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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Education as presented in the writings of the classical Chinese philosophers Bannerman, Lloyd Charles Francis 1946

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•B^eee»t©i i a the of t ae Francis Bacuiermsji tne Bsqaireraents for the Degree -of mmM OF AKTS Bejsataeflt ©f She Pfliverelty of British eoiiis&ta fable of Contents xmmwmim I A Brief Diseueei on of the relation chip between Education sad Politics in Ancient Shina. * » . <«;$ . II General Bemar&e on the ^eop© of this taper «-« *p v III Beatine Details and Meohonical Arrangement of the SJheeiS;* • * * • * * •#. .# * * * * *. *• p X Confucianism ~~ Introduction.. * * « » * * * * <# p. 1 a tre-^oafoeian Literature u « * * p 6 i fhe Sho .Hag*: * * • • 7 l i the Shi Xing. . . . * 7 i l l She Tin King* « • * • 8 h Confucian Mteratare — introduction. . • * . p 10 i The Iii Ki and the Lua ¥a» • «. U o £eet~Oenfaeian Idtersture introduction. #>. • « * p 49 1 She Tab. £ueh0 . . . .50 11. The Chang "X eng. . . .53 i i i iloneias. « • « * • 56 II faeism ~* intr^Bati^sj* * «• * * * * * -* * •» •* p. 66 a. Tao I'eh King*; . . . . . . . . . . . . . .p 68 h- Ku&ng Vzttm * . * * * .* » * * * * * • « p 76 HZ MoMem sad £ii$g$$:a& *»• tota?#ii«®£ioa. * * *• .p 8? a MoMeai introduction. • « * -* * * * ,*p 88 1 MO (24. ;* -* * * *. &0 it lister l&a^ ateu «: • 9S % legalism «r J^ t*c$&e tiea* * * • •• * «f> • 1 Stjasig Yang* * * .99 I An Iniieatios ©i the fcstsx i&efcei^  ami Sfatas «g Mm ale© •»• H9 b Chinee©* .* » * •* • * * .-* *' * m * s> .• 118 II Iteoist feat© . . , . . .» f rsnelstlcajs* * • • « * * • * « «• * *p • IS©' Chinece* * » • • -* * * j>. . 125 III ilohlet SJexte a Translations. « * ••• « #. -• •* « -*, #p. . 126 If l^^liet $ex£ft ' . , . . * 1 * E D 0 C A T I O H AS PBlSSSflB IN TEE IRXTIBfcS OS1 THE OXASS-IOAXt CHIBESE PHILOSOPSSES Introduction I A Brief DIeouaeion of the delationship between Edadatloa and Polltlos in Ancient China It ie a frequently expressed traiain that for thousands of years the history of China has been that of a long period of relative stagnation. Bat this should recall to as, that in considering China, we actually axe regarding a country whose ©nan of ©vents* and pageant of history, may properly be measured in terms of milieniume. And for vast reoohoB of that time, despite deoedenee and degenera-tion, her civil service system has remained one of the great glories of her civilisation. She has of coarso0 known tyranny and oppression. There, the ©aaoal, even anooascioae, assumption of special prerogative by the privileged claes, has galled the heart of the "little mnn jnet as chafiagiy as i t has done el where* Bat through it all , there has remained an attitude to learning* ana a feeling of the obligations of governs-v meat, auoh as wo associate with tHe liberal concepts inherent in the finest Ideals of democracy. These things0 at this time are perhaps worth mentioii-lng« Thle ie an era in which the implioatlone of the tra-ditions of any people might well have far reaching oonee*! - i i * quenoea* We have recently heard a eignifleant figure of one of the great Western democracies, say, of a oorres° ponding person in China, that she might make nice speeches about democracy, hot she knew nothing about how to live it* It is Important that we Should understand the democratic ideals inherent in China's history? and perhaps more im-portant s t i l l that we shoald realise hot? the marsh of events, and ideological factors hate east those principles into moulds differing from our own expressions of similar beliefs* We shall learn that at a time so remote, that even Confucius could refer to i t as the anoient age, accessi-bility of education to all the oitisena had reached a level that even todaye sen eoersely be despised* Nor was it con-sidered enough that people should be merely sobjest to opportunities of elementary schooling, those who benefited, irrespective of rank, or wealth, were given opportunities to sooure even the highest learning, the best mind® having been discovered* and then educated, it was the farther duty of the government to employ them and give them the oppor-tunity to bring the benefits of educated rulers to the people? The governmental policy was to actively seek and train the talented to f i l l high positions* Hot was this properly considered to be a device of the ruling class to secure machiavellian tools to further exploit the peopleo A very definite part of the education of the ministers and * 111 «.. advisors, was the reelisatioa of the true Ideal© of govern-mentp and these weie essentially demcoaratlG. Srue, the Eisperer ruled by divine rights bat the maadei® to that right WQQ held bv the people* If the people revolted agslnst a tyrannloal smier, the^  Dot eia ag&iaet Heatea* but rathe* Hoaven in this way withdrew the mandate from the ruler, "Eecven esse as my people see, Heaven hears as w& people hee*«" (1) Aga|a aad again rulers were exhorted to remember that they were the aorvante of the people. Here of coarse, me hate been speaking of theories enc3 1deals, bnt even today there have been expressed, alee m Ideals, principles of government, which m might oonslder as leas proiee-'Horth^ . la praot!oe0 China has had of eoarise hear dark elde, there hae beeja bribery and eorroptioli,, palace revolutions and palace assassinations* Scholara and minister• have not bees wanting to paMer to the perversa end depraved aims of unworthy mioses. Bat there have been others. There hate been a&vieore who spoke oat boldly and directly against the wlokednese oat the staler* Sometimes they hate reformed the offenfilcg ruler, at times they hay® at least oheeked the outward mciiifeetation of hia ovll nature.. In other cesee their insistence on rectitude has (1) She King, part $ bfc 1, Beet Ion £B verse 7: Legg© (tr) Classic ei History, in, Home (ed) Sacred Books and e a y l y literature of the last, tola 11, p 84* *»- it merely meant the termination of their own official career, with vsryiag degrees of finality.*. Bat through it ell learning hae held high place* BVea the TBiokefi and dissolute have rarely despised scholarship, $he polieji of the well-turned phrase and slElll lis letter a t was ad ornament that evexi the least worthy did not seorn. Others, with perhaps a traer and more discriniaate evalua-tion, have held that the euperficiol gloseingE of euoh © . man ware no true learnings There must, they claimed* be an integration of moral development with acquisition of learn-ing, if education was to truly fulfil its function. • for.-.deeply•inherent in their /idoals of government' and i'ule, wae an apprehension of some identity of ethics and polities* Great eigoifiosnoe.was given to the.potser of ; • esample, one righteous man ocaId reform the state* and $0heraliyf the higher a ••man's- official position, the tsidear the range of his influenced It was not enough that a ministers official acts and decisions be right, all his actions m&% be right„ not only his actions, but the man himself must be right* for no man #©a really hide his true nature, ae Coufooiue said: If yon observe what things people fusually) tafee in hand* watch their motives* and note particularly what it is that gives them satisfaction* shall they be able to conaeal from you what they arc? Gonoeal themeelves Indeedi (1) \ .. . -MP- ' . (1) Analects* bk £ ohapt 10j Jennings (tr) The Analects* iltft World** great classics* Oriental literature* toi« 4»p 11 - Y * Thus,, at Its best, China has long held a belief in a principle of government in Tshioh it was the obligation of the ralers to actively seefe to seonr© for official poei* tions9 men deeply learned, of high ideals and with a sersoe of obligation to the people. For each offioersi it was, by adherence to these' principles and the exemplary potter of their own character, both.an obligation and an opportunity* to bring the benefits of good and enlightened government to all people; II General Bsmarks on the Scope ofthis faps$ The preponderant burden of the following paper ie borne by the material on Confucianism. There are farioas reasons for this, ranging from the fact that this schoolB in ths ttidth of ite influence* at least, is the most signi* fleant of the Chinese philosophies, to the relatively irrelevant fact of mars availability' of material* ' She topic of disou ©Sion;is ;one that^ 'signally 'fends to 'favour" OonsWianisaj there may have been others who suggested features or developed systems of greater interest In their theoretical implications, Confucius is preeminently the teacher, farther, prior to the rise of the more Important schools of thought, there wse'already in China, a consider-able body of significant IItere-feurej as Confucianism me definitely the philosophy of a aoholar of literary tastes* the cream of this material isas readily incorporated into the Confucian tradition* ffe* *s*>ge of material considered for investigatien is that asecola ted with the male Chinese schools, whloh was produced from the beginning of speculative thought to the ©ad of the $r©*Chri©ti*# era* this; ©etabiieheB .a field' that la both rich in material ojod ale© oonveoieatly demar-cated o Almost every foreign influence ie excluded (the, oultural heritage ©f India, brought by the Buddhists* did not reach China until 68 A«2>») while the wealth of native Chinese writing already produced is indicated by the number of philosophical authors and works listed in the Imperial Catalogue of the first oentury B*C«w i t inoludess 68 Ooufuoian authors with a total of 8&6 works $7 faoiet authors with 993 wo*fee 81 Yia-vsng authors with 369 works 10 legalists with 817 works 7 liogioiaris with Sd work© 6 llehista with 86' wor&s. . altogether* with a few other wor&S la minor eohool^ f. making a total of 4,324 works by 189 authors* The hulls of the material quoted actually falls between sis and two hundred B«C«| this includes much of the most significant and original writing, and also nearly every important basis worfc upon which the various schools were founded« Generally, indieation of the theories of the Chinese authors has been through Quotations giving a distinct SK* preseion of each idea presented! there has been but little attefcpt to draw any in|erenoes of unwritten oonclusions or presuppositions implicit in such sources; sole acceptable •warrant f o r inclusion o f materiel i n this paper has been its definitive and stated occurrence in the original mzfca development of the main theme hes thus been attempted through the suitable grouping of appropriate quotations* More ha© been intended though than merely to collect and reproduce materiel with no other claim t o coherence than that i t le all loosely associated with education* A definite concentration of material, and a consistent line of development is presented to demonstrate thsattitude talcen by the different schools toward education in regard to its various functions; as a method for the acquisition of knowledge* in rounding and completing the personality, fulfilling in wisdom the moral character, and finally, its application to the every day life of man as individual and eltlaen* ^his plan has been folloised* however* net by pre--Ban t ing an exposition supported by illustrative quotations, but rather by so selecting and arranging the passages- given* that they themselves indicate the general scheme of the point of view cfferedo % thie procedure, i t Is expected to generally confine attention to taaterlsl germane to the topic* end at the same time permit a more immediate ex* presslon of the theories of the various echo ois considered. In accord with this, reference has been almost e$» ciusiveiy to the books representative of these eehooli* particularly the besic foundation wor&e of each school. * T i l l rather than to books written about these books. However in considering Chinese oourcee there ie need to give some regard to the pr obi ems of interpretations the funuaiaenta! language atruetore, and the peculiar terseness, affected by the literati present certain unions problems ©e that generally a direct word for word rendition into Ec^Lieh la well clgh meaningless* The need for sensitive dieorimina-tion in evaluating the elaboration necessary to adequately fulfil the requirements of translation'suggests that the material discussed must be considered against a wider frame of reference than that offered by these wortes alone*~ this however* along with other probleas of translation is more fully considered in part three of this ijotroduoti©^* 111 Boutine Details and Meeb&nioal Arrangement of the thesis All quotations given in the following paper are from published English translations* While there are several ex-cellent translations of some of the wer&s considered in other European languages» none of th^ se available seem to offer a significantly original or distinctive point of view. Beforenoe to any extended paesage in the Chinese would hove but little additional significance, while the subject is not one to- generally require precise analysis of any individual term. She topic throws emphasis on the practicalt and ap-plies aspects of psychology* so that th© involved and v&gue nature of #©me of the concepts underlying the learning process do act hove to be thoroughly considered, end there is but little need to try and determine the e»act degreei of identity end similarity of Chinese and iagiiah ;te®ai.nol©@y in .yegara to ©oca basic features ass *miad% "&newledg#% "reality**# and other such fuadamentalso the general problems that arise la the field of trans* letion have been so frequently indicated and discussed by linguists and ©eraantioiete as to xegalro no further eon* eideratlon here* the peculiar difficulties associated with the translation of Chinee0 philosophical worfcs* have also been elegantly and <?0acl6©ly presented by Bi0ha,3fds in "Menelue on the Mind.'" ' However* even after determining #hat a writer*© words .Q6a%.tfc«$* often remains the problem of discovering #ha?t the writer meanes there are problems of interpretation be-yond those of mere translation* 3?his difficulty is perhaps ©speoially vessstious |a regard to Ghiasse* in fact i t might almost be eaid that there is the further complication of establishing what the reader means* for tha,-Chinese idea of reading has not been of a passive reception* but rather of a dynamic interplay between author and audiences Some indication of this is given by later Confucian scholars: Regard the questions in the Analects (sayings of Confucius) as your nm questions* and the answers of Confucius as answers to yourself* then you will get eoxae real benefit.: Bead the Analects firjat. £uet take on© or two sections a day* Sever mind whether the passage is difficult m easy to understand* or whether it ie a profound passage 03? not* tfust read on' f xo$ th$ beginning of the section, and i f you. donH get the mmkn® by reading* then ess ®m® '. thia&iagfc and i f yea don't get the meaning by thin&ing, then tend again? ton it baoig sad forth and try to get it© flavour* after & lon$ while you will understand- what is in it . . .In reading be most oerefal hot to read too moon. Bead a little and i t will be easy to thoroughly aaaster it . Al l real insight £ rem v S t u d i © © is gained In this manner* <P© understand the language ©f the teat is one things to appreciate the beauty of its m a^niag is another* 1% it$ a great ee&mon wea&nees of readers to anderetaiitt the super-ficial side without datohlag what is good in a beofe*.*<Ph© proper method of reading is to spend some teal thoaglit on i t . At first yea will find that this understanding re-qairee a lot of energy* bat (after you have gained enoa$* general.iaaight and uaderataadiug yourself\f i t will re* quire little time to ran through a hook. (1) Eaoelle-nt as euoh. advice is when applied to vtorfce of . deep'-impost*' it.;:do0B^;';ney-e^p©lese,#, introduce dif flea 1 ties in oonsiuerlhg the true s^ ope.juof -the::'ori^iaal write?'1 e''-';" meaning and in transferring this to a foreign idiom* B#s* pita Its obvious advantages,, such a mode of reading offers opportunities for far*.fetohed and "original* interpretations 'It'would seem well-nigh Inevitable that .the necessary in- ' reading should reflect the prefodloes of the iadividaal reader, tma words that, can. mean anything — menn no thin ga This problem hae not been evaded by l-ioharde (2) who suggests that Chinese phi'l^ so^hy'ls/Wrltteh almost in the mode of location of poetryt o certain range Is established by the writer* and the jpoader roves within thi# -floli,, ©a* riehing as he explores ana completes it; a nudieus is given0 (1) Yttteng, Wisdom of Ccnfuoiue, pp 167*8 (£) Eicharde, Menoiue oa the miad: see especially ohapt 1 * si # and around this .Sd*$het leaning crystallise© froa the realms of personal esperiahoe of. the -reader. • ; Maiiy features of the Chinese language- itself, ©nd the/ realization of Britia$.fer each '«••• cooperative audience has. led to th© production of a peculiar Ghines© literary Ian* g#age0 It is one t&t is extremely teres e#d pithy.*, ex- ' pressing the mere skeleton of an idea tihiftfe is not complete until embodied in, globing flesh by the reader* Haturaliy this translator':©f^ into an ©oeJ.dentsl iongoags ©an feel bat very small assuranee that this degree of personal enrichment taili be given t© his worte* and is im* mediately confronted with the problem of determining how maoh explanatory material he mast incorporate a§ a valid part of his translation in order to do lestiee to, the' full range of Ihought which the original author intended to convey. Such expansion' naturally irefieets the • viewpoint" of the interpreter* so that allowance must be mtifie for this fa<jto* la considering any translationi generally* several different versions should be considered befnrs there can be shy assurance) that a just evaluation has been made* Even reference to the original Chinese dees not eliminate this difficulty* as a sensitive reeeptivenose st i l l must be directed toward the possibilities of alternative meanings of eaoh %e*$u many of the nsorfcs quoted in the toliomiag paper* several translations have been available, and for seme of the most important* there has also been an accessibility * a i l *• to Gaines© and parallel texts* Some of the first translations of thlaese produced by early Shrietian Mseienariee. SPhesa'were,, of ftawftt+'aiji of wide scholarship*. thor©e#*ly versed In Chinese* and with a natural sympathy toward philosophical and ethical Questions* fn the other hand* they had already a Set of values* ana an orientation, not always in aboard with that propounded by the texts they were studying, and obviously they could not secure the. advantages of the wide learning and critical research that has been since applied to the field which they thentsslves introduced* No vox t ha-les©, they perfoaaosd yeofflan pioneering, sjaijy'of their w&r&e are st i l l ooit© acceptable* and nearly all later trans* letions have been influenced by some of them. ,$©il©wla$ these "have, appeared testa by professional ainologieto ana students of comparative religions* men who have generally been a l^e to dofote laor© attention to ta© precise significance of terminology, and who have generally held a sympathetic or neutral attitude in regard to the theories and aoneepta advanced* Itecsntly there have also appeared more or less popular editions intended to bring a brief introduction «f Shines© thought to the lay raad.er* A fair nutaber have been offered by Chinese scholars, who have obvious advantage© in the thoroujghaess of their know-ledge of the language and literary «nd cultural fcao&grouad* A lew worfcs have been produced by those who find support in oertoifs of the Ghineee sources for some special doctrine or belief which they or© eavee&tingo. g?he etyl&s of translations presented through these various, mediums are many* So^ e are concise literal later* • prstations, with Very little slaborat#ol| others have eon* eidersbl© explanatory material i&eorporated 'into- the, te#t j some are erudite wer&s* rich in footnotes} some attempt to faithfully mirror what might be termed the level of pfcilo* Qopiiiaal sophistication of the originals others* more loosely organised, aiiii' at conveying a general impression, and attempt to deduo© %hat the author was trying to say* saiher than gife his actual «©*ds. fheoreticaiiy it would seem th&t th# favoured type of translation for the purposes of this paper would be a literal •one., written from a $oint of - view sympathetic to the original. In actual prsctioe Quotations have been given from a fairly-wid« selection of texts* presenting the various styles of translation available, In V£e« of the nature of Chinese as indicated above, i t has not been eon* sidored illegitimate in choosing between alternative trans-lations to cheese the one most in accord with, the genets! them© of this papero In referring to the scarce of auotatiofl© an attempt has generally been made to indicate this by Siting chapter and verse of the original Chinese work (s#d traneiatiojis following the same plan) as «e l l as giving the page refer* * xiv * ease of the boolc actually consulted. In many oases a trans* lotion is reproduced in a work of references in these oiff* to the editor aud title of the hook of r e f e r e n c e ; thus iBhere appropriate there is a reference to the 'original ''.toast* to the translator and translation o,ootedt and to the editor and volume is which, this: appeared*. flhere ere current for many of the Chinese imr&e* commonly accepted gaglieh names, these are frequently used for general discussion*' ©Ye® plough say particular translation b#iag ©oasidered may have beea pointed under a special individual title* the safee of greater clarity* or merely for brevity* tertsia of the passages auoted* are rearranged* combined* or compressed; however in no case is extraneous material added* nor is it felt that any violence has boon done* to 'the essential significance of the-passage's; should, though, a more explicit reference be de&i?ei« indication of the source is in sash case sufficiently precise to peMt $aar suitation: of the ©rigiaal* sii$&t differences la th# eye* tern for transliteration of proper names used by different translators should #ees$ no difficulty* ISere 0oa#«'sl©a |s apt to result |rom the fact that there often Geeme to be a a conversation, this Is generally dtie to the fact that In the Ohineeep change of person (in the gpaBmatidSl eense)9 curastoaces the quotation may be ascribed to the translator sad the title of his work, while the page reference Is mads of characters ishen the tuotatioh 11 of is reflected by a change in the actual same employed*, as is the decree of intimacy between the speakers* It will be observed that n2sun (Esse) £fequ©ntly o®dar© a© a paapt the proper name of snaay of these iaeafcioaed* this is an honorific t,$9l ladidatlag that the bearer ie e. person of eatstanding scholarly attainments*' it is esfcre&eiy unlikely that anyone would ever uaa the term in refeseae© to himself •• then staadlag alon©# i t is frequently translated a# *j»d**;»w and ih tftit tags usually rtler* to ©©acacias*. . While the bibliography is confined to those works which contain, in -part at least0 matorisl from the Chinees tests actually indicated in the. thesis, it is of coarse* eve© within this limited Held* far from foliate* JJatwr* ally all works quoted are included* and also a few others* especially saoh as are of historical interest; in addition there has been en attempt to give at least ens G©risa# and one l*reaeh translation of all the works considerec* Only auoh Chinese teats as have been accessible are listed; these follow the titles of the translations. The bibliography is separated into sections corres-ponding $o* sad appearing in the same order* as the fsua? schools considered in the thesis* Sails this entails re* petition of acme titles,, i t also gives a certain degree of cross indexing between the subject i&stter and the titled* Bootes listed under the name of the translator way be assumed to oontoia traaslatioas of th# perti&ent worM by the aathosp; anthologies and books Of sefetenoe ©fe listed aa&ei? the asms ©f the saifco /^aad' la these ^ aies_aoiiao*led@* '©eat to th© translators represented* where available* !©• meatloaed ia the bibliogfaphy* Siaiiarly^; tltlss under isMoh any work Mated has been reprinted are indicated when feasible.* Only sparely $iii a ag* tfsaeletloa of say work bs offered without theroagh eoasideratioa by the author sf pre* vioist; treflations* e#e&ei©aally, indeede the inflaenoe of aay earlier versioa is so marked that the new one is searee* ly more than a eorreetiea'or paraphrase of previous works* In a tm oases a translator will issue nhat is substantially the same- test under different titles* ihen each olreom-r . standee are apparent an attempt will be made to indicate i t in the bibliographyi however such aa attempt can only be tentative* and for fuller consideration ,^ the teste thorn-©elvesf should a&turaliy be oonsalted* ; * x * OT&OTOfi* AS SHBBBIWBB IH THE «BIT1W 02* S88 OZA&SSGftL CHI USE 8!BXi08QfB£B8 I Confucianism — introduction I must study to increase my virtue Emperor Yao: B.C. £36d-B80d (1) The above dates may properly be viewed with ocme soeptl-olemo However from a very early time the Chinese have gives great significance to learning, and have associated it close-ly with virtaGo This is a tradition that has been sympa-thetically folfllled in the teachings of Confucius* The above quotation is from the Book of History, one of the re-vered works of Confucian! sou Closely associated with the beeio tenets of Confucianism are nine works,* "The S'ive Classics* and wIae Four Books The five classics are: The Shu Xing * «*.<..*... The Book of History The 6hl King «..«.«*-*«•• The Book of Odes The Ylh King The Book of Changes The Li Xi . , o o . . . . oe,. 0 The Book of Bites The Ch'unoh'ia ««..«••• The Annals of spring and Autumn and the four books areI The Lun Ytt « The Analects of Confucius The Tah Sueh «<.*«.»»..