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The masque in Shakespeare Shaw, Catherine Maud 1963

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THE MASQUE IN SHAKESPEARE by CATHERINE MAUD SHAW B.A.,  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 8  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the Department of English  We accept t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming t o the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1 9 6 3  the  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and mission for extensive p u r p o s e s may his  be  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  study.  I f u r t h e r agree that  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  g r a n t e d by  representatives.  the  the Head o f my  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain w i t h o u t my  written  Department of  permission.  ~\(~^  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date 5^5"  scholarly  Department or  I t i s understood that  copying, or  s h a l l not  per-  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT The  purpose of t h i s t h e s i s i s t o examine the dramatic  f u n c t i o n o f the Court Masque i n the p l a y s of W i l l i a m  Shake-  speare and t o determine how the i n t e g r a t i o n of the masque, e i t h e r i n whole or i n p a r t , enhanced h i s p l a y s both s t r u c t u r a l l y and  thematically. The  first  chapter t r a c e s the development of the  Court Masque from i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o the c o u r t as a , recognizable  form i n 1512 t o the h i g h l y e l a b o r a t e  of the Jacobean and C a r o l i n e p e r i o d s .  productions  The emphasis i s on the  i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the masque and p o e t i c drama and the use w i t h i n the drama of c e r t a i n q u a l i t i e s which had become a s s o c i a t e d with the masque.  I n the succeeding  Shakespeare*s p l a y s are grouped according be  chapters,  t o what appears t o  the most obvious f u n c t i o n of the masque.  T h i s grouping i s  i n no way c a t e g o r i c a l as the f u n c t i o n which the masque f u l f i l l s is and  o f t e n two or t h r e e - f o l d .  I n Henry V I I I , Romeo and J u l i e t ,  The Merchant of V e n i c e , the masque p r o v i d e s  romantic i n t r i g u e and thus advances the p l o t .  a cover f o r In addition  t o t h i s an i r o n y i s e s t a b l i s h e d through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of the event and the c o n d i t i o n s  under which i t takes p l a c e .  L o v e s Labour*s L o s t , Timon of Athens and Much Ado About I  Nothing i l l u s t r a t e masque a s s o c i a t i o n s with f r i v o l i t y and  iii a f f e c t a t i o n which r e f l e c t the u n r e a l poses of the main characters.  In these p l a y s the denouement h i n g e s upon the  d i s c o v e r y of r e a l i t y .  Chapter IV d e a l s with those  plays  which not only c o n t a i n masque sequences but a l s o r e v e a l something of an o v e r - a l l masque q u a l i t y , p l a y s i n which the a c t i o n moves through f l e e t i n g masque-like scenes t o f i n a l order and harmony.  The antimasque, though appearing  i n some  p l a y s p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i s examined i n a separate  chapter  and i t s f u n c t i o n and e f f e c t i v e n e s s assessed. The  t h e s i s r e v e a l s t h a t while i n c r e a s e d e l a b o r a t i o n  of masque p r o d u c t i o n p r o v i d e d  Shakespeare with  possibilities  f o r more t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t s i n the p u b l i c t h e a t r e and l e d t o a g r e a t e r use of stage s p e c t a c l e i n the l a t e r p l a y s , never i s the masque used merely f o r stage e f f e c t even when t h i s was the. f a s h i o n f o l l o w e d by many other d r a m a t i s t s .  The masque  i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p l o t and i t s q u a l i t i e s adapted t o r e i n f o r c e the theme. and  Of the many i n f l u e n c e s , both contemporary  t r a d i t i o n a l , which s t i m u l a t e d Shakespeare s  the masque was an important  1  one.  imagination,  The m a s t e r f u l a s s i m i l a t i o n  of the Court Masque c o n t r i b u t e s t o the v i t a l i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y of the dramas and are a t r i b u t e t o t h e i r author's complete e c l e c t i c i s m .  genius and  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER  PAGE  I  INTRODUCTION  II  ROMANTIC  III  ILLUSION  ^3  IV  VISIONARY HARMONY  62  V  ANTIMASQUE  80  VI  CONCLUSION  97  BIBLIOGRAPHY  INTRIGUE  1 23  10?  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION S p e c t a c l e and pageantry, music and dance, mumming and d i s g u i s i n g , p o e t r y and  song, a l l e g o r i c a l and  mythological  i n t e r l u d e s — i n f a c t , a l l of the c o n s t i t u e n t elements which, when combined i n v a r y i n g p r o p o r t i o n s , went to make up  the  E l i z a b e t h a n and Jacobean Court masque—had e x i s t e d i n , and been a p a r t o f , E n g l i s h r i t u a l f e s t i v i t i e s " a n d "revels long before  the masque emerged as an entertainment form.  "the essence of the masque which was  Indeed,  the a r r i v a l of c e r t a i n  persons v i s o r e d and d i s g u i s e d to dance a dance or present offering""*" had  an  i t s o r i g i n "deep i n the p a s t , i n f o l k custom  and f e r t i l i t y r i t e s . "  In the l u d i . which E n i d Welsford  sees  emerging from those pagan r i t u a l s t o l e r a t e d by the C h r i s t i a n Church^, can be seen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which clung to f o l k c o u r t entertainment i n t o Tudor and  S t u a r t times,  with f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s i n t o a f o r m a l masque.  The  and  and merged  s t r u c t u r e , the  court  mock combat of the sword dances and morris  dances  E n i d W e l s f o r d , The Court Masque. A Study i n the R e l a t i o n ship between P o e t r y and the R e v e l s . Cambridge, 1927, p. 19. p A.C. Baugh et a l . ed., A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of England. New York, 19^8, p. 569. The  Court Masque, p.  20.  2 can be t r a c e d i n t o the l a t e r a l l e g o r i c a l a s s a u l t s and the more formal  dance performances.  Elejnents of the King Game,  p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the Lord  of M i s r u l e , can be seen i n the  antimasque -which, though not f o r m a l l y acknowledged as p a r t of the masque u n t i l 1609, had i t s comic i n f l u e n c e much e a r l i e r . Out  of mumming came the elements of d i s g u i s e and s u r p r i s e ,  dancing and d i c i n g , and g i f t - g i v i n g .  The continued  association  of these entertainments with the most important events of the human c o n d i t i o n kept strong  their r i t u a l features.  The  f o r c e of l i f e and the a b s t r a c t i d e a l s which p e r s i s t e d i n the masque when i t showed i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the Shakespearean dramas drew v i g o u r  from these r o o t s .  During the r e i g n of Henry V I I I a l l i e d forms of t h i s f e s t i v e a r t were drawn i n t o a l o o s e connection. Chronicles  o f the Reign, r e c o r d s  H a l l , i n The  that i n 1512  the king with x i other wer d i s g u i s e d a f t e r the maner o f I t a l i e , c a l l e d a maske. a thyng not seen a f o r e i n England . . . these maskers came i n , with s i x e gentlemen d i s g u i s e d i n s i l k e bearying s t a f f e t o r c h e s , and d e s i r e d the l a d i e s to daunce, some wer content, and some that knew the f a s h i o n of i t r e f u s e d , because i t was not a thyng commonly seen. And a f t e r t h e i danced and commoned together, as the f a s h i o n of the maskes i s , they take t h e i r leave and departed, and so d i d the Quene, and a l l the l a d i e s . * 1  H a l l s Chronicle; C o n t a i n i n g the H i s t o r y of England, during the Reign of Henrv the Fourth and Succeeding Monarchs. f  Though some scholars-' have seen t h i s item as evidence of an e n t i r e l y new  form of entertainment, more d e t a i l e d  have shown that there was  l i t t l e new  studies  except the name 'maske*  and the m i n g l i n g of v i s o r e d k n i g h t s with the audience. the Tudor custom of d i s g u i s i n g had been added an variation:  To  Italian  the performers not o n l y danced with the  s p e c t a t o r s but they 'commoned . 1  f e e l i n g s toward  H a l l i n d i c a t e s t h a t the  t h i s i n n o v a t i o n were, at f i r s t , r a t h e r mixed.  The o p p o s i t i o n by r e s p e c t a b l e E n g l i s h s o c i e t y was however, and the 'taking o u t  1  short l i v e d ,  of members of the audience  by  costumed or masked dancers became the climax of the f u l l y developed Court performance i t s name.  and the event from which i t got  In a d d i t i o n t o i t s importance  i n terms of form,  t h i s i n n o v a t i o n i n t r o d u c e d the dramatic motive i n t o what was,  except f o r the element  e s s e n t i a l l y an undramatic  of i n t r i g u e  of impersonation,  entertainment.  to the End of the Reign of Henry the E i g h t h , i n Which are P a r t i c u l a r l y D e s c r i b e d the Manners and Customs of those P e r i o d s P r i n t e d f o r J . Johnson e t c . , 1 8 0 9 , London, p. 5 2 6 . ^See A.M. N a g l e r , A Source Book i n T h e a t r i c a l H i s t o r y , p. l*+0 J.A. Symonds, Shakespeare's Predecessors, p. 2 5 5 ? Kenneth MacGowan and. W i l l i a m M e l n i t z , The L i v i n g Stage, p. lb%. See H.A. Evans, E n g l i s h Masques, i n t r o . p. x x i ; E.K. Chambers, The E l i z a b e t h a n Stage. V o l . I , p. 1 5 3 ; E n i d Welsf o r d , The Court Masque, p. 1 5 3 .  h I t i s n e c e s s a r y t o s t r e s s that the masque was, from its  inception,, an amateur performance i n which r o y a l , noble  or honoured personages took p a r t .  I t i s true t h a t  young c o u r t i e r s who developed the f a d of i n v a d i n g and  ' g a t e - c r a s h i n g ' p r i v a t e p a r t i e s to f l i r t  the l a d i e s , soon i n t r o d u c e d  lusty the s t r e e t s  and r e v e l with  the custom outside  of c o u r t .  I t i s a l s o t r u e that a f t e r the' t u r n of the seventeenth century professional  e n t e r t a i n e r s were employed to p r o v i d e the comic  or grotesque antimasque as c o n t r a s t splendour of the main p a r t  to the beauty and the  of the performance.  But the masque  proper remained p r i m a r i l y an a r i s t o c r a t i c form of e n t e r t a i n ment and t h i s i s probably one of the main reasons that the masque never q u i t e amusement and a r t . of d r e s s i n g  succeeded i n c r o s s i n g  the l i n e  separating  To i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s and v i e w e r s , the f u n  up which the masque p r o v i d e d , of c a r r y i n g on  f l i r t a t i o u s i n t r i g u e s , of impressing honoured guests, of escaping i n t o a world of make-believe which they thought r e f l e c t e d the i d e a l s t a t e of t h e i r own s o c i e t y , l e d t o i t s i n c r e a s i n g popularity  and t o I t s i n c r e a s i n g  artificiality..  From the time of i t s i n t r o d u c t i o n  to the E n g l i s h  then, the masque had c e r t a i n elements of the dramatic. first  court,  It  of a l l i n v o l v e d persons pretending t o be other than they  r e a l l y were, and i t a l s o had the beginnings of dramatic motive, t h a t of i n t r i g u e .  There was s t i l l no n a r r a t i v e  and there was  5 no speech other than the impromptu murmurings c a r r i e d on d u r i n g the commoning.  T.M. P a r r o t t n o t e s , however, that as e a r l y as  1 5 1 7 C o r n i s h , a Master  of the R e v e l s , made an entrance b e f o r e  a r o y a l g a t h e r i n g t o i n t r o d u c e a group of noble  entertainers.  As p r e s e n t e r he spoke a Prologue i n which he s t a t e d "the 7 e f f e c t and the i n t e n t " of the Garden of Esperance.  This  i n t r o d u c i n g of performers soon developed a dramatic c h a r a c t e r and e v e n t u a l l y dramatic a c t i o n , but r a r e l y d i d a theme dependent on the spoken word become the main b u s i n e s s of the masque.  During E l i z a b e t h a n times the dance remained the  important f e a t u r e , even though r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of something  the dance might be a symbolic  e l s e such as a p r o c e s s i o n , an  a s s a u l t , a tourney or a debate-.  I n Jacobean  came to the f o r e a g a i n even though  times, s p e c t a c l e  the elements making up the  s p e c t a c l e might have been s y m b o l i c a l l y l i n k e d to a c e n t r a l theme.  The masque episodes, i n other words, became l i n k e d by  a dramatic t h r e a d , but they never became drama. With an eye to economy, E l i z a b e t h I d i d l i t t l e t o advance the growth of the masque w i t h i n h e r c o u r t but h e r p r o g r e s s e s throughout h e r realm encouraged  wealthy s u b j e c t s  to p r e s e n t e l a b o r a t e entertainments i n heir honour.  When out  'T.M. P a r r o t t , "Comedy i n the Court Masque: A Study of Ben Johson*s C o n t r i b u t i o n " , __, XX ( 1 9 ^ 1 ) , p. ^29.  6 of doors these entertainments took the form of tourneys, pageants  or debates, a l l u s u a l l y a l l e g o r i c a l i n substance and  accompanied  by music, which l e d up t o the p r e s e n t a t i o n of  complimentary  speeches or g i f t s t o Her Majesty.  d e s c r i b e s one of the more simple g r e e t i n g s which Harefield Place.  I t was  A l i c e Venezky took p l a c e at  c o n s t r u c t e d along the l i n e s of. a  d i a l o g u e between Time and P l a c e : Time then contended that Place was too s m a l l and i n s i g n i f i c a n t t o r e c e i v e the Queen. In r e p l y , Place p o i n t e d out t h a t he had r e c e i v e d the sun, which the s o v e r e i g n E l i z a b e t h resembled. A diamond h e a r t was then presented to the Queen, as a m i r r o r of the t r u e h e a r t . o f the donor.8 G e n e r a l l y speaking, however, the a r r i v a l of the Queen at a noble house c a l l e d f o r much more e l a b o r a t e c e l e b r a t i o n s and honours. speech was  These might i n c l u d e d i a l o g u e , but  subordinate to d i s g u i s i n g and the dance.  At i n d o o r  e n t e r t a i n m e n t s , E l i z a b e t h r e c e i v e d her t r i b u t e i n the form of a masque.  Compliments were i n c l u d e d i n the dramatic i n t r o d u c -  t i o n of the masque dancers and a g i f t from her h o s t presented b e f o r e they withdrew.  was  Probably as a r e s u l t of the  i n f l u e n c e of such poets as Sidney and Spenser these  compliments  soon took on a p o e t i c q u a l i t y of language and r e f l e c t e d the  New  A l i c e S. Venezky. Pageantry on the Shakespearean York, 1 9 5 1 , p . 80.  Stage.  7  i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g by many a l l e g o r i c a l r e f e r e n c e s to c l a s s i c a l and m y t h o l o g i c a l f i g u r e s . r e q u e s t f o r a repeat performance  As the weather or a  might move these f e s t i v i t i e s  i n or out of doors, a p a s t o r a l s e t t i n g was was  r e a d i l y adaptable.  o f t e n used as i t  In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s , s e t t i n g s d e p i c t i n g  an i d e a l A r c a d i a n p e r f e c t i o n , a "golden world", were eminently s u i t a b l e t o compliment the graces of G l o r i a n a . I t i s necessary to make some form of d i s t i n c t i o n between what E.K.  Chambers c a l l s the simple masque " i n which  the dancers, w i t h t h e i r r i c h l y hued and s p a r k l i n g costumes, t h e i r t o r c h - b e a r e r s and t h e i r musicians, may f u r n i s h i n g t h e i r own  be regarded as  s p e c t a c l e , " ^ and the l a t e r , much more  e l a b o r a t e form because i t was  the simple masque which  used most o f t e n by W i l l i a m Shakespeare.  Indeed,  was  i t may  be  s a i d t h a t , with the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of the masque a t the end of The Tempest, whenever the entertainment as such i s used, e i t h e r w h o l l y or i n p a r t , i t i s i n the simpler or Tudor form. As the drama i n f l u e n c e d the development of the masque, so the masque i n f l u e n c e d drama. The  7  p.  Lady of May,  E.K. 175.  S i r P h i l i p Sidney s 1  though not a masque i n the s t r i c t e s t  playlet, sense,  Chambers. The E l i z a b e t h a n Stage. V o l . I , Oxford, 1 9 2 5 ,  8  has many masquer-like q u a l i t i e s .  I t s main motive was t o  e n t e r t a i n Queen E l i z a b e t h and, though  i t i n v o l v e d no dances,  troops of c o n t r a s t e d performers p a t t e r n t h e i r a c t i o n s out the s l i g h t  through-  narrative.  But The Lady of May f o r a l l i t s s l i g h t n e s s was not without e f f e c t : Shakespeare transformed the schoolmaster i n t o H b l o f e r n e s ; Jonson shows an indebtedness to i t i n h i s masques and e n t e r tainments; and such w r i t e r s of p a s t o r a l drama as Jonson and F l e t c h e r were guided by i t . More important, f o r the f i r s t time one of these , c o u r t l y entertainments was a l s o good l i t e r a t u r e . George Peele's The Arraignment  Q  of P a r i s , w r i t t e n a  few y e a r s l a t e r i n the e a r l y 1 5 8 0 * 3 , a l s o may be c a l l e d a masque-like  p a s t o r a l drama.  Again the drama was composed f o r  p r e s e n t a t i o n b e f o r e the Queen and the author v e r y n e a t l y t u r n s the c l a s s i c a l myth i n t o a v e h i c l e f o r p r a i s e of the beauty of E l i z a b e t h .  When f a c e d with the problem  of a l t e r i n g  P a r i s * s d e c i s i o n as t o who most j u s t l y deserves the golden apple i n s c r i b e d , " L e t t h i s unto the f a i r e s t be," Diana d e c i d e s t h a t n e i t h e r Juno, P a l l a s , nor Venus are worthy and p r e s e n t s i t instead to E l i z a ,  "the noble phoenix of our age."  Though the  p l a y a g a i n c o n t a i n s no masque dances, the grouping and p a t t e r n i n g of gods and goddesses,  shepherds  and k n i g h t s , muses  and f a t e s , r e v e a l the i n f l u e n c e of the f o r m a l masque.  E.W. Parks and R.C. B e a t t y , eds., The E n g l i s h Drama 900 1 6 _ _ , New York, 1 9 3 5 , p. 5 5 2 . V  9  A very  s i m i l a r patterned  grouping of c h a r a c t e r s  upon  the  stage can be seen i n the e a r l y Shakespearean comedies.  The  masque i t s e l f w i t h i n Love's Labour's L o s t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d  i n d e t a i l l a t e r , but the o v e r a l l s t r u c t u r e shows that Shakespeare was i n f l u e n c e d by the p a t t e r n i n g the c o u r t l y entertainments.  of movement i n  L a t e r , when h i s s k i l l i n h a n d l i n g  comedy became g r e a t e r , he a l t e r e d the p a t t e r n and the f o r m a l balance.  In As You L i k e I t r a t h e r than even p a i r i n g , the  p a t t e r n i s asymmetrical.  use  And And And And  so I am f o r Phoebe I f o r Ganymede. I f o r Rosalind. I f o r no woman. •, •, (V. i i . 9 1 - ^ )  The  reason f o r Shakespeare's choosing t o l i m i t h i s  of the masque d i s g u i s e s and dances to the simpler  Tudor  form l i e s , most p r o b a b l y , i n the f a c t t h a t he always had h i s eye  on the p u b l i c t h e a t r e .  The more elementary the mechanics  of the masque the e a s i e r they were to i n t e g r a t e i n t o the p l o t , both s t r u c t u r a l l y and t h e m a t i c a l l y .  Obviously  f o r Shakespeare  the p l a y was "the t h i n g " , and although he was w i l l i n g t o t r y t o please  the p u b l i c t h e a t r e audience with elements of the  c o u r t l y form of entertainment, he was u n w i l l i n g t o a l l o w them  Shakespeare: the Complete Works, e d i t e d by G.B. H a r r i s o n , New York, 1 9 5 2 . A l l quotations from Shakespearean p l a y s are from t h i s e d i t i o n unless otherwise s t a t e d .  10  to overshadow the drama i t s e l f . l a t e r form, c a l l e d by E.K.  T h i s does not mean that  Chambers the s p e c t a c u l a r  the  masque,  "to which e c l a t i s g i v e n by the pageant, mobile, or towards the end  of the r e i g n s t a t i o n a r y , with i t s a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t s ,  i t s g i l t and  c o l o u r s , and  the elements of i l l u s i o n  s u r p r i s e a f f o r d e d by i t s f a c i l i t i e s  and  f o r the concealed  entry  12  of personages," the c o n t r a r y ,  had  no e f f e c t on the great d r a m a t i s t .  On  i t i s only necessary to n o t i c e the d i f f e r e n c e  between the comparative s i m p l i c i t y of the e a r l y h i s t o r i e s and the  splendour of Henry V I I I .  Granted the stage d i r e c t i o n s f o r  a l l the l a t e r p l a y s are g e n e r a l l y more e x p l i c i t than i n the e a r l i e r ones, i n t h i s p l a y not a d e t a i l i s omitted i n the d i r e c t i o n s f o r the p r o c e s s i o n a l f o r the c o r o n a t i o n  of Anne  B u l l e n , nor are the author's i n t e n t i o n s l e f t to chance i n the ceremony of the masked f i g u r e s i n the v i s i o n of Queen These .influences were, however, most n o t i c e a b l e i n techniques or i n s t a g i n g r a t h e r than any  greater  Katharine.  produc'tion  elaboration  of the masque sequences themselves. Toward the end had  of the r e i g n of E l i z a b e t h , the masques  grown i n p o p u l a r i t y u n t i l they were the accepted method of  entertainment at s p e c i a l events and f e s t i v a l s and q u a l i t i e s were tuned to honour the h o s t ,  The E l i z a b e t h a n  Stage. V o l . I , p.  any  175.  t h e i r dramatic  s p e c i a l guests,  or  11  the p r i n c i p a l s i n v o l v e d i n a p a r t i c u l a r c e l e b r a t i o n , such as a b e t r o t h a l or a marriage.  I t was o f t e n thought  politically  expedient t o t r y t o outdo r i v a l s f o r the Queen s favour 1  being  more l a v i s h , i n expressions  of l o y a l t y and  by  admiration.  A master f o r the r e v e l s became one of the most important servants  i n a wealthy man*s employ.  