UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

The social processes of community development in India. Shimpo, Mitsuru 1963

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1963_A8 S39 S6.pdf [ 7.11MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105778.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105778-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105778-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105778-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105778-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105778-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105778-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105778-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105778.ris

Full Text

THE SOCIAL PROCESSES OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA by MITSURU SHIMPO B.A., THE INTERNATIONAL CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY, TOKYO, JAPAN M.A., THE TOKYO UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION, TOKYO, JAPAN A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF ' MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of An t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1963 ABSTRACT A f t e r the Second World War, a type of s o c i a l planning c a l l e d Community Development was w i d e l y adopted by underdeveloped c o u n t r i e s . This comprehensive approach has a b a s i c p o s t u l a t e : i f opportunity i s g i v e n , people w i l l respond. In t h i s assumption, c o n s i d e r a t i o n s of 'process' are neglected. The focus of t h i s t h e s i s i s the a n a l y s i s of the s o c i a l process of Community Development Programmes w i t h s p e c i a l reference to I n d i a . When a stimulus i s given t o an organism, the response i s determined i n p a r t by the s t r u c t u r e o f the organism. The process of s o c i a l response i s determined by two sets of independent v a r i a b l e s , the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and the r e l e v a n t v a l u e s . These v a r i a b l e s are examined a t two l e v e l s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . From the a n a l y s i s , the w r i t e r discovered t h a t there i s a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , perhaps an inherent one, i n the two u l t i m a t e t a r g e t s of s o c i a l p l a n ning. Thus an increase of production and an e x t e n s i o n of s o c i a l j u s t i c e may be incompatible, and there i s a l a g between m a t e r i a l programmes and educational programmes t h a t i s i n e v i t a b l e but exceedingly hard to reckon w i t h . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS T h i s i s a t h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e degree o f M a s t e r o f A r t s i n t h e Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, B.C., Canada. When I a r r i v e d i n Canada i n September, 1962, my c h i e f i n t e r e s t o f s t u d y was e d u c a t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n un d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s . My background of Japanese r u r a l s o c i o l o g y , however, d i d not q u a l i f y me t o e n t e r t h e Department o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h i s u n i v e r s i t y . I t was Mr. A k i h i r o C h i b a , o f t h e s t a f f o f t h e Department of M i d d l e E d u c a t i o n , UNESCO, P a r i s , who suggested t h a t I s t u d y Community Development. Without h i s a d v i c e , I would not have been drawn t o t h i s s u b j e c t . I have t o thank P r o f e s s o r H.B. Hawthorn, t h e Chairman,. Department of A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y , t h e U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , whose a d v i c e has been a c o n s t a n t and i n -s p i r i n g encouragement. To Dr. Ram Das o f the P l a n n i n g Research and A c t i o n I n s t i t u t e , U t t a r P r a d e s h , I n d i a , I am o b l i g e d f o r s e n d i n g me c o p i e s o f h i s I n s t i t u t e ' s e x c e l l e n t p u b l i c a t i o n s . I.am a l s o o b l i g e d t o t h e M i n i s t r y o f Community Development and Co-/ o p e r a t i o n , and t h e Programme E v a l u a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n , P l a n n i n g Commission, the Government of I n d i a , f o r s u p p l y i n g me with much b a s i c m a t e r i a l i n p u b l i s h e d form. On t h i s o c c a s i o n , I should not miss the names of In d i a n and P a k i s t a n i students on the campus of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. T h e i r i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r c o u n t r i e s e n l i g h t e n e d me very much. Since the number i s so b i g , they have to remain anonymous. Mrs. Kusum Nair, the author of The Blossoms i n the Dust , K i n d l y permitted me t o quote many examples from her book, which was w r i t t e n on the b a s i s of her d i r e c t d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h v i l l a g e people a l l over I n d i a . N a t u r a l l y i t gave me deeper understanding of Indian r u r a l s o c i e t y . Mr . S t u a r t Piddocke k i n d l y read my manuscript with keen t h e o r e t i c a l i n s i g h t and c o n s t r u c t i v e l y c r i t i c i s e d i t . He a l s o c o r r e c t e d the grammatical mistakes of the t h e s i s . I f t h e r e i s any language c l a r i t y i n t h i s t h e s i s , I owe i t to him. . My g r e a t e s t thanks are d e d i c a t e d ' t o my t h e s i s s u p e r v i s o r , P r o f e s s o r C.S. Belshaw. He l e n t me h i s abundant .material and has c o n s t a n t l y encouraged the progress of t h i s t h e s i s . His c r i t i c a l comments on my t h e s i s i l l u m i n a t e d amazingly my own u n c l e a r and unsystematic t h i n k i n g , and r e -p e a t e d l y s t i m u l a t e d me to f u r t h e r thought.. I f t h e r e i s any value i n t h i s study, I owe I t to those people who, to t h i s f o r e i g n e r , k i n d l y extended t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p beyond n a t i o n a l boundaries. M i t s u r u Shimpo, Vancouver, B.C. Canada, August, 1963. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I . INTRODUCTION 1 I . C o n c e p t o f Community Development 2 I I . Community D e v e l o p m e n t as S o c i a l P l a n n i n g 4 I I I . P u r p o s e o f t h i s E n q u i r y $ IV. S c o p e o f t h i s s t u d y 12 V. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e T h e s i s 16 I I . THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN INDIA 17 I . B a c k g r o u n d 17 I I . - O u t l i n e o f t h e Community Development Programmes 22 I I I . The E x e c u t i o n o f t h e Community Development Programmes J2 A. C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o c e s s 33 B. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n P r o c e s s 36 C. P e o p l e ' s P a r t i c i p a t i o n 40 I I I . T H E GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY I . The F o r m a l A s p e c t I I . The I n f o r m a l A s p e c t A. B l o c k D evelopment O f f i c e r B. Gram Sevaks I V t . THE GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY AND COMMUNITY. DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES 59 I . Programmes f r o m Above 59 I I . E f f e c t s upon t h e Programmes 61 A. U n b a l a n c e d . A c h i e v e m e n t s 64 B. U n e q u a l D i s t r i b u t i o n o f B e n e f i t s 65 C. ' S o c i a l I n j u s t i c e ' 65 I I I . L a c k o f C o - o r d i n a t i o n 66 43 43 48 49 53 Page V. VILLAGE SOCIETY 69 I . S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e 72 A. F a m i l y 72 B. C a s t e 76 1. M o n o p o l y o f O c c u p a t i o n 77 2. C o m m e n s a l i t y 78 3. Endogamy 79 C. S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n 81 D. F a c t i o n 87 I I . Power S t r u c t u r e 87 I H . V a l u e S y s t e m 91 V I . COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AND VILLAGE SOCIETY 96 I . The E f f e c t s o f Community Development Programmes upon V i l l a g e S o c i e t y 96 I I . The E f f e c t s o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e upon t h e Community Development Programmes 100 A. V i l l a g e P a n c h a y a t 100 B. C a s t e 106 C. S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n 109 D. F a c t i o n 112 E . F a m i l y 114 I I I . E f f e c t s o f V i l l a g e r s V a l u e s upon Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes 118 V I I . CONCLUSIONS 126 APPENDICES 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY 141 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In t h e l a t e 1930fs t h e Government o f I n d i a l a u n c h e d t h e "Grow-More Foo d Campaign" t o s a v e h e r n a t i o n f r o m s t a r v a t i o n , b u t t h e campaign f a i l e d s e r i o u s l y . A f t e r I n d i a ' s i n d e p e n d e n c e , an E n q u i r y Committee was o r g a n i z e d t o s u r v e y t h e s i t u a t i o n . The R e p o r t o f t h e Grow More Food  E n q u i r y Committee, M i n i s t r y o f F o o d and A g r i c u l t u r e , G o v e r n  ment o f I n d i a , i n c l u d e s t h e f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e : . . . t h e economic a s p e c t s o f v i l l a g e l i f e c a n n o t be d e t a c h e d f r o m t h e b r o a d e r s o c i a l a s p e c t s ; and a g r i c u l t u r a l improvement i s i n e x t r i c a b l y bound up w i t h a w h o l e s e t o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . The l e s -son t o be d e r i v e d f r o m t h e w o r k i n g o f t h e Grow-More-F o o d Programmes t h u s c o n f i r m s t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f S t a t e and p r i v a t e a g e n c i e s engaged i n v i l l a g e d e v e l o p m e n t . I t i s t h a t a l l a s p e c t s o f r u r a l l i f e a r e i n t e r - r e l a t e d and t h a t no l a s t i n g r e s u l t s c a n be a c h i e v e d i f i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c t s o f i t a r e d e a l t w i t h i n i s o l a t i o n . T h i s d o e s n o t mean t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m s s h o u l d n o t be g i v e n p r o -m inence b u t t h e p l a n s f o r them s h o u l d f o r m p a r t s o f , and be i n t e g r a t e d w i t h , t h o s e f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e w i d e r a i m s . I t i s o n l y by p l a c i n g t h i s i d e a l .... o f b r i n g i n g a b o u t an a p p r e c i a b l e improvement i n t h e s t a n d a r d o f r u r a l l i f e and making i t f u l l e r and r i c h e r b e f o r e t h e c o u n t r y and e n s u r i n g t h a t t h e S t a t e s and t h e b e s t u n o f f i c i a l l e a d e r s h i p a r e d i r e c t e d t o p l a n s f o r i t s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t we can awaken mass e n t h u s i a s m and e n l i s t t h e a c t i v e i n -t e r e s t and s u p p o r t o f t h e m i l l i o n s o f f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n t h e c o u n t r y s i d e i n t h e immense t a s k o f b e t t e r i n g t h e i r own c o n d i t i o n s Q u oted f r o m C o u s i n g , W i l l i a m J . , "Community Dev-e l o p m e n t i n West B e n g a l " , i n U.S. Community Development R e v i e w , W a s h i n g t o n , September, 1959, p.. 45. 2 T h i s statement suggests t h a t any 'single-purpose p r o j e c t ' , such as an a g r i c u l t u r a l e x t e n s i o n programme, tends to f a i l i n a s o - c a l l e d 'underdeveloped country'. In such c o u n t r i e s , each and every aspect of s o c i a l l i f e i s bound up w i t h a l l other a s p e c t s , and cannot be d e a l t with adequately i n i s o l a t i o n . The attempt to remedy a g i v e n s o c i a l problem w i l l t h e r e f o r e i n v o l v e having to attempt changes i n the r e s t of the s o c i e t y . A programme of change must t h e r e f o r e be a 'multi-purpose programme' or 'comprehensive approach'. One such m u l t i -purpose approach i s t h a t known as the 'Community Development Programmes.' I. Concept of Community Development Towards the end of the Second World War, the approach of Community Development was inaugurated i n N i g e r i a and the Gold Coast by the B r i t i s h Government. 2 At f i r s t the method of Community Development was 'mass education', e s p e c i a l l y f e a t u r i n g programmes of hygiene and manual c r a f t s . The aim of the Community Development Programmes was to help the l o c a l people to a d j u s t to the wider world. As the people were 'awakened' other s o c i a l processes such as elementary e d u c a t i o n were t o be i n t r o d u c e d . The u n d e r - l y i n g T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the h i s t o r i c a l development of the concept o f Community Development i s based on a l e c t u r e by P r o f e s s o r C.S. Belshaw i n h i s seminar i n Applied- Anthrop- ology ( 1962-63 ) at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 3 a s s u m p t i o n o f t h i s a p p r o a c h w a s t h a t a s t h e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e l o c a l p e o p l e w e r e r e l e a s e d t h e p e o p l e w o u l d c o m e t o c o n t i n u e t h e p r o c e s s o f . d e v e l o p m e n t t h e m s e l v e s . T h e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n P r o j e c t s o f t h e U . S . c o - o p e r a t e d w i t h t h i s p r o -g r a m m e . I n t h e B r i t i s h C o m m o n w e a l t h , C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s w e r e v i e w e d a s a f o r m o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . A f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d W a r , t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s E d u c a t i o n a l S c i e n t i f i c a n d C u l t u r a l O r g a n i z a t i o n a p p l i e d t h i s a p p r o a c h i n L a t i n A m e r i c a n c o u n t r i e s i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e c o m p u l s o r y e d u c a t i o n s y s t e m ' . E v i d e n t l y , C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p -m e n t w a s s t i l l c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f e d u c a t i o n t h o u g h w i t h m o r e e m p h a s i s u p o n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l A f f a i r s o f t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s a d o p t e d t h i s a p p r o a c h i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n t e x t . O n e o f t h e m o s t w i d e l y q u o t e d d e f i n i t i o n s o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t w a s t h e o n e g i v e n b y t h e . 1 9 4 8 C a m b r i d g e C o n f e r e n c e o n " T h e E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f I n i t i a t i v e i n A f r i c a n S o c i e t y " , n a m e l y : A m o v e m e n t d e s i g n e d t o p r o m o t e b e t t e r l i v i n g f o r t h e w h o l e c o m m u n i t y , w i t h t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n a n d i f p o s s i b l e o n t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f t h e c o m m u n i t y , b u t i f t h i s i n i t i a t i v e i s n o t f o r t h c o m i n g s p o n t a n e o u s l y , b y t h e u s e o f t e c h -n i q u e s f o r a r o u s i n g a n d s t i m u l a t i n g i t i n o r d e r t o s e c u r e i t s a c t i v e a n d e n t h u s i a s t i c r e s p o n s e t o t h e m o v e m e n t . o J I C A , C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m s i n I n d i a . P a k i s t a n a n d t h e P h i l i p p i n e e s , T e a m I , N e w Y o r k , 1955, p . 8 . . 4 T h i s d e f i n i t i o n r e f l e c t s t h e B r i t i s h c o n c e p t o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s d e f i n i t i o n d o e s , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t t h a t C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t i s s u i t e d t o s m a l l - s c a l e s o c i e t i e s o r l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s , r a t h e r t h a n t o l a r g e - s c a l e m o d e r n s o c i e t i e s . T h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s m o r e i n t e r e s t e d i n s o c i o -e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t a t t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l , a n d t h e U N e x p e r t s t h e r e f o r e r e - d e f i n e d ' C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t ' f o r t h e i r w o r k i n g p u r p o s e s a s f o l l o w s : T h e p r o c e s s e s b y w h i c h t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s a r e u n i t e d w i t h t h o s e o f g o v e r n m e n t a l a u t h o r i t i e s t o i m p r o v e t h e e c o n o m i c , s o c i a l a n d c u l t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s o f c o m m u n i t i e s , t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s e c o m m u n i t i e s i n t o t h e l i f e o f t h e n a t i o n , a n d t o e n a b l e t h e m t o c o n t r i b u t e f u l l y t o n a t i o n -a l p r o g r e s s . 4 I n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d m o s t e f f e c t i v e w h e n c a r r i e d o u t a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f n a t i o n a l p o l i c y o n t h e n a t i o n a l s c a l e . C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t w o u l d b e , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e U N e x p e r t s , o n e o f t h e m o s t e f f e c t i v e c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h e s . I I . C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a s S o c i a l P l a n n i n g C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a s d e f i n e d b y t h e U n i t e d N a t i o n s i s a t y p e o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g . T h i s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g U N , P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A s p e c t s o f C o m m u n i t y  D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s , N e w Y o r k , 1959, p . 2 . 5 has t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : 1. S o c i a l p l a n n i n g i s a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t o r i n -t e g r a t e d c o l l e c t i v e b e h a v i o r t o o r i e n t t h e s o c i a l change of t h e s o c i e t y i n t o t h a t s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n which i s r e g a r d e d as most d e s i r a b l e by the p l a n n e r s . I t i s " U n i t e d w i t h t h o s e o f governmental a u t h o r i t i e s " , o r , i n o t h e r words, p l a n n i n g by t h o s e above f o r t h e people below. I n t h i s r e s p e c t , Community Development as d e f i n e d by the UN e x p e r t s s t a n d s a t the o t h e r end from s o c i a l movements, which a r e o f t e n from below. 2. S o c i a l p l a n n i n g has the o b j e c t i v e o f " e x t e n s i o n " , i . e . , i t presupposes an ' i d e a l ' . s o c i e t y toward which t h e p l a n n i n g s h o u l d be o r i e n t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Government o f I n d i a , f o r example, The f u n damental o b j e c t i v e of e x t e n s i o n , i s t h e development o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e community. The u l t i m a t e aim of e x t e n s i o n i s t o improve th e w e l l - b e i n g o f a l l t h e r u r a l p e o p l e w i t h i n t h e frame of n a t i o n a l economic and s o c i a l p o l i c i e s . The major o b j e c t i v e s of e x t e n s i o n a r e : -(a) M a t e r i a l . . . t o i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . (b) E d u c a t i o n a l . . . t o i n c r e a s e knowledge, t o improve t e c h n i q u e s or s k i l l s and t o h e l p p e o p l e t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s f r om t r a d i t i o n a l and s t a t i c t o s c i e n t i f i c and dynamic. (c) S o c i a l and c u l t u r a l . . . t o d e v e l o p t h e -community t h r o u g h c o n s o l i d a t i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e l o c a l g r o u p s s u c h as c o - o p e r a t i v e s , P a n c h a y a t s , y o u t h c l u b s e t c . 5 T h i s s t a t e m e n t may be r e p h r a s e d as f o l l o w s : (a) C o - o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n n a t i o n a l p o l i c y and n a t i o n a l economy. (b) A c h i e v e m e n t ( a s c o n c e i v e d by t h e p l a n n e r s ) o f t h e most e f f i c i e n t b a l a n c e o f human a c t i v i t i e s , s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s , and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s . ( c ) R e f o r m a t i o n o f p e o p l e ' s v a l u e s by means o f t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o a c h i e v e t h e i d e a l s o c i a l o r d e r p r o j e c t e d by t h e p l a n n e r s . T h i s p r o j e c t e d s o c i e t y i s , however, u s u a l l y o n l y a vague i d e a l , and t h e p l a n n e r s o f t e n t h e m s e l v e s c a n n o t d e f i n e i t . T h i s means t h a t t h e r e i s i n f a c t no c l e a r i d e o l o g y o f t h e g o a l s o f Community De v e l o p m e n t , and t h a t t h e r e m a i n d e r o f i t s c o n c e p t i o n s , i . e . , t h o s e o f d e v e l o p m e n t a l methods and a p p r o a c h e s , a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y somewhat c o n f u s e d . 3. From t h e UN d e f i n i t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t ^ N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Community Development, Gov-ernment o f I n d i a , The Scope o f E x t e n s i o n , , New D e l h i , ly62, pp. 4-5. 7 community d e v e l o p m e n t s h o u l d be a f f e c t e d n o t by v i o l e n c e b u t t h r o u g h c o n s e n t , i . e . , p l a n n i n g p o l i c y s h o u l d be done by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e ' b o d i e s s u c h as p a r l i a m e n t s , and t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h e s e p l a n s i d e a l l y c a r r i e d o u t t h r o u g h p e r s u a s i o n w i t h a minimum o f c o e r c i o n . Community Development a s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g has a two-f o l d t a r g e t , v i z . , t o meet t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t and t o meet t h e l o c a l i n t e r e s t . T h i s t a r g e t has two d i r e c t i o n s a t e a c h l e v e l , i . e . , t h e i n c r e a s e o f p r o d u c t i o n w i l l d i r e c t l y meet t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t as w e l l as l o c a l i n t e r e s t , and t h e exe-c u t i o n o f ' s o c i a l j u s t i c e ' w i l l f a v o u r i n d i r e c t l y t h e n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t as w e l l as d i r e c t l y t h e l o c a l i n t e r e s t . T hus, by i n c r e a s i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n , t h e s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g o f t h e l o c a l p e o p l e w i l l be r a i s e d w h i l e t h e i n c r e a s e o f t o t a l n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n i s one o f t h e u l t i m a t e g o a l s o f t h e p l a n n e r . ' S o c i a l j u s t i c e ' i n t h i s c o n t e x t means t h e e l i m i n a t i o n o f s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c i n e q u a l i t i e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i n e q u a l i t i e s o f a s c r i b e d s t a t u s e s . ( I n I n d i a , f o r example, ' s o c i a l j u s -t i c e ' i m p l i e s t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e c a s t e s ystem.) The a c h i e v e m e n t o f ' s o c i a l j u s t i c e ' , by r e m o v i n g t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d s e c t i o n s o f t h e community by t h e more p r i v i l e g e d s e c t i o n s , w i l l g i v e t h e f o r m e r more c o n t r o l o v e r t h e i r own d e s t i n y and m o t i v a t e them t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r p r o -6 d u c t i o n , so i n c r e a s e t h e n a t i o n a l p r o d u c t i o n g e n e r a l l y . ^ F o r example, see Goswami, U.L., and Roy,•S.C., " I n d i a — r e g i o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s " i n Ruopp, P h i l l i p s , e d . j& A p p r o a c h e s t o Community D e v e l o p m e n t — a symposium i n t r o d u c t o r y  t o p r o b l e m s and method's "of v i l l a g e w e l f a r e i n u n d e r d e v e l o p e d  a r e a s , -The Hague, Bandung, 1953, PP- 303-4. 8 So b o t h l o c a l and n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s w i l l be met. I I I . P u r p o s e o f t h i s E n q u i r y I n Community Development Programmes a s s o c i a l p l a n -n i n g , a t l e a s t t h r e e i m p o r t a n t b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d . They a r e : 1. The improvement o f l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o r p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t o f a community, and t h e r e f o r m a t i o n o f v a l u e s o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h a t community c a n be c a r r i e d o u t by means o f t h i s ' c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h ' w i t h o u t c o n f l i c t . T h i s a s s u m p t i o n f u r t h e r s u p p o s e s t h a t t h e changes i n t r o d u c e d by Community Development w i l l t a k e e f f e c t i n e ach and e v e r y s p h e r e o f s o c i e t y more o r l e s s t o t h e same e x t e n t , a t a b o u t t h e same t i m e , and w i t h t h e same i n t e n s i t y ; t h a t , i n o t h e r w ords, t h e ' c o m p r e h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h ' can a v o i d d i s f u n c t i o n s . 2. The p l a n w i l l be e x e c u t e d by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t -i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f Government; and t h e s e e x e c u t o r s w i l l s u p p o r t t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e p l a n n e r s , as e x p r e s s e d i n t h e p l a n , and any d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t m i g h t a r i s e a t t h e admin-i s t r a t i v e l e v e l can be a n t i c i p a t e d and p r e v e n t e d s i m p l y by a r e f o r m a t i o n . o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a -t i o n . 3. F i n a l l y , a t t h e community l e v e l , t h e l o c a l 9 p e o p l e w i l l r e s p o n d t o t h e p l a n and i t s i d e o l o g y a s so o n as t h e o p p o r t u n i t y i s g i v e n them. However, u n l e s s t h e p l a n n e r s have p a i d p r o p e r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f man's s o c i a l a c t i o n , t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s w i l l n o t h o l d . When t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n (P) i s p a s s e d on t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o be i m p l e m e n t e d , t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ( i n c l u d i n g t h e i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e ) o f t h e b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e v a l u e s e x i s t i n g i n i t , w i l l c a u s e t h e e x e c u t o r s t o r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f t h e p l a n n e r s . The o r i g i n a l p l a n w i l l t h e r e f o r e be d i s t o r t e d ( P ' ) . T h i s d i s t o r t e d p l a n ( P 1 ) w i l l t h e n be e x e c u t e d a t t h e community l e v e l . A t t h i s l e v e l , t h e community p e o p l e w i l l r e s p o n d i n a f u r t h e r d i f f e r e n t manner f r o m t h e p l a n n e r s ' e x p e c t a t i o n s , and t h e p l a n w i l l be d i s t o r t e d f u r t h e r ( P ' T ) . T h i s w i l l be b e c a u s e t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e p l a n p r e s u p p o s e s c e r t a i n p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r , w h i c h a r e i n f a c t d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e v a r i a b l e s , s u c h as v a l u e s and r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s , w h i c h d e t e r m i n e t h e s o c i a l a c t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e com-m u n i t y . The p r o c e s s o f e v a l u a t i o n , w h i c h i n t h e o r y s h o u l d r e v e a l s u c h d i s t o r t i o n s , w i l l i t s e l f be d i s t o r t e d i n s o f a r a s t h e e v a l u a t i o n i s i n t h e hands o f , o r b a s e d upon t h e r e p o r t s o f , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l r e s p o n s i b l e f o r e x e c u t i n g o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e p l a n ; and t h e p l a n a s e v a l u a t e d w i l l be y e t a t h i r d d i s t o r t i o n ( P ' M ) o f t h e o r i g i n a l . 10 B e c a u s e o f t h i s d i s t o r t i o n , t h e f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n w i l l be f a l s e . P h y s i c a l programmes-, i . e . , t h o s e a i m e d a t c h a n g i n g t h e l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e community, w i l l be im-p l e m e n t e d and r e s p o n d e d t o d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m t h o s e programmes aimed a t c h a n g i n g v a l u e s ; w h i c h may t h e r e f o r e l e a d t o c o n -f l i c t s b e tween t h e two aims o f r a i s i n g l i v i n g s t a n d a r d s and e n s u r i n g ' s o c i a l j u s t i c e ' . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o t r a c e t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l p l a n a t e a c h l e v e l f r o m t h e v i e w - p o i n t o f t h e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l a c t i o n . F o r t u n a t e l y i t w i l l n o t be n e c e s s a r y f o r u s t o go d e e p l y i n t o t h e d e t a i l s o f t h e t h e o r y o f s o c i a l a c t i o n , and i t w i l l be s u f f i c i e n t t o o u t -l i n e b r i e f l y the- e l e m e n t a r y c o n c e p t s on w h i c h o u r p e r s p e c t i v e i s b a s e d . An i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l a c t i o n , i . e . , h i s b e h a v i o r i n s o c i e t y , i s d e t e r m i n e d by two s e t s o f i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s : (a) s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , and (b) t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s a t t i t u d e and v a l u e s . S o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n v o l v e s s u c h v a r i a b l e s as s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , s o c i a l norm, s t a t u s , r o l e , a n d r e f e r e n c e g r o u p . By ' s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e ' , we mean t h e o r d e r i n g , o r e n d u r i n g p a t t e r n , o f s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t h i s o r d e r i n g , t h e r e a r e 'norms' o r s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s r e g u l a t i n g t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r and demanding c o n f o r m i t y t o t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . T h e r e a r e a l s o s e t s o f v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n w h i c h t h e i n d i v i d u a l o c c u p i e s a g i v e n p o s i t i o n ; t h i s p o s i t i o n i s h i s ' s t a t u s ' . The p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h 11 t h e s t a t u s i n c o n f o r m i t y w i t h s o c i a l e x p e c t a t i o n s , or norms, i s c a l l e d t h e ' r o l e ' . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s b e h a v i o r i n the s t a t u s w i l l a l s o be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e r e f e r e n c e group i n t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , f o r the r e f e r e n c e group w i l l p r o v i d e the t y p e o f norms t h a t t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l f o l l o w . A l l t h e s e v a r i a b l e s d e termine t h e s o c i a l a c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l f r om o u t s i d e . The i n d i v i d u a l ' s v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e d e t e r m i n e h i s b e h a v i o r from i n s i d e , and a r e shown by h i s c h o i c e o f r e f e r e n c e group and o f the norms which he w i l l conform t o o r r e b e l a g a i n s t . T h i s a t t i t u d e may be thought of as t h e g e n e r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g e m o t i o n a l f a c t o r s , of h i s b e h a v i o r ; w h i l e h i s v a l u e s may be t h o u g h t o f as h i s i d e a s of what i s good (or bad) and t h e r e f o r e t o be s t r i v e n f o r (or a g a i n s t ) . When an ' i n p u t ' , o r s e t o f s t i m u l i , i s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l , he w i l l r e s p ond w i t h a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s o f s o c i a l a c t i o n , and so determine h i s 'output' or b e h a v i o r . T h e r e f o r e , t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e responses o f p e o p l e t o community development, we have, f i r s t , t o examine t h e n a t u r e of t h e i n p u t ( i . e . , t h e p l a n ) , second, t o i n v e s t i g -a t e t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and v a l u e s i n v o l v e d ( i . e . , t h o s e of the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e l o c a l c o m m u n i t i e s ) , and, f i n a l l y , t o a n a l y z e t h e o u t p u t ( i . e . t h e v a r i o u s r e s p o n -ses t o the p l a n ) . As t h e s o c i a l p l a n i s c a r r i e d out by exe-c u t o r s upon e x e c u t e e s , we have t o a n a l y z e both t h e s e l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s and v a l u e s , and t h e i r r e s p o n s e s . 12 I V . Scope o f t h i s S t u d y We s h a l l d e m o n s t r a t e t h e above t h e o r e t i c a l propo-. s i t i o n s by a n a l y z i n g t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes o f I n d i a . The r e a s o n s why we c hoose I n d i a a r e s i m p l e . Among t h e s o - c a l l e d ' u n d e r d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s ' ; , I n d i a has t h e l a r g e s t p o p u l a t i o n and t h e s c a l e o f t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t P r o -grammes i s t h e g r e a t e s t i n t h e w o r l d . The r e l a t i v e l y l o n g h i s t o r y o f t h e Programmes makes t h e a n a l y s i s e a s i e r , a n d t h e abundance o f m a t e r i a l i s a l s o e n c o u r a g i n g . I n d i a i s t h e o n l y c o u n t r y w h i c h has an o f f i c i a l e v a l u a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes, and t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s u e s a n n u a l r e p o r t s b a s e d upon e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s . The M i n i s t r y o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t and C o - O p e r a t i o n has p u b l i s h e d many documents w h i c h g i v e i n s i g h t i n t o Government v i e w s o f t h e Programmes. The U n i t e d N a t i o n s has s e n t e x p e r t s f o r e v a l u a t i o n p u r p o s e s and has p u b l i s h e d s e v e r a l r e p o r t s , w h i c h g i v e r e l a -t i v e l y o b j e c t i v e v i e w s o f t h e Programmes. Some I n d i a n a n t h -r o p o l o g i s t s have u n d e r t a k e n i n t e n s i v e community s t u d i e s u n d e r t h e Programmes. J o u r n a l i s t s have p u b l i s h e d t h e i r i m p r e s s i o n s . These s o u r c e s g i v e t h e i n n e r i n f o r m a t i o n on I n d i a n s o c i e t y w h i c h f o r e i g n e r s ' s o m e t i m e s f a i l t o s e c u r e . F i n a l l y , non-I n d i a n s c h o l a r s have c a r r i e d o u t many i n t e n s i v e community s t u d i e s t h a t a r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e i n p u b l i s h e d f o r m . T h e s e r e s e a r c h e r s have t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f s e e i n g w i t h o u t s i d e r s ' e y e s . O f f i c i a l documents can s u p p l y t h e i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h 1 3 n o n - o f f i c i a l agents cannot otherwise secure. The Government of India publications w i l l supply the inner information where-as the UN reports show the outer aspect of the o f f i c i a l p i c t u r e . The n o n - o f f i c i a l agents are less committed to the o f f i c i a l view of the Programmes and are i n t h i s sense more objective. Indian scholars' studies w i l l give the inner information, while non-Indian researchers w i l l reveal the scene with outsiders' o b j e c t i v i t y . Thus the shortcomings of each source are counter-balanced by other sources, so making i t possible to have a sound understanding of the Community Development Programmes in India. As Evelyn W. Hersey stated, -"No one who knows India 7 should have the temerity to generalize on any subject", Since situations d i f f e r from place to place, we- have to narrow the scope of the study. The concept of''community' • i n the Community Development Programmes' i s not c l e a r . The community i s vaguely considered as a u n i t of settlement and i t i s almost i m p l i c i t l y i d e n t i f i e d with v i l l a g e s . ^ But the con-cept of v i l l a g e also v a r i e s . For example, 'village? i s de-fined by the Government of India i n the following way: Hersey, Evelyn W., "Sone Observations on Leader-ship i n India with Special Reference to the Social Welfare F i e l d " , U.S. Community Development Review, 1 9 5 6 September, p. .8. 