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Singer's guide to Karol Szymanowski's opera King Roger, Op. 46 Biernacki, Krzysztof Klemens 2006

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SINGER’S GUIDE TO KAROL SZYMANOWSKI’S OPERA KING ROGER, OP. 46byKRZYSZTOF KLEMENS BIERNACKIB.Mus., University of Manitoba, 1997M.Mus., University of Western Ontario, 1999A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTS(Voice Performance)inTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASeptember 2006© KrzysztofKlemens Biernacki, 2006ABSTRACTThis dissertation examines Karol Szymanowski’s opera King Roger up. 46, with theaim of showing its position as one of the most original stage dramas of the 20th century, andas one of the most important operatic compositions ever produced by Poland. It is meant toprovide the reader with historical and biographical background, a musical and dramaticanalysis of the score, as well as a translation and conversion of the libretto into InternationalPhonetic Alphabet. It is designed as a single volume guide intended for anyone interested ina deeper dramatic, philosophical, or linguistic understanding of King Roger, or for anyoneengaged in preparation of this work for performance.The opening Chapter provides an overview of available literary sources and presentscholarship regarding Karol Szymanowski and King Roger. Chapter 2 presents a briefbiographical profile of the composer, gives the historical background regardingcircumstances of King Roger’s composition, and examines the collaboration between KarolSzymanowski and the opera’s librettist Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz. Chapter 3 focuses onmusical analysis, and Chapter 4 provides critical interpretations of King Roger ‘sphilosophical meanings with special emphasis on its possible interpretation as a dream. Thestudy closes with a conclusion concerning the place and value of this opera in the context of20t1icentury operatic literature, as well as brief assessment of the present situation regardingperformances of King Roger.Besides the bibliography and a complete discography, an Appendix provides thelibretto of the opera with a word-for-word translation from Polish to English andtransliteration into International Phonetic Alphabet.11TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract iiTable of Contents iiiList of Tables ivList of Figures vAcknowledgements viDedication viiCHAPTER 1 Introduction 1Review of the Literature 3CHAPTER 2 Composer’s profile 11The origins of King Roger and circumstances of composition 19CHAPTER 3 The music 29CHAPTER 4 Critical interpretations of King Roger ‘s meanings 47Conclusion 76Selected Bibliography 79APPENDIX A International Phonetic Alphabet Symbols for Polish LanguagePronunciation Guide 82APPENDIX B King Roger libretto with a word for word translation into English,poetic translation, and transliteration into International PhoneticAlphabet 85ActI 86ActII 110Act III 140APPENDIX C Chronology of Szymanowski’s Life and Works 158APPENDIX D Discography 163111LIST OF TABLESTable 1. Phrases referring to dreaming or sleeping 63Table 2. International Phonetic Alphabet Symbols for Polish Language —Pronunciation Guide 82Table 3. Polish Alphabet and its Pronunciation 84ivFigure 1.Figure 2. Konig Roger,Figure 3. KonigRoger, OP. 46, p.Figure 4. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.Figure 5. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.Figure 6. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.Figure 7. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.Figure 8. KonigRoger, Op. 46, p.Figure 9. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.Figure 10. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.Figure 11. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.Figure 12. Konig Roger, Op. 46, p.LIST OF FIGURESKonig Roger, Op. 46, p. 3 30Op. 46, p. 7-8 32—,1 •ii-.D-,60 3767 3880 3981 4080 43155 44ii-.,207 73VACKNOWLEDGEMENTSI would like to express my sincere gratitude to all those who have inspired andassisted me during my studies at the University of British Columbia. I am especiallythankful to Professor Nancy Hermiston, head of the voice and opera division and director ofUBC Opera Ensemble for years of unwavering support and professional mentorship. I wouldlike to thank Professor Gary Relyea and Professor Bruce Pullan who have always inspiredme as artists and voice teachers.I am indebted to my thesis advisor Dr. Vera Micznik for her invaluable help andguidance in preparation of this document.I would like to thank UBC School of Music Faculty especially Dr. John Roeder, Dr.David Metzer, Dr. Bob Pritchard, Heather Thompson and Roelof Oostwoud for theirconstructive feedback and encouragement during my studies at UBC.I must express my gratitude to Richard Epp for his help and musical leadership inpreparation of my lecture recital. I am grateful to all the performers taking part in UBCexcerpt of King Roger with special thanks to Stephen Bell, Jennifer & Mathew Stephanson,Brooke Harris, Matt Mori, and Aleksander Szram.I would like to thank Dr. Gordon Brock, Chair of the Music Department at theUniversity of North Florida in Jacksonville for his support of my academic and professionaladvancement.Thanks to AygUn Lausch of Universal Edition in Vienna for help in obtainingpermission to translate the original libretto of King Roger and reproduce music examples.Finally, I reserve special thanks to my wife, Swantje Bossemeyer, and our children,Wiktor and Nadia, for their sacrifice, unconditional love and encouragement.viTo my parentsCHAPTER 1IntroductionI have chosen to write “A Singer’s Guide to Karol Szymanowski’s Opera KingRoger Op. 46” because of several reasons. While there are relatively numerous sourcesdealing with this composition (articles, book chapters, as well as a doctoral dissertationdevoted entirely to this opera), much of the Polish literature is not known to the Englishspeakers, and none of the sources provides an overall view of King Roger from thecombined historical, compositional, analytical, and, especially, performance perspectives.The merit of this dissertation is that it will provide a view of the opera from these combinedperspectives. It gives a thorough assessment of the scholarship on Szymanowski and onKing Roger by incorporating updated information with equal emphasis on sources in Polishand English that are available at the present time. Aside from a thorough musico-dramaticanalysis, it suggests new critical interpretive approaches to the work, and it provides the firsttransliteration and word for word translation of this opera.One of the reasons why King Roger is not performed often enough outside of Polandis because it presents a real challenge related to the difficulty and unfamiliarity of the Polishlanguage. As of today, there are no Polish language pronunciation guides available.Transliterations of such nature should be prepared by a bilingual singer who must possessexpert knowledge of the International Phonetic Alphabet and clear understanding of lyricdiction concepts of a given language as they pertain to singing, and I happen to fulfill theserequirements. Documents such as this one can be very helpful for anyone engaged inpreparation of a challenging work for performance. It can serve as a single volume guideproviding answers to most of the important questions concerning such a composition.Performance guides such as this one are becoming increasingly more popular. CandaceMagner’s readings of Schubert’s lieder,’ Mary Dibbern’s performance guide to Carmen,2orNico Castel’s transliterations of complete operatic works of Mozart, Verdi, and Puccini3 arejust three examples supporting this argument. There are others as well and they arepublished with increasing frequency by such publishers as Leyerle Publications, Scarecrow,and Pendragon Press.Finally, as a lyric baritone, I chose this work because of the suitability of the part ofthe King. Since it has been written for the same voice type as mine, it allows me to work ona part which I can potentially perform. All of the above reasons combined with a strongsense of national pride have given me enough confidence to conduct this undertaking.‘Candace A. Magner, Phonetic Readings ofSchubert Lieder (Metuchen, New Jersey & London: TheScarecrow Press, Inc., 1994).2 Mary Dibbem, “Carmen” a performance guide: a word-by-word translation into English, transcription intothe International Phonetic Alphabet (Hilisdale, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 2000).‘Nico Castel, Italian verismo opera libretti: in two volumes / with International Phonetic Alphabettranscriptions and wordfor word translations, including a guide to the J.P.A. and notes on Italian phonetics(Geneseo, N.Y.: Leyerle Publications, 2000); Nico Castel, The libretti ofMozart’s completed operas: in twovolumes / with International Phonetic Alphabet transcriptions, wordfor word translations, including a guideto the I.P.A. and notes on the Italian and German transcriptions (Geneseo, N.Y.: Leyerle Publications, 1997-1998); Nico Castel, The complete Puccini libretti / with internationalphonetic alphabet transcriptions, wordfor word translations, including a guide to the I.P.A., and notes on the Italian transcriptions (Geneseo, N.Y.:Leyerle Publications, 1994).2Review of the LiteratureSingle StudiesDuring the last decade there has been a significant revival of interest inSzymanowski with an increased number of performances and available recordings of hiscompositions, particularly of King Roger.4 Then again, there is still only one scholarly workdevoted entirely to this opera written by Laura Grazyna Kafka in 1995. Before Kafka’sdissertation the only other study on this topic was an unpublished Master’s Thesis submitted(in Polish) at the University of Warsaw in 1961 6 This volume has proven to be unavailablethrough University of Warsaw Library by either being lost or never cataloged. Kafka’sdissertation titled “Passionate Polish decadence in 12th century Sicily: Three expressions ofKarol Szymanowski’s King Roger” provides an analysis of this opera from the points ofview of three disciplines: ethnomusicology, musicology and performance. Her studymethodically examines baptismal documents regarding the confusion of Szymanowski’ sbirth date. She also examines Szymanowski’s inscription on the Library of Congressmanuscript dedicated to Dorothy Jordan Robinson7hypothesizing that the manuscript is theresult of multi-stage layers in the process of composition of King Roger.8The body ofKafka’s dissertation outlines detailed descriptions of three separate performances of KingRoger as presented by Maryland Opera Studio9,Michigan Opera Theater, and Long BeachThere are two new recordings of King Roger which have been issued in 1999 (EMI Classics) and 2005 (CDAccord). For discographical details please refer to Appendix D.Laura Grayna Kafka, “Passionate Polish Decadence in 12th Century’ Sicily: Three Expressions of KarolSzymanowski’s ‘King Roger” (Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland, College Park, 1995).6 Stanislaw Czyowski, “KrOl Roger’ Karola Szymanowskiego” (Master’s Thesis, University of Warsaw,1961).Dorothy Jordan Robinson (1886-1976) was an American patroness of the arts and personal friend of KarolSzymanowski.8 Kafka, “Passionate Polish Decadence”, 17.° Student performance by soprano Laura Grayna Kafka of the excerpt of Roksana’s aria only.3Opera in California. However, it does not provide any details regarding musical analysis,dramatic meaning, or the transliteration of the libretto.Single ChaptersThere are several books in English and in Polish with an entire chapter devoted tothis opera. Teresa Chyliñska’s 1993 publication encapsulates a 30-year commitment to thestudy of the life and works of Karol Szymanowski. ‘° This publication is largelybiographical with emphasis on Szymanowski’s place in the cultural framework of his life. Itincludes a list of compositions by genre, selected discography, index, and illustrations.Chylinska’s previous book titled Szyrnanowski (available in Polish and English)” isconceived as a photograph album which includes a number of rare images from thecomposer’s personal and professional life (including photos of King Roger productions), butit does not provide any musical discourse and it should not be considered to be a definitivebiography.Malgorzata Komorowska’s Szymanowski w Teatrze’2describes composer’s stageworks and his relationship to the theater. It includes a detailed list of productions of hisoperas (Hagith and King Roger), ballets (Harnasie and Mandragora), and other unstagedcompositions.Jim Samson’s The Music ofSzymanowski’3is a musicological monograph onSzymanowski’ s works and style providing critical analyses and evaluations of his best10 Teresa Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski: His Life and Works, Polish Music History Series, 6 vols., ed. WandaWilk, trans. John Glowacki (Los Angeles: Friends of Polish Music University of Southern California, 1993).‘ Teresa Chyliñska, Szymanowski (Krakow: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1973). Reissued in English asTeresa Chyliñska, Szyrnanowski, trans. A. T. Jordan (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc. & The KociuszkoFoundation, 1973).12 Malgorzata Komorowska, Szyinanowski w Teatrze (Szymanowski in Theater) (Warszawa: Poiska AkademiaNauk Instytut Sztuki, 1992).13 Jim Samson, The Music ofSzymanowski (New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1981).4known compositions. The chapter on King Roger combines a rough musical analysis withnotes on interpretation and meaning.The latest book by Alistair Wightman Karol Szymanowski His Life and Work’4 is anextensive monograph combining research from many previously published articles on KarolSzymanowski. It includes updated catalogues of works, personalia and a whole chapter onKing Roger. In my opinion it provides the most convincing philosophical interpretation ofthis work to date. It combines thorough biographical research, musical analysis, andphilosophical explanations of many previously unanswered aspects of the opera.The short monograph by Christopher Palmer’ also deserves the reader’s attentionfor its well conceived historical and stylistic evaluation of King Roger. Due to the compactdesign of the book, King Roger is not allotted an entire chapter, but it is discussedchronologically under a separate heading placing Szymanowski’s greatest compositions inthe context of Western European history. It includes a conclusion and concise bibliography.The latest book by Stephen Downes titled Szymanowski, Eroticism and the Voices ofMythology 16 devotes a whole chapter to this opera focusing primarily on the character ofKing Roger and his encounters with the voices of Narcissus, the Siren and Dionysus.Downes also interprets the unifying figure of Christ /Eros as means towards King Roger’sfinal emotional and philosophical transfiguration.ArticlesAn already mentioned revival of interest in Szymanowski’s compositions has clearlymanifested itself in the number of recently published articles about the composer and King14 Alistair Wightman, Karol Szymanowski. His Lfe and Work (Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate PublishingCompany, 1999).Christopher Palmer, Szymanowski (London: BBC, 1983).Stephen Downes, Szymanowski, Eroticism and the Voices ofMyrholo (Burlington, Vermont: AshgatePublishing Limited, 2003).5Roger in particular. According to Kafka there are “twenty-two articles appearing inscholarly journals which focus on King Roger or include the opera as part of thediscussion.”7Since 1980 articles on King Roger and Karol Szymanowski appeared in fourmajor publications. Teresa Chyliñska wrote the article and prepared the list of compositionsfor the 1980 New Grove Dictionary ofMusic and Musicians. It is a concise introduction toSzymanowski’s life and works and is a good place to start investigating Szymanowskischolarship. However, the bibliographical information is limited and the list ofSzymanowski’ s compositions is incomplete omitting several works without opus numbersincluding such recital favourites as Soldier’s Songs.’8Jim Samson’s article in the 2000edition of The New Grove Dictionary ofMusic and Musicians’9remedies these omissions,by including a complete list of compositions and providing an overall more up to date andaccurate entry. Samson’s other articles about Szymanowski2°and King Roger2’appeared inThe New Grove Dictionary ofOpera and The International Dictionary ofOpera.22 Oneother (short but important) article “Szymanowski’s King Roger” appeared in Music andivlusicians.23 It contributes a concise musical analysis and explanation of the meaning of theopera.More importantly, in the last decade there has been a noticeable increase in numbersof noteworthy articles solely devoted to this opera. Alistair Wightman established his17 Kafka, “Passionate Polish Decadence”, 43.18 Teresa Chyliñska, “Szymanowski, Karol,” The New Grove Dictionary and Music and Musicians, vol. 18, ed.Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 1980), 499-504.Jim Samson, “Szymanowski, Karol (Maciej),” The New Grove Dictionary ofMusic and Musicians, vol. 24,ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 2001), 893-899.20 Jim Samson, “Szymanowski, Karol (Maciej),” The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, vol. 4, ed. Stanley Sadie(London: Macmillan, 1992), 625-26.21 Jim Samson, “King Roger,” The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, vol. 2, ed. Stanley Sadie (London:Macmillan, 1992), 996-98.22 Jim Samson, “KrOl Roger,” International Dictionary of Opera, vol. 1, ed. C. Steven Larue (Detroit: St.James Press, 1993), 7 12-13.23 Jim Samson, “Szymanowski’s King Roger,” Music and Musicians, vol. 23, no. 9 (May 1975), 36-3 8.6reputation as a Szymanowski scholar with his biographical sketch and examination of thedevelopment of Szymanowski’s musical style as presented in his doctoral dissertation “TheMusic of Karol Szymanowski.”24His next article Szymanowski and Islam25 exploresinfluences of Szymanowski’s travels in North Africa which enabled him to make musicalreferences to the world of Islam reflected mainly in the style of his melodic and rhythmicwriting. He focuses primarily on the works from that period including Symphony No. 3,Songs ofthe Infatuated Muezzin and King Roger. In 1997 Alistair Wightman published amuch longer article “The book of King Roger. Szymanowski’s opera in the light of his novelEfebos.”26 He takes into account Szymanowski’s association with his collaborator JaroslawIwaszkiewicz, their working of ideas, considerations of philosophical, erotic, and aestheticmatters in the creation of the libretto for King Roger. The article also explores ideologicallinks between the libretto and Szymanowski’s novel Efebos.More detailed explanations of the origins and intentions for writing Efebos has beenpresented by Hubert Kennedy in his article “Karol Szymanowski, his boy-love novel, andthe boy he loved.”27 Kennedy traces the origins of the novel from the time of its inception in1918 until 1981 when Teresa Chyliñska discovered 150 pages of the novel in Paris. Since itsdiscovery, the central chapter of Efebos has been published along with Szymanowski’s fourpoems in French.28 In the published part of the novel, Szymanowski displays strong,masculine types as his favoured models for male homosexuals, avoiding all suggestions of24 Alistair Wightman, “The Music of Karol Szymanowski” (Ph.D. diss., University of York, 1972).25 Alistair Wightman, “Szymanowski and Islam,” Musical Times, vol. 128 (1987): 129-132.26 Alistair Wightrnan, “The book of ‘King Roger.’ Szymanowski’s opera in the light of his novel ‘Efebos,”Musica Iagellonica, vol. 2 (1997): 161-213.27 Hubert Kennedy, “Karol Szymanowski, his boy-love novel, and the boy he loved,” Paidika, vol. 3, no. 3(Winter 1994): 26-33.28 Karol Szymanowski, Das Gastmahl: Em Kapitel aus dem Roman “Ephobos, “ed. and trans. WolfgangJohling (Berlin: Rosa Winkel, 1993).7effeminacy. Kennedy points out that although Szymanowski’s opera is far from explicitlyhomosexual, it too portrays the same Greek ideal of strong masculinity as Efebos.Indeed, Szymanowski’s confessed homosexuality has been used recently as aninterpretive tool in explaining some of his compositional decisions and patterns. Twoarticles by Stephen Downes relate to these ideas: “Themes of duality and transformation inSzymanowski’s ‘King Roger”29 discusses the dualities of major and minor (symbolizingmale/female and attractionlrepulsion) and the transformation of the whole tone harmonies.And “Szymanowski and Narcissism” explores the theme of self-absorption and egoism as apremise which runs through many of Szymanowski’s works.3°He further points out that themyth of Narcissus was the inspiration for some of his compositions and the struggle withnarcissism is one of the central psychological ideas underlying King Roger. For anyoneinterested in further study of Szymanowski’s works special attention should be paid todoctoral dissertation on Love Songs ofHaffiz, Op. 24 by the same author.31 It analyzesSzymanowski’s Pies’ni milosne Hafiza, Op. 24 (1911), describing its musical structure andlanguage in a context of cultural and historical values. According to Downes, the musicallanguage of op. 24 relates to that of the composers later works, and reveals the continuingsignificance of the Wagnerian legacy.Other important publications include a Festschrift titled Karol Szymanowski in seinerZeit with articles in English, German and Polish by respected Szymanowski scholars such as29 Stephen Downes, “Themes of duality and transformation in Szymanowski’s ‘King Roger,” Music Analysis,vol.14, no. 2-3 (1995): 257-29 1.30 Stephen Downes, “Szymanowski and Narcissism,” Journal of the Royal MusicalAssociation, vol. 121, no. 1(1996): 58-81.31 Stephen Downes, Szymanowski as Post- Wagnerian: “The Love Songs ofHafiz, Op. 24” (New York &London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994).8Samson, Karol Berger, Zofia Helman and Roger Scruton among others.32 EmilioCarapezza’ s article exploring the dichotomy of Dionysian and Apollonian forces in KingRoger is now available in Polish translation.3’Besides a comprehensive overview ofbiographical information surrounding composition of King Roger and some musicalanalysis, Carapezza also explores its philosophical and religious meaning focusing primarilyon the symbolic association of Jesus Christ and Dionysus.Other Biographical VolumesFor anyone committed to a better understanding of Karol Szymanowski as a personand composer of King Roger it is very important to read the following volume by JaroslawIwaszkiewicz. He was one of the most important Polish poets of the twentieth century,Szymanowski’s very close friend, and a collaborator on the libretto of King Roger.Iwaszkiewicz’s Spotkania z Szymanowskim consists of a series of personal reminiscencescovering the period from Szymanowski’s childhood in Tymoszówka until his death inl937. Zdzislaw Sierpiñski’s anthology 0 Karolu Szymanowskin’z is a collection of texts,fragments, essays, and recollections by twelve Polish authors written between 1935 and1980 concerning Szymanowski’s life and works. It also includes full texts of five articles bySzymanowski himself and introductory texts by the editor.3D32 Jim Samson, “The Use of Analytical Models in the Analysis of Szymanowski’s Harmonic Language,” inMichal Bristiger, Roger Scruton, and Petra Weber-Bockholdt, eds., Karol Szymanowski in seiner Zeit (Munich:Wilhelm Fink, 1984), 149-57; Karol Berger, “King Roger’s ‘Liebesleben,” in Karol Szymanowski in se/ncrZeit, 101-112; Zofia Helman, “Szymanowski und der Neokiassizismus,” in Karol Szymanowski in seiner Zeit,137-147; and Roger Scruton, “Between Decadence and Barbarism: The Music of Szymanowski,” in KarolSzymanowski in seiner Zeit, 159-178.Paolo Emilio Carapezza, “KrOl Roger’ midzy Dionizosem i Apollinem,” trans. Jerzy Stankiewicz, ResFacta, vol. 9 (1982): 49-6 1.Jarostaw lwaszkiewicz, Spotkania z Szyinanowskim (Meetings with Szymanowski) (Krakow: PolskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1981).Zdzislaw Sierpiñski, ed., 0 Karolu Szymanowskim. Antologia (Warszawa: Interpress, 1983).9Szymanowski’s sister Stanislawa36wrote a book published in 1938 on how to singSzymanowski’s vocal works.37 It does not include any information regarding King Roger;nevertheless it provides a first hand account of how the composer intended his songs to besung. His other sister Zofia wrote a book about everyday life and stories of their belovedfamily home in Tymoszowka.38Scores & Editions of the MusicThere are two critical editions of Szymanowski’s complete compositions availabletoday. One is a seventeen volume opera omnia published by Universal Edition and PolskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne and edited by Teresa Chyliñska, with editorial notes in Germanand English and corresponding text in Polish and German. King Roger appears in SeriesD, Volume 14 of this edition. The second available edition includes editorial notes and textonly in Polish. Both editions include extensive editorial notes and comparisons of the mainsources with reproductions of pages from many autograph copies. There is also a piano..vocal reduction of the orchestral score of King Roger prepared by Arthur Wiliner with textin German and Polish originally published in 1925.’36 Stanislawa was a professional singer (soprano). She frequently performed Szymanowski’s songs and createdthe role of Roksana in the original Performance of King Roger.‘ Stanisawa Korwin Szymanowska, Jak nale±y spiewaã utwory Karola Szymanowskiego (Gebethner andWolff, 1938). Reissued in English as Stanisawa Korwin Szymanowska, How to Sing the Works by KarolSzyrnanowski, trans. Jerzy Zawadzki (KrakOw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1957).38 Zofia Szymanowska, Opowieci o Naszym Doinu (KrakOw: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1977).Karol Szymanowski, “King Roger, Op. 46, “ Karol Szymanowski Gesamtausgabe, 17 vols., gen. ed., TeresaChyliñska (KrakOw: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne and Vienna: Universal Edition, Series D, vol. XIV,1973).41 Karol Szymanowski, Konig Roger (Der Hirt) / Król Roger (Pasterz), Op. 46, ed. Arthur Willner (Vienna andNew York: Universal Edition, 1925).10CHAPTER 2Composer’s ProfileKarol (Maciej Korwin) Szymanowski was born on 31 of October 18821 on thefamily estate in Tymoszowka, which lies in the Kiev region of present day Ukraine. Thegeographical location of TymoszOwka made him a subject of Czar Nicholas II and citizen ofa non-existing Poland. Igor Stravinsky and Zoltán Kodály were born in the same year andBela Bartok was not quite one year old.2 Szymanowski’s ancestors originated from wealthyland owing families who always remained strongly patriotic about their Polish and RomanCatholic roots.3His childhood on the Tymoszówka estate seems to have been a continuous round ofdances, plays, and house concerts.4It was an aristocratic, cultured household, where musicand literature were pursued with great passion. All five children of the Szymanowski familybecame artists and three went on to become professional musicians. Karol’s oldest sisterZofia became a poet, and the youngest Anna became a painter. His brother Felix became apianist and composer of operettas, and their sister Stanislawa became a professional singer.3She often performed Karol’s songs6 and eventually created the role of Roksana in the firstperformance of King Roger. Both of Karol’s parents were talented pianists. His fatherSince 1980, this is the officially accepted date of Szymanowski’s birth. For a detailed account of previousconfusion regarding his birth date please refer to Laura Grayna Kafka, “Passionate Polish Decadence in 12thCentury Sicily: Three Expressions of Karol Szymanowski’s ‘King Roger” (Ph.D. diss., University ofMaryland, College Park, 1995), 56-73.2 Teresa Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski: His L(fe and Works, Polish Music History Series, 6 vols., ed. WandaWilk, trans. John Glowacki (Los Angeles: Friends of Polish Music University of Southern California, 1993),20.Ibid., 21.