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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Legal aid for juveniles in Canada: a survey of the extent and use of legal aid services and professional… Karpoff, Jim 1962

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LEGAL A I D FOR JUVENILES I N  CANADA  A S u r v e y o f t h e E x t e n t and Use o f L e g a l A i d S e r v i c e s , and P r o f e s s i o n a l O p i n i o n on C u r r e n t NeedsJ I960 - 1962.  JAMES CAPSEY KARPOPP JACK STEPHEN VAUGHAN  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  A c c e p t e d as conforming t o t h e s t a n d a r d r e q u i r e d f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1962 The U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may  be  granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancqjuver 8, Canada. Date  In presenting this thesis i n p a r t i a l fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission  for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for scholarly purposes may  be  granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of this thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shall not be alloxred without my written permission.  Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , Canada. Date " ^ ^ ^  /</.  i i i ABSTRACT I f l e g a l counsel i s not a v a i l a b l e f o r j u v e n i l e s brought b e f o r e t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t , o r i f p r o v i s i o n s t o make i t a v a i l a b l e on r e q u e s t a r e n o t e f f e c t i v e , t h e c h i l d may be d e n i e d h i s l e g a l r i g h t s and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s w h i c h may impede t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e a n d p r o t e c t i v e purpose o f the J u v e n i l e Court. The p r e s e n t s t u d y was d e s i g n e d to determine the p r e v a l e n c e o f defence c o u n s e l i n J u v e n i l e Courts, and t h e e x t e n t o f l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s f o r j u v e n i l e s a p p e a r i n g b o t h i n d e l i n q u e n c y and n e g l e c t p r o c e e d i n g s i n Canada. A d i s t i n c t i o n i s made b e t w e e n l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o j u v e n i l e s b y s t a t u t e , by p r o v i n c i a l government d e p a r t m e n t s , and b y p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . S p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n i s given to the l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o wards o f C h i l d W e l f a r e Departments and C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s . O p i n i o n s o f b o t h l a w y e r s a n d s o c i a l w o r k e r s were s o u g h t on w h e t h e r l e g a l a i d s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t , a n d o n w h e t h e r the use o f s o c i a l workers i n c o u r t p r o v i d e adequate l e g a l safeguard to t h e j u v e n i l e ' s r i g h t s . I n p r e l i m i n a r y r e v i e w , t h e l i t e r a t u r e i s examined o n the g e n e r a l p h i l o s o p h y , p e r s o n n e l and s t r u c t u r e o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t , s p e c i a l emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d on t h e s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g o f J u v e n i l e C o u r t s i n most p a r t s o f Canada t o d a y . The c o n c e p t of l e g a l a i d i s e x p l o r e d , and t h e s o c i a l consequences o f v i o l a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n ' s a n d p a r e n t s ' c i v i l r i g h t s a n d l i b e r t i e s a r e examined i n r e l a t i o n s h i p b o t h t o d e l i n q u e n c y and t o n e g l e c t p r o c e e d i n g s . The d e t a i l e d s u r v e y was c o n d u c t e d by q u e s t i o n n a i r e s formulated f o r : (a) p r o v i n c i a l A t t o r n e y G e n e r a l Departments, (b) l a w S o c i e t i e s , ( c ) p r o v i n c i a l C h i l d W e l f a r e D e p a r t m e n t s , (d) s e l e c ted C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s , (e) s e l e c t e d J u v e n i l e Court Judges. O p i n i o n s were s o u g h t o n n e e d s , a s w e l l a s f a c t s o n p r e s e n t p r o v i s i o n s and t h e t y p e s o f c a s e s f o r w h i c h l e g a l a i d i s g i v e n . I t i s c l e a r from t h e evidence t h a t l e g a l a i d i s n o t a v a i l a b l e to j u v e n i l e s i n the m a j o r i t y o f cases. Such l i m i t e d l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s as a r e a v a i l a b l e , a r e seldom used. While the m a j o r i t y o f C h i l d W e l f a r e D e p a r t m e n t s and C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s s t a t e t h a t l e g a l a i d f o r t h e i r wards i s a v a i l a b l e i f needed, i n p r a c t i c e , l e g a l a i d i s seldom g i v e n . I n J u v e n i l e C o u r t s , o v e r 95 p e r c e n t o f t h e j u v e n i l e s a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d by c o u n s e l . A s m a l l m a j o r i t y o f b o t h s o c i a l workers and l a w y e r s f a v o u r e d s u p p l y i n g l e g a l a i d i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t s , but t h e p r e v a l e n t view i s t h a t s o c i a l workers p r o v i d e s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l safeguard t o the c h i l d ' s r i g h t s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t and i t s p e r s o n n e l a r e " a c t i n g i n t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e c h i l d " and a u t o m a t i c a l l y p r o t e c t the c h i l d ' s l e g a l r i g h t s . T h i s s t u d y s u g g e s t s , however, t h a t s k i l l i n s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s a n d p l a n n i n g s h o u l d n o t be e q u a t e d w i t h competence i n j u r i s p r u d e n c e . The l o n g - r a n g e e f f e c t o f o v e r l o o k i n g j u s t i c e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f w e l f a r e i s c o s t l y both t o t h e c h i l d and t h e community.  iv. ABSTRACT  (continued)  The e x i s t i n g c o n f u s i o n o f b o t h s o c i a l w o r k e r s and l a w y e r s a s t o t h e l e g a l s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l n a t u r e o f t h e J u v e n i l e makes i t h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t a d e f i n i t i v e a p p r a i s a l o f t h e c o u r t ' s t o t a l f u n c t i o n i n g be u n d e r t a k e n , w i t h d e s i r a b l e m o d i f i c a tions. I t i s q u e s t i o n n a b l e whether t h e needs f o r l e g a l a i d c a n be met s o l e l y by p r i v a t e o r v o l u n t a r y a g e n c i e s . A s t u d y s h o u l d be undertaken t o determine i f a P u b l i c Defender system o r a f e e f o r s e r v i c e s y s t e m , o r some o t h e r method i s most s u i t a b l e t o C a n a d a .  V ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  We w o u l d l i k e t h o s e who c o n t r i b u t e d  t o express our a p p r e c i a t i o n to a l l  to this  study.  c o - o p e r a t i o n o f s o c i a l workers,  The i n t e r e s t a n d  lawyers  and J u v e n i l e  J u d g e s a c r o s s Canada i n s u p p l y i n g p e r t i n e n t the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s  study  t o Mr. J . V. P o r n a t a r o  University and  of British  c o u n s e l were  pleased to express  whose e n c o u r a g e m e n t ,  Work, criticism  invaluable. like  t o thank  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y  much a p p r e c i a t e d .  our sincere  o f the School o f S o c i a l  Columbia,  We w o u l d a l s o  h e l p and g u i d a n c e  i n f o r m a t i o n made  possible.  We a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y thanks  Court  D r . L. Marsh o f t h e  o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  on the t e c h n i c a l aspects o f t h i s  whose  s t u d y were  TABLE OF CONTENTS  i . page  Chapter I  The Juvenile Court and Legal Aid  Establishment of Juvenile Court. Use of experts i n Juvenile Court. Philosophy and purpose of Juvenile Court. Role and functioning of court personnel. Structure and functioning of Juvenile Court i n Canada. S o c i a l worker's and lawyer's concern with the administration of j u s t i c e . Legal a i d . Equality before the law. Preservation of democratic values. Method and scope of study  1  Chapter I I Legal Aid Service for Juveniles i n Canada: Their Extent and Use Response to survey. Legal aid services under various auspices, l e g a l aid supplied by statute and by Law S o c i e t i e s . Legal aid supplied to wards hy Child Welfare Departments and Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s . Soc i a l worker's s p e c i a l concern f o r wards. Usage of l e g a l counsel i n Juvenile Court  36  Chapter I I I Attitudes Towards Legal Aid f o r Juveniles Opinions of lawyers, s o c i a l workers and judges on making l e g a l aid available i n Juvenile Court. Number i n favor and against. Comparison with service provided. Opinions of lawyers, s o c i a l workers and judges on s o c i a l worker's competence to safeguard l e g a l r i g h t s . Divisions of opinions Chapter IV  Appraisals and Proposals  The prevalent lack of l e g a l aid services. Lack of use of e x i s t i n g provisions. Confusion as to the l e g a l and s o c i a l aspects of the Juvenile Court. Loss of l e g a l r i g h t s and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s . F r u s t r a t i o n of s o c i a l goals. V i o l a t i o n of professional e t h i c . Some proposals: study of Juvenile Court; government i n t e r vention needed; l e g a l aid f o r other than juveniles Appendices: A.  B. C.  62  Questionnaires Used i n Study 1. Attorney General Departments 2. law Societies 3. Child Welfare Departments and Children's Aid Societies 4. Juvenile Court Judges 5. Covering l e t t e r Sample Application Form f o r Legal Aid: B r i t i s h Columbia Law Society Bibliography  78  I  ii. TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)  TABLES page Table 1.  Table 2.  Table 3.  Table 4.  Table 5.  Table 6.  Legal A i d Services f o r Juveniles as Supplied by Statute and by Law Societies i n Canadian Provinces i n I960  38  Legal A i d Services Supplied to Wards by Child Welfare Departments i n Canadian Provinces i n I960  49  Legal A i d Services Supplied to Wards by C h i l dren's A i d Societies i n Canadian Provinces i n I960  52  Professional Opinions on Whether Legal A i d Should Be Made Available to Juveniles i n Canada: 1962  63  Professional Opinions on Whether Legal A i d Should be Made Available to Juveniles, Compared with Services Available from Responding Agencies i n Canada i n I960  69  Professional Opinions on Whether S o c i a l Workers are Competent to Protect Juveniles' l e g a l Rights, Canada: 1962  72  LEGAL AID POR JUVENILES IN CANADA  CHAPTER I THE  J U V E N I L E COURT AND  LEGAL  AID  Introduction In  modern complex s o c i e t i e s ,  customary f o r l e g i s l a t i o n is  non-acceptable  c h i l d who quent.  i s found  sonality  or f a m i l i a r  what  This  as d e l i n q u e n c y ,  o f such behaviour  environment r e q u i r i n g criminal  i s deemed a  nonand  delinquent  discretion  the nature  L e g i s l a t i o n has  taken  Court.  behaviour  is left  to  or the k i n group. a l s o been enacted  d e t a i l what a r e m i n i m a l  r e n t s must p r o v i d e f o r t h e i r  standards.  minimal  standards,  the c h i l d  through  the J u v e n i l e Court,  standards children.  been g i v e n the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y care meets these  s h a l l be  insti-  of society's  the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f non-acceptable  o f the p a r e n t s  per-  society's intervention.  T h i s i n s t i t u t i o n i s known as t h e J u v e n i l e  t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f what a c t i o n  the  delin-  court, a socio-legal  been e s t a b l i s h e d t o determine  some s o c i e t i e s  rable  i n detail  the p a r t o f a c h i l d .  been d e s i g n a t e d  p l a c e o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  intervention.  and  guilty  stating  increasingly  as a w a r n i n g t h a t t h e r e i s m a l f u n c t i o n i n g i n h i s  t u t i o n has  In  has  on  been  M o d e r n s o c i e t i e s h a v e come t o r e g a r d a c h i l d ' s  behaviour  In  t o "be e n a c t e d  behaviour  acceptable behaviour  i t has  stating  of c h i l d The  i n conside-  care which  J u v e n i l e Court  f o r determining  pahas  whether p a r e n t a l  I f p a r e n t a l c a r e d o e s n o t meet i s deemed n e g l e c t e d and  the  society,  can waive the p a r e n t s ' r i g h t s  to  the  -  guardianship  of their  will  be  -  child.  t i v e p r o v i s i o n s f o r proper The  2  philosophy  The  c o u r t can  then  p a r e n t a l c a r e and  and  order  alterna-  guidance.  f u n c t i o n s of the J u v e n i l e Court  d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l  i n the remainder  of this  chap-  ter. M o d e r n s o c i e t i e s h a v e moved i n t o alist  or expert.  dual to r e l y t h i n g s out  There i s a tendency  on t h e  for himself.  T h i s tendency  t o the  care  from  of the  punishment o f c h i l d r e n .  The  of  o f c h i l d r e n and,  juvenile  fearful fect  and  delinquency, confused.  particularly, have l e f t  tainly,  p a r e n t s who  and  who  experience n o t h i n g but  the  expectations of a middle  expert*s  assumption  childish  of faulty  household  judging, treatment  on t h e  agreeable  people,  causes  feeling  and  and  overwhelmed by  their  own  culture,  are reasonably  the  some e f experts Cer-  p e r s o n a l problems t o conform  o f t e n welcome  for their  the  symptoms  children.  frustration i n trying  class  on  inadequate,  to l e t t i n g  "troublesome"  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  misbehaviour.  working  on e x p e r t s a p p l i e s  unqualified  parents  p a t h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s i n c h i l d r e n do p e r t s , most p a r e n t s  indivi-  T h e s e f e e l i n g s a p p e a r t o have h a d  t h e management o f t h e i r are  speci-  numerous a r t i c l e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n  i n making p a r e n t s r e a d i l y  undertake  to r e l y  to the  w r i t t e n i n p o p u l a r m a g a z i n e s , many by rearing  rather than  the r e p a i r i n g  s i c k and  e r a of the  on t h e p a r t o f t h e  opinions of s p e c i a l i s t s  i n many p h a s e s o f l i v i n g effects  the  children.  the Although  r e q u i r e the a t t e n t i o n of  competent t o d e a l w i t h  to  ex-  normal  -  3  -  Since the community, through the Juvenile Courts, has assumed considerable of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s which were formerly undertaken by the parent, what have been some of the implications for  the child?  Can the c h i l d and h i s parents understand the l e g i s -  l a t i o n establishing what i s non-acceptable behaviour or standards of c h i l d care?  Can the c h i l d and h i s parents comprehend the intent  and the proceedings of the Juvenile Court?  Are they capable of  taking f u l l advantage of those parts of the law and of h i s t o r i c a l j u d i c i a l process which are designed to protect t h e i r f a m i l i a l and personal i n t e r e s t s and rights?  In Juvenile Court actions, are the  services of a lawyer necessary to the c h i l d and h i s parents i n order to protect t h e i r l e g a l rights?  These are some of the questions  that w i l l be explored i n the l a t t e r part of t h i s chapter.  The Juvenile Court: (a)  The Child Faces Authority  Philosophy and Purpose of The Juvenile Court:  In  Canada, the f i r s t Juvenile Delinquents Act was passed i n 1908. The o r i g i n a l Act underwent some amendments which resulted i n the 1929 enactment now i n force.  Although the Juvenile Delinquents Act i s  a federal statute, the courts necessary to administer the Act are a provincial responsibility.  The Juvenile Delinquents Act i s , i n e f -  f e c t , permissive rather than d i r e c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n .  Implementing  l e g i s l a t i o n i s therefore necessary at the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i n order 1 to e s t a b l i s h Juvenile Courts. Discretion remains with the Johnston, J . C , "A Report on the Juvenile Court of Canada," American Journal of Corrections, January - February, 1959, p. 5.  - 4 -  provinces as to the c o n s t i t u t i o n of such courts. Section 38 of the Juvenile Delinquents Act states: This Act s h a l l be l i b e r a l l y construed to the end that i t s purpose may be carried out, namely, that the care, custody and d i s c i p l i n e of a juvenile delinquent s h a l l approximate as nearly as may be that which should be given by i t s parents and, that as f a r as practicable, every juvenile s h a l l be treated not as a criminal, but «. as a misdirected and misguided c h i l d and one needing a i d . A l l other provisions of the Act, such as closed t r i a l s , protection from p u b l i c i t y , the l a t i t u d e given to the judge i n disposing of a charge, are designed to give meaning to the philosophy  expressed  2  i n section 38. The Juvenile Court i s a socio-legal i n s t i t u t i o n establ i s h e d for the administration of j u s t i c e and the applications of sanctions on a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour. extends to children designated  In Canada, i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n  by p r o v i n c i a l law to be juveniles.  The juvenile age l i m i t i s either under sixteen years or years of age.  eighteen  The Juvenile Court, i n taking i t s place i n the j u -  d i c i a l system, i n h e r i t s i t s structures and processes from a long and substantial t r a d i t i o n of Anglo-Saxon When the Juvenile Court was  jurisprudence. f i r s t established, i t was  designed to protect the c h i l d from the harshness and s o c i a l r e t r i bution of criminal proceedings, including incarceration with mature offenders and a criminal record.  The Juvenile Court was  designed  to take into consideration the fact of limited c u l p a b i l i t y of  1952,  Canada, Laws Statutes etc., Revised Statutes of Canada, c. 160, Juvenile Delinquents Act, sec. 38. o Johnston, op. c i t . , p. 4.  - 5 -  children, t h e i r s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to deteriorating influences when mingled with older offenders and the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of r e d i r e c t i n g and a s s i s t i n g children as a preventative from l a t e r more serious offences.  With t h i s intent the scope of the Juvenile Court  d e l i b e r a t e l y made f l e x i b l e and wide.  The court now has  t i o n over such behaviour of children as "sexual " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y " and truancy. Court's j u r i s d i c t i o n was  This extension of the Juvenile  supposedly j u s t i f i e d because of the  pose has not been a l t e r e d .  This pur-  This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the fact that a l l  regardless of the alleged delinquency,  to be on behalf of the c h i l d , not as an adversary him,  jurisdic-  immorality",  court's intended restorative and protective functions.  proceedings,  was  are  intended  action against  as they would i n criminal court. The concept of protection includes the propriety of  court intervention on behalf of neglected children to furnish prot e c t i o n from s o c i a l conditions adversely a f f e c t i n g the c h i l d * normal development.  From the beginning,  the law pertaining to neglect was and exercise guardianship  that the state must intervene  over a c h i l d found i n such adverse s o c i a l  or i n d i v i d u a l conditions as may 2 justment.  the fundamental idea of  lead to a n t i - s o c i a l modes of ad-  The court can exercise authority and guardianship  the c h i l d , through i t s own personnel,  over  such as probation o f f i c e r s ,  Rubin, Sol, Crime and Juvenile Delinquency, Oceana Publ i c a t i o n s , Inc., New York, 1958, p. 58. p McCrea, T u l l y , "Juvenile Courts and Juvenile Probation", N. P. P. A. Journal, V o l . 3, No. 4, October, 1957, p. 386.  - 6 -  o r by  committing the  child  to  the  total  care  and  guardianship  1 of a  social  Children's  agency, Aid  s u c h as  Society.  a Department o f C h i l d W e l f a r e  The  child  or  t h e n becomes a ward o f  a  that  agency. The is  fundamental i d e a  justifying  r e f l e c t e d i n i t s purpose, which i s to  child  whose b e h a v i o u r o r c o n d i t i o n s  the  Juvenile  safeguard  of l i f e  give  and  Court  guide  the  evidence of  the  2 need f o r o f f i c i a l social  considerations  t i o n i s t o be order alized the  that  child  has  the  the  probation,  any  to  the  Juvenile  total  be  C o u r t has  c o u r t may  measure t h a t  l e g a l ones i f the  disposi-  of each c h i l d .  c a r r i e d out  In  on a n i n d i v i d u -  been g i v e n wide powers. or neglected,  power o v e r t h e  The  p u r p o s e demands p r i m a r i l y  conditions  child,  is felt  the  u n t i l he  make p r a c t i c a l l y  from a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour.  necessary  to  court  Once may  i s twenty-  any  plan  save or  S u c h a c t i o n s may  or  take  reclaim  include  r e m o v a l f r o m t h e home, o r i n c a r c e r a t i o n . The  Court i s not generally  than only  been found d e l i n q u e n t  y e a r s o f age.  child  This  s o c i a l purpose can  almost  practically  rather  appropriate  the  basis,  exercise one  intervention.  range o f d i s p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e to  l i m i t e d by  the  nature  i n criminal courts.  power i s e x e r c i s e d environment.  over the  o f the  offence,  Rubin stresses that  child  rather  the as the  Juvenile i s the  case  court's  than over h i s parents  Even i n cases i n c l u d i n g n e g l e c t ,  or  power i s e x p r e s s e d  1 Departments o f C h i l d W e l f a r e , f o r the purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s , s h a l l be u s e d t o r e f e r t o a l l C h i l d W e l f a r e B r a n c h e s o f p r o v i n c i a l D e p a r t m e n t s o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , o r t o any o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t a g e n c y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c a r e and p r o t e c t i o n o f children. T a p p a n , P a u l W., C r i m e , J u s t i c e and C o r r e c t i o n s , McGrawH i l l Book Company I n c . , New Y o r k , I 9 6 0 , p . 3 9 2 .  -  as c o n t r o l o v e r the  child,  7  -  a l t h o u g h the c h i l d  has  done n o t h i n g  1  i l l e g a l w h i c h s h o u l d b r i n g him With the the problem  o f how  court  and  system  by  court procedures  Due  arbitrary  In brief,  imposed  observance due  which take i n t o  and w h i c h s a f e g u a r d him be  comes  protec-  c u r t a i l m e n t o r s u p e r v i s i o n by  the l i m i t a t i o n s  l e g a l process w i l l  rights  I n c r i m i n a l c o u r t , the defendant  t h e more s t r i c t  l e g a l process.  rights  i s to have h i s c i v i l  of d i f f e r e n t i a l penalties related  o f f e n c e and due  child  i t s officials.  some p r o t e c t i o n by a  e n l a r g e d powers o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t  the  ted against possible  into a court.  from  enjoys  on t h e c o u r t ' s power to the nature of r u l e s which  l e g a l p r o c e s s i s the account  the  discussed i n detail  the  support  established  the defendant's  arbitrariness  of  by  legal  o f the c o u r t .  later i n this  chap-  ter. I n c o n c l u d i n g h i s c h a p t e r on Rubin  the J u v e n i l e Court,  Sol  states: E x i s t i n g l e g a l p r o v i s i o n s r e l a t i n g to d e t e n t i o n , procedure and d i s p o s i t i o n h a v e g i v e n u n u s u a l powers t o t h e c o u r t . Are they balanced w i t h p r o v i s i o n s to p r o t e c t the c h i l d ' s and h i s p a r e n t ' s r i g h t s ? Improvements may w e l l come f r o m a d d i t i o n a l p r o t e c t i v e p r o v i s i o n s , even i f - perhaps bec a u s e - t h e y l i m i t t h e power o f t h e c o u r t more t h a n a t present. The  J u v e n i l e Court i s both a l e g a l  cerned w i t h the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f j u s t i c e concerned  w i t h r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and  Rubin,  op.  cit.,  Ibid.,  p.  72.  p.  58.  and  institution a social  con-  institution  t h e c o n s e r v i n g o f human v a l u e s .  - 8 -  These two functions are not incompatible  but complementary.  In  order that the s o c i a l purpose of the Juvenile Court may be f u l f i l l e d , the highest order of j u d i c i a l process must be adhered to, observed, and the basic l e g a l r i g h t s of the i n d i v i d u a l ensured. I f a c h i l d ' s r i g h t s are not protected, the court exercises despotic power over the c h i l d : Naked power, however well intentioned, i s despotism; despotism, however benevolent i t s agent may believe himself to be, rapes the dignity of man and v i o l a t e s every concept of equality and r i g h t . Part of the function of defence counsel i s to ensure that the court's power i s balanced by the observation of due l e g a l process and the regard of the defendent's l e g a l r i g h t s . Although the basic philosophy and purpose of the Juveni l e Court has become f a i r l y widely accepted  i n western s o c i e t i e s ,  there i s no clear agreement as to the age of children and the range of behaviour over which t h i s court should have j u r i s d i c t i o n .  