8 Nath, V., "The V i l l a g e and the Community", i n Turner, Roy, ed., India's Urban Future, University of C a l i f o r n Press, 1 9 6 2 , p. 1 4 2 . • 1 4 I t s h o u l d b e b o r n e i n m i n d t h a t t h e c o n c e p t o f a v i l l a g e i s n o t d e m o g r a p h i c b u t a d m i n -i s t r a t i v e . A s a g e n e r a l r u l e , i t r e p r e s e n t s a p a r c e l o f l a n d , t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f w h i c h a r e d e f i n e d a n d s e t t l e d b y a R e v e n u e S u r v e y o r b y a C a d a s t r a l S u r v e y . I t m a y b e b u t n e e d n o t a l w a y s n e c e s s a r i l y b e a s i n g l e h o u s e c l u s t e r w i t h a l o c a l n a m e , m a r k i n g i t s d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s a s a r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a l i t y . g A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , a ' v i l l a g e ' i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a s o c i a l u n i t . F o r a m o r e v a l i d u n d e r s t a n d i n g , we h a v e t o s e l e c t t h e S t a t e w h i c h f u l f i l s t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e c o n d i t i o n s : 1 . ' I d e n t i t y b e t w e e n t h e r e v e n u e u n i t a n d t h e s e t t l e m e n t u n i t . 2 . T h e p r e d o m i n a n c e o f r i c e - c u l t i v a t i o n a n d t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e n s i t y o f p o p u l a t i o n . 3 . C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s t h a t h a v e b e e n i n o p e r a t i o n f o r a r e a s o n a b l y l o n g t i m e . 1 ^ A c c o r d i n g t o V . N a t h , t h e c l o s e s t a r e a t o t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n i s i n t h e ' d r y ' a r e a o f t h e c o u n t r y . I n t h e s e a r e a s , t h e v i l l a g e i s a t i g h t l y - k n i t u n i t o f s e t t l e m e n t , d i s t i n c t l y m a r k e d o u t f r o m o t h e r s i m i l a r u n i t s . O v e r l a r g e p a r t s o f e a s t e r n I n d i a , t h e r e v e n u e v i l l a g e c o n s i s t s o f t h e m a i n v i l l a g e a n d a n u m b e r o f s m a l l c l u s t e r s o f h o u s e h o l d s ( t h o l l a s ) 7 I b i d . "^ UN', E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t a n d C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t , P a r t I I - A , B a n g k o k , I 9 6 0 , p . 5 . T h e U N e x p e r t s a p p l i e d 2 & 3 i n t h e i r s t u d i e s . 15 e a c h s i t u a t e d w i t h i n i t s own g r o v e o f t r e e s , h a v i n g i t s own s o u r c e o f w a t e r s u p p l y , and s e p a r a t e d f r o m t h e o t h e r s by some d i s t a n c e . I n t h e s e a r e a s , v i l l a g e b o u n d a r i e s a r e n o t c l e a r l y d i s c e r n i b l e . I n M a d r a s and p a r t o f A n d h r a P r a d e s h , t h e s e t t l e m e n t u n i t i s a c l u s t e r o f h o u s e s , w i t h some d i s t a n c e b e -tween them, s u r r o u n d e d by c u l t i v a t e d f i e l d s ; b u t t h e s e ' c l u s t e r s ' a r e n o t c a l l e d v i l l a g e s b u t ' h a m l e t s ' . ' V i l l a g e ' r e f e r s t o an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t conta in ing .10,000 t o 15,000 p e r s o n s . I n K e r a l a , t h e u n i t o f s e t t l e m e n t i s t h e i n d i v i d u a l h o m e s t e a d s i t u a t e d w i t h i n i t s own compound and a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d s . The ' v i l l a g e ' h e r e i s p u r e l y a r t i f i c i a l . I n H i m a c h a l P r a d e s h , t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s v e r y s c a r c e and t h e t y p i c a l u n i t o f s e t t l e m e n t i s t h e ' h a m l e t ' , c o n s i s t i n g o f a v e r y few h o u s e s , sometimes n o t more t h a n two o r t h r e e . 1 1 Thus by t h e f i r s t c r i t e r i o n , o u r s c o p e o f s t u d y s h o u l d be i n N o r t h - W e s t e r n I n d i a , and i n t h e ' d r y ' a r e a s o f t h e c o u n t r y . The s e c o n d c o n d i t i o n r e j e c t s t h e ' d r y ' a r e a s where v e r y l i t t l e r i c e g r o w s . Among t h e N o r t h w e s t e r n s t a t e s , t h e most a c t i v e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes have been c a r r i e d o u t i n U t t a r P r a d e s h . M a t e r i a l i s r e l a t i v e l y abundant r e g a r d i n g t h i s S t a t e . The P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h and A c t i o n I n s t i t u t e , U . P . . , i n Lucknow, i s s u e s many s t u d i e s b a s e d upon t h e i r a c t i o n r e s e a r c h e s . A l b e r t M a y e r and o t h e r s c h o l a r s N a t h , V., o p . c i t . , pp.. 142-3. 16 have p u b l i s h e d t h e r e p o r t of t h e Etawah P r o j e c t . UN e x p e r t s made a case s t u d y o f the Ghosi Community Development B l o c k , U.P.j i n 1958, and t h e UN r e p o r t of t h i s s t u d y i s now a v a i l -a b l e . F i n a l l y , W a l t e r Neale has p u b l i s h e d , i n 1962, a r e p o r t on economic changes i n U.P. v i l l a g e s ' . Because o f t h i s i n t e n s i t y of t h e Programmes and abundance o f a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l , .our s t u d y i s c h i e f l y f o c u s s e d on the S t a t e of U t t a r P r a d e s h . V. O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e T h e s i s In t h e second c h a p t e r , we w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e o u t l i n e of t h e Community Development Programmes o f I n d i a . Then, i n C h a p t e r I I I , we w i l l a n a l y z e t h e Government B u r e a u c r a c y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e s e Programmes. C h a p t e r IV w i l l examine the i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e Programmes and th e B u r e a u c r a c y . V i l l a g e s o c i e t y w i l l be s k e t c h e d i n Chapter V, f o l l o w e d i n Chapter VI by a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e i n t e r a c t i o n between the Programmes and t h e v i l l a g e p e o p l e . The l a s t c h a p t e r w i l l summarize t h e c o n c l u s i o n s o f our s t u d y . 17 CHAPTER II THE COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES IN INDIA I. Background Community Development i n India began i n 1952. According to the census of the previous year (which was also the year i n which the f i r s t Five Year Plan was launched), 80 per cent of the working population was engaged i n a g r i c u l -ture, and 300 m i l l i o n people were l i v i n g i n the r u r a l areas of India. The number of v i l l a g e s was 558,089, of which 70 • per cent of them had population of less than 500 persons. 1 The v i l l a g e s were isola t e d from each other, roads between v i l l a g e s being poor. Sources of information, such as radio sets and newspapers, bringing news about the outside world, were few and f a r between. Formal education was r e s t r i c t e d to primary schools, and there were not many even of these.-2 Farming methods were s t i l l primitive. The caste system was s t i l l strong, caste p o s i t i o n and socio-economic status i n each Planning Commission, New India...progress through  democracy, Macmillan,. New York, 1958, p. 160. ^Fukutake, Tadashi, Sekai Nohson no Tabi (Journey of the Rural Vi l l a g e s i n the World), Tokyo University Press, 1962, p. 134, has observed, "I am in c l i n e d to think that the Indian r i c e c u l t i v a t i o n method i s i n the stage of 17th century Japan." (my translation...M.S.). 18 community b e i n g c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d . The p o s s e s s i o n o f l a n d i s s u b j e c t t o g r e a t i n e q u a l -i t i e s . I n 1951, f o r example, t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e v i l l a g e r s h e l d e i g h t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f t h e l a n d , and f i f t e e n 3 p e r c e n t o f t h e v i l l a g e r s had no l a n d a t a l l . Of t h e v i l l a g e p o p u l a t i o n , t h i r t y p e r c e n t were a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r -e r s ; t h i s c l a s s , w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e v i l l a g e r s w i t h o u t l a n d , i s t h e l o w e s t s t r a t u m o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . I n d i a has g r e a t a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s , b u t t h e s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s e t - u p o f r u r a l s o c i e t y p l a c e s g r e a t o b s t a c l e s t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e p o t e n t i a l s . The warm c l i m a t e p e r m i t s t h e g r o w i n g o f two t o t h r e e c r o p s e a c h y e a r . Though I n d i a a l r e a d y has t h e h i g h e s t a r e a o f i r r i g a t e d l a n d i n t h e w o r l d , i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o e x t e n d t h i s a r e a f u r t h e r . The abundance o f cheap l a b o u r i n r u r a l a r e a s w i l l p e r m i t m ethods o f i n t e n s i v e f a r m i n g ; t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y i s f o r t u n a t e b e c a u s e t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e p e o p l e , i n v o l v i n g as i t does a g r e a t s h o r t a g e o f c a p i t a l and an enormous l a t e n t unemployment, r e n d e r s t h e e x t e n s i v e m e c h a n i z a t i o n o f a g r i c u l t u r e i m p r a c t i c a l . B u t t h e o b s t a c l e s t o r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s a r e v e r y g r e a t . As t h e p o p u l a t i o n grows, t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f l a n d i n i n h e r i t a n c e i n c r e a s e s , u n t i l t h e amount o f l a n d owned by e ven a s m a l l f a m i l y i s t o o s m a l l t o s u p p o r t them even by i n - ' P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , op. c i t . , p. 160. 19 tensive farming methods. Thus i n 1951, 53 per cent of the farmers each owned less than 5 acres. The extremely low i n -come of most of the farmers further has the r e s u l t , i n some areas, that 80 per cent of them have to obtain loans i n order to get seeds and other e s s e n t i a l supplies. The population i s r e a l l y larger than can be adequately supported even by a system of intensive farming requiring a large labour supply. Ninety m i l l i o n people, f o r example, are estimated as latent unem-ployed.^" ' To rai s e the standard of l i v i n g of these poor people as well as to increase the non-agricultural employment are the urgent tasks of the young Indian Government. The s o c i a l and economic development of r u r a l areas must be the key f o r modernization of Independent India. Before the Community Development Programmes, there were many indigenous pioneer projects f o r r u r a l reconstruction.. Rabindranath Tagore started Rural Reconstruction work at Sriniketan i n 1921. Tagore Ts project's basic tone was 'social j u s t i c e ' . ^ Vinoba Bhave's Movement for Gramdan and Gram Swaraj has ca r r i e d out Mahatma Gandhi's ideology of r u r a l re-construction: the new society integrated and classless., the f u l l y autonomous and s e l f - r e l i a n t - v i l l a g e community. In 1927, ^Planning Commission, op. c i t . , pp. 162-3. ^Elmhirst, Leonard, "Rabindranath Tagore and S r i n i k -etan" i n Ministry of Community Development and Co-operation, Evolution of Community Development Programme i n India, Govern-ment of India, 1963, pp.. 1-14. 20 G.L. Brayne of the Punjab State started a new v i l l a g e develop-ment project c a l l e d "the Gurgaon Scheme". The basic charact-e r i s t i c s of t h i s approach were the comprehensiveness and co-ordination of programmes.^ The Rural Reconstruction Movement i n Baroda State i n the 1930's aimed at "a rapid increase i n 7 standard's of l i v i n g " . There, the emphasis was upon economic development. The ultimate target was i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h i s programme was the attempt to change the s o c i a l structure and value system by s o c i a l and economic l e g i s l a t i o n . F i r k a Development Scheme i n Madras State i n the 1940's was one of the proto-types of present Community Development Programmes. From t h i s scheme, the con-cept of Gram Sevak was developed. F i n a l l y , the most impor-tant p i l o t project i n t h i s sphere was the Etawah Project. Albert Mayer started the project i n 97 v i l l a g e s of the Etawah D i s t r i c t i n the State of Uttar Pradesh i n 1948. In his proj-ect, the f i e l d workers were called " V i l l a g e Level Workers", a term equivalently used i n Gram Sevak i n the Firk a Scheme. -The success of the project paved the way for the Indo-U.S. Co-operation Agreement of 1952 for the expansion of the ^Verma, S.R., "The Gurgaon E x p e r i m e n t " i n Min. of CD. & Coop., op. c i t . , pp. 27-35. 7 Krishnamachari, V.T., "Community Development i n Baroda State", i n Min. of CD. & Coop., op.- c i t . , p. 37. 8 Dube, S.C, India's Changing V i l l a g e s . . .human  factors i n community development, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1958, p. 10. 21 Community Development Programmes on a l a r g e s c a l e . In March 1950, the Government of I n d i a set up the Planning Commission. The Commission published the d r a f t o u t l i n e of a n a t i o n a l plan of development to cover a period pf f i v e years from A p r i l 1951 to March 1956. In s p i t e of desperate need f o r i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n , the much more urgent task of saving the people from s t a r v a t i o n has to assign 45 per cent of the t o t a l budget to the a g r i c u l t u r a l sphere. To grow more food g r a i n was the short term t a r g e t ; and the development of r u r a l community, the long term t a r g e t . Behind t h i s Rive Year Plan , there were a l s o a number of urgent problems to be solved p o l i t i c a l l y i n p a r a l l e l w i t h the s o c i a l problems mentioned i n the beginning of t h i s chapter. They were: (a) the shortage of food since the Second World War;.(b) the l o s s of commercial crop area and reduction of i r r i g a t e d area caused by Pakistan's gaining independence; (c) the r i s e i n unemployment i n r u r a l v i l l a g e s due to the i n -rush of refugees from P a k i s t a n ; and f i n a l l y (d) the great burden placed on India's f o r e i g n monetary p o l i c y by the im-Q p o r t a t i o n of a g r i c u l t u r a l crops. The Commission suggested three programmes to cope w i t h these problems: (a) a Land Reform programme a b o l i s h i n g the z a m i n d a r i , f i x i n g a c e i l i n g on the amount of land h e l d by any s i n g l e person, and r e -^Fukazawa, Hachiro "Indo no Nogyoh Mondai no Temboh" ( A g r i c u l t u r a l Problems i n I n d i a ) , Toyoh Bunka ( O r i e n t a l Culture) No. 28, Toyoh Bunka Kenkyusho, Tokyo University,Dec., 1959,p.25, 22 o r g a n i z i n g a g r i c u l t u r e by c o n s o l i d a t i n g s m a l l h o l d i n g s and p r e v e n t i n g f u r t h e r f r a g m e n t a t i o n ; (b) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f community c r e d i t - c o - o p e r a t i v e s t o s u p p l y t h e b a d l y - n e e d e d c a p i t a l f o r i n v e s t m e n t on t h e r e - d i s t r i b u t e d l a n d ; and (c) Community Development t o c o - o r d i n a t e t h e s e programmes f o r t h e more e f f e c t i v e d e v e l o p m e n t o f community as s u c h . I I . O u t l i n e o f t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes The Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes s t a r t e d on t h e S e c o n d o f O c t o b e r , 1952, t h e b i r t h d a y o f Mahatma G a n d h i . The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e Programmes was d e f i n e d a s f o l l o w s : The o b j e c t i v e o f t h e Community Development Programme i s t o a s s i s t e ach v i l l a g e f i r s t i n h a v i n g e f f e c t i v e p a n c h a y a t s , c o - o p e r a t i v e s , and s c h o o l s ; and t h r o u g h t h e s e v i l l a g e i n s t i t u t i o n s p l a n and c a r r y o u t i n t e g r a t e d , m u l t i p h a s e d fam-i l y , v i l l a g e , B l o c k and D i s t r i c t p l a n s f o r i n -c r e a s i n g a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n ; i m p r o v i n g e x i s t i n g v i l l a g e c r a f t s and i n d u s t r i e s and o r -g a n i z i n g new ones; p r o v i d i n g minimum e s s e n t i a l h e a l t h s e r v i c e s and i m p r o v i n g h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s ; p r o v i d i n g r e q u i r e d e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l d r e n a n d an a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programme; p r o -v i d i n g r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and programmes, i m p r o v i n g h o u s i n g and f a m i l y l i v i n g c o n d i t i o n s ; and p r o v i d i n g programmes f o r v i l l a g e women and y o u t h . 1 0 M i n . o f C D . & Coop.-, A G u i d e t o Community  D e v e l o p m e n t , ( R e v i s e d ) , 1962;, p. 1. 23 I n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f s o c i a l p l a n n i n g o f t h i s t y p e w h i c h w e h a v e r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r I a r e c l e a r l y r e v e a l e d . T h e a p p r o a c h i s " p r o g r e s s t h r o u g h d e m o c r a c y " . 1 " ' ' T h e o u t l i n e o f t h e p l a n i s f o r m u l a t e d u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f P a r l i a m e n t , a n d t h e p l a n i s t h e n i m p l e m e n t e d ( i d e a l l y ) w i t h t h e u n f o r c e d c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e r s . T h e v i l l a g e r s v o l -u n t a r i l y p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e P r o g r a m m e s a n d t h e n w h e n g o v e r n -m e n t a l a s s i s t a n c e e n d s , c o n t i n u e t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p m e n t t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s i s n a m e d by t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a " P e o p l e ' s P a r t i c i p a t i o n " . I n t h i s a p p r o a c h , t h e r e i s a n u n d e r l y i n g p o s t u l a t e w h i c h i s f o r m u l a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : I f p e o p l e w e r e g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f -h e l p , t h e y w o u l d r e s p o n d w i t h t h e i r s k i l l s , e n t h u s i a s m , a n d e n e r g i e s t o a c h i e v e t h e i r o w n a d v a n c e m e n t . T h e i m a g e o f t h e i d e a l s o c i e t y d e s c r i b e d b y t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n i s t h e i n t e g r a t e d w h o l e o f t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s b y t h e s p e c i f i c p r o g r a m m e s c i t e d a b o v e i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e o b -j e c t i v e s o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t . T h e ' a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l b e e x p l a i n e d i n " ' ' " ' " P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n ' , o p . c i t . , c f - . t h e s u b t i t l e . 1 2 P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , o p . c i t . , p . 1 6 9 . 24 t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . I n b r i e f , t h e p l a n s a r e f o r m u l a t e d by t h e C e n t r a l Government, and a r e s e n t t o e a c h S t a t e Government t o be c a r r i e d o u t . Under e a c h S t a t e Government, t h e r e a r e D i s t r i c t l e v e l o r g a n i z a t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h i n t u r n B l o c k s a r e s e t up. I n t h e B l o c k , t h e B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r i s t h e head o f a team o f E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s who a r e e x p e r t s o f v a r i o u s f i e l d s . A t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l , Gram Sevak o r V i l l a g e L e v e l W o r k e r s f u n c t i o n as m u l t i - p u r p o s e e x t e n s i o n a g e n t s . The programmes t o be e x e c u t e d a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l a r e d e t e r -m ined by a g r e e m e n t between Gram S e v a k s and V i l l a g e P a n c h a y a t s 13 ( v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s ) . I n t h i s way i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t v i l l a g e i n t e r e s t s w i l l be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e programmes. The Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes i n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e o f t h e F i r s t F i v e Y e a r P l a n were t o l a s t t h r e e y e a r s . E a c h P r o j e c t w i t h i n a Programme was t o i n v o l v e t h r e e B l o c k s . E a c h B l o c k was t o c o v e r 100 v i l l a g e s w i t h 66,000 p e o p l e , and Rs. 6,500,000 were t o be a l l o t t e d t o e a c h p r o j e c t s I n 1953, t h e N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e was i n t r o d u c e d t o a r e a s n o t y e t u n d e r t h e Community Development Programmes. B l o c k s i n t h e N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e were o f t h e same s i z e as Community D e v e l o p m e n t B l o c k s , b u t were a l l o t t e d o n l y Rs. 450,000, and D e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s were l e s s e x t e n s i v e . A f t e r t h r e e y e a r s o f o p e r a t i o n as N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e B l o c k s , t h e s e u n i t s A b o u t t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t s we w i l l e x p l a i n i n a l a t e r c h a p t e r . 25 w e r e t o b e c o n v e r t e d i n t o G o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t B l o c k s . A t t h e s a m e t i m e a s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e , t h e d u r a t i o n o f a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t B l o c k s w a s e x t e n d e d f r o m t h r e e t o s i x y e a r s . I n 1957, a S t u d y T e a m w a s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e C o m m i t t e e o n P l a n P r o j e c t s ; a n d a s a r e s u l t o f t h e T e a m ' s r e p o r t , t h e p a t t e r n o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s w a s a g a i n r e v i s e d i n A p r i l 1 9 5 8 : . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s n e w p l a n , t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s w e r e t o l a s t f o r t e n y e a r s : f i v e y e a r s f o r S t a g e I a n d a n o t h e r f i v e y e a r s f o r S t a g e I I . T h e b u d g e t f o r S t a g e I w a s t o b e R s . 1 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r B l o c k , a n d f o r S t a g e I I , R s . 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 p e r B l o c k . D e v e l o p m e n t i n t h e f i r s t s t a g e w a s t o b e i n t e n s i v e , r e s e m b l i n g t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t B l o c k s o f t h e f i r s t F i v e Y e a r P l a n ; i n t h e s e c o n d s t a g e , d e v e l o p m e n t w a s t o r e s e m b l e t h e l e s s i n t e n s i v e p a t t e r n o f t h e N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e B l o c k s . S i n c e t h e t o t a l a m o u n t b u d g e t e d f o r e a c h B l o c k u n d e r t h e n e w p l a n w a s n o t m u c h d i f f e r -e n t f r o m t h e t o t a l p r o v i d e d u n d e r t h e p r e v i o u s b u t s h o r t e r p l a n s , t h e f u n d s a v a i l a b l e a n n u a l l y t o a B l o c k f o r d e v e l o p m e n t w e r e l e s s t h a n i n t h e o l d e r p r o g r a m m e s . T h i s p a t t e r n i s t h e o n e s t i l l i n f o r c e . I n a B l o c k a t S t a g e I , a t o t a l s t a f f o f 44 p e r s o n s i s e m p l o y e d , m a d e u p o f o n e B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r , e i g h t E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s , t w e l v e G r a m S e v a k s ( i n c l u d i n g t w o w o m e n ) , a n d m e d i c a l , e d u c a t i o n a l , a n d o t h e r p e r s o n n e l . I n a B l o c k a t 2 6 S t a g e I I , t h e n u m b e r o f E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s a n d G r a m S e v a k s d o n o t v a r y , b u t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l a n d m e d i c a l s t a f f s a r e t r a n s -f e r r e d t o o t h e r B l o c k s . A s t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e i s a c o m p r e -h e n s i v e a p p r o a c h b y i t s v e r y n a t u r e , t h e c o n t e n t o f p r o g r a m m e s c o v e r s a l m o s t a l l t h e s p h e r e s o f v i l l a g e l i f e s u c h a s p o l i t y ( v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t } , e c o n o m y ( i m p r o v e m e n t o f m e a n s o f p r o d u c t i o n a n d t e c h n o l o g y ) , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , h o u s i n g a n d r e c r e a t i o n . S . C . D u b e h a s d e s c r i b e d ( s e e T a b l e 1 o f A p p e n d i x ) t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s a s i n v o l v i n g e i g h t s p h e r e s o f a c t i v i t y : a g r i c u l t u r e a n d r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , e d u c a t i o n , h e a l t h , t r a i n i n g , s o c i a l w e l f a r e , s u p p l e m e n t a r y e m p l o y m e n t , a n d h o u s i n g . A m o n g t h e e i g h t s p h e r e s , t h e s p h e r e o f a g r i c u l t u r e a n d r e l a t e d c o n c e r n s h a s t h e l o n g e s t l i s t o f p r o p o s e d p r o j e c t s , i n c l u d i n g u s e o f i m p r o v e d s e e d s a n d c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r , a n d t h e e x t e n s i o n o f i r r i g a t i o n . . I n t h e s e c o n d s p h e r e , r o a d b u i l d i n g i s t h e m a i n p r o g r a m m e . E d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e s e l e m e n t a r y f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n f o r s c h o o l - a g e c h i l d r e n , a n d l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s a n d r e l a t e d p r o g r a m m e s f o r a d u l t s . I n " t h e s p h e r e o f h e a l t h , o n e o f t h e m o s t p o p u l a r p r o j e c t s i s t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f D r i n k i n g - W a t e r W e l l s . O t h e r s p h e r e s ' p r o g r a m m e s a l s o i n v o l v e a v a r i e t y o f p r o j e c t s , b u t n o t s o m a n y a s i n t h e f i r s t f o u r s p h e r e s . E a c h p r o g r a m m e h a s i t s p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s e t b y t h e C e n t r a l G o v e r n m e n t o r t h e S t a t e G o v e r n m e n t s , a n d s t a t i s t i c a l r e p o r t s o f t h e p h y s i c a l a c h i e v e m e n t a r e p r e p a r e d i n o r d e r t h a t 27 t h e G o v e r n m e n t s c a n a l w a y s m a k e a s o u n d e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m m e s . T h e m e t h o d s o f c a r r y i n g o u t t h e s e p r o g r a m m e s d e p e n d u p o n ' P e o p l e ' s P a r t i c i p a t i o n ' . We h a v e a l r e a d y b r i e f l y d i s -c u s s e d t h e i d e o l o g i c a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h i s n o t i o n , b u t t h e r e i s a l s o a m o r e n a r r o w l y e c o n o m i c r e a s o n f o r i t . A s w e h a v e n o t e d , t h e t o t a l b u d g e t a v a i l a b l e i s v e r y s m a l l t o c r e a t e r e m a r k a b l e c h a n g e s ' i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . T o c o v e r t h e s h o r t a g e , g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e h a s b e e n a t t a c h e d t o t h e v i l l a g e r ' s c o n t r i b u -t i o n . T h e a m e n i t i e s r e q u i r e e x p e n d i t u r e s w h i c h a r e m a n y t i m e s m o r e t h a n t h e f i n a n c e s p r o v i d e d f o r t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s . A c c o r d i n g t o G o v e r n m e n t e s t i m a t e s , t h e r e a r e a b o u t 5 0 , 0 0 0 a d u l t m a l e w o r k e r s i n a p r o j e c t a r e a , w h o , o n t h e a v e r a g e , a r e i d l e h a l f o f t h e y e a r . I f o n e q u a r t e r o f t h i s i d l e t i m e c o u l d b e u s e d f o r t h e P r o g r a m m e s w h i c h a r e f o r t h e v i l l a g e r s ' b e n e f i t , i t w o u l d a m o u n t t o a c o n t r i b u t i o n o f m o r e t h a n R s . 7 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 d u r i n g t h e t h r e e - y e a r p e r i o d . T h u s ( a ) t e n p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t o f . i r r i g a t i o n ; ( b ) 2 5 p e r c e n t o f t h e c o s t o f d r a i n a g e a n d d r i n k i n g - w a t e r s u p p l y , a n d b u i l d i n g s f o r s c h o o l s a n d d i s p e n s a r i e s , ( c ) 5 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e c a p i t a l c o s t o f c o m m u n i t y c e n t r e s , o r ( d ) t h e e n t i r e c o s t o f o r d i n a r y r o a d s a r e e s t i m a t e d i n t h e P r o g r a m m e s ' b u d g e t t o c o m e f r o m t h i s s o u r c e . 1 ^ U N , R e p o r t o f t h e M i s s i o n o n C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a - t i o n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n S o u t h a n d S o u t h e a s t A s i a , p p . 9 0 - 9 1 . 28 According t'o the o r i g i n a l plan, by the end of the Second Five Year Plan (March 1961), the whole of India would be covered by 3,808 Community Development Blocks.' However, i t was l a t e r r e a l i z e d by Government o f f i c i a l s that the estimate wa's too o p t i m i s t i c , and the plan was therefore revised during the Second Five Year Plan so that by October, 1963, the country would be covered by 5,222g Blocks. To administer t h i s many projects, the Government needs an enormous number of administrative personnel and tech-nicians and other s p e c i a l i s t s . U n t i l the end of March 1963, 43 cent\©P^ trained 15,865 Gram Sevaks i n a year. In 1955, 25 centres for female o f f i c i a l s were set up. Under the Second Five Year Plan, 200,000 new workers (Gram Sevaks, administrat-ive s t a f f , Extension O f f i c e r s , and Social Education Organizers) were needed.. To meet the need, 6 l t r a i n i n g centres and 91 basic a g r i c u l t u r a l schools were planned. The achievements of these i n s t i t u t i o n s are shown i n the Appendix, Table 2, Candidates f o r Gram Sevak posts should have minimal formal education of eleven years or more, except for r t r i b a l s r of whom only nine years of formal education are- required. The trainees receive one year of t r a i n i n g followed by six months extension work. At the administrative o f f i c e r t r a i n i n g schools, two 1 5 M i n. of CD. & Coop., Community Development  Programme.. ..third f i v e year .plan,,, 1961, p. 4. 29 types of personnel are t r a i n e d . The candidates f o r Block Development O f f i c e r should be u n i v e r s i t y graduates. U n t i l 1955, these candidates received s i x weeks' t r a i n i n g , but since then, have been given eight weeks. Another type of t r a i n e e , c o n s i s t i n g of persons sent from other government departments, i s given r e - o r i e n t a t i o n c l a s s e s l a s t i n g s i x weeks. There are f i v e i n s t i t u t e s f o r the t r a i n i n g of S o c i a l Education Organizers. But the d e f i n i t i o n of ' S o c i a l education' i s not c l e a r , and these i n s t i t u t e s are not a c t i v e . 1 . In the e v a l u a t i v e aspects of Community Development, In d i a i s the pioneer. In the Planning Commission, there i s an o f f i c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n whose s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n i s the e v a l u a t i o n of the Community Development Programmes. I t i s c a l l e d the Programme E v a l u a t i o n Organization. The country i s d i v i d e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y i n t o three areas, each with an E v a l u a t i o n O f f i c e r i n charge. W i t h i n each of these d i s t r i c t s , there are'twenty-three p r o j e c t teams each composed of an E v a l u a t i o n P r o j e c t O f f i c e r and s e v e r a l a s s i s t a n t s . These o f f i c e r s are from the f i e l d s of economics, s o c i o l o g y , and a g r i c u l t u r e , and carry out various s t a t i s t i c a l and q u a l i t a t i v e s t u d i e s . Reports are compiled by the Organization i n the ICA, Community Development Programs i n I n d i a , P a k i s t a n and the P h i l i p p i n e s , p p . 45-46. 30 form of annual reports, and consulted and discussed i n the A l l -India Conference of Community Development, and other seminars about the Community Development Programmes. The coverage by Blocks i n terms of population and number of v i l l a g e s included, i s shown i n Table 3 of the Appendix. According to t h i s table, as of October 1st , 1962, almost ten years after the beginning of the Programmes, the coverage was as high as 6 8 per cent. About 74 per cent of the v i l l a g e s i n India are under the Community Development Programmes i n either Stage I or Stage I I . Among the States, Jammu-and-Kashmir was completely covered as early as I960. Second i s Kerala (74 per cent), followed by Andhra Pradesh (73 per cent),. Punjab (73 per cent), and Bihar (73 per cent). The State of Uttar Pradesh has a coverage of 67 per cent, which represents the arithmetic mean. The lowest coverages are i n Assam ($2 per cent) and West Bengal (56 per cent). Considering the density of population, however, Uttar Pradesh i s by no means average, but one of the leading states i n Community Development. During the f i r s t Five Year Plan, according to the Planning Commission, the Programmes achieved the following: 1. 1 , 5 0 0 new schools started. 2. In certain d i s t r i c t s , the number of school attendants increased two to four times. 31 3. One m i l l i o n p e o p l e a t t e n d i n g l i t e r a c y s c h o o l s . 4. 1,000 h e a l t h and m a t e r n i t y c e n t r e s s e t up. 5. 101,000 w e l l s newly b u i l t o r r e n o v a t e d . 6. 92,000 houses b u i l t . 7. 33,000 houses improved. 8. 56,000 m i l e s of v i l l a g e roads b u i l t or r e p a i r e d . 9. 321,429 m e t r i c t o n s of f e r t i l i z e r d i s t r i b u t e d . 10. 160,714 m e t r i c t o n s o f improved seeds d i s -t r i b u t e d . 11. 2 m i l l i o n a c r e s o f l a n d i r r i g a t e d . 12. 9,500 community c e n t r e s c o n s t r u c t e d . 13. 69,000 v i l l a g e c l u b s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f women and men, young and o l d , o r g a n i z e d . 14. 34,000 panchayats c r e a t e d as a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l v i l l a g e governments.-^ Some more r e c e n t achievements a r e shown i n T a b l e 4 o f the Appendix. At t h e end o f t h e Second F i v e Year P l a n , t h e achievements a r e s e v e r a l t i m e s more th a n t h a t of th e F i r s t F i v e Year P l a n because o f t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Programmes. Bu t , t h e average a c h i e v e m e n t s - p e r - B l o c k f i g u r e . I s not v e r y i m p r e s s i v e . - F o r example, 135 improved implements'are P l a n n i n g Commission, op. c i t . , pp. 175-6. 32 d i s t r i b u t e d p e r B l o c k o f a b o u t 1 0 0 v i l l a g e s ; t h i s m e a n s 1 . 3 5 i m p l e m e n t s p e r . v i l l a g e a t a n a v e r a g e p o p u l a t i o n i n e a c h v i l l a g e o f 5 0 0 . O n e r u r a l l a t r i n e w a s c o n s t r u c t e d f o r e a c h t w o v i l -l a g e s . O n e d r i n k i n g - w a t e r w e l l w a s c o n s t r u c t e d a m o n g s i x o r s e v e n v i l l a g e s . T h r e e ' a d u l t s p e r v i l l a g e b e c a m e l i t e r a t e a s t h e r e s u l t o f S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n , a n d 0 . 0 6 m i l e s o f r o a d w a s c o n s t r u c t e d i n e a c h v i l l a g e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e p r e - I n d e p e n d e n c e p e r i o d , h o w e v e r , t h e s e a c h i e v e m e n t s s h o u l d n o t b e u n d e r - v a l u e d . T h i s r a t e o f a c h i e v e m e n t w i l l d e c l i n e i n f u t u r e f o r t w o r e a s o n s : ( a ) s h o r t a g e o f i m p r o v e d s e e d a n d f e r t i l i z e r , a s h o r t a g e b e y o n d t h e P r o g r a m m e s ' c o n t r o l , a n d ( b ) t h e g r a d u a l s p r e a d o f . t h e p r o g r a m m e s f r o m m o r e p r o g r e s s i v e t o l e s s p r o -g r e s s i v e a r e a s . 1 3 T h e r a t e o f g r o w t h i n I n d i a n C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t i s n e a r l y a t t h e e n d ' o f t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f r a p i d i n c r e a s e , a n d i s a p p r o a c h i n g a p e r i o d o f s t a t i o n a r y r a t e o f g r o w t h . I l l , T h e E x e c u t i o n o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s F o u r s t e p s - i n c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t m a y b e d i s -t i n g u i s h e d : . 