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , i t  became the p r a c t i c e t o commission not only dancing masters to t r a i n t h e . c o u r t l y performers but a l s o well-known poets and musicians to compose the masque.  S p e c i a l rooms were designed  to show o f f the entertainments t o t h e i r best advantage, t o , e l e v a t e the performance t o a l l o w f u l l and panoramic v i e w i n g . There can be no doubt that these developments speeded the e v o l u t i o n of the proscenium arch  stage,  as w e l l as the use  of s t a t i o n a r y and moveable stage p r o p e r t i e s . E n i d W e l s f o r d c i t e s the Shrovetide  p r o d u c t i o n of  Proteus and the Adamantine Rock by the members of Gray*s Inn f o r Queen E l i z a b e t h i n 1 5 9 5 as the t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the h i s t o r y of the masque.  This presentation,  norm i n t h a t , with the e x c e p t i o n  she says, e s t a b l i s h e d a  of an. antimasque, i t i n c l u d e d  a l l the elements which were l a t e r to be used by Ben Jonson and other  masque w r i t e r s during  the Jacobean and C a r o l i n e  "The Court Masque, p. 1 6 3 .  periods. 1  12 W r i t t e n by Thomas Campion and F r a n c i s Davison, p r o d u c t i o n shows how genuine  much the c o u r t masque had absorbed  this of  drama: F i r s t entered f i v e musicians r e p r e s e n t i n g *an E s q u i r e of the P r i n c e * s Company, attended by a T a r t a r i a n Page. Proteus the Sea-God, attended by two T r i t o n s . Thamesis and A m p h i t r i t e , who l i k e w i s e were attended by t h e i r Sea-nymphs.* The nymphs and T r i t o n s sang a song i n p r a i s e of Neptune: . . . we l e a r n that the P r i n c e of Purpoole had caught Proteus, and r e f u s e d to l e t him go, u n t i l he promised to b r i n g to an appointed p l a c e the *Adamantine Rock,* the magnetic c l i f f that brought with i t the empire of the sea. But P r o t e u s would only agree to t h i s on c o n d i t i o n *That f i r s t the P r i n c e should b r i n g him t o a Power, Which i n a t t r a c t i v e v i r t u e should surpass The wondrous f o r c e of h i s Iron-drawing r o c k s . * The P r i n c e of Purpoole and seven of h i s k n i g h t s have allowed themselves to be shut i n t o the rock as hostages, f o r the p e r formance of t h i s covenant, and now the moment of t r i a l has come. Proteus descants on the magnetic v i r t u e of the adamantine r o c k , but the s q u i r e p o i n t s out t h a t the rock may draw i r o n , but the Queen a t t r a c t s to h e r s e l f the h e a r t s of men, and the human h e a r t moves the arm t h a t can w i e l d i r o n . Proteus acknowledges himself defeated. . . . and then the P r i n c e and the seven Knights i s s u e d f o r t h of the rock, i n a very s t a t e l y mask, very r i c h l y a t t i r e d , . . . At t h e i r f i r s t coming on the Stage, they danced a new d e v i s e d measure, e t c . A f t e r which, they took unto them L a d i e s ; and with them they danced t h e i r g a l l i a r d s , c o u r a n t s , e t c . And they danced another new measure; a f t e r the end whereof, the pigmies brought e i g h t escutcheons, with the maskers d e v i c e s thereupon, and d e l i v e r e d them to the E s q u i r e , who o f f e r e d them to her Majesty; which being done, they took t h e i r order a g a i n , and with a new s t r a i n , went a l l i n t o the r o c k ; at which time there was sung another new Hymn w i t h i n the r o c k . . . . I * 1  J o h n Nichols,' The Progresses of E l i z a b e t h as c i t e d i n The Court Masque by E n i d W e l s f o r d , pp. 1 6 2 - 3 . X H  13 There was  f i r s t the p r e s e n t a t i o n which was  designed to i n t r o -  duce the p l a y e r s and give a r e a s o n f o r t h e i r coming. that t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n e s t a b l i s h e s a n a r r a t i v e based  Note on  C l a s s i c a l mythology and i n c l u d e s f i n e compliments to the Queen.  Next the masquers made t h e i r e n t r y and performed  the  masque dances s p e c i a l l y designed and executed f o r t h i s p e r formance. . The masquers then chose p a r t n e r s from among the audience and danced with them.  This section, usually r e f e r r e d  to as the ' r e v e l s , i n c l u d e d e i t h e r well-known E n g l i s h c o u n t r y 1  dances or c o n t i n e n t a l i n n o v a t i o n s i n t r o d u c e d by f o r e i g n ambassadors or by c o u r t i e r s r e t u r n i n g from abroad. f i n a l e , the masquers presented a token g i f t withdrew.  As a  to the Queen and  T h i s ceremonial reverence to the d i s t i n g u i s h e d  guest or to the h o s t and company was  sometimes r e f e r r e d to as  the 'honour* and a t other times as 'going up to s t a t e . ' In terms of dramatic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Proteus and  the  Adamantine Rock i s u n i f i e d by a dramatic thread and i t i s c e r t a i n l y a c t i v a t e d by a theme.  I t may  a c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y and p o e t i c v a l u e .  a l s o be s a i d to have  But i t i s s t i l l e v i d e n t  that the main emphasis i s on the dance and on the f o r i t s entertainment value o n l y . have s h i f t e d d u r i n g the Jacobean  From t h i s the emphasis  never  changed.  may  and C a r o l i n e p e r i o d s to a  d e l i g h t i n s p e c t a c l e but as f a r as the audience was the b a s i c purpose  performance  of the masque, f l a t t e r i n g  concerned  entertainment,  Ik Proteus and the Adamantine Rock i s a l s o  interesting  i n that i t r e v e a l s the use of stage p r o p e r t i e s and a d e v i c e ,  f o r the entrance and e x i t of the masquers.  t  Most of these  i n n o v a t i o n s i n stage mechanics on the E n g l i s h boards  had  t h e i r o r i g i n i n I t a l y where the masque form of entertainment had developed e a r l i e r .  Some of them were c o p i e d from books  of s t a g e ^ a r c h i t e c t u r e p u b l i s h e d i n the l a t e s i x t e e n t h 15 e a r l y seventeenth c e n t u r i e s ,  y  and  some were brought back by  c o u r t i e r s and i m i t a t e d , and s t i l l  others were brought to  England by t r a v e l l i n g companies of I t a l i a n p l a y e r s who  enjoyed  g r e a t p o p u l a r i t y i n both London and the p r o v i n c e s . The masque, as a l i t e r a r y entertainment form, reached i t s f u l l e s t f l o w e r i n g a t the extravagant c o u r t of James I.  It  continued on i n t o the r e i g n of C h a r l e s I but i t s b r i l l i a n c e was,  by t h i s time, self-consuming.  produced  in l 6 0 5  r e v e l s , because  }  The Masque of B l a c k n e s s ,  "marks an epoch i n the h i s t o r y of the  i t i s the beginning of the c o l l a b o r a t i o n  between Ben Jonson and. the famous a r c h i t e c t I n i g o Jones."" "^ 1  Together, they produced masques which came as c l o s e to l i t e r a r y a r t as the masque ever d i d .  But the p a r t n e r s h i p was  not to  15 A.M. N a g l e r , A Source Book i n T h e a t r i c a l H i s t o r y . New York, 1 9 5 2 , passim. Not only a b s t r a c t s but a l s o v a l u a b l e i l l u s t r a t i o n s are g i v e n i n t h i s volume. y  X D  W e l s f o r d , The Court Masque, p. 1 7 3 .  15  last.  The views of Jonson and Jones were d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed  as to what the most important f e a t u r e of the masque was.  For  Jonson masques were v i s u a l i z e d and w r i t t e n as c r e a t i o n s of inspiration;  f o r Jones they were o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r b r i l l i a n t  a r c h i t e c t u r a l design.  A d e s c r i p t i o n of the stage s e t of the  Masque of B l a c k n e s s w i l l g i v e an i d e a how f a r the element of s p e c t a c l e had advanced by that d a t e : F i r s t , f o r the scene, was drawn a landt-schap c o n s i s t i n g of s m a l l woods, and here and there a v o i d p l a c e f i l l e d with h u n t i n g s ; which f a l l i n g , an a r t i f i c a l sea was seen to shoot f o r t h , as i f i t flowed t o the l a n d , r a i s e d w i t h waves which seemed t o move, and i n some place's the b i l l o w s to break, as i m i t a t i n g that o r d e r l y d i s o r d e r that i s common i n nature. In f r o n t of the sea were p l a c e d s i x T r i t o n s , i n moving and s p r i g h t l y a c t i o n s , t h e i r upper p a r t s human, save that t h e i r h a i r s were b l u e , as p a r t a k i n g of the sea c o l o u r : t h e i r desonent p a r t s , f i s h , mounted above t h e i r heads, and a l l v a r i e d i n disposition . . . . Behind these a p a i r of sea-maids, f o r song, were as c o n s p i c u o u s l y seated; between which two great Sea-horses (as b i g as the l i f e ) put f o r t h themselves . . . These induced the Masquers, which were twelve Nymphs, N e g r o e s a n d the daughters of NIGER; attended by so many of the OCEANIAE, which were t h e i r l i g h t - b e a r e r s . The Masquers were p l a c e d i n a g r e a t concave s h e l l , l i k e mother of p e a r l , c u r i o u s l y made to move on those waters and r i s e with the b i l l o w ; the top t h e r e o f was stuck with a c h e v r o n of l i g h t s , which i n d e n t e d t o the p r o p o r t i o n of the s h e l l , s t r o o k a g l o r i o u s beam upon them as they were seated one! above the o t h e r : so t h a t they were a l l seen, but i n an extravagant order. r  16  On s i d e s of the s h e l l d i d swim s i x huge Sea-monsters, v a r i e d i n t h e i r shapes and d i s p o s i t i o n s , b e a r i n g on t h e i r backs the twelve t o r c h - b e a r e r s , who were p l a n t e d there i n s e v e r a l graces . . . . These thus p r e s e n t e d , the Scene behind seemed a v a s t sea (and u n i t e d with t h i s t h a t flowed f o r t h ) from the t e r m i n a t i o n , or h o r i z o n of which (being the l e v e l of the S t a t e , which was p l a c e d a t the upper end of the h a l l ) was drawn by the l i n e s of P e r s p e c t i v e , the whole works shooting downwards from the eye; which decorum made i t more conspicuous, and caught the eye a f a r o f f with a wandering beauty.17 The 1 6 0 9 Twelfth Night Masque of Queens saw acceptance  of the ' a n t i c * masque or antimasque which  designed to emphasize by c o n t r a s t the beauty and of the masque proper.  the was  splendour  The p r i n c i p l e of c o n t r a s t through  the  use of the grotesque had been p a r t of d i s g u i s i n g and cthe i n t e r l u d e b e f o r e the i n n o v a t i o n of the masque, but now i t became an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the c o u r t genre, u s u a l l y coming j u s t a f t e r the presentment the main masquers.  The  and  'antic  j u s t before the entrance of 1  a c t o r s were o f t e n employed  from p u b l i c t h e a t r i c a l groups and performed  mainly  dances or mimes, though l a t e r comic d i a l o g u e was No  grotesque  added.  one c o u l d have been more aware of the dangers  these excesses, of e i t h e r stage s p e c t a c l e or a n t i c s , than  of was  'Ben Jonson. e d i t e d by C. H. H e r f o r d and Percy and E v e l y n Simpson, V o l . V I I , pp. 1 6 9 - 7 1 .  17 Ben  Jonson and h i s f e a r s were j u s t i f i e d f o r , d e s p i t e  a l l Jon-  son* s p r o t e s t s , the p o t e n t i a l i n s p i r a t i o n of the p o e t r y dancing of the. masque f i n a l l y gave way  and  to a performance which  was  almost w h o l l y s p e c t a c l e , an extravagant d i s p l a y of costume  and  s t a g e c r a f t and  b i z a r r e , o f t e n r i b a l d , antimasque.  For  a l l t h a t they were magnificent to behold, they d i d l i t t l e , i f a n y t h i n g , to i n s p i r e . But How  what of the w r i t i n g s  f a r d i d the  spectacle  and  of W i l l i a m  Shakespeare?  a n t i c s of the c o u r t l y e n t e r t a i n -  ments a f f e c t h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n s ?  In s p i t e of the  tremendous  p o p u l a r i t y of the masque during h i s l i f e t i m e , as f a r as i s known, Shakespeare wrote no masques.  He  d i d not remain immune,  however, to the i n c r e a s e d  t h e a t r i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s which  masque o f f e r e d nor was  unaware of the d e s i r e of the  theatre  he  audiences f o r a t a s t e of the c o u r t l y f a r e .  the  public  In a d d i t i o n  t o t h i s , the dramatic p o s s i b i l i t i e s made i t r e a d i l y adaptable to serve a v a r i e t y of purposes, r e a l i s t i c , i r o n i c or  satiric.  When the n a r r a t i v e development of Shakespeare's dramas could best  be advanced by the d i r e c t i n c l u s i o n of some  form of the masque, i t was  usually integrated into a  of scenes r a t h e r than appearing as one w e l l , the masque a c t i o n was  succession  i s o l a t e d sequence.  As  designed i n such a manner as e i t h e r  to s u s t a i n c h a r a c t e r  impression already  e s t a b l i s h e d or to  develop i t f u r t h e r .  Shakespeare showed no r e t i c e n c e i n  18 s e l e c t i n g only those s e c t i o n s o f the entertainment form which best served the p a r t i c u l a r purpose r e q u i r e d .  This  s e l e c t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n , r a t h e r than mere i n t e r p o l a t i o n , a p p l i e s a l s o to h i s implementation o f the elements from the l a t e r , more s p e c t a c u l a r , Jacobean masque. The i n c r e a s e d use of pageantry and p r o c e s s i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the c h r o n i c l e p l a y s , has a l r e a d y been noted. T h i s pageantry was not, however, only f o r v i s u a l d e l i g h t , but p r o v i d e d r e a l dramatic v a l u e through the manner i n which i t was used.  A l i c e Venezky p o i n t s out a number of dramatic uses  t o which Shakespeare put t h i s pageantry:  f o r the d e p i c t i o n  of proud c h a r a c t e r s , as i n C o r i o l a n u s , J u l i u s Ceasar, or Timon of Athens;  f o r i n c r e a s i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a c l i m a c t i c  scene by l e a d i n g up t o , or framing i t by ceremonious  entry  or p r o c e s s i o n , as i n the e x p u l s i o n o f F a l s t a f f at the end of Henry V, or the death of the " l a s s u n p a r a l l e l e d " i n the c l o s i n g scene of Antony and C l e o p a t r a , and so on. The stage d i r e c t i o n s f o r the masque-like dream of Posthumus i n Cymbeljne Jupiter "sitting  c a l l f o r a mechanical descent of  upon an e a g l e . "  Later J u p i t e r * s l i n e , -  Venezky, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage, passim. Some of these i l l u s t r a t i o n s and many others are g i v e n throughout Miss Venezky's book.  19  "Mount, e a g l e ,  t o my  comment o f P o s t h u m u s is  entered  like  the  T  1  crystaline" followed  f a t h e r , "The  radiant roof,"  adamantine r o c k  of d e v i c e of the  / His  palace  of a  about the  device  the  1  he  type  surprise  entry  masquers.  p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s performed f o r the  antimasques i n which they had e v i d e n c e of  polated  use  concave s h e l l ,  used e x t e n s i v e l y t o b r i n g  Often  twelve  ,  the  m a r b l e pavement c l o s e s ,  suggests the  or t h e  1  by  this  Satyrs  (IV.  i n t o the  i n f o r the  i n The  appeared i n c o u r t .  Winter's Tale.  i v ) has  a l l the  The  There i s  dance of  Globe  the  appearances of being  p l a y f o r a r o y a l p e r f o r m a n c e and  amusement of t h e  public,  then  interleft  audience.  One t h r e e o f them, by t h e i r own r e p o r t , S i r , h a t h d a n c e d b e f o r e t h e K i n g , and n o t t h e w o r s t o f t h e t h r e e b u t jumps t w e l v e f o o t and a h a l f by t h e s q u i e r .  (IV. i v . 3^5-8)  The  sequence has  i n J o n s o n s Masque o f 1  the  suggestion  Satyrs if  do  not  anything  f o r the  similarity  Oberon t h a t  More o f t h e s e  antimasque  However, t h e s e  f o r m a c o n t r a s t f o r any  scene which has  t o the  Shakespeare probably  dance t h e r e .  t h e y would c o n t r a s t  sheep-shearing  t o i n the  such  the just  dancing  masque d a n c e t o  gay  festivities  taken  received  follow;  of  place.  s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n s w i l l be  detailed studies  the  of i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s  i n which  referred the  20  masque i n f l u e n c e not  only t o the  terms, but a l s o or  i s most o b v i o u s , b u t t h e s e i n t e g r a t i o n s 'body  o f t h e masque, t o use Ben  1  to i t s ' s o u l * .  The  skillful  f o r m w i t h d r a m a t i c or t h e m a t i c p u r p o s e  apply  Jonson*s  weaving  of d e v i c e  a l l o w e d f o r "no  clash  between what i s shown t o t h e e y e s and what i s i n t e n d e d  to  s e e n i n t h e mind and f e l t  be  by t h e s p i r i t  and  the  19 imagination." the  earlier  '  In o t h e r words, whether  or l a t e r  f o r m , t h e masque or i t s e l e m e n t s  a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n employed totality  Shakespeare  used became  to p r e s e r v e or develop the  of impression. The 'meaning* o f a g r e a t p l a y i s t h e meaning t h a t i t t a k e s t h e w h o l e p l a y t o s a y , and t h e p l a y i s saying i t through a l l i t s d i v e r s i t i e s , e v e n , and sometimes e s p e c i a l l y , when i t i s n o t being s a i d openly.20  Assuming  this  t r u e , i t i s the phrase which the  was  the  "when i t i s n o t b e i n g s a i d  t o the problem  masque f u l f i l l e d  it  p.  leads  statement of N e v i l l e C o g h i l l ' s  t o be  openly"  o f a s s e s s i n g what d r a m a t i c  function  i n terms  o f t h e t h e m a t i c manner i n w h i c h  u s e d , what a s s o c i a t i v e  and c o n n o t a t i v e v a l u e i t h a d i n  Shakespearean  ^Allardyce 60.  plays.  Nicoll,  Masks  f  Mimes and M i r a c l e s ,  London,  20 N e v i l l e C o g h i l l , "The G o v e r n i n g I d e a : E s s a y s i n S t a g e I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f S h a k e s p e a r e , " S_ I ( V i e n n a , 191+6), p . 9.  1931,  21 There are some p l a y s i n v h i c h , i t would  appear,  the main f u n c t i o n depends on one of the masque's e a r l i e s t dramatic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h a t of romantic i n t r i g u e .  The  s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the entertainment i s to a c t as a cover f o r events and a c t i o n s which w i l l l e a d to the deeper c o m p l i c a t i o n s of the p l o t , immediately  s t i m u l a t e s the mind of the audience  to g r e a t e r awareness of the minutest d e t a i l of movement or inuendo.  The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of i r o n y are great i n a s i t u a t i o n  where an event which should be one of f e s t i v e harmony i s used to c o n t r a s t a c t i o n s • which s i g n i f y r e b e l l i o n or approaching disharmony. Although i t i s unwise to f o r c e any r i g i d p a t t e r n or grouping upon the Shakespearean  p l a y s , there are c e r t a i n l y  some i n which the i n c r e a s i n g amount of f l a t t e r y  associated  w i t h the masque i s r e l i e d upon to conjure up i n the mind i n s i n c e r i t y and f a l s i t y , s u s p i c i o n s of excess, e i t h e r of speech or a c t i o n .  These masque a s s o c i a t i o n s , romantic  i n t r i g u e , excess and i n s i n c e r i t y , e s t a b l i s h a human s i t u a t i o n of c o n t r a s t between appearance  and r e a l i t y , between c o n d i t i o n s  as they seem to be, and as they r e a l l y a r e .  Both of these  s i t u a t i o n s depend on q u a l i t i e s of the masque which are not e s s e n t i a l l y d e s i r a b l e , which imply a d i s s o c i a t i o n from actuality.  22 I f the masque, however, developed from the same r i t u a l s , from the same b a s i c rhythms of l i f e did,  as the drama  then i t s r o o t s c o u l d s t i l l n o u r i s h a s u s t a i n e d dramatic  t o t a l i t y i f p r o p e r l y tended.  There i s no doubt that the  splendour and d i g n i t y of the masque made some i m p r e s s i o n on the  mind, c o n s c i o u s or unconscious, of W i l l i a m  Shakespeare.  I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o say how f a r h i s experiences a f f e c t e d h i s v i s i o n of l i f e .  There appear to be some p l a y s which have an  o v e r - a l l , masque-like v i s i o n about them; changing, f l e e t i n g to  where c o n t i n u a l l y  s p e c t a c l e s do r e f l e c t the harmony e s s e n t i a l  the w e l l - s p r i n g of the masque.  There are a l s o c e r t a i n  i n s t a n c e s i n Shakespeare s p l a y s when the dramatic a c t i o n i s 1  suspended f o r a b r i e f moment and a masque-like v i s i o n r e v e a l s an e s s e n t i a l human t r u t h or i d e a l which supersedes the t h e a t r e . For  t h a t b r i e f moment the " s o u l " of the masque stands c l e a r l y  before the mind's eye. of  Often when the most obvious purpose  the masque or any of i t s elements appears t o be romantic  i n t r i g u e or the exposing of f a l s e i l l u s i o n , the masque i s a t the  same time s e r v i n g to d i r e c t the mind, towards some d e s i r a b l e  revelation.  CHAPTER I I  ROMANTIC  The  c o u r t masque, was  INTRIGUE  by i t s f o r m and  associations,  r e a d i l y a d a p t a b l e f o r use as a c o v e r f o r r o m a n t i c In  the simpler  intrigue.  T u d o r masque t h e e x c i t e m e n t came f r o m  partici-  p a t i o n i n the r e v e l r y r a t h e r  than from the performance  d a n c e r s as stage s p e c t a c l e .  Though i t i n v o l v e d a  s i t u a t i o n which for  demanded a c e r t a i n f o r m a l i t y ,  advancing a p r i v a t e  dancing  s u i t were many.  and commoning p r o v i d e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  whisperings but the wearing  identity,  n e s s w h i c h n o r m a l l y decorum f r o w n e d  Just VIII.  such a s i t u a t i o n  The 1517  sequence  Shakespeare  (I.iv.