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The masque in Shakespeare Shaw, Catherine Maud 1963

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THE MASQUE IN SHAKESPEARE by CATHERINE MAUD SHAW B . A . , The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 5 8 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of English We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 1 9 6 3 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying, or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of ~ \ ( ~ ^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,. Vancouver 8, Canada. Date 5^5" ABSTRACT The purpose of thi s thesis i s to examine the dramatic function of the Court Masque i n the plays of William Shake-speare and to determine how the integration of the masque, either i n whole or i n part, enhanced h i s plays both s t r u c t u r a l l y and thematically. The f i r s t chapter traces the development of the Court Masque from i t s introduction into the court as a , recognizable form i n 1512 to the highly elaborate productions of the Jacobean and Caroline periods. The emphasis i s on the in t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the masque and poetic drama and the use within the drama of ce r t a i n q u a l i t i e s which had become associated with the masque. In the succeeding chapters, Shakespeare*s plays are grouped according to what appears to be the most obvious function of the masque. This grouping i s i n no way cat e g o r i c a l as the function which the masque f u l f i l l s i s often two or three-fold. In Henry VIII, Romeo and J u l i e t , and The Merchant of Venice, the masque provides a cover f o r romantic i n t r i g u e and thus advances the p l o t . In addition to t h i s an irony i s established through the juxtaposition of the event and the conditions under which i t takes place. Love Is Labour*s Lost, Timon of Athens and Much Ado About  Nothing i l l u s t r a t e masque associations with f r i v o l i t y and i i i a f f e c t a t i o n which r e f l e c t the unreal poses of the main characters. In these plays the denouement hinges upon the discovery of r e a l i t y . Chapter IV deals with those plays which not only contain masque sequences but also reveal something of an o v e r - a l l masque qualit y , plays i n which the action moves through f l e e t i n g masque-like scenes to f i n a l order and harmony. The antimasque, though appearing i n some plays previously mentioned, i s examined i n a separate chapter and i t s function and effectiveness assessed. The thesis reveals that while increased elaboration of masque production provided Shakespeare with p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r more t h e a t r i c a l e f f ects i n the public theatre and led to a greater use of stage spectacle i n the l a t e r plays, never i s the masque used merely for stage e f f e c t even when thi s was the. fashion followed by many other dramatists. The masque i s integrated into the plot and i t s q u a l i t i e s adapted to re-inforce the theme. Of the many influences, both contemporary and t r a d i t i o n a l , which stimulated Shakespeare 1s imagination, the masque was an important one. The masterful assimilation of the Court Masque contributes to the v i t a l i t y and u n i v e r s a l i t y of the dramas and are a tribute to their author's genius and complete eclecticism. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I INTRODUCTION 1 II ROMANTIC INTRIGUE 2 3 III ILLUSION ^ 3 IV VISIONARY HARMONY 6 2 V ANTIMASQUE 80 VI CONCLUSION 97 BIBLIOGRAPHY 10? CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Spectacle and pageantry, music and dance, mumming and disguising, poetry and song, a l l e g o r i c a l and mythological i n t e r l u d e s — i n f a c t , a l l of the constituent elements which, when combined i n varying proportions, went to make up the Elizabethan and Jacobean Court masque—had existed i n , and been a part of, English r i t u a l f e s t i v i t i e s " a n d "revels long before the masque emerged as an entertainment form. Indeed, "the essence of the masque which was the a r r i v a l of c e r t a i n persons visored and disguised to dance a dance or present an offering""*" had i t s o r i g i n "deep i n the past, i n f o l k custom and f e r t i l i t y r i t e s . " In the l u d i . which Enid Welsford sees emerging from those pagan r i t u a l s tolerated by the C h r i s t i a n Church^, can be seen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which clung to f o l k and court entertainment into Tudor and Stuart times, and merged with foreign influences into a formal structure, the court masque. The mock combat of the sword dances and morris dances Enid Welsford, The Court Masque. A Study i n the Relation- ship between Poetry and the Revels. Cambridge, 1927, p. 19. p A.C. Baugh et a l . ed., A L i t e r a r y History of England. New York, 19^8, p. 569. The Court Masque, p. 20. 2 can be traced into the l a t e r a l l e g o r i c a l assaults and the more formal dance performances. Elejnents of the King Game, p a r t i c u l a r l y that of the Lord of Misrule, can be seen i n the antimasque -which, though not formally acknowledged as part of the masque u n t i l 1609, had i t s comic influence much e a r l i e r . Out of mumming came the elements of disguise and surprise, dancing and d i c i n g , and g i f t - g i v i n g . The continued association of these entertainments with the most important events of the human condition kept strong t h e i r r i t u a l features. The force of l i f e and the abstract ideals which persisted i n the masque when i t showed i t s influence i n the Shakespearean dramas drew vigour from these roots. During the reign of Henry VIII a l l i e d forms of thi s f e s t i v e art were drawn into a loose connection. H a l l , i n The  Chronicles of the Reign, records that i n 1512 the king with x i other wer disguised a f t e r the maner of I t a l i e , c a l l e d a maske. a thyng not seen afore i n England . . . these maskers came i n , with sixe gentlemen disguised i n s i l k e bearying s t a f f e torches, and desired the ladies to daunce, some wer content, and some that knew the fashion of i t refused, because i t was not a thyng commonly seen. And after t h e i danced and commoned together, as the fashion of the maskes i s , they take their leave and departed, and so did the Quene, and a l l the ladies. 1* H a l l f s Chronicle; Containing the History of England, during the Reign of Henrv the Fourth and Succeeding Monarchs. Though some scholars-' have seen t h i s item as evidence of an e n t i r e l y new form of entertainment, more det a i l e d studies have shown that there was l i t t l e new except the name 'maske* and the mingling of visored knights with the audience. To the Tudor custom of disguising had been added an I t a l i a n v a r i a t i o n : the performers not only danced with the spectators but they 'commoned1. H a l l indicates that the f e e l i n g s toward t h i s innovation were, at f i r s t , rather mixed. The opposition by respectable English society was short l i v e d , however, and the 'taking out 1 of members of the audience by costumed or masked dancers became the climax of the f u l l y -developed Court performance and the event from which i t got i t s name. In addition to i t s importance i n terms of form, t h i s innovation introduced the dramatic motive of intrigue into what was, except f o r the element of impersonation, e s s e n t i a l l y an undramatic entertainment. to the End of the Reign of Henry the Eighth, i n Which are  P a r t i c u l a r l y Described the Manners and Customs of those Periods Printed f o r J . Johnson etc., 1 8 0 9 , London, p. 5 2 6 . ^See A.M. Nagler, A Source Book i n Theatrical History, p. l*+0 J.A. Symonds, Shakespeare's Predecessors, p. 2 5 5 ? Kenneth MacGowan and. William Melnitz, The Living Stage, p. lb%. See H.A. Evans, English Masques, i n t r o . p. x x i ; E.K. Chambers, The Elizabethan Stage. Vol. I, p. 1 5 3 ; Enid Wels-ford, The Court Masque, p. 1 5 3 . h It i s necessary to stress that the masque was, from i t s inception,, an amateur performance i n which royal , noble or honoured personages took part. It i s true that l u s t y young courtiers who developed the fad of invading the streets and 'gate-crashing' private p a r t i e s to f l i r t and revel with the l a d i e s , soon introduced the custom outside of court. It i s also true that after the' turn of the seventeenth century professional entertainers were employed to provide the comic or grotesque antimasque as contrast to the beauty and the splendour of the main part of the performance. But the masque proper remained primarily an a r i s t o c r a t i c form of entertain-ment and t h i s i s probably one of the main reasons that the masque never quite succeeded i n crossing the l i n e separating amusement and a r t . To i t s participants and viewers, the fun of dressing up which the masque provided, of carrying on f l i r t a t i o u s i n t r i g u e s , of impressing honoured guests, of escaping into a world of make-believe which they thought r e f l e c t e d the i d e a l state of the i r own society, led to i t s increasing popularity and to Its increasing a r t i f i c i a l i t y . . From the time of i t s introduction to the English court, then, the masque had certain elements of the dramatic. It f i r s t of a l l involved persons pretending to be other than they r e a l l y were, and i t also had the beginnings of dramatic motive, that of i n t r i g u e . There was s t i l l no narrative and there was 5 no speech other than the impromptu murmurings ca r r i e d on during the commoning. T.M. Parrott notes, however, that as early as 1 5 1 7 Cornish, a Master of the Revels, made an entrance before a royal gathering to introduce a group of noble entertainers. As presenter he spoke a Prologue i n which he stated "the 7 eff e c t and the inten t " of the Garden of Esperance. This introducing of performers soon developed a dramatic character and eventually dramatic action, but rar e l y did a theme dependent on the spoken word become the main business of the masque. During Elizabethan times the dance remained the important feature, even though the dance might be a symbolic representation of something else such as a procession, an assault, a tourney or a debate-. In Jacobean times, spectacle came to the fore again even though the elements making up the spectacle might have been symbolically linked to a central theme. The masque episodes, i n other words, became linked by a dramatic thread, but they never became drama. With an eye to economy, Elizabeth I did l i t t l e to advance the growth of the masque within her court but her progresses throughout her realm encouraged wealthy subjects to present elaborate entertainments i n heir honour. When out 'T.M. Parrott, "Comedy i n the Court Masque: A Study of Ben Johson*s Contribution", __, XX ( 1 9 ^ 1 ) , p. ^ 29. 6 of doors these entertainments took the form of tourneys, pageants or debates, a l l usually a l l e g o r i c a l i n substance and accompanied by music, which led up to the presentation of complimentary speeches or g i f t s to Her Majesty. A l i c e Venezky describes one of the more simple greetings which took place at H a r e f i e l d Place. I t was constructed along the l i n e s of. a dialogue between Time and Place: Time then contended that Place was too small and i n s i g n i f i c a n t to receive the Queen. In reply, Place pointed out that he had received the sun, which the sovereign Elizabeth resembled. A diamond heart was then presented to the Queen, as a mirror of the true heart.of the donor.8 Generally speaking, however, the a r r i v a l of the Queen at a noble house c a l l e d f o r much more elaborate celebrations and honours. These might include dialogue, but speech was subordinate to disguising and the dance. At indoor entertainments, Elizabeth received her trib u t e i n the form of a masque. Compliments were included i n the dramatic introduc-t i o n of the masque dancers and a g i f t from her host was presented before they withdrew. Probably as a r e s u l t of the influence of such poets as Sidney and Spenser these compliments soon took on a poetic quality of language and r e f l e c t e d the A l i c e S. Venezky. Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage. New York, 1 9 5 1 , p . 80. 7 increasing i n t e r e s t i n learning by many a l l e g o r i c a l references to c l a s s i c a l and mythological figures. As the weather or a request f o r a repeat performance might move these f e s t i v i t i e s i n or out of doors, a pastoral setting was often used as i t was r e a d i l y adaptable. In addition to t h i s , settings depicting an i d e a l Arcadian perfection, a "golden world", were eminently suitable to compliment the graces of Gloriana. It i s necessary to make some form of d i s t i n c t i o n between what E.K. Chambers c a l l s the simple masque " i n which the dancers, with their r i c h l y hued and sparkling costumes, the i r torch-bearers and their musicians, may be regarded as furnishing t h e i r own spectacle,"^ and the l a t e r , much more elaborate form because i t was the simple masque which was used most often by William Shakespeare. Indeed, i t may be said that, with the possible exception of the masque at the end of The Tempest, whenever the entertainment as such i s used, either wholly or i n part, i t i s i n the simpler or Tudor form. As the drama influenced the development of the masque, so the masque influenced drama. Sir P h i l i p Sidney 1s p l a y l e t , The Lady of May, though not a masque i n the s t r i c t e s t sense, 7E.K. Chambers. The Elizabethan Stage. Vol. I, Oxford, 1 9 2 5 , p. 1 7 5 . 8 has many masquer-like q u a l i t i e s . Its main motive was to entertain Queen Elizabeth and, though i t involved no dances, troops of contrasted performers pattern th e i r actions through-out the s l i g h t narrative. But The Lady of May f o r a l l i t s slightness was not without e f f e c t : Shakespeare transformed the schoolmaster into Hblofernes; Jonson shows an indebtedness to i t i n h i s masques and enter-tainments; and such writers of pastoral drama as Jonson and Fletcher were guided by i t . More important, f o r the f i r s t time one of these , Q courtly entertainments was also good l i t e r a t u r e . George Peele's The Arraignment of Paris , written a few years l a t e r i n the early 1 5 8 0 * 3 , also may be c a l l e d a masque-like pastoral drama. Again the drama was composed f o r presentation before the Queen and the author very neatly turns the c l a s s i c a l myth into a vehicle f o r praise of the beauty of El i z a b e t h . When faced with the problem of a l t e r i n g Paris*s decision as to who most j u s t l y deserves the golden apple in s c r i b e d , "Let t h i s unto the f a i r e s t be," Diana decides that neither Juno, Pallas, nor Venus are worthy and presents i t instead to E l i z a , "the noble phoenix of our age." Though the play again contains no masque dances, the grouping and patterning of gods and goddesses, shepherds and knights, muses and f a t e s , reveal the influence of the formal masque. VE.W. Parks and R.C. Beatty, eds., The English Drama 900 -1 6 _ _ , New York, 1 9 3 5 , p. 5 5 2 . 9 A very similar patterned grouping of characters upon the stage can be seen i n the early Shakespearean comedies. The masque i t s e l f within Love's Labour's Lost w i l l be discussed i n d e t a i l l a t e r , but the o v e r a l l structure shows that Shakespeare was influenced by the patterning of movement i n the courtly entertainments. Later, when h i s s k i l l i n handling comedy became greater, he altered the pattern and the formal balance. In As You Like I t rather than even p a i r i n g , the pattern i s asymmetrical. And so I am for Phoebe And I f o r Ganymede. And I for Rosalind. And I for no woman. •, •, (V. i i . 9 1 - ^ ) The reason for Shakespeare's choosing to l i m i t h i s use of the masque disguises and dances to the simpler Tudor form l i e s , most probably, i n the f a c t that he always had h i s eye on the public theatre. The more elementary the mechanics of the masque the easier they were to integrate into the p l o t , both s t r u c t u r a l l y and thematically. Obviously for Shakespeare the play was "the thing", and although he was w i l l i n g to t r y to please the public theatre audience with elements of the courtly form of entertainment, he was unwilling to allow them Shakespeare: the Complete Works, edited by G.B. Harrison, New York, 1 9 5 2 . A l l quotations from Shakespearean plays are from this e d i t i o n unless otherwise stated. 1 0 to overshadow the drama i t s e l f . This does not mean that the l a t e r form, c a l l e d by E.K. Chambers the spectacular masque, "to which e c l a t i s given by the pageant, mobile, or towards the end of the reign stationary, with i t s a d d i t i o n a l l i g h t s , i t s g i l t and colours, and the elements of i l l u s i o n and surprise afforded by i t s f a c i l i t i e s for the concealed entry 1 2 of personages," had no e f f e c t on the great dramatist. On the contrary, i t i s only necessary to notice the difference between the comparative s i m p l i c i t y of the early h i s t o r i e s and the splendour of Henry VIII. Granted the stage directions f o r a l l the l a t e r plays are generally more e x p l i c i t than i n the e a r l i e r ones, i n this play not a d e t a i l i s omitted i n the directions f o r the processional f o r the coronation of Anne Bullen, nor are the author's intentions l e f t to chance i n the ceremony of the masked figures i n the v i s i o n of Queen Katharine. These .influences were, however, most noticeable i n produc'tion techniques or i n staging rather than any greater elaboration of the masque sequences themselves. Toward the end of the reign of E l i z a b e t h , the masques had grown i n popularity u n t i l they were the accepted method of entertainment at s p e c i a l events and f e s t i v a l s and their dramatic q u a l i t i e s were tuned to honour the host, any s p e c i a l guests, or The Elizabethan Stage. Vol. I, p. 1 7 5 . 1 1 the p r i n c i p a l s involved i n a p a r t i c u l a r celebration, such as a betrothal or a marriage. It was often thought p o l i t i c a l l y expedient to t r y to outdo r i v a l s f o r the Queen 1s favour by being more lavish, i n expressions of l o y a l t y and admiration. A master for the revels became one of the most important servants i n a wealthy man*s employ. In addition to t h i s , i t became the practice to commission not only dancing masters to t r a i n the.courtly performers but also well-known poets and musicians to compose the masque. Special rooms were designed to show off the entertainments to the i r best advantage, to , elevate the performance to allow f u l l and panoramic viewing. There can be no doubt that these developments speeded the evolution of the proscenium arch stage, as w e l l as the use of stationary and moveable stage properties. Enid Welsford c i t e s the Shrovetide production of Proteus and the Adamantine Rock by the members of Gray*s Inn for Queen Elizabeth i n 1 5 9 5 as the turning point i n the h i s t o r y of the masque. This presentation, she says, established a norm i n that, with the exception of an. antimasque, i t included a l l the elements which were l a t e r to be used by Ben Jonson and other masque writers during the Jacobean and Caroline periods. 1-"The Court Masque, p. 1 6 3 . 12 Written by Thomas Campion and Francis Davison, this production shows how much the court masque had absorbed of genuine drama: F i r s t entered f i v e musicians representing *an Esquire of the Prince*s Company, attended by a Tartarian Page. Proteus the Sea-God, attended by two Tritons. Thamesis and Amphitrite, who likewise were attended by their Sea-nymphs.* The nymphs and Tritons sang a song i n praise of Neptune: . . . we learn that the Prince of Purpoole had caught Proteus, and refused to l e t him go, u n t i l he promised to bring to an appointed place the *Adamantine Rock,* the magnetic c l i f f that brought with i t the empire of the sea. But Proteus would only agree to t h i s on condition *That f i r s t the Prince should bring him to a Power, Which i n a t t r a c t i v e v i r t u e should surpass The wondrous force of h i s Iron-drawing rocks.* The Prince of Purpoole and seven of h i s knights have allowed themselves to be shut into the rock as hostages, f o r the per-formance of t h i s covenant, and now the moment of t r i a l has come. Proteus descants on the magnetic virt u e of the adamantine rock, but the squire points out that the rock may draw i r o n , but the Queen at t r a c t s to h e r s e l f the hearts of men, and the human heart moves the arm that can wield i r o n . Proteus acknowledges himself defeated. . . . and then the Prince and the seven Knights issued fort h of the rock, i n a very sta t e l y mask, very r i c h l y a t t i r e d , . . . At their f i r s t coming on the Stage, they danced a new devised measure, etc. After which, they took unto them Ladies; and with them they danced th e i r g a l l i a r d s , courants, etc. And they danced another new measure; after the end whereof, the pigmies brought eight escutcheons, with the maskers devices thereupon, and delivered them to the Esquire, who offered them to her Majesty; which being done, they took th e i r order again, and with a new s t r a i n , went a l l into the rock; at which time there was sung another new Hymn within the rock . . . .I 1* X H J o h n Nichols,' The Progresses of Elizabeth as c i t e d i n The  Court Masque by Enid Welsford, pp. 1 6 2 - 3 . 