1 . C o m m u n i c a t i o n o f t h e d e s i r e d p r i n c i p l e s b y t h e p l a n n e r s t o m e m b e r s o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . " ^ U N , C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p - m e n t , P a r t I , B a n g k o k , I 9 6 0 , " p . . 3 3 . "~~ ~~ " 33 2t I m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f p r o j e c t s i n t h e community. 3. P e r s u a s i o n o f t h e p e o p l e . 4 . Change o f t h e v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s , o f t h e members o f t h e community. I n p r a c t i c e , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new i d e o l o g y , k n owledge and t e c h n o l o g y i n t o t h e community w i l l c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e f i r s t s t a g e , w h i c h i s f o l l o w e d by t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s and t h e - p e o p l e ' s a d o p t i o n o f t h e new knowledge, i d e o l o g y and t e c h n o l o g y . The f i n a l s t a g e i s h a r d f o r t h e e x e c u t o r s t o o b s e r v e , and v e r y l i t t l e i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e . T h e r e f o r e , i n t h i s s e c t i o n , o n l y t h e f i r s t t h r e e s t a g e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d , A. C o m m u n i c a t i o n P r o c e s s F u n d a m e n t a l l y two l e v e l s o f i n f o r m a t i o n must be communicated: m a c r o s c o p i c p l a n s and t a r g e t s , and m i c r o s c o p i c p l a n s and t a r g e t s . The f o r m e r a r e c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e n a t i o n -a l i n t e r e s t s w h i c h t h e Government o f I n d i a i s s t r u g g l i n g t o meet, and f o r w h i c h t h e programmes a r e p r e p a r e d as t h e remedy. They a r e t h e m a j o r programmes p r e s e n t e d i n t h e F i v e Y e a r P l a n s s u c h a s Land Reform, C r e d i t - C o - o p e r a t i v e , and V i l l a g e P a n c h a y a t and so on. The " m i c r o s c o p i c " p l a n s and t a r g e t s a r e o f two k i n d s : (a) m a j o r o r l o n g - t e r m programmes i n v o l v i n g o f S t a t e o r a u n i o n o f s e v e r a l B l o c k s , f o r example, c o n s t r u c -t i o n o f a dam' o r m a j o r i r r i g a t i o n .system; and (b) programmes on t h e l e v e l o f a s i n g l e B l o c k y : ' a . v i l l a g e . , o r an i n d i v i d u a l 34 h o u s e h o l d , a i m i n g a t such t h i n g s as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a minor i r r i g a t i o n system, a d r i n k i n g water w e l l , o r a s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , and t h e use of improved seed, or new f a r m i n g t e c h -n i q u e s . Three t y p e s of media are used t o communicate such i n f o r m a t i o n : (a) mass communication media such as p r e s s , r a d i o , b o o k l e t s , and movies; (b) a u d i o - v i s u a l media such as photo-graphs, s l i d e s , p o s t e r s , models, and drama; and (c) o r a l com-m u n i c a t i o n such as p u b l i c speech meetings, d i s c u s s i o n meet-i n g s , and c l a s s e s f o r a d u l t p e o p l e . These media a r e a p p l i e d on t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l (mass communication media), S t a t e l e v e l (mass communication m e d i a ) , B l o c k l e v e l ( a u d i o - v i s u a l m e d i a ) , and v i l l a g e l e v e l ( a u d i o - v i s u a l media and o r a l c ommunication). A c c o r d i n g t o Dube's o b s e r v a t i o n s "speeches were r e g a r d e d , i n p r a c t i c e i f not i n t h e o r y , as the most e f f e c t i v e media o f communicating a new programme t o t h e p e o p l e . "-^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n a U.P. v i l l a g e he s t u d i e d , f i f t y per cent of t h e v i l l a g e r s i n t e r v i e w e d had not heard of the Community Development Programmes a t a l l . ^ Mass communication media a r e not e f f e c t i v e . S i n c e v e r y few p e o p l e p o s s e s s r a d i o s e t s , t h i s medium of mass com-Dube, op. c i t . , p. 109. W b e , op. c i t . , p. 114. 35 m u n i c a t i o n i s o f r e s t r i c t e d v a l u e . N e w s p a p e r s h a v e a l s o l i m i t e d e f f e c t a s i n r u r a l a r e a s l i t e r a c y i s f a r l o w e r t h a n i n u r b a n a r e a s . T h o u g h a d u l t l i t e r a c y i s o n e o f t h e t a r g e t s o f t h e P r o g r a m m e s , p e r s o n s w h o r e a d t h e p a p e r s a r e u r b a n - o r i e n t e d a n d r e a d t h e m a s " t h e m a r k o f u r b a n i z a t i o n " . 2 - ^ C o n s e q u e n t l y t h e y p a y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o r u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t p r o g r a m m e s . T h e m a j o r i t y i s s h u t o u t f r o m t h e s e m e d i a , a n d m o r e d i r e c t a u d i o - v i s u a l a p p r o a c h e s h a v e b e c o m e e m p h a s i z e d . 2 2 P o s t e r s , b o o k l e t s a n d p h o t o s a r e n o t v e r y e f f e c t i v e . T h e y a r e d i s t r i b u t e d o n l y t o B l o c k h e a d q u a r t e r s , a n d v e r y f e w p e o p l e h a v e a c h a n c e t o s e e t h e m . M o v i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y n o t i n t e r e s t i n g . T h e y a r e b a n a l a n d c h e e r l e s s . T h e a p p a r a t u s o f t e n b r e a k s d o w n , a n d n o t e c h n i c i a n s t o r e p a i r i t a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e . 2 3 C r o p a n d a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y c o n t e s t s a r e a l s o n o t s u c c e s s f u l . V i l l a g e r s e x p e c t t h a t i f t h e i r c o w c o - o p e r a t e d i n t h e c o n t e s t , t h e e f f o r t s h o u l d b e r e w a r d e d i n s o m e w a y o r a n o t h e r . O t h e r w i s e , t h e y a r e n o t k e e n . T h e p r i z e s f o r t h e c o n t e s t s a r e m a d e u p f r o m e n t r a n c e f e e s . I f p e o p l e a r e n o t 21 D u b e , o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 5 . 22 M i n . o f C D . & C o o p . . , V i s u a l A i d s i n C o m m u n i t y  D e v e l o p m e n t , G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a , 1 9 6 1 . 23 - r D u b e , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 0 6 - 8 . 36 k e e n , t h e c o l l e c t e d f e e s a r e t h e r e f o r e s m a l l . Sometimes, t h e f i r s t p r i z e i s a s l o w as 050. S uch a p r i z e c a n h a r d l y be an i n d u c e m e n t t o e n t e r t h e c o m p e t i t i o n . 2 ^ The p u b l i c a d d r e s s e s a r e o f t e n a b o u t u n f a m i l i a r themes i n u n f a m i l i a r l a n g u a g e , and a r e n o t a l w a y s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e p e o p l e . B u t as f a r as t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a show, p u b l i c a d d r e s s e s a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s r e g a r d e d a s t h e most e f f e c t i v e medium o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n . I n summary, t h o s e who have most c h a n c e s t o g e t i n -f o r m a t i o n a r e t h o s e who need t h e Programmes l e a s t . The f l o w o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s b l o c k e d by t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e community. F u r t h e r , p r o b l e m s o f t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s , a p p a r a t u s e s , o r t e c h n i c i a n s a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s o c i a l s t r u c -t u r e s o f t h e Government B u r e a u c r a c y . F o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Community Development Programmes, t h e s e two a s p e c t s must be a n a l y z e d i n p a r a l l e l . B. I m p l e m e n t a t i o n P r o c e s s I m p l e m e n t a t i o n b e g i n s w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m t h e B l o c k .Development O f f i c e r who h i m s e l f has r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f r o m o u t s i d e t h e B l o c k . The B l o c k Development O f f i c e r t h e n Dube, op, c i t . , p. 118. 37 p a s s e s t h e s e i n s t r u c t i o n s , o r s u c h o f them as may be r e l e v a n t , t o t h e E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s and t h e Gram S e v a k s . The f u n c t i o n o f t h e E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s i s t h e n t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l a d v i c e t o b o t h t h e Gram S e v a k s and t h e v i l l a g e r s . The Gram S e v a k s d i s c u s s t h e p r o p o s e d programmes w i t h t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t s , and t h e p a n c h a y a t s a l l o c a t e p e o p l e and money t o c a r r y o u t t h e p r o j e c t s . T h e s e p r o j e c t s i n v o l v e improvement o f k nowledge, improvement o f t e c h n o l o g y , and improvement o f p h y s i c a l and s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t . "Improvement o f k n o w l e d g e " has two p h a s e s : (a) i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o c a r r y o u t t h e c h a n g e s i n t h e p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t , and (b) i n t r o -d u c t i o n o f new i d e o l o g y t o change t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f p e o p l e ' s s o c i a l a c t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c o n c e p t o f 'improvement' i n t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes i n v o l v e s v a l u e j u d g e m e n t s on t h e p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r s . Programmes i n t h i s s p h e r e have t h r e e a p p r o a c h e s : (a) d e v e l o p m e n t o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , (b) d e v e l o p m e n t o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n - , and (c) t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e . T h r o u g h f o r m a l and a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , t h e new i d e o l o g y i s t o be i n t r o d u c e d , and t h r o u g h t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a -t i o n i s t o be communicated. The e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i s n o t m e r e l y t h e i n s t r u m e n t o f f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n , b u t i s a l s o c o n s i d e r e d more g e n e r a l l y as t h e i n s t r u -ment o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e community. To r u n t h e a d u l t 33 l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s , t o m a k e p r o v i s i o n f o r t h e s u p p l y o f l i t e r a -t u r e , c h a r t s , p o s t e r s , a n d t h e l i k e f o r n e o - l i t e r a t e s , t o o r g a n i z e a n d p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m e s , t o d e v e l o p l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p a m o n g t h e v i l l a g e r s , t o o r g a n i z e s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s o n n a t i o n a l f e s t i v a l s , a n d f i n a l l y t o m o u l d t h e p e o p l e ' s o u t l o o k a n d a t t i t u d e s i n f a v o u r o f v a r i o u s d e v e l o p m e n t 2 5 p r o g r a m m e s , a r e t h e e x p e c t e d t a s k s o f G r a m S e v a k s . T h e s e a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e d b y t h e P r o g r a m m e s a r e s u p p o s e d t o p r o v i d e t h e n e w p a t t e r n o f b e h a v i o r f o r t h e C o m m u n i t y . T o m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e P r o g r a m m e s , n e w v a l u e o r i e n t a t i o n s m u s t b e i n t r o d u c e d i n t h e p e o p l e ' s s o c i a l a c t i o n . U n l e s s s u c h n e w v a l u e s a r e i n d o c t r i n a t e d , t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r o g r a m m e s w o u l d b e u n a b l e t o c r e a t e i n t h e c o m m u n i t y p o p u l a r v o l u n t a r -i s t i c s o c i a l a c t i o n o r i e n t e d t o w a r d s t h e g o a l s e t u p b y t h e p l a n n e r s . O n e o f t h e m o s t w i d e l y a d o p t e d m e t h o d s i n t h e t e c h -n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e p r o g r a m m e s i s t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f i m p r o v e d s e e d s o r c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s . T h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t B l o c k s o m e t i m e s a r r a n g e s a s i g h t - s e e i n g t r i p t o s e e t h e a c t i v i -t i e s o f o t h e r B l o c k s . G r a m S e v a k s e s t i m a t e t h e y i e l d s o f c r o p s b y c r o p - c u t t i n g , o r a c q u a i n t t h e v i l l a g e r s w i t h t h e s c h e m e s P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h a n d A c t i o n I n s t i t u t e , U . . . P ' . , T h e G r a m S e v a k i n - U t t a r P r a d e s h . . . . a s t u d y o f h i s r o l e . . , , w o r k l o a d  a n d r e l a t i o n s h i p s , L u c k n o w , U . P . , 1 9 5 9 , p p . 6 7 - 8 1 39 and f a c i l i t i e s p r o v i d e d by the Community Development Department o f the S t a t e Government, and h e l p them t o d e r i v e b e n e f i t s 2 6 t h e r e f r o m . The term 'environment' has v a r i o u s meanings, and i n no Government documents, i s any c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n f o u n d . F o r the purposes o f t h i s e n q u i r y , we may d i s t i n g u i s h m e d i c a l , e c o l o g i c a l , and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l components o f t h e environment.. R e g a r d i n g t h e m e d i c a l components, p r o j e c t s such as d i s t r i b u -t i o n o f m e d i c i n e s by t h e Gram Sevaks, c o n s t r u c t i o n and im-provement o f d r i n k i n g - w a t e r w e l l s , v a c c i n a t i o n , d i s i n f e c t i o n o f w e l l s , c o n s t r u c t i o n of l a n e s , soakage p i t s , washing p l a t -forms and d r a i n s , c o n s t r u c t i o n of l a t r i n e s ; D.D.T. s p r a y i n g , and home s a n i t a t i o n a r e c a r r i e d o u t . P r o j e c t s o r i e n t e d t o th e e c o l o g i c a l environment i n c l u d e road c o n s t r u c t i o n , con-s t r u c t i o n o f community b u i l d i n g s , and c o n s t r u c t i o n o f b r i d g e s and c u l v e r t s . I n t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r a l a s p e c t , a t t e n t i o n i s g i v e n t o t h e s c h e d u l e d c a s t e s . E f f o r t s are made t h r o u g h f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e earmarked t o improve the l i v i n g q u a r t e r s o f t h e H a r i j a n group. T h i s t a k e s t h e form o f r e h o u s i n g , o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a s a f e d r i n k i n g - w a t e r w e l l f o r use by the H a r i j a n s . A s s i s t a n c e i s g i v e n i n t h e form o f f r e e s l a t e s and books t o those H a r i j a n c h i l d r e n who a t t e n d s c h o o l . " I n the 'PI. Res, & A c t . I n s t i t u t e , op-, c i t . , p. 67. 4 0 p r i m a r y s c h o o l , t h e s e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r e d t o t a k e t h e i r p l a c e a m o n g t h e r e s t w i t h o u t b e i n g m a d e c o n s c i o u s o f t h e i r c a s t e 27 s t a t u s . " B y i m p r o v i n g t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f s u c h s c h e d u l e d c a s t e p e o p l e , t h e p l a n n e r s h o p e t o e l e v a t e t h e m o r a l e a n d t h e r e b y a l s o t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f t h e s e p e o p l e . C . P e o p l e ' s P a r t i c i p a t i o n A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s u r v e y o f t h e I n d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c O p i n i o n L t d . , t o t h e q u e s t i o n " W h i c h p a r t i c u l a r p r o -g r a m m e u n d e r t a k e n i n y o u r a r e a r e c e i v e d t h e g r e a t e s t a c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e ? " , t h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e p e r s o n s i n t e r v i e w e d r e p l i e d t h a t i n t h e i r v i l l a g e , t h e c o n -s t r u c t i o n o f a p p r o a c h - r o a d s r e c e i v e d t h e g r e a t e s t a c t i v e c o -o p e r a t i o n . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f p r i m a r y s c h o o l b u i l d i n g s r e c e i v e d t h e s e c o n d g r e a t e s t s u p p o r t , a n d t h e d i g g i n g o f w e l l s t h e 2 8 t h i r d . P e o p l e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n t a k e s t h e f o r m o f c o n t r i b u -t i o n o r d o n a t i o n . T h e t h i n g s t o b e d o n a t e d w o u l d b e e i t h e r m o n e y , l a n d , g o o d s , o r h u m a n l a b o u r p o w e r . S o m e p e o p l e d o n a t e t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e s e i t e m s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n p r o j e c t s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y s m o o t h l y c a r r i e d o u t , b u t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s w e r e o f t e n 2 7 ' U N , R e p o r t o f a C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t E v a l u a t i o n  M i s s i o n i n I n d i a , N e w Y o r k , I 9 6 0 , P. 7 7 . M i n . o f C D . & C o o p , , A S a m p l e S u r v e y o f P r o g r e s - s i v e F a r m e r s V i s i t i n g t h e W o r l d A g r i c u l t u r e F a i r D e c e m b e r  1 9 5 0 - F e b r u a r y I 9 6 0 , G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a , I 9 6 0 , p . 11. 41 not enjoyed i n the most e f f e c t i v e way. Sometimes v i l l a g e r s ' d i d not know how t o c u l t i v a t e wet crops i n s p i t e o f the con-s t r u c t i o n of i r r i g a t i o n systems by means of t h e i r money and labour power: Many v i l l a g e s b u i l t a new primary school b u i l d i n g , but the attendance was o f t e n only 50 per cent of s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n because of the c a s t e problem. 2^ F o r the use of i n d i v i d u a l c a s t e s , many drin k i n g - w a t e r w e l l s were con-s t r u c t e d i n some v i l l a g e s , thus spending the l i m i t e d money i n an uneconomical manner.30 Once some programme i s over that i s the end of the a f f a i r , and people do not pay any more a t t e n t i o n . When a p u b l i c f a c i l i t y goes out of order, o f t e n no one takes the i n i t i a t i v e i n r e p a i r i n g i t . 3 1 V i l l a g e r s tend to co-operate f o r a p r o j e c t i n the v i l l a g e o n l y to ad-vantage themselves i n d i v i d u a l l y , and they are not bothered by other people's d i f f i c u l t i e s . 3 2 Thus i n the people's r e a c t i o n t o the implementation p r o c e s s are r e v e a l e d the v a l u e s of the people. 28 Min. of C D . & Coop., A Sample Survey of Progress-i v e Farmers V i s i t i n g the World A g r i c u l t u r e F a i r December 1950-February I960, Government of I n d i a , I960, p. 11. 2 ^ N a i r , Kusum, Blossoms i n the Dust...the human  element i n I n d i a n development, Duckworth, London, 1962, p. 69. 30 UN, E v a l u a t i o n M i s s i o n i n I n d i a , p. 55. 3 1 N a i r , op. c i t . , p.- 80. 32 Nair,- op, c i t * - , p.- 94. 42 We have, t h e r e f o r e , i n t h e p r o c e s s o f i m p l e m e n t i n g t h e programmes i n t h e v i l l a g e s , t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s and v a l u e s y s t e m s b o t h o f t h e Government b u r e a u c r a t s and o f t h e v i l l a g e r s . 43 CHAPTER I I I THE GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY I . The F o r m a l A s p e c t The f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p l a n a t t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l i s by t h e n a t i o n a l Development C o u n c i l and t h e C e n t r a l (Community Development) C o m m i t t e e . The N a t i o n a l D e v e l o p m e n t C o u n c i l , w i t h t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r as c h a i r m a n , and t h e c h i e f m i n i s t e r s o f t h e s t a t e s as members, i s t h e h i g h e s t p l a n n i n g a u t h o r i t y o f t h e c o u n t r y . The C e n t r a l Committee c o n s i s t s o f members o f t h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , and a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e M i n i s t e r f o r F o o d and A g r i c u l t u r e and t h e M i n i s t e r f o r Community Development and C o - o p e r a t i o n . The M i n i s t r y o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t and C o - o p e r a -t i o n i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d e t a i l e d p r e p a r a t i o n o f d a t a t o be u s e d f o r p o l i c y f o r m u l a t i o n and f o r g u i d a n c e and a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e S t a t e s i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e programmes. A number o f permanent c o - o r d i n a t i o n c o m m i t t e e s have a l s o b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d f o r l i a i s o n w i t h o t h e r m i n i s t r i e s r e l a t e d t o t h e Programmes. 44 The annua l A l l - I n d i a Conference on Community Develop-ment i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t landmark i n p o l i c y making. The C e n t r a l P a r l i a m e n t a l s o p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n p o l i c y d e t e r m i n a t i o n , the a n n u a l budgetary debate i n P a r l i a m e n t p r o v i d i n g a f o c u s f o r the d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e Programmes' a c h i e v e m e n t s . A c t u a l i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e Programmes i s t h e r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y of S t a t e Governments. The S t a t e Development Committee, w i t h t h e C h i e f M i n i s t e r as Chairman, the M i n i s t e r s o f Development Departments as members, and t h e Development Commissioner as s e c r e t a r y , watches o v e r t h e c a r r y i n g out o f t h e Programmes. The C o l l e c t o r as chairman o f t h e D i s t r i c t P l a n n i n g Development Committee, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r implementa-t i o n of t h e schemes i n t h e d i s t r i c t . At t h e B l o c k L e v e l , t h e B l o c k Development O f f i c e r i s t h e head o f t h e team. Under him work t h e E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s and t h e S o c i a l E d u c a t i o n O r g a n i z e r . At the v i l l a g e l e v e l , t h e Gram Sevak f u n c t i o n s as the i n t e r m e d i a r y agent between t h e Government B u r e a u c r a c y and t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . Gram Sevaks g i v e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s i n t h e f i e l d , t a l k i n d i v i d u a l l y w i t h v i l l a g e r s , l e a d d i s c u s s i o n - g r o u p s , and i n t r o d u c e a u d i o -v i s u a l t e c h n i q u e s . I n t o t a l , a Gram Sevak i s a s s i g n e d 64 d i f f e r e n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 1 "'"UN, Community Development and Economic Development P a r t I , p. 92. D i r e c t i o n s f r o m t h e S t a t e G o v e r n m e n t a r e c o m m u n i c a t e d t o t h e B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r t h r o u g h t h e D i s t r i c t D e v e l o p -m e n t O f f i c e r . U s u a l l y , t h e B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r w i l l h o l d a s t a f f m e e t i n g e v e r y f o r t n i g h t , a n d h e w i l l p a s s o n t h e n e w d i r e c t i o n s f r o m a b o v e . O c c a s i o n a l l y , h e t r a v e l s a r o u n d h i s B l o c k a n d e n q u i r e s f r o m t h e v i l l a g e r s a b o u t t h e r e a c t i o n s o f h i s s t a f f . B a s e d u p o n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f h i s o w n o b s e r v a -t i o n s a n d v i l l a g e r s ' r e a c t i o n s , h e g i v e s s u p p l e m e n t a r y a d v i c e a n d s u g g e s t i o n s t o t h e s t a f f i n a g i v e n p a r t o f t h e B l o c k . E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s a n d G r a m S e v a k s r e p o r t t h e i r o b s e r v a t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t s t o t h e m e e t i n g . G r a m S e v a k s a l s o h a v e t h e d u t y o f p r e p a r i n g d a i l y r e p o r t s o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s a n d a c h i e v e m e n t s . T h r o u g h s u c h c h a n n e l s , t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i l l f l o w f r o m a b o v e t o t h e b o t t o m a n d v i c e v e r s a . T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s d e v i s e d t o r e m e d y g r a v e d e f e c t s i n t h e p r e - I n d e p e n d e n c e c i v i l s e r v i c e . T h e s e d e f e c t s w e r e l a c k o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n , d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r -v i c e s , a n d i n a d e q u a t e p e r s o n n e l . B e f o r e I n d e p e n d e n c e , e a c h d e p a r t m e n t h a d s t a f f i n t h e v i l l a g e a n d d u p l i c a t i o n o f s e r -v i c e s w a s r e m a r k a b l e . T h e b e s t - q u a l i f i e d s t a f f w a s e m p l o y e d i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s a n d i n a d e q u a t e o f f i c i a l s w e r e w o r k i n g o n t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . T o r e m e d y t h e i n e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e o l d s y s t e m , t h e p o s t o f G r a m S e v a k i s m u l t i - p u r p o s e ; a n d o n t h e P r o j e c t l e v e l - , d e p a r t m e n t a l f u n c t i o n s a r e c o - o r d i n a t e d 46 under the Community Development Programmes. We may t a k e as a t y p i c a l example of t h e implementa-t i o n p r o c e s s , the o r g a n i z i n g o f v o l u n t a r y l a b o u r power i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y f o r n a t i o n a l and v i l l a g e d e f e n c e . 2 Though t h i s p a r t i c u l a r example was not p a r t o f the Community Develop-ment Programmes, i t u t i l i z e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e system and p e r s o n n e l o f the Community Development Programmes, and p r o -v i d e s an e s p e c i a l l y c l e a r and e n l i g h t e n i n g example of t h e p r o c e s s . I t went as f o l l o w s : 1. C e n t r a l L e v e l : -e.g. (a) C e n t r a l Committee meeting...Date 'X' (7-12-1962) (b) L a u n c h i n g o f programme by P a r l i a m e n t on 26-1-1963 2. S t a t e L e v e l : -(a) I s s u e o f i n s t r u c t i o n s t o Z i l a P a r i s h a d s , Panch-a y a t S a m i t i s and Pan c h a y a t s ; (b) Convening o f s p e c i a l meetings o f C i t i z e n s ' Committee; (c) H o l d i n g o f P r e s s C o n f e r e n c e , p r e f e r a b l y by C h i e f M i n i s t e r s . 'XT p l u s 15 days (22-12-1962) 3... D i s t r i c t L e v e l :-M e e t i n g o f Z i l a P a r i s h a d s . (a) F o r f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n of a c t i o n as o u t l i n e d i n the scheme; 2 M i n . o f C D . & Coop., V i l l a g e V o l u n t e e r Forces,Gov-ernment o f I n d i a , December 1962, pp. 12 -3 . 47 (b) S e t t i n g up o f s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e . 'X' p l u s 15 p l u s 10 days (1-1-1963) 4. B l o c k L e v e l : -M e e t i n g s o f P a n c h a y a t S a m i t i . (a) F o r f o r m u l a t i o n o f p l a n o f a c t i o n ; (b) S e t t i n g up o f s p e c i a l c o m m i t t e e . 'X' p l u s 15 p l u s 10 p l u s 10 days (11-1-1963) 5. P a n c h a y a t L e v e l : -M e e t i n g o f P a n c h a y a t s t o f o r m u l a t e a c t i o n programme and i n p a r t i c u l a r t o : (a) P r e p a r e l i s t o f programmes t o be c o m p l e t e d w i t h i n t h e n e x t s i x months; (b) D e t e r m i n e l a b o u r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e a c h programmes; and (c) Frame p r o p o s a l s f o r f o r m u l a t i o n o f T a s k F o r c e s and Women's Wing. 'X' p l u s 15 p l u s 10 p l u s 10 p l u s 10 d a y s (21-1-1963) 6.. L a u n c h i n g o f t h e programme:- (26-1-1963). (a) M e e t i n g o f Gram Sabbas t h r o u g h t h e c o u n t r y t o ... ( i ) t a k e p u b l i c p l e d g e ( i i ) C o n s i d e r p r o p o s a l s o f P a n c h a y a t s u n d e r 5 above, and ( i i i ) c a l l f o r s u b s c r i p t i o n t o D e f e n c e L a b o u r Bank. (b) M e e t i n g o f P a n c h a y a t s t o . . . . ( i ) f i n a l i z e programme o f work; 48 ( i i ) f i n a l i z e f o r m a t i o n o f Task F o r c e s ; ( i i i ) complete r e g i s t e r o f l a b o u r s u b s c r i p t i o n s ; ( i v ) a l l o t l a b o u r f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s ; (v) a p p o i n t D a o p a t i s (c) Mass d r i l l and P.T. ...The V i l l a g e V o l u n t e e r F o r c e s t a r t s work on t h e ground. T h i s example draws out a t t e n t i o n t o a n o t h e r chance of g r e a t p o t e n t i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o I n d i a , B e f o r e Independence, the v i l l a g e s had l i t t l e d i r e c t c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Government b u r e a u c r a c y , except f o r t a x purposes, and e n j o y e d a h i g h degree of v i l l a g e autonomy. But s i n c e Independence and the i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e F i v e Year P l a n s , t h e I n d i a n a d m i n i s t r a t -i v e system has been r e - o r g a n i z e d so as t o b r i n g t h e v i l l a g e s i n much more d i r e c t and much c l o s e r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e Govern-ment than p r e v i o u s l y . T h i s new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n can be used f o r , b e s i d e s Community Development, th e e x e c u t i o n o f o t h e r Government p o l i c i e s . T h i s change i n the r e l a t i o n -s h i p o f t h e v i l l a g e s t o t h e C e n t r a l Government w e l l d e s e r v e s t o be c a l l e d a ' s i l e n t r e v o l u t i o n ' . 3 I I . The I n f o r m a l A s p e c t The n e x t q u e s t i o n i s the i n f o r m a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s ^ T h i s i s t h e f a v o u r i t e t erm used by I n d i a n bureau-c r a t s i n many documents. 49 o r g a n i z a t i o n . We w i l l d i s c u s s here the B l o c k Development O f f i c e r and the Gram Sevaks because these two o f f i c i a l s a r e r e g a r d e d by o f f i c i a l and p r i v a t e r e s e a r c h e r s as most i m p o r t a n t , and m a t e r i a l s on them a r e a v a i l a b l e . F o r our scheme, s t r a t i -f y i n g r e l a t i o n s , i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s , r e f e r e n c e groups, and r o l e s must be examined. A. B l o c k Development O f f i c e r At the i n a u g u r a t i o n o f th e Programmes i n 1952, a t l e a s t 2,805 new o f f i c i a l s were needed.^ I t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e government t o t r a i n t h i s many o f f i c i a l s w i t h i n a y e a r or two. The Government t h e r e f o r e moved e x p e r t s from v a r i o u s o t h e r departments as w e l l as r e c r u i t i n g new t r a i n e e s . Some departments were c o n s i d e r a b l y weakened. High o f f i c i a l s t h e r e -f o r e r e g a r d e d t h e Community Development Programmes as an a d d i t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r a c t i v i t y r a t h e r t h a n as an agency t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e y c o u l d more e f f e c t i v e l y and e f f i c i e n t l y 5 a c h i e v e t h e i r t a r g e t s . S i n c e t h e n , the development o f Community Development B l o c k s and N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e B l o c k s has been so f a s t t h a t i n 1953, t w e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f the p o s t s were v a c a n t . I n 1952, the number of o f f i c i a l s p e r B l o c k was: one B l o c k Development O f f i c e r , two A s s i s t a n t P r o j e c t O f f i c e r s , t w e l v e a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , t h r e e E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s , t h r e e M e d i c a l O f f i c e r s , and t h i r t y E d u c a t i o n i s t s , f i f t y - o n e i n t o t a l c f . UN, Repor t of th e M i s s i o n on Community O r g a n i z a t i o n and Development i n South and South E a s t A s i a , N.Y., 1953, p. 57. (55 p r o j e c t s x 51 = 2,805) ~ r — ^UN, op. c i t . , p. 56. 50 M a n y o f t h e h i g h o f f i c i a l s w e r e t r a n s f e r r e d f r o m o t h e r t e c h n i c a l a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s , a n d d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p o s s e s s d e e p u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s a n d i t s i d e o l o g y . T h u s t h e b u r d e n s 6 w e r e a l l i m p o s e d u p o n t h e s h o u l d e r s o f t h e G r a m S e v a k s . P a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s i n I n d i a , t h o s e h i g h o f f i c i a l s w a n t e d t o g o b a c k t o t h e i r p a r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e s o u g h t f o r t h e c h a n c e . T h e y w e r e t h e r e f o r e v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o a d a p t t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , t h e d i r e c t i o n s t h e y r e c e i v e d f r o m a b o v e l e s t t h e y b e h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i n g s g o i n g w r o n g . T h e f u n c t i o n o f B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r s a n d t h a t o f s p e c i a l i s t s f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t e n c o n f l i c t e d i n d u p l i c a t i n g s e r v i c e a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . F r i c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e n e w s t a f f a n d t h e o l d s t a f f f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e d t h e 7 l a c k o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n . B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r s w e r e a u t h o r i t a r i a n a n d t r e a t e d t h e G r a m S e v a k a s s e r v a n t s , a n d w o u l d r e p r i m a n d t h e l a t t e r b e f o r e t h e v i l l a g e r s t o s h o w t h e i r a u t h o r i t y . G r a m S e v a k s t h e r e f o r e h a v e o f t e n l o s t t h e r e s p e c t o f t h e v i l l a g e r s , a n d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f p r o g r a m m e s h a s o f t e n U N , M i s s i o n i n I n d i a , p . 49. U N , M i s s i o n - t o S o u t h a n d S o u t h E a s t A s i a , p . 56. 51 been blocked. The Gram Sevaks resent the dual standards of the Block Development Officers, and one Gram Sevak i s reported as complaining about: The Block s t a f f who talk of a family team and service to the people while, a l l the time, act and behave in just the opposite way .g We could not f i n d any documents recording a high opinion of 'Block Development O f f i c e r s . This f a c t at le a s t suggests that from the viewpoint of the Gram Sevaks co-operative higher o f f i c i a l s are few indeed. Block Development Officers evaluate the work of the Gram Sevaks on the basis of the opinions of upper class v i l l a g e r s , and are reluctant to contradict these opinions and support the Gram Sevaks because of the p o l i t i c a l connections of t h i s section of v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . 1 ^ The reference groups of Block Development O f f i c e r s are: i n the Governmental bureaucracy, higher o f f i c i a l s , or, for some of them, t h e i r parent i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and i n the Block, upper class v i l l a g e r s i n v i l l a g e society. Dube, op. c i t . , p. 195. 9 Government of India, V i l l a g e Level Workers... t h e i r work and r e s u l t demonstrations, 1962, p"] 121. "^Dube, op. c i t . , p. 178. 