^ff)  for flirtatious  allowed f o r a  Shakespeare*s  bold-  upon.  occurs i n the f i r s t  i s an a l m o s t d i r e c t  Act of  acted at the  u s e s t h e s i m p l e s t masque  masque d e s c r i b e d by Geoarge  Wolsey3" and  opportunities  o n l y d i d the  Though t h i s i s a l a t e p l a y , f i r s t  Globe i n 1 6 1 3 ,  social  o f f a c e masks by t h e d a n c e r s ,  though n o t c o m p l e t e l y c o n c e a l i n g  Henrv  Not  the  of the  structure.  adaptation of a  Cavendish i n h i s L i f e  of  use o f t h e e a r l y T u d o r f o r m i s  George C a v e n d i s h , The L i f e and Death o f C a r d i n a l W o l s e y , e d i t e d by R i c h a r d S. S y l v e s t e r and D a v i s P. H a r d i n g , New H a v e n , 1 9 6 2 , pp. 2 7 - 8 .  2k certainly historically was  the r e a s o n  type  by h i s o b v i o u s  f o r anachronisms elsewhere. t h a t the  I t i s more t o  e l a b o r a t e J a c o b e a n masque  i n a p l a y a l r e a d y made s p l e n d i d by royal  trappings provided  by  scenes  of pageantry  and  spectacle.  the  c o r o n a t i o n o f Anne B u l l e n , t h e v i s i o n  and  the  c h r i s t e n i n g of the  their  attendants,  processional. e l a b o r a t e as 'gilded  the  occasions  a f a n f a r e and  some George C a v e n d i s h lily'  and  What was  take p l a c e  diminished necessary  on  stage.  o f Queen  scene,  Katharine, i t s complibrilliant  or Wolsey, w i t h a vivid  brief  c o n s p i r a c y and  flirtation  to t h i s ,  as  the dramatic e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t t h i s p o i n t i n the o f H e n r y and  D r a m a t i c a l l y no  serve t h i s purpose than  addition  trial  d e s c r i b e s , would, h a v e  some d e v i c e whereby t h e m e e t i n g  better  events.  To h a v e i n c l u d e d an e l a b o r a t e masque, e v e n  of the p l a y .  could  The  the King  colourful  directions for  ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  of e i t h e r  the  was  lavish  i n f a n t , E l i z a b e t h , with  mentary b e n e d i c t i o n , p r o v i d e Each entrance  the  other  t e x t c o n t a i n s a number o f e l a b o r a t e s t a g e  display.  simple  by h i s  to r e a l i z e  various  a  f o r o t h e r p l a y s when i t s u i t e d h i s p u r p o s e , and  c o s t u m e s and  was  o f such  this  change  unnecessary  The  plea that  w i l l i n g n e s s t o e x p a n d and  l a c k of concern point  H o w e v e r , any  f o r Shakespeare's u t i l i z a t i o n  i s offset  sources  accurate.  one  play  Anne B u l l e n  device  could  whose a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h  were c l e a r  t o the  the element of i n t r i g u e ,  audience. so e s s e n t i a l  In to  25  the  p l o t development which  could the  e a s i l y h a v e been o b s c u r e d by  later  of  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the  dialogue. the  the  within  the  dazzling  After a flurry  cannons have  Wolsey reassures  surprised  the  of  t r u m p e t s and  the  women, "Nay  gathering  the  into  you're p r i v i l e g e d " ( I . i v . 5 l - 2 ) .  set  up  o f a s s a u l t w h i c h was  and  masque p a t t e r n  the  courtship  idea  which  and  strangers"  To  the  C a r d i n a l who designed apart  to  from  music  sits set  the  who  A  the  the host  i n the  Lord  Chamberlain,  their  attention, / By a l l words  disguising sweeping  the  "noble  ambassadors  masquers, d i s g u i s e d  as  and  any  s t a t e , the other  large  /  shepherds,  oboes t h e y g r a c e f u l l y s a l u t e  the  canopy  high-ranking  guests  banqueters.  The.masque s t r u c t u r e only  great  within  His  the  announces  h a v e a r r i v e d "as  and of  servant  a l o n e under a  other  a popular  eminently s u i t a b l e to  follows.  From f o r e i g n p r i n c e s " enter.  of  discharge  l a d i e s , f e a r not  l a w s o f war  of  effect  masque i s i n h e r e n t  the  troop  masque,  masque f o r m .  The the  takes place  of  the  s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s i s the a c t i n g as  scene i s obvious  although  word a c t u a l l y u s e d .  presenter  f o r the  masquers  purpose i s ,  . . . h a v i n g h e a r d by fame Of t h i s so n o b l e and so f a i r a s s e m b l y T h i s n i g h t t o meet h e r e t h e y c o u l d do no  less,  The declares  26 Out o f t h e g r e a t r e s p e c t t h e y b e a r t o b e a u t y , B u t l e a v e t h e i r f l o c k s , a n d under y o u r f a i r c o n d u c t Crave t o v i e w these l a d i e s and e n t r e a t An h o u r o f r e v e l w i t h them.  (I.iv.66-72)  There  a r e no masque d a n c e s and no s o n g s b u t ,  the C a r d i n a l ' s consent, With  t h e words  t h e masquers dance w i t h  "0 B e a u t y , / T i l l  now I n e v e r  chooses  of  i s r e c o g n i z e d as the K i n g , . a l l  take  off their  banqueting on  visors  and r e t i r e  and d a n c i n g .  the K i n g  as h i s p a r t n e r .  with  a c t of courtship with  of  Katharine  essentially than  or f l i r t a t i o n  " I were u n m a n n e r l y t o  basically  the King has  dramatic quite  was  c u s t o m added  function  simple.  t o meet h i s n e x t  A  comparison  d u r i n g t h e wooing that  k i s s i n g was  t o t h e commoning, r a t h e r  o f t h e masque, i n H e n r y  having  intrigue.  t h e meeting  VIII,  I t provides the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r Queen, a n o p p o r t u n i t y w h i c h , a s  a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out, a r i s e s  associated with of  the a t t i t u d e  i nHenry V i n d i c a t e s  an E n g l i s h  carried  a c o n t i n e n t a l one.  The is  of France  When one  t h e masquers  t a k e y o u o u t / And n o t t o k i s s y o u " ( I . i v . 9 5 - 6 ) . this  the  t h e bounds o f t h e masque a s  c o n t i n u e s t o pay c o u r t t o h e r ,  of  11  t h e g u e s t s f o r more  The commoning  by H e n r y a n d Anne goes b e y o n d  the l a d i e s .  knew thee.'  disguised King the dancers  Anne B u l l e n  with  out of a  situation  S h a k e s p e a r e adds t o t h i s  the i r o n y  t a k e p l a c e a t t h e home o f t h e man who  t o become t h e K i n g ' s  most b i t t e r  antagonist.  This  irony  27  is  compounded by t h e p i c t u r e o f g r e a t  which Wolsey, scene.  a f f l u e n c e and power i n  the v i l l a i n o f t h e p l a y , i s p l a c e d  Wolsey  i s shown a t t h e g r e a t e s t h e i g h t  t o which h i s  greed  f o r material possessions  him.  E v e n t h e p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g on t h e s t a g e  dignity  and a m b i t i o n  o f power and c o n t r o l w h i c h  f o r the  f o r power b r o u g h t emphasizes  the C a r d i n a l h a s .  b e t t e r moment, d r a m a t i c a l l y , f o r t h e r o m a n t i c m e e t i n g will  l e a d to the downfall  represents  and  What which  the c h u r c h which  he  i n England?  It integration procession tion  of Wolsey  the  i s interesting  o f t h e masque, and i n t o the p l o t  i n Henry V I I I with  procession  t o compare, b r i e f l y , the other  development the e f f e c t  a t the- o p e n i n g o f Two  educed i n t h e same y e a r . Shakespeare  E.K.  stage  the s k i l l f u l p a g e a n t r y and  and c h a r a c t e r  presenta-  of the,masque-like marriage  Noble Kinsmen,  a play pro-  Chambers s t a t e s t h a t e i t h e r  or F l e t c h e r might have w r i t t e n the opening o f  p Scene  One.  Considering  ' masque i n H e n r y  VIII  and  h o w e v e r , i t seems h a r d l y  the a s s i m i l a t i o n of p r o c e s s i o n other likely  p l a y s which w i l l that  Shakespeare  be  and  discussed,  could  have  w r i t t e n a scene i n which E.K. Chambers, W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e ; A Study of F a c t s Problems. Oxford, 1 9 3 0 , V o l . 1 , p. 5 3 2 .  and  28 HYMEN w i t h a t o r c h b u r n i n g : a Boy, i n a w h i t e Robe . . . : a Nymph, encompassed i n h e r T r e s s e s , b e a r i n g a wheaten G a r l a n d . . . . two Nymphs w i t h w h e a t e n c h a p l e t s on t h e i r h e a d s . . . . and another h o l d -  ing a  are l e f t  Garland3  s t a n d i n g about  a flower-strewn  stage while  Queens i n . b l a c k p l e a d . f o r t h e bones o f t h e i r There  appears  the p l a y with appeal  t o h a v e b e e n no d r a m a t i c t h i s marriage  to the audience  The  Historye  reason f o r beginning  p r o c e s s i o n o t h e r t h a n an o b v i o u s  masque i s u s e d  as a v e h i c l e f o r i n t r i g u e and but the i n t e g r a t i o n i s again  much more t h a n a p u r e l y s t r u c t u r a l than a t . f i r s t The  Kings.  through s p e c t a c l e .  romance i n Romeo and J u l i e t ,  suitable  dead  three  one a n d i s much more  meets t h e e y e .  l i n e s from  t h e A r t h u r B r o o k e poem, "The T r a g i c a l l  o f Romeus a n d J u l i e t , "  Shakespeare s 1  immediate  s o u r c e , show t h a t t h e i d e a o f t h e masked e n t r y o f Romeo i n t o the Capulet household  was n o t o r i g i n a l w i t h  Shakespeare:  Yong d a m s e l s t h e t h e r f l o c k e , o f b a c h e l o r s a r o w t e , Not so much f o r t h e b a n q u e t s s a k e , as b e a u t i e s t o search out. B u t n o t a Montegew w o u l d e n t e r a t h i s g a t e ,  -*John F l e t c h e r and W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e , Two N o b l e K i n s m e n , The E n g l i s h Drama 900-16^-2, e d i t e d by E.W. P a r k s and R.G. B e a t t y , New Y o r k , 1935, p. 1061+.  29  For as you heard, the C a p i l e t s , and they were at debate, Save Romeus, and he i n maske with hidden face, The supper done, with other f i v e dyd prease into ^ the place. Neither, as Geoffrey Bullough shows, was the idea o r i g i n a l with Brooke.  What each author did was to up-date the event  to suit the entertainment of h i s p a r t i c u l a r age.  So Shake-  speare added the machinery of the Tudor masque to the Brooke disguising. To have the conventional Cupid, as presenter, precede the young adventurers into the Capulet ballroom i s scorned by Benvolloas being out of date: Th date i s out of such p r o l i x i t y . We'll have no Cupid hoodwinked with a scarf, Bearing a Tartar's painted bow of l a t h , Scaring the ladies l i k e a crow-keeper; Nor no without-book prologue, f a i n t l y spoke After the prompter f o r our entrance. (I.iv.3-8) They have no intention of entertaining the guests with masque dances;  they merely plan to attend the party to  meet the ladies and "measure them a measure".  Being heavy-  hearted with melancholy, Romeo refuses to dance, but he agrees  Arthur"Brooke, "The T r a g i c a l l Historye of Romeus and J u l i e t " , as given i n Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, edited by Geoffrey Bullough, Vol. I , p. 2 9 0 .  30  to  a c t as  for  torchbearer f o r h i s friends.  t h e masque i n v a s i o n a l o n e ,  purpose f o r the  entertainment,  l o v e - s i c k Romeo, b u t t o be the  focused  others  on  on  also  the  He  to l i f t  the  f o r the will  provided not spirits  of  audience's  appear  only a the,  attention  set apart  from  stage.  I n modern e d i t i o n s brief  then, has  a way  the h e r o .  J u s t the p r e p a r a t i o n  foreshadowing  of  o f Romeo and  Juliet,  after  Romeo's  disaster  . . . . F o r my mind m i s g i v e s Some c o n s e q u e n c e , y e t h a n g i n g i n t h e s t a r s , S h a l l b i t t e r l y begin h i s f e a r f u l date With t h i s n i g h t ' s r e v e l s , (I.iv.106-9)  t h e masquers march Five  o f f stage  opens i n t h e C a p u l e t  h o w e v e r , t h e g r o u p do the  stage  t o the  a c t i o n was brief events  used  passage of the  not  and  ballroom.  the  of time  In  l e a v e the  accompaniment on  Scene F o u r  stage.  i n this  case,  friends  for  the meeting  Folio, about  T h i s type  to suggest  of  the  i t also holds  the  together  the  than  suggest.  In terms of p l o t his  Scene  T h e y march  o f t h e drums.  masque much more c o m p a c t l y  modern e d i t i o n s  the F i r s t  Shakespearean stage but,  closes.  to the C a p u l e t of the  development, the v i s i t  o f Romeo  and  festivity  provides  the  opportunity  "star-cross'd  lovers",  but  the  drama  31 of  the  the  situation  i s i n t e n s i f i e d by  encounter f u r n i s h e s :  Juliet  i s conceived  first,  same c i r c u m s t a n c e s , T y b a l t  the  disastrous  the  turn  h a t e , the  i s constructed,  backdrop of music, dancing  T h e s e two the  audience but  intensity The  with  the  old  and  men  swords.  The  the  be  stand  b o l d l y out  by  smoldering  the  course of  this  ashes of the  the  the The  of the  the  before  masque  drama  with can  scene.  and  a c t i o n then  ancient  i s that  the  r e m n a n t s o f an  quarrel  rather  The  be  foolishness  "ancient not  the on  than of  grudge"  prevail  is  o f T y b a l t whose b l i n d r a g e feud.  opens  i s couched i n  crutches see  the  I t might e a s i l y  That reason w i l l  actions  against  or d e p e n d s f o r i t s l e a d e r s h i p  peaceable Benvolio the  the  upon w h i c h  appeared  during  Capulets.  fighting  b a s e d on  causes  shadows when compared w i t h  of h a t r e d  appeals f o r reason.  made e v i d e n t  the  under  revenge t h a t  opposing f o r c e s  condition  servants  should  hasty actions and  the  second,  and  ultimately destroys  which f l a r e  M o n t a g u e s and  puns o f  who  r o o f , and  theme o f l o v e v e r s u s h a t e .  q u e s t i o n e d what k i n d jokes  b e t w e e n Romeo  revelry.  p r e v i e w s the  scenes r e v e a l i n g  between the  and  as p a l e  passions  Prologue f i r s t  presents  love  emotions have p r e v i o u s l y  only  of the  double i r o n y which  swears t h e  of events which  Love and  entire play  the  under a h o s t i l e  the  young l o v e r s .  the  r i g i d form of  stirs  autocratic  32 j u s t i c e w i t h which  t h e P r i n c e o f V e r o n a meets t h e s i t u a t i o n  m i g h t a l s o be q u e s t i o n e d a s t o i t s r e a s o n a b l e n e s s . as punishment f o r d i s t u r b i n g of  pale He  w h i c h Romeo f e e l s  i s going  courtly  through  are going  through  l o v e demands  and anguish  feelings  appear  at a l l .  m a r r e d by t h e i n t r u s i o n  Tybalt. and  sequence t h a t  The i n n o c e n c e  of the o l d hate  B u t C a p u l e t meets t h i s i n t r u s i o n  l o v e a l l o w e d t o f l o w e r and v i o l e n t judgement.  the t r u e essence  The s c e n e  o f t h e masque  love  i n the form of with  reasonableness The  ideal  p u r e and.  h a t r e d curbed  thus f u l f i l l s as Jonson  i t  In other  and j o y o f new  t h e demand f o r m o d e r a t e and j u s t b e h a v i o u r .  reasoned  His  genuine  outcome o f t h e p l a y c a n be e n v i s i o n e d r i g h t h e r e : true  Juliet.  of i t s devotee;  n o t t h e t r u e l o v e w h i c h g i v e s j o y and e c s t a s y . t h e masque  a  as the r i v a l  the a c t i o n s of hatred.  sadness  The  f o r Rosaline i s , too, just  the a c t i o n s of love just  words, i t i s n o t u n t i l  is  circumstances.  shadow o f t h e l o v e w h i c h h e e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h  families  is  t h e p e a c e o n l y adds t h e t h r e a t  further violence to already h o s t i l e  infatuation  Execution  by  the c o n d i t i o n s of  conceived i t :  The p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f a c t i o n p r o p e r t o t h e form r e s i d e s i n the symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n t r a s t e d c o n d i t i o n s , u s u a l l y o f order or v i r t u e as o p p o s e d t o d i s o r d e r a n d d e p r a vity. 5 ^ D o l o r a Cunningham, "The J o n s o n i a n Masque as a F o r m " , E L H , V o l . X X I I ( 1 9 5 5 ) , P- 1 0 8 .  Literary  33 That such who  an  ideal  music  s h o u l d be  i s presented  so. o f t e n u s e d m u s i c  In f a c t  as  i s rather typical  to r e i n f o r c e  the  of  Shakespeare  theme o f t h e  t h e p a t t e r n e d movement o f t h e dance and  o f - t h e music p r o v i d e poetry  p l a y i n g i n t h e b a c k g r o u n d when  of the  the  Enid Welsford  the p l a y which b e s t i l l u s t r a t e s  takes  t h e masque m i g h t h a v e become.  But  correlation  Juliet,  c a n be  o f p o e t r y , music and  Tempest  the f u s i o n of the  t h e masque, w h i c h  a s Romeo and  the  The  h a r m o n i e s w h i c h went t o make up  early  rhythms  a s y n t h e s i z i n g accompaniment t o  masque s c e n e .  surely here,  play.  artistic  shows what i n a play  seen the b e g i n n i n g s dance a c h i e v e d  Shakespearean p l a y , but never q u i t e a c h i e v e d  of  i n the  i n the  as  the  later  court  masque.  Capulet's serves are  as an  welcome t o h i s g u e s t s  overture  exchanged t o the  of v i v i d  costumes.  o f Romeo s t a n d s  t o t h e m a i n theme. t u n e o f m u s i c and  Against  this  s p e a k s , sound  brilliant  Court  Masque, p.  Gay  masquers  reminiscences crossings  d i s p l a y , the  figure  the  carries.  t o r c h he  the l o v e theme i n m e l o d i o u s  rhymed c o u p l e t s :  The  the  the p a t t e r n e d  o u t , h i s f a c e i l l u m i n e d by  H i s w o r d s , when he  'Welsford,  and  3+9. l  3^ Oh, she d o t h t e a c h t h e t o r c h e s t o b u r n b r i g h t . ' I t seems she h a n g s upon t h e c h e e k o f n i g h t L i k e a r i c h j e w e l i n an E t h i o p ' s e a r B e a u t y t o o r i c h f o r u s e , f o r e a r t h t o o dear. 1  (1. v . J+6-9) The clipped point  l o n g v o w e l s and  sweeping l i n e s  s t a c c a t o p h r a s i n g s o f T y b a l t who  contrast  v o i c e s the  the counter-  of h a t r e d . T h i s , by h i s v o i c e , s h o u l d be a Montague. F e t c h me my r a p i e r , boy. What d a r e s t h e s l a v e Come h i t h e r , c o v e r e d w i t h an a n t i c f a c e , To f l e e r and s c o r n a t our s o l e m n i t y ? (1. v . 56-9) The  Tybalt  reached  and C a p u l e t f o r e s h a d o w s  when he which  crescendo  the i m p u l s i v e anger  seem q u i t e  threatens r e b e l l i o n l a t e r q u i c k l y from  is  exchange between of Gapulet  i s c r o s s e d or h i s a u t h o r i t y q u e s t i o n e d , an  o t h e r w i s e might  t o low  i n the v i o l e n t  gay  outraged  superimposed  the f u l l  i n the p l a y .  r e a s s u r a n c e and  upon t h e s l o w  exit  when  Juliet  H i s words v a r y  encouragement t o h i s g u e s t s  commands t o h i s nephew.  measure o r , p e r h a p s , The  unreasonable  anger  T h i s whole  s t a t e l y movement o f t h e  the l i v e l i e r  pavan.  o f T y b a l t l e a v e s Romeo and J u l i e t  a t t e n t i o n of the audience  duet  takes the form  then  they share  of a sonnet.  the t h i r d  exchange  unchallenged. Each  q u a t r a i n and  speaks  to  Their  enjoy love  a q u a t r a i n and  t h e rhymed c o u p l e t .  The  commoning i s d e l i c a t e l y f l i r t a t i o u s  t o i t s m u s i c a l accompaniment. finish  o f t h e d a n c e and  Lady C a p u l e t ' s  t o b a n q u e t and  Now  i t i s true that  and  c o l o u r t o the performance,  The  t h e music and  s t r u c t u r e remains,  dancing  Th  quickly  thematic  throughout  entertainment  most o b v i o u s l y , a d e v i c e f o r  c h a r a c t e r d e v e l o p m e n t and  analysis, substantial  reinforcement.  The  type  of entertainment  planned  f o r i n A c t Two  Merchant  of Venice  i s , again, the e a r l i e r  masque, and,  as i n t h e  other p l a y s mentioned, the  obvious  add  but never,  d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t i t a l s o p r o v i d e s , on c l o s e r  background f o r f u r t h e r  The  the  summons t o J u l i e t .  e n t i r e masque, i s t h e e m p h a s i s on t h e  itself. plot  suitabl  the house.  vitality the  eminently  I t ends a b r u p t l y w i t h  masquers d e c l i n e C a p u l e t ' s I n v i t a t i o n quit  and  dramatic  intrigue.  form  of Tudor most  f u n c t i o n i s to provide a cover f o r romantic  I n t h i s p l a y , however, d e t a i l e d  instructions  g i v e n as t o t h e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e masque, b u t  the  entertainment  s o o n as  completed  does n o t  take p l a c e .  In f a c t ,  p r e p a r a t i o n s have p r o v i d e d the p l o t  as  are  actual the  development  m a c h i n e r y , t h e masque i s a b a n d o n e d .  An established  of  a t m o s p h e r e o f m e r r y - m a k i n g and y o u t h f u l f u n i s a t the  opening  o f A c t I I , Scene i v , as  Lorenzo  a  36  and h i s f r i e n d s make t h e i r the banquet  p l a n s f o r an e n t e r t a i n m e n t t o  which B a s s a n i o i s to  follow  give.  Nay, we w i l l s l i n k away i n s u p p e r t i m e D i s g u i s e us a t my l o d g i n g , and r e t u r n A l l i n an h o u r . (II,  Their by  Lancelot  delivers self  lack  of the r e q u i r e d  Gobbo and  to Lorenzo.  as a page and  the l e t t e r  1-3)  t o r c h b e a r e r s i s remedied  from J e s s i c a which  Jessica's willingness  he  to d i s g u i s e  her-  elope with Lorenzo while her f a t h e r i s  away a t B a s s a n i o * s b a n q u e t , appeals  iv.  to Lorenzo's  presents a p o s s i b i l i t y  "skipping  which  spirit."  W i l l y o u p r e p a r e f o r t h i s masque' t o n i g h t ? I am p r o v i d e d o f a t o r c h b e a r e r . (II. i v . 23-^) Ironically, that  i n the next  a masque i s t o be p e r f o r m e d  Jessica  to "lock  s c e n e , S h y l o c k , on h e a r i n g at Bassanio*s f e a s t ,  up h i s d o o r s " and  avoid contact with  warns the  'Even t h o u g h i t shows r e m a r k a b l e i n c o n s i s t e n c y , t h e H a r r i s o n e d i t i o n s p e l l i n g o f t h i s word h a s been r e t a i n e d i n a l l q u o t a tions. The F r e n c h f o r m , u s e d f o r c l a r i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t o f t h i s p a p e r , does n o t appear t o have been adopted u n t i l the e a r l y l 6 0 0 ' s , y e t H a r r i s o n u s e s i t i n a p l a y a s e a r l y as Henry V I . Part I I I ( 1 5 9 1 - 9 2 ) ; w h e r e a s he u s e s 'mask i n ' Love's Labour's Lost ( 1 5 8 8 - 9 3 ) . The F i r s t F o l i o ( 1 6 2 3 ) u s e s 'maske' t h r o u g h o u t . 