13 There was f i r s t the presentation which was designed to i n t r o -duce the players and give a reason for t h e i r coming. Note that this introduction establishes a narrative based on C l a s s i c a l mythology and includes f i n e compliments to the Queen. Next the masquers made their entry and performed the masque dances s p e c i a l l y designed and executed f o r t h i s per-formance. . The masquers then chose partners from among the audience and danced with them. This section, usually refe r r e d to as the ' r e v e l s 1 , included either well-known English country dances or continental innovations introduced by foreign ambassadors or by courtiers returning from abroad. As a f i n a l e , the masquers presented a token g i f t to the Queen and withdrew. This ceremonial reverence to the distinguished guest or to the host and company was sometimes referred to as the 'honour* and at other times as 'going up to state.' In terms of dramatic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , Proteus and the  Adamantine Rock i s unified by a dramatic thread and i t i s c e r t a i n l y activated by a theme. It may also be said to have a c e r t a i n l i t e r a r y and poetic value. But i t i s s t i l l evident that the main emphasis i s on the dance and on the performance f o r i t s entertainment value only. From t h i s the emphasis may have sh i f t e d during the Jacobean and Caroline periods to a delight i n spectacle but as f a r as the audience was concerned the basic purpose of the masque, f l a t t e r i n g entertainment, never changed. Ik Proteus and the Adamantine Rock i s also i n t e r e s t i n g i n that i t reveals the use of stage properties and a , d e v i c e t f o r the entrance and exit of the masquers. Most of these innovations i n stage mechanics on the English boards had the i r o r i g i n i n I t a l y where the masque form of entertainment had developed e a r l i e r . Some of them were copied from books of stage^architecture published i n the l a t e sixteenth and 15 early seventeenth centuries, y some were brought back by courtiers and imitated, and s t i l l others were brought to England by t r a v e l l i n g companies of I t a l i a n players who enjoyed great popularity i n both London and the provinces. The masque, as a l i t e r a r y entertainment form, reached i t s f u l l e s t flowering at the extravagant court of James I. I t continued on into the reign of Charles I but i t s b r i l l i a n c e was, by t h i s time, self-consuming. The Masque of Blackness, produced i n l 6 0 5 } "marks an epoch i n the h i s t o r y of the rev e l s , because i t i s the beginning of the collaboration between Ben Jonson and. the famous architect Inigo Jones.""1"^ Together, they produced masques which came as close to l i t e r a r y art as the masque ever did. But the partnership was not to 15 yA.M. Nagler, A Source Book i n Theatrical History. New York, 1 9 5 2 , passim. Not only abstracts but also valuable i l l u s t r a -tions are given i n this volume. X DWelsford, The Court Masque, p. 1 7 3 . 1 5 l a s t . The views of Jonson and Jones were diametrically opposed as to what the most important feature of the masque was. For Jonson masques were v i s u a l i z e d and written as creations of i n s p i r a t i o n ; f o r Jones they were opportunities f o r b r i l l i a n t a r c h i t e c t u r a l design. A description of the stage set of the Masque of Blackness w i l l give an idea how f a r the element of spectacle had advanced by that date: F i r s t , f o r the scene, was drawn a landt-schap consisting of small woods, and here and there a void place f i l l e d with huntings; which f a l l -ing, an a r t i f i c a l sea was seen to shoot f o r t h , as i f i t flowed to the land, raised with waves which seemed to move, and i n some place's the billows to break, as imitating that orderly disorder that i s common i n nature. In front of the sea were placed s i x Tritons, i n moving and s p r i g h t l y actions, their upper parts human, save that t h e i r h a i r s were blue, as partaking of the sea colour: th e i r desonent parts, f i s h , mounted above the i r heads, and a l l varied i n d i s p o s i t i o n . . . . Behind these a pair of sea-maids, f o r song, were as conspicuously seated; between which two great Sea-horses (as big as the l i f e ) put forth themselves . . . These induced the Masquers, which were twelve Nymphs, N e g r o e s a n d the daughters of NIGER; attended by so many of the OCEANIAE, which were their light-bearers. The Masquers were placed i n a great concave s h e l l , l i k e mother of p e a r l , curiously made to move on those waters and r i s e with the billow; the top thereof was stuck with a chev rron of l i g h t s , which indented to the proportion of the s h e l l , strook a glorious beam upon them as they were seated one! above the other: so that they were a l l seen, but i n an extravagant order. 1 6 On sides of the s h e l l did swim s i x huge Sea-monsters, varied i n their shapes and d i s -p o s i t i o n s , bearing on their backs the twelve torch-bearers, who were planted there i n several graces . . . . These thus presented, the Scene behind seemed a vast sea (and united with t h i s that flowed forth) from the termination, or horizon of which (being the l e v e l of the State, which was placed at the upper end of the h a l l ) was drawn by the l i n e s of Perspective, the whole works shooting downwards from the eye; which decorum made i t more conspicuous, and caught the eye afar off with a wandering beauty.17 The 1 6 0 9 Twelfth Night Masque of Queens saw the acceptance of the 'antic* masque or antimasque which was designed to emphasize by contrast the beauty and splendour of the masque proper. The p r i n c i p l e of contrast through the use of the grotesque had been part of disguising and cthe interlude before the innovation of the masque, but now i t became an i n t e g r a l part of the court genre, usually coming just after the presentment and just before the entrance of the main masquers. The ' a n t i c 1 actors were often employed from public t h e a t r i c a l groups and performed mainly grotesque dances or mimes, though l a t e r comic dialogue was added. No one could have been more aware of the dangers of these excesses, of either stage spectacle or antics, than was 'Ben Jonson. edited by C. H. Herford and Percy and Evelyn Simpson, Vol. VII, pp. 1 6 9 - 7 1 . 17 Ben Jonson and h i s fears were j u s t i f i e d f o r , despite a l l Jon-son* s protests, the p o t e n t i a l i n s p i r a t i o n of the poetry and dancing of the. masque f i n a l l y gave way to a performance which was almost wholly spectacle, an extravagant display of costume and stagecraft and bizarre, often r i b a l d , antimasque. For a l l that they were magnificent to behold, they did l i t t l e , i f anything, to i n s p i r e . But what of the writings of William Shakespeare? How f a r did the spectacle and antics of the courtly entertain-ments a f f e c t h i s presentations? In spite of the tremendous popularity of the masque during h i s l i f e t i m e , as f a r as i s known, Shakespeare wrote no masques. He did not remain immune, however, to the increased t h e a t r i c a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s which the masque offered nor was he unaware of the desire of the public theatre audiences for a taste of the courtly fare. In addition to t h i s , the dramatic p o s s i b i l i t i e s made i t r e a d i l y adaptable to serve a v a r i e t y of purposes, r e a l i s t i c , i r o n i c or s a t i r i c . When the narrative development of Shakespeare's dramas could best be advanced by the d i r e c t i n c l u s i o n of some form of the masque, i t was usually integrated into a succession of scenes rather than appearing as one i s o l a t e d sequence. As w e l l , the masque action was designed i n such a manner as either to sustain character impression already established or to develop i t further. Shakespeare showed no reticence i n 18 selecting only those sections of the entertainment form which best served the p a r t i c u l a r purpose required. This selection and integration, rather than mere i n t e r p o l a t i o n , applies also to h i s implementation of the elements from the l a t e r , more spectacular, Jacobean masque. The increased use of pageantry and procession, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the chronicle plays, has already been noted. This pageantry was not, however, only for v i s u a l delight, but provided r e a l dramatic value through the manner i n which i t was used. A l i c e Venezky points out a number of dramatic uses to which Shakespeare put t h i s pageantry: f o r the depiction of proud characters, as i n Coriolanus, J u l i u s Ceasar, or Timon  of Athens; f o r increasing the effectiveness of a climactic scene by leading up to, or framing i t by ceremonious entry or procession, as i n the expulsion of F a l s t a f f at the end of Henry V, or the death of the "lass unparalleled" i n the closing scene of Antony and Cleopatra, and so on. The stage directions f o r the masque-like dream of Posthumus i n Cymbeljne c a l l for a mechanical descent of Jupiter " s i t t i n g upon an eagle." Later Jupiter*s l i n e , -Venezky, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage, passim. Some of these i l l u s t r a t i o n s and many others are given through-out Miss Venezky's book. 19 "Mount, e a g l e , to my p a l a c e c r y s t a l i n e " f o l l o w e d by the comment of Posthumus 1 f a t h e r , "The marble pavement c l o s e s , he i s entered / H i s r a d i a n t r o o f , " suggests the use of a d e v i c e l i k e the Tadamantine r o c k 1 or the ,concave s h e l l 1 , the type of d e v i c e used e x t e n s i v e l y to b r i n g about the s u r p r i s e e n t r y of the masquers. Often p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r s performed f o r the p u b l i c , antimasques i n which they had appeared i n c o u r t . There i s evidence of t h i s i n The Winter's T a l e . The dance of the twelve Sat y r s (IV. i v ) has a l l the appearances of being i n t e r -p o l a t e d i n t o the p l a y f o r a r o y a l performance and then l e f t i n f o r the amusement of the Globe audience. One three of them, by t h e i r own r e p o r t , S i r , hath danced b e f o r e the King, and not the worst of the three but jumps twelve f o o t and a h a l f by the s q u i e r . (IV. i v . 3^5-8) The sequence has such s i m i l a r i t y t o the antimasque i n J o n s o n 1 s Masque of Oberon t h a t Shakespeare probably r e c e i v e d the s u g g e s t i o n f o r the dance t h e r e . However, these dancing Sat y r s do not form a c o n t r a s t f o r any masque dance to f o l l o w ; i f anything they would c o n t r a s t the gay f e s t i v i t i e s of the sheep-shearing scene which has j u s t taken p l a c e . More of these s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n s w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o i n the d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s of i n d i v i d u a l p l a y s i n which the 20 masque i n f l u e n c e i s most obvious, but these i n t e g r a t i o n s a p ply not only t o the 'body 1 of the masque, to use Ben Jonson*s terms, but a l s o to i t s ' s o u l * . The s k i l l f u l weaving of d e v i c e or form with dramatic or thematic purpose allowed f o r "no c l a s h between what i s shown to the eyes and what i s intended to be seen i n the mind and f e l t by the s p i r i t and the 19 i m a g i n a t i o n . " ' In other words, whether Shakespeare used the e a r l i e r or l a t e r form, the masque or i t s elements became another dimension employed to p r e s e r v e or develop the t o t a l i t y of i m p r e s s i o n . The 'meaning* of a great p l a y i s the meaning th a t i t takes the whole p l a y to say, and the p l a y i s saying i t through a l l i t s d i v e r s i t i e s , even, and sometimes e s p e c i a l l y , when i t i s not being s a i d openly.20 Assuming t h i s statement of N e v i l l e C o g h i l l ' s to be t r u e , i t i s the phrase "when i t i s not being s a i d openly" which l e a d s to the problem of a s s e s s i n g what dramatic f u n c t i o n the masque f u l f i l l e d i n terms of the thematic manner i n which i t was used, what a s s o c i a t i v e and c o n n o t a t i v e value i t had i n the Shakespearean p l a y s . ^ A l l a r d y c e N i c o l l , Masks f Mimes and M i r a c l e s , London, 1931, p. 60. 20 N e v i l l e C o g h i l l , "The Governing Idea: Essays i n Stage-I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Shakespeare," S_ I (Vienna, 191+6), p. 9. 21 There are some plays i n vhich, i t would appear, the main function depends on one of the masque's e a r l i e s t dramatic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , that of romantic i n t r i g u e . The suggestion that the entertainment i s to act as a cover for events and actions which w i l l lead to the deeper complications of the p l o t , immediately stimulates the mind of the audience to greater awareness of the minutest d e t a i l of movement or inuendo. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s of irony are great i n a s i t u a t i o n where an event which should be one of f e s t i v e harmony i s used to contrast actions• which s i g n i f y r e b e l l i o n or approaching disharmony. Although i t i s unwise to force any r i g i d pattern or grouping upon the Shakespearean plays, there are c e r t a i n l y some i n which the increasing amount of f l a t t e r y associated with the masque i s r e l i e d upon to conjure up i n the mind i n s i n c e r i t y and f a l s i t y , suspicions of excess, either of speech or action. These masque associations, romantic i n t r i g u e , excess and i n s i n c e r i t y , establish a human si t u a t i o n of contrast between appearance and r e a l i t y , between conditions as they seem to be, and as they r e a l l y are. Both of these situations depend on q u a l i t i e s of the masque which are not e s s e n t i a l l y desirable, which imply a d i s s o c i a t i o n from a c t u a l i t y . 22 If the masque, however, developed from the same r i t u a l s , from the same basic rhythms of l i f e as the drama did, then i t s roots could s t i l l nourish a sustained dramatic t o t a l i t y i f properly tended. There i s no doubt that the splendour and dignity of the masque made some impression on the mind, conscious or unconscious, of William Shakespeare. It i s d i f f i c u l t to say how fa r h i s experiences affected h i s v i s i o n of l i f e . There appear to be some plays which have an o v e r - a l l , masque-like v i s i o n about them; where continually changing, f l e e t i n g spectacles do r e f l e c t the harmony e s s e n t i a l to the well-spring of the masque. There are also c e r t a i n instances i n Shakespeare 1s plays when the dramatic action i s suspended f o r a b r i e f moment and a masque-like v i s i o n reveals an e s s e n t i a l human truth or i d e a l which supersedes the theatre. For that b r i e f moment the "soul" of the masque stands c l e a r l y before the mind's eye. Often when the most obvious purpose of the masque or any of i t s elements appears to be romantic int r i g u e or the exposing of f a l s e i l l u s i o n , the masque i s at the same time serving to d i r e c t the mind, towards some desirable r e v e l a t i o n . CHAPTER I I ROMANTIC INTRIGUE The c o u r t masque, was by i t s form and a s s o c i a t i o n s , r e a d i l y adaptable f o r use as a cover f o r romantic i n t r i g u e . In the simpler Tudor masque the excitement came from p a r t i c i -p a t i o n i n the r e v e l r y r a t h e r than from the performance of the dancers as stage s p e c t a c l e . Though i t i n v o l v e d a s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n which demanded a c e r t a i n f o r m a l i t y , the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancing a p r i v a t e s u i t were many. Not on l y d i d the dancing and commoning p r o v i d e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r f l i r t a t i o u s w hisperings but the wearing of f a c e masks by the dancers, though not completely c o n c e a l i n g i d e n t i t y , allowed f o r a b o l d -ness which n o r m a l l y decorum frowned upon. J u s t such a s i t u a t i o n occurs i n the f i r s t Act of Henrv V I I I . Though t h i s i s a l a t e p l a y , f i r s t a c t e d at the Globe i n 1 6 1 3 , Shakespeare uses the s i m p l e s t masque s t r u c t u r e . The sequence ( I . i v . ^ f f ) i s an almost d i r e c t a d a p t a t i o n of a 1 5 1 7 masque d e s c r i b e d by Geoarge Cavendish i n h i s L i f e of Wolsey3" and Shakespeare*s use of the e a r l y Tudor form i s George Cavendish, The L i f e and Death of C a r d i n a l Wolsey, e d i t e d by R i c h a r d S. S y l v e s t e r and Davis P. H a r d i n g , New Haven, 1 9 6 2 , pp. 2 7 - 8 . 2k c e r t a i n l y h i s t o r i c a l l y a c c u r a t e . However, any p l e a that t h i s was the reason f o r Shakespeare's u t i l i z a t i o n of such a simple type i s o f f s e t by h i s obvious w i l l i n g n e s s to expand and change sources f o r other p l a y s when i t s u i t e d h i s purpose, and by h i s l a c k of concern f o r anachronisms elsewhere. I t i s more to the p o i n t to r e a l i z e t h a t the e l a b o r a t e Jacobean masque was unnecessary i n a p l a y a l r e a d y made s p l e n d i d by the c o l o u r f u l costumes and r o y a l t r a p p i n g s p r o v i d e d by other l a v i s h events. The t e x t c o n t a i n s a number of e l a b o r a t e stage d i r e c t i o n s f o r v a r i o u s scenes of pageantry and s p e c t a c l e . The t r i a l scene, the c o r o n a t i o n of Anne B u l l e n , the v i s i o n of Queen K a t h a r i n e , and the c h r i s t e n i n g of the i n f a n t , E l i z a b e t h , with i t s c o m p l i -mentary b e n e d i c t i o n , p r o v i d e ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r b r i l l i a n t d i s p l a y . Each entrance of e i t h e r the King or Wolsey, with t h e i r a t t e n d a n t s , occasions a f a n f a r e and a v i v i d b r i e f p r o c e s s i o n a l . To have i n c l u d e d an e l a b o r a t e masque, even as e l a b o r a t e as some George Cavendish d e s c r i b e s , would, have ' g i l d e d the l i l y ' and d i m i n i s h e d the dramatic e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p l a y . What was necessary a t t h i s p o i n t i n the p l a y was some de v i c e whereby the meeting of Henry and Anne B u l l e n c o u l d take p l a c e on stage. D r a m a t i c a l l y no d e v i c e c o u l d b e t t e r serve t h i s purpose than one whose a s s o c i a t i o n s with c o n s p i r a c y and f l i r t a t i o n were c l e a r to the audience. In a d d i t i o n to t h i s , the element of i n t r i g u e , so e s s e n t i a l to 2 5 the p l o t development which takes p l a c e w i t h i n the masque, c o u l d e a s i l y have been obscured by the d a z z l i n g e f f e c t of the l a t e r masque form. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of the masque i s i n h e r e n t w i t h i n the d i a l o g u e . A f t e r a f l u r r y of trumpets and the d i s c h a r g e of the cannons have s u r p r i s e d the g a t h e r i n g i n t o a t t e n t i o n , Wolsey r e a s s u r e s the women, "Nay l a d i e s , f e a r not / By a l l the laws of war you're p r i v i l e g e d " ( I . i v . 5 l - 2 ) . H i s words set up the i d e a of a s s a u l t which was a popular d i s g u i s i n g and masque p a t t e r n and eminently s u i t a b l e t o the sweeping c o u r t s h i p which f o l l o w s . A servant announces the "noble troo p of s t r a n g e r s " who have a r r i v e d "as g r e a t ambassadors / From f o r e i g n p r i n c e s " and the masquers, d i s g u i s e d as shepherds, e n t e r . To the music of oboes they g r a c e f u l l y s a l u t e the C a r d i n a l who s i t s alone under a s t a t e , the l a r g e canopy designed to set the h o s t and any other h i g h - r a n k i n g guests a p a r t from the other banqueters. The.masque s t r u c t u r e of the scene i s obvious although o n l y i n the stage d i r e c t i o n s i s the word a c t u a l l y used. The Lord Chamberlain, a c t i n g as p r e s e n t e r f o r the masquers d e c l a r e s t h e i r purpose i s , . . . having heard by fame Of t h i s so noble and so f a i r assembly T h i s n i g h t to meet here they c o u l d do no l e s s , 2 6 Out of the great r e s p e c t they bear to beauty, But l e a v e t h e i r f l o c k s , and under your f a i r conduct Crave to view these l a d i e s and e n t r e a t An hour of r e v e l with them. ( I . i v . 