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Peaceful coexistence : the development of a Soviet ideology, 1917-1963. Lahey, Dale Terrence 1963

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PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE: THE  DEVELOPMENT OF A SOVIET IDEOLOGY, 1917-1963 by DALE TERRENCE LAHEY  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,  1962  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n t h e Department o f Slavonic  Studies.  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the required  THE  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April,  1963  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and for extensive  study.  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n  c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may  g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s It  be  representatives.  i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department o f  SI a von i f !  St.lirilfis  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 3, Canada.  Columbia,  April 18,  1Q6^  permission.  i  ABSTRACT  This the  essay,  ideological  as t h e  development  of  'peaceful coexistence'  of  1917  and  t o the  historical  present. study  t h e Y u g o s l a v and As  title  suggests,  of the  Soviet  from the  essay  l i n i n g Marx's  i s organized  'law  'law  been  seven  chapters.  introductory material  of c a p i t a l accumulation',  development'.  An  'peaceful coexistence'  con-  sources.  into  o f u n e q u a l d e v e l o p m e n t ' , and  tinuous  same d o c t r i n e .  r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l has  Chapter I i s concerned with  analytical  Soviet doctrine, ignoring  f i n e d wherever p o s s i b l e to Russian  The  t o an  Chinese v e r s i o n s of the  a consequence the  conception  October r e v o l u t i o n  It i s limited  of the  traces  attempt  Trotsky's  out-  Lenin's 'law  i s made t o  of  con-  show t h a t  i s a marked d e p a r t u r e  from  the  e a r l i e r Marxian t h e o r i e s of r e v o l u t i o n s .  C h a p t e r two coexistence to  Soviet of  f r o m 1917  attack Lenin's  coexistence  t r a c e s the development  by  1920  t o 1922.  'breathing-space' had  g o v e r n m e n t and  armed  First  strength with  of  u s e d by  tactic,  become f i r m l y  peaceful  linked  Bukharin  peaceful with-the  i t s r e l u c t a n c e to attempt t h e West.  By  1922  a  peaceful  trial co-  ii  e x i s t e n c e was  u s e d , on t h e  one  abandonment o f i t s m i l i t a r y iat  a b r o a d , and,  on  and  e q u a l i t y f o r the  the  hand, t o  commitment  other,  Soviet  justify  Soviet  to the p r o l e t a r -  to gain  respectibility  Union a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l con-  ferences.  Chapter I I I o u t l i n e s the b r i e f 1923  and  1927  d u r i n g which p e a c e f u l  period  between  coexistence  under-  went a change o f name f r o m m i r n o e s o z h i t e l ' s t v o t o mirnoe sosushchestvovanie  marking a hardening  a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e West as omic s t r e n g t h  a s an Soviet  c h r o n i c l e s the  d u r i n g which p e a c e f u l  ideology,  serving f i r s t  industrialization  sure R u s s i a ' s  and  the  t r a c e s the  re-establishment  trine,  the  tactical  revival  means t o a l l a y  tremendous i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r r e g n u m and pancha  shila  ideology ary  as  of  period before coexistence  and  as  econ-  period  1940  for  war.  It  of orthodox marxist  doc-  coexistence'  f e a r s o f t h e West.  connection  the  with  doctrine equal,  i f not  and  isolation  as  a  Its Malenkov  the  r e s u l t e d i n i t s transformation•from  of disengagement  as-  t o 1955.  development d u r i n g  i t s crucial  war  degenerated  a t o o l to  impending  'peaceful  the  the  justification  finally  e x c l u s i o n from the  Chapter V covers  and  communist m i l i t a r y  Soviet  increased.  C h a p t e r IV  (1928-39)  of  Indian an  to a r e v o l u t i o n -  s u p e r i o r , to the  pre-revolu-  iii t i o n a r y Marxian t h e o r i e s of r e v o l u t i o n .  Chapter S i x i s a s y n t h e s i s o f development between t h e XX P a r t y After  a survey  theory  of t h e p e r i o d t h e f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d b a s i c  of peaceful coexistence  idea i s outlined. the  C o n g r e s s of;1956 a n d t h e p r e s e n t .  Against  Soviet conceptions  struggle,  t h i s background  international  a n a l y s i s an attempt of peaceful  and  coexistence  this prin-  coexistence.  i s presented  T h i s moral  aspect  o f t h e economic v i e w p o i n t military  From  i s made t o s y n t h e s i s t h e r e a l  peaceful coexistence t h e West.  law, t h e i d e o l o g i c a l  and c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  Chapter V I I i s a concluding  tion  a r e viewed  o f m o r a l i t y , war, t h e c l a s s  s t r u g g l e , and c o m p e t i t i o n  to  revolutionary  p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , r e v o l u t i o n and  counter-revolution,  ciples  as a g r e a t  conceptions i s presented  chapter  i n which  a s a moral, c h a l l e n g e  i s radical reinterpretao f M a r x and t h e p o l i t i c a l  o f L e n i n and T r o t s k y .  Peaceful  a s a m o r a l dilemma f o r t h e  West t o s o l v e .  The chapter. VII.  notes  have been p l a c e d  a t t h e end o f e a c h  The b i b l i o g r a p h y f o l l o w s t h e n o t e s  The t r a n s l a t i o n s o f R u s s i a n  t o chapter  texts, unless  s t a t e d , h a v e b e e n made b y t h e a u t h o r .  otherwise  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e  thanks  t o D r . J.O. S t . C l a i r - S o b e l l f o r m a k i n g i t possible  f o r me t o p u r s u e my s t u d i e s  and t o  w r i t e t h i s work.  I am e x t r e m e l y g r a t e f u l Bryner f o r the kindly  t o D r . C.  i n t e r e s t and s c h o l a r l y ad-  v i c e w h i c h he s o f r e e l y e x t e n d e d t o me b o t h my u n d e r g r a d u a t e of  this  thesis.  studies  during  and t h e p r e p a r a t i o n  CONTENTS  Page Chapter I :  Pre-revolutionary  Chapter I I :  1917-1922  1 19.  Chapter I I I : 1923-1927  65  Chapter IV:  1928-1939  87  Chapter V:  1940-1955  , 114  Chapter V I :  1956-1963  161  Chapter V I I : C o n c l u s i o n  234  1  CHAPTER  I  1  I  Marxism i s out i t s  essentially  a theory of r e v o l u t i o n .  aim of t r a n s f o r m i n g s o c i e t y  nothing.  With-  as a whole i t would be  Moreover, M a r x i s t s have never contented  themselves  w i t h an e m p i r i c a l approach t o the replacement of the " c a p i t a l ist  order" by the s o c i a l i s t .  Always they have sought  some  " s c i e n t i f i c " e x p l a n a t i o n of the way t h e i r hopes f o r a communist  s o c i e t y are t o be r e a l i z e d .  Thus the theory of r e v o l u t i o n  l i e s at the core of Marxism and i n f l u e n c e s  the a c t i o n s of a l l  Marxists. However, theory t h a t p r o j e c t s i t s e l f  i n t o the f u t u r e  f a c e s the prospect of being proven wrong or inadequate by the course of h i s t o r y . utionary theory. find  T h i s i s the case w i t h M a r x i s t r e v o l -  When M a r x ' s f i r s t assumptions f a i l e d  support i n h i s t o r y h i s f o l l o w e r s rethought h i s  and i n the process made r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n s t o those  to  ideas original  assumptions. As " p e a c e f u l coexistence" t h e o r y - i n f a c t the l e g i t i m a t e  i s before a l l a r e v o l u t i o n a r y successor  of e a r l y Marxian  2  theories  of r e v o l u t i o n - t h i s chapter w i l l l o o k at some of  the e a r l i e r Marxian t h e o r i e s e x i s t e n c e " can be seen i n i t s  i n order t h a t  correct perspective.  purpose the r e v o l u t i o n a r y t h e o r i e s w i l l be o u t l i n e d b r i e f l y .  "peaceful  coFor this  of Marx, L e n i n and T r o t s k y  In d e s c r i b i n g t h e s e three  theories  of r e v o l u t i o n I make no judgment as to t h e i r c o r r e c t n e s s adequacy.  Sufficient  c r i t i c i s m has been forthcoming from a l l  q u a r t e r s ( i n c l u d i n g the communist)  to accept  g e n e r a l statement t h a t a l l of the t h e o r i e s  brief,  of the three t h e o r i s t s  as a maxim the  have f a l l e n  short of the e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e i r a u t h o r s . analysis  While  i s of necessity  they w i l l be approached wherever p o s s i b l e  the  from the capitalist  socialist.  The problem of c o e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s t  and  socialist  s t a t e s never arose f o r Marx, f o r he was concerned not much w i t h events a f t e r the r e v o l u t i o n , as w i t h the itself.  far  somewhat  p o i n t of view of the nature of c o e x i s t e n c e between s t a t e s and  or  F o r Marx as f o r Hegel h i s t o r y moved by the  r e s o l v i n g of c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ,  antagonisms,  through a mechanical t h r e e - f o l d process and s y n t h e s i s .  T h i s d i a l e c t i c process  be d e s c r i b e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l h e r e .  (the  revolution perpetual  or o p p o s i t e s  of t h e s i s ,  antithesis,  i s too w e l l known t o I t need only be s a i d  t h a t as Marx i n t e r p r e t e d H e g e l ' s d i a l e c t i c , the h i s t o r i c a l plane  so  the  synthesis,  only plane Marx was i n t e r e s t e d  would take p l a c e when the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s were g r e a t e s t .  on  in), Syn-  t h e s i s i n Marx's t e r m i n o l o g y was synonymous w i t h r e v o l u t i o n .  3  Thus, a c c o r d i n g t o Marx's a n a l y s i s the h i s t o r i c a l tendency of c a p i t a l i s t  of c a p i t a l i s m ,  accumulation was  such  t h a t c a p i t a l would f a l l under the c o n t r o l of fewer and fewer people while a l l the other s t r a t a of s o c i e t y would be f o r c e d i n t o the letariat.  ranks of the unemployed, p o v e r t y - s t r i c k e n p r o -  When a l l the c a p i t a l was concentrated  hands and the p r o l e t a r i a t c o n s t i t u t e d  i n t o a few  an overwhelming mass of  the p o p u l a t i o n , the c o n t r a d i c t i o n of c a p i t a l i s t be g r e a t e s t and r e v o l u t i o n would r e s u l t .  s o c i e t y would  As Marx put  it,  Along w i t h the steady decrease i n the number of c a p i t a l i s t magnates who usurp and monopolize a l l the advantages of t h i s development, there grows the extent of m i s e r y , o p p r e s s i o n , s e r v i t u d e , d e g r a d a t i o n , and e x p l o i t a t i o n ; but at the same time there r i s e s the r e b e l l i o u s i n d i g n a t i o n of the working c l a s s which i s s t e a d i l y growing i n number, and which i s being d i s c i p l i n e d , u n i f i e d , and organized by the very mechanism of the c a p i t a l i s t method of p r o d u c t i o n . U l t i m a t e l y , the monopoly of c a p i t a l becomes a f e t t e r upon the mode of p r o d u c t i o n which has f l o u r i s h e d w i t h i t , and under i t . Both the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n a few hands of the means of p r o d u c t i o n , and the s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of l a b o r , reach a p o i n t where t h e i r c a p i t a l i s t c l o a k becomes a s t r a i t j a c k e t . It b u r s t s asunder. The hour of c a p i t a l i s t p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y has s t r u c k . The e x p l o i t e r s are expropriated. 1  T h i s process f o r Marx was automatic and i n e v i t a b l e . quently,  it  Conse-  seemed redundant to speak of c o e x i s t e n c e ,  no s t a t e which had undergone the s o c i a l i s t  for  r e v o l u t i o n would 2  be able to i n f l u e n c e  the course of p r e d e s t i n e d  events.  R e v o l u t i o n s would occur when c o n t r a d i c t i o n s were g r e a t e s t and not u n t i l .  It  should be added a l s o t h a t the  social revol-  4  u t i o n would occur f i r s t countries, be w e l l  i n h i g h l y developed  capitalist  f o r o n l y there would the h i s t o r i c a l  contradictions  developed. As f a r as t h e o r y i s  a c o e x i s t e n c e of s o c i a l i s t  concerned, M a r x ' s scheme i m p l i e s and c a p i t a l i s t  states character-  i s e d by "peace" - peace here meaning not o n l y the absence of war, but a l s o the absence of d i a l e c t i c  contradictions,  f o r c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m would e x i s t on two stages of h i s t o r i c a l development.  It  is  different  p r e c i s e l y here  that  we w i l l l a t e r d i s c e r n a d i s t i n c t i o n between the H e g e l i a n Marxian d i a l e c t i c  and the d i a l e c t i c governing " p e a c e f u l  co-  existence."  II  R u s s i a n M a r x i s t s r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s at the t u r n of  this  century were faced w i t h the t h o r n y dilemma o f r e c o n c i l i n g Marx's teaching that first  the s o c i a l i s t  r e v o l u t i o n would occur  i n h i g h l y developed c a p i t a l i s t  c o u n t r i e s having a p r o -  l e t a r i a n m a j o r i t y with the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t possibilities  that revolutionary  were g r e a t e s t i n i n d u s t r i a l l y undeveloped  R u s s i a i n which peasants formed the b u l k of the p o p u l a t i o n . E q u a l l y p r e s s i n g was the need of e x p l a i n i n g why, two g e n e r a t i o n s a f t e r Marx had p o i n t e d out the way of h i s t o r y , the p r o -  5 l e t a r i a t had. not come t o power i n even a s i n g l e country.  capitalist  To answer such quandaries and t o j u s t i f y a s o c i a l -  i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n such a comparatively backward country as R u s s i a , L e n i n developed the theory t h a t c a p i t a l i s m had i t s h i g h e s t and f i n a l stage - i m p e r i a l i s m .  entered  As i t i s from a  c o r o l l o r y of t h i s t h e o r y t h a t the i d e o l o g y of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t ence p r e s e n t l y r e c e i v e s i t s j u s t i f i c a t i o n , L e n i n ' s theory must be sketched b r i e f l y .  A l f r e d Meyer's a n a l y s i s o f L e n i n ' s 3  theory i s f o l l o w e d here, f o r i t i s both b r i e f and L e n i n maintained t h a t c a p i t a l i s m had not  succinct.  developed  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s t o the extent p r e d i c t e d by Marx because of i t s expansion from a European base i n t o the whole world i n search of raw m a t e r i a l s and markets. i t s corresponding c r e a t i o n of new  T h i s expansion w i t h  c a p i t a l had maintained  the  economic l e v e l of the p r o l e t a r i a t , f o r e s t a l l i n g i t s impoverishment,  and hence of the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s from r e a c h i n g t h e i r  greatest i n t e n s i t y .  However, L e n i n went on, when c a p i t a l i s m  had become a world wide system a l l the o l d c o n t r a d i c t i o n s would reappear i n an i n t e n s i f i e d form, w i t h the c l a s s s t r u g g l e s h i f t e d t o the i n t e r n a t i o n a l plane and " o f g l o b a l  scale.  Nations would become the p r o t a g o n i s t s r a t h e r than  individual  c a p i t a l i s t s and m o n o p o l i s t i c groups, and the l i n e of demarcat i o n would be between e x p l o i t e r and e x p l o i t e d n a t i o n s , o r , as these are sometimes termed i n communist t e r m i n o l o g y , between m e t r o p o l i t a n and c o l o n i a l n a t i o n s .  I t i s i n the e x p l o i t e d  6 nations  ( and R u s s i a , maintained L e n i n , was  such a  nation)  t h a t the c l a s s s t r u g g l e would be of g r e a t e s t i n t e n s i t y because, b e i n g new-comers t o the c a p i t a l i s t  system t h e y would  press  forward i n t h e i r economic development at a s w i f t e r r a t e than  5 the o l d e s t a b l i s h e d c a p i t a l i s t bourgeoisie  states.  Moreover, the  of e x p l o i t e d c o u n t r i e s would not have e s t a b l i s h e d  s o l i d c o n t r o l over the  s t a t e machinery of c o e r c i o n and  there-  f o r e would not be "able to b r i b e the upper s t r a t a of t h e i r workers"^ as easy as e x p l o i t e r n a t i o n s . Hence, due  t o the uneven economic and  opment o f the c a p i t a l i s t  system, the  would s t a r t from the p o i n t i n the  system where  the organs of  weakest: L e n i n d e c l a r e d t h a t R u s s i a was t h i s u p s e t t i n g of Marx's t e a c h i n g j  devel-  socialist revolution  capitalist  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s were g r e a t e s t and  political  Lenin  coercion  t h i s nodal p o i n t .  By  justified his activi-  t i e s i n Russia. The a f f a i r and  r e v o l u t i o n i n s i d e R u s s i a , of course, was i n f a c i n g i t L e n i n was  t h a t both the b o u r g e o i s i e insignificant  confronted  a domestic  w i t h the  fact  and the p r o l e t a r i a n p o t e n t i a l s were  compared to the p o t e n t i a l s of the  tsarist  c e n t r a l i s e d despotism and the v a s t r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Yet  L e n i n , l i k e other M a r x i s t s , i n s i s t e d t h a t the bourgeois must precede., the  socialist revolution.  L e n i n concluded t h a t the p r o l e t a r i a t must a i d the bourg e o i s i e i n a c h i e v i n g i t s "own"  revolution.  At the  same time,  7  l i k e T r o t s k y , L e n i n b e l i e v e d t h a t the b o u r g e o i s i e be allowed t o c o n s o l i d a t e  itself  strong t o overthrow i n i t s  turn.  should not  i n power l e s t i t become He came to the  too  conclusion  about 1915 t h a t the bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n might be merged w i t h the  socialist.  L e n i n c a l l e d t h i s process p e r e r a s t a n i e  "growing i n t o . "  P e r e r a s t a n i e posed problems f o r the  B o l s h e v i k s , however, letariat for  f o r L e n i n r e a l i s e d t h a t the R u s s i a n p r o -  c o u l d not f i g h t  allies  - a  its  own r e v o l u t i o n a l o n e .  In  seeking  t o m a i n t a i n the r e v o l u t i o n , L e n i n t u r n e d f i r s t  to  the R u s s i a n p e a s a n t r y , and secondly to the p r o l e t a r i a t of other c o u n t r i e s . of  He conceived the R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n as p a r t  a grand d e s i g n : The t a s k of the R u s s i a n p r o l e t a r i a t i s t o c a r r y the bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n i n o r d e r t o k i n d l e the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe. T h i s second t a s k has today come v e r y c l o s e to the f i r s t , but i t n e v e r t h e l e s s remains a separate and second t a s k ; for different c l a s s e s are to cooperate w i t h the R u s s i a n p r o l e t a r i a t : f o r the f i r s t task our a l l y i s the p e t t y bourgeois peasantry of R u s s i a , f o r the second, the p r o l e t a r i a t of other c o u n t r i e s . ® '  In f a c t ,  L e n i n conceived  v i d i n g the  of t h e . R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n as  pro-  spark t h a t would permit i t to "grow i n t o " the  9 world r e v o l u t i o n . T h u s , i n L e n i n ' s grand conception o f r e v o l u t i o n , capitalist  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s would spread t o the edges of  i m p e r i a l i s t empires,there  to mature and r e s o l v e  the  themselves i n -  t o a s o c i a l i s t nemesis t h a t would rebound a g a i n on the h e a r t of  8  c a p i t a l i s m and d e s t r o y i t .  T h i s ebb and flow f i t t e d  w i t h the Marxian h i s t o r i c i s t  i d e a of h i s t o r y ,  s i n c e become a standard cornerstone  and i t  well has  of communist d o c t r i n e .  Known as the "law of the uneven economic and p o l i t i c a l  devel-  opment of c a p i t a l i s m " i t was used by S t a l i n t o j u s t i f y  his  " s o c i a l i s m i n one country" and l a t e r by h i s justify  "peaceful  s u c c e s s o r s to  coexistence."  Before c o n t i n u i n g w i t h an a n a l y s i s of uneven development,  it  i s necessary  of L e n i n ' s "law"  t o mention here  one aspect of h i s theory of i m p e r i a l i s m t h a t has been b o r rowed w i t h very l i t t l e  a l t e r a t i o n by the S o v i e t  theoretic-  i a n s of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e .  This i s Lenin's conviction that  c a p i t a l i s t n a t i o n s would f i g h t  among themselves f o r markets  and spheres of i n f l u e n c e , democracy.  r e s u l t i n g i n a c u r t a i l m e n t of  Here i s how Meyer d e s c r i b e s t h i s  process:  A c c o r d i n g t o L e n i n ' s f u r t h e r s p e c u l a t i o n s , the wars f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n and r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of spheres of i n f l u e n c e , c o l o n i e s and s a t e l l i t e s would t a x both the v i c t o r s and the vanquished, and t h i s s i t u a t i o n would i n t e n s i f y domestic t e n s i o n s w i t h i n . the i m p e r i a l i s t n a t i o n s . I n d e s p e r a t i o n , the b o u r g e o i s i e would then be f o r c e d to s c r a p bourgeois democracy, because the u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e of i m p e r i a l ism to b r i b e the masses had become apparent to the broadest s e c t i o n s of the p o p u l a t i o n . In a desperate e f f o r t to m a i n t a i n i t s r u l e , monopoly c a p i t a l i s m would have t o a b o l i s h democracy and t o r e l y f r a n k l y on c o e r c i n g the d i s s a t i s f i e d . R e a c t i o n and the a b o l i t i o n of democracy, L e n i n wrote i n a sweeping statement, are the p o l i t i c a l s u p e r s t r u c t u r e s of monopoly c a p i t a l ism. When they occurred, the h y p o c r a c i e s of formal democracy would be r e v e a l e d o p e n l y , f o r the continued e x p l o i t a t i o n of the domestic p r o l e t a r i a t by monopoly c a p i t a l i s m c o u l d not remain o b s c u r e d . But t h i s development would mean a renewal of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y  9  s p i r i t among the working c l a s s e s o f the Western i n d u s t r i a l n a t i o n s , and thus the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of s o c i a l i s m would be r e e s t a b l i s h e d . T h i s theory of L e n i n ' s w i l l be compared w i t h p e a c e f u l e x i s t e n c e i n chapter Lenin f i r s t  co-  six.  "discovered" h i s "law" i n September  1915,  when he wrote, The unevenness of the economic and p o l i t i c a l development of c a p i t a l i s m i s an a b s o l u t e law. From t h i s i t f o l l o w s t h a t the v i c t o r y of s o c i a l i s m i s p o s s i b l e at f i r s t i n a few or even i n one, i s o l a t e d , c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r y . 1 1 The c o n c l u s i o n drawn from the above statement i s t h a t , some time at l e a s t the f l e d g l i n g  socialist  broken away from the i m p e r i a l i s t  system,  be d e s t i n e d  to " c o e x i s t " w i t h c a p i t a l i s t  state,  will  for  freshly  inevitably  states.  Though  such a c o n c l u s i o n i s anything but profound t h i n k i n g on L e n i n ' s part,  it  r a i s e s the problem o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s  tween c a p i t a l i s t  and s o c i a l i s t  states.  be-  Should those r e l a -  t i o n s be "peaceful" or should they be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by warlike conflicts?  I s a d i r e c t c o n t i n u a t i o n o f the above quo-  t a t i o n L e n i n s t a t e d h i s views on t h i s matter very d i r e c t l y , and  explicitly: The v i c t o r i o u s p r o l e t a r i a t of t h i s c o u n t r y , e x p r o p r i a t i n g the c a p i t a l i s t s and o r g a n i z i n g s o c i a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n f o r i t s e l f , would r i s e a g a i n s t the remaining c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d , a t t r a c t i n g to i t s e l f oppressed c l a s s e s of other c o u n t r i e s , s t i r r i n g up r e b e l l i o n i n them,  10  t a k i n g p a r t i f need be w i t h m i l i t a r y power a g a i n s t e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s and t h e i r s t a t e s . 12 Needless t o say, t h i s l a t t e r h a l f o f the f u l l  quotation  now never c i t e d by present day S o v i e t advocates coexistence"!  In t r u t h the consequences  of  "peaceful  o f the f u l l  quota-  t i o n suggest very s t r o n g l y a p o s i t i o n extremely c l o s e  to  T r o t s k y ' s t h e o r y of permanent r e v o l u t i o n , which w i l l be amined i n more d e t a i l i n the' course o f t h i s  is  ex-  chapter.  L e n i n r e t u r n e d t o the q u e s t i o n of uneven development a year l a t e r ,  i n September 1916,  t i o n , and expanding on the  r e p e a t i n g the b a s i c assump-  i d e a of open c o n f l i c t ,  of war.  S o c i a l i s m v i c t o r i o u s i n one country does not at a l l exclude at once a l l wars i n g e n e r a l . On the c o n t r a r y , i t presupposes them. The development of c a p i t a l i s m proceeds to h i g h e r stages unevenly in different countries. I t cannot be otherwise under the commodity p r o d u c t i o n system. From t h i s i t i n e v i t a b l y f o l l o w s t h a t s o c i a l i s m cannot be v i c t o r i o u s at the same time i n a l l c o u n t r i e s . I t w i l l be v i c t o r i o u s f i r s t i n one or a few c o u n t r i e s and the r e s t f o r some time w i l l remain bourgeois or p r e - b o u r g e o i s . 1 3 Coexistence,  therefore,  presupposes war.  P u r s u i n g the q u e s t i o n of war, L e n i n i s very on the nature of the open c o n f l i c t d u r i n g  definite  coexistence.  In c o n c l u d i n g t h i s b r i e f o u t l i n e of L e n i n ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y  11 theory i t remains only t o add t h a t the p e r i o d o f c o e x i s t e n c e envisaged  by L e n i n was one o f continuous w a r f a r e .  t h e r e f o r e has l i t t l e ,  It  i f any, r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the present  day t h e o r y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e .  Ill  While L e n i n , as we have seen, was s l o w l y e v o l v i n g the i d e a o f extending the r e v o l u t i o n beyond t h e borders o f the s o c i a l i s t  state with the a i d of m i l i t a r y force i f  n e c e s s a r y , T r o t s k y had developed as 1905.  a s i m i l a r theory as e a r l y  And as i t was T r o t s k y ' s , f u l l y as much as L e n i n ' s ,  theory t h a t was t o p r o p e l the B o l s h e v i k s i n t o power i n 1917, it  i s necessary t o look a t h i s t h e o r y i n some d e t a i l . L i k e o t h e r M a r x i s t s o f h i s time T r o t s k y was f a c e d  w i t h the problem of j u s t i f y i n g an attempt a t a R u s s i a n s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n a t a time when R u s s i a had not y e t experienced t h e supposedly  i n e v i t a b l e bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n .  T r o t s k y , t o o , b e l i e v e d t h a t such a r e v o l u t i o n was necessary to c l e a r away the r u b b i s h o f the t s a r i s t h e r i t a g e and t o prepare  the f o u n d a t i o n f o r the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n .  However, T r o t s k y i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e b o u r g e o i s i e was t o o weak  15 to c a r r y through middle  i t s h i s t o r i c a l duty.  The Russian urban  c l a s s was extremely weak and Russian craftsmen were  s c a t t e r e d over the c o u n t r y s i d e .  1 6  The R u s s i a n  proletariat,  12 on the other hand, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f t s a r i s t c e n t r a l i s m , was  concentrated  en masse i n the g r e a t urban c e n t e r s and was  t h e r e f o r e able t o organize p o l i t i c a l l y and a c t i n a u n i t y  17 denied  the b o u r g e o i s i e and the craftsmen.  I f the s o c i a l -  i s t r e v o l u t i o n was ever t o take p l a c e i n R u s s i a ,  maintained  T r o t s k y , the p r o l e t a r i a t would have t o a s s i s t t h e b o u r g e o i s i e  18 in f u l f i l l i n g i t s historical role. would be e s s e n t i a l l y bourgeois  While the r e v o l u t i o n  i n character,  power would be shared w i t h the p r o l e t a r i a t .  political But r a t h e r than  r e l i n q u i s h power once a t t a i n e d , the p r o l e t a r i a t would cont i n u e t o strengthen  i t s h o l d on the organs o f government.  In  t h i s way the b o u r g e o i s i e r e v o l u t i o n , as T r o t s k y put i t , would be " t e l e s c o p e d " i n t o the s o c i a l i s t . This conception i s a l io most i d e n t i c a l w i t h L e n i n s p e r e r a s t a n i e . Once the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n was e s t a b l i s h e d on a T  s t a t e b a s i s , T r o t s k y went on, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l aspects o f the f a c t would begin t o appear.  The r e v o l u t i o n would be weak,  f o r i t would have t h e p r e c a r i o u s support  o f the  peasantry  o n l y as l o n g as the landowners were e x p r o p r i a t e d .  When t h e  s o c i a l i s t g o a l s of c o l l e c t i v i s m and i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m became 20 apparent, the peasantry would t u r n a g a i n s t the r e v o l u t i o n . The s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , would be compelled find i t s salvation i n international revolution. the c o n s e r v a t i v e bourgeois  to  Moreover,  r u l i n g groups o f Western Europe,  f o r e s e e i n g the p o l i t i c a l consequences o f s o c i a l i s m , would launch a c o l l o s a l p u n i t i v e war a g a i n s t the s o c i a l i s t s t a t e .  13  T r o t s k y concluded t h a t " i f the R u s s i a n p r o l e t a r i a t , having t e m p o r a r i l y gained power, does not c a r r y the r e v o l u t i o n of i t s own  i n i t i a t i v e on t o the ground of Europe,  then the  f e u d a l and bourgeois r e a c t i o n w i l l f o r c e i t t o do  so."^l  T r o t s k y concludes h i s a n a l y s i s as f o l l o w s : The R u s s i a n p r o l e t a r i a t ... w i l l meet w i t h organized h o s t i l i t y on the p a r t of world r e a c t i o n and w i t h r e a d i n e s s on the p a r t of the world p r o l e t a r i a t to l e n d the r e v o l u t i o n o r g a n i z e d a s s i s t a n c e . L e f t t o i t s e l f , the working c l a s s of R u s s i a w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be crushed by the counterr e v o l u t i o n at the moment when the peasantry t u r n s i t s back upon the p r o l e t a r i a t . Nothing w i l l be l e f t t o the workers but t o l i n k the f a t e of t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l r u l e , and consequently the f a t e of the whole R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n , w i t h t h a t of the s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe. The Russian p r o l e t a r i a t w i l l throw i n t o the s c a l e s of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e of the e n t i r e c a p i t a l i s t world t h a t c o l l o s a l s t a t e - p o l i t i c a l power, which the temporary circumstances of the Russian bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n w i l l give i t . With s t a t e power i n i t s hands, w i t h the c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n behind i t s back, w i t h the European r e a c t i o n i n f r o n t of i t , i t w i l l address to. i t s b r o t h e r s a l l over the world the o l d a p p e a l , which t h i s time w i l l be the c a l l t o the l a s t ons l a u g h t : P r o l e t a r i a n s of a l l l a n d s , u n i t e 1^2 While the p r o l e t a r i a t i s f o r c e d onward by n e c e s s i t y , the capitalist  system, being composed of i n d i v i d u a l  states  having i r r e c o n c i l a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s , would have d i f f i c u l t y in organizing effective joint resistance. on the o t h e r hand, c a p t u r i n g new  The  proletariat,  t e r r i t o r i e s , would become  p r o g r e s s i v e l y s t r o n g e r at the expense of the b o u r g e o i s i e . In s h o r t , w h i l e T r o t s k y ' s t h e o r y i m p l i e s " c o e x i s t e n c e " of s o c i a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t  s t a t e s , the nature of t h a t  co-  14  existence end.  i s of n e c e s s i t y an u n f l i n c h i n g s t r u g g l e t o  Though T r o t s k y  reference  does not  to the use  includes m i l i t a r y  say  so s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  c l a s h of c a p i t a l i s t  and  socialist  arena w i l l i n c l u d e a m i l i t a r y  was  and  socialist  power"  be assumed t h a t the  s t a t e s i n the  international  conflict.  For T r o t s k y , the p e r i o d of " c o e x i s t e n c e " capitalist  his  of s o c i a l i s t " s t a t e - p o l i t i c a l  a i d , and hence, i t may  s t a t e s was  t o be very  between short  t o be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a spontaneous process of  of the  capitalist  share of the g l o b e .  This theory  has been dubbed "permanent r e v o l u t i o n , " o r , as solemnly t i t l e d the "law  the  and attrition  of  Trotsky's  Trotsky  i t i n h i s H i s t o r y of the R u s s i a n  Revolution,  of continuous development."  There i s one noted here t h a t was of the theory very e x i s t e n c e  aspect  of t h a t theory which may  be  l a t e r t o become i n a d v e r t e n t l y a p a r t  of p e a c e f u l of the  coexistence.  socialist  This i s that  s t a t e generates  the  contra-  d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the c a p i t a l i s t world t h a t hasten i t s destruction.  On the  one  hand i t would provide  a d r i v i n g f o r c e f o r the p r o l e t a r i a t and,  on the other,  of c a p i t a l i s t  i t would s t i r the c a p i t a l i s t s  t o a c t i o n s that would i n t e n s i f y between them and  an example  l e a d to t h e i r  irreconcilible downfall.  and  countries, themselves  conflicts  15  IV  As the three "laws" - c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n , Uneven development, indicate,  and continuous development  - outlined  none of the t h r e e major M a r x i s t  were i n agreement the r e v o l u t i o n .  theoreticians  as t o the c o r r e c t t h e o r e t i c a l It  is  likewise  above  approach to  not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t  those  t h r e e t h i n k e r s c o u l d a l s o not agree on the nature of anypossible  c o e x i s t e n c e of c a p i t a l i s t  It  and s o c i a l i s t  states.  i s d o u b t f u l whether Marx even conceived of a  p e r i o d of c o e x i s t e n c e at a l l , f o r E n g e l s , M a r x ' s  colleague-  t h e o r e t i c i a n , maintained t h a t the r e v o l u t i o n would happen "more or l e s s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n a l l Lenin,  'civilised'  countries."^  on the other hand, forsaw c o e x i s t e n c e , but t h i s  t o be a p e r i o d of m i l i t a r y c o n f l i c t by c h o i c e . conflict  T r o t s k y , however,  by n e c e s s i t y .  was  not by n e c e s s i t y , but  saw c o e x i s t e n c e as m i l i t a r y  Of the three t h e o r i e s ,  t h a t was t o have the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e  i t was T r o t s k y ' s  on e v e n t s .  As one  o b s e r v e r , R . V . D a n i e l s , remarks, the theory of permanent r e v o l u t i o n "provided the B o l s h e v i k s w i t h the b a s i c d o c t r i n a l 2A i n s p i r a t i o n and j u s t i f i c a t i o n of t h e i r d r i v e t o s e i z e power. Deutscher c a l l s leaders,  i t "the common p r o p e r t y of a l l B o l s h e v i k  i n c l u d i n g S t a l i n , i n the years between 1917 and  25 1924." '  In f a c t ,  as we s h a l l see,  it  can be s t a t e d w i t h  a g r e a t d e a l of t r u t h t h a t " p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e " i s a modi-  16  f i e d form of permanent r e v o l u t i o n . that  peaceful  It  is  certainly  c o e x i s t e n c e , w h i l e i t was f i r s t  conceived  a counter t h e o r y t o permanent r e v o l u t i o n , was i n s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by. i t .  During the f i r s t  r e v o l u t i o n party l o y a l t i e s  were t o r n between  ence, a f l e d g l i n g d o c t r i n e t h a t a l of r e v o l u t i o n a r y  as  fact  years of  the  allegiance  t o permanent r e v o l u t i o n , which had produced p o s i t i v e i n the October R e v o l u t i o n i t s e l f ,  true  and t o p e a c e f u l  results  coexist-  seemed to many as a b e t r a y -  ideals.  But enough of a n t i c i p a t o r y remarks. a c h r o n i c a l l i n g of p e a c e f u l  We t u r n now to  c o e x i s t e n c e as i t developed  theory between 1917 and 1963.  as a  17  References  1. T r a n s l a t e d and q u o t e d i n K.R. P o p p e r , The Open S o c i e t y and I t s E n e m i e s , V o l . I I ; L o n d o n ; R o u t l e d g e P a p e r b a c k s , 1962, pp. 1 5 3 - 5 4 . P o p p e r ' s n o t e on t h i s p a s s a g e c o n f i r m s t h e d i a l e c t i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Marx's, l a w o f c a p i t a l a c c u m u l a t i o n : " T h i s p a s s a g e i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by H e g e l i a n d i a l e c t i c s , as i s shown by i t s c o n t i n u a t i o n . (Hegel c a l l e d the a n t i t h e s i s of a t h e s i s sometimes i t s n e g a t i o n , and t h e s y n t h e s i s t h e ' n e g a t i o n o f t h e n e g a t i o n ' ! ) "The c a p i t a l i s t method o f p r o d u c t i o n , " s a y s M a r x "... i s t h e f i r s t n e g a t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y b a s e d upon i n d i v i d u a l l a b o r . But w i t h t h e i n e x o r a b i l i t y o f a law o f n a t u r e , c a p i t a l i s t p r o d u c t i o n b e g e t s i t s own negation. T h i s s e c o n d n e g a t i o n ... e s t a b l i s h e s ... t h e common owners h i p o f t h e l a n d and t h e means o f p r o d u c t i o n . " " I b i d . n o t e 15, p. 340. 2. Of c o u r s e , t h e o r y a s i d e , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o a r g u e t h a t M a r x was h i m s e l f an u n c o m p r o m i s i n g r e v o l u t i o n a r y f i g h t e r whose f a n a t i c i s m and c o n v i c t i o n s make i t h i g h l y u n l i k e l y , s h o u l d he have e v e r c o n t r o l l e d a s o c i a l i s t s t a t e , t h a t he w o u l d have s a t i d l y by and w a i t e d f o r t h e i r o n l a w s o f history to unfold. I t i s v e r y p o s s i b l e t h a t he w o u l d have manufactured t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r i n t e r f e r e n c e i n capitalist, affairs. But t h i s i s p u r e s u p p o s i t i o n and as we a r e d e a l i n g i n t h i s p a p e r s o l e l y w i t h t h e o r y , we must c o n c l u d e , a d m i t t e d l y on somewhat s c a n t y e v i d e n c e , t h a t M a r x ' s t h e o r y e x c l u d e d a c o n f l i c t between s o c i a l i s t and capitalist states. 3. A l f r e d G. Meyer, L e n i n i s m , C a m b r i d g e , Mass; U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1957, pp. 235-256. 4.  I b i d , p.  248.  5.  I b i d , p.  249.  6. Lenin translated 7.  Sochineni.ja second e d i t i o n , v o l . 22, and q u o t e d i n M e y e r , I b i d , 254. y  M e y e r , op., c i t . p.  8.  I b i d , p.  144.  9.  I b i d , p.  144.  10.  I b i d , pp.  255-6.  143.  Harvard  p.  218.  18  11.  L e n i n , Sochineni.ja, f o u r t h e d i t i o n ,  12.  Ibid.  13.  Ibid,  14.  Ibid.  v o l . 23,  v o l . 21,  p.  311.  p . 67.  15. I s a a c D e u t s c h e r , The P r o p h e t Armed: T r o t s k y . 1879-1921. O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954, pp. 1 5 0 - 1 . Deutscher's c o m p r e h e n s i v e o u t l i n e o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n i s f o l l o w e d i n t h i s chapter. 16. I b i d ,  p . 152.  17. I b i d ,  153.  18.  Ibid.  19. The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e l a y i n t h e r o l e a s s i g n e d t o t h e p e a s a n t r y by T r o t s k y and L e n i n . Lenin maintained that t h e p r o l e t a r i a t must have t h e f u l l and e q u a l s u p p o r t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y , o r a t l e a s t t h e " p o o r " and " m i d d l e " s e c t i o n s of i t . Trot'sky, on t h e o t h e r hand, f e l t , t h a t a s t h e r e v o l u t i o n was t o be e s s e n t i a l l y a n u r b a n u n d e r t a k i n g t h e p e a s a n t r y , by t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s , c o u l d be o f l i t t l e assistance. He d i d d e c l a r e , however, t h a t t h e p r o l e t a r i a t n e e d e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e p e a s a n t r y and would g a i n i t b y r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the land. See I b i d , p p . 154-5. 20.  I b i d , p . 158.  '  w l . Q u o t e d and t r a n s l a t e d  i n Ibid,  p.  15^.  22.  i n Ibid,  p.  159.  Q u o t e d and t r a n s l a t e d  2 3 . H. G o r d o n S k i l l i n g , "Permanent o r U n i n t e r r u p t e d R e v o l u t i o n : L e n i n , T r o t s k y and t h e i r S u c c e s s o r s on t h e T r a n s i t i o n t o S o c i a l i s m s " C a n a d i a n S l a v o n i c P a p e r s . V, T o r o n t o ; The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1961, p. 4. 24.. R.V. D a n i e l s , The C o n s c i e n c e o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n : ommunist O p p o s i t i o n i n : S o v i e t R u s s i a , Cambridge M a s s ,  n i v e r s i t y Press, I960,  25.  Deutscher,  p. 36.  op. c i t , p .  l60. ;  Harvard  t  19  CHAPTER I I  I  With the success  of the October  communists were f a c e d w i t h  Revolution the  t h e dilemma o f r e c o n c i l i n g t h e  t h e o r y o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n w i t h t h e r e a l i t y it  from  a socialist  embryo s t a g e  s t a t e base e x i s t i n g  of organization.  Lenin's  S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t ' s ) answer t o t h i s number o f c o n c e s s i o n s fledgling  socialist  to theory  state.  That  of launching  only i n a  rudimentary  (and t h e r e f o r e t h e  dilemma was t o make a  i n order to preserve the t h e c o m p r o m i s e s were them-  s e l v e s t o b e c o m e . t h e o r y was e n t i r e l y u n f o r e s e e n  by h i m .  These c o n c e s s i o n s  a i d to the  world  - the withholding of m i l i t a r y  p r o l e t a r i a n movement a n d t h e u n d e r t a k i n g  c o l l a b o r a t i o n with "peaceful  the c a p i t a l i s t s  of limited  - are the r e a l  bases of  coexistence."  Lenin maintained a hundred-fold"-'-  t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n would " i n c r e a s e  the propaganda value o f s o c i a l i s m .  c o n s e q u e n c e , he was n o t p r e p a r e d  t o t h r e a t e n h i s r u l e on  a gamble o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t s u r r o u n d i n g alist  states,  Besides, ution  As a  capit-  t h e outcome o f w h i c h was n o t a t a l l c e r t a i n .  t h o u g h he o f t e n m i s t a k e n l y  p r e d i c t e d imminent  revol-  i n W e s t e r n E u r o p e , L e n i n was a s t u t e enough t o s e e t h a t  20  the On  c o n d i t i o n s o f p e r m a n e n t r e v o l u t i o n were n o t the  for  one  hand, t h e O c t o b e r r e v o l u t i o n f a i l e d  g e n e r a l r e v o l u t i o n i n E u r o p e , and,  capitalists  failed  to l a u n c h  the f u l l  r e t a l i a t i o n predicted i n Trotsky's i n t e r v e n t i o n was  too  limited  as a r e a l  t h r e a t , while  w h i c h was  t o see  the  of  the  impossibility  Soviet  theory.  The  i n the  internal  first  the  of  capitalist  p e r i p h e r a l t o be  confines  signal  other,  scale attack  desperate  the  as a  met.  regarded  situation Moscow, made  of i m p e r i a l Russia years  of the  existence  regime.  Moreover, and  the  the White armies approaching  armed i n t e r v e n t i o n o u t s i d e a practical  and  on  being  the Russian  economy was  so  devastated  r e v o l u t i o n t h a t i t s war-making p o t e n t i a l  was  by  reduced  war al-  2 most t o z e r o .  The  Red  Army i t s e l f  was  little  more t h a n  a  rabble. Any tion  i n 1917  did:  i n her  w o u l d be  practical  politician  viewing  w o u l d have come t o t h e weak and  confused  the Russian  situa-  same c o n c l u s i o n t h a t  condition s o c i a l i s t  courting utter annihilation  Lenin  Russia  i n launching  an  offen-  3 sive against made t h e  the g r e a t  d e c i s i o n not  meanwhile t o l a u n c h Lenin,  capitalist to f i g h t  powers o f E u r o p e .  unless  a propaganda  campaign o f  however, n e v e r f u l l y He  alists  immediate a t t a c k as  an  and  in  the  peace.  abandoned t h e  permanent r e v o l u t i o n . i n launching  looked  attacked  Lenin  upon t h e f a i l u r e due  idea  of  of the  merely to  capittheir  21 preoccupation felt,  as  forces.  with  soon as  t h e war.  the  The  a t t a c k would  imperialists  I n t h e meantime, he  could reorganize  would use  respite  t o r e s t o r e some o f R u s s i a ' s  power.  In d e f i n i n g the  the  immediate t a s k s of the  stated that, " i n order  o f f e n s i v e may  s u c c e s s f u l i t i s necessary  the  o f f e n s i v e f o r the  the r e s p i t e i n the space"  time being."4  socialist  ( p e r e d y s h k a ) and  Lenin their  unexpected  economy and  government L e n i n be  come,  fighting Soviet  t h a t the to  future  "suspend"  Lenin r e f e r r e d to  o f f e n s i v e as a  "breathing  outlined Soviet goals  during i t :  We must make u s e o f t h i s b r e a t h i n g s p a c e w h i c h c i r c u m s t a n c e s have g i v e n us t o h e a l t h e s e v e r e wounds t h a t war has i n f l i c t e d on t h e s o c i a l o r g a n i s m o f R u s s i a and t o r a i s e t h e economic l e v e l o f t h e c o u n t r y ... O n l y i n so f a r a s we are able to solve the o r g a n i z a t i o n problem w i l l we be i n a p o s i t i o n t o a s s i s t t h e s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n i n t h e West, w h i c h has b e e n d e l a y e d - f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . 5  Obviously,  Lenin  looked  forward  o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n , b u t secure  in i t s military  meantime, L e n i n  went on,  methods o f f i g h t i n g Lenin's the  new  tactic  and  the  method was  to the  eventual  o n l y when R u s s i a was  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l might.  "we  continuation  must know how  to  more In  the  change  our  enemy when c i r c u m s t a n c e s • c h a n g e . " to p r o l o n g  of advocating  the b r e a t h i n g  space  "peace" between a l l n a t i o n s .  by'  22 II  Lenin's peredyshka tion had  among a l a r g e supported  t h a t i t was t h a t would  caused  revolution  the b e g i n n i n g s  sweep t h e w o r l d .  i n the s i n c e r e  of a permanent  I t was  S p e c i a l P a r t y Congress  official  sanction f o r h i s concepts,  decision  t o accede  That the  Congress "Left  was  He  a d u a l between L e n i n on t h e one  who  gave the second  war  the  to  new  and  other.  (after of  that  s a t i s f i e d w i t h i t s B r e s t demands. he  7  hand,  policy  i n the- g r e a t war,  win  his  speech  attacked Lenin's b e l i e f  c o u n t i n g on a German v i c t o r y that  on  keynote  severely at Lenin's  ruthlessly  Germany w o u l d be  and  t o German demands a t B r e s t - L i t o v s k .  l a s h e d out  peredyshka.  p o i n t of called  in particular  Communists", headed b y B u k h a r i n ,  Bukharin, Lenin's),  that Lenin  i n M a r c h 1918  belief  revolution  to oppose t h i s  v i e w o f i m m e d i a t e a t t a c k on c a p i t a l i s m the Seventh  consterna-  s e c t i o n o f communist p a r t y members w h i c h  the October  indeed  a great deal of  Clearly maintained  Germany r e q u i r e d a b o u r g e o i s R u s s i a t o meet i t s p o s t food  commitments.  For that reason,  "Germany i n e v i t a b l y must f o l l o w now of the overthrowal  and  o f S o v i e t power and  B u k h a r i n went  on,  will  policy  follow a  not p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t -  ed  ence w i t h i t . " Soviet and  Moreover, B u k h a r i n  b e n e f i t s from  Lenin's analysis  saw  the p r o s p e c t s o f  t h e B r e s t peace as  "an  of  Power r a n k s  splits  i n Great  illusion  of Lenin' as  "not  23 correct.""^  He  concluded,  e x i s t e n c e between u s , national  capital,  p e r e d y s h k a was over,  between t h e  c a n n o t be." "*"  while  not  i d e o l o g y i s termed mirnoe  sosushchestvovanie While both  "coexistence",  term s u g g e s t s with  terms w i l l  "live  otherwise  than  a r y gumption was  first  and  had  one  of the  should uted stung  intimacy  an  quite  used t o oppose the L e n i n i s t  unmistakable derogatory ironies  of  Lenin  can  political be  this  Bukharin s T  incompatible conflict.  Thus,  d e s i r e to  h a r d l y be i n t e r p r e t e d l a c k of r e v o l u t i o n Peaceful  coexistence  foreign policy  overtones.  communism t h a t p e a c e f u l party l i n e ,  genius.  line  It i s therefore coexistence  directly  That B u k h a r i n ' s  seen, I b e l i e v e , i n the f a c t  t h a t same p h r a s e ,  together"  "existing  that  to Lenin's  a peredyshka.  h a v e become t h e o f f i c i a l  t o o k up  noted  gibe at Lenin's  i n advocating  to Lenin's  "living  translated i n  c a p i t a l i s m can  as a c r u e l  great  of  irreconcilable  references  peacefully" with  be  i t s h o u l d be  a degree of  slighting  first  sosushchestvovanie.  i s t h e more a b s t r a c t  a dogma e x p r e s s i n g  Bukharin's  L e n i n , who  More- '  were m i r n o e s o z h i t e l ' s t v o  T  work a s  first  however, t h a t t h e words u s e d  S o z h i t e l s t v o means a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p  together."  inter-  coexistence."  f o r peaceful coexistence  the present  while  and  seen as a form o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e .  i s worthy o f note,  Bukharin  co-  Thus, f r o m t h e v e r y  1  phrase "peaceful  It  "peaceful  Soviet Republic  i t seems t o have b e e n B u k h a r i n ,  used the  by  therefore, that  suggestion  that  M i r n o e s o z h i t e l ' s t v o , and  attrib-  Lenin used i t i n  24  , a sense t h a t h i s opponents c o u l d he  s t o l e the  their  fire  not  In t h i s  o f h i s o p p o n e n t s a r g u m e n t s by  propaganda a r s e n a l  t o h i s own  However, w h i l e B u k h a r i n was Germany, L e n i n  attack.  forged  way-  putting  use.  opposing peace  ahead w i t h h i s "peace"  with  taetic.  Ill  L e n i n ' s main aim be;  (1)  to  give  capitalists to g a i n on  a false  i n proclaiming  o r ambiguous a s s u r a n c e t o  of R u s s i a ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y  territory;  and,  European p r o l e t a r i a t t h a t p e a c e , and follows  (2)  time to r e o r g a n i z e ;  Soviet  in this  that  way  "peace was  with revolutionary  p e a c e would  (3) only  c o n v i n c e a war-weary desirous  r e v o l u t i o n abroad.  primarily a defensive  implications  thus  German a d v a n c e  s o c i a l i s m was  to i n c i t e  that  of It  measure,  have o f t e n  been  of Soviet issued  the  peace t a c t i c rule.  On  D e c r e e on  began a l m o s t f r o m  November 8, Peace which  1917  the  the  inception  Soviet  but  over-  looked.  The  to  the  i n t e n t i o n s and  to h a l t the  to  seem  regime  proposed,  t o a l l b e l l i g e r a n t p e o p l e s and t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t s the immediate opening of n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a j u s t democratic peace.12  This  decree,  w h i c h demanded a p e a c e w i t h o u t  and  indemnities,  for  a r e t u r n t o t h e s t a t u s quo a s i t e x i s t e d i n 1 9 1 4 ,  it  should  annexations  w o u l d seem t o i m p l y  n o t be t a k e n a s a g e n u i n e  on t h e s u r f a c e ,  appear t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s . designed public  to place  t a c t i c a l move  the s o c i a l i s t republic before  This opinion i s confirmed  as  and was meant t o  I t was a p u r e l y  o p i n i o n as an a r b i t e r  desire  world  o f p e a c e i n a war-weary w o r l d .  by T r o t s k y ' s  dispatch to  s e v e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f Western governments  expressing  t h e hope t h a t ,  y o u w i l l do e v e r y t h i n g i n y o u r power f u l l y t o i n f o r m p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n t h e c o u n t r i e s whose governments you r e p r e s e n t o f t h e s t e p s taken by t h e S o y i e t g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f peace.-"-3  T h i s was a n o b v i o u s r e q u e s t propagandists maintained  f o r these  f o rthe Soviets.  men t o a c t a s  Moreover, t h e S o v i e t s  t h a t t h e " p e a c e w h i c h we p r o p o s e must b e a  people's peace"14  which c o u l d  "only  be c o n c l u d e d  by a  diree;t and courageous s t r u g g l e o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y masses against a l l imperialist It  plans  i s clear that the Soviets  "revolution". appeal  and a g g r e s s i v e equated "peace"  T h i s i s emphasised  i n connection  with  designs. with  i n a further Soviet  t h e peace n e g o t i a t i o n s  calling  upon " t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s o f a l l c o u n t r i e s to. r e v o l t . " 1 °  facets  From t h e s e  e a r l y p r o n o u n c e m e n t s on p e a c e grew many  o f Russian  foreign policy.  " P e a c e " and' t h e " s t r u g g l e  26  f o r peace" were g i v e n a r a i s o n d ' e t r e "peaceful coexistence"  set  of t h e i r own, w h i l e  out on a course of development  d i s t i n c t from, though c l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h , the m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of R u s s i a ' s peace p o l i c y . peaceful coexistence  other  The seeds of  were sown i n these e a r l y t a c t i c a l  pronouncements on peace. The end of the war i n Western Europe saw the  Soviets  e n t e r i n g the most desperate phase o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e .  The  i n t e r v e n t i o n , economic b l o c k a d e , and the success of the White armies f o r c e d L e n i n t o p l a c e ever g r e a t e r emphasis on the d e s i r e f o r peace and c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the  capitalists.  D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d the S o v i e t s attempted t o o u t f l a n k t h e i r major opponents by s e c u r i n g peace t r e a t i e s w i t h a number of small c o u n t r i e s . Gn September 22,  1919,  R u s s i a proposed t h a t F i n l a n d  e n t e r i n t o peace n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r the purpose of p u t t i n g an end to h o s t i l i t i e s and of working out c o n d i t i o n s f o r p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s between F i n l a n d  and Russia.17 In t h i s p r o p o s a l i s coexistence,  seen not o n l y the d e s i r e f o r p e a c e f u l  but a l s o the S o v i e t i n i t i a t i v e i i i ending  permanent r e v o l u t i o n , i l l u s t r a t i n g how the e x i g e n c i e s White t h r e a t were i n f l u e n c i n g a change of By O c t o b e r , 1919  of the  ideology.  