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The archaeology of EeQw:1 : a burial site near Chase, British Columbia Sanger, David 1962

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THE ARCHAEOLOGY OF EeCw:l A BURIAL SITE NEAR CHASE, BRITISH COLUMBIA by DAVID SANGER B.A., University of New Brunswick, 1959 A Thesis submitted i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of MASTER IN ARTS i n the Department of Anthropology and Sociology We accept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required standard The University of B r i t i s h Columbia October 1962 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Plead of my Department or by his representatives. It i s understood that copying or publication of th i s thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date £2e$f /. i ABSTRACT The archaeology of EeQw:l, a b u r i a l s i t e near Chase i n south central B r i t i s h Columbia, i s a study of a recent Plateau s i t e i n t e r r i t o r y inhabited ethnographically by Shuswap. In September 1960 a small f i e l d party sponsored by the National Research Council of Canada and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia excavated f i v e b u r i a l s from the desecrated s i t e . A l l the interments were flexed, either to the l e f t or to the r i g h t , and were placed i n unmarked p i t s . Among the col l e c t i o n s from EeQw:l were many varied and f i n e l y fashioned a r t i f a c t s including: chipped points and knives, jade c e l t s , s t e a t i t e pipes and carvings, antler digging s t i c k handles and harpoons, a n t l e r carvings, bone awls, whale bone clubs, sea-s h e l l s , a b i r c h bark container, copper ornaments and a wooden mask. An examination of assemblages of other Plateau s i t e s indicated that material from Lytton, Kamloops, and the upper Columbia River i n Washington corresponded most closely with the material from EeQw:l. A close c o r r e l a t i o n between the assemblage from EeQw:l and one from Kamloops excavated by H. I . Smith, leads to a tentative proposal of four periods i n the recent prehistory of the Kamloops - Chase Area. A review of published and unpublished sources of Plateau prehistory indicated many extra-areal influences, especially from the Coast. In the Canadian Plateau, a number of t r a i t s may be at t r i b u t a b l e to the Coast S a l i s h , and include mortuary practices and a r t i f a c t s . I t has often been suggested that crematory b u r i a l practices i n the Plateau could be traced to the Tsimshian v i a the C a r r i e r ; however, i n the l i g h t of the probable antiquity of cremation b u r i a l i n the Plateau, t h i s p o s i t i o n i s no longer tenable. Using ethnographic accounts of Plateau s o c i e t i e s , Ray has divided the culture area i n t o s i x sub-areas. These divisions can also be demonstrated i n the archaeological record. F i n a l l y , the study has rai s e d a number of pertinent questions and problems concerned with Plateau prehistory. The answers to many of these queries may be gained through more fieldwork i n any one of three selected locations: the C h i l c o t i n , the Lytton to L i l l o o e t region, and the Kamloops - Chase Area. v i CONTENTS Chapter Page ABSTRACT PREFACE i i i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i v INTRODUCTION 1 Purpose and Problems 1 I THE SETTING 5 Ecology 5 Geology 7 Recent P o p u l a t i o n 9 I I EXCAVATIONS 11 F i e l d Techniques 11 The B u r i a l s 11 I I I ARTIFACTS 17 I n t r o d u c t i o n 17 Stone Industry 18 A n t l e r Industry 44 Bone Industry 55 S h e l l Industry 65 Wood Industry 67 Tooth Industry 69 Metal Industry 70 v i i Chapter Page IV ANALYSIS OF EeQw:l DATA AND ETHNOGRAPHIC COMPARISONS 72 Age of Burials 72 The B u r i a l Complex 73 A r t i f a c t Analysis 75 Art 76 Summary 83 Ethnography of the Shuswap 83 Recent and P r e h i s t o r i c Culture 88 Summary 90 V PLATEAU BURIAL PATTERNS 91 Chronological C r i t e r i a and Terminology 91 Canadian Plateau Burials 93 American Plateau Burials 100 Summary ...» 106 VT ARCHAEOLOGY OF THE KAMLOOPS - CHASE AREA 108 Introduction 108 Bu r i a l Sites Near Kamloops 110 Conclusions 113 Summary 115 _ • • • V l l l Chapter Page VII NEW LIGHT ON RECENT CULTURE HISTORY IN THE PLATEAU 117 Coastal Influences on I n t e r i o r Cultures 117 O r i g i n of the Wood C i s t B u r i a l 126 Origin and Spread of Cremation Burials 128 Plateau Burials Patterns 132 Population Movements within the Plateau ..... 134 Ethnographic Subdivisions i n the Plateau .... 134 Conclusion 139 BIBLIOGRAPHY 142 EXPLANATION OF FIGURES 148 FIGURES 151 MAPS 174 ix LIST OF TABLES Tabl e Page I DIMENSIONS AND FREQUENCIES OF CHIPPED POINTS 22 II DIMENSIONS OF DRILLS 25 III DIMENSIONS OF HANDMAULS 26 IV DIMENSIONS OF MORTARS 27 V DIMENSIONS OF ABRASIVE STONES 29 VI DIMENSIONS OF CELTS 31 VII DIMENSIONS OF CELTS FROM PLATEAU SITES 32 VIII DIMENSIONS OF PIPES 34 IX DIMENSIONS OF DIGGING STICK HANDLES 46 X DIMENSIONS FOR TYPE B HARPOONS 48 XI DIMENSIONS OF ANTLER POINTS 49 XII DIMENSIONS OF ANTLER WEDGES 49 XIII DIMENSIONS OF ANTLER CLUBS 52 XIV DIMENSIONS OF BONE PROJECTILE POINTS 58 XV DIMENSIONS OF CREASERS 59 XVI DIMENSIONS OF BONE CHISELS OR WEDGES 60 XVII DIMENSIONS OF MINIATURE BOWS 64 XVIII DIMENSIONS OF COPPER ORNAMENTS 71 XIX ARTIFACTS WITH INCISED GEOMETRIC MOTIFS 80 XX ITEMS PRESENT AT EeOw:l NOT INCLUDED IN RAY'S LIST 89 XXI SELECTED ARTIFACT COMPARISONS FROM KAMLOOPS AND EeOw:l 112 X LIST OF MAPS MAP Page 1 P a c i f i c Northwest P l a t e a u 175 2 E t h n o - L i n g u i s t i c Boundaries i n the P a c i f i c Northwest P l a t e a u 176 3 Chase and EeQwrl 177 4 Excavation S i t e s at EeQw:l 178 i i i PREFACE E a r l y i n the summer of I960, road widening operations i n the Neskainlith Indian Reserve unearthed human sk e l e t a l material. An e l d e r l y resident of the Reserve reburied the bones a short distance away and i n the course of digging a new grave struck an aboriginal b u r i a l , uncovering a large nephrite adze blade. Word of h i s f i n d spread r a p i d l y , and very shortly, the s i t e was almost t o t a l l y demolished by hordes of r e l i c and rock c o l l e c t o r s searching f o r the semi-precious mineral, "jade." The aboriginal b u r i a l ground i s on the r i g h t bank of the South Thompson River, three miles west of the town of Chase (Map 3). Chase, at the outlet of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake, i s located thirty-seven miles east of Kamloops i n south c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia. In July I960, Dr. C. E. Borden of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia and Mr. W. Duff of the P r o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a made separate t r i p s to the l o c a l i t y . Despite the extensive despoliation of the s i t e , Dr. Borden and Mr. Duff f e l t that some undisturbed areas might l i e beneath the r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s 1 back-dirt. I t was decided that a small excavation party should investigate the b u r i a l ground and attempt to salvage some information which might otherwise be l o s t . i v The three-man crew, made up of Messrs. Peter Harrison, Derek Smith, and David Sanger, excavated sections of the s i t e during September i960. Mr. Harrison was i n charge of the f i e l d work. A grant from the National Research Council of Canada to Project Director, Dr. C. E. Borden, financed the three^week expedition. Acknowledgements I should l i k e to acknowledge the cooper-ation and assistance given to the project i n the f i e l d by the following gentlemen: Mr. George Manuel, President of the Native Brotherhood who f i r s t directed our attention to the s i t e ; Chief Anthony August and Mr. Isaac W i l l a r d of the Neskainlith Reserve; Chief Michel Antony of the Adams Lake Reserve; Mr. Peret, Superintendent of the Kamloops Indian Agency; Mr. Peter Harrison, Graduate student at the University of Arizona; and Mr. Derek Smith student at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The s i t e analysis was made possible through the help of a number of s p e c i a l i s t s f o r whose assistance I am most appreciative. Dr. Ian M. Cowan and Mr. R. J . Drake of the Department of Zoology i d e n t i f i e d many of the faunal remains. Dr. William Mathews of the Department of Geology, and Dr. John K. Stager of the Geography Department discussed the regional geology and topography with me. Mr. W. S. Adams of the Metallurgy Department examined and measured the copper specimens. Drs. M i l l e r and Spiro, Radiologists, donated t h e i r time and equipment to X-ray a bark container. Mr. C l i v e Larter made f i n e l i n e drawings of many of the a r t i f a c t s , and Mr. James B. Garner of the Vancouver C i t y Museum kindly-provided much unpublished information on Columbia River b u r i a l s i t e s . I should l i k e to thank the o f f i c i a l s of the Kamloops Municipal Museum f o r allowing me to study and photograph t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n from Chase. Mr. Wilson Duff of the P r o v i n c i a l Museum photographed many of the private c o l l e c t i o n s . Without t h i s f i n e series of colour s l i d e s , much of the assemblage could not have been described. To my wife, Mary Jo Sanger, goes a great measure of appreciation. She provided encouragement and f i n a n c i a l support, and devoted many long hours a s s i s t i n g i n the analysis and i n proof reading the manuscript. I am gr a t e f u l f o r the many h e l p f u l comments and suggestions made by the Committee members; Dr. Harry B. Hawthorn, Head of the Department of Anthropology and Sociology at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia; Dr. Wayne P. Suttles of the Department of Anthropology; and Mr. Wilson Duff of the Pr o v i n c i a l Museum i n V i c t o r i a , B. C. To my thesis advisor, Dr. Charles E. Borden, I am most g r a t e f u l . Dr. Borden i n i t i a t e d the project, directed the f i e l d work, and guided the report. He offered many valued c r i t i c i s m s and suggestions throughou t the analysis and i n the presentation. 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose and Problems The purpose of t h i s report i s to present an archaeo-l o g i c a l analysis of the b u r i a l s i t e near Chase and to u t i l i z e the r e s u l t s i n an attempt to determine the e x t r a - l o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the s i t e as well as i t s position i n the pre-h i s t o r y of the Plateau of northwestern America. The Plateau l i e s between the Rocky Mountains on the east and the Cascade Mountains on the west. As a c u l t u r a l area the Plateau includes groups l i v i n g east of the Rockies, the Kutenai and Flathead (Ray 1939si), and the Athapaskans to the north. Temporally, the concern i s with the recent, or l a s t f i v e hundred years. S p a t i a l l y , i t i s necessary to consider both the American and Canadian Plateau, although the stress w i l l be on the Canadian s i t e s . Archaeologists have been active i n the Plateau since the end of the nineteenth century. Except f o r H. I. Smith's early work i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the American Plateau has received most of the attention. Smith's publications concern the r e s u l t s of h i s investigations around Lytton (1899 a), Kamloops (1900), and the Nicola Valley (1900) i n south c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia (Map 1). The coverage i n these early monographs i s s e l e c t i v e . While the more usual a r t i f a c t s are s l i g h t e d , the curious and 2 decorated objects are described i n d e t a i l . Furthermore, Smith's conclusions n a t u r a l l y are vague and tentative. Since he detected no evidence of c u l t u r a l change, he assumed that the pre h i s t o r i c cultures did not d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y from those described i n ethnographies. The analysis of the data from the s i t e near Chase permits a r e - i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Smith's work and, when combined with h i s Kamloops data (1900), suggests a number of c u l t u r a l changes i n the Kamloops-Chase area during the l a s t few hundred years of prehistory. The r e s u l t s of a b r i e f s i t e survey i n the Okanagan Valley and Similkameen Val l e y by Caldwell (195*0, a preliminary report on excavations i n cen t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia (Borden 1952 b), and an account of a s i t e survey i n the East Kootenay region (Borden 1954 a) complete the l i s t of archaeological publications concerned s p e c i f i c a l l y with the Canadian portion of the Plateau. Among the numerous monographs, a r t i c l e s , and theses, bearing on the l a s t f i v e centuries of American Plateau pre-h i s t o r y , three publications stand out. The f i r s t i s the Archaeology of The Dalles-Deschutes Region by Strong, Schenck, and Steward (1930). The authors are p a r t i c u l a r l y interested i n the evidence of Chinook influences on the Dalles' cultures, and i n the o r i g i n o f the Columbia River cremation complex. 3 The Middle Columbia River i s covered i n part by a det a i l e d monograph by Osborne (1957), who reports on a series of b u r i a l s and habitations i n the McNary Reservoir Region (Map 1 ) . Among h i s many conclusions i s the statement that wood c i s t b u r i a l s are a Canadian Plateau innovation which dif f u s e d south to the Columbia River. Osborne i s also concerned with the o r i g i n of cremation. The t h i r d report of major proportions deals with the Upper Columbia River s i t e s from the Grand Coulee to the Inter-national Boundary (Map 1 ) . This work by C o l l i e r , Hudson, and Ford (19*+2) records the largest c o l l e c t i o n of b u r i a l s and a r t i f a c t s ever discussed i n a publication dealing with recent Plateau prehistory. Among the problems connected with recent Plateau prehistory, three loom as of special importance. Perhaps the most v i t a l i s the e f f e c t of extra-areal influences. In the Canadian Plateau the impact of the Coastal cultures i s p a r t i -c u l a r l y noticeable. I t i s important to determine the extent of these influences, both i n time and i n space. Secondly, the theories of Strong et aj.. (1930: )+9,50), Osborne (1957*156), and Ray (1939*65) concerning the o r i g i n of the Columbia River cremation complex must be re-examined. Working with archaeological and ethnological materials, these authors regard the apparently recent adoption of cremation by 1+ the C a r r i e r from the Tsimshian as the s t a r t of crematory-practices i n the Plateau. F i n a l l y , on the basis of ethnographic data, Ray (1939:ll*5-ll<-9) discusses a number of sub-divisions within the Plateau culture area. He recognizes three l a t e r a l sub-areas: (1) the Athapaskan i n the north; (2) the Interi o r S a l i s h i n Canada; and (3) the American Plateau groups. Cutting across these l a t e r a l d i v i s i o n s are three l o n g i t u d i n a l sub-areas formed, according to Ray, by the influence of extra-Plateau cultures. The l a t e r a l d i v i s i o n s , Ray maintains, are not a r e s u l t of extra-areal influences. More archaeological data from recent s i t e s i s now av a i l a b l e , and i t may be possible to apply Ray's sub-areal concept to th i s information and perhaps project the ethnographic d i v i s i o n s back in t o p r e h i s t o r i c times. 5 CHAPTER I Ecology The Inte r i o r Plateau of B r i t i s h Columbia i s not a plateau i n the sense of a high t a b l e - l i k e formation dropping off at the edges. Rather, i t i s an elevated area hemmed i n on the west by the Coast Range, i n the east by the Columbia System, and on the north by the Skeena and Omineca Mountain ranges. In the south the Plateau extends beyond the Inter-national Boundary. Deeply i n c i s e d i n t o the Plateau are several r i v e r s , the largest of which are the Fraser, Thompson, and Columbia r i v e r s (Map 1) . Chase, i n the south central section of the Canadian Plateau, has an elevation of 1200 feet above sea l e v e l while the elevation of the surrounding h i l l s i s 5000 feet (Map 3 ) . The annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n i n the Chase region averages twenty inches. The winters are short and cold, the summers long and hot. At Kamloops, thirty-seven miles west of Chase, the mean minimum February temperature i s 7°F and the mean maximum tempera-ture f o r July i s 90°F. Usually the climate of Chase i s somewhat more temperate. The fauna of the area i s r i c h and varied. The wooded slopes and high open meadows of the surrounding h i l l s provide 6 i d e a l conditions f o r Wapiti (Cervus canadensis nejsoni) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus). Some other mammals are: mountain caribou (Rangifer arcticus montanus): mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus): Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis  canadensis canadensis); black bear (Euarctos americanus cinnamomum): beaver (Castor canadensis leucodontus) and (Castor c_. sa e i t t a t u s ) ; y e l l o w - b e l l i e d marmot (Marmota f l a v i d e n t r i s avara): porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum nigrescens): hare (Lepus americanus columbien-s i s ) and (Lepus a. p a l l i d u s ) ; red s q u i r r e l (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus  s t r e a t o r i ) : coyote (Canis latrans l e s t e s ) : wolf (Canis lupus  columbianus): red fox (Vulnes f u l v a sj>.); badger (Taxidea taxus  taxus). Moose (Alces americana andersoni) are recent a r r i v a l s i n the Chase area (Cowan and Guiget i 9 6 0 ) . Numerous v a r i e t i e s of f i s h can be caught i n the South Thompson River and adjoining L i t t l e Shuswap Lake. Prom a human subsistence point of view, the, anadromous f i s h are the most important; they include: sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka); Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawvtscha); lake trout (Salvelinus  namavcush): and steelhead or Kamloops trout (Salmo g a i r d n e r i ) . Non-anadromous f i s h include: kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka); pygmy whitefish (Prosopium c o u l t e r i ) : and squawfish (Ptvchocheilus  oregonenses) (Carl et a l . 1959)• Migratory water birds of multitudinous species frequent the r i v e r and nearby lakes. Members of the grouse and ptarmigan family (Tetraonidae) are year around residents of the area. 7 A great v a r i e t y of edible plants i s available. A complete l i s t i n g , based upon the notes of J. T e i t , has been prepared by Steedman (1928). Geology The e a r l i e s t geologic formation i n the area i s the Cache Creek Series dating from the Carboniferous Period, and consisting of limestones and quartzites. More recent are the volcanic rocks of the T r i a s s i c age Nicola Series (Dawson 1877* 17k). The sculpturing of the land-forms around Chase i s attributed to the l a s t period of g l a c i a t i o n . During that time a vast inland lake caused the sedimentation of f i n e s i l t s which i n time accumulated into the massive white s i l t deposits found along the Thompson River (Dawson 1877). Following the formation of the s i l t s , reposing chunks of i c e became entrenched and, i n the course of melting, deposited trapped moraine deposits of sand and gravel. Thus the Chase area i s t y p i c a l k e t t l e topography, marked by i s o l a t e d sand and gravel deposits l i n i n g the gouged out basins or ke t t l e s . The b u r i a l s i t e i s located on a r i d g e - l i k e formation extending i n t o the f l o o d p l a i n of the South Thompson River. The ridge i s a quarter of a mile north of the r i v e r , approximately three miles west of Chase, and on the boundary l i n e between the Adams Lake and the Neskainlith Indian reserves (Map 3). Following 8 the standard Canadian S i t e Designation Scheme (Borden 1952), the s i t e has been assigned the code symbol EeQwtl. A secondary road l i n k i n g Kamloops with Chase along the r i g h t bank of the South Thompson River, has cut through the western end of the s i t e i s o l a t i n g a flat-topped section over two hundred feet long, and averaging t h i r t y f e e t wide (Map 4 , F i g . 1 ) . Most of the b u r i a l s were inter r e d i n t h i s portion; however, i n the summer of 1961, a few a d d i t i o n a l inhumations were unearthed west of the road by a r e l i c c o l l e c t o r . EeQw:l, l i k e the surrounding countryside, was covered with grass and used f o r pasture p r i o r to the discovery of the b u r i a l s . The ridge i s composed of three d i s t i n c t s o i l types: (1) a white s i l t y - c l a y r e f e r r e d to by Dawson as the white s i l t s (I877); (2) a very clean, l i g h t brown, coarse sand with some gravel, and (3) a dark organic overburden. The sand deposits overlie the s i l t s on the southern h a l f of the s i t e at depths ranging between a few inches to three f e e t . On the northern side, the sand and gravel deposits may be up to twelve feet deep— the height of the ridge above the f l o o d p l a i n which i s made up of white s i l t s . A p r o f i l e of the western side of the road cut i l l u s t r a t e s the varved white s i l t s on the l e f t and the brown sand and gravels on the r i g h t ( Fig. 2 ) . The p r o f i l e i s v i r t u a l l y the same throughout the s i t e , except that the contact between the sand and the s i l t s may become more v e r t i c a l to the east. 9 The exact circumstances that created t h i s geological formation are not known. As indicated previously, the area i s marked by kettles entrenched into the Pleistocene white s i l t deposits. I t may be that the same meander of the South Thompson River which caused the extensive f l o o d p l a i n , also scoured away a portion of a ket t l e leaving one side perched at a height of about twelve feet. This theory may explain two features of the s i t e : (1) the curve of the formation as the edge of a k e t t l e ; and (2) the overlying sands and gravels deposited by the melting i c e on the inner edge of the k e t t l e . Recent Population In ethnographic times a vast portion of the Canadian Plateau was occupied by groups of Indians speaking the Inter i o r S a l i s h languages (Map 2). The groups occupying the t e r r i t o r y around Shuswap Lake and the South Thompson River are c a l l e d the Shuswap. While the term "Shuswap" re f e r s to a l i n g u i s t i c sub-d i v i s i o n of Interior S a l i s h , i t i s also applied to the people themselves and the i r culture. A subdivision of the Shuswap known as the Lake Band resided at the v i l l a g e of Hala'ut, located on the north bank of the South Thompson River three to four miles below the outlet of L i t t l e Shuswap Lake ( T e i t 1909:461). Some of the habitation p i t s s t i l l e x i s t , but because of many years of plowing, the outlines have been almost ob l i t e r a t e d . Other p i t s have been destroyed by 10 the encroaching r i v e r which continually undercuts the banks. Due to lack of time, these p i t s were not excavated, and i t i s not known i f they are connected with the b u r i a l s at EeQw:l. The housepits are located one-half mile upstream from EeQw:l. 11 CHAPTER I I Excavations F i e l d Techniques Standard excavational procedures were followed. The s i t e was surveyed and a f i v e - f o o t g r i d system established. Each f i v e - f o o t square was i d e n t i f i e d by distance and d i r e c t i o n from a fi x e d datum and, whenever possible, excavations were controlled by the g r i d (Figs. 5»6). In areas where sand overlay the s i l t s , excavations were terminated upon s t r i k i n g the l a t t e r , since any intrusions i n t o the s i l t would have been p l a i n l y v i s i b l e . Where no s i l t s underlay the sand deposits, excavations were c a r r i e d down f o r a depth of from four to f i v e f e e t . Small pointed mason's trowels were used u n t i l a b u r i a l was contacted. The f i n a l exposing, prior to photographs and sketches, was done with dental hand tools and brushes. The a r t i f a c t s were taken to the Archaeological Laboratory of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia fo r further study, and the sk e l e t a l material shipped to the University of Toronto for examination. The B u r i a l s Excavations were i n i t i a l l y confined to the extreme eastern end of the s i t e where the r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s had dug only a few exploratory p i t s which apparently produced negative r e s u l t s . The very close proximity of one such p i t to B u r i a l 1 can be seen 12 i n F i g . 3 . B u r i a l s 1-3 were encountered at the eastern extremity of the ridge (Map k). B u r i a l k was discovered midway between the ends of the s i t e i n a small undisturbed area beneath a foot of r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s 1 backdirt (Map h). B u r i a l 5 was located under a similar amount of backdirt i n the western end (Map k). The l a s t interment, B u r i a l 6, was found i n an un-disturbed area but at a depth of only a few inches. The dispersed bones were so badly d i s a r t i c u l a t e d that i t could not be determined i f a complete i n d i v i d u a l was represented. Further inves t i g a t i o n of t h i s inhumation was prohibited by lack of time. The b u r i a l may have been disturbed by animals. B u r i a l s 1-5 were a l l primary; that i s , i n normal anatomical a r t i c u l a t i o n . The bodies were flexed moderately to very t i g h t l y and i n t e r r e d at depths between twelve and twenty inches. A complete analysis of the b u r i a l complex i s given i n Chapter IV. Here, the l o c a t i o n and p o s i t i o n of the b u r i a l s i s presented i n outline form, together with the associated a r t i f a c t s and t h e i r f i e l d catalogue numbers. The l o c a t i o n of each b u r i a l i s plotted on Map k. B u r i a l 1 ( F i g . 3) Location: Square E. 170«-175», N. 0 ' - 5 t ; depth 12". P o s i t i o n : On back, oriented east-west, s k u l l to east and facing west, legs t i g h t l y flexed and turned to l e f t . 