Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Training for the moderately retarded child : the effects of habilitation work for the moderately retarded… Chapple, John Arthur 1962

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1962_A5 C4 T7.pdf [ 8.49MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0105738.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0105738-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0105738-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0105738-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0105738-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0105738-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0105738-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0105738-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0105738.ris

Full Text

TRAINING FOR THE MODERATELY RETARDED CHILD The e f f e c t s of h a b i l i t a t i o n work f o r the moderately retarded c h i l d on h i s s o c i a l functioning and family a c c e p t a b i l i t y . A preliminary survey, based on material from The Woodlands School, B. C , 1961 - 1962.  JOHN ARTHUR CHAPPIE  Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAI WORK i n the School of Social Work  Accepted as conforming to the standard required f o r the degree of Master of S o c i a l Work  School of Social Work 1962 The University  of B r i t i s h Columbia  In presenting  t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study.  I further agree that permission  f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may granted by the Head of my Department or by his  be  representatives.  It i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of_ The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date  Av/UJ g  (  ii. ABSTRACT Experimental teaching techniques and classroom f a c i l i t i e s have recently been brought into use at The Woodlands School, to t r a i n the category of children resident i n The School who can be described as moderately retarded. An exploratory study has been conducted and the main features of t h i s programme set out, to asc e r t a i n whether the progress of the children i s s i g n i f i c a n t and whether t h i s has had any influence on t h e i r family a c c e p t a b i l i t y . With the cooperation of The Woodlands School Staff, and from the parents, a sample group of boys, aged eight to seventeen, was chosen f o r study. The boys are resident at the i n s t i t u t i o n and attend the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g classes; t h e i r parents reside within a t h i r t y - f i v e mile distance from Vancouver. A Social Competency Rating Scale was adapted from one u t i l i z e d i n a San Francisco study and applied to two s p e c i f i c times, (a) before the c h i l d received t r a i n i n g i n the s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g classes and, (b) a f t e r at l e a s t one year's t r a i n i n g . This scale permits an assessment of the degree of each child's progress i n s o c i a l competency. A second r a t i n g scale, designed to assess the degree to which parental acc e p t a b i l i t y of the c h i l d was influenced by the t r a i n i n g and i t s r e s u l t s , was applied by u t i l i z i n g a projective interviewing technique. I t was found that the s o c i a l competency of the sample group of boys has improved considerably; coincident with t h i s , there has also been an opening up of areas of knowledge and experience which are stimulating the children to more constructive use of t h e i r time, and giving them reward through greater enjoyment of l i v i n g . Parental acceptance of the children has noticeably i n c reased. The review suggests that more i n c l u s i v e services, i n c l u ding medical diagnostic and s o c i a l work counselling, should be made available to parents of retarded children. Residential t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s should also be extended to non-metropolitan areas of the province.  iii. AOKHOWLE-GEMMTS  Grateful thanks i s expressed to Dr. 1. A. Kerwood, Medical Superintendent of The Woodlands School, f o r h i s generous cooperation.  Thanks too go to Mr. J u l i u s E r d e l y i f o r h i s t i r e -  less and invaluable p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the project.  Likewise  thanks go to other members of The Woodlands School Staff  including  J. N. E l l i o t t , Dr. B. Leviczky, J . Markley, J . Wincentowich, T. Fisher, A. 0. Morrison, Mrs. C. Hawley, Miss H. Walter and B. M. Coles, f o r t h e i r continued i n t e r e s t and h e l p f u l suggestions. Gratitude i s extended to Mrs. Mary Tadych, Dr. D. McGann, Dr. S. R. Laycock and Dr. L. Marsh f o r t h e i r sound advice and heartening support. Last, but not at a l l l e a s t , appreciation i s expressed to the parents who, with such warm i n t e r e s t , gave f r e e l y of t h e i r time and e f f o r t .  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I  The Moderately Retarded Child and h i s Problem  Causes of Mental Deficiency. Some C l i n i c a l Types of Mental Deficiency. The Degree of Mental Defect. The Moderately Retarded Child. Special Training f o r the Moderately Retarded Child. Method Chapter II  i . page  1  H a b i l i t a t i o n and Training of the Children  The Purpose of the I n s t i t u t i o n . The Treatment Team. Casework Services. The Number of Mentally Retarded Persons. The Classrooms  27  Chapter I I I Measuring Movement Physical and Family C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Measuring the H a b i l i t a t i o n Progress. Case I l l u s t r a t i o n s . Evaluation of Training. Positive and Negative Observations of Parents. Home V i s i t s Chapter IV  45  What Does I n s t i t u t i o n a l Training Offer?  Parents Need More Help. The S o c i a l Work L i a i s o n Role Between the Retardate's Family and the Community. The S o c i a l Work Liaison Role Between the Retardate's Family and the I n s t i t u t i o n . The Casework Process. The Need f o r Extended Services. Possible Research Projects. The Challenge  74  Appendices: A. B. C. D.  Sample of Letter to Parents S o c i a l Competency Rating Scale Parental A c c e p t a b i l i t y Rating Scale Catalogue of Classroom A c t i v i t i e s  E. Bibliography TABLES IN THE TEXT Table 1.  Population Canada Persons and Estimated Numbers of Mentallyof Retarded Population of B r i t i s h Columbia and Estimated  38  Numbers of Mentally Retarded Persons  38  Table 3.  Social Competency, Ia, Self-Help  48  Table 4.  S o c i a l Competency, l b , Self-Help  48  Table 5.  Social Competency, I l a , I n i t i a t i v e - Responsibility  49  Table 6.  S o c i a l Competency, l i b , Social S k i l l s  49  Table 7. Table 8.  S o c i a l Competency, l i e , Communication Parent A c c e p t a b i l i t y  50 51  Table 9.  Composite of S o c i a l Competency and Parent A c c e p t a b i l i t y Scales Showing Gains and Losses A f t e r Retardate's Training  53  Table 2.  TRAINING- FOR THE MODERATELY RETARDED CHILD  CHAPTER I THE MODERATELY RETARDED CHILD AND  HIS PROBLEM  The mentally defective c h i l d i s not just a symptom of our time despite a p r e d i c t i o n that, because of p o l l u t i o n from atomic f a l l o u t , h i s ranks w i l l be increased. has been dealt with as an oddity.  From ancient time he  Certain cultures such as the  Spartan and Roman saw him as an unmanageable threat and him.  destroyed  Other s o c i e t i e s allowed him to l i v e but projected condemning  attitudes born i n h o s t i l i t y and f e a r .  Ways of attending him were  much modified with the coming of C h r i s t i a n i t y and he was shelter and more humane care.  given  Stanley notes that  The anatomists and physiologists of the 16th and 17th centuries, who l a i d the foundations of r a t i o n a l medicine, established and argued the place of mental disorder i n the natural order of diseases of the nervous system, and began the slow education of the public mind away from the old savage concepts of the defective as^a subhuman being degenerate, blighted by demonic forces. However, Masterman states:  " I t was  not u n t i l the 19th  century,  when Itard made h i s exhaustive e f f o r t s to educate V i c t o r , the 'wild boy of Aveyron', that the world saw the beginning of e f f o r t s 2 to educate the children of subnormal i n t e l l i g e n c e . "  There has  been gradual progress since t h i s time.  even today  Nevertheless,  Stanley, J . C , B r i e f to the Royal Commission on Health Services, Saint John, New Brunswick, 1959, p. 2. Masterman, Louis E., Attitudes Toward Children of Subnormal Intelligence , Publication No 155, Community Studies, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri, and The State D i v i s i o n of Health of Missouri, Jefferson City, Missouri, June 1961, p. 101.  - 2 -  we f i n d persons thinking of the defective c h i l d as one of " l e s i  enfants du bon Ltieu", or as one " f i l l e d with Satan". who  And  parents  produce a defective c h i l d often f e e l the stigma of being of 'a  lesser breed'.  I t seems easier to accept physical handicap, how-  ever severe, i f i t i s not accompanied by mental impairment.  Accor-  ding to our culture, the retardate i s one whose greatest value, his mind, has been disabled. Within the l a s t few years there has been an public awareness of the mental retardation problem.  increased There has been  an upsurge of s o c i a l concern for and from those d i r e c t l y  involved.  Mass and rapid communication has helped parents discover that t h e i r charge, that of a mentally retarded c h i l d , i s not an unique problem; and i t i s now  r e a l i z e d that mental retardation a f f e c t s as many Cana-  dian people, d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , as the whole population of the 2 Province of B r i t i s h Columbia. retarded  Local and national associations f o r  children have sprung up.  been shared.  Hew  Troubles, needs and ideas have  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r constructive home and community  planning have been explored.  The i n t e r e s t of fellow community mem-  bers, including professional persons, has been aroused and enlisted.  abilities  Medical advances, both i n diagnosis and treatment, have  resulted i n a lower mortality rate, while the birthrate has been i n creasing.  In 1958,  the Canadian Association f o r Retarded Children  Queen, A l f r e d S., S o c i a l Work in. the Light of History, J . B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1921, p. 155. 2 F i r s t Annual Convention, C. A. R. C , Calgary, Alberta Sept. 17 - 19, 1956, p. 1.  - 3 -  (herein a f t e r referred to as C. A. R. C ) , "a S c i e n t i f i c Advisory  started plans to appoint  Board of eminent s p e c i a l i s t s to outline and  d i r e c t an energetic and vigorous program extending into a l l the basic sciences."  More money has been available f o r research.  As  a r e s u l t the problem has been brought into daylight and the public conscience i s awakening to the needs of families with retarded dren.  chiL  There i s a swing away from thinking that would i s o l a t e and  emphasize segregation.  Realism and more united seeking for methods  and resources with which to constructively meet the s i t u a t i o n are evident c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s new movement. Noyes and Kolb define mental deficiency as "such a defect i n mental competency, r e s u l t i n g either from an inate f a u l t i n developmental p o t e n t i a l i t y or from an arrest i n developmental progress, that i t i s impossible  f o r the patient to make an adequate and 2 independent s o c i a l adjustment." A monograph supplement to the American Journal of Mental Deficiency states: Mental retardation r e f e r s to subaverage general i n t e l l e c t u a l functioning which originates during the development period and i s associated with impairment i n one or more of the following: (1) Maturation, (2) learning, and (3) S o c i a l Adjustment .... Rate of maturation r e f e r s to the rate of sequential development of self-help s k i l l s of infancy and early childhood such as s i t t i n g , crawling, standing, walking, t a l k i n g , habit t r a i n i n g , and i n t e r a c t i o n with age peers .... Learning a b i l i t y r e f e r s to the f a c i l i t y with which knowledge i s acquired as a function of experience ... (and) S o c i a l Adjustment .... During the pre-school and school years s o c i a l adjustment i s r e f l e c t e d , i n large measure, i n the l e v e l and manner i n which the c h i l d relates  1 P i r s t Annual Convention, C. A. R. C ,  2  op. c i t . , p.  •try, w Arthur P., and Kolb, Lawrence C , Noyes,  3.  Modern C l i n i c a l Psychiatry, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, rT24. I960,—  - 4 -  to parents, other adults, and age peers .... In actual practice ... i t w i l l be found that a great percentage of i n d i v i d u a l s diagnosed as mentally retarded w i l l be impaired, or have a h i s t o r y of impairment, i n a l l three areas of adaptation. The mentally d e f i c i e n t person operates at a l e v e l below that of the general public i n h i s capacity to reason, show foresight and judgment, i n h i s a b i l i t y to modify behavior i n the l i g h t of experience, i n conceptualization and memory.  Noyes and Kolb  think that the term i n t e l l e c t u a l l y inadequate would be more s u i t able than mentally d e f i c i e n t or mentally retarded. is:  To them "mind"  "a c o l l e c t i v e designation f o r c e r t a i n functional a c t i v i t i e s  of the organism, p a r t i c u l a r l y those of the organism as an i n d i v i 2 dual personality."  They point out that some persons who  are i n -  t e l l e c t u a l l y d e f i c i e n t are emotionally mature and well adjusted, while some of average or superior i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y are  emo-  5  t i o n a l l y under developed. I t i s estimated that 30 of every 1000 children born i n Canada are mentally defected. catable, and a f t e r t r a i n i n g may  Of these, approximately 25 are edueventually engage i n simple occupa-  tions and reach a l e v e l of self-support. About 4 of the 30 c h i l dren w i l l f a l l i n the trainable category.  These are the moderately  retarded, and the subject of t h i s thesis.  One of every 1,000  dren born w i l l be severely mentally handicapped  chil-  and w i l l always r e -  quire help f o r even the simplest tasks.^ 1  Herber, Rick, "A Manual on Terminology and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n Mental Retardation", A Monograph Supplement to the American Journal of Mental Deficiency, September 1959, V o l . 64, Ho. 2, pp. 3 - 4. Noyes and Kolb, op. c i t . , p. 324. l* * cit. 4 Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 4. 2  o c  - 5 -  Winthrop and Taylor speak of popular misconceptions r e garding the mentally retarded s t i l l held by the general public. These include b e l i e f s that mental retardation i s curable, that retardates should be s t e r i l i z e d as a means of getting r i d of the whole problem.  Also they show that there i s confusion between 1  retardation and mental disease.  In regard to the l a t t e r i t should  be pointed out that a mentally d e f i c i e n t person may, as anyone else, be arrested i n emotional development, or become mentally i l l ; however, i t i s important to understand that mental deficiency i s not synonymous with mental i l l n e s s .  There are serious d i f f i c u l t i e s  which face the retardate i n the developmental process - times when he i s misunderstood, laughed at, l e f t behind and bewildered. His behavior may become e r r a t i c or psychotic as any normal person's might when h i s emotional strength cannot cope with circumstances. Pauses of Mental Deficiency Mental retardation i s found i n a l l races.  I t appears that  there may be greater incidence of one type i n some groups.  For  instance, Cretinism i s more prevalent i n Switzerland than i n Canada; and Mongolism i s more prevalent i n Caucasians than Negroes. mothers during pregnancy  Age of  seems to be a factor (more mongoloid c h i l -  dren are born to mothers over t h i r t y ) , but mental retardation i s seen i n a l l ages of children, and both sexes are affected.  Also  mental retardation occurs i n children of parents of a l l economic  Winthrop, Henry, and Taylor, Howard, "An Enquiry Concerning the Prevalence of Popular Misconceptions Relating to Mental Retardation" , American Journal of Mental Deficiency, V o l . 62, No. 2,  (1957), pp. m  - "348.  - 6 -  brackets, and c u l t u r a l , environmental and educational background. Causes Before B i r t h .  Probably from 50 to 65% of mental  deficiency r e s u l t s from causes e x i s t i n g p r i o r to b i r t h . considered lieved.  that heredity contributes less than was  I t i s now  formerly  be-  Masland, Sarason and Gladwin say, "In the case of mental  retardation, we are not dealing with a single entity or t r a i t ,  but  with a symptom common to many d i f f e r e n t conditions, some c l e a r l y i n h e r i t a b l e , some involving inherited s u s c e p t i b i l i t i e s , and some i n which inheritance plays l i t t l e i f any part."  Noyes and Kolb say:  " I t i s often d i f f i c u l t to determine whether toxic, i n f e c t i o u s , endocrine, traumatic, n u t r i t i o n a l and other prenatal pathogenic f a c tors operating on the germ c e l l or within the pregnant mother tended to weaken or d i s t o r t developmental capacity of the brain." (Rhesus) factor i n the mother's blood may 4 factors.  EH  be one of these pathogenic  Antenatal, hereditary or congenital types of retardation 5 are i n i t i a t e d before b i r t h .  Among prenatal factors, v i r u s i n f e c -  tion, e s p e c i a l l y that of r u b e l l a during the second or t h i r d month of pregnancy may  be highly s i g n i f i c a n t .  I t i s also believed that  i r r a d i a t i o n of the p e l v i s (x-rays) at t h i s period may  cause r e t a r -  dation. ^ Levinson, Abraham, and Bigler, John A., Mental Retardation i n Infants and Children, The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, 1960, pp. 49 - 50. Masland, L., et a l , Mental Subnormality, Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1958, p. 35. 3  Noyes and Kolb, op. c i t . , p. 325. 4 Tredgold, R. P. and Soddy, K., A Text-book of Mental D e f i ciency, The Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1956, p. 28. Levinson and B i g l e r , op. c i t . , p. 55. ^ Loc. c i t . 0  - 7 -  Causes At B i r t h .  D i f f i c u l t labour r e s u l t i n g i n b i r t h  trauma or accidents can cause brain injury, either through mechan i c a l damage or asphyxia, with r e s u l t i n g anoxia.  Prematurity i s  likewise sometimes associated with cerebral hemorrhage and eonse1  quent brain damage. Causes After B i r t h .  Forms of virus and b a c t e r i a l ence-  p h a l i t i s and of meningitis are the most frequent causes of mental retardation a f t e r b i r t h .  Head i n j u r y accounts f o r brain damage  f o r some i n infancy and early childhood.  Also, toxemia and vitamin  deficiency i n infancy and early childhood may produce i r r e v e r s i b l e changes i n the cortex r e s u l t i n g i n varying degrees of mental r e tardation.  Again, a reduced a b i l i t y to receive stimuli can r e s u l t  i n a c e r t a i n degree of mental defect for the congenitally b l i n d and deaf.  2  Emotional factors, without organic defect, may be the cause of retardation.  The mysterious case of Kaspar Hauser, a  sixteen or seventeen year old boy found May 26, 1828 near one of the gates of Nuremberg exemplifies i n a dramatic manner the e f f e c t of prolonged i s o l a t i o n upon the brain c e l l s .  But more recent 3  findings i n studies by such persons as Spitz  4  and Bowlby  support  t h i s view. Noyes and Kolb, op. c i t . , p. 326. 2  Loc. cit>  Spitz, Rene, and Wolf, Katherine A., "Grief - A Period i n Infancy", (film) 3 r e e l s , 35 minutes. S i l e n t . Rene Spitz, 1150 F i f t h Avenue, New York 28. 4  Bowlby, J . , Maternal Care and Mental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1952.  - 8 -  Some C l i n i c a l Types of Mental Deficiency Microcephaly. origin.  Microcephaly generally i s genetic i n  However, sometimes microcephaly i s caused by X-Ray or  1 radium given to a pregnant woman.  The d i s t i n c t i v e feature i s the  smallness of the head which does not exceed 17 inches i n circumference.  The shape of the head i s also c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . The fore-  head i s markedly recessed and the back of the head (occiput) i s flattened.  The chin recedes.  on the forehead.  The h a i r i s very wiry and grows low  The brain i s markedly underdeveloped.  The i n d i -  vidual's stature i s small, though the body and face may be well 2 developed.  I n t e l l e c t u a l capacity varies considerably.  Microce-  phalics are found i n each of the three degrees of mental retardation.  Features common to most are "absence of any sensory defect,  a general v i v a c i t y , restlessness and muscular a c t i v i t y .  A consi-  derable capacity f o r immitation and usually an i n a b i l i t y f o r sus3 tained e f f o r t . " Tuberous S c l e r o s i s . Tuberous Sclerosis i s characterized by epilepsy and adenoma sebaceum. Nodules may occur on face and neck 4 and a few pale pink spots on the cheeks.  Though i t i s congenital,  only about 0.5 percent of the retarded suffer Tuberous S c l e r o s i s . Patients are usually backward from b i r t h . or t a l k .  Many never learn to walk  Screaming i s common i n early years.  Tredgold  and Soddy, op. c i t . , p. 328.  2  Ifrid., P- 271.  5  !]___.» P- 7 2 .  4  Ibid., p. 279.  2  Mental retardation  i s generally severe or moderate.  As the i n d i v i d u a l grows there i s  generally progressive mental deterioration and though some survive to adult age, most die before reaching maturity. Phenylketonuria. genetic metabolic defect. phenylypruvate  Phenylketonuria i s characterized by a Phenylalanine and i t s d e r i t i v e s ,  and phenyllactate are excreted through the urine,  not having been converted f o r body use. t i n g i s progressive.  Mental retardation r e s u l -  Research has recently discovered that a lack  of an enzyme necessary f o r the oxidation of phenylalanine i s the cause. fect.  A diet low i n phenylalanine can control the metabolic Mental deficiency caused by t h i s condition may 2  i f early treatment i s given.  de-  be prevented  Detection of phenylalanine i s e a s i l y  made by a simple urine "damp diaper" test shortly a f t e r b i r t h of a child.  Though mental retardation may be prevented by early adjust-  ment of diet, brain damage caused before treatment i s permanent. Mongolism.  I t i s estimated that of each 1,000  to 4 infants w i l l be mongoloid.  births, 3  Of a l l children diagnosed as men-  t a l l y defective during the f i r s t year of l i f e , between 40 and 50 per3 cent are mongols.  S t a t i s t i c s support the observation that the mon-  goloid i s more apt to be born to a r e l a t i v e l y older mother.  Most  A  mongols are born to mothers over the age of 36. The Mongol's brain i s underdeveloped.  Often there are d i s -  orders of the endocrine glands and defects of the heart.^ Tredgold and Soddy, op. c i t . , p. 279. Noyes and Kolb, op. c i t . , p. 328. 2  Tredgold and Soddy, op. c i t . . p. 5  IDid..  P.  300.  296.  He  is  - 10 -  short i n stature.  His head i s small and round, flattened both at  the back (occiput) and the f r o n t a l regions. his  The skin tissue about  eyes i s drawn and emphasizes an A s i a t i c appearance.  His tongue  which i s constantly protruded and withdrawn i s often quite large. His nose i s broad and short with a depressed bridge; hands are broad and stubby, flabby and clumsy looking.  There i s an i r r e g u l a -  r i t y i n the length of fingers; hips are often thick; cheeks often coloured by a bright red f l u s h . loped or large and protruding.  Ears may  The skin i s soft and smooth i n very  early l i f e but l a t e r becomes rough. l a t e r i s dry and t h i n .  be small and underdeve-  The h a i r i s soft at f i r s t  The abdomen i s large.  and  Blood c i r c u l a t i o n i s  often poor so that the cold i s f e l t and the i n d i v i d u a l susceptable to colds and other i n f e c t i o n s . ral.  The voice i s often harsh and  He i s flabby muscled and loose jointed.  guttu-  He tends to age  quickly. The mongoloid has an inherent "good d i s p o s i t i o n " . He i s most affectionate. judgment directed to Cretinism. nism.  In one,  He cannot understand and i s confused by  critical  him. I t may  be that there are two types of c r e t i -  the mental and physical retardation are d e f i n i t e l y  due to hypothyroidism, and with treatment the patient becomes normal;  i n the other, mental retardation i s the e s s e n t i a l condition, i  hypothyroidism being an added complication. treatment are very important. Tredgold and Soddy, op. c i t . , p,  306.  Early recognition and  - 11 -  The child's growth i s retarded. slow, does not e a s i l y laugh or smile.  He i s apathetic and  His tongue protrudes.  Skin  i s yellowish, loose and wrinkled and frequently puffy.  Hair i s  often scanty.  The head  i s large.  The body i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y dwarfed.  Legs are short and bowed; hands and feet are stumpy and  i l l formed.  The nose i s broad and flattened, eyes widely  separated;  l i p s thick, mouth p a r t l y open and tongue thick, coarse and protrur  ding.  The neck i s usually short and thick.  Balance i s poor, gait  i s slow and a l l movements are laboured and clumsy.  Persons suf-  f e r i n g from cretinism are generally apathetic and there i s a lack of expression.  Some are severely retarded, but most often these i  persons are high i n the moderately retarded range. The Degree of Mental Defect The severely retarded ( i d i o t ) c h i l d has an I . Q. of from 0 to about 20. He i s a t o t a l care r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  The fact that  i n adult years he may develop a maximum mental age of about two years indicates that he w i l l always be highly dependent.  The mode-  r a t e l y retarded (imbecile) c h i l d has an I. Q. of from about 20 to 50.  This c h i l d may develop a mental age of from three to about  seven years.  He i s , to various degrees, t r a i n a b l e .  That i s ,  through a systematic r e p e t i t i o u s t r a i n i n g process, he may be taught elemental health habits and to do many things which w i l l a s s i s t i n the economy of s e l f - c a r e .  He can learn to enjoy l i f e through  Tredgold and Soddy, op. c i t . , p. 308.  s o c i a l i z a t i o n , and successful contribution to h i s own needs; and i n a l i m i t e d manner he can learn to contribute to the needs or wishes of others.  He w i l l always have defective speech but  learn a few simple words and to communicate i n other ways.  can He  has p o t e n t i a l f o r development and i n adult years can contribute p a r t i a l l y to self-support under supervision.  And he can develop  s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n s k i l l s to a minimal useful l e v e l i n controlled environment.^ The mildly retarded (moron) c h i l d has an I. Q. of from 50 to 70 and may years.  develop a mental age of from eight to about ten  He i s able to gain a simple command of the language, learn  to do more demanding tasks with l e s s supervision, and perform academically up to about grade 4 i n h i s late teens, and perhaps f u r ther i n c e r t a i n subjects.  He has l i t t l e a b i l i t y f o r abstract  thinking (the lower l e v e l s have none).  With these various  t i e s , many can reach a l e v e l near to s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y .  abili-  Many mildly  retarded adults are providing f o r themselves i n our society today. Some are capable of self-maintenance i n u n s k i l l e d or semi-skilled jobs though they require guidance when under mild s o c i a l or econo2 mic s t r e s s . Those caring f o r the mentally  d e f i c i e n t w i l l need to  understand and accept the person's physical and mental condition as i t i s so that whatever the present rate and p o t e n t i a l for s o c i a l Herber, op. c i t . , p. loc. c i t .  63.  functioning may  be, expectations w i l l neither be too great nor too  small.  The Moderately Retarded Child The moderately retarded child's aggressive, destructive, withdrawn or other unacceptable  behavior t r a i t s are frequently pro-  cesses expressing f e e l i n g s of anxiety, f r u s t r a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n . This behavior often evokes negative reaction from parents and l i n g s , and h i s f r u s t r a t i o n s are increased.  sib-  He needs energy outlets  which f a c i l i t a t e h i s being loved, recognized, accepted and successful i n some of h i s endeavours.  His mental a b i l i t y i s not great enough  to solve problems, but he does have the emotional capacity to become distraught by f a i l u r e .  Not to recognize and meet the retardate's  needs w i l l r e s u l t i n self-defeat for both the c h i l d and h i s parents. A c h i l d w i l l sense r e j e c t i o n and act out h i s anxiety.  Quarrels  be-  tween parents, inconsistent d i s c i p l i n e , favoritism amongst s i b l i n g s and i n d i f f e r e n c e , plus the compounding of economic and health problems may w e l l ensue and, i f not abated, sooner or l a t e r lead to family breakdown. Laycock l i s t s what he considers basic needs of a l l c h i l dren including retardates. to the retarded.  The following are related s p e c i f i c a l l y  Next to a reasonable  degree of physical care, the  most urgent need i s to f e e l that he i s a loved and cherished i n d i vidual, e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s own home but also i n the school, church and community.  Closely a l l i e d i s the need to belong, to f e e l a de-  sired and desirable member of a family group, school group, church group or community group.  There i s a need f o r independence.  He  - 14 -  \  has a need to do things f o r himself. own  He also has a need to make his  decisions i n accord with h i s present  stage of development.  There i s a need for achievement, the t h r i l l of success which comes from accomplishment.  There i s a need f o r recognition.  Since  the  slow learning c h i l d has usually had many experiences of f a i l u r e and has been made to f e e l inadequate, he often stands i n special need of praise and recognition or approval by others. for  There i s a need  a sense of self-worth, otherwise he w i l l spend a l l h i s available  energy t r y i n g to reassure himself.  Laycock concludes by  observing  that every i n d i v i d u a l has to attempt to understand and relate to the world around him i n some fashion.  