In  North America the maximum age j u r i s d i c t i o n of Juvenile Courts varies from 14 to 21 years.  In some j u r i s d i c t i o n s the maximum age  i s d i f f e r e n t f o r boys and g i r l s .  In some areas the Juvenile Court  has exclusive j u r i s d i c t i o n over a l l offences that could bring a c h i l d into criminal court; i n other areas, i t s j u r i s d i c t i o n does 2  not include c e r t a i n serious offences.  The detailed j u r i s d i c t i o n  Port, William S., "The Juvenile Court Examines I t s e l f " , N. P. P. A. Journal, October, 1959, p. 405. Tappan, op. c i t . , p. 389.  - 9-  of the J u v e n i l e Court  i n Canada w i l l  be d i s c u s s e d  later  i n this  chapter. (b) R o l e child  appears before  and F u n c t i o n o f Court the J u v e n i l e Court  he may come i n c o n t a c t w i t h the  judge.  These may i n c l u d e p o l i c e  prosecutor, separate  probation officer  role  of the p o l i c e and  it  charged w i t h  of personnel (usually prior  and d e f e n c e  i s t o gather  officer  evidence  counsel,  concerning  a  delinquency  to court), each h a v i n g  a  The f u n c t i o n  the alleged  and apprehend t h e a l l e g e d o f f e n d e r . i s neutral, soliciting  When a  i n addition to  and f u n c t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e c h i l d .  to i d e n t i f y  police  a variety  Personnel:  offence  I n theory, the  r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n whether  tends t o weigh f o r o r a g a i n s t the c h i l d . The  prosecutor's  function i s :  To p r e s e n t e v i d e n c e t e n d i n g t o show g u i l t t h a t i s l e g a l l y a v a i l a b l e a n d n o t t o c o n c e a l e v i d e n c e o f i n n o c e n c e .... I t i s not the task o f the prosecutor t o uncover a l l e v i d e n c e o n b o t h s i d e s , n o r does he do s o . 1  The the  s o c i a l purpose o f the c o u r t .  analyse and  personal  other  ment. the  function of the probation o f f i c e r  social  of his total  On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s  court i n a pre-sentence  pected fective  to help  H i s f u n c t i o n i s t o s o l i c i t and  information concerning  p e r t i n e n t areas  life  the child,  history  h i s home  and e n v i r o n -  i n f o r m a t i o n , w h i c h may be p r e s e n t e d t o report, the probation  the court decide  d i s p o s i t i o n designed  i s related to  what i s l i k e l y  t o guide  Tappan, o p . c i t . , p . 3 4 3 .  officer  i s ex-  t o be t h e most e f -  the delinquent  to a pattern  - 10 -  of normal s o c i a l l i v i n g . the added r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  The probation o f f i c e r i s often given of supervising and carrying on s o c i a l 2  treatment with the delinquent and f o r h i s family. Although probation o f f i c e r s are not required to be s o c i a l workers, and often are not, the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained s o c i a l worker appears to be s p e c i f i c a l l y q u a l i f i e d to carry out the functions of the probation o f f i c e r . s k i l l s i n interviewing  The s o c i a l worker has  and knowledge of the dynamics of human be-  haviour and family i n t e r a c t i o n which he can use to s o l i c i t and analyze information concerning the c h i l d and h i s home. h i s understanding  of environmental  Because of  forces on the development and be-  haviour of the c h i l d and h i s awareness of the extent and use of community resources, the s o c i a l worker i s competent to help the court design an i n d i v i d u a l treatment  plan f o r the delinquent.  The s o c i a l  worker also has knowledge and s k i l l i n the use of the casework method which equips him to carry out the probation o f f i c e r ' s funct i o n of s o c i a l treatment with the delinquent and h i s family. The judge i s the o f f i c i a l who presides over the Juvenile Court.  In delinquency proceedings h i s function i s to s i f t  evidence  presented by the prosecutor, the defendant and by witnesses.  He  then decides, on the basis of the Juvenile Delinquents Act and the information before the court, whether the c h i l d has committed a delinquency and comes under the authority of the court.  I f the c h i l d  Silverman, Edgar, "Lawyers and Social Workers i n Juvenile Proceedings", Crime and Delinquency, V o l . 6, Uo. 3, July, I960, p. 264. 2  I*>-a«i P- 265.  - l l -  i s found to be delinquent,  the judge must also make a d i s p o s i t i o n .  He must weigh information presented to the court concerning  the  c h i l d and h i s s o c i a l conditions and decide what form of intervent i o n , i f any, i s needed.  In doing t h i s , the judge may  use  infor-  mation presented by the probation o f f i c e r or other persons, but he c a r r i e s sole o f f i c i a l authority and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r determining 1  the course of action. While the function of the probation o f f i c e r i n d e l i n quency proceedings i s related to the s o c i a l purpose of the Juvenile Court, the function of defence counsel stems from the fact that the Juvenile Court i s a court of law concerned with the of j u s t i c e .  administration  The function of defence counsel i s to ensure that the  defendant i s afforded a l l legitimate protection under the law,  that  due l e g a l process i s observed i n the court, and that the l e g a l r i g h t s and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s of the defendant are not  jeopardized.  He also has the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of helping the c h i l d understand the l e g a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of the charge and of advising the c h i l d how explain his behaviour to the court i n the most accurate and able manner.  Counsel i s responsible for ensuring that  to  favour-  information  2  i n favour of the c h i l d i s brought to l i g h t .  Only the defence coun-  s e l i s charged with the s p e c i f i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of carrying out these duties, which are separate and d i s t i n c t from those of p o l i c e , N.  Eastman, Harry L., "The Juvenile Court Judge's Job," P . P _. A . Journal, V o l . 4, No. 4, October, 1959, p. 418. , Silverman, op. c i t . , p. 2 6 2 .  -  j u d g e and  probation The  tation and ved.  o f the c h i l d ' s  I f the  must n o t liar sions  roles  t h a t "due  f o c u s i s on  Court not  slightly  lawyer,  rights,  also  been observed  a barrister,  earlier  only i n delinquency  solicit  The and  To b e g i n w i t h ,  proceedings,  but  also i n  In neglect proceedings,  the  times  information concerning neglect  presented  t o t h e c o u r t by  agency,  s o c i a l worker i n such present  provi-  t h a t c h i l d r e n appear i n  or Departments of C h i l d Welfare,  prosecutor.  fami-  preferably, with  f u n c t i o n s o f the v a r i o u s c o u r t p e r s o n n e l are at different.  he  Act.  workers r e p r e s e n t i n g a c h i l d - c a r i n g  and  but  g e n e r a l l y and,  i s most f r e q u e n t l y o b t a i n e d and  Societies  interpre-  h i s f u n c t i o n competently,  or p r o t e c t i o n p r o c e e d i n g s .  and  legal  l e g a l process" i s scrupulously obser-  a qualified  has  the  the p r o t e c t i o n of l e g a l  Juvenile Delinquents It  neglect  behaviour,  j u d i c i a l process  o f the  Juvenile  counsel's  counsel i s to f u l f i l l  o n l y be  with  -  officer.  defence  the insurance  12  such as  social  Children's Aid  r a t h e r t h a n by p o l i c e  situations  or  s h o u l d be n e u t r a l  i n f o r m a t i o n which both tends  to prove  and  disprove neglect. In neglect proceedings, t a k e s no neglected  p a r t i n the and  agency.  court proceedings.  i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n , the  responsibility the c h i l d  the  f o r making d e t a i l e d  to the  total  P l a n s f o r the  agency, without  c a r e and child  referral  court probation If a child  officer  i s found  c o u r t d o e s not, t a k e  p l a n s f o r the  guardianship  a r e t h e n made by  child,  of the the  but  to the  commits  child-caring  staff  be  of that  to the c o u r t f o r approval or s a n c t i o n .  - 13 -  In neglect proceedings, the judge's function i s b a s i c a l l y the same as i n delinquency proceedings.  He must s i f t  evi-  dence presented t o the court by the s o c i a l workers, the parents or guardians and relevant witnesses.  In l i g h t of t h i s information and  on the basis of statutes dealing with the protection of children, he must decide whether the c h i l d i s i n "need of care and protection". I f the c h i l d i s i n need of care and protection, the judge waives the parents' r i g h t s to guardianship and awards the guardianship tempor a r i l y or permanently t o the child-caring agency.  The judge does  not have the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of making future plans f o r the c h i l d . The function of defence counsel i n neglect proceedings i s b a s i c a l l y the same as i n delinquency proceedings, except that his  focus i s on protecting the parents' l e g a l r i g h t s as c i t i z e n s .  Defence counsel's task i s to see that parents' c i v i l r i g h t s , i n c l u ding the r i g h t to due l e g a l process, are not s a c r i f i c e d f o r any presumed s o c i a l benefit, regardless of whether they have been neglectf u l of t h e i r c h i l d .  Present Structure and Functioning of Juvenile Courts i n Canada The Juvenile Delinquents Act states that the Juvenile 1  Court s h a l l have j u r i s d i c t i o n over every c h i l d under the age of 16 who v i o l a t e s any provision of the Criminal Code, or any by-law or ordinance of any municipality, or who i s g u i l t y of sexual immorality or any similar form of v i c e .  1952,  Canada, laws Statutes etc., Revised Statutes of Canada, c. 160, Juvenile Delinquents Act, sec. 2, s.s. l ( a ) . ^ Ibid•>  s e c  * » ' 2  s  3 ,  l(b)«  - 14 -  The Act also gives the provinces the power to r a i s e the maximum 1  juvenile age l i m i t to under 18.  This has been done i n B r i t i s h p  Columbia, Quebec, and for g i r l s i n Manitoba and Alberta.  However,  the Act also gives the Juvenile Court Judge power to transfer to criminal court any c h i l d of 14 years or older, who  i s charged with  3  an i n d i c t a b l e offence.  In effect, the c h i l d i s thus proceeded  against as though he were an adult.  On conviction, he i s subject  to the same penalties and sanctions as an adult. The Act states that transfer should be made only when: The court i s of the opinion that the good of the c h i l d and the i n t e r e s t s of the community demand i t . " 4  In order to be a Juvenile Court, i n other than name, such a court must have adequate resources pertinent to i t s special tasks. These should include properly q u a l i f i e d personnel, separate court and detention f a c i l i t i e s and a wide array of community r e 5 sources.  Without either adequate personnel', f a c i l i t i e s or resour-  ces, a court designated  as a Juvenile Court cannot adequately carry  out i t s function as defined by l e g i s l a t i o n . In Canada, separate Juvenile Courts have been established only i n major c i t i e s .  In other areas, judges and magistrates  of  Canada, Juvenile Delinquents Act, op. c i t . , sec. 2, s.s. 2(a). 2  Pepler, E., "The Juvenile Delinquents Act, 1929," Yearbook of the Canadian Bar Association, 1952, p. 190. Canada, Juvenile Delinquents Act, op. c i t . , sec. 9, s.s. 1. 4 Ibid., sec. 9, s.s. 1. 5 National Probation and Parole Association, "Standard Juven i l e Court Act," N. P. P. A. Journal, Vol. 5, no. 4, October, 1959, p. 387.  - 15 -  criminal courts also s i t as judges of the Juvenile Court.  In  B r i t i s h Columbia, only Vancouver has a separate Juvenile Court, with f u l l - t i m e judges and probation s t a f f and separate detention f a c i l i t i e s , except f o r the City of V i c t o r i a which does have detention f a c i l i t i e s .  Outside the City of Vancouver, not only are  there no f u l l - t i m e Juvenile Courts, but the judges or magistrates who hear the juveniles' cases have no professional q u a l i f i c a t i o n s either i n law or i n any other relevant d i s c i p l i n e .  The Attorney  General of B r i t i s h Columbia i s quoted as stating that, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, only 46 out of 206 magistrates are professionally q u a l i 1  f i e d , and these are mostly i n the metropolitan areas.  I f the  ma-  gistrates who hear juvenile cases as judges of the Juvenile Court are not professionally q u a l i f i e d , they cannot be expected to i n t e r pret and apply the law f u l l y or accurately as i t pertains to juven i l e delinquency, nor can they f u l l y comprehend and observe l e g a l process.  due  This can r e s u l t i n the judge unintentionally cur-  t a i l i n g the juvenile's l e g a l r i g h t s and c i v i l l i b e r t i e s and misusing the wide powers of the Juvenile Court. Outside of major c i t i e s , the police frequently function as prosecutors.  At times they confuse t h e i r functions by seeking  and presenting to the court only such information as tends to est a b l i s h the g u i l t of the c h i l d .  Similarly i n neglect cases, s o c i a l  workers i n child-caring agencies frequently confuse t h e i r function  "Court B i l l Wins Opposition Praise", The Vancouver Sun, March 12, 1962, p. 13.  - 16 -  and  solicit  Since they  and p r e s e n t  the judges  only i n f o r m a t i o n which suggests  i n these  frequently accept,  the p o l i c e  neglect.  a r e a s u s u a l l y do n o t h a v e l e g a l  without  training,  q u e s t i o n , the i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n by  o r t h e s o c i a l worker.  I n delinquency  proceedings, the  j u d g e may a u t o m a t i c a l l y a g r e e t o s u g g e s t i o n s made by t h e p o l i c e i n disposing  of the c h i l d .  T h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s may f r e q u e n t l y a r i s e  from p u n i t i v e d e s i r e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f expediency from o b j e c t i v i t y  than  and a d e s i r e f o r t h e r e c l a m a t i o n o f t h e c h i l d .  I n o u t l y i n g areas, with professional training. probation officers bia,  rather  t h e r e a r e few p r o b a t i o n  I n many j u r i s d i c t i o n s ,  serving the J u v e n i l e Court.  the Probation Service o f the Attorney  d o e s make p r e - s e n t e n c e  to obtain a pre-sentence  t h e r e a r e no  In British  General's  r e p o r t s f o r J u v e n i l e Courts  However, i n t h e o u t l y i n g a r e a s ,  officers  Colum-  Department  i n many  cases.  i t i s n o t mandatory f o r t h e c o u r t  report.  I n the absence o f p r o b a t i o n  offi-  c e r s o r when p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s h a v e no p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g , t h e court  i s o f t e n unable  plans  f o r the e f f e c t i v e It  venile child  Courts  social  a t o r carry out t r u l y treatment  that defence  counsel  appropriate  o f the c h i l d .  appears from d i s c u s s i o n w i t h  or h i s parents.  responsible rights  to arrive  those  involved with J u -  s e l d o m a p p e a r s on b e h a l f o f t h e  T h i s means t h a t t h e r e i s no-one  f o r seeing that the c h i l d ' s  specifically  and h i s p a r e n t s '  legal  a r e safeguarded. I n a g r e a t many o u t l y i n g a r e a s ,  C o u r t s " have none o f t h e u n i q u e Juvenile  Court,  so-called  qualifications  y e t they m a i n t a i n  "Juvenile  or resources  t h e wide l a t i t u d e  of  of a  procedures  - 17 -  and  w i d e powers o f d i s p o s i t i o n .  This too often r e s u l t s  i n unjust  and h i s p a r e n t s * l e g a l r i g h t s  and c i v i l  violations  o f the c h i l d ' s  liberties,  and t h e i n a p p r o p r i a t e and u n n e c e s s a r y  the l i f e  of the c h i l d If  if  the J u v e n i l e Court i s d e f i c i e n t  functions,  has  and r e h a b i l i t a t i v e  civil  purpose.  t o perform  to the juvenile  tices  f r e q u e n t l y aggravate  tends  to confirm the c h i l d ' s  nor to carry  out i t s p r o t e c -  I n delinquency proceedings,  i n t h e name o f " s o c i a l the child's sense  social  or delinquent behaviour.  result  i n the c h i l d  treatment".  original  of justification i n his  I n neglect proceedings,  on t h e b a s i s o f " h e a r s a y "  d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h may r e s u l t  parent-child  The of  Such p r a c -  d i f f i c u l t i e s and anti-  this can  from  from  evidence.  c i a l w o r k e r s a r e w e l l aware o f t h e d e t r i m e n t a l e f f e c t s sonality  this  adminis-  b e i n g u n n e c e s s a r i l y and u n j u s t l y removed  home, a s f o r example,  their  i s n e i t h e r competent t o  l e d t o u n j u s t c o n v i c t i o n s and s e v e r e p u n i s h m e n t b e i n g  tered  his  rights,  i n personnel, or  qualified  the J u v e n i l e Court  safeguard the j u v e n i l e ' s tive  into  and h i s f a m i l y .  the personnel are not p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  respective  intervention  So-  on the p e r -  the severing o f the  relationships.  S o c i a l W o r k e r ' s and t h e L a w y e r ' s C o n c e r n  with theA d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Justice The  primary  concern o f the lawyer  i s with the i n t e r -  p r e t a t i o n a n d a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e v a s t amounts o f common and s t a t u t e law  accumulated  through  a s t h e y may be a f f e c t e d  the centuries. by t h e l a w .  He i s c o n c e r n e d  with  people  By t r a d i t i o n a n d t r a i n i n g , t h e  -  18 -  lawyer i s concerned w i t h t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s ' r i g h t s and civil  liberties The  tioning  concern o f t h e s o c i a l worker i s the s o c i a l  of the i n d i v i d u a l .  dividual's and  a s e s t a b l i s h e d by common a n d s t a t u t e l a w .  social  welfare.  The s o c i a l w o r k e r r e a l i z e s t h a t  functioning i s influenced  l a w s , b u t may f i n d  himself  e f f e c t s upon t h e person's t o t a l w e l f a r e For British  centuries,  technicalities of  concerned with  and s o c i a l  the courts.  the  even s i n c e  centuries,  or property.  l e g a l procedures,  functioning.  t o due l e g a l  Due l e g a l p r o c e s s h a s e v o l v e d , the signing  s u r e t h a t no one i s a r b i t r a r i l y liberty  their  one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t s o f  j u s t i c e has been t h a t a p e r s o n i s e n t i t l e d  process within  the i n -  by h i s t o t a l s i t u a t i o n  He i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e l e g a l  common o r s t a t u t e  func-  o f t h e Magna O h a r t a , t o e n -  or c a p r i c i o u s l y deprived  Due l e g a l p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s  as e s t a b l i s h e d  through  that  of l i f e ,  customary  b y common l a w and s t a t u t e f o r  •i bringing  an accused  to t r i a l ,  be o b s e r v e d .  These p r o c e d u r e s i n -  clude : That a p e r s o n s h a l l r e c e i v e n o t i c e o f charges, s h a l l h a v e a h e a r i n g o r t r i a l , s h a l l have a n o p p o r t u n i t y t o see and examine t h o s e who a r e c o m p l a i n i n g a g a i n s t h i m and be r e n d e r e d a n i m p a r t i a l d e c i s i o n b a s e d on t h e merits o f the case. Due l e g a l p r o c e s s a l s o demands t h a t t h e t r i a l o f t h e a c c u s e d p r o c e e d by e s t a b l i s h e d r u l e s o f e v i d e n c e , and o n t h e  L u s k , H a r o l d S., " C r i m i n a l Law", C o l l i e r ' s Encyclopedia, P. E . C o l l i e r a n d S o n C o r p o r a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1 9 5 9 , v o l . 6 , p . 1 1 3 . 2  F i e l d , O l i v e r P e t e r , "Due P r o c e s s o f Law", C o l l i e r ' s E n c y c l o p e d i a , op. c i t . , v o l . 6 , p. 5 9 5 .  - 19 -  presumption of innocence u n t i l g u i l t i s established by evidence "beyond reasonable doubt". The lawyer and the s o c i a l worker are both concerned that due l e g a l process be observed i n order to afford the f u l l e s t legitimate protection to the i n d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e , l i b e r t y and property. gal  The lawyer i s e t h i c a l l y responsible to ensure that due l e -  process, i n a l l i t s l e g a l t e c h n i c a l i t i e s , be f u l f i l l e d i n order  that c i v i l l i b e r t i e s are not abrogated.  The s o c i a l worker should  be concerned that due l e g a l process i s ensured because of the adverse e f f e c t i t s v i o l a t i o n might have on the individual's welfare, sense of human dignity and on h i s s o c i a l functioning. for  Therefore,  the s o c i a l worker, the guaranteeing of l e g a l r i g h t s becomes as  s i g n i f i c a n t as guaranteeing food and shelter. In Juvenile Court, there appear to be many common pract i c e s which v i o l a t e or disregard due l e g a l process and the juvenile's legal rights. One of the most flagrant ways i n which due l e g a l process i s suspended i s by the denial of the presumption of innocence. Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence maintains that a person i s deemed innocent unless h i s g u i l t i s established by j u d i c i a l process, "beyond reasonable doubt".  The defendant i s to enjoy the benefit of any  "reasonable doubt" introduced into the t r i a l .  Yet, i n Juvenile  Court practice, a c h i l d may be judged delinquent or neglected on 2  the basis of a "preponderance  of evidence", even hearsay evidence.  1  Lusk, op. c i t . , p. 114• Rubin, Sol, Crime and Juvenile Delinquency, Oceana P u b l i cations, Inc., New York, 1958, p. 55.  - 20 -  T h i s has t h e e f f e c t  o f denying  the  law.  the  court, or of child-caring  subjected  agencies,  r e p o r t s r a t h e r than  t o the safeguards  protection of  provided  on t h e b a s i s o f s u b j e c t i v e on t h e b a s i s o f e v i d e n c e  b y due l e g a l p r o c e s s .  Society  be a b l e t o u s e a u t h o r i t a t i v e s o c i a l i n t e r v e n t i o n o n l y b y due  l e g a l process,  n o t by a r b i t r a r y  "who i s t o p r o t e c t t h e c h i l d saviors?" regard  the f u l l  I t o f t e n makes t h e j u v e n i l e s u b j e c t t o t h e a u t h o r i t y o f  o p i n i o n and h e a r s a y  should  the c h i l d  o r c a p r i c i o u s means.  from r a v a g i n g  Otherwise,  benefactions  of h i s  T h i s a u t h o r i t a t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n by t h e c o u r t  t o due l e g a l p r o c e s s  denies  t h e w o r t h and d i g n i t y  without o f the  individual. The rance  o f evidence,  evidence, declared dict and  o f a j u v e n i l e as delinquent  on a preponde-  w h i c h may i n c l u d e , i n p a r t o r i n t o t a l ,  can improperly delinquent.  and i l l e g a l l y  The c h i l d ,  result  consequently  may s u f f e r  n e v e r t h e l e s s , may a c c e p t  to the c h i l d  identifying with  imposed r e f e r e n c e  behaviour.  loss  being the ver-  outcast  of self-respect.  the delinquent  group, This  expectations of  g r o u p and t o h i s a s s u m i n g t h e i r a t t i t u d e s a n d  When t h i s h a p p e n s , c o n d i t i o n s f a v o u r i n g j u v e n i l e d e l i n -  quency a r e f o s t e r e d w h i l e directions  critical  hearsay  i n the c h i l d  a n d p e r c e i v e h i m s e l f a s a member o f a s o c i a l l y  leads his  judging  t o curb The  simultaneous  and p r e v e n t  finding  efforts  a r e made i n o t h e r  i t s expression.  that a child  i s neglected  and t h e r e f o r e i n  H e n n i n g s , Thomas, "The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e J u v e n i l e System", F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , June, 1 9 5 9 , p. 7 .  Court  - 21 -  need o f care evidence, home.  can s t i l l  The u n j u s t  disregard cial  and p r o t e c t i o n ,  e v e n on a p r e p o n d e r a n c e o f hearsay-  r e s u l t i n the child  and f o r c e d  being  removed f r o m h i s  disintegration of family  o f due l e g a l p r o c e s s ,  life  can a r r e s t the c h i l d ' s normal s o -  growth. T h e r e i s a n o t h e r common J u v e n i l e  Court p r a c t i c e  d e n i e s t h e j u v e n i l e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f due l e g a l p r o c e s s . the  by a  p r a c t i c e of conducting a pre-court  social  which  This i s  investigation  before 1  the is  j u v e n i l e has been brought a f l a g r a n t subversion  actually  w h i c h may  being  found d e l i n q u e n t .  