13 Sex: Age: A r t i f a c t s : B u r i a l 2 ( F i g . h) Location! Position: Sex: Age: A r t i f a c t s : B u r i a l 3 (Figs. 7, 8) Unknown Young c h i l d 101 - Antler digging-stick handle 102 - Antler sap scraper 103 - Unknown antler object 10"+ _ " H " shaped piece of antler 105 - D r i l l e d antler fragment 106 - Carved antler fragment 107 - Dentalium s h e l l necklace Square E. 175'-180' , N. 0 ' - 5 ' ; depth 12"-14". On back, oriented east-west, s k u l l to east and facing north, legs t i g h t l y . flexed and turned to l e f t , s k u l l turned to r i g h t . Unknown Young c h i l d None Location: Square E. 1 7 5 ' - l 8 0 ' , S. 0 « - 5 f ; depth 20", P o s i t i o n : On l e f t side and flexed, oriented north-south, s k u l l to north and facing south. Ik Sex: Male Age: k2-k7 years A r t i f a c t s : 81 - Birch bark basket (?) fragments 108 - Chipped knife 109 - Chipped knife 110 - Chipped knife 111 - Chipped point 112 - Obsidian chip 113 - Bone point Ilk - Bone creaser 115 - C r y s t a l quartz burin 116 - C r y s t a l quartz chipped knife 117 - Raw material - chalcedony 118-120 - Smoothed stones 121 - Chipped point 122 - Nephrite adze blade 123 - Raw material - chalcedony 12^ - Bone point (center point of l e i s t e r ) 125-126 - Bone points (side points of l e i s t e r ) 127 - Bone needle 128 - Fragment of bone a r t i f a c t 129-130 - S p l i t beaver i n c i s o r s 131 - Bone point 132 - B i r d ulna 133 - B i r d bone 15 B u r i a l 4 ( F i g . 9) Location: P o s i t i o n : Sex: Age: A r t i f a c t s : 134 - Antler point 135 - Bone point 136 - S p l i t marmot i n c i s o r 137 - Fragments of small mammal bones 138 - Small b i r d bones 139 - Bone point or barb 140 - B i r d beak 141 - Bone point 142 - Bone point 153 - P h y l l i t e slabs 157 - Antler fragment Square E. lOO'-Ktf', S. l5 f-20'; depth 20". On r i g h t side and flexed, oriented north-south, s k u l l to north and facing west. Unknown Infant l 1+3-l lf4 - Miniature bone bows 145 - Pierced s h e l l ornament 146 - Antler fragment 147 - Antler fragments 148 - Pierced s h e l l ornament 149 - B i r d beak 156 - White ochre 16 B u r i a l 5 (Figs. 10, 11) Location: P o s i t i o n : Sex: Age: A r t i f a c t s : Square E. 35 ' - l +0 , } N. 0«-5 l and E. l+O 1-^*, N. 5 ' - 1 0 ' ; depth 1 0 M - l 6 " . On r i g h t side and flexed, oriented east-west, s k u l l to west and facing south. Male Adult 150 - Nephrite adze blade 151 - Fragmentary wooden object 152 - Red ochre 153 - Bone creaser 155 - Birch bark container B u r i a l 6 Location: P o s i t i o n : Sex: Age: A r t i f a c t s : Square E. 20«-25', S. 5 I - 1 0 I , and E. 2 0 , - 2 5 l , S. 1 0 ' - 1 5 ' ; depth 2". Unknown. - b u r i a l badly disturbed Unknown Unknown 72 - Chalcedony scraper 159 - Gaming piece (?) Also some charred antler and bone fragments. 17 CHAPTER I I I A r t i f a c t s I n t r o d u c t i o n This s e c t i o n presents a d e s c r i p t i o n and a n a l y s i s of a r t i f a c t s from EeQw:l. Approximately f o u r hundred ob j e c t s are dis c u s s e d , of which only one hundred and t h i r t y are i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia's c o l l e c t i o n . The remaining pieces are p r i v a t e l y owned or i n the Kamloops M u n i c i p a l Museum. The a r t i f a c t s i n the U n i v e r s i t y c o l l e c t i o n have been catalogued under the s i t e code EeQw:l, while the Kamloops Museum has assigned other numbers t o many of i t s pi e c e s . Reference t o specimens w i t h -out catalogue numbers s i g n i f i e s p r i v a t e ownership. The t o t a l assemblage from EeQw:l cannot be described i n the d e s i r e d d e t a i l s ince many of the pieces are not a v a i l a b l e f o r study. A great q u a n t i t y of m a t e r i a l was dispersed from the immediate area before the a r r i v a l of the f i e l d party i n September, i 9 6 0 . F o r t u n a t e l y , Mr. Wilson Duff v i s i t e d Chase i n J u l y and photographed the major c o l l e c t i o n s . I t i s from h i s colour transparencies t h a t many of the a r t i f a c t s are discussed. However, photographs, r e g a r d l e s s of q u a l i t y , cannot s u b s t i t u t e f o r l a b o r a t o r y study of i n d i v i d u a l specimens, and some l i m i t a t i o n s should be noted. F i r s t , the two-dimensional aspect of a photo-graph r u l e s out t h i c k n e s s measurement of a r t i f a c t s ; and second, 18 when a scale i s included and the camera lens i s not poised d i r e c t l y above the subject, a certa i n degree of d i s t o r t i o n i s introduced. A percentage d i v i s i o n of the assemblage, industry by industry, i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y meaningful i n t h i s report, as select i v e gathering by the r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s may have resulted i n a higher than normal incidence of decorated a r t i f a c t s , and an unusually low proportion of flake knives and scrapers. Stone Industry Chipped Points The absence of an aboriginal pottery t r a d i t i o n has encouraged P a c i f i c Northwest archaeologists to trace c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s through chipped point analysis. Several typologies have been invented, but so f a r no one system has been universally accepted (Strong et a l . 1930:785 C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:58; King 1950: • Daugherty 1956:233; Osborne 1957:73; Cressman i 9 6 0 : kk). The e a r l i e s t and perhaps most widely used point typology, i s based upon the presence or absence of a stem. This system w i l l be employed with some modifications to describe the points from EeQwtl. This typology i s designed f o r t h i s s i t e only, and i s not intended as a universal system. Two weaknesses of the Stemmed - Non-Stemmed Typology have become evident from past usage: the absence of a f e a s i b l e method of in d i c a t i n g s i z e , and the lack of a standard descriptive 19 terminology. The addition of a small postscript to indicate a point larger or smaller than a set mean dimension has been used by at least one Plateau worker (Garth 1952:51). This system is useful only within a specific sample however, and assists very l i t t l e in assemblage comparisons. The second weakness of the typology, the lack of standard outline descriptions, can be overcome by a standard nomenclature. "Oval" points are widest at a point equidistant from either extremity, while "leaf" shaped points exhibit a shift in maximal width towards one extreme. Stemless triangular points are subdivided according to whether the sides are straight or excurvate. Incurving triangular points do not occur in the sample. "Pentagonal" points are five-sided, often contracting towards the base; however, only when the contraction is pronounced enough to produce shoulders are the points placed in the stemmed category. Outlines of points displaying these basic characteristics are illustrated in Figure 13. Typology of Chipped Points N - Not Stemmed A. Leaf Shaped (a) Pointed at both ends (b) Pointed at one end 1. Convex base 2. Straight base Concave base 20 I. Serrated along one side I I . Serrated along both sides I I I . Notched more than twice on either side B. Triangular (straight sides) B(r) Triangular (excurvate sides) (a) Straight base (b) Concave base (c) Convex base (d) Concave base with single spur 1. Unnotched sides 2. Notched once on either side 3. Notched more than once on one side and once on the other I. Notched i n center of base I I . Two notches i n center of base C. Pentagonal (a) Concave base (b) Straight base (c) Convex base D. Ovoid (a) Pointed at both ends (b) Pointed at one end 1. Straight base 21 S - Stemmed Points A. Contracting Stem (a) Shouldered (b) Barbed 1. Straight base 2. Concave base 3. Convex base B. P a r a l l e l Sided Stem (a) Shouldered 1. Straight base C. Expanding Stem (a) Shouldered (b) Barbed 1. Convex base 2. Straight base 3. Concave base I. Serrated along one side I I . Serrated along both sides Table I indicates the marked numerical s u p e r i o r i t y of non-stemmed over stemmed points. Most common are the small side notched straight-based triangular points (NBa2,) ( F i g . 13, E ) . The NBb3 and a l l i e d forms, which comprise over sixteen per cent of the sample, are notched at l e a s t three times, once on one side and twice on the other. An i n t e n t i o n a l variant of the triangular side notched point i s the form with a u n i l a t e r a l spur (NBd) of which there are eight examples ( F i g . 13, F ) . 22 TABLE I DIMENSIONS AND FREQUENCIES OF CHIPPED POINTS Point Num- Maximum Minimum Maximum Minimum Mean Mean % of Type ber Length Length Breadth Breadth Length Breadth Total (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) NAa 2 12.0 11.0 5-0 4.0 11.5 ^-5 1.8 NAal 1 7.0 7.0 2.0 2.0 7-0 2.0 0.9 NAb2 2 10.8 9.8 k.O 3.5 10.3 3.7 1.8 NAb2 I I 4 5.0 4.5 3.0 0.5 4.7 1.5 3.6 NAb2 III 2 4.0 3.7 1.6 1.3 3.8 1.4 1.8 NAb3 II 1 3.0 3.0 0.5 0.5 3.0 0.5 0.9 NBa2 21 4.7 1.8 2.2 1.1 2.6 1.6 19.1 NAal 1 5.2 5.2 4.5 4.5 5.2 4.5 0.9 NBa2 I 1 1.9 1.9 1.3 1.3 1.9 1.3 0.9 NBa2 I I 1 2.8 2.8 1.7 1.7 2.8 1.7 0.9 NBa3 4 4.0 2.5 2.0 1.7 3-1* 1.8 3-6 NBbl 1 3.7 3.7 1.7 1.7 3.7 1.7 0.9 NBb2 2 2.9 2.5 1.8 1.5 2.7 1.6 1.8 NBb3 9 **.5 2.0 2.0 1.5 3.2 1.8 8.2 NBcl 2 4.3 4.0 2.3 2.0 4.2 2.1 1.8 NBc2 2 2.7 2.5 1.7 1.7 2.6 1.7 1.8 NBd2 4 5.0 2.4 2.0 1.3 3.7 1.7 3.6 NBd3 3 3-3 2.6 1.9 1.6 2.9 1-8 2.7 NB(r)al 1 4.3 4.3 3-3 3.3 ^.3 3-3 0.9 NB(r)a2 3 2.3 1-9 1-7 1.3 2.2 1.5 2.7 NB(r)a3 1 3.4 3.k 1.3 1.3 3.4 1.3 0.9 NB(r)bl 1 15.0 15.0 5.9 5.9 15.0 5.9 0.9 NB(r)c2 1 3.2 3.2 1.5 1.5 3.2 1.5 0.9 NB(r)d3 1 2.6 2.6 1.9 1.9 2.6 1.9 0.9 NCa 5 11.0 3.5 5.5 2.0 7.3 3.8 4.5 NCb 6 6.0 2.3 4.0 2.0 4.4 2.9 5.4 NCc 1 4.4 4.4 2.3 2.3 4.4 2.3 0.9 NDa 4 10.2 5.5 *+.l 2.2 7.7 3.0 3.6 NDbl _2 8.9 7.2 3.^ 2.5 8.0 3.0 1.8 21 m° SAal 5 7.5 2.5 3.0 1.0 4.9 1.9 4.5 SAa2 1 6.4 6.4 2.7 2.7 6.4 2.7 0.9 SAa3 1 4.0 4.0 2.5 2.5 *+.0 2.5 0.9 SCal 1 2.2 2.2 1.3 1.3 2.2 1.3 0.9 SCa2 4 16.0 1.7 5.5 1.1 5.9 2.6 3.6 SCa2 II 1 6.5 6.5 3.0 3.0 6.5 3.0 0.9 SBal 2 13.0 6.7 4.9 4.0 9.8 4.5 1.8 SCb3 _2 3.2 2.8 2.6 1.7 3.0 2.2 1.8 17 17.0 Tota l : 110 100.0% 23 Leaf shaped points, constituting f i f t e e n per cent of the sample, are generally larger than the triangular forms. Of in t e r e s t i s the number of serrated forms. As i s true of the multi-notched points, the extra flakes removed would not appear to make the a r t i f a c t more e f f i c i e n t ( F i g . 13, C). Most of the points are made from glassy basalt. A few are of chalcedony, chert, and c r y s t a l quartz. The high percentage of non-stemmed points (83$) i s not exceeded at any other Plateau s i t e . Two-thirds of the points from the Upper Columbia are stem-l e s s , while downstream s i t e s have increasingly higher percentages of stemmed points ( C o l l i e r et aJL. 19*+2:63; Osborne 1957«80; Garth 1952:51; Strong et a l . 1930:79). Collections from two s i t e surveys along the banks of the Fraser River between Lytton and K e l l y Creek have a high proportion of stemmed points ( H i l l s 1961; Sanger 196lb) . The multi-notched points appear to be a Canadian Plateau feature, as they are reported only from Lytton and Kamloops (Smith l899a:136; 1900:409). Chipped knives. B i f a c i a l l y chipped a r t i f a c t s which are not points or d r i l l s are c l a s s i f i e d as knives. The series of eighteen i l l u s t r a t e d i n Figure 15 were found during excavation or gathered from the surface, where they had been discarded by c o l l e c t o r s . The r e j e c t i o n of the flake knives i n favour of more f i n e l y fashioned objects may be responsible f o r the low incidence of chipped knives i n private c o l l e c t i o n s . 2k Some of the knives are merely retouched f l a k e s , but others suggest that d e f i n i t e forms were intended. Notable among these are two large c a r e f u l l y flaked ovoid knives averaging 16 cm long and 9 cm wide. Many of the larger "points" are probably knives. Glassy basalt was the most commonly used material; however, some examples are made of quartz and chalcedony (Fig. 15; A,B,C.). Chipped Scrapers. Scrapers are distinguished from knives on the basis of f l a k i n g ; the former are u n i f a c i a l l y worked and the l a t t e r b i f a c i a l l y . The d i s t i n c t i o n i s somewhat a r b i t r a r y , and i t i s recognized that the function may not be wholly dependent upon the method of manufacture. Although there are nineteen scrapers i n the University c o l l e c t i o n ( Fig. 1 6 ) , none are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the numerous photographs of private assemblages, a s i t u a t i o n which again r e f l e c t s the sel e c t i v e c o l l e c t i n g by r e l i c hunters. The scrapers are small and based on t h i n f l a k e s . No examples of end scrapers were noted, nor are there indications that any of the recovered specimens were hafted. Basalt and occasionally chalcedony flakes were made into scrapers. D r i l l s . The s i x available d r i l l s from EeQw:l can be subdivided i n t o three types: Type A i s lanceolate ( F i g . 1 3 ; M); Type B has a p a r a l l e l - s i d e d p i l e and an expanding triangular base (F i g . 1 3 ; N); Type C has a tapering p i l e with projections near 25 the base (F i g . 13; 0 ) . A l l types are characterized by high median ridges. TABLE I I DIMENSIONS OF DRILLS Type Length Width P i l e Width Base Material (cm) (cm) (cm) A (EeQw:l-*t5) 5.0 0.5 Basalt A 5.2 1.0 Quartz A 5.7 1.3 Chalcedony B 2.9 0.35 1.6 Basalt B 6.0 0.7 2.5 Chalcedony C 5.5 1.25 2.0 Basalt Burin. A single quartz c r y s t a l burin i s associated with B u r i a l 3- (EeQw:l - 115; F i g . 14; A). A pyramidal graving point i s formed by detaching three flakes p a r a l l e l to the long axis of the a r t i f a c t . This graving t o o l i s 6.0 cm long and 2.0 cm wide. Hand Mauls and/or Pestles. The eleven hand mauls from the s i t e are a l l c i r c u l a r to e l l i p t i c a l i n cross section, and have tapering shafts. Two d i s t i n c t types of mauls are recognized: Type A, which has sharply f l a r i n g ends, and Type B with s l i g h t l y 26 expanding ends (F i g . 17). Six mauls are c l a s s i f i e d as Type A and f i v e as Type B. Possibly some of the mauls served as pestles or performed a dual function. Two zoomorphic mauls are included i n the Type A group. Well defined eyes and a prominent nose suggest that animals are represented. Two of the Type B mauls have nipple or cone tops, while the remainder are rounded. TABLE I I I DIMENSIONS OF HAND MAULS A r t i f a c t Length Diameter of Material Comment Number S t r i k i n g Head (cm) (cm) A675 23.0 10.2 Greywacke Zoomorphic A676 20.0 10.2 Greywacke Zoomorphic 10.2 7.5 Greywacke The d i s t r i b u t i o n of hand mauls i n the Plateau i s discussed by Smith (1899 b). Excavations i n the region since have not s i g n i f i c a n t l y affected the s i t u a t i o n . Hammer Stones. Four hammer stones of na t u r a l l y rounded igneous rock have been found at EeQw:l. No measurements are ava i l a b l e . 27 Mortars. Two mortars or bowls are present. The larger mortar (Fig. 17:A) i s made from a granite boulder. Except f o r the smooth depression, the o r i g i n a l surface of the boulder i s not modified. The smaller bowl i s fashioned from a coarse igneous rock; the surface of the depression i s not smoothed. TABLE IV DIMENSIONS OF MORTARS Diameter Height Diameter of Depth of Depression Depression (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) 20.0 15.0 11.0 6.5 8.5 8.0 5.7 2.0 Smith reports very few mortars from Kamloops (1900: 413), and only two are mentioned from the Upper Columbia s i t e s ( C o l l i e r et a l . 19>+2:75). None are present i n the McNary Reservoir assemblages described by Osborne (1957*63). Mortars appear i n quantity i n L i l l o o e t s i t e s and at Lytton (Smith l899a:139); they are also common at The Dalles (Strong et a l . 1930:97, 98). Shaft Smoothers. Eleven sandstone shaft smoothers are represented i n the EeQw:l assemblage. They are either hemi-c y l i n d r i c a l or rectangular i n cross section, and grooved once down 28 the center of the f l a t surface. In a l l instances the groove i s p a r a l l e l to the long axis of the a r t i f a c t . Two hemi- c y l i n d r i c a l shaft smoothers (728, 729), which are reputed to have been found i n the same grave, are of equal si z e . They are 15-0 cm long and 4.5 cm wide. The groove i s 0.75 cm wide. No dimensions are available f o r the remaining nine examples. Shaft smoothers are common i n many Plateau s i t e s . Generally, they are made from rough textured rock, are hemi-c y l i n d r i c a l i n cross section, and occur i n p a i r s . Differences may appear i n the positioning of the groove. The examples from EeQw:l, Kamloops (Smith 1900:419), the Upper Columbia ( C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:75) and The Dalles (Strong et al.. 1930:91) are characterized by a groove down the center of the f l a t surface, while some specimens from Lytton (Smith l899a:146) and the McNary Reservoir Region have a diagonal groove (Osborne 1957s6l, 62). Abrasive Stones. There are eleven basalt or a r g i l l i t e abrasive stones. Ten are roughly rectangular i n outline with square to rounded ends and p a r a l l e l sides ( F i g . 18; A). One whetstone (EeQw:l-64) i s ovoid i n outline, with a pronounced groove worn obliquely across the surface from end to end (Fi g . 18; B). The a r t i f a c t i s 9*5 cm long, 7.0 cm wide, 0.8 cm thick. The groove i s 0.6 cm wide. The arithmetic mean of the dimensions i n Table 'V i s 9.6 cm f o r the length and 1.8 cm for the width. 29 TABLE V DIMENSIONS OF ABRASIVE STONES Length Width Comment (cm) (cm) 8.25 2.0 EeQw:l-l - one end exhibits a series of ground facets. ( F i g . 18; A). 14.8 3.2 Square ends, one side excurvate, other side straight. 10.5 Square ends, sides s t r a i g h t . 9.5 2.2 Rounded at both ends, sides s t r a i g h t . 8.5 2.0 Rounded at both ends, sides s t r a i g h t . /9.8 1.3 Square end, sides straight. Decorated with three oblique l i n e s at one end and four l i n e s at the other end. 10.3 1.0 Rounded both ends, side rounded. 8.0 1.5 Square ends, sides straight. 7.5 1.2 Square at one end, rounded at the other, sides straight. 7.5 1.2 Rounded at both ends, sides s t r a i g h t . Abrasive stones occur commonly i n the Canadian Plateau (Smith l899a:144; 1900:147), but infrequently i n American s i t e s ( C o l l i e r et al.. 1942:75; Osborne 1957:56; Strong et a l . 1930:104, 105). The apparent s c a r c i t y of whetstones i n the American Plateau may r e f l e c t a l e s s common use of grinding techniques than i n the Canadian Plateau. 30 Celts or Adze Blades. Twenty-six c e l t s from the various c o l l e c t i o n s were available f o r study. They are made from nephrite or jadeite, two hard minerals which can be p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d only by laboratory analysis. The term "jade" i s commonly used to describe these minerals (Hurlbut 1955* 369). The c e l t s are large and rectangular. Many r e t a i n evidence of sawing i n manufacture, while others are more c a r e f u l l y f i n i s h e d . Most have asymmetric straight b i t s and some are bevelled at both ends. The colouring ranges from dark green to white with green being more common. The arithmetic mean length of the c e l t s i s 19.7 cm and the mean width 4 .5 cm. Two-thirds of the c e l t s range i n length from 15.0 cm to 24.0 cm. The longest example measures 38.0 cm and the shortest 5*6 cm (Table VI). Jade c e l t s occur i n most Plateau s i t e s . The examples from the Canadian Plateau are usually characterized by straight b i t s , while c e l t s from the Columbia River s i t e s are more often symmetrically bevelled ( C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:70, 71); Osborne 1957:59). Since the size of c e l t s i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the Plateau may be s i g n i f i c a n t , Table VII gives the maximum, minimum, and mean lengths of adze blades from various Plateau s i t e s . Table VII reveals a trend to larger c e l t s i n the northern and eastern sections of the Plateau. The preference appears to be c u l t u r a l and does not r e f l e c t the a v a i l a b i l i t y of TABLE VI 31 DIMENSIONS OF CELTS A r t i f a c t Figure Length Width Thick-Number ness Comments (cm) (cm) (cm) EeQw:l-4l 20 ;B 26.5 5.0 1.2 Groove along one edge EeQwsl-50 20;C 14 .5 5.5 Rectangular EeQwsl-122 20; A 11.0 5.5 1.4 Rectangular EeQw:1-140 20 ;D 16.0 4.5 1.2 Rectangular A 703 38.0 6.5 Rectangular, largest 21.5 5.0 Rectangular 12 .5 3.0 Tapering from b i t 20.0 5.0 Rectangular 19.5 4.0 Rectangular 21.6 4 .6 Rectangular-white 15.6 4.2 Rectangular 15.0 3.4 Rectangular 28.0 2 .3 Rectangular, convex bevel 20.4 4.2 Rectangular, groove down center of face 26.8 4.4 Rectangular, groove down center of face 26.6 4.0 Celt blank, no b i t 5.6 4.4 Rectangular, white 14.0 4.4 Tapering from bit-white 14.2 5.0 Tapering from bit-white 24.0 4 . 8 Rectangular 21.0 5.2 Rectangular 17 .8 4.0 Tapering from b i t 27.6 4 .6 Rectangular 15.0 4.0 Tapering from b i t 21.2 4.4 Rectangular 17.0 4.4 Rectangular 32 TABLE VII DIMENSIONS OF CELTS FROM PLATEAU SITES Sit e L o c a l i t y Sample Number Maximum Length (cm) Minimum Length (cm) Mean Length (cm) Lytton ? 10.0 2.5 ? McNary Reservoir »+ 13.9 h.7 9.7 L i l l o o e t (Wilson C o l l e c -tion) 7 20.0 k.o 11.0 Upper Columbia 7 31.0 8.8 17.5 Nicola Lake ? 35-0 5.0 ? EeQw:l 26 38.0 5.6 19.7 the raw material, as most of the jade i n the Canada Plateau probably comes from the Lytton area. The c e l t s from the Upper Columbia s i t e s are of nephrite and anthophyllite. The l a t t e r mineral was apparently imported from the Skagit River region of northwestern Washington ( C o l l i e r e£ a l . 19 l +2:ll5). Pipes. Only tubular pipes made of st e a t i t e occur at EeQw:l. A l l are of the trumpet type; that i s , the bowl f l a r e s out sharply, l i k e a trumpet b e l l ( F i g . 19). Of eleven specimens f i v e are complete and the remainder fragmentary. Many of the pipes are decorated with i n c i s e d l i n e s , and en c i r c l i n g bands carved i n r e l i e f . These bands, which sometimes 33 r i s e as much as 1.5 cm, occur at the junction of the bowl and the stem. One small pipe i s decorated with a human head carved on the bowl i n b a s - r e l i e f ( F i g . 26). The d e t a i l s of sculpture w i l l be discussed i n conjunction with other s t e a t i t e carving. None of the pipes has a mouth d i s c , nor has any been perforated f o r suspension. Numerous tubular pipes have been reported from other parts of the Plateau. Some trumpet pipes from Kamloops are v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l with those from EeQw:l (Smith 1900:429). From Lytton, Smith ( l 8 9 9 a : l 5 4 , 155) describes trumpet and cigar shapes, both with mouth discs. A group of s i x pipes viewed i n a c o l l e c t i o n from the L i l l o o e t area display an outline which i s mid-way between the sharply f l a r i n g trumpet bowl v a r i e t i e s and the gently expanding cigar forms. They are undecorated and have mouth d i s c s . Many pipes, both trumpet and cigar shaped, are reported from the American Plateau. Five complete specimens and one fragmentary example are discussed by C o l l i e r et aj_. (1942:72-74) from the Upper Columbia. Two of the complete specimens are cigar pipes with mouth dis c s , while three trumpet forms lack the disc and expand sharply to form the bowl. A fragment of a trumpet pipe has a single raised band at the junction of the bowl and the stem. Five whole and fragments of two other pipes from the McNary Reservoir are described by Osborne (1957s57-59). Three TABLE VIII DIMENSIONS OF PIPES Length of Bowl and Stem Length of Stem Length of Bowl Diameter of Bowl Width of Stem Comments (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) (cm) 20.2 14 .5 5.7 3.2 1.5 Single band, 4^  l i n e s at base of stem, complete 15.8 10.5 5.3 3.2 1.6 Three bands 12.2 8.3 3.9 2.8 1.4 Single band 6.6 2.6 4 .0 2.5 1.3 Two i n c i s e d l i n e s on stem 6.0 3.0 3.0 2.0 1.1 Face carved on side of bowl, single band (Fig.26) 13.0 8.0 5.3 2.8 1.3 Two bands 14 .0 14 .0 — 1.5 Two bands, no bowl 3.6 2.5 Single band, no stem 4.2 2.8 No stem 5.2 3.5 — No stem Lo - r cigar forms have mouth discs; the trumpet pipes are smaller and lack the d i s c . Six tubular pipes, also from the McNary Reservoir, are i l l u s t r a t e d by Garth (1952:40-43). They are a l l trumpet forms; however, the f l a r e of the bowls i s not pronounced. Five of the s i x examples have mouth d i s c s . Twelve trumpet pipes are reported from The Dalles (Strong e£ al.. 1930:Plate 24). A l l the complete specimens have a single raised band at the base of the gently expanding bowls. S u f f i c i e n t data are available now to make some comments on the d i s t r i b u t i o n and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of tubular pipes, although a discussion of evolution of form i s necessarily l i m i t e d by the lack of absolute dates. Numerically, trumpet pipes predominate, e s p e c i a l l y at Kamloops, Ee"Qw:l, and the Upper Columbia. West of Kamloops and the Upper Columbia s i t e s , the occurrence of sharply f l a r i n g bowls becomes decidedly l e s s pronounced; at the McNary Reservoir they disappear e n t i r e l y i n the cigar pipe, and along the Fraser an almost hybrid form i s evident. Mouth di s c s , non-existent at EeQw:l and on the Upper Columbia, are common on trumpet pipes elsewhere, and i n v a r i a b l y occur on cigar shapes. Ground Slate Knives. Ground slate knives are rare at Ee'Qwsl. Of two specimens found, only one can be described i n d e t a i l ; the other has been l o s t . The l a t t e r a r t i f a c t was about 36 15 cm long, shaped in t o a f l a t point with two cutting edges each doubly beveled, and with a deep concave base producing two spurs. A second slate a r t i f a c t i s a large tanged knife. I t measures 21.0 cm long and 6.2 cm wide. The wide blade i s hexagonally ground and smoothly f i n i s h e d , except f o r the tang and basal region which i s rough. The roughness which extends beyond the shoulders, forming a triangular area on the blade, suggests that the f i n a l polishing took place af t e r the a r t i f a c t was hafted. Ground slate knives are t y p i c a l of western Canadian s i t e s . They occur sporadically at Kamloops (Smith 1900:41*+), and not at a l l i n the Upper Columbia s i t e s or the McNary Reservoir ( C o l l i e r e l al.. 1942; Osborne 1957:65; Borden n.d. b_), Smith (I899a:l40) reports a considerable amount of ground slate from Lytton; however, surface c o l l e c t i o n s from s i t e s on the Fraser between Lytton and K e l l y Creek contain only two pieces. Stone Saws. While there are no a r t i f a c t s which are d e f i n i t e l y saws, four slabs of phylite (EeQw:l-l5) included with B u r i a l 3 may have been intended f o r sawing. The slabs are rectangular and measure 20 cm by 12 cm and are 1 cm thick. Stone saws are found infrequently. Smith notes several i n h i s Lytton c o l l e c t i o n (1899a:143), but remarks on t h e i r absence at Kamloops (1900:147). 