In the case of most retarded  children i t w i l l l a r g e l y be a r e l a t i o n s h i p of f e e l i n g , not of reason. The Moderately Retarded Child's Role i n Family and Community.  One  of the f i r s t  questions  that often comes from parents of  a newborn c h i l d i s , "Is our baby well?" the f u l f i l l m e n t of great expectations  They look to the c h i l d as  and fond dreams.  They have  already invested themselves to no l i t t l e degree i n t h i s c h i l d . the c h i l d i s 'normal , dreams materialize. 1  When  The parents often res-  pond by modifying t h e i r habits, ways of thinking and values, so that these may  more worthily encompass the needs of t h e i r c h i l d .  diagnosis " t h i s c h i l d i s defective" i s made, dreams may  be  Parents experience various degrees of disillusionment and break.  The  When a shattered.  heart-  shock i s severe even to the strongest of p e r s o n a l i t i e s  laycock, Samuel R., Mental Hygiene i n the School, The Copp Clark Publishing Co. Limited, Toronto, 1%U, pp. 1U - _ 2 .  - 15 -  and may l e a d and  to ineffective  b i t t e r d e p r e c i a t i o n o f themselves The  be  moderately  be a b u r d e n  r e t a r d e d c h i l d , who p a r e n t s e x p e c t e d w o u l d  cure,  are basically  Stages  t o r e a l i s t i c and p r a c t i c a l .  tial  d i a g n o s i s t h e y may t r a v e l  force  the c h i l d  only partly  is  a manner w h i c h  their  child.  range  the i n i -  specialists  i n d e b t e d , a n d i n t h e meantime t r y Sometimes d i a g n o s i s i s  t o doubts  responsibility  a n d g u i l t s by  child.  I fdiagnosis  shunned, p a r e n t s may  On t h e o t h e r b a n d , i t may be a c c e p t e d  permits p r a c t i c a l  p l a n n i n g a n d warm a c c e p t a n c e o f  c h i l d a s he i s . The  p a r e n t whose c h i l d  much t i m e p a s s e s b e f o r e t h e c h i l d process.  i s moderately demonstrates  retarded finds  that  grov/th i n h i s m e n t a l  P o r example, i t w i l l t a k e a c h i l d whose I . Q. i s a b o u t 30,  s i x t e e n years to reach h i s p o t e n t i a l mental  )  o f acceptance  many m e d i c a l  or very permissive with t h e i r  their  event  e v e n t , n o t one  I f they r e j e c t  beyond h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s .  accepted but the i m p l i e d  overtly reject in  far, visit  a c c e p t e d and p a r e n t s r e a c t  being protective  life  P a r e n t s may o r may n o t s e e k a d -  o n how t o c a r e f o r a r e t a r d e d c h i l d .  c l i n i c s , become f i n a n c i a l l y  will  d e f e n s i v e , t o a n x i o u s and i n s e -  vice  to  "The c r i t i c a l  having a retarded c h i l d i s a continuing c r i t i c a l  t h a t h a p p e n s , t h e n i s o v e r and e n d e d . "  and  and t o s o c i e t y ,  t o h i m s e l f and o t h e r s .  from a t t i t u d e s which  hostile  and o f f s p r i n g .  an i n v a l u a b l e a s s e t b o t h t o themselves  always of  l i v i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d by g u i l t y ,  age d e v e l o p m e n t a l  level  B l o d g e t t , H a r r i e t E . , and W a r f i e l d , Grace J . , U n d e r s t a n d i n g M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1959, p . 4 1 .  - 16 -  of about four and a h a l f years.  He w i l l be ten years old by the  time h i s mental age has reached three years.  However, to say that  a boy ten years of age with a mental age of three years w i l l behave as a normal three year old c h i l d i s to oversimplify.  Such a r e t a r -  ded c h i l d may have developed well beyond the three year old i n some ways. In Chapter I I I , a b r i e f history i s given on boy D of the sample group. ( A p r i l , 1962).  This boy i s now nine and one h a l f years of age His I . Q. i s about 30, ( C a t t e l l Infant Intelligence  Scale, A p r i l , 1958), b i s mental age equivalent, 3.7 years S o c i a l Maturity Scale, A p r i l , 1962).  (Yineland  Psychologists t e l l us that  one of the main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the mentally retarded's r e s u l t s i s the scattered score f o r various categories.  test  Boy D, f o r  instance, i n A p r i l 1962, tested at about the one year communication l e v e l (speech and gesture).  During the same test s i t u a t i o n he tes-  ted at about the f i v e year occupational l e v e l ( a b i l i t y to occupy himself unattended).  I t i s obvious, therefore, that though t h i s  boy now tests at the 3.7 mental age l e v e l , he functions below that point i n some ways and above i t i n others.  For instance, boy D i s  able to attend h i s t o i l e t care without assistance; the normal three year old c h i l d generally requires some help. S o c i a l and emotional concepts are quite important here. A c h i l d with an I . Q. of 20 or under cannot be expected to achieve independence i n s o c i a l competency no matter how much t r a i n i n g he i s given.  On the other hand, the moderately retarded c h i l d may achieve  independence i n s i g n i f i c a n t areas and be taught to function i n ways  -  17  -  both, rewarding to himself and to others.  By the time he reaches  his p o t e n t i a l mental age development (at about sixteen years, i f growth has not been interrupted before that time), i t i s l i k e l y he w i l l be able to function at a l e v e l well beyond h i s mental age. Therefore, though psychological tests are useful guides, they complement rather than define the t o t a l developmental picture.  It  w i l l be important f o r parents or others i n charge of the child's care to have an understanding of what might and what might not be expected.  Blundering may be thus avoided, and the p o s s i b i l i t y of  negative reaction on the c h i l d ' s part to unappreciative adults, reduced considerably. What role i s the c h i l d to play?  Can he be accepted on  a two to three year old l e v e l when he i s eight years of age?  He  i s not able to keep up to normal children h i s own size and i s gradually pushed out of t h e i r group.  When as a b i g boy he associates  with small children, adults i n the neighborhood are upset.  I f they  permit t h e i r l i t t l e children to associate, these soon grow past him and he loses h i s playmates. dicule and laughter.  He i s often the object of vicious r i -  In a world where the fast moving tempo i s  often bewildering to the 'average' person, h i s most f r a n t i c e f f o r t s to keep up are p i t i f u l l y inadequate. why'emphasizes h i s dilemma.  That he does not understand  And i f those who care f o r him do not  comprehend and t r y to force him, trouble i s compounded. much i s expected of the c h i l d and, as a consequence, gins to see himself as ' i n f e r i o r ' and  'inadequate'.  Often too  the c h i l d be-  - 18 -  At a mental vel.  best, a c h i l d  age o f a b o u t  seven y e a r s .  never  means t h a t he w i l l level  possibly  life.  Group l i v i n g  his  a sense  relationships, and  emotional  to the world  very  slow  training this  these  companionship.  some k i n d o f g r o u p t o him.  n o t be enough.  about  him.  Only  He w i l l  thus  five  The r e t a r d a t e need, w i t h i n  c a n he b e g i n t o e s -  l e a r n t o make  sufficient  to further potential  intellectual  growth.  f o r the Moderately  special  class  i n social  retarded child.  Retarded  examined i n t h i s  f o r training's  s t u d y was s e t up t o  Because t h e moderately  sake.  Indeed,  retarded child i s  seriously  the i d e a of  f a c t may w e l l s u b s t a n t i a t e  A r e c e n t study i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s concerning the  of special day-class training children,  Child  competence a t a l e v e l a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e  t o l e a r n , many p a r e n t s do n o t t a k e  thinking.  effect  that  be i m p o r t a n t  things.  and b e m o t i v a t e d  provide t r a i n i n g moderately  will  of personal identity,  Special Training The  This suggests  i n itself will  capacity, to accomplish  tablish  I t likewise  n o t be a b l e t o p l a y w i t h n o r m a l  institutional,  w i l l want t o r e l a t e  self-sufficiency.  f u n c t i o n i n g i f he i s t o s h a r e  t h a t he w i l l  o l d s throughout  living,  t o be somewhat d e p e n d e n t ,  n e e d t o be amongst t h o s e who a r e on h i s own  of intellectual  i s obvious  year  a c h i e v e complete  develop  Many w i l l n o t r e a c h t h a t l e -  T h i s means t h a t he i s a l w a y s g o i n g  t h a t he w i l l  It  w i t h a n I . Q. o f u n d e r 50 may  showed no s i g n i f i c a n t  on t h e s o c i a l findings  competency o f  t o support an  - 19 -  hypothesis that t r a i n i n g i s b e n e f i c i a l i n increasing competence.  social  The r e a d e r ' s unanswered q u e s t i o n s here a r e :  the c h i l d ' s poor response  "Does  to t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s r e f l e c t h i s i n a b i l i t y  to b e n e f i t , or does he need more adequate c l a s s s e t t i n g s and q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r s t o a s s i s t him achieve h i s p o t e n t i a l ? "  better  Implica-  t i o n o f the study i s t h a t the l a t t e r i s c l o s e r to the t r u t h . dren i n t h i s category are c a l l e d do have c a p a c i t y f o r development.  'trainable'.  T h i s means t h a t they  I f they can develop there must  be ways to a s s i s t and speed up t h i s development. periment  Chil-  a t The Woodlands School i s an attempt  The t e a c h i n g ex-  to f i n d b e t t e r ways  of h e l p i n g these c h i l d r e n improve t h e i r s o c i a l competence. i s t o h e l p the c h i l d p r o g r e s s f o r a purpose.  The  aim  T h i s purpose i n v o l v e s  i n c r e a s i n g h i s a b i l i t y t o care f o r h i m s e l f , to grow i n understanding of h i m s e l f , h i s age peers, a d u l t s and the world about him, and to thereby i n c r e a s e h i s enjoyment i n l i v i n g .  I n t u r n , by doing some-  t h i n g p r o d u c t i v e f o r these c h i l d r e n i t i s hoped t h a t t h e i r  families  w i l l b e n e f i t - both from the knowledge t h a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n are g e t t i n g something  out o f l i f e ,  increased intrafamily  Westminster,  mentally d e f i c i e n t .  and  activity.  The S e t t i n g . School, New  and by a c t u a l l y s h a r i n g improved  The s e t t i n g f o r t h i s study i s The Woodlands a B. C. P r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the  The b u i l d i n g s , o l d and new,  o v e r l o o k the  p i c t u r e s q u e F r a s e r R i v e r and i t s busy r i v e r t r a f f i c .  The  total  Cain, Leo F., and Levine, Samuel, A Study o f the E f f e c t s of Community and I n s t i t u t i o n a l S c h o o l Classes" f o r T r a i n a b l e M e n t a l l y " Retarded C h i l d r e n , U. S. O f f i c e of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and Welfare, C o n t r a c t l o SAE" 8257, June, 1961, pp. 158 - 159.  - 20  patient population i s 1,343  -  and includes persons from infancy to  old age, a l l suffering various degrees of mental handicap. are non-ambulatory and completely dependent. tory but can do many things f o r themselves.  Some  Some are non-ambulaOthers are able to  tend some of t h e i r own needs, and some make a substantial c o n t r i bution by performing various simple jobs within the i n s t i t u t i o n . Patients are segregated into wards according to age, sex, mental and physical handicap, and l e v e l of s o c i a l i z a t i o n performance.  Bach ward has i t s own scheduled programme adapted to the  needs, capacities and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of i t s residents.  These  schedules are correlated with the o v e r a l l programme, and patients p a r t i c i p a t e where they are able.  This includes nursery classes,  s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g classes, academic school classes, recreational act i v i t i e s , occupational therapies, sheltered workshops, ground maintenance and entertainment. Prom within t h i s large i n s t i t u t i o n a special group has been selected f o r study. boys who  I t i s a group of ten moderately retarded  attend a s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g programme d a i l y .  Role of the S o c i a l Worker The s o c i a l worker has played a r e l a t i v e l y minor role i n connection with services f o r the children included i n t h i s study. At present the s o c i a l worker provides a s o c i a l assessment of h i s family when a p p l i c a t i o n i s made f o r permanent or temporary to the i n s t i t u t i o n .  admission  He has d i r e c t contact with the family i f they  reside i n the Vancouver d i s t r i c t , or correspondence with the s o c i a l  -  welfare branch resides social  worker or p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse  some d i s t a n c e away. welfare  sources.  At  time  h i s r e p o r t and  team a s  treatment  worker provides and  parents  the  and  initial  to  ' s i t i n ' on their  to the  the  continue  through  social  will  the  child  will  class  i n gene-  be r e s i d e n t .  teacher.  t o g e t an  shortly  be  h i s welfare  i n the  more o f a l i a i s o n  one  institution.  idea  worker  telephone,  a casework r e l a t i o n s h i p . in  evidence  s e r v i c e may  admission.  The  of  p l a c e by  fact  latter  type  and  have been p r o v i d e d  that admission  or i n  to the  t h e home h a v e become so c o m p l e x and  parents  f o r admission  parents  the  who  institution  of r e l a t i o n s h i p  the  has  precluded  o f the moderately  a n x i o u s l y await  child  service i s than  i s more  casework  and  family before  initial  institution necessarily  l a r g e on a n emergency b a s i s , where  s i m p l y must h a v e r e l i e f ,  to  The  and  i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a where s u p p o r t i v e  orientation  takes  However, t o d a t e ,  between the p a r e n t s  They  receiving.  between s o c i a l  correspondence,  me-  social  f a c e t o f a c e c o n t a c t s to c o n s i d e r f a m i l y problems and/or the and  wor-  child.  institution  special  c o n t a c t commenced a t a d m i s s i o n  p a r e n t s may  educational  of a c h i l d ,  class activity  child  other  o t h e r members o f t h e  admission  are i n t r o d u c e d t o the  special training  Professional  and  i s proposed f o r a p a r t i c u l a r  o r i e n t a t i o n of parents  a l s o encouraged  about  medical  consults with  i f t h e family-  consultation with  t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r ward i n w h i c h t h e  Likewise, are  and  be  of intake diagnostic c l i n i c ,  U s u a l l y a t the  ral,  T h e r e may  or p r i v a t e agencies  the  ker presents dical  social  -  21  circumstances  threatening that  parents  l o n g range p l a n n i n g retarded c h i l d .  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t a bed  with  Services  i s available  - 22 -  for t h e i r c h i l d have "been f o r the most part of a 'stop gap' v a r i e t y . That i s , parents are helped to carry on a l i t t l e longer under c i r cumstances which are formidable and excruciating.  Method This study i s explorative and descriptive. i s to explore two hypotheses. class t r a i n i n g conducted  The f i r s t of these i s : "Special  i n an i n s t i t u t i o n can increase the s o c i a l  competency of trainable mentally retarded boys." 1 2 Social Competency Scale Form X 3 ment i n t h i s area.  I t s purpose  was adapted  The San Francisco  to measure develop-  The term " s o c i a l competency" includes four  areas of s o c i a l functioning. These are:  self-help, i n i t i a t i v e -  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , s o c i a l s k i l l s and communication.  The San Francisco  Study defines these subscales as follows: (1) The Self Help subscale i s designed to measure the child's manipulative a b i l i t y or motor s k i l l s . The concern here i s solely with manipulation and not whether the c h i l d must be directed to do the s k i l l or whether he i n i t i a t e s the a c t i v i t y . The greater the c h i l d ' s manipulative a b i l i t y , as r e f l e c t e d by his Self Help score, the more s o c i a l l y competent i s the c h i l d . (2) The I n i t i a t i v e - R e s p o n s i b i l i t y subscale i s designed to measure the degree to which the child's behavior i s s e l f - d i r e c t e d . The c h i l d who must be directed to an a c t i v i t y i s defined as being less s o c i a l l y competent than the c h i l d who i n i t i a t e s that a c t i v i t y . I t i s conceivable that two children of equal manipul a t i v e a b i l i t y w i l l d i f f e r i n the amount of respons i b i l i t y or i n the s e l f - d i r e c t i o n they assume. op. c i t . , p. 189. 2 Cain and Levine, ---------P r i o r to becoming aware of the San Francisco Study the writer observed the special class on several occasions. He catalogued class procedure and devised r a t i n g scales to test progress i n self-help and emotional growth. Upon examination of the San Francisco Social Competency Scale i t was decided to seek permission of the authors to use an adapted form of i t i n t h i s study. The authors generously gave t h e i r consent.  -  23  -  ( 3 ) The S o c i a l S k i l l s subscale i s designed to assess the child's movement toward engaging i n i n t e r personal relationships with other children and adults. The more the c h i l d i s able to r e l a t e to others and to p a r t i c i p a t e i n group situations, the more s o c i a l l y competent he i s . (4) The Communication subscale i s designed to measure the degree to which a c h i l d makes himself understood to people i n general. The greater the child's adequacy i n communicating h i s wants, the greater h i s s o c i a l competence.^ The second hypothesis i s : "The improved s o c i a l compe2  tency of the boys w i l l p o s i t i v e l y a f f e c t t h e i r a c c e p t a b i l i t y  to  t h e i r own families and n o n - i n s t i t u t i o n a l communities." There i s a need f o r much more research i n the area of attitudes toward retarded children.  )  Blodgett says:  We need to f i n d out some of the most elementary information, not just about the retarded c h i l d , but about the f a m i l i e s , about the normal children i n the f a m i l i e s . about the possible reactions (negative and p o s i t i v e ) that might be related to the presence of a retarded c h i l d i n the home. Much of t h i s information i s not available, and we believe i t i s important ±o the formulation of s i g n i f i cant questions yet to come. 5  A study completed i n June, 1961 by the San Francisco State College on the effects of community and i n s t i t u t i o n a l school classes f o r trainable mentally retarded children, found, as mentioned earl i e r , that the s o c i a l competency of trainable children was not s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected by present s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g , either i n community 2  Cain and Levine, op. c i t . , pp. 181 - 182.  A c c e p t a b i l i t y i s defined as the degree of favourable approval and reception represented i n expressions of a f f e c t i o n f o r , pride i n , and patience, with the c h i l d , i n o v e r a l l family, neighbourhood and community r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Blogett, Harriet E., "Report of a Research Study at the Sheltering Arms, Minneapolis, Minnesota", F i r s t Winfield I n s t i t u t e : Research i n the Management of the Mentally Retarded Child, Winfield State Training School, Winfield, Kansas, October, 1956.  -  or  i n s t i t u t i o n a l s c h o o l s and  their  c h i l d r e n was  dance a t of  the  not  the  -  that  the  adaptability  significantly related  special classes.  parents to  24  However, i t d i d  child  i s related  to  to  of parents  the  child's  show t h a t the  to  atten-  adaptability  s o c i a l competence  2 of  the  child. A  sample g r o u p o f  study.  E a c h boy  without  severe p h y s i c a l  in one  the  of at  i s between the  i n s t i t u t i o n and  y e a r ; who,  ten  or  trainable age  of  attended  a f t e r t h i s t i m e , has  was  not  of using  possible  a control  when i n a d d i t i o n health,  to  and  age  were  nights.  special classes  group o f the  seventeen,  sex  been  is  f o r at  least period  Because a l l boys  i n the  group.  for  resident  v i s i t e d h i s home f o r a  select a control  to  and  special classes  l e a s t f i v e c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s and  above c a t e g o r y a t t e n d  eight  selected  e m o t i o n a l h a n d i c a p , has  has  the  b o y s was  in  institution, i t  The p r a c t i c a b i l i t y  g i r l s was  explored  variable,  variables  but  decided  o f I . Q.,  against emotional  pronounced.  Other v a r i a b l e s  i n t h i s study f o r b i d a n a l y s i s  of  The a u t h o r s a t t r i b u t e t h r e e components t o a d a p t a b i l i t y . ' F l e x i b i l i t y ' i s d e f i n e d i n b o t h a t t i t u d i n a l and b e h a v i o u r a l t e r m s ; i t r e p r e s e n t s an a t t i t u d e w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l i z e s t h e c h i l d i n t h e l i g h t o f a s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n , as o p p o s e d t o s t e r e o t y p i n g both t h e c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r and t h e s i t u a t i o n . I t a l s o r e p r e s e n t s the a b i l i t y t o employ a l t e r n a t i v e means o f a c t i o n . 'Empathy' i s def i n e d as t h e p a r e n t ' s a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t h i s c h i l d ' s b e h a v i o u r i n t e r m s o f f e e l i n g s , t h o u g h t s and m o t i v e s and t o r e l a t e t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e p a r e n t and the c h i l d are i n v o l v e d . And ' m o t i v a t i o n ' i s d e f i n e d as a p a r t i c u l a r form of d e r i v e d s o c i a l motive; s p e c i f i c a l l y i t i s the m o t i v a t i o n o f the p a r e n t to s o l v e i n t e r p e r s o n a l problems w i t h h i s c h i l d , p C a i n and l e v i n e , op. c i t . , p . 163.  - 25 -  i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r e d f o r t h e sake the  presented hypotheses.  criptive  and e x p l o r a t i v e  stantiate  the i d e a  time  fect  purposes.  include:  effect  sub-  study amounts  class;  the e f -  and t h e l i v i n g  relationship  and e m o t i o n a l  development;  intellectual  o f v a r i o u s o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l programmes,  occupational therapy, r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s  including  a n d group  entertain-  t h e c h a n g i n g i n f a m i l y m a t r i x and c o n s e q u e n t i a l s h i f t i n g o f  family the  f o r des-  differing  s p e n t i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n and i n t h e s p e c i a l  of institutionalization i t s e l f ,  ment;  sought  I t i s hoped t h a t r e s u l t s  Other v a r i a b l e s  amongst p e e r s o f s i m i l a r the  R a t h e r , i n f o r m a t i o n was  t h a t a more t h o r o u g h and c o m p r e h e n s i v e  s h o u l d be u n d e r t a k e n . of  of a c t u a l l y proving e i t h e r of  p r e s s u r e s , because  child  of discharge of care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r  t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a t t h e t i m e o f and f o l l o w i n g h i s a d -  m i s s i o n to the i n s t i t u t i o n . Procedure. this ber  requesting  their participation i n  s t u d y were s e n t t o t h e p a r e n t s o f e a c h boy c h o s e n t o be a memo f t h e sample g r o u p  lowed in  Letters  (see Appendix  up by t e l e p h o n e c a l l s ,  a t which  "A").  The l e t t e r s were  fol-  time i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p a r e n t s  t h e i r home were s c h e d u l e d . E a c h f a m i l y was  The  adapted  and  p a r e n t s were r e q u e s t e d t o c o m p l e t e  time  Competency S c a l e  by t h e same s o c i a l  (see Appendix the Scale  t h e y were t o be g u i d e d by memory o f t h e i r  tioning  t h e y were t o c o m p l e t e  during h i s recent v i s i t s  parents  "B")  was  twice.  boy's  worker. explained  The.first  social  b e f o r e h i s permanent a d m i s s i o n t o t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  second time child  Social  then v i s i t e d  so t h a t  they might  the Scale  home.  complete  from  The  o b s e r v a t i o n o f the  The S c a l e was l e f t i t at their  func-  leisure.  with the A  - 26 -  self-addressed stamped envelope was also l e f t so that when forms had been completed, they could be dropped into the mail.  After  explaining t h i s procedure, the second part of the research, i n t e r viewing parents concerning t h e i r attitudes of a c c e p t a b i l i t y to the retardate was conducted. used.  A projective interviewing technique was  Parents were asked to,give t h e i r impressions  as to how  other parents i n circumstances s i m i l a r to t h e i r own might f e e l t o ward t h e i r trainable mentally retarded c h i l d before and a f t e r t r a i n i n g i n the i n s t i t u t i o n commenced.  Before and a f t e r feelings  were discussed consecutively as each item on the Parental Accept a b i l i t y Scale (see Appendix "C"), (devised by interviewer), was considered.  Pour mothers and one father were interviewed  Pour couples were interviewed together. hours to 3 hours.  Interviews  alone.  lasted from I2  Each item on both scales was scored from  1-4  or 5, on a low to high basis. The teachers of the s p e c i a l classes were asked to complete S o c i a l Competency Scales f o r 5 of the 10 boys as they now function. This was to check the r e l i a b i l i t y of parental observation of t h e i r c h i l d ' s present functioning.  Information  from i n s t i t u t i o n a l f i l e s  was used to substantiate parental observation of past functioning.  When, i n the course of the interview, the amount of time spent extended over one hour, i t was explained to parents that the interview could be terminated and continued on another occasion. However, i n every instance the parents preferred to go on. This may be an i n d i c a t i o n of the degree of t h e i r involvement. Only one interview was completed i n one hour's time.  I CHAPTER II. HABILITATION AND TRAINING OP THE CHILDREN  The Purpose of the I n s t i t u t i o n The severely retarded w i l l always require nursing care. Some require complete or specialized nursing care which i s a v a i l able only i n a h o s p i t a l s e t t i n g .  Parents may be able to provide  care during early years of l i f e ; however, demands w i l l be extremely heavy, and the rewards few. Permanent i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n w i l l probably be necessary f o r most of these p a t i e n t s . Some parents may lose or never have had the a b i l i t y to cope with the demands of the moderately  retarded.  The p h y s i c a l  and emotional s t r a i n may so adversely a f f e c t the home as to s e r i ously disrupt development of normal s i b l i n g s , i n f l i c t impossible f i n a n c i a l obligations on the family, engender m a r i t a l s t r i f e , and perhaps lead to complete breakdown of home l i f e . Day care centres i n a few communities provide nursery service f o r c h i l d r e n up to about age seven or eight.  And some 50  Associations f o r Retarded Children chapter Schools provide classes for older children i n B. C.  Again because of the B. C. Education  Act amendment of 1959, more classes f o r the moderately retarded are being provided i n regular public schools.  In spite of these  services, many families f i n d they cannot carry on and desperately pleadfor the admission of t h e i r children to the i n s t i t u t i o n . ,  Planning i s going ahead i n some areas to provide  -  resources  28  -  f o r care of the moderately r e t a r d e d i n the  For i n s t a n c e , near C h i l l i w a c k , B. C., be e r e c t e d .  A few  special classes.  c h i l d r e n may I t may  community.  a short stay h o s t e l i s to  stay i n r e s i d e n c e here and  be t h a t t h i s type of r e s o u r c e  runner to a permanent community type r e s i d e n c e .  attend  i s a fore-  Here the modera-  t e l y r e t a r d e d t r a i n a b l e person w i l l l i v e w i t h o t h e r s n e a r e r h i s own  i n t e l l e c t u a l and  social ability.  t h a t t h i s venture  was  t h e i r l o c a l A. R.  C. B. C. chapter.  Government was grant o f 50$  I t i s of i n t e r e s t t o note  s t a r t e d by a p r i v a t e group o f persons through An appeal t o the  made f o r f i n a n c i a l h e l p and rewarded by a government  of the c a p i t a l b u i l d i n g c o s t s .  other chapters  Provincial  T h i s has  encouraged  to c o n s i d e r b u i l d i n g r e s i d e n c e s too, i . e . , on Van-  couver I s l a n d . The m i l d l y r e t a r d e d or educable r e c e i v e academic t r a i n i n g and  some v o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  group are admitted  because of b e h a v i o r  t i e s t h a t have made i t extremely hard fill  problems or other  difficul-  f o r them to c o n s t r u c t i v e l y  i n t h e i r time w i t h i n the community.  i n about 30$  Most i n t h i s  C. A. R.  C. r e p o r t s t h a t  of the m i l d l y r e t a r d e d , p s y c h i a t r i c d i s o r d e r s  cate the b a s i c handicap. management o f t h e i r  Much of t h i s may  be a t t r i b u t e d to  complimis-  care.  There are few adequate r e s o u r c e s  i n the community where  S t a n l e y , J . C , C. A. R. 0. Report to the Royal Commission On H e a l t h S e r v i c e s , S t . John, New Brunswick, 1959, p. 4«  - 29 -  the mildly retarded may be given vocational t r a i n i n g .  For example,  The Vancouver Vocational I n s t i t u t e requires grade X f o r entrance. Nor are there adequately planned s o c i a l media i n which these persons may  p a r t i c i p a t e at t h e i r own i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l .  Not being  able to cope, many families have found i t necessary to arrange institutionalization.  lack of community resources i s underlined  every day by community requests that the mildly retarded be allowed to take part i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s programme while continuing to l i v e at home.  This problem has also seriously r e s t r i c t e d oppor-  tunity f o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n of those l i v i n g i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  For,  a f t e r receiving t r a i n i n g and after maturing emotionally to the point where they might return to the community, resources to a s s i s t are inadequate.  