52 I n t h e o r y , B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s have more a u t h o r i t y and i n f l u e n c e t h a n o f f i c i a l s i n o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n v i l l a g e a f f a i r s , but i n p r a c t i c e t h e y do not e x e r t t h i s a u t h o r i t y . T h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e Community Development Programmes a r e numerous, and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r p r o m o t i o n are s c a r c e and u n c e r t a i n . Some of them t h e r e f o r e d e s i r e t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r p a r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s . Those who were d i r e c t l y r e c r u i t e d i n t o t h e community Development Programmes are i r r e v o c a b l y committed t o i t . , and r e l u c t a n t t o j e o p a r d i z e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . The r e s u l t o f t h e s e s o c i a l p r e s s u r e s i s t h a t t h e B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s a r e v e r y s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e i r h i g h e r - u p s and v e r y r e l u c t a n t t o oppose t h e . i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i r p a r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s . P r o m o t i o n o f t h e B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s depends on t h e p h y s i c a l achievements o f t h e i r B l o c k Teams. I d e a l l y , such achievements a r e t o be g a i n e d t h r o u g h a h i g h morale and f a m i l i s t i c team s p i r i t . But such p o s i t i v e encouragement does not a l w a y s work. The B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s a r e t h e r e -f o r e a l s o g i v e n t h e power, t h r o u g h t h e r e p o r t s they make, t o advance or r e t a r d t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e Gram Sevaks and o t h e r persons u n d e r n e a t h them. T h i s r e s u l t s i n t h e B l o c k Develop-ment O f f i c e r t r y i n g t o b u i l d up morale by f a m i l i s t i c e x h o r t a -t i o n s , but c o u n t e r - a c t i n g t h i s a t t i t u d e by t h r e a t e n i n g non-? promotion i f t h e team does not work p r o p e r l y . To t h e v i l l a g e r s i n t h e i r B l o c k , the B l o c k Develop-53 ment O f f i c e r s r e p r e s e n t th e p r a c t i c a l l y h i g h e s t Government a u t h o r i t y . The O f f i c e r s can t h e r e f o r e be l e g i t i m a t e l y a u t h o r i t a r i a n , and d i s p l a y t h e i r h i g h s t a t u s b e f o r e th e v i l l a g e r s . But the B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s a r e i n c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e upper c l a s s v i l l a g e r s , f o r t h e s e are sometimes r e l a t e d t o members of t h e S t a t e P a r l i a m e n t who can e x e r t i n f l u e n c e upon t h e BDOs th r o u g h s u p e r i o r o f f i c i a l s . The B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s t h e r e f o r e w i s h t o have a g r e e a b l e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e s e v i l l a g e r s , and t h i s i n t u r n l e a d s t o t h e O f f i c e r s ' a t t e n d i n g t o the i n t e r e s t s o f the upper c l a s s v i l l a g e r s and s l i g h t i n g t h e i n t e r e s t of t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s . The b a s i c v a l u e seems " s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n " . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s v a l u e , t h e O f f i c e r s do not r e f u s e d i r e c -t i o n s from above even though t h e s e may be i m p r a c t i c a l . The O f f i c e r s emphasize the p h y s i c a l achievements of t h e i r subor-d i n a t e o f f i c i a l s . They ar e a g r e e a b l e t o t h e upper c l a s s v i l l a g e r s and a u t h o r i t a r i a n t o l o w e r o f f i c i a l s i n f r o n t o f the v i l l a g e r s i n o r d e r t o prove t h e i r own h i g h d i g n i t y and i n v i t e the r e s p e c t of the p e o p l e . Such p a t t e r n s of b e h a v i o r w i l l change t h e n a t u r e of Programmes. B. Gram Sevaks Gram Sevaks a r e t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y agents between t h e Governmental b u r e a u c r a c y and v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , but i f t h e y make 54 a d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o r e m a i n u n i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e u p p e r c l a s s p e o p l e , a n d t o w o r k w i t h a l l s e c t i o n s o f t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y a s t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s r e q u i r e s , t h e y s o o n l e a r n t h a t t h i s p o l i c y d o e s n o t p a y . 1 1 I f t h e G r a m S e v a k s s e r v e o n l y t h e u p p e r c l a s s p s o p l e , t h e l o w e r c l a s s w i l l b e a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e P r o g r a m m e s , a n d w i l l n o t r e s p o n d a s t h e P l a n n e r s h a v e e x p e c t e d . T h e n t h e P r o g r a m m e s w i l l n o t r e a c h t h e v e r y p e o p l e w h o n e e d i t . T h e u p p e r c l a s s v i l l a g e r s d o n o t r e s p e c t t h e G r a m S e v a k s . T h e i r r e a c t i o n s m a y b e i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n s : W h a t e v e r i n s t r u c t i o n t h e V i l l a g e L e v e l W o r k e r g a v e me f o r t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n , I p a s s e d o n t o my s e r v a n t s . I w a s n o t t h e r e a t t h e t i m e o f l a y i n g o u t t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n . I a l l o w e d t h e V i l l a g e L e v e l W o r k e r t o d o t h e d e m o n s t r a t i o n b e c a u s e h e r e q u e s t e d m e . 1 2 I f t h e G r a m S e v a k s w o r k f o r t h e l o w e r c l a s s p e o p l e , t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s c r i t i c i z e t h e G r a m S e v a k s a n d r e p o r t t h e i r b e h a v i o r t o t h e B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r , a n d s o a f f e c t a d -v e r s e l y t h e i r c h a n c e s o f p r o m o t i o n . T h u s t h e G r a m S e v a k s a r e a l s o e s t r a n g e d f r o m t h e l o w e r c l a s s p e o p l e . 1 1 D u b e , o p . c i t . , p . 1 7 8 . 1 2 G o v e r n m e n t o f I n d i a , V i l l a g e L e v e l W o r k e r s , p . 1 2 6 . 55 I n s p i t e o f t h e Gram S e v a k s ' g r e a t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n a wide a r e a o f f i v e t o t e n v i l l a g e s w i t h 2 , 0 0 0 o r more f a r m f a m i l i e s , Gram S e v a k s a r e o f t e n n o t w e l l t r e a t e d . 1 ^ T h e r e a r e no f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s . N e u t r a l o r non-s u p p o r t i v e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e i r w i v e s o f t e n d e c r e a s e t h e i r m o r a l e . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e Gram S e v a k s f e e l t h a t t h e y c a n n o t f u l l y c a r r y o u t t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n s b e c a u s e t h e y a r e g i v e n t o o many o r d e r s by t h e i r s u p e r i o r s . 1 ^ The E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r s o f t e n f a i l t o g i v e t h e Gram S e v a k s t e c h n i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , and t h e Gram S e v a k s have t h e r e f o r e t o c a r r y o u t t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s s o l e l y on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . N a t u r a l l y , t h e i r a c h i e v e m e n t s a r e o f t e n c a l l e d ' p o o r ' . The s a l a r y o f B l o c k Development O f f i c e r i s Rs. 3 0 0 , 15 E x t e n s i o n O f f i c e r , Rs. 2 0 0 , b u t Gram Sevak, Rs. 1 0 0 a month. The w o r k i n g h o u r s o f Gram S e v a k s a r e v e r y l o n g . They g e t up a r o u n d 5 . 3 0 a.m. and go t o bed a r o u n d 1 2 . 3 0 a.m. F o r s u c h an o v e r - l o a d o f work, t h e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s a r e u n r e w a r d i n g . P r o m o t i o n h a s a v e r y l o w c e i l i n g , and no f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s e x i s t u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Some 1 3 UN, Com. Dev. & E c . Dev.. P a r t I , p. 9 2 . " ^ P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h and A c t i o n I n s t i t u t e , The Gram Sevak i n U.P., p. 60. 15 Dube, op. c i t y , pp. 1 9 1 - 4 . 1 6 . M i n . o f C D . & Coop.., Community Development Programmes...the t h i r d f i v e y e a r p l a n mrounity u , P. 1 1 • 56 Gram Sevaks have f a i t h i n the Programmes and f e e l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r work, but they are always d i s s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r l i v i n g f a c i l i t i e s and prospects for the f u t u r e . ^ In the i n i t i a l period, the number of Gram Sevaks was too small;but by Septtember 1959, 39,327 Gram Sevaks were trained. However, only 28,812 were posted i n 2,998 reporting Blocks. It i s because "the adequacy or quality of some of 1 8 these v i l l a g e l e v e l workers has come under c r i t i c i s m " . ° In theory Gram Sevaks are supposed to report t h e i r observations and reactions at s t a f f meetings, but i n fact t h i s i s not allowed, and s t a f f meetings are c a l l e d only to give them instructions without chance to comment. The Gram Sevaks i n the same Block would consult amongst themselves informally at the time of either s t a f f meetings or s o c i a l gatherings. 1^ They have a sense of s o l i d a r i t y among each other to protect themselves. Thus t h e i r reference groups are neither those .of higher o f f i c i a l s nor upper class v i l l a g e r s , but rather the Gram Sevak groups themselves. The status of Gram Sevak i s the 17 Government of India, V i l l a g e Level Worker, pp. 120-121. i s UN, Community Development and Economic Development Part I, p. 101. 19 Research and Action Institute, op. c i t . , p. 33. 57 l o w e s t i n t h e Government b u r e a u c r a c y . Gram S e v a k s a r e f o r c e d t o a c h i e v e t h e h i g h p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s , by w h i c h t h e i r a c h i e v e -ments as w e l l as t h o s e o f t h e i r B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s a r e m e a s u r e d . They a r e a l s o f o r c e d t o s e r v e , t o some e x t e n t , t h e u p p e r c l a s s v i l l a g e r s , a s we have a l r e a d y n o t e d , and a r e t h e r e f o r e a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e l o w e r c l a s s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s low s t a t u s o f Gram S e v a k s i n t h e b u r e a u c r a c y and t h e i r l o w t r e a t m e n t by t h e u p p e r c l a s s v i l l a g e r s , t h e l o w e r c l a s s does n o t u n d e r s t a n d w h e t h e r t h e Gram S e v a k s a r e Government o f f i c i a l s o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s . The Gram S e v a k s a r e t h e r e f o r e i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e other- g r o u p s . W i t h i n t h e Gram Sevak g r o u p t h e r e a r e b o t h s e n t i -ments o f s o l i d a r i t y and a c e r t a i n amount o f c o m p e t i t i o n . T h i s r e s u l t s i n a p a t t e r n o f r e s t r i c t i o n o f o u t p u t ; one s h o u l d n o t work t o o h a r d n o r be t o o i d l e . The r o l e o f Gram S e v a k s as an i n t e r m e d i a r y a g e n t between t h e b u r e a u c r a c y and v i l l a g e s o c i e t y i s t h e r e f o r e c o m p l i c a t e d . I n p r a c t i c e , t h e i r r o l e a s a Government O f f i c i a l i s d e n i e d . B o t h t h e i r s u p e r i o r s and t h e u p p e r c l a s s v i l l a g e r s may behave as t h e i r m a s t e r s and i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h e i r r o l e s a s i n t e r m e d i a r y a g e n t s i f t h e y s h o u l d seek t o work f o r t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e l o w e r c l a s s p e o p l e . The r o l e o f i n t e r m e d i a r y a g e n t i s b l o c k e d by t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . The v a l u e s w h i c h c o n t r a d i c t e a c h o t h e r i n t h i s s o c i a l 53 s i t u a t i o n a r e ' s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n ' and t h e i d e o l o g y o f t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes. A t t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s t h e i d e o l o g y does n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n s i n c e a l l t h e o f f i c i a l s have t o do i s t o t r a n s m i t t h e programmes un-c h a nged t o t h e i r s u b o r d i n a t e s . A t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l , f i e l d w o r k e r s a r e e x p e c t e d t o p l a y t h e r o l e o f a model o f t h e i d e o l o g y ( c f . ' p e r s u a s i o n by d e m o n s t r a t i o n ' ) ; b u t as w e : h a v e s e e n p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h i s r o l e i s f r u s t r a t e d by t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e Gram S e v a k s . 59 CHAPTER IV THE GOVERNMENT BUREAUCRACY AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES I. Programmes from Above Programmes formulated broadly at the Central Govern-ment l e v e l and further detailed at the State Government l e v e l , are directed through the D i s t r i c t Development Officer to be implemented at the Block l e v e l . Such programmes are i n theory f l e x i b l e and adaptable to l o c a l interests and resources In practice, t h i s i s not the case. The Block Develo ment Officer reports the achievement i n his Block to the higher o f f i c i a l s . This report i s based upon the Gram Sevaks' da i l y reports to the Block. I t i s composed, from a l i s t of 75 d i f f e r e n t records supposedly maintained by the Gram Sevaks and covering agriculture, animal husbandry, public health and miscellaneous items. 1 F i r s t of a l l , t h i s i s beyond the power "hj.P. Res. and Act. I n s t i t u t e , The Gram Sevak i n Uttar Pradesh, p. 2 5 . 60 o f t h e Gram S e v a k s ; and s e c o n d l y , t h e r e i s a l s o a t e n d e n c y among Gram S e v a k s t o a t t r i b u t e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s i n o t h e r f i e l d s t o t h e s e n i o r o f f i c e r s ' 'pet t h e o r y ' . The c a s e o f t h e 'U.P. M e t h o d ' r e s u l t d e m o n s t r a t i o n i s t y p i c a l . D i f f e r e n t g o a l s were h e l d by d i f f e r e n t p e r s o n s . To t h e v i l l a g e r s i t was m e r e l y 'some' d e m o n s t r a t i o n . To t h e f a r m e r i t was a ' f e r t i l i z e r d e m o n s t r a t i o n ' . The B l o c k D e v e l o p m e n t O f f i c e r r e p o r t e d i t t o h i s s u p e r i o r s as a 'U.P. M ethod' r e s u l t dem-o n s t r a t i o n . To t h e i n t e r v i e w e r f r o m t h e s t u d y s p o n s o r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t , one Gram Sevak d e s c r i b e d t h e a f f a i r a s f o l l o w s : Nobody knows what t h e y a c t u a l l y want us t o do i n t h e U.P. Method e x c e p t j u s t a l l t h a t i s i n -• v o l v e d i n u s u a l good a g r i c u l t u r e . B e c a u s e t h e t a r g e t was h i g h and p r e s s u r e was g r e a t f r o m h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s , I r e p o r t e d i t u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g 'U.P. M e t h o d ' . 2 I n t h i s c a s e , t h e ' U . P . Method' i s t h e ' p e t ' t h e o r y . The t h e o r y i s sometimes n o t v e r y c l e a r , b u t no c r i t i c a l comments a r e r e p o r t e d on i t , and t h e most e f f e c t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t s a r e r e p o r t e d as due. t o i t . E v e n when t h e t h e o r y i s no good a t a l l , t h e r e p o r t s n e v e r t h e l e s s g i v e a s t r o n g i m p r e s s i o n t h a t i t has i n f a c t s u c c e e d e d , and so s u p p o r t s u p e r i o r o f f i c i a l s i n t h e i r M inistry o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t and C o - o p e r a t i o n , V i l l a g e L e v e l Worker, p . 126. 61 c o n v i c t i o n s o f t h e v a l u e o f t h e i r t h e o r i e s ; t h e s e r e p o r t s a r e t h e n u s e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f f u r t h e r programmes. I t i s t r u e t h a t . t h e programmes f o r m u l a t e d a r e b a s e d upon t h e d a t a b u t t h e d a t a may n o t be t h e l i t e r a l r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . The programmes t h u s f o r m u l a t e d may n o t t h e r e f o r e meet t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s - o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . B u t t h e mechanism w h i c h p r o d u c e d t h e " r e m a r k a b l e s u c c e s s o f t h e U.P. M e t h o d " i n t h e r e p o r t does n o t a l l o w t h e B l o c k l e v e l and v i l l a g e l e v e l o f f i c i a l s t o m o d i f y i t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . B o t h t h i s c o n c e a l m e n t o f t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n and t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f programmes f r o m t h e r e a l i t y o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y a r e p r o d u c e d b y t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and v a l u e - s y s t e m we have a n a l y z e d i n C h a p t e r I I I . T h i s s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e B l o c k o f f i c i a l s ' s o c i a l a c t i o n w o u l d be o b s e r v e d w i l l have v a r i o u s e f f e c t s upon t h e Community Development Programmes. . I I . E f f e c t s upon t h e Programmes A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s i x t h e v a l u a t i o n r e p o r t o f t h e Programme E v a l u a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n , n i n e t y o u t o f one h u n d r e d and s i x t y - o n e v i l l a g e s r e c e i v e d t h e i r p l a n s f r o m a b o v e . I n • t h e r e m a i n i n g s e v e n t y - o n e v i l l a g e s o r 44 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l , p l a n s were p r e p a r e d a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . However, 62 here too, the v i l l a g e organizations do not seem to have-played an active r o l e . The government o f f i c i a l s did the r e a l job. Only thirteen v i l l a g e panchayats are reported to have under-taken some planning and execution of the programmes.3 •From among these externally determined projects, v i l l a g e r s choose f o r adoption that which appears to be bene-f i c i a l to them. But even here, not a l l sections .of the v i l l a g e r s are represented i n making t h i s choice, and the programmes adopted are often the r e f l e c t i o n of c e r t a i n sectional i n t e r e s t s . Therefore, for the majority of v i l l a g e r s , the programmes are l i t e r a l l y from above; from the Government and from the upper class people, with the stronger emphasis upon the former. At the'village l e v e l , Gram Sevaks have to execute such programmes on t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , but the programmes directed from above are not necessarily f i t t e d to the l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , and the pressures from above may not allow modi-f i c a t i o n by the lowest agent in the hierarchy. Consequently, programmes are often inadequately carried out and do not achieve the.desired targets. For example, an 'adult education c l a s s ' was started 3 Programme Evaluation Organization, The Sixth  Evaluation...Report, Government of India, 1959, p. 16. 63 d u r i n g the peak p e r i o d o f a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . N a t u r a l l y i t f a i l e d t o a t t r a c t an a p p r e c i a b l e number of s t u d e n t s . Such d i s c r e p a n c i e s - between t h e d e c l a r e d o b j e c t i v e s and a c t u a l achievements g i v e t h e Community Development Programmes a bad r e p u t a t i o n among the p e o p l e . As mentioned e a r l i e r , t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n s t e n d t o f a i l t o be r e f l e c t e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n of programmes. T h i s f a c t was even acknowledged by t h e Government e v a l u a t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . They f r a n k l y admit t h a t "the programmes are not conformed t o l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s o r r e q u i r e m e n t s . " ^ One o f t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e Community Development Programmes i s t h a t t h e l o c a l programmes s h o u l d be based upon the ' f e l t - n e e d s ' o f t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . ^ The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s s u p p o s e d l y d e s i g n e d t o ensure t h i s , but t h e i n f o r m a l s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and c o n f l i c t o f v a l u e s o f l o w e r o f f i c i a l s c o n s t i t u t e a mechanism w h i c h b l o c k s t h e d i r e c t communication t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t i e s from t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . S i n c e B l o c k Development O f f i c e r s a r e e v a l u a t e d by t h e i r B l o c k s ' achievements, t h e y encourage and p r e s s the team members t o a c h i e v e the p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s , ( c f . C h a p t e r I I I ) . ^ P l a n n i n g Research and A c t i v i t i e s I n s t i t u t e op. c i t . , p. 3 3 . 5 • M u k e r j i , B., Community Development i n I n d i a , New D e l h i , 1 9 6 1 , p. 6 0 . 64 On t h i s p o i n t , some Gram S e v a k s who a r e w o r k i n g a t t h e f r o n t o f t h e Community Development Programmes have o b s e r v e d t h a t e m p h a s i s s h o u l d be " l a i d n o t o n l y on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s b u t on t h e a c h i e v e m e n t as a whole i n c l u d i n g t h e r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f p e o p l e ' s o u t - l o o k and a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e'programmes".^ The e m p h a s i s on p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s has v a r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s , b u t h e r e we w i l l m e n t i o n t h r e e a s p e c t s f o r w h i c h m a t e r i a l i s a v a i l a b l e . T h e s e t h r e e a r e : (a) u n b a l a n c e d a c h i e v e m e n t s o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t , (b) u n b a l a n c e d d i s t r i -b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s , and (c) s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . A. U n b a l a n c e d A c h i e v e m e n t s Programme E v a l u a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n r e p o r t s on t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes' a c h i e v e m e n t s , s a y i n g "The r e c o r d i s i m p r e s s i v e , c o n s i d e r i n g t h e l o n g p e r i o d o f s t a g -n a t i o n i n w h i c h r u r a l I n d i a h a d r e s t e d i n t h e p r e - p r o j e c t p e r i o d " , and c o n t i n u e s , " b u t i t i s n o t e q u a l l y i m p r e s s i v e when c o n s i d e r e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e p e o p l e . " A c c o r d i n g t o t h e r e p o r t , i t e m s i n v o l v i n g p h y s i c a l c hange, e s p e c i a l l y c o n s t r u c t i o n a l and i r r i g a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , a r e s u c c e s s f u l . However, i t e m s i n v o l v i n g changes i n s t a n d a r d s 6 P l a n n i n g R e s e a r c h and A c t i o n I n s t i t u t e , op. c i t • , p . 33. ^Programme E v a l u a t i o n O r g a n i z a t i o n , E v a l u a t i o n  R e p o r t on W o r k i n g o f Community P r o j e c t s and N.E.S. B l o c k s , V o l . I , A p r i l 1 9 5 7 , p, 1 9 . ' 65 o r norms o f l i v i n g such as a d u l t l i t e r a c y and p e r s o n a l and e n v i r o n m e n t a l h y g i e n e ; i t e m s i n v o l v i n g changes i n s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s such as community c e n t r e a c t i v i t i e s , y o u t h c l u b s , women's o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; o r items i n v o l v i n g changes i n org a n -i z a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s i n the economic f i e l d such as b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s and o b l i g a t i o n s o f c o - o p e r a t i o n , market, c r e d i t c o - o p e r a t i v e , and so f o r t h , a r e not e q u a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . I n s h o r t , p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s a re g e n e r a l l y a c h i e v e d but e d u c a t i o n a l o r s o c i a l t a r g e t s a re n o t . B. Unequal D i s t r i b u t i o n of B e n e f i t s We w i l l d i s c u s s t h i s m a t t e r f u r t h e r i n C h a p t e r V I . I n b r i e f , the emphasis on p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s and achievements presupposes t h e most e f f e c t i v e use o f economic inducements. Inducements a r e most e f f e c t i v e when th e y a r e o f f e r e d t o p e r -sons of some w e a l t h a l r e a d y . Thus t h e more advantaged pe o p l e w i l l get most b e n e f i t from the Programmes and t h e l e s s ad-vantaged w i l l get l e a s t ; and b e n e f i t s w i l l t h e r e f o r e f l o w un-e q u a l l y among the v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . C. S o c i a l I n j u s t i c e As we w i l l d i s c u s s i n Chapter V, t h e low c a s t e s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y a re always i n the' l o w e r c l a s s (which may a l s o i n c l u d e some h i g h c a s t e p e o p l e ) . The low c a s t e people have been p l a c e d a t a d i s a d v a n t a g e by t h e i r a s c r i b e d s t a t u s , and the u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s f r om t h e Programmes 66 w i l l e n l a r g e t h i s s o c i a l d i s t a n c e . T h i s i s t h e c r e a t i o n o f s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , the s h o r t term g o a l and th e l o n g term g o a l of t h e Community Development Programmes come t o c o n t r a d i c t each o t h e r . I I I . Lack of C o - o r d i n a t i o n When Government o f f i c i a l s have the v a l u e o f ' s e l f -p r o t e c t i o n ' , they a r e s u b s e r v i e n t t o t h e i r s u p e r i o r s and o p p r e s s i v e t o t h e i r i n f e r i o r s ; and t h e i r h o r i z o n t a l r e l a t i o n -s h i p s a re ones o f r i v a l r y . These r i v a l r y r e l a t i o n s h i p s are o f t e n marked by an uneasy t r u c e between t h e c o m p e t i t o r s , each r e f r a i n i n g from i n v a d i n g the o t h e r ''s sphere of competence i n o r d e r t h a t he h i m s e l f w i l l not be i n v a d e d . W i t h i n a s e c t i o n , i t s members a r e r i v a l s , b u t t o o u t s i d e r s t h e members o f t h e s e c t i o n i d e a l l y p r e s e n t a s o l i d a r y f r o n t . T h i s c r e a t e s s e c t i o n a l i s m . As l o n g as m a t t e r s go a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n and no emergencies a r i s e , ' a l l w i l l be w e l l . But s h o u l d an u n u s u a l c o n t i n g e n c y appear, t h e o f f i c i a l s w i l l seek t o p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s by p a s s i n g on t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o p i n g w i t h t h e emergency t o an o t h e r s e c t i o n . T h i s w i l l i n t u r n slow up t h e b u r e a u c r a c y ' s p r o c e s s of communication and d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g , and w i l l l e a d t o f a i l u r e s i n c o - o r d i n a t i o n . T h i s a s p e c t was n o t i c e d from v e r y e a r l y p e r i o d s o f 67 t h e Community Development Programmes i n I n d i a . F o r example, t h e UN e x p e r t s e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n i n t h e work o f . G o v e r n m e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n s , as e a r l y as i n 1953 w h i c h was t h e y e a r f o l l o w i n g t h e l a u n c h i n g o f t h e Programmes. They s a i d : E xamples were c i t e d where r e q u e s t s t o meet v i l l a g e n e e d s e m a n a t i n g f r o m t h e c o m m u n i t i e s were d e l a y e d beyond measure t h r o u g h t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r p r o c e e d i n g t h r o u g h c h a n n e l s w h i c h -had been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r u n c o - o r d i n a t e d s e r v i c e s . g The e x p e r t s n o t e d an example where t h e demand was c r e a t e d i n s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s f o r i m p r o v e d s e e d s . They were n o t a v a i l a b l e u n t i l t h e p l a n t i n g s e a s o n was o v e r . Sometimes, t h e r e q u e s t s Q were e v e n r e f u s e d . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e ' s o c i a l p r e s t i g e o f Gram S e v a k s was l o s t and t h e e x e c u t i o n o f programmes became h a r d e r 1 ^ Dube r e p o r t s an i n c i d e n t i n w h i c h t h e Gram Sevaks were d i r e c t e d t o s e l l t h e s e e d s w h i c h a r r i v e d a f t e r t h e p l a n t -i n g s e a s o n was o v e r . U n l e s s t h e y s o l d t h e s e e d s , t h e Gram Seva k s w o u l d l o s e t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . So t h e Gram Sevaks a s k e d t h e p e r s o n a l f a v o u r s o f v i l l a g e r s t o buy t h e s e e d s . The s u r p l u s was bought f r o m t h e s a l a r y o f t h e Gram S e v a k s . ^ Sometimes °UN, M i s s i o n t o S o u t h and S o u t h E a s t A s i a , p. 56. . 9 I b i d . •^Dube, o p . c i t . , p-. 189. "'""'"Dube, op. c i t . , p . 186. 68 t h e Gram S e v a k s were d i r e c t e d by t h e i r s u p e r i o r s t o s e l l s e e d s i n r e g i o n s w h i c h d i d n o t grow t h e p l a n t s i n q u e s t i o n . So Gram S e v a k s had t o s e l l them as f o o d , and v i l l a g e r s r e l u c t a n t l y b o u g h t them. The k i n d and q u a n t i t y were i n a d e q u a t e . I n o t h e r p l a c e s , i n f e r i o r s e e d s were s o l d i n t h e name o f i m p r o v e d s e e d s . From t h e n e x t y e a r on, no one bought Government l o s e p r e s t i g e among v i l l a g e r s and so r e n d e r t h e 13 Programmes l e s s e f f e c t i v e . 12 s e e d s f r o m t h e Government. Such f a i l i n g s w o u l d make t h e 12 e, op. c i t . , p. 187. Dub 13 Dube, op. c i t p. 200. • 5 69 CHAPTER V VILLAGE SOCIETY I n 1793, t h e E a s t I n d i a Company i s s u e d t h e "Permanent S e t t l e m e n t " l a w w h i c h c r e a t e d new i n t e r m e d i a r y a g e n t s between t h e Company and t h e v i l l a g e r s . T hese a g e n t s were c a l l e d z a m i n d a r i s . Z a m i n d a r i s were e n t r u s t e d w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o c o l l e c t r e v e n u e and, i n r e t u r n f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s , were g i v e n a c e r t a i n amount o f c o m m i s s i o n . Though t h e amount o f t a x and c o m m i s s i o n was f i x e d by law, t h e s e z a m i n d a r i s were s t i l l a b l e t o c o l l e c t more t h a n was l e g a l and so i n c r e a s e t h e i r own r e v e n u e s . By d o i n g s o , t h e y became p a r a s i t e l a n d -l o r d s . The B r i t i s h Government s e v e r a l t i m e s a t t e m p t e d t o r e -f o r m t h e s y s t e m f r o m t h e m i d d l e o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y on, b u t a l l . s u c h e f f o r t s f a i l e d . B e f o r e I n d e p e n d e n c e , t h e z a m i n d a r i s were t h e l o r d s o f t h e v i l l a g e s . F o l l o w i n g I n d e p e n d e n c e , t h i s h a t e d s y s t e m was a b o l i s h e d . A f t e r a b o l i s h i n g t h e z a m i n d a r i s , who had b e e n t h e c h a n n e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n between v i l l a g e r s and Government, t h e Government f o u n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o c r e a t e a new s y s t e m o f i n t e r m e d i a r y a g e n t s . T h i s new s y s t e m i s t h a t o f t h e p a n c h a y a t s o r v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s . T h e s e p a n c h a y a t s a r e i n t e n d e d t o f u l f i l 70 two f u n c t i o n s : (a) as i n t e r m e d i a r y a g e n t s b e t w e e n Government and v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , and (b) as o r g a n s o f v i l l a g e s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t . But t h e p a n c h a y a t s a r e more c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s y s t e m t h a n were t h e z a m i n d a r i s , 1 and t h r o u g h t h e p a n c h a y a t t h e v i l l a g e s a r e t h e r e b y l i n k e d t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . The p a n c h a y a t i s n o t t h e o n l y l i n k t h a t j o i n s t h e v i l l a g e t o t h e l a r g e r s o c i e t y . O s c a r L e w i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , has shown how v i l l a g e s i n D e l h i a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e e x t e r n a l w o r l d by m a r r i a g e , d e s c e n t , and p o l i t i c a l a l l i a n c e s . C a s t e d i v i s i o n s p r o v i d e a n o t h e r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f e x t r a -l o c a l n a t u r e , c u t t i n g v i l l a g e ' s o c i e t y i n t o s e v e r a l l a y e r s b u t a t t h e same t i m e l i n k i n g t h e s e l a y e r s w i t h t h e i r e q u i v a l e n t s i n o t h e r - v i l l a g e s * As S r i n i v a s s a y s , " t h e v i l l a g e has a s o l i d a r i t y even t h o u g h composed o f s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t c a s t e s . E a c h c a s t e a g a i n has a s o l i d a r i t y c u t t i n g a c r o s s t h e v i l l a g e . N a i r , o p . c i t . , I n h e r b o o k , M r s . K. N a i r r e p o r t s numerous r e a c t i o n s o f v i l l a g e r s t o t h e Government . F o r e x -a m p l e , see t h e f o l l o w i n g d e s c r i p t i o n : " A s f o r Z e m i n d a r i , we a r e n o t v e r y happy t h a t i t has g o n e . We g e t no c o n s i d e r a -t i o n f r o m t h e Government such as t h e z e m i n d a r u s e d t o g i v e . " p . 74. 2 L e w i s , O s c a r , R u r a l L i f e i n N o r t h e r n I n d i a , 1957. 3 S r i n i v a s , M . N . , "The S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e o f a M y s o r e V i l l a g e " i n I n d i a ' s V i l l a g e , West B e n g a l Government P r e s s , 1955, p . 22. 71 I n t h i s s e n s e , a v i l l a g e s o c i e t y o c c u p i e s a p o s i t i o n i n a l a r g e r n e t - w o r k o f b o t h h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s o c i e t y : o f t h e v i l l a g e r e m a i n s a n i s o l a t e d a n d a u t o n o m o u s w o r l d . I t i s a l m o s t a ' p h y s i c a l u n i t y ' s i n c e t h e w h o l e v i l l a g e m i g h t a c t i n a c r i s i s . ^ T h o u g h v i l l a g e s m a y b e l o c a t e d s i d e b y s i d e , t h e y m a y h a v e n o e f f e c t u p o n o n e a n o t h e r . I n s p i t e o f c l o s e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s , t h e y 5 a r e ' i s o l a t e d ' . S r i n i v a s , I b i d . N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 162; I n R a t n a g i r i i s a n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g e x a m p l e o f t w o c o m m u n i t i e s , l i v i n g s i d e b y s i d e f o r g e n e r a t i o n s ' , b u t n o t l e a r n i n g f r o m e a c h o t h e r . H e r e t h e M u s l i m f i s h e r m e n o f t h e D a l d i c o m m u n i t y , f o r e x a m p l e , , a r e f a r m o r e p r o s p e r o u s t h a n t h e l o c a l H i n d u f i s h e r m e n , b e c a u s e f o r o n e t h i n g , D a l d i s h a v e b i g g e r b o a t s a n d s u p e r i o r e q u i p m e n t b y w a y o f n e t s - , h o o k s a n d l i n e t h a n t h e H i n d u s . T h e H i n d u s ' b o a t s a r e o n l y o n e m a n t o n i e s . T h e y f i s h m a i n l y i n t h e c r e e k , a n d u s e o n l y h o o k a n d l i n e w i t h s m a l l s a i l . T h i r d l y , t h e D a l d i s a l o n e s a l t t h e f i s h . T h e H i n d u f i s h e r m e n o n t h e o t h e r h a n d d o n o t s a l t o r c u r e t h e f i s h w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t w h a t e v e r t h e y c a t c h t h e y m u s t s e l l f r e s h , t h e s a m e d a y . W h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o s e l l i n t h e l o c a l m a r k e t b y s u n d o w n , t h e y d i s p o s e o f a t a n y p r i c e , o r j u s t t h r o w t h e f i s h i n t h e g u t t e r . B u t t h e y w i l l n o t s a l t i t b e c a u s e i t i s n o t t h e c u s t o m o r t r a d i t i o n w i t h t h e m  t o d o . D a l d i s , i n f a c t , b u t w h o l e s a l e f r o m t h e H i n d u f i s h e r m e n a t l o w p r i c e a n d t h e n s a l t t h e f i s h a n d s e l l i t f a r i n t o t h e h i n t e r l a n d a t a h a n d s o m e p r o f i t . Y e t t h e H i n d u a n d M u s l i m v i l l a g e a r e s i d e b y s i d e . ( U n d e r l i n i n g s u p p l i e d - M . S . ) M r s . K„ N a i r g i v e s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e o f v i l l a g e s w h i c h a r e l o c a t e d v e r y c l o s e l y b u t t h e i r e t h o s i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t , ( o p . c i t o p p . 