1  "shallow foppery" practiced  ironic  o f drums and t h e " w r y - n e c k e d  i s not u n t i l  t h e end o f Scene S i x t h a t t h e  a s t o j u s t how f a r L o r e n z o  j o k e on S h y l o c k ,  Our  i s broken.  directly  to carry  this  His  t o parade  under h e r f a t h e r ' s  c a l l y , however, t h e time ridiculed  i s willing  . . . . On g e n t l e m e n , away.' masquing mates by t h i s t i m e f o r us s t a y , (I. v i i . 58-9)  would i m p l y t h a t he i s p r e p a r e d Jessica  fife"  by " C h r i s t i a n f o o l s w i t h v a r n i s h e d f a c e s . "  It suspense  sounding  to t h i s  extent.  the d i s g u i s e d  unwitting eyes.  i s not ready  f o r Shylock  Dramati-  t o be  The masque r u s e h a s p r o v i d e d t h e  opportunity f o r the successful  e l o p e m e n t a n d now may be  abruptly dismissed with  No masque t o n i g h t . The w i n d i s come B a s s a n i o w i l l p r e s e n t l y go a b r o a d .  about,  ( I . v i i . 6*+-5)  S i n c e t h e e l o p e m e n t e p i s o d e was a d d e d by S h a k e s p e a r e however, i t i s wise further. a single  to investigate  this  sub-plot  episode  R a r e l y i n a S h a k e s p e a r e a n p l a y does a d e v i c e simple purpose;  ment, an i r o n i c  parallel,  serve  most o f t e n i t p r o v i d e s a r e i n f o r c e or a foreshadowing  outcome o f t h e m a i n n a r r a t i v e .  o f t h e theme a n d  So t h e masque c o n s p i r a c y i s  38 much more i m p o r t a n t establishes  than a f i r s t  the complete  g l a n c e might i n d i c a t e .  isolation  motivation f o r h i s future actions, parallels lighter  the  of Shylock, and,  It  provides  what i s more  important,  u l t i m a t e outcome o f t h e bond s t o r y , a l b e i t  in a  vein.  As  Graham M i d g l e y  outsider right  from  a l l he h o l d s d e a r  observes,  the b e g i n n i n g  i s alien  to the  Shylock i s cast  as  o f t h e p l a y , " a l l he society  the i s and  i n w h i c h he h a s  to  o live."  He  has  and h i s d e s i r e  b e e n s h u n n e d , s p a t upon, d e c l a r e d i n t o l e r a b l e t o s e e k some r e t r i b u t i o n f o r a b u s e s b o t h  s o n a l and r a c i a l his of  i s n o t , i n h i s terms,  h a t r e d f o r the  unjustifiable.  perThat  s o c i e t y w h i c h i s r e p r e s e n t e d by A n t o n i o i s  l o n g s t a n d i n g , i s e v i d e n t f r o m h i s own  words:  How l i k e a f a w n i n g p u b l i c a n he looks.' I h a t e h i m f o r he i s a C h r i s t i a n , B u t more f o r t h a t i n l o w s i m p l i c i t y He l e n d s o u t money and b r i n g s down The r a t e o f u s a n c e h e r e w i t h us i n V e n i c e , I f I c a n c a t c h h i m once upon the h i p , I w i l l f e e d f a t the a n c i e n t grudge I bear him.  ( I . i i i . 1+2-8)  It  i s not  until  t h e masque r u s e , however, t h a t  occurs which causes type  of revenge  an  offence  an i n j u r y wounding enough t o m o t i v a t e  w h i c h he  tries  to a c h i e v e i n the t r i a l  the  scene.  Graham M i d g l e y , " T h e M e r c h a n t o f V e n i c e : A R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , " E s s a y s i n C r i t i c i s m . V o l . X ( i 9 6 0 ) , p. 1 2 2 .  39  I  do n o t f e e l  that  i n t h e bond agreement made i n A c t  Scene I i i , t h e r e i s any  i n t i m a t i o n from  the d i a l o g u e t h a t  S h y l o c k d e s i r e s ' a n y more t h a n t o h u m i l i a t e A n t o n i o been h u m i l i a t e d ; fails in  b u t he  t o make A n t o n i o beg  d o e s make A n t o n i o  f o r money.  as he  has  This plan  t o an e x t r a v a g a n t  bond  r e t u r n f o r t h e f a v o u r o f h i s money, a c o n c e s s i o n w h i c h  almost  f u l f i l l s the  Shylock, at l e a s t  same p u r p o s e .  this  once,  Midgley c a l l s this of  agree  I,  friendship  by w h i c h he  by means o f t h e  in  view  of the f a c t  is  not y e t complete. absolutely  on t h e Jew's  terms.  bond agreement S h y l o c k ' s  t r i e s t o escape  from h i s  Such a s t a t e m e n t  that at t h i s There  The  point  a r e two  a l o n e , t h o s e two  most " h o l d s d e a r . "  Now,  first  Shylock*s  p.  keep h i m i n fact,  i s t h e means t h r o u g h w h i c h h i s wealth,  t h r o u g h h i s masque r u s e scheme, L o r e n z o  comes t o h i m  Ibid.,  isolation  t h i n g s which  t h i n g s which,  130  true  from he the  and  daughter.  the hand of the f a i r bearer  isolation  c a n h a r d l y be  V e n e t i a n s o c i e t y must communicate w i t h h i m , the other Is h i s  "offer  o n l y common l i n k between h i m s e l f and h i s  enemies, h i s w e a l t h . " ^  being  A n t o n i o must d e a l w i t h  Jessica.  In addition to t h i s h i s  self-dowered w i t h a c a s k e t of  gains torch-  Shylock*s  J+o j e w e l s and  " g i l d e d " with h i s ducats.  r e c e i v e s f o r her Jew",  act, that  i n d i c a t e s how  she  The  i s surely  c o m p l e t e l y she h a s  p r a i s e which  Jessica  "a G e n t i l e , and  joined  the  Oh,  daughter!  no  Christian  fold.  My d a u g h t e r ! Oh, my d u c a t s J F l e d with a C h r i s t i a n !  my  (II. v i i i . sums up t h e s e r i o u s n e s s w i t h w h i c h t h a t he h a s  suffered  through  h i s w e a l t h and h i s d a u g h t e r . spoken  directly  by  Shylock views  the c o n s p i r a c y . These  Shylock, but put i n t o  exaggerated  Jew  the l a u g h t e r of the audience.  t h e a t r e , he  i s the butt  The  narrative  s t o r y i s an e l e v a t i o n  insult  trial  i s not  Salarino  the r i d i c u l e  In the eyes  of the  of the  of the s p e c t a t o r s i n the  and  thematic r e s o l u t i o n  o f t h e bond  and e x t e n s i o n o f t h e m a s q u i n g gold, f l e s h ,  between h i s d a u g h t e r  t h e more i m p o r t a n t t o S h y l o c k , o r w h i c h  b l o o d , and  scene, revenge  and h i s d u c a t s , i s loss  caused  t o h i s p e r s o n a l and r a c i a l p r i d e .  refuses, to accept the three thousand right  lost  so f u n n y when i t becomes o b v i o u s i n t h e  scene w h i c h ,  greater injury  h a s now  o f a huge j o k e .  but the s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g for  and  injuries  t h e mouth o f  d e l i v e r y can i n c r e a s e  antagonists w i t h i n the p l a y ,  He  the  words a r e n o t , h o w e v e r ,  so t h a t and  15-16)  to the l e t t e r  o f the  bond.  the  Shylock  d u c a t s and demands h i s  hi  .  The pound o f f l e s h I s d e a r l y bought.  The is a  w h i c h I demand o f h i m * T i s m i n e , and I w i l l h a v e i t .  p a t t e r n of the f i n a l  outcome of t h e t r i a l  t h e same a s i n t h e masquing r u s e . trick;  tion.  He  he  suffers  great l o s s ,  loses h i s gold,  this  acknowledge, through h i s w i l l , he  must humble h i m s e l f and  then, a complete from  element.  Certainly  possibility  1  end  but  a l l of i t ;  he  stripped  he  to h u m i l i a must  of h i s daughter;  k n e e l f o r mercy.  S h y l o c k becomes, and  i s the d i s r u p t i n g  driven or  out  inharmonious  t h e r e i s , as N e v i l l e C o g h i l l m e n t i o n s ,  of eventual i n c l u s i o n  Christianity ^,  i s brought  the d i v e r s i o n  pharmokos f i g u r e ,  the s o c i e t y i n which  S h y l o c k i s d e f e a t e d by  and he  time  scene  upon h i s a c c e p t a n c e  t h i s does n o t change t h e f a c t  o f t h e bond s t o r y  Shylock i s a l i e n  the  of  that  at the  t o t h e w o r l d o f harmony  as i t i s p o r t r a y e d a t Belmont i n Act F i v e .  The  masque p r e p a r a t i o n s c e n e , t h e n , i s much more  t h a n an i n t e r e s t i n g the p l o t  merely  v i d e s another is,  after  amusing d i v e r s i o n i n t e g r a t e d  t o a c t as a c o v e r f o r t h e e l o p e m e n t .  important  step i n the i s o l a t i o n  the c o n s p i r a c y , q u i t e  wealth remains  tion  and  to complete  alone;  h i s defeat.  C o g h i l l , "The G o v e r n i n g I d e a : o f S h a k e s p e a r e , " p. 12.  into I t pro-  of Shylock.  He  only the l o s s  of h i s  What h a d  an  been  Essays i n Stage-Interpreta-  "ancient into  grudge" i s , by the a c t i o n s  a desire  of h i s daughter,  enkindled  t o s e e k r e v e n g e f o r h e r shame a t a l l c o s t .  S h y l o c k s u f f e r s a l o s s and a h u m i l i a t i o n w h i c h f o r e s h a d o w h i s ultimate  downfall.  I t h a s been p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t e d i n these p l a y s the  s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e masque a l l o w e d  take place The  of the a c t i o n r a t h e r  plot complication  within and  as p a r t  which m o t i v a t e d  t h e masque f r a m e w o r k .  i n keeping with  sudden f l e e t i n g glimpse How  result  foreshadowing  of t h i s  total  this  served  merely a s i n g l e purpose; as i m p o r t a n t  occurred  artistry by Jonson,  w h i c h t h e masque o f f e r s , t h e  o f t h e outcome o r a b r i e f upon w h i c h  i s impossible  c a n be s a i d :  Shakespeare i n a p l a y  was o f t e n  t h e main a c t i o n  t h e theme i s b a s e d .  a s s i m i l a t i o n o f t h e masque i s t h e  of conscious e f f o r t  certainly  than i s o l a t e d from i t .  t h e masque a s i t was c o n c e i v e d  of the o v e r - a l l c o n f l i c t  much  t h e masque t o  Of much more s u b t l e  however, i s the v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n  that  to decide, but  t h e masque, when i t was u s e d by a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s ,  a n d t h e most s u b t l e  a s i t s most  obvious.  never  of i t s f u n c t i o n s  CHAPTER I I I  ILLUSION  The integral  very essence  of d i s g u i s e  t o t h e masque, c o u l d do  or m a k e - b e l i e v e ,  little  more t h a n become, i n  many i n s t a n c e s , an e v e n g r e a t e r e x t e n s i o n o f t h e which i t s " i n s u b s t a n t i a l pageants" of  i m p r o v i s a t i o n d i s a p p e a r e d and  more l a v i s h ,  tragic  any  drama m i g h t ,  t h e end  existence. purpose,  the  quality  became With  life,  Rather  such  this a  than  as comic  or  often nothing  or h i g h - f l o w n  of shallow f r i v o l i t y  Shakespeare  from  o f t h e masque was  of s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e  Connotations assumed, by  actual  serious a r t i s t i c  more t h a n a f o r m  are  As  the entertainment  came a f u r t h e r d i s s o c i a t i o n  g r e a t e r detachment from fulfilling  presented.  unreality  i t a l s o became more s e l f - a d u l a t o r y .  self-adulation  so  and  flattery.  insincerity  when t h e word masque i s u s e d .  words o f t h e F r e n c h K i n g i n K i n g H e n r y V I , P a r t  The  Three:  Then, E n g l a n d ' s messenger, r e t u r n i n p o s t And t e l l t h e f a l s e E d w a r d , t h y s u p p o s e d K i n g , T h a t L e w i s o f F r a n c e i s s e n d i n g o v e r masquers To r e v e l w i t h h i m and h i s new b r i d e ,  (III. are  i i i . 222-5)  spoken i n contempt f o r the wanton r e v e l s  court  and f o r t h e E n g l i s h  of the  K i n g whose wanton r e v e l s  English are worth  kk no  more t h a n t h e f l i r t a t i o u s  the B a s t a r d , i n King boy  playing  John,  whisperings  treats  at make-believe  war  of the  masquer.  the Dauphin of F r a n c e  with  Again, as  a  a mock army.  T h i s a p i s h and u n m a n n e r l y a p p r o a c h T h i s h a r n e s s e d masque and u n a d v i s e d r e v e l , T h i s u n h a i r e d s a u c i n e s s and b o y i s h t r o o p s , The K i n g d o t h s m i l e a t , . . .  Cassius, i n J u l i u s Caesar, unsmiling peevish  n a t u r e when h e  s c h o o l b o y " who  A n t o n y , "a masker and  131-H)  remains  true to h i s  derides Octavius Caesar  chooses a  (V. i i .  as  to a s s o c i a t e with  stern,  "a  t h e gay  Mark  revellerJ"  I n T i m o n o f A t h e n s t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h Timon and. h i s court  a r e removed f r o m r e a l i t y  to the  senses  fawning  reaches  and  i t s zenith  their  delight  i n t h e masque w h i c h h i s  lords present f o r h i s entertainment  flattering  o f h i s ego.  Thus an  i n catering  and  episode which  f o r the  might  h a v e b e e n c o n s t r u e d as a c o n c e s s i o n t o t h e p u b l i c audience's to  desire  t o e n j o y an  the c o u r t , i s , through  theme as w e l l a s  the  entertainment  association,  structure  dealt  to build  i n great d e t a i l with up  restricted  into  the  of the p l a y .  G. W i l s o n K n i g h t , i n h i s e s s a y has  theatre  usually  integrated  otherwise  on T i m o n o f  t h e methods u s e d  the whole atmosphere  by  o f a f f l u e n c e and  Athens, Shakespeare  sensuous  ^5 d i s p l a y which dialogue  surrounds  the c o u r t .  e x p r e s s e s Timon*s w e a l t h  A g a i n and a g a i n t h e and g e n e r o s i t y :  He p o u r s i t o u t . P l u t o , t h e God o f G o l d , Is but h i s steward. No meed b u t h e r e p a y s S e v e n f o l d above i t s e l f , no g i f t t o h i m But breeds the g i v e r a r e t u r n exceeding A l l use o f q u i t t a n c e . (I.  The  Poet  extols h i s patron i n verse;  d e l i g h t s i n producing h i s likeness; Jeweller  the Painter  t h e f i n e s t wares o f the  and the Merchant a r e s e t a s i d e j u s t f o r him. " A l l  these things, her  i . 287-91)  gifts  of Fortune  ' i v o r y hand', b u i l d i n g  Even the s i g n a l note  to those  she w a f t s  up a n a t m o s p h e r e  of warning  that Fortune  change h e r mood and f a v o u r i s l o s t  to her with  of v i s u a l  delight."  can q u i c k l y  i n t h e trumpet  flourish  w h i c h a n n o u n c e s t h e e n t r y o f Timon a n d h i s e n t o u r a g e o f followers  and s e r v a n t s i n t o  The  initial  actions  the h a l l .  o f Timon do n o t h i n g t o d i m i n i s h  the whole i m p r e s s i o n o f a f f l u e n c e established. from  With  and patronage  m a g n i f i c e n t g e n e r o s i t y he s a v e s V e n t i d i u s  d i s g r a c e and s o l v e s L u c i l l u s  ,  matrimonial problems,  G. W i l s o n K n i g h t , The Wheel o f F i r e , 2  I b i d . , p.  already  209..  both  Oxford, 1 9 3 0 , p. 2 0 7 .  from  c o f f e r s w h i c h he  There he  states h i s b e l i e f ,  up, is  i s c e r t a i n l y no  / But  and h i s f r i e n d s reason  perhaps  naive  s i n c e r i t y when  enough t o h e l p t h e f e e b l e ( I . i . 107-8).  after"  Timon s  s e p a r a t i o n from h i s c o h o r t s , a s e p a r a t i o n which l a t e r  becomes  probable  presents interesting function.  in  used  s t a g i n g o f t h e masque s c e n e possibilities  In the f i r s t  t h e masque.  as a b a c k d r o p  p l a c e , none o f t h e m a i n c h a r a c t e r s  banqueting  Nor,  as i n Romeo and  f o r the a c t i o n .  friends,  emphasis, then, appears as a f u r t h e r  and  Juliet,  Rather,  the  t h e r e a r e no  t h e l o u d music  of  t h e masque s e q u e n c e .  on  and  scene  or  served i n , " suggest  and  The first,  senses;  and  structure.  breaks  i n the F i r s t indicates  stage d i r e c t i o n s , that  masque  entertainment  t h e masque i t s e l f :  o f t h e oboes w h i c h The  i s the  s t a g e between Timon  s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the appeal to the  is  banquet  i n Henry VIII  the t h e a t r e a u d i e n c e .  t o be  s e c o n d l y , on i t s a c t u a l f o r m  As  t h e y do  L o s t i n w h i c h t h e e m p h a s i s i s on a c t i o n s  seems t o h a v e b e e n p r e s e n t e d f r o n t his  itself  f o r analysing i t s dramatic  t a k e p a r t i n t h e masque, as  Love's Labour's  within  1  isolation.  The  actually  s i n c e r i t y which f i r s t  In f a c t , i t  indicates  complete  this  bottomless.  t o d o u b t Timon's  " ' T i s not  t o support him  believe  the "A  Folio, i t beginning great  t h e l a d e n t a b l e was  set  up  on  an  inner  stage  sudden drawing  some m o d i f i c a t i o n  of the  of the  opulence  before  by  the  or  thereof.  Thus,  c u r t a i n s would r e v e a l v i s u a l  of T i m o n s c o u r t which had e x h i b i t e d by  evidence  been e s t a b l i s h e d  1  i m a g e r y and  the  the  a c t i o n s and  t h e ..  dialogue.  The  arrival  his parasites.  of the  C u p i d may  c a u s e t h i s f i g u r e was t h i n k i t more l i k e l y the  allegorical  circumstances.  masquers i s a n n o u n c e d t o Timon  h a v e b e e n c h o s e n as  popular that  presenter  i n court presentations,  S h a k e s p e a r e saw  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of love C u p i d d e c l a r e s how  the  and  devotion  "ample" T i m o n i s  be-  but  i r o n y of  and  I  using  in  these  "beloved:"  H a i l t o t h e e , w o r t h y Timon. And t o a l l That of h i s b o u n t i e s taste.' The f i v e b e s t S e n s e s A c k n o w l e d g e t h e e t h e i r p a t r o n , and come f r e e l y To g r a t u l a t e t h y p l e n t e o u s bosom. Th* E a r T a s t e , T o u c h and S m e l l , p l e a s e d f r o m t h y t a b l e r i s e . They o n l y now come t o f e a s t t h i n e e y e s . 1  (I. i i . He  u s h e r s i n a masque o f Amazon l a d i e s who  lutes  and  dance b e f o r e  the  guests.  entertaining  male g u e s t s i s an  m i g h t be,  this  as  i s a later  Queen Anne t o e n t e r o r , more l i k e l y , were i n t r o d u c e d  This  play,  to r e l i e v e  Gaw the  play  use  upon  t h a t the  practice  influenced  suggests, pervasive  their  of female  interesting reversal.  i n t o masques h a d  as A l l i s o n  128-33)  the  the  female  masculinity  dancers It  of writer, dancers of  the  >8 play.-  J  The d r a m a t i c  reversal, from  effect  and i t . c o n t i n u e s .  Rather  entire  from  strain  o r two t o t h e h a u t b o y s " .  their  and s e e k i n g  t h e o n l o o k e r s , a s was t h e n o r m a l  situation  "rise  o f Timon", a p p r o a c h t h e  t h a n t h e male masquers b r e a k i n g r a n k s  p a r t n e r s from  by t h i s  The g u e s t s , t h e L o r d s ,  the t a b l e w i t h much'adoring  m a s q u e r s and d a n c e "a l o f t y  the  i s strongly reinforced  masque  practice,  i s c h a n g e d and t h e male o n l o o k e r s  p l a c e s and s e e k  out p a r t n e r s from  among  rise  the female  masquers.  After  the r e v e l s  a r e o v e r and C u p i d a n d t h e Amazon  l a d i e s have withdrawn f o r r e f r e s h m e n t s , the g i f t - g i v i n g place.  Again  the normal  host presents r i c h  t h e masque i t s e l f  more t h a n t o k e n r e t u r n s f r o m w e a l t h In neither  themselves  except  1  "own  nothing  w h i c h Timon h a s h i m s e l f  c a s e do h i s f o l l o w e r s g i v e a n y t h i n g o f  t h e g e s t u r e , t h e show.  accompanied by f l a t t e r y , gances of the c o u r t .  J u s t as  was T i m o n s  so t h e g i f t s w h i c h h e r e c e i v e s a r e r e a l l y  bestowed.  stand  t o t h o s e w h i c h Timon r e c e i v e s .  has been r e v e a l e d t h a t  device"  i s r e v e r s e d f o r the honoured  jewels t o h i s g u e s t s , g i f t s which  o u t i n marked c o n t r a s t it  procedure  takes  are symbolic  The  gifts,  o f the tawdry e x t r a v a -  The a d m i r a t i o n and h o n o u r w h i c h t h e  ^ A l l i s o n Gaw, "The Impromptu Masque i n S h a k e s p e a r e " , Shakespeare A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n , V o l s . XI-XII ( 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 ) , 150.  p.  k9 courtiers declare  are merely r e f l e c t i o n s of the  gems and s i l v e r .  When t h e gems and  declarations  of esteem a l s o d i s a p p e a r .  and c o n d i t i o n , the  silver  glittering  a r e no more, t h e  The w h o l e  atmosphere  f o r a l li t s opulence,are d i s t o r t e d .  interruptions  Only  by Apemantus* c h u r l i s h , a b r u p t r e m a r k s :  L i k e madness i s t h e g l o r y o f t h i s l i f e , As t h i s pomp shows t o l i t t l e o i l and r o o t . We make o u r s e l v e s f o o l s t o d i s p o r t ourselves, And s p e n d our f l a t t e r i e s t o d r i n k t h o s e men Upon whose age we v o i d i t up a g a i n .With p o i s o n o u s s p i t e and e n v y ,  (I. and F l a v i u s *  asides  reveal  the t r u t h  for  adulation.  The  s u g g e s t e d i n Scene and v o i c e d proof fall  sequence n o t o n l y o f Timon's  f r i e n d s h i p , on v i s i b l e  of l o y a l t y , but a l s o l a y s  Apemantus* w o r d s  M a r k v a n D o r e n v i e w s Timon mean, no m i d d l e g r o u n d . extreme  dependence proof  Timon s  on v o i c e d  t h e groundwork  and  praise visible  for his later  to face  "the e x t r e m i t y  reality.  of both ends",  o f A t h e n s as a p l a y w h i c h  "Timon  appetite  1  of esteem  shows no  p a s s e s , " says van Doren,  o f p r o d i g a l i t y t o t h e extreme  'Mark v a n D o r e n ,  flattery  completes the p i c t u r e  f r o m p o s i t i o n and f o r h i s i n a b i l i t y  Using  the  a form of  of unreality., i n c r e a s e s  One  139-W  of the s i t u a t i o n .  The masque, w h i c h i s i n i t s e l f and a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  i i .  S h a k e s p e a r e , New  "from k of m i s a n t h r o p y . "  Y o r k , 1939  }  p . 2*+9«  50 The  masque i s c e r t a i n l y  The  state  scene  of m i s a n t h r o p y  i n Act Three.  d i s h e s which praise  the  sumbol o f t h e s t a t e  prodigality.  i s symbolized i n a p a r a l l e l  In t h i s  sequence,  f r i e n d s h i p had  as n o u r i s h i n g and  been.  sustaining  I f Timon's w o r l d  as  of i l l u s i o n  e p i t o m i z e d i n t h e masque s c e n e , h i s w o r l d in  banqueting  Timon s e r v e s h i s g u e s t s  a r e as empty as t h e i r h i g h - f l o w n w o r d s  and p l a t t e r s  epitomized  of  of their was  of d i s i l l u s i o n i s  this.  May y o u a b e t t e r f e a s t n e v e r b e h o l d , You k n o t o f mouth f r i e n d s I Smoke and lukewarm w a t e r Is your p e r f e c t i o n . This i s Timon s l a s t . Who s t u c k and s p a n g l e d y o u w i t h f l a t t e r i e s Washes i t o f f , and s p r i n k l e s i n y o u r f a c e s Your r e e k i n g v i l l a i n y . ,  ( I I I . i v . 