“Jim Samson, The Music ofSzymanowski (New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1981), 25.Teresa Chyliñska, Szyrnanowski (KrakOw: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1973), 16.6 Zdzislaw Sierpiñski, ed., 0 Karol Szymanowskirn. Antologia (Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Interpress, 1983),142.11Stanislaw Korwin Szymanowski also played cello and his mother, Baroness Anna Taube,was a competent linguist. She eventually outlived her son by six years.7It is known from Szymanowski’s correspondence that he began studying piano,theory, and some harmony under his father’s instruction when he was about seven yearsold.8 Three years later he continued with his cousin Gustav Neuhaus in Elizawetgrad wherehe was exposed to music of Wagner, Richard Strauss, and Scriabin. Then in 1901, after hisgraduation from secondary school, Karol was sent to Warsaw where he enrolled in theMusic Institute (the forerunner of Warsaw Conservatory) to study harmony with MarekZawirski and counterpoint and composition with the distinguished composer ZygmuntNoskowski.9During Szymanowski’s student years in Warsaw he made contact with a small groupof friends including pianist Artur Rubinstein (1887-1982), violinist Pawel Kochañski (1887-1934), and composer and conductor Grzegorz Fitelberg (1 879-1953). They continued toperform each other’s music and maintained a close friendship throughout their lives. In1905 Szyrnanowski and Fitelberg joined two more of Noskowski’s composition students,Ludomir Róycki (1884-1953) and Apolinary Szeluto (1884-1966) to form the group knownas “Mioda Poiska” (“Young Poland”) similar in its philosophy to the “Young Germany” and“Young Scandinavia”0or “Young Poland” movement in Polish literature.” It created “anumbrella for a wide variety of styles only tenuously linked by their forceful reaction againstthe Positivism of an earlier generation and by their enthusiastic response to the new artisticChristopher Palmer, Szymanowski (London: BBC, 1983), 9.Karol Szymanowski, Karol Szymanowski: Korespondencja 1903-1919, vol. 1., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska (Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1982), 174.Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski (1993), 29.10 Samson, Music ofSzymanowski, 34.Palmer, Szyrnanowski, 11.12movements in Western Europe.”2Through the connections of Grzegorz Fitelberg theyfound a generous patron in Prince Wiadyslaw Lubomirski (Fitelberg’s student) whosponsored their concerts and helped to establish many of their future professionalconnections. For the next six years Fitelberg, Szymanowski, Róycki, and Szeluto publishedtheir compositions and presented concerts of their music in Warsaw, Lwów, Leipzig,Vienna, Dresden, and Berlin.’3 Szymanowski’s most important compositions from thatperiod include Piano Sonata No. 1 in C minor, op. 8, Violin Sonata in D minor, Op. 9,Variations on a Polish Folk Theme in B minor, op. 10, and Concert Overture in E major,Op. 12. There were also many songs to texts by “Young Poland” poets such as JanKasprowicz, Tadeusz Miciñski, and Waclaw Berent. According to Jim Samson, the successof “Young Poland” marked the end of Szymanowski’s apprenticeship as a composer. Heimmediately embarked on a period of intense study of the New German School, which isclearly reflected in the style of his pre-war compositions.’4Szymanowski traveled a lot in his professional life spending longer periods of timein Germany and Austria. However the hold German culture had on Szymanowskithroughout his life began to weaken after his trips to Italy and North African regions, whichhe explored first in 1908, then in 1910, and 1911. The cultures of ancient Greece, NormanSicily, and the Arab world continued to have a huge influence on his compositional style ofthe following years. The aesthetic changes are clearly manifested in compositions from thatperiod including Love Songs ofHafiz, op. 24 and Symphony No. 2 in Bflat major, Op. 19.12 Samson, Music ofSzyinanowski, 34.3 Teresa Chyliñska, “Szymanowski, Karol,” The New Grove Dictionary ofMusic and Musicians, vol. 18, ed.Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 1980), 500.14 Jim Samson, “Szymanowski, Karol (Maciej),” The New Grove Dictionary ofMusic and Musicians, vol. 24,ed. Stanley Sadie (London: Macmillan, 2001), 894.1—,IiIn spite of Szymanowski’ s growing interests in Mediterranean cultures, he returnedto Strauss’s Salome and Elektra as inspiration for his first opera Hagith, which he finishedbetween 1912 and 1913. The libretto was based on the oriental legends of King David andparts of the Bible. The central theme of the opera was the demand for the sacrifice of youngand beautiful Hagith’ s life to restore youth and strength to the old king. Hagith’ s refusal tomake the sacrifice (because of her love for the young prince) resulted in her being stoned todeath.In 1914 Szymanowski made another trip to Sicily and South Africa which intensifiedhis interests in Arabic and Mediterranean cultures.’ On his return from Italy, he visitedParis and London (where he met Stravinsky’6),then eventually returning to Tymoszowkajust before the outbreak of World War I. On the account of his poor health Szymanowskiwas exempted from the conscription into the Tsarist army, which allowed him to spend theyears quietly in TymoszOwka with the exception of occasional business trips to Kiev,Moscow, and St. Petersburg.’7The years between 1914 and 1917 mark Szymanowski’ s mostprolific compositional period. It was during this time that he composed his famous pianocycles Metopes, Op. 29 and Masques, Op. 34. Other compositions from that era includeMyths Op. 30 for violin and piano, Songs ofthe Fairy Tale Princes, Op. 31, Four TagoreSongs, Op. 41, Songs ofthe Infatuated Muezzin, Op. 42; as well as his Violin Concerto No.1, and the Third Symphony. It was also during this period that Szymanowski was offered theprofessorship of composition at the Kiev Conservatory with a generous salary of 2000 rublesa month. However, since Szymanowski was not ready to sacrifice his freedom by beingPalmer, Szy,nanowski, 3.16 Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 1., 436.17 Chyliñska, New Grove Dictionaiy (1980), 500.14confined to one city, he quickly declined the offer which had disastrous consequences for hisfuture financial situation.18The devastating events of the Russian Revolution completely overturnedSzymanowski’s world. His family estate at Tymoszówka was destroyed by the Bolsheviks in1917. Szymanowski’s family was forced to escape the political unrest and move to thenearby city of Elizawetgrad where Karol’s parents owned a home. During this timeSzymanowski found himself completely unable to compose. Deeply affected by the carnageof the revolution he found escape in literature where he immersed himself in reading WalterPater, Homer, Plato, and Euripides.’9During this time, he also wrote an extensive two-volume literary novel titled Efebos, which proved to be a passionate exploration of religiousfaith and homosexual attraction, themes which like its Sicilian location, link it to the themeof King Roger.2°The independence of the country of Poland, which emerged after the chaos of WorldWar I, coincided with Szymanowski’s artistic maturity. In 1919 he moved to Warsaw andbegan concertizing with his sister Stanislawa and Pawel Kochañski. They also traveled toLondon, Paris, and Lwów. In 1921 Szymanowski also spend two month in the United Stateswhere he visited New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Florida and Cuba. During his Americanvisit he also continued to work on the libretto of King Roger.2’The opera, whichpreoccupied the composer from 1918 until 1924 was eventually premiered on June 19, 1926at the Grand Theater in Warsaw with his sister Stanislawa singing the role of Roksana.2218 Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 1., 455-56.‘ Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski (1993), 126.20 Ibid., 130.21 Karol Szymanowski, Karol Szymanowski: Korespondencja 1920-1926, vol. 2., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska (KrakOw: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1994), 201.22 Chyliñska, Karol Szyrnanowski (1993), 193.15During Szymanowski’s lifetime King Roger was performed only two more times. It nearlycaused a riot during its Duisburg performance in 1928, but then it was triumphantlypremiered at the National Theater in Prague in 1932.From 1922 Szymanowski often visited the small resort town of Zakopane in theTatra Mountains of the southern Poland which became a spiritual home for a community ofartists and writers fascinated by the mountain folk culture. He eventually rented a smallhome there known as “Atma” where he lived until 1936 when his failing health and financialdifficulties eventually forced him to give it up.2 However, during his time in ZakopaneSzymanowski became influenced by the distinctive sounds of Polish highland music. Hisballet Harnasie, op. 55 was the main work to grow out of his folk music research andbecame Szymanowski’s greatest popular success. Yet the true masterpiece of this periodwas the austerely beautiful Stabat Mater, Op. 53 (for solo voices, mixed chorus andorchestra) which Szymanowski composed in 1926.Throughout his mature period Szymanowski complained about the lack ofunderstanding and appreciation for his music in Poland.24Nevertheless, he continued to gainstrong international reputation with his Third Symphony, Violin Concerto No. 1, and Songsofthe Infatuated Muezzin, all of which are very exotic, and hedonistic in style. Other worksfrom this period include Twenty Mazurkas, Op. 50, String Quartet No. 2, Op. 56, and SixKurpian Songs, Op. 58. Late in 1926 Szymanowski was simultaneously offered twoimportant academic positions as the director of both Cairo and Warsaw Conservatories.Even though the Cairo appointment offered much higher salary and a chance to live in awarmer climate, Szymanowski decided to stay in Poland. He accepted the position at the23 Teresa Chyliñska, Smanowski, trans. A. T. Jordan (New York: Twayne Publishers, Inc. & The KociuszkoFoundation, 1973), 122.24 Chyliñska, New Grove Dictionary (1980), 501.16Warsaw Conservatory where he stayed for only two years due to negative politics andexhausting working conditions.25Nevertheless, the years 1930-32 were outstanding in Szymanowski’s professionalcareer earning him many awards and international distinctions. He was awarded an honorarydoctorate from the Jagiellonian University in Cracow, he received the Cross of the FrenchLegion of Honor, and became an honorary member of the Regia Accademia di Santa Ceciliain Rome, and of the International Society for Contemporary Music, thereby joining the ranksof Richard Strauss, Manuel de Falla, Maurice Ravel, Igor Stravinsky, and Bela Bartok.26Throughout this period Szymanowski was dividing his time between Warsaw and Zakopanewhere slowly his health began to improve. During this time he also authored approximately90 articles and essays on music most notably his “Observations on the socio-educational roleof Polish music.”27Despite his recent honors, Szymanowski was still depressed by the luck ofappreciation for his music in Poland and gradually worsening state of health. Throughout hislife he was suffering from deteriorating pulmonary tuberculosis which he contracted duringhis childhood. He also smoked sixty cigarettes a day and often drank considerable quantitiesof alcohol especially during his frequent bouts of depression. Palmer suggests that he mighthave been a morphine or cocaine addict as well.28His last years were a story of failing health, growing neglect of his music in Poland,and severe financial hardships which eventually lead him to abject poverty. Lacking a stable25 Ibid.Chyliñska, Szymanowski (1973), 160.- Karol Szymanowski, Uwagi o spoeczno-wychowawczej roli muzyki w Polsce; Karol SzyrnanowskzPisma, Tom I: Pisina Muzyczne, ed. and comp. Kornel Michalowski (Krakow: Poiskie WydawnictwoMuzyczne, 1984), 495-98.28 Palmer, Snianowski, 18.17income, Szymanowski was forced to support himself by traveling throughout Europe andperforming one concert after another. The technical difficulty of his most popular pianocompositions (Sonatas, Metopes and Masques) was beyond his pianistic ability, so hecomposed Symphony No. 4 — Sinfonia Concertante for himself and used it as a vehicle toearn money. Despite the energy he put forth into performing, coupled with his failing health,Szymanowski still managed to compose one more major work, his Violin Concerto No. 2,op. 6] composed in 1933. Unable to afford renting “Atma” any longer, he gave up his homein Zakopane in 1936. With the financial support of his friends and some governmentbursaries, he stayed at a sanatorium in Grasse. When his condition began to worsen he wastransferred to a sanatorium in Cannes and then in Lausanne, where he died on EasterSunday, March 29, 1937 at the age of 5429 His body was moved to Krakow, where hereceived a state funeral attended by thousands.29 Chyliñska, Szymanowsk (1973), 203.18Origins of King Roger and Circumstances of CompositionThe idea of writing a substantial stage work preoccupied Szymanowski ever sincehis extensive travels to the Mediterranean. In 1908 he visited Venice, Florence and Rome.Then in 1911 and 1914 he spend time in Sicily, which had a life long effect exerting on hima great fascination with the Italian landscape and its cultures. On his return to PolandSzymanowski wrote to the poet Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz describing his impressions with greatenthusiasm:In Sicily, the cultures of East and West overlapped with each other andcreated a specific ambiance which still exists to this day. Wherever one looks,the interpenetrating elements and vestiges of the most diverse religionsfacilitate the examination of historical phenomena of this world: the metopesin the medieval abbey of Selinus, the blend of Baroque elements andByzantine mosaics, the abandoned temple in Segesta — what a delicious formof barbarism.31The combination of Oriental, Greek and Christian elements in Sicily obviously awakenedstrong spiritual and creative forces within Szymanowski. It eventually came to full fruitionin his collaboration with Iwaszkiewicz in such compositions as Songs of the infatuatedMuezzin, Op. 42, the Third Symphony, and King Roger.Szymanowski’ s collaboration with Iwaszkiewicz is particularly important, especiallyfor anyone undertaking research of his vocal works. The two men grew up in the same partof Ukraine and knew each other since childhood. They were also distant cousins whoremained close personal friends throughout their lives. Iwaszkiewicz later became a leaderof the “Young Poland” movement in literature and one of the most important Polish poetsof the twentieth century. His early poetic preoccupations were well in line withSzymanowski’ s aesthetic interests. Iwaszkiewicz also shared Szymanowski’ s admiration of31 Szymanowski, Korespondenqja, vol. 1., 426. Unless otherwise noted, all translations from Polish are mine.19Italian culture and Sicilian landscape. His early works such as Escape from Baghdad andDionysiacs also blend characteristics of Arabic, Greek and European cultures. He eventuallywrote poetry for two of Szymanowski’s song cycles32 and became an obvious choice as alibrettist for King Roger. After Szymanowski’s death, Iwaszkiewicz was endowed with anextensive collection of his manuscripts and writings. After the Second World War he wrotea collection of important memoirs about the composer, as well as a travel book aboutSicily.34Szymanowski’ s search for a subject matter suitable for musical treatment continuedthroughout the First World War. He briefly considered Don Juan and Benvenuto Cellini assuitable operatic subjects. It is clear from the surviving correspondence that Szymanowskiwas also very impressed with the writings of Walter Horatio Pater especially the story ofDenys 1 ‘Auxerrois, a “denizen of old Greece actually finding his way back among men,”3’which he considered as a suitable operatic subject. Even though nothing came out of thePater project, it proves Szymanowski’s infatuation with the god Dionysus and with all of itsliterary manifestations.As mentioned, the revolutionary events of the fall of 1917 compelled theSzymanowski family to leave Tymoszowka and move to Elizawetgrad. Szymanowski foundhimself completely isolated from the outside world with death and violence of the civil warall around him. Horrific memories of these experiences obviously had a paralyzing influenceon his creative mind. On January 3rd 1918 he wrote to Iwaszkiewicz:Songs ofInfatuated Muezzin, Op. 42 (1918) and The Cradle Songs, Op. 48 (1922).Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz, Spotkania z Szyinanowskim (Meetings with Szymanowski) (Krakow: PoiskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1981).Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz, Ksiq±ka o Sycylii (Book about Sicily) (Warszawa: Czytelnik, 2000).Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 1., 514-515.20My dear Jaroslaw, imagine — I cannot compose now. I am writing a little,without any literary aspirations of course, but honestly, to simply get somethings off my chest.36Even though Szymanowski could not compose, his literary aspirations were more ambitiousthan anyone suspected. By the end of 1918 Szymanowski managed to finish two volumes ofthe large literary novel which he eventually titled Efebos. Designed formally as an adventurestory, it explored numerous escapades of two young Polish artists, youthful Prince AloLowicki and composer Marek Korab, as they traveled through Italian landscape. It alsoreflected the composer’s profound knowledge of Mediterranean cultures, springing as it did“from an intense majestic vision of Italy in all her imperious beauty and seductive grace.”37Szymanowski’ s biographer Boguslaw Maciej ewski suggests that Szymanowski wroteEfebos during a very grim period of his life as a way of overcoming depressingcircumstances through the magic of Italian scenes and landscapes eagerly evoked from thecomposer’s memory.38 In the introduction to his novel, the composer himself acknowledgedthat Efebos was at first a piece of escapism, written “as a sweet solace and sweetremembrance of the past, as a way of blocking off the black abyss of unending succession ofdays, weeks and months spent in the most terrible external circumstances.”39However, it isSzymanowski who clearly explains in his introduction to Efebos that “love” is the chiefideological idea of his novel where “the text speaks for itself, exploring the question deeply,and rendering any further commentary superfluous. ‘, Iwaszkiewicz, as the only personwho knew the entire content of this novel, further points out that since Szymanowski was36 Ibid., 523.Karol Szymanowski, Pisma, vol 2: Pisma Literackie, ed. Teresa Chyliñska (KrakOw: Polskie WydawnictwoMuzyczne, 1989), 127.8 Boguslaw Maciejewski, Karol Szy.’nanowski: His Lfe and Music (London: Poets’ and Painters’ Press, 1967),6 1-62.Szymanowski, Pisina Literackie, 125.40 Szymanowski, Pisma Literackie, 127.21unable to compose, he sought to express his thoughts and emotions through a creative formwhich is more precise than music.For Szymanowski music wasn’t enough, therefore he often escaped into theworld of literature. His articles, philosophical fragments, prose and poetryclearly indicate that he could just as easily become a viter as a musician.Szymanowski’s intelligence often demanded other, more precise forms ofexpression so they could better address moral or philosophical issues thatinterested him at the time. Therefore, writing of ‘Efebos’ wasn’t someinsubstantial killing of time by the bored composer in lonely Elizawetgrad. Itsurfaced from the deep inner need to solve certain issues, which troubledSzymanowski, and only became apparent in complete isolation from theoutside world.4’Chyliñska also suggests that Szymanowski’ s writing verbalized moral, philosophical andaesthetic anxieties, while at the same time provided an opportunity to examine himself andsearch for an idea for his next composition. For this reason we must investigatesimultaneously the beginning of Efebos and the libretto of King Roger as two works whichare “two different realizations of one and the same yearning, although artisticallyincommensurable.”42Although Szymanowski considered Efebos worthy of publication, he was unwillingto sanction its release during the lifetime of his mother (or his own) because of its explicithomosexual content. Boguslaw Maciejewski described Efebos as Szymanowski’s “apologiapro vita sua.”43 Iwaszkiewicz was the only person who knew the work and its intimatedetails. Shortly after Szymanowski’s death Iwaszkiewicz allowed a brief passage to be readon Polish Radio in March 1939. Although the paragraph was very discrete it brought anangry letter from Szymanowski’s mother. Then in September of 1939, at the beginning ofthe Second World War, Iwaszkiewicz’ s apartment in which the manuscript was kept, was41 Iwaszkiewicz, Spotkania, 59.Chyliñska, Karol Szynianowski (1993), 130.Palmer, Szymanowski, 25.22burned during the bombing raids of Warsaw. Apart from the title page, introduction, and fewsmall fragments, it was assumed that the two-volume novel was lost for ever.44 However in1981, “in almost sensational circumstances,” Polish musicologist Teresa Chyliñskadiscovered 150 pages of the central chapter of the novel titled The Symposium in the privatecollection of Boris Kochno (1904-1990), the former director of the Monte Carlo Ballet.43According to Hubert Kennedy, Szymanowski and Kochno were romantically involved.46Aninteresting account supporting Kennedy’s theory is also included in Artur Rubinstein’ smemoirs My Many Years.47 According to Kennedy, Szymanowski gave a 150 page Russiantranslation of The Symposium to Boris Kochno as a gift. It was a souvenir of his youth and amemento of Szymanowski who also presented Kochno with four poems in French.48Under the spell of Efebos and memories of his Mediterranean travels Szymanowskicontinued to ponder an idea for a libretto which, as he later described it, would be a “Siciliandrama.”49 Eventually in June of 1918 Szymanowski invited Iwaszkiewicz to Elizawetgrad todiscuss artistic subjects and to propose the collaboration on a stage work, which as describedby Iwaszkiewicz, would “realize all his desires to the splendor and power of his thinking, tothe feelings that he was deprived of, and which would at last free him of certain religiousobsessions, or rather religious-logical obsessions.”’ They continued to meet between 1918and 1920 to discuss changes and artistic possibilities. At first Szymanowski was veryenthusiastic about Iwaszkiewicz’ s input.‘ Iwaszkiewicz, Spotkania, 58-59.Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski (1993), 130.46 Hubert Kennedy, “Karol Szymanowski, his boy-love novel, and the boy he loved, “Paidika (Vol. 3, no. 3 (11)winter 1994), 27.‘ Artur Rubinstein, My Many Years (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980), 104-105.48 Hubert Kennedy, “Karol Szymanowski, his boy-love novel, and the boy he loved,” Paidika (Vol. 3, no. 3(Winter 1994): 26.Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 1., 562.Iwaszkiewicz, Spotkania, 53.The Sicilian sketch you sent me struck me immediately as strangely familiaras though revealing some secret yearnings of my own! Of course I liked ittremendously — and nothing could please me better than to see you take aserious interest in doing it! From a scenic point of view the Byzantine-Arabicpalace interiors would be perfect. Just imagine: dull gold and rigid patterns ofmosaics as a background, or Moorish filigree, dances — what a wealth ofdelicious splendor... the vast contrasts and the riches of strangelyinterconnected worlds. A search for its hidden meaning, trying to solveinsoluble mysteries...2But what originally promised to be a fruitful artistic collaboration, turned out to be quiteproblematic for both men. Iwaszkiewicz was always ambivalent about King Roger. He hadserious reservations about the project and only continued to work on the libretto underpressure. Upon his return to Warsaw Iwaszkiewicz found himself in a rejuvenated artisticsituation. He made acquaintances of young talented writers with whom Iwaszkiewiczformed a literary movement later known as the “Skamander Group.” So when Szymanowskisent him his own sketch of the libretto with new dramatic scenes, the subject of the “Siciliandrama” no longer appealed to the poet. Iwaszkiewicz did not fill the framework sketched outby the composer until 1920. However Szymanowski was not to be disheartened for in spiteof his own preoccupations from 1920 with the formation of a new Polish musical culture, hestill regarded the opera as central to his very survival as an artist:I do not hide from you that the question of this drama is to some extent thequestion of my further artistic existence — so deeply has this idea struck a rootwithin my inner being. Because of this, I almost have the nerve to order youto work on it!Szymanowski eventually took it upon himself to completely revise Act III which hecompleted later that year during his visit to the United States. Iwaszkiewicz was notenthusiastic about these changes. In later life he openly admitted that he and Szymanowskihad different ideas in mind:52 Chyliñska, Szyrnanowski (1973), 91.Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 1., 567.24The cardinal error in this collaboration was that each of us saw somethingdifferent in ‘King Roger.’ Szymanowski wanted to express things in thisopera that I did not understand well enough, which is why I worked soreluctantly on this libretto. Karol felt this, and made changes which made thedrama worse instead of improving it.The libretto ended up being loosely based on a single scene (or more precisely aninterpretation of that scene) from Euripides’ final tragedy, The Bacchae, whichSzymanowski read in a Russian translation provided by Professor Tadeusz Zieliñski.According to Iwaszkiewicz, the final philosophy of King Roger is quite simple. In the scenebetween Pentheus and the disguised Dionysus, Zieliñski pointed out the sensual excitementwhich drew Pentheus to the Bacchanal feast, even though he apparently opposed the cult ofDionysus and Dionysian intoxication. In painting him a vision of the drunken Bacchantes,Dionysus deliberately agitated the stubborn king and so led him into the trap. Here thesensual agitation and unhealthy interest displayed by Pentheus find their echo in the sensualcuriosity that envelops Roger in all his meetings with the mysterious shepherd. His religion,the religion of Dionysian intoxication, has an analogous influence on Roger as it did onPentheus, however in this case it is purely emotional. That’s why Roger, even though hefollows the Shepherd and eventually arrives in the ruins of the ancient amphitheater, in thelast scene of the drama he remains alone with great emotional turmoil in his soul. Dionysusabandons him, and leaves him alone as before with Edrisi and Roksana as embodiments ofwisdom and love. Iwaszkiewicz further explains that Roger eventually becomes a differentperson for whom a new sun begins to rise. He is greeting the sun in the last phrases of thedrama in such a way as if he noticed it for the first time. His discovery of the truth ofIwaszkiewicz, Spotkania, 55.Iwaszkiewicz, Spotkania, 55.25Dionysian intoxication changed Roger emotionally. 