• The Great Learning The Chung lung 9m Beatriha of the Msan Menoius • • « » . < > « . . . . e o * . Menelus The Book of History is a selection edited by Confucius of the records of the state archives; The Book of Odes is a (1) Old8 W»G*s The book of history, p 19. selection of some three hundred poeme, alee edited by Confucius* from approximately three thousand poems known to the literati of his day, some already of considerable antiquity* These are the oldest of the Confucian works, and all the material ill them probably antedate Confucius* fhe influence of his selection ie of course implicit in his editorship, but apart from that they are probably not de* rivative from him* Much of the Yih King also is of great antiquity, bot in Its present form it contains commentaries of later date, one of whioh is generally ascribed to Confucius; this however seems unlikely <> It Is a work in the realm of the ceo a It, and like meat systems of mystic significance is capable of Interpretation on levels ranging from mere "fortune telling" to that of quasi "•philosophical transcendentalism* It attempts by means of diagrams to express the underlying; reality of the various phenomena of nature, in regard to their make-up from varying combinations of negative and posi-tive aspects* Ift these diagrams the negative force is re* presented by a broken line, and the positive by a whole line. (See page )^ The Li £1 ie a record of ceremonial rituals and other matters* it seems to hove existed for some time prior to Confucius* but in its present form it contains material as-cribed to him* The Ch'unoh'iu is the only work vjhloh ie considered to have oome directly and immediately from the hand of Confucius himself* it is in the style of the Book of Hist* ©ry and brings the records up to date to the time of Confucius* It is written in a very terse style* a mete ekeletoalEod outline, and from the point of view of the Westerner is not very readable. However* Confucius himself aaorlbed conaidcrable significance to it, and in it attempted to choose hia words so carefully and discriminate-ly as to oonstituto a moral jadgment on hie account© of the actions of men which he related in it* The Anaioota (Lao Yu), a collection of excerpta from Confucius* conversation^ and other remarks* is the most rea-ver ed of the nine books. It is not supposed* however* that these were recorded by Confucius himself* or even by his disciples* but rather by disciples of these disciples* Many of his answers to guestioss* and statements in his discourses must have seemed peculiarly apt and striking to his fol* lowers, and to be possessed of an application and signifi-cance wider than any particular contest and Circumstance in which they occurred* In view of the attention given to memorisation by Oriental scholars* and the Veneration in which Confucius was held* it seems unite probable that these do present* at least the essential features of his ideas* and in many oases his actual words* As suggested* they are pfesentea* torn from their contest with little or no indi« cation of the circumstances under which they wore mad® and thus have moeh of the trenchant .aaeertiveness of proverb©? Replaced into their context ee determined, from ether eourcee they sometimes take on a significance differing to thaf which they hear when standing alone* and afford inter-esting sidelights on the personality ahd oharaotes of Oonfooiosft 1st evea. la the pithy baidaass of theirs p#eeea* tation in the Ancilecte, they afford provooative reading*and aeeiduooe miaiag of this eoaroe yields, perhaps more of the mettle aad teaehiaga of Coafsolas* then #©ea aay' other •.fwtfc* The fan Soeb is often translated ander the title "The •Great $^raia$tw hat eertaia modern aathoritiea tend toward rendering it ee "The Higher Education*" Hughes (TJie Great Learning aad the Mean in Action) considers it 'to have'been prepares by a tutor to the seas of the- -ruling eiasa*< t« feat, to them In brief form- the essential aepeote of the . teachings of Coafsolas* particularly emphasizing the opposi-tion of Confucius to the concept that the end of government was. profit* a teaching that was strongly advocated by the Legalist school of that time* The Chung Yuag is generally supposed to have beea .wittea by the grand©©a of Confucius for Mencius« fhie authorship oeeme quite possible, though there are evidences of ths elaborations of a aommeatator* It is aa expreasion aad a development of aome of the ideas that seem to rua through the teachings of Confucius. Menoius is the work of the greatest of the Confucian •••• 0 •'# dieoiploe, Menolus (Morig Tau)s it shews G devalopment -ia pe^ehole^ sad practical 'peiltlaa •&$ the Coafudiaa ideas* Meaoiss may be regarded ae the St* Paul of Confueiaaionig he \§ate*eafc ia itft, aad' fstabiishai it- la'that - leadlat the Chiaeaa fxm tshieh it has seareely evet # d #• Pre-Ooflfacian Literature introduction the Book of History, the look of Odea, sad the Book of Confucius himself* Zt isight be expected that these weald furnish but little material applicable to problems of education; antho-logists of pestry* r©cores of archivists, and books on for* tans tolling, do $dt generally concern themeelvos with such matterQ* Nevertheless, before the rise of philosophy pro-per, there 18 a period of speculative cent eolation, and earlier than this* primitive literature is often rich in exhortations to virtue and patriarchal calls to wisdom which sliow^  a% the level of practical ©thic% at leastf some con-cern for promptings of philosophical ©ndulry* sc |U thcet workfc* there arc cat tain pa$sa$e|.f reflect* lag an awareness of the significance and funation of educa-tion* . The Book of History is especially rich ia this re-* gard« Oonfuclue evidently found it very influential, and there are many suggestions- in i t which are t© be- more fully' developed ia later Confuoinn thought. Because of their place la the Confucian tradition* and because of a certain interest they bear due to their antiquity* one passage* dealing more or less closely with education, is given from each of these works* The Shu King III the Book of Si#to*yf certain chapters* recording oonvereatI ona between the Bmpsrofc and his ministers, are re-' gardefl as counsels* A© these often epeak emphatically on ,the da ties of the ruler to efiucate sad improve himself* they are of considerable interests In learning there should be a humble mind ana the main-t©nance of a constant earneetnese; in such cases the ' ' learner*$ improvement will surely some* He who sincerely cherishes these things will find all truth accumulating in his person* Teaching is the half of learning; when a man's thoughts from first to last ste constantly fifced on learning hid virtuous cultivation domes uaperoeived* (1) fhe Shi From some three thousand poems that were current in his time, Confuciue selected what he ooneiderea to be about the three hundred best; this collection became known as the Book of Odea. '' Later ccramantatore have attempted: to .find deep ethical and political significance in every one of these* but from a simpler point of view* it would mm likely that many were Chosen $m% because of their appeal as poetry sad art. .Boweva** some of them were obviously 'written- with a didactic purpose, and Confuciue himself has said that there 16 a central ethical principle to a l l the odes, *fhi$g no ©vi lo ° (£} and in conversations with his disciples* he Oftea (1) Shu King, part 4> bk $ section 3: Lsgg$ (tr) Classic of History ia* Boras (ed) Sacred books ...of the East* p H (2) Analects* bk 2 chapt it Lyall, Sayings of Confuciue9 p 4 * 8 * drew deep meanings from what, on the eorfaee* appear to be ' quite simple* atraightforwarfi verses* - ' The following two etansee are of gome interest as shewing aa exhortation to *irtaooe aoaduot, tsith suggestions hois suasion and example lead to its development. Alee, my eon, that you Should not dietinguieh i l l from good* Have I not ied you by the hand . And pointed at the thing to know? Have 1 not named it to your face And tshispered it within isroor e&rt Forsooth yoa say* * % do not kh©^ * You who have children In your arms* You do not know the people starve! full early have yoa Isaown* yet do aot set* Alaa^  my soa» to you lavs I aot taught the mays of old? Would you M0ilistea to my w©r4e; Aad ere i t be too late repeat* • *Ti© Beavea that aakseyoat «ey a© hard And brings destruotioa oa your land* Bee then example© asa# at head,* So double mind ia found ia Heavens Let but your inward power go book* And ail your people suffer lose* CI) The ¥ih Slag• It io said that Oonfuciue devoted two years to studying the first diagram of the Book of Changes, and of this toork he has said# "If some years tser© aaaed to my life, I would give fifty to the study of the Yih, and then I might acme to be without great faults** (?) While some of the mote aignif icont passages in the Yih (1) Shi King, fa Ye bfe 3 ode E: hughes, Chinese philosophy la GlaeBioai times, p S (8I Aasieets* bk ? ehspt 16? .I$ftg$# Four books, p 64 # '9 * Sing ©oeur ia the later cciatoent&rles* the excerpt below from the more ancient part* This indicates the type of material which is fonciemental to the work, and also presents an illustration of one of the diagrams upon which it is of In interpreting the hesagrame, the early diviners wars concerned not merely with their significance as rcpreeenting a certain combination ond relationehip of the positive negative forces in the universe, hot also with the form the diagram itself* She MSQ® hexagram whloh ia below* appeared to them to resemble a small plant* bursting from the grounds thus symbolical of the eneed and untutored youth, henoe the primitive oomments this diagram* deal appropriately with igiioranse* and how may be dispelled* on it If* Ilang indicates that la the Oaso whloh it presupposes thers will be progress and success* 1 do act go and seek the youthful and Inexperienced but he somes and seeks mc» When he shews the sincerity that ijiarka the first reoourae to dlvlnatiQn 1 instruct him* If he apply a second and third time* that is troublesome5 and I do not instruct the troublesome. There will be advantage in being firm and corrects 1 The first line (ie* the bottom line) divided* has respect to the dispelling of igaeraao©* It will be edi&n* tage©us to use punitshaent for that purpose and to remove the shackles from the mind. But going on in that, way of punishment warll give oooasioa for regret* 2 2h© second line* undivided* shows its eub^ ect «* 10 * exercrlQlng forbearanoe with the igaorant* in which there will be good fortunes and admitting even the goodness of women9 whioh will also be fortunate. He may be described GIGO eg a eon able to sustain the burden of his family.«• - £ In the topmost line, undivided, vsk- see one smiting . the ignorant youth* But no advantage will come from doing him on injury* Advantage would soma from warding off injury from him* (1) Gonfnoien 3&t©*ature •#* iatreda#tl©*i • the works just ©aoside^sd are of ©sure® eeooadsry in interest- to the Bool' of Bites (Li SI) and the Analects (Laa Yu) vjhich contain so mnoh material derivative from Confucius himself. Viith the esceptlon of two lengthy ezcerpte from '-the' Book of Bites, nearly ail 'the passages fuated in this section are from the Aaaieot©* While the selections from the Book of Sitae show the influence of Gonfuclue, it eeerne impoeaible to determine km much is his- direotly, and how raaoh the ©laboration of a later commentator • however as the #ab#eat matter is to i^ madiataly .german©1 to the' topic of this papere it has been considered advisable to treat it with the eelect!one from the Aasleata* It will be recalled -that- the Analects ia .a eollection of Remarks and responses of Confucius, grouped together . . j^sith, very .little, systems*!© artaagemeat.* ©ftea- fclth a:© |a» dication of context, and rarely presenting a reasoned or sustained paoeage of consistent thought* All that ©en be claimed for .'the following pages ie that aa attempt has been (I) Yih King, seet I pt 4| Book of chengee, ia Horns (ed) , saered books *«>©f. tha.iaet* .vol i i pp sia*ii «• 11 -made to group similar passaged together in an arrangement that is intended to make it mote feasible to follow oat a systematic development of remarks of Confucius oh questions of education* However it is still the original remarks that are preaented ia their stark simplicity* aafl provocative (and, at times* provoking) dieparete isolation* If a qo-hereat pattern become apparent to the reader* it is ©aly as - .he himself threads these otherwise disjointed paseages, sad finde a doiiaiateaey. that reflects the underlying eheraeter of Coafuoius and hie general attitudes sad beliefs towards education and the superior man* The material presented might be conveniently grouped into three seotiohsj the first giving the ideas of Confucius ©a the baeit nature of maa* the raw material sa-lt were* opoo which the educative process is to operate* thea a diecueelon of the Confuoian ideal of the superior maa* the end product of a true education applied to a re* eponeive nature, and finally an indication of the methods of education embodied in the Anoleote and Book of Bites* The LI KI and the Laa ?% Either metaphysical problems and Questions of essential reality were of little interest to Confuciue, Of else he perhaps felt a Certain: retieeace in regard to some of his most fundamental beliefeg•&n ©ay ease there is very little in these wofke ia respect to the original nature of maa« * 18 «» Shore' ie, though* en indicatiea that he felt a general be-lief in the basic gocdaees of man1e iahereat natares The iiaeter saide "Man ie born for uprightness* If a ':; man lose his upriglitneae, and yet',live* hie escape from death "iathe effect of mere good fortune** (1) and of a ^ettaia unity in the nature of humanity: ( a Confuoien contribution to the aatare*aarture controversy) Men are bora pretty much alike, hot through their habits they gradually grow 'farther and further apart from eae&; other* ' {£) & few.peeeager'ia the ala© deal nith-'Maa:*s original nature even more epeoificallyj thee©, howeverc are of doubtful authorship? ' Man i© the product of the attribntpe of heaven and earth* by the interaction of the dual forces of nature, the aaioa of the animal and' intelligent •souls.* and the fiaesf subtile mettsr of the five elements. ($) Ehat are the feelings of meat tfhoy are 3©y* anger* ©ad* nese, fear.*, love, dislikinga and likingo These seven feelingo belong to men without their learning them* (4) The things whloh men greatly desire are comprehended ia meat and drink end sexual pleasure; those which they greatly dislike are oemprehenfied in death, exile, poverty, ana suffering* Thus liking and disliking are the great elements in men's mindeo {©} It would b© impraetioal to attempt to give a full ae* oount of the superior man as envisioned by Confuoius« This was a matter of oonatact concern to him, and a theme to which he recurred again and again* In general the character (1) Aaaleota* bk 6 Chapt i?t •Legge*. four books* p 64 (2) Analects* bk 17 chapt E* Ma Tutang (tr) Aphoriams ©ft$8@ Coniuoluo in, Lin YUtang (ed) Wiedom of Chim and India* p (3) Li Kis Legge (tr) the Li Ki 0 in Ballou (ed) Bible of the World* p 379 (4) Li Kl: Ibid, p mo (5) Li &; Ibid* p 380 W W of the superior man is that of the eommoaly accepted iflaa of the geotlemaa0 as it miglit be determined and fulfilled through a philoaopblealiy critical evaluation0 ~- He; is honeet and einoore, joet and reserved la Judgment, easy in manner, with an integrated personality h^loh ass been completed ia esaaatioa aaa rouaded ©If M.th culture* It is, however, weirthwhil^  to quote fairly easteasively from Coaf&eiua on the sapetiat-man,-partly-boaaase of its importance la his teachings, and the aptaess aad J U G U O O with which many of hie Judgments are eapreeaed, aad also beesuse ef the signi-ficance 'ha gave to -©daoetlon in forming euch a character. Confucius said, "The superior man underetande what is righti th© iafsrior maa uaderataaa® what will eell*n(l)*.o. R18het th© superior maa eee&s is ia himself $ tshat the •©.rdiaa»y .maa seeks, is la others*** (2) $h© asaetsr said, "The superior maa is easy to serve aad difficult to please* If you try to piaase him M aay isay whioh Is aot accordant with right, he Will aot be pleased* But ia his employment of mea, he ases them according to their capacityc The inferior maa ie difficult to serve .-aad easy to please* If you try to please him, though it be ia a way which is not aooordent with right, he may be pleased«, But ia his employment of men, he isiehes them to be equal t© ©very thing* W He «feo' does aot anticipate attempts to deceive him, aor thiak beforehand of his aot beiag believed, aad yet appro* heads these things readily when they ooear^-ie he not a maa of superior worth? (4) (!) Analects, .$>k 4 ©hapt SU ISA fataag, Widaom of***, p 100 (g) Analects, Okie" ohapt £0j Dawaon, Basic TeachingGo . 6 p % (3) Analects* bkl3 chapt 25; Wong (tr) Aaeleote of*.«., la Ballou (ed) Bible of the world, p 416 (4) AnalectG0 bkl4 ohapt £©gg©* Four books*; p |@l • •r-',v, Ute/ft of true "breeding: are in harmony with-. people*; al-thou^ k they 4© hot agree with theasi hot men of aa-'breeding .agree with people,,, and'yet^ 'are'not '-l^ hafmeay .with, them* ft) Coafueiae eo$&# & gentleman has niae alms* to- seo Olearlyi; to understand what he hea-rsi to he mm ia maaaer, . digaified ia teasing;? faithful of s>e©eh,f ke©a,;a,t work,,..t£' •. ask whea in doubt* la a&ge*' to thiai of «3iffieaitiesi ead ia si#t ©f goia to-thip of jeight*, f s) ' It was generally taken-.for granted among |he adherents of ConfaeiaMem, that a true edueatioa and virtueae Conduct wefe etoeeiy iaterrelated* Uetetally th©^ eoald #0% fail to see that there were some talented and learned, who all to© obviously were aeithe* virtuous nor hoaoafahiei eat the education of such men, it was felt, had somehow been faulty, was iadeed* act truly -an/ eduoatioa* Eropetlf one of the m%a main purposes of the true man: in seeking an edooation was the fulfilment Of his moral nature, and the education it~ eelf should he eueh as to incline him toward this coarse* . ®eth of theee eepeete e&e <t»dle®-te& .ia the -£a&le#tet .. s&e 6#pe*4or man learns in •order to. reach ;the utmost of hie psiaciplea* (®)**..!rhe Master said*- "it ie aot se#y to fiafi a man who has learaed for three years without domiag to ho rii?tuooi* (d) • -By e&teasitreiy eta&yiag all learning* and keejiag •eelf uoder the resttaiat of the.ralee of propriety| ©aVmay . thus likewise aot err from what is. righto (6) (1) Analects*•&k 13 chapt -Mi- Su^ hes, Qh-iasso paii©e©phy««* s) Analects*, bk Id ohapt IGs fyali*. -Sayinge of G«««, p $4 m fleets* hk 19 chap* 7t ,&egge* iodr hooke* -(4) Analects, bk IS. ohnpt 15: Daweonc BaBio taoohiase of eeafueioe* p 24 (6) Analects, bk IS chapt 15: &egge9 fOut booke, p 121 •&% \«as aot mwoly in a aarsrow seas© of Horal goodaees' aloa©* fo^oolB^-'la^^ai^ by f^leml.de^iojpass^' • ea&0ati©a .shoaia be beat, to lae de^ eioptieat of the i&o&$. peraoj^ lityfc Qoelel aaa aes^ heti*! fai#|Im;©aV a© ©e virtaooa eeadaot, were part of the ©omplest maa that, he ea* !2he M&oter - aaid, Matter ©Btweighlag' art beget© ronj aeae* art outweighing matter begets pedantry* Hatter aat ayt well.'bleat make the gentitmaa*. (X) It'^ls© atoaied w*|i *$igh seif*svM©#t t© th© •• e©afa:©t6i3iftei;* that toil talented aad Hrtaaafe «oeid' aaiaf* . ally iaollae to employment la a government offioe In an ad« ' mini strativ© • tapaaity* Th©*©- fcsr©* • of' sears©* raleri aad ' • elfaamstaaoti aader whiah oae ©©old aot hoaoarahly Qerv©& •: bat-'ia..a properly established' state, i f was. fait that the : obllgatioaa ana" •^©rtiiaiti©:© of ©ff|ge* aad the ta|ej»ta'' a*$ latliaatieaa of th© {^eti©f ©aa were $&aMi©aal ©orrela* tive©» . It *&s & die@ra$# to a goveramaat aot to seek to -em* ploy euoh men, aad a doty for them to lead their eevvieea \\here the beaefite of their exporienoe, aad the example of their ©haraf ter-, a©ai# d© moat to $©srv©. the paopla* If the 'lay |>r#^ ails amoag, the &tat©% yoo ©aa make Courselves prominent; but if it does aot preveil. then keep a- *etl5r€3a©a%*" If it nreifaii© ia yoar • area* it i i a d|a*' • gjfaoo to b© poor aad hoffihl©* If i t doaa aot p?©Vai|| it ia ' a disg*£©a to he ri^h ©ad 'hoa©ored.» fij. ' ' • (1) Aaaleata^  bk 6 ohapt' ' • Htii£" Seat aoi&$ a©a24 ;'i?ym#&th|a©,j aad s»e-#hap& feel- a teirtaia aofc^ algicj •^m^-'$^-W^'^ii^^3^tv& life of thoa© '^ o $&^m&'1&ai¥ pe*a©anl parity by withtotela# from the ®o#ldV 1&#iSrfcfc^ #^ ^'/©at that he ¥g$94&&$&4l Mie*' #©Mf' ufewS'•a$^ aiahed by a rea&*#© lot ©< with affaire of state, he One oacuiot herd oa equsl terras ©ith bearate aaa birdBt If $-am jgb$. to- live am©a$ thes*©- hemaii thea «ith'^©m ela©'. should I llvef Gat$ i^ tid the §%ire ;0r4e,r,©§ shall I aeas© to take aa$t ia the. mam of fefoiasnatloa* (1) . #©aae, of th©. -iat©3f&ep<pd&a$© of thf, ralaja .©f.th©. -aad- #f$i$|al*.. $©4©that ^e s©iif.-#f ©aid have ia • • • A-9*$BOH. *»h© ahona - a. &ea#©- ©f • hoaoar .la h-ie. ©©ada&t aad «ho fca relied »£©a to ©arry oat a' "~ La a .for.olga aoaatry: i»ith-. b© ©.ailed a scholar* (2} oae of the diaaipies,- -<s&a© IMieatea that the moit ai'iailiaaat of. e#w©aM©a. i% - th# f a n ofi£e%. $ath©# tfcaa the mere &i§$i#!tioa of • If a maa esahews beauty aad honours it he serfel his father aad mother with all hie strength, if he la seady to give hie life fox hie lord* and Itsepe fqith ®ith ' his- frieade, th'oash -otbefe&iok? say he-has a© ie&rMa$.r1'.-oust oall him learned. * 17 -Hoi1?ever, though nobility of character m& of first im-port anos, that true ©dacation la not $© lie # egara@# aa a mere veneer, adding a polish of superficial refinement to Klh TflE-ehing oace said, "Give me the inborn Qualities of a gentlemen, ©ad 1 weat ao more* Mm are such to com® from b©ok*laaraiag?n Tss*kuag es©laimed| wAhi. sir, I regret to hear such words from you. o»Literary accempliehmeats are mach the same as iabora qualities, aad iabora qualities a© literary acocm-pliehmentso A tiger'e or leopard'© ©Ma without the hair might be a dog'a or sheep's when made eo bare*" (1) Similarlyt while Coafuolue seemed to believe that mea naturally iaoliae toward the right, nevertheless there tsaa a danger that even their good irapaleee, if not controlled by the discipline and wisdom of learning, might lead to uafor-tuaate result a: The Master eeid, "Yo, have you heard the ais words to . ®hloh are attached six becloodla&sf* Ya replied* "I have aot*'"T§it down aad 1 will tell them to you*" *Th©r© is th© love of beiag beaevoieat without the love Of l©araiagj~~the beclouding here leads to a foolish simpli-city, there is the love of kaoisfiag without the love of l©araiag|**the beoloudiag here leads to diseipatloa of miad* There ie the love of being sincere without the love of learning;—the beclouding h©r© leads to aa injurious disre-gard for ooneequonoee. There ie the love of atraightfor-wardness without the love of learningf-the beclouding here leads to rudeaess* There is the love of boldaees without the love of learning}—the beclouding hare leads to insubor-dination. There is the love ©f flrmaess without love of learaiag?** th© becloudiag her© leads to .©atravageat . ooaduot* (2) (I) Analects, bk 12 ohapt 01 Jennings (tr) The analects, la Horae (ed) Sacred books...of the East, vol 11, p S17 (E) Analects, bk IV ohapt 8: Wong (tr) Analects of Ooafuoius la, Balloa (ed) Bible of the world, p 416 * 1© However, the significance which Confucius gave to the polish of learaiag •a*»4 the eariefcmeftt of eultasel refine^ raent9 was never great enought© Justify the Qomewhat consraon belief that he tau#it a formalisaip aha coco era for mere out-ward appearance, evea-'te ^e peiat' of ;h^ ee-*4ey* $rae§ both reputation aad ritual were matters that he regarded $ith great seriousnesse bat indioated in anmiGtalcable terme that ' they were secondary to character and rightaeas of impulee. 70'ritual, indeed, ho gave a eaered eigflifioanee0 bat on the practical level, he seemed to favour it because it gave a certain stability to society as a whole, to the individual it offered aa acceptable pattern fox expression of hie im* pulses, due sad decent ehaaaeis iato which his otherwise ua-guided emotioas might properly flow. This was fust as essential;*, perhaps evea more so, ia apogard to a person'e good impulsee* ae to his lees acceptable oaee: virtue has its excesses no less than vice0 fhe tfee feiatioa betweea eiacority of eaotioa ead coa-* ventlocol behavior ia which it should b© espreeeed ie In-dicated in many paesagees If a man be without the virtaes proper to humanity, what has he to do with the rites of propriety* ( l ) . c o H i g h station occupied by men who have no large aad generous hearti ceremonial performed with ao revereeeea duties of mouraiag engaging the attention, where there ie ebeenoe of eorrow—how should X look on where this is the state of things* (S) ' 1) Analects, bk 3 chapt 3J Dawaon9 Basic tenoMnge0o8pp96-9 2) Analeoto, bk 3 Chapt 23; Jennings {tr) The analects* in Koine (ed) Saored books.•«of the East, vol 11* p £88 Iii festive ceremonies, it ie better to be sparing than extravagant* In tne ©eremeniee of moarai^ g* it. is better that there be deep Sorrow thane raiadte attention to observance. (X) grief* should ,etop'with '-that* (z) ' • : Oonfuoiae expreesed hie epprovol of a diaolple raho asked: Does that mean that the ceremonial forms of U (ritual) maet be based on & background of eimplieity of oharactes'TfSJ : "Tt i# eoeordiflg, to -the roles of propriety** the$r eay** 'It is according to the rales' of propriety** they say* Are gems and silk (used in ceremonial} all that is meant by propriety? !It ie SSasie*' they say* 'It is iaaio*.' they say* Are belle and d»cm© ell that is meant by ttteitf? (4) In view of the extreme importance given by the Chinese to funeral rites, the insistence of Confuciue on sincerity ia ceremony i® pointedly indicated in the response he made to one who felt that oae year's mourning (instead of the yod**that retoraiag to bettor food* that petting ©a of fine clothes?* ' , • "It woold** said he* "fchea if yoe can be satisfied ia &© doing* do #©*. set !t) Analeote bk 3 chapt 4; Legge, Four hooks*. p $0 2) Analects* bk 19 ohapt 14$ Ibid* p fcOf m Analects* bk 3 chapt 8: Lin Yutang (tr) Aphorisms of Confuciue, la Lia Yutang (ed) Wisdom of Chiaa end iadie> p 640 (4) Anolecte, bk 17 chapt 11$ Legge Four books* p 188 character of the -* 110 to a geMlemen* who in mourning for -a aot food will hot hepaieteMe* nor win the listening.to musio he pleasant* nor mi l eotafotte of heme, 'make him nspgy In mind* Eeao© he does not do as you suggest. Bat if you' are. now happy ($ pour ^ ind* tfeen do- .#e## fi) . However, even when the ritual was the e^ preasion of a eiaoere emotion9 .there «as still a sense that the beet rl toal was.' the simplest* A - e ertain. nataralneea and on r^et-ease shea id he typical of the saoe#i©# mens the ©hiioeophor tew said* *$n a natural ease is to be fhe 'Haster said* *$he men of former times* in the matters of ceremonies and maaic9 were ruetios* it is. said* while the men of these latter times* in cereraonieo and are acoorapliohed gentlemen* If I have ooofaeion to ess.those twinge* I follow the men of former'tlmee*1* {&} There was a tendency to euapeet* not anjaetlyd that the, man preoccupied with trivia of ceremony and meticulous in per:!©rmenee 'mm .likely to be activated ly hypo#|?iey than intensity of emotion; or else was driven' by feelings of personal insecurity? • .$©nf#oiu.e eaid* "The euperie* mm ie always condii end at •e&set the Inferior men is.-always worried ©boat something* (4) The superior man has a dignified ease without pride; the mean men hat. pride without a • digni.fi.