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Primitive war : a cross-cultural survey. Levson, Elliott Hastings 1963

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PRIMITIVE WAR: A CROSS-CULTURAL SURVEY by E l l i o t t Hastings Levson B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FIJLFILLMENT OF :THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master o f A r t s i n the department of Anthropology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1963 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r -m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying, or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Departme nt of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date ABSTRACT • Problem:. To i s o l a t e and analyze the patterned r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e l e c t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l elements and the s e v e r i t y of warfare. Methods of I n v e s t i g a t i o n : Two s c a l e s of s e v e r i t y of warfare — based on frequency, and on estimated annual c a s u a l t i e s — were constructed f o r 47 s o c i e t i e s . These s c a l e s were then compared w i t h 26 s e l e c t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l elements — ranging from p o p u l a t i o n density to p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Ethnographic data were obtained from the Human R e l a t i o n s Area F i l e . C onclusions: A model was constructed o u t l i n i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l bases of the expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n of warfare: t h i s model i s o l a t e d two types of f a c t o r s : I . C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r s : These r e f e r r e d to the s o c i a l , economic j p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the bases of which warfare expands. I i . L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s : These r e f e r t o those i n s t i t u t i o n s which co n t r a c t warfare. S i x b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n s were p o s t u l a t e d as primary i n f l u e n c e s i n the s e v e r i t y of warfare: 1 . The greater the s i z e ( p o p u l a t i o n ) , complexity and a u t h o r i t y of s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the greater i i i s the s e v e r i t y of e x t e r n a l warfare. 2. The greater the strength of the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , j u d i c i a l and economic t i e s — t h a t i s interdependence — w i t h i n a g i v e n s o c i e t y or group, the l e s s severe i s the i n t e r n a l warfare and the more severe i s the e x t e r n a l warfare. 3. The greater the s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s , the greater the s e v e r i t y of the i n t e r n a l warfare. 4. The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic t i e s — i . e . , interdependence — between d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s or groups, the l e s s severe i s the e x t e r n a l warfare. 5. The g r e a t e r the s t r e n g t h of the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d mechanisms f o r h a l t i n g or c o n t a i n i n g war, the l e s s severe i s both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l warfare. 6. The greater the strength and occurrence of i n s t i t u t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g warfare f o r the f u l f i l l m e n t of v a rious r o l e s i n s o c i e t y , the g r e a t e r the s e v e r i t y of w a r f a r e . iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e t o Dr. H. B. Hawthorn f o r h i s valued c r i t i c i s m and guidance, and t o the S t a f f of the L i b r a r y a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Washington i n S e a t t l e f o r t h e i r cooperation and good w i l l . i i i TABLE OF-CONTENTS Abstract p. i Introduction .. . p. 1 Frequency Charts p. 12 Casualty Charts p. 65 Synthesis p. 145 Conclusions p. 155 Bibliography p. 160 INTRODUCTION Purpose or Problem; The immediate o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s study were t o discover the patterned r e l a t i o n s h i p s between s e l e c t e d s o c i o l o g i c a l elements and the s e v e r i t y of warfare i n human s o c i e t y . The u l t i m a t e aim of t h i s study was t w o f o l d : f i r s t , to demonstrate t h a t d e f i n i t e l i n k a g e s do e x i s t between c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n s and the s e v e r i t y of warfare; and second, t o attempt a t e n t a t i v e a n a l y s i s of the nature and s i g n i f i c a n c e o f these patterned s o c i o l o g i c a l elements i n reg a r d t o the s e v e r i t y of war-f a r e . Assumptions: That the s t r u c t u r e or o r g a n i z a t i o n of a s o c i e t y r e g u l a t e s the a c t i o n of a s o c i e t y : t h a t warfare i s one form of s o c i e t a l a c t i o n : t h a t there are v a r i a t i o n s i n s e v e r i t y of warfare i n d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s . D e f i n i t i o n s : Warfare,.for the purposes of t h i s study, i s d e f i n e d as organized c o n f l i c t conducted a t or above the l e v e l of the l o c a l community. Working on the b a s i s of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , and our con-cern w i t h s e v e r i t y i t was not necessary — nor was i t p o s s i b l e on the b a s i s of the i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e — to i n c l u d e r i t u a l war-f a r e . 1 Two f u r t h e r types of warfare should be d i s t i n g u i s h e d : i n t e r n a l warfare, t h a t i s warfare conducted w i t h i n the s o c i e t y a t See Wedgwood, C. H. Some Aspects o f Warfare i n Melanesia. 2. a l l l e v e l s ( t h a t i s , ranging from c i v i l war t o i n t e r - v i l l a g e war); and e x t e r n a l warfare, t h a t i s warfare d i r e c t e d outside the highest l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l integration.' 1' I n regard to d i f f e r e n t forms of warfare, such as r a i d s , feuds, b a t t l e s , e t c . , i t proved impossible t o d i s t i n g u i s h these i n the l i t e r a t u r e , the terms being used almost interchangeably by various w r i t e r s : r e g a r d l e s s , these s p e c i f i c i t i e s were of l i t t l e immediate relevance t o my p r o j e c t . For the purpose of c o n s t r u c t i n g the s c a l e s of warfare, warfare was considered to i n c l u d e without d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n both i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s . The ' s e v e r i t y 1 of warfare r e f e r s t o the two v a r i a b l e s — frequency of war and estimated average annual c a s u a l t i e s (deaths) per 1,000 p o p u l a t i o n . Working Hypothesis: The working hypothesis, which was abandoned soon a f t e r the data were assembled, was o r i g i n a l l y proposed i n Dr. R. W. Dunning's Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia Seminar i n 1962. My hypothesis read: "The s e v e r i t y o f warfare i n c r e a s e s i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n t o the i n -crease of the s i z e of the group over which j u d i c i a l and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y can be extended." This hypothesis overlooked many c r u c i a l elements, but i t served i t s purpose as conceptual framework d u r i n g the i n i t i a t i o n o f the i n q u i r y . A f a c t worth f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s t h a t i n segmentary-type systems, or i n systems which are u n i t e d only f o r warfare, the bulk of the warfare i s fought i n t e r n a l l y . Concepts such as " s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s " r e f e r r e d t o l a t e r p a r t i a l l y e x p l a i n t h i s . Sources; The source u t i l i z e d to obtain the ethnographic data for the construction of the charts was the Human Relation Area F i l e s (HRAF). Procedure and Methods; My o r i g i n a l hope was to obtain as many categories of socio l o g i c a l elements covering as many societies as possible. I had hoped that t h i s non-selective approach might uncover patterns and linkages that I could not have anticipated. How-ever, for the reasons given below, as w e l l as because of the i n -herent incoherence of a non-selective study, the selection became necessary. The HRAF categories from which data were obtained were chosen on the following grounds: quantity of information pro-vided; q u a l i t y of information provided; 1 and estimated significance i n r e l a t i o n to warfare. I n i t i a l l y , 103 HRAF categories were chosen. However, on a preliminary survey of the f i l e s i t became obvious that data i n a l l these categories were not available consistently i n many soc i e t i e s . Consequently, the number of categories was cut approximately i n h a l f . Later, a f t e r constructing the scales of warfare and making the i n i t i a l comparisons, i t became necessary because of i n s u f f i c i e n t cross-cultural data to reduce further the number of c a t e g o r i e s t o 29. The c a t e g o r i e s which a c t u a l l y 2 appear i n the c h a r t s are p a r t i a l l y Murdock's , p a r t i a l l y HRAF's, and p a r t i a l l y my own. My own c a t e g o r i e s were used when i t was both p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e to f u r t h e r r e f i n e the concepts — f o r example, the l a r g e s t group u n i t e d f o r warfare. At f i r s t I had hoped to choose the s o c i e t i e s on a p u r e l y random b a s i s . Once again however, the uneven q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of the ethnographic data r u l e d t h i s out. Consequently, the f o l l o w i n g procedure was adopted: the s o c i e t i e s were approached i n a l p h a b e t i c a l order; the warfare c a t e g o r i e s examined f o r q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y ; and the remainder of the c a t e g o r i e s examined f o r ease of a c c e s s i b i l i t y . With t h i s procedure, r e l a t i v e l y complete i n f o r m a t i o n considered 3 adequate f o r c h a r t i n g was thus gathered f o r 47 s o c i e t i e s . C ategories omitted i n the f i n a l c h a r t s i n c l u d e : M o r t a l i t y ; Ethos; Norms; S t a t u s , Role and P r e s t i g e ; E t h i c s ; Ingroup Antagonisms; Brawls and R i o t s ; J u d i c i a l A u t h o r i t y ; M i l i t a r y O r g a n i z a t i o n ; Ground Combat Forces; Supply and Commissariat; I n s t i g a t i o n of War; Peacemaking; General Character o f R e l i g i o n ; S p i r i t s and Gods; Ethnosociology; Ethnopsychology; Aggression T r a i n i n g . The im-portance of these v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y , but i t w i l l be noted t h a t those u n d e r l i n e d — which are considered of extreme importance — had t o be dropped, or pieced together from s c a t t e r e d i n f o r m a t i o n . HRAF Category 105, " C u l t u r a l Summary". In s p i t e of a l l p r e c a u t i o n s , the data-gathered proved inadequate f o r eleven (11)'additional s o c i e t i e s : Mossi L i l s e ; Hausa Daurawa; Hausa Tazarawa; Wolof; Bemba"Aushi; Bemba B i s a , Bemba Laupula; Bemba Lunga; Bushmen Auen; T a l l e n s i Namnam; Crow. Regarding the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s c a l e s of warfare: i t proved p o s s i b l e to evaluate the frequency of warfare f o r the f u l l 47 s o c i e t i e s ; but i t was only p o s s i b l e to evaluate the c a s u a l t i e s of 45 s o c i e t i e s . 5. Two t r i p s were made t o the F i l e s : the f i r s t , one week to gather the data i n May, 1962; the second, one day to check b i b l i o g r a p h i c items i n February, 1963. The t o t a l m a t e r i a l obtained from the F i l e s i n c l u d e d approximately 100,000 words t y p e w r i t t e n , and 100,000 words photocopied. The a c t u a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of the s c a l e s of ' s e v e r i t y ' of warfare proved extremely d i f f i c u l t . Inadequate q u a n t i t a t i v e data r u l e d out the p o s s i b i l i t y o f simple numerical s c a l e s based on average annual frequency and average annual c a s u a l t i e s per c a p i t a . Q u a n t i t a t i v e data of t h i s nature was simply not a v a i l a b l e . 1 Consequently, a r e l a t i v e s c a l e of s e v e r i t y had t o be created. A f t e r t o y i n g w i t h s e v e r a l i d e a s , the f i n a l procedure was decided upon. This procedure i n v o l v e d a t o t a l l y i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c e s t i m a t i o n of the two s c a l e s of s e v e r i t y — frequency and c a s u a l t i e s . The method used to accomplish t h i s e n t a i l e d the f o l l o w i n g steps: the s o c i e t i e s were d i v i d e d i n t o two 'ranges' or degrees of frequency; then each range was i t s e l f d i v i d e d i n t o two ranges; f i n a l l y , i t was p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e an a d d i t i o n a l range of highest frequency. The procedure was repeated for the c a s u a l t y s c a l e , but o n l y four ranges Although data of t h i s nature was not immediately a v a i l a b l e , i t would be p o s s i b l e f o r a sc h o l a r w i t h h i s t o r i c a l t r a i n i n g t o determine, by a n a l y s i s and i n t e r p o l a t i o n , f a i r l y accurate c a s u a l t y percentages.- Government and t r a v e l l e r s * r e p o r t s , as w e l l as A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s ' , often l i s t b a t t l e s and approximate c a s u a l t i e s f or s p e c i f i c p e r i o d s . By j u x t a p o s i t i o n and de-t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of these r e p o r t s , v a l i d f i g u r e s would be p o s s i b l e . 6. or degrees of s e v e r i t y were p o s s i b l e . For both these s c a l e s , Range I represented the great e s t s e v e r i t y , and s e v e r i t y decreases through Ranges I I - V. To e l i m i n a t e e r r o r and b i a s as much as p o s s i b l e , the sca l e s were constructed before any of the c u l t u r a l data were c o n s u l t e d . Fur t h e r , the s c a l e s were erected three times, a l l o w i n g a month between each attempt and without c o n s u l t i n g the previous s c a l e . When the three attempts were completed, they were l o o k e d a t together and r e - e v a l u a t e d . 1 F u r t h e r , i t was decided t h a t under no circumstances, and r e g a r d l e s s of j u s t i f i c a t i o n , would the s c a l e s be a l t e r e d a f t e r t h i s . F i n a l l y , I decided t o keep the c h a r t s as d e s c r i p t i v e as p o s s i b l e f o r two reasons: f i r s t , so t h a t i n a c c u r a c i e s would be apparent immediately to the reader; and second, so t h a t voluminous footnotes could be avoided. Weaknesses and D i f f i c u l t i e s : A c r o s s - c u l t u r a l survey, by i t s very nature, i s burdened w i t h many important weaknesses and d i f f i c u l t i e s . Those t h a t stand out i n t h i s a n a l y s i s are l i s t e d below: 1. There are not enough s o c i e t i e s i n the c h a r t s of the type reputed to engage i n minimal warfare. 2. The s o c i e t i e s are r e s t r i c t e d g e o g r a p h i c a l l y ( p r i m a r i l y A f r i c a , A u s t r a l i a and South America) and do not present With a few exc e p t i o n s , t h e r e was remarkably l i t t l e v a r i a t i o n . the world sample I had o r i g i n a l l y hoped f o r . 3 . The unavoidable impressionism u t i l i z e d i n the con-s t r u c t i o n of the s c a l e s . 4 . The i n t e r p r e t i v e nature o f the c h a r t s : t h i s o f t e n reached the point where I was i n t e r p r e t i n g an i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n (Murdock's summary) of an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n (the ethnographer 1s). 5. I was o f t e n f o r c e d to choose between monographs that con-t r a d i c t e d each other on e s s e n t i a l p o i n t s , e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n s of the s e v e r i t y of w a r f a r e . 