L e n i n was t a l k i n g "To the American  Workers" of a l a s t i n g peace w i t h America and the a l l o t m e n t  27 of t r a d e concessions t o c a p i t a l i s t s of t h i s p e r i o d i n which s o c i a l i s t will  exist t o g e t h e r . A n d  " f o r the whole  and c a p i t a l i s t  states  on December 22, 1919 the  S o v i e t government proposed a " s t a b l e and l a s t i n g with P o l a n d . A t  course  peace"  the end of the year L e n i n proposed a  d r a f t p r o j e c t t o the e f f e c t t h a t the RSFSR wishes to l i v e i n peace w i t h a l l the peoples and to d i r e c t a l l i t s s t r e n g t h to i n t e r n a l construction.20 And on February 24, 1920 the phrase " p e a c e f u l was used f o r the f i r s t  time i n an o f f i c i a l  coexistence"  decree:  The P e o p l e ' s Commissariat proposes t o the Japanese Government to s t a r t peace n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the o b j e c t o f s e c u r i n g f o r the two peoples a p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , good n e i g h b o r l y r e l a t i o n s and the mutual s a t i s f a c t i o n o f t h e i r mutual i n t e r e s t s . 2 1 The use o f the phrase was undoubtedly i n f l u e n c e d by L e n i n ' s use of the  same phrase o n l y s i x days p r e v i o u s l y .  February 18,  i n r e p l y to an American correspondents  concerning R u s s i a ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n A s i a , oft;-quoted  On question  he gave the now  answer.  In A s i a ? As i n Europe, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e (mirnoe s o z h i t e l ' s t v o ) w i t h peoples, w i t h workers and peasants of a l l n a t i o n s awakening t o a new l i f e , to a l i f e without e x p l o i t a t i o n . 2 2 Thus, two years a f t e r Bukharin threw out h i s barbed r e f e r ence t o L e n i n ' s l a c k of r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n i t i a t i v e ,  Lenin  r e i n t r o d u c e d the phrase " p e a c e f u l communist p a r l a n c e . it,  coexistence"  Now, however,  he c a r e f u l l y  not w i t h r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e s  In t h i s  i s w e l l chosen as an e x p r e s s i o n  identified  but between  and then only those peoples who d i s p l a y e d an revolutionary consciousness.  into  sense  peoples,  acceptable sozhitel stvo 1  of " l i v i n g together"  of  peoples d i v e r s i f i e d i n r a c e , language and c u l t u r e , but j o i n e d i n a f r i e n d l y brotherhood cemented by common r e v o l u t i o n a r y i d e a l s and a s p i r a t i o n s . irreeoncilible conflict and s o c i a l i s t misnomer.  capitalist  states,  capitalist  i n communist t h e o r y - i t  i n the above q u o t a t i o n ,  mention of p e a c e f u l  of an  - as the r e l a t i o n between  states i s ,  Lenin,  As an e x p r e s s i o n  is  a gross  s k i l l f u l l y avoids  c o e x i s t e n c e between s o c i a l i s t  and  suggesting t h a t even as l a t e as 1920  he was s t i l l preoccupied w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n .  The government n o t e ,  renewing  on the  other  hand, c l e a r l y i m p l i e s the p o s s i b i l i t y of c a p i t a l i s t and socialist  s t a t e s c o l l a b o r a t i n g i n ensuring p e a c e f u l  ence between p e o p l e s .  And w h i l e L e n i n foresaw  coexist-  peaceful  c o e x i s t e n c e only between people who opposed i m p e r i a l i s m , the government note proposed p e a c e f u l  c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h Japan,  a n a t i o n which at t h a t time was extremely minded.  It  imperialistic-  i s d o u b t f u l whether L e n i n s a n c t i o n e d  interpretation.  such an  I n any event the phrase was used f o r many  years i n both the sense o f r e l a t i o n s between peoples and between s t a t e s , w i t h the l a t t e r g r a d u a l l y p r e d o m i n a t i n g .  Throughout 1920 the communist regime continued t o protest that i t , remain(ed) as b e f o r e , t r u e t o the p r i n c i p l e which i t has f r e q u e n t l y proclaimed, and t h e d e s i r e which i t has f r e q u e n t l y expressed, to e s t a b l i s h peaceful r e l a t i o n s with a l l countries.23 In t h e meantime, however, R u s s i a had succeeded i n crowning i t s d e s i r e f o r p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e with  success.  During t h e course o f t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h E s t o n i a f o r a peace t r e a t y the S o v i e t Government s t a t e d , The d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r n a l p o l i c i e s , the profound chasm t h a t e x i s t s between the p r i n c i p l e s upon which the l i f e o f t h e peoples i n h a b i t i n g t h e Russian S o c i a l i s t Federated S o v i e t Republic i s founded and the methods w i t h which a l l other governments of l a r g e and s m a l l s t a t e s achieve t h e i r r u l e , must not p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r armed c o n f l i c t , because, being f i r m l y convinced t h a t t h e moment i s not f a r o f f when a l l peoples w i l l understand t h e advantages o f a s o c i a l i s t regime f o r them, t h e R u s s i a n r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o l e t a r i a t i s calmly a w a i t i n g t h i s moment, and does not p r e s s i t s own p r i n c i p l e s upon anyone.24 Commenting on t h i s statement diplomat  a y e a r l a t e r the S o v i e t  I o f f e stated t h a t ,  i n t h a t way t h a t a c t u a l f o u n d a t i o n f o r peaceful coexistence with Soviet Russia was p r o v i d e d , but under t h e circumstances t h a t then e x i s t e d , t h a t was not s u f f i c i e n t , because r e a l guarantees f o r p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e must be s u p p l i e d by t h e o t h e r p a r t y as w e l l . 5 2  30  This Soviet desire f o r r e c i p r o c i t y i n peaceful was a p p a r e n t l y met on February 2,  coexistence  1920, when E s t o n i a became  the f i r s t n o n - S o v i e t n a t i o n to conclude a peace t r e a t y w i t h Russia.  I n t h i s way S o v i e t propaganda t a c t i c s  reality in international affairs. Chicherin characterized i t  became a  Gommenting on t h i s  treaty  as  a g e n e r a l d r e s s r e h e a r s a l of our f u t u r e t r e a t i e s w i t h the Entente powers, as an attempt t o break through the b l o c k a d e , as an experiment of the p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e of the S o v i e t r e p u b l i c w i t h bourgeois s t a t e s . 2 6 Nevertheless,  a few months l a t e r C h i c h e r i n a s s e r t e d  "our slogan was and remains the  same - p e a c e f u l  that  coexistence  (mirnoe sosushchestvovanie) w i t h other s t a t e s whoever may be."27  O b v i o u s l y Chicherin f e l t uncomfortable about  i m p l i c a t i o n s of s o z h i t e l ' s t v o . ful  c o e x i s t e n c e was a . " p e a c e f u l  diplomacy, "peaceful  they  f o r i n his conception, d u e l " fought  the  peace-  through  o r , as he c a l l e d i t at the end of 1920,  a  offensive."29  The y e a r 1920 saw the f i r s t of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e .  f r u i t s of S o v i e t  The peace w i t h E s t o n i a (February  2) was f o l l o w e d by t r e a t i e s with L i t h u a n i a (August 1 1 ) ,  and F i n l a n d  (October 1 2 ) ,  t o grow i n t o a t r a d e agreement  (July 12),  a t r e a t y that  and the R a p a l l o t r e a t y )  (October  12).  Latvia  as w e l l as a t r e a t y  of p r i s o n e r exchange w i t h Germany ( A p r i l ;  Russian-Polish armistice  tactics  was and a  31 In h i s r e p o r t t o the E i g h t h A l l - R u s s i a n Congress of S o v i e t s , L e n i n f e l t assured t h a t these t r e a t i e s had "every chance t o be more l a s t i n g than the would desire."3° coexistence was  now  L e n i n ' s February d e s i r e f o r p e a c e f u l  only between peoples opposed t o c a p i t a l i s m  broadened i n scope t o i n c l u d e any  states.  capitalists  peoples and  Here i s another i l l u s t r a t i o n of how  r e a l p o l i t i k was peaceful  their  successful  i n f l u e n c i n g the development of the i d e a of  coexistence.  In t h i s way  the S o v i e t s had  l e g a l i z e d i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. c a l stand designed t o hold the  t h e i r breathing  What had  begun as a t a c t i -  c a p i t a l i s t s at bay,  a c t u a l l y t o p r e c i p i t a t e r e v o l u t i o n abroad, had an o b l i g a t i o n under i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  of the  government not to proceed w i t h i t s p l a n s r e v o l u t i o n w i t h the a i d of redguardsmen. t o prove t h a t i n a way v i c t i m s of t h e i r own  space  now  i f not become  socialist  to advance world Events were  the S o v i e t s were themselves the  propaganda.  The  first  inadvertant  moves away from permanent r e v o l u t i o n towards p e a c e f u l existence  began the day  a f t e r the  set o f f the world c o n f l a g r a t i o n .  spark occurred The  co-  t h a t was to.'  S o v i e t regime was  now  f a c e d w i t h no a l t e r n a t i v e but t o f o s t e r p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s between i t s e l f and though i t was  not  the governments of other  s t a t e s , even  sincere i n i t s intentions.  moved f a r i n the d i r e c t i o n of becoming an  The means had  end.  32 The  circumstances l e a d i n g t o t h e S o v i e t  of " p e a c e f u l  adoption  c o e x i s t e n c e " were admirably o u t l i n e d i n 1921  by the prominent f o r e i g n a f f a i r s diplomat, A.A. I o f f e : The S o v i e t government, born under the s i g n of a s t r u g g l e f o r peace, was o b l i g e d from the moment of i t s b i r t h t o pass t o a " p e a c e f u l o f f e n s i v e " a g a i n s t t h e bourgeois order because an armed o f f e n s i v e was not p o s s i b l e , while the coexistence of a Soviet government w i t h t h e i m p e r i a l i s t ones appeared u n t h i n k a b l e . Imperialism, however, proved s t r o n g e r than one might have supposed, and t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o l e t a r i a t was exhausted by f o u r y e a r s of s l a u g h t e r and the continuous b e t r a y a l of i t s o l d l e a d e r s . The world r e v o l u t i o n was d e l a y e d . I n t h a t way a p e a c e f u l o f f e n s i v e o f t h e S o v i e t government became a means o f s e l f - d e f e n s e . 3 1 Ioffe's analysis i s a b r i l l i a n t  summation of t h e  S o v i e t p o s i t i o n i n the immediate p o s t - r e v o l u t i o n a r y  period.  Of c h i e f i n t e r e s t here, however, i s the use of p e a c e f u l offensive.  I t i s c l e a r from the r e s t o f t h e passage t h a t  he i s d e s c r i b i n g the c o n d i t i o n of p e a c e f u l e x i s t e d a t the time when he was w r i t i n g . one  of the f i r s t  coexistence  as i t  T h i s passage i s  t o attempt t o j u s t i f y a c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h  the enemy t h a t had been e n t i r e l y unforeseen f o u r y e a r s previously.  I t i s clear, a l s o t h a t I o f f e , one o f the most  competent diplomats o f h i s time, was aware t h a t coexistence West.  peaceful  had been f o r c e d on R u s s i a by t h e power o f t h e  T h i s o p i n i o n i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e statements  33 of the l a t e twenties which attempted t o show t h a t the West had been f o r c e d i n t o c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h R u s s i a through S o v i e t power (see  Chapter T h r e e ) .  However, i t  t o note I o f f e ' s emphasis on the o f f e n s i v e f u l coexistence,  is  interesting  nature of peace-  even i n t h a t time of p e r i l to the  socialist  republic. While the f i r s t glimmerings of i d e o l o g i c a l  justifi-  c a t i o n were d e v e l o p i n g , L e n i n continued w i t h the p e a c e f u l coexistence  campaign.  On November 27, 1922,  i n an i n t e r v i e w  w i t h two B r i t i s h j o u r n a l i s t s , L e n i n emphasised t h a t  the  S o v i e t Union was not contemplating an agreement w i t h France directed against England.  And he added, "we reckon t h a t  completely f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s w i t h both powers i s  completely  32 p o s s i b l e and c o n s t i t u t e s  our a i m . "  L e n i n even saw  R u s s i a as an a r b i t e r of peace between these two c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s : "we even t h i n k t h a t p e a c e f u l and f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s of these powers toward R u s s i a c o n t a i n s one of the guarantees  (I almost s a i d the strongest  guarantee) f o r peace  and f r i e n d s h i p between France and England t o continue f o r a long t i m e . "33  IV  Just as the p o l i c y of peace began t o develop from the  34  v e r y moment of the October r e v o l u t i o n , so the other  corol-  l a r y of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e - t r a d e w i t h c a p i t a l i s m developed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  In h i s c o n c l u d i n g remarks on the  Decree on Peace L e n i n i n c l u d e d a d i r e c t b i d f o r t r a d e . We r e j e c t a l l p o i n t s concerned w i t h robbery and v i o l e n c e , but a l l p o i n t s ,whieh embrace good neighbor c o n d i t i o n s and economic agreements we g l a d l y a c c e p t , we cannot r e j e c t them.34 These f i r s t attempts at e n t e r i n g t r a d e  relations  w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t s met w i t h strong o p p o s i t i o n from the  so-  c a l l e d "Left Communists," whose a l l e g i a n c e to M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e made them r e j e c t any s o r t of c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the West.  L e n i n , whose a l l e g i a n c e t o d o c t r i n e was not  s t r o n g as h i s d e s i r e to preserve the S o v i e t out a g a i n s t  t h i s p o i n t of view.  and monstrous" i d e a s ,  state,  as  spoke  In r i d i c u l i n g such "strange  he gave a p u r e l y p r a c t i c a l and non-  t h e o r e t i c a l reason f o r advocating t r a d e . The s o c i a l i s t r e p u b l i c amid i m p e r i a l i s t powers could not from that p o i n t of view conclude any economic t r e a t i e s and could not e x i s t at a l l without f l y i n g t o the moon.35 L e n i n had no i n t e n t i o n o f abandoning s o c i a l i s t  R u s s i a to  fly  T  t o the moon.  To keep the new s t a t e i n e x i s t e n c e L e n i n was  prepared to s i g n the degrading B r e s t peace t r e a t y and t o t r y f o r economic agreements t h a t would hasten R u s s i a ' s r e c o n struction.  35 When asked by a correspondent o f the Government's p o s i t i o n on c o n c l u d i n g economic with America, Lenin  Soviet agreements  stated,  We are decidedly f o r economic agreements w i t h America - w i t h a l l c o u n t r i e s - but p a r t i c u l a r l y with America.36 At the same time L e n i n was prepared to guarantee t h a t Soviet of  the  Union would not i n t e r f e r e i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s  foreign states.3?  And i n a now o f t - q u o t e d passage,  he  spoke of both peace and t r a d e ; L e t the American c a p i t a l i s t s not d i s t u r b u s . We w i l l not d i s t u r b them. We are even p r e pared t o pay them g o l d f o r u s e f u l items - f o r t r a n s p o r t , p r o d u c t i o n machinery, t o o l s , and so on. And not o n l y g o l d , but a l s o raw materials.3° While R u s s i a was i n no p o s i t i o n t o d i s t u r b anyone i n 1920,  t h i s passage i s an i n t e r e s t i n g example of the com-  munists a b i l i t y to p l a y on the needs of the c a p i t a l i s t s secure t h e i r own ends. bribed i n t o peaceful  In e f f e c t  subtly  coexistence.  When asked the q u e s t i o n , i n t o business  the c a p i t a l i s t s a r e  to  "Is R u s s i a prepared to  r e l a t i o n s w i t h America?", L e n i n r e p l i e d :  Of course i t i s p r e p a r e d , as w i t h a l l c o u n t r i e s . Peace w i t h E s t o n i a , i n which we have g i v e n enormous c o n c e s s i o n s , has shown our preparedness to enter g l a d l y i n t o t h i s . 3 9  enter  36 In fact.,  the need f o r t r a d e was deemed of such importance  by L e n i n t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d the v e r y s u r v i v a l o f socialist  s t a t e to be l i n k e d w i t h t r a d e .  1920 he f r a n k l y t o l d a communist audience  the  At the end o f that,  An extremely important f a c t o r a l l o w i n g us t o e x i s t w i t h c a p i t a l i s t powers d u r i n g t h i s complicated and u t t e r l y e x c e p t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n , i s the f a c t o r of the s o c i a l i s t country e n t e r i n g i n t o trade r e l a t i o n s with c a p i t a l i s t countries.40 Though Western goods would not a i d i n R u s s i a ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , the  significantly  e x i s t e n c e of the  Soviet  s t a t e d i d not depend so much on trade as upon the n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n t h a t t r a d e would c r e a t e .  inter-  In l a t e 1920  L e n i n t o l d the E i g h t h Congress o f S o v i e t s t h a t  he,  d i d not f o r a moment b e l i e v e i n l a s t i n g t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h the i m p e r i a l i s t powers: what we s h a l l o b t a i n w i l l be simply a b r e a t h i n g s p a c e . 4 1 Trade was simply a means to ensure the p r o l o n g a t i o n of period of peaceful  coexistence.  L e n i n had f i r s t  entered t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h  West as a d e f e n s i v e measure to p a c i f y the to r e s t o r e R u s s i a ' s  the  shattered  of the b r e a t h i n g space.  the  capitalists  i n d u s t r i e s d u r i n g the  The r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t  and  period  the b r e a t h i n g  space was t o be a c o m p a r a t i v e l y l o n g one f o r c e d L e n i n t o attempt the t h e o r e t i c a l  justification for offering  trade  37 c o n c e s s i o n s to Western  capitalists.  During a speech t o the Moscow a k t i v o r g a n i z a t i o n i n December 1 9 2 0 , L e n i n s t a t e d h i s i d e a s on trade i n the f r a n k e s t and most r e v e a l i n g manner. audience  He p o i n t e d out to h i s  that  i t would be the g r e a t e s t mistake t o t h i n k t h a t concessions mean peace. They are n o t h i n g of the s o r t . Concessions are a new form of  war.42  L e n i n went On t o s t a t e t h a t R u s s i a had  been  t o expand by m i l i t a r y means because " c a p i t a l i s m had to be unquestionably  stronger'  i n war"  unable proved  than R u s s i a . ^  For  t h a t reason R u s s i a had only been able to " h o l d i t s ground" on the b a t t l e f i e l d .  (An admission  t i o n had been a failure,) t a k i n g the war  t h a t permanent r e v o l u -  However, R u s s i a c o u l d expand by  i n t o the economic plane.  a s o r t of c o m p e t i t i o n between those  L e n i n saw t r a d e as  states following a  p o l i c y of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i n t h e i r f o r e i g n a f f a i r s : T h i s (trade) i s a l s o of the nature of a war, a m i l i t a n t competition ( s o s t a z a n i e ) of two methods, two f o r m a t i o n s , two economies the communist and c a p i t a l i s t . We must prove t h a t we are s t r o n g . They say t o us; " w e l l , a l l r i g h t , you have stood your ground on the external front, start to build, l e t ' s build and l e t ' s see who w i l l win." Of course the t a s k i s d i f f i c u l t , but we have s a i d and say, " S o c i a l i s m has the power of example" .... I t i s necessary t o show p r a c t i c a l l y , by example, the meaning of communism. We don't have machines; war has r u i n e d us; war has 1  38  exhausted R u s s i a ' s economic r e s o u r c e s ; but a l l the same we do not f e a r t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n , because i t w i l l be f a v o r a b l e f o r us i n a l l respects. T h i s w i l l be a war d u r i n g which i t i s not p o s s i b l e to g i v e the smallest concessions (to p r i n c i p l e : u s t u p k a ) . T h i s war w i l l be f a v o r a b l e f o r us i n a l l r e s p e c t s , f a v o r a b l e a l s o f o r the t r a n s i t i o n from the o l d war ,to t h i s new one.44 L e n i n overlooked the f a c t t h a t the change i n the manner of "war" was i n i t s e l f  a concession t o t h e o r y .  However,  t r a d e c o m p e t i t i o n would have s e v e r a l " i n d i r e c t guarantees of peace"45 because "the e x i s t e n c e of concessions economic and p o l i t i c a l reason a g a i n s t war." is  i s an  Here again  seen the attempt t o b r i b e the West i n t o p e a c e f u l  ence: L e n i n thought, r a t h e r n a i v e l y , t h a t the  coexist-  capitalists  would not go to war as l o n g as they c o u l d f i l l  their  pockets  with g o l d . L e n i n topped o f f h i s  speech w i t h a paraphrase and  e x t e n s i o n of C l a u s e w i t z ' s famous dictum t h a t "war i s an e x t e n s i o n of diplomacy by other means" w i t h  "concessions  are a c o n t i n u a t i o n of war but by other m e a n s . " ^  And f i n -  a l l y , L e n i n stated t h a t R u s s i a must m o b i l i z e f o r t h i s c o m p e t i t i o n which e x p l a i n s why R u s s i a has had a v i r t u a l war economy f o r the l a s t  f o r t y - f i v e years.  In c o n c l u s i o n L e n i n  s t a t e d h i s c o n v i c t i o n t h a t "competition" w i l l end i n a victory for socialism.  I b e l i e v e t h a t the s o c i a l i s t power w i l l c a t c h up and o u t s t r i p the c a p i t a l i s t s and» that the g a i n i t shows w i l l be not only p u r e l y economic.4° From these q u o t a t i o n s i t  •  i s evident that what began  as a d e f e n s i v e  measure has now become a m i l i t a n t d o c t r i n e  of  The communists have overlooked the  expansion.  > y  fact,  however, t h a t i n the f o r t y - t w o years s i n c e L e n i n d e l i v e r e d t h i s speech s o c i a l i s m has not gained a s i n g l e t e r r i t o r y as a d i r e c t r e s u l t of i t s  economic  i n c h of example.  J u s t as s o z h i t e l * s t v o was L e n i n ' s c h o i c e of coe x i s t e n c e , w h i l e the p r e s e n t l y employed term i s sosushchestvovanie.  so L e n i n ' s c h o i c e o f s o s t ' a z a n i e  been exchanged f o r s o r e v n o v a n i e .  has  While both words i n g e n e r a l  mean "competition" the nuances o f meaning between the two mark a s i g n i f i c a n t  switch of emphasis.  Sost'azanie  sug-  g e s t s a p u r e l y p h y s i c a l , u n y i e l d i n g , m i l i t a n t , combative type o f c o m p e t i t i o n , w h i l e sorevnovanie i s a more a b s t r a c t and l e s s a g g r e s s i v e  t e r m , o f t e n t r a n s l a t e d as " e m u l a t i o n . "  The e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s change of t e r m i n o l o g y must be somewhat s p e c u l a t i v e ,  as the communists have  n e g l e c t e d t o note the change.  conveniently  Pre-revolutionary doctrine,  i n l i n e w i t h the t h e o r y of permanent r e v o l u t i o n , had p o s i t e d the d i s c a r d i n g of the o l d s o c i e t y the method of p r o d u c t i o n . t h e r e f o r e , would be a f i g h t  in i t s entirety, including  The f i g h t a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m , to the f i n i s h , w i t h no q u a r t e r  40  given.  L e n i n ' s choice of s o s t ' a z a n i e ,  like  sozhitel'stvo.  was w e l l - s u i t e d f o r the r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t he had i n mind. However, during the 1920's the R u s s i a n communists  became  i n c r e a s i n g l y aware t h a t i f the c a p i t a l i s t s were indeed t o be o u t s t r i p p e d , t h e n what had proven s u c c e s s f u l c a p i t a l i s t system must be c o p i e d i n the  i n the  socialist.  U n f l i n c h i n g s o s t ' a z a n i e would not j u s t i f y the adoption of such a c o u r s e , w h i l e sorevnovanie would. terminology, then,  signifies  a t r a n s i t i o n from permanent  r e v o l u t i o n to p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , saw a r e a l c o n c e s s i o n t o p r i n c i p l e . c o u r s e , refuse t o admit t h i s  The change of  which i n the  process  The communists, of  concession.  Perhaps most s i g n i f i c a n t i n L e n i n ' s speech to  the  a k t i v i s the absence of j u s t i f i c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to M a r x i s t theory.  T h i s task was l e f t  t o Kamenev, who, at the Tenth  P a r t y Congress of 1921 attempted to r a t i o n a l i z e R u s s i a ' s t r a d e p o l i c y i n terms of M a r x i s t d o c t r i n e . The d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of the c a p i t a l i s t economy i n Western Europe i s so advanced t h a t of course our raw m a t e r i a l s , which w i l l b r i n g us i n t o the world economy, cannot d e l a y the r e v o l u t i o n a r y process even f o r an hour. Moreover, the d e v e l opment o f the p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s of the world economy does not c o n t r a d i c t the p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n , b u t , on the c o n t r a r y , o n l y s t i m u l a t e s i t s development, because i t sharpens the contradictions.49 At the Tenth A l l R u s s i a n Conference of the RKP (b) L e n i n r e t u r n e d t o an e x p l a n a t i o n of the e f f e c t s of  sost'azanfe  41 on t h e  world  revolutionary  process.  Now we a r e showing o u r m a i n i n f l u e n c e on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e v o l u t i o n by o u r economic p o l i c y .... I n t h i s f i e l d t h e s t r u g g l e h a s b e e n c a r r i e d i n t o an i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c a l e . When we have s o l v e d t h e p r o b l e m ( o f o u r e c o n o m i c w e a k n e s s ) we w i l l have s u r e l y and d e f i n i t e l y g a i n e d i n t h e international scale. T h e r e f o r e the q u e s t i o n o f e c o n o m i c r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a c q u i r e s f o r us a q u i t e e x c e p t i o n a l meaning. On t h i s f r o n t we .must c a r r y t h e day by s l o w , g r a d u a l - q u i c k l y i s not p o s s i b l e - but i n f l e x i b l e a s c e n t and movement f o r w a r d . 5 0  With the  approach of Russian  Genoa C o n f e r e n c e o f 1922 receded was  i n t o the  clearly  i n the  party  l e a d e r s and  trade  p o s s i b i l i t i e s with  (b)  of  i n the  trade  A more c o n c i l i a t o r y a t t i t u d e pronouncements  t h a t attempted  the  Lenin  aspect  s p e e c h e s and  diplomats  I n M a r c h 1922, t h e RKP  the m i l i t a n t  background.  evident  participation  policy told  the  to link  of peaceful Eleventh  of  up  coexistence.  Congress  of  that  i t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t we go t o Genoa a s m e r c h a n t s , not as communists. We must t r a d e and t h e y must t r a d e . 5 1 Chicherin's (April  10,  1922)  opening  contained  statement t o the the  Conference  following significant  graph:  W h i l s t m a i n t a i n i n g the p o i n t of view of communist p r i n c i p l e s , t h e R u s s i a n d e l e g a t i o n  para-  42 recognizes t h a t i n the present p e r i o d of h i s t o r y which permits the p a r a l l e l e x i s t e n c e o f t h e o l d s o c i a l o r d e r and t h e new o r d e r now b e i n g b o r n , economic c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n s t a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e two s y s t e m s o f ownership i s imperatively necessary f o r general economic r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . 5 2  And  he  concluded  Session  h i s speech b e f o r e  of the Conference with  the  the  Second  Plenary  f o l l o w i n g words:  In conclusion I should l i k e to express my c o n v i c t i o n t h a t o n l y by means o f e c o n o m i c c o l l a b o r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e two w o r l d s whose p o l i c y i s b a s e d on d i f f e r e n t e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s s h a l l we be a b l e t o move f o r w a r d i n t h e d i r e c t i o n of r e s t o r i n g peace.53  T h u s , by foreign bid  the  p o l i c y , the  end  o f the  peaceful coexistence. had  not  period of  communists were m a k i n g a  t o have e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s  coexistence  first  determined  i n c l u d e d i n the  Once a g a i n  been decided  t h e name o f on,  Soviet  policy  of  peaceful  Chicherin referring  to  ii it  e i t h e r as  parallel  existence," or,  simply,  "the  two  worlds."  V  The virtual  fact  t h a t the  stalemate, w i t h  immediate  affairs,  s t a t e had  t h e West, w i t h  or f o r e s e e a b l e  international  socialist  long  no  existed i n a  prospects  r a n g e change i n t h e  l e d L e n i n t o draw new  of  an  state  of  conclusions.  43  T a k i n g a whole v i e w o f o u r i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n we see t h a t we h a v e a t t a i n e d enormous s u c c e s s e s , t h a t we have n o t o n l y a b r e a t h i n g s p a c e , b u t s o m e t h i n g f a r more serious. We have a c c e p t e d t o c a l l a s h o r t i n t e r v a l of time a b r e a t h i n g space i n the c o u r s e o f w h i c h f o r t h e i m p e r i a l i s t powers t h e r e have b e e n p o s s i b i l i t i e s many t i m e s t o renew a more p o w e r f u l a t t e m p t o f war w i t h u s . We a l s o do n o t a l l o w o u r s e l v e s t o l o s e s i g h t o f o r t o deny t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f m i l i t a r y i n t e r f e r e n c e i n our a f f a i r s by c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s i n the f u t u r e . I t i s necessary to maintain our m i l i t a r y p r e p a r e d n e s s . But i f we l o o k a t t h o s e c o n d i t i o n s d u r i n g w h i c h we have b e a t e n o f f a l l attempts of the c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n and have a t t a i n e d a f o r m a l c o n c l u s i o n o f p e a c e w i t h a l l s t a t e s o f t h e West, t h e n i t becomes c l e a r t h a t we have n o t o n l y a b r e a t h i n g s p a c e ; we h a v e a new p e r i o d when our fundamental e x i s t e n c e i n a network o f c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s has b e e n won.54 The state the  r e c o g n i t i o n by  o f a f f a i r s was  development  signed  the  Soviet  regime of a  new  t o have enormous r e p e r c u s s i o n s  of peaceful  f o r a "breathing  policies:  the  s p a c e " now  r e s u l t was  m a n e u v e r i n g - were now  coexistence. served  that t a c t i c s  serving  The  tactics  long  - the  for de  range  day  s t r a t e g i c , long  by  day  range  objectives. The t o be at  the  p e r i o d between 1920 most d e c i s i v e p e r i o d  t h i s time t h a t the  r e v o l u t i o n was coexistence. e n c e was  i n the The  and  1922  may  i n Soviet  w e l l be  history.  communists r e a l i z e d t h a t process of being  d e c i s i v e , f o r i n so d o i n g  the  by  peaceful  Soviet  It  was  permanent  replaced  d e c i s i o n t o proceed with  said  peaceful coexist-  communists f o r  44  all  practical  purposes  were a b a n d o n i n g  commitment t o t h e f o r e i g n p r o l e t a r i a t . period  of s o u l  their  T h i s was  and  r e p l a c e d by t h e new  t h e new  military  a  s e a r c h i n g f o r t h e communists, a p e r i o d when  t h e a l l e g i a n c e t o permanent r e v o l u t i o n had fully  military  policy.  i d e o l o g y i s seen  expert Frunze's  This clash  clearly  statement  not y e t been  of  i n the  of the o l d  Russian  1921.  The d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t r e c o g n i z e s t h e most w h o l e - h e a r t e d and r u t h l e s s c l a s s war o f the workers a g a i n s t the c l a s s r u l e r s of the o l d w o r l d - t h e b o u r g e o i s i e , w h i c h , s u p p o r t e d by t h e power o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c a p i t a l , by t h e power and d u r a b i l i t y o f i t s i n t e r n a t i o n a l t i e s , and, f i n a l l y , by t h e e l e m e n t a l c o n s e r v a t i s m o f t h e p e t t y - b o u r g e o i s m a s s e s , i s a f e a r f u l and m i g h t y enemy o f t h e new b u r g e o n i n g w o r l d . Between o u r p r o l e t a r i a n s t a t e and a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g b o u r g e o i s w o r l d t h e r e can be o n l y one c o n d i t i o n o f l o n g , p e r s i s t e n t , d e s p e r a t e war t o t h e d e a t h ; w a r s demanding c o l l o s a l e n d u r a n c e , d i s c i p l i n e , s o l i d a r i t y i n f l e x i b i l i t y , and s i n g l e - \ ^ i l l . The e x t e r n a l f o r m o f t h e s e m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s d e p e n d e n t on c h a n g i n g c o n d i t i o n s and t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s t r u g g l e can be a l t e r e d ; t h e c o n d i t i o n o f open war c a n c e d e i t s p l a c e t o some f o r m o f a g r e e d r e l a t i o n s , a d m i t t i n g to a c e r t a i n degree p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e (mirnoe s o z h i t e l ' s t v o ) o f the opposing sides. But i n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s , t h e s e a g r e e d f o r m s do n o t change i n e s s e n c e . And i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o f u l l y r e a l i z e and o p e n l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t t h e combined p a r a l l e l e x i s t e n c e ( s o v m e s t n o e p a r a l l e l ' n o e s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e ) o f our p r o l e t a r i a n S o v i e t s t a t e w i t h the s t a t e s of the b o u r g e o i s - c a p i t a l i s t world f o r a p r o l o n g e d time i s not p o s s i b l e . 5 5  In  this  illustrate well ful  passage  a number o f p o i n t s c a n be n o t e d  the s t a t e  coexistence existed  of f l u x i n which the i d e a  i n the  early  1920's.  In the  of  that peace-  first  45 place the name of the new policy i s s t i l l i n doubt: Frunze was divided between "peaceful coexistence" and "combined p a r a l l e l existence."  Moreover, the assertion that "peaceful  coexistence" could not be continued f o r a prolonged  time  i s i n marked contrast to the statements of the early 1950's which spoke of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of prolonged peaceful coexistence.  And f i n a l l y , i t i s clear that the terms of  peaceful coexistence were being determined by an attempt t o (  reconcile i t with permanent revolution, with the result that the new ideology contained some of the militancy of the old doctrine. to  Peaceful coexistence, moreover, i s only possible  a c e r t a i n degree, suggesting that the two doctrines would  continue to operate side by side.  That Frunze meant t h i s to  be so can be seen from h i s statement a year l a t e r to the effect that "prolonged  peaceful combined existence"  (dlltel'noe mirnoe sovmestnoe sushchestvovanie)56 s t i l l another name f o r peaceful coexistence - was impossible, though the struggle between bourgeois and s o c i a l i s t states could be carried on by p o l i t i c a l means (peaceful coexistence) 57 p a r a l l e l with m i l i t a r y means (permanent r e v o l u t i o n ) . Other Soviet leaders were also concerned with the new p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n .  On October 28, 1922, Karl Radek  conceded that a modus V i v e n d i has existed for the past f i v e years, an unstable equilibrium characterized by a series of transactions between us and the c a p i t a l i s t world.58  46 Here i s y e t another as  'peaceful  The  expression  o f what was  t o become known  coexistence'.  realization  and  West had  led  L e n i n t o r e c o n s i d e r the uses to which the  ad hoc  seemingly  t h a t t h e modus V i v e n d i between E a s t  tactics  settled  down t o r e l a t i v e  permanency  previous  o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e were b e i n g  put.  Like  r  1  permanent"revolution existence admirably As t h e  before  served the  basic situation  R u s s i a was  still  r e a s o n why  the r e v o l u t i o n , peaceful  as  purposes of the  i t e x i s t e d i n 1917  no  had  p r o v e n so s u c c e s s f u l , s h o u l d n o t  L e n i n now  1922  the t a c t i c s  tentatively  a positive  decided  t o use  the Lausaunne Conference R u s s i a was  was  not  of Russia.  not  L e n i n was  e x i s t e n c e argument i n an  changed there  become a s t r a t e g y . peaceful coexistence  effort  In the  h e l d to decide invited  whose d e c i s i o n s w o u l d h a v e v i t a l l y position  had  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , which  as w e l l as a n e g a t i v e measure.  the Dardenelles.  communists.  weak i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e West -  was  co-  quick to  the f a t e  to this  affected t o use  course  as of of  Conference,  the  military  the  peaceful  secure Russian  co-  participa-  tion; Our N e a r E a s t p o l i c y a s an a f f a i r o f t h e most r e a l and i m m e d i a t e v i t a l i n t e r e s t s o f R u s s i a and t h e w h o l e s e r i e s o f s t a t e s f e d e r a t e d w i t h i t - . I f a l l t h e s e s t a t e s do n o t a t t a i n t h e i r demands o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the Near E a s t c o n f e r e n c e , t h e n t h i s w i l l s i g n i f y s u c h a mass o f e l e m e n t s o f e n m i t y , o f c o n f l i c t s and d i s c o n t e n t ; t h i s w i l l s i g n i f y such d i f f i c u l t i e s i n  -  47  p u r e l y t r a d e a f f a i r s between E a s t e r n E u r o p e on t h e one h a n d , and a l l t h e o t h e r s t a t e s on t h e o t h e r , t h a t p e a c e f u l coexistence w i l l remain e i t h e r completely u n f o u n d e d o r w i l l be u n u s u a l l y hampered.59  From t h i s  passage i t i s p l a i n l y  e x i s t e n c e was offensive the  now  no  argument t o s e c u r e  S o v i e t Union.  existence  longer  i s now  t h a t L e n i n had  evident  that peaceful  a d e f e n s i v e maneuver, b u t the  foreign policy  moved f a r i n h i s c o n c e p t  states,  illustration  capitalists: a rupture  of Lenin's  a rupture  attempt  of co-  suggesting  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t -  ence s i n c e h i s e a r l y s t a t e m e n t s o f i t i n 1920. further  an  demands  I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t p e a c e f u l used i n c o n j u n c t i o n with  co-  to bribe  It i s also a the  o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e m i g h t mean  o f t r a d e , and  hence a decrease  in capitalist  pro-  fits.  Lenin's d o m i n a t e d by  capitalists  c o e x i s t e n c e may he the  told  an  c o n v i c t i o n t h a t an  be  could  international  s u c c e s s f u l l y ensure  d o u b t e d , however, f o r on  "observer"  League o f N a t i o n s  organization  correspondent on p r i n c i p l e  peaceful  O c t o b e r 27,  that Russia  objected  1922 to  because,  I t i s completely inadequate as r e g a r d s the e q u a l i t y o f n a t i o n s and t h e r e a l c h a n c e s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e between them, t h a t o u r n e g a t i v e e s t i m a t e o f i t seems t o me q u i t e understandable and i n need o f no f u r t h e r comment." 0  It any  should union  be  b o r n e i n m i n d , however, t h a t L e n i n  o f s t a t e s - w h e t h e r League o f N a t i o n s  objected or  to  "United  48  States the  o f E u r o p e " - t h a t was  d i c t a t o r s h i p of the  synonymous w i t h  satisfied  the  This aspect  controlled  Bolshevik  faction.  became t a c i t l y  self-interests  of the Russian has  S o v i e t t h e o r e t i c i a n s as  d i r e c t e d by i n turn  Therefore,  d e f i n e d as  of peaceful coexistence  e m p h a s i s e d by  and  p r o l e t a r i a t , w h i c h was  Lenin's  peaceful coexistence  not  whatever  Communist  Party.  b e e n more and  the  ideology  more  has  developed.  VTI  By  1922  the u n c e r t a i n days o f the  i n t e r v e n t i o n were l e f t in  that received theoretical  coexistence the  and  w h i c h was  breathing  space.  tolerated to exist ed  c o m i n g , d e s p i t e a de Russian that  trade  Britain  a like  not  as  the  peaceful  now  s c a l e , i t was nation.  yet been  e x t e n d e d de  o f 1921. jure  I t was  not  other great  Anglo-  1924  precipitated  powers  S t a t e s , which remained a l o o f u n t i l  Jure  forth-  until  r e c o g n i t i o n and  accordDe  f a c t o r e c o g n i t i o n embodied i n an  agreement  way  continuation  R u s s i a was  second-rate  powers had  r e c o g n i t i o n from a l l the  United  to assure  international as a  come a l o n g  t h e West - a modus  However, w h i l e  i n the  the great  had  justification  designed  only r e l u c t a n t admission  r e c o g n i t i o n by  The  Russia  e s t a b l i s h i n g a modus v i v e n d i w i t h  vivendi  of  behind.  r e v o l u t i o n and  1933.  except  49 In course self  t h e meantime a s e r i e s  o f 1922  gave R u s s i a t h e  the  i n these  Soviet willingness de  jure  c o n f e r e n c e s was  r e c o g n i t i o n and  d u r i n g the course  to  he  I t s primary  R u s s i a was  g a t i o n , was  c a r e f u l t o warn t h e  guard R u s s i a ' s independence, sovereign r i g h t s nor  articles  1  Both  of the  While  these  C h i c h e r i n , who  power.  interference  she  the  sub-  "we  must violation  domestic basic  of peaceful coexistence.  h e r a i m s o f de she  d i d indeed warrent  bear w i t n e s s t o h i s p l e a s u r e a t the policy:  i n her  were t o become  C h i c h e r i n ' s remarks t o the  existence  developed  headed the d e l e -  conference that  R u s s i a d i d not achieve  t h e West t h a t  on  p e r m i t t i n g n e i t h e r the  concerns  principle  still  o f d e p e n d e n c e and  r e c o g n i t i o n a t t h e Genoa C o n f e r e n c e , to  equal.  t h a t t h e West w o u l d  to place i t i n a p o s i t i o n  affairs."^  of  in return  f u r t h e r d e f i n e d and  f e a r was  For t h i s reason  her  evidence  of the n e g o t i a t i o n s .  servience.  of  facto  c o n s i d e r a t i o n a s an  At t h e Genoa C o n f e r e n c e  attempt  de  Russian  t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h t h e West  P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was  defensive.  c o n s i d e r a t i o n and r e s p e c t  other major n a t i o n s of the world.  participation  the  opportunity to present i t -  a s a g r e a t power w o r t h y o f t h e  accorded  for  of conferences during  did  jure  demonstrate  r e s p e c t as a g r e a t  conference d e l e g a t i o n success  of R u s s i a ' s  co-  50 D e s p i t e the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y c o n c l u s i o n of the Genoa C o n f e r e n c e , t h e w h o l e c o u r s e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s r e c e n t l y has w i t n e s s e d the i n e v i t a b i l i t y , a t the p r e s e n t stage o f h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t , o f t h e e x i s t e n c e s i d e by s i d e , o f t h e communist and b o u r g e o i s s y s t e m s o f p r o p e r t y . ' 0  T h i s was years  the  before.  beginning time  v e r y t h i n g t h a t R u s s i a d i d n o t want o n l y  no  to  one  the theory  see  1922,  however, t h e  coexistence  as i n e v i t a b l e , though a t  of unequal  the  Genoa C o n f e r e n c e by  was  of R u s s i a ' s  of the  announcing the  central  committee  of s o c i a l i s t  of e q u a l i t y with the  Russia  signing at  non-aggression.  shows a g a i n t h a t  objectives i n entering into t h i s  gain the acceptance  to link i t with  i n progress,  o f a t r e a t y o f m u t u a l a s s i s t a n c e and  A resolution  the  development.  Germany s t a r t l e d t h e w o r l d  Rapallo  communists were  (not e v e n L e n i n h i m s e l f ) t h o u g h t  While and  By  five  one  t r e a t y was  p u b l i c o w n e r s h i p on a  to basis  West:  T r u e e q u a l i t y o f t h e two s y s t e m s o f p r o p e r t y and a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n them, a l t h o u g h o n l y a s a temporary c o n d i t i o n u n t i l such t i m e as the whole world goes over from p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y and t h e c r i s e s o f e c o n o m i c c h a o s and w a r s , e t c , b o r n o f i t , t o t h e h i g h e s t system of p r o p e r t y i s a t t a i n e d only i n the Treaty of Rapallo.°3  The  communists were c o n t i n u i n g t o  justification  of peaceful  From Genoa and to attend a conference  search f o r t h e o r e t i c a l  coexistence.  R a p a l l o R u s s i a proceeded t o the there.  T h i s conference,  like  Hague the  51 previous  one a t Genoa, d i d n o t a t t a i n  Nevertheless, once a g a i n A noted that  the  confirmed  editorialist  h e r p o s i t i o n a s an e q u a l w i t h of the time,  J u . A. S t e k l o v ,  a l s o was  and I t a l y  C o n f e r e n c e "on t h e b a s i s o f a b s o l u t e participants."^ to this  Lenin's  coexistence  policy  a number  notes  t o England,  to attend  t h e Lausaunne  equality with  has a l r e a d y been  o f t h e 1922 c o n f e r e n c e s  the other  of international  noted.  show t h a t  h a d gone a l o n g way t o w a r d  Russia's  securing f o r  principles:  (1)  respect  f o r independence,  (2)  respect  f o r sovereign  (3) e q u a l i t y w i t h  of ideology.  use o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i n  conference  results  :  sent  demanding h e r r i g h t  one o f  a n d s h o w s how a demand  became an a r t i c l e  On November 2, 1922, R u s s i a  her  maintained  t o grow i n t o  of peaceful coexistence  for equality i n realpolitik  The  t h e West.  a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e S o v i e t r e p u b l i c on  T h i s demand  principles  relation  for i t  o f m u t u a l a d v a n t a g e , and on a b a s i s a c c e p t a b l e t o  sides.  France  i t s successes,  aim a t The Hague was t o f o r c e t h e West t o  "a f r i e n d l y  conditions both  R u s s i a was p l e a s e d w i t h  Russia's  accept  i t s objectives.  rights,  capitalist  states,  (4) m u t u a l a d v a n t a g e i n a l l r e l a t i o n s . Each o f these with  p r i n c i p l e s were a d v o c a t e d  the idea of peaceful  coexistence,  i n close  relationship  and w i t h m o d i f i c a t i o n  and  expansion  now  coexistence. are  form the  However, t h e  p r e s e n t l y put  i s the  Designed to assure twisted  bases o f the t h e o r y  the  use  t o which these  reverse  security  of t h e i r  of c a p i t a l i s m .  chronicled  i n Chapter  peaceful  principles 1922.  uses i n  of Russia,  they  i n s u c h a manner a s t o l e a d t o t h e  disruption  of  have b e e n  insecurity  and  T h i s change o f e m p h a s i s w i l l  be  6.  VIII  1922  By  linked with  between t h e  be  and  capitalist  to r e f l e c t  affairs  world.  As  existing  i t took  b o u r g e o i s i e , i t would  irreconcilable  conflicts  communists c l e a r l y  to which the power.  aged a s a  failed  s t a t e s was  see  of peaceful coexistence  p o l i c y was In t h i s  put w i t h i n t h e field  state of a f f a i r s  place  that  and  classes.  i s seen i n the area  in  significance use  encompassed  peaceful coexistence  same s o c i a l  idea of peaceful coexistence introduced  the  and  was  by  envis-  between p r o l e t a r i a n s t a t e s , t h a t  of r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the  The  to  be-  logically  terms c h a r a c t e r i z e r e l a t i o n s between t h e s e  of t h i s aspect  Soviet  become i n t i m a t e l y  s t a t e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the p r o l e t a r i a t  expected  That the  is,  the  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the  Marxist  had  a state of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  tween R u s s i a  the  peaceful coexistence  class.  between  elaborated during  the  socialist, formation  of  53 the  USSR i n 1922.  ward t h e c o n c e p t . on  S t a l i n was i n s t r u m e n t a l  i n bringing  Speaking t o the Tenth A l l Russian  December 2 6 , 1922 he m a i n t a i n e d  for-  Congress  that,  Since the formation of the s o c i a l i s t r e p u b l i c s the s t a t e s o f t h e w o r l d have been d i v i d e d i n t o two camps: t h e camp o f s o c i a l i s m and t h e camp of c a p i t a l i s m . I n t h e camp o f c a p i t a l i s m we have i m p e r i a l i s t wars, n a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s , o p p r e s s i o n , c o l o n i a l s l a v e r y , and c h a u v i n i s m . I n t h e camp o f S o v i e t s , i n t h e camp o f s o c i a l i s m , we h a v e , on t h e c o n t r a r y , mutual t r u s t , n a t i o n a l e q u a l i t y , p e a c e f u l coexistence ( m i r n o e s o z h i t e l ' s t v o ) and b r o t h e r l y c o l l a b o r a t i o n among t h e p e o p l e s . b o  S t a l i n , who h a d n o t y e t b e g u n t h e power s t r u g g l e to lead  t o h i s preeminence i n S o v i e t  o f many s p e a k e r s who c o n s i d e r e d the  degree o f h i s i n f l u e n c e  official  "Declaration  gave o f f i c i a l duplication  that  was  a f f a i r s , was o n l y  one  t h e new f e d e r a l u n i o n , b u t  at that time  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  on t h e F o r m a t i o n o f t h e USSR" w h i c h  recognition  t o h i s words i n an almost  direct  o f them.  H e r e i n t h e camp o f s o c i a l i s m - m u t u a l t r u s t , n a t i o n a l l i b e r t y and e q u a l i t y , p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , and b r o t h e r l y c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f peoples."7  The  communists o f t h i s  time d i d not view p e a c e f u l  as  a conflict  be  n o t e d between p e a c e f u l  socialist  of class i n t e r e s t s .  states  i s not l a s t i n g ;  coexistence  and o f s o c i a l i s t i t i s only  The o n l y  coexistence  distinction to  o f c a p i t a l i s t and  states  f o r a "given  i s that  the former  historical  stage."  54  The same D e c l a r a t i o n t h a t r e c o g n i z e d  Stalin's  words went on t o m a i n t a i n t h a t the new Union s t a t e w i l l be a worthy e x p r e s s i o n of the bases of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e and b r o t h e r l y c o l l a b o r a t i o n l a i d down i n October 1 9 1 7 . 6 8  Although the i d e a of p e a c e f u l socialist  s t a t e s soon l o s t f a v o r i n R u s s i a , i t  to l i n g e r on f o r many y e a r s . in  c o e x i s t e n c e between continued  S t a l i n r e t u r n e d to t h i s theme  1925: Our e n t i r e s t a t e s t r u c t u r e i s founded on the b a s i s of c o e x i s t e n c e and b r o t h e r l y c o l l a b o r a t i o n of the peoples of the most v a r i e d n a t i o n a l i t i e s of our c o u n t r y . 9 D  Even S t a l i n , however,was phrase "peaceful"  r e l u c t a n t t o use the  coexistence.  In p u t t i n g forward the i d e a of p e a c e f u l of s o c i a l i s t  coexistence  s t a t e s , the S o v i e t s o b v i o u s l y had i n mind the  t r u e meaning of s o z h i t e l s t v o . 1  1922,  complete  However, s o z h i t e l ' s t v o .  by  had become so i n t i m a t e l y connected w i t h the i d e a of  r e l a t i o n s between s o c i a l i s t  and c a p i t a l i s t  at t h a t e a r l y time i t must be c o n s i d e r e d when used of s o c i a l i s t  states.  s t a t e s t h a t even  anachronistic  I t was seldom used i n  this  sense a g a i n , b e i n g r e p l a c e d by " p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , " which i s p r e s e n t l y the b a s i s of r e l a t i o n s between states.  Proletarian internationalism i s distinct  socialist from, and  55 should  not  chapter  be  confused  with,  peaceful coexistence  (see  6).  IX  We the  are  questions  history  now  in a position  t h a t face the  coexistence with  Lenin.  quotations w i l l  i n s t a n c e , two blame p e o p l e of peaceful As we  who  " t a l k as  coexistence  modern  Likewise, affairs,  E.  attempt  show t h a t t h e s e  of  Soviet the  the  theor-  theory  justifiable?  initiative. A.  i f L e n i n nowhere and  (mirnoe  does not  one  of  A  theoreticians attribute  to Lenin's  have s e e n , L e n i n a t b e s t  full  day  S o v i e t w r i t e r s , A. P o p o v and  s o z h i t e l ' s t v o and the  Present  l e n g t h s t o l i n k up  Is t h i s  f a r t o o much o f t h e t h e o r y  least  contemporary i n v e s t i g a t o r of  of peaceful coexistence.  e t i c i a n s have gone t o g r e a t  few  t o answer a t  For  Sergeev, never  spoke  sosushchestvovanie)." spoke o n l y  7 0  of mirnoe  seem t o have u s e d t h e  phrase;,  in  sense.  t h e w e l l - k n o w n S o v i e t w r i t e r on  Korovin,  international  asserts that,  the g r e a t l e a d e r s o f the S o v i e t Union, L e n i n and S t a l i n , more t h a n once e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union d e f i n i t e l y proceeds from the f a c t of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of coexistence f o r a prol o n g e d p e r i o d o f two s y s t e m s - c a p i t a l i s m and socialism.71  56 I t i s t r u e of course t h a t L e n i n d i d develop the theory unequal development.  Gn the other hand, he d i d not  of  foresee  the type o f " p e a c e f u l " c o e x i s t e n c e t h a t o c c u r r e d a f t e r revolution. develop  d i d he look upon the c o e x i s t e n c e t h a t d i d  as i n e v i t a b l e , and  prolonged. at  Nor  At l e a s t  c e r t a i n l y he d i d not  one w r i t e r , Frunze,  f i n a l l y , Popov and  see i t as  stated emphatically  the time t h a t coexistence could not be And  the  prolonged.  Sergeev m a i n t a i n t h a t  the i d e a of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e and s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s with c a p i t a l i s t was f i r s t advanced and s c i e n t i f i c a l l y worked out by Lenin.72 While one might concede t h a t the i d e a o f p e a c e f u l was  first  coexistence  advanced by L e n i n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e  n o t h i n g " s c i e n t i f i c " about i t s development. e x i s t e n c e took shape i n an ad hoc  was  Peaceful  co-  manner, as a s e r i e s of  d e f e n s i v e t a c t i c s promoted by a number of top S o v i e t l e a d e r s who  d i d not c l e a r l y understand  cance of t h e i r a c t i o n s .  the f u l l nature  The ad hoc nature  e x i s t e n c e at t h a t time can be  and  signifi-  of p e a c e f u l co-  seen i n the d i v e r s i t y of names  g i v e n t o the r e l a t i o n s h i p : b r e a t h i n g space  (peredyshka);  p e a c e f u l o f f e n s i v e (mirnoe n a s t u p l e n i e ) ; p e a c e f u l  coexistence  (mirnoe s o z h i t e l ' s t v o ) ; p a r a l l e l e x i s t e n c e ( p a r a l l e l n o e T  sushchestvovanie);  combined e x i s t e n c e  sushchestvovanie);and  (sovmestnoe  f i n a l l y , j u s t p l a i n modus v i v e n d i .  S i g n i f i c a n t l y , the present day term of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e ,  57 mirnoe sosushchestvovanie, except  f o r one  1920.  .  