98-102) In Love's of  Labour's  u n r e a l i t y which pervades  the whole a t t i t u d e swearing and high  the  themselves  "huge army o f t h e w o r l d ' s  c o n f i d e n c e t o "woo  u n n a t u r a l n e s s and  Shakespeare's a restricted performances.  attempt  from  "own  fact,  as b e i n g  a dramatic  be  affections"  or s e t t i n g  of t h i s  t o combine a t y p e  a u d i e n c e , and  In  o f F r a n c e " , i s one  Critics  affectation  atmosphere  whether they  their  desires",  these g i r l s  affectation.  an  the c o u r t of N a v a r r e .  o f t h e young g e n t l e m e n ,  to d i s s o c i a t e  n a t u r a l n e s s and this  Lost there i s also  p l a y have  the r e s u l t  off in of  un-  seen of  of e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r  structure for public  Many h a v e d e n i e d i t a p l a c e n o t  o n l y as  comedy  51  but  a l s o as drama.  literally  They seem t o t a k e  y  i n Berowne's  Shakespeare  quite  complaint:  Our w o o i n g d o t h n o t e n d l i k e a n o l d p l a y . Jack hath not J i l l . These l a d i e s * c o u r t e s y M i g h t w e l l h a v e made o u r s p o r t a comedy. (V. i i .  Most o f t h e e a r l i e r play purely contrived and  criticism  i n terms o f t h e a t r i c a l i t y ,  composition  certainly,  made t o t h e s e  with  later  i n the narrowest assessments.  plays  88*+-6)  stems f r o m v i e w i n g t h e or from comparing i t s o f more s u b t l e  sense, l i t t l e  artistry  o b j e c t i o n may be  The p l a y abounds i n t o p i c a l  r e f e r e n c e s , vague a l l u s i o n s ,  o b s c u r e p e r s o n a l i t i e s and  c o n t e m p o r a r y puns a n d j o k e s w h i c h h a v e been t h e d e s p a i r o f c r i t i c s who h a v e t r i e d column. the  Stringing together  popular  sixteenth-century  d a n c e s , t h e Masque o f t h e M u s c o v i t e s ,  Worthies, the pageant is  t o t u r n i t i n t o an E l i z a b e t h a n  basically  quality,  of Spring  of the play  i s , though  abrupt  and a n t i c l i m a c t i c .  a plot  which  t o t h e p l a y a musie-h'all.  song a n d dance i n t e r s p e r s e d w i t h  ending  pastimes —  t h e show o f t h e N i n e  and W i n t e r — o n  lacking i n action gives  gossip  glib  dialogue.  t h e m a t i c a l l y sound,  The  rather  -'See F . E . H a l l i d a y , S h a k e s p e a r e and H i s C r i t i . c s , London, 1 9 * + 9 pp. 5 7 , 1 5 3 - 5 ; C o l e r i d g e ' s W r i t i n g on S h a k e s p e a r e , T e r r e n c e Hawkes, ed. , New Y o r k , 1 9 5 9 , p . 1 0 8 . }  Shakespeare's  deliberate  f o r m s a n d method c a n n o t Love's Labour's  of  these  obvious  existing  purpose.  forms t o s u i t  and t h e e u p h u i s t i c language  but  t h e r e i s a sense  of  the subtle manipulations  a particular  Shakespearean  The c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e , t h e s t a t i c  wit  perhaps  has s h i f t e d the  contrivances to the less  adaptations o f the author,  these  a reaction  The  masque  examples o f a form  are clearly  o f mockery i n t h e i r  to the courtly  the sophisticated  dramatic  be d e n i e d b u t t h e r e a s s e s s m e n t o f  L o s t b y more modern c r i t i c s  e m p h a s i s away f r o m obvious  use o f e x i s t i n g  scenes of  identifiable  d e l i b e r a t e use,  e x p e c t a t i o n and acceptance  games.  o f the Muscovites of entertainment  i s one o f t h e b e s t  n o t s o much u s e d a s  manipulated.  F o r r e v e l s , d a n c e s , masques, a n d m e r r y h o u r s F o r e r u n f a i r L o v e , s t r e w i n g h e r way w i t h f l o w e r s ,  (IV.  iii.  announces t h e i n t e n t i o n s o f t h e K i n g o f N a v a r r e mock a s s a u l t she by  t o make  on t h e t e n t s o f t h e P r i n c e s s o f F r a n c e  and h e r l a d i e s  a r e encamped i n t h e r o y a l p a r k .  "blackamoors with music"  Russian  379-80)  where Preceded  t h e masquers, d i s g u i s e d as t h e  t r a d e r s w i t h whom t h e E l i z a b e t h a n c o u r t was so  familiar,  enter with  their  p r e s e n t e r , Moth,.who b e g i n s  a grand  53  complimentary  speech  to the l a d i e s .  stock entertainment almost  B u t what was  immediately  breaks  down and  The  d e s t r o y e d by B o y e t  Moth's f i n e p h r a s e s d w i n d l e  into him  embarrassed and w i l l  opportunity "tread is  not l i s t e n .  a measure" w i t h The  flirtatious suffer  the l a d i e s  couple  complete  d e f e a t and  deliberate  denied  a battle  has  situation  their  attitude  before such  The  to courting  I t i s to  o f t h e young men  as  and  they  The  and  both break  t h e l a d i e s ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n t o h a v e n o t h i n g t o do  insincerity.  and  entertain  i s make-believe  i s make-believe  be  visiting  love i s involved  purpose.  entertainment  Even  i t would  as t h e P r i n c e s s o f F r a n c e .  t h e book".  the  been s e r v e d  o f t h e masque s t r u c t u r e ?  But  a  to withdraw.  nobility  by  to  of w i t s i n which  t h a t t h e K i n g p r o v i d e e n t e r t a i n m e n t f o r such  "woo  protocol  a p a r t " , what s h o u l d be  i n the dramatic  i t i s t o promote the s u i t s  on  to  consent  expected  and  off  their  They do  are forced  t h e masque i s t o s e r v e a d o u b l e  been  backs  advance  dramatic purpose  distortion  were l o v e n o t i n v o l v e d  their  b u t a g a i n t h e masque  "converse  what p a r t i c u l a r  turn  masque d a n c e s ,  exchange t u r n s i n t o  Now by t h i s  gentlemen,  l a d i e s r e f u s e to dance.  common b u t , as each  men  The  t o show o f f t h e i r  broken.  of s u r p r i s e has  c o n f u s i o n as the l a d i e s  as  the  masque becomes a t r a v e s t y . and p o o r  element  intended  down  with  p r e s e n t e r d o e s n o t p r e s e n t , t h e masque  p e r f o r m e r s do so men  on, are  not  because no  her  who  partner  juxtaposition is.  the  lovers  the do  "humble-visaged  sophisticates out  perform,  Maria's  are  not  really  wooing f a r c e  b e t w e e n what he clear-sighted  As she  of  and  T h e s e young young  each l a d y  singles  establishes  seems t o be  analysis  revel,  artificial  1  parts.  not  love.  s u i t o r s ' but  playing  i n the  r e v e l l e r s do  and  the  what he  really  Longaville:  A man o f s o v e r e i g n p a r t s he i s e s t e e m e d , W e l l f i t t e d i n a r t s , g l o r i o u s i n arms N o t h i n g becomes h i m i l l t h a t he w o u l d w e l l . The o n l y s o i l o f h i s f a i r v i r t u e ' s g l o s s , I s a s h a r p w i t matched w i t h t o o b l u n t a w i l l , Whose edge h a t h power t o c u t , whose w i l l s t i l l w i l l s I t s h o u l d none s p a r e t h a t come w i t h i n h i s power, (II. i . M+-5D is  p a r a l l e l e d with  and  Rosalind  his  followers  c o m i c r e p e t i t i o n by K a t h a r i n e  of Berowne.  the  entrance  of  comic  c h o r u s e s , each  advancing  and  r e t r e a t i n g with patterned  The  l a d i e s with  uncompromising  l o g i c cuts  emerges v i c t o r i o u s w i t h men,  deceived  by  the  illusions.  "Then we, (V.  through  e x c h a n g e of  of h y p o c r i s y " ,  she."  i t s c e r t a i n edge o f  i i . I+69)  the  web  of  are,  / Following  their  and and  young  j e w e l - g i f t s , "a h u g e  i n f a c t , making the  The  and  sallies.  reality  artifice  unfailing regularity.  translation  of  that  King  be  the  to  the  may  of  likened  of  Dumain  action  wit  the  After  of  signs,  love  to  wooed b u t  the  sign  55 The fulfills  masque s e q u e n c e i n L o v e ' s L a b o u r ' s L o s t ,  a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n , i n a comic v e i n , as  Timon of Athens, unlike also  i t s use  contains  refuse  i n the the  to p l a y  I t represents later  and  the  but,  much more s e r i o u s p l a y , i t  r e j e c t i o n of t h a t  at love  i t does i n  a s t a t e of u n r e a l i t y  and  then,  unreality.  The  gentlemen s u f f e r a  ladles defeat  which teaches  them a l e s s o n .  L o v e i s more t h a n a c o u r t l y  game.  end  each  At  the  of  the  play  some s e r v i c e t o p r o v e t h a t h i s  The  spirit  to the  park without  t h o u g h t s t h e y may humbled, c o n f e s s e s ties  of love  with their  is  disguises.  i n which t h e y had  author's  opinion  i n the  a d i f f e r e n c e when t h e Rosalind  of success  h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to  which  s u i t o r s must  strip  masque lovers  dispels and  any  insinceri-  i n the  i t m i g h t be  p r a c t i c e s i n court  return  Berowne,  o f f the  been i n d u l g i n g  sounds r e m a r k a b l y l i k e of the  do  steadfast.  inherent  have e n t e r t a i n e d  a confession own  love  of f e s t i v i t y  movement i s r e p e a t e d  of the  masque, the  entertainments:  Oh, n e v e r w i l l I t r u s t t o s p e e c h e s p e n n e d , Nor t o t h e m o t i o n o f a s c h o o l - b o y ' s t o n g u e , Nor n e v e r come i n v i z a r d t o my f r i e n d . Nor woo i n rhyme, l i k e a b l i n d h a r p e r ' s s o n g ! T a f f e t a p h r a s e s , s i l k e n terms p r e c i s e , T h r e e - p i l e d hyperboles, spruce a f f e c t a t i o n , F i g u r e s p e d a n t i c a l — t h e s e summer f l i e s Have b l o w n me f u l l o f maggot o s t e n t a t i o n . I do f o r e s w e a r them, and I h e r e p r o t e s t , By t h i s w h i t e g l o v e — h o w w h i t e t h e h a n d , God knows! H e n c e f o r t h my w o o i n g mind s h a l l be e x p r e s s e d  56  I n r u s s e t y e a s and h o n e s t k e r s e y n o e s . And, t o b e g i n , w e n c h — s o God h e l p me, l a ! My l o v e t o t h e e i s sound, sans c r a c k o r f l a w . CV.  B u t R o s a l i n d , t h e P r i n c e s s and o a t h s and p r o t e s t a t i o n s equally to  unbelievable.  foreswear."  and  The  the other l a d i e s have h e a r d  b e f o r e and f i n d "Your o a t h b r o k e  mocking  i i . ^02-^15)  tone  this once,  plea,  you  sweeps on i n t o  t h e a c t i o n becomes a l m o s t b o i s t e r o u s ,  Holofernes*  announcement  "This i s not generous,  force  the  i n spite  not  pageant of  not g e n t l e ,  not  humble."  It facade this  Is not  o f m o c k e r y and  the e n t r a n c e of Mercade t h a t  insincerity  sudden e n t r a n c e o f d e a t h  hysterical revelry stunning  impact  gathering. the  until  The  pageant,  facts  has  been f o r c e d  might  Labour*s  distortion  and  and  t o g i v e way  He  intrudes  almost  with  abandonment o f t h e  courtly and  and  the  affectation  of both  are suddenly r e p l a c e d  mockery o f l i f e  to l i f e  and  by  love  itself.  out another masque-like  be r e a d i n t o  notes that  With  c o n f u s i o n o f t h e masque  The  Chambers p o i n t s  possibly  Lost.  death.  away.  the h i g h - s p i r i t e d ,  their participants  of l i f e  E.K. which  upon t h e f e v e r i s h  and  the  into  of the P a r k , r e a l i t y  the a r t i f i c i a l i t y  performances  i s stripped  the  the c l o s i n g  lines  "the abrupt ending,  element  o f Love * s  *The words  of  Mercury  like a  are harsh  after  the b e g i n n i n g o f an e p i l o g u e  following  follows,  mask."  "You t h a t  I f this way—we  the  performers;  and  t h e "we" r e f e r r i n g  most  critics  before the  t h e songs  roles  group,  that  this  gathering,  play  the roles  speech f o r  the exit  way", w o u l d  line  appear  which  to separate  t o t h e masquers  to the actors  proper,  of the pageant.  was w r i t t e n  the possibilities  o f t h e masquers were  whereas  or presenter's  i s the case  this  . . . looks  1  t h e "you"r e f e r r i n g  agree  a noble  of Apollo ,  t o be p e r f o r m e d  are strong  t a k e n b y members  of the Nine  As  that  of the courtly  Worthies would  be  played  7 by  some  type  of  professionals  performance addition early  into  would  what  performers.'  was p r i m a r i l y  be a v e r y  early  Such  an  inclusion  an amateur  example  t o t h e masque p r o p e r w h i c h  court  of an antimasque,  was n o t p r o d u c e d  an  until the  l600*s. The  in  of professional  comic  the revelation  escape clearly  from  element  of the absurdity  the normal  sportive  which,  forces  i n Love%Labour s t  involved  of love  i n trying  and l i f e ,  i n the Beatrice-Benedick  Lost,  plot  lies  to  i s much  more  of the later  6 E.K. C h a m b e r s , W i l l i a m Problems, V o l . I , p. 3 3 8 .  Shakespeare:  A Study  o f Facts and  n  ' A u s t i n K. G r a y , " T h e S e c r e t o f L o v e ' s P.M.L.A.. V o l . X X X I X (192*0, p . 6 0 3 .  Labour's  Lost",  58  p l a y Much Ado  About  Nothing.  The  and Berowne f r o m t h e e a r l i e r in  the l a t e r  that  one  the e a r l i e r  p l a y and B e a t r i c e  couple are but p a l e  came t o Much Ado  t o be  L a b o u r ' s Won,  delicious which  between and  Rosalind  Benedick  a r e a l m o s t t o o o b v i o u s t o do more t h a n n o t e  "Shakespeare Love's  similarities  entanglements  About  shadows o f t h e N o t h i n g , which  with a f a r f i n e r  of i n t r i g u e ,  later. some b e l i e v e  sense f o r the  and a r i p e n e d humour  makes t h e e a v e s - d r o p p i n g s c e n e s i n L e o n a t o ' s  orchard a  8  joy f o r e v e r . "  In f a c t ,  the d e l i g h t f u l f l i g h t  entanglements  o f romance b y B e a t r i c e  the a t t e n t i o n  o f the audience t o such a degree  serious plot in  i n v o l v i n g Hero  order to f o l l o w t h e i r  f r o m and t o t h e  and B e n e d i c k , that  involve t h e more  and C l a u d i o i s o f t e n w i s h e d  verbal  skirmishes  to t h e i r  away  inevitable  mutual submission. The In f a c t  masque s c e n e i n t h e p l a y i n v o l v e s b o t h  a l l o f t h e major  the h a l l  i n Leonato's house  are entering, Brother. highest  f i g u r e s i n the p l a y  the f i r s t  "walk  t h r e e c o u p l e s , Don  Pedro  E.K. 131.  Chambers, S h a k e s p e a r e :  "The  revelers  W i t h "Don P e d r o ,  to lead  a b o u t " o r dance  M a r g a r e t , and A n t o n i o and U r s u l a ,  p.  room."  r a n k i n g noble of the group,  c o u p l e s mask and  are present i n  when t h e h o s t c a l l s ,  Make good  plots.  them, t h e v a r i o u s  a measure.  Between  and H e r o , B a l t h a s a r the l i g h t  the  and  banter i s d e l i c a t e  A S u r v e y , New  York,  (1925),  59 and  flirtatious;  b u t , i n c o n t r a s t , the barbed  b e t w e e n B e a t r i c e and B e n e d i c k two  repartee  g i v e s no q u a r t e r a n d r e v e a l s  v e r y d o m i n a n t c h a r a c t e r s , one h a r d l y l i k e l y  easily  to the other.  sharpness  to give i n  B e a t r i c e ' s comments t o B e n e d i c k  on t h e  o f h i s w i t m i g h t e a s i l y h a v e b e e n made b y R o s a l i n d  on B e r o w n e :  Why, h e i s t h e P r i n c e ' s j e s t e r — a v e r y f o o l , only h i s g i f t i s i n devising impossible slanders. None b u t l i b e r t i n e s d e l i g h t i n h i m , and. t h e commendation i s n o t i n h i s w i t , b u t i n h i s villainy; f o r he b o t h p l e a s e s men a n d a n g e r s them, a n d t h e n t h e y l a u g h a t h i m a n d b e a t h i m . ( I I . i . Ht2-lt7) A t t h e e n d o f t h e masquing  sequence t h e p a r t n e r s  dance o f f the s t a g e , presumably t o a t t e n d t h e banquet,  leaving  Don J o h n , B o r a c h i o ,  seen  of  and C l a u d i o b e h i n d .  B e a t r i c e and B e n e d i c k  both  masque d a n c e h a s c o n f i r m e d they are p l a y i n g .  i n ActjOne,Scene  the deceptiveness  o t h e r and themselves  The plot  scene. form  with  affected,  d e c e p t i o n s which b r i n g about  involvements  One, a n d t h e  o f t h e game  B o t h h a v e r e v e a l e d more t h a n  awareness o f the other but a r e attempting each  What h a s b e e n  a l s o have t h e i r  a casual  to deceive brittle  both  sallies.  the Claudio-Hero  beginnings  i n t h e masque  A t t h e s u g g e s t i o n o f C l a u d i o , Don P e d r o c a r r i e s  of proxy  wooing  o f H e r o under  the guise  on a  o f t h e commoning  60 during of  the  using  masque d a n c e .  Perhaps t h i s  a go-between i s , i n i t s e l f ,  which i s o f f e n s i v e to the of greater  John, the  the  dancers leave  to  one  villain  masquer h a s  think Claudio  stage,  Don  been l e f t  mind o f t h e  indeed,  h i s own  affectation  impression  t o work upon.  John i s quick  out  i s B e n e d i c k , Don  s u s p i c i o n i n the pursuing  a visual  i n the p l o t ,  the  a form of  of t r u e , n a t u r a l l o v e .  importance i t provided  Don  that  course  c o u r t l y love p r a c t i c e  of  the  to point  the  young wooer t h a t Don The  for soon  coupling.  John p l a n t s  interests.  As  But  as  out  Feigning  seed  of  Pedro i s ,  r e a c t i o n of  Claudio  r e v e a l s h i s c o n c e r n and b i t t e r n e s s : . . . . The P r i n c e woos f o r h i m s e l f . F r i e n d s h i p i s constant i n a l l other things Save i n t h e o f f i c e and a f f a i r s o f l o v e .  ( I I . i . 181-3) His  words show n o t  John's  suggestion,  friend. deceived,  It i s this  only but  t h a t he  has  a l s o t h a t he  l a c k of t r u s t ,  which l a t e r  fallen  leads  to the  l a c k s any  or r e a l i t y ,  The  an  unreal  final  in his  d i s a s t r o u s t u r n of  situation,  i s hidden behind  trust  Don  or h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o  i n x h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Hero h e r s e l f . masque p r e s e n t s  v i c t i m to  one  a masque o f  s c e n e o f Much Ado  c e r t a i n masque-like c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  be  events  Thus i n b o t h p l o t s i n which  the t r u t h ,  deception.  About N o t h i n g Claudio's  the  also  last  has  words  61 b e f o r e g o i n g t o t h e wedding ceremony, c a l l allegorical  goddess of m a r r i a g e ,  proceedings. masked and the f i n a l  and in  i t i s o n l y when t h e y remove t h e i r  be p e r f o r m e d .  they marry f i r s t  Shakespeare's  Even the  and  music,  g r i p s with a c t u a l i t y .  and  one,  and  Leonato Benedick  the  I n Timon's c a s e , i n a b i l i t y  to f a c e  but  and  positions  i n the comedies  the growth  o f t r u e v a l u e s ends i n a f o r m  Shakespeare's it.  an i m p o r t a n t  and r e a l i t y  dramas and he The one.  The  they  come t o  o f ways t o d e v e l o p cases  of  self-deception,  of m a t u r i t y i n which  w h o l e theme o f . a p p e a r a n c e  but i n these  or  purpose  and  a sense  r e o c c u r s throughout  multiplicity  marriage  so o f t e n a s y m b o l o f harmony  the p r i n c i p a l  a state  causes h i s c o l l a p s e  The  the  o f t h e drama i s d i s c o v e r y .  can c a s t aside unreal a t t i t u d e s  harmony.  and  s u g g e s t i o n by  of i l l u s i o n  the r e s o l u t i o n  c h a r a c t e r s must grow i n t o  self-awareness  are  p l a y s , t h e company d a n c e s o f f s t a g e .  masque i s t o r e v e a l a s t a t e  reality  >•  disguises that  t h e n d a n c e i s d i s g a r d e d by  In those p l a y s i n which  keynote.of  the  l a d i e s , when t h e y a p p e a r w i t h A n t o n i o ,  t o , t h e sound of p i p i n g  the  attendant-upon  d e c e p t i o n of the p l a y i s d i s s o l v e d  d a n c e s may that  The  t o be  upon Hymen, t h e  to  of  occurs uses  a  masque d e v i c e i s o n l y  CHAPTER  IV  VISIONARY HARMONY  Both p o e t i c the p r i m i t i v e  drama and  rhythms of l i f e  bilities  for revealing  in  of the  and  spite  the a r t i s t i c  entertainment Ben  as  roots i n  such, both have  possi-  some a s p e c t o f u n i v e r s a l harmony.  and  Yet,  w h i c h c o n c e i v e d t h e masque  v i s i o n which n o u r i s h e d i t ,  J o n s o n * s words s u g g e s t  wished  and,  c r e a t i v e impulse  withered  masque t o r e a c h  t h e masque h a v e t h e i r  the  died while poetic  courtly  drama  flourished.  the reasons f o r the f a i l u r e  t h e l i t e r a r y h e i g h t s w h i c h he  of  the  would have  fori t .  I t i s a n o b l e and j u s t a d v a n t a g e , t h a t t h e t h i n g s s u b j e c t e d t o understanding have of those t h a t are o b j e c t e d to sense, t h a t the one s o r t a r e b u t momentary, and m e r e l y t a k i n g ; t h e o t h e r s i m p r e s s i n g , and l a s t i n g : E l s e the g l o r y of a l l these s o l e m n i t i e s had p e r i s h * d l i k e a b l a z e , and gone o u t , i n the b e h o l d e r ' s eyes'. So s h o r t - l i v ' d a r e t h e b o d i e s o f a l l t h i n g s , i n comparison of t h e i r s o u l s . And, though b o d i e s o f t - t i m e s have the i l l - l u c k t o be s e n s u a l l y p r e f e r r ' d , t h e y f i n d a f t e r w a r d s , t h e good f o r t u n e (when s o u l s l i v e ) t o be u t t e r l y f o r g o t t e n . T h i s i t i s h a t h made t h e most r o y a l P r i n c e s , and g r e a t e s t p e r s o n s (who a r e commonly n e r s o n a t o r s o f t h e s e a c t i o n s ) n o t o n l y s t u d i o u s o f r i c h e s , and m a g n i f i c e n c e i n t h e o u t ward c e l e b r a t i o n , or show; ( w h i c h r i g h t l y becomes them) b u t c u r i o u s a f t e r t h e most h i g h , and h e a r t y i n v e n t i o n s . t o f u r n i s h t h e i n w a r d p a r t s : ( a n d t h o s e g r o u n d e d upon a n t i q u i t y , and s o l i d  63 l e a r n i n g s ) w h i c h t h o u g h t h e i r v o i c e be t a u g h t t o sound t o p r e s e n t o c c a s i o n s , t h e i r s e n s e , o r d o t h , or s h o u l d a l w a y s l a y h o l d on more removed mysteries. And, h o w s o e v e r some may s q u e a m i s h l y c r y out, t h a t a l l endeavour o f l e a r n i n g , and sharpness i n these t r a n s i t o r y devices e s p e c i a l l y , where i t s t e p s b e y o n d t h e i r l i t t l e , o r ( l e t me n o t wrong 'hem) no b r a i n a t a l l , i s s u p e r f l u o u s ; I am c o n t e n t e d , t h e s e f a s t i d i o u s s t o m a c h s s h o u l d l e a v e my f u l l t a b l e s , a n d e n j o y a t home, t h e i r c l e a n and empty t r e n c h e r s , f i t t e s t f o r s u c h a i r y tastes: where p e r h a p s a f e w I t a l i a n h e r b s , p i c k ' d up, and made i n t o a s a l a d , may f i n d s w e e t e r a c c e p t a n c e , t h a n a l l , t h e most n o u r i s h i n g and s o u n d meats o f t h e w o r l d . F o r t h e s e men's p a l a t e s , l e t n o t me a n s w e r , 0 Muses. I t i s n o t my f a u l t , i f I f i l l them out N e c t a r , and they r u n t o M e t h e g l i n . l Perhaps had Jonson's f a i t h "curious after closer purpose the  t h a t . t h e " g r e a t e s t men" were  t h e most h i g h a n d h e a r t y i n t e n t i o n s "  been  t o t h e t r u t h , h i s masques m i g h t h a v e f u l f i l l e d t h e f o r . w h i c h h e i n t e n d e d them.  truth.  