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The achivement of Christopher Smart's A song to David. Maynard, Temple James 1963-12-31

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THE ACHIEVEMENT OP CHRISTOPHER SMART'S A SON& TO DAVID  by TEMPLE JAMES MAYNARD B.A., T h e U n i v e r s i t y  of British  C o l u m b i a , 1959  A THESIS SUBMITTED IK PARTIAL FULFILMENT OP THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OP MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department of English  We a c c e p t t h i s required  t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A u g u s t , 1963  t  In presenting the  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  r e q u i r e m e n t s . f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that  t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . mission f o r extensive  I further  agree that  per-  copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly  p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by his  representatives.  I t i s understood that  cation of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f  permission.  English  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,. V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date  August 22, 1963«  copying, or p u b l i -  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d  ABSTRACT  I The O r i g i n s o f A Song t o D a v i d This chapter deals w i t h the outlook o f the poet, h i s r e d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e s e r v i c e o f God, h i s Hymn t o t h e Supreme B e i n g (1756), h i s madness and confinement, J u b i l a t e Agno, and r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e Psalms and A Song t o , D a v i d i n t h e - . J u b i l a t e Agno.  II (i)  The Form and S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Poem A Song t o D a v i d i s a poem o f praise-, a paean b r i n g i n g i n t h e  •whole o f . t h e cosmos. of David.  As such i t t a k e s i t s o r i g i n f r o m t h e Psalms  Smart p r e p a r e d h i m s e l f f o r t h e t r i u m p h o f t h e Song by  w r i t i n g h i s S e a t o n i a n poems on t h e a t t r i b u t e s o f t h e Supreme B e i n g . The s t a n z a i c p a t t e r n of. t h e Song, romance-six, i s used b y o t h e r e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y p o e t s , b u t i t s . master i s Smart. .The b a s i c s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e c o n s i s t s o f r e p e t i t i o n and t h e matching o f p a r t s o f t h e poem.' The d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t s p r o v i d e d by t h e poet i s n o t w h o l l y t o be t r u s t e d . (ii)  An E x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Poem This section, the longest portion of the t h e s i s , i s a l i n e  b y l i n e commentary on t h e poem; t h e i n t e n t i s t o s u p p l y  background  iii f o r the reader.  The meaning o f ambiguous o r obscure p h r a s e s i s sug-  g e s t e d ; g l o s s e s f o r u n f a m i l i a r words a r e e i t h e r s u p p l i e d from t h e work o f p r e v i o u s c r i t i c s and e d i t o r s o r suggested b y t h e s t u d y o f b i b l i c a l and o t h e r contemporary t e x t s .  The c h a r a c t e r o f D a v i d , as  drawn b y Smart, i s n o t t h e h i s t o r i c a l o r b i b l i c a l f i g u r e , though i t has something i n common w i t h t h e m e d i e v a l concept o f D a v i d . r e f e r e n c e s t o J u b i l a t e Agno a r e n o t e d ;  Cross-  The work o f W. F.' S t e a d ,  W. H. Bond, and J . B. Broadbent i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h some o r i g i n a l study.  The c l i m a c t i c n a t u r e o f t h e f i n a l s t a n z a s i s d i s c u s s e d .  Ill (i)  L i n k s w i t h Other Poems b y Smart The r e c u r r e n c e o f s i m i l a r themes and p a t t e r n s i n o t h e r works  i s pointed out.  There i s a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e Song  and Smart's l a t e r poems. (ii)  Comparison w i t h Some O t h e r P o e t s O t h e r p o e t s o f a s i m i l a r "bent utELize a b i b l i c a l  work.  story i n t h e i r  P a r a l l e l s and c o n t r a s t s a r e f o u n d i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f a s i m i l a r  theme b y Cowley, P r i o r , and Browning.  A c l o s e resemblance  exists  between A Song t o D a v i d and The B e n e d i c i t e P a r a p h r a s e d , a poem b y • James M e r r i c k . ( i i i ) A Song t o D a v i d i s Unique i n i t s A e s t h e t i c  Achievement  The achievement o f A Song to' D a v i d i s d e f i n e d . the  The e f f e c t upon  r e a d e r i s d i s c u s s e d and t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e poet commented upon.  A p l a c e i s c l a i m e d f o r A Song t o D a v i d i n t h e t o p r a n k o f d e v o t i o n a l poetry.  iv  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAGE INTRODUCTION The  II  Origins  o f A Song t o D a v i d  . . . . . .  A SONG TO. DAVID (i) (ii)  III  1  (ii) (iii)  10  The Form and S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Poem .. 10 A n E x p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Poem  CONCLUSION (i)  1  21  .  95  L i n k s w i t h O t h e r Poems hy Smart  . . 95  Comparison  . . 98  w i t h Some O t h e r P o e t s  A~ Song t o D a v i d i s u n i q u e A e s t h e t i c Achievement  in its 109  >  V  Throughout and  t o t h e Psalms,  f r o m The. C o l l e c t e d Norman C a l l a n ,  this  t h e s i s r e f e r e n c e s t o A Song t o D a v i d  Hymns, and P a r a b l e s o f Smart, a r e t a k e n Poems o f C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, e d i t e d b y  2 vols.,  (London,  o f J u b i l a t e Agno b y W.F. S t e a d t h e Lamb all  (London,  1949).  called  Since the edition  b y him,  Re .jo i c e i n  1939) i s n o t i n t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r ,  r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s work a r e f r o m W.H.  T^ambridge, Mass. 1954),  i n which t h a t  Bond's  edition  order i s observed  as f a r a s t h e f r a g m e n t a r y n a t u r e o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t  allows.  The a b b r e v i a t i o n s S.D. f o r A Song t o D a v i d , and J.A. f o r J u b i l a t e Agno. a r e u s e d  t o conserve  s p a c e when q u o t i n g and  t h u s o b v i a t e a g r e a t many f o o t n o t e s . B i b l e a r e t a k e n f r o m t h e K i n g James  Quotations from t h e version.  T h e s i s : A Song t o D a v i d i s not, u n i q u e among t h e works o f Smart o r h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n t e r m s purpose;  i t i s unique  o f form, theme, o r  i n i t s aesthetic  achievement.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION: The  The  Origins  surest  o f A Song t o D a v i d  impulse  t o t h e w r i t i n g o f p o e t r y i s an  i n t e n s e p e r c e p t i o n of the world.  The  great poet  i n t e n s e l y t h a n the m a j o r i t y o f mankind. experienced a constant d e l i g h t d e l i g h t w h i c h was hedonistic In  J u b i l a t e Agno he  beauty, (J.A.  b u t God,  B 1,  and  i n the created order; a  i n t o a deep r e l i g i o u s  says  God  " F o r i n my  h a t h s e n t me  almost conviction.  nature I quested.for  to sea f o r p e a r l s "  30).  C h r i s t o p h e r Smart saw sity,  C h r i s t o p h e r Smart  i n t i m e t r a n s f o r m e d f r o m an  enthusiasm,  f e e l s more  rejoiced  the world w i t h a g r e a t  i n what he  saw.  inten-  I n J u b i l a t e Agno he  comments, " F o r I have a g r e a t e r compass b o t h o f myrt'h and melancholy untrue. was  than another"  His delight  apparent  ( J . A . B 1,  i n the m u l t i p l e  i n t h e e a r l y p o e t r y and  132).  creations  1763,  not  of the Lord  in.the l a t e .  a f t e r h i s seven years of "jeopardy," that tion  T h i s was  is his  But  incarcera-  i n v a r i o u s a s y l u m s a s a r e l i g i o u s maniac f r o m 1756 d i d Smart a t t a i n  e n a b l e d him  the  "gift  felt  it.  sensuousness i n t o the s t r a i g h t  to  of impression" which  t o express h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n  h i m as i n t e n s e l y as he  only  He  of the world  diverted  banks o f  around  the stream  religious  of  2 observance, and found the channel deep enough (with a few o v e r f l o w i n g s ) t o c o n t a i n the f u l l t i d e o f an e c s t a t i c r e l a t i o n t o the created order. The Hymn t o the Supreme Being, on Recovery from a Dangerous F i t o f I l l n e s s  (1756), records Smart's c r u c i a l  d e d i c a t i o n t o the s e r v i c e o f God. his  He determined t o make  l i f e a t r i b u t e t o the g l o r y o f the D e i t y .  This  d e c i s i o n changed h i s l i f e and transformed h i s work.  With  some l a p s e s , t h i s d e d i c a t i o n f i l l e d the poet's mind f o r the next f i f t e e n y e a r s .  H i s l i t e r a r y output, w i t h the  exception o f the t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Horace and Phaedrus, was of  a r e l i g i o u s nature u n t i l the year of h i s death i n 1771.  In  h i s Hymns f o r the Amusement o f C h i l d r e n (1770), he  admonished h i s readers t o "pray without ceasing.../Nor ever i n the S p i r i t f a i n t . S u c h was h i s own p r a c t i c e . H i s r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s assumed the p r o p o r t i o n s o f an obsession, and he was no l o n g e r sought by h i s f r i e n d s . Smart's madness was a form o f r e l i g i o u s mania. H i s i n s i s t e n c e on p u b l i c u t t e r a n c e o f p r a i s e t o God was not i n accord w i t h the norm of h i s age, but h i s c o n v i c t i o n s were no more i r r e g u l a r than those o f most o f the Hebrew or C h r i s t i a n s a i n t s and prophets.  Perhaps  Smart's  compulsion,  harmless enough t o be sure, r e s u l t e d from h i s i n a b i l i t y t o cope with the b u s t l i n g world i n which he found h i m s e l f . At  any r a t e , he withdrew i n t o a world o f r e l i g i o u s expe-  r i e n c e where he f e l t he could hold h i s own.  Perhaps  f e e l i n g s o f inadequacy  stemmed from h i s apparent i n c a p -  a c i t y t o manage h i s a f f a i r s , and the symptoms of s t r a i n were manifested i n h i s r e c u r r i n g mental breakdowns (17561763). The poet b o l s t e r e d h i s self-esteem, however, through a c o n v i c t i o n that he was  the chosen of God,  " e l e c t " i n a f a l l e n age.  one of the  T h i s c o n v i c t i o n was  strengthened,  presumably, by Smart's involvement w i t h the masonic lodge, which i s suggested by h i s poem, "A Song by B r o t h e r Smart, 2 A.M.,"  and by the l i n e i n J u b i l a t e Agno, "For I am  the  Lord's b u i l d e r and f r e e and accepted Mason i n CHRIST JESUS" (J.A. B 1, 109).  In a d d i t i o n t o h i s masonic  i n t e r e s t s , Smart, on the evidence of statements  i n Jubilate  Agno, took the claims of the B r i t i s h I s r a e l i t e movement s e r i o u s l y , and saw h i m s e l f as a descendant prophets.  of the Hebrew  The r o l e he c a s t f o r h i m s e l f as a " b u i l d e r , "  and as a worthy descendant  of the prophets, was  reformer of the Church of England  liturgy.  I t meant much t o Smart t h a t he was  "the R e v i v e r of  ADORATION amongst ENGLISH-MEN" (J^A. B 2, 352). t i o n t h a t h i s r o l e was  that of a  His convic-  t o reform the Church of England  was  so s t r o n g t h a t h i s Hymns were designed w i t h t h a t i n mind. I f we are t o accept the v e r d i c t of the c r i t i c s , Agno was  Jubilate  conceived w i t h the i d e a of Smart h i m s e l f l e a d i n g  an a n t i p h o n a l r e a d i n g i n the Church a f t e r the manner o f some Hebrew p o e t r y .  4 His  "conversion" l e d Smart i n t o those frequent and  p u b l i c u t t e r a n c e s of n o i s y prayer which brought about imprisonment.  The poet f e l t h i m s e l f wronged and  but he r e j o i c e d i n the c o n v i c t i o n of an eventual tion,  "For the hour of my f e l i c i t y ,  s h a l l come at the l a t t e r  end'.  1  his  persecuted, justifica-  l i k e the womb of Sarah,  ( J . A . B l , 16).  He thought  o f h i s imprisonment as a s o r t of martyrdom, and termed "my jeopardy."  it  He w r i t e s of i t thus i n J u b i l a t e Agno:  Let E l i z u r r e j o i c e w i t h the P a r t r i d g e , who i s a p r i s o n e r of s t a t e and proud o f h i s keepers. For I am not without a u t h o r i t y i n my jeopardy, which I d e r i v e i n e v i t a b l y from the g l o r y of the name o f the L o r d . (J.A.  B 1, 3)  Smart probably wrote these l i n e s i n the t h i r d year of h i s captivity  (1759).  the term l a t e r ,  The thought stayed w i t h him, and he used  "the Lord d i r e c t ne i n the b e t t e r way of  going on i n the f i f t h year of my jeopardy June ye N.S.  1760," ( J j A . B 2,  560).  Not a l l of h i s confinement He was g i v e n w r i t i n g m a t e r i a l s ,  was d i s t r e s s i n g  He began to  have a c e r t a i n degree of freedom, and e v e n t u a l l y o p p o r t u n i t y to garden a l i t t l e ,  to Smart.  and i n c r e a t i n g J u b i l a t e  Agno he found an o u t l e t and a f u l f i l l m e n t .  b o r d e r s , " ( J . A . D, 118).  17th.  the  " . . . t h e Lord succeed my p i n k  He was able to t h e o r i z e  about  his w r i t i n g : For my t a l e n t i s to g i v e an impression upon words by punching, that when the reader casts h i s eye upon 'em, he takes up the image from the mould wch I have made. (J.A.  B 2,  404)  5 The f u r t h e r expansion o f t h i s thought i s noted by both Stead and Bond, the e d i t o r s o f J u b i l a t e Agno, as o c c u r r i n g i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Smart's v e r s e - t r a n s l a t i o n o f Horace (1767), I , x i i : Impression' then, i s a t a l e n t o r g i f t o f Almighty G-od, by which a Genius i s impowered to throw an emphasis upon a word o r sentence i n such wise, that i t cannot escape any reader of sheer good sense, and t r u e c r i t i c a l sagacity. J u b i l a t e Agno was w r i t t e n while Smart was locked up as a r e s u l t o f e x h i b i t i n g signs o f r e l i g i o u s mania.  As f a r as  can be a s c e r t a i n e d from the fragmentary manuscript, i t covers the seven years o f the poet's imprisonment f a i r l y regular daily entries.  with  The l a s t entry was made i n  January 1763 when he was r e l e a s e d .  In t h i s work - part  poem, part d i a r y - Smart experiments w i t h v e r s e forms, records many o f the happenings  o f h i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d world,  and u t t e r s h i s sentiments o f p r a i s e and a d o r a t i o n . Many images and phrases r e c u r r i n g i n A Song t o David make the J u b i l a t e Agno a v a l u a b l e c o r r o l a r y t o a study o f the great poem. I t seems l i k e l y t h a t A Song t o David, p u b l i s h e d a few months a f t e r the poet's r e t u r n t o the world i n 1763, was w r i t t e n i n t h e asylum.  That has been the concensus of  o p i n i o n s i n c e i t s appearance.  In a recent study o f Smart  (1961), G e o f f r e y Grigson places t h e composition of the Song q u i t e e a r l y i n Smart's imprisonment  (1759).  He  a s s e r t s t h a t the Psalms and Hymns were w r i t t e n before the  6 Song which was  an o f f e r i n g of thanks t o God f o r the comple-  t i o n of the work.  Grigson's evidence does not seem  c o n c l u s i v e , and i t i s more l i k e l y t h a t though A Song t o David was  composed d u r i n g Smart's i n c a r c e r a t i o n , the work  upon the Psalms was  continued u n t i l t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n  a f t e r the poet's r e l e a s e . In  J u b i l a t e Agno there are s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s to the  t r a n s l a t i o n of the Psalms and a c o l l e c t i o n o f Hymns which would suggest that t h i s work was while the poet was  i n the asylum.  done a t l e a s t i n part The c o l l e c t i o n  was  probably not f i n i s h e d as i t d i d not appear u n t i l 1765,  two  years a f t e r the poet's r e l e a s e .  may  On the other hand, he  not then have had a p u b l i s h e r w i l l i n g t o hazard the venture. The f i r s t mention of the Hymns which were p u b l i s h e d with the Psalms i s i n the l a s t fragment of J u b i l a t e Agno where Smart w r i t e s , "The  Lord help on w i t h the hymns" (J.A. D,  The i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t they were b e i n g composed. dates fragment "D"  between J u l y 1762  and January  199).  Bond 1763.  The next e n t r y of i n t e r e s t i n t h i s connection comes a week or  two l a t e r and i s about the Psalms, "I pray f o r the s o u l  of  Crockatt the b o o k - s e l l e r the f i r s t t o put me upon a  v e r s i o n of the Psalms" (J.A. D, 210).  A footnote by Bond  says that as Crockatt had been dead t e n years, the p l a n for  the Psalms was not a new  one.  By the e n t r y of approx-  i m a t e l y seven days l a t e r we see t h a t the p r o j e c t was under way,  well  " I pray f o r a musician or musicians to s e t the  new psalms" ( J . A . D, 217). inscribes,  Three days l a t e r Smart  " . . t h e Lord forward my t r a n s l a t i o n of  psalms t h i s year" (J^A. D, 220). of interest  the  The succeeding  i n that i t b e l i e s accusations  entry  is  of Smart's being  u n g r a t e f u l to those who t r i e d to a i d him, "I pray God b l e s s a l l my s u b s c r i b e r s " ( J . A . D,  221).  An e a r l i e r passage i n the J u b i l a t e Agno may be i n t e r p r e t e d as referring to the composition of A Song to £avid: For the n i g h t l y V i s i t o r i s at the window of the impenitent, while I s i n g a psalm of my own composing. ( J . A . B 1, This was w r i t t e n d u r i n g the autumn of 1759, reference i s not c l e a r .  but the  But though i t was composed i n an  asylum the Song bears few of those marks of i t s o r i g i n which reviewers  32)  p l a c e of  then and now have a f f e c t e d  to  see  i n the poem. The f i r s t  e d i t i o n of A Song to David r a n t o  five  hundred copies and was published by F l e t c h e r i n 1763. second v e r s i o n , with a few changes, e d i t i o n of the Psalms i n 1765.  was appended to  A  the  The next e d i t i o n s were i n  the n i n e t e e n t h century; by the twentieth the poem was becoming quite common and i t was r e p r i n t e d both and i n a n t h o l o g i e s ,  i n England and America.  separately The C o l l e c t e d  Poems-* c o n t a i n most of Smart's w r i t i n g s i n c l u d i n g h i s masterpiece,  but the most enjoyable t e x t to r e a d , and the  8 one hy  w i t h t h e most e x t e n s i v e n o t e s , J.B.  Broadbent  (I960).  i s the l i m i t e d  edition  9  FOOTNOTES 0  C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, Hymns f o r t h e Amusement o f C h i l d r e n . 3rd ed. 1.775, Oxford:, F a c s . , 1947 XVIII.  2 W.F. S t e a d ( e d . ) , H e j o i c e f r o m Bedlam. London: 1939, p.25.  i n t h e Lamb; A Song  \ . C a l l a n ( e d . ) , The C o l l e c t e d Poems, o f C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, L o n d o n : The Muses L i b r a r y , 1941. ' " :  CHAPTER I I  A SONG TO (i)  The  Form and  Smart s a i d that  i t was  DAVID  S t r u c t u r e o f t h e Poem  i n the  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A Song t o -^avid  "A poem composed i n a s p i r i t  thankfulness  to the great author  which i s t h e Psalms o f D a v i d  t h a t work. own  T h i s may  w e l l be  the  full  was  i n h i s Seatonian  and  "a p s a l m o f  poems.  s p e a k s o f man of the  and  to the poet.  (1751),  a l l animate nature  inanimate  bless  I t had  Smart n o t  occurred  On  thought  as p r a i s i n g the D e i t y ,  e a r t h d o i n g so as  i s continued  w i t h the  the  only  well:  Oh! c o u ' d I ' s e a r c h t h e bosom o f t h e s e a , Down t h e g r e a t d e p t h d e s c e n d i n g ; t h e r e t h y works Wou'd a l s o s p e a k t h y r e s i d e n c e ; and t h e r e Wou'd I t h y s e r v a n t , l i k e t h e s t i l l p r o f o u n d , A s t o n i s h ' d i n t o s i l e n c e muse t h y p r a i s e ! The  in  forever."  In the second of these,  Immensity o f t h e Supreme B e i n g  my  Song, whose theme i s  m a g n i f y Him  n o t new  a  completing  "0 A l l ye Works o f t h e L o r d ,  t h e L o r d : p r a i s e Him,  of  b e e n w o r k i n g on  o f the B e n e d i c i t e i n the Order f o r Morning P r a y e r  T h i s theme was  but  had  I n J u b i l a t e Agno Smart r e f e r s t o  the Church of England: ye  Smart was  o f them f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s and  composing."  that  He  and  Book o f G r a t i t u d e ,  the King."  t h e P s a l m s a s he w r o t e t h e Song. versification  o f The  of a f f e c t i o n  lines:  11 Y e t man a t home, w i t h i n h i m s e l f , might f i n d The D e i t y immense, and i n t h a t frame So f e a r f u l l y , so w o n d e r f u l l y made, See and a d o r e h i s p r o v i d e n c e and pow'r In the  last  w h i c h was  lines  of the  poem, Smart s t a t e s t h e  t o become more and  c o n v i c t i o n g a i n e d upon  more h i s own  position  as h i s r e l i g i o u s  him:  I s e e , and I a d o r e - 0 God most b o u n t e o u s ! 0 i n f i n i t e o f Goodness and o f G l o r y ! The knee, t h a t Thou h a s t s h a p ' d , s h a l l bend t o Thee, The t o n g u e , w h i c h T h o n has t u n ' d , s h a l l c h a n t t h y p r a i s e , And t h i n e own image, t h e i m m o r t a l s o u l , S h a l l c o n s e c r a t e h e r s e l f t o Thee f o r e v e r . ( C a l l a n , p. The  next o f the  S e a t o n i a n poems (1752) p i c k s up  231)  the  theme:  Then, 0 ye p e o p l e , 0 ye sons o f men, Whatever be the c o l o u r o f y o u r l i v e s , Whatever p o r t i o n o f i t s e l f h i s Wisdom S h a l l deign f a l l o w , s t i l l p a t i e n t l y abide, And p r a i s e him more and more; n o r c e a s e t o c h a n t . ALL GLORY TO THE OMNISCIENT, AND PRAISE, AND POW'R, AND DOMINATION IN THE HEIGHT! ( C a l l a n , p. I f the  Paraphrase of the  p i c k s up  the  236)  Lord's P r a y e r i s Smart's, i t a l s o  theme o f c e a s e l e s s  adoration:  Thy name i n h a l l o w ' d s t r a i n s be sung, L e t e v ' r y h e a r t , and e v ' r y t o n g u e , The s o l e m n c o n c e r t j o i n . l The  o r i g i n of the B e n e d i c i t e  is biblical,  and  i t occurs  t h o s e P s a l m s o f D v i d w h i c h were S m a r t ' s d e l i g h t : a  P r a i s e ye P r a i s e ye P r a i s e ye  t h e LORD, P r a i s e ye t h e LORD f r o m t h e h e a v e n s : P r a i s e him i n t h e h e i g h t s . him, a l l h i s a n g e l s : p r a i s e ye him, a l l his hosts. him, sun and moon: p r a i s e him, a l l ye s t a r s of l i g h t .  in  12 P r a i s e h i m , y e h e a v e n s o f h e a v e n s , and y e w a t e r s t h a t be a b o v e t h e h e a v e n s , l e t them p r a i s e , t h e name o f t h e LORD; f o r he commanded, and t h e y were c r e a t e d . He h a t h a l s o s t a b l i s h e d them f o r e v e r and e v e r ? he h a t h made a d e c r e e w h i c h s h a l l n o t p a s s . P r a i s e t h e L o r d f r o m t h e e a r t h , y e d r a g o n s , and a l l deeps: F i r e , a n d - h a i l ; snow, and v a p o u r ; stormy wind - f u l f i l l i n g h i s word: M o u n t a i n s , "rand a l l h i l l s ; f r u i t f u l t r e e s , and a l l cedars: B e a s t s , and a l l c a t t l e ; c r e e p i n g t h i n g s , and f l y i n g fowl: K i n g s o f t h e e a r t h , a n d a l l p e o p l e ; p r i n c e s , and a l l judges o f t h e e a r t h : B o t h y o u n g men, and m a i d e n s ; o l d men, and c h i l d r e n : L e t them p r a i s e t h e name o f t h e LORD: f o r h i s name alone i s e x c e l l e n t ; h i s g l o r y i s above t h e e a r t h and h e a v e n . He a l s o e x a l t e t h t h e h o r n o f h i s p e o p l e , t h e p r a i s e o f a l l h i s s a i n t s ; even o f t h e c h i l d r e n o f I s r a e l , a p e o p l e n e a r u n t o h i m . P r a i s e ye the Lord. ( P s a l m 148) The  same theme o c c u r s i n o t h e r s o f t h e P s a l m s ,  P s a l m s 149 and 150, b u t i n P s a l m  notably i n  148 t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n  r e c a l l s Smart s o mueh t o mind a s t o be f a i r l y  obviously a  source. A Song t o D a v i d it  i s just  Smart draws a s a m p l i n g  s u c h a song  of praise.  Into  of the e n t i r e universe, c i t i n g  e a c h c r e a t u r e , e a c h t h i n g , a s a f i t s u b j e c t and a s u i t a b l e giver of praise to the Deity.  