141-2). I n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n , B u d e l p a l i v i l l a g e , t h e v i l l a g e r s n e v e r p a y a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n e w l y i r r i -g a t e d w a t e r . I n t h e v i l l a g e o f P r a d h a n a t i k a r a w h i c h i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n t e n m i l e s f r o m t h e f o r m e r , t h e v i l l a g e r s a r e e x t r e m e l y e n t h u s i a s t i c a b o u t t h e i r r i g a t i o n p r o j e c t . S t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , f a r m i n g c o n d i t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e t w o a r e n o t v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m e a c h o t h e r . 72 I . S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e A . F a m i l y The b a s i c u n i t o f t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y i s t h e f a m i l y . The p r e v a i l i n g I n d i a n f a m i l y i s t h e s o - c a l l e d ' j o i n t - f a m i l y ' w h i c h i s s c h e m a t i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i a g r a m : P a t e r n a l G r a n d P a r e n t s P a r e n t s B r o t h e r s & T h e i r W i v e s Nephews & N i e c e s EGO - W I F E S o n s a n d T h e i r W i v e s G r a n d c h i l d r e n S o u r c e : D u b e , S . C . , I n d i a n V i l l a g e , 1955, p . 133 U n m a r r i e d S i s t e r s U n m a r r i e d D a u g h t e r s The j o i n t f a m i l y i s a p a t r i l i n e a l a n d p a t r i l o c a l g r o u p . I t i s i d e a l l y s e v e r a l g e n e r a t i o n s i n d e p t h , a n d i s made u p o f p a t r i l i n e a l e l e m e n t a r y f a m i l i e s p l u s c o l l a t e r a l e l e m e n t a r y f a m i l i e s . ^ I n c e r t a i n s t a g e s o f t h e f a m i l y c y c l e , t h e f a m i l y ^ E l e m e n t a r y f a m i l y i n t h i s t h e s i s means t h e f a m i l y w h i c h c o n s i s t s o f a c o u p l e ( a n d t h e i r u n m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n ) . 73 takes the form of the elementary family; nevertheless, the j o i n t family can be considered as the p r i n c i p a l family composition i n Indian v i l l a g e society. Each i n d i v i d u a l family i s related to other f a m i l i e s i n and out of the v i l l a g e s by kin-relationships, and they form various informal groups of which mention w i l l be made l a t e r . Dube discovered four major p r i n c i p l e s of the power structure inside the family through his study i n Mysore v i l l a g e s . Those p r i n c i p l e s are: 1 . Respect for age. 2. Respect f o r position i n the scale of kinship. 3 . Superiority of the male. 4. Necessity of keeping cer t a i n family matters confined to the responsible members of the 7 family, or at the most, within the family. Such p r i n c i p l e s imply a h i e r a r c h i c a l order of positions i n the family. The family head, who i s usually a senior male, i s the representative of the family toward the v i l l a g e and outer Dube, S.C, Indian V i l l a g e , London, 1 9 5 5 , p. 1 3 8 . 74 s o c i e t y . The h o u s e - w i f e , i . e . , t h e w i f e o f t h e f a m i l y head, i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a f f a i r s i n s i d e t h e f a m i l y h o u s e h o l d . I f t h e r e a r e w i v e s o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d ' s b r o t h e r s , t h e y a r e u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f t h e h o u s e w i f e , b u t s u p e r i o r t o t h e young w i v e s , i . e . , t h e w i v e s o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d ' s s o n s . S e n i o r i t y i s n o t t h e s o l e symbol o f power. As l o n g a s one can f u l f i l t h e d u t i e s o f t h e f a m i l y - h e a d p h y s i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y , he c a n r e m a i n i n . t h e p o s i t i o n , b u t when he f e e l s no l o n g e r s t r o n g enough, he can r e t i r e f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n , and t h e n e x t s e n i o r p e r s o n , most f r e q u e n t l y t h e f i r s t s o n , d w i l l o c c u p y t h e p o s i t i o n . The f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e s u g g e s t s t h e o v e r y i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f t h e y o u n g - w i f e i n t h e f a m i l y . The y o u n g w i v e s i n a f a m i l y f o r m an i n f o r m a l g r o u p , b u t t h e r e l a t i o n s among t h e members a r e v e r y complex. They a r e a l w a y s u n i t e d and s e p a r a t e d f r o m t i m e t o t i m e among t h e m s e l v e s , and b a c k - b i t i n g one a n o t h e r . They f e e l h o s t i l e t o w a r d s t h e h o u s e - w i f e , y e t each o f them s e e k s t o g a i n t h e h o u s e - w i f e ' s f a v o u r by t e l l i n g h e r o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e o t h e r young w i v e s , and so g a i n i n g a s e c u r e r p o s i t i o n i n t h e j o i n t f a m i l y . As a r e s u l t , i n s p i t e o f t h e h o s t i l e r e l a t i o n s o f y o u n g w i v e s who a r e ' s t r a n g e r s ' among t h e c o n s a n g u i n e a l f a m i l y members, Dube, op. c i t . , pp. 153-6. Dube, op. c i t . , p. 140. 75 w i t h o t h e r f a m i l y members, t h e y a r e c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s e n i o r g e n e r a t i o n , and t h e s o l i d a r i t y o f t h e f a m i l y i s r e -t a i n e d . T h i s s e n s e o f s o l i d a r i t y o f f a m i l y members makes i t p o s s i b l e f o r a f a m i l y member t o make a s e l f - s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e * h o u s e ' . " ^ The y o u n g - w i f e i s a s t r a n g e r i n t h e f a m i l y , and she i s n o t t r u s t e d by o t h e r f a m i l y members. At t h e same t i m e , i f she i s t h e w i f e o f t h e e l d e s t son, she i s t h e n e x t c a n d i d -a t e f o r h o u s e - w i f e , and she i s e x p e c t e d t o a s s i m i l a t e t o t h e f a m i l y . O t h e r f a m i l y members t h e r e f o r e have r e g a r d and h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s t o w a r d s h e r . T h i s c o n f l i c t o f p r i n c i p l e s makes h e r p o s i t i o n i n t h e f a m i l y c o m p l i c a t e d . Dube's f o u r t h p r i n c i p l e has m e a n i n g i n t h i s r e s p e c t . Some f a m i l y m a t t e r s a r e " c o n f i n e d t o t h e r e s p o n s i b l e members o f t h e f a m i l y " , and t h e y o u n g w i f e i s sometimes e x c l u d e d . H e r e , t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a v o i d a n c e f u n c t i o n s . When t h e m a t t e r i s c o n f i n e d " w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y " , she i s c o u n t e d as a f a m i l y member and t h e p r i n -c i p l e o f a s s i m i l a t i o n f u n c t i o n s . I n p r i n c i p l e , t h e f a m i l y p r o p e r t y i s t o be d i v i d e d e q u a l l y among t h e f a m i l y members, b u t t h i s w i l l promote t h e f r a g m e n t a t i o n o f l a n d and undermine t h e economic b a s i s o f t h e 'house'. I n p r a c t i c e , t h e r e f o r e , some f a m i l y members, u s u a l l y g i r l s , a r e ' p e r s u a d e d ' t o ' s u r r e n d e r v o l u n t a r i l y ' t h e i r c l a i m s Term u s e d by M r s . Kusum N a i r t o show t h e f a m i l y a s a n i n s t i t u t i o n . . - ' 76 i n t h e l a n d a t l e a s t . 1 1 A c c o r d i n g t o t h e o t h e r f a m i l y members, t h e g i r l s a r e g i v e n t h e i r due s h a r e by way o f dowry i n m a r r i a g e , I n t h e i d e a l t y p e , t h e s o c i a l a c t i o n o f an i n d i v i d u a l i n t h e f a m i l y i s o r i e n t e d by h i s s t a t u s and p o s i t i o n i n i t as d e f i n e d by s u c h v a r i a b l e s as s e x and age. The norm i s t h e i n s i s t e n c e on f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y and c o h e s i o n , and t h e v a l u e i s t h e g r e a t a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e s o i l and s e t t l e m e n t . However,' t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s a r e c h a n g i n g s l i g h t l y . T h e r e i s a g r o w t h o f i n d i v i d u a l i s m i n t h e f a m i l y , and m i g r a t i o n s have become more f r e q u e n t . R e g a r d f o r t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s i s b e c o m i n g 1 A i 1 2 l e s s and l e s s . B. C a s t e H i n d u s have a u n i q u e s o c i a l s y s t e m b a s e d upon s t r i c t a s c r i b e d s t a t u s , and known as t h e c a s t e s y s t e m . T h e r e a r e f o u r v a r n a s : B r a h m i n s , K s h a t r i y a s , V a i s h a s , and S h u d r a s . The h i g h e r t h r e e c a s t e s e n j o y g r e a t e r s o c i a l p r e s t i g e t h a n t h e o t h e r , and t h e y a r e c o n c e i v e d a s ' t w i c e b o r n ' c a s t e s . 1 3 These f o u r c a s t e s a r e c a l l e d ' c l e a n ' c a s t e s , and u n d e r them i s a f i f t h c a s t e c a l l e d ' u n t o u c h a b l e ' o r H a r i j a n s . I f a h i g h e r 1 1 N a i r , op. c i t . , P. 107. Dube, op. c i t . , P. 222. l 3 D u b e , op. c i t . , P. 35. 7 7 c a s t e member i s touched by a l o w e r c a s t e member, t h e former i s p o l l u t e d and has t o p r a c t i s e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e i f t h e c l e a n c a s t e member i s touched by a H a r i j a n . I n some p a r t s o f I n d i a where t h e c o n v e n t i o n i s s t i l l v i t a l , h i g h c a s t e members p r a c t i c e p u r i f i c a t i o n r i t u a l s f r o m time t o t i m e . 1 ^ B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , the c a s t e system has t h r e e d i s -t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (a) c o r r e l a t i o n between a c a s t e and a s p e c i f i c o c c u p a t i o n , (b) commensality w i t h i n each c a s t e , and (c) endogamy. 1. Monopoly of O c c u p a t i o n T h e o r e t i c a l l y , each c a s t e i s i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n , but t h i s has l o o s e n e d f r o m e a r l y t i m e s . F o r example, most of t h e v i l l a g e r s a r e engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e . I f t h e c a s t e o c c u p a t i o n s were s t r i c t l y m o n opolized, such a s i t u a t i o n would be i m p o s s i b l e . ' A g r i c u l t u r i s t s ' i s a s p e c i f i c c a s t e , w h i c h u s u a l l y i n c l u d e s the b e s t f a r m e r s i n the v i l l a g e ; many o t h e r c a s t e members, however, are a l l o w e d t o c u l t i v a t e t h e farm l a n d b e s i d e s c a r r y i n g on t h e i r own c a s t e o c c u p a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o S r i n i v a s , " I n Rampura a t p r e s e n t (19.48) o n l y t h e T r a d e r s , Basket-makers, Washermen, S r i n i v a s , M.N., "The S o c i a l System of a Mysore V i l l a g e " i n M a r r i o t t , M., ed., V i l l a g e I n d i a , Chicago U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1955, p. 22. 78 S w i n e h e r d s , a n d a f e w f i s h e r m e n d o n o t e n g a g e i n a g r i c u l t u r e i n a n y w a y " . 1 " ' W h e n t h e v i l l a g e r s b e c a m e e d u c a t e d a n d w e n t o u t t o u r b a n a r e a s , t h e y e n g a g e d i n v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s o t h e r t h a n t h e i r o w n c a s t e - o c c u p a t i o n a n d a g r i c u l t u r e . 2 . C o m m e n s a l i t y P e r f e c t c o m m e n s a l i t y i s o b s e r v e d o n l y w i t h i n a s i n g l e c a s t e t h o u g h t h i s i s a l s o l o o s e n i n g v e r y s l o w l y . L o w e r c a s t e s c a n r e c e i v e f o o d f r o m s u p e r i o r c a s t e s b u t n o t v i c e v e r s a . W o m e n a r e m o r e p a r t i c u l a r a b o u t c a s t e p o l l u t i o n t h a n m e n . 1 6 I n s p i t e o f t h e o f f i c i a l a b o l i t i o n o f u n t o u c h a b i l i t y i n t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , a t t i t u d e s a g a i n s t i n t e r - c a s t e c o m m e n s a l i t y s t i l l s u r v i v e . 1 7 I n t e r - c a s t e c o m m e n s a l i t y a t o f f i c i a l 18 o c c a s i o n s o n l y s e r v e s t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e s e g r e g a t i o n . 1 5 . ' . , S r m i v a s , o p . c i t . , p . 1+. 1 6 S r i n i v a s , o p . c i t . , p . 2 0 . 1 7 • ' N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 9 0 : W i t h i n t h e m u l t i - c a s t e v i l l a t e c o m m u n i t y o f M u c h a r i n o f t o d a y , t h e r e i s n o r m a l l y n o i n t e r - c a s t e d i n i n g n o r s o c i a l i n t e r c o u r s e e v e n w i t h i n t h e u p p e r c a s t e s ' u n l e s s t h e r e i s s o m e s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n -w h e n P u k k a P h a n a i s s e r v e d ' , t h i s b e i n g p e r m i t t e d u n d e r t h e c a s t e r u l e s . B u t u n d e r n o c i r c u m s t a n c e s w o u l d w e e a t w i t h t h e H a r i j a n s . T h i s ' w e ' a r e t h e i n f o r m a n t s o f M r s . N a i r . 1 8 F u k u t a k e , o p . c i t . , p . 9 0 : H e ( a n i n s t r u c t o r o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B i s w a P l a t ) e m p h a s i z e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h , A b o u t t h e p r o b l e m o f c o m m e n s a l i t y , h e p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e c o m m e n s a l i t y i n o f f i c i a l o c c a s i o n w i t h l o w e -e r c a s t e s d o e s n o t s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m . S o m e t i m e s , h e c o n t i n u e d , t h i s t y p e o f c o m m e n s a l i t y s t r e n g t h e n s t h e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . " (my t r a n s l a t i o n — M . S . ) 79 3. Endogamy T h e r e i s no s i g n o f any w e a k e n i n g o f c a s t e endogamy. P r o f e s s o r M u k e r j i o f t h e I n d i a R e s e a r c h I n s t i t u t e o f S t a t i s t i c s has u n d e r t a k e n a sample s u r v e y o f 6,500 c a s e s f r o m a b o u t 500 v i l l a g e s . He f o u n d o n l y t h r e e c a s e s o f i n t e r c a s t e m a r r i a g e , and f a i l e d t o d i s c o v e r any c l u e t o p r e d i c t how t h i s p r o b l e m w o u l d be r e s o l v e d . 1 9 E v e r y H i n d u member o f a v i l l a g e s o c i e t y b e l o n g s t o some c a s t e . O n l y e x c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m t h e c a s t e o r change o f r e l i g i o n c a u s e s a change o f c a s t e ' s t a t u s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . When v i l l a g e r s ' r e l i g i o n i s o t h e r t h a n H i n d u i s m , s u c h v i l l a g e r s b e have as "a c l o s e - k n i t g r o u p i n s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s m a t t e r s " . G e n e r a l l y , H i n d u s l o o k down upon t h e p e o p l e o f o t h e r r e l i g i o n s ; and v i c e - v e r s a ; however, H i n d u s i m p l i c i t l y g i v e ' a p p r o p r i a t e ' c a s t e r a n k s f r o m t h e i r s i d e , and t r e a t t h e s e h e r e t i c s as 21 c a s t e s . Though H i n d u s l o o k down on M u s l i m s , t h e y a d m i t t h e l a t t e r as a ' c l e a n c a s t e ' and s i t t o g e t h e r o r d i n e w i t h them. Among t h e m a j o r c a s t e s , t h e r e i s a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r d e r o r i g i n a l l y d e t e r m i n e d by r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s . I n e a c h c a s t e t h e r e a r e many s u b - u n i t s w h i c h f o r m i n i t a s u b - h i e r a r c h y . 1 9 F u k u t a k e , op. c i t . , p. 133. 20 N e w e l l , W i l l i a m H., "Goshen, a G a d d i V i l l a g e i n t h e H i m a l a y a s " i n I n d i a ' s V i l l a g e s , West B e n g a l Government, pp. 51-61. 21 Dube, op. c i t . . , p. 135*. . 80 R u r a l economy i s d e p e n d e n t upon (a) f u n c t i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f c a s t e s and (b) i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e o f c a s t e s . . B e s i d e s t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e y can engage i n a g r i c u l t u r e , b u t most t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s a r e m o n o p o l i z e d by t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c a s t e s . T h i s monopoly o f a c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n n e c e s s a r i l y r e l a t e s a c a s t e member w i t h members o f d i f f e r e n t c a s t e s on t h e h o u s e h o l d b a s i s t h r o u g h t h e e xchange o f s e r v i c e s . . . F o r example, B a r b e r A i s i n c o n t r a c t w i t h an a g r i c u l t u r i s t . The b a r b e r may v i s i t t h e l a t t e r once o r t w i c e e v e r y month t o o f f e r h i s s e r v i c e , and i n r e t u r n , he r e c e i v e s g r a i n s i n t h e c r o p s e a s o n . The r e l a t i o n b etween t h e two i s a r e l a t i v e l y r i g i d one, and even when t h e a g r i c u l t u r i s t i s n o t c o n t e n t e d w i t h t h e s e r v i c e , o t h e r members.of t h e b a r b e r c a s t e do n o t a c c e p t a r e q u e s t f o r a new c o n t r a c t w i t h them be-c a u s e o f t h e i r c o u r t e s y f o r B a r b e r A. The a g r i c u l t u r i s t has t o c o n t i n u e t h e r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e b a r b e r . I n t h i s way, c a s t e i s p l a y i n g t h e f u n c t i o n o f a t r a d e u n i o n f o r i t s members as w e l l a s p r o v i d i n g an i n t e g r a t i n g f a c t o r f o r t h e v i l l a t e s o c i e t y . E a c h c a s t e , i n c l u d i n g members i n s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s , h a s i t s own c a s t e p a n c h a y a t o r c a s t e c o u n c i l . T h i s c o u n c i l w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h r e g u l a t i n g m a t t e r s w i t h i n t h e c a s t e . I n t e r - c a s t e a f f a i r s a r e r e g u l a t e d e i t h e r by t h e v i l l a g e c o u n c i l s o r by m e e t i n g s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e v a r i o u s c a s t e c o u n c i l s . 81 By h i s caste s t a t u s , and by h i s p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n i n the system of exchanging s e r v i c e s with o t h e r f a m i l i e s , the s o c i a l r o l e s of any i n d i v i d u a l are narrowly d e l i m i t e d . Attach-ment to one's own c a s t e i s a r i g i d s o c i a l norm of each caste member, and i f one's behavior should c o n f l i c t with i t , one would be excommunicated from the c a s t e . ' By excommunication, a person i s not down-graded and pushed i n t o a lower caste-, he i s merely denied the " p r i v i l e g e s of equal p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s o c i o - r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the v i l l a g e s o c i e t y " . 2 2 C. S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n As has been p o i n t e d out i n the e a r l i e r s e c t i o n , the c o r r e l a t i o n between caste and occupation i s weakening. T h i s means t h a t a d i f f e r e n t type of s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n e x i s t s p a r a l l e l with the c a s t e system i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . A c c o r d i n g to Dube, i n the v i l l a g e of Shamirpet, s i x major f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e towards s t a t u s d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . These a r e : (a) r e l i g i o n and caste, (b) land-ownership, (c) wealth, (d) p o s i t i o n i n government s e r v i c e and v i l l a g e o r g a n i z a t i o n , (e) age, and (f) d i s t i n c t i v e p e r s o n a l t r a i t s . J But, these s i x f a c t o r s seem to be reduced i n t o t h r e e : c a s t e , economic b a s i s , and p e r s o n a l t r a i t s . Dube, op. c i t . , p. 39. D u b e o p . c i t . , p. 161. 82 I n h i s s t u d y , Dube d e s c r i b e s t h e c a s e o f an ' u n t o u c h a b l e ' f a r m e r who a c q u i r e d l a n d and c a t t l e . " A c q u i s i -t i o n o f l a n d w o u l d v e r y m a t e r i a l l y a f f e c t t h e s o c i a l p o s i t i o n e ven o f a p e r s o n o f humble b i r t h " . 2 ^ W e a l t h a l o n e does n o t g u a r a n t e e p r e s t i g e and h i g h r e g a r d f r o m one's f e l l o w v i l l a g e r s . I t i s n e c e s s a r y a l s o t o b e h a v e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h one's c a s t e r o l e as s e e n by t h e p e r s o n s w i t h whom one d w e l l s . 'In t h e i n s t a n c e q u o t e d by Dube, t h i s p r i n c i p l e meant t h a t t h e H a r i j a n f a r m e r , t h o u g h now w e a l t h i e r t h a n b e f o r e , n e v e r t h e l e s s c o n t i n u e d t o b e h a v e as a H a r i j a n as was e x p e c t e d by t h e o t h e r v i l l a g e r s . I n t h i s c a s e , t h e H a r i j a n f a r m e r ' s own p e r s o n a l i t y and a t t i t u d e s a l s o l e d h i m t o b e h a v e i n a manner r e s p e c t e d and a d m i r e d by t h e o t h e r v i l l a g e r s . B u t , among t h e s i x f a c t o r s , p e r s o n a l t r a i t s a r e r a n k e d t h e l o w e s t , and a s c r i b e d s t a t u s i s t h e h i g h e s t . The e c onomic b a s i s i s a l s o c l o s e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h c a s t e o r i g i n b e c a u s e t h e c a s t e s y s t e m i s n o t an o p e n - c l a s s s y s t e m . The economic a d v a n t a g e s o f h i g h c a s t e members w i l l a l l o w them t o be w e a l t h y , and g i v e them b e t t e r o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o g e t s o c i a l l y r e s p e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s o r p o s i t i o n s . T h e r e f o r e , by t h e com-b i n a t i o n o f h i g h c a s t e o r i g i n and h i g h e conomic s t a t u s , some p e o p l e w o u l d a c q u i r e t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c a l l y h i g h e r s t a t u s e s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . They have t h e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e and S f i a r r i o t t , , op* c i t . , p. 96. 33 economic power to i n f l u e n c e other members of the v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . They are the e l i t e group; we w i l l d e s c r i b e such an e l i t e group as 'upper c l a s s people'. The l a n d l e s s a g r i c u l t u r -a l l a b o u r e r s are almost e x c l u s i v e l y H a r i j a n s . They have no independent economic b a s i s , and t h e i r c a s t e o r i g i n makes i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r them to a c q u i r e i t . Some persons who do possess t h e i r own l a n d , but a l s o c u l t i v a t e o t h e r l a n d as tenant s may a l s o be considered i n the same economic category as the H a r i j a n s . These people are l e s s i n f l u e n t i a l and t h e i r a s c r i b e d s t a t u s does not i t s e l f a t t r a c t the r e s p e c t of other v i l l a g e r s . These people we w i l l c a l l 'lower c l a s s ' . The farmers, t r a d e r s , and some persons who possess t h e i r own land, ye t borrow some more l a n d from the l a n d l o r d s are c a l l e d 'middle c l a s s ' . To i l l u s t r a t e , McKim M a r r i o t t r e p o r t s the occupation composition of the Kishan Garhi V i l l a g e i n 1951 as f o l l o w s . Among 161 households, 66.6 per cent are engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e and the r e s t are s p e c i a l i s t s (29 per cent) and Traders (5.4 per c e n t ) . 64 per cent of those who are engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e are tenants and 32 per cent are l a n d l e s s a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r -e r s . 25 Many tenants and most of the a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s are i n debt from borrowing g r a i n and money from l a n d l o r d s and money-lenders (who are T r a d e r s ) . Heavy debtors can never repay M a r r i o t t , M., op. c i t . , p. 96. 84 i t . O l d a n d b i g l a n d l o r d s a r e s u p p o s e d t o h a v e l o s t t h e i r ' e x c e s s i v e ' l a n d i n t h e L a n d . R e f o r m , a n d t o h a v e b e e n r e p l a c e d b y n e w ' s m a l l l a n d h o l d e r s ' . B u t , i n m a n y p l a c e s , t h e L a n d R e f o r m w a s n o t o v e r l y s u c c e s s f u l ; t h o u g h i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r e x a m p l e , t h e o l d l a n d l o r d s d o n o t h a v e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l l e a d e r -2 6 s h i p i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y a n y m o r e . L a n d l o r d s u s u a l l y s u p p l y c e r t a i n f a c i l i t i e s t o t e n a n t s o t h e r t h a n m a k i n g t h e m t i l l t h e l a n d . F o r e x a m p l e , K . N a i r i n t e r v i e w e d a l a n d l o r d w i t h 2 , 0 0 0 a c r e s o f l a n d . T h i s l a n d -l o r d , o n t h e o c c a s i o n o f a b i r t h i n t h e t e n a n t ' s f a m i l y , g a v e o n e p a r a o f g r a i n i f t h e n e w b o r n w a s a m a l e c h i l d a n d a h a l f p a r a i s i t w a s a f e m a l e . " T h i s i s b e c a u s e h e g r o w s u p . I t i s t h e c o n v e n t i o n . T h e g i r l w i l l g o a w a y a f t e r m a r r i a g e . Y e s , i t i s a l o n g - t e r m p o l i c y a n d I a m s t i l l f o l l o w i n g i t , " s a y s t h e l a n d l o r d . I f t h e t e n a n t r e c e i v e d t h e g r a i n , h e m u s t w o r k f o r a t l e a s t o n e y e a r t h o u g h t h e r e i s n o t h i n g t o p r e v e n t a m a n f r o m l e a v i n g i f h e w a n t s t o a f t e r t h e o n e y e a r . T h i s g r a i n b e c o m e s a n o r a l c o n t r a c t . S u c h s m a l l g i f t s c a n o b l i g a t e t h e t e n a n t s b e c a u s e t h e i r l i f e i s s o p o o r . N a i r d e s c r i b e s t h e p o o r p e o p l e ' s h o u s e s a s f o l l o w s : M a r r i o t t , M . , " S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e a n d C h a n g e s i n a U . P . V i l l a g e " , p . 9 8 . N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 65, w r i t e s , " T h e l a n d o w n e r s a d m i t t e d v e r y f r a n k l y t h a t t h e y h a d t a k e n t h e p r e -c a u t i o n t o d i v i d e t h e i r h o l d i n g s a m o n g t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e i r f a m i l y s o t h a t w h e n t h e c e i l i n g i s i m p o s e d t h e y w i l l n o t l o o s e a n y l a n d . " N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 4 1 . :V5 I went i n s i d e e v e r y s i n g l e c o t t a g e i n t h e v i l l a g e ( i n U.P.).. They a r e s m a l l mud h u t s w i t h t i l e d r o o f s . ' The e n t r a n c e i s v e r y l o w and many have no d o o r s . I n s i d e i s a s m a l l w a l l e d - i n y a r d , l i n e d on one s i d e w i t h a l i t t l e v e r a n d a h , and one o r a t t h e most two rooms. I n e a c h room l i v e s a whole f a m i l y . I n s i d e t h e room t h e r e i s u s u a l l y an e a r t h e n s i l o f o r s t o r -i n g g r a i n , b u t no o t h e r f u r n i t u r e . The c h u l a i s i n t h e v e r a n d a h ; s t r a w l i e s s c a t t e r e d i n t h e y a r d ; i n some a l i t t l e g r a i n i s l y i n g on t h e f l o o r . B u t i n none o f t h e 85 homes i s a c h u l a a l i g h t o r even w i t h a s h i n i t . I n t h e c o r n e r n e a r t h e c h u l a a r e p i l e d n e a t l y f a c e downward,, t h e c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s , e a r t h e n p o t s and a r a r e p i e c e o f b r a s s . I n one c o t t a g e t h e r e i s a l i t t l e c o o k e d s a g i n a pan, b l a c k i n c o l o u r . T h e r e f o r e , a n y g i f t w i l l b e n e f i t t h e i r m a t e r i a l l i f e . Thus t e n a n t - l a n d l o r d r e l a t i o n s h i p s become more t h a n p u r e c o n t r a c t i n t h e W e s t e r n s e n s e . To t h e l a n d l o r d s ' o n e - s i d e d . b e n e v o l e n c e , u n c o n d i t i o n a l o b e d i e n c e must be o f f e r e d f r o m t h e s i d e o f t h e t e n a n t s . The b e n e f i t i s n o t b a l a n c e d : a s m a l l amount o f ex-p e n d i t u r e o f g r a i n by t h e l a n d l o r d s w i l l b r i n g a g r e a t amount o f s e r v i c e f r o m t h e t e n a n t s , t h u s making t h e r i c h r i c h e r and t h e p o o r p o o r e r . I n s u c h a r e l a t i o n s h i p , t h e p e r s o n s i n v o l v e d a r e n o t c o n t r a c t o r s ' o f e q u a l s t a t u s b u t e n t e r what i s i n e f f e c t a ' m a s t e r ' and ' s e r v a n t ' r e l a t i o n s h i p . . ^ The ' m a s t e r s ' w i l l a l l o t " w e l l d e f i n e d d u t i e s " t o t h e ' s e r v a n t s ' a t s p e c i a l o c c a s i o n s s u c h as f u n e r a l s o r w e d d i n g s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a s a ° N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 82. S r i n i v a s , "The S o c i a l S ystem o f a Mysore V i l l a g e " , p. 27. 86 w e d d i n g i n t h e ' m a s t e r ' s ' f a m i l y , t h e men o f t h e ' s e r v a n t ' f a m i l y a r e r e q u i r e d t o r e p a i r and w h i t e - w a s h t h e w e d d i n g -house, p u t up t h e m a r r i a g e canopy b e f o r e i t , chop wood t o be u s e d a s f u e l f o r c o o k i n g t h e w e d d i n g - f e a s t , a n d do o t h e r odd j o b s . Women o f t h e ' s e r v a n t ' f a m i l y a r e r e q u i r e d t o c l e a n t h e g r a i n , g r i n d i t i n t o f l o u r i n t h e r o t a r y q u e r n , and cook f o o d . I n r e t u r n f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s , t h e 'ma s t e r ' makes p r e -s e n t s o f money and cooked f o o d t o t h e ' s e r v a n t ' f a m i l y . 3 ® T h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t l i m i t e d . t o t h e s p h e r e o f p r o d u c t i o n b u t e v e n t o t h e s p h e r e o f d a i l y l i f e . T h e s e c l o s e l y k n i t r e l a t i o n s h i p s m o d i f y t h e a c u t e c o n f l i c t s o f t h e i r economic I n t e r e s t s . F o r example, i f t h e t e n a n t s were n o t i n s u c h r e l a t i o n -s h i p s a s t h e s e t h e y w o u l d n o t know when t h e l e a s e s on t h e i r t i l l i n g - l a n d w o u l d be t e r m i n a t e d by t h e l a n d l o r d s ; and, a t b e s t , w o u l d e x p e c t t o be g i v e n t h e w o r s t l a n d i n t h e v i l l a g e . They a r e a l w a y s i n an u n c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n , and t h e y c a n n o t i mprove t h e i r t i l l i n g - l a n d , f o r l a n d may go t o someone e l s e . The m o r a l e f o r p r o d u c t i o n i s low, and t h e s o i l i s e x p l o i t e d w i t h o u t i m p r o v i n g - d e v i c e s b e i n g a p p l i e d . To i m p r o v e t h e s o i l a nd f a r m i n g methods, t h e s t a t u s o f t e n a n t s must f i r s t be i m p r o v e d . S r i n i v a s , op. c i t . , p. 29. 87 D . F a c t i o n T h e t e n a n t s w h o a r e n o t i n s u c h a m a s t e r - s e r v a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p a s w e h a v e j u s t d e s c r i b e d h a v e u n s t a b l e r i g h t s a n d r e c e i v e l e s s f a c i l i t i e s f r o m t h e l a n d l o r d s . I n m o s t c a s e s , t h e t e n a n t s c a n n o t p r o v i d e t h e f a c i l i t i e s f r o m t h e i r o w n c a p i t a l . T o m a i n t a i n t h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e l a n d -l o r d s m a y m e a n t o b e l o n g t o a ' f a c t i o n ' . S i n c e t h e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n l a n d l o r d s a r e o f t e n r i v a l r o u s , t h e l i n e b e t w e e n t h e . s u p p o r t e r s o f o n e l a n d l o r d a n d t h e s u p p o r t e r s o f a n o t h e r i s r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r . T h e h o u s e h o l d s w i t h i n t h i s l i n e s h a r e m o r e o r l e s s a c o m m o n i n t e r e s t , a n d b e h a v e o n t h e - s a m e g r o u n d . T h i s i s a ' f a c t i o n ' . I f a f a c t i o n s u p p o r t e d a g i v e n i d e a , o t h e r f a c t i o n s w o u l d s a y ' N o ! ' a n d v i c e v e r s a . T h r o u g h t h e r i v a l r y r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f a c t i o n s , t h e i n t e r - c a s t e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h i n t h e f a c t i o n a r e i n t e g r a t e d , w h i l e c a s t e s c r e a t e a s e n s e o f s o l i d a r i t y a m o n g c a s t e m e m b e r s . T h u s i n s p i t e o f h o r i z o n t a l a n d v e r t i c a l d i v i s i o n s , b e t w e e n c a s t e s a n d f a c t i o n s , t h e v i l l a g e i s a l s o i n t e g r a t e d b y v e r t i c a l a n d h o r i z o n t a l b o n d s , w i t h i n f a c t i o n s a n d c a s t e s . I I . P o w e r S t r u c t u r e T h e o f f i c i a l a g e n t . o f s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y i s t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t . I t h a d e x i s t e d 88 for centuries before the British Regime. After the independence, i t was again set up as an important part of the policy of the new Government of India. As on 31st of March, 1961, 89 per cent of Indian villages were covered by this newly re-estab-lished institution (cf. Appendix Table 5 & 6). In Uttar Pradesh, coverage of villages and rural population by village panchayats was 100 per cent. Average number of villager per panchayat in All-India was 2.6, and in U.P. was 1.5. The average number of persons per panchayat was reckoned at 1,396 for a l l of India, and 755 for U.P. In Uttar Pradesh, the State Assembly in 1947 passed the Panchayat Village Raj Act. By this Act, the members of the panchayat are to be elected by a l l the voters of the village, and the number thereof vary to 16-31. Seats are re-served for scheduled castes proportionately to population. The term of office is 5 years, and the method of election is by show of hands. Besides the annual grants by the Government, the main sources of funds are local taxes and licence fees on vehicles, sale of goods, and so forth. Main power and functions are: establishment and maintenance of primary health centres, maternity and child welfare clinics, dispensaries, veterinary hospitals i primary schools, drainage works, minor irrigation works, etc., water supply,, preparation of plans for the Khand and review of Plans prepared by Gaon Sabbas, development of agriculture, animal husbandry, 89 c o o p e r a t i o n , c o t t a g e i n d u s t r i e s , e t c . , e x a m i n a t i o n o f P a n c h a y a t b u d g e t s and g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n o f P a n c h a y a t s . ^ S i n c e t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n has been s e t up f r o m a b o v e , t o t r a i n v i l l a g e r s f o r s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t and u l t i m a t e l y t o s e r v e a s t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y a g e n t between Government and o r d i n a r y v i l l a g e r s , t h e p a n c h a y a t i s e x p e c t e d t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n t h e Community Development Programmes. Under t h e Programmes, t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t i s t h e o f f i c i a l a g e n t o f t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y t o c a r r y o u t t h e programmes j o i n t l y w i t h t h e Gram S e v a k s . B e f o r e t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t was s e t up, Z a m i n d a r i s were t h e l a w f o r a l l p u r p o s e s . The z a m i n d a r i n .the v i l l a g e s o c i e t y was t h e head o f a s p e c i f i c f a m i l y o f t h e h i g h e s t c a s t e . By means o f t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t , t h e s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y has been expanded f r o m one f a m i l y t o a w i d e r c l u s t e r o f p e o p l e , and t h e p a n c h a y a t i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y opened t o e v e r y p e r s o n r e g a r d l e s s o f a s c r i b e d s t a t u s . I n t h i s s e n s e , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e p a n c h a y a t i s an a t t e m p t a t d e c e n t r a l i z a -t i o n o f powers i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . I n p r a c t i c e , t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e . As t h e p a n c h a y a t i s t h e f o r m a l s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , members o f t h e p a n c h a y a t c a n j u s t i f y t h e i r d e e d s t h r o u g h t h e •* M i n i s t r y o f Community Development and C o o p e r a t i o n , P a n c h a y a t i Ra.j.. .a c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y on l e g i s l a t i o n s , A p r i l , 1962, New D e l h i , p. 31 . 