UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Primitive war : a cross-cultural survey. Levson, Elliott Hastings 1963

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PRIMITIVE WAR:  A CROSS-CULTURAL SURVEY by  E l l i o t t Hastings Levson B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FIJLFILLMENT OF :  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n t h e department of Anthropology  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1963  the  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and mission for extensive p u r p o s e s may his  be  L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  study.  I further  the Head o f my  written  Departme nt  of  permission.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date  copying, or  s h a l l not  per-  scholarly  Department or  I t i s understood that  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain w i t h o u t my  agree that  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  g r a n t e d by  representatives.  the  be  by publi-  allowed  ABSTRACT • Problem:. To i s o l a t e and a n a l y z e  the patterned  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  s e l e c t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l elements and t h e s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e . Methods o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n : Two s c a l e s o f s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e — and on e s t i m a t e d  annual c a s u a l t i e s —  s o c i o l o g i c a l elements —  ranging  f o r 47  selected  from p o p u l a t i o n density t o  organization.  E t h n o g r a p h i c d a t a were o b t a i n e d Area  were c o n s t r u c t e d  These s c a l e s were then compared w i t h 26  societies.  political  based on f r e q u e n c y ,  from t h e Human R e l a t i o n s  File.  Conclusions: A model was c o n s t r u c t e d o u t l i n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l bases o f the e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n o f w a r f a r e :  t h i s model i s o l a t e d  two t y p e s o f f a c t o r s : I.  Conditioning Factors:  economicj p o l i t i c a l  These r e f e r r e d t o t h e s o c i a l ,  and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s on t h e b a s e s o f  w h i c h w a r f a r e expands. Ii.  Limiting Factors:  which contract  These r e f e r t o t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s  warfare.  S i x b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n s were p o s t u l a t e d as p r i m a r y i n f l u e n c e s i n the s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e : 1.  The g r e a t e r the s i z e ( p o p u l a t i o n ) , c o m p l e x i t y  a u t h o r i t y o f s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the greater  ii i s the s e v e r i t y of e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e . 2.  The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h o f t h e s o c i a l ,  j u d i c i a l and economic t i e s —  political,  t h a t i s interdependence —  within  a g i v e n s o c i e t y o r group, t h e l e s s severe i s the i n t e r n a l w a r f a r e and t h e more s e v e r e i s the e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e . 3.  The g r e a t e r the s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s , t h e g r e a t e r the  s e v e r i t y of the i n t e r n a l w a r f a r e . 4.  The g r e a t e r t h e s t r e n g t h of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l ,  economic t i e s —  i.e.,  interdependence —  and  between d i f f e r e n t  s o c i e t i e s or groups, t h e l e s s severe i s t h e e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e . 5.  The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h o f the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  mechanisms f o r h a l t i n g or c o n t a i n i n g war, t h e l e s s s e v e r e i s b o t h i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e . 6.  The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h and o c c u r r e n c e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s  n e c e s s i t a t i n g warfare for the f u l f i l l m e n t of various r o l e s i n s o c i e t y , the g r e a t e r the s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e .  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w o u l d l i k e t o e x p r e s s my g r a t i t u d e t o D r . H. B. Hawthorn f o r h i s v a l u e d c r i t i c i s m and g u i d a n c e , and t o t h e S t a f f o f t h e L i b r a r y a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington i n S e a t t l e f o r t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n and good w i l l .  iii TABLE OF-CONTENTS Abstract I n t r o d u c t i o n ..  p. i .  p. 1  Frequency Charts  p. 12  Casualty Charts  p. 65  Synthesis  p. 145  Conclusions  p. 155  Bibliography  p. 160  INTRODUCTION Purpose o r P r o b l e m ; The  immediate o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study were t o d i s c o v e r t h e  p a t t e r n e d r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e l e c t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l elements and the s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e i n human s o c i e t y . The  u l t i m a t e a i m o f t h i s study was t w o f o l d :  f i r s t , to  demonstrate t h a t d e f i n i t e l i n k a g e s do e x i s t between c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and t h e s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e ;  and second, t o a t t e m p t a  t e n t a t i v e a n a l y s i s o f t h e n a t u r e and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e s e patterned  s o c i o l o g i c a l elements i n r e g a r d t o t h e s e v e r i t y o f war-  fare. Assumptions: That t h e s t r u c t u r e or o r g a n i z a t i o n o f a s o c i e t y r e g u l a t e s the a c t i o n o f a s o c i e t y : action:  t h a t w a r f a r e i s one f o r m o f s o c i e t a l  that there are v a r i a t i o n s i n s e v e r i t y o f warfare i n  different societies. Definitions: W a r f a r e , . f o r t h e purposes o f t h i s s t u d y , i s d e f i n e d a s organized community.  c o n f l i c t conducted a t o r above t h e l e v e l o f t h e l o c a l Working on t h e b a s i s o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , and o u r c o n -  c e r n w i t h s e v e r i t y i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y — the b a s i s o f the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e — fare.  1  n o r was i t p o s s i b l e on to include r i t u a l war-  Two f u r t h e r t y p e s o f w a r f a r e s h o u l d be d i s t i n g u i s h e d :  i n t e r n a l warfare,  t h a t i s w a r f a r e conducted w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y a t  See Wedgwood, C. H.  Some A s p e c t s o f W a r f a r e i n M e l a n e s i a .  2. a l l l e v e l s ( t h a t i s , r a n g i n g f r o m c i v i l war t o i n t e r - v i l l a g e w a r ) ; and e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e , t h a t i s w a r f a r e d i r e c t e d o u t s i d e t h e h i g h e s t l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l integration.' ' 1  I n r e g a r d t o d i f f e r e n t forms o f  w a r f a r e , such as r a i d s , f e u d s , b a t t l e s , e t c . , i t proved i m p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s e i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e terms b e i n g u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y by v a r i o u s w r i t e r s :  r e g a r d l e s s , these  almost  specificities  were o f l i t t l e immediate r e l e v a n c e t o my p r o j e c t . For t h e purpose o f c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e s c a l e s o f w a r f a r e , was  considered to i n c l u d e without d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n both i n t e r n a l  external The  per 1,000 Working  and  conflicts. 'severity  1  o f w a r f a r e r e f e r s t o t h e two v a r i a b l e s  f r e q u e n c y o f war and e s t i m a t e d a v e r a g e annual c a s u a l t i e s  —  (deaths)  population. Hypothesis:  The w o r k i n g h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h was d a t a were a s s e m b l e d , was  abandoned soon a f t e r t h e  o r i g i n a l l y proposed i n Dr. R. W.  I n d i a n s o f B r i t i s h Columbia Seminar i n 1962. "The  warfare  Dunning's  My h y p o t h e s i s  read:  s e v e r i t y o f warfare i n c r e a s e s i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o the i n -  c r e a s e o f t h e s i z e o f the group over w h i c h j u d i c i a l and a u t h o r i t y can be extended."  political  T h i s h y p o t h e s i s o v e r l o o k e d many c r u c i a l  elements, but i t s e r v e d i t s purpose as c o n c e p t u a l framework d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n of the i n q u i r y .  A f a c t w o r t h f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t i n segmentary-type systems, o r i n systems w h i c h a r e u n i t e d o n l y f o r w a r f a r e , the b u l k of t h e w a r f a r e i s f o u g h t i n t e r n a l l y . Concepts such as "structural stress" referred to later partially explain this.  Sources; The source u t i l i z e d t o obtain the ethnographic  data f o r the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the charts was the Human R e l a t i o n Area F i l e s (HRAF). Procedure and Methods; My o r i g i n a l hope was t o obtain as many categories of s o c i o l o g i c a l elements covering as many s o c i e t i e s as p o s s i b l e . I had hoped that t h i s non-selective approach might uncover patterns and linkages that I could not have a n t i c i p a t e d . However, f o r the reasons given below, as w e l l as because of the i n herent incoherence of a non-selective study, the s e l e c t i o n became necessary. The HRAF categories from which data were obtained were chosen on the f o l l o w i n g grounds:  quantity of information pro-  vided; q u a l i t y of information provided; and estimated s i g n i f i c a n c e 1  i n r e l a t i o n t o warfare. I n i t i a l l y , 103 HRAF categories were chosen.  However, on  a p r e l i m i n a r y survey o f the f i l e s i t became obvious that data i n a l l these categories were not a v a i l a b l e c o n s i s t e n t l y i n many societies.  Consequently, the number of categories was c u t  approximately  i n half.  L a t e r , a f t e r constructing the scales o f  warfare and making the i n i t i a l comparisons, i t became necessary because of i n s u f f i c i e n t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l data t o reduce f u r t h e r the  number o f c a t e g o r i e s t o 29.  The c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h  actually  2 appear i n t h e c h a r t s a r e p a r t i a l l y Murdock's , p a r t i a l l y HRAF's, and p a r t i a l l y my own.  My own c a t e g o r i e s were used when i t was  b o t h p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e t o f u r t h e r r e f i n e t h e c o n c e p t s —  for  example, t h e l a r g e s t group u n i t e d f o r w a r f a r e . A t f i r s t I had hoped t o choose the s o c i e t i e s on a p u r e l y random b a s i s .  Once a g a i n however, the uneven q u a l i t y and  of the ethnographic data r u l e d t h i s out. p r o c e d u r e was adopted:  quantity  Consequently, the f o l l o w i n g  the s o c i e t i e s were approached i n a l p h a b e t i c a l  o r d e r ; t h e w a r f a r e c a t e g o r i e s examined f o r q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y ;  and  t h e remainder o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s examined f o r ease o f a c c e s s i b i l i t y . W i t h t h i s p r o c e d u r e , r e l a t i v e l y complete i n f o r m a t i o n c o n s i d e r e d  3 adequate  f o r c h a r t i n g was t h u s g a t h e r e d f o r 47  societies.  Categories omitted i n the f i n a l c h a r t s i n c l u d e : M o r t a l i t y ; Ethos; Norms; S t a t u s , R o l e and P r e s t i g e ; E t h i c s ; Ingroup Antagonisms; B r a w l s and R i o t s ; J u d i c i a l A u t h o r i t y ; M i l i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n ; Ground Combat F o r c e s ; S u p p l y and C o m m i s s a r i a t ; I n s t i g a t i o n o f War; Peacemaking; G e n e r a l C h a r a c t e r o f R e l i g i o n ; S p i r i t s and Gods; E t h n o s o c i o l o g y ; E t h n o p s y c h o l o g y ; A g g r e s s i o n T r a i n i n g . The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e s e v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y , but i t w i l l be n o t e d t h a t t h o s e u n d e r l i n e d — w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d o f extreme i m p o r t a n c e — had t o be dropped, o r p i e c e d t o g e t h e r from s c a t t e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . HRAF C a t e g o r y 105,  " C u l t u r a l Summary".  In s p i t e of a l l p r e c a u t i o n s , the data-gathered proved inadequate f o r e l e v e n ( 1 1 ) ' a d d i t i o n a l s o c i e t i e s : M o s s i L i l s e ; Hausa Daurawa; Hausa Tazarawa; W o l o f ; Bemba"Aushi; Bemba B i s a , Bemba L a u p u l a ; Bemba Lunga; Bushmen Auen; T a l l e n s i Namnam; Crow. R e g a r d i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e s c a l e s o f w a r f a r e : i t proved p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e t h e f r e q u e n c y o f w a r f a r e f o r t h e f u l l 47 s o c i e t i e s ; but i t was o n l y p o s s i b l e t o e v a l u a t e the c a s u a l t i e s o f 45 societies.  5. Two t r i p s were made t o t h e F i l e s : g a t h e r the d a t a i n May, 1962;  the f i r s t , one week t o  t h e second, one day t o check  b i b l i o g r a p h i c i t e m s i n F e b r u a r y , 1963.  The t o t a l m a t e r i a l o b t a i n e d  from t h e F i l e s i n c l u d e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 100,000 words t y p e w r i t t e n , and  100,000 words  photocopied.  The a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n o f the s c a l e s o f ' s e v e r i t y ' o f w a r f a r e proved e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t .  Inadequate  q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a r u l e d out  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f simple n u m e r i c a l s c a l e s based on average f r e q u e n c y and average a n n u a l c a s u a l t i e s per c a p i t a . d a t a o f t h i s n a t u r e was s i m p l y n o t a v a i l a b l e .  annual  Quantitative  1  C o n s e q u e n t l y , a r e l a t i v e s c a l e o f s e v e r i t y had t o be  created.  A f t e r t o y i n g w i t h s e v e r a l i d e a s , t h e f i n a l p r o c e d u r e was d e c i d e d upon.  T h i s procedure i n v o l v e d a t o t a l l y i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c e s t i m a t i o n  o f t h e two s c a l e s o f s e v e r i t y —  f r e q u e n c y and c a s u a l t i e s .  The  method used t o a c c o m p l i s h t h i s e n t a i l e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s t e p s :  the  s o c i e t i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two 'ranges' or degrees o f f r e q u e n c y ; t h e n each range was i t s e l f d i v i d e d i n t o two r a n g e s ; f i n a l l y , i t was p o s s i b l e t o i s o l a t e an a d d i t i o n a l range o f h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c y . p r o c e d u r e was r e p e a t e d f o r t h e c a s u a l t y s c a l e , b u t o n l y f o u r  The ranges  A l t h o u g h d a t a o f t h i s n a t u r e was not i m m e d i a t e l y a v a i l a b l e , i t would be p o s s i b l e f o r a s c h o l a r w i t h h i s t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g t o d e t e r m i n e , b y a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p o l a t i o n , f a i r l y a c c u r a t e c a s u a l t y percentages.- Government and t r a v e l l e r s * r e p o r t s , as w e l l as A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ' , o f t e n l i s t b a t t l e s and approximate c a s u a l t i e s f o r s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s . By j u x t a p o s i t i o n and d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e r e p o r t s , v a l i d f i g u r e s would be possible.  6. or degrees o f s e v e r i t y were p o s s i b l e .  For both these  scales,  Range I r e p r e s e n t e d t h e g r e a t e s t s e v e r i t y , and s e v e r i t y  decreases  t h r o u g h Ranges I I - V. To e l i m i n a t e e r r o r a n d b i a s a s much a s p o s s i b l e , t h e s c a l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d b e f o r e any o f the c u l t u r a l d a t a were c o n s u l t e d . F u r t h e r , t h e s c a l e s were e r e c t e d t h r e e t i m e s , a l l o w i n g a month between each attempt and w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g t h e p r e v i o u s s c a l e . When t h e t h r e e a t t e m p t s were c o m p l e t e d , and r e - e v a l u a t e d .  1  t h e y were l o o k e d a t t o g e t h e r  F u r t h e r , i t was d e c i d e d t h a t under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  and r e g a r d l e s s o f j u s t i f i c a t i o n , would the s c a l e s be a l t e r e d a f t e r this. Finally,  I d e c i d e d t o keep t h e c h a r t s a s d e s c r i p t i v e a s  p o s s i b l e f o r two r e a s o n s :  first,  so t h a t i n a c c u r a c i e s would be  apparent i m m e d i a t e l y t o t h e r e a d e r ; and second, so t h a t  voluminous  f o o t n o t e s c o u l d be a v o i d e d . Weaknesses and D i f f i c u l t i e s : A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s u r v e y , by i t s v e r y n a t u r e , i s burdened w i t h many i m p o r t a n t weaknesses and d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Those t h a t s t a n d o u t  i n t h i s a n a l y s i s a r e l i s t e d below: 1.  There a r e n o t enough s o c i e t i e s i n t h e c h a r t s o f t h e t y p e r e p u t e d t o engage i n m i n i m a l w a r f a r e .  2.  The s o c i e t i e s a r e r e s t r i c t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y ( p r i m a r i l y A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and South A m e r i c a ) and do n o t p r e s e n t  W i t h a few e x c e p t i o n s , t h e r e was r e m a r k a b l y l i t t l e  variation.  t h e w o r l d sample I had o r i g i n a l l y hoped f o r . 3.  The u n a v o i d a b l e i m p r e s s i o n i s m  u t i l i z e d i n the con-  s t r u c t i o n of the scales. 4.  The i n t e r p r e t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e c h a r t s :  this  often  r e a c h e d t h e p o i n t where I was i n t e r p r e t i n g a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (Murdock's summary) o f an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ( t h e ethnographer s). 1  5.  I was o f t e n f o r c e d t o choose between monographs t h a t c o n t r a d i c t e d each o t h e r on e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r evaluations of the s e v e r i t y of warfare.  6.  1  Ethnographic m a t e r i a l s are often i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d 2 on p o i n t s now c o n s i d e r e d  essential.  