Because of lack of community resources, such as  supervised r e s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s , and lack of employment opportun i t i e s , many of the residents of the i n s t i t u t i o n who  could l i v e  outside i t s walls seem to be destined to a l i f e of gross dependency within the i n s t i t u t i o n . The large p r o v i n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n should probably event u a l l y be reserved more and more for the seriously i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , p h y s i c a l l y and emotionally handicapped.  Z a l e l k i says:  "Ideally  there should be very few permanent cases i n an i n s t i t u t i o n . those so severely retarded  Only  that they are unresponsive to t r a i n i n g  and who would be an unfair burden for the family could be considered as permanent residents.  Others should be admitted when there are  some s p e c i f i c indications but returned to the community as soon  - 30 -  )  as possible."  At present, however, the i n s t i t u t i o n i s making a  s i g n i f i c a n t contribution by providing resources which are not existent elsewhere.  Wot the least amongst these are the t r a i n i n g  f a c i l i t i e s which are helping to e s t a b l i s h t r a i n i n g curriculum which may be adaptable to community programmes. Waiting l i s t and P r i o r i t i e s for Admission.  There are  not enough beds to accommodate a l l children who seem to be r a i s i n g formidable  obstacles i n the path of family l i v i n g .  The i n s t i t u -  t i o n i s often able to admit only on emergency bases. tions a r r i v e d a i l y .  New applica-  At present, the waiting l i s t at The Woodlands  School i s more than h a l f the size of the t o t a l patient  population.  As of March 1st, 1962, t h i s l i s t t o t a l l e d 761, while the patient population was 1,343. I Each a p p l i c a t i o n i s rated according to the needs of the c h i l d and the needs of the child's family.  I f the family resides  i n the Vancouver-lower Praser Valley area, a s o c i a l worker from the i n s t i t u t i o n c a l l s at the home and e l i c i t s information to evaluate the need.  required  I f the family l i v e s elsewhere i n B. C , the  l o c a l Department of S o c i a l Welfare or Public Health Unit i s requested to prepare a s o c i a l h i s t o r y .  Information so received i s asses-  sed by a r a t i n g scale and points assigned.  This method assures  equal consideration to applications whether the family resides near the school or not.  I t also affords a measure of protection to the  Z a l e l k i , W. A., "Some Advantages and Disadvantages of I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n " , The Fourth Conference on Mental Retardation C. A. R. C , Vancouver, September 26 - 28, 1961, p. 18.  - 31 -  admitting s t a f f who may be subjected to pressure by parents, l o c a l physicians, council members, teachers, or other i n f l u e n t i a l persons. .hough the waiting l i s t i s very large, the date of app l i c a t i o n i s only one determinant  for admission.  i s d i f f i c u l t to estimate the length of waiting. be s i x months, for others s i x years.  Therefore, i t For some i t may  The o v e r a l l urgency f o r ad-  mission i s the main c r i t e r i a . Despite a marked change i n public and professional a t t i tudes over the past ten years regarding i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of r e tarded children, there are s t i l l some physicians who  recommend  immediate admission of most children diagnosed mentally defective at b i r t h .  This practice i s gradually being modified i n l i e u of  the studies mentioned by such persons as Rene Spitz, John Bowlby and others on the a f f e c t s of maternal deprivation. For example, The Woodlands School has experienced a reduction i n applications to have mongoloid children admitted within the f i r s t few months of birth. Another important piece of knowledge has been emerging as i n t e r a c t i o n between c o l l a t e r a l s o c i a l and medical agencies i s prompted.  To the present time, there has been pressure on the i n s -  t i t u t i o n from many areas to accept the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of d i f f i c u l t mentally d e f i c i e n t children.  Community services, such as the ohild  caring agencies and Public Health Units, whose s t a f f members v i s i t f a m i l i e s with a c h i l d on The Woodlands School waiting l i s t , accepting more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  are  I t seems the trend i s towards  - 32 -  development of community resources.  At one time considered the  only resource, the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l probably be only one i n a whole spectrum of resources.  These include: retarded children's  schools (now under The Department of Education), kindergardens (now to be financed by The Department of Education), day centres, hostels, and sheltered work shops.  As these resources develop,  parents and agencies w i l l have some alternatives to i n s t i t u t i o n a lization. This trend i s p a r t i a l l y attributable to public education, much of t h i s by parents' groups; and p a r t i a l l y i t i s due to the hard, cold r e a l i t y that the i n s t i t u t i o n w i l l never have enough beds, or other f a c i l i t i e s to handle the obvious needs. Legal Requirements.  Up to 1954, any mentally defective  person could be admitted to a mental h o s p i t a l by Court Order a f t e r committal papers had been duly signed by two registered physicians. In 1954, however, The Mental Defective's Act was modified.  Change  provided for f i n a l d e c i s i o n concerning admission to be made by the Medical Superintendent forward. up.  of the i n s t i t u t i o n .  This was a big step  I t allowed a firm p r i o r i t y basis for admission to be set  The i n s t i t u t i o n can now screen applicants and refuse admission  to those who can be cared for i n the community. thened the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  I t also streng-  of i n s t i t u t i o n diagnostic c l i n i c s , a fact  quite evident i n the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s  present procedure  Each patient i s now admitted on a temporary basis.  of admission. Examination  (including consultation with coinmunity c o l l a t e r a l when so indicated) i s conducted  and medical, psychological and s o c i a l assessments  - 33 -  correlated.  These i n turn are supplemented by ward and school  observations made over a period of time.  With such f i r s t hand  observation, planning f o r permanent admission or f o r return to the family i n the community i s being done on a r e a l i s t i c basis. Intake.  Before any patient i s permanently admitted to  the i n s t i t u t i o n he i s admitted f o r a temporary period of t h i r t y days.  By the time arrangements f o r t h i s have been made, informa-  t i o n has been compiled from various sources. has prepared a s o c i a l report.  The s o c i a l worker  The physician has requested medical  information from c o l l a t e r a l s who have made previous medical examination.  P r o v i n c i a l laboratory tests have forwarded r e s u l t s of the  c h i l d ' s urine and feces specimen t e s t s . When parents a r r i v e at the school with t h e i r c h i l d , they are met by the physician.  The physician gathers further pertinent  data, examines the c h i l d and arranges placement on the ward. I f available, a s o c i a l worker introduces parents to the ward s t a f f , who i n turn show them where t h e i r c h i l d w i l l reside f o r the temporary stay.  The s o c i a l worker also answers questions concerning  the t o t a l function of the i n s t i t u t i o n , population, v i s i t i n g regulations, and channels of continued contact between the i n s t i t u t i o n and the parents.  Often parents have been i l l - p r e p a r e d f o r t h i s ex-  perience and are helped i f a s o c i a l worker i s free to discuss feelings and attitudes.  This i s a v i t a l l y important service.  How-  ever, shortage of s t a f f has made i t p h y s i c a l l y impossible i n many cases.  - 34 -  )  The Treatment  Team  The medical superintendent, a p s y c h i a t r i s t , i s the .coordinator of the team. scribe f o r patients. for  Ward physicians examine, treat and pre-  They also conduct medical tests and may c a l l  consultant services.  Ward nurses administer medication. As-  sisted by ward 'aides, they attend to the nursing requirements of t h e i r patients, and observe ward self-help and s o c i a l behavior of the patients.  C l i n i c a l psychologists conduct tests to study the  mental processes and behavior of the patients.  Social workers  maintain l i a i s o n between treatment s t a f f , f a m i l i e s , and community s o c i a l welfare and health services. i n the c l a s s .  Teachers observe the c h i l d  Occupational and physiotherapists, and recreation  directors observe i n t h e i r  departments.  Toward the end of the t h i r t y day admission diagnostic c l i n i c i s held. .The medical superintendent presides. - Reports are submitted by s t a f f representing h i s or her treatment area. diagnosis i s completed.  Medical  This i s related to observed a c t i v i t y i n  the i n s t i t u t i o n and s o c i a l circumstances of the family and community.  A prognosis i s postulated and plans made f o r immediate,  near future, deferred or no permanent admission. The conclusions of the c l i n i c are conveyed to the commun i t y medical p r a c t i t i o n e r s involved by the patient's i n s t i t u t i o n physician.  I f the child's parents reside i n the l o c a l area or are  able to come to the i n s t i t u t i o n , s o c i a l data i n the l i g h t of c l i n i c a l assessment i s interpreted d i r e c t l y by the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s |  s o c i a l worker engaged f o r the case.  I f parents are not able to be  reached i n t h i s manner, information i s interpreted to the Social Welfare Department and, or, the Public Health Unit concerned, who, i n turn, w i l l i n t e r p r e t to parents. ately admitted  I f the c h i l d i s to be immedi-  on a permanent basis, he (she) i s assigned to the  appropriate ward according to age, sex, physical and mental c l a s sification.  Casework Services S o c i a l casework services to families with retarded c h i l dren have been sporadic and somewhat inconsistent.  S o c i a l welfare  departments are too laden with other tasks, and on the whole are staffed by personnel lacking s u f f i c i e n t casework t r a i n i n g to be able to give t h i s type of service.  Children's A i d Societies and  Public Health Units have been i n a similar p o s i t i o n .  In practice,  most f a m i l i e s have been referred to the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r help often as an emergency measure and when casework service i n i t s e l f i s an inadequate resource.  The i n s t i t u t i o n ' s s o c i a l service s t a f f  i s too limited to consider giving regular casework services to a l l those who require i t .  Often i t s s t a f f i s assigned the job of  picking up the pieces of shattered family l i f e , a task fraught with f a i l u r e . Family pressures, unrelieved over too long a period, mount up.  A f f e c t i o n f o r the retarded c h i l d i s sometimes l o s t i n  the maze of p a i n f u l demands on parents and s i b l i n g s a l i k e , and the way opened f o r serious future family c o n f l i c t .  There has been a  tendency to shy away from t h i s problem because i t made even  professional people uncomfortable past).  (as mental i l l n e s s has i n the  S o c i a l workers r a t i o n a l i z e d that the retarded c h i l d was  r e a l l y a medical problem.  They reasoned that they could not help  other than to advise i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and so worked with the family to help them accept i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n , and without r e gard to the fact that there were no beds a v a i l a b l e !  Many physi-  cians approached the problem as one being s t r i c t l y medical and recommended i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n as the only answer, again i n spite of the fact that the i n s t i t u t i o n was f i l l e d to capacity. Public Health Nurses saw the emotional problems and sidestepped them because they were not caseworkers.  Thus families generally  have been rejected by professional people and agencies. There i s an emphasis now on provision of service from the community i n which the family resides.  This, of course, means  services w i l l have to be increased, correlated and mutually supportive.  The aim i s to provide help early enough to prevent family  breakdown and to promote community  responsibility.  i  The Number of Mentally Retarded Persons I t has been estimated that of some 4,200,000 children born annually i n the U. S. A., 3$ (126,000) w i l l never achieve the i n t e l l e c t of a twelve year old c h i l d ; 0.3$ (12,600) w i l l remain below the seven year i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l ; and 0.1$ (4,200) w i l l , i f they survive, require t o t a l nursing care.  Applying these  Masland, L., et a l , Mental Subnormality, Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1958, p. 3.  - 37 -  percentages to Canada, i t means that of each 1,000 about t h i r t y w i l l be mentally d e f i c i e n t .  children born,  C. A. H. C.  estimates  that of these t h i r t y , twenty-five w i l l be mildly retarded, four moderately retarded and one severely retarded.  For the estimated  numbers of mildly, moderately and severely retarded now a l l of Canada, see Table 1.  living in  For those l i v i n g i n B r i t i s h Columbia,  see Table 2. Of the 450,739 l i v e births i n 1956 in,Canada  2  i t i s es-  timated that 11,268 are mildly retarded, 18030 moderately retarded and 4,507 severely retarded.  The corresponding figures for B r i t i s h  Columbia i n the same yeare are (of some 36,241 l i v e births) 906, 157 and 36. rate. 1956  There has, of course, been an increase i n the b i r t h -  The t o t a l population of Canada has r i s e n from 16,008,791 i n to 18,238,247 i n 1961;  1,398,464 to 1,629,082.  5  are now approximately  i n B r i t i s h Columbia, i t rose from  This means that i n a l l of Canada there  455,956 mildly retarded, 72,953 moderately  retarded and 18,238 severely retarded. for B r i t i s h Columbia are 40,727, 6,516  The corresponding figures and 1,629.  I t i s of note that to December 31st, I960, 2,320 retarded children nineteen years and under were registered as residing i n t h e i r communities i n The B. C. P r o v i n c i a l Crippled Children's  Stanley, op. c i t . , p. 5. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census D i v i s i o n , Census 1956, V o l . 1, part 9. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census (Demography) D i v i s i o n , Population Section, Census of Canada 1961, Advance Report, No. AP-1, March 16, 1962.  - 38 -  I  Table 1. Population of Canada and Estimated Numbers of Mentally Retarded Persons  Age Groups  Population For Age Group  0-4 5-9 10 - 14 15 - 19 19 & up  1983563 1807052 14345941162301 969328I  49589 45176 35865 29058 242332  7934 7228 5738 4649 38773  1984 1807 1435 1162 9693  43038 34869 290798  16080791  402020  64322  16081  482423  Totals  Source:  Estimated Population For Mentally Retarded Total Moderate Severe Mild 59507 54211  Canada, Dominion Bureau of Statistics Census Division, Census 1956 - Vol. 1, part 9.  Table 2. Population of British Columbia and Estimated Numbers of Mentally Retarded Persons  Age Groups 0-4 5-9 10 - 14 15 - 19 19 & up  Estimated Population For Mentally Retarded Total Moderate Severe Mild  Population , For Age Group 156759 140588 108518 1  86433  906166  j  i  1398464 ;  Totals Source:  3919 3515 2713 2161 22654 34962  627 562 434  157  4703  3625  86 906  3255 2593 27185  5594  1398  41954  346  141 108  Canada,. Dominion Bureau of V i t a l Statistics, Census 1956 - Vol. 1, part 9.  4218  - 39 -  )  /  Registry.  According to estimates, there were a t o t a l of 14,769  retarded nineteen years and under i n B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1956. Excluding the t o t a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l populations of The Woodlands School and i t s Annex, The Tranquille School (Tranquille, B. C ) , these figures would suggest that there are some 11,000 unregistered mentally defective children under the age of nineteen i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The Classrooms The special classroom, f i f t y feet by twenty-two feet i s situated on the basement f l o o r of a boy's residence. i s divided only by p i l l a r s .  The room  Equipment f o r various a c t i v i t i e s i s  ranged i n semi-permanent fashion i n d i f f e r e n t areas of the room. I This includes a grocery store  bus area, a street cross-  walk area, a multiple teaching area, and so on. Each area i s set up i n a manner closely simulating that presently found i n the community at large.  For instance, the grocery store i s decorated by  sale pennants, signs, and so on. I t i s stocked with r e a l merchandise.  Special equipment, such as a tape recorder, radio, t e l e v i -  sion, s l i d e projecture, record player and so on are arranged throughout  the room without p a r t i c u l a r b u i l t - i n protecting devices.  The boys are taught to respect property. Adjoining the special classroom i s a self-care room approximately twenty-two feet by twenty-two f e e t .  I t s equipment i n -  cludes a shoe polishing stand, dinner table, chairs, dishes, cutI  l o r y , glasses, beds, sink, a clothes rack and hangers, f u l l 'boy  - 40 -  size  1  dressing  d o l l s , an i n d i v i d u a l window frame separated from  the "building as such and containing glass, and so on. Next to t h i s room i s a playroom approximately f i f t y feet by twenty-two f e e t .  Except f o r p i l l a r s the room i s open  and provides an area both f o r play and f o r p r a c t i c i n g washing and cleaning methods learned i n the self-care room. Self-Care Room A c t i v i t i e s .  While the special c l a s s -  room and the playroom are occupied, a group of twelve boys come to the self-care section f o r two hours t r a i n i n g .  They f i r s t go  to the wash-room where they practice washing t h e i r hands and and brushing t h e i r teeth.  face,  From here they go to the self-care room  i t s e l f where they cream t h e i r faces to avoid chapping.  They then  practice brushing and combing t h e i r h a i r with the use of a mirror. Approximately one hour's time i s spent doing these things.  For  the next hour, i n groups of two, the boys spend approximately f i v e minutes on each of the following a c t i v i t i e s :  making beds, folding  clothes, washing window, setting the table, washing dishes, putting on clothes, l a c i n g and shining  shoes„ and dressing  On some days they are taught how  life-size dolls.  to wash walls and p o l i s h f l o o r s .  Under the d i r e c t i o n of Mr. John  Wicentowich.  - 41 -  Special Training Class A c t i v i t i e s .  Class i s begun by  a very simple prayer said by the teacher and repeated by the class as a group.  R o l l c a l l i s taken and a c t i v i t i e s begun.  i s no set sequence.  There  I t may be that the boys show more interest i n  some projects than i n others on c e r t a i n days.  The teacher i s sen-  s i t i v e to t h e i r feelings and c a p i t a l i z e s on any evident motivations f o r learning by encouraging the expression of these. The motto of the special class, "Play to learn" i s f o l lowed (see Appendix "D" f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of classroom a c t i v i t i e s ) . I t may be that some games are more popular than others.  I f the  teacher f e e l s that a c h i l d lacks i n t e r e s t i n a project, he seeks to stimulate i t , not only by making the a c t i v i t y as c o l o u r f u l and f u n - f i l l e d as possible, but by rewarding the child's adequate part i c i p a t i o n by l e t t i n g him l a t e r do a favourite game.- Besides the  Under the d i r e c t i o n of Mr. J u l i u s E r d e l y i . Mr. E r d e l y i was born i n Hungary. As a young man he attended Teacher's College there f o r f i v e years. Shortly before the war he became a member of the Szeged Opera Group and was a baritone s o l o i s t . He joined the Army i n 1936 and saw action on several fronts. When taken prisoner of war, he held the rank of Captain. A f t e r release, he worked as a labourer i n A u s t r i a for two years and then went to England. There he worked at various jobs including those of ward aid i n hospitals f o r the chronically physically handicapped. In 1957 Mr. E r d e l y i came to Canada. He was employed at hospitals i n Quebec, then 'came west' and attached himself to The Woodlands School. In retrospect, having become dedicated to h i s work, Mr. E r d e l y i says, "The biggest break i n my l i f e came when Mr. E l l i o t t , chief p s y c h i a t r i c male nurse, asked me to start a special class for trainable boys." With a devotion and investment of s e l f surpassed by no other s t a f f member of The Woodlands School, he began his class, personally equipped the classroom by getting donations from interested community members, and besides teaching, has continued to develop classroom procedures, techniques and f a c i l i t i e s . He has aroused much community i n t e r e s t throughout the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, both i n parents and professional persons a l i k e . During 1961, nine hundred and forty-seven people v i s i t e d h i s classroom.  m o t i v a t i o n a l a s p e c t i n v o l v e d when a c h i l d favourite  activity  for a well  done l e s s  a r e i n t e r w o v e n w i t h o t h e r s and carry  over of l e a r n i n g Dramatic  for  their  trips  one  institutional  settings,  park,  t o each  into  t h e c l a s s r o o m m a i l box,  man  man ties  shopper  (to prepare  T h e s e may and  ructed  dress  on d i f f e r e n t  days,  be:  so o n ) ; m a i l m a n  bus  drivers other  (to deliver" l e t -  (to d e l i v e r  or to deposit o f f i c i a l  letters  institutional  g r o c e r (to s e l e c t merchandise  select  proper size  p r o p e r l y use  dexterity);  camper  newsboy  Boys a r e t a u g h t  the concept  t o , " ( a ) Go  to the  t o do  for  ( c ) b u t b e f o r e , (d) m a i l t h i s  equipment);  errands i n the  letter,  a b i g bag  (e) a f t e r ,  of  buy  activi-  classroom  classroom.  F o r example, a c h i l d  (b) buy  fisher-  schoolroom  newspaper from  milk-  bottles);  o f t h e above a c t i v i t i e s  of time. store,  fire  cartons or  (to r e l a t e  ( t o buy  i n v o l v e a s many as f o u r  so, a l s o ,  Children  s p e c i a l messages t o the g r o c e r ) ;  f o r and  to a c t u a l camping);  honour boxes).  encourage  ( t o take messages t o the g r o c e r f o r merchan-  t e l e p h o n e r ( t o send  (to encourage  and  projects  railway terminal,  o f t h e c l a s s members); m a i l b o y  ( t o d e l i v e r m i l k , and  fireman  airport,  and  m a i l i n an o f f i c i a l m a i l box);  dise);  extensively.  These r o l e s may  c o u n t r y , zoo,  most  a  another.  Each has h i s t u r n ,  ters  shoppers);  area to  or popular r o l e s .  to farm,  p o p u l a r one,  serve to r e i n f o r c e  p l a y i n g i s used  special parts.  to take l e a d (for  from  i s thus promised  a t once is inst-  oranges, a "Sun"  news-  paper." Boys a r e t a u g h t t r a f f i c c i a t e movements and  rules.  sounds w i t h s p e c i f i c  They a r e t a u g h t t o games ( a s  ping-pong,  asso-  - 43 -  t e n n i s , r u g b y a n d so o n ) . various four  abilities.  objects  They p l a y  These i n c l u d e ,  and one r e m o v e d ) ,  m a t e ' s name f r o m h i s v o i c e sing  articles  ting  puzzle  s e v e r a l games t o  "What i s m i s s i n g ? "  nize are  pieces  common s i g n s ,  colours,  class-  when b l i n d f o l d e d ) , "What i s i t ? " ( g u e s -  b y s m e l l when b l i n d f o l d e d ) , "Where d o e s i t g o ? " ( p u t i n proper  o f ways p r a c t i c e .  given  (remembering  "What i s h i s name?" ( g u e s s i n g  order).  Boys a r e t a u g h t t o count numerals 1 - 2 0 , ety  stimulate  phonetic  and i n a v a r i -  They a r e t a u g h t how t o u s e s t e p s ,  to t e l l  time,  lessons.  recog-  t o m a n i p u l a t e window b l i n d s .  I n games t h e y a r e t a u g h t  s h a p e s , new w o r d s , m a n u a l d e x t e r i t y  p u t t i n g b o l t s on screws,  to  size  (buttoning,  They  concepts,  lacing,  s a w i n g wood, p o l i s h i n g wood and so o n ) .  D r a w i n g and c o l o u r i n g  games a r e r e l a t e d t o o b j e c t s  within  the c l a s s -  room - w h i c h i n c l u d e ,  f o r example, a s t u f f e d d u c k ajid a mounted  deer head. The  boys a r e t a u g h t  birds are exhibited they are taught care  the care  are used  a n i m a l s and  from time t o time.  Likewise,  and when w e a t h e r p e r m i t s ,  the  and k e e p t i m e t o c e r t a i n p i e c e s .  t o make  each "Play  to Learn"  They a r e Audio-visual  game a s r e a l ,  stimulating  i n t e r e s t i n g as p o s s i b l e . All  and  of plants,  Live  c h i l d r e n enjoy forms o f simple music.  taught, t o r e c o g n i z e  and  i n the classroom  of pets.  of grass. The  aids  the care  activities  are correlated.  group p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  ordination  (motor s k i l l s ) ,  Each r e q u i r e s i n d i v i d u a l  Each i s designed self-control,  t o e n c o u r a g e body c o -  self-confidence,  initiative,  - 44  -  discrimination,  c o u r t e s y , s h a r i n g and  perceptions are  s t i m u l a t e d and  touch,  taste,  learning. of  smell).  The  use  The  and  and  completing  so  obvious  The  classmates.  And  that  be  be  stimulated to perform  not a l i t t l e  They a p p e a r t o be  training  by  b o t h r e l a x and  tasks rewarding  Those p a r e n t s who  comforted  member o f t h i s  class participate  they are accepted  i n w h i c h t h e b o y s may  accomplishment.  special  the  that  teacher  by  the knowledge t h a t  class.  at the  same  because o f the  have v i s i t e d  with  secure i n the  emotional c l i m a t e of the c l a s s r o o m  to  (clothes  on).  enjoyment.  The  sound,  process  tasks i s f a c i l i t a t e d .  t h e y a r e i m p o r t a n t members o f t h e g r o u p ,  share f r i e n d s h i p ,  one  numbers a r e t a u g h t .  boys a t t e n d i n g the  knowledge t h a t  fellow  (sight,  a l l t h e r e i s encouragement i n the c a r e of s e l f ,  grooming, hygiene  enthusiasm  specifically  Sense  of safety are a s s o c i a t e d with play  o f words and  following directions,  throughout  can  Rules  related  respect for property.  they and  seems time  sense  h a v e gone away  their  child  is a  of  CHAPTER I I I MEASURING MOVEMENT  One of the c r i t e r i a f o r the selection of boys f o r the sample group was that they had v i s i t e d home a f t e r receiving at least one year's t r a i n i n g .  In other words, each family had to  already be showing i n t e r e s t , and each boy had to have the opportunity to use h i s t r a i n i n g i n h i s family home s e t t i n g .  Physical and Family Characteristics A l l families of the boys i n the sample group reside within t h i r t y - f i v e miles of Vancouver; and a l l ten have t h e i r own homes.  Three of the families are of the lower income bracket and 1  houses are inadequate. A l l three of these, D, P, and J ,  are farm  homes.  One, G, i s i n an established middle-class neighbourhood i n  a city.  Three, B, G, and I, are older houses i n a c i t y working-  class area.  One, A, i s i n a r e l a t i v e l y new working-class area.  Two, E and H, are i n new c i t y r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  A l l families but  one are dependent upon the father's income, the other on the mother's.  The income of two f a m i l i e s , D and A, i s under $3,000  per year.  The income of f i v e others, B, P, G, H, I and J, i s bet-  ween 13,000 and $4,000 per year.  For two others, C and E, the i n -  come i s between $5,000 and $6,000.  The father's type of employment  Each of the ten boys i n the sample group i s i d e n t i f i e d i n charts and s c r i p t by one of the l e t t e r s A to J . Each boy's family i s i d e n t i f i e d by the same l e t t e r .  - 46 -  include:  boomman, A; lumber grader, G; roofer, B; construction  laborer, P; fireman, E; salesman, H; chartered accountant, C; and farmer, D, P, and J . backgrounds.  The fathers represent several nationality-  These include:  Swedish, A; Scottish, B; English, C;  Ukranian, H; I r i s h , E; Dutch, P; Norwegian, G; and Lithunanian, H. The fathers' ages range from f o r t y - four to f i f t y - e i g h t years and mothers' from t h i r t y - f i v e to forty-nine years.  In two instances,  parents are separated and the normal children of these unions are now l i v i n g with t h e i r mother.  However, the father (A) shows con-  tinuing interest i n h i s retarded c h i l d and has him home f o r v i s i t s i n one case, the mother ( i ) i n the other. There are s i b l i n g s i n a l l but one family.  They are  l i s t e d as follows: A, aged f i f t e e n , has a s i s t e r aged seventeen and a s i s t e r aged four and one-half. B, aged thirteen and one-half, has a s i s t e r aged ten and a brother aged seven. 0, aged thirteen, has a brother aged seventeen. D, aged nine and one-half, has a brother aged seventeen (retarded), a s i s t e r aged t h i r t e e n (retarded) and the s i s t e r ' s twin, a brother, aged t h i r t e e n (normal). E, aged seventeen, no s i b l i n g s . P, aged seventeen, has eleven s i b l i n g s aged eight to t h i r t y three. Seven of these are at home. Two others are retarded and some of the other s i b l i n g s have been quite slow i n school. G, aged seventeen, has a s i s t e r aged t h i r t e e n . H, aged eight and one-half, has a brother aged twenty-seven and a s i s t e r aged fourteen. 1, aged seventeen, has a brother aged eighteen and a s i s t e r aged eleven.  - 47 -  J, aged twelve, has eight foster brothers and s i s t e r s aged twenty-one to one and one-half years.  Measuring  the H a b i l i t a t i o n Progress At the time of admission, except f o r boys A and J , each  parent reported t h e i r c h i l d to be functioning at a l e v e l of dependency i n h i b i t i n g both to the boys and the family.  