6 6 - 7 2 ) There are no masque dances and no songs but, with the C a r d i n a l ' s consent, the masquers dance with the l a d i e s . With the words "0 Beauty, / T i l l now I never knew thee.'11 the d i s g u i s e d King chooses Anne B u l l e n as h i s p a r t n e r . When one of the dancers i s r e c o g n i z e d as the K i n g , . a l l the masquers take o f f t h e i r v i s o r s and r e t i r e with the guests f o r more banqueting and dancing. The commoning or f l i r t a t i o n c a r r i e d on by Henry and Anne goes beyond the bounds of the masque as the K i n g c o n t i n u e s to pay c o u r t t o he r , "I were unmannerly to take you out / And not to k i s s you" ( I . i v . 9 5 - 6 ) . A comparison of t h i s a c t of c o u r t s h i p with the a t t i t u d e d u r i n g the wooing of K a t h a r i n e of France i n Henry V i n d i c a t e s t h a t k i s s i n g was e s s e n t i a l l y an E n g l i s h custom added to the commoning, r a t h e r than a c o n t i n e n t a l one. The dramatic f u n c t i o n of the masque, i n Henry V I I I , i s b a s i c a l l y q u i t e simple. I t p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the King to meet h i s next Queen, an o p p o r t u n i t y which, as has a l r e a d y been p o i n t e d out, a r i s e s out of a s i t u a t i o n a s s o c i a t e d with i n t r i g u e . Shakespeare adds to t h i s the i r o n y of having the meeting take p l a c e a t the home of the man who was to become the King's most b i t t e r a n t a g o n i s t . T h i s i r o n y 2 7 i s compounded by the p i c t u r e of great a f f l u e n c e and power i n which Wolsey, the v i l l a i n of the p l a y , i s p l a c e d f o r the scene. Wolsey i s shown at the g r e a t e s t h e i g h t t o which h i s greed f o r m a t e r i a l p o s s e s s i o n s and ambition f o r power brought him. Even the p h y s i c a l p o s i t i o n i n g on the stage emphasizes the d i g n i t y of power and c o n t r o l which the C a r d i n a l has. What b e t t e r moment, d r a m a t i c a l l y , f o r the romantic meeting which w i l l l e a d to the d o w n f a l l of Wolsey and the church which he r e p r e s e n t s i n England? I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o compare, b r i e f l y , the s k i l l f u l i n t e g r a t i o n of the masque, and the other stage pageantry and p r o c e s s i o n i n t o the p l o t development and c h a r a c t e r p r e s e n t a -t i o n i n Henry V I I I with the e f f e c t of the,masque-like marriage p r o c e s s i o n at the- opening of Two Noble Kinsmen, a p l a y p r o -educed i n the same yea r . E.K. Chambers s t a t e s t h a t e i t h e r Shakespeare or F l e t c h e r might have w r i t t e n the opening of p Scene One. C o n s i d e r i n g the a s s i m i l a t i o n of p r o c e s s i o n and ' masque i n Henry V I I I and other p l a y s which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , however, i t seems h a r d l y l i k e l y that Shakespeare c o u l d have w r i t t e n a scene i n which E.K. Chambers, W i l l i a m Shakespeare; A Study of F a c t s and  Problems. Oxford, 1 9 3 0 , V o l . 1 , p. 5 3 2 . 28 HYMEN with a t o r c h b u r n i n g : a Boy, i n a white Robe . . . : a Nymph, encompassed i n h er T r e s s e s , b e a r i n g a wheaten Garland . . . . two Nymphs with wheaten c h a p l e t s on t h e i r heads . . . . and another h o l d -i n g a Garland3 are l e f t s t a nding about a flower-strewn stage w h i l e three Queens i n . b l a c k p l e a d . f o r the bones of t h e i r dead Kings. There appears to have been no dramatic reason f o r beginning the p l a y with t h i s marriage p r o c e s s i o n other than an obvious appeal to the audience through s p e c t a c l e . The masque i s used as a v e h i c l e f o r i n t r i g u e and romance i n Romeo and J u l i e t , but the i n t e g r a t i o n i s again much more than a p u r e l y s t r u c t u r a l one and i s much more s u i t a b l e than a t . f i r s t meets the eye. The l i n e s from the Arthur Brooke poem, "The T r a g i c a l l H i s t o r y e of Romeus and J u l i e t , " Shakespeare 1s immediate source, show t h a t the i d e a of the masked e n t r y of Romeo i n t o the Capulet household was not o r i g i n a l with Shakespeare: Yong damsels th e t h e r f l o c k e , of ba c h e l o r s a rowte, Not so much f o r the banquets sake, as b e a u t i e s to search out. But not a Montegew would enter at h i s gate, -*John F l e t c h e r and W i l l i a m Shakespeare, Two Noble Kinsmen, The E n g l i s h Drama 900-16^-2, e d i t e d by E.W. Parks and R.G. B e a t t y , New York, 1935, p. 1061+. 29 For as you heard, the Capilets, and they were at debate, Save Romeus, and he in maske with hidden face, The supper done, with other five dyd prease into ^ the place. Neither, as Geoffrey Bullough shows, was the idea original with Brooke. What each author did was to up-date the event to suit the entertainment of his particular age. So Shake-speare added the machinery of the Tudor masque to the Brooke disguising. To have the conventional Cupid, as presenter, precede the young adventurers into the Capulet ballroom i s scorned by Benvolloas being out of date: Th date i s out of such prolixity. We'll have no Cupid hoodwinked with a scarf, Bearing a Tartar's painted bow of lath, Scaring the ladies like a crow-keeper; Nor no without-book prologue, faintly spoke After the prompter for our entrance. (I.iv.3-8) They have no intention of entertaining the guests with masque dances; they merely plan to attend the party to meet the ladies and "measure them a measure". Being heavy-hearted with melancholy, Romeo refuses to dance, but he agrees Arthur"Brooke, "The Tragicall Historye of Romeus and Ju l i e t " , as given in Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shake-speare, edited by Geoffrey Bullough, Vol. I, p. 290. 3 0 to act as t o r c h b e a r e r f o r h i s f r i e n d s . J u s t the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the masque i n v a s i o n alone, then, has p r o v i d e d not only a purpose f o r the entertainment, t o l i f t the s p i r i t s of the, l o v e - s i c k Romeo, but a l s o a way f o r the audience's a t t e n t i o n t o be f o c u s e d on the hero. He w i l l appear s e t apart from the others on the stage. In modern e d i t i o n s of Romeo and J u l i e t , a f t e r Romeo's b r i e f foreshadowing of d i s a s t e r . . . . For my mind misgives Some consequence, y e t hanging i n the s t a r s , S h a l l b i t t e r l y begin h i s f e a r f u l date With t h i s n i g h t ' s r e v e l s , ( I . i v . 1 0 6 - 9 ) the masquers march o f f stage and Scene Four c l o s e s . Scene F i v e opens i n the Capulet ballroom. In the F i r s t F o l i o , however, the group do not l e a v e the stage. They march about the stage to the accompaniment of the drums. T h i s type of a c t i o n was used on the Shakespearean stage to suggest the b r i e f passage of time but, i n t h i s case, i t a l s o h o l d s the events of the masque much more compactly together than the modern e d i t i o n s suggest. In terms of p l o t development, the v i s i t of Romeo and h i s f r i e n d s to the Capulet f e s t i v i t y p r o v i d e s the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the meeting of the " s t a r - c r o s s ' d l o v e r s " , but the drama 31 of the s i t u a t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the double i r o n y which the encounter f u r n i s h e s : f i r s t , the l o v e between Romeo and J u l i e t i s conceived under a h o s t i l e r o o f , and second, under the same circumstances, T y b a l t swears the revenge t h a t causes the d i s a s t r o u s t u r n of events which u l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y s the young l o v e r s . Love and h a t e , the opposing f o r c e s upon which the e n t i r e p l a y i s c o n s t r u c t e d , stand b o l d l y out a g a i n s t the backdrop of music, dancing and r e v e l r y . These two emotions have p r e v i o u s l y appeared before the audience but o n l y as p a l e shadows when compared with the i n t e n s i t y of the p a s s i o n s which f l a r e d u r i n g the masque scene. The Prologue f i r s t previews the course of the drama and p r e s e n t s the theme of l o v e versus hate. The a c t i o n then opens with scenes r e v e a l i n g the c o n d i t i o n of the a n c i e n t q u a r r e l between the Montagues and the C a p u l e t s . I t might e a s i l y be questioned what k i n d of h a t r e d t h i s i s that i s couched i n the jokes and puns of servants or depends f o r i t s l e a d e r s h i p on o l d men who should be f i g h t i n g with c r u t c h e s r a t h e r than swords. The peaceable B e n v o l i o can see the f o o l i s h n e s s of h a s t y a c t i o n s based on the remnants of an " a n c i e n t grudge" and appeals f o r reason. That reason w i l l not p r e v a i l i s made evi d e n t by the a c t i o n s of T y b a l t whose b l i n d rage s t i r s the smoldering ashes of the feud. The r i g i d form of a u t o c r a t i c 32 j u s t i c e with which the P r i n c e of Verona meets the s i t u a t i o n might a l s o be questioned as to i t s reasonableness. E x e c u t i o n as punishment f o r d i s t u r b i n g the peace only adds the t h r e a t of f u r t h e r v i o l e n c e t o a l r e a d y h o s t i l e circumstances. The i n f a t u a t i o n which Romeo f e e l s f o r R o s a l i n e i s , too, j u s t a p a l e shadow of the l o v e which he experiences with J u l i e t . He i s going through the a c t i o n s of l o v e j u s t as the r i v a l f a m i l i e s are going through the a c t i o n s of h a t r e d . H i s c o u r t l y l o v e demands sadness and anguish of i t s devotee; i t i s not the true l o v e which g i v e s joy and e c s t a s y . In other words, i t i s not u n t i l the masque sequence t h a t genuine f e e l i n g s appear at a l l . The innocence and joy of new lo v e i s marred by the i n t r u s i o n of the o l d hate i n the form of T y b a l t . But Capulet meets t h i s i n t r u s i o n with reasonableness and the demand f o r moderate and j u s t behaviour. The i d e a l outcome of the p l a y can be e n v i s i o n e d r i g h t h e r e : pure and. t r u e l o v e allowed to flower and v i o l e n t h a t r e d curbed by reasoned judgement. The scene thus f u l f i l l s the c o n d i t i o n s of the t r u e essence of the masque as Jonson conceived i t : The p a r t i c u l a r k i n d of a c t i o n proper to the form r e s i d e s i n the symbolic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of c o n t r a s t e d c o n d i t i o n s , u s u a l l y of order or v i r t u e as opposed to d i s o r d e r and depra-v i t y . 5 ^Dolora Cunningham, "The Jonsonian Masque as a L i t e r a r y Form", ELH, V o l . XXII ( 1 9 5 5 ) , P- 1 0 8 . 33 That music should be p l a y i n g i n the background when such an i d e a l i s presented i s r a t h e r t y p i c a l of Shakespeare who so. o f t e n used music to r e i n f o r c e the theme of the p l a y . In f a c t the p a t t e r n e d movement of the dance and the rhythms o f - t h e music p r o v i d e a s y n t h e s i z i n g accompaniment to the p o e t r y of the masque scene. E n i d Welsford takes The Tempest as the p l a y which best i l l u s t r a t e s the f u s i o n of the a r t i s t i c harmonies which went to make up the masque, which shows what the masque might have become. But s u r e l y h e r e , i n a p l a y as e a r l y as Romeo and J u l i e t , can be seen the beginnings of the c o r r e l a t i o n of p o e t r y , music and dance achieved i n the l a t e r Shakespearean p l a y , but never q u i t e achieved i n the c o u r t masque. Ca p u l e t ' s welcome to h i s guests and the masquers serves as an o v e r t u r e to the main theme. Gay reminiscences are exchanged t o the tune of music and the p a t t e r n e d c r o s s i n g s of v i v i d costumes. Again s t t h i s b r i l l i a n t d i s p l a y , the f i g u r e of Romeo stands out, h i s f a c e i l l u m i n e d by the t o r c h he c a r r i e s . H i s words, when he speaks, sound the l o v e theme i n melodious rhymed c o u p l e t s : 'Welsford, The Court Masque, p. 3l+9. 3^ Oh, she doth teach the t o r c h e s to burn bright.' I t seems she hangs upon the cheek of n i g h t L i k e a r i c h jewel i n an E t h i o p ' s e a r -Beauty too r i c h f o r use, f o r earth too dear.1 (1. v. J+6-9) The long vowels and sweeping l i n e s c o n t r a s t the c l i p p e d s t a c c a t o p h r a s i n g s of T y b a l t who v o i c e s the counter-p o i n t of h a t r e d . T h i s , by h i s v o i c e , should be a Montague. F e t c h me my r a p i e r , boy. What dares the s l a v e Come h i t h e r , covered with an a n t i c f a c e , To f l e e r and scorn at our solemnity? (1. v. 56-9) The crescendo reached i n the v i o l e n t exchange between T y b a l t and Capulet foreshadows the i m p u l s i v e anger of Gapulet when he i s c r o s s e d or h i s a u t h o r i t y questioned, an anger which otherwise might seem q u i t e unreasonable when J u l i e t t h r e a t e n s r e b e l l i o n l a t e r i n the p l a y . H i s words vary q u i c k l y from gay reassurance and encouragement to h i s guests to low outraged commands to h i s nephew. T h i s whole exchange i s superimposed upon the slow s t a t e l y movement of the measure or, perhaps, the l i v e l i e r pavan. The e x i t of T y b a l t l e a v e s Romeo and J u l i e t to enjoy the f u l l a t t e n t i o n of the audience unchallenged. T h e i r l o v e duet takes the form of a sonnet. Each speaks a q u a t r a i n and then they share the t h i r d q u a t r a i n and the rhymed c o u p l e t . The commoning i s d e l i c a t e l y f l i r t a t i o u s and eminently s u i t a b l t o i t s m u s i c a l accompaniment. I t ends a b r u p t l y with the f i n i s h of the dance and Lady C a p u l e t ' s summons to J u l i e t . Th masquers d e c l i n e C a p ulet's I n v i t a t i o n to banquet and q u i c k l y q u i t the house. Now i t i s t r u e t h a t the music and dancing add v i t a l i t y and c o l o u r t o the performance, but never, throughout the e n t i r e masque, i s the emphasis on the entertainment i t s e l f . The s t r u c t u r e remains, most o b v i o u s l y , a device f o r p l o t development, but i t a l s o p r o v i d e s , on c l o s e r a n a l y s i s , a background f o r f u r t h e r c h a r a c t e r development and s u b s t a n t i a l thematic r e i n f o r c e m e n t . The type of entertainment planned f o r i n Act Two of The Merchant of Venice i s , a g a i n , the e a r l i e r form of Tudor masque, and, as i n the other p l a y s mentioned, the most obvious dramatic f u n c t i o n i s to p r o v i d e a cover f o r romantic i n t r i g u e . In t h i s p l a y , however, d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s are g i v e n as to the p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the masque, but the a c t u a l entertainment does not take p l a c e . In f a c t , as soon as the completed p r e p a r a t i o n s have p r o v i d e d the p l o t development machinery, the masque i s abandoned. An atmosphere of merry-making and y o u t h f u l f u n i s e s t a b l i s h e d a t the opening of Act I I , Scene i v , as Lorenzo 3 6 and h i s f r i e n d s make t h e i r p l a n s f o r an entertainment to f o l l o w the banquet which Bassanio i s to g i v e . Nay, we w i l l s l i n k away i n suppertime D i s g u i s e us a t my l o d g i n g , and r e t u r n A l l i n an hour. ( I I , i v . 1 - 3 ) T h e i r l a c k of the r e q u i r e d t o r c h b e a r e r s i s remedied by L a n c e l o t Gobbo and the l e t t e r from J e s s i c a which he d e l i v e r s t o Lorenzo. J e s s i c a ' s w i l l i n g n e s s to d i s g u i s e h e r -s e l f as a page and elope with Lorenzo while her f a t h e r i s away a t Bassanio*s banquet, p r e s e n t s a p o s s i b i l i t y which appeals to Lorenzo's " s k i p p i n g s p i r i t . " W i l l you prepare f o r t h i s masque' t o n i g h t ? I am p r o v i d e d of a t o r c h b e a r e r . ( I I . i v . 2 3 - ^ ) I r o n i c a l l y , i n the next scene, Shylock, on h e a r i n g t h a t a masque i s to be performed at Bassanio*s f e a s t , warns J e s s i c a to " l o c k up h i s doors" and a v o i d c o n t a c t with the 'Even though i t shows remarkable i n c o n s i s t e n c y , the H a r r i s o n e d i t i o n s p e l l i n g of t h i s word has been r e t a i n e d i n a l l quota-t i o n s . The French form, used f o r c l a r i t y throughout the t e x t of t h i s paper, does not appear to have been adopted u n t i l the e a r l y l 6 0 0 ' s , y e t H a r r i s o n uses i t i n a p l a y as e a r l y as Henry V I . P a r t I I I ( 1 5 9 1 - 9 2 ) ; whereas he uses 'mask1 i n ' Love's Labour's Lost ( 1 5 8 8 - 9 3 ) . The F i r s t F o l i o ( 1 6 2 3 ) uses 'maske' throughout. "shallow f o p p e r y " sounding of drums and the "wry-necked f i f e " p r a c t i c e d by " C h r i s t i a n f o o l s with v a r n i s h e d f a c e s . " I t i s not u n t i l the end of Scene S i x that the suspense as to j u s t how f a r Lorenzo i s w i l l i n g to c a r r y t h i s i r o n i c joke on Shylock, i s broken. H i s . . . . On gentlemen, away.' Our masquing mates by t h i s time f o r us stay, ( I . v i i . 58-9) would imply t h a t he i s prepared t o parade the d i s g u i s e d J e s s i c a d i r e c t l y under her f a t h e r ' s u n w i t t i n g eyes. Dramati-c a l l y , however, the time i s not ready f o r Shylock to be r i d i c u l e d to t h i s e xtent. The masque ruse has p r o v i d e d the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r the s u c c e s s f u l elopement and now may be a b r u p t l y d i s m i s s e d with No masque t o n i g h t . The wind i s come about, Bassanio w i l l p r e s e n t l y go abroad. ( I . v i i . 6*+-5) Since the elopement episode was added by Shakespeare however, i t i s wise to i n v e s t i g a t e t h i s s u b - p l o t episode f u r t h e r . R a r e l y i n a Shakespearean p l a y does a device serve a s i n g l e simple purpose; most o f t e n i t p r o v i d e s a r e i n f o r c e -ment, an i r o n i c p a r a l l e l , or a foreshadowing of the theme and outcome of the main n a r r a t i v e . So the masque c o n s p i r a c y i s 38 much more important than a f i r s t glance might i n d i c a t e . I t e s t a b l i s h e s the complete i s o l a t i o n of Shylock, p r o v i d e s m o t i v a t i o n f o r h i s f u t u r e a c t i o n s , and, what i s more important, p a r a l l e l s the u l t i m a t e outcome of the bond s t o r y , a l b e i t i n a l i g h t e r v e i n . As Graham Midgley observes, Shylock i s c a s t as the o u t s i d e r r i g h t from the beginning of the p l a y , " a l l he i s and a l l he h o l d s dear i s a l i e n to the s o c i e t y i n which he has t o o l i v e . " He has been shunned, spat upon, d e c l a r e d i n t o l e r a b l e and h i s d e s i r e to seek some r e t r i b u t i o n f o r abuses both per-s o n a l and r a c i a l i s n o t , i n h i s terms, u n j u s t i f i a b l e . That h i s h a t r e d f o r the s o c i e t y which i s r e p r e s e n t e d by Antonio i s of long s t a n d i n g , i s e v i d e n t from h i s own words: How l i k e a fawning p u b l i c a n he looks.' I hate him f o r he i s a C h r i s t i a n , But more f o r t h a t i n low s i m p l i c i t y He l ends out money and b r i n g s down The r a t e of usance here with us i n V e n i c e , I f I can c a t c h him once upon the h i p , I w i l l f e e d f a t the a n c i e n t grudge I bear him. ( I . i i i . 1+2-8) I t i s not u n t i l the masque r u s e , however, t h a t an o f f e n c e occurs which causes an i n j u r y wounding enough to motivate the type of revenge which he t r i e s to achieve i n the t r i a l scene. Graham Midgley,"The Merchant of V e n i c e : A R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n , " Essays i n C r i t i c i s m . V o l . X ( i 9 6 0 ) , p. 1 2 2 . 39 I do not f e e l t h a t i n the bond agreement made i n Act I , Scene I i i , there i s any i n t i m a t i o n from the d i a l o g u e t h a t Shylock d e s i r e s ' a n y more than to h u m i l i a t e Antonio as he has been h u m i l i a t e d ; t o make Antonio beg f o r money. T h i s p l a n f a i l s but he does make Antonio agree to an extravagant bond i n r e t u r n f o r the favour of h i s money, a c o n c e s s i o n which almost f u l f i l l s the same purpose. Antonio must d e a l with Shylock, a t l e a s t t h i s once, on the Jew's terms. Midgley c a l l s t h i s bond agreement Shylock's " o f f e r of f r i e n d s h i p by which he t r i e s t o escape from h i s i s o l a t i o n by means of the only common l i n k between h i m s e l f and h i s enemies, h i s wealth."