the  later  Because o f the supposed  a r e , at times, presented contribute  In neglect  o f t e n based  intent  the Juvenile that  proceedings,  court. criminal  reports  s o l e l y on h e a r s a y  complaints  to findings of neglect.  common p r a c t i c e i n t h e J u v e n i l e  Court, has e s t a b l i s h e d  the c h i l d  to the  to the c h i l d un-  transfer of the juvenile to criminal court.  lishing  which  p r o v e t o be s e l f - i n c r i m i n a t i n g .  s e l f - i n c r i m i n a t i n g statements, lead Another very  Here  t h e j u v e n i l e and h i s p a r e n t s  e v i d e n c e , w h i c h may  from c h i l d - c a r i n g agencies, and  officer,  investigations reports  as hearsay  justly  o f the "presumption o f innocence"  o f the probation  information  Pre-court court  and judged d e l i n q u e n t .  suggests a presumption o f g u i l t .  authority divulge  to t r i a l  Society,  Court i s by  estab-  a n d h a s made known i t s  i s t o be d e a l t w i t h b y t h i s  special kind of  The l e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t r a n s f e r o f j u v e n i l e s t o court  clearly  states that  t h i s must be done o n l y when i t  G r a c e , A l i c e M., P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e s f o r D e l i n q u e n t G i r l s , M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1 9 4 9 , p. 4 .  - 22  is  i n the b e s t i n t e r e s t s  judges and  often transfer  o f the c h i l d  juveniles  usually unstated reasons.  minal  c o u r t i s made w i t h o u t  venile  -  from  or the  community.  J u v e n i l e Court  When t r a n s f e r  strict  However,  for  of a juvenile  r e g a r d to the i n t e n t  D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , i t becomes a n  expedient  and  basic  c a r e and  legal rights  hearing  and  p r o t e c t i o n of c h i l d r e n .  o f the  use  of non-specific  as " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y "  These c h a r g e s  f r e q u e n t l y by  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by child sult  to produce i n the  delinquent  child  are l a i d  charges  any  being brought  the  presents  civil  such court  c h i l d ' s parents or  agencies  Incorrigibility into  t h e community. charges  guardian, The  i m p o s s i b l e f o r the charges  usually be  law,  re-  found nor  anti-  special o f f i c i a l  ac-  Often, r a t h e r than i n d i c a t i n g pathology arise  the c h i l d ' s needs,  welfare resources.  the  subjective  c o u r t where he may  w h i c h t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d r e q u i r e no  these  of  a g a i n s t t h e i r wards. of  such  special  liberties  f o r b e h a v i o u r w h i c h i s n e i t h e r a g a i n s t any  t i o n hy  child  legisla-  to a closed  a l l o w s f o r a wide range  defence.  and  meeting  by  and  the c o u r t , making i t almost  social,  the c h i l d ,  me-  i n J u v e n i l e Court,  control",  the l e g a l r i g h t s  child-caring  vagueness o f these  charges  o r " b e i n g beyond  problems i n p r o t e c t i n g  and  Ju-  arbitrary  This violates  as the r i g h t  cri-  the absence o f a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d . The  child.  juvenile  to  of the  t h o d o f s e t t i n g a s i d e a l l s p e c i a l p r o v i s i o n s i n t e n d e d by t i o n f o r the  subjective  out o f the p a r e n t s ' inadequacy  o r o u t o f t h e n e e d f o r more and However, e v e n when t h e s e c h a r g e s  Canada, J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , op.  cit.,  in  in  better are  sec. 9 ,  laid  s.s.  1.  -  because for  o f inadequate  23  parents  -  or welfare resources,  t h e c h i l d may be c o n s i d e r a b l e .  result  charges  i n t h e c h i l d ' s r e m o v a l f r o m h i s home o r f r o m f o s t e r  i n h i s incarceration. mitted  Incorrigibility  the consequence  to the G i r l s '  In British Industrial  usually c a r e and  C o l u m b i a , 48$ o f t h e g i r l s  School  com-  i n I960 were c o m m i t t e d o n  1 this  charge.  Most o f t h e c h i l d r e n a p p e a r i n g  are i n need o f guidance  on i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y  and p r o t e c t i o n , b u t t h e y  should  n o t be  branded d e l i n q u e n t i n order to r e c e i v e t h i s . Rubin s t a t e s : The s u r v i v a l o f t h e s e n o n - s p e c i f i c c h a r g e s a r e a n a n c i e n t and a r c h a i c p r o v i s i o n . J u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y f o r s u c h a c t i v i t i e s c a n be q u e s t i o n e d . 2  The  s o c i a l worker i s n o t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  about the l e g a l legal nile. these  process  technicalities  and s a f e g u a r d i n g  He s h o u l d affect  be c o n c e r n e d ,  the welfare  of the J u v e n i l e Court. authority  of society.  i n v o l v e d i n t h e s e c u r i n g o f due legal rights  o f the c h i l d To t h e c h i l d ,  the court represents the  The c h i l d may be f e a r f u l  and  punitive.  suspicion.  t h e manner i n w h i c h  and t h e s o c i a l e f f e c t i v e n e s s  may be s u s p i c i o u s t h a t i t i s g o i n g  curtailed  on b e h a l f o f t h e j u v e -  however, w i t h  and  be  knowledgeable  I f the c h i l d ' s r i g h t s  by t h e c o u r t , t h i s w i l l T h i s c a n be e x p e c t e d  of t h i s authority  t o be d e s p o t i c ,  are violated serve  arbitrary  o r even appear t o  t o c o n f i r m o r deepen h i s  to increase h i s h o s t i l i t y  toward  society.  1  Welfare,  B r i t i s h Columbia, A n n u a l Report, Department V i c t o r i a , Queen's P r i n t e r s , 1961. p . 70.  2  Rubin,  op. c i t . , p . 64.  of Social  -  24 -  N o t h i n g r a n k l e s more i n t h e human h e a r t t h a n a b r o o d i n g sense o f i n j u s t i c e . I l l n e s s we c a n p u t up w i t h , b u t i n j u s t i c e makes u s want t o p u l l t h i n g s down.' The  j u v e n i l e may r e t a l i a t e w i t h a n t i - s o c i a l a c t s s i n c e h i s p r o b -  l e m s , i f a n y , w i t h a u t h o r i t y have b e e n a g g r a v a t e d . ving  the proper  effort  legal  safeguards  o f due l e g a l p r o c e s s ,  i s made t o p r o t e c t t h e c h i l d  and h i s i n t e r e s t s ,  t e r w i t h t h e c o u r t c o u l d be a b e n e f i c i a l The lish  probation officer  feels  his hostility establish a child  i s expected  t o he a b l e t o e s t a b -  frustrate  Juvenile  Yet, i f the de-  the probation o f f i c e r ' s  a relationship.  The c o u r t c a n n o t  a s l o n g a s he f e e l s he h a s b e e n e x p l o i t e d  This r e s u l t s  and p r e v e n t s  the f u l f i l l m e n t  attempt t o  effectively  help  o r m i s u s e d by i t .  i n a f r u s t r a t i o n o f the s o c i a l treatment  Court  h i s encoun-  t h a t h i s p e r s o n a l r i g h t s have n o t b e e n r e s p e c t e d , will  such  an obvious  experience with a u t h o r i t y .  a helping r e l a t i o n s h i p with the delinquent.  linquent  I f , by o b s e r -  aim o f t h e  o f i t s intended  pur-  pose . If  adequate  legal  safeguards,  fence  counsel, are not maintained  vital  i n t e r e s t s may be v i o l a t e d ,  long-term,  wide r a n g i n g r e s u l t s  When a c h i l d  i s removed f r o m  i n c l u d i n g t h e use o f de-  i n J u v e n i l e Court, both l e g a l l y  f o r the c h i l d  the child''s  and s o c i a l l y ,  a n d t h e community.  h i s home, e i t h e r a s a r e s u l t  quency o r n e g l e c t p r o c e e d i n g s ,  he i s l i k e l y  with  of delin-  to face the devestating  prospects o f being i n c a r c e r a t e d i n an i n d u s t r i a l  school or of being  1  S m i t h , R e g i n a l d H., c i t e d i n B r o w n e l l , Emery A., L e g a l A i d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , The L a w y e r ' s C o - o p e r a t i v e P u b l i s h i n g Co., R o c h e s t e r , New Y o r k , 1951, I n t r o d u c t i o n , p . x i i i .  -  25  s h u n t e d f r o m one  f o s t e r home t o  fully  agencies  aware t h a t  standard quently  -  another.  S o c i a l workers are  s i m p l y have n o t  secured  f o s t e r homes, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r o l d e r the  c h i l d who  sufficient high  children.  feels repeatedly rejected,  pain-  Too  fre-  "by "being removed  f r o m f o s t e r home a f t e r f o s t e r home, becomes e i t h e r r e b e l l i o u s severely  mentally disturbed.  In  h i m s e l f p r o c e e d i n g t h r o u g h the or  either  court  to  c a s e , he an  may  or  readily  i n s t i t u t i o n of  find  one  type  another. The  effects  on  arising  from i n c a r c e r a t i o n  A  percentage  large  m i n a l c a r e e r s and  of  the  i n an  a life  much o f  forget  that  quency o r ner  any  for neglect,  i n w h i c h the  a profound  the  that  as  be  a  Adequate rights  of  the  try  improve h i s  and  on  as  sense of  adults  to r e q u i r e  known. to  the  f o c a l point  w i t h by  the  i n his  life.  Juvenile  agencies  criminal,  o r as  as  l e g a l or  manhave  a socially  The  court,  demo-  cost  to  i n terms  of  measured. account  c a n n o t deny a c h i l d ' s  individual his rights,  The  a p e r s o n so  i s impossible.  s a f e g u a r d s i n the  delin-  C o u r t may  subsequent l i f e  s e l f - w o r t h and  cri-  hospitalization  child-caring  s o c i a l p l a n n i n g must t a k e i n t o One  well  of penal i n s t i t u t i o n s .  u n h a p p i n e s s c a n n o t be  individual.  behaviour  appearance, whether i t i s f o r a  confirmed  inadequate l e g a l  as  go  c o u r t s and  normal s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g  social dysfunctioning  D e n y i n g an  court  child i s dealt  adult,  c h i l d of  to  O f t e n the  can  out  disturbed  e f f e c t i n determining his  responsible ralized  child's  children  s p e n t i n and  their lives.  d e v e l o p m e n t and  i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l are  incarcerated  Many more become so m e n t a l l y for  child's  rights  the and  then  social responsibility. otherwise,  is  - 26 -  i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t r e a t m e n t aimed a t and  of  mal  safeguards i n juvenile  r e l a t i o n to himself  and  s o c i a l requirements.  does not  understand  the  l e g a l process, nor  juvenile's vices  self-respect  the  protecting  the  behalf  the  o f the  understand  should,  of  the  i s professionally trained  juvenile's  normal effects  authority  cope w i t h  nor-  q u a l i f i e d to child,  since  judicial  full  therefore,  of  to  s o c i a l worker i s not  d o e s he  o f a l a w y e r , who  capacity  l e g a l complexities  He  adverse  child's perception  his ultimate The  legal rights.  absence of  cases because of the  t a k e a l l p r o p e r l e g a l p r e c a u t i o n s on  due  of mature  s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d oppose t h e  a b r o g a t i o n s o f r i g h t s have on in  state  social responsibility. The  legal  a  process,  extent of  ensure that and  the the  committed  l e g a l r i g h t s , i s made a v a i l a b l e  he  to  serto  the  juvenile.  Legal Aid:  Philosophy  and  Need  " L e g a l a i d " means t h e services, t o pay  under p r i v a t e  for  provisions lawyers. take the  or  such s e r v i c e s . of free Legal aid  form of a  organized provision  government a u s p i c e s , I t i s t o be  legal services services  by  to persons  distinguished  from  s o c i a l l y minded or  provided  salaried "Public  of f r e e  by  the  state  Defender" or  a  as  unable chance  benevolent  a right,  "fee  legal  for  may  service"  system. The principle dividual's  of  purpose of  equality  l e g a l a i d i s to  before  l e g a l r i g h t s and  the civil  law  and  ensure that  the  liberties  protection s h a l l be  the of  legal the  in-  safeguarded  - 2? without  regard  implies  that there  for  the poor.  to i n d i v i d u a l should not  In order  a r e p r o t e c t e d and  financial one  law  Social  f o r the r i c h  can  adequately  defend  legal  s e l has  l o n g been e s t a b l i s h e d i n Western j u r i s p r u d e n c e . e x p r e s s i o n o f the b e l i e f  cess to the his  and  counsel  t h a t he w i l l  probably  i n view o f the  However, i f a p e r s o n right  to l e g a l  counsel  i s o f no  o f e n s u r i n g t h a t e v e r y man, court w i l l the  law,  have a c c e s s  i n spite  services.  I t has  t i o n of the  legal  accused  r e a l value, child  coun-  should have  ac-  competence  legal  legal  court  This i s a  n e e d some e x p e r t  cannot a f f o r d  rights  to l e g a l  complex t e c h n i c a l i t y  woman and  to the  o f any  as  represen-  of the  counsel,  law. the  a i d i s a method  summoned b e f o r e  the  f u l l e s t measure o f p r o t e c t i o n under  inability  t o pay  for professional legal  been s t a t e d t h a t l e g a l a i d i s a n e c e s s a r y  o f a f r e e democracy.  not  t h a t the  right  same k i n d o f p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and  accusers,  t a t i o n and  The  another  himself i n a  o f law,  tangible  i s often necessary.  democracy  and  to ensure t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  t h a t he  counsel  be  capacity.  Without i t , e q u a l i t y before  individual's rights 1  and  the  law,  bulwark protec-  t h e r e f o r e democracy i t s e l f  can-  survive. As s e v e r a l C h i e f J u s t i c e s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have p l a i n , L e g a l A i d h a s become o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e i t o p e r a t e s i n p r e c i s e l y t h a t a r e a where o u r l e g a l t u t i o n s a r e v u l n e r a b l e t o a t t a c k and a r e now b e i n g  made because instiattacked.  I t i s a f u n d a m e n t a l t e n e t o f M a r x i s t Communism t h a t law i s a c l a s s weapon u s e d by t h e r i c h t o o p p r e s s t h e p o o r , t h r o u g h the simple d e v i c e o f making j u s t i c e too expensive. Accord i n g t o t h i s view, lawyers are simply the mercenaries o f the  i B r o w n e l l , Emery A., " R e c e n t D e v e l o p m e n t s i n L e g a l A i d t h e D e f e n d e r S e r v i c e s " , f e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , M a r c h , 1959, p. 42.  and  - 28  propertied classes. The danger of t h i s attack l i e s i n the fact that i t awakens a response i n a l l those who f e e l they have been denied t h e i r rights .... An autocracy can exist without law, but a free democracy cannot. The very existence of free government depends upon making the machinery of j u s t i c e so e f f e c t i v e that the c i t i z e n s of the democracy s h a l l believe i n i t s imp a r t i a l i t y and f a i r n e s s . The provision of j u s t i c e to the poor i s a problem that has existed f o r centuries.  As Lord Darling humourously put i t , 2  "the law has been open to a l l , l i k e the Ritz-Carlton." Attempts to deal with t h i s problem date back to the reign of Henry VII, when the English Parliament passed an Act as 3 "a means to help and speed poor persons i n t h e i r s u i t . "  This Act,  which permitted the destitute to appear i n court without paying the usual court fee, was i n e f f e c t i n England, with modification, u n t i l two years ago.  As part of the general law of England, i t was inhe-  r i t e d by a l l "common law" provinces i n Canada.  In B r i t i s h Columbia,  the Court of Appeal i n 1931 s p e c i f i c a l l y found the Act to be part of p r o v i n c i a l law.^ In Canada, as f a r back as the 1920*s, there was avid i n t e r e s t i n providing l e g a l aid f o r persons accused of crimes.  At  that time, the S o c i a l Service Organization of the Anglican Church, 1  Smith, Reginald Acker, cited i n Brownell, Emery A., Legal Aid i n the United States, The Lawyer's Co-operative Publishing Company, Rochester, N. Y., 1951, Introduction, p. x i i i . 2 Jones, J . E., "Legal Aid f o r the Poor", Canadian Bar Review, 1931, Volume 9, p. 274-. 3 Nelligan, John, D., "Legal Aid i n Canada", C. B. R., January - July, 1951, Volume 2 9, p. 591. Loc. c i t .  - 29 -  and  the S o c i a l Service  to provide sulted on  legal  Council  o f Canada a g i t a t e d f o r l e g i s l a t i o n  a i d to poor persons accused  of crimes.  i n the Canadian Bar A s s o c i a t i o n passing  This r e -  a r e s o l u t i o n i n 1929  l e g a l a i d , p a r t o f w h i c h was a s f o l l o w s : T h a t P r o v i n c i a l Governments be r e q u e s t e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e the s u b j e c t w i t h a view t o p a s s i n g e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n so t h a t i n one o r more s u i t a b l e d i s t r i c t s t h e f e a s i b i l i t y and e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f P u b l i c D e f e n d e r s may be t e s t e d and a p p l i e d t o c a s e s i n which counsel a r e i n charge o f p r o s e c u t i o n s . On t h e b a s i s  Attorney-General salaried  o f t h e above r e s o l u t i o n , a p e t i t i o n t o t h e  of Ontario  asking  fora legislation  P u b l i c D e f e n d e r s was s i g n e d  to provide  b y o v e r 500 O n t a r i o  lawyers.  O n l y one o f t h e p e r s o n s t o whom t h e p e t i t i o n was p r e s e n t e d  refused  2 to  sign.  Little It  for  came o f t h i s  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o note that  the P u b l i c Defenders f i r s t  n i z a t i o n of the Anglican Canada.  Part  petition.  came f r o m t h e S o c i a l S e r v i c e  Church and the S o c i a l S e r v i c e  o f b r i n g i n g about a p p r o p r i a t e  Today few o f t h e c i v i l i z e d some f o r m o f l e g a l  i n the United  sistance  States,  aid.  countries  I n E n g l a n d , and t o a l e s s e r ex-  i t has long been accepted  f o r the poor i s e s s e n t i a l i f democratic  to operate e f f e c t i v e l y  u n d e r modern  •i  3  MJ eo ln le is g, a nop. , o cp . . 589. i tc.i,tp.., p272. Loc. c i t .  change.  o f the world are  that  judicial  3 are  issues  and s o c i a l d e p r i v a t i o n t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f  g r o u p s who a r e c a p a b l e  tent  Orga-  Council of  o f the r o l e o f the s o c i a l worker i s t o b r i n g  involving personal  without  the o r i g i n a l a g i t a t i o n  conditions,  legal assystems  - 30 In Canada, p a r a l l e l development has been much slower and l i t t l e progress has yet been made i n f i x i n g the extent to which the state should share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with the l e g a l profes1  sion i n providing l e g a l a i d . It was not u n t i l 1951 that l e g a l aid was introduced 2  i n B r i t i s h Columbia when the l o c a l bar associations aid  began l e g a l  c l i n i c s i n Vancouver, V i c t o r i a and New Westminster.  These  c l i n i c s dealt solely with a l i m i t e d number of c i v i l matters. 1954,  In  the Vancouver Bar Association began providing l e g a l aid i n  criminal cases.  Juveniles were included as p o t e n t i a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s  but not as a separate class requiring s p e c i a l attention.  This ser-  vice has now been extended by the B r i t i s h Columbia Law Society to cover a l l of the province.  However, i t i s provided  only to alleged  3  first  offenders. Jacob K. J a v i t s , the one-time Attorney General of New  York, stresses that r e h a b i l i t a t i o n must begin from the moment of the juvenile's f i r s t contact with the process of law, and that the aid  of trained counsel representing  the offender i s indispensible.  Failure to provide l e g a l counsel v i o l a t e s the juvenile's rights and impedes and prevents h i s r e h a b i l i t a t i o n .  J a v i t s i s of the opinion  that no youth should ever stand t r i a l f o r even the s l i g h t e s t 1 2  Nelligan, op. c i t . , p. 590.  law Societies are the lawyers' p r o v i n c i a l professional associations. Bar associations are the professional associations of b a r r i s t e r s . There are l o c a l bar associations, a p r o v i n c i a l bar association and p r o v i n c i a l branches of the Canadian Bar Association. 3  Watts, A l f r e d , "Legal Aid i n B r i t i s h Columbia", cited i n minutes of the Board of Directors of the John Howard Society of B r i t i s h Columbia, October 2 3 , 1961, p. 1.  - 31 -  misdemeanor without the a d v i c e and a i d of c o u n s e l . Due  to the j u v e n i l e ' s l a c k of m a t u r i t y and experience,  he does not know what h i s l e g a l r i g h t s a r e ; he has no knowledge o f c o u r t procedure and i s unable to understand the l e g a l nature of the charges a g a i n s t him. Pew laymen, f o r example, know the d i f f e r e n c e between common a s s a u l t , aggravated a s s a u l t , and a s s a u l t causing g r e v i o u s b o d i l y harm. Even lawyers, i f not i n the c r i m i n a l c o u r t s from day to day may become confused over the t e c h n i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f house-breaking and b u r g l a r y . The accused i n f a c t i s asked t o make a complicated l e g a l d e c i s i o n , which may s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t h i s l i b e r t y , w i t h l i t t l e knowledge of what the d e c i s i o n means. Too f r e quently he pleads g u i l t y on the warning of p o l i c e o f f i c e r s or other o f f i c i a l s t h a t h i s sentence w i l l otherwise be much more s e v e r e . 2  O b v i o u s l y the j u v e n i l e i s f a r l e s s a b l e than the a d u l t or  n o n - c r i m i n a l lawyer to understand the l e g a l nature of the c h a r -  ges a g a i n s t him and to a n t i c i p a t e the p o s s i b l e consequences p l e a he may  of any  make.  I n a d d i t i o n , he i s not aware of l e g a l r i g h t s or  c o u r t procedures.  A j u v e n i l e i s even more l i k e l y than ah a d u l t to  3 admit t o charges a g a i n s t him. v e r a l j u v e n i l e s who  Cavenagh  c i t e s one example o f se-  gave i d e n t i c a l answers to the judge when they  were asked a q u e s t i o n about t h e i r a l l e g e d o f f e n c e .  The  l a t e r admitted t h a t as the judge seemed p l e a s e d w i t h the c h i l d ' s r e p l y , they had each repeated what the f i r s t  J a v i t s , Jacob K., N. P. P. A. J o u r n a l , 1957,  "The Heed f o r P u b l i c p. 214.  first  c h i l d had  said.  Defenders",  N e l l i g a n , John B., " L e g a l A i d i n Canada: Canadian Bar Review, Volume 31, 1953, p. 767. Ltd.,  children  The Need",  Cavenagh, N. E., The C h i l d and the Court, V i c t o r G o l l a n c z London, 1959, p. 209.  -  32  -  Since the c h i l d does not understand the nature of the charge against him, h i s l e g a l rights or court procedure, he t y p i c a l l y reacts to the court s i t u a t i o n "by trying to please the judge or by acting i n a manner calculated to i r r i t a t e him.  However, the  c h i l d may unintentionally act i n t h i s manner due to h i s anxiety and ignorance.  None of these forms of behaviour r e s u l t i n the child 's !  presenting a f u l l , accurate and self-defending account of h i s actions to the court. The need f o r l e g a l aid services i n Juvenile Court was also stressed i n the B r i t i s h Information Service Report on " C h i l dren and Young Persons".  I t was p a r t i c u l a r l y emphasized that l e -  gal aid should also be provided i n "care or protection cases" and "beyond control proceedings", as well as i n criminal cases i n Juvenile Court. Protection, or neglect, proceedings can r e s u l t i n the court's waiving of parental r i g h t s to t h e i r children.  As t h i s ac-  t i o n i s one of the most authoritative that can be tinder taken by a court, every precaution should be taken to protect the parents' r i g h t s , i n the i n t e r e s t s both of the parents and of the c h i l d . Consequently l e g a l aid services should be made available to those parents who  cannot pay f o r the services of a lawyer. "Beyond control", or " i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y " , proceedings  can, and usually do, r e s u l t i n the c h i l d being removed from h i s  The B r i t i s h Information Service Report on "Children and Young Persons", c i t e d by Gilbert Geis, "Juvenile J u s t i c e : Great B r i t a i n and C a l i f o r n i a " , Crime and Delinquency, A p r i l , 1961, p. 114.  - 33  parents  and  spending  f o s t e r homes.  the r e s t  of h i s youth  However, t h e s e  s t i p u l a t e whose c o n t r o l t h e  charges  child  r e p a r a b l y he  has  control"  "incorrigibility"  and  a healthy  Obviously,  s e q u e n c e s and available  is  i n institutions  or  a r e n o n - s p e c i f i c and  do  i s b e y o n d , how  of control, mean.  the  to the  due  to the  ambiguity child  as  of  The  c h i l d ' s behaviour  may  Method and  to defend  Scope o f The  a i d should  study  f o r j u v e n i l e s appearing  other than  capital  i s an  examination  extent  and  use  of l e g a l  study were:  aid services;  c u r r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n s as  aid  the  s o c i a l worker's c a p a c i t y to adequately  legal rights;  To several and  and  third,  q u e s t i o n s were t o be  Who  on  s u p p l i e s these  services,  by  to de-  legal  p r o t e c t the  juof  counsel.  