56 Iwaszkiewicz’s original version wasquite different, and according to him, much simpler:Roger not only discovered Dionysus in the ruins of the old theater, butfollowed him and what is more, flung himself into the chaos of themysterious Dionysian cult... it was contrary to history, but dramatically morelogical. Roger not only recognized Dionysus in the shepherd, but followedhim into the darkness, abandoning everything for him. Szymanowski changedthis conclusion. Perhaps he did not understand the ultimate repudiation of theworld that I had introduced; perhaps he considered my simple conclusion tobe a superfluous elucidation. Whatever the reason, he cast aside my third act,and substituted the almost completely different one that today appears in theopera, and which even has a style different from that of my part.Alistair Wightman suggests that Szymanowski’s changes confer on the whole concept a farmore profound significance. He also finds it arguable that Szymanowski’s alterations reallyweakened the drama as Iwaszkiewicz claimed.58 In spite of the passionate pleas from theshepherd and his followers, the king does not abandon everything for the cult of Dionysus,but remains alone to greet the rising sun.It is clear to see that the philosophical departure point of King Roger was certainlyinspired by The Bacchae. The setting of the action in twelfth-century Sicily also enabled thecomposer to make use of his deep knowledge of Sicilian history and diverse Mediterraneancultures. Sierpiñski points out that the entire idea for the opera evolved out of composer’sinfatuation with Sicily, and its real king Roger ii.9 The historical Re Ruggero Secondobelonged to the Norman dynasty of Sicilian kings and reigned from 1130 to 1154. He was agreat patron of sciences and learning who also supported the arts. He presided over a court atPalermo which was known as the most brilliant of twelfth century Europe employing many56 Ibid.‘ Ibid., 56.58 Alistair Wightman, Karol Szy’nanowski. His Lfe and Work (Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate PublishingCompany, 1999), 273.Zdzislaw Sierpiiiski, ed., 0 Karolu Szymanowskim. Antologia (Warszawa: Interpress, 1983), 85.26of the best scientific and artistic talents of the Mediterranean world. His deep interest ingeography lead to his collaboration with Al’Idrisi (later reintroduced in Szymanowski’sopera as the Arabian sage Edrisi) on a volume entitled “The Avocation of a Man Desirousof a full Knowledge of the Different Countries of the World,” often simply referred to as“The Book of King Roger.”6°One of the finest monuments of his reign was Capella Palatinawhich Szymanowski visited during his travels to Sicily. Its specific architectural featuressuch as Arabic filigree, mosaic figures, and muted gold, were clearly delineated bySzymanowski in his description of the scenery for the first act of the opera. It also creates anilluminating parallel between The Symposium from Szymanowski’s Efebos where theopening paragraphs describing Palermo of Roger II are almost a quotation of the opera withtheir evocation of the “dim gold light of candles mingling with the trailing smoke onincense, and the gloomy sound [...] of monks chanting [...] ‘Holy, holy, holy’ [...] beforethe face of the Living God — Jesus Christ — of whom a terrible likeness with emaciated face,black beard and unfathomable eyes loomed menacingly in the flickering light of thecandelabras.”61Iwaszkiewicz suggests that the essence of the opera has less to do with the historicalfigure of Roger II, and more with Szymanowski’s own emotional inner struggles. He furtherpoints out that for Szymanowski the Sicily of King Roger represents the “landscape of hisown soul,” where the influences of numerous philosophical streams of thought engage ingrave conflict: with Christianity of his own upbringing on the one hand, and on the other, thepagan religion of Dionysus as the conquering religion ofjoy of life.62 Iwaszkiewicz evendescribes King Roger as a contemporary “morality play” where the “emotional”, “rational”60 John Julius Norwich, The Normans in Sicily (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1992), 46 1-4.61 Szymanowski, Fisma Literackie, 169.62 Iwaszkiewicz, Ksiq±ka o Sycylii, 63.27and “subconscious self’ engage in violent struggle in the soul of every human being. Suchenormous inner conflict of “Florestan” and “Eusebius” as renowned opposites of humansoul, represents the true essence of this era of Szymanowski’s life.63Even though Iwaszkiewicz continued his collaboration with Szymanowski andremained his close personal friend, he did not consider it an equal partnership. In his articleintroducing the work to the Polish public before the first performance of the opera, herefused to take any credit for his libretto suggesting that he was “only dressing ideas inwords” as the executor of plans which had “originated totally within the mind ofSzymanowski.”64After Szymanowski’s death Iwaszkiewicz’s ambivalent attitude towardsKing Roger changed. Eventually he published two books about Szymanowski which notonly address their life long friendship, but also pertain to important aspects concerning thelegacy of King Roger.63 Ibid.64 Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 2., 470.28CHAPTER 3The MusicSzymanowski’s reservations regarding opera traditionally subdivided into closedforms such as scenes, recitatives and arias, or ensembles, are documented in hiscorrespondence with Emil Herzka of Universal Edition. In his letter dated June 26th 1918Szymanowski wrote:I have given much thought to the nature of the theater and have come toconclusion that it is the end of opera in its literal sense. That is why I am veryinterested in what Schreker (one of the very few who can say anything new inthis field — Stravinsky also’) has said in his new opera! 2This conception is exemplified through each of the very compact three acts of King Roger(approximately 25, 40, and 22 minutes); within each act the music unfolds continuously,with musical episodes following the dramatic developments, rather than abiding bytraditional formal operatic patterns. In this context, the few extended set numbers or closedformal units in the score stand out. They are used only when the composer wants torepresent actual “acts of performance” within the operatic context, such as the shepherd’ssong in Act I, or Roksana’s aria and the dance of the followers of the shepherd in Act II.The music and the drama work very tightly together through several means. Tounderline musically as well as to unify the drama, Szymanowski employs a thematic systemof leitmotifs, which can easily be detected throughout the score.3 He uses consistentlymusical representations of characters, ideas, or situations. The music used for the Shepherdor the king’s entourage has particular characteristics, but ideas such as “church or faith,”Szymanowski referred to Schreker’s Die Gezeichneten (1918) and Stravinsky’s Le Rossignol (1914).2 Karol Szymanowski, Karol Szyinanowski: Korespondencja 1903-1919, vol. 1., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska (KrakOw: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1982), 535.Unless otherwise noted, all translationsfrom Polish are mine.Alistair Wightman, Karol Szymanowski. His Life and Work (Brookfield, Vermont: Ashgate PublishingCompany, 1999), 277.29“lust or desire,” “anger or fear” are also very accurately described musically. Occasionallythese two types of characterization overlap: this is especially evident in Act I where after themotivic material of the church is introduced for the first time at rehearsal number 1, it is thenimmediately rearranged two measures after rehearsal number 4 as the theme representing theking. Such leitmotifs serve the role of “musical anchors” for the drama of each act, but alsohelp to unify the overall musical structure.Act one of King Roger takes place in a Byzantine cathedral in Palermo.4While thecurtain is still down, we hear only three pianissimo quarter notes played by the off stageTAM-TAM before a chorus enters in full B minor harmony, sustained only by a low registeropen-fifth pedal B-F sharp. The Greek liturgical words (“Hagios Kyrios Theos Sabaoth”)and the parallel fifths in the male voices, as well as the psalmodic style of singing signal aconstructed imaginary foreign medieval world. The intervention of the boys’ choir atrehearsal number 1, with the opening line “Na ziotym tronie ponad oblokami” (“on thegolden throne above the clouds”) , introduces the main motive of the opera (Figure l). It isquoted throughout the score and often used as a reworking of the main melodic theme. 6Figure 1.Knabenchor. 5 ‘—C1ur chtopcw. Discaiti..Mu. -_—p p p p p p p r p rHoch — wiT wol - ki- gen Ho - hen steht dein gold’- ner Thron..Na zto-(çsm (to - me po - nad o- bto - ka -- ml© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG., Wien/UE 7750— Used by Permission.Szymanowski described the scenery of each act in great detail paying as much attention to its visual impactas he did to its music. Complete descriptions of the scenery can be found at the beginning of the transliterationof each act in the Appendix B.All rehearsal numbers correspond to Karol Szymanowski, Konig Roger (Der Hirt) / Król Roger (Fasterz),op. 46, ed. Arthur Willner (Vienna and New York: Universal Edition, 1925).6 As it is at rehearsal number 3 in the line sung by Archiereios, or at rehearsal number 36 as the opening phraseof the Shepherd’s aria.30The opening “Hagios” sung by the basses, built on parallel open fifths, is very characteristicof medieval organum which is also often part of the Russian Orthodox Church music.Taking into account the fact that Szymanowski grew up in the heart of Ukraine, it is safe tosay that he must have known orthodox choruses since his childhood. It must be stated thatthis is the only section of this entire work with a traditional key signature of B minor. It lastsfor the first 46 bars and is never used again. The rest of the score relies entirely on the use ofaccidentals instead of traditional key signatures. To start an opera without any introductionis very unconventional. It is just as surprising as the opening of Szymanowski’ s SecondSymphony which starts with solo violin. The opening section has nothing in common withSzymanowski’s characteristic style as we know it from his other compositions. Instead ofhis modern symbolism and hedonistic exoticism, we hear a clear imitation of ecclesiasticalmusical traditions. Jim Samson is certainly right when he suggests that the archaic idiomused in these opening choral sections suggests the “anachronism — the living death — of theinstitutionalized church.” The stifling effects of the rituals and the habits of conventions aremeant to represent the suffocating influence of tradition on Roger’s personality.7The true style and character of Szymanowski’ s music is immediately recognizable assoon as the orchestra plays at rehearsal number 4 introducing the entrance music of the king(Figure 2). This 20 measures passage contrasts suddenly with the type of music heardbefore: it contains highly chromatic and shimmering dissonant chords, which althoughsupported by a continuous E flat pedal, cannot easily be interpreted tonally. The fragmentsof melodic and harmonic motives heard, which will become more important in other parts ofthe opera, suggest alternatively, B flat minor, F flat minor, and E flat major, but allembedded in seventh, ninth, and eleventh chords, with touches of whole-tone and‘ Jim Samson, The Music ofSzymanowski (New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1981), 145.n-3augmented chords, which never resolve. From measure 48 (Largo assai) onwards the dottedrise and fall melody played by the winds is an inversion of the opening choral motiveillustrated in Figure 1. It is repeated at rehearsal number 5 and reintroduced in its originalform at rehearsal number 36 as the opening phrase of the Shepherd’s aria.Figure 2.Larg’o assai.LTThF j — ‘1 I L-p dokiss. p000 o poco crese.—Ori - . i9: HC Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG., Wien/UE 7750— Used by Permission.However, this mass of oscillating sounds acts overall as a preparation for theffchoral andorchestral explosion of the king’s grand entrance to the cathedral with his wife and theirArab adviser Edrisi at rehearsal number 6. Here the crowd hails the king as the guardian oftheir true religion and the style reverts back to choral declamatory full chords with repeatedpsalmodic parallel open fifths in the clear tonality of C major, suggesting again a “Russian,”or “Byzantine” church style.p.IIThis entire section from the beginning up to rehearsal number 8 characterized byonly choral and orchestral interchanges stands as the introductory opening of the opera.From here on we get into more personalized exchanges among the characters. Rehearsalnumber 8 brings the first solo lines sung by the archbishop and deaconess, interspersed withchoral supplications. They implore the king to defend the church against a remarkablybeautiful young shepherd who is supposedly trying to overthrow the authority of the churchby openly preaching to the masses and proclaiming the realm of his own god. The solo linessung by the clergy are a monotone recitation above a static chordal structure, thenprogressively taking on the character of recitative, but generally the music still belongs tothe “psalmodic” church style. It is only at rehearsal number 12, coinciding with theauthoritative question of the king who demands to know more about the shepherd, thatSzymanowski brings back the idiomatically chromatic, more dissonant language which bynow we start to associate with the King and his state of mind.The King’s trusted counselor Edrisi, clearly representing the voice of reasonthroughout the opera, describes the shepherd in a florid melody which is immediatelycontrasted by forceful demands of retribution from the clergy and the chorus. As the shoutsfor justice intensify, we hear the voice of Roksana for the first time. She intervenes on theshepherd’s behalf suggesting that the king should not pass judgment on him right away, butshould listen to him first. The vocal character of Roksana’s and Edrisi’s lines finally remindthe listener of a more typical early twentieth century expressionistic operatic style, withdevelopmental motivic support in the orchestra, similar to the vocal writing of early RichardStrauss or even Alban Berg. As the angry crowd demands justice for the blasphemy of theshepherd, the king orders him to be brought in. As the shepherd enters, the scene is-‘-3immediately transformed dramatically and musically. His first appearance is tenderlyannounced, starting at rehearsal 27, by the highest register of the solo violin soaring abovethe orchestra. In it we hear melodic germs of motives already heard in the opening chorusand the orchestral passage announcing the king’s entrance, except that this time they areembedded in a sensual musical setting, through the soaring and yearning Tristanesquechromatic lines in the violin and woodwinds. It ends with a poignant fermata which isprematurely disrupted by the aggressive whispers of the chorus “behold the blasphemer.”When the Shepherd mentions his own name and talks about his teachings, his lines areechoed once again by the solo violin, which for a moment dispels the profound and heavyatmosphere of the cathedral, but then again it is immediately stifled by the chorus. Imploredby Roksana, the king finally demands silence from the mob and commands the Shepherd tospeak. At rehearsal number 36 the Shepherd peacefully begins his song by saying “my godis as beautiful as I am.”8 Its sweet and calm melody in 3/4 supported only by the gentleaccompaniment of the strings is made more persuasive by its temporary tonal stability in Csharp minor. The opening melodic phrase (Figure 3) is the first leitmotif associated with theShepherd. He continues on revealing beautiful promises of love, fulfillment, and divineblessings. Teresa Chyliñska states that since Szymanowski did not know Hellenic monody,so in the Shepherd’s song he applied “a certain intuitive kinship, such as modal scales,measured trochaic meter and a descending melodic line, thus achieving the desired color andatmosphere.”98 Szymanowski, Konig Roger, 31.Teresa Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski: His Lfe and Works, Polish Music History Series, vol. 5, ed. WandaWilk, trans. John Glowacki (Los Angeles: Friends of Polish Music University of Southern California, 1993),191.CC’,C’,C’,NNCUCCC’,C)CC,CC.)©ICCXe,Jim Samson further points out that the intriguing musical feature of this song is that it growsout of the Byzantine motive (Example 1), which served as the main melodic material for thechurch music of the opening of Act 1.10 The king, together with Roksana and Edrisi, isdeeply affected by the strange power and behavior of the Shepherd.As the Shepherd continues to sing about his god and attributes of his faith, the crowd growsincreasingly mad while Roksana, totally captivated by him, takes up his song at rehearsalnumber 52 and, as if in a trance, seems to be completely won over by the Shepherd.Witnessing Roksana’s increasingly passionate song, the deeply alarmed king interrupts her,summoning her to silence, and is gradually joined by the aggressive threats of the choirdemanding the Shepherd’s sentencing to death. As the mob’s anger escalates to tremendousthreatening crescendo sounds in the whole orchestra and chorus, Roger, partly at the adviceof Edrisi, partly because of the Shepherd’s implorations, abruptly interrupts everybodyordering silence 3 measures before rehearsal number 76, and decides to let the Shepherd go.Then he changes his mind and challenges the Shepherd to return to the palace that night,where he will be subjected to his court. In order to delineate the king’s emotional innerstruggle and desperate attempt at maintaining control and power, Szymanowski introducestwo new leitmotifs. As the king orders silence, his leitmotif is full of restless urgency andforeboding mystery (rehearsal number 76, see Figure 4). At rehearsal number 79Szymanowski uses musical material previously heard after rehearsal number 4 as the musicof King’s grand entrance (Figure 2), which is now rearranged as a new leitmotif symbolizingthe shepherd (Figure 5).10 Samson, Music ofSzyrnanowski, 145.CDCDCl) C)- CJD N- CDC©CDC)Cl)Ccrc—.CC— Cl)CM_CD-Q‘-<CDC)ciCD)Cl)tTjoC)CCDCCd)-4CDCDrn-4CD-4pz C/)—.CC)CDCDCCD—-::rCDC© CDoCD(IQ-CDC/)0 0 U U© C) 0 CD k) CM C C) C CD C- Cl rn Cl 0 C p CD C C) rn CM C) ( CD Cl C CD C C 0(thus also illustrating the stage direction: “the Shepherd gives Roger a wonderful smile andlooks him in the eyes in a mysterious way”). The chorus reacts with half-voiced accusationsof blasphemy over the accompaniment of low strings, trombones and piano. As theShepherd exits, he reiterates his song in C sharp minor with which he first appeared, stillwith the high violin accompaniment, praising his own God at the outrage of the crowds.Act II takes place later at night in the courtyard of the palace. It begins with a longorchestral introduction full of anxiety, inner tension, and fear, represented musically throughrhythmically jagged motives outlining dissonant and whole tone harmonies, alternating withdream-like sections (rehearsal numbers 1-9). Roger’s doubts and uncertainties arerepresented by a new leitmotif in this opening scene (Figure 6) which is introduced in thefirst six measures by the cellos playing an agitated ascending portamento phrase which isimmediately answered by a descending glissando of the violins and flutes and reiterated by aan ascending semitone “question and answer” played by the English and French horns. It isreintroduced in later parts of the score most prominently at rehearsal numbers 177 and 178.Figure 6.© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG., Wien/UE 7750— Used by Permission.Similar nervousness and charged atmosphere continues in the king’s long dialoguewith Edrisi, during which Roger unveils his feelings of obvious fascination with what theShepherd represents, as well as his undeniable fear of it. At rehearsal number 35 the musicMolto ansioso ed agitato, ma non38changes as the approach of the Shepherd is heard from far away through the distant sound oftambourine and zither. The Shepherd’s proximity incites an immediate reaction fromRoksana who (at rehearsal number 39) bursts into a passionate aria from the adjacentgallery. The beautiful and exotic melody of Roksana’s aria, in which she pleads the king tobe merciful with the Shepherd, completely changes the tone of this scene. The aria has arelatively simple and stable harmony (anchored in C sharp minor/major, the Shepherd’stonality, and at rehearsal number 47 transposed in E flat major, then hinting at E major in theend.), especially effective in this context if compared with the extreme density of theopening scene of Act II. The aria, serving as the main musical pillar of this act, is strophic indesign and uses female chorus for moments of heightened intensity. It opens with an exoticvocalize echoed in the flute, which returns as a refrain and serves as a main unifying motive(Figure 7).Figure 7.Itj_______© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG.. Wien/UE 7750 Used by Permission.However it is the first proper phrase of the aria “Sleep bloody dreams of King Roger”starting after rehearsal number 41 which Szymanowski used in the rest of the opera asRoksana’s Leitmotif (Figure 8). Because of its beautiful melody and relative simplicity, thisSzymanowski, Konig Roger, 81.-3aria is definitely the most accessible and most memorable section of this opera. It is veryreminiscent of passages from Szymanowski’s earlier vocal compositions especially Songs ofFairy Tale Princess, op. 31, and Songs ofInfatuated Muezzin, Op. 42. It is often performedas a soprano solo aria, or a violin and piano piece transcribed by Pawel Kochanski who wasSzymanowski’s friend and a frequent performer of his works.Figure 8.p dolcLcs.ITrOu me Ro- gers_ von I3lut ldilt euch be- chwO- ren,(J -. cw trwa . ice sny kró Ia Ro - ge - ra,(9: I .. j.— sam !er Nucht,.... n k’ühI’_ Sam wit— des Her...___....._ SeinnieC1 bat - Sam no- spty - ide no je- go wo - Ii, nech#___© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG., Wien/UE 7750— Used by Permission.The music which immediately follows Roksana’s aria establishes a major change ofcolor, returning to the more dissonant language and declamatory vocal techniquescharacteristic of the anxious and agitated realm of the king’s psychological world which isquickly reintroduced at rehearsal number 50. Indeed, he dreads the imminent arrival of theShepherd, who finally arrives with a small crowd of his followers, dressed in an impressive40eastern costume richly decorated with jewels. Announced by trumpets, he provides the rightpassword: Roger. Szymanowski then writes an elaborate orchestral passage to describe hismajestic entrance and his movements in the same way in which Wagner occasionallydescribes the pantomime of his characters (rehearsal numbers 54-6 1). The Shepherd greetsthe king in “the name of great love” and in answering a series of questions that King Rogerasks him, he assures him that he has been praying for him in Benares by the banks ofGanges, and explains who he is and his beliefs. The Shepherd attempts to entice Roger inlong lyrical and luscious singing describing the sensual life that he and his followers enjoy(rehearsal numbers 65-83). Like everyone else, Roger is helpless against the power of theShepherd’s wondrous charisma, yet he becomes increasingly hostile until he can no longerbear the “blasphemy” and orders him to be silent (before rehearsal number 85). In themeantime crowds of people, beautiful women, boys and eunuchs gradually fill the courtyard,slipping through doors and windows, running down the steps, and eventually forming a widesemicircle on stage. An episode of strong seduction between Roksana and the Shepherdfollows, during which he occasionally imitates the music of her vocalize; as the angry kingand the conciliatory Edrisi join, the episode becomes the equivalent of an operatic ensemblein which each character expresses different emotions, culminating in King Roger’s yetanother threat (rehearsal numbers 89-110). After the Shepherd produces yet anotherseductive song (rehearsal number 110-121), he invites his companions to play music thatwould demonstrate the sensuous beauty of the world he is preaching for. An extended ritualdance of the followers of the Shepherd affords an opportunity for some spectacle and action.Throughout the first half of the opera little is happening on stage. Long and slowmoving evocations of the singers are often beautiful descriptions, or manifestations of inner41feelings. During this section however, the scene grows into a frenzy of sustained ecstasy andcolor. The dance is full of life, with complicated metric irregularities, percussive ostinati,and squeaking oboe passages. The richly ornamented dance melody and texture continue togrow in the 7/8 meter and incorporate seemingly authentic quasi-oriental melodies. The finaleffect of this dance was so convincing to some of Szymanowski’ s contemporaries that hehad to defend his compositional sources. In a letter dated on 26 of April 1927 Szymanowskiwrote to Zdzislaw Jachimecki:Concerning the theme of the dance, about which you ask, it is absolutely mypatent. I am delighted that I so succeeded in counterfeiting its ‘authenticity’that you felt obliged to search out truly ‘authentic’ sources for verification. Itis my triumph over the sweet ‘orientalism’ of the Rimsky’s e tutti quanti. 12Jim Samson further points out that it is significant that these two set numbers at the heart ofthe opera (Roksana’s aria and the dance of the followers of the Shepherd) “should embodythe elemental Dionysian impulses of song and dance, refinements of which had been a majoringredient of Szymanowski’s middle period music. Together they represent the last and themost eloquently seductive of the many calls of Dionysus in his music.”13At rehearsal number 132 the female chorus joins in with exotic chants now in a new,more anxious rhythm (3/8 Molto vivace, ansioso). Roksana appears in the upper gallery. Atfirst she is stopped by the king, but soon joins in the orgiastic dance and starts to singecstatically with the Shepherd. Her nonsensical moaning, which largely consists of themusical material used in the opening vocalize of her aria (Figure 9) can only be interpretedas the incoherent expression of the Dionysian spell, and of the erotic infatuation with theShepherd to which she has succumbed.2 Szymanowski, Karol Szymanowski Korespondencja 192 7-1931, vol. 3., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska (KrakOw: Musica lagellonica, 1997), 101.13 Samson, Music ofSzyrnanowski, 148.42Figure 9.