37 Smooth Pebbles. Three small smooth pebbles (EeQw:1-118-120) were associated with B u r i a l 3 . T e i t (1930:196) reports that smooth pebbles were often picked up and kept as f e t i s h e s . Smoothed pebbles are also reported as grave additions by Smith from Lytton (I899a:l60) and by Osborne (1957:68) from the McNary Reservoir. Pigments. Ochre was associated with B u r i a l s 4 and 5 and was noted i n various c o l l e c t i o n s . A small chunk of white ochre, possibly volcanic ash, was found with B u r i a l 4 (EeQw:l- l56), and a larger piece of red ochre, or hematite (EeQw:l-l52), was associated with B u r i a l 5» A private c o l l e c t i o n includes a sizeable piece of red ochre which was apparently found i n a birch bark basket fragment. I t i s not known i f the association of pigment and basket i s true. Ochre stains appear on several a r t i f a c t s i n c o l l e c t i o n s ; however, the c o l l e c t o r s ' children, playing with the material, may be responsible f o r the colouring. Red ochre i s reported from The Dalles (Strong e_t a l . 1930:117), the McNary Reservoir (Osborne 1957:91), the Upper Columbia ( C o l l i e r et. a l . 191+2:76), Cache Creek (Borden n.d. a), Lytton (Smith l 8 9 9 a : l 5 5 ) , and Kamloops (Smith 1900:430). Osborne (1957*96) also records green (from tuffaceous sandstone) and white (volcanic ash) ochre from the McNary Reservoir. 3 8 Gaming Piece ( ? ) . A small s t e a t i t e a r t i f a c e (Eeil2w:l-75, F i g . 21) associated with B u r i a l 6 i s 2.0 cm long, and 1.5 cm wide. The ends of the object are squared off by grinding. The piece i s h e m i - c y l i n d r i c a l i n cross section, and grooved the length of the f l a t surface. This piece i s decorated with a single zigzag l i n e at each end and three sets of i n c i s e d l i n e s i n groups of f i v e . On the basis of design and size a function such as gaming piece i s suggested. The shape and size of the groove suggests that the a r t i f a c t was o r i g i n a l l y the stem of a s t e a t i t e pipe which was modified to i t s present shape, perhaps a f t e r being broken. St e a t i t e Serpent. A serpent, carved of black s t e a t i t e (A680; F i g . 24A) i s 14.75 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. The carving represents a rattlesnake (Crotalus y i r i d i s ) with the r a t t l e s indicated by s i x i n c i s e d e n c i r c l i n g l i n e s . A "VM i n c i s e d on both the dorsal and v e n t r a l side separates the head from the body. The eyes are mere s l i t s without further d e t a i l . S t e a t i t e Bears or Coyotes. Two f i g u r i n e s , perhaps intended to represent bears or possibly coyotes, are carved i n s t e a t i t e (A677, A 6 7 8 ; F i g . 22). The smaller figure ( A 6 7 8 ; F i g . 22), i s 5.0 cm high and 2.5 cm wide. The head, t i l t e d upwards, i s the most i n t r i c a t e l y carved portion of the f i g u r e . Small erect pointed ears are set off from the r e s t of the head by a deep l i n e i n c i s e d from one side of the head to the other. There i s a t h i n eyebrow ridge which broadens as i t approaches the center of the face where i t forms the beginning of a snout. Another l i n e i s i n c i s e d below the eyes. 39 The eyes are l e n t i c u l a r , tending to f l a t t e n on the lower edge, with a large i r i s i n b a s - r e l i e f following the outline of the eye. The mouth i s open with prominent l i p s . Teeth are represented by eight shallow l i n e s i n c i s e d into each jaw. N o s t r i l s are not represented on the bulbous nose. A deep i n c i s i o n separates the head from the body and i s the only trace of a neck. In contrast with the head, the body i s rudimentarily carved. A band curves from the back of the neck to form the hind quarters upon which the f i g u r i n e r e s t s . Branching off the upper portion of t h i s band are the forelimbs which slope down towards the base of the f i g u r e and then bend upwards at the elbow. Forepaws r e s t on either side of the abdomen with i n c i s e d l i n e s i n d i c a t i n g claws. The hind legs curve around to the front but do not meet; between th e i r extremities i s d r i l l e d a hole. This hole i s 1 cm deep and 0.8 cm wide. A larger hole i s d r i l l e d into the base; i t i s 1.25 cm deep and 1.25 cm wide. These holes do not connect. The second figure (A677; F i g . 22A) d i f f e r s both i n size and complexity from the carving discussed above. I t i s 7.5 cm high and 3«25 cm wide. The head of t h i s bear i s t i l t e d upwards although not to the same degree as that of the small sculpture. The ears are neither as pointed nor as high, but the eyebrow ridges are more prominent. The eyes approximate the c l a s s i c Northwest Coast type (Duff 1956:51). They are dispro-portionately large, the upper l i d forming a crescent which ko extends from the snout almost to the i n c i s e d l i n e of the neck. The i r i s i s small, c i r c u l a r , and carved i n r e l i e f . D i r e c t l y below the i r i s , the e y e l i d dips abruptly then r i s e s to meet the upper l i d . There i s a shallow depression below the eyes. The muzzle ends i n a nose complete with two n o s t i l s separated by a septum. The mouth i s open with prominent l i p s . Teeth are carved into the jaws; the canines are represented by two s o l i d bars of stone while sixteen other teeth are carved i n r e l i e f on the mandible. There i s a roughness between the canines to represent i n c i s o r s . A c o n s t r i c t i o n separates the head from the body. The forelimbs and paws are i n the same pos i t i o n as those of the smaller animal. Hing limbs are absent, and there are no holes d r i l l e d i n t o the base. A groove e n c i r c l e s the figure 2 cm from the base. B i r d Bowl. A zoomorphic bowl, representing a b i r d (F i g . 23) i s made from green s t e a t i t e . I t s exact dimensions cannot be given as no scale was included i n the photograph from which th i s study was made; however, the carving f i t s into the palm of the hand. The head i s t i l t e d upward and i s not i n t r i c a t e l y carved. There i s a pronounced ridge over the eyes, which are large and c i r c u l a r with a single spur slanting i n towards the beak. The i r i s occupies almost the entire eye and i s i n s l i g h t r e l i e f from the eyelids. A c i r c u l a r hole d r i l l e d into the top of the head i s possibly a receptable for feathers or similar decoration. The beak i s s o l i d , but upper and lower mandibles are separated by a l i n e whose anterior position curves sharply down-ward, as i n the b i l l of a predatory b i r d . A c o n s t r i c t i o n separates the head from the body. The back i s v e r t i c a l down to the f l a r i n g t a i l where the feathers are represented by a series of p a r a l l e l l i n e s . Legs with four toes are carved i n r e l i e f onto the sides of the body; however, these legs are more r e p t i l i a n than b i r d - l i k e . A single wing forms the sides of the bowl, the feathers being indicated by i n c i s e d l i n e s . A heavy l i n e represents the shaft and branching off at r i g h t angles are the barbs. The bowl i s round, and deep enough to hold a few ounces of l i q u i d . I t i s more shallow at the front than elsewhere, and the front rim i s decorated by a series of v e r t i c a l p a r a l l e l l i n e s . The species of the b i r d cannot be d e f i n i t e l y i d e n t i f i e d however the hooked beak suggests a b i r d of prey. Human Figure Bowl. Among the carved s t e a t i t e objects i s a human figure bowl of dark coloured s t e a t i t e *+.9 cm by 2.5 cm (Figs. 25, 26). The head i s large, t i l t e d upwards, and has just a suggestion of a protruding top-knot. A continuous groove runs from ear to ear and sets off the eyes which are long and curved with narrow i r i s e s . Exaggerated cheek furrows continue to the 42 nose and accentuate s t i l l further the broad alae of the hooked nose. The mouth i s open displaying a tongue, and teeth which are carved into the gums. The back of the head i s fl a t t e n e d and the ears are represented by s l i t s . A c o n s t r i c t i o n between the head and body indicates the neck. The body i s carved on both the dorsal and ventral sides. A b i f u r c a t i n g l i n e with h o r i z o n t a l notches i s carved i n r e l i e f down the center of the back, while the l e f t arm continues past the shoulder and ends as a serpent's head above the r i g h t shoulder. At the base of the figure the buttocks of a squatting human are carved ( F i g . 26). The f r o n t of the figure i s carved to indicate the i n t e r n a l skeleton ( F i g . 25); two curving l i n e s representing the c l a v i c l e s a r t i c u l a t e with the sternum, and the lowest r i b s j o i n with the sternum i n a cone. Located below the chest, the bowl i s formed by the lower r i b s on the top, the thighs on the sides, and the lower legs on the bottom. The depression has been formed by gouging out the abdomen. Only i f the figure i s placed on i t s back could the shallow bowl hold any appreciable amount of l i q u i d , although i t i s possible to stand the figure upright ( F i g . 26). Human Face. A small s t e a t i t e face, 2 . 8 cm high and 3.4 cm wide, i s carved i n b a s - r e l i e f ( F i g . 2 4 B ) . The small top-knot, set off from the scalp by an e n c i r c l i n g groove, was damaged prior to excavation. The prominent eye-brow ridges, and bulging i r i s e s between recurving eyelids are t y p i c a l of the 43 s t e a t i t e carving complex outlined by Duff (1956). The nose i s prominent and hooked, with f l a r i n g alae accentuated by the continuation of the deep cheek furrows. Teeth are not carved in t o the broadly "smiling" mouth, nor are the l i p s overly prominent. A prominence i n the center of the lower l i p suggests the tongue. Face on Pipe. One of the tubular s t e a t i t e pipes has a small face carved on the bowl (Figs. 20 and 24C). The face i s almost c i r c u l a r with large eyes and oval i r i s e s between recurving upper and lower eyelids. The nose i s hooked and, l i k e the previously described face, deep cheek furrows accentuate the broadly f l a r i n g alae. A s l i g h t l y open mouth i s carved with prominent l i p s , but no teeth are represented. Beneath the chin, and continuing to the pipe stem, i s a series of p a r a l l e l l i n e s perpendicular to the long axis of the pipe. One of the few comprehensive studies of an aspect of Northwest Coast prehistory concerns the s t e a t i t e carving complex (Duff 1956). The carvings from EeiQwtl are important as they are the only s t e a t i t e sculptures from a s i t e known to be recent. Some r e l a t i o n s h i p between these stone carvings and those of the Marpole Phase of the Fraser Delta i s l i k e l y . Since examples from the Marpole Phase have been dated to the F i r s t Millennium B.C. (Borden 1950:18-19, 23; 1961:117), a remarkable continuity of some two thousand years seems indicated. kk Antler Industry-Introduction The antler industry forms an important part of the t o t a l a r t i f a c t assemblage. A t o t a l of f i f t y - f o u r pieces i s described under the following headings: Digging S t i c k Handles, Harpoon Heads, Points, Wedges, Clubs, Sap Scraper, Gorget, Haft, Tine Flakers, Handle Carvings, and Miscellaneous. Wapiti (Cervus canadensis) antler i s probably used exclusively; no pieces are d e f i n i t e l y of deer antle r . Gener-a l l y , the a r t i f a c t s exhibiting a f l a t t e n e d cross section are manufactured from the antler cortex, while the objects having a c i r c u l a r or ovoid cross section are fashioned from t i n e s . The antler i s worked by sawing, hacking, w h i t t l i n g , i n c i s i n g , d r i l l i n g , and grinding. Many of the a r t i f a c t s are embellished with geometric motifs, and some are carved i n t o zoomorphic and anthromorphic shapes. Digging S t i c k Handles. F i f t e e n digging s t i c k handles are made from tines of wapiti antler and are c i r c u l a r to oval i n cross section. In every example, a p e r f e c t l y c i r c u l a r hole i s d r i l l e d through the center of the handle approximately equidistant from the extremities. The holes average 1.75 cm i n diameter on the upper surface and s l i g h t l y more on the under side. The contracting perforation causes the handle to be jammed onto the tapering proximal end of the digging s t i c k as pressure i s applied 45 from above ( C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:82). A feature common ,to a l l specimens i s a thumb groove worn int o the excurvate edge of the handle, and i n some instances, to both sides (Figs. 27, 28). Open sockets have been cut into the under side of the proximal end of thirteen handles, while one ( F i g . 28; B) exhibits a socket i n both ends. A s l o t , 5 cm deep, has been i n c i s e d i n t o the d i s t a l end of one specimen. The carefully-made sockets suggest that the handles were dual purpose t o o l s , serving perhaps as knife hafts i n addition to th e i r primary function. None of the jade c e l t s i s small enough to be inserted into the sockets; however, many of the leaf-shaped chipped points would f i t . A l l the handles are decorated. A series of long p a r a l l e l l i n e s , i n c i s e d at r i g h t angles to the long axis of the a r t i f a c t i s the most common motif, c l o s e l y followed by a ticked l i n e design (long p a r a l l e l l i n e s with short perpendicular spurs). Cross hatching and an X-motif also occur. One handle (EeQw:l-101; F i g . 27; C) i s embellished with a d e l i c a t e l y carved head of an unrecognizable creature. I t has a bulbous nose and large round eyes connected by two i n c i s e d l i n e s . Antler digging s t i c k handles are;.pre sent i n the assemblages of a l l the major Plateau s i t e s with the exception of The Dalles (Strong e£ a l . 1930). Round to e l l i p t i c a l c o n i c a l l y constructed holes are reported from Lytton (Smith l899a:137) and 46 TABLE IX DIMENSIONS OF DIGGING STICK HANDLES A r t i f a c t Number Length (cm) Width (cm) Diameter of Perforation (cm) EeQw:l • - 1 0 1 2 8 .0 2.5 1 . 7 5 £e<Qw:l • - 65 27.0 3.0 1 . 7 5 EetQw:l • - 66 2 8 .0 2.7- 1 . 7 5 — 35.0 3.5 1 . 7 5 — 35.0 3.5 1 . 7 5 A 6 7 0 1 0 . 0 1 . 5 1 . 7 5 Kamloops (Smith 1900:411), while rectangular holes occur on the Upper Columbia specimens ( C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:82-84). The handles from the McNary Reservoir have e l l i p t i c a l holes and are not a l l associated with female bu r i a l s (Osborne 1957s84). The open sockets i n the under surface of the handles from EeQw:l appear to be a regional s p e c i a l i z a t i o n as they are not reported elsewhere. Harooons. Of the ten harpoons, f i v e are complete and f i v e are fragmentary. Two d i s t i n c t types of heads (A and B) are evident. The s i x Type A examples are non-toggling, u n i l a t e r a l l y barbed points with a r e t r i e v i n g - l i n e hole gouged i n the lower h a l f of the shaft. The base i s rounded. The two barbs are 47 high and i s o l a t e d . There are neither l a t e r a l l i n e guards nor shoulders on the base. Use of the cortex of antler has produced a f l a t cross section ( F i g . 29). Type B harpoons are long (one specimen measures 35.0 cm), round i n cross section, basally notched, and have no v i s i b l e means of l i n e attachment. The three or four barbs are high, i s o l a t e d , and u n i l a t e r a l l y arranged ( F i g . 30; E, F ) . These appear to resemble the barbed heads used i n the composite harpoon i l l u s t r a t e d by T e i t f o r the Shuswap (1909:523). Both harpoon types exhibit similar decorative motifs. Short groups of three and four p a r a l l e l l i n e s are i n c i s e d into the under side of the barbs and in t o the shank. A l l these l i n e s are perpendicular to the long axis of the implement. Table X gives the dimensions of Type B harpoons; no measurements are available for the Type A examples. Harpoons occur only i n the northern h a l f of the Plateau. Smith describes examples from Lytton (l899a:137) and Kamloops (1900:435) which are similar to the Type A specimens from EeQw:l. A series of eight harpoons recovered from Upper Columbia s i t e s are divided into three sub-types, with Type C corresponding to Type A from EeQw:l ( C o l l i e r §t a l . 1942:79). Type A heads are also i n c o l l e c t i o n s from L i l l o o e t . Nowhere, except i n the ethno-graphic l i t e r a t u r e mentioned above, are Type B harpoons noted. 48 TABLE X DIMENSIONS FOR TYPE B HARPOONS Length Width Comment (cm) (cm) 35.0 1.75 Complete, four barbs 14.0 1.75 Complete, three barbs 6.8 1.75 Fragment, two barbs 15.0 1.75 Fragment, three barbs Points. There are eleven rather massive non-barbed antler points. They are long, f l a t i n cross section, p a r a l l e l sided, and taper gently to a sharp point. Three of the eleven points have notched bases and none i s decorated ( F i g . 31). The function of these points i s not ce r t a i n ; they may have tipped spears or been hand held f o r use as daggers. Except for a specimen from Lytton i l l u s t r a t e d by Smith (1899a: 149), these a r t i f a c t s have not been noted elsewhere. Wedges. Three wedges, manufactured from the beam of wapiti antler," are u n i l a t e r a l l y bevelled, and have straight shafts. One example (EeQw:l-36; F i g . 31) includes the burr. None of the wedges exhibits extensive use or battering. TABLE XI DIMENSIONS OF ANTLER POINTS A r t i f a c t Number Length (cm) Width (cm) EeQw.l 134 20.0 4 . 0 Ee<Qw:l l 4 l 19.0 3.0 EeQw:l 39 15.0 3.0 23.5 4.5 27.0 5.0 18.5 3.7 22.0 3.7 19.0 4 . 0 17.5 2.7 20.0 4.0 9.5 2.7 TABLE XII DIMENSIONS OF ANTLER WEDGES A r t i f a c t Number Length Width (cm) (cm) EeQw:l 36 23.0 5.0 A668 • 21.0 4.0 A684 19.0 5.0 50 Antler wedges are found throughout the Plateau but usually i n l i m i t e d numbers. Of the four wedges described from the Upper Columbia, two are u n i l a t e r a l l y bevelled ( C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:86). Fragmentary u n i l a t e r a l l y bevelled examples are reported from the McNary Reservoir (Osborne 1957*85). Wedges occur i n greater abundance at The Dalles (Strong et ajL. 1930:70), at Lytton, and at Kamloops (Smith l899a:141; 1900:414). Clubs. Two complete antler clubs and a fragment of a t h i r d were unearthed. The clubs are made from the beam of wapiti antler and an adjoining t i n e , which i s sharply bevelled to produce a cutting edge. These a r t i f a c t s are not unlike the Lyngby axe of Europe. Perforations i n the handles suggest the use of a wrist thong. On one club (A667b; F i g . 32;A), the hole i s square, while a c i r c u l a r hole has been d r i l l e d into the other specimen (A679). The s t r i k i n g head i s a l l that remains of the fragmentary club (A68l). A l l three clubs are elaborately decorated. One club, A679, (Fig. 32;B) i s modified to represent a b i r d by creating a s t y l i z e d eye with a dotted c i r c l e f o r the i r i s , and converting the tine i n t o a b i l l . Along the handle i s a series of c i r c l e and dot motifs interspersed between short p a r a l l e l l i n e s i n clusters of three and four. Two vertebrae-like designs, carved i n r e l i e f , extend three-quarters of the way along the back, enclosing alternate crosses, c i r c l e and dot, and short p a r a l l e l 51 l i n e motifs. A b i c o n i c a l l y d r i l l e d hole through the back of the club, above the t i n e , may have served as an attachment f o r a feather decoration. The second complete club ( A 6 6 7 b ) has a l e s s i n t r i c a t e design and i s more obviously an animal ( F i g . 32;A). The figure has large round eyes, an open mouth, and two l i n e s setting off the muzzle. Two sets of e n c i r c l i n g zigzag l i n e s have been carved on either side of a wide groove behind the head. A fi n e e n c i r c l i n g l i n e has been i n c i s e d behind the proximal zigzag l i n e . The t h i r d club (A68l) i s fragmentary. Only a zoomorphic head and sharpened tine remain. The animal represented has an open mouth, large c i r c l e and dot eyes, and small ears ( F i g . 33; B). A groove i s carved behind the head. Two p a r a l l e l l i n e s , joined by short perpendicular l i n e s , are i n c i s e d between the recessed groove and the t i n e . A few i n c i s e d l i n e s are v i s i b l e on the top surface above the tine. Smith (1899aslH-9) i l l u s t r a t e s one undecorated tine club from Lytton. With th i s single exception, antler tine clubs are not reported from other Plateau s i t e s . Sap Scraper. A single scraper-like implement associated with B u r i a l 1 i s made from the cortex of wapiti antler and measures 33 cm long and k cm wide (EeQw:l-102; F i g . 35;A). Both ends indicate use; the pointed end may have been used for prying 5 2 TABLE XIII DIMENSIONS OF ANTLER CLUBS A r t i f a c t Number Length Width of Width of handle tine to back of club (cm) (cm) (cm) A 6 7 9 3 5 . 0 2 . 0 9 . 5 A667b 3 9 . 5 3 . 5 8 . 5 away the outer bark while the broad end was used to scrape the edible inner tissue ( T e i t 1 9 0 0 : 2 3 3 ) . The pointed end i s made into a zoomorphic head by two curving l i n e s representing an eye, and a shallow groove with short perpendicular l i n e s f o r a mouth. Other decorations consist of long p a r a l l e l l i n e s extending across the width of the a r t i f a c t i n groups of one, two, and three l i n e s ; short p a r a l l e l l i n e s i n groups of three and four, and an area of cross hatching. A l l the p a r a l l e l l i n e groups are inc i s e d at r i g h t angles to the long axis of the scraper. Gorget. A gorget-like ornament made of the cortex of antler beam measures 6.7 cm by *f.O cm. I t i s decorated with three vertebrae-like designs which divide the a r t i f a c t length-wise (Fig. 3 0 ; A ) . Haft. One antler tine h aft could be examined only from a photograph. The p o s s i b i l i t y of digging s t i c k handles serving also as hafts has been discussed elsewhere (p. 4 5 ) . 53 The proximal end of the tine has been sl o t t e d to admit a knife or point. I t i s 11.6 cm long, 1.9 cm wide, and i s decorated by a series of ten ticked l i n e s (long p a r a l l e l l i n e s with short perpendicular spurs), which appear to be e n c i r c l i n g the a r t i f a c t . In addition, the photograph suggests some p a r a l l e l l i n e s on the under surface. Tine Flakers ( ? ) . There are two t i p s of tines which have been hacked o f f . The unnaturally blunted d i s t a l ends may indicate use as f l a k e r s . The larger object, 15»7 cm long and 3.1 cm wide, i s not decorated; while the smaller a r t i f a c t , 13.5 cm long and 3 .0 cm wide, i s embellished by a series of short p a r a l l e l l i n e s . Handle Carvings. Two examples of anthropomorphic antler carvings are i n the assemblage. Both appear to have been the end of a slender-handled object ( F i g . 33;A, F i g . 34). The more i n t r i c a t e carving ( F i g . 33;A) i s of two n a t u r a l i s t i c heads one above the other carved into death-like expressions. Both faces are similar with closed almond-shaped eyes, high and wide cheek bones, broadly f l a r i n g alae, dropping mouths, and a series of p i t s i n the cheeks and forehead suggesting tattoo marks. The second carving i s of a single head ( F i g . 33;B). I t i s l e s s r e a l i s t i c and simpler i n outline. The eyes are rectangular and i n b a s - r e l i e f with center dots as i r i s e s . A l i n e connects the eyes. The alae are Indicated, but the remainder of the nose i s absent. 5-4 Miscellaneous Antler Ob.iects. A peculiar object was associated with B u r i a l 1 (EeQw:l-103; F i g . 35;F). The a r t i f a c t , formed by a portion of antler beam and a t i n e , meeting at an angle of twenty degrees, has an o v e r a l l length of 30 cm. The section of beam i s 13.5 cm long, and 2.5 to 3-0 cm deep, and 1.5 to 4 . 0 cm wide. The tine i s 26.0 cm long, 1.6 cm deep, and 2.0 cm wide. A slott e d perforation i n the d i s t a l end of the tin e may indicate a wrist lanyard and therefore the handle of a t o o l , the hafted section of which would be f i x e d to the short section of beam. The d i s t a l end of the implement, assuming the pierced end to be the handle, may have been s l o t t e d , and could have functioned as a sleeve. No a r t i f a c t l i k e l y to have been f i t t e d into t h i s puzzling piece was present i n the grave. Since no description i n regional archaeological reports or ethno-graphies p a r a l l e l s i t , i t i s impossible to suggest any function fo r t h i s specimen. A very t h i n H-shaped portion of antler was also present i n B u r i a l 1 (EeQw:l-104; F i g . 35;B). I t i s 8.0 cm long, 4 . 0 cm wide, and 0.2 cm thick. Another fragment of antler associated with B u r i a l 1 (EeQw:l-106; F i g . 35;C) may be a portion of a carving or an embellished object of which only the suggestion of an eye remains. The fragment i s 3.5 cm high and 0.6 cm thick. The width tapers from 3.5 cm to 0.75 cm. 55 A fourth fragmentary antler object found with B u r i a l 1 (EeQw:l-105; F i g . 35;D) i s 2.75 cm long, 1.0 cm wide, and 0.2 cm thick. I t i s pierced once near the remaining end. The a r t i f a c t i s evidently a fragment of a larger object of unknown function. A long p a r a l l e l - s i d e d object, perforated at the base and having a broken t i p i s i n a private c o l l e c t i o n . I t i s 20.0 cm long, 2.2 cm wide. This piece, which may have been a point, i s not decorated. The l a s t piece of unknown function i s a slender spatulate object of antler tine which has been u n i l a t e r a l l y bevelled at one end to produce a t h i n , sharp edge. The a r t i f a c t i s 21.0 cm long and 1.5 cm wide. Bone Industry Introduction The bone industry of EeQw:l i s represented by s i x t y -eight a r t i f a c t s . They w i l l be discussed under the headings: Awls and Points, Leister Points, Needles, Creasers, Scrapers, Chisels or Wedges, Clubs, Drinking Tubes, Pendants, and Miscellaneous. Wapiti (Cervus canadensis nelsoni) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus) bone provided most of the raw material. Cannon and other leg bones were u t i l i z e d most frequently; however, r i b , penis bone of bear, and scapula were also used. Manufacturing techniques include s p l i t t i n g , cutting, scraping, sawing, and grinding. Awls and Points. Thirty-seven pieces are included i n this broad category. Unfortunately, i t i s not possible to subdivide the sample s a t i s f a c t o r i l y because so few of the pieces were ac t u a l l y handled. Six of the ten awls recognized show traces of an epiphysis. In every instance the epiphysis has been s p l i t , and i n some cases ground. The type of bone i n four of the s i x awls with attached epiphysis i s recognizable; the other two are not, either because too l i t t l e of the epiphysis remains, or i n s u f f i c i e n t d e t a i l i s available i n the photograph. The i d e n t i -f i e d examples are cannon bones with three instances of d i s t a l , and one instance of proximal epiphysis s t i l l remaining on the a r t i f a c t . Other awls are made from unidentifiable long bones. No ulna or scapula awls are present. The mean length of the sample of ten i s 11.9 cm. Long bone awls are common i n most Plateau s i t e s and generally comprise a high percentage of the bone industry. Sites at The Dalles (Strong et aj.. 1930:55), Lytton (Smith 1899a 148), and the Upper Columbia ( C o l l i e r e£ a l . 