An extreme example o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i s g i v e n below. Murdock, i n h i s c u l t u r a l summary f o r t h e T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i w r i t e s : "The T a l l e n s i were conquered by the B r i t i s h about 1911, a f t e r s e v e r e m i l i t a r y r e s i s t a n c e . " This implies a t l e a s t a well-organized or e f f e c t i v e m i l i t i a f o r t h e T a l l e n s i . F o r t e s , however (1945) w r i t e s (p. 239) t h e f o l l o w i n g sentences w h i c h c o n t r a d i c t Murdock o r c o n t r a d i c t t h e m s e l v e s : "...many f i g h t s o c c u r r e d between c l a n s and lineages." "But g e n e r a l w a r s , i n v o l v i n g a l l t h e T a l l e n s i , were l e s s - f r e q u e n t . O n l y t h r e e seem t o have t a k e n p l a c e i n t h e l a s t three o r four generations". "The T a l l e n s i a r e not one o f t h o s e w a r l i k e A f r i c a n p e o p l e s who have a h y p n o t i c e f f e c t even on A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . " ( p . 233) I f i n a l l y d e c i d e d t o use F o r t e s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t h a t t h e T a l l e n s i s u f f e r e d m i n i m a l c a s u a l t i e s : " t h r e e or f o u r men k i l l e d . . . w o u l d have been r e g a r d e d a s a v e r y heavy c a s u a l t y l i s t " p. 2 3 9 . I n r e v i e w , I w o u l d p l a c e i t h i g h e r on t h e s c a l e , a t l e a s t i n Scale I I I f o r c a s u a l t i e s . Few e t h n o g r a p h e r s g i v e us the d e t a i l o f f e r e d i n , f o r e.g. j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y by Manoukian (1950) f o r t h e T w i , p. 4 0 : " L e g i s l a t i o n . I m p o r t a n t p r o p o s a l s and l a w s were p a s s e d by a meeting o f the f u l l C o u n c i l o f t h e s t a t e . . . J u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s . Law and o r d e r must be m a i n t a i n e d . . . O f f e n c e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s : i . Those w h i c h d i d n o t c o n c e r n t h e c h i e f , i . e . p r i v a t e or h o u s e h o l d issues, i i . Those w h i c h concerned t h e c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y a s p u b l i c or t r i b a l o f f e n c e s . . . " e t c .  7.  The weakness i n h e r e n t i n l i n k a g e o r c o r r e l a t i o n  studies,  that i s , the d i f f i c u l t y o f demonstrating that a l i n k a g e i s meaningful;  and i f m e a n i n g f u l ,  the d i f f i c u l t y of assigning  i t the r o l e o f i n f l u e n c e or manifestation or both. 8.  Time gaps i n t h e d a t a :  f o r example, i n some c a s e s I am  comparing n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y w a r f a r e w i t h t w e n t i e t h social structure.  century  I n many c a s e s I do n o t even know w h i c h  time periods are i n v o l v e d . 9.  Anthropological terminology, fare,  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e g a r d t o war-  i s o b s c u r e , c o n t r a d i c t o r y , and n o n - q u a n t i t a t i v e .  1  A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Theory on War: T h i s s t u d y n e i t h e r p u r p o r t s n o r d e s i r e s t o be a r e v i e w o f t h e Sociological  and A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l t h e o r y on w a r f a r e .  On t h e whole  t h i s l i t e r a t u r e f l o o d s t h e market i n w a r t i m e and i s i g n o r e d i n 2 peacetime.  Further, ideological  authors obscure t h e i r v i s i o n : sociological  and m o r a l commitments o f t h e .  a t once t h e y p u t a s i d e a l l  c o n c e p t s o f group o r g a n i z a t i o n , and devote t h e i r work  t o p r o v i n g t h a t t h e c u r r e n t enemy(ies) i s i n f e r i o r , u n c i v i l i z e d , e t c . A g a i n , l i t t l e work has been done on w a r f a r e ; when i t i s done i t i s 3 rarely published;  when i t i s p u b l i s h e d i t v a r i e s f r o m t a c t i c a l  F o r example, t h e terms r a i d , b a t t l e , f e u d , war a r e u s e d interchangeably.  completely  For example, Q u i n c y W r i g h t ' s A Study o f War; The A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y ' s 1941 Symposium on war; e t c . Q u i n c y W r i g h t (op c i t ) l i s t s i n h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y m y r i a d works.  unpublished  9 studies  t o mathematical evaluations; and regardless of the  above i t ignores either s e v e r i t y r  1  or s o c i o l o g i c a l concepts or  3 both,  A good example i s the following by Malinowski:.  " I t i s confusing to regard i n d i v i d u a l acts of violence and primitive feuds as general antecedents of modern warfare and f a l l a c i o u s to regard war as a necessary r e s u l t of man's b i o l o g i c a l nature. In human s o c i e t i e s the impulse of anger i s usually transformed into attitudes of h o s t i l i t y or into acts of violence which are c u l t u r a l l y determined. Within an i n s t i t u t i o n c o n f l i c t s are subject to the norms of custom, technique, e t h i c s , and law. Warfare i s c u l t u r a l l y productive when i t creates a new i n s t i t u t i o n , a nation-state. The economic motive i s not present i n warfare u n t i l there has developed a body of portable wealth; u n t i l food can be preserved and t r a n s ported and u n t i l the productive arts have advanced so that one man can produce more than he consumes. The most important c u l t u r a l e f f e c t of conquest i s an enrichment i n national l i f e through a d i v i s i o n of function between conquerors and conquered and through the development of new i n s t i t u t i o n s i n which the conquerors provide the p o l i t i c a l element and the conquered the economic e f f i c i e n c y . The note of t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , i n so f a r as i t saps the resources of culture and destroys i t s structure, i s i n compatible with the constitution of human s o c i e t i e s f o r the normal business of producing, maintaining, and t r a n s mitting wealth, s o l i d a r i t y , reason, and some conscience, a l l o f which are the r e a l indices and values of c i v i l i z a tion,'^ In general, s o c i a l theory on warfare has offered s i x types of explanations for warfare:  Turney-High, H.H. Primitive War. South Carolina Press, 1949  Columbia, University of  Richardson, Lewis F. S t a t i s t i c s of Deadly Quarrels. Wright, Quincy and Lienau, C.C, ( e d s . ) Pittsburgh, The Boxwood Press, and Chicago, Quadrangle Books, I960 0  There are of course several b r i l l i a n t f i e l d monographs on war. For example* Evans-Pritchard, E»E, The Nuer: A Desc r i p t i o n of the Modes of Livelihood and P o l i t i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s of a N i l o t i c People. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1940 Malinowski, Bronislaw. An Anthropological Analysis of War, American Journal of Sociology, V o l . XLVJ, 1941  10. 1,  Racial:  seeing warfare as a manifestation of various  r a c i a l -characteristics, 2,  Psychological;  seeing warfare as, for example, the  unleashing of individual h o s t i l i t y , 3,  Biological:  4»  Economic t  seeing warfare as "instinct,"' etc., seeing warfare as directed towards and con-  t r o l l e d by " r a t i o n a l " ends such as t e r r i t o r i a l expansion, the a c q u i s i t i o n of goods, etc,, 5,  Functional;  seeing warfare as, f o r example, increasing  group s o l i d a r i t y , 6,  Moral;  seeing warfare as the r e s u l t of a culture*s  values, ethos, morality, e t c . What l i t t l e published work has been done recently on warfare has been concerned p r i m a r i l y with the r e l a t i o n between m i l i t a r y 1 2 organization and s o c i a l structure or s t r a t i f i c a t i o n .  To  my  knowledge, no serious attempt has been made to discuss v a r i a t i o n i n s e v e r i t y of warfare i n terms of contemporary s o c i o l o g i c a l concepts.  Thus the procedure adopted i n the i n i t i a t i o n of t h i s inquiry  was to attempt to c l e a r my mind of t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s , and to  Andrssejewski, Stanislaw, M i l i t a r y Organization and Society, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954 F r i e d , M.H. of Society,  Warfare, M i l i t a r y Organization, and the Evolution Anthropologica, V o l . I H , No. 2, 1961  11. conduct the study sans a u t h o r i t y . Introduction to the  1  Charts:  The charts that follow are attempts to summarize the ethnographic data gathered on forty-seven s o c i e t i e s . divided into two parts:  The charts are  those based on the 'frequency' of war  (pp. 12-64); and those based on the 'casualties' (pp. 65-144)* As the frequency charts f a i l e d to y i e l d what I considered s i g n i f i c a n t patterns, I reserved the explanations casualties section.  of the charts for the  Behind each chart i n the casualties section I  have l i s t e d a key to that chart, my reason for s e l e c t i n g that chart, and a b r i e f numerical analysis of the patterns i n that chart. The charts that follow constitute the data on which my concluding propositions are based.  The propositions are an attempt  to i n t e r p r e t the patterns y i e l d e d i n the charts, procedure i s as follows:  A sample of my  as I found that a d e f i n i t e pattern  emerged for the category "Largest War-Making Group" (pp. Sl-83), and as I f e l t i t was legitimate to postulate a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s i z e of t h i s group and the severity of warfare, I then could proceed to include t h i s category i n my propositions (Proposition Is " The .greater the size (population), complexity and authority of A  s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l organizations, the greater i s the severity of external warfare."). I t i s now possible to turn to the charts.  Northrop, F.S.C, The Logic of the Sciences and the Humanities, p, 14 " C l e a r l y , the a u t h o r i t i e s disagree about the procedure to be followed i n i n i t i a t i n g inquiry. To be sure, there i s one prescription which they a l l hold,,.that at the beginning one should clear one's mind of t r a d i t i o n a l beliefs,,"  12-. FREQUENCY Population Jivaro  Density  30,000 (1580)  Tasmania  3,500  .13  Cape H o t t e n t o t Azande Azande  750,000 (1949)  Ganda Sogo  500,000 (20th C.)  Fang Fang  600,000 (1949)  Hausa M a u r i Kikuyu  Kikuyu  850,000, (1948)  492.  R u n d i Ruanda  2,150,000 (1952)  Twi Akyem  65,000 (1948)  Twi A s h a n t i  700,000 (1948)  Bambara Bambara  1,000,000 (1954)  Murngin  3,000  .14  Nuer Nuer  430,000 (1931)  17.  Shilluk Shilluk  100,000 (1932)  Somali Esa  100,000 (1950)  Somali Ogaden  450,000  Bemba Bemba  150,000 (1951)  II  III  Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga  10,000  Hausa Hausa  4,000,000 (1920)  13. H o t t e n t o t Nama  24,000  Katab Katab  20,000  Mende Mende  1,000,000  Kongo Ekondo  160,000  Mongo Nkundu  150,000  Nupe Nupe  360,000  R u n d i Ha  180,000  Rundi Rundi  2,000,000  S o m a l i Hawiya  500.000  Somali Ishaak  420,000  (1950)  S o m a l i Sab  285,000  (1939)  Tallensi Tallensi  35,000  Tiv Tiv  627,000  Yoruba E k i t i  200,000  Bushmen Kung  3,500  Hausa Azna  17,000  Mossi Mossi  1,500,000  Somali G i r r i  300,000  Thonga Thonga  1,000,000  Twi F a n t i  463,000  (1948)  Yao Yao  350,000  (1945)  Aranda  2,000  Hausa Kanawa  1,000,000  Siriono  2,500  (1946)  (1951)  (1955)  49.  21. 18.  (1943)  (1931)  100.  116. 64.  (1931)  83.  IV  (1950) 65.  V .5  .13  FREQUENCY P r i m a r y Economy I Jivaro  A  Tasmania  H  + G  Cape H o t t e n t o t  P  + H  Azande Azande  A  + H  Ganda Sogo  A  + L  Fang Fang  A  + F  Hausa M a u r i  A  + L  Kikuyu Kikuyu  A  + L  R u n d i Ruanda  A  + L  Twi Akyem  A  Twi A s h a n t i  A  + F  Bambara Bambara  A  + G + L  Murngin  H  + G  Nuer Nuer  P  + A + F  Shilluk  A  + H  Shilluk  H + F  Somali Esa  P  S o m a l i Ogaden  P  Bemba Bemba  A  Bemba S h i l a  A  + F  Bemba Unga  F  + A  Hausa Hausa  A  .  15.  H o t t e n t o t Nama  P + H + F + G  Katab Katab  A + G  Mende Mende  F + G  Mongo Ekondo  A + F  Mongo Nkundu  A + F  Nupe Nupe  A + F  R u n d i Ka  L + A  Rundi Rundi  A + L  S o m a l i Hawiya  P + A  S o m a l i Ishaak  P  S o m a l i Sab  A.+ L  Tallensi Tallensi  A + L  Tiv Tiv  A + H  loruba E k i t i  A + F  Bushmen Kung  H + G  Hausa Azna  A + L  Mossi Mossi  A + L  Somali G i r r i  A + L  Thonga Thonga  A  Twi F a n t i  A .+ H + F  Yao Yao  A f H + F  Aranda  H + G  Hausa Kanawa  A + L  Siriono  H + F + G  I?  V  16.  FREQUENCY Landowners  Use R i g h t s  Tasmania  L o c a l group, communal  Communal  Cape  L o c a l group, communal  Communal  Azande Azande  Chiefs  Individual  Ganda Sogo  Chiefs  A t o clans  Fang Fang  Village.Headmen  Individuals  Jivaro  Hottentot  I n d i v i d u a l (C)  Hausa M a u r i Kikuyu Kikuyu  Community  R u n d i Ruanda Twi  Akyem  Lineage  Twi  Ashanti  Chiefs & Elders  Lineage & Individual (Owners A)  Bambara Bambara  Local  Individuals & Extended f a m i l i e s  Murngin  Clan  Nuer Nuer  Community  Shilluk Shilluk  Community  Somali Esa  Community  II Chief  S o m a l i Ogaden III Bemba Bemba  District  Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga  Chief  Chiefs  I n d i v i d u a l (C)  17.  Hausa Hausa  State  H o t t e n t o t Nama  L o c a l group,  Katab  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l o c a l headman) communal  Katab  Communal I n d i v i d u a l s (C) I n d i v i d u a l (A a n n u a l by owners)  Mende Mende  Extended f a m i l i e s & clans  Mongo Ekondo  Lineage  Mongo Nkundu  Clan,  Nupe Nupe  Community Headman  Individual  Rundi Ha  Community  Individual  Rundi Rundi  King  I n d i v i d u a l s (A by sub-chief)  communal  Individual  S o m a l i Hawiya Somali Ishaak  Tribe  S o m a l i Sab  Lineage  -Tallensi Tallensi Tiv Tiv Yoruba  Ekiti  Lineage  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head)  L i n e a g e head  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head)  Lineage  Individual  Bushmen Kung  Community  Hausa Azna  Individual (I)  Mossi Mossi  King  I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen)  Somali G i r r i  Community  I n d i v i d u a l (C)  Thonga Thonga  Paramount C h i e f s  I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen)  Twi  Lineage  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e Head & elders  Fanti  18. l a o Yao  Individual  I n d i v i d u a l (C)  Aranda  L o c a l group, communal  Communal  L o c a l g r o u p , communal  Communal  Hausa Kanawa Siriono  19. FREQUENCY Social S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Classes  Jivaro  Minimal  Tasmania  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s  Cape  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s  Hottentot  Azande Azande  Nobles/Commoners  Ganda Sogo  Royalty/Patrons/Clients  Fang Fang  Slavery  No  Yes No  Hausa M a u r i Kikuyu Kikuyu  Landowner/Tenant/Serf  No  R u n d i Ruanda  Royalty/Patron/Client  Yes  Twi Akyem  Landowners/Sharecroppers/ Yes Laborers  Twi  R o y a l t y / C h i e f s or Elders/Commoners  Ashanti  Yes  II Bambara  Bambara  Murngin  Minimal  Nuer Nuer  .Minimal  Yes  Shilluk  Royal t y / N o b i l i t y / Degraded  Yes  Shilluk  Somali Esa  R o y a l t y / C ommoner s / Retainers Substantial divisions based on w e a l t h : 3 endog. p a r i a h c a s t e s  S o m a l i Ogaden  Range from C h i e f l y families to pariah groups  Yes  No  20 III Bemba Bemba  Chie f s / N o b l e s/C ommoner s  Bemba S h i l a  Paramount C h i e f s  Yes  ('Kings' )Yes  Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa •  N o b i l i t y /Middle C l a s s / Serfs  Yes  H o t t e n t o t Nama  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s  • No  Katab  Katab  Paramount C h i e f s  Yes  Mende Mende  Gentry ( o r i g i n a l settlers)  Yes  Mongo Ekondo  Pygmies h e r e d i t a r y  Mongo Nkundu  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t . freemen  Yes  Royalty/Graded n o b i l i t y / Freemen  Yes  P a s t o r a l i s t s & Agr i c u l t u r a l i s t s form two d i s t i n c t classes  Yes  Royalty/Aristocracy/ Commoners  Yes  Castes (including d e s p i s e d , endogamous castes)  No  D e s p i s e d endogamous castes  Yes  'Marked c a s t e d i s tinctions'  Yes  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s (some d i s t i n c t i o n s b a s e d on w e a l t h )  Yes  No t r u e s o c i a l  classes  Yes  Graded C h i e f l y Commoners  Offices/  Nupe Nupe R u n d i Ha  Rundi  Rundi  S o m a l i Hawiya  S o m a l i Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Tallensi  Tallensi  Tiv T i v Yoruba  Ekiti  Serfs  Yes  Yes  21.  Bushmen Kung  Minimal  No  Royalty/Nobility/ Traders/Commoners  Yes  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  Somali G i r r i  D i s t i n c t i o n s b a s e d on .wealth: pariah castes  Thonga Thonga  Royalty/Commoners  No  Twi F a n t i  Nobility/Commoners  Yes  Yao Yao  Modest w e a l t h tinctions  Yes  dis-  Aranda  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s  Hausa Kanawa  Complex s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among freemen  Siriono  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s  Yes  .'22.  FREQUENCY L a r g e s t War-Making Group  Jivaro  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Tasmania  L o c a l group  Cape H o t t e n t o t  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Azande Azande  Tribe  Ganda Sogo  State  Fang Fang  L o c a l group  Hausa M a u r i  State  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Tribe  R u n d i Ruanda  State  Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i  State  Bambara Bambara  District  Murngin  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Nuer Nuer  Tribe  Shilluk  State  II  Shilluk  Somali E s a  Tribe  S o m a l i Ogaden III Bemba Bemba  Tribe  Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa  State  23. H o t t e n t o t Nama  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups ( I )  Katab Katab  Tribe  Mende Mende  Chiefdom  Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu  Tribe  Nupe Nupe  State  R u n d i Ha  State  Rundi Rundi S o m a l i Hawiya  Tribal alliance  S o m a l i Ishaak S o m a l i Sab  Tribe (I)  Tallensi Tallensi  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Tiv Tiv  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Yoruba E k i t i  State  Bushmen Rung  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Hausa Azna Mossi M o s s i  State  Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi E a n t i  State  Yao Yao  Aranda  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups •  Hausa Kanawa Siriono  L o c a l group  24. FREQUENCY Normal War-Making Group  Jivaro  E x t e n d e d f a m i l y ( l o c a l group)  Tasmania  Band  Cape H o t t e n t o t  Band  Azande Azande  State-tribe  Ganda Sogo  State  Fang Fang  V i l l a g e ( l o c a l group)  Hausa M a u r i  Tribe  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Tribe  R u n d i Ruanda  State  Twi Akyem  State-tribe  Twi A s h a n t i  State  Bambara Bambara  District  Murngin  C l a n ( l o c a l group)  Nuer Nuer  Band  Shilluk Shilluk  Tribe.  Somali Esa  Tribe  II  S o m a l i Ogaden III Bemba Bemba  Tribe  Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga  District  Hausa Hausa  State  25H o t t e n t o t Nama  Clan + t r i b e  Katab  Katab  Tribe  Mende Mende  State  Mongo Ekondo  Tribal + District  Mongo Nkundu  Tribal + inter-tribal  Nupe Nupe  State  R u n d i Ha  State  Rundi Rundi  State  S o m a l i Hawiya  Tribe  Somali Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Tallensi  Tallensi  L o c a l community  Tiv T i v  Tribe  loruba E k i t i  Tribe  Bushmen Kung  Band  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  State  Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i  State  l a o Yao Intra-tribal Aranda Hausa -Kanawa. Siriono  Band Band  (sub-tribe)  '26. FREQUENCY M a r r i a g e and B r i d e - P r i c e Marriage  Bride-Price  I Jivaro  P. common  Tasmania  P. p e r m i t t e d  Cape H o t t e n t o t  P. i n f r e q u e n t  No B.P.  Azande Azande  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Ganda Sogo  P.  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Fang Fang  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Hausa M a u r i  P. .general  B.P.  