Among the be-  haviour problem t r a i t s , which affected parental attitudes boys, were:  hyperactivity,  to the  withdrawal, destructiveness, babbling,  screaming, b i t i n g , running away, noisy and attention night, a n t i - s o c i a l mannerisms, and neighborhood  demanding at  problem a c t i v i t i e s .  Much of t h i s negative behaviour has disappeared since i n s t i t u t i o n a lization.  This may  be partly due to special t r a i n i n g .  the number of other variables any direct conclusions. training may  However,  present i n t h i s study forbid making  I t i s s u f f i c i e n t to suggest that special  be s i g n i f i c a n t l y related to improved behaviour.  Some  improvement of each boy's functioning i n Self-Help (Tables 3 , and 4),  Initiative-Responsibility  was reported by a l l parents.  (Table 5) and Social S k i l l s (Table 6) In Communication (Table 7) two boys  (A and I) showed no improvement, and one (E) showed less a b i l i t y . Parents of A and I noted t h e i r boy as having high communication a b i l i t y before admission to the i n s t i t u t i o n . same high r a t i n g a f t e r t r a i n i n g . has regressed due to organic  They assigned the  Boy E's a b i l i t y to use  speech  deterioration.  Interviews with parents revealed that to a l l but two parents the boy i s more acceptable a f t e r i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n and training than before (Table 8).  Seeing t h e i r c h i l d do things  - 48 -  Table 3«  Social Competency: Ia. Self-Help: Items: 1 : Undressing. 2 : Removing outer clothing. 3 : Dressing. 4 ; Putting on shoes. 5 : Care of shoes. 6 : Washing (hands and face). 7: Care of fingernails. 8 : Combing or brushing hair. 9 : Brushing teeth. 10: Blowing nose. (Comparison of Sample Group, Before and After Training) Ten cases listed alphabetically.  I  Totals J * Before  4 4 3 2 1 3 1 3 5 3  3 3 2 4 2 2 1 2 2 1  Totals 35 21 12 10 14 16 21 22 29  22  Items 1 2 3 4 5 6 7  A  B  4  3  k 3  4 3 3 3 3 2 5 4  8  9 10  3 3 1 2 1 1 3  l  Before Trainine c D E F G H l l l i l l l  2 1 2  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3  i  2 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 1  2 3 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 2  2 1 2 2 1 1 3 3 3  23  24  22 20 16 19 12  18 29 19  202  A  B  4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 5 4  4 4 4 3 3  After Training C D E F G  H  I  J  4 3 5 3 3 4 1 4 4 4  4 4 5 4 4 4 1 4 5 4  3 3 2 4 2 2 1 2 3 1  36 32 29 23 34 30 35 35 39  23  4 1 1  5 3  4 2 3 4 3 3 1 2 5 2  2 3 2 2 3 3 1 3 3 1  4 4 3 4 4 4 1 4 5 1  4 3 2 3 3 3 1 3 4 4  4 4 4 3 4 3 1 4 5 3  Totals After 37 34 34 33 32 33 12 ; 30  kk 27  316  The meaning of the items, and the "ratings", i s explained in the text.  Table 4.  Social Competency: l b . Self-Help: Items: 11: Eating. 12: Use of knife. 13: Serving food. 14: Passing food. 15: Clearing table. 16: Cleaning up (liquids). 17: Cleaning dishes. 18: Opening door. 19: Sweeping. 20: Making bed., 21: Folding articles. (Comparison of Sample Group, Before and After Training) Ten cases listed alphabetically.  Items 11 12 13  15 16 17  ' 5 5 5 4 4 3 4  19 20 21  3 3 3  14  18  .  A  4  Totals k3  B  Before Training C D E F G H  I  J  1 1 3 3 3 3 4 3 2 1 1 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 2 3 3 4 4 2 1 1 1 5 3 4 5 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 3 2 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 3 ,1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 21 13 11 17 26 24 26 30 24 3 1 2 4 2 1 1 3  Totals Before 29 23 27 30 20 16 15 26 16 17 , 15 234  A  B  After Training C D E F G  H  I  J  3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 3 1 1 3 4 4 4 3 3 1 4 2 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 2 1 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 1 3 3 5 4 4 3 2 2 4 1 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 1 2 4 4 4 4 2 3 2 3 4 3 3 3 4 3 2 4 4 4 4 1 3 2 1 2 3 1 4 3 4 4 4 3 2 2 1 2 2 1 3 46 31 24 21 39 41 45 42 43 29 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4  Totals^ After j 40 29  42 41  32 30  28  32 29 31 . 21! 3611  The meaning of the items, and the "ratings", i s explained in the text.  -  Table 5»  -  49  Social Competency: Ha, Initiative-Responsibility: Items: 1: Washing hands and face. 2: Brushing teeth. 3'. Hanging up clothes. 4: Toileting. 5- Table setting. 6: Cleaning up mess. 7: Playing with others. 8: Initiating tasks. 9: Offering assistance. (Comparison of Sample Group, Before and After Training) Ten cases listed alphabetically.  >  Items  :  A  2 2 4 4 5 3  B  Before Training C D E F G H  I  J  2 3 2 3 1 2 2 5 3  2 1 2 1 2 2 2  Totals Before  1 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 4  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  3  14 15 17 18 22 17 21 27 25  Totals 33 15  9  9 12 19 21 16 23 19  176  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  5  1 1 1 1 1 1 4 l i  2 2 1 1 3 3 1 3 3  1 2 3 2 4 1 1 4 3  1 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 2  Totals After  After Training C D E F G  H  I  J  2 2 3 3 4 3 4 3 3  2 1 3 4 5 3 3 3 4  4 4 4 2 4 4 3 5 3  2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 4  25 20 29 34 36 27 29 32 32  34 22 17 18 2? 28 35 28 33 22  264  A  B  3 2 4 4 5 3 4 5 4  2 2 2 4 3 1 3 l 4  1 1 2 4 3 1 3 1 1  2 1 2 4 1 3 2 1 2  3 2 3 3 4 3 3 4 3  4 4 4 4 5 3 2 5 4  The meaning of the items, and the "ratings",, i s explained in the text.  Table 6.  Social Competency; l i b . Social S k i l l s: Items: 1: Telling time. 2: Sharing. 3' Playing with others. 4: Care of self. 5 Telephone. 6: Going on errands. 7: Traffic signs. 8: Answering door. 9% Behaviour in public. 10: Attending tasks. :  (Comparison of Sample Group, Before and After Training) Ten cases listed alphabetically.  Items  ! !  I  i  1 2 3 4 5 6 87 9 10  A  B  1 1 2 4 3 3 3 3 3 1 , 3 1 4 1 4 2 ; 3 2 ; 4 1  Before Training C D E F G H 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1  1 1 4 2 1  1 5 1 2 1  1 2 1 1 1  2 1 4 1  1 3 2 1  1  1  1  1 2 1 1  1 4 2 2 2 1 1  2 4 1  I  j Totals J j Before A  B  1 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 4 3  1 3 2 ! 3 : 1 2 1 3 2 1  1 1 3 3 2 2 1 3 2 1  Totals 32 16 10 10 22 15 14 20 20 19  10 30 19 20 13 13 14 20 24 15 178  After Training C D E F G  Totals After  H  I  J  1 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 2  1 5 1 4 3 2 2 3 4 5  1 4 2 3 1 2 1 3 3 1  11 33 24 27 20 24 20 29 31 26  35 19 17 14 31 20 31 27 30 21  245  1 4 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5  1 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 3 2  1 3 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 1  1 5 4 4 1 1 3 3 4 5  1 2 2 5 3 3 3 2 1 '3 2 4 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 3  The meaning of the items, and the "ratings", i s explained in the text.  ; ' :  1 I !  - 50 Table 7.  -  Social Competency: l i e . Communication: Items: 1: Delivering messages. 2: Answering questions. 3: Relating objects to action, 4: Use of language. 5: Spontaneous speech. 6: Following instructions. 7: Speaking to adults. 8: Going places. 9'. Playing with others. 10: Communicating unhappiness. 11: Answering door (Comparison of Sample Group Before and After Training) Ten cases listed alphabetically.  Items 1 2 3 4  5  6  7  8 9 10 11  A  B  3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4  2 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 3  2  Before Training C D E F G H 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1  2 3 2 2 1 2 4 2 2 3 3  1 2 2 2 1 2 4 3 2 2 3  2 2 1 2 2 2 4 3 1 1 1  1 2 2 2 1 3 4 3 1 3 2  I  J  3 3 4 3 4 2 4 3 1 4 3  3 3 2 3 3 2 4 3 3 2 4  Totals 42 21 12 12 26 24 21 24 34 32  Totals Before 19  23  20 22 19 20 33  25  18  25  24 248  A  B  3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4  3 3 2 3 1 2 2 3 3 4 3  After Training C D E F G 1 1 2 3 3 3 3 2 4 3 1  2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 3 1  1 3  l l  3 3 4 1 2 3 2  3 3 2 3 2 3 4 3 4 4 3  3 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 3  H  I  J  3 3 3 3 4 3 4 3 1 3 3  3 3 4 2 4 3 4 3 1 4 3  3 3 2 3 4 3 4 4 4 2 •4  i 42 29 26 17 24 34 41 33 34 36  Totals After 25 29 25 27 30 ' : :  !  28 34 28  29  34  27 316  The meaning of the items, and the "ratings", i s explained i n the text.  - 51 Table 8.  Parent Acceptability: Items: 1: Playing with or teaching child. 2: Response to child's affection. 3: Parent's affection. 4: Comparing retardate to normal children. 5: Attitude to in-laws. 6: Attitude to friends or neighbours. 7: Attitude to strangers. 8: Planning after institutionalization of child. 9: Response to child initiating task performance. 10: Response to child's improved task performance. 11: Responses to child's failure i n task performance. 12: Attitude to child in public places. 13: Attitude of neighbours to child. 14: Attitude of siblings in play with child. 15: Attitude of siblings to child itfhen friends present. (Comparison of Parent Sample Group, Before and After Retardate's Training. Ten cases listed alphabetically).  Items  «8COOT UU  Q)C0  £E  nso  F  Parent Acceptability Before Training A B C D E F G H I J  3 F 4 2 ,1-1 F: 4 3 M! 3 4 F 3 5 M F 4 6 M F 3 M / ? F 4 8 M F 4 M .* F 4 1Q |M F 4 11 M F 4 12 M F 3 ,13 M F 4 14 M F 1 M 15  Totals  1 H  3 3 2 4 2 3 2 3 4 4 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 4 4 3 3  2 4 3 1 4 2 1 3 3 2 2 2 1 2 1  1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 4 1 3 1 3 4 1 2 1 2 2 2 3 3 4 4 2 2 2 2 3 1 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 1 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 1 - 1 - 3 2 - 2 - 4  3 - - 4 4 4 4 - 3 - - 4 4 4 4 3 - - 4 4 4 2 2 - - 2 4 2 4 4 - - 4 4 3 4 4 - - 4 4 3 4 2 - - 2 4 3 4 - 3 - - 3 3 4 4 2 - - 2 3 3 3 3 - - 4 4 3 4 2 - - 3 4 3 4 2 - - 2 3 3 4 3 - - 3 4 2 3 3 - - 3 4 4 4 2 - - 2 4 4 3  F 52 43 - 24 30 - 4 1 -  - _ M ! - 47 33 24 29 46 46 57 49 55  Parent Acceptability Totals After Training Before ( A B C D E F G H I J 11 25 13 32 13 28 10 21 16 32 14 26 12 24 17 - 32_ 12 22 14 27 . 13 24 11 22 14 23 12 25 8 25 190 386  !  3 3 - 3 3 3 - - - 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 - 3 3 - 3 - - - 4 4 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 - 3 3 - 3 - - -  i _ 4 4 3 3 i | , i j . i  +  z  . 3  i 3 3 - 3 3 - 4 - - i - 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 • 3 4 - 4 4 - 4 - - <  Totalsj After ; 15 31 15 34 16 33 16 j 1  19; 35 i 191 4 4 35 I 17 4 33 - 19 4 .36. 18 4 34 1 19 4 35 19 ! 4 _ 34 1 17 | 4 33; 18 j 4 31 ! 14 ! 4 29 9 4 26  _ i f i 1 . 4 j 4 . Z f 4 z j . 3 4  4 _ 3 _ 4 _ 4 _ 4 _ 4 4 3 4 1 -  4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4  4 3 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 2  3 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 1  4  - 4 - 4 4 4 4 4 - 3 - 4 4 4 3 4 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 - 4 - 2 4 4 4 4 3 - 4 - 3 4 4 4 4 3 - 4 - 2 4 4 4 4 4 - 3 - 4 3 4 4 4 4 - 4 - 4 2 4 4 3 - - 4 - - 4 4 4 4 - - 3 - - 4 3 4 4  51 56 - 45 44 - 54 - - 59 53 46 43 55 59 59 57 59  The meaning of items, and "ratings", explained i n the text.  250 490  rewarding to himself and more pleasing to others i s instrumental i n improving parental feelings about having a defective c h i l d . They are less upset when the boy i s compared with normal children. They are less embarrassed with the c h i l d i n the presence of r e l a t i v e s , neighbours, friends and strangers.  They have more patience  with the c h i l d and are more curious about h i s newest S i b l i n g s are somewhat more accepting.  achievements.  A l l but two of the parents  are quite convinced that special t r a i n i n g d e f i n i t e l y helped t h e i r boy to do more things f o r himself and prepared the c h i l d f o r more acceptable s o c i a l intercourse with family and others.  One parent  (j) stated that t r a i n i n g d e f i n i t e l y helped the boy do more things f o r himself but thought h i s a c c e p t a b i l i t y (which was rated high before training) had not changed.  Parent (A) rated the t r a i n i n g  unfavourably because the c h i l d had l o s t h i s a b i l i t y to write h i s name, a d i s t i n c t i o n he had learned while attending chapter school before i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  Gains and losses i n the boys' s o c i a l  competency and the parents' a c c e p t a b i l i t y are shown i n Table 9.  Case I l l u s t r a t i o n s For purpose of i l l u s t r a t i o n , two children have been selected.  Selection was on the basis of changed parental attitude rather  than change i n the boys' s o c i a l competency as such.  The boy whose  parent has shown the least change and the boy whose parents have shown the most change w i l l be b r i e f l y described. Oase A.  Johnnie was born May 1 s t , 1947, i n a B r i t i s h  Columbia coastal v i l l a g e .  He was very slow i n reaching h i s  Table 9.  s  Alphabetically)  Gains of Child Self-Help Growth and Maturity Total Ia lb l i a Ub H e I & n  A  1  3  1  3  0  8  B  11  10  7  3  8  39  C  17  11  8  7 14  57  <*  D  13  10  9  4  5  41  E  20  22  15  9 -2  64  F  14  15  9  5 10  53  G  14  21  14  17 20  86  •H  13  16  12  7. 9  57  I  10  13  10 10  J T ? a  1  5  .1  114  -  Composite of Social Competency and Parent Acceptability Scales Showing Gains and Losses After Retardate's Training(Ten Cases Listed  a s e  53  126  3  3  0  43  4  88 68 68  m  o Rating After Training t Rating Before Training |_ Possible Gain  464  2170 1039 1131  Gains of Parent Acceptability Father & Two One Mother Parent Parents F M F M F M  F M F M F M F M F M F M F M  -1  -1  13 12 20 21 22  Gains of Parents and Child A  7  B  64  C  77  43  D  84  28  E  92  F  62  G  112  25 20  14 14  9 13 13  9  2  2  H  59  8  8  I  51  4  J  20  F  4 60  M  104  42  26  122  628  824  2994 1615 1379  576 248  54 -  -  milestones. year.  He  At f i v e  examination. later, to  suffered  y e a r s he was When he was  h i s s e i z u r e s were  two y e a r s pany.  t o the h o s p i t a l  for special  d i s c h a r g e d t o h i s home a few weeks still  uncontrolled.  He was  Parents  o f unknown  diagnosed  etiology.  l i v e d w i t h h i s m o t h e r and f a t h e r ,  o l d e r than h i m s e l f .  H i s f a t h e r worked  and a  sister  f o r a l u m b e r com-  c o n s i d e r e d p l a c e m e n t o f t h e boy e a r l y i n h i s l i f e  gave up t h e i d e a a f t e r b e i n g a d v i s e d by t h e p h y s i c i a n t o w a i t  u n t i l he was inquiries  s i x years  s i s t e r was  him  by p a r e n t s .  H i s m o t h e r was  A year  strained  later  assisted  available  By t h i s  c o n t r o l l e d , he was  t o an  institution.  o f t h e amount o f a t t e n t i o n  n e r v o u s and u p s e t .  and  given  Relationships  deteriorating.  t h e f a m i l y moved t o a community  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  time  toilet  s i n g l e words.  (aged  trained,  However,  near was  Vanplaced.  the f a m i l y  was  p r o g r e s s ; however, t o be  quite  Johnnie  s e v e n ) h i s s e i z u r e s were n e a r l y and he was  Parents w i l l i n g l y  b o y a t home when t r a i n i n g was  stances  of admission  age, t h e y made  i n m a k i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e boy t o a t t e n d a s c h o o l f o r  retarded.  little  this  so t h a t t h e y m i g h t be c l o s e a t hand when J o h n n i e  b e d s were  simple  When he r e a c h e d  becoming r e s e n t f u l  b e t w e e n p a r e n t s were  couver  old.  about the p o s s i b i l i t y  His  the  admitted  s e i z u r e s due t o e n c e p h a l o p a t h y Johnnie  No  seizures during his fourth  have c o n g e n i t a l c e r e b r a l maidevelopment, n o n - s p e c i f i c , w i t h  epileptic  but  epileptic  available  parents  a b l e t o s a y a few  accepted  p l a n s t o keep the  i n t h e community.  r e p o r t e d home and s c h o o l  He made circum-  satisfactory.  was  eleven years  o l d when h i s m o t h e r c a l l e d  the  - 55 -  )  i n s t i t u t i o n to ask baby s i s t e r was a behaviour babbled He  that admission  now  He  still  continually.  He  was  w o u l d r u n away and  t u r n on o u t d o o r  and  excessively.  sadistic  things,  parents  t o keep him the  a very  He  limited  on h i m .  He  d e s c r i b e d him  was  treated.  autostones,  as a l o u t  and  d i s r o b e d , dumped  In spite  and  but  destructive.  them, t h r o w  fed dirt,  as p l a c i d  a t home were i t n o t  become q u i t e  becoming  found  A  vocabulary  c h i l d r e n t r e a t e d him  generally i l l  said  of these  ••  they would p r e f e r  f o r the i n d i g n i t i e s  suffered  by  boy.  m i s s i o n f o r him.  One  become s e r i o u s l y  ill,  nursing  care.  t i o n granted  Johnnie's  f e e d and  mother r e q u e s t e d  o f h e r p a r e n t s , who and  she  I n view o f the admission  to the  At the i n s t i t u t i o n , dress himself.  He  felt  lived  compelled  overall  Johnnie  also  was  year but  transferred  He  cried  and the  render institu-  able  toilet  to  though  S e i z u r e s were  now  was  tried  i n s p e c i a l academic c l a s s e s f o r the  i t was  found  t h a t he  to the  special  s i x months, h i s c l a s s r o o m vity.  had  to v i s i t  c a r e d f o r h i s own  medication.  first  the c o a s t ,  r e p o r t e d t o be  controlled  Johnnie  ad-  boy.  subject to nighttime enuresis.  by  up  emergency  circumstances,  r e g u l a r l y was  was  had  w o u l d damage p a r k e d  f a u c e t s when he  A month l a t e r , ^  Johnnie  h y p e r a c t i v e and  Other  pranks  i n m u d - p u d d l e s and  had  become l o s t .  mobiles,  played  g r a n t e d when p o s s i b l e .  s e v e n months o l d .  problem.  spit  be  c o u l d make no  training  conduct  e x c e s s i v e l y , was  was  progress.  c l a s s where f o r t h e  He first  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by h y p e r a c t i -  overly sensitive  and  very  restless. cipate.  However, he gradually settled down and began to p a r t i He showed more enjoyment i n various a c t i v i t i e s and began  to learn to recognize colors and numbers, as well as how to do various p r a c t i c a l things.  Though he was able to say a few single  words, even these were often incomprehensible.  I t i s f e l t that  he has made some s i g n i f i c a n t strides forward i n spite of the fact that the teacher now gives him a r a t i n g on the S o c i a l Competency Scale which i s considerably less than that awarded by h i s father. Psychological tests i n A p r i l , 1959, assigned an I. Q. score of 35, (Stanford-Binet - Porm L ) . At the same time, the Vineland  1 Social Maturity Scale was given.  Retesting with the Vineland 2  Social Maturity Scale i n A p r i l , 1962,  i t was found that Johnnie  shows marked improvement i n three areas - a b i l i t y to receive d i r e c t i o n and apply t h i s i n self-help, a b i l i t y to occupy himself without supervision, and a b i l i t y i n s o c i a l i z a t i o n . It i s to be noted that though the parents maintained  con-  tact with Johnnie and have had him home to v i s i t , neither parent ever v i s i t e d him i n h i s classroom,  or showed i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s regar-  ding the t r a i n i n g he was receiving there.  I t i s noted too, that  marital s t r a i n i n the home continually mounted, and that eventually, when Johnnie was fourteen years of age, the couple separated. A. took the two g i r l s with her. Mr. A. has continued to have Johnnie v i s i t f o r a day once a month and also had him home l a s t Psychological tests conducted at The Woodlands School. • Ibid. 2  Mrs.  Christmastime (1961); f o r a week.  On these occasions he claims  that the boy i s no better, or no worse than he was before he entered the i n s t i t u t i o n .  Mr. A. i s strongly c r i t i c a l of the  s p e c i a l class because Johnnie, who he claims learned how to p r i n t h i s name i n h i s former school, can no longer do so.  His conver-  sation revealed that he obviously placed a great amount of importance on academic achievement rather than on the p r a c t i c a l things that the boy might learn to do.  In spite of t h i s , he says that  the boy i s now able to do things around the house, such as washing dishes, sweeping the f l o o r , making beds, and that Johnnie actually enjoys doing these things. Mr. A., now forty-four, attained Grade 7 education.  He  i s a hard worker, though has been unemployed on several occasions. His parents came from Sweden where they had a small farm, and s e t t led on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. and married.  There he and Mrs. A. grew up  They were at a loss to know what to do when Johnnie  was born handicapped. nearby physician.  However, they received some guidance from a  Family s t r a i n gradually became pronounced.  Johnnie's older s i s t e r became upset and jealous. made to arrange h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  Attempts were  F i n a l l y the family moved  near to the i n s t i t u t i o n and made arrangements f o r Johnnie to attend a community school f o r the mentally retarded. progress, but the family was able to carry on. ten, a baby s i s t e r was born.  There he made l i t t l e When Johnnie was  His behaviour began to deteriorate  and over a period of eight months, he became very hyperactive and destructive.  Admission to the i n s t i t u t i o n was arranged on an  - 58 emergency b a s i s . observe  no  training  Yet  c l a s s e s began o v e r  course,  his  i s t h a t Johnnie  expected  years  may  competency a s  He  name a f t e r a t t e n d i n g a community three y e a r s , but  he  knew what he  d o i n g when he  Perhaps the parents  skills  and more t o a c a d e m i c .  when he  admits  d i s h e s and  Gross  separation of Johnnie's  thing his  the  now do  visit  while Johnnie  himself  t o show any  was  feelings  h i s former  community  have  to  his  almost  Whether  importance  subjectivity  he ques-  simple  seems t o be boy,  particularly  t h i n g s a s wash  the  too, i s t h a t the m a r i t a l upset left  He  Mr.  A. more d e f e n s i v e .  s h o u l d do allowed  this,  t h a t or the  h i m s e l f t o be  about b r i n g i n g t h e i r Otherwise,  class,  and He other  critical  of  f r i e n d s home t o he  t h a t were s u g g e s t i v e o f  d i d not  a  things before.  a l s o a t home.  Though J o h n n i e from  little  these  "good p a r e n t "  other children's feelings  that parents  progress.  does s u c h  parents  f o r his retarded c h i l d .  competency  able to l e a r n to p r i n t  f a t h e r ' s observation of t h i s  could not  of h i s  p r i n t e d h i s name i s a n o t h e r  Another p o s s i b i l i t y ,  e m p h a s i z e d how  social  One,  beyond  school f o r retardates f o r  attached  that Johnnie  t h a t he  was  a c t u a l l y made l i t t l e  tion.  i n the  special  o f the time  I t i s more p r o b a b l e  t o o much o f t h e b o y .  possibility  since  to  ago.  However, u p - t o - d a t e  otherwise.  was  competency  been a b l e  a c t u a l l y n o t have a d v a n c e d  of s o c i a l  institutionalization. suggest  two  f a t h e r has  several possible explanations f o r t h i s .  functioning level  ratings  the  advance i n the boy's s o c i a l  There are of  for a l l this,  d i d not  permit  rejection.  r e c e i v e a good p r o g r e s s r e p o r t p e r h a p s he  d i d make s t r i d e s  ahead  - 59 -  as  f a r a s h i s p a r e n t s were c o n c e r n e d ,  eye'.  Vision  preclude Mr.  of these  o f f u r t h e r improvement.  A.'s p r o j e c t e d p i c t u r e  level  i n their  'mind's  s t r i d e s may have b e e n so a d v a n c e d a s t o  the p o s s i b i l i t y  resourceful,  at least  o f Johnnie  I n any case,  i s one o f a c o m p e t e n t ,  v e r y a c c e p t a b l e b o y who i s a b l e t o p e r f o r m  significantly  h i g h e r than t h a t observed  c l a s s e s by h i s teacher. an a l l a c c e p t i n g parent  i n day t o day s p e c i a l  L i k e w i s e , Mr. A. p r e s e n t e d rating  extremely  at a  a picture of  h i g h on t h e a c c e p t a b i l i t y  scale. C a s e D. parents of  September 21st, 1952. H i s  l e a r n e d t h a t he was a m o n g o l o i d when he was f i v e months  age.  He i s t h e y o u n g e s t  thirteen, His  Tommy was b o r n  o f four siblings.  i s normal w h i l e h i s t w i n s i s t e r  e l d e r b r o t h e r , aged  seventeen,  One b r o t h e r ,  suffers  from  i sphysically well,  aged  hydrocephaly. but mentally  retarded. Tommy's p a r e n t s were b o r n i n R u s s i a . aged f i f t y - f o u r , in  Russia.  parents  achieved  the equivalent o f high school standing  H i s m o t h e r , aged f o r t y - f o u r ,  as a l i t t l e  child  and a c h i e v e d  were m a r r i e d  i n 1944 and h a v e l i v e d  in  Fraser  the lower Mr.  H i s f a t h e r , now  came t o Canada w i t h h e r  Grade 8 h e r e .  The c o u p l e  s i n c e t h e n on h i s s m a l l  Valley.  D., who was b r o u g h t  up i n a M e n n o n i t e f a m i l y , h e l p e d  c a r e f o r t h e c h i l d r e n when he was n o t b u s y w i t h t h e f a r m yet  he d i d v e r y  worked h a r d and  little  disciplining  on h e r p a r e n t s ' farm  had r e l a t i v e l y  farm  good h e a l t h .  of the children.  up t o t h e t i m e  work;  H i s w i f e had  o f h e r marriage  However, when Tommy was f i v e ,  - 60 -  the  care  of three  h e a l t h began to The f i v e years,  retarded  not  was  and  difficult  but  on t h e  hydrocephalic  was  extremely  Brother  inadequate.  able  Mrs.  to d i s c i p l i n e  serious behaviour reserved otherwise dent.  H e r e he  H i s mother d r e s s e d , of u r i n e .  o f t e n threw o b j e c t s . m o s t e m b a r r a s s e d by and  and  He He  was  special  worry.  was  Mr.  kept  D.,  He  was  tended him  and  under  the  helpful,  become a been  were  completely  at t o i l e t .  not depen-  He  was  d e s t r u c t i v e , and  watching.  h i s conduct, p a r t i c u l a r l y  Parents  by h i s t o i l e t  i n s t a n c e , he  This proved very  small  s m a l l h o u s e had  c a p r i c i o u s and  Por  house  though  caged; the p a r e n t s  required constant  The  breaking  Tommy had  room o f t h e  f e d and  neighbours or f r i e n d s v i s i t e d . requested  Mary,  normal.  i n three  h e a l t h was  situation.  u n p r e d i c t a b l e mannerisms.  move h i s c l o t h i n g .  Joseph  a t home.  apparently  children.  One  a b l e t o h a n d l e the  incontinent  J i m was  D.'s  the  problem.  f o r him.  to  lacked  t o h e l p him.  f o r him  S i x persons l i v e d  heavy l o a d of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y not  tended  claimed,  i n t h e home were m o s t d i f f i c u l t .  p o o r l y f u r n i s h e d rooms.  was  ably cared  Parents  they  high-strung  school f o r  s u f f e r i n g more f r o m a d e t e r i o r a t i n g  condition.  Conditions  attended  t e a c h e r s who,  h i s parents  sister,  had  t o p a s s Grade 1.  were t o o n e r v o u s and  Tommy's o n l y  was  J o s e p h , who  been a b l e  blame l a c k o f p r o g r e s s patience  Her  break.  e l d e s t boy,  had  c h i l d r e n p r o v e d t o o much f o r h e r .  were  habits  l e a r n e d how  to  re-  u p s e t t i n g to h i s parents i f  E v e n t u a l l y the  family physician  c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r Tommy's a d m i s s i o n  t u t i o n b e c a u s e o f t h e m o t h e r ' s p o o r h e a l t h and  to the  h i s concern  insti-  for  her.  - 61 -  Tommy was admitted when just over f i v e years of age. According to h i s parents, Tommy has made quite s i g n i f i cant gains i n h i s a b i l i t y to care f o r himself and i n maturity growth since h i s i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  Noting the various tables  which record change i n the boy, we see that Tommy's gain i s considerably less than some of the other children. moved forward to a recognizable degree.  However, he has  And the important thing i n  regard to t h i s study i s the pronounced change of attitude on the part of parents.  Before admittance, they were unable to cope with  h i s demands and were quite r e j e c t i n g i n a number of ways.  Though  they were rated as the least accepting parents before and a f t e r admission of the c h i l d , t h e i r increased a c c e p t a b i l i t y was greater than any other parents.  (See Table 8, p. 51).  They now demon-  strate t h i s more p o s i t i v e attitude by having Tommy home f o r weekly v i s i t s at r e l a t i v e l y short i n t e r v a l s . This couple make an i n t e r e s t i n g observation; they note that neighbours may not be withdrawn because of the retarded c h i l d . They found that some neighbours had f e l t "snubbed" because they were not given normal attention by the family and so gave up " c a l l i n g " themselves.  Parents and neighbours f i n a l l y got together,  discussed t h i s point, a gross misunderstanding was cleared up, and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s were c o r d i a l l y restored. When Tommy now v i s i t s home, he eats n i c e l y with the rest of the family, wants to help by sweeping the f l o o r , wants to p o l i s h his own shoes, dresses and undresses himself, washes himself, tends h i s own t o i l e t , says "hello" to v i s i t o r s , and i s well-mannered i n  their  presence. The  is  general r e l i e f  o f care r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  a v a r i a b l e we h a v e n o t t r i e d  p o i n t s we c a n s u g g e s t was u n a b l e  may be s i g n i f i c a n t .  to setlimits  overprotective,  d i d not allow the c h i l d  paper.  child Other  One i s t h a t t h e f a m i l y  f o r Tommy a s a l i t t l e  ment, a n d were c o m p l e t e l y tions.  t o measure i n t h i s  of this  boy.  They were  any chance f o r a c c o m p l i s h -  uncomprehending o f h i s b e h a v i o u r  reac-  T r a i n i n g h a s g i v e n Tommy t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o a c c o m p l i s h  t h i n g s and t o b e g i n t h e p r o c e s s  o f e s t a b l i s h i n g h i s own i d e n t i t y .  T h u s , when he now r e t u r n s home f o r a v i s i t ,  he i s a b l e t o f i n d h i s  p l a c e amongst t h e o t h e r f a m i l y members. Parents visit  without  church  are less  embarrassed  them b e c o m i n g u p s e t .  by h i m now.  F r i e n d s may  The f a m i l y c a n t a k e Tommy t o  s c h o o l and though he does n o t u n d e r s t a n d ,  n e i t h e r does he  make a s p e c t a c l e o f h i m s e l f . Seeing  t h a t the boy i s a c t u a l l y  when he i s a t home v i s i t i n g , parents  he e n j o y s  are considering the p o s s i b i l i t y  home t o l i v e  w i t h them o n t h e f a r m .  o b j e c t s about t h e farm, enjoyment  of this  cause f o r p r i d e .  