The s c o p e  intent, honorific;  a s u b l i m e song  o f eosmolog-  on t h e P s a l m s ,  seemingly  ical  the r e s u l t ,  i s v a s t : the  joy i n the creation. Although i t i s modelled  artless  i n the effortless  Smart's m a s t e r p i e c e  g r a c e o f t h e i r p o e t i c movement,  i s not uncomplicated  i n i t s stanzaic  13 structure  or simple  i n t e n s e compression  i n i t s theme.  The c o m p l e x i t y and  of the i n t e r n a l  s t r u c t u r e o f t h e Song  may a p p e a r a s u n d i s c i p l i n e d w a n d e r i n g a t a c a s u a l g l a n c e . But  a c a r e f u l study r e v e a l s an exact The  control.  s t a n z a i c p a t t e r n o f A Song t o D a v i d  i s romance  2 six,  a fairly  common one i n t h e c e n t u r y .  Smart u s e s i t  a l s o i n some o f h i s Hymns, b u t t h e r e i t i s s e l d o m a s successful,  l a r g e l y b e c a u s e t h e r h y t h m does n o t c a r r y t h e  reader forward  as i t so i r r e s i s t i b l y  does i n t h e Song.  The  syntax  o f much o f S m a r t ' s p o e t r y , n o t o n l y o f t h e Song,  and  indeed  o f some o f h i s p r o s e works s u c h a s The M i d w i f e ,  is  f r e q u e n t l y i n v e r t e d a n d complex.  Such i n v e r s i o n was  common i n t h e a g e , b u t Smart u s e s i t t o good e f f e c t Song.  He u s e s a c t i v e v e r b s  ularly  i n the Adoration stanzas.  feeling  i n the present  tense,  i n the  partic-  This helps to give the  o f immediacy w h i c h i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e  e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e poem. I n t h i s context Broadbent w r i t e s : . . . i n contrast to the s t a t i c p a i n t e r l y v i s i o n o f t h e A u g u s t a n s , a c t i v e v e r b s p u t t h e whole year i n present motion - c l e a v e s , t i l t , burnishes, eludes, shuts.5 Although  poets  o f t h e a g e , s u c h a s G r a y and Pope, do u s e  a c t i v e verbs  i n natural description,  of  of devotional poetry.  this  sort  they a r e not t y p i c a l The f o r m  of the stanza,  w h i c h i s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f S m a r t ' s b e s t work, was n o t i n v e n t e d b y him, t h o u g h he was one o f i t s most s u c c e s s f u l e x p o n e n t s , and he c e r t a i n l y gave i t new l i f e . for  instance, i n thirty-three  He u s e d i t ,  of h i s translations  o f the Psalms.  14 He u s e d  i t i n s e v e r a l o f h i s Hymns.  used  i talso.  that  o f The B e n e d i c i t e P a r a p h r a s e d ,  But o t h e r w r i t e r s  The most n o t a b l e example, o f c o u r s e , i s a poem known to,,be  b y M e r r i c k b u t s o much i n t h e f o r m , s t y l e and manner o f Smart, and p a r t i c u l a r l y from Robert  B r i t t a i n a s e r i o u s a t t r i b u t i o n o f i t t o Smart,  (PMLA, M a r c h , 1 9 4 1 ) . author  o f A Song t o ^ a v i d , a s t o e l i c i t  A.D.  i n t h e same o r g a n ,  M c K i l l o p p o i n t e d out i t s r e a l b u t n o t u n t i l June, 1943.  I n t h e 1765 e d i t i o n o f t h e poems t h e r e i s a n advertisement Mr.  to the effect that "this  Song i s a l l o w e d b y  Smart's j u d i c i o u s F r i e n d s and enemies t o be t h e b e s t  p i e c e e v e r made p u b l i c b y him, i t s c h i e f f a u l t  being the  e x a c t R e g u l a r i t y and Method w i t h w h i c h i t i s c o n d u c t e d . " Whether o r n o t s u c h r e g u l a r i t y be a f a u l t , i n evidence.  R.D. Havens n o t e s  i t i s v e r y much  the complexity  of numerical  o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h w h i c h t h e Song i s i n t e r w o v e n : The Song b e g i n s w i t h t h r e e s t a n z a s o f i n v o c a t i o n , which a r e f o l l o w e d by f o u r t e e n (twice seven) desc r i b i n g David, by n i n e ( t h r i c e t h r e e ) which g i v e t h e s u b j e c t s o f w h i c h he s i n g s , and b y t h r e e r e c o u n t i n g t h e r e s u l t s , o f h i s s i n g i n g ; t h e n comes a group o f nine c o n s i s t i n g o f a n i n t r o d u c t o r y stanza; seven devoted t o the seven " p i l l a r s o f the L o r d , " and a c o n c l u d i n g s t a n z a ; t h e n a n i n t r o d u c t i o n , a g r o u p o f n i n e s t a n z a s t h a t summarizes t h e B i b l i c a l m o r a l code, and a c o n c l u s i o n ; t h e n a s t a n z a i n t r o d u c t o r y t o the t h r e e groups t h a t f o l l o w , each o f seven stanzas d e a l i n g w i t h adorat i o n ; and f i n a l l y f i v e g r o u p s o f t h r e e w h i c h t r e a t o f e a r t h l y d e l i g h t s and t h e g r e a t e r d e l i g h t i n e a c h f i e l d t o be f o u n d i n God.6 Broadbent notes  o f t h e Song:  15 I t s r e g u l a r i t y I s a l i t t l e mad f o r Smart was o b s e s s e d w i t h numbers. (Broadbent, The  Song, p . 33)  p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e poem a c c o r d i n g t o s e q u e n c e s o f t h e  m y s t i c numbers, and t h e g r e a t d e g r e e involved,  should negate  b e i n g produced  of regularity  a n y c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Song  i n insanity.  The breakdown o f t h e o r g a n i z a -  t i o n o f t h e Song g i v e n b y Havens i s n o t t h a t "Contents." omits  Broadbent,  of the  i n h i s e d i t i o n o f t h e Song,  also  S m a r t ' s argument o r " C o n t e n t s " b e c a u s e i t i s i n c o m -  p l e t e and i n a c c u r a t e .  I t ignores the structures inherent  in  t h e poem and s u g g e s t s  It  omits  s t a n z a s , X X X V I I I , XXXIX, X L I X , and 1XXI a l t o g e t h e r .  In  fact,  a s Havens n o t e s ,  h u r r i e d and c a r e l e s s work.  o t h e r , more t h e m a t i c , o r d e r i n g s .  i t bears  a l l the hallmarks  of a  job, probably not part o f the i n i t i a l  The s t r u c t u r e i s n o t q u i t e a s Havens  suggests,  however, and he i s sometimes h a s t y i n h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o q u i b b l e w i t h Smart's a c c o u n t  of the contents.  He s a y s :  Each o f the stanzas LI-LXXI i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t h e r e s t o f t h e poem b y h a v i n g t h e words " F o r ADORATION" a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f one o f i t s l i n e s and, a s i f t o emphasize t h e u n i t y o f t h e g r o u p , t h e word " a d o r a t i o n " i s p r i n t e d i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s ; y e t i n t h e argument t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e stanzas i s j o i n e d t o t h a t which precedes a l t h o u g h t h i s p r e c e d i n g s t a n z a does n o t c o n t a i n t h e words " F o r ADORATION," a n d t h e l a s t s e v e n s t a n z a s w h i c h do c o n t a i n t h e words " F o r ADORATION" a r e t r e a t e d a s i f t h e y were i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e preceding fourteen. (Havens, p . 179)  16 One  i s inclined  t o agree  w i t h Havens t h a t Smart i s n e i t h e r  c l e a r n o r complete i n h i s "Contents,"  h u t when he e l a b o r -  a t e s , Havens b e t r a y s h i s weak p o i n t : The n e x t s t a n z a , b e g i n n i n g "PRAISE above a l l , " a n n o u n c e s t h e theme o f t h e t h r e e f o l l o w i n g groups, each o f seven stanzas c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o one a n o t h e r and s e t o f f f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g v e r s e s b y v e r b a l r e p e t i t i o n and b y t h o u g h t . E a c h o f t h e s e twenty-one s t a n z a s h a s t h e words " F o r ADORATION" a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f one of i t s l i n e s . Throughout t h e l a s t seven s t a n z a s t h e s e words come i n t h e f i r s t l i n e , where t h e y a r e l i k e w i s e f o u n d i n t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a n z a o f t h e f i r s t g r o u p and the c o n c l u d i n g s t a n z a o f the second. (Havens, p . 181) Here t h e i n t e n t seven,  on c o n s t r u c t i n g p a t t e r n s o f t h r e e and  p e r h a p s Smart's i n t e r e s t ,  passion,  leads the c r i t i c  stanzas a r e r e l a t e d  astray.  but d e f i n i t e l y These  twenty-one  i n theme, and t h e s t r u c t u r a l f a c t o r o f  t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e words " F o r ADORATION." i n t e r n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the twenty-one-stanza in  groups o f seven.  transcendent  virtue  Smart l i n k s  ver. to  52 t o 64."  subject matter  Then Smart  lists  and t h e r i g h t u s e o f them,  Havens s a y s  i n a f o o t n o t e t h a t Smart  P e r h a p s t h e d i f f e r e n c e was a s l i p  w h i l e n o t i n g down t h e C o n t e n t s may, t h e t w e l v e  The two  This "exercise" i s properly verses L I I  LXIII i n c l u s i v e .  ignores LXIY.  group i s not  o f p r a i s e and a d o r a t i o n . "  e x e r c i s e upon t h e seasons,  But the  s t a n z a s 1 and L I a s "The  s t a n z a s do d e a l w i t h t h e s e q u a l i t i e s . "An  Havens'  i n a hurry.  made  Be t h a t a s i t  s t a n z a s a r e q u i t e c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e d by t h e - t h e f o u r seasons  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f  17 adoration.  Structurally,  b e i n g unique  the group i s separate a l s o i n  in its sliding  s c a l e of the phrase  ADORATION" w h i c h a s Havens and occurs i n l i n e on t h r o u g h  one  of stanza LII, l i n e  the group o f t w e l v e .  w i t h the phrase c a n be d i v i d e d meaningful. David, that  other c r i t i c s  N e x t come e i g h t  i n t o g r o u p s o f one  The  and  s u b j e c t of the f i r s t ,  of the next  seven,  suggests  that  one  f o r numbers,  the  (Broadbent mad),  repetition  o f the e s s e n t i a l s t r u c t u r a l d e v i c e s used  to  gather  c l u s t e r s u p o n t h e s t r i n g w h i c h i s t h e theme o f  B e s i d e s the obvious g r o u p i n g of the " a d o r a t i o n "  S t a n z a s V t o XVI  are l i n k e d  Of man  .... Of f i s h e s  The  Of b e a s t s  "He  commendatory next  ..." and  s t a n z a s f r o m XXXI t o XXXVII a r e l i n k e d  nine  XVIII  s u n g o f God  .... T r e e s  .... "Of  de-  o f them  "sung" i n s t a n z a  .... The W o r l d ....  each  of the  i n s t a n z a TV.  which serves f o r the succeding e i g h t . ....  by s t r u c t u r a l  i n that  d i s c o u r s e s upon, one  s t a n z a s depend upon t h e one v e r b  The  i f that i s  I n A S o n g t o D a v i d , as i n J u b i l a t e Agno,  a d j e c t i v e s applied t o David  fowl  These  away.  commences w i t h , and  Angels  line.  s t a n z a LXIV, i s  s t a n z a s , v a r i o u s o t h e r groups a r e l i n k e d vices.  so-  stanzas  Smart's p a s s i o n f o r numbers i s a l i t t l e  him  t h e poem i n t o praise.  seven,  and  a s a n e x e r c i s e on s u b d u i n g  C l e a r l y Havens' e n t h u s i a s m  is  noted,  t h i n g s of the e a r t h as  senses.  carried  have  of LIII,  " F o r ADORATION" i n t h e f i r s t  s u b j e c t s o f a d o r a t i o n , and  has  two  "For  ....  Of  gems."  by t h e u s e  of  18 t h e G r e e k l e t t e r s w h i c h a r e i n t r o d u c e d i n s t a n z a XXX "The  pillars  o f the L o r d . "  As  as  Christopher Devlin points  7 out, the seven p i l l a r s  appear i n Proverbs.  i s n o t , however, a s h i s p r i n t e r has but  put  The  reference  i t , to Proverbs  XI,  t o c h a p t e r n i n e o f t h a t book; "Wisdom h a t h b u i l d e d h e r  h o u s e , she h a t h hewn out h e r s e v e n p i l l a r s " There  i s a n o t h e r r e f e r e n c e t o the p i l l a r s  " . . . f o r the p i l l a r s  (Proverbs  i n Samuel,  o f t h e e a r t h a r e t h e LORD'S, and  h a t h s e t t h e w o r l d u p o n them" ( I Samuel 2 : 8 ) .  E a c h g r o u p i s h e l d t o g e t h e r by  a certain a t t r i b u t e being applied the f i r s t  two  s t a n z a s , and  devotional interest  i n the  A Song t o D a v i d structure.  The  to things of the earth i n  reapplied  t o some r e l i g i o u s  i s complex i n theme as w e l l and  In the  hero;  p r a i s e f o r t h e D e i t y , b o t h by Smart and  created  order throughout  offered  of the Old Testament.  m o d i f i e d , even t r a n s f i g u r e d . biblical  h i s t o r y and  o r New  David, i s of the  o f t h e poem.  emulates  and  i s not  H i s c h a r a c t e r has  But  the  been  C h r i s t o p h e r Smart's view of  t h e H e b r a i c l a w s a l s o underwent  m o d i f i c a t i o n , always toward a more l i b e r a l  o f t e n over-  by t h e r e s t  the remainder  t h e D a v i d whom Smart r e v e r e s and David  as  s t a n z a s Smart h a i l s D a v i d a s p o e t  w i t h the p r a i s e  or  third.  lap.  interwoven  of  i t s exploration of  themes a r e s e l d o m d i s t i n c t  opening  he  Finally,  f o l l o w i n g t h e s t a n z a s on a d o r a t i o n a r e f i v e g r o u p s three.  IX,1).  a more " C h r i s t i a n , "  Testament p o s i t i o n .  that i s  Robert  Brittain  19 says: C h r i s t o p h e r Smart's g r e a t e s t ' h e r o , ' whom he a d m i r e d b o t h a s man and a s p o e t , i s a c o m p o s i t e f i g u r e made u p o f t h e v a r i o u s P s a l m i s t s and o t h e r B i b l i c a l w r i t e r s and c a l l e d by him David.8 C e r t a i n l y S m a r t ' s v i e w was m o d i f i e d b y h i s r e a d i n g o f Delany's An H i s t o r i c a l Account David, King of I s r a e l , ^ the  life  o f t h e L i f e and R e i g n o f  i n which  s e v e r a l o f the events o f  of David a r e g i v e n an unusual  interpretation.  A Song t o D a v i d i s a poem o f p r a i s e , a p a e a n ing of  i n t h e whole o f t h e cosmos, a n a t t e m p t  at the expression  the u n i v e r s a l indebtedness of the created  Almighty.  I t i s the record  was j o y f u l and a s s u r e d .  p f a p i e t y which  There  c a l m and p e a c e f u l .  There  order t o the f o r that  time  i s i n i t none o f t h e  m e l a n c h o l y a n d d i s m a l f e a r and r e l i g i o u s was m a n i f e s t e d by D r . J o h n s o n ,  bring-  observance  f o r example.  that  The poem i s  i s none o f t h e d i s o r d e r o f  J u b i l a t e Agno, none o f t h e q u e s t i o n i n g o f t h e D i v i n e o r d e r to  be f o u n d  i n some o f t h e e a r l i e r poems.  In i t ,  Smart  r e a l i z e s and makes a p p a r e n t a n a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e s t a t e o f God's c r e a t e d w o r l d .  I t i s a joyful utterance, f i l l e d  w i t h t h e h a p p i n e s s o f a c o n s c i o u s harmony and p e a c e . is  the peace which  man o f God f i n a l l y In  It  i s t r a d i t i o n a l l y associated with the overcoming  the snares of the world. .  t h e Song t h e r e i s s u c h a n u n t r o u b l e d a c q u i e s c e n c e a s  might  have b e e n f e l t  by S a i n t  Francis.  20 FOOTNOTES  E.G. A i n s w o r t h & G.E. Noyes, "Smart: A B i o g r a p h i c a l and C r i t i c a l S t u d y , " U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s . X V I I I , #4, M i s s o u r i , 1943, p . 113-114. 2 R o m a n c e - s i x i s a common m e t r e i n E n g l i s h p o e t r y . The p a t t e r n ' o f s y l l a b l e s i n t h e l i n e i s 886, 886, t h e rhymescheme i s a a b c c b .  3 -M.B. p.  B r o a d b e n t , A Song t o D a v i d , C a m b r i d g e : I 9 6 0 ,  XX. 4  T h i s s t a n z a i s u s e d i n P s a l m s number I , V I I I , X V I , X V I I I , XIX, X X V I I I , XXIX, X X X I I , X L V I I , X 1 V I I I , L I I I , I X I V , L X V I I I , L X X X I I , LXXXIV.B, L X X X V I I , XC, X C V I I , X C V I I I , ANOTHER OF C, C I I I B, CIV, C V I I I , CX, CXI, C X V I I I , CXIX, C X X V I I I , CXXXVII, C X X X V I I I , CXXXIX, C X L V I I , C L . From t h e a d v e r t i s e m e n t p r i n t e d i n t h e 1763 Poems; c i t e d i n T r a n s a c t i o n s o f B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y . G.J. G r a y , V o l . V I , p . 269-303, London: 1893-1920. 1  ^R.D. Havens, "The S t r u c t u r e o f Smart's Song t o D a v i d , " i n R e v i e w o f E n g l i s h S t u d i e s . XIV, 1938, p . 178.  7 ' C h r i s t o p h e r D e v l i n , P o o r K i t Smart, L o n d o n : R u p e r t H a r t - D a v i s , 1961, p . 141. Q  R o b e r t B r i t t a i n , Poems by C h r i s t o p h e r Smart. P r i n c e t o n : 1950, p . 66. q P a t r i c k D e l a n y , An H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f t h e L i f e and R e i g n o f D a v i d . K i n g o f I s r a e l , London: 1740-42. 4 t h ed., 1769.  An  (ii)  Explication  o f t h e Poem  I Smart a s c r i b e s t o D a v i d a t h r o n e i n Heaven g r a n t e d him  by t h e D e i t y t o f a c i l i t a t e h i s y i e l d i n g t h e p r a i s e  w h i c h S m a r t ' s God seems t o r e q u i r e : 0 Thou, t h a t s i t ' s t  upon a t h r o n e  To p r a i s e t h e E i n g o f k i n g s There  seems a d e f i n i t e  statement  o f d u t y imposed.  rate,  t h e image c r e a t e d i s o f D a v i d upon a t h r o n e  h a r p and v o i c e v e r y much i n e v i d e n c e . of David, p a r t l y ,  perhaps,  because  h a r p and v o i c e a r e e x c e p t i o n a l .  A t any with  P a r t l y as a t t r i b u t e s  of their  function,  I n the phrase,  both  "...harp  o f h i g h m a j e s t i c t o n e , " b o t h t h e a c t u a l sound and t h e f u n c t i o n of the instrument are implied. And v o i c e o f h e a v e n - a s c e n d i n g s w e l l , Which, w h i l e i t s d e e p e r n o t e s e x c e l ! , C l e a r , as a c l a r i o n , r i n g s :  1)  (S.D.  A l t h o u g h t h e M.E.D. g i v e s a u t h o r i t y f o r s u c h a u s e o f t h e word  " s w e l l , " t o speak o f a v o i c e " s w e l l i n g " i s l e s s u s u a l  t h a n t o r e f e r t o some m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t  i n t h i s way.  That  t h e word was u s e d m e r e l y a s a f a c i l e rhyme i s n o t t y p i c a l o f the p r a c t i s e  o f Smart i n t h i s  the r e f e r e n c e i s t o a r i s e  poem.  Pairly obviously  i n volume s u f f i c i e n t  i n h e a v e n e v e n when D a v i d was on e a r t h .  t o be h e a r d  I n music  i t is  common t o r e f e r t o s u c h a n i n c r e a s e i n volume i n t h e s e  22  terms, p a r t i c u l a r l y when the instrument i n q u e s t i o n has a swell-pedal.  Most organs, and other pipe instruments,  have suoh a p e d a l , and so does the h a r p s i c h o r d . volume of the sound may  The  be i n c r e a s e d by opening t r a p s or  doors over the sound box.  I t would not be uncommon i n  h i s p r a c t i c e i f the a s s o c i a t i o n - harp - h a r p s i c h o r d s w e l l - r i s e t o heaven - had l e d t o Smart's choice of t h i s word. Nothing r e l a t e d t o David i s t o be taken l i g h t l y ; he excels i n a l l .  T h i s i s t r u e of even the deep notes  he u t t e r s , though they are c l e a r , "as a c l a r i o n . " II David i s a l s o t o " b l e s s each v a l l e y , grove, and coast," i n s h o r t t o b l e s s a l l of c r e a t i o n .  The  blessing,  however, assumes the form o f a prayer of thanks to G-od f o r the c r e a t i o n . also.  One  Others of the heavenly host have d u t i e s  o f David's f u n c t i o n s i s t o "charm the  cherubs  t o the post / Of g r a t i t u d e , " a task f o r which h i s p l a y i n g i s a p p a r e n t l y adequate.  He  has  To keep the days on Zion's mount, And send the year t o h i s account, With dances and. with songs :^ Can Smart r e f e r here t o some form o f time reckoning i n the c e l e s t i a l realms? J u b i l a t e Agno?  A s o r t o f musical r e n d e r i n g of the  He i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f so s t r o n g l y w i t h  •^avid, that t h i s i s v e r y p o s s i b l e .  The meaning of keep i n  the sense of an observance - to keep the sabbath - may  be  23 intended. and  D a v i d ' s main f u n c t i o n i s t o p r o v i d e t h e p r a i s e  b l e s s i n g s t o be r e n d e r e d  voice."  i n two ways, " w i t h  Thus D a v i d becomes t h e a r c h e t y p a l p o e t , t h e  prophet-bard, The idealised shepherd  the minstrel.  e n t i r e atmosphere around and p a s t o r a l one.  David  The c o n c e p t  i s a highly o f David as  c o l o u r s t h e poem.  The or b i b l i c a l  D a v i d p o r t r a y e d by Smart i s n o t t h e h i s t o r i c a l , figure,  though  picture o f the patriarch.  he i s s i m i l a r t o t h e m e d i e v a l He i s a f i g u r e c o m p r i s e d  p o e t ' s r e a c t i o n t o a n y number o f O l d Testament tempered b y h i s n a t u r a l C h r i s t i a n a b h o r e n c e and  harp...and  c o l o u r e d by t h a t a c c o u n t  Doctor Delany, The  of the  prophets,  of violence,  o f D a v i d made p u b l i c b y  i n 1743.  d a n c e s and s o n g s w h i c h f i g u r e i n t h e l a s t  o f t h e second  s t a n z a a r e based  on b i b l i c a l  d a n c i n g b e f o r e t h e p e o p l e shocked actions are indicative  story  line  (David's  Michal) but here  these  o f the poet's a t t i t u d e t o h i s hero.  He s e e s D a v i d a s j o y f u l . was one o f j o y r a t h e r t h a n  Smart's own r e l i g i o u s  experience  gloom.  Ill In t h e t h i r d  s t a n z a the poet a g a i n addresses  a s k i n g him t o accept t h e p r o f f e r e d as  "minister of praise at large"  bays.  David's  i s not u n l i k e  Smart c o n c e i v e d f o r h i m s e l f , " F o r b y t h e g r a c e  David,  position  that  which  o f God I am  24 t h e R e v i v e r o f ADORATION among ENGLISH MEN" 332). is  The  indeed  (JUL.  w h o l e poem i s d e d i c a t e d t o m a i n t a i n t h a t "God's h o l i e s t  charge."  The  third line  s t a n z a r e f e r s d i r e c t l y t o the Song a s o f f e r i n g fifth  David  The  third  s t a n z a p i c k up  the thought  introduced i n the  o f t h e poem and  ask David's  a t t e n t i o n and  aid  f o u r t h and  lines  the l a s t  line  t h a t D a v i d a p p e a r and the poet  of the t h i r d  first  invoke h i s  asks  r e c e i v e or a c c e p t t h e wreath  that  the analogy  b a y s t h a t was  The' " w r e a t h " i s A Song t o  i s w i t h t h e crown o f l a u r e l  g i v e n t o the v i c t o r or the hero  times.  Indeed  carried  on i n t h e s y m b o l i s m o f c o n t e m p o r a r y  the p r a c t i c e d i d not  interesting parallel  w i t h the l i n e s , praise,  devout  melancholie." The  one  f u s i n g , David  t h e r e and  is  still  prize-giving.  i n the f i r s t  of  prayer  i n t h e o r i g i n a l ) Weav'd i n my  low  1 1  elements t h e man  in classical  hands t h i s crown o f  p o s i t i o n i n g of David  of the  or of  T h i s poem, "La C o r o n a , " commences  "Deigne a t my  (italics  end  i s t o be f o u n d  J o h n Donne's D i v i n e Poems.  is  this  s t a n z a , Smart  i s weaving f o r him.  D a v i d , and  and  of  f o r t h e work. In  An  this  o f the  praise i n h i s turn.  line  2,  B  on t h e  "topmost  of a pattern, l i n k i n g , w i t h h i s r a c e and  with h i s  o f God's  con-  des-  Jesus.  charge,"  i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Smart's a t t i t u d e towards the of p r a i s e  "Servant  even  cendant,  e s s e n t i a l nature  D a v i d , as  eminence"  o f the A l m i g h t y .  holiest  This  praising  25 of the D e i t y i s t h e poet's duty;  p r i m e c o n c e r n and man's  "the post o f g r a t i t u d e " being that s i t u a t i o n  w h i c h Smart was most c o n c e r n e d , "jeopardy"  with  as i s evident by the  t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t  utterance of enthusiastic  first  for his  public  distinct  group.  prayer.  IV-XVII Stanzas  IV t o X V I I f o r m  Havens m a i n t a i n s seven  stanzas  poem.  and  t h a t Smart was a i m i n g a t two g r o u p s o f  i n accord with the mystic p e t t e r n i n g o f the  S i n c e t h e poet  twelve,  t h e next  i s d e a l i n g w i t h an obvious  group o f  t h e number h a s t o be made up w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y  concluding stanza.  The g r o u p i s i l l u s t r a t i v e  various positive attributes  o f David's  of the  character.  IV The  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o s t a n z a s V t o XVI s e t s  forth,  a c c o r d i n g t o Smart, "The e x c e l l e n c e and l u s t r e  o f David's  Character i n twelve  o f A Song  to David). found  p o i n t s o f view,"  (Contents  T h i s i s one o f t h e s t a n z a s w h i c h E d i t h  Sitwell  so amusing:  . . . p a r t o f t h e amusement...of t h i s most b e a u t i f u l and n e g l e c t e d work i s due t o t h e s o l e m n p i l i n g o f a d j e c t i v e on a d j e c t i v e : " G r e a t , v a l i a n t , p i o u s , good, and c l e a n , Sublime, contemplative, serene, S t r o n g , c o n s t a n t , p l e a s a n t , wise."12 She it  m o d i f i e s t h e statement,  however, w i t h t h e r i d e r , "But  i s the laughter of pleasure," ( S i t w e l l , Pleasures of  Poetry, p. 7 7 ) .  