Kikuyu Kikuyu  P. p r e f e r r e d  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  R u n d i Ruanda  P. p e r m i t t e d  B.P.  Twi Akyem  P. p e r m i t t e d  B.P.  Twi A s h a n t i  P. p e r m i t t e d  Moderate B.P.  Bambara  P. g e n e r a l  B.P. customary  Bambara  Bride-service  Murngin  P.  Nuer Nuer  P. p r e f e r e n t i a l S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Shilluk  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Somali Esa  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  S o m a l i Ogaden  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Bemba Bemba  P. g e n e r a l  Token B.P.  Bemba S h i l a  P. p r e v a i l s  S m a l l B.P.  Bemba Unga  P. g e n e r a l  Token B.P.  Shilluk  III  27:Hausa Hausa  P. g e n e r a l  B.P.  H o t t e n t o t Nama .  P. i n f r e q u e n t  No B.P.  Katab Katab  P. g e n e r a l  Token B.P.  Mende Mende  P. g e n e r a l  S m a l l B.P.  Mongo Ekondo  P. p r e v a i l s  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P,  Mongo Nkundu  P. g e n e r a l  B.P. sometimes  Nupe Nupe  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  R u n d i Ha  P. p r e v a i l s  B.P.  Rundi Rundi  P.  B.P.  S o m a l i Hawiya  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  S o m a l i Ishaak  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  S o m a l i Sab  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Tallensi Tallensi  P. g e n e r a l  Minor B.P.  Tiv Tiv  P. g e n e r a l  Token B.P.  Yoruba E k i t i  P. g e n e r a l  Moderate B.P.  Bushmen Kung  P.  No B.P.  Hausa Azna  P. g e n e r a l  S m a l l B.P.  Mossi Mossi  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Somali G i r r i  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Thonga Thonga  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Twi F a n t i  P. common  Moderate B.P.  Yao Yao  P. p e r m i t t e d  No B.P.  Hausa Kanawa  P. p r e v a i l s  B.P.  Siriono  P.  IV  V Aranda  28--. FREQUENCY R e s i d e n c e and R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t Residence  Jivaro  Patrilineage  Tasmania Cape H o t t e n t o t  Family  P.  Azande Azande  Extended Family  P. or N.  Ganda Sogo  Extended Family  P.  Fang Fang  Extended Family  P.  Hausa M a u r i  Family  P.  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Family  R u n d i Ruanda  Family  M. t h e n P.  Twi Akyem  Extended Family  P. + Av.  Twi A s h a n t i  Extended Family  P. , Av., + N.  Bambara Bambara  Extended Family  P.  Murngin  Patrilineal  Nuer Nuer  Extended Family  M..-P., a l s o N.  Shilluk Shilluk  Family  P.  Somali E s a  Family  P.  II  c l a n P. ( ? )  •Somali Ogaden  P.  Bemba Bemba  M.  Bemba S h i l a  M. 2 y r s . , t h e n Av.  III  Bemba Unga  Family  M.  initially  initially  29-  Hausa Hausa  Small  extended Family  P. ( a l s o  N.)  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Family  Katab Katab  Extended  Family  P.  Mende Mende  Extended  Family  P.  Mongo Ekondo  Minor l i n e a g e  P. ( a l s o Av.)  Mongo Nkundu  Extended F a m i l y  P.  Nupe Nupe  Extended  Rundi  Ha  Rundi  Rundi  M. t h e n P.  Family (les)  Family  P. ( a l s o  S o m a l i Hawiya Somali  Ishaak  Tiv T i v  Extended Family  P. P.  Fraternal  Extended  Yoruba E k i t i  N.)  P.  S o m a l i Sab Tallensi.Tallensi  P.  joint Family  P.  Family  P. ( a l s o Av.)  Localized lineage  P.  Family  P.  Mossi Mossi  Family  P.  Somali  Family  P.  Thonga Thonga  Family  P.  Twi  Extended F a m i l y  P., Av., N.  Extended  M.  Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna  Girri  Fanti  Yao Yao  Family  30-  Aranda Hausa Kanawa  S m a l l extended Family  Siriono  Family  31 FREQUENCY L o c a l Community or S e t t l e m e n t S i z e Size  ( 8 0 - 3 0 0 a v . pop.)  Jivaro  Household  Tasmania  Band  Cape H o t t e n t o t  Band  Azande Azande  Neighborhood  Ganda Sogo  Neighborhoods o f d i s p e r s e d homesteads  Fang Fang  V i l l a g e ( 2 - 5 0 huts)  Hausa M a u r i  Village (I.).  Kikuyu Kikuyu  D i s p e r s e d f a m i l y homesteads (med. pop 4 0 0 )  R u n d i Ruanda  D i s p e r s e d homesteads (homestead = 3 o r  o f f a m i l y homesteads  .  more d w e l l i n g s ) Twi Akyem Town Twi A s h a n t i Village II Bambara  Bambara  Village  Murngin  C l a n ( a v . pop. = 5 0 )  Nuer Nuer  Band  Shilluk  Hamlet c l u s t e r ( 1 - 5 0 homesteads)  Shilluk  Somali Esa  Band  S o m a l i Ogaden  Band  Bemba Bemba  Village ( 3 0 - 5 0  Bemba S h i l a  Village  Bemba Unga  Village ( 5 - 1 0 0  III huts)  huts)  Hausa Hausa  Hamlet t o C i t y  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Band  Katab Katab  V i l l a g e (med. pop. =  Mende Mende  Town (200-2,000 a v . pop.)  Mongo Ekondo  Hamlet c l u s t e r  Mongo Nkundu  1-6 h a m l e t s  Nupe Nupe  Town (up t o 1,000 pop.)  Rundi Ha  S c a t t e r e d hamlets ( f a m i l y  Rundi R u n d i  Neighborhood o f d i s p e r s e d homesteads  S o m a l i Hawiya  Band  Somali Ishaak  Band & V i l l a g e  S o m a l i Sab  Band & V i l l a g e  Tallensi Tallensi  Neighborhood o f d i s p e r s e d f a m i l y homesteads  Tiv Tiv  Neighborhood o f f a m i l y compounds (pop. =. 167-1057)  Yoruba E k i t i  Town  Bushmen Kung  Band ( a v . pop.  Hausa Azna  Village (I)  Mossi Mossi  Neighborhood •  Somali G i r r i  Village  Thonga Thonga  Hamlet  Twi  Village  IV  Fanti  Yao Yao  Hamlet c l u s t e r  Aranda  Band  V  =25)  300)  groups)  33Hausa Kanawa  Hamlet t o l a r g e town  Siriono  Band (approx. pop. =  3V FREQUENCY O r g a n i z a t i o n o f L o c a l Community Organization  Jivaro  Lineage  Tasmania Cape H o t t e n t o t  Clan ( I )  Azande Azande  Several  sibs  Ganda Sogo Fang Fang  One or more extended f a m i l i e s  Hausa M a u r i Kikuyu  Kikuyu  R u n d i Ruanda  C l a n communities Clan  T w i Akyem Twi A s h a n t i  Lineage-ward  Bambara Bambara  C l a n community; wards p r o b a b l y l i n e a g e s  Murngin  Clan  Nuer Nuer  C l a n communities  Shilluk Shilluk  Clan barrio  Somali Esa  C l a n communities  II  Somali  Ogaden  III Bemba Bemba  C l a n communities  Bemba S h i l a  C l a n community  Bemba Unga  C l a n community  35Hausa Hausa H o t t e n t o t Nama  Clan  Katab  C l a n community (wards c l a n  Katab  barrios)  Meride Mende  C l a n - b a r r i o ( 1 0 - 1 5 per town)  Mongo Ekondo  C l a n community:  Mongo Nkundu  Extended f a m i l i e s f o r m i n g c l a n - b a r r i o  Nupe Nupe  Indefinite clan:  Rundi  Ha  Rundi  Rundi  1 or more s u b - s i b s  f u n c t i o n a l Age-grades  Lineage  S o m a l i Hawiya S o m a l i Ishaak  M i n i m a l l i n e a g e segment  S o m a l i Sab  Lineage or t e r r i t o r i a l  Tallensi Tallensi  2 o r more s i b s  Tiv T i v  C l a n community  Yoruba  Ekiti  Bushmen Kung  Wards c l a n b a r r i o s or mere t e r r i t o r i a l units  Patri-deme  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  C l a n community  Somali  Clan  Girri  Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao  L a r g e extended  Yao Extended  V Aranda  type  family  family  36- • Hausa Kanawa S i r i one-  C l a n t y p e band  37-  FREQUENCY Government of Local Community Government  Jivaro  Headman  Tasmania  No formal government  Cape Hottentot  Headman (H.) & Council of E l d e r s  Azande Azande  Headman ( l or more)  Ganda Sogo  Lineage Chiefs  Fang Fang  Headman (H.)  Hausa Mauri  Headman  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Community Council of E l d e r s  Rundi Ruanda  Headman  Twi Akyem  Headman & Council o f E l d e r s  Twi Ashanti  Headman e l e c t e d by Council of E l d e r s  Bambara Bambara  Headman (H.)  II  Murngin Nuer Nuer  No formal government  Shilluk Shilluk  Community Chief & Council of hamlet heads  Somali Esa  Headman & Council of a l l adult males  Somali Ogaden III  Bemba Bemba  V i l l a g e headman  Bemba S h i l a  Headman ( I )  Bemba Unga  Headman (H)  Hausa Hausa  Headman & C o u n c i l o f L i n e a g e heads  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Headman & C o u n c i l o f a d u l t males  Katab Katab  Ward & V i l l a g e Headman (S.)  Mende Mende  Headman & C o u n c i l o f c l a n heads  Mongo Ekondo  C o u n c i l o f l i n e a g e heads  Mongo Nkundu  C l a n headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  Nupe Nupe  Headman & e x e c u t i v e  Council  R u n d i Ha R u n d i Rundi  Community Headman & C o u n c i l (H)  S o m a l i Hawiya  Headman (H)  Somali Ishaak  Headman & C o u n c i l o f f a m i l y heads  S o m a l i Sab  Headman & C o u n c i l o f f a m i l y heads  Tallensi Tallensi  Weak C h i e f  Tiv T i v  No f o r m a l  Yoruba E k i t i  Headman (from f o u n d i n g l i n e a g e ) & C o u n c i l  government  IV Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi  Fanti  Yao Yao  No f o r m a l government Headman Headman a p p o i n t e d  by D i s t r i c t  Chief & Council of Family  heads  Headman (H) V i l l a g e Headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s •Headman (H)  V Aranda  Chief  No f o r m a l  government  59Hausa Kanawa  Headman ( I )  Siriono  No formal government  40. FREQUENCY Highest P o l i t i c a l Organization  Jivaro  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Tasmania  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Cape Hottentot  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Azande Azande  Kingdom/Provinces w i t h G o v e r n o r s / D i s t r i c t s with Chiefs  Ganda Sogo  15 petty Kingdoms/Districts  Fang Fang  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Hausa Mauri  D i s t r i c t s w i t h Chiefs  Kikuyu Kikuyu  No regular p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n above local level  Rundi Ruanda  Kingdom/70-90 provinces/lineage aggregates  Twi Akyem  Paramount C h i e f / D i s t r i c t s with Chiefs  Twi Ashanti  Kingdom/semi-autonomous Chiefdoms  Bambara Bambara  Kingdom/provinces w i t h appointed C h i e f s / Districts  Murngin  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l (?)  Nuer Nuer  Tertiary/Secondary/Primary t r i b a l sections/Tribe  Shilluk Shilluk  Kingdom/2 provinces w i t h Chiefs  Somali Esa  Tribe w i t h Chief & Council o f s e c t i o n heads  II  Somali Ogaden  Tribe w i t h paramount C h i e f / s u b - t r i b e  III  Bemba Bemba  Kingdom/Provinee s / V i l l a g e s  41Bemba S h i l a  Tribe with paramount c h i e f  Bemba Unga  D i s t r i c t s with Chief  Hausa Hausa  E l e c t i v e King/states  Hottentot Nama  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Katab Katab  Tribe w i t h paramount c h i e f  Mende Mende  70 independent chiefdoms  Mongo Ekondo  No apparent p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above local level  Mongo Nkundu  Sub-tribe  Nupe Nupe  Kingdom/semi-autonomous o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s  Rundi Ha  Petty state w i t h 'Sultan'  Rundi Rundi  Kingdom/provinces/districts  Somali Hawiya  Tribe with paramount c h i e f  Somali Ishaak  Sub-tribe w i t h Chief & Council of l i n e a g e heads  Somali Sab  Independent t r i b e w i t h c h i e f  Tallensi Tallensi  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Tiv T i v  52 autonomous D i s t r i c t s  Yoruba E k i t i  State w i t h paramount c h i e f / l 6 administ r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s , each w i t h c h i e f  Bushmen Kung  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Hausa Azna  Paramount c h i e f ( d i s t r i c t ? )  Mossi Mossi  3 independent s t a t e s / 9 provinces (5 adm i n i s t r a t i v e , 4 w i t h considerable autonomy)  Somali G i r r i  Tribe with paramount c h i e f  Thonga Thonga  Tribe w i t h c h i e f / D i s t r i c t aggregate)  (village  42. Twi F a n t i  19 independent states with paramount c h i e f s  Yao Yao  D i s t r i c t with Chief &'Council of senior headmen  Aranda  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Hausa Kanawa  Kingdom  Siriono .  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l level  43-  FREQUENCY Exogamy I Jivaro Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang  L o c a l exogamy Tendency to l o c a l exogamy L o c a l agamy L o c a l exogamy usual  Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti II  L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s Tendency to l o c a l exogamy L o c a l agamy ( I ) L o c a l endogamy preferred  (75$)  L o c a l endogamy tendency Bambara Bambara Murngin  Exogamous p a t r i s i b s  Nuer Nuer Shilluk  L o c a l exogamy  Shilluk  Somali Esa  Hamlet exogamy: endogamy  tendency to l o c a l  L o c a l exogamy absolute  Somali Ogaden III Bemba Bemba  L o c a l agamy or l o c a l exogamy  Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa  L o c a l exogamy ( I )  H o t t e n t o t Nama  L o c a l exogamy norm  Katab  L o c a l exogamy i s r u l e  Katab  Mende Mende  L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s  Mongo" Ekondo  L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s  Mongo Nkundu  L o c a l exogamy r u l e  Nupe Nupe  L o c a l agamy i n g e n e r a l  Rundi Ha Rundi  Rundi  Tendency t o s i b endogamy ( I )  S o m a l i Hawiya Somali Ishaak  L o c a l exogamy norm  S o m a l i Sab  L o c a l exogamy f o r nomads: agriculturalists  Tallensi Tallensi  L o c a l exogamy norm  Tiv Tiv  D i s t r i c t exogamy  Yoruba  Ekiti  Bushmen Kung  L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s  Somali G i r r i  L o c a l exogamy g e n e r a l  Thonga Thonga  Community exogamy  Twi F a n t i  L o c a l endogamy o c c u r s  Yao Yao  L o c a l agamy t h e r u l e  Aranda Hausa Kanawa Siriono  l o c a l agamy f o r  U5FREQUENCY K i n Groups  Jivaro  L o c a l p a t r i l i n e a g e (80-300  pop.)  Tasmania Cape  Hottentot  Exog. p a t r i s i b  (I)  Azande Azande  Numerous n o n - c o r p o r a t e , n o n - l o c a l i z e d , t o t e m i c p a t r i s i b s (exogamous)  Ganda Sogo  30 exog. p a t r i s i b s / c o r p o r a t e l a n d h o l d i n g p a t r i l i n e a g e s (5-7 )  Fang Fang  Patrisibs & localized patrilineages  Hausa M a u r i  Patrilineage localized  Kikuyu Kikuyu  9 agamous p a t r i s i b s / e x o g . s u b - s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s & sublineages which l a n d holding u n i t s  R u n d i Ruanda  30 n o n - l o c a l i z e d , n o n - c o r p o r a t e p a t r i s i b s / exog. c o r p o r a t e p a t r i l i n e a g e s  Twi Akyem  M a t r i s i b s and  Twi  8 exog. h i e r c h i c a l m a t r i s i b s / matrilineages often l o c a l i z e d i n corp o r a t e wards/minor l i n e a g e  Ashanti  matrilineages  II Bambara Bambara  Totemic p a t r i s i b s / l i n e a g e s  Murngin  Local p a t r i c i a n , moieties, phratries  Nuer Nuer  Maximal, major, minor, minimal (at l e a s t 3 G.) l i n e a g e s  Shilluk Shilluk  100 non c o r p . non l o c . p a t r i s i b s / c o r p o r a t e major (community) and minor (hamlet) l i n e a g e s  Somali Esa  Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e  S o m a l i Ogaden  Hierarchical & fissive patrilineal  system org.  •46* III Bemba Bemba  40 n o n - l o c a l , graded m a t r i s i b s / n o n corporate l o c a l i z e d matrilineages  Bemba S h i l a  Matrisibs/sub-sibs/lineages  Bemba Unga  Exog., t o t e m i c  Hausa Hausa  Exog. t o t e m i c  Hottentot  Exog. p a t r i l i n e a l s i b s / l i n e a g e s w i t h f i s s i v e tendency)  Nama  (4-7 G.)  matrisibs patrisibs/lineages(I) (both  Katab Katab  P a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d i n v i l l a g e wards  Mende Mende  Local clan & lineage  Mongo Ekondo  Minimal l i n e a g e s aggregated t o s i b s , phratrie s  Mongo Nkundu  Exog. p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d i n h a m l e t / l a n d h o l d i n g p a t r i s i b s l o c a l i z e d as c l a n communities  Nupe Nupe  Male c o r e o f p a t r i l o c a l e x t e n d e d f a m i l y , w i t h t h e i r s i s t e r s , form a p a t r i l i n e a g e  R u n d i Ha  Exog., n o n - l o c a l i z e d , t o t e m i c p a t r i s i b s  Rundi Rundi  Patrisibs/lineages  S o m a l i Hawiya  Hierarchical & fissive social org.  Somali Ishaak  M i n i m a l l i n e a g e l o c a l group. f i s s i v e l i n e a g e system  S o m a l i Sab  Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e  Tallensi Tallensi  Exog. p a t r i s i b s (8-10 G . ) / s u b - s i b s / landholding lineages  patrilineal Segmentary system  Tiv T i v  Agamous p h r a t r y ( D i s t r i c t ) / S i b (8,000 pop./minimal p a t r i l i n e a g e (200-1500) l o c a l community  Yoruba E k i t i  Exog. b i l a t e r a l k i n d r e d s form c o r p o r a t e groups/exog. l o c a l i z e d p a t r i l i n e a g e s  47Bushmen Kung  Exogamous p a t r i - d e m e s  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  C o r p o r a t e , exog. p a t r i l i n e a l k i n groups  Somali G i r r i  Hierchicalj fissive, patrilineal kin groups  Thonga Thonga  Agamous p a t r i s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d as c l a n s  Twi F a n t i  8" t o t e m i c m a t r i s i b s / l o c a l matrilineages/sublineages  Yao Yao  D i s p e r s e d s i b s / r a n k e d & exog. major matrilineages/minor matrilineage l o c a l i z e d as extended f a m i l y  Aranda Hausa Kanawa Siriono  Patrilineal  sibs  exog. (4-5 G.)  48FREQUENCY Trade I Jivaro Tasmania Cape Hottentot  No e x t e r n a l No external No external ( I )  Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang  Markets Considerable importance.  Markets  Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu  Considerable i n t e r n a l & f a i r amount of external  Rundi Ruanda  Few markets  Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti  Important.  Regular markets  II Bambara Bambara Murngin  No external  Nuer ,Nuer - Shilluk Shilluk Somali Esa  Important  Somali Ogaden III Bemba Bemba  No external  Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa  Exceedingly important. Regular markets  Hottentot Katab  Nama  Katab  No e x t e r n a l ( I ) Petty  trade  Mende Mende  Some  Mongo Ekondo  Markets  Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe  Important.  Rundi Ha  Extensive  R u n d i Rundi  Internal & External trade.  Regular  markets  markets Markets  S o m a l i Hawiya S o m a l i Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Tallensi Tiv  Tallensi  Tiv  Yoruba  Some p e t t y  trade  Markets Ekiti  Regular  markets  Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  I n t e r n a l .& E x t e r n a l . R e g u l a r markets  Important.  Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga  "addicted t o barter & trade"  Twi F a r i t i  Regular  markets  Yao Yao  Aranda Hausa Kanawa  One o f t h e i m p o r t a n t A f r i c a n merchant groups  Siriono  No e x t e r n a l  50FREQUENCY D i v i s i o n o f Labor Male Most  Female Most  Jivaro  X  Tasmania  X  Cape H o t t e n t o t  M. & F. Share  X  Azande Azande  X  Ganda Sogo  X  Fang Fang  X  Hausa M a u r i Kikuyu Kikuyu R u n d i Ruanda Twi Akyem  X  Twi  X  Ashanti  II Bambara Bambara Murngin • Nuer Nuer Shilluk  Shilluk  X  Somali Esa S o m a l i Ogaden  X X  III Bemba Bemba  X  Bemba S h i l a  X  Bemba Unga.  X  51Hausa Hausa  X  H o t t e n t o t Nama  X  Katab  Katab  X  Mende Mende  X  Mongo Ekondo  X  Mongo Nkundu  X  Nupe Nupe  X.  R u n d i Ha  X  Rundi Rundi  X  S o m a l i Hawiya  X  S o m a l i Ishaak  X  S o m a l i Sab  X  Tallensi Tallensi X Tiv T i v Yoruba E k i t i  X X  IV  X  Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna  X  Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i  X  Thonga Thonga  X  Twi F a n t i  X  Yao Yao  X  Aranda X  Hausa Kanawa Siriono  X  *  •52. FREQUENCY Descent and I n h e r i t a n c e Descent  Jivaro  Inheritance  P.  Tasmania Cape H o t t e n t o t  P.  P.  Azande Azande  P.  P. ( E l S o )  Ganda Sogo  P.  P. ( E l S o most, t h e n a l l sons)  Fang Fang  P.  P. ( s o n s )  Hausa M a u r i  P.  