-ed eeee*1* is) (1) Aaeleete*;. Ift. 12 chapt. lis Jennings ft*) fhe ~, . &©r$d*e great ciaee'ie's*; Oriental iitetatare¥ 'v-ol 4 p (Si Analects, bk 1 ohapt IS: Legge, Four books* p 7 (3) Analeots* bk 11 ohapt 1: Wong ftr) Analeots of Confucius^  in Ballon fed) Bible of the world, p 407 " ;"^g t ! $if^ ©m of oonfeeieei p 19s *^ b$ is 'Ohept S#j: **-^' : ' Uh© faster said-, *l$a#;ijsatda, ©a lasiauating- ai aad exooeeive r©8pe©t,«~Tee^k'©« mag ws ashamed of them* "i o|a©: em- ashamed ©£ them* 3?o ©eneasl xeseatmeat' agalaat-a persoa* ©ad sppea'r- irieadly' -with hl®i*^ a©*fc'*a®- S;ag aehsmea of saoh ooudactp I also am aehemed of it." (1) T©a#hia saidi *i$h©a aa- iaf©nor maa does a- xsroag thing* he is sax© to i t '©veX*:*?:v|;2') ' ' ••• tar ©;©atxa$| t© thi$,fth© 8a»©xiox m&a^  ©vea ia xegard to 'hisfaalts^ reveals 'a'gextaia geaexously ©>©a aaadoaxi when one of the disciples aaked Cenfucitte vehy it was proper to regard a ceytein minister as cultured, despite Some father obvious failings, he and loved learnings he vjae not ashamed to ask those beneath him* that is why he woe called oultured.O 2ha disciple* feae^ kuag pots it ©van mora dir©otly.t wIh© faults of the superior maa are like th© of the sua aad mooa* 1© has his faults aad all men see themj he changes agaia aad all men look wp to him* (4) The relation which the ©oafuelaaists found between rightasa© ©ad its eapreseioa ia ooaduot* is p©tha$>B summed up .ia o paaeage from the Li £i: $h©' ru|©s ©#. iastltuted by th© anoieat Maga • had their ©el element aad their outward elegant form* A true aad good faith are their radical element. The of each according to the' idea of what 18 ' ia it are its outward ©legaat form. Without th© *• Fear - bookSf p (tr) ^ 1©" (1) <&asi©ataf 'bk $ ohapt (e) &aai©©tS4 'bk If World's groat .aisa&i©'©,,' ©Meatal (3) Analects0 bk 6 ©hapt 14* Lyall, Saylage of Confucius, p 18 (4) finaleot©e bk 19 ohapt 21$ Legge9 Four books, p 210 £8 * radical clement, they could act have beoa established! with-out the elegaai' f ©rm, they could hot have baea pot into practice* (I) That the ©sseatial feature wee propriety, rather than mere antiquity, ie ale© iadloated? Bale© of ceremony axe the embodied expression of ishat is right. If aa obeerVanoe etanti the teat of being fudged , by vfhat ie right, although it may aot have been amoag the usages of the ancient kings* it may b© Mop ted aa the ground of belhg right* (2) While Coafuciue, thus paid great respect to truth aad ©ia©erltyf aevertheles© at© teachings took late sooouat the realities of human natures he did aot believe .that, every p.romle© eh on Id be kept* nor that the soa should be obliged to e^vael ©rimes of the parent©* The truth to %hioh ha taught adherence was neither the frigid and remote truth of a logical absolutism that might underlie a aoientlfio cul-ture aad technological civilisation, aor the disinterested judicial truth that Slight be implicit ia the philosophy of a state f ouad©^  ©a 1st? there is a stroagiy ho^aaisti© tread to th© Chinese character, aad Chinese thought, which ia illustrated by the remark, of flohfaoiua*. thai Truth may aot depart from human nature* If what is regarded as truth departs from humoa aature, it may aot be regarded aa.truth* (3) It ie ia accord with this attitude that Confucius, an* like certain other Oriental philosophers, should aot have (1) Li 21, OK 6 sect 1 verse 3s Ea^ eon, Basic teachings.o0 (2) £l fta#"bk f-#est 4 Veraa Gs ibid* p 101 • ' (p 100 (3) AneloetQ, Lia Yutaag, Wisdom of "foafaeiaa, p 164 * 83 attested to sabaa© or repress man's «ft©tion»i teadeaoisa,, but rather to fulfil them and direct them into acceptable paths, ©van is taia so in regard to the *a»*£#frett-tel* attitudest''. It.' ie ©aly the traly vit^ taou© msa Doha eon love*, or «ho ,oaa hate athera* (1) la additioa to previous selectione indicating the general ©ffeot oa the. personality ©ad ahataote.r of a true edacation, a rather mote eostained passage from the 14 Ki„ suggests the influence that speoiellaation in varicue fields of literature aad- culture haeia forming attitudes aad habits; Coaftteias 'taidi _ Whea £ eater, a oouatry, I aaa of tell its type of culture, fhea the people ate kla4' •aad.aiibi©*hesrt©a,* that shows the " ~~~ When people are broad-minded aad a&aa*iJw««- „„„ ^« u , that ©house the teach ins of history* When the people are quiet aad thoughtful aad show a eharp power of observation, that shows the teaohings of philosophy of mutations (Book of Ghangee). When the people are humble aad reepectfal and frugal la thei? habits* that efce^ a the. tesehiag of 11 {the fg£afei$l* of eoeial order)* fhsa tha people at® ^ulitivated : a their speech, ready isith expreseione and analogies, that ehotss the teaching of prose., or Spring sad' A&tama* fas •' • danger la the teaching of poetry ic that the people remain ignorant, or 'too -Simple hearted* The danger in the toaohins •of history is that people may be filled with ia©©r?©©t legends aad a tori ©a ofaveatl* &*<4«$$4* ia tha " -* of mnalo is that the people grow ejttravagaat* The la the teaching of philosophy it that the people crookedc The danger in the teaching of 11 is that the fit^ ali'..bsaome too elaborate* in? djaagar' la the. 't®sah*' lag of Spring and Autuma, is that the people get G sense of the prevailing' mm&l eliaos. v.hen a maa: is kind aad gentle -aad simple-hearted, aad yet aot igB.©r©nt§•.'«e may be sure he Is die.ep ia the study of peatsy*: • When a mm ie braad^ miadsd (i) m 21*. pp -$;g0#3&: 861 l»ia Yotaag, fisdam of o^hfaaiaai, • 24 -and acquainted with the past, and yet net filled with in-correct legends or stories of events* we may be sere he is deep in the etc$y of history*' 1?hen a man i© generous; and' shows a good disposition and yet not extravagant in hie pe^ eeaai habits* we MB$ be sore he is deea la the stady of mueico When a n^ n is quiet end thoughtful and e h a a sharp power'of .oosex^ ation,:*: end yet ie act'eaeoiied* we *a©y be euro that he 10 deep in the study of philoGcphy0 «hea a man is hurable and polite end fro gel £n hie pe^ oonol hebits 'and'yet'not fuli;of elehorat©.ceremoniee#; w©:.ia# fee ©ate he is deep in the study of i i - And whoa a man ie cultivated • in hie ••speech* reoay with e^reesioae'04Jd.aa^l©:gies'ond yet ie not' influenced by the pieture of the prevailing aiotal chaos* we may be eore that he ie deep ia the/#tudy ©f Spring and Autumn* (1) Scattered throughout the Analects are a considerable number of references to the methods which Confucius em-ployed ia studying and teaching* end also hie own remarks on these subjects** There is, however, in the Li Ki e. whole chapter devoted to such clatters: despite the fact that it is doubtful to what estent this material is derivative from Confooius* and that' is is of considerable length, i t has beoa decided to reproduce it aimoet in its entirety* as there is very little ele© in the 'ancient Chinese wtitlnge t&at deals eo directly and specifically with method® and problems of formal academic Instruction as doea this oriticully dee-oriptiv© passage on the already ancient educational eystem; |fhe Ancient Educational Sfstem) The ancient educational system waa as followe* There .wae.•»'. prjMsary school in.every hamlet of tweaty f^iv®- families* a eeee^^y echo©! in every town, of five head#el f®miliee« an academy la ©very county" Of twenty-five hundred fsiaiUec. (1) 14 Ki, ohapt 26j Ms Xutang* «iedom of aoafuclae* « 28 * and a college in the ©apitei of every #feato (for tho education of tho princes and sons of nobles and tho host pupils from the lower schools*) Ivory year new student© wore admitted, and every other year there was an examina-tion. At the' end of the first year* an effort was made to see how the pupils wore able to punctuate their sentences and to find out their natural inclinations* At tne end of three y©oro, on effort was mads to find eat theit habits of study and their group life* At the end of five yeares they would try to see how well read in general the pupils wore ana how closely they had followed their teaohers* At the end of - seven fsare*. they would try to find oat. how- their ideas had developed end what kind of friends they had selected for themselves* This is called tho Minor Gradca-tion (heiBoeh 'eng from the lower grades)* At the end of nine years* they were expected to know the various subjects and have a general Understanding of life and to have laid a firm foundation for their character from which they could not go b a c k c This was called the Major Graduation (taoh*©ng — from the higher gradee}* By such an educational system only 10 it possible to civilise the people and reforta tho morale o f t h e country* so that the local inhabitants will be happy ana those In distant lands will love to come to the country. This is the principle of taheueh, or higher education. That Is tho moaning of the .passage in the Ancient Records which says* . "The ants are busy ell the time" (tho importance of continu-ous study)« In the college* the stadeat© begin to study the proper use of ceremonial robes and vegetable offerings at sacri-fices, in order to learn, tho principle of rospect of piety. They are made' to sine tho- .first three eenge of Hsi&eya* ia order to learn the first elements of official life* On entering the college* a drum is beaten before the students unpack their books, so as to teach discipline at their studies* The ferule or hickory eticlc is -seed in order to regulate their external behavior* Ho inspector ie- cent to the eeilege esceet on the occasion of the Sranfl Sacrifice to the royal anoestore* that the students may b e loft alone to develop themselves* The teacher observes hot doss not constantly lecture to them* no that the students have time to think oat things for themselves* The young ones are supposed to listen and not to ask questions, so that they may know their -own place* Thee© seven things arc the main methods of teaching* That is the meaning of the passage in tho Ancient Beeords which says* "At the college* thee® who already have an office make studies relative to their re-spective departments, while those who do not got have an office study what they want to do eftearwajpds^  (Extra-oaryicolsar Studies) student© Without In the educational system of the ocllege todies in class sad are ia their own reams* die cannot learn to Without wide observation Without one Without driving?) B ens esn&et Therefor© ia the education of the aaperior men (of1 th© in-there when tho the proatieo of instrument one cannot the the ( . school* telleetual upper olass), one to cultivate things, to rest •sad' Qtoaenta learn to feel at home a ind acquire conviction in ideaso teachers without, turning their is the meaning of the passage in whloh end then you will • fas teachers rigmcirttle faohion ions * Ie not try to at have results*" of annoy o earns things over oat whet -the In this way the ad establish a enfoy friendship They then a&f leave their on theit studies* This the Advice of ffs tash, your ©todies constantly, i n eonitant guest*-tlons are* like' their their the first as wrong* readings and dlffioulty of to they try to' bring . .. . . „ . to the' ata&aate is wrong ia What they esspeot of the a to dents is a result* the students hide their favorite ate their teaohere, ere ©sasperated at their studies and do does Although they go through the are quick to leave it .when is the reason for tho failure it • course of sr© education (The Ideal Tho principles of college education are as followss first* prevention.*, m ffreveetiag bad ha bit a before or " _f ordet* or in proper eefUeiioe* arise, «hen they ere the different m mataal stimeletio^ I l i terally ' : t tfriefien*}* or students admir® the of other etudentfflo four things ensure tho ©oooess of edu©ation0 On the other hand, to forbid then after ready aoqaired bad habits would Seem to make against' their grain and efforts at correction would he with-# 27 # oat SQOOOSGP . to teaeh them after the yoang age ia past veald stake their learniag dif f ioult ana fa tile. To fail to teach the different subjects ia their proper order wonia • bring aboat chsog ia their studies:, .^thoot good reenlte* To atafiy a.enbject all alone without friends would make a student too, narrow in soop®, lacking in general knowledges' Sad .aamp&ay would enceurage' thera to go ngsinst their teachers and bsd psstimee would cause them to neglect their studiee* These alas thinge oaoee the: breakdown of a college . Maaatiaa* With, the knowledge, of the reasons for- success In edneatioQ aad' the oausee of its .failure,, the superior maa' is ajaiifisd ta be a tasaher* . Therefore la aia toachicg the aaperiat man guides hia .• bat does aot pall then, alongS he oraos them to go end doee aot eupprese them; he opens the ^ e but doee aot take them to the place* Guiding without pulling makes the prooese .of learning gentle? urslng without aaa* preeeing makes the prooeae of learning easyj and openiag the way thout leading the- students to She place makes them think for themselves. How if the process of learning is made gentle aad easy aad the stadeate are encouraged to think foi* themaeIves, m slay call the rosn a .good teacher^  ,. There are foar ooramoa strata ia education ^ hloh the teacher must beware of* Some etndeat@ try to learn toe •: much or too many eab^ eote, eooie leara too little OP too tim. mtoafc leara l&ia#s.tea' ©ai&ly aad sama-ata too . eeouraged* those tout thiagavSho® that iad&ridaala differ ia their mental endovraente, and only through a know . .leaf® of the differoat mentel endoraoeata can the: teacher correct their mistakes* %. teacher ..is hut s KSO who tries to bring oat the .good aad remedy the tseakaessas of J&$ students* A good.singer makes others follow hia tu«% aad'a good ©duesto? makes; others follow hie ideal*- Sis words at© ©'©a* alas bat expressive, casual but foil of hidden meaning, aad' • • he is good at drsraiag ingenious esan^ lea to make people understand him* la thie way-,, ho may be ©aid to Be a good maa to meke others follow his 'ideal. the superior -maa. knows what is difficult and whet is easy* ishst ia. ©aiaeilaa* aad ia'-dilatable In the " *" ' ' "" ''" learned, aad than- Ji© is good at ••firsistag ** atiing -good- at drawing ©samples, he thee ftaoroa -be a teaoher* Knowing hew to be a teacher, he then kno»e how to be en elder* And knowing 'hoi?- to 'he. aa aider,, he then knows ho® to b© a ruler of' men* - Therefore, the art of being a teacher is the art of learcing to be a ruler of men* Therefore oae cannot he too careful in selecting one's teacher* fhat ie the meaning of th© pasecge ia the Ancient Beoorda whioh seyo, "The Three KingG aad the Four upon - the • ©election of teachers.r* In tails matter -of • edooati©% the is to -s t^ahllfh i^ respect for th|• ^ people yeepeot what he teaches, thea W e^ehoie^ ehtf* ' Therefore -there «*o p;eteoai that'ths king dare hot jre®£rd *#' hi#^o! ws t 'W'l«*«lh^*^ftf«i^ii: have S^®ntt:^oinB''po?th^o^s when f «$i$«|ifg an edict f *©&$&$ (The Process of Learning) i't heira tasea to warn m good — . do and -the reealte arc doable, b e s l d e G getting the student's respect* With a %m student,' the teacher hat to vevt .hard slid m& rosulta a r e only 'half of what' ie to b e expected, be* jetting hated % the stedont. -A .good quoetlones pro-Like- a man chopping wood ho begins at the easier w, the knete lee%f *ttft after * time the tesenor. o^cm©' to'&#e*etead the fo|at • with $ fMe of la©^iho'''inowa\ow^lo^as^ ?ollt|;©al. fertile bells. Whin fee strike the Mg boll, the big on© rings* enc whoa yon atrike the small bell, the small one rings*;' It is important, 'mmmmtp to allow time "for its ton© grafluaUy to die out*. One who -does not - know &©$ to answer qaestiona is '" .the reverse .of this. Thes© arc .ail QisgsoetlonQ for the i?roe®3e of teaching and learnings of scholarship i^ hich ie bant on i-emcsabeying . in order to answer questions deee not qualify one to i* ^en-'he'eeoea ^ . ,51. taea he s&pleiae it to h£% end if ;*f$$» Lon, the student atill does not V"" the setter alone* 'The eon. of a tinker naturally learns how to aena for », end- the <aon of a good maker -of bov.e nataiQlly loarn* how to make o baiaboo ehi (follow pen. made of woven alioed * 89' colore would lack brightness without the as© of water8 Learning itself does not come unfler eny of th© and yet the five senses cannot be properly learnings The teacher does aot dome under the &i.vs of olan kinship, and. vat the five aegreee of clen • aot love on© another without the teacher* The gentleman says, "A great p fit ©as fa* aaf partlaaia* A character does aot (necessarily) qualify ©a© for any eular ©ervicec Great honesty doe© aot (necessarily) make a man keep hie word« Great regard^ for time does aot ia to know the really fundamental thing© in life* •' la .effetiag aaatifiaea to- th© river $©4% #© kiagS' aim#s .bsgaa- with worshippiag th© sod©' of th© tit©*©-before worshipping the $©&% of the $mm & dietlnetioa ®m made between the source aad the eatlets aad to k&ovi $bj$fe -.. d^ istia<it.$©a i a to kadis hoisrte atiead to th© iasiatiala* (i) •• B37 th© sw^gaatioas .that isaf t># ,gi$aa©4. fmm th© Analeete, i t woulfl eaera that the teeohing in whioh Confuoiue ©agagedj m$ aot a©*i©v©% of this fowl*, 'w,:©ah©©| t a©$? • • aat»:tf» • • Sift disalpiaa *me$ tat©Msstaaily jaatats- &©** af • • eefinitely formed interests, alreefiy bent la directions . syi^othetio to hi£3 character, many of ^homt at least» were ; prepared to 'epsad #sass eader Confucius' gi&dsaaa aad ia* • hie trials,'and, at times, uncertain fortuneao . Hach of hie . laattaatiol^^ i t aasrna almost #j©*1NM% mst fceea to resoh decisione la regard t© vii&t mast have -*t$ai ;matt©ta that atoa©' ds§r to day, aat matt; eometimes under doubtful oiTauiaatanGeeg problec© aad dlffl* 14 £i enitiee facing on© or anothor of tho group* 8e'if vanlt'to have' i, ana la quoted in tho. Aiialcct© having said* who ©am© -to, m with that I i*ew never yet « of dried moat t mtueed to toaoh of hie did not sefete. instyuction to on© i^o the purely formal.' foe of dried aseat tm. in0trno''ti'O||#: _ did he .*eleet eny sly' .feeeeeee-of* fca& to those who rebuked him' for receiving a group notorious for mieohief ' must one b e ^ eeveret If a man purify himself to upon me.^ I reoeive him eo purified,, wltaeal m i l e in aooord with thi© attitude ho eaidi know© so ran&.(3) 'to their attitude towera* itself5 the etudsnte he' #©• ae vitally iatereated in; u and to ooooerat© in their' ©tadieet with one who dees not earns to me inquiring 'What of thief* and :,:^hat of that? * • I never ean safe of 'What of thief1 and give him opt (4) * 31 -Ho subject do t broach, however* to those who have no eager deai*e to learn* a© eaceutagiag hint 4© I giv© to-'t&os-O- wh©vno aiijioty''to'#6aii'out '^elrideaaf nor &ave I /anything more to Gay to those who$ aftot I have made clear ©as mtbm of tho e^ bleo-t^  cannot from that gl*e the othe#. 'three*;. If * amaber of etadoateare ail day/ together* end ia their conversation nevei? si#fc©aefc the ®u:b|.©ef of • ri.$*te©oe* 'aeest1 hot'are toad merely of giving currency to ematt, little sayings.* they are difficult indeed to manege* tt) la.,rogord t© the type of stadeatB ho preferred he eaid furthert Sinoo x aaaaot get men parssing the due medium* to whom X might • o o n m u n i o a t G njy inQtractione, I must - f&M the ardent ©ad-the eantloosly*a©ciaed* Th© erdent-wiii ad«aoe and lay held of •trathf tike eautaoue%*de.oided''«ill %eep them* • selves'from-what ie wjpong* (3) Those who are 'horn in.tie possession of knowledge, are the al#oat'class of -&«$« ' .ft|©se :WM> learn and e©'e4»oair© k&©wl©dgs are a@&t* She cull aad etopid ;who yot aqhiove Mowlodge are & el&e© neat to $ejft« ; Thee© who -ate.--.duli H| .ftuoid and yet do aot learn are the'lew#t'Of '•'therpeop^ ' and indicated e diatiaet&on in people in. reference to their' ability to learn* and hie dietast© for those •wae.epeat th©i$ time an slothful iaionose iqaking no attempt to learn' or oat any aeefal p$rp©#e* To the average man* &i5& those above -the..average* it ie possible to discoarse on higher sob$eots| to those from tho overage downward© it io aot poeaiblea (Ih.BThe people may he made to follow a pian of notion* bat they «ay not he made te-'ai$e?etaa# It* (6) (1) Anal'scte* &k t chapt it' tfsaainge..* ftr)' The anaieete* .in Sotne i w seeded %oe&e#**.o£' the. ibevv/oi 11* » 8i6 • -it) Aneieete.g. ok i$ chapt ie* jfcid* p-W' I si Analects* fei "15. chapt 21$ fc&gge* #eur books* p %M im Aneiee:tes. fck M eaapt 0i Ba«s©% Saul© tee4nl'a^ a*^ ,t..ps?*8 (m Analects, m •$ dha^ * 19s #©nninge' •( tr)' Th© analects* la Horae (ed) Sserod books*** of the Eeat, vol 11* p S9S (6) Analects, bk © ohapt #s. &eggef Soar books, p 70 Ooafaaiaa said,, n2 greatly admire s fsllow wlio goes about the fchoie day itith a well-fe<5 etoraaoh aad a vaaaeas taiad« oea ©a© ever da it? 1 weald, rath©* that he pis •ah©©.©,, tshioh weald see® to $i to bo better* (I) $h@ &©©d fat the iearsei? to retain a eons© of &ia ,r eletive 'talQ«% aad to '©a prepared to Saettf im ara&tar© "O.OBfa*te -aiid ©the* lesser Wag© i a order to tfalfil high©* matter© ie fteQaeatly stf©aae&f The Maeter ©aid*. *Th© eoholar sho oherisheo the love of ©©safer t, ia aot fit to be deemed a aahoiar« it) She scholar vjho ia intent apon learaiog the right m$f aad who ie yet aahaiaed af $mw attit© aad poet food* ia aot tatthy of beiai..'<liaooar©©d ^ith** (3) The superior rasa i@ owiioas lest he should aot get » * u * ,«r a ** y * * « 4m »PO«. The ©ob|©et matter ia tiMoh GonSaoiGQ offered: iaatsrec-tioa la eaggeated ia ©©vet&l passages;! 8©a$*elas taaght #©a? thiegas i&t©r©tat% .petaoaal aoa* one's tree eelf aad honeaty in Gocisl deletion-i,***fh© ISastet likea" to talk of poetry, history*'. aad'th©; flakes© of courtesy* Of ©XI that© ha llkaa" t© 'talk* ( 6 } a . « Strange occurrences, exploits of otrength, deeds of Iss&esaaes©,*' ref ©reaeee to spiritaal a©iag8**s«©h' 11110. matters the Master ©VcidM in conversation* 2?aa*klag said* To hear the Master; on hie arts sad precepts is gtaatse' *ei bat to hi*a oa aaaa*© aata*© aad the'Way of fieovea 1© aot, (8) • (1J Aaa|eata# bk 1? ehapt 881 Ida Yotaag, $iadOt& ©f f»*p 173 (Si Maleats* bk 14 ehapt &* &©ggef Foar books* p 140 i&j Aaaisa-fc bk 4 ohapt, fa #eaalags I'^ rl fha'aaalaotSf in Bora© (ed) Seored books.»oof th© East, vol 11, p S©3 (4) Analects, bk "It ohapt i l l BasBSoa* Basic teachings, p S 16] Aaaieats* bk 7 ahapt Mi • Ma f ataag fit) &$&©tfam© of ia Ma tatsag (ed) wiiMtaa ©f Galaa aal utti} .9 817 -16) "iaalsj&tai bk ' f ohapt 17? %atl* Ba#ia^ at p (7) j^ aaleo't©* bk 7 aaapt #©aa|igs I ttj fh© aaaJ^ att*' ia' $o*i#f'a gtaei alsasias* trieatal Utetatare*. *©i 4« p-AnalecteB bk 5 ohapt 1£; Lyell, Qeyinga of C , c p |8 -* 3 3 • & a miaia piaa of p©ars©aal|% sad.©haraater i£'lag^©st©d> | H a datfeloptseat of OSes that tho Giiaa ia that 5ffea said.* * l i is a&aitasd* ' "?l*Jtf Balsa -of 14' fram SQfila "that IM' • *i$asa%i©a a©.gtaB'#ltB' _ p#©p©& toa&sat aad oaa^aaw»t*ft ©oafaaiae, «bvi©aai5r*aiae©& great fits to ©a'i^ritefi from, a $tn.6y ©f an©i< it a© ©%a$t©d ais dieciples to gala aot rafalty aa aa^ aaia*' toiioe TDith. these o l a e e l o B a aad n k n o w l e d g e of the faotusi . ittaterl&i th% aoatoiaod* aot alt© to davelopy p&©p©$ haalts a$ |©atai.a0* ©aa to find ©jtaapies aad isapirat&aa $<m t&© 40* velopmejit of a jpoaadad aad morally ©araplet© ©hefsatat* _ Tae Ha-etas? said* ®$ little aMIdraa* «tojr- do p$ aot -fri-©adlia©ss# aad forB©araae©|"aa.o% you h<sw to mm® 'ywtif-father at ho®©$ aad tesofc #op£ lord abreadVf, '©ad. it «m3A-" teaaJi yoa .t&e aaiaas • of ssay air&e ami beasts* plants aad, tress & ( 3 ) asked ©a© of tha of Qoafue&as* f*«a as have y© heard aafthiag^ sit? H@ sas^ erefi. Uo: ODOO as ®y father stood, aloa© aad I •sped ae*os#' th© hall, ha said to nae, Art thea learning; , poetry? 1 ©aafaaredi Ho* • He that'has- aot learaed poetry, ha sold, ha© a© hold ©a wards*: I withdrew aad learned peitry* Aaat|t©r day* waea h© agaia- stood aioa© aad1 I aaroaa the hail,, 'fee $aid to ®&$ A*i thoa learaiai eosietesy? I e$m&f*&v '8©*' He that., aasa aot ieasraaoartesy-.i- he- said* aaa no foothold* X x m thing* ' ©04 £ got' thfo©* . i near 0$ ooartesy; and '$ h©e# too. tfcftt « M« e©a» (X) 4 X aaloS one " -X hear of stand© aloof Hatarall^  to eeouxe each, rish returns from the study '©£ literc.tares neoesQitated that it be thorough, and' its protation ponettfatiag* Alteady'fiieBti-oaed in the iattfOd tion ie the aeaxohlng aesidutty whloh the Oliinese sohol to bo given- to the etady of lottera*. and a- hint ©f the -daajpa? in this of ;far*fetched* ladiood ;ttin*f eading*1* On the- Other .jfea&e> eie© apprehoneion of the materia 10 and a real i t into tho poraonaiity of the $©#&et* A ton of the piano that the ode® played la of education* 'and 'of ..the ferooptien ®3$* of tho 'fail significance of a 000%. 18 indicated in ffco*&nag saifi# Eoor -feat a©-flatter e*|-1 how WOaid 'that be? It weald do, said the ®aete% feat teette* poor hat- merry; rich, hot loving courtesy* 3?aa*&«ag amid* When th#'#oos eayai-If yo- cot* i f yo file, i f y© polish and grind,* la. taet what ia m»m • Tho lae'tor eeid* Sow 1 oan begin to Tell him what ia gone, and he knows f hot not e t i l i ^oro Of' nOot3S|i" to ahaii' e«®e* * 36--* ffttieftgla ffc&t ie the „. Her' eanaiag ©alloa* tie- eleaar e&£'%i§£itt All unadorned, The feacfegronna white* , eeid the Mastes, io eecooa to tho 3?hea good t$m lo eeoen&f eaia .faa*h{§i&* Shaag^ . e&ia tho tfai&er* then M t 'hit 1 can toil" of poetry to thee* 111 m m$ pateagee Greedy eitea* umm given to ipp£#.«$ en© of tho higaoot eteeiee mMai-moa could - follow^ f © thie subject* Confoctue gave almosl mystic elgnifieaaee*. ;©ee#|hgly flaoiag ia it a reflection and 'Ospfoieioa of -the harmohy aaQ ©»$©* -which prevailed in the phyaif©1'aa$ spiritual worlds. X't la porhaos appropriate-' to mention here* that- to a hia own- time muet'-he^ e esen ane, aot alone to the rigatae©© of Me e©iaioae# ana the rectitude of hia p e r s o n el character bet al#o-to- the #eel ©#& solid learning ^ n^ : m ieehlni thie,,' and the proetig© which he aecordiegiy b o r e * la> such diversified fieiae ae iite3?aturot hiet©fyr;o^eerejffoa|ei^' he was a pernepe wthow ,** recognised aataeri'ty* $n '#$©•!« alee*, both a© a pei'fcimer and a o o r o n i G n t a t o r , ho wee heard lie- sraage of appreciation- in'the arte t n$ there '$eema to bo on the & enapt &t 3$*£l* Saying© of didsati©$ y©t tithi* this reattiaied .field* thara «aa ta© ocmbination of eeaeiUve a^ arcnee^ t cnthoaiaotlo feaponee, •aad iKj©aoabl© taste that |e the hail saarfe of trs© $h©B the faster was la h© heart ffh© Sha©aff. aad . thr#e laoaths he did act tha tart© of flesh* *x fii he sai4* ' 1 that laasie $©aid aa thiel*'!!) ia giwm of hiss i a , -tht th ether «©a ©ai aa eaoore m& thaa Vihes Confucius was -,r^i:th.^ ©a'a^ fo he pit^ew. «©ala |©ta"ia th© ©horse# (S) • • Gt&et however, music inor© imracdlately ©itb the edyeative /)rooeae4 At one tim©, there was-a 0la»i&ie of Jta@i#t 'th© t©& M i l l . deelt more ihorougaisr with this sah|eatt tfcla'though gum lost,, sad aa©at all' 'ti&at r'&aeiae i&.'& #ha»tsr. a* a© :la the Id Si* '• Several passagea -$&©%&©« olceely the essential t i M * ©i » pa; .It revealed ia - 'the ©ajayi at ' ^ei©" is -the #carat i&e'reia: teas© .-it* »«»wue<s«i i t takes its sits© frtaa th© haiaaa fee&tt- *h-s» the heart ia teaahe^  by' the: exteraal «©rid* therefore-shea- th© heart*®: ©hard of sorrow is toaehed th© ©oaad© arodaaet are M i t e foilornj when the heart*'© ohorfi of aatiefecUGn ia ' L 1 , 'the seals' grofiitea are laagoroaa' .©aa aiaw| shea t the chord of Jay is touched, the souadn piodased are aad sspcn3ive; rahsa the ©hart of eager ia touched, the aire the ohor-d' of love itf ''tei^ hed* the and gentle* Tfceee ©is* Made a*© • • • Of .g*eet©* tot- in- ednMtie% $e the. foot that-it ietf i^heteeter and aa a -fan* - 2n muelo the ueod to make the hearts of the people good. Beeauee of th© deep influeiioe which ft esexts oa a man and tho chacgee which it pxoaaoes in wmnexQ and ouetoniB,, the' aneiea it ao one-of the eobjeete of isetrnatioa* t She ©If a -of .go. to raile' OKOOSQ and debauch the Bind; those of Bang epo^ Ic of slothful iadaigenee and of -women* Eabmes-go tho mi ad; these 'of itei are -©tt enaoae and faet and. perplex the &&a$$ end' those of KM ate violent and fiepravefi and rm!xe. tho alad errogant- ' The aire of thee© four ©tote©, all eUaiulate Uhifiinoue ' ate in* to Virtue*. fnon one hae $aete*ed ©aeie ©oapietely end' hi© -heart' -and salad aeoordingiy* the natural^  correct, $\ it. t^*lal# ^ e^el^ l^ t ; ^f^tS* of ©aim* Thie eal» ©ontiaaoB long* la hi© oabroltoa^ aiia the rnao ie Heaven within himself. Like unto leaven-'he ie L * .fciiie onto Ieaw§. ijkm0. he net# he u. %ir|taai*''he -eoaaande fcit&oet to v?hlch human nature ia ia InGieatea In' the .following paeons; ©f aome (1) l i K * » •ehapt ,X&s (S) H J ^ ^ M f e * ' 1 ' vp|: i^4'.-I^ i?.- aeetioa-s *li.f ibid* » to&9 1m$$* W l^eeetioail %B&s ibid. of - ©onfueiaei^ p- &_#1*2 also, ie the definiticsn, whioh Is off erred of virtue: fir toe la the strong stem of human sat©*©,, and :|s the blossoming of virta©* <1) K© who has tsnfierete oeremoniea and music mm be praaaaaasd to bs a possessor of virtues virtue means self realisetiono (2\) -' _JCs. a^  ayste& of edaoatloa «&ieh' •aimed aot rely at ©harpaeaa of intellect, and ecguieitinji of facts, bat rather at the Integration of personality, sad tk© develop* meat, of mcrnl completenesa,, which eooght 'father wisdom than brillienoej there were many leeaone to be learned from the examination of mea* When Pen Oh°ih eefcefl; that |s tied©]®? the faster ©aid* To kaow mm* (3) Teal Ya slept in the daytime aad Confucius reraarkefi, wfhere is a© as© tryiag to ©arv© ©a a pieee of rottea «©od# or to whitewash a sail made of earth from a daaghill* Why ~ should I bother t© so old him? At first isthea 1 heard a maa talk, t expected his conduct to com© up to what he said. But aow when X hear a man talk, 1 reserve j element aatil I see .how he aeto* I have learned this Goaf noise saidi '"Wheaew* talking ia a ©ompaay of three, I can always fiad tay teacher emong them. I ©elect a good person and follow his example, or I see a bad peroon and correct it in myeelf, (5) At eight of worth, think to grow like it; at ai^ rit of bneenese, search thyself within* (&) A euperior man.. a adoes aot promote' a man beosue© of hi a worda* aor pass over the words b.eeaus© of the maa* (?) y©a fiad a pereon worthy to talk to aaf fall to talk to him, yea have lost yoa-r man, tihen yea fiad a men to talk to aad you talk to him* you have lost year words* A Ms© $aa aeither loses hi# aaa* aor loses his tserda* (9) (1) lil Ki, bk 1? section 2 *81s Ibid* p IS) U bk 1? seotloa 1 *#* Xbid« p (3) Anoleote, bk IS ohapt 22: Lyall, Sayings Of Oowfaciae, (4) Anal eats, bk 5 ohapt ©: Ida (tr) Aphorisms, in p m Lin (ed) Wisdom of China aad Iadiat p 6£4 (6) Aaaleetaw bk 7 ©hapt si: !