1942:80, 81), a l l contain many examples. Ulna awls are scarce, being confined to single examples from Kamloops (Smith 1900:^24), the Upper 57 Columbia (1942:81), and the McNary Reservoir (Osborne 1957s83). Deer ulna awls, however, are common i n an assemblage from EdRk:l, a b u r i a l s i t e twelve miles south of L i l l o o e t (Map 1 ) . Five long sturdy points averaging 19.4 cm are among the sample. They may be lance heads or daggers, and are similar i n form and dimensions to the long antler points (p. 4 9 ) . A bone point associated with B u r i a l 3 (EeQw:l-131; F i g . 36;B) i s manufactured from a hind cannon bone of wapiti. I t i s 19.5 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, and averages 0.75 cm i n thickness. Three small f l a t points are connected with B u r i a l 3 (Table XIV) (EeQw:l-135, 142, 113; F i g . 37;B, C, D). They may be arrow heads, although the bifurcated tang of one ( F i g . 37;D) seems rather too d e l i c a t e . The remaining nineteen bone points range i n length from 5.1 cm to 15.9 cm. A number of well f i n i s h e d pieces with notched bases and c i r c u l a r cross section may have armed arrows and spears, while the shorter examples could serve as l e i s t e r barbs and f i s h gorges. None of the thirty-seven points and awls are decorated. L e i s t e r Points. Three sharp points (EeQw: 1-124-6) are associated with B u r i a l 3 ( F i g . 8, lower r i g h t ; F i g . 37;E, F, G). The longest piece, round i n cross section, i s 11.0 cm long and 6.5 cm thick; the two smaller points, also c i r c u l a r i n cross section, are 5«0 cm long and 0.4 cm thick. A l l three a r t i f a c t s 58 TABLE XIV DIMENSIONS OF BONE PROJECTILE POINTS A r t i f a c t Number Length Width Thickness (cm) (cm) (cm) EeQv:l - 135 6.25 1.2 0.10 EeQw:l - 142 7.0 1.1 0.15 EeQw:l - 113 7.1 0.75 0.15 are sharply pointed at one end, and bevelled at the other. As F i g . 8 suggests, these pieces are evidently the ce n t r a l point and l a t e r a l barbs of a l e i s t e r or f i s h spear, the wooden portions having disintegrated (T e i t 1900:252, F i g . 232; 1909:525). Needles. Two needles were found. They are long, slender and f l a t . Both needles have a single eye which has been formed by i n c i s i o n s from both faces. In one example (EeQw:l-127), the eye i s proximally located (Fig. 37;A). The needle i s 10.0 cm long and 0.25 cm wide. Another needle measures l^-.O cm by 0.5 cm and has an eye length of 1.7 cm. As both extremities are pointed i t i s not clear whether the eye i s located d i s t a l l y or proximally; perhaps the needle was r e v e r s i b l e . Neither needle i s decorated. Bone needles are not common i n most Plateau s i t e s . They are equally scarce along the Upper Columbia ( C o l l i e r e_fe a i . 1942:81), at the McNary Reservoir (Osborne 1957:86), at The Dalles 59 (Strong e£ al.. 1930:62), at Cache Creek (Borden n.d. a), and at Kamloops (Smith 1900:*+21). Like the needles from EeQw:l, the specimens from the above s i t e s are f l a t i n cross section. Long slender needles, rounded i n cross section and elaborately embellished and polished, occur i n assemblages from b u r i a l s i t e s between Lytton and L i l l o o e t . A needle I l l u s t r a t e d by Smith (l899sFig« 79) from a Lytton s i t e lacks the decoration, but i s similar i n outline to those found to the north. Creasers. Seven creasers made from wapiti and deer r i b bone were found. One example, EeQw:1-32, i s shouldered, but the remaining s i x have p a r a l l e l sides gently tapering to a point (Pig. 36; C-F). Although these a r t i f a c t s approximate a modern knife blade i n outline, the absence of a keen edge suggests creasers used i n the manufacture of basketry. The creasers are not decorated. TABLE XV DIMENSIONS OF CREASERS A r t i f a c t Number Length Width (cm) (cm) EeQw:l - 34 20.0 1.5 EeQw:l - 153 16.0 2.0 EeQw:l - 32 16.6 2.5 EeQw:l - 11*+ 12.25 1.0 15.4 2.0 10.6 1.5 9.6 1.4 Creasers are reported from the Upper Columbia s i t e s where they are made from deer and wapiti r i b bone ( C o l l i e r et a l . 19H2:87). They are not recorded from other Plateau s i t e s . Scrapers. One bone scraper was found (EeQw:l-35). I t i s made from deer scapula and shows considerable use. Chisels and Wedges. There are three bone c h i s e l s or wedges. One (EeQw:l-38) i s made from a s p l i t wapiti cannon bone. The b i t i s straight and asymmetrical and does not show extensive use (F i g . 36;A). Another c h i s e l (A686) i s made from a section of wapiti long bone and appears to have been exten-s i v e l y u t i l i z e d . TABLE XVI DIMENSIONS OF BONE CHISELS OR WEDGES A r t i f a c t Number Length Width (cm) (cm) EeQw.l - 38 19.0 h.O A686 17.0 3.0 11.0 2.2 Clubs. There are two whale r i b bone clubs. One complete specimen (667a), 58 cm long and 5 cm wide, narrows s l i g h t l y at one end to form a handle. A r i n g , presumably f o r the attachment of a wrist thong, extends from one side of the handle. The top of the handle i s carved on both faces into a head 61 surmounted by a hat or mask (Pig. 38). The headpiece has been b i c o n i c a l l y perforated, perhaps f o r the attachment of another decoration. The blade of the club i s undecorated. The head i s probably meant to be anthropomorphic, c e r t a i n l y the p r o f i l e suggests a nose and a chin ( F i g . 38;B). The eye i s oval i n outline and not unduly large. Three oblique l i n e s are i n c i s e d between the eye and the "chin". The lowest, and shortest l i n e could be interpreted as a mouth. The headdress or mask i s very similar to the Nootkan b i r d masks seen on the whalebone clubs from the coast (Boas 1904:403-412). A broad band between the eye and the headdress i s covered by a zigzag l i n e . The second club, an undecorated fragment, measures 24.0 cm long and 5.8 cm wide. Whalebone clubs have a wide Plateau d i s t r i b u t i o n . They are reported from Kamloops (Smith 1900:422), the Upper Columbia ( C o l l i e r §£ a l . 1942:80) and at The Dalles (Strong e£ al.. 1930:57). Drinking Tubes. There are three b i r d bone tubes which may be drinking tubes. One complete specimen i s 7*5 cm i n length, and i s square cut at both ends. An i n c i s e d perforation probably served f o r suspension. The fragmentary tubes are s l i g h t l y longer. None of the pieces i s decorated or marked. 6 2 Drinking tubes, often c a l l e d whistles, are common i n many Plateau s i t e s . They are reported from Lytton (Smith l 8 9 9 a : l 5 4 ) , Kamloops (Smith 1900:412), the Upper Columbia ( C o l l i e r a l . 1942:87), and the McNary Reservoir (Osborne 1957:87). Strong e£ a l . (1930) do not mention drinking tubes from The Dalles. Pendant or Needles. Two s l o t t e d bear (Uarctos  americanus) penis bones are i n the assemblage ( F i g . 39)• Both specimens have been pierced by i n c i s i o n s from the sides and i f suspended would balance h o r i z o n t a l l y ; however, T e i t (1909:508) reports that among the Shuswap bear penis bones were used as needles. The decorative motifs on these objects are s i m i l a r . One piece (A682; F i g . 39) features a modification of a basic zigzag pattern of two l i n e s along the long axis of the a r t i f a c t . Instead of a continuous l i n e the pattern i s interrupted at the high and low points. Beneath each apex caused by the i n t e r s e c t i o n of a z i g and a zag, two p a r a l l e l v e r t i c a l l i n e s are i n c i s e d . The second specimen i s s i m i l a r l y decorated, but more emphasis has been placed on v e r t i c a l p a r a l l e l l i n e s . The elaborate embellishment, the precise positioning of the perfora-t i o n , and the round cross section tend to suggest that these bone pieces are not needles, since the other needles from EeQw:l are p l a i n , f l a t , and have an eye located at one of the extremities. 63 One pendant (A682) i o 13*3 cm long and 1.0 cm wide. No measurements are available for the second specimen. Bear penis bones have been found i n various Plateau s i t e s . Smith (1900:429) i l l u s t r a t e s two perforated and embellished penis pendants from Kamloops that are s t r i k i n g l y similar to those from EeQw:l. Undecorated and unpierced bear penis bones are reported from the Upper Columbia s i t e s ( C o l l i e r e£ a l . 19^2:92), and a series of four, i d e n t i f i e d as awls, are described by Garth (1952:43) from Sheep Island i n the McNary Reservoir region. Miniature Bows(?). There are three curved objects, two of which are associated with B u r i a l 4. The pieces are long, slender, t h i n i n cross section, gently curved. One specimen i s b i - l a t e r a l l y notched at the extremities while the other has projections ( F i g . 40). Dimensions are included i n the accompanying table. The material of which the objects i s made has not been d e f i n i t e l y determined. I t may be a n t l e r , but more l i k e l y i t i s long bone of wapiti or deer. A number of na t u r a l l y pointed bone objects up to 4.0 cm i n length are attached by pitch to the under, or concave, surface of the bow. These sharply pointed pieces have been t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d as f i s h bones. Two of the bows (EeQw: 1-1*43) and a fragment have a similar decorative motif based on a vertebrae design i n bas-r e l i e f and short p a r a l l e l l i n e s . Another specimen (EeQw:l-144) has six groups of short parallel lines incised at right angles to the long axis (Fig. 40). The function of these bow-like objects is not definite. The shape of the pieces, combined with the sharp, slender bone points, suggests miniature bows. If this is the case, their association with an infant burial may indicate use as toys. TABLE XVII DIMENSIONS OF MINIATURE BOWS Artifact Number Length Width Thickness (cm) (cm) (cm) EeQw:l - 143 19.0 0.75 0.1 EeQwsl - 144 14.25 0.70 0.1 14.0 Miscellaneous Bone Objects. A long, narrow, split long bone unnaturally curved is in the assemblage. The inner surface is heavily charred. The artifact is 28.0 cm long and is not decorated. Several split but otherwise unshaped mammal bones are associated with Burial 3; they may be artifact blanks. Among the objects recovered during excavation are three bird beaks and some assorted bird bones. Two of the beaks were associated with Burial 3, and the third with Burial 4. One 65 of the beaks i s too fragmentary f o r i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , but the second (EeQw:l-l58; F i g . 8) may be the b i l l of the hooded merganser (Lanhodvtes cucullatus). The mandibular portion of a b i l l found with B u r i a l 4 may be of the red-breasted merganser (Mereus serrator). S h e l l Industry Dentalium. Seven pieces of cut Dentalium were observed i n two strands around the neck of B u r i a l 1 ( F i g . 3 ) . Gaps between the s h e l l s suggest the use of spacers of some more perishable material. Numerous examples of Dentalium are i n private c o l l e c t i o n s . None of the s h e l l s i s decorated. Dentalium i s by f a r the most ubiquitous s h e l l , occurring with great frequency i n both American and Canadian portions of the Plateau. The s h e l l s vary i n length from thin disc beads (Osborne 1959sl08) to larger fragments up to several centimetres (Strong et a l . 1930:72). The segments may be absolutely p l a i n as at EeQw:l, or they may be elaborately embellished (Smith 1900:431; Osborne 1957* 108). Pecten caurinus. There are four whole, and many fragmentary pierced Pecten s h e l l s . The complete s h e l l s , per-forated below the umbo, suggest use as r a t t l e s , while the smaller pierced pieces may be pendants ( F i g . 45) . Some of the entire shells are up to 15 cm i n length. 66 Pecten caurinus appears to be l i m i t e d to the Canadian Plateau. None has been reported from American s i t e s . Smith (1899a:157; 1900:428) records perforated Pecten at h i s s i t e s near Lytton and Kamloops and assumes the sh e l l s to be parts of r a t t l e s . Pierced Pecten s h e l l s are also present i n the assemblage from EdRkO, a b u r i a l s i t e twenty-eight miles north of Lytton (Map 1). The discoverer of EdRk:3 reports f i n d i n g several entire valves nestled one inside the other with the perforations i n perfect alignment, lending support to the assumption that the large pierced Pecten caurinus sh e l l s were used as r a t t l e s . H a l i o t i s . There are numerous examples of H a l i o t i s s h e l l pendants; however, none of the specimens can be i d e n t i f i e d as the C a l i f o r n i a n v a r i e t y . Two small pieces (EeQw:l-l«+5, 148) are each pierced once, while a larger pendant, measuring 9*5 cm by 6.8 cm i s perforated once at each of the two narrow ends. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of H a l i o t i s i s l i m i t e d . The s h e l l occurs frequently i n s i t e s along the Columbia River (Strong e_t a l . 1930:73; C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:95; Osborne 1957:109). The Canadian d i s t r i b u t i o n i s considerably l e s s widespread; H a l i o t i s has been found at Lytton, Spences Bridge, and EeQw:l, but not at Kamloops, or i n s i t e s between Lytton and L i l l o o e t (Smith 1899a:153; 1900:426). Two other s h e l l s which occur commonly i n other Plateau s i t e s are absent from EeQw:l. O l i v e l l a . found at Lytton (Smith 1899a:134) but not at Kamloops, i s frequently noted i n Columbia 6 7 River s i t e s (Strong et al.. 1930:72; Osborne 1957:108; C o l l i e r e£ al.. 1942:96, 97). The second s h e l l , Glvcvmeris. i s l i m i t e d to the Columbia River s i t e s (Osborne 1957:109). Wood Industry A number of wooden a r t i f a c t s , including birch bark r o l l s , a birch bark container, a mask, matting, basket fragments, and a bark matting were found at EeQw:l. Charred birch bark r o l l s are f a i r l y common; however, none were found by the f i e l d party. Birch Bark Container. A flattened birch bark container (EeQw:l-l55; F i g . 41) was i n association with B u r i a l 5« The construction of the ends, plus some upright stone pieces protruding through the top of the pouch, suggest that the a r t i f a c t was o r i g i n a l l y c y l i n d r i c a l , and was f l a t t e n e d by the weight of the cranium. The excellent state of preservation i s due to the apparently inherent resistance of birch bark to decay, and the cedar (?) bark matting covering the b u r i a l . An X-ray photograph of the container reveals a number of stone a r t i f a c t s , including a chipped lanceolate point, raw f l a k e s , scrapers, and chipped knives. Also present i n the pouch are bones and antler pieces. Unfortunately, a considerable amount of sand has f i l t e r e d into the pouch, and as sand has a r e f r a c t i v e index similar to stone, the outlines of some of the a r t i f a c t s are obscured ( F i g . 42). 68 The container i s 38.0 cm long and 16.0 cm wide. As a cylinder, i t s diameter would have been approximately 10 cm. Basket Fragments(?). Excavation of B u r i a l 3 revealed small sections of uncharred birch bark (EeQw:l -8 l ) . The position of the fragments suggests a basket. Mask. A most unusual discovery at EeQw:l was two fragments of a wooden mask. Unfortunately, a c o l l e c t o r encountered i t while digging with a shovel, and possibly portions of the mask were l o s t . A piece of p l a i n twined matting, found with the two wooden sections, bears a negative imprint of an eye. The matting i s made from a sedge (cyperaceae sp.). Each of the two pieces of mask contains an eye and, on one piece, a portion of the mouth. A p a r t i a l reconstruction i s possible on the basis of these fragments ( F i g . -+3). The eyes are large and droop s l i g h t l y at the corners. The pupils are large, round, and peg-like. Eyebrow ridges are pronounced. The mouth i s open and the l i p s are thick. Since no portions of the nose remain, i t i s not possible to reconstruct i t s shape. A red s t a i n , probably ochre, i s on both fragments. The fragment including the l e f t eye ( F i g . 43;B) measures 11.2 cm long and 6.3 cm wide, and the r i g h t side (Fig. 43;A) measures 10.0 cm by 7.0 cm. The piece of matting i s 8.5 cm long and 7*5 cm wide. 69 I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the mask i s not d e f i n i t e . The "peg eyes" c e r t a i n l y suggest the Sxwaixwe mask of the Coast S a l i s h . Teit (1908:578) discusses the use of masks by the westernmost Shuswap groups who were influenced strongly by the Carrier Indians with t h e i r c o a s t a l l y derived ceremonials. The date of acceptance of the Carrier customs i s given as the mid-nineteenth century, a date which seems f a r too recent f o r EeQw:l (see Chapter IV). Tooth Industry Teeth of bear (Euarctos americanus). beaver (Castor  canadensis) T and of a smaller rodent, possibly marmot (Marmota  f l a v i v e n t r i s ) are i n the assemblage. Beaver Incisors. Two s p l i t mandibular i n c i s o r s of beaver were found with B u r i a l 3 (EeQw:l-129, 130; F i g . 37; H,I). The dimensions of these a r t i f a c t s are 5«1 cm by 0.4 cm. No beaver tooth dice are present. Incisors of a Small Rodent. Also associated with B u r i a l 3 were two s p l i t i n c i s o r s of a small rodent, possibly marmot (EeQw:l-136; F i g . 37; J , K). One fragment i s 4 .0 cm long and the other 2.25 cm. Both teeth are 0.2 cm wide. Bear Canine. A black bear canine (EeQw:l-50) s t i l l imbedded i n the l e f t h a l f of the mandible, has the t i p ground down in d i c a t i n g use, possibly as a graver. 70 The tooth industry i s su r p r i s i n g l y l i m i t e d at EeQw:l. Most conspicious i s the absence of wapiti or deer canine tooth pendants or necklaces. Pendants are reported from Lytton (1899a:152), and from various Columbia River s i t e s (Garth 1952 :*+«+; Osborne 1957:89, 90; C o l l i e r ejt a l . 1942:89). Wapiti canine necklaces are li m i t e d to assemblages from Canadian s i t e s . Necklaces are reported from Kamloops (Smith 1900:426), EeRh:l at Cache Creek (Borden n.d.a), and from EdRk :4, a b u r i a l s i t e sixteen miles south of L i l l o o e t . Metal Industry Copper i s the only metal at EeQw:l. Numerous copper a r t i f a c t s apparently decomposed to cupric s a l t s , staining a l l objects with which the s a l t s came int o contact. Judging from the locations of the green stains, bracelets, anklets, amulets, and neck pieces were made of copper. Copper Ornaments. Four s o l i d pieces of copper were obtained from a c o l l e c t o r (EeQw:l-77, 78, 79, 80). The largest piece (EeQw:l-80; F i g . 44 ;D) i s a rectangular pendant pierced once at the wider end. Some h a i r , preserved by the chemical breakdown of the metal, adheres to a second pendant (EeQw:l-79; F i g . M t ; C ) . This ornament i s square with a large centrally-located hole and a smaller perforation near one edge. A sharp crease i n a piece of copper f o i l (EeQw:l-77; F i g . 44;B) suggests that t h i s specimen may have o r i g i n a l l y been a tubular bead which was opened by the c o l l e c t o r . The smallest copper object 71 (EeQw:l-78; F i g . 44; A) i s a pendant, perforated three times along one edge. The wrinkled appearance suggests that i t , too, may once have been a tubular bead. The evenness to which the larger copper pendants were gauged almost c e r t a i n l y indicates Trade copper. I t i s possible, however, that the many copper stains observed around b u r i a l s were produced by ornaments made of native copper, which i n recent times was mined extensively at Copper Creek on the western end of Kamloops Lake (Dawson 1877:116). TABLE XVTII DIMENSIONS OF COPPER. ORNAMENTS A r t i f a c t Number Description Length (cm) Width (cm) Average Thickness (cm) EeQw:l - 80 Pendant 11.2 4.2 0.084 EeQw:l - 79 Pendant 4.5 3.7 0.051 EeQw:l - 77 Bead (?) 5.5 2.9 0.028 EeQwsl - 78 Bead (?) 3.8 2.3 0.025 Copper ornaments occur frequently i n recent Plateau s i t e s and are often associated with glass and ir o n . Osborne (1957:96, 97), K r o l l (1957:227), and McLeod (1957:232) have the most complete discussion of non-aboriginal metals i n the Plateau. 72 CHAPTER IY Analysis of EeQw:l Data and Ethnographic comparisons Age of Burials The geologic deposits of the s i t e evidently were l a i d down during the l a s t g l a c i a l r e t r e a t (Chapter I ) , an event which presumably occurred more than ten thousand years ago and thus has no bearing on the age of the b u r i a l s . Ethnographic accounts do not mention the s i t e and the oldest Indian residents apparently knew nothing of i t s existence u n t i l the road was put through the s i t e . Nevertheless, the bu r i a l s are probably not very old. The presence of two pieces of non-aboriginal copper, and the absence of i r o n and glass beads, may provide a means of dating the most recent interments. According to ethnographic evidence i r o n was introduced to the Shuswap groups around the middle of the eighteenth century ( T e i t 1900:«475). In 1808, Simon Fraser observed great quantities of glass beads, sheet i r o n , European clothing, and copper i n the Plateau (Lamb I960: 85-87). Osborne (1957*92-96) i s convinced that glass and metal items were well known i n the Plateau by the middle of the eighteenth century. The paucity of trade copper at EeQw:l hint s that at l e a s t a few of the b u r i a l s date to 1750; the e a r l i e s t remains may be a century or two older. 73 The p o s s i b i l i t y of h o r i z o n t a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n must be considered. The discoveror of EeQw:l, and one of the most active r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s , unearthed the two largest pieces of non-aboriginal copper (p. 70 above) at the western extremity of the s i t e . Excavations i n September i960 i n the eastern end did not produce any s o l i d copper, although i t s former presence was suggested by various green stains on the s k e l e t a l material. The b u r i a l s i n the eastern portion of EeQwxl may thus be somewhat e a r l i e r than those i n the western extremity. The B u r i a l Complex Bu r i a l s were placed i n the sand deposits on both sides of the road. The exact number of interments could not be determined, but f i f t y would be a very conservative estimate. In the course of excavations i n September i 9 6 0 , f i v e complete skeletons were recovered as well as assorted remains of fourteen other i n d i v i d u a l s . The f i v e excavated skeletons were flexed primary p i t b u r i a l s . One body lay on i t s back and the other four on the i r sides. Three i n d i v i d u a l s were flexed to the l e f t , two to the r i g h t . The degree of flexure varied between loose and very t i g h t , the c h i l d b u r i a l s being the most t i g h t l y flexed. While no traces of hide or f a b r i c cord were found, very t i g h t l y flexed positions suggest the body was bound. Only one bark-covered or wrapped b u r i a l was unearthed, although scattered long bones had pieces of bark adhering to them. Depth of b u r i a l was between twelve and twenty inches. Four of the f i v e b u r i a l s were oriented east/west with the crania of three to the east, k f i f t h b u r i a l l a y with the cranium to the north and the legs to the south. Two skeletons faced south, two west, and one north. The long axis of the s i t e i s oriented approximately east/west and the South Thompson River flows downstream to the west past EeQw:l. Therefore, the four b u r i a l s oriented east/west lay p a r a l l e l to the long axis of the ridge and the flow of the r i v e r ; however, only one cranium pointed downstream. Grave additions accompanied every b u r i a l but one. The inclusions with two b u r i a l s lay beside the corpse, while with another interment the a r t i f a c t s were placed above and below the cranium. The additions with B u r i a l 3 were found i n two l o c a t i o n s : a jade c e l t , beside the knees, and the remaining a r t i f a c t s i n a compact group at the f e e t . None of the a r t i f a c t s from the s i t e appeared to have been " k i l l e d " or d e l i b e r a t e l y broken as at the McNary Reservoir (Osborne 1957sl ,+8). During excavation some chipped knives, scrapers and three digging s t i c k handles were uncovered. These a r t i f a c t s were not associated with any s p e c i f i c b u r i a l and may have been suspended on poles above a grave; when the poles decayed and toppled over, the a r t i f a c t s would be scattered ( T e i t 1900:328). Small i s o l a t e d pieces of charcoal were frequently encountered i n excavations; however, when the d i s t r i b u t i o n of these pieces was charted, no pattern became apparent. Possibly they represent the residue from f i r e s made i n the winter to thaw the sand prior to b u r i a l ( T e i t 1900:328). A r t i f a c t Analysis The a r t i f a c t assemblage from EeiQw:l offers information about various aspects of the culture. Many items associated with hunting are present. There are small chipped points suitable f o r arming arrows, and large points f o r spears, lances, and knives. There are also points of bone and antler. Antler harpoons for hunting aquatic mammals are present i n the assemblage. Naturally, a b u r i a l s i t e does not y i e l d faunal remains to the same degree as midden deposits; nevertheless, faunal and c u l t u r a l evidence at EeQw:l indicate the hunting of wapiti, deer, beaver, bear, marmot, assorted waterbirds, and f i s h . Numerous antler digging s t i c k handles suggest the importance of root digging. Weapons of war and of the chase are often s i m i l a r . Arrows and spears, the antler and whalebone clubs, as well as the long antler and bone points can be regarded as such dual purpose implements. Woodworking i s suggested by adze blades, stone hand mauls, c h i s e l s and wedges, shaft smoothers, and rodent i n c i s o r knives. The wooden mask, i f manufactured l o c a l l y , i s the only remaining example of t h i s industry. 