P. (sons & d a u g h t e r s share)  Kikuyu Kikuyu  P.  P. ( s o n s )  R u n d i Ruanda  P.  P. ( s o n s )  Twi Akyem  M.  M.  ' M.  M.  Twi A s h a n t i  (siblings)  II P. ( b r o t h e r s , by age)  Bambara Bambara  P.  Murngin  P.  Nuer Nuer  P.  P. ( s o n s )  Shilluk Shilluk  P.  P. ( E l S o )  Somali Esa  P.  P. (sons & d a u g h t e r s )  S o m a l i Ogaden  P.  P.  Bemba Bemba  M.  M.  Bemba S h i l a  M.  Bemba Unga  M.  III  M.  53Hausa Hausa  P.  P. (ElSo)  Hottentot Nama  P.  P. (ElSo gets l i v e s t o c k ; other prop, to c h i l d r e n )  Katab Katab  P.  P. (sons)  Mende Mende  P. ( s i b l i n g s , then sons)  Mongo Ekondo  P.  P. (ElBr)  Mongo Nkundu  P.  P. (by c l a s s i f i c a t o r y brothers by s e n i o r i t y )  Nupe Nupe  P.  P. (2nd ElSo, then ElSo)  Rundi Ha  P.  P.  Rundi Rundi  P.  P. (usually ElSo)  Somali Hawiya  P.  P.  Somali Ishaak  P. (sons)  Somali Sab  P.  P.  Tallensi Tallensi  P.  P.  Tiv T i v  P.  P. (sons)  Yoruba E k i t i  B i . & P. (local)  P. (sons)  Bushmen Kung  P.  P.  Hausa Azna  P.  Mossi Mossi  P.  P. (ElSo)  Somali G i r r i  P.  P.  Thonga Thonga  P.  P.'  Twi F a n t i  M.  M.  Yao Yao  M.  M.  (siblings)  Aranda Hausa Kanawa Siriono  55-•• FREQUENCY 'Reasons' f o r W a r f a r e  Jivaro  Revenge f o r murder; s o r c e r y ; headhunting; r i v a l r y ; general v i o l a t i o n of mores  Tasmania  Reciprocity  Cape  Reciprocity  Hottentot  Azande Azande  Conquest; s l a v e s & b o o t y  Ganda Sogo  I n t e r - s i b disputes; defensive vs. slave r a i d s ; a l s o mercenary a r m i e s  Fang Fang  Revenge f o r murder ( b e t . v i l l a g e s ) ; f a i l u r e to return a bride-price  Hausa M a u r i  R e c i p r o c a l f i g h t i n g ; p i l l a g i n g f o r booty  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Prestige & c a t t l e - s t e a l i n g rather than conquest (no a n n e x a t i o n o f t e r r i t o r y )  R u n d i Ruanda  R i v a l r y w i t h other s t a t e s ( I )  Twi Akyem Twi  Ashanti  II Bambara  Bambara  P r i m a r i l y plundering & slave r a i d s ; also o c c a s . conquest  Murngin  Reciprocity  Nuer Nuer  P r i m a r i l y c a t t l e and s l a v e r a i d i n g ; a l s o structural tension  Shilluk  B o o t y ; c i v i l wars o v e r r e b e l l i o u s provinces  Shilluk  succession;  Somali Esa  R a i d i n g ; b l o o d f e u d s ; KA u s u a l l y  S o m a l i Ogaden  Raids  Bemba Bemba  R a i d e r s , not conquerors  III  56;--  Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga  D e f e n s i v e v s . Bemba a g g r e s s i o n ; d i s p u t e s b e t . c h i e f s over p r o p e r t y , e t c .  Hausa Hausa H o t t e n t o t Nama  Reciprocity  Katab  D i s p u t e s over p r o p e r t y ; h e a d - h u n t i n g  Katab  Mende Mende  Conquest; p r i m a r i l y f o r s l a v e - r a i d i n g  Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu  Reciprocity  Nupe Nupe  Conquest; d i s p u t e d s u c c e s s i o n ; b o o t y ; t o obtain p o l i t i c a l positions; intern, rebellion  Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi  S u c c e s s i o n t o K i n g s h i p c i v i l wars; r i v a l r y with other states  S o m a l i Hawiya  P l u n d e r i n g r a i d s ; a n n e x a t i o n and/or subj u g a t i o n ; some t r i b e s r e q u i r e KA  Somali Ishaak  War; r a i d i n g f o r b o o t y ; b l o o d f e u d s  S o m a l i Sab  Sub j u g a t i on; r a i d i n g  Tallensi Tallensi  Reciprocity  Tiv T i v  S l a v e s ; women; head-hunting  Yoruba E k i t i  Wars; f e u d s o v e r women; s l a v e s  Bushmen Kung  P r i m a r i l y d i s p u t e s b e t . bands over t r e s p a s s , h o m i c i d e , t h e f t , women, e t c . Reciprocity  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  P r i m a r i l y as source o f revenue  Somali G i r r i  R a i d s on n e i g h b o r i n g t r i b e s & caravans; defensive a l s o  57Thonga Thonga Twi  Fanti  Prestige & p o l i t i c a l vs. r i v a l states  Yao Yao  Primarily  Ar'anda  Reciprocity  Hausa Kanawa  P r i m a r i l y defensive  Siriono  Defensive  positions;  slave-raiding  58-  FREQUENCY O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Army  Jivaro  No r e g u l a r army.  Lineage  Tasmania  No r e g u l a r army.  Band o r g .  Cape  No r e g u l a r army.  Band o r g .  Hottentot  Azande Azande  R e g u l a r army. I n w a r t i m e , c h i e f c o u l d u n i t e up t o 20,000 w a r r i o r s  Ganda Sogo  O r g a n i z e d by c h i e f s f o r k i n g  Fang Fang  No r e g u l a r army.  R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime  Hausa M a u r i Kikuyu Kikuyu  No r e g u l a r army  R u n d i Ruanda  R e g u l a r army  Twi Akyem Twi  Ashanti  R e g u l a r army. I n w a r t i m e , s e r v i c e b a s e d on k i n s h i p  II Bambara Bambara  R e g u l a r army, augmented by v o l u n t e e r s i n war. E s s e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l a n was armed f o r c e  Murngin  No r e g u l a r army.  Shilluk  Shilluk  King organizes groups  A d u l t s s e r v e i n wartime  through k i n & d i s t r i c t  Somali Esa S o m a l i Ogaden III Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga  No r e g u l a r army.  Chief organizes  war  Hausa Hausa  R e g u l a r army.  H o t t e n t o t Nama  No r e g u l a r army.  Katab  Lineage  Katab  Mende Mende  R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime Band o r g .  R e g u l a r army. structure  Gov't based on m i l i t a r y  R e g u l a r army.  C o n s c r i p t i o n i n wartime  Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe R u n d i Ha Rundi  Rundi  S o m a l i Hawiya Somali Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Tallensi  Tallensi  Tiv T i v loruba  No r e g u l a r army. On c l a n - l o c a l (200-300 w a r r i o r s )  basis  No r e g u l a r army. War o r g . on k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e , as l a r g e as t r i b e Ekiti  No r e g u l a r army. time  ' C o n s c r i p t i o n ' i n war-  Bushmen Kung  No r e g u l a r army.  Band i n wartime  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali  No r e g u l a r army, b u t c a n t o n C h i e f s had o r g . o f ' r e s e r v i s t s ' on c a l l  Girri  Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i  Society organized along m i l i t a r y l i n e s . R e g u l a r army ( I )  Yao Yao  6Q.  V Aranda  Mo r e g u l a r army.  E l e c t e d c h i e f f o r war,  c o n t r o l s up t o a l l i a n c e o f bands Hausa Kanawa Siriono  Wo r e g u l a r army.  Little  organization  FREQUENCY J u d i c i a l Machinery  Jivaro  Local l e v e l .  Blood feuds s e t t l e  disputes  Tasmania Cape  Hottentot  Azande Azande  C h i e f s s e t t l e d i s p u t e s , handle matters related t o s e c u r i t y of state  Ganda Sogo Fang Fang  P o l i t . & E c . & J u d i c i a l ( I ) power t o "eldest" at l o c a l l e v e l  Hausa M a u r i Kikuyu Kikuyu  T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i c e ; community c o u n c i l has l e g i s l a t i v e , j u d i c i a l functions  R u n d i Ruanda  State administration  Twi  Akyem  Twi  Ashanti  State a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : v i l l a g e s e t t l e d l o c a l d i s p u t e s , s t a t e imp. d i s p u t e s & legislation  II Bambara Bambara  V i l l a g e head has c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , a d j u d i c a t e s r e l a t i o n s - b e t w e e n communities  Murngin  Local l e v e l . disputes  Nuer Nuer  B l o o d f e u d s , compensation, p u b l i c opinion settle disputes  Shilluk  Headmen o f dominant l i n e a g e  Shilluk  Blood feuds s e t t l e  Somali Esa S o m a l i Ogaden III Bemba Bemba  V i l l a g e headman ( I )  •62. Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa  V i l l a g e headmen & l i n e a g e heads a d judicate disputes  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Band e l d e r s have some a u t h o r i t y  Katab Katab  L i n e a g e " l i m i t e d war" t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e  Mende Mende .  Chiefs at a l l levels exercise powers  judicial  Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu  Blood feud s e t t l e s disputes  Nupe Nupe  C h i e f and r u l i n g g r o u p had j u d i c i a l power ( I )  R u n d i Ha Rundi Rundi S o m a l i Hawiya Somali Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Tallensi  Tallensi  Unorg.  judicially  Tiv T i v loruba E k i t i  Bushmen Kung  Unorg. j u d i c i a l l y . disputes  Blood feud s e t t l e s  Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi  Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga  Village chiefs settle petty disputes; canton c h i e f s a s s u i t , t h e f t , e t c . ; King general  63-. Twi  Fanti  Yao  Yao  Aranda  J u d i c i a l org. only f o r serious crimes ( c o u n c i l o f e l d e r s ) , execute b l o o d vengeance  Hausa Kanawa Siriono  J u d i c i a l unorg.  64'  FREQUENCY In o n l y one o f the f r e q u e n c y c h a r t s does a l e g i t i m a t e  pattern  emerge, t h a t i s , i n t h e D i v i s i o n o f L a b o r . Definition; Here I am r e f e r r i n g t o t h e e s t i m a t e d p r o p o r t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v e ( i . e . p a r t o f economy) l a b o r performed by male and f e m a l e s . Purpose; What I had i n mind here was t h a t t h e r e would o b v i o u s l y have t o be some k i n d o f r e l a t i o n s h i p between the f r e q u e n c y o f w a r f a r e and t h e amount o f work r e q u i r e d o f t h e male i n m a t t e r s o f food  production,  etc. Pattern; I n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i n 43 s o c i e t i e s . I n 10, men do t h e most work; i n 16 women do t h e most work; i n 17 men and women s h a r e . In S c a l e I :  8 out o f 10 i n which women do t h e most work  2 out o f 10 i n w h i c h men and women share  0 out o f 10 i n w h i c h men do t h e most work In Scale I I :  3 out o f 6 i n which women do t h e most work 2 out o f 6 i n which men do t h e most work 1 out o f 6 i n which men and women share  In S c a l e I I I :  I n S c a l e IV:  5 out o f 17 i n which men do t h e most work 1 out o f 17 i n which women do t h e most work 11 out of 17 i n which men and women share  2 out o f 9 i n w h i c h men do t h e most work 4 out of 9 i n which female do the most work 3 out o f 9 i n which men and women share  65. CASUALTIES Population  Pang Fang  600,000 (1949)  Murngin  3,000  Jivaro  30,000 (1580)  Density  .14  II Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab  20,000  S o m a l i Hawyia  500,000  Rundi Rundi  2,000,000 (1943)  R u n d i Ruanda  2,150,000 (1952)  Twi A s h a n t i  700,000 (1948)  Nupe Nupe  360,000 (1955)  S o m a l i Ogaden  450,000  Ganda Sogo  500,000 ( 2 0 t h C.)  100.  21.  Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna  17,000 (1950)  Mende Mende  1,000,000 (1951)  49.  Nuer Nuer  430,000 (1931)  17.  Bemba Bemba  150,000 (1951)  T w i Akyem  65,000 (1948)  Somali Esa  100,000 (1950)  Kikuyu Kikuyu  850,000 (1948) '  Azande Azande  750,000 (1949)  492.  66  Bushmen Kung  3,500  Thonga Thonga  1,000,000  Mossi Mossi  1,500,000  Somali  300,000  Twi  Girri  Fanti  Yao Yao  463,000  (1948)  350,000  (1945)  T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i  200,000 (1931)  Bemba Unga  10,000  R u n d i Ha  180,000  Mongo Ekonda  160,000  Tiv T i v  627,000  Somali Ishaak  420,000 (1950)  S o m a l i Sab  285,000 (1939)  Shilluk  100,000 (1932)  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa  4,000,000 (1920)  Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara  Bambara  1,000,000 (1954)  Hausa Kanawa  1,000,000  Siriono  2,500  Tallensi Tallensi  35,000 (1931)  Mongo Nkundu  150,000  H o t t e n t o t Cape  67. H o t t e n t o t Nana  24,000 (1946)  Tasmania  3,500  Aranda  2,000  68. >.  Population Purpose: I s e l e c t e d t h i s c a t e g o r y , p o p u l a t i o n and p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y per square m i l e , t h i n k i n g t h a t : 1.  p o p u l a t i o n an o b v i o u s i n d i c a t o r o f t h e s i z e o f a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s consequent complexity  2.  p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y m i g h t r e f l e c t t h e demand f o r l a n d , i n t e r n a l economic s t r u g g l e s , e t c .  Pattern: S o c i e t i e s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n = 42 S o c i e t i e s i n a l l s c a l e s w i t h t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n under 50,000 = 11 S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e I w i t h t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n under 50,000  = 2 out o f 3  S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e IV w i t h t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n under 50,000  = 5 out o f 7  Of 4 s o c i e t i e s w i t h d e n s i t y under 1.0, S c a l e I c o n t a i n s 1 out o f 1 w i t h i n f . S c a l e IV c o n t a i n s 3 out o f 4 w i t h i n f .  69.  CASUALTIES P r i m a r y Economy I Fang Fang  A + F  Murngin  H + G  Jivaro  A +• H + F  Bemba S h i l a  A + F  Katab  A + G  II  Katab  S o m a l i Hawiya  P + A  Rundi Rundi  A + L  R u n d i Ruanda  A + L  Twi A s h a n t i  A + F  Nupe Nupe  A- + F  S o m a l i Ogaden  P  Ganda Sogo  A.+ L  Hausa M a u r i  A + L  Hausa Azna  A + L  Mende Mende  F + G  Nuer Nuer  P +A + F  Bemba Bemba  A  Twi Akyem  A  Somali Esa  P  Kikuyu Kikuyu  A + L  Azande Azande  A + H  70. Ill Bushmen Kung  H + G  Thonga Thonga  A  Mossi Mossi  A + L  Somali G i r r i  A + L  Twi F a n t i  A + H + F  Yao Yao  A + H + F  T a l l e n s i Kusai  A + L  Yoruba E k i t i  A + F  Bemba Unga  F + A  R u n d i Ha  L + A  Mongo Ekonda  A + F  Tiv T i v  A + H  Somali Ishaak  P  S o m a l i Sab  A + L  Shilluk  A + H  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa  A  Hausa Zazzagawa  A  Bambara Bambara  A + G + L + F  IV Hausa Kanawa  H + F + G  Siriono Tallensi  A + L  Tallensi  A + L  Mongo Nkundu  A 4- F  H o t t e n t o t Cape  P + H  H o t t e n t o t Nama  P + H + F + G  Tasmania  H + G  Aranda  H + G  72. Primary Economy Key:  A - Agriculture  H = Hunting  G = Gathering  F = Fishing  L = Animal Husbandry  P = Pastoral  Purpose: I d i d not have anything s p e c i f i c i n mind here, but simply wanted to see what might emerge such as i r r e l e v a n c y of annexation t o nomads, e t c . D i f f i c u l t y here i s i n evaluating "primary" aspects of economy: what would have been d e s i r a b l e i d e a l l y would be a breakdown of average man-hours spent i n each a c t i v i t y , place of each a c t i v i t y i n production, e t c . Pattern: S o c i e t i e s w i t h information = 47 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale I that not p r i m a r i l y a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s = 1 out of 3 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale IV that not p r i m a r i l y a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s = 5 out of 8 Only 1 s o c i e t y i n Scale I I and 5 s o c i e t i e s i n Scale I I I have important hunting.  73.  CASUALTIES Landowners  Use R i g h t s  V i l l a g e Headman  Individuals  Clan  Communal ( I )  I Fang Fang Murngin  Communal ( I )  Jivaro II Bemba S h i l a Katab  I n d i v i d u a l s (C)  Katab  S o m a l i Hawiya  King  I n d i v i d u a l s (A by sub-chiefs)  R u n d i Rundi R u n d i Ruanda Twi  Ashanti  Nupe Nupe  Chiefs  &.Elders  Lineage & Individual (Owners A)  Headman f o r community  Individual  Chiefs  A to clans  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo  Individual  Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna  Individual (I.)  Mende Mende  Extended f a m i l i e s & clans  Nuer Nuer  Community  Bemba Bemba  District  T w i Akyem  Lineage  Somali Esa  Community  Chiefs  (C)  I n d i v i d u a l (A a n n u a l by owners)  Individual  (C)  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Community  Azande Azande  Chiefs  Individual  Bushmen Kung  Community  Communal ( I )  Thonga Thonga  Paramount C h i e f s  I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen)  Mossi Mossi  King  I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen)  Somali G i r r i  Community  I n d i v i d u a l (C)  Twi  Lineage  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head & elder)  Yao Yao  Individual  I n d i v i d u a l (C)  T a l l e n s i Kusai  L o c a l Headmen  Individual  Yoruba E k i t i  Lineage  Individual  Bemba Unga  Chief  R u n d i Ha  Community  Mongo Ekonda  Lineage  Tiv T i v  L i n e a g e head  Somali Ishaak  Tribe  S o m a l i Sab  Lineage  Shilluk  Community  Fanti  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa  Individual  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head)  State  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l o c a l headman)  Local Chief  Individuals & Extended f a m i l i e s  Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara  75.  Hausa Kanawa Siriono  L o c a l Group, communal  Communal  Tallensi Tallensi  Lineage  I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head)  Mongo Nkundu  C l a n , communal  Individual  H o t t e n t o t Cape  L o c a l g r o u p , communal  Communal  H o t t e n t o t Nama  L o c a l group, communal  Communal  Tasmania  L o c a l group, communal  Communal  Aranda  L o c a l group, communal  Communal  76o  Ownership and Use Rights  Kay: I «=• Inference (as throughout charts) £L. = allocated by C = by bringing under c u l t i v a t i o n Purpose; I had expected to find i n t h i s area one o f the most s i g n i f i c a n t categories:  i,e«, the corporate group, or unit of cooperation.  Unfortunately, there i s l i t t l e refinement of the important concepts i n t h i s area of study. the land? t h i s land?  What I wanted to know was; What group owns  How does i t obtain the land? How are p r o f i t s distributed?  What are t h e i r rights over How i s work organized?  