26 The  unconventional  system o f twelve  virtues -  opposed t o t h e u s u a l seven - i s p e c u l i a r t o Smart. he  i s content  w i t h t h e more a c c e p t e d  t h e Hymns f o r t h e Amusement the  twelve  grouping  o f C h i l d r e n , he  as Though  of seven i n  twice  mentions  i n J u b i l a t e Agno:  F o r t h e r e be t w e l v e c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s - t h r e e t o the East - Greatness, Valour, P i e t y , F o r t h e r e be t h r e e t o t h e West - Goodness, P u r i t y and S u b l i m i t y . F o r t h e r e be t h r e e t o t h e N o r t h - M e d i t a t i o n , Happiness, Strength. F o r t h e r e be t h r e e t o t h e S o u t h - C o n s t a n c y , P l e a s a n t r y , and Wisdom. ( J . A . B 2, Having a s s o c i a t e d the v i r t u e s thus w i t h the p o i n t s o f the twelve  sons o f  fairly  arbitrarily  compass, Smart g r o u p s them w i t h  gifts  ( J . A . B 2,  and  the  Jacob:  F o r t h e r e be t w e l v e c a r d i n a l v i r t u e s t h e o f the twelve sons of J a c o b . F o r Reuben i s G r e a t . . . . F o r Simeon i s V a l i a n t . . . . For L e v i i s Pious.... F o r J u d a h i s Good.... F o r Dan i s C l e a n . . . . For N a p h t a l i i s Sublime.... F o r Gad i s C o n t e m p l a t i v e . . . . F o r A s h u r i s Happy.... For Issachar i s strong.... For Zabulon i s Constant.... For Joseph i s p l e a s a n t . . . . For Benjamin i s Wise....  With the  355-358)  exception of the  changing of " P u r i t y " f o r " c l e a n " ;  "Meditation" f o r "contemplative";  "Serene" - t h i s a r e t h e same and  last  603-615)  and  "Happiness" f o r  a r h y m e - i n d u c e d change; - t h e v i r t u e s  i n the  same o r d e r a s  i n the  first  section  from J u b i l a t e Agno.  In the second s e c t i o n from J u b i l a t e  Agno a l l the v i r t u e s are i n the order i n which we  find  them i n the Song; a g a i n "Happy" i s found where we have come t o expect "Serene", but the departure i s i n the Song where the demands o f a rhyme scheme impelled the change. The a s s o c i a t i o n o f each Hebrew name w i t h i t s accompanying v i r t u e i s , as Robert B r i t t a i n p o i n t s out, not e n t i r e l y a r b i t r a r y .  He w r i t e s :  ...the a s s o c i a t i o n s are suggested e i t h e r by the meaning of t h e i r names (Genesis xxx), by the words of Jacob's b l e s s i n g (Genesis x l i v ) , or by some such obvious f a c t as that the l e v i t e s were the p r i e s t l y t r i b e (hence p i e t y as t h e i r p e c u l i a r v i r t u e ) . ( B r i t t a i n , p.  299)  David, as the embodiment o f the greatness of I s r a e l , becomes an " e p i c prototype of h i s people." Smart commences on one of h i s main themes i n the f o u r t h s t a n z a o f A Song t o David w i t h the enumeration o f the a t t r i b u t e s of David. couched  The i m p l i c i t commendation i s  i n j u s t such words as Edmund Burke d e c l a r e s t o  c a r r y w i t h them, wherever found, the a s s o c i a t e d r e v e r b e r a 15 t i o n s of the sublime. In h i s I n q u i r y i n t o the O r i g i n of our Ideas of the Sublime and the B e a u t i f u l (1757), he suggests t h a t through l o n g a s s o c i a t i o n some words are always thought o f i n connection w i t h the sublime response and that they t h e r e f o r e always e l i c i t that response from the reader wherever they are used.  One of the c a t e g o r i e s of the sublime w i t h  28 which. B u r k e was n o t much c o n c e r n e d sublime." There  i s the " r e l i g i o u s  I n t o t h i s t h e Song may be c o n s i d e r e d t o f a l l .  i s a similarity  i n the practice  however, w h i c h may be w o r t h n o t i n g . describes David's  of both  writers,  I n t h e Song Smart  character as:  G r e a t , v a l i a n t , p i o u s , good, and c l e a n , Sublime, cont emplative, serene, Strong, constant, pleasant, wise! (S.D. W h i l e a l l t h e s e words e x h i b i t  the sort  e x t e n s i o n o f which Burke speaks, valiant,  of connotative  s e v e r a l o f them,. "Wise,  good and g r e a t , " a r e a c t u a l l y u s e d b y B u r k e a s  examples o f h i s t h e s i s . t h a t t h e word s u b l i m e charged  IV)  I t i s not unreasonable  t o assume  i t s e l f may c a r r y w i t h i t some  such  meaning. The  f o l l o w i n g twelve stanzas i l l u s t r a t e  t h e s e commendatory a d j e c t i v e s a p p l i e d i n the r e s t  each o f  to David.  But, as  o f t h e poem, t h e comments on D a v i d a s t h e t y p e  of the s a i n t ,  and i n d e e d , o f C h r i s t  himself, r e f l e c t  Smart's r e a c t i o n n o t o n l y t o h i s o s t e n s i b l e hero, b u t a l s o to the D e i t y .  The s y n t a x and t h e s t a n z a i c s t r u c t u r e a r e  so i n v o l v e d as o f t e n t o r e q u i r e a v e r y c a r e f u l b e f o r e i t i s c l e a r t o whom Smart is. r e f e r r i n g ; t h e p r a i s e s bestowed i m p l i c i t l y and e x p l i c i t l y f i g u r e e a r r y o v e r and a f f e c t poem.  examination consequently, on t h e one  the t o t a l apprehension  of the  Each v i r t u e individual  i s mellifluously treated  in its  s t a n z a , t h u s t h e t w e l v e o f them, t o g e t h e r w i t h  t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y and fourteen of this  c o n c l u d i n g s t a n z a s , make up  the  section.  V David's greatness i s i l l u s t r a t e d stanza.  i n the  fifth  H e r e Smart s a y s t h a t he i s :  G r e a t - f r o m t h e l u s t r e o f h i s crown, From Samuel's h o r n and God's renown, Which i s t h e p e o p l e ' s v o i c e . (S.D. Several things are implied crown r e f e r s , s i d e r e d worthy  here.  The l u s t r e  o b v i o u s l y , t o the f a c t  through the prophet  Samuel, and  of David's  t h a t he was  t o become k i n g o f I s r a e l ,  V)  con-  c h o s e n by  God  a n n o i n t e d from a horn of  oil: Then Samuel t o o k a v i a l i t upon h i s h e a d . . . .  of o i l ,  and  poured  ( I Samuel x, The also  t e m p o r a l and implicit  1)  p h y s i c a l l u s t r e o f t h e a c t u a l crown i s  i n t h e image.  Smart a c c e p t s D a v i d ' s s u c c e s s i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h S a u l and Jonathan, h i s men,  as w e l l as h i s a b i l i t y t o  as e v i d e n c e o f a w o r t h y  t i n u e d achievements  character.  control  David's  con-  i n t h i s l i n e a r e a c c e p t e d by Smart, a s  by t h e c h u r c h , a s i n d i c a t i v e  o f God's c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t .  30  VI David's  r e a d i n e s s f o r " b a t t l e i s one  Testament a t t r i b u t e s o f h i s hero modify. poet.  David's The  that  of the  Old  t h e p o e t does n o t  w a r l i k e n a t u r e seems t o be a d m i r e d  s a n c t i o n o f the church upon the  by  the  Christian  k n i g h t makes t h e Hebrew l e a d e r ' s w a r l i k e n a t u r e a c c e p t a b l e t o the l e s s v i o l e n t David  spirit  of the w r i t e r .  The  valiance  i s most p o p u l a r l y known t h r o u g h h i s memorable  of slaying  "the b o a s t e r . "  T h i s encounter, l i k e  subsequent  b a t t l e s with the P h i l i s t i n e s  the bounty  w h i c h he p a i d  the s a n c t i o n of D i v i n e a p p r o v a l . g i a n t has  traditionally  exlipsed  The  feat  those  i n which David  for Michal, his f i r s t  of  wife,  won  had  encounter w i t h the  the many g r e a t e r b a t t l e s  i n w h i c h D a v i d l e d t h e Hebrews w i t h s u c h s u c c e s s , t o t h e great  chagrin of Saul.  VII The and  p i e t y of David  i s the s u b j e c t of s t a n z a V I I ,  Smart's m a t e r i a l i s t a k e n not o n l y from  sources but from Delany. seraph i n h i s soul,"  biblical  Robert B r i t t a i n notes t h a t  "the  ( i . e . D i v i n e i n s p i r a t i o n ) i s not  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h David's  p l a n f o r t h e temple  of the b i b l i c a l  as  w i t h t h e image o f a g l o r i o u s and m a g n i f i c e n t  temple,  i m p r e s s e d u p o n h i m by t h e  the s p i r i t  o f God,"  Delany  speaks  Delany's  paraphrase "filled  story.  -until  of David  immediate i n f l u e n c e  (Delany, I I , 5).  Again B r i t t a i n  of notes  31 Delany's d i s c u s s i o n o f Nathan's r e v e l a t i o n o f t h e prohibition  o f t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e temple  divine  by D a v i d .  Delany s t r e s s e s David's g r a t i t u d e t h a t the b u i l d i n g be  completed  the  fifth  line,  by h i s s o n .  line  will  T h i s i s t h e "welcome news" o f  of the s t a n z a .  The  condolence of the  t h o u g h n o t u n t y p i c a l o f the c h a r a c t e r  final  o f D a v i d , seems  i n t r o d u c e d h e r e more f o r t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f rhyme - n o t u s u a l w i t h Smart - t h a n f o r any e s s e n t i a l r e l e v a n c e t o t h i s p o r t i o n of David's h i s t o r y . grief  But, David's  on t h e d e a t h s o f S a u l and J o n a t h a n , and  an i n s t a n c e  spontaneous o f Abner i s  of David's w i l l i n g n e s s to condole.  VIII The  extreme  compression of the l a s t  t h i s s t a n z a i s a good example o f t h a t of  w h i c h Smart s p e a k s  two  "gift  lines  of  of impression"  i n J u b i l a t e Agno and t o w h i c h  he  again refers  i n the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s t r a n s l a t i o n of  Horace.  p o e t ' s s u c c e s s w i t h a wide r a n g e o f r e f e r e n c e  offered not  The  i n s m a l l room i s h e r e most a p p a r e n t .  b o a s t i n g i d l y when he  Smart  claimed t h i s a b i l i t y .  what s e t s o f f h i s work f r o m many o f t h e  was  It is  contemporary  endeavours. We of and to  see elsewhere  ( P s a l m C T I I & XXXVII) t h e c o n c e p t  " s p i r i t u a l good b r e e d i n g " w h i c h second the f a c t  lines  o f the s t a n z a .  i s implied  The  t h a t D a v i d ' s house was  i n the  "genuine v e i n "  chosen t o produce  first refers the  32 Messiah.  H e r e a f t e r i t was t o he t h e " b e s t " o f t h e J e w i s h  families,  a l t h o u g h u n t i l Samuel a n n o i n t e d t h e s o n o f J e s s e  it  had b e e n one o f t h e l e s s e r b r a n c h e s .  not guarantee  David's  continuance  The a n n o i n t i n g d i d  i n the favour o f the  L o r d , however; S a u l had a l s o b e e n a n n o i n t e d b y Samuel upon Jehovah's i n s t r u c t i o n . disobedience.  But S a u l f e l l  from f a v o u r  D a v i d was w i t h God i n a l l he d i d - w i t h t h e  e x c e p t i o n o f t h e t a k i n g o f Bath-sheba, the shepherd  an event  k i n g was s i n c e r e l y r e p e n t a n t .  "Jehudah" i s m e r e l y an  through  another  form  f o r which  The word  o f J u d a h and i s u s e d a s  alternative. David's  g o o d n e s s was e x e m p l a r y , b u t most memorably  s o on one o f t h e o c c a s i o n s when he f o r g a v e h i s k i n g . had  t a k e n a n army i n t o t h e h i l l s  and  D a v i d was h i d i n g w i t h h i s men i n a cave  came a l o n e and u n p r o t e c t e d . him  to s l a y Saul, David  Although  h i s f o l l o w e r s urged 3&4).  o f h i s K i n g was f o u n d e d  t h a t S a u l had b e e n a n n o i n t e d b y Samuel and was  the chosen  o f God.  So D a v i d  David,  i n t o which Saul  f o r e b o r e , ( I Samuel xxiv.,  His respect f o r the person fact  o f En-Gedi t o s l a y  Saul  i n the thus  c u t o f f t h e hem o f S a u l ' s  garment, c o n f r o n t i n g S a u l w i t h i t a s he went t o r e j o i n h i s body guard. and  E v e n S a u l was f o r c e d t o f o r g e t h i s j e a l o u s y  suspicion  i n t h e f a c e of t h i s p r o o f o f David's  forbear-  a n c e and g o o d w i l l . David's  g o o d n e s s was a p p a r e n t  when he f o r g a v e S h i m e i h i s c u r s i n g ,  on a n o t h e r  occasion  ( I Samuel x x i v ,  7).  33 Again David's  f o l l o w e r s urged  the offender, but David's a t any r a t e ,  t h e s e v e r e s t punishment f o r  better nature prevailed.  i s Smart's r e f e r e n c e .  n o t e , however, t h a t S h i m e i be p u n i s h e d  It i s interesting to  on h i s d e a t h - b e d for this  This,  offence.  David asked  that  I n d o i n g s o he was  v i o l a t i n g an oath.  IX The purity.  c l e a n n e s s o f s t a n z a IX i s , o f c o u r s e ,  The two t e r m s a r e i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e i n t h e c a t a l o g u e  of virtues While  spiritual  i n J u b i l a t e Agno ( J . A . B 2, 356 & B 2, 608}.  fleeing  i n the wilderness David's  "cleanness" serves him w e l l .  Upon h i s word t h a t  h i s men a r e c l e a n , t h e p r o p h e t A h i m e l e c h the consecrated breads  acknowledged he and  f e e d s them w i t h  from b e f o r e the a l t a r o f t h e l o r d :  And t h e p r i e s t a n s w e r e d D a v i d , and s a i d , T h e r e i s no common b r e a d u n d e r mine hand, b u t t h e r e i s h a l l o w e d b r e a d ; i f t h e young men h a v e k e p t t h e m s e l v e s a t l e a s t f r o m women. And D a v i d unswered t h e p r i e s t , and s a i d u n t o him, O f a t r u t h women have b e e n k e p t f r o m u s a b o u t t h e s e t h r e e d a y s , s i n c e I came o u t , and t h e v e s s e l s o f t h e y o u n g men a r e h o l y . . . . ( I Samuel x x i , 4 & 5) P u r i t y i s one o f t h e m a i n c o n c e r n s religious  experience.  He t o o k q u i t e l i t e r a l l y  i n j u n c t i o n t o pray without years of h i s l i f e dedication.  o f Smart i n h i s  ceasing.  a r e an attempt  Because o f h i s h a b i t  t h e p o e t was l o c k e d u p .  The l a s t  St. Paul's fifteen  at realizing a  complete  o f incessant prayer,  H i s enthusiasm  i n matters  34 devotional  d i d not  Johnson l a t e r he  the  s a i d o f him  ought t o be  to society." r o u t i n g the  suit  s h u t up.  spirit  t o Dr. His  Smart's own  i n f i r m i t i e s were n o t  a c l o i s t e r e d monk may  own  constant  though S a u l  He  as  any  projects  state of prayer  and  man  his  adoration  "Clean - i f perpetual-  example o f D a v i d ' s l o v e , w h i c h h i s constant  sought h i s l i f e .  close  On  and  f o r "the  He  was  the  r e f u s a l to attack a t l e a s t two  enough t o p l u n g e i n t h e  m i g h t be a r g u e d t h a t t h i s was  himself.  was  P r o b a b l y Smart  prayer"  well attain.  D a v i d must be,  p o e t r e f e r s t o , was  h i s G-od  noxious  pure."  Perhaps the  D a v i d was  accepted.  "perpetual  i m p u l s e t o the  onto h i s h e r o , and  think  comments i n J u b i l a t e Agno a b o u t  close to a state of  be  Dr.  p a s s e r s b y i n Hyde P a r k show t h a t he  not  prayer  times.  Burney, "I d i d not  c o n s c i o u s t h a t h i s ways were n o t came as  of the  l o v e not  Saul,  occasions  sword h i m s e l f . f o r S a u l but  It  for  l o r d ' s a n n o i n t e d , " perhaps even f o r  u n w i l l i n g to d e f i l e himself  and  alienate  Jehovah. Nor  was  many " w i v e s . " forefront  His  of the  attributable we  David devoid  c a l l love.  of carnal love, witness  s i n i n sending Uriah  b a t t l e t h a t he  to that  the  m i g h t be  killed  f e e l i n g w h i c h i n our  C e r t a i n l y he  the  b e a u t i f u l Bath-sheba.  not  Smart's r e f e r e n c e ,  Hittite  to  the  also  p o l i t e r moments  d i d i t t h a t he  might  I t seems l i k e l y t h a t  however.  was  his  Though he  possess this  stoutly  0  is  35 maintains  t h a t t h e p a s s i o n s a r e t o he made u s e o f , a  r e f e r e n c e i n J u b i l a t e Agno s u g g e s t s  that celibacy  i s most  a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e L o r d , and women t h e r o o t o f a l l t r o u b l e . The  poet  says:  F o r beauty i s b e t t e r t o l o o k upon than t o meddle w i t h a n d ' t i s good f o r a man n o t t o know a woman.  ;  (J.A. B This  1, 105)  theme i s t a k e n up w i t h y e t g r e a t e r emphasis i n a n o t h e r  section: F o r I p r o p h e s y t h a t t h e r e w i l l be l e s s m i s e r y c o n c e r n i n g women, F o r I p r o p h e c y t h a t t h e y w i l l be cooped up and k e p t u n d e r due c o n t r o l . ( J . A . C, 66 & 67) I t was h i s l u s t  f o r a woman - B a t h - s h e b a - t h a t  David  So p e r h a p s Smart i s n o t c o m p l e t e l y u n -  to f a l l .  reasonable  i n h i s f e a r o f the female  caused  influence.  X ^ke  s u b l i m i t y o f David  i s again closely involved  w i t h S m a r t ' s own d e s i r e t o be i n a p e r p e t u a l s t a t e o f grace,  t o be en r a p p o r t w i t h h i s God, a d e s i r e w h i c h he  p r o j e c t s without  much s t r a i n u p o n t h e Hebrew p s a l m i s t .  F o r C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, D a v i d  i s i n constant  communion w i t h  t h e m e s s e n g e r s o f t h e h e a v e n s ; he i s t h e r e c i p i e n t o f instruction, The  o f j o y , o f l o v e from  the Eternal.  s u b l i m i t y o f the Jewish K i n g i s apparent t o  Smart i n t h e p s a l m s a n d o t h e r w r i t i n g s a t t r i b u t e d The  Song was w r i t t e n a f t e r Smart had t r a n s l a t e d  t o him.  t h e Psalms  36 o f D a v i d , and  t h e p o e t was  sublimity of his original.  imbued w i t h the g r a n d e u r Delany  insists  P r o v e r b s were a l s o w r i t t e n by D a v i d Nor  could David's  ability  t h a t the  and 0  ( D e l a n y , i i , 326).  t o remain  i n t h e good  graces o f the L o r d , d e s p i t e h i s b e l l i g e r e n t a c t i o n s to b o t h J e w i s h and Smart.  Philistine  S a u l was The  opponents,  fail  to  impress  damned f o r f a r l e s s .  " e t e r n a l theme" o f t h e t h i r d  line  i s the  i n c e s s a n t p r e o c c u p a t i o n o f b o t h t h e Hebrew and w r i t e r w i t h p r a i s e of the D e i t y ; i t i s a l s o a p p a r e n t l y a pun, w e l l , and to  that  English  fairly  i s , t h e o t h e r meaning o b t a i n s a s  t h e s e n t e n c e may  be r e a d w i t h "God"  " t h e e t e r n a l theme," t h u s God,  who  i n opposition  i s eternal,  is a  s u i t a b l e theme f o r p o e t r y . XI David's  habit,  Testament l e a d e r s , was t r o u b l e d , and this  one  he s h a r e d w i t h a l l r e p u t a b l e O l d  to r e t i r e  c o n s u l t h i s God.  Cont e m p l a t i o n was  Once a g a i n , D e l a n y b r i n g s  t h e one  of the twelve  be s u p p o s e d  t o have  virtues understood.  s e v e n y e a r s i n " j e o p a r d y " gave h i m ample t i m e  experience i t to the f u l l ; have e n a b l e d him  C e r t a i n l y he  but  i n I Samuel.  t h a t C h r i s t o p h e r Smart may  to  whenever  o u t w i t h g r e a t e r emphasis t h a n does t h e B i b l e ,  t h e f a c t s a r e t o be f o u n d  His  i n solitude  and,  i n d e e d , i t may  be  to thought  to adjust h i s genius to h i s world.  emerged f r o m t h e a s y l u m  a c a l m e r and  more  37 s e r i o u s man, w i t h h i s e v e r - p r e s e n t p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r t h i n g s s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t e d and g i v e n new i m p e t u s . acquainted  w i t h "the cherub  David's  Smart was  contemplation-.V  was n o t a n u n t r o u b l e d  r e i g n ; when he was  n o t b e i n g a t t a c k e d by S a u l o r the P h i l i s t i n e s , were s e e k i n g h i s t h r o n e . his  o t h e r enemies and h i s a b i l i t y  o n l y have b e e n e x c e l l e d his  He f l e d  frequent  raids.  many t i m e s  h i s own s o n s  from  S a u l and  t o f o r g i v e and b l e s s c a n  b y h i s c a p a c i t y f o r d e s t r u c t i o n on  O f t h e s e , however, C h r i s t o p h e r Smart  does not speak.  XII David's  s e r e n i t y i n the face of great  and  c o n t e n t i o n , Smart seems t o s u g g e s t ,  his  early pastoral  tribulations  i s the result of  e x p e r i e n c e w h i l e he h e r d e d  sheep  along  t h e banks o f K i d r o n , t h e b r o o k w h i c h d i v i d e s J e r u s a l e m from  t h e Mount o f O l i v e s .  the c i t y here.  i n later life,  But a l t h o u g h David  conquered  i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t he h e r d e d  W i t h i n t h e framework o f t h i s poem, Smart  the form poetry,  of soft primitivism associated with o r with the eighteenth-century c u l t  peasant,  which a t t r i b u t e d  and  contentment t o c o u n t r y l i f e ,  real  accepts  pastoral o f the noble  a l l p o s s i b l e temporal  e x i s t e n c e f r e e from t h e temptations  sheep  where a  pleasures  simple  and d i s t r a c t i o n s o f  u r b a n e x i s t e n c e endowed man w i t h wisdom and g o o d n e s s . The  peace which David  the P h i l i s t i n e s .  sought  was c e r t a i n l y n o t w i t h  Throughout h i s l i f e  he was a t odds w i t h  38 them a l m o s t  constantly.  And t h o u g h i n o r d e r t o keep h i s  hands c l e a n he o f t e n r e s t r a i n e d h i m s e l f f r o m revenge,  seeking  h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o Solomon on h i s d e a t h - b e d  t o d e s t r o y some o f h i s s u r v i v i n g o p p o n e n t s .  were  One n o t e s t h e  i r o n y o f h i s words t o Solomon: And keep t h e c h a r g e o f t h e L o r d t h y God, t o w a l k i n h i s ways, t o keep h i s s t a t u t e s , and h i s commandments, and h i s t e s t i m o n i e s , as i t i s w r i t t e n i n t h e l a w o f Moses, t h a t t h o u mayest p r o s p e r i n a l l t h a t t h o u d o e s t , and w h i t h e r s o e v e r t h o u t u r n e s t t h y s e l f : T h a t t h e L o r d may c o n t i n u e h i s word w h i c h he s p o k e c o n c e r n i n g me, s a y i n g , I f t h y c h i l d r e n t a k e heed t o t h e i r way, t o w a l k b e f o r e me i n t r u t h w i t h a l l t h e i r h e a r t and w i t h a l l t h e i r s o u l , t h e r e s h a l l n o t f a i l t h e e ( s a i d h e ) a man on t h e t h r o n e of I s r a e l . M o r e o v e r t h o u knowest a l s o what J o a b t h e s o n o f Z e r u i a h d i d t o me, and what he d i d t o t h e two c a p t a i n s o f t h e h o s t s o f I s r a e l , u n t o A b n e r t h e s o n o f N e r , and u n t o Amasa t h e s o n o f J e t h e r , whom he s l e w , and shed t h e b l o o d o f war i n p e a c e , and p u t t h e b l o o d o f war u p o n h i s g i r d l e t h a t was a b o u t h i s l o i n s , and i n h i s shoes t h a t were on h i s f e e t . Do t h e r e f o r e a c c o r d i n g t o t h y wisdom, and l e t n o t h i s h o a r head go down t o the grave i n peace. (I Kings And  ii,  3-6)  i f t h i s were n o t enough t o d i s i l l u s i o n a n y f o l l o w e r he  continues: And b e h o l d , t h o u h a s t w i t h t h e e S h i m e i the s o n o f Gera, a Benjamite o f Bahurim, w h i c h c u r s e d me w i t h a g r i e v o u s c u r s e i n t h e d a y when I went t o Mahanaim: b u t he came down t o me a t J o r d a n , and I sware t o him by t h e l o r d s a y i n g , I w i l l n o t put thee t o d e a t h by t h e sword.  39 Now t h e r e f o r e h o l d h i m n o t g u i l t l e s s : f o r t h o u a r t a w i s e man, and knowest what t h o u o u g h t e s t t o do u n t o him; b u t h i s h o a r head b r i n g t h o u down t o t h e g r a v e in blood. (I K i n g s So much f o r D a v i d , " s o w ( i n g )  t h e seeds  i i , 8-9)  o f peace."  XIII C e r t a i n l y D a v i d ' s s t r e n g t h may be s u p p o s e d overcome S a t a n i n t h a t he r e m a i n e d to  speak,  o f the Lord.  come t h e t r o u b l e d  spirit  of Saul.  unrest t o the machinations the  i n t h e good g r a c e s , s o  I n t h e book o f °amuel,  David's s t r e n g t h i s put out l a r g e l y  t o have  however,  t o s o o t h e and t o o v e r In a t t r i b u t i n g  Saul's  o f S a t a n , Smart d e p a r t s  from  s c r i p t u r a l s o u r c e , a s he d i d i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s  Psalms,  t o emphasize t h o s e e l e m e n t s  a c c e p t a b l e t o him. expressly stated  of the  o f t h e o r i g i n a l most  I n I Samuel, c h a p t e r x v l , i t i s  that the e v i l  spirit  which  came t o S a u l  was n o t f r o m S a t a n , b u t was s e n t f r o m God t o work h i s destruction: And i t came t o p a s s , when t h e e v i l s p i r i t f r o m God was u p o n S a u l , t h a t D a v i d t o o k a n h a r p , and p l a y e d w i t h h i s hand; s o S a u l was r e f r e s h e d , and was w e l l , and t h e e v i l s p i r i t departed from him. ( I Samuel x v i , David's  strength lay, like  machinations were t h e l i o n And his  Samson's, i n h i s God.  o f e v i l were overcome b y D a v i d ' s and t h e b e a r :  D a v i d s a i d u n t o S a u l , Thy s e r v a n t k e p t f a t h e r ' s sheep, a n d t h e r e came a l i o n  A l l the  faith,  as  23)  40 and a b e a r , and he t o o k a lamb out o f t h e f l o e k , and I went o u t a f t e r him, and smote him, and d e l i v e r e d i t out o f h i s mouth; and when he a r o s e a g a i n s t me, I c a u g h t him b y h i s b e a r d , and smote him, and s l e w him. ( I Samuel x v i , 3 , 4 & 5 ) The  image o f t h e l i o n  i s s u c h a one  "sublime," the bear a l s o .  