&a, Wisdom of Ooafooias, ptM (6) Analeots, bk 4 ohapt 17: Lyall, Sayings of 0, p 1§ (7) Analects, bk 15 ohapt 8&s Jeaaiags 1tr) The enelecta, la World's great ©lassies* Oriental literature, vol 4* p 7S iUaaleets, bk 16 ohapt 7* £ia* Wisdom of C, p 1€ naturally for there to aa ©ay real' pr©#if©e.e.* -faarj... moat b© a rigorously critical self ©^aaiaaUon, arid reelie-tio oveluation _ of one'e ©wa learning and character: the Master ©aid.*-2 get a©- iM^vfvte'mt* Ha word z -say bat deligiite aim* (if "i aad when he wee told by one of the dieoiplee that aomeone hod dieegreed with aim over a matter of propriety h© re* filed! How lucky $ ml ihfcaevat i make a edetake, people at©: ear© to kaow it* (S) Teekung loved to criticise people, aad Confucius said, 8B#$ sap*.** ©lever- a,rea|:t: yoat 1 have a© 'tlfee for ©uah, thiaga* (@J .• leaft ©ritiei^© ©th©* ©aaal©1® faults* criticise you.* .©©at- (4) Oaa ©ay do ©thesmie© taoa asseat to userd© said to the® by way of correction? Oaly lot them reform by each advise* aad it win then be reckoned valuable* Can ©ay b© other than pleased with raorfle of gentle euaeion? Only let th«a comply v-lth them fully* aad aaoh also v.111 be accounted valuable* v^ 'ith those who ere- pleased without eo complying aad those who aeeent bat do aot reform, I eaa do nothing at all* (5) She/Hester ©aid, wTo hav© faults aad not to refotss them,—this, indeed9 should be pronounced having faults* (&} The superior man blssnee himself; the inferior maa blamee otherso (?) (1) i\naleotQD bk 11 ohapt 3: %all* Sayings of p 4** I El Analects, bk 7 ohapt 30s Lin, Wi&dom of Coniuciae, p 'Be (3) Analecte, bk 14 ©hap-t 311 Lin (tr) Aphoriama of C, ia Lin fed) Wisdom of China aad ladle, p 92B (4) Analecte, 14a* Wiedom of Confaoiue, p 183 ($) Aaaleot©* bk $ ©h'apt 83: Jeaniag© (tr)' the,ea©i©©te*ia lorae fed) Saoxcd booksa.aof the East, vol 11, p S05 {$) Aaaieeta* bk 13 ©hapt 291 Legge, Four book©* p 166 (7) Analects, Lin, Wisdom of Confucius9 p l©| •<#40* The Master ©aid* 'Sol X have never seen any ene who could eee Me ov?n faults and press tit© charge ham© in hi a -owa breast* * (1) While sash self critic!em was fundamental to fall ©aft: -thorough learaiag* th©»f was aa eseeatially mutual relatioa* ship between tho two functions as indicatedc together «lth a asasa of parpoe©.,. £a the $& £1: Juet as one aaaaot kaow the taste of food vdthout est lag it, however escelleiit it tmg be, so without education oae oennot oome to fcaow the excellence of a §r©s,t body of koowiedf© a&thoagh it aay be th^ rs* Therefore oaly through education does one come to be , dissatisfied with his owa kao®ledge*..'and only through teach-ing others does oae come to realise the nnoomfortable inade-quacy of his knowledge. Being dissatisfied wlth hia own knowledgefr one then realisee that the; trouble liea with him-self, and realising the uacomfortable iaade$saay of hie knowledge, one then feels stimulated to improve himself« therefore it eei&, #a&e. .p^ eaa©©' -of teaohla^ ©ad ioaralag stimulate oae - ^ aether*1* That ie the meaning at the passage, in the advlo© to #u ffaeh whioh says* *f.©©ahiag is the half • of leayaiagV* iz) Xa •*aga»6. • oba leafaiag.aad •eaarsotar* the |ad@©* meat of. O u^fueius ia both Just aad modest: Ooafuoiua said*, nI »ay perhaps aampar© ..tayself to ag&4$4 f rises, &aop*©a#* Xf?a©re.ly try to desarlbe (or ©a*ry-oaJ-.tlfe©^ ancient tradition, but aot to create something aes»* X only want to gat at the troth aad am la lev© «4th ancient ©todies ? %-eve transmitted ©ad do aot .©.re&t© aa*** 1 am faith* ful to the ©©a of old aad love the*a* (4) . fh© Ifeotcr said* .'ifher© stay b,e those -aot Mtheut kao^ ieiifei* X, do aot» ieariag lauoh aad sole©ting afeat is good Inrrtshat I hear aad following this; see lag much aad fl) AaaleotSt, b% S oha&t Mi- Sa^ea* Shiaese philosophy *p89 (2) U £i* Ohapt 18: Lint tied©© of Qonfaaiaa* p is) AaaieotSft bk 7 abaat 1; Ida. liedoa* of C» p is@ 41 Aaaleotej. Babies* ©Maes© philosophy, p 2f 6) Aaaleota* bk 7 ohapt 8?i Ibid* p S9 » 41; * fa© Master said , *X am not one 4»h© «as horn with know-ledge. X em ©no ieho lores th© past and oainostly aeek© to know It* (1> Rave I in truth wladsa? X have no wisdom. But when a ©OEBRon fellow eraptlly asks a© anything, I tap It on this side and that* and sift i t to the hot torn. (2) In a snail ©luster of houses there may well be...soma ©hose integrity end sinoor&ty may eoapar© with ninoi hmt I ylold to none in point of lev© of learning* (S) A high officer asked Teze-kung saying* "lay we not say that youy lister ia a aagot Sow various 10 his ability I * The Scater hoard of the conversation arsd said, D^oes the high officer know me? When I was young* ay condition was low, and therefore I acquired ability in aany things, but they were nean sua tt era. Wast the superior man have such.; variety of ability? Ho doesnot need variety of aMlity.w Lao 3ft id, *fh© Master- said. 'Saving no offIcial erapioy ment t m«Qu£red many arta»* (4) Tho Master an Id, <*Th© silent txseaauring up Of knowledge! learning without satiety* and instructing others larlthout be-ing wearied?---what on© of these thing© belongs to «©• #6) Th« things that trouble or ©oncora is© are tho following! lest I shoald.nogloet to iaprov© my char so to?, lest X should neglect ny studies, and lost X should fail to sov® forwnrd ©hen X m& th© right course, or fail to eorroot syselry when I see my mistake. (6) Tho Duke of Shin questioned Tsze-lu about Confuciua, end th© latter did not answer. Hearing of this, the Hester said, °Why did you not say, He is a mm. with a mind so intent Oa his pursuits that ho forgets his food, and finds- such pleasures la thes that ho forgets his troubles, and does not know that old ago is coirlng upon nlaf* (7) Th© footer said, WI» letters t &m perhaps @q\ml to other men, bat th© character of the superior son, oarrying out ia his conduofc what ho professes, is what X have not yet attained taw** Th© sage and th© man of perfect virtue j—how dare X rank syaelf with them? i t ©ay slssply b© said of w&0 that X atriva to become such without satiety and teach others wlthoat weariness,° Kung-a© Bwa sold, *fhls Is Just what vo« th© dlBcipleSf, cannot fsitat© yoa in.8 1 (8) (1) Analects, bk 7 ohapt 19: Hughes, Chinese philosophy.. p2© (2) Analects, hit® chapt 7s Lya11, Sayings of Confucius, pgg Analects, bk 6 ohapt 27$ £©a?iinga. (tr) Th© Analects, is lorld*a groat classics, Oriental literature, vol*4, p 26 42 -As 3ho«n In ta© previoi s passage the disciples spoke in perhaps no les-s Just, hat yet much sor*© glowing terms of the Hasterfs learning and elmreotej*: Xea m&t heaved a sigh and said, fllf©u look ap ta i t and It ©ees® so high, ¥©a try to dri l l through it and i t seese so hard* You seem to see i t in front of you, and al l of a sudden it appears feefelad you* Bae Haste* is very good at gently leading a mm along and teaching his. and taeefela& hlro» 1 © taught me to broaden myself fey the readiag literature and then to control ©yself fey the ofeseyvane© of proper eon-duct. I Jsat felt being carried along, feat after X had don© my very beet, .ore developed stoat was in «!©»• there ©ti l l ; remain© something austerely standing apart* uneatehafel©. Do what X could t© reach hi© position* 1 eaBft fir* th© «ay*° (1) ftTien Tsz-fcung waa asked from whom did Gonfucius learn, he replied; The teachings at laa rsnet 'Wu have not yet fallen to th© ground. Ihey exist in mm* Worthy and wis© men have the more important of these stored up in their' minds; end others, who are not such, store up th© less important, of them* and as no one ie thus without the teachings of Wm ©nd V.u, how should our Master not have learned? And moreover what permanent preceptor could ft© hsvet (2) he was ale© askeds When our Master comes to this OP that State, he loams without fail how it is feeing govermed. Does he ikvestigat© matters? or are the facts given him? Tsse-kung fmswere<5, "Our Master Is a man of pleasant manner9, and of probity, courteous, moderate anfi unassuming? i t I© fey hi© feala® suea that he arrive© at th© feats. Is not his way of arriving at things different from that of other men,* (5) (1) Annlects, bk 0 ohapt 10; I*ln, Wisdom of Confucius, p 16S (2) Analects, bk 10 ohapt 22s Jennings* <tr) The Analects, In World% great classics, Oriental literature,\vol.4* p 9& ( 3 ) Analects, bk 1 chapt 10s Jennings, (tr) the Analects, In Some* (ed| Sacred books....of the East, vol. 1 1 , p* 2?2-3 ^ootnot© references fc© page 41 {co»*t}» (4) An&Xeets, fek &* e&apt 6* Legge, Four books, p 82 (5) Analects, fek 7, ohapt 2s I a i l , ^ 59 (6) Ansleote* fek 7* ohapt 3? tin* wisdom of Confucius, p %&9 (7) Analects* fek 7* ohapt 18s Jennings (tr) me fiaaleets, in Home (ed) Sacred b o o k s o f the East, p 296c f81 Analects, fek 7 ©fejet^ t 32; S3; Leggo, Fcmr books „ p.©$M>7© • 43 Xs dofEnding Confucius from the slurs of others, the sa&©disciple ©elds Ho us© doing that*•••he is Irreproachable. The wisdom and worth of other men are little hills and mounds of earth; trovers lb le. He is the sun, or the moon. Impossible to reaoh and pass. And what bars, X ask, can a man do to th© aun or moon, by wishing to Intercept himself from either? It a l l shows that he knows not how to guage capacity...^ Ko tsor© might one think of attaining to tho SJastor*© perfections than think of going upstaira to Heaven! Were It ever his fortune to be at the head of tho government of a country- then that which is spoken of a© *©etabll9hing the country* would b© establishment iBdee&s be would, b© Its. guide and It would follow hlra; he would t r G n - u l l l l 2 e It aryl It would r ender its willing homage:, ho would give forward impulses to It to which It would harmoniously respond, Xn his life ha would be its glory; a t his death there would be; great lamentation* How indeed could such as he be equaled.(1) Believing that education was no more ornament, but rather a process to b© integrated with life as a whole, Confuciue taught that it should be expressed and fulfilled in use and action. & very real* though perhaps not specifically delineated* apprehension of aaa a© a dynassio organism* and of education aa operational in function, underlay- th# insistence of tho Confucians that the learned mm should seek public office: The Master B a l d , °ThGUgfc a man say be able to recite tho thr©© hundred odes, yet if, when intrusted tsitti a gosreraasetttal •charge, he knows not how to aot, o# If when sent on a slselon, he cannot give bis replies unassisted, notwithstanding the ©stent of hio learning, of what practical us© it it** (2) 0^ learn, said the Master, and then to praotle© opportunely what on© ho© learnt—does this not bring with It of satisf^otion»" (3) • - • . (1) Analects, bk 19 ohapt 24*tS* Joaaiaga (tr) the Analects„ ia Hos&a (ed) Saerea- b©ofc©V.©f tm East* vol* 11, p 363*4 {£% An&lodts, bk 13 ohapt £e^@, four book®, p tm {$) Analects, bk 1 ohapt Is Jennings <tr) itie Anolscta, in World % great classics. Oriental literature* vol* 4* p 7 Shea Confucius was asked wherein lay vis&emy he replied that it was in knowing ssen. £©©© page-^ e.)* /Sl# further explanation when this answer ©as not understood, is basse; upon tho. practical application that Id to ho made of such knowledges •14ft- up th© straight* set aside t&« crooked, .-so- oan you ®akO: tho .©rooked straight. (1) ' Knowledge anti lo&raiag must also find - thels> completion in sjan% spiritual:- apprehension of tStfttp- true- plae«-.£n .his #m no.tarea. -v/faat soever til© intellect may attain to, unless the hureanity within Is powerful enough to keep gahrd ©yea? i t , 1© ftosuroQly loot*:«w though It he gained. If there be Intellectual sttaini&iafcs*-:m& ^© humanity within le po^erf^l eaou^ b to keep guard over toes* yet- unless ' (In e JPU1©3P> there fee: $lg&ity In his rulo* th® people i&ll fall to shoshim respect. &^ln». jg$*9N» the intellectual .o"ttotoj©nta*- 'ast£ humanity aufficioht to keep watch over thorn, and also lignttjr In rul* ih|5, yot If hts sovoiaeato ho not in accordance sith the Rules of Epoprioty* ho to not yot fully qualified. f&$ Confuciue ssid, *lh© man ©ho love© truth (or learning) Is better than the man «ho know© i t , ortd th© man «ho f irds happiness In i t is hotter than the mm «h© loves £t*. (3) • fh© Mastor ool#^  °If th© •ooholar be not. gr^ ve*: he wiH • not ©all forth any vosormtion*-. ana 'Ms loartiifig will not bo Hold faithfulness and sincerity as firofc prfsiciples. Have no frieaoo not eo^ iol to yourself. mm yea have faults, &e not feei* to ebeisioa them.. (4^> But while it was Important to have a sens© of purpose in learning* th© true scholar, ahould not however, become too (1) Analects* bk 12 chapt 22: Penning© <tr) The Analects, la Homo (©a) ^erea books™.> .of t£$* Bast* vol. 11, p 320 (2) toaleota* bk ohapt 32s Jennings | t r j lb© Asslects* In 'BO*ao toft1)-SaoreS books... of the 'last*- V©l*vll*v p 336' ; (3) Analeots* bfe • '6 o^hspt; 13: Lin, &ls®om- of Confucius p 180. ; {<§) Analects, bk 1- ehap&: 8s I»egge*. Pour books* p 5' engrossed srita even high ends*. #xile lesser 'goals* were t© be severely ©feeekeds . 3tH* Kasfcer ©aid* *^e ofejeet ©f th© superior iaan Is ' tr4*l&»,*1$*ere ie |^©nglilng|;-'*©ven in th&& l&er© Jis aosetiaes want* • iS©f.-i^ i&-'i©a^ h© fouind i t i t . • Hi©' superior i © a&xte&s lest, he- should HOt get fcr^thi .no- Is not anxious lest poverty should eom© upon -blag* (1) Master said* *Ia, th© eld days saen studio with a view to their self i^rove&ent. nowadays they study «ith m eye on other people* (2) speaking of* Sing 'mi «fe© °etupidly t t regained true t» nis eves is hi© period of adversity.* 'the Bastes* said* . fhiis* the land kept t&e ®ay Blng o^t -shesad wlsdoaifc mm hi© Issnd loot the $sy he grew simple, St© wisdom we stay come up t&i euefc sliaplioity la beyond us* (3) fsse^hang «©s learning with a view to official emolument. The .Master said* *Keer znucn -and- put -aside- the points 'of", w&ieh y©& stand in doubt* ©nil© you speak .cautiously at the mmp t&m of- o-th©rS4;«^*th©» you- ©til afford f&w -©feeassion©- for felKsie* So© isueh end put aside the things ®hieh; sem perilous* ©Ml*-'.y«i*.-aap©. eaufelous at the ©as© .tiaue in «srryit5g: the others into pr%©ti©»i*»th©s yoa will feav# few OCOQsalons for rep©*** tan©'©* -Isen one gives fes os cession a for blame in his word©*: and few oceassl ons for repentane© In his conduct, he ia in the way to get ee l^uiient. (4) (ie, as a seooi^ary*hutnatural* ©onseo,uen©©| in the sens© of* asee& .ye first* **snd these thing© talil he added..,*}. To Tsu-haia, Confuclna G R i d : StsiSy to he a gentiem a^* not as the small men studies.(5) Some of his disciples helieved that Confucius feed perhaps memorised ea^aple® of behavior proper to various ©©«as©lohS4 |l)^A»ale©fcs* m 16 ©hspfc 31* o^eg ffcr} 4»sleets of Confucius, in Ballou (ed) M&l© of the world,, p 413. Iff ftaal90ts» 1 4 e ? M lPt ?5; m*gh©sr Ohlnes© philosophy p 28 (31 toleets, m & ohapt S@s Sysll* Sayings of €©sfueius p 190 111 2 ohapt 8* fcegge* #©ar hoolcs* #18 .18.1 ^aaleets* hk d ehapt lis |.yall* Sayings of Confucius p 24 -* 46 -• fhe Raster-=#1^ *. , ' 1 ^ ' t i ^ , 9 ^ . ' ' t s t B ^ I atippoa© that I SIB" en© who learns many tMng© and keeps theisi in aje&espyf* Tsse-kuRg replied? %es,<-<43Ut perhaps i t is net apt**. ttKe* was the answer, e * seek a unity e l l pervading.* (1) Cfee line, Shea* runs through siy Way, See* saii'?e^g-tsra., •-• ' -&fter the '1ieate#''h«&' -left, the- dlsoiplefc' #sked tehat mm. m©ant.r' ^seng«tsa said, Sie Kaster*© Way is n© isore than faith-fulness and fellow feeling. (2) . The superior man ts-ay not he oosve^ sent «&& petty detslis •m& yet say h&v© ij8p©f»tant otters put int©: his- heads*, fit© inferior sen say not he ehwged with isapertsnt tsatters, yet ©ay he eomversaat with th© petty dotal Is* (S| and $su«*bsta o a M * ' thoughrt&©$© -my he things sorth s^ eimg 0lo2^ s t^l i&y©,, a gentieaan doe© not "-follow them* fee* of being left efc lest In- the>---o^ r%i..: (4-> ^e.^s^©r #eids Lsoming without thought is labour iostf thought without leerniag- ie j«riloue^ •.-(•©-} and although on two occasniens, Confueiua had Indicated that innate knowledge mo the highest typo tsee pages ) yet be also said) ' . .,' % have spent the label© day without food asd th© s&olo night without sleep im ordei? that I ttSgtefe meditate* -S gainst notning fro® doiilg'\se*- Ife-le/set so good em Imsmiisg*, {6} The disciple, 5sao-hea, said: Be whofro® day to day recognises whet fee hoe not yet attained to* and - t&m month to asonth remeB&oFe- « h a t ho has •ettaineSv 'tisfe pay be said 1^ . lo^'tO ' ' leaE«*-f^ •: (1 jAnaleets, bit 10 c h a p t I t e g g © , - -Fow,-be©fes:, - -(SJAnalects, bk .# chapt 15: L?all„ Saying© of '©©s&aeius p 14 ( 3 ) Analect3, bk 15 ohapt -SSi. -Searings XWf Selects, in . toe (ed) Sacred hooka.of the Bast, vol* 11 , p 336* . (4) Analects, bk 19 chapt - -Wt\ $g&%vr&t$$af^' %Bfuo.lu«.-.'I* ©$ (5 /Analects, bk 2 ohapt 13s Dawson, Bamie tea©felrfg3 p 80 ; (6)Anal&ct9, bk IS o^ epftSOt -Sagbesy -Cfetnee'e philosophy p 29 : {7 jAiialeets,; bk 10 ©bap* 5a • Sawson* #asi#- -t©©0Mnge p -84' ffee follc^sg passage is of aease slgnificaae® when considered In ©omfenetien **itli the belief a of fa©!©®* tsrhieli it- th© -.nest- ee'hool. £© be\staled*' fh© Master WI ©euld prefer aot spe®kimg** .fsae-ktag said, **If you, Ssster,/ do not; speak* what -shall we, your dieeipies,* have to reoordf the tester s«id*- '*8ees> Seaves speaks • 'the. four #©asons--pursue their'courses* and ©11 things are ©ontlnually being produced, but does Heaven say snythiag?* (1) ft?© Baster s»id* kesrs- „«s thougfe -th© tie© were -short^ -lik# one. that fears to las©*; (2) fhat typ© of scholarship which is bmt on ^  refs©^©rlnj$/ things in order t© answer pepple% ojttesfeioas does -net fpslffy one to he ©. t@-oh©r» (3) f© kee© old Imowledg© warm and get »©s? isskes the teacher* (4> In- 'indioation of research* probably in the fuN&fves, ©arr£©d.:©&t'^ .passagees-^  •.- fast- Ghsng asked whether the state -of .fcff$irs eea Id h©•' • known ten generations ahead. The Kaeter acid, *To v;het extent the fen House added to and subtracted from the fisle ritual* it is possible .to-'kno^-^ls© to what extent the 0«*a gouser ;added.^  t©• and ©ufetEP t^ed•'fro®t-' the Yen* Thus' it 1© possihie-.f © knot; about the suooessors to the Chou Bouse, oven though a v$'"©»1$ spee!*'^^ sai^ fioiently' attest' mg 'words-*; M.-eoald spesk of th© tim ritual but .-Soiiig' ©annot -ittteisl w4rd'0i, for these-- s&etegb lack jta&b' documents snd ssea of leerningV If thetW &©#e '©sough: of those, I oould giv€ thaa as eyiden©^^!}-El© concern to a tune hi* instruction to th© persomilty of- the t^ividuel Is .su^©sted..;ln tfe©. l^lowing p^e^ge©*,' (11 &B&|©et9t* bk 17 eisapfe %$i (2) Ansieetsi bk 8 ehap* 17j ' (3) &aa|eets* -|41 Analects, bk 2 Chept lis |S j Aaaleots, bk 2 ohapt 23j (6) ilnnleots, bk 3 ohapt 0s L«gff;c, Four books, p 190 . Lyall* /S&ytngs-- ©f :$mi&&&m p" 38 I*ln* -®'I®dom of Conftieius p 2(33 Jiyfell, Sayings of Oot^ e&as p 3 ^ghes* Shinese philosophy p 28 Hughes, Chines© philosophy p 28 *• 48 --Whim: "im.-mm t^eried ia regard to givif^'-eo^tr^tllctory.adVle© Yea 15a feeelES 6et ^ &at^&sf ^hemtore I push hi© on, f#2«»li2 has 'forwardness^ enough f or them hothj ^erefor© X hold him hack, (!) : . Ilhea'tee^ pe |^r--;it:-S?ast„go:howal - Zeelouo, or rgdh, or finished scholars, sy young sons at heme do not know what pruning they ©till need, (2} : f«tt«*chang; asked how to raise the isiaSd and scatter \ deluslon'%:.. the -fiaster said; * fut falthMLneas -••awi truth:, firsts. --^ ndr»f^ ll©w the right; the taind will' ©e raised* {3} -fhsr, JSaete^ .said* f It 3# only the wisest and stupidest-. i§h© # not ©hang©,,* {%} . ' i^e, Master. said*, shall -I teach thee ©hat ia wiodoa? •' To 'kn©$ what we.lmosr, fend know what we do not know is wfcsdem,, (1) analects* hk 11 ohapt Jennings,, (tr I iho. aneleets, ia J©rn« («a,) Saered hooks**, of the Eaat, vol* i i * $ 313 (S) ftnaleftts* life 8 ohapt #1* fcyali* dyings of Confucius p £@ |S) Ai^les^ •141 fenaleots* ok 17 ehept 3: lughe®, Chinese philosophy p W <5> tea:leots*; hit. 2ehetpt 17; %al%.laying©-of' Confuolus p 8 • 43 -Pest-Confucian S#£ texture --- fnt*K>dii©1}i©n Oertsln works writ ton by close followers- o f Confucius*^  .as*© •«$«©> eoi^i&eiNSi basic tsrosks* in the Confucian ti?as3itIonv These ores the ®3?eat iteming £?eh SuehJ* the Doctrine of .';the Mesa: (Chung wzm&fy asd- Beneiuei the raet&od of treating the material derived f pom- the .jftnsleetsi t h a t : 1 s*\ ^ieetieg. short passages*., .gp^pgag them soe^pdii^  to snh|eo% matter * and tfosn e^ ata^ Lmg those so as to ©reseat e syste&atl© approach to problems of education* wae one t h a t was suitably appropriate to the ;nsture o f the fiBoloots itself$ end while this resulted in & a©ipe*hnt abrupt disOeuf*se i t else permitted a fairly full r^ps^ dWtiea of the p»t©j»i«ri from the Analects * Sites© ©tho* citings* ftosaew©** SJP® of a sesse^bat diff ©rent calibre, in them ar#- sustained and eonneetod paossgee. ppeseutiag a^ utgents fa t h e r e ere 'f^ peejuently quite lengthily developed iinee of reasdBingj pfctttor than attempting to derive sfeo#t seleetieiss; .fsposa these* p*©se»t lng •svespythi^ g tnet pertain -to '©dusettcm* l a brief 'f^ gteent'% it bee.' been , ©©soldered bette% despite the feet . thiat a certain (OTount of' irreieva-B-t$at©#ial ©il l thus be included, a n d some pe3ft-in©&$.-igatt©f* ofiitted* t© select a few typical portions*, and present those in tfeeir estijpety* Ifc© 0 » e e t lessmiBjg and the Iktft&ifio.- of th© Seen or© not fSerely f?efke pi^psred. in b^ Kaony' with t^h© broad principles* end genera! ti^ditien b^ioh Confuciua eetablislied* but ere fOrth®?- a ,dov^ "l©pmept. and a n elaboration on obtain precis© and %poeifiO' Ideas- *?hioh -be suggested*/ ;th^ :-e^ ;^ing. pessege. - so -of the Great learning* $hleh Is presented to the following pages, is asstnaed to h© a direct Quotation from Confucius, the remainder of the text being a commentary on this. She Doctrine of th© Mean els© quotes ©xtenslvely from Confucius. Indeed both these works while recognized aa having an independent existence, may also fee found in the chapters ©f th© Si XI. ffae Tab Sueh Kuch of the most important material in the r^eat Learning is presented is th© opening passage, which is attributed to Confucius, and which forms th© theme for the following chapters of commentary by a later disciple: ©i© principles of the higher education consist in pre-' serving man's clear character* in giving new life to the people, end indwelling (or resting) in perfection, or th© ultimate good. Only after knowing th© goal of perfection where one should dwell* ©an ©**© have a definite purpose in life. Only after having a definite purpose ia Hf© ©an one achieve ealaaiess of mind. only after having achieved calraness of mind, can one have peaceful repose. Only after having peaceful repose ean one begin to think. Only after one has learned to think, can on© achieve knowledge. There are a foundation and a superstructure in the constitution of things,, and a beginning end an end In the ©ours© of events. Therefore to know the proper aeouenee or relative erdar ©f things ia the beginning of wisdom. $h© ©neients who wished t© preserve the fresh or clear character of the people of th© world, would first set ©boat ordering their national life, Shea© who wished to order their national life, would first set abeut regulating their -family life. Those who wished to regulate their faaaly would set about cultivating their persofial life. Those who wished t© cultivate their personal lives, would first set about setting their hearts rights. Those who wished to set their haarta right would first set about raaJsiag ^ helr »111 sincere. Shoe© who wished to make their sills sincere would first set about achieving true laaot&ledg©. the achieving of true Itnowl-edg# depended upon the investigation of thing©. h^es thing© are investigate ,^ then true knowledge is achieved; when true knowledge ia achieved* then the will becomes sinoerej when th© will is sinoere, then the heart is set right {or then tih© mind sees right); fchen the heart Is set right, thea the SI '*» personal life ie eultivsted| fchen th© personal life is eultl- • veted* tbea the family life is reflated* ishea the ttaa&Xf life if regulated, tfeea the natloaal llf© is orderly* and ©hen the national life Is Orderly, theathere Is police In thte world. From the ©mperor down to th© coamon men, ell must regard the otiltiyetloti ef the personal life as.the root or fo?®aetiO»* b^ere is never an orderly upshoot or superstruetur© shea the root or foundation Is disorderly, ©jere is laever yet e tree whose trunk is slim and slosder «-ad «hos© top branches are thick aad heavy* IBti* is celled wto knoa root or foiaadattoh of things.1* (1) This thought is developed somewhat furthers As for ©hat Is described as knowing th© root, this means tho height of knowledge. For In the Book of Songs ere tho words: See there, the Chfl river with Its winding course, Its- baMftfas' ell lush and green I ' iv©a so our accomplished prince! the bone is served aa$ the ivory polished; The $ade is cut and granite ground smooth. So he, like the su9ic of strings yet with a star tie! (air) Stern yet debonair: So accomplished © prince* Ever te be held is sefiiOry, ia&e ^ csrviog and poiisbSug* means learning, fbet ^cutting and grinding* Beans the cultivation of the self. *Mke the cats toof #trieg* so he trembles within hliaself. *Stera yet debonair*# so he is the very pattern of &a|esty* *»WR to be held in metsory, * so abounding power of pcraoeolity and the height of goodness ere what the cofisaon people can never for-get, ks theBook of Songs bse it* *ao«t^ kings of old are born© in ffiind. * Th& true mm deems worthy those whom they deemed worthy the eonsEon people take pleasure lot the pleasures and gsln profit from the profits which they made. Tbus it is that ©ithough he.te goae from the world he Is not forgotten.(2) is isesspt by lask^ ag :the thoughts ei®oope-,w Is the ©Sowing no self-deception, as when fee bete a bad srooll, and as ®h©» we love sshat Is beautiful. Shis.