76 Work i n stone ranges from the f i n e l y pressure flaked points to the sawing, grinding, and polishing techniques of c e l t manufacture. Mastery i n working t h i s medium i s evidenced i n the s k i l f u l l y executed s t e a t i t e sculpture. Personal adornment i s suggested by the use of red ochre, and pendants of s h e l l , copper, antler, bone, and possibly stone. The dots arranged i n d e f i n i t e patterns on the two anthropomorphic antler faces (Fig. 33;A.) suggest f a c i a l tattoos. Trade with other Indian groups i s indicated by the presence of a number of items not occurring l o c a l l y ; they are Bentaliurn s h e l l s , H a l i o t i s s h e l l s , Pecten s h e l l s , and whalebone clubs. Much of the jade and s t e a t i t e probably originated i n the Lytton region. Art General Comments A discussion of art could embrace a l l evidence of workmanship that exceeds the most basic u t i l i t a r i a n requirements; for example, the seemingly non-functional multiple notches on chipped points. For the purposes of thi s study, however, only decorative design and sculpture w i l l be considered. It i s convenient to divide the art forms into two categories: geometric and non-geometric. Non-geometric, or 77 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c a r v i n g can be subdivided i n t o three c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s : (1) carving i n the round, (2) c a r v i n g i n b a s - r e l i e f , and (3) c a r v i n g by i n c i s i o n . Carvings i n the round may comprise the complete a r t i f a c t or they may embellish only p a r t of an implement. Examples of the former a r e : the zoomorphic b i r d bowl ( F i g . 23), the human f i g u r e bowl ( F i g s . 25, 26), the stone serpent ( F i g . 2 4 ;A), the wooden mask ( F i g . 4 3 ) , and the a n t l e r t i n e clubs ( F i g . 32). Carvings which decorate p o r t i o n s of a r t i f a c t s are found on: the zoomorphic hand-mauls, the zoomorphic digging s t i c k handle ( F i g . 27;C), and the a n t l e r t i n e c l u b s ( F i g . 32). There are s e v e r a l examples of non-geometric b a s - r e l i e f s c u l p t u r e : the eye on an a n t l e r t i n e c l u b ( F i g . 32;B), the anthropomorphic a n t l e r heads ( F i g . 33) , and the whalebone club ( F i g . 38). The eye and mouth engraved i n the sap scraper ( F i g . 35;A) are the only examples of non-geometric i n c i s e d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . E i g h t geometric m o t i f s can be d i s c e r n e d : (1) long p a r a l l e l l i n e s ( F i g . 36;A), (2) c i r c l e and dot ( F i g . 46;B), (3) vertegrae ( F i g . 46 ;C), (4) groups of short p a r a l l e l l i n e s ( F i g . 46;D), (5) t i c k e d l i n e s ( F i g . 46;E), (6) crosses and X's ( F i g . 46;F), (7) z i g - z a g ( F i g . 46;G) and (8) cross-hatching ( F i g . 46;H). A l l but the vertebrae p a t t e r n are i n c i s e d ; the vertebrae motif stands out from the object i n b a s - r e l i e f , and i s seen on the bone bows ( F i g . 40) , the a n t l e r t i n e c l u b ( F i g . 32;B), and the gorget ( F i g . 30;A). 78 The " p r i n c i p l e of decorative a r t " , according to Boas ( i n T e i t 1900:377) i s the "conception of animals adapting themselves to the use of men, and assuming the form of imple-ments". The a r t i f a c t s conforming with t h i s " p r i n c i p l e " at EeQw:l are: the zoomorphic hand mauls, the st e a t i t e b i r d bowl ( F i g . 23), the sap scraper ( F i g . 35;A), the antler and whalebone clubs (Figs. 32, 3 8 ) , and one digging s t i c k handle (F i g . 27;C). The non-geometric art forms which transcend the pr i n c i p l e of decorative a r t are: the s t e a t i t e bears ( F i g . 22), the s t e a t i t e serpent ( F i g . 24), and s t e a t i t e human faces ( F i g . 36). Geometric Designs. According to Boas ( i n T e i t 1900: 377)j the various geometric designs are highly conventionalized symbols. Similar statements are made by Smith (1899a:l56). The geometric motifs from EeQw:l that can be interpreted i n t h i s manner are: ticked l i n e (trench with earth to one side); long p a r a l l e l l i n e s (trench); crosses and X's (meeting of t r a i l s ) ; double zigzag l i n e s (mountains and va l l e y s or snake tracks); and c i r c l e and dot (eye). The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the symbolic concept expressed by Boas and the a r t i f a c t s from EeQw:l i s seen i n the long p a r a l l e l l i n e s i n c i s e d i n t o a l l the digging-stick handles. According to Boas ( i n T e i t 1900:37<B), t h i s motif represents a trench. The digging of trenches during female puberty r i t e s i s attested by T e i t (1900:312, 313). A connection 79 between the r i t u a l trench digging and the conventionalized geometric symbols i n c i s e d on digging-stick handles seems plausib l e . Table XIX l i s t s the objects decorated by geometric designs. On the basis of the t h i r t y - e i g h t a r t i f a c t s l i s t e d i n Table XIX, a few conclusions can be reached. Long p a r a l l e l l i n e s , ticked l i n e s , and cross-hatching appear only on the sap scraper, and digging s t i c k handles. Both these objects might be considered women's tools primarily. Short p a r a l l e l l i n e s are engraved on harpoons, clubs, f l a k e r s , bear penis pendants, miniature bows(?), and the sap scraper. Many of these objects, p a r t i c u l a r l y harpoons, clubs, f l a k e r s and penis pendants, might be considered male implements. I t must be remembered, however, that most of the a r t i f a c t s are dissociated from s p e c i f i c b u r i a l s owing to the haphazard digging of the r e l i c hunters. Much p o t e n t i a l l y valuable data concerning the sexual d i v i s i o n of a r t i f a c t s has been l o s t . The danger i n assigning sex to a b u r i a l on the basis of inclusions i s demonstrated by Osborne (1957:84) who records digging-stick handles with male i n t e r -ments. Five a r t i f a c t s , an antler digging-stick handle (Fig. 27;C), the antler tine clubs, and the sap scraper are embellished with both geometric and r e a l i s t i c carving. TABLE XIX ARTIFACTS WITH INCISED GEOMETRIC MOTIFS A r t i f a c t Type Number i n Sample M a t e r i a l M o t i f Comments D i g g i n g s t i c k h a n d l e s 15 a n t l e r t i c k e d l i n e s ; l o n g p a r a l l e l l i n e s ; c r o s s e d l i n e s ; c r o s s - h a t c h i n g t i c k e d l i n e s and long p a r a l l e l l i n e s most common ( F i g s . 27, 28) Harpoons 10 a n t l e r short p a r a l l e l l i n e s ( F i g . 29) Clubs 3 a n t l e r c i r c l e and dot; short p a r a l l e l l i n e s ; c r o s s e d l i n e s ; z i g z a g , v e r t e b r a e a l s o c a r v e d zoo-morphic a l l y ( F i g s . 32, 3-4) Sap sc r a p e r 1 a n t l e r short p a r a l l e l l i n e s ; long p a r a l l e l l i n e s ; c r o s s - h a t c h i n g a l s o zoomorphic head (Fig . 3 5;A) Gorget 1 a n t l e r v e r t e b r a l l i n e s ( F i g . 30;A) Unknown (Ee^w: 1-103) 1 a n t l e r short p a r a l l e l l i n e s ( F i g . 35;F) Tine f l a k e r s (?) 2 a n t l e r short p a r a l l e l l i n e s Bear penis pendants (?) 2 bone double z i g z a g ; s h o r t p a r a l l e l l i n e s ( F i g . 39) M i n i a t u r e Bows (?) 3 bone short p a r a l l e l l i n e s ; v e r tebrae ( F i g . 1+0) 81 The orientation of some geometric motifs with the long axis of the a r t i f a c t i s constant. In every example, ticked l i n e s , long p a r a l l e l l i n e s , short p a r a l l e l l i n e s , and zigzags are i n c i s e d at r i g h t angles to the long axis. S t e a t i t e Carving. The stone sculpture of EeQw:l i s obviously part of the s t e a t i t e carving complex described by Duff (1956). The u p t i l t of the head, the disproportionately-large eye, the treatment of the nose, and the shape of the mouth, are diagnostic features occurring on many of the specimens from southern B r i t i s h Columbia and northern Washington State. The bowls and human head carvings can be duplicated from other s i t e s (Duff 1956*61, 66) , but i n d i v i d u a l sculptures of animals are not reported. Three d i s t i n c t , yet highly conventionalized eye styles can be recognized: an almond-shaped eye with a bulging round p u p i l , and a longer narrower form, with a correspondingly more l e n t i c u l a r p u p i l , and another elongate form i n which the lower l i d i s f l a t while the upper l i d r i s e s steeply and then slopes gradually to meet the lower portion. The f i r s t s tyle i s seen on the larger bear (Fig. 22;A) and the small anthropomorphic >^ heads ( F i g . 26), the elongate/ey e i s on the smaller bear ( F i g . 22;B) and the t h i r d form i s seen on the human figure bowl ( F i g . 25). Although the almond-shaped eye has persisted i n t o modern wood carving, there i s no evidence to suggest that one of the three styles i s the older. Moreover, the sample from 82 EeQw:l i s too li m i t e d to discern whether the nature of the object portrayed influenced the choice of eye s t y l e . Antler Carving. The antler sculpture i s very d i f f e r e n t from the stone carving. Generally, i t tends to be l e s s s t y l i z e d with more r e a l i s t i c body proportions. The eye, so highly conventionalized i n the stone sculptures, i s extremely simple i n the antler representations. On the zoomorphic heads of the antler clubs (Figs. 32, 34) and the digging-stick handle (Fig. 27;C) the eyes are either i n c i s e d c i r c l e s , c i r c l e s with center dots, or two recurving l i n e s as the eye on the sap scraper (F i g . 35;A). The eye of the human heads are more complex. On the handle with two heads (Fig. 33 >A) the eyes are ovoid with a l i n e i n c i s e d l a t e r a l l y along the major axis of the e l l i p s e . The single antler head has more rectangular eyes and i s le s s r e a l i s t i c ( F i g . 33;B). The mouths of the zoomorphic antler carvings are f a i r l y similar to the open-mouthed s t e a t i t e f i g u r e s , while the human fi g u r e s i n antler have t h i n , t i g h t l y closed l i p s . A feature common to anthropomorphic representations i n stone and antler i s the high nasal root and the widely f l a r i n g alae. Bone and Wood Decoration. Evidence f o r the embellishment of bone and wood i s scanty. The usually r a p i d decay of wood no doubt i s responsible f o r the sca r c i t y of wooden objects, but the amount of undecorated bone i s surprising. Less than one-tenth of the bone items are embellished, while over three-quarters of the antler pieces are decorated. I t may be that bone i s harder to work with than antler. The few engraved bone pieces (excluding the whalebone clubs) are seemingly n o n - u t i l i t a r i a n a r t i f a c t s such as bone pendants and the miniature bows, although the l a t t e r may also be antler. The needles and drinking tubes are not embellished. Summary. The art of EeQw:l consists of the decoration of stone, bone, antler, and wooden objects. Two basic styles of artwork are recognized—geometric and representative. The former i s represented for the most part by i n c i s e d symbolic designs, while the l a t t e r consists of zoomorphic and anthropo-morphic figures carved i n the round and i n b a s - r e l i e f . A sc a r c i t y of carved bone i s noted; a remarkable f a c t considering the high proportion of bone i n the assemblage and the amount of carved antler. F i n a l l y , a difference between the carving i n stone and antler i s observed; the former tends to highly s t y l i z e d f i g u r e s , while the l a t t e r i s l e s s conventionalized. Ethnography of the Shuswap In recent times, most of c e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia was occupied by groups speaking various languages of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h d i v i s i o n of the Salishan l i n g u i s t i c stock (Swadesh 1950: 163). One of these languages, Shuswap, was spoken by a population who recognized seven subdivisions of themselves, based upon t e r r i t o r i a l claims and d i a l e c t i c differences (T e i t 1909:453; Map 2) . James Teit's massive monograph (1909) i s the only 84 comprehensive ethnography on these people. As T e i t also published a complete work on the neighbouring Thompson Indians (1900) prior to the Shuswap report, he frequently r e f e r s the reader 1 to the e a r l i e r publication f o r many d e t a i l s . The l e s s complete reports by Boas (1890) and Dawson (1891) are less useful, since many of th e i r observations were recorded i n greater d e t a i l by T e i t . Isolated remarks concerning the Shuswap are contained i n the journals of the explorers Mackenzie (1801) and Fraser (Lamb i 9 6 0 ) . The environment and climate of the Chase area have been discussed i n some d e t a i l i n Chapter I, Short cold winters and long hot summers are the r u l e . An ample food supply was assured by the abundance of wapiti, deer, and salmon. U t i l i z a t i o n Patterns. Bows and arrows were supple-mented by deadfalls, snares, and fences to capture game ( T e i t , 1909:521). Beaver were taken with large composite u n i l a t e r a l l y barked harpoons. These were f i t t e d to a shaft by means of two grooved hemi-cylinders of hardwood lashed together to form a socket. The r e t r i e v i n g l i n e was attached to the wooden section (Teit 1909: 523). Fishing techniques included the use of spears, l e i s t e r s , hooks, and nets. The l a t t e r were weighted down by n a t u r a l l y rounded pebbles rather than notched sinkers (Teit 1900:231). At c e r t a i n times of the year berrying was an important occupation; rooting and digging and berrying were ca r r i e d out by the women (Dawson 1891:19? 21). Food supplies, 8 5 such as dried meat, roots, and be r r i e s , were stored i n shallow storage p i t s , often l i n e d with bark (T e i t 1 9 0 9 : 4 9 5 ) . Woodworking tools included adzes f i t t e d with jade blades, wooden and antler wedges, stone hand mauls, and beaver i n c i s o r ..gravers ( T e i t 1 9 0 9 : 4 7 ^ ) . Mortars were r a r e l y used, and when manufactured, were usually made of wood (Teit 1 9 0 9 : 5 0 0 ) . Habitations. Most of the Shuswap bands preferred the c i r c u l a r semi-subterranean house f o r a winter dwelling (Boas 1 8 9 0 : 8 3 ) ; only the Lakes and Empire Valley d i v i s i o n s used a rectangular bark lodge ( T e i t 1 9 0 9 : 4 9 2 ) . Summer dwellings f o r a l l Shuswap groups were mat or bark covered frame huts ( T e i t 1 9 0 9 : 4 9 3 ) . Ornaments. Personal adornment was common. Dentalium s h e l l , wapiti-tooth pendants, woodpecker scalps, glass beads, and copper pendants were most often used. Disc bone beads were not common. H a l i o t i s pendants are not mentioned i n the l i t e r a -ture (Teit 1 9 0 9 : 5 0 8 - 5 1 0 ) . A few i n d i v i d u a l s were tattooed, e s p e c i a l l y on the wrists and face (Teit 1 9 0 9 : 5 1 1 ) . Trade. The Shuswap were active traders. Trade with the L i l l o o e t and Thompson Indians took place during the summer months when the groups met f o r the salmon season just north of the town of L i l l o o e t . • In the very important Dentalium trade, the Canyon D i v i s i o n of the Shuswap, served as middle-men between other S a l i s h speaking groups and t h e i r Athapaskan neighbours who 86 procured these s h e l l s from coastal groups ( T e i t 1906:231, 232; 1909:535)• Trade to the south and east, v i a the Shuswap lakes and the Okanagan River, resulted i n contact with the Okanagan groups (Teit 1909:536; 1928:250, 252). Fraser remarked i n 1808 that some of the Shuswap ventured beyond the Rocky Mountains f o r buffalo (Lamb 1960:71). S o c i a l Organization. S o c i a l organization was r e l a t i v e l y uncomplicated. Concepts of t r i b a l organization, mythical clan o r i g i n , or ranking based upon wealth were unknown. V i l l a g e autonomy was general, although a concept of unity, fostered by common hunting areas and intermarriage, often existed between neighbouring v i l l a g e s ( T e i t 1909:569; Ray 1939:13). The pos i t i o n of chief was often inherited; however, no spec i a l prerogatives accompanied the t i t l e , and leaders of hunting and war parties were elected ( T e i t 1909:569, 570). Land and f i s h i n g rocks were communal property (Teit 1909:572, 573). Prisoners of war were enslaved, but the i r children became free-men (Teit 1900: 570). In the mid-nineteenth century the Canyon and Fraser River d i v i s i o n s adopted b r i e f l y the Carrier version of ranked coastal society. The experiment was sho r t - l i v e d , perhaps due to increasing pressure of European contact (Teit 1909:575). B u r i a l P r a c t i c e s . When discussing Shuswap b u r i a l practices T e i t (1909:592) r e f e r s to h i s more complete notes on the Upper Thompson methods (Teit 1900:327-335). B u r i a l took place the day after death. The corpse was not washed, and usually not painted with ochre unless the deceased was a warrior. The body was dressed, flexed into a tight p o s i t i o n , t i e d with bark twine, and wrapped i n skins or mats. Family graveyards were located near v i l l a g e s and usually i n sandy s o i l . The grave was c i r c u l a r , shallow, and often l i n e d with grass and bark. Two d i f f e r e n t positions of b u r i a l were employed; the body could be in t e r r e d s i t t i n g i n which case i t faced east, or the corpse could be placed l y i n g on the l e f t side and facing south. Weapons and tools were buried with the deceased and other a r t i c l e s were hung on poles above the grave. The l a t t e r possessions were •"killed'" or i n t e n t i o n a l l y damaged. Graves were marked by small co n i c a l brush tents, by small boulder cairns, or by both tents and cairns. Boas (1890:91) and Fraser (Lamb 1960:72) reported rough conical structures up to twenty feet i n diameter at the base covering graves. Unlike the Thompson (T e i t 1900:329), the Shuswap did not u t i l i z e canoes as grave shelters (Teit 1909:593). Cremation was resorted to only when a band was away from home or a man died i n war. I t was not a common practice and served only t o . f a c i l i t a t e the transport of the bones to the home cemetery (Teit 1900:330). After a period of several years a grave was sometimes uncovered by the occupant's r e l a t i v e s and the bones wrapped i n a new blanket (1900:330). 88 Recent and P r e h i s t o r i c Culture Many ethnographically reported t r a i t s are present i n the assemblage from EeQw.l, although some elements have not been recorded. E s p e c i a l l y noteworthy among the previously unreported items are: the open socketed digging-stick handles, the wooden mask, the whalebone clubs, the s t e a t i t e carvings, and the Pecten s h e l l s . L i s t e d i n ethnographic accounts but absent at EeQw:l are: wapiti-tooth pendants, beaver tooth dice, and many metal and glass trade items. Two h i s t o r i c a l l y noted features may be s i g n i f i c a n t . The composite harpoon, l i s t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y f o r the Shuswap and for no other groups (Teit 1909:523). i s probably present at EeQw:l, while the s c a r c i t y of stone mortars tends to validate T e i t ' s observation that these ute n s i l s were made of wood rather than of stone (1909:500). The b u r i a l s at EeQw:l confirm ethnographic reports of primary flexed inhumation i n sand. No evidence of secondary, seated, or cremation b u r i a l s was observed. Tents, ca i r n s , or similar structures over the graves were not evident, although wooden markers could have decayed. The most complete l i s t of ethnographic t r a i t s f o r Plateau groups has been compiled by Ray (1942). Several t r a i t s indicated by him as "absent" were present at EeQw:l, as shown i n the accompanying table. TABLE XX ITEMS PRESENT AT EeQw:l NOT INCLUDED IN RAY'S LIST A r t i f a c t Type T r a i t Number Lis t e d As Stone mortar U n i l a t e r a l l y bevelled elk antler wedge Zoomorphic hand maul Adze F l i n t knives (Chalcedony, chert) Beaver tooth engravers Sandstone shaft smoothers Whalebone clubs Multiple Dentalia rows Pecten caurinus s h e l l Stone sculpture Wooden mask 1971,2 2104 2121 2136-2142 2165 2176 2330, 2331 2439 3418 4187 Absent Absent Absent Absent Absent No data Absent Absent Absent Absent Some of the above elements are recorded by T e i t (1909:473, 4) i n h i s ethnography of the Shuswap; they include: adze blades, mortars, f l i n t knives, sandstone shaft smoothers, and beaver teeth engravers. 90 Summary The paucity of trade copper and the absence of i r o n implements and glass beads suggest that the most recent b u r i a l s at Ee$w:l are at l e a s t two hundred years old. The e a r l i e s t interments may be considerably older. Primary flexed p i t b u r i a l s , with an east/west orienta-t i o n i n four of the f i v e examples, were encountered at an average depth of sixteen inches. The s i t e probably contained more than f i f t y graves. No c i s t s , c a i r n s , or b u r i a l cremations were observed. The associated a r t i f a c t s included a wide range of weapons, t o o l s , and ornaments. Many objects were decorated with geometric and/or r e a l i s t i c carving. E s p e c i a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t are several examples of f i n e s t e a t i t e sculpture. The presence of a var i e t y of materials not available i n the study area attests to a vigorous trade with neighbouring groups. A comparison between the ethnographic culture of the Shuswap with the t r a i t s represented i n the assemblage from EeQw:l reveals many p a r a l l e l s and a few perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t d i s p a r i t i e s . Eleven t r a i t s l i s t e d by Ray as ethnographically "absent" were observed i n the assemblage. 91 CHAPTER V Plateau B u r i a l Patterns Data on other Plateau b u r i a l s i t e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n i t s Canadian portion, w i l l contribute to an understanding of the temporal and c u l t u r a l p osition of the EeiQw:l material. For the moment, the purpose i s not to discuss the significance of these data, but simply to assemble them f o r analysis i n the following chapters. Chronological C r i t e r i a and Terminology The paucity of absolute dates, such as those derived from C-14 analyses, has l e d Plateau workers to use a system of r e l a t i v e dating for s i t e s l e s s than f i v e hundred years old. To date, no one set of terms has been universally employed; f o r example, Strong et a l . (1930) r e f e r to th e i r s i t e s as "pre-Caucasian" or "post-Caucasian". Osborne (1957) uses the terms " h i s t o r i c " and "contact" interchangeably, and C o l l i e r et a l . (1942:113) r e f e r to s i t e s a f t e r or before "White contact". A l l these authors use as t h e i r c r i t e r i o n the absence or presence of non-aboriginal a r t i f a c t s , and although they recognize that varying amounts of these traded items may indicate age differences, they make no attempt to integrate t h i s knowledge into t h e i r terminology. The simple dichotomy between s i t e s having trade goods and those that do not may obscure the very s i g n i f i c a n t changes that occurred as a r e s u l t of the expanding European populations beyond the Rocky Mountains. The terminology outlined below i s s p e c i f i c a l l y designed to cover the l a s t few hundred years of Plateau prehistory, e s p e c i a l l y those v i t a l years preceding the actual a r r i v a l of White man i n the Plateau. The presence or absence of a r t i f a c t s of non-Indian o r i g i n and manufacture i s of great assistance i n dating s i t e s . Objects of European, American, or Asian manufacture w i l l be c a l l e d "Trade goods". In the Plateau, Trade goods include even-gauged, machine-rolled copper, a l l i r o n and s t e e l , glass, china, and porcelain. Some a r t i f a c t s such as sea s h e l l s and whalebone are not native to the Plateau; however, as they were traded i n t o the area by other Indian groups, these items w i l l be termed "aboriginal trade goods". Si t e s with an absence of Trade goods w i l l be c a l l e d "Pre-contact". "Contact" s i t e s are those having some Trade goods which were acquired through trade r e l a t i o n s with neigh-bouring Indian groups, and not by d i r e c t dealings with European or American traders. Two d i v i s i o n s within the Contact period may be recognized: (1) "Early Contact" s i t e s with very few trade goods, and usually l i m i t e d quantities of copper, and (2) "Late Contact" s i t e s with many Trade goods including i r o n , glass, and much copper. " H i s t o r i c " s i t e s are those with an abundance of Trade goods received from d i r e c t contact with European and American traders and explorers. This era coincides with the ethnographic 93 period. I t should be emphasized that the term "Contact" as i t i s used here to describe the r e l a t i v e amount of Trade goods i n a s i t e , does not imply physical contact with non-Indian groups; rather i t r e f e r s to a period of time when aboriginal groups were exposed to the culture of Western society i n the form of copper, i r o n and glass. The evidence from the accounts of the e a r l i e s t explorers (Lamb, 1960:84, 86) indicates that the appearance of these items pre-dated the a r r i v a l of explorers and traders. Canadian Plateau B u r i a l s Although b u r i a l s have been found throughout the Canadian Plateau, only a few have been systematically excavated. The only published reports are by H. I. Smith (1899a; 1900) who investigated b u r i a l s at Lytton, Kamloops, and i n the Nicola Valley, and by Caldwell (1954) who gained some data on bu r i a l s from r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s i n the Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys. Several b u r i a l s were excavated by Borden (n.d.a) near Cache Creek on the Bonaparte River, and at EdRk:3 between Lytton and L i l l o o e t . Some data from these s i t e s are u t i l i z e d here. Other were acquired from various r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s and l o c a l residents. During the summer of 1961 a B u r i a l S i t e Survey of the Lytton to L i l l o o e t area, sponsored by the National Museum of Canada and the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, was c a r r i e d out by the writer. Information gained on t h i s survey w i l l also be incorporated i n the discussion. 