90 f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . The p a n c h a y a t t h e n t e n d s t o become t h e t a r g e t o f f a c t i o n s s e e k i n g t h e i r own p r e s t i g e and power. T h e s e f a c t i o n s a r e l e d by u p p e r c l a s s p e o p l e , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p a n c h a y a t w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e i n t e r e s t s and t h e b a l a n c e o f powers o f £he u p p e r c l a s s p e o p l e . The s i z e o f t h e f a c t i o n w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e number o f members o f t h e p a n c h a y a t t h a t t h e f a c t i o n c a n e l e c t f r o m t h e i r own g r o u p . I f t h e r e was o n l y one p r e d o m i n a n t f a c t i o n , w h i c h c o u l d m o n o p o l i z e t h e p a n c h a y a t , d e c i s i o n s c o u l d be made and t h e p a n c h a y a t f u n c t i o n s m o o t h l y . I f s e v e r a l f a c t i o n s o f s i m i l a r s i z e a r e a g a i n s t one o t h e r , t h e p a n c h a y a t i s i n d e c i s i v e . I n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n , i f t h e r e i s a s u p e r i o r a u t h o r i t y , i t w i l l d e t e r m i n e t h e d e c i s i o n s o f t h e p a n c h a y a t . Kusum N a i r g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n . I n one v i l l a g e , t h e r e was a widow o f a z a m i n d a r ; The p a n c h a y a t i n t h i s v i l l a g e c o u l d n o t f u n c t i o n a t a l l b e c a u s e i t was d i v i d e d e q u a l l y between two p o w e r f u l and o t h e r w i s e i r r e c o n c i l a b l e f a c t i o n s . B e c a u s e o f h e r p r e s t i g e and o f t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s she had shown i n r u n n i n g t h e e s t a t e o f h e r l a t e h u s b a n d , and b e c a u s e she i s o u t s i d e t h e two f a c t i o n s , she was a s k e d t o become l e a d e r o f t h e p a n c h a y a t . She d i d so, a l t h o u g h she was n o t r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e p a n c h a y a t (she r u n s i t by p r o x y . ) , and s i n c e t h e n i t has been "one o f t h e s m o o t h e s t w o r k i n g p a n c h a y a t s i n t h e d i s t r i c t and 32 t h e S t a t e . " J 3 2 N a i r , pp. c i t . , p. 95. 91 I n v i l l a g e s where the panchayats are not a c t i v e , l a n d l o r d s and w e a l t h y T r a d e r s c o n s t i t u t e an i n f o r m a l r u l i n g c l i q u e , g o v e r n i n g v i l l a g e a f f a i r s i n much t h e same way as t h e y d i d b e f o r e Independence. I I I . . V a l u e System Each i n d i v i d u a l i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y i s under the s o c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h r e e s o c i a l l e v e l s : f a m i l y , c a s t e , and v i l l a g e . I n t h e f a m i l y , he o c c u p i e s c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s i n t h e i n n e r o r d e r i n accordance w i t h h i s sex and s e n i o r i t y . D i r e c t i o n s from t h e s e n i o r members a r e obeyed, i n t h e o r y , by the j u n i o r s not w h o l e l y because o f p e r s o n a l t r a i t s b ut because of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n the f a m i l y . The u n d e r l y i n g i d e a i s attachment t o the f a m i l y . I n t h e example o f t h e r i c h ' untouchable' f a r m e r t h a t Dube has g i v e n , he i s r e s p e c t e d and admired by the members o f h i s v i l l a g e s o c i e t y because he never i g n o r e s the c a s t e l i n e . F o r each c a s t e , t h e r e i s a s e t o f expected r o l e s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , and t h e farmer i s i n a p o s i t i o n where he does not n e c e s s a r i l y have t o t a k e the r o l e s . However, by t a k i n g the r o l e s , o r , a t l e a s t by showing o t h e r p e o p l e h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o conform t o t h e e x p e c t e d r o l e s o f h i s c a s t e , he i s s u c c e s s f u l i n g a i n i n g p u b l i c a p p r o v a l . I n o t h e r words, r e m a i n i n g i n one's 92 own caste i s valued by the v i l l a g e r s . At the cast l e v e l , attachment to the caste i s the value. In s p i t e of the h o r i z o n t a l and v e r t i c a l s o c i a l d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the v i l l a g e , the v i l l a g e i s s t i l l an i n t e g r a l u n i t y , and each member of the s o c i e t y has a sense of belonging-ness regardless whether or not the sense i s pleasant or un-pleasant to the i n d i v i d u a l . V i l l a g e r s know c l e a r l y who does and who does not belong. A v i l l a g e r ' s primary i d e n t i f i c a t i o n must be w i t h h i s own v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , the members thereof are expected to f o l l o w those norms which would increase the strengt h and cohesion of the v i l l a g e . The value at t h i s l e v e l i s t h e r e f o r e attachment to the v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . The value at each of these three l e v e l s i s thus attachment to the e x i s t i n g s o c i a l order. The most important point i s revealed i n the case of the untouchable farmer. He i s respected and admired by a l l the members of h i s v i l l a g e , i n c l u d i n g h i s own caste members. By the higher caste members he i s admired because he d i d not f o r g e t h i s caste o r i g i n i n s p i t e of the wealth which he has accumulated. He i s admired by h i s own caste members be-cause he d i d not fo r g e t h i s own caste i n s p i t e of h i s .high economic status which most of them cannot achieve. Here, the f a c t t h a t he d i d not f o r g e t h i s caste (ascribed s t a t u s ) i s the focus of the people's i n t e r e s t i n s p i t e of h i s economic 93 s t a t u s ( a c h i e v e d s t a t u s ) . The n a t u r e o f t h e a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c o l o u r e d by t h e dominance o f a s c r i b e d s t a t u s r a t h e r t h a n a c h i e v e d s t a t u s . T h i s i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n D u b e ' s l i s t o f t h e s i x f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e t o s o c i a l d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n . Among t h e s i x , t h e a s c r i b e d s t a t u s was most i m p o r t a n t , f o l l o w e d by a c h i e v e d s t a t u s , and f i n a l l y , p e r s o n a l t r a i t s . T h i s s t r o n g a t t a c h m e n t t o a s c r i b e d s t a t u s e s c a u s e s a g r e a t r e l u c t a n c e t o c h a n g e . T h i s v a l u e i s p r o j e c t e d i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l customs and c o n t r i b u t e t o m a i n t a i n t h e o r d e r i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . A r e m a r k a b l e example i s seen i n N a i r ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f two f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s l o c a t e d s i d e by s i d e w i t h -o u t b e i n g i n f l u e n c e d by each o t h e r . T h e r e , dominance o f t r a d i t i o n a l custom p r e v e n t s t h e change o f t e c h n o l o g y i n t h e H i n d u v i l l a g e i n s p i t e o f e v i d e n t economic a d v a n t a g e s i n c h a n g i n g . T h i s a t t a c h m e n t t o a s c r i b e d s t a t u s i s a l s o exem-p l i f i e d by t h e a t t a c h m e n t t o o n e ' s p o s i t i o n i n t h e f a m i l y . E a c h p o s i t i o n has a s e t o f e x p e c t e d s o c i a l r o l e s and an i n d i v i d u a l i s r e q u i r e d t o t a k e t h e r o l e s o f h i s p o s i t i o n , and no o t h e r r o l e s . By t a k i n g t h e s e r o l e s , t h e i n n e r o r d e r o f t h e f a m i l y i s m a i n t a i n e d . T a k i n g t h e s p e c i f i c r o l e s a t t a c h e d t o t h e s p e c i f i c p o s i t i o n c o n f i n e s i n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r a s c r i b e d s t a t u s , and a l s o f r u s t r a t e s t h e i r own d e s i r e s i f t h e s e c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e r o l e s . E a c h f a m i l y has a s e t o f 94 e x p e c t e d r o l e s i n i t s own c a s t e ( c f . t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f B a r b e r ) and e a c h c a s t e i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . I n t h i s s e r i e s o f a s -c r i b e d p o s i t i o n s a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s , t h e r e i s one s a l i e n t f e a t u r e . The i n d i v i d u a l s h o u l d c o n f i n e h i m s e l f t o h i s s t a t u s and s h o u l d n o t r e v o l t a g a i n s t i t . T h i s v a l u e w i l l c r e a t e a s p e c i f i c p a t t e r n o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d a u t h o r i t y . To obey a u t h o r i t y . i s t o m a i n t a i n t h e harmony and r e t a i n t h e s e c u r i t y o f one's own p o s i t i o n i n t h e s o c i a l o r d e r . To t h o s e p e r s o n s i n a u t h o r i t y above him, t h e r e f o r e , t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i l l be o b e d i e n t . To p e r s o n s on t h e same l e v e l as h i m s e l f , he w i l l n e v e r compromise and w i l l i n s i s t on h i s i n t e r e s t s and r i g h t s ( c f . f a c t i o n s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y ) . To t h o s e b e l o w him, he w i l l behave i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner; as i n , f o r example, t h e m o t h e r - i n - l a w ' s b e h a v i o r t o w a r d s t h e young w i f e . T h i s same complex o f a t t i t u d e s may be o b s e r v e d i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e v i l l a g e r s t o Government o f f i c i a l s . V i l l a g e r s do n o t t r u s t t h e government o f f i c i a l s b e c a u s e t h e y have been e x p l o i t e d by them.- B u t , t h e Government i s t h e s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y , and. t o become a government o f f i c i a l i s v a l u e d , ( c f . Dube's s i x f a c t o r s ) , and t h e v i l l a g e r s w i l l t h e r e f o r e obey t h e Government. T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i s i m p o r t a n t . I n d i v i d u a l s s u s p e c t , b u t s t i l l obey the' Government. O b e d i e n c e i s m o t i v a t e d n o t by t h e i n n e r c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s c o n s c i e n c e , b u t by h i s d e s i r e t o s e c u r e h i s s o c i a l p o s i t i o n . The r e a c t i o n t o Government programmes i s t h e r e f o r e d e t e r m i n e d n o t d i r e c t l y by : 95 a v a l u e o f ' r i g h t - o r - w r o n g ' but r a t h e r by t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n expected by t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o h i s own s e c u r i t y . ' 'He.may t h e r e -f o r e be s i n c e r e and honest t o p e r s o n s o f h i s own in-group., but r a t h e r l e s s t h a n r e l i a b l e t o o u t s i d e r s . ' T h i s s o r t o f t h i n g i s r e v e a l e d i n t h e q u a r r e l s between f a c t i o n s i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . But t h i s v a l u e system i s c h a n g i n g . I n d i v i d u a l i s m i s now d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e f a m i l y , and a c h i e v e d s t a t u s i s more r e s p e c t e d t h a n b e f o r e . V i l l a g e s o c i e t y I s becoming l e s s i s o l a t e d , and t h e new programmes o f e d u c a t i o n i n s t i t u t e d a f t e r Independence a r e a l s o m o d i f y i n g t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s and v a l u e s o f t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n . We s h a l l next i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r d i s c u s s how t h i s s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and v a l u e system of v i l l a g e s o c i e t y a f f e c t s t h e Community Development Programmes. CHAPTER V I COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES AND VILLAGE SOCIETY I . E f f e c t s o f Community Development Programmes upon V i l l a g e  S o c i e t y The a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e Programmes a r e s a l i e n t i n A l l - I n d i a f i g u r e s , b u t t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s t o e a c h s o c i a l s t r a t u m has been u n e q u a l . T h o s e • f a r m e r s who a r e m o s t l y c l e a n c a s t e members and who a r e a l r e a d y t h e most a d v a n t a g e d i n t h e economic s p h e r e r e c e i v e d t h e g r e a t e s t s h a r e . On t h i s S.C. Dube r e m a r k e d t h a t n e a r l y 70 p e r c e n t o f b e n e f i t s went t o t h e ' e l i t e g r o u p ' and t o t h e more a f f l u e n t and i n f l u e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . 1 G e r a l d D. B e r r e m a n h o l d s a more r a d i c a l v i e w . He c l a i m s : T h e r e has been l i t t l e community d e v e l o p m e n t a c t i v i t y aimed a t d i r e c t l y b e n e f i t i n g n o n -a g r i c u l t u r i s t s o r even n o n - l a n d o w n e r s . 2 As p o i n t e d o u t i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l a r e s t i l l n o t i m p r e s s i v e . K. N a i r ' s f o l l o w i n g , o b s e r v a t i o n may n o t be an e x c e p t i o n a l c a s e c o n s i d e r -i n g t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s p e r v i l l a g e , ( c f . P. 31) 1 D u b e , I n d i a ' s C h a n g i n g V i l l a g e , pp. 82-3. E l i t e Group means t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l u p p e r c l a s s p e o p l e i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . 2 B e r r e m a n , G e r a l d D., " C a s t e and Community D e v e l o p -ment", Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , v o l . 22, No. 1 , S p r i n g , 1963, p.91; 97 The w e l l i s p r o b a b l y t h e o n l y memorable d e v e l o p -ment t h e v i l l a g e has known i n 50 y e a r s . I t s t i l l h as no s c h o o l , and o n l y one b r a v e boy f r o m K a h r o n w a l i , F a r i d a ' s t e n - y e a r - o l d son A l l a h b u x , d a i l y w a l k s f i v e m i l e s t o and f r o m t h e s c h o o l i n R a n j i t p u r a . ^ I n t h e B l o c k , t h e v i l l a g e i n w h i c h B l o c k H e a d q u a r t e r s i s l o c a t e d w i l l be b e n e f i t t e d most. The f a r t h e r t h e v i l l a g e s a r e f r o m t h e h e a d q u a r t e r s , t h e l e s s t h e y w i l l b e n e f i t f r o m t h e Programmes. Then, h e r e and t h e r e , many v i l l a g e s r e m a i n t h a t a r e n o t a f f e c t e d by t h e Programmes, and i n w h i c h t h e v i l l a g e r s j u s t h e a r d o f t h e f i v e Y e a r P l a n s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , s i x y e a r s a f t e r t h e P l a n s were l a u n c h e d . ^ E v e n a t t h e B l o c k H e a d q u a r t e r s v i l l a g e , sometimes t h e e f f o r t by t h e Programmes s t i l l has had no o r v e r y l i t t l e e f f e c t upon t h e p r o b l e m s t h e Programmes a r e aimed a t . A J a p a n e s e r u r a l s o c i o l o g i s t has d e s c r i b e d h i s i m p r e s s i o n o f a v i l l a g e u n d e r t h e ' a c t i v e ' Community Development Programmes as f o l l o w s : T h i s shock ( c a u s e d by t h e p o v e r t y o f t h e v i l l a g e r s ) i s n o t r e l e a s e d by s u c h i n s t i t u t i o n s a s h e a l t h c e n t r e , p l a y - g r o u n d , o r c e n t r e f o r s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n . I am p r e p a r e d t o s a y t h a t t h e s e s y m b o l i z e t h e e f f o r t s f o r t h e n e w - b i r t h o f v i l l a g e I n d i a . However, s u c h s y m b o l s a r e f o r e i g n t o me s i n c e t h e y do n o t i m p r e s s me w i t h b r i g h t hope. The o v e r w h e l m i n g p o v e r t y o f t h e r u r a l v i l l a g e s d e f e a t e d me c o m p l e t e l y . 5 3 N a i r , op. c i t . , p . 122. 4 N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 32. 5 F u k u t a k e , op. c i t . , pp. 117-8 ( T r a n s l a t i o n mine-M.S.). 9 8 H o w e v e r , t h i s i s s i m p l y a n i m p r e s s i o n . T o b r i n g m o r e o b j e c t -i v i t y i n t o t h e d a t a w e m u s t h a v e m o r e d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n s . T h e e f f e c t s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o g r a m m e s a r e t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g , a n d w i l l s e r v e b e s t t o d e m o n s t r a t e s o m e o f t h e e f f e c t s o n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s . T h e f i r s t n o t a b l e e f f e c t , a s r e v e a l e d i n c o m p a r i s o n s o f t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t V i l l a g e s a n d n o n -C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t v i l l a g e s , i s a g e n e r a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e c r o p y i e l d s o f t h e f o r m e r , d u e t o t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f i m p r o v e d s e e d s a n d f e r t i l i z e r . B u t t h o u g h i n c r e a s e s d o u n m i s t a k a b l y o c c u r e s t i m a t e s o f t h e m a r e h i g h l y v a r i a b l e , r a n g i n g f r o m a s l o w a s 6 o r 7 p e r c e n t t o a s h i g h a s 63 p e r c e n t . P e r h a p s t h e b e s t e s t i m a t e i s o n e o f a 2 0 t o 2 5 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e g e n e r a l l y w h e r e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t h a s b e e n i n p r o g r e s s f o r t h r e e y e a r s o r m o r e . ^ S e c o n d , w h e r e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t h a s t a k e n h o l d , m a r k e d c h a n g e s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e p a t t e r n o f c r o p s . I n t h e G h o s i D e v e l o p m e n t B l o c k , U . P . , a 1 9 5 8 s u r v e y n o t e d a n i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f l a n d d e v o t e d t o v e g e t a b l e s . T h e g r o w i n g o f v e g e t a b l e s a n d f r u i t s h a s b e e n p o p u l a r i z e d b y t h e c o m m u n i t y d e v e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s ; 3 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e l a r g e c u l t i v a t o r s U N , C o m . D e v . & E c . D e v . , P a r t I , p , 3 3 . 99 i n the Block area, 4 8 per cent of the medium c u l t i v a t o r s and 2 4 per cent of the small c u l t i -vators reported having started the growing of vegetables or f r u i t s during the l a s t three or four years. In the non-Block area, the percentage of c u l t i v a t o r s who reported the growing of vegetables or f r u i t s was very much smaller, being 1 4 per cent, 3 per cent and 3 per cent respectively f o r large, medium and small c u l t i -vators. Generally vegetables or f r u i t s are' grown fo r domestic consumption, though i n a few cases they are also being s o l d . 7 But i t must be admitted that Ghosi is.an exceptional instance, and that elsewhere the popularization of new seeds, f e r t i l i z e r s , and crop changes i s not very successful. Third, there i s an expansion i n farming knowledge, though again t h i s expansion i s var i a b l e . In the Ghosi Development Block, for instance, even non-Community Development v i l l a g e s have acquired some of the information how to use i n s e c t i c i d e s and fungicides. This i s apparently attributed to t h e i r contacts with v i l l a g e r s i n the Block area; and i s thus i n d i r e c t l y attributable to a f a i r l y intensive extension pro-gramme i n the Block area. The larger-scale c u l t i v a t o r s are the ones who most readi l y adopt farming improvements: t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y larger holdings make i t less r i s k y for them to experiment with new materials, and t h e i r r e l a t i v e l y better education renders them quicker to perceive the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the new iriformation brought to them by the Community Dev-UN, Comm. Dev. & Ec. Dev., Part II, p. 1 4 . 1 0 0 e l o p m e n t w o r k e r s . I I . T h e E f f e c t s o f S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e u p o n t h e C o m m u n i t y  D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s A. V i l l a g e P a n c h a y a t A t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l , t h e f i r s t o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h h a s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e P r o g r a m m e s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y i s t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t . T h e P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n u n d e r t o o k a s t u d y 9 o f 6 0 p a n c h a y a t s l o c a t e d i n 1 5 e v a l u a t i o n b l o c k s . T h e n u m b e r o f r e s p o n d e n t s w a s 1 , 0 8 0 . . T h e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f p e r s o n s u n d e r e a c h p a n c h a y a t i n t h i s s t u d y w a s 2 , 6 0 0 , w h i c h i m p l i e d t h a t s o m e p a n c h a y a t s w e r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r m o r e t h a n o n e v i l l a g e . T h e p a n c h a y a t e l e c t i o n s " h a v e r e s u l t e d i n c r e a t i n g o r a g g r a v a t i n g f a c t i o n a l r i v a l r i e s i n a b o u t o n e t h i r d o f t h e v i l l a g e s " . 1 ^ T h e m e m b e r s o f v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t s a r e o l d e r p e r s o n s , t h o s e b e l o n g i n g t o c u l t i v a t i n g o r l a n d - o w n i n g c a s t e s , a n d t h o s e w h o h a v e s o m e e d u c a t i o n . 6 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a n c h a y a t m e m b e r s a r e o v e r 4 0 y e a r s o l d , a n d 9 0 p e r c e n t a r e l a n d h o l d e r s . H o w e v e r , o n l y 33 p e r c e n t o f t h e m a r e c o n s i d e r e d w e l l o f f U N , o p . c i t . , p p . 1 8 - 9 . 9 P l a n n i n g C o m m i s s i o n , T h e F i f t h E v a l u a t i o n R e p o r t  o n W o r k i n g o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a n d N . E . S . B l o c k s , s u m m a r y  a n d c o n c l u s i o n s , M a y 1 9 5 8 , T h e d a t e o f t h e s t u d y i s n o t g i v e n . • ^ P l . C o m . , o p . c i t . , p . 1 8 . 1 0 1 by t h e i r f e l l o w • v i l l a g e r s . " ' " 1 T h i s may mean t h a t f a c t i o n l e a d e r s do not j o i n the panchayat but m a n i p u l a t e i t s members from l e s s p u b l i c p o s i t i o n s . 1 The problem of r e s o u r c e s i s the most d i f f i c u l t one f a c e d by the p a n c h a y a t s . The v a r i o u s Panchayat A c t s o f the S t a t e s p r o v i d e l o n g l i s t s of s o u r c e s of revenue f o r t h e panchayats, but i n f a c t t h e r e a r e v e r y few s o u r c e s . " I n many c a s e s , the s e l f - r a i s e d income of t h e panchayats i s b a r e l y s u f f i c i e n t t o pay f o r e x p e n d i t u r e on e s t a b l i s h m e n t . " 1 2 The r e g u l a r i n -come of the s e l e c t e d panchayats v a r i e s from a per c a p i t a a v e r -age o f Rs. 3 . 6 p e r y e a r i n Manavadar ( S a u r a s h t r a ) t o Rs. 0 . 1 7 i n Bhadrak ( O r i s s a ) . C o n s i d e r i n g the s e l f - r a i s e d income a l o n e , the range i s from Rs. I . 6 4 per y e a r i n Erode(Madras) t o Rs. 0 . 0 7 i n Cachar (Assam). 1 3 T h i s i s because v i l l a g e r s a r e too poor and, more i m p o r t a n t l y , have l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n t h e pan-c h a y a t . Though t h e i r own revenue r e s o u r c e s a r e s m a l l , t h e Government e x p e n d i t u r e f o r the Community Development Programmes p r o v i d e s a r e l a t i v e l y abundant f i n a n c i a l source f o r t h o s e panchayats under community development, e n a b l i n g t h e s e t o con-s t r u c t and r e p a i r r o a d s , b u i l d i n g d r i n k i n g - w a t e r w e l l s , and e r e c t community b u i l d i n g s . These t h r e e a c t i v i t i e s have been 11 12 I b i d . P I . Com., op. c i t . , p. 2 1 . 1 3 p i . Com., op. c i t . , p. 2 1 . 102 c a r r i e d o u t b y 71.4 p e r c e n t , 46 .4 p e r c e n t , a n d 30.4 p e r c e n t o f t h e p a n c h a y a t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 1 ^ " T a k i n g u p t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s h a s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y h a d t h e e f f e c t o f s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e p a n c h a y a t s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t i e s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n b y a d - h o c c o m m i t t e e s w h i c h w e r e o f t e n n o t r e l a t e d 15 t o t h e p a n c h a y a t , a n d s o m e t i m e s f u n c t i o n e d a s r i v a l s . V i l l a g e r s ' i n t e r e s t s i n t h e p a n c h a y a t a r e n o t a l w a y s k e e n . W h e n t h e a s s e m b l y i s h e l d , t h e a t t e n d a n c e i s p o o r . T h e p a n c h a y a t m e m b e r s t h e m s e l v e s a r e o f t e n a p a t h e t i c . T h e c o m -m u n i c a t i o n f r o m t h e p a n c h a y a t t o t h e v i l l a g e r s i s n o t p e r f e c t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e p a n c h a y a t o f t e n d e c i d e s a p r o g r a m m e ' o f P e o p l e ' s P a r t i c i p a t i o n , a n d v i l l a g e r s c o n t r i b u t e t h e i r l a b o u r p o w e r w i t h o u t k n o w i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r o g r a m m e . 1 ^ I f t h e y 17 d o n o t ' c o - o p e r a t e ' , t h e p a n c h a y a t c a n i m p o s e f i n e s u p o n t h e m . O r d i n a r y v i l l a g e r s m u s t o b e y t h e d e c i s i o n w h i c h i s m a d e a b o v e , a n d t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s o n e - w a y . T h i s c a u s e s t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t . V i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t s c a n b e a c t i v e u n d e r t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s b e c a u s e f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a r e t h e n 14 P I . C o m . , o p . c i t . , p . 22. 1 5 I b i d . " ^ N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 9 7 . 1 7 D u b e , o p . c i t . , p . 8 1 . 103 r e l a t i v e l y abundant. Panchayats as such are e x p e c t e d t o d e v e l o p as agents o f l o c a l s e l f - g o v e r n m e n t i n the p r o c e s s o f Community Development. I n p r a c t i c e , t h e panchayats t e n d t o be c o n s e r v a t i v e and are t h e r e f o r e not s u i t a b l e organs f o r changing the v a l u e of t h e v i l l a g e p e o p l e , though t h e y can make d e c i s i o n on p h y s i c a l programmes. The members a r e e l e c t e d a c c o r d i n g t o such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as s e n i o r i t y , sex, c a s t e , and f a c t i o n . The e l e c t e d members a r e i n f l u e n t i a l p e o p l e o f t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , but t h e i r d e c i s i o n can be e f f e c t i v e l y exe-c u t e d o n l y i f t h e f a c t i o n s are w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d and t h e f a c t i o n - l e a d e r s are a g r e e d . I f such a b a l a n c e i s not a c h i e v e d , the o t h e r f a c t i o n ! s ) may b l o c k the f u n c t i o n o f t h e panchayat, and f o r c e t h e work t o be done by a f a c t i o n , w hich t h e n organ-i z e s ad-hoc committees and c a r r i e s out t h e programmes i n c o m p e t i t i o n w i t h t h e panchayat. The e l e c t e d members can execute p h y s i c a l programmes because t h e y a r e aged males of r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c a s t e . T h i s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e v a l u e s o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . The panchayat sometimes a l l o t s work i n an a u t h o r i t a r i a n manner t o v i l l a g e r s , and imposes f i n e s upon those' who r e f u s e the a s s i g n e d r o l e s . The panchayat members a r e o b e d i e n t t o h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y such as government o f f i c i a l s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e h i g h e r ones, and t o v e r y h i g h c l a s s people ( c f . t h e case o f the z a m i n d a r i ' s widow). Thus, t h e panchayat tends t o r e f l e c t t h e upper c l a s s p e o p l e ' s i n t e r e s t s and t o a c c e p t the d i r e c t i o n s from t h e government. 104 The p h y s i c a l programmes w h i c h a r e a g r e e d b o t h by t h e government and h i g h c a s t e p e o p l e w i l l be e x e c u t e d w i t h l e s s d i f f i c u l t y t h a n w i l l n o n - p h y s i c a l programmes; b u t i f e i t h e r one s h o u l d d i s a g r e e , any programme.would be l e s s e f f e c t i v e l y e x e c u t e d . S i n c e members a r e e l e c t e d and behave i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e l o c a l v a l u e s , i t w o u l d be h a r d t o change t h e v a l u e s o f v i l l a g e p e o p l e by means o f p a n c h a y a t s , u n l e s s p r o p e r 18 t r a i n i n g i s f i r s t g i v e n t o t h e v i l l a g e r s g e n e r a l l y . As t h e v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t i s an o f f i c i a l l o c a l a u t h o r i t y t o e x e c u t e t h e Programmes, t h e Programmes w i l l f i r s t meet w i t h t h e p a n c h a y a t , and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e programmes w i l l be somewhat c h a n g e d : g r e a t e r e m p h a s i s on p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s w h i c h c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e i n t e r e s t s o f u p p e r c l a s s p e o p l e , and l e s s e m p h a s i s on r e f o r m -i n g t h e v a l u e s o f t h e v i l l a g e r s . B. C a s t e H i g h c a s t e v i l l a g e r s a r e sometimes r e l u c t a n t t o c o -o p e r a t e w i t h Community Development even t h o u g h , a s we have a l r e a d y shown, t h e Programmes i n t h e i r p h y s i c a l a s p e c t a c t u a l l y b e n e f i t t h e h i g h c a s t e s most o f a l l . T h i s a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x i s due t o t h e Government's a i m a t a c h i e v i n g " s o c i a l j u s t i c e " , I n r e s p e c t t o s u c h t r a i n i n g , Kusum N a i r g i v e s a v e r y i n f o r m a t i v e example o f l e a d e r s h i p and i t s e f f e c t s . A p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s t a r t e d t o t r a i n t h e H a r i j a n s i n a v i l l a g e . W i t h i n s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h e v a l u e s o f t h e l o w e r c a s t e p e o p l e had b e e n r e m a r k a b l y c h a n g e d . N a i r , op. c i t . , pp. 95-7. 105 an a i m w h i c h makes t h e h i g h c a s t e s u n w i l l i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e l e s t t h e y l o s e t h e i r own h i g h e r s t a t u s . The m i d d l e c a s t e s , s u c h as a g r i c u l t u r i s t s and some o t h e r c l e a n c a s t e members who a r e n e i t h e r v e r y r i c h n o r v e r y p o o r , a r e most h e l p f u l t o t h e Programmes and the' Gram S e v a k s 1 9 Gram Sevaks spend most o f t h e i r t i m e w i t h t h e s e p e o p l e , and t h e i r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e s e c a s t e p e o p l e a r e d e e p e r t h a n w i t h o t h e r s . On some o c c a s i o n s , l o w c a s t e members a r e v e r y co-o p e r a t i v e a t f i r s t w i t h t h e programmes i n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e o f t h e i r c a s t e by r a i s i n g t h e s t a n d a r d o f t h e i r l i v i n g . Though an a b s o l u t e i n c r e a s e may be o b s e r v e d , however, t h e i r r e l a t i v e s t a t u s r e m a i n s t h e same, and t h e y v e r y s o o n f i n d t h a t t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes a r e de-s i g n e d n o t f o r them. As a r e s u l t , when t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n i s s o u g h t , t h e y ask why t h e y s h o u l d h e l p t h e f a r m e r s i n c r e a s e 20 t h e a d v a n t a g e s w h i c h h i g h c a s t e l a n d o w n e r s a l r e a d y e n j o y . I n t h e v i l l a g e s Dube has s t u d i e d , t h e r e was c o n -s i d e r a b l e i n t e r - c a s t e r i v a l r y and s h o u l d t h e Programmes b e n e f i t c e r t a i n c a s t e s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , t h i s r i v a l r y w o u l d be p e r p e t u a t e d . 2 1 Such b e n e f i t s s o l i d i f y t h e a d v a n t a g e s o f c e r t a i n 19 Dube, op. c i t . , p. l o o . ^ B e r r e m a n , op. c i t . , p. 91. 21 Dube, op. c i t . , p. 135. 106 c a s t e s t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e s of o t h e r s . Thus as the amount of b e n e f i t s p r o v i d e d by Community Development v a r i e s , so a l s o does the i n c r e a s e of c a s t e i n e q u a l i t i e s . The more i n t e n s e t h e community development i n a g i v e n v i l l a g e , the more w i l l d i s t a n c e i n c r e a s e between th e upper and l o w e r c l a s s e s i n t h e v i l l a g e . An i n s t a n c e of 'People's P a r t i c i p a t i o n ' w i l l i l l u s t r a t e how the b e n e f i t s go t o c e r t a i n c a s t e s . A v i l l a g e may d e c i d e on c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a v i l l a g e r o a d . The a l l o t m e n t o f l a b o u r i s d e c i d e d on t h e c a s t e b a s i s . The t r a d i t i o n a l c o r r e l a t i o n be-tween o c c u p a t i o n and c a s t e determines t h e t y p e of work each c a s t e c o n t r i b u t e s . The h i g h e r c a s t e s would t a k e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r o l e s and manual work would f a l l upon the low c a s t e . As no payment would be made t o them f o r t h i s work, the low c a s t e l a b o u r e r s would r e s e n t i t . 2 2 Once the r o a d i s c o n s t r u c t e d by the Programme, the l a n d l o r d s c o u l d t r a n s p o r t t h e i r sugarcane t o t h e market and s e l l i t a t more p r o f i t a b l e p r i c e s t h a n e v e r ; but t h e o n l y b e n e f i t t h e low c a s t e p e o p l e would get would be t h a t of w a l k i n g on the r o a d t h e m s e l v e s . Or, s h o u l d a s c h o o l be b u i l t u s i n g 'untouchable' l a b o u r , t h e c h i l d r e n of t h e s e same 'un t o u c h a b l e s ' would be p r e v e n t e d from a t t e n d i n g the s c h o o l because of t h e c a s t e l i n e . V i l l a g e p e o p l e are g e n e r a l l y s u s p i c i o u s about Gram Dube, op. c i t . , p. 139. 107 Sevaks s i n c e t h e y are not inf o r m e d about t h e Gram Sevak's c a s t e ; and f o r t h e h i g h c a s t e p e o p l e t h e agent would i n t r o d u c e t o t h e low c a s t e t h e 'dangerous' thought t h a t c a s t e be a b o l i s h e d , w h i l e low c a s t e p e o p l e may r e g a r d the Govern-ment s e r v a n t s as new e x p l o i t e r s . Should t h e i r c a s t e be known, o t h e r problems a r i s e f o r t h e Gram Sevaks. I f t h e Gram Sevaks a r e h i g h c a s t e members and work f o r t h e low c a s t e p e r s o n s , they a r e c r i t i c i z e d o r r e j e c t e d by t h e h i g h c a s t e members of the v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . I f t h e Gram Sevaks a r e low c a s t e i n o r i g i n , t h e h i g h c a s t e members a g a i n r e j e c t them. The Gram Sevaks are most s u c c e s s f u l i n v i l l a g e s o f t h e i r own c a s t e s . The s o c i a l norm c o n t r o l s the s o c i a l a c t i o n of c a s t e members by means of the s e t s o f ex p e c t e d r o l e s i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , h i g h e r c a s t e members get the most b e n e f i t s f o r e a s i e s t r o l e s , w h i l e low c a s t e p e o p l e get l i t t l e b e n e f i t f o r h a r d manual l a b o u r . No wonder i n t e r - c a s t e r i v a l r i e s a r e m o s t l y i n a u g u r a t e d by the l o w e r c a s t e s . Where l a n d r e f o r m i s s u c c e s s f u l and low c a s t e p e o p l e a c q u i r e some l a n d t o t i l l , a r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e o f t h e l a n d l o r d c l a s s and a r e l a t i v e r i s e 1 0 8 o f t h e l o w c a s t e s t a k e p l a c e . T h e r o l e s s e t u p f o r t h e c a s t e s g r a d u a l l y c h a n g e i n s p i t e o f c l e a r c a s t e l i n e s . 