-le ©ailed ©elf-enjoyment. therefore* the superior rasa mast be watchful over himself when he Is alono. (1) ereet leeraia®, fox* of Confucius: f»ira# Wisdom ef $ p 1&8M4© (2) Great learning, chapt $ para 4s Bughea, Greet learning and.,„...p 148-9 f 58 . f&ere is no evil to whioh the mean ©en, dwelling retired* ^ili not proceed*, trot ©hen he -sees a snpc^ ior ©an he Instantly tries to disguise himself', Concealing his evil, and displaying shot Is good, fhe otherbeholdshim, as If he saw his heart and reins* cf ®hat as© te his disguise? ©lis Is m instance «f the aaylng*-*iha* truly Is within will he manifested cithsufe*1* Utierefore, the sup@rlo* aaah mist be watchful over himself when he is alone. fne mind is expanded* and the body is at ease, therefore* •the superior man must malt© his thoughts sincere. «hat is meant by 0tb© cultivation of the person depends on rectifying th© mind*® amy be thus illustrated: If a man be under the influence of passion, be $111 be incorrect in his conduct. He will be the same if he is under the influence of terror, or under the influence of fond regard, or under that of sorrow ©ad distress. h^en the siind is not present* we locfe and do not ae©| we hear and do not understand j we eat -and do hot kno« the taste of ahat w© est. this is what is iseaht by caying that t&© cultivation of ^ the person depends on the rectifying of the mind. (1) Further development of the argument stresses the political aspect of that politico-ethical aselga© that is sc i&harchfc in Chinese thought. From the cultivation of the self la derived the tearaoni2ing of the faMIy* t&ic is extended to the ©stoblishraent of virtuous rule In the state, and finally fulfilled- in thc-relgn of "universal .peaec*" a short passage indioating the place of instinct i» learning is perhaps watk Inclusion*' 'It be j^called -that Confucius repeatedly stressed .the need for learning* • leaving th© o^ uestion of intuitive I^ Celedgc en open esc* lit the Greet Leamlns* hocrcver,, It la suggested that instinct and rightness of iropluae saa^  serve better tha» precis© factual informations ' • .Si- the- :S*ang W& it is said?- •Aot as if' ycu -were watching (1} Great learning, ohapt- It©gge* fCur^ 'occ^ a p 230*38 ever aa infon *^* If your mind tm truly set on your action, although you raeytttss your mark, you will net go faap ©stray* A young I O M hae never had to learn to sueki© en infest before she gets married* {!) Tho Chung Sung •2he opening passage of the Doctrine of the Seen gives a description of the nature of mind as It underlies the learning prosesos •'• Thr.t which Resven entrust to man la to be called his nature* the following out of this nature is to be celled the Way* Tho cul titration of the Way is to be celled Instruction in systematic truth* the ley*. It ssay not be abandoned for a moment. It is alght be abondoned. It would not be tho Kay . Because this Is so, tho man of principle holds himself restrained end keyed up In relation to the unseen world* Since there is nothing store sanifOOt than whet is hidden, nothing more visible then what ia minute* therefore the raan of principle la on guerd when be is olono with himself* to have no emotions of pleasure and sages* and sorrow and Joy sur^ ng up, this is to be described as being in a state of equlllbrlua, *£& have these emotions surging up but ell in tan© this Is tebe described as a state of herkosy* this state of eqaillbrluitt is the supremo foundation^ tbis> • state of harmony the hlghisey^  «JT the '' Great Society, Once equilibrium and harmony Ore achieved, heaven end earth maintain their -proper'- positions,' and all' living things are nourished* (8) the author of the Kean in action then Invokes £he (authority of Confucius in regard to th© importance end difficulty ©f truly following th© Ways Confucius remarked; wTo find th© central eiue to our Koral being which unites us to the universal order, that indeed is the highest human attainrasnt. For a long.' time, ' .people have seldom been. eep&bX© of iW* 1^ know now why the momX Hfe Is net practiced* the (1) «reat learning* chapt #s tttgbes, Qreat learning*.«.p 16& (2) Doctrine ©f the isesn* ohapt i f Sighes, me learning .end tb# moan la action, p 10&-6 »ia© islstafc© Esorel law for something higher Wmn ssfeat. $i ~.. really laj -.and th© foolish do not know enough shat moral really i knew -now « h y tha moral 'law is not' $gtf«f*» '• stood. The noble natures want to live too high, high abave • their iseral-.ai^ -nary-salf j s i a ignoble natures to n o t live" high enough, i.e., not u p to their B i o r a l ordinary true self., Dhere is no o n © ah© does not ©at and drink. But fern there are. who really know flavor.* (1) '• ©ossidar Shun, the mm o f ' .great- tiiadoiii He loved ' ask advioa and ©xsmine plalm speech, fie never raferred -:, to-. <bu$ -waa- evil* - end publicly praised what -s?aa: good . 8y grasping these two extremes he put into effact the Mean aiaoag his people...All sea say *1 know* but they are driven into nets* caught in traps, fall Into pitfalls, and not one too??s hos to avoid this, (2) $he faster aald* *ffe© f a y is not far resoved frogi men. If a mm- pursues a -way which reaioved feia from men*, he cannot ' be to ' th©. I&iy. : In the .Book of • SOngs • t$ier©' 'is th© - word*. - -•^ Whes hewing a » <MBiBe*4aiEk«ae|S:-e^ : ' -:iMeD»*^lsM»«i^lX4i^- fh@ pattern of it la ©losa'at. hand** iToa grasp a s a»e*handl© 'to new- • an axe-handle although, mhm yea look from th© on© to th© other (i.e. from tax© pattern to the block of wood ) they are very-0&ferent. therefore the right kind of ruler ••usee mm to Control men and attempts nothing beyond their earreatlani •and -fidiaiity. and-istitaal eervle^ fiaisnoft be outside the accpe of th© ;4Rqr;# &i© fcr^t&ent. i^iioh y o u do not like for yourself you'-iraasfc 8©t,;;hsc&:^^i^_-9/&a^9-m-\&p; •• • Wbs fEEjiliar Confucian argument that Bias must fulfil his '©oral :nat*jr©-l» o-rder to hold high rank is again ae©a& _ ••. IBs© faster aaidt *f& love to learn is tm be seer to having knowledge. To put Into practice vigorously la ta be near t© being ht^ ©en*haarted,.- • To know t h © atinga of sfcaae is ta be near to fortfttude. w© may infer that th© men «ho toows these three things know© now to cultivate his self. fliMHi'fec-;:kn«#a-hew-1* d © that* It assy fee inferred that he • knows hour to rule other ^ ^ i ^ A B M ^ ^ ; * ^ ^ ! - t i R ' a n he kno©& ho® -to do that* it asay be - '-inferred- .-^a :t--h© -a©??? to •rule tl^ '--whale, of-th©. Great. £©eiaty with---It© -.states, and .faaoiliea. (4) (1) 3N©trlne of the p©an*r ohapt 3*4* 8a (tr) Central harmony in Lin (ed) ?;isdora of Confucius, p 105-6. (2) f&etrlh© of the mean* ohapt 6,7$ Hughes, ffee great iesm-ing and th©- -mean In action, p 3&&» -• C-S) --$$©trlne of1 the -laeaa, ©hapt,: 13s Hughea, fhe great. x«£rii* Ing and the ffiean in action, p 111 (4) Doctrine of the mean*: ohapt SQs Hughes, «Sa© great learn-ing and the seen in action, p 121 * 55 ' '$o\far;/-^ have boon -entirely- from the \ • earlier pert of the Bee trine of' the Sean,' at about this ' point there is a shift ia- esphaeie te taore phlloaephieal* at least assre metaphysical*©onelderstions* Sere of course, a realm is entered mare beset with subtle consideration8 of the aptness of the translations end interpretations of the original thought* Besplte these risks and the added fact that certain of the possages deviate qtsite widely frora the topic, their interest is such as to justify reproduction of two or three paragraphs from this letter portion of the " Doctrine of thse Sean,. . •it ie. the Oharae^ erlstiO' Of Heaven to SB'-the- reel* It is tlie\-0haraoterio-t$O' of©sH' to be ooMng»to*%e 'reel* a man) to be -real Is to hit the Sean, without effort* to have it ^thoat thinking of it, entirely naturally to be centred in.'the: iay: (in other aerdei to be a sage. To be :om$j^^o^4^wo»% is to caeose t&© good and to hold fact to it* '•lhls:' S^ velvos lea-r^ng'ali about the'good*, asking ' about it* thinking $fe over carefully*, getting It clear by -centreaty 'and; faithfully 'putting: it Into practice:* If ". there is any part about which ha has not learnt or asked questionsi which he has net thought over' and got. clear by -contrast, or which he has not put into practice, he seta to- sjork to learn, and ask and' think end get Oleiir.asd. put into praotioe. i f he does not. go* the required result, ho s t i l l doea;' net v^e^ -up o^rking*-^  Tshm he aeee 'ii^tr. men :•  succeeding b^an© ef^ or%-"-03?- it may be a baaadred;. he Is? ' prep:ar:ed'le'add a hundrefold t© i&m'&m efforts*- "fhe'.jfees- ".' she oan last this course* although he is stupid, will come '•tO:-uMers.^ ,nd$-;'althoisgh fee" Is -wea%.,wili' becojEe 'strong*,;' To prooeed from realness to understanding ia to be ascribed- tort&e -nature of man*:"' 'So proceed, ivask u^^etend» lag' to -r^ ainesa- Is to be ascribed to ins taction &'. truth*'•"' Logically, realness involves understaiiding and- understanding involves realness. (1) ^ • ; It-is: only'he-'^ e is psasess. sincerity that;csn exist" under' '"heaven*. f^ ro-Oan give its lul l development of his nature. Able.to give its full development to his own nature, he esn do the some to the nature • of -other- mmi. Able' to' give"Its' full develO|»jeht'' ' to the nature of other man. h© can give their full development to the natures of onlraala and thirds, Able to -.give ^eir : ful l developaent to the natures «f creatures siaeV:'ffc£^^*/-l&- ©&». assist th© transforming sad'h^rieaing ' pewara -..-of • fle&Ven and Berth*, able to assist- the ts^sferaiug and nourishing powers of Heaven and Sarth, he may «£49> . 'fiaasvoB. end Earth fora a tornien* (1) Again the authority of the Master ie invoked to iadioate fcho dangers inherent in an incompleted personality* and the need there is for virtue and wisdom in the rules1 is stressed. Warn Sastcr said* *$b be ignorant and have a passion for ©ne*s om ©pinion* to be in a tarn, position sad <&itireiy O i^f^ lil-odWr •tor live M the werM to-day and go continually vaok to th© old way a; people of this aort invite oalomlty on It lit only the wm i&ho ie entirely sage»like la the Sreet Society who can be bath brilliant ih intellect as& intuitively td^ se^ -aao; thus be: adequate fas* -being ©vear al l mens site-can -be magmmimoue aed ten#«^ ^©ar«feed.#. -atid,tJio^ ''bOr'':.' adtgpate for being king to alls who ©an be strong and deter* mined* and thus be adequate for holding all in controls who can be outwardly composad and inwardly true, and thus bo adequate for being revered? who oan be cultured in mind and withdrawn into hie studious thoughts, and thus be for distinguishing between ^ e and faloe« (8) MenCius Menoius is aomcv/hat similar to Analects, in that i t is a collection nade by followers, however, unlike the An&lectJ may of the paasegea are of eanslder^ ible length* and there la development both ^ ' u p t o t and form* It would not b© advisGable to quote from Meneiue with the- aarao eoEipleteness so mm don© from Confucius: much of the thought ia either jus* a development or else obviously derivative from the {l^fco^Btrin© of the mean* chapt ^ » £©gg© ttr> Poo trine of .; the equilibrium, in Severed" %oeka**-*** Vol* 11, p S33» (2) Th© Mean in Action, chapt 28: Rughss,, !2b© great learning and tha--man^.ln/^tl^,/,p:2^*-Footnote reference t© pager " (II Doctrine of the isssa* chapt* SO^Sl. ilughesj, Chinese philosopfcy...p 39-40 - 57 Confucian writing©** many passages are essentially a ;«^P^til^^';of-tfee $tsat©r% thouj^ &ts*. «$$ mere bulk sloa® «oa$C sarva to prohibit a -fall .f^erena©* as this book la' catch larger-thas any of the other-four hooks, the -• following few passages. will p^ rbapa. i«saiea-t# th®--. .general, line af development whioh Senoia©: gave ta Confucian though*! there is a tandeny&y towsrd a sjore eearehing psychological analysis*, and -a-eeaaern aifch practical problems of pelitica* £a regard to the-'basi© nature of - tsm ©a f inftt Benevolence ia th© dlefcinguiahiJig charaotariafele of man* CD (^ here is* in th© €hia©s©* a -©ertai® identity o# rjoot* in the «orSa. for,'%3an® ©ad ^enavoiano©* &m latter \" •" • being f orated of k eonibination af the characters for %ehf seal 1*t»0ir» th© fero© ia perhaps soiae^ hat the sets© aa If ape were to equate* human* humane. ) fill aen have a aind ®hieh cannot bear to see tha sufferings of others* However ther© is'also the'fesrning* fbat whereby wan differs from the lower animals ie but saaH-*-,' *lhe iaass'af: th© people cast- It off while the' . superior iaan preserves lt« ts) %&& sea -posses© a «soral nature j but i f they era wall fed*?W8«^f ©lad^ and © s^^ orfe* ably lodged, ©Ithout being taught ot th© ssae fcima* they heaps© almost •iike'baasfcs^  i * ^ the superior man*, hosevar*..'' in. -his nature,* -avoid this:*- -ihafc belonga by" hi© .nature to the superl<s?'stsn are b«ne-vaiaa©N$*. right©ouanasav%^©;^ ,I©"*;y*' aM-'knasfledg©.*-' fliea©' . ar© rooted la .bis :haartii"-thalr growth 'sn& ajaaif©station are a mild hnr^ eny app©8H?ing In .'the eousite»©n©©» (5J (1) Menciua, bit 7 pt 2 ohapt 16* £egg% tour books, p 361 (2) Menciue, bk 2 pt 1 chapt 6* Wong ftr) Works of Menolua* In Ballou (ed) Bible of the world, p 439. (S) flenolua* bk 4 pat $ -ohapt. 19s :I»©gg©f*' ('trjr' Works of • -lanoina*-' In fora©. (ed) :Saored bs!©ka'-*.»^0f last vol.12 ' • (41 ^nei«is*/bk $ pfc- 1 chapt 8J "£©gg©.*;'F©ur 'b&aks* # 1ST • jS) :$ea&iu-a* bk 7 pt 1 ohapt 21*' Segga* ^©w books p? 326 • -• 63 — Sound, though 2D aewhot acaderalor &dvice is gtVen on the study of literatures Therefore, those #ho esglsin the Odes, say not: insist on one tarm-'-ae^ ^ sentence SEO as- to do violence to the generel ac^ pe, they ssssfe try -their • thoughts to ae©t: t$o& s#ep%'- and then ' we shall apprehend it* (1) & further passage on forioal-'learning^ develops the these of constant effort* the sunerior wxm la&feea his advanoes in what he Is learning with deep ^ rjaestnee# and by :the proper eaurae^  ^ fMna; to get hold of it as in himself*; Saving get hold of it in Ma* self, he abides In it ee?.mly end firmly« Abiding in It •Oai^ if;..and flissly, ho-•''reposes- a deep .reliance on i t , Repos-ing-a-deep reliance on i % l^aelaee It- on the.left:;and-right* meeting ever^ here'-Wi'th i t ee a fotpitaSB:.:fro®- .ushlen. -things .flow*, ft is 'on- this account that the superior man . -wishes to get. hold -of afhat- fee.- is- learning, as. in himself Ifo.,learning;- ea&eneively and discus sing minutely wbot ia learned,., the object of' the superior mrm l#;thst he ©ay be able to go back and set forth in brief what-is..essential! (8) Besides these- questions of -m&&m&!at 'learning^  there la also of course the typical Confucian pre^ ocs^ patloh with the development of: attltasae and Meals*- 'S*&* 'the.Interest of -£©nciue in psychological problems adds a peculiar interest, : a rather extensive passage deals the achievement of ' eaijsaese of" (m a 'farther illuatraLtlea..of 'the. terse*; nose: of Chines©, a- tm lines are- given in the literal trans-. latlon Of Sicharde, this la repeated in tho more developed interpretation e# .Iftggev'tf&M* "tr&hal&tiei* theti used t i l l the ««& of the passage, % Sot-iBovo-aiind Is there a way? Beplted, Yes* Pel Kung 1fla*s cultivation of valours not'Sfelnrfllaola,, no^eye fleej consider ainglot hair beaten by. -others ae -0wmU. In'-aarket-{1) lenelua^ b& 6 pt 1 chapt &> l«©g^ e*- Sayings of Monoius in torld's great classics. Oriental ittera'ture vol* 4 p 114 (2) Senciue, bfe 4 pt £ chapt l%lJ5it l^^e* Four baoM p 10&-9 •plkae^ ' n©£: i*©aeiv©- froift hair^gsrs t^*: loaa©- lara^* a^ s© not -•aft?eol'v^  fS^es®'© passage Is; pore, fully gives by Legge*. -, . - • . • '-Is ' thare any way' to' an nJaparCurbed '»S«i#- ,fha aaaser, wsa*. y©©*; • :/ ' '"•, v-,.':.•' - \ f$h>keftg; bed this &sy'«f nsiirishlnjg his valours— 'Sfer €ld not flinch frees any atrakes- at- his 'body*'»•£© did not' turn his ayes aside fro® any thrusts a* thero* Be considered that the slightest push fro* amy one was the sais©:'<aa- i£h© w©r# beaten:-before 'the- ejee#8# in the- ®6^iet^la#%^«roii ''that ©hat- ;he wms$&; hot raoaiv#; frost- a common -pen- Ih.'hl^  loos© large' garments -of'hairy. nalth '^-wouM-'h -^reeaiya-fr /^a prinae of tan .thouaahd-''ohar-iota* '8© viewed- stabbing, -a '' prine© of ten thousand ehariata 5ust aa stabbing a fellas? dressed -iii 'cloth of -hair* He feared not any •of all the- prineea* .& bad..word- addressed t© hiia-1».always.ratumeds ' Isng: ^ e^ fihay "'had' this «ay of n<?u-riafeing his vat©isrs>:**- -lia.aaid* ;;tI/look, upon not" aonaiierisjg and ^n^aeMng:in-ttia- -• aaa© a^y*. To -iaaa'aur© the esasjy end then adv@stc©|: 'fa. oaleu-lata- the ehsna©.© of viatory^a^ "'^©n^ee^gei^ - #tand in a«a ©f the - ©ppoains' fora©*.' Itosr -daft--e^ aguariagt 1 eait.asly risa saperlar;:'t& all of whlehof the tsm fss#.*is©a*'! 'I'd* not loss®- t© er&arity should fee mM to what «aa of the iiBportanc©* 3&fcfc ^ onfuoius- he- ©onslderetJ the seed- .for self criticism* Ifoenevar iour-aatlans^  fail--tHa."p?>odmo?©.--'.feh© affa©% desired^ Jhould look for the cause in ourselves* (5) $i©neiiis aal% Sfeafc .osy on© t©ld Sasa l^o© .that he "had a . * h© raialead* 14) -to '^ aa^ i!«©i::ath©r# ;$» . fhe obligation at the--atreasad*. ©Si ;th© ^ bk':£'pfc«l,. «iad p'S% 30* ./" i^/ISeneiaa* bk 2 'p&"l ehapfc 8* tagga* I»©ur book© p 6&«S 3) |B©seiu% 1 chapt $? '§©R$* i n f^ raafc fed) ^ered 'wi^tin^-af^^ • .-V tteaalus.* bk :-i©ng= (tr) W&e' a*;ii©8^u**- i t i . (ed) Bible of the world* P * 60 -.'fhose tshe keep the' -Mean,- train up those f^eae do miot^ aiftTl those woo hay© abilities*^ tps^ n ap those ish© haw not, and hence mm rejoice in having f6 there and ©Mar brothers isho are •.possessed of virtu© and talent*. (1) A elasilar .eentifeont- "la- expressed when Menelus; Quotes. an -enolent- i&inleter* ®ioayen% plan in the production ot this people is this*— that they who are firo* infomed should Ihs^ trac^  those who are later in being inforjaed*.- and they who first apprehend principles ahoald isstrifOt those who are #lofeer to d© ae*1* <g) • fbsee were ebligatiena t*iough^  to be approached «ith caution* "\ • ' - . tnolently*. men or virtue and talents by mans of their o«n enlighteniient made others enlightened* Bow-a-days* it is- trlea^ •fetl-©- 'they are'' thesBSeiyee in. dar^ a^ es*- end/by. means 0£:tha& 6©$taBf*a* t© mr,ke "©there- enlightened, (3 ? ,Als©* a more devastating criticism* • ' "^ he evil, of men ie-that they like to-.be.' fceat&erfr Of -©rt-hers**- {4$ -, Seneius sees® to have been well m&p® of th© sweetness of', the use© of: -adversity;.; - .. •fa*©*..Seaven la about to confer- a grea*..effice on any issn* -It first exercises his a^ sd with suffering, and his si«e#a end beaea with tall* It exposes Ms body to hunger, end subjects him to extras© poverty* It confounds bis undertakings. By all those methods It atimulntea bis mind, fcardesis his nature* and supplies his iiieotspetenetea"* (5) Men wh© are possessed of intelligent liirtus and prudence la affairs will generally be found to have been in sickness .and- troubles. (6) * (1) Slenciua, b& 4pt £ ohapt 7* &egge, Four books, p 196 • (2) Ue^ ot.ust,bfe $ pt t chapt ft Sogge. (tr) §©ylng# of' Meaclus lu ^»rld% great ©lassies, Oriental literatsa?© vol 4 pl!8 C3> llonetus*bli ? pt ohapt &©gg© (tr) teks of Menoiua ..."..•' -Born#- fodi: Sacred books* «*a£ -the' • vol- 12 -p -$9$ C4I isenetus* bk 4 pt B chapt 23s £©gge* FcW books p I8fr (&) Seneiua, hfc € pt # chapt 15; £*gg» (tr) Seiiciue# in IS& fed}Wisdom of ChinaendSadis* p 7S3*4 (6) Hanoius, blc * pt 1 ohapt 18s ^ng (tr) torka of Menctas . In ^ Ballon tedj Sibie' of ttoe'-oww* 9'48&'; " 61 -t'encius said, "All ssho speak about jmttnmr.of things* .have is fact only their phenomena ^ to reason fro®* and the value of a f&eaetaianott 1© 1m its bains natuisal* ^mm%: £ dislike im .yew. wis© -mm ia ta»tr; boring, out their ©onolusionaw. If those wise ©en would snly aot aa "Xta did :$h©&, he eenveyed a«ay the asters, Hies?© would be.nothing to dielike in their wisdom* maner In «hich "Ste conveyed ' a«ay the m$tam «•* by doing what give .him 'no ts^ ouble* 'If ••, , your wise mm «!»M«l9« do that which |§gt9e> them no trouble* their Smowledg© «ould also be great* *fhera 1© heaven so highf thera are the star© so distant* If'-sr©- hav©;"^veatigated- their' phenesisna*. ®:mf» -while-eitting In our, pieces, go back ta-the soltleaa of a thousand year aggo** (It,) . • . A ecsewliafc lengthy Siaeusslan of eonalderebl© philoso-phical depth* between Menciua and E&ou tzu on the essential nature of mai% aapealally aa viewed ethieaiiy* present© vary-lag aspects on th© personality* Kaon tea claims that ©en are -athically'.aautpal.*; -fiber *t#tW:..*p* prasen.tsd that a«®a a&esi • are tiatlvaiy @©od;# ©thara evil*, Mencius*. however* claiasa that tend to as <,an inharanfc factor of their mm b©*> log* as water fcen£« to flo© downward. "^ tha feeling of.aomlaaration baling© to all' .'-a©, does that of shaiae acd dislike; and that of reverenoe sud respeotj •• and that ©^f approving arid disapproving. $h@ feeling of'-coroniseration iB^llea -the' principle of banevJaiancai that of "ahaaae.- and dislike tfea' prinolp-la. of ri^ taauaiBsaai." that of ' -reverence and• respect, t&e principle ©^propriety* and' "'tha#.;-J of approving;'aat. disapproving* tha- prlaalpi©'' of im©®I©dga*r:-' 1&©n©val©nc©*:.:rl^  propriety, and knowledge* are not infused into us from tslfchoui. We are aartair»iy furnished with the©.; and m-dlff;©ri©nfe l^ew Is- elia^ ly fro©- ©ant of reflection. Hence" It 'is? "said• "'tseak and you will find them. Hofleet and 'y©a--tirlli lots©, them.* '.$©a.differ fra® ©a© another in regard -%©.'€h© -^~a©s».a& ©uch again as othera* aosa, flv& tisBea-'-eat-:'' lauchj and. sea© 't&.&K isiealcus&le -a&ountj—«it -la"rbaaauaa''l*t©]yr " ©anaafc ©arry out fully their natural pawera»4S)**.ln good year-a th© ©Mldrea of tha people era isast of ctai good* ©bile in bed -years the reoat of thae abandon th s^selvea to Cl> Menolue* bk 4 pt 2 ohapt Ms Sagg©* b©<ska p 899-10 <2) Menclus* bk # pt i ©hapt ©s £egg% four book© p g?a-& •evil* It mt^ming to their neiss^I ahdes^ eitte conferred _„ _ en that they are Ibim-'differ^**. It ia o«isg to. air©WEB®tia®i^^ their minds tab© ©oenared . - Sh&t la «fey I mat'.that- in the- relation- of the mouth • t© flavours In fabd sea have a-like saaae- of taste, 1B the relation of the ear fc© singing, a- I lie© sane®- of hearing*- ia -tha rale ties of the eye to colour a lilt:© sen©© ©f beauty. Applying - this to minds,* do they disagree- - so £©p& an .., ;• .. excaptlont that are the -things in uhifth..asSads ©greet Xa ; reason and in righteousness* fhe sages had in adva&oft what •our• winds agree on* 3&at ia share the pleaaw^ whioh rsasce and righteousness afford our winds is like the pleasure t^ hich ' th© fleah of graas^ fed- and .graln*fad- &ni^ -ls;v-af£ord 'our mouths-*. m And la- ther® not a-.heart of love -and rlght©ou«saaa ln-'-saas:-toot- But how. ©an that nature reB&lh haautiful nyhan It is . -hacked &&m ©very i&y*. as the 'tgoa&msan ©hops desmth© ts^ asr • with his-: aeef $o he sura* th'©- nights and- days da .the heating-and there is the nourishing air of the early dam, whlali ; teads to-'keep him sound and i*©rt8al -^but--i%ie air is this aad is soon destroyed hy.what". he,-d^ ea;,;^ ,^ he day*. • litfe* this cnntinuQua hacking of the- twmm spirit-* real. rahd recuperation obtained Saying-the'^ n-igiit are not sufficient tea maintain Ita ievei* aasd' when- the algbt% ."recuperation .<tae$ •-•not auffie©.' to aalntain its level,.'then- mm degrade* Minselfi© a state not' far from- -the beast*1©* teaple «©a that he acts like a beast and iiaagine that there vstsmp any trae ofesracter- in Mm* But is this 'the- true%aitttira: of man? therefore witfe proper murlsbjaent asd.aa-re* everything grojws.jiand-^i*hoi*tathe proper nourishment and care, everything degenerates or decays, ($) ; Sow chess playing is but a small- art* but srithout giving ; Ma whole miad to- it and bending &$» alii to It* a asm --sesmefc ©Reel in It .£4} . . to the.sind- belongs; the -offlea of • •^ sinking*. By •thinking*, it, gets the right v>&m of thing©! by neglecting to think* It .falls to da- thl©* ^©©©.-*sei»©a:'a3ffia. t^ 9iaftiMfpe^a%:'88al^ M;lu^ given' us* Let a mm firsts ' stand fast- in the appremsey of th©- nobler part of Ms•-,©-©&**. stitutlon and th© inferior parte will not be able to take fro£& him. -. It. la simply this which cakes the great, ESSS* \O) {1} Serclu©^ bk 6 pt 1 ehapt 7:: &*gg© (tr) fleisciua- f&- l£& -j (©&) Wladom; -of''(Stsia^  aa&; Ii^ dla'-p- 778 -. .. (2). Hercius, bk € pt 1 chapt 7s aaghea*, Chinese- philosophy pS7 ; 131 iSerjoiua*. bk -6 pt 1 ahapfc Bi-wi«do» of Otmiuaiua -Ml Soneius*. bk & pt 1 chapt. 9s ®smm ^ale. •taaahinga n W : (5.).' -^ anaius;*, bit ©' pt 1 ©hapt-- l&s Sagga*- Faur .book© p-'SSl-63 An early interest in the Beasureiient of intelligence is indicated by the appearance in Menclus of an ancient quota-tion from the Book of Poetry: Bfhe minds of others, I am able by reflection to measure0. m and also by his own «a»rd# ff8y weighing, so knew ©hat things are light, and what are heavy* By measuring, we know what things are long, and what are short. The relations of a l l things may thus be determined and It is of the greatest importance to estimate the motions of the mind** (2) The relation of wisdom and intelligence la indicated* •tea a comparison for wisdom we may liken i t to skill , and a comparison for sageness, »e say liken i t t© strenghh; — as in the ease of shooting at a fsark a hundred paces distant* That you roach it is owing to your strength, but that you hit the mark is not owing to your strength** (3) A few general remarks on tho scope and place of learning aiay be cited in conclusions it carpenter or oarrlage^ fflaker may give a mm the cireie and square but cannot make brim skilful in the use of them* (4) Rung-sun £a iaw said, mt&tty are your principlee aril admir-able, but to loam them asay well be likened to ascending the heavens, something that cannot be reached, lay not. adapt your teachings so as to cause learners to consider them attainable* and ao dally exert themselves!* Menciua said, % great arttfioer does not, for the sake of a stupid workman, alter or do away with the toarking line. S did not, for the sake of a stupid archer, change his rule for drnwing the bow. ®lhe superior man draws the bow* but does not discharge the arrow. The whole thing seesas to leap before the learner. (1) Eiencius, bk 1 pt 1 chapt 7* i^ong (tr) ®erks of Heneius in Ballou (ed) Bible Of the world p 432* is) heneius, bk 1 pt 1 chapt 7* &e$$o» Four books p 20 3) Henelua bk 5 part 2 ohapt Is ibid p 248 4j Moncius, bk 7 pt 2 chapt ©$ X^ gge* (tr) Works of SSeaelus in l & w (eif Saored books** of the last* vol. 12 p 367 64 -Such I s h l a S tand ing JaAs—s^e^^ng e x a c t l y i n the middle o f the r i g h t pa th* . Those who are a b l e , f o l l o w h i m . w (1) The wise embrace a l l knowledge,, bu t they are most earnes t about what i s the g r ea t e s t impor tance . ( 2 ; Words w h i c h are s imple w h i l e t h e i r meaning i s far--r e a c h i n g , a re good words . P r i n c i p l e s w h i c h , as h e l d , a re compendious:, w h i l e t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n i s e x t e n s l v e a re good p r i n c i p l e s . (5 ) (1 ) Mencius , bk 7 p t 1 chapt 41 ; Wong ( t r ) Works o f Mencius , i n B a l l o n , B i b l e o f the wor ld p 461 (2) Mencius , bk 7 pt 1 chapt 46 : Legge, Pour books , p 352 (3) Mencius , bk 7 p t 2 chapt 32: I b i d , p 370-1 • 6© « Taoism — Introduction fb© ©oamoh stereotype of the Chinese is apt to include sta one of his Ohara^terleties, a eertaitt ceremonial polite-ness and ritualistlc fcriaaiity* a hasls to this has been presented in the exposition on Confucianism. Bat also associated with his nature* Is a sense of natlent endurance* timelesgness, and a gentle serenity and philosophical sim-plicity. These traits are found reflected in Taoism, a school which teaches the following of the Way* (Mterally* **•©>*' means •path*1 or "way*, here its significance is the Absolute* BOB© translators render it *0od*w) the attitude of Taoism toward education slight be ex-pressed very elssply as one of fundamental reppoaitlsn*. Basically, Taoism teaches that the original immediate nat-ure of mm is good, and that the artificialities of civili-sation end formal education are corrupting, pie foists" held that enmeshed in the travels and bustle of their modern world , the essential als^lielty of man% true nature became diatk»B$ed and destroyed j they leaked back to a golden age in wm*.