(in tempo)© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG.. Wien/UE 7750— Used by Permission.As the entire court falls into a trance-like dance ofjoy with the Shepherd, the king finallyintervenes. His vocal line transforms into shouts of parlando ordering the guards to bind theShepherd, who then easily casts off his shackles, throws them at Roger’s feet, and invites thecourt to follow him into the realm of “indescribable ecstasy, freedom, and joy.” Once againthe Shepherd’s leitmotif is used extensively throughout this section. Roksana and the court,completely under the spell of the Shepherd, quickly disappear leaving the stage empty.Roger with his head buried in his hands is left alone with Edrisi. The whole-tone leitmotif ofthe opening of Act II returns at rehearsal numbers 177 and 178 (Figure 6) now with greaterintensity of expression. The king calls out Roksana’s name, but finds himself helplessagainst the power of the Shepherd. Five measures before rehearsal number 181 the leitmotifof Act I (Figure 4) once again symbolizes Roger’s anxiety and the mysteries of theunknown. First it is stated by the horn, and then answered by the English horn solo with anexact quote at half tempo. At rehearsal number 181 the full orchestra accelerates for 5measures towards the final sforzando fortissimo crush of the sixteenth /dotted quarter notemotive (4 measures before rehearsal number 182) by now associated with the king andrepresenting the clinging sound of the falling sword and crown. Now dressed as a pilgrim hesets off in search of Roksana and the Shepherd as always accompanied by Edrisi. The finalfive pizzicato notes of the strings one measure after rehearsal number 182 are semitonetranspositions of the descending notes of Roksana’s vocalize illustrated in Example 7, whichend on an austere open fifth.According to Szymanowski’ s stage directions, Act III takes place in the ruins of anancient amphitheater where King Roger and Edrisi have landed in their pilgrimage. Allaround old stones curve in a huge arch from the front to the back of the stage. Lusciousweeds and wild flowers grow out of crevices of the old steps of the theater. Also visible is alarge part of the wall blocking the view of the sea. On the stage there is nothing but longshadows of ancient ruins cast by the pale moonlight and the stars glowing brightly in thesky. It is a quiet but lugubrious tableau, in which only the sea tirelessly crashes on the shore.The slow opening of the music of Act III is sinister and dark. It corresponds wellwith Roger’s bleak and demoralized state of mind. The orchestral music consists of motivesoutlining ascending perfect fourths and their chromatic descents which have not been heardbefore, and a harmonic background rich in open fifths, and dissonances, thus suggesting theold, ruinous landscape (Figure 10).Figure 10.Lento assai. Mesla. PP —*(14 b-pp cspressjvoPPP- I—1-Li —a______(Vorh an g.)(ZasFona.)_-- 1)1/) ppprnp mf.,---—----——--—---------———9:4[h..3I —.__—-© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG., Wien/UE 7750—Used by Permission.44During Roger’s dialogue with Edrisi starting at rehearsal number 2, his vocal line takes oncharacteristics of accompanied recitative where the king muses about the meaning of hissearch. At rehearsal number 5 his vocal line becomes less restrained sounding more like anarioso. Edrisi encourages Roger to call Roksana’s name and to awaken the spirits of theancient theater. With a desperate cry, accompanied only by a C pedal note played by thestrings and timpani, the king calls out into the night. At rehearsal number 13 Roksanaanswers with a melodic motive derived from the opening vocalize of her Act II aria, but herreply is immediately followed by the call from the Shepherd. The king cries out inexasperation which is immediately answered by the Bacchanal chants of the women’s voicesnow singing behind the stage. Solo voices call out to the king mocking his authority of“shattered sword and scepter.” Roksana finally appears and invites the king to “follow herinto the gates of her palace” where he will “lie and rest in her bed.” In a soaring arioso shetells Roger that only the teachings of the Shepherd can free him from the loneliness of hisinner struggles. At first the king wants to confront the Shepherd, but eventually he joinsRoksana in building a sacrificial fire which flares up and illuminates the whole stage. Nowthe Shepherd appears at the top of the altar in the form of Dionysus, the god of beauty,sensuality and freedom. According to Szymanowski’s stage directions, the figure ofDionysus should be characterized by “something otherworldly, something emanating asource of light which drowns out everything in greater darkness.”14The stage fills with theShepherd’s followers who start a bacchanal dance of “unbearable joy.” The musical materialof this section comes to a full climax mixing themes already heard in previous sections. Itseems as if Szymanowski were throwing the whole of his musical vocabulary behind theShepherd’s appeal with every line of the orchestra oscillating in a wild frenzy. At the climax14 Szymanowski, Konig Roger, 181.45of the dance, Roksana removes her long robe and appears transfigured into a Greek maenad.She snatches the thyrsus from the side of the altar, runs wildly around the theater and finallydisappears among the dancers. As the dawn breaks and stars begin to disappear, theDionysian dance starts to fade and his followers begin to disappear. The flames of thesacrificial fire also disappear from the altar leaving the stage completely empty. The openingtheme of Act III partially returns, but is not completely developed. Edrisi, faithfully standingby his king, quietly asserts that “the dream is done! The chain of illusions is broken.” Thelight of the ascending sun finally breaks through the clouds and brightly shines on theamphitheater. Roger eagerly climbs the steps as if drawn by a mysterious power, stands atthe top of the stairs and salutes the sun. Here in the final pages of the opera his vocal linefinally achieves more freedom and strength. For the first time the king sounds reassured,dignified and content. Finally the orchestral accompaniment grows infused with previouslyheard material. It rushes to a huge crescendo on a very transparent C maj or harmony whilethe king extends his arms to the ascending sun as if offering in them a priceless gift.46CHAPTER 4Critical Interpretations of King Roger’s MeaningsFrom a purely chronological point of view King Roger premiered in 1926, after suchinfluential works as Debussy’s Felléas et Mélisande (1902), Strauss’ Salome (1905) andElektra (1909), Bartok’s Bluebeard ‘s Castle (191 8), and Korngold’ s Die tote Stadt (1920).Even though the audience may have been exposed to the musical and poetic style of Pelléaset Mélisande, or Die tote Stadt, therefore perhaps being somewhat prepared for a new kindof theater, it is not surprising that the premiere of King Roger, even though successfullyreceived, has left some critics wondering about the composer’s intentions. For the novelist,Juliusz Kaden-Bandrowski, who attended the first performance, the work was remote andunreal.King Roger, Roksana, and the Shepherd, the central figures of the opera areneither living people of an earlier time or era, nor characters from a fairy-tale,but rather if we can say it, programs of uncertain propensity, and so hazy thatthey are incapable of generating action, let alone conflict... Szymanowskicould give us something of significance where he to forget about these kings,whether Jewish (Hagith) or Sicilian, and take to his heart, our poor but so richurban life...The question whether or not the composer realized the implications of his innovationsbecomes even more intriguing when we seriously think about Szymanowski’s ownstatement to Iwaszkiewicz concerning the ambiguity of the plot.I preferred to bury everything in darkness and night, to conceal the Shepherdand his surroundings in it— so that the spectator himself ought to figure outwhat it is about, or else if he is an idiot, he should leave the theater stupefied,which I wish for him from the bottom of my heart. On the other hand I havebrought Roksana to the fore, and still more, the king who is the real hero ofthis act.2Karol Szymanowski, Karol Szymanowski Korespondencja 1920-1926, vol. 2., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska (Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1994), 472-473.2 Ibid., 217-218.47Szymanowski’s problems with lack of compositional inspiration regarding King Roger arewell documented, and his often challenging collaboration with Iwaszkiewicz has alreadybeen explained. However, judging by his own words, it seems that Szymanowski didanticipate difficulties with comprehension of King Roger by the audience. AfterSzymanowski’s death Iwaszkiewicz openly admitted this by saying:In regards to King Roger, today I would use a churlish expression and say thatwe “overdid” this matter.3Some of the keys to Szymanowski’ s intentions and ultimately to a better understanding ofthis opera can be found by exploring notions of genre, as well as several possible intellectualinfluences upon his thinking processes, from sources known to have been available to him,and connections with his own life.*King Roger as a musical work and/or philosophical concept is so ambitious and sodifferent from other operas that it is quite challenging to categorize it in any traditional way.Regardless of its compositional ingenuity, the opera does not attract traditional audienceneither with its story, nor its formal design. It lacks a sharp realistic outline and strongdramatic pulse. All three acts are in many respects very similar to one another. Each actstarts with waiting for the Shepherd, then his arrival, and finally his departure in greaterglory. There is no blood as in the original Bacchae and there is no realistic tragedy.Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz, Spotkania z Szymanowskim (KrakOw: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1981), 54.In this quotation Iwaszkiewicz uses a made-up word “przefajnowa1imy” which officially does not exist in thePolish language. Its closest approximation should be understood as “exaggerated.”48It has been often suggested that King Roger is not a traditional opera at all but a hybrid stagework embracing elements of Wagnerian music drama, oratorio, and mystery play.4 HenrykOpieñski suggested in Przeglqd Muzyczny in 1926 that King Roger is a dramatic poem inwhich there is “no romance, no love duets, no murders, no duels, in a word, none of thesupposedly indispensable elements of the operatic plot.”5 The largely through-composedcharacter of the music of each act combined with the use of leitmotifs, heavy emphasis onthe orchestra, and the predominance of the recitative-arioso easily could categorize KingRoger as a Wagnerian music drama. Szymanowski, like Wagner in Parsifal, combinesreligious attitudes, philosophical ideas and operatic conventions to create a hybrid stagespectacle which could be categorized (like Parsifal) as A Sacred Stage Festival Play. MoscoCarner in his review of orchestral score of King Roger also suggests that the work “may betaken as a Polish Buhnenweihfestspiel.”6Another similarity with Parsfal lies inSzymanowski’s use of the boys’ chorus in Act I. However Christopher Palmer’s suggestionof Roger finding redemption (like Amfortas) “through a young man fair of face”7 seems tobe a stretch, especially if we take into consideration Wagner’s repugnant Arian philosophywhich so prominently underlines his opera. Karol Berger also compared King Roger toWagner’s Tristan und Isolde suggesting that Szymanowski adopted the Romantic concept of‘Liebestod’ and inverted it in the final movement of his opera:Like the other scenes, also this one is a monologue with a rich commentaryfrom the orchestra, a confrontation of the protagonist with the deepest recessesof his soul. But instead of being a soprano, the protagonist is a baritone, hisconfrontation ends not with collapse and death at Dionysus’s altar, but with a4Zofia Helman, preface to Karol Szymanowski, ‘King Roger, 0p. 46, “Karol Szyrnanowski Gesaintausgabevol. XIV, gen. ed., Teresa Chyliñska (Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne and Vienna: UniversalEdition, Series D, 1973), VII.Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 2., 471.6 Mosco Carner, “Szymanowski, Karol, ‘Gesamlausgabe,’ Bd. 14: ‘Konig Roger, op. 46,” Music and Letters,vol. LVII, no. 1(1976), 80-8 1.Christopher Palmer, Szy,’nanowski. (London: BBC, 1983), 74.49gesture of rising to renewed life, and it takes place not during the night, but atdawn, with Szymanowski’s precise lighting instructions making the intendedsymbolism of repudiation of the night in favour of daylight abundantly clear.8In many ways King Roger also manifests characteristics of the oratorio. The staticnature of each act as set tableaux, the prominent role of the chorus throughout the opera, thevery limited action on stage, and the subject matter treated, are all oratorio characteristicswhich are comparable with similar twentieth century works such as Stravinsky’s OedipusRex. On the other hand, Chyliñska suggests that the visual significance and characteristiccolor of each act (first “Byzantine,” second “Arabian,” and third “Ancient”) together withthe dance sequence of act II and the Dionysian rites of act III, are all aspects of a mysteryplay.9 Taking into account all of the above features it must be pointed out that King Rogercan be quite satisfactorily performed in concert.10 Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz, the opera’slibrettist, also shed some light on the true nature of this opera when he introduced the workto the Polish public before the first performance of King Roger on June 19, 1926. He statedthat the work they are about to see is not a drama or an oratorio, but a sort of “mysterium”(mystery) different from all others and not modeled on anything else perhaps with theexception of Euripides’ Bacchae.” This is also how Szymanowski referred to it in themanuscript title page of the libretto. At first he called King Roger a “mysterium,” then forunknown reason he replaced the word “mysterium” with “opera.”12 Taking into account allthe possible categorizations for this work, I must agree with Alistair Wightman who8 Karol Berger, “King Roger’s ‘Liebesleben,” in Michal Bristiger, Roger Scruton, and Petra WeberBockholdt, eds., Karol Szyrnanowski in seiner Zeit (Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1984), 106.Teresa Chyliñska, Karol Szyrnanowski: His Life and Works, Polish Music Histoiy Series, 6 vols., ed. WandaWilk, trans. John Glowacki (Los Angeles: Friends of Polish Music University of Southern California, 1993),190.10 The opera had its Canadian premiere on February 11, 2001 presented by Toronto Opera in Concert inoriginal language as a concert version with 2 pianos.Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 2., 470.12 Autograph first page of the libretto in the preface to Szymanowski Gesamtausgabe, VIII.50suggests that perhaps it is best to regard King Roger as being “in a separate category ofstage-work altogether.”3As far as the meaning (or possible interpretation) of this work is concerned, KingRoger is most often described as a philosophical work, or opera of ideas. Most of all, thiswork clearly represents Szymanowski’s own tendency towards an ‘all embracingideological synthesis” or convergence of “numerous streams of thought”4that characterizehis compositional style and summarize his philosophy as an artist. In the first part of theopera Szymanowski attacks the traditional hierarchy of the church and state. At the sametime he questions the emotions of the human heart and mind which we all experience in thejuxtaposition of faith and reason. Christopher Palmer suggests that the central motive of thiswork has less to do with the conflict between Christianity and pagan cults (as it may appearon the surface of Act I), but with the fusion of Dionysian and Apollonian principles. Theopera presents and revolves around often-ambiguous version of the age-old struggle betweenApollo and Dionysus within all of humanity — between the powers of reason, order and self-discipline on the one hand, and on the other, powers of instinct, sexuality, self-indulgence,and the unconscious forces within all of us.15 Szymanowski combines ideas which havebeen emphasized in the fields of literature, philosophy, and psychology in late nineteenthand early twentieth centuries. His deep fascination with Nietzsche had a life long effect onhim. Seven years before Szymanowski conceived King Roger, Thomas Mann’s novellaDeath in Venice had a similar deeper meaning for him. It explored the dangerouslyinsubstantial dividing line between the higher and lower parts of human nature, between the13 Alistair Wightman, Karol Szymanowski. His Life and Work (Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Company, 1999),272.‘ Ibid., 274.15 Palmer, Szymanowski, 70.51man (Apollo) and beast (Dionysus).The two works also share “the theme of homosexualattraction, even though in King Roger it is much less explicit than in Death in Venice.”6If we choose to focus primarily on the Dionysian / Apollonian propensities as themain line of reasoning for this opera, then we must take into account the writings ofFriedrich Nietzsche, especially Szymanowski’s favorite book The Birth of Tragedy.Nietzsche’s descriptions of the Dionysian clearly correspond with the ideology of KingRoger. This is particularly obvious in his description of Dionysian intoxication, a state ofself-forgetfulness as expressed in a passionate song and dance:Under the influence of the Dionysian, not only is the union between man andman reaffirmed, but nature which has become alienated, hostile orsubjugated, celebrates once more her reconciliation with her ‘ost son,man. . .Now the slave is a free man; now all the rigid hostile barriers thatnecessity, caprice, or “impudent convention” have fixed between man andman are broken. Now with the gospel of universal harmony, each one feelshimself not only united, reconciled, and fused with his neighbor, but as onewith him, as if the veil of maya had been torn aside and were now merelyfluttering in tatters before the mysterious primordial unity. In song and dancethe man expresses himself as a member of a higher community; he hasforgotten how to walk and speak and is on the way towards flying into theair, dancing. His very gestures express enchantment. Just as the animals nowtalk, and the earth yields milk and honey, supernatural sounds emanate fromhim too: he feels himself a god, he himself now walks about enchanted inecstasy, like the god he saw walking in his dreams.’7Nietzsche’s ideology of Dionysian ecstasy clearly corresponds with parts of King Roger.Alistair Wightman suggests that the influence of Dionysian intoxication is underscored onlyin the first two acts of the opera where it is represented as “a confrontation of vital life-forces with hieratical systems of church and state, and by implication the mechanism of16 Ibid.17 Friedrich Nietzsche, The Birth of Tragedy And The Case of Wagner, trans. Walter Kaufmann (New York:Vintage Books, 1967), 37.52heart and mind that necessarily accompanies rigid adherence to such institutions.”18In myopinion the influence of Dionysian enchantment can be detected throughout the score, andthe character of the Shepherd / Dionysus can be seen as its catalyst.From the beginning of the opera the Shepherd is being described as a beautiful youthwith copper curls and a mysterious smile. The poetry of his Act I aria is an obviousdescription of god Dionysus / Bacchus (“adorned with a wreath of ivy” and “carrying abunch of grapes”) as he is traditionally portrayed in art and literature. The crowd representedby the chorus, even though antagonistic towards the Shepherd throughout Act I, cannotresist his charm. As the Shepherd begins to sing his aria, the chorus joins in at rehearsalnumber 37 singing sighs of infatuation supporting the F major harmony.When the Shepherd returns in Act lithe stage begins to fill with crowds of beautiful men,women, and boys who cannot resist the Shepherd’s charisma. He eventually invites theentire court to a ritual dance which obviously corresponds with Nietzsche’s description ofself-forgetfulness of Dionysian intoxication. The crowd completely helpless against theinfluence of the Shepherd follows him into the unknown and eventually completelydisappears. Finally, at the climax of Act III the Shepherd appears in the embodiment ofDionysus who proclaims his ultimate mystery.Furthermore, the Dionysian influence is also delineated in the character of Roksana.From the beginning of the story, she seems to be infatuated with the Shepherd andeverything that he represents. Furthermore, her entire vocal part (everything she sings) insome way pertains to the Shepherd. In Roksana’s first line of Act I she defends the unknownheretic and asks the king to summon him to trial. Then she inquires about his mysterious18 Alistair Wightman, “The book of ‘King Roger.’ Szymanowski’s opera in the light of his novel ‘Efebos,”Musica lagellonica, vol. 2 (1997): 212.smile, and ultimately succumbs to his power. In Act II she joins the Dionysian dance andeventually disappears with the Shepherd. Then finally in Act III she pleads with Roger tofollow the Shepherd, she builds the sacrificial fire, and finally appears transfigured as aGreek maenad.Even though the Shepherd / Dionysus may be seen as the catalyst, the realprotagonist of the opera is the king himself as the true and final hero and the onlycharacter who undergoes real development during the course of the action.Throughout the opera, Roger remains deeply affected by the Shepherd’s power.In the climax scene of Act III he joins Roksana in building sacrificial fire. However,he does not join the cult of the Shepherd / Dionysus. He discovers that the religion ofpleasure, which the Shepherd represents, is in its own way just as much of astereotype as the ritual dogmatism of the church. Instead, he chooses the isolationand worship of the ascending sun. It is only when Roger has experienced theDionysian mysteries that he appears to find the inner strength and understanding tofollow his own path. This is not a path of rejection, but a path of inclusion andbalance. His newly acquired self-knowledge allows him to make the further steps,which take him beyond the forms of religion, or traditions that surround him. Whileacknowledging the vital power and need of Dionysus within all of us, he turns in theend towards the light of the rising sun. By offering his heart as a gift, Roger’s gesturecan be interpreted as a symbol of the direct emotional contact of a single humanbeing with his own divinity, or as it may be interpreted, with the “pantheisticabsolute.” He emerges as a complete man embracing life in all its richness and54complexity, a man who from now on must learn how to balance and controlDionysian and Apollonian behavior in his every day life.Zofia Helman suggests that Szymanowski wanted to convey through the contents ofKing Roger “his own, rather specific philosophical conception of religion, in which orientalpantheistical mysticism is intermingled with Hellenism and Christianity.”9In my opinionKing Roger should not only be interpreted as a conception of religion, but more precisely asa work about personal faith. It must be further explained that the opera does not pertain tothe substance of faith or a theological doctrine. King Roger can be seen as representing threedifferent aspects of religion, or more precisely, our personal attitudes towards religion. Thefirst and most obvious one is the Apollonian: the official or institutionalized religionrepresented by the church and clergy. The second is the Dionysian: the free and spontaneousmovement as represented by the followers of the Shepherd. And the third: represents theindividual, highly personal, intellectual and emotional contact of each human being withthat, which for each and every one of us represents the symbol of highest personal value ordivinity.A significant layer of complexity pertaining to symbolism in this opera concernsSzymanowski’s “favorite little idea regarding the secret relationship between Christ andDionysus.”2°Szymanowski refers to this notion early on in his novel Efebos where heequates the figures of Dionysus, Christ and Eros in Korab’s impressions at the sight of thehuge wooden crucifix hanging in St. Mary’s Church in KrakOw:Only then did I grasp who he really was! He — Christ — Eros! Sooner than thethird crowing of the cock! . . . What a shocking implacable certainty ofsuperhuman loneliness. And then He - Son of God — Christ — Eros appearing19 Helman, preface to Szyinanowski Gesarntausgabe, VII.20 Karol Szymanowski, Karol Szymanowski Korespondencja 1903-1919, vol. 1., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska (KrakOw: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1982), 567.55for the last time at his most sorrowful feast in the world, felt suddenly that heis a stranger and will be handed over to the mob; and this was his greatestsuffering, suffering of the one, who loved God — not Jehovah, not theformidable Adonis, the relentless judge of his deeds, but one born of love, ofunlimited freedom, with an inextinguishable yearning for eternity. Who lovedhis neighbor with a mysterious, flaming ardor of being, with a relentlessyearning of uniting with the everlasting, creative essence of the entire world,which shined with brilliance in the inscrutable eyes of the Lydian God withbright curls crowned with ivy and roses and a flowered lyre in his hand.Paolo Emilio Carapezza further elaborates on the myth of Christ and Dionysus:The myths of Apollo and Dionysus which represent a new era in the Greekworld of gods, converge in the being of Jesus Christ. He came like Dionysus,‘so that everyone could become one, like You Father, in me, and Tin you, inorder that they become one in us.’ Christ, like Apollo, gives man a godlyeternal existence, ‘so that he would have an everlasting life. And I willresurrect him in judgment day.’ That is why Roger’s loneliness is evidence ofa radical deepening of his myth.22The secret relationship between Christ, Dionysus and Eros may have been Szymanowski’sfavorite little idea; however this is very difficult to demonstrate, especially when we don’tknow the entire content of his novel. Nevertheless it is clear that King Roger can also beinterpreted as a work about tolerance. Szymanowski’s treatment of the followers of theShepherd is surprisingly non-dramatic. They are presented in the aura of tenderness andpeace. Similarly, the character of Edrisi is very tolerant and represents the voice of reasonthrough the opera. Roksana is trying to reconcile her love for the king and infatuation withthe Shepherd. The initial hostility of the clergy and the mob in Act I never materialize in anyway. Even Roger himself eventually surrenders against the Shepherd’s powerful message. Itis known from Szymanowski’s correspondence that through the Shepherd’s characterSzymanowski wanted to combine characteristics of John the Baptist, youthful Christ and21 Karol Szymanowski, Pisina (Writings), vol. 2: Pisma Literackie (Literary Writings), ed. Teresa Chyliñska(KrakOw: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1989), 127.22 Paolo Emilio Carapezza, “Król Roger’ midzy Dionizosern i Apollinem,” trans. Jerzy Stankiewicz, ResFacta, vol. 9(1982): 61.56young Bacchus.23 Furthermore, Józef Opaiski suggests that if we take into consideration themessage of Efebos, the meaning of King Roger appears to be a “grand hynm in honor oflove. A love in all of its manifestations and changes, powerful principle encompassinghumanity, nature, and the universe [...] the plot of the opera is barely a pretext for thisfascination, which Szymanowski wanted to express, at first through his literary form andlater through the music. The ending of the work becomes a primeval hymn in honor of love,overflowing in a passionate nirvana worthy of Wagner’s Liebestod.”24A less widely acknowledged interpretation concerning King Roger pertains to theunderlying psychological struggle with narcissism. According to Stephen Downes the“beautiful young Shepherd who arrives at Roger’s court proclaiming a new religion has longbeen identified as the embodiment of specific aspects of Roger’s psyche.”2Downes pointsout that the Shepherd’s narcissism is simply “unmistakable.” In his aria of Act I he openlyproclaims “My god is as beautiful as I am (see Figure 11) and then continues by saying:My God admires himself in the mirror of the watersIn darkness of the glassy waves he looks at himselfIn search of his own smile!26Downes suggests that Szymanowski would have been attracted to the myth of Narcissusbecause of its “mythic exploration of themes of erotic transgression is reflected in much ofthe art and literature he admired, and is also suggestive of modern, psychological analyses ofsexuality.”2723 Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 1., 563.24 JOzef Opalski, ‘Idea Program Teatru Wielkiego (Grand Theater Program Notes) (Warsaw: 1983).25 Stephen Downes, “Szymanowski and Narcissism,” Journal ofthe Royal MusicalAssociation, vol. 121 no. 1(1996): 70.26 Karol Szymanowski, Konig Roger (Der Hirt,) / Król Roger (Pasterz,), op. 46, ed. Arthur Willner (Vienna andNew York: Universal Edition, 1925), 36-37.27 Stephen Downes, Szymanowski, Eroticism and the Voices ofMythology (Burlington, Vermont: AshgatePublishing Limited, 2003), 57. The second movement of Szymanowski’s Mythes, Op. 30 for violin and pianois titled Narcissus.57-lt 11 r rMein Gott 1stMj Bog frt_______© Copyright 1925 by Universal Edition AG., Wien/UE 7750— Used by Permission.He further points out that in the “Athenian cult of beauty, the ideal object of erotic desirewas found either in an Apollonian, muscular, lean and athletic adolescent who seemed tofreeze transient, youthful beauty in a flight from death and decay, or in a chthonian andeffeminate Dionysian figure.”29 In the Symposium-Feast section of Efebos where composerMarek Korab discuses possible subjects for dramatic treatment with his companion AloLowicki, Szymanowski describes Dionysus in the following words:This ephebe, with a sensual mouth, a patterned, colorful chiton, a saffroncolored cloak with an untreated skin draped over his shoulders— an ephebewith long curls, glittering with a coppery brilliance, falling on both sides ofFigure 11., 1Andante tranquillissimo e dolce.)sempre con Ped29 Ibid.58the delicate and beautiful young face, with deep seated eyes full of fire andinscrutable, eternal 30Such an image, or more importantly the interpretation of its meaning, suggests that thenarcissism has a possible erotic, even homoerotic message. This is also pointed out inTadeusz Zieliñski’s introduction to the Russian translation of The Bacchae. Its importancefor Szymanowski and Iwaszkiewicz has already been mentioned. After Szymanowski’sdeath Iwaszkiewicz clearly stated that other translators and philosophers did not see (orconsidered unimportant) the “sensual excitement and unhealthy curiosity of Pentheus, whichfinds its echo in all of Roger’s meetings with the mysterious Shepherd.”3’Szymanowski waswell aware of potential implications of his subject matter. In conclusion of his final sketch ofthe libretto he asked Iwaszkiewicz if “he will not be offended by the orgiastic nature of theaction?” However he concluded by saying that “it is necessary for emphasizing thefundamental motives of the drama.”32According to Zdzislaw Jachimecki one other possible interpretation of the principalidea of King Roger is the understanding of the leading hero as a symbol of freedom:Szymanowski’ s opera constitutes a uniqueness all of its own. The tension indirection, the dynamics of the inner action lead from an enslaved spirit to itsjoyful liberation, from the tyranny of a dead form to the highestunderstanding of the heavenly sense of the world, mankind and life.33In the traditional sense, such poetic ambiguity and lack of realism undoubtedlycomplicate the perception of this opera. Teresa Chylinska suggests that the entire ending ofKing Roger is only a “suggestion.”34However, it is my opinion that the strength of this30 Karol Szymanowski, “Sympozjum-Uczta” (Symposium-Feast) in Szymanowski, Pisma Literackie, vol. 2,143- 144.31 Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz, Spotkania z Szyrnanowskim, 55.2 Szymanowski, Korespondencja, vol. 1., 566-567.Zdzislaw Jachimecki, Karol Szyinanowski. Rys dotychczasowej twórczoscci (An outline of Szymanowski’ slife and work) (Krakow: Sklad Glówny w Ksigarni Jagieloflskiej, 1927).‘ Chylifiska, Karol Szymanowski(1993), 186.59opera lies in its freedom of interpretation. Because of its ambiguity, this work can provide awide array of possibilities for dramaturgical treatment, which can be quite fascinating for asophisticated and perceptive audience. In spite of unavoidable misconceptions, this work hasthe power to convey a clear personal message to each individual audience member.*As already discussed, the influence of Nietzsche’s philosophy of Dionysian andApollonian propensities as inseparable dualities of every human being (and/or work of art)has surely been Szymanowski’s primary source of inspiration. Much attention has been paidto those parts of The Birth ofTragedy which talk specifically about Dionysian rites.Surprisingly enough, however, nothing has been said about the first six chapters of the bookwhere Nietzsche repeatedly refers to his philosophy regarding dreams. It is my intent toshow in the remainder of this chapter that an approach to King Roger through Nietzsche’sideas on dreams might provide a more direct and fruitful venue to its understanding.In the first chapter of The Birth of Tragedy Nietzsche clearly indicates that in orderto grasp the Dionysian and Apollonian tendencies, we first must conceive of them as theseparate art worlds of “dreams and intoxication,” which present a “contrast analogous to thatexisting between the Apollonian and the Dionysian.”35Nietzsche further explains:The beautiful illusion of the dream worlds, in the creation of which everyman is truly an artist, is the prerequisite of all plastic art, and, as we shall see,of an important part of poetry also. In our dreams we delight in the immediateunderstanding of figures; all forms speak to us; there is nothing unimportantor superfluous. But even when this dream reality is most intense, we stillhave, glimmering through it, the sensation that it is mere appearance.36When we visualize the libretto of King Roger as a dream it is much easier to understand.The seemingly odd concept of bringing to life the Greek god Dionysus in the context ofNietzsche, Birth of Tragedy, 3336 Ibid., 34.60Christian medieval Sicily does no longer seem so strange: as in dreams, all characters -“figures, and all forms”- speak to us even though they are “mere appearances.” Nietzschealso provides a statement which can serve as an explanation for the final appearance of theShepherd in Act III as the god Dionysus.It was in dreams, says Lucretius, that the glorious divine figures (Apollo andDionysus) first appeared to the souls of men; in dreams the great shaperbeheld the splendid bodies of superhuman beings; and the Hellenic poet, ifquestioned about the mysteries of poetic inspiration, would likewise havesuggested dreams and he might have given an explanation like that of HansSachs in the ‘Meistersinger’:The poet’s task is this, my friend,to read his dreams and comprehend.The truest human fancy seemsto be revealed to us in dreams:all poems and versificationare but true dreams’ interpretation.37Szymanowski’s conception of King Roger as a dream is manifested in both the musicand the libretto. The music clearly represents the murky character of the drama and poeticsymbolism of this work, also characteristic to the world of dreams. The style and musicalflow of King Roger is quite different from the “bloody” dramas of Richard Strauss, eventhough Szymanowski’s compositional style has undoubtedly been influenced by thiscomposer. It also lacks the poignancy of dramatic tension of Italian verismo operas. Asmentioned, the musical action unfolds in continuous episodes, not unlike those of a dream.There are no clearly designed dialogues between characters. Their often long and lethargicstatements (such as the arias of Roksana and the Shepherd) are rather repetitive, and slightlydisjunct and incoherent, as thoughts in dreams can be. The overall archaic character of eachact combined with the often unexpected textures of the orchestra, and clear lack of dramaticrealism, all help to create a somewhat otherworldly, strange, and improbable atmosphere.Ibid.61This is not to say that King Roger suffers from lack of dramatic moments. As we have seen,the various appearances of the characters and situations are accompanied by appropriatemusical imagery that provides both tension and gradual intensifications and culminations ofemotions. Yet as Jim Samson points out, “Szymanowski’s best music is contemplativerather than dramatic, concerned with variation and elaboration rather than the contrast andthe opposition of its basic materials, and the conflict at the heart of the opera’s theme is notexploited in its musical language.”38Thus, many long passages, through static chromaticharmony, instrumentation with harp, woodwinds and violin, exploit what can be easilyrecognized as musical imagery of dreams.The libretto has even more hints that the drama is supposed to be taken as a dream.The entire action of this opera takes place during one night. Act I starts at the time of theevening vespers, Act II takes place in the middle of the night, and Act III continues untildawn and culminates with the rising of the sun. This in itself may be disregarded as anentirely customary dramatic choice, especially when we compare King Roger with operas ofSzymanowski’s contemporaries such as Strauss’ Salome, Schoenberg’s Erwartung, orBartok’s Bluebeard ‘s Castle where the action also takes place entirely at night. However,what differentiates Szymanowski’ s night setting from other similar works is his applicationof direct or poetic references to dreaming, sleeping, or waking, which are cleverly dispersedthroughout the score. In my opinion it is through these subtle textual hints that the spectatorcan become conscious of the dream as the true intent of this opera. The word ‘night’ ismentioned 10 times throughout the score and the word ‘star’ (or ‘stars’) has been referred toJim Samson, The Music ofSzymanowski (New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1981), 150.6214 times. More importantly, as illustrated by Table 1, there are 19 separate phrases whichdirectly refer to the word ‘dream’ or ‘sleep’ either in its singular or plural form.Table 1:Act: Bars: Phrase: Character:115-118 Twe dobre, radosne sny! Królu! EdrisiYour good, joyful dreams!_0 king!204-206 w sadzawkach drzemiq swiatla Edrisilights_slumber_in pools206-208 odbicia sennych gwiazd Edrisireflections_ofsleepy_stars222-224 Tam w stronie drzemiqcychprzedmies’é! EdrisiThere in the direction ofslumbering suburbs!25 1-252 iisnjcie krwawe sny krdla Rogera Roksanasleep_bloody_dreams_ofKing Roger520-521 Up swój lçk i gniew, Rogerze! RoksanaPut to sleep yourfear and wrath, Roger!550-557 u.snUcie krwawe sny króla Rogera Roksanasleep_bloody_dreams_ofKing Roger5 94-596 U’pU swoj gniew i lk RoksanaPut to sleep your_wrath_andfear689-69 1 sennym wirem barwnych tcz Shepherdwith the dreamy whirl of colorful rainbows904-906 Sen piany RoksanaDreamfoamIII 29-31 Do snu miç koz’ysze witanie RogerThe dawn lulls me to sleep3 1-33 niepokdj usypiajak dzieci Rogeranxiety puts me to sleep_like_a_child47-48 w zniszczony lachman snow Rogerin_tattered rags_ofdreams66-67 wpustce drzemie siny lk Rogerin_emptiness slumbers_bluefear73-74 Zbudzió widma? Zaklqó sny? RogerAwake the specters? Charm the dreams?154-156 srebrny czar snow Edrisisilver charm ofdreams3 59-360 usmiecha si sen tvvOj nieprzesniony Shepherdyour_unfulfilled dream smiles362-3 63 Wielkiej mocy sen ShepherdDream_ofgreat might419-22 Frzeniony sen! Stargany lañcuch ziud! EdrisiThe dream is done! The chain of illusions is broken!63In order to clearly demonstrate the significance of these textual hints, it must be understoodthat the Polish noun ‘sen’ has two separate meanings: leep’ and ‘dream’. When the noun‘sen’ is transformed into plural ‘sny’, only then it is understood as ‘dreams’. Such linguisticsubtleties are not easy to hear in the context of Szymanowski’s advanced compositionalstyle. The very poetic character of the text is also difficult to grasp even for a native Polishspeaker. Furthermore, the libretto is so florid and lyrical in its nature that it can almost beread independently as a dramatic poem.But most importantly, the most revealing statements referring to dreams are clearly declared:they occur during important moments in the opera, and they belong to each of the four maincharacters including Edrisi, Roksana, Roger, and the Shepherd.At the beginning of Act lithe king’s nervousness is clearly portrayed by the music.Throughout the opening dialogue with Edrisi we discover Roger’s mysterious attraction tothe Shepherd. It is during this section that Edrisi makes the first references to a dream:EDRISI: Inconceivable is fear, it shakes off your good, joyfull dreamslike gale the petals ofjasmine! 0 king!The overall poetic idea is quickly picked up by Roksana in the opening phrase of her aria asif reinforcing what has already been said.ROKSANA: Sleep now bloody dreams of King RogerLet the balm of night flow down on your lipsLet craving vengeful heart fill itself with grace.4°For the rest of Act II, as Roksana dances and moans incoherently, she keeps repeating thetwo lines of her aria which refer to Roger’s dream:ROKSANA: Put to sleep your fear and wrath, RogerSleep bloody dreams of King RogerSzymanowski, Konig Roger, 72.40Ibid., 81.64Direct references to sleeping, dreaming and waking occur at the beginning of Act III whereRoger describes his emotions to Edrisi:ROGER: The dawn lulls me to sleepMy anxiety falls asleep like a childOh where is my beloved? 41EDRISI: Call it, call it, awake it!ROGER: Today the king is a vagabond and a beggarwho extends the longing of his arms for a gift of almshiding his empty heart in tattered rags of dreams! 42EDRISI: Call it, call it, awake it!ROGER: In emptiness slumbers blue fearthe procession of specters floats in dance.Awake the specters? Charm the dreams?Roksana! Roksana!43ROKSANA: Roger! Roger!EDRISI: Awoken! Awoken charm!44As the Dionysian mystery of Act III is being revealed, the Shepherd says:SHEPHERD: The mystery is smiling, depths become all clear now.At the bottom of your lonely heart, lies your dream.Unfulfilled dream of great might!Finally the most revealing statement occurs at the end of Act III. As the followers of theShepherd completely leave the stage, the texture of the music becomes thinner. At rehearsalnumber 63 we only hear faint melodic fragments of the opening of Act III now played by theflute. Edrisi, as if regaining his own consciousness, clearly says:EDRISI: The dream is done! The chain of illusions is broken!4641 Ibid., 157.42Ibid., 161.Ibid.Ibid., 162.‘ Ibid., 183-185.65It is this final line that seems to confirm all the previous intimations. When it is so clearlyarticulated, we implicitly become aware that all along we might have been witnessing adream. Furthermore, if we interpret the character of Edrisi as the true voice of reason in thisopera, then his first and last reference to Roger’s dream will seem even more poignant. It isalso important to point out that this section ends with an interesting musical pause. As Edrisifinishes his last line (his final statement of this opera), Szymanowski puts perdendosi in bar422, then he separates bar 422 and 423 with a double bar, and at rehearsal number 64 slowsthe tempo with an allargando so at that point, for a brief and meaningful moment, the musiccomes to a stop. After a long quarter note pause, the music slowly continues with the partialmelodic quote of the opening of Act III after which Roger continues by saying “Edrisi, it isdawn.”47 This musical moment can be interpreted as Roger’s partial awakening from hisdream. It may represent that mysterious instant where one is still asleep, but somehowconscious enough to know that the unexplained vision before one’s eyes is a dream.Nietzsche refers to this experience in The Birth ofTragedy explaining it in the followingwords:And perhaps many will, like myself, recall how amid the dangers and terrorsof dreams they have occasionally said to themselves in self-encouragement,and not without success: ‘It is a dream! I will dream on!’ 48Furthermore, the finale which starts at rehearsal number 64 with Roger’s “hymn tothe sun” is a poetic and philosophical culmination of this work. Teresa Chyliñska suggeststhat none of those writing about King Roger has pointed out the real meaning of thesymbolism of that “particular sun” in which Roger rediscovers his spiritual sense andliberation. Aside from the more literal meaning of awakening to the day light, she points out46 Ibid., 203.Ibid.48 Nietzsche, Birth of Tragedy, 35.66that one must particularly remember the strong ties between the composer and the ideologyand art of “Young Poland” movement. The motive and symbolism of the sun has had anunusually rich history. “At the base of Young Poland’s “solarism” (besides the search fornew transcendentalism) lies the collective will (brought down from all directions into onehearth) of might and happiness.” The sun was at times a symbol of collective yearning fornational freedom and social justice, and at times a sign of personal ideology. The yearningfor the sun indicates in this last instance “an aspiration to the unattainable ideal, archetypicalParadise Lost; the “sun of mankind,” “sun of brotherhood,” “sun-life,”— a multi-vocalindicator of spiritual freedom and liberation of thought.”49This was probably the kind ofspiritual sense that Roger struggled for and why Szymanowski desired above all to avoid aliteral and declarative finale. It eventually remained “... a keenly symbolic musical openingfor that, about which the work itself does not speak, but what becomes visible on the brighthorizon as intuition and conjecture..Szymanowski’s opera, reflecting the long-lasting influence of “Young Poland’s”ideology in general, owes specific debt to Szymanowski’s two favorite “Young Poland”writers, Tadeusz Miciñski and Stanislaw Wyspiañski. Tadeusz Micinski (1873-1918) was apoet and playwright. He studied philosophy at the University of Krakow, and is consideredto be the forerunner of Polish Expressionism and Surrealism. Links between Miciñski andSzymanowski exist at all stages of the composer’s career. They include the early settings ofMiciñski’s poetry WMroku Gwiazd (In the Twilight of the Stars, op. 11), the setting of thepoet’s translation of Jalal’al-Din Rumi for the Third Symphony, the programmatic ideasoriginating in Miciñski’s poetry for the Concert Overture, op. 12 and the First Violin“p Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski (1993), 186.Bohdan Pociej, Karol Szymanonwski, Program Teatru Wielkiego (Grand Theater Program Notes) (Warsaw:1983).67Concerto, Op. 35, and finally the incidental music for the drama Kniaz Patiomkin, op. 51(Prince Potemkin), dating from 1925.Teresa Chyliñska has shown that King Roger also demonstrates strong influence ofMiciñski’s drama Wmrokach zlotegopalacu, czyli Bazylissa Teofanu (In the Dusk ofaGolden Palace, or Bazilissa Teofanu), dating from 1909. It is considered to be “one of themost original works of Polish theater, unusual for its intellectual novelty, scenic solutions,handling of crowd scenes, and the play of movement and light”.’1 This drama, dedicated byMiciñski to “those on the further shore: Juliusz Slowacki and Friedrich Nietzsche ingeneral those Appolonians or Dionysians who became it seems mighty illustrious, but not onthe daily bread of all-embracing false nourishment. ,,52 combines, like King Roger, seriesof tableaux set in the medieval world, in this case tenth century Constantinople. There arefurther obvious parallels with King Roger, namely the cultural and religious ideology, themixture of Byzantine, Norman, and ancient Greek mythology, and in particular a centralcharacter attempting to confront the Dionysian within herself:I want to realize my destiny! To meet face to face the great Hellenic divinitywithin myself— I already having the light of the East, the Queen of Saba —{...] impregnated by the hurricane of the warm fires of Arabia, having inmyself the winged sun of the desert, I will raise my Hellade to new life — oh,I will make the whole earth joyful.3The Polish theatrical director Leon Schiller (1887-1954), who worked with Szymanowski,subsequently reported that the composer valued this play in particular as he believed that itconstituted a new form for Polish monumental drama. Indeed there is a remarkable parallelbetween the opening scene of King Roger and that of Miciñski’ s drama. Both open with aTeresa Chyliñska, “Karol Szymanowski i Tadeusz Miciñski,” in Maria Podraza-Kwiatkowska, ed., Studia oTadeuszu Mycinskim (Studies on Tadeusz Micitiski) (Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1979), 332.52 Ibid., p. 332.Ibid., p. 335-668liturgical scene at the cathedral, after the curtain raises a monastic hymn is heard, and finallythere are Miciñski’s scenic directions for this tableaux, which are reminiscent not only ofSzymanowski’s own descriptions of the scenery for King Roger, but also of some of theopulent imagery deployed in a number of scenes in Efebos. The parallels betweenMiciñski ‘ s stage directions and those included in Szymanowski’ s orchestral score of theopera, are obvious.It is fascinating to observe how Szymanowski not only continued to hide himselfaway in this exotic, imaginary world long after he had escaped the carnage of World War I,but quite deliberately reverted to “Young Poland’s” creative landscape at this stage in hiscareer.Chylinska also emphasizes the constant presence of Miciñski within Szymanowski’simaginative poetic world, and the fact that “the appearance of the symbol of the sun inMiciñski’s poetry encompassed Young Poland’s incomparable capacity: from a syncreticreligious symbol of the Sun-Christ, through the signs of spiritual renewal and inner strengthprimarily of the individual, but also national. Miciñski was, one might say, the priest whorestored anew the sun myth and the religion of the sun.”54 In this context it is especiallysignificant that Basilissa Teofanu also closes with solar references:Love me and the sun, my children, and if it is difficult for you to do this atany time— then just the Sun!Chylinska also points out the similarities existing between Tadeusz Miciñski’s keyideas with those of Stanislaw Wyspiañski (1869-1907) who portrayed Christ in his dramaAcropolis riding in a golden chariot as Christ-Apollo, or Christ-Savior. Wyspiañski was oneof the most outstanding and versatile artist of his time. He produced a diversity of works,Chyliñska, Karol Szyinanowski (1993), 186.Ibid.69comprising paintings (including several exquisite studies of children and Krakow scenes),stained glass, furniture, and series of theater dramas, including the celebrated Wesele (TheWedding). He successfully joined “Young Poland” trends of modernism with themes ofPolish nationalism. In series of stained glass windows in Franciscan church in Krakow heexpresses enormous dose of religious emotion. He wrote many dramas covering crucialmoments of Polish history. His famous drama The Wedding is almost sadly sarcastic view ofthe 19th century Polish society. It is considered to be Poland’s greatest dramatic work, and ithad its genesis in a real event, the wedding of Wyspiañski’s friend, the well known poetLucjan Rydel, to Jadwiga Mikolajczyk, a peasant girl from the near by village of Bronowice.At the wedding feast, which took place on November 20, 1900 and lasted for three days,there was an unprecedented mingling of social classes with the guests including peasantsand members of Krakow’s high society. By February of 1901, Wyspiañski had written thedrama and in March of that year it was staged in Krakow.The structure of the drama is that of the traditional puppet show (Szopka) of the typestaged at Christmas time. In such shows, the puppets appear on the stage, have their say, andthen disappear for a time while other characters continue developing the story. In the drama,the action takes place in a room where the dancing is going on. Characters wonder in, stayfor a while, and then rejoin the dancing throng. However, not all the protagonists in thedrama are human. Some are what Wyspiañski called Dramatis Personae. They includeapparitions, legendary and mythological characters, and some historical figures. Theirimportance and participation increase as the drama develops and the wedding feast begins tobe pervaded by an aura of the supernatural. Mysterious ghosts begin to appear to some of theguests. Hidden hurts, manifestations of concealed personal complexes and longings are70given voice, where the strongest among them is the dream of national independence. It iseventually symbolized by the rays of the ascending sun therefore relating Wyspiañski ‘5ideas with the ideology of “Young Poland” and King Roger in particular. Szymanowski,who was deeply affected by this work, drew on Wesele as a major source of inspiration forhis ballet Harnasie. He also used Wyspiañski’s drama Achilles for the words of Penthesilea,op. 18, as well as Wyspiañski’s translation of Veni Creator in his setting for solo voice,chorus and orchestra, composed in 1930 under the same title.Chylinska suggests “without a doubt that Young Poland’s religious syncretismaffected young Szymanowski’ s imagination. With all certainty the undercurrent of the sacralsun was evidence, although in a more concealed form, of a longing for faith, search for adivinity, need to experience religion, and to recover one’s sense.”56 It is particularly evidentin Roger’s final hymn to the sun, even though the questionable and somewhat hastycharacter of its final cadence has been criticized by musicologists. They often refer to it asundeserved or unprepared, “a postulate rather than realization.”’7Jim Samson hascommented on the cadence of King Roger suggesting that Szymanowski’s impressive hymnto the sun is “marred by a final cadence which sounds curiously premature andinconclusive.”58Christopher Palmer continues the argument comparing the coda of KingRoger to the final cadence of Skriabin’s Prometheus:There is an interesting precedent here— the coda of Skriabin’s ‘Prometheus’where ‘dans un vertige’, the music hurls itself deliriously forward, alights onan F sharp major triad— and then, without a word of warning, ‘finis opens.’Again the immediate effect is ‘premature and inconclusive’. Could weperhaps in these two cases be dealing with a musical symbol of some56 Ibid.Berger, “King Roger’s ‘Liebesleben,” in Bristiger, 109.58 Samson, Music ofSzymanowski, 150.71blinding moment of revelation which renders superfluous all normalprocesses of preparation and resolution?My answer is yes. The cadence of Act III, as the end of the hymn to the sun and aconclusion to the entire work, provides the final and decisive clue towards the understanding(or interpretation) of this opera as a dream. At rehearsal number 73 (Figure 12) the musicclimaxes on a strong D major harmony. From that moment on it becomes underscored witha C pedal just as it did in previous sections of the opera including the calling of Roksana atthe beginning of Act III and then the scene of Dionysian revelation. At rehearsal number 74Szymanowski seems to quote a short melodic germ from Tristan und Isolde, which is settledthree bars later on a clear C major harmony. As the orchestra oscillates with a thick tremolo,it immediately hurls itself in a molto crescendo towards a fast ascending glissando of theharps and piano, which is abruptly cut of by the sforzandofortissimo accented downbeat ofthe entire orchestra. The musical effect of the final two bars creates an impression ofaccelerated climax which can convincingly represent very abrupt awakening from a visionor a dream.Palmer further speculates about the significance of the C major harmony and thepossibility of Szymanowski’s Third Symphony having some relation to King Roger.It is worth recalling that C major is the home key of the ‘Third Symphony’,the work which represents a pantheistic merging of ego-dominated passioninto nature. It is possible that the seemingly abrupt final cadence of both‘Prometheus’ and ‘King Roger’ had some arcane significance for thecomposers, on the nature of which we can do no more that speculate.6°The two works indeed share many similarities. The Third Symphony, also know as The Songofthe Night, has been composed between 1914 and 1916.Palmer, Szyrnanowski, 78.