Pattern; Societies i n which use r i g h t s are communal: 6 Societies i n Scale I with communal use r i g h t s ; Murngin and Jivaro by Inference) Societies i n Scale IV with communal use r i g h t s ;  2 out o f 3 (with 5 out o f 7  77. CASUALTIES Social S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Classes  Slavery  Fang Fang  No  Murngin  Minimal  Jivaro  Minimal  Bemba S h i l a  Paramount ('Kings')  Chiefs  Yes  Katab  Paramount C h i e f s  Yes  Castes ( i n c l u d i n g d e s p i s e d , endogamous castes)  No  R o y a l t y / A r i sto cracy/ Commoners  Yes  R u n d i Ruanda  Royalty/Patron/Client  Yes  Twi A s h a n t i  R o y a l t y / C h i e f s or Elders/Commoners  Yes  Royalty/Graded n o b i l i t y / Freemen  Yes  II  Katab  S o m a l i Hawiya  Rundi  Rundi  Nupe Nupe S o m a l i Ogaden  Range f r o m C h i e f l y f a m i l i e s t o p a r i a h groups No  Ganda Sogo  Royalty/Patrons/Clients  Yes  Gentry ( o r i g i n a l settlers)  Yes  Nuer Nuer  Minimal  Yes  Bemba Bemba  Chiefs/Nobles/ Commoners  Yes  Hausa M a u r i Hausa. Azna Mende Mende  78. Twi. Akyem  Landowners/Sharecroppers/ Laborers  Yes  Substantial divisions based on w e a l t h : 3 endogamous p a r i a h c a s t e s  Yes  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Landowner/Tenant/Serf  No  Azande Azande  Noble s/C ommoner s  Bushmen Kung  Minimal  No  Thonga Thonga  R o y a l t y / C ommoner s  No  Mossi Mossi  Royalty / M o b i l i t y / Traders/Commoners  Yes  D i s t i n c t i o n s based on wealth: pariah castes  Yes  Twi F a n t i  N o b i l i t y / C ommoner s  Yes  Yao Yao  Modest w e a l t h d i s tinctions  Yes  Somali Esa  Ill  Somali  Girri  T a l l e n s i Kusai  Minimal  Yoruba E k i t i  Graded C h i e f l y O f f i c e s / Commoners  Bemba Unga R u n d i Ha  Yes' Yes  P a s t o r a l i s t s & Agr i c u l t u r a l i s t s form 2 distinct classes  Yes  Mongo Ekonda  Pygmies h e r e d i t a r y S e r f s  Yes  Tiv T i v  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s  Yes  Somali Ishaak  D e s p i s e d endogamous castes  Yes  •Marked c a s t e d i s tinctions'  Yes  S o m a l i Sab  79. Shilluk  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa  Hausa Zazzagawa  Royalty/Nobility/ Degraded R o y a l t y / C ommoner s/Reta ine r s  Yes  Nobility/Middle Class/ Serfs  Yes  A r i sto c r a c y / S e r f s  Yes  Complex s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among freemen  Yes  Bambara Bambara IV Hausa Kanawa  Siriono tallensi  No t r u e s o c i a l Tallensi  classes  No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s (some d i s t i n c t i o n s b a s e d on w e a l t h )  Yes  No s i g n i f i c a n t d i s t i n c t i o n s b e t . freemen  Yes  H o t t e n t o t Cape  No t r u e s o c i a l  classes  No  H o t t e n t o t Nama  No t r u e s o c i a l  classes  No  Tasmania  No t r u e s o c i a l  classes  Aranda  No t r u e s o c i a l  classes  Mongo Nkundu  80, Social Stratification Purpose: I was t h i n k i n g here i n terms o f the r e l a t i o n between s t r a t i f i c a t i o n and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of socio-economic power, i n d i v i d u a l m o b i l i t y , e t c . Unfortunately, however, these categories are a l s o i n s u f f i c i e n t l y r e f i n e d :  we do not know how s t r i c t the  d i v i s i o n s are, nor the a l l o c a t i o n of power w i t h i n each d i v i s i o n . Regarding s l a v e r y , we do not know how many slaves were maintained ( i n t o t a l , per person, per c l a s s , e t c . ) . Pattern: S o c i e t i e s i n Scale I w i t h no true c l a s s e s : S o c i e t i e s i n Scale IV w i t h no true c l a s s e s :  2 out of 2 7 out of 8  81. CASUALTIES L a r g e s t War-Making Group  Fang Fang  L o c a l group  Murngin  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Jivaro  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  II Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab  Tribe  S o m a l i Hawiya R u n d i Rundi  Tribal  R u n d i Ruanda  State  Twi  State  Ashanti  Nupe Nupe  alliance  State  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo  State  Hausa M a u r i  State  Hausa Azna Mende Mende  Chiefdom  Nuer Nuer  Tribe  Bemba Bemba  Tribe  Twi Akyem Somali Esa  Tribe  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Tribe  Azande Azande  Tribe  82. Ill Bushmen Kung  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi  State  Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i  State  Yao Yao Tallensi Kusai Yoruba E k i t i  State  Bemba Unga R u n d i Ha  State  Mongo Ekonda Tiv Tiv  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups ( T r i b e )  Somali Ishaak  Tribe (I)  S o m a l i Sab Shilluk Shilluk  State  Hausa Hausa  State  Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara District IV Hausa Kanawa Siriono  L o c a l group  Tallensi Tallensi Mongo Nkundu H o t t e n t o t Cape  A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups Tribe A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups  83 H o t t e n t o t Nama  A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups  Tasmania  L o c a l group  Aranda  A l l i a n c e of l o c a l  groups  84. L a r g e s t War-Making Group Purpose: T h i s was p a r t o f my o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s :  i t c e r t a i n l y was  not  borne out anywhere. T h i s chart p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l s the impreciseness of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l terms:  when i s a t r i b e not a s t a t e ?  is a tribal  d i f f e r e n t t h a n an a l l i a n c e o f d i s t r i c t s ? than aggregates o f l o c a l groups?  alliance  i s a district  different  The procedure I have g e n e r a l l y  adopted h e r e , as throughout t h e s e c h a r t s , i s t o use t h e w o r d i n g o f the s o u r c e , u n l e s s i t i s o b v i o u s what t h e y a r e r e f e r r i n g t o . Patterns: S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e I i n w h i c h group i s l o c a l o r l o c a l a l l i a n c e = 3 out of 3 S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e IV i n w h i c h group i s l o c a l or l o c a l a l l i a n c e = 6 out o f 7.  85. CASUALTIES Normal. War-Making Group  Fang Fang  V i l l a g e ( l o c a l group)  Murngin  C l a n ( l o c a l group)  Jivaro  E x t e n d e d f a m i l y ( l o c a l group)  II Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab  Tribe  S o m a l i Hawiya  Tribe  Rundi Rundi  State  R u n d i Ruanda  State  Twi  State  Ashanti  Nupe Nupe  State  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo  State  Hausa M a u r i  Tribe  Hausa Azna Mende Mende  State  Nuer Nuer  Band  Bemba Bemba  Tribe  Twi Akyem  State-tribe  Somali Esa  Tribe  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Tribe  Azande Azande  State-tribe  86. Ill Bushmen Kung  Band  Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi  State  Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i  State  Yao Yao  Intra-tribal •  Tallensi Kusai Yoruba E k i t i  Tribe  Bemba Unga  District  R u n d i Ha  State  Mongo Ekonda  Tribal + District  Tiv Tiv  Tribe  (sub-tribe)  Somali Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Shilluk  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa  Tribe State  Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara  District  IV Hausa Kanawa Siriono Tallensi  Band Tallensi  Mongo Nkundu H o t t e n t o t Cape  L o c a l community Tribal + inter-tribal Band  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Clan + t r i b e  Tasmania  Band  Aranda  Band  8&. Normal War-Making Group Purpose: S i m i l a r i d e a and d e f e c t s as i n p r e v i o u s  chart.  By normal war-making group I mean t h a t group w h i c h appears t o be t h e war-making group u n l e s s t h e s o c i e t y i s t h r e a t e n e d alliances  by  o f l a r g e r or s u p e r i o r f o r c e s on o p p o s i n g s i d e s .  Pattern: S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e I i n w h i c h group l o c a l o r l o c a l  alliance: 3 out o f 3  S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e IV i n w h i c h group l o c a l or l o c a l  alliance: 6 o u t o f 7.  89. CASUALTIES M a r r i a g e and B r i d e - P r i c e Marriage  Bride-Price  I Fang Fang  P. g e n e r a l  Murngin  P.  Jivaro  P. c ommon  Bride-service  Bemba S h i l a  P. p r e v a i l s  S m a l l B.P.  Katab Katab  P. g e n e r a l  Token B.P.  S o m a l i Hawiya  P. g e n e r a l  B.P.  Rundi Rundi  P.  B.P.  Rundi•Ruanda  P. p e r m i t t e d  B.P.  Twi Ashanti-  P. p e r m i t t e d  Moderate B.P.  Nupe Nupe  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  S o m a l i Ogaden  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Ganda Sogo  P.  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Hausa M a u r i  P. g e n e r a l  B.P.  Hausa Azna  P. g e n e r a l  S m a l l B.P.  Mende Mende  P. g e n e r a l  S m a l l B.P.  Nuer Nuer  P. p r e f e r e n t i a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  Bemba Bemba  P. g e n e r a l  Token B.P.  Twi Akyem  P. p e r m i t t e d  B.P.  Somali E s a  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l - B.P.  Kikuyu  P. p r e f e r r e d  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  P. g e n e r a l  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P.  S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. -  II  Kikuyu  Azande Azande  Substantial  90. Ill Bushmen Kung  P.  No B.P.  Thonga Thonga  P. g e n e r a l  Substantial  B.P.  Mossi Mossi  P. g e n e r a l  Substantial  B.P.  Somali G i r r i  P.. g e n e r a l  Substantial  B.P.  Twi F a n t i  P. common  Moderate  Yao Yao  P. p e r m i t t e d  No b r i d e p r i c e  T a l l e n s i Kusai  P. g e n e r a l  Bride  Yoruba E k i t i  P. g e n e r a l  Moderate  Bemba Unga  ±  Rundi Ha  P. p r e v a i l s  B.P.  Mongo Ekonda  P. p r e v a i l s  Substantial  Tiv T i v  P. g e n e r a l  Token  Somali Ishaak  P. g e n e r a l  Substantial  B.P.  S o m a l i Sab  P. g e n e r a l  Substantial  BiP.  Shilluk Shilluk  P. g e n e r a l  Substantial  B.P.  Hausa Hausa  P. g e n e r a l  B.P.  Hausa Zazzagawa  P.  B.P. + Dowry  Bambara Bambara  P. g e n e r a l  B.P.  Hausa Kanawa  P. p r e v a i l s  B.P.  Siriono  P.  Tallensi Tallensi  P. g e n e r a l  Minor  Mongo Nkundu  P. g e n e r a l  B.P.  H o t t e n t o t Cape  P. i n f r e q u e n t  No B.P.  .  general  B.P.  service B.P.  Token B.P.  B.P.  B.P.  customary  IV  B.P. sometimes  91. H o t t e n t o t Nama  P. i n f r e q u e n t  Tasmania  P.  Aranda  permitted  Token B.P.  9*2.'. M a r r i a g e and  Bride-Price  Key: B.P.  = bride-price  P.  = polygyny  Purpose: I had t h o u g h t t h i s might d e m o n s t r a t e r e l a t i o n between p o l y g y n y and w a r f a r e ( d i s t o r t e d male-female sex r a t i o ) , but quantitative  insufficient  data.  R e g a r d i n g b r i d e - p r i c e , I t h o u g h t t h a t perhaps g r e a t  bride-prices  c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e s n e c e s s i t a t i n g p i l l a g e , r a i d i n g , e t c . by y o u t h s without personal  fortunes.  Pattern: S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e I w i t h heavy B.P.  = 1 out o f  S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e IV w i t h l i t t l e B.P.  2  = 4 out o f  5.  93. CASUALTIES R e s i d e n c e and R e s i d e n t i a l  Unit  Residential  Fang Fang  Extended  Murngin  Patrilineal  Jivaro  Patrilineage  Unit  Family clan  Residence  P. P. ( ? )  II Bemba S h i l a  Katab Katab  M. 2 y r s . , t h e n Av. Extended.Family  S o m a l i Hawiya  P. P.  Rundi  Rundi  Family  P. ( a l s o  Rundi  Ruanda  Family  M. t h e n P.  Twi A s h a n t i  Extended  Nupe Nupe  Extended F a m i l y ( i e s )  Family  S o m a l i Ogaden •Ganda Sogo Hausa M a u r i  N.)  P.-, Av., + N. P. ' P.  Extended  Family  Family  Patrilocal P.  Hausa Azna Mende Mende  Extended  Family  P.  Nuer Nuer  Extended  Family  M.-P., a l s o N.  Bemba Bemba  M.  Twi Akyem  Extended  Somali Esa  Family  Kikuyu  Family  Kikuyu  Azande Azande  Extended  Family  initially  P. 4- Av. P.  Family  P. or M.  94. Ill  Bushmen Kung  Family  M. 1 y r ., t h e n  Thonga Thonga  Family  P.  Mossi  Family  P.  Family  P.  Extended Family  P. > Av., N.  Yao Yao  Extended F a m i l y  M.  T a l l e n s i Kusai  Fraternal j o i n t Family  P.  Yoruba E k i t i  Localized lineage  P.  Bemba Unga  Family  M. i n i t i a l l y  Mossi  Somali Twi  Girri  Fanti  Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda  Minor  Tiv T i v  Extended F a m i l y  P. ( a l s o Av.)  Extended Family  P.  Somali  Ishaak  lineage  S o m a l i Sab  P. ( a l s o Av.)  P.  Shilluk Shilluk  Family  P.  Hausa Hausa  Small. .Extended -Family  P. ( a l s o N.)  Hausa Zazzagawa .  Extended Family  P.  Bambara Bambara  Extended Family  P.  Hausa Kanawa  Small Extended Family  P.  Siriono  Family  Tallensi Tallensi  F r a t e r n a l j o i n t Family  P.  Mongo Nkundu  Extended Family  P.  H o t t e n t o t Cape  Family  P.  rv  95. H o t t e n t o t Nama Tasmania Aranda .  Family  M.,  t h e n P.  96. Residence and Residential Unit Key.: M = matrilocal P = patrilocal  N — neolocal A.v,~ avunculocal  Pattern: Nothing seemed to emerge here. What I had i n mind was that since rules of residence form an important area of anthropological theory, they might be of significance i n regard to warfare. If they had yielded a pattern, I would then have attempted an interpretation.  97. CASUALTIES L o c a l Community or S e t t l e m e n t S i z e Size  Fang Fang  Village  Murngin  C l a n ( a v . pop. = 50)  Jivaro  Household (80-300 a v . pop.)  Bemba S h i l a  Villages  Katab Katab  V i l l a g e ' s (median pop. = 300)  S o m a l i Hawiya  Band  Rundi Rundi  Neighborhood o f d i s p e r s e d homesteads  R u n d i Ruanda  D i s p e r s e d homesteads (homestead = 3 o r  (2-50 h u t s )  II  more d w e l l i n g s ) Twi  Ashanti Village  Nupe Nupe Tavm (up t o 1,000  pop.)  S o m a l i Ogaden Band Ganda Sogo Neighborhoods o f d i s p e r s e d homesteads Hausa M a u r i Village (I.) Hausa Azna Village (I.) Mende Mende Town (300-2,000 a v . pop.) Nuer Nuer Band Bemba Bemba Village  (30-50 h u t s )  Twi' Akyem Town Somali Esa Band Kikuyu Kikuyu  Azande Azande  D i s p e r s e d f a m i l y homesteads (med. pop. = 400) N e i g h b o r h o o d o f f a m i l y homesteads  Ill Bushmen Kung  Band ( a v . pop. = 25)  Thonga Thonga  Hamlet  Mossi Mossi  Neighborhood  Somali G i r r i  Village  Twi  Village  Fanti  Yao Yao  Hamlet c l u s t e r  T a l l e n s i Kusai  Neighborhood of d i s p e r s e d homestead  Yoruba E k i t i  Town  Bemba Unga  V i l l a g e (5-100 h u t s )  R u n d i Ha  S c a t t e r e d hamlets ( f a m i l y  Mongo Ekonda  Hamlet c l u s t e r  Tiv T i v  Neighborhood o f f a m i l y  Somali Ishaak  Band & V i l l a g e •  S o m a l i Sab  Band & V i l l a g e  Shilluk.Shilluk  Hamlet c l u s t e r  Hausa Hausa  Hamlet t o C i t y  Hausa Zazzagawa  Town  Bambara Bambara  Village  groups)  compounds (pop. = 167-1057)  (1-50 homesteads)  IV" Hausa Kanawa Siriono  Hamlet t o l a r g e  town  Band ( a p p r o x . pop. = 50)  Tallensi Tallensi  Neighborhood o f d i s p e r s e d f a m i l y  Mongo Nkundu  1-6 hamlets  H o t t e n t o t Cape  Band  homesteads  99. H o t t e n t o t Mama  Band  Tasmania  Band  Aranda  Band  100. L o c a l Settlement  Size  Key: Most t y p i c a l  s e t t l e m e n t chosen.  Purpose: S i z e o f l o c a l group seems t o be o f s i g n i f i c a n c e as a force i n structure. Pattern: Of p o p u l a t i o n s w i t h s o c i e t i e s e s t i m a t e d under 100 f o r l o c a l S c a l e I = 2 out o f 3 S c a l e IV = 7 out o f 8.  group,  101. CASUALTIES O r g a n i z a t i o n o f L o c a l S e t t l e m e n t or Community Organization  Fang  Fang  One or more E x t e n d e d f a m i l i e s  Murngin  Clan  Jivaro  Lineage  Bemba S h i l a  C l a n community  Katab Katab  C l a n community (wards c l a n b a r r i o s )  II  S o m a l i Hawiya Rundi Rundi  Lineage  R u n d i Ruanda  Clan  Twi A s h a n t i  Lineage-ward  Nupe Nupe  Indefinite  clan:  functional  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna Mende Mende  C l a n - b a r r i o (10-15 per town)  Nuer Nuer  C l a n communities  Bemba Bemba  C l a n communities  Twi Akyem Somali Esa  C l a n communities  Kikuyu Kikuyu  C l a n communities  Azande Azande  Several sibs  Age-Grades  102. Ill Bushmen Kung  Patri-deme  Thonga Thonga  Large Extended Family  Mossi  C l a n community  Mossi  Somali  Girri  Clan  Twi F a n t i Yao Yao  Extended Family  T a l l e n s i Kusai  C l a n community  Yoruba E k i t i  Wards c l a n b a r r i o s or mere t e r r i t o r i a l units  Bemba Unga  C l a n community  Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda  C l a n community:  Tiv Tiv  C l a n community  Somali Ishaak  Minimal l i n e a g e  S o m a l i Sab  Lineage or t e r r i t o r i a l  Shilluk  Clan barrio  Shilluk  1 o r more s u b - s i b s  segment type  Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara  C l a n community:  wards p r o b a b l y  lineages  IV Hausa Kanawa C l a n type band  Siriono Tallensi  Tallensi  2 o r more s i b s  Mongo Nkundu  Extended F a m i l i e s forming  H o t t e n t o t Cape  Clan ( I . )  clan-barrio  103. H o t t e n t o t Nama Tasmania Aranda  Clan  104' L o c a l Settlement Organization T h i s c h a r t seems i n s u f f i c i e n t l y r e f i n e d t o be m e a n i n g f u l .  105. CASUALTIES Government o f L o c a l Community Government  Fang Fang  Headman (H.)  Murngin Jivaro  Headman  Bemba S h i l a  Headman ( I . )  K a t a b Katab  Ward & V i l l a g e Headmen ( S . )  S o m a l i Hawiya  Headman (H.)  Rundi Rundi  Community Headman & C o u n c i l (H.)  R u n d i Ruanda  Headman  Twi A s h a n t i  Headman e l e c t e d by C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  Nupe Nupe  Headman & e x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l  II  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda So go  Lineage C h i e f s  Hausa M a u r i  Headman  Hausa Azna  Headman  Mende Mende  Headman & C o u n c i l o f c l a n heads  Nuer Nuer  No f o r m a l government  Bemba Bemba  V i l l a g e headman  Twi Akyem  Headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  Somali Esa  Headman and C o u n c i l o f a l l a d u l t males  Kikuyu Kikuyu  Community C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  Azande Azande  Headman (1  o r more)  106.  Bushmen Kung  No f o r m a l  Thonga Thonga  Headman (H.)  Mossi Mossi  Headman a p p o i n t e d  Somali G i r r i  Chief & Council o f Family  Twi  V i l l a g e Headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  Fanti  Yao Yao Tallensi  government  by. D i s t r i c t  Chief  heads  Headman (H.) Kusai  Weak headman  Yoruba E k i t i  Headman (from f o u n d i n g  Bemba Unga  Headman (H.)  lineage) & Council  R u n d i Ha Mongo Ekonda  C o u n c i l o f l i n e a g e heads  Tiv T i v  No formal  S o m a l i Ishaak  Headman & C o u n c i l o f f a m i l y heads  S o m a l i Sab  Headman & C o u n c i l of f a m i l y heads  Shilluk  Community C h i e f & C o u n c i l o f hamlet heads  Shilluk  government  Hausa Hausa  Headman & C o u n c i l o f L i n e a g e heads  Hausa Zazzagawa  A p p o i n t e d Headman & a p p o i n t e d  Bambara  Headman (H.)  Bambara  Hausa Kanawa  Headman ( I . )  Siriono  No f o r m a l government  Tallensi  Tallensi  ward heads  Weak C h i e f  Mongo Nkundu  C l a n headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  H o t t e n t o t Cape  Headman (H.) & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s  107.  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Headman and C o u n c i l o f a d u l t males  Tasmania  No f o r m a l  government  Aranda  No f o r m a l  government  108L o c a l Community Government Key: S = Seniority H = Hereditary Purpose: T h i s i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f t o t a l government s t r u c t u r e . Pattern: S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e I w i t h no f o r m a l government: S o c i e t i e s i n S c a l e IV w i t h no f o r m a l government:  0 out o f 2 3 out o f 8  However, i n S c a l e I V , o n l y Hausaw Kanawa has headman whose a u t h o r i t y i s n o t m i t i g a t e d by a C o u n c i l o f a d u l t s o r e l d e r s . So, 7 out o f 8.  109. CASUALTIES Highest P o l i t i c a l  Organization  Fang Fang  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l  Murngin  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  level  (?)  Jivaro  No p o l i t i c a l  Bemba S h i l a  T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f  Katab Katab  T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f  S o m a l i Hawiya  T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f  Rundi Rundi  Kingdom/provinces/districts  Rundi Ruanda  Kingdom/70-90 p r o v i n c e s / l i n e a g e a g g r e g a t e s  Twi A s h a n t i  Kingdom/s emi-auto nomous C h i e fdoms  Nupe Nupe  Kingdom/semi-autonomous o u t l y i n g  S o m a l i Ogaden  T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f / s u b - t r i b e  Ganda Sogo  15 p e t t y  Hausa M a u r i  D i s t r i c t s with Chiefs  Hausa Azna  Paramount C h i e f ( D i s t r i c t ?)  