of l e g a l a i d  answered.  i n which areas w i t h i n each province  available?  use  second, t o  the percentage  represented  e x t e n t and  first,  t o the need f o r  to determine  i n J u v e n i l e Court  a s c e r t a i n the  specific  i n Canada  offences.  t h r e e main purposes o f the  juveniles appearing  of l e g a l aid  i n J u v e n i l e Courts  the  venile's  court unjustly  f a t e s from which i t  termine and  be  Study  provisions  a s c e r t a i n the  threatening  of the p o s s i b l e con-  legal  to the very  be  him.  scope o f t h i s  The  charges,  and  a p r e c a u t i o n a g a i n s t the  e x p e d i t i o u s l y c o n s i g n i n g him expected  l o n g n o r how i r -  e x a c t l y what " o u t  seriousness  o f the  not  nor  s e l f - a s s e r t i o n a g a i n s t an i n t o l e r a b l e  situation.  and  been out  -  I n which  services, provinces  are l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s and  what r e s o u r c e s  do  they  - 34- -  have f o r supplying them?  What c r i t e r i a are used i n supplying  l e g a l aid and who makes the decision as to whether a juvenile w i l l obtain l e g a l aid?  What c r i t e r i a , such as the nature of the offence  or lack of previous convictions, are used i n determining ty f o r l e g a l aid? In the year  I 9 6 0 ,  eligibili-  To whom may the juvenile apply f o r l e g a l aid? how many times was l e g a l aid requested and how  many times was i t granted?  What are the extent and use of l e g a l  aid services f o r wards of the P r o v i n c i a l Departments of Child Welfare and the Children's Aid Societies? The method used to obtain t h i s information was a survey based on the use of questionnaires. sent to the Attorney-General  These questionnaires were  of each province to determine what, i f  any, l e g a l aid was provided by statute.  P r o v i n c i a l law Societies  were also sent questionnaires to determine what l e g a l aid services they supplied.  To discover the extent and use of l e g a l aid s e r v i -  ces f o r wards, a l l Departments of Child Welfare were s o l i c i t e d f o r information.  Because wards also come under the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  some Children's Aid S o c i e t i e s , a sample number of the agencies across Canada were s o l i c i t e d  f o r information.  The sampling method  used was to send questionnaires to the major Children's Aid Society i n each province i n which they e x i s t .  Because of the size of the  population, two Children's Aid Societies were s o l i c i t e d i n Ontario and i n Quebec.  I n order to obtain f u l l e r information  concerning  B r i t i s h Columbia, a l l three Children's Aid Societies i n that  See Appendix A.  - 35 -  p r o v i n c e were  sent  To by  counsel,  questionnaires.  determine  the percentage  a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  sent  of j u v e n i l e s represented  t o a sample number o f  judges  2 o f J u v e n i l e Courts a c r o s s Canada. select lect  J u v e n i l e Court  Children's Aid To  judges  was  (1) w h e t h e r l e g a l  niles  i n juvenile  sufficient  or  The answers to the  court;  a i d s h o u l d he  one  used to  to  the  respondents opinion  supplied to  (2) w h e t h e r t h e use  s o c i a l workers i n the  safeguard  to the  to se-  to  o p i n i o n q u e s t i o n s were i n c l u d e d i n t h e  questionnaire:  officers  identical  method u s e d  t h e c u r r e n t p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n as  t h e n e e d f o r l e g a l a i d , two  tion  sampling  Societies.  determine  appearing  The  juvenile  juvenile's legal were g u a r a n t e e d  of  juve-  proba-  court furnishes a  rights. anonymity of  their  questions.  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s i n t h e following c i t i e s : V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, Calgary, Winnipeg, Toronto, H a m i l t o n , M o n t r e a l , Quebec, H a l i f a x and F r e d e r i c t o n .  2  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o J u v e n i l e C o u r t J u d g e s i n t h e following c i t i e s : V i c t o r i a , Vancouver, Calgary, Regina, Winnipeg, T o r o n t o , H a m i l t o n , M o n t r e a l , Quebec, H a l i f a x , F r e d e r i c t o n , C h a r l o t t e t o w n and S t . J o h n ' s .  CHAPTER I I LEGAL AID SERYICES POR JUVENILES IN CANADA: THEIR EXTENT AND USE  Response to Survey The  g e n e r a l response to the survey was good.  were r e c e i v e d to 78$ o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . t i o n was the p r o v i n c e questionnaires.  The n o t a b l e  Replies excep-  o f Quebec, w i t h o n l y 4 2 $ r e p l i e s t o the  ( T h i s may be due i n p a r t to the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and  the accompanying l e t t e r b e i n g w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h r a t h e r than i n Prench.)  I f the Province  o f Quebec i s excluded,  there i s no s i g -  n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the percentage o f r e t u r n s from the western and e a s t e r n p r o v i n c e s .  I n both cases, r e p l i e s were r e -  c e i v e d from over 80$ o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The h i g h e s t percentage o f r e t u r n s , 80$ o r more, were r e c e i v e d from C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s and Law S o c i e t i e s ; the l o west percentage o f r e t u r n s , 70$, was from the p r o v i n c i a l General's  Attorney  Departments and p r o v i n c i a l Departments o f Welfare.  p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from 77$ o f the J u v e n i l e Court  judges.  ReThe  percentage and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e t u r n s a r e s u f f i c i e n t t o make a reliable  survey  o f l e g a l a i d , p a r t i c u l a r l y i f these r e t u r n s show  a h i g h degree o f c o n s i s t e n c y . r e t u r n s from the P r o v i n c e  However, the s m a l l percentage o f  o f Quebec w i l l probably  r e s u l t i n an i n -  complete p i c t u r e o f the extent and use o f l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s i n that  province.  - 37 -  Prom the comments on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s received, a new  the use  idea.  statistics  and  the  letters  o f l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s f o r j u v e n i l e s appears to  This i s further substantiated  by the l a c k of a v a i l a b l e  on the p r o v i s i o n of l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s . The  comments r e c e i v e d i n d i c a t e t h a t g e n e r a l l y there i s  no w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d p o l i c y on the p r o v i s i o n of l e g a l a i d to niles.  The  r e t u r n s i n d i c a t e t h a t no a b s o l u t e  Decisions  probably would be used i f p o l i c y was  dertaken.  criteria  Many people who  were s u r p r i s e d that such a survey was  answered being  They do not appear to have g i v e n p r i o r s e r i o u s  r a t i o n to the  systematic  an-  e s t a b l i s h e d and what c r i t e r i a  were used i n i s o l a t e d cases i n the p a s t . questionnaires  The  appear to i n d i c a t e what  de-  to p r o -  v i d e l e g a l a i d were i n most cases on an i n d i v i d u a l b a s i s . swers given on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  juve-  c r i t e r i a e x i s t to  termine a j u v e n i l e ' s e l i g i b i l i t y f o r l e g a l a i d .  the  be  un-  conside-  p r o v i s i o n of l e g a l a i d to j u v e n i l e s .  L e g a l A i d S e r v i c e s Under V a r i o u s A u s p i c e s f o r J u v e n i l e s Appearing i n J u v e n i l e Court i n Canada (a) L e g a l A i d S e r v i c e s Supplied Provinces;  L e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s s u p p l i e d by  by Statute  s t a t u t e to j u v e n i l e s  appearing i n J u v e n i l e Court are presented i n Table I t i s evident to j u v e n i l e s i n Canada.  t h a t no The  i n Canadian  1.  l e g a l a i d i s s u p p l i e d by  f a c t t h a t no  j u v e n i l e s as a r i g h t , guaranteed hy law,  legal aid exists for i s evident  that Canada  has not y e t made secure every defendant's r i g h t to c o u n s e l . p e r s o n may  statute  have the t h e o r e t i c a l r i g h t to counsel,  but i f he  A cannot  -  Table 1.  38  -  Legal Aid Services f o r Juveniles as Supplied byStatute and by Law Societies i n Canadian Provinces i n I960 (types of cases and areas i n which available)  Province  British Columbia Alberta  Statute  Law Societies Types of Cases |Area Estimated Requests Grants  none (a) f i r s t offences province wide none (a)  Saskatchewan none  (*)  "  10  (*)  (•)  !  5 (*)  all  cases  two c i t i e s  50  50  Manitoba  none (a) a l l  cases  one c i t y  20  20  Ontario  none (a) f i r s t offences major offences province wide (b)  Quebec Nova Scotia New Brunswick  (*) none (•)  (*)  (•) —  —  none  —  —  —  Newfoundland  none  i  —  Questionnaires are the source f o r t h i s and subsequent tables (*) (**) (a) (b)  (**)  —  none  Source:  1  none  Prince Edward Island !none (*)  (**)  no reply to questionnaire s t a t i s t i c s not given court transcripts supplied when l e g a l aid given by others excludes appeals  - 39 -  a f f o r d i t , t h i s right i s of l i t t l e value.  When l e g a l a i d i s sup-  p l i e d by private organizations i t i s done on the basis of a char i t y , not as a r i g h t .  This means a person may or may not receive  l e g a l a i d , depending on s p e c i f i c l i m i t i n g c r i t e r i a , administrative decisions, p a r t i c u l a r biases and other non-stated variables.  Re-  gardless of h i s need, there i s no guarantee that he s h a l l receive l e g a l a i d from a private organization. In the welfare f i e l d , the trend has been to provide f o r a person's basic needs as a matter of c i v i l r i g h t rather than to have them haphazardly met on the basis of charity.  This trend has not reached the area of provision of  needed l e g a l a i d services to children i n Canada. (b)  Legal Aid Services Supplied by Law Societies i n  Canadian Provinces:  Legal aid services supplied by Law Societies  to juveniles appearing i n Juvenile Court are presented i n Table 1. above. I t w i l l be noted that the Law Societies i n the Maritime provinces do not supply l e g a l a i d to juveniles, while those i n the f i v e western provinces do to some degree.  None of those  supplying l e g a l aid have separate resources f o r juveniles, but use the same general provisions as those employed f o r adult criminal legal aid.  In a l l cases the law Societies' resources consist of  lawyers donating free time and service,  l e g a l a i d counsels do not  receive any compensation either i n the form of fees or honouraria.  Wilensky, Harold L., and lebeaux, Charles P., I n d u s t r i a l Society and S o c i a l Welfare, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 1958, pp. 138 - 140.  - 40  O n l y i n two  provinces,  Ontario  -  and  B r i t i s h . C o l u m b i a , do  S o c i e t i e s have p r i v a t e funds from which to reimburse counsel  f o r "out-of-pocket'  other provinces, sel himself. British  the  law  societies  Ontario  other provinces  notably  and  1.  i t will  British  S a s k a t c h e w a n and  and  Ontario,  legal aid.  and  The  u s u a l l y no  trials.  coun-  provinces,  Attorney free  This greatly as-  aid, particularly  Societies,  seriousness  Columbia,  noted  in  do  that only i n  the  Law  aid i s provided  of t h i s  by  there  legal rights 1.  of cases.  S o c i e t i e s have  of the  i t will  separate  s e r v i c e s to major c i t i e s .  Law  In  Societies,  in British cannot  Co-  obtain  Juvenile  the  Courts  judges or p r o b a t i o n  offi-  where l e g a l a i d i s most n e e d e d juvenile, a l s o be  i t i s not  noted  Law The  available.  t h a t o n l y two  M a n i t o b a , make l e g a l  These two  province.  s e r v i c e s are a v a i l a b l e  a r e no  areas  two  s i t u a t i o n i s compounded by  professionally qualified  S a s k a t c h e w a n and  a l l types  a l s o be  j u v e n i l e s o u t s i d e major c i t i e s  From T a b l e  their  the  T h i s means t h a t , e x c e p t  Consequently i n those  to p r o t e c t the  in  and  Manitoba, t h e i r  that i n o u t l y i n g areas  cers.  that i n four  Ontario,  the  legal aid  a v a i l a b l e throughout the  where l e g a l  o n l y i n the major c i t i e s .  fact  1.  i n supplying legal  a i d s e r v i c e s t h a t are  lumbia  i n Table  the  aid  cases.  provinces,  the  noted  of preliminary hearings  From T a b l e  legal  be  by  Law  In  D e p a r t m e n t makes a v a i l a b l e t o l e g a l a i d c o u n s e l  transcripts  appeal  It will  legal  disbursements.  s u c h e x p e n s e s must be met  C o l u m b i a , A l b e r t a , M a n i t o b a and  General's  sists  e x p e n s e s and  1  the  aid available  S o c i e t i e s , however, do other  Law  Law  Societies,  limit  British  -  C o l u m b i a and first  being  Ontario,  to withhold  convictions. aid  The  law  j u d g e d on  legal  opportunity "old  record.  are  der, his  on  the  offenders  he  their  because a  acquired  is the  In r e a l i t y ,  b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to  drastic  actions  appearance.  s u c h as  more f r e q u e n t l y  tha.n w i t h t h e  f o r the  examined i n the  court  first  by  first  court The  offender.  the  offen-  procedure  I t seems  previously  adequate  the  legal  acquire  convictions  r i g h t s than i s  time.  probable question  recidi-  consequence t h a t more  t r a n s f e r to c r i m i n a l C o u r t w i t h the  Because o f the  pre-  defence.  the  Juvenile  to  legal  lawyer to  previous  nor  appeared  light  i n c a r c e r a t i o n or  t a k e n by  first  l e g a l a i d t o the  T h e r e i s no  first  procedure  granting of  since  l e g a l a i d only  t o make a n  juvenile with  r a t i o n a l e f o r not  v i s t must a l s o be of h i s present  and  t e c h n i c a l knowledge o f  required  not  i s t h a t many  know c o u r t  s a f e g u a r d h i s own  juvenile appearing i n court The  are  the  ju-  have t h e  reason given  j u v e n i l e has  o f l e g a l r i g h t s needed  knowledge.  i n no  should  legal rights.  sufficient  Years of p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g are this  offenders The  or  however, t h a t  appears to have s e v e r a l weaknesses.  has  p r o c e d u r e s and  out,  rationale for granting  p o s t e r o u s t o assume t h a t court,  They p o i n t  legal aid.  This  legal  accused person should  hand, p r o b a b l y does not  legal rights.  first  the  at l e a s t f a m i l i a r with courts  other  previous  c o n v i c t i o n s , whether a d u l t  limited, first  o f t e n know w e l l what a r e  the  aware t h a t w i t h h o l d i n g  p r i n c i p l e that  to r e c e i v e  timers"  and  are  several c r i t e r i a ,  a i d from p e r s o n s h a v i n g  S o c i e t i e s are  h i s past  t h e i r resources  in  l e g a l a i d by  from persons w i t h p r e v i o u s  v e n i l e , v i o l a t e s the be  limit  -  41  probable  court  recidivist seriousness  - 42 -  of  the court  legal  a p p e a r a n c e , i t w o u l d a p p e a r more l o g i c a l  a i d at least equally  first  available  to the r e c i d i v i s t  as t o the  offender. A n o t h e r c r i t e r i o n u s e d by Law S o c i e t i e s  legal  a i davailable  to juveniles  i s that  cases o f major or i n d i c t a b l e offences. t h i s m i g h t h a v e some v a l i d i t y  to l i m i t  of granting I n adult  as t h e g r a v i t y  maximum p e n a l t y  lished  by p r e c e d e n t  r i o n for granting  possible  I n Juvenile  of  the offence  An  open d i s p o s i t i o n g i v e s  to the court  has been  regardless  almost t o t a l  estab-  Court t h i s  on. w h i c h t h e j u v e n i l e h a s b e e n j u d g e d the court  court  o f the offence.  l e g a l a i d does n o t h a v e t h i s v a l i d i t y  open d i s p o s i t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e  cases  o f the possible  f o ra given offence  and by s t a t u t e .  a i d only i n  criminal  d i s p o s i t i o n has d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n with the g r a v i t y The  t o make  crite-  s i n c e an  of the nature delinquent.  power t o t a k e any  a c t i o n i t f e e l s necessary i n order to secure the c h i l d ' s r e h a b i l i t a tion  or protection.  sition the  for the child,  gravity  nile  Therefore,  Court,  relation  such as i n c a r c e r a t i o n ,  t o murder, a r e o f e q u a l g r a v i t y i n  court  other  a i d to juveniles  dispositions.  Limiting  o f by t h e J u v e -  legal a i d to  C o u r t h a s no l o g i c n o r v a l i d i t y .  c r i t e r i o n u s e d b y Law S o c i e t i e s  to limit  i s not t o grant a i d i n appeal cases.  i s employed o n l y  i n appeal actions,  ciple.  does n o t depend o n  from j a y - w a l k i n g  The  ved  o f the dispo-  A l l offences disposed  to possible  criterion  gravity  o f the offence.  major offences i n J u v e n i l e  legal  the possible  This  b e c a u s e o f t h e t i m e and expense i n v o l -  n o t b e c a u s e o f any l e g a l o r s o c i a l p r i n -  However, t h i s a c t i o n  o f l i m i t i n g l e g a l a i d may h a v e  serious  - 43 -  consequences for the c h i l d , especially i f he has not been given counsel i n h i s o r i g i n a l hearing.  Being unable to secure l e g a l  aid for appeal action could prevent the c h i l d from appealing a court r u l i n g even when h i s l e g a l r i g h t s have obviously been v i o l a ted.  The r e s u l t of t h i s on the attitude of the c h i l d toward so-  ciety and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s could be f a r reaching.  Ho c h i l d under  these circumstances, could be expected to accept society's author i t y as v a l i d or just.  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with society's norms of be-  haviour would be made almost impossible f o r him. In discussing l e g a l a i d supplied by Law Societies, some mention must be made of factors which tend to l i m i t the service both quantitatively and q u a l i t a t i v e l y .  The f i r s t i s that not a l l  lawyers i n the society are w i l l i n g to take l e g a l aid cases; of those who  are w i l l i n g , only a few are criminal lawyers.  couver, only 30 to 50 of the t o t a l 800 p r a c t i c i n g lawyers l e g a l aid cases.  In Vanshare  I t has been stated by Attorney General Brownell  of the United States that, i n criminal cases, a non-criminal law1  yer i s of l i t t l e more value than no counsel.  I t i s therefore ob-  vious that law s o c i e t i e s can handle only a limited number of l e g a l aid cases.  I f society wishes l e g a l services supplied on a more  generous scale, then i t must make resources available through other means. One of the major problems faced by Law Societies i s Brownell, Herbert, J r . , "Improving Our System of J u s t i c e " , Federal Probation, December, 1953, p. 9.  - 44  the a d v e r t i s i n g of t h e i r of  the  fact  t h a t they  -  services.  I f the  T h e r e a p p e a r s t o "be no  law  advertise their  toria,  advising and  goes t h r o u g h  a r r e s t e d persons  m i s s method r e a c h e s  appear t o t a l l y probably  of  s e r v i c e was the  the p o l i c e  cells  availability  partment  of S o c i a l Welfare.  s i o n and  n e g l e c t cases  has  found  great  and  f a r e i n r e p l y to the  As was  parents  i f they have l e g a l  Branch o f the  p e r t a i n to  secure  s t a t e d by  been  more we  find  Wel-  less  i t h e l p s many d i s t u r b e d  counsel."  o t h e r m a j o r p r o b l e m f a c e d by  In British  of  as i t  i s s u e s become  the  law  Columbia,  f o r both  Societies i s eligibility  j u v e n i l e and  a i d , s c r e e n i n g i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a i s done by  t i o n Army, t h e  apprehen-  the D i r e c t o r o f C h i l d  n e g l e c t , the  De-  department  l e g a l a i d has  s c r e e n i n g o f a p p l i c a n t s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e y meet  legal  Society  questionnaire, "In p r o t e c t i o n cases,  T h e r e f o r e , more and  requirements.  service.  t o t h e law  C h i l d Welfare  parents  clear.  the  for  This  t h a n i n o t h e r p r o v i n c e s , most  These r e f e r r a l s  moves f r o m p h y s i c a l t o e m o t i o n a l  The  Most j u v e n i l e s  a r e b e i n g made b e c a u s e t h e  that h e l p i n g the  social value.  the  the  This h i t  of l e g a l a i d .  s m a l l number o f r e q u e s t s  a r e made by  i n Vic-  each morning  aid i s available.  substantially higher  referrals  which  a member o f  only a f r a c t i o n of adults.  f o r the  n o t make  I n V a n c o u v e r and  I n S a s k a t c h e w a n , where t h e number o f r e q u e s t s for  unaware  method by  t o a d u l t s by  that legal  unaware o f t h e  accounts  standard  services.  some i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r o v i d e d  S a l v a t i o n Army who  are  can r e c e i v e l e g a l a i d , they w i l l  application. Societies  accused  prosecutor's  offices,  and  an a p p o i n t e d  criminal the  Salva-  official  of  the  - 45  local is  Bar  Association.  done by  cial and no  law  written  Society.  I n o u t l y i n g a r e a s most o f  communication w i t h the The  definitely Screening the  would cial  seem h i g h l y u n l i k e l y t h a t f o r other  l e g a l a i d on  r u l e s of  aid,  e i t h e r because they are  t i m e and  b e e n deemed  other  screening  existing, i t  p o s s i b l y be  consistently  l e a d i n many c a s e s t o p e r s o n s  s e r v i c e s and  rather  t h a n on  be-  estab-  unaware o f  are  not  law  S o c i e t i e s are  the  only  law  five  western provinces,  ces,  Ontario  and  the  only  receiving  s e r v i c e o r have  re-  legal  arbit-  ineligible.  j u v e n i l e s who  the  screening  i n persons not  Por  time p r o v i n c e s ,  See  I n the  t e s t s , both f o r f i n a n -  means o f a d v e r t i s i n g and  i n wasted  by  could  been  taking  responsibility for  arbitrary decisions  sult  supplied  criteria,  not  lawyer  eligibility.  eligibility  is  eligibility.  Inconsistent  rarily  the  the  has  aid  officials.  With such c o n d i t i o n s  T h i s would u n d o u b t e d l y  refused  lished  person's  provin-  Because t h e r e  a g e n c i e s and  a l l o f them, and  e s t a b l i s h e s the  and  o f the  for criminal legal  appendix.  various  been f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d .  employed. ing  among t h e  i t l i k e w i s e appears that  resources  screening  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r screening  i s o f t e n r e p e a t e d by  case f i n a l l y  not  the  established  provinces, has  procedure,  i n the  the  secretary  a p p l i c a t i o n form used  f o r juveniles i s included standard  -  B  Columbia.  legal aid  ones a v a i l a b l e .  not  service i s only  British  Appendix  S o c i e t i e s do  wards, the  supply province  services  In  the  legal aid.  In  w i d e i n two  In both of these  marithe  provin-  provinces,  - 46 -  service i s limited to f i r s t offenders.  In Ontario service i s  further limited by excluding minor or non-indictable offences and appeals.  In the two provinces where l e g a l aid i s available  i n a l l cases, the service operates only i n the major c i t i e s .  Por  the large majority of juveniles i n Canada l e g a l aid i s nonexistent.  Legal Aid Supplied to Wards (a)  S o c i a l Worker's Special Concern f o r Wards:  Social  workers have a general concern that society provide resources f o r meeting the needs of a l l children regardless of the nature of the need, and have special concern regarding the needs of the ward. Children become wards, generally speaking, when a court judges that t h e i r natural parents are unable or unwilling to provide proper parental care and c o n t r o l .  In B r i t i s h Columbia, jud-  ging from personal experience i n the protection of children and from the observations of other s o c i a l workers, children are usually made wards under section 7 (K) of the "Protection of Children's Act".  This section states that the c h i l d i s to be made a ward of  the Superintendent  of Child Welfare or of a Children's Aid Society  when any of the following conditions are found to e x i s t : Whose home by reason of neglect, cruelty or depravity i s an u n f i t place f o r the c h i l d , or who has no proper guardianship, or who has^no parent capable of exercising proper parental c o n t r o l .  B r i t i s h Columbia, Laws, Statutes etc., Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, c. 303, Protection of Children's Act, sec. 7 (K).  - 47 -  Making a c h i l d that  a ward i s one o f t h e most a u t h o r i t a r i a n a c t i o n s  c a n "be t a k e n by t h e c o u r t a n d r e s u l t s  temporary  suspension  in relation  o f the parents' r i g h t s  Welfare  legislation  cannot  for  p a r e n t a l c a r e and c o n t r o l .  