But indeed  t h i s was n o t  The v i s i o n s p r e s e n t e d by t h e c o u r t masques were  f l a w l e s s representations of p e r f e c t i o n , but a p e r f e c t i o n supposedly  reflected  T h e y were " d e s i g n e d by d i s c i p l i n e  the s o c i e t y f o r which  t h e y were  t o emphasize, n o t the i d e a l s  or f a i t h ,  which  composed.  t o be a c h i e v e d  b u t i d e a l s which a r e d e s i r e d or -  p c o n s i d e r e d t o be a l r e a d y p o s s e s s e d . "  Thus t h e p e r f e c t  •^Ben J o n s o n . H e r f o r d and S i m p s o n , e d s . , V o l V I I , p . 2 0 9 . 2 Northrop p. 2 8 8 .  F r y e , The Anatomy o f C r i t i c i s m . P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 5 7 ,  6^ marriage  i s e n v i s i o n e d i n Hymenaei, the p e r f e c t  b l e s s e d w i t h the sublime v i r t u e s of the Twelve Goddesses. check  t h e g r e a t e r and  Though J o n s o n  s e e what t h e y t h o u g h t was  the d e s i r e  a reflection  i n the l o n g run.  secondary importance  King, i n Vision  tried  greater dissociation  t h e a c t u a l human c o n d i t i o n ,  s t a t e won  o f a new  The  of h i s audiences of t h e i r  a remarkable  imaginative v i s t a s , highly nobility art  and  o f theme. life  capture.  and h i s  and  s u g g e s t i v e o f t h e masque,  vision  or i t s ' s o u l *  to tragedy.  The  of  to  broader  finest  influence  i s f o u n d i n the b e s t of the  t o emerge f i n a l l y  reconciliation  from  quality,  play i s popularly  comedies.  of  disorder  of i t s  shifting,  and c o n f u s i o n  and harmony.  A Midsummer N i g h t ' s Dream h a s masque-like  a unity  of t h i s  I n t h e s e , t h e p e r f o r m e r s move t h r o u g h a s e r i e s  into  and  i n t h e t r a g e d i e s , b u t t h e masque by i t s v e r y  i s alien  scenes  particularly  t h e masque r e a c h e d f o r b u t f a i l e d  nature  fanciful  ideal  f u s i o n i s a c h i e v e d between  i s evidence o c c a s i o n a l l y  masque i n f l u e n c e  to  spectacle.  They s u c c e e d i n t r a n s m i t t i n g  which  There  own  from  p o e t and h i s words became o f  t o the p r o d u c e r  comedies,  t o keep i n  o f t h e masque  I n many o f t h e p l a y s o f S h a k e s p e a r e the romantic  nation,  both  thought  just  s t r u c t u r a l l y and  s u c h an  over-all  thematically.  t o have been p e r f o r m e d  for a  This  65 particular Earl of  wedding, p r o b a b l y  o f D e r b y , and  Oxford,  play, the  noble  Lady E l i z a b e t h V e r e ,  on J a n u a r y  26, 1 5 9 5 - T h e  drawn f r o m c l a s s i c a l  stage  s p o k e n by  that of W i l l i a m  counterparts  antiquity,  daughter  bridal serve  of the  couple  king, express  c o m p l i m e n t t o E l i z a b e t h who  was  present  of  Earl the  excellently  of the r e a l b r i d a l c o u p l e .  Oberon, the f a i r y  Stanley,  the  The  as lines  traditional  f o r the  wedding:  T h a t v e r y t i m e I saw, b u t t h o u c o u l d s t n o t , F l y i n g between t h e c o l d moon and t h e e a r t h , C u p i d a l l armed. A c e r t a i n aim he t o o k A t a f a i r v e s t a l t h r o n e d by t h e w e s t , And l o o s e d h i s l o v e s h a f t s m a r t l y f r o m h i s bow, As i t s h o u l d p i e r c e a h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d h e a r t s . B u t m i g h t I see young C u p i d ' s f i e r y s h a f t Quenched i n t h e c h a s t e beams o f t h e w a t e r y moon, And t h e i m p e r i a l v o t a r e s s p a s s e d on, I n maiden m e d i t a t i o n , f a n c y - f r e e ,  ( I I . 1. 15^-61+) From the  entrance  the v i r t u a l suited  of the wedding  epithalamium  to a n u p t i a l  a t the  o c c a s i o n and  group i n the f i r s t end,  the p l a y i s  lends i t s e l f  scene  to  eminently  easily  t o masque  i n f l u e n c e and s t r u c t u r e .  Theseus g i v e s the for  t h e wedding r e v e l r i e s  command t o h i s m a s t e r to  of the r e v e l s  begin:  ^E.K. Chambers, "The O c c a s i o n o f A Midsummer N i g h t ' s Dream", A Book o f Homage t o S h a k e s p e a r e , I s r a e l G o l l a n c z , e d . , O x f o r d , 1916, p. 15H.  66 Go, P h i l o s t r a t e , S t i r up t h e A t h e n i a n y o u t h t o m e r r i m e n t s , Awake t h e p e r t and n i m b l e s p i r i t o f m i r t h ,  (I. i . a n d t h e " f o n d p a g e a n t " i s on.  The  t h e r e a l w o r l d o f s o l e m n i t y and world  o f f a n c y and i l l u s i o n .  magic,  to s l i p  from r e a l i t y  is  a simple adjustment.  of  sensible  is  s h a k e n by d e f i a n t  No  court  11-13)  of Theseus a c t s  order which frames  Under  the s p e l l  as  t h e dream  o f midsummer  t o dream or f r o m o r d e r t o c o n f u s i o n sooner has  the s t a b l e  background  c u s t o m i n T h e s e u s * c o u r t been e s t a b l i s h e d t h a n i t rebellion  i n Hermia which  surprises  even  herself. The scene q u i c k l y setting affected world  "quick bright  t h i n g s " p r o m i s e d by  "come t o c o n f u s i o n " .  Within  the opening  the dream-like  o f t h e "wood n e a r A t h e n s " , e v e n t h e f a i r y w o r l d i s by c h a n g e l i n g  qualities;  nor i s the work-a-day  o f t h e "hempen homespuns" immune.  t h e p l a y w h i c h was  t o have  L o v e , t h e theme o f  been c e l e b r a t e d  at n u p t i a l  becomes a game o f c r o s s - w o o i n g i n w h i c h a f f e c t i o n s a r e and i n t e r c h a n g e d . pattern tried  revelries exchanged  The movement o f t h e a c t i o n t a k e s on t h e  o f a masque d a n c e .  Every possible partnering i s  out:  Helena i n love with Demetrius, Demetrius i n love with Hermia, Hermia i n love with Lysander, and t h e n ( c h a n g e p a r t n e r s ) H e r m i a i n l o v e w i t h  67  Lysander, Lysander i n l o v e with Helena, Helena i n l o v e with Demetrius, Demetrius i n l o v e with H e r m i a - b u t t h i s i s w o r s e , so change a g a i n : Helena i n l o v e with Demetrius, but completely a t a l o s s when D e m e t r i u s seems t o be p r e t e n d i n g to r e t u r n her love; f i n a l l y we s e t t l e on one o n l y s t a b l e a r r a n g e m e n t , i n w h i c h no-one i s  oixt.k  left  True  l o v e , however, " l o o k s n o t w i t h  t h e eyes b u t with the  m i n d " and o u t o f t h e e x c h a n g e s b r o u g h t  a b o u t b y t h e magic  power o f t h e charm p l a c e d upon t h e e y e l i d s Puck must come the  escape from  reasoned  of greater constancy".  t h e dream, t h e r e t u r n t o r e a l i t y  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g  reconciliation  The and  "something  are achieved  judgment  Oberon's i n s t r u m e n t b e i n g s who i n h a b i t  o f B o t t o m a n d t h e Pyramus  be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t  -  chapter but  of the f i g u r e  o f dream m a g i c , and t h e o t h e r the enchanted  hodge-podge o f s p i r i t u a l w i t h i n the world  and t h e  and t h e p l a y ends i n harmony.  antimasque q u a l i t i e s  Thisbe p l a y l e t w i l l  So w i t h  o f T h e s e u s , o r d e r and  s o m e t h i n g must c e r t a i n l y be s a i d h e r e  and  o f t h e l o v e r s by  wood.  They a r e a  b e i n g s who m i n g l e  of fancy:  Titania  queen o f t h e f a i r i e s w i t h  their  Cobweb, P e a s e b l o s s o m , M u s t a r d s e e d  G.K. H u n t e r , " S h a k e s p e a r e : T h e i r . Works . No. ,1^3, p . 10.  of Puck,  supernatural strange  companionably  and O b e r o n , m y t h i c a l k i n g courtly  train  of f o l l o w e r s ,  and M o t h , d i m i n u t i v e  spirits  t h e L a t e C o m e d i e s " , W r i t e r s and  68  of mediaeval f o l k The  actions  those  and. P u c k , a n E l i z a b e t h a n  of these f i g u r e s p a r a l l e l  o f the main a c t o r s  a lower is  legend,  hob-goblin.  on a d i f f e r e n t  level  i n the p l a y , b u t as t h e l e v e l  one a n d t h e c o n t r a s t  established hardly  i s not  grotesque, i t  d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r a n t i m a s q u e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n be  attributed  t o them.  The l o v e  s c e n e between B o t t o m a n d T i t a n i a  has  qualities  of the grotesque but these are c o n t r i b u t e d  the  weaver r a t h e r  the  commonness o r r o u g h n e s s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  than the f a i r y  queen.  by  There i s nothing  of  the a n t i -  masque f o u n d i n t h e movements o f T i t a n i a o r h e r s u b j e c t s .  The lie  i n their  believe, personify of  masque-like c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a i r y very  the fancy  being.  T h e y a r e t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e make-  which permeates the e n t i r e p l a y .  the i m a g i n a t i v e  t h e masque i t s e l f .  They a r e a l s o t h e p e r f o r m e r s  of the  Almost a l l of the  masque e l e m e n t s f o u n d i n A Midsummer N i g h t ' s o f or dependent  They  far-away p i c t u r e s i n the scenes  masque d a n c e s a t t h e end o f t h e p l a y .  part  on t h e s e i m a g i n a t i v e  Dream a r e t h e n  beings.  Puck,  "sweet P u c k " , i s t h e d i r e c t o r o f a l l t h e s c e n e s w h i c h place within  t h e woods;  scene changes. innocent  Full  in  he c a l l s  of j e s t  and c o n s c i e n c e l e s s ,  Through h i s m i s c h i e f  figures  f o r a s c e n e change and t h e  a n d m i r t h , he i s  completely  r u l e d by t h e i n s t i n c t  and m a n i p u l a t i o n  t h e 'dream* comes a b o u t .  take  f o r fun.  any w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t  69 The the  closing  most o b v i o u s  order has  scene  of t h i s  p l a y i s the  masque s t r u c t u r e o c c u r s .  the darkness  have p r e s e n t e d  g a t h e r s , the At  their  o f harmony.  their  positions  on t h e  their  d a n c e and  Puck's e p i l o g u e .  entertainment,  t h i s moment t h e f a i r i e s s t a g e and  the f i n a l e  i t i s more p r o b a b l e  the groundlings constituted  and  i t was  scene  a n t i m a s q u e was  became the  presented,  closing  f o r the  occasion.  c o u l d be f o l l o w e d by T h e y may  w i t h him  f o r the  blessing  of the  either  o f two  have taken  'going  me  omitted,  your  to s t a t e ' ,  t o a l l the  o f a masque. p l a y e d now  " G i v e me  cue  your  the  from  After by  P u c k may,  the  members  dance p a t t e r n hands",  the p a r t of Puck, and  on  guests, i n v i t i n g  i t the thematic  hands", When  or t h e h o n o u r i n g  t h e masquers a s p a r t n e r s f o r t h e r e v e l s . c a r r i e s with  of  c e l e b r a t i o n s , however,  a c t i o n s on  this  s p e c i a l guests.  have been speaking  line  was  d a n c e was  some i n t r i c a t e  Puck's,  take  i n f o r the enjoyment  the f a i r i e s ,  of the c o u r t g a t h e r i n g , performed  masquers.  again  the t r a d i t i o n a l r e q u e s t f o r a p p l a u s e . at noble  as  of the p l a y i s  t h a t Puck's p l e a , "Give  the entertainment  this f i n a l  left  and  the  stage i n a  When t h i s p l a y  p u b l i c l y acted i t i s possible this f i n a l  prepared  the p l a y ends,  couples parade o f f the  state  p l a y was  i n which  a g a i n been e s t a b l i s h e d a t t h e c o u r t o f T h e s e u s ,  " h a r d h e a d e d men"  but  As  one  the  joined  and  other hand,  them t o r e c e i v e  In e i t h e r  significance  the  case  the  of a p l e a f o r  70 the a u d i e n c e , the  private  or p u b l i c ,  t o enter i n t o  the world of  i m a g i n a t i o n where harmony a n d r e c o n c i l i a t i o n  may be  found.  As Y o u L i k e I t , w h i c h a l s o h a s i t s main a c t i o n p l a c e i n a wooded s e t t i n g , characteristics. resolved of  Within the f o r e s t  emerge i n t o  the r e a l world  strengthened  and ennobled.  of  at the close  Marriage,  symbolizes  Rosalind, Celia  joyous  union.  the couples prepare to for  be more t h a n  just  replies,  The moment o f e n t r a n c e by still  couples  o r , perhaps,  The  closest  music",  i s one i n  of true love i s revealed.  f o r a wedding dance.  the viewing  celebrations  to stay f o r the f e s t i v i t i e s I , " ( V . i v . 201) w h i c h  o f masque d a n c e s by t h e  an i n t e r l u d e .  S h a k e s p e a r e comes i n a n y o f h i s p l a y s t o  a masque v e r g i n g on t h e e l a b o r a t e n e s s o f a J a c o b e a n i f l The Tempest.  Jacques  Obviously there i s  the dances to the n u p t i a l  "To see no p a s t i m e  w o u l d seem t o i m p l y  element  by Hymen and a b e n e d i c t i o n b y  when t h e Duke u r g e s J a c q u e s  Jacques  life  o f Hymen, t h e God  o f t h e p l a y i s a masque  a n d Hymen, " w i t h  songs o f b l e s s i n g  the exception  of c o u r t l y  The i n c l u s i o n  w h i c h t h e power o f t h e o u t p o u r i n g s After  masque-like  of Arden d i s c o r d i s  i n t o harmony and t h e c h a r a c t e r s , w i t h  Jacques,  which  shows some o f t h e s e  take  There  masque i s  a r e many o t h e r masque q u a l i t i e s  about  71  the p l a y but Act Four,  the  Scene One,  most o b v i o u s . before King  conjured  the p r a c t i c a l  up by P r o s p e r o  considered f i r s t p r o d u c e d by  in  as i t i s t h e  the King's  i n 1611  James on H a l l o m a s N i g h t  the  engagement o f t h e P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h and  the  The  again  masque s e q u e n c e i n e i t h e r  purpose of honouring  purpose  and  Company on  Palatine.  dramatic  must be  T h i s p l a y was  o c c a s i o n of the Elector  entertainment  of honouring  a royal  case  audience  serves  and  the b e t r o t h a l of Miranda  the and  Ferdinand.  Prospero,  i n this  case,  a c t s as p r e s e n t e r  the  masque, "some v a n i t y " o f h i s magic  art.  deities,  p a y homage t o J u n o ,  Iris  and  Ceres,  Goddess o f L o v e . the that  approach  of Ceres  possibility may  may  prosperous  ( I V . i . 105). probability, Elizabeth himself  upon " h e r  have prompted I r i s  W.J.  sisters"  be,  to b l e s s the  the g i v i n g  betrothed  or t h e a s s e m b l e d  the  heralded  observation  1  The  Queen o f  lovers"  that  honoured i n t h e i r i s s u e . " the l i n e s  of a g i f t  that, i n a l l  t o the  on b e h a l f o f : e i t h e r  the  Princess King  guests:/  W.J. L a w r e n c e , "The Masque i n The R e v i e w , V o l . C V I I ( 1 9 2 0 ) , p. 9 ^ 3 . ?  7k).  Lawrence p o i n t s out  occasioned  and h e r  / And  classical  t h a t some d e v i c e  •Her p e a c o c k s f l y a m a i n " ( I v . 1.  Heaven c a l l s they  The  e n t e r and  The  of  Tempest",  Fortnightly  72 A c o n t r a c t of t r u e l o v e to c e l e b r a t e And some d o n a t i o n f r e e l y t o e s t a t e On t h e b l e s t l o v e r s . ( I V . i . Bh-6) Also  "Go  with  me"  ( I V . i . 103)  p r o b a b l y was  "the c h a r a c t e r s descended from the dancing  the  stage  the p o i n t at which  and  p l a c e to i n d u l g e i n strophes  proceeded  across  of c o n v e n t i o n a l  6 hyperbole  right Iris,  deities,  then  under t h e r o y a l a t the r e q u e s t  calls  canopy."  of the  the next  Prospero  The  may  and  be  dance a  the r e a l  audience.  performers,  dance w i t h M i r a n d a  o p p o r t u n i t y does not  interrupts  It  and  s t e p s h o u l d have been t h a t these  masquers, would b r e a k r a n k s Ferdinand.  mythological  upon Nymphs and R e a p e r s who  g r a c e f u l dance f o r the p l a y a u d i e n c e Now  other  t h e masque and  arise  for  and  suddenly  the whole scene  remembered t h a t a s i m i l a r  masque  vanishes.  interrup-  t i o n t a k e s p l a c e i n L o v e ' s L a b o u r ' s L o s t when M e r c a d e breaks reality  i n upon t h e f e s t i v i t i e s of death.  ment i n The  Tempest s e r v e s a s i m i l a r  Dramatically by  Prospero*s  Loc. c i t .  speaking,  o f f of the  thematic  t h e masque i n t e r r u p t i o n  sudden r e c a l l  suddenly  w i t h i n the R o y a l P a r k w i t h  T h i s sudden b r e a k i n g  like  the  entertain-  purpose. i s explained  o f t h e imminence o f t h e  "foul  73 conspiracy" "beating "Well was  of C a l i b a n  mind" to the  done!  Avoid,  and  exclamation  joys  as he  h i s confederates."  dismayed couple.  no  a representation  blessings  "and  more!" p u t s an  He  pleads  Thematically end  a  Prospero's  t o a masque w h i c h  of i d e a l harmonies, of p e r f e c t i o n i n  o f l o v e and v i e w s the  marriage.  "majestic  Perhaps  the  Ferdinand's  vision":  L e t me l i v e h e r e So r a r e a wondered f a t h e r w i s e Make t h i s p l a c e a P a r a d i s e ,  forever,  ( I V . i . 122-k) j o l t s Prospero into is  not  tion,  Paradise, and  brings  remembering h i s own  t h a t man  f o r t h i s reason  the  young  The  couple  cannot he  words w h i c h P r o s p e r o  t o masque d e v i c e s  references  to the  "cloud-capped  f o r the. e n t r y  S h a k e s p e a r e was "great  globe"  and  speaks  and  and  possible  palaces",  o f masquers i n p e r f o r m a n c e s w i t h  which  The  devices  His  other  itself  of the  to F e r d i n a n d  suggest  same m i g h t a c c o u n t f o r  w h i c h P r o s p e r o m e n t i o n s , or  part  idealiza-  to r e a l i t y .  towers", "gorgeous  describe  life  u s e d by  familiar.  Globe t h e a t r e  masque a r e  f o r e v e r i n an  used i n the p r o d u c t i o n .  "solemn t e m p l e s " p r o b a b l y  authors  that  the masque i l l u s i o n  disappointment  references  the  breaks  back to e a r t h  Miranda to soothe t h e i r  and  live  realization  this  might r e f e r  i n w h i c h c a s e drama as w e l l  "insubstantial  the to  as  pageant" which d i s s o l v e s  when t h e p e r f o r m a n c e is  i s done.  As f a r as The  concerned i t i s "the b a s e l e s s f a b r i c  which  suggests*some  stage  o n l y f o r t h e masque s e q u e n c e .  itself could  might  form  about  The word  mean h a v i n g no f o u n d a t i o n or f l o a t i n g .  f r o m which  vision" on  "baseless"  m e r e l y mean i m a g i n a t i v e o r u n r e a l b u t i t a l s o  Juno d e s c e n d e d  also  of t h i s  o f s t a g e s e t or d e v i c e moved  interpretation i s correct and  Tempest masque  the p r o b a b i l i t y  i s that  second  Iris,  Ceres  t o t h e s t a g e i n some m e c h a n i c a l d e v i c e  they stepped at t h e i r  s u p p o r t e d by  I f the  cue.  Prospero s reply 1  the b e a u t i f u l f i g u r e s .  Such  a reading i s  to F e r d i n a n d s question 1  They a r e , he  says:  S p i r i t s w h i c h by mine a r t I have from t h e i r c o n f i n e s c a l l e d t o enact My p r e s e n t f a n c i e s .  (IV. i . If  s u c h i s t h e c a s e , t h e word  120-22)  " c o n f i n e s " c a n be  taken  quite  literally. M u s i c , d a n c e and p o e t r y , a l l i n t e g r a l p a r t s masque, t e n d e d t o r e m a i n  somewhat d i s a s s o c i a t e d  f o r m a l court performance. become, w i t h i n c r e a s i n g  In the Shakespearean  skill,  fused  f o r m and t h e movement o f t h e drama. a l r e a d y been c i t e d such a r t i s t i c Night's  as an e a r l y  coordination.  Dream:  into  of the .  i n the  actual,  creations  the language,  Romeo and J u l i e t  they  the  has  example o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  O b e r o n ' s l i n e s f r o m A Midsummer  of  75 Thou rememberst S i n c e once I s a t upon a p r o m o n t o r y And h e a r d a mermaid, on a d o l p h i n ' s b a c k , U t t e r i n g such d u l c e t and harmonious b r e a t h T h a t t h e r u d e s e a grew c i v i l a t h e r s o n g , And c e r t a i n s t a r s s h o t madly f r o m t h e i r s p h e r e s To h e a r t h e s e a - m a i d ' s m u s i c , i . 1^9-5^)  (II.  produce a f u s i o n  o f the sensuous rhythms  o f . m u s i c and  i n t o p o e t r y and t h e i m a g i n a t i o n  s o a r s above  awareness  This  closes fairy  o f c o m p l e t e harmony.  celebrate  into  same r h y t h m i c f u s i o n  t h e p l a y as Oberon and h i s c o u r t , grace",  the p l a y  dance  the r e s o l u t i o n  "hand  i n hand,  of disorder  with  and t h e  harmony o f l o v e a n d w e d l o c k .  Jfe  play better  harmonies, i n t o  illustrates  universal vision  the f u s i o n  t h a n does The  romance o f t h e f a r - a w a y , t h e f l e e t i n g  of a r t i s t i c  Tempest.  glimpses of  The  fairy  m a g i c , t h e sweet p o i g n a n c y o f f i r s t  l o v e , t h e charm  m u s i c , a l l combine  symphony under t h e b a t o n  of  Prospero.  within  Ariel  a dramatic  Much o f t h e s p i r i t  the f i g u r e  intangible  into  o f A r i e l who,  of the p l a y i s i n h e r e n t like  t h e masque, h a s  q u a l i t y which s t i m u l a t e s the i m a g i n a t i o n .  an Within  i s t h e r h y t h m o f m u s i c and t h e movement o f d a n c e .  harmony o f melody  and m o t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d  p l a y from the h e a v y - f o o t e d Has  of unheard  a new  clog-steps,  m a s t e r . - Get a new  man,"  throughout the  "'Ban,  'Ban,  (II.i i .188-9)  This entire  Cacaliban, t o the  light  delicate fouettes, "Merrily,  merrily,  shall  I live  Under the blossom  t h a t h a n g s on t h e bough." (V. i .  is  no wonder t h a t  The  it  into  f o r t h e music and  an  opera,  t h e p o e t r y and  the dramatic  s u c c e s s f u l because to  Tempest h a s  the music and  s e r v e t h e p o e t r y and  and  on  composition  purpose  was  lost  state.  