^ Such a statement can h a r d l y be true i n view of the f a c t t h a t at t h i s p o i n t Shylock*s i s o l a t i o n i s not y e t complete. There are two t h i n g s which keep him from being a b s o l u t e l y a lone, those two t h i n g s which, i n f a c t , he most "holds dear." The f i r s t i s the means through which the V e n e t i a n s o c i e t y must communicate with him, h i s wealth, and the other I s h i s daughter. Now, through h i s masque ruse scheme, Lorenzo gains the hand of the f a i r J e s s i c a . In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s h i s t o r c h -bearer comes to him self-dowered w i t h a casket of Shylock*s I b i d . , p. 130 J+o jewels and " g i l d e d " with h i s ducats. The p r a i s e which J e s s i c a r e c e i v e s f o r her a c t , t h a t she i s s u r e l y "a G e n t i l e , and no Jew", i n d i c a t e s how completely she has j o i n e d the C h r i s t i a n f o l d . My daughter! Oh, my ducats J Oh, my daughter! F l e d with a C h r i s t i a n ! ( I I . v i i i . 15-16) sums up the s e r i o u s n e s s with which Shylock views the i n j u r i e s t h a t he has s u f f e r e d through the c o n s p i r a c y . He has now l o s t h i s wealth and h i s daughter. These words are not, however, spoken d i r e c t l y by Shylock, but put i n t o the mouth of S a l a r i n o so t h a t exaggerated d e l i v e r y can i n c r e a s e the r i d i c u l e of the Jew and the l a u g h t e r of the audience. In the eyes of the a n t a g o n i s t s w i t h i n the p l a y , and of the s p e c t a t o r s i n the t h e a t r e , he i s the b u t t of a huge joke. The n a r r a t i v e and thematic r e s o l u t i o n of the bond s t o r y i s an e l e v a t i o n and e x t e n s i o n of the masquing scene, but the s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v i n g g o l d , f l e s h , b l o o d , and revenge f o r i n s u l t i s not so funny when i t becomes obvious i n the t r i a l scene which, between h i s daughter and h i s ducats, i s the more important to Shylock, or which l o s s caused the g r e a t e r i n j u r y t o h i s p e r s o n a l and r a c i a l p r i d e . Shylock ref u s e s , to accept the three thousand ducats and demands h i s r i g h t t o the l e t t e r of the bond. hi The pound of f l e s h which I demand of him . I s d e a r l y bought. * T i s mine, and I w i l l have i t . The p a t t e r n of the f i n a l outcome of the t r i a l scene i s the same as i n the masquing r u s e . Shylock i s defeated by a t r i c k ; he s u f f e r s great l o s s , and he i s brought to h u m i l i a -t i o n . He l o s e s h i s g o l d , t h i s time a l l of i t ; he must acknowledge, through h i s w i l l , the d i v e r s i o n of h i s daughter; he must humble h i m s e l f and k n e e l f o r mercy. Shylock becomes, then, a complete pharmokos f i g u r e , s t r i p p e d and d r i v e n out from the s o c i e t y i n which he i s the d i s r u p t i n g or inharmonious element. C e r t a i n l y there i s , as N e v i l l e C o g h i l l mentions, the p o s s i b i l i t y of e v e n t u a l i n c l u s i o n upon h i s acceptance of C h r i s t i a n i t y 1 ^ , but t h i s does not change the f a c t t h a t at the end of the bond s t o r y Shylock i s a l i e n to the world of harmony as i t i s p o r t r a y e d at Belmont i n Act F i v e . The masque p r e p a r a t i o n scene, then, i s much more than an i n t e r e s t i n g and amusing d i v e r s i o n i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the p l o t merely to a c t as a cover f o r the elopement. I t p r o -v i d e s another important step i n the i s o l a t i o n of Shylock. He i s , a f t e r the c o n s p i r a c y , q u i t e alone; only the l o s s of h i s wealth remains to complete h i s d e f e a t . What had been an C o g h i l l , "The Governing Idea: Essays i n S t a g e - I n t e r p r e t a -t i o n of Shakespeare," p. 12. " a n c i e n t grudge" i s , by the a c t i o n s of h i s daughter, e n k i n d l e d i n t o a d e s i r e to seek revenge f o r her shame a t a l l c o s t . Shylock s u f f e r s a l o s s and a h u m i l i a t i o n which foreshadow h i s u l t i m a t e d o w n f a l l . I t has been p a r t i c u l a r l y noted i n these p l a y s t h a t the s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the masque allowed the masque to take p l a c e as p a r t of the a c t i o n r a t h e r than i s o l a t e d from i t . The p l o t c o m p l i c a t i o n which motivated the main a c t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the masque framework. Of much more s u b t l e a r t i s t r y and i n keeping with the masque as i t was conceived by Jonson, however, i s the v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n which the masque o f f e r s , the sudden f l e e t i n g foreshadowing of the outcome or a b r i e f glimpse of the o v e r - a l l c o n f l i c t upon which the theme i s based. How much of t h i s t o t a l a s s i m i l a t i o n of the masque i s the r e s u l t of conscious e f f o r t i s i m p o s s i b l e to d e c i d e , but c e r t a i n l y t h i s can be s a i d : the masque, when i t was used by Shakespeare i n a p l a y served a v a r i e t y of f u n c t i o n s , never merely a s i n g l e purpose; and the most s u b t l e of i t s f u n c t i o n s was o f t e n as important as i t s most obvious. CHAPTER I I I ILLUSION The very essence of d i s g u i s e or make-believe, so i n t e g r a l t o the masque, c o u l d do l i t t l e more than become, i n many i n s t a n c e s , an even g r e a t e r e x t e n s i o n of the u n r e a l i t y which i t s " i n s u b s t a n t i a l pageants" presented. As the q u a l i t y of i m p r o v i s a t i o n disappeared and the entertainment became more l a v i s h , i t a l s o became more s e l f - a d u l a t o r y . With t h i s s e l f - a d u l a t i o n came a f u r t h e r d i s s o c i a t i o n from l i f e , a g r e a t e r detachment from a c t u a l e x i s t e n c e . Rather than f u l f i l l i n g any s e r i o u s a r t i s t i c purpose, such as comic or t r a g i c drama might, the end of the masque was o f t e n n o t h i n g more than a form of s e l f - i n d u l g e n c e or h i g h - f l o w n f l a t t e r y . Connotations of shallow f r i v o l i t y and i n s i n c e r i t y are assumed, by Shakespeare when the word masque i s used. The words of the French King i n King Henry VI, P a r t Three: Then, England's messenger, r e t u r n i n post And t e l l the f a l s e Edward, thy supposed King, That Lewis of France i s sending over masquers To r e v e l with him and h i s new b r i d e , ( I I I . i i i . 222-5) are spoken i n contempt f o r the wanton r e v e l s of the E n g l i s h c o u r t and f o r the E n g l i s h King whose wanton r e v e l s are worth kk no more than the f l i r t a t i o u s whisperings of the masquer. Again, the B a s t a r d , i n King John, t r e a t s the Dauphin of France as a boy p l a y i n g a t make-believe war with a mock army. T h i s a p i s h and unmannerly approach T h i s harnessed masque and unadvised r e v e l , T h i s unhaired s a u c i n e s s and boyish t r o o p s , The King doth smile a t , . . . (V. i i . 131-H) C a s s i u s , i n J u l i u s Caesar, remains t r u e to h i s s t e r n , u n smiling nature when he d e r i d e s Octavius Caesar as "a p e e v i s h schoolboy" who chooses to a s s o c i a t e with the gay Mark Antony, "a masker and a r e v e l l e r J " In Timon of Athens the extent to which Timon and. h i s c o u r t are removed from r e a l i t y and t h e i r d e l i g h t i n c a t e r i n g t o the senses reaches i t s z e n i t h i n the masque which h i s fawning l o r d s p r e s e n t f o r h i s entertainment and f o r the f l a t t e r i n g of h i s ego. Thus an episode which might otherwise have been c o n s t r u e d as a c o n c e s s i o n to the p u b l i c t h e a t r e audience's d e s i r e to enjoy an entertainment u s u a l l y r e s t r i c t e d to the c o u r t , i s , through a s s o c i a t i o n , i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the theme as w e l l as the s t r u c t u r e of the p l a y . G. W i l s o n K n i g h t , i n h i s essay on Timon of Athens, has d e a l t i n g r e a t d e t a i l with the methods used by Shakespeare t o b u i l d up the whole atmosphere of a f f l u e n c e and sensuous 5^ d i s p l a y which surrounds the c o u r t . Again and again the di a l o g u e expresses Timon*s wealth and g e n e r o s i t y : He pours i t out. P l u t o , the God of Gold, Is but h i s steward. No meed but he repays Sevenfold above i t s e l f , no g i f t to him But breeds the g i v e r a r e t u r n exceeding A l l use of quittance. ( I . i . 2 8 7 - 9 1 ) The Poet e x t o l s h i s p a t r o n i n v e r s e ; the P a i n t e r d e l i g h t s i n producing h i s l i k e n e s s ; the f i n e s t wares of the J e w e l l e r and the Merchant are s e t a s i d e j u s t f o r him. " A l l these t h i n g s , g i f t s of Fortune to those she wafts to her w i t h her ' i v o r y hand', b u i l d i n g up an atmosphere of v i s u a l d e l i g h t . " Even the s i g n a l note of warning that Fortune can q u i c k l y change her mood and favour i s l o s t i n the trumpet f l o u r i s h which announces the e n t r y of Timon and h i s entourage of f o l l o w e r s and ser v a n t s i n t o the h a l l . The i n i t i a l a c t i o n s of Timon do nothing to d i m i n i s h the whole i m p r e s s i o n of a f f l u e n c e and patronage a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d . With m a g n i f i c e n t g e n e r o s i t y he saves V e n t i d i u s from d i s g r a c e and s o l v e s L u c i l l u s , matrimonial problems, both G. Wilson K n i g h t , The Wheel of F i r e , Oxford, 1 9 3 0 , p. 2 0 7 . 2 I b i d . , p. 2 0 9 . . from c o f f e r s which he and h i s f r i e n d s b e l i e v e bottomless. There i s c e r t a i n l y no reason to doubt Timon's s i n c e r i t y when he s t a t e s h i s b e l i e f , " ' T i s not enough to h e l p the f e e b l e up, / But t o support him a f t e r " ( I . i . 1 0 7 - 8 ) . In f a c t , i t i s perhaps t h i s n aive s i n c e r i t y which f i r s t i n d i c a t e s Timon 1s s e p a r a t i o n from h i s c o h o r t s , a s e p a r a t i o n which l a t e r becomes complete i s o l a t i o n . The probable s t a g i n g of the masque scene i t s e l f p r e s e n t s i n t e r e s t i n g p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a n a l y s i n g i t s dramatic f u n c t i o n . In the f i r s t p l a c e , none of the main c h a r a c t e r s a c t u a l l y take p a r t i n the masque, as they do i n Henry V I I I or i n Love's Labour's L o s t i n which the emphasis i s on a c t i o n s w i t h i n the masque. Nor, as i n Romeo and J u l i e t , i s the masque used as a backdrop f o r the a c t i o n . Rather, the entertainment seems to have been presented f r o n t stage between Timon and h i s banqueting f r i e n d s , and the t h e a t r e audience. The emphasis, then, appears to be on the masque i t s e l f : f i r s t , as a f u r t h e r s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the appeal to the senses; and secondly, on i t s a c t u a l form and s t r u c t u r e . As there are no scene breaks i n the F i r s t F o l i o , i t i s the l o u d music of the oboes which i n d i c a t e s the beginning of the masque sequence. The stage d i r e c t i o n s , "A great banquet served i n , " suggest t h a t the l a d e n t a b l e was set up on an i n n e r stage or some m o d i f i c a t i o n t h e r e o f . Thus, the sudden drawing of the c u r t a i n s would r e v e a l v i s u a l evidence of the opulence of Timon 1s c o u r t which had been e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e by the imagery and e x h i b i t e d by the a c t i o n s and the .. d i a l o g u e . The a r r i v a l of the masquers i s announced to Timon and h i s p a r a s i t e s . Cupid may have been chosen as p r e s e n t e r be-cause t h i s f i g u r e was popular i n c o u r t p r e s e n t a t i o n s , but I t h i n k i t more l i k e l y t h a t Shakespeare saw the i r o n y of using the a l l e g o r i c a l p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of l o v e and d e v o t i o n i n these circumstances. Cupid d e c l a r e s how "ample" Timon i s "beloved:" H a i l t o thee, worthy Timon.1 And to a l l That of h i s bounties taste.' The f i v e best Senses Acknowledge thee t h e i r p a t r o n , and come f r e e l y To g r a t u l a t e thy plenteous bosom. Th* E a r T a s t e , Touch and Smell, p l e a s e d from thy t a b l e r i s e . They o n l y now come to f e a s t t h i n e eyes. ( I . i i . 128-33) He ushers i n a masque of Amazon l a d i e s who p l a y upon t h e i r l u t e s and dance before the g u e s t s . T h i s use of female dancers e n t e r t a i n i n g male guests i s an i n t e r e s t i n g r e v e r s a l . I t might be, as t h i s i s a l a t e r p l a y , that the p r a c t i c e of Queen Anne to enter i n t o masques had i n f l u e n c e d the w r i t e r , o r , more l i k e l y , as A l l i s o n Gaw suggests, the female dancers were i n t r o d u c e d to r e l i e v e the p e r v a s i v e m a s c u l i n i t y of the >8 play.- J The dramatic e f f e c t i s s t r o n g l y r e i n f o r c e d by t h i s r e v e r s a l , and i t . c o n t i n u e s . The guests, the Lords, " r i s e from the t a b l e w i t h much'adoring of Timon", approach the masquers and dance "a l o f t y s t r a i n or two to the hautboys". Rather than the male masquers breaking ranks and seeking p a r t n e r s from the onlookers, as was the normal masque p r a c t i c e , the e n t i r e s i t u a t i o n i s changed and the male onlookers r i s e from t h e i r p l a c e s and seek out p a r t n e r s from among the female masquers. A f t e r the r e v e l s are over and Cupid and the Amazon l a d i e s have withdrawn f o r refreshments, the g i f t - g i v i n g takes p l a c e . Again the normal procedure i s r e v e r s e d f o r the honoured h o s t p r e s e n t s r i c h jewels to h i s guests, g i f t s which stand out i n marked c o n t r a s t t o those which Timon r e c e i v e s . J u s t as i t has been r e v e a l e d that the masque i t s e l f was Timon 1s "own d e v i c e " so the g i f t s which he r e c e i v e s are r e a l l y nothing more than token r e t u r n s from wealth which Timon has h i m s e l f bestowed. In n e i t h e r case do h i s f o l l o w e r s g i v e anything of themselves except the g e s t u r e , the show. The g i f t s , accompanied by f l a t t e r y , are symbolic of the tawdry e x t r a v a -gances of the c o u r t . The ad m i r a t i o n and honour which the ^ A l l i s o n Gaw, "The Impromptu Masque i n Shakespeare", Shakespeare A s s o c i a t i o n B u l l e t i n , V o l s . XI-XII ( 1 9 3 6 - 3 7 ) , p. 1 5 0 . k9 c o u r t i e r s d e c l a r e are merely r e f l e c t i o n s of the g l i t t e r i n g gems and s i l v e r . When the gems and s i l v e r are no more, the d e c l a r a t i o n s of esteem a l s o d i sappear. The whole atmosphere and c o n d i t i o n , f o r a l l i t s opulence,are d i s t o r t e d . Only the i n t e r r u p t i o n s by Apemantus* c h u r l i s h , abrupt remarks: L i k e madness i s the g l o r y of t h i s l i f e , As t h i s pomp shows to l i t t l e o i l and r o o t . We make ou r s e l v e s f o o l s to d i s p o r t o u r s e l v e s , And spend our f l a t t e r i e s to d r i n k those men Upon whose age we v o i d i t up aga i n .With poisonous s p i t e and envy, (I. i i . 139 - W and F l a v i u s * a s i d e s r e v e a l the t r u t h of the s i t u a t i o n . The masque, which i s i n i t s e l f a form of f l a t t e r y and a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of unreality., i n c r e a s e s Timon 1 s a p p e t i t e f o r a d u l a t i o n . The sequence not on l y completes the p i c t u r e suggested i n Scene One of Timon's dependence on v o i c e d p r a i s e and v o i c e d f r i e n d s h i p , on v i s i b l e p r o o f of esteem and v i s i b l e p r o o f of l o y a l t y , but a l s o l a y s the groundwork f o r h i s l a t e r f a l l from p o s i t i o n and f o r h i s i n a b i l i t y to f a c e r e a l i t y . U s ing Apemantus* words "the e x t r e m i t y of both ends", Mark van Doren views Timon of Athens as a p l a y which shows no mean, no middle ground. "Timon passes," says van Doren, "from k the extreme of p r o d i g a l i t y to the extreme of misanthropy." 'Mark van Doren, Shakespeare, New York, 1939 } p. 2*+9« 50 The masque i s c e r t a i n l y the sumbol of the s t a t e of p r o d i g a l i t y . The s t a t e of misanthropy i s symbolized i n a p a r a l l e l banqueting scene i n Act Three. In t h i s sequence, Timon serves h i s guests d i s h e s which are as empty as t h e i r h i g h - f l o w n words of p r a i s e and p l a t t e r s as n o u r i s h i n g and s u s t a i n i n g as t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p had been. I f Timon's world of i l l u s i o n was e p i t o m i z e d i n the masque scene, h i s world of d i s i l l u s i o n i s e p i t o m i z e d i n t h i s . May you a b e t t e r f e a s t never behold, You knot of mouth f r i e n d s I Smoke and lukewarm water Is your p e r f e c t i o n . T h i s i s Timon ,s l a s t . Who stuck and spangled you with f l a t t e r i e s Washes i t o f f , and s p r i n k l e s i n your f a c e s Your r e e k i n g v i l l a i n y . ( I I I . i v . 98-102) In Love's Labour's Lost there i s a l s o an atmosphere of u n r e a l i t y which pervades the c o u r t of Navarre. In f a c t , the whole a t t i t u d e of the young gentlemen, whether they be swearing to d i s s o c i a t e themselves from t h e i r "own a f f e c t i o n s " and the "huge army of the world's d e s i r e s " , or s e t t i n g o f f i n h i g h c o n f i d e n c e to "woo these g i r l s of F r a n c e " , i s one of un-n a t u r a l n e s s and a f f e c t a t i o n . C r i t i c s of t h i s p l a y have seen t h i s unnaturalness and a f f e c t a t i o n as being the r e s u l t of Shakespeare's attempt to combine a type of entertainment f o r a r e s t r i c t e d audience, and a dramatic s t r u c t u r e f o r p u b l i c performances. Many have denied i t a p l a c e not o n l y as comedy 5 1 but a l s o as drama. y They seem to take Shakespeare q u i t e l i t e r a l l y i n Berowne's complaint: Our wooing doth not end l i k e an o l d p l a y . Jack hath not J i l l . These l a d i e s * c o u r t e s y Might w e l l have made our sp o r t a comedy. (V. i i . 8 8 * + - 6 ) Most of the e a r l i e r c r i t i c i s m stems from viewing the p l a y p u r e l y i n terms of t h e a t r i c a l i t y , or from comparing i t s c o n t r i v e d composition with l a t e r p l a y s of more s u b t l e a r t i s t r y and c e r t a i n l y , i n the narrowest sense, l i t t l e o b j e c t i o n may be made to these assessments. The p l a y abounds i n t o p i c a l r e f e r e n c e s , vague a l l u s i o n s , obscure p e r s o n a l i t i e s and contemporary puns and jokes which have been the d e s p a i r of c r i t i c s who have t r i e d to t u r n i t i n t o an E l i z a b e t h a n g o s s i p column. Stringing together popular s i x t e e n t h - c e n t u r y pastimes — the dances, the Masque of the Muscovites, the show of the Nine Worthies, the pageant of Spring and W i n t e r — o n a p l o t which i s b a s i c a l l y l a c k i n g i n a c t i o n g i v e s to the p l a y a musie-h'all. q u a l i t y , song and dance i n t e r s p e r s e d with g l i b d i a l o g u e . The ending of the p l a y i s , though t h e m a t i c a l l y sound, r a t h e r abrupt and a n t i c l i m a c t i c . -'See F.E. H a l l i d a y , Shakespeare and H i s C r i t i . c s , London, 1 9 * + 9 } pp. 5 7 , 1 5 3 - 5 ; C o l e r i d g e ' s W r i t i n g on Shakespeare, Terrence Hawkes, ed. , New York, 1 9 5 9 , p. 1 0 8 . Shakespeare's d e l i b e r a t e use of e x i s t i n g dramatic forms and method cannot be denied but the reassessment of Love's Labour's L o s t by more modern c r i t i c s has s h i f t e d the emphasis away from these obvious c o n t r i v a n c e s to the l e s s obvious a d a p t a t i o n s of the author, the s u b t l e manipulations of these e x i s t i n g forms to s u i t a p a r t i c u l a r Shakespearean purpose. The c o n t r a p u n t a l s t r u c t u r e , the s t a t i c scenes of wi t and the e u p h u i s t i c language are c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e but there i s a sense of mockery i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t e use, perhaps a r e a c t i o n to the c o u r t l y e x p e c t a t i o n and acceptance of the s o p h i s t i c a t e d games. The masque of the Muscovites i s one of the best examples of a form of entertainment not so much used as manipulated. For r e v e l s , dances, masques, and merry hours F o r e r u n f a i r Love, strewing her way with f l o w e r s , (IV. i i i . 