to provide  afford to  c o u n s e l t o r e p r e s e n t h i m , n o r i s he c a p a b l e  of deter-  s e r v i c e s o r how t o make a r r a n g e m e n t s  The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r p r o v i d i n g l e g a l a i d t o t h e ward  obviously r e s t s with the c h i l d - c a r i n g ponsibility  ments have s o l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  as does t h e r e s requirement.  In.Canada, C h i l d  Welfare  Welfare  Depart-  f o r the c a r e o f wards i n t h r e e  p r o v i n c e s , O n t a r i o and New B r u n s w i c k , t h e y h a v e no d i r e c t  shared Aid  I n the other f i v e  between t h e C h i l d Welfare  Societies  bia,  pro-  S a s k a t c h e w a n , P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d , and N e w f o u n d l a n d .  ponsibility.  is  just  L e g a l A i d f o r Wards S u p p l i e d b y C h i l d  Departments i n Canadian P r o v i n c e s :  two  agency,  f o r p r o v i s i o n o f any o t h e r l e g i t i m a t e (b)  vinces:  they  The ward c a n n o t  when he n e e d s l e g a l  them.  S o c i e t y has enac-  care f o r n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n because  care o r provide f o r themselves.  engage l e g a l mining  i s made a ward, t h e S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f  o r t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y becomes r e s p o n s i b l e  f o r p r o v i d i n g proper ted  and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  to the c h i l d . When t h e c h i l d  Child  i n the t e r m i n a t i o n o r  Welfare  D e p a r t m e n t and p r i v a t e  Children's  In British  Branch o f t h e Department o f S o c i a l  responsible f o r direct  s e r v i c e s t o wards i n a l l a r e a s  Colum-  Welfare except  i n V a n c o u v e r and i n V i c t o r i a . The  res-  provinces, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s  established i n the larger c i t i e s .  the C h i l d  In  e x t e n t o f l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s made a v a i l a b l e t o  - 48  wards by  the v a r i o u s C h i l d  Table  2.  able,  f o r some t y p e s  Welfare  A l l departments but  limited  -  one  of cases.  t o wards c h a r g e d  Departments are p r e s e n t e d make l e g a l  I n two  ward's t r a n s f e r  from  templated.  f a l l a c y o f making l e g a l  The  j o r or i n d i c t a b l e plies  the J u v e n i l e Court  o f f e n c e s has  aid services a v a i l -  provinces, legal  with indictable  in  aid i s  o f f e n c e s , o r when to C r i m i n a l Court aid available  been d i s c u s s e d .  No  the is  con-  only f o r  department  masup-  l e g a l a i d to the parents i n p r o t e c t i o n cases, although a l l  stated  that their  own  s o l i c i t o r s may  None a u t o m a t i c a l l y s u p p l y venile  Court  "necessary"  on any  l e g a l c o u n s e l t o wards a p p e a r i n g  specific  o r "needed".  r e p r e s e n t them i n s u c h  charge  but  do  so i f t h e y  T h i s sometimes h a s  cases. i n Ju-  feel i t is  l e d to l e g a l  counsel  b e i n g o b t a i n e d on b e h a l f o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t when t h e c o u r t i s n o t willing  t o c o m p l y w i t h what t h e a g e n c y p u r p o s e s  best i n t e r e s t  of the c h i l d .  Consequently  as b e i n g i n the  the l e g a l  c o u n s e l i s sup-  p l i e d w i t h a view o f r e p r e s e n t i n g the department r a t h e r than a view to p r o t e c t i n g the c h i l d ' s  legal rights  and  interests.  R e p l i e s g e n e r a l l y s t a t e d t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r has intendent deciding  responsibility  f o r requesting legal  or D i r e c t o r of C h i l d i f i t s h o u l d be  on t h e number o f t i m e s  granted.  legal  e s t i m a t e d number o f r e q u e s t s ber  of times  British of  i t was  Welfare  granted  No  a i d was  one.  Only  social the  Super-  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  requested a i d , and  the  of  statistics  or granted.  same, w i t h one  C o l u m b i a , where t h e number o f r e q u e s t s  g r a n t s by  a i d , and  d e p a r t m e n t had  for legal are the  has  with  The  e s t i m a t e d numexception i n  e x c e e d e d t h e number  i n A l b e r t a does a department r e f e r i t s  - 49 -  Table  2.  L e g a l A i d S e r v i c e S u p p l i e d t o Wards by C h i l d Departments i n C a n a d i a n P r o v i n c e s i n I960 (types  of cases  i n which a v a i l a b l e )  Types o f Cases  Province  British Columbia  major o f f e n c e s t r a n s f e r (a)  Alberta  Saskatchewan  Estimated Requests Grants  1  Rei'errais •  5  4  0  excludes appeals and p r o t e c t i o n  10  10  5  major o f f e n c e s t r a n s f e r (a)  12  12  0  Manitoba  (*)  (*) not for  Ontario  Quebec  responsible wards  —  (•)  (*)  Nova S c o t i a  excludes protection  New  not for  Brunswick  Prince Island  Welfare  responsible wards  Edward none  Newfoundland  (*)  (*) (a)  —  —  2  2  —  —  —  """""  !  0 —  1  (*)  no r e p l y t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e t r a n s f e r - when t r a n s f e r o f j u v e n i l e t o a d u l t court i s contemplated  — (*)  - 50 -  wards t o o u t s i d e l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s .  A l l departments t h a t s t a t e d  l e g a l a i d was a v a i l a b l e s u p p l i e d l e g a l a i d i n a v e r y l i m i t e d number o f cases.  However, the need f o r a s e n i o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e de-  c i s i o n to supply l e g a l a i d , the l a c k o f s t a t i s t i c s , the estimated equal number o f r e q u e s t s and g r a n t s , the s m a l l number o f times l e g a l a i d was granted and the l a c k o f r e f e r r a l s t o o u t s i d e  legal  a i d s e r v i c e s i n d i c a t e s the l a c k o f systematic p r o v i s i o n o f l e g a l a i d t o wards. (c)  l e g a l A i d f o r Wards S u p p l i e d by C h i l d r e n ' s A i d  S o c i e t i e s i n Canadian P r o v i n c e s :  I n Canada, t h e r e are no C h i l d -  ren's A i d S o c i e t i e s i n t h r e e p r o v i n c e s : ward I s l a n d and Newfoundland.  Saskatchewan, P r i n c e Ed-  I n New Brunswick and O n t a r i o ,  Chil-  dren's A i d S o c i e t i e s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d on a county b a s i s and are r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a l l d i r e c t s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . I n the other p r o v i n c e s , C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s have f u l l  respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n and care i n the major c i t i e s , p r o v i n c i a l C h i l d Welfare o u t l y i n g areas.  while  Departments have t h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n  I n B r i t i s h Columbia, the c i t y o f V i c t o r i a has one  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y ; Vancouver has two:  one n o n - s e c t a r i a n and  one Roman C a t h o l i c . Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were sent t o s e l e c t e d C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Soc i e t i e s i n Canada, ( f o r d e t a i l s o f sampling Chapter I , Method and Scope). one  procedure,  r e f e r to  Returns were r e c e i v e d from a t l e a s t  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n each p r o v i n c e i n which they  w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the P r o v i n c e o f Manitoba.  exist,  The number o f r e -  t u r n s p r o v i d e a good i n d i c a t i o n o f the l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e t o wards  - 51 -  and the use that i s made of i t . The extent of l e g a l a i d service made available to wards by the various Children's A i d Societies are presented i n Table 3. Six of the ten societies which r e p l i e d to the questionnaires make some l e g a l aid available to t h e i r wards.  Of the  six s o c i e t i e s , four state that l e g a l a i d i s available i n a l l cases. Of the remaining two s o c i e t i e s , one l i m i t s l e g a l a i d to serious offences and the other excludes protection cases. Only the Vancouver Children's Aid Society claimed that they provided or referred wards f o r l e g a l a i d i n I960.  Prom ver-  bal communication i t was learned that these wards were provided with or referred f o r l e g a l aid a f t e r they had been transferred to Criminal Court.  Therefore, none of the Children's Aid Societies  which r e p l i e d to the questionnaires, granted or referred wards f o r l e g a l aid when they appeared i n Juvenile Court i n I960.  As l e g a l  aid was not supplied, i t can seriously be questioned i f l e g a l a i d was i n fact a v a i l a b l e .  Children's Aid Societies, i n view of t h e i r  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to meet the wards' t o t a l needs, may have f e l t i t was morally mandatory to state that l e g a l aid was available, even though they had no strong conviction that i t was needed. fore, they d i d not supply i t during I960.  There-  In contrast, Child Wel-  fare Departments admitted l i m i t a t i o n to the a v a i l a b i l i t y of l e g a l aid, but d i d grant i t i n some cases. The general comments indicate that most Children's A i d Societies could supply l e g a l a i d , on the decision of the Director,  -  Table  3.  52  -  L e g a l A i d S e r v i c e s S u p p l i e d t o Wards by C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s i n Canadian P r o v i n c e s i n I960 (types  Province  o f cases  i n which a v a i l a b l e )  Types o f Cases Requests  British Columbia Victoria  Estimated, Grants " R e f e r r a l s "  all  cases  0  0  0  Vancouver (C.A.S.)  all  cases  2 (a)  2 (a)  1  Vancouver (C.C.A.S.)  all  cases  0  0  0  Alberta  all  cases  0  0  0  Saskatchewan  no C h i l d r e n ' s Aid Societies  —  —  (*)  (»)  0  0  0  0  Manitoba Qntario Hamilton Toronto Quebec Quebec  (•) all  cases  major  offences  none  —  Montreal  none  —  Nova S c o t i a  none  —  New  Brunswick excludes protection  Prince Island  Edward no C h i l d r e n ' s Aid Societies  Newfoundland  no C h i l d r e n ' s Aid Societies *) a)  (a)  (*) |  0 0 0 0  — 1  0  \  0  0  —  —  —  1  1  no r e p l y t o q u e s t i o n n a i r e supplied a f t e r transferred to adult  0  —  court  - 53  "if  i t were  necessary", but i n t h e i r  essential.  Por t h i s  wards t o o u t s i d e "close and that  -  reason,  both the court  legal  Often  the court  provides  be p r o t e c t e d  i n t e r e s t s o f the c h i l d " , protected.  by t h e  Most a g e n c i e s have n o t been  that t h e i r  a i d could  Where  f o r the  Several acting  consciously  own p l a n s  a judicial  or expeditious of legal  juvenile's legal  be s u p p l i e d by  prowere  Children's  on t h e w h o l e , s o c i a l  wor-  a g e n c i e s f o r g e t t h a t , a l t h o u g h the J u v e n i l e t r e a t m e n t p u r p o s e and o r i e n t a t i o n , i t i s institution.  A s i n any o t h e r  s a f e g u a r d s n e e d t o be a v a i l a b l e t o p r o t e c t  the  pre-  l e g a l r i g h t s have been a d e q u a t e l y  that l e g a l  C o u r t does have a s o c i a l  violations  separate  court.  and s o c i a l w e l f a r e  careless  no  Chil-  t h e c h i l d ' s l e g a l r i g h t s were  S o c i e t i e s but i s n o t , suggest t h a t ,  nevertheless  mean  that the c h i l d ' s l e g a l  b u t have been i n t e n t on e n s u r i n g  The f a c t  kers  T h i s may  i n the c a r r y i n g out o f these p l a n s .  c o n c e r n e d w h e t h e r t h e ward's  Aid  Courts  A i d S o c i e t i e s commented t h a t a s t h e c o u r t was  automatically  authorized  that  and t h e a g e n c y a r e i n a g r e e m e n t on p l a n s  rights  " i n the best  their  b u t u s e s t h e one s u p p l i e d by t h a t a g e n c y .  no one a p p e a r s o v e r t l y c o n c e r n e d  tected,  commented  a i d i s not required.  child,  Children's  been  Courts u s u a l l y c a r r y out the wishes o f the  dren's A i d S o c i e t y . sentence r e p o r t ,  Several  e x i s t s between t h e l o c a l J u v e n i l e  t h e m s e l v e s so t h a t the J u v e n i l e  i t had n e v e r  a l s o , they have n e v e r r e f e r r e d  legal aid services.  co-operation"  opinion,  handling  court,  the accused from  by t h e c o u r t w h i c h may  r i g h t s and o f c i v i l  liberties.  legal inept,  result i n  A disregard  r i g h t s does n o t f o s t e r h i s c o n f i d e n c e  in  of  - 54 -  s o c i e t y ' s a u t h o r i t y , and and  may  permit  the  court to e r r i n i t s f i n d i n g s  disposition. Before  l e a v i n g the d i s c u s s i o n o f l e g a l a i d f o r wards,  some m e n t i o n s h o u l d cies  charging  that  the  it,  "be made o f t h e p r a c t i c e  t h e i r wards w i t h  child  of c h i l d welfare  "incorrigibility".  agen-  Is i t correct  i s "beyond c o n t r o l "  and  therefore delinquent,  r a t h e r , that e x p e r t l y designed  and  a d e q u a t e s e r v i c e s were  u s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o meet h i s p a r t i c u l a r n e e d ? leged i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y ,  t h e ward s h o u l d be  I n cases  protected with  or i s not  of a l competent  legal representation.  Usage of L e g a l Counsel Ten  out  i n Juvenile  of t h i r t e e n  a s k i n g f o r i n f o r m a t i o n as represented  by  Court  judges  replied  t o t h e number and  counsel i n J u v e n i l e Court. i n c o u r t by  8$  average percentage  t o a low  being  3$.  of  to give  four  judges  below b o t h  t h e m e d i a n and The  judges  availability i n rural  and  the  areas.  stated  was  3.6$,  average,  were  only  However,  s t a t i s t i c s w h i c h were a l l being  3$,  2.9$,  2$  and  were a l l i n m e t r o p o l i t a n  of counsel  c o u l d be  expected  I t would appear r e a s o n a b l y  i n J u v e n i l e Court  of  the median  t h a t most j u d g e s  the b a s i s o f these r e t u r n s , t h a t fewer than  v e n i l e s appearing  percentage  e x a c t r e c o r d s were k e p t .  solicited use  of j u v e n i l e s  c o u n s e l v a r i e d from a h i g h  were a b l e t o g i v e r e c o r d e d  greater than on  to note  e s t i m a t i o n as no  respectively.  sive,  The  It i s interesting  able  where t h e  .8$.  questionnaire  percentage The  of juveniles represented  to the  5$  .8$ areas  to  be  concluof a l l j u -  i n Canada a r e r e p r e s e n t e d  by  - 55 -  counsel. makes dian  children Courts.  counsel timate In  The f a c t  easily  because  children  number  during  of a lack  theDominion appeared  95$  at least  theleast  The exact  i n Canada  1958,  that  have  well  protected  year  of reliable  defence  defendants  i s almost Juvenile  of Statistics  i nJuvenile  legal  i n Cana-  o f juveniles not represented  a given  Bureau  no e x p e r t  Courts  impossible  Court  13,134  I n 1958,  i n Canada.  to es-  statistics.  stated that  1  by  the  p Bureau  reported  Court; that  however,  i n  pear the  t h e Judge  I960, 2,500  reliable  estimate  without  775  that  The  o f Vancouver  j u v e n i l e s appeared  c a n b e made  counsel  number would  j u v e n i l e s appeared  undoubtedly possibility  counsel  cannot  afford  Courts,  i thas been  Juvenile i nh i s  o f t h e number  i n J u v e n i l e Court runinto  estimated  must that  Court  Juvenile  estimated  court.  Although  i n Canada  i na given  be c o n s i d e r e d . 60$  year,  o f thousands.  j u v e n i l e s who a p p e a r  between  no  o f c h i l d r e n who d o a p -  the tens  t h a t many  counsel,  i n Vancouver  without  I n Criminal  a n d 80$  of  accused  3 persons son in  cannot  t o assume fact  veniles sion,  there  afford that  counsel.  these  a r e reasons  u s u a l l y have  figures  There  would  would  be l o w e r  to indicate  no f i n a n c i a l  they  resources  appear  might  t o be no r e a -  f o r juveniles, and be h i g h e r .  of their  own n o r m e a n s  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , Health and Welfare DiviJ u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s , 1958, Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r s , O t t a w a , May,  I960, p T T : 2  Ibid.,  p . 9.  3 N.  Ju-  J a v i t s , J a c o b K., " T h e H e e d P . P . A . J o u r n a l , 1957, p. 213.  f o rPublic  Defenders",  - 56 -  of "borrowing funds. parents or guardians.  They must r e l y on the f i n a n c i a l resources of In cases of alleged neglect, i t i s unlikely  that parents would have the needed resources or the to use them.  Prom the observation  willingness  of experienced s o c i a l workers,  seldom i s t h i s charge l a i d where parents are i n the higher income bracket.  In cases of i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y , where the charge i s l a i d by  the parent or guardian, they c e r t a i n l y would not provide funds to the c h i l d for securing defence counsel. t e l y dependent on h i s own  resources.  Here the c h i l d i s comple-  The i n a b i l i t y of juveniles  to afford counsel emphasizes the r e a l need for l e g a l aid to be made available i f equality before the law i s to be ensured, and juvenile's l e g a l r i g h t s adequately  protected.  The fact that the large majority  of juveniles cannot  afford counsel takes on added significance i f we consider the economic class of the majority Court.  socio-  of juveniles appearing i n Juvenile  Bernard states that the majority  lower classes.  the  of juveniles are from the  She points out that t h i s does not mean that the rate  of delinquency i s necessarily greater i n these classes, but  that  a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour among lower class children more frequently r e s u l t s i n a court appearance than does the same behaviour on the part of middle or upper class children. I t i s perhaps most e s s e n t i a l that juveniles from the lower classes be provided the f u l l e s t measure of l e g a l safeguards  1  Bernard, J e s s i e , S o c i a l Problems at Mid-Century, Henry Holt and Co., New York, 1957, p. 417.  - 57 -  as  a conscious,  double the  c o r p o r a t e means o f a v o i d i n g  standard of j u s t i c e .  the i n e q u i t i e s o f a  The c o u r t may be l e d t o b e l i e v e  b e h a v i o u r o f t h e s e c h i l d r e n i s symptomatic  to a u t h o r i t y  or of personality  disturbance,  of a basic  that  hostility  when i n r e a l i t y  i t may  •i be  a manifestation  This  i s often  true  o f t h e v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s in,cases  o f sexual  of t h e i r c l a s s .  delinquencies.  The  court  may t h e n o r d e r d r a s t i c m e a s u r e s w h i c h i n f r i n g e on t h e r i g h t s o f t h e child ces  and h i s p a r e n t s ,  that  ostensibly  do n o t e x i s t .  to correct p e r s o n a l i t y  The c o u r t may f e e l  manner, b u t b y m a k i n g a n a d v e r s a r y  i ti s acting i n a helpful  a c t i o n i n court  out o f the  c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r , i t makes i t d i f f i c u l t  f o r the c h i l d  of  the court's  This  if  the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l  or  feel  i n t e r v e n t i o n as h e l p f u l .  i n perceiving  The c h i l d  the court's  will  to  perceive  i s especially  c l a s s does n o t d i s a p p r o v e  i t i s abnormal.  disturban-  true  of h i s behaviour  have f u r t h e r  difficulties  a d v e r s a r y a c t i o n as h e l p f u l , i f the c o u r t  d o e s n o t make e v e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f d e f e n d i n g h i m , i n e v e r y l e g a l way p o s s i b l e , class  from m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g ,  through the l a c k  class" c h i l d r e n are negatively a middle  class bias,  o f adequate l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n ,  exposed t o double  t h i s can give  that  t h e law e x i s t s f o r the b e n e f i t  only  result i n hostility  in  and  bias. If,  or  incorrect information  increased  op. c i t . , p.  417.  standards o f j u s t i c e  to or confirm  suspicions  o f the upper c l a s s e s .  towards s o c i e t y  a n t i - s o c i a l behaviour.  Bernard,  rise  This  lower  This can  and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , and a t t i t u d e towards  society  -  and  i t s authority  58  -  i s often reflected  S o c i a l w o r k e r s must be  concerned  w i t h any  behalf of s o c i e t y which i s l i k e l y s o c i a l behaviour all  on  i n succeeding  a c t i o n t a k e n on  to r e s u l t  t h e p a r t o f any  the  and  concern  f o r them.  Supplying  c o u n s e l to ensure  timum l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n w o u l d p r o v i d e c l e a r  the  i n increased anti-  group or c l a s s .  j u v e n i l e s w i t h competent d e f e n c e  interest  generations.  evidence  of  their  society's  T h i s w o u l d h e l p them p e r c e i v e  c o u r t as h e l p f u l r a t h e r t h a n h o s t i l e ;  vesting authority i n a positive,  i f firm,  a social  instrument i n -  quality.  J u v e n i l e s appear i n J u v e n i l e Court i n a v a r i e t y s i t u a t i o n s i n a d d i t i o n to s p e c i f i c pear  on  such  general juvenile  "sexual immorality". stand the  The  l e g a l nature  definition.  the l e g a l nature  juvenile  simply  charges  fully  exist  understand  p l e a i n answer t o such a l l e g a t i o n s nile  n e e d s someone t r a i n e d  before  the  c o u r t and  i n law  "catch-all"  t o r e p r e s e n t him  ponsibility guilty be  juvenile  f o r h i s own  to charges,  expected  i  the  to  the  i n court.  lack  of  No  The  implications  as  The  juof  Y e t , he  l e g a l nature  a  juve-  to h i s p o s i t i o n  The  need f o r coun-  that,  by  law,  a s n o t m a t u r e enough t o t a k e f u l l  actions.  understand.  to under-  code.  as i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y . t o c o u n s e l him  or  offenses.  criminal  the l e g a l  ap-  i n comprehending  s e l becomes e v e n more p a l p a b l e i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t society regards  loss  because o f t h e i r  i n the  of  They c a n  "incorrigibility"  i s a t a complete  of these i l l - d e f i n e d  cannot  charges.  would have d i f f i c u l t y  s u c h ambiguous p r o s c r i p t i o n s venile  criminal  o f f e n c e s as  of these  Even a lawyer  op-  res-  i s allowed to plead  o f w h i c h he  could not  possibly  -  59  -  S o c i a l workers are not nicalities  concerned  of p r o t e c t i o n of l e g a l r i g h t s , of these  ticularly  often hostile  adult world Juvenile officer  i s a g a i n s t them.  Court or the  child  life.  these  To  people  the who  strate his  and  to the  dignity  juvenile, represent No  one  no  juvenile  one  the  and  even the  a u t h o r i t y to  taken  him  and  legal rights,  probation es-  control  In  from reality,  from a misuse o f  the  advantage o f because of h i s  to safeguard  and  enhance  l e g a l aid provided  evidence  as-  a t a n g i b l e method o f p r o t e c t i n g h i s by  the  t h a t s o c i e t y does c a r e  state could  a b o u t him  and  him. s o c i a l w o r k e r o r - t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r may  attitude  was  d e l i n q u e n t because o f a c o u r t a c t i o n i n which h i s  were n o t  adequately  ker w i l l  be  towards the  unlikely  juvenile.  I f the  juvenile  have  "helping" found  in  i t must p r o v i d e more t h a n v e r b a l  interests  The  that  a p p e a r s t o p r o t e c t him  that i t i s prepared  as a human b e i n g ,  protecting  feel  par-  I f s o c i e t y s i n c e r e l y w i s h e s t o demon-  S o c i e t y must p r o v i d e  is  prosecutor  does d e f e n d  inexperience.  concrete  social  Adolescents,  the a u t h o r i t y of s o c i e t y .  surance.  f u r n i s h the  the  tech-  i s o f t e n confirmed  to a c q u i r e the  c o u r t ' s a u t h o r i t y , or from b e i n g ignorance  and  legal  w e l f a r e worker appear to c o l l a b o r a t e to  i n order  this i s often true.  rights.  This f e e l i n g  where t h e p o l i c e ,  tablish his guilt, his  are  the  but w i t h  consequences of the v i o l a t i o n the d e l i n q u e n t ,  with  p r o t e c t e d , the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r to e s t a b l i s h a r e l a t i o n s h i p  a  feels  he  rights  o r a g e n c y wor-  of confidence  with  him. Among t h e most f r u s t r a t i n g f a c t o r s w h i c h f a c e a p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r i n a t t e m p t i n g t o work c o n s t r u c t i v e l y w i t h a  - 60  -  convicted person, none seems more d i f f i c u l t to deal with than the attitude engendered i n the probationer by having been convicted without timely representation by experienced counsel. The s o c i a l worker, i n order to enhance s o c i a l functioning, must be concerned with the subjective feelings and attitudes of the juvenile.  I f , because of a lack of l e g a l counsel, the juvenile f e e l s  he has been unjustly treated by the court, i t may have as serious consequences as i f he were. commiting an assault may  A c h i l d found to be delinquent f o r  s t i l l believe he was acting i n s e l f -  defence; i n t h i s case, he would probably f e e l he was wrongly convicted.  