was  not used i n the e a r l y 1 9 2 0 s , T  s o l i t a r y r e f e r e n c e t o i t by C h i c h e r i n i n >  In summarizing p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e as i t developed d u r i n g the p e r i o d 1917-1922 the f o l l o w i n g p o i n t s can be (1) P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was arrangement between R u s s i a and  a p o l i t i c a l stalemate  a purely p o l i t i c a l  the West designed  the p r o l o n g a t i o n o f the s t a t u s quo.  noted.  I t was  to  assure  a r e c o g n i t i o n of  not considered as a form of the  class  war. (2) The  economic o f f e n s i v e , while not an  p a r t of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , was l i n k e d with i t . be fought  The  original  i n c r e a s i n g l y becoming  s t r u g g l e between E a s t and West was  to  on a p u r e l y economic b a s i s ( u n l i k e the present  day  theory which sees p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e as a s t r u g g l e fought on the p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l , and  economic p l a n e s ) .  (3) From the predominantly p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was  d e f e n s i v e t a c t i c of  1917,  g r a d u a l l y becoming an i d e a i n which  the o f f e n s i v e p o s s i b i l i t i e s were r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s i n g consideration. (4) The  terms of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e were being  determined by two  factors:  (a) by piecemeal  t a c t i c a l maneuverings i n a number  58 of  concrete  security  s i t u a t i o n s designed  of  (5)  The  coexistence  an  attempt  to  justify collaboration  t h e West i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h  aggressive  the  militant,  f e a t u r e s o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n .  shift  saw  the  Russia.  (b) by with  to assure  f r o m permanent r e v o l u t i o n t o  a number o f r e a l  concessions  peaceful  made t o  communist p r i n c i p l e s t h a t were t o v i t a l l y c h a n g e t h e of  the  Soviet  experiment.  These c o n c e s s i o n s  p a r t l y t h r o u g h a change o f w o r d i n g : g i v e way  to  so s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e ;  These changes, w h i l e the  (6) theory  There i s l i t t l e ,  of great  i f any,  probably  a f t e r the  revolution.  have d e v e l o p e d those  much as  words on u n e q u a l  seen  connection  i t has  between  coexistence  i f L e n i n had  development.  to  coexistence.  peaceful coexistence Peaceful  to  sorevnovanie.  significance  idea of peaceful  o f u n e q u a l d e v e l o p m e n t and  developed  uttered  o f the  be  s o z h i t e l * s t v o was  sost'azanie t o  s u b t l e , are  f u r t h e r development  can  nature  the as i t would  never  59  References  1.  Lenin, Sochineni.ja, XXVI, 361.  2. For instance, Russian exports i n m i l l i o n s of rubles i n 1913 stood at 1,520.1, and imports at 1,374.0. By 1918 these had f a l l e n respectively to 7 . 5 and 61.1 and by 1919 to 0.1 and 3.0. Large scale industry v i r t u a l l y collapsed. As l a t e as 1920 steel production was only 1$ of the 1913 l e v e l and pig i r o n only 2 . 4 $ of the 1913 l e v e l . See Alexander Baykov, The Development of the Soviet Economic System, Cambridge University Press, 1950, pp. 29,8. 3. Whether Lenin's peredyshka was the ultimate answer to Russia's p l i g h t i n 1917 or not i s now an academic question. The present communist leaders can point to the fact that the young s o c i a l i s t republic did survive, and hence the p o l i c y that Lenin adopted was "correct." However, a continuance of permanent revolution may also have brought the communists yet greater g l o r i e s . At l e a s t one Western i n t e r p r e t e r , R.V. Daniels, argues that permanent revolution had a good chance of success; " I t i s by no means c l e a r , however, that the actual m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n was as U l t i m a t e l y hopeless as the L e n i n i s t s have since represented i t . Germany, destined f o r defeat at the hands of the A l l i e s within the year, was f a r from omnipotent, and there was no dearth of a r t i c u l a t e support i n Russian f o r continuing the war, every Russian p o l i t i c a l party save the Bolsheviks was unreservedly opposed to the peace.. Peace would and did mean a more serious i n t e r n a l shock to the Soviet government than would continuation of the war. Indeed, i t has been argued that the prime reason behind Lenin's insistence on peace was h i s fear that i f the war were resumed, the Bolsheviks would have too many a l l i e s and might lose control of the government." R.V. Daniels, The Conscience of the Revolution, Cambridge, Mass; Harvard University Press, I960, p. 74. 4. Lenin, "Ocherednye zadachi sovetskoj v l a s t i , " (MarchA p r i l , 1918), Sochineni.ia. XXVII, 217. 5.  Ibid, p.  210.  6.  I b i d , p.  319.  7. The extent and significance of the opposition to Lenin's point of view i s detailed i n Daniels, op. c i t , pp. 70-91. 8. Sed'mo.j S.iezd Rossi.isko.i Kommunistichesko.i P a r t i i ; Stenograf icheski.i Otchet 6-8-go Marta, 1918, Moscow. Petrograd; Gosizdat, 1922, pp. 37-8.  60  9.  I b i d , p. 3 4 .  10. I b i d , p.  38.  11. I b i d , p. 3 8 . 12. L e n i n , "Doklad o mire 26 o k t ' a b r ' a 1917 S o c h i n e n i j a . XXVI, 217.  g."  13. "Note from the People^s Commissar o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s to the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of Norway, the N e t h e r l a n d s , Spain S w i t z e r l a n d , Denmark, and Sweden on the opening o f peace n e g o t i a t i o n s , " (November 2 3 , 1917) t r a n s l a t e d and quoted i n Degras, S o v i e t Documents of F o r e i g n P o l i c y , I , p. 9. 14. " W i r e l e s s appeal by the c o u n c i l of People's Commissars to the peoples of b e l l i g e r a n t c o u n t r i e s t o j o i n i n n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r an a r m i s t i c e , " ' Degras, I b i d , p. 11. 15. I b i d , p.  12.  16. " R e s o l u t i o n of the A i l - R u s s i a n C e n t r a l E x e c u t i v e Committee on the Report of the D e l e g a t i o n t o the B r e s t L i t o v s k Conference," (Jan. 1, 1918) I b i d , p. 2 6 . 17. Degras, S o v i e t Documents o f F o r e i g n P o l i c y I , p. 18. L e n i n , "Amerikanskim S o c h i n e n i j a , XXX, 21.  Rabochim," (Dec, 27,  168.  1919)  19. Degras, S o v i e t Documents of F o r e i g n P o l i c y I . p.. 168. 20. L e n i n , "Doklad VTsIK i Sovnarkoma 5 dekabr'a" Sochineni.ia. XXX, 209.  (1919),  21. Dokumentv Vneshne.i P o l i t i k i SSSR I I , Moscow; G o s i z p o l i t ,  1958 p. 389.  22. L e n i n , "Otvet na voprosy korrespondenta Amerikanskoj gazety 'New York Evening J o u r n a l ' " , (Feb. 21, 1920) Sochineni.ia, XXX, 340. U n f o r t u n a t e l y , I have been unable t o uncover any w r i t ten r e f e r e n c e t o ' p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e between Bukharin's 1918 statement of i t and L e n i n ' s 1920 r e v i v a l . However, L e n i n ' s use of i t does not seem t o i n d i c a t e a sudden r e v i v a l . I t seems h i g h l y l i k e l y t h a t the phrase had been used i n unrecorded speeches and c o n v e r s a t i o n s by both Bukharin's f a c t i o n and L e n i n ' s . Perhaps the present S o v i e t p r a c t i c e of padding L e n i n ' s works by r e s u r r e c t i n g h i s unrecorded speeches through the second-hand r e p o r t s of w i t n e s s e s w i l l r e v e a l some new ( i f somewhat dubious) m a t e r i a l i n t h i s r e g a r d . However, the same w i l l never be done f o r Bukharin's unrecorded remarks. 1  61 It i s therefore pure assumption to suggest that mirnoe sozhitel'stvo had been frequently used, possibly to attack Lenin, during the period 1918-1920. But some such assumption seems necessary i f we are not to conclude that Lenin's reference to i t i n 1920 was not a sudden f l a s h of r e c o l l e c t i o n . Lenin's studied use of i t i n t h i s quotation suggests that i t was introduced into his vocabulary consciously and with the understandable motivation of s t e a l ing the thunder of h i s opponents. In any case, the very fact that i t was not recorded between 1918-20 reveals how t r u l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t peaceful coexistence was, as ideology, during that period. 2 3 . Degras, Documents of Soviet Foreign P o l i c y I. (July 17, 1 9 2 0 ) , p. 194. 24. A.A. I o f f e , Mirnoe Nastuplenie. Petersburg (sic) 1921, translated and quoted i n Eudin, Soviet Russia and the West, p. 4 9 . 2 5 . Ibid, pp.  49-50.  2 6 . Prayda, (5 Feb. 1 9 2 0 ) , p.  1.  27. "Doklad Narodnogo Kommissara po inostrannym delam RSFSR G.V. Chicherina na zasedanii VTsIK, 17 ijun'a 1920 g.," Dokumenty Vneshne.i P o l i t i k i SSSR, v o l . 2 Moscow, Gosizpolit, 1958, p. 639. 2 8 . Ibid, p.  641.  2 9 . "Godovoj otchet narodnogo Inostrannyx Del RSFSR, k Sjezdu Sovetov za 1919-1920 gg. ," Ibid, p. 661.  ¥111  30. Lenin, "Doklad o d e j a t e l ' n o s t i soveta narodnyx kommissarov 22 Dekabr'a", (1920) Sochineni.ia, XXXI, 459. 31.  Eudin, op. c i t . p. 6 3 .  3 2 . Lenin, Sochineni.ia. XXXIII, 347. 33.  Ibid.  34. Lenin, "Zakl'uchitel'noe slovo po dokladu o mire 26 Okt'abr'a (8 Nojabr'a)" (1917), Sochineni.ia, XXVI, 223. 3 5 . Lenin, "Strannoe i Chudovishchnoje," (March 1, Sochineni.ia. XXVII, 4 9 . 3 6 . Lenin, Sochineni.ia, XXX,  32.  1918),  62  37.  Ibid,.  38. L e n i n , "Otvet na voprosy korrespondenta amerkanskoj gazety New York Evening J o u r n a l ™ (Feb. 18, 1920), Sochineni.ja. XXX., 340. T  39.  I b i d , p. 342.  40. L e n i n , "Nashe vneshnee i vnutrennee p o l o z h e n i e i zadaehi p a r t i i ; rech na Moskovskoj gubernskoj konf e r e n t . s i i RKP ( b ) " (Nov. 21, 1920), Sochineni.ja XXXI, 386. 41. T r a n s l a t e d and quoted i n X e n i a Joukoff E u d i n and Harold H. F i s h e r . S o v i e t R u s s i a and the West 1920-1927: A Documentary Survey, S t a n f o r d C a l i f o r n i a ; S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y Press 1957, p. 6. 42. RKP  L e n i n , "Rech ne s o b r a n i i a k t i v a Moskovskoj o r g a n i z a t s i i (b) 6 Dekabr'a 1920g" Sochineni.ja. XXXI, 426.  43.  Ibid.  44.  I b i d , p. 426-7.  45.  I b i d , p. 427.  46.  Ibid.  47.  Ibid.  48.  Ibid.  49. Kamenev, "Doklad t o v . Kameneva; s o v e t s k a j a r e s p u b l i k a v k a p i t a l i s t i c h e s k o m o k r u z h e n i i , " Pravda. 15, March, 1921,  p.2.  50. L e n i n , "Rech p r i z a k r y t i i k o n f e r e n t s i a 28 maja," (1921), Sochineni.ja, XXXII, 413. 51. L e n i n , " P o l i t i c h e s k i j otchet tsentral'nogo komiteta RKP (b) marta 1922g" Sochineni.ja XXXIII. 236. 52. "Zajavleme Sovetskoj d e l e g a t s i i na pervom plenarnom z a s e d a n i i Genoeskoj K o n f e r e n t s i i " ( 1 0 A p r i l 1922) Dokumenty vneshne.j P o l i t i k i SSSR v o l . 5 191-2.. "Statement by C h i c h e r i n at the F i r s t P l e n a r y S e s s i o n o f the Genoa Conference," Degras, Documents i n S o v i e t F o r e i g n P o l i c y I , p. 298. 54. L e n i n . "Nashe vneshnee i vnutrennee p o l o z h e n i e i zadaehi p a r t i i , " (Nov. 21, 1920), Sochineni.ja, XXXI, 384-5.  55. M.V. Frunze, " E d i n a j a voennaja d o k t r i n a i k r a s n a j a a r m i j a , " (1921) Izbrannye P r o i z v i d e n i . j a . v o l . 2, p. 14. 56. M.V.. Frunze, "Vpenno-politicheskOe v o s p i t a n i e k r a s n o j a r m i i , " Izbrannye P r o i z v i d e n i . i a . v o l . 2, p. 37, w r i t t e n 1922. 57. I b i d , p.  51.  58. Eudin, S o v i e t R u s s i a  and  the West, p.  158.  59. L e n i n , " I n t e r v ' j u Korrespondentu "Observer" i "Manchester g a r d i a n " Farbmanu", (Oct. 27, 1922), Sochineni.ia. XXXIII, 348. 60. L e n i n ,  Sochineni.ia. XXXIII,  61. E u d i n , S o v i e t R u s s i a  and  350.  the West, p.  99.  62. Degras, Documents i n S o v i e t F o r e i g n P o l i c y I 63.  r  p.  320.  Ibid.  64. Ju. A. S t e k l o v , " F i n i t a l a Commedia," I z v e s t i a , J u l y 22, 1922, p. 1. t r a n s l a t e d i n Eudin, op. c i t , p. 65. E u d i n , R u s s i a and the West, p.  133.  144.  66. S t a l i n , "Ob o b j e d i n e n i i s o v e t s k i x r e s p u b l i k ; doklad na X v s e r o s s i j s k o m sjezde sovetov 26 Dekabr'a 1922g," Sochineni.ia. V. 154. 67. " D e k l a r a t s k i j a ob o b r a z o v a n i i sojuza s o v e t s k i x s o t s i a l i s t i c h e s k i x r e s p u b l i k ( p r i n ' a t a I sjezdom Sovetov Sojuza SSR)» ((Dec. 30, 1922), I s o t o r i . i a Sovetsko.i K o n s t i t u t s i i (v dokumentax) 1917-1956. p. 392. An i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the S o v i e t f e d e r a l system, however, shows the t r a i t s of a s o c i a l i s t community as p o s i t e d i n the " D e c l a r a t i o n " to be an empty mockery. The f e d e r a l system as p r a c t i s e d In the S o v i e t Union comprises an A i l - U n i o n Government, f i f t e e n Union R e p u b l i c s ( f o u r i n 1922), and a l a r g e ' number of Autonomous R e p u b l i c s , Autonomous Regions, and N a t i o n a l Areas. A complex p a t t e r n of n a t i o n a l i t y u n i t s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t s c h a r a c t e r i s e the government machinery. Though the Union R e p u b l i c s are nominally independent s t a t e s w i t h the l e g a l r i g h t t o secede from the f e d e r a t i o n , i n f a c t they are completely subordinated t o the f e d e r a l government, which means i n e f f e c t , s u b o r d i n a t i o n to the great Russian people. The A i l - U n i o n Government r e t a i n s f u l l c o n t r o l o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s , planning and economic c o n t r o l , f i n a n c e , c u l t u r e and s o c i a l w e l f a r e and c o n s t i t u e n t power. The p r a c t i c a l  64 r e s u l t i n t h a t - , e f f e e t i v e power l i e s n o t i n t h e U n i o n R e p u b l i c s , but i n the c e n t r a l government. Hence, m u t u a l t r u s t i n t h e camp o f s o c i a l i s m I s d e v o i d o f m e a n i n g , w i t h t h e c e n t r a l government e x e r c i s i n g i r o n c o n t r o l o v e r a l l i t s parts. As t h e U n i o n R e p u b l i c s a l o n e have t h e o r e t i c a l i n d e p endence, i t f o l l o w s t h a t a t best o n l y f i f t e e n peoples c o u l d be s a i d t o e n j o y ' n a t i o n a l l i b e r t y ' . Peoples of smaller e t h n i c g r o u p s (Autonomous R e p u b l i c s and R e g i o n s , N a t i o n a l A r e a s ) a r e v i r t u a l wards o f t h e dominant c u l t u r e group i n each Union R e p u b l i c . L i k e w i s e , though each Union R e p u b l i c , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1936 S o v i e t c o n s t i t u t i o n , e n j o y s e q u a l r i g h t s , i n e f f e c t t h e RSFSR ( R u s s i a p r o p e r ) i s o f t e n i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m t h e A i l - U n i o n Government and h e n c e i n p r a c t i c e i s 'more equal' than the r e s t . T h u s , e v e n w i t h i n t h e 'camp o f s o c i a l i s m ' p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e w o u l d seem t o i n d i c a t e p e a c e f u l s u b o r d i n a t i o n t o t h e R u s s i a n Communist P a r t y . The U n i o n R e p u b l i c s a r e t o be s h a r p l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the People's R e p u b l i c s e s t a b l i s h e d i n E a s t e r n Europe a f t e r W o r l d War Two. The l a t t e r a r e i d e o l o g i c a l l y d e f i n e d a s ' d i c t a t o r s h i p s of the p r o l e t a r i a t without the S o v i e t form'. They a r e , i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t , t o t a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s , h a v i n g f u l l c o n t r o l o f t h e i r own f o r e i g n and domestic policies. I n p r a c t i c e , h o w e v e r , d o m e s t i c p o l i c y i n p a r t and f o r e i g n p o l i c y a l m o s t w h o l l y a r e d i c t a t e d by t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and t h e o r e t i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d i n t e r m s o f p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r nationalism (described b r i e f l y i n chapter s i x of t h i s t h e s i s ) . 68.  Ibid,  p.  394.  69. S t a l i n , " P o l i t i c h e s k i j otchet tsentral'nogo (Dec. 1 8 , 1 9 2 5 ) , S o c h i n e n i . i a . V I I , 291.  komiteta,"  7 0 . A. Popov, A. S e r g e e v , " M i r n o e s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e g e n e r a l ' n y j k u r s s o v e t s k o g o v n e s h n e j p o l i t i k i , " Kommunist, No. 1 8 , (December 1961) p. 55. 71.  E.A.  72.  P o p o v and  K o r o v i n , Mezhdunarodnoe P r a v o . S e r g e e v , op.  cit.  ?  p.  55.  p.  566.  65 CHAPTER  III  I  By  1923  the Soviet  p o l i c y of revolutionary  incite-  ment a b r o a d h a d f a i l e d , w h i l e t h e p o l i c y o f p e a c e f u l c o existence  had been r e m a r k a b l y s u c c e s s f u l i n a s s u r i n g t h e  security  of Russia  fields.  The l e s s o n was n o t l o s t  "Peaceful  i n b o t h t h e economic and  coexistence"  revolution. tinuance  Past  coexistence.  h a s t e n e d by t h e d e a t h o f L e n i n e n s u i n g power s t r u g g l e  i n J a n u a r y 1924,  was and t h e  between S t a l i n and T r o t s k y ,  on t h e i d e o l o g i c a l p l a n e  coexistence,  w h i c h was  a s " s o c i a l i s m i n one  resented  peaceful  the  o f " s o c i a l i s m i n one c o u n t r y "  theory  vehicle  d i c t a t e d a con-  The t r a d i t i o n  c o u n t r y " v e r s u s "permanent r e v o l u t i o n " .  idea  a better  s o c i a l i s m t h a n h a d permanent  experience, therefore,  of peaceful  symbolized  t o t h e communists.  had p r o v e n i t s e l f  f o r the foreign p o l i c y of state  diplomatic  built  S t a l i n , who  h i s argument (premised  rep-  around on t h e  o f u n e q u a l d e v e l o p m e n t ) , and a d v o c a t e d t h e d i s e n g a g e -  ment o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y  f o r c e s by e m p h a s i s i n g t h e estrangement  between t h e two camps, t h e camp o f c a p i t a l i s m and t h e camp of  socialism  most e x p l i c i t Trotsky,  ( s e e C h a p t e r I I , page 53 statements of t h i s  who c o n t i n u e d  to think  idea  , f o r one o f S t a l i n ' s o f two camps).  i n t e r m s o f permanent  revolution, years of in  the  had  power s t r u g g l e was and  i n Soviet  coexistence one  struggle  against  successful peaceful  coexistence tion  to  was  example o f  coexistence.  seven  Stalin's victory  also a victory for  marked t h e politics.  the  peaceful  d e a t h k n e l l o f permanent Thereafter,  t o become an  intimate  the  i d e a of  facet  of  revolu-  peaceful  socialism i n  country.  W h i l e S t a l i n was pointing  out  that Lenin  which contained justified positing  had  often  essence of  spoken o f  the  by  pererastanie, he  r e v o l u t i o n a r y advance  a s t a t e o f e q u i l i b r i u m between t h e idea before  position  permanent r e v o l u t i o n , ^  h i s w i t h d r a w a l from the  presented t h i s i n May  the  c u t t i n g away T r o t s k y ' s  two  by  camps.  Fourteenth Party  He  Conference  1925: I n o t h e r w o r d s we h a v e n o t o n l y t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m . We have a t t h e same t i m e t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n of the S o v i e t system. We h a v e t h e r e f o r e two s t a b i l i z a t i o n s ; t h e t e m p o r a r y s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m and t h e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e Soviet regime. The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e o f t h e present i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n i s the establishment o f a c e r t a i n temporary e q u i l i b r i u m between t h e s e two s t a b i l i z a t i o n s . 2  The  practical  revolutionary end  r e s u l t of t h i s  e q u i l i b r i u m was  a d v a n c e w o u l d be  i n a stalemate.  Therefore,  a fruitless Stalin  piles  immediate  v e n t u r e bound  continued,  communist movement must r e c o n c i l e i t s e l f w h i c h two  that  to a  to  the  situation in  of p o l i t i c a l g r a v i t y e x i s t e d " p a r e l l e l  with  67 each  other."  The ful  i m p l i c a t i o n s of p o l i t i c a l  c o e x i s t e n c e were drawn by  stabilization  Stalin  a few  f o r peace-  months l a t e r  in  December 1 9 2 5 • What i s f u n d a m e n t a l and new, d e c i d i n g and permeating a l l events during t h i s p e r i o d i n the area of f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s , i s t h a t a c e r t a i n temporary e q u i l i b r i u m of f o r c e s has b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d between o u r c o u n t r y , w h i c h i s b u i l d i n g s o c i a l i s m , and t h e c o u n t r i e s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d , an e q u i l i b r i u m w h i c h h a s d e t e r m i n e d t h e p r e s e n t phase of " p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e " (mirnoe s o z h i t e l s t v o ) b e t w e e n t h e l a n d o f S o v i e t s and t h e c a p i t a l i s t l a n d s . T h a t w h i c h we a t one t i m e t h o u g h t o f a s a b r i e f b r e a t h i n g s p a c e a f t e r t h e war h a s c h a n g e d i n t o an e n t i r e p e r i o d o f r e s p i t e . Hence,, a c e r t a i n e q u i l i b r i u m o f f o r c e s and a c e r t a i n p e r i o d o f " p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e " between the w o r l d o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and t h e w o r l d o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . 4 1  W e s t e r n power was the  Soviets into  Stalin, due  still  admitted  as  a factor  a change o f i d e o l o g i c a l  thinking i n Marxist  terms,  saw  in  forcing  course.  the  t o a number o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s e x i s t i n g  However,  stabilization i n the  as  capitalist  camp'  (1)  between t h e  capitalist (2)  proletariat  between i m p e r i a l i s m and  between the  states;  bourgeoisie  of  the  national-liberation  countries;  movements i n c o l o n i a l (3)  and  countries;  v i c t o r i o u s and  vanquished  capitalist  68 (4)  between t h e v i c t o r i o u s n a t i o n s  (5) between s o c i a l i s t  As a r e s u l t  of these  t h e m s e l v e s ; and;  and c a p i t a l i s t  contradictions, Stalin  countries.  maintained,  There has a r i s e n t h a t temporary e q u i l i b r i u m o f f o r c e s w h i c h p u t an end t o t h e war a g a i n s t u s , w h i c h marked t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e phase o f " p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e " (mirnoe s o z h i t e l ' s t v o ) between t h e s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s and c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s . 6  Though S t a l i n diction  that  peaceful  between R u s s i a implication: in  coexistence  the f i r s t  in his fifth  was  i n o u t l i n i n g the tasks  omission that socialist  implied  and t h e West, he went  foreign affairs  increase  clearly  due i n p a r t  to a  clash  on t o a f u r t h e r o f t h e communist  he s t a t e d t h e n e c e s s i t y four  contra-  contradictions.  He  party  t o f o s t e r and implied  by  t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n b o u r g e o i s and  s t a t e s were n o t t o be a g g r a v a t e d d u r i n g  the period  7 of s o z h i t e l ' s t v o . S t a l i n was  preoccupied  in this  speech t o the P a r t y  Conference i n e x p l a i n i n g  away h i s p o s i t i o n on f o r e i g n  policy.  t o " m e n t i o n two f a c t s a l s o  influence  He f e l t  obliged  on t h i s ,  that  i n place  of a period  having  o f war we  have  8 established  a period  of peaceful  coexistence."  These f a c t s  were: *  (1) A m e r i c a d i d n o t want war i n E u r o p e ; (2) The l o s s o f o n e - s i x t h o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t  system  69 (Soviet Russia) had  so d i s r u p t e d and d i s o r g a n i s e d  t h a t system t h a t i t was  unable t o organise  an  o f f e n s i v e a g a i n s t the S o v i e t Union.^ Although  e a r l i e r i n h i s speech S t a l i n had p o i n t e d  out  t h a t Western power had f o r c e d R u s s i a i n t o a compromise, he went on t o c o n t r a d i c t h i m s e l f by p u t t i n g the i n i t i a t i v e f o r p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e up t o the  capitalists.  And so, t o put an end t o t h i s estrangement of European c a p i t a l from our country, from our markets and sources of raw m a t e r i a l s , i t seemed necessary to agree t o a phase of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e w i t h us, i n order to s t e a l i n t o our markets and i n t o bur sources of raw materials.I® S t a l i n was  e v i d e n t l y t r y i n g to see p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i n  Marxian economic terms, though he does not appear t o have been aware o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of such a s h i f t from the m i l i t a r y and tion.  The  p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i z a t i o n to economic competi-  full  importance of the s h i f t was  g r a d u a l l y and was The his It  t o be  seen only 1927.  not put t o f u l l advantage u n t i l  emphasis S t a l i n p l a c e d on p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i n  speech t o the P a r t y Conference was  not t o go  unnoticed.  received o f f i c i a l recognition i n a Party r e s o l u t i o n : The area of i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a s t r e n g t h e n i n g and broadening of the breathing-space and the t u r n i n g i n t o a whole p e r i o d of the s o - c a l l e d p e a c e f u l coe x i s t e n c e (mirnoe s o z h i t e l * s t v o ) of the USSR  70 with c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s , i n s p i t e of the f a c t ' t h a t t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between ,, t h e s e two camps do n o t weaken b u t grow.  Two  p o i n t s should  the  reference  showing the  was  still  noted  statement.  Party recognised  not  prepared  again  how  to give  the  i s admitted  d i c t i o n s between t h e coexistence  was  statement  i t full  t h e P a r t y was  not  not  two  to exist  should  be  Chapter  would  o f " the that  a form of the  compared w i t h t h e as  c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the  situ-  approval,  reconciled to  Second,  camps, i n d i c a t i n g  considered  Party  yet  " i n spite  ideology which sees p e a c e f u l coexistence because of the  First,  foreign policy  abandonment o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n .  coexistence  This  in this  to " s o - c a l l e d " peaceful coexistence  i n d i c a t e t h a t the a t i o n , but  be  peaceful contra-  peaceful  class  present  struggle. day  feasible two  only  systems  (see  6).  II  As we  have s e e n i n C h a p t e r I I , t h e  of r e l a t i o n s with theory  greater a f f i n i t i e s  o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n t h a n  However, a s Russia  t h e West had  a result  took p a r t , the  some o f i t s m i l i t a n t  o f the  to peaceful  conferences  communist d r i v e , and  economic  o f 1922  aspect to  the  coexistence. i n which  e c o n o m i c o f f e n s i v e had was  lost  therefore suitable f o r  71 inclusion  i n peaceful coexistence.  Thereafter,  r e l a t i o n s became more and more l i n k e d w i t h peaceful coexistence ing By  position 1925  with  peace.  resurrect  the idea o f  and was e v e n t u a l l y t o h o l d a command-  i n determining  t r a d e was  economic  the nature  of the ideology.  i n c r e a s i n g l y being mentioned i n r e l a t i o n  F o r example, i n May 1925, C h i c h e r i n saw f i t t o  a n i n f e r e n c e made i n a s p e e c h o f s e v e r a l  years  before.  H e r e , on t h i s s p o t , f i v e y e a r s a g o , j u s t a f t e r we had s i g n e d o u r f i r s t p e a c e t r e a t y with a neighboring country, I s a i d t h a t we were e n t e r i n g on a new p h a s e o f o u r h i s t o r y , which I d e s c r i b e d as a p e a c e f u l d u e l , t h e d u e l o f two e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s . And t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s p e a c e f u l d u e l - a c o u r s e w h i c h on o u r s i d e h a s b e e n more and more s u c c e s s f u l - and i s now b e i n g completed.12  C h i c h e r i n ' s speech i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o L e n i n ' s to  t h e Moscow A k t i v o f f i v e Stalin,  years  previous!  t o o , saw t h e e c o n o m i c p o s s i b i l i t i e s  existence during  speech  o f co-  1925.  One c a n s a y t h a t t h e p r e s e n t y e a r i s t h e f i r s t y e a r when we, on any k i n d o f broad s c a l e , a f t e r the establishment o f "combined c o e x i s t e n c e " ( s o v m e s t n o e s o z h i t e l s t v o ) w i t h c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s , have e n t e r e d i n t o • f r u i t f u l and e x t e n s i v e l i n k s i n t h e trade l i n e with the c a p i t a l i s t world.13 1  However, S t a l i n ' s h e s i t a t i o n peaceful coexistence  i n linking trade d i r e c t l y  i s evident  from the r e f e r e n c e t o  with  72  "combined in  coexistence"  i n a speech which otherwise  references to p o l i t i c a l  years  later,  economic  abounded  "peaceful" coexistence.  however, S t a l i n  emphasised  the  Two  advantages  of  reciprocity:  The b a s i s o f o u r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s c o n s i s t s i n the acceptance of the c o e x i s t e n c e (sosushchestvovanie) o f two fundamentally d i f f e r e n t systems. P r a c t i c e has f u l l y j u s t i f i e d i t . The q u e s t i o n o f d e b t s and c r e d i t s i s sometimes a s t u m b l i n g block. Our p o l i c y on t h i s q u e s t i o n i s clear. I t i s b a s e d on t h e f o r m u l a "you give - I give." You g i v e us c r e d i t t o d e v e l o p o u r i n d u s t r y and y o u w i l l r e c e i v e a c e r t a i n p a r t o f t h e p r e w a r debt.14  The  quotation  i s interesting  viewed as f e a s i b l e West was  agreeing  relic  of the  Before the  limits  success that  as l o n g as  to d i r e c t l y  while  i n showing t h a t  a i d the  to accept  i t aided the  trade  Soviets.  development o f R u s s i a n  p a r t o f an  was  economically  The industry  barren  past.  1927  little  a t t e m p t had  b e e n made t o  o f economic c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  of trade with  t h e r e were i n d e e d  However, t h e  t h e W e s t ^ moved S t a l i n very  real  limits  define growing  to point  to peaceful  out  co-  existence.  I n 1927 I t was  itself  an  American workers d e l e g a t i o n v i s i t e d  a n x i o u s t o d e f i n e t r a d e t e r m s and  put  a  Russia. frank  73 and  direct  question  to  Stalin,  Q. To what d e g r e e can t h e USSR c o l l a b o r a t e with c a p i t a l i s t i n d u s t r y of other countries? Are t h e r e d e f i n e d l i m i t s t o s u c h c o l l a b o r a t i o n or i s i t s i m p l y an e x p e r i m e n t f o r c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f what p a r t o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e and what i s n o t ? l °  Stalin  placed  h i s own  e c o n o m i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n on  the  question:  You a r e e v i d e n t l y t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e temporary agreements w i t h c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s i n the area of i n d u s t r y , i n the a r e a o f t r a d e , and p e r h a p s , i n t h e a r e a of d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s . I t h i n k t h a t t h e p r e s e n c e o f two o p p o s i t e systems - the system o f c a p i t a l i s m and t h e s y s t e m o f s o c i a l i s m - d o e s n o t exclude the p o s s i b i l i t y of such agreements. I t h i n k t h a t such agreements a r e p o s s i b l e and e x p e d i e n t i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f p e a c e f u l development,•*-<  S t a l i n maintained  t h a t d e b t s and  range of c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  c r e d i t s were w i t h i n  Then he  the  continued:  The l i m i t s o f t h e s e a g r e e m e n t s ? The l i m i t s a r e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e o p p o s i t e p o s i t i o n o f t h e two s y s t e m s , between w h i c h t h e r e i s a c o m p e t i t i o n (sorevnovanie). a struggle. Within t h e l i m i t s p e r m i t t e d by t h e s e two s y s t e m s , but o n l y w i t h i n those l i m i t s , agreements are f u l l y p o s s i b l e . 1 9  Five  p o i n t s of i n t e r e s t (1)  emerge f r o m S t a l i n ' s  C o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t o be  temporary  reply.  only,  suggest-  74 i n g t h a t the  (2)  limits  i n c l u d e d time  C o l l a b o r a t i o n was  expedient,  i . e . what s e r v e d  limits.  t o concern the  o n l y what  i n t e r e s t s of the  was Soviet  regime.  (3) trade that  and  C o l l a b o r a t i o n was i n d u s t r y , and  to take  place p r i m a r i l y i n  perhaps i n diplomacy,  peaceful coexistence  was  still  implying  envisaged  as a  dis-  engagement o f f o r c e s .  (4)  The  limits  interpretation, terms of the  (5)  and  o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n r e m a i n e d open f o r  would, a p p a r e n t l y ,  be  interpretated i n  expedient.  Lenin's  s o s t ' a z a n i e has  now  been r e p l a c e d  by  sorevnovanie.  Ill  I n May held  1927  i n Geneva.  of Nations, gation  was  the  first  R u s s i a , though not invited  s e i z e d upon t h e  r e c o g n i t i o n f o r the  position  a member o f t h e  to participate. opportunity  The  to gain  Soviet  to Russian  t h e West was advantage.  prepared  The  was  League dele-  international  idea of peaceful coexistence  d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t its  World Economic Conference  and  to  S o v i e t s now  to  compromise linked  75 economic r e l a t i o n s d i r e c t l y w i t h p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e .  On May f o u r t h , P r a v d a  asserted that the Soviet  d e l e g a t i o n was a t Geneva t o d e t e r m i n e  t o what  extent,  It i s possible i n general t o assure the . a g r e e m e n t and f u l l c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e two s o c i a l s y s t e m s t h a t a r e s h a r p l y o p p o s e d t o e a c h o t h e r , t h e s y s t e m o f t h e USSR and a l l t h e r e m a i n i n g w o r l d , and what f o r m t h i s c o l l a b o r a t i o n c a n take.20  Obolensky elaborated  Osinsky, the p r i n c i p l e  on t h e S o v i e t a i m s a s s e r t i n g  Soviet delegate, that they included  a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e f o u n d a t i o n s on w h i c h t h e economic c o e x i s t e n c e (ekonomicheskoe s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e ) o f two o p p o s i t e e c o n o m i c s o c i a l s y s t e m s i s p o s s i b l e , i . e . , on t h e one hand, t h e c a p i t a l i s t i c s y s t e m o f W e s t e r n E u r o p e and A m e r i c a , and on t h e o t h e r , t h e s o c i a l i s t i c , s y s t e m o f t h e USSR.21 On t h e s i x t h o f May a P r a v d a that tion,  t h e S o v i e t r e g i m e was s t i l l  editorial  maintained  dedicated to world  revolu-  but conceded t h a t t h i s way i s l o n g and t h o r n y and we must reckon also with the r e a l i t y of today. Here a l r e a d y f o r t e n y e a r s o u r economic system, t h e system o f t h e b u i l d i n g of s o c i a l i s m , has l i v e d t o g e t h e r w i t h •the c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m , and t h e combined e x i s t e n c e ( s o v m e s t n o e s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e ) o f t h e s e two d i a m e t r i c a l l y o p p o s e d systems w i l l c o n t i n u e t i l l t h a t t i m e , when h i s t o r y g i v e s u p a s a b a d j o b t h o s e who o b j e c t i v e l y have o u t l i v e d t h e i r purposes. In this period, the p e r i o d o f economic e x c h a n g e s o f t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t economic c o m p l e x e s i s e q u a l l y n e c e s s a r y on b o t h s i d e s . 2 2  76 A j a r r i n g note was expressed a t the  conference  which t h r e a t e n e d f a i l u r e f o r the i n t e r n a t i o n a l acceptance of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  when the S o v i e t d e l e g a t e ,  Sokolnikov,  unwisely informed the conference t h a t c o m p e t i t i o n between the two systems would end w i t h the "happy e l i m i n a t i o n of capitalism."  2 3  O s i n s k y , however, w h i l e f a i l i n g t o r e -  primand h i s s u b o r d i n a t e , made a magnanimous gesture of r e c o n c i l i a t i o n when he conceded t h a t I f the c o e x i s t e n c e of the bourgeois and s o c i a l i s t systems f o r a l i m i t e d p e r i o d i s regarded as f e a s i b l e , i t i s i p s o f a c t o i m p l i e d t h a t the b o u r g e o i s system s t i l l has a l e a s e o f l i f e before  it. ^ 2  While S o k o l n i k o v was t e l l i n g the conference t h a t " c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the S o v i e t and c a p i t a l i s t economic 25 systems i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e , "  a f u r t h e r Pravda e d i t o r i a l  was t e l l i n g S o v i e t r e a d e r s t h a t the c o n t r a p o s i t i o n of the s o c i a l i s t system o f economy and the c a p i t a l i s t i c does not at a l l mean t h a t these systems are condemned to e x i s t f o r a c e r t a i n time p a r a l l e l w i t h each o t h e r , t h a t they cannot f i n d p o i n t s of c o n t a c t f o r these (economic) and o t h e r p r a c t i c a l agreements. T h i s i s one o f the c l e a r e s t  statements  of the b e l i e f h e l d  by the S o v i e t s at t h a t time t h a t p a r a l l e l meant a disengagement was t e l l i n g i t s  of f o r c e s .  development  At the same t i m e , Pravda  readers t h a t "both opposite economic systems  77 could  peacefully live  together  (mirno u z h i v a t ' s a )  with  27 each  other." In the f i r s t  conference, and  Osinsky  came t o ' t h e  of h i s major speeches at analysed  the world  the  political  situation  conclusion that  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n between b o t h economic systems which i n the course o f a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d must i n e v i t a b l y e x i s t s i d e by s i d e , i n no way e x c l u d e s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r a c t i c a l a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n them. On t h e c o n t r a r y , such agreements are f u l l y p o s s i b l e .  Once a g a i n p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e In attempting ful  coexistence  the  to gain world  d i s c u s s i o n over  of  the  conference.  of  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e must be a w h o l e and  Therefore, the  one  inevitable.  r e c o g n i t i o n f o r peace-  S o v i e t d e l e g a t i o n engaged i n much  bitter  ence a s  i s seen as  the wording  Osinsky  not  of the  by  of the g e n e r a l r e s o l u t i o n  maintained  the  that the  recommended by  principle the  Soviet delegation  alone.^9  S o v i e t d e l e g a t i o n , Khinchuk,  s u b c o m m i t t e e d r a w i n g up  the  initial  confer-  informed  project resolution  that  the r e s o l u t i o n does not take i n t o account the p r e s e n c e o f two s y s t e m s and t h e r e f o r e I w i l l speak a g a i n s t i t , m a i n t a i n i n g f o r m y s e l f t h e right to place a corresponding d e c l a r a t i o n to the p l e n a r y s e s s i o n of the conference. The r e s o l u t i o n d o e s n o t promote t h e c o e x i s t e n c e ( s o z h i t e l * s t v o ) o f two s y s t e m s , b u t on t h e c o n t r a r y impedes it.™  78  The  conference  determination peaceful  was g i v e n  of securing  coexistence  r e s o l u t i o n which  confirmation  of Soviet  international recognition f o r  when G s i n s k y  himself  advanced a d r a f t  stated,  With regard t o t h e great importance o f f u l l p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e USSR i n w o r l d t r a d e , t h e C o n f e r e n c e recommends t o a l l states t o develop t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n on t h e b a s i s o f a p a c i f i c c o e x i s t e n c e o f two d i f f e r e n t economic systems.31  The  Conference refused  a f t e r much w r a n g l i n g  t h e r e s o l u t i o n i n t h i s form, but  paraphrased  i t i n s u c h a way t h a t  t h e word " p e a c e f u l  c o e x i s t e n c e " were n o t u s e d b u t a t t h e  same t i m e c o n c e d e d  i n e s s e n c e t h e argument o f t h e S o v i e t s :  (The C o n f e r e n c e ) r e g a r d s t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l t h e members p r e s e n t , r e g a r d l e s s o f d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e economic systems e x i s t i n g i n t h o s e c o u n t r i e s , a s a happy a u g u r y f o r p e a c e f u l economic c o l l a b o r a t i o n of a l l nations.32  The  r e s o l u t i o n was an o b v i o u s compromise a d o p t e d  under  i threat  o f S o v i e t w i t h d r a w a l frOm t h e c o n f e r e n c e . 3 3  Nevertheless, to  cite  t h e S o v i e t government c o n t i n u e d  i t as f u l l  of p e a c e f u l  f o r years  i n t e r n a t i o n a l recognition of the idea  coexistence.  A f t e r the adoption Pravda reported with  o f t h e compromise r e s o l u t i o n ,  undisguised  pleasure  that  79 O s i n s k i j noted t h a t t h e g e n e r a l r e s o l u t i o n made t h e r i g h t d e c i s i o n on c o n c r e t e q u e s t i o n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r the f o r m u l a o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e (mirnoe s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e ) of a l l c o u n t r i e s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h e economic s y s t e m s o f t h e s e c o u n t r i e s . 34  In h i s closing however, O s i n s k y  statement t o t h e Conference  went t o some l e n g t h t o p o i n t o u t t o  h i s audience that i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r peaceful coexistence  d i d n o t mean a compromise o f t h e S o v i e t  position.  One v e r y f a r r e a c h i n g q u e s t i o n was' submitted t o the Conference. I refer to the question of e s t a b l i s h i n g measures f o r t h e p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s - t h e s o c i a l i s t system i n t h e S o v i e t Union and t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m i n t h e o t h e r countries. The S o v i e t d e l e g a t i o n s u g g e s t e d this p r a c t i c a l formula, a formula which i s i n e v i t a b l e i n view o f t h e de f a c t o c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e two s y s t e m s and t h e s t r u c t u r a l l i n k s which e x i s t i n t h e world economic"system. In proposing t h i s f o r m u l a we d i d n o t r e n o u n c e a s i n g l e one o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s upon w h i c h o u r s o c i a l i s t system i s based. We spoke a d v i s e d l y o f t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f two d i f f e r e n t , two o p p o s e d economic systems.35  The  conference  was a m i l e s t o n e  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e ,  i n t h e development  a c h i e v i n g a number o f S o v i e t  goals;  (1) P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e not  too influential  r e c e i v e d wide,  though  or e n t h u s i a s t i c , r e c o g n i t i o n abroad.  80  (2) P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e with  t h e S o v i e t economic  full  title  of  two o p p o s e d e c o n o m i c  "peaceful  i n the  coexistence  systems."  a number o f names were u s e d i n r e f e r r -  t o p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , mirnoe  was u s e d the  Although  linked  o f f e n s i v e , as i l l u s t r a t e d  used a t the Conference,  (3) ing  became i n d e l i b l y  of i t f o r the f i r s t  sosushchestvovanie  t i m e and was q u i c k l y t o become  e x c l u s i v e term. (4)  The C o n f e r e n c e was a f e e l i n g  out process  d e t e r m i n e W e s t e r n r e a c t i o n t o w a r d t h e i d e a o f two economic  systems.  Favorable,  or at l e a s t  to  opposed  non-committal,  a c c e p t a n c e o f i t l e d t o i t s f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t by t h e Soviets. (5)  The C o n f e r e n c e a l s o s e r v e d  to feel  out r e a c t i o n  w i t h i n t h e S o v i e t Union t o t h e i d e a o f economic c o l l a b o r a tion with  t h e West.  effectively  stilled,  Opposition  seems t o h a v e  allowing the p r i n c i p l e  been  t o be  fully  adopted and expanded.  (6) success  The t r a d e  possibilities  resulting  from t h e  o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e made p o s s i b l e t h e f i r s t  F i v e Year P l a n which i n d u s t r i a l i z e d  Russia.  81  IV  I t would proposed  t h e adoption o f mirnoe  major world to that  seem o b v i o u s t h a t  O s i n s k y w o u l d n o t have  sosushchestvovanie at a  conference over t h e wishes  o f S t a l i n , who u p  time had spoken o n l y o f s o z h i t e l * s t v o *  the Party approval as r e f l e c t e d acceptance the f a t e  o f t h e new p h r a s e  i n Pravda  Moreover,  and t h e r a p i d  by t h e S o v i e t s s u g g e s t s  that  o f s o z h i t e l * s t v o had been d e c i d e d by t h e P a r t y  p r e c e d i n g t h e c o n f e r e n c e , and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n p h r a s e was n o t j u s t  a felicitous  o f t h e new  a c t of chance.  Obviously,  s o z h i t e l * s t v o no l o n g e r f i t t e d  the idea  b e t w e e n two e c o n o m i c  Sosushchestvovanie  systems.  seem t o have b e e n s e l e c t e d  and advanced  of competition would  a t the conference,  c a r e b e i n g t a k e n by t h e u s e o f o t h e r t e r m s a s w e l l , n o t t o make t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n  appear  a d o p t i o n o f t h e new t e r m  b o t h a t home and a b r o a d made  sible  too precipitious.  pos-  the dropping o f s o z h i t e l * s t v o .  However, s o z h i t e l ' s t v o h a d t o o r e s p e c t f u l having been i n i t i a l l y  advanced  and  ceremony.  forgotten without  upon a m i n o r d i s r u p t i o n Britain term.  The  a history,  by L e n i n , t o be abandoned Therefore, S t a l i n  of diplomatic relations  to provide a respectful b u r i a l  seized  with  f o r t h e outdated  82  In  speaking  Communist P a r t y  t o the F i f t e e n t h Congress of  i n December 1927,  Stalin  the  said,  I f two y e a r s ago i t was p o s s i b l e and necessary to t a l k of a p e r i o d of a c e r t a i n e q u i l i b r i u m , and o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e ( m i r n o e s o z h i t e l ' s t v o ) b e t w e e n t h e USSR and c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , t h e n now we have every reason t o m a i n t a i n t h a t the period of "peaceful coexistence" i s receding i n t o the past g i v i n g p l a c e to a period of i m p e r i a l i s t attacks and o f p r e p a r a t i o n s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n a g a i n s t t h e USSR.36  Stalin  c l e a r l y meant h i s r e f e r e n c e t o p e a c e f u l  as a requium, f o r the next a few  h u n d r e d w o r d s f u r t h e r on  significantly The  t i m e he  i n the  i n the  r e f e r r e d t o i t as  p e r i o d of p e a c e f u l l i v i n g f u t u r e the  used  coexistence  "coexistence"  same s p e e c h -  -  he  sosushchestvovanie.37  together  had  S o v i e t s would t o l e r a t e  come t o an  only  end;  existence  t o g e t h e r , marked by p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r a f i n a l  showdown o f  forces.  was  Apparently  the  S o v i e t U n i o n i n 1927  a re-engagement o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s i n t h e  The marked by by  itself,  t r a n s i t i o n from disengagement t o the  m i g h t w e l l be  of i d e o l o g i c a l the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  course.  implementation  new  during which time coexistence interpretation  as  However, w o r l d  o f the  West.  re-engagement,  sosushchestvovanie.  considered  course  planning  still events  taken  another were t o  f o r twenty-five  underwent c o n s i d e r a b l e  and m o d i f i c a t i o n .  The  consequences of  time l a g . f o r t h e ' i d e o l o g i c a l development  of p e a c e f u l  change delay years, rethis co-  e x i s t e n c e were t h a t sisted  a marked d e g r e e  between s o z h i t e l ' s t v o and  of c o n t i n u i t y per-  sosushchestvovanie.  V  During  the  p e r i o d under review  e x i s t e n c e developed engagement  into  a fairly  and  well defined o f economic  o f t h e West, and  (sotrudnichestvo)  i n the  perhaps i n p o l i t i c s .  of these  s t r u g g l e between T r o t s k y  viewed  earlier  of the  West, b u t The  year  peaceful  As continued  now  simple vaguely  economic  this  aspect  1 9 2 7 was  and  principles,  emulation  of trade  and  industry,  impetus f o r the  development power  Stalin.  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , w h i c h had  as a p u r e and  o f r e s p i t e , was nature  of  dis-  even of c o l l a b o r a t i o n  fields The  set  p r i n c i p l e s stemmed l a r g e l y f r o m t h e  The  co-  f r o m a vague d e s i r e f o r m i l i t a r y  which consisted l a r g e l y (sorevnovanie)  peaceful  modus V i v e n d i d u r i n g seen t o l i e i n the  been  a  period  opposite  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e E a s t was  as y e t  a d e c i s i v e one  unclear  and  and  undeveloped.  i n the development  of  coexistence.  i n the t o be  coexistence  earlier  period, peaceful  r e f e r r e d t o by  coexistence  a number o f t e r m s :  (mirnoe s o z h i t e l ' s t v o ) ;  coexistence  peaceful  (sozhitel'stvo);  84 economic  coexistence  o f two  s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e dvux (in  two  sistem);  f o r m s ; sovmestnoe  sosushchestvovanie); peaceful coexistence last.term  systems  combined  sozhitel*stvo,  and f i n a l l y ,  seems t o have been  and  sovmestnoe  a t t h e end o f t h e p e r i o d ,  carefully  name f o r t h e c h a n g i n g i d e o l o g y .  ful  coexistence  during  this  those used i n the e a r l i e r ).  coexistence  (mirnoe 'sosushchestvovanie).  new  p . 56  (ekonomicheskoe  period  period  This  s e l e c t e d as t h e  The names o f p e a c e s h o u l d be  compared  (given i n Chapter I I ,  with  85 References  1.  Stalin,  S o c h i n e n i . i a , X, 18-20.  2. S t a l i n , "K i t o g a m X I V K o n f e r e n t s i i RKP ( b ) . " (May 9, 1925) S o c h i n e n i . i a , V I I , 94. 3.  I b i d , p . 95.  4. S t a l i n , " P o l i t i c h e s k i i otchet tsentral'nogo k o m i t e t a , " ( D e c . 18, 1925), S o c h i n e n i . i a . V I I , 261-2. 5.  I b i d , p p . 262-3.  6.  I b i d , p . 287.  7.  I b i d , p . 294-97.  8/  I b i d , p . 287.  9.  Ibid.  10. I b i d , pp.. 287-8. 11. "Po o t c h e t u t s e n t r a l ' n o g o k o m i t e t a , " X ( D e e . 1824, 1925) KPSS v R e z o l ' u t s i . i a x . v o l . 2, p . 74. 12. " E x t r a c t s f r o m a S p e e c h by C h i c h e r i n a t t h e T h i r d S o y i e t C o n g r e s s , " S o v i e t Documents i n F o r e i g n P o l i c y , I I . p . 34. 13. S t a l i n , " P o l i t i c h e s k i j o t c h e t t s e n t r a l ' n o g o (Dec. 18, 1925) S o c h i n e n i . i a V I I , 288.  komiteta,"  14. S t a l i n , " P o l i t i c h e s k i j o t c h e t t s e n t r a l ' n o g o (Dec. 3, 1927), S o c h i n e n i . i a . X, 289.  komiteta,"  15. The v a l u e o f S o v i e t e x t e r n a l t r a d e i n 1920 was 1.4 m i l l i o n r u b l e s f o r e x p o r t s and 28.7 m i l l i o n r u b l e s f o r imports. By 1924 t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i g u r e s were 373.2 and 233.5. By 1928 t h e s e h a d r i s e n t o 777.8 and 945.5. However, t h i s was s t i l l f a r b e l o w t h e v a l u e o f p r e w a r e x p o r t s and imports. (See A l e x a n d e r B a y k o v , The D e v e l o p m e n t o f The S o v i e t E c o n o m i c S y s t e m . C a m b r i d g e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1946, p . 75. 16. S t a l i n , delegatsiej  "Beseda s p e r v o j Amerikanskoj r a b o c h e j 9 s e n t ' a b r ' a 1927g," S o c h i n e n i j a X, 122.  86 17.  Ibid,  p . 122-3.  18. I b i d ,  p . 123.  19.  p . 124.  Ibid,  0  20. "SSSR na m e z h d u n a r o d n o j e k o n o m i c h e s k p j P r a v d a . May 4, 1927, p . 2. 21.  konferentsii,"  " T s e l i s o v e t s k o j d e l e g a t s i i v Z h e n e v e , " P r a v d a . May 5, p . 4.  1927,  22. " Z h e n e v s k a j a 23.  K o n f e r e n t s i j a , " P r a v d a . May 6, 1927, p . 1.  K. D a v i s , The S o v i e t s a t Geneva, p . 203.  24. E u d i n , S o v i e t R u s s i a and t h e West, p . 200. 25.  P r a v d a . May 8, 1927, p . 1.  26. "Dve s i s t e m y , " P r a v d a . May 10, 1927, p . 1. 27. "Na Z h e n e v s k o j e k o n o m i c h e s k o j May 10, 1927, p . 2.  konferentsii,"  28. "Rech t o v . O s i n s k o g o n a Z h e n e v s k o j P r a v d a , May 10, 1927, p . 1. 29.  konferentsii,"  D a v i s , op. c i t , p . 201.  30. " P o s l e d n i e i z v e s t i j a ; n a m e z h d u n a r o d n o j k o n f e r e n t s i i , " P r a v d a . May 13, 1927, p . 2. 31.  ekonomicheskoj  D a v i s , o p . c i t . p . 201.  32. " P o s l e d n i e i z v e s t i j a ; Zhenevskoj k o n f e r e n t s i i , " 33.  Pravda,  uspex s o v e t s k o j d e l e g a t s i i na P r a v d a . May 22, 1927, p . 2.  D a v i s , o p . c i t , p . 201.  34. P r a v d a . May 25, 1927, p . 2. 35.  Eudin,  ;op. c i t . pp. 386-7.  36. S t a l i n , " P o l i t i c h e s k i j o t c h e t t s e n t r a l n o g o k o m i t e t a % d e k a b r a ," (1927), S o c h i n e n i j a X, 283. !  37.  The " I g i v e - y o u g i v e " q u o t a t i o n on page 7a,  &7 CHAPTER  IV  I  The  period  paying h i s l a s t sharpest  and  Communist  of c o n f l i c t  respects  frankest  o b j e c t i v e s of  to  The from  1  Program o f  too  in  the  i n September 1928,  "the  best  a free  a  pro-  statement of  since the  Though c o n t r o l l e d by  nominally  express opinions  selves  i n the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l communism  C o m i n t e r n was  fore  expression  observer c a l l s  Manifesto of 1848."  Stalin  s o z h i t e l ' s t v o found i t s  I n t e r n a t i o n a l adopted  gram w h i c h one  the  to  f o r e s h a d o w e d by  the  a g e n t and  dangerous f o r the  the  Communist Kremlin,  could  there-  Soviets  them-  utter.  Program  c a p i t a l i s m to  states that  the  s o c i a l i s m - the  "peaceful  coexistence"  socialist  socio-economic  the w o r l d  economy, i n " p e a c e f u l "  period  of t r a n s i t i o n  so-called period  - i s a period  of  "when c a p i t a l i s t  s y s t e m s e x i s t s i d e by  side  and  within  r e l a t i o n s h i p s as w e l l  as  2 in  armed c o n f l i c t . "  statement that will  proceed  Here i s a r e v i v a l  peaceful  coexistence  simultaneously.  officially  r e l i e v e d of  and  While the  was  now  the  f o r e i g n p r o l e t a r i a t , i t s t a s k was  of Frunze's permanent Soviet  1921  revolution  government  i t s m i l i t a r y obligation to to  act  as  "a d r i v i n g  88 force the  of the international proletarianrevolution  proletariat of a l l countries  power."