3 7 9 - 8 0 ) announces the i n t e n t i o n s of the King of Navarre to make mock a s s a u l t on the t e n t s of the P r i n c e s s of France where she and her l a d i e s are encamped i n the r o y a l park. Preceded by "blackamoors with music" the masquers, d i s g u i s e d as the Ru s s i a n t r a d e r s with whom the E l i z a b e t h a n c o u r t was so f a m i l i a r , e nter with t h e i r p r e s e n t e r , Moth,.who begins a grand 5 3 complimentary speech to the l a d i e s . But what was intended as stock entertainment almost immediately breaks down and the masque becomes a t r a v e s t y . The element of s u r p r i s e has been d e s t r o y e d by Boyet and poor Moth's f i n e phrases dwindle o f f i n t o embarrassed c o n f u s i o n as the l a d i e s t u r n t h e i r backs on him and w i l l not l i s t e n . The gentlemen, denied t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y t o show o f f t h e i r masque dances, advance to " t r e a d a measure" with the l a d i e s but a g a i n the masque p r o t o c o l i s broken. The l a d i e s r e f u s e to dance. They do consent to common but, as each couple "converse a p a r t " , what should be a f l i r t a t i o u s exchange turns i n t o a b a t t l e of w i t s i n which the men s u f f e r complete d e f e a t and are f o r c e d to withdraw. Now what p a r t i c u l a r dramatic purpose has been served by t h i s d e l i b e r a t e d i s t o r t i o n of the masque s t r u c t u r e ? Even were l o v e not i n v o l v e d i n the dramatic s i t u a t i o n i t would be expected t h a t the King p r o v i d e entertainment f o r such v i s i t i n g n o b i l i t y as the P r i n c e s s of France. But l o v e i s i n v o l v e d and the masque i s to serve a double purpose. I t i s to e n t e r t a i n and i t i s to promote the s u i t s of the young men as they "woo by the book". The entertainment i s make-believe and t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o c o u r t i n g i s make-believe and both break down befo r e the l a d i e s ' d e t e r m i n a t i o n to have nothing to do with such i n s i n c e r i t y . The p r e s e n t e r does not p r e s e n t , the masque performers do not perform, the r e v e l l e r s do not r e v e l , and so on, because the l o v e r s do not r e a l l y l o v e . These young men are no "humble-visaged s u i t o r s 1 ' but a r t i f i c i a l young s o p h i s t i c a t e s who are p l a y i n g p a r t s . As each l a d y s i n g l e s out her p a r t n e r i n the wooing f a r c e she e s t a b l i s h e s the j u x t a p o s i t i o n between what he seems to be and what he r e a l l y i s . Maria's c l e a r - s i g h t e d a n a l y s i s of L o n g a v i l l e : A man of s o v e r e i g n p a r t s he i s esteemed, W e l l f i t t e d i n a r t s , g l o r i o u s i n arms Nothing becomes him i l l t h a t he would w e l l . The o n l y s o i l of h i s f a i r v i r t u e ' s g l o s s , I s a sharp w i t matched with too b l u n t a w i l l , Whose edge hath power to c u t , whose w i l l s t i l l w i l l s I t should none spare t h a t come w i t h i n h i s power, ( I I . i . M + - 5 D i s p a r a l l e l e d with comic r e p e t i t i o n by K a t h a r i n e of Dumain and R o s a l i n d of Berowne. A f t e r the entrance of the King and h i s f o l l o w e r s the a c t i o n may be l i k e n e d to t h a t of comic choruses, each advancing and r e t r e a t i n g with p a t t e r n e d s a l l i e s . The w i t of the l a d i e s with i t s c e r t a i n edge of r e a l i t y and uncompromising l o g i c cuts through the web of a r t i f i c e and emerges v i c t o r i o u s with u n f a i l i n g r e g u l a r i t y . The young men, deceived by the exchange of t h e i r j e w e l - g i f t s , "a huge t r a n s l a t i o n of h y p o c r i s y " , a r e , i n f a c t , making lo v e to i l l u s i o n s . "Then we, / F o l l o w i n g the s i g n s , wooed but the s i g n of she." (V. i i . I+69) 55 The masque sequence i n Love's Labour's L o s t , then, f u l f i l l s a s i m i l a r f u n c t i o n , i n a comic v e i n , as i t does i n Timon of Athens, I t r e p r e s e n t s a s t a t e of u n r e a l i t y but, u n l i k e i t s use i n the l a t e r and much more s e r i o u s p l a y , i t a l s o c o n t a i n s the r e j e c t i o n of t h a t u n r e a l i t y . The l a d l e s r e f u s e to p l a y at l o v e and the gentlemen s u f f e r a d e f e a t which teaches them a l e s s o n . Love i s more than a c o u r t l y game. At the end of the p l a y each of the s u i t o r s must do some s e r v i c e to prove t h a t h i s l o v e i s s t e a d f a s t . The s p i r i t of f e s t i v i t y i n h e r e n t i n the masque movement i s repeated with a d i f f e r e n c e when the l o v e r s r e t u r n to the park without t h e i r d i s g u i s e s . R o s a l i n d d i s p e l s any thoughts they may have e n t e r t a i n e d of success and Berowne, humbled, confesses h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to s t r i p o f f the i n s i n c e r i -t i e s of l o v e i n which they had been i n d u l g i n g i n the masque, a c o n f e s s i o n which sounds remarkably l i k e i t might be the author's own o p i n i o n of the p r a c t i c e s i n c o u r t e n t e r t a i n m e n t s : Oh, never w i l l I t r u s t to speeches penned, Nor to the motion of a school-boy's tongue, Nor never come i n v i z a r d to my f r i e n d . Nor woo i n rhyme, l i k e a b l i n d h a r p e r ' s song! T a f f e t a phrases, s i l k e n terms p r e c i s e , T h r e e - p i l e d h y p e r b o l e s , spruce a f f e c t a t i o n , F i g u r e s p e d a n t i c a l — t h e s e summer f l i e s Have blown me f u l l of maggot o s t e n t a t i o n . I do foreswear them, and I here p r o t e s t , By t h i s white g l o v e — h o w white the hand, God knows! H e n c e f o r t h my wooing mind s h a l l be expressed 5 6 In r u s s e t yeas and honest kersey noes. And, to begin, wench—so God h e l p me, l a ! My l o v e to thee i s sound, sans c r a c k or f l a w . C V . i i . ^ 0 2 - ^ 1 5 ) But R o s a l i n d , the P r i n c e s s and the other l a d i e s have heard oaths and p r o t e s t a t i o n s before and f i n d t h i s announcement e q u a l l y u n b e l i e v a b l e . "Your oath broke once, you f o r c e not to foreswear." The mocking tone sweeps on i n t o the pageant and the a c t i o n becomes almost b o i s t e r o u s , i n s p i t e of H o l o f e r n e s * p l e a , "This i s not generous, not g e n t l e , not humble." I t I s not u n t i l the entrance of Mercade t h a t the facade of mockery and i n s i n c e r i t y i s s t r i p p e d away. With t h i s sudden entrance of death i n t o the h i g h - s p i r i t e d , almost h y s t e r i c a l r e v e l r y of the Park, r e a l i t y i n t r u d e s with stunning impact upon the f e v e r i s h abandonment of the c o u r t l y g a t h e r i n g . The d i s t o r t i o n and c o n f u s i o n of the masque and the pageant, the a r t i f i c i a l i t y and a f f e c t a t i o n of both the performances and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s are suddenly r e p l a c e d by the f a c t s of l i f e and death. The mockery of l i f e and l o v e has been f o r c e d to g i v e way to l i f e i t s e l f . E.K. Chambers p o i n t s out another masque-like element which might p o s s i b l y be read i n t o the c l o s i n g l i n e s of Love * s  Labour*s L o s t . He notes t h a t "the abrupt ending, *The words o f M e r c u r y a r e h a r s h a f t e r t h e songs o f A p o l l o 1 , . . . l o o k s l i k e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f an e p i l o g u e o r p r e s e n t e r ' s s p e e c h f o r a f o l l o w i n g mask." I f t h i s i s t h e c a s e t h e e x i t l i n e w h i c h f o l l o w s , "You t h a t way—we t h i s way", w o u l d a p p e a r t o s e p a r a t e t h e p e r f o r m e r s ; t h e " y o u " r e f e r r i n g t o t h e masquers p r o p e r , and t h e "we" r e f e r r i n g t o t h e a c t o r s o f t h e p a g e a n t . As most c r i t i c s a g r e e t h a t t h i s p l a y was w r i t t e n t o be p e r f o r m e d b e f o r e a n o b l e g a t h e r i n g , t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s a r e s t r o n g t h a t t h e r o l e s o f t h e masquers were t a k e n by members o f t h e c o u r t l y g r o u p , w h e r e a s t h e r o l e s o f t h e N i n e W o r t h i e s w o u l d be p l a y e d 7 by some t y p e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r f o r m e r s . ' Such an i n c l u s i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n t o what was p r i m a r i l y an amateur c o u r t p e r f o r m a n c e w o u l d be a v e r y e a r l y example o f a n a n t i m a s q u e , an a d d i t i o n t o t h e masque p r o p e r w h i c h was n o t p r o d u c e d u n t i l t h e e a r l y l 6 0 0 * s . The comic e l e m e n t w h i c h , i n L o v e % L a b o u r t s L o s t , l i e s i n t h e r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e a b s u r d i t y i n v o l v e d i n t r y i n g t o e s c a p e f r o m t h e n o r m a l f o r c e s o f l o v e and l i f e , i s much more c l e a r l y s p o r t i v e i n t h e B e a t r i c e - B e n e d i c k p l o t o f t h e l a t e r 6 E.K. Chambers, W i l l i a m S h a k e s p e a r e : A S t u d y o f F a c t s and  P r o b l e m s , V o l . I , p. 3 3 8 . n ' A u s t i n K. G r a y , "The S e c r e t o f L o v e ' s L a b o u r ' s L o s t " , P.M.L.A.. V o l . XXXIX (192*0, p. 6 0 3 . 5 8 p l a y Much Ado About Nothing. The s i m i l a r i t i e s between R o s a l i n d and Berowne from the e a r l i e r p l a y and B e a t r i c e and Benedick i n the l a t e r one are almost too obvious to do more than note t h a t the e a r l i e r couple are but p a l e shadows of the l a t e r . "Shakespeare came to Much Ado About Nothing, which some b e l i e v e t o be Love's Labour's Won, with a f a r f i n e r sense f o r the d e l i c i o u s entanglements of i n t r i g u e , and a r i p e n e d humour which makes the eaves-dropping scenes i n Leonato's orchard a 8 joy f o r e v e r . " In f a c t , the d e l i g h t f u l f l i g h t from and to the entanglements of romance by B e a t r i c e and Benedick, i n v o l v e the a t t e n t i o n of the audience to such a degree that the more s e r i o u s p l o t i n v o l v i n g Hero and C l a u d i o i s o f t e n wished away i n order to f o l l o w t h e i r v e r b a l s k i r mishes to t h e i r i n e v i t a b l e mutual submission. The masque scene i n the p l a y i n v o l v e s both p l o t s . In f a c t a l l of the major f i g u r e s i n the p l a y are p r e s e n t i n the h a l l i n Leonato's house when the h o s t c a l l s , "The r e v e l e r s are e n t e r i n g , B r o t h e r . Make good room." With "Don Pedro, the h i g h e s t r a n k i n g noble of the group, to l e a d them, the v a r i o u s couples mask and "walk about" or dance a measure. Between the f i r s t three c o u p l e s , Don Pedro and Hero, B a l t h a s a r and Margaret, and Antonio and U r s u l a , the l i g h t banter i s d e l i c a t e E.K. Chambers, Shakespeare: A Survey, New York, ( 1 9 2 5 ) , p. 1 3 1 . 59 and f l i r t a t i o u s ; but, i n c o n t r a s t , the barbed r e p a r t e e between B e a t r i c e and Benedick g i v e s no qua r t e r and r e v e a l s two v e r y dominant c h a r a c t e r s , one h a r d l y l i k e l y to gi v e i n e a s i l y to the other. B e a t r i c e ' s comments t o Benedick on the sharpness of h i s w i t might e a s i l y have been made by R o s a l i n d on Berowne: Why, he i s the P r i n c e ' s j e s t e r — a v e r y f o o l , o nly h i s g i f t i s i n d e v i s i n g i m p o s s i b l e s l a n d e r s . None but l i b e r t i n e s d e l i g h t i n him, and. the commendation i s not i n h i s w i t , but i n h i s v i l l a i n y ; f o r he both p l e a s e s men and angers them, and then they laugh a t him and beat him. ( I I . i . Ht2-lt7) At the end of the masquing sequence the p a r t n e r s dance o f f the stage, presumably to at t e n d the banquet, l e a v i n g Don John, B o r a c h i o , and C l a u d i o behind. What has been seen of B e a t r i c e and Benedick both i n ActjOne,Scene One, and the masque dance has confirmed the deceptiveness of the game they are p l a y i n g . Both have r e v e a l e d more than a c a s u a l awareness of the other but are attempting to deceive both each other and themselves with a f f e c t e d , b r i t t l e s a l l i e s . The deceptions which b r i n g about the Claudio-Hero p l o t involvements a l s o have t h e i r beginnings i n the masque scene. At the sugg e s t i o n of C l a u d i o , Don Pedro c a r r i e s on a form of proxy wooing of Hero under the guise of the commoning 60 d u r i n g the masque dance. Perhaps t h i s c o u r t l y love p r a c t i c e of using a go-between i s , i n i t s e l f , a form of a f f e c t a t i o n which i s o f f e n s i v e to the course of t r u e , n a t u r a l l o v e . But of g r e a t e r importance i t p r o v i d e d a v i s u a l i mpression f o r Don John, the v i l l a i n i n the p l o t , t o work upon. As soon as the dancers l e a v e the stage, Don John i s quick to p o i n t out t h a t one masquer has been l e f t out of the c o u p l i n g . F e i g n i n g to t h i n k C l a u d i o i s Benedick, Don John p l a n t s the seed of s u s p i c i o n i n the mind of the young wooer t h a t Don Pedro i s , indeed, pursuing h i s own i n t e r e s t s . The r e a c t i o n of C l a u d i o r e v e a l s h i s concern and b i t t e r n e s s : . . . . The P r i n c e woos f o r h i m s e l f . F r i e n d s h i p i s constant i n a l l other t h i n g s Save i n the o f f i c e and a f f a i r s of l o v e . ( I I . i . 181-3) H i s words show not only t h a t he has f a l l e n v i c t i m t o Don John's sugg e s t i o n , but a l s o t h a t he l a c k s any t r u s t i n h i s f r i e n d . I t i s t h i s l a c k of t r u s t , or h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to be d e c e i v e d , which l a t e r l e a d s to the d i s a s t r o u s t u r n of events i n x h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p with Hero h e r s e l f . Thus i n both p l o t s the masque prese n t s an u n r e a l s i t u a t i o n , one i n which the t r u t h , or r e a l i t y , i s hidden behind a masque of d e c e p t i o n . The f i n a l scene of Much Ado About Nothing a l s o has c e r t a i n masque-like c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . C l a u d i o ' s l a s t words 61 before going to the wedding ceremony, c a l l upon Hymen, the a l l e g o r i c a l goddess of marriage, to be attendant-upon the >• proceedings. The l a d i e s , when they appear with Antonio, are masked and i t i s o n l y when they remove t h e i r d i s g u i s e s t h a t the f i n a l d e c e p t i o n of the p l a y i s d i s s o l v e d and the marriage dances may be performed. Even the suggestion by Leonato t h a t they marry f i r s t and then dance i s d i s g a r d e d by Benedick and to,the sound of p i p i n g music, so o f t e n a symbol of harmony i n Shakespeare's p l a y s , the company dances o f f stage. In those p l a y s i n which the p r i n c i p a l purpose of the masque i s to r e v e a l a s t a t e of i l l u s i o n or s e l f - d e c e p t i o n , the keynote.of the r e s o l u t i o n of the drama i s d i s c o v e r y . The c h a r a c t e r s must grow i n t o a s t a t e of m a t u r i t y i n which they can c a s t a s i d e u n r e a l a t t i t u d e s and p o s i t i o n s and come to g r i p s with a c t u a l i t y . In Timon's case, i n a b i l i t y to f a c e r e a l i t y causes h i s c o l l a p s e but i n the comedies the growth to self-awareness and a sense of t r u e v a l u e s ends i n a form of harmony. The whole theme of.appearance and r e a l i t y occurs and r e o c c u r s throughout Shakespeare's dramas and he uses a m u l t i p l i c i t y of ways to develop i t . The masque de v i c e i s o n l y one, but i n these cases an important one. CHAPTER IV VISIONARY HARMONY Both p o e t i c drama and the masque have t h e i r r o o t s i n the p r i m i t i v e rhythms of l i f e and, as such, both have p o s s i -b i l i t i e s f o r r e v e a l i n g some aspect of u n i v e r s a l harmony. Yet, i n s p i t e of the c r e a t i v e impulse which conceived the masque and the a r t i s t i c v i s i o n which n o u r i s h e d i t , the c o u r t l y entertainment withered and d i e d w h i l e p o e t i c drama f l o u r i s h e d . Ben Jonson*s words suggest the reasons f o r the f a i l u r e of the masque to reach the l i t e r a r y h e i g h t s which he would have wished f o r i t . I t i s a noble and j u s t advantage, t h a t the t h i n g s s ubjected to understanding have of those t h a t are o b j e c t e d to sense, that the one s o r t are but momentary, and merely t a k i n g ; the others impressing, and l a s t i n g : E l s e the g l o r y of a l l these s o l e m n i t i e s had p e r i s h * d l i k e a b l a z e , and gone out, i n the beholder's eyes'. So s h o r t - l i v ' d are the bodies of a l l t h i n g s , i n comparison of t h e i r s o u l s . And, though bodies o f t - t i m e s have the i l l - l u c k to be s e n s u a l l y p r e f e r r ' d , they f i n d a f t e r w a r d s , the good f o r t u n e (when s o u l s l i v e ) to be u t t e r -l y f o r g o t t e n . T h i s i t i s hath made the most r o y a l P r i n c e s , and g r e a t e s t persons (who are commonly nersonators of these a c t i o n s ) not o n l y s t u d i o u s of r i c h e s , and magnificence i n the out-ward c e l e b r a t i o n , or show; (which r i g h t l y be-comes them) but c u r i o u s a f t e r the most h i g h , and h e a r t y i n v e n t i o n s . to f u r n i s h the inward p a r t s : (and those grounded upon a n t i q u i t y , and s o l i d 63 l e a r n i n g s ) which though t h e i r v o i c e be taught to sound to present o c c a s i o n s , t h e i r sense, or doth, or should always l a y h o l d on more removed mys-t e r i e s . And, howsoever some may squeamishly c r y out, t h a t a l l endeavour of l e a r n i n g , and sharp-ness i n these t r a n s i t o r y d e v i c e s e s p e c i a l l y , where i t steps beyond t h e i r l i t t l e , or ( l e t me not wrong 'hem) no b r a i n a t a l l , i s s u p e r f l u o u s ; I am contented, these f a s t i d i o u s stomachs should le a v e my f u l l t a b l e s , and enjoy a t home, t h e i r c l e a n and empty t r e n c h e r s , f i t t e s t f o r such a i r y t a s t e s : where perhaps a few I t a l i a n h e r b s , p i c k ' d up, and made i n t o a s a l a d , may f i n d sweeter acceptance, than a l l , the most n o u r i s h i n g and sound meats of the world. For these men's p a l a t e s , l e t not me answer, 0 Muses. I t i s not my f a u l t , i f I f i l l them out N e c t a r , and they run to M e t h e g l i n . l Perhaps had Jonson's f a i t h t h a t . t h e " g r e a t e s t men" were "c u r i o u s a f t e r the most h i g h and h e a r t y i n t e n t i o n s " been c l o s e r to the t r u t h , h i s masques might have f u l f i l l e d the purpose f o r . w h i c h he intended them. But indeed t h i s was not the t r u t h . The v i s i o n s presented by the c o u r t masques were f l a w l e s s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of p e r f e c t i o n , but a p e r f e c t i o n which supposedly r e f l e c t e d the s o c i e t y f o r which they were composed. They were "designed to emphasize, not the i d e a l s to be achieved by d i s c i p l i n e or f a i t h , but i d e a l s which a r e - d e s i r e d or p c o n s i d e r e d t o be a l r e a d y possessed." Thus the p e r f e c t •^Ben Jonson. H e r f o r d and Simpson, eds., V o l V I I , p. 2 0 9 . 2 Northrop F r y e , The Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m . P r i n c e t o n , 1 9 5 7 , p. 2 8 8 . 6^ marriage i s e n v i s i o n e d i n Hymenaei, the p e r f e c t n a t i o n , b l e s s e d with the sublime v i r t u e s of a new K i n g , i n V i s i o n  of the Twelve Goddesses. Though Jonson t r i e d to keep i n check the g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r d i s s o c i a t i o n of the masque from the a c t u a l human c o n d i t i o n , the d e s i r e of h i s audiences to see what they thought was a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r own i d e a l s t a t e won i n the long run. The poet and h i s words became of secondary importance to the producer and h i s s p e c t a c l e . In many of the p l a y s of Shakespeare and p a r t i c u l a r l y the romantic comedies, a remarkable f u s i o n i s achieved between i m a g i n a t i v e v i s t a s , h i g h l y s u g g e s t i v e of the masque, and n o b i l i t y of theme. They succeed i n t r a n s m i t t i n g a u n i t y of a r t and l i f e which the masque reached f o r but f a i l e d to capture. There i s evidence o c c a s i o n a l l y of t h i s broader masque i n f l u e n c e i n the t r a g e d i e s , but the masque by i t s v e r y nature i s a l i e n to tragedy. The f i n e s t i n f l u e n c e of i t s v i s i o n or i t s ' s o u l * i s found i n the best of the comedies. In these, the performers move through a s e r i e s of s h i f t i n g , f a n c i f u l scenes to emerge f i n a l l y from d i s o r d e r and c o n f u s i o n i n t o r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and harmony. A Midsummer Night's Dream has j u s t such an o v e r - a l l masque-like q u a l i t y , both s t r u c t u r a l l y and t h e m a t i c a l l y . T h i s p l a y i s p o p u l a r l y thought to have been performed f o r a 65 p a r t i c u l a r noble wedding, probably t h a t of W i l l i a m S t a n l e y , E a r l of Derby, and Lady E l i z a b e t h Vere, daughter of the E a r l of Oxford, on January 26, 1 5 9 5 -The b r i d a l couple of the p l a y , drawn from c l a s s i c a l a n t i q u i t y , serve e x c e l l e n t l y as the stage c o u n t e r p a r t s of the r e a l b r i d a l c o u ple. The l i n e s spoken by Oberon, the f a i r y k i n g , express the t r a d i t i o n a l compliment to E l i z a b e t h who was present f o r the wedding: That v e r y time I saw, but thou c o u l d s t not, F l y i n g between the c o l d moon and the e a r t h , C u p i d a l l armed. A c e r t a i n aim he took At a f a i r v e s t a l throned by the west, And l o o s e d h i s l o v e s h a f t smartly from h i s bow, As i t should p i e r c e a hundred thousand h e a r t s . But might I see young Cupid's f i e r y s h a f t Quenched i n the chaste beams of the watery moon, And the i m p e r i a l v o t a r e s s passed on, In maiden m e d i t a t i o n , f a n c y - f r e e , ( I I . 