1 6. Ethnographic m a t e r i a l s are o f t e n i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d e t a i l e d 2 on p o i n t s now considered e s s e n t i a l . An extreme example of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i s given below. Murdock, i n h i s c u l t u r a l summary for the T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i w r i t e s : "The T a l l e n s i were conquered by the B r i t i s h about 1911, a f t e r severe m i l i t a r y r e s i s t a n c e . " This i m p l i e s a t l e a s t a w e l l - o r g a n i z e d or e f f e c t i v e m i l i t i a f o r the T a l l e n s i . F o r t e s , however (1945) w r i t e s (p. 239) the f o l l o w i n g sentences which c o n t r a d i c t Murdock or con-t r a d i c t themselves: "...many f i g h t s occurred between c l a n s and l i n e a g e s . " "But general wars, i n v o l v i n g a l l the T a l l e n s i , were less - frequent. Only three seem to have taken place i n the l a s t three or four generations". "The T a l l e n s i are not one of those w a r l i k e A f r i c a n peoples who have a hypnotic e f f e c t even on A n t h r o p o l o g i s t s . " (p. 233) I f i n a l l y decided to use Fortes, i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n t h a t the T a l l e n s i s u f f e r e d minimal c a s u a l t i e s : "three or four men k i l l e d . . . w o u l d have been regarded as a very heavy c a s u a l t y l i s t " p. 239. I n review, I would place i t higher on the s c a l e , at l e a s t i n Scale I I I f o r c a s u a l t i e s . Few ethnographers g i v e us the d e t a i l o f f e r e d i n , f o r e.g. j u d i c i a l a u t h o r i t y by Manoukian (1950) for the Twi, p. 4 0 : " L e g i s l a t i o n . Important proposals and laws were passed by a meeting of the f u l l C o u n c i l of the s t a t e . . . J u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s . Law and order must be maintained...Offences were d i v i d e d i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s : i . Those which d i d not concern the c h i e f , i . e . p r i v a t e or household i s s u e s , i i . Those which concerned the c e n t r a l a u t h o r i t y as p u b l i c or t r i b a l o f f e n c e s . . . " e t c . 7. The weakness inherent i n l i n k a g e or c o r r e l a t i o n s t u d i e s , t h a t i s , the d i f f i c u l t y o f demonstrating t h a t a l i n k a g e i s meaningful; and i f meaningful, the d i f f i c u l t y of a s s i g n i n g i t the r o l e o f i n f l u e n c e or m a n i f e s t a t i o n or both. 8. Time gaps i n the data: f o r example, i n some cases I am comparing nineteenth century warfare w i t h t w e n t i e t h century s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . I n many cases I do not even know which time periods are i n v o l v e d . 9. A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l terminology, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n regard t o war-f a r e , i s obscure, c o n t r a d i c t o r y , and n o n - q u a n t i t a t i v e . 1 A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Theory on War: This study n e i t h e r purports nor d e s i r e s to be a review o f the S o c i o l o g i c a l and A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l theory on warfare. On the whole t h i s l i t e r a t u r e f l o o d s the market i n wartime and i s ignored i n 2 peacetime. F u r t h e r , i d e o l o g i c a l and moral commitments of the . authors obscure t h e i r v i s i o n : a t once they put asid e a l l s o c i o l o g i c a l concepts of group o r g a n i z a t i o n , and devote t h e i r work to proving t h a t the c u r r e n t enemy(ies) i s i n f e r i o r , u n c i v i l i z e d , e t c . Again, l i t t l e work has been done on warfare; when i t i s done i t i s 3 r a r e l y p u b l i s h e d ; when i t i s pub l i s h e d i t v a r i e s from t a c t i c a l For example, the terms r a i d , b a t t l e , feud, war are used completely interchangeably. For example, Quincy Wright's A Study of War; The American Journa l of Sociology's 1941 Symposium on war; e t c . Quincy Wright (op c i t ) l i s t s i n h i s b i b l i o g r a p h y myriad unpublished works. 9 studies to mathematical evaluations; and regardless of the above i t ignores either rseverity 1 or sociological concepts or 3 both, A good example i s the following by Malinowski:. "It i s confusing to regard individual acts of violence and primitive feuds as general antecedents of modern warfare and fallacious to regard war as a necessary result of man's biological nature. In human societies the impulse of anger i s usually transformed into attitudes of ho s t i l i t y or into acts of violence which are culturally determined. Within an institution conflicts are subject to the norms of custom, technique, ethics, and law. Warfare i s culturally productive when i t creates a new institution, a nation-state. The economic motive i s not present i n warfare u n t i l there has developed a body of portable wealth; u n t i l food can be preserved and trans-ported and u n t i l the productive arts have advanced so that one man can produce more than he consumes. The most important cultural effect of conquest i s an enrichment in national l i f e through a division of function between con-querors and conquered and through the development of new institutions i n which the conquerors provide the p o l i t i -cal element and the conquered the economic efficiency. The note of totalitarianism, i n so far as i t saps the resources of culture and destroys i t s structure, i s i n -compatible with the constitution of human societies for the normal business of producing, maintaining, and trans-mitting wealth, solidarity, reason, and some conscience, a l l of which are the real indices and values of c i v i l i z a -tion,'^ In general, social theory on warfare has offered six types of explanations for warfare: Turney-High, H.H. Primitive War. Columbia, University of South Carolina Press, 1949 Richardson, Lewis F. Statistics of Deadly Quarrels. Wright, Quincy and Lienau, C.C, (eds.) 0 Pittsburgh, The Boxwood Press, and Chicago, Quadrangle Books, I960 There are of course several b r i l l i a n t f i e l d monographs on war. For example* Evans-Pritchard, E»E, The Nuer: A Des-cription of the Modes of Livelihood and P o l i t i c a l Institutions of a Nilotic People. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1940 Malinowski, Bronislaw. An Anthropological Analysis of War, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. XLVJ, 1941 10. 1, Racial: seeing warfare as a manifestation of various r a c i a l -characteristics, 2, Psychological; seeing warfare as, for example, the unleashing of individual h o s t i l i t y , 3, Biological: seeing warfare as "instinct,"' etc., 4» Economic t seeing warfare as directed towards and con-troll e d by "rational" ends such as t e r r i t o r i a l expansion, the acquisition of goods, etc,, 5, Functional; seeing warfare as, for example, increasing group solidarity, 6, Moral; seeing warfare as the result of a culture*s values, ethos, morality, etc. What l i t t l e published work has been done recently on warfare has been concerned primarily with the relation between military 1 2 organization and social structure or s t r a t i f i c a t i o n . To my knowledge, no serious attempt has been made to discuss variation i n severity of warfare i n terms of contemporary sociological con-cepts. Thus the procedure adopted i n the i n i t i a t i o n of this inquiry was to attempt to clear my mind of traditional beliefs, and to Andrssejewski, Stanislaw, Military Organization and Society, London, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1954 Fried, M.H. Warfare, Military Organization, and the Evolution of Society, Anthropologica, Vol. I H , No. 2, 1961 11. conduct the study sans authority. 1  Introduction to the Charts: The charts that follow are attempts to summarize the ethno-graphic data gathered on forty-seven societies. The charts are divided into two parts: those based on the 'frequency' of war (pp. 12-64); and those based on the 'casualties' (pp. 65-144)* As the frequency charts f a i l e d to yield what I considered sign-ifi c a n t patterns, I reserved the explanations of the charts for the casualties section. Behind each chart in the casualties section I have l i s t e d a key to that chart, my reason for selecting that chart, and a brief numerical analysis of the patterns i n that chart. The charts that follow constitute the data on which my con-cluding propositions are based. The propositions are an attempt to interpret the patterns yielded i n the charts, A sample of my procedure i s as follows: as I found that a definite pattern emerged for the category "Largest War-Making Group" (pp. Sl-83), and as I f e l t i t was legitimate to postulate a relationship between the size of this group and the severity of warfare, I then could proceed to include this category in my propositions (Proposition Is " TheA.greater the size (population), complexity and authority of social, economic, and p o l i t i c a l organizations, the greater is the severity of external warfare."). It i s now possible to turn to the charts. Northrop, F.S.C, The Logic of the Sciences and the Humanities, p, 14 "Clearly, the authorities disagree about the procedure to be followed i n i n i t i a t i n g inquiry. To be sure, there i s one prescription which they a l l hold,,.that at the beginning one should clear one's mind of traditional beliefs,," 12-. FREQUENCY I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa P o p u l a t i o n 30,000 (1580) 3,500 750,000 (1949) 500,000 (20th C.) 600,000 (1949) 850,000, (1948) 2,150,000 (1952) 65,000 (1948) 700,000 (1948) 1,000,000 (1954) 3,000 430,000 (1931) 100,000 (1932) 100,000 (1950) 450,000 150,000 (1951) 10,000 4,000,000 (1920) Density .13 492. .14 17. 13. IV V Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Kongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o 2 4 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 4 6 ) 2 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 5 1 ) 1 6 0 , 0 0 0 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 3 6 0 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 5 5 ) 1 8 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 4 3 ) 5 0 0 . 0 0 0 4 2 0 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 5 0 ) 2 8 5 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 3 9 ) 3 5 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 3 1 ) 6 2 7 , 0 0 0 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 3 1 ) 3 , 5 0 0 1 7 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 5 0 ) 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 4 6 3 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 4 8 ) 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 4 5 ) 2 , 0 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 2 , 5 0 0 49. 2 1 . 1 8 . 1 0 0 . 116. 64. 8 3 . 6 5 . .5 . 1 3 FREQUENCY Primary Economy I J i v a r o A H + F Tasmania H + G Cape Hottentot P + H Azande Azande A + H Ganda Sogo A + L Fang Fang A + F Hausa Mauri A + L Kikuyu Kikuyu A + L Rundi Ruanda A + L Twi Akyem A Twi A s h a n t i A + F Bambara Bambara A + G + L Murngin H + G Nuer Nuer P + A + F S h i l l u k S h i l l u k A + H Somali Esa P Somali Ogaden P Bemba Bemba A Bemba S h i l a A + F Bemba Unga F + A Hausa Hausa A I ? V 1 5 . . Hottentot Nama P + H + F + G Katab Katab A + G Mende Mende F + G Mongo Ekondo A + F Mongo Nkundu A + F Nupe Nupe A + F Rundi Ka L + A Rundi Rundi A + L Somali Hawiya P + A Somali Ishaak P Somali Sab A.+ L T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i A + L T i v T i v A + H l o r u b a E k i t i A + F Bushmen Kung H + G Hausa Azna A + L Mossi Mossi A + L Somali G i r r i A + L Thonga Thonga A Twi F a n t i A .+ H + F Yao Yao A f H + F Aranda H + G Hausa Kanawa A + L S i r i o n o H + F + G 1 6 . FREQUENCY Landowners Use Ri g h t s I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga L o c a l group, communal L o c a l group, communal C h i e f s C h i e f s Village.Headmen Community Lineage C h i e f s & E l d e r s L o c a l C h i e f Clan Community Community Community D i s t r i c t C h i e f s C h i e f Communal Communal I n d i v i d u a l A t o c l a n s I n d i v i d u a l s I n d i v i d u a l (C) Lineage & I n d i v i d u a l (Owners A) I n d i v i d u a l s & Extended f a m i l i e s I n d i v i d u a l (C) 1 7 . Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab - T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i S t ate L o c a l group, communal Extended f a m i l i e s & clans Lineage C l a n , communal Community Headman Community King T r i b e Lineage Lineage Lineage head Lineage I n d i v i d u a l (A by l o c a l headman) Communal I n d i v i d u a l s (C) I n d i v i d u a l (A annual by owners) I n d i v i d u a l I n d i v i d u a l I n d i v i d u a l I n d i v i d u a l s (A by sub-chief) I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head) I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head) I n d i v i d u a l Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Community I n d i v i d u a l ( I ) King Community Paramount C h i e f s Lineage I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen) I n d i v i d u a l (C) I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen) I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e Head & e l d e r s 18. l a o Yao I n d i v i d u a l I n d i v i d u a l (C) Aranda L o c a l group, communal Communal Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o L o c a l group, communal Communal 19. FREQUENCY S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Classes Slavery I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Minimal No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s No true s o c i a l c l a s s e s No Nobles/Commoners R o y a l t y / P a t r o n s / C l i e n t s Yes No Landowner/Tenant/Serf No R o y a l t y / P a t r o n / C l i e n t Yes Landowners/Sharecroppers/ Laborers R o y a l t y / C h i e f s or Elders/Commoners Yes Yes Minimal .Minimal Royal t y / N o b i l i t y / Degraded Royalty/C ommoner s/ R e t a i n e r s S u b s t a n t i a l d i v i s i o n s based on wealth: 3 endog. p a r i a h castes Range from C h i e f l y f a m i l i e s t o p a r i a h groups Yes Yes Yes No 20 I I I Bemba Bemba Chie fs/Noble s/C ommoner s Yes Bemba S h i l a Paramount C h i e f s ('Kings' )Yes Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa • N o b i l i t y /Middle C l a s s / S e r f s Yes Hottentot Nama No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s • No Katab Katab Paramount C h i e f s Yes Mende Mende Gentry ( o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s ) Yes Mongo Ekondo Pygmies h e r e d i t a r y S e r f s Yes Mongo Nkundu No s i g n i f i c a n t d i s -t i n c t i o n s b e t . freemen Yes Nupe Nupe Royalty/Graded n o b i l i t y / Freemen Yes Rundi Ha P a s t o r a l i s t s & Ag-r i c u l t u r a l i s t s form two d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s Yes Rundi Rundi R o y a l t y / A r i s t o c r a c y / Commoners Yes Somali Hawiya Castes ( i n c l u d i n g despised, endogamous castes) No Somali Ishaak Despised endogamous castes Yes Somali Sab 'Marked caste d i s -t i n c t i o n s ' Yes T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s (some d i s t i n c t i o n s based on wealth) Yes T i v T i v No true s o c i a l c l a s s e s Yes Yoruba E k i t i Graded C h i e f l y O f f i c e s / Commoners Yes 21. Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o Minimal No R o y a l t y / N o b i l i t y / Traders/Commoners Yes D i s t i n c t i o n s based on .wealth: p a r i a h castes Royalty/Commoners No Nobility/Commoners Yes Modest wealth d i s -t i n c t i o n s Yes No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s Complex s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among freemen Yes No true s o c i a l c l a s s e s FREQUENCY .'22. Largest War-Making Group I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups L o c a l group A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups Tri b e State L o c a l group State T r i b e State State D i s t r i c t A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups Tri b e State T r i b e T r i b e State Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i Bushmen Rung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi E a n t i Yao Yao Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o 23. A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups ( I ) T r i b e Chiefdom Tr i b e State State T r i b a l a l l i a n c e T r i b e ( I ) A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups State A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups State State A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups • L o c a l group FREQUENCY 24. Normal War-Making Group I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa Extended f a m i l y ( l o c a l group) Band Band S t a t e - t r i b e State V i l l a g e ( l o c a l group) T r i b e Tribe State S t a t e - t r i b e State D i s t r i c t C l a n ( l o c a l group) Band Tribe. T r i b e T r i b e D i s t r i c t State Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v l o r u b a E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i l a o Yao Aranda Hausa -Kanawa. 