i t might have had  behind  on  the  senses  It failed  supersedes  that b r i e f  clearly  any  one.  What-  upon t h e mind or upon t h e h e a r t o f c o l o u r and s p e c t a c l e .  t h e t h e a t r e and,  moment t h e a c t o r s ,  b e f o r e t h e mind and  a  b e c a u s e t h e a p p e a l became ,  p l a y s when  the  indeed, the p l a y the  stage  sets,  or  a  ideal  itself. the n a r r a -  Shakespearean v i s i o n  the i m a g i n a t i o n .  the  moment and  r e v e a l s an e s s e n t i a l human t r u t h  a l l a r e f o r g o t t e n and  that  to serve  i s h e l d suspended f o r a b r i e f  vision  so  a total vision,  a purely physical  the b r i l l i a n c e  action  masque-like  tive,  transpose  artistically  designed  are c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s i n Shakespeare's  dramatic  For  to  It  d a n c e o f t h e masque a r e made  other than entertainment  impact  which  play i s  t h e eye w i t h  the hands of the p r o d u c e r ,  There  The  o f a masque was  s p e c t a c l e would impress  ever  1  /  rhythm are i n h e r e n t w i t h i n  thus i n c r e a s e the impact  p a n o r a m i c v i e w o f an i d e a l  in  attempts  93- +)  the i m a g i n a t i o n .  The the  form.  defied  now  stands  77 la dramatic  The  Tempest m a s q u e - l i k e v i s i o n s  action  existence,  the  to r e v e a l acceptance  reconciliation  of  the  "thou which a r t but even he,  who  would have there  t h e human t r u t h s  has  of  the  present with  a i r " , can  not  cycle  the  the  future.  a c t i o n as  moment t h e  crisis  tion  and  for reconciliation i s clearly  c o n t i n u e d r e v e n g e or  solemn music  that  prisoners,  of  the  the  sounds as he  faced  of f o r g i v e n e s s .  o f d e c i s i o n between i n t e n t  P r o s p e r o makes h i s d e c i s i o n  5*+)  Ariel,  Prospero i s  that  ,  the  When  bewitched  the  Prospero s incantation  of  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f b e i n g human,  with  desire  and  s u d d e n l y show P r o s p e r o  i s a d e f i n i t e pause i n the of  the  i n the.order  of l i f e  "tender a f f e c t i o n s " f o r the  choice  suspend  In  on r e t r i b u -  envisioned.  a c t i o n moves a g a i n .  powers o f h i s magic  When  After  (V.  i . *+l-  vows:  I ' l l b r e a k my staff, And b u r y i t c e r t a i n f a t h o m s i n the e a r t h , And d e e p e r t h a n d i d plummet e v e r s o u n d I ' l l drown my book. (V. i .  The  lines hold  quietly and,  turns  his  action b a c k on  "spell-stopped" the  full  power o f  Tempest r i s e s above t h e  the  before  Prospero  enchanted i s l a n d of  somewhat r e g r e t f u l l y , f a c e s  The The  the  the  reality  of  imagination  Milan.  r e c o n c i l i a t i o n a t the  action  on  the  s t a g e as  end  of  Prospero  78 draws b a c k t h e c u r t a i n and playing  chess.  r e v e a l s Miranda  H e r e , framed i n p a s t d i s c o r d ,  s u s p i c i o n , i s the promise  a c t i o n i n the d i a l o g u e appears on t h e p a r t o f t h e a u t h o r The  drawing  The  Winter's  conspiracy  t o be  to s t r e s s  or an i m p l i e d  a conscious these  of a c u r t a i n ,  manoeuver  inspirational  as i n t h e  The  scene  just  same t e c h n i q u e  i s used  T a l e when t h e r e j u v e n a t i o n o f H e r m i o n e  place with p o r t r a i t - l i k e  and  concord.  stage d i r e c t i o n  m e n t i o n e d , i s an example o f t h i s . in  Ferdinand  o f f u t u r e harmony and  Sometimes a p a r t i c u l a r  tableaux.  and  p r e s e n t a t i o n t o the s t r a i n s  takes  of  music:  . . . M u s i c , awake h e r , s t r i k e ! 'Tis t i m e , d e s c e n d , be s t o n e no more, a p p r o a c h . S t r i k e a l l t h a t l o o k upon w i t h m a r v e l .  (V. The  s l o w movement o f t h e s t a t u e c a n be  scenes instill  of the life  The suspension  iii. one  98-100)  o f t h e most moving  t h e a t r e a s t h e power o f d i v i n e f a i t h into  of dramatic  a c t of k n e e l i n g can form action.  and  Imogen i n C v m b e l i n e ,  her  father  reconciliation  to  stone.  symbolic  and  appears  After  a  the r e u n i o n of  Posthumus  Imogen k n e e l s f o r t h e b l e s s i n g  t h e b r i e f moment becomes a v i s i o n and h o p e .  masque-like  Similarly,  Hermione's b e n e d i c t i o n over  the  i n The  kneeling  of  Winter's  Perdita:  of  love, Tale  79 You gods, l o o k down, And from your sacred v i a l s pour your graces Upon my daughter's head? (V. i i i . 121-3) p r e s e n t a masque-like tableau  of the b l e s s i n g of the  s p i r i t upon the promise f o r the  future.  Most of such dramatic moments of great v i s i o n are not  restored  inspirational  so obvious as these and whether a conscious or  unconscious i n f l u e n c e of the masque can be claimed i s h i g h l y speculative.  Very o f t e n Shakespeare p r o v i d e s a m u s i c a l  accompaniment f o r h i s most moving dramatic moments and  certainly  not a l l these are the r e s u l t of a masque i n f l u e n c e , but i t i s safe to say t h a t when the music i m p l i e s a new-found harmony then some c r e d i t must be given  to the masque, or a t ' l e a s t  the masque as i t was  conceived.  I t i s a l s o safe to say  when Shakespeare was  i n f l u e n c e d by the  spirit  of the masque, the p l a y s b e n e f i t t e d from t h a t  or the  to  that  'soul'  influence.  CHAPTER  V  ANTIMASQUE  I t i n c r e a s i n g , now, t o t h e t h i r d t i m e o f my b e i n g u s e d i n t h e s e s e r v i c e s t o h e r Majesties personal presentations, with the L a d i e s whom s h e p l e a s e t h t o h o n o u r ; it'was my f i r s t , a n d s p e c i a l r e g a r d , t o s e e t h a t the N o b i l i t y o f t h e I n v e n t i o n s h o u l d be answerable t o the d i g n i t y o f t h e i r persons. F o r w h i c h r e a s o n , I chose t h e Argument t o b e , A Celebration of honorable, a n d t r u e Fame, bred out of V i r t u e : observing the rule of the b e s t A r t i s t , t o s u f f e r no o b j e c t o f d e l i g h t t o pass without h i s mixture of prof i t , a n d example. And b e c a u s e h e r M a j e s t y (best knowing, that a p r i n c i p a l part of l i f e i n these S p e c t a c l e s l a y i n t h e i r v a r i e t y ) h a d commande d me t o t h i n k o n some D a n c e , o r s h o w , t h a t might precede h e r s , and have the p l a c e o f a f o i l , or false-Masque; I was c a r e f u l t o d e c l i n e n o t o n l y f r o m o t h e r s , b u t m i n e own steps i n that kind, since the l a s t year I had an Anti-Masque o f Boys: and t h e r e f o r e , now, d e v i s e d t h a t t w e l v e Women, i n t h e h a b i t °f H a g s , o r W i t c h e s , s u s t a i n i n g t h e p e r s o n s Ignorance, Suspicion. C r e d u l i t y , e t c . the o p p o s i t e s o f good Fame, s h o u l d f i l l that part; n o t as a Masque, b u t a s p e c t a c l e o f s t r a n g e n e s s , p r o d u c i n g m u l t i p l i c i t y o f Gesture, not unaptly sorting with the current, and w h o l e f a l l o f t h e D e v i c e . 1 o  f  Jonson. Hereford  and Simpson,  eds., V o l .V I I , p. 283.  81 The o b j e c t and i n t e n t of the antimasque, expressed by Jonson i n t h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n to Tfte Masque of Queens, shows q u i t e c l e a r l y that although the name 'antimasque  may not  1  have been used b e f o r e , Jonson and other w r i t e r s had used the i n t r o d u c t i o n of c o n t r a s t or opposites i n p r e v i o u s performances.  What i s of importance i n Jonson's statement i s  h i s naming of t h i s i n n o v a t i o n and h i s i n s i s t e n c e on i t s i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n the entertainment as a whole.  It  would a l s o seem that Jonson takes great care to e x p l a i n  how  he came to i n c l u d e d e l i b e r a t e l y such 'strangeness* and he p r e f a c e s h i s e x p l a n a t i o n with a reminder that any e n t e r t a i n ment w h i l e d e l i g h t i n g the eye should a l s o i n s t r u c t through example. Any f e a r s which Jonson may have had concerning antimasque and. i t s d i d a c t i c purpose were w e l l founded f o r of a l l of the v a r i e t i e s which made up the c o u r t masque t h i s was  the most misused by l e s s s k i l f u l hands.  The  one  possibilities  which the antimasque o f f e r e d f o r shock and t h r i l l and i t s a d a p t a b i l i t y to b i z a r r e s p e c t a c l e l e d to i t s q u i t e overwhelming the masque p r o p e r .  Rather than p r o v i d i n g the comic under-  statement or c o n t r a s t f o r which i t was  o r i g i n a l l y adopted i t  p l a y e d upon the audience's a p p e t i t e f o r the grotesque, the v i o l e n t and the l i c e n t i o u s .  When the antimasque was  controlled  82  as i t was by Jonson, i t p r o v i d e d  counter-balance and v a r i e t y ,  j e s t i n g about the s e r i o u s to o f f - s e t elegant  m o r a l i z i n g and  i n t r o d u c i n g f i g u r e s of popular l o r e to c o n t r a s t d e i t i e s of c l a s s i c a l  allegorical  mythology.  O r i g i n a l l y i t was n o t the antimasque which i n f l u e n c e d the drama but r a t h e r the o p p o s i t e , f o r i n f a c t the antimasque was a c t u a l l y the i n t r o d u c t i o n i n t o c o u r t entertainment of the c o n t r a s t of p l o t and sub-plot  o f t e n used i n the drama.  The  t r a d i t i o n of a b u r l e s q u e p a r a l l e l of the main a c t i o n i s one p which goes back beyond The Second Shepherd's P l a y .  The  g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e upon the drama by the antimasque was the i n c l u s i o n by the l a t e r Jacobean and C a r o l i n e d r a m a t i s t s of b i z a r r e and grotesque dances p u r e l y f o r e f f e c t as i n some of the revenge tragedies.-^ The comic sub-plot  i n most of Shakespeare's p l a y s i s  p a r t of the e a r l i e r dramatic t r a d i t i o n r a t h e r .than antimasque, but when a comic performance or show i s put on f o r the e n t e r tainment of the many p l o t c h a r a c t e r s , t h i s may, i n most  cases,  2  C L . B a r b e r , Shakespeare's F e s t i v e Comedies, P. 1 2 .  Princeton,  1959,  ^See Fredson Bowers, E l i z a b e t h a n Revenge Tragedy, P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 ^ 0 , passim.  83  be c a l l e d dramatic antimasque.  The l o v e p l o t  Gostard and Jacquenetta i n Love's Labour's  involving  Lost p a r a l l e l s , on  a d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l l e v e l , the development of the main p l o t . In  f a c t , the entrance of the g u i l t y C o s t a r d who i s "taken  w i t h a wench" d i r e c t l y a f t e r the King of Navarre  and h i s  f o l l o w e r s have pledged to keep the " s t r i c t ' s t d e c r e e s " p l a c e s the whole f a l s i t y of u n n a t u r a l vows and a f f e c t e d a c t i o n s i n t o their right perspective.  T h i s sub-plot a c t i o n cannot, however,  be c a l l e d antimasque whereas the Pageant of the Nine can.  The Pageant i s , f i r s t  which i s so exaggerated  of a l l , a planned  Worthies  performance  as t o become l u d i c r o u s .  I t has i t s  proper pronouncement and i n t r o d u c t i o n of a c t o r s and i s performed by servants of the c o u r t as opposed to the c o u r t i e r s themselves.  I t f o l l o w s d i r e c t l y a f t e r the masque of the  Muscovites, or r a t h e r the attempted Although  masque of the Muscovites.  the performers do not dance they do parade and  p o s t u r e , grotesque p a r o d i e s of f i g u r e s from c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y and mythology. T h i s antimasque i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p l o t not o n l y because i t burlesques the main a c t i o n but a l s o because i t r i d i c u l e s the f a l s e conceptions of the " l i t t l e Academe." H o l o f e r n e s i s a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of a b s t r a c t pedantry, the type of l e a r n i n g d i v o r c e d from l i f e t o which the c o u r t i e r s  Qk  pledged themselves  at the beginning of the p l a y .  •whose every speech  is full  is  of n o t h i n g but exaggerated  the h e i g h t of a f f e c t a t i o n i n l o v e .  the very men  who  The performance  attempt  words,  Both are r i d i c u l e d  by  to f o l l o w t h e i r u n r e a l a t t i t u d e s .  i s a f a r c e but a f a r c e with a s i g n i f i c a n c e .  I t serves i t s purpose  by showing the c o u r t i e r s i n a  more unfavourable l i g h t .  still  They l o s e a l l sense of p o l i t e  manners and become almost antimasque performers The attempt  Armado,  themselves.  at a r i g i d l y c o r r e c t entertainment becomes a  burlesque to r i d i c u l e the p r e t e n t i o u s n e s s of the viewers. I r o n i c a l l y the a t t i t u d e of the dramatic audience a l s o r e f l e c t s the response audience  probably  of the Queen and the c o u r t  to burlesque and antimasque presented f o r t h e i r L.  amusement on E l i z a b e t h ' s P r o g r e s s e s .  In f a c t there i s the  p o s s i b i l i t y that the words spoken by the P r i n c e s s : That s p o r t best p l e a s e s that doth l e a s t know how Where z e a l s t r i v e s to content, and the contents Dies i n the z e a l of that which i t p r e s e n t s . T h e i r form confounded makes most form i n mirth When g r e a t t h i n g s l a b o r i n g p e r i s h i n t h e i r b i r t h , (V.  i i . 517-21)  are a p l e a f o r g e n t l e understanding from both the dramatic and the r e a l  audience.  k O.J. Campbell, "Love's Labour's Shakespeare, M i l t o n and Donne, New  Lost R e s t u d i e d , " S t u d i e s i n York, 1 9 2 5 , p. 6.  85  Because  of the i n t e r r u p t i o n there are no masque  dances to f o l l o w the Pageant  of the Nine Worthies but as  there seems to be a d e f i n i t e thematic purpose i n t h e . d i s p l a c e ment of the normal masque s t r u c t u r e t h i s adds to r a t h e r than d e t r a c t s from the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the end of the p l a y . time f o r joyous dances w i l l come i n "a twelvemonth  The  and a  day." A more complete antimasque-masque s t r u c t u r e i s seen i n some of the l a t e r comedies.  P e t e r Quince a c t s as  p r e s e n t e r f o r the Pyramus and Thisbe antimasque  i n A Midsummer  N i g h t ' s Dream: T h i s man i s Pyramus, i f you would know. T h i s beauteous l a d y T h i s b y i s c e r t a i n . T h i s man w i t h lime and roughcast, doth present W a l l , that v i l e W a l l which d i d these l o v e r s sunder, And through Wall's c h i n k , poor s o u l s , they are content To whisper. At which l e t no man wonder. The u n f o l d i n g of the " t r a g i c a l m i r t h " p a r o d i e s the a c t u a l p l o t and bears such remarkable resemblances to Shakespeare's own Romeo and J u l i e t that one might suspect the author of making a joke on h i m s e l f f o r the d e l i g h t of h i s audience. The rough v i l l a g e r s clod-hop about the stage, bumbling way  through the d i a l o g u e and g e s t i c u l a t i n g b r o a d l y .  their  An  e p i l o g u e has been prepared f o r the performers but t h i s i s too much f o r Theseus and so the antimasque ends w i t h a "Bergomask", a rough country dance.  86 When the whole of A Midsummer N i g h t ' s Dream i s seen as a masque t h i s antimasque sequence f i t s i n t o i t s proper p l a c e , d i r e c t l y b e f o r e the main masque dances.  I f , as has  been suggested p r e v i o u s l y , the f i n a l masque dances were performed  by members of the c o u r t then the e x i t of a l l ' t h e  persons on the stage at the c l o s e of the antimasque would clear  the way  f o r the s t a t e l y measures prepared t o honour  the Queen and the b e t r o t h e d couple. The f i g u r e of Bottom the Weaver may antimasque f i g u r e , one who  be seen as an  has w i t h i n h i m s e l f the c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s or the dramatic f u n c t i o n s u s u a l l y p r e s c r i b e d f o r a r e g u l a r antimasque.  He  i s the only one of the mortals  steps r i g h t i n t o t h e . f a i r y world. fairies reality.  Though Bottom may  who  see  and be l o v e d by one, he never l o s e s . t o u c h with So there he stands, the " s h a l l o w e s t t h i c k s k i n " of  them a l l , a l a r g e lump of r e a l i t y i n the middle of the world of  illusion. Blissfully  unaware of Oberon's p l a n f o r her  torment,  on a bank where w i l d thyme blows, Where o x s l i p s and nodding v i o l e t s grows, Quite overcamped with l u s c i o u s woodbine, With sweet musk r o s e s , and with e g l a n t i n e There s l e e p s T i t a n i a .  ( I I . i i . 21+9-53)  87  When T i t a n i a awakens the f i r s t . p e r s o n she views i s Bottom who, under the magic touch of Puck, has been " t r a n s l a t e d " i n t o an a s s .  I n c o n g r u i t y reaches i t s extreme i n the l o v e of  T i t a n i a , Queen of t h e . f a i r i e s , f o r Bottom, weaver i n t o an.ass. Bottom a t a l l .  metamorphosed  N e i t h e r h i s c o n d i t i o n nor the r e l a t i o n s h i p  upset  The other p l a y e r s a t l e a s t show some f r i g h t  when they see Bottom's s t a t e or when they are l e d a s t r a y by the hobgoblin but Bottom never twitches an e a r .  When T i t a n i a  i s moved, by t h i s " g e n t l e m o r t a l " , t h i s "angel", when she swears h e r l o v e , Bottom, n e i t h e r f l u s t e r e d nor f l a t t e r e d , answers with complete presence  of mind:  And y e t , t o say the t r u t h , reason and l o v e Keep l i t t l e company together now-a-days, (III.  i . 146-7)  an apt comment on both h i s own s t a t e of a f f a i r s and on the main p l o t of the p l a y .  T i t a n i a c a l l s on a l l h e r s p r i t e s t o  b r i n g him every f a i r y d e l i c a c y he commands. i n t e r e s t e d i n being s c r a t c h e d .  Bottom i s o n l y  He may be King Consort i n  f a i r y l a n d but being an ass he a p p r e c i a t e s the good t h i n g s of an ass's l i f e — " a h a n d f u l or two of d r i e d peas" and "a b o t t l e of hay." E n i d W e l s f o r d takes Bottom as an example of Shakespeare's  s k i l l e d use of antimasque c h a r a c t e r s .  She p o i n t s  88 out t h a t i n the masque convention t r a s t was  the antimasque-masque con-  complete whereas "Shakespeare w e l l knew, the  g r e a t e s t beauty i s gained i s obvious and  s t r i k i n g , but r i s e s out of a deep though  o b t r u s i v e resemblance."^ Bottom and  through c o n t r a s t when the d i f f e r e n c e  Hence, though the d i f f e r e n c e between  T i t a n i a , or between the "hempen homespuns" and  f a i r y c o u r t , i s "obvious and  almost c h i l d - l i k e  Thus the antimasque f i g u r e s become p a r t of the  t o t a l harmony of the p l a y r a t h e r than standing opposition. of The  the  s t r i k i n g " there i s a l s o a b a s i c  and n a t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r simple, naivete.  un-  The  Temnest.  out i n obvious  same chord, h o l d s C a l i b a n w i t h i n the harmony C a l i b a n may  be v u l g a r and  e a r t h y but  he  shows the same l o n g i n g f o r freedom, the same p r i m i t i v e sense of humour and  the same c r a v i n g f o r a f f e c t i o n t h a t A r i e l does.  As a r e s u l t he may grace,"  and  the, end  of the  r e c e i v e h i s pardon when he  "seeks f o r  be i n c l u d e d i n the harmonious r e c o n c i l i a t i o n at play.  In A Midsummer Night's  Dream. Puck i s not only  d i r e c t o r of the masque but a l s o of the antimasque and as  the such  must have something of the q u a l i t y of antimasque i n h i s makeup.  This q u a l i t y l i e s i n h i s capacity for o r i g i n a l  Welsford,  The  Court Masque, p.  333.  mischief:  89 And sometimes l u r k I i n a g o s s i p ' s bowl, In the very l i k e n e s s of a r o a s t e d crab; And when she d r i n k s , a g a i n s t h e r l i p s I bob And on h e r withered dewlap pour the a l e . The w i s e s t aunt t e l l i n g the saddest t a l e , Sometimes f o r t h r e e - f o o t s t o o l mistaketh me; Then s l i p I from h e r bum, down topples she.  (II. i . 4 7 - 5 3 )  Genuine d e l i g h t at such t r i c k s t y p i f i e s Puck as " l a u g h t e r h o l d i n g both h i s s i d e s . " probably  The d u a l nature  what made Jonson p r e s e n t  of Puck was  a similar figure,  called  by Puck's other name, Robin Goodfellow, i n h i s masque Love Restored.  As an "honest p l a i n country  Robin upsets  s p i r i t , " Jonson's  the d i g n i t y of the r o y a l c o u r t , confesses t o  many madcap t r i c k s and schemes, serves as Jonson's v o i c e as he r i d i c u l e s the P u r i t a n s and j e s t s a t the " f a l s e and f l e e t i n g d e l i g h t " of c o u r t entertainment, for  but he i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e  r e t u r n i n g l o v e to the r o y a l c o u r t .  Anti-Cupid  H i s warning of the  or f a l s e l o v e and of P l u t u s , god of money, might  have been spoken by Shakespeare's Robin, " T i s you mortals that are f o o l s . " The festivities  6  i n t r o d u c t i o n of the s a t y r s i n t o the woodland of The Winter's T a l e and the antimasque c h a r a c t e r i s -  t i c s of t h i s dance sequence have a l r e a d y been commented upon  Ben  Jonson, H e r f o r d and Simpson, eds., V o l . VII,. p. 3 8 2 .  90 but there i s another somewhat antimasque touch i n the f i g u r e of Autolycus who i n t r u d e s upon the otherwise harmonious atmosphere of the r e v e l r y .  T h i s rogue has not appeared i n  the p l a y before h i s gay e n t r y a t the beginning of A c t Three, Scene. Four. first  He i s a s e l f - c o n f e s s e d mischief-maker  stage a c t i s a parody  whose  of the s t o r y of the Good  Samaritan. i  H i s d e l i g h t f u l machinations  stand i n k i n d of j u x t a p o s i t i o n t o  the happy simple p l e a s u r e s of the shepherds  and  shepherdesses.  Aside from h i s exchange of c l o t h e s with F l o r i z o l and h i s persuading the shepherd attempt  and h i s son to go to S i c i l y , no other  i s made to i n t e g r a t e him i n t o the p l o t .  of h i s a c t i o n s i s sheer roguery.  