1. 15^-61+) From the entrance of the wedding group i n the f i r s t scene to the v i r t u a l epithalamium a t the end, the p l a y i s eminently s u i t e d to a n u p t i a l o c c a s i o n and lends i t s e l f e a s i l y to masque i n f l u e n c e and s t r u c t u r e . Theseus g i v e s the command to h i s master of the r e v e l s f o r the wedding r e v e l r i e s t o b e g i n : ^E.K. Chambers, "The Occasion of A Midsummer Night's Dream", A Book of Homage to Shakespeare, I s r a e l G o l l a n c z , ed., Oxford, 1916, p. 15H. 66 Go, P h i l o s t r a t e , S t i r up the Athenian youth to merriments, Awake the p e r t and nimble s p i r i t of m i r t h , ( I . i . 11-13) and the "fond pageant" i s on. The c o u r t of Theseus a c t s as the r e a l world of solemnity and order which frames the dream w o r l d of f a n c y and i l l u s i o n . Under the s p e l l of midsummer magic, to s l i p from r e a l i t y to dream or from order to c o n f u s i o n i s a simple adjustment. No sooner has the s t a b l e background of s e n s i b l e custom i n Theseus* c o u r t been e s t a b l i s h e d than i t i s shaken by d e f i a n t r e b e l l i o n i n Hermia which s u r p r i s e s even h e r s e l f . The "quick b r i g h t t h i n g s " promised by the opening scene q u i c k l y "come to c o n f u s i o n " . W i t h i n the dream-like s e t t i n g of the "wood near Athens", even the f a i r y world i s a f f e c t e d by ch a n g e l i n g q u a l i t i e s ; nor i s the work-a-day world of the "hempen homespuns" immune. Love, the theme of the p l a y which was to have been c e l e b r a t e d at n u p t i a l r e v e l r i e s becomes a game of cross-wooing i n which a f f e c t i o n s are exchanged and interchanged. The movement of the a c t i o n takes on the p a t t e r n of a masque dance. Every p o s s i b l e p a r t n e r i n g i s t r i e d out: Helena i n lo v e with Demetrius, Demetrius i n l o v e with Hermia, Hermia i n lo v e with Lysander, and then (change p a r t n e r s ) Hermia i n l o v e with 6 7 Lysander, Lysander i n lo v e with Helena, Helena i n l o v e with Demetrius, Demetrius i n l o v e with Hermia- but t h i s i s worse, so change a g a i n : Helena i n l o v e with Demetrius, but completely at a l o s s when Demetrius seems to be pretending to r e t u r n her l o v e ; f i n a l l y we s e t t l e on one only s t a b l e arrangement, i n which no-one i s l e f t oixt.k True l o v e , however, "looks not with the eyes but with the mind" and out of the exchanges brought about by the magic power of the charm p l a c e d upon the e y e l i d s of the l o v e r s by Puck must come "something of g r e a t e r constancy". So with the escape from the dream, the r e t u r n to r e a l i t y and the reasoned and understanding judgment of Theseus, order and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n are achieved and the p l a y ends i n harmony. The antimasque q u a l i t i e s of Bottom and the Pyramus and Thisbe p l a y l e t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the next chapter but something must c e r t a i n l y be s a i d here of the f i g u r e of Puck, Oberon's instrument of dream magic, and the other s u p e r n a t u r a l beings who i n h a b i t the enchanted wood. They are a strange hodge-podge of s p i r i t u a l beings who mingle companionably w i t h i n the world of f a n c y : T i t a n i a and Oberon, m y t h i c a l king and - queen of the f a i r i e s with t h e i r c o u r t l y t r a i n of f o l l o w e r s , Cobweb, Peaseblossom, Mustardseed and Moth, d i m i n u t i v e s p i r i t s G.K. Hunter, "Shakespeare: the Late Comedies", W r i t e r s and  Their. Works. No. ,1^3, p. 10. 6 8 of mediaeval f o l k legend, and. Puck, an E l i z a b e t h a n h o b - g o b l i n . The a c t i o n s of these f i g u r e s p a r a l l e l on a d i f f e r e n t l e v e l those of the main a c t o r s i n the p l a y , but as the l e v e l i s not a lower one and the c o n t r a s t e s t a b l i s h e d h a r d l y grotesque, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether antimasque c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be a t t r i b u t e d to them. The l o v e scene between Bottom and T i t a n i a has q u a l i t i e s of the grotesque but these are c o n t r i b u t e d by the weaver r a t h e r than the f a i r y queen. There i s nothing of the commonness or roughness u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d with the a n t i -masque found i n the movements of T i t a n i a or her s u b j e c t s . The masque-like c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f a i r y f i g u r e s l i e i n t h e i r v e r y being. They are the essence of the make-b e l i e v e , the f a n c y which permeates the e n t i r e p l a y . They p e r s o n i f y the i m a g i n a t i v e far-away p i c t u r e s i n the scenes of the masque i t s e l f . They are a l s o the performers of the masque dances a t the end of the p l a y . Almost a l l of the masque elements found i n A Midsummer Night's Dream are then p a r t of or dependent on these i m a g i n a t i v e beings. Puck, "sweet Puck", i s the d i r e c t o r of a l l the scenes which take p l a c e w i t h i n the woods; he c a l l s f o r a scene change and the scene changes. F u l l of j e s t and m i r t h , he i s completely innocent and c o n s c i e n c e l e s s , r u l e d by the i n s t i n c t f o r f u n . Through h i s m i s c h i e f and m a n i p u l a t i o n any w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t i n the 'dream* comes about. 69 The c l o s i n g scene of t h i s p l a y i s the one i n which the most obvious masque s t r u c t u r e occurs. As the p l a y ends, order has a g a i n been e s t a b l i s h e d a t the c o u r t of Theseus, the "hardheaded men" have presented t h e i r entertainment, and as the darkness g a t h e r s , the couples parade o f f the stage i n a s t a t e of harmony. At t h i s moment the f a i r i e s a g a i n take t h e i r p o s i t i o n s on the stage and the f i n a l e of the p l a y i s t h e i r dance and Puck's e p i l o g u e . When t h i s p l a y was p u b l i c l y a c t e d i t i s p o s s i b l e t h i s f i n a l dance was omitted, but i t i s more probable i t was l e f t i n f o r the enjoyment of the g r o u n d l i n g s and t h a t Puck's p l e a , "Give me your hands", c o n s t i t u t e d the t r a d i t i o n a l r e q u e s t f o r applause. When the p l a y was the entertainment at noble c e l e b r a t i o n s , however, t h i s f i n a l scene became the c l o s i n g of a masque. A f t e r the antimasque was presented, the f a i r i e s , p l a y e d now by members of the c o u r t g a t h e r i n g , performed some i n t r i c a t e dance p a t t e r n prepared f o r the o c c a s i o n . Puck's, "Give me your hands", c o u l d be f o l l o w e d by e i t h e r of two a c t i o n s on the p a r t of the masquers. They may have taken t h i s cue from Puck, and j o i n e d w i t h him f o r the 'going to s t a t e ' , or the honouring and b l e s s i n g of the s p e c i a l guests. Puck may, on the other hand, have been speaking to a l l the guests, i n v i t i n g them to r e c e i v e the masquers as p a r t n e r s f o r the r e v e l s . In e i t h e r case the l i n e c a r r i e s with i t the thematic s i g n i f i c a n c e of a p l e a f o r 70 the audience, p r i v a t e or p u b l i c , t o enter i n t o the world of the i m a g i n a t i o n where harmony and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n may be found. As You L i k e I t , which a l s o has i t s main a c t i o n take p l a c e i n a wooded s e t t i n g , shows some of these masque-like c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . W i t h i n the f o r e s t of Arden d i s c o r d i s r e s o l v e d i n t o harmony and the c h a r a c t e r s , with the e x c e p t i o n of Jacques, emerge i n t o the r e a l world of c o u r t l y l i f e s trengthened and ennobled. The i n c l u s i o n of Hymen, the God of Marriage, at the c l o s e of the p l a y i s a masque element which symbolizes joyous union. The moment of entrance by R o s a l i n d , C e l i a and Hymen, "with s t i l l music", i s one i n which the power of the outpourings of t r u e l o v e i s r e v e a l e d . A f t e r songs of b l e s s i n g by Hymen and a b e n e d i c t i o n by Jacques the couples prepare f o r a wedding dance. Obviously there i s to be more than j u s t the dances to the n u p t i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s f o r when the Duke urges Jacques to stay f o r the f e s t i v i t i e s Jacques r e p l i e s , "To see no pastime I , " (V. i v . 201) which would seem to imply the viewing of masque dances by the couples or, perhaps, an i n t e r l u d e . The c l o s e s t Shakespeare comes i n any of h i s p l a y s to a masque v e r g i n g on the e l a b o r a t e n e s s of a Jacobean masque i s i f l The Tempest. There are many other masque q u a l i t i e s about 7 1 the p l a y but the entertainment conjured up by Prospero i n Act Four, Scene One, must be c o n s i d e r e d f i r s t as i t i s the most obvious. T h i s p l a y was produced by the King's Company before King James on Hallomas Night i n 1 6 1 1 and a g a i n on the o c c a s i o n of the engagement of the P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h and the E l e c t o r P a l a t i n e . The masque sequence i n e i t h e r case serves the p r a c t i c a l purpose of honouring a r o y a l audience and the dramatic purpose of honouring the b e t r o t h a l of Miranda and F e r d i n a n d . Prospero, i n t h i s case, a c t s as p r e s e n t e r of the masque, "some v a n i t y " of h i s magic a r t . The c l a s s i c a l d e i t i e s , I r i s and Ceres, enter and pay homage to Juno, the Goddess of Love. The p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t some de v i c e h e r a l d e d the approach of Ceres may have prompted I r i s 1 o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t •Her peacocks f l y amain" ( I v . 1. 7k). The Queen of Heaven c a l l s upon "her s i s t e r s " to b l e s s the l o v e r s " that they may prosperous be, / And honoured i n t h e i r i s s u e . " (IV. i . 105). W.J. Lawrence p o i n t s out the l i n e s t h a t , i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , occasioned the g i v i n g of a g i f t t o the P r i n c e s s E l i z a b e t h and her b e t r o t h e d on b e h a l f of :either the King h i m s e l f or the assembled guests:/ ?W.J. Lawrence, "The Masque i n The Tempest", F o r t n i g h t l y  Review, V o l . CVII ( 1 9 2 0 ) , p. 9 ^ 3 . 72 A c o n t r a c t of true l o v e to c e l e b r a t e And some donation f r e e l y to e s t a t e On the b l e s t l o v e r s . (IV. i . Bh-6) A l s o "Go with me" (IV. i . 103) p r o b a b l y was the p o i n t at which "the c h a r a c t e r s descended from the stage and proceeded a c r o s s the dancing p l a c e to i n d u l g e i n strophes of c o n v e n t i o n a l 6 hyperbole r i g h t under the r o y a l canopy." I r i s , a t the request of the other m y t h o l o g i c a l d e i t i e s , then c a l l s upon Nymphs and Reapers who dance a g r a c e f u l dance f o r the p l a y audience and the r e a l audience. Now the next step should have been t h a t these performers, l i k e masquers, would break ranks and dance with Miranda and F e r d i n a n d . The o p p o r t u n i t y does not a r i s e f o r suddenly Prospero i n t e r r u p t s the masque and the whole scene v a n i s h e s . I t may be remembered t h a t a s i m i l a r masque i n t e r r u p -t i o n takes p l a c e i n Love's Labour's Lost when Mercade suddenly breaks i n upon the f e s t i v i t i e s w i t h i n the R o y a l Park with the r e a l i t y of death. T h i s sudden breaking o f f of the e n t e r t a i n -ment i n The Tempest serves a s i m i l a r thematic purpose. D r a m a t i c a l l y speaking, the masque i n t e r r u p t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d by Prospero*s sudden r e c a l l of the imminence of the " f o u l Loc. c i t . 73 c o n s p i r a c y " of C a l i b a n "and h i s c o n f e d e r a t e s . " He pleads a "beating mind" to the dismayed couple. T h e m a t i c a l l y Prospero's "Well done! Avoid, no more!" puts an end to a masque which was a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i d e a l harmonies, of p e r f e c t i o n i n the b l e s s i n g s and joys of l o v e and marriage. Perhaps Ferdinand's exclamation as he views the " m a j e s t i c v i s i o n " : Let me l i v e here f o r e v e r , So r a r e a wondered f a t h e r wise Make t h i s p l a c e a P a r a d i s e , (IV. i . 122-k) j o l t s Prospero i n t o remembering h i s own r e a l i z a t i o n that l i f e i s not P a r a d i s e , t h a t man cannot l i v e f o r e v e r i n an i d e a l i z a -t i o n , and f o r t h i s reason he breaks the masque i l l u s i o n and b r i n g s the young couple back to e a r t h and to r e a l i t y . The words which Prospero speaks to F e r d i n a n d and Miranda to soothe t h e i r disappointment suggest p o s s i b l e r e f e r e n c e s to masque de v i c e s used i n the p r o d u c t i o n . H i s r e f e r e n c e s to the "cloud-capped towers", "gorgeous p a l a c e s " , and "solemn temples" probably d e s c r i b e d e v i c e s used by other authors f o r the. e n t r y of masquers i n performances with which Shakespeare was f a m i l i a r . The same might account f o r the "great globe" which Prospero mentions, or t h i s might r e f e r to the Globe t h e a t r e i t s e l f i n which case drama as w e l l as masque are p a r t of the " i n s u b s t a n t i a l pageant" which d i s s o l v e s when the performance i s done. As f a r as The Tempest masque i s concerned i t i s "the b a s e l e s s f a b r i c of t h i s v i s i o n " which suggests*some form of stage set or d e v i c e moved on stage only f o r the masque sequence. The word " b a s e l e s s " i t s e l f might merely mean i m a g i n a t i v e or u n r e a l but i t a l s o c o u l d mean having no f o u n d a t i o n or f l o a t i n g . I f the second i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s c o r r e c t the p r o b a b i l i t y i s that I r i s , Ceres and Juno descended to the stage i n some mechanical device from which they stepped at t h e i r cue. Such a r e a d i n g i s a l s o supported by P r o s p e r o 1 s r e p l y to F e r d i n a n d 1 s q u e s t i o n about the b e a u t i f u l f i g u r e s . They a r e , he says: S p i r i t s which by mine a r t I have from t h e i r c o n f i n e s c a l l e d t o enact My p r e s e n t f a n c i e s . (IV. i . 120-22) I f such i s the case, the word " c o n f i n e s " can be taken q u i t e l i t e r a l l y . Music, dance and p o e t r y , a l l i n t e g r a l p a r t s of the . masque, tended to remain somewhat d i s a s s o c i a t e d i n the a c t u a l , f o r m a l c o u r t performance. In the Shakespearean c r e a t i o n s they become, with i n c r e a s i n g s k i l l , f u s e d i n t o the language, the form and the movement of the drama. Romeo and J u l i e t has a l r e a d y been c i t e d as an e a r l y example of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of such a r t i s t i c c o o r d i n a t i o n . Oberon's l i n e s from A Midsummer  Night's Dream: 75 Thou rememberst Since once I sat upon a promontory And heard a mermaid, on a d o l p h i n ' s back, U t t e r i n g such d u l c e t and harmonious breath That the rude sea grew c i v i l a t her song, And c e r t a i n s t a r s shot madly from t h e i r spheres To hear the sea-maid's music, ( I I . i . 1 ^ 9 - 5 ^ ) produce a f u s i o n of the sensuous rhythms of.music and dance i n t o p o e t r y and the i m a g i n a t i o n soars above the p l a y i n t o awareness of complete harmony. T h i s same rhythmic f u s i o n c l o s e s the p l a y as Oberon and h i s c o u r t , "hand i n hand, with f a i r y grace", c e l e b r a t e the r e s o l u t i o n of d i s o r d e r and the harmony of l o v e and wedlock. J f e p l a y b e t t e r i l l u s t r a t e s the f u s i o n of a r t i s t i c harmonies, i n t o u n i v e r s a l v i s i o n than does The Tempest. The romance of the far-away, the f l e e t i n g glimpses of f a i r y magic, the sweet poignancy of f i r s t l o v e , the charm of unheard music, a l l combine i n t o a dramatic symphony under the baton of Prospero. Much of the s p i r i t of the p l a y i s i n h e r e n t w i t h i n the f i g u r e of A r i e l who, l i k e the masque, has an i n t a n g i b l e q u a l i t y which s t i m u l a t e s the i m a g i n a t i o n . W i t h i n A r i e l i s the rhythm of music and the movement of dance. T h i s harmony of melody and motion i s r e f l e c t e d throughout the e n t i r e p l a y from the heavy-footed c l o g - s t e p s , "'Ban, 'Ban, C a c a l i b a n , Has a new master. - Get a new man," ( I I . i i . 1 8 8 - 9 ) to the l i g h t d e l i c a t e f o u e t t e s , " M e r r i l y , m e r r i l y , s h a l l I l i v e now / Under the blossom that hangs on the bough." (V. i . 93-1+) I t i s no wonder t h a t The Tempest has d e f i e d attempts to transpose i t i n t o an opera, f o r the music and rhythm are i n h e r e n t w i t h i n the p o e t r y and the dramatic form. The p l a y i s a r t i s t i c a l l y s u c c e s s f u l because the music and dance of the masque are made to serve the p o e t r y and thus i n c r e a s e the impact on the senses and on the i m a g i n a t i o n . The composition of a masque was designed so t h a t the s p e c t a c l e would impress the eye with a t o t a l v i s i o n , a panoramic view of an i d e a l s t a t e . I t f a i l e d to serve any purpose other than entertainment because the appeal became , i n the hands of the producer, a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l one. What-ever impact i t might have had upon the mind or upon the h e a r t was l o s t behind the b r i l l i a n c e of c o l o u r and s p e c t a c l e . There are c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s i n Shakespeare's p l a y s when the dramatic a c t i o n i s h e l d suspended f o r a b r i e f moment and a masque-like v i s i o n r e v e a l s an e s s e n t i a l human t r u t h or i d e a l which supersedes the t h e a t r e and, indeed, the p l a y i t s e l f . F o r that b r i e f moment the a c t o r s , the stage s e t s , the n a r r a -t i v e , a l l are f o r g o t t e n and the Shakespearean v i s i o n stands c l e a r l y b efore the mind and the i m a g i n a t i o n . 77 l a The Tempest masque-like v i s i o n s suspend the dramatic a c t i o n to r e v e a l the human t r u t h s i n the.order of e x i s t e n c e , the acceptance of the c y c l e of l i f e and the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n of the present w i t h the f u t u r e . When A r i e l , "thou which a r t but a i r " , can suddenly show Prospero t h a t even he, who has not the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of being human, would have "tender a f f e c t i o n s " f o r the bewitched p r i s o n e r s , there i s a d e f i n i t e pause i n the a c t i o n as Prospero i s f a c e d w i t h the c h o i c e of continued revenge or of f o r g i v e n e s s . In t h a t moment the c r i s i s of d e c i s i o n between i n t e n t on r e t r i b u -t i o n and d e s i r e f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s c l e a r l y e n v i s i o n e d . When Prospero makes h i s d e c i s i o n the a c t i o n moves aga i n . A f t e r P r o s p e r o , s i n c a n t a t i o n of the powers of h i s magic (V. i . *+l-5*+) solemn music sounds as he vows: I ' l l break my s t a f f , And bury i t c e r t a i n fathoms i n the e a r t h , And deeper than d i d plummet ever sound I ' l l drown my book. (V. i . The l i n e s h o l d the a c t i o n " s p e l l - s t o p p e d " b e f o r e Prospero q u i e t l y turns h i s back on the enchanted i s l a n d of i m a g i n a t i o n and, somewhat r e g r e t f u l l y , f a c e s the r e a l i t y of M i l a n . The f u l l power of the r e c o n c i l i a t i o n a t the end of The Tempest r i s e s above the a c t i o n on the stage as Prospero 78 draws back the c u r t a i n and r e v e a l s Miranda and F e r d i n a n d p l a y i n g chess. Here, framed i n p a s t d i s c o r d , c o n s p i r a c y and s u s p i c i o n , i s the promise of f u t u r e harmony and concord. Sometimes a p a r t i c u l a r stage d i r e c t i o n or an i m p l i e d a c t i o n i n the d i a l o g u e appears to be a conscious manoeuver on the p a r t of the author to s t r e s s these i n s p i r a t i o n a l t a bleaux. The drawing of a c u r t a i n , as i n the scene j u s t mentioned, i s an example of t h i s . The same technique i s used i n The Winter's Tale when the r e j u v e n a t i o n of Hermione takes p l a c e with p o r t r a i t - l i k e p r e s e n t a t i o n to the s t r a i n s of music: . . . Music, awake her, s t r i k e ! ' T i s time, descend, be stone no more, approach. S t r i k e a l l t h a t l o o k upon with marvel. (V. i i i . 