able to learn,  life  a s he n e v e r  enjoyed  d i d before,  o f e v e n t u a l l y having him  He h a s l e a r n e d t o i d e n t i f y  t h e sounds, t h e a n i m a l s  and b i r d s .  His  c a p a c i t y h a s g i v e n t h e p a r e n t s new p l e a s u r e a n d Where once t h e c h i l d  seemed t o be a ' c r o s s ' w h i c h  c o u l d n o t be b o r n e i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s weighting  and t h a t  already  t o o h e a v i l y upon t h e p a r e n t s , now Tommy i s a p e r s o n  t o be  and g i v e n a p l a c e i n t h e f a m i l y equal t o t h a t o f t h e o t h e r  children.  Evaluation of Training Looking at the various scales, i t i s quite evident that each boy has made some progress.  Several of them have made quite  notable progress, at least as f a r as the parents who made the r a t i n g are concerned.  Half of the boys were rerated by the teacher  of the class and were given a score t o t a l l i n g an average of f i v e points l e s s per boy per area of study. This does not include boy A. who  (Tables 3 - 7, pp. 48 - 50).  the teacher rated an average of  fourteen points less per area of study than did the boy's father. The general concensus  on the part of the parents i s that  t h e i r sons have progressed well; as a r e s u l t , the boys are able to p a r t i c i p a t e more i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the home and community.  This  i n turn has given parents objective cause f o r hope that the boys may  actually get a good deal out of t h e i r l i v e s through achievement  at t h e i r own l e v e l of p o t e n t i a l i t y ; i t i s hoped that they w i l l also get enjoyment because of t h e i r broadened knowledge and experience. In the i n s t i t u t i o n i t s e l f , the boys are noticeably happ i e r and more content.  They are now  own self-care requirements. one another.  able to perform much of t h e i r  They have improved relationships with  The more advanced boys look forward with pleasure to  t h e i r d a i l y t r a i n i n g classes, a fact that has been cheering to several parents.  I t should be noted that the boy who made the  most progress i n a comprehensive score of a l l areas of study, i s one whose mother has consistently v i s i t e d the classroom as well as having the boy home regularly f o r v i s i t s .  This might suggest that  increased parental i n t e r e s t evidenced by classroom v i s i t s could  - 64 -  increase p u p i l motivation f o r learning.  However, t h i s i s another  subject and would constitute a separate study f o r research.  Positive and Negative Observations of Parents Teh interviews were conducted.  These included four  with couples (fathers and mothers together), f i v e with mothers only, and one with a father only.  A t o t a l of fourteen persons,  nine mothers and f i v e fathers, were interviewed. Item 1, Amount of Time Spent Playing With or Teaching the C h i l d .  Pour mothers and two fathers said they f e e l that the  child's t r a i n i n g has enabled them to spend more time with him. It was explained that other demands, such as having to dress the c h i l d , are e f f e c t i v e l y lessened. for  s o c i a l intercourse.  Thus more time i s now  available  Pive mothers f e e l that there has been no  change; four of these had given optimum amounts of time before t r a i n i n g , and one, a substantial amount.  Three fathers claimed  they continue to give the same substantial amount of time as they did  before i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  One father i s less i n c l i n e d to  spend time than h i s wife. Parents noted that another adult i n the home i s i n f l u ential.  They f e e l that a mother or father l e f t with f u l l respon-  s i b i l i t y and without the assistance of another adult would have much l e s s time available and so could not give as much to the c h i l d i n play and teaching.  i See Table 8, p. 51.  - 65 -  I  I t e m 2, Two  m o t h e r s and  more e a s i l y  three  and  child's  One  stated.it  her  that  one  now,  able  their  were t h e  p e r h a p s was  P o u r m o t h e r s and  has  a mother s t a t e d  Parental  three  spontaneity  now  father f e l t  to  that  feel this  l e s s able  set aside  to  like  child  that."  (H)  was She  ability  classroom ideas  to  his bitterness.  now  of A f f e c t i o n .  more i n c l i n e d their  they have a h i g h  represents  father  restore his  of a f f e c t i o n to  that  One  institutionalized.  of Expressions  they are  the  considerably  are  that her  communicate  feel  expressions  fathers  and  to accept  "men  very  institutiona-  grown  have h e l p e d  Initiation  fathers  spontaneously extend m o t h e r s and  sought to  thus able  two  of a f f e c t i o n .  same b e f o r e  than h i s wife,  c l a s s r o o m a c t i v i t i e s may  respond  f e e l i n g s , which are  f o r s e v e r a l months a f t e r b e i n g  He  to  l e s s becoming o f a f a t h e r .  interview,  I t e m 3,  One  child  now  of A f f e c t i o n .  c h i l d ' s expression  father think  i t i s now  show a f f e c t i o n . and  their  i s harder f o r himself  angry a t her  ^  they are  f a t h e r f e e l s i t i s more d i f f i c u l t  and  In  to  feel  d e m o n s t r a t i o n o f a f f e c t i o n s i n c e he  physically,  feels  one  toward t h e i r  lization.  Child's Expressions  fathers  s i n c e r e l y to  S e v e n m o t h e r s and accepting  Response to  no  extend h i m s e l f  to  child.  degree  Pive  of  change i n a t t i t u d e . to  the  child  than h i s  wife. Before  i  c o u p l e was  very  child,  and  the  toward  them.  the  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of t h e i r  concerned over t h e i r possibility  They f e e l ,  t h e i r boy's behaviour  (D)  t h a t he  l a c k of a b i l i t y  would not  however, t h a t t h a t he  now  child,  one  to handle  develop a f f e c t i o n  t r a i n i n g has  so  p a y s a t t e n t i o n to  improved them.  the  - 66 -  They a r e more a b l e t o g i v e a f f e c t i o n and which i s quite a r e l i e f I t e m 4»  to these  to  themselves  be m o s t d i f f i c u l t Training of  the  m o t h e r s and  points now  differently, for their  o u t , and  for  had  four fathers  l e a v e the  said  c h i l d ' s handicap  that  and  feel  normal  child  Most  i t would  i n the f a m i l y .  i n c r e a s e the  competence  c a n h a v e more p r i d e i n h i m . t h i s way.  One  Two  couple  a t home w i t h an  t h i s was  siblings  m o t h e r s and  b o t h m o t h e r s ' c l a i m s a r e now  attitudes.  fact  as i t r e l a t e s  S e v e r a l p o i n t e d out t h a t  i f t h e r e were no  so t h a t p a r e n t s  a  to Normal C h i l d r e n .  seems t o s e v e r a l t o h a v e h e l p e d  child  f e e l no  over the  (the p a r e n t s ) .  to r e t u r n i t ,  people.  Comparing R e t a r d a t e  parents f e e l unhappiness  he  Seven one  given  commented t h a t  father  full  they  could  o l d e r s i b l i n g w h i l e t h e y went  b e c a u s e t h e boy  that because o f b e t t e r behaviour,  was  b e t t e r behaved.  there i s not  Another  so much  cause  worry.  tried  later  c o u p l e was  and  had  as p a r e n t s .  to observe  served  succeeded  to teach the  T h i s appears  However, i n s p i t e  progress with  t h a t p a r e n t s who  tionalized might  not  q u i t e d e f e n s i v e about  learned i n school.  ability able  One  t o have  child  and  demand more o f t h e i r  child  They  t h i n g s he  struck at  of f e e l i n g s here,  a r e a b l e t o see i m p r o v e m e n t , and  expect  child  some g r a t i t u d e .  accept t h e i r  training/.  had  their t h e y were  They p o i g n a n t l y  b e f o r e he that  is  institu-  t h o s e who  a f t e r he h a s  ob-  do  not  been  trained. I t e m 5, very  little  Attitude  of Parents  change r e g a r d i n g t h e i r  to In-laws.  feelings  toward  Parents reported these  relatives.  Only of  one m o t h e r and two f a t h e r s  "in-laws".  f e e l more s e c u r e i n t h e p r e s e n c e  S e v e n m o t h e r s and one f a t h e r r e p o r t e d f e e l i n g no  d i s c o m f o r t now  or prior  to the c h i l d ' s  m o t h e r and two f a t h e r s a r e s t i l l presence  of "in-laws".  somewhat u n c o m f o r t a b l e  experience i n t h e i r presence. b a n d ' s p a r e n t s were e x t r e m e l y  her  still  v i o u r and as a r e s u l t  tend  and n e i g h b o u r s  boy's b e h a v i o u r , At  changing  Three  was  Conse-  On t h e o t h e r hand,  the household  o f Parents feel  when t h e y  to Friends or  that  that  visit.  Neighbours.  their relationships These p a r e n t s f i n d  h i s manners, has improved  i t was n o t e d  public  with  that  a good  a t t i t u d e s have  their  deal.  been  retardation  m o t h e r s a n d two f a t h e r s t h i n k t h e y a r e v e r y r e l a x e d  secure w i t h f r i e n d s  represent boy  and h e l p f u l .  because o f g r e a t e r awareness o f t h e mental  problem. and  understanding  have improved.  especially  t h e same t i m e ,  parents  One m o t h e r r e p o r t e d t h a t h e r h u s -  to upset  mothers and t h r e e f a t h e r s  friends  o f comfort  have t r o u b l e a c c e p t i n g t h e r e t a r d a t e ' s beha-  I t e m 6, A t t i t u d e Six  the degree  t h e r e i s no s t r e s s when t h e y v i s i t .  own p a r e n t s  i n the  on t h e p a r t o f i n - l a w s i s r e p o r -  by c o u p l e s and t h i s h a s a f f e c t e d  quently  One  T h e i r f e e l i n g s have n o t changed.  V a r i a t i o n o f acceptance ted  institutionalization.  and n e i g h b o u r s  a change i n a t t i t u d e .  now, b u t t h a t  They f e l t  this  does n o t  t h i s way b e f o r e  their  institutionalized. I t e m 7, A t t i t u d e  three items  o f Parents  to Strangers.  r a t e d , t h e r e was a more p r o n o u n c e d  in  this  one.  in  their feelings.  change  S e v e n m o t h e r s and f o u r f a t h e r s n o t e d These persons  Of t h e l a s t observable  positive  f e e l more s e c u r e and l e s s  change  68  r,  \  embarrassed i f strangers c a l l or are otherwise introduced while the retardate i s present. manners.  This i s again attributed to improved  However, several parents are i r r i t a t e d by the fact that  t h e i r boy now uses 'choice  1  (swear) words - not only i n the pres-  cence of other members of the family, friends and neighbours, but also without discrimination, i n the presence of strangers. I t bothers parents more when the c h i l d swears i n front of strangers. There i s a tendency to blame the i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h i s behaviour and apparently l i t t l e dren go through  cognizance of the fact that, as normal c h i l -  'this stage*, so too, i t might be expected that  retardates w i l l also 'give i t a w h i r l ' . f e e l i n g i s that the c h i l d has  S t i l l , the predominant  'more sense' a f t e r t r a i n i n g and does  not stand out so much i n a negative manner. ^  Item 8, Total Family Planning a f t e r I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n of Retardate,  Pour mothers and two fathers f e e l that parents  would be more apt to wish the retarded c h i l d continue to be an i n ^ t e g r a l part of the family, including having him home f o r regular v i s i t s , a f t e r the c h i l d has received t r a i n i n g .  Five mothers and  two fathers said they wanted from the time of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n to have t h e i r c h i l d always to be an important and accepted member of  the family and that they f e e l no d i f f e r e n t l y now.  One father's  feelings were unchanged and expressed less than optimum acceptance. This same person rated lower than h i s wife. With one accord, a l l those interviewed had seeing how k  difficulty  any parent would i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e a c h i l d with the plan  to forget him.  A l l , of course, had themselves arranged f o r t h e i r  - 69 -  child  to v i s i t  home.  the i n s t i t u t i o n note  the  home and  how,  t u r n to the that  as a b o a r d i n g  child's  o t h e r s h i s own  this  that parents  school experience  need to p a r t i c i p a t e  level.  They o b s e r v e  i n social how  should  g l a d the  child  child  doing  Item  P a r e n t a l Response t o C h i l d  They  i s to  visit  i s pleased to r e It i s possible  a need o f p a r e n t s  see t h e  on  f o r a boy.  s c h o o l makes i t e a s i e r f o r p a r e n t s . of t h i n k i n g helps f i l l  look  functioning with  f o r t h e most p a r t , t h a t t h e c h i l d  type  a need to  Several feel  t h i n g s which r e f l e c t  themselves,  normal  community  behaviour.  formance . others.  9,  Ratings  f a t h e r (A)  they  every tively  now  attempts  home.  He  now  their  attends  to the  and  b e c a u s e he  a r e a b l e t o enjoy him  h i m more; "The  more and  see be  such a c l a s s .  child,  One  the  couple  he  stated child  s c h o o l as a  on  relathe training  g r e a t l y h e l p e d when a  I t was  observed  i s a b l e t o do actually  uncommon f o r c h i l d r e n  Only  to which  that  parents  t h i n g s f o r him-  are also  able to  s c h o o l knows how."'  I t i s not institution.  pa-  tasks.  have t h e k n o w l e d g e o r  They t h i n k o t h e r p a r e n t s w i l l child  the  home f o r w e e k l y p e r i o d s a t  child,  Per-  t h e y h a v e more  change i n h i s f e e l i n g ,  They d i d n o t own  of  some improvement i n t h e i r  visits  Task  to perform  before i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n .  to t r a i n  so t i e d  self,  t h e r e i s no  short intervals.  trainable not  four fathers f e e l  when he  are-able to observe  visit  patience mecca.  child  says  gave t o p r a t i n g that  i t e m were h i g h e r t h a n any  A l l n i n e m o t h e r s and  tience with their one  for this  Initiating  t o be  abandoned  to  the  give  - 70 -  I t e m 10,  P a r e n t a l R e s p o n s e t o C h i l d ' s Improved  Performance*  S i x m o t h e r s and  the  r e s u l t e d i n them b e c o m i n g more o b s e r v a n t  c h i l d has  child.  They a r e  complish parent  i n t r i g u e d by what t h e  and  now  watch c a r e f u l l y  says,  "He  i s not  in  what he  in  their attitude.  vant  can  of t h e i r  get."  Performance.  T h r e e m o t h e r s and  again  and  (when t h e y  that they  One  greater no  at  the  child.  obser-  abilities.  four fathers feel and  they  more a p t  apt  t o be  so t i r e d  tied  down so much.  Two  m o t h e r s and item,  rated less  p r i d e how  say  are  to  h i s s o n had  as  encourage It  they  f o r the  one  child),  f a t h e r , who  give  said  to r i d e a  yet  told  Another couple  bicycleI  t h a t he  t h a t much d e p e n d s on feels  their  with  Retarded  f o u r f a t h e r s f e e l more  i n p u b l i c p l a c e s now  feels  changed.  t h a t women h a v e  c h i l d r e n t h a n men,  S e v e n m o t h e r s and  they  themselves  P a r e n t a l A t t i t u d e Toward A p p e a r i n g w i t h  couple  was were  t h e i r a t t i t u d e s have not  learned  now  These p e r s o n s f e e l  than h i s wife,  for retarded  their child  One  interest  have a l w a y s b e e n v e r y  performance  are not  i n Public Places.  training.  One  change  are not  expectations  ease w i t h  never lose  ac-  f a t h e r f e e l no  care r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  I t e m 12, Child  one  child's failure  rating for this  little  so we  full  f a t h e r , who  to  o f advancement.  had  h a v e more p a t i e n c e . highest  the  been able  i f a task i s within h i s l i m i t s .  mentioned that parents before  of  of  P a r e n t a l Response to C h i l d ' s P a i l u r e i n Task  of t h e i r  to.try  child  These t h i n k they  that training  c h i l d has  f o r signs  ordinary  S e v e n m o t h e r s and  more a c c e p t i n g child  an  c h i l d ' s improving  I t e m 11,  the  four fathers feel  Task  child  now  the  has  received  appearance  behaves b e t t e r  of  -  t h a n most n o r m a l in  the c h i l d .  children,  One  which they r e p o r t mother  says t h a t  In fact, is  though  71  and  m o t h e r and t o be  -  s a y t h e y h a v e much more c o n f i d e n c e one  father  i n the top r a t i n g ,  she had  mixed f e e l i n g s  training  o f the c h i l d  a b l e to behave b e t t e r i n p u b l i c ,  embarrassing  to take him  "not b e i n g accustomed Perhaps  i n her  feelings lity,  and now,  to p u b l i c  she  m o t h e r s and  b e f o r e and  has  still  compensated  places.  She  One  has  them.  i n that  attributes  out r e g u l a r l y  took the c h i l d  h a v i n g been f r e e d  he more  this  to  as I d i d b e f o r e . "  out b e f o r e i n s p i t e  from h i s t o t a l  so o b l i g a t e d .  13,  Attitude  four fathers  care  of her  responsibi-  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h would  thinking  toward  receive  their  neighbourhood  children,  stand a f t e r  She  t h e y had  l a u g h i n g and  s c h o o l p r o g r e s s and  that neighbours  alone  reports that  the  an important  m o t h e r and  b e e n somewhat a l o o f and attitudes.  children  t o o k an a c t i v e  over the l a s t  changed t h e i r  feels  present.  She  that  seemed t o  c o n f i d e n c e , gave up  community a c t i v i t y .  One  mother  in  says  to  the  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and c o - o p e r a t i o n  e d u c a t i o n of the p u b l i c part.  One  s i t u a t i o n t o o t h e r p a r e n t s , and  sympathetic  and  Seven  a r e more p o s i t i v e  f o r b o t h p a s t and  been t a k e n i n t o  teasing,  t o the C h i l d .  retarded child.  top r a t i n g  e x p l a i n e d the  were f o r t h c o m i n g .  of Neighbours  feel  t h a t when she  always  has n o t changed.  question.  Item  neighbours  attitude,  h i s m o t h e r s a y s i t i s now  t o t a k i n g him  she d o e s n o t f e e l  answer t h i s  their  case  say t h e i r  one  interest Another  their  i n the r e t a r d a t e ' s person  few y e a r s h a s father  under-  says  that  probably played  say n e i g h b o u r s  the boy's t r a i n i n g has  have  not  - 72 -  Item 14, A t t i t u d e Retardate.  of Siblings  t o P l a y i n g w i t h the  Pour mothers and two f a t h e r s  t i v e improvement i n the a t t i t u d e s  f e e l t h e r e has been p o s i -  o f normal s i b l i n g s .  One con-  f i r m e d t h i s by s a y i n g , "He p l a y s and f i g h t s j u s t l i k e the o t h e r s . " Another p o i n t e d out t h a t her c h i l d does not wish t o p l a y w i t h other children. top  Pour mothers and two f a t h e r s  gave t h e i r normal  r a t i n g both b e f o r e and a f t e r the c h i l d had r e c e i v e d Item 15, A t t i t u d e  When R e t a r d a t e i s There.  of Siblings  children  training.  to B r i n g i n g F r i e n d s Home  Pour mothers and two f a t h e r s  feel their  normal c h i l d r e n are more a c c e p t i n g o f t h e i r r e t a r d e d b r o t h e r now t h a t he has r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g . that  as t h e i r normal c h i l d r e n  One r e p o r t e d l e s s acceptance and get o l d e r and i n t o the teen-age  b r a c k e t , they became more s e n s i t i v e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the presence of t h e i r f r i e n d s .  Two other f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d much shame f e l t by  s i b l i n g s b e f o r e the c h i l d was t r a i n e d ,  and that  somewhat r e l i e v e d a f t e r w a r d , parents s t i l l difficult  though they were  emphasize that  i t is  f o r normal c h i l d r e n moving i n t o t h e i r teens t o have a  generous a t t i t u d e  towards a r e t a r d e d c h i l d .  General Question, A t t i t u d e f o r the T r a i n a b l e C h i l d . c l a s s was o f l i t t l e T h i s parent  Only one parent f e l t  that  or no consequence i n the c h i l d ' s  (A) r e p o r t e d v e r y l i t t l e  after training.  o f Parents t o S p e c i a l  Education  the s p e c i a l progress.  change i n the c h i l d b e f o r e and  A t the same time, t h i s parent's r a t i n g i s i n the  Por composite o f s o c i a l competency and Parent A c c e p t a b i l i t y S c a l e s showing gains and l o s s e s a f t e r t r a i n i n g , see Table 9, p. 53.  - 73 -  high point category, thus precluding that gain would take place for any reason.  This c h i l d was  given a s i g n i f i c a n t l y lower r a t i n g  (anaverage of 14 points per area rated) by his teacher.  Still,  the -teacher i s sure that the c h i l d has improved a good deal. wise, new  Like-  psychological tests show gain i n the c h i l d ' s function.  This would suggest l i t t l e  o b j e c t i v i t y on the parent's part.  Twelve  of the other t h i r t e e n parents gave the t r a i n i n g programme the highest r a t i n g possible and the other one,  the second highest.  Home V i s i t s Approximately 10$ more of trainable boys are v i s i t i n g home on any basis now  than were at the beginning of the t r a i n i n g  1  programme.  Score i n d i c a t i o n would suggest that boys have become  more acceptable  and families are therefore more interested i n  having the boy v i s i t , less anxious about possible negative consequences.  I t appears then, that t r a i n i n g may  social  be a s i g n i f i c a n t  factor an the increased involvement of boys i n home and community s o c i a l intercourse. t h e i r c h i l d was  However, several parents were not aware that  attending s p e c i a l c l a s s .  They a l l expected that  some t r a i n i n g was going on, but were not sure what.  Attempts to  discover progress of the c h i l d generally ended i n short discussions with the ward nurse when the c h i l d was  picked up f o r the home v i s i t ,  or when returned from home to the i n s t i t u t i o n .  Only three of ten  families interviewed had examined the special classroom or observed while class was  i n session.  From The Woodlands School  facilities  CHAPTER IV WHAT DOES INSTITUTIONAL TRAINING OFFER  This study has examined the e f f e c t s of s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g f o r boys who  are i n the trainable category of mental retardation,  and whether improved s o c i a l competency has influenced the c h i l d ' s a c c e p t a b i l i t y to h i s family. Each boy has shown improvement i n h i s s o c i a l functioning and several, pronounced improvement.  I t has been emphasized that  there were too many variables involved to allow f o r firm assessment of the reasons f o r improvement.  However, since improvement  occurred coincident with s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n the i n s t i t u t i o n , i t would seem that t r a i n i n g probably has played a s i g n i f i c a n t part. Most of the children now  admitted to The Woodlands  School are admitted on an emergency basis.  And t h i s emergency  r e f e r s not just to the condition of the c h i l d who  may  require medi-  c a l treatment, but also to the other members of the retarded c h i l d ' s family - who,  i n many instances, have through the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of  caring f o r the c h i l d , become depleted of physical, mental, emotional and moral strength.  When the c h i l d i s admitted to the i n s t i t u t i o n ,  the release from the burden of h i s care at l a s t provides the family an opportunity  to gather i t s strength once again.  Because of the pressing nature of demands p r i o r to the c h i l d ' s admission and the great need for r e s t and  recuperation  immediately of  the  following, release  c h i l d may  seem a t  perhaps i t i s too  first  good t o be  from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the solve  a l l t h e i r problems.  think  a b o u t them and  of t h i s  child  - the  tionalization, and  of family kind  life  o f hope and  h a v e , f o r one pletely  timate the  In  good t o be  f o r many p a r e n t s . of the  child  that  home a f t e r he being may  be  of  continuing family,  s o r t them o u t  has  r e l a t i o n s h i p there  can  salvage  i n a way  decided  child  to  the  Still  others  i n the  ha.s  received  community  families  their  child  from the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  extremely important  social  emphasis h e r e i s t h a t  intercourse the  factor  However, p a r e n t s a l s o  words, the  to  them i n  child  indithe to  f a c t o r of t r a i n i n g the  c h i l d ' s p o t e n t i a l i t i e s have i s able  in-  child.  specialized training i n addition  t h a t he  com-  t o k e e p c l o s e and  element i n i n c r e a s i n g a c c e p t a b i l i t y of  extent  some  O t h e r s have m a i n t a i n e d  become more a c c e p t a b l e  In other  be,  pieces  provide  a few  to f o r g e t  have t r i e d  home i s a n  p a r e n t s because the  encouraged to an and  Not  been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d .  child  important  to  will  unbroken  that w i l l  future.  a t t i t u d e s of parents.  has  time  institu-  institutionalized. an  i t provides  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e i r r e t a r d e d  their  necessarily  his  caring for a child  cate  freed  d e c i s i o n t h e y h a v e made r e g a r d i n g  reason or another,  the  Being  parents  contact.  influencing  And  the  There i s i n d i c a t i o n t h a t r e l e a s e of  true.  does n o t  some i n s t a n c e s ,  a s p i r a t i o n f o r the  a f t e r he  superficial  true care  they, the  and  almost too  care  t o w o r r y a b o u t t h e i r p o s i t i o n as  what k i n d  whether or not  from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  i n a more a c c e p t a b l e i s more a c c e p t a b l e  family  manner.  when he  been  is  The at  - 76 home.  The  child an  emphasis a f t e r  i s more a c c e p t a b l e  important  of continued  the  vices  event t h a t should  i s away f r o m t h e social  consideration  social  b e e n made t o a p p l y in  when he  implication for future  T h e r e must be need  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n only,  planning  s e r v i c e s to parents a f t e r  for institutionalization  Here i s  for  the  a decision  of t h e i r  child.  i s necessary,  social  be made a v a i l a b l e t o f a m i l i e s on  tinuing basis  home.  f o l l o w i n g a d m i s s i o n of the  the  work.  o f and  institutionalization  i s that  a regular  has And,  ser-  and  con-  child.  P a r e n t s Need More H e l p Judging from t h i s inclined  to i n c l u d e  after  long  d i d i t t a k e them t o f i n d  that  has  retarded  ties  h a v e had  he  their  s t u d y , p a r e n t s may  their  training  for their  family  retarded  child?  see  how  institution. lies  training out  The  Not  one  parent  had  i s , that  training.  institution.  fact?  How  of the could  maintained  and  But  have c o n s i d e r e d  a continuing Why  perhaps a  these p a r e n t s found  to  i n this  study  the  interest  for future  their  fact  the  they maintained subject  who  include  p o s s i b l y abandon h i s c h i l d that  how  the  f o r them  parents interviewed  emphasized  activi-  many p a r e n t s  make i t p o s s i b l e  However, i t must be  another question,  after  family  r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n a manner t h a t w i l l  any  interviewed  point  i n the  this  c h i l d may  since his i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . is  i n various  children institutionalized  continue  could  received  child  a c t u a l l y f e e l more  to  sample  the fami-  i n their this  child  contact  research.  c h i l d r e n more  acceptable  - 77 Some s i g n i f i c a n t  questions follow.  have p r o g r e s s e d more q u i c k l y , bility,  were  they  Would  and t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t  t h e time o f t h e i r  child's  parents  of accepta-  institutionaliza-  t h e p a r e n t s who have a b a n d o n e d t h e i r  have been showing r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r i n t e r e s t able  these  t o h a v e h a d c a e e w o r k s u p p o r t and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r tion?  Would  t o and d e s i r e d  c h i l d r e n o r who  i n them, h a v e  t o have c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i r  child  been  i n a manner  w h i c h would have been r e w a r d i n g b o t h t o t h e m s e l v e s and t h e c h i l d ? I n o t h e r words, would f a m i l y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s  o f a p o s i t i v e and  i n c l u s i v e n a t u r e have been f o s t e r e d had i n t e r p r e t i v e tive  s e r v i c e s been a v a i l a b l e ?  to provide tal  such s e r v i c e s  I t would appear t h a t  s h o u l d be made, a t l e a s t  and s u p p o r an attempt  on a n e x p e r i m e n -  basis. I n d i c a t i o n o f Heed  the case  o f one p a r e n t i n c l u d e d  the c h i l d  Why?  t o have t h e c h i l d  The c h i l d  study, a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f  accompany  area,  that  of willing-  her i n public  h i m s e l f h a s shown c o n s i d e r a b l e  places.  improvement  A g e n e r a l assumption, because o f t h i s ,  because  m i g h t be  a p a r e n t w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be more r e a d y t o h a v e h e r c h i l d a c -  company h e r t o p u b l i c lady's  own a t t i t u d e s  places. or l i f e  I s t h e answer t o be f o u n d i n t h i s experience?  w i t h h e r b e f o r e b e c a u s e t h i s was e a s i e r would  In  she now f e e l s more e m b a r r a s s e d t o h a v e h i m accompany h e r .  of h i s t r a i n i n g . that  i n this  d i d n o t i m p r o v e i n one p a r t i c u l a r  ness or d e s i r e In fact,  f o r E x t e n d e d Casework S e r v i c e s .  feel  f o r denying the c h i l d  she r e s o l v e d  this  guilt  D i d she take t h e c h i l d t h a n f a c i n g t h e g u i l t she  i n the presence o f others?  through the i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n  Has  of her  - 78 child  and  being  r i d of the  fact  that  the  child  feel  that  she  may  start are  expected  feelings, planning  i n the  and  that  could  wished, to d i s c u s s  child,  be  make  the  her  and  child?  asked. her  The  have  t o work out  f o r h e r s e l f and  There  implica-  should  guidance i n terms o f  and  Does  reassume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  p r o b a b l y many l i k e  to have r e c e i v e d  both f o r her  entailed?  