a s B u r k e would c o n s i d e r  Their inclusion  here  i s appro-  priate.  XIV David's  c o n s t a n c y i n l o v e c a n h a r d l y be t h o u g h t  a p p l y to h i s treatment or was  o f women.  i n d e e d f o r any r i c h man, not  e x c e p t i o n a l ; and  than,  "Ponstant  Abigail  t  b u t D a v i d was  of  wife  David's  comething  less  of death," to Michal, or  or the o t h e r s .  S a u l and  his f i r s t  Jezreel,  w i f e ; she was  t a k e n away by  g i v e n to another l e a d e r f o r a time.  David took A b i g a i l ,  t h e widow o f N a b a l , and  ( I Samuel xxv,  43-44).  book o f Samuel ( i i i ,  o t h e r wives  he h a d .  Nor  was  concubines.  Then t h e r e was  Abishag,  Shunamite.  the  To J o n a t h a n , b e e n c o n s t a n t , and Smart  t o have more t h a n one  beyond t h e v e r g e  M i c h a l was  second  In those days f o r a k i n g ,  t h e number o f w i v e s  s o n , Solomon i s p r o v e r b i a l ,  to  refers:  There  Whereupon Ahinoam o f  i s the evidence  the  2 , 3 & 4 5 ) a s t o t h e number o f David  without  Bath-sheba;  however, D a v i d may i t i s doubtless this  and  numerous of course,  be t h o u g h t  t o have  constancy t o which  41 How a r e t h e m i g h t y f a l l e n i n t h e m i d s t o f t h e battle. 0 J o n a t h a n , t h o u wast s l a i n i n t h i n e high places. I am d i s t r e s s e d f o r t h e e , my b r o t h e r J o n a t h a n : v e r y p l e a s a n t h a s t t h o u b e e n u n t o me: t h y l o v e t o me was w o n d e r f u l , p a s s i n g t h e l o v e o f women. How a r e t h e m i g h t y f a l l e n , and t h e weapons o f war p e r i s h e d .  (II Furthermore, light  Samuel i ,  David's treatment o f Mephibosheth,  o f h i s f e e l i n g s toward  25-27)  i n the  t h e lame, i s e v i d e n c e o f a  f e e l i n g f o r J o n a t h a n m o t i v a t i n g him,  "beyond t h e v e r g e  of  death." And D a v i d s a i d on t h a t day, Whosoever g e t t e t h up t o t h e g u t t e r , and s m i t e t h t h e J e b u s i t e s , and t h e lame and t h e b l i n d , t h a t a r e h a t e d o f D a v i d ' s s o u l , he s h a l l be c h i e f and c a p t a i n . ( I I Samuel v, David's treatment  o f Z i b a and  Mephibosheth  is a  8)  little  i n v o l v e d , b u t he shows g r e a t t o l e r a n c e b o t h t o t h e s e r v a n t and  t o t h e lame s o n o f h i s f r i e n d  Jonathan.  XV T h a t D a v i d was  p l e a s a n t Smart would m a i n t a i n f r o m  the s e v e r a l p l a c e s i n the s c r i p t u r a l o f as b e i n g l o v e d by a l l o f T h a t he was  probable.  (The NED  however.)  T h a t he was  t h a t he was  may  s o i n "ephod", t h a t  David's  doubt,  though  " g l a d " seems more  d o e s s u p p o r t Smart's u s e  meaning o f t h e word, i n t h e v e s t m e n t s t a k e on f a i t h .  i s spoken  Judah.  " p l e a s a n t " i n a r m o r we  Smart's m o d i f i e d statement  may  r e c o r d where he  o f t h e word,  i s , i n one  of the p r i e s t ,  we  f i n a l a l i e n a t i o n from M i c h a l  42 came a b o u t b e c a u s e he d a n c e d b e f o r e  t h e L o r d (and  i n c i d e n t l y b e f o r e the s e r v i n g maids) so c l a d : And D a v i d d a n c e d b e f o r e t h e L o r d w i t h a l l h i s m i g h t ; and D a v i d was g i r d e d w i t h a l i n e n ephod. And a s t h e a r k o f t h e L o r d came i n t o t h e c i t y of David, Michal Saul's daughter looked through a window, and saw K i n g D a v i d l e a p i n g and d a n c i n g b e f o r e t h e L o r d ; and s h e d e s p i s e d h i m i n h e r heart. ( I Samuel v i , 14 & 16) However, M i c h a l ' s  r e a c t i o n does n o t p l e a s e  David:  Then D a v i d r e t u r n e d t o b l e s s h i s h o u s e h o l d . Arid M i c h a l t h e d a u g h t e r o f S a u l came out t o meet D a v i d , and s a i d , How g l o r i o u s was t h e ^ i n g o f I s r a e l t o d a y , who u n c o v e r e d h i m s e l f t o d a y i n t h e eyes o f t h e handmaids o f h i s s e r v a n t s , a s one o f t h e v a i n f e l l o w s shamelessly uncovereth himself. ( I I Samuel v i , 20) David's  reply  i s to the point:  And I w i l l be y e t more v i l e t h a n t h i s , and w i l l be b a s e i n mine own s i g h t : and o f t h e maidservants which thou hast spoken o f , o f them I s h a l l be h e l d i n h o n o u r . T h e r e f o r e M i c h a l t h e d a u g h t e r o f S a u l had no c h i l d u n t o t h e d a y o f h e r d e a t h . ( I I Samuel v i , 22 & This i s less  illustrative  of David's  23)  love or pleasantness  t h a n Smart would have u s r e c o l l e c t . The  t h r e e e l e m e n t s o f t h e human c r e a t u r e ,  s o u l , and a n g e l , " a r e e x p l a i n e d b y R o b e r t of a heretical, b e l i e f  B r i t t a i n as p a r t  i n the t r i - p a r t i t e nature  F u r t h e r comment on t h i s cussion of stanza XIII.  "Man,  o f man.  problem i s r e s e r v e d f o r the d i s -  43 XYI The  eminence o f w h i c h Smart s p e a k s  s t a n z a o f A Song t o D a v i d a r o s e , Smart i m p l i e s ,  i s here  e l a b o r a t e d upon.  from David's  he  retells  Delany  the s t o r y o f David's  It  r e c o v e r y from h i s  I n t h e s c r i p t u r e s D a v i d h a s many f a l l s s p e a k i n g , r i s e s above each.  i n the t h i r d  lust  fall.  a n d , i n a manner o f  a g a i n makes a l l c l e a r ; f o r B a t h - s h e b a and  t h e murder he commits f o r h e r : . . . M i l l i o n s have b e e n l o s t i n t h e s e l a b y r i n t h s o f g u i l t ; b u t none, s u r e , i n a n y more i n t r i c a t e and p e r p l e x i n g t h a n t h i s . . . m i l l i o n s have f a l l e n , have s i n n e d , a s D a v i d d i d ; b u t who e v e r r e p e n t e d and r e c o v e r e d l i k e him? ( D e l a n y , 11, 320) The  r e f e r e n c e i s t o David's  weakness i n t a k i n g  Bath-sheba:  And i t came t o p a s s i n a n e v e n i n g t i d e , t h a t D a v i d a r o s e f r o m o f f , h i s bed, and walked u p o n t h e r o o f o f t h e k i n g ' s h o u s e ; and f r o m t h e r o o f he saw a woman w a s h i n g h e r s e l f ; and t h e woman was b e r y b e a u t i f u l to l o o k upon. And D a v i d s e n t and e n q u i r e d a f t e r t h e woman. And one s a i d , I s n o t t h i s Bath-sheba, the daughter o f E l i a m , t h e w i f e o f U r i a h the % t t i t e ? And D a v i d s e n t m e s s e n g e r s , and t o o k h e r ; and she came i n u n t o h i m , and he l a y w i t h h e r ; f o r s h e was p u r i f i e d f r o m h e r u n c l e a n n e s s ; and she r e t u r n e d u n t o h e r house. And t h e woman c o n c e i v e d , and s e n t and t o l d D a v i d , and s a i d , I am w i t h c h i l d . ( I I Samuel x i , 2-5)  44 At  t h i s p o i n t David  almost  o r d e r s U r i a h t o go down t o h i s  h o u s e and s l e e p w i t h h i s w i f e , h u t U r i a h does n o t s o D a v i d s e n d s f u r t h e r messages: And i t came t o p a s s i n t h e m o r n i n g , t h a t D a v i d w r o t e a l e t t e r t o J o a b , and s e n t i t hy U r i a h . And he w r o t e i n t h e l e t t e r , s a y i n g , S e t ye U r i a h i n t h e f o r e f r o n t o f t h e h o t t e s t b a t t l e , and r e t i r e y e f r o m him, t h a t he may be s m i t t e n , and d i e . ( I I Samuel x i , 14 & 15) David's is  c o m p l a c e n c y on h e a r i n g t h e news o f t h i s  remarkable  ( I I Samuel x i , 23-27).  rebuked by Nathan, t h e prophet, xii,  9-14).  be b o r n .  David  success  B u t when he i s r e p e n t s . ( I I Samuel  However, o f t h i s u n i o n was Solomon l a t e r t o  I n s c r u t a b l e a r e t h e ways o f t h e A l m i g h t y .  As  t o the "precepts"  of the f i f t h l i n e  of the  s t a n z a , D e l a n y a g a i n makes a l l c l e a r : As c r i t i c s have c o n s i d e r e d t h e f i r s t n i n e chapters o f Proverbs, only as a preface t o what i s p r o p e r l y c a l l e d t h e book o f Proverbs. the a t t e n t i v e reader w i l l f i n d a l l the precepts, from t h e beginning o f t h e f o u r t h c h a p t e r t o t h e end o f t h e n i n t h , t o be o n l y r e c i t a l s o f D a v i d ' s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o h i s s o n Solomon. (Delany, C e r t a i n l y t h e c o u n s e l g i v e n t o Solomon i n K i n g s notable  I L y 299)  i s not  f o r i t s m o r a l i t y , though perhaps p o l i t i c a l l y wise.  XVII In t h i s the  feeling  s t a n z a C h r i s t o p h e r Smart i s a g a i n p r o j e c t i n g  o f the poet upon t h e p s a l m i s t .  That  h i s writings  45 gave Smart, "...balm f o r a l l the thorns that p i e r c e , F o r a l l the pangs that rage," we may b e l i e v e .  David, however,  sought s o l a c e i n t r a n s p o r t s l e s s e s o t e r i c .  Smart  a t t r i b u e s t o him a j o y i n i n t e l l e c t u a l c r e a t i o n f a r outr e a c h i n g that p l e a s u r e which David found, a l b e i t  mo-  m e n t a r i l y , i n h i s f i r s t w i f e , M i c h a l , and i n the young v i r g i n who "comforted him" i n h i s o l d age. B r i t t a i n notes that Delany speaks o f Abishag as David's w i f e , thus e s t a b l i s h i n g a p a r a l l e l between h e r and M i c h a l .  This was  not an e s s e n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n f o r Smart t o make i n order t o use these f i g u r e s as he does.  They were both beloved by  ^ a v i d , and as such serve t o i l l u s t r a t e Smart's p o i n t . The second group o f stanzas i n A Song t o David i s thus concluded.  So Smart t i e s o f f h i s eulogy of the  c h a r a c t e r o f David. XVIII In t h e stanza, Smart commences on a n i n e - s t a n z a s e c t i o n ennumerating  the t o p i c s o f David's Song.  The  r e c o u n t i n g o f those c r e a t e d t h i n g s which were thus b l e s s e d by David i s a transparent d e v i c e e n a b l i n g C h r i s t o p h e r Smart t o a n t i c i p a t e h i s own p r a i s i n g i n the A d o r a t i o n stanzas o f the second h a l f o f the poem.  Here Smart, t h e  poet, and David, the p s a l m i s t i n t e r m i n g l e . XVII-XXVII From s t a n z a XVII t o XXVII Smart i s enumerating,  46 according  t o the  " C o n t e n t s " p r e f i x e d t o A Song t o  David:  The s u b j e c t s he made c h o i c e o f - t h e Supreme B e i n g - a n g e l s ; men o f renown; t h e works o f n a t u r e i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , e i t h e r p a r t i c u l a r l y or c o l l e c t i v e l y c o n s i d e r e d , t o v e r . 27. (S.D. for  'Contents,')  example: He s u n g o f God - t h e m i g h t y s o u r c e o f a l l t h i n g s - t h e s t u p e n d o u s f o r c e on w h i c h a l l s t r e n g t h depends; (S.D.  The  s i n g l e verb  "sung" i n s t a n z a  the  f o l l o w i n g nine  stanzas.  eighteen  the world, the  beasts,  d o m e s t i c and  stanzas  Smart  are derived  planets, l i g h t ,  w i l d , and  gems.  i s a t home on h i s own  ease w i t h h i s v e r s e .  of the  stanzas, Creation;  plants, fowl,  fishes,  In the group of t e r r i t o r y and  S e v e r a l o f the  from Psalm  does d u t y f o r  Then, i n s u c c e s s i v e  Smart e l a b o r a t e s upon t h e v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f man,  XVIII)  nine  i s at  images i n t h i s  section  CIV.  H e r e Smart s t a t e s one  of the u n d e r l y i n g precepts  the  poem: t h a t a l l t h i n g s depend, q u i t e l i t e r a l l y ,  the  Deity:  of  upon  Prom whose r i g h t arm, b e n e a t h whose eyes A l l p e r i o d , pow'r and e n t e r p r i z e Commences, r e i g n s , and e n d s . C o n s c i o u s a s he powers i n t h e  was  of the  everyday l i f e  Smart weaves t h e f a b r i c paean.  The  source  i n t e r v e n t i o n of the of eighteenth  century  of h i s intense b e l i e f  m a t e r i a l of the  heavenly  poem - t h e  England,  into his books  of  47 Samuel and second  of Kings - i l l u s t r a t e  half  of stanza XVIII.  v e n t i o n of the l o r d of temporal  the statement  of  the  T h e r e i n the p e r s o n a l  inter-  e f f e c t s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r change,  sway.  S m a r t ' s was  a very visual  o f h i s images makes a p p a r e n t  i m a g i n a t i o n , as the  and  s t a n z a v e r y w e l l w i t h the crude  one  can c o r r e l a t e  illustrations  this  o f the  d e p e n d e n t f r o m t h e h e a v e n s w h i c h so o f t e n accompany editions  clarity  world early  of Paradise Lost.  XIX S m a r t ' s p o s i t i v e a s s e r t i o n s on t h e s u b j e c t o f a n g e l s were n o t beliefs.  i n accord w i t h orthodox  They s a v o u r e d  elements  Church  r a t h e r t o o much o f t h e  w h i c h t h e l a w s o f t h e l a n d were s t i l l  to suppress.  Smart's t r e a t m e n t  of  England  Popish prepared  o f a n g e l s i n t h e poem, and  t h e i n v o c a t i o n o f t h e dead were among t h o s e e l e m e n t s calculated  t o appeal to the orthodox  not  eighteenth-century  mind. Robert  B r i t t a i n suggests  that  Smart's v i e w s on  the  i  subject  of angels are h e r e t i c a l  elsewhere  (p. 287).  Smart i m p l i e s  (Hymn IX and XXIV) t h a t a n g e l s a r e employed  heavenly  messengers - the  stanza.  What t h e i r r e w a r d , "meed" i s , however, he  not next  specify. line.  citterns,"  "ministry" of l i n e  Though p e r h a p s The  of  this does  i t i s the b l e s s i n g s of the  image o f them w a i t i n g , " w i t h  recalls  one  as  their  the e a r l y t a s k o f David t o soothe  the  48 troubled  spirit  they are not  of Saul with h i s playing.  i n t h e same p e r i l  A g a i n the scene the i n c r e d i b l e  comic  that David  i s Miltonic,  o p e r a scene  P a r a d i s e L o s t or perhaps  hopes  that  was.  most r e m i n i s c e n t o f  i n the t h i r d  i n a Masque.  o f M i c h a e l bowing w i t h h i s m i l l i o n s , r e a d e r as a v i s u a l  One  book o f  C e r t a i n l y the may  strike  vision  t h e modern  image o f a humorous r a t h e r t h a n a n  awe-  inspiring kind. The  concept  of the s e r a p h or the cherub  having  a  spuse  o r mate i s n o t o n l y u n c a n o n i c a l b u t h e r e t i c a l .  appears,  It  however, i n some o f Smart's hymns a l s o . ^  Perhaps attribution  some p r e c e d e n t may  be  f o u n d f o r Smart's  o f sex t o the c e l e s t i a l beings i n P a r a d i s e  Lost: Love n o t t h e h e a v ' n l y S p i r i t s , and how t h e i r L o v e E x p r e s s t h e y , by l o o k s o n l y , o r do t h e y mix I r r a d i a n c e , v i r t u a l o r immediate t o u c h ? To whom t h e A n g e l w i t h a s m i l e t h a t glow'd C e l e s t i a l r o s y r e d , L o v e ' s p r o p e r hue, Answer'd. L e t i t s u f f i c e t h e e t h a t t h o u know'st Us happy, and w i t h o u t Love no h a p p i n e s s . (P.L. V I I I , H e r e M i l t o n b r i n g s up  t h e q u e s t i o n and  d i s m i s s the p o s s i b i l i t y .  does n o t  entirely  However, Smart's v i v i d  t i o n c o u l d have c o n c e i v e d t h e i d e a w i t h o u t any  615-621)  imagina-  conscious  source.  XX The garden  man  t h a n man  d e p i c t e d i n s t a n z a XX f a l l e n and  sinning.  i s more Adam i n t h e The  establishment of  49 man i n t h e g a r d e n w i t h d o m i n i o n  o v e r t h e b e a s t s , "To r u l e  t h e l a n d , and b r i n y b r o a d , " r e c a l l s s e m b l a n c e o f God i s a l s o a c o n c e p t  Genesis. from  Man as t h e  Genesis:  So God c r e a t e d man i n h i s own image, i n t h e image o f God c r e a t e d he him; ( G e n e s i s i , 27.) T h a t t o t h e C h r i s t i a n man i s t h e " e f f e c t is  obvious.  The theme b e h i n d  o f God and L o v e "  the f i n a l l i n e s  of the  s t a n z a o c c u r s a g a i n and a g a i n i n t h e work o f Smart and i n that  of other Christian writers;  s e r v e God.  The f i f t h l i n e  t h a t man i s c r e a t e d t o  i s more s p e c i f i c a l l y  concerned  w i t h man's d u t y t o p r a i s e t h e c r e a t o r - t h e i m p u l s e t h i s poem.  The s i x t h r e c a l l s  were " h e r o e s  i n h i s cause,"  behind  t h e O l d Testament l e a d e r s who  and, s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  David.  XXI The  c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d , t h e p l a n e t s , l i g h t and  shade i s r e c o r d e d i n s t a n z a XXI.  Smart i s n o t h e r e  deal-  i n g w i t h the c r e a t i o n i n the o r d e r o f Genesis, though does so l a t e r .  he  The c l u s t e r i n g s p h e r e s a r e r a t h e r t h e  p l a n e t s t h a n t h e more remote h e a v e n l y b o d i e s .  Ina l l  p r o b a b i l i t y t h e p o e t h a s i n mind c o n t e m p o r a r y  diagrams  of  t h e p l a n e t s r e p l e t e w i t h moons, o r models o f t h e s o l a r system. The  "glorious l i g h t "  the crescendo  o f the second  line  i n w h i c h t h e poem c u l m i n a t e s :  anticipates  50 G l o r i o u s t h e sun i n mid c a r e e r ; G l o r i o u s th'assembled f i r e s appear, G l o r i o u s t h e comet's t r a i n : (S.D. The  third  line,  landscape, pastoral  LXXXVI)  w i t h i t s attempted a l l - i n c l u s i v e n e s s o f  presents,  through  Smart's c h o i c e o f i d i o m , a  scene.  The different  remainder o f the stanza creates q u i t e a image.  epigramatic  little  T h i s i s one o f t h e a p h o r i s t i c , statements  with which the poet  s p e r s e s w r i t i n g o f a f a r more p r o s a i c t e n o r .  almost inter-  The l i t e r a l  r e f e r e n c e i s presumably t o t h e depths of the ocean bed. But  the l i n e  by a f a i r l y mysterious.  i s not tied  to a specific  common e x t e n s i o n t o a l l t h a t i s v e i l e d and P a r t o f t h e charm o f t h e l i n e s l i e s  p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n and t h e s u g g e s t i o n seclusion.  r e f e r e n c e and r e f e r s  The s o u r c e  i n the  of preference f o r  i s biblical.  Wisdom i s t h e d a u g h t e r o f God b y whom he c o n c e i v e d o f t h e w o r l d , and t h e " d i s c r e t i o n " w i t h w h i c h He s t r e t c h e d o u t t h e h e a v e n s . (Proverbs In Jeremiah  i i i , VII)  i t i swritten:  He h a t h made t h e e a r t h by h i s power, he h a t h e s t a b l i s h e d t h e w o r l d b y h i s wisdom, and h a t h s t r e t c h e d o u t t h e h e a v e n s b y h i s discretion. (Jeremiah  x, 12)  51 XXII The  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  references. stanza  The  brings  scientific  is  of the  first  with line  physics  "gem"  e s t a b l i s h e d and  two  depicted  o f image t h a n a " s t i l l "  the  -  the  contemporaneous d i s c o v e r i e s  - which are  of l i n e  of  varied  o f p o p u l a r i n t e r e s t i n h i s day  Royal Society,  m e d i c i n e and The  root"  i s replete  t o mind S m a r t ' s i n t e r e s t s i n t h e  fields  work o f t h e  XVI.  "virtuous  flora  r e f l e c t e d i n J u b i l a t e Agno,  i s a bud ."^ t h u s a  progression  - more s u c c e s s f u l on t h e  picture.  in  level  Smart o f t e n d e p i c t s  his  a n i m a l s i n a s t a t e o f movement; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t does t h e  same f o r t h e  word i n t h i s in  that  first This and  the  plant  form, i s not buds i n t h e  b u d s , and  kingdom.  Smart's u s e  o n l y d e l i g h t f u l but  garden at the  the  scene i n time. "  imparts something of the  c l a r i t y w h i c h i s i n l a r g e measure t h e  the  s i n g u l a r l y apt  c r e a t i o n were  Smart h e r e e s t a b l i s h e s t h e  sort of s p e c i f i c i t y  of  he  brilliance  success of  the  Song. The line  are  "choice  r e l a t e d to the  the a s s o c i a t e d biblical balm."  With the  of the  precious  "virtuous  h e r b a l and  images o f t h e  addresses the flowers  gums and  balm" o f t h e  root"  medicinal  of the  the  first,  with  blessed.  the  "precious  p o e t b r e a k s h i s mood  r e a d e r - or perhaps D a v i d - a s k i n g v a l l e y be  and  connotations r e c a l l  N a t i v i t y associated  fourth line  third  that  and the  52 XXIII The verb  "Of" o f t h e f i r s t  "sung" i n s t a n z a X V I I I .  Smart u t i l i z e s  l i n e r e f e r s b a c k t o t h e same With t h i s  s t a n z a on t h e b i r d s ,  a d e v i c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l developed i n  t h i s poem: t h e a l t e r n a t i o n o f o p p o s i t e a t t r i b u t e s a class of beings.  The b i r d s t h a t  "live  i n peace o r prey"  o r " t h a t make m u s i c , o r t h a t mock," w i l d and those  p e r t a i n i n g t o one s e a s o n o r t h e o t h e r ,  represented.  within  domestic, each type i s  The c o l o u r c o n t r a s t o f t h e l a s t  line  s t a n z a i s p a r t o f t h i s system o f a l t e r n a t i v e s  of the  "The r a v e n ,  swan and j a y . " XXIV In t h i s  s t a n z a , as i n s t a n z a XXI, t h e r e i s a  personification, Here n a t u r e sentence  o r a s e m i - a l l e g o r i c a l u s e o f t h e noun.  i s an a c t i v e f o r c e .  The i n v e r s i o n i n t h e  i s l e s s smooth, more c o n t r i v e d t h a n  usual:  Of f i s h e s - e v ' r y s i z e and s h a p e , Which n a t u r e f r a m e s o f l i g h t e s c a p e , D e v o u r i n g man t o s h u n . The is  phrase clear.  footed,"  "of light  escape"  i s c u r i o u s , t h o u g h t h e meaning  I t means q u i c k ; t h e a n a l o g y "light  The the refuge  fingered," "to t r i p  the light  s h e l l s and s h o a l s o f l i n e s of the f i s h  from the p e r i l s  There i s a pleasant c l a r i t y  i s with  "light fantastic."  f o u r and f i v e a r e of "devouring  man."  i n t h e image o f t h e s u n  " g l a n c i n g " on t h e s u r f a c e - and u p o n t h e l e a p i n g s h o a l s .  53 The First,  word " w e a l t h y "  h a s two p o s s i b l e c o n n o t a t i o n s .  the suggestion o f hidden  riches  ( i n t h e p e a r l s and  o t h e r gems o f t h e o c e a n b e d ) o r s u c h t r e a s u r e s a s have been l o s t  i n o r may be r e t r i e v e d  "wealthy"  may r e f e r b a c k t o " s h e l l s " and i n d i c a t e t h e  c o u n t l e s s n u m b e r s . o f them.  from  the sea.  Secondly,  P o s s i b l y b o t h meanings a r e  intended.  XXV The apparent beaver, tiger  alternation  i n this  of contrasted details  s t a n z a a s i t was i n s t a n z a X X I I I .  f r i e n d l y and h e r b i v o r o u s  "sublime"  other basking.  i s again The  i s contrasted w i t h the  and c a r n i v e r o u s - t h e one w o r k i n g , t h e Then t h e w i l d r a b b i t  i n line  four i s  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a movement downward i n s p a c e ; t h e domesticated  goat,  of the opposite.  The m o u n t a i n a n d  meadow c a r r y o u t t h e p a t t e r n o f t h e u s e f u l and t h e u n tamed . XXVI In t h i s  s t a n z a t h e word "gem" means what we  usually  a s s o c i a t e w i t h t h e word - a p r e c i o u s s t o n e .  The  o f t h e gem i s a r e f e r e n c e t o v a r i o u s m a g i c a l  or medicinal  p r o p e r t i e s a s s o c i a t e d with jewels t r a d i t i o n a l l y . Jasper o f t h e Master's the u t i l i z a t i o n  "virtue"  "The  stamp," t h i s may be a r e f e r e n c e t o  o f the semi-precious  c a r v e r as a type o f the a r t i s t  r o c k by t h e s t o n e -  and, t h u s , o f t h e C r e a t o r .  54 More l i k e l y , On  The  is  said  the a s s o c i a t i o n i s with  Immensity o f t h e  Smart's own  Supreme B e i n g ,  to reproduce the patterns  where t h e  of nature,  mountains, streams, t r e e s , e t c . , w i t h i n the rock.  