98-100) The slow movement of the s t a t u e can be one of the most moving scenes of the t h e a t r e as the power of d i v i n e f a i t h appears to i n s t i l l l i f e i n t o stone. The symbolic a c t of k n e e l i n g can form a masque-like suspension of dramatic a c t i o n . A f t e r the r e u n i o n of Posthumus and Imogen i n Cvmbeline, Imogen kneels f o r the b l e s s i n g of h e r f a t h e r and the b r i e f moment becomes a v i s i o n of l o v e , r e c o n c i l i a t i o n and hope. S i m i l a r l y , i n The Winter's T a l e Hermione's b e n e d i c t i o n over the k n e e l i n g P e r d i t a : 79 You gods, look down, And from your sacred v i a l s pour your graces Upon my daughter's head? (V. i i i . 121-3) present a masque-like tableau of the blessing of the restored s p i r i t upon the promise fo r the future. Most of such dramatic moments of great i n s p i r a t i o n a l v i s i o n are not so obvious as these and whether a conscious or unconscious influence of the masque can be claimed i s highly speculative. Very often Shakespeare provides a musical accompaniment f o r h i s most moving dramatic moments and c e r t a i n l y not a l l these are the r e s u l t of a masque influence, but i t i s safe to say that when the music implies a new-found harmony then some c r e d i t must be given to the masque, or at'least to the masque as i t was conceived. I t i s also safe to say that when Shakespeare was influenced by the s p i r i t or the 'soul' of the masque, the plays benefitted from that influence. CHAPTER V ANTIMASQUE I t i n c r e a s i n g , now, t o t h e t h i r d t i m e o f my b e i n g u s e d i n t h e s e s e r v i c e s t o h e r M a j e s t i e s p e r s o n a l p r e s e n t a t i o n s , w i t h t h e L a d i e s whom she p l e a s e t h t o h o n o u r ; i t ' w a s my f i r s t , a nd s p e c i a l r e g a r d , t o see t h a t t h e N o b i l i t y o f t h e I n v e n t i o n s h o u l d be a n s w e r a b l e t o t h e d i g n i t y o f t h e i r p e r s o n s . F o r w h i c h r e a s o n , I c h o s e t h e Argument t o be, A C e l e b r a t i o n o f h o n o r a b l e , and t r u e Fame, b r e d o u t o f V i r t u e : o b s e r v i n g t h e r u l e o f t h e b e s t A r t i s t , t o s u f f e r no o b j e c t o f d e l i g h t t o p a s s w i t h o u t h i s m i x t u r e o f p r o -f i t , a n d example. And b e c a u s e h e r M a j e s t y ( b e s t k n o w i n g , t h a t a p r i n c i p a l p a r t o f l i f e i n t h e s e S p e c t a c l e s l a y i n t h e i r v a r i e t y ) h a d command-ed me t o t h i n k on some Dance, o r show, t h a t m i g h t p r e c e d e h e r s , and h a v e t h e p l a c e o f a f o i l , o r f a l s e - M a s q u e ; I was c a r e f u l t o d e -c l i n e n o t o n l y f r o m o t h e r s , b u t mine own s t e p s i n t h a t k i n d , s i n c e t h e l a s t y e a r I h a d an A n t i - M a s q u e o f B o y s : and t h e r e f o r e , now, d e v i s e d t h a t t w e l v e Women, i n t h e h a b i t °f H a g s , o r W i t c h e s , s u s t a i n i n g t h e p e r s o n s o f I g n o r a n c e , S u s p i c i o n . C r e d u l i t y , e t c . t h e o p p o s i t e s o f good Fame, s h o u l d f i l l t h a t p a r t ; n o t as a Masque, b u t a s p e c t a c l e o f s t r a n g e n e s s , p r o d u c i n g m u l t i p l i c i t y o f Ges-t u r e , n o t u n a p t l y s o r t i n g w i t h t h e c u r r e n t , and w h o l e f a l l o f t h e D e v i c e . 1 J o n s o n . H e r e f o r d and Simpson, e d s . , V o l . V I I , p. 283. 81 The object and intent of the antimasque, expressed by Jonson i n t h i s introduction to Tfte Masque of Queens, shows quite c l e a r l y that although the name 'antimasque 1 may not have been used before, Jonson and other writers had used the introduction of contrast or opposites i n previous per-formances. What i s of importance i n Jonson's statement i s h i s naming of t h i s innovation and h i s insistence on i t s i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n i n the entertainment as a whole. I t would also seem that Jonson takes great care to explain how he came to include d e l i b e r a t e l y such 'strangeness* and he prefaces h i s explanation with a reminder that any entertain-ment while delighting the eye should also i n s t r u c t through example. Any fears which Jonson may have had concerning antimasque and. i t s didactic purpose were well founded for of a l l of the v a r i e t i e s which made up the court masque t h i s one was the most misused by le s s s k i l f u l hands. The p o s s i b i l i t i e s which the antimasque offered f o r shock and t h r i l l and i t s adapt a b i l i t y to bizarre spectacle l e d to i t s quite overwhelming the masque proper. Rather than providing the comic under-statement or contrast for which i t was o r i g i n a l l y adopted i t played upon the audience's appetite f o r the grotesque, the v i o l e n t and the l i c e n t i o u s . When the antimasque was controlled 8 2 as i t was by Jonson, i t provided counter-balance and var i e t y , jesting about the serious to off-se t elegant moralizing and introducing figures of popular lore to contrast a l l e g o r i c a l d e i t i e s of c l a s s i c a l mythology. O r i g i n a l l y i t was not the antimasque which influenced the drama but rather the opposite, for i n fac t the antimasque was a c t u a l l y the introduction into court entertainment of the contrast of p l o t and sub-plot often used i n the drama. The t r a d i t i o n of a burlesque p a r a l l e l of the main action i s one p which goes back beyond The Second Shepherd's Play. The greatest influence upon the drama by the antimasque was the inc l u s i o n by the l a t e r Jacobean and Caroline dramatists of bizarre and grotesque dances purely for e f f e c t as i n some of the revenge tragedies.-^ The comic sub-plot i n most of Shakespeare's plays i s part of the e a r l i e r dramatic t r a d i t i o n rather .than antimasque, but when a comic performance or show i s put on f o r the enter-tainment of the many p l o t characters, t h i s may, i n most cases, 2 C L . Barber, Shakespeare's Festive Comedies, Princeton, 1 9 5 9 , P. 1 2 . ^See Fredson Bowers, Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy, Princeton, 1 9 ^ 0 , passim. 8 3 be c a l l e d dramatic antimasque. The love plo t involving Gostard and Jacquenetta i n Love's Labour's Lost p a r a l l e l s , on a d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l l e v e l , the development of the main p l o t . In f a c t , the entrance of the g u i l t y Costard who i s "taken with a wench" d i r e c t l y after the King of Navarre and h i s followers have pledged to keep the " s t r i c t ' s t decrees" places the whole f a l s i t y of unnatural vows and affected actions into t h e i r r i g h t perspective. This sub-plot action cannot, however, be c a l l e d antimasque whereas the Pageant of the Nine Worthies can. The Pageant i s , f i r s t of a l l , a planned performance which i s so exaggerated as to become ludicrous. It has i t s proper pronouncement and introduction of actors and i s per-formed by servants of the court as opposed to the courtiers themselves. I t follows d i r e c t l y after the masque of the Muscovites, or rather the attempted masque of the Muscovites. Although the performers do not dance they do parade and posture, grotesque parodies of figures from c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y and mythology. This antimasque i s integrated into the plot not only because i t burlesques the main action but also because i t r i d i c u l e s the f a l s e conceptions of the " l i t t l e Academe." Holofernes i s a per s o n i f i c a t i o n of abstract pedantry, the type of learning divorced from l i f e to which the courtiers Qk pledged themselves at the beginning of the play. Armado, •whose every speech i s f u l l of nothing but exaggerated words, i s the height of a f f e c t a t i o n i n love. Both are r i d i c u l e d by the very men who attempt to follow their unreal attitudes. The performance i s a farce but a farce with a s i g n i f i c a n c e . I t serves i t s purpose by showing the courtiers i n a s t i l l more unfavourable l i g h t . They lose a l l sense of p o l i t e manners and become almost antimasque performers themselves. The attempt at a r i g i d l y correct entertainment becomes a burlesque to r i d i c u l e the pretentiousness of the viewers. I r o n i c a l l y the attitude of the dramatic audience probably also r e f l e c t s the response of the Queen and the court audience to burlesque and antimasque presented f o r th e i r L. amusement on Elizabeth's Progresses. In f a c t there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that the words spoken by the Princess: That sport best pleases that doth l e a s t know how Where ze a l s t r i v e s to content, and the contents Dies i n the zeal of that which i t presents. Their form confounded makes most form i n mirth When great things laboring perish i n their b i r t h , (V. i i . 517-21) are a plea f o r gentle understanding from both the dramatic and the r e a l audience. k O.J. Campbell, "Love's Labour's Lost Restudied," Studies i n  Shakespeare, Milton and Donne, New York, 1925, p. 6. 8 5 Because of the interruption there are no masque dances to follow the Pageant of the Nine Worthies but as there seems to be a d e f i n i t e thematic purpose i n the.displace-ment of the normal masque structure t h i s adds to rather than detracts from the effectiveness of the end of the play. The time for joyous dances w i l l come i n "a twelvemonth and a day." A more complete antimasque-masque structure i s seen i n some of the l a t e r comedies. Peter Quince acts as presenter for the Pyramus and Thisbe antimasque i n A Midsummer  Night's Dream: This man i s Pyramus, i f you would know. This beauteous lady Thisby i s c e r t a i n . This man with lime and roughcast, doth present Wall, that v i l e Wall which did these lovers sunder, And through Wall's chink, poor souls, they are content To whisper. At which l e t no man wonder. The unfolding of the " t r a g i c a l mirth" parodies the actual plot and bears such remarkable resemblances to Shakespeare's own Romeo and J u l i e t that one might suspect the author of making a joke on himself for the delight of h i s audience. The rough v i l l a g e r s clod-hop about the stage, bumbling th e i r way through the dialogue and gesticulating broadly. An epilogue has been prepared for the performers but t h i s i s too much for Theseus and so the antimasque ends with a "Bergomask", a rough country dance. 86 When the whole of A Midsummer Night's Dream i s seen as a masque t h i s antimasque sequence f i t s into i t s proper place, d i r e c t l y before the main masque dances. I f , as has been suggested previously, the f i n a l masque dances were performed by members of the court then the exit of a l l ' t h e persons on the stage at the close of the antimasque would clear the way for the s t a t e l y measures prepared to honour the Queen and the betrothed couple. The figure of Bottom the Weaver may be seen as an antimasque f i g u r e , one who has within himself the characteris-t i c s or the dramatic functions usually prescribed f o r a regular antimasque. He i s the only one of the mortals who steps r i g h t into t h e . f a i r y world. Though Bottom may see f a i r i e s and be loved by one, he never loses.touch with r e a l i t y . So there he stands, the "shallowest t h i c k s k i n " of them a l l , a large lump of r e a l i t y i n the middle of the world of i l l u s i o n . B l i s s f u l l y unaware of Oberon's plan f o r her torment, on a bank where wild thyme blows, Where oxslips and nodding v i o l e t s grows, Quite overcamped with luscious woodbine, With sweet musk roses, and with eglantine There sleeps T i t a n i a . ( I I . i i . 21+9-53) 87 When Ti t a n i a awakens the f i r s t . p e r s o n she views i s Bottom who, under the magic touch of Puck, has been "translated" into an ass. Incongruity reaches i t s extreme i n the love of Ti t a n i a , Queen of t h e . f a i r i e s , for Bottom, weaver metamorphosed into an.ass. Neither h i s condition nor the relat i o n s h i p upset Bottom at a l l . The other players at least show some f r i g h t when they see Bottom's state or when they are led astray by the hobgoblin but Bottom never twitches an ear. When T i t a n i a i s moved, by thi s "gentle mortal", t h i s "angel", when she swears her love, Bottom, neither f l u s t e r e d nor f l a t t e r e d , answers with complete presence of mind: And yet, to say the truth, reason and love Keep l i t t l e company together now-a-days, ( I I I . i . 1 4 6 - 7 ) an apt comment on both h i s own state of a f f a i r s and on the main plot of the play. T i t a n i a c a l l s on a l l her sprites to bring him every f a i r y delicacy he commands. Bottom i s only interested i n being scratched. He may be King Consort i n f a i r y l a n d but being an ass he appreciates the good things of an ass's l i f e — " a handful or two of dried peas" and "a bottl e of hay." Enid Welsford takes Bottom as an example of Shake-speare's s k i l l e d use of antimasque characters. She points 88 out that i n the masque convention the antimasque-masque con-t r a s t was complete whereas "Shakespeare well knew, the greatest beauty i s gained through contrast when the difference i s obvious and s t r i k i n g , but r i s e s out of a deep though un-obtrusive resemblance."^ Hence, though the difference between Bottom and T i t a n i a , or between the "hempen homespuns" and the f a i r y court, i s "obvious and s t r i k i n g " there i s also a basic and natural s i m i l a r i t y i n t h e i r simple, almost c h i l d - l i k e naivete. Thus the antimasque figures become part of the t o t a l harmony of the play rather than standing out i n obvious opposition. The same chord, holds Caliban within the harmony of The Temnest. Caliban may be vulgar and earthy but he shows the same longing f o r freedom, the same primitive sense of humour and the same craving f o r a f f e c t i o n that A r i e l does. As a r e s u l t he may receive h i s pardon when he "seeks for grace," and be included i n the harmonious r e c o n c i l i a t i o n at the, end of the play. In A Midsummer Night's Dream. Puck i s not only the director of the masque but also of the antimasque and as such must have something of the q u a l i t y of antimasque i n h i s make-up. This quality l i e s i n h i s capacity for o r i g i n a l mischief: Welsford, The Court Masque, p. 333. 8 9 And sometimes lurk I i n a gossip's bowl, In the very likeness of a roasted crab; And when she drinks, against her l i p s I bob And on her withered dewlap pour the ale. The wisest aunt t e l l i n g the saddest t a l e , Sometimes f o r three-foot s t o o l mistaketh me; Then s l i p I from her bum, down topples she. ( I I . i . 4 7 - 5 3 ) Genuine delight at such t r i c k s t y p i f i e s Puck as "laughter holding both h i s sides." The dual nature of Puck was probably what made Jonson present a similar f i g u r e , c a l l e d by Puck's other name, Robin Goodfellow, i n h i s masque Love  Restored. As an "honest p l a i n country s p i r i t , " Jonson's Robin upsets the dignity of the royal court, confesses to many madcap t r i c k s and schemes, serves as Jonson's voice as he r i d i c u l e s the Puritans and jests at the "fa l s e and f l e e t i n g d e l i g h t " of court entertainment, but he i s also responsible f o r returning love to the royal court. His warning of the Anti-Cupid or f a l s e love and of Plutus, god of money, might have been spoken by Shakespeare's Robin, "Tis you mortals that are f o o l s . " 6 The introduction of the satyrs into the woodland f e s t i v i t i e s of The Winter's Tale and the antimasque characteris-t i c s of thi s dance sequence have already been commented upon Ben Jonson, Herford and Simpson, eds., Vol. VII,. p. 3 8 2 . 90 but there i s another somewhat antimasque touch i n the figure of Autolycus who intrudes upon the otherwise harmonious atmosphere of the revelry. This rogue has not appeared i n the play before h i s gay entry at the beginning of Act Three, Scene. Four. He i s a self-confessed mischief-maker whose f i r s t stage act i s a parody of the story of the Good Samaritan. i His d e l i g h t f u l machinations stand i n kind of juxtaposition to the happy simple pleasures of the shepherds and shepherdesses. Aside from h i s exchange of clothes with F l o r i z o l and h i s persuading the shepherd and h i s son to go to S i c i l y , no other attempt i s made to integrate him into the p l o t . The motivation of h i s actions i s sheer roguery. Although h i s actions and words may speed the resolution of the p l o t , h i s main purpose appears to be to i n t e r j e c t an element of antimasque misrule int o the country sports and to mock the characters involved i n the main action. By h i s very b i r t h Caliban i s an antimasque f i g u r e , a product of the grotesque, "a freckled whelp hag-born." His po s i t i o n i n The Tempest i s an i n t r i c a t e one, f o r i n spite of h i s b i r t h and base nature, he i s not a figure of e v i l . Shake-speare i s c a r e f u l to hint at something i n Caliban's make-up which prevents him from being a d e v i l - f i g u r e . He i s by h i s own admission capable of love f o r he returned Prospero*s care and teaching with gratitude and devotion before he disgraced himself by giving i n to h i s baser nature. Within the comic sub-plot Caliban's associations with the simple would-be kings, Stephano and Trinculo, are humorous not malignant. The meeting of Caliban, with h i s "ancient and f i s h - l i k e smell," Stephano, the "brave god" that "bears c e l e s t i a l l i q u o r , " and Trinculo, the "pied ninny," involves such antics that the t r i o form an antimasque burlesque rather than any serious menace. When one remembers that the antimasque involves the p r i n c i p l e of contrast through the use of the grotesque or the exaggerated, the p a r a l l e l established between the two f o o l i s h planners and their servant Caliban, and the wise counsellor, Prospero, and h i s A r i e l i s easy to see. Another antimasque sequence i n The Tempest i s the banquet scene i n Act Three which commences with some of the conventional masque elements. "Solemn and strange music" plays as "strange shapes" bring i n d e l i c a c i e s f o r the King of Naples, the f a l s e Duke of Milan, and th e i r followers. The figures dance about offering t h e i r g i f t s as compliments to the noble group. The conventional posturing i s soon seen to be a mockery, or an antimasque. Just as the group are about to enjoy the repast A r i e l , disguised as a harpy, causes the food to disappear from the table, and, i n place of compliments 92 d e l i v e r s accusations and recriminations. After the r o l l i n g of thunder gives way to a soft mocking melody, the shapes enter again and perform what might be c a l l e d antic dances of exaggerated gestures and grimaces. This antimasque sequence appears d i r e c t l y before the betrothal masque which Prospero presents for Ferdinand and Miranda and i s thus i n i t s proper p o s i t i o n i n terms of conventional masque structure. Likewise, although of a completely d i f f e r e n t tone than i s usually associated with the convention, there i s a c e r t a i n element of antimasque-masque juxtaposition seen i n the apparition scene (V. i v . 