° Ibid.72C)) C) C) -4t1CDC)C) -4-C)C) d-o L(I)-C)-0-4-C))C) C)C)J) -40 C) :D) 0 0C)-4 C)C)© C -t t) C CD Vt CD C 0 C CD C Tj CD C C CD CMCt0CDCtranscendental beauty and mystery of the night. Harry Halbreich in his study on King Rogerpoints out the importance of The Third Symphony as Szymanowski’s study piece in thesame fashion as Debussy’s Nocturnes (1897-99) became a study for his Pe’lleas etMélisande, or Alban Berg’s Three Pieces Op. 6 (1914-15) for Wozzeck. 62 In the theater ofthe imagination it is easy to visualize how The Third Symphony could be seen as a prolog toKing Roger and how it supports the interpretation of this opera as a dream. It could also bepresented as a possible double bill conceived in the same fashion as Schoenberg’sErwartung combined with Die Verklärte Nacht (1917). The tenor soloist of the symphonycould be seen as the Shepherd who is calling out to Roksana and instills fear in the hearts ofthe clergy. Such an adaptation could quite convincingly take place in the ruins of an ancientamphitheater the set of the third act of King Roger. The “Song of the Night” and the“Dream” of King Roger may well both owe their fantastic world to Nietzsche’s influence.Aside from the dream ideas, Karol Berger also points out that Szymanowski’s certainlack of conviction in the development of the main character at the end of King Roger stemsfrom the composer’s own well documented and growing disenchantment with the subject. Inthe 1920’s Szymanowski’s interests shifted towards exploration of nationalistic folk idiomsas well as his involvement with the community and his role as a leading figure of the Polishmusic of that era.63 Nevertheless, Szymanowski remained very satisfied with his opera,which is considered by many to be his greatest achievement. He also remained quiteoptimistic about its future in the theater. Upon his return from a triumphant performance ofthe work at the National Theater in Prague, Szymanowski wrote to Zofia Kochañska:62 Harry Haibreich, ‘“Le Roi Roger,’ un chef-d’oeuvre solitaire,” Opera L ‘Avant-scene, Nr. 43, (September1982): 14.63 Berger, “King Roger’s ‘Liebesleben,” in Bristiger, 110.74You know that I am not pretentious and indeed am rather critically inclinedtowards my own music— but it simply shook me (especially Act II). {...] Thiscannot be compared with anything else in my music— alas not even with‘Harnasie’, nor with our two concertos, and that means with nothing which Ihave written since ‘King Roger’. That’s very sad!! In some places the soundof the orchestra and choirs is completely uncanny and simply thrilling in itssuspense.6464 Chyliñska, Karol Szyinanowski (1993), 192.75ConclusionAccording to Teresa Chyliñska, “King Roger forms the centerpiece ofSzymanowski’s creations, the crossing point indicating his most essential aesthetic,philosophic, psychological, stylistic and technical tendencies. It is a masterful synthesis ofmusic styles and languages, as well as cultures.”65 Written during a challenging period incomposer’s life and historically tumultuous era, King Roger can be seen as Szymanowski’s“test piece.” On the one hand, the main character undergoes a psychological test of comingto terms with the dual nature of his psyche, which, on the other, it liberates the composerfrom a period of artistic crisis.66As a work for the theater, King Roger cannot be compared to any other compositionin the operatic repertoire of the first half of the twentieth century. Among operas of Strauss,Ravel, Schoenberg, Bartok, Berg and Prokofiev it occupies a unique and lonely place.Portrayal of Dionysian and Apollonian antagonism as primordial forces affecting man foundits echo in compositions Debussy (Epigraphes Antiques), Albert Roussel (Bachus andAriadna), and Igor Stravinsky (The Right ofSpring). However, in the field of opera, it tookuntil 1973 when Benjamin Britten presented the Dionysian concept in his opera Death inVenice.In spite of its individuality, King Roger is not a drama which simply “plays itself.” Inorder for this opera to be understood, appreciated and enjoyed, it requires an open mind,aesthetic sensitivity, intelligence and imagination. Its strength lies in abundant possibilities65 Teresa Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski: His Life and Works, Polish Music Histoiy Series, 6 vols., ed. WandaWilk, trans. John Glowacki (Los Angeles: Friends of Polish Music University of Southern California, 1993),184.66 Stephen Downes, “Themes of duality and transformation in Szymanowski’s ‘King Roger,” Music Analysis,vol.14, no. 2-3 (1995): 258.76for dramatic treatment, artistic interpretation, and power to convey a personal message toeach and every audience member.Although produced with increasing regularity, so far King Roger has not managed toestablish its place in the standard repertoire of modern music theater. Due to dramaturgicaland philosophical challenges of this composition, its peculiar nature as a “mysterium” — ahybrid stage work incorporating characteristics of opera, and oratorio, King Roger remainsin the same category as the other stylistically ambiguous works such as Stravinsky’sOedipus Rex or Darius Milhaud’s Christopher Columbus. In spite of their highcompositional quality and the important role they may have played in the development ofMusic Theater, these works are rarely produced on stage.Nevertheless, ever since its premiere on 19th of June 1926 at the National Theater inWarsaw, the work is regularly performed by larger opera houses in Poland.During composer’s lifetime the opera was presented in Duisburg (1928) and in Prague(1932). After World War II it was performed in Palermo (1949) in Italian translation.However, according to Chyliñska, the road to greater success was opened by the firstperformance of King Roger in London (1975, 1976) conducted by Charles Mackerras. Laterperformances occurred in Buenos Aires (1981) and West Berlin (1982). In 1988 it waspresented in Bremen, Palermo and Los Angeles (Long Beach opera). Two other Americanperformances were staged in Buffalo, Detroit, and Michigan in April and May 1992conducted by Richard Woytak of Metropolitan Opera. In 1998 Salzburg Festival presenteda full performance conducted by Sir Simon Rattle with Thomas Hampson singing the role ofKing Roger.77Concert versions of King Roger have been given in St. Lois (1981), Wolf Trap Opera(1982) and in New York Carnegie Hall (1985).67 King Roger also had its CanadianPremiere. Toronto Opera in Concert presented it (February 11. 2001) in Polish as a concertversion with 2 pianos. It was attended by a near sold-out audience, and triumphantlyreceived justifying the claim made for it in 1938 by H. H. Stuckenschmidt who wrote ofKing Roger that “it is not only among the most original products of modern operatic art, butamong the most important works ever produced by Poland.”68Chyliñska, Karol Szymanowski (1993), 193.68 H.H. Stuckenschmidt, “Karol Szymanowski,” Music & Letters, vol. X1X no. I (January 1938): 45.78SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHYBristiger, Michal, Roger Scruton, and Petra Weber-Bockholdt, eds., Karol Szymanowski inseiner Zeit. Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1984.Carapezza, Paolo Emilio. “KrOl Roger miçdzy Dionizosem i Apollinem.” Res Facta, vol.9(1982): 50-61.Chomiñski, JOzef. Studia nad twórczos’ciq Karola Szymanowskiego. KrakOw: PoiskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1969.Chylinska, Teresa. Szymanowski. Translated by A. T. Jordan. New York: TwaynePublishers, Inc. & The Kociuszko Foundation, 1973.________ed. Miçdzy Kompozytorem i Wydawcq- Korespondencja KarolaSzymanowskiego z Universal Edition. Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1978.Karol Szymanowski: His Lfe and Works. Polish Music History Series, 6 vols.,ed. Wanda Wilk, trans. John Glowacki. Los Angeles: Friends of Polish MusicUniversity of Southern California, 1993.Downes, Stephen C. Szymanowski as Post-Wagnerian: “The Love Songs ofHafiz, op. 24.”New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994.•“Themes of duality and transformation in Szymanowski’s ‘King Roger.” MusicAnalysis, vol.14, no.2/3 (JuI.-Oct., 1995): 257-291.“Szymanowski and Narcissism.” Journal ofthe Royal Musical Association,vol.121, no.1 (1996): 58-81.Szymanowski, Eroticism and the Voices ofMythology. Burlington, Vermont:Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2003.Golachowski, Stanislaw. Szymanowski. Translated by Christa Ebrens. New Jersey:Paganiniana, 1986.Iwaszkiewicz, Jaroslaw. Spotkania z Szymanowskim. Krakow: Polskie WydawnictwoMuzyczne, 1981.Ksiq±ka o Sycylii. Warszawa: Czytelnik, 2000.Kafka, Laura Grayna. “Passionate Polish decadence in 12th century Sicily: Threeexpressions of Karol Szymanowski’s ‘King Roger.” Ph.D. diss., University ofMaryland, College Park, 1995.Kennedy, Hubert. “Karol Szymanowski, his boy-love novel, and the boy he loved.” Paidika,vol.3, no.3 (Winter 1994): 26-33.79Komorowska, Malgorzata. Szymanowski w Teatrze. Warszawa: Poiska Akademia NaukInstytut Sztuki. 1992.Korwin-Szymanowska, Stanislawa. Jak nale±y s’piewaé utwory Karola Szymanowskiego.Gebethner and Wolff, 1938. Reissued in English as Korwin Szymanowska,Stanislawa. How to Sing the Works by Karol Szymanowski. Translated by JerzyZawadzki. Krakow: Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1957.Lissa, Zofia, ed., Karol Szymanowski: Ksiçga Sesji Naukowej Fos’wiçconej Twórczos’ciKarola Szymanowskiego, Warszawa, 23-28 marca 1962. Warsaw: University ofWarsaw Press, 1964.Lobaczewska, Stefania. Karol Szymanowski: ycie i iwórczosé. KrakOw: PolskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1950.Maciejewski, Boguslaw. Karol Szymanowski: His Life and Music. London: Allegro, 1967.McNamee, Ann K. “Biotonality, Mode and Interval in the Music of Karol Szymanowski.”Journal ofMusic Theory, vol.29 (1985): 61-84.Michalowski, Kornel. Karol Szymanowski: Katalog temalyczny dziel i bibliograJla.Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1967.________Karol Szymanowski. BibliograJla 1967-1991. Dyskografia 1981-1991. Krakow:Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1993.Opaiski, Józef, ed., Wiersze o Szymanowskim. Antologia. Krakow: Poiskie WydawnictwoMuzyczne, 1979.Palmer, Christopher. Szymanowski. London: BBC, 1983.Rytard, Jerzy Mieczyslaw. Wspomnienia o Karolu Szymanowskim. Krakow: PoiskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1982.Samson, Jim. The Music ofSzymanowski. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company, 1981.“The Use of Analytical Models in the Analysis of Szymanowski’s HarmonicLanguage.” In Bristiger (1984), 149-155.Scruton, Roger. “Between Decadence and Barbarism: The Music of Szymanowski.” InBristiger (1984), 159-178.Sierpiñski, Zdzislaw, ed., 0 Karol Szymanowskim. Antologia. Warszawa: Interpress, 1983.80Szymanowski, Karol. Karol Szymanowski Korespondencja 1903-1919, vol. 1., ed. andcomp. Teresa Chyliñska. Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1982.________•Pisma- Tom 1: Pisma Muzyczne, ed. Kornel Michalowski. Krakow: PoiskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1984.____Pisma- Tom 2. Pisma Literackie, ed. Teresa Chyliñska. Krakow: PolskieWydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1989.Karol Szymanowski Korespondencja 1920-1 926, vol. 2., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska. Krakow: Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, 1994.Karol Szymanowski Korespondencja 192 7-1931, vol. 3., ed. and comp. TeresaChyliñska. Krakow: Musica lagellonica, 1997.Szymanowski On Music. Selected Writings ofKarol Szymanowski, ed. and trans.Alistair Wightman. London: Toccata Press, 1999.Wightman, Alistair. “The Music of Karol Szymanowski.” Ph.D. diss., University of York,1972.“Szymanowski and Islam.” Musical Times, vol.128 (1987): 129-132.“The book of King Roger.’ Szymanowski’s opera in the light of his novel‘Efebos.” Musica lagellonica, vol.2 (1997): 161-213.Karol Szymanowski. His Lfe and Work. Brookfield, Vermont: AshgatePublishing Company, 1999.Zielinski, Tadeusz Andrzej. Szymanowski. Liryka i Ekstaza. Krakow: Poiskie WydawnictwoMuzyczne, 1997.81APPENDIX AInternational Phonetic Alphabet Symbols for Polish Language— Pronunciation GuideTable 2.Polish Polish English or Latin German Italian FrenchIPA Letters Words Words Words Wordsa a father Vater, Staat alma, amare Paris, basb b baby, babble Buch batti boisis c cats Citrone zio-gratias_(Latin)t Lucis (Latin) — ciao—t cz pitch, chase deutsch certo—d d dead deutsch diva diabledz dz leads, adds- mezzo-regina (Latin) — giorni, bugia—E e bed, bet Bett, hätte bello, cielo Belle, fer——— fin,pleincomb i enf f father, fire fein Fato, affani foyerg go, glug Gott gala ganth h, ch house, Doch, Held-whoi I meet, key Liebe, ihn, chi qui, cygneBibelj young, use ja, jung piante bien, yeuxk k cat, quick zurück canta kiloI I lull loben libertà larmew winter, wish— quando ouim m moment, may Mond ma, mano marchen n noon, no Wein numero nousp ñ onion, - ogni agneau,agnus (Latin) compagnono soft Sommer, morte fortOrt sospiro5-- champensemblep p pepper, papa Puppe porto Pas82r r— Regen Rosa,—parlandos s simple, receive Glas sento sportf sz shine, dish Schnell, Tisch scena sportshower———t t tent, tote Ton tanto totalu u— Uhr, Musik luna, fugare fouv w visit, divine Vase voce, violonavversoi y mit, hit, thin mit, sitzen ——z z zone, roses Silber— Ezéchiel± Aa---3 Z, rz vision — — genou, Jean83H00CFNNC/n-vQQIZI1flflI(D(D -‘ FIiNNsNCCr-tV’VQOZ’D3--——.—D-h.(D(DQfl(OPiP.)(DCDU,CCL) 118 Copyrighted material removed in compliance with original permissions. Pages 85-164                   APPENDIX CChronology of Szymanowski’s Life and Works11882Karol Szyrnanowski is born on October 31(1 in Tymoszówka as the son of Stanislaw KorwinSzymanowski and Anna Taube.1889At 7 years of age, Karol receives first piano lessons from his father. He continues to studypiano and theory at the music school of Gustaw and Marta Neuhaus in Elizawetgrad. Hisfirst attempts at composition date from this year.1900Szymanowski passes his graduation examination at the grammar school in Elizawetgrad.Begins to compose. Writes Nine Preludes, Op. 1 for piano. Starts Six Songs, Op. 2, afterpoems by Kazimierz Przerwa-Tetmaj er.1901—1905Szymanowski moves to Warsaw to study music. Takes harmony lessons from Zawirski andcounterpoint and composition from Noskowski. Becomes a friend of Kochañski, Rubinstein,and Fitelberg. In the fall of 1905, under the patronage of Prince Lubomirski, Szymanowski,Fitelberg, ROzycki and Szeluto establish the Publishing Syndicate of Young PolishComposers. From this period date the Variations in Bflat minor, Op. 3, Four Etudes, Op. 4,and the Sonata in D minor, Op. 9 for violin and piano.1 Chronology according to: Stanisaw Golachowski, Szymanowski, trans. Christa Ebrens (New Jersey:Paganiniana Publications, Inc., 1986).1581906 — 1908On February 6th 1906 the first concert by members of the Syndicate of young polishComposers is given at the Warsaw Philharmonic. It included, among other compositions, aperformance of the Concert Overture in E major, Op. 12 by Szymanowski. On March 30thFitelberg conducts a concert of music by young Polish composers in Berlin. Szymanowskimakes several trips to Berlin and Leipzig. In 1907, members of the Syndicate give a concertin Warsaw, which is very badly received by the critics. At the beginning of 1908Szymanowski travels to Italy (Nervi near Genoa).1909 — 1911The following pieces are produced: Symphony No. 2 in B Jiat major, Op. 19; Piano SonataNo. 2, Op. 21; The Love Songs ofHafiz (first cycle), Op. 24; and other songs. Szymanowskiwins first prize with his Piano Sonata No. 1, Op. 8 in a competition of composers organizedby the Lemberg Committee for the centenary celebrations of the birth ofF. Chopin. Hemakes two journeys to Italy. In 1910 he visits several cities, among them Rome, Florence,Venice, and in 1911 he goes to Sicily (Agrigento, Syracuse, Palermo). On April 7th 1911 hisSecond Symphony has its premiere in Warsaw. Towards the end of the year, the composermoves to Vienna.1913First contact with the music of Stravinsky and the ballet company of Diaghilev. Thecomposer spends the year 1913 — 1914 seasons in Zakopane.1914In March, he travels to Italy, then via Sicily to Africa (Constantine, Biskra, Tunis). On thereturn journey (via Rome, Paris, and London), he becomes acquainted with Stravinsky.159Szymanowski’s interests turn to ancient, oriental, and early Christian art. He composes asecond cycle of HaJlz Love Songs, op. 26 for solo voice and orchestra, and begins work onhis Symphony No. 3 (Song ofthe Night), Op. 27.1915—1916The following piano works are composed: Metopes, op. 29, and Masks, Op. 34, Myths, Op.30 for violin, and Violin Concerto No. 1, op. 35. Further, the cycle Songs ofthe Fairy TalePrinces, Op. 31. Szymanowski makes several trips to Moscow and St. Petersburg.1917— 1918As a consequence of the revolution, the Szymanowski family moves from TymoszOwka toElizawetgrad in the fall of 1917. Here the composer writes his novel Efebos and discusseswith Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz plans for King Roger. Composes the Piano Sonata, Op. 35, theString Quartet No. i, Op. 37, and Songs ofthe Infatuated Muezzin, op. 42. On December1919 he arrives in Warsaw.1920—1921In March 1920, concerts of works by Szymanowski are organized on Krakow and Lemberg.The composer begins work on King Roger. Towards the end of the year, he travels viaLondon to America. In England, he gets to know Diaghilev hoping for a commission for aballet. During his stay in America, he visits Florida and Cuba. He spends the summer inPoland. In the fall, he embarks on his second trip to America. In letters to friends, hementions idea for a Highland (Górale) ballet. He composes the Slopiewnie, Op. 46.1922 — 1926In spring of 1922 Szymanowski returns to Poland via Paris, where a triumphant concert ofhis works is given on May 26th From August 1922, the composer frequently stays in160Zakopane. He discusses plans for a ballet with M. J. Rytard. In September 1923, he starts towork on the ballet score. During the years 1924 — 1925 he visits Paris on several occasions.The following works are produced: Children ‘s Rhymes, Op. 49, 20 Mazurkas, op. 50, andStabat Mater, Op. 53. The opera King Roger is completed. Its premiere takes place inWarsaw on June 19t1 1926.1927—1929In March 1927 Szymanowski takes up the post as director of the Warsaw Conservatory.Then follows the period of his teaching activity and his endeavors for a reform of musicaleducation. The resulting battle with the conservative faculty undermines the composer’shealth. In 1928 Szymanowski goes to Edlach (Austria) to recuperate and, in the summer of1929, he hands in his resignation from his post at the Conservatory. In January 1929, hisStabat Mater has its premiere at the Warsaw Philharmonic. In March, the first scene of theballet Harnasie is performed.1930 — 1931His treatment in Davos, which began towards the end of 1928, continues until June 1930. InDavos he writes the pamphlet The Educational Role ofMusical Culture in Society. InNovember, at the beginning of the academic year, the opening ceremony takes place at theWarsaw Academy (formerly the Conservatory). Szymanowski becomes the Academy’s firstrector. In December, the Jagiellonian University in Krakow bestows and honorary doctorateupon him. The composer completes his work on the ballet Harnasie. Its second scene isperformed in May 1931. He begins works on the Six Kurpian Songs, Op. 58.1611932In April Szymanowski resigns from his post as rector of the Academy and moves toZakopane. He works on the Symphony No. 4 (Sinfonia Concertante), Op. 60 and, after itscompletion, on the Violin Concerto No. 2, Op. 61. in October a performance of King Rogeris given at the Narodni Divadlo (National Theater) in Prague. In Poznañ, the Symphony No.4 is heard for the very first time with the composer as soloist at the piano.1933—1934Severe financial hardship forces Szymanowski to go on numerous tours as a concert pianist.In November he plays, among other places, in Moscow, then in Zagreb, Belgrade,Bucharest, Sofia, Paris, Amsterdam, The Hague, London, Glasgow, Copenhagen, Oslo,Riga, Bologna, and Rome.1935—1936Premiere of the ballet Harnasie in Prague on May llt1 1935. On April 27th 19936, the workis given its triumphant reception at the Grand Opera in Paris (the ballet being reorganizedinto three scenes). The composer spends the whole summer in Warsaw. His health,weakened by the strenuous traveling, grows rapidly worse. In December 1936, he goes toGrasse in Southern France.1937The composer, by now seriously ill, is taken to Cannes and shortly afterwards to asanatorium in Lausanne, where he dies on March 29th 1937 in the presence of his sisterStanislawa. The body of Karol Szymanowski is removed to Warsaw and buried on April 7th1937 in St. Paul’s Church in Krakow.162APPENDIX DDiscographySzymanowski, Karol. King Roger. CD Acord ACD 131-2, 2005. Compact Disc.Performed by the National Opera Chorus & Orchestra and Alla Polacca Youth Choir.Conducted by Jacek Kasprzyk. Sung in Polish.Szymanowski, Karol. Król Roger. EMI Classics 7243 5 56823 21, 1999. Compact Disc.Performed by City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, City of BirminghamChorus, and City of Birmingham Youth Chorus. Conducted by Simon Rattle. Sungin Polish.Szymanowski, Karol. King Roger/Król Roger. Marco Polo 8.223339-40, 1994. CompactDisc. Performed by the Boys Chorus of the Cracow Philharmonic and the PolishState Philharmonic Chorus and Orchestra (Katowice). Conducted by Karol Stryja.Sung in Polish.Szymanowski. Karol. Konig Roger, Op. 46. Koch Schwarm Musica Mundi 314014, 1991.Compact Disc. Performed by the Chorus and Orchestra of the Teatr Wielki inWarsaw. Conducted by Robert Satanowski. Sung in Polish.Szymanowski, Karol. King Roger, Op. 46. CD Olympia OCD 303 A&B in cooperation withMuza Poiskie Nagrania, 1988. Compact Disc. Performed by the Chorus andOrchestra of the Teatr Wielki in Warsaw. Conducted by Mieczyslaw Mierzejewski.Sung in Polish.I10.)THE UNWERS1TY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASCHOOL OF MUSICRecital HallSunday, February 6, 20058:00 p.m.DOCTORAL LECTURE-RECITALSKRZYSZTOF BIERNACKI, BaritoneLecture: Karol Szymanowski’s opera King Roger Op. 46.- INTERMISSION-Act!- PAUSE-Act II Scene ICast:(In order of appearance)Archiereios Mail MonDeaconess Jennifer StephansonKing Roger Krzysztof BiernackiRoksana Brooke HarrisEdrisi Stephen BellShepherd Mat StephansonConductor Richard EppPianists: Aleksander SzramNicholas RadaChorus: Members of University Singers & UBC Choral UnionBoys Chorus: Michelle Keobke, Winnie Lai, Jessica Bowes, Sarah Quist,Mimi Mifier, Diana Wilder.* In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with amajor in Opera Performance.‘KIIC1IIALt-4:11’I4.I-4EI-4II-41J.THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASCHOOL OF MUSICRecital HallSunday, February 6, 20058:00 p.m.DOCTORAL LECTURE-RECITAL”KRZYSZTOF BIERNACKI, BaritoneLecture: Karol Szymanowski’s opera King Roger Op. 46.- INTERMISSION-Act I- PAUSE-Act II Scene ICast:(In order of appearance)Archiereios Matt MonDeaconess Jennifer StephansonKing Roger Krzysztof BiernackiRoksana Brooke HarrisEdrisi Stephen BellShepherd Mat StephansonConductor Richard EppPianists: Aleksander SzrarnNicholas RadaChorus: Members of University Singers & UBC Choral UnionBoys Chorus: Michelle Keobke, Winnie Lai, Jessica Bowes, Sarah Quist,Mimi Miller, Diana Wilder.* In partial fuifiliment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with amajor in Opera Performance.LtII3aK.1C)Eii,C)E•1jC)EC)EC)EjItJ.: :4ruMarch 142001Chan ShunConcehHaJI 4Chan Centrjtheerfor rtsUBCMUSIC at UBCThe CrucibleAn opera in four acts based on the play by Arthur MillerMusic by Robert WardLibretto by Bernard StamblerwithThe UBC Opera Ensemble &The UBC Symphony OrchestraConductor - Jesse ReadStage Director - Nancy HermistonMusical Director- Richard EppSet & Costume Design by Alessia CarpocaLight Design by Jeremy BaxterThere will be one nventyminLItc IntermissionChan Shun Concert HallMarch 1, 2, 3, 4, 2001Trns PRESENTATION IS MADE POSSIBLE BY GENEROUS ASSISTANCE THROUGH THECHAN ENDOWMENT FUND OF THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA4A Message from the Conductor andDirector of the UBC School of MusicWelcome to a memorable night of opera! I hope you will savorthis evening, the ideal kind of theatre experience, an opera basedon a great piece of dramatic art-Arthur Miller’s striking play, ascore from a legendary composer who has graced us with his presence, a sharply-defined visual and theatrical setting which cornpliments and supports the story, all performed by the singers andmusicians from what is emerging as the most exciting opera rraining program in Canada! \X”e are proud of this production, excited that UBC, theSchool of Music and the Department of Theatre, Film and Creative Writing cancollaborate again to bring you into irs midst. As the Director of the School andconductor of tonight’s performance, I share your excitement, enthusiasm and senseof appreciation for the talent and dedication necessary to give birth to such a moving and dramatic production. Thank you for joining us.