^ tionary  The S o v i e t  Union could  spurring  on t o t h e c o n q u e s t o f best  fulfill  f u n c t i o n by b u i l d i n g up i t s i n t e r n a l  i t s revolustrength,  which by i t s e l f would " i m p l y a f u r t h e r development world  revolution."^"  USSR was t o p l a y the  In order  of the  t o b u i l d up i t s i n d u s t r y t h e  a wary game o f p e a c e f u l  coexistence  with  capitalists:  The e x i s t e n c e s i d e b y s i d e o f two economic systems: t h e s o c i a l i s t system i n t h e USSR and t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m s i n o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , i m p o s e s on t h e p r o l e t a r i a n state the task o f warding o f f t h e b l o w s showered upon i t by t h e c a p i t a l i s t world (boycott, blockade, e t c . ) , and a l s o i m p e l s i t t o r e s o r t t o e c o n o m i c m a n e u v e r i n g w i t h and u t i l i s i n g e c o n o m i c contacts with c a p i t a l i s t countries (with the a i d o f t h e monopoly o f f o r e i g n t r a d e w h i c h i s one o f t h e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e - s u c c e s s f u l b u i l d i n g up o f s o c i a l i s m , and a l s o w i t h t h e a i d o f c r e d i t s , l o a n s , e t c . , ) . The p r i n c i p l e a n d f u n d a m e n t a l l i n e t o be f o l l o w e d i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n must be t h e l i n e of e s t a b l i s h i n g the widest p o s s i b l e contact with foreign countries - within l i m i t s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s t o t h e USSR, f o r l a y i n g t h e base f o r heavy i n d u s t r y and e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , and f i n a l l y f o r t h e development o f h e r s o c i a l i s t engineering industry. Only t o t h e extent t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e USSR i n t h e c a p i t a l i s t environment i s secured, can s o l i d g u a r a n t e e s be o b t a i n e d a g a i n s t t h e d a n g e r s t h a t s o c i a l i s t c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e USSR may be t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o an a p p e n d i x o f t h e w o r l d c a p i t a l i s t system.5  Stalin's that  192? r e m a r k t o t h e A m e r i c a n w o r k e r s  the l i m i t s  of peaceful  coexistence  delegation  a r e d e t e r m i n e d by  89 the  opposite  the  limits  nature  are determined  The  Union.  security  of Russia  o f t h e C o m i n t e r n P r o g r a m was  should  during  F i v e Year  be i n v o k e d  the period  after  including  peaceful  aspect  in  market.  i n 1 9 2 9 and t h e r e -  of;Soviet f o r e i g n  during  to place Russia  the world  t o ensure the  1  coexistence.  was o u t o f t h e q u e s t i o n designed  policy,  A clash with the period  t h e West  of construction  i n a commanding e c o n o m i c p o s i t i o n  As a c o n s e q u e n c e t h e S o v i e t s r e t r e a t e d  from the premature plans  f o r r e v o l u t i o n a r y advance  posed i n 1 9 2 7 t o s a f e t y i n i s o l a t i o n . ence, r e s t o r e d t o an i d e o l o g y  Peaceful  a s t h e means b y w h i c h t o j u s t i f y  isolation  and t o ensure t h a t  West w o u l d c o n t i n u e  pro-  co-exist-  o f d i s e n g a g e m e n t , was  continued  and  that  o f c o n s t r u c t i o n known  F i v e Y e a r P l a n was l a u n c h e d  permeated e v e r y  of the  Plan.  I"  The  t o t h e USSR.  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e ,  coexistence  the f i r s t  clarified;  of the proposed r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i s a t i o n  peaceful  as  by t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s  economic a s p e c t s  a reflection Soviet  o f t h e two s y s t e m s i s now  trade  the d e s i r e d  a g r e e m e n t s between  to aid socialist  East  construction.  Rykov, a s C h a i r m a n o f t h e C o u n c i l o f P e o p l e ' s Commissars,  emphasised  t h e new r o l e  of peaceful  coexistence  90  i n h i s speech t o the F i f t h  Congress of S o v i e t s i n  May  1929. The S o v i e t d e l e g a t i o n a t t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l e c o n o m i c c o n f e r e n c e a t Geneva i n May 1927 put f o r w a r d a p r o g r a m d e c l a r i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of "peaceful coexistence of t h e two s y s t e m s o f n a t i o n a l economy, t h e c a p i t a l i s t and s o c i a l i s t . " T h i s program o f t h e p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e two s y s t e m s o f n a t i o n a l economy/ as t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n d i t i o n f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of s o c i a l i s m i n t h e USSR, was c o n s i s t e n t l y put i n t o o p e r a t i o n by t h e S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p e r i o d b e t w e e n t h e f o u r t h and f i f t h Congresses.7  I t was  only n a t u r a l t h a t the noted  Maksim L i t v i n o v , s h o u l d u s e  h i s broad  eign diplomats  f o r the  existence.  h i s appointment  On  i n J u l y 1930  affairs ing with  Soviet  contacts with  purposes of advancing  he  too  a group of f o r e i g n  as  diplomat, for-  peaceful  co-  commissar o f f o r e i g n  s t r u c k t h e new  n o t e i n speak-  correspondents:  We have t o b u i l d s o c i a l i s m i n o u r own c o u n t r y , i n an e n c i r c l e m e n t o f c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s occupying f i v e - s i x t h s of the earth's surface. We c a n n o t i g n o r e t h i s f a c t and do n o t i g n o r e i t , and t h e r e f o r e we a r e t r y i n g t o s e e k o u t and t o r e a l i s e methods f o r t h e . p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e of both s o c i a l systems. 8  I n 1935 coexistence boration Soviets:  Molotov touched  t h a t then  on  the  two  aspects  prevailed - competition  - i n h i s speech b e f o r e  the  and  of colla-  Seventh Congress  of  91 I n t h e complex i n t e r n a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n t h e r e i s a t one and t h e same t i m e c o m p e t i t i o n and c o l l a b o r a t i o n ( s o r e v n o v a n i e and s o t r u d n i c h e s t v o ) b e t w e e n two opposite s o c i a l systems. I t may be o b j e c t e d t h a t such a p o s i t i o n i s c o n t r a d i c t o r y , but i t corresponds w i t h the a c t u a l state of a f f a i r s . Competition, or i f y o u want, a s t r u g g l e , i s p r o c e e d i n g ; b u t a t t h e same t i m e , and i n e v e r newer f o r m s , c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s d e v e l o p i n g between the U S S R and v a r i o u s c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , b o t h i n t h e f i e l d o f e c o n o m i c r e l a t i o n s and i n connection with p r e s e r v i n g peace. The U S S R h a s done a l l i t c o u l d t o d e v e l o p t r a d e r e l a t i o n s w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . But t h e c h i e f importance i n t h e p e r i o d u n d e r r e v i e w was t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f t h e USSR w i t h o t h e r Q c o u n t r i e s i n the b u s i n e s s of i n s u r i n g peace.  Molotov's  statement  development desire  i n which the  capitalist  from  I t was  from  at the League of N a t i o n s number o f n a t i o n a l the  U S S R out o f any  arrange-  Hitler  Litvinov,  in his  advanced p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  i n a manner d e s i g n e d  interests,  a  heightening  the a c c e s s i o n of  principally  o f f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r , who  keeping  shifting  s t a t e s i n view of the  i n Europe r e s u l t i n g  t o power i n Germany. role  e m p h a s i s was  new  f o r i s o l a t i o n t o a d e s i r e f o r some s e c u r i t y  ment w i t h tension  i n f a c t marked an i m p o r t a n t  to serve  c h i e f among them t h a t  conflict  a  of  i n Europe.  Ill  It  i s ironical  t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t  advance i n t h e  92 development should  of peaceful coexistence  d u r i n g t h e 1930's  h a v e b e e n made i n s p e e c h e s and r e f e r e n c e s  t o p l a c a t e t h e West.  I n 1931 t h e L e a g u e  together  of European  a commission  possibility  of European union.  s t r o n g l y t o any u n i o n  Soviet  front.  assure  t h a t no s u c h d e v e l o p m e n t  of Nations  o f c o u r s e , ob-  t h a t m i g h t become an a n t i -  I t t h e r e f o r e attended  t h e Commission t o  should  occur  same t i m e t o make a f u r t h e r b i d f o r p e a c e f u l  In h i s f i r s t Litvinov, point  major  as the Soviet  called  states to discuss the  Russia,  jected  designed  speech b e f o r e  and a t t h e coexistence.  t h e Commission,  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , was a t p a i n s t o  o u t t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e two s y s t e m s . Speaking of the p o s i t i v e importance of e x t e r n a l t r a d e w i t h t h e USSR d u r i n g t h e p r e s e n t economic c r i s i s , I do n o t a t a l l want t o c r e a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e harmony o f t h e two s y s t e m s e x i s t i n g i n E u r o p e - s o c i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m . T h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e s e two s y s t e m s e x i s t and w i l l e x i s t . By t h e v e r y f a c t o f t h e i r e x i s t e n c e and d e v e l o p m e n t a s t r u g g l e w i l l t a k e p l a c e between them.10  However, L i t v i n o v was c a r e f u l flict  and p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  to distinguish  between  con-  when he s t a t e d t h a t  t h e t a l k must be o n l y a b o u t e c o n o m i c a g r e e m e n t s and c o m m u n i c a t i o n s between t h e c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s a n d t h e USSR mutually p r o f i t a b l e f o r a l l participants.il  Back  i n Russia,  however, P r a v d a saw t h e s i t u a t i o n  93 quite  differently,  completely  upsetting Litvinov's real  words. ComradeLitvinov expressed the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e between t h e s e two s y s t e m s , a s f a r a s t h i s d e p e n d s on t h e USSR, c a n p r o g r e s s on t h e b a s i s o f f r e e c o m p e t i t i o n , on t h e b a s i s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i n t h e g i v e n segment of t i m e . 1 2  At  least  f o r home c o n s u m p t i o n , p e a c e f u l  coexistence  was t o be t h e i d e o l o g i c a l b a t t l e g r o u n d f o r t h e c l a s h o f the  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two s y s t e m s .  Hitherto,  peaceful  c o e x i s t e n c e h a d b e e n v i e w e d a s a modus v i v e n d i  designed  t o assure  static  that those  very  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s remained  f o r the period of respite, u n t i l  to continue  permanent r e v o l u t i o n .  ment on t h e n a t u r e  the  ready  However, P r a v d a ' s com-  o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was t o r e m a i n  undeveloped d u r i n g t h e pre-war y e a r s . to  t h e USSR was  Litvinov  continued  speak t o t h e c o m m i s s i o n  i n conciliatory  terms.  opportunity t o present  t h e League w i t h  a Pact o f  Economic Non-Aggression, which r e a d  He  took  i n part,  The c o n t r a c t i n g p a r t i e s once more solemnly confirm the p r i n c i p l e , proclaimed a t the I n t e r n a t i o n a l E c o n o m i c C o n f e r e n c e o f 1927, o f t h e peaceful coexistence of countries, i r r e s p e c t i v e of t h e i r s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and economic systems.13  L i t v i n o v devoted defence  the rest  of h i s protocol.  o f the conference  He m a i n t a i n e d  that  to a  I f t h e Geneva C o n f e r e n c e o f 1927 recognised the n e c e s s i t y to a c c e p t the r e s o l u t i o n o f t h e p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s i n the given h i s t o r i c a l stage, then i t i s reasonable t o accept that r e s o l u t i o n and p u t i t i n t o o p e r a t i o n now, when t h e USSR i s s t r o n g e r . + l l  But  whether the  seem t o c o n c e r n terested  accepted  L i t v i n o v t o o much.  i n "going  In a r a t h e r naive away on  p a c t was  on  He  o r not  was  did  not  primarily in-  r e c o r d " as d e s i r i n g c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  defense  of the  p r o t o c o l he  g a v e h i s game  a number o f p o i n t s .  But i n a l l e v e n t s i t w i t n e s s e s t h a t the S o v i e t Union, b e l i e v i n g i n i t s s t r e n g t h and w h o l l y a b s o r b e d i n t h e f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e enormous t a s k s o f i n t e r n a l construction before i t , i s p r e p a r e d as f o r m e r l y t o s u p p o r t t h e p r i n c i p l e of peaceful coexistence of t h e two s y s t e m s i n t h e g i v e n segment o f h i s t o r y and l o a t h e s any k i n d o f aggressive intentions against other c o u n t r i e s e i t h e r i n p o l i t i c a l o r i n economic r e l a t i o n s . 15 Not  o n l y d o e s he want h i s p r o t o c o l on  wishes p e a c e f u l coexistence absorbed  " i s prepared"  peaceful coexistence that  only while  i n economic c o n s t r u c t i o n .  that Russia  calls  peaceful coexistence  e x i s t e n c e was  i n theory  to enter  the  into  viewed as a c o m p l e t e l y  also  S o v i e t Union i s  conditions  As  a competition last  of  Soviet assertion  i s inevitable.  t o be  he  Moreover, the a s s e r t i o n  t o doubt the  overpowering of c a p i t a l i s m , the must be  r e c o r d , but  part  unscrupulous  peaceful  co-  leading to  of the  the  statement  tactical  maneuver.  95  Litvinov  continued  t o hammer home h i s message i n  a f u r t h e r speech, d e c l a r i n g t h a t a fresh confirmation  of the p r i n c i p l e  Conference, as t o the p e a c e f u l historical The strategy. it  stage,  ence.  a d o p t e d b y t h e 1927  coexistence,  o f two e c o n o m i c  a t the given  systems. ^-° n  E u r o p e a n C o m m i s s i o n was a t r i u m p h f o r Called t o discuss  was t u r n e d ,  pact  t h e p r o t o c o l "would be  a purely  political  through L i t v i n o v ' s sensational  o f economic n o n - a g g r e s s i o n ,  Soviet problem,  call for a  i n t o an e c o n o m i c  confer-  I t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e Commission  b o r e no f r u i t  o t h e r t h a n t h e new c o n c e p t i o n  of peaceful  coexistence.  IV  On  September 18, 1934  o f N a t i o n s i n .'spite o f a l o n g organisation. told  For instance,  t h e Economic Conference  t h e USSR j o i n e d t h e League history of opposition i n 1927  to the  Obolenskij-Osinskij  that,  We c a n n o t r e g a r d t h e L e a g u e a s an instrument o f peace, f o r i n o u r opinion i t c o n s t i t u t e s , i n i t s present form, an i n s t r u m e n t which s e r v e s t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e r u l i n g powers o f t h e w o r l d and i s o f t e n employed a s a c l o a k t o c o v e r a c t i v e v i o l e n c e committed a t t h e e x p e n s e of. weaker s t a t e s . 1 7  Stalin  himself  called  the  League " t h a t  screen  for  imper-  i i ialist  intrigues"  active  instrument  and of  stated  clearly that  i t was  an  war:  The i d e a o f p e a c e i s t h e b a s i s o f o u r government's p o l i c y , i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c y . Our t a s k i s t h e s t r u g g l e f o r p e a c e , t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t new w a r s and t h e e x p o s u r e o f a l l s t e p s w h i c h mask t h e a c t u a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r war u n d e r t h e f l a g o f pacifism. T h i s i s p r e c i s e l y why we do n o t j o i n t h e League o f N a t i o n s , f o r t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s i s an o r g a n i s a t i o n f o r c o n c e a l i n g t h e p r e p a r a t o r y work f o r :  war.19 Russia  had  looked  upon t h e  League as  Soviet  f r o n t , but  with the  d a n g e r p o s e d by  n a z i Germany and League and  i t s withdrawal from the  seemed t h e  only  obstacle  standing  the  anti-  rise  of  League,  the  between  peace  war.  Stalin the  a potential  expressed the  L e a g u e i n an  i n December 1933. attitude Stalin  t o the  new  Soviet  i n t e r v i e w w i t h an In r e p l y t o  the  attitude  American  towards  newspaperman  question,"Is  League o f N a t i o n s always w h o l l y  your negative  stated,  No, n o t a l w a y s , and n o t i n a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s .... I f t h e L e a g u e were t o t u r n o u t an o b s t a c l e , e v e n a s m a l l one, t h a t made war more d i f f i c u l t , w h i l e i t f u r t h e r e d , even t o a s m a l l e x t e n t , t h e c a u s e o f p e a c e , t h e n we w o u l d n o t be a g a i n s t the League. I f t h i s i s how things t u r n o u t , t h e n i t i s n o t i m p o s s i b l e t h a t we s h a l l support the League, n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g i t s collosal defects.20  97 While Russia's itself East  an e x p r e s s i o n  joining  of the peaceful coexistence  a n d West, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  fence almost  between  t o note L i t v i n o v ' s de-  o f t h e move i n t e r m s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . a s i f he were a t t e m p t i n g  comrades a s w e l l a s d o u b t i n g speech b e f o r e tical  o f t h e L e a g u e was i n  t o reassure  capitalists.  t h e L e a g u e , he d e a l t f i r s t  doubting  It i s Party  In h i s f i r s t with  the theore-  implications of the action.  For a f u r t h e r explanation of our p o s i t i o n I would l i k e t o note t h a t t h e i d e a i n i t s e l f of a union of nations contains nothing t h e o r e t i c a l l y unacceptable f o r the Soviet U n i o n and i t s i d e o l o g y . The S o v i e t U n i o n i s i t s e l f a League o f N a t i o n s i n t h e b e s t sense o f t h e word. I t u n i t e s 18"5 n a t i o n a l i t i e s , among them t h i r t e e n o f w h i c h have a p o p u l a t i o n o f n o t l e s s t h a n one m i l l i o n e a c h , and a l s o n a t i o n s , f o r e x a m p l e , R u s s i a and t h e U k r a i n e , w i t h a population running i n t o tens o f m i l l i o n s o f people. I w i l l make so b o l d a s t o a f f i r m t h a t n e v e r b e f o r e have s o many p e o p l e c o e x i s t e d so p e a c e f u l l y anywhere w i t h i n a single state.21  The of peoples  surprising  reference t o the peaceful  coexistence  w i t h i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i s a n i n c o n g r u o u s and  anachronistic  statement  i n view o f t h e f a c t  that  peaceful  c o e x i s t e n c e was now s e e n b y t h e communists t h e m s e l v e s a s a s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n two o p p o s i t e  socio-economic  systems.  However, e v e n more s t a r t l i n g ,  when one r e c a l l s L e n i n ' s  1920  s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e League c o u l d n o t e n s u r e p e a c e f u l c o existence,  i s L i t v i n o v ' s second  justification.  98 C o n c e r n i n g t h e f i r s t c o n d i t i o n w h i c h we h a v e named, t h e p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l - e c o n o m i c systems a t t h e g i v e n h i s t o r i c a l segment o f t i m e , we have a d v o c a t e d i t many t i m e s a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s and have l e d a struggle f o r i t . We have a c h i e v e d i t s e a r l i e r i n c l u s i o n i n several of the d e c i s i o n s and r e s o l u t i o n s o f t h e s e c o n f e r e n c e s . B u t f u r t h e r d e v e l o p m e n t of, e v e n t s was necessary i n order that t h i s p r i n c i p l e s t r u c k o u t a r o a d f o r i t s e l f and g a i n e d wider r e c o g n i t i o n . The i n v i t a t i o n o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n t o j o i n t h e L e a g u e may be s a i d to represent the f i n a l v i c t o r y of t h i s principle.22  L i t v i n o v was q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t , however, t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union  d i d n o t see p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e a s a c o n c e s s i o n t o  principle  o r as a l o s s  of national  identity:  We e n t e r t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s a s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a new s o c i a l economic system o f s t a t e s , n o t r e n o u n c i n g any o f t h e p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f t h i s s t a t e and p r e s e r v i n g c o m p l e t e l y i t s i n d i v i d u a l i t y a s t h o s e r e m a i n i n g staters, h e r e r e p r e s ented p r e s e r v e t h e i r s . 2 3  V  How f a r t h e S o v i e t s were s e r i o u s i n l a u n c h i n g a tactical lation, desire  offensive  i n 1927  c a n be o n l y a m a t t e r  f o r h i s t o r y was soon t o d r i v e  f o r specu-  them b a c k i n t o a  f o r a p r o l o n g a t i o n o f t h e b r e a t h i n g space  d i s e n g a g e m e n t o f t h e f o r c e s o f E a s t a n d West.  and a  During the  99  1930's Soviet foreign p o l i c y , and hence peaceful coexistence, was  concerned with delaying war between Russia  and  the West (but not necessarily among the Western powers themselves). . A break i n diplomatic r e l a t i o n s with B r i t a i n gave the Comintern, i n i t s 1928 Manifesto,  the opportunity  to  sound the alarm. Despite a l l the contradictions which exist between the c a p i t a l i s t powers, and despite t h e i r deep and growing mutual hatred, they are preparing, with Great B r i t a i n at t h e i r head, a war against the Soviet Union. They are systematically preparing f o r war.^4 Though the Sixth Comintern Congress of 1928 to be gearing f o r an offensive when i t was " l a s t i n g and peaceful coexistence was  seemed  t o l d that  impossible,  Obolensky-Osinsky had already foreshadowed the new p o l i c y when he t o l d the economic conference i n 1927 who  that "those  are opposed to war must seek f o r some scheme of peaee26  f u l coexistence."  Shortly thereafter the CPSU went on  record as desiring peace when i t resolved that i t s p o l i c y was before a l l , a p o l i c y of peace. In spite of the i m p o s s i b i l i t y to predict the time of a m i l i t a r y offensive against the USSR and i n spite of a l l necessity to prepare f o r t h i s offensive, the USSR must lead a decisive and consistent p o l i c y of peace, which strengthens with each  100  y e a r and e a c h h o u r t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e proletarian state. As t h e a i m o f t h e s t r u g g l e f o r p e a c e t h e government o f t h e USSR must e n t e r i n t o e c o n o m i c a l l y expedient l i n k s with c a p i t a l i s t states.27  The  r e s o l u t i o n r e f l e c t e d S t a l i n ' s words t o t h e A m e r i c a n  workers delegation  t o the e f f e c t that  t h e West was t o c o n c e r n o n l y  The the  Soviet  expedient  had  Lenin,  during  expressed the Soviet  t e r m s when he  measures.  p o s i t i o n on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  West seemed on t h e s u r f a c e  ability.  collaboration with  o f war" w i t h  t o be one o f gloomy  the height  inevit-  of the intervention,  a t t i t u d e on war i n t h e f r a n k e s t  declared:  We l i v e n o t o n l y i n a s t a t e , b u t i n a s y s t e m o f s t a t e s and t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e Soviet republic alongside the i m p e r i a l i s t s t a t e s f o r a prolonged time i s unthinkable. I n t h e e n d e i t h e r one o r t h e o t h e r w i l l be v i c t o r i o u s . And when t h i s end a p p r o a c h e s , a s e r i e s o f most t e r r i b l e c l a s h e s b e t w e e n t h e S o v i e t r e p u b l i c and b o u r g e o i s s t a t e s w i l l be i n e v i t a b l e . °  These words have been quoted as  the o f f i c i a l  war.  However, t h e word  subjective theory put  expression  literally  thousands o f times  o f the Soviet  "inevitability"  a t t i t u d e towards contained  f a c t o r t h a t was t o have a g r e a t  of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y  o f war.  impact  The S o v i e t  on t h e  position i s  s u c c i n c t l y i n an American i n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t  "when M a r x i s t s  a highly  of 1956:  s a y t h a t wair i s i n e v i t a b l e , t h e y e x p r e s s  b e l i e f n o t t h a t men c a n n o t  prevent  their  i t , b u t t h a t men w i l l n o t  101 prevent  29  i t . "  jectively  The  i n the  of p e a c e f u l  d e s i r e s o f men  coexistence  Therefore, 1927  concept t h a t  Stalin  inevitability  lies  f i t t e d well with  a s a means o f . a v o i d i n g  was  able  to proclaim  sub-  the  idea  war.  i n December  that,  We must n o t f o r g e t L e n i n ' s words t h a t as r e g a r d s o u r work o f c o n s t r u c t i o n v e r y much d e p e n d s upon w h e t h e r we s u c c e e d i n p o s t p o n i n g war w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d , w h i c h i s i n e v i t a b l e , b u t w h i c h can be p o s t p o n e d e i t h e r u n t i l t h e moment when the p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n i n Europe m a t u r e s , o r u n t i l t h e moment when t h e c o l o n i a l r e v o l u t i o n s have f u l l y m a t u r e d , o r l a s t l y , u n t i l t h e moment when t h e c a p i t a l i s t s come t o b l o w s o v e r t h e d i v i s i o n of the c o l o n i e s . Therefore, the maintenance of p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s i s an o b l i g a t o r y t a s k f o r us. Our r e l a t i o n s w i t h the c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s c o n s i s t s i n the acceptance of the c o e x i s t e n c e of two o p p o s i t e s y s t e m s . ^  Stalin  went on  imperialism  to  had  state  already  that  the  e x p e c t e d war  been f o r e s t a l l e d  with  f o r ten  years  31 because of "the Stalin the  continued,  Soviet  coexistence and  peaceful  espousal idea:  ( 2 ) , "the The  war  could  of the  (1)  be two  USSR."  postponed  Moreover,  i n the  f a c e t s of the  future  peaceful  " p e a c e and  expansion of  Chairman of the  s a r s , Rykov, s t r u c k t h e Fifth  p o l i c y of the  new  peaceful r e l a t i o n s , " 32 trade."  Council  of People's  theme i n h i s r e p o r t  C o n g r e s s of S o v i e t s h e l d  i n May  1929:  Commisto  the  by  102 Among b o u r g e o i s g o v e r n m e n t s two tendencies s t r u g g l e w i t h each other; the f i r s t i s a tendency of a g g r e s s i o n , e x p r e s s i n g itself i n h o s t i l i t y toward t h e f i r s t government i n the world of the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the working c l a s s and has a s i t s aim t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f the p r o l e t a r i a n d i c t a t o r s h i p ; the second tendency t o l e r a t e s , a t l e a s t i n the g i v e n cond i t i o n s , t h e p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e two economic s y s t e m s , t h e s y s t e m o f t h e „ S o v i e t s and t h e s y s t e m o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s . ^  Already  the  d i c h o t o m y t h a t was  l a t e r t o be  backbone o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e coexistence the  o r war"  c h o i c e had  strategic  flected an  by  clearly  being  line.  the  as t h e  The  stated,  S o v i e t s had the  a call  Osinsky s f  part  hoped f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n was  s y s t e m s were n o t thought i n  as  re-  systems incom-  of  h i s r e m a r k s on t h e  for peaceful  of  1927.  subjective nature  ' i n e v i t a b i l i t y ' , Rykov c o n c l u d e d with  Hitherto  absence of mention of " o p p o s i t e "  In l i n e with  tendencies  expressed.  a t a c t i c a l maneuver, n o t  i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t t h e two  patible  moral  - "either peaceful  been i m p l i e d r a t h e r than  s t a t e m e n t o f 1927 the  - was  the  coexistence,  From what I have s a i d t o y o u i t seems c l e a r t o me, f i r s t , t h a t t h e e l e m e n t s o f a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t o u r s t a t e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f an a t t a c k , c e r t a i n l y e x i s t , but our p o l i c y o f f i g h t i n g f o r p e a c e and o f p r o l o n g i n g t h e b r e a t h i n g s p a c e h a s n o t been e n t i r e l y unsuccessful. Our p o l i c y as a w h o l e must a l s o i n t h e f u t u r e c o n s i s t o f f i g h t i n g w i t h a l l o u r s t r e n g t h and a l l o u r means and methods t o d e v e l o p b u s i n e s s r e l a t i o n s w i t h a l l states.34  two  103  I n November 1930,  Stalin,  i n an  interview with  an A m e r i c a n newspaperman, r e f e r r e d t o e x p e r i e n c e vocating see no  coexistence.  reason  should not  why  exist  the  In r e p l y t o the capitalist  s i d e by  and  question,  communist  side without  i n ad"you  systems  fighting?"  Stalin  stated,  T h e y have n o t f o u g h t f o r t e n y e a r s w h i c h means t h e y c a n c o e x i s t . We d o n ' t want t o f i g h t , and some o f t h e i r p e o p l e don't e i t h e r . 3 5  1931  By vided  the  i n t o the  the  capitalist  economic d e p r e s s i o n  o p p o r t u n i t y t o take area  the  o f f e n s i v e once more  of peaceful coexistence.  In h i s speech t o  S i x t h C o n g r e s s o f S o v i e t s i n M a r c h 1931,  the then  Chairman of the  pro-  Council of People's  Molotov,  Commissars,  said:  Comrades! I n t h e i r time the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e S o v i e t power have come out w i t h s p e c i a l s t a t e m e n t s on o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p r e s e n t p e r i o d as a p e r i o d o f the p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two p r i n c i p a l l y o p p o s i t e and i r r e c o n c i l a b l e s y s t e m s - t h e s y s t e m o f c a p i t a l i s m and t h e s y s t e m o f building socialism.36  He  then  recalled  Conference  o f 192?  c o e x i s t e n c e and now  also."3^  peaceful  Osinsky's  words t o the World  as t o the  concluded:  possibility "We  stand  However, M o l o t o v went on  c o e x i s t e n c e was  to world r e v o l u t i o n .  not  an  end  of  Economic  peaceful  f o r t h e same  position  to state that  in itself  but  a means  104 When we speak o f t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two p r i n c i p a l l y opposed s o c i a l systems i n t h e c o u r s e o f a c e r t a i n h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d - c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m - we draw f r o m t h a t o u r own conclusions. We know a l s o t h a t t h e b o u r g e o i s i e draws i t s own c o n c l u s i o n s .... Our c o n c l u s i o n s c o n s i s t i n u s i n g t h e m e n t i o n e d h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n a maximum manner f o r s e c u r i n g t h e v i c t o r y o f our s y s t e m . Two s y s t e m s s t a n d o p p o s e d t o each o t h e r . Between t h e s e w o r l d s a s t r u g g l e rages.3°  Molotov delivered t h i s  speech j u s t b e f o r e  the European  C o m m i s s i o n went i n t o s e s s i o n .  There would  seem t o be a d i r e c t  between i t and t h e P r a v d a  editorial  connection  q u o t e d on p a g e s s i x and s e v e n .  statements are the high  therefore  T h e s e two  points of peaceful  coexistence  d u r i n g t h e 1930's. By  1935, however, S o v i e t  aggressiveness  h a d once  more b e e n b r o u g h t u n d e r c o n t r o l , i n f l u e n c e d by t h e t h r e a t of Nazi  Germany.  Molotov then tamely r e p o r t e d  Seventh Congress o f S o v i e t s t h a t , foreign policy  i s t h e support  !t  the  t o the  foundation  of our  o f p e a c e and t h e d e v e l o p -  ment o f p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s w i t h  a l l countries."39  same s p e e c h M o l o t o v n o t e d a g r o w i n g c o n f l i c t  In the  between  40) E u r o p e a n v i c t o r s and v a n q u i s h e d , ' ' S t a l i n ' s f o r e i g n p o l i c y proclaimed Russia  that i f  i n 1927 was s u c c e s s f u l ,  must be h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r much o f t h e t e n s i o n s  l e a d i n g t o W o r l d War Two. see  implying  the increase  S t a l i n , however, d i d n o t w i s h t o  o f t e n s i o n between t h e S o v i e t  U n i o n and  105 t h e w e s t , and Roy  i n speaking  with the  Howard, i n M a r c h 1936,  A m e r i c a n newspaperman,  used the  peaceful  argument t o p o u r o i l on t r o u b l e d w a t e r s . direct bined  question to S t a l i n :  g a t i o n had  bid  you  p a r a l l e l development o f the  systems?"^'"'"  ilar  "Do  J u s t as S t a l i n  put  question,  h i s own so now  coexistence  Howard p u t  b e l i e v e i n the  A m e r i c a n and  i n 1927  a  com-  Soviet  to the workers d e l e -  economic i n t e r p r e t a t i o n  on a  sim-  he u s e d t h e q u e s t i o n t o i n t r o d u c e  a  f o r peace.  A m e r i c a n d e m o c r a c y and t h e S o v i e t s y s t e m c a n p e a c e f u l l y c o e x i s t and compete. But one c a n n o t d e v e l o p i n t o t h e o t h e r . The S o v i e t s y s t e m w i l l n o t grow i n t o A m e r i c a n d e m o c r a c y and v i c e v e r s a . We can p e a c e f u l l y c o e x i s t i f we do n o t q u a r r e l w i t h each o t h e r over every trifle.42  T h i s was  n o t h i n g more t h a n  irreconcilability o f war, ciple,  a euphemistic  o f t h e two  systems.  however, S t a l i n w o u l d make no insisting  on t h e  individuality  expression  Even under concession of the  of  the  pressure to  prin-  Soviet  system. I n 1936 national existence  L i t v i n o v was  situation as an  a s t o use  so c o n c e r n e d the  excluded  inter-  desire f o r peaceful  excuse f o r s t r i k i n g  a s l o n g a s R u s s i a was  w i t h the  co-  a b a r g a i n wath a n y o n e ,  from the  impending  Our c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r c o u n t r i e s , and our p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the League o f N a t i o n s a r e b a s e d on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e p e a c e f u l  war:  106 c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s - t h e s o c i a l i s t and t h e c a p i t a l i s t - i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t that f a s c i s t c o u n t r i e s are i n c l u d e d i n the latter.43  By  i t s inaction  i n the R h i n e l a n d ,  A b y s s i n i a , t h e L e a g u e had t o p r e v e n t war. l e a v e the door  shown i t s e l f  Spain  unable  T h e r e f o r e , L i t v i n o v was  and or  unwilling  prepared  open f o r S o v i e t c o l l a b o r a t i o n  to '  even w i t h  the  Nazis.  During  1938  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  eriorated  without  it  f o r , t h a t Molotov  wished  Russian  people.  that the  the S o v i e t Union  The  was  b e s t he  s i t u a t i o n had  finding  hard  the  so  security that  put t o r e a s s u r e  c o u l d do was  S o v i e t Union would b l u n d e r a l o n g  det-  to t e l l  the  them  somehow.  We have t h e r i c h e s t e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f a s t a t e o f a new social t y p e , t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f i t s armed s t r u g g l e o v e r a number o f y e a r s a g a i n s t the i n v a d i n g c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , the experience of the s o c i a l i s t a l t e r a t i o n o f a l l t h e n a t i o n a l economy and t h e l i q u i d a t i n g of a l l e x p l o i t i n g c l a s s e s , f i n a l l y , the experience of the development of r e l a t i o n s w i t h the h o s t i l e c a p i t a l i s t encirclement i n conditions of the s o - c a l l e d p e a c e f u l coexistence.44  In t h i s  bankrupt  statement  than t h a t the p r i n c i p l e manipulated  i n a way  of whatever dangers  Molotov  s a y s no more, i n e f f e c t  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e would  t h a t would get the faced i t .  S o v i e t Union  be out  107  A f e w months l a t e r ing  for allies.  Stalin,  t o o , was f e e b l y  I n h i s speech b e f o r e  grop-  the Eighteenth  P a r t y C o n g r e s s , i n w h i c h he i s s a i d t o have p u t "two irons  i n the f i r e , " ^  anyone who  chose t o  Stalin  sent  interpret  o u t an i n v i t a t i o n t o  h i s meaning c o r r e c t l y .  He  declared:  We s t a n d f o r p e a c e and t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g of b u s i n e s s l i n k s w i t h a l l c o u n t r i e s , we s t a n d and w i l l s t a n d on t h i s p o s i t i o n , as l o n g as these c o u n t r i e s w i l l support such a r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , a s l o n g a s t h e y do n o t a t t e m p t t o i n f r i n g e upon t h e i n t e r e s t s o f o u r country.4o  I t was t h e N a z i s who  responded q u i c k e s t t o S t a l i n ' s  A f e w months l a t e r t h e S o v i e t - G e r m a n T r e a t y s i o n was  s i g n e d , and w i t h  In defending  this particularly  of statesmanship argument a s  i t the fate odious  of non-aggres-  of Eastern  Europe.  and s h a m e f u l  Molotov used the p e a c e f u l  offer.  piece  coexistence  justification.  In our f o r e i g n p o l i c y with n o n - s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s we have s t o o d and s t a n d on t h e well-known p r i n c i p l e o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e S o v i e t s t a t e and c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s . As t h i s p r i n c i p l e was f o l l o w e d i n p r a c t i c e i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o show a g r e a t number of examples. But I w i l l s e l e c t o n l y a few. F o r example, s i n c e 1933 t h e r e h a s e x i s t e d a t r e a t y o f n o n - a g g r e s s i o n and n e u t r a l i t y with f a s c i s t I t a l y . T i l l now i t e n t e r e d no one's h e a d t o s p e a k o u t a g a i n s t t h i s treaty. And t h i s i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . As f a r as such a t r e a t y answers t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e USSR i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o o u r p r i n c i p l e o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e USSR a n d c a p i t a l i s t countries.47  108  Far  from being  deteriorated Russia's  a principle,  i n t o an u n p r i n c i p l e d t a c t i c a l  s a f e t y a t t h e expense o f t h e r e s t  Never b e f o r e  i n those  ties  tool  to  assure  of the world.  and n e v e r s i n c e h a s t h e i d e a o f p e a c e f u l  coexistence-reached did  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e had  s u c h a l o w ebb i n i t s d e v e l o p m e n t a s i t  alarming  i n 1939.  days preceding  the opening o f h o s t i l i -  F o r a t i m e e x p e d i e n c y was t o t r i u m p h  over  s c r u p l e s and m o r a l s .  VI  The of  1930's was a p e r i o d o f b a c k w a t e r i n t h e h i s t o r y  peaceful coexistence.  deteriorated machination  until  In practice i t progressively  i t became n o t h i n g more t h a n  t o place the Soviet Union outside  From 1927  t o 1933  a  tactical  t h e war  the emphasis o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t -  ence was on e c o n o m i c s , c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e F i v e Y e a r From 1934,  with  the entrance  League o f N a t i o n s ,  until  area.  Plan.  o f the Soviet Union i n t o the  1939  t h e e m p h a s i s was p r i m a r i l y on  political collaboration. To  review,  sounded i n 1928 ception  a new p e r i o d o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  when t h e C o m i n t e r n r e v i v e d t h e t w i n  of peaceful coexistence  proceeding  simultaneously.  was  con-  and permanent r e v o l u t i o n  I n t h i s new  s t r a t e g y t h e two were  109 to  a c t as  complements t o e a c h  Union t o a c t as a " d r i v i n g at  the  same t i m e b e i n g  other, a l l o w i n g the  f o r c e " of world  with the  adoption  e m p h a s i s was  fined to  the  o f the f i r s t  vaguely USSR.  The  i s o l a t i o n during the  t h e day  and  were c a l l e d  the  again  greater p o l i t i c a l  o f war  became an  ence d u r i n g t h e W o r l d War called  last  cry  collaboration efforts.  coexistence  p e r e d y s h k a " and  to  pro-  security. For t h i s  rea-  prominently  in Litvinov's  speech b e f o r e t h e Assembly o f t h e League of  aspects  the  justify  t o power p e a c e f u l  employed t o " p r o l o n g t h e  the p o l i t i c a l  was  of  Soviet' economic  of H i t l e r  From t h i s t i m e onwards t h e  ing  used t o  de-  "useful"  s o c i a l i s m " became t h e  son p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e f i g u r e d first  econ-  p e r i o d of economic c o n s t r u c t i o n .  upon t o j u s t i f y  vide Russia with  internal  as a d o c t r i n e o f  ideas of competition  W i t h the r i s e was  Russia's  s y s t e m s was  "Peaceful coexistence to b u i l d of  ascendancy  a c t i o n w h i c h was  Peaceful coexistence o f two  a g a i n won  o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e were  i n t e r m s o f any  irreconcilibility Soviet  limits  retaliation.  F i v e Y e a r P l a n , when t h e  p l a c e d on b u i l d i n g up  omic s t r e n g t h .  r e v o l u t i o n while  s a f e from c a p i t a l i s t  However, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  Soviet  e m p h a s i s was  Nations.  very d e f i n i t e l y  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e .  The  on  delay-  " o b l i g a t o r y t a s k " of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t half  of the  approached i t l o s t upon t o j u s t i f y  1930's.  As t h e  Second  i t s t h e o r e t i c a l m e a n i n g as i t  any  t a c t i c a l move t o keep R u s s i a  110 out  of the  impending  Peaceful  disaster.  coexistence  development d u r i n g the point  i n the  East  and  of the  that the  field  occurred  thirties.  The  i n 1931  i n conditions of  However, t h i s i m p r e s s i v e  of coexistence  theoretical high when  s t r u g g l e f o r supremacy between  West c o u l d t a k e p l a c e  coexistence. aspect:  p e r i o d under review.  ideological  Pravda declared  received l i t t l e  and  peaceful  significant  remained undeveloped d u r i n g  the  rest  Ill  .References  1. C a r l Cohen, Communism, F a s c i s m , Y o r k ; Random House., 1962, p . 1 9 9 .  and D e m o c r a c y ,  New  2. The Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l , 1919-1943; Documents, v o l . 2 ( J . D e g r a s , ed.) L o n d o n ; O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956, p . 491. 3.  Ibid,  p.  512.  4.  Ibid,  p.  512.  5. Max B e l o f f , The F o r e i g n P o l i c y o f S o v i e t R u s s i a , 1929-1941, v o l . 1, London; O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1947, p . 1 0 - 1 1 . 6.  See B e l o f f . ,  op. c i t . , p . 2 7 .  7. A . J . R y k o v , " D o k l a d p r e d s o v n a r k o m a t . A . I . R y k o v a , " P r a v d a , May 2 3 , 1929. My i t a l i c s . 8. M.M. L i t v i n o v . " B e s e d a t o v . M.M. L i t v i n o v a k o r r e s p o n d e n t a m i , " P r a v d a , J u l y 2 6 , 1930.  s inostrannymi  9. M.V. M o l o t o v , " O t c h e t n y j d o k l a d t o v . M o l o t o v a o r a b o t e p r a v i t e l ' s t v o V I I s j e z d u S o v e t o v SSSR," P r a v d a January 29, 1935, p . 2. 10. "Mirovoj k r i z i s kapitalizma i a n t i s o v e t s k i e plany imperialistov: vystuplenie tov. Litvinova v evropejskoj k o m m i s s i i , " P r a v d a . May 20, 1931, p . 2. 11.  Ibid.  12.  " B o r ' b a dvux s i s t e m , " P r a v d a ,  13.  Litvinov  14.  Ibid.  15.  Ibid.  "Mirovoj k r i z i s  May 21, 1 9 3 1 . op. c i t . , p . 2.  16. D e g r a s , S o v i e t Documents on F o r e i g n P o l i c y , I I , p. 501. 17. E u d i n ,  S o v i e t R u s s i a and t h e West, p . 387.  18. S t a l i n , " B e s e d a s i n o s t r a n n y m i r a b o c h i m i (November 5, 1927) S o c h i n e n i . j a , X; 2 7 5 .  delegatsijami,"  112 19.  Stalin,  (18 d e k a b r ' a  "Politicheskij  otchet tsentral'nago  komiteta  (1925)) S o c h i n e n i . i a V I I , 2 9 6 .  20. S t a l i n , "Beseda s korrespondentami gazety "N'ju J o r k T a i m s " g . D ' u r a n t i , 25 d e k a b r ' a 1 9 3 3 g , " S o c h i n e n i . i a , X I I I , 280. 2 1 . L i t v i n o v " V y s t u p l e n i e SSR v L i g u n a t s i j ; R e c h M.M. L i t v i n o v a , " P r a v d a . S e p t . 1 9 , 1934, p . 1. 22.  Ibid.  23.  Ibid.  24.  Beloff,  tov.  op. c i t . pp. 9-10.  25. "The S i x t h C o n g r e s s o f t h e Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l , " D e g r a s , Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l I I , p . 4 5 1 . 26.  op. c i t . p . 3 8 7 .  Eudin,  27. " R e z o l ' u t s k i i plenuma o mezhdunarodnom p o l o z h e n i i , " KPSS y R e z o l ' u t s i i , I I , p . 2 4 2 . 28. L e n i n , "Otchet t s e n t r a l ' n o g o ( 1 9 1 9 ) , S o c h i n e n i . i a , XXIX, 1 3 3 .  k o m i t e t a , 18 m a r t a , " Lenin's i t a l i c s .  2 9 . W a r r e n B. W a l s h , R e a d i n g s i n R u s s i a n H i s t o r y , t h i r d e d i t i o n , Syracuse; Syracuse U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959, p . 7 0 1 . 30.  Stalin,  S o c h i n e n i . i a , X, 2 8 9 .  31.  Ibid,  p. 288.  32.  Ibid,  p. 290.  33. A . I . Rykov, " D o k l a d p r e d s o v n a r k o m a t . A . I . P r a v d a , May 2 3 , 1 9 2 9 . 34.  Rykova,"  Ibid.  3 5 . Andrew R o t h s t e i n , P e a c e f u l P e n g u i n Books, 1955, p . 4 3 .  Coexistence,  Harmondsworth;  3 6 . M.V. M o l o t o v , " O t c h e t p r a v i t e l ' s t v a s o j u z a SSR: D o k l a d p r e d s o v n a r k o m a SSSR t . M o l o t o v a V I s j e z d u S o v e t o v , " P r a v d a , March 12, 1931, p. 3 . 37.  Ibid.  38.  Ibid.  113 3 9 . M.V. M o l o t o v " O t c h e t n y j d o k l a d t o v . M o l o t o v a o r a b o t e p r a v i t e l * s t v a V I I s j e z d u S o v e t o v SSR," P r a v d a J a n . 2 9 , 1935 p. 2. 40.  Ibid.  41. S t a l i n "Beseda t o v a r i s h c h a S t a l i n a Govardom," P r a v d a , M a r c h 5 , 1936, p. 2. M a r c h 1. 42.  s gospodom Roem Talk took place  Ibid.  4 3 . L i t v i n o v , "SSSR m o g u c h i j o p l o t v s e o b s h c h e g o n a r o d n o g o k o m m i s s a r a po i n o s t r a n n y m d e l a m t o v . l i t v i n o v a , " P r a v d a . Nov. 2 9 , 1936, p . 1. 44. Molotov, "21-aja godovshchina P r a v d a , Nov. 9 , 1 9 3 » , p. 2 . 45.  on  Von  Rauch, H i s t o r y  m i r a ; Rech M.M.  okt'abr'skoj r e v o l ' u t s i i  o f S o v i e t R u s s i a , p.  272.  4 6 . S t a l i n , " O t c h e t n y j d o k l a d t . S t a l i n a na X V I I I - o m s j e x i e p a r t i i o r a b o t e T s k VKP ( b ) , " P r a v d a , M a r c h 11, 1939, p. 3 . 4 7 . M o l o t o v , " 0 r a t i f i k a t s i i s o v e t s k o - gerraanskogo o n e n a p a d e n i i , " P r a v d a , S e p t . 1, 1939.  dogovora  114  CHAPTER  V  I  I n 1939 Throughout  history buried peaceful  t h e war  the  p h r a s e was  from S o v i e t  political  is  to determine.  not  hard  jargon.  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was economic the On  s y s t e m s on t h e  class  significantly  The  reason  definition,  a competition one  struggle i n the  hand, and  a s we  o f two an  and  the  While the sion  the  they  d i d not was  as an  i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena  of  on t h e  other.  f i t the p e c u l i a r  act of peaceful  of that t r e a t y , eminating never published  with  the  Nazi's  by  non-aggres-  coexistence, chiefly  the  i t practical  a reminder that the and  definition politics  of p e a c e f u l  to antagonize  from  As  such  coexistence. the  Germans w i t h  S o v i e t - G e r m a n m o d u s - v i v e n d i was struggle.  the  USSR, were  "spheres of i n f l u e n c e " p o l i t i c s .  f i t the  of competition  opposed  S o v i e t s d i d c h a r a c t e r i s e the  secret c o d i c i l s  b a s e d p u r e l y on  seen,  Allies.  t r e a t y o f 1939  actual results  have  expression  of c o l l a b o r a t i o n that r e s u l t e d , f i r s t  then with  missing  f o r i t s absence  n e i t h e r count d i d p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  brand  Nor  By  coexistence.  in  fact  115 Likewise, June 1941  Soviet  d i d not  coexistence.  The  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the  f i t the war  pattern  tween t h e  two  supposedly  common enemy.''* the  idea  t h e war  had  the  basic  real,  the  Soviet  r e s t of the  historical,  supposed  and  The  contradictions  credulity  that  contemplated  assumption t h a t  t h r o u g h an  doctrine  (the  indeed, that  ease.^  war  the  and  West  l e a s t the that t h e i r  o f a p o l i c y and  radical,  and  the  Soviets  Western g o o d - w i l l  aging  Stalin  be  t o the  u t m o s t by  t h a t he  a  the  sur-  seriously  of  be  Marxist camps, e t c . ) ,  true  collabora-  a s p i r a t i o n s were  old doctrine  felt  to  irreconcil-  aims might  such a program o f e v e n t s t o the  old  seem b e y o n d  of e s t a b l i s h e d  However, S o v i e t  of  provided  could  ideology  of  "socialist had  I t does not  abandonment  t i o n w i t h t h e West.  tage to allow  The  the  seemed  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e , two  espousal  extreme, too  of East  possibility  achieved  the  world.  for, a time at  the  convictions  in fact,  between the  a  experience  so f a i t h f u l l y  war,  be-  abandoned  i n c o n t r o v e r t i b l e example t h a t  mounted w i t h r e l a t i v e  and  communists n e v e r  and  d e m a r c a t i o n o f f o r c e s was  camp" and  and  collaboration  r e v o l u t i o n the  so l o n g  of Marxism-Leninism.  contradict able  economic  Soviet  socialist  believed  peaceful  unprecedented  seems t o have s e r i o u s l y s h a k e n t h e  t h o s e who tenets  see  after  i r r e c o n c i l a b l e camps a g a i n s t  While the  of a world  e n v i s a g e d by  y e a r s were t o  u t t e r l y u n e x p e c t e d m i l i t a r y and  Allies  too  much a  occur. could  communizing  too  It  heriseems,  press Eastern  116 Europe, by keeping his troops i n Iran, by demanding Turkish t e r r i t o r y , and f i n a l l y , by attempting to take South Korea by armed force. In any event, whether f o r t a c t i c a l reasons or because of i d e o l o g i c a l doubt, d o c t r i n a l orthodoxy was established a f t e r the war siderable wavering.  re-  only h e s i t a t i n g l y , and with con-  The main l i n e s of doctrine, of course,  were re-established f a i r l y r a p i d l y .  Within six months of  VJ Day Marxism was moving toward the resurrection of the two  camps  1946, was  theory.  At a pre-election r a l l y i n February  S t a l i n told his audience that the international scene characterized by Soviet pre-eminence.  emerged from the war,  Russia had  he declared, with an immense m i l i t a r y  capacity and tremendous i n d u s t r i a l resources.  At the same  time S t a l i n t a c i t l y compared Russia to the i m p e r i a l i s t opposition by asserting that the contradictions continued to shake capitalism and p e r i o d i c a l l y to i n c i t e i t s parts to 3  war  among themselves. A few months l a t e r Andrej Zhdanov, as p r i n c i p a l  speaker at the 1946 stating emphatically  October celebrations went further by that the East and West were following  d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed p o l i c i e s . Two tendencies exist i n post-war p o l i t i c s . These two tendencies i n p a r t i c u l a r are revealed i n connection with the question of the d i r e c t i o n i n  117 w h i c h c o l l a b o r a t i o n must d e v e l o p i n t h e present time. One p o l i c y , l e d by t h e S o v i e t U n i o n ... i s t o s t r e n g t h e n p e a c e and s t o p a g g r e s s i o n . The other d i r e c t i o n i s that of those r e a c t i o n a r y powers and c i r c l e s w h i c h f o l l o w t h e p a t h o f e x p a n s i o n and a g g r e s s i o n . 4  S t a l i n ' s and of c r i t i c i s m By  1948  the  Zhdanov's speeches h e r a l d e d  o f t h e West and process  d i c h o t o m y o f two  glorification  of r e - e s t a b l i s h i n g  camps was  the  a  spate  of s o c i a l i s m . basic  world  complete.  The f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c e p t o f our e p o c h c o n s i s t s o f t h e s t r u g g l e between two camps - t h e i m p e r i a l i s t one h e a d e d by t h e USA, and t h e a n t i - i m p e r i a l i s t , h e a d e d by the S o v i e t Union. The d e m o c r a t i c , antii m p e r i a l i s t camp embodies and e x p r e s s e s the i n t e r e s t s of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o l e t a r i a t and o f s t r a t a o f t h e w o r k i n g masses l e d by i t i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t c a p i t a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m , f o r a b e t t e r s o c i a l o r d e r , f o r communism. This i s a class struggle on a w o r l d s c a l e . 5  It  i s against  concept  the r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t  o f two  camps and  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l a s s s t r u g g l e t h a t the  of p e a c e f u l  coexistence  re-emerged  i n the  the  concept  post-war  period.  II  One peaceful  of the  peculiarities  coexistence  somewhat g r u d g i n g l y ,  i s that  of the  Stalin  referred to  the  development  only r a r e l y ,  of  and  t e r m a f t e r he  then  buried  118 sozhitel'stvo  i n 1927.  I n an  era i n which  so much  on t h e f a v o r a b l e p r o n o u n c e m e n t s o f t h e g r e a t  hinged  leader, for  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e t o have s u r v i v e d a t a l l i n t h e of S t a l i n ' s vitality  s i l e n c e c e r t a i n l y witnesses  of the i d e a .  capitalist-socialist  A f t e r the  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e and  "peace"  (broader  i n s c o p e and  peaceful coexistence)  foreign  policy.  tenacious  of the  a l l i a n c e that defeated  ignored  than  success  the  Coupled  Nazism,  therefore vaguer i n  very  tion  i n t o post-war r e l a t i o n s .  corner  stone  of Western diplomats obliged  and  I t was  Alexander  of h i s  from peace  M o r e o v e r , i t was correspondents  to r e s u r r e c t the pre-war  I n September, 1946,  of  the  pros-  s u c c e s s f u l wartime c o l l a b o r a -  c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h a t p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was pre-eminence.  Stalin  conception  w i t h b o p e s o f " p e a c e " was  of c o n t i n u i n g the  into f i n a l  strange  t u r n e d t o a campaign  as t h e  pect  face  to  and  re-emerge  at the  coaxing  that Stalin  was  ideology.  t h e E n g l i s h newspaperman  W e r t h a s k e d S t a l i n w h e t h e r he b e l i e v e d ,  i n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f f r i e n d l y and p r o l o n g e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f the S o v i e t U n i o n and t h e W e s t e r n d e m o c r a c i e s , i n s p i t e o f the e x i s t e n c e of i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , and i n " f r i e n d l y c o m p e t i t i o n " b e t w e e n t h e two s y s t e m s ? 6  7 S t a l i n ' s a n s w e r o f " I do, and  unqualified.  The  unconditionally,"  restrictions  was a f f i r m a t i v e  o f t i m e and  irreconcila-  119 b i l i t y were s t r a n g e l y a b s e n t , s u g g e s t i n g did  indeed  foresee  prospects  he was b e i n g more p o l i t i c a l l y in  t h e pre-war days.  i n both  either that  Stalin  o f open c o l l a b o r a t i o n , o r e l s e dishonest  Perhaps there  than  he h a d b e e n  i s a degree o f t r u t h  assumptions.  