In a passage o f f a n c i f u l  t h e gems h i d d e n i n t h e ( t h e i r ) maker's g l o r y . "  poem Jasper  s u c h as precious  i m a g e r y , Smart  discusses  e a r t h w h i c h " f o r m weak i d e a s He  writes  t h a t he  the  would  of  detect  The A g a t and t h e d e e p - i n t r e n c h e d gem Of k i n d r e d J a s p e r - N a t u r e i n them b o t h D e l i g h t s t o p l a y t h e Mimic on h e r s e l f ; And i n t h e i r v e i n s she o f t p o u r t r a y s t h e f o r m s Of l e a n i n g h i l l s , o f t r e e s e r e c t , and s t r e a m s Now s t e a l i n g s o f t l y on, now t h u n d ' r i n g down I n d e s p e r a t e c a s c a d e , w i t h f l o w ' r s and b e a s t s And a l l t h e l i v i n g l a n d s k i p o f t h e v a l e . The  image i s s u r e l y t h e  The  poet  same as  i s implied i n the  Song.  continues:  In v a i n thy p e n c i l , C l a u d i o , or P o u s s i n , Or t h i n e , i m m o r t a l G u i d e , wou'd e s s a y S u c h s k i l l t o i m i t a t e - i t i s t h e hand Of God h i m s e l f - f o r God H i m s e l f i s t h e r e . 1 5 I n t h i s sense the  stone  re-creates nature,  handiwork.  A f u r t h e r p o s s i b l e source  God  to appear i n Jasper  i s said  lines  f i v e and  s i x of t h i s  not  stanza,  It  u n c u t gems do n o t  a t y p i c a l o f the  century  and  "natural" state.  i s R e v e l a t i o n where  "and  like  fallacy  Such l i c e n s e i s  o r o f t h e work o f t h i s  nature  In  topaz b l a z i n g  have a l o g i c a l  blaze.  i s s u c h l i n e s t h a t seem t o s u p p o r t  t i o n t h a t Smart r e g a r d s  i s , God's  ( R e v e l a t i o n i v , 3).  a lamp, among t h e mines b e n e a t h , " we a n unmined and  that  Brittain's  always i n her  poet.  conten-  unspoiled  55 XXVII In commends  s t a n z a XXVIII,  implicit  Adversary;  T h r o u g h o u t A Song t o D a v i d t h e  that the agonies this  of"Samuel.  of the  o f S a u l a r e sent by t h e  i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e statement  source,although the l i n e ,  hand he q u e l l ' d , "  i n t h e Books  "When s a t a n w i t h h i s  i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o David's  on t h e h a r p .  The u s e o f t h e u n c a p i t a l i z e d  " s a t a n " i m p l i e s one o f many e v i l arch-fiend,  assumption  Smart i s engaged i n a movement t o " C h r i s t i a n i z e "  biblical  playing  e  f a v o u r o f t h e D e i t y , enabled him to soothe h i s  troubled Zing.  his  H  a  t h e g r a c e and t e n d e r n e s s w h i c h , a s a r e s u l t  continued  is  Smart r e t u r n s t o D v i d .  spirits  form o f  r a t h e r than the  Satan.  XXVIII The agents ing  " f u r i o u s Foes"  of Saul.  of this  stanza are again the  Smart makes r a t h e r more o f D a v i d ' s  play-  t h a n d o e s Samuel, l a r g e l y b e c a u s e i t i s s y m b o l i c o f  t h e p o e t i c s t a n c e r e p r e s e n t e d a r c h e t y p a l l y by t h e p o e t , singer,  or musician.  XXIX The  sequence o f events  i s n o t c h r o n o l o g i c a l as the  happenings o f t h i s s t a n z a precede where D a v i d  counsels h i s c h i l d .  young daughter  o f S a u l who f e l l  h e r e l d e r s i s t e r was s t i l l  t h o s e o f s t a n z a XVI Here M i c h a l i s s t i l l the  i n love with David  promised  t o him.  She  while  "chose"  56 David  i n t h a t she  l o v e d him;  h e r h e a r t , " when she, r i s k e d escape from Saul's  and  gave " h e r u t m o s t f r o m  her l i f e  ,  i n h e l p i n g David  rage.  XXX-XXXVII The critical  e i g h t s t a n z a s XXX  stumbling  been a t t a c k e d at  an  i n the  o r i g n o r e d , and  e x p l i c a t i o n has An  of  block  t o XXXVII a r e t h e g r e a t e s t T h e y have  o c c a s i o n a l l y some a t t e m p t  been attempted.  anonymous r e v i e w e r  the Greek l e t t e r s  c a n o n of Smart..  of the  i n The crucial  Monthly Review  says  stanzas:  T h e s e , we c o n j e c t u r e , a r e made c h o i c e o f , as c o n s e c r a t e d f o r the f o l l o w i n g r e a s o n s . A l p h a and Omega, f r o m a w e l l - k n o w n t e x t i n t h e R e v e l a t i o n . ; I o t a . E t a , and Sigma b e c a u s e t h e y a r e u s e d t o s i g n i f y our S a v i o u r on a l t a r s and p u l p i t s . T h e t a , as b e i n g t h e i n i t i a l o f God; and Gamma, as d e n o t i n g t h e number t h r e e , h e l d s a c r e d by some C h r i s t i a n s .16  XXX This  s t a n z a , a c c o r d i n g to the author,  the p i l l a r s in  o f knowledge a r e t h e monuments o f God's works  the f i r s t  succeding  week."  stanzas.  T h i s theme i s c o n t i n u e d  through  Commencing i n s t a n z a XXX,  Smart  e n t e r s u p o n a passage, i n w h i c h he of  God  t o t h e days of the  the l o r d . by  "Shews t h a t  The  first  correspondence  l i k e n s the  week a s  the  attributes  the p i l l a r s  o f Smart's s t a n z a s ,  of  labelled  the Greek l e t t e r s , , t o the seven days o f C r e a t i o n , i s  obvious  though r a t h e r f r e e .  upon, t h e  c r e a t i o n of l i g h t ,  Smart m e n t i o n s and  elaborates  the heavens, the l a n d ,  the  57 s t a r s and p l a n e t s , f i s h day  of rest.  take from It  A l l a r e i n t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l o r d e r w h i c h we  G e n e s i s , b u t i n imagery i s hard to v i s u a l i z e  these stanzas. to  and f o w l , c a t t l e and man, and t h e  The s e v e n  difficult  to disentangle.  t h e images s u g g e s t e d by  pillars  r e a c h i n g , "Prom e a r t h  topmost h e a v ' n , " f o r m p a r t o f some s o r t o f temple  d e d i c a t e d , perhaps,  t o t h e wisdom o f God.  In Proverbs,  c h a p t e r s e i g h t and n i n e , t h e e a r t h i s e s t a b l i s h e d  on s e v e n  pillars.  with  The c r e a t i o n o f t h e w o r l d  t h e wisdom o f t h e A l m i g h t y .  i s associated  The c r e a t i o n i s s u p p o s e d  by  Smart t o have b e e n c a r r i e d  o u t by C h r i s t ,  accomplished  The p o e t h a s i n mind t h e open-  ing  passage  fifth  line  statement in  the design."  o f the Gospel o f S t . John. i s , a c c o r d i n g t o Broadbent,  " H i s WORD  The "gem" o f t h e a star.  becomes one o f t h e e x t e n t o f God's  the created order - a t o t a l  coverage  Thus t h e  involvement  i s implied,  the highest t o the lowest, the a l l - i n c l u s i v e  from  statement a t  w h i c h Smart aims r e p e a t e d l y i n t h e poem. XXXI In  the phrase,  "Alpha, t h e cause  o f causes"  Smart  is  naming t h e D i v i n e B e i n g .  of  God i n R e v e l a t i o n , " I am A l p h a and Omega, t h e B e g i n n i n g  and  the Ending,"  A l p h a i s a p a r t o f t h e name  (Revelation i , 8 ) .  H e r e Smart s p e a k s o f  A l p h a as a f o u n t a i n - a g e n e r a t i v e o r p h a l l i c  image n o t  i n c o n s i s t e n t with a consideration o f the Creator. pillar  is, "first  i n station,"  that  i s , first  This  o f the seven.  58 Some a r c h i t e c t u r a l p l a n o f t h e p o s s i b l e a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e p i l l a r s might  be i n t e r e s t i n g ,  and r e v e a l i n g o f t h e i r  t i o n s h i p t o e a c h o t h e r and t o t h e D e i t y . proceeds,  "the b u r s t / o f l i g h t ,  and b l a z e o f d a y . "  G e n e s i s God i s r e p u t e d t o have s a i d , and  t h e r e was l i g h t , "  From t h i s  relapillar  In  " l e t t h e r e be l i g h t :  t h i s on t h e f i r s t  day.  Smart  adheres  to the order o f Genesis i n these stanzas. The  poet  c o n t i n u e s w i t h a n a n a l o g y drawn f r o m h i s  previous statements light  to the effect  that  by t h e D e i t y i s t h e p r e c e d e n t  this creation of  f o r a l l "bold"  deeds,  and upon t h i s a c t , o r r a t h e r upon t h e f o r c e w h i c h c o u l d produce  it,  existence. Broadbent  even heaven i t s e l f  depends f o r i t s c o n t i n u e d  I n h i s r e c e n t e d i t i o n o f A Song t o D a v i d . has a note t o t h e e f f e c t  that  " . . . i n the introduc-  t i o n a t P a r a d i s e L o s t I I I , M i l t o n asks whether l i g h t n o t be c o e v a l w i t h God and, l i k e of h i s g l o r y , "  (Broadbent,  t h e Son, a d i r e c t  p . 36).  may  effluence  T h i s i s t h e passage i n  question: H a i l , h o l y L i g h t , o f f s p r i n g o f Heav'n f i r s t - b o r n , Or o f t h ' e t e r n a l C o - e t e r n a l beam May I e x p r e s s t h e e unblamed? s i n c e God i s L i g h t , And n e v e r b u t i n u n a p p r o a c h e d L i g h t Dwelt from E t e r n i t y , dwelt then i n thee, B r i g h t e f f l u e n c e o f b r i g h t essence i n c r e a t e . Or h e a r ' s t t h o u r a t h e r p u r e E t h e r i a l s t r e a m , Whose F o u n t a i n who s h a l l t e l l ? b e f o r e t h e Sun, B e f o r e t h e Heavens t h o u w e r t , and a t t h e v o i c e Of God, a s w i t h a m a n t l e d i d s t i n v e s t The r i s i n g w o r l d o f w a t e r s d a r k and deep, Won f r o m t h e v o i d and f o r m l e s s i n f i n i t e . (P.L. I l l ,  1-12)  59 Broadbent  has a f u r t h e r note, "The Greek l e t t e r  may  represent a p a i r o f compasses, one o f the three p i e c e s of f u r n i t u r e i n a masonic lodge, and the B i b l i c a l instruments whereby God marked o f f the u n i v e r s e - t o - b e from  chaos,"  (Broadbent, p. % ) . T h i s e d i t o r makes q u i t e p l a u s i b l e the choice o f these p a r t i c u l a r Greek l e t t e r s as the masonic emblems w i t h which Smart as a mason would be f a m i l i a r . XXXII The second p i l l a r bears the l e t t e r Gamma.  The  sapphire i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h i t l a r g e l y on account of c o l o u r , one presumes, the c o l o u r of the sky.  Elsewhere  Smart r e f e r s t o the c o l o u r of the sky as s a p p h i r e .  The  r e f e r e n c e s o f the f i n a l three l i n e s of the stanza are t o the sky, r a t h e r i n terms of the s e t t i n g f o r a stage: Thence the f l e e t clouds are sent a d r i f t , And thence the p a i n t e d f o l d s that l i f t The crimson v e i l , a r e wav'd. Smart speaks of the s k i e s i n s i m i l a r terms i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n o f Psalm CIV: With l i g h t , which thou hast p u r e r made, As w i t h a robe thou a r t a r r a y ' d , Whose pow'r the world upholds; And hang'st the s k i e s i n beauteous blue Wav'd l i k e a c u r t a i n t o the view, Down heav'n's h i g h dome i n f o l d s . (Psalm CIV, s t . 2 ) Here, the poet speaks o f the sky i n a v i s u a l but a r t i f i c i a l way, almost as though he were d e s c r i b i n g the s e t t i n g of a stage.  60 Broadbent the  initial  h a s a r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e u s e o f Gamma a s  o f one o f t h e p i l l a r s .  He w r i t e s :  Gamma may r e p r e s e n t t h e number 3, o r a set-square. (One o f t h e t h r e e moveable jewels o f a masonic l o d g e , s y m b o l i s i n g morality). The a r c h i s t h e f i r m a m e n t o f heaven, c r e a t e d o n t h e s e c o n d d a y . ( B r o a d b e n t , p.36) That the be  " a n g e l i c l e g i o n s march" upon t h e a r c h o f t h e h e a v e n s , "firmament"  o f Genesis, i s as l o g i c a l as that  so m i l i t a r i z e d  ways even l e s s  elsewhere.  they should  M i l t o n ' s angels perform i n  credible.  XXXIII The  third  pillar  i s a c o r i n t h i a n one,  covered with  carvings o f vegetative luxuriance: And God s a i d , L e t t h e e a r t h b r i n g f o r t h g r a s s , t h e herb y i e l d i n g seed, and the f r u i t tree yielding f r u i t after his kind.... ( G e n e s i s i , 11) This p i l l a r ,  representing the t h i r d  illustrative  o f the a r t o f c u l t i v a t i o n r a t h e r than o f wild  or  wasted  Eden.  The p i l l a r  "trowel, the  growth.  spade,  t o o l s used  The s c e n e  day o f c r e a t i o n , i s  i s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l Garden o f  i s c a r v e d and b e a r s upon i t s b a s e t h e  a n d loom," p e r h a p s  a s symbols  o f husbandry;  t o t r a i n v e g e t a b l e n a t u r e t o man's  will.  XXXIV The to  pillar  t h e Supreme.  says,  graced with the l e t t e r Perhaps  Broadbent's  "Theta i s t h e i n i t i a l  Theta stands  next  note i s r e v e a l i n g .  o f ®£0<> , a n d w i t h I o t a a n d  He  61 Sigma ( I 0 £  - J e s u s , God, S a v i o u r ) i t i s u s e d a s a  monogram i n c h u r c h e s , next  (Broadbent,  t o God i n t h a t t h e i n i t i a l  p . 3 6 ) . Thus T h e t a i s  p e r t a i n s t o H i s name.  A g a i n Smart t a k e s h i s t e x t , a n d i n p a r t h i s p h r a s i n g , from Genesis.  H i s i n t i m a t e knowledge o f many  d i s p a r a t e p a r t s o f t h e b i b l i c a l r e c o r d i s made a p p a r e n t b y t h i s Song, more t h a n b y many o f h i s o t h e r d e v o t i o n a l poems. The  text  runs:  And God s a i d , l e t t h e r e be l i g h t s i n t h e firmament o f heaven t o d i v i d e t h e day from t h e n i g h t ; and l e t them be f o r s i g n s , and f o r s e a s o n s , and d a y s , and y e a r s . And God made two g r e a t l i g h t s ; t h e g r e a t e r l i g h t t o r u l e t h e day, and t h e l e s s e r l i g h t t o r u l e t h e n i g h t ; he made t h e s t a r s a l s o . (Genesis i , Smart f o l l o w s h i s s o u r c e , b u t i n i m a g e r y than exact, as b e f i t s  the poet.  rather  14 & 16) fanciful  God, " t h e Supreme,"  ...formed, i n number, s i g n , and scheme, Th i l l u s t r i o u s l i g h t s that a r e ; And one a d d r e s s e d h i s s a f f r o n r o b e , And one, c l a d i n a s i l v e r g l o b e , 1  Held r u l e with ev'ry  star.  H e r e t h e p o e t r e - p h r a s e s t h e two v e r s e s f r o m G e n e s i s . "illustrious and  l i g h t s " were formed  according to t h e i r place  f u n c t i o n i n t h e heavens as d i s p e n s e r s o f l i g h t  g u i d e s t o time and season, scheme."  The  "...formed  and a s  i n number, s i g n , a n d  The " s i g n " i s a l s o a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e z o d i a c a l  s i g n s w h i c h t h e s t a r c l u s t e r s would r e p r e s e n t , and w h i c h Smart m e n t i o n s a g a i n i n s t a n z a L X V I . by t h e D e i t y i n m a r k i n g  The i n s t r u m e n t s  used  o u t t h e u n i v e r s e a r e c e l e b r a t e d by  62 Smart i n Hymn V I ,  ii:  The  s t a r s , t h e f i r m a m e n t , the s u n , God's g l o r i o u s work, God's g r e a t d e s i g n , A l l , a l l was f i n i s h ' d a s begun, By r u l e , by compass, and by l i n e . There  i s an assurance o f a u t h o r i t y h e r e , which  o n l y f r o m one  o f the e l e c t ,  t h e man  is fitting  c h o s e n by a n  inscrutable  D e i t y to r e s t o r e the t r u e f a i t h to England. The  second h a l f o f the s t a n z a r e l a t e s to the  of the quoted  passages  from G e n e s i s .  t h e garment o f t h e s u n . is  t h e moon, who  The  "one  The  clad  " s a f f r o n robe" i s  in a silver  "held r u l e with every  second  globe"  star."  XXXV The  fifth  pillar,  "those that f l y , "  and  "he  whose l e t t e r that  i s Iota, represents  swims."  Here the poet  r e v e r s e d t h e o r d e r o f t h e c r e a t u r e s as t h e y a p p e a r  has  in  Genesis: And God s a i d , L e t t h e w a t e r s b r i n g f o r t h abundantly the moving c r e a t u r e t h a t h a t h l i f e , and f o w l t h a t may f l y above t h e e a r t h i n t h e open f i r m a m e n t o f h e a v e n . ( G e n e s i s i , 20) That the p i l l a r that  i t r e c o r d s t h o s e p r a i s e s bestowed upon t h e C r e a t o r by  t h e f i s h and God  i s " t u n e d t o c h o r a l hymns" means m e r e l y  f o w l - the concept o f each c r e a t u r e p r a i s i n g  by i t s v e r y b e i n g i s i m p l i c i t .  distinct  from Hopkins'  e x i s t e n c e o f the b i r d  instress,  T h i s concept, not  i s concerned w i t h the v e r y  or f i s h - i t s beauty,  b e i n g a paean t o t h e A l m i g h t y .  too  The u s e  colour,  o f "tuned"  song suggests  another thought, that each p i l l a r r e p r e s e n t s one s t r i n g o f the l y r e o r harp upon which a l l nature sounds her p r a i s e s o f God.  There i s a passage  i n J u b i l a t e Agno which may be  a l i n k here: For GOD the f a t h e r Almighty p l a y s upon the HARP o f stupendous magnitude and melody,. For innumerable Angels f l y out a t every touch and h i s tune i s a work o f c r e a t i o n . For a t that time m a l i g n i t y ceases and the d e v i l s themselves are a t peace. For t h i s time i s p e r c e p t i b l e to man by a remarkable s t i l l n e s s and s e r e n i t y o f s o u l . For the A e o l i a n harp i s improveable i n t o r e g u l a r i t y . . . (J.A. B 1, 246-250) T h i s i d e a is.connected i n h i s mind w i t h the concept of the A e o l i a n harp, as t h i s passage makes apparent.  He t r e a t s  of that aspect o f the i d e a i n stanza LXVT o f the Song. Other examples o f God's works a r e recorded on i t s f o o t , i t s c a p i t a l , and i n the n i c h e , or niches, w i t h which it  i s graced; presumably  i n a suitably p i c t o r i a l fashion,  or i n a s c r i p t o f sanctioned form or acceptable a n t i q u i t y . Broadbent  f u r t h e r notes, "I may r e p r e s e n t the plumb-line,  another o f the moveable jewels of a masonic lodge, symbolisi n g p r o b i t y " (Broadbent, p. 36). XXXVI Sigma d e p i c t s "the s o c i a l droves," that i s , the animals that herd, the h e r b i v o r e s , and those u s e f u l to man. Nor are those animals that move alone f o r g o t t e n . r e l e v e n t passage  from Genesis reads:  The  And God s a i d , L e t t h e e a r t h b r i n g f o r t h the l i v i n g c r e a t u r e a f t e r h i s k i n d , c a t t l e , t h e c r e e p i n g t h i n g , and b e a s t o f t h e e a r t h a f t e r h i s k i n d : and i t was s o . (Genesis The  remainder o f the stanza  i s less clear.  Agno t h e i n i t i a l S s t a n d s f o r S o u l Salvation  (J.A.  B 2, 5 5 5 ) .  (J.A.  i , 24)  In Jubilate  B 2, 5 3 0 ) and f o r  Perhaps t h e r e f e r e n c e  i n the  lines: And man o f a l l t h e c h i e f ; P a i r on whose f a c e , and s t a t e l y frame, D i d God i m p r e s s h i s h a l l o w ' d name, For occular b e l i e f . is  i n part  t h e s t a t e m e n t i n G e n e s i s i , 27:  So God c r e a t e d man i n . h i s own image, i n t h e image o f God c r e a t e d he him.... And  i n part  the fact  o f Messiah's i n c a r n a t i o n i n the f l e s h  o f man.  XXXVII The  seventh p i l l a r ,  Omega, f o r " t h e day o f r e s t , "  is  a p p r o p r i a t e l y a l s o f o r " g r a t i t u d e and t h o u g h t . "  is  part o f the phrase a s s o c i a t e d with  Revelation.  Omega  t h e name o f God i n  The s e v e n t h day saw t h e c u l m i n a t i o n  o f the  c r e a t i o n o f the world which, i n the M i l t o n i c t r a d i t i o n , was  to supply  t h e l a c k i n heaven c r e a t e d by the d e f e c t i o n  of Satan's f o r c e s . "the  In this  i n f e r n a l draught."  By t h i s  e s t a b l i s h e d upon " h i s p o l e " universe,  sense i t c o n t r o l l e d chaos t i m e t h e e a r t h was  or axis.  mentioned i n the f i f t h  line,  The " g o a l " o f t h e i s possibly the  65 "great year"  o f t h e a n c i e n t s when e a c h s t a r and  r e t u r n t o t h e p l a c e o f i t s s e t t i n g f o r t h and c r e a t i o n w i l l be  complete, the m i l l e n i u m  simply,  c o u l d r e f e r merely t o the  the  the  line  planet  the  will  days of  a t hand.  the  More  completion  of  creation.  XXXVIII Once a g a i n , returns  i n the  to h i s p r a i s e o f David.  " s c h o l a r o f the beneficence  Lord"  of the  created order.  The  i n t h a t he  c r e a t o r and  psalmist i s  the m u l t i p l i c i t y  of  the the  "natural" science  o f God's works on  i s t o r e c e i v e , " . . . r e w a r d / And  Christopher  the  with  earth.  infinite  T h i s word " d e g r e e , " as B r o a d b e n t n o t e s , by  Smart  i s acquainted  His s c i e n c e i s the  a i m s a t an u n d e r s t a n d i n g David  t h i r t y - e i g h t h stanza,  which  For  this  degree."  i s f r e q u e n t l y used  Smart.. I t i s a m a s o n i c word meaning m o r a l  excellence. The David  and  fifth  the  c o r r e l a t i o n between  the harp y i e l d i n g p r a i s e to the C r e a t o r .  f o u r t h and  s i x t h l i n e s r e f e r t o Samson's r i d d l e  honeycomb i n t h e forth  line reiterates  carcass  of a l i o n :  "out  of  The the  of strength  cometh  sweetness."  XXXIX In t h i s attempted h e r o and  stanza  Smart u t t e r s what amounts t o  j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the of  himself:  an  shortcomings both of h i s  66 T h e r e i s h u t One who n e ' e r r e b e l l ' d , B u t One by p a s s i o n u n i m p e l l ' d , By p l e a s u r e s u n i n t i c e ' t ; T h a t i s , o n l y God p i e t y and We  i s p e r f e c t ; n e x t t o Him  glory. find,  i n this  s t a n z a , something o f t h a t  p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h h i s own God, of  serious  g r a n d e u r on t h e p a r t o f Smart's  w h i c h i s q u i t e u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y humorous,  reminiscent  Milton's Father i n Paradise Lost. I l l : Grand  It  comes D a v i d i n  o b j e c t o f h i s own content;,  i s a p i c t u r e o f a v e r y human, a l m o s t  anthropomorphic  The  complacent,  deity.  p o e t t a k e s t h e words o f t h e A l m i g h t y f r o m t h e  Book o f Exodus i n t h e f i r s t  lines  of t h i s  stanza:  T e l l them I am, JEHOVA s a i d To MOSES; w h i l e e a r t h h e a r d i n d r e a d , And, s m i t t e n t o t h e h e a r t , A t once above, b e n e a t h , a r o u n d , A l l N a t u r e , w i t h o u t v o i c e o r sound, R e p l i e d , '0 L o r d , THOU ART.' The b i b l i c a l  text  i s as  follows:  And Moses s a i d u n t o God, B e h o l d when I.come u n t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f I s r a e l , and s h a l l s a y u n t o them, The God o f y o u r f a t h e r s h a t h s e n t me u n t o y o u ; and t h e y s h a l l s a y t o me, What i s h i s name? what s h a l l I s a y u n t o ;them? And God s a i d u n t o Moses, I AM THAT I AM: and he s a i d , T h u s s h a l t t h o u s a y u n t o t h e c h i l d r e n o f I s r a e l , I AM h a t h s e n t me u n t o y o u . (Exodus i i i ,  13 &  14)  67 The  stanza  and  h i s c r e a t u r e s which i s i l l u s t r a t i v e  nature  continues  praising  between the o f the  Almighty  theme o f a l l  God.  This stanza the  with a dialogue  i s i n t r o d u c t o r y to that  " e x e r c i s e upon  d e c a l o g u e " o f w h i c h Smart s p e a k s i n h i s  "Contents."  (Exodus xx, B r o a d b e n t has " I am."  But  a note that the  1 &  2  c e n t r a l meaning o f Jehovah., i s  s c h o l a r s have n e v e r a g r e e d on  the  actual  m e a n i n g o f t h e name. That e a r t h should hearing  the v o i c e o f the  fitting.  be  "smitten  Creator  Smart makes r e f e r e n c e  to the h e a r t "  upon  i s perhaps only r i g h t t o Moses as t h e  recipient  o f the r e v e l a t i o n o f the D i v i n e Presence o f the L o r d Mount S i n a i ,  an h o n o u r v o u c h s a f e d t o few.  t o Moses t h e  poet i s endeavouring to e s t a b l i s h the  between D a v i d  and  h i s s p i r i t u a l ancestor,  descendant, C h r i s t . more a c c e p t a b l e  c h o s e S a u l , and  fit  m o r a l i s t , and  the  By h i s  link  a  o f Samuel, who  to e s t a b l i s h David  on  references  Moses, and  attempt i s to g i v e David  t h a n t h e mere c h o i c e  all  prescribed  The  and  his pedigree after  on t h i s b a s i s as  so p r e a c h i n h i s . n a m e .  i s a m i x t u r e o f t h e M o s a i c law  The  doctrine  and  the  Sermon  a  on  Mount.  XII This and  stanza  i s p a r t o f the  statement, t h a t  i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the p r e v i o u s  one  e x e r c i s e upon t h e  first  " a l lflesh"  shares  decalogue.  the bounty of  The the  68 Creator,  i s followed  by a commandment n o t t a k e n  directly  from the t e n but modified  by t h e New Testament  influence  which the poet f r e q u e n t l y  tries  The s t a t e -  ment, "Thou s h a l t n o t c a l l ing  o f a verse  in  thine heart"  to i n c u l c a t e .  thy brother  fool,"  isa  rephras-  i n L e v i t i c u s "Thou s h a l t n o t h a t e t h y b r o t h e r ( L e v i t i c u s x i x , 1 7 ) , and p e c u l i a r l y r e l e v a n t  t o t h e c a s e o f Smart a f t e r h i s s e v e n y e a r s o f b e i n g and  jeered  a t i n various  mental i n s t i t u t i o n s .  teased  In Jubilate  Agno he w r i t e s : For and  s i l l y f e l l o w ! s i l l y f e l l o w ! i s a g a i n s t me b e l o n g e t h n e i t h e r t o me n o r my f a m i l y . (J.A.  