2 3 I n t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , t h e r i v a l r y r e l a t i o n w o u l d b e i n a u g u r -a t e d f r o m t h e s i d e o f t h e h i g h c a s t e s . T h e s e r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o c a s t e a r e t h e b i g g e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m m e s . I n t h e s e e x p e c t e d r o l e s , c e r t a i n v a l u e s a r e p r o -j e c t e d a n d p a t t e r n e d . T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e r e a c t i o n s o f v i l l a g e p e o p l e t o t h e G r a m S e v a k s . W h e t h e r G r a m S e v a k s a r e h i g h c a s t e a n d w o u l d c o n t a c t l o w c a s t e p e o p l e o r a r e l o w c a s t e a n d h a v e t o m e e t h i g h c a s t e p e o p l e , t h e s e g o v e r n m e n t a g e n t s c a n n o t r e c e i v e t h e b e s t c o - o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y a s a w h o l e . C o n t a c t w i t h p e r s o n s o f t h e s a m e c a s t e w i l l b e m o s t f a v o u r a b l y r e s p o n d e d t o b e c a u s e t h i s d o e s n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h e v a l u e o f c a s t e - a t t a c h m e n t . T h e a c t i v i t i e s o f G r a m S e v a k s a n d t h e n e w v a l u e s s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s , a r e a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . T h i s i s p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n w h y t h e G r a m S e v a k s h a v e s u c h h a r d t i m e s a t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l . N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 1 1 0 : ( A w i f e o f a l a n d l o r d ) " T h e g o v e r n m e n t h a s g i v e n l a n d t o H a r i j a n s i n t h i s v i l l a g e . T h e r e s u l t i s t h a t t h e y w i l l n o t d o o u r w o r k . A n d n o w I , a ' F a t w o m a n ' ( w i t h h e a v y e m p h a s i s o n t h e w o r d F a t ) I h a v e t o d i r t y my h a n d s a n d d o t h i s w o r k o f m a k i n g c o w d u n g c a k e s . I s t h i s a F a t ' s w o r k ? ' ' B u t d o n ' t y o u w a n t t h e c o n d i t i o n o f H a r i j a n s a l s o t o i m p r o v e ? ' ' W h y s h o u l d i t ? ' i s t h e f o r c e f u l r e p l y w i t h t h e f u l l w e i g h t o f c o n v i c t i o n b e h i n d i t . ' H a r i j a n s w e r e b o r n t o d o m a n u a l j o b s . G o d m a d e t h e m s u c h , a n d t h e y s h o u l d b e a l l o w e d t o c o n t i n u e a s s u c h . Am I m e a n t f o r t h i s . . . d o I d e s e r v e i t ? ' a n d s h e h o l d s o u t h e r d i r t y h a n d s t o i n v i t e s y m p a t h y " . 109 The same v a l u e o f a t t a c h m e n t t o o n e ' s c a s t e sometimes c a u s e s v e r y s t r o n g c o o p e r a t i o n by t h e l o w c a s t e s i n o r d e r t h a t t h e Programmes may r a i s e t h e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e o f t h e s e c a s t e s ; but f o r t h e same r e a s o n , h i g h c a s t e p e o p l e a r e c a u t i o u s a b o u t ' t h e Government programmes. I n any c a s e , i n s o f a r as t h e r e f e r -ence frame o f a c t i o n o f t h e v i l l a g e r s i s t h e c a s t e , t h e exe-c u t i o n o f programmes i n v o l v i n g 'new' v a l u e s i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i -c u l t . C. S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n We have a l r e a d y n o t e d t h e f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n l e a d i n g t o an u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s f r o m Community Development. We w i l l now examine t h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p a t work i n c r e d i t - c o - o p e r a t i v e s . F a r m e r s need c a p i t a l t o i m p r o v e t h e i r f a r m l a n d , t o add f a r m b u i l d i n g s , t o a c q u i r e f a r m i m p l e m e n t s by i n d i v i d u a l s , and t o a i m a t a. n e t - o v e r - a l l g r o w t h i n q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f l i v e s t o c k . ^ To meet t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e Government h a s made p r o v i s i o n s t o l o a n money a t low i n t e r e s t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e UN e x p e r t s ' s t u d y , n e t - b o r r o w i n g i n U.P. s a m p l e s was Rs. 51 p e r h o u s e h o l d p e r y e a r . B u t t h e i n v e s t m e n t o f b o r r o w e d money d i f f e r e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l s t a t u s o f t h e h o u s e h o l d : Rs. 7.6 p e r h o u s e h o l d p e r y e a r by s m a l l Un. Com. Dev. &. E c . Dev., P a r t I , p. 52. 1 1 0 c u l t i v a t o r s , R s . 3 1 . 2 b y m e d i u m c u l t i v a t o r s , a n d R s . 6 9 . 8 2 5 b y l a r g e c u l t i v a t o r s . I n t h i s f i g u r e , a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o u r e r s ( H a r i j a n s ) a r e n o t i n c l u d e d . T h i s m e a n s t h a t t h e n a t u r e o f b o r r o w i n g b y v a r i o u s c a s t e s i s d i f f e r e n t . H i g h c a s t e . m e m b e r s b o r r o w m o n e y t o i m p r o v e t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n w h i l e l o w c a s t e m e m b e r s d o s o t o s u r v i v e . T h e f i n a n c i a l s o u r c e i s a n i m p o r t a n t c l u e i n c o n -s i d e r i n g t h i s p r o b l e m f u r t h e r . O n e f i f t h o f b o r r o w i n g i n t h e U . P . c a s e c a m e f r o m i n s t i t u t i o n a l s o u r c e s a n d a c o r r e s p o n d -i n g l y g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n f r o m m o n e y l e n d e r s . 2 ^ S i n c e t h e p o l i c y o f c r e d i t c o - o p e r a t i v e s i s t o m a k e a l o a n t o t h o s e p e r s o n s w h o c a n m a k e m o s t ' e f f i c i e n t u s e o f t h e m o n e y , " i t i s g e n e r a l l y f o u n d t h a t o n l y t h e l a r g e r l a n d h o l d e r s , w i t h t h e i r b e t t e r f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n a n d g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e , b e n e f i t , 2 7 s u b s t a n t i a l l y f r o m t h e l o a n f a c i l i t i e s o f c r e d i t c o - o p e r a t i v e s " . C r e d i t c o - o p e r a t i v e s l e n d m o n e y a t l o w i n t e r e s t , a n d m o n e y l e n d e r s a t h i g h i n t e r e s t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e l o w e r a n d p o o r e r c l a s s e s a r e n o t o n l y p u s h e d o u t o f t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e G o v e r n -m e n t p l a n b u t h a v e t o s u f f e r f r o m h e a v y d e b t s f r o m w h i c h t h e y c a n n o t e s c a p e . T h i s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c l e a v a g e b e t w e e n t h e r i c h e r a n d t h e p o o r e r w o u l d t h e r e f o r e b e c o m e w i d e r a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t ' s ' i n d u c e m e n t ' . T h e i l l i t e r a c y o f t h e H a r i j a n s U N , o p . c i t . , p . 5 7 . 2 7 I b i d . I l l i s a n o t h e r f a c t o r . T h e y c a n n o t r e a d t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d t h e y a r e a f r a i d t o s i g n s o m a n y s h e e t s o f f o r m s . T h i s i l l i t e r a c y a n d i t s d i s a d v a n t a g e s i s s o c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i r a s c r i b e d s t a t u s t h a t w e c a n r e g a r d t h i s a s p a r t o f t h e p r o b l e m o f c a s t e s . S o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n a n d c a s t e a r e s o c l o s e l y r e -l a t e d ( i n d e e d t h e c a s t e s y s t e m i s a f o r m o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i -c a t i o n t h a t e m p h a s i s e s a s c r i b e d s t a t u s r a t h e r t h a n a c h i e v e d s t a t u s ) , t h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e r o l e b e h a v i o r o f c a s t e m e m b e r s , i n d i v i d u a l l y a n d c o l l e c t i v e l y , w i l l c h a n g e t h e s t a t u s o f t h e i r c a s t e . I n t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n o f a F a t w o m a n g i v e n b y N a i r ( s e e a b o v e , f o o t n o t e 23 o n p . 1 0 8 ) | t h e p r o b l em o f a s c r i b e d s t a t u s a n d a c h i e v e d s t a t u s a r e e n t a n g l e d . T h e F a t w o m a n i n s i s t s o n t h e c a s t e s y s t e m a n d t h e s e t o f r o l e s a s s i g n e d t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s t e s . H e r r e s e n t m e n t i s r o o t e d i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e i s a n o t h e r s o c i a l o r d e r i n p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e c a s t e s y s t e m , a n d t h o u g h t h e t w o m i g h t h a v e b e e n a l m o s t i d e n t i c a l i n t h e p a s t , n o w a d a y s t h e r e i s a c l e a v a g e b e t w e e n t h e m . F o r h e r t o a d m i t t h e o t h e r s o c i a l o r d e r m e a n s t o a c c e p t t h a t s h e m u s t d o t a s k s t r a d i t i o n a l l y d o n e b y H a r i j a n s ; b u t s h e i s f o r c e d t o a d m i t i t b y t h e f a c t t h a t H a r i j a n s d o n o t n o w f u l f i l t h e s e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s a s s h e e x p e c t s t h e m t o . T h i s ' n e w ' b e h a v i o r o f H a r i j a n s a s w e l l a s o f t h e 112 F a t woman i s c a u s e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e f o r m e r have been g i v e n new l a n d by t h e Government. As a r e s u l t , a new s e t o f t a s k s r e q u i r e s t h e H a r i j a n s t o work on t h e i r own f i e l d s and l e a v e s them l i t t l e room f o r t h e r o l e t h e F a t woman e x p e c t e d them t o f u l f i l . I f t h e y have means o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e s w h i c h a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e i r n o n - p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s e means, w i l l d i s a p p e a r and t h e a s s o c i a t e d v a l u e s w i l l a l s o c h a n g e . Thus, i n s p i t e o f t h e dominance o f a s c r i b e d s t a t u s i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , t h e w e i g h t o f a c h i e v e d s t a t u s i s g r a d u a l l y i n -c r e a s i n g . However, t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e change o f v a l u e s i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y t h a t i n t e n d e d o r e x p e c t e d by t h e s o c i a l p l a n n e r s . The l o w e r c l a s s p e o p l e may be c o n t e n t e d w i t h s m a l l b e n e f i t s , and r e m a i n i n d i f f e r e n t t o t h e r e s t o f t h e Programmes. The Community Development Programmes a r e , i n some way o r a n o t h e r , c h a n g i n g t h e v a l u e s o f v i l l a g e r s i n a manner w h i c h c an be d i r e c t e d as t h e p l a n n e r s d e s i r e i f t h e y can f i n d some way o f c o u n t e r - b a l a n c i n g t h e g r e a t e r s o c i a l d i s t a n c e s between s t r a t a b e i n g c a u s e d by t h e u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t o f t h e Programmes. D. F a c t i o n The a b o l i t i o n o f z a m i n d a r i s and i n t r o d u c t i o n o f v i l l a g e p a n c h a y a t s has c a u s e d a s i g n i f i c a n t change i n t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e e x e r c i s e o f a u t h o r i t y . A new o p p o r t u n i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p h as b e e n opened f o r a w i d e r g r o u p i n v i l l a g e 113 s o c i e t y , and f a c t i o n s have emerged i n r i v a l r y r e l a t i o n t o secure s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n s and t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r s o c i o -economic p r e s t i g e . When a s i n g l e f a c t i o n m o n o p o l i z e s t h e panchayat, t h e Programmes a r e l i k e l y t o be d i s t o r t e d by t h i s f a c t i o n ' s own i n t e r e s t s . Other f a c t i o n s may show apathy t o the Programmes o r sometimes h o s t i l i t y t o i t * When s e v e r a l f a c t i o n s c o - e x i s t i n t h e panchayat, agreement i s v e r y h a r d , and, t h e c o u n c i l has t o ask h i g h e r a u t h o r i t y t o s e t t l e i t s problems. As t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y i s d i v i d e d v e r t i c a l l y by f a c t i o n s , Gram Sevaks w i s h i n g t o be s u c c e s s f u l . s h o u l d get t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n of f a c t i o n l e a d e r s . So f i n d i n g out t h e s e l e a d e r s i s one o f t h e keys f o r t he s u c c e s s o f t h e Programmes, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the i n i t i a l s t a g e . I f t h e Gram Sevaks f a i l t o do so, t h e achievements o f t h e Programmes may be s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t e d . As t h e economic base changes, p a r t of t h e s e t of r o l e s f o r each s o c i a l s t r a t u m a l s o changes. S i n c e t h e b a s i s o f f a c t i o n s i s the h o u s e h o l d r e l a t i o n s h i p which i s s o l i d i f i e d by t he common i n t e r e s t s and d i f f e r e n c e s o f economic base among the s o c i a l s t r a t a i n t h e f a c t i o n , t he change o f the economic s t a t u s of some o f the members w i l l change t h e n a t u r e and s t r u c t u r e o f the f a c t i o n s . But t h i s p o t e n t i a l e f f e c t o f t h e Community Development Programmes i s c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d by t h e w i d e n i n g o f t h e gap between r i c h and poor; t h i s l a t t e r e f f e c t 114 o f t h e Programmes makes more n e c e s s a r y t o t h e po o r t h e h o u s e h o l d r e l a t i o n s h i p on w h i c h t h e f a c t i o n s depend, and so s t r e n g t h e n s t h e f a c t i o n s . E . F a m i l y I n a f a m i l y , t h e a u t h o r i t y o f d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s i n th e hands o f t h e f a m i l y h e a d who i s i n t h e o r y t h e most s e n i o r p e r s o n . To a d o p t a ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' (N.B., a programme s u g g e s t e d by t h e Community Development Programmes) i d e a and method, o r n o t , 28 i s d e c i d e d by him. S i n c e t h e Gram S e v a k s a r e r e l a t i v e l y young, t h e s e n i o r p e o p l e a r e r e l u c t a n t t o a c c e p t t h e i r a d v i c e o r g u i d a n c e i n f a r m i n g methods. The u n i t o f p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y i s a h o u s e h o l d , and a change o f f a r m i n g method a v e r y r i s k y p r o p o s i t i o n . The f a m i l y heads a r e t h e r e f o r e wary o f making c h a n g e s u n l e s s t h e a d v a n t a g e t h e r e o f i s c l e a r l y d e m o n s t r a t e d . " T he dominance by t h e male s e x has g r e a t e f f e c t s upon ;.the Programmes. I f a'woman comes o u t i n t o t h e open, " e v e r y o n e w i l l s a y '.phirne w a l i s u r a t h a i ? ('a woman who l o a f s a r o u n d ' ) and she w i l l g e t a "bad r e p u t a t i o n - , " 2 ^ T h i s c r i t i c i s m i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g a g a i n s t t h e young w i v e s . The programmes Dube, op. c i t * , p. 159: "Out o f s e v e n t e e n m u l t i -p u r p o s e VLWs w o r k i n g i n t h e P r o j e c t , s e v e n a r e i n age group 31 35, s i x a r e i n g r o u p 20-25, two a r e i n g r o u p 36-40, and t h e r e i s one e a c h i n g r o u p 26 - 3 0 , and 41-45". 29 N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 74. 115 d e s i g n e d f o r the female sex do not t h e r e f o r e a t t r a c t many s p e c t a t o r s o r p a r t i c i p a n t s . The women are the l a s t t o enjoy t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e Programmes. They a r e not g i v e n t h e chance o f r e c e i v i n g f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n , a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and o t h e r b e n e f i t s . When th e y a t t e n d women's c l a s s e s , i f t h e r e a r e low c a s t e p e o p l e p r e s e n t , h i g h c a s t e members w i l l l e a v e , o r v i c e v e r s a . The amount o f b e n e f i t s i s u n e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d sex, t o o . As t h e r i g h t of d e c i s i o n making i s i n t h e hands of men, t h e b e n e f i t s t o t h e f a m i l y a r e sh a r e d l e s s by women. N a i r g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g r e p o r t i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n . I n Mysore, because o f the 'change', d r i n k i n g c o f f e e was a f a s h i o n i n a v i l l a g e . Not o n l y t h a t but male v i l l a g e r s l i k e d to' t a k e 'sumptuous' meals a t a ' h o t e l ' . But t h e y do not g i v e t h e i r e a r n i n g s t o t h e i r women, and t h e women have t a s t e d n e i t h e r c o f f e e nor meal. The l i v i n g c o s t s became h i g h and no money f o r s a v i n g i s l e f t because o f t h e e x p e n d i t u r e by t h e males. So t o repay t h e d e b t s , women' have t o work on the f i e l d w h i l e men a r e e n j o y i n g ' l e i s u r e ' i n c h a t t e r i n g . 3 0 T h i s makes- women i n d i f f e r e n t t o the Programmes. At the f a m i l y l e v e l , Community Development Programmes a r e c o n s i d e r e d as a m a t t e r f o r t h e f a m i l y and not f o r i n d i v i d u -a l s . The a d o p t i o n o f 'new' d e v i c e s w h i c h e f f e c t s t h e economic ~5 ' • N a i r , op. c i t . , pp. 54-55;. 116 base of the f a m i l y i s t r e a t e d w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t c a u t i o n , f o r the t r a d i t i o n a l methods a t l e a s t g u arantee the maintenance of the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . The d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i s i n the c a r e of t h e f a m i l y - h e a d , which p o s i t i o n i s not open t o j u n i o r p e r -sons. The p r i n c i p l e o f s e n i o r i t y i n t h e f a m i l y b l o c k s pene-t r a t i o n by new i d e a s mediated by the j u n i o r s . The i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n o f t h e female sex p r e v e n t s t h e women from p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h o s e programmes whi c h are o f p u b l i c n a t u r e . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of those members o f the f e m a l e sex i n i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n s i n t h e f a m i l y , i . e . , t h e young w i v e s . Thus the Programmes are p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and t h e b e n e f i t s a r e enjoyed by o n l y the ' i m p o r t a n t ' members. The r e s t are a l i e n a t e d from t h e Programmes. However, t h e attachment t o t h e f a m i l y as an i n s t i t u t i o n i s imposed upon f a m i l y members. Those who a r e i n i n f e r i o r p o s i t i o n s , j u n i o r and female, have t o c o n t r i -bute most because t h e y a r e l i k e c a n d i d a t e s o r a p p r e n t i c e s f o r i m p o r t a n t and r e s p o n s i b l e p o s t s , and must prove t h e i r s u i t a -b i l i t i e s . So, w h i l e the ' i m p o r t a n t ' members a r e e n j o y i n g t h e b e n e f i t , t h e s e j u n i o r s have t o work hard f o r t h e f a m i l y . I n d i v i d u a l s a r e p r o t e c t e d from t h e o u t e r w o r l d by t h e f a m i l y . T h i s i s because th e w e l f a r e p o l i c y o f t h e Government has been poor and does not g u a r a n t e e t h e s e c u r i t y of an i n d i v i d -u a l , and t h e f a m i l y has had t o t a k e t h i s r o l e a t t h e expense 31 o f r e s p e c t f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l . E d u c a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o T h i s t h e o r y f i r s t s u g g e s t e d about t h e r o l e o f f a m i l y i n Japan by P r o f e s s o r Kizaemon A r i g a o f Tokyo U n i v e r s i t y o f E d u c a t i o n (Now K e i o U n i v e r s i t y ) . 117 change t h e v a l u e s of young v i l l a g e r s , but,, a f t e r r e c e i v i n g seven o r e i g h t y e a r s ' e d u c a t i o n most boys do not want t o work o 2 as t i l l e r s i n t h e f i e l d s . F o r m a l e d u c a t i o n i n t r o d u c e s the younger g e n e r a t i o n t o many of the c o n v e n i e n c e s of t h e o u t e r w o r l d , and a t t r a c t s them t o t h e p l a c e s where t h e s e a r e a v a i l -a b l e , so d r a w i n g them away from the t r a d i t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . The v a l u e s o f attachment t o t h e v i l l a g e and t o t h e f a m i l y may be l o o s e n i n g among t h e 'educated' young p e o p l e . I n d i v i d u a l i s m grows, and r e s p e c t f o r s e n i o r i t y , sex or f a m i l y p o s i t i o n d e c l i n e s among them, w h i l e s e n i o r members c o n t i n u e t o a b i d e by the s e p r i n c i p l e s . The c o n f l i c t between g e n e r a t i o n s i s t h e r e f o r e i n c r e a s e d i n t h e f a m i l y . T h e i r views o f the w o r l d a r e d i f f e r e n t . F o r example, the f o l l o w i n g statement by a w e a l t h y young v i l l a g e r r e p r e s e n t s t h i s t r e n d : Jeevan adds: "The one b i g d i f f e r e n c e between us and our e l d e r s i s our e l d e r s a r e s t i l l i n t h e dark , i n t e r e s t e d o n l y i n v i l l a g e f a c t i o n s and p o l i t i c s . They do not even want t o make t h e peo p l e l i t e r a t e because they f e e l t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s w i l l get out of c o n t r o l . We, on the con-t r a r y , are v e r y keen t o educate them." 32 N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 146. 33 N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 156. 1 1 8 I f s u c h v a l u e s w o u l d h a v e e f f e c t s u p o n t h e s e n i o r p e o p l e , t h e P r o g r a m m e s w o u l d h a v e b e e n w e l c o m e d ; b u t t h e ' e d u c a t e d ' l e a v e t h e v i l l a g e , a n d t h e n e w v a l u e s d o n o t i n f l u e n c e t h e s e n i o r v i l l a g e r s . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , l a c k o f e m p l o y m e n t i n t h e c i t i e s m a k e s t h e m d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e f a m i l y , a n d , t h o u g h r e -l u c t a n t l y , t h e y h a v e t o s u p p o r t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e n i o r i t y w h i l e -t h e y r e m a i n i n t h e f a m i l y a n d w a i t a c h a n c e f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e . ^ 4 T h e P r o g r a m m e s c a n c a u s e a c h a n g e o f v a l u e s t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , b u t t h e y c a n n o t p r o v i d e t h e e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s t o d e v e l o p t h i s c h a n g e f u r t h e r , f o r s o c i a l w e l f a r e p o l i c y d o e s n o t d e v e l o p q u i c k l y e n o u g h , a n d t h e r e a r e n o t e n o u g h n e w j o b s t o g o a r o u n d . T h u s t h e i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y h a v e t o r e m a i n i n t h e s a m e r e f e r e n c e f r a m e o f a c t i o n a s b e f o r e . I ' l l . E f f e c t s o f V i l l a g e r s ' V a l u e s u p o n C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t T h e a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n m a y r a i s e t h e m o r a l e o f v i l l a g e r s f o r c o - o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e P r o g r a m m e s , f o r t h e y w a n t t o r a i s e t h e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e o f e a c h o f t h e l e v e l s o f w h i c h t h e y a r e t h e m e m b e r s . A t t h e f a m i l y l e v e l , u p p e r c l a s s p e o p l e c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e P r o g r a m m e s • ^ N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 1 4 6 : " I n B e n g a l , f o r e v e r y w h i t e -c o l l a r j o b o f R s . 5 0 p e r m o n t h , t h e r e w o u l d b e a t l e a s t 5 , 0 0 0 a p p l i c a n t s f r o m a m o n g t h e ' e d u c a t e d ' c l a s s e s i n t h e r u r a l a r e a s . " ( U n d e r l i n e s u p p l i e d - M . S . ) . 119 because t h e y can e n t e r i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h h i g h e r Government o f f i c i a l s , and the v i l l a g e r s ' v a l u a t i o n o f a u t h o r i t y makes t h e s e upper c l a s s p e o p l e appear more d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h e eyes of v i l l a g e s o c i e t y . At t h e c a s t e l e v e l , low c a s t e people show enthusiasm i n o r d e r t o r a i s e t h e i r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g and so i n c r e a s e the p r e s t i g e of t h e i r own c a s t e . At t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l , t h e people want t o show o t h e r v i l l a g e s t h a t t h e y adopt ' p r o g r e s s i v e ' i d e a s . On t h e o t h e r hand, t h i s v a l u e t e n d s t o c r e a t e an e c o n o m i c a l l y i n e f f i c i e n t p a t t e r n o f e x p e n d i t u r e o f Community Development money. At t h e f a m i l y l e v e l , t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e consumption of d u r a b l e consumer goods, such as b i c y c l e s and t o r c h l i g h t s , t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r f a m i l y ' s p r e s t i g e has t o be managed w i t h a f i x e d home budget, and i s c o n s e q u e n t l y b a l a n c e d by a d e t e r i o r a t i o n i n q u a l i t y o f f o o d , d r i n k , and so on. So t h e l i v i n g s t a n d a r d d e t e r i o r a t e s . 3 5 At t h e c a s t e l e v e l , each c a s t e member i s a t t a c h e d t o h i s own c a s t e , and does not want t o share t h e p u b l i c w e l l w i t h members of o t h e r c a s t e s . As a r e -s u l t , i n one v i l l a g e i n t h e Punjab t h e UN e x p e r t s f o u n d t h a t : (The v i l l a g e r s ) had sunk to o many d r i n k i n g - w a t e r w e l l s ( f o r c a s t e r e a s o n s ) , and e v e r y w e l l had too wide a l i p , so t h a t l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of cement had been wasted. 3o 35 N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 152. 3 6 Un, M i s s i o n i n I n d i a , p. 22. 1 2 0 A s h o r t a g e o f cement r e s u l t e d , and t h e v i l l a g e r s c o u l d n o t make i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s w a t e r - r i g h t . L a r g e r a r e a s c o u l d have been i r r i g a t e d f r o m t h e same s t o r a g e b a s i n s i m p l y by s t o p p i n g t h e l e a k s i n t h e c a n a l b a n k s . A t t h e v i l l a g e l e v e l , a b r i c k - a n d -t i l e s c h o o l had been b u i l t i n t h e v i l l a g e w i t h n e i t h e r c h a i r s n o r d e s k s . The s c h o o l was e q u i p p e d w i t h p a r a l l e l b a r s f o r g y m n a s t i c e x e r c i s e s , and a c h i l d r e n ' s s l i d e , a l l made o f s t e e l , b u t i n t h e f i e l d s t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f s e e d b e d s was n o t p r o p e r l y done b e c a u s e o f a s h o r t a g e o f a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f w h i c h i n a d e q u a t e q u o t a s o f i r o n had been a l l o t t e d * T h i s w e l l - b u i l t s c h o o l b u i l d i n g i s i n t e n d e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e s o c i a l p r e s t i g e o f t h i s v i l l a g e among i t s n e i g h b o u r s . But t h e Programmes f a i l e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e v i l l a g e r s ' p r o d u c t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e v i l l a g e r s ' p r e s t i g e - o r i e n t e d e x p e n d i t u r e . T h i s a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n e n t a i l s r e l u c t a n c e t o change. R e l u c t a n c e t o change i m p l i e s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n and d i s t r u s t i n t h e f u t u r e . T h i s has i n t u r n two e f f e c t s upon t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes: (a) v i l l a g e r s a r e w i t h d i f f i c u l t y p e r s u a d e d by t h e d e m o n s t r a -t i o n s , and (b) t h e y a r e r e l u c t a n t t o ado p t t h e 'advanced' i d e a s and methods s u g g e s t e d . The l a n d l o r d s t h e m s e l v e s do n o t show an i n t e r e s t , i n i n c r e a s i n g p r o d u c t i o n . They come one week b e f o r e t h e 37 I b i d . 121 harvest, make an assessment, and demand t h e i r share which i s l e g a l l y 40 per cent but i n practice almost 60 per cent. Consequent^ the tenants have no inter e s t i n making increases either. I f they produce more, the landlords w i l l take more.33 This occurs even after Land Reform, which had aimed at re-forming such abuses and s t i l l f a i l e d to achieve i t s target. Even though there are opportunities to borrow more land, the t i l l e r s are contented,to c u l t i v a t e only enough land to feed 39 t h e i r f a m i l i e s , and no more. This value i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r orientation to the future. An increase i n gross output and therefore i n income does not i n t e r e s t them i f the margin of p r o f i t per para or bag of r i c e thereby decreases. This i s normally the case with heavier investments i n f e r t i l i z e r and labour.40 The v i l l a g e r s do not want to change the present sit u a t i o n although the change might bring greater benefit i n the long run. From past experience, they know what w i l l r e s u l t from the present method, but to make the changes i s too r i s k y . Thus they are only with d i f f i c u l t y persuaded by demonstrations, and the role of Community Development Programmes as an inducement to change may therefore be blocked. 3 8 , 3 9 , 40. op. c i t . , P- 29. op. c i t . , P- 31. op. c i t . , P. 44. 1 2 2 A t t a c h m e n t t o t h e e x i s t i n g s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s u l t s i n a p r e s s u r e t o c o n f i n e o n e s e l f t o o n e ' s s t a t u s . T h i s p r o -d u c e s a p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n o f a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s a u t h o r i t y . T h i s a t t i t u d e f u r t h e r r e d u c e s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s a s a n i n d i c e m e n t t o c h a n g e . O n t h e w h o l e , G o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y h e l d s u s p e c t b y t h e v i l l a g e p e o p l e . G o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s • a r e r e p o r t e d t o t a k e b r i b e s f r o m v i l l a g e r s , a n d t o b e h a v e i n a n a u t h o r i t a r i a n w a y . . I f t h e v i l l a g e r s d o n o t g i v e b r i b e s , o r i f t h e y r e s i s t t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n m a n n e r o f t h e o f f i c i a l s , t h e s e o f f i c i a l s w i l l r e s e n t t h e v i l l a g e r s a n d t a k e v e n g e a n c e b y u s i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o w e r . A l a n B e a l s r e p o r t s t h e f o l l o w -i n g s t a t e m e n t b y o n e o f h i s i n f o r m a n t s : We a r e i l l i t e r a t e , w e d o n ' t k n o w h o w t o d e a l w i t h t h e m . We d o n ' t k n o w t h e r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s o f • t h e g o v e r n m e n t o r ' c o l l e c t i v e ' . I f w e o p p o s e t h e m , t h e y m a k e a s e p a r a t e c a s e , s a y i n g t h a t t h e p e o p l e o f s u c h a n d s u c h a v i l l a g e i n s u l t s t h e m . ^ ] _ O n t h e s u r f a c e , v i l l a g e r s s h o w r e s p e c t f o r t h e G o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s . T h e y c a l l t h e G o v e r n m e n t a g e n t s s w a m y , w h i c h m e a n s ' l o r d ' . T h e y a d o p t t h e m e t h o d s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e P r o g r a m m e s , b e c a u s e t h e y w i s h t o a v o i d t h e f u t u r e t r o u b l e s t h a t w o u l d a r i s e 4 1 B e a l s , A l a n , " T h e G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e I n d i a n V i l l a g e " , E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t a n d S o c i a l C h a n g e , V o l . 2 , N o . 5 , J u n e 1 9 5 4 , p p . ' 3 7 8 - 9 . N a i r , o p . c i t . , p . 5 4 . 123 f r o m d i s o b e y i n g t h e o f f i c i a l s . The i n c r e a s i n g p h y s i c a l achievements may not be m o t i v a t e d by t h e v i l l a g e r s ' i n n e r enthuaiasm, and t h e v i l l a g e r s may go back t o t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l methods as soon as the Programmes are over. F o r example, see t h e r e s p o n s e s r e c o r d e d by Dube: Q. What do you t h i n k of the new seed? A. What can I t h i n k ? I f t h e Government t h i n k s i t i s good, i t must be good. Q. I f the experiment succeeds t h i s y e a r , w i l l you t r y i t n e x t year? A. Yes, i f the Government asks us a g a i n . ^ The p e o p l e ' s same a t t i t u d e would t a k e d i f f e r e n t forms under o t h e r c o n d i t i o n s . Government i s r e g a r d e d as t h e source of a u t h o r i t y . T h e r e f o r e , i f the o f f i c i a l s t r i e d t o be n i c e w i t h t h e v i l l a g e r s , t he v i l l a g e r s would not a c c e p t t h e o f f i c i a l s . F r a t e r n i z a t i o n sometimes h i n d e r s the development of t h e Programmes. C o n s e q u e n t l y some o f f i c i a l s f r a n k l y t h i n k t h a t t h e y s h o u l d go back t o the a u t h o r i t a r i a n a t t i t u d e a g a i n . ^ When o f f i c i a l s a r e a u t h o r i t a r i a n , v i l l a g e r s w i l l not t a k e any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and obey commands but do not c o - o p e r a t e . T h i s obedience w i t h o u t i n n e r t r u s t causes i r r e s p o n s -Dube, op . c i t . , pp. 196-8. 44.Dube, op. c i t . , p. 120. 1 2 4 i b i l i t y on t h e s i d e o f v i l l a g e r s ane e x c e s s i v e demands on t h e Government. V i l l a g e r s were f o r m e r l y u n d e r z a m i n d a r i s , and u n d e r t h i s s y s t e m , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i n t e r -m e d i a r y a g e n t s and v i l l a g e r s was p e r s o n a l . However, a f t e r t h e z a m i n d a r i s were a b o l i s h e d , t h e Government r e p l a c e d them as t h e s o u r c e o f a u t h o r i t y . Now, v i l l a g e r s have t o depend upon t h e Government as t h e y d i d upon z a m i n d a r i s , b u t t h e G o v e r n m e n t - v i l l a g e r s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s n o t a p e r s o n a l one. The c o n c e p t o f Government i s a b s t r a c t , and v i l l a g e r s do n o t know where t o go and what t o do. V i l l a g e r s a l s o t h i n k t h a t e v e r y f a c i l i t y w h i c h t h e z a m i n d a r i s had s u p p l i e d s h o u l d be s u b s i d i z e d by t h e Government. F o r example, N a i r shows us t h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e . Dur-i n g t h e p a s t t h r e e y e a r s , t h e c r o p h a s r e g u l a r l y f a i l e d i n one a r e a b e c a u s e o f a s h o r t a g e o f w a t e r . V i l l a g e r s a r e w a i t i n g f o r a. c a n a l . I n f a c t , t h e r e a r e w e l l s and t h e y a r e b r o k e n ; b u t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e v i l l a g e r s t h e Government s h o u l d r e p a i r them b e c a u s e "What a r e we p a y i n g t h e Government t a x e s f o r ? " i s 45 t h e a t t i t u d e . T h i s e x c e s s i v e dependence upon t h e Government e n t a i l s a l a c k o f a s e n s e o f t h e i r own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e s i d e o f t h e v i l l a g e r s . So t h e i n d u c e m e n t o f Community Development h a s n o t f u n c t i o n e d as e x p e c t e d , and no c h a i n -45 N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 1 0 0 . 125 r e a c t i o n of v i l l a g e r s ' s e l f - h e l p e f f o r t s took p l a c e . T h i s l a c k of a sense o f i n n e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l s o e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n t h e form of a s h o r t - s i g h t e d s e l f - i n t e r e s t , w hich i s a n o t h e r o b s t a c l e t o r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e Programmes. In one v i l l a g e , v i l l a g e r s have c o n s t r u c t e d a b u i l d i n g f o r t h e i r p r i m a r y s c h o o l . But a l r e a d y t h e r o o f i s s a g g i n g and i t l e a k s so t h a t t h e t e a c h e r h a s . t o d e c l a r e a h o l i d a y whenever i t r a i n s . Yet no one t a k e s t h e i n i t i a t i v e t o r e p a i r i t . Or, i n a n o t h e r v i l l a g e , a p e o p l e ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n programme c o u l d not complete a r o a d d r a i n f o r t h r e e y e a r s . The b a s i s o f the p e o p l e ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n had been t h a t each s h o u l d g i v e f o r t h e s t r e t c h i n f r o n t of h i s ' own house o n l y . Where the row o f houses ends, r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ends, even though t o r e a c h t h e paved s t r e e t , one has s t i l l t o walk t h r o u g h 500 f e e t o f s t i n k i n g s l u s h and p o o l s of f i l t h and w a t e r . ^ N a i r , op. c i t . , p. 94. 