M o l o t o v , however, f o r e s a w c o m p e t i t i o n collaboration  as the b a s i s o f East-West  rather  relations.  than A s he  put i t ; In our nation there i s a great desire t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the peaceful competition o f s t a t e s and s o c i a l s y s t e m s d u r i n g w h i c h s e p a r a t e n a t i o n s may n o t o n l y d i s p l a y t h e i r i n h e r e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s , b u t may a l s o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e r and more manys i d e d c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h each other.°  M o r e o v e r , M o l o t o v went on, t h o u g h E a s t common i n t e r e s t s , t h e r e  are notable  and West may have  restrictions  to their  application: The w a r showed w i t h p a r t i c u l a r c l a r i t y that states with highly d i s s i m i l a r s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s may h a v e h i g h l y i m p o r t a n t common.interests, which they can uphold o n l y b y common e f f o r t and on c o n d i t i o n o f n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e i n one a n o t h e r s internal affairs.9  Stalin, fied  acceptance  194©  Elliot  versed with  however, c o n t i n u e d  to reiterate  of peaceful c o l l a b o r a t i o n .  Roosevelt Stalin.  visited  h i s unquali-  I n December o f  t h e S o v i e t Union and con-  He a s k e d S t a l i n w h e t h e r t h e US and t h e  120 USSR c o u l d " l i v e terefere Stalin  peacefully  i n the i n t e r n a l  expressed  s i d e by s i d e  affairs  h i s complete  ... and n o t i n -  o f t h e other.""""^  Again  approval.  Yes, o f c o u r s e , T h i s i s not only p o s s i b l e . T h i s i s r e a s o n a b l e and f u l l y f e a s i b l e . I n t h e t e n s e p e r i o d o f t h e war d i f f e r e n t f o r m s o f r u l e d i d n o t p r e v e n t o u r two c o u n t r i e s from u n i t i n g and c o n q u e r i n g o u r enemies. I n s t i l l g r e a t e r degree i t i s p o s s i b l e t o preserve these r e l a t i o n s i n peace t i m e . l l  When H a r o l d S t a s s e n v i s i t e d Moscow i n May S t a l i n was t a l k a t i v e lief  i n East-West  placing  and expanded a t some l e n g t h h i s b e -  c o l l a b o r a t i o n , t h o u g h by now he t o o was  qualifications  existence.  1947  Stassen  on t h e p r o s p e c t  o f peaceful co-  asked,  Can t h e s e two economic s y s t e m s l i v e t o g e t h e r i n one and t h e same w o r l d a n d c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h each o t h e r a f t e r t h e war?12  S t a l i n r e p l i e d w i t h h i s now f a m i l i a r  full  acceptance.  Of c o u r s e t h e y c a n c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h e a c h other. The d i f f e r e n c e between them d o e s n o t have e s s e n t i a l i m p o r t a n c e , a s f a r a s c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d .... The e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s o f t h e USA and t h e USSR a r e d i f f e r e n t b u t t h e y have n o t f o u g h t one a n o t h e r , b u t c o l l a b o r a t e d d u r i n g t h e war. I f two d i f f e r e n t systems can c o l l a b o r a t e i n time o f war, then why c a n t h e y n o t c o l l a b o r a t e i n p e a c e t i m e ? Of c o u r s e , t h i s i m p l i e s t h a t i f t h e r e i s a d e s i r e t o c o l l a b o r a t e then c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s f u l l y possible i n spite of the d i f f e r e n t economic systems. But i f t h e r e i s no d e s i r e to c o l l a b o r a t e , t h e n even i n spite o f  121  i d e n t i c a l e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s , s t a t e s and p e o p l e s can f i g h t . 1 3  Stassen then forced  Stalin  t o develop h i s opening  s t a t e m e n t by i n q u i r i n g w h e t h e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n c a n be e x pected i f there that the  as p u p i l s  i s a desire.1^ of Lenin  Stalin  answered  warily  t h e p e o p l e o f t h e USSR a l w a y s h a d  desire to collaborate.  He t h e n  continued:  It i s necessary t o d i s t i n g u i s h the d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o c o l l a b o r a t e and the d e s i r e t o c o l l a b o r a t e . The p o s s i b i l i t y always e x i s t s but not always the d e s i r e . I f one s i d e d o e s n o t d e s i r e t o c o l l a b o r a t e t h e n t h e r e s u l t w i l l be c o n f l i c t , war.15 Stalin  interrupted  while the Soviet United  States  his train  Union had t h e d e s i r e  d i d not.  ence t o t h e b a s i c  o f thought t o point  This  to collaborate, the  i n i t s e l f was a t a c i t  dichotomy o f p e a c e - l o v i n g  war-mongering c a p i t a l i s m . argument he i n a d v e r t e n t l y  When S t a l i n  refer-  s o c i a l i s m and  returned  to his  g a v e h i s hand away, t h o u g h  u n f a m i l i a r with the s u b t l t i e s seem t o h a v e d i s c e r n e d  out that  i t .  of Marxist  Stalin  jargon,  Stass  does not  continued:  F o r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i d e n t i c a l systems a r e not required. I t i s necessary t o respect the s y s t e m a p p r o v e d by t h e p e o p l e . Only i n these conditions i s collaboration possible. We must p r o c e e d f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l f a c t o f t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s a p p r o v e d by t h e people. Only i n these c o n d i t i o n s i s collaboration possible.16  To  Stalin,  as t o a l l M a r x i s t s ,  t h e p h r a s e " a p p r o v e d by t h e  122 people"  was i n t e r p r e t e d a s " t h o s e  established fraternal  the d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t  l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e CPSU."  was s a y i n g ism  i n effect  was t h a t  e n c e s t o " d e s i r e " and " n o n - d e s i r e " apologists with  Therefore,what  Stalin's  r e a d y q u o t e s f o r many y e a r s  Georgi  Soviet  the idea of political  h i s cue f r o m S t a l i n ' s t a l k w i t h  Malenkov, even then  made a b i d f o r " p r o l o n g e d  influential  capital-  t o come.  " c o e x i s t e n c e " was s l o w l y r e - e n t e r i n g communist Taking  Stalin  several refer-  were t o s e r v e  t h e above q u o t a t i o n w i t n e s s e s  thinking.  under t h e  c o l l a b o r a t i o n between  and s o c i a l i s m was i m p o s s i b l e .  As  g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h have  i n Soviet  Stassen, politics,  coexistence."  We p r o c e e d f r o m t h e f a c t o f t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of coexistence f o r a prolonged p e r i o d o f two s y s t e m s - s o c i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m and we f o l l o w t h e c o u r s e o f t h e s u p p o r t i n g of l o y a l good-neighbor r e l a t i o n s with a l l o f t h o s e s t a t e s w h i c h show a d e s i r e t o f r i e n d l y c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n conditions of the o b s e r v a n c e o f m u t u a l i t y and t h e f u l f i l l m e n t of undertaken o b l i g a t i o n s . 1 7  The  b i d f o r "prolonged  development  c o e x i s t e n c e " was a t o t a l l y  of peaceful coexistence.  new  Hitherto, a l l Soviet  t h e o r e t i c i a n s had a g r e e d t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f E a s t - W e s t modus-vivendi could longed point  period.  i n no c i r c u m s t a n c e s  fora  F r u n z e had. e m p h a t i c a l l y made t h i s  a s e a r l y a s 1921.  development  last  apparently  Nevertheless, had t h e b a c k i n g  provery  M a l e n k o v ' s new  of the Party, f o r  123 at about the "Soviet  same t i m e  foreign  Andrej  p o l i c y proceeds  coexistence f o r a prolonged socialism  and  communist  the f o u n d i n g the  p a r t i e s as w e l l .  the noted  from  convention  of  systems -  European  period of i t was  point of view. international  comments Cominform,  of the East  prolonged,  that  the  of the  But w h i l e t h e  the Marxist  S o v i e t e x p e r t on  o f two  support  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e m i g h t be unfruitful  the f a c t  Moreover, Zhdanov's  1  h e n c e a p p a r e n t l y had  from  time  capitalism." *^  were g i v e n b e f o r e and  Zhdanov a l s o m a i n t a i n e d  not  As E .  law,  to  be  Korovin,  put i t ,  Armed w i t h t h e M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t a n a l y s i s o f e v e n t s and w i t h t h e i r s c i e n t i f i c p r o p h e c y , t h e S o v i e t n a t i o n knows t h a t t i m e w o r k s f o r i t and t h a t e a c h a d d i t i o n a l y e a r o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s , t h e s o c i a l i s t and t h e c a p i t a l i s t , s t r e n g t h e n s t h e f i r s t and weakens t h e second.20  I n May Wallace,  who  194$  Stalin  r e p l i e d t o an  a t t h a t t i m e was  running  a "get-soft-with-Russia" policy. conciliatory  attitude  open l e t t e r  f o r U.S.  of  president  S t a l i n welcomed  on  Wallace's  and went on t o d e c l a r e :  W a l l a c e ' s p r o g r a m c o u l d s e r v e a s a good and f r u i t f u l b a s e f o r a g r e e m e n t s and f o r t h e development of i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n , f o r t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f t h e USSR c o n s i d e r s t h a t i n s p i t e o f t h e d i f f e r e n t economic systems and i d e o l o g i e s , t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e s e s y s t e m s and t h e p e a c e f u l s e t t l e m e n t o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s between t h e USSR and t h e USA i s not o n l y p o s s i b l e but a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y i n t h e i n t e r e s t s o f g e n e r a l peace.21  124 Stalin  listed  existence.  three  conditions f o r attaining peaceful  These were,  non-interference, t r a d e , and  (3)  (2)  the  (1)  respect  general  f o r sovereignty  development  conclusion  co-  and  of u n i v e r s a l  o f a peace t r e a t y  with  Germany.22  In the t o be  ensuing  r e i t e r a t e d by  years  principle  ( s o c i a l i s m and  reason  support  of p e a c e f u l  was  o f "the  realization  post-war years  been r e p l a c e d  old  spector  had  of the  end  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n was national  p o n d e n t and  completed  chapter).  coexistence  S t a l i n was  questioned  interview w i l l  N.  of peaceful  their  competition," o l d and  o f our g r e a t  c o l l a b o r a t i o n of the by  for  ,  prospective  immediate  competition coexistence  and  the  when  once more h a u n t e d  inter-  relations.  I n 1951  this  and  d e s i r e d f o r the  The  1950  f o r the " L g n i n i s t -  coexistence  economic plan."^3  continued  I n March  c a p i t a l i s m ) p e a c e f u l economic  which Molotov maintained familiar  coexistence  l e a d i n g p a r t y members.  Molotov reaffirmed Soviet Stalinist  peaceful  be  interviewed  on t h e  dealt with  by  prospects  a Pravda o f war  i n more d e t a i l  Elizarov entitled  Systems" i n which the  "On  i t illicited  the P e a c e f u l  two  camps.  IV  of  peaceful  an  article  Coexistence  author r e i t e r a t e d the  a s s e r t i o n s o f p e a c e between t h e  (this  i n Part  Though S t a l i n d i d n o t m e n t i o n  i n this interview,  corres-  of  by Two  now-familiar However  the  125 article  i s chiefly  theoretical for  justification  the f i r s t  theory  i n t e r e s t i n g i n that f o r peaceful  time the phrase  i t attempts a coexistence  i s linked with  o f t h e u n e q u a l development  i n which  Lenin's  of capitalism.  The i d e a o f t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o l o n g e d c o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e S o c i a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t systems flows from t h e t h e o r y o f V . I . L e n i n on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e v i c t o r y o f s o c i a l i s m o r i g i n a l l y i n one c o u n t r y , t a k e n s e p a r a t e l y , and t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e simultaneous v i c t o r y o f S o c i a l i s m in a l l countries. L e n i n proved t h a t t h e simultaneous victory of socialism i n a l l countries i s impossible i n conditions of imperialism, because o f t h e unevenness of t h e economic and p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t states. S o c i a l i s m w i l l be v i c t o r i o u s f i r s t i n one o r a f e w c o u n t r i e s . The r e m a i n i n g s t a t e s w i l l r e m a i n b o u r g e o i s f o r some time. Hence i t f o l l o w s t h a t i n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s o r that period, the coexistence of the country of v i c t o r i o u s socialism with the c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s which surround i t i s inevitable.24  However, E l i z a r o v f a c e s t h e q u a n d a r y t h a t w i l l . f a c e apologists basis  of peaceful  f o r "coexistence"  factory  present  day.  peaceful  while  a theoretical  i s r e a d i l y forthcoming, a  theoretical justification  nature has continued  end  coexistence;  satis-  of i t s "peaceful"  t o elude Soviet  theoreticians to the  E l i z a r o v d o e s make i t c l e a r , h o w e v e r ,  coexistence  i s a temporary  phenomenon t h a t  when c a p i t a l i s m p a s s e s f r o m t h e h i s t o r i c a l  It  other  was n o t u n t i l  1952 that  Stalin  that will  scene.  againimentioned  126  peaceful coexistence.  Then, i n r e p l y t o t h e q u e s t i o n  put t o him by a g r o u p o f A m e r i c a n foundation  i s the coexistence  possible?",  editors,  "On what  o f c a p i t a l i s m and communism  he a s s e r t e d ,  P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f c a p i t a l i s m and communism i s f u l l y p o s s i b l e i n t h e presence o f mutual d e s i r e t o c o l l a b o r a t e , i n the preparedness t o f u l f i l undertaken o b l i g a t i o n s , and i n t h e o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e q u a l i t y and n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e in the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of other states. 5 2  Stalin's Christmas  l a s t w o r d s on t h e s u b j e c t came a s a  present  James R e s t o n .  t o t h e New Y o r k T i m e s  Reston  correspondent,  asked,  Do y o u s t i l l s u p p o r t y o u r c o n v i c t i o n t h a t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s can l i v e p e a c e f u l l y i n the ensuing years.26 And  Stalin  replied,  I c o n t i n u e t o b e l i e v e t h a t war between t h e USA and t h e S o v i e t U n i o n i s n o t possible to consider inevitable, that our c o u n t r i e s can l i v e i n peace as hitherto.27 The nificantly  Nineteenth little  P a r t y C o n g r e s s o f 1952 h a d s i g -  t o say a b o u t p e a c e f u l  coexistence.  However, M a l e n k o v d i d manage t o i n c l u d e i t i n h i s m a j o r address  on f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The for the  S o v i e t p o l i c y o f p e a c e and s e c u r i t y n a t i o n s i s b a s e d on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t peaceful coexistence of capi'tlism  127  and communism and c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r e q u i t e p o s s i b l e , given a mutual d e s i r e t o c o l l a b o r a t e , readiness t o carry out u n d e r t a k e n o b l i g a t i o n s , and o b s e r v a n c e o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f e q u a l i t y and noni n t e r f e r e n c e i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s of other states.28  And  once more he r e p e a t e d h i s a s s u r a n c e s t h a t  peaceful  coexistence  was t o S o v i e t  a period of  advantage.  We a r e c o n f i d e n t t h a t i n p e a c e f u l competition w i t h c a p i t a l i s m t h e s o c i a l i s t economy w i l l prove i t s s u p e r i o r i t y over t h e c a p i t a l i s t e c o n o m i c s y s t e m more and more s t r i k i n g l y w i t h each p a s s i n g year.29  III  It an  i s fortunate  editorial  and  Law t h a t  that  shortly before  appeared i n t h e S o v i e t  died  journal Soviet  State  summed up t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f p e a c e f u l c o -  existence  i n t h e post-war p e r i o d .  "Peaceful  Coexistence  tion  Stalin  This  article,  o f Two S y s t e m s i s t h e C h i e f  entitled Founda-  o f C o n t e m p o r a r y I n t e r n a t i o n a l Law" was i n s t i g a t e d b y  S t a l i n ' s r e p l y t o t h e group o f American  " e x p r e s s e s w i t h next  the  editorialist  the  fundamental p r i n c i p l e o f Soviet  policy  maintained,  o f p e a c e and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  In  e d i t o r s , which, strength  f o r e i g n p o l i c y - the collaboration."3°  summary, t h e " g u a r a n t e e i n g o f p e a c e f u l  coexist-  ence o f two s y s t e m s d o e s n o t demand any s p e c i a l s u p p l e m e n t -  128 ary  c o n d i t i o n s : only the  n i n g s and  (1)  are;  These p r i n c i p l e s ,  the w i l l i n g n e s s  o b l i g a t i o n s , and,  internal affairs argued  (4)  of these  nized" i n international  by  following (2)  I t can  principles  law.  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the  the  observunder-  be  a r e "commonly first  the f o u r t h precedent,  recog-  i s based  i s questionsanctioned  i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement, t h a t p e r m i t t e d the v i c t o r s I to interfere with  political  development.  retrograde  I n any  i n t e r n a l German m i l i t a r y - , event  a l l the laws are  responsibility.  However, e v e n a l l o w i n g t h a t t h e n a t i o n a l acceptance,  a careful  "laws"  examination  find  n o t h i n g more t h a n p r o p a g a n d a d e v i c e s d e s i g n e d Communist hegemony i n t h e E a s t e r n b l o c w h i l e A m e r i c a n and  Soviet  prestige  among t h e  concept  in fact  to assure lowering  s m a l l e r powers.  i n s t a n c e , while a s s u r i n g h i s readers t h a t the  Union  agree  British  inter-  of t h e i r  t h e minds o f t h e S o v i e t s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e y are  For  of  i n a w o r l d where i n t e r n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s  are assuming i n c r e a s i n g  to  Stalin,  certainly  C e r t a i n l y the  important  W o r l d War  in  international  the n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the  on S t a l i n ' s t a l k w i t h S t a s s e n , w h i l e able,  begin-  the r e a d i n e s s to f u l f i l l  of other s t a t e s .  w h e t h e r any  of  to collaborate,  (3)  ance o f e q u a l r i g h t s , taken  of elementary  commonly r e c o g n i z e d p r i n c i p l e s  are r e q u i r e d . " 3 1  law  observance  i s the  " b a s t i o n of peace"^  t o peaceful coexistence, the  2  and  t h e r e f o r e ready  editorialist  points  129 out  that "aggressiveness of imperialism i s i t s e s s e n t i a l  33" nature"  and t h e r e f o r e : It i s completely c l e a r that the chief problem o f g u a r a n t e e i n g p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s c o n s i s t s i n t h e n o n - d e s i r e of t h e r u l i n g c i r c l e s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t countries t o collaborate with the states o f t h e s o c i a l i s t system.34  Moreover, w h i l e t h e S o v i e t Union  has f u l f i l l e d  o b l i g a t i o n s , t h e U.S. and E n g l a n d , systematically t i o n s . "35  and p e r f i d i o u s l y  of equality,  other states."3^ "cannot  n e e d l e s s t o s a y , "have  infringed  on t h e i r  L i k e w i s e , t h e USA h a s " c h u r l i s h l y  the p r i n c i p l e  a l l its  infringed  striving to force  Such b e h a v i o r , t h e w r i t e r  obliga-  its will  on on  maintains,  be t h e i b a s i s o f t h e p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two  37 systems." It of  . seems c l e a r ,  international  tribe  then, t h a t proposed  law which are defended  principles  b y abuse and d i a -  on t h e one hand, and on t h e b a s i s Of t h e i d e o l o g y o f  a "good" s o c i a l i s t  camp and a " b a d " c a p i t a l i s t  camp on t h e  o t h e r , a r e advanced not as s i n c e r e f o u n d a t i o n s stones f o r world  peace,  but as t o o l s  i n f l u e n c e throughout  A ticle  simple  f o r extending  S o v i e t power and  the world.  and l o g i c a l argument emerges f r o m " t h i s a r -  i f one i s p r e p a r e d  t o g i v e even p a r t i a l  t h e . w r i t e r ' s a s s e r t i o n s o f " g o o d " and " b a d . "  credence t o This i s , that  130 the  Soviet Union i s the  i n the  peace i n the w o r l d .  frustrated  by  the  ence p l e a s t h e r e w i l l prepared  to  evitably  follow.  or  support  The  are  warmongers.  I f the  peoples  of  other  S o v i e t Union's p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t -  be  the  to  peace;  i f those  people  S o v i e t U n i o n , t h e n war  people  are  are  not  will in-  offered a moral  choice:  peace.  While his  I t s a c t i o n s , however,  drawn i s t h i s :  support  attempting adversary,  a small group of c a p i t a l i s t  c o n c l u s i o n t o be  nations w i l l  war  of peace,  f a c e o f an armed a g g r e s s i v e - m i n d e d  maintain  The  champion  the w r i t e r of the  argument t o any  evident  t h a t he  n a t i o n s , who venom, b u t A s i a and  editorial  particular nations  appeals,  not  t o the  does not  direct  or peoples,  Western  it is  industrial  c o u l d never agree t o the w r i t e r ' s o u t b u r s t s  to those  Africa.  unaligned  This verdict  newly-independent n a t i o n s i s confirmed  by  later  peaceful coexistence.  e x i s t e n c e has  added p u r p o s e , t h e r e f o r e , o f d r a w i n g  new  nations  with the  i n t o the  Soviet orbit,  possibility,  pressure,  such l o n g range g o a l s a r e concept  o f e v e n a few the by  reached,  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e ,  position  nations, w i l l of the  achieving Soviet  the  c a p i t a l i s t s and foreign policy  Even i f  however, the  i f i t gains the  serve  the  political  communized n a t i o n s .  not  co-  o r zone o f i n f l u e n c e ,  u n d e r S o v i e t e c o n o m i c and  of becoming f u l l y  of  Soviet  p r o n o u n c e m e n t s on the  Peaceful  of  Soviet  support  purpose of weakening  strengthening goals,  socialism  or, at the  very  131 least,  by  Peaceful lance  gaining  a moral v i c t o r y f o r the  coexistence  t o the  negotiations  at t h i s  point  bears a great  S o v i e t P e a c e D e c r e e and o f 1917  that  f o r e i g n p o l i c y of the  communists.  in effect  West u n d e r t h e  Trotsky's  resemb-  peace  challenged  the  deceptive  entire  guise  of  peace.  In  conclusion,  a principle ive moral  peaceful  coexistence  as a p r o p a g a n d a weapon w i t h  a  i s not  so much  strongly  subject-  appeal.  IV  As we concept ed  by  have s e e n f r o m  of the  the  chapter  inevitability  o f war  f o u r , the was  Soviet  strongly  condition-  s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r o f human d e s i r e f o r war  or  38 peace.  At the  f u t u r e war peaceful and  same t i m e S o v i e t M a r x i s t s  between E a s t  coexistence,  peaceful  and  the  competition,  West.39  period was  i  n  of the  other  a  words,  of p e a c e f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n  i n e v i t a b l y t o end  o f f r i g h t f u l wars which would h e r a l d t h e tion  postulated  final  in a series communiza-  world.  However, t h e modern t o t a l war  i n t e n s i t y and  as w i t n e s s e d by  seems t o have c a u s e d communist  d e s t r u c t i v e power the  Second W o r l d  of War,  t h e o r e t i c i a n s some c o n c e r n ,  132 and  may  w e l l have b e e n t h e g u i d i n g m o t i v e f o r t h e  desire f o r "prolonged" with  some w a v e r i n g t h a t t h e  ward t h e As  inevitability  official  o f war  was  was  t o be  one  on t h e  Soviet attitude  of the  toStalin.  inevitability  o f t h e more s e n s a t i o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t s  peaceful coexistence i s necessary  I t i s only  r e - e s t a b l i s h e d by  the m o d i f i c a t i o n s of the theory  war  it  peaceful coexistence.  Soviet  a f t e r the  Twentieth  to record Stalin's  subject  here.  I n 1951  S t a l i n was  Party  of of  Congress,  official^pronouncements  a s k e d by a P r a v d a  correspondent  40 w h e t h e r he The gest  c o n s i d e r e d a new  emphatic a truly  negative  w o r l d war  t o be  inevitable.  o f S t a l i n ' s r e p l y w o u l d seem t o  sincere desire to avoid  war.  Mb. In the g r e a t e s t degree i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o c o n s i d e r war i n e v i t a b l e a t p r e s e n t time.41 While a s p e c i f i c almost  time i s mentioned, the  as a t o t a l  rejection,  r e j e c t i o n o f war.  however, by m a i n t a i n i n g  sug-  the  answer  sounds  Stalin did qualify that,  P e a c e c a n be p r e s e r v e d and s t r e n g t h e n e d i f the people take the business of the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p e a c e i n t o t h e i r own h a n d s and d e f e n d i t t o t h e end.42  Perhaps nothing ful  i l l u s t r a t e s the  c o e x i s t e n c e " b e t t e r than  statement  of S t a l i n ' s .  Soviet concept  of'peace-  this deliberately  deceptive  I t i s when one  looks at  the  his  133 Hegelian-Marxian'concept plication  of peaceful  communists clashes  coexistence  countries  follows  that  italist  camp.  t h e r e a l im-  are discerned.  see c a p i t a l i s m c h a r a c t e r i z e d  of i n t e r e s t s , of struggles  individual  and  o f "peace" t h a t  by  As  continual  between c l a s s e s  and o f i m p e r i a l i s t w a r s w i t h o u t , i t  a s t a t e o f "peace" can never e x i s t i n t h e capI t i s o n l y when t h e i n t e r e s t s o f c l a s s e s  o f s t a t e s a r e i n harmony, when a l l m a n k i n d  seeks a  common g o a l , when, i n M a r x i a n t e r m s , t h e d i a l e c t i c t o an end, t h a t dition, munist  within  true  p e a c e c a n be a c h i e v e d .  i n the Marxist  v i e w , i s t o be f o u n d  comes  Such a cononly  i n a com-  society.  Therefore, peace i n t o t h e i r  when S t a l i n  says that  p e o p l e "must  own h a n d s , " he means p r e c i s e l y t h a t r e -  v o l u t i o n must be i n c i t e d w i t h i n  capitalist  c o u n t r i e s and  the  d i c t a t o r s h i p of the p r o l e t a r i a t established  (Of  course, i t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t o read  Stalin  sible  that  struggle  says e x p l i c i t l y  f o r peace w i l l  socialism,  but t h i s w i l l  develop  meaning  As a m a t t e r o f  i n one p l a c e  i n a c e r t a i n confluence  there.  the simpler  o f a b s e n c e o f war i n t o S t a l i n ' s w o r d s . ) fact,  take  that  " i t i s pos-  of circumstances the  into a struggle f o r  n o t be t h e c o n t e m p o r a r y movement  43 f o r p e a c e , b u t a movement f o r t h e o v e r t h r o w a l  of capitalism."  T h a t p e a c e grows i n t o r e v o l u t i o n i s a l l t o o c l e a r f r o m statement.  In fact  t h e communists f i n d  this  the attractiveness  134 of the term " p e a c e f u l  coexistence"  to l i e precisely i n i t s  ambivalent  nature.  dialectic,  sees i t s appeal i n the orthodox connotations o f  "peace."  The W e s t e r n e r , u n t r a i n e d  The communist, on t h e o t h e r  modus V i v e n d i  i n Marxian  hand, j u s t i f i e s t h e  w i t h c a p i t a l i s m b y means o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n -  44 ary  i m p l i c a t i o n s o f "peace" seen i n the Marxian Nevertheless,  Stalin  seems t o have h a d l i t t l e  faith  t o overthrow c a p i t a l i s m , f o r  with-  in  the people's a b i l i t y  in  a few months o f h i s t a l k w i t h t h e P r a v d a  he  re-established  the doctrine  points  out t h a t  correspondent  o f war i n h i s p a m p h l e t ,  "Economic Problems o f S o c i a l i s m Stalin  sense.  i n t h e USSR."  the notion  that  I n t h i s work,  "wars have  ceased  45 t o be „inevitable"  i s mistaken.  Stalin  argues  that,  It i s said that the contradictions of c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m a r e s t r o n g e r t h a n t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between c a p i t a l i s t countries. T h e o r e t i c a l l y , t h i s o f course  is  true.46  But, a war b e t w e e n c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s r a i s e s o n l y t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e supremacy o f c e r t a i n c a p i t a l i s t countries over other c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , war w i t h t h e USSR must n e c e s s a r i l y r a i s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e existence of capitalism i t s e l f . 4 7  It  therefore  capitalism  follows  t h a t w h i l e t h e d a n g e r o f war between  and s o c i a l i s m i s l e s s e n e d  USSR, i t d o e s n o t mean t h a t  i t cannot  b y t h e power o f t h e occur as long as,  135 i m p e r i a l i s m s t i l l r e m a i n s and r e t a i n s power - and c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f wars a l s o remains i n force.49  And  Stalin  concludes  ominously,  In order t o e l i m i n a t e the i n e v i t a b i l i t y of wars, i t i s necessary t o d e s t r o y capitalism.50  And  here l i e s  the  ence: a S o v i e t purely peaceful the  second quandary of p e a c e f u l  offensive, military  or n o n - m i l i t a r y ,  Seen a g a i n s t  the  peaceful  war. background of the  coexistence  serves  of overthrowing c a p i t a l i s m without  an  inevitability  the  actual  Union u n t i l  military ism  remains the  head. war  success.  In  this  present  i t i s strong To  reverse  military for  enough t o e n s u r e  the  t h r e a t of eventual  terms, as l o n g war  of  purposes e i t h e r  showdown, o r o f p r o v i d i n g a " b r e a t h i n g - s p a c e " Soviet  has  i n t e n t i o n s , f o r i t removes f r o m m a n k i n d  c o n t i n u a l t h r e a t of  wars, then,  coexist-  the absolute as  social-  hangs over mankind's  s p i t e o f K h r u s h c h o v ' s amendments t o t h e  theory  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of S t a l i n ' s remains i n f o r c e t o  of the  day.  V  The  Malenkov interregnum, though s h o r t ,  (1953-1955)  136 is  an  important  coexistence,  p e r i o d f o r the development  f o r i t was  during these  t e r m underwent c o n s i d e r a b l e  two  definition  of  peaceful  years  and  that  the  theoretical  justification. At t h e increase was  time of S t a l i n ' s death  of i n t e r e s t  evident.  i n the  the  contestants  f o r power c o u l d  good-will.  I n any  have been a r e a l  event  played  itself  a  slight  coexistence  that  t o p l e a d e r s h i p was  power s t r u g g l e had  contestants  idea of peaceful  S t a l i n ' s death i n t e n s i f i e d  F o r a time a t l e a s t , the until  ( M a r c h 1953)  interest.  uncertain,  and  out,  none o f  afford to challenge  Western  f o r e i g n p o l i c y does not  seem  the  to  i s s u e o f t h e power s t r u g g l e , as a l l t h e  sooner or l a t e r  spoke out  i n f a v o r of  peaceful  coexistence. M a l e n k o v , who power, spoke f i r s t .  seems t o have had At S t a l i n ' s  base h i s f o r e i g n p o l i c y  some p r i o r i t y  f u n e r a l , he  to  promised  to  on,  The p o l i c y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n ' and t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f b u s i n e s s l i n k s w i t h a l l c o u n t r i e s , the p o l i c y s t a r t i n g from t h e L e n i n i s t - S t a l i n i s t p o s i t i o n on t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p r o l o n g e d c o e x i s t e n c e and p e a c e f u l c o m p e t i t i o n o f two d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s - c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m . 5 0 Malenkov overlooked ever  the  fact  spoke o f " p r o l o n g e d "  that n e i t h e r Lenin nor  Stalin  coexistence.  N  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r Malenkov's f o r e i g n p o l i c y  was  137 spelled A.  out  i n an  article  i n Kommunist.51  Nikonov, based the t h e o r y  Stalin's "theory  " s o c i a l i s m i n one of unequal  of peaceful  country"  The  writer,  coexistence  r a t h e r than  on  Lenin's  development."  The i n f e r e n c e o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s spontaneously proceeds from the L e n i n i s t - S t a l i n i s t t e a c h i n g of the p o s s i b i l i t y of b u i l d i n g s o c i a l i s m and communism i n one separate country. T h i s teaching d i r e c t l y presupposes t h a t t h e s o c i a l i s t o r d e r , v i c t o r i o u s i n one c o u n t r y , w i l l i n e v i t a b l y d u r i n g a c e r t a i n segment o f t i m e , e x i s t and d e v e l o p i n t h e c i r c u m stances of c a p i t a l i s t encirclement, i n circums t a n c e s o f t h e s i m u l t a n e o u s e x i s t e n c e o f two systems.52  Moreover, p e a c e f u l  coexistence  began t o be  greater definition  then  been s i n c e the  i n s t a n c e , Nikonov claims  i t had  subjected  to  1920's.  For  that  Two o p p o s i t e systems> c a n n o t o n l y c o e x i s t but a l s o found t h e i r m u t u a l r e l a t i o n s on p e a c e f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h e e c o n o m i c and p o l i t i c a l a r e a s . Hitherto,  peaceful coexistence  had  been seen p r i n c i p a l l y  economic  c o l l a b o r a t i o n or c o m p e t i t i o n ,  politics  had  b e e n more o r l e s s  Moreover, Nikonov, i n a very  while  the  field  i m p l i e d r a t h e r than  r e v e a l i n g statement,  that,  Our c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t o p r e s e r v e p e a c e between t h e two s y s t e m s i s b a s e d on M a r x i s t t h e o r y , on h i s t o r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , on f a c t o r s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t world cannot take i n t o account -  as  of  stated. says  138 the f a c t o r s of the strengthening o f the i n t e r n a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e USSR, p r o v i d i n g the p o s s i b i l i t y of p e a c e f u l coexistence o f two systems.54  These  f a c t o r s a r e ; (1) t h e u n s w e r v i n g g r o w t h  economic trust  and p o l i t i c a l m i g h t ;  (2) t h e m o r a l - p o l i t i c a l  o f t h e p e o p l e i n t h e Communist  Party;  and f r i e n d s h i p o f t h e p e o p l e o f t h e S o v i e t power o f S o v i e t power s h i f t ening  armed s t r e n g t h  coexistence  masses w i t h i n  the purpose  This  distracting  tactic  ployed  Party's  of c o n t r o l l i n g  political  "peaceful  development.  problem  t h e p e o p l e by  i s certain-  s y s t e m , and h e n c e  coexistence"  However, has been  this em-  i t must be r e c k o n e d  I t suggests a l s o that the  i n t h e USSR had n o t b e e n  satisfaction.  external  from t h e r e a l i n t e r n a l  i n greater d e t a i l .  f o r t h e p u r p o s e , and t h e r e f o r e  nationality  a common  n o t e d by a l m o s t a l l W e s t e r n  of the Soviet  time t h a t  a significant  t o c o n t r o l the  or imaginary external threat  n o t be t r e a t e d h e r e  is the f i r s t  suggests,  f a c t o r s can only  c a u s e and a g a i n s t  I t has been  investigators  list  the peoples o f the Soviet  t h e causes o f d i s c o n t e n t  n o t new.  will  (4) t h e  Union as w e l l as t o i n f l u e n c e the  of r a l l y i n g  communist  problem t o a r e a l ly  As t h i s  The s e c o n d a n d t h i r d  U n i o n b e h i n d a common enemy.  Union;  r e s u l t i n g from a fundamental  was a d o p t e d a s a t o o l  the Soviet  masses w i t h o u t . serve  (3) t h e u n i t y  f o l l o w i n g W o r l d War Two; a n d , (5) t h e s t r e n g t h -  o f t h e camp o f p e a c e . ^  peaceful  of Soviet  solved t o the  139 Nikonov a l s o s t r e s s e s t h e f a c t that  peaceful coexistence  i s designed  o f b i n d i n g t h e new P e o p l e ' s China,  D e m o c r a c i e s and p o s s i b l y e v e n  leadership of the s o c i a l i s t  a s s e r t i o n o f a new power b a l a n c e ,  coexistence,  as Nikonov p r e s e n t s  sire  risking  In spite of  therefore, peaceful that  behind  t h e S o v i e t de-  coexistence.  Nikonov a l s o r a i s e s the moral earlier,  camp.  t o assume  d i s c o n t e n t and l a c k  leadership also l i e s  f o r peaceful  attempt  i t , seems t o s u g g e s t  a f u n d a m e n t a l weakness o f i n t e r n a l of i d e o l o g i c a l  five)  f o r t h e purpose  c l o s e r t o t h e USSR b y t h e R u s s i a n  ideological the  (factor  of neutral nations  alternative  supporting  noted  Soviet p o l i c y or  c e r t a i n war.  These f a c t o r s a r e o f s u c h power t h a t t h e y r e s t r a i n the c a p i t a l i s t s , bridle t h e i r t e n d e n c y t o war a g a i n s t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , and c r e a t e t h e r e a l p o s s i b i l i t y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . 56  Another Soviet w r i t e r s t r e s s e s both s p a c e " and t h e "power of, example" p r o v i d e d  the "breathing by p e a c e f u l  coexistence.  We s t a n d f o r c o e x i s t e n c e and p e a c e f u l c o m p e t i t i o n o f two s y s t e m s b e c a u s e we are f i r m l y convinced o f the advantages o f t h e s o c i a l i s t system o f economy, o f t h e s o c i a l order, f i r m l y convinced o f i t s i n t e r n a l s t r e n g t h and i n t h e u n i n t e r r u p t e d g r o w t h o f t h e w h o l e camp o f p e a c e , d e m o c r a c y , and s o c i a l i s m . 57  140 By at  i n the  1954  the  revolutionary implications hinted  statement  above were d e v e l o p e d  more  fully.  The l e a d e r s o f t h e Communist P a r t y and t h e S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t have r e p e a t e d l y s t a t e d that "export of r e v o l u t i o n " i s nonsense, an i n v e n t i o n o f b o u r g e o i s p r o p a g a n d a , and that t h i s t h e s i s i s incompatible with Marxist theory. Bourgeois ideologists a r e n o t m o l l i f i e d , however. They p r e t e n d t o have d i s c o v e r e d a c o n t r a d i c t i o n : on t h e one h a n d , y o u s e e , M a r x i s t s p r o c l a i m t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y of the d o w n f a l l of c a p i t a l i s m , on t h e o t h e r , t h e y t a l k o f t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i a l i s m and capitalism. They s a y t h a t one c o n t r a d i c t s t h e other. But i s t h e r e any c o n t r a d i c t i o n h e r e ? Of c o u r s e n o t . The p o l i c y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m , d e v e l o p e d by t h e S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t , p r e s u p p o s e s economic c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e two s y s t e m s . The w o r k e r s o f t h e USSR, C h i n a , and t h e E u r o p e a n p e o p l e ' s d e m o c r a c i e s are f i r m l y convinced t h a t i n the course of t h i s p e a c e f u l c o m p e t i t i o n the s o c i a l i s t s y s t e m s w i l l by t h e s t r e n g t h o f i t s obvious advantages, g a i n a v i c t o r y over the c a p i t a l i s t system.58  Nevertheless, that ful  the w r i t e r does not  capitalism w i l l coexistence.  does say, t o be  be  This w i l l  - that  t h e West must g i v e up army, m i l i t a r y  draw t h e  overthrown as a r e s u l t be  a later  however, t h a t i n o r d e r  a success  yet  i s f o r a v i c t o r y t o go  bases surrounding  of  peace-  development.  for peaceful  i t s "position  conclusion  coexistence to  of s t r e n g t h "  Russia,  He  socialism (standing  e t c . ) and  adopt 59  what must l o g i c a l l y At  the  be  called  a "position  same t i m e t h e w r i t e r m a i n t a i n s  that  of weakness."  141 The s o v i e t p e o p l e i n e v e r y way possible must s t r e n g t h e n t h e m i g h t o f t h e Socialist fatherland, i t s m i l i t a r y strength.60  For  peaceful  coexistence  t o be  s u c c e s s f u l , then,  West must v o l u n t a r i l y s u b m i t t o and foster, I f we  an  ute  S t a l i n ' s advice  only  until  force  Soviet  i s m e r e l y a way  o f arms.  once a g a i n  ence i s n o t  peaceful  Union has  that  trine  forwarded  designed  fever  under  the  i t i s hardly  Soviet  i n a sincere  t o keep t h e  coexistence attained  absol-  peaceful  co-  capitalism  conflict  hope t h a t  point  coexist-  desire to reach as  by  necessary to  o f f e r of peaceful  c a p i t a l i s m , but  p i t c h i n the  that  of destroying  Obviously,  modus V i v e n d i w i t h  at  the  that  m i l i t a r y superiority, i t follows  existence  out  even a c t i v e l y t o  o v e r w h e l m i n g communist m i l i t a r y s u p e r i o r i t y .  recall  must l a s t  the  a  a revolutionary  between E a s t  capitalism w i l l  and  docWest  succumb  pressure.  VI  On  April  29,  government o f I n d i a Chinese conquest  1954  signed  of T i b e t .  t o have a f a r - r e a c h i n g for  the  the an  C h i n e s e communists and  the  agreement r e c o g n i z i n g  the  This  influence  I n d i a n s chose t o  s e a l the  inauspicious  event  on  coexistence,  peaceful  agreement  on t h e  was  Pancha  142 Shila,  o r " F i v e P r i n c i p l e s , " w h i c h were:  respect  f o r each o t h e r ' s  territorial  (2) n o n - a g g r e s s i o n ;  each o t h e r ' s  internal  benefit;  (5) p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . ° ^  not  and  only f i t t e d w e l l with  of peaceful coexistence, by  other  neutral Asian  N o r t h V i e t n a m ^ - and 0  t h e Bandung C o n f e r e n c e f o r the  the  (4)  e q u a l i t y and  declared Soviet  who  h e l d the  pancha  redundancy of having existence  itself  Shila  "principles" agreed  c o u n t r i e s - Burma,  Indonesia,  were soon t o f i g u r e  prominently  of A p r i l  1955.  principles  a c t i v e support shila one  o f pancha i n that  of t h e  Asian  repute.  principles  d i s t u r b the  to  in  only n a t u r a l  and  i n such h i g h of the  d i d not  I t was  in  mutual  Pancha  b u t were a l s o r a p i d l y  S o v i e t s t o name t h e  t o g a i n the  and  (3) n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e  as the b a s i s of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e attempt  mutual  integrity  sovereignty;  affairs;  (1)  shila way neutrals  ^  The  peaceful  co-  communists i n t h e  least.  C o n s e q u e n t l y , on O c t o b e r 12, Soviet  Union signed  a joint  their foreign policies  1954  China  and  d e c l a r a t i o n agreeing  the  to  on,  the s t r i c t observance of the p r i n c i p l e s of m u t u a l r e s p e c t , s o v e r e i g n t y and t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y , mutual non-aggression, mutual non-interference i n international a f f a i r s , e q u a l i t y and m u t u a l b e n e f i t , and p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , t h a t open t h e b r o a d p o s s i b i l i t y f o r the development o f f r u i t f u l i n t e r n a t i o n a l collaboration.°4  found  143 It  i s a g a i n s t the background of the  acceptance  of pancha s h i l a  Soviet  t h a t K h r u s h c h o v and  Bulganin  began t h e i r t o u r s o f A s i a which were, i n t r u t h , gambles t o secure  the  active  support  n a t i o n s , t o i n v o l v e them i n t h e against the  the  "imperialist  t a s k here  i s not  trace the those  both  the  "zone of  p o w e r s " o f t h e West.  of Bulganin  jovial  and  machinations  article  s m i l e s and  Khrushchov, but  Geneva w h i c h  saw  A.  maintains  Leontjev,  and  the  peace brought  proto  coexistence  p r o d u c e d a t home.  i n Kommunist f o r S e p t e m b e r 1954  pancha s h i l a  peace"  However,  t h e o r e t i c a l developments of p e a c e f u l  s m i l e s and  An  of the n e u t r a l A s i a n  so-called  to record the  paganda m a c h i n a t i o n s  brilliant  sums  up  s u c c e s s f u l n e g o t i a t i o n s at to Indo-China.  that after  The  writer,  Geneva  the q u e s t i o n of the p o s s i b i l i t y of p r o l o n g e d p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s - c a p i t a l i s m and s o c i a l i s m a c q u i r e s p a r t i c u l a r importance.65 The  question  i s important,  Leontjev maintains,  because  66 the  "aggressive  that ic  circles'  o f American  peaceful coexistence  d i c h o t o m y o f two  imperialism"  i s i m p o s s i b l e and  assert  i g n o r e the  camps:  But who can deny t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t r e a l i t y o f the p r e s e n t h i s t o r i c a l epoch i s t h a t s t a t e s o f two d i f f e r e n t s y s t e m s c o e x i s t i n t h e w o r l d : on t h e one hand, s t a t e s o f t h e s o c i a l i s t camp w h i c h have f a l l e n away f r o m t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m  bas-  144  and a r e g o i n g a l o n g t h e p a t h o f t h e b u i l d i n g o f s o c i a l i s m and communism and on t h e o t h e r , s t a t e s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e o l d c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m . °7  As  a change f r o m  one s y s t e m t o a n o t h e r  complex p r o c e s s "  the question a r i s e s  relationships that w i l l whole p e r i o d  of t h e i r  their  on L e n i n ' s  policy  prevail  n  as t o the kind of  " i n the course  coexistence."^ theory  i s a l o n g and  of the  The S o v i e t s ,  of the unequal  basing  development  70 of  capitalism  native  offer  peaceful  t o the c a p i t a l i s t ' s  coexistence  a s an  alter-  wars.  When t a l k c o n c e r n s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o r i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f prolonged p e a c e f u l coexistence of states with d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , i t h a s i n mind n o t a t a l l a unanimous d e s i r e o f a l l t h e people i n t h e e s t i m a t i o n of t h i s or that s o c i a l order. I t has i n view something e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t . The q u e s t i o n c o n s i s t s i n t h i s : i s war i n e v i t a b l e i n contemporary c o n d i t i o n s between c o u n t r i e s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s y s t e m s ? ... To t h i s q u e s t i o n t h e p e o p l e and g o v e r n m e n t s o f t h e s o c i a l i s t camp answer n e g a t i v e l y . 7 1  Thus, because  o f the "simple  fact  that c a p i t a l i s m i s not 72  an  e t e r n a l and u n c h a n g i n g  people  system o f s o c i e t y "  can agree t o p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  the Soviet  " f o r a more o r  l e s s prolonged h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d . " ^ ^ Once a g a i n p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i s d e s i r e d by t h e S o v i e t s f o r t h e " f u l f i l l i n g 74  of  the great  Leontjev  creative plans"  o f t h e communists.  f e e l s t h a t "the advantages o f t h e s o c i a l i s t  system  145 over the  capitalist will  show t h e m s e l v e s c l e a r e r  and  75 more e v i d e n t "  as  of "such i n c u r a b l e production,  time progresses, evils  destructive  „76  because i t i s f r e e  of c a p i t a l i s m as competition,  anarchy  of  unemployment,  and  crises."  T h e r e i s a more r a d i c a l a s p e c t concept its  of peaceful  very  sive  nature  coexistence,  s t r i v e s to  a s p i r a t i o n s of the  to  Leontjev's  however.  suppress the  people."^^  Capitalism  " j u s t and  by  progres-  Therefore,  i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e r e can be no more r i g h t 'and j u s t b u s i n e s s t h a n t h e most d e c i s i v e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t these man-hating a s p i r a t i o n s and a t t e m p t s ( o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t s ) . Peaceful active  coexistence,  striving  to  n o t : expand on t h e  t h e n , c o n t a i n s the  overthrow c a p i t a l i s m . nature of Soviet  c a p i t a l i s t s ' s u p p o s e d l y use people's w i l l ,  the  element  may  w e l l be  the  Leontjev  opposition,  armed f o r c e t o  inference  of  does  but  suppress that  as the  armed  force  79 is  t o be  employed i n d e s t r o y i n g  by  asserting  implies  In  fact,  that,  as a r e s u l t of the f e l l away f r o m t h e and as a r e s u l t o f a whole s e r i e s o f o f E u r o p e and A s i a he  capitalism.  t h a t war  of c a p i t a l i s m .  f i r s t W o r l d War Russia c a p i t a l i s t system, t h e s e c o n d W o r l d War other countries ( f e l l away).°0  i s necessary to hasten the  Leontjev  d o e s c o n c e d e , however,  the  collapse that,  146 t h e p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e s o f mankind know t h a t t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f the c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m i s i n e v i t a b l e w i t h o u t war, a l s o , as a r e s u l t o f the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of i t s i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , as a consequence of the a c t i o n s of i t s i n t e r n a l laws o f development. Knowledge o f t h e l a w s o f s o c i a l development c o n f i r m t h a t t h i s f o r c e i s h i s t o r i c a l l y doomed. In each separate c o u n t r y the time o f the replacement o f t h e o b s o l e t e o r d e r by t h e new p r o g r e s s i v e o r d e r i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e p e o p l e o f that country."!  The  purpose of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  people  of each country  to  "take  i s to persuade  fate into their  the  own  82 hands" fore,  and  begin  the  t r a n s i t i o n to  peaceful coexistence only  must be  including  not  economic and 83  "cultural  exchanges" as w e l l .  coexistence  can  can  overthrown) the  s o o n be  q u i c k l y be  communism.  as broad  political  as p o s s i b l e ,  spheres,  In order t h a t  realized  There-  but  peaceful  ( i . e . that capitalism  West must g i v e up  i t s "posi-  84 tion  of s t r e n g t h , "  and  the  "formerly enslaved  peoples  85 of c o l o n i a l port  i t .  and  To  dependent c o u n t r i e s "  ensure  must a c t i v e l y  s u c h c o n d i t i o n s a l l s t a t e s must  P e a c e f u l c o e 86 x i s t e n c e , t h e n , as L e o n t j e v by t h e p a n c h a s h i l a . " c r e a t e s t h e most f a v o r a b l e c o n d i t i o n s f o r t h e  supabide  puts i t , successful  87 s t r u g g l e f o r the the be The  establishment  p r e s e r v a t i o n of peace" of the  o v e r t h r o w n e i t h e r by selection  of the  communist war  latter  o r by  order.  - that i s , f o r Capitalism  peaceful  saves the w o r l d ,  can  coexistence. and  particul-  147 a r l y t h e USSR, f r o m t h e s u f f e r i n g c a u s e d b y war. destruction the  As t h e  o f c a p i t a l i s m i s i n e v i t a b l e i n any e v e n t ,  S o v i e t s p h i l a n t h r o p i c a l l y reason  that  i t w o u l d be f a r  b e t t e r f o r c a p i t a l i s m t o g i v e up t h e s t r u g g l e p e a c e f u l l y .  Peaceful Leontjev's  article  of c a p i t a l i s m . and  that  emerges f r o m t h e p a g e s o f  as a pat formula  f o r the  One f a c t o r i s a l w a y s l e f t  i s the length  existence. American  coexistence  of the period  Khrushchov h i m s e l f ,  journalists  overthrowal  v a g u e , however,  of p e a c e f u l co-  i n a t a l k with  i n F e b r u a r y 1955,  some  faced that  very  p r o b l e m b u t c o u l d n o t answer i t . We s t a n d f o r p r o l o n g e d p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f two s y s t e m s , t h a t i s , we have r e c k o n e d and r e c k o n now t h a t t h e s e two s y s t e m s c a n l i v e t o g e t h e r and n o t f i g h t . If i t i s a s k e d how p r o l o n g e d t h i s p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e c a n b e , i t i s .not p o s s i b l e t o s a y , t h i s w i l l depend on h i s t o r i c a l conditions.°9  This  i s an a s t o u n d i n g  statement  coming f r o m t h e l e a d e r  o f a p a r t y c l a i m i n g t h e power o f s c i e n t i f i c As will law. law,  t h e pancha s h i l a  proceed according  suggests,peaceful  prophecy. coexistence  t o a c e r t a i n body o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l  As G. Z a d o r o z h n y , a S o v i e t w r i t e r on i n t e r n a t i o n a l puts i t ,  I f e a c h s t a t e w i l l o b s e r v e t h e commonly recognized p r i n c i p l e s of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e w i l l h a v e b e e n achieved.'7O  But  t h e S o v i e t s , a s m i g h t be e x p e c t e d , i n t e r p r e t  international overthrowal to  l a w s i n s u c h a way a s t o f a v o r t h e  of c a p i t a l i s m .  interpret a l l Soviet  I t w o u l d be a work i n i t s e l f  concepts of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law.  Nevertheless,  i twill  international  forms o f p e a c e f u l  "sovereignty"  almost  definition  those  be f r u i t f u l  a t random.  t o l o o k a t one o f t h e  coexistence.  I  select  Here i s Z a d o r o z h n y ' s  of sovereignty:  S o v e r e i g n t y s i g n i f i e s t h e r i g h t o f each p e o p l e t o s e l e c t any s y s t e m and f o r m of r u l e . Therefore, the observance o f s o v e r e i g n t y demands n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f each o t h e r , r e s p e c t f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s e l e c t e d and p r e f e r r e d by t h e p e o p l e , t h e r e j e c t i o n o f h o s t i l e p r o p a g a n d a and t h e a r o u s i n g o f h a t e between p e o p l e s . 9 1  This d e f i n i t i o n , looks very appeal place the  on t h e s u r f a c e  attractive,  at least,  and i t was meant, i n p a r t , t o  t o t h e weak n e u t r a l n a t i o n s  o f A s i a and A f r i c a  so much e m p h a s i s on p r i n c i p l e .  matter i s quite  (1)  "The r i g h t  This  s u r e l y means t h a t  desire to establish,  of the p r o l e t a r i a t ,  branch o f sovereignty capitalists,"  But under a n a l y s i s  o f each p e o p l e t o s e l e c t any  the "people"  dictatorship  who  different:  system o r form o f r u l e . " if  certainly  say, the  i t w o u l d be a  f o r the " r u l i n g  even w i t h i n t h e g i v e n  oppose t h e d e s i r e s o f t h e p e o p l e .  c i r c l e of  country,  to  149 (2) " N o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e o f s t a t e s . " o f one  capitalist  revolution, for at  country launch a  i t w o u l d be  other c a p i t a l i s t the request  I f the  a breach  people  socialist  of sovereignty  countries to i n t e r f e r e ,  o f any  group w i t h i n the  even  country  of  revolution.  (3) " R e s p e c t preferred in  by t h e p e o p l e . "  overthrowing  state, new  f o r the p o l i t i c a l  government w i t h o u t actually  they "prefer", letariat, permit  (4)  the people  a b i d e by  can be  succeed  capitalist  protest.  E v e n i f no  occurs, i f the  "people"  the d i c t a t o r s h i p circles  the  of that  say  of the  pro-  s t a t e must preferred  propaganda."  