B 1, 60)  XLII The  suggestion  naked o f o f f e n c e , " like  naivete,  t h a t man i s a c r e a t u r e ,  i s possible only  from a poet o f a  Was Smart s u c h a one?  this  stanza,  that  i n t e r e s t o f Smart i n a n g e l s ,  The s e c o n d l i n e o f  "Man's made o f mercy, s o u l , and s e n s e "  a n c e o f what R o b e r t B r i t t a i n  and h i s h e r e t i c a l  calls,  I n some o f h i s Hymns and Psalms a n g e l s  on t h e H o l y T r i n i t y  Smart  writes:  Man, s o u l and a n g e l j o i n To s t r i k e up s t r a i n s d i v i n e ;  suggests accept-  "a c l e a r d o c t r i n e o f  where t h e y a r e n o t i n t h e b i b l i c a l v e r s i o n s . XVI  child-  t h o u g h i t m i g h t have a p p l i e d t o man i n t h e  Garden o f Eden.  trichotomy."  "Open, and  appear  Then i n Hymn  69 F o r a n g e l , man and s o u l Make up upon t h e whole One i n d i v i d u a l h e r e , And i n t h e h i g h e s t s p h e r e ; Where w i t h God he s h a l l r e p o s e , i r o m whose image f i r s t  he r o s e . (Hymn X V I , s t . 5 & 6)  The tion  statement,  as B r i t t a i n  notes, helps with the d e s c r i p -  i n s t a n z a XV o f t h e Song; "Man, s o u l and a n g e l w i t h o u t  peer."  Brittain  has a g r e a t d e a l t o o f f e r  on t h i s  score.  He w r i t e s : When he s a y s i n t h e Song t o D a v i d , X I I I , "Man's made o f mercy, s o u l and s e n s e , " he r e v e a l s i n a few words a g r e a t d e a l a b o u t h i s conception of the threefold nature of man. H e r e " s e n s e " c o r r e s p o n d s t o "man" i n the;.passages c i t e d above; i t i s t h e r a t i o n a l , earth-bound, t h r e e - d i m e n s i o n a l p a r t o f one. "Mercy," c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o " A n g e l , " i s t h a t p a r t o f a human b e i n g w h i c h i s d i v i n e , t h e p u r e l y s p i r i t u a l essence, through which a l o n e one may a p p r o a c h t h e t h r o n e o f God; and b y t h e d e s i g n a t i o n "mercy" i t i s shown t h a t t h i s p a r t o f one p a r t a k e s i n a n a b s o l u t e s e n s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e D e i t y , ( c . f . Hymn V I , The P r e s e n t a t i o n , s t . 1 6 ) . Between t h e s e two i s t h e " s o u l , " a r e c e p t i v e and c o m m u n i c a t i v e a g e n t , b r i n g i n g t o t h e "sense-man" n a t u r e , . i n t u i t i v e g l i m p s e s o f t h e e t e r n a l and t h e d i v i n e , and j u d g i n g t h e f l i g h t s o f t h e " a n g e l - m e r c y " b y t h e a i d o f human r e a s o n . (Brittain, The contrast  reference to the s n a i l  to the p u r i t y  p . 288)  i s p o s s i b l y as a  o f man:  T h e s e a l s o s h a l l be u n c l e a n u n t o y o u among t h e c r e e p i n g t h i n g s t h a t ' c r e e p upon t h e e a r t h ; ... t h e s n a i l . (Leviticus  xi,  29-30)  70 The  whelk  Perhaps  (Smart's  " w i l k " ) presumably  i s unclean  also.  i t i s a f u r t h e r comment on t h e d e f e n c e l e s s n e s s o f  man among t h e o t h e r c r e a t u r e s , many o f whom a r e "armed." The  rest  of the stanza i s a t r a s l a t i o n  o f a passage i n  Exodus^ " S i x d a y s t h o u s h a l t do t h y work, and on t h e s e v e n t h day  thou s h a l t  (Exodus  xxiii,  r e s t : that 12).  t h i n e ox and t h i n e a s s may  There  i s a reference of a  rest"  similar  n a t u r e i n J u b i l a t e Agno: For  t h e m e r c i f u l man i s m e r c i f u l t o h i s b e a s t , and t o t h e t r e e s t h a t g i v e them s h e l t e r . (J.A.  B  1, 13)  X L I I I  This  stanza takes as i t s text  the f i f t h  "Honour t h y f a t h e r and t h y mother, t h a t  commandment,  t h y d a y s may be  l o n g upon t h e l a n d w h i c h t h e L o r d t h y God g i v e t h The  thee."  " h o a r y h e a d " i s t h e s i g n o f age w h i c h i s t o be  respected.  There  i s a n echo o f two v e r s e s i n K i n g s  may be i n t e n d e d i n a n a d m o n i t o r y t h e y do n o t r e d o u n d  way b y t h e p o e t ,  to the c r e d i t  of h i s hero.  a s k s Solomon t o d e s t r o y h i s enemies he u s e s  which  though  When D v i d a  the phrases,  "...and l e t n o t h i s h o a r head go down t o t h e g r a v e i n p e a c e , " and  " . . . h i s h o a r head b r i n g  (Kings i i , 6 & 9). intentional. in  t h o u down t o t h e g r a v e  i n blood"  T h i s c o r r e l a t i o n may v e r y w e l l be u n -  Smart a v o i d s a n y o v e r t r e f e r e n c e t o b l o o d s h e d  t h e s e s t a n z a s on t h e d e c a l o g u e . The  obedience,  fourth line "Not a s I  cites Christ  will,  a s a n example o f f i l i a l  but as thou w i l t . "  The s u g g e s t i o n  71 that Christ's Jesus  says  p a t t e r n be f o l l o w e d i s e x p l i c i t .  " F a t h e r , i f t h o u be w i l l i n g ,  f r o m me: n e v e r t h e l e s s n o t my w i l l ,  I n Luke,  remove t h i s cup  b u t t h i n e , be done"  (Luke x x i i , 4 2 ) . XLIV This stanza avoids which the s i x t h  any d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e v i o l e n c e  commandment  prohibits.  The p o e t  contents  himself with o f f e r i n g the advice that the passions are t h e r e t o be u s e d , n o t a b u s e d , and t h a t t h e p r o p e r t o abuse  safeguards  exist.  XLV The  advice offered i n this "Remember  s t a n z a i s b o t h m o r a l and  simple.  The a d m o n i t i o n ,  thy baptismal  suggests  "Honour t h y f a t h e r and m o t h e r . "  bond  The f i f t h  line  does s e r v i c e f o r "Thou s h a l t n o t commit a d u l t e r y ('...renounce The  third  line  ... t h e c a r n a l d e s i r e s o f t h e f l e s h . . . * ) . " o f t h e s t a n z a i s f r o m Deuteronomy,  "Thou  s h a l t n o t plow w i t h a n ox and a n a s s t o g e t h e r , " (Deuteronomy x x i i , w i t h a s s and b u l l , " next  verse  10).  T h i s i s so o b v i o u s l y " T i l l n o t  a s t o need no f u r t h e r comment.  i n t h e same c h a p t e r  The  o f t h e same book y i e l d s t h e  s i x t h l i n e o f C h r i s t o p h e r Smart's s t a n z a ,  "Thou s h a l t n o t  wear a garment o f d i v e r s s o r t s , a s o f w o o l e n and l i n e n  U  \ together" The Testament.  (Deuteronomy x x i i , 1 1 ) . s e c o n d l i n e o f t h e s t a n z a i s f r o m t h e New I t i s a s a y i n g b y now a l m o s t  proverbial:  72 .Neither do men p u t new wine i n t o o l d b o t t l e s : e l s e t h e b o t t l e s b r e a k , and t h e wine r u n n e t h o u t , and t h e b o t t l e p e r i s h : b u t t h e y p u t new w i n e i n t o new b o t t l e s , and b o t h a r e p r e s e r v e d . (Mathew i x , 17) XLVI In  this  s t a n z a Smart i s d e a l i n g w i t h a t o p i c n o t  u n u s u a l w i t h him. are  filled  the poor. is  The Books o f L e v i t i c u s and Deuteronomy  w i t h r e f e r e n c e s t o man's o b l i g a t i o n The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  emphasized  For  t o s u p p l y f o o d t o t h e needy  as a r e l i g i o u s duty.  demand,; f o r c h a r i t y .  t o G-od a n d  Smart makes a f r e q u e n t  I n J u b i l a t e Agno he w r i t e s :  God n e v e r t h e l e s s i s a n e x t r a v a g a n t B e i n g and g e n e r o u s u n t o l o s s . (J.A.  B 2, 380)  F u r t h e r he s a y s : For  T u l l y s a y s t o be g e n e r o u s y o u must be j u s t , b u t t h e v o i c e o f C h r i s t i s d i s t r i b u t e a t a l l events.  first  (J.A.  B 2, 386)  XIVI I The is  whole t e n o r o f t h i s  to the e f f e c t  that  s e c t i o n o f A Song t o D a v i d  the eye-for-an-eye  philosophy o f the  Hebrew l a w i s t o be r e p l a c e d b y t h e New T e s t a m e n t rule.  T h i s t u r n i n g f r o m t h e O l d t o t h e New T e s t a m e n t i s  made c o n c r e t e i n t h e f o u r t h l i n e , t h e New." and  golden  H e r e Smart i n s i s t s  the a d d i t i o n a l e f f o r t s  that  " T u r n f r o m O l d Adam t o only through  Christ,  o f t h e C h r i s t i a n , c a n man  live  73 a worthy l i f e .  David,  i t i s t r u e , was h a l f way between  t h e two, b u t t h e n he was a n e x c e p t i o n . Christ  The r e f e r e n c e t o  a s t h e New Adam i s i n C o r i n t h i a n s x v , 22, " F o r a s i n  Adam a l l d i e , even so i n C h r i s t More s p e c i f i c a l l y , was made a l i v i n g ing s p i r i t "  s h a l l a l l be made  "And s o i t was w r i t t e n , soul;  the f i r s t  Adam  t h e l a s t Adam was made a q u i c k e n -  ( C o r i n t h i a n s x v , 45).  with the admonition  alive."  The s t a n z a  finishes  t o r e s p e c t h i s t o r y and t o l e a r n  from  it.  XLVIII H e r e t h e t e n t h commandment golden r u l e  i s paraphrased.  o f g r u d g e , and i s u s e d poraries.  some e d i t o r s  Again the  The word "Grut.ch" i s a f o r m  a s s u c h by Smart and h i s contem-  ^ I t was n o t a p r i n t e r ' s  have s u g g e s t e d ,  i s hinted at.  e r r o r , a s some  editors  t h o u g h i t has been c o r r e c t e d a s one by  o f t h e Song.^  The meaning o f "Mammon and h i s  l e a v e n " i s w o r l d l y s u c c e s s and i n s i n c e r i t y .  The theme i s  d e a l t w i t h b y Smart i n h i s P a r a b l e s : Take heed ( s a i d C h r i s t t h e Word o f heav'n) To shun t h e P h a r i s a i c l e a v ' n , Ev'n h y p o c r i t i c a l d i s g u i s e : F o r n o t h i n g ' s v e i l e d f r o m human e y e s , Which s h a l l n o t i n due t i m e be shewn, Nor h i d , b u t s h a l l be f u l l y known. (Parable LI) XLIX Again,  Smart a p o s t r o p h i s e s D a v i d .  David, as t e a c h e r , i n s i s t  He a s k s  on t h e ways o f God.  that  He appends  a comment w h i c h a p p e a r s  t o have a b i o g r a p h i c a l  reference:  V a i n a r e t h e documents o f men, And v a i n t h e f l o u r i s h o f t h e pen T h a t keeps t h e f o o l ' s c o n c e i t . Can he be r e f e r r i n g Dr. H i l l both?  and  t o t h e l i t e r a r y war  between  h i m s e l f , so d e t r i m e n t a l t o the r e p u t a t i o n s o f  C e r t a i n l y the events i l l u s t r a t e  comments i n The M o n t h l y ing.  conducted  Review f o r t h a t p e r i o d  S m a r t ' s n o t e on t h i s  between t h e f i r s t  line  h i s theme.  stanza suggests a  o f t h e s t a n z a and P s a l m  The  are  reveal-  correlation GXIX.  L This  stanza i s generally  on t h e p o e t ' s theme and  r e i t e r a t e s h i s demand f o r p r a i s e interwoven throughout to  t h e s t u f f o f t h e Song.  t h e p l e a f o r an overabundance  precept l i k e  o f t h e C r e a t o r , a demand  those which  He  appends  of praise another  immediately  d o e s s t a t e t h e p o e t ' s theme, and  precede.  Though i t  i s i n place here,  stanza i s r a t h e r a t r a n s i t i o n a l than a v i t a l  moral  one  this  t o the  movement o f t h e poem a s a w h o l e . LI-LXXI With one  t h i s s t a n z a Smart b e g i n s a s e c t i o n o f  s t a n z a s on t h e theme o f A d o r a t i o n .  has b e e n s u g g e s t e d , t h r e e g r o u p s sense.  The  first  o f t h e group  They a r e n o t ,  of seven  i n any  " i n t h e i r midst."  In Psalm  as  integral  e s t a b l i s h e s the h a b i t  c e l e s t i a l b e i n g s as r e g a r d s a d o r a t i o n , w i t h D a v i d adoration,  twenty-  of the  yielding  CXXX 'the p o e t  personifies Adoration f a l l i n g And  With to  a t the throne  o f God:  t h e r e f o r e t r e m b l i n g a t t h y throne Shall adoration f a l l .  t h e a n g e l s a r e "God's good p o o r , "  t h e t h r o n e o f God.  "blessed bridegroom,"  Christ  invited  "by C h r i s t  i s here addressed  as the  h i s bride being, t r a d i t i o n a l l y , the  Church. LII S t a n z a I I I b e g i n s a group which the phrase, is  one l i n e  LII,  line  "For Adoration," occurs.  f u r t h e r on i n t h e s t a n z a ; l i n e  two i n s t a n z a L I I I ,  completing the twelve  The of  three.  time i t  one i n s t a n z a  stanza pattern,  of t h i s group.  twice  thus  Such p l a y i n g  twelve stanzas a r e subdivided i n t o Each  triplet  with  b r e a k down e a c h group presumably  i s devoted  four  groups  t o one o f t h e s e a s o n s , -  L I Y t o S p r i n g , s t a n z a s LV, L V I , L V I I  Summer, and s o on.  though  Each  o f the s t a n z a i s not t y p i c a l o f the age.  stanzas L I I , LIII, to  i n each o f  e t c . The d e v i c e r u n s  completely through the s i x l i n e  the format  o f twelve  I t i s not apparently possible to i n t o t h e r e l e v a n t months o f t h e y e a r  that analogy suggested  the p a t t e r n .  LII The difficult perhaps, eye."  polyanthus  "chequing"  the grass i s not a  image t o r e c o n c i l e w i t h s p r i n g . o f what h a s b e e n termed  Smart's  I t i s a n exampl "miniaturist's  C e r t a i n l y t h i s poem i s e v i d e n c e o f a v e r y  exact  o b s e r v a t i o n and obvious  than  detailed  nowhere i s t h i s more  i n the A d o r a t i o n stanzas.  have*been attempted And  memory, and  f o r the  Many  explanations  linesJ  p o l i s h ' d porphyry r e f l e c t s By t h e d e s c e n d i n g rill.  Some c r i t i c s  translate  poetic licence  as l i m e s t o n e ; ,claim  e i t h e r f o r the poet  the scene i n Kent. eighteenth-century avoided  "porphyry"  This i s just  or themselves,  set  that sort  of  conventional  f o r m u l a w h i c h Smart has  so  successfully  i n the stanzas.  Broadbent suggests  i n mind t h e b a s i n o f an a r t i f i c i a l Parables  and  t h a t Smart  fountain.  t h e r e i s such a conjunction, of r i l l  In  had  the  and fountain: !  The b l e s s e d men bur S a v i o u r c h o s e To h e a r h i s d o c t r i n e , s h a r e h i s woes., S t i l l a s t h e y w a i t e d by h i s s i d e Were by h i s g l o r y p u r i f i e d . No l i m p i d r i l l , no p o l i s h ' d v a s e , But were u n c l e a n b e f o r e h i s f a c e . (Parables, I n any and  case  the  image i s o f f a l l i n g  water, s u i t a b l y  8)  rich  spring-like.  LIII The  almonds o f t h i s  blossoming. so r e a d .  The  (grape) v i n e . gems," we own  The  phrase,  "tendrils" I n the  h a v e "gem"  note i d e n t i f i e s  source  i s unknown.  s t a n z a are not  r i p e n i n g but  " c o l o u r to the prime" should r e f e r t o t h e new  c l a u s e , "And a g a i n i n the  fruit  growth o f  the  t r e e s pledge  s e n s e o f bud.  " I v i s " as t h e humming b i r d ,  be  their  Smart's though h i s  77  LIV  • The  tone of t h i s  stanza  i s b i b l i c a l and  treats  the m i r a c u l o u s .  Even the  growth of the  i n g of a d o r a t i o n  t o God.  Some d i s t a s t e o r l a c k o f u n d e r -  standing  i s frequently voiced  chorus of the of centuries  mythical  mermaid.  of gothic  their  one  I n any  that  the  precedent authority,  i n t e r p o l a t i o n of unreal  t h i s mermaid forms p a r t  o f Durham C a t h e d r a l  in  Smart has  this  creatures  juxtaposition with C h r i s t i a n figures.^ ,Devlin  mentions t h a t  her.  yield-  inclusion in  c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e as  were i t n e e d e d , f o r t h e and  about the  cedar i s a  of  o f the  carving  ,where, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y . Smart  case, the  image i s j u s t i f i e d  o f t h e most s u c c e s s f u l v i s u a l l y  saw  on a n o t h e r  i t i s , perhaps because of a c e r t a i n  A Song t o  stone  count  incongruity,  i n this section  of  David:  . . . t o t h e mermaid's papThe s c a l e d i n f a n t c l i n g s .  IV The  "spotted  enough t o summer.  ounce and  playsome cubs" a r e  The' ounce, a n . a s i a t i c a n i m a l  appropriat resembling  a l e o p a r d , i s among t h o s e a n i m a l s w h i c h Smart k n e w ^ o n l y through h i s  extensive  t h a t season a l s o .  The  reading. "feed  the  The  l i z a r d s are  moss" i s a  phrase, c a l c u l a t e d i n i t s u n f a m i l i a r i t y .  a t home i n  contrived  Therhalcyons,  o r k i n g f i s h e r s , f i g u r e i n G r e e k l e g e n d as n e s t i n g waters.  However, i n t h e  on  the  C h r i s t i a n v e r s i o n at l e a s t , they  78 nest  for a fortnight  before  the winter s o l s t i c e ,  t h e l e g e n d h a s i t , t h e waves a r e always.; c a l m . as J.B. Broadbent n o t e s ,  emblems  o f t h e peace  when, a s  They became, brought  a b o u t by t h e N a t i v i t y . The. e m b a r k i n g o f t h e b e a s t s was, i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y , t h e h e r d i n g by Noah o f t h e a n i m a l s of the following l i n e tion.  Robert  into  the ark.  would seem t o s u p p o r t  this  The rhyme sugges-  B r i t t a i n believes that the extraordinary  explanation of the sea-going  quadruped  i n S m a r t ' s own  t o t h e 1765 e d i t i o n was a n a f t e r - t h o u g h t . i n s e r t i o n o f t h i s dubious p l a c a t e the reviewers?)  footnote  notes  He w r i t e s , "The  ( i n an a t t e m p t  i s the only i n d i c a t i o n  to  I have  found  i n h i s l a t e r work o f l i n g e r i n g t r a c e s o f h i s i l l n e s s , " (Brittain, poet  171  p. 3 0 ) .  I t i s more p l e a s a n t t o e n v i s a g e t h e  i n s e r t i n g h i s f o o t n o t e r e f e r e n c e w i t h tongue i n cheek.  v  The, p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n people, merely  transposed  i t to h i s verse.  by Smart i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n  biblical  of t r i b a l l i f e  o f I s r a e l watching  "wean'd a d v e n t ' r e r "  Itis  o f Psalms JJXXVIII,  I t has been suggested  'stanza d e p i c t s a scene  the  The f i g i s a  t h e i d e a s o f p e a c e and p r o s p e r i t y .  CXXViri, and CXIVII-.  figure  meaning t h e Hebrew  i s common i n t h e ' O l d T e s t a m e n t and Smart h a s  image c o n v e y i n g so used  of I s r a e l ,  that  this  with the p a t r i a r c h a l  over the c h i l d r e n  of h i s tribe,  s p o r t i n g with the s p r i g  o f amber.  79 The  picture i s idealized  the shepherd  king.  The  s t a n z a i s the breeze is  so u s e d  and  p a s t o r a l i n the t r a d i t i o n  g a l e of the  sixth line  of  the  r a t h e r t h a n a n y t h i n g more r o b u s t .  b y Thomson i n h i s S e a s o n s  ( S p r i n g ) , and  the g l a d e . "  life  o f the  The  traveller  image t h a t t h e p o e t i s an  It  Pope  u s e s i t i n t h e l i n e : . "Where e ' e r y o u walk, c o o l g a l e s fan  of  shall  c r e a t e s o f the  o p t i m i s t i c and  unreal  one.  LVII The  spirits  tilting  i n t h e p i n k and  have c a l l e d  down upon t h e head o f t h e p o e t  t h a t he was  s e t t i n g a war  Probably  o r tournament  mottled  suggestions  i n heaven.  t h e r e f e r e n c e i s t o n o t h i n g more u n o r t h o d o x  a c e s s a t i o n o f t h e winds i n t h e  "coasting reader"  i s "the  courteous  w a l k i n g a l o n g t h e c o a s t , " i t , i s by now r e f e r e n c e i s t o the poet some r i v e r and  reader, accepted  h i m s e l f on a b o a t  that  the  c o a s t i n g on  crusions are species of f i s h .  c r u s i o n i s t h e c o l o u r o f t h e g o l d - f i s h and  that  while  r e g a r d i n g t h e f i s h swimming b e n e a t h  B o t h s i l v e r l i n g s and  than  sky.  D e s p i t e Edmund G-osse's d e l i g h t f u l s t a t e m e n t the  vault  thus  him. The  "gilt."  LVIII This possibly a s was  stanza presents a picture  i n the Americas.  I t i s an  of the  idealized  traveller, conception,  o f t e n the c a s e w i t h t h e E u r o p e a n v i e w o f t h e  World i n the e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  The  New  p i c t u r e c a l l e d up  by  80 the l a s t of  two l i n e s - t h a t o f a s m a l l g a t h e r i n g i n a n a r b o r  oranges - i s f a n c i f u l  i n t h e extreme.  o r a n g e c o u l d be t r a i n e d u p o n a t r e l l i s , usual to find  Presumably the b u t i t i s more  i t upon a t r e e .  LIX The  figure  of labour i s not capitalized  personification. not be  capitalized so.  Broadbent suggests i n any e a r l y e d i t i o n  He s u b m i t s  that although  t h a t many e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y a b s t r a c -  a l l e g o r y because C h r i s t  of  i t was  o f t h e poem i t s h o u l d  t i o n s a r e s e m i - a l l e g o r i c a l but suggests  The  i n this  that t h i s  is full  i s "the p r i n c e o f peace."  s t a n z a d e a l s w i t h t h e r i p e n i n g and h a r v e s t i n g  d i v e r s c r o p s and r e - e m p h a s i z e s t h e b o u n t y o f t h e C r e a t o r .  IX The England. western  scene  i s again not i n the northern clime of  The " w h i t ' h i n g r i c e " isle  suggests  that  illusory  t o w h i c h Smart h a s a l r e a d y a l l u d e d .  The  "fenced l a n d " o f l i n e f o u r suggests  t h e Promised  The  terms when i t f i r s t  West I n d i e s was h a i l e d  b e g a n t o be c o l o n i z e d .  i n these  Land.  The i m a g e r y i s , a t a n y r a t e ,  rather splendid: The p e a c h e s , a n d pomegranates s t a n d "' Where w i l d c a r n a t i o n s blow. LXI The successful  w i n t e r scene  of this verse i s p e c u l i a r l y  i n that i t i s v i b r a n t l y  alive.  The c r o c u s  81 "burnishes  alive"  d a r k l y green,  the s t i l l  preserves  w i n t r y g a r d e n , and t h e m y r t l e ,  the i l l u s i o n  o f growth.  LXII The bounty.  pheasant  i s another  example o f p l e n t y , o f God's  I t i s n o t u n t y p i c a l o f Smart t o r e g a r d  both as a f r e e l i v i n g  the bird  creature o f f e r i n g adoration to i t s  maker, and a s a s o u r c e  of food.  He does s i m i l a r l y i n  J u b i l a t e Agno where t h e f i e l d - f a r e of food i n the season o f s c a r c i t y . (  i s p r a i s e d as a The e r m i n e ,  source  another,  symbol o f r i c h n e s s , i s a l s o a n emblem o f p u r i t y - h e n c e the use o f t h e p e l t . with  The s a b l e makes a d r a m a t i c  i t s funereal coat.  contrast  The c o l o u r o f t h e p h e a s a n t i s s e t  o f f b y t h e w h i t e o f t h e ermine and t h e b l a c k o f t h e s a b l e . The  eighteenth-century  stanza i s a r t i f i c i a l little  d i c t i o n of the l a s t  lines  y e t , somehow, d e l i g h t f u l ;  o f i t i n t h i s poem t h a t i t does n o t  of this  t h e r e i s so  obtrude.  LXIII The the  last  s c e n e o f Smart's c h i l d h o o d .  countryside The  of the group o f twelve  s e t out, probably  reference both  stanzas  moves t o  Here i s the E n g l i s h  i n the season of  Christmas.  t o h o l l y and yew would r e i n f o r c e t h i s  impression.  Even the c e a s i n g o f apparent a c t i v i t y i s  attributable  t o t h e g l o r y of t h e Lord:,  And  c a r e f u l nature a l l h e r doors F o r ADORATION s h u t s .  82 LXIV The  next  eight stanzas  a d o r a t i o n t o Smart's i n i t i a l fairly  obviously,  r e - a p p l y t h e theme o f theme.  "For Adoration."  ment n e a r t o h i s own p r a c t i c e , chants,  P r e v a i l s h i s passions  David's Psalms a r e , Smart makes a s t a t e -  "...he, who k n e e l s and to control."  This i s  C h r i s t o p h e r Smart's c o n t e n t i o n , and t h e s o u r c e incarceration.  of h i s  C h r i s t o p h e r H u n t e r , Smart's nephew and t h e  e d i t o r o f t h e 1791 e d i t i o n was so i m p r e s s e d  with  o f t h e poems, n o t e s  t h a t the poet  the e f f i c a c y of the p o s i t i o n o f  a d o r a t i o n t h a t he w r o t e some p a s s a g e s o f A Song t o D a v i d upon h i s knees. LXV The  b u l l f i n c h t r y i n g to i m i t a t e the notes  f l u t e , seems t o Smart t h e t y p e a l s o an i n s t a n c e o f a d o r a t i o n . breast  of the s c h o l a r . The p a r a b l e  i n the t h o r n bush i s of l e s s  the poet's  theme, u n l e s s  of the  The b i r d , i s  of the.red-  clear application to  i t be a s a n i n s t a n c e o f s a c r i f i c e .  LXYI Smart was i n t e n s e l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e many b r a n c h e s of s c i e n t i f i c the  and p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c knowledge w i t h  which  c o g n i s . e e n t i o f t h e age amused ,and employed, t h e m s e l v e s .  His acquaintance  w i t h a s t r o n o m y , n a t u r a l h i s t o r y and,  r e l i g i o u s philosophy LXIX,.  His interest  appears in, s t a n z a s  LXVI, L X V I I I ,  and  i n astronomy i s r e v e a l e d . by t h e l i n e s :  83 F o r ADORATION i n . t h e s k i e s . The L o r d ' s p h i l o s o p h e r e s p i e s . The Dog, t h e Ram,and R o s e . The  "Dog'!, i s t h e d o g - s t a r ,  Aries.  The  df  "Ram", t h e  c o n s t e l l a t i o n o f t h a t name.  p h i l o s o p h e r " of the  first  line  Dr. Delany's f o o t n o t e s suggests  linguistic prophet:  constellation  Rose i s e m b l e m a t i c o f t h e v i r g i n and,  e x t e n s i o n , the Lord's  the  by-  David  i s "the  o f the s t a n z a .  