24ff) i n Cymbeline. The f i r s t f igures which appear to Posthumus are those of h i s father and mother, aged and. worn. Following these come h i s brothers s t i l l bearing the wounds and blood of the battles i n which they met their death. Their movements on stage, though not s t r i c t l y a dance, involve continued action as they c i r c l e Posthumus1 bed. Their utterances, though not a song, take the pattern of a slow melancholy chant. In sharp contrast to these slow lugubrious figures are the v i t a l i t y and vigour of Jupiter. Astride an eagle he descends to the stage amid r o l l i n g thunder and flashing lightning and prophesies the eventual happy outcome of Posthumus1 t r i b u l a t i o n s . His speech, f u l l of l i f e and strength, i s made to sound a l l the 93 more charged with energy and v i t a l i t y by i t s marked contrast with the d o l e f u l , hopeless moaning of the f i r s t drab fig u r e s . The procession of these funereal forms can hardly be c a l l e d antic but there are element's of the grotesque i n their make-up which serve to point up the di g n i t y and power of Jupiter. This instance i s r e a l l y the only one i n which Shakespeare converts the contrasting elements provided by the antimasque into the macabre. In The Merry Wives of Windsor there appears an a n t i -masque with no masque or suggestion of a masque to counter-balance i t . There are. a number of reasons why t h i s s i t u a t i o n "came about. In the f i r s t place there are no court "or ballroom scenes i n which a conventional masque might be performed and neither are there any graceful young courtiers to perform them. The hero of the play i s S i r John F a l s t a f f of Henry IV fame, hardly a figure which could be expected to dance graceful measures or mouth del i c a t e compliments. Another point involves the conditions under which t r a d i t i o n says the play was written. I f Shakespeare did write the play at the express command of Queen Elizabeth then the author could assume a ce r t a i n audience expectation upon which he could play. The masque counterpart to the antimasque would be, then, i n the minds of the viewers. The delight of the"audience would be two-fold: f i r s t , i n the stage antics themselves, and second i n the travesty of t h e i r own courtly pleasures. The purpose of the antic disguising i s explained i n the dialogue which precedes the comic episode. It i s to act as a cover for the elopement of Mistress Page's daughter, Anne. With whom she i s to elope depends on whose plans work out. After the disguised performers have entered, accompanied by taper-bearers, their dialogue includes praise of Queen Elizabeth who attended the performance. Reference i s made to the Order of the Garter through i t s motto Honi s o i t qui  mai y_ pense. The language and i t s delivery are s t i f f and formal as i s suited to a masque but that what the words say i s nonsense and verges on the risque. S i r John F a l s t a f f expounds: Remember, Jove, thou wast a b u l l for thy Europa. Love set on thy horns. 0 power-f u l love that i n some respects makes beast a man, i n some other a man a beast. You were also, Jupiter, a swan for the love of Leda. 0 omnipotent Jove! How near the God grew to the complexion of a goose. A f a u l t done f i r s t i n the form of a beast. (V. v. 3-9) The f a i r i e s are f i r s t instructed to dance around a tree but when they.smell "a man of middle earth" they turn on him. F a l s t a f f , who i s attempting to hide ostrich-fashion, 95 suffers the pinches and burns of the f a i r i e s , supposedly to test h i s chastity. The masque movements which would be ex-pected by the audience thus become antic gestures and buffoonery. Falstaff,.who had hoped to use the masque for. one of i t s main purposes, to promote romance for himself, i s turned upon and exposed. It has been suggested that the antimasque which 7 appeared i n the F i r s t F o l i o i s an interpolated one' but even i f t h i s were correct the antimasque i s s t i l l dramatically connected to the play proper f o r the dance burlesque serves to cover up f o r the attempted abductions by Slender and Doctor. Caius and the elopement of Fenton and Anne Page. It Is also a l i v e l y and h i l a r i o u s climax to the comedy. The important thing which may be seen throughout t h i s discussion of Shakespeare*s use of antimasque and elements of antimasque i n h i s plays i s that, as with the masque, Shakespeare never, uses the convention merely f o r ef f e c t or merely f o r the antic spectacle. Most often the contrast demanded by antimasque i s inherent within the action or even within a character within the action rather than appearing as .'JohnH. Long, "Another Masque for The Merry. Wives of  Windsor". S_, Vol. I l l (1952), p. 42. 9 6 a structure. The antimasque, again l i k e the masque, was to Shakespeare another device which he could adapt f o r service i n h i s productions. The structure i t s e l f was adjusted and changed to s u i t the immediate purpose and never only f o r i t s e l f . CHAPTER VI CONCLUSION Before an attempt i s made to draw any conclusions as to the function of the masque i n Shakespeare's plays or speculating on any pattern which emerges from t h i s study, some comment should be made on other Shakespeare plays i n which circumstances only suggestive of a masque occur. There are a number of reasons to suspect, f o r example, that although The Comedy of Errors has l i t t l e i n i t which suggests the masque, i t was meant to be followed by masque dances. The play i s a remarkably short one, just over seventeen hundred l i n e s , hardly s u f f i c i e n t f or a complete evening's entertainment. It i s also highly u n l i k e l y that Shakespeare would overlook the joyous ending of the play as an opportunity for providing some form of rev e l r y to round off the action, but i n the stage directions there i s not even a c a l l f or music to accompany the banquet. There i s evidence that the Plautine comedy upon which the Shakespearean play i s based, The Menaechmi, was e a r l i e r i n the sixteenth century followed by one of the famous banquets which included a morisco (a s i m p l i f i e d b a l l e t d'action) i n which Cesare Borgia acted. As the music rose 9 8 for the glorious f i n a l e the guests danced with the performers and the Pope looked on approvingly. 1 In The Comedy of Errors the simple withdrawal f o r a banquet at the end of the play i s rather abrupt. I am not suggesting that Shakespeare knew of the e a r l i e r production but there i s the p o s s i b i l i t y that when the play was performed f o r the members of Gray's Inn, similar masque dances were included. After the denouement--the discovering and sorting out of the Antipholuses and the Dromios and the joyous reunion of parents with children and brothers with brothers—the major characters, led by the Duke, withdraw from the stage to banquet and celebrate the happy occasion. The two servants, the Dromios, are l e f t on stage to go through a series of burlesque gestures as to who w i l l leave the stage f i r s t , f i n a l l y agreeing: We came into the world l i k e brother and brother, And now l e t ' s go hand i n hand, not one before the another. (V. i . k2k-5) George Freedley and John A. Reeves, The History of the Theatre. New York, 1 9 * + ! , p. 6 6 . 99 This posturing i s suggestive of an antic dance and might possibly have been a.prelude to masque dances. These masque dances, i f th i s were the case, would be performed by noble or honoured members of the audience taking the place of the professional actors f o r t h i s dance f i n a l e , a s i t u a t i o n similar to the one discussed f o r the masque ending of A Midsummer  Night's,Dream. The amusing dialogue also provides for stage business while such a substitution i s taking place. Those plays of Shakespeare's which were presented f o r a select audience, as The Comedy of Errors appears to have been, seem to cater to the more sophisticated taste. Among others known to have been staged f o r members of the Inns of Court, i n t h i s case the Middle Temple, i s Twelfth Night. Epiphany was the greatest masquing night of the year and the very name Twelfth Night suggests "thoughts of masque and reve l r y and c a r n i v a l . " The highly f a n c i f u l romantic tone of the entire play has been designed to appeal to a cultured audience, perhaps one used to viewing masquers acting scenes of the mythical far-away. Even the name " I l l y r i a " suggests an imaginative world. The play opens, " I f music be the food of love, play on," and closes with d e l i g h t f u l nonsense songs from the Clown. In between are rapidl y s h i f t i n g scenes i n •Welsford, The Court Masque, p. 282. 1 0 0 which the young lovers get sorted out into couples. Although there are no actual masque sequences i n Twelfth Night, there i s a quality i n the ov e r - a l l atmosphere and tone suggestive of masque. Most of Shakespeare's l a t e plays were designed f o r a similar audience, though perhaps not quite so select. The King's Men, Shakespeare's company, took over the B l a c k f r i a r s Theatre i n 1 6 0 8 from the Children of the Revels.^ P e r i c l e s , Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest were probably written to be produced i n t h i s theatre for the more soph i s t i c a t -ed audience which attended i t . A l l four plays are generally more elaborate i n stage techniques. The possible use of mechanical devices, such as were common to the Jacobean masque, has been noted i n Cymbeline and The Tempest. In P e r i c l e s the stage directions at the beginning of Act Five c a l l f o r a barge drawn up beside P e r i c l e s ' "closed p a v i l l i o n " . This p a v i l l i o n could have been a curtained inner stage but the scenes which occur immediately before and after would necessi-tate drawing the barge on and off stage i n some way. The use of these mechanical devices i s probably a d i r e c t influence of JM.C. Bradbrook, The Rise of the Common Player, London, 1 9 6 2 , p. 2 8 7 . 101 the court masques, p a r t i c u l a r l y those produced by Inigo Jones, which were introducing new t h e a t r i c a l e f f e c t s . Perhaps where d i r e c t c r e d i t cannot be given to the masque fo r changes on the Globe 1s boards, an i n d i r e c t influence may. The amount of pageantry and spectacle included i n Henrv VIII, written for the Globe Theatre, indicates that the tastes of the public theatre had also changed during the twenty odd years Shakespeare was writing. That Shakespeare was by t h i s time accustomed to writing for the B l a c k f r i a r s , which demanded more elaborateness, may have influenced h i s technique i n Henry VIII, but A l i c e Venezky points out that the same c i t i z e n s who might applaud the marches of costumed masquers through the streets, or parades of tournament contestants into the l i s t s , from the banks of the Thames might cheer a sham battle between vessels trimmed to represent English merchants and p i r a t e s , or might admire a formation of gorgeously decorated barges honoring the r u l e r or Lord Mayor . . . . made up the majority at the public playhouses.^ It i s possible that the guilds and other organizations r e -sponsible for these celebrations were aware of the kind of performances the n o b i l i t y had become accustomed to and hoped Venezky, Pageantry on the Shakespearean Stage, p. 18 102 to provide comparable entertainment. This, i n turn, affected the taste of the man i n the street. The public theatre audience was also aware of the type and style of courtly entertainment.' Those who attended the B l a c k f r i a r s , when they could afford the sixpence, knew of the costuming and scenic e f f e c t s which the more wealthy c i t i z e n s enjoyed. A combina-t i o n of these circumstances l e d to an increased demand for b r i l l i a n t trappings on the public stage. One of the greatest dangers i n th i s Investigation i s approaching every play with the question, "What masquing s t u f f i s here?" (Shrew V. i i i . 8 7 ) and assuming that any of the elements of masque or antimasque appearing i n Shakespeare's plays are there because of the influence of the court entertain-ment. Sir Andrew Aguecheek's remark, "I delight i n masques and reve l s , sometimes altogether," (Twel. I. i i i . 1 2 1 - 2 ) shows that some of the methods of merry-making and celebration which had been integrated into the masque, continued to exist quite independently not only i n court but also i n public f e s t i v i t i e s . Some of the dances at which Aguecheek claims a g i l i t y , such as the " g a l l i a r d " , came to the playhouse after they had been introduced at court, perhaps d i r e c t l y from a masque, but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to make any hard and f a s t claims as dance, l i k e music and song, enjoyed a universal popularity. The same might be 1 0 3 said for the use of c l a s s i c a l ' and mythological figures i n the Shakespearean plays. Interest i n c l a s s i c a l antiquity was c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the age and aside from the use of these figures i n what are obviously masque sequences, how much i s masque influence i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain. Among the conclusions which can be drawn from a study of the masque i n Shakespeare i s that among many contem-porary influences upon the dramatist the court masque was an important one, but the selection of the type of masque or the part of the masque to be used depended e n t i r e l y upon the purpose which i t was to serve i n the play and not merely upon a, desire to include a masque for variety or spectacle. Even i n the l a t e r plays, at a time when some of h i s contemporaries were inte r p o l a t i n g elaborate masques into t h e i r plays, Shake-speare contented himself "with the employment of some of the devices which the masque made popular."^ I am not claiming that a l l of the sequences i n Shakespeare's drama which show masque influence are completely successful i n production. Quiller-Couch points out that the v i s i o n of Diana which shows masque c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s "the most inept and i l l - w r i t t e n and •'Mary S u l l i v a n , Court Masque of James I, London, 1 9 1 3 , p. 8 . 104 a r t i s t i c a l l y c h i l d i s h thing i n P e r i c l e s . " The same c r i t i c i s m might be l e v e l l e d at the whole play, however, and Pericles i s , af t e r a l l , of doubtful authorship. When a d i r e c t use of the masque, either i n part or i n whole, achieves i n the drama a purpose similar to the masque, one i s on f a i r l y firm ground i n claiming the influence of the court entertainment, but when dealing with the abstract q u a l i t i e s of the masque, most of which are common to drama, the argument becomes quite tenuous. Shakespeare's imagination was c e r t a i n l y stimulated by h i s viewing masques and associating with masque writers just as i t was stimulated by other contemporary entertainments and by older dramatic t r a d i t i o n s . The genius of Shakespeare's workmanship l i e s i n h i s complete ec l e c t i c i s m and masterful assimilation. Arthur Quiller-Couch, Shakespeare's Workmanship, Cambridge, 1 9 4 4 , p. 188. Hardin Craig makes a similar observation i n "Shakespeare's Bad Poetry," Shakespeare Survey, I ( 1 9 4 8 ) , 5 5 . BIBLIOGRAPHY Primary References Harrison, G.B., ed. Shakespeare: The Complete Works. New York, 1 9 5 2 . Herford, C H . and Simson, Percy and Evelyn, eds. Ben Jonson. Vol. VII, Oxford, 1 9 » + 1 . Secondary References Adams, John Quineey. Shakespearean Playhouses. Cambridge, 1 9 1 7 . Baker, G.P. The Development of Shakespeare as a Dramatist. . New York, 1 9 0 7 . . Barber, C.L. Shakespeare's Festive Comedies. Princeton, 1 9 5 9 * B a s k e r v i l l e , Charles Read. The Elizabethan J i g and Related  Song Drama. Chicago, 1 9 2 9 * Bayne, Ronald. "Masque and Pastoral," CHEL, VI, x i i i . Cambridge, 1 9 1 0 . Baugh, A.C et a l , eds. A Li t e r a r y History of England. New York, 1 9 ^ 8 . Bradbrook, M.C The Growth and Structure of Elizabethan  Comedy. London, 1 9 5 5 * . The Rise of the Common Player. London, 1 9 6 2 . . Themes and Conventions of Elizabethan Tragedy. London, i 9 6 0 . Brooke, Arthur. "The T r a g i c a l l Historye of Romeus and J u l i e t , " as given i n Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, ed. Geoffrey Bullough. Vol. I, London, 1 9 5 7 . 1 0 6 Bowers, Fredson Thayer. Elizabethan Revenge Tragedy. Princeton, 1940. Campbell, O.J. "Love's Labour's Lost Restudied," Studies i n Shakespeare, Milton and Donne, ed. Eugene McCartney. New York, 1 9 2 5 , PP. 1 - 4 5 -. "The Two Gentlemen of Verona and I t a l i a n Comedy," Studies*in Shakespeare, Milton and Donne, ed. Eugene McCartney. New York, 1 9 2 5 , pp. 4 9-63. Campbell, L.B. Scenes and Machines on the English Stages Cambridge, 1 9 2 3 . . Cavendish, George. The Ljfe and Death of Cardinal Wolsey, ed. Richard S. Sylvester and Davis P. Harding. New Haven, 1 9 6 2 . Chambers, E.K. The-Elizabethan Stage. Vol. I, Oxford, 1 9 4 5 . . William Shakespeare, A Study of Facts and Problems. 2 vols. Oxford, 1 9 3 0 . • Shakespeare, A Survey. New York, 1 9 2 5 . "Court Performances Before Queen Elizabeth," MLR, II (1906-7 ) , 1 - 1 3 . • "The Occasion of A Midsummer Night's Dream," A Book of Homage to Shakespeare, ed. I s r a e l Gollanez. Oxford, 1 9 1 6 , pp. 154-160. C o g h i l l , N e v i l l e . "The Governing Idea: Essays i n Stage Interpretation of .Shakespeare," S_>, I (Vienna, 1 9 4 6 ) , 9-1?. Colleridge, Samuel. Writings on Shakespeare, ed. Terrence Hawkes. New York, 1 9 5 9 . Craig, Hardin. "Shakespeare's Bad Poetry," Shakespeare Surve I (1948), 5 1 - 5 6 . . C u n l i f f e , J.W. "The Masque i n Shakespeare's Plays," A r c h i f . cxxv ( 1 9 1 0 ) , 7 1 - 8 2 . , ' . " I t a l i a n Prototypes of the Masque and the Dumb Show," MJ_A, XXII ( 1 9 0 7 ) , l 4 0 - l 5 6 . 1 0 7 Cunningham, Dolora. "The Jonsonian Masque as a Lit e r a r y Form," F__, XXII ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 108-124. Durand, W.Y. "A Comedy on Marriage and Some E a r l y Antimasques," JEGP. VI ( 1 9 0 6 - 7 ) , 4 1 2 - 4 1 8 . Evans, Herbert Arthur. English Masques, i n t r o , ed. C.H. Herford. London, 1 8 9 7 . Freedley, George and Reeves, John A. The His t o r y of the  Theatre. New York, 1 9 4 1 . Frye, Northrop. The Anatomy of C r i t i c i s m . Princeton, 1 9 5 7 . Furniss, W. Todd. "Ben Jonson's Masques," Three Studies i n the Renaissancet Sidney. Jonson. Milton, ed. Richard B. Young et al~. New Haven, 1 9 5 8 . Gaw, A l l i s o n . . "The Impromptu Masque i n Shakespeare,'* Shakespeare Association B u l l e t i n , XI-XII ( 1 9 3 6 - 7 ) , 1 4 9 - 1 6 0 . Gray, Austin K. "The Secret of Love's Labour's Lost." PMLA, XXXIX ( 1 9 2 4 ) , 5 3 1 - 6 1 1 . H a l l ' s Chronicle: Containing a History of England, during the  Reign of Henry the Fourth and Succeeding Monarchs, to the  End of the Reign of Henry the Eighth, i n which are P a r t i - c u l a r l y Described the Manners and Customs of Those Periods. Printed f o r ..J. Johnson, etc., London, 1 8 0 9 . H a l l i d a y , F.E. Shakespeare and His C r i t i c s . London, 1 9 5 8 . Hunter, G.H. "Shakespeare: the Late Comedies," Writers and  Their Works.. No. 143 ( 1 9 6 2 ) . Kernodle, George R. From Art to Theatre. Chicago, 1 9 4 4 . Knight, G. Wilson. The Wheel of F i r e . New York, 1 9 5 8 . Kreider, P.V. "The Mechanics of Disguise i n Shakespeare's Plays." Shakespeare Association B u l l e t i n . VII-X ( 1 9 3 2 - 5 ) , 1 6 7 - 1 8 0 . Lawrence, W.J. "The Masque i n The Tempest," F o r t n i g h t l y  Review. CVII ( 1 9 2 0 ) , 941 - 9 5 4 . 1 0 8 Long, John. "Another Masque for The Merry Wives of Windsor ?" Sfl, III ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 3 9 - ^ 3 . Macgowan, Kenneth and Melnitz, William. The Living Stage. New Jersey, 1 9 5 5 * Midgley, Graham. "The Merchant of Venice: A Reconsideration," Essays i n C r i t i c i s m , X ( A p r i l . I960), 1 2 9 - m . Nagler, A.M. A Source Book i n Theatrical History. New York, 1 9 5 2 . N i c o l l , Allardyce. The Development of the Theatre. London, 1 9 ^ 8 . . Masks, Mimes, and Miracles. London, 1 9 3 1 . Odell, George CD. Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving. 2 vols. New York, 1 9 2 0 . Parks, Edd Winfield and Beatty, Richmond Croom, eds. The  English Drama 900 - l 6 1 + 2 . introduction to Part I I I . New York, 1 9 3 5 . Parrott, T.M. "Comedy i n the Court Masque: A Study of Ben Jonson's Contribution," Pfi, XX ( 1 9 ^ 1 ) , * + 2 8 - ^ l . Quiller-Gouch, Arthur. Shakespeare's Workmanship. Cambridge, 19kk. Sibley, G.M. The Lost Plavs and Masques 1 5 0 0 - 1 6 1 + 2 . Ithaca, New York,, 1 9 3 3 . Simpson, Percy. "The Masque," Shakespeare's England. Vol. I I , PP. 3 1 1 - 3 3 3 . Smith, Homer. "Pastoral Influence i n the English Drama," MLA, XII ( 1 8 9 7 ) , 3 5 5 - ^ 6 0 . S o r r e l l . Walter, "Shakespeare and the Dance," S£, VIII ( 1 9 5 7 ) , 367-30%. Steele, M.S. Plavs and Masques at Court. New Haven, 1 9 2 6 . S u l l i v a n , Mary. Court Masques of James I. London, 1 9 1 3 . Symonds, John Addington. Shakespeare's Predecessors. London, 1 9 0 0 . 1 0 9 Thorndike, Ashley H. "Influence of the Court Masque on the Drama, l 6 0 8 - l 5 , " MLA, XV ( 1 9 0 0 ) , 1 1 ^ - 1 2 0 . Van Doren, Mark. Shakespeare. New York, 1 9 3 9 « Venezky, A l i c e S. Pageantry on the Elizabethan Stage. New York, 1 9 5 1 . Welsford, Enid. The Court Masque. Cambridge, 1 9 2 7 . Wickham,'Glynne. Ear l v English Stages. H 0 0 - 1 6 6 0 . Vol. I, 1 3 0 0 - 1 5 7 6 , London, 1 9 5 9 ; Vol. I I , Part I, London, 1 9 6 3 . 

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