25-Clan + t r i b e T r i b e State T r i b a l + D i s t r i c t ( s u b - t r i b e ) T r i b a l + i n t e r - t r i b a l State State State T r i b e L o c a l community Tri b e T r i b e Band State State I n t r a - t r i b a l Band S i r i o n o Band '26. FREQUENCY Marriage and B r i d e - P r i c e Marriage B r i d e - P r i c e I I I I J i v a r o P. common B r i d e - s e r v i c e Tasmania P. permitted Cape Hottentot P. infr e q u e n t No B.P. Azande Azande P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Ganda Sogo P. S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Fang Fang P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Hausa Mauri P. .general B.P. Kikuyu Kikuyu P. p r e f e r r e d S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Rundi Ruanda P. permitted B.P. Twi Akyem P. permitted B.P. Twi A s h a n t i P. permitted Moderate B.P. Bambara Bambara P. general B.P. customary Murngin P. Nuer Nuer P. p r e f e r e n t i a l S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. S h i l l u k S h i l l u k P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali Esa P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali Ogaden P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Bemba Bemba P. general Token B.P. Bemba S h i l a P. p r e v a i l s Small B.P. Bemba Unga P. general Token B.P. 27:-IV V Hausa Hausa P. general B.P. Hottentot Nama . P. infre q u e n t No B.P. Katab Katab P. general Token B.P. Mende Mende P. gener a l Small B.P. Mongo Ekondo P. p r e v a i l s S u b s t a n t i a l B.P, Mongo Nkundu P. general B.P. sometimes Nupe Nupe P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Rundi Ha P. p r e v a i l s B.P. Rundi Rundi P. B.P. Somali Hawiya P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali Ishaak P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali Sab P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i P. gener a l Minor B.P. T i v T i v P. general Token B.P. Yoruba E k i t i P. general Moderate B.P. Bushmen Kung P. No B.P. Hausa Azna P. general Small B.P. Mossi Mossi P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali G i r r i P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Thonga Thonga P. gen e r a l S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Twi F a n t i P. common Moderate B.P. Yao Yao P. permitted No B.P. Aranda Hausa Kanawa P. p r e v a i l s B.P. S i r i o n o P. 28--. FREQUENCY I I I I I Residence and R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t Residence J i v a r o P a t r i l i n e a g e Tasmania Cape Hottentot Family P. Azande Azande Extended Family P. or N. Ganda Sogo Extended Family P. Fang Fang Extended Family P. Hausa Mauri Family P. Kikuyu Kikuyu Family Rundi Ruanda Family M. then P. Twi Akyem Extended Family P. + Av. Twi A s h a n t i Extended Family P. , Av., + N. Bambara Bambara Extended Family P. Murngin P a t r i l i n e a l c l a n P. (?) Nuer Nuer Extended Family M.. -P., a l s o N. S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Family P. Somali Esa Family P. •Somali Ogaden P. Family M. i n i t i a l l y M. 2 y r s . , then Av. M. i n i t i a l l y 2 9 -Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i . T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i Small extended Family P. (a l s o N.) Family M. then P. Extended Family P. Extended Family P. Minor l i n e a g e P. ( a l s o Av.) Extended Family P. Extended Family ( l e s ) P. Family P. ( a l s o N.) P. Extended Family P. P. F r a t e r n a l j o i n t Family P. Extended Family P. ( a l s o Av.) L o c a l i z e d l i n e a g e P. Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Family P. Family P. Family P. Family P. Extended Family P., Av., N. Extended Family M. 30-Aranda Hausa Kanawa Small extended Family S i r i o n o Family 3 1 FREQUENCY L o c a l Community or Settlement S i z e S i z e I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Household ( 8 0 - 3 0 0 av. pop.) Band Band Neighborhood o f f a m i l y homesteads Neighborhoods of di s p e r s e d homesteads V i l l a g e ( 2 - 5 0 huts) . V i l l a g e ( I . ) . Dispersed f a m i l y homesteads (med. pop 4 0 0 ) Dispersed homesteads (homestead = 3 or more d w e l l i n g s ) Town V i l l a g e V i l l a g e C l a n (av. pop. = 5 0 ) Band Hamlet c l u s t e r ( 1 - 5 0 homesteads) Band Band V i l l a g e ( 3 0 - 5 0 huts) V i l l a g e V i l l a g e ( 5 - 1 0 0 huts) Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i IV Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao V Aranda Hamlet to C i t y Band V i l l a g e (med. pop. = 300) Town (200-2,000 av. pop.) Hamlet c l u s t e r 1-6 hamlets Town (up t o 1,000 pop.) Sc a t t e r e d hamlets ( f a m i l y groups) Neighborhood of d i s p e r s e d homesteads Band Band & V i l l a g e Band & V i l l a g e Neighborhood o f d i s p e r s e d f a m i l y homesteads Neighborhood of f a m i l y compounds (pop. =. 167-1057) Town Band (av. pop. = 2 5 ) V i l l a g e ( I ) Neighborhood • V i l l a g e Hamlet V i l l a g e Hamlet c l u s t e r Band 33-Hausa Kanawa Hamlet to l a r g e town S i r i o n o Band (approx. pop. = FREQUENCY 3V O r g a n i z a t i o n of L o c a l Community  Or g a n i z a t i o n I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Lineage Clan ( I ) Several s i b s One or more extended f a m i l i e s C l a n communities Clan Lineage-ward Cla n community; wards probably l i n e a g e s C l a n Clan communities Cla n b a r r i o Clan communities C l a n communities Cla n community Clan community 35-Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Meride Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao V Aranda Clan C l a n community (wards c l a n b a r r i o s ) C l a n - b a r r i o (10-15 per town) Clan community: 1 or more sub-sibs Extended f a m i l i e s forming c l a n - b a r r i o I n d e f i n i t e c l a n : f u n c t i o n a l Age-grades Lineage Minimal l i n e a g e segment Lineage or t e r r i t o r i a l type 2 or more s i b s Clan community Wards c l a n b a r r i o s or mere t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t s Patri-deme Clan community Clan Large extended f a m i l y Extended f a m i l y 36- • Hausa Kanawa S i r i one- Clan type band FREQUENCY 37-Government of Local Community Government I I I I I Jivaro Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer Shi l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba Shila Bemba Unga Headman No formal government Headman (H.) & Council of Elders Headman ( l or more) Lineage Chiefs Headman (H.) Headman Community Council of Elders Headman Headman & Council of Elders Headman elected by Council of Elders Headman (H.) No formal government Community Chief & Council of hamlet heads Headman & Council of a l l adult males Vi l l a g e headman Headman ( I ) Headman (H) Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i IV Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao V Aranda Headman & C o u n c i l of Lineage heads Headman & C o u n c i l of a d u l t males Ward & V i l l a g e Headman (S.) Headman & C o u n c i l of c l a n heads C o u n c i l o f l i n e a g e heads Clan headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s Headman & executive C o u n c i l Community Headman & C o u n c i l (H) Headman (H) Headman & C o u n c i l of f a m i l y heads Headman & C o u n c i l of f a m i l y heads Weak C h i e f No formal government Headman (from founding l i n e a g e ) & C o u n c i l No formal government Headman Headman appointed by D i s t r i c t C h i e f C h i e f & C o u n c i l of Family heads Headman (H) V i l l a g e Headman & C o u n c i l of E l d e r s •Headman (H) No formal government 59-Hausa Kanawa Headman (I) Siriono No formal government FREQUENCY 40. Highest P o l i t i c a l Organization I I I I I Jivaro Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer Sh i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l Kingdom/Provinces with Governors/Districts with Chiefs 15 petty Kingdoms/Districts No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l D i s t r i c t s with Chiefs No regular p o l i t i c a l organization above l o c a l l e v e l Kingdom/70-90 provinces/lineage aggregates Paramount C h i e f / D i s t r i c t s with Chiefs Kingdom/semi-autonomous Chiefdoms Kingdom/provinces with appointed Chiefs/ D i s t r i c t s No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l (?) Tertiary/Secondary/Primary t r i b a l sections/Tribe Kingdom/2 provinces with Chiefs Tribe with Chief & Council of section heads Tribe with paramount Chief/sub-tribe Kingdom/Provinee s/Village s 41-Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab Ta l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Tiv Tiv Yoruba E k i t i Tribe with paramount chief D i s t r i c t s with Chief E l e c t i v e King/states No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l Tribe with paramount chief 70 independent chiefdoms No apparent p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l Sub-tribe Kingdom/semi-autonomous outlying d i s t r i c t s Petty state with 'Sultan' Kingdom/provinces/districts Tribe with paramount chief Sub-tribe with Chief & Council of lineage heads Independent t r i b e with chief No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l 52 autonomous D i s t r i c t s State with paramount c h i e f / l 6 adminis-t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s , each with chief Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l Paramount chief ( d i s t r i c t ? ) 3 independent states / 9 provinces (5 ad-ministrative, 4 with considerable autonomy) Tribe with paramount chief Tribe with c h i e f / D i s t r i c t ( v i l l a g e aggregate) 42. Twi Fanti Yao Yao 19 independent states with paramount chiefs D i s t r i c t with Chief &'Council of senior headmen Aranda Hausa Kanawa Siriono . No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l Kingdom No p o l i t i c a l integration above l o c a l l e v e l 43-FREQUENCY I Jivaro Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti I I Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer Sh i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden I I I Bemba Bemba Bemba Shila Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa Exogamy Local exogamy Tendency to l o c a l exogamy Local agamy Local exogamy usual Local exogamy prevails Tendency to l o c a l exogamy Local agamy (I) Local endogamy preferred (75$) Local endogamy tendency Local exogamy Exogamous pa t r i s i b s Hamlet exogamy: tendency to l o c a l endogamy Local exogamy absolute Local agamy or l o c a l exogamy Local exogamy (I) Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo" Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o L o c a l exogamy norm L o c a l exogamy i s r u l e L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s L o c a l exogamy r u l e L o c a l agamy i n general Tendency t o s i b endogamy ( I ) L o c a l exogamy norm L o c a l exogamy f o r nomads: l o c a l agamy f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s L o c a l exogamy norm D i s t r i c t exogamy L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s L o c a l exogamy general Community exogamy L o c a l endogamy occurs L o c a l agamy the r u l e U5-FREQUENCY I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden K i n Groups L o c a l p a t r i l i n e a g e (80-300 pop.) Exog. p a t r i s i b ( I ) Numerous non-corporate, n o n - l o c a l i z e d , totemic p a t r i s i b s (exogamous) 30 exog. p a t r i s i b s / c o r p o r a t e l a n d h o l d i n g p a t r i l i n e a g e s (5-7 ) P a t r i s i b s & l o c a l i z e d p a t r i l i n e a g e s P a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d 9 agamous p a t r i s i b s / e x o g . s u b - s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s & sublineages which l a n d -h o l d i n g u n i t s 30 n o n - l o c a l i z e d , non-corporate p a t r i -s i b s / exog. corporate p a t r i l i n e a g e s M a t r i s i b s and m a t r i l i n e a g e s 8 exog. h i e r c h i c a l m a t r i s i b s / m a t r i l i n e a g e s o f t e n l o c a l i z e d i n c o r -porate wards/minor l i n e a g e Totemic p a t r i s i b s / l i n e a g e s L o c a l p a t r i c i a n , m o i e t i e s , p h r a t r i e s Maximal, major, minor, minimal (at l e a s t 3 G.) l i n e a g e s 100 non corp. non l o c . p a t r i s i b s / corporate major (community) and minor (hamlet) l i n e a g e s Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e system H i e r a r c h i c a l & f i s s i v e p a t r i l i n e a l org. •46* I I I Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i 40 n o n - l o c a l , graded m a t r i s i b s / n o n -corporate l o c a l i z e d m a t r i l i n e a g e s M a t r i s i b s / s u b - s i b s / l i n e a g e s (4-7 G.) Exog., totemic m a t r i s i b s Exog. totemic p a t r i s i b s / l i n e a g e s ( I ) Exog. p a t r i l i n e a l s i b s / l i n e a g e s (both w i t h f i s s i v e tendency) P a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d i n v i l l a g e wards L o c a l c l a n & l i n e a g e Minimal l i n e a g e s aggregated t o s i b s , p h r a t r i e s Exog. p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d i n hamlet/ l a n d h o l d i n g p a t r i s i b s l o c a l i z e d as c l a n communities Male core of p a t r i l o c a l extended f a m i l y , w i t h t h e i r s i s t e r s , form a p a t r i l i n e a g e Exog., n o n - l o c a l i z e d , totemic p a t r i s i b s P a t r i s i b s / l i n e a g e s H i e r a r c h i c a l & f i s s i v e p a t r i l i n e a l s o c i a l org. Minimal l i n e a g e l o c a l group. Segmentary f i s s i v e l i n e a g e system Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e system Exog. p a t r i s i b s (8-10 G.)/sub-sibs/ l a n d h o l d i n g l i n e a g e s Agamous p h r a t r y ( D i s t r i c t ) / S i b (8,000 pop./minimal p a t r i l i n e a g e (200-1500) l o c a l community Exog. b i l a t e r a l kindreds form corporate groups/exog. l o c a l i z e d p a t r i l i n e a g e s 47-Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Exogamous patri-demes Corporate, exog. p a t r i l i n e a l k i n groups H i e r c h i c a l j f i s s i v e , p a t r i l i n e a l k i n groups Agamous p a t r i s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d as clans 8" totemic m a t r i s i b s / l o c a l exog. ma t r i l i n e a g e s / s u b l i n e a g e s (4-5 G.) Dispersed sibs/ranked & exog. major matrilineages/minor m a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d as extended f a m i l y Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o P a t r i l i n e a l s i b s 48-FREQUENCY I Jivaro Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti I I Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer ,Nuer - Sh i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden I I I Bemba Bemba Bemba Shila Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa Trade No external No external No external (I) Markets Considerable importance. Markets Considerable internal & f a i r amount of external Few markets Important. Regular markets No external Important No external Exceedingly important. Regular markets Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a r i t i Yao Yao Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o No e x t e r n a l ( I ) Pe t t y trade Some Markets Important. Regular markets E x t e n s i v e markets I n t e r n a l & E x t e r n a l t r a d e . Markets Some p e t t y trade Markets Regular markets I n t e r n a l .& E x t e r n a l . Important. Regular markets "add i c t e d to b a r t e r & t r a d e " Regular markets One of the important A f r i c a n merchant groups No e x t e r n a l 50-FREQUENCY D i v i s i o n o f Labor Male Most Female Most M. & F. Share I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti Bambara Bambara Murngin • Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga. X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 51-Hausa Hausa X Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo X Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe X. Rundi Ha X Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i X T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i X IV Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i X Yao Yao X X X X X X X X X * X X X X Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o X X X •52. FREQUENCY Descent and Inhe r i t a n c e Descent In h e r i t a n c e I I I I I J i v a r o P. Tasmania Cape Hottentot P. Azande Azande P. Ganda Sogo P. Fang Fang P. Hausa Mauri P. Kikuyu Kikuyu P. Rundi Ruanda P. Twi Akyem M. Twi Ashanti ' M. Bambara Bambara P. Murngin P. Nuer Nuer P. S h i l l u k S h i l l u k P. Somali Esa P. Somali Ogaden P. Bemba Bemba M. Bemba S h i l a M. Bemba Unga M. P. P. (ElSo) P. (ElSo most, then a l l sons) P. (sons) P. (sons & daughters share) P. (sons) P. (sons) M. ( s i b l i n g s ) M. P. (bro t h e r s , by age) P. (sons) P. (ElSo) P. (sons & daughters) P. M. M. 53-Hausa Hausa P. Hottentot Nama P. Katab Katab P. Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo P. Mongo Nkundu P. Nupe Nupe P. Rundi Ha P. Rundi Rundi P. Somali Hawiya P. Somali Ishaak Somali Sab P. Ta l l e n s i T a l l e n s i P. Tiv Tiv P. Yoruba E k i t i B i . & P. (lo c a l ) P. (ElSo) P. (ElSo gets liv e s t o c k ; other prop, to children) P. (sons) P. ( s i b l i n g s , then sons) P. (ElBr) P. (by c l a s s i f i c a t o r y brothers by seniority) P. (2nd ElSo, then ElSo) P. P. (usually ElSo) P. P. (sons) P. P. P. (sons) P. (sons) Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi Fanti Yao Yao P. P. P. P. M. M. P. P. P. (ElSo) P. P.' M. (siblings) M. Aranda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o FREQUENCY I I 55-•• 'Reasons' f o r Warfare J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi Ashanti Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Revenge f o r murder; sorcery; head-hunting; r i v a l r y ; general v i o l a t i o n of mores R e c i p r o c i t y R e c i p r o c i t y Conquest; slaves & booty I n t e r - s i b d i s p u t e s ; defensive v s . sla v e r a i d s ; a l s o mercenary armies Revenge f o r murder (bet. v i l l a g e s ) ; f a i l u r e to r e t u r n a b r i d e - p r i c e R e c i p r o c a l f i g h t i n g ; p i l l a g i n g f o r booty P r e s t i g e & c a t t l e - s t e a l i n g r a t h e r than conquest (no annexation o f t e r r i t o r y ) R i v a l r y w i t h other s t a t e s ( I ) P r i m a r i l y plundering & slave r a i d s ; a l s o occas. conquest R e c i p r o c i t y P r i m a r i l y c a t t l e and slav e r a i d i n g ; a l s o s t r u c t u r a l t e n s i o n Booty; c i v i l wars over succession; r e b e l l i o u s provinces R a i d i n g ; blood feuds; KA u s u a l l y Raids I I I Bemba Bemba R a i d e r s , not conquerors 56;--Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v Yoruba E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Defensive v s . Bemba aggression; d i s p u t e s bet. c h i e f s over property, e t c . R e c i p r o c i t y Disputes over property; head-hunting Conquest; p r i m a r i l y f o r s l a v e - r a i d i n g R e c i p r o c i t y Conquest; di s p u t e d succession; booty; to o b t a i n p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s ; i n t e r n , r e b e l l i o n Succession t o Kingship c i v i l wars; r i v a l r y w i t h other s t a t e s Plundering r a i d s ; annexation and/or sub-j u g a t i o n ; some t r i b e s r e q u i r e KA War; r a i d i n g f o r booty; blood feuds Sub j u g a t i on; r a i d i n g R e c i p r o c i t y Slaves; women; head-hunting Wars; feuds over women; slaves P r i m a r i l y d isputes bet. bands over t r e s p a s s , homicide, t h e f t , women, etc. R e c i p r o c i t y P r i m a r i l y as source of revenue Raids on neighboring t r i b e s & caravans; defensive a l s o 57-Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Ar'anda Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o P r e s t i g e & p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s ; v s . r i v a l s t a t e s P r i m a r i l y s l a v e - r a i d i n g R e c i p r o c i t y P r i m a r i l y defensive Defensive FREQUENCY 58-O r g a n i z a t i o n of Army I I I I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i Bambara Bambara Murngin S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga No r e g u l a r army. Lineage No r e g u l a r army. Band org. No r e g u l a r army. Band org. Regular army. In wartime, c h i e f could u n i t e up to 20,000 w a r r i o r s Organized by c h i e f s f o r k i n g No r e g u l a r army. R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime No r e g u l a r army Regular army Regular army. I n wartime, s e r v i c e based on k i n s h i p Regular army, augmented by v o l u n t e e r s i n war. E s s e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l a n was armed f o r c e No r e g u l a r army. Adults serve i n wartime King organizes through k i n & d i s t r i c t groups No r e g u l a r army. C h i e f organizes war Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v lo r u b a E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga Twi F a n t i Regular army. R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime No r e g u l a r army. Band org. Lineage Regular army. Gov't based on m i l i t a r y s t r u c t u r e Regular army. C o n s c r i p t i o n i n wartime No r e g u l a r army. On c l a n - l o c a l b a s i s (200-300 w a r r i o r s ) No r e g u l a r army. War org. on k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e , as l a r g e as t r i b e No r e g u l a r army. 'C o n s c r i p t i o n ' i n war-time No r e g u l a r army. Band i n wartime No r e g u l a r army, but canton C h i e f s had org. of ' r e s e r v i s t s ' on c a l l S o c i e t y organized along m i l i t a r y l i n e s . Regular army ( I ) 6Q. Yao Yao V Aranda Mo r e g u l a r army. E l e c t e d c h i e f f o r war, c o n t r o l s up t o a l l i a n c e of bands Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o Wo r e g u l a r army. L i t t l e o r g a n i z a t i o n FREQUENCY I I J i v a r o Tasmania Cape Hottentot Azande Azande Ganda Sogo Fang Fang Hausa Mauri Kikuyu Kikuyu Rundi Ruanda Twi Akyem Twi A s h a n t i J u d i c i a l Machinery L o c a l l e v e l . Blood feuds s e t t l e disputes I I I Bambara Bambara Murngin Nuer Nuer S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Somali Esa Somali Ogaden Bemba Bemba C h i e f s s e t t l e d i s p u t e s , handle matters r e l a t e d t o s e c u r i t y of s t a t e P o l i t . & Ec. & J u d i c i a l ( I ) power t o " e l d e s t " a t l o c a l l e v e l T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i c e ; community c o u n c i l has l e g i s l a t i v e , j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s State a d m i n i s t r a t i o n State a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : v i l l a g e s e t t l e d l o c a l d i s p u t e s , s t a t e imp. disputes & l e g i s l a t i o n V i l l a g e head has c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , ad-j u d i c a t e s relations-between communities L o c a l l e v e l . Blood feuds s e t t l e d i s p u t e s Blood feuds, compensation, p u b l i c o p i n i o n s e t t l e d i s p u t e s Headmen of dominant l i n e a g e V i l l a g e headman ( I ) •62. Bemba S h i l a Bemba Unga Hausa Hausa Hottentot Nama Katab Katab Mende Mende . Mongo Ekondo Mongo Nkundu Nupe Nupe Rundi Ha Rundi Rundi Somali Hawiya Somali Ishaak Somali Sab T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i T i v T i v l o r u b a E k i t i Bushmen Kung Hausa Azna Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Thonga Thonga V i l l a g e headmen & l i n e a g e heads ad-j u d i c a t e disputes Band e l d e r s have some a u t h o r i t y Lineage " l i m i t e d war" t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e C h i e f s at a l l l e v e l s e x e r c i s e j u d i c i a l powers Blood feud s e t t l e s d i sputes C h i e f and r u l i n g group had j u d i c i a l power ( I ) Unorg. j u d i c i a l l y Unorg. j u d i c i a l l y . Blood feud s e t t l e s d i s p u t e s V i l l a g e c h i e f s s e t t l e p e t t y d i s p u t e s ; canton c h i e f s a s s u i t , t h e f t , e t c . ; King general 63-. Twi F a n t i Yao Yao Aranda J u d i c i a l org. o n ly f o r s e r i o u s crimes ( c o u n c i l of e l d e r s ) , execute blood vengeance Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o J u d i c i a l unorg. 64' FREQUENCY In only one of the frequency charts does a le g i t i m a t e pattern emerge, that i s , i n the D i v i s i o n of Labor. D e f i n i t i o n ; Here I am r e f e r r i n g to the estimated proportion of productive ( i . e . part of economy) labor performed by male and females. Purpose; What I had i n mind here was that there would obviously have to be some kind of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the frequency of warfare and the amount of work required of the male i n matters of food production, etc. Pattern; Information a v a i l a b l e i n 43 s o c i e t i e s . In 10, men do the most work; i n 16 women do the most work; i n 17 men and women share. In Scale I: 8 out of 10 i n which women do the most work 2 out of 10 i n which men and women share 0 out of 10 i n which men do the most work In Scale I I : 3 out of 6 i n which women do the most work 2 out o f 6 i n which men do the most work 1 out of 6 i n which men and women share In Scale I I I : 5 out of 17 i n which men do the most work 1 out of 17 i n which women do the most work 11 out of 17 i n which men and women share In Scale IV: 2 out of 9 i n which men do the most work 4 out of 9 i n which female do the most work 3 out of 9 i n which men and women share 65. CASUALTIES P o p u l a t i o n Density I I Pang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawyia Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi Ashanti Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande 600,000 (1949) 3,000 30,000 (1580) 20,000 500,000 2,000,000 (1943) 2,150,000 (1952) 700,000 (1948) 360,000 (1955) 450,000 500,000 (20th C.) 17,000 (1950) 1,000,000 (1951) 430,000 (1931) 150,000 (1951) 65,000 (1948) 100,000 (1950) 850,000 (1948) ' 750,000 (1949) .14 100. 21. 49. 17. 492. 66 3 , 5 0 0 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 1 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 4 6 3 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 4 8 ) 3 5 0 , 0 0 0 ( 1 9 4 5 ) Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape 200,000 (1931) 10,000 180 , 0 0 0 160,000 627,000 420,000 (1950) 285,000 (1939) 100,000 (1932) 4,000,000 (1920) 1,000,000 (1954) 1,000,000 2,500 35,000 (1931) 150,000 67. Hottentot Nana 24,000 (1946) Tasmania 3,500 Aranda 2,000 68. >. P o p u l a t i o n Purpose: I s e l e c t e d t h i s category, p o p u l a t i o n and popu l a t i o n d e n s i t y per square m i l e , t h i n k i n g t h a t : 1. pop u l a t i o n an obvious i n d i c a t o r of the s i z e o f a p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i t s consequent complexity 2. p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y might r e f l e c t the demand f o r l a n d , i n t e r n a l economic s t r u g g l e s , e t c . P a t t e r n : S o c i e t i e s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n = 42 S o c i e t i e s i n a l l s c a l e s w i t h t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n under 50,000 = 11 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale I w i t h t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n under 50,000 = 2 out of 3 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale IV w i t h t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n under 50,000 = 5 out of 7 Of 4 s o c i e t i e s w i t h d e n s i t y under 1.0, Scale I contains 1 out of 1 w i t h i n f . Scale IV contains 3 out of 4 w i t h i n f . 6 9 . CASUALTIES Primary Economy I I I Fang Fang A + F Murngin H + G J i v a r o A +• H + F Bemba S h i l a A + F Katab Katab A + G Somali Hawiya P + A Rundi Rundi A + L Rundi Ruanda A + L Twi A s h a n t i A + F Nupe Nupe A- + F Somali Ogaden P Ganda Sogo A.+ L Hausa Mauri A + L Hausa Azna A + L Mende Mende F + G Nuer Nuer P + A + F Bemba Bemba A Twi Akyem A Somali Esa P Kikuyu Kikuyu A + L Azande Azande A + H 70. I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara IV Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape H + G A A + L A + L A + H + F A + H + F A + L A + F F + A L + A A + F A + H P A + L A + H A A A + G + L + F A + L H + F + G A + L A 4- F P + H Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda P + H + F + G H + G H + G 72. Primary Economy Key: A - Agriculture H = Hunting G = Gathering F = Fishing L = Animal Husbandry P = Pastoral Purpose: I did not have anything spe c i f i c i n mind here, but simply wanted to see what might emerge such as irrelevancy of annexation to nomads, etc. D i f f i c u l t y here i s i n evaluating "primary" aspects of economy: what would have been desirable i d e a l l y would be a breakdown of average man-hours spent i n each a c t i v i t y , place of each a c t i v i t y i n production, etc. Pattern: Societies with information = 47 Societies i n Scale I that not primarily a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s = 1 out of 3 Societies i n Scale IV that not primarily a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s = 5 out of 8 Only 1 society i n Scale I I and 5 societies i n Scale I I I have important hunting. 7 3 . CASUALTIES I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o I I Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Landowners V i l l a g e Headman Clan King C h i e f s &.Elders Headman f o r community C h i e f s I n d i v i d u a l ( I . ) Extended f a m i l i e s & clans Community D i s t r i c t C h i e f s Lineage Community Use R i g h t s I n d i v i d u a l s Communal ( I ) Communal ( I ) I n d i v i d u a l s (C) I n d i v i d u a l s (A by sub-chiefs) Lineage & I n d i v i d u a l (Owners A) I n d i v i d u a l A to c l a n s I n d i v i d u a l (C) I n d i v i d u a l (A annual by owners) I n d i v i d u a l (C) Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda Ti v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara Community C h i e f s Community Paramount C h i e f s King Community Lineage I n d i v i d u a l L o c a l Headmen Lineage Ch i e f Community Lineage Lineage head T r i b e Lineage Community State L o c a l C h i e f I n d i v i d u a l Communal ( I ) I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen) I n d i v i d u a l s (A by l o c a l headmen) I n d i v i d u a l (C) I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head & e l d e r ) I n d i v i d u a l (C) I n d i v i d u a l I n d i v i d u a l I n d i v i d u a l I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head) I n d i v i d u a l (A by l o c a l headman) I n d i v i d u a l s & Extended f a m i l i e s 75. Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda L o c a l Group, communal Lineage Clan, communal L o c a l group, communal L o c a l group, communal L o c a l group, communal L o c a l group, communal Communal I n d i v i d u a l (A by l i n e a g e head) I n d i v i d u a l Communal Communal Communal Communal 76o Ownership and Use Rights Kay: I «=• Inference (as throughout charts) £L. = allocated by C = by bringing under cultivation Purpose; I had expected to find i n this area one of the most significant categories: i,e«, the corporate group, or unit of cooperation. Unfortunately, there i s l i t t l e refinement of the important concepts i n this area of study. What I wanted to know was; What group owns the land? How does i t obtain the land? What are their rights over this land? How are profits distributed? How i s work organized? Pattern; Societies i n which use rights are communal: 6 Societies i n Scale I with communal use rights; 2 out of 3 (with Murngin and Jivaro by Inference) Societies i n Scale IV with communal use rights; 5 out of 7 77. CASUALTIES S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Classes Slavery I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa. Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba No Minimal Minimal Paramount C h i e f s ('Kings') Paramount C h i e f s Castes ( i n c l u d i n g despised, endogamous castes) R o y a l t y / A r i sto c r a c y / Commoners Ro y a l t y / P a t r o n / C l i e n t R o y a l t y / C h i e f s or Elders/Commoners Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Royalty/Graded n o b i l i t y / Freemen Yes Range from C h i e f l y f a m i l i e s t o p a r i a h groups No R o y a l t y / P a t r o n s / C l i e n t s Yes Gentry ( o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s ) Minimal C h i e f s / N o b l e s / Commoners Yes Yes Yes 78. I l l Twi. Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab Landowners/Sharecroppers/ Laborers Yes S u b s t a n t i a l d i v i s i o n s based on wealth: 3 endogamous p a r i a h castes Yes Landowner/Tenant/Serf Noble s/C ommoner s Minimal Royalty/C ommoner s Royalty / M o b i l i t y / Traders/Commoners D i s t i n c t i o n s based on wealth: p a r i a h castes N o b i l i t y / C ommoner s Modest wealth d i s -t i n c t i o n s Minimal Graded C h i e f l y O f f i c e s / Commoners P a s t o r a l i s t s & Ag-r i c u l t u r a l i s t s form 2 d i s t i n c t c l a s s e s No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes' Yes Yes Pygmies h e r e d i t a r y S e r f s Yes No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s Yes Despised endogamous castes Yes •Marked caste d i s -t i n c t i o n s ' Yes 79. IV S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o t a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda R o y a l t y / N o b i l i t y / Degraded R o y a l t y / C ommoner s/Reta ine r s N o b i l i t y / M i d d l e C l a s s / S e r f s A r i sto cracy/Ser f s Complex s t r a t i f i c a t i o n among freemen No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s (some d i s t i n c t i o n s based on wealth) No s i g n i f i c a n t d i s -t i n c t i o n s bet. freemen No true s o c i a l c l a s s e s No true s o c i a l c l a s s e s No t r u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s No tr u e s o c i a l c l a s s e s Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No 80, Soc i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Purpose: I was thinking here i n terms of the r e l a t i o n between s t r a -t i f i c a t i o n and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of socio-economic power, i n d i -v i dual mobility, etc. Unfortunately, however, these categories are also i n s u f f i c i e n t l y refined: we do not know how s t r i c t the divisions are, nor the a l l o c a t i o n of power w i t h i n each d i v i s i o n . Regarding slavery, we do not know how many slaves were maintained ( i n t o t a l , per person, per c l a s s , e t c . ) . Pattern: Societies i n Scale I with no true classes: 2 out of 2 Societies i n Scale IV with no true classes: 7 out of 8 CASUALTIES 81. Largest War-Making Group I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande L o c a l group A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups Tri b e T r i b a l a l l i a n c e State State State State State Chiefdom Tr i b e T r i b e T r i b e T r i b e T r i b e 82. I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i K u s a i Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara IV Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups State State State State A l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups ( T r i b e ) T r i b e ( I ) State State D i s t r i c t L o c a l group A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups T r i b e A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups 83 Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups L o c a l group A l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups 84. Largest War-Making Group Purpose: This was part of my o r i g i n a l h ypothesis: i t c e r t a i n l y was not borne out anywhere. This chart p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v e a l s the impreciseness of a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l terms: when i s a t r i b e not a s t a t e ? i s a t r i b a l a l l i a n c e d i f f e r e n t than an a l l i a n c e of d i s t r i c t s ? i s a d i s t r i c t d i f f e r e n t than aggregates of l o c a l groups? The procedure I have g e n e r a l l y adopted here, as throughout these c h a r t s , i s t o use the wording of the source, unless i t i s obvious what they are r e f e r r i n g t o . P a t t e r n s : S o c i e t i e s i n Scale I i n which group i s l o c a l or l o c a l a l l i a n c e = 3 out of 3 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale IV i n which group i s l o c a l or l o c a l a l l i a n c e = 6 out of 7. CASUALTIES 85. Normal. War-Making Group I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande V i l l a g e ( l o c a l group) Clan ( l o c a l group) Extended f a m i l y ( l o c a l group) Tr i b e T r i b e State State State State State T r i b e State Band Tr i b e S t a t e - t r i b e T r i b e T r i b e S t a t e - t r i b e 86. I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i K u s a i Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara IV Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Band State State I n t r a - t r i b a l • T r i b e D i s t r i c t S tate T r i b a l + D i s t r i c t ( s u b - t r i b e ) T r i b e T r i b e State D i s t r i c t Band L o c a l community T r i b a l + i n t e r - t r i b a l Band Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda Clan + t r i b e Band Band 8&. Normal War-Making Group Purpose: S i m i l a r i d e a and d e f e c t s as i n previous c h a r t . By normal war-making group I mean t h a t group which appears t o be the war-making group unless the s o c i e t y i s threatened by a l l i a n c e s of l a r g e r or superior f o r c e s on opposing s i d e s . P a t t e r n : S o c i e t i e s i n Scale I i n which group l o c a l or l o c a l a l l i a n c e : 3 out of 3 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale IV i n which group l o c a l or l o c a l a l l i a n c e : 6 out of 7. 89. CASUALTIES Marriage and B r i d e - P r i c e Marriage B r i d e - P r i c e I I I Fang Fang P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Murngin P. -J i v a r o P. c ommon B r i d e - s e r v i c e Bemba S h i l a P. p r e v a i l s Small B.P. Katab Katab P. general Token B.P. Somali Hawiya P. general B.P. S u b s t a n t i a l Rundi Rundi P. B.P. Rundi•Ruanda P. permitted B.P. Twi Ashanti- P. permitted Moderate B.P. Nupe Nupe P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali Ogaden P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Ganda Sogo P. S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Hausa Mauri P. general B.P. Hausa Azna P. general Small B.P. Mende Mende P. general Small B.P. Nuer Nuer P. p r e f e r e n t i a l S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Bemba Bemba P. general Token B.P. Twi Akyem P. permitted B.P. Somali Esa P. general Su b s t a n t i a l - B.P. Kikuyu Kikuyu P. p r e f e r r e d S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Azande Azande P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. 90. I l l IV Bushmen Kung P. No B.P. Thonga Thonga P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Mossi Mossi P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali G i r r i P.. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Twi F a n t i P. common Moderate B.P. Yao Yao P. permitted No b r i d e p r i c e T a l l e n s i Kusai P. general B r i d e s e r v i c e Yoruba E k i t i P. general Moderate B.P. Bemba Unga ± . general Token B.P. Rundi Ha P. p r e v a i l s B.P. Mongo Ekonda P. p r e v a i l s S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Tiv T i v P. general Token B.P. Somali Ishaak P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Somali Sab P. general S u b s t a n t i a l BiP. S h i l l u k S h i l l u k P. general S u b s t a n t i a l B.P. Hausa Hausa P. general B.P. Hausa Zazzagawa P. B.P. + Dowry Bambara Bambara P. general B.P. customary Hausa Kanawa P. p r e v a i l s B.P. S i r i o n o P. T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i P. general Minor B.P. Mongo Nkundu P. general B.P. sometimes Hottentot Cape P. i n f r e q u e n t No B.P. 91. Hottentot Nama P. infrequent Token B.P. Tasmania P. permitted Aranda 9*2.'. Marriage and B r i d e - P r i c e Key: B.P. = b r i d e - p r i c e P. = polygyny Purpose: I had thought t h i s might demonstrate r e l a t i o n between polygyny and warfare ( d i s t o r t e d male-female sex r a t i o ) , but i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t a t i v e data. Regarding b r i d e - p r i c e , I thought that perhaps great b r i d e - p r i c e s c o u l d be i n f l u e n c e s n e c e s s i t a t i n g p i l l a g e , r a i d i n g , etc. by youths without per s o n a l fortunes. P a t t e r n : S o c i e t i e s i n Scale I w i t h heavy B.P. = 1 out o f 2 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale IV w i t h l i t t l e B.P. = 4 out o f 5. 93. CASUALTIES Residence and R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t R e s i d e n t i a l U n i t Residence I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden •Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande Extended Family P a t r i l i n e a l c l a n P a t r i l i n e a g e P. P. (?) Extended.Family Family Family Extended Family Extended Family ( i e s ) Extended Family Family Extended Family Extended Family Extended Family Family Family Extended Family M. 2 y r s . , then Av. P. P. P. ( a l s o N.) M. then P. P.-, Av., + N. P. ' P. P a t r i l o c a l P. P. M.-P., a l s o N. M. i n i t i a l l y P. 4- Av. P. P. or M. 94. I l l rv Bushmen Kung Family M. 1 y r . , then Thonga Thonga Family P. Mossi Mossi Family P. Somali G i r r i Family P. Twi F a n t i Extended Family P. > Av., N. Yao Yao Extended Family M. T a l l e n s i Kusai F r a t e r n a l j o i n t Family P. Yoruba E k i t i L o c a l i z e d l i n e a g e P. Bemba Unga Family M. i n i t i a l l y Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda Minor l i n e a g e P. (al s o Av.) Tiv T i v Extended Family P. ( a l s o Av.) Somali Ishaak Extended Family P. Somali Sab P. S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Family P. Hausa Hausa Small. .Extended -Family P. (al s o N.) Hausa Zazzagawa . Extended Family P. Bambara Bambara Extended Family P. Hausa Kanawa Small Extended Family P. S i r i o n o Family T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i F r a t e r n a l j o i n t Family P. Mongo Nkundu Extended Family P. Hottentot Cape Family P. 95. Hottentot Nama Family M., then P. Tasmania Aranda . 96. Residence and Residential Unit Key.: M = matrilocal N — neolocal P = patrilocal A.v,~ avunculocal Pattern: Nothing seemed to emerge here. What I had in mind was that since rules of residence form an important area of anthropological theory, they might be of significance in regard to warfare. If they had yielded a pattern, I would then have attempted an interpretation. 97. CASUALTIES L o c a l Community or Settlement S i z e S i z e I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi' Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu V i l l a g e (2-50 huts) Clan (av. pop. = 50) Household (80-300 av. pop.) V i l l a g e s Village's (median pop. = 300) Band Neighborhood of d i s p e r s e d homesteads Dispersed homesteads (homestead = 3 or more d w e l l i n g s ) V i l l a g e Tavm (up to 1,000 pop.) Band Neighborhoods of d i s p e r s e d homesteads V i l l a g e ( I . ) V i l l a g e ( I . ) Town (300-2,000 av. pop.) Band V i l l a g e (30-50 huts) Town Band Dispersed f a m i l y homesteads (med. pop. = 400) Azande Azande Neighborhood of f a m i l y homesteads I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k . S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara IV" Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Band (av. pop. = 25) Hamlet Neighborhood V i l l a g e V i l l a g e Hamlet c l u s t e r Neighborhood of d i s p e r s e d homestead Town V i l l a g e (5-100 huts) Sc a t t e r e d hamlets ( f a m i l y groups) Hamlet c l u s t e r Neighborhood of f a m i l y compounds (pop. = 167-1057) Band & V i l l a g e • Band & V i l l a g e Hamlet c l u s t e r (1-50 homesteads) Hamlet t o C i t y Town V i l l a g e Hamlet t o l a r g e town Band (approx. pop. = 50) Neighborhood o f d i s p e r s e d f a m i l y homesteads 1-6 hamlets Band 99. Hottentot Mama Band Tasmania Band Aranda Band 100. L o c a l Settlement S i z e Key: Most t y p i c a l settlement chosen. Purpose: S i z e of l o c a l group seems t o be of s i g n i f i c a n c e as a f o r c e i n s t r u c t u r e . P a t t e r n : Of populations w i t h s o c i e t i e s estimated under 100 f o r l o c a l group, Scale I = 2 out of 3 Scale IV = 7 out of 8. 101. CASUALTIES Org a n i z a t i o n of L o c a l Settlement or Community Org a n i z a t i o n I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi As h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande One or more Extended f a m i l i e s Clan Lineage Clan community Clan community (wards c l a n b a r r i o s ) Lineage Clan Lineage-ward I n d e f i n i t e c l a n : f u n c t i o n a l Age-Grades C l a n - b a r r i o (10-15 per town) Clan communities Clan communities Clan communities Clan communities Several s i b s 102. I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda Ti v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara IV Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Patri-deme Large Extended Family Clan community Clan Extended Family Clan community Wards c l a n b a r r i o s or mere t e r r i t o r i a l u n i t s Clan community Clan community: 1 or more sub-sibs Clan community Minimal l i n e a g e segment Lineage or t e r r i t o r i a l type C l a n b a r r i o Clan community: wards probably l i n e a g e s C l a n type band 2 or more s i b s Extended F a m i l i e s forming c l a n - b a r r i o Clan ( I . ) 103. Hottentot Nama Clan Tasmania Aranda 1 0 4 ' L o c a l Settlement O r g a n i z a t i o n This c h a r t seems i n s u f f i c i e n t l y r e f i n e d to be meaningful. CASUALTIES 105. Government of L o c a l Community Government I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi Ashanti Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda So go Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande Headman (H.) Headman Headman ( I . ) Ward & V i l l a g e Headmen (S.) Headman (H.) Community Headman & C o u n c i l (H.) Headman Headman e l e c t e d by C o u n c i l of E l d e r s Headman & executive C o u n c i l Lineage C h i e f s Headman Headman Headman & C o u n c i l of c l a n heads No formal government V i l l a g e headman Headman & C o u n c i l of E l d e r s Headman and C o u n c i l of a l l a d u l t males Community C o u n c i l of E l d e r s Headman (1 or more) 106. Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda Tiv T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape No formal government Headman (H.) Headman appointed by. D i s t r i c t C h i e f C h i e f & C o u n c i l o f Family heads V i l l a g e Headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s Headman (H.) Weak headman Headman (from founding l i n e a g e ) & C o u n c i l Headman (H.) Co u n c i l o f l i n e a g e heads No formal government Headman & C o u n c i l of f a m i l y heads Headman & C o u n c i l of f a m i l y heads Community C h i e f & C o u n c i l of hamlet heads Headman & C o u n c i l of Lineage heads Appointed Headman & appointed ward heads Headman (H.) Headman ( I . ) No formal government Weak Chi e f Clan headman & C o u n c i l o f E l d e r s Headman (H.) & C o u n c i l of E l d e r s 107. Hottentot Nama Headman and C o u n c i l of a d u l t males Tasmania No formal government Aranda No formal government 108-L o c a l Community Government Key: S = S e n i o r i t y H = H e r e d i t a r y Purpose: T h i s important aspect o f t o t a l government s t r u c t u r e . P a t t e r n : S o c i e t i e s i n Scale I w i t h no formal government: 0 out of 2 S o c i e t i e s i n Scale IV w i t h no formal government: 3 out of 8 However, i n Scale IV, only Hausaw Kanawa has headman whose a u t h o r i t y i s not m i t i g a t e d by a C o u n c i l o f a d u l t s or e l d e r s . So, 7 out of 8. 109. CASUALTIES Highest P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l (?) No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f K i n g d o m / p r o v i n c e s / d i s t r i c t s Kingdom/70-90 p r o v i n c e s / l i n e a g e aggregates Kingdom/s emi-auto nomous C hie fdoms Kingdom/semi-autonomous o u t l y i n g d i s t r i c t s T r i b e w i t h paramount C h i e f / s u b - t r i b e 15 p e t t y Kingdoms/Districts D i s t r i c t s w i t h C h i e f s Paramount C h i e f ( D i s t r i c t ?) 70 independent Chiefdoms Tertiary/Secondary/Primary t r i b a l s e c t i o n s / T r i b e King dom/Pr ovine e s/V i l l a g e s Paramount C h i e f / D i s t r i c t s w i t h C h i e f s T r i b e w i t h Chief and C o u n c i l of s e c t i o n heads 110. Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande I I I Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bamraba Bambara No r e g u l a r p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l Kingdom/Provinees w i t h Governors/ D i s t r i c t s w i t h C h i e f s No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l T r i b e w i t h C h i e f / D i s t r i c t ( v i l l a g e aggregate) 3 independent S t a t e s / 9 provinces ( 5 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e j 4 w i t h considerable autonomy) T r i b e w i t h Paramount C h i e f 1 9 independent States w i t h Paramount C h i e f s D i s t r i c t w i t h C h i e f & C o u n c i l of s e n i o r headmen No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l State w i t h Paramount C h i e f - / l 6 ad-m i n i s t r a t i v e d i s t r i c t s , each w i t h C h i e f D i s t r i c t w i t h C h i e f P e t t y s t a t e with 'Sultan' No apparent p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l 5 2 autonomous D i s t r i c t s Sub-tribe w i t h C h i e f and C o u n c i l of l i n e a g e heads Independent Tribe w i t h C h i e f Kingdom / 2 provinces w i t h C h i e f s E l e c t i v e K i n g / s t a t e s T i t l e d ranks b a s i s of org. Kingdom/provinces w i t h appointed C h i e f s / D i s t r i c t s 111. Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Naraa Tasmania Aranda Kingdom No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l Sub-tribe No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l No p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above l o c a l l e v e l Highest P o l i t i c a l O r g a n i z a t i o n Key: By highest p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , I r e f e r t o that o r g a n i z a t i o n on the g r e a t e s t scale which f u n c t i o n s r e g u l a r l y and normally i n j u d i c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s . By t h i s I exclude temporary a l l i a n c e s , even when i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d (such as f o r wa r f a r e ) . Purpose: I had hoped t o determine general p i c t u r e of power and a u t h o r i t y i n these s o c i e t i e s through t h i s . But many questions are un-answered. What, for example, does semi-autonomous mean? P a t t e r n : Of s o c i e t i e s w i t h no p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above the l o c a l l e v e l , I n Scale I : 3 out of 3 I n Scale IV: 6 out of 8. 1 1 3 . CASUALTIES I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o I I Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande Exogamy L o c a l exogamy us u a l L o c a l exogamy L o c a l exogamy i s r u l e Tendency t o s i b endogamy ( I . ) Tendency to L o c a l Exogamy Lo c a l endogamy p r e f e r r e d (75$) L o c a l agamy i n general L o c a l agamy L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s Exogamous p a t r i s i b s L o c a l agamy or l o c a l exogamy L o c a l agamy ( I . ) L o c a l exogamy absolute L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s Tendency t o l o c a l exogamy 1 1 4 . I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara IV Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s Community exogamy L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s L o c a l exogamy general L o c a l endogamy occurs L o c a l agamy the r u l e L o c a l exogamy p r e v a i l s L o c a l exogamy ( I . ) Loc a l agamy p r e v a i l s D i s t r i c t exogamy L o c a l exogamy norm L o c a l exogamy f o r nomads L o c a l agamy f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s Hamlet exogamy: tendency t o l o c a l endogamy L o c a l agamy p r e v a i l s L o c a l endogamy tendency L o c a l exogamy norm Lo c a l exogamy r u l e L o c a l exogamy 1 1 5 . Hottentot Nama _ L o c a l exogamy norm Tasmania Aranda i i 6 . Exogamy Purpose: I was t h i n k i n g here i n terms of i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s , expansion of k i n t i e s and r e l a t i o n s , e t c . P a t t e r n : Wo r e a l p a t t e r n seems t o emerge here. In Scale I : 2 out of 2 have l o c a l exogamy In Scale IV: 4 out o f 4 have l o c a l exogamy. 1 1 7 . CASUALTIES K i n Groups I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab .Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi As h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba P a t r i s i b s & l o c a l i z e d P a t r i l i n e a g e s L o c a l p a t r i c i a n , m o i e t i e s , p h r a t r i e s L o c a l P a t r i l i n e a g e ( 8 0 - 3 0 0 pop.) M a t r i s i b s / s u b - s i b s / l i n e a g e s ( 4 - 7 G.) P a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d i n wards of v i l l a g e H i e r a r c h i c a l & f i s s i v e p a t r i l i n e a l s o c i a l org. P a t r i s i b s / L i n e a g e s 3 0 n o n - l o c a l i z e d , non-corporate p a t r i -sibs/exog. corporate p a t r i l i n e a g e s 8 exog. h i e r c h i c a l m a t r i s i b s / m a t r i -l i n e a g e s o f t e n l o c a l i z e d i n corporate wards/minor l i n e a g e Male core o f p a t r i l o c a l Extended Family, w i t h t h e i r s i s t e r s , form a p a t r i l i n e a g e H i e r a r c h i c a l & f i s s i v e p a t r i l i n e a l org. 3 0 exog. p a t r i s i b s / c o r p o r a t e l a n d -h o l d i n g p a t r i l i n e a g e s ( 5 - 7 G.) P a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d L o c a l c l a n & l i n e a g e Maximal, major, minor, minimal (at l e a s t 3 G.) l i n e a g e s 4 0 n o n - l o c a l , graded m a t r i s i b s / n o n -•corporate l o c a l i z e d m a t r i l i n e a g e s 118. Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande I I I Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak o Somali Sab M a t r i s i b s and m a t r i l i n e a g e s Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e system 9 agamous p a t r i s i b s / e x o g . s u b - s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s & sublineages which l a n d -h o l d i n g u n i t s Numerous non-corporate, n o n - l o c a l i z e d , totemic p a t r i s i b s (exogamous) Exogamous patri-demes Agamous p a t r i s i b s / p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d as clans Corporate, exog. p a t r i l i n e a l k i n groups H i e r c h i c a l , f i s s i v e , p a t r i l i n e a l k i n groups 8 totemic m a t r i s i b s / l o c a l exog. m a t r i l i n e a g e s / s u b l i n e a g e s (4-5 G.) Dispersed sibs/ranked & exog. major matrilineage/minor m a t r i l i n e a g e l o c a l i z e d as Extended f a m i l y Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a g e s Exog. b i l a t e r a l kindreds form corporate groups/exog. l o c a l i z e d p a t r i l i n e a g e s Exog., totemic m a t r i s i b s Exog., n o n - l o c a l i z e d , totemic p a t r i s i b s Minimal l i n e a g e s aggregated to s i b s , p h r a t r i e s Agamous ph r a t r y ( D i s t r i c t ) / S i b (8,000 pop.)/minimal p a t r i l i n e a g e (200-1500) l o c a l community Minimal l i n e a g e l o c a l group. Segmentary f i s s i v e l i n e a g e system Segmentary p a t r i l i n e a l l i n e a g e system 119. S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania 100 non corp. non l o c . p a t r i s i b s / corporate major (community) and minor (hamlet) l i n e a g e s Exog. totemic p a t r i s i b s / l i n e a g e s ( I ) Totemic p a t r i s i b s / l i n e a g e s P a t r i l i n e a l s i b s Exog. p a t r i s i b s (8-10 G.)/sub-sibs/ landholding l i n e a g e s Exog. p a t r i l i n e a g e s l o c a l i z e d i n hamlet/ l a n d h o l d i n g p a t r i s i b s l o c a l i z e d as c l a n communities Exog. p a t r i s i b ( I ) Exog. p a t r i l i n e a l s i b s / l i n e a g e s (both w i t h f i s s i v e tendency) Aranda 120-Kin Groups No p a r t i c u l a r pattern emerges here. However, I would a t t r i b u t e t h i s to the lac k of sophisticated of a n a l y t i c a l concepts: these terms are a l l purely d e s c r i p t i v e terms. The questions that should be answered here are: what are the r e l a t i o n of these groups to j u d i c i a l authority, p o l i t i c a l power, economic power; what mechanisms compete with them, e t c . 121. CASUALTIES Trade I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi.Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe.Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende,Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Considerable importance. Markets None ( e x t e r n a l ) None ( e x t e r n a l ) P e t t y trade I n t e r n a l & E x t e r n a l t r a d e . Markets Few markets Important. Regular markets Important. Regular markets Markets Some No ex t e r n a l Important Considerable i n t e r n a l & f a i r amount of ext e r n a l Azande Azande 122. I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda Tiv T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu "Addicted t o b a r t e r & t r a d e " I n t e r n a l & E x t e r n a l . Important. Regular markets Regular markets Regular markets Ex t e n s i v e markets Markets Markets Exceedingly important. Regular markets Important. I n t e r n a l & E x t e r n a l . Regular (weekly) markets One of the important A f r i c a n merchant groups No e x t e r n a l Some pet t y trade Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda 1 2 3 . No external ( i ) No external (I) No external 124'. Trade What I was l o o k i n g f o r here i n c l u d e d the presence of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d i n t e r c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s , i n t e r g r o u p r e l a t i o n s : f u r t h e r , commitment of s o c i e t y t o trade as economic base ( i . e . war would d i s r u p t same). I am of course mainly concerned here w i t h e x t e r n a l t r a d e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the v a r i a t i o n s given here are too vague, we cannot r e a l l y d i s t i n g u i s h the importance of trade i n many of these s o c i e t i e s . P a t t e r n : Of 9 s o c i e t i e s i n which e x t e r n a l trade does not seem t o e x i s t on any i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d l e v e l , Scale I has 2 out of 3 Scale IV has 4 out of 5. 125. CASUALTIES D i v i s i o n of Labor Male Most Female Most M. & F. Share I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali. Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X I l l Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i K u s a i Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara CV Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda 128. D i v i s i o n of Labor Key: Defined i n frequency c h a r t . Purpose: What I was t h i n k i n g of here was the r e l a t i o n between f r e e time of the male and the amount of warfare. P a t t e r n : The r e a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p a t t e r n i n t h i s category emerged i n the frequency chart as one would expect. Here, i n Scale I : 2 out of 2 are i n female most i n Scale IV: 3 out of 8 male and female share 3 out of 8 female most 2 out of 8 male most. 129. CASUALTIES Descent and In h e r i t a n c e Descent I n h e r i t a n c e I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem P. P. P. M. P. P. P. P. M. P. P. P. P. P. (sons) P. M. M. P. (sons) P. P. ( u s u a l l y E l So) P. (sons) M. P. (2nd E l S o , then ElSo) P. P. (ElSo most, then a l l sons) P. (sons & daughters share) P. P. ( S i b l i n g s , then sons) P. (sons) M. M. ( S i b l i n g s ) 130. I l l Somali Esa P. P. (sons & daughters) Kikuyu Kikuyu P. P. (sons) Azande Azande P. P. (ElSo) Bushmen Kung P. P. Thonga. Thonga P. P. Mossi Mossi P. P. (ElSo) Somali G i r r i P. P. Twi F a n t i M. M. ( s i b l i n g s ) Yao Yao M. M. T a l l e n s i Kusai P. P. ( E l B r ) Yoruba E k i t i B i . & P. ( l o c a l ) P. (sons) Bemba Unga M. M. Rundi Ha P. P. Mongo Ekonda P. P. (E l B r ) T i v T i v P. P. (sons) Somali Ishaak P. (sons) Somali Sab P. P. S h i l l u k S h i l l u k P. P. (ElSo) Hausa Hausa P. P. (ElSo) Hausa Zazzagawa P. ( c h i l d r e n ) Bambara Bambara P. P. (brothers, age) Hausa Kanawa P. P. S i r i o n o M. • 1 3 1 . T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i P. Mongo Nkundu P. Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama P. P. Tasmania P . P. (by c l a s s i -f i c a t o r y b r others by s e n i o r i t y ) P. P. (ElSo gets l i v e s t o c k ; other prop, to c h i l d r e n ) Aranda P. 1 3 3 Descent and Inhe r i t a n c e Key: P. = p a t r i l i n e a l M. = m a t r i l i n e a l B i = b i l i n e a l ElSo = e l d e s t son Purpose: I thought t h a t i n h e r i t a n c e at l e a s t might provide another m i t i g a t i n g f a c t o r : f o r example, la n d fragmentation through equal sharing o f i n h e r i t a n c e s . Or, primogeniture might l e a v e a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of dispossessed youths. P a t t e r n : No p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n seemed to emerge. CASUALTIES 133. •Reasons' f o r Warfare I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda .Twi Ashanti . Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Revenge f o r murder (bet. v i l l a g e s ) ; f a i l u r e t o r e t u r n a b r i d e - p r i c e R e c i p r o c i t y : revenge on any i s s u e Revenge f o r murder, sorcery; head-hunting; r i v a l r y ; general v i o l a t i o n of mores Disputes over property; head-hunting Plundering r a i d s ; annexation and/or sub-j u g a t i o n ; some t r i b e s r e q u i r e KA Succession to Kingship c i v i l wars; r i v a l r y w i t h other s t a t e s R i v a l r y w i t h other s t a t e s ( I ) Conquest; disp u t e d succession; booty; to o b t a i n p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s ; i n t e r n , r e b e l l i o n Raids I n t e r - s i b d i s p u t e s ; defensive vs. slave r a i d s ; a l s o mercenary armies R e c i p r o c a l f i g h t i n g ; & p i l l a g i n g f o r booty Conquest; p r i m a r i l y f o r s l a v e - r a i d i n g P r i m a r i l y c a t t l e and s l a v e r a i d i n g ; a l s o s t r u c t u r a l t e n s i o n Bemba Bemba Raide r s , not conquerors 134. I l l Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i l a o Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k R a i d i n g ; blood feuds; KA u s u a l l y P r e s t i g e & c a t t l e - s t e a l i n g r a t h e r than conquest (no annexation of t e r r i t o r y ) Conquest; s l a v e s & booty P r i m a r i l y d i s p u t e s bet. bands over t r e s p a s s , homicide, t h e f t , women, e t c . P r i m a r i l y as source of revenue Raids on neighboring t r i b e s & caravans; defensive a l s o P r e s t i g e & p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s ; occas. vs. r i v a l s t a t e s P r i m a r i l y s l a v e - r a i d i n g Wars; feuds over women, sla v e s Defensive v s . Bemba aggression; d i s p u t e s bet. c h i e f s over property, e t c . Slaves; women; head-hunting War; r a i d i n g f o r booty; b l o o d feuds Subjugation; r a i d i n g Booty; c i v i l wars over succession; r e b e l l i o u s provinces Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara 135. P r i m a r i l y plundering & slave r a i d s ; a l s o occas. conquest Hausa Kanawa S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda P r i m a r i l y d e f e n s i v e , but l i t t l e of t h a t Defensive R e c i p r o c i t y R e c i p r o c i t y R e c i p r o c i t y R e c i p r o c i t y R e c i p r o c i t y R e c i p r o c i t y 13& • 'Reasons' f o r Warfare P a t t e r n : Of a t o t a l o f 14 s o c i e t i e s i n which warfare seems confined •to the concept of r e c i p r o c i t y , 11 are i n Scales I and IV. Scale I : 3 out of 3 Scale IV: 8 out of 8. CASUALTIES 137. O r g a n i z a t i o n of Army I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi. Ashanti Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande No r e g u l a r army. R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime No r e g u l a r army. Clan & moiety No r e g u l a r army. Lineage Lineage Regular army Regular army. I n wartime, s e r v i c e based on k i n s h i p . Regular army. C o n s c r i p t i o n i n wartime Organized by C h i e f s f o r King Regular army. Gov't based on m i l i t a r y s t r u c t u r e No r e g u l a r army. A d u l t s serve i n wartime No r e g u l a r army. C h i e f organizes war No r e g u l a r army Regular army. I n wartime, c h i e f could u n i t e up to 20,000 w a r r i o r s 138. Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Hausa Hausa Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara Hausa Kanawa No r e g u l a r array. Band i n wartime No r e g u l a r army, but canton C h i e f s had org. o f ' r e s e r v i s t s ' on c a l l S o c i e t y organized along m i l i t a r y l i n e s . Regular army ( i ) No r e g u l a r army. ' C o n s c r i p t i o n ' i n war-time No r e g u l a r army. War org. on k i n s h i p s t r u c t u r e , group as l a r g e as t r i b e King organizes through k i n and d i s t r i c t groups Regular army. R e c r u i t i n g i n wartime Regular army, augmented by v o l u n t e e r s i n war. E s s e n t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n c l a n was armed f o r c e S i r i o n o No r e g u l a r army. L i t t l e o r g a n i z a t i o n 139. T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda No r e g u l a r army. On c l a n - l o c a l b a s i s (200-300 w a r r i o r s ) No r e g u l a r army. Band o r g . No r e g u l a r army. Band o r g . No r e g u l a r army. Band org. No r e g u l a r army. E l e c t e d c h i e f f or war, c o n t r o l s up to a l l i a n c e of bands 140" • O r g a n i z a t i o n of Army Purpose: P o i n t here was t o e s t a b l i s h : i f there i s a standing army w i t h consequent struggle t o f u n c t i o n ; i f i n wartime the army i s organized on the b a s i s of d i s t r i c t or k i n a f f i l i a t i o n s or both, or simply the p r o f e s s i o n a l r e g u l a r army i s used. I t proved impossible t o separate these. What i s necessary here are s t u d i e s of s t r u c t u r a l a d a p t a t i o n i n wartime. P a t t e r n : Of 2 7 s o c i e t i e s on which i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e , 16 had no r e g u l a r army, 8 had r e g u l a r armies. Scale I : 3 out of 3 had no r e g u l a r army Scale IV: 6 out of 6 Scale I I : 5 had r e g u l a r army, 3 had no r e g u l a r army Scale I I I : 4 had no r e g u l a r army, 3 had r e g u l a r army. CASUALTIES 141. J u d i c i a l Machinery I I Fang Fang Murngin J i v a r o Bemba S h i l a Katab Katab Somali Hawiya Rundi Rundi Rundi Ruanda Twi A s h a n t i Nupe Nupe Somali Ogaden Ganda Sogo Hausa Mauri Hausa Azna Mende Mende Nuer Nuer Bemba Bemba Twi Akyem . P o l i t . & Ec. & J u d i c i a l ( I ) power t o " e l d e s t " at l o c a l l e v e l L o c a l l e v e l . Blood feuds s e t t l e d i sputes L o c a l l e v e l . Blood feuds s e t t l e d i s p u t e s Lineage " l i m i t e d war" t o s e t t l e d i s p u t e s State a d m i n i s t r a t i o n State a d m i n i s t r a t i o n : v i l l a g e s e t t l e d l o c a l d i s p u t e s , s t a t e imp. disputes & l e g i s l a t i o n C h i e f and r u l i n g group had j u d i c i a l power ( I ) C h i e f s at a l l l e v e l s e x e r c i s e j u d i c i a l powers Blood feuds, compensation, p u b l i c o p i n i o n s e t t l e d d isputes V i l l a g e headman ( I ) 1 4 2 . Somali Esa Kikuyu Kikuyu Azande Azande Bushmen Kung Thonga Thonga Mossi Mossi Somali G i r r i Twi F a n t i Yao Yao T a l l e n s i Kusai Yoruba E k i t i Bemba Unga Rundi Ha Mongo Ekonda T i v T i v Somali Ishaak Somali Sab S h i l l u k S h i l l u k Headmen of dominant l i n e a g e Hausa Hausa V i l l a g e headmen & l i n e a g e heads ad-j u d i c a t e d i s p u t e s Hausa Zazzagawa Bambara Bambara V i l l a g e head has c i v i l a u t h o r i t y , ad-j u d i c a t e s r e l a t i o n s between communities T e r r i t o r i a l p o l i c e ; community c o u n c i l has l e g i s l a t i v e , j u d i c i a l f u n c t i o n s C h i e f s s e t t l e d i s p u t e s , handle matters r e l a t e d to s e c u r i t y of s t a t e J u d i c i a l unorg. Blood feud s e t t l e s disputes V i l l a g e c h i e f s s e t t l e p e t t y d i s p u t e s ; canton C h i e f s a s s a u l t , t h e f t , e t c . ; King general 143. Hausa Kanawa • S i r i o n o T a l l e n s i T a l l e n s i Mongo Nkundu Hottentot Cape Hottentot Nama Tasmania Aranda J u d i c i a l unorg. J u d i c i a l unorg. Blood feud s e t t l e s d isputes Band e l d e r s have some authority-J u d i c i a l o r g . only f o r s e r i o u s crimes ( c o u n c i l of e l d e r s ) , executes blood vengeance 144. • Judicial Machinery- Patterns The following ranges could be distinguished here: societies in which there is no regular organization for dealing with disputes and c i v i l matters, and in which the only organization for dealing with these is the blood feudj societies which have some organiza-tions for specific occasions; and societies which have regular functioning administrations and judiciaries for the settlement of disputes, etc. On this basis, 9 have no regular organizations except the blood feud. Societies with no regular organizations: Scale I: 2 out of 3 Scale IV: 4 out of 5 145. SYNTHESIS . What then emerges from t he c h a r t s ? To convey w i t h g r e a t e r c l a r i t y the nature of the general patterns i s o l a t e d i n the c h a r t s , the f o l l o w i n g sketch i s presented. Regarding the frequency c h a r t s , only one p a t t e r n d e f i n i t e l y emerges, and t h a t i n regard t o the d i v i s i o n of l a b o r : t h a t i s , the more frequent the wa r f a r e , the greater percentage of economic a c t i v i t y i s s h i f t e d to the female. Regarding the c a s u a l t y c h a r t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to deal w i t h the p a t t e r n s Range by Range. Range I : S o c i e t i e s i n Range I , t h a t i s , those s o c i e t i e s which s u f f e r the heaviest average c a s u a l t i e s , are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: low t o t a l populations and low po p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s ; by communal ownership and use of l a n d ; by minimal s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; by conducting warfare at the l e v e l of l o c a l groups or a l l i a n c e s of l o c a l groups; by l a r g e r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s ; by small l o c a l communities (average po p u l a t i o n estimated a t 100-200); by a u t h o r i t a r i a n l e a d e r s f o r war only; by a l a c k o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above the l o c a l l e v e l ; by l i t t l e or no e x t e r n a l trade; by an a l l o c a t i o n of most of the economic work to the female, by warfare conducted p r i m a r i l y on a r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s ; by an absence of a standing army; by an army organized i n wartime on the b a s i s of l o c a l k i n s h i p groups; by an absence of j u d i c i a l machinery f o r the settlement of i n t e r n a l , and e s p e c i a l l y e x t e r n a l d i s p u t e s . 146. Range I I ; S o c i e t i e s i n Range I I , t h a t i s those s o c i e t i e s which s u f f e r the second heav i e s t average c a s u a l t i e s , are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: l a r g e populations,(up t o 2,150,000) and heavy d e n s i t i e s ; by a g r i c u l t u r e and animal husbandry r a t h e r than hunting; by i n d i v i d u a l land use r i g h t s ; by feudal-type s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ( p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) ; by conducting warfare normally a t the s t a t e l e v e l ; by a s u b s t a n t i a l b r i d e - p r i c e ; by r e l a t i v e l y small r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s ; by medium-size l o c a l settlements; by the o r g a n i z a t i o n of l o c a l settlements as c l a n communities; by government of l o c a l settlements by headmen (with and without C o u n c i l s ) ; by p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n as high as the t r i b e -kingdom l e v e l ; by a medium degree of co n c e n t r a t i o n i n t r a d e ; by a d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n which e i t h e r the male and female share or the female does more; i n which i n h e r i t a n c e i s g e n e r a l l y e i t h e r t o ElSo or sons; i n which the p r i n c i p a l reasons f o r warfare are conquest and p i l l a g i n g ; i n which there i s g e n e r a l l y a r e g u l a r army; i n which the j u d i c i a l machinery i s d i s t r i b u t e d through d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f the s t a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i e r a r c h y . Range I I I : S o c i e t i e s i n Range I I I are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: high populations (up t o 4,000,000) and medium p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y ; by economies which s t r e s s hunting as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r e .and animal husbandry; i n d i v i d u a l l a n d use r i g h t s ; by marked s t r a t i f i c a t i o n but fewer f e u d a l p a t r o n - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s ; by warfare conducted as high as the s t a t e l e v e l , but normally a t the d i s t r i c t and t r i b e l e v e l ; by s u b s t a n t i a l 147. b r i d e - p r i c e s ; by medium-sized r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s ; by l o c a l communities tending to be l a r g e r than those o f the s o c i e t i e s i n Range I I ; organized l o c a l l y as c l a n communities; w i t h l o c a l govern-ment headmen and c o u n c i l ; by a p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above the l o c a l l e v e l on a medium range, t h a t i s , s l i g h t l y lower than i n Range I I ; a greater s t r e s s on t r a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s than i n Range I I ; by a d i v i s i o n of l a b o r i n which males e i t h e r share or do more work than females; by a greater emphasis on s i b l i n g i n h e r i t a n c e ; conducting warfare l e s s f o r conquest than f o r immediate f i n a n c i a l g a i n ; by fewer r e g u l a r armies, although s t i l l m aintaining e f f e c t i v e army o r g a n i z a t i o n ; and by j u d i c i a l machinery concentrated at the l o c a l l e v e l . Range IV: S o c i e t i e s i n Range IV, t h a t i s those s o c i e t i e s which s u f f e r the l e a s t average c a s u a l t i e s , are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: low populations (under 50,000) and low p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t i e s (under 1 per square m i l e ) ; by economies based l a r g e l y on p a s t o r a l i s r n , hunting and gathering; by communal ownership and use r i g h t s ; by a l a c k of s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; by warfare conducted at the highest as an a l l i a n c e o f l o c a l groups and normally as the l o c a l group; polygyny l e s s frequent; b r i d e - p r i c e minimal; l o c a l community p o p u l a t i o n low (perhaps 50-100.approximately); l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the c l a n type; l o c a l government e i t h e r com-p l e t e l y i n f o r m a l or with a C o u n c i l of a d u l t s ; no p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above the l o c a l l e v e l ; ; l o c a l exogamy; no e x t e r n a l t r a d e , approximate sharing of l a b o r between male and female; warfare conducted p r i m a r i l y on the b a s i s of r e c i p r o c i t y ; no r e g u l a r army; army organized on a l o c a l b a s i s ; and no j u d i c i a l machinery beyond the 148. blood feud and/or the local Council. From this summary of the charts, one thing becomes clear immediately: that although Ranges I and IV are relatively homogeneous in their structural and ecological elements, Ranges II and I U lack this homogeneity, and clash with the general patterns presented above. However, these societies i n Ranges II and III which do clash with the general patterns themselves present a relatively constant pattern, and i t i s possible to describe them as . segmentary type societies. 1 These segmentary type societies — these societies which deviate from the general patterns presented above for Ranges II and H I — are characterized below. Range I I : The deviant societies i n Range IX are characterized by: high populations (430,000 for Nuer); variable densities; pastoralisrn and agriculture; communal ownership of land; variable social s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; war conducted at the highest at the tribe l e v e l ; warfare conducted normally i n groups of variable size; substantial bride-price; preferred polygyny; the family or extended family as the residential unit; medium-sized l o c a l communities; l o c a l communities organized as clan-barrios; local community government either i n -formal or with Council; l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l integration beyond the l o c a l l e v e l ; exogamy; variable trade; a division of labor i n which the male Evans-Pritchard, E.E. and Fortes, Meyer (eds.). African P o l i t i c a l Systems. Oxford, International African Institute, 1961. pp. 5^ 7 149. and female share or the female does more; i n h e r i t a n c e d i v i d e d among sons; warfare for p r e s t i g e and c a t t l e - s t e a l i n g and on r e -c i p r o c a l b a s i s r a t h e r than f o r conquest or annexation; no r e g u l a r army; army organized on l o c a l k i n l i n e s ; v a r i a b l e j u d i c i a l machinery. Range I I I ; The deviant s o c i e t i e s found i n Range I I I are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: v a r i a b l e populations and d e n s i t i e s ; a g r e a t e r emphasis on hunting than i n Range I I ; communal ownership w i t h communal or i n d i v i d u a l use r i g h t s ; minimal s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n ; warfare conducted at the highest as an a l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups; warfare conducted normally on more v a r i a b l e l e v e l s from l o c a l group t o a l l i a n c e of l o c a l groups; minimal b r i d e - p r i c e ; f a m i l y or extended f a m i l y as the r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t ; l o c a l community s i z e i s small or d i s p e r s e d ; l o c a l community organized as a c l a n or l i n e a g e community; minimal formal government at the l o c a l l e v e l ; v a r i a b l e p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above the l o c a l l e v e l (up t o d i s t r i c t ) ; l o c a l exogamy; some trade; warfare e i t h e r on a r e c i p r o c a l b a s i s or for slave or woman-raiding; no r e g u l a r army; army organized on k i n b a s i s ; blood feud the primary j u d i c i a l machinery. At f i r s t glance i t would appear t h a t these deviant segmentary--type s o c i e t i e s found i n Ranges I I and I I I are not markedly d i f f e r e n t from the s o c i e t a l types found i n Ranges I and IV. The main apparent d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t s o c i e t i e s i n Range I I seem capable of expanding t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n a t a higher l e v e l than s o c i e t i e s of Range I I I . 150. There i s however an additional factor which has not been included i n the charts because of the paucity of available cross-cultural information. This factor i s the mechanism available in a society capable of containing or halting warfare. Fortunately, several authors do discuss this mechanism, Lloyd Warner for example, i n his Murngin study 1 gives an example of the strength of this mechanism for societies i n Range I (that i s , those societies which suffer the heaviest casualties), - Warner writes: "Kinship solidarity extends warfare but also has the opposite tendency: that of limiting i t s scope when i t has reached very large proportions. A l l the clans are interrelated, and generally many w i l l find their loyalties divided, for the king-ship through marriage of certain members of a clan w i l l dictate their helping one faction, while other members w i l l be com-pelled by the laws of kinship to aid the other side. Since the solidarity of the clan prevents members fighting among them-selves, those clans whose loyalties are divided usually try to pacify the warring ones. In a makarata, frequently arranged by them, they w i l l usually be found doing a l l they can to have this peacemaking ceremony end successfully.^ "The makarata i s a ceremonial peacemaking fight. I t i s a kind of general duel and partial ordeal which allows the aggrieved parties to vent their feelings by throwing spears at their enemies or by seeing the latter's blood run i n expiation, "Frequently the makarata does not follow the ideal pattern; instead of providing a peacemaking mechanism, i t provides only Warner, Lloyd W, A Black C i v i l i z a t i o n . Revised Edition, Harper and Brothers, 1958 2 Ibid, pp. 155-156 151. another b a t t l e i n the i n t e r m i n a b l e blood feud of the  c l a n s . " ( i t a l i c s m ine)! "When s u f f i c i e n t time has elapsed a f t e r an i n j u r y or death of a member f o r the clan's emotions to calm, the men send a message t o t h e i r enemies saying they are ready f o r a makarata. The other s i d e u s u a l l y agrees to enter i n t o t h i s peacemaking ceremony, although there i s always s u s p i c i o n o f t r e a c h e r y . The i n j u r e d group always sends the i n v i t a t i o n , and the other must wa i t f o r them to decide when they wish t o have i t . " 2 I t i s obvious here t h a t the makarata. the Murngin mechanism 3 f o r h a l t i n g warfare, i s an extremely weak and tenuous d e v i c e . A s o c i e t y of the segmentary type i n Range H , the Nuer, possess a mechanism w i t h as l i t t l e f o r c e as the makarata. Evans-P r i t c h a r d d e s c r ibes t h i s mechanism as w e l l as the expansion of warfare through segmentary u n i t s i n the f o l l o w i n g t e r m s : 4 "Feuds are s e t t l e d w i t h comparative ease i n a r e s t r i c t e d s o c i a l m i l i e u where the s t r u c t u r a l d i s t a n c e between the p a r t i c i p a n t s i s narrow, but they a r e more d i f f i c u l t to s e t t l e as the m i l i e u expands, u n t i l one reaches i n t e r -t r i b a l r e l a t i o n s where no compensation i s o f f e r e d o r ex-pected. The degree of s o c i a l c o n t r o l over feuds v a r i e s w i t h the s i z e of the t r i b a l segment, and Nuer themselves have of t e n e x p l a i n e d t h i s t o me. Long and intense feuds may take place between t e r t i a r y t r i b a l s e c t i o n s , but an e f f o r t i s g e n e r a l l y made to c l o s e them, f o r a segment of t h i s s i z e has a strong sense o f community, c l o s e l i n e a g e t i e s ^ and some economic interdependence. However, i t i s f a r l e s s easy to stop a feud between persons of d i f f e r e n t I b i d . p. 174 2 I b i d . p. 174 3 For example, since both sides must be w i l l i n g t o come t o terms, t h i s probably r u l e s o u t the settlement of feuds i n which both p a r t i e s are not exhausted. 