i n no way  express  Capitalist opinions that  u n f a v o r a b l e e i t h e r t o t h e USSR o r  r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement o f w h i c h t h e S o v i e t  Soviets  it  o f any  to establish their  circles will  government  If  "people"  unhindered.  i n any way  t o any  selected.and  s t a t e s must r e c o g n i z e  " R e j e c t i o n of h o s t i l e  ruling are  say,  the r u l i n g  government  I f the  t h e government  other c a p i t a l i s t  revolution  system  approves.  It is l i t t l e  so o f t e n c o m p l a i n  that  wonder t h a t  t h e West d o e s  i t s conception of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  the a n a l y s i s presented c o n f i r m e d by  almost  any  on  not  law.  above i s c o r r e c t article  the  -  and  international  150  law  by a S o v i e t w r i t e r - then  law  under c o n d i t i o n o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  all  the cards  i n favor of socialism.  f i r m s t h i s when he s a y s , common p r i n c i p l e anteeing  respect f o r international surely  Zadorozhny  "peaceful coexistence  of international  o f which t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  stacks  con-  i s the  law!.,, t o w a r d t h e g u a r of a l l t h e remaining  92 p r i n c i p l e s are d i r e c t e d . " existence It  As we have  seen p e a c e f u l c o -  i s dedicated t o the overthrowal  follows that the other p r i n c i p l e s  of capitalism.  are also.  Though p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was o r i g i n a l l y ceived  as a competition  gradually  i n t h e economic p l a n e ,  extended t o i n c l u d e other a s p e c t s  Z a d o r o z h n y made t h e l a s t  engagement o f f o r c e s when he  i t was  as w e l l .  contribution before  eth P a r t y Congress i n extending  con-  the Twenti-  the range o f the r e -  maintained;  Peaceful coexistence i n the widest sense o f t h e word, b e s i d e s t h e j u r i d i c a l aspects (of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law), includes the development o f a comprehensive p o l i t i c a l , economic, s o c i a l , and c u l t u r a l c o l l a b o r a t i o n , o r , more s h o r t l y , t h e ensuring of " f r i e n d l y competition" i n the course o f which the q u e s t i o n o f the s u p e r i o r i t y o f one o f t h e two s y s t e m s w i l l be d e c i d e d . 9 3  In  s h o r t , p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was t o i n c l u d e  that might hasten  By  anything  the d e s t r u c t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m .  1955 p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e h a d d e v e l o p e d  vague d e s i r e f o r a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f w a r t i m e  from a  collaboration  151 into a militant expansion. Twentieth  well-reasoned  I t was Party  with  communist  t h a t d o c t r i n e i n mind t h a t  C o n g r e s s met  peaceful•coexistence  d o c t r i n e of  to the  i n February rank of  1956  the  to  raise  idea which  seems  ideology.  VII  As  o f t e n happens i n h i s t o r y  t o have passed  from the h i s t o r i c a l  p h o e n i x - l i k e , to reach So  i t was  with  an  scene  even g r e a t e r  splendor  peaceful coexistence.  " p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e " a t w a r s end,  re-arises, than  Totally the  " P e a c e " and "peaceful  " c o l l a b o r a t i o n " were a d o p t e d  coexistence."  creasing tensions largely  the  sary the  At  and  socialism.  first  t h e r e was  coexistence.  ception  of c l a s s  s t r u g g l e and  historical  period only.  that  :  international  conception  Gone was peaceful The  -  - made n e c e s -  o f two  the  ever i n -  relations  camps -  a complete absence of  i o n s to p e a c e f u l  short  course.  rather than  of S o v i e t i n t r a c t i b i l i t y  r e s u r r e c t i o n of the  capitalism  Union  G r a d u a l l y , however, t h e  o f p o s t war  result  ignoring  Soviet  seemed u n d e c i d e d a s t o i t s c o r r e c t i d e o l o g i c a l  before.  restrict-  pre-war  coexistence  only l i m i t a t i o n  under c o n d i t i o n s of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  confor a was  t h e r e was  to  152 no  i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s  o f each s t a t e .  However, p e a c e f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n s o o n became peaceful competition clude the  and p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  (1) t h e d e s i r e t o c o l l a b o r a t e , and (2) r e s p e c t f o r  political  s y s t e m s a p p r o v e d by t h e p e o p l e .  r e s t r i c t i o n was rejection  in Stalinist  suffering  Soviet  by  ideology.  completely  unjustified  by a l l p a s t  I t was t h e r e f o r e a s i g n i f i c a n t  s e e n a s a way  weakening c a p i t a l i s m .  idea.  Peaceful  of strengthening  I t now  included,  s o v e r e i g n t y and n o n - i n t e r f e r e n c e , t r a d e , and (3) a p e a c e t r e a t y w i t h  with  coexistence,  and t h e l i s t  t h e c u r r e n t demand  A period  ism.  Peaceful  (1) r e s p e c t f o r  Germany.  terms o f Lenin's capitalism,  As c a n be placed  of r e s t r i c t i o n s  on varied  Union.  of peaceful coexistence  coexistence  coexistence  (2) t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f  of the Soviet  i n t h e pre-war days, n e c e s s a r y  develop-  s o c i a l i s m and  s e e n , more and more r e s t r i c t i o n s were b e i n g peaceful  leaders to  peaceful coexistence, the  of the peaceful coexistence  194-$ was  total  t h e West.  Soviet p o l i t i c a l  i n terms o f "prolonged"  new a d j e c t i v e b e i n g  last  and d e s t r u c t i o n s u f f e r e d by t h e S o v i e t  U n i o n d u r i n g t h e war i n d u c e d think  This  terms tantamount t o a  o f an h o n e s t modus v i v e n d i w i t h  The  ment  was t o i n -  was once m o r e , a s  f o r the b u i l d i n g of s o c i a l -  was t h e o r e t i c a l l y  justified in  i h e o r y o f t h e unequal development o f  a n d was t h e r e f o r e " i n e v i t a b l e . "  I t was now a  153 method o f i l l u s t r a t i n g superiority  By was  the  being  against policy  o f the  socialist  employed a s a p u r e and  t h e West, as a way from the  existence  the world  the  The  end  However, one  aggressive  the t h e o r y  that the  ence - was  to  end  ed by L e n i n , b u t  a c t i o n s of the  last  was  to  fate over,  rapidly  the  into their peaceful  By  people  own  p e r i o d and  c a p i t a l i s m had  restrictive  of c a p i t a l i s t  h a n d s " and was  vague.  wars p r e d i c t after  failed.  definitions,  grew i n i m p o r t a n c e .  A  new  when S o v i e t  nations  coexistence "to  take  overthrow c a p i t a l i s m . put  S o v i e t l e a d e r s h i p of the  1953  else  re-establish  purpose of p e a c e f u l  coexistence  co-  - peaceful coexist-  added t o p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  incite  assuring  to  a prolonged  When r e l e a s e d f r o m S t a l i n ' s  w r i t e r s d e c l a r e d that the  f o r Soviet  been l e f t  of t e r r i b l e  o t h e r methods o f o v e r t h r o w i n g  e l e m e n t was  tool  imperialists.  had  a c t s was  series  only a f t e r  peaceful coexistence  support  S o v i e t demands) o r  p e r i o d of r e s p i t e  i n the  propaganda  p r e s e n t a t i o n of a moral  of p e a c e f u l coexistence  of S t a l i n ' s  coexistence  must a g r e e t o p e a c e f u l  (that i s , to current  s u f f e r from the  simple  of r e c r u i t i n g  n e u t r a l s by  the  system.  time of S t a l i n ' s death p e a c e f u l  argument: e i t h e r  all  t o the masses of t h e w o r l d  forward communist  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was  as  a way  Moreof  bloc.  b e c o m i n g more  and  154 more u n c o m p r o m i s i n g . 'positions ively  of  The  s t r e n g t h " and  the  The  the  t o g i v e up i t s  n e u t r a l n a t i o n s were a c t -  t o oppose " i m p e r i a l i s m . "  o f a modus V i v e n d i w i t h  T h e r e was  opportunity  the  Indians  provided  of winning the  n a t i o n s by m a k i n g t h e  the  support  into  of the  1954  p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was  international a  real  non-aligned  the  b a s i s of  peace-  concerned with  s t r u g g l e f o r communism. included with  politics  peaceful coexistence  I n 1955  "Cultural and  As  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  s u c h i t t o o was  existence, along with and  developed  cultural into  politics,  long defunct  was  theory  areas  the now  i n which  on.  freely  i n t e r p r e t e d by  overwhelmingly to  favor  included i n peaceful economics,  collaboration;  a aggressive  e x c h a n g e s " were  carried  S o v i e t s i n s u c h a manner as  socialism.  equated with  economics as  c o u l d be  the  internal contradictions  o f c a p i t a l i s m : p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was  the  question  Soviets with  "Five Principles"  s o l e purpose of i n t e n s i f y i n g the  son,  no  coexistence.  By  the  now  West.  i n t r o d u c t i o n of pancha s h i l a  r e l a t i o n s by  ful  West was  Peaceful  social  co-  compari-  coexistence  had  d o c t r i n e worthy of r e p l a c i n g  o f permanent r e v o l u t i o n .  155  References.  1. As a r e s u l t of American aid Russia received between 1941 and 1945 f i f t e e n m i l l i o n tons of equipment, including 427,284 trucks, 13,303 tanks, 35,107 motorcycles, 1,900 locomotives, 66 d i e s e l engines, 10,000 railway car's, and two and a half m i l l i o n tons of a v i a t i o n gasoline and other types of engine f u e l . In addition, tools and factory equipment, spare parts, arms, medical supplies, t e x t i l e s , and shoes were provided i n large quantities. Perhaps one of the most important items delivered, allowing the Red Army to survive, was the four and a half m i l l i o n tons of canned meats, sugar, f l o u r , s a l t , and f a t s which provided each i n d i v i d u a l s o l d i e r with more than h a l f a pound of highly n u t r i t i v e food per day. The t o t a l value of goods provided by the Americans was estimated at eleven b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . (See Georg von Rauch, A History of Soviet Russia. New York, Praeger, 1959, pp. 315-318.) These figures s u f f i c i e n t l y refute the present Soviet contention that Western aid was an i n s i g n i f i c a n t f r a c t i o n of the t o t a l Soviet war e f f o r t , and should convince a l l but the most determined Marxist of the US's good intentions. 2. I t i s true, of course, that S t a l i n , even i n the most c r i t i c a l stages of the war, was extremely r e t i c e n t about the degree of collaboration that he was prepared to allow. See I . Deutscher, S t a l i n , A P o l i t i c a l Biography, New York, Vintage, I960, p. 465. 3. S t a l i n , "Rech tovarishcha S t a l i n a T.V. na predvybornom sobranii i z b i r a t e l e j Stalinskogo izbiratel'nogo okruga g. Moskvy 9 f e v r a l ' a 1946 g., Pravda, Feb. 10, 1946. n  4. A.A. Zhdanov, n29-ja godovshchina V e l i k o j 0 k t a b r s k o j S o t s i a l i s t i c h e s k o j r e v o l ' u t s i i : Doklad A.A. Zhdanova na torzhestvennom zasedanii Moskovskogo Soveta 6 nojabr'a 1946 goda, Pravda, Nov. 7, 1946. T  T  tt  5. Voprosy F i l o s o f i i , 1948:6. Translated and quoted i n S. King-Hall, The Communist Conspiracy, London, Constable, 1953, p. 102. 6. S t a l i n , "Otvety tov. S t a l i n a T.V. na voprosy zadannye moskovskim korrespondentom 'Sandej Tajms' g-nora Aleksandrom Vert v svojej zapiske na im'a t . Stalina ot 17 sent'abr'a 1946 g.,» Pravda, Sept. 25, 1946.  156  7. S t a l i n ' s Russian r e p l y of bezuslovrio verno, of course, i s an idiomatic expression open to some interpretation as to the exact meaning. Various interpretations might render i t as 'undoubtedly,' 'of course', 'certainly', 'assuredly', and so on. In.any event i t would seem to imply an unqualified acceptance. 8. V.M. Molotov, "Soyetskij Sojuz i mezhdunarodnoe sotrudnichestvo," Voprosy Vneshne.j P o l i t i k i : Rechi i za.javleni.ja, Moscow, Ogiz, 191+8, p. 267. From a speech delivered on October 29, 1946. 9.  Ibid, p. 2 5 6 .  10. Bol'shevik, 1947:1> quoted i n Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo, p. 569. .11. Ibid, p. 569. 12. S t a l i n , "Zapis' besedy tov. I.V. S t a l i n a s dejatelem respublikanskoj p a r t i i SShA Garl'dom.Stassenom," Pravda, May 8, 1947. 13. I b i d . 14. I b i d . 15. I b i d . 16. I b i d . 17. 0. Malenkov, "Informatsionriyj doklad o dejatel'nosti Tsentral'nogo Komiteta Vsesojuznoj Kommunisticheskoj P a r t i i ( b o l ' s h e v i k o v ) M o s c o w , Gosizpolit, 1947, p. 35. Quoted i n Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo, p. 572. 18. See chapter I I , page 44 . 19. A.A. Zhdanov, 0 Mezhdunarodnom Polozhenii, Moscow,Gosizpolit, 1947, p. 22, quoted i n Mezhdunarodnoe Pravo, p. 572. 20. E.A, Korovin, "Vklad SSSR i mezhdunarodnoe pravo," Sovetskoe Gosudarstvo i Pravo. 1947"11, p. 3 0 . 21. S t a l i n , "Otvet I.V. S t a l i n a na otkrytoe pis'mo g. Uollesa," Pravda, May 18, 1948. 22. Ibid. 2 3 . M.V. Molotov, "Rech tov. Molotova na sobranii i z b i r a t e l e j Molotovskogo izbiratel'nogo okruga g. Moskvy 10 marta 1950 goda," Pravda, Mar. 11, 1950.  157  24. N. E l i z a r o v , "On t h e P e a c e f u l C o e x i s t e n c e o f Two S y s t e m s , " P r a v d a , . S e p t . 12, 1951. T r a n s l a t e d and q u o t e d i n K i n g - H a l l , o p . c i t , p . 105. 25. S t a l i n , " O t v e t t o v a r i s h c h a S t a l i n a na v o p r o s y g r u p p y r e d a k t o r o v a m e r i k a n s k i x g a z e t , " P r a v d a , A p r i l 2, 1952. 26. S t a l i n , " O t v e t t o v . " S t a l i n a I.V. na v o p r o s y d i p l o m a t i c h e s kogo k o r r e s p o n d e n t a 'N'iju J o r k T a j m s ' D z h e j m s a R e s t o n a p o l u c h e n y e 21 d e k a b r ' a 1952 g . , " P r a v d a , D e c . 26, 1952. 27.  Ibid.  28. G.M. M a l e n k o v , " O t c h e t n y j d o k l a d X I X s j e z d u p a r t i i o r a b o t e T s e n t r a l ' n o g o K o m i t e t a VKP ( b ) , " B o l ' s h e v i k , 1 9 5 2 : 1 9 , p . 20. 29.  Ibid.  30. " M i r n o e s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e dvux s i s t e m - g l a v n a j a o s n o v a sovremennogo mezhdunarodnogo p r a v a , " S o v e t s k o e G o s u d a r s t v o i P r a v o , 1952:4, p . 1. 31.  Ibid,  p . 1.  32.  Ibid,  p. 3 .  33.  Ibid,  p. 3 .  34.  Ibid,  p . 4.  35.  Ibid,  p . 4.  36.  Ibid,  p . 5.  37.  Ibid,  p. 6 .  38.  See c h a p t e r I V , page 100*  39. For instance, page 10a  see Lenin's statement  40. S t a l i n , "Beseda t . S t a l i n a B o l ' s h e v i k , 1951:4* p. 4. 41.  Ibid,  p . 4.  42.  Ibid,  p . 5.  43. S t a l i n , Boi'shevik,  quoted  i n this  I.V. s korrespondentom  "Ekonomicheskie problemy 1 9 5 2 : 1 8 , p . 19.  paper, 'Pravdy,"  s o t s i a l i z m a v SSSR,"  158 44. I do n o t b e l i e v e my i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f ' p e a c e t o be n u l l i f i e d by S t a l i n ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e " c o n t e m p o r a r y s t r u g g l e f o r p e a c e has as i t s a i m t h e a r o u s a l o f t h e n a t i o n a l masses t o a s t r u g g l e f o r t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p e a c e , f o r t h e p r e v e n t i n g o f a new w o r l d war. C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t does not p u r s u e t h e aim.^ o f o v e r t h r o w i n g c a p i t a l i s m and e s t a b l i s h i n g socialism. I t l i m i t s i t s e l f t o the d e m o c r a t i c aims o f the s t r u g g l e f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n o f p e a c e . " ( S t a l i n , "Ekonomiche s k i e p r o b l e m y s o t s i a l i z m a v SSSR," B o l ' s h e v i k , 1952:18, p. 18.) The v e r y f a c t t h a t S t a l i n f e l t h i m s e l f c o m p e l l e d t o make s u c h a s t a t e m e n t l e a d s me t o t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t ' p e a c e ' and ' r e v o l u t i o n ' a r e n o t f a r s e p a r a t e d i n communist t h i n k i n g . A l s o , S t a l i n l i m i t s h i s s t a t e m e n t t o one p a r t i c u l a r movement, implying t h a t i n a l l other circumstances the 'struggle f o r p e a c e ' does c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h t h e o v e r t h r o w a l o f c a p i t a l i s m . 1  45. S t a l i n , " E k o n o m i c h e s k i e p r o b l e m y s o t s i a l i z m a v SSSR," B o l ' s h e v i k , 1952:18, p. 17. 46.  I b i d , p.  18.  47.  I b i d , p.  18.  48.  I b i d , p.  20.  49.  I b i d , p.  20.  50. G.M. M a l e n k o v , " T r a u r n y j m i t i n g na K r a s n o j p l o s h c h a d i vo vrem'a p o x o r o n I o s o f a V i s s a r i o n o v i c h a S t a l i n a : Reeh t o v a r i s h c h a G.M. M a l e n k o v a , " Kommunist, 1953:4, p . 13. 51. A. N i k o n o v , " V n e s h n ' a j a p o l i t i k a SSSR - p o l i t i k a m i r a i mezhdunarodnoe s o t r u d n i c h e s t v o , " Kommunist, 1953:7pp. 23-36. 52.  I b i d , p.  27.  53.  I b i d , p.  27.  54.  I b i d , p.  29.  55.  I b i d , p.  29.  56.  I b i d , p.  29.  57. "Za m i r n o e u r e g u l i r o v a n i e mezhdunarodnyx Kommunist, 1953:13, pp. 36-37.  voprosov,"  58. V. K o r t u n o v , " M i r n o e s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e k a p i t a l i z m a i s o t s i a l i z m a v p o l n e vozmozhno," P r a v d a , J u l y 27, 1954, pp. 3-4.  159  59.  Ibid,  p.  3.  60.  Ibid,  p.  4.  61. New  David J . D a l l i n , Soviet Foreign P o l i c y A f t e r Y o r k , L i p p e n c o t t , 1961, p . 2977  62.  Ibid,  p.  Stalin,  297.  63. The n e u t r a l s b e l i e v e d t h a t Pancha S h i l l a was t h e symbol o f t h e a w a k e n i n g o f A s i a and a landmark i n t h e h i s t o r y o f mankind." I b i d , pp. 297-8. tt  64. "Sovmestnaja d e k l a r a t s i j a P r a v i t e l ' s t v a S o t s i a l i s t i c h e s k i x Respublik i P r a v i t e l ' s t v a N a r o d n o j R e s p u b l i k i , " P r a v d a , O c t . 12, 1954,  Sojuza Sovetskix Kitajskoj p . 1.  65.. A L e o n t j e v , "0 mirnom s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i i dvux Kommunist, 1954:13, p . 43.  66.  Ibid,  p. 4 3 .  67.  Ibid,  p. 43.  68.  Ibid,  p.  69.  Ibid,  p. 45.  70.  Ibid,  p. 45.  71.  Ibid,  p. 47.  72.  Ibid,  p.  73.  Ibid,  pp. 47-48.  74.  Ibid,  p. 49.  75.  Ibid,  p. 49.  76.  Ibid,  p. 49.  77.  Ibid,  pp. 50-51.  78.  Ibid,  p. 48.  79.  Ibid,  p. 51.  80.  Ibid,  p. 51.  81.  Ibid,  p. 51.  44.  48.  sistern,"  160  82.  Ibid,  P.  83.  Ibid,  P* 53.  84.  Ibid,  P.  56.  85.  Ibid,  P«  55.  86.  Ibid,  P-  55.  87.  Ibid,  P.  56.  51.  88. N.S. K h r u s h c h o v , " B e s e d a N . § . X r u s h c h e v a s a m e r i k a n s k i m i z h u r n a l i s t a m i V.R. X e r s t o m , K i n g s b e r i Smitom, i F . K o n n i f o m 5 f e v r a l ' a 1955 g o d a , " r a v d a , F e b . 11, 1955. p  89. G.P. Z a d o r o z h n y , M e z h d u n a r o d n o - p r a v o v y e printsipy rairnogo sosushchestvovanija gosudarstv," Sovetskoe Gosudarstvo i P r a v o , 1955=8, p . 96. n  90.  Ibid,  p.  91.  91.  Ibid,  p.  92.  92.  Ibid,  p.  92.  161  CHAPTER  VI  I  The  Twentieth  Moscow i n F e b r u a r y , history  Party 1956,  of the t h e o r y  Congress of the was  a significant  time p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  pect  of Soviet f o r e i g n  existence ing  required f u l l  after,  accepted  congresses policy  on  As  an  f o r at  f r o m a mere  o f an  justification  to give  co-  accordThere-  increasing  and  as-  officially  of Marxism-Leninism.  coexistence  in  i n the  ideology, peaceful  organs devoted  peaceful  continued  raised  theoretical  tenets  party p o l i t i c a l  to a r t i c l e s  was  policy to that  "general l i n e . "  to the  event  of peaceful coexistence,  that  recognized  CPSU, h e l d  space  subsequent  party  confirmation to t h i s  new  line.  W h i l e more d e t a i l e d existence theory w i l l chapter, outline  i t will  be  of o f f i c i a l  As we peaceful  be  investigation  provided  profitable  in later  first  to  showed l i t t l e  as a t h e o r y  and  as  co-  s e c t i o n s of  to provide  d e v e l o p m e n t s f r o m 1956  have s e e n , S t a l i n  coexistence  of peaceful  a  this  brief  1963.  interest  in  a consequence i t  remained undeveloped d u r i n g h i s l o n g r e i g n .  I n h i s hands  162 peaceful  coexistence  was l i t t l e  weapon i n t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t his  capitalism.  However,  with  death t h e i d e o l o g y developed r a p i d l y , perhaps be-  cause each o f h i s s u c c e s s o r s peaceful ment w i t h  coexistence the general  within the Soviet  As  sought a t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n d ;  was r e l a t i v e l y  name.  h a r m l e s s and i n agree-  p e a c e f u l temper o f p o p u l a r  coexistence  strengthened  h i s h o l d on  became i n c r e a s i n g l y l i n k e d  At t h e T w e n t i e t h Congress - t h e f i r s t  S t a l i n ' s d e a t h - K h r u s h c h o v was a b l e t o p r e s e n t coexistence policy.  opinion  Union.  Khrushchov g r a d u a l l y  power p e a c e f u l his  more t h a n a t a c t i c a l  as t h e i d e o l o g i c a l base o f S o v i e t  I n h i s major speech b e f o r e  with  since , peaceful  foreign  the Congress  Khrushchov  stated, The L e n i n i s t p r i n c i p l e o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e h a s a l w a y s been a n d r e m a i n s t h e g e n e r a l l i n e of our country'is f o r e i g n p o l i c y . I t has been a l l e g e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t Union advances t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e merely out of c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f expediency. Yet i t i s common knowledge t h a t we have a l w a y s , f r o m t h e v e r y f i r s t y e a r s o f S o v i e t power, s t o o d with equal firmness f o r peaceful coexistence. Hence, i t i s n o t a t a c t i c a l move, b u t a f u n d a mental p r i n c i p l e o f Soviet f o r e i g n p o l i c y . 1 Shrushchov  pointed  out t h a t p e a c e f u l  coexistence  o did  n o t m e r e l y mean " e x i s t i n g  s i d e by s i d e "  a c t u a l engagement o f s o c i a l i s t in  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena.  and c a p i t a l i s t  Then, he went  West i s r e a d y t o make " m u t u a l l y  but t h e  profitable  forces  on, i f t h e concessions",  163 "war  i s not a f a t a l i s t i c  inevitability."  statement has been h a i l e d old  Leninist  a view of  thesis  the r e q u i r e d  "mutually  profitable  Khrushchovian  history  concessions."  the  q u a r r e l t h a t may  a r e n a between " t h e two capitalists  s u b m i s s i o n would  arise  At the  i n the w o r l d . aspirations,  sion w i l l  n o t be p r o f i t a b l e  hence p e a c e f u l doctrine  immediate  be  a means o f s e t t l i n g every Soviet  hegemony  such a point  concesof  n o t be m a i n t a i n e d and  o f war  will  remain  c a n be m a i n t a i n e d and war disputes only  demand.  "profit-  concessions hinder  from the S o v i e t  of the i n e v i t a b i l i t y  be  and  one more s t e p  then i t follows that  coexistence w i l l  f o l l o w s t h a t war  For i n -  "profitable" for  same t i m e i t w o u l d  I f proposed  ieommunist  to  be  are  international  t h e avowed u l t i m a t e g o a l o f communist  everywhere  communism,  t o communist p r e s s u r e s , f o r s u c h  a b l e " f o r t h e communists f o r i t w o u l d  It  to  i n the  save t h e b o u r g e o i s i e from  bloody d e s t r u c t i o n .  toward  As t h e c o u r s e o f  be m u t u a l l y p r o f i t a b l e  camps" i t w o u l d  t o submit  note  correctly  a i d i n the attainment of s o c i a l i s m .  s t a n c e , i n any  the  o f war.  such  a few w o r d s o f  leads inevitably  o n l y c o n c e s s i o n s t h a t would  those which  Perhaps  the  namely,  help to analyse  interpretation  i n Marxian thought  hold  to take s u f f i c i e n t  f o r e x c l u d i n g war;  e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s , phrase w i l l the  last  However, t h o s e who  in failing  condition  This  as a r a d i c a l d e p a r t u r e from  on war.  err, I believe,  3  view; the  i n force.  e x c l u d e d as  i f t h e West w i l l  submit  164 Viewed i n t h e s e terms i t i s d i f f i c u l t Khrushchev's statement  on war  gambit.  Lenin's doctrine  based  the  not  on  realistic  willingly  Khrushchov's statement assumption t h a t  as more t h a n a  on t h e  any  and  i s based  it will.  e c o n o m i c , and  convince the  West t h a t  on  the  However, one  resistance  unrealistic must  on  ness of the  bourgeoisie  - a conviction that  "aggression tion  and  Soviet  war  are  rationality  conception inherent."^  of Western r a t i o n a l i t y  demanding n o n - r a t i o n a l i t y .  that  other  attainment  and  reasonable-  fails  to  under c a p i t a l i s m  Against  i s posed t h a t E i t h e r the  Soviet  In  f o r the  coexistence  that  eventually  i s useless.  of peaceful  correspond t o the  conclude  overwhelming  prospects the  was  West w o u l d  moral strength w i l l  words, Khrushchov bases the  o f war  s u n d r y communist; demand.  Khrushchov s i n c e r e l y b e l i e v e s t h a t military,  the  see  propaganda  inevitability  assumption that  submit t o  to  the  of  West  concep-  Soviet submit,  blindly or,  5 as  Khrushchov says,  In theory  at  least,  plunge the world  "the the  most d e s t r u c t i v e war Soviet  i n t o complete  in  Union i s prepared c h a o s and  History." to  destruction  t h a n t e m p e r i t s f o r e i g n p o l i c y demands by  discretion  rather and  reason. The ical is  Twentieth  Congress a l s o gave o f f i c i a l  j u s t i f i c a t i o n t o the  not  incompatible  socialism.  idea that  w i t h the  Dmitry Shepilov,  peaceful  theoret-  coexistence  t r a n s i t i o n from c a p i t a l i s m then M i n i s t e r  of  Foreign  to  165 Affairs,  turned t o Lenin's theory of unequal  development. The f a c t t h a t p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r t h e t r a n s i t i o n t o s o c i a l i s m mature a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s i n d i f f e r e n t countries, the f a c t that i n d i v i d u a l c o u n t r i e s b r e a k away f r o m t h e c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m a t d i f f e r e n t t i m e s means t h a t s i m u l t a n e o u s e x i s t e n c e o f b o t h c a p i t a l i s t and s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s i s i n e v i t a b l e on o u r p l a n e t . R e g a r d l e s s o f whether t h i s p l e a s e s c e r t a i n people, i t i s a law o f h i s t o r i c a l development . °  Nevertheless, l i k e  o t h e r s b e f o r e h i m , S h e p i l o v was un-  a b l e t o j u s t i f y t h e absence  o f war by means o f L e n i n ' s  theory.  To t h e T w e n t y - f i r s t Khrushchov peaceful  gave  Congress h e l d  i n 1959  an e x t r e m e l y a p p e a l i n g d e f i n i t i o n o f  coexistence.  We want t o compete w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t s i n p e a c e f u l p u r s u i t s , t o compete i n t h e development o f p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s , i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e economic p o t e n t i a l o f t h e c o u n t r y i n a d v a n c i n g t h e m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l w e l l - b e i n g o f t h e p e o p l e . We want e a c h c o u n t r y t o e x h i b i t i t s economic and s p i r i t u a l forces i n t h i s competition. To s p e a k i n c o m m e r c i a l t e r m s , w h i c h a r e app a r e n t l y more i n t e l l i g i b l e t o t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of t h e c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d , l e t us spread o u t o u r " w a r e s " and show what t h e s o c i a l i s t w o r l d h a s and what t h e c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d h a s . L e t e a c h s y s t e m show where and how many h o u r s a d a y a man w o r k s , what m a t e r i a l a n d s p i r i t u a l b e n e f i t s t h e w o r k i n g man r e c e i v e s , what k i n d o f home he h a s t o l i v e i n , what o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e e x t e n d e d t o him f o r e d u c a t i o n , t o what d e g r e e he p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e a f f a i r s o f s t a t e and i n t h e c o u n t r y ' s p o l i t i c a l l i f e , and who i s m a s t e r o f a l l t h e m a t e r i a l and c u l t u r a l wealth ....7  166 Through such a competition, Khrushchov went on, "the 8  peoples" would decide which system i s best.  However, as  we s h a l l see, the more developed theory of the spreading of "wares", or i n Lenin's words, the "power of example", i s rigged i n a manner i n which a l l the advantages f a l l to communism, In November I960, eighty-one communist parties met i n Moscow.  In the statement drawn up at that meeting  a l l of these communist organizations resolved to base t h e i r foreign policy "on the firm foundation of the Lenini s t p r i n c i p l e of peaceful coexistence and economic competi9  t i o n between the s o c i a l i s t and the c a p i t a l i s t countries." The Soviet Union now had the support of communists throughout the world and assumed the i d e o l o g i c a l leadership of them. At the Twenty-second Congress held i n Moscow i n October 1961,  peaceful coexistence received yet f u l l e r  o f f i c i a l confirmation and support. At that time Khrushchov asserted that "peaceful coexistence follows from the very nature of our system." ^ 1  The Soviet Union now  inextric-  ably linked i t s i d e o l o g i c a l leadership to the idea of peacef u l coexistence, a position that within a year has made the USSR f i g h t f o r that leadership with China.  The  aggres-  sive element of peaceful coexistence, of which more w i l l be said l a t e r , was now no longer hidden. maintained that,  Hence, Khrushchov  167 peaceful coexistence of countries with d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s y s t e m s c a n be m a i n t a i n e d and s a f e g u a r d e d o n l y t h r o u g h t h e u n r e l e n t i n g struggle of a l l peoples against the aggressive aspirations of the i m p e r i a l i s t s .  M o r e o v e r , K h r u s h c h o v was q u i c k t o p o i n t  out t h a t  "peace 12  and that  peaceful coexistence  a r e n o t q u i t e t h e same t h i n g , "  peaceful coexistence  does n o t imply m e r e l y an absence  o f war, b u t t h e a c t i v e f i g h t i n g capitalism.  f o r the overthrowal  Khrushchov's p o s i t i o n had h a r d e n e d .  l o n g e r d i d he s p e a k , a s he d i d a t t h e T w e n t i e t h of "mutually asserted  profitable  concessions."  Now  of  No Congress,  Khrushchov  that,  C o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s on m a t t e r s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e do n o t constitute a policy of peaceful coexistence b u t s u r r e n d e r t o t h e f o r c e s o f a g g r e s sion. T h a t we w i l l n e v e r a c c e d e to.. ... T h a t i s why we must c u r b t h e a g g r e s s o r s and n o t a i d and a b e t them.13  Peaceful idyllic  coexistence  h a d now o f f i c i a l l y  "comparison o f s o c i a l  Congress, t o a b e l l i c o s e pressure  changed from t h e  systems" o f t h e T w e n t y - f i r s t  justification  f o r unrelenting .  on t h e b o u r g e o i s i e .  The  Twenty-secorid  new p a r t y p r o g r a m . coexistence  Party  Congress a l s o approved the  I n i t i t was s t a t e d t h a t  of s o c i a l i s t  and c a p i t a l i s t  o b j e c t i v e n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e development War c a n n o t and must n o t s e r v e ternational  disputes.  "peaceful  s t a t e s i s an o f human s o c i e t y .  a s a means o f s e t t l i n g i n -  Peaceful  coexistence  or disastrous  168 war  - such  i s the  The  program r e i t e r a t e d  principles", shila.  a f t e r the  an  theory to i t s f i r s t 1922,  an  event  felt,  peadeful  event real  and  chiefly  the  the  and  field  l e a d e r s h i p o f the  As m i g h t alternative Soviet  a s an  ideology that  test.  T h i s was  China  crisis  theory  at the  on t h e  or going  1962  t o war  who  the  contra-  gave t h e  Anniversay  1  -1  Cuba  the  In d i r e c t  that "peaceful coexistence  same a s s e r t i o n t o t h e  chosen  when f a c e d w i t h  former course.  November 7,  still  bloc.  compromise, a l s o a m u t u a l concession."" "^  prin-  Celebra-  i s also a  Khrushchov r e -  Supreme S o v i e t  i n Moscow  d  in  December 1962.  Basing  of  Khrushchov's, the  Supreme S o v i e t came t o  "decision" to  Cuba  that  challenge Russia f o r  to the XXII Congress, Kosygin,  the  t o put  has  i t s interpretation  i n which to  of modifying  address  the  brooked  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of which are  have been e x p e c t e d ,  t i o n s , maintained  peated  pancha  Congress  o c c u r r e d w h i c h was  communist  Union chose t h e  diction ciple  longer l i n k e d with  b e c a u s e communist  coexistence  s i t u a t i o n as the  "five  w h i c h shook p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e t o i t s  foundations,  being  f o r the  Twenty-second P a r t y  peaceful coexistence  "concessions,"  very  Soviet support  1 5  hailed  of  o f f e r e d by h i s t o r y . "14  t h o u g h t h e s e were no  A year  no  alternative  support,  i t s a u t h o r i t y on t h i s the  speech  bold  169 the external policy of the Soviet government, directed to the further strengthening of peace and friendship between peoples on the foundation of the Lenin p r i n c i p l e of peaceful coexistence.1° Perhaps nothing i l l u s t r a t e s the poverty of peaceful coexistence more than t h i s t o t a l l y empty and inept "decision."  In one stroke Soviet theory regressed to an  interpretation similar to that with which Lenin f i r s t 19 introduced peaceful coexistence i n 1920!  Clearly  communist theory i s on the defensive at the present.time. The trauma caused by the United States' reaction to Cuba seems to have been deep i n the Soviet bloc. The Soviet Union gained some c o n c i l i a t i o n i n that other communist parties of Europe gradually and ostentatiously came to i t s 20  support. Thus, i n the period under review - 1956 to 1963 - , peaceful coexistence swung from a position of sweet reasonableness  to one of uncompromising b e l l i c o s i t y to a  defensive position of compromise  again.  II  With the Twentieth Party Congress of 1956 and the Twenty-first of 1959 peaceful coexistence entered into a 21 " q u a l i t a t i v e l y new stage i n i t s development." Those  170 Congresses r a i s e d in  communist  of  the theoretical  after the an  theory.  1956 i t w i l l  examination  development  of peaceful  then w i t h role  coexistence  now be most p r a c t i c a b l e t o d e p a r t  of various aspects  deal f i r s t  t o pre-eminence  As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y  c h r o n o l o g i c a l approach f o l l o w e d  We w i l l  the  peaceful coexistence  so f a r and t u r n t o  of the theory  of the class  of peaceful  coexistence,  s t r u g g l e , war, p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r -  n a t i o n a l i s m , r e v o l u t i o n and c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n , n a t i o n a l l a w , and t h e i d e o l o g i c a l peaceful coexistence. attempt w i l l  of  peaceful  has of  Finally,  s t r u g g l e as they  t h e day M a r x f i r s t  from t h e r u b b i s h  constant  policy-makers.  turns,  of Hegelianism, shifts  g i v e way t o s o c i a l i s m .  ideolog  and change  B u t one b e l i e f h a s  despite a l l the vagaries  This i s the b e l i e f  Marxist  of course  that  of Marxian  c a p i t a l i s m must  A l l t h e s h i f t s and  t h e q u a r r e l s and d i s s e n s i o n s t h a t have marked t h e  communist movement, h a v e , i n t h e l a s t concerned with ition  "principles"  extracted the h i s t o r i c a l  emphasis i n t a c t i c s and s t r a t e g y .  inevitably  affect  from t h e a n a l y s i s o f these  be made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e r e a l  u n d e r g o n e many a g o n i z i n g  remained  inter-  coexistence.  Since dialectic  itself.  w i t h t h e o v e r a l l t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e , and  the moral j u s t i f i c a t i o n  an  from  t h e problem  o f how b e s t  a n a l y s i s , been t o hasten  f r o m t h e " o l d " s y s t e m t o t h e "newl*  writer reaffirms this belief  i n relation  the trans  A recent  Soviet  t o peaceful co-  1 7 1  existence.  C o e x i s t e n c e o f t h e two w o r l d s y s t e m s w i l l n o t t o l e r a t e a s i m p l i f i e d approach. I t i s not something immutable, something independent o f the laws o f h i s t o r y . I t i s an h i s t o r i c a l category. I t h a s a b e g i n n i n g and i s e f f e c t i v e f o r a s l o n g a s t h e r e e x i s t on e a r t h two s o c i o economic systems, i n o t h e r words, u n t i l t h e o l d f o r m a t i o n , c a p i t a l i s m , i s r e p l a c e d by t h e new, s o c i a l i s m . 2 2  But of  t h e t r o u b l e h a s a l w a y s b e e n one o f d e f i n i n g t h e " l a w s history"!  theory  The l a t e s t  of peaceful coexistence.  that theory theorist,  as developed  of the coexistence  t h e development  Recalling  Lenin's  overthrow o f c a p i t a l i s m become a w o r l d  examine by the S o v i e t  t h a t , "the  order takes  place i n  o f two s o c i a l  antagonisms o f the c a p i t a l i s t  linked with  c a n now  He m a i n t a i n s  of the c a p i t a l i s t  circumstances  We  t o do so i s t h e  i n a 1 9 6 2article  J u . A. K r a s i n . ^ ^  destruction  Social  S o v i e t attempt  order  systems.  are c l o s e l y  of international  relations."  theory that the long  expected  had n o t o c c u r r e d because i t had  s y s t e m o f i m p e r i a l i s m , K r a s i n draws t h e  conclusion that with the contraction of the area italist  hegemony, t h e e x p e c t e d  a p p e a r i n an i n t e n s i f i e d the  very  presence  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s would r e -  form, aggravated  o f t h e new  o f cap-  socialist  still  more by  entity.  A new s o c i a l o r d e r , v i c t o r i o u s f i r s t i n a few c o u n t r i e s , i n e v i t a b l y l e a d s t o c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t system i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena. The s o c i a l a n t a g o n i s m s  172 o f t h e b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t a r e t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o t h e sphere o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , b e i n g t r a n s f e r r e d i n t o an a n t a g o n i s m o f two o p p o s i t e s o c i a l s y s t e m s . I n t h i s manner t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n two s o c i a l s y s t e m s and t h e i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of c a p i t a l i s m are o r g a n i c a l l y l i n k e d w i t h one and t h e same s o c i a l e s s e n c e . ^ 5  The  vagueness of the phrase " s o c i a l  essence., l e a v e s  p a s s a g e open t o some i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . seems t o s u g g e s t italism  that  In Marxian terms i t  as t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  are manifested  as a s t r u g g l e  this  within  cap-  between h o s t i l e  c l a s s e s , n a m e l y , t h e p r o l e t a r i a t and t h e b o u r g e o i s i e , contradictions bourgeoisie, are as as  and t h e s o c i a l i s t ,  reflected within an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n there  Soviet no  ideology,  of the class  struggle.  countries Conversely,  that  peaceful  a f f e c t s on s o c i a l i s m . of capitalism  include  these are expressed  coexistence  c a n have  As t h e i n t e r n a l economy,  politics,  i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  also. But  without g i v i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y t h e o r e t i c a l  justification, of  l e d by t h e p r o l e t a r i a t ,  the i n d i v i d u a l c a p i t a l i s t  Union i t f o l l o w s  detrimental  arena  system, l e d by the  a r e s u p p o s e d l y no h o s t i l e c l a s s e s w i t h i n t h e  contradictions and  between t h e c a p i t a l i s t  the  Krasin  the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  increase  concludes that  need not n e c e s s a r i l y  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n :  contradictions  the i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n lead  t o an  "the development of  between the. two s y s t e m s i s f u l l y  possible  26 in  the conditions  of peaceful  coexistence."  I n f a c t , as  173 the  " d y n a m i c s o f t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e two  systems a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e development  of the i n t e r n a l  27 social not  contradictions  order,"  i t need  extend beyond t h e b o r d e r s o f i n d i v i d u a l c a p i t a l i s t  countries As in  of the c a p i t a l i s t  at a l l . the c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  attempting to protect  faction  increase,  itself  the  bourgeoisie,  from t h e r i s i n g  dissatis-  of the p r o l e t a r i a t , i s forced t o e s t a b l i s h a d i c -  tatorial  government  i n place  o f democracy.  Attempting t o protect the c a p i t a l i s t world from the r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n f l u e n c e o f s o c i a l i s m , the r u l i n g c i r c l e s o f m o n o p o l i s t i c bourgeoisie more f r e q u e n t l y t u r n f r o m democracy:.and ^ p r o c e e d to the c r e a t i o n of d i c t a t o r s h i p s of the f a s c i s t and s e m i - f a s c i s t t y p e s . 2 8  This the  statement greatest  liberties  i s a r e v e a l i n g one, f o r i t s u g g e s t s  enemy o f communism  provided  i s i n fact  the  that  personal  by the democracies o f the c a p i t a l i s t  type.  Having aggravated the c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s the  capitalist  attention  countries,  Union turns i t s  t o t h e n a t i o n a l - l i b e r a t i o n movements i n t h e  under-developed achieve  the S o v i e t  within  nations.  By h e l p i n g  c o l o n i a l nations  i n d e p e n d e n c e and t h r o u g h S o v i e t  economic  to  assist-  ance t o " r i s e  t o the path o f n o n - c a p i t a l i s t development,"  the  camp c o n t r i b u t e s  socialist  intensification ism"-^  t o the " f u r t h e r  of the i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  by r e s t r i c t i n g  the bourgeoisie's  extreme of capital  markets, i t s  174 s p h e r e s o f employment  of capital,  and i t s s o u r c e s o f  31 raw  materials.  The r e s u l t i s t h a t  the c a p i t a l i s t s  s e t up e c o n o m i c and m i l i t a r y - p o l i t i c a l socialism  (such  reconciling is  that  blocs  against  a s t h e U.S. and t h e Common M a r k e t ) w i t h o u t  their  contradictions.  The o v e r a l l r e s u l t  "the dominating r o l e i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena  33 (is left)  to socialism."'  Then, a c c o r d i n g plays  a subtle  t o Krasin's  account,  c a t and mouse game w i t h c a p i t a l i s m .  peaceful  coexistence  petition  and c o l l a b o r a t i o n t h e S o v i e t  "material  i s unthinkable  foundation  social-economic trade  of peaceful  without  As  economic  com-  Union strengthens the  coexistence  o f two w o r l d  s y s t e m s " - ^ b y o f f e r i n g t h e West l u c r a t i v e  p o s s i b i l i t i e s with the Soviet  of t h i s  socialism  bloc.  The n e t r e s u l t  seemingly generous o f f e r i s t o s e t the v a r i o u s  Western trade  blocs  f i g h t i n g among t h e m s e l v e s , t h u s  still  35 f u r t h e r weakening At  this  capitalism.  point, that  Krasin  declares,  the  West, s e e i n g  the Soviet  out  internal contradictions, w i l l  the p r o l e t a r i a t of  Union can develop  with-  decide t o " l i q u i d a t e 36  the  contradictions  of capitalism i n t h e i r  That  i s , capitalism w i l l  ship  of the p r o l e t a r i a t established.  peaceful i c a l end.  coexistence  will  countries."  be o v e r t h r o w n and t h e d i c t a t o r When t h i s  come t o i t s p r e d e s t i n e d  occurs histor-  175 Thus, t h r o u g h p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , poetically penetrate In  p u t i t , " i n t o t h e d a r k kingdom the rays  of l i g h t  1.  ..37  passes through  seven  stages:  Capitalist  geographical state, thus dictions  2.  of c a p i t a l  of the revolutionary idea."  summary, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  interlocked  a s K r a s i n so  imperialism i s r e s t r i c t e d i n  a r e a by t h e r i s e intensifying  of a  socialist  the i n t e r n a l  contra-  of capitalism;  the bourgeoisie  install  fascist-type  govern-  ments; 3.  the c o l o n i a l nations  communism, t h u s  further restricting  markets and i n t e n s i f y i n g 4.  are a t t r a c t e d to  the c a p i t a l i s t  capitalist  capitalist contradictions;  states split  into  economic  blocs; 5.  the S o v i e t Union o f f e r s these  bloc  trade  possibilities; 6.  the c a p i t a l i s t  the  Soviet  7.  the p r o l e t a r i a t  completing the  new.  states fight  among t h e m s e l v e s f o r  market;  overthrows the b o u r g e o i s i e ,  the t r a n s i t i o n  from the o l d order to  176 Given c e r t a i n Marxian assumptions - c h i e f l y the  capitalist  dictions is  world  i s r e n t by  irreconcilable  - K r a s i n ' s p r e s e n t a t i o n of p e a c e f u l  a carefully  reasoned theory.  ism.  Of  tensified system.  course,  Lenin  as a r e s u l t Peaceful  saw  of processes  coexistence  theory  of  f o r c e s a c t i n g from o u t s i d e t h a t  in direct  as  Lenin's.  theory  Of  course,  i n a way  by  the v e r y  K r a s i n had  fact  applied revolutionary  coexistence"  not  worked o u t  for half  a century.  itself,  that  in reality.  right  course, f o r the  i t serves  For and  And  disproving a theory important  i t had very  i d e a s have same a r -  the  sufficient theory,  a s a g u i d e t o a c t i o n f o r communists.  o r wrong, t h e t h e o r y  fact  itself.  i s not  t h i n g i s not  lain  rename i t " p e a c e -  vice versa this  coexistence  well  Lenin's  the  subtly implies that Lenin's  gument " d i s p r o v e s " p e a c e f u l  in  certainly  i t after  to rework the t h e o r y  ful  Of  This  Krasin "disproves"  of r e v i v i n g  result  suggesting  c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o M a r x ' s c o n c e p t s , ^ 9 as  l a r g e l y neglected that  system as a  system,  o u t s i d e f o r c e were n o t  capitalist  intensification  capitalist  i n i t i a t i v e would l i e f o r e v e r dormant. is  Krasin  of i m p e r i a l -  w i t h i n the  p o s i t s an  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s w i t h i n the  i f this  coexistence  imperial contradictions i n -  of  that  contra-  Unfortunately,  c r i b b e d h i s i d e a s whole from L e n i n ' s  that  but Thus,  of peaceful coexistence i n -  177 duces a c e r t a i n b e h a v i o r a l leadership the at  pattern  i n t h e communist  t o w h i c h t h e West must r e s p o n d .  theory,  therefore,  l e a s t i n part,  I t would of peaceful  i s important  to predict Soviet  seem, t h e r e f o r e ,  coexistence  Knowledge o f  i n that  i t a l l o w s one,  behavior.^ .  that  the important  i s t h a t , though the Soviet  fact Union  a c t i v e l y works toward " i n t e n s i f y i n g t h e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f capitalism," the actual is  left  job of overthrowing  t o the p r o l e t a r i a t within  themselves.  While t h i s  is  the c a p i t a l i s t  c o n c e p t , a s we  been hedged i n w i t h S o v i e t  shall  countries  s e e , has  theoretical reservations, i t  p e r h a p s t h e most g r a t i f y i n g a s p e c t  from t h e p o i n t  capitalism  o f t h e whole  theory  o f view o f t h e West.  Ill  One a s p e c t  of peaceful  coexistence  that  i s often  o v e r l o o k e d by W e s t e r n i n v e s t i g a t o r s i s t h e s t r o n g factor  lying  peaceful native  behind the theory.  coexistence  I t i s hard t o r e j e c t  when i t i s p r e s e n t e d  t o a b l o o d y war.  moral  For instance,  as t h e a l t e r -  Khrushchov has  said,  P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e I s t h e o n l y way w h i c h i s i n keeping with the i n t e r e s t s o f a l l nations. To r e j e c t i t w o u l d mean u n d e r e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s t o doom t h e w h o l e w o r l d t o a t e r r i b l e  178 and d e s t r u c t i v e war a t t h e t i m e when i t i s f u l l y possible to avoid it.41  A n o t h e r S o v i e t t h e o r e t i c i a n has  of peaceful  coexistence,  there  maintained  i s no  third  another w r i t e r a s s e r t s t h a t ,  "spurning  ence means o p e n l y  to warlike  in  o u r day  that  Variations  confessing  i s tantamount  and  Western i n t e l l e c t u a l s estimated.  the  Russell.  the  direct  peaceful  intentions  impact t h a t they  "Ban has  has  an  important  outcome o f t h e  should  been the  aging  Soviet  The point  on, w h i c h a c c o r d i n g  of c a p i t a l i s m . "  to l e a d to a sense coexistence  ment i s o f r e a l v a l u e  i s one  theory,  social  "intensifies  of p o l i t i c a l  r e q u i r e s t h a t the  of Soviet to the  pressure,  a n s w e r e d by  pacifism.  so  the  S e c o n d i t seems v e r y  deAnd  West make c o n the moral  argu-  communists.  m o r a l argument o f " p e a c e f u l best  of  o f d e m o n s t r a t i o n s , m a r c h e s , and  to Marxian  face  a  is  form  war"  Bertrand  o f view,  i n the  The  this  of  disruption  i n the  under-  advantage  i t c a u s e s a c e r t a i n amount  cessions  be  on  r o l e ) seem a l s o t o be  First,  peaceful  have had  not  two-fold.  as  countless  v i c t i m of  same r e s p o n s e .  t h i s m o r a l argument, f r o m t h e  finitely  and  bomb" movements ( i n w h i c h R u s s e l l  played  contradictions  coexist-  4  P e r h a p s t h e most n o t a b l e m o r a l gambit  Still  p o l i t i c a l suicide."" ^  in particular  propagandistic  war  way."  o f t h i s theme have b e e n r e i t e r a t e d  thousands of times,  himself  to  "either 42  viewing  coexistence  the  results  or  of e i t h e r  179 alternative. first  ask the q u e s t i o n ,  existence may  Before the choice  " I s the r e s u l t  - a totalitarian  meet t h e i r  of p e a c e f u l  In  any  raises  i s not such a  appears.  The  issues that  co-  millions  e v e n t i t i s one  seldom  jection,  i s why  w i t h war  i f t h e West w i l l  question  with here.  by t h o s e who  fall  line.  the Soviet  is itself  answer t o t h e  raised  i t is itself  a moral  U n i o n must t h r e a t e n not  that  the g r e a t e s t  ob-  the world  submit t o p r e s s u r e .  U n i o n , by r e f u s i n g t o a d m i t to exist,  rejec-  clear-cut  c a n n o t be d e a l t  A s e c o n d o b j e c t i o n , and  right  i n which  i n mind t h e a c c e p t a n c e o r  prey t o the S o v i e t moral  Soviet  of peaceful  dictatorship  coexistence  choice.as i t at f i r s t necessarily  must  d e a t h i n p u r g e s - t o be p r e f e r r e d t o w a r ? "  With these a l t e r n a t i v e s tion  c a n be made one  The  t h e West h a s threat  to  a  peace.  Another moral adjunct of peaceful coexistence i s that  of a better  systems.  life  f o r mankind t h r o u g h c o m p e t i t i o n  Peaceful coexistence,  Khrushchov  of  says,  s p r i n g s from the v e r y n a t u r e of s o c i a l i s m i n w h i c h t h e r e a r e no c l a s s e s o r s o c i a l g r o u p s i n t e r e s t e d i n p r o f i t i n g by war o r s e i z i n g and enslaving other people's t e r r i t o r i e s . 4 4  This  s u b t l e comparison  "enslavement"  of s o c i a l i s m with  i s , o f c o u r s e , aimed a t t h e  capitalist colonial  p e o p l e s o f t h e w o r l d and h a s a s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l  orientation  180 But  the humanitarian  i n t e n t i o n s and a s p i r a t i o n s o f  communism  i s c e r t a i n l y t h e most a p p e a l i n g  Marxism.  I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g ,  includes i t i n peaceful  aspect  therefore, that  of Khrushchov  coexistence.  Y e s , we a r e c o n v i n c e d t h a t o u r i d e a s w i l l triumph. But v i c t o r y f o r those i d e a s w i l l n o t be won by war b u t by a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d o f l i v i n g u n d e r s o c i a l i s m , and a h i g h e r l e v e l o f c u l t u r e , s c i e n c e and a r t , and e v e r y t h i n g r e q u i r e d f o r t h e l i f e and n o t f o r t h e d e a t h o f man.45 On t h e s u r f a c e t h i s  i s a s t r o n g argument, b u t i t i n no  way d i s c o u n t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y under  'capitalism' quicker Of  highly rapid  recent  less  suffering.  d a y s t h e S o v i e t s have a d v a n c e d a new and  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n of c a p i t a l i s m through peaceful co-  labeled  Crime i n t h e S o v i e t Union has l o n g been l  a "survival  ence i n R u s s i a  the  and w i t h  goals  i n t e r e s t i n g m o r a l argument f o r p r e s s i n g f o r t h e  existence.  found  o f a c h i e v i n g t h e same  of capitalism."  But i t s l o n g  r e q u i r e s a new e x p l a n a t i o n .  by a t t r i b u t i n g t o t h e mere e x i s t e n c e  persist-  Such has been of c a p i t a l i s m  c r e a t i o n of crime. Another o b j e c t i v e cause o f t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f crime i n our country i s t h e e x i s t e n c e o f the c a p i t a l i s t w o r l d and i t s a c t i v e h o s t i l i t y t o our a c t i v i t i e s . I t w o u l d be a s e r i o u s m i s t a k e to underestimate t h i s . The i m p e r i a l i s t camp i s t h e p r i m e c a u s e o f such p a r t i c u l a r l y dangerous crimes as t r e a s o n t o t h e Motherland, e s p i o n a g e , s a b o t a g e , t e r r o r i s t a c t s and so o n . (These i n t u r n l e a d t o ) pessimism, l a c k o f  181 p r i n c i p l e s , amorality, f a s t l i v i n g , anarchy, and p a r a s i t i s m . I t i s properly necessary to t a k e t h i s i n t o a c c o u n t and t o g u a r a n t e e a constant offensive opposition against the influence of the misanthropic ideology of imperialism.4°  From a p u r e l y crime  still  persisting  significant. inspiring sing  sociological  point  o f view t h e type  of  i n t h e Soviet Union i s extremely  But p o l i t i c a l l y  the S o v i e t people  i t serves  t h e purpose o f  to greater e f f o r t s  f o r peaceful coexistence  i n pres-  and t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f  capitalism.  In r e l a t i o n to peaceful coexistence, then, is one  cynically  e x p l o i t e d by S o v i e t  theoreticians.  hand, i t i s used t o c r e a t e p o l i t i c a l  t h e West, w h i l e citizens  on t h e o t h e r ,  aggressive  political  interests  minded.  i t served In both  of peaceful  morality On t h e  pacifism i n t o keep S o v i e t  ways i t s e r v e s t h e  coexistence.  I?  The  S o v i e t Union has o f f e r e d p e a c e f u l  as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o war. ful  coexistence  solving has  coexistence  Khrushchov h a s d e f i n e d  peace-  a s " t h e r e p u d i a t i o n o f war a s a means o f  controversial issues."