As Judge Elwood Melson states: Unless the law i s correctly interpreted to them, i n t h e i r own minds^they are innocent and t h i s i s what we must deal with.  The s o c i a l worker or probation o f f i c e r i s not competent to i n t e r pret the law to the juvenile.  This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n can be done only  by counsel. Without l e g a l interpretation, many juveniles may,  and  undoubtedly do, plead g u i l t y to offences of which they are not legally guilty.  The juvenile may  f e e l he has assaulted someone,  whereas under the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the law, h i s act was defence.  self-  Thus the juvenile, through an ignorantly faulty plea,  brands himself a delinquent.  His self-image can change and he can  Brownell, Emery A., "Recent Developments i n l e g a l Aid and Defender Services", Federal Probation, March, 1959, p. 42. 2 Melson, Judge Elwood, "Delinquency and the Family Court", Federal Probation, March, 1959, p. 15.  -  regard ber  socially  counsel,  nificance plea.  -  h i m s e l f as a d e l i n q u e n t .  of this  legal  61  behaviour  o u t c a s t group.  assume t h e r o l e  o f charges,  and t h e r e b y  save t h e c h i l d  the l e g a l  h e l p him t o a v o i d making a  sig-  faulty  from wrongly d e c l a r i n g h i m s e l f de-  and f r o m p o s s i b l e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h of a delinquent  o f a mem-  I f t h e j u v e n i l e were s u p p l i e d  the c o u n s e l would h e l p him understand  This could  linquent  He may  sub-culture.  t h e a t t i t u d e s and  CHAPTER I I I ATTITUDES CONCERNING THE USE OP LEGAL A I D POR JUVENILES  Opinions  On M a k i n g L e g a l A i d A v a i l a b l e The  will  i n J u v e n i l e Court  development o f l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s f o r j u v e n i l e s  d e p e n d , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t , on t h e o p i n i o n s a n d a t t i t u d e s  h e l d by p r o f e s s i o n a l p e o p l e s o c i a l l y with children. particularly ges,  child  fessional were a s k e d  both  l e g a l l y and  The a t t i t u d e s h e l d b y s o c i a l  welfare workers,  as t o whether l e g a l  Court w i l l  who a r e c o n c e r n e d  a i d should  be most c r i t i c a l . opinions i n t h i s  lawyers  workers,  and J u v e n i l e Court  be made a v a i l a b l e  Jud-  i n Juvenile  I n order to obtain the current pro-  area,  those  included i n this  survey  the f o l l o w i n g questions  In your o p i n i o n , should l e g a l a i d , r e g a r d l e s s o f source, be made a v a i l a b l e t o j u v e n i l e s a p p e a r i n g i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t ? Tes No S p a c e was l e f t assured Table  f o rqualifying  comments and t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  o f a n o n y m i t y . . The o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d  agreement a s t o whether  s h o u l d be s u p p l i e d t o j u v e n i l e s .  those lable. twelve  are presented i n  4. T h e r e i s no d e c i s i v e  aid  were  A s l i g h t m a j o r i t y , 62.5$ o f  e x p r e s s i n g o p i n i o n s , were i n f a v o u r o f m a k i n g l e g a l Twenty a n s w e r e d e i t h e r y e s o r y e s w i t h a n s w e r e d e i t h e r no o r no w i t h  ponded t o t h e s u r v e y  d i d not express  legal  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and  qualifications.  T e n who  a n o p i n i o n on t h i s  Some o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s  aid avai-  res-  question.  who were i n f a v o u r  o f making  - 63  T a b l e 4.  -  P r o f e s s i o n a l O p i n i o n s On Whether l e g a l A i d S h o u l d Be Made A v a i l a b l e To J u v e n i l e s I n Canada: 1962  Agency-  Affirmative  Negative  No Answer  A  B  B  A  Attorney General Departments  1  2  0  1  3  law  2  0  1  1  4  Juvenile Court Judges  3  4  2  1  0  C h i l d Welfare Departments  2  2  1  0  2  Children's Aid Societies  2  2  3  2  1  10  10  7  5  10  Societies  Total  A -  unqualified  B - with q u a l i f i c a t i o n s (explained  i n text)  - 64  legal  aid available  qualified  to  -  juveniles  appearing  i n Juvenile  t h e i r o p i n i o n s w i t h comments s u c h a s :  f e n c e s , when n e e d e d , when t r a n s f e r s  to  criminal  Court,  " i n major court  of-  contem-  plated." Qualifying  comments by  some r e s p o n d e n t s n o t  o f making l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e were: only  i n major  no  p r o v i n c e or  All  three returns  aid  s h o u l d be  s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n i n opinions  region,  except i n the  from Manitoba  had  stated  been a n t i c i p a t e d  General Departments,  case of  Child  I t had  law  that  t o be aid  opinions. the  case.  As The  will  greatest  legal  Juvenile  Court  be  that  Children's  Aid  Judges  Juvenile  s o c i a l welfare  agencies,  S o c i e t i e s would  n o t e d i n T a b l e 4.,  give prove  t h r e e a g e n c i e s most i n f a v o u r o f m a k i n g  legal  Attorney  General Departments, J u v e n i l e  C h i l d Welfare Departments.  d i v i s i o n of  in  Attor-  t h i s d i d not  a v a i l a b l e were t h e  J u d g e s and  that  l e g a l respondents,  S o c i e t i e s and  a l s o been a n t i c i p a t e d  W e l f a r e D e p a r t m e n t s and  varied  ex-  Manitoba,  unqualifyingly  would unanimously f a v o u r making l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e Court.  cases,  made a v a i l a b l e .  It ney  " e x c e p t i n extreme  favour  offences".  T h e r e was p r e s s e d by  in  o p i n i o n s were law  The  agencies  that  S o c i e t i e s and  Court  showed  Children's  the Aid  Societies. This sity  of  feeling United  lack  o f agreement about the  legal aid i n Juvenile  Court i s i n contrast  concerning l e g a l aid i n criminal States  of  a d v i s a b i l i t y or  judges' a t t i t u d e s  cases.  A  w i t h the survey i n  towards l e g a l a i d i n  necesgeneral the  criminal  - 65  cases  showed 89$  f r a m e d by lawyers  the  -  advocating l e g a l a i d .  Canadian  a s k i n g f o r the  I n 1931,  B a r A s s o c i a t i o n was  a  petition  s i g n e d "by 500  establishment of a public  Ontario  defender  system.  2 Only  one  lawyer  r e f u s e d to s i g n .  Such overwhelming advocacy  l e g a l a i d f o r a d u l t s i s a f a r c r y from in  this  survey  It  suggests  c o n c e r n i n g the need f o r l e g a l a i d f o r  the  e x t e n t o f i t s powers, and  c o u n s e l i n such a c o u r t .  the J u v e n i l e Court has as the main purpose Court i s s t i l l  substituted rehabilitation  o f the  a legal  I t i s true that  juridical  process.  probation, committal  viewed  as punishment, r e g a r d l e s s o f the  these d i s p o s i t i o n s do  are  and  often constitute  guarding the  f u n c t i o n as a n t i c i p a t e d  C o u r t and  removal  from  propriety  theoretically  f o r punishment  h i s home a r e  c o u r t ' s statement  severe punishment.  juvenile's rights  The  the  To  To  the  usually that  In reality,  dispo-  p r o t e c t the  s a f e g u a r d s must be m a i n t a i n e d . i s not  i n o p p o s i t i o n to the  i n the J u v e n i l e Court  c o n f u s i o n concerning the nature  i t s need f o r defence  nature  However, t h e J u v e n i l e  " i n h i s best i n t e r e s t s " .  from u n j u s t punishment, l e g a l  social  juveniles.  i n s t i t u t i o n w i t h power t o p u n i s h .  child,  sitions  expressed  a great d e a l of c o n f u s i o n concerning the l e g a l  o f the J u v e n i l e Court, of defence  the disagreement  of  child Safe-  court's  legislation.  o f the J u v e n i l e  c o u n s e l as a n a i d t o p r e s e r v i n g  C e l l e s , E m a n u e l , " P u b l i c D e f e n d e r s - P r o and Con", The A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f C o r r e c t i o n s , M a r c h - A p r i l , I 9 6 0 , p . 10.  2"  Jones, R e v i e w , V o l . 9,  J . E . , " l e g a l A i d P o r The 1939, p. 272.  Poor",  Canadian  Bar  - 66  justice  i n i t s proceedings  comments a c c o m p a n y i n g t h e One aid  s h o u l d be  way,  legal  graphically  e v i d e n t from  s u p p l i e d but  o f comment was  only i n serious cases.  be  s u p p l i e d except  j u v e n i l e has  been found  same powers o f d i s p o s i t i o n , portunity  e x i s t s i n a l l types  c o u n s e l , must be  sult ciple  i n the  child  behind  counsel,  "getting  a l l legal  a principle  o f f on a l e g a l  safeguards,  i n n o c e n t p e r s o n be  highly valued  i s h i g h l y probable  w o u l d be  a i d " i s too  in British  have committed a " d e l i n q u e n c y " . d r e n would not fence  technical"  be  found  ment o p p o s i n g  it.  the u s u a l p r o c e s s e s safeguards  the use  be  of  t o com-  was  The  prin-  defence go  free  T h i s has  a i d more  However, t h e f a c t  behaviour  dispensed  court's  might r e -  persons  Some o f t h o s e  enjoyed  been  juveniles  a c q u i t t e d might t h a t more proper  chil-  legal  a i d , r a t h e r than  i s not  s a n c t i o n e d u n d e r t h e law,  should not  op-  jurisprudence f o r centuries.  supporting l e g a l  If a child's  and  convicted.  d e l i n q u e n t i f they  i s a s t r o n g argument  the  equal  access  technicality".  t h a t w i t h adequate l e g a l  a c q u i t t e d than at present.  As  opposed t o l e g a l a i d  including  unjustly  basis  child.  i s that i t i s better that several guilty  t h a n t h a t one  It  legal  offence.  i n c l u d i n g ready  those  Some  c o u r t has  f o r the abuse o f the  to every  A n o t h e r comment made by  another  remembered  d e l i n q u e n t , the  of cases  available  that i n J u v e n i l e Court,  the  legal  on t h i s  I t must be  r e g a r d l e s s o f the  wide powers, a l l p o s s i b l e s a f e g u a r d s , petent  Stated  of p r o v i d i n g l e g a l a i d i n J u v e n i l e Court  once t h e  that  i n serious cases.  have been d i s c u s s e d i n p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . that  some o f  opinion question.  o f t h e most f r e q u e n t t y p e  a i d need not  implications  was  -  the  found  argu-  culpable  customary  de-  by  legal  w i t h i n order to a l l o w the  court  - 67 -  to use a r b i t r a r y  procedures  f o rdeclaring  Such a r b i t r a r i n e s s might.provide  the c h i l d  an expedient  delinquent.  means whereby  pro-  b a t i o n d e p a r t m e n t s and s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e a u t h o r i z e d t o e x e c u t e t h e i r presumably b e n e f i c i a l  treatment  s o c i a l worker's h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p such  s h o u l d be g r a n t e d however,  only i f the c h i l d  h i s parents determine and t h e c h i l d  o f the charge fence before difficult trates. hinge  l e g a l a i d , some s t a t e d i t  pleads not g u i l t y .  how t o p l e a d . cannot  They p o i n t e d o u t t h a t o f -  understand  the l e g a l  the law.  legal  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f c u l p a b i l i t y  t a s k f o r e v e n t h e most c o m p e t e n t l a w y e r s  and b e h a v i o u r .  findings  o f innocence  with i t s legal  technicalities,  between a s s a u l t  or g u i l t  i t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e c h i l d defend  him-  Even w i t h c o u n s e l , the d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a p l e a  judgment among c o m p e t e n t  of professional  lawyers.  I n a l l o w i n g an appeal  from  a conviction i n theJ u -  C o u r t , Mr. J u s t i c e Manson o f t h e Supreme C o u r t  Columbia s t a t e d :  and m a g i s -  and s e l f - d e f e n c e ,  c a n be c o n f u s i n g and o p e n t o s i n c e r e d i f f e r e n c e s  venile  i s a very  interpretation of  c o u n s e l t o know how t o p l e a d , much l e s s  adequately.  i s an o f -  T h i n k i n g b a c k t o t h e example p r e v i o u s l y u s e d  the l e g a l d i f f e r e n c e  legal  significance  n o r c a n t h e y know i f t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r  t o a l a r g e d e g r e e on t h e t e c h n i c a l l e g a l  without  Others,  a i d was n e e d e d most i n h e l p i n g t h e c h i l d  I n c r i m i n a l proceedings,  involving  self  i s e s t a b l i s h e d on t h e use o f  t h o s e who a d v o c a t e d  stated that legal  ten parents  law  I fthe  e x p e d i e n t m e t h o d s , i t i s doomed t o f a i l u r e . Of  and  p l a n s on t h e c h i l d .  of B r i t i s h  -  68 -  I t d o e s n o t f o l l o w t h a t a c h i l d s h o u l d a l w a y s be a s k e d t o p l e a d when c h a r g e d w i t h a d e l i n q u e n c y . R e g a r d must be h a d f o r t h e age o f t h e c h i l d and h i s m e n t a l i t y a n d the nature o f the delinquency charged. Obviously the c o u r t may v e r y p r o p e r l y a s k a n o r m a l 1 6 - y e a r o l d , h i g h s c h o o l boy charged w i t h the d e l i n q u e n c y o f h a v i n g s t o l e n a b i c y c l e (or other a c t o f a d e f i n i t e i l l e g a l c h a r a c t e r ) . t o plead; but j u s t as o b v i o u s l y , the c o u r t o u g h t n o t t o a s k a "boy o f 8 o r 9 t o p l e a d , no m a t t e r what d e l i n q u e n c y i s charged.'' Rather  than l e a v e t h e d e c i s i o n as t o whether a c h i l d  s h o u l d be  asked  t o make a plea,' t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e o p i n i o n o f t h e j u d g e ,  based  on such v a r i a b l e s  charge, of  no j u v e n i l e  a s a g e , m a t u r i t y and t e c h n i c a l i t y o f  s h o u l d be a s k e d  service,  opinions concerning the d e s i r a b i l i t y  there i s the danger t h a t respondents'  n i o n s may be a d e f e n c e are presented the  the advice  counsel. When s o l i c i t i n g  of  to plead without  o f the s e r v i c e s they  respondents'  s e r v i c e s they p r o v i d e .  General Departments,  Child  expressed  provide.  I n Table  o p i n i o n s on l e g a l a i d c o r r e l a t e d The r e s p o n d i n g Welfare  opi5.  with  a g e n c i e s were A t t o r n e y  Departments, law S o c i e t i e s and  Children's A i d Societies. I t had been a n t i c i p a t e d legal  a i d s e r v i c e s would almost  legal  a i davailable  the in  case.  t h a t t h o s e who d i d n o t h a v e  u n a n i m o u s l y be o p p o s e d t o m a k i n g  i n J u v e n i l e Court.  T h i s d i d n o t prove  Of t h o s e who d i d n o t h a v e s e r v i c e a v a i l a b l e ,  f a v o u r o f making l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e  However, s e v e n who h a d no l e g a l  t o be  s i x were  a n d o n l y two were  opposed.  s e r v i c e s d i d not express an  P e p l e r , E . , "The J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t A c t , o f t h e C a n a d i a n B a r A s s o c i a t i o n , 1952, p . 195.  1929", Y e a r b o o k  - 69 -  T a b l e 5.  P r o f e s s i o n a l O p i n i o n s on Whether L e g a l A i d S h o u l d Be Made A v a i l a b l e t o J u v e n i l e s , Compared w i t h S e r v i c e s A v a i l a b l e f r o m R e s p o n d i n g A g e n c i e s i n Canada i n I960 ( t o t a l r e s p o n d i n g a g e n c i e s - 30)  — j  Opinions  No S e r v i c e A v a i l a b l e  Service Provided  |  "Available" Not  Provided  Affirmative  3  3  1  Affirmative with Qualifications  3  2  1  Negative with Qualifications  0  2  3  Negative  2  0  2  No A n s w e r  7  1  0  - 70 -  opinion. services had  This  i s i n contrast  a v a i l a b l e and  to  the  one  r e s p o n d e n t who  c u r i o u s l y , d i d not  a l s o been a n t i c i p a t e d  that  t h o s e who  e x p r e s s an had  did  have  opinion.  legal aid  It  services  would almost unanimously f a v o u r making l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e to veniles. stated  Thissgain,  t h e y had  d i d not  legal aid  p r o v e t o be  services  o f m a k i n g l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e , and there  was  provided that  I960, and  legal aid i n  m a k i n g l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e , two that  stated  vide  any  t h e y had  service The  in  legal aid  opinions  dents to  justify  Opinions  on  the  t h e i r agency's  favour  However, those  d i d not.  the  Of  who  who  agencies  I960, f i v e were i n f a v o u r o f  services  expressed  those  e x p r e s s e d by  were o p p o s e d .  I960, o n l y two  Of  s e v e n were o p p o s e d .  t h o s e who  some l e g a l a i d i n  case.  a v a i l a b l e , s e v e n were i n  a marked d i f f e r e n c e i n o p i n i o n s  did provide  opposed.  the  ju-  Of  the  agencies  a v a i l a b l e , but  were i n f a v o u r and  d i d not five  i n d i c a t e a tendency f o r  pro-  were  respon-  actions.  Competence o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s t o S a f e g u a r d  Legal  Rights Since the the  s o c i a l worker's entrance i n t o  been c o n t r o v e r s y relation  to  tain  current  in  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the  the  the  as  to  the  protection  the  work o f  Juvenile the  court,  s o c i a l w o r k e r ' s r o l e and o f the  professional  t h i s s u r v e y were a s k e d t h e  child's rights.  opinions following  and  there  function In  i n t h i s area, question:  Court  in  order to those  has  ob-  included  - 71  -  I n y o u r o p i n i o n , d o e s t h e use o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , s o c i a l workers or other w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l , i n connect i o n w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e ' s c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e , a c t as s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l safeguard to the j u v e n i l e ' s r i g h t s ? Yes No Space was  left  o f anonymity.  for qualifying  comments and  Answers to t h i s  T h e r e i s no  respondents  question are presented  a g r e e m e n t as  were  assured 6.  i n Table  t o w h e t h e r t h e use  of  social  1  workers  adequately  t h e r e was total  press  a n s w e r e d no, opinions.  workers are qualified  o r no  with  Some o f t h e  Qualifying  comments by  s o c i a l workers are not  tation available,  are  T h e r e was s e d by  province  are  significant  distributed  from the  as:  ex-  social rights  " I n most  cases,  who  "Unless  stated  legal  consul-  d i f f e r e n c e i n opinions p a r t s o f Canada.  throughout  types  and  cases."  they represent,  two  A  i n serious offences."  competent were:  main p r o f e s s i o n a l d i s c i p l i n e s the respondents  stated that  some r e s p o n d e n t s  or between d i f f e r e n t  opinions expressed  Of  except  do.  Twelve d i d not  juvenile's legal  c o m p e t e n t i n most no  who  comments s u c h  orientation,  although  qualifications,  qualifications.  the  rights,  o p i n i o n t h a t they  respondents  opinions with  a social  the  or yes w i t h  competent t o s a f e g u a r d  their  c o u r t has  that  juvenile's legal  a m a j o r i t y which expressed  o f e i g h t e e n answered yes,  twelve  if  p r o t e c t s the  The  a l l agencies  expresvarious and  s o c i a l work and  of welfare  agencies,  the law.  Child  1  To f a c i l i t a t e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f a n s w e r s t o t h e above q u e s t i o n , t h e w o r d s " s o c i a l w o r k e r " w i l l be u s e d i n s t e a d o f " p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , s o c i a l workers or other welfare p e r s o n n e l " . However, i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s and o t h e r w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l a r e not n e c e s s a r i l y always q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l workers.  - 72  T a b l e 6.  -  P r o f e s s i o n a l O p i n i o n s on Whether S o c i a l W o r k e r s a r e Competent t o P r o t e c t J u v e n i l e s ' L e g a l R i g h t s , Canada: 1962  Agency-  Affirmative  Negative  No  Answer  A  B  B  A  Attorney General Departments  1  0  0  2  4  law  1  3  0  0  4  2  1  2  4  1  Child Welfare Departments  2  2  0  1  2  Children's Aid Societies  4  2  1  2  1  10  8  3  9  12  Societies  j Juvenile !Court I Judges  Total  A -  unqualified  B - qualified  (explained  i n text)  i  - 73  W e l f a r e D e p a r t m e n t s and  Children's  workers adequately p r o t e c t stated  t h e y do  not.  It Attorney  had  the  Of  the  le's  r i g h t s , two  not  e x p r e s s any  f r o m law legal kers  Societies stated  safeguard are  majority  to  the  of Juvenile  three  opinion were o f  the  The sufficient general Juvenile  that  l e g a l r i g h t s of  s o c i a l workers are  opinion  that  safeguards to  t o what a r e  Court.  This  confusion  appropriate not  the  as  the  opinion  legal  not  Depart-  that  and  four  respondents  sufficient social  wor-  opinion. social  Six  sufficient  juveni-  The  workers  j u d g e s were safeguards,  to whether s o c i a l workers  juvenile's rights reflects  their was  legitimate  evident  i n the  functions varied  in  are the the  comments  question. believed  safeguards,  t r a i n e d to advise  the  prove  are.  a g r e e m e n t as  R e s p o n d e n t s who  is  they  confusion  accompanying  not,  e x p r e s s any  juveniles.  suffici-  protect  Pour s t a t e d  think  not  General  s o c i a l workers are not  d i d not  four  Court  d i d not  S u r p r i s i n g l y , none o f  Court Judges d i d not  lack of  legal  This  u n q u a l i f y i n g l y t h e y do  juvenile's rights.  the  that  s o c i a l workers are  s o c i a l w o r k e r s do  adequate safeguard, f o u r  adequately protect o f the  opinion.  social  respondents,  Juvenile  r e s p o n d e n t s from A t t o r n e y  stated  stated  opinion.  legal  juvenile's legal rights.  unqualifyingly stated  did  the  S o c i e t i e s and  state that  m e n t s , one legal  e x p r e s s any  been a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t  to the  case.  Societies, ten  j u v e n i l e ' s l e g a l r i g h t s , and  G e n e r a l Departments, law  safeguard  t o be  the  Aid  Three d i d not  Judges would unanimously ent  -  pointed  clients  s o c i a l workers cannot out  i n law,  that nor  the  i s he  social  provide worker  t r a i n e d t o know  - 74 -  what a r e t h e j u v e n i l e ' s state the  that  legal  rights.  t h e r e i s no l e g i t i m a t e  s o c i a l worker i n t h e J u v e n i l e  These r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t  place  o r a r e a o f competence f o r  Court, but that  their  competence i s n o t t h e l e g a l p r o t e c t i o n o f r i g h t s . of  the functions o f court personnel,  view.  The p r o f e s s i o n a l  terpretations tions  Some r e s p o n d e n t s p o i n t e d w i t n e s s e s and p o l i c e This,  o f course,  safeguard  out that  are the proper  point  o f view.  legal  the l e g a l  rights.  t h e s o c i a l worker could  the  c h i l d , i f he f e l t  agencies  always o b t a i n l e g a l  However, b e c a u s e t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i s n o t t r a i n e d decision  ofthe pointed  counsel f o r  h e was n o t s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e c h i l d ' s  c a n n o t a l w a y s make a v a l i d  The s o -  seek t o s o l i c i t  significance  S e v e r a l respondents from c h i l d - c a r i n g  are being  believed  b e h a v i o u r from a s o c i a l , n o t a  not to establish  that  rights  func-  s o c i a l workers can cross-examine  Q u e s t i o n s he w o u l d a s k w o u l d  out  rights.  in-  worker.  t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i s n o t competent t o do.  social information, behaviour.  the c h i l d ' s  this  f o r t h e c h i l d and t h u s p r o t e c t h i s r i g h t s .  worker l o o k s a t the c h i l d ' s  legal  he  activities,  technical  were g i v e n "by r e s p o n d e n t s who  s o c i a l workers adequately  cial  i n Chapter I, agrees with  and competencies o f t h e l a w y e r , n o t t h e s o c i a l Varied rationale  that  The d i s c u s s i o n  protection of legal rights,  o f law and r e l a t e d  p l a c e and  legal i n law,  as t o whether t h e c h i l d ' s  safeguarded, n o r i f the s e r v i c e s  o f a lawyer are  mandatory. One  o f t h e most common r a t i o n a l e  w o r k e r , b e c a u s e he i s i n t e r e s t e d child,  will  automatically protect  was t h a t  the s o c i a l  i n the t o t a l well-being o fthe the c h i l d ' s  rights.  Motivation  - 75 -  and  s i n c e r i t y , however, a r e n o t t h e m a t t e r s a t i s s u e .  w o r k e r may be i n t e r e s t e d , qualified the  i n t e r e s t e d .in the w e l l - b e i n g  The same r a t i o n a l e  of the c h i l d  t e c t i o n o f the juvenile's judge.  I t i s true  that  has  long  been accepted  the opinion  a legally trained  defendant's l e g a l r i g h t s . that  the services  added measure o f a s s u r a n c e t h a t  be  protected.  the pro-  judge i s a b l e  ofthe to protect  o f defence counsel  the c l i e n t ' s lawful  offer  rights  will  The j u d g e must a t a l l t i m e s m a i n t a i n a n a t t i t u d e  o f detachment and i m p a r t i a l i t y .  