Department of Health and Welfare, Annual Report Year Ending March 31. 194-8. King's Printer, Victoria, 1 9 4 8 . . Department of Municipal Affairs, letter written by J.D. Baird, Deputy Inspector of Municipalities, to A l l Municipalities, Improvement Districts and Greater Districts, September 2 5 , 1 9 5 9 , mimeographed letter, Victoria, 1 9 5 9 * B r i t i s h Columbia Epilepsy Society, The F i r s t Hundred, mimeographed report, Vancouver, i 9 6 0 . B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Labour, C.L.C., The Effeots of Automation  and Related Problems, a brief presented to the Select Standing Committee on Labour, March, I960, Vancouver. Canada, Department of Labour, Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended  March 51. 1958. Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, 1958. ., National Employment Service, Employment Observations Pacific ' Region. 1959-58-57. mimeographed report, Vancouver, i960. National Employment Service, Special Placements Section, . unemployment Insurance Commission Report of Special Placements  Work Ret Handicapped Persons, March. I960, tabulated report, Vancouver i960. , Unemployment Insurance Commission, Eighteenth Annual Report Fiscal Year Ending March 51. 1959. Queeris Printer, Ottawa, 1959-Unemployment Insurance Commission, Unfilled Vacancies and Registrations at October 29. 1959. mimeographed report, Vancouver 1959. Canadian A r t h r i t i s and Rheumatism Society, Referrals - Arts and Crafts, October. 1955 - September. 1959. mimeographed report, Vancouver, 1959• Canadian National Institute for the Blind, National Report Year Ended  March 51. 1959. Toronto, 1959. - 89 -City of Vancouver, Social Service Department, Annual Report 1950* mimeographed report, 1 9 3 1 • , . . , . .. Social Service Department, Organized Charity i n Vancouver 1886-1926. typewritten report, 1926. .. Social Service Department, Statement of Case Load and Expenditures. December. 1959. mimeographed report, Vancouver, I 9 6 0 . Colcleugh,, Murray. C , Assistance to Single Unemployed Men December 1954 to July 1955. City of Vancouver Social Service Department, Vancouver, 1 9 5 5 -Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver.,. Division for Guidance of Handicapped, Recommendations for a Comprehensive Rehabilitation  Programme for the Province of Br i t i s h Columbia, mimeographed draft report, Vancouver, 1953* Diefenbaker, John, Bringing "Hew" Government to Canada, election pamphlet, Ottawa, 1 9 5 8 . Halliday, .Robert, "Report of the Director", Third Annual Report. 1958 -1959'. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1 9 5 9 . John Howard Society of Bri t i s h Columbia,. Sta t i s t i c a l Summary of Case Work  Services. January. 1959 - January. I960, mimeographed report, Vancouver, i 9 6 0 . Keetch,. Horace,. "Unemployment - Plans for- F u l l Employment", Unemployment  Conference. Vancouver and Di s t r i c t Labour Council. A p r i l 5. 1959. Vancouver, 1959* Morris, Albert, Editor, Correctional Research. United Prison Association of Massachusetts, Bulletin No 9» November, 1959» Boston. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, Third Annual Report. 1958-1959. mimeographed report, Vancouver, 1959* Neish, J.E., Executive Assistant,. Special Placements. Section, National Employment Service, Unplaced Applicants and Placed Applicants. 1959. personal records, Vancouver, i 9 6 0 . Ruck, S.K.., "Sheltered Workshops and Homework",, an address given at the Seventh World Congress of the International Society for the Welfare  of Cripples. 1 9 5 7 . and recorded i n a mimeographed report edited by Rhona Lucas, Executive Secretary, Division for Guidance of Handicapped, Community Chest and Council of Greater Vancouver, Vancouver, 1957* - 90 -Salvation Army Harbour Light Corps, Harbour Lighter. Volume 5> Number 1, January, I 9 6 0 , Vancouver. Trasov, C.E."Report of the Counsellor", Third Annual Report 1958 - 1959. Narcotic Addiction Foundation of British Columbia, Vancouver, 1959• United States, Senate Committee on Government Operations, Sub-committee on Reorganization and International Organizations, Domestic Programs and International Activities i n Technical Assistance,. Rehabilitation of the Disabled i n Thirty-seven  Countries of the World, Washington, 1959• Youth Counselling Service for B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report. 1958, mimeographed report, Vancouver, 1959• 

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