The m o t i v a t i o n  Although h i s a c t i o n s and  words may speed the r e s o l u t i o n of the p l o t , h i s main appears  purpose  to be t o i n t e r j e c t an element of antimasque m i s r u l e  i n t o the country s p o r t s and t o mock the c h a r a c t e r s i n v o l v e d i n the main a c t i o n . By h i s v e r y b i r t h C a l i b a n i s an antimasque f i g u r e , a product of the grotesque, "a f r e c k l e d whelp hag-born."  His  p o s i t i o n i n The Tempest i s an i n t r i c a t e one, f o r i n s p i t e of h i s b i r t h and base n a t u r e , he i s not a f i g u r e of e v i l . speare i s c a r e f u l to h i n t a t something  Shake-  i n C a l i b a n ' s make-up  which prevents him from being a d e v i l - f i g u r e .  He i s by h i s  own admission capable of l o v e f o r he r e t u r n e d Prospero*s care and t e a c h i n g with g r a t i t u d e and d e v o t i o n b e f o r e he d i s g r a c e d  h i m s e l f by g i v i n g i n to h i s baser n a t u r e .  W i t h i n the comic  s u b - p l o t C a l i b a n ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s with the simple would-be k i n g s , Stephano and T r i n c u l o , are humorous not malignant. The meeting of C a l i b a n , with h i s " a n c i e n t and  fish-like  s m e l l , " Stephano, the "brave god" that "bears c e l e s t i a l l i q u o r , " and T r i n c u l o , the " p i e d n i n n y , " i n v o l v e s such a n t i c s t h a t the t r i o form an antimasque burlesque r a t h e r than any s e r i o u s menace. When one remembers that the antimasque i n v o l v e s the p r i n c i p l e of c o n t r a s t through the use of the grotesque or the exaggerated, the p a r a l l e l e s t a b l i s h e d between the two f o o l i s h p l a n n e r s and t h e i r servant C a l i b a n , and the wise c o u n s e l l o r , Prospero, and h i s A r i e l i s easy to see. Another antimasque banquet  sequence i n The Tempest i s the  scene i n Act Three which commences with some of the  c o n v e n t i o n a l masque elements.  "Solemn and strange music"  p l a y s as "strange shapes" b r i n g i n d e l i c a c i e s f o r the King of Naples, the f a l s e Duke of M i l a n , and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s .  The  f i g u r e s dance about o f f e r i n g t h e i r g i f t s as compliments to the noble group.  The c o n v e n t i o n a l p o s t u r i n g i s soon seen to  be a mockery, or an antimasque.  J u s t as the group are about  to enjoy the r e p a s t A r i e l , d i s g u i s e d as a harpy, causes the f o o d t o disappear from the t a b l e , and, i n p l a c e of compliments  92 d e l i v e r s a c c u s a t i o n s and r e c r i m i n a t i o n s . of thunder g i v e s way  A f t e r the  rolling  to a s o f t mocking melody, the shapes  enter again and perform what might be c a l l e d a n t i c dances of exaggerated  g e s t u r e s and grimaces.  T h i s antimasque sequence  appears d i r e c t l y before the b e t r o t h a l masque which  Prospero  p r e s e n t s f o r F e r d i n a n d and Miranda and i s thus i n i t s proper p o s i t i o n i n terms of c o n v e n t i o n a l masque s t r u c t u r e . L i k e w i s e , although  of a completely d i f f e r e n t  tone  than i s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the convention, there i s a c e r t a i n element of antimasque-masque j u x t a p o s i t i o n seen i n the a p p a r i t i o n scene (V. i v . 2 4 f f ) i n Cymbeline.  The  first  f i g u r e s which appear to Posthumus are those of h i s f a t h e r and mother, aged and. worn.  F o l l o w i n g these come h i s b r o t h e r s  s t i l l bearing the wounds and blood of the b a t t l e s i n which they met  t h e i r death.  T h e i r movements on stage, though not  s t r i c t l y a dance, i n v o l v e continued a c t i o n as they Posthumus  1  bed.  T h e i r u t t e r a n c e s , though not a song, take  the p a t t e r n of a slow melancholy chant. to  circle  In sharp c o n t r a s t  these slow l u g u b r i o u s f i g u r e s are the v i t a l i t y and v i g o u r  of J u p i t e r . rolling  A s t r i d e an eagle he descends to the stage amid  thunder and f l a s h i n g l i g h t n i n g and prophesies  e v e n t u a l happy outcome of Posthumus speech, f u l l  1  tribulations.  the  His  of l i f e and s t r e n g t h , i s made to sound a l l the  93 more charged with energy and v i t a l i t y by i t s marked c o n t r a s t w i t h the d o l e f u l , h o p e l e s s moaning  of the f i r s t  drab f i g u r e s .  The p r o c e s s i o n of these f u n e r e a l forms can h a r d l y be c a l l e d a n t i c but there are element's of the grotesque i n t h e i r makeup which serve to p o i n t up the d i g n i t y and power of J u p i t e r . T h i s i n s t a n c e i s r e a l l y the only one i n which Shakespeare c o n v e r t s the c o n t r a s t i n g elements p r o v i d e d by the antimasque i n t o the macabre. In  The Merry Wives of Windsor there appears an a n t i -  masque with no masque or suggestion of a masque to counterbalance i t .  There are. a number of reasons why  this  situation  "came about.  In the f i r s t p l a c e there are no c o u r t "or b a l l r o o m  scenes i n which a c o n v e n t i o n a l masque might be performed and n e i t h e r are there any g r a c e f u l young c o u r t i e r s to perform them.  The hero of the p l a y i s S i r John F a l s t a f f of Henry IV  fame, h a r d l y a f i g u r e which c o u l d be expected t o dance g r a c e f u l measures  or mouth d e l i c a t e compliments.  Another  p o i n t i n v o l v e s the c o n d i t i o n s under which t r a d i t i o n says the p l a y was w r i t t e n .  I f Shakespeare d i d w r i t e the p l a y at the  express command of Queen E l i z a b e t h then the author c o u l d assume a c e r t a i n audience e x p e c t a t i o n upon which he c o u l d play.  The masque c o u n t e r p a r t t o the antimasque would be,  then, i n the minds of the v i e w e r s .  The d e l i g h t of the"audience  would be t w o - f o l d :  f i r s t , i n the stage a n t i c s themselves,  and second i n the t r a v e s t y of t h e i r own c o u r t l y p l e a s u r e s . The purpose the  of the a n t i c d i s g u i s i n g i s e x p l a i n e d i n  d i a l o g u e which precedes the comic episode.  as a cover f o r the elopement Anne. out.  I t i s to act  of M i s t r e s s Page's daughter,  With whom she i s to elope depends on whose p l a n s work A f t e r the d i s g u i s e d performers have e n t e r e d ,  accompanied  by t a p e r - b e a r e r s , t h e i r d i a l o g u e i n c l u d e s p r a i s e of Queen E l i z a b e t h who to  attended the performance.  Reference i s made  the Order of the Garter through i t s motto Honi s o i t q u i  mai y_ pense.  The language and i t s d e l i v e r y are s t i f f  and  f o r m a l as i s s u i t e d to a masque but t h a t what the words say i s nonsense and verges on the r i s q u e .  S i r John F a l s t a f f  expounds: Remember, Jove, thou wast a b u l l f o r thy Europa. Love set on thy horns. 0 powerf u l l o v e that i n some r e s p e c t s makes beast a man, i n some other a man a beast. You were a l s o , J u p i t e r , a swan f o r the love of Leda. 0 omnipotent Jove! How near the God grew to the complexion of a goose. A fault done f i r s t i n the form of a beast. (V. v. 3-9) The f a i r i e s are f i r s t t r e e but when t h e y . s m e l l "a man on him.  F a l s t a f f , who  i n s t r u c t e d to dance around a of middle e a r t h " they t u r n  i s attempting to h i d e o s t r i c h - f a s h i o n ,  95 s u f f e r s the p i n c h e s and burns of the f a i r i e s , test h i s chastity.  supposedly t o  The masque movements which would be ex-  pected by the audience thus become a n t i c g e s t u r e s and buffoonery.  F a l s t a f f , . w h o had hoped to use the masque f o r .  one of i t s main purposes, to promote romance f o r h i m s e l f , i s turned upon and exposed. I t has been suggested that the antimasque which 7 appeared i n the F i r s t F o l i o i s an i n t e r p o l a t e d one' but even if  t h i s were c o r r e c t the antimasque i s s t i l l  dramatically  connected to the p l a y proper f o r the dance burlesque serves to  cover up f o r the attempted abductions by Slender and Doctor.  C a i u s and the elopement of Fenton and Anne Page.  I t Is  a l s o a l i v e l y and h i l a r i o u s c l i m a x to the comedy. The important t h i n g which may be seen throughout t h i s d i s c u s s i o n of Shakespeare*s use of antimasque and elements of antimasque i n h i s p l a y s i s t h a t , as with the masque, Shakespeare never, uses the c o n v e n t i o n merely f o r e f f e c t or merely f o r the a n t i c s p e c t a c l e .  Most o f t e n the c o n t r a s t  demanded by antimasque i s i n h e r e n t w i t h i n the a c t i o n or even w i t h i n a c h a r a c t e r w i t h i n the a c t i o n r a t h e r than appearing as  .'JohnH. Long, "Another Masque f o r The Merry. Wives of Windsor". S_, V o l . I l l (1952), p. 42.  96  a structure.  The antimasque, again l i k e the masque, was to  Shakespeare another d e v i c e which he c o u l d adapt f o r service i n h i s productions.  The s t r u c t u r e i t s e l f was  adjusted  and changed t o s u i t the immediate purpose and never only f o r itself.  CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION Before an attempt i s made to draw any c o n c l u s i o n s as to the f u n c t i o n of the masque i n Shakespeare's p l a y s or s p e c u l a t i n g on any p a t t e r n which emerges from t h i s study, some comment should be made on other Shakespeare p l a y s i n which circumstances only s u g g e s t i v e of a masque occur. There are a number of reasons to s u s p e c t , f o r example, that although The Comedy of E r r o r s has l i t t l e  in i t  which suggests the masque, i t was meant to be f o l l o w e d by masque dances.  The p l a y i s a remarkably short one, j u s t  over seventeen hundred l i n e s , h a r d l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r a complete evening's entertainment. Shakespeare would  I t i s also h i g h l y u n l i k e l y that  overlook the joyous ending of the p l a y as  an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p r o v i d i n g some form of r e v e l r y t o round o f f the a c t i o n , but i n the stage d i r e c t i o n s there i s not even a c a l l f o r music t o accompany the banquet.  There i s evidence  t h a t the P l a u t i n e comedy upon which the Shakespearean p l a y i s based, The Menaechmi, was e a r l i e r i n the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y f o l l o w e d by one of the famous banquets which i n c l u d e d a morisco (a s i m p l i f i e d b a l l e t d ' a c t i o n ) i n which Cesare B o r g i a a c t e d . As the music r o s e  98  f o r the g l o r i o u s f i n a l e the guests danced with the performers and the Pope looked on approvingly.1 In The Comedy of E r r o r s the simple withdrawal at  the end of the p l a y i s r a t h e r abrupt.  f o r a banquet  I am n o t suggesting  t h a t Shakespeare knew of the e a r l i e r p r o d u c t i o n but there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t when the p l a y was performed  f o r the  members of Gray's Inn, s i m i l a r masque dances were i n c l u d e d . A f t e r the denouement--the d i s c o v e r i n g and s o r t i n g out of the A n t i p h o l u s e s and the Dromios and the joyous r e u n i o n of parents with c h i l d r e n and b r o t h e r s with b r o t h e r s — t h e major c h a r a c t e r s , l e d by the Duke, withdraw from the stage t o banquet and c e l e b r a t e the happy o c c a s i o n .  The two s e r v a n t s ,  the Dromios, are l e f t on stage to go through  a s e r i e s of  burlesque g e s t u r e s as to who w i l l leave the stage finally  first,  agreeing: We came i n t o the world l i k e b r o t h e r and b r o t h e r , And now l e t ' s go hand i n hand, not one before the another.  (V. i .  k2k-5)  George F r e e d l e y and John A. Reeves, The H i s t o r y of the T h e a t r e . New York, 1 9 * + ! , p. 6 6 .  99 T h i s p o s t u r i n g i s suggestive of an a n t i c dance and might p o s s i b l y have been a.prelude t o masque dances.  These masque  dances, i f t h i s were the case, would be performed by noble or honoured  members of the audience t a k i n g the p l a c e of the  p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s f o r t h i s dance f i n a l e , a s i t u a t i o n  similar  to the one d i s c u s s e d f o r the masque ending of A Midsummer Night's,Dream.  The amusing d i a l o g u e a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r stage  b u s i n e s s w h i l e such a s u b s t i t u t i o n i s taking p l a c e . Those p l a y s of Shakespeare's which were presented f o r a s e l e c t audience, as The Comedy of E r r o r s appears to have been, seem to c a t e r t o the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d t a s t e .  Among  others known t o have been staged f o r members of the Inns of C o u r t , i n t h i s case the Middle Temple, i s T w e l f t h N i g h t . Epiphany was the g r e a t e s t masquing n i g h t of the year and the v e r y name T w e l f t h Night suggests "thoughts of masque and r e v e l r y and c a r n i v a l . "  The h i g h l y f a n c i f u l romantic tone  of the e n t i r e p l a y has been designed to appeal to a c u l t u r e d audience, perhaps one used to viewing masquers a c t i n g scenes of the m y t h i c a l far-away. imaginative world.  Even the name " I l l y r i a " suggests an  The p l a y opens,  " I f music be the food of  l o v e , p l a y on," and c l o s e s with d e l i g h t f u l nonsense from the Clown.  songs  In between are r a p i d l y s h i f t i n g scenes i n  •Welsford, The Court Masque, p. 282.  100  which the young l o v e r s get s o r t e d out i n t o c o u p l e s .  Although  t h e r e are no a c t u a l masque sequences i n T w e l f t h N i g h t , there i s a q u a l i t y i n the o v e r - a l l atmosphere and tone suggestive of masque. Most of Shakespeare's  l a t e p l a y s were designed f o r a  s i m i l a r audience, though perhaps not q u i t e so s e l e c t . King's Men, Shakespeare's  company, took over the B l a c k f r i a r s  Theatre i n 1 6 0 8 from the C h i l d r e n of the R e v e l s . ^ Cymbeline,  The  Pericles,  The Winter's Tale and The Tempest were probably  w r i t t e n t o be produced  i n t h i s t h e a t r e f o r the more s o p h i s t i c a t -  ed audience which attended i t .  A l l four plays are generally  more e l a b o r a t e i n stage techniques.  The p o s s i b l e use of  mechanical d e v i c e s , such as were common to the Jacobean has been noted i n Cymbeline and The Tempest.  masque,  In P e r i c l e s  the stage d i r e c t i o n s a t the beginning of Act F i v e c a l l f o r a barge drawn up b e s i d e P e r i c l e s ' " c l o s e d p a v i l l i o n " .  This  p a v i l l i o n c o u l d have been a c u r t a i n e d i n n e r stage but the scenes which occur immediately t a t e drawing  the barge  b e f o r e and a f t e r would n e c e s s i -  on and o f f stage i n some way.  The use  of these mechanical d e v i c e s i s probably a d i r e c t i n f l u e n c e of  M.C. Bradbrook, p. 2 8 7 .  J  1962,  The R i s e of the Common P l a y e r , London,  101 the c o u r t masques, p a r t i c u l a r l y those produced by Inigo Jones, which were i n t r o d u c i n g new  theatrical  effects.  Perhaps where d i r e c t c r e d i t cannot be g i v e n to the masque f o r changes on the G l o b e s boards, an i n d i r e c t 1  i n f l u e n c e may.  The amount of pageantry and s p e c t a c l e i n c l u d e d  i n Henrv V I I I , w r i t t e n f o r the Globe Theatre, i n d i c a t e s t h a t the t a s t e s of the p u b l i c t h e a t r e had a l s o changed during the twenty odd y e a r s Shakespeare was w r i t i n g . was  That Shakespeare  by t h i s time accustomed to w r i t i n g f o r the B l a c k f r i a r s ,  which demanded more e l a b o r a t e n e s s , may have i n f l u e n c e d h i s technique i n Henry V I I I , but A l i c e Venezky p o i n t s out t h a t the same c i t i z e n s  who  might applaud the marches of costumed masquers through the s t r e e t s , or parades of tournament c o n t e s t a n t s i n t o the l i s t s , from the banks of the Thames might cheer a sham b a t t l e between v e s s e l s trimmed t o r e p r e s e n t E n g l i s h merchants and p i r a t e s , or might admire a f o r m a t i o n of gorgeously decorated barges honoring the r u l e r or Lord Mayor . . . . made up the m a j o r i t y at the p u b l i c playhouses.^ I t i s p o s s i b l e that the g u i l d s and other o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r these c e l e b r a t i o n s were aware of the kind of performances the n o b i l i t y had become accustomed to and hoped  Venezky, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage, p. 18  102 to p r o v i d e comparable entertainment. the  t a s t e of the man i n the s t r e e t .  This, i n turn, affected The p u b l i c  theatre  audience was a l s o aware of the type and s t y l e of c o u r t l y entertainment.'  Those who attended the B l a c k f r i a r s , when they  c o u l d a f f o r d the sixpence, knew of the costuming and scenic e f f e c t s which the more wealthy c i t i z e n s enjoyed. t i o n of these circumstances l e d t o an i n c r e a s e d b r i l l i a n t trappings  on the p u b l i c  A combinademand f o r  stage.  One of the g r e a t e s t dangers i n t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n i s approaching every p l a y with the q u e s t i o n , i s h e r e ? " (Shrew V. i i i .  "What masquing s t u f f  8 7 ) and assuming t h a t any of the  elements of masque or antimasque appearing i n Shakespeare's plays ment.  are there because of the i n f l u e n c e of the c o u r t  entertain-  S i r Andrew Aguecheek's remark, " I d e l i g h t i n masques and  r e v e l s , sometimes a l t o g e t h e r , "  (Twel. I . i i i .  121-2)  shows t h a t  some of the methods of merry-making and c e l e b r a t i o n which had been i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the masque, continued t o e x i s t q u i t e independently not only i n court but a l s o i n p u b l i c Some of the dances a t which Aguecheek claims the  festivities.  a g i l i t y , such as  " g a l l i a r d " , came to the playhouse a f t e r they had been  introduced  a t c o u r t , perhaps d i r e c t l y from a masque, but i t i s  d i f f i c u l t t o make any hard and f a s t claims  as dance, l i k e music  and  The same might be  song, enjoyed a u n i v e r s a l p o p u l a r i t y .  103  s a i d f o r the  use  of c l a s s i c a l ' and  Shakespearean p l a y s .  mythological  f i g u r e s i n the  Interest i n c l a s s i c a l antiquity  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the age  and  a s i d e from the use  was  of these  f i g u r e s i n what are o b v i o u s l y masque sequences, how  much i s  masque i n f l u e n c e i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n . Among the c o n c l u s i o n s  which can be drawn from a  study of the masque i n Shakespeare i s that among many contemporary  i n f l u e n c e s upon the dramatist  important one,  but  the c o u r t masque was  the s e l e c t i o n of the type of masque or  an the  p a r t of the masque to be used depended e n t i r e l y upon the purpose which i t was  to serve  i n the p l a y and not merely upon  a, d e s i r e to i n c l u d e a masque f o r v a r i e t y or s p e c t a c l e .  Even  i n the l a t e r p l a y s , at a time when some of h i s contemporaries were i n t e r p o l a t i n g e l a b o r a t e speare contented h i m s e l f  masques i n t o t h e i r p l a y s , Shake-  "with the employment of some of  d e v i c e s which the masque made p o p u l a r . " ^ t h a t a l l of the  I am not  production.  p o i n t s out t h a t the v i s i o n of Diana which shows  masque c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s "the most i n e p t and  p.  ill-written  •'Mary S u l l i v a n , Court Masque of James I, London, 8.  claiming  sequences i n Shakespeare's drama which show  masque i n f l u e n c e are completely s u c c e s s f u l i n Quiller-Couch  the  1913,  and  104 a r t i s t i c a l l y c h i l d i s h thing i n P e r i c l e s . "  The same c r i t i c i s m  might be l e v e l l e d at the whole p l a y , however, and P e r i c l e s i s , a f t e r a l l , of d o u b t f u l a u t h o r s h i p . When a d i r e c t use of the masque, e i t h e r i n p a r t or i n whole, a c h i e v e s i n the drama a purpose s i m i l a r t o the masque, one i s on f a i r l y f i r m ground i n c l a i m i n g the i n f l u e n c e of the c o u r t e n t e r t a i n m e n t , but when d e a l i n g with the a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s of the masque, most of which are common t o drama, the  argument  becomes q u i t e tenuous.  Shakespeare's i m a g i n a t i o n  was c e r t a i n l y s t i m u l a t e d by h i s viewing masques and a s s o c i a t i n g with masque w r i t e r s j u s t as i t was  s t i m u l a t e d by other  contemporary entertainments and by o l d e r dramatic t r a d i t i o n s . The genius of Shakespeare's workmanship l i e s i n h i s complete e c l e c t i c i s m and m a s t e r f u l a s s i m i l a t i o n .  Arthur Q u i l l e r - C o u c h , Shakespeare's Workmanship, Cambridge, 1 9 4 4 , p. 188. H a r d i n C r a i g makes a s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n i n "Shakespeare's Bad P o e t r y , " Shakespeare Survey, I ( 1 9 4 8 ) , 5 5 .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Primary References H a r r i s o n , G.B., ed. New York, 1 9 5 2 . Herford, C H . Vol.  Shakespeare:  The Complete Works.  and Simson, Percy and E v e l y n , eds. Ben Jonson.  V I I , Oxford, 1 9 » + 1 .  Secondary References Adams, John Quineey.  Shakespearean Playhouses.  Cambridge,  1917.  Baker, G.P. . New York, B a r b e r , C.L.  The Development  of Shakespeare as a Dramatist.  1907..  Shakespeare's F e s t i v e Comedies.  Princeton, 1 9 5 9 *  B a s k e r v i l l e , C h a r l e s Read. The E l i z a b e t h a n J i g and R e l a t e d Song Drama. Chicago, 1 9 2 9 * Bayne, Ronald. "Masque and P a s t o r a l , " CHEL, V I , x i i i . Cambridge, 1 9 1 0 . Baugh, A . C e t a l , eds. York, 1 9 ^ 8 .  A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of England.  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