& history before the rise of cunning Inventions, complicated social relationshipsff and Involved cultural patterns, a time when won ate simple food off undressed beards, and the knotted cord was complex enough for their simple reoords* (matted cordst ie. a raaasonle device pre-©arsory to writing, like the Peruvian ©uipu.1 fhe&r repudiation ©f l^raing* however, was not that of the embittered ignorant ©ha bate everything they lack, and dot eat everything by ^ leh ©thera differ fro® thews elves, hut rather that of men of deep Intellect and wide scholar-ship she had found that such learning is vexation of spirit and a vanity of vanities., Indeed ©hssi^ they' denied more cleverness i t ess in the name of a higher and deeper wisdom. Tb» basic work of the Taolsto la the fa© feh King (Gln3sic of the virtuous Way), a brief book of soia© five thousand sards picked with a significance and paradoxical wisdom that has Infltieneed untold generations of Chinese. Traditionally it is ascribed to Lao-tEU, a state archivist of shout six hundred 8*0* Modern critical research, though» tends to regard this alalia ©Ith considerable scepticism. Its ideas were elaborated &nd interpreted by Suang-tEu, one of the moat brillient minds that Gain© has ever produced.* Sis traditional dates are circa 359-266 B.C. Other thinkers associated with early Maoism are Lleh-tsu and Yang Chu, but the genuineness of their works, indeed their very existence, is debatable. ©ie hiatory of faaism in Shins ha©; been one of extreme degeneration* originally a high philosophy with a touch of mysticism, It passed into a mystical religion, as organised religion, and finally a focal point for grass superstitions and ma&pm. practices* But $cfe highest teachings ara still embodied la its writings far those who would seek them, and - 67 -these also as well as Its SOP© debased and popular aspects, have had their influence on Chinese thought and the cfaarac° ter ef all ©lasses* 88 -¥ae e^h Sing fh© Tab £eb King is a quasi mystical work which teaches that men should live in accord with the simple dictates of their untutored nattr ©, in thoughtless bariaohy with the great rhythm of the universe* Scute modem critics tend to deny the traditional authorship of £ao Tsu, and yiew i t rather as a col lection of many random ideas and influences whichsuet have existed In early China, but which were not grouped and put into writing in this book until about two hundred B.C. In any event i t seems fairly certain that It existed in much the ease form as it is new known as early as the second century B.C, and In this form it reveals a reaa* onably coherent and congistent point of view* the same general plan is used In the following pages, as was employed la presenting the ideas of Confucius on edu-ce t Ion j first a tm quotations shoeing the conception of aan% baslo nature* then the Id eel, and finally a suggestion of the pathway between the two that education offera, fa© basic nature of man is taken to be founded on the Tao; philosophically this is of considerable significance, however a^  everything else in the universe Is also so foundod, ana: as th© Sao itself la the Snej^^ssible indefin-able Absolute, it does not offer a sharply discriminative <iei«rrO©tlOa of the peculiarly distinctive Qualities ©f »aa*s natures Thare is something, ©beetle yet complete, which existed before Heaven ana Barta* $h, how still It is, and t'onalesa, standing alone without changing, reaching everywhere without suffering harm. It must he regarded as the ffother of the TSalvereev.,$an .takes: his- law frost th© 3fer6&§: the Earth .takes its law frosi Heavens leaves takes its law fi?o© faei but the law of Too is its own spontaneity. (1} The Stings of this world coae from Being, And Being 'frdas iren-beiag* (2) • in. the far-off golden afgo, before mm becoaie entrapped with the trappings of civilisation and oustes that pi*ogre«e inevitably brings, it was easier tor men to live the life of simple accord with nature that the Taolsts advocated £ Xxt olden tJaaes the ones who were consideredworthy to b© called masters were subtle, spiritual,, profound, wise, fheir thoughts eould not b© easily uaderstoed* Since they were herd te understand I will try to isakO the© ©lear* ' fhey' were cautious Hke men t<^ fag a river' in winter*, fhey were reluctant like men who feared their neighbours* a^ey were reserved like guests |n the presence of their hHS»t...1Ensy were elueiVe like Ice at the point of melting, ighey were Ilk-©- unseasoned wood, f^eey «©r© like a valley between high mountains, fhey were ebsour© like -troubled waters* We oan clarify troubled waters by ©lowly euietihg them. We oan bring h^e unconscious te life by slowly moving thss* But he who has the secret of the Teo does sot desire for more*. .Being-' content -he' la • able' to mtur© • without • .desire to be newly fashioned. (3) iiesiag this simplicity ia the deeadene© Inherent in conventional morality, men fall away from their true essen -tie! natures flere Is what happen©': ' mm rely first .on t&efr fitness? turn to kindness? , they turn te Ju& a^esst they turn to eonvoatiom* (1J Yae fob King,, etansa 25$ Giles, Sayings of Lao-tsu,pp 201 (2) a^e fan Etna, s tens a 40* £in (tr) Laotso, the book of fae* in Mn {edj Siodo® of China end India, p 60S (3) fao feh Stag, ©tana© 13> Ooddard, isotsua ?ao and wu wei, pp 17-8 70 * inventions "are fealty -and honesty §eae %© ©aata, fbey are the entrances of disorder, (1} •-vtmt $b© ./great --wisdom la denied* Justice aRist take Its place. . When luetic® In. Ifca turn has "died* Prudence imist meet the cnse. When family chorda fall but of tune, men filial piety caisea* I*oyalty and slleglsace sooa #ollow the warlike druas* (2) The more restrictions and avoidancea era in the empire# flu© poorer heeose th© people j ffee more sharp iipplasieats the people keep, w more confusions are in the country!: ,' • Sfe© sore art;a end ©rafts men- .haras, • 1^ ©:4aar# are fantastic- things produced; • ^ ffee.-qpbre lawa and regulations are giv«n* fh© more robbersand•'';tyt©^#a-.th©.ra-,:ara$:- -Therefore the snge sayss Baasmaeh as t betake myself to non-action, th© people .. -.of thfmselwss: beces-e developed,•: \.\ Inasmuch as I love quietude, the people of themselves become righteaua* . Inasiauch -as- t task© no fuss*. the people of tbeotaelves;' -' become wealthy* • \loasa^ Ch' a#, Is© free- fro®--desire* the :|#aple^ c^ ^ - the^elya^ ratals* #ia^ ol©* • * .. Bovver-as indicated is the concluding .iihas ©f the •, • praviisfua paasaga* It is still possible for mas to e?ln their miy beck to tMc original innocence: \ . , * --'J^ ay- with thaea *®&0m**^..$m& .-aith- these %is©^ .sienA* •  •• Wmprofitt© the 'paapk© * i l i be a.laaKdred per cent*' : • AsEay^ ith these ;'la^^i;*h©arted raen*-l asay ^tfc..th©a#. • * Just '-&©n*f . _ people will turn back bo filial p^ a^ y.and. (plain) kindness Cl> #aa^ ^©h SSng.*: stsnaa-Sg;:: Bynner, Way v o f *l i f e }. op c4 9 7, OS'^ T^aoSTeh King, stanza 18:'Mackintosh, Tao, pp 19-20 ( 5 ) Sao- e^h King,/ stan-sa 57: Chfu (tr) faa>ta*kiaig, in: Ballon (ed) Bible of the world, p 4©5 71 &wey with these skllfull artisans! Away with these profit-meking merchantsJ Smieves and robbers will ©ease to exist* fhese three ©lasses of men make ant that w© are not •: civilized enough* What actually happens Is, more edicts added on. Give people Siatplloity to look at* the ffeoarved Block to hold: Sake few their self-centred desires. (1) ( fhus mm may cose to forsake the surface esa^ rtness of ordinary'learning 'for the deeper, wisdom' of .adherenoe to the Ps who niekes the Investigation of his spiritual nature his chief ohjeot will he able to bring all hie studies to a focus, end this concentration of his energies, will render him capable of arriving at a condition of aamsibllity to im-pressions aimil&r to that which belongs to a young child.(2) •. &ttei»; .the utmost In -humilityf , SOid firm to the basis of t^letiide* the myriad things take shape and rise to activity * But I watch them fall back te their repose* Like vegetation that luxuriantly grows. But returns te the root from whloh it springe* •To return te the root is depose? It is called going back te one4© fteetiny* - '. Ckiing. back to ;©ae:*s' Bestiay ie to find th© iternsi Law* To know the Eternal Lew is SYilightSQent. And not to imow the eternal Law Vis. to court disaster. H© who knows the -'Eternal Law Is 'tolerant? : Being, tolerant, he Is laipartlgls Being Impartial, he Is kinglyi kingly, he is in accord with tt&turej In accord with Mature, he 1® In accord with lPa©$ in accord with fae% he la-etertual and his wh«il©V life Is preserved from' horsi* (3) (1) fa©' Teh -Stag* efcansa Wt Bigness 0hSnese philosophy*, pp 1S1*2-12} fae 2?eh King* staasa 10s Alexander (tr) a^e-teh king or Book Of the values of fee* In Home (ed) Sacred books.vlgp W (3) s^e- teh King, stanae 16s Ms iw% Tsetse, tne book ©f a^© In Lin ted) Wisdom ©f China and iedls* p $91 .72 -In tees® ways the traaqalllfty of InsW Integration is attained* He who '^ o^ s^ otitsra-'ie^ w s^ei -He who knows himself Is enlightened* He who conquers 4»there is otrongj He who eonouers himself Is mighty. Be who knows contentment ie rich. He who keens on hie ©ours© with energy has will. 3© who dees not deviate fro® his preper place will long endure* 1© who say die hut net perish has loi^eylty. (1) When the sincere Inauirer is brought dimly to the Divine he diligently follows after it* wherever it may lead* When the careless inoulrer cosies to knowledge of the Mvlne •ho say attain somewhat j hut turning from careless to selfish he.say lose even wast he had In-original virtu© before he ©a©© to hear of the CiVine* When vulgar person© hear tell of the Divine they sake a Joke of it. 1 think If the vul-gar did net find the idea of the Divine tee fine for their groasnees* then i t would not be the Divine at all. (2) Ife© dangers of dissipating one's energy in the usual methods of study and the true wisdom of following the Way la further Indloatedt the.esg© oarrles on his business without action, and gives his tenoning without words* (3) frue words are not fine seoiidlng! ' l?lae- sounding words are net true* & good: mpn.'deesrnot armies -E©' who. argueaV Ifnnot.a good ©an*., the wise eh© does'"sot know lasny things* S© ;«he--;kffcswe-ss^ hy- 'things not wise*... fb© sage does net a^ MSumulate (for hiiseeif )s Be- lives- for ether-, people, find- grows- richer-hiii8.elf|-He gives to ethef • people, And has greater abundance. (1) ?ao fob King, stanaa 33i Gh% (tr) Bsllou ted) Bible ©f the world* p 484 (2) fa© $eh Sing*, stance 41: Ssclnnse, (3) fso Teh ting, s tense 2s Ch% (tr) Ballou (ed) Bible of the world,p 471 fa©^te*kiBg»: In >..boy, p 169 Tso-te-king, in - 73 • fh© fa©of Heaven A9*onpii-9hes* but does not contend* (1) pi© ld©a that simple raceptlveness to th© influence of nature is sufficient for true learning is rapeated many times! Without gojing out of your door, you ©an know the ways of the world* Without peeping through your window, tm ©an see the way ©f Heaven* . The father you•••&$ $he leas you know* Thus* the $ag© knows without traveling* •Se©«: without'leaking, And aohievas "aithout ado* (g) • ' V ' • $h© business, of learning i$ ©no of d^ y by day a©gulring ©or©,' fh© business of th© Tea on© of day by day dealing with lees* t&3 dealing with lass and less, tJtotll you arrive at ihactioa. Jf you praotia© inaotion* nothing will be left union©*- (3). -further* -• •'•••Ueh knowing' the, way: of • l i f a Do without eoting.,. , . - ' . . - ' ' . $hey- •'*©.©* the simple fact before it becomes Involved Solve the small problem ©©fore It becomes big** £fe© tsoat involved fact ia the world Gould have been faced when it was alBapla, fhe- biggest .problem. ia the *?©rld Could have been eolveS when It was ©mail* (1) Too $eh Kiha* atss$a -Slit tin (tr) -kaofcee* the book of Tao, in Lin (ed; Wisdom of Chine and India, p 6E4 (2) Tao fob Sing, stanss 47: Wu (tr) Lao-tsu's tea and its virtue. In Sourer, She. old f©ll©%;-pp'73*4 (3) faafeh King* stansa 48s Waley (tr)-' Way and Its power.*,. In Sugbe©, Shlnea© phliosophy*:'**-p-; 15I5-' ; f^e© staple feet that he finds ho problembig .Is- e a m 8a&n*©* priisfe aeblevetsent*-: • If you say yes too quickly • v . Jim siay have to say no, If you think things are done too oasilg tm sayfind the® hard to dos If you face trouble sanely It cannot trouble yea* Before it move, hold tt* Before It go wrong* mould It, ©rain off water In winter before ft freeae, Befor©'weeds•grow, sew them te the breese* you can -deal with what has not happened, ©an foresee Harmful ©vents sad not allow the® te be.*. fhejrof©re a sane &an% ©are is net to eserfc One asove that, can miss, One save that can hurt* Most people wfeemiaa, after almost winning* Should have * knows the end from the beginning** a sane m&n Is sane in knowing what things he can spare. In not wishing what most people wish. In net reaching for things that sessa rare* f he cultured sight call him heathenish, 1?hls *an of few words, beoause hie on© care Is not to Interfere but to let nature restore T&& seas© of -dlreotl-en: aiost men Ignore, j£l) 3h© danger inherent la ordinary surface Imawledge is put still more pointedly* $© know and yet think we do net know la the highest attainment; not to know and yet think we do know Is a dis-ease. <S1 •. . and tfels distinction 1© brought to a ©harper focus In LBO*S eontraet of himself-ae" a seeker the'tSa^ and the .smart successful people that 1^  sees all about Mw, Leave off fine learning J Ifed the nulaanoe Of saying yea to this and jjsrhsps to that* Distinctions with how little differssncot Categorical this, categorical that* . last- ©lightest use- are they* (1) a^e $©b Sing, stance mm 64* Bynaer. lay of life,pp 6S~7 (2) fan Teh Hug, stsnsa 71s Legge (tr) Tao-teh king, in Hsrse (edl Sacred Books*. „ of the last, p 60 - 75 If on© ©an lewis, another mst follow* How ©Illy that is aad how false £ Tet- conventional sen lead an easy life ©l,fch ail 'their days feast-days* constant spring visit t o the «ell 1*Qw©r, $hile I a© a simpleton, a do^ ofching* 'Wot M f ^ < » # y©* ta.'isaiaa a hand;*:. Hot gram enough to SKile,. k hosaeleas* worthleas waif* Hen of the world have a surplus of gooda* mil© I met left out, owning nothing* ,':@hat a booby I mmk:hm Hot to know ay way round, ihat a. fool! .. • ' The average san la so ©riep and ©onf Meat Thot I ought to be toisarable ©©lag: ©n and on like the sea, Br if ting cosher©. All these people are ©eking their mark In the world* ishiie I, pig-headed, awkward* different from- the 'rest., . - ' . • . . • ' to only a glorious infant still nursing at the breast (1) fa© ffefe King, standi 20* Bynaer* Say of life, pp 3S-7 Kuang fm Ktaang 'fa**, la- the gr©a%" popularises of ^aoisii, ®«d In aim 9fi? be seen both an e^sasion and a ialling' away from the concepts of Lao faa* It would of course be difficult to en-vision si*y-.d.©val©s^ ©Bt of the Ideaeof a siss who sold, w$e who spesk-e does not kao%tt (1) that would not at the esse time constitute a deviation £ro$a those v®ry principles feeing •enlarged* 'While LaO'.l&u wrote only.the e^ e.;werE, iuang Jan Is said te have written somewhat mora than fifty* though today there are only thirty-three works -attributed to bi?&* and a fair nus&er of these are generally ©onaMered to bs spurious* He 'weom deeply ©ognleant of tho logical Si&pllcaticns inherent in any conception of the Absolute, and the para-& ©steal ofearaot^ ria'tico- that all philosophers have found la it? that there- la •nothing: .which It fa, • and nothing of' which. It. Is not' the eases©©*. .;ferhaps..it/wasi the very Intensity of hie brilliance (a • trait -aos^ bat: suspect to the Chinese) that a^ eofunta-for- the,'.feet- that many-of his ideas., seees not so much Chinese as- Indian-** these typical idealistic arguments that seeta to be .both so logically irrefutable and-; ejaotioBSily unoenvinotng*' ;Sharaeteristie of hi©- witings- la a' ilgbtnees of touch* a' certain civilised, 'urbanity .that'. sMMt some to -skirt the' (1) fso e^h King, etanisa. -Sis' i^)'^©-t©*klag,, in Salieu (ed) Bible of the world*, p 60S • 77 -deep ojjderlylng conviction of Me ©srseataes©* Mealy of Ms profoandest thoa$it® aye presented ia iassgiastiv© dialogs©©, or ©lea ia anecdotal fables. lie writ lag© indicate a very eeaeltlve a^ ajreaeas of the aneertaljaty ©ad relativity of Bua©«ledge9 aad he shows so app*eh melon of the probl^ a**a& profeleme~*of reality* Sacst* lodge, language* and thai? itttervelfttlofiBfeipa* Much of hi© material ia thae partineat to the faadamej^ aie of le&rniog and other factor© oadeiflyiag $h©;-field of ado ©a ti ©sal theory, aad yet not sctoslly coaxing Tsithin its precisely d emu rooted cosapaes. As baa been ©sweated tem& of Me mtexiel is g-reaented ia an almost flippbot style, and deep thraghts are offered In the $Bie©.#f fwiastta tale©* tbi.# laa&ee it denenbst-difficult to find suitable brief selections that are parti* sent to the topic* and at th© some tisje do justice to the range and profundity of hi© thin&lag* tffiat ie ©ctoally pr®~ seated belo© ie a fe® per&gxaghe indicating hie idea of th© perfect man, both in hie transcendent and raonde^e aspects; then one or %m passage© en th© fundamental philosophical besie of knowledge* follomefi by aeveral abort quotations in-dicating Ma avereios to conventional learning and the ®ay la which he thought txoe knowledge raas to be found; and finally a fairly long complete ee lection si&loly en leeri&ag, and indicative of hie general etyl© m& approach* fhere 1c a eence, in i&ealiat&o thought* in which it B&s?k& sees* a logically feaaible ©©aseaa^ac© that if a rasa - 78 -ecu Id achieve coaiplet© pMloec^Meel In&I £f ereiie© then he aigfet completely Ignore hie external ©nviroaaeat | this trane-oeodeat aepect of the perfect man ie sees in several passages ia Kuan tm*m wn tinges the virtue in that spirit man is each that all things are of little worth te Mmi they ere ell ©a© to him*, the weria may fee eaxloos to he gevemeds hat why shcald ha bother hjmeelf afeost society? ?hat miwa nothing.can inhere him* If there were a flood reaching to the sky, he,weald net b© drowned. If there were a great dreamt and the ratals ana atones became lipoid and th© sell of the moaa-tains were barnt up, he weald act he hot. Bay the very fas© of his body weald serve to saaafaotare a great gagc*(l) In a ©ore ojssaan© sense, the good man of ISssng fza lived a life in simple accord with nstare and the isill of Heaven, without attempting te eeatrei nature ©r advance hia-©elf by eleveraesa or l©a;rniagi: indications of -this is pxe-eeriteo in certain of the following eoleeti ©as* M indication of Seang fso'e attitoee ia regard to epietemologioal prob-lems is given ia the passage below; • Yah. Ch'aeh asked fang Yi, aaylag*. **B© yea .know for ©at-tain that ell thing© are the same?* **Ho© esa .1 fcnawl^ snswered: Wang Yl. ffBo yea fenow «a»t yea 6e not knew?1* *Iow~$m I fescsiF replieo Ifefe ah e^h* **£at then aces anybo% knew**' *3$mi oaa I kitow*;* aate Wang ¥1* ttSeverth©l«as, I will try to toll yoa. S^ow oan It be 'koow'0 that what 1 oaH knew-log ie aot f ©allyfeeowiegt Mm I woaid ask yea this* If a man sleeps in a damp place, he gets lumbago and dies. Bat how ©boat an ©el? livlag op In a tree le preoarioae ana trying to the nerve©. Bat how ©boat mohkeyet ©f tho ®aa* the ©el*, and the monkey, <®heee habitat Ie the ri^t ©ae, absolutely?.••In my opinion, the doctrines of haaanlty and Justice and the path© of fight' and woag are s© eoafoeed (1) fh© Boi, ok 1 ohapt fs aaghee, Chinese philosophy in ©3a--@aie.al tis^ e*. p 169 that i t £« iiapoa l^hle to team their aonte&tiona* (1) & algal-la? faeea e^ xm the omert&i&ty o f .ka l^e&g©-*. pat© :gr©&t©r ,©a&&&al:8 as the ie©l©tt©»aM#-' of lanjsag©-: to' arealityj Sappose here i© a et&tejse&t* We g© not know wfce$he* i t belong© to ©a© ©at©g<S£y or anotJaer* Bat i f we pat tao filff ereat ©at©0o.iiaa ; i» -©Oft* a^es #b© t|f:ie*e^ee: of cat©- • gory aeaee to ©slat* Etemsmm 1 isaet "explain* if there ©aa a aa^miiog, tfeera wa a titae feetosa that beginning, and a 'tiis© before the time ®M©h mm %®Mvm the tt«fr of that ' begiai&ng*. If that© 1© esiateaae* there moat have been jaon-€»leteaae* &n& if there was a time -mben nothing existed, then there .oast have been a fcla© ishen even, nothing 416 aot ©slat. &11 of' a « 8 a a ® % nothing :&mm tat© e^ latensQa* . .£©al# one 1&«a» really' aay shether It belenge to ©ategor y of esieteaae or soa^existeaeef ®ven the very ®or$© X have Jo©t soxs att«re# #*»I ©asnot say Aether they say eom©tiii«# or not. i f then all things «re One*, ^ hat roe® ia there for apaeaht On the other hand* also© I ©an eay the tsord * One• how ©an spaeeh n«»t ©xiat? If it d o e © e a t i a t * w® have One an& ap©©ah**ts&©f, aM imo ©no" ©ne^fchree f rojs v.iiioa point as©&r3© evan-the beet a a f c h r t B a t i e i a n © miXl fail to reaiSh I the olti-EBB, $.©•>.$. how aooh mere then ahali erala&ry people i s i l f (2) Thas it la- -that by going, on $t<m nothing; to -sosiet&iag ws arrive' at three* How ssaah more itf-ise so en txm ease* thiog to ©ome^aingl ^m*t let aa go ©nl &et aa ©top hereJ (3) tQattaisefi tt^oaga M$ isotfea are. aany b^ ©*t .pa©aa|ea ?ef earring to the ©anger© -of ©Miasiy learning? Wleaas has been mors fatal ' then the fiting of a eeorpion ©3! the- alt© of s <&8g$HMHi: b#aat> (4) :«|*h tsaly wieficm ie a ©ar#©» (§) So be tan© |oine4 to the anlverea wit&oat balng-sa©*©- aoosai-oae of i f Utae-a *s&.i4iot*. ffef#- 1© di vine T&*t«Hft$ 1&ia la to- .a^ejstawB* with mm eternal fit"-seam -of '^ tngs* (6) It ia not f^ om a^enelv©- ata% may be sad© ks®»n.»' no? ©.y 4iala©tia a^4y t&at. -^ "ia 'may %©•. (1) the Sel* bk £ ohapt (tr) fhnans^©* -34* (e£) tlMom of China an& XMia^ p 640 (2) The mi* bk g.ohapt 6s IhM* pp -iSSKHI' Bel,: .bk £ ohapt 6: BaAee* Shineaa pl^©ao|^y**p 1?9 14) livis© eiaasiat l»egg^ (tr) 33ivine alasai©;# in Soraa- iefi) $©ore4". book©**-*©! the last.* vol l£ ; t. ;p i M {©) She $©! # fek 6 ohapt St £11©© (tr) Sotke of ihsasg t^efc Is i^illoa (a4j Bible of th© wrlf^ p Sit <6) $lvlae eiaaei© s Ibii* p made clear* fh© true eage will have aeae of the®©* (1) iaa&t's Intellect* bassever keen*, fee© to face wlt& the oonat-leas evolution -of - things*, their death aaa birth, their . ©Quareseaa ajai rewaftaee^ ^^ ctn never reach the root. {£) "-.-&£ sotaewbst greater weI0it is the etatemeflt* Soman life is l ifted, bat knoiB&e&ge ia llfsltleae*. f© drive the limited in poreait of the llialtless is ggtalg and to prescm© that one really kao$© la fatal indeed. (3) • Severn! tkmrn* Ea&hg $m cites the etory of a aaelee© 'tree* its-lliib© too knotty to be larked* Ita trunk liable to rot, alii the cap It excadeS poisosoa©; a l l ^e»e t&ihf© forked ite oaeleeaaee&\ to man* hot f rxsa the point of view of the tree.,, these were all very useful a© tb^ y preserved its life* fhe same of course ie taken to apply to the talent© of isea* aa ia indicated in the fallowiag tales fhere m® a hunchback assies So* Si© lane toaehefi hi© navel. Els ehojalder© wore higher than Ms heat* His neck bone ©tack ©at toward the ©fcy. Si© viacera %ere turaed op-aid© down* His hot took© ware B&ere M i ribs should have been* By tailoring* or wehiia§, he was easily able to ©am hie living. By sifting rice he coo 14 make aaosgb to pipport a fsally -of tea* $&©» order®, came &mn f :«sr- ©©neerlptioa* the hasiebt^ ck incited - about on©on©ma©& ©sosg ©r©«&*. ©icailarly^ in government eonsoa&ptioa for public works* hie def^ raity saved hist fr^a being ©ailed* #B the otiter MhiS* whoa it cam© to gcsverhsjeat toaai&oas of for the abiea* the hatchback ra&elvet Bs'&aoh a© three chnag* of firewood^ , tenV faggots*: if physical deformity mm tha© esoaga to- praeery© his body until the of his: a aye, how much acre .aaoBlfi aoral and isenliai def ©rs&ty avail* leather etory ie indicative of the ©Vila of canning learning, ©aft portacaya tha aimple wgo©& ©saf of SJaoieaa? a fl) ffi&fo £«& ya, chapt 5* §li©s ttr) forks of " >, Bible of 'the world* p .547, • . fiiiik lei' ya*; chapt 2: Ibid, p £66-$fc© lei.* bk 5 chapt It Lin (tr) 3&aaagt©©. in &itt Wisdost of ®Mm mi India* p 643 f f c a b k 4."chapt^ j Ibid* p §St 81 eoholar aesiag A- farmer irrlgatiag s. fieM by hand* saggestea %ml& be better ion© ay •©> viaootaiio.el &©vlee. fast la aaJE€a''tae .gardener* wIt is a a-alit-rivaaaa.^ tff' weoa,** repllea' f a-©- Kong* behla<l an& light froni* It «p mtey &e yoo oa with year laasam, feat la a ©emtsjOtly ov^ sMtiowlng stream* 'It le a wal l aweep*^ - * Thmmpm the f a r # e a e « ja©aii©|i ap aaa aaio^ bay© heera from my teseber that thoee sah© have cunning iBJoleseot© are cunning la tteeir dealiaoge* ant tha% these who are canning in their aealisgs haye cunning la l leif hea&is, a t ® that those life© haw cunning ia the ir heart© ©enact he $®m ami- liicor^opt^ ana -that' thoeo wa© **e. *wt fare sail la«oti?opt-are restless Is opt^t^ ana that- those who "'ere' restlasa In spirit are aot - f i t vehicles for fM>* It is aot t&git. I do sot Jcaew of these fringe* I ©heala he ashamed to age them*1* • . . A more J^voarabl© attlta&e ie ~$&%m toward the %p© of fenewledi© that 10 e^reMh&ed by aireot Istnitios of tho fa©*: There e e e s i E deiflfiite eylfleaoo is the vsri tinge of' f&o&s tthat fiwch Icnowleoge was of ten see ared dating a tr^oe^llfee «tat% ^ach as has been ©os^oa to ays tie© in a l l parte of the sor-ld* ana - it eaesse lively that each state©, eouia be deliberately an* '0@aseioa#ly achieves* prabably tteosgti ecsa© 2&©the§ of breatit e-eistrel ai^laip to the Sfcftate* .y&saa breathing .ewotOi;ee of Itega ana. ether -SInda aeheol#j« S&6£& le notbing ^aioh Ie not objective: there 'i& ' siothing which- is not .eahleetlv©* Sat it im iBipoeeibie to atsrt froia 'the Objective*, tmm e^ objeetive Sasowleigo is It possible to pr^ oeea; to eh|eetlv© toewleage* thea aob,|ee*#ie objective are both i&t&oh-t thelr/ 0©rii»3 f^tee*-. te't is the very assl©- of He* lad when ttet, a&s the eentaee-at whloh ail infinlti®© oonyergo,*: negative e^l^ lfce biead Into m. Infinite one* (8) status Gla@©i#t Siiee < tr) ohaang Slble of the worl4* p • Sel# bk & ohapt 3: Ibid* p tga*=*^ fc In B a l l oo ^ to thel* eeseoa ho&mm eleveo to ©b$ee~ existence* 2a©ee ales© utte are plied by their intot^ ties© M the true atsnsard* So Itar -©jre-the #enoee leee re-liaoM than the iataitiona*; • Yet foole trset to their aeaeoeS to knew ©hat ie good -forJ *HMU»t« -with elaeJ hat- asternal; ree.oi.ta* year- -es:re%:-. with- yo#p «ot Mth year mind, hot Let year hearing at©©- : with the ears, and let year .jaind gtop raith |i^':i^fgos* Let year-spirit^ i^ever% be lite bla^, fa»eive%''|soe5eh0iye to externala* la mis& open only oairfae abide. &?s& that ©pea areee^ tlvl^ ir ie the" ing of ' tpxe •heart* '^ *:': B*©i% ©aid lea Sttgd^  roa^ ojir I ©©old a®© thi# laetlsod ia&s beO.asfe of e.oBO.ii^ oa«aeis; of" a self* ' If X $a$$& apply this nethod, the ©^ eaiO t^ioa-- of a £tc$$ ^oid: have $es&» Is title ti&K$ yea ©sail'A m of fa© 1© Sost© indicati on of h©^ direot achieved* ie iragijested e^ol* He mm~'£$ti&&it up' to- hm$&& aad" bafeathod ' p ^ . ©eea&aig: to be is a :]|$Me%< and to hove -lost all eontolen^oes of dig- #09$&fl9^ 6ft* Si a Yen Analog ^©-*ya»; who m# • • ift;~a0«jsi&&$ ©ad f ^ i i f - ' | ^ » ^ iOaM* *l!hat ia this? t^et I®©'holy be tssde to be^ eiae tfcae life© a ^thered-t*©©:*. : aM' the initio like slaved 11 we? His app oars 00 e a© he leane ,for®ar% lon^ the -etool today $# soon -&# I never aaw hi® have ' before in the aa®e '*3?«8* yoa do well to aoie o»o^ m foeetioni I had fast now loot isyseif j bat ^ 0 0 g^ero^ and ifc?Ms} «f am to GhcingE*, '*Sft» •#©"?**' le&ed the latter* *-i hav# got rid of 'aharity and daty," $6^MM$EV '•' ^fery good,* f©filled h^wngpl* net enlt© Aaother day, Yes lael: again iaet "and: get-Mi *I am I ©a** torn s< (1) m MM m of tfee w r^M* $ * let* fcfc'* ©haft 1: 26» (tr) of .'^ iaa'and -ladla.^  8 it Is -'iogge*; faored •* 83 *1 have got rid of ©©yemenle© aa* ®a&ia,^  &aesai?e& Yes Httei* *fery good* ?* aaia Ohongnl* *bst act quit© perfect*1* A^nother day. Yen Bael again met ehangal ©&& ©aid, *I as getting ©n*w *iow a©?'