Mende Mende  70 independent Chiefdoms  Nuer Nuer  Tertiary/Secondary/Primary sections/Tribe  Bemba Bemba  K i n g dom/Pr ovine e s/V i l l a g e s  Twi Akyem  Paramount C h i e f / D i s t r i c t s w i t h C h i e f s  Somali Esa  T r i b e w i t h C h i e f and C o u n c i l o f s e c t i o n heads  i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  II  districts  Kingdoms/Districts  tribal  110. Kikuyu Kikuyu  No r e g u l a r p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n above local level  Azande Azande  Kingdom/Provinees w i t h G o v e r n o r s / D i s t r i c t s with Chiefs  III Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l Tribe with C h i e f / D i s t r i c t aggregate)  level  (village  Mossi Mossi  3 independent S t a t e s / 9 p r o v i n c e s ( 5 administrativej 4 with considerable autonomy)  Somali G i r r i  T r i b e w i t h Paramount C h i e f  Twi  1 9 independent S t a t e s w i t h Paramount C h i e f s  Fanti  Yao Yao Tallensi  D i s t r i c t with Chief & Council of senior headmen Kusai  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l  level  Yoruba E k i t i  S t a t e w i t h Paramount C h i e f - / l 6 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s , each w i t h C h i e f  Bemba Unga  D i s t r i c t with Chief  R u n d i Ha  Petty state with  Mongo Ekonda  No a p p a r e n t p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above local level  Tiv T i v  5 2 autonomous  Somali Ishaak  S u b - t r i b e w i t h C h i e f and C o u n c i l o f l i n e a g e heads  S o m a l i Sab  Independent T r i b e w i t h C h i e f  Shilluk  Kingdom/2 provinces w i t h C h i e f s  Shilluk  'Sultan'  Districts  Hausa Hausa  E l e c t i v e King/states  Hausa Zazzagawa  T i t l e d ranks b a s i s o f o r g .  Bamraba Bambara  Kingdom/provinces w i t h a p p o i n t e d C h i e f s / Districts  111.  Hausa Kanawa  Kingdom  Siriono  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  Tallensi Tallensi  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l  Mongo Nkundu  Sub-tribe  H o t t e n t o t Cape  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  H o t t e n t o t Naraa  No p o l i t i c a l  i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l  level  Tasmania  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l  level  Aranda  No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l  level  Highest P o l i t i c a l  Organization  Key: By h i g h e s t p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , I r e f e r t o t h a t  organization  on the g r e a t e s t s c a l e which f u n c t i o n s r e g u l a r l y and n o r m a l l y i n judicial,  economic and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s .  By t h i s I e x c l u d e  temporary a l l i a n c e s , even when i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d (such a s f o r warfare). Purpose: I had hoped t o determine g e n e r a l p i c t u r e o f power and a u t h o r i t y i n these s o c i e t i e s through t h i s . answered.  But many q u e s t i o n s  are un-  What, f o r example, does semi-autonomous mean?  Pattern: Of s o c i e t i e s w i t h no p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above t h e l o c a l I n S c a l e I : 3 out o f 3 I n S c a l e I V : 6 o u t o f 8.  level,  113.  CASUALTIES Exogamy I Fang Fang  L o c a l exogamy u s u a l  Murngin  L o c a l exogamy  Jivaro II Bemba S h i l a Katab  Katab  L o c a l exogamy i s r u l e  S o m a l i Hawiya Rundi  Rundi  Tendency t o s i b endogamy ( I . )  Rundi Ruanda  Tendency t o L o c a l Exogamy  Twi A s h a n t i  L o c a l endogamy p r e f e r r e d  Nupe Nupe  L o c a l agamy i n g e n e r a l  (75$)  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo  L o c a l agamy  Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna Mende Mende  L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s  Nuer Nuer  Exogamous p a t r i s i b s  Bemba Bemba  L o c a l agamy o r l o c a l exogamy  Twi Akyem  L o c a l agamy ( I . )  Somali Esa  L o c a l exogamy a b s o l u t e  Kikuyu Kikuyu  L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s  Azande Azande  Tendency t o l o c a l exogamy  114.  Ill Bushmen Kung  L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s  Thonga Thonga  Community exogamy  Mossi Mossi  L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s  Somali G i r r i  L o c a l exogamy g e n e r a l  Twi  L o c a l endogamy o c c u r s  Fanti  Yao Yao  L o c a l agamy t h e r u l e  T a l l e n s i Kusai  L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s  Yoruba  Ekiti  Bemba Unga  L o c a l exogamy ( I . )  R u n d i Ha Mongo Ekonda  L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s  Tiv T i v  D i s t r i c t exogamy  Somali Ishaak  L o c a l exogamy norm  S o m a l i Sab  L o c a l exogamy f o r nomads L o c a l agamy f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s  Shilluk  Hamlet exogamy: endogamy  Shilluk  tendency t o l o c a l  Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa  L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s  Bambara Bambara  L o c a l endogamy tendency  IV Hausa Kanawa Siriono Tallensi Tallensi  L o c a l exogamy norm  Mongo Nkundu  L o c a l exogamy r u l e  H o t t e n t o t Cape  L o c a l exogamy  115.  H o t t e n t o t Nama Tasmania Aranda  _ L o c a l exogamy norm  ii6. Exogamy Purpose: I was t h i n k i n g here i n terms o f i n t e r c u l t u r a l  relations,  e x p a n s i o n of k i n t i e s and r e l a t i o n s , e t c . Pattern: Wo r e a l p a t t e r n seems t o emerge h e r e . In Scale I :  2 o u t o f 2 have l o c a l exogamy  In Scale IV:  4 o u t o f 4 have l o c a l exogamy.  117.  CASUALTIES Kin  Fang  Fang  Groups  Patrisibs & localized Patrilineages  Murngin  Local p a t r i c i a n , moieties,  Jivaro  L o c a l P a t r i l i n e a g e ( 8 0 - 3 0 0 pop.)  Bemba S h i l a  Matrisibs/sub-sibs/lineages  Katab Katab  P a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d i n wards o f village  phratries  II ( 4 - 7 G.)  .Somali Hawiya  Hierarchical & fissive patrilineal org.  R u n d i Rundi  Patrisibs/Lineages  Rundi Ruanda  30 n o n - l o c a l i z e d , non-corporate p a t r i sibs/exog. corporate p a t r i l i n e a g e s  Twi  8 exog. h i e r c h i c a l m a t r i s i b s / m a t r i lineages often l o c a l i z e d i n corporate wards/minor l i n e a g e  Ashanti  social  Nupe Nupe  Male c o r e o f p a t r i l o c a l E x t e n d e d F a m i l y , w i t h t h e i r s i s t e r s , form a p a t r i l i n e a g e  S o m a l i Ogaden  Hierarchical & f i s s i v e p a t r i l i n e a l org.  Ganda Sogo  3 0 exog. p a t r i s i b s / c o r p o r a t e l a n d h o l d i n g p a t r i l i n e a g e s ( 5 - 7 G.)  Hausa M a u r i  Patrilineage localized  Hausa Azna Mende Mende  Local clan & lineage  Nuer Nuer  Maximal, major, minor, minimal (at l e a s t 3 G.) l i n e a g e s  Bemba Bemba  4 0 n o n - l o c a l , graded m a t r i s i b s / n o n •corporate l o c a l i z e d m a t r i l i n e a g e s  118. Twi Akyem  M a t r i s i b s and  Somali Esa  Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e system  Kikuyu  9 agamous p a t r i s i b s / e x o g . s u b - s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s & sublineages which l a n d holding units  Kikuyu  matrilineages  Azande Azande  Numerous n o n - c o r p o r a t e , n o n - l o c a l i z e d , t o t e m i c p a t r i s i b s (exogamous)  Bushmen Kung  Exogamous p a t r i - d e m e s  Thonga Thonga  Agamous p a t r i s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d as c l a n s  Mossi Mossi  Corporate,  Somali G i r r i  Hierchical, fissive, patrilineal kin groups  Twi F a n t i  8 t o t e m i c m a t r i s i b s / l o c a l exog. m a t r i l i n e a g e s / s u b l i n e a g e s (4-5 G.)  Yao  D i s p e r s e d s i b s / r a n k e d & exog. major matrilineage/minor matrilineage l o c a l i z e d as E x t e n d e d f a m i l y  III  Yao  exog. p a t r i l i n e a l k i n groups  T a l l e n s i Kusai  Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a g e s  Yoruba E k i t i  Exog. b i l a t e r a l k i n d r e d s form c o r p o r a t e groups/exog. l o c a l i z e d p a t r i l i n e a g e s  Bemba Unga  Exog., t o t e m i c m a t r i s i b s  Rundi  Exog., n o n - l o c a l i z e d , t o t e m i c  Ha  Mongo Ekonda  Tiv  patrisibs  Minimal l i n e a g e s aggregated to s i b s , phratrie s Agamous p h r a t r y ( D i s t r i c t ) / S i b (8,000 p o p . ) / m i n i m a l p a t r i l i n e a g e (200-1500) l o c a l community  Tiv  S o m a l i Ishaak  M i n i m a l l i n e a g e l o c a l group. Segmentary f i s s i v e l i n e a g e system  Somali  Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e system  o  Sab  119. Shilluk  Shilluk  Hausa  Hausa  Hausa  Zazzagawa  100 non c o r p . non l o c . p a t r i s i b s / c o r p o r a t e major (community) and minor (hamlet) l i n e a g e s Exog. t o t e m i c p a t r i s i b s / l i n e a g e s  Bambara Bambara  Totemic  Hausa Kanawa  Patrilineal  (I)  patrisibs/lineages  sibs  Siriono Tallensi  Tallensi  Exog. p a t r i s i b s (8-10 landholding lineages  G.)/sub-sibs/  Mongo Nkundu  Exog. p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d i n h a m l e t / l a n d h o l d i n g p a t r i s i b s l o c a l i z e d as c l a n communities  H o t t e n t o t Cape  Exog. p a t r i s i b ( I )  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Exog. p a t r i l i n e a l s i b s / l i n e a g e s w i t h f i s s i v e tendency)  Tasmania Aranda  (both  120K i n Groups No p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n  emerges h e r e .  However, I would  a t t r i b u t e t h i s t o t h e l a c k o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d of a n a l y t i c a l concepts:  t h e s e terms a r e a l l p u r e l y d e s c r i p t i v e terms.  The q u e s t i o n s t h a t s h o u l d be answered here a r e : what a r e t h e r e l a t i o n o f t h e s e groups t o j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y ,  political  power, economic power; what mechanisms compete w i t h them, e t c .  121.  CASUALTIES Trade  Fang Fang  Considerable importance.  Murngin  None ( e x t e r n a l )  Jivaro  None ( e x t e r n a l )  Markets  II Bemba S h i l a Katab  Katab  Petty trade  S o m a l i Hawiya Rundi  Rundi  Internal & External trade.  Rundi.Ruanda  Few markets  Twi A s h a n t i  Important.  R e g u l a r markets  Nupe.Nupe  Important.  Regular  Markets  markets  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo  Markets  Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna Mende,Mende  Some  Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba  No e x t e r n a l  Twi Akyem Somali Esa  Important  Kikuyu Kikuyu  C o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r n a l & f a i r amount of external  Azande Azande  122. Ill Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga  "Addicted t o barter & trade"  Mossi Mossi  Internal & External. R e g u l a r markets  Somali  Important.  Girri  Twi F a n t i  R e g u l a r markets  Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i  Regular markets  Bemba Unga Rundi Ha  E x t e n s i v e markets  Mongo Ekonda  Markets  Tiv T i v  Markets  S o m a l i Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Shilluk  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa  Exceedingly important.  Hausa Zazzagawa  Important. I n t e r n a l & E x t e r n a l . R e g u l a r (weekly) markets  R e g u l a r markets  Bambara Bambara  Hausa Kanawa  One of t h e i m p o r t a n t A f r i c a n merchant groups  Siriono  No e x t e r n a l  Tallensi Tallensi  Some p e t t y t r a d e  Mongo Nkundu  123.  Hottentot Cape  No e x t e r n a l ( i )  Hottentot Nama  No external ( I )  Tasmania  No e x t e r n a l  Aranda  124.' Trade What I was l o o k i n g f o r here i n c l u d e d t h e presence o f i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s , intergroup relations:  f u r t h e r , commitment o f s o c i e t y t o t r a d e a s  economic base ( i . e . war would d i s r u p t same). I am o f c o u r s e m a i n l y concerned here w i t h e x t e r n a l t r a d e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e v a r i a t i o n s g i v e n here a r e t o o vague, we cannot r e a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t r a d e i n many o f these  societies.  Pattern: Of 9 s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h e x t e r n a l t r a d e does n o t seem t o e x i s t on any i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l e v e l , S c a l e I has 2 out o f 3 S c a l e IV has 4 o u t o f 5.  125. CASUALTIES D i v i s i o n o f Labor Male Most  Female Most  M. & F. Share  X  Fang Fang Murngin Jivaro  X  II Bemba S h i l a  X  Katab Katab  X  S o m a l i Hawiya  X  Rundi R u n d i  X  Rundi Ruanda  X  Twi  Ashanti  Nupe Nupe  X  S o m a l i Ogaden  X  Ganda Sogo  X  Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna Mende Mende  X  Nuer Nuer  X  Bemba Bemba  X  Twi Akyem  X  Somali. Esa  X  Kikuyu Kikuyu  X  Azande Azande  X  Ill Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Tallensi Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga R u n d i Ha Mongo Ekonda Tiv T i v Somali Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Shilluk  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara CV  Hausa Kanawa Siriono Tallensi  Tallensi  Mongo Nkundu H o t t e n t o t Cape  H o t t e n t o t Nama Tasmania Aranda  128. D i v i s i o n o f Labor Key: Defined i n frequency chart. Purpose: What I was t h i n k i n g o f here was t h e r e l a t i o n between f r e e t i m e of t h e male and t h e amount o f w a r f a r e . Pattern: The r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n i n t h i s c a t e g o r y emerged i n the f r e q u e n c y c h a r t as one would e x p e c t . Here, i n S c a l e I : i n Scale IV:  2 out o f 2 a r e i n female most 3 o u t o f 8 male and female share 3 out o f 8 female most 2 out o f 8 male most.  129. CASUALTIES Descent and  Inheritance Descent  Inheritance  Fang Fang  P.  P.  (sons)  Murngin  P.  Jivaro  P.  Bemba S h i l a  M.  Katab  P.  P.  (sons)  S o m a l i Hawiya  P.  P.  Rundi  P.  P. ( u s u a l l y E l S o )  Rundi Ruanda  P.  P.  Twi A s h a n t i  M.  M.  Nupe Nupe  P.  P. (2nd E l S o , then ElSo)  S o m a l i Ogaden  P.  P.  Ganda Sogo  P.  P. ( E l S o most, then a l l sons)  Hausa M a u r i  P.  P. (sons & daughters share)  II  Katab  Rundi  (sons)  Hausa Azna  P.  Mende Mende  P. ( S i b l i n g s , t h e n sons)  Nuer Nuer  P.  P.  Bemba Bemba  M.  M.  Twi Akyem  M.  M.  (sons)  (Siblings)  130. Somali Esa  P.  P. (sons & daughters)  Kikuyu Kikuyu  P.  P. ( s o n s )  Azande Azande  P.  P. ( E l S o )  Bushmen Kung  P.  P.  Thonga. Thonga  P.  P.  Mossi Mossi  P.  P. ( E l S o )  Somali G i r r i  P.  P.  Twi F a n t i  M.  M. ( s i b l i n g s )  Yao Yao  M.  M.  T a l l e n s i Kusai  P.  P. ( E l B r )  Yoruba E k i t i  B i . & P.  Bemba Unga  M.  M.  R u n d i Ha  P.  P.  Mongo Ekonda  P.  P. ( E l B r )  Tiv T i v  P.  P. ( s o n s )  Ill  S o m a l i Ishaak  (local)  P. (sons)  P. ( s o n s )  S o m a l i Sab  P.  P.  Shilluk  P.  P. ( E l S o )  P.  P. ( E l S o )  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa  P. ( c h i l d r e n )  Bambara Bambara  P.  P. ( b r o t h e r s , age)  Hausa Kanawa  P.  P.  Siriono  M.  •  131.  Tallensi Tallensi  P.  P.  Mongo Nkundu  P.  P. (by c l a s s i f i c a t o r y brothers by s e n i o r i t y )  H o t t e n t o t Cape  P.  P.  H o t t e n t o t Nama  P.  P. ( E l S o g e t s l i v e s t o c k ; other prop, t o children)  Tasmania Aranda  P.  133  Descent and  Inheritance  Key: P.  =  patrilineal  M.  = matrilineal  Bi  = bilineal  E l S o = e l d e s t son Purpose: I thought t h a t i n h e r i t a n c e a t l e a s t might provide mitigating factor:  f o r example, l a n d f r a g m e n t a t i o n  equal sharing o f i n h e r i t a n c e s .  another through  Or, p r i m o g e n i t u r e might l e a v e  a large population of dispossessed  youths.  Pattern: No p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n seemed t o emerge.  133.  CASUALTIES •Reasons' f o r W a r f a r e  Fang Fang  Revenge f o r murder ( b e t . v i l l a g e s ) ; failure t o return a bride-price  Murngin  Reciprocity:  Jivaro  Revenge f o r murder, s o r c e r y ; headhunting; r i v a l r y ; general v i o l a t i o n of mores  revenge on any i s s u e  II Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab  Disputes  S o m a l i Hawiya  P l u n d e r i n g r a i d s ; a n n e x a t i o n and/or subj u g a t i o n ; some t r i b e s r e q u i r e KA  Rundi R u n d i  S u c c e s s i o n t o K i n g s h i p c i v i l wars; r i v a l r y w i t h other s t a t e s  R u n d i Ruanda  R i v a l r y w i t h other s t a t e s ( I )  over p r o p e r t y ;  head-hunting  .Twi A s h a n t i . Nupe Nupe  Conquest; d i s p u t e d s u c c e s s i o n ; b o o t y ; t o obtain p o l i t i c a l positions; intern, rebellion  S o m a l i Ogaden  Raids  Ganda Sogo  I n t e r - s i b disputes; defensive vs. r a i d s ; a l s o mercenary a r m i e s  Hausa M a u r i  Reciprocal fighting; & pillaging f o r booty  slave  Hausa Azna Mende Mende  Conquest; p r i m a r i l y f o r s l a v e - r a i d i n g  Nuer Nuer  P r i m a r i l y c a t t l e and s l a v e r a i d i n g ; a l s o structural tension  Bemba Bemba  Raiders, not conquerors  134. Twi Akyem Somali Esa  R a i d i n g ; b l o o d f e u d s ; KA u s u a l l y  Kikuyu Kikuyu  P r e s t i g e & c a t t l e - s t e a l i n g rather than conquest (no a n n e x a t i o n of t e r r i t o r y )  Azande Azande  Conquest; s l a v e s & b o o t y  Bushmen Kung  P r i m a r i l y d i s p u t e s b e t . bands over t r e s p a s s , h o m i c i d e , t h e f t , women, e t c .  Ill  Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi  P r i m a r i l y as source o f revenue  Somali G i r r i  R a i d s on n e i g h b o r i n g t r i b e s & c a r a v a n s ; defensive also  Twi F a n t i  P r e s t i g e & p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s ; occas. vs. r i v a l states  lao  Primarily  Yao  slave-raiding  T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i  Wars; feuds o v e r women, s l a v e s  Bemba Unga  D e f e n s i v e v s . Bemba a g g r e s s i o n ; d i s p u t e s b e t . c h i e f s over p r o p e r t y , e t c .  R u n d i Ha Mongo Ekonda Tiv T i v  S l a v e s ; women; head-hunting  Somali Ishaak  War; r a i d i n g f o r b o o t y ; b l o o d f e u d s  S o m a l i Sab  Subjugation; r a i d i n g  Shilluk Shilluk  B o o t y ; c i v i l wars over s u c c e s s i o n ; r e b e l l i o u s provinces  Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa  135. Bambara Bambara  P r i m a r i l y plundering & slave r a i d s ; also o c c a s . conquest  Hausa Kanawa  P r i m a r i l y d e f e n s i v e , but l i t t l e o f t h a t  Siriono  Defensive  Tallensi Tallensi  Reciprocity  Mongo Nkundu  Reciprocity  H o t t e n t o t Cape  Reciprocity  H o t t e n t o t Nama  Reciprocity  Tasmania  Reciprocity  Aranda  Reciprocity  13& • 'Reasons' f o r W a r f a r e Pattern: Of a t o t a l o f 14 s o c i e t i e s i n w h i c h w a r f a r e seems c o n f i n e d •to the concept of r e c i p r o c i t y , 11 a r e i n S c a l e s I and I V . Scale I :  3 out o f 3  Scale IV:  8 out of 8.  137. CASUALTIES O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Army  Fang Fang  No r e g u l a r army.  R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime  Murngin  No r e g u l a r army.  Clan & moiety  Jivaro  No r e g u l a r army.  Lineage  II Bemba S h i l a Katab  Katab  Lineage  S o m a l i Hawiya Rundi  Rundi  R u n d i Ruanda  R e g u l a r army  Twi. A s h a n t i  R e g u l a r army. I n w a r t i m e , based on k i n s h i p .  Nupe Nupe  R e g u l a r army.  service  C o n s c r i p t i o n i n wartime  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo  O r g a n i z e d by C h i e f s f o r K i n g  Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna Mende Mende  R e g u l a r army. structure  Nuer Nuer  No r e g u l a r army.  A d u l t s s e r v e i n wartime  Bemba Bemba  No r e g u l a r army.  C h i e f o r g a n i z e s war  Gov't based on m i l i t a r y  Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu  No r e g u l a r army  Azande Azande  R e g u l a r army. I n wartime, c h i e f c o u l d u n i t e up t o 20,000 w a r r i o r s  138. Bushmen Kung  No r e g u l a r array.  