^  7  Another Soviet w r i t e r  b e e n e v e n more c a t e g o r i c a l i n h i s r e j e c t i o n  "In i t s f u r t h e r development t h e c o n c e p t i o n  o f war:  o f p e a c e f u l co-  182 existence  v i s u a l i z e s the e l i m i n a t i o n of the very  of war."4&  Or, as s t i l l  another Soviet  threat  t h e o r e t i c i a n has  remarked,  Characteristic of peaceful coexistence i s t h e d e t e r m i n e d r e j e c t i o n o f war n o t o n l y a s a means o f s o l v i n g i n t e r n a t i o n a l q u a r r e l s , b u t a l s o as a s p e c i f i c form o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e now t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a b e tween t h e c a p i t a l i s t and t h e s o c i a l i s t s y s t e m s . The s p e c i f i c s t r u g g l e now t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a l i e s above a l l i n t h e f a c t t h a t i t c a n and must be waged by n o n - m i l i t a r y means.49  Of  course,  that  behind t h i s  statement  c a p i t a l i s m i s by n a t u r e w a r l i k e  o f war c a n o n l y be removed w i t h capitalist of the kind war  during  while will as  l i e s the Marxist  system.^  the period  capitalism s t i l l  a l l Soviet  coexistence;  Therefore,  examine t h e r e a l n a t u r e o f t h e S o v i e t  i t a f f e c t s peaceful  In f a c t t y p e s o f war.  statements  t h e a b s e n c e o f any k i n d o f  of peaceful exists.  and h e n c e t h e t h r e a t  the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the  Nevertheless,  q u o t e d above i m p l y  belief  this  that i s , section  concept  o f war  coexistence.  t h e communists d i s t i n g u i s h between Khrushchov s t a t e s t h a t ,  several  " i n contemporary  conditions  i t i s possible to d i s t i n g u i s h the following  categories  o f war: w o r l d w a r , l o c a l wars, l i b e r a t i o n w a r s -  national u p r i s i n g s . K h r u s h c h o v c a u s e i t " i s needed o n l y ture  r e j e c t s w o r l d war b e -  by t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s f o r t h e c a p -  of foreign t e r r i t o r y . "  52  Moreover, t h e S o v i e t  Union  183 does not  need war  powerful  as t o c o n q u e r w i t h o u t  other the  h a n d , t h e West d o e s not  retaliatory military  "Only f e a r of the from u n l e a s h i n g W o r l d war, ful  because the  then,  armed f o r c e . 5 3 start  a war  i s r u l e d out  more b l o o d y  On  so  the  through f e a r  Soviet  camp p r e v e n t s  still  of  Union:  the  (capitalists)  adventure. ^ n  under c o n d i t i o n s of  peace-  coexistence.  L o c a l wars occur selves.  But  as  involved they  On  the  u p r i s i n g s are  between i m p e r i a l i s t  s u c h w a r s may  w i t n e s s W o r l d War be  o f communism a r e  power o f t h e  socialist  a new,  ideas  Two  other  grow i n t o w o r l d  - i n which the  a r e t o be  powers themwars -  S o v i e t Union would  avoided.55  hand, l i b e r a t i o n w a r s and  national  ' j u s t ' wars which,  w i l l o c c u r as l o n g as c o l o n i a l i s m e x i s t s . T h i s i s r e v o l u t i o n a r y war. S u c h war i s n o t o n l y a d m i t t e d , b u t i s a l s o i n e v i t a b l e as l o n g as t h e c o l o n i a l i s t s do n o t v o l u n t a r i l y g i v e the people independence.56  Moreover, J u s t wars are h o l y n a t i o n a l wars a g a i n s t s l a v e r y , against c o l o n i a l regimes, against the i m p e r i a l i s t yoke. Such w a r s do n o t c o n t r a d i c t the p r i n c i p l e s of p e a c e f u l coexistence.57  In short, peaceful exclude  coexistence  a l l wars i n g e n e r a l .  does not  It' e x c l u d e s  in  fact  wars t h a t would  184  aid  the c a p i t a l i s t s while  socialists.  Soviet  p l a y under p e a c e f u l the  admitting  wars t h a t  a i d the  p r o t e s t a t i o n s o f e q u a l i t y and f a i r coexistence  seem h a r d l y t o a p p l y i n  case o f war.  Not peaceful  only  a r e wars o f l i b e r a t i o n  coexistence,  permissible  under  b u t t h e y a r e t o be " u n s w e r v i n g l y  58 s u p p o r t e d " by t h e S o v i e t Union reserves instigate occur  Union.  the right,  In fact  the Soviet  under c e r t a i n circumstances,  national u p r i s i n g s . ^  when t h e b o u r g e o i s i e  will  Permissible not give  to  circumstances  up i t s power  voluntarily: c i t i z e n ' s war i s t o be much p r e f e r r e d t o t h e e n d l e s s m o c k e r i e s and t e r r o r s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t system o f s l a v e r y c o n t a i n s , extendi n g i t s power w i t h t h e h e l p o f b l o o d y r e p r e s s i o n , p u n i t i v e e x p e d i t i o n s and m i l i t a r y v i o l e n c e . I n s u c h e v e n t s , t h e w o r k e r s have a p e r f e c t l y l a w f u l r i g h t t o s e l e c t armed r e b e l l i o n . 0 0  On t h e s u r f a c e  ' j u s t ' w a r s and S o v i e t  seem t o c o n t r a d i c t t h e f i v e existence.  In f a c t ,  p r i n c i p l e s o f p e a c e f u l co-  according  t o t h e communists,  w a r s and s u c h a i d a c t u a l l y s t r e n g t h e n s ence,  0 1  peaceful  such  coexist-  f o r on t h e one hand i t weakens c a p i t a l i s m b y i n -  tensifying  i t s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , and, on t h e o t h e r , i t  strengthens  s o c i a l i s m by s t r e n g t h e n i n g  nationalism  (which w i l l  section  a i d would  of this  proletarian inter-  be examined i n d e t a i l  chapter).  i n another  185 To ditions to  complete the  S o v i e t concept  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  c o n s i d e r other, a s p e c t s  will ing  under  must now  of c o e x i s t e n c e  turn  theory  more f u l l y be  wars.  As  i n separate  touched  on  these  aspects  will  s e c t i o n s of t h i s  only b r i e f l y  be  briefly which  capitalist  s y s t e m i s no  longer  as a s e r i e s  of sovereign  forbids  s t a t e from  one  of another.  capitalist  considered Peaceful  interfering  i n the  country,  they  the  as a whole,  internal  affairs  i f a n a t i o n a l u p r i s i n g occurs t h a t estate c a n n o t country.  call  socialist  u p r i s i n g s , e v e n t h o u g h i t emanates f r o m  in  the  s t a t e , i s termed  is strictly  dition  of peaceful coexistence.  rebels  i s not  and  i s not  another  peaceful  according  follows, therefore, that  ence armed u p r i s i n g c a n  strength.  -  affairs  of  to p r o l e t a r i a n i n coexistence.  i n peaceful coexist-  occur, w h i c h c a n be  massive S o v i e t a s s i s t a n c e of every s u m a b l y , armed  of  coexistence,  internal  t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h complements p e a c e f u l  It  "export  with-  f o r b i d d e n u n d e r con  termed i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the i s given  opposition  However, S o v i e t a i d t o  i n contradiction with  s t a t e , but  in  help  to  o f the.same  Furthermore,  on  capitalist  c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n , " and  but  coexistence  from another  borders  with  here.  states.  Therefore,  turn-  dealt  chapter,  Under c o n d i t i o n s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  one  con-  a l l o w n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n wars t o occur without i n t o world  will  we  o f war  supported  by  kind, i n c l u d i n g , pre-  I f t h e West were i n f a c t  to  agree  186 to peaceful coexistence capitalism to  It  of the  added t h a t  be  of t r a n s i t i o n  very  i n peaceful  It i s i n fact  an  As  w r i t e r maintains,  no  objective factor "one  coexistence means a  o f the  of the m i l i t a r y ,  Soviet  of weakening  state."  ruling  arms r a c e  c a p i t a l i s m r a t h e r than  turning various  strata  bourgeoisie.  As  neces-  of the d e c i s i v e o b j e c t i v e  e c o n o m i c , and The  the  determining i t .  f a c t o r s a c t i n g i n f a v o r of peaceful coexistence strength  from  indeed I  short  S o v i e t U n i o n i s by  sity. one  period  s o c i a l i s m would  m i g h t be  disarmament  the  i s the  political has  the  advantage  strengthening  of Western s o c i e t y a g a i n s t a Soviet  editorial  might  i t by the  puts i t ,  The p o l i c y o f m o n o p o l y , d i r e c t e d a t t h e s t r e n g t h e n i n g o f m i l i t a r i s m and t h e s c o r n i n g o f d e m o c r a t i c l i b e r t i e s (and t h e s e processes take place together) c o n t r a d i c t the i n t e r e s t s n o t o n l y o f t h e w o r k e r s and p e a s a n t s , b u t a l s o the i n t e l l i g e n t s i a , the p e t t y b o u r g e o i s i e of t h e c i t y , and i n a few a s p e c t s a l s o t h e m i d d l e bourgeoisie. This  i s the  proletariat  process, into  of course,  that f i n a l l y  taking p o l i t i c a l  power i n t o  'incites its  the  own  hands. It mitted  i s i n fact  Soviet m i l i t a r y  Khrushchov t o r e j e c t  Khrushchov  the  power w h i c h  inevitability  per-  o f war.  said,  p r o c e e d i n g from the M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n , we b e l i e v e t h a t t o d a y  As  187 war i s n o t i n e v i t a b l e . And not b e c a u s e t h e West has become w i s e r o r k i n d e r , b u t b e c a u s e t h e y have become weaker and t h e p e a c e camp of s o c i a l i s m s t r o n g e r than ever."4  I t m i g h t be  a d d e d , however, t h a t t h e  inevitability  o f war  K h r u s h c h o v , who  was  expressed himself  i s not  r e j e c t i o n of  so d e c i s i v e a s  instrumental  the  i t would  i n r e j e c t i n g war,  perfectly willing  seem. has  to r e i n s t a t e i t :  In order t o e s t a b l i s h s t a b i l i t y i n the world and a v e r t a new war, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o g n i z e t h e s t a t u s quo, t h a t i s , t h e s i t u a t i o n w h i c h has now t a k e n s h a p e , and not t o t r y t o change t h e s i t u a t i o n by f o r c e , o t h e r w i s e t h e i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f war w i l l have t o be r e c o g n i z e d . ° 5 The is  s t a t u s quo the  t h a t K h r u s h c h o v has  dynamic, r e v o l u t i o n a r y  i n mind, of  period  of t r a n s i t i o n ,  c o n t i n u o u s w e a k e n i n g o f c a p i t a l i s m and of  socialism.  will  I f the  the  the  strengthening  submit t o t h i s ,  war  follow. Rejection  Union w i l l  not  countries  n e v e r use  any  o f war  defend  K h r u s h c h o v has the  West w i l l n o t  course,  does not  itself,  promised t h a t , friendly  to  however. " i f the  i t are  not  weapons e i t h e r a g a i n s t  against  any  war  peace, i n S o v i e t  and  mean t h a t t h e  other  f o r the  capitalist  s i v e by  nature,  country."  and  The  In t h i s Soviet  the  regard  Union  attacked, United  we  s y s t e m i s by M a r x i s t  very  and shall  States  tenuous thread  terms, i s indeed  therefore  Soviet  or  between  slender,  definition  aggres-  cannot, even i f i t w i l l s ,  188 submit t o p e a c e f u l inevitability Why, militant is  o f war  coexistence?  not  subscribe  in  an  still Soviet  any  justified  to  be  In f a c t ,  s a i d t o be  Union not  over the  i n doing  so  fact that  Soviet  peaceful  coexistence  believe masses.  that i t peace-  t h e West  can-  as l o n g  as  the  power o f communist  K h r u s h c h o v has  analogy f a m i l i a r to the  fact  must c o n c l u d e t h a t  i n the  effect.  i n terms of  from the  one  in  the  p u r s u e a more  Apart  vitality left,  communists t r u l y t o win  demands.  p o l i c y than i t does, i n view of the  theoretically  has  must  then does the  ful  it  coexistence  made t h i s  ideas point  Russians.  But i t i s common knowledge, c o m r a d e s , -that t h e r e i s no p o i n t i n b u r n i n g down t h e house i n o r d e r t o c l e a r i t o f bedbugs - t o combat t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s we do n o t n e e d t o wage war a g a i n s t the working people t h a t i n h a b i t the c a p i t a l i s t countries.67 Khrushchov o f t e n r e f e r s t o b i o l o g i c a l t o e x p l a i n h i s hopes f o r the ally he  new  concepts i n  Soviet  i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s p o s i t i o n on war.  has  said  society, For  order especi-  instance,  that,  The S o v i e t c o u n t r i e s a r e g r o w i n g , r a p i d l y developing countries. T h e y a r e y o u n g , sound, and s t r o n g , and t h e f u t u r e i n e v i t a b l y b e l o n g s t o t h e young and g r o w i n g . We need p e a c e t o b u i l d t h e new s o c i e t y . O u r • c o u n t r i e s have a l l the p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r it.68  Not an army, but p e a c e i s r e q u i r e d t o a d v a n c e communist i d e a s , d i s s e m i n a t e them and e s t a b l i s h them i n t h e m i n d s o f men.69  189 It  i s i n statements such as these  breaks through. wish to b u i l d risk  The  a new  t h e i r Soviet  capitalism. from the those  But  see  processes  s o c i e t y and  experiment the  put  explained  a reality  before  t o use  ence,  risk  increasing  prepared with a  theory  abandoned of the  by  historic In  this  in a cross-fire  at variance with That  by  i t .  i s why  of  Communists  they  to  will  a are  not  t h e more e x t r e m e f e a t u r e s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t -  such as t h a t  not  sincere  that theory.  i s caught  theorists.  be  vanguard by  of  war.  I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t would will  are not  ideology  i n an a t o m i c gamble  t h e m s e l v e s as the  view p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  realists  they  communists a r e f e t t e r e d  supposedly  and  real  communists have a t r u l y  past which cannot reasonably  who  theory  that the  a war  as  long  seem t h a t  as the  i t s economic, p o l i t i c a l  I n t h e meantime, however, t h e y t h e o r e t i c a l hand t o do  so  the  socialist and  communists camp i s  cultural  power.  leave themselves a free  should  a favorable  occasion  arise.  V  The  whole o b j e c t  Soviet  point  within  individual  question  of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e ,  of view, i s to states.  intensify  the  class  from  struggle  I t f o l l o w s t h a t " i t i s not  of whether there w i l l  or w i l l  not  be  a  the  class;  a  190  struggle  i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a , b u t t h e means b y 70  which that  struggle w i l l  be waged."'  Fortunately f o r  mankind " t h e s e l e c t i o n o f t h e means o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l l y inevitable  struggle  states."7"'" as  The S o v i e t s  "a s p e c i f i c  ism  form  have c h o s e n p e a c e f u l  o f the c l a s s s t r u g g l e  coexistence  the aggressive  creasing "struggle mutually  does n o t s i g n i f y circles  struggle with  between  social-  a  b u t an i n -  On t h e o t h e r  i n t e r m i n g l i n g i n the process ^ seeming i n c o n s i s t e n c y ,  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e when one r e c a l l s  hand,  of peaceful  of course,  that  among t h e m s e l v e s and h e n c e s h a r p e n i n g respective  countries.  CO-  i s quite  c o l l a b o r a t i o n between  a n d West l e a d s t o t h e c a p i t a l i s t s  in their  "reconciliation  of imperialism, 73  them."  As s u c h  and c o l l a b o r a t i o n a r e o r g a n i c a l l y i n t e r w o v e n ,  existence." This  East  coexistence  and c a p i t a l i s m i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a . " ^  peaceful with  c a n be c o n t r o l l e d by man and h i s  fighting  among  the contradictions  In t h i s  way,  P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , by d e p r i v i n g t h e b o u r g e o i s i e of t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f r e p r e s e n t i n g i t s narrow c l a s s i n t e r e s t s as general n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s , h e l p s t o unmask t h e c l a s s c o n f l i c t s i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y and t o d e l i m i t s o c i a l f o r c e s . At the same t i m e , b y i n v o l v i n g numerous n o n - p r o l e t a r i a n s t r a t a i n t h e s t r u g g l e f o r peace, i t broadens t h e s o c i a l b a s i s o f t h e g e n u i n e d e m o c r a t i c movement and e n c o u r a g e s new s t r a t a o f s o c i e t y t o go over t o t h e s i d e o f the p r o l e t a r i a t . Finally, i t h i n d e r s the m o n o p o l i s t i c b o u r g e o i s i e from • r e c e i v i n g a s s i s t a n c e from e x t e r n a l r e a c t i o n i n t h e f i g h t a g a i n s t t h e w o r k e r s o f t h e i r own countries.75  191 Not attract  only  many l e v e l s  capitalist  military  armed m i g h t nature to  preparation  of t h e b o u r g e o i s i e .  stand  that  coexistence  intended t o  o f s o c i e t y , b u t t h e mere f a c t o f  i s to convince  "understand  ence  i s peaceful  i n the face  the people  of the " a g g r e s s i v e "  Thus t h e p e o p l e  the i n t e r e s t s  o f communist  will  come  of peaceful coexist-  immeasurably h i g h e r than  the class  interests  of the r e a c t i o n a r y b o u r g e o i s i e , that not the r e v o l u t i o n ary process the  but attempts to stop  cause of peace."  defined  i t create the threat t o  Obviously,  "aggressive"  i s here  a s t h e a t t e m p t t o oppose t h e i n e v i t a b l e  flow of  history.  I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e communist  finition,  t h e m s e l v e s be a g g r e s s i v e ,  c a n n o t , by d e -  e v e n when m a k i n g u n -  c o m p r o m i s i n g demands o r w a g i n g war, f o r t h e y trying  t o a i d the course  Though t h e c l a s s arena  c a n be a b a t e d  conditions within with  capitalist  of h i s t o r y .  struggle i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  by m u t u a l l y  of peaceful  favorable  concessions i n  coexistence, the class  countries i s a process  the overthrowal  are merely  struggle  t h a t c a n end o n l y  of capitalism i t s e l f .  But p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e a p p e a r a n c e on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l a r e n a o f peacelovers according to the class nature of the s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s , the r e s u l t of the r e a l r e l a t i o n s h i p o f s t r e n g t h between s o c i a l i s m and c a p i t a l i s m , a g a i n i n t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena, and a t t h e same t i m e a s a c l a s s s t r u g g l e i n c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , the r e s u l t of i n t e r n a l causes c o n s i s t i n g i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e p r o d u c t i v e f o r c e s and p r o d u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f  192  e x p l o i t a t i o n , i n the suppression of other peoples, and so f o r t h . P u t t i n g i t a n o t h e r way, r e v o l u t i o n and c l a s s b a t t l e s grow out o f c a p i t a l i s m i t s e l f and a r e r e a l i z e d by t h e c l a s s e s and peoples of the c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s . T h e r e f o r e , the p r i n c i p l e s of peaceful coexistence are i n a p p l i c a b l e t o r e l a t i o n s between c l a s s e s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l s t a t e s . The c l a s s s t r u g g l e o f t h e peoples a g a i n s t the oppressors, a g a i n s t r e a c t i o n a r y r e g i m e s , c a n n o t be r e p l a c e d by i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreements. Im o r d e r t o s t o p t h i s s t r u g g l e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o remove i t s p r o v o c a t i v e n a t u r e , and t h i s means i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o d e s t r o y c a p i t a l i s m , colonialism.7S  As  the  capitalist it  intensification  c o u n t r i e s i s the  i s unfortunate  so w e a k l y by  ground  i s covered  factory found  to  the  i n too  i n connection But  continuous  concentrated  has  with  not  of the  a  series  Too  this  i n f e w e r and  8  that a  of the  be of  i s referred class through  proletariat  a s more and  satis-  - i n terms  struggle developing  however, t h e  and  the  more c a p i t a l According  ranks of the  was  to  proletari-  "aggressive"- p r o p e n s i t i e s of  T h i s r e q u i r e s t h a t the  create a s i t u a t i o n  much  of g e n e r a l i z e d  of the  fewer hands.  of the  is  s t r u g g l e cannot  the development  of a country  bourgeoisie.'''  class  coexistence,  theory  yet been found  impoverishment  s w e l l as a r e s u l t  selves  of peaceful  Marx's o r i g i n a l t h e o r y  Marx saw  peaceful coexistence,  the  broad  f o r the  coexistence.  proletarization  at  struggle within  T h i s v a g u e n e s s seems t o s u g g e s t  - or at l e a s t  struggle.  class  Soviet t h e o r e t i c i a n s .  justification  peaceful  core  that t h i s aspect  argued  statements.  of the  S o v i e t s them-  that fans war-fever  among  the  193 bourgeoisie, f o r c e s the  Two  bourgeoisie  to prepare  o b j e c t i o n s face  ence a t t h i s inevitably fanning  o r , more a c c u r a t e l y i n n o n - M a r x i a n  points.  theory  ture  on t h e  part  side  i n t e r f e r e n c e by  i s a redundant  of the  Soviet  the  i n which  and  of the  class struggle as  hence of the whole o f t h e M a r x i a n c r e e d .  tardy  very the  and  vital  of peaceful  however, p e a c e f u l the  theory  of the  coexistence  coexistence  c l a s s struggle" serves  communist  the  i n p r o v i d i n g a more e l a b o r a t e  basic role  e x p l a i n why  of the  to the  and  so  out-  c o u n t r i e s , i n which  i n turn r a i s e s questions  difficulties  adven-  Union c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s  o f the whole M a r x i a n c o n c e p t i o n  very  case  dangerous  ity  these  coexist-  Union, or, without  Soviet  case the whole M a r x i a n t h e o r y This  of p e a c e f u l  country,  develop within c a p i t a l i s t  invalid.  defenses.  E i t h e r c l a s s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s develop  i n each c a p i t a l i s t  war-hysteria  would not  the  i t s own  terms,  "as  valid-  of h i s t o r y ,  Perhaps  S o v i e t s have b e e n development  of  class struggle  in i t . a  flow  is  I n the  specific  and  meantime,  form  of  as a guide t o a c t i o n f o r  the  hierarchy.  VI  If policy  peaceful  line  of the  coexistence Soviet  were t h e  only f o r e i g n  Union, then the  Soviet  the  bloc  194 would f i n d national  itself  u n d e r t h e same i m p e d e n e e s t o i n t e r -  a c t i o n s as a r e accorded  under p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . developed complete ful  another p o l i c y freedom  coexistence.  as p r o l e t a r i a n ing  that  that  g i v e s them  almost  o u t s i d e the c o n f i n e s of peace-  T h i s second,  parallel  internationalism.  proletarian  of t h i s  The S o v i e t s , however, have  line  of action  t o the c a p i t a l i s t s  concept  i s known  Though s t r i c t l y  internationalism  speak-  i s outside the l i m i t s  e s s a y , i t must be b r i e f l y  outlined  " p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e " c a n be seen  here  i n order  i n i t s right  perspective.  Proletarian  internationalism  first  found  expression 79  i n M a r x ' s s l o g a n , "Workers o f t h e w o r l d , has  ever since  been a p a r t  of the Marxian  the October R e v o l u t i o n t h e term ing  of defense  of the Soviet  took  Union.  unite!"  and  heritage.  on a p e c u l i a r As S t a l i n  After mean-  put i t ,  An i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t , i s one who, u n r e s e r v e d l y , without h e s i t a t i o n , without c o n d i t i o n s , i s p r e p a r e d t o d e f e n d t h e USSR, b e c a u s e t h e USSR ^ i s t h e b a s e o f t h e w o r l d r e v o l u t i o n a r y movement.  In essence, the concept  that  t o any c a p i t a l i s t ploit  proletarian  internationalism  the workers of the world  have no  s t a t e , which i s an i n s t r u m e n t  and subjugate the worker.  w o r k e r s have common v i t a l enemy i n t h e f o r m  t u r n s on  t o ex-  On t h e c o n t r a r y , a l l  i n t e r e s t s and a common  of the world  loyalties  bourgeoisie.  class  Therefore,  195 the  proletariat  accomplish  o f a l l n a t i o n s must u n i t e i n o r d e r t o  i t s g o a l ; namely, " t h e l i q u i d a t i o n o f  c a p i t a l i s m a n d t h e b u i l d i n g o f communism." borders  mean n o t h i n g  of workers.  to the international  of t h i s world  Soviet  government i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d  f r o n t i e r s , while  "all  brotherhood  As t h e S o v i e t U n i o n s e t s i t s e l f  leader  ligated  National  brotherhood,  i t follows that the  a t t h e same t i m e ,  by a n y  "bourgeois"  i tfeels  i t s e l f ob-  t o a i d the workers i n c a p i t a l i s t  the external policy  up a s t h e  of the Soviet  countries.  As  s t a t e i s imbued go  with  the ideas  of p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m " " i t f o l -  lows t h a t p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e truction The the  i s o r i e n t e d t o the des-  of capitalism also. Soviet Union f u l l y  justifies  struggle of the p r o l e t a r i a t  i t s leadership i n  on t h e g r o u n d t h a t t h e ,  S o v i e t Union i s t h e f i r s t s o c i a l i s t s t a t e . Hence, our e x p e r i e n c e , our achievements i n s o c i a l i s t construction, are not only the property of the Soviet people. We r e g a r d o u r s e l v e s a s p a r t o f a g r e a t i n t e r n a t i o n a l w o r k i n g c l a s s movement, of the world p r o l e t a r i a t . 3 It  i s important  internationalism Soviet  they  i s a theory  that proletarian  o f f o r e i g n p o l i c y which t h e  communists do n o t c o n s i d e r a s s u b j e c t  straints lel  t o understand  of peaceful  concept  coexistence.  t o t h e con-  It i s i n fact  to peaceful coexistence.  A t t h e same t i m e  a r e c o m p l e m e n t a r y , b e c a u s e "by i t s p o l i c y  coexistence  a paral-  of peaceful  t h e CPSU i s among o t h e r t h i n g s p e r f o r m i n g  its  196 84 international In f a c t  duty t o the p r o l e t a r i a t o f a l l  o f t h e two, p r o l e t a r i a n  theory t o which the Soviets  countries."  internationalism  give  first  loyalty,  i s the because,  p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , always t h e c o r n e r s t o n e o f S o v i e t f o r e i g n p o l i c y , f a r from contradicting the p r i n c i p l e s of peaceful c o e x i s t e n c e , a c t u a l l y d e t e r m i n e s i t . The p o l i c y of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e f u l l y conesponds t o ^ the p r i n c i p l e o f p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m . 5  The  r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s e x p l a i n e d by a n o t h e r S o v i e t  theore-  tician. P r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i s a p o l i c y and ideology of international s o l i d a r i t y of the working c l a s s e s . I t does not a t a l l c o n t r a d i c t the p r i n c i p l e o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . Proletarian i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m was c a l l e d i n t o b e i n g by t h e s i t u a t i o n s and i n t e r e s t s o f t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s o f a l l c a p i t a l i s t countries. The w o r k i n g c l a s s e s o f a l l nations are i n t e r e s t e d i n the d e s t r u c t i o n of e x p l o i t a t i o n o f man by man i n t h e v i c t o r y o f socialism. I t i s v i t a l l y interested i n a lasting peace. T h e r e f o r e , mutual support o f the workers of a l l n a t i o n s i s one o f t h e f a c t o r s o f p e a c e and peaceful coexistence.86  It w i l l  be r e c a l l e d t h a t  S t a l i n and L i t v i n o v  both affirmed  peoples of the s o c i a l i s t peaceful coexistence. theory  during that  t h e 1920's a n d 1 9 3 0 s l  relations  camp p r o c e e d s a c c o r d i n g t o  I t was c l e a r , o f c o u r s e , a s t h e  of peaceful coexistence developed  class  struggle  unity  of the s o c i a l i s t  In  that  between  into a theory of  i t was u n a c c e p t a b l e a s a b a s e o f camp.  1959 K h r u s h c h o v t o o k p a i n s t o c l a r i f y a n y  197  misconception this  problem.  coexistence  t h a t might  still  have p e r s i s t e d  In r e p l y t o the question,  concerning  "does  apply within the Soviet bloc?"  peaceful  Khrushchov  said,  When we speak o f c o e x i s t e n c e we h a v e i n m i n d c o e x i s t e n c e o f s o c i a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t s t a t e s . These f o r c e s s t a n d o p p o s i t e each o t h e r , t h e r e a r e a n t a g o n i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between them. Within the S o v i e t b l o c p e r t a i n s not p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , b u t t h e p r i n c i p l e o f f r i e n d s h i p and m u t u a l assistance, the principle of proletarian intern a t i o n a l i s m , and t h i s i s much d e e p e r and f u l l e r than t h e p r i n c i p l e o f p e a c e f u l coexistence.°7  T h r o u g h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g letarian  o f t h e n a t u r e ,of  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m one c a n u n d e r s t a n d  why  S o v i e t s a r e ready t o agree t o such r e s t r i c t i v e as  "non-interference  country"  - a fundamental p r i n c i p l e  t h a t would support  i n the internal a f f a i r s  forbid  he  measures  of another  of peaceful  coexistence  t h e S o v i e t U n i o n f r o m g i v i n g even m o r a l  t o the workers o f other  e x p l a i n e d how s u c h s u p p o r t without  pro-  sacrificing  states.  Khrushchov has  can t h e o r e t i c a l l y  be g i v e n  principle.  Peaceful coexistence f o r b i d s i n t e r f e r e n c e i n other s t a t e ' s a f f a i r s , but a c t i v e support o f c a p i t a l i s t workers proceeds according to p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h i s n o t t h e same a s p e a c e f u l coexistence.°8  Another S o v i e t w r i t e r j u s t i f i e s a i d t o other peoples drawing a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n when he s a y s  between t h e two  that "the question  by  concepts  as t o the a b i l i t y  t o com-  198 bine  peaceful coexistence with simple:  proletarian international-  ism  i s decidedly  the  s i g n of e q u a l i t y between p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m  and  i n t e r f e r e n c e from w i t h o u t . "  internationalism the  distinction  interference a really an h a s fully  i t i s not  possible to  place  In e f f e c t p r o l e t a r i a n  i s i n t e r f e r e n c e from w i t h i n i  In  fact  between p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and  i s at best  rational  a nominal  explanation.  d i s p l a y e d the poverty inadequate  one  and  A recent  so has Soviet  escaped theoretici-  o f h i s t h i n k i n g w i t h ' a woe-  justification:  The p o l i c y o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i n w h i c h t h e s o c i a l i s t s t a t e s have t a k e n t h e l e a d i n r e l a t i o n s t o w a r d r e v o l u t i o n a r y and n a t i o n a l - l i b e r a t i o n movements a r e j u s t i n i t s a i m s and c o r r e c t i n i t s methods. Those who d e f e n d r i g h t a c t s do not need t o v i o l a t e the p r i n c i p l e s of p e a c e f u l coexistence.90  I n any dual ism  event  as  l o n g as t h e  the  f o r e i g n p o l i c y t h e o r i e s of p r o l e t a r i a n i n t e r n a t i o n a l and  peaceful coexistence  distinct  advantage  over  the  i n w h i c h t h e West i s bound striction Soviet fines ever  Soviets recognize  of p e a c e f u l  the  communists w i l l  capitalists s o l e l y by  coexistence.  i n any  the On  foolish  strangling re-  the  one  hand  f o r b i d d e n mutual a i d i n the  inspired  revolt.  As M a r x i a n t h e o r y  the  the  con-  t h e West, i f i t i s  enough t o a g r e e t o p e a c e f u l  w o u l d be  a  agreement  U n i o n i s g i v e n a f r e e hand t o - a c t o u t s i d e of p e a c e f u l coexistence, w h i l e  have  face  coexistence, of  communist  d e f i n e s c a p i t a l i s m as  199 ..world-wide  system s i m i l a r t o the worker's b r o t h e r h o o d ,  it  i s grossly  of  action denied another.  communist's  unfair to provide  code  But  one  so u n c o m p r o m i s i n g  of values that  liberty i s the  s u c h an u n e q u a l s e t o f  advantages does not i n the l e a s t the  system w i t h a  appear unreasonable t o  Soviets.  VII  In  the l a s t  theoretically  s e c t i o n we  justified  national liberation sideration internal  its that  itself  that  the Soviet  i n giving  uprisings.  We  now  Soviet  t u r n t o a con-  Union has always f e l t  obligated to give  r e v o l u t i o n s abroad, as l o n g  s u p p o r t does not t h r e a t e n t h e S o v i e t  P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e was c a n be  incited  impervious t o r e t a l i a t i o n ans have  external a i d to  o f t h e w o r k e r ' s movement.  s u p p o r t t o communist  revolution  Union  o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e as i t a f f e c t s t h e  developments  The  saw  devised  Union  as  itself.  a s a method w h e r e b y  abroad while R u s s i a i n k i n d . Communist  remains theoretici-  only r e c e n t l y admitted t h i s : •  The p r o b l e m o f t h e r e l a t i o n s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e i s one o f t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m s o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n s o c i a l i s m and capitalism. M a r x i s m - L e n i n i s m s h o w e d . l o n g ago t h a t r e v o l u t i o n d o e s n o t s t a n d i n t h e way o f  200 p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e and t h a t p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e f a c i l i t a t e s the development of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e and o f t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s e s . 9 1  In f a c t , , i t has time) that  only  "peaceful  r e c e n t l y been a f f i r m e d  ( f o r the  coexistence  revolutionary  i s a great  first  idea!"92  Revolution temms o f t h e from the ed  is justified  dialectical  changing  by M a r x , we  pattern  give  i n Marxist  doctrine  in  c l a s h of c l a s s i n t e r e s t s a r i s i n g of p r o d u c t i o n .  Though  here a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s  t i o n a r y p r o c e s s by  a modern S o v i e t  show t h a t M a r x i s t s  still  regard  writer  i t as  develop-  revolu-  i n order  to  valid:  I n a c t u a l i t y , as i s w e l l known by t h e enemies o f communism, t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f M a r x i s m L e n i n i s m p r o c e e d s from t h i s , t h a t t h e economic f o u n d a t i o n s of every r e v o l u t i o n i s the i r r e c o n c i l a b l e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s between t h e powers o f p r o d u c t i o n and t h e c h a n g i n g r e l a t i o n s o f p r o d u c t i o n From t h e s e c o n t r a d i c t i o n s f a c t o r s a r i s e and dev e l o p l e a d i n g t o a r e v o l u t i o n a r y s i t u a t i o n and the sharp i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n of the c l a s s s t r u g g l e , t o t h e o v e r t h r o w o f t h e power o f t h e r u l i n g reactionary As  r e v o l u t i o n i s an  halted into  peaceful  i n e v i t a b l e process that  coexistence  must  take  cannot  be  its possibilities  consideration.  R e v o l u t i o n i s an o b j e c t i v e law o f a l l t r a n s s i t i o n a l epochs i n c l u d i n g the t r a n s i t i o n from capitalism to socialism. To make demands f o r the c e s s a t i o n o f r e v o l u t i o n s as a p r e l i m i n a r y c o n d i t i o n o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e means d e l i b e r a t e l y t o r e p u d i a t e i t . T h e r e i s g n o power t o stop the r e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s .  201 It  should  recognizes, three  be m e n t i o n e d h e r e t h a t  just  basic types  socialist  as i t r e c o g n i z e s  Soviet  three  types  theoryo f war,  of r e v o l u t i o n a r y f o r c e s ; the world  system, the i n t e r n a t i o n a l  l a b o r movement,  and  95 t h e n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n movement. are merging  into  one g r e a t movement  of t h e S o v i e t Union. struggles of t h i s  These t h r e e  streams  under the l e a d e r s h i p  Moreover, t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y  g r e a t movement  take  place " i n conditions  96 of peaceful coexistence,"  which i n t u r n i n t e n s i f i e s the  struggle: P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e does not d e m o b i l i z e o r weaken t h e m a s s e s o f t h e p e o p l e , b u t on t h e c o n t r a r y m o b i l i z e s them and o f f e r s them r e a l prospects f o r t h e s t r u g g l e f o r independence, s o c i a l p r o g r e s s and a b e t t e r l i f e . O n l y i f t h e r e i s peaceful coexistence i s there a firm p o l i t i c a l b a s i s f o r t h e s t r u g g l e waged by t h e u n d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r i e s f o r economic i n d e p e n d e n c e . 9 7 Just  how p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  ment  i s determined by other  the  a i d s t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y move-  sections of t h i s  one hand, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  from i n t e r f e r i n g  i n a r e v o l u t i o n a r y u p r i s i n g under the  Soviet Union i s i n a p o s i t i o n  - r e b e l s because "true internationalism  On:-  f o r b i d s the c a p i t a l i s t s  condemnation o f c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n . the  chapter.  1  On t h e o t h e r  to provide  t o the p r i n c i p l e s  hand,  a i d to the  of p r o l e t a r i a n  t h e S o v i e t U n i o n h a s shown a n d i s showing  98 m o r a l and p o l i t i c a l  support  Moreover, i f the c a p i t a l i s t s principles  o f r e v o l u t i o n a r y movements." do i n f a c t  of peaceful coexistence  circumvent  and i n t e r f e r e  the  i n a n up-  202 rising, giving  the  Soviet  Union i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y j u s t i f i e d  a "decisive rebuff  perialists  in affairs  to the  interference  of  of people of a f r i e n d l y  in  im-  state  99 rising  in revolution." But  even though  justified  in inciting  direct  a c t i o n , the  Soviet  i n the  belief that  through p e a c e f u l  ers  of the  world w i l l  own  revolution.  communist  Union r e f r a i n s from doing  decide  competition  r h e t o r i c a l l y made  by  so  the  o f t h e m s e l v e s t o make  K h r u s h c h o v has  p o i n t , which at the  revolution  worktheir  this  same t i m e r e i t e r a t e s h i s b e l i e f  in  ideas.  We do not have t o t e a c h t h e B r i t i s h , f o r example, t o e f f e c t a r e v o l u t i o n and e s t a b l i s h t h e s o c i a l i s t system i n t h e i r c o u n t r y . They w i l l do i t thems e l v e s when t h e y come t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s y s t e m w h i c h we have h e r e i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and other s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , presents g r e a t e r advantages t o the peoples than the c a p i t a l i s t system, t h a t the s o c i a l i s t system o f f e r s u n l i m i t e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s and p e o p l e a r e b e t t e r a b l e t o show t h e i r w o r t h . While the  communists r e s e r v e  f o r themselves  freedom of a c t i o n i n a r e v o l u t i o n a r y  full  s i t u a t i o n , i t extends  to the  c a p i t a l i s t s what i s i n e f f e c t c o m p l e t e i m m o b i l i t y  in  same s i t u a t i o n .  law  the  o f h i s t o r y and  While r e v o l u t i o n i s an  therefore  i n Marxian terminology, the is  utterly  objective  approved, o p p o s i t i o n export  of  -  to  i t -  counter-revolution  -  condemned.  As m i g h t be  expected  i n view of the  three  streams  of  203 revolution, the  export  victorious (2) a g a i n s t and  there of  are  fundamental d i r e c t i o n s f o r  counter-revolution:  socialist the  dependent  three  r e v o l u t i o n and  socialist  the states;  n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n movements i n  countries;  and  (3), against  w o r k e r s movements i n c a p i t a l i s t to  (1) a g a i n s t  colonial  communist  countries. ^ 1  and  Needless  1  say,  The e x p o r t o f c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n i s a most s e r i o u s i n t e r n a t i o n a l c r i m e , an a c t o f a g g r e s s i o n and communists m o b i l i z i n g a l l p r o g r e s s i v e f o r c e s i n order to prevent or f r u s t r a t e the export of c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n , defend the p r i n c i p l e s of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , c o n s o l i d a t e u n i v e r s a l peace and i n d o i n g t h i s r e n d e r a p r i c e l e s s s e r v i c e t o the whole of humanity.102  In f a c t ,  i t i s the  revolution ous  itself  hotbed of  opposes the Export  export that  of c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n  i s "the  main s o u r c e  and  of the  not  danger-  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f l i c t , " 1 0 3 because i t  regular  progressive  of c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n  e s t p o s s i b l e t e r m s by  the  development  of  socialism.  i s i n t e r p r e t e d i n the  communists.  As  one  broad-  writer  puts  it:  The numerous p l a n s t o ' c o n t a i n ' and 'roll b a c k ' communism, t h e t h e o r y o f l i b e r a t i o n and many o t h e r d o c t r i n e s put f o r w a r d s i n c e t h e war by t h e U.S. i m p e r i a l i s t s a t t h e most a c u t e s t a g e s o f t h e c o l d war, a l l b o i l e d down t o t h e e x p o r t o f c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n . . , The e s s e n c e o f t h e s e d o c t r i n e s was u s u a l l y - v e r y s i m p l e : t o p r e v e n t r e v o l u t i o n where i t has n o t y e t t a k e n p l a c e ; t o s t r a n g l e i t where i t has.105 ;  204 A few examples  'mutiny  1  of counter-revolution are the H u n g a r i a n  of 1956, the M a r s h a l l P l a n , NATO, the UN i n the  Congo and K o r e a , the  s i t u a t i o n i n L a o s before the  inter-  national settlement of 1962, "national communism and other r e v i s i o n i s t Concepts,"106 n d attempts by the a  c a p i t a l i s t s to interfere i n other c o u n t r i e s . ^  7  Against  these attempts of the c a p i t a l i s t s has been "directed the p o l i c y of peaceful coexistence."  E x p o r t of counter-  revolution i s somewhat of a misnomer, f o r the communists attribute to i t the struggle against revolutionary movements within a single country even when no outside i n t e r ference i s i n v o l v e d . ^ 9 A l s o , the c a l l for assistance by the  capitalists  when they are unable to control a revolutionary s i t u a t i o n i s termed c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n . ^ 11  Counter-revolution  is  indulged i n by the c a p i t a l i s t s through fear of peaceful coexistence and competition with the s o c i a l i s t  system.  1 1 1  As such i t i s excluded from peaceful coexistence. . I n short, the bourgeoisie i s committing a breach of peaceful coexistence i f i t objects to communist attempts to overthrow the c a p i t a l i s t system,, while the communists are aiding peaceful coexistence by i n c i t i n g and abetting a revolutionary s i t u a t i o n .  A g a i n we see the u t t e r l y un-  equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of the advantages of peaceful coexistence.  I n a completely u n r e a l i s t i c  way the S o v i e t  Union  205 has  called  f o r the acceptance of a p r i n c i p l e  of inter-  n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s t h a t u n d e r no c i r c u m s t a n c e s accepted  c o u l d be  by t h e West.  VIII  The study It  S o v i e t concept  by i t s e l f  and w i l l  n o t be d e a l t w i t h  in detail  here.  i s e n l i g h t e n i n g , h o w e v e r , t o l o o k a t some o f t h e . .  i n t e r n a t i o n a l goals are  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l law i s a  envisaged  t o be a c c o m p l i s h e d  Soviet category  theory  by t h e S o v i e t s , and how  through peaceful  these  coexistence.  views i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s as a  of the c l a s s  s t r u g g l e brought  about by t h e c l a s s  112 contradictions tradictions,  of states.  agreement  As i t i s a p r o d u c t  on commonly  recognized  o f con-  l a w s a n d norms  113 are p o s s i b l e d e s p i t e opposing It  follows, therefore, that  recognized  systems.  "the s t r u g g l e f o r g e n e r a l l y  p r i n c i p l e s and norms o f c o n t e m p o r a r y  n a t i o n a l law i s an i n e v i t a b l e peaceful coexistence, law  ideological  i s before  inter-  s t r u g g l e f o r peace, f o r  ... f o r c o n t e m p o r a r y  international  a l l i n c h i e f form t h e law o f p e a c e f u l  coexistence." The ' g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d  laws' t h a t the S o v i e t s  desire,  principles  of course,  are the f i v e  of coexistence,  206 which  i n e f f e c t are  integrity  and and  the  chapter  five  equality.  Soviet  concept  revolutionary  The  and  Soviet  principles  a n a l y s i s of the  capitalism.  proletarian  territorial non-inter-  sovereignty  in  communists d e f i n e to b r i n g  Attempts t o  o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  the  about  the  controvert  are  counter-  c o u r s e , does not  a b i d e by  the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena  any  criminal.  Union, of  of coexistence  more t h a n w i t h i n  the  An  showed t h a t  overthrow of  for  non-aggression,  p r i n c i p l e s i n a manner d e s i g n e d  quick the  four: respect  sovereignty,  ference, last  only  the  i n the  socialist  bloc.  It follows  instead  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m which " i n comparison  p r i n c i p l e of peaceful  common i n t e r n a t i o n a l law, goes s i g n i f i c a n t l y  coexistence,  as  with  a p r i n c i p l e of  proletarian internationalism  f u r t h e r ; i t i s the  p r i n c i p l e of a  new,  115 higher while  type of r e l a t i o n s h i p . " capitalism i s severely  immobility has ful  full  i n the  Once a g a i n  restricted  we  t o the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena, the  f r e e d o m o f movement o u t s i d e  the  see  that  point  of  communist  bounds o f  bloc  peace-  coexistence. The  United  Soviet  Nations  coexistence. tion  '  of  states  opposition  on The  Union i s u n e q u i v o c a l l y the  conception  joined  to the  grounds t h a t of the  i n a great  Soviet  opposed t o  i t violates UN  as  the  peaceful  a world  federa-  peace-making m i s s i o n  idea that  the  overthrowal  of  is in  207 capitalism  i s an  unhindered.  inevitable  process  Khrushchov blames t h e  w a n t i n g t o make o f t h e  UN  and  w o u l d be  used to  be  f o r a great as  l o n g as  realize  suppress  UN  and  the  sum  up  f e d e r a l union  to " l i q u i d a t e  for •  peoples  who  Likewise,  Therefore,  have  the  plans .117 Utopian""  i n order  i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  of peace, p e a c e f u l  f r e e n a t i o n a l development  the  ft  reactionary institutions"  "attainment  police  c o n t r o l of  of s t a t e s i s " u t t e r l y  capitalism survives.  f o r the  the  slavery."  peaceful coexistence  necessary the  colonial  imperialists  under the  11 r i s e n against  proceed  a "kind of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  f o r c e which would v i r t u a l l y U.S.  t h a t must  to  i t is such  as  coexistence,  of a l l peoples. " H ®  To  The p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e h e i g h t e n i n g o f t h e r e l e o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l law i n t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f s t a t e s must be s o u g h t , n o t i n t h e p l a n s f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a ' w o r l d s t a t e ' and t h e l i q u i d a t i o n o f s o v e r e i g n t y o f s t a t e s , but on a path of s t r e n g t h e n i n g , of d e v e l o p i n g , of p u t t i n g i n t o e f f e c t s u c h p r i n c i p l e s and norms w h i c h b e s t a c t toward the development of f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s , , and c o l l a b o r a t i o n o f s o v e r e i g n and e q u a l s t a t e s . ' q  The  p u r p o s e o f an  coexistence  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  i s to "provide  system of i m p e r i a l i s m , "  120  a crisis isolate  of the the  of  peaceful  colonial  capitalists  121  122 and  eliminate the  ion  "the  ing  of t e n s i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  o f war.  struggle f o r peaceful coexistence  e x p o s u r e and capital,  possibility  isolation  as the  chief  of the carriers  relations  In  such a f a s h -  and  the  leads to  big monopolistic  weakenthe  groups  o f r e a c t i o n a r y and  of  aggressive  208 tendencies."  Like national  123  a l l aspects of peaceful  law  i s designed to  c a p i t a l i s m by ing  breaking  capitalist  contradictions  up  coexistence,  heighten the  the  markets, which  inter-  c r i s e s of  c o l o n i a l s y s t e m and  remov-  in turn  the  o f c a p i t a l i s m and  intensifies  induces the  people  overthrow i t .  to  '  -  IX  One  of the  contest  i s the  vincing  the  ogy be  most  ogical  the  peaceful  ideological struggle.  It i s therefore  class struggle  intensified.  But,  s t r u g g l e must n o t  basic  great  lead  i n the  superiority  area and  Khrushchov to  con-  conception  between E a s t as  coexistence  I t i s by  of the  ideas that.forms the  coexistence. that  of the  workers of the world  o f communist hind  main f i e l d s  of  ideol-  West  says,  be-  will  the  ideol-  war.  And t a l k i n g o f t h e i d e o l o g i e s o f t h e c a p i t a l i s t and s o c i a l i s t c o u n t r i e s , we n e v e r a t t e m p t e d t o h i d e h e r e t h a t t h e r e w i l l be s t r u g g l e , an ideological struggle. But we have n e v e r i d e n t i f i e d i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e w i t h war. This i s a c l a s h of ideas. The s t r o n g e r i d e a , t h e more v i a b l e i d e a t h a t t h e p e o p l e w i l l b a c k , w i l l  win.124  However, a s t h e Union c l a i m to  be  the  communist  leaders  of the  ideological leaders  Soviet  of the  people  of  209 the whole w o r l d ,  t h e West i s f a c e d w i t h  task of convincing that  their  S o v i e t l e a d e r , and  i d e o l o g y i s wrong.  stated  t h a t he  of the  people:  c o n s i d e r s the  the  not  formidible  the  Khrushchov has CPSU t h e  'people', already  ideological  leader  W e l l , you see, a t t e m p t s t o s e p a r a t e us from t h e p e o p l e a r e an o l d t u n e p l a y e d on a w e l l - w o r n gramaphone r e c o r d , a t u n e no one w a n t s t o l i s t e n to. We m a i n t a i n t h a t t h e r e i s n o t , t h a t t h e r e n e v e r was, and t h a t t h e r e w i l l n e v e r be any o t h e r government a p a r t f r o m t h e S o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t , o r any o t h e r p o l i c y a p a r t f r o m t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Communist P a r t y t h a t w o u l d a c c o r d so w i l l w i t h the i n t e r e s t s of the peoples of the S o v i e t Union and t h e t o i l i n g f o l k i n a l l t h e c o u n t r i e s , b e c a u s e we a r e n o t p u r s u i n g any bad a i m s w i t h r e s p e c t t o any o t h e r c o u n t r y e i t h e r . T h a t i s why t h e p o l i c y we a r e p u r s u i n g i s n o t o n l y t h e p o l i c y o f t h e Communist P a r t y . The Communist P a r t y i s t h e v a n guard of i t s people, consequently t h i s i s the p o l i c y of the people, the p o l i c y of the Soviet p e o p l e and we a r e o o n d u c t i n g it.125  In f a c t ,  Soviet  i d e o l o g y cannot g i v e  ideology, f o r i t plays  126  role"  of opposing  c l a s s e s , the c h o s e n by in  the  capitalist  i n h i s t o r y the ' " q u a l i t a t i v e l y  the  bourgeoisie. Soviet  i n t o the  ideology  of the  Peaceful  new  exploiting  coexistence  leadership for f u l f i l l i n g  has  been  this  role  history: P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f f e r s t h e most f a v o r a b l e p r e m i s e s f o r an i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the i m p e r i a l i s t b o u r g e o i s i e i n t h e d e v e l o p e d c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s around the p r o l e t a r i a t of a l l other s e c t i o n s of the p e o p l e . I  Unlike  other areas  of peaceful  coexistence  2 7  (economic  210 and  political)  i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n E a s t and  West c a n n o t be s e t t l e d  by i n t e r n a t i o n a l  was s t r e s s e d i m m e d i a t e l y  agreements.  a f t e r the Twentieth  This  Party  Congress o f 1956.  One o f t h e p e r f i d i o u s s u g g e s t i o n s , w h i c h t h e a d v e r s a r i e s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e make, c o n s i s t s i n proposing 'to terminate' the i d e o l o g i c a l s t r u g g l e . . . . T h e r e i s n o t and c a n n o t be a n y t h i n g i n common between t h e q u e s t i o n o f r e l a t i o n s between s t a t e s w i t h d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s y s t e m s and t h a t o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l struggle... Peaceful coexistence between t h e b o u r g e o i s and communist i d e o l o g i e s , a compromise o r a n a r m i s t i c e between them, i s impossible.12©  As  the i n t e r e s t s  dialectical  of the bourgeoisie  opposites  between " t h e b o u r g o i s not  terms, i t f o l l o w s that  and p r o l e t a r i a t w o r l d  and c a n n o t be c o m p r o m i s e s . " 1 2 9  implies that ciples' for  i n Marxist  ideological  peaceful coexistence  life,  of Foreign  This, statement  T h i s i s n o t s o , however,  i s , a s D. S h e p i l o v , t h e f o r m e r  A f f a i r s put i t , "not a  ... i t i s a s t r u g g l e , p o l i t i c a l ,  ideological.""'"30  view t h e r e i s  struggle i s outside the 'prin-  of peaceful coexistence.  Minister  and p r o l e t a r i a t a r e  The r e a s o n  conflictless  economic and  g i v e n by t h e S o v i e t s f o r  r e f u s i n g t o c o n s i d e r a n end t o t h e i d e o l o g i c a l is  a simple  one: " s t o p p i n g  the ideological  struggle  s t r u g g l e means  131 stopping In f a c t Soviet  propaganda f o r t h e advantages o f s o c i a l i s m . " ideological  experience  struggle i s a necessary  part  i n b u i l d i n g t h e new s o c i e t y :  of the  211 P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e o f b o u r g e o i s and communist i d e o l o g i e s , compromise and r e c o n c i l i a t i o n between them i s n o t p o s s i b l e . To r e p u d i a t e t h e c l a s s s t r u g g l e w o u l d mean t o r e p u d i a t e t h e b u i l d i n g o f communism i n t h e USSR.132  As  the  communists a r e d e d i c a t e d t o t h e  munist  i d e a s throughout  ely  concessions  no  the world,  of i d e o l o g y .  