\Varm wishes,Jesse Read - Conductor, Director UBC School of MusicA Message from the Head ofTheatre, Film and Creative WritingThe Performing Arts are too often assumed to be just entertainment. Theatre in all its forms, has been a crucial part ofour societal development, with an importance far beyondthe merely diversionary. The crucible is a case in point. In1950, the play was Arthur Miller’s response to a social injustice, and it gave us a picture of bow we behave in the throesof political hysteria. Robert Ward’s operatic work makes this picture evenmore poignant and more accessible to an even broader audience. The Dcpartment of i’heatre, Film and Creative Writing is proud to join with theOpera Program to present this classic, relevant and important story.Ron Fedoruk - Head of Iheatre, Fiirn and Creative Writing. UBCAbout the ComposerRobert \X’ard was born in l91 in Cleveland, Ohio. Re studied withHoward Hanson and Bernard Rogers tt the Lastman School of Musicwith Frederick Jacobi, Bernard Wagenaar, Albert Stoesscl and Edgar/ Schenkinan st the Juilliird Graduate School and sith Aaron Coplmd] i at the Berkshire Music Center He has sersed on the faculties of Queens- College, Columbia Lniversity, and t sejuiihard Sehool 01 Music wherehe was also Assistant to the Presidenr from 1952 to 1956. He was the Director of theThird Street Musie School Settlement from 1952 to 1955. He was Executive Vice-President and Managing Editor of Galaxy Music Corporation and Highgate Press until 1967when he became President of the North Carolina School of the Arts. Until his retirement in 1987, he was rise Mary Duke Biddle Professor of Music at Duke University.Mr. Ward’s large and distinguished musical creation has, in large measure, been commissioned by the New York City Opera, Broadcast Music. Inc., the New York Philharmonic, the Friends of Dumbarton Oaks, the Juilliard Musical Foundation, and manyothers. His opera, The Crucible, based on the play by’ Arthur Miller, won both the 1962Pulitzer Prize for Music and the New York Music Critics Circle Citation for the sameyear.A Message from the DirectorRobert Ward’s opera The &uczble gives us pause to think of our[ own human strengths aisd weaknesses. We have choseis to give thepiece no fixed period as the issues addressed by this s’ery movingwork arc ones which have remained with Li5 long before and longafter those Puritan days of Salem. One needs only to look iisto ourhistory hooks, listen to the 6:00 o’clock news, enter some schools,universities, colleges or even some courts and clsurches to see thatmass hysteria, mob mentality, persecution, jealousy, Isatred, sexual repression, andthe darker sides of power and love are as present now as they were in Salens or inMiller’s 1950 U.S society. Through this most disturbing and inspiring work bothMiller and Ward provide us witls the opportunity to 1usd, as does John Proctor, “thatshred of goodness” in ourselves.When asked svhat the opera has to say to modern audiences, Robert \Vitd replied: “We think events like the Salem witch trials or the McCarthy’ hearings can’thappen agairs, but as we look around us in the svorld, we see rise same conditionsrecur again aiscl again.’It is a great honour and privilege to have the composer with us for this producnon.Nancy Hermiston Director LBC Opera Ensemble6UBC OPERA ENSEMBLEThe Opera Ensemble and I would like to thank you for your continued support and interest. The 2000/2001 season has been a most exciting and active one.Our collaboration with the Opera House in Usu nad Lahem, Czech Republic,was a most successful and rewarding venture. A highlight of our European schedule was our performances of Gärinerin aus Liebe in the Srovosky Theatre, Prague,where Mozart premiered his Don Giovanni.A further consequence of this venture was the collaboration between the UstiOpera House and the Opera Ensemble in this production of The Grucible. OnSept. 21 2001 the Opera House in Usti will present the Czech premiere of TheGrucible with this production featuring a CzechIUBC Opera Ensemble cast.We return to Usti in May and June to perform three operas, Gounod’s, Faustin French, Janacek’s The Cunning Little Vixen in Czech, and Mozart’s Giirtnerinaus Liebe in German. Internationally renowned conductor David Agler will con-duet the Faust performances while Usti’s General Music Director; Norberr Baxawill lead the Vxeu and Gärtnerin. The Ensemble will complete its tour at theInternational Festival for Young Opera Singers in the University town of Erlangen,Germany with a performance of Giirinerin aus Liehe on July I, Canada Day.Along with their colleagues from Usti the Ensemble will share this Festival withsingers from Italy and German)eOur season has also included the annual David Spencer Memorial concert,our Christmas production of Hansel and Gretel, many community concerts and atour to Cranbrook, B.C. with our shortened school version of Hansel and Gretel,where approximately 1500 children attended our performances. In addition, weparricipared with Italy’s Ruggiero Ensemble in a production of Monteverdi’s 11I/ito roe dU/use di Patria.After The Crucible we will join the Choral Union and Wind Symphony forOperatic excerpts Mar. 23 & 24 and present three evenings ofOperatic Boo Booson Apr. 20, 21. & 22 in the Old Auditorium, featuring excerpts from Faust,Gte/la, Romeo and Juliette, Hamlet and Sir John In Love, with gtiesr directors,Irving Guttman and Man Hahn.Nancy HermisronTHE OpEI ENSEMBLE EXEcuTIvERHONWEN ADAMS ALEXIS BARTHELEMYMELISSA BENCIC KKn’ BOWEN-ROBERTSNEEMA B[CKERSTETI-I JEANINE FYNNRHOSLYN JONES RILEY MCMITCHELLJANET VANDERTOL JUSTIN WELSHThe Crucibleby Robert WardMarchl&3 March2&4Betty Pains Katy Bowen-Roberts Dory HavlcvReverend Parnis Russell Robson Phillip GrantTituba Beverly NlcArrhur Katherine LandrsAbigail Williams Melanie Krueger Man HahnAnn Putnam Shauna Martin Cindy KoistinenThomas Putnam Elio Carana KrzvsztoF BiernackiRebecca Nurse Jeanine Fyrin Suzanne AbbottFrancis Nurse Joel Klein Pierre HungrGiles Corey Craig Johnson Neil \\nightJohn Proctor Gil Anderson Andrew GreenwoodReverend Hale David JefFeries Shae AplandElizabeth Proctor Alexis Barrhelensv Sandra StringerMary \Xarren Maaike dcBruynlt1ardi il Neenia BickerstethSheila Christie [\brii 3rAEzekiel Cheever Ian Paul Alex GoodJudge Danforth Neil Wright Philippe CastagnerSarah Good Elaine Lee Elizabeth CushnieRuth Putnam Jinriy Park Rhoslyn JonesSusanna Walcott Mia Harris Paula MacNeilMercy Lewis Soula Parassidis Alexandria BeckMartha Shelton Charis Vanelst Rosa NamBridget Booth Rhonsvcn Adams Katie Cro.sby permission of Canadian Actors Equity AssociationChorusStephen Bell Jerome DuboisJeannette Gibaul t Andrew JamesonAnts’ LaFros’ Michael NloniSteven Rathjen N lark SampsonJanet ‘Cinderrol8ORCHESTRAViouv I Biss÷Mycia Au Leanna WongRuth Huang Peggy TongEver Bo-Kyoung Kim Jennifer ChuAdrian Dyck Jessy GiammarinoAmanda HsuehJames Wei FLUTESAngela Hodgson Tara WhittakerAmy Pci Greg Kirczenow (piccolo)Amelia MonJenny Atkinson OBOE & ENGLISH HoffivRuth Houtman Marisa ChangViouv 2 CLARINETSGillian Mutt Eileen WalshBrooke Day Jennifer McEnhillJames Hill Amanda Beatry (bass clarinet)Denise NgJessica Wan B,ssOONsTrevor Pearce Meghan DahIVincent WongPhyllis Ho HORNSHeather Liau Megan SmithJack Tsai David QuackenbushV,oi.,i TRCWPETSBeth Schaufele Meghan TurnerAaron Butler Chris MitchellSzabolcs KabokSuzanne Schweikle-Davev BASS TROJIIBONESGillian Hunter Peter WaldkirchCELLO TIMPANI & PERCUSSIONColin Giles Bruce HenczelDiederik van DijkAnne Davisou LIBI&IIiaiNSeung Young Song Peggy WongLucas \VongSarah Tippett M-L\AGERAlexandra Sia Cohn GilesHsin-Pci LiuCONCERT MASTERSECTION LCSDER9PRODUCTIONFOR TI-IE OPERA DEPARTMENT PloDucTioNMusic DIlcIoR SIAGE MANAGERRICHARD Ei’i’ PEGGY JAMESONREPETITEURS ASSISTANT STAGE MANAGERSDANIEL CHow APRIL LAWRENCEMAYA SANDERSDONNA FALCONERST,-\GF. CREWBRErr KINGSBURYLAURA PARSONTECHNICAL DIRECTORSTACI’ LANDERSCAMERON MCGILLTECHNICAL COORDINIVFOR FOR THE THEATREP1?ARTMENIJASON BOSI-IER TECHNICAL DIRECrORWIGS L-SN PRATTELKE ENGLICHT PRODUCI’ION MANAGERHEAD OF PROI’ERTIES ROBERT EBERLEVALERIE MOFFAT PROPS SUPER\MORSPROP BUILDER JANE F BICKFORDLYNN BURTONMARE-UpCOSTUME SUPERVISORSNEL VOLRICHJEAN DRISCOLL-BELLLIGI-ITING ASSISTANTSTAGE CARPENTERSMIKE INWOOD Jist FERGUSSONLIGHTING BOARD OPERXI’OR DON GRJFFITHSJEREMY BAXTER JAY HENRICKSONPAINTERS BUSINESS MANAGERGENNIE WILLOUGHBY-PRICE MARIE’ITA KOZAKCOSTUMES COMMUNICATIONSOPERA HOUSE, USTI NAD LABEM, JOAN WELLw0OoCZECH REPUBLIC P05 PER DESIGNCOSTUME C00RDINAFOR JAMES A. GLENBOX OFFICELYDIA HIEBERTGERRy BRArzOIFICE SUI’PoIuG. VANDERWOUDEMedia Sponsors PROGIESM LAYOUTCBC rad MARYKE F[ANELING/Q57LASSIC5.NUBEYOD.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThe Chan Family Michael NoonThe Vancouver Opera, The Vancouver Playhouse. The Arts Club Theatre, Valerie Moffat,School of Music Office Staff, Phyllis Lavalle and The Friends of UBC Opera, DavidSpencer Endowment Encouragement Fund, Enchanted Florist, Ian Pratt, ThomasThompson, UBC Opera Ensemble, The Moving Guys, andJim Wright General Director of The Vancouver OperaA Special Thank You to the Vancouver Opera Guild for their donation to this production.10The crucible - SynopsisActThe curtain rises on the Reverend Samuel Parris kneeling distraught at the bed ofhis daughter Betty She lies immobile and scarcely breathing, as she has lain sinceParris came upon her and her cousin Abigail dancing in the woods the night before.Tituba comes to ask about Betty’ but is angrily sent away.Abigail enters to sa that the town is whispering ofwitchcraft and that Parris shouldgo out to make denial. I-Ic bitterly turns on her to question her about the dancing andabout her mysterious dismissal from the service of the Proctors. As she vehementlydenies any wrongdoing, attributing her dismissal to Goodwife Proctor’s arrogant desire for a slave, the Putnams enter to tell that their Ruth was stricken at the same timeas Betty Parris and that they have sent to Beverly for the Reverend Hale, known for hisskill in discovering witches.While Parris, fearful of any’ suspicion of witchcraft in his own household, is anxiouslv doubting the need for Hale, Rebecca and Francis Nurse enter with Giles Corey’.Rebecca is comforting, old Giles is Flippant aboutthe illness of the girls. When Putnam insists thatwitches are at work in Salem, Giles accuses him ofusing a witch scare to defraud his neighbors of theirland. John Proctor’s entrance only brings this quarrel to a higher peak. (Abigail, though silent in theupper room, visibly’ reacts with excitement to John’sentrance.) Rebecca reprimands the men for this untimely squabble in a house of illness, and calls themback to their senses. Giles departs with John.They’ sing a psalm to beseech GQd’s help. As the psalm proceeds, Betty begins towrithe on the bed and then with an unearthly shriek tries to fly out of the window.They rush to her side. In the midst of the commotion the Reverend Hale enters. Hecalms them with his air ofauthority and then methodically sets an inquiry under way.He soon learns that Tituba has play’ed an important role in what has been happening,having also been present at the dancing. Ann Putnam asserts that Tituba knows conuring. fituba is sent far; at her entrance, Abigail, who has been under severe inquisition by Hale, lashes out to accuse Tituba of compacting with the Devil. Tituha, overwhelmed by the sternness of Hale and the malevolent intensity of Patris and thePutnams, finally confesses that she has been visited by the Devil, but denies that hehas persuaded her into any wrongdoing-for a few moments she frightens Parris andthe Putnams with a heartfelt fantasy’ of the hellish power to bring them harm that theDevil had offered her.With TitLiba’s confession the spell over Betty is broken. All return to the psalm ingreat thanksgiving, while Abby envies the attention now being given to Tituba, h”stericall repents her own compact with the Devil, and visibly’ receives an answer to herprayer for forgiveness and for a call to mark out others of the Devil’s crew.IIAct IIJohn Proctor returns from a day’s planting to find Elizabeth listless and mood) Inher mind the witch trials have become an aggravation of her domestic troubles, withAbbyat the center of both. She insists that John expose Abby’s fraud to Judge Danforth;his reluctance to do this convinces her that he still has a warm spot in his heart forAbby John’s self-defense is double: that he has no witness to what Abby told him, andthat she will avenge herself by revealing John’s adultery with her. And he is fed upwith Elizabeth’s sitting in condemnatory judgmentupon him She gentk denies this but iegrets the ‘VanI I ished sv cetness of then lo e she s is s ss dlnot confess the lecher)’ lest she damn herself. Andwhat of those who suffer in jail because of John’s- silence? No, John must tear the last feeling for Abbyout of his heart, or she will never give up hope ofsome (lay having him for her own.Mary \X/arren enters furtively’ from her day at court as one of Abby’s crew ofwitchfinders. She tells, breaking into tears, that the number of those arrested hastripled-and that Goody Osborn has been condemned to hang! She is truly troubledby this, and by her own part in it, but demonstrates how the mob excitement of thecourtroom procedure turns her into an hysterical acctiser even against her own will.\Vlien John threatens to whip her if she ever returns to that court she blurts otit thatGoody Proctor herself has been mentioned in court and that only’ Mary’s defense ofher prevented an outright accusation.Elizabeth is sure that Abby is behind this and is once more pleading with John togot o the court when Reverend Hale and John Cheever enter with a warrant for herarrest: that very evening Abby has charged Elizabeth with employing a witch’s poppetto kill her. John makes Mary acknowledge it is her poppet, but Hale, although deeplytroLibled be these new directions of the witch-hunts, feels that he must arrest Elizabeth for examination.John is about to burst mat wildl to prevent their taking Elizabeth away, but instead turns with intense but controlled passion upon Mary: she will tell her story incourt even though it ma)’ provoke a charge of adultery from Abby and ruin bothAbby and John completely-anything rather than that Elizabeth should be in dangerfor his sake.Act IIIScene 1.Abby, with a mixture of scheming but passionate love for John and a mysticalbelief in her mission, tries to perstiade John to abandon Elizabeth and to join her inthe holy work of cleansing the puritanically corrupt town. He will not listen to this,btit instead pleads that she free the town from the curse of her foolish wickedness, andthen threatens to expose her fraud. She defies him: now any dire Gte that descends onElizabeth will be of his doing.2Scene 2.Judge Danforrh’s invocation in court reveals the strength and fervor of his conviction that God’s vill is working through him to cleanse the land of a plague ofwitches.As court opens, Giles Corey’ accuses Thomas Putnam, in his greed for hisneighbors’ land, of having bragged of his role in the charges of witchcraft. JudgeDanforth sends Corey to jail and torture for refusing to name his witnesses for thisaccusation. There is a great hubbub as Giles leaps at Putnam as the man responsiblefor the arrest of his wife and himself, and of Rebecca Nurse as well.John Proctor presents Mary Warren’s deposition that the entire crying-out againstwitches started only as an exciting game for the girls-and is a complete pretense andfraud. But Abby, he say’s, has continued the game in an effort to dispose of Elizabeth. Her encouragement to this arose from the adultery that took place betweenAbby and himself, which he is now confessing. When Elizabeth, ordinarily incapable of a lie, is brought in and fails to confirm John’s confession; Abigail counterattacks, charging that Mary herself has turned witch. Mary, helpless and then hysterical, turns on John Proctor-accusing him of being the Devil’s man who has forcedher into trying to confuse and overthrow the court. All but the Reverend Hale closein on John Proctor with sadistic vindictiveness.Act IVTituba and Sarah Good, crazed by the rigors of imprisonment, sing of the Deviland his broken promises to them. Abby comes into the prison courtyard; she hasbribed the jailer to permit Proctor to escape. John, although broken by the monthsof prison and torture, scornfully rejects the freedom and love she offers him. Abbyruns off weeping.Hale, and then Parris, try to perstiade Judge Dariforrh to postpone the executions of Proctor and Rebecca Nurse scheduled for that morning: Salem may breakinto open rebellion at the execution of such respected citizens. Danforth indignantly refuses, but agrees to ask Elizabeth to persuade her husband to confess.John is brought in and left alone with Elizabeth. She tells him that Giles Coreyhas died, pressed to death rather than say aye or nay to the charge of witchcraft, butthat many have confessed in order to save their lives. John reluctantly brings out hisown wish to confess-if it will not make her think ill of him for lying. Passionately’she answers that it was her lie that doomed him-and that she wants him alive.Exulrant, he shouts that he will confess to the charge of witchcraft.Danforth, Hale, and Parris rejoice-for their various reasons-over John’s confession, and Parris triesto persuade Rebecca, who has been brought in onthe way to the gallows, also to confess. She refusesto damn herself with the lie. John is asked to signhis confession, that it may be exhibited before thetown. But this is too much: he has deeply shamedhimself by confessing, but he will nor set his hand to the destruction of his ownname-and the eternal shame of his sons. He tears up the document. In fury Danforthorders John and Rebecca to be led out to execution. Hale pleads with Elizabeth thatshe change John’s decision while there is yet time. She refuses: “He has found hisname and his goodness now-God forbid I take it from him.”13Images and Texts about the Salem Witch TrialsA Modeft EnqtfryInto the Nature ofWitchcraft,ANDltow P’rlhtts Gudty of tInt Crtmt.to y he Centoe,ed’ And the rn,nntuled for their Diknt-y Dilcu(Thboth tte6a1,’r artd -hffirmJSlV!f).according to SC R IP[Z,i ItS andT’pEft/E NCH.By 3Joi)tz a1e,Pallor of 1te Ctiaictn of CbOll in jkon-kj,I D.o,o,t0ju o, o, o’u,,,, 8 LowCa ha, Sp,,,O ..od we,‘i’, It’ahoatlLoh i’m. 9- boeo She Intel it ([Core, Joob. Augunt 5,obtnl I ,,,ela, or, job t4 1i 692 by TI \Iotteeon, l88o S TO N 8( £B Or,,,,, and.Alku, for I cIt th [bide con ‘rot hook nnittteo be Ron haleor onSet rhe Town llnofo, 1701on the ecanitnalton ofvi itchesWARRANT FOR THE ARREST OF ELZABETH PROCTORAND SARAH CLOYCE (APRIL 4, 1692):There Being Connplaint this day mae/c (Before us) by captJonat Wzlcote, and PtA1athenielilngersull both ofSalem Village, in Behalfe oftheire Majestiesfor themselfrsand also for several! of their Neighbours Against Sarah 6’loyce the wifr ofpeterClo yet ofSalem Village; and Elizabeth Proctor the unfo ofJohn Proctor ofSalemfimrrnesfor high Suspition ofSundmy aces ofWitchcraft donne or Corn rnitted by themupon the bodjz ofAbgail ‘Williams, and John Indian both of Air Sara parris hisfvnn4 ofSalem Village and mary bValcott daughierofthe abovesaid (omplainanis,And Ann Putnam and Marcy Lewis of the fhmyly of Thomas Putnam ofSalemVillage whereby great hurt and daenmage hat/i beene deane to the Bodys of spersons above namer1therefore CravedJustice.You are therefore in theire Majest’s names hereby required to apprehend antibring before us Sarah Cloyce the wifo of/icier Cloyce oJ’Salem Village and Elizabethproctor the ivifi ofJohn Procter ofSalemnfizrmes; on Iviunclay Morneing iVext beingthe Eleventh day of this Instant April! aboute Eleven of the Clock, at the publikeMeeting house in the Thwne, in ore/er to eheire Examination Re/arcing to the premnesisaboves ‘ci and here of you are. not tofaile Dated Salem April18 h 1692lb George f/crick Marshall oft/ic County ojessexJohn HathorneJonathan C’ortvin AssistsSIEGFRIED JERUSALEMIN CONCERTRenowned in Bayreuth circles for his masterful interpretationof German opera and art song, the great Wagnerian tenormakes a rare recital appearance at the Chan.SATURDAY MARCH 17, 8:00pmTickets available at Ticketmaster [280-33111 áor call the Chan Centre Box Office at 822-2697JUpcoming EventsMasrerclasses with Siegfried JerusalemMarch 12-14 Old AuditoriumMarch 15 Recital HallStudent ConcertAdmission: $5.00 for each class and student concertMasterciass Pass: Admission to all Masrerclasccs and the Student Concert: $20.00UBC music students: Free admissionA Concert of Operatic ExccrprsMarch 23 & 248:00pm Chan Centre for the [>erforming ArtsUBC Ensemble, UBC Choral Union, UBC Symphonic Wind EnsembleAdmission by donationUBC Symphony OrchestraApril 5. 12:30pmApril 6,8:OOpm Chan Centre for the Performing ArtsFree admission4 Masierclasses with Dawn UpshawApril 12, 12:OOpm-2:OOpmChan Centre for rhe Performing ArrsAdmission: $101515 at the doorOpera Bun BonsApril20 & 21, S:OOpmApril 22, 3:OOpns C)Id AuditoriumF.xcerpts from Othello, [famlet, Romeo andJuliette, Sir John in Loi’i’, and bruitGuest directors: Irving Guttman and Man HahnAdmission by donationFor more concert information visit The School of Music website at:www.music.ubc.ca or phone 822-5574(tenor)UBCMUSICTHE CHAN CENTHEDIRECTORMICHAEL NOONDIRECTOR OF FACILITIES AND OPERATIONSCAMERON MCGILLPROGRAMMING MANAGERJOYCE HINTONEVENTS COORDINATORWENDY ATKINSONCUSTOMER SERVICES MANAGERMARIE EDWARDSSTAGE COORDINATOROWEN SCHELLENBERGERAUDIO VISUAL COORDINATORSTEVE DARKESYSTEMS COORDINATORTED CLARKFRONT OF HOUSE COORDINATORSYOLANDA Bori & JENNY PETERSONCONCESSIONS COORDINATORBASIL WAUGHTICKET OFFICE COORDINATORDONNA CAEDOFINANCIAL OFFICERFLORA LEWFINANCIAL CLERKLAURA LEE SAMUELSGREEKby Steven BerkoffMAR 8- 17, 2001 7:30pmTELUS Studio TheatreAdults $16 Students/Seniors $10by John GayMAR22 -31, 2001 7:30pmFrederic Wood TheatreAdults $16 Students/Seniors $10Synopsis}1 Ct I Paris, Pontevedrian EmbassyWhile hosting a party, Baron Mirko Zeta, the Pontevedrian envoy, receives acommuniqué from the Fatherland that orders him to ensure that thePontcvcdrian widow Hanna Glawari’s fortune not become the property of aforeigner through remarriage. Zeta decides that Hanna must marry CountDanilo Danilovich, a Pontevedrian bachelor and nephew to the emperor.Meanwhile, Valencienne, Zeta’s young Parisian wife, has a “talk” with Camillede Rosillon with whom she is having a flirtation. He writes on her fan “I loveyou”. Unfortunately, the fan is left behind and becomes the centre of greatintrigue. Hanna arrives at that party with several male admirers in tow. Hermillions have made her a desirable catch. Danilo stumbles in from an eveningat Maxim’s and promptly falls asleep. Hanna enters the room and discovers herformer lover. It quickly develops that their relationship did not end happily andDanilo states that he will never again say to her the words “I love you” since itcould be misconstrued, as “I love your money”. Zeta informs Danilo it is hispatriotic duty to marry Hanna. A Ladies’ Choice dance is announced and onceagain would-be suitors surround Hanna. She asks Danilo to dance and he offersto sell his dance to the highest bidder and donate the money. to charity. Thisscares off the other men and Hanna and Danilo are left alone to dance together.Intermissionjict II Paris, Hanna Glawari’s villa, evening of the next dayGuests are gathered in the garden where Hanna has promised a realPontevedrian party and offers them the story of the wood nymph Vilia who fellin love with a mortal. Danilo arrives and Zeta informs him that Rosillon maybe planning to propose to Hanna. Njegus reveals that Rosillon is in love with amarried woman and therefore does not pose a threat. Danilo takes the fan inorder to discover the identity of its owner. Hanna greets Danilo and mocks hisreaction to her. The gentlemen at the party discuss the proper way to handlewomen. Hanna returns offering a truce and discovers what Danilo has beenordered to do. Luckily for Valencienne and Camille, Danilo has discarded thefan on which Valencienne adds the words, “1 am a respectable wife” in thehopes that Camille will finally listen to reason and ask Hanna to marry him.They disappear into the pavilion for a final farewell and are caught by theBaron. Before they can exit, Njegus exchanges Valencienne with Hanna, andanother intrigue unfolds. Hanna declares that she has heard the marriageproposition of Rosillon and has accepted it. Danilo furiously relates a storyabout a wretched young princess who breaks a young prince’s heart. Hannadecides this must mean that Danilo loves her and she is determines to get himback.J4ct IIIParis, Hanna Glawari’s villaA room in Hanna’s villa has been transformed into Maxim’s cabaret as part ofthe evening’s entertainment. Njegus decides that working for ambassadors is anightmare. The famous Maxim playgiris entertain the guests with Valenciennein the lead. Another communiqué arrives from the Fatherland informing Zetathat he and the embassy staff will lose their lives if they are unsuccessful atkeeping the Glawari millions in the country. Njegus reveals to Danilo that itwas not in fact Hanna in the pavilion with Camille but Valencienne. Danilochanges his mind about Hanna and he tells her that she cannot marry Camillebecause she does not love him. The moment of reconciliation is at hand but firstValencienne’s actions are revealed to Zeta who declares himself divorced andproposes to Hanna, She, in turn, reveals that a clause in her late husband’s willstates that should she remarry she would lose her entire fortune. Valenciennebegs her husband to read the words on the fan out loud and he discovers thatshe has not been unfaithful to him, Danilo declares his love for Hanna, and shethen discloses the second part of the clause, which states that her money wouldbe “lost” to her new husband. All agree that understanding women is difficult.The CastSundayI{anna gtzwari Sheila Christie Rhoslyn Jones(Dani(o Krzysztof Biernacki David DoubledayZeta Elio Catana Justin Welsh‘Va(encienne Evelyn Thatcher Jennifer FarrellCamiffe Alex Good Ian PaulCascada Ian Paul Stephen BellSt. (Brioche Craig Johnson Joel JaffeQ3ogdancwztschz John Conlon Andrew JamesonSy[viane Shauna Martin Paula MacNeil%fomow Pierre Hungr Pierre HungrOlga Janet Vandertol Amy LaFroyPritschzitscfi Joel Klein Michael MonQ?raskowia Jeanine Fynn Katherine LandryNjegus Christopher Gaze* Christopher Gaze*Lob Alexandria Beck Charis Vanaelst(Dodo Mieke Rickert Rosa NamJou-Jou Soula Parassidis Mia HarrisFrou-Frou Jeanette Gibault Katie CrossC1-Cbo Beverley McArthur Nancy HasiukMargot Neema Bickersteth Erinn Evdokimoff*Ch(yphcr Gaze appears with permission of the Canadian Actors EquityProJuctionVirector Properties Ian PaulNancy Hermiston Valerie Moffittt Elio CatanaCraig JohnsonCoi..frctof Soloists Costumes Evelyn ThatcherWallace Leung Malabar Janet VandertolVancouver Opera Association Jennifer FarellMusic (Dsrector Whitney SloanRichard Epp Clioius CostumesVancouver Opera Association .jpetiKeurCIei’eograpker Zsuzsanna LuckasSuzanne Ouelette Costume Co-ordinatot Chris WongLydia Hiebert Lucas WongStage 9.lanagerJenny Lee lnkster Costume flsntants Poster DesignElio Catana Mike RathjenAssistant Stage 9.iauagers Alexandria BeckEran Norton Robert Prince PrograiuNatalie Gemmell Wigs Sandra StringerAlly Kim Elke Englicht Shauna MartinSandra Stringer!MaIJup !Front of J(ouseSet ‘Designer Nell Voirich Sandra StringerCameron McGillProductwn fissisients ‘u6ficityLigtiag Designer Pierre Hungr Nancy HasiukJeremy Baxter Alex GoodSpecia(’ThanksThe UBC School of Music, the Chan Centre Staff and Crew, Owen Schellenberger asthe Acting Technical Director for The Afeny 11owat the Chan Centre, the FredericWood Theatre: Janet Bickford, Ian Pratt, Lynn Burton, the Vancouver OperaAssociation, the Vancouver Opera Guild, the David Spencer Encouragement Fund,Martha Lou Henley Charitable Foundation, Sophie Reynolds, the staff of Diane’sLingerie and Loungewear Ltd., the Richmond Academy of Dance for its kind use ofstudio space for the ballet rehearsals, Nancy Hasiuk for her tireless publicity faxing,Robert Prince for his design talent, Jennifer Legate, the Friends of the UBC OperaEnsemble, and an extra special thanks to Christopher Gaze for sharing his incredibletalent with this ensemble.P[ease join usfor our upcoming pelormances:Opera TeaFebruary 10, 2002Sage BistroInformation: 604-822-3113Dufo anif)leneas Henry Purcell(jianiti ScfiiccIi Giacomo Puccini*sung in ItalianMarch 7, 8, 9, 2002 8pmMarch 10, 2002 3pmChan Centre for the Performing ArtsTickets available through Ticketmaster at 604-280-3311, on-line ator in person at the Chan Centre Ticket Office.ChorusChristina Avril, Neema Bickersteth, Kevin Chui, John Conlon, DavidEnglish, Dan Fortuna, Cosima Groll, Brooke Harris, Nancy Hasiuk,Joel Jaffe, Andrew Jameson, Craig Johnson, Joel Klein, GinaMcLellan, Riley McMitchell, Michael Mori, Rose-Ellen Nichols, RyanPhelps, Stephen Rathjen, Dionne Sellinger, Whitney Sloan, GerritTheule, Anna Whelan(DancersNicole Caron, Anouk Froideveux, Laura Precesky, Claire Wardleyele Singers/(DancersAnne Sekulich, Antonia Feigelstock, Barica Mrakuzic, Jelica Pavlovic,Marija Serka, Airna Kazulin-Mele, Kristina Hizak, Nada Butkovic, MariaMcsic, Kristina Olujic, Dcsc Borojevic, Gwen Valentic, Ankica Brkic, AnnFilipovic, Sofka Dirscherl, Ana Uzelac, Danica lvsak]ele InstrumentalistsRichard Filipovic, samica; Junior Feigelstock, tamburica; &FriendsSuperAlishia HarrisVCBC OperaEnsem6üThe University of British Columbia Opera Ensemble was founded in 1995, withthe appointment of Canadian lyric coloratura Nancy Hermiston as Head of theVoice and Opera