One  that there i s a  c o n n e c t i o n between t h e word " p h i l o s o p h e r "  "....Doctor  Sophos, w h i c h was  and  P a t r i c k t h i n k s t h a t t h e G r e e k word  o r i g i n a l l y the  title  of astronomers,  m i g h t be d e r i v e d f r o m Zoph, w h i c h i n Hebrew s i g n i f i e s prophet,"  (Delany,  brought to the obscuring  sword" .and of  Thus S m a r t ' s h e r o i s a g a i n  c e n t r e o f the p o e t i c f o r e g r o u n d ,  other  The  I, 16).  a  without  figures.  c o n t r a s t between "The  planet's ring,  t h e glow-worm i s i n t e n d e d  t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y and  Orion's  t o remind the  v a r i e t y of the  reader  creations of  the  are those  an  Deity. LXVII The  "strings"  of the f i r s t  line  A e o l i a n h a r p b e i n g p l a y e d upon a f t e r instrument, Impression his  first on  known t o E u r o p e a n s i n 1650,  t h e men  P i n d a r i c Ode  o f Smart's g e n e r a t i o n .  w i t h a r e f e r e n c e t o i t . The  D a v i d h a n g i n g h i s z i t h e r by h i s bed reverberations  i t s fashion.  i n the wind impressed  to l i s t e n Smart.  of  This  made a n G r a y commences s t o r y of to i t s Broadbent  84 writes,  "the A e o l i a n  and  p r a i s e evoked by  the  ( B r o a d b e n t , p.  39).  is__,here i n v o l v e d harp,  "For  harp symbolized  God  The  of nature,  "makes the  f o r Smart,  concept of a general  Benedicite  o f n a t u r e as a s o r t o f  Aeolian  f a t h e r A l m i g h t y p l a y s upon t h e HARP o f  s t u p e n d o u s m a g n i t u d e and voice  harmony,  divine inspiration,"  with that  the  spiritual  melody,"  o r o f God,  cataracts  to  ( J . A . B 1,  though not  loud  246).  The  t o human  ears,  i s established a pattern  which  fall."  LXVIII In t h i s obtains  stanza  i n the  statement followed  there  subsequent group of s t a n z a s .  of p o s i t i v e v a l u e by  q u a l i t y o f an  a statement t h a t something of a  nature i s better.  by  a reference  perfumes o f a more s a c r e d  that  the  to other  connotation ^  "breath  object,  religious  Here a d i s c u s s i o n of incense  perfumes i s f o l l o w e d  suggestion  in,the  There i s a  and  spices  - m y r r h - and  rich or the  of s a i n t s " i s b e t t e r .  LXIX The  same p a t t e r n  "dam'sin" and  the  crown o f t h e  of the  lush richness  should  control appetite  application o b v i o u s and  i s repeated here.  of these f r u i t . and  of t h i s doctrine intended.  pineapple  obviate  But  The are "the  down..of t h e representative sense"  over-indulgence.  to other  The  aspects of l i v i n g  is  85 LXX This has  stanza  i s a r e m i n d e r t h a t God', o r t h e C h u r c h ,  e s t a b l i s h e d ways f o r t h e s i n n e r t o come t o a s t a t e o f  grace.  This  glory" w i l l impulses.  i s followed  by t h e promise t h a t  r e w a r d t h e i n d i v i d u a l who overcomes t h e c a r n a l There rays  head o f M o s e s .  are t r a d i t i o n a l l y depicted  They were f o r m e r l y  ( c f . Michelangelo's Moses). legend quite s e r i o u s l y . For For For For For  "rays o f  t r a n s l a t e d as "horns"  Smart seems t o have t a k e n t h e '••  I n J u b i l a t e Agno he w r i t e s :  i n t h e d a y o f D a v i d Men a s y e t had a g l o r i o u s horn upon h i s f o r h e a d . t h i s h o r n was a b r i g h t s u b s t a n c e i n c o l o u r and c o n s i s t e n c e as t h e n a i l o f t h e h a n d . i t Was b r o a d , t h i c k and s t r o n g s o a s t o s e r v e f o r d e f e n c e a s w e l l a s ornament. i t b r i g h t e n d t o t h e G l o r y o f God, w h i c h came upon t h e human f a c e a t m o r n i n g p r a y e r . i t . was l a r g e s t and b r i g h t e s t i n t h e b e s t men. (J.A.  The  upon t h e  passage c o n t i n u e s w i t h elements o f l e s s  relevance  to the current  C 19-23)  obvious  theme.  LXXI The  example o f t h e s p a r r o w and t h e s w a l l o w f i n d i n g  r e f u g e i n t h e house o f God, b r i n g i n g the  parable  t o mind, a s i t d o e s ,  o f t h e f a l l e n sparrow, serves  as a f u r t h e r  r e m i n d e r t h a t man i s n o t a l o n e i n h i s p r e d i c a m e n t b u t h a s divine help  when he s e e k s i t .  here addressed i n David.  i s David.  The "man o f God's  humility"  D e l a n y makes much o f t h i s  quality  H i s h u m i l i t y a f t e r s i n n i n g d i d much t o a v e r t t h e  86 wrath o f the Almighty. N e x t come a n o t h e r groups o f t h r e e .  twelve  In the f i r s t  stanzas b u i l t  up o f f o u r  two s t a n z a s o f e a c h  group  v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f c r e a t i o n a r e d e s c r i b e d a s sweet, s t r o n g , beauteous o r p r e c i o u s ; then the t h i r d adjective to a Christian  stanza reapplies the  text.  LXXII "Sweet i s t h e dew," and sweet i s t h e a i r o f Mount Hermon, more p o p u l a r l y known a s S i o n .  P a r t l y i n that i t  is  a h i g h m o u n t a i n p e r p e t u a l l y snow-caped, b u t more b e c a u s e  it  i s t h e scene  is  the impulse  o f the Lord's t r a n s f i g u r a t i o n . to early  Sweet  also  prayer.  LXXIII The tion  lines  of their  o f these stanzas s e r v e best as  illustra-  qualities:  Sweet ,the y o u n g n u r s e , w i t h l o v e i n t e n s e , Which s m i l e s o ' e r s l e e p i n g innocence, Sweet when t h e l o s t a r r i v e . 7  Of t h e f i r s t doubtful,  two l i n e s B r o a d b e n t  w r i t e s , "The s y n t a x i s  t h e baby a n a b s t r a c t i o n ,  the a l l i t e r a t i o n  e x c e s s i v e , b u t t h e e s s e n t i a l i m p r e s s i o n i s made," xix). no  I n t h e s e s t a n z a s ' w h i c h c u l m i n a t e t h e poem. Smart i s  l o n g e r drawing  i n references of great complexity.  v e r s e i s by t h i s time that  i t carries  slow, up,  (Broadbent,  the speed  simplified  and u p l i f t e d  to the point  the reader with i t w i l l y - n i l l y . o f A Song t o D a v i d  The  Never  a s a poem h e r e p i c k s  and t h e r e a d e r i s h u r l e d f o r w a r d  t o the crescendo of  —  87 the f i n a l  three  The  stanzas.  third  line  i s a r e f e r e n c e , though not  to t h a t , to the p a r a b l e  o f the p r o d i g a l son.  " h i s vague mind" r e f e r s  t o the vagrant  musician  s e e k i n g the  mind o f  limited  The  phrase  the  "sweets" o f h i s a r t .  LXXIV In the t h i r d restatement  and  s t a n z a o f t h e g r o u p Smart makes h i s  re-application:  Sweeter, i n a l l the s t r a i n s o f l o v e , The l a n g u a g e o f t h y t u r t l e d o v e , P a i r ' d t o the s w e l l i n g c h o r d . The  reference i s , again,  to David.  r e f e r s to h i m s e l f i n these  I n ' P s a l m XXXTV D a v i d  t e r m s , "0 d e l i v e r n o t  o f thy t u r t l e - d o v e unto the m u l t i t u d e not  the congregation  the  soul  of the wicked: f o r g e t  of t h y poor f o r e v e r , " (Psalm  LXXIv",  19). LXXV T h i s s t a n z a , w h i c h i s a p a r t i c u l a r l y s u c c e s s f u l one, moves r a p i d l y and X i p h i a s as  t h e sword f i s h .  f o l l o w i n g stanzas the horse  as  19).  the goodly unto the and  thou  The  The  i s strength.  s t r o n g i n Job:  strength? hast xxxix,  s t r o n g l y . . Smart s u p p l i e s t h e g l o s s f o r theme o f t h i s and  "Hast t h o u g i v e n t h e  c l o t h e d h i s neck with  ostrich also figures  Which l e a v e t h h e r  warmeth them i n d u s t , "  (Job  "Gavest  eggs i n t h e 13  horse  thunder?"  i n Job:  (J ,ob x x x i x , s  two  There i s a r e f e r e n c e to  w i n g s u n t o t h e p e a c o c k s ? o r wings and  ostrich?  the  & 14).  thou  feathers earth, Several  88 more images i n t h i s s e c t i o n come f r o m J o b . ance o f groups o f ideas  The r e - a p p e a r -  found i n s i m i l a r arrangements i n  books o f t h e O l d and New T e s t a m e n t s u g g e s t s n o t so much t h a t Smart was c u l l i n g  images f r o m memory, o r n o t i n g down  ideas read  years,  i n previous  w i t h books w h i l e  inscribing  b u t t h a t he was s u p p l i e d  t h e Song, a n o t h e r r e a s o n f o r  s u p p o s i n g t h a t he was a t l i b e r t y , the  institution,  e i t h e r w i t h i n o r without  when he w r o t e A Song t o D a v i d .  LXXVI This  stanza  extends the i l l u s t r a t i o n s  of strength:  Strong i s the l i o n - l i k e a c o a l H i s e y e b a l l - l i k e a b a s t i o n ' s mole His chest against the f o e s : S t r o n g t h e g i e r - e a g l e on h i s s a i l S t r o n g a g a i n s t t i d e t h e enormous whale Emerges a s he g o e s . The  lion,  the eagle,  and t h e whale a r e untamed  and  would be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  creatures,  o f the sublime a c c o r d i n g t o  Edmund"Burke. LXXVII The  syntax i s involved here.  beneath t h e t i d e , " the  second l i n e .  of the stanza  i s part  The p h r a s e ,  "And f a r  of t h e s y n t a c t i c group  before  Broadbent suggests t h a t t h e second h a l f  r e f e r s not only t o t h e C h r i s t i a n promise, •  "Seek and y e s h a l l ritual.  f i n d , " b u t a l s o t o a masonic  f-  initiation  89  LXXVTII The is  beauty of t h i s  apparent.  probably  The  stanza,  as  "meditated w i l d " of the f i f t h  a r e f e r e n c e to the planned  eighteenth-century  line  "naturalness"  landscape-gardening,  . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n might have i t as meditated  of the f o l l o w i n g  one, is  of  though a p o s s i b l e  the,wild  country  being  upon.  LXXIX The  reference  offerings, Christian  to the  temple  i s apparently  though i t would/apply e q u a l l y w e l l to church.  I t i s p o s s i b l e t o see  a s a m a r r i a g e ceremony, a l l t h e  t o Hebrew, a  the whole  stanza  images r e l a t e w e l l t o  that  theme. LXXX The  shepherd k i n g i s David,  Many jyar.idus^ r e f e r e n c e s for  t r u s t i n g i n Jehovah.  a r e p o s s i b l e from David  pebbles to s l a y G o l i a t h , to David  p r a y i n g t o h i s God. s h o r t f o r m o f "the •Agno Smart has For  the  The  i n his old  "mute" o f t h e  fifth  mute r a c e " m e a n i n g f i s h .  a p h r a s e w h i c h may  line  stooping age is a  In J u b i l a t e  have s u g g e s t e d  the  line:  p r a i s e o f God can g i v e t o a mute f i s h the notes of a n i g h t i n g a l e .  (JjA..B.l, 24) The  last  adoration origin  l i n e recommends t h e p r o s t r a t e p o s i t i o n f o r of the C r e a t o r ,  i n dust  and  and  p i c k s up  h i s eventual  descent  the  i d e a o f man's  thereto.  LXXXI The is  "extream d e l i g h t "  i n "largess  from t h e c h u r l "  g l o s s e d hy Broadbent as r e f e r i n g t o Nabal of • Carmel.  I f so, the d e l i g h t provisions  was i n d e e d  "extream.".  Nabal  refused  t o D a v i d and h i s men i n t h e w i l d e r n e s s  t h e y had h e l p e d p r o t e c t  h i s lands.  Mahal's w i f e ,  after fearing  D a v i d ' s w r a t h , n o t o n l y t o o k much good f o o d t o D a v i d , b u t upon t h e f o r t u i t o u s married David.  d e a t h o f h e r husband a week l a t e r ,  She was h i s s e c o n d  wife.  A l b a i s " a w h i t e s t o n e w i t h a 'new name' written tion.  i n i t , g i v e n t o him that  (Christ)  overcometh," i n R e v e l a -  Broadbent has a f u r t h e r note which i s i n t e r e s t i n g  i f n o t e s s e n t i a l to''this  explication:  The s i g n i f i c a n c e i s u n c e r t a i n b u t t h e c o n t e x t r e l a t e s i t t o manna, w i t h w h i c h p r e c i o u s s t o n e s were s u p p o s e d t o have f a l l e n . In h i s hymn f o r E a s t e r Day Smart r e l a t e s "The M o r n i n g S t a r ( C h r i s t ) and p e a r l o f p r i c e (kingdom o f  ( B r o a d b e n t , p . 40) LXXXII The  "feast  o f bow'rs" i s t h e f e a s t  n a c l e s w h i c h Smart r e f e r s of the B i b l e . between s i n c e r e  of the taber-  t o a s "bowers" i n h i s P a r a p h r a s e  The d i s t i n c t i o n i s made i n t h i s  stanza  r e l i g i o u s o b s e r v a n c e and t h a t  which i s  performed by r o t e ,  o r i n form  only.  91 LXXXIII The  character  of David  c r e d i t w h i c h Smart h e l d ,  i s h e r e once more g i v e n  quite a r b i t r a r i l y ,  t o be  that  due:  In a l l extreams, i n each event, Proof - answering true to t r u e . LXXX1V Hereafter theme o f t h e  the t h r e e  culminating  verses  carry  the  exceptionally beautiful i n creation:  G l o r i o u s t h e sun i n mid c a r e e r ; G l o r i o u s th*assembled f i r e s appear; G l o r i o u s the comet's t r a i n : G l o r i o u s t h e t r u m p e t and a l a r m ; Glorious th'Almighty stretched-out arm;' Glorious The  th'enraptured  probable date of composition  1759-60 makes n o t reference  main.  unreasonable the  to Halley's  suggestion  The  "stretched-out  f o r t h e p o w e r . o f God. e s p e c i a l l y when He perhaps the  Song i n  of a  specific  comet w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n 1758.  s p l e n d o u r o f i t s p a s s a g e i n s p i r e d awe populace.  f o r the  arm"  and  panic  among  is a Biblical  Broadbent notes that  main" i s t h e Red  the  phrase  i t i s used  r e t r i e v e d I s r a e l f r o m E g y p t ; and  "enraptur'd  The  thus  Sea.  LXXXV The  reference  ably to Daniel s e c t i o n of A  i n the  den  replete with  Song t o D a v i d does n o t  much as a r e p e a t e d better.  o f "hosannah f r o m the  reading,  den"  lions.  i s presumThe  last  r e q u i r e e x p l i c a t i o n so  so p e r h a p s t h e  least  said  the  92-  LXXXVI The  second  word i n t h e f o u r t h l i n e ,  changed t o " t h a t " b y e a r l y  editors  s u c h was t h e a u t h o r ' s i n t e n t . discontinued.  Perhaps  " a t , " has been  on t h e a s s u m p t i o n  that  T h i s p r a c t i c e h a s been  t h e v e r s e i s more r e a d i l y u n d e r -  '  standable with the a l t e r n a t e phrasing. T h e r e have b e e n arguments and c o n t r o v e r s i e s o v e r t h e meaning o f t h e l a s t  three l i n e s  o f t h e Song.  The  e n t i r e poem c u l m i n a t e s h e r e i n t h e g r e a t e s t e v e n t C h r i s t i a n world,  the G r u e i f i c t i o n .  from t h e "marty's g o r e "  The i d e a c a r r i e s  i n the fourth l i n e  sacrifice.  i s David.  The p e r s o n  The poem began w i t h  a n i n v o c a t i o n t o him, and ends w i t h a s t a t e m e n t the b i b l i c a l r e c o r d - t h a t David b e l i e v e d foretold,  t h e coming o f t h e S a v i o u r .  t r u t h which David a s s e r t e d .  b a s e d on  i n , and i n d e e d  This i s the  Through t h i s  faith  c l a i m t o h i s p l a c e i n heaven as a C h r i s t i a n . continues  over  o f t h e p r e v i o u s s t a n z a and i s made  s p e c i f i c l y a reference to Christ's addressed  i n the  stupendous  he c a n l a y  The p o e t  "now,the m a t c h l e s s d e e d ' s a t c h i e v ' d ; " t h e  M e s s i a h h a s come and t h e end o f t h e c r e a t i o n a t t a i n e d  with  t h e s a v i n g o f man. In t h i s  poem, Smart i s n o t m e r e l y  creating a  o f t h o s e t h i n g s i n t h e w o r l d w h i c h redound of t h e A l m i g h t y .  He i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d  so much a s p r o t r a y i n g t h e v i s i b l e w o r l d it.  H i s enthusiasm,  his belief,  list  to the c r e d i t  i n proselytizing i n t h e way he saw  his faith,  and h i s  untroubled  a c c e p t a n c e p f a l l good, and o f a l l a s good,  crowd i n upon t h e r e a d e r . communicated by way  The f e r v o r o f t h e man i s  o f a verse, s u c c e s s f u l not i n s p i t e  o f but because o f i t s enthusiasm.  94 FOOTNOTES  C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, A Song t o D a v i d , The C o l l e c t e d Poems o f C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, e d . C a l l a n (London: 1 9 4 7 ) . p. 348, s t . 1. 11 J o h n Donne, " L a C o r o n a , " T h e P e n g u i n P o e t s , London, 12 ~ ' E d i t h S i t w e l l , The P l e a s u r e s o f P o e t r y : A C r i t i c a l A n t h o l o g y . V o l . 3, L o n d o n : 1930-32, p . 76-77. 13 ^Edmund B u r k e , An I n q u i r y i n t o t h e O r i g i n o f Our I d e a s o f t h e S u b l i m e and t h e B e a u t i f u l . London: 1757. 7 1  ^ c f . J o h n s o n ' s d i c t i o n a r y , BUD. n . s . / b o u t o n , F r , / The f i r s t s h o o t o f a p l a n t ; a gem. TO BUD. v . n . 1. To p u t f o r t h young s h o o t s , o r gems. GEM. h . s . 2. The f i r s t ^ b u d . 15 Collected 1949, p . 1 6  p.  On t h e Immensity o f t h e Supreme B e i n g , The Poems o f C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, e d . C a l l a n V London:  &>9.  The  M o n t h l y Review. A p r i l ,  1950,  l  1763, v o l . X X V I I I ,  320.  17 'A m o c k - e p i c poem, "The H i l l i a d , " Smart i n 1753.  was  published  by  -  CHAPTER I I I  CONCLUSION (i)  L i n k s w i t h O t h e r Poems by  T h a t A Song t o D a v i d must a p p e a r poetry.  i s not unique  f r o m an e x a m i n a t i o n  The  same f o r m and  r e p e a t e d l y attempts H e b r a i c and  :  o f Smart's o t h e r d e v o t i o n a l  s i m i l a r themes r e c u r .  elements.  This practice  of the Decalogue  t h e D a v i d he  c r e a t e s i n h i s Psalms  i n A Song t o D a v i d  a p p e a l s t o Him  to r e p l a c e the  harsh  a t t i t u d e o f a d o r a t i o n i s , a s has b e e n shown,  o f t h e Supreme B e i n g .  e s s a y s on  Throughout  i n t h e Hymns.  J u b i l a t e Agno and  The  attitude  the  the  t i o n s o f t h e P s a l m s t h e same theme i s t a k e n up,  translaand  i s apparent  i n t h e Song.  i t is  in  i t t r a n s f i g u r e s A Song t o D a v i d .  Items f r o m S m a r t ' s o t h e r w r i t i n g s r e a p p e a r  and  for  Testament p r e c e p t s .  i n t e g r a l t o Smart's e a r l i e r p o e t i c a l  re-worked  with  i s s i m i l a r to the poet's r e - p h r a s i n g  H e b r a i c commands w i t h m i l d e r New  attributes  Smart  H i s P s a l m s were w r i t t e n  make f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e s t o C h r i s t and  The  o f theme  of C h r i s t i a n i t y , " with instances of violence,  o m i t t e d . * , Smart and  aid.  i n form  an i n t e g r a t i o n o f C h r i s t i a n  Classical  " i n the s p i r i t  Smart  Images and  phrases  f r o m b o t h J u b i l a t e Agno  the Psalms f i g u r e p r o m i n e n t l y .  the angels are said  frequently  I n A Song t o D a v i d ,  t o march upon t h e  " g l o r i o u s a r c h " which  96  is  s u p p o r t e d by t h e p i l l a r l a b e l l e d  and  image a r e u s e d  i n Psalm  Gamma.  The  same rhyme  CIV:  His  c h a r i o t s are the r o l l i n g clouds Upon t h ' e t h e r i a l a r c h ; And on t h e r a p i d w i n d s t h e i r wings M a j e s t i c a l , the k i n g of Kings Walks i n h i s a w f u l march. ( P s a l m CIV, The  m a t e r i a l of the Psalm  t h e Song.  The  "impressed" And  has b e e n r e f o r m e d  image o f t h e Whale i s l e s s  i n the Psalm  st.  and  3)  re-used i n  vitally  than i n the l a t t e r  poem:  some o f huge enormous, b u l k The s w e l l i n g f l o o d s surmount. (Psalm  017)  S t r o n g a g a i n s t t i d e , th*enormous whale Emerges a s he g o e s . (S.D. Other s i m i l a r groupings  LXXVI)  o f images o c c u r between P s a l m  ct-V  and A Song t o D a v i d . In evil  A Song t o D a v i d , Smart i d e n t i f i e s S a t a n w i t h t h e  spirit  which torments  a s i m i l a r way "But and is  i n the Psalms.  The A d v e r s a r y f i g u r e s i n  In Psalm X I I I the poet  I t o t h y d i c t a t e s a g r e e , / W h i c h save me Saul."  The  consistent ' The  one  Saul.  poet  i s i n t r o d u c i n g anachronisms  integral part  Satan  here,  but  i n his practice.  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n between D a v i d and  hand, and  from  says  between D a v i d and  Christ  Smart on  on t h e o t h e r , an  o f A Song t o D a v i d , stems f r o m t h e  work upon t h e P s a l m s .  the  I n P s a l m XXVII t h e p o e t i s  poet's  97 addressing Christ  i n h i s own p e r s o n  a s k i n g God's c o n t i n u e d s u p p o r t without  apparent  i n s t a n z a n i n e , and  of David  i n stanza ten,  change o f mood o r b r e a k  i n syntax.  The  p o e t s o c l e a r l y assumes t h e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e p s a l m i s t t h a t t h e r e a d e r c a n h a r d l y d i s t i n g u i s h between t h e two persons i n v o l v e d . The  t i e between D a v i d and C h r i s t  descendant,  i s made e v i d e n t b y Smart i n . P s a l m I/V " i t . was  e v e n Thou, a p a r t o f D a v i d . " position is  I t i s David's  make D a v i d  H i s a n n o i n t i n g and d e d i c a t i o n  one o f t h e " e l e c t . "  belief that.all  I t seems t o be Smart's  t h a t D a v i d does i s a c c e p t a b l e t o God.  l i c e n s e - how c o u l d a p e r s o n  a t b i r t h b y t h e D e i t y a s one o f t h e e l e c t t o l o s e h i s p l a c e i n heaven? the e l e c t , David o f bloodshed  to David be  saved.  The  d o c t r i n e o f p r e d e s t i n a t i o n was o f t e n i n t e r p r e t e d  t o g i v e t h e "chosen"  life  c l a i m to the  o f eminence w h i c h he h o l d s i n t h e Song t h a t he  the type of C h r i s t .  Calvinist  as h i s "son", o r  remains  accepted  sin sufficiently  B e c a u s e he a l s o  i s one o f  i n t h e f a v o u r o f God d u r i n g a  and i n d u l g e n c e .  Smart, t h e s u c c e s s o r  a s p s a l m i s t and a R e v i v e r o f A d o r a t i o n , must  also  C o m p a r i s o n w i t h Some O t h e r  (ii) The no day  attempt  t o make p o e t r y out  l o n g e r a p o p u l a r form i t had  of l i t e r a r y  a l o t t o recommend i t .  have b e f o r e him a model o f l i t e r a r y the promptings  o f p i e t y and  interest both lent  Poets  of b i b l i c a l  endeavour, b u t  in its  l o t only d i d the  author  interest  and  the r e c o g n i t i o n of  t h e i r weight  story i s  to the c h o i c e .  worth -  thematic Milton's  g r e a t s u c c e s s w i t h h i s e p i c seems r a t h e r t o have s p u r r e d the ambitious  on t o e m u l a t e him,  timorous  the r a s h  from  A comparison  attempt.  w i t h works o f a s i m i l a r n a t u r e  o t h e r p o e t s makes a p p a r e n t A Song t o D a v i d . s t o r y of D a v i d proverbs  and  t h a n t o have d e t e r r e d t h e  t h e g r e a t s u c c e s s o f Smart" i n  Abraham Cowley drew upon t h e  f o r h i s D a v i d e i s , Mathew P r i o r  Ecclesiastes  by-  f o r h i s Solomon,, and  biblical utilized Robert  B r o w n i n g t o o k a p a r t o f t h e Book o f Samuel f o r h i s poem "Saul."  Each poet  of freedom. David  treats h i s subject with a certain  degree  None o f t h e poems compares w i t h A Song t o  i n i n s p i r a t i o n a l achievement  or t e c h n i c a l e x c e l l e n c e .  Abraham Cowley's D a v i d e i s (1668) i s a poem much s l i g h t e r t h a n Smart's i n scope the poet  and  execution.  i n v o k e s a h e a v e n l y muse, i n t h i s  case  Like Milton, Christ,  a s k i n g the D e i t y to; G u i d my b o l d s t e p s w i t h t h i n e o l d t r a v ' e l l i n g I n t h e s e u n t r o d d e n p a t h s t o S a c r e d Pame.l  flame,  99' But  Cowley's muse l e a d s him,  through and  i n most p e d e s t r i a n f a s h i o n  f o u r books o f i a m b i c p e n t a m e t e r , rhymed  lacking  h i s avowed  i n charm.  The  poet  i n couplets,  i s ill-equipped  to  realize  intent:  Lo, t h i s g r e a t work, a Temple t o t h y p r a i s e , On p o l i s h t P i l l a r s o f S t r o n g V e r s e I r a i s e . ( D a v i d e i s . p. The  metre o f t e n breaks,  t h e rhymes a r e n o t  t r u e , the whole i s u n i n s p i r e d .  Cowley's attempt  i n f e r n a l p a r l i a m e n t , i s a p o o r t h i n g n o t t o be with M i l t o n ' s success with t h i s component.  The  habit  at  an  compared  of i t a l i c i z i n g  epic  t h e words d e s i g n e d is ill-applied.  for .  Long  of ornate d e s c r i p t i o n are included apparently to  d i s p l a y the The notes  always  traditional Christian  emphasis, t h o u g h p o s s i b l y n e c e s s a r y , passages  243)  " a r t " of the c a r e and  author.  