9k EeRh:l near Cache Creek. Several b u r i a l s were excavated near the town of Cache Creek i n 195k and 1956 (Borden n.d. a). This s i t e , designated EeRh:l, consisted of several boulder cairns on a h i l l , one mile north of the town. Three of the boulder cairns were investigated, and i n the well compacted ground beneath them four inhumations were found. Beneath the f i r s t c a i r n a flexed b u r i a l was discovered surrounded by a cedar (?) stake c i s t which extended from near the surface to a depth of t h i r t y inches. The tops of the stakes were not charred. A fragmented rush matting covered the b u r i a l which was l y i n g loosely f l e x e d on the l e f t side with the cranium pointing to the northwest. Among the grave additions were one chipped knife and f i v e side-notched triangular points. A second interment was beneath "Cairn VI". This b u r i a l was surrounded by an aspen stake c i s t which extended nearly to the surface. A piece of poplar bark was placed over the cranium, and the entire body was o r i g i n a l l y covered with matting. The b u r i a l was loosely flexed on the r i g h t side with the head to the east. A large non-stemmed chipped knife was i n the lap. Two b u r i a l s were encountered beneath "Cairn VIII". The f i r s t interment was surrounded by a charred cedar (?) slab c i s t which extended almost to the surface. The cranium was pointing towards the west. The body was that of a young female 9,5 l y i n g on i t s back with legs flexed to the r i g h t . Numerous grave additions were placed with t h i s b u r i a l including: two empty and broken birch bark pouches ( ? ) , a decorated wing-bone with a worked mammal bone inserted, a highly polished needle with a proximal eye, and a necklace of seventeen wapiti canine teeth arranged around the neck i n three rows. The second b u r i a l under "Cairn VIII" was surrounded by a cedar stake c i s t . This young infant b u r i a l lay flexed on i t s back with the cranium to the west. Four other b u r i a l s were removed by members of the South Cariboo Museum Association. A l l lay flexed, encased i n wood c i s t s , and covered by stone cairns. At l e a s t one of t h i s group lay on the l e f t side and was surrounded by a charred cedar slab c i s t . A l l the interments at EeRh:l were located at depths of about t h i r t y inches beneath cairns (two apparently shared "Cairn VIII") i n p i t s that were l i n e d with stakes. Four of the c i s t s were possibly of cedar and one was of aspen. At l e a s t three of the b u r i a l s were covered with matting or bark. Two bodies were flexed l e f t , the crania pointing west, and three were flexed r i g h t with the head to the east. No Trade goods were included i n t h i s Pre-contact s i t e . Spences Bridge. A c a i r n marked grave was excavated by T e i t near Spences Bridge, twenty miles south of Cache Creek (Smith 1900:1+3lf). The interment was of an adult male, l y i n g face down and loosely flexed i n a charred wood stake c i s t . The presence of a copper tube among the inclusions may indicate an E a r l y Contact date f o r the s i t e ; however, the copper may have been of aboriginal o r i g i n , i n which case the b u r i a l may be of Pre-contact age. Middle Fraser River. The Middle Fraser River i s considered here to include a one hundred s i x t y - f i v e mile section of the r i v e r from Yale to K e l l y Creek (Map 1 ) . Ethnographically the area was inhabited c h i e f l y by various bands of the Lower and Upper Thompson, with some L i l l o o e t and Shuswap Indians i n the northernmost t h i r t y miles (Map 2 ) . This stretch of the Fraser River has been occupied by non-Indian groups f o r over one hundred years, and mining, agricultur highway and r a i l r o a d construction have destroyed many b u r i a l s i t e s . D.iRi:^ near Yale. A series of flexed inhumations were excavated i n the most recent horizons of DjRi : 3 near Yale. No Trade goods were associated with these remains. Spuzzum. Twenty bu r i a l s were placed i n seated positions around a campfire near the v i l l a g e of Spuzzum, eleven miles north of Yale. Some of the bodies were f i f t e e n feet deep i n the sand. Grave additions included hand mauls, adze blades, l o n g i t u d i n a l whetstones, Dentalium, and an eighteen inch s o l i d copper club (T e i t 1900:336). 97 Lytton. Late in the nineteenth century Smith (1899a) unearthed a number of burials at several sites around Lytton. From his report i t is apparent that many museums have materials from this area. Although Smith did not describe each interment he excavated, he cited six examples and drew some general conclusions regarding the method of burial (1899a:159, 160). Flexed inhumation both on the left and on the right side was apparently the rule. No cairns or cists were encountered. Seven burial sites were discovered between Lytton and Lillooet during a survey in 1961 (Sanger n.d. b_). The sites were a l l located on sandy terraces or promontories on the west or right bank of the Fraser. Since no excavations were carried out, the methods of burial cannot be described. EdRk:l. Cook Ranch. During the winter of 1961, logging operations partially destroyed the burial site at EdRk:l, located approximately twelve miles south of Lillooet on the west bank of the Fraser River (Map 1). Information pertaining to the method of burial was lost, but a later examination of the area revealed no traces of cairns or of wooden cists. The Pre-contact age graves were interred on a steep, sandy, heavily overgrown slope. EdRk:3. Eighteen Mile Ranch. In May of 1961, a disturbed burial ground was investigated and two graves were excavated by Borden and Sanger (Sanger n.d. a). An unknown 98 number of graves, possibly twelve, were placed two feet deep i n a sandy terrace approximately one hundred feet above the Fraser. The s i t e , which i s on the east bank of the r i v e r , twenty-eight miles north of Lytton, was designated EdRk:3 (Map 1). The two excavated interments were primary and flexed. B u r i a l 1 was an adult male of approximately six t y years, flexed l e f t with the cranium to the north and facing east. B u r i a l 2, a young i n f a n t , was flexed on the r i g h t side. The s k u l l pointed almost due west and faced to the south. There was no evidence of stone cairns or wood c i s t s . Lack of Trade goods indicates a Pre-contact age f o r the s i t e . L i l l o o e t . The geologist Dawson reported some bu r i a l s from L i l l o o e t (1891:12). Above some of the graves he saw quantities of charcoal, but he noted that none of the bones or a r t i f a c t s had come i n t o contact with f i r e . Oxidized i r o n fragments suggest a Late Contact to H i s t o r i c age f o r the s i t e . While many other b u r i a l s i t e s are known to have been disturbed i n the L i l l o o e t area, no r e l i a b l e data concerning the method of interment are available. K e l l y Creek. In the talus slopes flanking the south bank of K e l l y Creek, about t h i r t y miles north of L i l l o o e t , a P a c i f i c Great Eastern Railway cut exposed a number of i n t e r -ments. Other b u r i a l s were uncovered by highway construction 99 i n the talus on the north side of K e l l y Lake. No Trade goods were reported.from these s i t e s . GaSf:2. Fraser Lake. Pre-contact talus slope b u r i a l s have been reported from the west end of Fraser Lake (Daugherty and Borden 1955:308. For l o c a t i o n see Map 1, s i t e GaSf:2). GbSk:l, Burns Lake. A single non-cremated p i t i n -humation was discovered at Burns Lake (Map 1) . The grave additions with t h i s pre-contact b u r i a l included: a jade c e l t , an antler wedge, an antler spatulate object, and several chipped points and scrapers (Borden, Personal communication). Nicola Valley. A number of cemeteries i n the Nicola Valley were excavated by Smith (1900:405, 437). The Nicola River empties into the Thompson at Spences Bridge, twenty-three miles northeast of Lytton (Map 1) . Talus b u r i a l s were encountered i n two s i t e s , nine and thirteen miles from the confluence of the Nicola and Thompson r i v e r s . The bodies were placed i n the toe of the slope and covered with rock. Occasionally, a pole was noted inserted into the p i l e of rocks to mark the grave. No Trade items were found among the inc l u s i o n s . Nine inhumations were unearthed at Nicola Lake (Smith 1900:438-440). Some of the talus b u r i a l s were flexed on the l e f t side and others on the back. A l l were covered with twelve to twenty-four inches of rock, and marked with a pole. Two of the graves included dog skeletons and two 100 contained copper ornaments which may have been Trade items. The s i t e i s either Pre-contact or E a r l y Contact i n age. Kamloops. Four s i t e s were investigated by Smith i n the l 8 9 0 fs (1900). A discussion of these s i t e s i s presented i n Chapter VI. Okanagan and Similkameen Valleys. During a survey of the Okanagan and Similkaraeen v a l l e y s Caldwell (1954) obtained some data on b u r i a l practices from l o c a l residents. Four forms of b u r i a l were reported: simple p i t , cedar c i s t , c a i r n , and t a l u s , the l a t t e r i n the Similkameen Valley only (Caldwell 1954:16, 17). The presence of copper tubing and ornaments suggested to Caldwell that most of the b u r i a l s were r e l a t i v e l y recent. They probably date from Contact to H i s t o r i c times. American Plateau B u r i a l s Unlike the Canadian Plateau, the American sector has received considerable attention, although, unfortunately, few of the r e s u l t s have been published. Many data are contained i n various M.A. and Ph.D. theses, while other information i s either i n note form or i r r e t r i e v a b l y l o s t owing to the a c t i v i t i e s of r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s . I t i s beyond the scope of t h i s study to attempt to assemble a l l the scattered data. For comparative purposes, however, a review of the la r g e r , better known s i t e s i s imperative. 101 The Dalles. Three forms of interment were encountered by Strong, Schenck and Steward i n the Dalles-Deschutes region of the Columbia River (Strong et a l . 1930; c f . also Map 1) . Ten i s o l a t e d talus b u r i a l s of both Pre-contact and Contact age were found, As a r u l e , these b u r i a l s were protected by cedar slabs (Strong et a l . 1930:43, 44) . Twenty deep p i t b u r i a l s with mat or board grave l i n i n g s dated from Pre-contact to Contact times (Strong et aJL. 1930:46). Late Contact or H i s t o r i c group cremations were also found; however, neither cremation p i t s nor surrounding rings of rock were encountered (Strong et a l . 1930:48). A series of cremation p i t s , almost t o t a l l y destroyed by r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s , was investigated by Butler (1958). The s i t e , designated k5KL27, consisted of four areas—A, B, C, and D. A p i t measuring eight by ten feet and l i n e d with basalt fragments was found i n Area A. Butler (1958:76-80) suggests that the p i t served as a crematory f o r a family or lineage. A p i t i n Area B measured twenty by s i x feet and was two feet deep ( I b i d . : 8 l ) . A series of cremated remains was recorded i n the p i t of Area C, with the lowest remains i n a bark-lined c i s t of charred upright planks (Ibid. : 8 5 ) . Area D consisted of the remnants of a c i s t containing cremated bones and basalt fragments (Ibid. : 8 6 ) . The cremations appear to be Pre-contact. Three other s i t e s i n The Dalles region, Over, Lucy and Congdon, have also been destroyed by r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s . 102 These s i t e s contained cremated s k e l e t a l material of d e f i n i t e l y Pre-contact age. In the Congdon s i t e , a mass grave containing t h i r t y complete, and many more fragmentary crania, was found and examined by J, Garner (Personal communication). Middle Columbia River. Many b u r i a l s i t e s have been reported along the Columbia River between Wenatchee and the John Day River (Map 1; Crabtree 1957; Garth 1952; Krieger 1928; Osborne 1957). At Sundale, near the town of Arlington, Garth (1952:44) exposed a H i s t o r i c b u r i a l s i t e containing mass or group cremations. These were placed i n a box and were associated with Trade items, some of which post-dated 1840. Garth (1952:41) also excavated cremations at Sheep Island (45BN55), twenty miles downstream from the confluence of the Snake and Columbia r i v e r s . Here he unearthed two Pre-contact mass cremations each surrounded by a c i r c l e of rocks. Baked nests of mud wasps s t i l l adhering to charred planks induced Garth to postulate that a depository shed had been f i r e d (1952:41). Beneath one cremation p i t there were nine extended primary inhumations d e f i n i t e l y pre-dating the cremated remains. Osborne (1957) excavated thirty-seven primary flexed b u r i a l s from a Late Contact to H i s t o r i c s i t e on Berrian Island (45BN3), several miles downstream from Sheep Island. One t h i r d of the inhumations were encased i n charred wood c i s t s . An east-west orientation of the body was the r u l e , while the degree of flexure varied from loose to t i g h t (Osborne 1957* 145)» The s i t e was investigated i n conjunction with the construction of the McNary Dam and Reservoir. Crabtree (1957*7, 8) has reported on thirty-seven b u r i a l s from Rabbit Island (45WW15) near the town of Kennewick. Twenty-six of the Pre-contact and Contact interments were primary and flexed, while eleven e a r l i e r b u r i a l s ( t o t a l l y Pre-contact) were l y i n g extended on the back. A mass cremation p i t , apparently more recent than the extended i n -humations, was also discovered on Rabbit Island (Garth 1952: MO. From Wahluke, f o r t y miles north of the mouth of the Snake River, mass p i t and i n d i v i d u a l c i s t cremations have been reported (Krieger 1928:10). Garth (1952:45) concludes that the group remains pre-date the i n d i v i d u a l c i s t cremations. Seventy-seven flexed primary inhumations, a few p a r t i a l l y charred, were unearthed at the Pot Holes s i t e near Trinidad, Washington. The b u r i a l s , which were marked by posts, dated to the E a r l y Contact Period (Crabtree 1957*65, 66). Yakima Valley. Investigations i n the Yakima Valley revealed three forms of b u r i a l : Pre-contact interments i n 1C4 volcanic ash; Pre-contact and Contact b u r i a l s i n talus slopes; and Pre-contact mass p i t cremations (Smith 1910:138-142). Snake River. Canoe bu r i a l s and wood c o f f i n inhuma-tions were found on B u r i a l Island i n the Snake River. These b u r i a l s , investigated by a party from the Washington State University, were E a r l y Contact (Borden 1961:583). A series of twenty-four inhumations was unearthed near Asotin, Washington (Sprague 1959:43, 73, 74). Three forms of b u r i a l were reported: Pre-contact extended interments; Late Contact, semi-flexed prone b u r i a l s , encased i n cedar stake c i s t s ; and H i s t o r i c extended plank c o f f i n inhumations. Nesnelem. Thi r t y graves were unearthed by Garner near Nespelem, Washington (Map 1; Garner: personal communica-t i o n ) . Four variat i o n s of the primary flexed p i t b u r i a l were encountered; they were, i n order of decreasing frequency of occurrence: cedar c i s t with boulder c a i r n ; c i s t without c a i r n ; c a i r n without c i s t ; and p i t interment without c a i r n or c i s t . Twenty b u r i a l s were flexed on the r i g h t side, the remainder on the l e f t . The majority of crania were to the west and pointing downstream. The s i t e dated from the l a t e Pre-contact to the E a r l y Contact Period. Garner was able to reconstruct the " c i s t with c a i r n " b u r i a l technique. A p i t roughly three feet across was 1 0 5 excavated to a depth of t h i r t y inches. The flexed body was placed i n the grave and covered with grass or matting, which was i n turn covered by a t h i n layer of sand. Cedar shakes between twenty and twenty-four inches long, and two to four inches wide, were set i n the thin sand layer i n an oval around and above the body. The shakes were f i r e d at the top, and while they burned, sand and basketry was thrown i n to f i l l the grave. The heat-cracked under-surfaces of the cai r n boulders suggested they were immediately placed above the grave. Upper Columbia River. One hundred and t h i r t y - f o u r primary p i t and sixteen talus slope b u r i a l s were recorded during a s i t e survey of the Upper Columbia River, between Grand Coulee and the International Boundary. The cemeteries were located beside the r i v e r and most b u r i a l s were oriented p a r a l l e l to the r i v e r with the heads downstream ( C o l l i e r et_ a l . 1942:39-42). Wood c i s t interments with stone c a i r n markers were not noted east of the confluence of the Spokane and Columbia r i v e r s , and the s i t e s containing t h i s mode of b u r i a l were a l l Late-Contact and H i s t o r i c ( C o l l i e r et a l . 1942:40). The apparent recentcy and l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of the wood c i s t interment i n Washington i s important to the problem of the t r a i t ' s o r i g i n . 106 Summary More i s known about b u r i a l practices i n the American than i n the Canadian Plateau. A greater awareness of the aboriginal society, reinforced by salvage investigations i n connection with extensive hydro developments, have been responsible. In the Canadian Plateau, primary p i t inhumations without c i s t or c a i r n have proved the predominant form, although a few c i s t and talus slope interments, and one cremation b u r i a l s i t e (discussed i n Chapter VI) have been reported. While the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these practices by i t s e l f i s not overly s i g n i f i c a n t , a c o r r e l a t i o n with chronological data may illuminate c u l t u r a l development i n the Plateau. The s i t u a t i o n along the Columbia River i s complex. Primary p i t b u r i a l s , with and without c i s t s and cairns, occur from the International Boundary to The Dalles; the majority, however, are located on the Upper Columbia. Along the Middle Columbia, Pre-contact primary p i t extended i n t e r -ments were followed by a mass and an i n d i v i d u a l cremation complex, and then by primary wood c i s t p i t b u r i a l s . F i n a l l y , a H i s t o r i c depository shed complex was noted. At The Dalle s , very early cremations followed by ta l u s , p i t , and depository shed b u r i a l s were recorded. This review has shown the wide d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of b u r i a l patterns both i n time and space. Most of these complexes appear to have arisen from a few basic concepts. I f these developments could be traced i t should shed l i g h t the three major problems outlined i n the Introduction. 108 CHAPTER VI Archaeology of the Kamloops-Chase Area Introduction The purpose of t h i s chapter i s to review i n d e t a i l archaeological investigations of the Kamloops-Chase Area. Following the r e c a p i t u l a t i o n , i t w i l l be possible to point out several important c u l t u r a l changes and arrange them i n a temporal sequence. Only r e a d i l y accessible data w i l l be incorporated. The work of H. I. Smith (1900) provides the information f o r the Kamloops area, while the s i t e report on EeQw:l, found i n Chapters I to IV, i s the source f o r the Chase region. Undocumented data from the many uncontrolled excavations of r e l i c c o l l e c t o r s w i l l not be used. Smith (1900) undertook h i s investigations l a t e i n the nineteenth century. At that time, archaeological methodology and f i e l d techniques were s t i l l i n t h e i r infancy. Hence, i t i s only with a considerable amount of piecing together that useful data can be gleaned from Smith's early publications. B u r i a l patterns are described b r i e f l y but adequately, but a r t i f a c t descriptions are almost wholly inadequate. Smith (1900) reports only those objects he considered i n t e r e s t i n g and, consequently, he overemphasizes the non-u t i l i t a r i a n decorative aspects of the cultures. Very few items 109 are discussed with reference to a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . Moreover, the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t r a i t s i s considered foremost, while t h e i r temporal sequence i s neglected. His d i s i n t e r e s t i n ordinary a r t i f a c t s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the following statement: "Twenty-five pieces of glassy basalt, including arrow-points, etc." (Smith 1900:^35)* Nevertheless, a considerable amount of very useful data i s contained i n Smith's Appendix I (1900:434-MtO), where each excavated b u r i a l i s l i s t e d with the associated a r t i f a c t s . Since the f i n e l y fashioned objects are discussed i n d e t a i l and often i l l u s t r a t e d , they must constitute here the bulk of a r t i f a c t t r a i t s used i n comparison of s i t e s . Fortunately, a r t forms and decorative motifs can be sensitive i n d i c a t o r s i n comparative studies. To some extent, raw material and function may be the v i t a l factors that determine the size and shape of basic u t i l i t a r i a n objects, such as chipped points and scrapers. Certain types of points, f o r example the multi-notched triangular points, may be i n d i c a t i v e of c u l t u r a l trends i n an area though possibly not to the same degree as ornaments and other highly sp e c i a l i z e d a r t i f a c t s . Less than f o r t y miles separate Kamloops and Chase. The meandering South Thompson River, free of rapids and e a s i l y navi-gable, connects the two towns. Ethnographically both areas were inhabited by Shuswap speaking peoples. There i s , therefore, good reason to suspect that recent s i t e s of equal age at Kamloops and Chase should exhibit a considerable degree of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y . 110 The conclusions of t h i s chapter must remain t e n t a t i v e u n t i l they are v e r i f i e d or r e f u t e d by f u t u r e f i e l d i n v e s t i g a -t i o n . B u r i a l S i t e s near Kamloops. Smith (1900) r e p o r t s on four cemeteries i n the Kamloops r e g i o n : (a) extended b u r i a l s i n wood c o f f i n s h e l d together by i r o n n a i l s were exhumed near the o r i g i n a l Hudson's Bay F o r t (Smith 1900:40!+). This l o c a l i t y w i l l be c a l l e d the "Fort S i t e " ; (b) two f l e x e d interments, wrapped i n woven f i b r e blankets and surrounded by charred cedar s l a b c i s t s were excavated at the "Government H i l l S i t e " . Above one of the graves were fragments of a dugout canoe, p o s s i b l y forming a t e n t (Smith 1900:436, 437). The s i t e w i l l be r e f e r r e d to as the " H i l l S i t e " ; (c) i n a t h i r d area, the "Government S i t e " , f o u r c l u s t e r s of cremated human s k e l e t a l m a t e r i a l were unearthed (Smith 1900:436); (d) f i n a l l y , t h i r t e e n b u r i a l s were l o c a t e d at the "Large B u r i a l P l a c e " (Smith 1900:434-436). The h i g h l y fragmentary remains at the "Large S i t e " were f l e x e d . Age of S i t e s . The four s i t e s can be dated only through a r t i f a c t a s s o c i a t i o n . The C h r i s t i a n - i n f l u e n c e d casket b u r i a l s i n t e r r e d near the Hudson's Bay F o r t , were recognized by Indians as t h e i r immediate ancestors (Smith 1900:404). A H i s t o r i c date f o r the F o r t S i t e seems obvious. Among the grave a d d i t i o n s at the " H i l l S i t e " was an i r o n awl and some copper beads (Smith 1900: 437). The presence of copper and i r o n suggests a Late Contact date. The Large S i t e contained no i n d u b i t a b l e Trade goods, 131; although some associated copper pendants may belong i n t h i s category (Smith 1900:424, 435). A l a t e Pre-contact or E a r l y Contact date i s l i k e l y . The chronological data f o r the cremated remains at the Government Site are somewhat contradictory. The absence of obvious Trade goods and the paucity of copper seems to indicate a Pre-contact age; but other evidence suggests that these b u r i a l s may be more recent than those at the Large S i t e . Smith (1900:436) records finding quantities of f l a t rectangular bone beads with the cremations. Although such beads are not d i r e c t l y associated with b u r i a l s at any of the other s i t e s from the Kamloops-Chase area, Smith (1900:426) did f i n d them on the surface of the Large S i t e . This semi-stratigraphic evidence, however, i s l e s s persuasive than the absence of Trade items at the Government S i t e , and u n t i l contrary evidence i s produced by future work, a Pre-contact date may be assumed fo r the b u r i a l s from t h i s l o c a l i t y . A r t i f a c t Comparisons. A close a f f i n i t y between the assemblage from Ee<Qw:l and that of the Large S i t e i s evident from Table XXI. The trumpet-shaped s t e a t i t e pipes with e n c i r c l i n g bands at the junction of the bowl and stem are s t r i k i n g l y similar ( F i g . 20; Smith 1900:429). Other a r t i f a c t s common to both s i t e s are: large perforated Pecten caurinus s h e l l s , decorated and pierced bear penis bones, elongated copper pendants, and whalebone items. Common negative t r a i t s include: wapiti teeth, 112 TABLE XXI SELECTED ARTIFACT COMPARISONS FROM KAMLOOPS AND EeQw.l Num- A r t i f a c t Type H i l l Government Large EeQw:l ber S i t e S i t e S i t e 1 S t e a t i t e pipes X X 2 Long copper beads X ? 