f r i g h t e n her,  to again  questions  i f she  so  process of c a r i n g f o r her  t h i s woman and  opportunity,  the  be  hypothetical  tion i s that the  i s more c a p a b l e now  a l l over again  other  responsibilities  had  her  long-range  o t h e r members  of  family. Casework i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f b e h a v i o u r p r o b a b l y c o u l d  parents adjust ability  their  for positive social  because p a r e n t s are and  responses.  training.  unable  However, t h e  functioning  help  child's potential  i s o f t e n kept i n abeyance  to  give  consistent  A l l p o r t states  that  "praise  loving  and  stimulation  recognition  not 1  only He  help  also  l e a r n i n g but  says,  appear to i n c r e a s e  "to maximize the  the  capacity  for  c h i l d ' s i n t e l l i g e n c e , we  it."  must m a x i -  2 mize h i s  ego."  lopment can tually  be  This  changed.  mean t h a t  ill,  have the  manner more s a t i s f y i n g p a r e n t s and  the  However, i t does  a l l t r a i n a b l e c h i l d r e n , w i t h the  seriously  their  does not  capacity to  of mental  deve-  support a view t h a t  possible  to u t i l i z e  themselves,  level  their  exception  of  their abilities peers,  their  in  others.  2  A l l p o r t , G. ¥., P e r s o n a l i t y S a u n d e r s and Company L t d . , T  Loc. c i t .  the a  siblings,  •j Reginal  vir-  and S o c i a l E n c o u n t e r , S. T o r o n t o , I960, p. 83.  J.  -  In t o be in  the  extremely  the  ved.  79  s t u d y i t was  -  brought  teenagers  seemed  s e n s i t i v e t o a h a n d i c a p p e d member o f t h e  family  home, p a r t i c u l a r l y when t h e i r The  fact  that  community  teenagers are  often  g r o w i n g p h y s i c a l l y and  emotionally.  They a r e  ficult  l i v e s when t h e  period  i s that  out  i n their  identity,  f e e l i n g s of  i n regard  to  m u n i t y and  the  self-worth,  c u l t u r a l values,  parents are  i n d i c a t i o n s are  ticularly  the  agers w i l l  be  teenagers,  how  could  family,  in relation  to  their  roles, their  a l s o be  the  difown  com-  If  s o c i a l work c a s e w o r k  helped  thinking  considerably. concerning  family w i l l  f r i e n d s and  parTeen-  the  perhaps e s p e c i a l l y , t h i n k i n g  their  are  position  f a m i l y members, p e r h a p s  h a v i n g a h a n d i c a p p e d member o f t h e  particularly  of  f a m i l y members and  other  s t r u g g l i n g to r e s o l v e  c a p p e d member o f t h e i r  They  a l l w e i g h h e a v i l y u p o n them.  that  invol-  going through a  establishment  i n a p o s i t i o n t o b e n e f i t from  services,  sensitive.  evolving  expectancy of adult  f r i e n d s are  handiabout  a f f e c t them,  other  community mem-  bers. Siblings emotional chaos.  are  o f t e n c a u g h t i n and  I t i s quite possible  needs have been n e g l e c t e d , the  defective  child  on  emotional disturbances will  occur.  competent t o guilt  alter  ment t h a t  these  their  own  family  developmental  constant  various  demands  symptomatic  aware o f what i s h a p p e n i n g ,  circumstances.  for neglecting  their  to the  s i b l i n g s have been d e p r i v e d .  a c c o m p a n i e d by be  that  t h a t because of the  parents,  P a r e n t s may  contribute  They may  'healthy'  experience  c h i l d r e n , and  c h i l d r e n are having t h e i r  lives  Often  reactions  feel i n compounding  bitter  ruined  of  resent-  despite  - 80 -  desperate  efforts  to a l t e r  the s i t u a t i o n .  may be unaware o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e s e are  c o m p e n s a t e d by t h e i r v e r y The  On t h e o t h e r hand,  children or f e e l  towards f a m i l y care o f the r e t a r d a t e . w i t h t o o many r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .  of the c h i l d ;  they  normality.  s i b l i n g who i s o l d e r may make a h e l p f u l  c o n s c i o u s and a m b i v a l e n t .  that  they  contribution  However, he may be b u r d e n e d  A s a n a d o l e s c e n t he may be  self-  On t h e one h a n d he may be o v e r p r o t e c t i v e  o n t h e o t h e r , he may be d e f e n s i v e , a s he moves  amongst h i s p e e r  group.  B l o g e t t and W a r f i e l d f e e l  that serious 1  conflicts  about marriage  a n d r e p r o d u c t i o n c a n be c a u s e d .  d r e n more n e a r l y t h e age o f t h e r e t a r d a t e , r i v a l r y involving parents,  other s i b l i n g s  I n Case A., t h e p a r e n t s t o have kept cult sider  ever,  circumstances  that the parents  liked  i f i t were n o t ,  When we  con-  seemed t o be h i g h l y s u b j e c t i v e and t h a t  o v e r - r a t e d t h e boy's a b i l i t y ,  such a statement  this  youngsters.  t h a t t h e y w o u l d have  t o w h i c h t h e c h i l d was e x p o s e d .  we w o u l d  may w e l l h a v e b e e n a f o r m  s h o u l d have been p r o v i d e d .  v a t e d more t o h a v e t h e i r  child  they  ascertain  o f defense.  and t h e p a r e n t s were a c t u a l l y  t h e i r boy r e m a i n a t home, i t w o u l d do  said  o f these  may  t h e i r b o y a t home i f i t h a d n o t b e e n f o r t h e d i f f i -  quite possibly that  and j e a l o u s y  and t h e d e f e c t i v e c h i l d ,  l e a v e marked i m p r i n t s o n t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s  In c h i l -  anxious  Howt o have  seem t h a t s e r v i c e s t o h e l p  them  I t may be t h a t t h e y were  moti-  r e m a i n a t home t h a n  t o have t h e c h i l d  B l o d g e t t , H a r r i e t E . , and W a r f i e l d , G r a c e J . , Und e r s t a n d i n g M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n , A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , New Y o r k , 1959, p . 55.  institutionalized. making s i m i l a r  S o c i a l work s e r v i c e s c o u l d a s s i s t  d e c i s i o n s , to s o r t  them t o w e i g h t h e p r o s have b r o u g h t  and  child  I f they  admitted own  culties  attitudes,  c e n t e r around the  of a society, The  advice  g i v e n by  different.  being  to t h i s  born  In  to  liaison  put  influmay  between If  diffi-  i n perspective.  required help and  time  a t the  t h a t had  circumstances  T h i s goes back to the  capped c h i l d  I f these  o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l members  arranged,  time,  i t necessary  of a s s i s t a n c e .  c o u l d be  i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t the p a r e n t s  tinuing help prior  help  perhaps casework  s e r v i c e s and  perhaps t h a t advice  s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n was  and  a t t i t u d e s o f community members,  community members c o u l d be  c e n t e r around  finding  to an i n s t i t u t i o n .  p e r h a p s s o c i a l work, i n t e r p r e t i v e and  feelings  cons o f the v a r i o u s i n f l u e n c e s which  ences c e n t e r around t h e i r  family  their  them t o t h e p o i n t o f s e e m i n g l y  t o have t h e i r  help.  out  parents  may  when p a r e n t s  ti^ein-  t h e y had  con-  w e l l have  been  have a  handi-  them.  e a c h o f two  retarded  children.  heredity  factors being  families  i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e r e were  T h i s would i n d i c a t e involved.  the  I t would  three  strong p o s s i b i l i t y seem f r o m comments  r e n t s make t h a t most q u e s t i o n t h e i r  s e n s e o f s e l f - w o r t h when a  handicapped  When more t h a n  child  child  i s born  sized.  i s born  i n a f a m i l y , these  vice  the  f e e l i n g s may  S o c i a l work i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  what t h i s w i l l mean t o t h e for  t o them.  should  of c l i n i c a l  be made a v a i l a b l e  not  an i m p o r t a n t just  empha-  f i n d i n g s and their  service.  at the request  pa-  handicapped  w e l l be v e r y  f a m i l y as a. w h o l e , and  f u t u r e , w o u l d a p p e a r t o be  one  of  of  of  planning This  ser  parents,  - 82 -  but  as  part  o f d i a g n o s t i c and  parent  with  a handicapped  total  assessment  s e r v i c e s to  child.  The  S o c i a l Work L i a i s o n R o l e B e t w e e n t h e R e t a r d a t e ' s  the  Gommunity. Earlier  to  the  i t was  mentioned  burden of parents.  portant, level.  not  only  Parents,  stimuli, h a r d l y be  often already  unaware o f t h e  f r i e n d s may  exerted  upon the  but  overly  critical, On  have l i t t l e  the  b e t t e r had  to d i s c u s s they  balance.  been a b l e .  The  look a t the reasons f o r keeping  causing can expresrelatives  pressure  to  Parents  may  not  Perhaps they  caseworker could t h e m s e l v e s , and  have  felt  would  have  assist  them  perhaps  open  sharing.  Some o f t h e  parents  a t t i t u d e s of neighbours. e x p l a i n i n g the community  quite possible that  situation  interviewed I n two  feel  quite  instances,  t o n e i g h b o u r s and  circumstances  improved  s t r o n g l y about  parents  than i n others.  o p t i m i s t i c about e n l i s t i n g  the  a good d e a l .  P e r h a p s we  support  found  that  neighbourhood  community a t t i t u d e s w o u l d i m p r o v e  more i n some l o c a l i t i e s overly  total  im-  f a m i l y , o r o f the n e a r h e r o i c attempt i t has  felt  children,  is  community  judgmental  a p p r e c i a t i o n of the  t h e i r problems.  after  this  a g r o u p and  o t h e r hand,  or able  the  i n handling  and  add  sometimes c o n t e m p t u o u s  free  for  stigma can  been d e p r e c i a t e d ,  and  t h e way  Family  s e n s i t i v e to p a i n  made t o keep some o r d e r  to  social  a l s o on  s e l f - w o r t h has  sions of f e l l o w c i t i z e n s . and  that  Casework h e l p  on a p e r s o n a l  whose s e n s e o f  any  o f the  or  It is change  should  not  general  be  - 83 -  community.  However, t h e  fact  that  has  been n o t i c e a b l e  suggests that  fit  by  attempt  port  a  systematic  o f n e i g h b o u r s and  t i o n here i s that family  and  community  other  are  and  be  w o u l d be  enlist  p e r s o n s and  as  overt  tried  The  liaison  facilitate  sup-  implicabetween  improved  parents of a retarded  so  on.  casework  could  c h i l d r e n aroused. be  The  natural  of  experiment  T h i s m i g h t be the  may  symptomatic  The  of non-confidential  T h i s w o u l d be  aim infor-  done on  a  exploration  group of  the  what t h e  re-  a h e l p f u l supplement  to  service.  problem  d o u b t s may  b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d and of t h e i r  i n t e r e s t of  be  d i s s i p a t e d and  of parents with mentally  parents could  institutionalization  and  of i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n ,  Through such a p r o c e s s , genuine i n t e r e s t i n the  child  involve  child  ( f r i e n d s , etc.)  of t h i s problem.  sharing  friends.  Discussion  and  They  handling  encourage the  individual family  at the  as  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . An  the  consideration  s u l t s m i g h t be,  t r o u b l e s may  the  r e j e c t i o n o f the  concerning  to help  reasons behind  the  bene-  sometimes comes t o a h e a d when  r e f u s a l to accept  discussion basis.  zing  well  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and  act  thereby help  institutionalization.  m a t i o n b e t w e e n p a r e n t s and  the  the  s o c i a l w o r k e r may  neighbours l e a r n that  this  a heartless could  f a m i l i e s might v e r y  s o c i a l acquaintances.  stigma problem  considering  interpret  other  improvement  attitudes. The  friends  the  to  i n c e r t a i n areas  be  child  f r i e n d s and  retarded  supported i n that  t h e i r motives f o r defended. relatives,  same t i m e , promote more p o s i t i v e and  While  a  their  considering recogni-  parents  could,  continuous contact  with  - 84 -  these people Again,  - p e o p l e who  might w e l l h e l p share  Children,  i t may  w e l l be  that  t h o s e who  them i n a s p e c i a l g r o u p s e s s i o n c o u l d be community  and  o t h e r c h i l d r e n i n the  t o an i n v i t a t i o n  that  t h e y be  some o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  be  encourage a  given.  The  confined to a d u l t s .  w i t h the  training  'conspiracy of love',  the  Institution In t h i s  study,  of t h i s  a creative  of t r a i n i n g  i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  not  t h e i r boy  t h e y had  ral  o f the p a r e n t s have not  been i n f o r m e d  found  i n both of  programme c o u l d be  to  community  force  which  cruelty.  Family  and  attending a particular They f e l t  about  training  a specific  e x p l o r e d the type  that  type  as the  a t h i s own programme.  not  other  level Seve-  of t r a i n i n g  being  t h o u g h t h e y h a v e made i n q u i r i e s r e g u l a r l y  as t o  general progress of t h e i r s t a t u s as  was  w o u l d be r e c e i v i n g  but  g i v e n t h e i r boy  of  t h r e e o f t h e p a r e n t s i n t e r v i e w e d were  that  t h e i r boy  well  handling  Between t h e R e t a r d a t e ' s  aware o f t h e f a c t class  be  t h e c a r e and  e f f e c t i v e l y h e l p d i s p e l l p r e j u d i c e , f e a r and  S o c i a l Work L i a i s o n R o l e  The  care o f the r e t a r d e d .  s i t t e r s may into  whole e f f e c t  The  respond  given' the o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n  connected  g r o u p s - p r o v i d e d some b a s i c  children,  to help i n  community may  A h e l p f u l r e s o u r c e o f p r o s p e c t i v e baby  would  with  programmes.  group,  child  have shared  recruited  T h i s t y p e o f c o u n s e l n e e d n o t be  the  burden.  i f t h e p a r e n t s a r e members o f t h e l o c a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r  Retarded  peer  their  boy.  Perhaps parents f e e l  s u c h f o r them t o have t h e i r boy  there i s  attend a special  the  little  class  in  a school f o r retarded children.  ously one  claim to friends,  of the  fically  family, neighbours,  top boys i n the  children."  So  i t may  Perhaps they would not  be  special  training  t h a t the f a c t  i n q u i r e d , o r made o b v i o u s  classroom  activities  cance than  themselves  by  suggests  w i l l h a v e more c a u s e t o be  proud  observing, i s of less  will  r e l a t i v e s more a c c e p t i n g o f h i m . informed  child,  find  indicated  might p a r t i c i p a t e  by  will  f o r them where and  sing h i s progress with  the  child  teacher,  child. parents  find  neighbours,  Therefore, parents  o b s e r v i n g the  in  of t r a i n i n g ,  o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l programme.  a l s o have c l e a r l y  speci-  signifi-  expectations f o r t h e i r  of t h e i r  is  f o r retarded  to p a r t i c i p a t e  t h a t , because  more a c c e p t a b l e i n t h e home, and  directly  class  child  t h a t some h a v e n o t  attempts  t h a t they have l i m i t e d Information  t h a t , "My  anxi-  him  friends  should  They  be  should  when t h e y as  i n action,  and  parents  o r by d i s c u s -  s o c i a l w o r k e r s and  other  staff  members. The the  training  w o u l d be  s o c i a l w o r k e r c o u l d be class  and  a b l e to i n f o r m f a m i l i e s  engaged i n by  their  t i e s provide parents ral  concerns  of t h e i r  also  parents  and  family.  to f a c i l i t a t e but  the f a m i l y .  the  thoughts  and  effective  In the f i r s t  liaison  through  between  instance,  concerning various  he  activities  d i s c u s s i o n of these  activi-  opportunity f o r v e n t i l a t i o n of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e to the  I n o t h e r words, the  child  service  and  gene-  o t h e r members  could serve not  only  g r e a t e r f a m i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the boy's w e l f a r e ,  t o prepare sort  child  an  out  the road  their  f o r t h a t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by h e l p i n g  feelings.  Highly-charged  ambivalent  feelings  - 86 -  of the parents spective  c o u l d be e a s e d  i s often lost  acuteness  period  be  b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s s i n g c l o s e n e s s and  the c h i l d has been admitted  casework w i t h p a r e n t s  o f time.  admission the  Per-  o f problems. After  setting,  t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree.  should  to the p r o v i n c i a l  continue f o r an i n d e f i n i t e  I f a d e q u a t e p r e p a r a t i o n h a s b e e n made f o r t h e  o f the c h i l d ,  parents w i l l  have a l r e a d y been o r i e n t e d t o  s e t t i n g a n d i n t r o d u c e d t o members o f t h e s t a f f most l i k e l y t o i n v o l v e d i n the care, treatment  But  there w i l l  activities  be n e e d f o r c o n t i n u e d  and p a r t i c u l a r l y  continuing relationship w i l l rent. being  child  l o v e d by h i s f a m i l y . i s admitted,  Prearranged  visits  o f the s p e c i a l be i m p o r t a n t  I f these  training f o r both  attributes  class. child  and p a t o and  are not established  c o u l d encourage  could  both  t h e p a r e n t keep a b r e a s t o f t h e c h i l d ' s the emotional  climate of the  as w e l l as t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s ,  g o a l s , may g a i n v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t . to f o l l o w the c h i l d ' s progress  Parents  equipment and  and f a m i l y may be a b l e  and g i v e h i m e m o t i o n a l  be r e a s s u r i n g f o r them t o s e e t h a t t h e c h i l d  comfortable,  This  t h e n i t w o u l d be h o p e d t h a t t h e y  The p a r e n t who h a s o b s e r v e d  s p e c i a l class-room,  child.  interpretation of routine  to the class-room  and t e a c h e r , and h e l p  growth.  will  of their  The c h i l d n e e d s t o m a i n t a i n a s e n s e o f b e l o n g i n g  when t h e c h i l d be.  and t r a i n i n g  support.  i s physically  i s a b l e t o be f r i e n d l y w i t h o t h e r s , i s g a i n i n g  dence, i s e x p e r i e n c i n g t h e s e c u r i t y  o f success  accepted  and l i k e d .  The p a r e n t w i l l  learning  to get along with classmates  It  confi-  and knows t h a t he i s  see t o o , t h a t t h e c h i l d i s and grownups, t h a t l i f e h a s  - 87 -  rules  and  r o u t i n e s , and  t h a t t h e r e a r e many t h i n g s t o f e e l  good  about. The  caseworker's continued  allow f o r v e n t i l a t i o n of g u i l t ' p u t t i n g him the  child's  away' and  from  emphasize f e e l i n g s tact  be  seen  p o t e n t i a l has directed, couraged time  raged  by  i n a n e n t i r e l y new  p a r e n t s may and  may  disturbing  Again,  continued  the f a c t  t h a t he and  himself.  has  new  repeatedly presented  t o k e e p them i n f o r m e d  an i n v a l u a b l e a s s e t to the by k n o w i n g t h a t t h e i r c h i l d ' s new the  life.  child  but  even rewarding.  from  opened, new  be  encou-  possibilities  c a n a c t u a l l y make some, however  t o and  Goals  and  accomplishments  discussed with parents  to e n l i s t  teacher.  their  continued  P a r e n t s w o u l d be  i s b e i n g met  Casework s h o u l d be  and  c o u l d be  e n c o u r a g e d by  a c c e p t e d where he  a regular service  -  not  support,  compensated  c o n t r i b u t i o n i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f  In t u r n they  En-  o r i g i n a l hopes f o r  A l s o , t h e y may  vistas  c o n t r i b u t i o n to h i s fellowmen.  s h o u l d be  and  a c t i n a manner b o t h p l e a s i n g  and  t h a t he  con-  child's  t h e c h i l d home f o r v i s i t s  see him  and  sense  s t r e n g t h s grouped  w e l l h a v e some o f t h e i r  themselves  - a  p e r s p e c t i v e once the  more a c c e p t a b l e and  t r y having  setting  i n social function  p o i n t c a n be  h i s emotional  r e s t o r e d when t h e y  enjoying l i f e ,  small,  that  progress  This l a t t e r  been tapped,  neighbours,  only  and  will  from  o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t i n t h e new  of p a r e n t a l inadequacy.  h i s behaviour  to time  the c h i l d  for  both r e s u l t i n g  allows f o r expression of parental r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t h a t may  to  feeling,  improved behaviour  t a k e s p l a c e so r e a d i l y .  c o n t a c t w i t h the parent  the  assurance  i s , a s he i s .  to parents,  one  that  - 88 -  is  scheduled  or  special  lies  and n o t d e p e n d e n t u p o n s p o r a d i c p e r i o d s o f i n t e r e s t  study.  I t may be t h a t  a r e now a c t u a l l y  w i t h the c h i l d  study  participating  by m a i n t a i n i n g c l o s e  i n h i s c l a s s w o u l d be o f v a l u e .  i n t e r v i e w e d knew a b o u t the i n s t i t u t i o n  today  the c l a s s ,  i n c l u d e s , when p o s s i b l e ,  s c h o o l a t t h e time  may be t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e c h i l d ' s  f a m i l y m a t r i x and c i r c u m s t a n c e , participate. do  throughout the  o f the c h i l d ' s  actual condition,  parents  Service at  admission. the whole  j u s t have n o t been a b l e t o  I t may l i k e w i s e be t h a t p a r e n t s who do p a r t i c i p a t e  so o u t o f t h e i r  who d o e s n o t v i s i t . vior.  it.  orientation of pa-  and t r a i n i n g  o f o r b e f o r e t h e time  contact  Some o f t h e p a r e n t s  but d i d not v i s i t  r e n t s to the various areas o f a c t i v i t y  It  o f t h e r e a s o n s why f a m i -  own e m o t i o n a l n e e d .  We know who v i s i t s  B u t we do n o t know t h e m e a n i n g o f t h i s  T h i s would i n d i c a t e  that  t h e r e i s a need f o r s o c i a l  and behawork  assessment o f f a m i l y b e h a v i o r t o a s c e r t a i n i t s meaning, t o h e l p f a m i l i e s p l a n i n terms o f t h e i r help  families  midable  alter  or rearrange  t h i n k i n g and c i r c u m s t a n c e s , and t o circumstances  f o r them t o f a c e , o r p e r h a p s  facts  seemingly  too f o r -  a c c e p t e d as unchange-  a b l e , w h i c h , i n f a c t , may be c h a n g e d . This present had  their  that Is  child  s t u d y h a s i n v o l v e d o n l y p a r e n t s who h a v e  home f o r v i s i t s .  do n o t h a v e t h e i r  i t because o f t h e i r  child  There  visit  home a t a l l .  own c o n f l i c t i n g  they have n o t been encouraged?  a r e a number o f f a m i l i e s  feelings?  We must a s k why. I s i t because  I s i t because they have n o t r e -  ceived r e p o r t s o f the c h i l d ' s progress?  I s i t because they have  not had an o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i s c u s s t h e i r problems o f acceptance o r  - 89 -  rejection  of their  c h i l d ' s handicap?  Again,  indication i s that  w h e t h e r o r n o t s e r v i c e s c a n now be made t o p a r e n t s who h a v e contact with t h e i r facilitate  children,  continued  an a l l out e f f o r t  c o n t a c t between p a r e n t ,  s h o u l d be made t o  child  m i l y members when i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n now t a k e s  The  Casework A  requisite  and o t h e r f a -  place.  Process s o c i a l assessment o f the t o t a l  i n t h e casework p r o c e s s .  t h r e a t e n e d when a d e f e c t i v e c h i l d the  t h r e a t i s most f e l t  Many v a l u e s i s bom  w i l l vary.  education,  type  f a m i l y i s the f i r s t  into  and r o l e s a family.  The e m o t i o n a l m a t u r i t y o f p a -  their  social  s t a t u s , c u l t u r a l background, age, p h y s i c a l h e a l t h ,  family  and r e l a t i v e s ,  o f f a t h e r ' s employment, f i n a n c i a l a n d  number, a g e , s e x and i n t e r e s t s  t h e p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l and e m o t i o n a l o f neighbours  gious i n c l i n a t i o n s  and f r i e n d s  and p o l i t i c a l  I n making a s o c i a l important ferent  t o be e x p l i c i t  personalities.  Each w i l l have t h e i r lem,  extended  of siblings,  o f the r e t a r d a t e ,  and b u s i n e s s a s s o c i a t e s , r e l i a l l h a v e a b e a r i n g on  a l l h a v e a b e a r i n g on t h e way  how t h e y may be h a n d l e d  i n the f u t u r e .  assessment o f the f a m i l y , i t w i l l  concerning both parents.  Each w i l l  be  Each are d i f -  h a v e somewhat d i f f e r e n t  own e m p h a s i s i n t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  g o a l s t o be s o u g h t  may be t h a t f e e l i n g s  development  interests  the k i n d s o f problems experienced, problems have been h a n d l e d ,  are badly Y e t where  rents,  attitudes  lost  outlooks. of the prob-  a n d home c a r e methods t o be f o l l o w e d .  about the r e t a r d a t e a r e p r o j e c t e d t o t h e  It  - 90 -  marital partner. about a c h i l d  "A p r o f o u n d  ... i f i t c a n n o t  i n f e c t i o n i n the e n t i r e  disagreement  between t h e p a r t n e r s  be r e s o l v e d ... a c t s a s a d a n g e r o u s  f a m i l y , o f t e n c u l m i n a t i n g i n a severe  emo-  1 tional  crippling Before  child  o f a l l members." c a s e w o r k s e r v i c e may a d e q u a t e l y  proceed, the  a n d h i s f a m i l y s o c i a l a s s e s s m e n t w i l l n e e d t o be  at a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n e , r e n t s may h a v e n e v e r disability  medically oriented diagnostic c l i n i c .  r e c e i v e d p r e c i s e knowledge about t h e i r  and t h e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s .  "defensiveness  i n p a r e n t s may h a v e b e e n b u i l t  mer u n f o r t u n a t e  presented Pachild's  In fact,  up b e c a u s e o f a  for-  c o n t a c t w i t h a n e m o t i o n a l l y immature and i n s e c u r e  2 p r o f e s s i o n a l person." the  caseworker w i l l Mrs.  from  diagnostic picture  convey the f i n d i n g s  Max M u r r a y , h e r s e l f  g i v e s an i n t e r e s t i n g describes,  When a t o t a l  i s received  to the parents. -  the mother o f a r e t a r d e d  p e r s p e c t i v e t o the problem  child,  s i t u a t i o n when she  a l a y m a n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , deep s e a t e d n e e d s o f p a -  rents with defective children. She s a y s : A f t e r t a l k i n g t o h u n d r e d s o f p a r e n t s i t i s my f e e l i n g t h a t more r e a l damage h a s b e e n b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e i n a b i l i t y t o s h a r e t h e i r p r o b l e m t h a n b y any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r ... The g r e a t e s t s i n g l e n e e d o f p a r e n t s o f m e n t a l l y r e t a r d e d children i s constructive professional counselling at var i o u s stages i n the c h i l d ' s l i f e which w i l l enable the p a r e n t s t o f i n d t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e i r own i n d i v i d u a l p r o b lems t o a r e a s o n a b l y s a t i s f a c t o r y d e g r e e .  Mandelbaum, A r t h u r , and W h e e l e r , Mary, "The M e a n i n g o f a D e f e c t i v e C h i l d t o P a r e n t s , " S o c i a l Casework, J o u r n a l o f , J u l y ,  I960, p . 329. 2  M u r r a y , M r s . Max, "Heeds o f P a r e n t s o f M e n t a l l y R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n , " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , V o l . 63, No. 6, May, 1959, p . 1082. 3  Ibid.,  p.  1084.  - 91 As the interpreter of diagnostic findings, the s o c i a l worker w i l l need to "be aware of h i s own reactions and feelings to the t o t a l i t y of stress experienced by the family.  Does he have under-  l y i n g g u i l t and f r u s t r a t i o n about having to interpret the condition of the c h i l d to the parents?  Or does he f e e l angry that i t i s he  who has to inform parents of l i m i t a t i o n s and handicaps?  Being aware  of h i s own feelings and at the same time confident i n h i s profession a l p o s i t i o n and outlook, he w i l l be able to " i n d i v i d u a l i z e t h i s understanding".  With honesty and i n t e g r i t y he shares h i s strength  with the parents and helps them to accept, insofar as they are able, the findings of diagnostic c l i n i c .  He can encourage by giving rea-  son f o r hope based on a r e a l i s t i c prognosis of the child's potential for personal and s o c i a l development. Further Resources.  There are other resources that the so-  c i a l worker should use whenever f e a s i b l e .  I f parents are not mem-  bers of the l o c a l Association f o r Retarded Children, the s o c i a l worker should introduce them to t h i s group. problems with parents who  To be able to share t h e i r  themselves have retarded children, i s ex-  tremely encouraging, helps bolster t h e i r sense of self-worth, i s a s o c i a l outlet and makes available an avenue by which the parent can make h i s contribution to the general cause. Again, through consultation and cooperative service, Public Health Nurses may  be engaged to supplement casework services  by teaching and a s s i s t i n g i n nursing and other care techniques. the mother who  To  i s overwhelmed by the care of her mentally retarded  Kelman, H. R., "Some Problems i n Casework With Parents of Mentally Retarded Children," American Journal of Mental Deficiency, V o l . 61, No. 3, January, 1957, p. 596.  - 92 -  child,  i n addition  to other f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s ,  H e a l t h N u r s e c a n be After for  parents  child.  commitment o f t h e i r  of this  have w a i t e d their  limited. to  time  and  been r e s t r i c t e d .  Often they  personal  The  are w i l l i n g  their  responsibilities  to give generously  to  their  child  nostic,  child  terribly  of t h e i r  time  Children.  continued  and  policy  regarding  who  diagnostic services  A t p r e s e n t , p a r e n t s must make a p p l i c a t i o n t o h a v e admitted  But  c o u n s e l a t the tarded  caring  Services  to a p r o v i n c i a l  temporary admission  resources.  of  instances.  responsible f o r supplying s o c i a l  parents.  