* **I ©aa forget fayself ishii© alttlng** realied Yea Ha©!* wlhat &© yea iaean fey that?" ©at 4 §fci*ngsl* changing hi© a©aat«anaa* nI have freed ssyaelf fro® ay body," aaa®e*©a Yea Enei, n I have dl8©ara©4. ray reaeoaing, powere*, £rad by tans getting lift of lay body and mind, I have become ©»© slth the Infinite, this is tshst I mm by forgetting myself «&il© ©itting*'* "If yon bay© ba©ame 0a©*" me$>4, Gbaagnl* t^ber© ©as b© aa xaoa for bias* If yon have leet yoaxeelf *. t&ere ©an b© no Bs$re hindrance, feraag* yon are really a tsiae one* X tfaet to be allowea to follow is year #-'t«pa*w (X) A ©ifflilar groBess is indicated in an aeaoaat of bring^ iag a aag© to. faoj. There « t faliaag 1*. Ke bad all the asantal talent© of the ©age* feat not Too of the sage* low 1 bad fee, thongs not tboae talent©* Bat &© yea thisfc I was able to teach si© to ©©ccaae- Indeet a sag©?' lai it been ©c* then to tecoh tao to one «bo has a .-©age*© talent© wool©" be an easy matter* It m® not «3©« for I baa to M ' f patiently to reveal it to fcia* la three aaya, be ©©old transcend -t&la is^iana we-ylft*-4$aln I waited for ©even days store* then a© a en Id trsnecead ail material exist enete. After be a ©aid transoms all mterlatl eaietesea:,, 1 .for- mo&km nine -day©.* after- -whioh he ecold transcend all llfa*' then he bat, the .©le&r-vlalon- ifll?. sad after thsi:t*; ma-abie to sea the Solitary #«*e) * &f tar- aeaing the Solitary,, be eonia abolish the distinctions of g&st &ad firesest* After ©feoliahing the ;paat end. treaa&t* be ©as able to enter faara life and' • Heath safe a© magi* M-lilng 4wt* net taHa assay iii?©* nor does giving birth a£d. to it. He mm mme in aooaasi ssith • the ©aigeneia© of hi© envi*oaae^ t* accenting all ana. welcos** lag- all, regarding every tiling aa destroyed* m-M averytfeiag • as in aes l^etioii* 5?hie is to be *©e©are ©ai<l©t oenfasloa** reaobing ©eoorlty tsraagb ehaoa. (2) fbe vanity of aobieving tbi© throogb fomel aoade i^© (1) fa© Sei* m 6 ©bapt 14: Ua (tr) Sbaangtsa* in M# (ed) Wisdom of Sain® ana India* pp (2) She bU 6 ©baft S^s Ibid* s»t 84 learning I© ©aggasteii -i» ©a iiaagissry e©avei?i&tl©n betwees Confueius an<t Lae fan. (In MS'tals,* naturally enough, in vle^ of Kaang faa'e bias, CenfaolaB i© ohewi m a disciple, ooisiiig to £A« f f a r inetraatios* J Cciifuolue had Ilvea4 to #t© age of fifty*©!!© -i&t&effit hearing TM>§ isaes fee went ©<§bth to f •©i* to ««e faa fa©* I&© £&© salov *s©. yes nave ©oae* eir, nay© yaal' I be©*' yea ©r@ ao i^aeraa: a v&s« man ap north* Have yea gat fj®?1* *ga& y©%in aas®arM Ccnfacius. wIs sfeat 4iife©tiaa»,f aafe&& £a© S*ze, b^av© yon ©eoght fat i t r ; ;*t.aaagbt for it for five year©^w xepliftft tosfaoias* **$B the eaienae of numbere, oat dla not snoceefi." "land thenf*... ©oatinaea I^ o fae. "Then," asM Confucius, epaaat twelve year© ©eei&ag for it in the teatrlne of th© Tie'ant lang. alaa igithoat saooess*** *Jaet *©*" 3P©|oine# M4 2ae. 3?A€; ©ogjething ishloh oeald he iKree i^tea* there ia notnw» feat ^ eal& pre©©at it t& ; his sovereign. ©* to hi® areata* Qmt%& it be liajarted or gitem,. &©$« ie no man 'bat ®a-olfi i^art it ^ Ms bra the* w givo it to hla- child. Sat -$&s ie- lasoeaifcl©* • for' the following reaaoa* lalest there Is a ©altabl©©niotsia^it tiith* in, vfiil aot abide*** • B^esea^ emt*. .gsatitad.-e^  tafc.isg* giving* ©©near© ®f'#elf#. inetruotioa of osiers* power of life and death,,*«*thea© eight, are the inatrament© of rlghtf but only h© s^ o ©aa adopt hi©* ©elf to the viai^ aittEiie® of tartan©;- ®ith©tft being; aarriei. a®ajk. is fit to nee the»* Saoh a one is as spsight wsm aatong the h© shoe©: he&jft i© not a© ©oiiiitit8t©&* *-;the- 3©or -of fllvia© intelligence I a *u$ yet. opened for Mau*1 (I) •In ©anoioMng .the aa©ti-oii an the writingm Eoang fan,* on© of tea aos^iat© ©tori©.© i© gaotoax It gives a %^i©al ©sessile of hie style* and also IMiaatee- fsirly eeeyastely» Me viei^oiflt on the oorrtittiag infioeaa© of any j&o&iliaatiip f*©* issa*® mtarsi state, iaoladlag thca© brought by learning! (1) Bivine eiaaaioi (t?| in Bailaa (ed) Bible of the «* as wsam* mom Sorsee have hoofs to -mtoxf thea -over frost m& eaow, ajaa fcslr to protest theia from wiaa aha solo. fho| est grass aaa; arlafe wste** aho" fllag op their talis ess gallop. Saoh 10 the real nature of horse©-* Ceremonial belle aad big •spillage ereof 'he oee'ta $&em* • > • • = . Gas <lsy f ol© {f&moas horse*tralperl, appearoa sa l^ag^ "I goofi at ms^ aglag here©®*** '. So he boraea their .hair ana clipped thess* sM pared their hoof© ssa b*eaaeo them. S© pat baiters around their- mee&as $M -shooIdea are'oaa -their lege a*»a namberod them according to their ©tables* :fhe result was that- two '©x three In everj tea died. ~~¥&m he fcept them haagr^  ana thirsts?* trottifig them sac gsllopiag them, ss& t^ oght the©: to ma.'$M §am&M*sm# with the -laieer^  •oi'.tho tseeelleG hri-fil©. is treat as© the fear of the feaottee whip behind, OBtii more thsa half' ef tbes ale#* fho potter e&ye#- WI m goes at miiaglag elay* i f I mat i t roasd*,. 1 see ^spaaee©.;: i f reetaogal^ r^ a -eaaaire** The •es^oster es^ s* *j. am- goot at la^ aaglitg wooa* If I vast i t oar^ e% I esa as ara^ i f atraight*. a Mfie** Bat oa i&a.t groaaae -«a& we- thiaafe that isae- astur© of ©ia^ s*sl igood deeiree this ®fpiiestl©js of -eos^ aeees ami e^»ar%. aoa are- a as" lise? ^vortiseleee* mm$ age ©stela £el© for' hie aieill.'iit trainlag horeee^ - aad potters ess. oerpeatera for their ©Mll'«ith clay aam wooS* those who ajaaage {govern) the affair© of the ©is--pifo the esme aist^ e*.-I think ©*se,s&© Icsows h«e to govern pt© ©spire shoela ®©t fie -no* fw the people :heve eertsiii a&ttKrel iostiiiets~<* to «06%o cad ©loth© tfc^elvoe, to t i l l the fiel&e aaa. feet ' theaoeivee* fhis Ie their o©Ei©eja character.*, ia isbioh ail etere. Sacs isetlaote m$ he ceil eft ^©ave^hera***' So ia •the aa^ e of perfect aatarO, ipsa wore outlet: ia their ffioveiaeatis afid; sereee %n their leeks*' At that ttffiffi;* thefe.^ore ao .paths ever mooatsiiie, so bc&t© or brleges over -nater©-* 111 • thiago igere proaaee&,-. «&oh la it© jistarel etstriet* Biras aaa heaete wlliipM-edi. 'ttees m§ eh^ rahe thrives* .fhae i t mm that fclr&e »h«- heaoto/ooalo be lea by the- hassi-.#: ajs4- oae #eaM: oHisfe. ap sat peep iat© :the ©agfl©;*a ateei*: for' la the 4a$s. of gerfee^ t j3stere;r mm llv©4 together with- olteje aaa beasts, sn<3 there was ao diet!action of their kinci. a^e-egoli &aow ag' the aiO'ticottoQO-'ot their' feiot* Iho 000IA iEoow of the o e^tlaotloitef betweea gxsatiesaea, aad ooiffinoai peaplef Being al l e^Qal l^ wi'thoat dmi-re©,; the^ r ®©r®^  i a a state of musor-el iategri'%* In tMe etate^ "of a%t?jrsl iateprity* t**' ale aot loee tte&iw erigiasl oatare* &&& thea whejs Sage© appeerea, cr€wii»S for charity aja© do%| a©a1»t aa4 e©^ &oet ©age aerr^ fe^ ptea^ ©f ®3eio aa^ eaferee Sle^ i'iBoti.oha h^ '^ ea-ae: of eereaoay* §ai: the ©a^ira heoaaie i i * Were t^e- -aa©arve4--weeav act eat ;ap^ - who - 66 * eoald isaft© eaorifieial v-eaeelat Were «bit© $ 8 d © left aaent* ish© ©cola aaice the regalia of coarle? fe^ e fs© and virtue not ©astray ed* sghat mae saoald the*®-be. far .charity and doty? Were Jsen*© JM&g&ite- set; lest, sthat need «oold therefe h© fo^^el* anlearemeiaieat' ley© i^ve-oaifaya set, ©an-faeefi,* nho weald noea: teooratiaaaf lay© the fly© sates not ©©hfneeaV *HSS&8:. *$©£$- the ai 2; i^tah i^jpee? ^©©traattaa a*" the natural Integrity of thing© far -the- g*e€$i$g£Q. of ... stMel^: of, va*iaa.a &ina^ ***h$& lis- the faalit of th© art! ©an*-l>e©t^ a.ati,#n of fab and virtue-in oraear to introdaoa #ha*ity--,\ as& daty-^tbie ia the error, -of t-he.§ag©a. Boreas© -live ©a-, dry 'land-* ast graaa ©nd dnn& -water* then piea©©^,,tbay- r&b thair neolta !togatha:r*. then' ajagsy*; they tarn 'rosao" &na\ M-OIE-aa tMl^.heaie/rft -©ao-h,'a^er.- thas far only do their natar#l inaitact© ©ar%'th£&&. - Sat b#i'dls# ana. &&*$©&*, ssitb a .&©©i*^ ©Ms>#il metal ;&1#*& on their £©rehaa$#* -they learn; to ©aet vi-eloaa- laafea* to tarn'their heada to bit©*- to nodge at tha'yc&e*. to cheat 'bit as* of theit jsca-tha; or'©teal . the bridle off titeir hescle. fha© theiir KduQe and geeture© become life© those of thievoe* M e is the faolfe of Polo, la the ©aye of go Bss* th*' people isothintg in oarti** ©olar at their .-hosae©"aai .^ ent" no^ xare- in ps^tieniar la' .' thai*/ -«alfe©*. .paying- food^ they #ei«i#«*$-' h©3^#a*.'they '®ander©« abeat. $ha& far Ifee- .nataxai Ge$s0&* . tie©' of" the' people carried, thaia* ' Site -Sages mm® then to make there bow and: bans with ccrenioiiiea fnd rauejle, in or-dem.' to keep their ainals in eo bmioeioric Then the pe^ls be gen to labor- an$ develoo a tast#- for leipffifiaige^  and to straggle -sith one. another In thel.^  ^ e^^e/'fof'g^.n*.ta which- 4&are,-i© . •.m'*m&* 2hia I© th© %mm of''the. Sagee* . {1} . 11} $ift-ni tl&ssia*. M i y«t©hg# of China and India* MoM SE) a a f i AlreaSy, is <&.e time of Menoiee e&& Ko&ng fza, there were *efea^ acee to t&© '*lM^.$e3 8oaeeiatt est o f t&o«e both Mohiom ens Legalism were among the most important. ?ieued .ei^erleall;^ over.- a long- tern*. eet& are* Itowever.,, of aaofe leas influence than e i they Cocfneioniam or Taoisa, Each, thoogh, h a d for a brief tia© In their €»» considerable eignifieenoe- MobianB indeed, offered ©erleae competltion for a while to Q©iifoei®iiia&* ©4aa tae «tate of ^ioa^ pat into psooMae. tae totoiitariea'-dmtriiJee of fee Lcgoliste, rapi#% extended ite power ontil all of Oaiaa lgy beneo tii Ite imperial may* fflohiGm, tLcugb, met mtb eadden c b l i v i o n onfi i t is only ? e s y recently the t tiiore hse been an^  r e v i v a l of even academic Interest is ite teachif^s; is probably no one tc€a# aM- «©al& regard, himself me a ^oalot* $3ie 4»ifWr^ ***»•• which Chin established flowered oat briefly anfi tton collap-sed wit-& a ooi^ leteseae .oe^ goettve of the fate of' etiie* a*so Inter dictatorships, aa# the Legelietio philcecphy apon Tshich Ite polioi ee were fennoiea t&o© oame lifee^ ioe to 61 e~ Bnt there is e more eigni&oant reason why both Monism e&ft'JtaflftS&iia 0*0 e^oflTeaimmm3M&ta& togetfee^  Sat philosophical anS ethical ooneepte fundamental to each -ses of a 4i«ti'ise.tlrely otili^eriaa ;eaela* faia eaapfcegi grooM, to fosnish thsa with a field m which to e^resa tel.*si&toal/O^fooltfc-oB*, for s&il© th© &t£l$$»* -$S*a£«a of Baltissj so© '-of. a.^ ofisitoXy religioos oast, t&et.-' . of tfeo • £©@aisata' iiafaal^ - isaterislietie*. SoM s^ latraamttojEi II© '^ iioe© traaftleaal ere 48® B*C« to 401 B«0o (or aoens^ ing to eorae 441 to 376}i6a6aia' to tevo stadiefi Confucianism bu t to have renounced it ©no then to have taoptt ®&& praetiaeov a life rteii l a eltruiem ana eelf*--sse^Jlee* Seaoi&e Sai# of ala tast ae **sool<§ •'©ear hie aaae ast his heele off to a-paefit' INSTM*5' CD asa of Ms :f«il©«©r3% Saaifiaataii sale- taat t&e# "woole #©: through flye anii weik on knives aafi faoe death without turning esofe»* (8) ; • "tfo'H taagat a'«iiiv©*eal atllit£iei&» eltroiemj, a «©•* • lief i0 Hie 10^0 of pro&t* ajt insistence ©a unlfc unity ia m® -©tete* a oelief is -tpiif *s 'aad;taei^ 'i^ or-taao)i' in la-f luenoing MOH?*® ©oaeel ©©savior* aaf ale© j&$M&j0ft &itl#gly ©jgaiisst -Off••ssarfare. ' • -. -• ©rlgiaallf tfeer© «©|$e^ ^©j&e -eaepte*a la: i t t boe& i&l©& «ae ©&i§®Io%r©e; &©tivetive fwm ale $ea#&)ggff» ©at of • theae eighteen h?ive bQccme lost., fooe of them were from ale mn hand, eat- some at least, appoajr to preeent his thoughts mlti* very little admixture, otaOifit ohm quite ©a-vieselsr t&© elaoeratiea, of' later «©&eisr# ia 1 & © $©M*&t (!) Menciue: Lin (ed) $i©4©ja of China aaa India, $- 786 -89 -The etyle of the Me 1m Boofe aaggest© that It -«sy h&v© been i at ended fear litorstesl nee* and it aeesie -fairly cer-tain t&at him foi'loiBar© raet tag-ether and chanted the©©' t8©3?k©«, there -1# #©a@i$e*sel© reoatltion of isasy naa@a§©a,f end. -sany l&ea© are de?elopcti in taeile^ £.ee* ' Severn thelasa tsgy ale© @h©& a -feaan. ©ess.©- of ©ystaaatis &©val©ar* stent of 1&oaght ant me^Mic^l jg^ eaeatatioa of argument* i t woaljft certain that So $1 laia* @ M l d « p M 0 ..©.tree©- on airier deriving hi© i^ aa© on prrely -rati anal |^ oan&% -oae at. laaat* pmi&mt&&8 th©& 'in a thai- ^ letsanstratei their logical' validity*. It -£.& pagfeggs in accord th&& asspeat of hia thoa-^ t that laost of the hiiit© that #an ha secured $mm his bo©& oh the a04aiBiti©a of £noisle<2ge, peytcdfl not to efiuaetion iii the WWBBQ of trataa^aeioii of inferiaatlog*: mat r^ -th©* in the field of aelentific en§alryi that i© the lavaatl gallon of nataral fhenoffieas.,,,: the validity of ©vi4©a©e*. ag$6 'the :#eli&* Miity of the aaethoda by «fci©h each infariaatiaii- ie sanin**»: :iat©4 in to attain correct ooacl^ aiona* .ffconsh thaaa-a,ra gen)emlly offer©! in tef&jrd: to %eo.:ifi«- #itaa.ti;©na-- or able significance, for with thie mioleue, it within the 'tradition of Scfe&tiK that the ..growth of $jyLa©aa %©B$&4 la. and oat as :$5mm£. jaet&oia* i t is not tae flaid of logical analysts aod systematic method develop* ©d* ffrettga tale pertaiae to later MoMe®, rather t&aa the ideae of Jt© $1 aiisoolf , ead tfceaga it la aot preoisely wi tills tae field of 2#&*fl£ag* sharply defined, yet ©©&© of t&© material produced is tale later tradition 1© so tesapt-ingly ©lose to pertlaoaoe a?id ©f each ij^ereat later eat, taa-t ©a© ©r tw© passages exemplifying tkts later Mohlsa are included. n© si ' -In developing hie argument to eaow that an altrule tic ethio ia approved by leaves, Mo Ti open© hie aieoseaioa by indicating tae seed* ia ©ay asses eMeaToar* for a trae and acceptable etpadsrd, though tae reference ie lis general tense* the afplieeallity to tae specific methodology of education is fairly oovloa&t ©asr Maeter So eaid; a^^ ooe lit tae Sreat Soeletjr J^te takes ajsgr business ia hand, cannot disposo© tsita a standard pattern, for there to be no etaadard and the business to eueceeQ, tMa just doe© set happen* Even the beet experte who aot- ae geoetela asd ooaaoillere-of*@tate,, all h&v©-etaadarde (of aatl©a)$ and a© also ©Te© sith tae eeat oreftemen. They oee a Gsrpentfcr'e agaare for making egaeres and eompaeees for making circles: a piece of string for making straight lines and a plumb lis© for getting the per-pendieular* It makes no difference whether a oraftsraaa la skilled or not: all alike use theae five (device©) ee standards, only the skilled me aecorat.e0 But, although the. unskilled fall to fee accurate, they nevertheless gat raooh ©otter reaalts if they follow theoo atssd&rde ia the work which they do. Thus it ie that craftemen in their work have the meaeisrementfi which theae tatandarde give, (1) fa© application cf this to problems of government ia-(1) Mo fatt Book, ohapt 4: liughes, Chinese philosophy*.pp dicntee the flags is reasoning o f these vihc fell to adopt ataadora^  ant opens th© my for Mo H to lotreduce :Mm con-cept of virtoe* low teke the great ocee xvho rale oar Great Society, and the lees: great ones mlm role the diff©re«&. state©* hat *&o have no standards of iaeaeoreffient (for their actions)• Xn this they are leee critioaiiy minded than t&e ©rafters©*-fhat being so, ishat standard may foe taken am so it able for faling? (1) 3 v ® After oosci dering varloas hemnn Qtandards, He. 3Pi oon-olede© that Heaven ie the only proper standard for the ralere to accepts The qfi<sfltion -mm ie, #t©t heaven o^nt and what dees it hate? Heaves wants men to love and he profitaijle to each other, end does not «ant men to hate and maltreat each -other* Sow do we know that Hen von wants men to love and he profitable to each other? Beeaase it emhraeeo all in its love of them* embrace© all in its benefits to thorn-(1) While having G specifio reference (the existence of epirits, and the belief in fstoliem) a oaeeage on the in-vestigation of phenomena, sjia Gnothes- oil the validity of conoepts are ccmched In enffieieutly rdde terme to make them oppliosfclo to these problems in the geasrel sense; ®m& of oar J&eter ttrc fh© «ai.yer^lly i^ ay ©f learning- by inveati-gation ^©th©r; a thing ©jEiat& -or act*; ie, without aaeatlon*' by mean© of th®- fictaal. &s©^©d$© &N& tfeJe ©videnoe) of •averybady'*^  .©era aa! ay©a*' fbis £& -the •; • criterion of Whether a thing exists or not. If lihaa been heard a«d seen, then it undoubtedly ia to be tafeen as esietia|:* If no ©aa haa heard' of i t or ©eon it, V&m ift an-donbtediy is to be tsk^ a aa non-existing* In each a o a G e , why not $j© to sosr© village ©r.dlstriat and safe© ln§alrl©8? (1) a© f m Book, Cha^ t 4 s classical timss, & ;44h& s0 Chinese iosephy in if'from-the. beginning of mm down t© th© j,***^*^ like tilings bsv© been seen smd 'tter"v^©©6 heard,-it be eaeerted tfe#t they do not exi&ty Bat i f they have net been seen ©fBfi heard, bow can it be ©^sorted that they #© ©as&$t£ • UOJS; t©&©; th©. word© ©f thee© who njsintaia that there sr© no spirit©* they say that there are any ntasfeer of people think that they bjave heard aad seen- i r i things, but surely there ie no one who has heard or seen a spirit thing which (both) exists end at the- same time does not exist : The word of our Baeter Mo: A stondord ©net be set tip. & ©tsleiseat tsithoat -a atand^ rd (of reference^  tm Wtm-MmMg the (juertera in whioh the ean vdll rise end eet by means of A; revolving potterre rahe©!* ''Sin©©' that ie not the <m$ %& -attain a clear knowledge of the distinctions between what is right and sroag and' beneficial end levari oae, therefore e . slstement- m& t pmes three tests* Whet i© meent by *thre© test©*?- In the word© of ©or Haeter Mo, there is l&m test of © solid foundation {to & 4t©teaent):*, $fc#tiwft£ of it®- yerifi* ability,* end the teet of It© sgnii©fcbilltf* Xn nfhafc say ©aa © f ooadation be given? By building h^e statement ©n the foots about the ancient Sage-kingeo In uhett ®sy cao it be -verified* By &©£or|ffilaihg' the ffeotB© .©b©s*& ;shat" g^ers&lp. hs^©':h©srd.^^ their ©wi*. ©ore. and ©©en «ith'.their &m. ©y©©« In ib&& m$ &m * state8i©at''hy s^liWt % #do^ n^^ ' it Jor' the- purposes of dieciplin i^y- -goveraseafc and ob'e^ rylag' «hst-there I«'©£' $>roflt.to th©.. state; and to -th©' $$fl$M* if J-fhe. eomeialist pragmatic ettitode revealed is the closing sentences of the previoae paesage Is again reflected in the rcaponee of ifo Tsa to those who diemisacd hie idealistic' it If it ®e*e- not tieefsl. th©» even' Z it* B^ut how can there be anything that •twit not eaefol* of the- of O & U G « show a definite effect*; ©nd other (1) So fan BooS* cha^ t 31? claaeiosl tiioee, pp 51-2 (£) lis Tsa Book, chapt 35: Ibicl. i i§© SSstt Book, 4$mp-t, 16; Lin, H 9 ?©6 Chinese philosophy in «3flora of 98 •« eome philosophies! ijntereet. fitter, lie- eald- that the; man ishe criticises other© maet have- something ae aa alternative* fa criticise .«^.3iiterj^tlve ie f$ie* oolog fire- to gat eat a fixe.. $he {idee} the aas it legloally The sage man ifee takes la hand the ordering of 'the Greet &©eiets? moot Tsmm tfce$. it la Sfeet gfctj&e rise • to fseerder* . only eo oas he pot i t la erae*..- If he deee not iBaew whRt ll'Ve's riee -to- di#er#er * thea- he cannot iae&e order* 'H?hl€- ie . illaetr&tea' % the pfcyeioiajt ana Me mtt&ok ©ii Me1^.-aiaesee* Only so oan he attaek i t * If he doea not know thie, then he cannot attack it. (g) Agsinst thoce who accepted the conventional morale con-demning as offeaee by en© l^ividaal against ajaethor, sua then gloried in vietorioais warfare* So fi pointed oat fin- a typically ^tttllitariaja" e^ i^aeist} that the aaraer of tea i n %e& ttffloe the offeaae of the sorter of oae^  aad thea pro-ceeded to logically prove that many of the statesmen end g^aoileal mm of affaire lao&iag is the ':radisteBte of e^ earate dl^rl^jmtioj!**' .., If ther© a maa*, ish© agon eeeiag a little . h^ iiaOslS say* It: 1© llaot* bot# apaii: leoeiag sweh it isae shitej thea ehoaM think ho- ©©old not tell the diff©reme hetsseeja black: aad ^ Mte* If open tasting aTlittle al^ erisefie- -oae e^hoold m$ it m bitter^ hot, spoil i, ©heals, say it is s«oetj -®e ehoald tteldfe. Sow* aheit a little «nre«g ie cosastltted people kjiow that they shoald ©ondeian ft. bot when each s great wrong as attacking a :#tate-10 eo^ttleaV p^ oOfl© -do- not knew ^^'-fBe^'^hoald condeian it . On the contrary, it ie applauded, called righteous. Can thie bo eald to be knowing the difference between the righteotje and unrighteous? Hence we Icnew the Mo raa Book, ohapt 16* ©la^oieal times* $ 86 Mo fill- Book, ohapt 14; Hughee, Chinese philosophy in satle&ea of the. world mm eeaf «ee& be-A' : ' A somewhat longer paeaag,te lad loo tee the Te® -gave to the #^©fit\^tiw- is men to $h0'-facie #r© thM ..if 'a'#e$ot3r^ Js&e pleats of effttaei*;* th©» the orter'.-previdei by the state ie '*&;-90*-' b^ oofesbtO-' oae» bat If it has g$9 each 'ofiloo*o ,^ thea its • order 1e enally broken.' Thae it is that the busineea of the big mm conaiete prinsirily ia iaereoQing the number of men of worth j and the question then la ghat i© th© fright) She word of oat JSaeter Mm f© moet*ate* i f jreo wm% "to- increeee tho- number -of exper t erohere and drlvere in the mmftmw yea al i i ;#'© t^atii|y- h©#© 4^%M^iM^:*'^inM^tlli«|^ js©8ia3^;g^tdi^ ^ hoieo* th©»aj£d g*ale© them before yes ©aa ©btsia- © fall ©a^le»eat -of thejtu, ' Bow mueh thie . a$$llee t o worthy effieere,. t©' laoa of aol^ a' vjlr'ta©* ©itfc a ©eis&&2&©©f language, learaoa £gr,£& .&©tfe©& of tho, laf , ihe.03©*. to "be «fcr*'sjpe, .'tiN&aso*@e. of th©.'#tatef. the easier •tease -of it .goaraiam dlotioe* fhe©© alee' siaet ib© eariahee^  hsTe tlieir eoeiel atatna enhanced, ehculd be honoured snd . gasslg©& before a. ^ ©oati#*fc fell #©a$5 s^e&t. of -«ewth#. office" ©as m&: reached* «&©» '^.$e$©*fc£a|fO ©f -satloalty eegaa 'to govera Ifceisr wae: fh© onri^iteouG shall .aot be enriched, the «a~ shell aot. he - ennobled, the Oorigktecae shall aot. ' ooast favoa*^  the «M3^ #^ eoo# ©hall-ioot- #taa& aoa* the-. • $©£©©«• ' h^o rl-eh" siis. aobie*, tfca$, :th©&. heart- -tbl©^ all jeet&eei' aa& #©«iBalt## to ffe&ti offeats!, He ori^aallf; fie-aeade# ©a oar &©ai:S^  m& iot&t&ea% -&gi ao® oar .16*1 f*©j£i$©a : ri$ht«e®§K .^ eiprelesa -of i&ether- the^ r ar© poor' aM ha-ee* ^©3ra*^^gt- -|^Bf^g*. it follow© ii* fs&et oa a© ae&oaat c ' ®bere -ia aeflaite isalo&tioao la --the m&m&w® o£: Me Tm that the.#tat©; lie eaM o^afjed;had eer-telii: eaitho t^sj^ sa • traits suoh ©a shall be seen cooing to foil floser ia ami eneh ae to moke it doubtful that free enquiry Book,. * la Ma C#$l !?su Book9 1?: Hot tt*J Setittft* the yeligioae' of ©Mas ami- $&8ta*. $. ¥98 5e CMaeeo'ghllos^h^ hr*VQ been ooeeibi© ia MM She msNi ©I osr H a s t e r • • In th© ©34 day© human %®g$;m&£t§- .titer© «s® no gover^^t the i^.telMnf *«• ©sore©© different (Ideas of) IOO^&BS*.'. M:^/i i0t^Me,ss^ t$© • men trso rigiiteoosuieeees, ten mm ten rishteoueneeeea* Wijat-©ver- -the ni^er ©J laes^  #© isaajr ^ diff©refit (idea©) there user© of rigiiteoaeneae. And thoe everfbody iseinWned, that his '"sl^ te©a«neii%: troe and the other taan*'© fhss it, xsaa that ti\oy eiichansecl ra«tual aseapprovaifi, end ineitic the ffe^%^/^^©r© 8gaA-^ ma .^-^ ift'«r.« i^' y©tts§.er i>r©^er# .©ssii: t© h& hostile. -Ink sse&t.Mei osss ©^y ©iid «a©4*n i^hl© to agree ,i(i:th the. other* - .leogl© £%ej^ ybe*e sad is&ter end poison to do sftHcioua in^ary.,.The chaos everywhere v;ae lifee of is©- hirdft -«EBil. IswwwslM**'*-* • tiiibejeam© ©iesr the my l#-^ hleh' tbi© c-haoe roam© about wac through there being no ©?©n #^llin@ |M a^v**^ h#y' :©h©8& iftetf* in the country $h© s^f^eiently.^or^ and th -^a# hSBd©* All the&b^-ng©es^ie^ted the Son of hi;©- M to the peonies: • hearing•' of -.good or evil, all -'©hail reoort i%to: the |;ofii#©r©J a^ y^ -thea*. -aad whet they ©all r i ^ t all ©hell call they ©all « i i ^hali ©®ii \&r*ing** *f© he •of' ©it© faind. aStfe. the©.©--abov$ j^g$%' to; safe© .-^ feotlens below, thie'-^all.^e *e«©rded, by ^©s#-^ov©-,s^d.^r#|'t-^l' hy theae-bei©®* knois that sl^ teooon©©©: I© rectifying, bat on -the other hand*- th^r;©.!® eo>-Jre©-tifying of those ©hove (aoclelly) by those -below* i^t^l$aii©& «»©t be, f » 3 ® ©hove d©wa®ord©. 0?hie being s©# the fact ie .that- the oonusoc people are unsacocesful if :they.-follow- the£r mm inclination©- i#..meMng slight* £her© ©#©. the minor official©- i£hO viseSt©: tb*aa ?i^t* ' Mio'-the-iaiiios: official© are lise^cs^efsl if:. they'follow their .<©M$ JjseliJ^tioas -ia -®sfeing- rig^t* $fees$ are the high ©iiiclals who ttRfe* them ri^ht«**^her© i© the Soirof ;4©&v©a>. • ^ho'.^ lfce© $&©& j&gbt* -Sh«: heaven-; i© &n©a©©e©sfal i f he folio®© hie own l^sliaaton© im mMmd right* there i© . Heaven which mnkee him Later Mohieta It was largely under UMBt the intereet in of tt^ .^ ohi^ t. tradition thoaght and analytical |1) o^ BOOIE.,:: ©hs^ t £: la^ &©% • Qhiaes© philoeophy in (B\ Me fs^ i;'aoolE*: :ch©©t ssi Ibid* np&&*& • «$& the later fello^ te&s ef fto S| lesde^ fa ithl#. fieM* ~fcel©tt erne ale© :f$©3& t&e, lis $s§t Boots* bat the g^aaeae© at later el@J>©i^ tlea aad iso?e faH^ -^ e^ le#--©& tbes|$t ie eh3rieee> the waiter*epir#^est©d« ^&il© Olal&lBg .aa%©a|eme©; te • '^ h©: .SeM>et- .:#oh©©l* • £bn» .4fHNfo&$*> Of'." haviiig alee been irjflueeced to a eoneiGerable ©stoat lay the Male^M i^a^si; #s©h of thil^ ise i^frial. le-eesoariieii mth do*-- • • fiaitiea& tor&e- aad aj^lyMeal lespee^oa of $sqp«g&*£ogs$ -thtts j©triet2|p' it- He© WB%& proaerly la- the field of gj&etejio* logy rathes than pedagogy* iae^ ever, becanee of the;- ©lose . jfel&ti^: fcetssoea theee* ©ad the* eigalfleafiee- of 'the sjaterlel Itself;* a .feig brief $s$safea Urn® bees eited* ia a»-^«SB«KSajv-« aiiaaer eaoaO Is ©a© tshleh* i&ese It "' dees act la»©l^ e,--ef aeeeeaity a thlag &©&©j^ ag *sh@t. It is* bat ^ieh if it dee® net la^ ei?©:©- the thiag ^tea^ot-bi©jfej^^&t lt- ie£ .fear essi^le & g©fat la a:Ma©*' A §si©^-y©ja#ji sihi'eh*: ^ her^it-e^et% £s4o&m ©f . aeeosaityf'-that a. thing mwemsk it la, ©ad .sheie It-'.deojB ajst ^li'ti laf^iee ihiag osaaot Ime&e ishat.lt $kt f©r-^i^lO% f^co: s^jologlstg of th$aS'--:^ Mess in It*. • iSiottag:-*" a fp^lty-Ia re fcm>\'sing •* a fncalty: t l i i G f realty tr thot by mease of ishiOh '•oao"^ i6S8e.r that ^ish doe© aot ae^osoafllF ©stall a^^ ii;itg|; -&s "1*-^ e-'0^ 00-.ef of the mind m la re cojoeentraticn of the mind:' this » a person using i&f feso'wiag to eearosh tm f-aes&thiagti* bat aot jg it: aeteiy oetohlsg.a ^iipie of ooatoot isith th© eitteraal world* eoataot©?'. this * a &$f$.QB seiag his la r© pmm of ©e&ai^tratiem ,te .o&fts&i&oli. oontaut ^ita a©- abject 3&&-':J£$ ao&a^ -ehl©: to appjreaoad it© ©attars* £&$m' ae is. th© oaee of seelag fa thing) •—*~ mm* that the ©aOa- of . .J : m & .f^ soat .aaiag o4#,#ott* (as a baeie) .for aiecaasioa of a» object GO •*~ of it ie all Oloafs as la; the ahoa* §o®e^ia3f *. la&Mag ©a ^ ^ ^ l ^ l it $m^s&X&gi a aarwBaisia^ of nm$% ®ith aotoa3 ;^ii®a' thes ^ astioa* S$&&is$ aloo.t «• the ' lawiisf • ©a. of • iao»©aa' ©lse*0$ pe^aal .. ...... for •©J&oaif). * -e^ ery part «#; th© •ob|eot ooaa* fa re ^©wiap to reooi^ o by; i^aeiiaaioa la fth©/. • .. sil aoariag^  aboat:,. gr©atti^. ia; f^o©'.:a© ^aatofl:atio .oil' aa OJE^ «Ma®'ti#aSr iga^jkagr ^ ose* a $&& .ob^ -fao-toti^ tio ofI' vf^ertesoiag geisoa^ #he mmne by ishish a thing io descyibefi is its :ieme, #ao; tolas &sm.&W& is- 1M» aotoalit#*.-;#aOr yas&ag at the same-a|i.^ot»o^% teethe* ^ fi$y©If oa e^&eoa© "ip o^rtiag oa i t , mi that is 'Soo^ aa^ h&aa element. Sot scseone observed the thing for- Mneelfe and that 1© goraoaal experience, £© ee© iavoluooa tiiae-aga e^ rtjtlajr of ^© asrto of the thiisg., (&\ ..