Divisions. Beginning with a core of seven performers, Ms.Hermiston has built the program to a 50-member company, performing twomain productions at UBC every season, and touring the Czech Republic andGermany for the last 3 summer seasons. Past main season productions haveincluded Mozart’s Zc A’’zzc dJFIA’BIv and R’c t2ijt7clth ,us Zibc Nicolai’s77ic 4’J7y’ Wii’t’SofJl’2,w5v4 Robert Ward’s Tì C,vci5/cand Humpcrdinck’senchanting tale of childhood, HBn.cc! Bnd 7i’tc/ The Ensemble has alsoperformed FIBTO, The A*’ij /-7utc Janacek’s Tie Cunnthg L’?tk’ en,Gounod’s Faust and Strauss’ .t2’’ J”dcnz’aus in Europe. This year, theEnsemble will be performing, an exciting double bill of Puccini’s Cia’nniJ½iccriand Purcell’s and Acneai in addition to a new Christmasproduction of Lehar’s delightful operetta, The Al2wy 1-ViYow The Ensemblealso performed in 2001 with Canadian Heldentenor Ben Heppner, in a specialconcert at the Chan Centre of the Performing Arts, broadcast on CBC Radio. Inthe summer of 2002, the Ensemble plans to travel to the Czech Republic andGermany to repeat last summer’s successful production of Tic Cunnthglii’t/cren. In addition, the Ensemble will mount a new production of Massenet’sk/anon in French at the Usti nad Labem City Theatre and tour neighboringcities. Ms. Hermiston has recently returned from the Czech Republic where shewas directing the European premier of The CruciWe, and was accompanied byselect students, past and present, who appeared in the production.The UBC Opera Ensemble has performed in the Czech Republic for dignitariesat the Canadian Embassy. Recent performances in Canada include anappearance in 2000 with the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra in VaughnWilliam’s Serenade to Aliisi and a co-production of Monteverdi’s f/Ni?ornoU/issesinpati-ia with the Ensemble Ruggiero, sponsored by the Italian CulturalCentre in Vancouver, BC. The Ensemble also will tour the Lower Mainlandand interior of BC with their children’s show, Opera /4tth Canada.Jfie ‘Vancouver q?Ijitharrnonic OrchestraMusic (Director Miyako Hewett (Bass ‘rrumpetWallace Leung Jeff Harris Al Cone* Kathleen Bowles*Fred Kabok Julie Bavalis Hitoshi Ishizaka‘First T)io(in Barbara Paterson Glen MaclnnisEtsuo Saito* (concertmaster) Barry Pierce Patrick Metzger YfornErin Adams Karl Zawadzki Marianne Plenert*Rodney Blackwell ‘Flute Lyle HillabyGayane Bobloyan ¶“io(a Janet Measday* Maureen HoleKathy Bromlcy Dcirdre Rodgcrs* Sue Banning Micjah SturgcssDavid Brow nstein Amy GrobbDavid Clark Koko Hall PiCCO&1 ‘Trom6oneMarissa Deans Jennifer Montgomery Sue Banning Alana BrownJim Dery Gillian Taylor Alex VielBarbara Dominik O6oeShirley Dunñcld Cello Luc Gravel* (Ba.c.t ‘TromfioneDavid Elliot Graham Pcrcival* Ron Schubank Barnaby KerekesConnie McDermott Irene DodekMichael She Phil Downey Clan net TimpaniCheryl Shizgal Beverley Hunter Janine Oye* Kim HollandMonika Sniatowska Sharon Norman Cathy McCashinPat Laimon QercussionSeconi l2iolin Annelies Reeves ‘Bassoon Brad PykeTerry Penner* Wilfrid Schmidt Ward Hunting*Karma Abe Mary Szcndry Patricia Keen J(arpJoan Came Tzu-jung Wang Lani KrantzMiriam Gibb Jessica Werb ContrabassoonReita Goldberg Ward HuntinglheChanLINGEEDIANE THOMSONPresident2950 Granville SreeiVancouver, BC. V6H 3j7dthomson©dianeslingerie corn‘wvv.dianesIingerie.com(604) 738-5121Fox 16041 738-39364 &4-cCDcI,CDCl)<CCD Cl)CD C,C 0 CD C.rn=-CD—-cCi)-a)—CC1)Cl)rO=CDp—I=—I==C)CD-)—0o2. =CD CD-‘-—<0==Cl)=-=CD•CD Cl)C.CD = CD = 0 C.0 =Cc1CD C.CD p.8tiIIw bCrI:r=_-—‘I,—I7Graduate Vocal Recital *KrzysztofBiemacki - BaritoneAmy Tokunoh — PianoUBC School of Music Recital Hall- March 14th 2004, 2:30 PM*presented in partialfulfillment ofthe requirementsfor theDoctorate ofMusical Arts degree in voice performanceCantata BWV 82— Ich habe genug J. S. BachAria: Ich habe genugRecitativo: Ich habe genug! Mein Trost 1st nur allienAria: Schiummert em, ihr matten AugenRecitativo: Mein Gott wann kommt das schöne Non!Aria: Ichfreue mich aufrneinen TodLucas Wong ConductorSarah Cardwell OboeSwantje Bossemeyer-Biernacki ViolinAngela Hodges ViolinAnthony Cheung ViolaAlex Cheung CelloAdam Jones Double BassJonathan Ng HarpsichordPAUSEVier Ernste Gesange Op. 121 Johannes BrahmsDenn Es Gehet Dem MenschenIch Wandte Mich0 Tod, Wie Bitter Bist DuWenn Ich Mit MenschenINTERMISSIONSongs and Proverbs of William Blake Benjamin BrittenProverb ILONDONProverb IITHE CHIMNEY-SWEEPERProverb IIIA POISON TREEProverb IVTHE TYGERProverb VTHE FLYProverb VIAH, SUN-FLOWERProverb VIIEVERY NIGHT AND EVERY MORNRECEPTIONTEXT TRANSLATIONSCantata BWV 82 — Ich habe genug J.S. BachARIA: Ich habe genugFor me, it is enough.I have taken the Savior,the hope of the faithful,into my eager arms;For me, it is enough!I have seen him,my faith has clasped Jesus to its heart;Now I desire, this very day joyfullyto depart this earth;For me it is enough!RECITATIVO: Ich habe genug! Mein Trost ist nur allienFor me, it is enough!My only comfort isfor Jesus to be mine and I his.I hold him in faithAnd, like Simeon, already seethe joy of the life to come.Let us go with this man.Ah! If only the Lord would rescue mefrom my bodily chains!Ah! If my parting were at handwith joy I would say to you, world:for me, it is enough!ARIA: Schiummert em, ihr matten AugenSlumber now, weary eyes,close softly in bliss.World I stay no longer here;I have no part in youThat could benefit my soul.Here I heap up misery,but there, there I shall findsweet peace and quiet rest.RECITATIVO: Mein Gott wann kommt dos schOne Nun!My God, when will that glorious ‘Now’arrive, when I shall depart in peace,and rest in cool sandy earth,and in your bosom?I have taken my leave.World, god night!ARIA: Ichfreue mich aufmeinen TodI eagerly await my death;Ah, if only it were already at hand!Then I shall escape all the woethat has kept me bound to the worldVier Ernste Gesange Op. 121 Johannes BrahmsText from the Bible - Ecelesiastes & CorinthiansDenn Es Gehet Dem MensohenFor it goes with the man as with the beast,as the one dies, so dies the other;and hey all have but one breath;so that a man has no more than the beast:for all is vanity.All go unto one place.All is made of dustand all turn to dust again.Who knows if the spirit of mantravels upward,and the spirit of the beasttravels downward to the earth?Wherefore I perceive that there is nothing better,than that a man should rejoice in his own works;for that is his portion.For who shall bring him to seewhat shall be after him?Ich Wandte MichSo I returned, and consideredall the oppressions that are done under the sun:and behold the tears of suchas were oppressed, and they had no comforter;and they who wronged them were too mightyso that they could have no comforter.Wherefore I praised the deadwhich are afready deadmore than the livingwhich are yet alive.Therefore better is he,which hath not yet been born yet,who hath not seen the evil workthat is done under the sun.o Tod, Wie Bitter Bist DuO death how bitter you are.When anyone thinks of you who has good daysand enough and lives without troubles,and with whom all things go welland who can still eat heartily!O death how kind you areto the needy man who is weak and old,who suffers all troubles and has nothing betterto hope for or expect.0 death how kind you are!Wenn Ich Mit Menschenif I spoke with the tongues of menand of angels, and had not love,I ‘d be sounding bronze or a tiniding bell.And if I could prophesy and knew all mysteriesand all knowledge, and had all faith,so that I could move mountains,and had not love, then I’d be nothing,nothing at all.And though I gave all my goods to the poor,and let my body be burned,it would be no use to me.We see now through a mirror, in a dark saying,but then face to face.Now I know in part, but then I shall knowjust as I am known.Now there remains faith, hope, love these three,but love is greatest among them.Songs and Proverbs of William BlakeSet by Benjamin Britten as op. 74Texts by William Blake (1757-1827) selected by Peter Pears.Dedicated to and premiered by Dietrtich Fiseher-Dieskau at theAldeburgh Festival in 1965.Proverb IThe pride of the peacock is the glory of God.The lust of the goat is the bounty of God.The wrath of the lion is the wisdom of God.The nakedness of woman is the work of God.LONDONI wander thro’ each charter’d street,Near where the charter’d Thames does flowAnd mark in every face I meetMarks of weakness, marks of woe.In every cry of every Man,In every Infant’s cry of fear,In every voice, in every ban,The mind-forg’d manacles I hear.How the Chimney-sweeper’s cryEvery black’ning Church appalls,And the hapless Soldier’s sighRuns in blood down Palace walls.But most thro’ midnight streets I hearHow the youthful Harlot’s curseBlasts the new-born Infant’s tearAnd blights with plagues the Marriage hearse.Proverb IIPrisons are built with stones of Law,Brothels with bricks of Religion.THE CHIMNEY SWEEPERA little black thing among the snow,Crying ‘weep ‘weep in notes of woe!Where are thy father and mother? say?They are both gone up to the church to pray.Because I was happy upon the hearth,And smil’d among the winter’s snowThey clothed me in the clothes of death,And taught me to sing the notes of woe.And because I am happy & dance & singThey think they have done me no injury,And are gone to praise God & his Priest & KingWho make up a heaven of our misery.Proverb IIIThe bird a nest, the spider a web, man friendship.A POISON TREEI was angry with my friend:I told my wrath, my wrath did end.I was angry with my foe:I told it not, my wrath did grow.And I wate?d it in fears,Night & morning with my tears;And I sunned it with smiles,And with soft deceitful wiles.And it grew both day and night,Till it bore an apple bright.And my foe beheld it shine,And he knew that it was mine.And into my garden stoleWhen the night had veiFd the pole,In the morning glad I seeMy foe outstretch’d beneath the tree.Proverb IVThink in the morning.Act in the noon.Eat in the evening.Sleep in the night.THE TYGERTiger! Tiger! burning brightIn the forests of the night:What immortal hand or eyeCould frame thy fearful symmetry?In what distant deeps or skiesBurnt the fire of thine eyes?On what wings dare he aspire?What the hand dare seize the fire?And what shoulder, & what art,Could twist the sinews of thy heart?And when thy heart began to beat,What dread hand? & what dread feet?What the haninier? what the chain?In what furnace was thy brain?What the anvil? what dread graspDare its deadly terrors clasp?When the stars threw down their spears,And wate?d heaven with their tears,Did he smile his work to see?Did he who made the Lamb make thee?Tiger! Tiger! burning brightIn the forests of the night:What immortal hand or eyeCould frame thy fearful symmetry?Proverb VThe tygers of wrath are wiser than the horses of instruction.If the fool would persist in his folly he would become wise.If others had not been foolish, we should be so.THE FLYLittle Fly,Thy summer’s playMy thoughtless handHas brush’d away.Am not IA fly like thee?Or art not thouA man like me?For I danceAnd drink & sing:Till some blind handShall brush my wing.If thought is lifeAnd strength & breathAnd the wantOf thought is death;Then am IA happy fly,If I live,Or if I die.Proverb ViThe hours of folly are measur’d by the clock;But of wisdom, no clock can measure.The busy bee has no time for sorrow.Eternity is in love with the productions of time.Ml, SUN FLOWERAh, Sun-flower! weary of time,Who countest the steps of the Sun;Seeking after that sweet golden clime,Where the traveller’s journey is done:Where the Youth pined away with desire,And the pale Virgin shrouded in snow,Arise from their graves and aspireWhere my Sun-flower wishes to go.Proverb VIITo see a World in a Grain of Sand,And a Heaven in a Wild Flower,Hold Infmity in the palm of your hand,And Eternity in an hour.EVERY NIGHT AND EVERY MORNEvery Night & every MornSome to Misery are Born.Every Night & every MornSome are Born to sweet delight.Some are Born to sweet delight,Some are Born to Endless Night.We are led to Believe a LieWhen we see not Thro’ the Eye,Which was Born in a Night, to perish in a Night,When the Soul Slept in Beams of Light.God Appears & God is LightTo those poor Souls who dwell in Night,But does a Human Form DisplayTo those who Dwell in Realms of Day.Tchaikovsky’sEugene OneginU BCMUSIC TheChanThe Chan Shun Concert HaNMarch 3, 4, 5, and 6, 2005EUGENE ONEGINByPyotr Illyich TchaikovskyOpera in 3 actsLibretto by Tchaikovsky and ShilovskyFrom a prose poem by PushkinWith The UBC Opera EnsembleAndThe UBC Symphony OrchestraPremiere-—Moscow, Mally Theatre, students of the MoscowConservatory, 1879Professional Premiere—Moscow, Boishoy Theatre, 1881Conductor Norbert BaxaDirector Nancy HermistonMusic Director Richard EppSet Design Bryan PollockLighting Design Jeremy BaxterThere will be one twenty—minute intermissionChan Shun Concert HallMarch 3, 4, 5, 6, 2005This production is made possible by generous assistancethrough the Chan Endowment Fund and the David SpencerEndowment Encouragement Fund of the University of BritishColumbiaThe ChanACT ONEScene IMadame Larina’s gardenIn the garden, Madame Larina and her devoted servant Filipievna aretalking together while Larina’s daughters Tatiana and Olga can beheard practicing a duet. Peasants come in from the fields bringingfreshly cut hay and celebrating the completion of the harvest. Theoutgoing Olga is taking part in the celebrations while the pale and shyTatiana remains wrapped up in her beloved novels. Lenski, Olga’ssuitor, and his worldly friend, Eugene Onegin, arrive. The four youngpeople awkwardly mingle until Lenski and Olga pair off as do Tatianaand Onegin. Lenski pours out his love for Olga. While strollingthrough the garden, Onegin asks Tatiana if she is growing tired of herboring existence. Visibly upset, Tatiana has difficulty answering. Asevening falls, the couples go in for dinner.Scene 2Tatiana’s bedroomTatiana and her nurse, Filipievna, have been talking. Tatiana is unableto fall asleep and asks Filipievna to tell her a story. Filipievna tellsTatiana about her life, love, and marriage but notices that Tatiana’smind is wandering and asks if she is ill. Tatiana replies that she is secretly in love and asks to be left alone. When she is finally alone,Tatiana begins writing a letter to Onegin pouring out her feelings. Shecloses by pleading for his understanding and when the morning arrives, she gives the letter to Filipievna for delivery to Onegin.Scene 3A different part of the gardenA group of women has gathered in Madame Larina’s garden singingabout flirting with boys. Tatiana hurries in, followed by Onegin.Onegin tells Tatiana that love and marriage are not for him and, whilehe is flattered by her attentions, he loves her like a brother and nomore. Tatiaria is crushed and humiliated.INTERMISSIONACT TWOScene IMadame Larina’s house, months laterDuring a ball for Tatianas birthday, Monsieur Triquet, the dancingmaster, sings a song in her honor. Onegin dances with Tatiana, whichgives rise to some ill-natured gossip from the neighbors. Onegin,bored with the whole evening, chooses to flirt with Olga and arouseLenskis jealousy. They quarrel and Lenski challenges Onegiri to aduel.Scene 2The following morningAt dawn, Lenski and his second, Zaretsky, await Onegin. Lenski reflects on the folly of his life and imagines Olga visiting his grave.Onegin arrives with his second. They sing of regret for their earlierrashness but, in the end, pride prevails. Neither Lenski nor Oneginwill make the first move towards reconciliation. The pistols areloaded and the opponents measured up. Lenski is killed at the firstshot.ACT THREEScene IA hall of a palace in St. Petersburg, several years laterA magnificent ball is in progress. Onegin is there after spending several years in seclusion to atone for the death of his friend, Lenski.Prince Gremin, the host of the party, arrives with his beautiful wife.The Prince talks with his cousin, Onegin, who questions him as to theidentity of his wife. Gremin tells Onegin of the love and beauty thatTatiana has brought into his life since they were married two yearsearlier. Gremin introduces Onegin to Tatiana. Tatiana excuses herselfafter a few words to Onegin, who is utterly captivated by her.Scene 2Later that same eveningOnegin has written an impassioned letter to Tatiana. Though manyyears have passed, she still loves him. She receives him , and recallstheir former meeting and shows some indignation at his return. Is hisinterest in her now due to her marriage to a rich, prominent, and noble husband? Perhaps he only seeks notoriety. She remembers thehappiness that could have been theirs but is now out of reach. Onegindeclares his love again and Tatiana prays for courage. She admitsthat she loves him as much as before, but tells him the past can not berecaptured. She is married now and she will be forever devoted to herhusband. Appealing to Onegin’s sense of honour, she asks him toleave her at once. All his pleas are in vain—she resists his temptationand turns away in a final farewell . A distraught and despairingOnegin falls to his knees to contemplate his bitter fate.CASTMARCH 315 MARCH 416TatianaOneginLenskiOlgaFilipievnaLarinaCaptainZaretskyTriq uetGreminGuillotTenor SoloWhitney Sloan*Krzysztof BiernackiStephen BellAlison TempleJoyce HoMegan MorrisonKevin LoudenScott BrooksJohn Marino(3)IBrian Lee(5)Andrew StewartAndrew JamesonKevin LeeDionne Sellinger*Andrew Greenwood*John ArsenaultRose Ellen NicholsMilo LowryErin FisherDavid EnglishMichael MonAdrian GlaubertAndrew StewartAndrew JamesonTomás BijokDavid English (Gremin Understudy)UBC OPERA ENSEMBLE CHORUSLinda Baird, Jessica Bowes, Tomás Bijok, Scott Brooks, DJ Calhoun,Brent Calis, Esther Choi, Leah Field, Erin Fisher, Adrian Glaubert,Brooke Harris, Joyce Ho, Chloe Hurst, Teiya Kasahara, Michelle Keobke,Amy LaFroy, Brian Lee, Kevin Lee, Elaine Lee, Margo Levae, Kevin Louden,Milo Lowry, John Marino, Katie May, Gina McLellan, Melanie McTaggart,Mimi Roth - Miller, Michael Mori, Matthew C. Mori, Diana Oros-Wilder, AlmaRaskin, Lucy Smith, Kathleen Susak, lain TaylorUBC OPERA ENSEMBLE DANCERSTomás Bijok, Scott Brooks, DJ Calhoun, David English, Adrian Glaubert,Nancy Hasiuk, Chloe Hurst, Laurren lacobellis, Michelle Keobke, Kevin Lee,Elaine Lee, Kevin Louden, Gina McLellan, Melanie McTaggart, Michael Mori,Matthew C. Mori, Rose-Ellen Nichols, Diana Oros-Wilder, Kathleen Susak,Alison Temple*couesy of the Canadian Actor’s Equity AssociationAleksandr Pushkin Pyotr Illyich TchaikovskyUBC SYMPHONY ORCHESTRAViolin I Double Bass TrumpetsConcertmaster: *Adam Jones *Malcolm AikenRegina Ho Finn Vaughan Nicole TicknerAssistant:James Wei Sandy ChenNatalie Jeon Dana Neilsen TrombonesOne Ignas *Sean WrightTheresa Choi Flutes Cary McCafferyBora Lee *Susan Lee Michael SchaferKatya Sokolavskaya Elaine SumHeather Wright Gloria Huh (piccolo) TimpaniSi-Fan Yiu Christy FastJason Ho Oboes*Marea Chernoff HarpElizabeth Brown Andrew ChanViolin II*Erin James Clarinets Assistant ConductorAlana Chang *Ian Munro John van DeursenGrace Tsang Michelle GoddardJi Younge Park LibrarianAida Boiesan Bassoons Micajah SturgessSarah Chang *Michael SiuLaura Weingarten Rachel Fels-ElliotSherry ChuangChandra SusilloLiang*denotes principalViolas Jessica Piper*peter Ing Julie WilhelmLana Elias Krista McAdamsVanessa HellingaJayYiuEric Edington HrybJosh BelevedereTally Lem ireCellos*JiananZhaoAlexandra SiaBnanChanMiKung KimSabrina TsouCaroline SzramEugene OneginLibretto by Tchaikovsky and ShiovskyFrom a prose poem by Aleksandr Pushkin“Life is not like a novel” is one of the catch phrases of Eugene Onegin, an opera completed in 1878 by composer Pyotr llych Tchaikovsky and adapted collaboratively with Konstantin Shilovsky from the novel in verse by the samename written by Russia’s revered poet Alexander Pushkin. Contrary to thecatch phrase, the Onegin libretto reflects significant details about the lives ofits prominent authors.Set in the Russian countryside and St. Petersburg during the I 820s,the libretto tells the story of a young and bored aristocrat, Eugene Onegin,who is introduced by his poet friend, Lenski, to the Larin family. As Act Iopens, Onegin has moved into his recently deceased uncle’s country estateand become neighbors of Madame Larina and her two young daughters Olgaand Tatiana, who are polar opposites. Lenski courts the younger daughterOlga, a jubilant girl with few serious thoughts. Tatiana is the brooding, novel-reading brunette who succumbs to the “magic poison of desire” and againsther own good judgment writes Onegin a letter to tell him how much she loveshim. Onegin, who presents himself as a jaded elitist, condescendingly saysthat her candour is sweet, but that routine would destroy any love he couldmuster which, in fact, would only be brotherly.While Tchaikovsky was writing Eugene Onegin, he received a passionate love letter from an unnoticed young woman who was begging to meethim. His letter, polite but a cool rebuff, further inflamed her and she threatened suicide if he wouldn’t meet her. Tchaikovsky who was 37 years old hadbeen considering marriage for some time, hoping to achieve the comforts of aregular home life and to overcome gossip. Although Tchaikovsky had explained the Platonic arrangement he desired, Antonina Milyukova did not wanta brotherly kind of love. The practical marriage to Antonina lasted only a fewdays. The legal marriage ended when she died in a mental institution in 1917.Act II depicts a bored Onegin entertaining himself by baiting his hot-blooded friend Lenski as Onegin steals Olga as his dance partner. Olga, acarefree spirit, punishes Lenski’s jealously by insisting that Onegin’s flirting isnothing and by allowing Onegin to escort her for the evening’s grand cotillionpromenade. The act ends with Onegin killing Lenski in a gentleman’s duel thatOnegin demeans by both showing up late and making his coachman his second.At 27, Pushkin died two days after being wounded in a duel that involved thehonour of his beautiful wife Natalia. D’Anthes, the adopted son of the Dutchambassador, ignored Pushkin’s challenge to settle the matter by duel andlater married Natalia’s sister as a way to peacefully end the matter. However,D’Anthes continued to pursue Natalia saying his attention was now a familymatter. To add insult to injury, had Pushkin survived the duel, he would havebeen put to death because that was the penalty in Russia for participating in aduel. Push kin’s demise verges on the fantastic and, like Tchaikovsky’s marriage, contains sexual elements that were not discussed in public in the 9hcentury.In Act Ill of Onegin, Tchaikovsky has Onegin fall in love with Tatianawho has married his cousin Prince Gremin. Although Tatiana still loves theman who spurned her, she chooses to honor the commitment to her adoringolder husband, knowing Onegin may be attracted to her only because sherepresents an enticing conquest. Because Tatiana is the character whochanges and matures, many past critics of this opera argue with good logicthat this opera is her story and not Onegin’s.Stage Director: Nancy HermistonAssistant: Darrell CroftConductor: Norbert BaxaAssistant Conductor: John van DeursenRepetiteurs: Richard EppDavid BoothroydRehearsal Pianists: Aleks SzramDonna FalconerShauna MartinChoreographer: Catherine LeeRussian Coach: Tatiana MouravievaTechnical StaffProduction Manager: Elia KirbyTechnical Director: Keith SmithAssistant Tech. Directors: John ConlonAndrew JamesonSet Design: Bryan PollockSet Construction: Harry VanderscheeLarry WalskePainters: Lorraine WestSkai FowlerLighting Design: Jeremy BaxterLighting Assistant: Kevin LoudenLighting Assistant/Operator: Jane LoongProperties Supervisors: Lynn BurtonJanet BickfordProperties Builders: Jennifer MengValerie MoffatWendy SubityWardrobe Supervisor: Parvin MirhadyWardrobe Assistant: Gina McLellanMakeup Supervisor: Nel VoirichMakeup Assistant: Carmen GarciaHairdressing and Wigs: Elke EnglichtSurtitles: John ArsenaultMegan MorrisonStage Manager: Melissa TsangAsst. Stage Managers: Melissa EyesMelania RadelickiStage Crew: Pascale GendreauOlivia MowattThe Chantt I.flIPtRI’4 R1SFor the Chan Centre of the Performing ArtsActing Managing Director Sid KatzDirector of Facilities and Operation Cameron McGillAssistant Technical Director Owen SchellenbergerDirector of Programming & Administration Joyce HintonProgramming Coordinator Wendy AtkinsonEvents Manager Lindsay JamesonDirector of Marketing & Customer Service Marie EdwardsHead Lighting Technician Andrew RiterHead Audio Technician Jay O’KeefeSystems Administrator Ted ClarkFront of House Coordinators Carl ArmstrongAndrew ElliotConcessions Coordinator Nathan LeeTicket Office Manager Donna CaedoFinancial Officer Flora LewFinancial Clerk Laura Lee SamuelsReception Clerk Kim ClayboProduction Clerk Sherri FetterlyTour Guide Rachel LowrySPECIAL THANKSThe David Spencer Endowment EncouragementFundThe Chan FamilyMartha Lou Henley Charitable FoundationThe Vancouver OperaThe Vancouver Opera GuildThe UBC School of Music and staffTheatre UBC and staffStaff of the Chan Centre of the Performing ArtsMalabar’sArt’s Club TheatreVancouver PlayhouseBruce Kennedy at Studio 58Dunbar LumberCat’s Meow RestaurantBrad DowdCohn CooperThank you to all thepatrons, donors and volunteers who made ourfirst Masked Ball a success!AndSpecial ThanksToThe DAL RICHARDS ORCHESTRAAndSteve Lemire and UBC CATERINGFor their spectacular musicAndFantastic food!“-\Thank you!The UBC President’s Office, The Chan Family, TheVice President’s Office for External and Legal Affairs, UBC Ceremonies, The Dean of Arts Office,The Chan Centre for the Performing Arts, Vancouver Opera, Ben Heppner, Judith Forst, Burgoo’sRestaurant, La Notte Italian Restaurant, Sears,Country Furniture, Judi May, the Lowry Family, theHo Family, the McTaggart Family, HarbourCruises, Village VQA Wines Dunbar, David Lemon,Rhonda Nichols, lain Taylor, Don McLellan, AngelaLee, Van Dusen Botanical Garden, Back to BackMassage, Paul Crowder, Ward HuntingKrzysztot Biernacki100 Boardwalk Dr. APT 818Ponte Vedra Beach, FL.32082 USAInvoice No. 2006/207BVienna, 08.06.20060-CC(0C)C 0CC)’Karol Szymanowki ‘King Roger’We are pleased to grant you permission to translate theoriginal libretto from Polish into English for the reprint in yourdissertation.a*ii V c r s 1C)’C), (CCaCOCD—C, ,(—‘C‘C-C(0 CD0)‘0CVC) C)• a(CC(0 CCo0C)C-)C)Amounting toEURHandling fee for the translation agreement 100,00Payment per credit card.Please, send us a copy of your dissertation.With kind regards,La usch-“CU ii C V S . 1‘7’c’ wpCD CDcL, 0AGREEMENT -:(JcDC’,)between: KRZYSZTOF BIERNACKI100 Boardwalk Dr. APT 818Ponte Vedra Beach, FL32082 USA(hereinafter referred as ,,KB”)and: UNIVERSAL EDITION AG WIEN,Bösendorferstral3e 12, A-lOlOWien(hereinafter referred as ,,UE”) ‘1. UF grants “KB” permission for the translation of the following libretto intoEnglish:“King Roger” by Karol Syzmanowskilibretto by Jaroslaw Iwaszkiewicz2. ‘[he use of this translation is authorized for the reprint in “KB”’s dissertation.3. “KB” does not have the right to make further photocopies of the translation,neither to rent nor to distribute it.4. “KB” assigns to UE the exclusive right of exploitation of the translationon a worldwide basis and for the term of protection of the translation inthe respective countries.5. “KB” does not participate in grand and small performing rights and has no sharein mechanical rights.6. The fln! ice on the translatIon should read:© 1925 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien/UE7750English translation by KrzysztofBiernackie©-2006 by Universal Edition A.G., Wien7. “KB” will send UE a copy of the dissertation.. No other rights than those mentioned in this agreement have been assigned.Vierna. 02. May 2)O(universar hclition AGKarlsp/atz 6 1010 WieriUNIVESL EDITION

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