3 Copper Pendants X X k Copper stains X X X 5 Animal claw pen-dants X X 6 Wapiti tooth necklaces X 7 Bear penis bone pendants X X 8 Pecten caurinus pendants ? X 9 H a l i o t i s pendants X 10 Dentalium X X X X H F l a t bone beads X 12 Pierced whole Pecten caurinus s h e l l s (possibly r a t t l e s ) X X 13 Beaver tooth dice X Ik Whalebone X X 15 Stone Sculpture X 16 Iron X 17 Beaver tooth knives X X X X 18 Antler harpoons X X 19 Bone harpoons X beaver tooth dice, and f l a t bone beads. Dentalium s h e l l s are reported from both s i t e s but those from the Large S i t e are decorated while the s h e l l s from EeiQw:l are not. H a l i o t i s s h e l l occurs only at Ee<Qw:l. Associated with the cremated remains at the Government s i t e are: one wapiti tooth, many claw pendants, and f l a t bone beads. The following a r t i f a c t s are not reported: copper pendants, Pecten s h e l l s , bear penis bones, beaver tooth dice, and H a l i o t i s s h e l l . The presence of a bone harpoon may be s i g n i f i c a n t . The H i l l S i t e i s distinguished from the others by the presence of i r o n , beaver tooth dice, a necklace of wapiti teeth, and copper beads. The assemblage does not contain Pecten  caurinus, s t e a t i t e pipes, or f l a t bone beads. Conclusions In comparing the s i t e s from the Kamloops-Chase area three points of reference are s i g n i f i c a n t : (1) the age of the s i t e based upon the incidence of Trade goods, (2) the method of b u r i a l , (3) the a r t i f a c t s shown i n Table XXI. When determining c u l t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s by means of a r t i f a c t s positive t r a i t s must be given greater weight than negative evidence. The Large S i t e and EeiQw:l represent two similar cultures. The two s i t e s are nearly contemporaneous though i t i s doubtful whether any of the bu r i a l s from the Large S i t e are as 114 recent as the E a r l y Contact examples from EeQw:l. Flexed primary p i t interments are the ru l e ; there i s no evidence of wood c i s t s or cremation. Ornamental elements from both s i t e s are s i m i l a r , except that "embellished 1' Dentalium s h e l l s are present only at the Large S i t e , and H a l i o t i s only at EeiQw:l. The cremated s k e l e t a l material from the Government S i t e i s considered to be Pre-contact. The associated decorative a r t i f a c t s , the bone beads, and the bone harpoons show few a f f i n i t i e s with other Kamloops-Chase Area s i t e s , although an otherwise normal Plateau s i t e inventory of chipped points, c e l t s , wedges, beaver teeth, awls, ochre, and digging-stick handles i s recorded (Smith 1900:436). The only other reported Canadian Plateau b u r i a l s i t e containing f l a t rectangular bone beads i s near L i l l o o e t ; however, the s k e l e t a l remains were not cremated (Dawson 1891:12). The wood c i s t interments from the Late Contact H i l l S i t e are more recent than the interments from the Large Site and EeQw:l and thus indicate a change i n b u r i a l custom. Wood c i s t b u r i a l s , as we have seen (Chapter V), are found also west of Kamloops at Spences Bridge and at EeRh:l near Cache Creek. EeBh:l i s d e f i n i t e l y Pre-contact, and the Spences Bridge s i t e Pre-contact or E a r l y Contact. Thus, primary p i t interment appears to have been s t i l l practised i n the Kamloops-Chase Area at a time when wood c i s t b u r i a l was already i n vogue to the west. The H i l l S i t e attests the introduction of the wood c i s t to the Kamloops-Chase Area i n the Late Contact era. 115 Two t r a i t s , occurring i n the H i l l S i t e but not i n the Large S i t e or Ee$w:l, are wapiti tooth necklaces and beaver tooth dice. The d i s t r i b u t i o n h i n t s at a Late Contact a r r i v a l of these elements i n the Kamloops-Chase Area. A wapiti tooth necklace i s among the grave additions from the Pre-contact s i t e EeRh:l, near Cache Creek (Borden n.d.a) and wapiti teeth are reported also from apparently Pre-contact b u r i a l s at Lytton (Smith 1899a:152). Marmot i n c i s o r tooth dice, with markings i d e n t i c a l to those on the beaver tooth dice of the H i l l S i t e , are recorded by Smith (1899a:153) from a Pre-contact b u r i a l at Lytton. Rodent i n c i s o r dice, possibly marmot, are also present i n the assemblage from EdRksl, the Pre-contact s i t e twelve miles south of L i l l o o e t . When present i n Columbia River s i t e s , beaver i n c i s o r dice are always associated with Contact-aged assemblages (Butler 1959:67). The significance of the s p a t i a l and temporal d i s t r i b u -t i o n of the wood c i s t inhumation and rodent i n c i s o r dice i s considered i n the following chapter. Summary Four d i s t i n c t forms of b u r i a l can be discerned i n the Kamloops-Chase Area: (1) cremation, (2) primary p i t , (3) wood c i s t , and («+) c o f f i n . The cremated remains appear to be Pre-contact, and the primary p i t b u r i a l s are Pre-contact and 116 E a r l y Contact, In the Late Contact Period, charred wood c i s t inhumations were introduced from the west accompanied by wapiti tooth necklaces and beaver tooth dice. The most recent b u r i a l method i s the H i s t o r i c extended c o f f i n interment. 117 CHAPTER VII New Light on Recent Culture History i n the Plateau The data presented i n the preceding chapters permit us to illuminate the three important problems bearing on recent Plateau prehistory that were outlined i n the Introduction: (1) the problem of Coastal influences on Plateau cultures; (2) the o r i g i n and spread of crematory practices; and (3) Ray fs ethnographic subdivisions i n the Plateau. Though some conclusions can be presented with confidence others are s t i l l tentative and must be tested by future f i e l d work. As stated at the outset, the main concern i s with recent Plateau prehistory; that i s , the period embracing approximately the l a s t f i v e hundred years. Coastal Influences on In t e r i o r Cultures Chinook Depository Shed. The d i f f u s i o n of the Chinook-type depository shed up the Columbia River i s well documented both archaeologically and ethnographically (Coues 1905:139; Strong et a l . 1930:42; Osborne 1 9 5 7 : l 5 D . The depository shed, as used by the Chinook, was a shed-roofed structure about ten feet square and s i x feet high erected over a shallow p i t . Wrapped corpses were p i l e d i n , one above the other (Spier and Sapir 1930:271). At Blalock Island, h a l f way between the McNary Reservoir and The Da l l e s , Lewis and Clark noted a huge depository shed, s i x t y f eet long and twelve feet wide 118 (Coues 1905:139). U t i l i z i n g ethnographic sources, Osborne (1957:157) has traced the influence of the shed complex as f a r east as the Nez Perce" groups. Archaeological evidence indicates that the depository shed extended i n Pre-contact times as f a r upstream as Sheep Island i n the McNary Reservoir region ( c f . Chapter V above). According to Osborne (1957:ll+9), Chinook influence, rather than a Chinook population movement, was responsible f o r the upriver d i f f u s i o n of the concept. The idea was apparently dying out when Lewis and Clark descended the Columbia River i n 1805 (Strong et a l . 1930:42). Coast S a l i s h Mortuary House. Relying s o l e l y on ethnographic reports, Ray (1939:67) considers the Coast Sali s h mortuary house as the immediate stimulus for the mortuary houses among the Lower Thompson and the Lower L i l l o o e t . This influence may a c t u a l l y have extended f a r to the east and north of these groups, although i t was manifested i n varying forms. Variations of the Coast S a l i s h mortuary house may have been observed as f a r north as the confluence of the Fraser and C h i l c o t i n r i v e r s where, i n 1808, Fraser saw conical structures of poles erected over earth b u r i a l s . Some of the teepee-like frames were twenty feet across at the base (Lamb 1960:72). Farther downstream i n Upper L i l l o o e t and i n Upper Thompson t e r r i t o r y , smaller c o n i c a l "tents" were b u i l t over interments (Teit 1906:269; 1900:328). Fraser saw a four-foot square 119 b u r i a l box at the northernmost Lower Thompson v i l l a g e of Siska, while at Spuzzum the southernmost Lower Thompson v i l l a g e he examined a large mortuary h o u s e — f i f t e e n feet long and "of the form of a chest of drawers" (Lamb 1960:9*+, 98). Zoomorphic figures were carved and painted on the plank sides. Similar mortuary houses with anthropomorphic figures were made by the Lower L i l l o o e t (Teit 1906:272). Two anomalies must be explained i f the "tents" and coni c a l structures reported by T e i t and Fraser are to be considered r e l a t e d to the Coast S a l i s h mortuary house. In the Coast S a l i s h version, the corpses were placed i n the house and not i n t e r r e d (Duff 1952:9*+). while the Lower Thompson (Teit 1900:335) and Lower L i l l o o e t (Teit 1906:272) wholly accepted t h i s idea, the more inland S a l i s h apparently clung to their ancient practice of inhumation but erected grave markers. The second deviance from the o r i g i n a l , the token "tents" rather than the elaborate house, would be expected i n the a r i d Fraser Valley north of Lytton where wood suitable for the construction of plank mortuary houses was very scarce. The concept of the mortuary house probably ascended the Fraser River i n Contact times and continued well i n t o the nineteenth century. Some C h r i s t i a n cemeteries along the Fraser River between Lytton and L i l l o o e t contain b u r i a l s covered by elevated gable roofs. The most recent tombstone i s dated 1882. 120 He-wrapping the Corpse. Accompanying the mortuary house concept to the Int e r i o r was the practice of re-wrapping the corpse i n new blankets aft e r the i n i t i a l interment. The custom reported by T e i t (1900:330) f o r the Thompson and the L i l l o o e t (1906:270) was common among the Coast S a l i s h (Duff 1952:94, 95)« Re-wrapping a corpse a f t e r several years of inhumation would cause the bones to lose t h e i r natural anatomical po s i t i o n . Smith did not f i n d any evidence of t h i s practice at Lytton (1899a), and there was no i n d i c a t i o n of i t i n the Pre-contact s i t e s EeRh:l and EdRk:3 (Chapter V above). The practice was apparently introduced to the Plateau i n Contact and H i s t o r i c times. Wood Sculpture. A t h i r d practice accompanied the mortuary house and the re-wrapping concepts upstream. In the nineteenth century, wooden anthropomorphic sculptures were placed around b u r i a l s by the Thompson and L i l l o o e t ( T e i t 1900: 329; 1906:272). The carvings were similar to those made by the Stalo, or Fraser River Coast S a l i s h , and were used mainly by the Lower Thompson (Te i t 1900:329; 1906:273). A r t i f a c t s of Coastal Origin. Preceding the Contact and H i s t o r i c up-river d i f f u s i o n of the mortuary house, wood sculpture and the re-wrapping ceremony, was an older c l u s t e r of t r a i t s , a l l but a few of which were extinct by ethnographic times. Some of these elements, f o r example, whalebone objects, Pecten caurinus, Olivella« H a l i o t i s . and Dentalium s h e l l , 121 obviously originated on the coast and were traded inland. Others, such as beaver i n c i s o r dice, ground slate knives, and the wooden mask, may have reached the Plateau through the process of concept or stimulus d i f f u s i o n . Ground Slate Knives. Ground slate knives have been associated with cultures i n the Fraser Delta since the F i r s t Millennium B.C. (Borden 1950:15-16, 18, 20; 1960:117), and are found i n s i t e s of similar antiquity at Hope and Yale (Borden 196la:584; 196lb:1). Archaeologic and ethnographic evidence indicates that with the exception of the Fraser Canyon from Hope to Lytton, ground slate knives are never common i n Plateau assemblages. Smith (l899a:l40; 1900:414) found considerable ground sla t e at Lytton, but very l i t t l e at Kamloops. At Ee(Qw:l only two examples of ground slate were observed, and surface c o l l e c t i o n s from s i t e s between Lytton and K e l l y Creek contain only two fragments of slate from a t o t a l of well over one thousand stone a r t i f a c t s . Ground slate knives are not present i n American Plateau s i t e s (Borden n.d. h.). The very l i m i t e d Plateau d i s t r i b u t i o n of ground slate knives and the widespread and ancient coastal d i s t r i b u t i o n suggest that the t r a i t d i f f u s e d inland r e l a t i v e l y recently, the Fraser River being one of several possible d i f f u s i o n routes. Rodent-tooth Dice. Rodent-tooth dice have a wide Plateau d i s t r i b u t i o n (Ray 1942:183). Their presence i n Canadian Plateau s i t e s has been discussed (Chapter VI above) and shown to 122 be Pre-contact at Lytton and EdRk:l, and Late Contact at Kamloops. In Columbia River s i t e s , beaver tooth dice have been found only i n Late Contact to H i s t o r i c Age s i t e s (Butler 1959*67). The t r a i t appears to be recent i n the Plateau. Rodent tooth dice may be older on the coast than on the Plateau. A c o l l e c t o r dug up four beaver i n c i s o r s from the base of a wholly Pre-contact midden near V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h Columbia (Sendey: Personal communication). A photograph indicates two teeth carved with a c i r c l e and dot motif, one with zigzags, and the fourth with eight v e r t i c a l l i n e s arranged i n pairs and i n c i s e d at r i g h t angles to the long axis of the tooth. I f the V i c t o r i a s i t e i s t r u l y Pre-contact, and the association v a l i d , then the e a r l i e s t recorded occurrence of rodent tooth dice may be on the coast. From there the concept possibly d i f f u s e d to the western Canadian Plateau, east to Kamloops and south to the Columbia River. Despite extensive excavations, no beaver tooth dice have been found at Stelax, a recent Coast S a l i s h v i l l a g e at the mouth of the Fraser River whose beginnings go back to around A.D. 1300 (Borden: Personal communication; c f . also McCallum and Dyck 1960:77f). Assuming that the Stelax V i l l a g e deposits represent uninterrupted habitation, i t seems unlikely the concept of dice diffused up the Fraser River, unless a Vancouver Island group brought the dice with them on their annual journey up the Fraser f o r salmon (Duff 1952:25). An alternate route of d i f f u s i o n to the Plateau could by-pass the Fraser River, and enter the Plateau v i a the more northerly Coast S a l i s h groups. C l e a r l y , more excavations and absolute dates w i l l be needed before we are i n a position to determine with certainty the o r i g i n of i n c i s o r tooth dice i n the Northwest. O l i v e l l a and H a l i o t i s . These two sea s h e l l s occur with the greatest frequency i n American Plateau s i t e s . The occasional presence of these s h e l l s i n Canadian s i t e s probably indicates trade with Columbia River groups. Dentalium. The widespread occurrence of Dentalium i s i n d i c a t i v e of the extensive trade throughout the Plateau. In ethnographic times the C h i l c o t i n were middle-men i n supplying most of the s h e l l ( T e i t 1909:535), hut some Dentalium also ascended the Columbia River (Osborne 1957:72). Whalebone Clubs. Whalebone clubs are usually-associated with coastal groups, e s p e c i a l l y the Nootka and Kwakiutl (Drucker 1955:94). I t i s pertinent to compare the club from Ee(Qw:l with a series of f o r t y - s i x Nootkan clubs i l l u s t r a t e d by Boas (1904:403-412) and to note c e r t a i n d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s . A head surmounted by a mask i s carved on the handles of a l l the clubs, but while the one from EeQw:l i s probably meant to be anthropomorphic, the heads on the Nootkan clubs are generally zoomorphic and only r a r e l y anthropomorphic. 124 The animal heads have large almond-shaped eyes; the human head from EeQw:l small nearly rectangular eyes. The Nootkan clubs have a perforation for a wrist lanyard; the example from EeQw:l has a carved r i n g . Some whalebone clubs found i n Plateau s i t e s are l i k e the Nootkan examples while others are similar to the club from EeQw:l. Smith (1900:422) i l l u s t r a t e s two clubs from Kamloops which have human heads and rectangular eyes resembling the club from EeQw:l. A club combining the rectangular eye with zoomorphic carving i s reported by C o l l i e r et a l . (1942:8d) from the Upper Columbia. Boas (1904:404, 405) i l l u s t r a t e s whalebone clubs from various Columbia River s i t e s ; these are i d e n t i c a l with the Nootkan examples. The differences between the Kamloops-Chase Area clubs and those made by the Nootka suggests that another coastal group manufactured the clubs which were traded inland to the Kamloops region. Despite considerable digging, Smith did not report any whalebone from Lytton, and none was observed i n the assemblage from EdRk:l and EdRk:3. I t may be that the clubs reached the In t e r i o r from the Kwakiutl; an examination of clubs known to have originated from t h i s group may prove revealing (Drucker 1950:187; 1955:94). Pecten caurinus. Pecten caurinus i s l i m i t e d to s i t e s i n the Canadian Plateau (p.66 above). Two uses for these s h e l l s have been suggested (p.65 above): the large complete s h e l l s pierced below the umbo were parts of r a t t l e s , while the 125 perforated fragments were evidently used as pendants. Pec ten s h e l l r a t t l e s were not used by the B e l l a Coola or any of the northern groups (Drucker 1 9 5 0 : 1 9 8 ) , but were common among the Coast S a l i s h (Drucker 1 9 5 6 : 1 0 2 ) . This coastal d i s t r i b u t i o n suggests that the r a t t l e s were traded from the Coast Sal i s h to the Plateau groups. Pecten caurinus s h e l l r a t t l e s are not reported f o r the Plateau groups i n ethnographies. Wooden Mask. The presence of the wooden mask at EeQw:l i s not explained by any ethnographic accounts. T e i t ( 1 9 0 9 : 5 7 5 ) mentions the adoption of Carr i e r s o c i a l structure, ceremonials, and masks, by some of the western Shuswap groups i n the l 8 5 0 , s , a date too recent f o r EeQw:l. Although the mask cannot be p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d , i t c e r t a i n l y does resemble the Coast S a l i s h sxwaixwe (p. 68 above). S c a l l o p - s h e l l r a t t l e s were intimately associated with the sxwaixwe masks among the Coast S a l i s h (Barnett 1 9 5 5 : 1 5 8 ) , and the combination of a mask and Pecten r a t t l e s at EeQw:l suggests the presence of the sxwaixwe dance complex. Among the Coast S a l i s h the sxwaixwe dancers were h i r e d to perform at p u r i f i c a t i o n ceremonies following puberty r i t e s and funerals, and at almost any other occasion of note i n an in d i v i d u a l ' s l i f e cycle (Suttles:personal communication). According to S u t t l e s , the h i r i n g of sxwaixwe dancers at these functions does not necessarily imply prestige, as i n i t s purest form the dance was probably r i t u a l i s t i c . 126 I t may be s i g n i f i c a n t that s t e a t i t e bowls, also possibly associated with r i t u a l i s t i c p u r i f i c a t i o n (Duff 1956: 23,56), were found at EeOw:l. Ethnographically, nothing com-parable to the sxwaixwe dance i s reported f o r the Shuswap, but r i t u a l i s t i c p u r i f i c a t i o n was common a f t e r funerals and puberty r i t e s (Teit 1900:319,327; Ray 1942:220). Origin of the wood c i s t b u r i a l . Wood c i s t b u r i a l s have been considered Canadian S a l i s h i n o r i g i n (Osborne 1957:155). The conclusion i s based on three points: (1) that c i s t s are Pre-contact i n the Canadian Plateau; (2) that no c i s t s are reported east of the confluence of the Spokane and Columbia r i v e r s ( C o l l i e r , et a l . 1942:40); and (3) that c i s t b u r i a l s date from the Contact and H i s t o r i c periods along the Columbia River. The Pre-contact c i s t b u r i a l s at EeRh:l (Cache Creek) strengthen t h i s argument as they are the e a r l i e s t wood c i s t interments reported from the Plateau. These inhumations consisted of a flexed primary p i t b u r i a l surrounded by upright slabs or stakes which may have extended above the ground. The tops of the stakes appear sometimes to have been burned down to ground l e v e l , and a spread of rocks was always placed over the f i l l e d - i n grave. As an a l t e r n a t i v e to the u n l i k e l y assumption that the c i s t and rock c a i r n represent a natural evolution from the primary p i t b u r i a l an extra-areal influence should be considered, especially since the e a r l i e s t known c i s t b u r i a l s , those of EeRh:l, are located on the western edge of the Plateau. In ethnographic times, the T a i t , the easternmost D i v i s i o n of the 127 Coast Sal i s h , u t i l i z e d the large mortuary house (Duff 1952:49), while the remaining Coast S a l i s h groups of the Fraser River used smaller boxes to dispose of the dead (Hill-Tout 1902:13, 52,63). The l i m i t e d use of the mortuary house suggests that i t may be a f a i r l y recent development from the more universal box; as Duff (1952:50) says, "They [mortuary houses] were e s s e n t i a l l y large, elevated, roofed boxes." Possibly, i n Pre-contact times, the box b u r i a l concept ascended the Fraser River, amalgamated with the primary p i t interment, and produced the primary p i t b u r i a l encased i n cedar slabs. Two other aspects of the c i s t , common to most c i s t b u r i a l s throughout the Plateau, are the charred upper ends of the slabs, and the spread of rocks. The charring has been interpreted i n the preceding paragraph as a means of l e v e l l i n g the wood slabs, while the rocks may be traced to a practice, reported by Fraser, i n Thompson t e r r i t o r y mid-way between Yale and Lytton: " I t [a b u r i a l box] was b u i l t of boards sewed together, and was about four f e e t square. The top was covered with Cedar bark and loaded with stones" (Lamb 1960:94). The absence of C-14 dates from the Canadian Plateau makes i t impossible to assign absolute dates f o r the suggested entry of the various coastal elements i n t o the I n t e r i o r . I t i s safe to conclude that the concepts of box b u r i a l , the mask and r a t t l e complex, ground s l a t e knives, and beaver tooth dice are Pre-contact i n the Plateau. On the basis of present evidence, the mortuary house-tent complex, the concept of re-wrapping the corpse, and wood grave marker sculptures, seem to be t r a i t s i n -troduced to the Canadian Plateau during the Contact and H i s t o r i c 128 periods. For the present, these conclusions must remain tenta-t i v e . As more evidence becomes a v a i l a b l e from the Canadian Plateau and the B r i t i s h Columbia coast, i t w i l l be possible to re-examine these theories and off e r concrete evidence to valid a t e or refute them. The Origin and Spread of Cremation Bur i a l s Cremated remains have been found archaeologically at The Dalles (p. 101 above), upstream along the Columbia River at l e a s t to Wahluke (p.103 above), and possibly to Trinidad (p. 103 above). Cremation b u r i a l s are also reported i n the rock cairns of the southern B r i t i s h Columbia and northern Washington coasts (Smith and Fowke 1901), and from the Government S i t e at Kamloops (p. 110 above). Ethnographically, cremation b u r i a l was practiced by the northern Coastal groups - the Haisla, Haida, T l i n g i t , Tsimshian, and B e l l a Coola (Drucker 1955:169). In the northern I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia the C a r r i e r , C h i l c o t i n , and Sekani cremated t h e i r dead, while among the Canadian I n t e r i o r S a l i s h , the practice occurred occasionally (Ray 1939:63,64). Attempting to locate the source f o r the Columbia River cremation practice, several authors have postulated a d i f f u s i o n of the t r a i t from the C a r r i e r south through the Canadian Plateau, and thence to the Columbia River groups (Strong et a l . 1930:49, 50; Ray 1939:65; Osborne 1957:157). Strong et a l . and Osborne point to the cremated remains from Kamloops, and a l l three workers suggest the ethnographic reports of cremation among the 129 Canadian P l a t e a u S a l i s h i n d i c a t e the spread of a cremation complex from the C a r r i e r t o the Columbia R i v e r . The hypothesis t h a t the C a r r i e r adopted the concept of cremation from the neighbouring Tsimshian was advanced long ago. Ray (1939:63,64) quotes Morice,*" who wrote i n 1906, "But the Babines and C a r r i e r s had no sooner come i n contact w i t h the Skeena r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the Tsimshian stock, among whom the dead were cremated, than f o r s o o t h they commenced to burn the remains of those who f e l l out from among them." Ray concludes, "cremation i s f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d as a recent i m p o r t a t i o n from the Coast." He does add, however, t h a t cremation i n the Canadian P l a t e a u c o u l d be the remnants of an ancient custom, although the Tsimshian - C a r r i e r e x p l a n a t i o n i s p r e f e r r e d (Ray 1939:65). The remarkable s i m i l a r i t i e s between the Tsimshian cremation ceremony described by Boas (1916:534-536), and the f i r s t - h a n d accounts of C a r r i e r and Sekani cremations by Harman (1911:163,180) leave no doubt of the very c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the C o a s t a l and I n t e r i o r ceremonies. Morice's observa-t i o n about the Babines and C a r r i e r s coupled w i t h Harman's (1911: 266) r e p o r t of cremation spreading from the C a r r i e r t o the Sekani and C h i l c o t i n , seems c o n c l u s i v e enough evidence t o support the theory of Coast t o I n t e r i o r d i f f u s i o n of cremation b u r i a l . The date of " i m p o r t a t i o n " of cremation i s not c l e a r , however, because of c o n f l i c t i n g ethnographic evidence. 1 O r i g i n a l source unobtainable. 