&a 'laaioatioa^  of th$-\j$i$a0$etg& #ortg* as#-a of r^iot$# fallaoioae tggoe* together «f,th--© ite* - Viffeere there is oneestainty,, an argoment cs nn ot tee eca-el^ slw*- liiexe a -h^e&esie -in eat alb*, the a^ paa.eat l-o ' aboiit ia ot the; tin*© .aot ©e* fe «0£& $®ttfpi -f.g& sa- -ar^Kaeatl to aa^ o. a e*i^e*l©#*, for pstteia: | « msaa€;-%-'s^ iiOi" a* argainejit •goo# aooar^ag' to role* - ^© salt ie that i f aa axgnraent etic&e to the pot tern, it ie ^ghts if if;#eei$ .not^ atiolc to- tho iaitata* m 'M~ ~—"~ to a •fcsl .li© Qbiag is $g toas .1*. ib*&* § , Chinese phlloeophy ia elaceical * 98 $• *ln£l&? f© tllnetrilte ±B to bring forward other i& #&i^r© fr^^ thtoi^ oa-t 'sad find them ©tt. all '.fomr^  *sith eaoh ©th«r* f© ar|p©"hy analogy is t$ 4&*jr* *Xei|*. ait, are eo.t'and it aisnd© to'reason: that- I- also isay be ©o*r to ©rgoe fey ©st®;B o^& ie to tale© $©£$# is&Ieh have *$©fc bee** cited a© similar to the ®Meh have been ©itedo #0 concede thfe is like wskimg & statement t© the effeet •tot they- are jftkaUi©* and. if, $m ©t the e,oesti©n for a© to • With -regard- to ti&$gt. tba ssb$e#t® of or©| th^r© thesa «hich ia their eiiailarity io no* ^ roMOJSt'to th©. ^arall©li©» of '©tastier . the ^iiallarlty be*--$a?e©«- them- only reaches: .a--s^taia point ag& ©top© there, dee the #©*»esaa-o# &®o or more things,,' the*©" are also slhieh h^ey beaose. ©©• aad • thea#r things ®f&&&m hot not- in the gro©ea©es by be©©®© ao» |.isr^ h#%^ hlgei&ei©' a n'r«f«siMo»*/'ter^ i© also ; it -1* ffiad©1 •toe- ^ stoj^ t^  and' f tss© 'or mg be :«ioi'larly aido&ed hut' M&% 4*m the smm re^alt of all thiis ie t&at il2^©t3?a-tiv%.. % .isi^ em n^siion&l-,,, (i #^^ ".fo#r ,fonte of) sassy ta- nract&c©' ife badly wrong* have, a togay^  "' he very far - from the t^thr.^ eliding along I imm- th©; of - Hi© :teal);* KMtst he eab^ ect.ed to eyeuilnrit ion. It 1© m to he in#©d- «i&* jj^ia^eal #©©©ra©y*-r i f -an- «fg&eKB&< ®h©#® .all -®©rt©,--of ©fcill $ith absorsa&l iostiosa give^-then/tf-i© aot to h©-tect /of & -nir^ osltloifi npy \b# right ,|^s^a^y-'-©ad a©ta.a.Hy a© at tiia©|i'' or ' .it sjay be not #otsall|r eo the tirael* i& $3%-be a3^In©^esive' in r©a$i©jt ajsd a$©t a3J j^3fi/I&aiv© ttt m&ifesfa,- .ft issy b# rifht ^''ose-rean^t and sot in as* . •other*-. #anao.t he a',#i^a^i©aliy a©)©i»sate. la utog ah argswent sshioh e&^M^'ali iB©rt® of ss&ili 'With sh»-•ele^l^isatio^ and, 'e^raordlnary Ife^ ieai- reaeosa Ves'l# # © t to^h© re^#di€ ' S s i t h favour. It I©-' trge* 99 ©f'.th© Q&t'n. i#-the &©4g&i|#t ©ohoel wow the pleoe .of ,|^ #-clii.u|^ tetameii^ l •pol&cy*' Slien ia~hai,, t^e aG©<efit©ated aa^ oereti** $ 0 ® © * * aad £a$ ^© 4^/e$g» l-fifiaeseefi-:% the '^©iet# ©M -pat. -the 3&Vj©& -to. itig&tie of the ifoat is ©aatosy &€.«.,. '-^§;. the' ©arli©#t- of -thee© -sot indeed,- the- first of' t&© I^ort©.*it-llet srit:o##* " • • ©ise respect the attitude of the .£©falist& SCIB^ s?h«t $&ag,3&x to -that: of the la^0t% a*^ © s^oagiy opposed to - leeralag* $h© laoti-va-M-oo' thott^ t $a# matly dlifereijt*' la la^&iasa there, i© a #©£»&, of vie^ .geaesr-aily--foreisa: to Chlnea© goliti&at thoaptt* « ^rtalirdefiait©, trend tomrS •e^ploi.ta^o©' of' th©' $€K$Xe**i^¥Si$s aad •gcho-iafahig -sir©- ahJ#rM' %e©asae they ®i^ iM;s^Q: the. ©ffi*-.' c&ency «£$h «htoh- the- ©©opl© Sight -gear ©very off sort -into..:" the appvi&e of the e^er^atate.; IS&s ettil^&e i#.aia#© $h©; $»||e9ig$ Q:i^ ;tatiO'a© are all from- the i^ Magfc generaaj^ ettiihated- to Bhang*-- a«%'a# eiiggefct©&». are o^ i^ eira^ t sot so ^ o©h «ith a poaitiTe afctitad©- toward learning, as* gather,,indMating- th® isj^it&hllity of a? -eda.©ait|#a;affi^ a@' the eorn-aoa .$&©£&$«' His beeio teaching i© pi-eoeatea «ith blant ©laxity: * Ho fh© meaasm, ^©ireby a *©l©y- of »©n encourages |jfeg neeni© am '©tii#©;; gM -xej&t the iseang froepetotm' &m a^i©«lta*#7ano: usea?*; ( I J throagh #si©h th© e-eojg&qjr i© and that i&xo&gh -ijhlch the '«gtl<ex i a boiioa^ed i# J ^ ? © i ^ * , * ! ^ r © ~ for© ray teachilJg ;t© I»s»© ©ach '©$dfrs that ^eopl©* if -th©y-aw# &©«ire$# of profit*, can -attain their, s&m ©sly % a^irisalt©r©»--aaa" i f ^ ' l i s t to- avoid h&tsa*. escape It. ©a% by <$ar* its)-i t oatt© .clear that lessi^ng ajnd are' i^peiiaeata to the-s^l^ev^^t.ei' Mese; mere of dignities are m% conferred m* office©' to deviating .©tandsrSs, then th©-' sill/ .act. gMse learai--ag'* nor" do not gri^# '&M£ti|gggy. Ih^' s i l l bo W^WH^VSH^, a t s g i ^ th^y *II1 have no II#^C*#t- in ©I*I©I&I& W K M N W . lave no Iist»3p^t: i& fteeif i&;«e®r|pBltc # 0 not Sold 3^*J.V*«J.<W*W v«*.«i->* aM "too $©>!!* '•<*! " If. in- a c-Oant^' f&er©- are- the.'; ioiloisi-ng f©& thla^ss th©/ "0d&© #B§ ^ © t o i f e - ana virtaet' &i£ tb# $£1* tiv&ti©i£ ^©^©oi*.' b^eveiesc:© ami l^te^rity* a^#©|ibie^*y. and i « f c t e l l i ^ ^ ' % Wm t^-rt l i sr im&m m& :-©©ii ©is*. Ifley- go*' defence "attt ^t#are> if- a- # © ^ % y be gwsttwwt' by j&©an© •©£ 1&BP© tea. tbla|g% i t vi&jL be dllamej^fid a# ©ooaa©; an mm& a^pre&cl^.*. #ad: .©veil- 1£'«© mmgt- $p&£&&aii&# i i ^sill-. fee £«rt i f a county ha&teh thee© ten things, eaisji©^'&I11 not dare.to ap-prcach,: aM even i f they ehould* they ticald he driveii hn©&*" then- i t w&Ml&mw It© ais^ and «ttaci£% i t ©Hi• fa in i t &©Ma the at&y-la ms&x^-'&sk not atta^ Jh^  It- *ic^*-*fl3^©f'0t# " and i^t^ligent'^^nief©© 'are *?$3S% thay w% -not: heeasa© •th#y:are--^bl.e to the bottom of' ©v«3$ thing*, hot be* they «iid=©r©t8iid- «§iat i s ©ssant l^l I» -evi^^iittg* |4) {ti BmM of So?a im lo© -^ -of - :^ ©r# Boofe of; Lora s- >3ha^ t- 3: * ?©h%t' mt 101 Two concepts which Mo T i emphasized are also found i n Shang Yang, with even more fore e, the need f o r uniformity and standards,, salt the place of the p r o f i t motive: I have heard; that the gate through which the people are guided depends on where t h e i r superiors lead. Therefore, whether one succeeds i n making people farm or fight., or i n making them t r a v e l l i n g p o l l t l e i an s, or i n making them i n t o .. scholars depends on what t h e i r superiors encourage. I f t h e i r saperiers encourage merit and labour, people f i g h t j i f they encourage the Odes and the History* people w i l l become scholars. 2?or people's attitude towards p r o f i t i e ju s t l i k e the tendency of water to flow downwarde* without preference for any of the ; ,/foar eldee> The people are only iptereated i n obtaining p r o f i t , and what they w i l l do depends on what t h e i r superiors encourage. I f men with angry eyes:, ^ho elenOh t h e i r f i s t s and o a l l themselves brave, are successful; i f men inr.flowingprobes:, who i d l y t a l k , are successful; i f men who waste t h e i r time and apend t h e i r days l a idleness,^ and save' t h e i r e f f o r t s f o r ebtalhiag benefit through private channels, are s u c c e s s f u l — i f these three kinds of people, though they have no merit, a l l obtain respeetful treatment* thea people w i l l leave of€ farming;.#a$ f i g h t i n g and a© ^:#;:^i|ther they w i l l extort i t by p r a c t i c i n g f l a t t e r y or they w i l l struggle for i t by acts of bravery <• Thus taaaaers ahd f i ghtere w i l l dwiaile- 'daily^ and: i t i n e r a n t office-seekers w i l l increase mere a^d more^ with the re s u l t that the country w i l l f a l l i n t o disorder, the land w i l l be dismembered, the army w i l l be weak* and the r u l e r debased. (1} The early kings hang op sealee \sith standard weights, and f i x e d the length of feet and inches* and to the present day these are followed as models because t h e i r d i v i s i o n s were cl e a r , .itow suppose the standard scale were abpliished b|Jt a decision had to be made on the weight of something, and sup-pose feet; and inches were abolished^ but a deeiaifen had to be made about length,, even an i n t e l l i g e n t mefchant would not apply t h i s system:, because i t lacked d e f i n i t i n e s s . Now i f the back be turned on models and measures,, and reliance be plaoed on private appraisals, i n a i l these cases there w i l l be a lack of def i n i t e a e s s . Only a Ya© would be able to judge knowledge and a b i l i t y ^ worth or aaworth^; without a model f But the world does not consist explosively of Yaosl There-fore the ancient kings understood that no reliance should be placed on i n d i v i d u a l opinions or biased approval, so they set up models and made the d i s t i n c t i o n s c l e a r . (2) (1) Book of the £ord Shang* chapt 23: Hughes., Chinese ?hilesophy i n c l a s s i c a l times, pp 85-6 2) Book of the Lord Shang* chapt 14; I b i d * p 85 102'* fii^ S- ie $a«t* t&# aej&esi feed, &&!Bv'&fiA the t&&ri\£i£ae; / in 103 * Conclusion In Indication of the I»ater Elstory aad St&tas of th© Schools Discussed fa© desonptiee© m the preceding pages of edBeatioa as aaaoeiveS by ©em© of the venous Chines® school© has la* eia&ed meet ©f the ia©the§s by ishiob men have ett&iaed te truth ana kae«l©i«et by iaf&rm&tiea reeelved frem aa aath©-ratativ© ©©area* that is threag^ book learaiaf ana iaetrae'-tiea by a teacher* threagh laveetlgstioa of aataral pheaomeaa and the eyllogieti© aanipolation of the data a© gela^,, three^h aa iataitlv© sf>preh©flsi©a of ©a isBaesiat© realisation of the m?l& and spirit* Ia ad$iti©a» there has ale© been eoasidered a eohoel of thce|$it titl&fe abjured fcr toe oommoa people a l l &a©isa.ed§e save that retired for the practise! tsa&s of faring fighting. laoh of thee© attitodes toward learning la moire or lose eloeely seeeeiated 'with- oa© ef the diffareat aofeoole studied. Ia th© follomag pageo a brief iadloati ©a ia of the later history aad ststae of these school© as it was &«*» termlaof by th© laf laeaee of the geaeral tens** aai oaltore of the Chiaese goOple apea It, saiag the material preeeated ia the previous paaer as a typioal expression of the general teaer of the schools. Xh&9 of ©©are© mat be offered very tentatively * aa# generalisation of national ox raolal ©harm© t©ri& ties smet be viewed very S f i a t i O B e l y * the reaction© mad© to thee© 3^1©so$h&ee utay not hate been oae pecoliarly fi^iaese^ bat rather ©osuaonly hamaa* the typical espxeeeiojo of lasnMM ia general an&er aoeh ©i xooii^ taaoee* la iaany eaaes a acre thoxoogh t a r c m l e d g e sM a i&or© exfaistt© di©cr3^ii2iti©a Algfe£ reveal that rather than the tasEper of the people determining the. history of a sohool, it «ae xathex the fate of the phi** l e e o p b y that flayed a part la shaping the character of the people; the t«o proceaee© maet# at least, have intexseted as s f sa t sa l infltjencea. Anally it wmM b© vain p r e t e n s e to WMBS«s't that an ad©goat© repreaentatien of t h e e © philosophies ie g^ tven merely on the basis of their attltaie tomrd s c h o l a r s h i p * Kosever f retaining the ©ease of reaerv© that tiuka* faots ehenld inspire* it ie ©till possible to draw certain parallels and tx&c.e a certain relationship between the tso faotoretr For parpoae© of ©oiipaxlaea* Confucianism «t.ll be t&feea as a ©tanderd* the wi&eslw expreaeioa of the typical Chinee© nature. feoi&a has had period© ©f ©id© popularity* and ha© at tlaes is?on it© my to a position of conoid ©rahl© influence* bat only as it has deviated from It© original ©salted aad re* mot© eiyetielii®* the popular fsoiat religion 1® a maea of the jgroaaeet attpexmtitlon©* heavy with the ritaaliesa and ©r^nizstios ao detested by It® earliest adherent©* This 4S a doveiofseat that has, of ©eoree its eeomter* •par to ia ©that parts of the i^rld* as tho ©ass of mankind ©ernes te t©-r®& Kith the aak.ee spiritoal parity ©pressed ay a £©*? rare seals, they mast needs always eXothe late under* ©tanaafeXe fesms the spirit they are striviag t© apprehead: the developmeat of Mahnyon Baddhlsai eat of the Eiaayeaa school, the- --side. er-f^ al#etio& ®a& 9 $ ri taals that, have groun f.Tom the simple teaehiage of ocapaasiec of a Gslileon .©i^ p?ater;f, perhaps offer parallel Ijoa-taaeae* la the mm of faoi#%. m vlejsed- afa-S^ t-<-the esXtoaml h e^i^ oaad: of Dhtaa;#-:' there '®e-r© perhaps especially ©g$r^v*tiag, eire««G©taa©ee*-'the t#aae©es4efit aspeet® ef Teciem did in a eenee offer a rather aaiooe -ehoitor of a #$g^ 1&$tg& sad aoeeftable ideol-ogy to all the trivial sad petty saperetitioas, la a way that a© ether respectable philosophy did* $h© faot that the a^aa&ol^  of r4taalw sad the fessaaXlsm of organisation, eeuld aria©' ia the Maoist eehool ©al? as the ©oaoom^toat of dogeaeratloa* a££s& a© ©©attested to their place la the Conf uoian, of vliich such fact ore w&m aa iatoftal sad vital part# for ishile 6©afsola© else iasieted oa ea laser i&aeerity^ ho felt- it :ee&eatial' that this shoo Id he ©spreesed ia aa accepted fon&* that s*ea re^ l^red aa eater symbol to oieaiif resliiBe their lanes? feel&afs* Sor did he feel: that this repre&oated aay oeaeeselea -on hie pert t© the aeed of leseermea. for- se&othlaf ejeseret©,*, M# was © a®ta#e that foaad a true d-eXifht ia eer©sB©ai®-l>. «e^ NS£ng< it set m msh merely &a - e x g a s an actual mnitee-$»tN*i of £^'^1Ugiitt^ij^J&ft« fee two types of :" ireiagioaa nature, ^e 'simple and the xitsraliatie*- and the d-iff©renoea between the©* are #nffieieatly- ®eli fcae&n*-* isithoat trying-1^ deefde Ts&iob ie 'the it sight he a^eei'that that ishieh eosfooto® advoeatad Is- lively to win the mdet #lrele of £©liowera»-Bat m m ©« the mp*&»%9ts& elejisejst i« faaiam attxaet* m the sat#3iFeti-tioaa that wold j^ mewt. ite-hlgh :%Iri-taai^  ityt, thia sageet itself xeeeted against It© aoeeptsno©* fox the Obine&e- satnx-e, ie not, - essentially*-, a iceli-gloas on©-*-* In the aenee that i% of the Imrning seal of the lehxal© oxophet;* ox of the- Unia*. hie dell$h# in:- the lahyxiii* thin© Giroumlocatiefi of metephyeiecil op ecu 1st ion, and hi.® x^ ptaxoo^  i©J*lntoi^#atio»* • the- injunction of Coafaoius, **8&il© xea;ieotinJg anixi-ta&l fcoinge* %eep#loof: from thesiNl) ia js&ex© In eccord vilt-b me Chinee© attltade* $K -^3$$« the -gxeat: xesgeot that, the $&CMBS» have fox the :soh:olsr weald aet them to x©§axd- aegsni*©- the faoi#t- in-sist enoe on oalearned ©isiplielty* Here ale© the Taolsts were -ferine adrift fxes* reality*' . i l & e - t h e y toe. ©ex^the of a highly #«#hl#tl©atM ©©olety* that xeseteness i^ejh---^ lea it ©s$y to -tassm ait- -Idealiatie; si-ess- of the- wnstoral man*** fh© aos-ta&lltyv-'of' aniesrwed r&deneae ie not o.lmye so &mi (1) Aasleot©,, hit 6 ohapt 20: liegge, foar hooted p 65 -9$$* lasiE -of itg3$3$©Bg ||©rv©©£ %© -yaptS^ t© lIoh&Bia m^tmmm-©s# $tt it©- rstt?oi*©£3l$SR* i# os©r%6$;*t eigne of ap$ tioa bj^ ai^ ©^ « $e&i@bt;# *©!£t&©&i& *s$ wmmm mm$m$m%* i», M©Mina to :^p^©f©$© $$# r ^ l t t i © ^ $f - mfimmm fe#' no a3&e«si©e©e mm S P # © for ' of' M & t f e m& m%m$ m § #3L#o %© # for ift^ iejEa* © tootr la© it© &m&m:$ iof &M4MH'-.'imf> ©*$*v&tei: of p i t f i t i ' ^&w$$m% e oa t I* lo § t m from th©-.#biS©©©' ©T^ eji. t&e-© 4$ $te©m lid. %m <&$$©£©©*lsf •$<© JisS CMoa possesses the « «©deaMi$# - 10$ or oenversely» tae- l^ p© of ©altar© that might have developed la China had Beaifn prevailed. Tae fat© of legalism is ©vea more aaders tandabl©,, iihiie tae Chinese derive a aeeded sense of seoarl ty from tae ani-fermity that oenvaatioaal ritual eetablisaea, it is aa this is sisalf estod ia tae Ooafaeiaa sense, a® a aatarsl ©sprees-loa of his mn txm&T impels©.. There ia a sense of the free-dom eat ®orth of the iadivldnai deeply rooted is the e&iaoee that «oeld tend to deeply repels© aay liapositioa of reg&la-ticn by feroe aad iaer© aathority. The attitade ie* of ©oars©, a t|ppio©li^ hamaa oae, bat the Chinese point of vie® is perhaps broaght lata sharp©r relief by a o©street, ia this regard, to the Germanic peeplee. The rapadiatioa by the £«gslists^ of learning, moot have appeared to the @sll*algh soholiolatroas Chiaeae so aear blasoheaar; It struck lasal^agli? at one of their greatest prides, aad denied' them a hope that aa^  €hia®ee,, no matter hem poor, or mean, might feel that some member of his foully would flad heaoar aad advssee&eat through scholarship. Mthia the legalist tradltiea* later writer© she® a iaore tempered phil©s^h|r, as ether sehools res©ted apoa it* With th© oollapse ef the state -.vhieh was established on the legalist Bealpelitt-fc* its ©sseatiai philosophy could a© lenger ©admre ©a its mm merits* ©oaffeeianieffl* too, has ©f ooarse shewa sl^ as of is©difl~ sstiea ia its twenty-five headred years; the adulation ia - 109 which the Sang doctrinal ree helfi the Itoster led to a ritual-ism and £hari&fiical hypocrisy ^hich s&#© aot entirely unde-served the e&arge of fornaXi-sia that .has fceea levied against Confucianism. Confuciue hi rase If has beea ofinoaiaed and iior6h%poi ia a state established feli^Loa. Se$@rthel©ssf •despite these deviatleae $mm his slop!© hoaaalsia* the esoeattal featare© of M i teaohtsgs ha^ e remained a vital and sXgaifieaat influence in Ghiaese thought tt$s.%n$ to the .far ©aly 'the ia-toarpiey heteoea' the- #o©-trla© of ©aeh of the schoelB and the Chinese character as a vjhole has been considered; there were also* of eooree, periods la which there isas coneciotie and e^ .ressed. conflicts between adherents of iiiiereat eohoels;* so that «©&© that have feeoo®© of leacened signiSicenoe, have nevertheless left their mark ia the- i»odifioa-tl©a of, other schools. ':saeis%, ea^oeiallj^ thou&h aot i$4jkoif' f allowed ia its pore forsa* tie***- to ha?v© ' has. -a &seg off sot ia at$3i£a*iflg sad ©silohiag the ©hiaete ohafaoter* Goafttoieaie^ thoagb* m$m to be th© 'most tyoioal, press! a&; of the^  ©hiaeee -fha^ aet^ er* Ia a civilisation, neither scientific, nor intensely religioue, the huraenisra, the mcderation, tho bo si© oomaon senae t'hioh he advocated, seems to have fesai a soil ia s&ich te eem® to fall flower* Goafsolos* keenly aware of the realities of haisaa »tare„ -offered a pMlosophy -^ioh gave a legitimate'- p-laoe to meet of %© -m&hittM%® %amm i^^imm aaft e©4si-eii©# of baeic peychie need©* Ite idesl, the Irapr^eaeiit -of tiiG etoarsoter and t&© fs.a -^.la'^ jt of #©lf* mam ©a© i#i©& -oca 1<S be directly and; icsaealately ucdertaken and yet t?Man «ae ©waited- to #ir©# mot © in^ -^a^ ng: &tiM$&*! -tig the :«©ry effort© ta©d©to *tt©iy& £t.-. * 111 #• 0©af«©lf&n $«sft& frsael&tion© Ballon* B»0« Qui (oo-editore) fh© bible <sf th© world The MseMillaa Go* of Canada Ltd. foroat© 1939-selsiio^ ledgements fm ttaaslatioa© to? Jemee Legge Charles Wong Barnard* !»•£<> (tr) • Metal aayins© of' Coaf ©o/io©.*>-o Chinese philosopher to whioh la aided a eketch of hie life: with emendatione by L.E« Bernard A* II* & Co« Bedd* 0* (tat) Chinese $e@@s £©adon . . . U (ed) Coafaoi&n G a a l e c t B a eelcotioa from the ghiloeoohy and refleetive writings of ConfQoias on harmony and equilibrium la living Btm York end Hartford U aeknouladgeite nte to 0*€«iffleiM%ng,j. L*A* &ad $$*ft*d$' A* (eo-trs) 9?h© bools of odes : $he tiedom of the Eaet Series J* Murrey, Lonflon 1909 A lot© of Jade London 1911 Couplet see Intorcotta Iteh'oaos ts'ioo ot Tec tohooaa texts ehtaoiio. avee tarafiaotioa fxanoele pa* tf9- ft* Qoovreor Mieeion oatholique (t*) Tiie ethics of Confuciue; tho of the meeter end hie d **th© sttpOrlor rasa1* arrsagea to the plan of Confucius, with oommenteiry $9 Miles Mecanfier Datfleen Potman's Sons S©« If oik ant London It!) $h© wiedom of 0©afBOias$ a collection of the ethical sayiafa of Confoeins and latofnotional Foottet Hfe*83$ Boston 1938 ft*) fhO beeic thOOghte Of Cenfaelue, tho conduct of life Garden Cit? Publishing Co, Inc. York fa© ooadaot of life, the basic th capita of Confuoius Garden 0ity Pobliebing Co* Inc. The baaio teachings of Confucius Mm Some Library, Sew York 1942 eeeentialiy the same te^ t in moat of above A* (©#) • The living thoughts of Confucius preeanted by Alfred Soeblin lOagmaa© $*©oa sad Co* Mm• lf©*& aad forooto 194© - acknowledgements to also translated late Span!eh, aa Eohavorrl: 11 penseiateate viv©»#. 113 Behaver*!.,/ L. (tar ** from the fiaglicft) S3, penQBmiento vivo a4© Coafaoio proeentedo pOr Alfred Doeblin . Editorial Lesado Kerdrioh, Home, :0«JV a trenelaticn of Soeblios The liviag thou i^tso.e (ed)(translated from tho I&tla) the ao*ai© of Coafvoive, a ObJjteee being one of the of remaining of that nation B riot ©a for W*. ooo ©loo Intorcetta (faylefc fh© eo#*ei writings of the &e*|a*t great religione low .lose Library* Eew York trcnelatione aot aeknowleaged (tr) The eayings of Confucius The WtedoiJ* of tho last 'itatitt* 1941 1724 Ihe analeots of Confucius translated from the Chineee with an introduction and nctee Gommeroiel tress* ahanghai - 1933 £>eo Intorcetta the eaored bootee and early liteieture of tho last, vole* U and IS Parise,, Austin ©ad Lipscomb for traaslatiO)Q@ to William Jeioee Legge Eosie9 Lady (ed) (nee, Soothil) foe analects or th© com? ©rest ions of Goafuoiae with hi© dieeiples end ©©stein ©there a© translated into ' English by William Edward Soothil. oxfeard' ttaivorelty froes* lioBdoa Its? aoSuiowledgemect for taranelction to . •. wiliieaa' Soothil Hugiiee, EcK= .... ... ^ . . ... J0M* Sent & Sone Ltd, Lon^ oa 1948 • fh© greet learning end th© mm la aoticn newly translated f»©& the Chinese th' an introductory eeeey on the history of Chinese philosophy E.P* Dat ton and Co* Ino. . flew xeafa eee Biohorde iatoroe-tta* Blnarvara coients polltiec«morslie eivc ©elentiae .©ialoa© .liber 'later ©oafneli- • !ife£$s ©©©vMv% a p* rtoeper© iafcofeetta Sicvlo See. leev* © siaenei liagva- in. let!ana v®*©& *a*ie 1$7& (xi**t*©) -$i£&*f»8i ©ol eats palitiooHHaorell© • ©ive Golentiao einicae liber inter Confuoli llbro© $eevnav©t a f * Fr©&#e,*e Ihtoroetta la latinoa vere© ^ 1&73 reariated in Thevenot, Eelfitions fie diver© voyage© an Shflieh trsaaletloa road© frcm the . Latin in 1691c see fayrara ' , tela fayiot (tr) fa© ConfaclBn analeatej a translation tilth QnnototicjQB and ©a introduction by William Jennings - * Mi- * She ^ oafoeiaa -saalsots- foeat J S» •Boatledge sad sea £td. »,: Sew York* 1S§§ • la, ia . Serae* Saered books...vol 11 flle©&# -ones-tel. latere tare ^©1 4 la WorM*-m- treat ale.©©!©© The -dieeoors© sad ea$ta@B of Conf aoi ue •£*&l$r aM Welsh* j • l&SS (tr) ' 2h© aai vessel ©$dex# or tae deetria© of the iceea Kell^ ana Vvaleh, ehsoghGi 1906 3^1* lissom ©f^eafoelas Wisdom of China sad India • l i t ! me e©iid«»t of Ifift. fiedom of the Seat Seriee Marrs^ :^  loaftea ftr) . {? vols* |>laa§ei% -ret^ latet^ .. Is tihole or The Chinese Ti&fcaito and Go* lioodon The fee* hee^ e: Beck Shop. ^aaghai hooks a£ #hta% the©© belag-Vfc&Ke 3* 16,. 2?, 8$ Of V a? $«g«e& hooks ef the also la; .Balle% B».o« aao: g^iegelberjg*, '.Mole of the'-^ etM' .B©©bll% A: livigg Noughts*** Horoe, Cj Snored books sa&W* Ma* Yj llsde®- of - $mm sad ladle flleem*.. JE*. Grloatal Mteratare ia Horld©' .great els selee iYfegfltatt* $?. Eoag© eta*- eta* -« 116 -* H • London .• 193B • (tr) fae of Sonfrjcius konpsan 8r«s« & Co* £estos and Mm 1£©rfe# ete* ' -fh© Wisdom of Conf ucios for tranalatioia to Til© rai edem of CMiKt siad India $aa#om Hcoee In©* Se» Yoxk 1MB ©©^o^edgesj-est'© for traaelatiejia to S^ ihart... £* -CHles- -Ida fal '%m$m- liadijall 1* sad: Sears^  : . Cr©stive eaer^ being an intar©aaction to the ©tody of the King, or of Changes, fitt^ traa»letio^;f«o® -&« «xf glass! tept • • • B*l». Issttoa. and' '0®*, lae*. Bear%&*#* mm -Swara^  -l# $h© aaored feeetet of' the Saati vol@* 3, 16* 27, £8 , 5h© cisreadoa tre.ee* Oaford !S8£ a&fcaowle.dgeiseata for translation© to .$s®©@: .Sepsis©, • fh© feaefe of M#t«ry; '{Sha flag} • ';$ha*#ied©® -of 'the Beat .Sejeiee J* ^rs®^; London • • 19H Sorter*,; 2*> #e#;Sl©har4# , » - 11? * of the aaaleete* that ia» of the philosophic oonveraatleae Milan • mm Seothil^  8*K* (tr) The onalecfca of Confueiiae £aa* ht the aether* Ye&ohsae 1010 Boole* .5Swr aftelasM -or i*he a^ve^ ea-tioae of #©$faoiao Mo siOeitlee ana ©ertaia et-here Oxford aoi?Bfo*si%' fsre#e* lioatoa. sea-lie #© lioseat* Leo pteeegts #© Coafasiae see Balloa. K*0. the- -%JBK%. of" tae f i Siag aaf it** ficderc EdaoGtI<-fl Go# Shoiighsl The morale of Conf no iuu a Chineee SriaieAfe^ B» teller* ^aSea tronela ted from tae Latia itfth acknowledger; en ts to 'latoreetta- etc* • its© Tela: 2he life and morals of Gcnftsoi us* a . ae© sle%- fSggaft f he Mfe eaa seiale of Qoafseiss*. a . Bel a§ ©ae ©f the reaaialag from that aetiea 3* Softer* London 1013 fa^ e^ s; fhe morale of ;Coaf&©3&«w** •mm MM*** -l&sr&m' y 119 S&ddall* H*. 5* ^ * aa©. 0ranEa©r^ y&g; (tr) lyrists, fros t&© Chiueee I*©ad©a "•3pst|jrli5te# ia ps?rt is Xtos 1M *d eriom of Ciiioa sad India 1914 f&e ©naleeta of Conf$9&sfei. 'fcran&l&tad aaji©t&t©d by Arta&r lalay e*Alloe sat Uatsia Ltd, London Yo) aas dots ciiioeeloheo nsd eriantort Voa Siosard-1910 ( tonfaaian ift&Jfcg&tefi $&e ||r©at l©arsia| t&© <«£ t&e .&a©a:f- tit© «o$fca ©J fgttt&$ah*s and. data* not in 6 ia a tea) £6tti£&t«£ g$ fast ia JRaJ&ao? Mala of S&a wsg&ft' i m i PoKgc (&o&f&©i&n analects) in Bngileli Jajjafieso sad CM nee e asis ^lmo«tl:edfa^aats- for traselstlO'S <^ ®ea £aggg# • • Confucian Sfe4sa@a & • 1 a® < • 4 f of ^  *f &e^ ai&' of .tfee aaofa alaa appear la f araJlilel ^©dltioa& aa iad a^atad ia tao' gtreaediag aasti^ * "-M* $>»*©&© ©ee Mi M a it*) i„, t-i fhe %i:S#osi of Ohis© oat Xaola Eicliardet I.*U Moaoiaa oa the saiM esp erimea ts in raaltiple deficit ion itesoogst^  Brae© aM Go* ffie& ta*& 1 L»$. L« L i JOC taa&lOtloa tO She t^aasiatlos ay the a©eve a^s gregexei afro* the a$the:r of ffiftsMfttt» ©s • -tfte 'Mm* sat has aot -afpoatod -elee®hi*e Saolet $es;t© *~ fmmMt&mm £©a$oa 1895 r«$-r.Mtea*, la aart* la Boras* C: Seared eoele© aad ©sr% liter© to.-:r© of ta© -goat* vol*- M .- •. Solf osr*. BV the dlvia© ©laaele. -of laa -Baa ©eiag:.' the ao"*isft ©i eboaag 1?ao* Maoist gbilefi«g*i^«^ With, aa •©^roaa^esS-•eepioae .jaasi##tle|je Sfljg|l«^vaae JE&Jl? • 1881 ielloB* 1*0* aad %lag©l©erg* $». She Male, of the wrid fh© j^ toSdliaa Co* of Ca&ada £f&*' loroato- 1939 S j^se* J* (tr) * .tae way of life aoearalag to Laotaa -•©•a Josorioaa- v^ reltsn fh© £©aa Bay- ©o* So© Sorfe • «• geetle paraphrea© developed from aovoral English version® s*s Ss©*teh*&ing la- §£&aes© aat f&-t&' l&trodttotiea* t?©ae* ll'toratloa a**d aetes % Br*. Paul 0:sraa-fhe Oaoa Geert lahlieher© 1898 ft.*) The canon of roaeoa and viItoe •She %©a Oeert Babliohefa 1908 tranelated test the sejae la both ca»o f&*ieao Is© te ehtag fhe Bsdfihiet I*©flg©» LaaSoa 19#7 Cneetienes tf-ilipiaaa- . * • , -$§9qr&rt$l& ; • " '•' . 1894 oontaias J*3r©e% B*M*. • {©S) . '.- a&euei tinge esf " t h z © • S^tft tr©® lam© x&hTm®-* .wm %i^mesiMt%Gm not mlao«i©€^©S, fas*!?* S&*3&» #%F! ^ sa a ae& aeleatea trans la ti'® «64& <io -©^©sS-itiaB a£.tke philosophy ©f 3iu« lax&ag. hy 'X©»'3J©» i?uns ,. $he Coameircial g'rssa ' 1S31 S$i©% • • • h^aaag f^ sfcia 'iisa l^lat . reamer fcra«©lste4 jfrem- th©-©Ma©®©'' -ay Bi&bs&fc'A* Silea • • Baaraafd: ^ aa#itah;j,. i&sgaa . 1@£$ U :$a&yate*iMW aa '. ^ -$&ai&ga pt a @ala:aaa i^ etia*** gilas,, &• £t*i MtiKS.^ ge of .a Chinese i^etio; B elect ions • th® |^ ;i©s©g$iy cf Csuang fsat;? $1^ ia*rae^©ti©a:.;ay l&asei . ' feirrayr L©:a€«a. • . . . . . . ;...1$©& • a ©fiitlaa- . . . iiiea*, E.;A*s, ehaaa-f Is® ^6*4&**w • «g '?&»$ tifaaalatai .ism t^.Sataea^ sith ©a; i^ trataatiaa- hy Lionel f£©#©Ei af' the last I M M £*- t&iswy,*- JaqoM* 19Q& (tr) @©i#^ re* $©% lai^ tao-Laatsa^ is tae -aas- ®a &reat®ao-*e* ?«B ¥or& ; 1919 eeatssiae ^etteal traaalaiti ©a of m« fa© tea- 'Mag Be#aelit% taraaalatle© (from the French) of Sorel'% Hrwel " • * geyalage% 1* l -W T."..- . the light #f ©hlaft* 'the fa© $ej% .g&ag. of &a© Xante ^^^ilB*^* &s aeoarate isetrloal re^ Meyifig* traaalatei alreetls' ' frets- the- Chinese teat* as<| erit^oaliy ©oiaper©# t^ e $$ttNtap& -iraaala#--@a«-the aaeloat ea& acuera Chinese cojaraen-t&*toi% aa& all ac^ -esaiole- satheritle^i «ith- eaa%t£o#l ia&e^ «&& fall Mot of - tj&go&isttt worse asi: their •re#io-al'- io&aee ay S»- le^efaso* Beseareh E e r n e . C. Saesreji hoo&s «a& early me 3894*. IS feife m$ London llteratam -of :.fbe Meiom of C h i n a and India -Sea&as- Hotiee loo*. Mm York' 194S fao?~t©*fcfag,, ao Saa -f»a ; inoluu<;-d IS . ' SOfseoQe^. « w &•> the- ©la f «11©& John Say- Co. Bm tmek a aei^l*'^^, 1940 Iaa©% f * fta# teiaefelisg af the. old aoy J.M. Dent w Seas Ltd. London mm ft?) $ao:: a yaadej-iag into •Sagiisa v©*ea of -the fa©, tah. ahian of &a© fso fae fkeo&oghjtoaJ; Bfrsea*.. 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