He c a n n o t , a s d e f e n c e c o u n s e l c a n ,  i n the i n t e r e s t o f the defendant. There would  and u n e x p e c t e d  a p p e a r t o be s e v e r a l  opinions  explanations f o r the  o b t a i n e d i n t h i s study, b o t h as t o  w h e t h e r l e g a l a i d s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e  i n Juvenile  C o u r t and  t o whether s o c i a l workers a r e adequate l e g a l safeguards t o j u v e -  nile's  rights. The  Juvenile  C o u r t i s a r e l a t i v e l y new a n d n o v e l  of i n s t i t u t i o n which has n o t r e c e i v e d North America  form  comprehensive a p p r a i s a l .  In  t h e r e has been a tendency t o emphasize t h e s o c i a l  purpose o f t h e J u v e n i l e as  that  However, i n j u d i c i a l p r a c t i c e , i t  an  totally  and knows t h e c h i l d  r i g h t s depends on t h e a t t i t u d e  the  as  might  attention.  Some r e s p o n d e n t s e x p r e s s e d  varied  including  t h e s o c i a l worker removing a c h i l d ' s a p p e n d i x because he  needs m e d i c a l  act  and t h e r e f o r e n o t  t o s a t i s f y d i r e c t l y e v e r y need o f t h e c h i l d ,  c h i l d ' s needs f o r l e g a l s e r v i c e s .  justify is  b u t he i s n o t t r a i n e d  The s o c i a l  Court to the point  a s p e c i a l i z e d "welfare  agency", r a t h e r  that  i t i s often  than a court  regarded  o f law.  - 76 -  Even lawyers still they  hold this  v i e w and t h e r e f o r e a r e a d v e r s e  have a f u n c t i o n i n t h i s  "welfare  agency".  a r e n o t c o m p e t e n t t o make s o c i a l d i a g n o s e s  to f e e l  Lawyers  they  realize  o r c a r r y out t r e a t -  ment p l a n s .  They f o r g e t , a s d o e s t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c ,  venile  i s a c o u r t o f l a w , w i t h w i d e powers t h a t must be b a -  Court  l a n c e d by a d e q u a t e l e g a l  safeguards.  Lawyers have a c c e p t e d  s o c i a l workers f u n c t i o n i n g i n J u v e n i l e Court best  interests  of the c h i l d "  workers a r e n o t q u a l i f i e d even i n the J u v e n i l e  act  i n their  field,  agencies  questions  social  the c h i l d ' s  have d e v e l o p e d  and have c o n v i n c e d  " f o r t h e good o f t h e c h i l d " .  around  safeguard  that  rights,  Court.  Many c h i l d - c a r i n g rest  that  are a c t i n g i n "the  and have n o t c o n s i d e r e d  to legally  that the J u -  of c i v i l  rights  Blind  vested  inte-  themselves t h a t they s p o t s have been  and l i b e r t i e s .  always  developed  Under p r e s s u r e o f  work t h e r e h a s b e e n no a n a l y z a t i o n o f t h e d e e p e r i m p l i c a t i o n s a n d consequences  of violations  needed t o p r o t e c t l e g a l process, is  of rights.  rights,  Precautionary  including  measures,  t h e s e c u r i n g o f due l e g a l  a r e v i e w e d a s cumbersome and i n e f f i c i e n t .  Defence  o f t e n p e r c e i v e d as an impediment t o speedy d i s p o s i t i o n s  venile  Court  as  t o appear i n J u v e n i l e Court,  i ti s realized  test  that their  o f due l e g a l p r o c e s s  c i a l workers f e e l present  i n Ju-  cases. Many s o c i a l w o r k e r s w o u l d u n d o u b t e d l y n o t w i s h  counsel  counsel  particularly  t h a t , i n J u v e n i l e Court  i n the i n t e r e s t s  i n neglect  i n f o r m a t i o n would n o t l i k e l y  nor the s c r u t i n y  o f the c h i l d  defence  o f defence proceedings,  cases,  stand the  counsel.  So-  they a r e  and t h e r e f o r e do n o t f e e l  that  - 77  legal  safeguards  unjustly in  found  are necessary  -  to p r o t e c t the c h i l d  delinquent or neglected.  g e n e r a l , f a m i l i a r w i t h c o u r t s and  the J u v e n i l e C o u r t has sequently,  they  f a r wider  not,  t h e r e f o r e do n o t r e a l i z e  powers t h a n any  powers.  being  S o c i a l workers are  o v e r l o o k the need f o r defence  the J u v e n i l e Court's wide  from  other court.  c o u n s e l to  that Con-  balance  CHAPTER I V APPRAISALS AND  Findings Revealed and  i n t h e S t u d y a n d Some o f T h e i r I m p l i c a t i o n s  Consequences The  no  PROPOSAIS  legal  appearing  findings  indicate  a i d services available i n J u v e n i l e Court,  t o be a v a i l a b l e ,  they  f o r the large majority o f juveniles  b u t where l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s a r e s a i d  a r e seldom u s e d .  ted i n p a u c i t y o f defence  these  are l i m i t e d  the  juvenile's  are a v a i l a b l e  c o u r t appearance, o r both.  of cases, but i t i s very  stated  What l i m i t e d s e r v i c e s  service  c a n be  t o be a v a i l a b l e  s l i g h t m a j o r i t y o f respondents  s e v e r a l o f those  and n o n - c r i m i n a l  i nthe  seldom s u p p l i e d .  l e g a l a i d s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e  ever,  area o r the nature o f  a r e o f t e n s u p p l i e d by l a w s t u d e n t s  P o r wards, l e g a l a i d i s s a i d  A that  geographic  In the  some l e g a l s e r v i c e s  whose competence t o p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e  questioned. majority  by e i t h e r  offer  i s reflec-  In a l lof  p r o v i d e d by s t a t u t e .  p r o v i n c e s , the law S o c i e t i e s  but  lawyers,  This deficiency  counsel i n J u v e n i l e Court.  Canada, t h e r e i s no l e g a l d e f e n c e f i v e western  t h a t n o t o n l y a r e t h e r e few o r  were o f t h e o p i n i o n  i n J u v e n i l e Court.  How-  i n f a v o u r o f making l e g a l a i d a v a i l a b l e  t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t be g r a n t e d  i n a l l types  of cases.  A more  s u b s t a n t i a l m a j o r i t y b e l i e v e d t h a t s o c i a l workers are s u f f i c i e n t legal  safeguard  addition  to the j u v e n i l e ' s rights i n J u v e n i l e Court.  to the opinions expressed,  In  t h e comments and l e t t e r s  - 79 -  received  substantiate  that,  i n general,  t i n c t i o n made b e t w e e n t h e l e g a l  i s a lack of d i s -  and s o c i a l a s p e c t s o f t h e J u v e n i l e  C o u r t and t h e l e g i t i m a t e f u n c t i o n s court  there  a n d a r e a s o f competence o f  personnel. The i  study i s that  obvious i m p l i c a t i o n f o r the c h i l d  seldom i s d e f e n c e c o u n s e l  tection of his c i v i l Court.  i n this  a v a i l a b l e t o ensure the p r o -  r i g h t s a n d l i b e r t i e s when he a p p e a r s i n J u v e n i l e  The s t u d y h a s a l r e a d y  detrimental  revealed  pointed  consequences f o r the c h i l d  o u t many o f t h e l e s s  obvious  r e s u l t i n g from a d e a r t h o f  legal a i d services. The believing  study revealed  safeguards are necessary.  valent  among c o u r t  Court,  the child  civil  Court  t h e y a r e a c t i n g f o r t h e good o f t h e c h i l d ,  normal l e g a l  his  t h a t many J u v e n i l e  personnel,  do n o t f e e l  With such an a t t i t u d e  s t a f f and w i t h t h e w i d e powers o f t h e J u v e n i l e  appearing without defence counsel  r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s  must o f t e n  c h i l d ' s perceptions  will  likely  cult  f o r the c h i l d  are  have  unjustly curtailed.  H a v i n g b e e n d e a l t w i t h u n j u s t l y by t h e J u v e n i l e the  pre-  of adults, adult  be g r e a t l y d i s t o r t e d .  Court,  s o c i e t y and i t s a u t h o r i t y  S u c h d i s t o r t i o n s make i t d i f f i -  t o i d e n t i f y w i t h those  standards of s o c i e t y  that  n e c e s s a r y t o e n s u r e n o r m a l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and r e s p o n s i b i -  lities. Similarly, welfare  the c h i l d ' s perception  personnel i s l i k e l y  t o be d i s t o r t e d .  of court  The c h i l d w i l l  v i e w t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r w i t h s u s p i c i o n and m i s t r u s t a h e l p f u l person.  Consequently,  the c h i l d  and c h i l d  will  rather  likely  than as  n o t be a b l e  to enter  - 80 -  into  a therapeutic  of help.  r e l a t i o n s h i p , nor accept  The c h i l d w i l l  probably  even a s i n c e r e  generalize  h i s view o f s o c i a l  w o r k e r s a n d be u n a b l e t o s e e k o r u s e t h e i r h e l p Through the d i s r e g a r d ticularly similar  i n neglect  conditions  to p r o t e c t are  him.  often placed  conditions, committal  ferred  i n second r a t e h o t e l s ,  which can lead  t o an i n d u s t r i a l  of h i s social  i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y dedicated  A c t and due l e g a l p r o c e s s ,  feel  that  severe,  receive  any s a n c t i o n  Court  De-  trans-  sentence.  so r e a d i l y  indictments  With  have h i s  rescinded.  of the current  atti-  t o w a r d s t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f r i g h t s comes Many f i f t e e n  a greater  and s i x t e e n y e a r o l d s r e knowing t h a t  measure o f j u s t i c e .  h a n d e d down i n c r i m i n a l c o u r t  i n terms o f c u r t a i l m e n t  they would r e c e i v e  The  a c r i m i n a l r e c o r d and  of prison  q u e s t t o be t r a n s f e r r e d t o c r i m i n a l c o u r t , they w i l l  living  often results i n the  t h e j u v e n i l e would n o t l i k e l y  staff  j u v e n i l e s , themselves.  court,  comparable  the j u v e n i l e i s often  experience  t o be d e a l t w i t h i n J u v e n i l e  Court  school  He t h u s a c q u i r e s  defence counsel,  tudes o f J u v e n i l e  or other  o f the i n t e n t o f the Juvenile  One o f t h e s t r o n g e s t  from  committed t o  disfunctioning.  may a l s o h a v e t h e d e v a s t a t i n g  right  i s often  par-  t o a n t i - s o c i a l modes o f a d j u s t m e n t .  to criminal court.  qualified  safeguards,  Due t o t h e s h o r t a g e o f f o s t e r homes, t e e n - a g e wards  Through a d i s r e g a r d linquents  the c h i l d  from which the court  of the child  aggravation  i n the f u t u r e .  o f normal l e g a l  proceedings,  offer  i n Juvenile  of liberty, Court.  i n this They  also  w i l l be l e s s  than the d i s p o s i t i o n  - 81 -  T h e r e must be many a d u l t s who spend a portion hibit  of their  other  The  t h a t had t h e i r  of their  civil  r i g h t s and l i b e r t i e s  c a n be t h e v i o l a t i o n  standing  o r mental i n s t i t u t i o n s  problem i n i t i a t e d  consequences t o the c h i l d  counsel  living.  the expenditure  only zed  the cost  i n Juvenile  t o cope w i t h  of vast  to forty  years  of h i s l i f e  t h i s a-  With such consequences t o t h e c h i l d  the  outcome o f t h e c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e - a l l s a f e g u a r d s p r o t e c t t h e l e g a l r i g h t s and c i v i l  and e c o n o m i c - d e t e r m i n e d b y  liberties  must be t a k e n  o f t h e c h i l d and  parents. One study  private, provide and  If  institutionali-  i s considered,  t h e community, b o t h h u m a n i t a r i a n  this  both  are staggering.  and  his  the normal de-  r e s p o n s i b l e member o f s o c i e t y  amounts o f f u n d s ,  mounts t o w e l l o v e r $100,000.  to  o f defence  The c o n s e q u e n c e s t o t h e community,  t o t h e community o f k e e p i n g a p e r s o n  f o rthirty  Court.  o f r i g h t s w h i c h may l e a d t o l o n g -  terms o f the l o s s o f a p o t e n t i a l l y  and  o r who e x -  o r a g g r a v a t e d by t h e  of the u n a v a i l a b i l i t y  u n h a p p i n e s s and t h e i n a b i l i t y  mands o f s o c i a l in  i n penal  signs of deteriorated s o c i a l functioning or personal  inadequacy, violation  lives  considerable  o f the obvious i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the f i n d i n g s o f  i s that  c h i l d - c a r i n g agencies  are not f u l f i l l i n g  i n Canada, b o t h p u b l i c a n d  t h e i r m o r a l and l e g a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o  f o r t h e needs o f t h e i r wards.  Departments o f C h i l d  Welfare  C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s have b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e  care  t o c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s  give  this  care.  These a g e n c i e s  total  a r e e i t h e r u n w i l l i n g or unable t o are responsible  l e g i t i m a t e needs o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r  care  f o r seeing  a r e met.  that a l l  However,  this  -  82  -  study has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t wards seldom r e c e i v e needed l e g a l  ser-  v i c e s , when t h e y a p p e a r i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t . There are s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s S o c i a l Work r e v e a l e d i n t h i s cing  i n J u v e n i l e Court  and c h i l d  the f u n c t i o n s o f lawyers. or  competent  workers  justify  defence  These  of the c h i l d ,  religious  problem r e q u i r i n g  insist  specific  "for their  concerned  busi-  own g o o d " .  with the t o t a l  that those  professional  d e a l t w i t h by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o f e s s i o n .  aspects  well-  o f the  competence be  I n t h e case  of securing  the  juvenile's  the  c o u r t , t h e a p p r o p r i a t e p r o f e s s i o n a l competence w h i c h i s r e q u -  isite  civil  are acting " i n  l e a d e r s o r t h e contemporary  "rough-shod" over people  they w i l l  social  S u c h s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e no b e t -  s o c i a l workers are i n t e l l i g e n t l y  child's  counsel.  o f l e g a l f u n c t i o n s and condone t h e  of the c h i l d " .  ness leaders r i d i n g  being  are usurping  a i d s e r v i c e s on t h e grounds t h a t they  than the medieval  practi-  They d i s r e g a r d t h a t t h e y a r e n o t t r a i n e d  their usurping  the b e s t i n t e r e s t s  If  Many s o c i a l w o r k e r s  welfare agencies,  t o a c t as q u a l i f i e d  lack of legal  ter  study.  f o r the p r o f e s s i o n o f  r i g h t s when h i s f u t u r e i s a t s t a k e  i s that belonging  to the lawyer.  Many s o c i a l w o r k e r s a p p e a r e d spots around as  questions of c i v i l  these p e r t a i n to c h i l d r e n .  c i a l workers cannot m e t h o d s when t h i s  be c o n t e n t  rights  t o have d e v e l o p e d  and l i b e r t i e s ,  Philosophically  rights.  t h e w o r t h and d i g n i t y  blind  particularly  and e t h i c a l l y , s o -  t o be " d o i n g good" by  involves the s a c r i f i c e  won a n d l o n g v a l u e d c i v i l thus, denies  before  expedient  of the i n d i v i d u a l ' s  hard  Por s o c i a l workers t o f u n c t i o n o f t h e human b e i n g ,  and v i o l a t e s  - 83 -  the  basic  e t h i c a l values  o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n o f S o c i a l Work.  p r a c t i t i o n e r who p r o p o s e s t h e o b t a i n m e n t individually  or c o l l e c t i v e l y ,  without  o f human w e l f a r e ,  Any either  j u s t i c e does a d i s s e r v i c e  t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n and e x p o s e s t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o p u b l i c r e a c t i o n against  i t s disregard If  disclaim, court the  of c i v i l  the p r o f e s s i o n i s to v i n d i c a t e i t s e l f  welfare  p r a c t i c e which uphold  ture  r i g h t s and  R e s u l t i n g From The S t u d y confusion  o f the Juvenile  This  study  should  the l e g a l  as t o t h e l e g a l  study  make d e f i n i t e  jurisdiction  o f t h e J u v e n i l e C o u r t be u n d e r t a k e n . r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s a s t o what  and p r o c e d u r e s o f t h e J u v e n i l e  how i t s s o c i a l p u r p o s e s s h o u l d should  sibilities  also delineate  Court personnel.  completed, i t s f i n d i n g s should  venile  Court.  the N a t i o n a l  venile  1959,  t o be b i n d i n g  and r e s p o n -  into Juvenile  o n a l l t h o s e who f u n c t i o n w i t h i n  and P a r o l e  Court Act",  Association  of these.  When s u c h a s t u d y i s  be i n c o r p o r a t e d  The " S t a n d a r d J u v e n i l e Probation  roles, functions  should  Court,  be c a r r i e d o u t i n l i g h t  the s p e c i f i c  o f the J u v e n i l e  legislation,  s t r u c t u r e and s o c i a l n a -  C o u r t makes i t h i g h l y d e s i r a b l e t h a t a r e -  a p p r a i s a l and d e f i n i t i v e  It  the c i v i l  d i g n i t y o f men.  The  and  from p u b l i c  i t must e s t a b l i s h s t a n d a r d s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n d u c t i n  and c h i l d  Proposals  be  rights.  1  Court the J u -  as d e v e l o p e d by  could  be u s e d a s  N a t i o n a l P r o b a t i o n and P a r o l e A s s o c i a t i o n , " S t a n d a r d J u C o u r t A c t " , N. P. P. A. J o u r n a l , V o l . 5, No. 4, O c t o b e r , PP.  324 - 391.  - 84 -  a model f o r the r e - a p p r a i s a l o f the J u v e n i l e This dearth  of legal  Private  study has r e v e a l e d  organizations,  donating  legal  there  a i d f o r j u v e n i l e s appearing  i s a widespread  i n Juvenile  because o f a l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s  o f meeting t h e need f o r l e g a l yers  that  C o u r t i n Canada.  Court.  are incapable  a i d on a c o m p r e h e n s i v e b a s i s .  Law-  f r e e t i m e and s e r v i c e s c a n n o t be e x p e c t e d t o make  a i davailable to a l l juveniles. Some f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t i n t e r v e n t i o n a p p e a r s t o be  essential  to provide  i n Juvenile  Court.  competent d e f e n c e t o a l l c h i l d r e n  T h e r e a r e two s y s t e m s u n d e r w h i c h o t h e r  ments h a v e assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s "Public  Defender"  for providing  legal aid:  s y s t e m w h i c h i s common i n t h e U n i t e d  the  " f e e f o r s e r v i c e " system w h i c h i s i n e f f e c t  the  P u b l i c Defender system, l e g a l  p e r s o n s by a s a l a r i e d  counsel  l a w y e r who f u n c t i o n s  to that  o f the public prosecutor.  without  counsel  offices.  appearing  are automatically  When a means t e s t  governthe  S t a t e s , and  i n England.  Under  i s provided  to accused  on a b a s i s  equivalent  A l l persons appearing r e f e r r e d to the P u b l i c  i n court Defender's  i s t o be a p p l i e d , i t i s a d m i n i s t e r e d  by  1 officials  from the P u b l i c Defender's  offices.  Under the f e e f o r s e r v i c e system, P a r l i a m e n t annual appropriations mittee  which a r e turned  o f the law S o c i e t y .  votes  o v e r t o t h e L e g a l A i d Com-  A l l accused persons a r e advised  that  l e g a l a i d i s a v a i l a b l e , and a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e made t h r o u g h t h e O f f i c e  Brownell, Emery A., "Recent Developments i n Legal Aid and Defender Service," Federal Probation, March, 1959, p. 42.  - 85 -  of the Court Clerk, and forwarded to the Legal Aid Committee. l e g a l Aid Committee assigns counsel who committee f o r payment.  The  submits h i s b i l l to the  I f a means test i s applied, i t i s adminis1  tered by o f f i c i a l s of the Court Clerk's o f f i c e . Although i t has been stated that the Public Defender 2 3 system i s more e f f e c t i v e and less costly than the fee f o r service, ' one wonders i f such a system would be feasible f o r Canada because of the large, sparsely populated areas.  A study should be under-  taken to determine which of these two or alternative schemes would be most adaptable to Canadian use.  I t i s conceivable that such a  study might conclude that the Public Defender system might be e f f e c t i v e l y established i n metropolitan areas, and that the fee f o r service system might be most f e a s i b l e i n less populated areas.  In  addition, such a study might appropriately explore whether the administrative cost involved would warrant the use of a means test, especially i n the l i g h t of the fact that between 60 and 80 percent of those appearing i n criminal courts cannot afford counsel. Although the present study has dealt exclusively with l e g a l aid services f o r juveniles appearing i n Juvenile Court, the juvenile i s not the only person who  finds himself i n the need of  l e g a l advice and counsel i n order to ensure that h i s r i g h t s are .protected. 1  Oliver, H. A. D., Q. C., "Legal Aid i n England", Minutes of the Board Meeting of the John Howard Society, October 23, 1961, p. 2. J a v i t s , J . K., "Public Defender", 1. P. P. A., A p r i l , 1957, p. 217. 3 Brownell, E. A., Legal A i d i n the United States', The Lawyers Co-operative Publishing Company, Rochester, 1951, p. 144. w  - 86  Much, h a s adults  been w r i t t e n  adults.  the p r o s p e c t i v e  P e r s o n s whose age  v e n i l e s a l s o have the c a p a c i t y of c i v i l  and  Criminal the  r i g h t s and  inability  to obtain  the consequent  a r e no  f o r g r o w t h and create  change.  s p e c i a l s o c i a l problems  l e a d s to the d i s r u p t i o n o f  they are e q u a l l y  employers  and  be r e c a l l e d  f o r j u v e n i l e s , i t would  Columbia,  family  thus  Although t h i s study concentrated  inadequate f o r a d u l t s .  in British  in  on t h e community f o r s u p p o r t .  appearing i n criminal court.  r e s o u r c e s were i n a d e q u a t e  on  The v i o l a t i o n  s e p a r a t e r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r j u v e n i l e s as  from r e s o u r e s f o r a d u l t s  Report,  effect  established  to d i s c r i m i n a t i o n from  work.  con-  for ju-  the l i m i t  upon l e g a l a i d r e s o u r c e s f o r j u v e n i l e s , i t w i l l there  discussion  exceeds  the dependency o f the f a m i l y lead  earlier  applied  Incarceration  r e c o r d s may  for legal aid for  o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c a n a l s o be  l i b e r t i e s may  case of a d u l t s .  life  The  v i o l a t i o n s o f l e g a l r i g h t s and  a t t i t u d e s and  the  on t h e n e e d  charged w i t h c r i m i n a l a c t s .  cerning  to  -  little  As  that distinct  these  strongly  indicate  A c c o r d i n g to the Wheeler  o r no  l e g a l aid services  exist  1  for  the adult  charged w i t h a c r i m i n a l  As many p e o p l e legal  a i d may  situations  cannot  be n e e d e d i n c i v i l  offence.  a f f o r d the  services  cannot  lawyer,  as w e l l as c r i m i n a l m a t t e r s .  e x i s t , s u c h a s e x p l o i t a t i o n by u n s c r u p u l o u s  e m p l o y e e s who  of a  c o l l e c t wages and p e r s o n s u n a b l e  Many  businessmen, to  secure  W h e e l e r , M i c h a e l , A R e p o r t on Needed R e s e a r c h i n W e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , V a n c o u v e r , 1961, p . 118.  - 87 -  compensation f o r p e r s o n a l i n j u r y services through  o f a lawyer  may "be v i t a l .  I n such  pertinent court intervention w i l l  sitate  legal  advice  and c o u n s e l ,  services. they  t h e i r means o f s u p p o r t . of normal l i v i n g should  o r damaged p r o p e r t y ,  I f aggrieved  situations,  almost  persons  do n o t r e c e i v e  Such l o s s e s can cause  The s t u d y  neceslegal  savings or  serious disruption  and a w i d e r a n g e o f s o c i a l p r o b l e m s .  be u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e t h e v a r i e t y  interests.  redress  invariably  c a n l o s e t h e i r homes, t h e i r  t i o n s i n w h i c h l e g a l a i d may be e s s e n t i a l al's  i n which the  and k i n d s  A  study of situa-  to protect the i n d i v i d u -  shoiild a l s o explore  q u e n c e s t h a t c a n r e s u l t when t h e i n d i v i d u a l ' s  the s o c i a l  conse-  interests are  violated. Finally, a s c e r t a i n the extent available should  a comprehensive of existing  to adults i n both  study  s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d  to  l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s i n Canada  c r i m i n a l and c i v i l m a t t e r s .  The  study  determine i f there i s a need f o r the e x t e n s i o n o f l e g a l a i d  s e r v i c e u n d e r government  auspices.  - 88  Appendix A -  -  Questionnaires  1.  Attorney General  Departments  2.  Law  3.  Child W e l f a r e D e p a r t m e n t s and  4.  Juvenile C o u r t Judges  5.  Covering  Societies  Children's Aid  Letter  Societies  - 89  Appendix A,1  -  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School of Social Work LEGAL AID FOR JUVENILES AS PROVIDED BY  LAW  For the purpose of this study, legal aid is defined as the provision of free legal counsel and representation in court by a lawyer for those who are financially unable to secure their own counsel. Juvenile age i s considered as either under 18 or 16 years, as defined in your own provincial legislation. 