4 E v a n s - P r i t c h a r d , E.E. The Nuer: A D e s c r i p t i o n o f the Modes of L i v e l i h o o d and P o l i t i c a l I n s t i t u t i o n s of a N i l o t i c People. Oxford, Clarendon P r e s s , I960, pp. 157-158 152. tertiary sections than to stop a feud in a village or between neighbouring villages, where a quick and permanent settlement is assured, and unsettled feuds between sections of this size tend to accumulate... When a fight has taken place between secondary tribal sections there i s l i t t l e chance of exacting vengeance except by a general fight, and people feel less the need to submit to mediation since they have few social contacts and these of a temporary kind, for the relative ease with which feuds are settled is an indi-cation of the cohesion of the community. The larger the segment involved the greater the anarchy that prevails. People say that there is payment of blood-cattle between primary tribal sections, but they do not greatly feel the need of paying i t . The tribe is the last stage in this increasing anarchy. . It s t i l l has nominal political unity, and i t is held that feuds between its most distant members can be settled by compensation, but often they are not settled, and i f many men are killed i n a big fight between large sections nothing is done to avenge them or to pay compensation for their deaths,, Their kinsmen abide their time t i l l there is another fight. The political integument may in consequence be stretched eventually to the breaking-point and the tribe split into two. The rent between sections enlarges until they have l i t t l e to do with each other beyond occasional uniting for raids; and feuds between their members are settled, i f at a l l , with greater difficulty and casualness." The above quotations make abundantly clear the operation of the two opposing structures in segmentary societies: the structures on which military activities are extended; and the mechanisms capa-ble of containing or halting warfare. It is unfortunate that I could not locate descriptions of this level for the societies in Range IV, In sum, the picture that emerges is that of three different 'types1 of social organizations:1 firsts; that type of society in which there i s no regular political integration above the local level and which, even for warfare, is incapable of forming much Evans-Pritchard, E . E . ' and Fortes, Meyer (eds.). African Political Systems. Oxford, International African Institute, 1961. pp. 5*«7 153. l a r g e r u n i t s ; second, t h a t type of s o c i e t y i n which although there i s l i t t l e p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n above the l o c a l l e v e l f o r normal purposes, there are s t r u c t u r e s e n a b l i n g the e x t e n s i o n and expansion of o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r w a r f a r e ; and t h i r d , t h a t type o f s o c i e t y which i s r e g u l a r l y and normally organized i n a complex h i e r a r c h y above the l o c a l l e v e l f o r economic, p o l i t i c a l , and m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t i e s . I n regard t o warfare, the t h i r d type o f s o c i e t y seems to show, almost without e x c e p t i o n , 1 a c o n s i s t e n t and r e l a t i v e l y unvarying s e v e r i t y of warfare. The f i r s t two types of s o c i e t i e s however show a considerable degree o f v a r i a t i o n i n the s e v e r i t y of t h e i r w arfare. One o f the e s s e n t i a l f a c t o r s i n the e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s v a r i a t i o n i s the concept of s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s , or s t r u c t u r a l t e n s i o n discussed by s e v e r a l ethnographers. F o r t e s , f o r example, writes:. "In the e l a b o r a t e l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s t r u c t u r e o f Tale s o c i e t y there are r e g i o n s of h i g h t e n s i o n where groups are coupled together i n p o l a r o p p o s i t i o n and regions of low t e n s i o n where the u n i t s of s t r u c t u r e are a r t i c u l a t e d i n complementary r e l a t i o n s t o one another."2 B e l a n d i e r t a l k s about a " s t a t e o f t e n s i o n " which i s bound up w i t h a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n : 1 These exceptions are discussed i n the concluding c h a p t e r . 2 F o r t e s , Meyer. The Dynamics of Clanship among the T a l l e n s i . London, I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , 1945 . Po 27 154. which give s economic and p o l i t i c a l pre-eminence to the " e l d e s t " , which fa v o r s the l i n e a g e s i s s u e d from them, and which, above a l l , i s not h i e r a r c h i c f o r the purpose of m a i n t a i n i n g the cohesion of groupings, except as needed f o r defense and expansion, and except f o r the p r e s t i g e of temporary " c h i e f s . " The d e s i r e f o r independence manifested by the heads o f l i n e a g e s as soon as t h e i r grouping has become l a r g e i s not c o n t r o l l e d i n an organized manner."1 The Bohannans perceived i n T i v s o c i e t y two p r i n c i p l e s of " s t r u c t u r a l o p p o s a b i l i t y " and "segmental l i m i t a t i o n : " "Two e q u i v a l e n t segments which themselves f i g h t each other w i l l u n i t e t o f i g h t a segment t o 2 which they together are opposable and e q u i v a l e n t . " I n s t a t e type s o c i e t i e s , one of the p r i n c i p a l s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s e s occurs i n the f r e q u e n t l y d i s p u t e d succession t o k i n g s h i p . The f i n a l s y n t h e s i s of the above data belongs i n the chapter which f o l l o w s , c o n c l u s i o n s . B e l a n d i e r , Georges. S o c i o l o g i e A c t u e l l e de l ' A f r i q u e N o i r e : Changements Sociaux au Gabon e t au Congo. P a r i s , Presses U n i v e r s i t a i r e s de France, 1955. p« 49 Bohannan, L. and P. The T i v of C e n t r a l N i g e r i a . Ethnographic Survey of A f r i c a , . Western A f r i c a , P a r t V I I I . London, I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f r i c a n I n s t i t u t e , 1953. P. 26 155. CONCLUSION This concluding a n a l y s i s has three aims: to separate and evaluate those c a t e g o r i e s considered s i g n i f i c a n t i n regard t o warfare; t o - c o n s t r u c t a general model representing the modes of the expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n of w a r f a r e ; 1 and t o o f f e r s i x pro-p o s i t i o n s p o s t u l a t e d as r e g u l a t i n g the s e v e r i t y of warfare i n human soc i e t y . E v a l u a t i o n : An e v a l u a t i o n of the s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d i n the charts and synthesis makes i t obvious t h a t a l l the f a c t o r s are by no means of equal s i g n i f i c a n c e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e of each f a c t o r was evaluated i n two bases: the establishment of patterns i n the c h a r t s ; and the s t r e n g t h of the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s l i n k i n g these f a c t o r s w i t h warfare. On the b a s i s of t h i s , the c a t e g o r i e s seemed to f a l l i n t o the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s : those c a t e g o r i e s or f a c t o r s which d i d not e s t a b l i s h patterns i n the c h a r t s , such as "Residence"; those f a c t o r s which d i d e s t a b l i s h patterns i n the c h a r t s but whose s i g n i f i c a n c e could not be i n t e r p r e t e d on the b a s i s of the a v a i l a b l e data, f o r example, the s i z e of the l o c a l community i n Ranges I I and I I I ; those f a c t o r s which could not be charted because of i n s u f f i c i e n t ethno-graphic data ( q u a l i t a t i v e and q u a n t i t a t i v e ) , but which would seem t o be of considerable s i g n i f i c a n c e , f o r example, the s i z e , a u t h o r i t y and The general model and p r o p o s i t i o n s are extended t o warfare i n a l l s o c i e t i e s , f o l l o w i n g Northrop, F.S.C. The L o g i c of the Sciences and the Humanities, p. 29: "Nothing w i l l e x h i b i t the weakness of a given theory more q u i c k l y than a r e l e n t l e s s g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of i t f o r a l l p o s s i b l e evidence." 156. j u r i s d i c t i o n of the s o c i e t i e s ' corporate groups; 1 those f a c t o r s which e s t a b l i s h e d patterns and f o r which s i g n i f i c a n c e could be i n -t e r p r e t e d , but the s i g n i f i c a n c e was of an i n d i c a t i v e r a t h e r than r e g u l a t i v e nature i n regard t o the s e v e r i t y of warfare, f o r example, the prevalence o f polygyny; those f a c t o r s which e s t a b l i s h e d patterns and o f f e r e d some s i g n i f i c a n c e , but the s i g n i f i c a n c e seemed r e l a t i v e l y minor, f o r example, l a r g e b r i d e - p r i c e s which o f t e n n e c e s s i t a t e d r a i d i n g and p i l l a g i n g to o b t a i n these sums; those f a c t o r s which c o u l d not be charted because of i n s u f f i c i e n t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l data but f o r which great s i g n i f i c a n c e was i n t e r p r e t e d , that i s , s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s and the mechanisms f o r h a l t i n g warfare; and f i n a l l y , those f a c t o r s t h a t patterned w e l l and f o r which major s i g n i f i c a n c e c o u l d be po s t u l a t e d , such as the s i z e of p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . For the general model and p r o p o s i t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w — and on the b a s i s of the two c r i t e r i a of s i g n i f i c a n c e , p a t t e r n s and/or p l a u s i b l e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — the f o l l o w i n g f a c t o r s were considered of 2 c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n the r e g u l a t i o n of war: the s i z e , j u r i s -d i c t i o n , and a u t h o r i t y of socio-economic and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s e s ; mechanisms f o r c o n t a i n i n g or h a l t i n g war; group interdependence; and i n s t i t u t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g war. There are of course many other f a c t o r s p e r t i n e n t to a d i s c u s s i o n of warfare — 1 That i s , those groups with economic and/or p o l i t i c a l and/or r e l i g i o u s f u n c t i o n s . 2 These draw together — r a t h e r than l i t e r a l l y repeat — the ca t e g o r i e s i n c l u d e d i n the charts and s y n t h e s i s . 157. i d e o l o g y f o r example — but t h i s study l i m i t s i t s e l f to those f a c t o r s given above. S o c i o l o g i c a l Model of War: The general model presented below i s an attempt t o provide a broad conceptual framework f o r the s o c i o l o g i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of warfare. The model i s t o be taken as an o u t l i n e of the o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l bases of the expansion and c o n t r a c t i o n of warfare i n human s o c i e t y . A diagram of the model would simply show two opposing arrows — re p r e s e n t i n g two opposing f o r c e s — A, the C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r s , and B, the L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s . I . C o n d i t i o n i n g F a c t o r s : 1 These r e f e r to the s o c i a l , economic, p o l i t i c a l and m i l i t a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the bases o f which warfare — t h a t i s , the number of people i n v o l v e d i n warfare — expands. I I . L i m i t i n g F a c t o r s : These r e f e r to those i n s t i t u t i o n s — such as the Nuer Leopard-Skin C h i e f s — capable of c o n t a i n i n g or h a l t i n g warfare. There are however a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s o f c r u c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of warfare: these, as w e l l as the f a c t o r s above, are p o s i t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g general p r o p o s i t i o n s . The word " c o n d i t i o n i n g " i m p l i e s a concept I wish t o a v o i d , i . e . , c a u s a t i o n . I use the word r a t h e r i n the sense of r e g u l a t i n g , or making p o s s i b l e . 158. P r o p o s i t i o n s : The f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s are not to be considered alone, but as f a c t o r s modifying each other. I . The. greater the s i z e ( p o p u l a t i o n ) , complexity and a u t h o r i t y of s o c i a l , economic, and p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the greater i s the s e v e r i t y of e x t e r n a l warfare. That i s , the l a r g e r and more powerful the o r g a n i z a t i o n s on which m i l i t a r y a c t i v i t y can be based, the more severe i s the warfare. This i n c l u d e s , f o r example, the expansion of warfare on k i n terms as among the Murngin, or the confederation of t r i b e s f o r warfare as among the Rundi Rundi. I I . The greater the st r e n g t h of the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , j u d i c i a l and economic t i e s — t h a t i s interdependence — w i t h i n a given s o c i e t y or group, the l e s s severe i s the i n t e r n a l warfare and the more severe i s the e x t e r n a l warfare. This i n c l u d e s , f o r example, the l i m i t e d warfare between interdependent groups among the Nuer and J i v a r o , as contr a s t e d w i t h the t o t a l warfare (among the J i v a r o to the point o f extermination) between segments not interdependent. I I I . The grea t e r the s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s , the greater the s e v e r i t y of the i n t e r n a l warfare. This s t r u c t u r a l s t r e s s i n c l u d e s , f o r example, the o p p o s a b i l i t y o f segments among the Nuer, or the disput e d succession t o the Ki n g s h i p among the Nupe. IV. The greater the strength of s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic t i e s — i . e . , interdependence — between d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s or groups, the l e s s severe i s the e x t e r n a l warfare ( i . e . , the warfare 159. between these interdependent groups). This i n c l u d e s , f o r example, the minimal war among the Hausa Kanawa, a s o c i e t y whose economic base i s p r e d i c a t e d on t r a d e , which n e c e s s i t a t e s the maintenance of those i n t e r c u l t u r a l communications and contacts destroyed or d i s r u p t e d by warfare. V. The greater the s t r e n g t h of t h e . i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d mechanisms fo r h a l t i n g or c o n t a i n i n g war, the l e s s severe i s both i n t e r n a l and  e x t e r n a l w a r f a r e . 1 This i n c l u d e s , f o r example, the Nuer Leopard-S k i n C h i e f s . V I . The greater, the s t r e n g t h and occurrence of i n s t i t u t i o n s n e c e s s i t a t i n g warfare for the f u l f i l l m e n t of various r o l e s i n 2 s o c i e t y , the greater the s e v e r i t y of warfare. This i n c l u d e s , f o r example, the n e c e s s i t y of head-hunting t o achieve manhood, or an extremely high b r i d e - p r i c e n e c e s s i t a t i n g p i l l a g i n g i f the c a p i t a l i s to be r a i s e d . These s i x b a s i c p r o p o s i t i o n s and the general model con s t r u c t e d above are the c o n t r i b u t i o n s of t h i s t h e s i s t o the s o c i o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s of warfare. I was not able t o f i n d an example of a mechanism e x i s t i n g between two d i f f e r e n t s o c i e t i e s — that i s , a mechanism capable of c o n t a i n i n g e x t e r n a l warfare. 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