Band i n wartime  Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali  No r e g u l a r army, but canton C h i e f s had o r g . o f ' r e s e r v i s t s ' on c a l l  Girri  Twi F a n t i  Society organized along m i l i t a r y l i n e s . R e g u l a r army ( i )  Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i  No r e g u l a r army. time  ' C o n s c r i p t i o n ' i n war-  Bemba Unga Rundi  Ha  Mongo Ekonda Tiv Tiv Somali  No r e g u l a r army. War o r g . on k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e , group a s l a r g e as t r i b e Ishaak  S o m a l i Sab Shilluk  Shilluk  Hausa Hausa  K i n g o r g a n i z e s t h r o u g h k i n and d i s t r i c t groups R e g u l a r army.  R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime  Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara  R e g u l a r army, augmented by v o l u n t e e r s i n war. E s s e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l a n was armed f o r c e  Hausa Kanawa Siriono  No r e g u l a r army.  Little  organization  139. Tallensi  Tallensi  No r e g u l a r army. On c l a n - l o c a l (200-300 w a r r i o r s )  basis  Mongo Nkundu H o t t e n t o t Cape  No r e g u l a r army.  Band o r g .  H o t t e n t o t Nama  No r e g u l a r army.  Band o r g .  Tasmania  No r e g u l a r army.  Band o r g .  Aranda  No r e g u l a r army. E l e c t e d c h i e f f o r war, c o n t r o l s up t o a l l i a n c e o f bands  140" • O r g a n i z a t i o n o f Army Purpose: P o i n t here was t o e s t a b l i s h :  i f t h e r e i s a s t a n d i n g army w i t h  consequent s t r u g g l e t o f u n c t i o n ; i f i n wartime t h e army i s o r g a n i z e d on t h e b a s i s o f d i s t r i c t o r k i n a f f i l i a t i o n s or b o t h , o r s i m p l y t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l r e g u l a r army i s u s e d . impossible t o separate these.  I t proved  What i s n e c e s s a r y here a r e s t u d i e s  of s t r u c t u r a l adaptation i n wartime. Pattern: Of 2 7 s o c i e t i e s on w h i c h i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , 16 had no r e g u l a r army, 8 had r e g u l a r a r m i e s . Scale I :  3 o u t o f 3 had no r e g u l a r army  Scale IV:  6 out o f 6  Scale I I :  5 had r e g u l a r army, 3 had no r e g u l a r army  S c a l e I I I : 4 had no r e g u l a r army, 3 had r e g u l a r army.  141. CASUALTIES J u d i c i a l Machinery  Fang Fang  . P o l i t . & E c . & J u d i c i a l ( I ) power t o "eldest" at l o c a l l e v e l  Murngin  Local l e v e l . disputes  Blood feuds  settle  Jivaro  Local level. disputes  Blood feuds  settle  II Bemba S h i l a Katab  Katab  L i n e a g e " l i m i t e d war" t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e s  S o m a l i Hawiya Rundi Rundi R u n d i Ruanda  State a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Twi A s h a n t i  State administration: v i l l a g e s e t t l e d l o c a l d i s p u t e s , s t a t e imp. d i s p u t e s & legislation  Nupe Nupe  C h i e f and r u l i n g group had j u d i c i a l power ( I )  S o m a l i Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa M a u r i Hausa Azna Mende Mende  Chiefs at a l l l e v e l s exercise j u d i c i a l powers  Nuer Nuer  B l o o d f e u d s , compensation, p u b l i c opinion settled disputes  Bemba Bemba  V i l l a g e headman ( I )  Twi Akyem  142. Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu  T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i c e ; community c o u n c i l has l e g i s l a t i v e , j u d i c i a l functions  Azande Azande  C h i e f s s e t t l e d i s p u t e s , handle m a t t e r s r e l a t e d to s e c u r i t y of state  Bushmen Kung  J u d i c i a l unorg. disputes  Blood feud s e t t l e s  Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi  Village chiefs settle petty disputes; canton C h i e f s a s s a u l t , t h e f t , e t c . ; King general  Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda Tiv T i v Somali Ishaak S o m a l i Sab Shilluk Shilluk  Headmen o f dominant l i n e a g e  Hausa Hausa  V i l l a g e headmen & l i n e a g e heads a d judicate disputes  Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara  V i l l a g e head has c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , a d j u d i c a t e s r e l a t i o n s between communities  143.  Hausa Kanawa • Siriono  Judicial  unorg.  Tallensi Tallensi  Judicial  unorg.  Mongo Nkundu  Blood feud s e t t l e s disputes  H o t t e n t o t Cape H o t t e n t o t Nama  Band e l d e r s have some a u t h o r i t y -  Tasmania  J u d i c i a l o r g . only f o r s e r i o u s crimes  Aranda  ( c o u n c i l o f e l d e r s ) , executes vengeance  blood  144. • Judicial MachineryPatterns The following ranges could be distinguished here:  societies i n  which there i s no regular organization for dealing with disputes and c i v i l matters, and i n which the only organization for dealing with these i s the blood feudj societies which have some organizations for specific occasions; and societies which have regular functioning administrations and judiciaries for the settlement of disputes, etc. On this basis, 9 have no regular organizations except the blood feud. Societies with no regular organizations:  Scale I: Scale IV:  2 out of 3 4 out of 5  145. SYNTHESIS . What t h e n emerges f r o m t h e c h a r t s ? To convey w i t h g r e a t e r c l a r i t y t h e n a t u r e o f the g e n e r a l patterns i s o l a t e d i n the c h a r t s , the f o l l o w i n g sketch i s presented. R e g a r d i n g the f r e q u e n c y  c h a r t s , o n l y one p a t t e r n d e f i n i t e l y  emerges, and t h a t i n r e g a r d t o t h e d i v i s i o n o f l a b o r :  that i s ,  the more f r e q u e n t t h e w a r f a r e , the g r e a t e r p e r c e n t a g e o f economic a c t i v i t y i s s h i f t e d t o the female. R e g a r d i n g the c a s u a l t y c h a r t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e a l w i t h the p a t t e r n s Range by Range. Range I : S o c i e t i e s i n Range I , t h a t i s , t h o s e s o c i e t i e s which s u f f e r t h e h e a v i e s t average c a s u a l t i e s , a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by:  low t o t a l  p o p u l a t i o n s and l o w p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s ; by communal o w n e r s h i p and use o f l a n d ; by m i n i m a l s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; by c o n d u c t i n g  warfare  a t t h e l e v e l of l o c a l groups o r a l l i a n c e s o f l o c a l g r o u p s ; b y l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s ; by s m a l l l o c a l communities (average p o p u l a t i o n e s t i m a t e d a t 100-200); by a u t h o r i t a r i a n l e a d e r s f o r war o n l y ; by a l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above t h e l o c a l l e v e l ; by l i t t l e o r no e x t e r n a l t r a d e ; by an a l l o c a t i o n o f most o f t h e economic work t o the female, by warfare  conducted p r i m a r i l y on a r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s ; by an  absence o f a s t a n d i n g army; by an army o r g a n i z e d i n wartime on t h e b a s i s o f l o c a l k i n s h i p groups; by an absence o f j u d i c i a l machinery f o r the s e t t l e m e n t o f i n t e r n a l , and e s p e c i a l l y e x t e r n a l d i s p u t e s .  146. Range I I ; S o c i e t i e s i n Range I I , t h a t i s t h o s e s o c i e t i e s which s u f f e r the  second h e a v i e s t average c a s u a l t i e s , a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d  populations,(up to and  2,150,000) and  a n i m a l husbandry r a t h e r  by:  large  heavy d e n s i t i e s ; by a g r i c u l t u r e  t h a n h u n t i n g ; by i n d i v i d u a l l a n d use  r i g h t s ; by f e u d a l - t y p e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ( p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) ; by c o n d u c t i n g w a r f a r e n o r m a l l y a t t h e s t a t e l e v e l ; by a s u b s t a n t i a l b r i d e - p r i c e ; by r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s ; by medium-size l o c a l s e t t l e m e n t s ; by t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  o f l o c a l s e t t l e m e n t s as c l a n  communities; by government o f l o c a l s e t t l e m e n t s by headmen ( w i t h and w i t h o u t C o u n c i l s ) ; by p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n as h i g h as t h e t r i b e kingdom l e v e l ; by a medium degree o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t r a d e ; by a d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n which e i t h e r t h e male and female share o r t h e female does more; i n w h i c h i n h e r i t a n c e  i s generally  either t o ElSo  or sons; i n w h i c h t h e p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r w a r f a r e a r e conquest and p i l l a g i n g ; i n w h i c h t h e r e i s g e n e r a l l y a r e g u l a r army; i n w h i c h t h e j u d i c i a l m a c h i n e r y i s d i s t r i b u t e d t h r o u g h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f the state administrative  hierarchy.  Range I I I : S o c i e t i e s i n Range I I I a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d (up t o  4,000,000) and  by:  high populations  medium p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y ; b y economies w h i c h  s t r e s s h u n t i n g as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r e .and a n i m a l husbandry; i n d i v i d u a l l a n d use r i g h t s ; by marked s t r a t i f i c a t i o n b u t fewer  feudal  p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; b y w a r f a r e conducted as h i g h as t h e s t a t e l e v e l , b u t n o r m a l l y a t t h e d i s t r i c t and t r i b e l e v e l ; b y s u b s t a n t i a l  147.  b r i d e - p r i c e s ; by medium-sized r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s ; by l o c a l communities t e n d i n g t o be l a r g e r t h a n t h o s e o f t h e s o c i e t i e s i n Range I I ; o r g a n i z e d l o c a l l y as c l a n communities; w i t h l o c a l g o v e r n ment headmen and c o u n c i l ; by a p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above t h e l o c a l l e v e l on a medium r a n g e , t h a t i s , s l i g h t l y l o w e r t h a n i n Range I I ; a g r e a t e r s t r e s s on t r a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a n i n Range I I ; by a  division  of l a b o r i n w h i c h males e i t h e r share o r do more work t h a n f e m a l e s ; by a g r e a t e r emphasis on s i b l i n g i n h e r i t a n c e ; c o n d u c t i n g w a r f a r e l e s s f o r conquest t h a n f o r immediate f i n a n c i a l g a i n ; by fewer r e g u l a r a r m i e s , a l t h o u g h s t i l l m a i n t a i n i n g e f f e c t i v e army o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and by j u d i c i a l machinery c o n c e n t r a t e d a t t h e l o c a l  level.  Range I V : S o c i e t i e s i n Range I V , t h a t i s t h o s e s o c i e t i e s w h i c h s u f f e r the  l e a s t average c a s u a l t i e s , a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by:  low populations  (under 5 0 , 0 0 0 ) and l o w p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s (under 1 per square m i l e ) ; by economies b a s e d l a r g e l y on p a s t o r a l i s r n , h u n t i n g and g a t h e r i n g ; by communal ownership and use r i g h t s ; by a l a c k o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; by w a r f a r e c o n d u c t e d a t t h e h i g h e s t as an a l l i a n c e o f l o c a l  groups  and n o r m a l l y as t h e l o c a l group; p o l y g y n y l e s s f r e q u e n t ; b r i d e - p r i c e m i n i m a l ; l o c a l community p o p u l a t i o n l o w (perhaps 5 0 - 1 0 0 . a p p r o x i m a t e l y ) ; l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c l a n t y p e ; l o c a l government e i t h e r comp l e t e l y i n f o r m a l or w i t h a C o u n c i l of a d u l t s ; no p o l i t i c a l  integration  above the l o c a l l e v e l ; ; l o c a l exogamy; no e x t e r n a l t r a d e , approximate s h a r i n g of l a b o r between male and f e m a l e ; w a r f a r e conducted p r i m a r i l y on t h e b a s i s o f r e c i p r o c i t y ; no r e g u l a r army; army o r g a n i z e d on a l o c a l b a s i s ; and no j u d i c i a l m a c h i n e r y beyond t h e  148. blood feud and/or the l o c a l Council. From t h i s summary of the charts, one thing becomes clear immediately:  that although Ranges I and IV are r e l a t i v e l y  homogeneous i n t h e i r s t r u c t u r a l and ecological elements, Ranges I I and I U  lack t h i s homogeneity, and clash with the  patterns presented above.  general  However, these s o c i e t i e s i n Ranges II and  I I I which do clash with the general patterns themselves present  a  r e l a t i v e l y constant pattern, and i t i s possible t o describe them as . segmentary type s o c i e t i e s .  These segmentary type s o c i e t i e s  1  —  these s o c i e t i e s which deviate from the general patterns presented above f o r Ranges I I and H I  —  are characterized below.  Range I I : The deviant s o c i e t i e s i n Range IX are characterized by: populations  high  (430,000 f o r Nuer); variable densities; pastoralisrn and  a g r i c u l t u r e ; communal ownership of land; variable s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; war  conducted at the highest at the t r i b e l e v e l ;  warfare conducted normally i n groups of variable s i z e ; substantial bride-price; preferred polygyny; the family or extended family as the r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t ; medium-sized l o c a l communities; l o c a l communities organized as clan-barrios; l o c a l community government either i n formal or with Council; l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n beyond the l o c a l l e v e l ; exogamy; variable trade; a d i v i s i o n of labor i n which the male  Evans-Pritchard, E.E. and Fortes, Meyer (eds.). A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l Systems. Oxford, International A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , 1961. pp. 5^7  149. and f e m a l e share o r the female does more; i n h e r i t a n c e d i v i d e d among sons; w a r f a r e f o r p r e s t i g e and c a t t l e - s t e a l i n g and on r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s r a t h e r t h a n f o r conquest or a n n e x a t i o n ; no r e g u l a r army; army o r g a n i z e d on l o c a l k i n l i n e s ; v a r i a b l e  judicial  machinery. Range I I I ; The d e v i a n t s o c i e t i e s found i n Range I I I a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: v a r i a b l e p o p u l a t i o n s and d e n s i t i e s ; a g r e a t e r emphasis on h u n t i n g t h a n i n Range I I ; communal ownership w i t h communal or i n d i v i d u a l use r i g h t s ; m i n i m a l s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; w a r f a r e conducted a t t h e h i g h e s t as a n a l l i a n c e o f l o c a l g r o u p s ; w a r f a r e conducted n o r m a l l y on more v a r i a b l e l e v e l s from l o c a l group t o a l l i a n c e of l o c a l g r o u p s ; minimal b r i d e - p r i c e ; f a m i l y or extended f a m i l y as the r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t ; l o c a l community s i z e i s s m a l l or d i s p e r s e d ; l o c a l community o r g a n i z e d as a c l a n or l i n e a g e community; m i n i m a l f o r m a l government a t the l o c a l l e v e l ; v a r i a b l e p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above the l o c a l level  (up t o d i s t r i c t ) ; l o c a l exogamy; some t r a d e ; w a r f a r e e i t h e r on  a r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s o r f o r s l a v e or woman-raiding; no r e g u l a r army; army o r g a n i z e d on k i n b a s i s ; b l o o d f e u d the p r i m a r y j u d i c i a l machinery. At f i r s t g l a n c e i t would appear t h a t t h e s e d e v i a n t segmentary-t y p e s o c i e t i e s found i n Ranges I I and I I I a r e not m a r k e d l y from the s o c i e t a l t y p e s found i n Ranges I and IV.  different  The main apparent  d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t s o c i e t i e s i n Range I I seem c a p a b l e o f expanding t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a t a h i g h e r l e v e l t h a n s o c i e t i e s o f Range I I I .  150. There i s however an a d d i t i o n a l factor which has not been included i n the charts because of the paucity of a v a i l a b l e c r o s s c u l t u r a l information.  This factor i s the mechanism available i n  a society capable of containing or h a l t i n g warfare.  Fortunately,  several authors do discuss t h i s mechanism, Lloyd Warner f o r example, i n his Murngin study  1  gives an  example o f the strength of t h i s mechanism for societies i n Range I (that i s , those s o c i e t i e s which suffer the heaviest c a s u a l t i e s ) , - Warner w r i t e s : "Kinship s o l i d a r i t y extends warfare but also has the opposite tendency: that o f l i m i t i n g i t s scope when i t has reached very large proportions. A l l the clans are i n t e r r e l a t e d , and generally many w i l l f i n d t h e i r l o y a l t i e s divided, f o r the kingship through marriage of c e r t a i n members o f a c l a n w i l l d i c t a t e t h e i r helping one f a c t i o n , while other members w i l l be comp e l l e d by the laws of kinship to a i d the other side. Since the s o l i d a r i t y of the clan prevents members f i g h t i n g among themselves, those clans whose l o y a l t i e s are divided usually t r y to p a c i f y the warring ones. I n a makarata, frequently arranged by them, they w i l l u s u a l l y be found doing a l l they can to have t h i s peacemaking ceremony end s u c c e s s f u l l y . ^ "The makarata i s a ceremonial peacemaking f i g h t . I t i s a kind o f general duel and p a r t i a l ordeal which allows the aggrieved parties t o vent t h e i r f e e l i n g s by throwing spears at t h e i r enemies or by seeing the l a t t e r ' s blood run i n expiation, "Frequently the makarata does not follow the i d e a l pattern; instead of providing a peacemaking mechanism, i t provides only  Warner, Lloyd W, A Black C i v i l i z a t i o n . Harper and Brothers, 1958 2  Ibid,  pp. 155-156  Revised E d i t i o n ,  151. a n o t h e r b a t t l e i n t h e i n t e r m i n a b l e b l o o d f e u d o f the clans." ( i t a l i c s mine)! "When s u f f i c i e n t t i m e has e l a p s e d a f t e r a n i n j u r y or d e a t h of a member f o r the c l a n ' s emotions t o c a l m , t h e men send a message t o t h e i r enemies s a y i n g t h e y a r e r e a d y f o r a makarata. The o t h e r s i d e u s u a l l y a g r e e s t o e n t e r i n t o t h i s peacemaking ceremony, a l t h o u g h t h e r e i s always s u s p i c i o n o f t r e a c h e r y . The i n j u r e d group always sends t h e i n v i t a t i o n , and the o t h e r must w a i t f o r them t o d e c i d e when t h e y w i s h t o have i t . " 2 I t i s o b v i o u s here t h a t t h e m a k a r a t a . the Murngin mechanism  3 f o r h a l t i n g w a r f a r e , i s an e x t r e m e l y weak and tenuous d e v i c e . A s o c i e t y o f the segmentary t y p e i n Range H ,  t h e Nuer,  p o s s e s s a mechanism w i t h as l i t t l e f o r c e as t h e m a k a r a t a .  