i n d u s t r y which produced  f o l l o w i n g e a c h c h a p t e r must w i n  plaudits  o f t h e r e a d e r who  comprise  biblical  o f t h e work.  the  copious  f o r the author  manages t o r e a c h them.  r e f e r e n c e and  the  They  q u o t a t i o n s f o r many l i n e s  They a r e o f t e n more r e w a r d i n g  than  the  accompanying t e x t but t h e y a r e f r e q u e n t l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e without  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e poem. The  c h a r i t a b l e r e a d e r may  suppose the f i g u r e s t o  have b e e n c o n s i d e r e d " p o e t i c a l " by they are f l a t ,  t h e i r author.  s t e r e o t y p e d , u n e n l i v e n e d by any  That i s ,  individual  ;  100 characteristics. like David type  Smart, however, Cowley i s i n t e n t  as i n n o c e n t and of C h r i s t ,  meek.  The  on p o r t r a y i n g  shepherd-king,  i s the c e n t r a l aspect  of the  as  the  Davidian  character. In  h i s poem. Solomon on t h e V a n i t y o f t h e  Matthew P r i o r Smart's.  expresses  Adopting  P r i o r animadverts  a very different  philosophy  the c h a r a c t e r of the son on t h e f u t i l e n a t u r e  World,  of  from  David,  o f the s t r u g g l e i  for  happiness  t h r o u g h Knowledge, P l e a s u r e , o r Power.  T a k i n g passages from t e x t , he  Proverbs  and  Ecclesiastes for his  c r e a t e s a s o l i l o q u y the s u b j e c t of which i s t h i s :  The P l e a s u r e s o f L i f e do n o t compensate t h e M i s e r i e s : Age s t e a l s upon Us anawares; and D e a t h , a s t h e o n l y C u r e o f our I l l s , ought t o be expected,, b u t n o t f e a r e d . 2 The  motif running through  poem" i s " A l l i s V a n i t y . "  t h e t h r e e books o f  P r i o r seems i n c o m p l e t e  w i t h t h e c o n c l u s i o n t o w h i c h Solomon comes. to  enquire  of  the n a t u r a l world  philosophical,  a s t r o n o m i c a l and  through  time  objects  Smart, i n c l u d i n g  such  a g r i c u l t u r a l phenomena as  a r e t r e a t e d by Smart i n J u b i l a t e Agno. ranges  accord  P r i o r has  i n r h e t o r i c a l f a s h i o n i n t o many o f t h e that interested  the  The d i s c u s s i o n  botany:  Why d o e s one C l i m a t e , and one S o i l endue The b l u s h i n g Poppy w i t h a c r i m s o n Hue, Y e t l e a v e t h e L i l l y p a l e , and t i n g e t h e V i o l e t (Solomon I , p .  blue? 266)  101 The c r e a t u r e s  o f the s e a i n t r i g u e P r i o r as they  do  Smart:  Of P i s h e s n e x t , my F r i e n d s , I would e n q u i r e , How t h e mute Race e n g e n d e r , o r r e s p i r e ; From t h e s m a l l F r y t h a t g l i d e on JORDAN'S S t r e a m ' Unrnark'd, a M u l t i t u d e w i t h o u t a name, To t h a t L e v i a t h a n , who o ' e r t h e Seas Immense r o l l s onward h i s impetuous Ways And mocks t h e Wind, and i n t h e Tempest p l a y s . ' (Solomon I , p . Then P r i o r ' s q u e s t i n g mind  t o u c h e s on many o f t h e  o f D a v i d ' s s o n g - o f B i r d s , and B e a s t s , instinct,  and a s t r o n o m y .  P r i o r and Solomon  question.  and B e e s , o f  The  existence  on f a i t h .  a.Source, a L i f e ,  sing,  of the D e i t y  P r i o r reasons  t h e many t h i n g s o f t h e w o r l d , a l l u n e x p l a i n e d ,  What has f o r e v e r  subjects  B u t where Smart and D a v i d  i s p o s t u l a t e d , not accepted  A First,  267)  must  that have  a Deity;  been, and must f o r e v e r  be.  (Solomon I , p .  274)  T h e r e i s a s i m i l a r r e a c t i o n t o t h e s t a r s on t h e part  o f b o t h P r i o r and Smart: Y e t t h e s e g r e a t Orbs t h u s r a d i c a l l y b r i g h t , P r i m i t i v e F o u n t s , and O r i g i n s o f L i g h t . (Solomon I , p .  The p o e t s u g g e s t s ,  a s M i l t o n and Pope had, and a s  does i n J u b i l a t e Agno, t h a t o t h e r s u n s may planets  and s u p p o r t  other  races.  277) Smart  have t h e i r  A reference  own  t o G-od i s  c o u c h e d i n t h e same t e r m s f r o m R e v e l a t i o n w h i c h  Smart  utilizes: T h i s ALPHA and OMEGA, F i r s t and L a s t , Who l i k e t h e P o t t e r i n a M o u l d has c a s t The W o r l d ' s g r e a t f r a m e . (Solomon I , p .  281)  102 Whereas Smart c e l e b r a t e s a l l knowledge a s a way t o a a p proach n e a r e r t o an understanding o f the Almighty,  Prior  writes: In v a i n we l i f t up o u r presumptuous Eyes To what o u r Maker t o t h e i r Ken d e n i e s . (Solomon I , p . 283) The  message o f t h e p i e c e i s e x p l i c i t : Various D i s c u s s i o n s t e a r our heated B r a i n : O p i n i o n s o f t e n t u r n ; s t i l l Doubts remain, And who I n d u l g e s t h o u g h t , i n c r e a s e s P a i n . (Solomon I , p . 283)  In  case t h e obtuse r e a d e r has n o t u n d e r s t o o d ,  Prior  under-  lines: Remember, t h a t t h e c u ^ s ' d D e s i r e t o know, O f f - s p r i n g o f ADAM, was t h y S o u r c e o f Woe. (Solomon I , p . 284) Not turns, to  h a v i n g found happiness  i n Book Two, t o P l e a s u r e .  the P u r s u i t  i n Knowledge,  He " c o n c l u d e s t h a t a s  o f P l e a s u r e , and s e n s u a l D e l i g h t , A l l i s  VANITY AND VEXATION OF S P I R I T , "  (Solomon I I , p . 2 8 5 ) . I n  t h i s book, Solomon d i s c o u r s e s on g a r d e n s , and  Solomon  d r i n k i n g ; a l l a r e found wanting.  music,  dancing,  Smart d e l i g h t e d i n  each o f t h e s e . Solomon i s s c a r c e l y by h i s f a t h e r ,  e n t h u s i a s t i c about  the l i f e l e d  David:  My F a t h e r ' s L i f e was one L o n g L i n e o f C a r e , A Scene o f Danger, and a s t a t e o f War. (Solomon I I , p . 327)  103  This  i s not t h e view o f David's l i f e  present.  w h i c h Smart w i s h e s t o  Smart e m p h a s i z e s harmony and enjoyment  i nthe  world, g e n e r a l l y , and i n t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e g r e a t P r i o r ' s stand The  King.  i s not j u b i l a n t :  c r a d l e and t h e Tomb; A l a s ! s o n i g h ;  To l i v e  i s s c a r c e d i s t i n g u i s h e d from t o d y e . (Solomon I I , p . 3 3 0 )  I n t h e T h i r d Book P r i o r o r Solomon: ., C o n s i d e r s Man t h r o u g h t h e s e v e r a l S t a g e s and C o n d i t i o n s o f L i f e ; and c o n c l u d e s i n g e n e r a l , t h a t We a r e a l l M i s e r a b l e . (Solomon I I I , p . 332) He i n d u l g e s  i n melancholy  soul-searching:  What Pause f r o m Woe, What h p e s o f C o m f o r t b r i n g The Name o f Wise o r G r e a t , o f Judge o r K i n g ? 0  (Solomon I I I , p . 3 3 3 ) The  poet  concludes:  Avails To  i t then,  see t h i s  0 Reason, t o be Wise?  c r u e l scene with q u i c k e r  Eyes.  (Solomon I I I , p . 3 3 5 ) Smart's j u b i l a n t  approach t o a world  the b o u n t i f u l l o v e o f a b e n e f i c e n t Being Prior.  His religion,  lugubrious  and d i s m a l  i s foreign to  as i t appears i n Solomon,is a one, s u f f i c i e n t ,  man on t h e a p p r o v e d p a t h enough f o r h i m t o l i k e  manifesting  p e r h a p s , t o keep  through f e a r , but not pleasant  the road  he t r a v e l s .  t h e d e l i g h t o f Smart's b e t t e r v e r s e  I n consequence,  i s lacking.  104 Other  d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two poems  prevail.  D e s p i t e h i s p r e f a t o r y p r o t e s t a t i o n s t h a t "He t h a t w r i t e s in  Ehimes, dances i n F e t t e r s , " P r i o r performs  p e n t a m e t e r rhymed c o u p l e t s . notes,  i n iambic  Each c o u p l e t has, as P r i o r  something o f the p o i n t o f an aphorism,  but the verse  does n o t move a s f r e e l y a s Pope's e x e r c i s e s i n t h e same form. and  Although  h i s sense  the i n t e l l e c t  approves,  poem does n o t u p l i f t  o f t h e r e a d e r i s - engaged,  h i s passions a r e untouched.  The  a s d o e s A Song t o D a v i d .  B r o w n i n g ' s poem " S a u l " p r o c l a i m s t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f its it  author's  acquaintance  i s very different  w i t h t h e work o f S m a r t .  i n style,  and c o n t e n t ,  w i t h Smart's t h a t a u r a o f t h e m i r a c u l o u s to  David  t h e poem  poem " S a u l " c o n s i s t s l a r g e l y  s i n g s to soothe  Two s t a n z a s  w h i c h makes A Song  o f t h e songs which  the troubled s p i r i t  o f preamble l e a d  into  of h i s king.  the l y r i c  section i n  w h i c h B r o w n i n g r e - c r e a t e s t h e words o f D a v i d . in  q u e s t i o n , t h o u g h more i n s p i r e d  not t h r i l l The little  than those  p o e t r y i s n o t Browning's b e s t .  o f Cowley, do  I t reveals  c h a r a c t e r ; but that l i t t l e  o f d e p i c t i n g David  overspreads  intimates t h a t David  follows the  a s a m i l d and C h r i s t - l i k e  d e d i c a t e d t o God and t o h i s k i n g .  miraculous  The songs  the reader.  o f David's  tradition figure,  shares  a thing apart.  The David  Although  the l a s t  The a u r a  of the  s t a n z a s , and B r o w n i n g  i s there i n d i r e c t  communication  with  105 h i s God. and  The poem does n o t manage t o u p l i f t  remove h i m t o a n o t h e r Of;the  the l a s t  world.  t h r e e poems, D a v i d e i s , Solomon, and " S a u l , "  i s n e a r e s t t o A Song t o D a v i d  Browning wishes t o suggest o f t h e poet  i n concept.  the awe-inspired  He a l m o s t  have a c h i e v e d  r e l i g i o u s poets  the p o r t r a i t  i n direct  i n t h e language  o f man a t p e a c e and i n a s t a t e Milton  i n t h e G a r d e n o f Eden i n P a r a d i s e  But t h e e x i g e n c i e s  compelled  o f d i v i n e "benefi-  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h h i s God.  managed i t , o f c o u r s e , Lost.  He a t t e m p t s  succeeds.  Pew o f t h e g r e a t  of grace,  relationship  t o h i s God,which Smart a c h i e v e s .  t o d i s p l a y c r e a t i o n i n t h e magic l i g h t cence.  the reader  either of character or plot  h i m t o l o o s e h i s h o l d upon t h e v i s i o n  which  Smart c o n t r i v e s t o r e t a i n . C o n t e m p o r a r i e s o f Smart c h o s e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e same theme o f a d o r a t i o n . M e r r i c k a n d many o t h e r s  The hymns o f W a t t s , t h e W e s l e y s , tell  of the g l o r i e s  of the Creator.  Pew o f them do so i n t h e m e t r e o f A Song t o D a v i d . B e n e d i c i t e Paraphrased, Written,  or a t least  recognized  i s t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g  published,  I n an a r t i c l e  exception.  i n 1746, t h i s poem was  by Robert B r i t t a i n as b e i n g  a s S m a r t ' s Song.  The  i n PMLA  o f t h e same  stuff  (March 1 9 4 1 ) , he  a s s e r t s t h a t Smart w r o t e i t . Though he was m i s t a k e n , and t h e poem was s u b s e q u e n t l y  r e s t o r e d t o James M e r r i c k , h i s  a r t i c l e b r i n g s out t h e r e m a r k a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s  between  106 The  B e n e d i c i t e P a r a p h r a s e d and A Song t o D a v i d .  The theme,  t h e m e t r e , and t h e s y n t a x a r e o b v i o u s l y o f t h e same k i n d . - The poem commences a s Smart m i g h t have done: Ye works o f God, on h i m a l o n e , I n E a r t h h i s F o o t s t o o l , Heaven h i s T h r o n e , Be a l l y o u r P r a i s e bestow*d; Whose Hand t h e b e a u t e o u s F a b r i c k made, Whose eye t h e f i n i s h d Work s u r v e y * d , And saw t h a t A l l was Good.3 !  The  poet continues  Floods,  to ask angels,  L i g h t and v a r i o u s  Those s t a n z a s  Smart.  creatures  t h a t seem l e a s t  Song have a p a r a l l e l  P l a n e t s , Dews, w i n d s ,  like  to praise the Deity. Smart's work i n t h e  i n one o f t h e Psalms o r Hymns o f  Several verses  a t t a i n n e a r t o t h e command  a u t h o r o f A Song t o D a v i d : Ye T r e e s , t h a t f i l l t h e r u r a l S c e n e , Ye F l o w e r s , t h a t o ' e r t h ' enamel'd G r e e n In n a t i v e Beauty r e i g n , 0! p r a i s e t h e R u l e r o f t h e S k i e s , Whose Hand t h e g e n i a l Sap s u p p l i e s , And c l o t h e s t h e s m i l i n g P l a i n . Ye s e c r e t . S p r i n g s , y e g e n t l e R i l l s , T h a t murm'ring r i s e among t h e H i l l s , Or f i l l t h e humble V a l e ; P r a i s e him, a t whose A l m i g h t y Nod The r u g g e d Rock d i s s o l v i n g f l o w ' d And form'd a s p r i n g i n g W e l l . P r a i s e h i m , y e F l o o d s ; and Seas p r o f o u n d , Whose Waves t h e s p a c i o u s E a r t h s u r r o u n d , And r o l l f r o m S h o r e t o S h o r e ; Aw'd b y h i s V o i c e , y e Seas, s u b s i d e , Ye F l o o d s , w i t h i n y o u r C h a n n e l s g l i d e , And t r e m b l e and a d o r e . Ye Whales, t h a t s t i r t h e b o i l i n g Deep, Or i n i t s d a r k R e c e s s e s s l e e p , Remote f r o m human E y e ; P r a i s e him, b y whom ye a l l a r e f e d , P r a i s e him, w i t h o u t whose h e a v e n l y A i d Ye l a n g u i s h , f a i n t , and d i e .  of the  107 Ye B i r d s , e x a l t y o u r Maker's Name, B e g i n , and w i t h t h ' i m p o r t a n t Theme Your a r t l e s s Lays improve; Wake w i t h y o u r Songs, t h e r i s i n g L a y , L e t M u s i c k sound on e v ' r y S p r a y , And f i l l t h e v o c a l G r o v e . P r a i s e h i m , y e B e a s t s , t h a t . N i g h t l y roam Amid t h e s o l i t a r y Gloom, Th' e x p e c t e d P r e y t o s e i z e ; Ye S l a v e s o f t h e L a b o r i o u s P l o u g h , Y o u r s t u b b o r n Necks s u b m i s s i v e bow, and It  bend y o u r weary'd K n e e s .  i s understandable  attribution  that  c r i t i c s should accept  o f t h e s e s t a n z a s t o Smart.  t h e poem was p u b l i s h e d a n o n i m o u s l y was a t t r i b u t e d  by Dodsley  t o M e r r i c k by him i n . h i s  c o l l e c t i o n o f 1770, and a l s o p r i n t e d m a g a z i n e s w i t h t h e a u t h o r ' s name. commence t h e s t a n z a s i s a - t y p i c a l  However,  Brittain's although  i n 1746,  i t  six-volume  i n contemporary  The u s e o f "Ye" t o o f Smart,  There  i s not  q u i t e t h e c r i s p n e s s and c l a r i t y o f t h e Song, b u t o n l y t h a t "impression" lacking.  t o w h i c h Smart a t t a i n e d  i n his last  years i s  108  FOOTNOTES  Abraham Cowley, D a v i d e i s . Poems. M i s c e l l a n i e s , The M i s t r e s s . P i n d a r i c u e Odes, V e r s e s W r i t t e n on S e v e r a l O c c a s i o n s , Cambridge, 1 9 0 5 .  2 Matthew P r i o r , Solomon on t h e V a n i t y o f t h e W o r l d , Introduction. 3 James M e r r i c k , The B e n e d i c i t e P a r a p h r a s e d , q u o t e d i n "An E a r l y M o d e l f o r S m a r t ' s A Song t o D a v i d , " b y R o b e r t B r i t t a i n , PMLA, March, 1941, V o l . L V I , p . 165-17.4.  A Song t o D a v i d  (iii)  Aesthetip  i s Unique i n i t s Achievement  The a c h i e v e m e n t o f A Song t o D a v i d variously literary liking  estimated  since i t s publication.  Pew o f t h e  f i g u r e s o f t h e d a y who saw i t e x p r e s s e d  i n print.  Boswell  o b l i v i o n f o r some t i m e .  London M a g a z i n e s u g g e s t s ' t h a t evidence  t h e poem b e a r s  was " o f i m a g i n a t i o n a l l compact.'"^ continued  The work sank  I n 1820, a r e v i e w  of i t s b i r t h place; or at least,  judgements  their  saw s o m e t h i n g i n i t , b u t t h e  poem d i d n o t g i v e h i m u n a l l o y e d p l e a s u r e . into  has been  i n The  "internal  that i t s author  S i m i l a r , and h a r s h e r ,  t o be p r i n t e d w e l l i n t o t h e t w e n t i e t h  century. I t was l e f t A Song t o D a v i d  to the Pre-Raphaelites  a s a work o f g e n i u s .  "the o n l y g r e a t accomplished Atheneum) to  i t i n a few l i n e s  poem" o f t h e c e n t u r y , (The  i n P a r a c e l s u s , and a d d r e s s e s  of divine inspiration  C e r t a i n People.^  its  R o s s e t t i termed i t  Browning's r e a c t i o n i s well-known.  the r e c i p i e n t  to  to recognize  Smart a s  i n h i s Parleyings with  H i s e u l o g i e s may h a v e r e s t o r e d t h e poem  the reading p u b l i c . inspiration,  He a l l u d e s  Browning's  own poem, " S a u l , " owes  t h o u g h n o t i t s f o r m , t o Smart's i n f l u e n c e .  S i n c e B r o w n i n g w r o t e , some h u n d r e d s o f n o t e s and short a r t i c l e s  have b e e n w r i t t e n on o r a b o u t A Song t o  110 David.  I t h a s been v a r i o u s l y h e r a l d e d  miraculous,  as obscure  and mad.  as u n i q u e and  Many e d i t i o n s o f t h e poem  c o n t a i n s m a l l g l o s s e s which help the reader with words as t h e e d i t o r f e e l s may be u n f a m i l i a r . articles  f o r many.  the  characteristic  The r e a d e r who c a r e s t o c o r r e l a t e recent explication,  c r e a t e an i n t e r p r e t a t i o n least  .Recent l o n g e r  on Smart have done much t o d i s p e l t h e o b s c u r i t y  which has remained the p r i n c i p a l  glosses,  such  the s a l i e n t  o f t h e poem  previous  and h i s own e n q u i r i e s , c a n  o f t h e poem w h i c h makes c l e a r a t  p o i n t s and adds much t o t h e r e a d i n g o f  piece. It  i s Smart's s t a n d  t h a t he, l i k e D a v i d , c a n  r e c o g n i z e t h e p r a i s e o f f e r e d by t h e c r e a t u r e s o f t h e world to  their  Creator:  I s p e a k f o r a l l - f o r them t h a t f l y , And f o r t h e r a c e t h a t swim; F o r a l l t h a t d w e l l i n m o i s t and d r y , B e a s t s , r e p t i l e s , f l o w ' r s and gems t h a t v i e When g r a t i t u d e b e g i n s  h e r hymn. (Hymn V I , s t . 9 )  It  i s t h e measure o f h i s s u c c e s s  catch the s p i r i t and  o f such a u n i v e r s a l o f f e r i n g o f p i e t y ,  convey t h e i m p r e s s i o n  David  t h a t he o f t e n manages t o  to h i s readers.  I n A Song t o  a s i n Hymn X X X I I , Smart makes m a n i f e s t  o f h i s God on e a r t h : God  all-bounteous, a l l - c r e a t i v e , Whom no i l l s f r o m good d i s u a d e , I s i n c a r n a t e , and a n a t i v e Of t h e v e r y w o r l d he made.  the presence  Ill It  i s part  God, The  and  o f -the charm o f i;he Song t h a t  t h e w o r l d Smart made, ..which i s a l i v e  D e i t y Smart d e p i c t s  England figure.  a b s t r a c t i o n ; n o r i s Smart's D a v i d t h e The  p o e t has  in  culled  t h e P r o d i g a l Son  who  re-created a  one  of  historical  t h e most j o y f u l and  j o y o u s D e i t y , an a c h i e v e m e n t t h e w r i t i n g s o f a man  i n t h e poem.  i s not the t r a d i t i o n a l Church  a s p e c t s o f t h e C h r i s t i a n l e g e n d and and  i t i s Smart's  tender loving  h a r d l y expects to  went t o London where,  find  like  of the P a r a b l e :  soon, i n o r d i n a t e l y gay, He w a s t e d a l l he d i d p o s s e s s In r i o t i n g and r a n k e x c e s s . ( P a r a b l e XXIV, C a l l a n , It  i s p r e c i s e l y because  c r e a t i n g h i s own t h a t he  Smart i s f r e e w i t h h i s m a t e r i a l ,  D a v i d , h i s own  i s an e x a g g e r a t e d  touch with r e a l i t y .  and h i s own  world, j o y , and  of the appeal of the v e r s e .  p o s i t i o n t o s a y t h a t Smart was But  t h e man  J u b i l a t e Agno i n an a s y l u m , of  God,  i s a b l e to p o r t r a y that a i r of innocence,  hope w h i c h i s so l a r g e a p a r t It  p.884)  and  who  out  of  c o u l d w r i t e even  t h e Hymns f o r t h e Amusement  C h i l d r e n w h i l e b e i n g hounded and. p e r s e c u t e d f o r . d e b t , i s  n o t o f t h e common mass. Smart g i v e s l i f e  and  a . h a r m o n i o u s v i g o u r t o a theme  n e i t h e r o r i g i n a l nor popular. p r a i s e makes l i t t l e  The  religious  a p p e a l t o t h e modern r e a d e r , b u t i f he  p i c k s up A Song t o D a v i d , he w i l l and n o t a l i t t l e  poetry of  t o i n t r i g u e him..  o f t e n f i n d much t o d e l i g h t A l t h o u g h t h e poem can  be  112 dipped into  w i t h enjoyment, i t does n o t y i e l d a l l i t s  riches t o a casual or unthinking perusal.  But i t repays  w i t h a r e d o u b l i n g o f d e l i g h t and a n e x t e n s i o n o f r e f e r e n c e the e f f o r t required  t o come t o k n o w . i t .  Many p o e t s have w r i t t e n w e l l many u n d o u b t e d l y  b e t t e r t h a n Smart.  on r e l i g i o u s  subjects;  Pew, however, have  been b e t t e r r e l i g i o u s  poets i n t h e sense that  o n l y convey  o f t h e i r own d e v o t i o n , b u t i n s p i r e  t h e sense  that response  i n their readers.  The c u m u l a t i v e e f f e c t o f  S m a r t ' s m a s t e r p i e c e i s one o f i n s p i r a t i o n r e a d e r does n o t have t o be a C h r i s t i a n ; the poet's poet sees  enthusiasm it.  they not  and j o y .  The  he i s c a u g h t up by  and made t o s e e t h e w o r l d a s t h e  And t h a t v i s i o n  i s ecstatic  and j o y f u l .  FOOTNOTES  4  T h e London .Magazine. March, 1820, p . 321-22.  5 W i l l i a m M i c h a e l R o s s e t t i , The Atheneum. F b . 19, e  1887. Rohert Browning, P a r l e y i n g s w i t h C e r t a i n People o f I m p o r t a n c e i n T h e i r Day. London, 1887, No. 3.  114  BIBLIOGRAPHY A i n s w o r t h , E.G. & Noyes, C.E. " C h r i s t o p h e r Smart - A B i o g r a p h i c a l and C r i t i c a l S t u d y , " U n i v e r s i t y o f M i s s o u r i S t u d i e s . V o l . X V I I I , No. 4, p . 6-164, C o l u m b i a , 1943. B r i t t a i n , R o b e r t . "An E a r l y M o d e l f o r Smart's A Song t o D a v i d , " PMLA, March, 1941, V o l . ' L V I , p . 165-174." B r o w n i n g , R o b e r t . Poems o f R o b e r t B r o w n i n g , London,  1905.  Browning,, R o b e r t . P a r l e y i n g s w i t h C e r t a i n P e o p l e o f I m p o r t a n c e i n T h e i r Day, London, 1887. Cowley, Abraham, Poems: M i s c e l l a n i e s , The M i s t r e s s , P i n d a r i c u e Odes, D a v i d e i s , V e r s e s W r i t t e n on S e v e r a l O c c a s i o n s , Cambridge, 1905.' ~ C r a g g , G e r a l d , R. The P e l i c a n H i s t o r y o f t h e C h u r c h , V o l . 4, The C h u r c h and t h e Age o f R e a s o n 1648-1789, B r i s t o l , D e l a n y , P a t r i c k , An H i s t o r i c a l A c c o u n t o f t h e L i f e R e i g n o f D a v i d K i n g o f I s r a e l , D u b l i n , 1740; Devlin,  Christopher,  P o o r K i t Smart, London,  and  1961.  De Vane, W.C. B r o w n i n g ' s P a r l e y i n g : The A u t o b i o g r a p h y o f a M i n d . New Haven, 1927. P a i r c h i l d , H o x i e N. R e l i g i o u s T r e n d s i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y , V o l . I I , R e l i g i o u s S e n t i m e r i t a l i s m i n t h e Age o f J o h n s o n , New Y o r k , 1942. ' G r a y , G . J . "A B i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h e W r i t i n g s o f C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, w i t h B i o g r a p h i c a l R e f e r e n c e s , " T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . V I , p. 269-^-303, London, 1893-1920. G r i g s o n , G e o f f r e y , C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, W r i t e r s and Work, No. 136, London, I 9 6 0 . " Havens, R.D. i n RES., Hill,  G.B.  Their  "The S t r u c t u r e o f S m a r t ' s Song t o D a v i d , " 1938, v o l . XIV, p. 178-182.  Boswell's L i f e  o f J o h n s o n , V o l . 6, O x f o r d ,  1934.  M c K e n z i e , K.A. C h r i s t o p h e r Smart: Sa V i e e t Ses O e u v r e s , P a r i s , 1925.  115 Mc.  K i l l o p , A.D. "The B e n e d i c i t e P a r a p h r a s e d : A r e p l y t o R.E. B r i t t a i n , " PMLA, June, 1943. V o l . 1 V I I I , p . 582.  M i l e s , J o s e p h i n e , E r a s & Modes i n E n g l i s h P o e t r y . B e r k e l e y and L o s A n g e l e s , 1957. S i t w e l l , Edith,.The Pleasures of Poetry: A A n t h o l o g y . V o l . 3, London, 1930-1932. Smart, C h r i s t o p h e r , A Song t o D a v i d , Cambridge, I 9 6 0 . A Song t o D a v i d ,  Critical  ed., J . B .  ed., H i l l y e r , A.,  Broadbent,  Los Angeles,  1934. "  A Song t o ^ a v i d . S t r e a t f e i l d ,  London,  1901.  A Song t o D a v i d . ed.,'J.R. T u t i n , London,  1904.  A Song t o D a v i d and O t h e r Poems, e d . , R. Todd, London, 1947. ''' " . Hymns f o r t h e Amusement o f C h i l d r e n . O x f o r d , 1947. _ _  J u b i l a t e Agno. ed., W.H.  Bond, Cambridge,  Mass.,  1954. Poems by C h r i s t o p h e r Smart, ed., R. P r i n c e t o n , 1950. W.F.  Brittain,  R e a o i c e i n t h e Lamb, A Song f r o m Bedlam, ed., S t e a d , London, 1939. The M i d w i f e .  London,  1741-3.  W e s l e y , J o h n , A C o l l e c t i o n o f Hymns, f o r Use o f t h e P e o p l e c a l l e d M e t h o d i s t s , London, 1779.  

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