with  a c t i v i t i e s by p r o v i d i n g  T h e r e i s a n e e d f o r more d e f i n i t e be  se-  many o f whom  g r o u p s i n v o l v e d a s w e l l as  casework i n i n d i v i d u a l  their  contact  l o c a l A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Retarded  s e r v i c e s to the  Need f o r E x t e n d e d  will  for  emphasize  These p e r s o n s ,  s o c i a l worker can h e l p encourage these  consultative  can  that social  from  of  (and n i g h t l y ) p a r -  i d l e time  the f a c t  helpful  i n the cause  a r e v e r y much aware t h a t r e s o u r c e s a r e  serve through  The  i t i s sometimes  have been taken i n c a r i n g  desperately for r e l i e f  child  daily  responsibility  the c h i l d ,  community h a s  for  Much o f t h e i r  t h e m o t h e r s , may  p a r a t i o n from the  child  to have the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e r v i c e  Freed  Public  a most welcomed h e l p .  mental r e t a r d a t i o n . ticularly  the  a l l parents time  o f , and  i s born.  Our  or  i n s t i t u t i o n before i t s diag-  social  s e r v i c e s become p o s s i b l e  s h o u l d have the o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c e i v e on a c o n t i n u o u s s o c i e t y has  basis after,  the  n o t y e t d e c i d e d who  re-  will  - 93 -  be  responsible for this  tions are  cannot  too  service.  provide i t ,  great.  s i m p l y b e c a u s e t h e demands f o r  available  i n the  d u r e s h o u l d be w o r k e d out  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  community a g e n c i e s The  bours  Nor  will  suffice  problems.  ego  to a s s i s t  the  oriented  and  training  class  should  c l a s s as a t r a i n i n g  training cal  classes.  a b l e on  their  relatives,  seemingly to help  chores  living  of the  into  or  The  and  insurmountable  situation.  caseworker should  familiar  and  neigh-  (a)  practices  be  of  experienced  the  i n ways  interacting with mentally retarded  direct  utilization  of the  chil-  training  learning  by  h e l p i n t h e home o r community p l a y  Where t h i s  a travelling  approp-  them f a c e more  t h e methods and  facilitate  d i s t a n c e , an e x p e r t  and  De-  these f u n c t i o n s .  area f o r parents, r e i n f o r c i n g  and  proce-  children.  indicated  some g u i d a n c e  thoroughly  and means o f t e a c h i n g and  casework s e r v i c e  clearly  t o c a r r y out  p o i n t s emerge.  be  Some  casework p r o c e s s upon support  them o v e r  everyday  and  should  of parents w i t h r e t a r d e d c h i l d r e n i s not  indoctrinated  (b) he  communities.  extra help with friends,  H e r e two  d r e n and  s h o u l d be  appointed  They a l s o n e e d  successfully  local  of these handicapped  f o c u s s i n g of the  m o d i f i c a t i o n of the enough.  service  to provide f o r c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s co-  i n c i d e n t with the r e g i s t e r i n g  riate  institu-  I t w o u l d seem, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t p r o v i s i o n  be made e a s i l y  finitions  I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t the  i s not p o s s i b l e because of  t e a c h e r and  resources  a r e n o t now  available,  teachers,  e n c o u r a g e p a r e n t s , and  geographi-  s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d be  team t o spend n e c e s s a r y help  s e t up  facilitate  time the  and  avail-  i n c e n t r e s where same,  train  l i a i s o n with  the  -  central resource. liaison part.  Here the  activities  r e n t s are g r a t e f u l vior,  they are  they might be u s e d is  expect  T h i s boy  and  has  all  areas  not  indicate  has  the c h i l d ,  visited  case  the  s t u d i e d t h a n any that  and  closer  the  child's  too o f t e n ,  arranged.  a t The  cases.  opportunity  child  example G.  become so u p s e t  avoided,  A temporary  T h i s may  or  may  f a m i l y would  that  i f severe  emergency m e a s u r e s t o g r a n t a d m i s s i o n program which i s i n a limited  number  b e e n a b l e t o g i v e t o some p a r e n t s  would  to propose  that  t o have the  of service  i n the  o f improvement i n  between t e a c h e r and  w h i c h they have borne  This type  this  on r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s .  f o r a h o l i d a y , a much n e e d e d r e s t  a s many p a r e n t s as w i s h  This  mother o f  i n his activities  care r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  help.  The  Woodlands S c h o o l c a n be u s e d  seem r e a s o n a b l e  behavior.  learning.  families  T h i s s e r v i c e has  beha-  a c t u a l methods w h i c h might  classroom  liaison  pa-  t h e y c a n help, what  o f the o t h e r c h i l d r e n .  p e r m a n e n t damage i s t o be  r e l i e f must be  to r e - e n f o r c e -  i t i s , though  shown a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r l e v e l  Par  of  from  b o r n e o u t by  facilitate  operating  As  important  f o r g e n e r a l improvement i n t h e c h i l d ' s  shown a g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r e s t  schoolroom  and  i n t h e home.  i n t h e home t o e n c o u r a g e i m p r o v e d  has  help  p a r e n t s would l e a d  somewhat a t a l o s s a s t o how  particularly  boy  s o c i a l worker c o u l d p l a y an  B e t t e r informed  ment o f c l a s s r o o m  -  94  granted f o r d i a g n o s t i c  c o u r s e , an  extension of r e s i d e n t i a l  the  demanding  o v e r many months.  s t e p s be now  taken to  opportunity to receive  s h o u l d be  admissions  after  o v e r and  purposes.  the  above  permit such  temporary  I t w o u l d mean, o f  facilities,  It  preferably i n  -  decentralized  areas of the  Poster  -  95  province.  home programmes, other  when t h e r e  a l s o be  g r a d u a l l y more e x t e n s i v e l y u s e d t o r e i n t r o d u c e  residing i n institutions  help  to the  s u c h programmes r e l i a b l e ,  extended  quired.  not  the  Another resource  t r a i n e d homemaker.  to a s s i s t  The  t h e m o t h e r meet n o t  and  other  children.  t r a i n e d so  criticisms  and  skill  to accept against  anxiety-ridden  i n working with  needs, which the  family  demands she  needs  selected  may  handling  tensions.  and well of  not house-  Experience  a s o c i a l worker, i n c l u d i n g an  of course,  rather  see  should  be  t o use  t h a n s t o p - g a p manner.  on  As  i n c r e a s e , more and  early planning  t i m e when, as w i l l  retarded  to  parents,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , c a n make h e r  aim,  placed  Parents w i l l help  effectively  a major  ability defence  home b r e a k d o w n .  n e e d t o be  tely  the  re-  enough, i s  time, but  to withstand  a l s o towards e a s i n g  use  used  c o n t r i b u t i o n toward the  of mental retardates  the  amount o f h e r  and  and  be  the r e t a r d a t e " s  of t i r e d  preventative  for  only  i s able  but  However, t o make  used e x t e n s i v e l y  she  The  rents  yet  may  retardates  s u p e r v i s i o n s e r v i c e s are  that  tasks,  for  service  I f t h e homemaker i s c a r e f u l l y  o n l y make a s i g n i f i c a n t hold  as  This  community.  homemaker c o u l d  o f t e n take a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e of the  available.  relief  parents  now  i s no  sometimes p r o v i d e  probably  and be  a l l resources s e r v i c e s to the more e m p h a s i s  preparation the  the  opportunity  be  to v e n t i l a t e t h e i r  n e e d s o f a l l members o f t h e  o f the  pa-  will parents  c a s e w i t h most m o d e r a -  children, institutionalization w i l l need the  in a  required. feelings  family i n clear  and  - 96 perspective.  Assistance  i n accepting  i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n but a l s o involved  w i l l n e e d t o be  Possible  Research  given.  Projects questions  This  extended casework s e r v i c e s . children.  are  only  now o f t e n  supplied  to b o l s t e r family with f a i l u r e .  abilities  As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y ,  that  Continued  t h e end o f t h i s  have n o t r e c e i v e d  period regular  services  and when a t t e m p t s  an e x p e r i m e n t a l group o f f a m i -  f o r s t u d y on t h e b a s i s  child.  of this  t o cope w i t h t h e i r p r o b l e m s a r e f r a u g h t  that  t h e y have a new  casework s e r v i c e s c o u l d  these f a m i l i e s f o r the f i r s t at  through  study has emphasized t h e need  o n a n emergency b a s i s  I t i s suggested  be s e l e c t e d  retarded  be f o l l o w e d  Some may d o u b t t h e v a l u e  to parents o f retarded  lies  could  f o r a l l concerned.  Casework S e r v i c e s . for  i n e v i t a b i l i t y of  o f t h e advantages and p o s s i b i l i t i e s  A number o f r e s e a r c h with p r o f i t  not only  s i xto eight years.  could  born  be s u p p l i e d t o Family  assessment  be compared t o s i m i l a r f a m i l i e s who  casework  help.  F a m i l y P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n T r a i n i n g Programmes f o r t h e Moderately Retarded.  I n t h e s t u d y i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t  only  three  o f t e n f a m i l i e s have a c t u a l l y v i s i t e d  the s p e c i a l classroom o f  their retarded  question  also  observed  child. that  The u n a n s w e r e d  i s , "Why?"  one b o y i n t h e sample g r o u p p r o g r e s s e d  t w i c e a s much a s o t h e r s ,  and t h a t  the  classroom.  are  the e f f e c t s o f parental  this  A second unanswered  I t was almost  boy's mother r e g u l a r l y  question  thus a r i s e s :  visits  "What  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the c h i l d ' s s p e c i a l  - 97 -  classroom a c t i v i t i e s The  Special Training  a more e x t e n s i v e  study using  moderately retarded in  a substantiated  training turn  The  Class.  study,  c o n t r o l and e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s o f  children,  s h o u l d be c o n d u c t e d  on the c h i l d ' s s o c i a l  influences  J u d g i n g from t h i s  to determine  manner t h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f c o m p e t e n c e , and w h e t h e r t h i s i n  parental acceptability.  Challenge Specific  of  on h i s o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s ? "  specific  research  services.  projects  should  lead  The unmet s p e c i a l and common human n e e d s o f  mental d e f e c t i v e s  and t h e i r f a m i l i e s c h a l l e n g e  This  claim  issue  should  to the p r o v i s i o n  thoughtful  precedence f o r extended  social  services  o v e r many community p r o b l e m s b e c a u s e o f t h e e x c r u c i a t i n g and  physical It  population  s u f f e r i n g o f t h e human b e i n g s has been estimated  i s mentally retarded.  gory o f ' b o r d e r l i n e ' and  the e r r a t i c  that  Many more w i l l  behaviour of retardates  mental  involved.  about three  o r ' d u l l normal'.  people.  percent o f the f i t i n t o the cate-  The m u l t i p l y i n g  care  demands  cause s t r e s s which too o f t e n  becomes u n b e a r a b l e t o p a r e n t s and r e s u l t s i n o v e r a l l f a m i l y  emotio-  n a l and p h y s i c a l d e t e r i o r a t i o n .  ener-  vated,  exasperated.  M o t h e r s and f a t h e r s  Formerly c o n t r o l l e d areas o f m a r i t a l  ment o r i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y b r e a k down.  emotionally  The  retardate,  disagree-  Normal s i b l i n g s a r e caught i n  a mesh b e t w e e n t h e p a r e n t s and t h e r e t a r d a t e fer  become  (or retardates),  suf-  and c o n s e q u e n t l y i n a l l t h e i r s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . h a v i n g l e s s and l e s s o f h i s e m o t i o n a l n e e d  satisfied  - 98 -  reacts by behaving i n a more and more negative manner.  A relati-  vely normal family exposed without adequate guidance to the of a retardate may  become a multi-problem family.  There i s l i t t l e resource are peripheral.  care  for help.  S o c i a l services  I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s possible for emergency  cases only, cases when home care i s completely out of hand.  And  i n many instances, i n spite of emergency conditions, admission cannot be granted.  School opportunities for the educable r e t a r -  date are increasing, but resources gible.  Day  f o r the trainable are n e g l i -  care centers f o r the more severely retarded are prac-  t i c a l l y non-existent.  Although the Association for Retarded  Children of B r i t i s h Columbia i s active and doing a credible public r e l a t i o n s job i n communities, there i s much need f o r community education.  Professional persons, including physicians, nurses,  teachers and clergy on the whole are poorly equipped to give understanding guidance. I t has been shown by t h i s and other studies that something can be done f o r retarded children and t h e i r f a m i l i e s . now  being made.  that forces may  Inroads are  I t i s up "to those interested to i n t e r e s t others continue to be joined together i n greater e f f o r t s  to help a large and needy segment of our  population.  - 99 APPENDIX "A" SAMPLE OP LETTER TO PARENTS  Vancouver, B. C., March, 1962.  Mr. and Mrs. John Doe  Dear Mr. and Mrs. Doe: As a student of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, on leave of absence from the S o c i a l Service Department of The Woodlands School, I am examining the s e l f - help and s o c i a l progress of several children i n residence at The Woodlands School. Each child's family i s being asked to help by giving i t s impression. I hope to include your son i n t h i s study so would very much appreciate your p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A l l names w i l l be kept anonymous. Within a few days I w i l l telephone to ask i f I may v i s i t you i n your home. I f you approve we w i l l arrange t h i s to suit your convenience. About two hours time w i l l be involved. Many thanks f o r your favourable consideration of t h i s request. Yours sincerely,  - 100 APPENDIX "B" SOCIAL COMPETENCY SCALE (Retarded C h i l d r e n ) I.  Self-Help  la.  Personal  Undressing A.  Cannot undress  self.  B.  Takes o f f most c l o t h i n g but cannot unbutton o r u n z i p .  C.  Takes o f f most c l o t h i n g and can unbutton and u n z i p .  D.  Completely undresses  self.  Removing Outer C l o t h i n g A.  Cannot take o f f o u t e r c l o t h i n g .  B.  Can take o f f o u t e r c l o t h i n g such as coats and j a c k e t s .  C.  Can take o f f o u t e r c l o t h i n g such as s h i r t s , sweaters, b l o u s e s , shoes, e t c .  D.  Can remove a l l o u t e r c l o t h i n g , i n c l u d i n g undoing buttons, b e l t s , e t c .  pull-over back  Dressing A.  Cannot put on any c l o t h i n g ,  B.  U s u a l l y someone e l s e must p a r t l y redo and complete the job (e.g., b u t t o n c o r r e c t l y , put shoes on proper f e e t ) .  C.  A d u l t must check job and f r e q u e n t l y a d j u s t  D.  Job must be checked by someone e l s e and n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t ments made by the c h i l d .  E.  Dresses s e l f adequately without h a v i n g t o be checked.  clothing.  P u t t i n g on Shoes A.  Cannot put on shoes.  B.  Can put on shoes and p u l l l a c e s  C.  Can put on shoes and make f i r s t p a r t o f the knot.  D.  Can p u t on shoes and t i e bow.  tight.  - 101 5.  6.  7.  8.  9.  Care of Shoes A.  Cannot wipe shoes.  B.  Can wipe shoes but cannot brush or p o l i s h .  C.  Can wipe and brush shoes but cannot p o l i s h .  D.  Can clean, brush and p o l i s h shoes.  Washing (hands and Pace) A.  Although the c h i l d goes through the motions of washing hands and face, they must be redone by someone else.  B.  A f t e r washing hands and face they must be p a r t i a l l y redone by someone else.  C.  Usually washes hands and face so that they do not need redoing, but c h i l d needs to be checked each time.  D.  Can wash hands and face without having to be checked.  Care of Fingernails A.  Cannot clean or f i l e f i n g e r n a i l s .  B.  Can clean n a i l s with better hand but needs help with other hand.  C.  Can clean n a i l s on both hands.  D.  Can clean and f i l e n a i l s on both hands.  Combing or Brushing Hair A.  W i l l not attempt to comb or brush h a i r .  B.  Combs or brushes h a i r but i t must be redone by someone else.  C.  Combs or brushes h a i r so i t does not need redoing but needs to be rechecked each time.  D.  Combs or brushes h a i r without help or having to be checked.  Brushing Teeth A.  Cannot hold toothbrush.  B.  Can hold toothbrush but cannot brush teeth.  C.  Can hold brush, makes brushing motions, but does not brush properly. Cannot apply paste.  D.  Can hold brush, apply paste and get to mouth, but must be aided with actual brushing.  - 102 E. 10.  Can brush teeth unaided.  Blowing Nose A.  Cannot blow nose.  B.  Can blow nose but usually needs wiping.  C.  Can blow nose but sometimes needs wiping.  D.  Can blow nose, including wiping.. Ib.  11.  12.  13.  -  Things  Eating A.  Cannot feed  self.  B.  Can hold u t e n s i l s but can use only spoon i n feeding  C.  Successfully uses a spoon but sometimes s p i l l s with a fork.  D.  Feeds s e l f with a fork and spoon without s p i l l i n g .  E.  Can use spoon and fork and cut with knife i n eating.  Use  of Knife  A.  Cannot hold k n i f e .  B.  Can hold knife but cannot use.  C.  Can spread butter or jam with k n i f e .  D.  Can cut soft food such as sausage, hamburger p a t t i e s , french toast.  E.  Can cut up meat i f trimmed and removed from bone.  self.  Serving Food A.  Cannot carry food without s p i l l i n g .  B.  Can carry only s o l i d foods without s p i l l i n g .  C.  Can carry semi-solid foods without s p i l l i n g .  D.  Can carry a pitcher or glass of l i q u i d without s p i l l i n g .  E.  Can carry and pour l i q u i d s without s p i l l i n g (e.g., milk, juice, coffee).  - 103 14.  15.  16.  17.  18.  Passing Pood A.  Cannot pass food.  B.  Can pass bowls with s o l i d food only.  C.  Can pass plates with s o l i d food only.  D.  Can pass bowls with l i q u i d or semi-liquid food.  E.  Can pass a l l items, including p l a t t e r s and trays with food on them.  Clearing Table A.  Cannot clear table of unbreakable dishes.  B.  Can clear table of unbreakable dishes and silverware but cannot scrape dishes and stack.  C.  Can clear table of breakable dishes, glassware and ware, but cannot scrape dishes and stack.  D.  Can clear table, scrape and stack breakable dishes f o r washing.  silver-  Cleaning Up (Liquids) A.  When cleaning up s p i l l e d l i q u i d s he smears over larger area, making a bigger mess.  B.  Blots up some l i q u i d , but job must be completed by someone else.  C.  Blots up l i q u i d but area requires f i n i s h i n g touches by someone else.  D.  Cleans up l i q u i d and does not require someone to f i n i s h job.  Cleaning Dishes A.  Cannot stack or scrape dishes.  B.  Can stack dishes but cannot scrape.  C.  Can stack and scrape but cannot wash dishes.  D.  Can wash and dry dishes.  Opening Door A.  Cannot open door.  B.  Cannot open door r e q u i r i n g turning knob, but can push door open.  - 104 -  19.  20.  21.  C.  Can open door when knob turning i s required.  D.  Can open or lock door with key.  Sweeping A.  Cannot sweep f l o o r .  B.  Can sweep f l o o r where there are no obstructions: to pick up d i r t i n dustpan.  C.  Can sweep under desks or tables but cannot pick up d i r t i n dustpan.  D.  Can sweep under desks or tables and can pick up d i r t i n dustpan.  unable  Making Bed A.  Cannot make or undo bed.  B.  Can undo but cannot make bed.  C.  Can spread sheets and blankets on bed, but cannot tuck or put pillow i n case.  D.  Can completely make bed, including tucking and putting pillow i n case.  Folding  Articles  A.  Cannot f o l d any laundry items.  B.  Can f o l d washcloths, towels and pillow cases with help.  C.  Can f o l d washcloths, towels and pillow cases without help.  D.  Can f o l d washcloths, towels and pillow cases without help, and sheets, blankets and bedspreads with help.  E.  Can f o l d a l l of above items without help.  - 105  II. Ila.  -  Growth and Maturity I n i t i a t i v e Responsibility  Washing Hands and Face A.  Does not wash hands and face without being t o l d .  B.  Sometimes washes hands and face without being t o l d .  C.  Usually washes hands and face without being t o l d .  D.  Nearly always washes hands and face without being t o l d .  Brushing Teeth A.  Brushes teeth only when directed to do so.  B.  Sometimes brushes teeth without having to be t o l d .  C.  Usually brushes teeth without having to be t o l d .  D.  Nearly always brushes teeth without having to be t o l d .  Hanging Up Olothes A.  Does not hang up clothes without being t o l d .  B.  Sometimes hangs up clothes without being t o l d .  C.  Usually hangs up clothes without being t o l d .  D.  Nearly always hangs up clothes without being t o l d .  Toileting A.  Does not wipe s e l f .  B.  Sometimes wipes s e l f .  C.  Usually wipes s e l f .  D.  Nearly always wipes s e l f .  Table Setting A.  Does not place s i l v e r , plates, cups, e t c . on table.  B.  Simply places s i l v e r , plates, cups, etc. on table.  C.  Simply places items around table, not necessarily where they belong.  D.  Places plates, glasses, and u t e n s i l s i n positions he has learned.  E.  Places a l l eating u t e n s i l s , napkins, s a l t , pepper, sugar, etc. i n positions he has learned.  - 106 6.  7.  8.  Cleaning Up Mess A.  Does not take i n i t i a t i v e i n cleaning up own mess.  B.  Sometimes takes i n i t i a t i v e i n cleaning up own mess.  C.  Frequently takes i n i t i a t i v e i n cleaning up own mess.  D.  Nearly always takes i n i t i a t i v e i n cleaning up own mess.  Playing With Others A.  Does not i n i t i a t e play with others.  B.  Occasionally i n i t i a t e s play with others.  C.  Frequently i n i t i a t e s play with others.  D.  Nearly always i n i t i a t e s play with others.  I n i t i a t i n g Tasks When given the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a task (e.g.: table setting, washing dishes, cleaning room), he:  9.  A.  Does not i n i t i a t e task.  B.  Seldom i n i t i a t e s task.  C.  Sometimes i n i t i a t e s task.  D.  Usually i n i t i a t e s task.  E.  Nearly always i n i t i a t e s task.  Offering Assistance A.  Does not o f f e r assistance to others.  B.  Sometimes offers assistance to others.  C.  Frequently offers assistance to others.  D.  Nearly always offers assistance to others. lib.  1.  Social S k i l l s  T e l l i n g Time A.  Cannot t e l l time...  B.  Can t e l l time to nearest hour.  C.  Can t e l l time to nearest •§ hour.  D.  Can t e l l time to nearest quarter hour.  E.  Can t e l l time to nearest f i v e minutes.  - 107 2.  Sharing When other children wish to share h i s favorite toy, he:  3.  4.  5.  A.  Watches passively or c r i e s .  B.  Protests.  C.  Shares i f both play together with the toy, but otherwise does not share.  D.  Shares, sometimes giving permission f o r others to play separately with the toy.  E.  Shares, frequently giving permission f o r others to play separately with the toy.  Playing With Others A.  Usually plays by s e l f .  B.  Plays with others but l i m i t s play to one or two children.  C.  Occasionally plays with a larger group (three or more children).  D.  Usually plays with a larger group (three or more c h i l d r e n ) .  Pare of S e l f A.  Adult must be with or near c h i l d at a l l times.  B.  Child can be l e f t alone i n h i s own room with adult i n the house.  C.  Child can be l e f t i n the house but adult must be close by (e.g.: i n the yard).  D.  Child can be l e f t alone i n the house while adult v i s i t s neighbor or goes to the store (short period, 20 - 30 minutes).  Telephone A.  Cannot answer telephone.  B.  Answers telephone, but unable to take message and/or c a l l appropriate person.  C.  Answers telephone, c a l l s appropriate person. message.  D.  Answers telephone, c a l l s appropriate person and takes message.  Cannot take  - 108 6.  7.  8.  9.  Going on Errands A.  Cannot be sent on errands to other people.  B.  Can be sent on errands with note to other people.  C.  Can be sent on errands without note i f only one object i s desired.  D.  Can be sent on errands without note i f not more than two objects are desired.  Traffic  Signs  A.  Doesn't understand any t r a f f i c signals or signs.  B.  Understands a few t r a f f i c signs which do not require reading.  C.  Understands most t r a f f i c signs which do not require reading.  D.  Understands a few t r a f f i c signs which require reading.  E.  Understands many t r a f f i c signs which require reading.  Answering Door A.  When door b e l l rings or there i s a knock, c h i l d answer door.  does not  B.  Answers door b e l l or knock, does not take message, does not c a l l appropriate person.  C.  Answers door and c a l l s appropriate person, but does not take messages.  D.  Answers door, c a l l s appropriate person, and, when required, relays simple message such as, "Mr. A was here."  Behavior i n Public A.  Cannot be taken to public places because he c r i e s , becomes r e s t l e s s , or frightened, e t c .  B.  Can be taken to public places but must be held by the hand or given constant reassurance.  C.  Can be taken to public places but sometimes requires reassurance.  D.  Can be taken to public places and seldom, i f ever, requires reassurance.  - 109 10.  Attending Tasks A.  Pays attention to task i f time does not exceed f i v e minutes.  B.  Pays attention to task i f time does not exceed ten minutes.  C.  Pays attention to task i f time does not exceed 15 minutes.  D.  Pays attention to task i f time does not exceed 20 minutes.  E.  Pays attention to task even i f time exceeds 20 minutes. lie.  1.  2.  Communication  Delivering Messages A.  Cannot deliver messages by gesture or other means.  B.  Can d e l i v e r a simple message by gesture only (one thought or a c t i o n ) .  C.  Can d e l i v e r a simple message v e r b a l l y .  D.  Can d e l i v e r a more complex message v e r b a l l y (more than one thought or a c t i o n ) .  Answering Questions When asked a question, he:  3.  A.  Does not respond.  B.  Responds by nodding, pointing, or other gesture.  C.  Responds by combination of gesture and speech, but o r a l response i s l i m i t e d (e.g.: yes, no, e t c . ) .  D.  Verbally answers question with complete sentence.  Relating Objects to Action A.  Cannot name objects i n pictures or story books.  B.  Canname objects and people i n pictures but cannot indicate actions.  C.  Can r e l a t e object to action but unable to connect actions into a story.  D.  Can connect actions i n a picture to t e l l a story.  - 110 -  4.  5.  6.  7.  8.  Use of Language A.  Says no words - gestures only.  B.  Says a few s p e c i f i c words (e.g.:  C.  Speaks i n complete sentences (e.g.: "I want the toy," e t c . ) .  D.  Speaks i n more complex sentences, connecting a number of actions or statements.  water, mother, f a t h e r ) . "I want a drink,"  Spontaneous Speech A.  Rarely speaks spontaneously i n group situation, even when question i s directed to him.  B.  Responds i n group s i t u a t i o n only i f question or command i s directed to him.  C.  Sometimes speaks spontaneously i n a group s i t u a t i o n .  D.  Usually speaks spontaneously i n a group s i t u a t i o n .  Following Instructions A.  Cannot follow f a m i l i a r i n s t r u c t i o n s .  B.  Can carry out one f a m i l i a r i n s t r u c t i o n .  C.  Can follow new instructions given one at a time, as well as f a m i l i a r ones.  D.  Can follow several new instructions given at the same time, as w e l l as f a m i l i a r ones.  Speaking to Adults A.  Does not speak to adult f r i e n d s or adult v i s i t o r s .  B.  Speaks only to close friends of family.  C.  Speaks to adult v i s i t o r s i f he has met them before.  D.  Speaks to most adult v i s i t o r s , even i f he has not met them before.  Going Places When he wishes to go someplace: A.  Indicates by gesture only.  B.  Indicates by using simple words (e.g.:  "zoo", "store").  - I l l-  9.  10.  0.  I n d i c a t e s "by u s i n g s h o r t phrases (e.g.: zoo").  D.  I n d i c a t e s by u s i n g complete  "go s t o r e , " "go  sentences.  P l a y i n g With Others A.  Does n o t ask t o p l a y w i t h other  children.  B.  I n d i c a t e s by gesture h i s d e s i r e t o p l a y w i t h o t h e r c h i l d r e n but does n o t name people o r a c t i v i t y .  C.  S t a t e s h i s d e s i r e t o p l a y w i t h other c h i l d r e n but does n o t name people or a c t i v i t y (e.g.: " I want t o p l a y " ) .  D.  S t a t e s h i s d e s i r e t o p l a y w i t h o t h e r s , naming people and/or a c t i v i t y (e.g.: " I want t o p l a y b a l l w i t h John," o r " I want t o jump rope w i t h Mary").  Communicating Unhappiness When unhappy, he*  11.  A.  C r i e s o r runs away without unhappiness.  e x p l a i n i n g reason f o r h i s  B.  K i c k s or screams a t o f f e n d i n g o b j e c t .  C.  Seeks h e l p by c r y i n g and s e a r c h i n g out an a d u l t , but i s unable t o e x p l a i n h i s unhappiness.  D.  Expresses h i s f e e l i n g and the cause o f h i s unhappiness.  Answering Door A.  Does n o t gesture  o r speak, j u s t stands  there.  B.  I n d i c a t e s t h a t someone i s a t door by gesture  C.  I n d i c a t e s t h a t someone i s a t door by gesture and l i m i t e d speech, (e.g.: "Man h e r e " ) .  D.  I n d i c a t e s t h a t someone i s a t door by u s i n g complete sentence.  only.  - 112 APPENDIX "0" PARENT ACCEPTABILITY SCALE  1.  2.  3.  4.  How much time might the parents spend p l a y i n g w i t h o r t e a c h i n g their child? A.  None. Could not t o l e r a t e the simple l e v e l o f the c h i l d ' s a c t i v i t y and would be too occupied w i t h more important things.  B.  Very l i t t l e time. Only when urged by the other parent o r to escape the c o n t i n u a l r e q u e s t s o f the c h i l d .  C.  A f a i r amount o f time. L i t t l e d e s i r e , but would p l a y w i t h or t e a c h the c h i l d out o f a sense o f duty.  D.  Quite a l o t . Would enjoy p l a y i n g w i t h or t e a c h i n g the c h i l d and make time a v a i l a b l e .  When the c h i l d hugs or k i s s e s h i s parents they mightt A.  Be r e p u l s e d and unable t o r e t u r n a show o f a f f e c t i o n .  B.  On very r a r e o c c a s i o n s r e t u r n the hugs or k i s s e s .  C.  Quite o f t e n accept the c h i l d ' s a f f e c t i o n and r e t u r n i t i f others are not present.  D.  Warmly accept and on most o c c a s i o n s r e t u r n the hugs or kisses.  Would parents hug or k i s s t h e i r c h i l d b e f o r e he d i d t h i s t o them? A.  Never.  Would be too d i f f i c u l t .  B.  On v e r y r a r e o c c a s i o n s to a s l i g h t  C.  Sometimes when o t h e r s not around.  D.  O f t e n . Would f e e l l i k e hugging do i t .  degree.  