Evans-  P r i t c h a r d d e s c r i b e s t h i s mechanism as w e l l a s t h e e x p a n s i o n o f w a r f a r e t h r o u g h segmentary u n i t s i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : "Feuds a r e s e t t l e d w i t h c o m p a r a t i v e ease i n a r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l m i l i e u where t h e s t r u c t u r a l d i s t a n c e between t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i s narrow, b u t t h e y a r e more d i f f i c u l t t o s e t t l e as t h e m i l i e u expands, u n t i l one r e a c h e s i n t e r t r i b a l r e l a t i o n s where no compensation i s o f f e r e d o r e x p e c t e d . The degree o f s o c i a l c o n t r o l o v e r feuds v a r i e s w i t h t h e s i z e o f the t r i b a l segment, and Nuer themselves have o f t e n e x p l a i n e d t h i s t o me. Long and i n t e n s e feuds may t a k e p l a c e between t e r t i a r y t r i b a l s e c t i o n s , but an e f f o r t i s g e n e r a l l y made t o c l o s e them, f o r a segment o f t h i s s i z e has a s t r o n g sense o f community, c l o s e l i n e a g e t i e s ^ and some economic i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . However, i t i s f a r l e s s easy t o s t o p a f e u d between p e r s o n s o f d i f f e r e n t 4  2  Ibid.  p.  174  Ibid.  p.  174  3 For example, s i n c e b o t h s i d e s must be w i l l i n g t o come t o t e r m s , t h i s p r o b a b l y r u l e s o u t the s e t t l e m e n t o f feuds i n w h i c h b o t h p a r t i e s are not exhausted. 4  E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d , E.E. The Nuer: A D e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Modes o f L i v e l i h o o d and P o l i t i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s o f a N i l o t i c P e o p l e . O x f o r d , C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , I960, pp. 157-158  152. tertiary sections than to stop a feud i n a village or between neighbouring villages, where a quick and permanent settlement i s assured, and unsettled feuds between sections of this size tend to accumulate... When a fight has taken place between secondary t r i b a l sections there i s l i t t l e chance of exacting vengeance except by a general fight, and people feel less the need to submit to mediation since they have few social contacts and these of a temporary kind, for the relative ease with which feuds are settled i s an i n d i cation of the cohesion of the community. The larger the segment involved the greater the anarchy that prevails. People say that there i s payment of blood-cattle between primary tribal sections, but they do not greatly feel the need of paying i t . The tribe i s the last stage i n this increasing anarchy. . It s t i l l has nominal p o l i t i c a l unity, and i t i s held that feuds between i t s most distant members can be settled by compensation, but often they are not settled, and i f many men are k i l l e d i n a big fight between large sections nothing i s done to avenge them or to pay compensation for their deaths,, Their kinsmen abide their time t i l l there i s another fight. The p o l i t i c a l integument may i n consequence be stretched eventually to the breakingpoint and the tribe split into two. The rent between sections enlarges until they have l i t t l e to do with each other beyond occasional uniting for raids; and feuds between their members are settled, i f at a l l , with greater d i f f i c u l t y and casualness." The above quotations make abundantly clear the operation of the two opposing structures i n segmentary societies: the structures on which military activities are extended; and the mechanisms capable of containing or halting warfare.  It i s unfortunate that I  could not locate descriptions of this level for the societies i n Range IV, In sum, the picture that emerges i s that of three different 'types  1  of social organizations:  1  firsts; that type of society i n  which there i s no regular p o l i t i c a l integration above the local level and which, even for warfare, is incapable of forming much  Evans-Pritchard, E . E . ' and Fortes, Meyer (eds.). African P o l i t i c a l Systems. Oxford, International African Institute, 1961. pp. 5*«7  153. l a r g e r u n i t s ; second, t h a t t y p e o f s o c i e t y i n which  although  t h e r e i s l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above t h e l o c a l l e v e l f o r normal p u r p o s e s , t h e r e a r e s t r u c t u r e s e n a b l i n g t h e e x t e n s i o n and e x p a n s i o n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r w a r f a r e ; and t h i r d , t h a t t y p e o f s o c i e t y w h i c h i s r e g u l a r l y and n o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d i n a complex h i e r a r c h y above t h e l o c a l l e v e l f o r economic, p o l i t i c a l , military  and  activities.  I n r e g a r d t o w a r f a r e , t h e t h i r d t y p e o f s o c i e t y seems t o show, almost w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , unvarying s e v e r i t y of warfare.  1  a c o n s i s t e n t and  relatively  The f i r s t two t y p e s o f s o c i e t i e s  however show a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree o f v a r i a t i o n i n t h e of t h e i r warfare.  One  severity  o f the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n the e x p l a n a t i o n  o f t h i s v a r i a t i o n i s t h e concept o f s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s , o r s t r u c t u r a l t e n s i o n d i s c u s s e d by s e v e r a l e t h n o g r a p h e r s .  Fortes,  f o r example, w r i t e s : . " I n t h e e l a b o r a t e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t r u c t u r e o f Tale s o c i e t y t h e r e a r e r e g i o n s o f h i g h t e n s i o n where groups a r e c o u p l e d t o g e t h e r i n p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n and r e g i o n s o f low t e n s i o n where the u n i t s o f s t r u c t u r e a r e a r t i c u l a t e d i n complementary r e l a t i o n s t o one another."2 B e l a n d i e r t a l k s about a " s t a t e o f t e n s i o n " w h i c h i s bound up with a social organization:  1  These e x c e p t i o n s a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e c o n c l u d i n g c h a p t e r .  2 F o r t e s , Meyer. The Dynamics o f C l a n s h i p among the London, I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , 1945. Po  Tallensi. 27  154. w h i c h g i v e s economic and p o l i t i c a l pre-eminence t o t h e " e l d e s t " , w h i c h f a v o r s t h e l i n e a g e s i s s u e d f r o m them, and w h i c h , above a l l , i s not h i e r a r c h i c f o r t h e purpose o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e c o h e s i o n o f g r o u p i n g s , e x c e p t as needed f o r defense and e x p a n s i o n , and e x c e p t f o r the p r e s t i g e of temporary " c h i e f s . " The d e s i r e f o r independence m a n i f e s t e d by t h e heads o f l i n e a g e s as soon as t h e i r g r o u p i n g has become l a r g e i s n o t c o n t r o l l e d i n a n o r g a n i z e d manner."1 The Bohannans p e r c e i v e d i n T i v s o c i e t y two  p r i n c i p l e s of " s t r u c t u r a l  o p p o s a b i l i t y " and  "Two  "segmental l i m i t a t i o n : "  e q u i v a l e n t segments  w h i c h t h e m s e l v e s f i g h t each o t h e r w i l l u n i t e t o f i g h t a segment t o  2 which they together  are opposable and  equivalent."  I n s t a t e t y p e s o c i e t i e s , one o f the p r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r a l stresses occurs i n the frequently disputed succession to k i n g s h i p . The  f i n a l s y n t h e s i s o f the above d a t a b e l o n g s i n the  chapter w h i c h f o l l o w s , c o n c l u s i o n s .  B e l a n d i e r , Georges. S o c i o l o g i e A c t u e l l e de l ' A f r i q u e N o i r e : Changements S o c i a u x au Gabon e t au Congo. P a r i s , P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1955. p« 49 Bohannan, L. and P. The T i v of C e n t r a l N i g e r i a . E t h n o g r a p h i c Survey o f A f r i c a , . W e s t e r n A f r i c a , P a r t V I I I . London, I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , 1953. P. 26  155. CONCLUSION T h i s c o n c l u d i n g a n a l y s i s has t h r e e a i m s :  to separate  and  evaluate those c a t e g o r i e s considered s i g n i f i c a n t i n regard t o w a r f a r e ; t o c o n s t r u c t a g e n e r a l model r e p r e s e n t i n g the modes o f -  the e x p a n s i o n  and c o n t r a c t i o n o f w a r f a r e ;  1  and t o o f f e r s i x p r o -  p o s i t i o n s p o s t u l a t e d as r e g u l a t i n g the s e v e r i t y of w a r f a r e i n human soc i e t y . Evaluation: An e v a l u a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d i n the and  charts  s y n t h e s i s makes i t o b v i o u s t h a t a l l the f a c t o r s a r e by no means  of equal s i g n i f i c a n c e .  The  e v a l u a t e d i n two b a s e s :  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f each f a c t o r was  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of patterns i n the c h a r t s ;  and the s t r e n g t h of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l i n k i n g t h e s e f a c t o r s w i t h warfare.  On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s , t h e c a t e g o r i e s seemed t o f a l l  the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s :  into  t h o s e c a t e g o r i e s or f a c t o r s w h i c h d i d not  e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n s i n t h e c h a r t s , such as "Residence";  those f a c t o r s  which d i d e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n s i n t h e c h a r t s but whose s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d not be i n t e r p r e t e d on t h e b a s i s o f the a v a i l a b l e d a t a , f o r example, the s i z e o f the l o c a l community i n Ranges I I and I I I ; t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d not be c h a r t e d because of i n s u f f i c i e n t  ethno-  g r a p h i c d a t a ( q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e ) , but w h i c h w o u l d seem t o be of c o n s i d e r a b l e s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r example, t h e s i z e , a u t h o r i t y and  The g e n e r a l model and p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e extended t o w a r f a r e i n a l l s o c i e t i e s , f o l l o w i n g N o r t h r o p , F.S.C. The L o g i c o f the S c i e n c e s and the H u m a n i t i e s , p. 29: "Nothing w i l l e x h i b i t the weakness of a g i v e n t h e o r y more q u i c k l y t h a n a r e l e n t l e s s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f i t f o r a l l p o s s i b l e evidence."  156. j u r i s d i c t i o n of the s o c i e t i e s ' corporate  groups;  those f a c t o r s  1  which e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s and f o r which s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be i n t e r p r e t e d , b u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e was o f an i n d i c a t i v e r a t h e r t h a n r e g u l a t i v e n a t u r e i n r e g a r d t o the s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e ,  f o r example,  the p r e v a l e n c e o f p o l y g y n y ; t h o s e f a c t o r s which e s t a b l i s h e d and  patterns  o f f e r e d some s i g n i f i c a n c e , b u t t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e seemed r e l a t i v e l y  m i n o r , f o r example, l a r g e b r i d e - p r i c e s which o f t e n  necessitated  r a i d i n g and p i l l a g i n g t o o b t a i n t h e s e sums; t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d not be c h a r t e d because o f i n s u f f i c i e n t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d a t a b u t f o r which g r e a t  s i g n i f i c a n c e was i n t e r p r e t e d , t h a t i s , s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s  and t h e mechanisms f o r h a l t i n g w a r f a r e ;  and f i n a l l y , t h o s e f a c t o r s  t h a t p a t t e r n e d w e l l and f o r w h i c h major s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be postulated,  such a s the s i z e o f p o l i t i c a l  organizations.  F o r t h e g e n e r a l model and p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w —  and on  the b a s i s o f the two c r i t e r i a o f s i g n i f i c a n c e , p a t t e r n s and/or plausible interpretation —  the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d o f 2  c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f war:  the s i z e ,  d i c t i o n , and a u t h o r i t y o f socio-economic a n d p o l i t i c a l  juris-  organizations;  s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s e s ; mechanisms f o r c o n t a i n i n g or h a l t i n g war; group i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e ; and i n s t i t u t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g war.  There a r e o f  c o u r s e many o t h e r f a c t o r s p e r t i n e n t t o a d i s c u s s i o n o f w a r f a r e 1  2  That i s , t h o s e groups w i t h economic and/or p o l i t i c a l and/or religious functions. These draw t o g e t h e r — r a t h e r than l i t e r a l l y r e p e a t — t h e c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d i n t h e c h a r t s and s y n t h e s i s .  —  157. i d e o l o g y f o r example —  but t h i s study l i m i t s i t s e l f t o those  f a c t o r s g i v e n above. S o c i o l o g i c a l Model o f War: The g e n e r a l model p r e s e n t e d broad conceptual warfare.  below i s a n a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e a  framework f o r the s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  The model i s t o be t a k e n a s an o u t l i n e of t h e o r g a n i -  z a t i o n a l bases o f t h e e x p a n s i o n and c o n t r a c t i o n of w a r f a r e i n human society.  A diagram o f the model would s i m p l y show two o p p o s i n g  arrows —  r e p r e s e n t i n g two o p p o s i n g f o r c e s —  A, t h e C o n d i t i o n i n g  F a c t o r s , and B, t h e L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s . I.  Conditioning Factors:  1  These r e f e r t o the s o c i a l ,  economic, p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the bases o f w h i c h warfare —  t h a t i s , t h e number o f people i n v o l v e d i n w a r f a r e  —  expands. II.  Limiting Factors:  These r e f e r t o t h o s e i n s t i t u t i o n s  such as the Nuer L e o p a r d - S k i n C h i e f s — halting  —  capable o f c o n t a i n i n g o r  warfare.  There a r e however a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s o f c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of warfare:  t h e s e , as w e l l as t h e f a c t o r s  above, a r e p o s i t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l  propositions.  The word " c o n d i t i o n i n g " i m p l i e s a c o n c e p t I w i s h t o a v o i d , i . e . , c a u s a t i o n . I use the word r a t h e r i n t h e sense o f r e g u l a t i n g , or making p o s s i b l e .  158. Propositions: The  f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s a r e not t o be c o n s i d e r e d a l o n e ,  but as f a c t o r s m o d i f y i n g each o t h e r . I.  The. g r e a t e r t h e s i z e ( p o p u l a t i o n ) , c o m p l e x i t y and  a u t h o r i t y o f s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e g r e a t e r i s the s e v e r i t y o f e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e .  That i s , t h e l a r g e r  and more p o w e r f u l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s on w h i c h m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y c a n be b a s e d , t h e more severe i s t h e w a r f a r e .  This i n c l u d e s , f o r  example, t h e e x p a n s i o n o f w a r f a r e on k i n terms as among t h e M u r n g i n , o r the c o n f e d e r a t i o n o f t r i b e s f o r w a r f a r e as among t h e Rundi Rundi. II.  The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h o f the s o c i a l ,  j u d i c i a l and economic t i e s —  political,  t h a t i s interdependence  —  within a  g i v e n s o c i e t y or group, the l e s s s e v e r e i s the i n t e r n a l w a r f a r e and t h e more severe i s t h e e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e . the l i m i t e d w a r f a r e between i n t e r d e p e n d e n t  T h i s i n c l u d e s , f o r example, groups among t h e Nuer and  J i v a r o , as c o n t r a s t e d w i t h the t o t a l w a r f a r e  (among t h e J i v a r o t o  t h e p o i n t o f e x t e r m i n a t i o n ) between segments n o t i n t e r d e p e n d e n t . III.  The g r e a t e r t h e s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s , the g r e a t e r the  s e v e r i t y of the i n t e r n a l warfare.  This structural stress includes,  f o r example, t h e o p p o s a b i l i t y o f segments among t h e Nuer, o r t h e d i s p u t e d s u c c e s s i o n t o t h e K i n g s h i p among t h e Nupe. IV. ties —  The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h o f s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic i . e . , interdependence  —  between d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s or  groups, t h e l e s s severe i s the e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e  ( i . e . , the warfare  159.  between t h e s e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t  groups).  T h i s i n c l u d e s , f o r example,  the m i n i m a l war among the Hausa Kanawa, a s o c i e t y whose economic base i s p r e d i c a t e d on t r a d e , which n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e maintenance o f t h o s e i n t e r c u l t u r a l communications and c o n t a c t s d e s t r o y e d  o r d i s r u p t e d by  warfare. V.  The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h o f t h e . i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  mechanisms  f o r h a l t i n g or c o n t a i n i n g war, the l e s s s e v e r e i s b o t h i n t e r n a l and external warfare.  1  T h i s i n c l u d e s , f o r example, the Nuer L e o p a r d -  Skin Chiefs. VI.  The greater, the s t r e n g t h and o c c u r r e n c e o f i n s t i t u t i o n s  n e c e s s i t a t i n g warfare f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of v a r i o u s r o l e s i n 2 s o c i e t y , t h e g r e a t e r the s e v e r i t y o f w a r f a r e .  This i n c l u d e s , f o r  example, t h e n e c e s s i t y o f head-hunting t o a c h i e v e manhood, or an extremely high b r i d e - p r i c e n e c e s s i t a t i n g p i l l a g i n g i f the c a p i t a l i s t o be r a i s e d . These s i x b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n s and t h e g e n e r a l model  constructed  above a r e the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h i s t h e s i s t o the s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of warfare.  I was n o t a b l e t o f i n d a n example o f a mechanism e x i s t i n g between two d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s — t h a t i s , a mechanism c a p a b l e of containing external warfare. N e v e r t h e l e s s , such a mechanism i s conceivable: f o r example, a p p e a l i n g t o a s p e c i f i c body f o r t h e s e t t l e m e n t o f the d i s p u t e , e t c . Probably  e x t e r n a l war o n l y .  160. BIBLIOGRAPHY —  TEXT  1  A n d r z e j e w s k i , S t a n i s l a w . M i l i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n and London, R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l , 1954.  Society.  B a l a n d i e r , Georges. S o c i o l o g i e A c t u e l l e de l ' A f r i q u e N o i r e : Changements S o c i a u x au Gabon e t au Congo. P a r i s , P r e s s e s U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de F r a n c e , 1955. Bohannan, L. and P. The T i v o f C e n t r a l N i g e r i a . Ethnographic Survey o f A f r i c a , Western A f r i c a , P a r t V I I I . London, International African Institute, 1953. E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d , E. E. and F o r t e s , Meyer ( e d s . ) . A f r i c a n P o l i t i c a l Systems. 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