130 According to one of Drucker*s Tsimshian informants (1950: 287), cremation began only a f t e r the advent of the Cannibal s o c i e t y which u t i l i z e d corpses f o r ceremonies. The i n t r o d u c t i o n of t h i s s o c i e t y says Boas (1897:664), took p l a c e a f t e r 1825; y e t , F r a s e r wrote of Athapascan cremation b u r i a l s i n 1808 (Lamb 1960: 146) and Mackenzie recorded them i n 1793 (Mackenzie 1801:229,30). Assuming the cremation concept was d i f f u s e d i n l a n d t o the C a r r i e r , the date must have been pre-1793, although e x a c t l y how much e a r l i e r cannot be determined. Cremation b u r i a l has a l o n g h i s t o r y along the Columbia R i v e r . The mass graves a t the Over, Lucy, and Congdon s i t e s appear very o l d (pp. 101,102 above). The cremated remains from the Yakima v a l l e y (p. 104 above), Wahluke (p. 103 above), and Sheep I s l a n d (p. 102 above) may not be so o l d , although they are a l l P r e-contact. A t The D a l l e s , mass cremations continue i n t o the H i s t o r i c P e r i o d (p. 101 above), and as l a t e as the mid-nineteenth century a t Sundale (p. 102 above). I n d i v i d u a l cremation has been r e p o r t e d from the McNary R e s e r v o i r r e g i o n and Wahluke (p.103 above) These b u r i a l s were f l e x e d , primary, and burned i n a wood c i s t . They probably date from the Contact P e r i o d . Cremated remains i n rock c a i r n s have been found on the southern coast of B r i t i s h Columbia and along Puget Sound (Smith and Fowke 1901; Smith 1903). These may be f a i r l y o l d d e s p i t e claims to the c o n t r a r y by Drucker (1943:117) and King (1950:77). Not only do the Coast S a l i s h groups r e s i d i n g i n the area deny ever having b u r i e d i n c a i r n s (Smith and Fowke 1901:55), but a 131 f i r tree four f e e t i n diameter i s reported growing through a cair n b u r i a l and in t o the midden below3" (Smith and Fowke 1901: 64). Drucker (1943:117) notes that i n one c a i r n some white porcelain beads were found; however, the beads were in s i d e the s k u l l , a s i t u a t i o n which suggests that they were dropped i n t o the s k u l l a f t e r the skin had deteriorated. Archaeological evidence f o r cremation north of Vancouver Island has not been reported, and the survey by Drucker (1943:107-109) disclosed only non-cremated remains. In the I n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia, archaeological evidence f o r cremation i s l i m i t e d to the puzzling remains at Kamloops (p. I l l above) which are apparently Pre-contact. As we have seen, the ethnographic record to the north i s more com-plete and suggests an Early Contact d i f f u s i o n from the Tsimshian to the C a r r i e r and thence to the Sekani and C h i l c o t i n . Considering the archaeological evidence of ancient and widespread cremation i n the Northwest, attempts to trace the concept to the C a r r i e r and Tsimshian may be over-simplifying the problem. There are two d i s t i n c t forms: mass cremation and i n d i v i d u a l cremation. The group burnings a t Congdon, Over, and Lucy, are apparently the e a r l i e s t cremated remains known on the Columbia River. Indeed, t h e i r antiquity may be greater than 1 The presence of coniferous growth on a s h e l l midden i n d i -cates some antiquity, as the excessive a l k a l i i n the midden must leach out before coniferous trees can become established (Drucker 1943:113,115). 132 the enigmatic rock cairns of the B r i t i s h Columbia coast. The Contact-aged i n d i v i d u a l c i s t incinerations of the McNary Reservoir and Wahluke may represent the f u s i o n of the Canadian Plateau wood c i s t b u r i a l with the e a r l i e r Columbia River crema-t i o n s . A mingling of t r a i t s may also be r e f l e c t e d i n the H i s t o r i c burning of depository sheds at The Dalles, and the Pre-contact shed cremations of Sheep Island, Yakima, and Wahluke. To the north, among the C a r r i e r , i n d i v i d u a l cremations are again evident and any diffusoon of t h i s t r a i t to the Plateau would almost c e r t a i n l y be too recent to be the source f o r the mass burnings i n the Columbia River s i t e s . Plateau B u r i a l Patterns Most of the Plateau b u r i a l practices are probably v a r i -ations of three main forms: (1) primary p i t interments; (2) wood c i s t ; and (3) cremation. There are two types of p i t b u r i a l s : extended, and f l e x e d . The extended inhumations from Rabbit and Sheep islands (p. above) seem to be the oldest primary p i t remains reported from the I n t e r i o r . More recent are the f l e x e d p i t b u r i a l s , which i n Late Contact and H i s t o r i c s i t e s are often covered with a t e n t - l i k e arrangement of s t i c k s . B u r i a l i n talus slopes should perhaps be considered a form of primary p i t b u r i a l . Wood c i s t b u r i a l s can be divided i n t o several subtypes. The bodies may be non-cremated or p a r t i a l l y burned, but they are always f l e x e d . The surrounding stakes or slabs may form a s o l i d casing around the b u r i a l , or only a few s t i c k s may be 133 p l a c e d above the body. With few exceptions, the tops of the stakes a r e burned f l u s h w i t h the ground l e v e l , and o f t e n a small c a i r n of rocks i s ere c t e d . C i s t b u r i a l s are Contact and H i s t o r i c on the Columbia R i v e r and Pre-contact and Contact i n the Canadian P l a t e a u . There are two types of cremation: mass burnings, and i n d i v i d u a l cremation. Group burnings from the Congdon s i t e a t The D a l l e s may be the o l d e s t b u r i a l form known i n the P l a t e a u , w h i l e i n d i v i d u a l cremation i s ethnographic i n the n o r t h . The absence of Carbon-14 dates from P l a t e a u b u r i a l s i t e s n e c e s s a r i l y l i m i t s the scope of c h r o n o l o g i c a l d i s c u s s i o n . By u s i n g as an a l t e r n a t i v e s t r a t i g r a p h i c evidence and a r t i f a c t a n a l y s i s i t i s p o s s i b l e t o suggest some temporal sequences. I n the McNary R e s e r v o i r (p.102-above) extended primary p i t b u r i a l s were f o l l o w e d i n t u r n by mass cremation i n depository sheds, i n d i v i d u a l cremations i n wood c i s t s , and non-cremated f l e x e d primary b u r i a l i n wood c i s t s . A t A s o t i n (p.l04above), extended primary p i t interment preceded f l e x e d primary wood c i s t b u r i a l s , and H i s t o r i c - a g e d extended plank c o f f i n inhumations. I n the Kamloops-Chase Area (pp. 115, 116 above), cremation may have been the e a r l i e s t form, f o l l o w e d by f l e x e d p i t interment, L a t e Contact wood c i s t s , and H i s t o r i c c o f f i n s . P o p u l a t i o n Movements W i t h i n the P l a t e a u Most of the evidence f o r p o p u l a t i o n movements w i t h i n the P l a t e a u i s from l i n g u i s t i c and ethnographic s t u d i e s . Only 134 o c c a s i o n a l l y have a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s been noted. Osborne (1957:195) mentions the apparent compression of the northern Sahaptins by t h e i r S a l i s h neighbours, but p o i n t s out the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e t e c t i n g p o p u l a t i o n s h i f t s from archaeo-l o g i c a l evidence when groups move through p e a c e f u l means such as i n t e r - m a r r i a g e . I n the Canadian P l a t e a u , the spread of the Athapascans appears to have been a major d i s r u p t i v e f o r c e . Swadesh (1949: 161,166) discusses the l i n g u i s t i c evidence f o r the i n t r u s i o n of the C a r r i e r and C h i l c o t i n i n t o I n t e r i o r S a l i s h t e r r i t o r y , f o r c i n g the Kutenai to the east, and s e p a r a t i n g B e l l a Coola from the Shuswap and L i l l o o e t , although i n a l a t e r paper Swadesh (1950) favours gradual r a t h e r than r a p i d movements. During the n i n e t e e n t h century a s m a l l group of Shuswap known as the Kenbaskets moved i n t o Kutenai t e r r i t o r y around Lake Windermere ( T e i t 1909:460). A s i t e survey of the Columbia-Windermere l a k e s area r e v e a l e d a number of s m a l l t r i a n g u l a r side-notched p o i n t s and c i r c u l a r semi-subterranean house p i t s . These p o i n t s and house p i t s have been t e n t a t i v e l y a t t r i b u t e d to the m i g r a t i o n of the Kenbasket Shuswap (Borden 1956:97). Ethnographic S u b - d i v i s i o n s i n the P l a t e a u A n a l y s i s of ethnographic data has caused Ray (1939) t o suggest l a t e r a l (east/west) and l o n g i t u d i n a l (north/south) d i v i s i o n s i n the P l a t e a u . Three l a t e r a l sub-areas a r e suggested: a northern sub-area comprising the Athapascan groups; a c e n t r a l 135 d i v i s i o n , the Canadian Plateau, terminating just south of the International Boundary; and the American Plateau (Ray 1939: 147). While the Athapascan - Salishan l i n g u i s t i c boundary i s at the same time the sub-area d i v i s i o n , the boundary between the Salishan and Sahaptin languages i s over one hundred and f i f t y miles south of the sub-area divi d e . Intersecting the l a t e r a l portions of the Plateau at right-angles are three lon g i t u d i n a l d i v i s i o n s . There i s an eastern section comprising the Kutenai and the Nez Perce, a central d i v i s i o n including the Shuswap and the Columbia River groups to the Wishram, and a western sub-area comprised of the Athapascan, L i l l o o e t , Thompson, and Wishram groups (Ray 1939: 146,147). The eastern section displays the influence of the Plains groups, while the western sub-area r e f l e c t s the inland d i f f u s i o n of Coastal t r a i t s . In the center of the Plateau, the Southern Okanagan, C o l v i l l e , Sanpoil, Lower Spokane, and Columbia, according to Ray (1939:149), are the cultures l e a s t affected by extra-areal influences and the "most representative of older l e v e l s and fundamental aspects of Plateau culture." Evidence f o r the sub-area di v i s i o n s i s provided by material and non-material t r a i t s (Ray 1939:148). Non-material elements of culture (for example, s o c i a l attitudes, r e l i g i o u s dances and s p i r i t quests) cannot usually be determined from archaeological remains. Of the material t r a i t s considered by Ray — house and canoe types - only house p i t s are l i k e l y to be 136 s u f f i c i e n t l y preserved f o r comparative a n a l y s i s . The meager data on house types from the Canadian P l a t e a u prohobit any com-p a r i s o n . Although Ray*s elements cannot as y e t be examined a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y , other t r a i t s may provide a s u b s t i t u t e . I t should be p o i n t e d out, however, that t o date the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence i s scanty compared w i t h the b u l k of ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e . Furthermore, i t i s q u i t e i m p o s s i b l e to s t a t e t h a t so many a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t r a i t s are equal to a s i n g l e ethnographic element, or v i c e v e r s a . A r c h a e o l o g i c a l s i t e s i n the P l a t e a u can be l o c a t e d w i t h i n the sub-areas o u t l i n e d by Ray. Information on s i t e s i n the Athapascan sub-area i s so scanty t h a t i t cannot f i g u r e i n the d i s c u s s i o n . The Kamloops-Chase Area, EeRh:l, the N i c o l a V a l l e y , and the M i ddle F r a s e r R i v e r s i t e s are w i t h i n the Canadian P l a t e a u . The s i t e s on the Upper Columbia as f a r south as K e t t l e F a l l s are not d e f i n i t e l y w i t h i n the American or Canadian P l a t e a u , s i n c e the Lakes (Map 2) according to Ray (1939:147) are a f f i l i -ated more w i t h the southern sub-area. I n the American P l a t e a u are the remainder of the s i t e s along the Columbia R i v e r and i t s t r i b u t a r i e s . The Kamloops-Chase Area s i t e s and those along the Columbia R i v e r t o The D a l l e s a r e w i t h i n the c e n t r a l l o n g i t u d i n a l sub-area. I n the western s e c t i o n a r e the F r a s e r R i v e r s i t e s and The D a l l e s r e g i o n . EeRhrl a t Cache Creek s t r a d d l e s the two sub-areas . 137 Some a r t i f a c t s a r e more t y p i c a l of the Canadian P l a t e a u and a few are unique to t h i s sub-area. Ground s l a t e knives are confined t o the Canadian P l a t e a u , as are Pecten caurinus s h e l l s . Whetstones, p l e n t i f u l i n the n o r t h but scarce i n the American s e c t o r , p a r a l l e l the higher i n c i d e n c e of bone and a n t l e r implements i n the Canadian s i t e s . Although the d i s t i n c -t i v e s t e a t i t e c a r v i n g complex i s reported from the American P l a t e a u , i t occurs w i t h f a r greater frequency t o the n o r t h (Duff 1956). A n t l e r harpoons are t y p i c a l of the Canadian s e c t o r , although e i g h t are recorded from Upper Columbia s i t e s (p. 47 above). Seven of the e i g h t came from s i t e s between K e t t l e F a l l s and the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Boundary. Two a r t i f a c t types are more p l e n t i f u l i n American P l a t e a u s i t e s ; they are O l i v e l l a and H a l i o t i s s h e l l . D i f f e r e n c e s between the l o n g i t u d i n a l sub-areas are a l s o evident. The eastern d i v i s i o n i s p o o r l y represented; however, Borden (1956) found grooved mauls and notched s i n k e r s more common i n the East Kootenay r e g i o n than i n the c e n t r a l sub-area, and noted d e f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t forms. A high percentage of non-stemmed chipped p o i n t s i n the c e n t r a l d i v i s i o n i s coupled w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n the l e n g t h of jade c e l t s . Tubular p i p e bowls from the c e n t r a l sub-area are f u l l e r , and f l a r e more s h a r p l y than the gently-expanding specimens from tii e western s i t e s . Absent or very scarce i n the c e n t r a l d i v i s i o n , but p l e n t i f u l i n the western sub-area, are stone mortars. Long, s l e n d e r , h i g h l y p o l i s h e d and i n t r i c a t e l y decorated bone needles 138 are found only i n the western section of the Canadian Plateau. Elsewhere needles are scarce, and when present are usually f l a t and undecorated. Most obvious of the sub-areas, as r e f l e c t e d by the archaeology, are the l a t e r a l d i v i s i o n s of the Plateau. The longi t u d i n a l sub-areas may stand out with equal prominence a f t e r archaeological reserach i n the western Canadian Plateau i s more advanced. The possible s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of several a r t i f a c t types has already been considered. They are: Pecten  caurinus s h e l l s , whalebone clubs, beaver tooth dice, wapiti canine necklaces, ground s l a t e knives, and a wooden mask. An examination of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of chipped point forms and jade c e l t s reveals two unexplained trends. There appears to be no reason why there should be a well defined increase i n the r e l a -t i v e incidence of non-stemmed points i n the central sub-area. Equally enigmatic i s the increase i n c e l t s i z e , e s p e c i a l l y as the l a r g e s t c e l t s occur i n s i t e s (EeQw:l and the Upper Columbia) far t h e s t removed from the source of the raw material (p. 32 above). Evidence from the archaeological data hints at several recognizable sub-areas within the Plateau. Although more information i s needed, the archaeological sub-areas conform quite c l o s e l y to Ray*s ethnographic d i v i s i o n s . This i s not su r p r i s i n g considering the excavated material i s nearly a l l 139 l e s s than f i v e centuries o l d . Ray*s theory that the l o n g i t u d i -nal d i v i s i o n s are the r e s u l t of very recent Coastal influence i n the west, and very recent Plains pressures to the east, i s not e n t i r e l y i n agreement with the archaeological evidence of possibly older contacts i n the form of c e r t a i n a r t i f a c t types. I t i s curious that the l a t e r a l d i v i s i o n s which Ray has delineated on the basis of "fundamental" Plateau t r a i t s , also show up i n the archaeological record, but as differences brought about by elements of Coastal o r i g i n . The t r a i t s unique to the Canadian Plateau — s l a t e knives, Pecten caurinus. and the wooden mask - are the r e s u l t of contact with Coastal groups. The two elements d i s t i n c t i v e of the American Plateau - O l i v e l l a and H a l i o t i s — are also derived from the Coast. Conclusion The analysis of the interments and the a r t i f a c t s from £eQw:l represents only a s t a r t on the problem of unravelling the recent prehistory of the Canadian Plateau. The material from EeQw:l and i t s close a f f i n i t i e s with the assemblages of previously excavated but incompletely documented s i t e s , permits a p a r t i a l reconstruction of the recent Kamloops-Chase Area pre-h i s t o r y . Furthermore, the s i m i l a r i t i e s and differences between this area and that of the Middle Fraser River s i t e s enable us to pose a number of problems. Since the s i t e s i n question are recent, the excellent ethnographies of the Plateau cultures can be combined e f f e c t i v e l y with the archaeological record. By u t i l i z i n g t h i s e t h no-historical approach, the Prehistorian i s 140 i n a p o s i t i o n to discuss the evolution of non-material as well as material c u l t u r a l elements. The archaeology of the l a t e Canadian s i t e s emphasizes the s i g n i f i c a n t impact of the coastal cultures; e s p e c i a l l y that of the Coast S a l i s h . While the spread of ethnographically recorded concepts such as the mortuary house, corpse re-wrapping, and wooden sculptures, are w e l l documented, the suggested pre-h i s t o r i c influences are not. Obviously, more systematic and problem oriented f i e l d archaeology i s necessary. Three areas loom as p o t e n t i a l l y s t r a t e g i c : (1) the Lytton to L i l l o o e t s t r e t c h of the Fraser River; (2) the Kamloops-Chase Area; and (3) the Chile©tin t e r r i t o r y . The importance of the L y t t o n - L i l l o o e t region to the problem of understanding the extent of Coastal influences can hardly be overemphasized. Ideas and a r t i f a c t s introduced to the Plateau by the Coast S a l i s h must have entered the Plateau v i a the Fraser River or v i a the Anderson-Seton lakes route. Concepts passing through the Fraser Canyon must pass Lytton, while ideas d i f f u s i n g through the Anderson-Seton lakes chain emerge i n the Plateau at L i l l o o e t . In either area the concepts could be a l t e r e d to harmonize with e x i s t i n g Plateau t r a d i t i o n s . Unfortunately, mining, construction, and a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s have destroyed many of the s i t e s i n the immediate v i c i n i t y of L i l l o o e t . The s i t e s of the Lytton area have also suffered h e a v i l y j however, at the confluence of the S t e i n and Fraser r i v e r s , f i v e miles north of Lytton, there exists an almost 141 undisturbed complex of habitation and b u r i a l s i t e s , situated i n an i d e a l ecological s e t t i n g . The Kamloops Lake area, and the South Thompson River to the Shuswap Lakes, were undoubtedly great centres of abor-i g i n a l c u l t u r e . Assemblages from s i t e s here indicate contact not only with Coastal ideas, but also with the Columbia River cultures. More co n t r o l l e d f i e l d work at s i t e s such as EeQw:l i s necessary before a f u l l appreciation of the area's importance can be r e a l i z e d . The G h i l c o t i n t e r r i t o r y i s the l e a s t understood archae-o l o g i c a l l y and ethnographically. So f a r nothing d e f i n i t e i s known of the o r i g i n of the C h i l c o t i n , of the date of t h e i r a r r i v a l , of the groups they displaced, and of the e f f e c t of the apparent Athapascan wedge on r e l a t i o n s between the S a l i s h -speaking B e l l a Coola and the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h . 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HARMON, D a n i e l , 'A "Journal of Voyages and T r a v e l s i n the I n t e r i o r  of North America. Toronto, (1911). HILLS, Leonard, "A P r e l i m i n a r y A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey of the .\ F r a s e r R i v e r from B i g Bar to L i l l o o e t . " M.S., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, ( I 9 6 l ) . HILL-TOUT, C h a r l e s , " E t h n o l o g i c a l S t u d i e s of the Mainland Halkomelem, a D i v i s i o n of the S a l i s h of North America." Report on the E t h n o l o g i c a l Survey of Canada, RBAAS, London, (1902). " E t h n o l o g i c a l Report of the S t s E e ' l i s and S k ' a u ' l i t s T r i b e s of the Halkomelem D i v i s i o n of the S a l i s h . " J o u r n a l of the Royal A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l I n s t i t u t e , V o l . 34, London, U9OI4J. HURLBUT, C., Dana's Manual of Mineralogy. New York, (1955J. KING, A., " C a t t l e P o i n t : A S t r a t i f i e d S i t e i n the Southern Northwest Coast Region',' Memoirs of the S o c i e t y f o r American Archaeology. No. 7, Menasha, (1950). KRIEGER, Herbert, "A P r e h i s t o r i c P i t House V i l l a g e S i t e on the Columbia R i v e r at Wahluke, Grant County, Washington." Proceedings of the United States N a t i o n a l Museum. V o l . 73, A r t . 11, Washington, (1928). 146 KROEBER, Al f r e d , "Cultural and Natural Areas of Native North America." UCPAAE, Vol. 38, Berkeley, (1939). KROLL, W. J., "Report on the Composition of Indian Copper Beads found at the McNary Dam, Oregon." BAE, B u l l e t i n l 6 6 . River Basin Surveys Papers no. 8, Washington, (1957). LAMB, W. Kaye, Ed.. Simon Fraser. Letters and Journals. Toronto, ( I 9 6 0 ) . LANE, Robert, Cultural Relations of the C h i l c o t l n Indians of West Central B r i t i s h Columbia. Microfilms, Ann Arbor, (1953). LAUGHLIN, William, "Excavation i n the Calapuya Mounds of the Willamette Valley, Oregon." American Antiquity. Vol. 7, No. 2, Menasha, ( l g l j j X McLEOD, B. H., "Examination of Copper A r t i f a c t s from the McNary Sit e , Oregon." Appendix 1+, BAE B u l l e t i n l 6 6 , River Basin Surveys Papers no. 8,"Washington, (1957). MACKENZIE, Alexander, Voyages from Montreal .... Vol. II, London, (1801). McCALLUM, K. J., and DYCK, W., "University of Saskatchewan ,~: Radiocarbon Dates I I . " American Journal of Science, Radiocarbon Supplement. Vol. 2. I960. (1960). OSBORNE, Douglas, "Excavations i n the McNary Reservoir Basin Near Umatilla, Oregon." BAE B u l l e t i n 166, River Basin Surveys Papers No. 8, Washington, (1957). CRABTREE, R., and BRYAN, A., "Archaeological Invest-igations i n the Chief Joseph Reservoir. American  Antiquity, Vol. 17, Salt Lake City, (1952"]T~^ BRYAN, A., and CRABTREE, R., "The Sheep Island Site and the Mid-Columbia Valley." BAE, 179, Washington, ( I 9 6 D . RAY, Verne, "The Sanpoil and Nespelem: Sali s h People of North-eastern Washington.' UWPA, Vol. 5', Seattle, (1-933). "Lower Chinook Ethnographic Notes." UWPA. Vol. 7, No. 2, Seattle, (1938). 1 4 7 RAY, Verne, C u l t u r a l R e l a t i o n s i n the Plateau of Northwestern  America, Los Angeles, (1939) • " C u l t u r a l Element D i s t r i b u t i o n s : XXII P l a t e a u . " A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Records 8 : 2 , B e r k e l e y , (1942). SANGER, David, "Two B u r i a l s from the M i l e 28 Ranch (EdRk : 3 ) . " M.S., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, n.d .a,. "A B u r i a l S i t e Survey of the Shuswap, Thompson, and L i l l o o e t Area i n South C e n t r a l B r i t i s h Columbia." M.S., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, n.d.b. SENDEY, John, Personal Communication. SHINERJ J o e l , "The McNary R e s e r v o i r , A Study i n Plateau Archaeology." BAE, 179, Washington, ( 1 9 6 D . 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" S a l i s h I n t e r n a l R e l a t i o n s h i p s . " I n t e r n a t i o n a l  J o u r n a l of American L i n g u i s t i c s . V o l . 16, No. l±> (1950). TEIT, James, "The Thompson Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia." AMNH  Memoirs. V o l . I I , p a r t k, New York, (1900). "The L i l l o o e t Indians." AMNH Memoirs. V o l . I I , pa r t 5, New York, (1906). "The Shuswap." AMNH Memoirs. Vol.11, p a r t 7, New York, (1909).-"The Middle Columbia S a l i s h . " UWPA. V o l . 2, No. S e a t t l e , (1928). "The S a l i s h a n T r i b e s of the Western P l a t e a u s . " BAE U5th Annual Report. Washington, (1930). WINGERT, Paul, American Indian S c u l p t u r e . New York, (19J+9). 148 EXPLANATION OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 B u r i a l s i t e EeQw:l l o o k i n g e a s t . 2 P r o f i l e of road cut l o o k i n g west. The varved white s i l t s are on the l e f t and the sands on the r i g h t . 3 B u r i a l 1 l o o k i n g n o r t h . 4 B u r i a l 2 l o o k i n g south. 5 General view of excavation l o o k i n g e a s t . 6 P r o f i l e of n o r t h w a l l and i n t r u s i v e p i t of B u r i a l 3 on the r i g h t . B u r i a l 2 i n foreground 7 B u r i a l 3 and a d d i t i o n s , l o o k i n g east. 8 Main u n i t of i n c l u s i o n s w i t h B u r i a l 3. 9 B u r i a l 4 l o o k i n g n o r t h e a s t . 10 B u r i a l 5 l o o k i n g west. Head and shoulders are beneath bark c o v e r i n g . 11 B i r c h bark container beneath cranium of B u r i a l 5. 12 Chipped p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s . 13 Chipped p o i n t and d r i l l o u t l i n e s . 14 Chipped p o i n t s ( k n i v e s ) 15 Chipped f l a k e k n i v e s . 16 Chipped f l a k e s c r a p e r s . 17 Mortar and hand maul or p o s s i b l y p e s t l e . 18 Whetstones 19 S t e a t i t e trumpet pipes (From a c o l o u r transparency by W. D u f f ) . 20 C e l t s . 21 S t e a t i t e gaming p i e c e ( ? ) . 149 Figure 22 S t e a t i t e bears or possibly coyotes (approximately natural s i z e ) . 23 S t e a t i t e b i r d bowl (approximately natural s i z e . From a colour transparency by W. Duff). 24 S t e a t i t e sculptures. 25 S t e a t i t e human f i g u r e bowl, ventral side. (From a colour transparency by W. Duff.) 26 S t e a t i t e human figure bowl, dorsal view. (From a colour transparency by W. Duff.) 27' Antler digging s t i c k handles, from above. 28 Antler digging s t i c k handles, from below. 29 Type A harpoons (from a colour transparency by W. Duff). 30 Antler and bone implements (From a colour transparency by W. Duff.) 31 Antler points and wedge. 32 Antler clubs. 33 Antler carving: (a) Anthropomorphic heads (b) Zoomorphic head on antler t i n e club 34 Anthropomorphic antler head. 35 Antler a r t i f a c t s associated with B u r i a l 1. 36 Bone creasers. 37 A r t i f a c t s associated with B u r i a l 3: A Bone needle B,C,D Bone p r o j e c t i l e points E,F,G Bone points from l e i s t e r H,I S p l i t beaver i n c i s o r K,L S p l i t marmot (?) i n c i s o r 38 Handle of whalebone club. 39 Bear penis bone pendant. 40 Miniature bone bows. 150 Figure 41 B i r c h bark container (approximately h a l f s i z e ) . 42 X-ray photograph of bark container. 43 Wooden mask. 44 Copper pendants. 45 Perforated Pecten caurinus s h e l l s (from a colour transparency by W. Duff). 46 Geometric motifs found on embellished a r t i f a c t s from EeQwrl. /*7 /*~3 0 1 2 3 <f 5 6 I I I t i l l C M CM ' *7 /6o H2-"7 Pi'c^. 32-/&8 n o F*'<3 4 - ° p i g • 4-* 

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