or k i s s i n g the c h i l d , so  When p a r e n t s compare t h e i r c h i l d t o normal c h i l d r e n , they may feel: A.  B i t t e r , the v i c t i m s o f i n j u s t i c e .  B.  Very h u r t , can expect l i t t l e child.  C.  Mixed f e e l i n g s . Sometimes enjoy t h e i r c h i l d but have d i f f i c u l t y f e e l i n g any sense o f p r i d e as p a r e n t s .  D.  Quite happy. Would be a f f e c t e d more by what the c h i l d can do than by what he cannot do.  but p a i n and sorrow from  their  - 113 5.  6.  7«  8.  When "in-laws" v i s i t , parents would f e e l : A.  Extremely apologetic, unworthy and ashamed.  B.  Very apologetic, unworthy and ashamed.  C.  Somewhat apologetic and ashamed.  D.  Relaxed. Accepting of parenthood without apology or need f o r apology.  When friends or neighbours c a l l at t h e i r home, parents may: A.  Be extremely ashamed and make sure the c h i l d i s confined to another part of the house.  B.  Be very ashamed and attempt to direct attention av/ay from the c h i l d .  C.  Be somewhat ashamed. apologize f o r him.  D.  Acknowledge and introduce the c h i l d without any sense of shame.  Would introduce the c h i l d and  I f strangers v i s i t t h e i r home, the parents may well be: A.  Extremely embarrassed and make sure the c h i l d i s confined to another part of the house.  B.  Very embarrassed and t r y to direct attention away from the child.  C.  Somewhat embarrassed and when introducing the c h i l d , apologize f o r him.  D.  Relaxed and introduce the c h i l d without any sense of embarra s sm ent.  After a c h i l d i s admitted to an i n s t i t u t i o n (permanently), what might parents think best both f o r the c h i l d and f o r the r e s t of h i s family? A.  To forget about the c h i l d .  B.  To occasionally send g i f t s but never have any personal contact with the c h i l d .  C.  To often send g i f t s , occasionally speak to s t a f f members about the child's progress and sometimes v i s i t the c h i l d i n the i n s t i t u t i o n .  D.  Send g i f t s at appropriate times. Often speak to and c l o s e l y cooperate with those who care f o r the c h i l d . Have regular v i s i t s with the c h i l d both i n the i n s t i t u t i o n and at home.  - 114 9.  10.  11.  12.  What might parents be expected to do when their c h i l d To do something f o r himself7  attempts  A.  Stop him because he only makes things worse.  B.  Allow a few extremely simple things. However, watch c l o s e l y and prevent from trying more.  C.  Allow some reasonably demanding things, watching i n s t r u c t i n g the c h i l d at a l l times.  D.  Encourage the c h i l d to do what he can by himself, being ready to help i f there i s a request.  and  I f the c h i l d shows improvement i n a b i l i t y to do things or i n 'Behaviour, the parents might! A.  Expect no change and so ignore the c h i l d * s self-endeavours.  B.  On rare occasions be able to see change and give the c h i l d praise.  C.  Notice very obvious change and praise the c h i l d .  D.  Watch f o r and often see the slightest immediate praise on each occasion.  change and give  When the c h i l d f a i l s to accomplish a task, h i s parent  may:  A.  Have no patience or tolerance f o r f a i l u r e , so stop the c h i l d from again attempting the task.  B.  Have very l i t t l e patience and warn the c h i l d not to t r y again.  C.  Be somewhat patient and sometimes encourage the c h i l d to try again i f the task i s within h i s l i m i t s .  D.  Help the c h i l d accept h i s f a i l u r e without undue feelings of i n f e r i o r i t y and d e f i n i t e l y encourage the c h i l d to t r y again i f the task i s within h i s l i m i t s .  Would parents consider taking their c h i l d to public places such as supermarkets? A.  Never.  Amongst other things i t would be too  embarrassing.  B.  Only on exceptional occasions. The slightest i n t e r e s t expressed by others would be very embarrassing.  C.  Once i n a while.  D.  Often.  I t would be somewhat embarrassing.  I t would not l i k e l y be  embarrassing.  - 115 15.  14.  15.  When neighbours meet the c h i l d on the street, they may: A.  Treat him as being repulsive and completely avoid except to command c h i l d to stay o f f t h e i r premises.  B.  Be very cautious and view the c h i l d as a threat to person, property and the general well being of the community.  C.  Somewhat aloof. Talk to the c h i l d i n passing, but not encourage further contact.  D.  Accept him with warmth. Talk to i n a f r i e n d l y way and sometimes i n v i t e him to v i s i t t h e i r home.  What might the brothers or s i s t e r s do i f the c h i l d wants to play with them and t h e i r friends? A.  Refuse to allow to j o i n the group or to watch a c t i v i t i e s from close by.  B.  Not l e t the c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e i n any of the group's a c t i v i t i e s but allow to watch from the s i d e - l i n e s .  C.  Begrudgingly accept the c h i l d and allow minor p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  D.  Accept into t h e i r group and encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n whenever he i s able.  How do you think brothers or s i s t e r s would f e e l about bringing t h e i r friends home? A.  Too ashamed to bring t h e i r friends home.  B.  Very ashamed though would bring friends home on rare occasions. Would avoid questions about the c h i l d .  0.  Somewhat ashamed though would often bring t h e i r friends home. Would give non-specific answers to questions about the c h i l d .  D.  Quite relaxed, would e a s i l y accept the c h i l d i n the presence of t h e i r friends and acknowledge questions about h i s handicap with s p e c i f i c answers.  -  116  -  A g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n f o r i n c l u s i o n a f t e r the A c c e p t a b i l i t y S c a l e has been completed:  How might parents r a t e the v a l u e o f s p e c i a l e d u c a t i o n f o r the t r a i n a b l e c h i l d ? A.  As o f l i t t l e  consequence.  B.  I t h e l p s e n t e r t a i n the c h i l d but does n o t a s s i s t him t o grow up.  C.  I t h e l p s the c h i l d be more independent (do c e r t a i n t h i n g s f o r h i m s e l f ) , but i t does not a f f e c t the way he gets along with others.  D.  I t d e f i n i t e l y h e l p s him t o do more t h i n g s f o r h i m s e l f and prepares the c h i l d f o r more a c c e p t a b l e s o c i a l participation.  Family i n f o r m a t i o n  —(  AGE  SEX  EDUCATION _ j MOTHER FATHER :  TYPE OP EMPLOYMENT  ANNUAL INCOME  - 117 APPENDIX "D" CATALOGUE OF CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES "PLAY TO LEARN"  A.  Prayer Each class begins i t s session with prayer - the teacher leads, the group repeats after him to t h e i r a b i l i t y :  "Dear God,  please help me to play with a l l my friends i n a happy way. Amen." B.  Roll Call Each c h i l d stands when h i s name i s c a l l e d I f he speaks, he says, "Here, S i r . " I f he does not speak, he r a i s e s h i s r i g h t arm.  C.  Dramatic Play A c t i v i t i e s 1.  Trips.  "Let's go to the farm" or "Let's go to the zoo" or "Let's go for a holiday" - on t r a i n , ship or airplane. a) Equipment: i . Regular bus stop sign. i i . Umbrella, iii.  golf clubs, tennis rackets, e t c .  Bus driver's seat, steering wheel, fee box, and change plate, bus driver's cap, lunch box.  i v . 35 mm s l i d e projector and daylight screen, slides of general countryside, farm, sights at the farm. v. Tape recorder and tape containing sounds of bus' engine starting and running, travelogue music, sounds at the farm including t r a i n s , aeroplanes, cars, tractors, farm animals, and so on. v i . Large colour picture of farm - farm buildings, animals, machinery, background with cars, t r a i n , aeroplane, e t c .  -  118  -  b) Action: i. ii. iii.  iv.  One c h i l d occupies bus driver's seat. the tour.  He w i l l conduct  Children l i n e up at bus stop. They carry umbrella, g o l f clubs, etc., as adults i n community carry parcels. They enter bus i n single f i l e . Bus driver says, "Good morning - put money i n box". Child answers, "Good morning", puts money i n box. Child takes his seat. Tape recorder i s turned on. Children hear sound of bus engine s t a r t i n g and driver "drives" o f f turning steering wheel.  v. Room l i g h t s are dimmed. Projector i s turned on. As each picture i s shown, tour conductor says, "This i s a road, lake, t r a i n , airplane, dog, horse, etc." and a f t e r each statement the whole class repeats, shouting "road", "lake", " t r a i n " , and so on. v i . At d i f f e r e n t stops a new driver comes on duty (as i n r e a l l i f e ) and over a period of several days, each c h i l d has a chance to conduct the tour. v i i . The teacher gives i n s t r u c t i o n s : "Show me a big horse, a l i t t l e horse, a flower ( t e l l i n g colour), parts of an object" - e.g. as doors, windows, roof are part of a house, and so on. v i i i . After the t r i p i s a review. The l i g h t s are turned on. A large picture of farm i s located at front. The tape recorder i s turned to various sounds and d i f f e r e n t c h i l dren are asked to point out from a l l the objects the animal or other objects making the sound. i x . A s i m i l a r process i s followed when the class " v i s i t s " zoo, park, holiday t r i p s and so on.  the  x. When possible, actual outdoor v i s i t s to these places are made. c) ,Aims: To duplicate r e a l l i f e community experiences as closely as possible and thereby to f a c i l i t a t e , respect f o r property; p o l i t e manners; routine expected behaviour; speech practice and memorization of new words; sounds and connecting these; learning colours; learning objects and animals; learning concepts as big, small; counting, and so on. Each boy gets recognition as a person and f o r  -  119 -  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t , b o t h f r o m s c h o o l t e a c h e r and f e l l o w c l a s s members. A l o n g w i t h t h i s i s the t h r i l l of p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n g r o u p d r a m a t i c p l a y , and so t h e l e s s o n t h a t l i f e can have enjoyment. 2.  Delivering Letters. a)  Equipment:  i.  Postman's  i i . i i i .  Carrying  hat. bag.  Letters with  p i c t u r e s o f members o f c l a s s  attached.  b)  Action:  i.  A boy w i t h postman's h a t , and c a r r y i n g postman's bag c o n t a i n i n g l e t t e r s s t a n d s o u t s i d e o f t h e room and k n o c k s . He i s t o l d t o e n t e r . He s a y s , "Good m o r n i n g " . Class a n s w e r s , "Good m o r n i n g , S i r " .  ii.  The p o s t m a n l o o k s a t t h e p i c t u r e . I f he c a n speak, he c a l l s t h e b o y ' s name, s a y i n g , "Mr. Brown," e t c . , and delivers letter. I f he c a n n o t s p e a k , he j u s t d e l i v e r s letter. E a c h boy r e c e i v i n g s a y s , "Thank you, S i r . "  c) Aims: H e r e t h e b o y s l e a r n t o r e c o g n i z e o t h e r s and s e l f by pictures. A l s o , they p r a c t i c e e t i q u e t t e , l e a r n i n g to s a y MISTER when s p e a k i n g t o a man. 3.  Mailing  Letters.  a)  Equipment:  i.  Actual mail  i i .  box.  Letters.  b)  Action:  i.  The m a i l box i s moved t o d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e room on d i f f e r e n t days. The b o y s f i n d and p o s t l e t t e r s . The teacher o f t e n takes c l a s s to post i n s t i t u t i o n a l l e t t e r s .  i i .  The b o y s , when s u p e r v i s e d , p i c k up l e t t e r s a t t h e c e n t r a l o f f i c e and p u t them i n t h e r e g u l a r m a i l box. On t h i s t r i p , t h e y p r a c t i c e e t i q u e t t e by s a y i n g , "Good m o r n i n g " , (good a f t e r n o o n ) , " s i r " (madam), " t h a n k y o u " , e t c . , a t appropriate times.  -  120  -  c) Aims: To f a m i l i a r i z e b o y s w i t h l e t t e r m a i l i n g p r o c e d u r e . Boys a l s o a s s o c i a t e i d e a s f r o m o t h e r games t o r e i n f o r c e learning• 3.  Grocery S t o r e . a)  Equipment:  i.  Shelves with r e a l articles, etc.  i i . iii. iv.  Signs i n c l u d i n g Push  c a n goods, f r u i t s ,  vegetables,  posters, decoration flags, e t c .  cart.  Telephone.  v.  Grocer's apron  b)  Action:  i.  A b o y i s s e n t t o s t o r e t o be s t o r e k e e p e r . i n white. A n o t h e r boy s h o p s .  i i . i i i .  clothing  and h a t .  He i s d r e s s e d  A n o t h e r boy p u s h e s c a r t . I f he bumps a n y p e r s o n , he must s a y , " E x c u s e me, p l e a s e " . When t h e b o y g e t s t o s t o r e , t h e t e a c h e r remembers a n o t h e r a r t i c l e a n d i n s t r u c t s a t h i r d boy t o phone a m e s s a g e . T h i s boy g o e s t o a r e g u l a r phone b o o t h , w h i c h i s l o c a t e d i n the classroom, turns handle ( o l d fashioned type o f r i n g e r ) p i c k s up phone, s a y s " h e l l o " and g i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o t h e s t o r e k e e p e r - "bag o f o r a n g e s " , " b a r o f s o a p " , e t c . , s a y s " t h a n k y o u " a n d "goodbye", and p u t s phone b a c k i n p l a c e .  c) Aims: T h i s t e a c h e s u s e o f t e l e p h o n e and r i g h t l a n g u a g e . The s t o r e k e e p e r s e l e c t s t h e a r t i c l e s b y r e c o g n i z i n g them, o r i f c a n n e d g o o d s , b y t h e p i c t u r e s on t h e c a n s . The s h o p p e r c o l l e c t s t h e g o o d s , p a y s f o r them a n d r e t u r n s . Many words a r e l e a r n e d , t h e c o l o u r s o f o b j e c t s , s i z e c o n c e p t s and shape c o n c e p t s . Also, signs are recognized p a r t i c u l a r l y SALE and i t s meaning;. Manners and e t i q u e t t e f o r public places are f a c i l i t a t e d .  - 121  4.  -  Milk-Man. a)  Equipment:  i.  Milk-Man's h a t .  i i . i i i . iv. b)  Milk-Man's  carrier,  C a r t o n s and b o t t l e s o f Coins. Action: Boy d e l i v e r s m i l k  c)  milk,  a s i n s t r u c t e d and r e c e i v e s  payment.  Aims: The b o y s l e a r n new s h a p e s , s i z e s , and t h e words - m i l k and cream, b i g , s m a l l c a r t o n , b o t t l e and so o n . Good manners a r e p r a c t i c e d .  5.  Fireman. a)  Equipment:  i.  Bell.  i i . i i i . iv. v.  2 Fireman's helmets, 2 Fireman's length Wall  of f i r e  Wrench.  b)  Action:  i.  Two  c)  h o s e and  nozzle.  connection,  vi.  i i .  coats,  boys are appointed  firemen.  Fire  b e l l i s rung.  Boys q u i c k l y p u t o n f i r e m a n ' s d r e s s , r o l l o u t h o s e , a t t a c h i t t o w a l l p i e c e , and s t a n d ' s p r a y i n g ' t h e f i r e with water. The b o y s v i s i t a c t u a l community firehall t o see r e a l f i r e m e n , t r u c k s and t h e i r e q u i p m e n t . Aims: The game i s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e s p e e d o f d r e s s i n g a n d dexterity. A l s o t h e b o y s l e a r n t o be a l e r t t o t h e d a n g e r o f f i r e , r e c o g n i z e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e f i r e b e l l , and t h e u r g e n c y r e q u i r e d i n f i g h t i n g and f o r e s c a p i n g f r o m f i r e s .  - 122 -  6.  L e t ' s Go  Fishing.  a)  Equipment:  i.  Actual fishing 'hooks'.  ii. i i i . iv.  poles  equipped  with reels  and m a g n e t i c  Straw h a t s . Paper f i s h i n g Metal  pond.  'fish'.  b) A c t i o n : i. i i .  i i i . c)  A p a p e r pond i s l a y e d o u t o n c l a s s r o o m  floor.  The " f i s h e r m e n " p u t o n f i s h i n g h a t s ( t o p r o t e c t f r o m s u n ) , u s e f i s h i n g p o l e and 'hooks' o b j e c t s w h i c h a r e i n t h e pond. The t e a c h e r  tells  which object to f i s h .  Aims: To i n t e r e s t b o y s i n f i s h i n g a s a s p o r t ( s e v e r a l h a v e gone t o f i s h w i t h t e a c h e r i n n e a r b y w a t e r s ) . Game a l s o t e a c h e s hand-eye c o o r d i n a t i o n .  7.  L e t ' s Go Camping. a)  Equipment:  i.  Safety  i i . i i i . iv.  helmets,  Saw. Sawhorse. B r a n c h wood.  b) A c t i o n : i. i i .  Teacher  says,  " L e t ' s go c a m p i n g " - " L e t ' s go saw wood."  Two b o y s p u t on s a f e t y h e l m e t s , a r r a n g e b r a n c h wood i n s a w i n g p o s i t i o n on sawhorse and t o g e t h e r saw wood. I n t h e summer, some b o y s a c t u a l l y go c a m p i n g .  c) Aims: To h e l p b o y s r e c a l l a c t u a l c a m p i n g e x p e r i e n c e and t o associate tasks with that experience. A l s o , they l e a r n to take s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s .  -  8.  Buying  123  -  Newspaper.  a)  Equipment:  i.  Newspaper h o n o u r "boxes w h i c h r e p r e s e n t newspapers.  ii. i i i .  Newspapers i n e a c h  local  daily  box.  Coins.  b)  Action:  i.  A boy i s g i v e n i n s t r u c t i o n t o buy newspaper.  i i .  two  a Sun  (or  Province)  He g o e s t o t h e n e w s p a p e r h o n o u r box ( w h i c h he d i s t i n g u i s h e s f r o m o t h e r n e w s p a p e r h o n o u r box by i t s c o l o u r ) , p l a c e s c o i n i n p r o p e r s l o t , removes n e w s p a p e r f r o m box and r e t u r n s t o t h e t e a c h e r .  c) Aims: The b o y s l e a r n t h e y must n o t t a k e a p a p e r b e f o r e p u t t i n g c o i n i n box. They a l s o l e a r n how t o p e r f o r m t h e e r r a n d o f g e t t i n g a newspaper - i . e . , t o c a r r y out e r r a n d instructions. 9.  A s s o c i a t i o n of Ideas a)  Errands.  Equipment: The  v a r i o u s areas  and  equipment  of the  special  classroom.  b) A c t i o n : A boy i s i n s t r u c t e d by i n s e q u e n c e , e.g., " a ^ bag o f o r a n g e s ; b u t c ) e ) a f t e r y o u go t o t h e  t h e t e a c h e r t o do s e v e r a l t h i n g s Go t o t h e s t o r e , b) buy a b i g b e f o r e y o u go, d) m a i l t h i s l e t t e r , s t o r e , f ) buy a "Sun" n e w s p a p e r . "  c) Aims: Boys l e a r n i d e a s " b e f o r e " and " a f t e r " and t o remember s e q u e n c e o f words and a c t i v i t y . He p r a c t i c e s s p e a k i n g , p o l i t e manners, e t c . 10.  Traffic  Light Street Crossing.  a)  Equipment:  i.  Actual traffic  i i .  light  with  switch operated  S t r e e t c r o s s w a l k p a i n t e d on  floor  lights,  a b o u t 20*  long.  -  124 -  b)  Action:  i.  Song i s sung - " H i p p i t y h o p , h i p p i t y hop, g r e e n s a y s gi red says stop".-  ii.  i i i .  iv.  c)  Boys s t a n d a n d w a i t when r e d l i g h t at green s i g n a l .  i s on.  They  cross  I n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n by t h e t e a c h e r t o : "Take l o n g s t e p s " ; "Take s h o r t s t e p s " ; "Take r u n n i n g s t e p s " ; "Go f a s t " ; "Go s l o w " ; "Walk on t i p - t o e " . C r o s s i n g a t a r e g u l a r pace i s p r a c t i c e d a t a r e g u l a r community i n t e r s e c t i o n . Aims: The t r a f f i c l i g h t game t e a c h e s n o t o n l y how t o c r o s s a s t r e e t s a f e l y , b u t a l s o s e v e r a l words a n d s i x i d e a s . T h e s e i d e a s a n d words may be u s e d i n o t h e r c l a s s a n d community a c t i v i t i e s .  11.  Steps. a)  Equipment: Wooden p l a t f o r m w i t h s t e p s and r a i l s o n e i t h e r T h e r e a r e no s t a i r s i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n .  b)  Action: The b o y s a s c e n d a n d d e s c e n d objects.  c)  side.  steps,  sometimes  carrying  Aims: They l e a r n t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w o r d s " u p - s t a i r s " , "downstairs". They i m p r o v e t h e i r b a l a n c e - b y c a r r y i n g s m a l l o b j e c t s (such as t r a y s ) .  12.  Competition. a)  Equipment: Large box o f a s s o r t e d  men's and women's  b)  Action:  i.  The b o y s a r e a s k e d t o s o r t ; b i g - s m a l l , c o l o u r s o f men's and women's s h o e s .  ii.  shoes.  and v a r i o u s  The t e a c h e r t r i e s t o p u t shoe i n a b o x - i f i t i s t o o b i g , t h e boys say so - i f i t f i t s , t h e y say s o .  -  iii.  125 -  The teacher t r i e s to put on shoe. I f i t i s too big, too small, or f o r a woman, the boys t e l l him.  c) Aims: The game teaches the boys to recognize the concepts of size and purpose, as well as giving practice i n action which improves dexterity. 13.  Competition. a) Equipment: Wooden shapes (square, c i r c l e , triangle,. % c i r c l e , star)' are mounted v e r t i c a l l y on table. Each shape i s painted several d i f f e r e n t colours. Each shape has several bolts and nuts of various sizes attached to the back. b) Action: i . Each boy i s instructed to stand i n front of a shape. i i . He t e l l s or points to d i f f e r e n t colours, depending on whether he can speak. iii.  There i s competition between boys to undo the bolts and to replace them.  c) Aims: Boys learn shapes, sizes, new words, to increase manual dexterity and practice the s e l e c t i o n of colours. 14.  Manipulation of Window Blinds. a) Equipment: Classroom window blinds. b) Action: Two boys p a r t i c i p a t e . One gives i n s t r u c t i o n s , "Open b l i n d , please", the other follows i n s t r u c t i o n s . c) Aims: To acquaint boys with a common household task, to help boys learn how to communicate ideas i n a clear, yet p o l i t e way, and to provide practice i n manual dexterity.  - 126 -  15.  Music. a) Equipment: i . Record player and records, i i . A set of chimes, iii.  Other rhythm-band equipment.  b) Action: i . A few simple songs are repeated often. ii.  Boys 'sing along', keep time with t h e i r feet, hands and band equipment.  i i i . When the chimes are used, each boy has a number. The teacher c a l l s a number, a boy strikes "his" chime. A favourite tune i s "The B e l l s of St. Mary's." c) Aims: To teach rhythm, and encourage musical enjoyment. 16.  T e l l i n g Time. a) 'i Equipment: i . A large clock face with times designated and colours.  by .numerals  i i . A small clock face f o r each boy. i i i . A small clock equipped with a b e l l . b) Action: i.  One boy sets the time on the large clock face as instructed by the teacher.  i i . Each other boy also sets h i s own smaller clock face. i i i . Besides speaking the time a f t e r i t has been set, the boy t e l l s the colour. i v . A f t e r t h i s , the b e l l on the small clock i s rung. boys count the number of r i n g s .  The  c) Aims: To teach how to recognize the time at the f u l l hour. Boys also practice speaking, counting, and t e l l i n g colours.  - 127 Parallel  or Associated Objecta  C h i l d r e n a r e g i v e n one t h o u g h t , i d e a , two  or three 1.  and a s s o c i a t e i t w i t h  activities.  What game i s t h i s ? The  t e a c h e r makes t h e b a t t i n g movement o f a p i n g - p o n g  player.  The c l a e s r e c o g n i z e s movement.  a ping-pong b a t from o t h e r equipment. "Where i s p i n g - p o n g b a l l ? " is  told  to put the b a l l  a hockey-puck to  a soft-ball, i n the bag.  a  The b o y By t h e  tennis-ball,  A boy i s t h e n a s k e d and so o n .  and t h e s e n s e o f f e e l i n g  Ideas  i s practiced.  What i s m i s s i n g ? S e v e r a l common o b j e c t s ,  as p i p e ,  placed  on a t a b l e  together.  them.  He i s s e n t t o a n o t h e r p a r t  . t e a c h e r r e m o v e s one o b j e c t . "What i s m i s s i n g ? " associated 3.  it.  c l o t h bag.  " p u t hand i n bag, g e t g o l f b a l l " ,  are associated 2.  are placed  selects  Teacher asks,  A boy s e l e c t s  i n a large  same p r o c e s s a g o l f - b a l l ,  One boy  He t r i e s  fork,  bell,  comb, a r e  A b o y i s a s k e d t o remember o f t h e room w h i l e t h e  He i s c a l l e d to r e c a l l .  b a c k and a s k e d , Ideas a r e  and t h e s e n s e o f memory i s f a c i l i t a t e d .  What i s h i s name? A boy i s b l i n d f o l d e d  and t u r n e d a b o u t 2 o r 3 t i m e s .  A n o t h e r boy from t h e . g r o u p i s i n s t r u c t e d "Good m o r n i n g , The  t o say t o him,  S i r " . He must g u e s s t h e b o y ' s  s e n s e o f sound  isiacilitated.  name.  - 128 -  4.  What i s i t ? A boy i s blindfolded. He guesses objects by smelling them - soap, orange, apple, etc. is  5.  The sense of smell  facilitated.  Where does i t go? Competition i s arranged between 2 boys.  They f i t d i f -  ferent sized - d i f f e r e n t coloured cylinders together. They also place knives, forks and spoons i n the proper places i n a drawer container.  This teaches speed, and  seeing size and shape concepts. 6.  Learning to Count. (a) Numerals: There are numerals 1 - 20 on separate pieces that may  be hung on a wall.  A boy uses pointer and  counts. (b)  Counting-board: A counting-board  contains d i f f e r e n t numbers of r e a l  objects, such as cups, oranges, cans, etc. item i n a row i s exactly the same.  Each  A boy i s asked  to switch numeral values to the row opposite the r i g h t number.  For example, i f there are nine cups,  the boy counts nine, finds numeral 9 and places i t beside the 'cup  row'.  (c) Bouncing the ball? i.  The teacher bounces the b a l l . The group t e l l s how many times he bounces i t .  - 129  ii.  -  A boy b o u n c e s t h e b a l l . The many t i m e s he b o u n c e s i t .  i i i .  A boy b o u n c e s t h e b a l l and t h e how many t i m e s he b o u n c e s i t .  (d) R o l l i n g large dots  the  turned  same boy  how  counts  dice:  coloured d i c e are r o l l e d .  (e) Weight  A boy  counts  the  up.  scale: from 1  Objects weighing scale.  A boy  reads  t o 25  the  l b s . are placed  cloth  sets:  Coloured  cloth  sets with buttons  They c o u n t practice  on  weight.  (f) Coloured  B o y s m a t c h c o l o u r s and  7.  group t e l l s  and  button  button pieces  t h e number o f b u t t o n s ,  holes.  together.  tell  the c o l o u r s ,  buttoning.  Signs. At various c l a s s a c t i v i t i e s , apply  to d i f f e r e n t  child's  activities  g e n e r a l k n o w l e d g e and  "Men", "Women", " S t o p " ,  "Out  signs are used. and  a r e used t o  alertness. of Order",  These increase  Signs  "Bus  are:  Stop",  "Sale". 8.  Speech The  9.  (Phonetic l e s s o n ) .  boys are  taught  t o d i s t i n g u i s h b e t w e e n and  closely  related  yellow;  door - f l o o r ;  D r a w i n g and The  boys  sounds:  Ball  - bell;  head - r e d ; h a i r  say  window - elbow - chair,  -  and  so  to  get  Colouring.  j o i n numbers i n s e q u e n c e w i t h a p e n c i l  on.  -  a picture.  130 -  They c o l o u r t h e p i c t u r e s .  These  pictures  a r e o f o t h e r o b j e c t s i n t h e c l a s s room - a s t r a f f i c light, 10.  Pare  fish,  bird, etc.  of Pets.  Budgie b i r d  i s f e d a n d w a t e r e d , and t h e c a g e i s c l e a n e d  d a i l y by t h e b o y s . Prom t i m e  t o time,  other l i v e  shown t o t h e c h i l d r e n ; Easter 11.  and b i r d s a r e  i . e . , c h i c k e n s and r a b b i t s a t  time.  Care o f P l a n t s . The  12.  animals  boys water t h e p l a n t s  daily.  Care o f Grass. D u r i n g warm Summer w e a t h e r , t h e b o y s a r e t a u g h t of  grass - (cutting  and r a k i n g ) .  the care  - 131 APPENDIX "E" BIBLIOGRAPHY A l l p o r t , G. W., Personality and S o c i a l Encounter, S. J . Reginal Saunders and Company Ltd., Toronto, I960. Blodgett, Harriet E., "Report of a Research Study at the Sheltering Arms, Minneapolis, Minnesota", F i r s t Winfield I n s t i t u t e : Research i n the Management of the MentallyRetarded Child. Winfield State Training School. Winfield. Kansas, October, 1956. Blodgett, Harriet E., and Warfield, Grace J . , Understanding Mentally Retarded Children, Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., New York, 1959. Bowlby, J . , Maternal Care and Mental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1952. Cain, Leo P., and Levine, Samuel, A Study of the E f f e c t s of Community and I n s t i t u t i o n a l School Classes f o r Trainable Mentally Retarded Children, U. S. Office of Health, Education and Welfare, Contract NO SAE 8257, June, 1961. F i r s t Annual Convention, Canadian Association f o r Retarded Children, Calgary, Alberta, September 17 - 19, 1958. Herber, Rick, "A Manual on Terminology and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n In Mental Retardation", a monograph supplement to the American Journal of Mental Deficiency. September, 1959. Kelman, H. R., "Some Problems i n Casework With Parents of Mentally Retarded Children", American Journal of Mental Deficiency, Vol. 61, no. 3, January, 1957. Laycock, Samuel R., Mental Hygiene i n the School, The Copp Clark Publishing Co. Limited, Toronto, I960. Levinson, Abraham, and B i g l e r , John A., Mental Retardation i n Infants and Children. The Year Book Publishers, Inc., Chicago, I960. Mandelbaum, Arthur, and Wheeler, Mary, "The Meaning of a Defective Child to Parents", S o c i a l Casework, Journal of, July, I960. Masland, L., Sarason S., Gladwin, T., Mental Subnormality, Basic Books, Inc., New York, 1958. Masterman, Louis E., Attitudes Toward Children of Subnormal Intelligence , Publication No 133, Community Studies, Inc., Kansas City, Missouri, and The State D i v i s i o n of Health of Missouri, Jefferson City, Missouri, June, 1961.  - 132 BIBLIOGRAPHY  -  (continued)  Murray, Mrs. Max, "Needs of Parents of Mentally Retarded Children", American Journal of Mental Deficiency, V o l . 63, no. 6, May, Noyes, Arthur P., and Kolb, Lawrence C , Modern C l i n i c a l Psychiatry, W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia and London, I960. Queen, A l f r e d S., S o c i a l Work i n The Light of History, J . B. Lippincott Co., Philadelphia, 1921. Stanley, J . C , B r i e f to the Royal Commission on Health Services, Saint John, New Brunswick, 1959. Tredgold, R. P., and Soddy, K., A Text-book of Mental Deficiency, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore, 1956 (ninth edition). Winthrop, Henry, and Taylor, Howard, "An Inquiry Concerning the Prevalence of Popular Misconceptions Relating to Mental Retardation", American Journal of Mental Deficiency, V o l . 62,  no. 2, (19575 -  Zaleski, W. A., "Some Advantages and Disadvantages of I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n " , The Fourth Conference on Mental Retardation, Canadian Association for Retarded Children, Vancouver, September 26 - 28, 1961. Special Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census D i v i s i o n , Census of Canada. 1956. V o l . 1, part 9. Canada, Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census (Demography) D i v i s i o n , Population Section, Census of Canada, 1961, Advance Report, NO API, March 16, 19^2~. Spitz, Rene and Wolf, Katherine A., "Grief - A Period i n Infancy", ( f i l m ) , 3 r e e l s , 35 minutes. S i l e n t . Rene Spitz, 1150 F i f t h Avenue, New York 28.  

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0105738/manifest

Comment

Related Items