1. Are provisions made in your provincial legislation for legal aid to juveniles appearing in Juvenile Court, on other than capital charges? Yes No If yes, please quote section(s) of the relevant statute(s) 2. If legal aid i s provided which, i f any, of the following compensations are made? (a) lawyer's fees 1. in f u l l 2. honorarium (b) cost of court transcripts (c) other expenses incurred by lawyer providing legal aid (d) other compensations (specify) 3,  How many juveniles were provided with legal aid in 1960 under your legislation?  *  4. If legal aid i s provided by law: (a) to which of the following may the juvenile or his parents or guardian make application for legal aid? Juvenile Court judge Prosecutor Police Welfare Agency (please specify) Others (please specify)  Probation officer Law Society Attorney General's Department  (b) Who makes the final decision as to the juvenile's e l i g i b i l i t y for legal aid? *If no statistics are available, please give an estimate placed in brackets. 5. Does your Department make provision for free court transcripts to private organizations, such as Law Societies, in cases where they are providing legal aid to juveniles? Y©s««*»««*No•••••• If legal aid, as described in question #1, i s provided by law, please indicate for each of the following situations: (a) whether the juvenile would be eligible for legal aid. (b) the number of times* legal aid was requested of your Department ** in 1960. (c) the number of times* legal aid was provided by your Department ** in 1960. SITUATIONS 1. Juveniles charged with major offences (equivalent to indictable charges for adults)  Elibible Yes No  *Number of times Requested Provided  2. Juveniles charged with minor offences (equivalent to non-indictable charges for adults) 3.  When transfer of juveniles to adult court i s contemplated. .  **Please interpret "Department" to mean the agency of your government, authorized by law to supply legal aid. Explain here, i f necessary  - 90 - 2Continued from Page  1. Elieible Yes No  SITUATIONS  •Number o f times Requested Provided  4. J u v e n i l e s r e t u r n e d t o c o u r t charged w i t h u n s a t i s factory probation. 5. J u v e n i l e s charged w i t h  incorrigibility  6. J u v e n i l e s appearing i n c o u r t as a c h i l d i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n ( l e g a l a i d t o p a r e n t s a t time c h i l d i s b e f o r e t h e c o u r t i n need o f p r o t e c t i o n ) 7. J u v e n i l e s d e s i r o u s o f l a u n c h i n g a p p e a l s a g a i n s t the v e r d i c t o r t h e sentence o f the J u v e n i l e C o u r t . 8. J u v e n i l e s appearing offences. *If  i n c o u r t on o t h e r than  first  no s t a t i s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e , p l e a s e g i v e n an e s t i m a t e  placed i n brackets.  **Plea8e i n t e r p r e t "Department" t o mean t h e agency o f your government, a u t h o r i z e d by law t o supply  legal aid.  E x p l a i n here, i f n e c e s s a r y  In a d d i t i o n t o the above i n f o r m a t i o n we would a p p r e c i a t e your o p i n i o n on the following. (They w i l l o n l y be used anonymously.as s composite o f p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n ) . 1.  I n your o p i n i o n should l e g a l a i d , r e g a r d l e s s o f the source, i l e s appearing i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t ? Yes No  be made a v a i l a b l e t o juven-  Comments  2. I n your o p i n i o n , does the use o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , s o c i a l workers o r o t h e r w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the j u v e n i l e ' s c o u r t appearance, a c t as s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l safeguard t o the j u v e n i l e ' s r i g h t s ? Yes; No....... Comments  A p p e n d i x A,2  - 91 -  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA B School of Social Work LEGAL AID FOR JUVENILES AS PROVIDED BY LAW SOCIETIES For the purpose of this study, legal aid i s defined as the provision of free legal counsel and representation i n court by a lawyer for those who are financially unable to secure their own counsel. Juvenile age i s considered as either under 18 or 16 years, as defined i n your own provincial legislation. What resources does your Law Society have for providing legal aid to juveniles appearing i n Juvenile Court, on other than capital charges? (a) lawyers donating free time and services (b) funds to pay lawyers' fees  1. in f u l l  2. honorarium  (c) funds to cover cost of court transcripts (d) funds to cover other expenses incurred by lawyer providing legal aid (e) no resources If your Law Society has resources to provide legal aid to juveniles, are these separate from resources for legal aid for adults? Yes No If your Law Society has funds to pay for fees or expenses when providing legal aid to juveniles, what i s their source? Public Private Both 4.  How many juveniles were provided with legal aid i n 1960 by your Law Society?  5.  If legal aid i s provided by your Law Society: (a) to which of the following may the juvenile or his parents or guardian make application for legal aid? Probation officer Juvenile Court judge Law Society Prosecutor Welfare agency (please specify) .... Police Others (please specify) (b) Who makes the final decision as to the juvenile's e l i g i b i l i t y for legal aid? If legal aid, as described in question #1, is provided by your Law Society, please indicate the extent to which i t was available in the following areas in 1960: Areas  Available yes no  ^Number of times requested provided  (a) Major centres (population over 50,000) (b) Secondary centres (population 10-49,999) (c) Outlying areas (population less 10,000)  *  If no statistics are available, please give an estimate, placed in brackets.  *'  - 92 - 2-  7. If legal aid, as described in question #1, is provided by your Law Society, please indicate below, for each of the following situations: (a) Whether the juvenile would be eligible for legal aid. (b) The number of times* legal aid was requested of your Law Society in I960. (c) The number of times* legal aid was provided by your Law Society in 1960.  ,  Eligible *Number of times Yes No Kequested .frovided  1. Juveniles charged with major offences (equivalent to indictable charges for adults) 2. Juveniles charged with minor offences (equivalent to nonindictable charges for adults) 3. When transfer of juveniles to adult court is contemplated. 4. Juveniles returned to court charged with unsatisfactory probation. 5. Juveniles charged with incorrigibility. 6. Juveniles appearing in court as a child in need of protection (legal aid to parents at time child is before court in need of protection) 7. Juveniles desirous of launching appeals against the verdict or the sentence of the Juvenile Court. 8. Juveniles appearing in court on other than first offences. 8. If legal aid is provided by your Law Society to juveniles and i t is necessary, because of limited resources, for you to limit the number of legal aid cases handled, in which of the following cases do you provide legal aid? (a) If i t appears on the basis of evidence that legal aid would contribute to an acquittal (b) If the circumstances appear to bo such that legal would contribute to a less severe sentence or disposition (c) If i t is difficult to determine of the basis of evidence and circumstance what effect legal aid would have on the verdict or disposition (d) If i t appears on the basis of evidence and circumstance that legal aid would have no effect on the verdict or disposition (e) No need to limit the number of legal aid cases handled Comments  ing:  In addition to the above information we would appreciate your opinion on the follow(They will only bo used anonymously as R. composite of professional opinion).  1. In your opinion, should legal aid, regardless of the source, be made available to juveniles appearing in Juvenile Court? Yes No Comments 2. In your opinion, does the use of probation officers, social workers or other welfare personnel, in connection with tho juvenile's court appearance, act as sufficient legal safeguard to the juvenile's rights? Yes No Comments  If no statistics are available, please give an estimate, placed in brackets.  Appendix A,3  - 93 -  THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School o f S o c i a l Work  LEGAL AID FOR WARDS AND NON-WARDS F o r the purpose o f t h i s study l e g a l a i d i s d e f i n e d as t h e p r o v i s i o n o f f r e e l e g a l couns e l and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n c o u r t by a lawyer f o r those who a r e f i n a n c i a l l y unable t o secure t h e i r own c o u n s e l . J u v e n i l e age i s c o n s i d e r e d e i t h e r under 18 o r 16 y e a r s , as d e f i n e d i n your own p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n . 1. Does y o u r Department ( o r Agency) have r e s o u r c e s o f i t s own t o supply l e g a l a i d t o i t s ward and non-wards when they appear i n J u v e n i l e Court on o t h e r than c a p i t a l charges? Yes No I f no, do you use o u t s i d e l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s , such as those s u p p l i e d by the Law S o c i e t y ? Yes No 2. I f l e g a l a i d i s p r o v i d e d t o wards and non-wards which, i f any, o f t h e f o l l o w i n g comp e n s a t i o n s a r e made? (a) Lawyer's f e e 1. I n f u l l 2. Honorarium (b) Cost o f c o u r t t r a n s c r i p t (c) Other expenses i n c u r r e d by lawyer p r o v i d i n g l e g a l a i d (d) Other compensations ( s p e c i f y ) . 3. How many wards and non-wards were p r o v i d e d w i t h l e g a l a i d i n 1960 by your Department o r Agency? * 4. I f your Department o r Agency does supply l e g a l a i d as d e s c r i b e d i n q u e s t i o n #1, who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n i t i a t i n g the request f o r l e g a l a i d ? (a) (b) (c) (d)  The ward o r non-ward The ward's o r non-ward's s o c i a l worker Supervisor Others ( s p e c i f y )  5. Who makes the f i n a l aid?  d e c i s i o n as t o whether the ward o r non-ward w i l l  receive legal  6. How many wards and non-wards were r e f e r r e d by your Department o r Agency t o o u t s i d e l e g a l a i d s e r v i c e s i n 1960? * To whom were they r e f e r r e d ? 7. I f l e g a l a i d , as d e s c r i b e d i n q u e s t i o n #1, i s p r o v i d e d by your Department o r Agency, p l e a s e i n d i c a t e f o r each o f the f o l l o w i n g s i t u a t i o n s : (a) Would the j u v e n i l e be e l i g i b l e  f o r the l e g a l  (b) The number o f t i m e s * l e g a l a i d was r e q u e s t e d (c) The number o f t i m e s * l e g a l a i d was p r o v i d e d  aid? i n 1960? i n 1960?  I f no s t a t i s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e , p l e a s e g i v e an e s t i m a t e p l a c e d i n b r a c k e t s .  - 94 - 2Eligible Yes No  SITUATIONS 1. Wards or non-wards charged with major offences (equivalent to indictable charges for adults) 2.  Wards or non-wards charged with minor offences (non-indictable charges for adults).  3.  When transfer of wards or non-ward to adult court i s contemplated.  4.  Wards or non-wards returned to court charged with unsatisfactory probation.  5.  Wards or non-wards charged with i n c o r r i g i b i l i t y .  6.  When appearing i n court as a c h i l d i n need of protection (legal aid to parent at time c h i l d if, before court i n need of protection).  7.  Wards or non-wards desirous of launching appeals against the v e r d i c t or the sentence of the Juvenile Coir t.  8.  Wards or non-wards appearing i n court on other than f i r s t offences.  *Number of times Requested Provided  * I f no s t a t i s t i c s are available, please given an estimate placed i n brackets. 8.  I f legal aid i s provided by your Department or Agency to i t s wards and non-wards, and i t i s necessary, because of limited resources, for you to l i m i t the number of legal aid cases handled, i n which of the following cases do you provide legal aid? (a) I f i t appears on the basis of evidence that legal aid would contribute to an acquittal (b) I f the circumstances appear to be such that legal aid would contribute to a less severe sentence or d i s p o s i t i o n (c) I f i t i s d i f f i c u l t to determine, on the basis of evidence and circumstance, what possible e f f e c t legal aid would have on the verdict or d i s p o s i t i o n (d) I f i t appears, on the basis of evidence and circumstance, that legal aid would not have any effect on the verdict or d i s p o s i t i o n (e) No need to l i m i t the number of legal aid cases handled.... Comment s  . ............ r  .................  In addition to the above information, we would appreciate your opinion on the following. (They w i l l only be used anonymously as a composite of professional opinion.) 1. In your opinion, should legal aid, regardless of the source be made available to juveniles appearing i n Juvenile Court? Yes No Comment s 2.  In your opinion, does the use of Probation O f f i c e r s , Social Workers or other welfare personnel, i n connection with juvenile's court appearance, act as s u f f i c i e n t legal safeguard to the juvenile's rights? Yes No Comment s  - 95 -  Appendix A,4 THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA School o f S o c i a l Work Vancouver, B.C.  The f o l l o w i n g e n q u i r y i s p a r t o f a study o f LEGAL AID SERVICES f o r JUVENILES a p p e a r i n g i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t . A survey i s b e i n g made o f these s e r v i c e s throughout Canada, and f o r t h i s we a r e c o n t a c t i n g A t t o r n e y s General Departments, Law S o c i e t i e s , C h i l d Welfare Departments, and Judges o f J u v e n i l e Courts i n a l l P r o v i n c e s . The study i s being sponsored by the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia's School o f S o c i a l Work as a group proj e c t , and i s b e i n g undertaken by M.S.W. s t u d e n t s . For the purpose o f t h i s study, l e g a l a i d i s d e f i n e d as the p r o v i s i o n o f f r e e l e g a l counsel and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n c o u r t by a lawyer f o r those who a r e f i n a n c i a l l y unable t o secure t h e i r own c o u n s e l . J u v e n i l e age i s c o n s i d e r e d as e i t h e r under 18 o r 16 y e a r s , as d e f i n e d i n your own provincial legislation. Your c o o p e r a t i o n i n t h i s study i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d . A stamped, s e l f - a d d r e s s e d envelope i s e n c l o s e d , and we would be g r a t i f i e d i f the i n q u i r y c o u l d be r e t u r n e d b e f o r e February 15, 1962.  J . V. FORNATARO (Faculty Advisor f o r Project)  I . During the y e a r 1960: (a) How many j u v e n i l e s appearing by a lawyer? *  i n your J u v e n i l e Court were r e p r e s e n t e d  (b) What percentage o f the t o t a l j u v e n i l e s appearing sent? *  would t h i s  repre-  * I f no s t a t i s t i c s a r e a v a i l a b l e , p l e a s e g i v e an e s t i m a t e p l a c e d i n b r a c k e t s .  I I . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n we would a p p r e c i a t e your o p i n i o n on the f o l l o w i n g . (They w i l l o n l y be used anonymously, as a composite of p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n ) . 1. I n y o u r o p i n i o n should l e g a l a i d , r e g a r d l e s s of the source, be made a v a i l a b l e t o j u v e n i l e s appearing i n J u v e n i l e Court 1....Yes No Comments  2.  In your o p i n i o n , does the use o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s , s o c i a l workers o r o t h e r w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l , i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e j u v e n i l e ' s c o u r t appearance, a c t as s u f f i c i e n t l e g a l safeguard t o the j u v e n i l e ' s r i g h t s ? Yes No Comments  Appendix A, 5  - 96 -  THE UNIVERSITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA School of Social Work Vancouver 8, B.C.  The enclosed enquiry i s part of a study of LEGAL AID SERVICES for JUVENILES appearing i n Juvenile Court. A survey i s being made of these services throughout Canada, and f o r t h i s we are contacting Attorneys General Departments, Law Societies, and Child Welfare Departments i n a l l Provinces. The study i s being sponsored by the University of B r i t i s h Columbia's School of Social Work as a group project, and i s being undertaken by M.S.W. students. If you are able to supplement our inquiry i n any way with other information on legal aid f o r juveniles i t would be much appreciated. Your cooperation i n t h i s study i s greatly appreciated. A stamped, self-addressed envelope i s enclosed, and we would be g r a t i f i e d i f the inquiry could be returned before February 1, 1962.  J . V. Fornataro (Faculty Advisor for Project)  Enc.  -  97  -  APPENDIX B Free l e g a l a i d w i l l not be granted i f the applicant can pay l e g a l fees. l e g a l a i d w i l l not usually be granted i f there have been previous convictions. I f a Welfare Agency i s available the applicant should be screened before making a p p l i c a t i o n . Disbursements w i l l not be paid by the Law Society without p r i o r approval. APPLICATION FOR CRIMINAL LEGAL AID THIS APPLICATION WILL NOT BE CONSIDERED UNLESS ALL OF THE INFORMATION REQUESTED BELOW IS SUPPLIED: Name of accused applicant Home address of accused Age of accused  Phone number of accused  Nature of charge Place of alleged offence Date of alleged offence Place of t r i a l or hearing Time of t r i a l or hearing Have you applied f o r b a i l ? Has b a i l been set? Can you r a i s e b a i l ? Previous convictions (give dates, places, and nature of offence)  Married  Single  Name, address & occupation of spouse  Divorced  Separated...  - 98 -  Number o f c h i l d r e n ( i f a n y ) Ages o f c h i l d r e n Other dependents Name, a d d r e s s and o c c u p a t i o n  of father  Name, a d d r e s s and o c c u p a t i o n  o f mother  Name, a d d r e s s e s a n d o c c u p a t i o n s  of sisters  Have y o u h a d l e g a l a i d p r e v i o u s l y ? Occupations of applicant during  When ..  last  2 years  Names o f a p p l i c a n t ' s e m p l o y e r s d u r i n g  Property of applicant jewellery)  and b r o t h e r s  (including land,  last  2  years  automobile,* cash and  W i l l y o u make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e C r i m i n a l l e g a l A i d Fund when you  a c q u i r e means? I HAVE NO FUNDS AND AM 'UNABLE TO OBTAIN FUNDS TO PAY  COUNSEL FOR THE DEFENCE OF THE ABOVE CASE.  ACCORDINGLY I HEREBY  APPLY FOR CRIMINAL LEGAL A I D . DATE Signature Screening  official  Comments o f s c r e e n i n g  official:  of applicant  - 99  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Beemsterboer, Mathew J . , (Ed.), "The Juvenile Court - Benevolence i n the Star Chamber", The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, January - February, I960. Bernard, J e s s i s , S o c i a l Problems at Midcentury, Henry Holt & New York, 1957.  Co.,  Bradway, John S., Law and Social Work, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1921H Breckinridge, Sophonisba P., S o c i a l Work and the Court, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1934. B r i t i s h Columbia, Annual Report of the Department of S o c i a l Welfare, I960, V i c t o r i a , Queens P r i n t e r s , 1961. ™~ B r i t i s h Columbia, Law, Statutes, etc., Revised Statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, c. 303, Protection of Children's Act.. B r i t i s h Columbia, Report of the Juvenile Delinquency Inquiry Board, Queens P r i n t e r , V i c t o r i a , I960. Brownell, Emery A., Legal Aid i n the United States, The lawyer's Co-operative Publishing Company, Rochester, 1951. Brownell, Emery A., "Recent Developments i n Legal Aid^ and the Defender Services", Federal Probation, March, 1959. Brownell, Herbert, J r . , "Improving Our System of Justice", Federal Probation, December, 1953. Canada, Laws, Statutes, etc., Revised Statutes of Canada, c. 160, Juvenile Delinquents Act. Canadian Bar Association, 1959 Ottawa, 1959.  1952,  Year Book, National P r i n t e r s ,  Canadian Welfare Council, The Juvenile Court i n Law, Welfare Council, Ottawa, 1952.  Canadian  Cavenagh, W. E., The Child and the Court, V i c t o r Gollancz Ltd., London, 19F5T Celles, Emanuel, "Public Defenders - Pros and Cons", The American Journal of Corrections, March - A p r i l , I960. Conway, Albert, "In Praise of Children's Court Judges", N. P. P. A. Journal, January, 1956.  - 100  -  BIBLIOGRAPHY (continued) C o u n c i l o f Judges, N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f Crime and Delinquency, " T r a n s f e r o f Cases Between J u v e n i l e and C r i m i n a l Courts A P o l i c e Statement", Crime and Delinquency, January, 1962. "Court B i l l Wins O p p o s i t i o n P r a i s e " , Vancouver  Sun, March 12,  1962.  Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s - 1955, H e a l t h & Welfare D i v i s i o n , Queen's P r i n t e r s , Ottawa, May, I960. Eastman, Harry L., "The J u v e n i l e Court Judge's Job", N. P. P. J o u r n a l , October, 1959.  A.  P a i n , James E., "Who do the Court Belong to Anyway", N. P. P. J o u r n a l , October, 1959.  A.  P i e l d , O l i v e r P e t e r , "Due Process o f Law", C o l l i e r ' s E n c y c l o p e d i a , P. E. C o l l i e r and Son, C o r p o r a t i o n , New York, 1959. P o r t , W i l l i a m S., "The J u v e n i l e Court Examines I t s e l f " , N. P. P. J o u r n a l , October, 1959.  A.  G e i s , G i l b e r t , " P u b l i c i t y and J u v e n i l e Court Proceedings", N. P. P. A. J o u r n a l , October, 1958. Gill,  Thomas P., "The L e g a l Nature o f N e g l e c t " , N. P. P. A. January, I960.  Journal,  Grace, A l i c e M., P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e s f o r the G i r l D e l i n q u e n t , Master of S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1949. Hennings, Thomas, "The E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the J u v e n i l e Court System," . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , June, 1959. J a v i t s , Jacob J . , "The Need f o r a P u b l i c Defender", N. P. P. J o u r n a l , J u l y , 1957.  A.  Johnson, I . C , "A Report on the J u v e n i l e Courts o f Canada", American J o u r n a l o f C o r r e c t i o n s , January - February, 1959. Jones, A. E., J u v e n i l e Delinquency and the Law, York, 1"9~$5Z  Penguin Books,  New  Jones, J . E., " L e g a l A i d f o r the Poor", Canadian Bar Review, A p r i l May, 1931. " J o s s e l y n , I r e n e M., The A d o l e s c e n t and H i s World, A s s o c i a t i o n o f America, New York, 1957.  Family S e r v i c e  -  - 101 BIBLIOGRAPHY  (continued)  Dusk, Harold S., "Criminal Law", C o l l i e r ' s Encyclopedia, P. E. C o l l i e r & Son, Corporation, New York, 1959. McCrea, Tully,."Juvenile Courts and Juvenile Probation", N. P. P. A. Journal, October, 1957. Mason, P. Thomas, J r . , "Delinquency and the Juvenile Courts: Confusion and D i v e r s i t y " , Federal Probation, December,  1961.  Meeker, Ben S., "Probation and Parole at Work", N. P. P. A. Journal, A p r i l , 1957. Melson, Elwood P., "Delinquency and the Family Court", Probation, March, 1959.  Federal  National Probation and Parole Association, "Standard Juvenile Court Act", N. P. P. A. Journal, October, 1959. Nelligan, John P., " l e g a l Aid i n Canada: Canadian Bar Review, June - July,  Existing F a c i l i t i e s " , 1951.  Nelligan, John P., "Legal Aid i n Canada: Review, August - September, 1953.  The Need", Canadian Bar  Oliver, H. A. D., " l e g a l Aid i n England", Minutes of the Board Meeting of the John Howard Society, October 23, 1961. Pepler, E., "The Juvenile Delinquent Act, 1929", Yearbook of the Canadian Bar Association, 1952. Rector, Milton G., "An Age of Reason for the Juvenile Court", Crime and Delinquency, January, 1962. Rubin, Sol, Crime and Juvenile Delinquency, Oceana Publications, Inc., New York, 1958. Salisbury, Harrison E., "The New York, 1959.  Shook-up Generation",  Crest Books,  Shaw, Howland G., "Juvenile Institutions and Juvenile Parole", N. P. P. A. Journal, October, 1957. Sheridan, William H., "Double Jeopardy and Waives i n Juvenile Proceedings", Federal Probation, December, 1959. Shulman, Harry M., "The Detention of Youth Awaiting Court Action", N. P. P. A. Journal, A p r i l , 1956.  -  102  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Silverman, Edgar, ceedings", Smith,  -  (continued)  "Lawyers and S o c i a l W o r k e r s i n J u v e n i l e P r o C r i m e and D e l i n q u e n c y , J u l y , I 9 6 0 .  R e g i n a l d H., c i t e d i n B r o w n e l l , Emery A., L e g a l A i d i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , The L a w y e r ' s C o - o p e r a t i v e P u b l i s h i n g Co., R o c h e s t e r , New Y o r k , 1951.  Tappan, P a u l W., C r i m e , J u s t i c e and C o r r e c t i o n s , M c G r a w - H i l l Company, I n c . , New Y o r k , I 9 6 0 .  Book  Watts, A l f r e d , " L e g a l A i d i n B r i t i s h Coliunbia", Minutes o f the B o a r d M e e t i n g o f t h e J o h n Howard S o c i e t y , O c t o b e r 23, 1961. W h e e l e r , M i c h a e l , A R e p o r t on Needed R e s e a r c h i n W e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Community"Chest and C o u n c i l s o f G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r A r e a , V a n c o u v e r , 1961. W i l e n s k y , H a r o l d L., and L e b e a u x , C h a r l e s N., I n d u s t r i a l S o c i e t y and S o c i a l W e l f a r e , R u s s e l L Sage F o u n d a t i o n , New Y o r k , 1958  

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