126 CHAPTER V I I CONCLUSIONS x n I n d i a ' s Community Development Programmes, t h r e e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s a r e i n v o l v e d , and t h e y were examined i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e p l a n a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n and a t t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y l e v e l . The Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes a s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g a r e f o r m u l a t e d a t t h e C e n t r a l Government l e v e l w i t h two g o a l s : (a) i n c r e a s e o f p r o d u c t i o n , and (b) e x e c u t i o n o f ' s o c i a l j u s t i c e ' . T h i s s o c i a l p l a n n i n g , however, has f i r s t b e e n d i s t o r t e d a t t h e l e v e l o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n , due t o t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e and s e t o f v a l u e s o f t h e admin-i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n has been r e - o r g a n i z e d so t h a t i t can f u n c t i o n w i t h maximum e f f i c i e n c y and c o - o r d i n a t i o n among r e l a t e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t o e x e c u t e t h e p l a n . I n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t , t h e p l a n i s d i s -t o r t e d by t h e b e h a v i o r s o f t h e members o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , f o r , t h e r e i s a v a l u e o f ' s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n ' among t h e members, and t h i s v a l u e makes a g i v e n s e c t i o n i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n an i n - g r o u p w h i l e a l l o w i n g them t o r e g a r d o t h e r s e c t i o n s a s o u t -g r o u p s . I n o r d e r n o t t o t a k e any r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e members 127 o f t h e i n - g r o u p r e q u i r e p e r f e c t i o n i n o t h e r s e c t i o n s , r e s u l t i n g i n d e l a y s and l a c k o f c o - o r d i n a t i o n o f f u n c t i o n i n g s i n h o r i -z o n t a l r e l a t i o n s . I n v e r t i c a l r e l a t i o n s , o f f i c i a l s a t a g i v e n l e v e l a r e o b e d i e n t t o t h e i r s u p e r i o r s w h i l e b e i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n t o t h e l o w e r p e r s o n n e l , r e s u l t i n g i n t h e l o w e s t o f f i c i a l s i n t h e h i e r a r c h y i n h e r i t i n g t h e p o s i t i o n o f s c a p e - g o a t . I n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n i s one s i d e d , and t h e o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n s e n t t o t h e s u p e r i o r s f r o m t h e l o w e r s t a f f i s f i l t e r e d t o s a t i s f y t h e s u p e r i o r s . I n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h s u c h p o w e r - s t r u c t u r e , t h e l o w e r can p r o t e c t t h e m s e l v e s by s a t i s f y i n g t h e i r s u p e r i o r s , and t h e o f f i c i a l s e m p h a s i z e o n l y t h o s e programmes w h i c h meet t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s , n e g l e c t i n g o t h e r programmes. I n a d d i t i o n , u p p e r c l a s s p e o p l e i n v i l l a g e s o c i e t y upon w h i c h t h e Programmes a r e e x e c u t e d , a r e i n f l u e n t i a l upon t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c i a l s . T h o s e v i l l a g e r s who c a n i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e Government o f f i c i a l s and t h e t a r g e t s w h i c h can h e l p t h e o f f i c i a l s ' s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n draw more a t t e n t i o n o f t h e e x e c u t o r s . As a r e s u l t , t h e e x e c u t e d p l a n l o s e s f l e x i b i l i t y t o meet t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , and t h e p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s a r e em-p h a s i z e d , l o s i n g c o m p r e h e n s i v e n e s s o f t h e Programmes, and c a u s i n g a l a g between p h y s i c a l and n o n - p h y s i c a l programmes. I n t h e v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , a s c r i b e d s t a t u s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s d o m i n a t e t h e i r a c h i e v e d s t a t u s . The p a t t e r n o f 128 b e h a v i o r o f v i l l a g e r s a r e c o n t r o l l e d by t h e s t a t u s and r o l e -e x p e c t a t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o i t . The d e g r e e and t y p e o f v i l l a g e r s ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e Community Development Programmes d i f f e r f r o m s t a t u s t o s t a t u s and some v i l l a g e r s a r e a l i e n a t e d f r o m t h e b e n e f i t s o f t h e programmes. When g i v e n programmes r e q u i r e c o n f l i c t i n g p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e -e x p e c t a t i o n s , t h e v i l l a g e r s do n o t c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e p r o -grammes. ( F o r example, see f a i l u r e s o f women's programmes). When g i v e n programmes meet o n l y a c e r t a i n s e c t i o n o f v i l l a g e s o c i e t y , t h e b e n e f i t goes s o l e l y t o t h o s e p e o p l e . ( F o r example, t h e c a s e o f l a n d l e s s v i l l a g e r s u n d e r a g r i c u l t u r a l programmes).. T h i s c a u s e s u n e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e b e n e f i t s . The most b e n e f i t e d s e c t i o n i s o f t e n t h e a l r e a d y a d v a n t a g e d . As t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f p h y s i c a l programmes a r e s a l i e n t , t h e more un-e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f b e n e f i t s i s c a u s e d , t h e r i c h b e c o m i n g r i c h e r and t h e p o o r p o o r e r . I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e n o n - p h y s i c a l programmes o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t have had some s u c c e s s e s a l o n g t h e i n -t e n d e d l i n e s ; b u t t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s and t h e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e p h y s i c a l programmes have more t h a n c o u n t e r b a l a n c e d t h e ch a n g e s c a u s e d by t h e f o r m e r . The v a l u e s o f t h e p e o p l e a l s o c o n t r o l t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o t h e Programmes. The v a l u e o f a t t a c h m e n t t o t h e e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s may i n v i t e c o - o p e r a t i o n o f v i l l a g e r s t o t h e 129 t h e p r e s t i g e o f Programmes i n o r d e r t o i n c r e a s e / t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n s as w e l l as t o consume t h e l i m i t e d r e s o u r c e o f t h e p r o j e c t s i n t h e most u n e c o n o m i c a l manners f r o m t h e v i e w o f t h e p l a n n e r s . R e l u c t a n c e to", change makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o p e r s u a d e t h e p e o p l e by d e m o n s t r a t i o n , f a i l i n g t o o b t a i n t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n . The v i l l a g e r s ' s u s p i c i o n o f t h e Government d i s t o r t s t h e r e s -p o n s e s c o n t r a r y t o t h e p l a n n e r s ' a n t i c i p a t i o n . Thus, i n s p i t e o f g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s , t h e p e o p l e do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e s p o n d a s t h e p l a n n e r s h a v e p o s t u l a t e d . I n t h e e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s , t h e r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d by t h e e x e c u t o r s o f t h e Programmes o f t e n g i v e f a l s e p i c t u r e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n . S i n c e t h e p l a n n e r s m o d i f y t h e Programmes on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e r e p o r t s as w e l l a s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d by t h e s p e c i a l e v a l u a t i o n a g e n t s , t h e i n f o r m -a t i o n p r o v i d e d b y t h e s e two s o u r c e s i s so u n b a l a n c e d t h a t t h e p l a n n e r s t e n d t o have a d i s t o r t e d p i c t u r e o f t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . I n t h i s p r o c e s s o f d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e p l a n , dominance o f p h y s i c a l t a r g e t s and l a g i n a c h i e v e m e n t s o f p h y s i c a l and n o n - p h y s i c a l programmes a r e p r o d u c e d . The b e n e f i t s f r o m t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e programmes go t o u p p e r c l a s s v i l l a g e r s , and t h e a l i e n a t e d c l a s s does n o t s h a r e t h e b e n e f i t s . The c l e a v a g e between s t r a t a i s w i d e n e d and ' s o c i a l i n j u s t i c e ' r e s u l t s . T h u s , t h e f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e c o m p r e h e n s i v e ( c a u s e d by t h e Community D e v e l o p m e n t Programmes) o f t h e 130 s t a t e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p e o p l e ' s s o c i a l a c t i o n , a f f e c t e d one a n o t h e r i n d i v e r s e ways, and sometimes o p p o s e d one a n o t h e r . The s e c o n d and t h i r d a s s u m p t i o n s a r e a l s o n o t r e a l i z e d u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . T h ese f a c t s l e a d us t o q u e r y t h e b a s i s o f t h e method o f Community D e v e l o p m e n t . The Community Development Programmes i n I n d i a i s a c o m p r e h e n s i v e method o f s o c i a l change w i t h a g i v e n s e t o f d e s i r e d g o a l s . To a c h i e v e t h e g o a l s , a ' d e m o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h ' i s a d o p t e d , c o n s i s t i n g o f (a) f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h e p o l i c y by t h e e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e n a t i o n , and (b) t h e e x e c u t i o n o f t h i s p o l i c y by o f f i c i a l l y a p p o i n t e d p e r s o n n e l w i t h t h e c o n s e n t and c o - o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e a f f e c t e d . T h i s ' d e m o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h ' assumes c e r t a i n v a l u e s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s a p p r o a c h w i l l be most e f f e c t i v e i n t h o s e s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h d e m o c r a c y has been an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n , b u t may n o t be n e a r l y so e f f e c t i v e i n s o c i e t i e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s . T h i s i s b e c a u s e t h e v a l u e s assumed i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c a p p r o a c h a r e a l r e a d y s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e s o c i a l norms o f s u c h s o c i e t i e s , and by r e - o r g a n i z i n g t h e v a l u e s so s t r u c t u r e d , t h e p l a n n e r s can r e - o r i e n t t h e e x e c u t e e s t o t h e aimed g o a l . I n o t h e r words, t h e change o f v a l u e s i s m e r e l y a r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f a l r e a d y - e x i s t i n g v a l u e s and n o t t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new o n e s . In s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h s u c h d e m ocracy has n o t been p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n , d i f f e r e n t s e t s o f v a l u e s a r e 131. s t r u c t u r e d i n t h e s o c i a l n o r m s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e c h a n g e o f v a l u e s d e s i r e d b y t h e C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s e n t a i l s h a v i n g t o e r a d i c a t e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s a n d r e p l a c e t h e m w i t h ' t h e n e w s e t o f v a l u e s b y p e r s u a s i v e m e a n s . T h i s m a y n o t b e i m p o s s i b l e , b u t i t i s s u r e l y a v e r y d i f f i c u l t t a s k i n d e e d . T h i s i s w h y t h e n o n - p h y s i c a l p r o g r a m m e s n e e d s o v e r y i n t e n s e a n e f f o r t , w i t h a s s u r a n c e o f o n l y a s m a l l r e s u l t , t h a t t h e y a r e a l m o s t c e r t a i n t o l a g b e h i n d t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f t h e p h y s i c a l p r o g r a m m e s . T h i s l a g h a s b e t r a y e d t h e p l a n n e r ' s o r i g i n a l i n t e n t i o n s a n d r e s u l t e d i n t h e v a r i o u s p h e n o m e n a we h a v e d e s c r i b e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . T h e r e a r e c o n s e q u e n t l y t h r e e b a s i c p r o b l e m s t h a t C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t h a s t o c o n f r o n t . T h e y a r e : 1. H o w t o h a r m o n i z e t h e p h y s i c a l a n d n o n - p h y s i c a l p r o g r a m m e s w h i c h t a k e e f f e c t a t s u c h d i f f e r e n t r a t e s o f c h a n g e . 2. How. t o c o m p r o m i s e t h e t w o d e m a n d s f o r i n c r e a s e s i n p r o d u c t i o n a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f ' s o c i a l j u s t i c e ' w h e n , a t l e a s t i n t h e e a r l y s t a g e o f t h e p r o c e s s , t h e s e t w o g o a l s a p p e a r i n c o m p a t i b l e . 3. H o w t o m i n i m i z e t h e d i s t o r t i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e G o v e r n m e n t b u r e a u c r a c y i n t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e P r o g r a m m e s . 132 APPENDICES 1. L i s t o f Programmes t o be C a r r i e d o u t by Community Develop-ment . 2. P e r s o n n e l t r a i n e d f o r Community Development Programmes, 3. C o v e r a g e o f Community Development Programmes. 4. A l l - I n d i a P h y s i c a l A c h i e v e m e n t s f o r Some I m p o r t a n t Items o f A c t i v i t y . 5. P r o g r e s s o f P a n c h a y a t s . A l l - I n d i a . 6. Number and C o v e r a g e o f V i l l a g e P a n c h a y a t s . TABLE 1. L I S T OF PROGRAMMES TO BE CARRIED OUT BY COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT A. A g r i c u l t u r e and r e l a t e d m a t t e r s : 1. R e c l a m a t i o n o f a v a i l a b l e v i r g i n and wa s t e l a n d . 2. P r o v i s i o n o f w a t e r f o r a g r i c u l t u r e t h r o u g h i r r i g a t i o n c a n a l s , t u b e w e l l s , s u r f a c e w e l l s , t a n k s , and l i f t i r r i g a t i o n f r o m r i v e r s , l a k e s and p o o l s . 3 . - Development o f r u r a l e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n . 4. P r o v i s i o n o f c o m m e r c i a l f e r t i l i z e r s . 5. P r o v i s i o n o f q u a l i t y s e e d s . 6. P r o m o t i o n and u t i l i z a t i o n o f i m p r o v e d a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s . 7. P r o v i s i o n o f v e t e r i n a r y a i d ; 8. P r o v i s i o n o f t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , m a t e r i a l s and b u l l e t i n s on a g r i c u l t u r e . 9. D i s s e m i n a t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h r o u g h s l i d e s , f i l m s , r a d i o b r o a d c a s t s , and l e c t u r e s . 10. P r o v i s i o n o f i m p r o v e d a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s . 11. P r o m o t i o n o f m a r k e t i n g and c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s . 12. P r o v i s i o n o f b r e e d i n g c e n t r e s f o r a n i m a l h u s b a n d r y . 13. D e v e l o p m e n t o f i n l a n d f i s h e r i e s . 14. P r o m o t i o n .of home e c o n o m i c s . 1$. D e v e l o p m e n t o f f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e c u l t i v a t i o n . 16. P r o v i s i o n o f s o i l s u r v e y s and i n f o r m a t i o n . 17. E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e u s e o f n a t u r a l and compost manures. 18. P r o v i s i o n f o r a r b o r i c u l t u r e and r e a f f o r e s t a t i o n . B. C o m m u n i c a t i o n s : 1. P r o v i s i o n o f r o a d s . 2. E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f m e c h a n i c a l r o a d t r a n s p o r t . 3 . D e v e l o p m e n t o f a n i m a l t r a n s p o r t . C. E d u c a t i o n : 1. P r o v i s i o n o f c o m p u l s o r y and f r e e e d u c a t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y o f t h e b a s i c t y p e , a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s t a g e . 2. P r o v i s i o n o f h i g h and m i d d l e s c h o o l s . 3 . P r o v i s i o n o f a d u l t e d u c a t i o n and l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s . D. H e a l t h : 1. P r o v i s i o n o f s a n i t a t i o n ( i n c l u d i n g d r a i n a g e and d i s -p o s a l o f w a s t e s ) and p u b l i c h e a l t h m e a s u r e s . 2. P r o v i s i o n f o r c o n t r o l o f m a l a r i a and o t h e r d i s e a s e s . 3. P r o v i s i o n o f improve d r i n k i n g w a t e r s u p p l i e s . 4. P r o v i s i o n o f m e d i c a l a i d f o r t h e s i c k . 134 5. P r e - n a t a l and p o s t - n a t a l c a r e t o e x p e c t a n t m o t h e r s , and m i d - w i f e s e r v i c e s . 6. P r o v i s i o n o f g e n e r a l i z e d p u b l i c h e a l t h s e r v i c e and e d u c a t i o n . E . T r a i n i n g : 1. R e f r e s h e r c o u r s e s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e s t a n d a r d o f work o f e x i s t i n g a r t i s a n s . 2. T r a i n i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r i s t s . 3. T r a i n i n g o f e x t e n s i o n a s s i s t a n t s . 4 . T r a i n i n g o f a r t i s a n s . 5. T r a i n i n g o f s u p e r v i s o r s , m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n n e l , h e a l t h w o r k e r s , and e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s f o r p r o j e c t s . F. S o c i a l W e l f a r e : 1. O r g a n i z a t i o n o f community e n t e r t a i n m e n t . • 2. P r o v i s i o n o f a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d f o r i n s t r u c t i o n and r e c r e a t i o n , 3 . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s . 4* O r g a n i z a t i o n o f m e l a s ( v i l l a g e f a i r s ) . 5* O r g a n i z a t i o n o f c o - o p e r a t i v e s and s e l f - h e l p movements. G. S u p p l e m e n t a r y Employment: 1. Encouragement o f c o t t a g e i n d u s t r i e s and c r a f t s as m ain o r s u b s i d i a r y o c c u p a t i o n s . 2. E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f medium and s m a l l - s c a l e i n d u s t r i e s t o employ s u r p l u s l a b o u r f o r l o c a l n e e d s and t o p r o -v i d e p r o d u c t s f o r o u t s i d e p r o j e c t a r e a s . 3 . E n c o u r a g e m e n t o f employment t h r o u g h t r a d e , a u x i l i a r y and w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s . 4 . C o n s t r u c t i o n o f b r i c k k i l n s and s a w - m i l l s t o p r o v i d e b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r l o c a l n e e d s . H. H o u s i n g : • 1. D e m o n s t r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g i n i m p r o v e d t e c h n i q u e s and d e s i g n s f o r r u r a l h o u s i n g . 2. Encouragement o f i m p r o v e d r u r a l h o u s i n g on a s e l f -h e l p b a s i s . C o u r c e : Dube, S . C , I n d i a ' s C h a n g i n g V i l l a g e s , pp. 19-21. 135 TABLE 2 PERSONNEL TRAINED FOR COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Number Numbers trained during trained CATEGORY 1. Block Development Of f i c e r s 2. Gram Sevaks 3. Extension O f f i c e r s (Co-operation). 4. Social Education Organizers 5. Extension O f f i c -ers (Industries) (a) small indus-t r i e s ser-vice i n s t i t -ute • (b) Khadi Gramodyog Mahavi dyalaya 6. Mukhy Sevikas 7. Gram Sevikas to Mar. '58 58-59 59-60 60-61 Total 1 , 9 8 5 580 5 3 2 803 3,900 31,128 4,144 4,652 2,876 42,800 1,220 6 3 3 621 614 3,088 2,269 579 3 0 9 214 3,371 786 608 586 379 1,946 373 608 586 379 1,946 1 , 0 6 7 404 156 207 1 , 8 3 4 796 438 642 1,105 2,981 Government of India, Community Development at a Glance (revised ) 1962:, p. 11. TABLE 3 COVERAGE OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES (as on 1st F e b r u a r y , 1962) STATE i CO CD O O X rH O CQ -H Xi t3 «H £ ci) O -P O -H • P S o id -H S -H H No. o f B l o c k s A l l o t t e d S t l g e I S t a g e I I T o t a l % i > o o i t o Mm re C P H o CO •H -P <D o ct! ,Q hOS rH 05 CU CD CO M O U CO p., CD eg rH " T ! ' CD CO U X i CD O CD >o8 O U O rH O-i O M m <H a CO CD tH '— O o CD txOM • • •H bQ CO O co co ( C P CD r H CO faO JO CD O t H cO O s P O •H !>-> -P O X - H > p co-—' IS a> PQ A ^ d h x f P r a c e s h 445 217 109 326 73 215 210 52 Assam 160 42 42 84 52 45 -141 28 575 279 135 414 72 275 536 73 G v j a r r t 224 9 i i 58£ 150 67 100 128 26 J a m u & K a s h m i r 52 28 24 ' 52 100 23 59 • • • K e r a l a 142 60 41 101 74 90 34 16 i - i c - l h ^ a P r a d e s h 416 186 112 , 298 72 I83 550 44 M a d r a s 375 174 80 254 68 188 126 59 M a h a r a s h t r a 425 192£ 102i 294i 69 195 301 .771 L y s o r e 268 125 63 • 188 70 124 184 • 31 O r i s s a 307 170 39 109 68 107 319 37 ? v ~ i j a b 228 • 84 83 167 73 112 153 26 ^ a j a s ^ n a n 232 93 66 159 68 102 234 24 u t t a r ^ r a d e s h 899 454 156 610 67 395 823 112 l e s t B e n g a l 341 141 49 190 56 130 247 63 U n i o i . T e r r i t o r i e s 134 50j 42 92h 68 33 119 12 T o t a l 5,223 2,387 1,202 3,589 69 2,317 4,164 680£ j e i r e e : M i n . o f C D . and Co-op., R e p o r t 1961-62, Go v t , o f I n d i a , 1962, p. 41. TABLE 4 137 ALL-INDIA PHYSICAL ACHIEVEMENTS FOR SOME IMPORTANT ITEMS OF ACTIVITY • Achievements during Average achieve-the Year ments per block during the year Items 1959-60 1960-61 '59-60 '60-61 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) AGRICULTURE 1.Improved seeds d i s t r i b u t e d (rods) 6,964,000 8,273,000 2,811 2,938 2. Chemical f e r t i l i z e r s d i s t r i b u t e d (Mds) 13,833,000 16,500,000 5,584 5,877 3.Improved implements dis t r i b u t e d (Nos.) 281,110 337,820 129 135 4. A g r i c u l t u r a l demonstra-tions held (Nos.) 1,541,900 1,227,700 1,641 1,447 5. Compost p i t s dug(Nos.) 2,955,300 2,944,400 1,193 1,046 Animal Husbandry 1.Improved animals supplies (Nos.) 17,997 21,274 7.4 7.4 2.Imt)roved birds supplied (Nos.) 244,100 329,000 98 117 3. Animals castrated(Nos.) 2,202,500 2,446,400 889 880 Rural Health and Sanitation 1. Rural Latrines con-structed (Nos.) 2. Pucca drains constructed (Yes.) 3. V i l l a g e lanes paved (sq.yds.) 4. Drinking water wells constructed ^Nos.) 5. Drinking water wells renovated (Nos.) Soc i a l Education 1. Adults l i t e r a c y centres started (Nos.) 2. Adults made literate(Nos.) 3. Reading Rooms opened(Nos.) 4. Youth and farmer's clubs started: (1) number (2) No. of members' 138,660 140,940 54 51 2,423,700 1,749,300 973 621 2,122,000 1,654,000 879 533 35,470 33,470 14 14 50,450 46,470 21 16 37,076 354,900 118,028 40,704 881,420 16,535 15 34'5 :: 7 < 3 15 318 5.9 52,009 756,100 46,170 373,290 21.0 305 16.6 313 138 5.Functional Gram Sahayaks camps held (i)number ( i i f u n c t i o n a l leaders trained (Nos.) Women 's Programme 1. MahilaSamitis/mandals started (Nos.) 2. Membership i n (1) 3. Balwadis/Nurseries started (Nos.) If.Children attending i n (3) '" (Nos.) 5. Women's camps held(Nos.) 6. Women p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n (5) (Nos.) Communications 1. Kacha roads constructed (Miles) 2. Existing kacha roads improved (miles) 3. No. of culverts con-structed (Nos.) Village & Small Industries 1. Ambar Charkhas i n t r o -duced (Nos) 2. Brick kilnstarted(Nos.) 3. Bricks manufactured (Lakh Nos.) 4. T i l e s manufactured (Lakh Nos.) 5.Ser.ing machines d i s -t r i b u t e d (Nos.) 6.Tannery p i t s started (Nos.) 7.Improved ghanis introduc (Nos.) 8. Bee-hives introduced :• (NOS.) 9. Value of improved tools • & appliances d i s t r i b u t e d : (a) Blacksmithy(Rs.'000) 446 443 0.20 0.18 (b) Carpentry (Rs?. '000) 3,25 374 0.15 0.16 General 1.Block Development Committee meetings held 14,272 14,594 6.9 6.1 Government of India, Community Development at a Glance (revised edition) 1962, pp.8-10. 37,619 28,088 16 10 1,138,100 928,000 473 338 10,148 214,900 14,300 253,360 4.1 87 5.1 92 6,242 7,111 2..9 2.9 152,700 3,684 153,540 2,812 70 1.7 63 1.2 101,800 81,800 47 34 13,405 16,263 5.4 5.8 26,499 27,297 10.7 9.9 22,719 19,860 9.2 7.1 28,822 10,892 23,245 13,041 13.2 5.0 9.6 5.4 13,622 12,874 6.2 5.3 2,022 4,769 0.9 2.0 6,107 7,202 2.5 2.6 3,235 2,676 1.4 1.1 1,255 2,159 0.6 0.9 22,844 15,44.2 10.1 6.4 139 TABLE 5 PROGRESS OF PANCHAYATS—ALL-INDIA 30/9/'57 3 l /3 / '59 3 l /3 / ' 60 3 1 / 3 / ' 6 l 1. Number o f Pancha y a t s 160,369 177,633 179,906 193,527 2.. Number o f v i l l a g e s c o vered (1,000) 410 461 483 502 3. R u r a l p o p u l a t i o n c o v e r e d (Lakhs) 1,973 2,168 2,569 2,701 4. P e r c e n t a g e v i l l a g e s c o v e r e d 75 82 86 39 5. P e r c e n t a g e s r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n covered 74 82 88 92 6. Average number o f v i l l a g e s per panchayat 2.5 2.6 2.7 2 . 6 7. Average p o p u l a t i o n per panchayat 1,299 1,342 1,428 1,396 Source: M i n i s t r y of Community Development and C o - o p e r a t i o n , . Government .of I n d i a . Panchayats a t a Gl a n c e , (As on 31st March, 1961), p.4. TABLE 6 NUMBER AND COVERAGE OF VILLAGE PANCHAYATS 140 i to >•> CD 1 . 1 popula-r panchay-03 bO C rH popula-r panchay-Xi la O CD CO • CO popula-r panchay-o la •H > C H ft popula-r panchay-G rH -P O • O popula-r panchay-03 •H 05 O *H ' U popula-r panchay-fX, > T3 rH •• CD popula-r panchay-CD CD CD C O ft popula-r panchay-CH to C H f-t A -X- bfi hD O • popula-r panchay-O -P O CD O " O - — 03 CO 03 - H CO Average tion pei at. 03 > ft CD CO -P CD •P -P T3 CD CD • Average tion pei at. U U O Xi 5x0 • C o3i CD foD tuJ-P Average tion pei at. State CD CD O rH OJ ^ CD CO CD H SH rd 03 co Average tion pei at. X^ X! 03 > 05 V rH CD O P CD SnrH !>, Average tion pei at. B B H O t—H J-) rH SH ft > 0 r H 03 Average tion pei at. d o — - CD •H CD O O >-H Xi Average tion pei at. 23 ft > ft ft o < > O Average tion pei at. 1. Andhra Pradesh 14,548 26,450 2 256 100 100 1.8 1,760 2. Assam(Plans) 2,570 17,717 68 100 100 6.9 2,646 3. Bihar 10,617 67,258 344 99 95 6.3 3,240 4. Gujarat 10,750 17,760 115 99 98 1,7 .1,070 5. Jammu & Kashirair 936 6,956 29 100 100 7.4 3,098 6. Kerala 982 1,202 107 76 91 1.3 11,996 7. Madhya Pradesh 13,495 45,679 157 64 69 3.4 .1,163 8. Madras 12,337 17,513 222 99 98 1.4 1,799 9. Maharashtra 19,151 37,668 241 98 99 2.0 1,258 10.Mysore 7,444 25,880 149 100 100 3.5 2,002 ll.Orissa 2,342 47,939 136 94 .96 20.0 5,807 12. Punjab 13,439 20,855 131 100 100 1.6 975 13. Rajasthan 7,394 34,441 131 100 100 4.7 1,772 14. Uttar Pradesh 72,333 111,722 546 100 100 1.5 755 15. West Bengal 205 303 2 100 100 1.5 976 17.Himachal Pradesh 518 11,393 11 100 100 22.0 2,124 All-India 193,527 5812,337 2,701 89 92 2.6 1,396 * According to 1951 Census. (1 lakh = 100,000). Source: Ministry of Community Development and Co-operation, Govern-ment of India, Panchayat at a Glance (As on 31st March, 1961), p. 5. BIBLIOGRAPHY Beals, Alan, "The Government and the Indian V i l l a g e , Economic  Development and Social Change, 2:5, June 1954, Univ. of Chicago. Beers, Howard W., "Evaluation i n Community Development i n Indian Exercise", U.S. Community Development Review, March 1961, pp. 29r48~. Berreman, Gerald D. "Caste and Community Development" Human Organization, 22:1, Spring, 1963, Cornell Univ. Press, pp. 90-94. Cousing, William J., "Community Development i n West Bengal", U.S. Community Development Review, Sept. 1959, ICA, PP. 37-77. Dey, S.K., Community Development—a chronicle 1954-1961, Ministry of Community Development and Co-operation, Government of India, 1962. Dey, S.K., Community Development through Panchayati Ra.j, Min. of CD. & Co-opp., Govt, of India, 1961. Dube, S.C India's Changing. Villages—human factors i n community Development, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1958. Dube, S.C Indian V i l l a g e s , Cornell University Press, 1955. Elmhirst, Leonard, "Rabindranath Tagore and Sriniketan", i n Min. of CD. & Coop., Evolution of Community  Development Programme in India, Government of India, G1963, pp. 1-14. Fukazawa, Hachiro "Indo no Nohgyoh Mondai no Temboh" (Ag r i c u l t u r a l Problems in-India), Tohyo Bunka (Oriental Culture) No. 28, Tohyo Bunka Kenkyusho, Tokyo University Press, Dec. 1959, pp. 25-50. Fukutake, Tadashi, Sekai Nohson no Tabi (Journey of the Rural Villages i n the World), Tokyo University Press, 1962. Goswami, U.L., & Roy, S.C " I n d i a — r e g i o n a l consideration", i n Ruopp, P h i l l i p s , Approaches to Community Develop-ment, W. Van Hoeve Lts., the Hague, 1953, pp. 299-317. Government of India: Ministry of Community Development & Cooperation: A Guide to Community Development, (Revised), 1962. 142 A Guide to Gram Sevikas and Mukhya Sevikas, 1961. Community Development at a Glance, (Revised Edition) 1962. Community Development Programmes—third f i v e year  Plan, 1961. Panchayati R a j — a comparative study on l e g i s l a t i o n s , 1962. Panchayati Raj Administration Model Rules of Business 1961. A Sample Survey of Progressive Farmers V i s i t i n g the  World Agriculture F a i r December 1959-February I960, I W . V i l l a g e Volunteer Force, 1962. Visual Aids i n Community Development, 1961. National I n s t i t u t e of Community Development: The Scope of Extension, 1962. Vi l l a g e Level Workers--their work and r e s u l t  demonstrations^ 1962. Programme Evaluation Organization, Planning Commission; Three Years of Community Projects, 1956. The Fourth Evaluation Report on Working of Community  Projects and N.E.S. Blocks, Vols. 1 & 2, 1957. The F i f t h Evaluation Report on Working of Community  Development and N.E.S. Blocks, 1958. The Sixth Evaluation Report on Working of Community  Development and N.E.S. Blocks, 1959. The Seventh Evaluation Report on Community Development and Some A l l i e d F i e l d s , I960" Summary of the Evaluation Studies, 1960-61, 1961. Some Successful Panchayats--case studies, I960. Hersey, Evelyn W. , "Some Observations on Leadership i n India • with Special Reference to the Social Welfare F i e l d " , U.S. Community Development Review, Sept-. 1957,-pp. 143 ICA, Community Development Programmes i n I n d i a , P a k i s t a n and  t h e P h i l i p p i n e s , Team 1, ICA W a s h i n g t o n D . C , 1955. J i n n o u c h i , Y o s h i t o , "Indo no N o h c h i - K a i k a k u t o Nohgyoh S e i s a n " (Land R e f o r m and A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t i o n i n I n d i a ) , Nohgyoh Sohgoh Kenkyu ( B u l l e t i n o f A g r i c u l t u r a l S t u d i e s ) , M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F o r e s t r y , Government o f J a p a n , 11:4, 1957, pp. 1 2 7 - 1 6 6 . K r i s h n a m a c h a r i , V.T. "Community D e v e l o p m e n t i n B a r o d a S t a t e " I n E v o l u t i o n o f Community Development Programme i n  I n d i a , M i n . o f C D . & Coop., G o v t , o f I n d i a , 19o3, pp. 36-44. L e w i s , O s c a r , V i l l a g e - L i f e i n N o r t h e r n I n d i a — s t u d i e s i n a  D e l h i v i l l a g e , U n i v . o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , 1958. L u s c h i n s k y , M i l d r e d , " P r o b l e m s o f C u l t u r e Change i n t h e I n d i a n V i l l a g e " , Human O r g a n i z a t i o n , 22:1, S p r i n g , 1963, pp. 66-74. Mayer, A., M a r r i o t t , M., P a r k , R., P i l o t P r o j e c t , I n d i a , U n i v . .of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1959. Malenbaum, W i l f r e d , "The R o l e o f Government i n I n d i a ' s T h i r d P l a n " , E c o n o m i c Development and C u l t u r a l Change, A p r i l I960, pp. 225-36. ' M a r r i o t t , McKim, " L i t t l e C o m m u n i t i e s i n an I n d i g e n o u s C i v i l i z a t i o n " , i n M a r r i o t t , M., ed., V i l l a g e I n d i a . U n i v . o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1955, pp.. 171-222.. " S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e and Change i n a U.P.. V i l l a g e , " -i n West B e n g a l Government, I n d i a ' s V i l l a g e , 1955, pp. 96-109. M a r r i o t t , McKim, ed., V i l l a g e I n d i a — s t u d i e s i n t h e l i t t l e . • community, U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1955. M u k h e r j e e , B., Community D e v e l o p m e n t i n I n d i a , O r i e n t Langmans, New D e l h i , 1961.. M u k h e r j e e , P . C , & Gupta, B.C. A P i l o t S u r v e y o f F o u r t e e n V i l l a g e s i n U.P. a n d  P u n j a b , A s i a n P u b l i s h i n g House, New Y o r k , 1959. N a i r , Kusum, B l o s s o m s i n t h e D u s t — t h e human el e m e n t i n I n d i a n  d e v e l o p m e n t , Duckworth, London, 1962. N a t h , V., "The V i l l a g e and t h e - Community", i n T u r n e r , Roy, E d . , I n d i a ' s Urban F u t u r e , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1962, pp. 141-54.. N a t i o n w i d e . I n s u r a n c e , M i s s i o n t o I n d i a ^ - a r e p o r t o f t h e n a t i o n - wide c o - o p e r a t i v e s t u d y team, N a t i o n w i d e I n s u r a n c e , Columbus ( O h i o ) , . 1962. 144 N e a l e , W a l t e r , Economic Change i n R u r a l I n d i a , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. P a r k , R.L., and T i n k e r , I r e n e , L e a d e r s h i p and P o l i t i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s i n I n d i a , P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , P l a n n i n g Commission, Government of I n d i a , The New I n d i a — • P r o g r e s s t h r o u g h democracy, M a c m i l l a n , New Y ork, 1955. P l a n n i n g R esearch and A c t i o n I n s t i t u t e , U t t a r Pradesh: The Gram Sevak i n Utta£ Pr-Jidesh--a s t u d y o f h i s r o l e , w o r k l o a d and r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Lucknow, U.P., 1959. Guide t o R u r a l Youth O r g a n i z a t i o n based on a P i l o t  P r o j e c t , I960. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e I n t e g r a t e d C o o p e r a t i v e C r e d i t , M a r k e t i n g and P r o c e s s i n g U n i t s o f A g r i c u l t u r a l  Produce i n U t t a r P r a d e s h , 1958. A Report of A l l - I n d i a Seminar on E n v i r o n m e n t a l  S a n i t a t i o n , 1962. Seventh Annual R e p o r t , 1961. P a n i k k a r , K.M., Hindu S o c i e t y a t C r o s s Roads, A s i a n P u b l i s h i n g House, Bombay, 1956. Rambhai, B., The S i l e n t R e v o l u t i o n , J i w a n Prakashan, D e l h i , 1958. Ranhawa, M.S., N a t i o n a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e and Community P r o j e c t s  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , Punjab Government., C h a n d i g a r h , 1955. Ruopp, P h i l l i p s , ed., Approaches t o Community Development--a symposium i n t r o d u c t o r y t o problems and methods of  v i l l a g e w e l f a r e i n u n d e r developed a r e a s , W. Van Hoeve L t d . , The Hague, 1953-Sanders, I r v i n , " T h e o r i e s o f Community Development", U.S. Community Development Review, June 1958, pp. 27-39. S r i n i v a s , M.N. "The S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e of a Mysore V i l l a g e " , i n West Bengal Govt., I n d i a ' s V i l l a g e , 1955, pp. 19-32. "The S o c i a l System of a Mysore V i l l a g e " , i n M a r r i o t t ; M., V i l l a g e I n d i a , U n i v . , of Chicago P r e s s , 1955, pp. 1-35. T u n i r n , M e l v i n M., "Some S o c i a l Requirements f o r E f f e c t i v e Community Development", U.S. Community Development Review, Nov., 1953, pp. 1-39. U n i t e d N a t i o n s : . . H 5 A s p e c t s o f N a t i o n a l C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t i n A s i a , 'New Y o r k . , 1959. C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , P a r t I , B a n g k o k , I 9 6 0 . ' C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a n d E c o n o m i c D e v e l o p m e n t , P a r t I I - A , B a n g k o k , I 9 6 0 . . - ' C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t S e r v i c e s i n M a i n l a n d S o u t h  E a s t A s i a , N . Y . , 1959. C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t T e c h n i q u e s a n d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n -a t t h e P r o j e c t L e v e l , N . Y . , 1 9 6 1 . : " T h e I n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t  a n d L o c a l G o v e r n m e n t , N . Y . , 1 9 6 1 . P u b l i c A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A s p e c t s o f C o m m u n i t y  D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e s , N . Y . , 1959. R e p o r t o f t h e A s i a n C o n f e r e n c e o n C o m m u n i t y  D e v e l o p m e n t , N . Y . , ' ' 1 9 6 1 . R e p o r t o f t h e A s i a n S e m i n a r o n P l a n n i n g a n d  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f N a t i o n a l C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t  P r o g r a m m e s , N . Y . , 1 9 6 1 . R e p o r t o f a C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t E v a l u a t i o n  M i s s i o n i n I n d i a , N . Y . , I 9 6 0 . R e p o r t o f t h e M i s s i o n o n C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n  a n d D e v e l o p m e n t i n S o u t h a n d S o u t h e a s t A s i a , N . Y . , 1 9 5 3 . . V e r m a , S . R . , " T h e G u r g a o n Ejcp e r i m e n t " , i n M i n . o f C D . & C o o p . , E v o l u t i o n o f C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t P r o g r a m m e i n  I n d i a , G o v t , o f I n d i a , 1 9 6 3 , PP. 2 7 - 3 5. W e s t B e n g a l G o v e r n m e n t , ' e d . , I n d i a ' s V i l l a g e , W e s t B e n g a l G o v e r n m e n t P r e s s , 1 9 5 5 . 6 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105778/manifest

Comment

Related Items