there  As  ;  spread can  o f combe  absolut-  Khrushchov has  said,  R e c i p r o c a l concessions f o r the b e n e f i t of c o u n t r i e s must n o t be c o n f u s e d w i t h c o n c e s s i o n s on p r i n c i p l e , on what a f f e c t s t h e v e r y n a t u r e o f o u r s o c i a l i s t s y s t e m and our i d e o l o g y . T h e r e c a n be no q u e s t i o n o f any c o n c e s s i o n s o r adaptation i n t h i s respect. Any c o n c e s s i o n s on m a t t e r s o f p r i n c i p l e , on i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t s , w o u l d mean s h i f t i n g t o t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f o u r opponents. T h i s w o u l d amount t o a q u a l i t a t i v e change o f p o l i c y and w o u l d c o n s t i t u t e a b e t r a y a l of the cause of the w o r k i n g c l a s s . Whoever t o o k t h a t p a t h w o u l d b e t r a y t h e s o c i a l i s t c a u s e and s h o u l d o f c o u r s e , be c r i t i c i s e d w i t h o u t mercy.^33  This oft-quoted  statement  o f K h r u s h c h o v ' s was  1959.  t h a t time  and  Up  until  after  made i n  a l l communist  have r e f u s e d t o admit t h a t p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e a s t o t h e more o p e n l y and ism. 1962 was  Lenin,  militant  is itself  However, t h e  results  the  by  this:  policy  power o f  opposed o f Marx capital-  of theUuban i n v a s i o n t h r e a t  t o admit  that peaceful of  The  of  coexistence  communist  o f i d e o l o g y , m o r e o v e r , t h a t had  i n t e r n a t i o n a l agreement.  forty-fifth  admitted  to the  a compromise, o r c o n c e s s i o n ,  ideology, a concession settled  aggressive  a concession  f o r c e d the Russians indeed  and  thinkers  main speaker  a n n i v e r s a r y c e l e b r a t i o n o f 1962,  A.  been at  Kosygin,  212 The L e n i n p o l i c y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e s i g n i f i e s t h a t two a n t a g o n i s t i c s y s t e m s e x i s t i n g on o u r p l a n e t - t h e s o c i a l i s t and c a p i t a l i s t r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e y c a n l i v e w i t h o u t war, i . e . , coexist. T h i s i s a l s o a compromise, t h i s i s a l s o a mutual c o n c e s s i o n . I t presupposes t h a t d i s s i d e n t q u e s t i o n s a r e d e c i d e d n o t b y t h e p a t h o f war, b u t b y t h e p a t h o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s on t h e p r i n c i p l e of peaceful coexistence.134  The  important  concession,"  and s i g n i f i c a n t i n Russian,  s i g n i f i e s a one-sided the  i n effect  o f i d e o l o g y were i m p o s s i b l e  submit t o i t .  Ustupka submitting to  T h u s , when K h r u s h c h o v  W e s t e r n i d e o l o g y was u n a c c e p t a b l e not  i s "mutual  vzaimna.ia u s t u p k a .  concession,  opponent's p o s i t i o n .  concessions  wording here  said  he meant  that  t o h i m and t h a t  he w o u l d  I t i n d i c a t e d a l s o t h a t Western  l o g y must be r e p l a c e d  i n i t s e n t i r e t y by S o v i e t  ideo-  ideology.  However, K o s y g i n ' s remark i s an e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t in for  the development i t  ;  suggests that  Western and S o v i e t ideology  of the theory  sides.  This  concept  of d i a l e c t i c a l  did  out t h a t  i s , i n effect,  standpoints  of  a medial  i s acceptable  t o both  a r e t u r n to the true  contradictions.  one  coexistence,  out o f t h e mutual c o n c e s s i o n s  ideological  c a n be w o r k e d  of peaceful  that  Perhaps  Marxian Kosygin  n o t w i s h t o make s u c h a n i m p l i c a t i o n , b u t i t n e v e r -  theless  lies  at the b a s i s of h i s statement.  such seemingly i n s i g n i f i c a n t great  changes o f t e r m i n o l o g y  changes a r e brought about  o f u s t u p k a may be a s i m p o r t a n t coexistence  I t i s from  i n ideology. f o rthe future  a s t h e change o f s o z h i t e l ' s t v o t o  that  The m a t t e r of peaceful  213 s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e was present theory  of c o e x i s t e n c e .  t o war  i f the  be  Cuba c r i s e s a r e  seem t o i n d i c a t e ,  i s not  to  t o be  lead  justified  in  avoided.  must a l w a y s  a g r e e m e n t s - an  compromise i s t h e o r e t i c a l l y communists w i l l  the  o f communist p r i n c i p l e s must  i d e o l o g i c a l concessions  made t h r o u g h p o l i t i c a l  the  s t a n d s a l o n e on  i d e o l o g i c a l struggle  made i f f u t u r e event  However, a t  C i r c u m s t a n c e s would  some c o n c e s s i o n s  I n any  past.  time, Kosygin's statement  however, t h a t  fact  i n the  area  be  i n which  - and  therefore  the  a l w a y s have a means o f r e t r e a t f r o m  dangerous i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n s . We the  must now  i d e o l o g i c a l struggle  permissible. at and  t u r n to a d i s c u s s i o n o f the  work i n t h e the  The  permissible  communists r e c o g n i z e  two  which K r a s i n  and  im-  coexistence  c h a r a c t e r i z e s as  i m p e r i a l i s t method o f t h e  of  ideologies  i n t e r n a t i o n a l arena, p e a c e f u l  c o l d war,  "specific  that are  methods  a  class struggle  in  the  135 international  arena."  Union i s a g a i n s t w h i c h has  the  Heedless to  say,  the  i d e o l o g i c a l form of the  cold  arms r a c e ,  and  and it  because the  consequently t o be  " c o l d war  responsible  was  conceived  i t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r one  eliminated."^37  under p e a c e f u l  o£  balance of atomic t e r r o r .  S o v i e t s h o l d t h e m s e l v e s i n no way c o l d war,  war  i t s supposed b a s i s i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l t e n s i o n s ,  -1 the  Soviet  As t h e  coexistence,  c o l d war  t h e West can  The for  the  i n the  side to  abandon  i s ruled do  West,  nothing  out to  214 advertize  i t s advantages i n the  oppose communist the  opposition  Soviet  Union, or even to  f o r e i g n p o l i c y demands.  to  Soviet  plans  for a  For  instance,  'free B e r l i n '  is  138 "expressing  and  prolonging  F r e e Europe, the ent  radio  vocative The  Voice  and  an  intensification  "interference  U n i o n , w h i l e  use  of the  West b e c a u s e " i t has ideas  of  to  l i b e r a t e the  be  regarded  peaceful  of the  finition  the  captive  mean an  Soviet  writer  the  press  the  the  can  Soviet  of the  ideology  Soviet •  i s denied  always w i l l  be  the  spokesman  Aspirations  Soviet  are  the  Union would as'an  rejected  under  freedom  ideological struggle within  Union?  According  certain conditions.  Peaceful  coexist-  the  of  information of  other  socialist  on  life  only  de-  territory  the  enter  t o communist  the  Soviet  policies on  affairs  war."  I s t h e West t o have any  exclude " f a l s e  "attack  criticism  cold  and pro139  People, says Khruschov,  o f c o l d war  struggle  the  Soviet  peoples of  the  West a g r e e s t o  p e o p l e s and  of the  Radio  independ-  "unlawful  1  c a r r y on  confines  ence must  are  even the  (communist) p a r t y . " ^ " * '  coexistence.  of a c t i o n to  and  i n the  b e e n and  Soviet ,.142 provocation."  of  by  our  These a c t s  the  of America,  while  'bourgeois' p u b l i c a t i o n s w i t h i n  U n i o n w o u l d be  act  c o l d war,"  s t a t i o n i n West B e r l i n ,  sale of  of the  the  i f  other  s t a t e s " " " " ^ and  does  camp""*"^" o r e v e n  of  o f communists i n g e n e r a l .  p u t s i t , " d i s t o r t i o n o f the  1  As  a recent  not  Soviet  facts}- f a l s i f i c a t i o n  of  •215 the  principles  ists,  e t c . a l l these  contradict will and  o f Marxism-Leninism, slander  on commun-  means o f t h e i d e o l o g i c a l  peaceful c o e x i s t e n c e . R a d i o  be a l l o w e d friendly" " 1  into Russia  4 , 0  only  i f they  struggle  broadcasts  a r e "wholesome  and " ' s u b s c r i b e t o M a r x i s t - L e n i n i s t  1L.7 ideology." advertized that  I f t h e W e s t e r n way o f l i f e i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n , i t must  i s , that present  i s t o be  be t h e ' t r u t h ' :  day c a p i t a l i s m i s a  "despotism  148 reminiscent  of the feudal-absolutist orders."  These r e s t r i c t i o n s  on p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  would  seem t o r u l e o u t a n y W e s t e r n o p p o s i t i o n t o S o v i e t for  i n t h e u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y comic d i a t r i b e by D.  Western c u l t u r e i s i n the l a s t  stages  of moral  ideolog  Shepilov, decay:  Modern b o u r g e o i s c u l t u r e i s t h e ' d y i n g r a g e o f the b o u r g e o i s i e ' , g i v i n g r i s e t o a p h i l o s o p h y o f doom, h o p l e s s n e s s , p e s s i m i s m , and t r a g e d y , w h i l e i t a l s o p r o d u c e s a l l k i n d s o f pogrom m a k e r s , d e p r a v e d and f a s c i s t - m i n d e d t y p e s w i t h t h e i r t o h e l l - w i t h - i t - a l l p h i l o s o p h y , a l l k i n d s o f hoodlums i n c u l t u r e who d e f i l e a l l t h e s p i r i t u a l v a l u e s , c r e a t e d b y man and h e l d s a c r e d by h i m . 1 4 9  The  S o v i e t U n i o n need h a r d l y f e a r s u c h a h o s t  for  as I l y a Ehrenburg has s a i d ,  cannot  s u l l y the consciousness  cause they  have t h e i r  Nevertheless, ed n o t t o t a k e the  "bourgeois  own, much h i g h e r  be-  ideology."150  peaceful coexistence  placed  ideology  o f t h e S o v i e t people  chances w i t h bourgeois  restrictions  of e v i l s ,  has been  design-  c u l t u r e and h e n c e  on t h e p u b l i c a t i o n and a d v e r t i s e -  216  ment in  of Western  effect  struggle  c u l t u r e under p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  forbidden a r e a l such as t h e  fact,  i f the  hered  t o by  restricted  by t h e  In  cannot  "cultural  s h o r t , as  its  be  In  W h i l e t h e West  stand  i n t h e way  t i e s with  i n other  areas  camp i s t o be  advantages while  socialist  ad-  possible to is totally  terms of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  i t s c u l t u r e to the  socialist  l i p service to.  i t would not  struggle at a l l !  achieve  ideological  c o n d i t i o n s o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e were a l l parties,  coexistence  honest  communists pay  speak o f a  showing  and  has  world,  from  peaceful  of Soviet  efforts  a l l c o u n t r i e s of the of peaceful  to  world."1^1  coexistence  the  g i v e n a f r e e hand i n a d v e r t i s i n g  t h e West  i s f o r b i d d e n any  action  whatsoever.  Despite petition  and  a l l the  Soviet ballyhoo  concerning  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n peaceful coexistence  communists have b e e n e x t r e m e l y  reticent  a definition  or e x p l a i n i n g the  limits  quently,  definition  what  the  sketchy  and  about  the  attempting  of both.  Conse-  a t t e m p t e d h e r e must a l s o be  general  Both competition areas  com-  some-  i n character.  and  collaboration find  of a p p l i c a t i o n i n economics, -^ f 1  o  r  their  there,  chief  " i n the  217 last  analysis, the fate of social  In p o l i t i c s ,  of course,  tion  are p o s s i b l e . ^  only  competition  both competition  153  and c o l l a b o r a -  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i n i d e o l o g y  1  field,  systems i s d e c i d e d . "  i s possible, f o r collaboration i n this  a s we have s e e n , means s u c c u m b i n g t o c a p i t a l i s t  ideas.  In i t s simplest uncomplicated:  form p e a c e f u l  competition  as Khrushchov e x p l a i n e d  i s quite  i t , i t i s " t o buy  155 what we n e e d a n d s e l l what we goals to  of this  peaceful  can."  business  The u l t i m a t e  activity  a r e , of course,  win the a l l e g i a n c e o f the workers of the world  communist peaceful  cause.  As a r e c e n t  competition  satisfaction  Soviet w r i t e r puts i t ,  i s a way o f s h o w i n g t h e p e o p l e t h e  advantages o f t h e system t h a t best  f o r the  can "guarantee t h e very  o f a l l demands o f man and c r e a t e  d i t i o n s f o r t h e u n i v e r s a l development  con-  o f h i s t a l e n t s and  156 aptitudes." ly has  confident already  crises,  I n t h i s way t h e communists a r e  J  that the Soviet  ended e x p l o i t a t i o n , a n a r c h y o f p r o d u c t i o n ,  c a p i t a l ism."157 i n fact  to  decide.  fident gains  system i s s u p e r i o r , f o r " i t  unemployment, and o t h e r  is  that  exceeding-  defects peculiar to  Whether t h e new S o v i e t  b e t t e r than the c a p i t a l i s t What m a t t e r s h e r e their  of Soviet  economic  system  i s f o r economists  i s t h a t t h e S o v i e t s a r e con  s y s t e m c a n w i n and p o i n t t o t h e g r e a t  industry  s i n c e t h e r e v o l u t i o n to prove i t  218  In f a c t ,  so  o p t i m i s t i c are  the  Soviets  in  capitalism that  they openly p r e d i c t that  1970  Union w i l l  the  trial  Soviet  power."^9  be  the  v i c t o r y of  in  competition,  economic  weapons, b u t to  the  by  the  whole w o r l d  in this  be  i n the  fact  that  in  a y e a r i n no  line  the  way  In  to  stated that  for tactical  that  "to  play  by  the  as  indusa  great  capitalism  power  of  a t the  fact  would  is  communists  time  capitalism to  do.  communists have  coexistence  considerations,  i s not  competition  re-  resorted  Khrushchov h i m s e l f  i n economic  to  produced  system  they refuse  the  seem  steel  social  present  this  that  peaceful  f o r time  one  prove  capitalism."  I f t h a t were so t h e  s o c i a l i s m , and  s p i t e of the  peatedly  not  of reasoning  proves that  admit t h a t  to  be  s o c i a l i s m over  number o f t o n s o f  'better' than another.  superior  world's f i r s t  i t s s u p e r i o r i t y over  flaw  is  early  power o f example s o c i a l i s m w i l l  The  w o u l d have t o  as  When t h i s h a p p e n s i t " w i l l  universal-historical peaceful  overtaking  admits  with  cap-  l6l italism  i s now  writer asserts tem in  the that  main t h i n g , " "the  economic c o m p e t i t i o n The  petition,  another  advantages of the  o f economy p e r m i t s t h e the  while  Soviet  Union t o  w i t h the  Soviet  t h e o r e t i c a l r e a s o n s f o r economic as we  have s e e n , a r e  Soviet  socialist  sys-  play  f o r time 162 Union."  peaceful  to h e i g h t e n the  com-  internal  219 contradictions the  Soviet  of  c a p i t a l i s m by  Union over which the  among t h e m s e l v e s .  I n t h i s way  come aware o f t h e alists the  and  be  ed. ^  induced  trade  To  1  'export  if  trade  does not  i n any  serve  italist tern  Union to  countries.  of other  existence. finds l i t t l e  Peaceful  c  widest  line  of peaceful  trade On  possible  the  other  hand,  USSR, i t i s ' 165 affairs."  external  socialist  that  bloc, while  a r e made on  the  at  part  While  fits  well  i n Soviet  admitting  cap-  pat-  into peaceful other  theory.  d i s t i n c t i o n between  side of peaceful  of  coexistence.  c o l l a b o r a t i o n , on t h e  no  the  economic t e n s i o n w i t h i n  of peaceful  justification  co-  o f f e r s would  then, excludes trade  efforts  competition  collaboration.  a necessary  countries'  the  absolutely unrestrict-  "the our  be-  imperi-  I n t h i s manner i t f o l l o w s t h e  i n s t a n c e , makes a l m o s t and  will  t o happen i n  purposes of the  increase  aspects  Peaceful  the  weaken t h e  same t i m e a l l p o s s i b l e Soviet  must be  oppose communist  competition,  way  fight  d i c t a t o r s h i p of  cause t h i s  explains,  i n other  Peaceful  will  proletariat  of c o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n * .  "interference  the  to  i n keeping with  existence." ^ be  the  e s t a b l i s h the  order  Khrushchov  is fully  would  In  to  p o s s i b l e time trade ^3  1  bourgoisie  within  narrow c l a s s i n t e r e s t s of the  proletariat.  shortest  c r e a t i n g markets  that  co-  hand,  Krasin,  for  competition  "collaboration i s  coexistence,"1°6 which f i n d s ,  its  " c h i e f sphere i n economic r e l a t i o n s , "  that  "struggle  and  woven, m u t u a l l y  c o l l a b o r a t i o n are  intermingled  i n the  ^ he  asserts  organically process of  inter-  peaceful  -j /• d  coexistence." fore,  italists  to  create  to fight  But and  ific and  over Soviet  four and  of  operation  other  these  and  Besides the  same p u r p o s e a s cause the  be  drawn between  exchanges are  n e v e r made c l e a r .  to  convincing  'the  economic  field  Soviets  than to  i n any  i n which case the politics,  not  sports meets. ^^ 1  a f f e c t , the  and  feel  that  Krasin  of  ideology.170  scient-  social  questions But  just  advantages of  how  on  balance  is  Soviet help  in  socialism,  t h e y have much more t o  turns  of  i d e o l o g i c a l struggle  e x c h a n g e of i n f o r m a t i o n  struggle  a  nature  physical fitness w i l l  p e o p l e ' of the  or e l s e , the lose  competi-  in less violent a  Presumably v a s t l y s u p e r i o r  attainments i n science  cap-  c o l l a b o r a t i o n covers  i n t e r n a l c o n f e r e n c e s on  c u l t u r e ; and  com-  markets.  t e c h n i c a l attainments; mutual v i s i t s  and  there-  a r e a s o f a p p l i c a t i o n : exchange o f  state leaders;  science  can  o f view,  that w i l l  collaboration i t i s that  competition.  lists  much t h e  conditions  i f a distinction  broader area than  economic p o i n t  c o l l a b o r a t i o n serves  petition;  tion  From an  with the of  power  gain West,  221 XI  We  c a n now  summarize  peaceful coexistence. ogy d e s i g n e d  to  capitalism'. it  sole  Peaceful  As s u c h ,  though devised  nations.  i s t o be waged.  ideology - conveniently, the  title  tirety;  o f ' c o l d war'  changed f o r a p o s i t i o n  o f weakness  provides  On  to  T h i s means t h a t  of strength  the o t h e r hand,  Western under  in.its  and i s o l a t i o n .  no  peqceful  recourse  a t t h e same t i m e t o c o n v i n c e  class  interests  of the r u l i n g  longer posi-  'just  of the  t o war  p a c i f i s m among t h e p e o p l e  while  war,  coexistence  on t h e  of the Soviet Union, p e a c e f u l coexistence w i l l  create a m i l i t a r y  ex-  once t h e W e s t e r n  a c t i o n i n t h e name o f  But b e f o r e  en-  Con-  t o wage  to crush forever the e v i l s  system'.  inter-  i s t o be  be i n no p o s i t i o n  h a s b e e n assumed,  r e v o l u t i o n a r y war'  part  as the  struggle i n the  o f weakness  f o r Soviet m i l i t a r y  'capitalist  communists,  s t a r t e d by t h e i m p e r i a l i s t s w i l l  be i n e v i t a b l e . tion  by t h e  - i s t o be abandoned  t h e West w i l l  and h e n c e , war  ideol-  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s of  i f i n a c c u r a t e l y , lumped  the Western p o s i t i o n  sequently,  i s an  I t i s conceived  i d e o l o g y by w h i c h the c l a s s arena  of  to the S o v i e t b l o c , but o n l y t o t h e  'imperialist'  national  coexistence  ' i n t e n s i f y the c l a s s  does not a p p l y  Western  the Soviet conception  attempt  o f t h e West  them o f t h e n a r r o w  b o u r g e o i s i e , and  hence t o i n -  222  cite  them t o  prets  revolution.  i n t e r n a t i o n a l law  p r e v e n t s any. a c t i o n 'Interference revolution' while  on  Peaceful i n a way  the  are  ruled  revolution  out  part  of a c t i o n  concept t h a t  aid  parison ful  coexistence.  allows the  Soviet  against  disarming the of the  bloc  coexistence creates  countries  a continual  them t h r o u g h t h e  the  West and  (supposedly)  coexist-  action.  to g i v e - to  inter-  unrestricted  any  forcing  proletariat  on  By  peace-  capitalist  class crises that  process of g e o g r a p h i c a l  ideol-  i t a com-  ideology,  individual  s e r i e s of  'higher'  Proletarian  'superior'  within  of  imperialists. by  mobil-  internationalism,  i s complementary t o , but  in revolution  ogically  coexistence  Peaceful  i n terms of p r o l e t a r i a n  than peaceful  'counter-  themselves complete  - including m i l i t a r y assistance  rising  and.  r e s t r i c t s b o u r g e o i s freedom of  ity  nationalism  bourgeoisie.  proceeds unhindered.  c o m m u n i s t s , however, g i v e  priority  of the  under p e a c e f u l  The  inter-  that e f f e c t i v e l y  i n another country's a f f a i r s '  ence t o t a l l y  a  coexistence  lead  restriction,  ' s e m i - f a s c i s m ' , i m p e r i a l i s t economic d i s i n t e g r a t i o n , capitalist almost are  wars, t o  proletarian revolution.  i d e n t i c a l ) c o n c e p t s of  the  vehicles  by w h i c h t h e  Thus , p e a c e f u l ;  letariat the  from the  c o m p e t i t o n and process  coexistence  horrors  i s to  spares the  The  twin  collaboration be  borne.  world  o f modern a t o m i c w a r f a r e  i n e v i t a b l e t r a n s i t i o n from c a p i t a l i s m  to  (and  produring  socialism.  223 At  the  same t i m e  as p o s t u l a t e d r a p i d l y and  i t assures  t h a t the  by Marx, E n g e l s ,  and  historical  Lenin  process  proceeds  unhindered towards i t s u l t i m a t e  conclusion.  224 References.  1. Current Soviet P o l i c i e s , p . 3o~l 2.  I b i d , .,p.37.  3.  Ibid,  4.  I b i d , p . 37«  II,  New Y o r k , P r a e g e r ,  p . 37.  1957,  }  5. Documents of the XXII P a r t y Congress, New Y o r k , C r o s s c u r r e n t s P r e s s , 1961, p . 45. 6.  Current S o v i e t  Policies,  II,  7. p.  Current S o v i e t 202.  Policies,  III,  8.  Ibid,  p.  op. c i t ,  p.  72.  New Y o r k , Praeger,  1961,  202.  9. Statement o f the Meeting o f Eighty-One Communist and Workers' P a r t i e s , Moscow, November I960, T o r o n t o , Progress Books, n . d . , p . 15. The Chinese Communist Party was a l s o a s i g n a t o r y to t h i s statement and the S o v i e t s now f r e q u e n t l y hark back to t h i s f a c t i n the present d i s p u t e between China and the S o v i e t Union on the q u e s t i o n o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . 10. Documents o f the XXII Congress of the CPSU, I . C r o s s c u r r e n t s P r e s s , 1961, p . 44. 11. I b i d ,  p.  45.  12.  Ibid,  p.  46.  13.  Ibid,  p.  46.  14. Program of the Communist P a r t y of the S o v i e t New Y o r k , C r o s s c u r r e n t s P r e s s , 1961, p . 57. 15. I b i d ,  p.  New; Y o r k ,  Union ( D r a f t ) ,  57.  16. A . I . K o s y g i n , "45-ja godovshchina V e l i k o j O k t ' a b r ' s k o j s o t s i a l i s t i c h e s k o j r e v o l ' u t s i i : Doklad t o v a r i s h c h a A . I . Kosyg i n a na torzhestvom z a s e d a n i i v Kremlevskom sjezdov 6 n o j a b r * a 1962 goda," Pravda, Nov. 7, 1962.  225  17. N.S. K h r u s h c h o v , "Sovremennoe mezhdunarodnoe p o l o z h e n i e i vneshn'aja p o l i t i k a Sovetskogo Sojuza: Doklad t o v a r i s h e h a N.S. X r u s h c h e v a na s e s s i i SSSR 12 d e k a b r ' a 1962 g o d a , " P r a v d a , D e c . 13, 1962. 18. " P o s t a n o v l e n i e v e r x o v n o g o S o v e t a SSSR po d o k l a d u P r e d s e d a t e l ' a S o v e t a M i n i s t r o v SSSR t o v a r i s h e h a N.S. X r u s h c h e v a 'Sovremennoe mezhdunarodnoe p o l o z h e n i e i v n e s h n ' a j a p o l i t i k a S o v e t s k o g o S o j u z a P r a v d a , D e c . 14, 1962. 1  19. See c h a p t e r two, page 2 7 . Of c o u r s e , t h e d e c i s i o n q u o t e d h e r e i s v a g u e enough t o be open t o s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s , f r o m t h e most b e l l i c o s e - p e a c e t o be s t r e n g t h e n e d b y t h e o v e r t h r o w a l . o f - c a p i t a l i s m - t o an almost c r i n g i n g p o s i t i o n . Und o u b t e d l y , t h i s d e c i s i o n was i n t e n d e d as a s t o p - g a p measure u n t i l t h e t h e o r y c a n be r e i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h e l i g h t o f new i n t e r n a t i o n a l developments, i n p a r t i c u l a r the unexpectedly f i r m s t a n d t a k e n b y t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o n t h e Cuban i s s u e , and p o s s i b l y j u s t as. i m p o r t a n t , t h e p o s i t i o n t a k e n b y C h i n a o n p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e - a p o s i t i o n which s e r i o u s l y t h r e a t e n s t o b r e a k up t h e u n i t y o f t h e Communist b l o c - a u n i t y w h i c h S o v i e t t h e o r e t i c i a n s have a g a i n a n d a g a i n a s s e r t e d i s e s s e n t i a l t o the success o f peaceful coexistence. 20. Some o f t h e s e a f f i r m a t i o n s c a n be f o u n d i n : " D o k l a d t o v a r i s h e h a A n t o n i n a Novotnogo na X I I s j e z d e Kommunisticheskoj p a r t i i C h e x o s l a v a k i i . " P r a v d a , D e c . 5, 1962; " D o k l a d t o v a r i s h eha P a l ' m i r o T o l ' j a t t i na X s j e z d e I t a l ' j a n s k o j kommunisti c h e s k o j r a b o c h e j p a r t i i , " P r a v d a , D e c . 3, 1962; " D o k l a d t o v a r i s h e h a J a n o s h a K a d a r a na V I I I s j e z d e V e n g e r s k o i s o t s i a l i s t i c h e s k o j r a b o c h e j p a r t i i . " P r a v d a . Nov. 21, 1962; " K i t a j s k o - m o n g o l s k i j dogovor o g r a n i t s e p o d p i s a n , " Pravda, Dec. 2 7 , 1962. . f  21. J u . A. K r a s i n , " V . I . L e n i n i p r o b l e m y m i r n o g o s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i j a , ' * V o p r o s y F i l o s o f i i , 1960:9, p . 2 3 . 22. A. S o v e t o v , " C o e x i s t e n c e and P r o g r e s s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1962:1, p . 1 3 . 23. Ju.A. K r a s i n , "Mirnoe s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e i p r o t i v o r e c h i j a k a p i t a l i z m a . " V o p r o s y F i l o s o f i i , 1962:8, p p . 23-35. Krasin i s u n d o u b t e d l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t t h e o r e t i c i a n o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e a t work i n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n t o d a y . I t i s he who has p r e s e n t e d t h e most o u t s t a n d i n g c o h t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e t h e o r y i n r e c e n t y e a r s , and he a l s o who u n d e r t a k e s o f f i c i a l c r i t i c i s m o f o t h e r w r i t e r s on t h e same t o p i c . 24.  Ibid,  p. 2 3  226  25.  I b i d , pi 2 5 .  26.  Ibid,  27.  I b i d , p. 2 5 .  pp.  24-5.  28. I b i d , p . 2 5 . The r i s e o f De G a u l l e i n F r a n c e , the rearming o f West Germany, and the presence o f "extreme r i g h t o r g a n i s a t i o n s " (presumably the John B i r c h s o c i e t i e s ) i n the United S t a t e s are c i t e d as m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h i s process. 29.  I b i d , p.  26.  30.  I b i d , p.  26.  31.  Ibid,  p.  26.  32.  I b i d , p.  26.  33.  Ibid,  pp. 2 6 - 7 .  34. "Osnovnye p r i n t s i p y mezhdunarodnogo s o t s i a l i s t i c h e s k o g o r a z d e l e n i j a t r u d a , " P r a v d a , June 17, 1962. op. c i t ,  p. 2 7 .  35.  Krasin,  36.  I b i d , p.  37.  Ibid,  38.  See Chapter One, page 7 .  39.  See Chapter One, page 3 .  28.  p. 3 0 .  40. For an e x c e l l e n t d i s c u s s i o n o f the r o l e o f i d e o l o g y i n S o v i e t p o l i c y making, see Z . B r z e z i h s k i , I d e o l o g y and Power i n S o v i e t P o l i t i c s , New Y o r k , Praeger, 1962. Though B r z e z i n s k i probably o v e r s t r e s s e s the r o l e o f i d e o l o g y at t i m e s , h i s work has the advantage of always attempting t o l i n k theory and r e a l i t y i n S o v i e t p o l i c y making. See a l s o Bertram D . W o l f e , "Communist Ideology and S o v i e t F o r e i g n P o l i c y . " F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . X L I : 1 , pp. 152-170. 41. N . S . Khrushchov, "On Peaceful A f f a i r s , X X X V I I I : 1 , p . 17.  Coexistence," Foreign  42. J u . Z h i l i n , "Ne s t a v i t ' pregrad mirnomu s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i j u (po povodu s t a t ' j i Dzh. Kennana)," Kommunist, 1960:1, p . 1 0 3 .  227  43. L . Fyodorov, " I n t e r n a t i o n a l . R e l a t i o n s and the B a t t l e of I d e o l o g i e s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , (Moscow), 1960:3, p . 11. 44.  N . S . Khrushchov, "op. c i t ,  p . 3.  45. N . S . Khrushchov, F o r V i c t o r y i n Peaceful C o m p e t i t i o n With C a p i t a l i s m , New Y o r k , D u t t o n , I960, p . 89. Hereinafter c i t e d as F o r V i c t o r y . 46. A . B . Sakharov, "Stroitel'stvo.kommunizma i u k r e p l e n i e obshchestvennogo p r a v o p o r ' a d k a , " Voprosy F i l o s o f i i , 1962:9, p . 42. 47. N . S . Khrushchov, "Oh Peaceful C o e x i s t e n c e , " A f f a i r s , XXXVIII:1, p. 3. 48.  L . Fyodorov, op. c i t ,  p.  8.  49. .0. Starushenko, "Mirnoe sosushchestvovanie i Kommunist, 1962:2, p . 81. 50.  Foreign  N . S . Khrushchov, F o r V i c t o r y , p .  revol'utsija,"  12.  51. N . S . Khrushchov, "Za.novye pobedy mirovogo kommunisticheskogo d v i z h e n i j a , " Kommunist, 1961:1, p . 17. 52.  I b i d , p.  17.  53. N . S . Khrushchov, Speeches and I n t e r v i e w s on World Problems 1957, Moscow, F o r e i g n Languages P u b l i s h i n g House, 1958, p . 35. H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d as Speeches and I n t e r v i e w s . 54.  Starushenko,  op. c i t ,  p.  80.  55. N . S . Khrushchov, "Za noyye pobedy mirovogo kommunisticheskogo d v i z h e n i j a , " Kommunist, 1961:1, p. 18. 56.  I b i d , p.  19.  57.  Starushenko,  op. c i t ,  p.  8$.  58. A . Arzuman'an, "Vernyj put* obespechenija mezhdu narodami," Kommunist, 1962:4, p . 3 1 .  prochnogo mira  59. A Butenko, "Vojna i r e v o l ' u t s i j a , " Kommunist, 1961:4, p . 56. 60.  I b i d , p.  58.  61.  Starushenko,  op. c i t ,  p.  88.  228  62. M.N. B a t u r i n , "0 mirnom s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i i dvux m i r o v y x sistem - s o t s i a l i z m a i k a p i t a l i z m a , " Voprosy F i l o s o f i i .  1959:11, p . 4. 63. "Za m i r n o e s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e p r o t i v u g r o z y a t o m n o j v o j n y , " Kommunist, 1958:6, p . 4» 64. N.S. K h r u s h c h o v , W o r l d W i t h o u t A r m s W o r l d W i t h o u t Wars, v o l . 1, Moscow, F o r e i g n L a n g u a g e s P u b l i s h i n g H o u s e , n.d., p . 181. H e r e i n a f t e r c i t e d a s W o r l d W i t h o u t Arms. f  65.  N.S. K h r u s h c h o v ,  F o r V i c t o r y , p . 391* My i t a l i c s .  66. N.S. K h r u s h c h o v , "On P e a c e f u l A f f a i r s , X X X V I I I : 1 , p . 17.  Coexistence,'  1  67.  N.S. Khrushchov,. W o r l d W i t h o u t Arms, v o l . 1,  68.  N.S. K h r u s h c h o v ,  69.  I b i d , p . 89.  Foreign p . 418.  F o r V i c t o r y , p . 589.  70. Ju.A K r a s i n , " V . I . L e n i n vovani j a , " Voprosy F i l o s o f i i ,  i problemy mirnogo 1960:9, p . 1 3 .  sosushchest-  71. . "Mirnoe s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e I i d i o l o g i c h e s k a j a b o r ' b a , " Kommunist, 1959:16, p . 8. 72.  S t a r u s h e n k o , op. c i t , p . 84.  73.  Krasin,  74.  I b i d , p . 20.  75.  S t a r u s h e n k o , op. c i t , p . 85.  76.  I b i d , p . 89.  77.  I b i d , p . 82.  op. c i t , p . 1 7 .  78. But t h e S o v i e t s argue t h e m s e l v e s i n t o d i f f i c u l t i e s on this point. On t h e one hand, t h e a g g r e s s i v e n a t u r e o f t h e bourgeoisie i n t e n s i f i e s the i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f capitalism. On t h e o t h e r , t h e " i n t e r n a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s o f i m p e r i a l i s m weaken i t s a g g r e s s i v e s t r e n g t h . " K r a s i n , op. c i t , p.17. Thus, l o g i c a l l y , the S o v i e t attempt a t p e a c e f u l coexistence i s s e l f - d e f e a t i n g . 79. V. Khvostov, "Leninskie p r i n t s i p y vneshnej p o l i t i k i , " V o p r o s y V n e s h n e j P o l i t i k i SSSR i Soyremennyx M e z h d u n a r o d n y x O t n o s h e n i i j , Moscow, G o s i z p o l i t , 1958, p . 9 0 . 1  229 80. J. Stalin, (rech 1 avgusta  "Mezhdunarodnoe p o l o z h e n i e i o b o r o n a SSSR ( 1 9 2 7 ) ) , " S o c h i n e n i . j a , X:51.  81. ' B.' Ponaraarev, P o l i t i c h e s k i . j S l o v a r ' , s e c o n d Moscow, G o s i z p o l i t , 1958, p. 212. 82.  K h v o s t o v , op.  83.  N.S.  8'4.  F y d o r o v , op.  85*.  Ibid,  86 .  Zhilin,  87.  N.S.  K h r u s h c h o v , S p e e c h e s and  88.  N.S.  K h r u s h c h o v , W o r l d W i t h o u t Arms, v o l . 2,  89.  Zhilin,  90.  S t a r u s h e n k o , op.  91.  Ibid,  :  c i t , p.  92.  K h r u s h c h o v , S p e e c h e s and  p.  p.  c i t , p.  edition,  Interviews,  p.  Interviews,  pp.  125.  12.  12. op.  c i t , p.  op.  107.  c i t , p.  117-8. p.  426.  108.  c i t , p.  88.  78.  92. Jan Prohazka, "Pust J a n . 1, 1963.  T  nam  soputstvuet  schastje,"  Pravda,  93. V. E r o s h i n , E . P e s k o v , " E k s p o r t k o n t r r e v o l u t s i i o r u d i e i m p e r i a l i z m a , " Kommunist, 1961:7, p . 86. f  94.  S t a r u s h e n k o , op.  c i t , p.  81.  95. "Natsio.hal'no-osvobitel'noe ehast mirovogo r e v o l ' u t s i o n n o g o 2, p. 18. f  96. B. Pravda,  -  d v i z h e n i e neotjemlemaja p r o t s e s s a , " Kommunist, 1962:  Ponamarev, "Pobedonosnoe znam'a kommunistov Nov. 18, 1962, p . 4.  mira,"  97''. " N a t s i o n a l ' n o - o s v o b o d i t e l ' n o e d v i z h e n i e n e o t jemlema j a c h a s t ' m i r o v o g o r e v o l ' u t s i o n n o g o p r o t s e s s a , " Kommunist, 1962: 2, p . 19. 98.  S t a r u s h e n k o , op.  99.  E r o s h i n , op.  100.  N.S.  101.  E r o s h i n , op.  c i t , p.  c i t , p.  87.  96.  Khrushchov, For V i c t o r y , c i t , p.  89.  p.  88.  230  102.  Starushenko,  op. c i t , p. 89.  103. A. G a l k i n , "Export o f C o u n t e r - r e v o l u t i o n , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a i r s , 1961:3, p. 13. 104.  E r o s h i n , op. c i t , p. 85.  105.  G a l k i n , op. C i t , p. 14.  1.06.  E r o s h i n , op. c i t , pp. 92-95.  107.  Baturin,. op. c i t , p. 6.  108. J u . F r a n t s e v , "Mify i d i o l o g o v antikommunizma," Kommunist, 1961:4, p. 73. 109.  E r o s h i n , op. c i t , p. 95.  110.  I b i d , p. 87.  111.  I b i d , p. 91.  .  112. G.I. Tunkin, "XXI s j e z d KPSS i mezhdunarodnoe Soyetskoe Gosudarstvo i Pravo, 1959*6, p. 42. 113.  I b i d , p. 42.  114».  I b i d , p. 49.  115.  I b i d , p. 48.  116.  N.S. Khrushchov, F o r V i c t o r y , p. 684.  117.  Tunkin, pp. c i t , p. 44*  .  .  pravo,"  118. G.I. Tunkin, "Mirnoe sosushchestvovanie i mezhdunarodnoe pravo," Sovetskoe Gosudarstvo i Pravo, 1956:7, p. 8. 119.  I b i d , p. 12..  120.  B a t u r i n , op. c i t , p. 4.  121. See J u . F r a n t s e v , "Vlastnoe t r e b o v a n i e vremeni," Pravda, Jan. 2, 1963: "One o f the courses which c r e a t e s the i s o l a t i o n o f the most a g g r e s s i v e elements o f monopoly c a p i t a l ... i s the p o l i c y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e . " 122. Ju.A K r a s i n , "V.I.- L e n i n i problemy mirnogo s o s u s h e s t v o v a n i j a , " Voprosy F i l o s o f i i , 1960:9, p. 17. 123. "Za n i r n o e sosushchestvovanie p r o t i v ugrozy atomnoj v o j n y , " Kommunist, 1958:6, p. 4. .  231 124.  N.S.  125.  Ibid,  K h r u s h c h o v , S p e e c h e s and pp.  I n t e r v i e w s , p.  65-6.  126. Ju.A K r a s i n , . !*V.I. L e n i n 1 p r o b l e m y m i r n o g o v o v a n i j a , " V o p r o s y F i l o s o f i i , 1960:9, p. 18. 127.  Sovetov,  66.  op.  c i t , p.  sosushchest-  17.  128. G. D e b o r i n , " L e n i n s k i j p r i n t s i p m i r n o g o s o s u s h c h e s t vovanija gosudarstva razlichnyx s o t i a l i s t i c h e s k i x sistem," V o p r o s y E k o n o m i k i , 1956:4, p . 1 6 . 129. "Mirnoe s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e Kommunist, 1959:16, p. 12. 130.  D.  S h e p i l o v , Pravda,  131.  Deborin,  op.  132.  Ibid,  27.  133.  N.S.  p.  Feb.  c i t , p.  i idiologicheskaja  13,  bor'ba,"  1957.  27.  Khrushchov, World  Without  Arms, v o l . 2,  p.  284.  134. A. K o s y g i n , " 4 5 - j a g o d o v s h c h i n a V e l i k o j O k t ' a b r ' s k o j s b t s i a l i s t i c h e s k o j r e y o l ' u t s i i : D o k l a d t o v a r i s h e h a A.N. K o s y g i n a na t o r z h e s t v e n n o m z a s e d a n i i v K r e m l e v s k o m D v o r t s e s j e z d o v 6 n o j a b r ' a 1962 g o d a , " P r a v d a , Nov. 7, 1962, p. 3. 135. J u . A . K r a s i n , "Mirnoe s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e - o b j e k t i v n a j a neobxodimost* r a z v i t i j a chelovecheskogo obshchestva," V o p r o s y F i l o s o f i i , 1961:8,. p. 42. 136.  Ibid,  p.  137.  N.S.  138.  Baturin,  139.  N.S.  140.  Ibid,  42.  Khrushchov, F o r V i c t o r y , op.  c i t , p.  362.  10.  Khrushchov, World p.  p.  Without  Arms, v o l . 2,  p.  423.  156.  141. L.F. I l y i c h e v , "Report t o the A i l - U n i o n Conference I d e o l o g i c a l Work," P r a v d a , Dee. 27, 1961, p. 5. ' 142. N.S. K h r u s h c h o v , "On A f f a i r s , X X X V I I I : 1 , p. 6.  Peaceful Coexistence," Foreign  143.  Baturin,  10.  144.  Fyodorov,  op. op.  c i t , p. c i t ; p.  11...  on  232 145.  K r a s i n , op. c i t p . 51. See a l s o Kommunist, 1959"16, p . 11: "And q u i t e a n o t h e r t h i n g i s t h e s l a n d e r o u s p r o p a g a n d a , p r o v o c a t i o n , t h e a d v o c a t i o n o f war, i n s t i g a t i o n o f s a b o t a g e and o t h e r c r i m e s , t h e s p r e a d i n g o f r u m o r s , e s p e c i a l l y l e a d i n g t o t u r m o i l and d i s o r d e r i n t h e l i f e o f s o c i e t y . S u c h p r o p a ganda, even i f i t a f f e c t s i d e o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n s i s not the i d e a l s t r u g g l e , but a r a p i d undermining a c t i v i t y , an i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s o f o t h e r s t a t e s . " t  146.  N.S.  K h r u s h c h o v , W o r l d W i t h o u t arms, v o l 2,  147.  N.S.  K h r u s h c h o v , S p e e c h e s and  Interviews,  157.  p.  p.  66.  148. G. F r a n t s o v , " C h t o s k r y v a e t s a z a l o z u n g o m ' i d i o l o g i c h e s k o g o r a z o r u z h e n i . j a , " Kommunist, 1962:13, p . 118. T  149. D.T. S h e p i l o v , " F o r P r a v d a , Mar. 3 , 1957.  Further Flowering  of Soviet  Art,"  150." I l y a E h r e n b u r g , "A N e c e s s a r y E x p l a n a t i o n , " L i t e r a t u r n a . j a G a z e t a , F e b . 9 and. 12, 1957. Translated i n Current Digest of the S o v i e t Press, I X : 6 , p. 26. 151.  Ibid,  p.  25.  152. Ju.A. K r a s i n , " V . I . L e n i n i p r o b l e m y m i r n o g o v o v a n i j a , " V o p r o s y F i l o s o f i i , 1960:9, p. 19. 153. G.I. T u n k i n , "XXI s j e z d KPSS i mezhdunarodnoe S o v e t s k o e G o s u d a r s t v o i P r a v o , 1959*6, p. 18. 154.  K r a s i n op.  155.  N.S.  c i t , p.  sosushestpravo,"  19.  K h r u s h c h o v , F o r V i c t o r y , p.  215.  156. Ju.A K r a s i n , " M i r n o e s o s u s h c h e s t v o v a n i e - objektivnaja noebxodimost r a z v i t i j a chelovecheskogo obshchestva," Voprosy F i l o s o f i i , 1961:8, p. 4 6 . T  157..  Ibid,  p.  46.  158.  Ibid,  p.  47.  159.  Ibid,  p.  47.  160.  Ibid,  p.  47.  161. N.S. ticheskogo  K h r u s h c h o v , "Za novye pobedy m i r o v o g o d v i z h e n i j a , Kommunist, 1961:1, p. 12.  kommunis-  162. J u . Kormnov, V. T e r e k h o v , V. C h e r t k o , " V y i g r y s h v r e m e n i v e k o n o m i c h e s k o m s o r e v n o v a n i i dvux s i s t e m , " Kommunist, 1961: 13, p. 6 3 .  233  163.  K r a s i n , o p . c i t , p . 4-6.  164.  N.S. K h r u s h c h o v , S p e e c h e s a n d I n t e r v i e w s ,  165.  N.S. K h r u s h c h o v , F o r V i c t o r y , p . 146.  p . 256.  166. Ju.A K r a s i n , " V . I . L e n i n 1 p r o b l e m y m i r n o g o v o v a n i j a , " V o p r o s y F i l o s o f i i , 1960:9, p . 19.. 167.  Ibid,  p . 19.  168.  Ibid,  p . 20.  169.  Ibid,  p. 18.  sosushchest-  170. F o r an i n t e r e s t i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f p e a c e f u l c o l l a b o r a t i o n s e e R . I . A a r o n and P.A. R e y n o l d s , " P e a c e f u l C o e x i s t e n c e and P e a c e f u l C o o p e r a t i o n , " P o l i t i c a l S t u d i e s , IV:3 (1956, pp.283296). T h e s e w r i t e r s draw a c l e a r d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n c o e x i s t e n c e and c o o p e r a t i o n . P e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , t h e y s a y , stems " f r o m a p h i l o s o p h y o f c o n f l i c t w h i c h c o n c e i v e s t o be i m p o s s i b l e any r e l a t i o n b u t one.of h o s t i l i t y between s t a t e s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c s y s t e m s " ( p . 2 8 5 ) . On t h e o t h e r hand, " p e a c e f u l c o o p e r a t i o n has no s u c h p r e c i s e o r e x a c t s i g n i f i c a n c e as p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e , b u t i s a t e r m u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e m a c h i n e r y and p r o c e d u r e s n o t m e r e l y f o r r e g u l a t i n g b u t f o r i m p r o v i n g and d r a w i n g t o g e t h e r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s t a t e s . I t i s a c c o r d i n g l y f o u n d e d upon judgments a s t o t h e n a t u r e o f m o r a l i t y , o f man, and o f human s o c i e t y v e r y d i f f e r e n t f r o m those o f Marxism. I t u l t i m a t e l y r e s t s upon a n i d e a l u n i t y d e r i v e d from, t h e S t o i c d o c t r i n e o f t h e m o r a l community o f a l l mankind and t h e C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e o f t h e b r o t h e r h o o d o f man" ( p . 285). I a g r e e w i t h A a r o n a n d R e y n o l d s t h a t p e a c e f u l coexistence i s a philosophy of h o s t i l i t y . However, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e and p e a c e f u l c o o p e r a t i o n a r e n o t s e p a r a t e t h e o r i e s i n S o v i e t i d e o l o g y : c o o p e r a t i o n i s merely a minor aspect o f coexistence. M o r e o v e r , w h i l e i t may w e l l be t r u e t h a t c o o p e r a t i o h , d e f i n e d b y A a r o n and R e y n o l d s , d o e s f i n d i t s r o o t s i n t h e ' d o c t r i n e o f t h e b r o t h e r h o o d o f man*, b u t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a n a l y s e d i n t h a t way i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e t h e o r y of coexistence. As a m a t t e r o f f a c t , a l l t h e a s p e c t s o f peaceful coexistence o u t l i n e d i n t h i s chapter u l t i m a t e l y f i n d t h e i r r o o t s i n ' b o u r g e o i s and p r e - b o u r g e o i s thought. But t h e S o v i e t s have i n t e r p r e t e d a l l o f them, i n c l u d i n g c o o p e r a t i o n , i n terms o f t h e Marxian d o c t r i n e o f c o n f l i c t . I n t h i s way c o l l a b o r a t i o n . I s s e e n a s a method o f e x a c e r b a t i n g c l a s s c o n f l i c t s wherever ' h o s t i l e ' c l a s s e s e x i s t . As s u c h i t i s a n y t h i n g b u t a s y s t e m f o r ' i m p r o v i n g and d r a w i n g t o g e t h e r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n s t a t e s ' . However, t h e i n a d e q u a c y o f t h e Soviet interpretation of peaceful cooperation i n peaceful c o e x i s t e n c e may w e l l s p r i n g f r o m t h e i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e o r i e s such as A a r o n and R e y n o l d p o s t u l a t e . T  234  CHAPTER  Lenin's  d e c i s i o n t o accede t o a " b r e a t h i n g  i m p o s e d by R u s s i a n reached  VII  space"  w e a k n e s s was a p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n  t h r o u g h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f e c o n o m i c and m i l i t a r y  reality.  As s u c h i t was, i n a s e n s e , a n e g a t i o n  socialist  moral o b l i g a t i o n t o ' l i b e r a t e ' ,  r e v o l u t i o n ' , the workers o f the world  from  by  of the  'permanent  capitalist  exploitation.  Likewise,  as the " b r e a t h i n g  space" lengthened  a period of s o - c a l l e d 'peaceful coexistence' first the  had t h e u n d e r l y i n g m o t i f  c o n t r a d i c t i o n between p o l i t i c a l  obligation this  continued  reason  Stalin not  of " l i v e  native  (which a t  and l e t l i v e " )  n e c e s s i t y and m o r a l  t o plague Soviet t h e o r e t i c i a n s . F o r  peaceful coexistence  during the reign of  remained l a r g e l y as an u n e x p l o i t e d  until  entity.  a f t e r the death o f S t a l i n t h a t the moral  - "either  into  peaceful coexistence  o r t h e most  I t was alterdes-  t r u c t i v e war i n h i s t o r y " - f o r c e d t h e c o m m u n i s t s t o a fundamental reassessment same t i m e evitable bility they  certain victory  of their  concepts,  foreign policy.  At the  s u c h a s t h e myth o f t h e i n -  o f s o c i a l i s m and t h e myth o f t h e i n f a l l i -  o f communism,  1  were so b a s i c t o M a r x i s t  c o u l d n o t be abandoned.  theory  that  Thus t h e r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f  235  the  theory  of p e a c e f u l coexistence  (1953-63)  years  has  resulted  during the  last  i n a compromise t h e o r y  which the moral r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  o f a v o i d i n g war. h a s  reconciled with  of the  world  the  attainment  critique  chapter w i l l  possibilities  It w i l l  be  limited  'capitalism'  morality.  As  'Western'  coexistence  s o v e r e i g n t y and  1  non-interference  of states.  title  c r e a t i o n s of the  mental concepts their  tradition."  "five  social  "moral substance  deeply  for  com-  prin-  respect, non-aggression, affairs,  peaceful  that these order',  of the Western humanist  The  These t h e  o f the  i n judging  'new  of  a blueprint  countries internal  ence i t i s e s s e n t i a l t o u n d e r s t a n d are not  of  a theory  ideals.  integrity,  Now,  path.  possibility  overthrow  c o e x i s t e n c e " : mutual  i n other  and  the Marxist  i s essentially  territorial  of  world.  of c e r t a i n e t h i c a l  o f peaceful'  and  point  i t s goals  such i t p r o f e s s e s to p r o v i d e  attainment  equality  governing  l e a d i n g to the  m u n i s t s have lumped u n d e r t h e  find  communist  broad  t o a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  i n the  Peaceful  and  of  been  assessment  from the  o f a t t a i n i n g them by  of peaceful coexistence  ciples  a t t e m p t an  of peaceful coexistence  view of the moral imperatives  the  goals  in  hegemony.  This f i n a l  the  ten  coexist-  principles but  are  tradition,  rooted  communists have a c c e p t e d  i n the  funda-  which  Christian  certain  tenets  236 of'classical'liberalist  ethics (equality, sovereignty,  so  o n ) a n d have s u b o r d i n a t e d  them t o t h e  As  such the  peaceful  the  S o v i e t s present  f o l l o w i n g terms: the  systems both  seek t o r e a l i s e  i n t e r n a t i o n a l behavior. r e p r e s s i o n and its  exploitation  g o a l s , and,  'classical' their  But  in fact  nineteenth  o t h e r h a n d , by capitalist morality  cisely  i n the  fact  that  r e l a t i o n s w h i c h has such  Western e t h i c a l  of p e a c e f u l coexistence On  the  Western world  the  their 'higher'  of  lies the  international  unattainable  appeals  pre-  t o a l l who  ideal. cherish  values.  - from a Western p o i n t  aims.  from  universal  external to  h i t h e r t o b e e n an  Viewed i n t h i s m o r a l and  of  (imperfect' capitalism.  principles  'peaceful coexistance'  one  of  e t h i c s from  of those  i t i s hot  ' t r u e ' humanist  of  s y s t e m , on  l e a d mankind t o a  by  of  single  the danger of p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  'original',  As  norms  passing  socialist  realisation  e t h i c a l norms n e v e r a c h i e v e d  'socialist'  a system a  3  in  capitalism, regressed  ' f r e e i n g ' humanistic  through the  Now  attain  since the  The  distortions, w i l l  the  c a p i t a l i s m as  century  ultimate attainment.  and  certain ethical  cannot  has,  class struggle.  coexistence  'capitalist'  and  one  sense the  utterly  uncompromising  of view - u n r e a l i s t i c ,  become c l e a r  in their  hand, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e  to restore i t s l i b e r a l  terms  purposes c a l l s upon  and the  h e r i t a g e a l i e n a t e d by  237 the  bourgeoisie.  politicians  On t h e o t h e r ,  a continuous  a t t h e same t i m e  Therefore,  peaceful  values,  alienation  and m i l i -  t o oppose s u c c e s s f u l l y  to preserve coexistence  international  more t h e i r  fundamental  leading ultimately to their  from t h e people  liberties.  attempts t o f o r c e the  Western r u l e r s to a l i e n a t e s t i l l political  f o r Western  economic, p o l i t i c a l  t a r y threat which i s d i f f i c u l t and  i t presents  they  moral  g o v e r n and t h e e s t a b l i s h -  ment o f t h e ' d i c t a t o r s h i p o f t h e p r o l e t a r i a t . ' why  S o v i e t t h e o r e t i c i a n s p r o f e s s t o see ' s e m i - f a s c i s t '  manifestations cation  arising  i n our s o c i e t y .  The  'intensifi-  o f c o n t r a d i c t i o n s ' and t h e d e e p e n i n g o f t h e  "general of  Here i s  crisis  of capitalism"' ' - the professed 4  peaceful coexistence  - i s , i n the l a s t  purposes  analysis, a  d e e p e n i n g o f t h e m o r a l g u l f s e p a r a t i n g t h e r u l e r and t h e ruled.  Of  course,  though t h e S o v i e t s present  peaceful  coexistence  a s t h e c h o i c e between t h e r e a l i z a t i o n  realization  o f Western standards  havior, they ian  guise ciple.  'higher'  international principles  T h e s e new p r i n c i p l e s  internationalism' equality  o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l be-  themselves declare that a f t e r the p r o l e t a r -  r e v o l u t i o n new  prevail.  o r non-  - will  will  - known a s ' p r o l e t a r i a n  b r i n g about an e s s e n t i a l i n -  o f s t a t e s i n which i n t e r f e r e n c e - under the  of 'brotherly co-operation'  - will  Thus, p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e ,  be a f i r s t  t h o u g h b a s e d on  prin-  238 Western standards an  attempt t o subvert  with  others  ness. in  of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  that  pacifism, tion  and r e p l a c e t h o s e  can only  (manifested  very  i n 'ban-the-bomb'  values  cannot  reject  of i t s double 'the f i v e  rejecting  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , we must p r e v e n t from l e a d i n g t o s u b v e r s i o n W e s t e r n dilemma i s t h i s : the r e a l i s a t i o n  or modifying fail  fight.  we must  o u r own h e r i t a g e .  the f i v e  strive  nature.  principles of  principles  by t h e S o v i e t b l o c .  of the ideals  and so o n , w h i l e  professedly  a response t o p e a c e f u l  fact  peaceful coexistence' without  will  conscious-  demonstrations,  f o r which they  due t o t h e v e r y  On t h e one hand we  ity,  standards  of'peaceful coexistence ^  West h a s n o t y e t f o u n d  coexistence,  for  fact  e t c . ) are u n w i t t i n g l y working f o r the destruc-  of those  The  same  offend humanitarian  I n t h i s way, s u p p o r t e r s  t h e West  ethics i s i n  The  continuously  of sovereignty,  a t t h e same t i m e e i t h e r  t h e p r a c t i c e o f them.  Russia  t o r e c o n c i l e t h e dilemma.  equal-  curtailing  b e l i e v e s we  Indeed,  one c a n o n l y  admire S o v i e t t h e o r e t i c i a n s f o r working out t h e d o c t r i n e of  peaceful coexistence  sented  so s k i l l f u l l y .  peaceful coexistence  T h e y have  as a seemingly i n s o l v a b l e  dilemma and h a v e . l e f t i t s s o l u t i o n d i r e c t l y  But if  t h e West w i l l  i t permits  ception  itself  pre-  fail  up t o u s .  i n s o l v i n g i t s dilemma  t o be g o v e r n e d b y t h e S o v i e t  of peaceful coexistence.  In counteracting  only  conthis  239 conception mind. East  t h e West must b e a r c e r t a i n  First, and  peaceful coexistence  West f o r w o r l d  as a f i g h t  t o the  Therefore,  we  tend  to the  must n o t ,  boundaries.  the  soil  As  The  The  5  of the  The  views i t  likewise. done,  ex-  to exist within i t s  s t r u g g l e must be  USSR a s w e l l as t h e  G u s t a v W e t t e r has  East  West must do  right  in  s t r u g g l e between  a s G e o r g e Kennan has  S o v i e t Union the  own  is a  domination.  finish.  precepts  carried  onto  'capitalist  camp'.  said;  I t w o u l d be a d a n g e r o u s d e l u s i o n t o e x p e c t that i n the p u r s u i t of 'coexistence', S o v i e t communism may somehow l i b e r a l i z e i t s e l f t o the extent of permanently t o l e r a t i n g another w o r l d v i e w i n a d d i t i o n t o i t s own w i t h i n i t s sphere of c o n t r o l . To do s u c h a t h i n g w o u l d i m p l y an abandonment o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e u n i t y o f t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , and h e n c e o f Marxism i t s e l f  Secondly, are  not  the  static  'classical'  'five  principles  conceptions  period  d e r i v i n g from  of c a p i t a l i s m , but  have u n d e r g o n e g r a d u a l and of the  interpret  them i n s u c h a way  adapting  humanist  continuous  inception  while  of p e a c e f u l  tradition.  coexistence'  some m y t h i c a l  dynamic change The  since  which the  West must  as t o p r e s e r v e  them t o t h e modern  ideas  their  re-  spirits  world.  I n s h o r t , t h e West must a b a n d o n i t s h i t h e r t o largely It  defensive  must go  role  i n respect't<® p e a c e f u l  b o l d l y t o the  i d e o l o g y o f i t s own  o f f e n s i v e by w o r k i n g  which c o u n t e r a c t s  Soviet  coexistence. out  an  ideology  and  240  at the  the  same t i m e . a n s w e r s t h e  citizens  is  no  of  peaceful  the  i n the  conceivable  West.  West.  reason  coexistence  deep s p i r i t u a l  I f i t can why  do  i t cannot  will fall  not  need  of  this  - and  - then  the  to the  East  there fruits but  to  241  • References  1. See: F r a n c o i s H o u t i s s e , L a C o e x i s t e n c e P a c i f i q u e : E s s a i d A n a l y s e , P a r i s , Nouveau Monde, 1953. T  2. H. M a r c u s e , S o v i e t M a r x i s m : A C r i t i c a l A n a l y s i s . Y o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958, p. 199.  New  3. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t by a M a r x i s t w r i t e r i s f u l l y i n l i n e w i t h the Western c o n c e p t i o n of i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s : " S u f f i c e i t t o say t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f p e a c e f u l c o e x i s t e n c e has n o t h i n g i n common e i t h e r w i t h t h e n o t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h i n g g r e a t power s p h e r e s o f i n f l u e n c e or w i t h the e q u a l l y r e a c t i o n a r y i d e a t h a t the p e o p l e o f any n a t i o n s h a l l be d e t e r r e d i n t h e i r i n a l i e n a b l e r i g h t t o a l t e r , change, o r r e p l a c e t h e i r own f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t o r s y s t e m o f s o c i e t y w h e n e v e r o r however t h e y may so c h o o s e . " (Eugene D e n n i s , "On P e a c e f u l C o e x i s t e n c e : A C r i t i q u e o f 'A W e s t e r n V i e w ' , " W o r l d M a r x i s t R e v i e w , ( A p r i l I 9 6 0 ) , p. 25.) 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